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Curri C/l] Loii ege of rh 


RAREBK 375 N277c 

National College of Educatior 

Curriculum records of the 

Children's school. 


National-Ixxiis University 



2840 Sheridan Road 

Evanston, Illinois 60201 



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National College of Education 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

CARLI: Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois 


National College of Education 

Clara Belle Baker 


Louise Farwell 


Nellie Ball Edith Maddox 

Miriam Brubaker Jean Rumry 

Anne De Blois Violet Rush 

Edith Ford Elizabeth Springstun 

Mary Gonnerman Dorothy Weller 




M : 

Copyright, 1932, by 

National College of Education 

All Rights Reserved 


printed in u. s. a. 


THE Children's School of the National College of Education was 
established in 1926, for the purpose of studying and guiding 
the development of normal and gifted children from the nursery to 
the junior high school period. The school includes the six elementary 
grades, a nursery school for children two and three years of age, a 
junior kindergarten for four-year-olds, and a senior kindergarten 
for five-year-olds. The grouping, however, is not strictly on the basis 
of chronological age, but considers also physical and social develop- 
ment and intellectual maturity. 

The children come for the most part from the homes of teachers, 
physicians, and other professional people who are keenly interested in 
the problems of education. The National College of Education con- 
ducts courses for parents, and the Children's School sponsors a 
program of activities in which teachers and parents cooperate. The 
school is organized for demonstration and informal investigation. 
Each group is under the direction of an experienced teacher, who is 
assisted by two or more advanced students. 

The attack on curriculum problems has been experimental. Teach- 
ers have made use of children's spontaneous interests in developing 
units of work, and have also initiated enterprises, observing and 
recording pupil responses. Group and individual records of progress 
have been made, and checks have been used in the form of educational 
tests and informal rating sheets. A careful study of each child's 
development is made by the room teacher, with the help of physician, 
psychologist, and a staff of specialists in various fields. 

Members of the staff have worked together to formulate certain 
aims and principles for creative curriculum-making, to collect source- 
material for units of work, to build a bibliography for both teachers 
and pupils, and to organize certain forms for recording units of work 
and also for recording group and individual progress in various types 
of experiences. 

Many requests have been received for copies of records and record 
forms ; and this volume is presented in the hope that it may be helpful 
to other schools which are starting the adventure of creative cur- 


Indebtedness is acknowledged to several groups 
who have given aid in the preparation of this volume: 
for help fid suggestions concerning certain phases of 
curriculum-making and record-keeping to Edna Dean 
Baker, -Laura Hooprer, Harriet Howard, ^miMIsT 
Kern and Caroline Crawford McLean, of the staff of 
National College of Education; for aid in developing 
units of work and in recording progress of individual 
children, to Viggo Bovbjerg, *Emma~~fc Diimm, 
Martha Fink, Nellie MacLennan, Etta Mount, Mary 
H. Pope, M. D., specialists on the staff of the Chil- 
dren s School; for assistance in preparing the manu- 
script for publication, to Mildred Dittman, Esther 
Hagstrom Lambert, and May Whitcomb. 

The staff wishes also to acknowledge indebtedness 
to that larger group of philosophers, scientists and 
creative teachers in American education who are 
doing so much at the present time to clarify our 
thinking and to inspire us all to greater effort. The 
names of many of these leaders arc listed in the 
Teachers' Bibliography at the end of the book. 




Some General Aims and Principles 3 

Source Material for Curriculum Making .... 5 

Living in the Complete Modern Home ..... 7 

Living in the Modern Community . . . , . 10 
Activities Involved in the Arts and Industries Which Sup- 
port Home and Community . . . . . . 13 

Experiences of Various Peoples in Adapting to Environ- 
ment .......... 15 

Experiences Involved in the Discovery and Development of 

Our Own Country and Our Own Community . . 18 
Experiences Involved in the Development of the Modern 
World and the Contribution of Certain Peoples to Civili- 
zation 22 


Developing and Recording Units of Work .... 27 

Units o**~W©f^iN the Kindergarten ..... 31 

Traveling by Train ........ 33 

Traveling on an Ocean Liner ...... 38 

Traveling in the Air ........ 42 

Playing With the Leaves ....... 46 

Raising Flowers . .V a-v<K ...... 48 

Helping the Birds 50 

Units or Work in the First Grade . . . . 52 

Enjoying and Using Autumn Treasures .... 54 

Creating an Autumn Festival ...... 59 

Enjoying and Caring for Pets 61 

— — Conducting a Post Office ....... 65 

—building and Equipping a Library ..... 72 





Units o f Wor k in the First Grade- 
Conducting a Baby Show . 
Conducting a Toy Store 


Units e^W©»K- in the Second Grade . 
3 Conducting an Art Gallery . 

Developing Pottery and a Pottery Shop 

Living Among the Indians . 
- — Pr-mting a Newspaper &~Z> i u ^ > * 

Living on a Farm .... 

; . 

Creating a Garden and a Garden Market 

Units of Work in the Third Grade . 
Traveling in Old and New Ways 
^Maki-ng-a-Trip Around the World- 
Visiting in Japan ..... 
Living in Holland ..... 
Maintaining an Aquarium .... 

Units, of Work in the Fourth Grade . 

Howl America Was Discovered and Explored 
I low Our Nation Began .... 
Following Chicago Through a Hundred Years 
Learning to Choose Healthful Lunches 

Units os^-W^rk in the Fifth Grade . 

What Do Other Sections of the United States Share with 
Chicago? ...... 

How Does Chicago Obtain and Use Iron? . 
How Does Chicago Obtain and Use Lumber 
Enjoying Playgrounds of the United States 
(How New York Became Our Greatest City \ \ 
How the United States Moved West from New York to 
San Francisco ..... 

Units of -Work in the Sixth Grade . 
j What Egypt Has Contributed to the World . 
\ What Greece Has Contributed to the World 



Contents ix 

Units of-Work in the Sixth Grade — continued page 

— (How Europe Developed in the Middle Ages} . . . 228 
Interdependence Between the United States and European % 

Countries ........ . 235 

Sharing the Earth With Insects ., 243 


Arranging the Program ...... . 249 

Daily Procedure in the Nursery School, Junior Kinder- 
garten, Senior Kindergarten, First Grade, Second Grade . 251 
Tentative Weekly Program for Third Grade, Fourth Grade, 

Fifth Grade, Sixth Grade 260 

Sketches of Various Days 262 

Nursery School : A Day in Septemher, A November Day, 

A Rainy Day in April 264 

Junior Kindergarten : An October Day, A Snowy Day in 

January, A Day in June . . . . . . . 271 

Senior Kindergarten : A Day in December . . . 277 

First Grade : A Morning in March ..... 282 

Third Grade : A Tuesday in May ..... 286 


Recording Progress in Terms of School Subjects . . 291 

English Records 

Development of Reading Readiness in the Kindergarten . 293 
Language and Literature Experience in the Senior Kinder- 
garten 295 

Provision for Language Progress in the Elementary Grades . 300 
Language, Writing and Spelling in First Grade, Second 
Grade, Third Grade, Fourth Grade, Fifth Grade, Sixth 

U . \ x Grade 301 

Provision for Reading Progress in the Elementary Grades . 345 
Reading and Literature in First Grade, Second Grade, Third 

Grade, Fourth Grade, Fifth Grade, Sixth Grade . . 347 

x Contents 

Arithmetic Records page 

Development of Number Concepts in the Kindergarten . 401 

Niynber Experience in the Senior Kindergarten . . . 401 

Provision for Arithmetic Progress in the Elementary Grades 405 
Arithmetic in the First Grade, Second Grade, Third Grade, 

Fourth Grade, Fifth Grade, Sixth Grade . . . 406 


Meeting the Needs of the Individual 453 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 

Relationship of Parents to the School . . . . . 455 

Child's Original Enrollment Record ..... 457 
Initial Conference with Parents (Nursery School and 

Kindergarten) 460 

Key and Typical Reports from Nursery School and Kinder- 
garten 462 

Key and Typical Reports from Primary Grades . . . 478 

Key and Typical Reports from Intermediate Grades . . 485 

Physician's Records 

Functions of the Health Department 499 

Health History (Contributed by Parent and Family 

Physician) ......... 501 

Health Record (Kept by School Physician) .... 502 

Physician's Report to Parents . . . . . . 503 

Psychologist's Records 

The Functions of the Psychology Department . . . 504 
Psychologist's Record of Personality Traits, Observed Dur- 
ing Intelligence Test ....... 507 

Achievement Test Results, Individual Profile Graphs, and 

Letters of Interpretation . . . . . . 510 

Procedure in Individual Instruction in Reading and Spelling. 523 
History and Graph Record of a Case of Reading Disability . 544 
References on Diagnosis and Correction of Reading and 

Spelling Difficulties 547 

Teachers' Bibliography 554 


From Photographs 

Thanksgiving Recalls the Story of the Pilgrims 

This Express Makes No Stops 

The Wind Is North By East 

Aviation Makes Progress .... 

Bulbs Now and Tulips By and By 

Healthy Babies Win Awards 

The Lake Tests Water Toys 

Life in the Forest is Full of Color . 

The Printing Press Commands Admiration 

Mothers are Good Customers 

Old-Time Vessels Reappear . . 

Beauty Lures to Far-Away Japan 

Colonial Homes are Reproduced . 

Cooking Stimulates Wholesome Appetites 

The Covered Wagon Spells Adventure 

Romance is Found in Old Castles 

Each Contributes to World's Fair . 

Keeping Clean is a Big Task 

Logs and Boxes Prevent Unemployment . 

Rainy Days Bring Indoor Play . 

The Pony is a Favorite at the Farm . 

Snow Brings Jolly Fun .... 

Home-making Consumes Much Time . 

Fighting Fire is Stern Reality . 

Language and Art Join Hands . 

Puppets Show School Courtesies 

Drama Descends to the Dining-room . 

Children Share Vacation Trips . 

It is Fun to Read about Christmas . 

The Library Leads to Far-off Lands . 

First Aid to Librarians .... 

Buying is Enthusiastic at Play Time 

Scales Show Satisfactory Gains 

Balancing Prices and Vitamins . 

School Supplies Afford Serious Business . 






































Teachers' Guides 


Far off the Fairy Horns are blowing 
Through the morning, through the dew. 
Above the emerald green and blue 
The windy clouds are white and new. 
We'll carry through this windy morn 
Hearts fit to meet the Fairy Horn. 

E. G. (age ten) 
Children's School. 



HE school shares the belief that a chief purpose of the cur- 
riculum is to habituate the children to ways of living that are 
satisfying and worth while and that will lead them into rich and 
productive living as they grow more mature. With this purpose in 
view, the school wishes for the individual these attainments, which 
should grow gradually from year to year : 

1. An understanding of the important activities of the home and 
the community and of the arts and industries which support the home 
and the community, and also the significant experiences of the race, 
the nation and the modern world, in so far as these influence or 
explain present ways of living and trends of creative thinking. 

2. The ability to think constructively, to evaluate, compare and 
form sane judgments, developed through a curriculum that presents 
unanswered questions and unsolved problems and encourages re- 
search, experiment and discussion. 

3. The habit of working purposefully toward a goal with the 
recognition of the need for added knowledge and skill emerging in 
the effort. 

4. The mastery of essential skills and techniques (such as read- 
ing, arithmetic, spelling) in the minimum of time possible with the 
aid of scientific data now available. 

5. A readiness to participate in worthy social living, cultivated by 
actual contacts and experiences with the institutions of real life and 
a reliving of such experiences through a variety of activities in the 

6. Such social attitudes or traits that the individual can make 
the best possible use of his own powers and can enter into the full- 
est cooperation with other people. 

7. The development of power to understand and appreciate the 
artistic resources of our race inheritance and of the present age; in 
art, literature, music, and related fields. 

8. The urge to create art forms that represent the individual's 
finest skill and his own evaluation of the meaning of experience. 


4 National College of Education 

9. Through these experiences and through the practice of desirable 
health habits, such physical development that the body becomes the 
finest possible instrument for expression. 

With these aims in view the school seeks to provide for the children 
a program of dynamic living. In such a program there is a con- 
tinuous stream of experiences and enterprises which are real and vital 
to, the children, and therefore challenge their whole-hearted effort. 
All subjects tend to oecome integrated in large units of work, and 
practice in the mastery of skills is provided as there is readiness on 
the part of the child. 

Since education has a responsibility both for guiding the develop- 
ing life of the child and also for molding the future of society, the 
experiences and enterprises in which the children engage can not 
be left to chance. Rather the teachers as they work with their -groups 
must select a sequence of activities which will bring to the children 
all desirable forms of experience, and at the same time provide the 
true conditions for effective learning. Conditions for learning are 
most favorable when the children enter into all experiences freely and 


IN CREATING a curriculum, it seems desirable that teachers 
should have some guide further than the interests of the children 
in the group. What constitutes valuable curriculum material for the 
present decade? Many methods of approach to this problem are 
being made; and the "source material" here presented suggests one 
possible method of approach. If the purpose of the curriculum is to 
habituate the children to ways of living that are satisfying and 
worth while, then it is important that they become familiar with 
desirable ways of living in the modern home and community and 
also that they understand ways of living in other parts of the world 
and in earlier times, in so far as these explain or interpret their own 

The outline which follows lists significant experiences or activities 
of the well-equipped modern home and community, and of the arts 
and industries that support the home and the community. It also 
lists experiences of the race, the nation and the modern world, which 
help to explain present-day activities and to shape present trends of 
creative thinking. These experiences involve meanings, apprecia- 
tions, habits and skills which must have worth for education. 

The outline provides "source material" for units of work in all 
grades of the elementary school. It not only integrates history, 
geography and civics, and provides material for a program in the 
social studies, but also suggests activities in the sciences and in all 
the arts. 

While the outline includes much more material than could be 
covered in any one year in any one school, it has given to teachers 
perspective in formulating -units of work with the children. Un- 
doubtedly much experimentation and investigation is needed to de- 
termine what un'ifs of work are most valuable, and whether extensive 
study over a wide field or intensive study of a narrow field yields 
larger returns in reaching the objectives of the elementary school. 
Probably many unite-ef-work covering similar material have nearly 
identical values, and therefore choices on the part of teachers and 


6 National College of Education 

children will always be desirable. More ground can be covered 
when the class is allowed to divide sometimes into groups or com- 
mittees, and different groups carry on different units of work in 
related fields. Through common observation and discussion the 
whole class benefits by these shared experiences. If units of work 
in each grade vary somewhat from year to year, the children may 
gain an enriched experience through school assemblies and through 
observing exhibits and dramatizations in other rooms. 

In order to determine at what age level the children are ready to 
share the various experiences listed, a careful study has been made 
of the spontaneous interests in each group and of the responses to 
activities initiated by the teacher. Comparisons have been made 
also with investigations of children's kftt&4sfe conducted in other 
schools. The brief introductions to the different outlines indicate 
the grades in which certain material has been found suitable. Much 
of the material suggested has been found interesting at several age 
levels, provided the children have had significant experiences which 
lead into it. The older children are ready for more complex organi- 
zation and more intense and prolonged study of the problems in- 
volved. Actual units- which have developed with the children at 
various age levels are included in Part II. 

Living in the Complete Modern Home 

SINCE the school becomes the home of the children for many 
hours each day, home activities have a vital place in the school 
program. The school also seeks contacts with each child's real home 
and through parent education, endeavors to unify his experience in 
the school home and in the actual home. Because the modern home 
is often limited in space, materials and activities, it becomes increas- 
ingly necessary that the school supplement the home in providing all 
desirable forms of experiences. 

■ Inte rest- 4n these activities begins in nursery school and kinder- 
garten and continues/ with gradually expanding appreciations and 
skills through the elementary school. At times, the play house or 
doll house becomes the scene of desirable experience. Again, the 
school room, the school building and school ground form the back- 
ground for carrying on home activities. 

These include all the simple everyday acts that build the habits 
and attitudes, arts and skills, fundamental to good daily living. 

I. Providing and maintaining a house. 

1. Building the house. 

2. Decorating the house. 

3. Furnishing the house. 

4. Care of the house — order, cleanliness, careful usage. 

5. Improving the house in convenience and beauty. 

II. Living in the home. 

1. Provision and preparation of foods. 

2. Provision and use of suitable clothing. 

3. Development of proper health habits : diet, clothing, sleep, 
cleanliness, self control. 

4. Development of proper attitudes toward self, family, events, 

5. Sharing of responsibilities among members of the family. 

III. Social life in the home. 

1. Entertainment of guests; planning parties. 

2. Participating in games. 

3. Visiting other people's homes. 

4. Writing letters and notes to friends ; receiving letters. 


8 National College oe Education 

IV. Reading in the home. 

1. Selection of books, magazines, papers. 

2. Reading silently for personal satisfaction, and to gain in- 
formation on specific problems. 

3. Reading aloud to children, older people, or for pleasure of 
family group. 

4. Listening to stories read or told. 

5. Discussion of books and articles read. 

V. Music in the home. 

1. Selection of musical instruments; as piano, victrola, radio. 

2. Selection of music books and records. 

3. Listening to music for enjoyment. 

4. Reproducing or composing music for personal satisfaction 
and for pleasure of family and friends. 

VI. Creative work in language and art. 

1. Providing materials for writing, drawing, painting, and other 

2. Providing and enjoying magazines, books, pictures, objects, 
that give inspiration and background for expression. 

3. Adding design and decoration in house-furnishings and 

4. Writing and drawing to commemorate or interpret experi- 

5. Writing and drawing for publication or for other social 

VII. Plants and pets in the home. 

1. Making a garden 

a. Selection of vegetables, flowers, shrubs, trees. 

b. Planting a garden. 

c. Care of garden. 

2. Attracting birds to garden. 

3. Contact with insects in garden. 

4. Use and care of flowers and plants in home decoration. 

5. Provision for pets. 

6. Care of pets. 

VIII. Adaptation to changing weather and seasons in the home. 

1. Studying causes and signs of changes in weather and seasons. 

2. Reading thermometer. 

3. Adapting clothing and food to weather conditions. 

4. Enjoying sports for different seasons. 

Source Material for Curriculum Making 9 

5. Noting effect of weather and seasons on plants and animals 
in garden. Providing protection and care as needed. 

IX. Use of time in the home. 

1. Recognition of the divisions of time, and scientific reasons. 

2. Telling time by natural phenomena : sun, moon, stars. 

3. Telling time by instruments : hourglass, sundial, clock, cal- 

4. Planning wise use of time, with consideration of physical 

5. Making records and reminders : time schedule, date book, 
calendar, diary. 

6. Using time so that all responsibilities are discharged promptly 
and all appointments kept punctually. 

X. Celebration of festivals in the home. 

1. Searching for the meaning of each festival. 

2. Continuing old traditions — Jack-o-Lantern, Christmas trees, 
valentines, May baskets, birthday candles. 

3. Enjoyment of the traditional art forms in song, story, pic- 
ture, costume, decoration. 

4. Expressing the meaning of the festival through creative 

5. Cooperating with a group in the school, church, or neighbor- 
hood in a creative art expression of the meaning of the 

XI. Thrift in the home. 

1. Careful spending of money to secure the greatest possible 

2. Saving for worthy purposes. 

3. Generous use of whatever is available to make living most 
worth while. 

4. Avoidance of unnecessary waste. 

5. Conservation by careful usage, making needed repairs and 

Living in the Modern Community 

THE school is itself a small community, and many community 
activities are carried forward within the school. The school 
also develops contacts with the larger community, helping the chil- 
dren to learn its institutions and share with increasing understanding 
the responsibilities and privileges of citizenship. 

Iveen interest m certain phases of community activity is iSthown- in 
nursery school and kindergarten, and this^nteresl is enlarged in first 
and second and later grades. - Int c r e s t-krffi*e historical development 
of the community and its institutions has been s%ew-nui the inter- 
mediate grades. 

I. Buying and selling. 

1. Construction and furnishing of shops; as, clothing, grocery, 
florist, toy shop, gift shop, book shop, pottery shop, garden 

2. Providing capital and securing the initial stock. 

3. Organization into departments. 

4. Obtaining and arranging supplies, goods for sale. 

5. Decorating and displaying wares attractively. 

6. Making inventories. 

7. Handling of money: fixing prices, making change, making 
bills, keeping accounts. 

8. Advertising by means of newspapers, posters, dodgers. 

9. Cooperating with all engaged in the enterprise : owner, man- 
ager, salesperson, cashier, floorman. 

II. Transportation in the community. 

1. Obtaining vehicles for family or community use. 

2. Assembling and repairing vehicles — providing fuel and oil. 

3. Operating vehicles : 

a. Cars for family use. 

b. Delivery wagons, trucks, freight cars and boats, for trans- 
portation of supplies. 

c. Buses, trains, boats, airplanes, street-cars, for carrying pas- 

4. Training officers and mechanics for operating conveyances. 

5. Providing for comfort and pleasure of passengers on long 
trips : food, sleep, entertainment, communication. 


Source Material for Curriculum Making 11 

6. Providing stopping and starting points for vehicles : garages, 
car barns, hangars, stations, yards, docks. 

7. Developing traffic regulations and safety rules — insuring 
against accidents. 

8. Financing public transportation. 

III. Public service. 

1. Organization of institutions to meet needs: 
Education — School, library, church, summer camp. 
Communication — Newspaper, printing shop, post office, tele- 
phone, telegraph, radio. 

Health — Medical and dental offices, hospital, health depart- 

Sanitation and Comfort — Filtration plant, street cleaning, light 
and fuel plants, drainage. 

Protection — -Police department, fire department, military camp, 
light house, life-saving station. 
Government and Finance — Town assembly, law court, bank. 

2. Providing suitable buildings and equipment. 

3. Choosing officers and dividing responsibilities. 

4. Enlisting cooperation of citizens. 

5. Studying to improve quality of service. 

6. Keeping records of activities. 

7. Financing these institutions. 

IV. Recreation. 

1. Organization of centers: 

Sports — Bathing beach, swimming or wading pool, skating 

rink, golf course, tennis court, stadium for games, playground, 


Arts — Art gallery, museum, theatre, motion picture theatre, 

concert hall, band stand, circus, broadcasting studio. 

Exhibits — Fair, baby show, flower show, stock show, pet show, 

automobile show, aviation show, parade. 

2. Providing buildings and equipment. 

3. Securing contributions of artists, coaches, directors, workmen. 

4. Creating new art-forms for public enjoyment. 

5. Arranging programs, guide-books, sporting events. 

6. Participating as actor or audience. 

7. Working to improve skill as performer or participant. 

8. Evaluating and discriminating in choice of recreations. 

9. Securing funds to support public recreation centers. 

10. Securing funds through benefit entertainments to support other 
worthy projects. 

12 National College oe Education 

V. Opportunities for study of nature. 

1. Setting aside of centers: forest preserve, park, lake or pool, 
conservatory, zoo, bird house, aquarium, observatory, plane- 

2. Preserving and introducing interesting varieties of plants, 
animals, rocks, shells. 

3. Providing conditions and care for growth and propagation. 

4. Observing habits and characteristics of plants and animals. 

5. Sketching, photographing and recording interesting phases of 
plant and animal life, earth formation, and astral bodies. 

6. Safeguarding natural resources while enjoying these experi- 

7. Securing funds for enlarging such opportunities in the com- 

VI. Improving the community in convenience and beauty. 

1. Zoning for residence, business and factory areas and for parks. 

2. Laying out and widening streets and boulevards ; building 
bridges and subways. 

3. Beautifying streets and parks with trees, plants, fountains, 

4. Removing any unnecessary sources of ugliness or untidiness. 

Activities Involved in the Arts and 

Industries which Support Home and 


"y-N'TEREST in the industries seems to divide along geographical 
X ^ine s-r Kindergarten, first and second grade children often wish to 
investigate the industries that are carried on in the community or 
nearby. Unusual interest is shown in all phases of transportation. 
The study of the farm has proved successful when actual farm activ- 
ities could be observed and could be reproduced at school. 

Remote industries have been studied in connection with life in 
other sections of the United States, or in other countries of the 
world, and seem oi-great interest in the intermediate grades. Primi- 
tive aspects of industry have been studied with the experiences of 
various peoples in adapting to environment. 

I. Providing food. 

1. Maintenance of sources of food supply — truck farm, fruit 
grove, poultry and cattle ranches, fishery, grain farms, sugar 
plantation, dairy farm. 

2. Adapting production to natural conditions ; as, climate, soil. 

3. Studying plants and animals — their habits and development. 

4. Developing methods of culture, propagation, using machines. 

5. Studying birds and insects which help or hinder food produc- 

6. Keeping records and spreading information concerning plant 
and animal culture. 

7. Studying the cycle of seasons in the country, what each 
season brings in beauty and in produce — interpretation of the 
seasons in art, music and literature. 

8. Provision for workers in these situations — their duties and 
recreations, songs, and stories. 

9. Preparation of food stuffs for market — cannery, mill, factory. 
10. Transportation and marketing of food stuffs. 

II. Providing clothing. 

1. Maintenance of sources of supply — sheep ranch, cotton planta- 
tion, fur farm, raising of silkworms, mining for silver, gold, 


14 National College of Education 

2. Adapting labor to natural resources and limitations. 

3. Studying to improve amount and quality of production. 

4. Keeping records and preparing books and magazines for spread 
of information. 

5. Originating and improving processes of making cloth — weav- 
ing, dyeing; use of machinery. 

6. Making jewelry : metal work, cutting gems. 

7. Making of clothing with help of designers, dressmakers, tailors, 
factory workers. 

8. Development of fashions, styles, and patterns. 

9. Financing business enterprises. 

III. Providing buildings, tools, utensils. 

1. Preparation of materials — lumber, glass, steel, stone, brick, 
plaster, china, tile, cement, rubber, paper. 

2. Adventures of workers in contact with nature — forest, mine, 

3. Developing processes of molding and beautifying raw ma- 
terials — mill, kiln, pottery. 

4. Making of plans and designs by architects, artists. 

5. Practical construction by contractors, mechanics, artisans. 

6. Financing building enterprises. 

7. Preparation of books and magazines containing information 
and creative suggestions for building and decorating. 

8. Studying to conserve and extend natural resources. 

IV. Providing transportation. 

1. Engineering of railroads, bridges, tunnels, roads, canals. 

2. Construction of boats, trains, automobiles, airships. 

3. Originating and improving means of locomotion. 

4. Training of workers in technique of handling vehicles. 

5. Adventures of those who control and use vehicles. 

6. Making records of experiments and achievements. 

7 . Financing the production and running of vehicles. 

V. Providing light and power. 

1. Experimenting with the forces of nature, — water, coal, oil, 
gas, steam, electricity, radio. 

2. Harnessing natural forces to provide light and power. 

3. Adventures of pioneers — discovery and mastery of these forces. 

4. Originating and improving machinery for various industries. 

5. Keeping records and spreading information on science and 

6. Conserving natural resources. 

Experiences of Various Peoples in 
Adapting to Environment 

THROUGH their own vacation experiences and through hearing 
travel stories from parents and friends, children have become 
interested in studying living conditions in other parts of the world. 
Home and community life under varying environmental conditions 
has proved a fascinating study in third grade. One third grade 
group enjoyed an imaginary trip around the world. 

Through pictures and curios in the home and in the school, pri- 
mary children have become interested also in home and community 
life of earlier times; as Indian and Eskimo life, peasant life in 
Holland and Japan. 

I. Types of environment to which simple independent peoples 
have adjusted. 

1. Cold climates. 

2. Hot climates — deserts, jungles, volcanic regions. 

3. Temperate climates — mountains, lowlands, seaside, forest. 

II. Providing shelter, tools and utensils. 

1. Seeking protection from natural discomforts, dangers, diffi- 
culties inherent in the geographic situation: cold, heat, 
storms, earthquakes, wild beasts. 

2. Discovery of available materials and forces in the environ- 
ment: clay, ice, snow, reeds, skins, bones, wood, stone, fire. 

3. Experimenting with materials and adapting to meet needs 
peculiar to locality. 

4. Adventures in overcoming obstacles and dangers. 

5. Improving types of construction. 

III. Providing food. 

1. Discovering edible plant and animal foods in the environ- 

2. Devising means of securing foods — hunting, trapping, fish- 
ing, digging, gathering. 

3. Adventures in hunting and foraging. 

4. Discovering ways and means of preparing foods. 

5. Domesticating plants and animals as food supply. 

6. Developing methods of culture and propagation suited to 


16 National College oe Education 

the environment : clearing, draining, irrigation, building- 

IV. Providing clothing. 

1. Seeking bodily protection from changing weather conditions; 
also seeking personal adornment. 

2. Discovering and using available materials in the environ- 
ment — skins, foliage, grasses, feathers ; also teeth, bones, 
shells, berries, minerals, and precious stones. 

3. Systematic hunting, trapping or raising of animals ; also 
the raising of certain plants as clothing supply. 

4. Originating and improving processes of making clothing and 

ornament — weaving, dyeing, sewing, metal work. 

5. Developing costumes suited to the environment and occupa- 
tions of the people, and reflecting racial characteristics. 

V. Development of transportation. 

1. Migrating because of changes in climatic conditions or ex- 
haustion of local resources. 

2. Seeking easier ways of bearing burdens and quicker means 
of travel. 

3. Devising and developing receptacles and vehicles for carry- 
ing burdens and for traveling on water and land : vehicles 
carried, drawn or pushed by men, vehicles drawn or borne 
by animals, vehicles or vessels propelled by natural forces, 
as water, wind. 

4. Improving natural trails by marking, removing obstacles, 
shortening, leveling, bridging, dredging. 

5. Adventures in learning to control and use beasts and vehicles 
on land and water. 

6. Devising instruments to guide travel, as maps, compass. 

7. Explorations and discoveries. 

VI. Developing social organization. 

1. Forming groups for defense and for supply of needs : family, 
tribe, clan, village, state. 

2. Developing traditions, customs, mores, laws, for regulating 
social interaction; as trade, property, government, conserva- 
tion of resources. 

3. Developing ceremonials for the celebration of noteworthy 

4. Devising methods of exchanging goods— trade, barter, mone- 
tary system, with founding of trading centers, as post, market, 

5. Building for common use — meeting hall, church, fort. 

Source Material for Curriculum Making 17 

VII. Developing communication and education. 

1. Growth in use of speech and development of oral expression. 

2. Devising signs and signals for communication. 

3. Originating and improving forms of keeping and transmit- 
ting records : pictures, symbols, alphabet, figures, transcribed 
with suitable implements and materials. 

4. Growth in written expression and in book-making. 

5. Educating the young in traditions of the group and in its 
skills and arts. 

VIII. Expression through the arts. 

1. Seeking to express the meaning of experience through the 
various arts. 

2. Making pictures to commemorate significant experiences. 

3. Depicting detail in the environment through design and deco- 
ration in costumes and in household articles ; as, pottery, 
baskets, rugs, blankets. 

4. Expressing values and meanings through architectural de- 

5. Creating and telling stories to commemorate interesting 
events, and to afford symbolic interpretation of experience — 
the crystallizing of many of these into permanent artistic 

6. Originating and using songs and dances to express emotions 
accompanying various experiences. 

7. Development of musical instruments for the accompaniment 
of song and dance. 

8. Originating and using games and sports to express exuber- 
ance of spirits and to develop skill in use of body. 

Experiences Involved in the Discovery and 

Development of Our Own Country 

and Our Own Community 

BECAUSE of the National holidays, Fourth of July, Columbus 
day, Thanksgiving Day and Washington's Birthday, and be- 
cause of the school flag and patriotic songs and stories, the children 
in the primary grades exhibit a growing curiosity about the dis- 
covery and early development of our country. This interest, which 
has been followed to satisfaction in late third or early fourth grade, 
leads to a desire to know the full story of our own city from the 
beginnings to the present day. From this study the children have 
been led in fifth grade to an interest in other sections of the country 
and the contributions of each to American life. 

With some groups of children, interest in the historical develop- 
ment of the immediate community precedes any curiosity about the 
discovery and first settlements in America. 

A. Beginnings of our Country. 

I. Discovery and settlement. 

1. Seeking a shorter route to the East. 

2. Discovering the western hemisphere. 

3. Exploration to gain wealth, adventure and glory. 

4. Surmounting natural barriers and obstacles : ocean, moun- 
tains, forests, lakes, rivers. 

5. Claiming the land in the name of the mother country. 

6. Planting forts, missions and trading posts. 

7. Founding colonies to better religious, social or economic con- 

8. Establishing contacts with the Indians and repelling hostile 

II. Life in colonial times. 

1. Importation of customs, traditions, and industrial processes 
from the mother country. 

2. Adaptation of manner of living to the new environment — 
climate, topography, natural resources. 

3. Development of characteristic home life, arts, and industries, 


Source Material for Curriculum Making 19 

local government, and forms of worship in each colonial 

4. Development of devices and materials for education, and ex- 
tension of educational opportunity. 

5. Service of leaders in situations of need. 

III. Growth into a nation. 

1. Expansion of English possessions in the new world, and 
corresponding spread of English civilization. 

2. Gradual growth of democratic ideas of government and con- 
sequent dissatisfaction with autocratic rule. 

3. Unification of the colonists under skillful leadership in the 
struggle for independence and in the establishment of a 

4. Winning of recognition and respect from other nations. 

B. Development of our own Community. 

I. Founding the community. 

1. Early explorations in this section of the country. 

2. Contacts with local tribes of Indians. 

3. Discovering in this locality suitable geographic features for 
the meeting of certain needs ; as lake, harbor, river, mineral 
deposits, fertility of soil. 

4. Building of explorers' huts, trading post, fort, mission. 

5. Settling of pioneers, traveling westward, seeking new homes. 

6. Hardships endured in travel and in establishing homes. 

7. Solution of early problems in gaining a livelihood and pro- 
tecting the community in the new environment. 

II. Expansion and change in the community. 

1. Growth in population, due to the coming of immigrants from 
various parts of the world, attracted by commercial and in- 
dustrial opportunities. 

2. Development of architecture to meet changing needs and atti- 
tudes of the people. 

3. Changes in transportation by land, water, air ; inventions and 
improvements of vehicles ; construction of bridges, roads and 
railroads ; building of railway stations, docks, and airports ; 
influence of improved methods of transportation on growth 
of the city. 

4. Development of means of communication through expanding 
postal service, and through invention of telephone, telegraph, 
wireless, radio. 

20 National College oe Education 

5. Development of natural resources and changes in geographic 
features ; as, straightening the river, building the canal, 
deepening the harbor, "filling in" to increase available land, 

6. Improvement and expansion of industry and commerce 
through the application of growing scientific knowledge; the 
invention of machinery and the development of power. 

7. Changes in government as the community grows from a vil- 
lage into a city ; provision for financing public utilities. 

8. Growing provision for the welfare and safety of the com- 
munity ; water supply, sanitation, light and fuel supply, police 
and fire protection. 

9. Changes in education and growth in educational facilities. 

10. Development of institutions for the unfortunate; as, hospitals, 
settlements, homes for the needy. 

11. Increase in the standard of living and the amount of leisure, 
with consequent expansion of recreational facilities ; as, parks, 
playgrounds, theatres, museums. 

12. Contributions of gifted citizens in art, music, literature, 

III. Looking forward. 

1. Recognition of possibilities for future growth in commerce, 
industry, education, and other fields. 

2. Effort to solve the city's problems ; as, traffic congestion, ac- 
cidents, smoke, noise, ugliness and untidiness. 

3. Creative planning for a "city beautiful." 

C. Development of Different Sections of the Country and their 
Contributions: the South, the East, the Middle West, the Far 

I. Story of each section. 

1. Exploring and acquiring the territory. 

2. Settlement by people of various nationalities, attracted by 
natural resources and favorable geographic factors ; as, 
climate, soil, topography, mineral deposits. 

3. Development of avenues of transportation; as, trails, roads, 
canals, railways, highways, air routes. 

4. Improvement of vehicles from early times to present : wagons, 
boats, automobiles, trains, airplanes. 

5. Adventures of pioneers in various fields of activity, influenc- 
ing expansion and growth. 

6. Work of leaders in foreseeing and solving problems. 

Source Material for Curriculum Making 21 

7. Adjusting the relation of each section to the union and to 
foreign countries. 

II. Modes of living and contributions of each section. 

1. Utilization of climate, topography and soil in the production 
of typical crops ; as cotton, fruit, grain. 

2. Selecting and propagating animals suited to the region ; as 
sheep, bees, fish. 

3. Obtaining raw materials from regional sources of supply: 
lumber, coal, iron, oil, tin, copper, zinc, gold, silver. 

4. Development of industries, transforming the raw products 
of the section. 

5. Utilization of transportation facilities in importing and ex- 
porting raw products and manufactured goods. 

6. Use of power resources in the section and development of 

7. Conservation and extension of natural resources. 

8. Modes of living and characteristics of the people influenced 
by climate, occupations and relative wealth. 

9. Growth of cities and reasons for this growth in geographic 
factors and type of service rendered. 

10. Expression of attitudes and appreciations in the arts; char- 
acteristic stories, songs, architecture, beauty in manufactured 

III. Interdependence and interchange of ideas of people in different 

1. Growing specialization and dependence of each region upon 
others for products. 

2. Constantly increasing ease and rapidity of communication: 
mail service, telegraph, telephone, radio, daily papers, moving 
and talking pictures. 

3. Continued improvement of transportation facilities and grow- 
ing use of these : national conventions, traveling business 
agencies, sight-seeing tours. 

4. Sharing and conserving the nation's playgrounds : ocean and 
lake resorts, national parks, scenic wonders. 

5. Sharing the benefits and responsibilities of national govern- 

6. Common responsibilities in helping to solve national prob- 
lems ; as, education, public health, taxation, cooperation with 
law. tettj^o, V^n*>$*L*-A 0^Su\^Xju ^mrh qJ& 

\~*<rv^i~-* } (X-ds^iit^ 

Experiences Involved in the Development 

of the Modern World and the Contribution 

of Certain Peoples to Civilization 

IN THE intermediate grades, boys and girls have shown a growing 
interest in current events, leading to an admiration for the ac- 
complishments of certain foreign countries and a desire to learn 
more of their relations to our country and to one another. 

The aim in sixth grade has been to locate those countries which 
have exerted greatest influence on the development of civilization 
and to learn some of the reasons for their importance. -A- few 
countries have been chosen for fuller study and analysis. More 
territory has been covered by allowing the class to divide into groups, 
and choose different -^^kffils^f or study and later report to the whole 

From -sixth grade many of the children in the school go to the 
Evanston Junior High School, where the seventh grade topic in 
Social Science is "Nations as Neighbors." 

I. Various continents and countries that have influenced modern 
civilization : 

1. Countries or city-states famous for early contributions to 
present civilization ; as, Egypt, Palestine, Greece, Rome, China, 

2. Countries that have exercised leadership in medieval and 
modern times; as, Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, 
Spain, Japan, Russia. 

3. Younger countries that are at present contributing ; as, Canada, 
Mexico, South American countries. 

II. Story of the country. 

1. Influence of natural conditions and resources upon develop- 
ment : location, climate, topography, soil, mineral resources. 

2. Characteristics of people as determined by ancestral back- 
ground and environment. 

3. Exploits of heroes in dramatic incidents or episodes. 

4. Activities of great leaders and their influence in shaping 

5. Changes in occupations and modes of living at different periods. 


Source Material for Curriculum Making 23 

III. Economic contributions. 

1. Raising crops and animal products peculiar to that region; as, 
flax, coffee, rubber, rice. 

2. Mining and quarrying of minerals and stones; as marble, 

3. Manufacturing of articles of beauty and utility characteristic 
of the country; as, Italian leather, Swiss watches, Japanese 
silks, Persian rugs. 

4. Work of scientists and inventors in forwarding progress ; as 
Marconi of Italy, James Watt of England. 

IV. Cultural contributions. 

1. Development of dances, games and sports expressive of the 
environment and characteristics of the people. 

2. Development of the stage and drama ; work of famous actors. 

3. Expression in literature : folk lore, classic and modern com- 

4. Evolution of musical forms and instruments ; service of artists 
in rendering and composing music. 

5. Evolution of traditions, customs, fashions; as celebration of 
festivals, design in costume, social courtesies and conventions. 

6. Creative work in architecture, painting, sculpture. 

V. Interdependence and interchange of ideas between nations. 

1. Exchange of products through exports and imports. 

2. Intermingling of people through emigration and immigration. 

3. Sharing of art treasures through reproduction and exchange. 

4. Appreciation of cultural contributions and natural beauty 
through travel. 

5. Interchange of ideas through various means of communica- 
tion: books, plays, magazines, newspapers, radio, cable, postal 
service, moving and talking pictures. 

6. Solving of common problems by international conference. 


Some Typical Units of IVork 

UNITS OF-^JFGRK: fc^fa^ 

Selecting the tfirers ^■ rV 

THE Staff of the Children's School, working as a Curriculum 
Committee, have, after considerable experiment and study, 
selected tentatively certain large aims and certain large areas of 
experience which seem appropriate at different age levels. Specific -ir\V 
- units , however, are selected and planned by the teachers and the 
children together. Outstanding interests in the community, chil- 
dren's vacation experiences, problems that arise in the homes, all 
influence the selection and trends of particular unks. The teacher 
studies the records of previous u«ks of work in which these children 
have engaged, and also the records of successful units carried on by 
other groups of children at this age level; and $k^- endeavors , to 
provide experiences which will lead the children intojHiK ricn in 
values for their development. 

The teachers of the youngest children provide orientation by ar- 
ranging excursions and introducing suggestive pictures, stories and 
materials. Problems usually arise one at a time as the children work 
and talk together. 

As the children grow older, they assist not only in selecting the t 
-u»k, but in making the preliminary plans. They suggest excursions, 
list questions, collect books, pictures and other materials; and often 
initiate experiments and constructive activities. Usually the group 
divides itself into small groups or committees for certain phases of 
the work, and each child is helped to choose the group where he can 
work effectively. 

The length of time spent upon anyytmit depends upon the con- 
tinuance of keen interest on the part of the children, and the unfolding 
of valuable new problems and new forms of expression as the work 

Room Enterprises 

Observation and analysis of what actually occurs in carrying on^^. 
a unit of work has led to the organization of the outline form used 
here. Any successful unit of work is preceded and accompanied by 


28 National College of Education 

certain enriching experiences which rouse and foster interest and 
give background for various types of activity. These experiences 
may include excursions, collection and exhibit of illustrative ma- 
terials, study of photographs, films and slides, and recall of past 
experiences of members of the group gained through social contacts, 
travel, and other opportunities. 

As the children enjoy these shared experiences, certain questions 
arise which lead to pursuit of further and more detailed information. 
These questions may be listed at the beginning of the unit ol" wor£ " 
by the teacher and the group, or they may arise one at a time as the 
class works together. The solution of these problems may involve 
oral discussion study of books for added facts, and constructive 
activities for the purpose of experiment and illustration. 

In the kindergarten and primary grades, construction is often of 
supreme importance and may be the starting point of the whole 
enterprise. Many of the problems that arise at this level are practi- 
cal problems in construction, and their solution involves discussion, 
observation, experiment, and use of the picture-story library, with 
the teacher as guide and interpreter. In almost every niiit of work • 
at every age level, arithmetic is needed to give more accurate infor- 
mation concerning size, time and distance, and to aid in construction 
and dramatization. 

As knowledge and experience grow, attitudes and appreciations 
are acquired that relate to the subject of study, and these attitudes 
and appreciations find expression in the arts. The skilful teacher 
introduces appropriate songs, poems and dances from her art col- 
lections, and the child finds expression in the reproduction of these 
forms. Often as the tm - it o r£ work proceeds, there is a spontaneous 
blossoming into picture-making or into composition of original song 
or verse or story. 

With the kindergarten-primary children, the climax of the un-k — 
of work is often dramatic play, making use of the buildings and 
equipment that have been constructed. With older children, the 
final expression may be a sharing of experiences with others, through 
dramatization, assembly program, gift-giving or a room exhibit of 
constructive and creative work. If the unit of work has been valu- 
able, new interests have arisen which suggest other lines of activity 
or new topics of study. 

Some Typical Units of Work 


^::. :i ';#' ^y-.--- * ; .. ^- •Cy 

:., . i :: ; 

4 fl 

^■■t ^-^ 

Thanksgiving Recalls the Story of the Pilgrims 

In a school year, particularly with younger children, many small 
units of work arise, which may involve only part of thCgroup. It is 
perhaps desirable to record in detailed fashion only units in which 
a fairly large group of children take part, in which the time covers 
several days or weeks, and the outcomes in child development are 
significant. No detailed - tip it s fp f work occur in the nursery school 
or junior kindergarten. These children tend to work individually 
or in small groups, and any social enterprises which are undertaken, 
are short-lived and fragmentary. Beginning with the five-year-old 
kindergarten, group enterprises grow in organization and duration, 
as the children show greater social readiness. 

The units of w^k m tins volume were recorded first in parallel 
column form, and later for convenience in reading and printing were 
recast into outline form. The worth of an outline form like the one 
used here, is that it enables the teacher to compare different units 
^ef- wo rk for possibilities and values. The danger of a set form is 
that it may lead to a forced correlation which represents no funda- 
mental need or relationship. It will not always occur that every type 


30 National College of Education 

~+ ■ ' 

of activity is linked up with a particulars-unit of work, and certainly 
the form of art expression will depend on the attitudes and capacities 
of the individuals within the group, and may vary with different 
children ar^d different topics of study. 

The units of wOrk which follow were for the most part developed 
in a single year. In many cases one led directly^to the next. It is 
hoped that in each successive year many new units of work will be 
developed, reflecting the varying interests of the children and the 
outstanding new developments in the community. If certain units 
are occasionally repeated, these should be expanded and enriched 
by the growing experience and continued study of the teacher, and 
the suggestions and questions of each new group of children. 

School Enterprises 

In addition to unfits of work in each grade, there have been some 
enterprises in which the whole school participated. The building- 
up of the Children's Library has been a common goal which has 
captivated the interest of both parents and children. Library En- 
dowment Day was planned by mothers, children and teachers to- 
gether, and gave everyone who wished the opportunity to join in 
a processional bearing books to the Library. Mothers with the 
cooperation of local book-stores and the school librarian, sold de- 
sirable books at the school, and children from their individual savings 
made their own selections of books to give. 

At Thanksgiving all the children joined in a processional bearing 
harvest gifts for a settlement nursery school, and at Christmas several 
groups cooperated in a Carol Service to which mothers were invited. 
A gift of toys and puzzles for the Children's Memorial Hospital 
was an enterprise in the manual training room which interested the 
children from several grades. 

\ Etp^ 


H-EALTH and happiness are considered the first aims in all work 
with kindergarten-primary children. Other important objec- 
tives of the kindergarten have been, to help the children to under- 
stand better their own immediate environment, and to provide the 
opportunity for social living in a way acceptable in the worthy modern 
home and community. The children have been allowed to initiate 
their own enterprises, guided by materials, pictures, stories and con- 
versations. The interest in construction and dramatic play has been 
encouraged by the availability of large floor blocks, work benches 
and tools, and large materials of many kinds for use in art and in- 
dustrial enterprises. 

Transportation has been a frequently chosen topic. The keen 
interest in all phases of transportation is explained by the school en- 
vironment. The school is situated just one block from Lake Michi- 
gan, where boats of many sorts may be seen at any time of the year. 
In front of the school is Sheridan Road, the favorite lakeshore drive 
between Chicago and Fort Sheridan. Two large airports are located 
in the vicinity, and stations for steam and electric railway systems 
are only a few blocks away. The children's individual experience 
records show that many of them have traveled extensively. One 
member of last year's group had had a trip around the world; a 
number of the children had traveled by airplane, and all of them had 
frequently taken trips by boat, automobile and train. Three units 
dealing with transportation are included in this volume, and all of 
these were developed in a single year. 

There has been a continuing interest also in activities related to 
nature. The community is one of homes and gardens, with many 
parks available, and forest preserves and farms not far distant. The 
seasons and the festivals have had their share in suggesting activities. 
A few short units dealing with nature problems are included in this 
volume. These, too, formed a part of the single year's work here 

A corner equipped with playhouse furniture and some durable 
dolls has been available for housekeeping activities, and playing house 


32 National College of Education 

has also been a live interest. Frequently the house has been com- 
bined with transportation projects, and has been the point of de- 
parture for journeys by land, air and sea. 

Outcomes in social meanings and appreciations peculiar to each 
unit are included with the unit. All of the units have afforded op- 
portunity for growth in certain desirable social attitudes and habits ; 
as, cooperation in making plans and solving problems, consideration 
for others, respect for the opinions of others, appreciation of the need 
for dependability, willingness to give and take helpful suggestions, 
joy in individual and group successes. The units have also afforded 
opportunity for growth in expression in the various arts and for an 
awakening interest in the attainment of certain needed skills. Out- 
comes in terms of some school arts and skills are summarized under 
Group Records of Progress, in Part IV. 

Traveling by Train 

Senior Kindergarten 

I. Enriching experiences which roused interest and provided 
background for activities. 

A. The interest grew out of the contribution of one child who had 
just had his first experience of riding on a train. His en- 
thusiasm for his trip to New York on "The Century" spread to 
the group with the result that a large train was built of the 
Hill Floor Blocks. 

B. As many of our children go by motor when traveling, we 
found that about half the group had never had any train ex- 
perience. We asked that they be given that experience even 
though it could be only a ride on the suburban train into Chi- 
cago. The parents responded very well to our request and 
made the most of the opportunity to show the children the 
engine, coal car, and other parts of a train. 

C. Pictures of trains of all kinds, interiors of sleeping cars, parlor 
cars, diners, helped provide background. 

II. Problems and questions which led to experiment and investiga- 
tion. Many questions arose which necessitated our asking 
questions of the fathers and using encyclopedias. 

A. Of what use is the sand dome? The steam dome? 

B. Why did the older types of engines have tall stacks and new 
ones low stacks? 

C. Why must trains have water? 

D. How do trains on long runs "pick up" water? 

E. How long is the run for an engineer on a train ? 

F. When is the bell used? 

G. When is the whistle blown ? 

H. What do the different uses of the whistle mean? 

I. Why do some trains have automatic stokers ? 

J. What do different colored signals mean? 
K. Where do trains go when they are not making a run? 
L. How does a turntable operate? 
M. Why are electric engines sometimes used? 
N. When does the train crew eat and sleep? 
O. How are the Pullman seats made into beds? 

III. Finding solution of problems and answers to questions. 
A. Through correlative construction. 

1. The interest centered about the construction of a large train 


National College of Education 


made of the Hill blocks. The engine, coal car and one 
passenger car comprised the original train. Each day as 
dramatic play developed there was need for more detail. 
More cars were added — a Pullman car, diner and baggage 

2. Blocks proved unsatisfactory as seats. Kindergarten chairs 
were substituted. Light weight boards (12 inches by 3 
feet) were used across the chairs in the Pullman. 

3. Waiters' aprons were made of unbleached muslin. 

4. Caps for the cook, engineer and fireman were made of 
construction paper. These were found unsatisfactory for 
everyday use ; so new ones were made by gluing paper 
cambric to paper bag foundations. 

5. The doll dishes were used in the diner. 

6. A station and ticket office were made after the play had 
continued for two weeks. 

7. With the help of the teacher signs were made and fastened 
on the various cars, and on the station and ticket office. 
The train was named, "New York Flyer." 

Through conversation. 

Many conversations in small groups and in the whole group 
took place concerning the train. Each day brought new prob- 
lems for discussion. There was much freedom of verbal ex- 
pression in the discussions. The children sought information 
at home and made valuable contributions to the group on their 

Through use of books. 

The children gained a feeling for the use of books which would 
give necessary information. While the teachers did the read- 
ing and interpreted what w r as read, the children had the ex- 
perience of going to the library to get the books and seeing 
them used. 

Picture and Story Books for Children and Teachers 

Kuh, Charlotte 
Read, Helen S. 
Smith, E. B. 
Smith, E. B. 


The Engineer 
An Engine's Story 
The Railway Book 
The Railroad Book 
A Big Book of En- 

1929 Macmillan 
1928 Scribner 
1925 Samuel Gabriel 
1913 Houghton Mifflin 
Blackie and Sons 

(linenette) The Railroad Book 


Units of -Wor-k- in the Kindergarten 


This Express Makes No Stops 

Chamberlain, J. F. 
Crump, I. 

Eaton, J. 

Van Metre, T. B. 

Williams, Archi- 

Books for the Teachers 

How We Travel 

Boy's Book on Rail- 

The Story of Trans- 1927 Harper 

Trains, Tracks and 1926 Simmons-Boardman 

Engineering Feats 

1924 Macmillan 
1921 Dodd Mead 

1925 Nelson 

Selected Material from Compton's Encyclopedia and the World Book 

D. Through use of number. 

1. Time entered in to a small degree. Trains run on scheduled 
time, and the children gained some feeling for the necessity 
of promptness. 

2. The problem of too many children for the number of seats 
came up from time to time. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes and appreciations developing 
through these experiences. 

A. A spirit of cooperation developed as the children shared duties 
in constructing and operating the train. 

36 National College of Education 

B. An appreciation was gained for the responsibility placed upon 
the train crew — their interest in the comfort and safety of the 

C. Knowledge was gained of the members of the train crew and 
the duties of each one. 

D. Understanding and appreciation developed for the various 
functions of trains and their importance ; in carrying passengers, 
in transporting mail, in shipping provisions to our cities — milk, 
fruit, vegetables, cattle. 

E. Knowledge was gained of the construction and use of dif- 
ferent parts of a train and different kinds of cars ; as, engine, 
coal car, caboose, baggage car, diner, sleeping car, parlor car, 
oil car, cattle car, mail car. 

F. Appreciation developed for the importance of punctuality in 
running and using trains. 

V. Expression and interpretation of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

1. Poems were read and some were learned from "I Go 
A-Traveling" by James Tippett. 

2. The children enjoyed hearing and telling "The Little Engine 
that Could" (from My Bookhouse, Volume I, edited by 
Olive B. Miller). 

B. Through picture-making. 

The interest was richly expressed through drawing, painting 
and through paper cutting and paste work : 

1. Many children did individual drawings and paintings of 
trains, stations, water tanks, gates at crossing and like 

2. Several group paintings were made, using four or five 
full sheets of unprinted newspaper pasted together. This 
w r as fastened to the blackboard with adhesive tape. Four 
or five children worked together on these group pictures, 
doing cooperative planning, as to what should go into each 
picture and what part each person should paint. 

3. Several group drawings were made on the blackboard in 
like manner. 

4. Train books were made by many members of the group. 
These consisted of the various parts of the train in free 
cut-outs of black paper, mounted on manila drawing paper. 
Each child was given slips of paper on which were written 
in manuscript "engine," "dining-car" and other phrases. 
These were pasted under the appropriate pictures. 

5. Original cover designs were made for the train books. 

Units of Work in the Kindergarten 37 

C. Through music. 

1. The development of train play through rhythmic activity 
was interesting to note. At first the children were merely 
trains running at great speed down the tracks. Gradually 
more organization came into their play: the slow pulling 
out of the train from the station, the gain in speed and then 
the slowing down to stop. Music was helpful in supple- 
menting the children's mood and in controlling the play. 

2. Several original songs were created, two of which were 
jotted down by the teacher, and given back to the group, 
and became favorite songs to sing. "The Train Song" 
from Singing Time by Thorne and Coleman was also used. 

D. Through dramatic play. 

A wealth of dramatic play was carried on each day. 

1. The serving of meals in the diner, the going to bed, the 
firing of the boiler, the taking of tickets, all came up in 
the play of each day. 

2. Dolls were taken traveling. There was desirable inter- 
play between the doll corner and the train. The engineer 
and the conductor would go "home" to the doll corner 
when they were not on their runs. Several children brought 
overalls to wear when they took the parts of fireman and 

VI. New interests. 

Other means of travel (boats, busses, automobiles and airplanes) 
were discussed, and were possibilities for future activity. 

Traveling on an Ocean Liner 

Senior Kindergarten 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused interest and provided 
background for activities. 

A. Many pictures were used to help clarify ideas and to provide 
background. Several parents sent photographs of different 
kinds of boats. 

B. Excursion to Wilmette harbor gave information about small 
boats, yachts, motor boats, speed boats, and replica of the "old- 
fashioned boat like Columbus came in." 

C. A trip to the lighthouse enriched ideas of the size and con- 
struction of a lighthouse. 

D. One child brought a real compass which opened up a new line 
of interest in how a captain can find his directions. 

E. An experiment with water and a pan on which were colored 
stripes proved helpful in seeing what happened when the pan 
was gradually "loaded with freight" and what the result was 
when it was overloaded. 

II. Some of the questions which led to investigation. 

A. How does an ocean vessel look? 

B. What is meant by such terms as: stern, prow, bridge, pilot 
or wheel house, decks, gang plank, anchors, dry dock, crow's 
nest, mast, funnel, ventilators, ship's log, captain's flag, buoy, 
Union Jack, waterline ? 

C. How is a ship loaded? 

D. Why are there portholes ? 

E. Why are there numbers down near the waterline? 

F. How can sailors tell when a ship is nearing an iceberg? 

G. How do ships send messages ? 
H. What does "S.O.S." mean? 

I. How does the captain signal the engine room that the ship is 

ready to sail ? 
J. What is the purpose of dry dock? How are ships put in dry 

K. How does a captain recognize different lighthouses? 
L. How does the fog horn "work"? 
M. What is the principle on which a compass is made? 
N. Why can some ships go faster than others? 
O. Of what are life belts made? How are they adjusted? 
P. How many passengers can an ocean liner carry? 


Units of Work in the Kindergarten 


The Wind Is North by East 
III. Finding solution of problems and answers to questions. 

A. Through correlative construction. 

1. An ocean liner was built with Hill floor blocks. Boards, 
boxes and scraps of beaver board were also used. 

2. A Union Jack, captain's flag, and maps were added. 

3. A pilot wheel was made and placed so that it could be turned. 

4. A lighthouse was built. Colored paper was used over the 
light to designate which lighthouse it was. 

5. A house was built for the machinery which makes the fog 
horn sound. 

6. Some children made binoculars, using card board tubes 
(which candles come in) fastened together with adhesive 

B. Through conversations. 

1. There was a wealth of discussion relating to experiences 
on boats. Phil's trip around the world on the Belgenland 
added much interest. Several relatives of the various chil- 
dren had been abroad. Telling of their experiences was of 
great interest. 

2. Discussion of pictures, 'excursions, experiments, films, en- 
joyed by the group, helped to answer questions. 

40 National College of Education 

3. Discussion of information offered by the teacher aided 
further in solving problems. 

Teacher's References 


Cunard Lines 

French Line — Sectional View of a Great Liner 

Smithsonian Institution — Bulletin No. 127 — Catalog of Watercraft 


Jackson, O. P. & New Book of American Ships 1926 Stokes 

Evans, F. E. 
Rocheleau, W. F. Transportation 1928 A. Flanagan 

Williams, A. Book of the Sea 1916 Thomas Nelson 

Selected material from Compton's Encyclopedia and World Book 



"Queen of the Waves" American Museum of Natural History, New York City 

C. Through use of number. 

1. A decided interest developed in the use of thermometers 
in reading the temperature of water for detecting icebergs. 
This led into a short unit on temperature. 

2. Interest in numbers at the prow of the ship led to some 
understanding of the loading and the weight carried on 

3. The number of passengers was counted following a dis- 
cussion in which the children learned that each ship has a 
maximum capacity. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes and appreciations developed through 
these experiences. 

A. A fine attitude of cooperation in the play on the ship ; in taking- 
turns as captain, mates, mechanics. 

B. Knowledge and appreciation of "marine ethics": signaling of 
another ship ; response to calls for help ; need for team work 
on the part of a crew as well as cooperation with other crews 
when need arises. 

C. Recognition and appreciation of characteristics of a good cap- 
tain : steadiness, carefulness, skill, courage. 

D. Some knowledge and appreciation of ship building. 

E. Recognition of various kinds of boats and different parts of a 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

1. Several original realistic stories were told by children and 

Units of Work in the Kindergarten 41 

2. These stories and verses were also found interesting: 

"The Lighthouse Keeper's Daughter," Author unknown. 

"I Go A-Traveling," (all boat poems) James Tippett. 

"Fog Boat Story," Here and Now Story Book, Lucy Sprague 


"Story About Boats," Helen Read. 

B. Through picture-making. 

1. Pictorial expression was a source of great joy throughout 
the interest. Incidental drawings of boats, lighthouses, 
buoys, bridges were made, and also several large group 
paintings of boats. 

2. Boat books were made, each picture being labelled with 
a typewritten slip telling what the picture was about. 

3. Designs for book covers interested a few. 

4. An interest in flags used on ships, as well as other nations' 
flags, led to the copying of many flags. 

5. Large boat posters were made. 

C. Through music. 

These songs were favorites : 

"A Song of Ships," One Hundred and Forty Folk-Songs, Davi- 
son and Surette. 

(This was sung to the children for appreciation, but the swing 
and rhythm caught their interest and they learned it) 
"I Had a Little Sail-boat," One Hundred and Forty Folk-Songs, 
Davison and Surette. 

D. Through dramatic activity. This interest offered great out- 
let in a dramatic way. Every day there was rich dramatic play 
on the boat : pilot steering ship ; lookout spying icebergs ; 
mechanics fixing machinery; passengers riding on ship, having 
dinner, disembarking; passengers engaging in various forms 
of entertainment on board ; as reading, looking at books, play- 
ing bean bag. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. Flags of other nations. 

B. Foreign people; their dress and customs. 

C. Other means of transportation. 

D. Other types of boats. 

Traveling in the Air 

Senior Kindergarten 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused interest and provided 
background for activities. 

A. A visit to Sky Harbor enriched our background and did a 
great deal in sustaining the interest in aviation. The group 
spent the morning at this field and saw planes going and coming, 
taxiing, landing, and banking curves. The children were 
allowed in the hangar and had a close view of many different 
kinds of planes. 

B. The opening of the new Curtis Airport, with its program of 
races, stunts and exhibit of many types of planes, caused much 
interest in the group, as many of the children attended with 
their parents. 

C. Children brought toy planes to school. 

D. Several children had airplane trips during the summer. The 
relating of their experiences promoted great interest. 

II. Some of the questions which led to investigation. 

A. Why do some planes have more than one motor? 

B. Why do some planes have one wing and others two? 

C. What kind of fuel does a plane use ? 

D. How is an airplane "wound up"? 

E. What is the purpose of such things as : stabilizer, flipper wings, 
coils on the motor, wind determiner, the "boats" ? 

F. What is the fuselage? Why is it shaped like a bird? 

G. Why do pilots wear goggles and helmets at times? 
H. How can a pilot do such things as : 

1. Tell the direction of the wind at night? 

2. Distinguish different fields at night? 

3. Make the plane "bank" when turning a curve? 

4. Know where he is going if he can't see land? 
I. What is the purpose of beacons? 

J. What is done in towns to help pilots tell what town they are 

passing ? 
K. What do the colored lights on planes mean ? 
L. How does it look above the clouds ? 
M. Why are planes made in different shapes? 

III. Finding solution of problems and answers to questions. 

A. Through correlative construction. 


Units of Work in the Kindergarten 


Aviation Makes Progress 

1. Airplanes were built with floor blocks. 

2. Small airplanes of wood were made at the work bench. 

3. Some children enjoyed making airplanes of clay. 

There was a steady gain in constructive work. New phases 
were added and work improved through discussion and study of 
pictures. The children themselves commented upon and en- 
joyed the improvement shown in the small wooden airplanes. 
B. Through conversations. 

1. The subject was most conducive to valuable language ex- 
pression. Every child was full of the interest and there- 
fore talked freely. The children told of their experiences 
in seeing planes and riding in them. 

2. Pictures and toy models were discussed. 

3. Some interest in maps was shown. They were discussed. 

44 National College of Education 

Teacher's References 

Pamphlets were valuable for information and for the pictures they offered. 
Fairchild Aviation Corporation Plain Facts for Plain People 

Smithsonian Institution Handbook of National Aircraft Col- 



Collins, Archie F. Boy's Airplane Book 1919 Frederick A. Stokes 

Driggs, L. Heroes of Aviation 1927 Little, Brown 

Fraser, C. C. Heroes of the Air 1927 Thomas Crowell 

Page, V. Everybody's Aviation 1928 Norman Henley 


Thomson, Jay E. Aviation Stories 1929 Longmans, Green 

C. Through use of number. 

There was an interest in counting: such things as seats in a 

plane, cylinders, windows. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes and appreciations developed through 
these experiences. 

A. Recognition and appreciation of the fact that one must be 
thoroughly trained for one's job. 

B. Recognition and appreciation of the necessity of being depend- 
able. Mechanic must be sure that all is well with the plane 
before it takes off. 

C. Attitude of respect for mail pilots who fly through all kinds 
of weather to serve the public. 

D. Knowledge and appreciation of the piloting of a plane and the 
qualities which a pilot must possess. 

E. Knowledge of the most important facts regarding airplane 

F. Some understanding of the purpose and need of maps. 

G. Recognition of various kinds of planes and the different parts 
of a plane. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

1. Interesting bits from Colonel Lindbergh's experiences were 
related to the children ; as, his desire to take the little black 
kitten with him to France. 

2. These stories and verses were enjoyed by the children : 

"My Airplane" (from I Go A-Traveling) — James Tippett 
"An Airplane Ride" — Ftelen Read 
"A. B. C. of Aviation" — Victor Page 

B. Through creative composition. 

The children created some stories about airplanes, based on 
their own experiences ; as, 

Units of Work in the Kindergarten 45 

Monday we went to Sky Harbor. 

We saw airplanes. 

We saw monoplanes. 

We saw biplanes. 

It was fun when we went to Sky Harbor. 

Airplanes fly at Sky Harbor. 
They fly through the rain. 
They fly through the fog. 
They fly through the clouds. 
I would" like to fly. 

C. Through picture-making. 

1. There was much interest in pictorial expression. Several 
group paintings (involving three or four children) of Sky 
Harbor were created. There were many individual draw- 
ings and paintings of planes, hangars, beacons, pilots. 

2. Books were made containing cut-out pictures of different 
kinds of airplanes. 

D. Through music. 

1. Two airplane songs were used from manuscript. 

2. Many original songs were made about airplanes. 

E. Through dramatic activity. 

1. There was a wealth of dramatic play with pilots carrying 
passengers in their airplanes of large blocks. Dolls were 
taken for rides. Dramatic feeling ran high in the thrills 
of air pockets, tail spins, and other adventures. 

2. Children played with small wooden airplanes. Landing 
fields of blocks were the scene of planes taxiing, landing, 
taking off. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

The unit suggested an interest in other forms of air transportation : 
balloons and dirigibles, gliders. 

Playing With the Leaves 

Senior Kindergarten 

I. Enriching experiences which roused and fostered interest. 

A. Excursions were made about the neighborhood to gather leaves 
and to observe the outstanding differences of the most common 
trees (five or six in all). 

B. Excursions were made in the spring to see the bursting of buds. 

C. Branches from bushes were brought in to watch the leaves come 
out, when these were put in water. 

II. Some of the questions which led to investigation. 

A. Why do leaves fall? 

B. Why do some trees keep their leaves all winter? 

C. What makes leaves turn different colors? 

D. Why do some trees stay green all winter ? 

E. What makes the new leaves grow? 

F. How may falling leaves be used : for fun ? for the garden ? 

G. What kinds of trees grow in our own gardens ? 

H. How do they differ in shape, size and color of leaf ? 

III. Answering questions. 

A. Through constructive activities. 

1. Hats of colored leaves were made to wear for a "leaf 

2. Leaves were mounted on tagboard. 

3. Leaves were waxed to bring out the color and to help 
preserve them. These were used as a room collection and 
proved an incentive for a few children to make collections 
of their own. 

4. A few children enjoyed making blueprints of leaves. 

B. Through conversation. 

1 . There was much discussion as to how leaves are used : to 
furnish shade, to cover gardens, to make homes and gardens 

2. The children talked about the kinds of trees, their shapes, 
the kinds and colors of leaves. 

3. Questions were asked and discussion ensued about the 
causes of the changing colors and the falling of leaves. 

4. The children wished to keep the pretty leaves, and there 
was discussion about ways to preserve them. Plans were 
made for a room collection. 


Units of Work in the Kindergarten 


Comstock, Anna B. 
Gummings, H. H. 
Downing, Elliot R. 
Hough, Romeyn B. 
Mathews, F. S. 

Rogers, J. E. 

Teacher's References 

Handbook of Nature Study 1929 

Nature Study by Grades 1909 

Our Living World 1928 

Handbook of the Trees 1924 

Familiar Trees and Their 1911 


Trees Every Child Should 1909 


American Book 
Longmans, Green 
Romeyn B. Hough 

Grossett and 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developed through 
these experiences. 

A. Recognition of leaves of a few common trees. 

B. Some understanding of the cycle of growth from spring to fall. 

C. Appreciation of the value of leaves in providing shade, making 
gardens and parks beautiful, covering the garden in winter. 

D. An understanding that leaves and branches must not be taken 
from trees on private property. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through creative composition. 

The children made some attempt at creative expression about 
the beautiful coloring and the drifting of leaves in the fall. 

B. Through picture-making. 

A few children were interested in drawing different kinds of 

C. Through songs and rhythm. 

Songs about leaves were enjoyed, and a leaf dance was created. 

D. Through social activity. 

There was much delightful activity in raking and playing in the 

Raising Flowers 

Senior Kindergarten 

I. Enriching experiences which roused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Children recalled experiences of the previous year in making 
gardens at home and at school. 

B. Spring flowers were brought in from home gardens. 

C. The group enjoyed observing spring flowers on their walks. 

II. Some of the questions which led to experiment and investiga- 

A. When may we plant flower seeds? 

B. How does the soil have to be prepared, and why is preparation 
needed ? 

C. How deep shall the seeds be planted? 

D. What is the best means of watering the garden? 

E. Why do seeds sprout roots ? What are the roots for ? 

F. What kinds of leaves do the various flowers have? 

G. How do blossoms and leaves grow on the stem ? 
H. When and where may flowers be picked? 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 

A. Through constructive activities and experiments. 

1. A flower garden was planted. 

2. Signs were made for the garden. 

3. Bottles were prepared with blotter linings to keep seeds 
moist during experiments. 

4. Flower pictures were cut from seed packages and pasted 
on the bottles containing seeds. 

B. Through conversations. 

1. There were discussions of how to plant seeds, what care 
is needed and other similar problems. 

2. Some conversation took place concerning the size, color and 
shapes of seeds to be planted. 

3. There was discussion of property rights — when and where 
flowers may be picked. 

4. Flower preservation in forest preserves was a topic of 

C. Through use of reading. 

1. The children understood the need of reading directions to 
be able to plant seeds correctly. 

Units of Work in the Kindergarten 49 

2. From a book the children and teachers learned how to 
arrange seeds in a bottle so that germination was visible. 

Teachers' References 

Davis, K. C. School and Home Garden- 1918 Lippincott 

Downing, Elliot R. Our Living World 1928 Longmans, Green 

Duncan, Frances When Mother Lets Us 1909 Dodd Mead 

Emerson, P. and School Garden Book 1909 Scribner 

Weed, C. M. 
Meier, W. H. D School and Home Gardens 1913 Ginn 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes and appreciations developing through 
these experiences. 

A. Some information about how to plant and care for a garden. 

B. Some understanding and appreciation of the care and thorough- 
ness which must be shown in order to have a garden really 

C. Some understanding and appreciation of the work of nature in 
the germination of seeds. The children's awe and wonderment 
at seeing the seeds burst and sprout was most gratifying. 

D. Recognition and enjoyment of the flowers brought in. 

E. Some knowledge and appreciation of the care that must be 
given to keep cut flowers fresh as long as possible. 

F. Some understanding of when it is proper and desirable to pick 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through enjoyment of stories and verses: 

The children especially enjoyed "The Magic Flower" from The 
Story Teller by Maud Lindsay, and "Fairies" from Fairies and 
Chimneys, by Rose Fyleman. 

B. Through picture making. 

1. Pictures were painted and drawn and poster pictures were 
made of gardens. 

2. The story of The Magic Flower was illustrated by some of 
the children. 

C. Through music. 

A few songs were sung, including "Spring Time, Flower Time," 
from One and Twenty Songs by Corrine Brown. 

V. New interests. 

Interests developed in birds and insects that help in the garden. 

Helping the Birds 

Senior Kindergarten 

I. Enriching experiences which roused and fostered interest. 

A. The children were interested in the mating of the kindergarten 
canaries. They saw the nest put into the cage, and watched the 
mother and father carry material to line the nest. 

B. The return of the wild birds was a source of delight. 

C. Excursions were arranged about the neighborhood to see birds, 
birds' nests and bird houses. 

D. Colored pictures of common birds were enjoyed. 

II. Some of the questions which led to investigation. 

A. Why do some birds live in houses and some in nests ? 

B. Why do some birds like to live in colonies? 

C. What decides the size of the hole? 

D. What materials do the various birds use in making their nests ? 

E. Why don't all birds' eggs hatch ? 

F. What do birds need besides nesting materials? 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 

A. Through constructive activities. 

1. Cloth and string were cut up for the canaries' nest. 

2. Bird houses were built. 

B. Through conversation. 

1. The children talked about the birds they had seen, their 
habits and ways of living, nests that birds had built in 
their own yards, bird houses and bird baths in neighboring 

2. The eggs in the canaries' nest formed a topic of question 
and discussion. 

3. Problems arising in the making of bird houses were dis- 

C. Through use of books. 

1. The names of the more common birds were used in con- 
nection with the pictures. 

2. Extracts from bird guides were read to the children, giving 
outstanding facts and characteristics about our common 

3. Directions for making bird houses were found in "The Bird 
House Book," put out by the Boy Scouts. 


Units of Work in the Kindergarten 51 

Teachers' References 

Baynes, E. H. Wild Bird Guests 1915 Dutton 

Blanchan, Nettie Bird Neighbors 1922 Doubleday, Page 

Burgess, T. W. Burgess Bird Book 1919 Little Brown 

Dugmore, A. R. Bird Homes 1914 Doubleday, Page 

King, Julius Birds in Rhyme 1926 Nelson 

Mosley, E. L. Trees, Stars and Birds 1919 World Book 

Patch, E. M. Bird Stones 1921 Little Brown 

Patteson, Susanna How to Have Bird 1917 McCrae Smith 


Trafton, Gilbert H. Bird Friends 1916 Houghton Mifflin 

D. Through use of number. 

1. The ruler was used to measure wood for the bird houses. 
A few of the children were able to measure independently. 

2. The calendar was used in order to keep a record of when 
the canary eggs were laid, and when they were due to hatch. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes and appreciations developing through 
these experiences. 

A. An attitude of friendliness and protection toward birds. 

B. Some understanding of the needs of birds and a desire to help 
by providing nesting materials, shelter, food and water. 

C. Some knowledge and appreciation of how carefully nesting 
birds must be protected : — the cage or house must not be moved, 
the nest must not be touched with the hands, the birds must not 
be frightened. 

D. Some knowledge and appreciation of bird life: interesting 
habits and ways of living, beauty of color and song. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through story telling. 

1. Many creative stories were given by the children. 

2. The teachers told some realistic stories about birds (from 
manuscript ) . 

B. Through picture making and modeling. 

1. Many spring pictures were drawn and painted, including 
birds building their nests, feeding their baby birds, singing 
in the trees. 

2. A few children were interested in making bird books. 

3. Many children spontaneously made birds and birds' nests of 

C. Through music. 

1. The children created many songs about birds, and three of 
these were used over and over again. 

2. Songs were used also from the teachers' collections. 


IMPORTANT objectives in First Grade, as in Kindergarten, have 
been to help the child to understand more fully his own immediate 
environment and to provide the opportunity for worthy social living. 

The children are still in the period of dramatic play, and they 
have greatly enjoyed reliving in play the activities of the community. 
The interest in construction is very keen. Two sets of Hill blocks 
with roofing pieces have been provided for building, and these have 
been supplemented by large boxes and composition board. A set 
of Fox blocks has been recently introduced. A work bench and 
tools have been included in the room equipment, and sometimes the 
help of the manual training teacher has been sought. The whole- 
some dramatic activity rendered possible by the large building enter- 
prises, has made the effort and expense of this type of work 
tremendously worth while. 

The children often beg to save one building when starting another, 
so that as the year progresses, the first-grade room becomes a 
"street," with many sorts of enterprises going on. .The play store 
with its opportunities for dramatization of buying and selling has 
been a favorite activity. The grocery store, the toy store, and the 
valentine shop have appeared in different years. Conducting a post- 
office has been a favorite enterprise. One group of children thought 
it fun to have u a school in a school, ' and they built a school house 
and a school bus, and dramatized with glee their own daily ex- 
perience of going to school. Another group enjoyed building a 
library, and making original books for the shelves. A bungalow 
and an apartment house have been enjoyed in different years.. At 
Christmas time a house with a fire-place was built by one class, 
and a small Santa Claus in a school-made suit arrived with a well- 
constructed sleigh and a troop of two-legged reindeer. A baby show 
with dolls for babies, a motion picture show, an aviation show, and 
a circus have in different years afforded an opportunity to study 
community recreation; and in one summer session, the Fourth of 
July was recognized by a parade of well-constructed floats which 
was conducted through the corridors, while children from other 

grades looked on. 


J ~ -J3 

Units of Work in the First Grade 53 

The interest in a single such enterprise may continue anywhere 
from two weeks to two months or even longer, but as a rule several 
such enterprises are included in the year's program for the social 

In addition to the study of community activities, there has been a 
continual interest in nature and particularly in the seasonal changes, 
which in this locality are very marked. The children have enjoyed 
decorating the room with poster pictures of each season as it comes, 
and making collections of the season's treasures. The interest in 
pets has been very keen and many kinds of small animals have found 
a temporary home in the first-grade room : goldfish, turtles, white 
mice, baby chicks, squirrel, canary, finches, love-birds. Through the 
courtesy of one of the fathers, who has been engaged in experimental 
work with animals, families of rabbits, guinea pigs and white rats 
have been loaned to the school for short periods of time. Because 
it is a common and keen interest of all first-grade children, the topic 
of pets has been a source of much delightful work in creative 
language; and songs, stories and verses have been composed, which 
have later found their way into original reading books. First-grade 
records show many short units on individual pets, but for convenience 
these are summarized here in a single outline. 

The enterprises outlined here have been selected from the records 
of two different years. Outcomes in social meanings and apprecia- 
tions peculiar to each unit have been included with the unit. All 
of the units have afforded opportunity for growth in certain desirable 
social and personal habits and attitudes; as," cooperation in group 
purposing and planning, responsibility in carrying out group plans, 
wise use of time and materials, self-control in observing group regu- 
lations, respect for the rights and possessions of others, willingness 
to give and take helpful suggestions, satisfaction in worthy group 
and individual achievement, appreciation of the efforts of others. 
The units have also afforded opportunity for growth in art expres- 
sion and for progress in fundamental skills. Some outcomes of 
this sort are summarized under Group Records of Progress in 
Part IV. 

Enjoying and Using Autumn Treasures 

A First Grade Unit in October 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Observation of autumn changes on the school grounds, on walks, 
in the children's own gardens. 

B. Examination of leaves brought in by the children: oak, elm, 
maple, catalpa, sumac, horse chestnut, cottonwood. 

C. Enjoyment of other fall treasures contributed by members of 
the group : milkweed pods, corn and corn stalks, acorns, chest- 
nuts, pumpkins, flowers, bittersweet, cocoons. 

D. Study of pictures placed on bulletin boards : harvesting apples, 
grapes, corn, wheat ; raking, piling, playing in leaves ; storing 
vegetables for winter. 

E. Observation of Hallowe'en decorations in shops and in other 

II. Problems and questions leading to discussion and experiment. 

A. How can we make our ' room look like the out-of-doors in 
autumn ? Through the use of nature materials ? Through pic- 
tures brought from home ? Through pictures and posters made 
at school? 

B. How can we use the autumn leaves? Where can we find pretty 
colored leaves? How can we classify and mount them? 

C. What flowers bloom in the garden in autumn? 

D. What can we plant in the garden in autumn ? 

E. What fruits and vegetables are gathered in the autumn? 

F. How may we use our autumn collection for Hallowe'en? 

III. Finding answers to questions and problems. 

A. Through constructive activities. 

1. Waxing autumn leaves and mounting these on big posters. 

2. Arranging an exhibit of seeds and pods, collected on short 

3. Decorating the room from day to day with flowers, leaves 
and corn shocks brought from home and from the country. 

4. Bringing bulbs from home and planting these in the school 

5. Stringing acorns for beads by a few skilful children. 

6. Making Hallowe'en place cards from waxed leaves. 


Units of Work in the First Grade 


7. Making doilies for a Hallowe'en luncheon. 

8. Arranging and decorating tables for the Hallowe'en 

B. Through oral language. 

1. Discussion related to nature facts and materials. 

(a) Simple discussions of the causes of seasonal changes 
and which nature treasures belong to the autumn 

(b) Discussion of types of autumn activities in the home, 
the farm, the forest, the animal kingdom. 

(c) Discussion of which autumn treasures will best 
beautify our room ; many discussions as to best place- 
ment and arrangement. 

(d) Oral contributions from the children suggesting ways 
of recognizing oak, maple, elm, cottonwood, sumac 

(e) Reports of children's autumn experiences outside of 

2. Discussion related to Hallowe'en festivities. 

(a) Reports of activities on previous Hallowe'en days. 

(b) Discussions of best ways to plan Hallowe'en fun. 

(c) Making plans for Hallowe'en luncheon. 

C. Through factual reading. 

1. Reading of phrases and sentences posted beneath pictures 
on the bulletin boards. 

2. Making and reading from the blackboard lists of autumn 
materials suitable for room decorations. 

3. Composing and reading from the blackboard suggestions 
for various posters to be made and placed as a frieze ; read- 
ing suggestions for objects to be placed in each poster. 

4. Reading a few labels beside the exhibits. 

5. Reading the place cards to find places at the table. 

Teachers' References 

Brown, A. & Britton, 

N. L. 
Downing, Elliot R. 
Fultz, Frances M. 

Hough, Romeyn B. 
Kenley, Julie C. 
Mathews, F. S. 

Parker, B. M. & 

Cowles, H. C. 

Rogers, Julia E. 

Illustrated Flora of the 

Northern U. S. 
Our Living World 
The Fly Aways and 

Other Seed Travelers 
Handbook of the Trees 
Green Magic 
Familiar Trees and 

Their Leaves 
The Book of Plants 

The Tree Book 

1~913 Scribner 

1928 Longmans, Green 
1928 Public School 

1924 Romeyn B. Hough 
1930 Appleton 

1911 Appleton 

1925 Houghton Mifflin 
1914 Doubleday Page 


National College of Education 

Bulbs Now and Tulips By and By 

D. Through use of numbers. 

1. Developing a sense of balance. 

(a) In placing objects on the posters. 

(b) In placing autumn specimens about the room. 

(c) In planning size of posters to fit wall space. 

2. Recognizing groups of objects. 

(a) Seeing how many groups of corn shocks there are in 
the corners of the room. 

(b) Seeing how many posters are arranged in one space. 

(c) Seeing quickly how many acorns or seeds are in each 
little group in the exhibit. 

3. Counting. 

(a) Counting to see of which type leaf we had found the 

(b) Counting the bulbs each child brought, and the number 
to be set in each garden bed. 

(c) Counting involved in Hallowe'en luncheon preparation : 
doilies, place cards, glasses. 

Note : Some of these activities were spontaneous, and only 
part of the children participated. 

Units of Work in the First Grade 57 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations developing through 
these experiences. 

A. Some appreciation of the beauty of the autumn time. 

B. The beginning of an understanding of the efforts of the farmers 
in realizing a plentiful harvest. 

C. Some appreciation of the need for combined effort and un- 
selfishness to create a beautiful room. 

D. The beginning of an ideal of beauty through well-kept, orderly 

E. Some development in an attitude of reverence toward the rich- 
ness of the harvest. 

F. The beginning of an appreciation for the need of appropriate 
behavior at a party. 

G. An increasing friendliness between children and teachers 
through working toward one goal. 

H. An increased attitude of possession and feeling at home in the 
new room. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through telling and listening to stories. 

The Maple Tree (from The Beginner's Book in Religion, Edna Dean 

Farmer Brown and the Apples (from The Beginner's Book in Religion, 
Edna Dean Baker) 

The Little Black Cat and the Big Orange Pumpkin (from The Book- 

B. Through creating original verses, later written and compiled 
for Autumn Booklet; as, 

Flowers, Flowers ! 

Gently sway, 

When the autumn winds come, 

To blow you away. 

Pumpkins and witches on Hallowe'en night 
Will frighten everyone 
Who is in sight. 

C. Through poster making. 

1. Series for a frieze made by small groups : 

(a) Children gathering apples in the orchard. 

(b) Children raking falling leaves. 

(c) Children and fathers burning leaves. 

(d) Hallowe'en night. 

(e) Poster of the story — The Little Black Cat and the 
Big Orange Pumpkin. 


National College of Education 

2. One large poster made by a group. 

A corn field with a pumpkin in the shocks, and to the right 
a glorious group of autumn trees and falling leaves. 
D. Through music. 

1. Singing and dramatizing songs such as: 

The Gay Leaves. 
The Wild Wind. 
The Orchard. 
The Harvest. 


If I Were a Tiny Elfin. 

The Journey of the Leaves. 

2. Playing brownies and goblins with music: 

"Elves Dance" — Grieg, and other suitable music found 
in excerpts from such composers as Haydn, Wagner, 

Baker and Kohlsaat 
Davison and 

Dearmer and Shaw 
McConathy, Meiss- 

ner, Birge and 

Robinson, Ethel 

Source Books 

Songs for the Little Child 

One Hundred Forty Folk- 


Music Hour in Kinder- 
garten and First Grade 

School Rhythms 



Abingdon Press 
E. C. Schirmer 

Curwen & Sons 
Silver Burdett 

1923 Clayton Summy 

E. Through social activity. 

1. Playing out-of-doors with seeds from the milkweed pods. 

2. Preparing and participating in a simple Hallowe'en luncheon 
as final, complete enjoyment of the room they had beautified. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. Interest in studying farm and farmer's preparation for fall. 

B. Interest in playing store or fruit market. 

C. Interest in planning an autumn festival. 

Creating an Autumn Festival 

A First Grade Enterprise in November 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. The previous unit of beautifying the room for autumn. 

B. The memory of the school festival of the previous year. 

C. The study of pictures : actual photographs of the previous 
school Thanksgiving festival ; pictures brought in of harvest 

II. Problems and questions which led to discussion and experiment. 

A. What are the fruits that are harvested in the autumn ? 

B. How can we make fruits and vegetables to play with? 

C. How shall we use these objects? 

D. How may we tell in a festival our joy in the harvest? 

E. How may we make costumes suitable for an autumn festival ? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through constructive activities. 

1. Modeling from clay, apples, pears, corn. 

2. Painting objects with enamel paint to make them more 

3. Making of grape vines, using cotton, crepe paper, and 
covered flower wire. 

4. Designing costumes to represent autumn fruits, leaves, and 

5. Dyeing cloth for costumes. 

6. Cutting, sewing and decorating apple, leaf, grape and corn 

B. Through oral language. 

1. After making clay fruits and vegetables, the children sug- 
gested a store and a festival. The decision was made to 
have a festival. 

2. Plans were discussed for the festival. Suggestions were 
made for costumes to represent fruits ; for a dramatization 
of leaves falling, fruits being picked, corn swaying; for a 
choir to furnish music. 

C. Through reading. 

Plans were read from the blackboard for costumes, color 
schemes, activities. 


60 National Collf.ce of Education 

D. Through use of numbers. 

1. Counting and grouping of children for different activities. 

2. Counting of costumes and clay fruits. 

3. Measuring for costumes. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developing through 
these experiences. 

A. Some understanding and appreciation of the importance of a 
plentiful harvest. 

B. A spirit of thankfulness for an abundant harvest. 

C. An attitude of joy toward the autumn season. 

D. Joy in participating in a festival, and an appreciation of the 
beauty of color, music and rhythmic movement in the festival. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through original verses : as, 

The grapes are blue 
And good for you. 

The leaves are falling, 
For it is fall. 
We, rake up the leaves 
And heap them all. 

Green grapes ! Green grapes ! 
Yellow corn ! Yellow corn ! 
Red apples ! Red apples ! 
Golden pears ! Golden pears ! 
Beautiful autumn! Beautiful autumn! 

B. Through picture making and design. 

1. Pictures and free hand cuttings as ideas and designs for 

2. Crayola drawings and water color paintings of the child's 
reaction to the festival. 

C. Through music and dramatization. 

The children worked out a simple dramatization in costume. 
They carried the clay fruits constructed and moved rhythmi- 
cally (walked, danced, skipped or swayed) to appropriate music. 
A choir sang the songs or the piano furnished the music as the 
need arose. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing another unit of work: 

Interest in sharing autumn treasures with others. The follow- 
ing week the children brought a Thanksgiving gift of fruits 
and vegetables for Mary Crane Nursery School at Hull House, 
and carried their gifts in a processional with other grades. ■ 

Enjoying and Caring for Pets 

A First Grade Interest that Continued through the Year 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Observation of pets in the room. 

1. Goldfish in the room when children came. 

2. Turtles presented to the room by one child. 

3. Finches purchased from pet store. 

B. Observation of animal families in other rooms and on the play- 
ground : canaries, guinea pigs, white mice, rabbits, tadpoles. 

C. Trips to pet store to buy finches, to secure supplies for pets 
and to observe their care. 

D. Children's stories of pets at home : dogs, kittens, rabbits, birds. 

E. Trips to Children's Library to secure pictures and stories about 

F. Pictures of children and their pets on bulletin boards from 
time to time. 

II. Problems and questions which led to discussion and experiment. 
For pets studied, such questions as these arose : 

A. What kind of a house is needed ? As cage, aquarium, house. 

B. What materials are needed in the home? 

C. How shall the home be kept sanitary? 

D. What kinds of food are needed? 

E. How often should the pet be fed and what amount ? 

F. How can friendship of pets best be gained ? 

G. What interesting habits does the pet show: responses to per- 
sons ; to other animals ; to food ; to objects ; to noises ; care of 
young ? 

H. Where can pets be purchased? 

I. How are pets raised and handled at the pet store? 

J. How are different pets valued in selling? 
K. Where can supplies for pets be obtained? 
L. How can information be secured as to proper care of pets ? 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 

A. Through constructive activities. 

1. Provision and equipment of suitable homes for school pets. 

2. Provision and preparation of food for school pets. 

3. Mounting of colored pictures of children and pets for 
bulletin boards. 



National College of Education 

4. Construction of a series of reading books to record informa- 
tion about pets. 

B. Through oral language. 

1. Discussion of needs of pets in room. 

2. Plans for responsibility in care of room pets. 

3. Oral stories of pets at home : their habits, tricks and care. 

4. Oral reports of information gained from visits at pet store. 

5. Oral reports of observation of pets in other rooms. 

6. Composition of factual stories about different pets, which 
were written on the board by teacher and later placed on 
bulletins, or duplicated for children's books. 

C. Through reading. 

1. Reading of short factual stories of school and home pets, 
first from the blackboard, later from charts and from little 
books made by the children: fish book, finch book, turtle 
book, kitten book, dog book. 

2. Reading later from pre-primers and primers realistic 
stories about children's activities with their pets. 

Baker and Baker 

Toots in School 


Bobbs Merrill 

Baker and Baker 

The Pet Pony 


Bobbs Merrill 

Freeman and 

Child Story Primer 


Lyons Carnahan 


Hardy, Marjorie 

Wag and Puff 



Hill and Martin 

Real Life Primer 
Teachers' References 



Bianco, Margery 

All About Pets 



Comstock, Anna B. 

The Pet Book 



Downing, Elliot R. 

Our Living World 


Longmans Green 

Johnson, Constance 

When Mother Lets Us 
Keep Pets 


Dodd Mead 

Verrill, A. Hyatt 

Pets for Pleasure and 



D. Through use of numbers. 

1. Adjustment of size of living quarters to size of pet. 

2. Estimate of quantity of food needed according to number 
and size of pets. 

3. Inquiry at pet store as to money value of different pets. 

4. Decision to buy finches because funds available would pro- 
vide a pair. 

5. Purchase of food and supplies needed for pets. 

6. Counting number in different animal families at school. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. Appreciation and knowledge of some small animals : — their 
coloring, texture of covering, their habits and cunning responses 
to new situations. 

Units of Work in the First Grade 63 

B. Readiness to give needed care and protection to small friendly 

C. Willingness to share with others the responsibility of care and 
the privilege of observation of pets. 

D. Appreciation of need for scientific information concerning the 
correct care of pets. 

E. Appreciation of need for responsible and regular care of pets. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

1. Spontaneous memorization of certain favorite poems. 

Aldis, Dorothy The Gold Fish 

Farrar, John Wish 

Lindsay, Vachel The Turtle 

2. Enjoying with the teacher picture-story books found in 
library : 

Gag, Wanda Millions of Cats 

Hill and Maxwell Charlie and His Puppy Bingo 

Hogan, Inez The White Kitten and the Blue Plate 

Hogan, Inez The Little Black and White Lamb 

Lofting, Hugh The Story of Mrs. Tubbs 

B. Through creative composition. Original verses were com- 
posed; as, 

Singing, singing, 
The birds are singing 
And I will sing to you. 

Swinging, swinging, 
The doves are swinging 
And I will swing with you. 

C. Through picture-making, design, decoration. 

1. Free drawing of pictures of different pets, with their homes, 
with children feeding them, engaged in play. 

2. Free cutting of some pictures which were mounted to make 
"poster pictures." 

3. Designs made for covers of animal books. 

D. Through music. 

1. Singing songs related to a pet of particular interest; as, 

I Like Little Pussy (from Songs for the Little Child, 

The Gold Fish Baker and Kohlsaat) 

Bunny, Pretty Bunny 

Little Yellow E 

My Pony 

The Pony Ride 

Little Yellow Bird (from One Hundred Forty Rote 

My Pony Songs, Surette and Davison) 

64 National College of Education 

2. Altering words of songs to fit particular pets at school. 
Creating new verses for some tunes (about school pets) ; as, 

Good morning, little yellow bird, 
Yellow bird, yellow bird, 
Good morning, little yellow bird, 
Who are you? 

Oh, I am little Susie Finch, 
Susie Finch, Susie Finch, 
Oh, I am little Susie Finch, 
I like you. 

E. Through social activity: sharing room pets with children of 
other grades who came to see them. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. Interest in owning pets at home and caring for them properly. 

B. Interest in wild animals and their care and protection; as, wild 
birds and squirrels. 

C. Interest in animals at zoo, and how they are kept and cared for. 

D. Interest in the training of animals for circus or animal show. 

Conducting a Post Office 

An Enterprise in the First Grade February to -April 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background for activities. 

A. Delivering valentines from the valentine box. 

B. Writing to and receiving letters from absent children. 

C. Writing to and receiving letters from relatives. 

D. Trips to the local post office with parents. 

E. Observing the mail boxes on the corner. 

F. Observing the mail man collecting mail. 

G. Getting mail from the mail box at home. 

H. An excursion to the post office with the whole class. 
I. Pictures, stamps, letters mounted on the bulletin boards. 

II. Problems and questions which led to discussion and investiga- 

A. Problems which arose concerning the construction of the post- 
office building. 

1. Of what material should it be constructed? 

2. What size shall it be in relation to the library building? 

3. What shape would a post office be? 

4. What type of windows are used in a post office? 

5. What type of roof, — shingled, tile, tar paper? 

B. Problems which arose concerning interior decorations. 

1. Shall we have curtains? 

2. What furniture is needed? 

3. How is mail sorted? Where do individuals call for their 
mail ? 

C. Questions dealing with names, labels, signs. 

1. Where do you see names and signs in a post office? 

2. Is a clock found in a post office? 

D. Problems dealing with an organization of the dramatic play. 

1. What officers are needed? 

2. What departments are needed to collect, sort, cancel, sell 
stamps, deliver mail? 

3. What time shall mail be collected? 

4. What time shall the post office be open ? 

E. Questions which led to knowledge of civics. 

1 . Why is an American flag above the post office ? 

2. What is the difference between city, state and national 
government ? 


66 National College of Education 

F. Problems which arose concerning carrying of mail. 

1. How is mail carried from town to town? 

2. Are all the rates the same? 

3. Which are the quickest ? 

4. What different types of service are there ? — Special delivery, 
registered mail? 

G. Questions which arose concerning parcel post. 

1 . Are parcel post packages handled like letters ? 

2. How is the postage computed? 

3. What special equipment is needed for this department? 
H. Problems confronted through need of money. 

1. How may we borrow money from the school bank to use 
in the post office? 

2. What is our responsibility? 

3. How can we help people to be careful of the money? 

4. How much shall each child be allowed to draw out? 

5. What equipment can we use for the bank? 

I. Problems which arose concerning uniforms worn by different 

1. What type, color, decorations on the real uniforms? 

2. How can we make some simply that would fit our need ? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through constructive activities. Individual children were in- 
terested in different phases of the construction. 

1. Construction of buildings. 

(a) Constructing wooden framework for supports, 
8'x5'x4'; and walls of beaver board. 

(b) Calcimining light peach walls, deeper orange roof. 

2. Constructing interior furnishings and accessories. 

(a) Constructing a stamp window. 

(b) Making chutes for letters and packages. 

(c) Constructing individual cubby holes for mail boxes, 
of cigar boxes nailed together. 

(d) Building a large corner post-office box. 

(e) Building a large truck for collecting mail from boxes. 

(f) Building an airplane large enough to carry mail pilot. 

(g) Making a clock for the front of the building with hands 
that move. 

3. Making labels and signs. 

(a) Printing signs for the front of the post office, the mail 
truck, the airplane, the stamp window, the post box. 

(b) Printing labels for the letter and package chute. 

(c) Printing numbers for individual mail boxes. 

Units of Work in the First Grade 67 

4. Making materials to be posted. 

(a) Cutting and making post cards. 

(b) Modeling objects of clay as cats, book ends, paper 
weights, pencil holders, to mail to friends. 

5. Making stamps and envelopes. 

(a) Making large envelopes when manufactured ones would 
not fit. 

(b) Making one and two-cent stamps. 

(c) Making air mail and special delivery stamps. 

(d) Making withdrawal slips to be used in connection with 

6. Making uniforms. 

(a) Constructing blue and gold postman's caps. 

(b) Making blue shoulder bands with United States post 
office upon them. 

(c) Making oil cloth bags for postman's bags. 

B. Through oral language. 

1. Oral discussion to solve problems suggested. 

2. Reports of individual visits to the local post office ; much 
discussion of the group excursion. 

3. Oral reports of trips to the corner post boxes to find out 
what was printed on them. 

4. Discussion to decide upon color schemes ; size and type of 
equipment ; officers and employees of the post office. 

5. Oral judging and suggesting to improve service of em- 
ployees ; content and handwriting in letters. 

6. Reports on information gleaned from parents, books, 
friends, on the rules for stamping letters, addressing letters, 
amounts of postage, and other details. 

C. Through factual reading. 

1. Blackboard reading. 

(a) Reading daily plans for work for the day. 

(b) Reading names of employees, colors, and suggestions 
when voting. 

(c) Reading names to choose capable mail sorters and 
post men. 

(d) Reading plans for the trip to the post office; what to 
look for ; conduct while in post office. 

2. Bulletin boards. 

(a) Reading captions beneath pictures. 

(b) Reading names and amounts from a stamp chart. 

Picture-Story Books for Children's Use 

Kuh, Charlotte The Postman 1929 Macmillan 

Read, Helen S. Billy's Letter 1928 Scribner 

68 National College of Education 

Teachers' References 

Harlow, A. F. Old Post Bags 1928 Appleton " 

Hartman, Gertrude Home and Community 1923 Dutton 


Purdy, E. A. Manual of the Post 1922 Postal Text Book 

Office Company 

Storm, Grace E. The Social Studies in 1931 Lyons and Carnahan 

the Primary Grades 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Measuring: framework for the post office; sides and roof 
for the post office ; windows for the post office ; chassis for 
automobile ; wings and body for airplane ; tagboard for 
signs ; paper for stamps. 

2. Recognition of numbers. 

(a) Reading time on the clock. 

(b) Reading numbers on the post boxes. 

(c) Reading numbers on stamps up to 20c stamps. 

(d) Reading time of collections. 

3. Counting. 

(a) Counting stamps. 

(b) Counting pennies by l's and by 2's to $1.00. 

(c) Counting nickels to $1.00. 

4. Computing. 

(a) Computing the cost of mailing from 1 to 6 letters or 
post cards. 

(b) Computing cost of sending package at 5c a pound. 

5. Weighing. 

(a) Weighing packages to ascertain postage needed. 

(b) Weighing letters to see if more than one stamp is 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developing through 
these experiences. 

A. An understanding and appreciation of the importance and 
value of the post office in a community. 

B. An appreciation of the efficiency of mail service. 

C. An appreciation of the privilege of communication by letters. 

D. Some knowledge and appreciation of the work of the post office, 
and the responsibility borne by its employees. 

E. Some knowledge and appreciation of the responsibility borne 
by those who transport mail ; their faithfulness, courage and 

F. An appreciation of the need for orderliness, accuracy, and speed 
on the part of post-office employees. 

G. An appreciation of the need for honesty and care in handling 
property belonging to another. 

Units of Work in the First Grade 69 

H. A partial understanding of correct form in writing and mailing 
letters, and need for accuracy, legibility and neatness. 

Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through creative composition. 

1. Creating as a group, a series of stories expressing children's 
attitudes toward the play of post office. (Copy following 
this outline.) 

2. Much composition of short messages for post cards. 

Dear Sue : 

Do you like the picture? 
I made it. 


Dear Phillip: 

I like the spring. I like the birds. 
I like the flowers. Do you? 


3. Much original composition in letter writing. 

Dear Peter: 

Can you guess my riddle ? 
It has a head. 
It has four feet. 

But it cannot walk. What is it? 

B. Through picture making. 

1. Making pictures with crayolas on post cards to send to 

2. Painting and drawing pictures to send to friends. 

3. Creating as a group, a series of pictures which were mounted 
and put up as a frieze. These depicted the whole post- 
office story from the time the letter was written until it was 

C. Through music. 

1. Singing songs. 

The Postman 
The Engine 
The Aeroplane 

(from Songs for the Little Child, Baker and Kohlsaat) 
The Mail-box 

(from One Hundred Forty Rote Songs, Surette and 


2. Dramatizing songs. 

D. Through dramatic play. 

1. Playing postman: delivering mail, collecting mail, taking it 
by truck or airplane to the post office. 


National College of Education 

2. Playing clerk : cancelling the stamps, sorting the mail, wait- 
ing on customers. 

3. The play of sending letters and post cards. 

The children spent most of their free time for some weeks 
in this play. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. A desire to build a house with a room for writing. 

B. An interest in the different methods of transportation. 

C. A broader interest in the community and its various public 

We Write Letters 

(Composed by a first grade group, as an expression of their attitude toward the 
post office. The story was mimeographed and used in individual books, illustrated 
with the children's original drawings.) 

A post office! A post office! 
We have a post office. 
We write letters to our friends. 
We address the envelopes. 

A stamp window ! A stamp window ! 

We have a stamp window. 

We buy stamps. 

We give the money to the stamp clerk. 

We put the stamp on the envelope. 


A mail box ! A mail box ! 

We have a United States mail box. 

We have a green United States mail 

We put the letter in the box. 
Down, down it goes. 

One hour, two hours, three hours ! 

The letters lie in the box. 

Chug! Chug! Chug! 

Along comes the mail truck. 

Hop ! Hop ! Hop ! 

Out jumps the postman. 

Click ! Click ! Click ! 

Down falls the door. 

Drop ! Drop ! Drop ! 

In the bag go the letters. 

Chug ! Chug ! Chug ! 

Off goes the mail truck to the post office. 


Full, full, mail bags, 

The mail bags are full of letters. 

The mail bags are full of post cards. 

Full, full mail bags ! 

Off they go on the trucks. 

The post office ! The post office ! 
The mail truck stops at the post office 
Out jumps the postman. 
Out comes the bag of mail. 

The clerk ! The clerk ! 
He sorts the mail. 
He sorts the mail by states. 
He sorts the mail by cities. 


The airport ! The airport ! 

The mail truck goes to the airport. 

The mail man loads the plane. 

The pilot takes off. 

Whirr — whirr — whirr ! 

Up, up he goes into the air. 

The mail boat ! The mail boat ! 
The mail truck goes to the harbor. 
The mail man loads the harbor boat. 
It takes the mail to the big ocean boat. 
Up, up goes the anchor. 
Off goes the boat over the water. 

The mail train ! The mail train ! 

The mail truck goes to the mail train. 

The mail man loads the train with mail. 

Choo — choo — choo — choo ! 

Off goes the train to the city 

Off goes the train with a letter for Jane. 


The postman ! The postman ! 

He will bring the letter to Jane. 

Jane is waiting for the postman to 

Along comes the postman. 
Along comes Jane's letter. 
The postman gives the letter to Jane. 

Units of Work in the First Grade 


Jane's letter! Jane's letter! 
Jane was happy to get a letter. 
Jane ran to tell mother. 
Oh, mother ! Oh, mother ! 
The letter is from Aunt May. 
What will it say? 
What will it say? 


Jane read the letter to her mother. It 


Dear Jane : 

Will you come to my house? Will you 
come on Monday? I am going to have 

a party for you. We will sing songs. 

And we will have a cake, too. 

With love, 
Aunt May. 

A party ! A party ! 

Jane went to the party. 

Aunt May played the piano. 

The children sang songs. 

Then Jane said, "Thank you for the 

party, Aunt May. 
And thank you for the letter. 
Good bye, Aunt May. 
I must go home. 
I want to see if I have any more letters." 

Building and Equipping a Library 

A First Grade Interest in the Second Semester 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Previous unit of conducting a post office. The children wished 
to add another building to make a street. 

B. Use of the large school library; looking at picture and story 
books there. 

C. Excursions to the school library to gain knowledge concerning 
the organization and running of a library. 

D. Excursion to the Evanston Public Library. 

E. Pictures on the bulletin boards of children reading and looking 
at books. 

II. Problems and questions which led to investigation and dis- 

A. Questions arising from desire to build a library. 

1. What shall size be in relation to post office? 

2. What shall architecture be? 

3. From what materials can it be built ? 

4. What materials are used for roofs? 

5. What type of windows are needed where one does much 
reading ? 

6. What is the procedure in house building? 

7. What color schemes would harmonize with the post office? 

B. Problems arising from the need to furnish and beautify the 

1. What is the best way to finish the walls? 

2. What pieces of furniture are needed in a library? 

3. What can we do to add color and beauty to the interior? 

C. What is the personnel in a library? 

1. How many workers are needed in our group? 

2. What are the duties of each? 

D. What are the standards of conduct in a library? 

E. What is the source of picture and story books? 

F. What is the source of money for upkeep and salaries ? 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 

A. Through constructive activities. 

1. Constructive activities involved in building the library, 
(a) Making a framework. 


Units of Work in the First Grade 73 

(b) Covering it with beaver board., 

(c) Constructing a sloping roof. Painting the roof to 
resemble shingles. 

(d) Calcimining the outside and putting trim around win- 
dows and doors. 

2. Handwork activities entered into for purpose of equipping 

(a) Repainting doll furniture for library — bookshelves, 
tables, benches and chairs. 

(b) Painting and remodeling cheese boxes for files. 

(c) Making books to use on shelves. 

(d) Making a door to indicate when library is closed. 

3. Handwork activities entered into for the purpose of 
beautifying library. 

(a) Modeling of clay bookends (dogs, cats, bunnies), 
bowls for flowers, candlesticks, paper weights. 

(b) Constructing of wood bookends. 

(c) Making of cloth curtains — natural colored cloth — de- 
signs painted on them. Making cushions — dyed light 
yellow and stuffed with soft excelsior — knotted with 
blue yarn. 

(d) Constructing picture frames cut in one piece and 
painted to harmonize with the color scheme in the pic- 

(e) Designing and making wall paper of imprinted news- 

B. Through oral language. 

1. Discussions related to building of library. Through dis- 
cussions the following decisions were made : 

(a) To make the library 10'x5'x4'. 

(b) To have large doors and windows 2 / x2^2 / . 

(c) To begin by making the framework. To nail on the 
beaver board. To saw out the windows. To make the 
roof last. 

(d) To paint the walls yellow and the roof green. 

(e) To paint imitation shingles with deeper green. 

2. Discussions related to furnishings needed. Through group 
discussions the following decisions were reached : 

(a) To make and decorate curtains. 

(b) To sew, dye and stuff cushions and back rests for 

(c) To make clay bowls, candlesticks and book ends. 

(d) That wooden book ends were more successful than clay 

74 National College of Education 

(e) To cut colorful pictures from magazines and mount 
and frame them. 

3. Selecting and voting upon name for building. "Union Pier 
Library" was selected. 

4. Discussion of conduct required in library. These rules 
were made: 

(a) We will walk quietly in the library. 

(b) We will be quiet in the library. 

(c) We will be considerate of our neighbors in the library. 

5. Discussions related to the care of books. These suggestions 
were outlined : 

(a) We will have clean hands when we use the books. 

(b) We will be careful not to lose the books. 

(c) We will tell the librarian if something happens to the 

(d) We will replace a book that is lost or destroyed. 

(e) We will return the book on time. 

(f) We will take out only one book at a time. 

6. Deciding upon topics for story books to be made : 

A Book of Pets. 
A Book of Trains. 
A Book of Boats. 
A Book of Airplanes. 
A Book of Seasons. 

7. Discussions and reports from excursions to outline duties 
of the librarian: 

(a) The librarian must see that the rules are obeyed. 

(b) She must stamp the cards when they are taken out. 

(c) She must keep the library and the books in order. 

(d) She must "check in" books when they are returned. 

(e) She must replace returned books to the shelves. 

8. Discussion on how to classify books. These decisions were 
made : 

(a) Make a list of titles. 

(b) Give a certain number to each title. 

(c) All books of the same title will have the same number. 

(d) Put round gummed labels on the back of each book. 

(e) Post a list of titles and numbers. 

9. Reports from excursions and questions asked at home, 
concerning support of the library. 

(a) The library is kept up by the city. 

(b) The home owners pay taxes. 
C. Through written work. 

1. Writing book lists. 

Units of Work in the First Grade 75 

2. Writing names on library cards. 

3. Writing signs ; as, "Please be quiet in the library." 

D. Through factual reading. Blackboard, bulletin board and chart 
reading : 

1 . Reading plans for general construction and daily work. 

2. Reading various color schemes in order to vote upon one of 

3. Reading chart of rules for conduct and care of books. 

4. Reading charts concerning duties of a librarian. 

5. Reading from the blackboard the problems to be discussed 
for the day. 

6. Composing and reading plans for the excursion to the 

E. Through use of numbers. 

1. Measuring. 

(a) Measuring beaver board and wood for the building. 

(b) Measuring three different sizes of nails: 1 inch, \y 2 
inch, 3 inch. 

(c) Measuring beaver board for picture frames. 

(d) Measuring cloth for curtains and cushions. 

(e) Measuring windows and furniture to ascertain size 
of curtains and cushions. 

2. Counting. 

(a) Counting number of books of each title. 

(b) Counting number of windows. 

(c) Counting by twos to ascertain number of curtains 

3. Reading numbers. 

(a) Reading numbers on the backs of books. 

(b) Reading numbers from book lists. 

(c) Reading page numbers. 

(d) For many children reading dates. 

4. Writing numbers. 

(a) Writing numbers on the backs of books. 

(b) Writing numbers on book lists. 

(c) Writing page numbers on self-made books. 

(d) For many children writing dates on library cards. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations probably developed. 

A. Some understanding of the service to the community of the 

B. An appreciation of the need of quiet in the library. 

C. The beginning of a habit of quiet conduct in the library. 

D. The willingness to handle a book carefully. 

76 National College of Education 

E. The desire to repair or replace books damaged. 

F. The beginning of a desire to spend some leisure time in the 

G. An attitude of eagerness to improve ability in reading to enjoy 
further the fund of material in a library. 

H. Greater appreciation of the need for and use of reading. 
I. A growing appreciation of the individual's responsibility in 

taking care of community property. 
J. Some knowledge and appreciation of the talent and workman- 
ship that enters into the creating of verses and stories and 
illustrations, and the printing and binding of books. 

K. Some appreciation of a beautifully illustrated book as compared 
with a mediocre production. 

L. Some appreciation of proper balance and artistic arrangement 
of windows, bookshelves, furniture, and accessories in the 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through creative composition. 

1. Creating stories for original books for library. 

2. Creating original verses for library books ; as, 

Rain ! Rain ! 

You fall in a spray. 

Then the flowers grow all clay. 

The clouds are white, 
The sky is blue. 
We will go skating to-day 
With you. 

April is a lovely month, 
So I'd like to say, 
Springtime comes 
And so does Easter Day. 

3. Creating original oral stories for library story hour. 

B. Through picture making, design, decoration. 

1. Creating designs to use for the curtains, the cushions, the 
wall paper, the book covers. 

2. Choosing and mounting magazine pictures to be framed 
for the library. 

3. Making crayola, water color, and poster pictures for the 
self-made library books. 

C. Through dramatic activity. 

1 . Playing library : securing books to take home, returning 

2. Playing librarian : checking books out and in. 

3. Playing the Story Lady: telling original stories to a group. 

Units of Work in the First Grade 77 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. An interest in Library Endowment Day. 

B. A keener interest in using the school library and the public 

C. A desire to build a bungalow apartment building to add to the 
dramatic play. 

D. The desire to paint a street scene for a background to the 

E. The desire to make a street with street cars and autos to run up 
and down. 

Conducting a Baby Show 

A First Grade Interest in the Second Semester 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. The visit to school of a baby sister that had just been entered 
in a Baby Contest. 

B. The arrival of a new baby in one of the families. 

C. The suggestion of the baby's sister that we have a Baby Show. 

D. Newspaper pictures and clippings of Better Baby Campaigns. 

E. Charts of babies' weight and height. 

F. Pictures of babies, eating, sleeping, bathing, playing, and being 

G. A visit to the National College of Education Nursery School. 

II. Problems and questions which led to discussion and investiga- 

A. Why do people have Baby Shows? 

B. How are the prize babies selected? 
C Who selects the prize babies? 

D. What standards must a baby meet to be a prize baby? 

E. How do the judges show which babies have been selected for 
prizes ? 

F. How can parents help their babies be prize babies? 

G. What preparations are needed for a Baby Show ? 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 

"A. Through constructive activities. 

1. Block building. 

(a) A building to which babies are brought to be registered, 
containing a waiting room and a registering room 
where babies are weighed and measured. 

(b) Exhibit booth in which to house babies while judges 
reviewed them. 

2. Sewing. 

(a) Wearing apparel made for dolls: dresses, rompers, 
sun suits, caps and coats, to wear to the Baby Show. 

(b) Bows made for prizes. 

3. Weaving — Some of the more mature children wove scarves 

of heavy yarn for the dolls. 

4. Bead stringing — Large colored glass beads and pearls were 

strung for dollies to wear. 

Units of Work in the First Grade 79 

5. Making signs : — Register Here, Baby Show, Waiting Room. 

6. Making uniforms. 

(a) Making doctors' hats and coats for the examining 

(b) Making little nurses' caps and aprons for the assist- 
ing nurses. 

(c) Making shoulder bands for the attendants. 
B. Through oral language. 

1. Making the original decision to have a Baby Show. — Chil- 
dren decided to bring their doll babies rather than their 
brothers and sisters. 

2. Originating and organizing plans for conducting the show. 

(a) Babies must first be brought and a record taken of 

(b) Parents will also make some type of wearing apparel 
for baby. 

(c) Later date will be set when all return to be judged. 

(d) Prizes will be given for healthiest baby and best made 
articles of clothing. 

3. Deciding upon prizes to be awarded : 
Ribbons are given at a Fair — - 

Blue — First Honor. 
Pink — Second Honor. 
Yellow — Third Honor. 

4. Deciding what helpers are needed to run a Baby Show. 

(a) Doctor. 

(b) Nurse. 

(c) Some attendants. 

5. Discussing problem — Who shall be judges? Suggestions 
were made : — 

(a) Three children in First Grade. 

(b) The Second Grade teacher. 

(c) The Second Grade children. 

(d) Three college girls. The last suggestion was accepted. 

6. Discussing problem — How can a judge decide which baby 
is the healthiest ? Suggestions were made : — 

(a) Weight and height. 

(b) Color of cheeks. 

(c) Its smile and disposition. 

7. Discussing problem — What makes healthy babies? Sug- 
gestions were made : — 

(a) Right food. 

(b) A clean body. 

(c) The right amount of sleep. 


National College of Education 



Mil ft I *<#i ^/flM 

llWfeHg IMMf mmM& ■" I'll 

Healthy Babies Win Awards 

8. Outlining a record form for babies' registration. 

C. Through written language. 

1. Filling in the records. 

2. Writing names of babies on tabs to pin on them for exhibit. 

D. Through factual reading. 

1. Bulletin board, blackboard or chart reading. 

(a) Reading charts worked out by children for record of 
babies registered. 

(b) Reading plans from the blackboard as they are made 

(c) The reading involved in selecting and electing helpers 
and officers. 

(d) The reading involved in choosing prizes, judges, 
standards for selecting babies. 

(e) Reading health charts for babies. 

(f) Reading little stories composed by the group related 
to the unit. 

2. Reading signs : 

(a) On the buildings. 

(b) On the doorways to different departments, as, Wait- 
ing Room, Doctor's Office. 

(c) On caps and head bands. 

Units of Work in the First Grade 81 

3. Looking through pamphlets on baby care brought in by 
various children. 

Teachers' References 

Aldrich, Charles A. Cultivating the Child's 1930 Macmillan 

Baker, S. Josephine The Growing Child . 1923 Little Brown 

Holt, L. Emmett The Care and Feeding of 1930 Appleton 

Smith, Richard M. From Infancy to Child- 1925 Atlantic Monthly 


E. Through the use of number. 

1. Counting. 

(a) Number of dolls brought in. 

(b) Number of pairs of twins registered. 

(c) Number of teeth cut by doll baby. 

(d) Number of chairs needed in waiting room. 

(e) Number of pounds registered by the scale. 

2. Measuring. 

(a) The length of the doll babies. 

(b) Twelve-inch ribbons for prizes. 

3. Weighing. 

(a) Weighing the doll babies. 

(b) Weighing children because of the interest aroused 
through the baby show. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, and appreciations developing 
through these experiences. 

A. A sympathetic appreciation of smaller sisters and brothers. 

B. A willingness to be kind and helpful toward smaller children. 

C. At least a temporary lifting of the ban on boys playing with 
dolls. The boys were as eager to be fathers, as the girls were 
to be mothers. 

D. Some understanding and appreciation of the mother's loyal 
care and nurture of the baby. 

E. Some understanding and appreciation of the father's part in 
keeping the family, and in caring for the children. 

F. Some knowledge and appreciation of the factors that promote 
sturdiness and good health. 

G. A willingness to be regular in sleeping and to go to bed at a 
good hour. 

H. A willingness and a desire to eat nourishing and body-building 

I. The reinforcing of a positive attitude toward doctors and nurses. 

82 National College of Education 

J. The beginning of an understanding of the efforts made by the 
community toward building strong bodies and good citizens. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

1. Looking for stories in primers and first readers about 
babies, and reading them orally. 

2. Finding, reading and listening to verses ; as, 

What Does Little Baby Say Tennyson 

Lullaby Christina Rossetti 

Mary Anne's Luncheon Dorothy Aldis 

Nice Food Dorothy Aldis 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Telling anecdotes about babies they know. 

2. Telling incidents about their own babyhood. 

3. Making up stories to tell about their own doll babies. 

4. Composing accounts of this unit for the school magazine. 

5. Composing invitations to send to Kindergarten and Second 

6. Composing letters and sending invitations to three College 
girls to be the judges. 

Dear College Girls, 

Will you come to our baby show ? 
Will you be the judges? There is a Blue Ribbon for 
the First Prize and a Pink Ribbon for the Second 
Prize and a Yellow Ribbon for the Third Prize. 
Come on Tuesday at ten. 

With love 

C. Through music. 

1. Singing songs. 

From Songs for the Little Child — Baker and Kohlsaat 
The Dolly 
My Baby 

2. Dramatizing lullabies and housekeeping songs like "The 
Mulberry Bush." 

3. Listening to well-known lullabies, such as : 

Slumber Song — Brahms 

The Little Dustman — German folk-song 

All Through the Night— Welsh folk-song 

4. Listening to instrumental music. 

Cesar Franck Lamentations of a Doll 

Schumann Child Falling Asleep 

Debussy Serenade to a Doll 

Units of Work in the First Grade 


D. Through dramatic activity and social activity. 

1. Playing doctor or nurse at the baby show. 

2. Much playing house, as each day brought new babies and 
parents. Both boys and girls entered into the dramatic 
play. Often the play house was usurped by boys. 

3. Acting as guides when Kindergarten and Second Grade 
came to visit. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. A keen desire to build a large play house either indoors or out- 

B. Interest in source of foods and in gardening. 

Organized and filled by the children 

First Grade Baby Show 

Name of the baby 

Polly Ann Hitt 

Name of the father 

Dr. W. G. Hitt 

How old she is 

2 years 


2 pounds 


20 inches 



Color of the hair 


Color of the eyes 


Color of the cheeks 


Conducting a Toy Store 

An Enterprise in the First Grade Summer Session 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background for activities. 

A. Toys used in the children's summer play on the lake shore. 

B. Toys brought to school by various children. 

C. Children's stories of buying their own toys. 

D. Children's stories of playing on the lake shore. 

E. Pictures placed on the bulletin boards : children playing with 
toys ; children playing in the water. 

F. A trip through the Toy Tinker Factory. 

G. Previous experiences in playing store. 

II. Problems and questions which led to discussion and experiment. 

A. Problems of construction. 

1. Which toys are most salable? 

2. What qualities in a toy do people look for when buying? 

3. What are the advantages of careful workmanship? 

4. Of what materials are store buildings made? 

5. What material is most practical for our store? 

6. What shape and size are good for store buildings ? 

7. How can a delivery truck be made? 

B. Problems of organization. 

1. What employees are needed in a toy store? 

2. What are the duties of each? 

3. How shall the merchandise be grouped? 

4. Where can the supply of merchandise be replenished? 

5. Will there be delivery service? 

C. Problems related to buying and selling. 

1. How does one fix the prices? 

2. Do prices change from customer to customer? 

3. How does a customer know the price? 

4. Whom does one pay? 

5. How are things charged ? 

D. Problems related to money. 

1. What shall we use for money? 

2. Under what conditions may we use another's money? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through constructive activities. Different children were inter- 
ested in different phases of construction. 


Units of Work in the First Grade 85 

1. Construction of buildings. 

(a) Store built of double set of Hill blocks. 

(b) Show cases outside built of blocks. 

(c) Counters inside built of orange crates. 

(d) Cashier's booth built on as an extra wing. 

2. Construction of toys. 

(a) Building of wood: hydroplanes, boats, steamers, tug 
boats, barges, sail boats, motor boats, engines and 
trains, wooden spades. 

(b) Painting large gallon tomato cans for sand pails. 

(c) Cutting from cardboard and waxing toy ducks, frogs, 
fish, turtles, and mounting them on large corks. 

3. Constructing a large auto from packing boxes for delivery 

4. Constructing incidentals for the store. 

(a) Making labels, price tags, price lists, checks. 

(b) Making tag board and raffia purses. 

B. Through oral language. 

1. Related to construction and organization. 

(a) Solving problems through discussions, relating to chil- 
dren's experiences in stores, reports of questions asked 
at home and from store keepers, and the answers. 

(b) Selecting clerks, floorwalkers, cashiers, heads of de- 
partments, janitors, delivery boys to run the store. 

(c) Deciding duties and responsibilities of each. 

2. Related to buying and selling. 

(a) Listing rules to assure good usage of money. 

(b) Deciding how much to charge for articles, according to 
size, amount of labor. 

(c) Working out procedure: 

Get money from the bank ; write withdrawal slip. 
Select toys with help of a clerk. 
Get bill from clerk. 
Pay the cashier. 

C. Through factual reading. 

1. Blackboard reading. 

(a) Reading lists of toys suggested for construction. 

(b) Reading suggestions for color schemes. 

(c) Reading names of employees and children's names 
during elections. 

2. Reading charts and lists. 

(a) Reading price lists, labels, price tags, names of de- 

(b) Reading name, date, amount on withdrawal slip. 

86 National College of Education 


/ i w , ,, 

V • • 

" s 


p \ 

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1. • : 

.... ,.'M 

The Lake Tests Water Toys 

D. Through use of number. 

1. Developing a sense of the value of money. 

(a) Using and caring for real money. 

(b) Fixing fair prices for the toys. 

2. Counting and using money. 

(a) Counting nickels and dimes to ascertain amount needed 
to make purchases. 

(b) Adding nickels and dimes to give customers the right 
amount from the bank. 

(c) Adding nickels and dimes by cashier to see if he is 
given right amount. 

3. Measuring. 

(a) Measuring wood to be used for toys. 

(b) Measuring floor space to build store right size. 

(c) Measuring paper for withdrawal slips, price tags, signs. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developing through 
these experiences. 

A. Some understanding and appreciation of toy manufacturers. 

B. Some understanding and appreciation of the skill required to 
organize, equip and manage a store. 

C. More appreciation of attractive, well made toys ; and more joy 
in playing with toys. 

D. Better understanding of the value of toys and the value of 

E. Some understanding and appreciation of the responsibility ac- 
cepted by a clerk and cashier, in a store. 

Units of Work in the First Grade 87 

F. Some appreciation of honest, careful workmanship in manu- 
factured articles. 

G. Eagerness to be fair and honest in business endeavors. 
H. Some development toward an attitude of thrift. 

I. A desire to be polite and courteous when serving people. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

1. Stories told by the teacher and by the children. 

Baker and Baker The Doll's Boat 

(from Fifty Flags) 

t • j at j The Toy Shop 

Lindsay, Maud The Wonderful Locomotive 

Wiggin and Smith Dicky Smiley's Birthday 

(from the Story Hour) 

2. Verses memorized by some of the children. 

Stevenson, Robert L. When I was Down Beside the 

Lindsay, Vachel The Little Turtle 

Aldis, Dorothy The Goldfish 

Stevenson, Robert L. Dark Brown is the River 

B. Through creative composition: Stories composed by the chil- 
dren for reading booklets : 

A toy store! A toy store! A clerk! A clerk! 

We will have a toy store. A clerk will sell boats ! 

A toy store for children ! A clerk will sell airplanes ! 

We will have a toy store. A clerk will sell trains ! 

A clerk will sell buckets ! 
A toy store for children! 

A toy store for children ! We will go to the beach ! 

Airplanes for children ! We will go to the beach ! 

Trains for children ! We will play with boats ! 

Buckets for children ! We will play with airplanes ! 

We will play with trains. 

We will play with buckets. 

C. Through picture making. 

1. Spontaneous drawings of various toys. 

2. Free hand cutting for poster pictures to illustrate stories 
for reading booklet. 

3. Free hand cutting of designs for cover of booklet. 

D. Through music. 

1 . Singing such songs as : 

The Engine — Songs for the Little Child, Baker and Kohlsaat. 
The Aeroplane — Songs for the Little Child, Baker and Kohlsaat. 
The Sailboat — One Hundred Forty Folk Songs, Davison and Surette. 
The Little Ship — One Hundred Forty Folk Songs, Davison and 


National College of Education 

2. Dramatizing the songs sung. 

3. Creating little play-like rhythms such as : 

Rag dolls 

Elephants, bears, ponies, and frogs 

4. Listening to instrumental music such as : 

Debussy, C. C. 

Gretchaninoff, A. 
McConathy, O. 

Schumann, Robert 

Children's Corner 
"Jimbo's Lullaby" 
Das Kinder Buch 
Music Hour in the 

Kindergarten and First 

Album for the Young 
''Soldiers' March" 
"Wild Horsemen" 

Durand and Fils 

1924 Schott 

1929 Silver Burdett 


Schumann, Robert 

Scenes from Childhood 
"Knight of the Hobby Horse" 


E. Through dramatic activity and social activity. 

1. Playing with toys in the room after they had been pur- 

2. The variety of playing bank and store. 

3. A trip to the lake shore to sail boats and hydroplanes, to 
play with the turtle and fish floats, and to play in the sand 
with the trains and buckets. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. Interest in other types of stores. 

B. Interest in the wider activities of the community. 

C. Interest in other industries. 


PARTICULAR objectives in the Second Grade have been to 
extend the children's knowledge of their own community, and 
to help them to appreciate more fully their own responsibilities and 
privileges as citizens. The dependence of the community on nearby 
industries has also been emphasized. 

A delight in picture-making led to the study of the art centers 
in the community. The children constructed an art gallery in the 
room and exhibited there many famous pictures loaned from home 
collections. In one wing their own best art productions were ex- 
hibited. A visit to the Chicago Art Institute enabled them to see the 
originals of some of their favorite prints. 

The interest in clay modeling led to an excursion to the Haeger 
pottery and art shop in Dundee where the potter's wheel and the 
making of clay articles in molds were observed. A pottery unit 
followed which culminated in a Christmas gift shop. 

Editing the primary newspaper has been a second-grade interest 
in two different years. Second-grade reporters visited other rooms 
and wrote brief but delightful news notes which were printed with 
the aid of the primer typewriter and the mimeographing machine. 
The second-grade editor was found one recess period hard at work 
in the office of a professor in the College department, and there was 
for a few minutes a disagreement concerning whose office it was. 
The second-grade teacher, to settle the controversy, suggested a news- 
paper office in the room, and this was promptly constructed of 
builder boards. 

Through excursions and stories, an interest in farming has been 
created, and the dairy farm, the poultry farm and the wheat farm 
have been studied in different years. One of the parents presented 
the school with an incubator, so that it has been possible to experi- 
ment with the hatching of hens' eggs and ducks' eggs. The investi- 
gation of methods in farming has led to much experimental study 
of the germination of seeds, and to the making of a garden on the 
school grounds. A garden market was a successful spring enter- 
prise of two different years. 

One spring two sheep were loaned to the school and foraged on 


National College of Education 

the school grounds for a few weeks. The children were enabled to 
see a shearing. The opportunity led to a unit on €ldtiu«gvAbut the 
industries involved were too complex to hold the interest long. A 
unit on pottery which was developed one fall, included a study of the 
making of pottery by Indians, and an Indian unit followed, which 
no doubt was more enjoyed because the Third Grade had just com- 
pleted a colorful reproduction of Indian handiwork. 

The units included in this volume have been selected from the 
records of two successive years, and are some that have been at- 
tended by special success. Outcomes in social meanings and ap- 
preciations peculiar to the particular unit are included with the unit. 
All of the units have proved valuable in developing certain desirable 
social and personal habits and attitudes ; as, the habit of planning 
work before beginning, good use of time and of materials, neatness 
and carefulness in using tools and materials, desire to improve quality 
of work, persistence in finishing work begun, sharing of ideas and 
materials, respect for rights and opinions of others, sympathy and 
appreciation for the efforts of others, readiness to give and receive 
constructive criticism, self-control in observing the rules of the group, 
pride in worthy individual and group attainments. The units have 
also provided opportunity for growth in the powers of expression 
through music, dramatization, fine and industrial arts and creative 
language, and for progress in fundamental skills. Outcomes in terms 
of particular arts and skills are summarized under Group Records 
of Progress in Part IV. 

Conducting an Art Gallery 

An Enterprise in the Second Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background for activities. 

A. Children spontaneously drew and painted pictures at easels 
and on work tables. 

B. Children's original pictures were exhibited and discussed. 

C. Pictures in the room by great artists were studied. 

D. Children brought from home prints of masterpieces. 

E. Trips were made to the Art Institute by the group and by 
individual children in company with their parents. It was 
possible to see originals of some of the prints in the room 

F. Trips were made around the building to study pictures in dif- 
ferent rooms. 

II. Problems and questions which led to investigation. 

A. What pictures are master paintings? 

B. Who are some of the master painters? 

C. What is meant by "original paintings"? 

D. Which pictures are copies and which are originals? 

E. Where are originals of famous pictures found? 

F. What is the present valuation of some of these originals? 

G. What are the names of some of the master paintings? Why 
did the artists name their pictures as they did? 

H. What, materials are needed to make an Art Gallery in our 

Second Grade room? 
I. How shall pictures be arranged and hung? 
J. How shall visitors be guided? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through discussion. 

1. Children discussed the permanent pictures in their room; 
learned the title of the picture and the name of the artist. 

2. As prints were brought in, each picture was studied and 
talked about. Children reported what their parents had 
said about the picture ; where they had seen copies ; why 
the picture was considered great. 

3. Trips to see pictures stimulated discussions about the selec- 
tion of pictures for a school, a home, a gallery; the ar- 
rangement, hanging and lighting of pictures. 


92 National College of Education 

4. Plans were made for building and conducting an art gal- 
lery in the room and for making guide books. 

B. Through constructive activities. 

1. An Art Gallery was constructed of builder boards, covered 
with cheese-cloth to give a soft background. 

2. Prints of master paintings were arranged and hung. 

3. Pictures in the Art Gallery were labeled with title and 
name of artist. 

4. Guide-books were constructed containing miniature copies 
of the paintings in the room gallery. 

5. As gifts for parents, placques of wood were designed, made 
and shellaced. Each child selected and mounted a print 
of a master painting upon his placque. 

C. Through factual reading. 

1. The children read the cards which recorded the name and 
title of each picture. 

2. They kept and read a chart recording each child's contribu- 
tion to the gallery and the guide book. 

3. Articles from magazines about famous pictures and artists 
were brought in and read by children and teachers. 

4. Reference was made to books as questions arose. 

Books used: 

Grover, E. O. Art Literature Readers 1905 Mentzer 

Lester, K. M. Pictures and Stories (five vol- 1927 Mentzer 

D. Through arithmetic. 

1. Children were much interested in the money value of 
certain master paintings ; enjoyed stories of auction sales 
of these pictures and surprising changes in value when the 
artist's name was discovered ; compared prices of originals 
and prints. 

2. Pictures in the room gallery were counted and numbered. 

IV. Meanings, attitudes and appreciations probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. Understanding and appreciation of a few master paintings: 
their beauty, color, meaning. 

B. Knowledge and admiration of a few master painters : their 
lives, greatest works, characteristic technique. 

C. Recognition and appreciation of the artist's contribution to the 
community and the home. 

D. Greater appreciation of the work of children in creating various 
art forms. 

Units of Work in the Second Grade 93 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature and creative composition. 

1. Children listened with pleasure to stories told by teacher 
about certain pictures and artists. 

2. Children created original stories about the prints hung in 
the room gallery. Some of these were written and in- 
cluded in the guide books. 

B. Through painting and drawing. 

1. The study of famous pictures stimulated greater interest 
in creative painting and drawing on the part of the children. 
Much easel painting was done. 

2. Covers were designed for the original books. 

3. Gift cards were designed to accompany the placques. 

C. Through social activity, sharing experiences with others. 

1. Parents and other grades were invited from time to time 
to see the gallery and use the guide books. 

2. The placques were presented to the parents as gifts. 

VI. New interests, foreshadowing other units of work. 

Interest in various types of art ; as, clay modeling, sketching, block 
printing, architecture, sculpture. 

Developing Pottery and a Pottery Shop 

An Enterprise in the Second Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Moist clay was available in the room for the children's use, 
and modeling became a favorite occupation. Discussion of the 
children's work led to an interest in pottery. 

B. Pictures of beautifully designed clay bowls were studied from 
the bulletin board. 

C. An exhibit of pottery made by college students increased the 
children's interest. 

D. A trip to Haeger Pottery at Dundee enabled the children to 
see various ways of making pottery. 

E. The group visited the pottery shop run in connection with the 
Haeger Pottery at Dundee, and purchased a vase and a bowl 
for their room. 

F. The making of plaster paris molds at school provided a means 
of producing many bowls, and the idea occurred to the children 
that these might be sold in a pottery shop of their own. 

G. A bazaar held by the college students gave suggestions to the 
children of ways of organizing a sale. 

II. Problems and questions which led to investigation. 

A. Concerning the making of pottery. 

1. Where does clay come from? How do we get it? 

2. What makes clay harden? How can we keep unfinished 
clay objects moist? 

3. How are the dishes in our homes made and decorated? 

4. How can dishes which are exactly alike be made? 

5. What are the different ways of making clay objects? 

(a) How are molds made? 

(b) How is the potter's wheel operated? 

(c) Plow is liquid clay used? 

6. By what process is pottery fired and decorated? 

B. Concerning the conduct of a gift shop. 

1. What shall we do with the molds we have made? Could 
we make many bowls and plates and sell them? 

2. What might be sold in a gift shop? What articles shall 
we make for our shop ? 

3. What persons are needed to conduct a gift shop? How 
can responsibilities be divided? 


Units of Work in the Second Grade 95 

4. How is the value of articles determined? How shall our 
things be priced? 

5. What does the shopkeeper do with his money? Where 
does money go from a bazaar? What shall we do with 
our money? 

6. How shall we build our booths? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through group discussions. 

1. Discussions were held concerning the children's clay model- 
ing, how the work could be improved, how unfinished clay 
objects could be kept, how finished articles could be hard- 
ened and decorated. 

2. Conversations were held concerning the kinds of dishes 
the family used at home, where and how these wares were 

3. Observations at the Haeger Pottery were discussed at 
length. Many questions were asked and answered both 
during the excursion and later. 

4. Plans for making molds and duplicating articles were dis- 

5. The decision to conduct a gift shop led to many discussions 
concerning the making of articles, the construction of 
booths, the organization for selling, and the valuation of 
articles made. 

B. Through constructive activities. 

1. The children at first carried on much experimentation with 
clay, making bowls, candlesticks, ink-wells, pencil holders, 
and placques. 

2. After the trip to the Haeger Pottery, they experimented 
with plaster paris molds, as follows : 

(a) Mixed plaster paris with water. 

(b) Made molds by placing original object in pan of soft 

(c) Made liquid clay by mixing clay with water to a pour- 
ing consistency. 

(d) Made duplicate objects by pouring liquid clay into 

3. The best objects made were fired and decorated. The 
children helped to pack and unpack clay articles sent to 
be fired. 

4. Articles were constructed from wood to sell with the clay 
objects in the gift shop : book ends, book racks, book 
cases, letter openers, door stops, doll furniture, boats. 

96 National College of Education 

5. Booths were constructed and decorated. 

6. Price tags, lists, posters and signs were made. 

C. Through factual reading. 

1. Plans and directions were written on the blackboard from 
time to time and read. 

2. Signs, posters, labels and price lists all required reading. 

3. Some informational material was simplified by the teacher 
and placed on charts for the children's reading. 

Teachers' References 

Binns, Charles F. Potter's Craft 1922 Van Nostrand 

Bragg, William Creative Knowledge (Old 1927 Harper 
Henry Trades and New 


Cox, George James Pottery 1926 Macmillan 

Parker, Arthur C. Indian How Book 1927 Doran 

Wheeler, Ida W. Playing with Clay 1927 Macmillan 

D. Through arithmetic. 

1. Children learned to judge the quantity of clay needed for 
a certain object. 

2. Measurement was required in pouring liquid clay into 

3. Values of pottery were learned from the purchase of arti- 
cles at the Haeger Pottery Shop. 

4. Valuation of the children's work was made in pricing 
articles for the shop. 

5. The sale gave opportunity for application of the following 
skills : 

(a) Reading figures on price labels and price lists. 

(b) Using basic addition, subtraction and multiplication 

(d) Handling coins in making change. 

(e) Using certain arithmetic terms; as, price, purchase, 
product, borrow, lend, equals, multiply. 

IV. Meanings, attitudes and appreciations probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. Respect for the skillful work of others and for those who 
create beautiful things. 

B. Knowledge and appreciation of what constitutes beauty in 
pottery: form, color, design. 

C. Appreciation of the need for carefulness, patience, skill in 
making pottery. 

D. Knowledge of the commercial process of making pottery and 
its commercial value. 

Units of Work in the Second Grade 97 

E. Knowledge and appreciation of fairness and accuracy in buy- 
ing and selling. 

F. Increased understanding of the contribution of the factory and 
the merchant to the community. 

G. Appreciation of the need for courtesy, cheerfulness and help- 
fulness in conducting a business. 

V. Interpretation and expressions of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through creative composition. 

1 . Original stories were written about the trip to the Pottery : 
the kiln, the potter's wheel, the color work, the exhibit of 
unique objects. 

2. Letters were written to absent children about the trip and 
about the plans for a shop. 

B. Through picture-making, design, decoration. 

1. Designs were drawn sometimes before objects were deco- 

2. Many clay articles were decorated with original designs. 

3. Booths and posters were designed and decorated by the 

C. Through social activity, sharing experiences with others. 

1. Some of the clay articles made were presented as gifts to 
mothers at the Christmas party. 

2. Other grades came in to see the booths before the sale was 

3. The children enjoyed both buying and selling. Parents, 
friends, teachers and college students were patrons of the 
gift shop. 

VI. New interests, foreshadowing other units of work. 

A study of designs on Indian pottery led to an interest in Indians. 
A unit on Indian life followed. 

Living Among the Indians 

A Unit in the Second Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Discussion of the meaning of Columbus Day led to interest in 
people living here when Columbus came. 

B. Children told of contacts with Indians in traveling. 

One boy had lived among Indians for a short time — ridden in 
canoes, slept in a tepee. 

C. Some children recalled visits to curio shops. 

D. Curios and pictures from Glacier Park were brought by two 

E. Film of Indian life was brought by one child who had helped 
take the pictures. 

F. Class attended a school assembly at which a real Indian chief 

G. Class made a trip to the Field Museum to see the Indian exhibit. 

II. Problems and questions which led to investigation. 

A. How did the Indians live? Home? Furnishings? 

B. How did the homes of the Indians in different parts of the 
country vary? 

C. Why did Indians move so often? 

D. What did they eat? Where did they get food? How did they 
prepare it? 

E. How did the Indians make and decorate their dishes? 

F. How did they make their clothes? How did they make dyes? 

G. How did they care for the sick? 

H. How were Indian children entertained? What and how were 

they taught? 
I. What form of religion did the Indians have? 
J. What did the different Indian dances mean? What was their 

music ? 
K. How did the Indians buy and sell? 

III. Finding answers to questions and problems. 

A. Through oral discussion. 

1. Told stories about personal experiences with Indians. 

2. Discussed curios and pictures brought in by the children. 

3. Told stories read and heard about Indians. 

4. Discussed books read by the group. 


Units of Work in the Second Grade 


Life in the Forest Is Full of Color 

5. Discussed exhibits seen at the Field Museum. 

6. Planned Indian handiwork to be made. 
B. Through factual reading. 

Read books regarding Indians — homes, boats, implements, cus- 
toms. Some children were able to do much more extensive 
reading than others. 

Brandies, Madeline 
Deming and Dem- 

Fox, F. C. 
Jenks, Albert 
Maguire, E. M. 
Moran, G. N. 

Schwartz, J. A. 

Children's References 

The Little Indian Weaver 
Indian Child Life 

Indian Primer 
Childhood of Ji : Shib 
Two Little Indians 
Kwahu, the Hopi Indian 

Five Little Strangers 

1928 Grossett 
1927 Stokes 

1906 American Book 
1900 Mentzer, Bush 
1923 Flanagan 
1923 American Book 

1904 American Book 


National College of Education 

Curtis, E. S. 
Fletcher, A. C. 
Garland, Hamlin 

Gilmore, Melvin 

Grinnell, G. B. 
Hodge, F. W. 
Lindquist, G. E. E. 

Parker, Arthur C. 
Salomon, Julian 

Wissler, Clark 

Teachers' References 

Indian Days of Long Ago 
Indian Story Book 
Book of the American 

Prairie Smoke 

The Story of the Indian 
Indians of North America 
Red Man in the United 

Indian How Book 
Book of Indian Crafts 

and Indian Lore 
The American Indian 

1914 World 
1900 Hale 
1923 Harper 


1929 Columbia 

1902 Appleton 
1928 Newark Museum 
1923 Doran 

1927 Doran 

1928 Harper 

1922 Oxford 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. An exhibit of Indian curios brought from home was ar- 

2. Children made clay bowls and decorated them with Indian 

3. Some made looms and wove Indian mats. 

4. Some made canoes of wood. 

5. One child did some interesting bead work, working in 
designs and color. 

6. A group made a large Indian tepee ; painted designs on 
the tepee with dyes made of beet juice, onion skin, boiled 
spinach and coffee. 

7. A group constructed an Indian trading post of Builder 

8. Some children made Indian costumes to use in dramatiz- 
ing ; others used costumes which they already had at home. 

D. Through use of arithmetic. 

1. Reported cost of several curios and differences in prices of 
various articles. 

2. Compared height of tepee with height of room. 

3. Learned that Indians traded articles, instead of using 
money. Learned how various articles were valued in trad- 
ing; how trading posts were conducted. 

4. Used linear measurement in construction of tepee, scenery, 
canoes, looms, costumes. 

5. Used liquid measures in handling dyes. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. Recognition and appreciation of skill and cunning of the 

B. Recognition and appreciation of artistic ability of Indians. 

Units of Work in the Second Grade 101 

C. Recognition and appreciation of the fact that Indians made 
a great contribution to the white people. 

D. Respect for Indians' ability to accomplish much with few 
and meagre tools. 

E. Knowledge and respect for outstanding characteristics of 
Indians : courage, loyalty, endurance. 

F. Knowledge of Indian customs and ways of living. 

G. Sympathy for the Indians who were "pushed on" by the white 

H. Interest in the Indians of the present day and their needs. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

1. Enjoyed stories and legends told or read by the teachers : — 

De Huff, E. W. Taytay's Tales 1922 Harcourt Brace 

James, Alice Tewa Tales 1926 Stechert 

Moon, Grace Che-Wee 1925 Doubleday 

Sterne, E. G. White Swallow 1927 Duffield 

2. Read orally some of the legends of the Indians, and some 
poems about Indians, as: 

Dixon, Maynard Injun Babies 1923 Putnam 

Longfellow, H. W. Hiawatha's Childhood 
Mayall, Charles Indian Lullaby 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Composed stories about various phases of Indian life. 

2. Composed a few rhymes about Indians. One was a parody 
on Kipling's "If." 

C. Through picture making, design, decoration. 

1. Made designs that told stories for their pottery and for 
their tepee. 

2. Illustrated stories they wrote. 

3. Painted a forest scene, to use as a background for tepee. 

D. Through music. 

1. Sang Indian songs, such as: 

Parting Song — Dakota — Plain Tribe 
Corn Grinding Song — Zuni — Pueblo Tribe 
Sun Dance Song — Cheyenne — Plain Tribe 
Game Song — Plain Tribe 

2. Played the accompaniments on tom-toms and rattles. 

3. Created rhythms and dances from the songs. 

4. Listened to songs and piano arrangements — noting "thin" 
quality of the melody and the rhythmic monotony of the 

Farewell to the Warriors — Chippewa 

Her Blanket — Navajo 

Iruska — Corn Offering — Pawnee 

102 National College of Education 

5. Dramatized the Butterfly Dance Festival — Hopi. 

Note : — Seeing exhibits of Indian musical instruments and costumes, attending a 
program of Indian Song and Dance given by a small group of professional 
Indians, provided background and kept high interest. 

Source Books and Reference 

Botsford, F. H. Folk Songs of Many Peo- 1922 Womans Press 

pies, Vol. II 

Curtis, Nathalie The Indians' Book 1907 Harper 

Jeancon, J. A. Indian Song Book 1924 Denver Allied Arts 

E. Through dramatic activity and social activity. 

1. Played Indians when out-of-doors — crouched among the 
bushes, slipped about quietly as Indians did. 

2. Dramatized living in the tepee, trading at the trading post. 

3. Organized an Indian play which was given for the mothers. 

4. Presented the clay bowls as gifts to the mothers. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

1. Interest in Eskimos and how they differ from the Indians. 

2. Interest in other primitive peoples. 

3. Interest in present-day life on the farm and in the forest. 

Printing a Newspaper 

An Enterprise in the Second Grade during the 
Spring and Summer Terms 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. The Second Grade during the first semester read "The Chil- 
dren's Newspaper" which was published by Third Grade. 

B. At the beginning of the spring term the Third Grade suggested 
that the Second Grade continue the paper, which they could 
no longer find time to edit. 

C. A visit to a local newspaper office was arranged. A guide 
showed the children the editor's office, the proofreading room, 
the setting up of type, the actual printing of the paper. He 
explained how reporters carry on their work, what goes on 
in the proof room, how the machinery works. Each child was 
given a bit of type bearing his own name and told how to 
use it. 

D. Copies of local newspapers were brought in. Pictures were 
studied and some of the simple stories were read by the teacher. 

E. A film showing the making of a newspaper was available : Trees 
to Tribune (35mm). 

II. Problems and questions which led to investigation. 

A. Why do people read newspapers? Why does our school want 
a newspaper ? 

B. What kind of stories do we want in our paper? What is the 
best means of getting these stories? 

C. What people work on the newspaper? What is the duty of 
the editor? What are the duties of the reporters and the 
proof readers? What kind of people should they be? 

D. Where and how is a newspaper printed? 

E. What working rooms are needed by a newspaper staff? How 
shall our offices be built? 

F. How often are newspapers printed ? How often shall we pub- 
lish our paper? 

G. What materials will be needed ? How much does the unprinted 
paper cost? 

H. How shall we do the printing? What do the stencils cost? 
I. How much does a newspaper sell for? What shall we charge 
for our paper? 



National College of Education 

What are the duties of a 
should our newsboys be? 
their work? 

newsboy? What kind of persons 
What will the newsboys need for 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 

A. Through discussion. 

1. The children studied and discussed copies of the newspaper 
printed by the Third Grade. 

2. They talked about pictures and stories found in some of 
the local newspapers. 

3. The excursion to the newspaper office led to much discus- 
sion. Frequent reference was made to this trip in solving 
problems that arose later. 

4. In many conversations the children talked over materials 
and needs, and made their plans. 

5. Second Grade reporters visited various rooms in the Chil- 
dren's School, asked questions and took notes on what they 
saw and heard. There was much discussion of what was 
suitable to include in the paper. 

B. Through constructive activities. 

1. A newspaper office was built of builder boards, with one 
room for the editor and another room for the proof reader. 

2. The building and the different offices were labelled with 

3. Oilcloth bags were made for the newsboys, with a small 
pocket for holding the money. 

4. After the stories were selected, the teacher cut the stencils. 
The children assisted in operating the mimeograph ma- 
chine, and in sorting the printed sheets. 

C. Through factual reading. 

1. Plans and lists were from time to time read from the black- 

2. Material submitted for the newspaper was read critically 
and discussed. 

Butler, F. O. 
Carter, Thomas F. 

Gress, E. G. 

Holland, R. S. 
Maddox, H. A. 
Morrison, S. and 
Jackson H. 

Teacher's References 
Story of Paper Making 

The Invention of Print- 
ing in China and its 
Spread Westward 

American Handbook of 

Historic Inventions 


A Brief Survey of 

Printing History and 

J. W. Butler Paper 

1925 Columbia 

1913 Oswald 

1911 Geo. W. Jacobs 
1916 I. Pitman 

Units of Work in the Second Grade 


The Printing Press Commands Admiration 

D. Through arithmetic. 

1. The pages were numbered and the sheets were sorted after 

2. The paper was sold for three cents. The selling involved 
the use of 3's in addition, subtraction, multiplication and 

3. Children acting as newsboys handled coins and made change. 

4. Each newsboy was given 10 papers to sell. There was 
careful checking to see if his papers and money tallied, after 
the selling. 

5. Making the offices and the oilcloth bags required measuring. 

6. There was counting and banking of money after each sale. 

IV. Meanings, attitudes and appreciations probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. Some understanding and appreciation of the service of a news- 
paper in the community. 

B. Knowledge of the complex activities required in producing a 
modern newspaper and respect for those who serve on the staff. 

C. Some understanding of what constitutes interesting news, how 
to obtain news and how to organize it in a paper. 

106 National College of Education 

D. Some appreciation of the art of writing clever news stories. 

E. Some understanding of how a newspaper is financed, the cost 
of producing a paper and the sources of income. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through creative composition. 

1. The children tried to write up stories of school happenings 
in an interesting way. 

2. They composed original stories, riddles and verses for the 
paper. • 

B. Through oral reading. 

1. The children liked to read their own stories aloud for the 
pleasure of the group. 

2. The class enjoyed oral reading of the completed newspaper. 

C. Through picture-making, design, decoration. 

1. Children submitted designs for the front page of the paper. 
The best design was selected. 

2. Some of the stories and verses were illustrated. 

3. The oil-cloth bags were decorated with stencil designs. 

D. Through dramatic and social activities. 

1. Dramatic play connected with the newspaper office was 
greatly enjoyed. 

2. All participated at times in buying and selling the papers. 

3. The money earned from the paper was used in buying a 
silk flag which was presented to the Second Grade room 
for the next class to enjoy. 

VI. New interests, foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. The class became interested in the printing of books, and espe- 
cially how pictures are printed in color. To satisfy this interest 
an exhibit was arranged showing the stages through which a 
picture passes from the artist's studio to the book shop. 

B. Some interest developed in the story of how news was spread 
in early times before the invention of printing. 

As Seen by Reporters 

News Notes Selected from the Second Grade Newspaper 

The Nursery School Has a Bird 

Some children are coming in the room. Some are going out doors. The 
children are watching the bird. The bird is singing, the bird is eating. A child 
is playing in the sand. 

Junior Kindergarten on the Playground 

They have a train on the playground. Some children are playing in the 
water with the boats. Some are playing with the truck and fire engine. A few 
are working at the work bench. 

First Grade Make Mail Boat 

The First Grade have a postoffice. They made signs that say Letters and 
Stamps. They made little green mail hats and mail bags to match. 

They just made a big mail boat to bring the mail to different cities. The 
mail boat is made of wood. They are reading in the mail boat and writing- 
letters, too. 

Second Grade Go to the Pet Store 

We went to the animal store and saw some baby mice and some rabbits. 
We saw two baby bunnies and a big parrot that said, "Bye." We saw a monkey 
and some baby kittens. They are darling. 

Second Grade Hold Pet Show 

Wednesday we had a Pet Show. We brought many pets. There were turtles, 
a lizard, a rabbit, a cat and a dog. We had a mud turtle and little snapping 
turtles. The cat and the dog had a fight. Our bird was in the show. 

Newspaper Keeps Us Busy 

We have been busy making our newspaper office. We have two offices. One 
is for the reporters, and the other is for the Editor and his assistants. 

Curtis and Richard are making oil cloth bags to use when selling the 

Third Grade Study Vikings 

The Third Grade are reading about the Vikings. They have made a table 
showing how the Vikings lived. They made Viking houses and Viking boats. 
They took a trip to Lincoln Park to see a real Viking boat. 

Fifth Grade Have a Good Map 

The Fifth Grade made a map of the United States. It has all the mountains, 
lakes, rivers, valleys and plains. The lakes and rivers are painted. It is made 
of flour and salt mixed with water. 

Stories Contributed to the Second Grade Newspaper 
by Other Grades 

The Wild Canaries 
One day I was playing when all of a sudden I heard a beautiful song. It 
was so pretty that I stopped my playing and looked up, and then when I looked 
down there was the prettiest little bird. Can you guess what kind of a bird it 


108 National College of Education 

was? It was a wild canary, and it was a baby canary, and it was just learning 
how to fly. 

The bird would go from tree to tree, and then on the ground. It was easy 
to catch him, but I did not want to catch it because I would hurt it. 


There is a little dog who lives next door to me. He is a wire-haired fox 
terrier, whose name is Pester. 

Every time he comes out of doors he romps and plays so hard that he tires 
us all out. He runs back and forth barking and shaking his tail. 

When his master calls him to come in, he minds just like a good boy. 
You really have to see him to love him like I do. 

Toddles and Wobbles 

Toddles and "Wobbles are two little ducks. We gave them these names 
because of the way they walk. Toddles walks like a baby just learning to walk. 
Wobbles just wobbles because he has one sore leg. They are black and yellow. 

I made them a little pen and a box for a house. Sometimes we put them 
into a tub to swim. Then they just paddle around and around. 

A Trip to Fort Sheridan 

One day I went for a ride. I went to Fort Sheridan. It was sundown and 
they pulled down the flag. It was very interesting because they shot off the 
cannon and they blew the bugle and every one saluted the flag. 

Living on a Farm 

A Spring Unit in the Second Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. One of the children related frequently stories of his summer on 
a farm, arousing an interest in farm life. 

B. The class took an excursion to a farm. 

C. Many farm pictures were brought to school. 

D. A college student brought six baby ducks to visit for a few 

E. A mother presented the room with a small incubator. 

F. Seeing some farm buildings constructed by another class in the 
manual training room further stimulated interest. 

II. Problems and questions which led to investigation. 

A. Concerning farm buildings. 

1 . In making a farm, what are some of the buildings we should 
have ? 

2. Why is the barn usually larger than the house? For what 
purposes is the barn used? 

3. Why does the farmer like to have a cement floor for the 

4. Where are the hay and corn kept ? 

5. Why is the silo placed near the barn? 

6. What kind of house should the farmer have ? 

7. What color are farm buildings usually painted and why ? 

B. Concerning the farm animals. 

1. What space is needed for large animals to roam? 

2. Why does gravel make a good covering for the barnyard? 

3. What is a pasture ? What animals go to the pasture ? 

4. What kind of fence is best to have on a farm? 

5. What care must be given to cows? How is milk protected 
and used? 

6. Why do sheep need a different type of shelter than cows 
and horses? 

C. Concerning the raising of poultry. 

1. What is an incubator ? What is a brooder ? 

2. What kind of eggs do we have to get for hatching? 

3. What temperature must the incubator be set ? Should the 
eggs be moist or dry? How often should the eggs be 
turned ? 


110 National College of Education 

4. How long does it take the eggs to hatch? 

5. What care must be given to baby chicks and ducks? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through discussion. 

1. Children told of their personal experiences in living on 

2. There was much discussion of the class excursion to a 
farm. Reference was made to this trip as problems arose 
in constructing a farm. 

3. Pictures stimulated discussion and aided in solving prob- 

4. Planning for building the farm involved comparison of sug- 
gestions and sometimes real debate. 

5. The gift to the room of an incubator stimulated questions 
and discussions concerning the raising of baby chicks and 

B. Through constructive activities. 

1. A farm was constructed on the floor along one side of 
the room. Buildings and vehicles were built of boxes and 
lumber in the manual training room : house, barn, silo, hen 
house, chicken coop, dog house, wagon, hay rack. 

2. Spaces were measured off for yard, barnyard and pastures. 
Fences were constructed and installed. 

3. The barnyard was covered with gravel, and a well and 
trough were constructed. 

4. The yard and pasture were covered with earth, over a 
heavy piece of linoleum. Grass seed was planted. 

5. A pool and swing were made for the yard. 

6. Many farm animals were made of wood and clay. 

7. Dolls were dressed to represent the farmer, his wife and 

8. The children wished to experiment with the incubator 
which had been presented to the room. Eggs were pur- 
chased and the incubator was watched and tended with 
great care. 

9. Children tried the experiment of making butter. 

C. Through factual reading. 

1. Accounts of the children's actual farm experiences were 
read from the blackboard. 

2. Plans for constructing the farm were also read. 

3. Material from government bulletins on the raising and 
care of poultry and other farm animals was simplified by 
the teacher and placed on charts. 

Units of Work in the Second Grade 111 

4. The care of the incubator required reading of the time and 
temperature chart ; and also the weekly calendar, listing 
each child's time to turn the eggs. 

Teacher's References 

Bulletin from the Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Carpenter, F. G. How the World Is Fed 1923 American Book 

Chamberlain, J. F. Feeding a City 1924 Macmillan 

Frederiksen, J. D. The Story of Milk 1919 Macmillan 

Sherman, H. C. Food Products 1924 Macmillan 

Tappan, Eva M. The Farmer and His 1916 Houghton Mifflin 


Wing, Henry W. Milk and Its Products 1914 Macmillan 

D. Through use of arithmetic. 

1. Measurement was acquired in constructing farm buildings 
and fences, and in setting off spaces for yard, barnyard, 

2. Eggs were purchased and counted for incubator. 

3. Thermometer was used in keeping accurate temperature of 

4. Terms pint, quart, pound, were used in butter making. 

5. Calendar was kept for timing the hatching of the eggs. 

IV. Meanings, attitudes, appreciations probably developed through 
these experiences. 

A. Some understanding of what the farmer does for us in pro- 
viding food. 

B. Appreciation of farm animals, their value and service. 

C. Some knowledge of the organization of the old-fashioned farm 
and its varied activities. 

D. Some appreciation of the dependence of the city on the sur- 
rounding farms. 

E. Some appreciation of the need for well-kept and sanitary farms. 

F. An appreciation of the picturesque charm of a farm, at dif- 
ferent seasons of the year. 

G. Some understanding and appreciation of the farmer's responsi- 
bility, in providing proper care for animals and plants, under 
changing weather conditions. 

H. An eagerness to participate in .farm activities by raising 
chickens and making a garden. 


National College of Education 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. By means of picture-story books about farm life. The chil- 
dren enjoyed silent and oral reading from these books : 

Hardy, E. C. 
Orton, Helen F. 

Orton, Helen F. 
Orton, Helen F. 

Orton, Helen F. 
Perkins, Lucy Fitch 
Read, E. & Lee, H. 
Smith, E. Boyd 
Smith, E. Boyd 
Tippett, James S. 
Troxell, E. & 
Dunn, F. 
Selected farm stories 

At the Farm 
Summer on the Farm 
Bobby at Cloverfield 

Prancing Pat 
Prince and Rover at 

Cloverfield Farm 
The Little Lost Pigs 
The Farm Twins 
Grandfather's Farm 
Chicken World 
The Farm Book 
The Singing Farmer 
Baby Animals 

1921 Nelson 

1926 Scribner 

1922 Stokes 

1927 Stokes 
1921 Stokes 

1925 Stokes 

1928 Houghton Mifflin 
1928 Scribner 

1910 Houghton Mifflin 
1910 Houghton Mifflin 

1927 World Book 

1928 Row Peterson 

and poems from several readers. 

B. By creative composition. 

Original stories and verses were composed about farm activities 
and farm animals. These were incorporated into farm books. 

C. By picture-making. 

1. The children drew and painted pictures illustrating dif- 
ferent stories for their books. 

2. They made farm posters to hang in the room. 

D. By means of music. 

1. The children enjoyed singing about farm life and its ac- 
tivities, such songs as : The Bee, Little Chickens, My Pony, 
Little Boy and the Sheep, Planting a Garden, Harvest Song, 
The Shower, Song of Bread. 

2. Some nonsense songs were learned, such as : 

This is how we milk the cow ; The milkmaid ; Turkey in the 

3. Rhythms patterned from farm life like windmills, pumps, 
swings, were created. 

4. Many of the songs suitable for action were dramatized. 

Baker and Kohl- 

Coleman, Satis 
Davison, Surette 

O'Neill, Norman 

Palmer, Winthrop 

LaSalle, Dorothy 
Robinson, Ethel 

Source Books 

Songs for the Little Child 

The Gingerbread Man 

One Hundred Forty Folk- 

A Song Garden for Chil- 

American Songs for 

Rhythms and Dances 

School Rhythms 

1921 Abingdon Press 

1931 John Day 

1922 E. C. Schirmer 

1928 Edward Arnold 

1931 Macmillan 

1930 A. S. Barnes 
1928 Clayton Summy 

Units of Work in the Second Grade 113 

E. By means of dramatic activity. 

The children greatly enjoyed carrying on farm activities with 
the dolls as puppets, dramatizing these activities : 

1. Carrying hay on the rack and tossing it into the barn. 

2. Drawing water from the well, and placing it in the trough 
for the animals. 

3. Taking the cows to pasture and bringing them back to the 

4. Hauling farm produce in the wagon. 

VI. New interests, foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. A keen interest in poultry raising. 

B. An interest in making a garden. A garden on the campus was 
started while the interest in the farm was still high. 

Creating a Garden and a Garden Market 

A Second Grade Interest During Spring Months 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. The study of farm life involved listing of different vegetables 
and fruits raised on a farm. 

B. During the excursion to a farm, the children saw extensive 

C. A trip to a grocery store afforded observation of many different 
kinds of vegetables. 

D. Seed catalogs brought by the children stimulated an interest in 
raising vegetables and flowers. 

E. Planting the garden led to an interest in experimenting with 

F. Maturing vegetables brought a desire for a garden market. 

G. Another trip to the grocery store was made to learn prices of 
vegetables and methods of displaying them for sale. 

II. Problems and questions which led to discussion and experi- 

A. Concerning preparation for a garden. 

1. How shall we prepare to make a garden? 

2. What kind of soil is needed? Do different plants need 
different soils? 

3. Plow does the soil have to be prepared? 

4. What is the best location for a garden? 

5. How should the garden be plotted? 

6. What kind of tools will we need ? 

B. Concerning the planting and care of a garden. 

1. What is the best time to plant? 

2. What kind of seeds shall we plant in our garden? 

3. Where will be the best place to plant each kind? Which 
vegetables grow under the ground and which above? 
Which grow tall and which short? 

4. What kind of care does a growing garden need ? 

5. Who will care for the garden? 

C. Concerning experimentation with seeds. 

1. Do seeds grow best in dark or sunlight? 

2. Do seeds grow best with or without water? 

3. What gives the plants their colors? 


Units of Work in the Second Grade 


Mothers Are Good Customers 
D. Concerning the marketing of produce. 

1. What are we going to do with our vegetables? 

2. What are right prices for vegetables? 

3. How are they arranged and prepared for selling? 

4. How shall we make our market? 

5. Who will be most likely to buy our vegetables ? How shall 
we advertise? 

6. What else might be sold in a garden market besides vege- 
tables and flowers? 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 
A. By means of oral discussion. 

1. Many problems as they arose were solved by group dis- 

2. Particular problems were referred to committees for dis- 
cussion and investigation. Committees brought reports to 
the whole group. 

3. Experiences in home gardens and in excursions were re- 
called and used to throw light on problems. 

4. Much spontaneous conversation developed among the chil- 
dren as they talked over their plans for making the garden 
and for selling their vegetables. 


National College of Education 

B. By means of constructive activities. 

1. In making the garden the children engaged in a variety 
of activities. 

(a) Marked out the garden plot. 

(b) Turned up the ground; pulverized the dirt, raked it 

(c) Drew a diagram of best places to plant seeds. 


Divided the garden plot according to the diagram. 
Planted the seeds at correct depth. 
Made garden markers for different plants. 
Weeded and watered the garden. 

2. The children carried on some experimentation with seeds. 

(a) Planted two boxes of peas and beans, one left in dark 
and one in sunlight. 

(b) Planted beans and peas in earth and on wet cotton. 

(c) Planted two boxes of beans and peas, one to be watered 
and one not. 

3. In preparing for the garden market the class carried on 
these activities, 
(a) Made and decorated booths in which to sell vegetables. 

Decorated boxes and baskets for holding vegetables ; 
pots for holding flowers. 

Made garden markers of wood to sell, and garden 
kneeling pads of oil cloth. 

Pulled up vegetables, sorted and priced them for sell- 

Made signs, posters and price tags. 
C. By means of factual reading. 

1. Extracts were read from seed catalogs, telling names of 
vegetables and flowers and how to plant them. 

2. The diagram of the garden plot was read. 

3. The children made and read a chart, recording results of 
experiments with seeds. 

Teachers' References 

Manual of Gardening 

Foods and Their Uses 

How the World is Fed 

How We are Fed 

The Story of Foods 

When Mother Lets Us 

School and Home Gar- 

The Child's Food Garden 

Science of Home and 

Harper's Book for Young 



Bailey, L. H. 
Carpenter, F. O. 
Carpenter, F. O. 
Chamberlain, J. 
Crissey, Forrest 
Duncan, Frances 

Davis, K. C. 

Kilpatrick, Van E. 
Trafton, G. H. 

Verrill, A. H. 

1925 Macmillan 

1908 Scribners 

1907 American Book 
1920 Macmillan 

1917 Rand McNally 

1909 Dodd Mead 

1918 Lippincott 

1919 World Book 

1926 Macmillan 

1914 Harper 

Units of Work in the Second Grade 117 

D. By means of arithmetic. 

1. Children used measuring and counting in making the 

(a) Measured the garden plot. 

(b) Divided the plot into quarter sections. 

(c) Measured in drawing garden diagram for the room. 

(d) Counted kinds of seeds, and number of rows. 

(e) Planted some seeds }i inch deep; others ~/ 2 inch and 
1 inch deep. 

2. The market required counting and handling of money. 

(a) Sorted vegetables in bunches, as, 6 radishes, 5 onions, 
10 lettuce leaves. 

(b) Priced vegetables for sale. 

(c) Made change in selling. 

(d) Counted money and deposited in bank. 

3. The decision was made to use funds for helping in decora- 
tion of children's dining room. 

IV. Meanings, attitudes and appreciations probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. Understanding of activities required in raising plants. 

B. Appreciation of thought and time and responsible care which 
must be given to production of vegetables and flowers. 

C. Understanding of activities involved in marketing vegetables. 

D. Appreciation of service of truck farmer, gardener, grocer, and 
our dependence on them. 

E. Appreciation of value of sunshine and rain and part they play 
in gardening. 

F. A respect for scientific experimentation. 

G. A pleasure in the beauty of growing and blooming plants. 

H. A greater readiness to eat and enjoy fresh garden vegetables. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. By means of creative composition. 

1. Children wrote simple stories on how to plant a garden. 

2. Results of different experiments with beans and peas were 
written up. 

3. Letters were sent to mothers telling them about the garden 
market, and inviting them to come. 

4. Spring poems were written about the garden, rain, sunshine, 
flowers ; as, 

118 National College of Education 


Spring is here and I am glad, 
'Cause I hear the birds calling, 
And see the rain falling, 
And hear the wind blowing, 
And see the flowers growing. 

What is Coming? 

What is coming? What is coming? 

Spring is coming. Spring is coming. 

What is here? What is here? 

Spring is here. Spring is here. 

And all the flowers and all the trees are in bloom. 


Rain, rain, coming fast, 
It is coming down at last. 
When the sun comes out 
There is a spluttering sprout. 

Rain, rain, do not fall, 

Do not make the grass grow tall. 

When the rain goes away, 

I am going out to play. 

The Rainbow 

Rainbow, rainbow, 

As you stretched across the sky, 

The sky was so blue, 

The sun was so bright, 

And so were the clouds 

That went slip-sliding by. 

B. By means of picture making. 

1. Farm pictures were drawn with gardens included. 

2. There was spontaneous painting and drawing of flowers 
and vegetables. 

3. Posters were designed to announce the garden market. 

C. By means of music. 

1. Songs of spring and gardens were used, such as: 

The Shower One Hundred Forty Folk Songs 

The Apple Tree House One Hundred Forty Folk Songs 

Planting a Garden One Hundred Forty Folk Songs 

The Farm One Hundred Forty Folk Songs 

My Garden of Flowers One Hundred Forty Folk Songs 

Singing Kindergarten Book of Folk Songs 

2. The class enjoyed selecting and orchestrating, for rhythm 
instruments, music with a spring-like mood. 

In May One Hundred Forty Folk Songs 

Come Lasses and Lads A Book of Songs 

The Sleepy Miller Kindergarten Book of Folk Songs 

Burny-Bee Kindergarten Book of Folk Songs 

Lavender's Blue Kindergarten Book of Folk Songs 

Units of Work in the Second Grade 


3. Music was found suitable for one of the children's own 
poems, "Rain." The familiar old song, "Rain, rain, go 
to Spain" found in the Kindergarten Book of Songs was 

Source Books 

Diller and Page 
Davison, Surette 
Davison, Surette, 


Rote Songs for Rhythm Bands 1930 Schirmer 

One Hundred Forty Folk Songs 1922 Schirmer 

A Book of Songs 1922 Schirmer 

A Kindergarten Book of Folk 1923 Schirmer 

D. By means of social activity. 

1. Some of the radishes and lettuce were used for the school 

2. The children enjoyed buying and selling at the Garden 
Market. The teachers and mothers were patrons of the 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. Study of flowers and flower arrangement. 

B. Preparation of vegetables and other foods for the table. 

C. Hygienic value of vegetables and fruits. 


AN OBJECTIVE in the Third Grade has been to help the children 
„ through a study of home and community life in various coun- 
tries to understand the effect of climate and environment on ways 
of living, and to appreciate the changes that are taking place every- 
where in the comfort and beauty of living, as different countries 
learn from each other. The children have even in Second Grade, 
shown eagerness to know how people live in other parts of the 
world. Their curiosity has been stimulated by stories of trips to 
other lands told by their parents, teachers, and friends; and by 
the presence in the college department of several foreign students 
who frequently give programs in foreign costume and conduct sales 
of beautiful articles from their own countries. 

One third-grade class, following a review of vacation experiences, 
made a study of new and old ways of traveling. After this ex- 
perience, they were eager to take an imaginary trip around the world. 
They went by train to San Francisco, stopping on the way to see 
certain scenic wonders. At San Francisco they embarked on an 
ocean vessel for Alaska, and later visited Hawaii, China, Arabia, and 
Holland. So enthusiastic were the travelers that the trip continued 
too long, and they were obliged to use an airplane in order to reach 
home before school closed in June. This interesting unit involved 
considerable study of transportation and routes, as well as of life in 
various environments. 

Another third-grade class studied homes in different lands during 
the first semester, and followed with a study of the building materials 
from which our own homes are constructed. Independent units on 
different countries have also been conducted, the children and teacher 
choosing the peoples to be studied. Two or more different lands 
have usually been included in a year's study, and the teacher has 
guided the choice so that decidedly different environments have been 
contrasted. Eskimos, Indians, Dutch and Philippine peoples were 
studied one year, and in the following year, Japan, Holland and 
Switzerland formed the grouping chosen. A study of Vikings gave 
much delight in a summer session, and in another summer session 
desert life in Arabia proved an interesting subject. 


Units of Work in the Third Grade 121 

Some units have been much more intensive than others, the amount 
of time spent depending upon the interest of the children and the 
availability of suitable books and materials. The teacher has helped 
the children to compare ways of living in each country studied with 
those of other countries and of our own community. The children 
have also been helped to understand the changes that are taking place 
in these other lands, and to distinguish between customs of an earlier 
period and present-day procedure. Frequently the children have en- 
joyed making costumes and constructing buildings typical of the 
country studied, and the climax of the unit has been a spontaneous 
dramatization of characteristic activities. 

In addition to these units of work in the social studies, the children 
have had some live science interests. A large aquarium was pur- 
chased by the third-grade children one year, and a study of water 
life was inherited by the succeeding group. Many kinds of water 
creatures have been kept at different times in the room aquarium, 
and recently excursions to the new Shedd Aquarium in Chicago have 
afforded an enriched experience. One group became keenly inter- 
ested in the scientific causes for seasonal changes, and an excursion 
to the Adler Planetarium was arranged, to see the wonderful motion 
picture of the movements of heavenly bodies. 

Another third-grade class because curious about the making of 
maple sugar, through a story read in the room library; and made 
an intensive study of maple trees and the art of sugar-making. A 
correspondence was carried on with the owner of a maple sugar farm 
in Vermont; and the children took orders for maple syrup and 
sugar and imported a small amount to sell. A picturesque maple 
sugar camp was erected under the maple trees on the campus, where 
their wares were displayed. 

The units outlined here were some that provoked particular in- 
terest on the part of the group engaged in the study. They have 
been selected from the work of three different years. Outcomes in 
social meanings and appreciations peculiar to the particular unit are 
included with the unit. All of the units have afforded opportunity 
for growth in certain desirable social attitudes and habits; as, co- 
operation and responsibility in carrying on group activities, inde- 
pendence in working out a small problem alone, respect for the rights 
and opinions of others in the group, appreciation of the contribution 

122 National College of Education 

of others, readiness to share ideas and materials with others, cour- 
teous conduct at school and on excursions, resourcefulness in using 
materials at hand, persistence in completing work begun. The units 
have contributed, too, in the development of the powers of expression 
through fine and industrial arts, music, dramatization and other 
avenues. Outcomes in terms of the tool subjects, Arithmetic and 
English, are summarized in Group Records of Progress, Part IV. 

Traveling in Old and New Ways 

A Unit of Work in the Third Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
gave background for activities. 

A. Previous unit. 

In the reports on summer vacations, the children told of the 
various ways they traveled during the summer. Thus they 
glimpsed the many interesting ways one might travel ; and then 
followed organization of this unit. 

B. Conversations. 

Conversation led from familiar types of travel to the older 
types. The interest was definitely settled on the transportation 
of long ago and far away. 

C. Pictures. 

Snapshots, postcards, picture books, moving pictures, news- 
paper and magazine clippings, library picture collection, were 
all brought into use. 

D. Travel Stories. 

1. Miss B. told the story of her travels in Ireland, Scotland 
and England. 

2. Miss S. related the story of her travels in Europe during 
the summer. 

E. Bringing of articles from home. 

1. Models. Pack horses, automobiles, coaches, covered 
wagons, many types of airplanes, zeppelin, Viking ship, 
birchbark canoe, kayak, were brought in from homes. 

2. Books. Books brought in by the children included Pic- 
torial Portfolio of the World ; The Picture Book of Travel ; 
A Book of Ships ; Wheel, Sail and Wing. 

3. Magazines. Magazines brought included copies of Na- 
tional Geographic, Travel, Alaska. 

II. Problems and questions which guided investigations. 

A. For the group. 

1. What are the kinds of transportation? 

2. What are some of the vehicles used in each kind of travel ; 
land, water, air? 

3. How will it be best to study all about transportation? 
Should everyone try to study about all kinds ? 

4. Would it be a good idea to have three committees? How 
should the class be divided into committees ? 



National College of Education 

OivD-time Vessels Reappear 

5. In what ways can we gain information about transporta- 

6. What would be the best way to use the picture collections 
and models brought in? 

7. What can we make that will show different sorts of trans- 
portation ? 

8. How can we share what we learn with other people? 

B. For the committee on land transportation. 

1. What were the first kinds of land travel in our country, 
in other countries ? 

2. Why do the people use dogs and sledges in Alaska ? 

3. Where is the jinrikisha used? Why is it still used to-day? 

4. Why do men still use pack animals in many places to-day? 

5. What did the Pony Express carry? 

6. What was the covered wagon? Who used it and why? 

7. Why do we need bridges and tunnels for travel? 

8. When were the first trains made ? What were they like ? 

9. When were the first automobiles made? How were they 
different from ours to-day? 

C. For the committee on water transportation. 

1. What was the first way men crossed bodies of water? 

Units of Work in the Third Grade 125 

2. How were the first canoes made? 

3. Who uses a kayak? Why is it suitable for their use even 
to-day ? 

4. What are some important differences between the very 
earliest boats, the sailboats, and the steamers of to-day? 

5. How have different peoples constructed different kinds of 
ships ? 

6. Are submarines ships? 

7. .Why do ships travel so fast now? 

8. How did early ocean trips vary in time of crossing from 
the ones to-day? 

D. For the committee on air transportation. 

1. For what purposes are airplanes used? 

2. What was the first means of transportation in the air ? 

3. What makes a balloon rise from the ground? 

4. What is a dirigible ? How is it constructed ? 

5. What are the kinds of planes and how do they differ? 

6. For what are amphibians used? 

7. How are planes equipped differently for landing on land, 
water, ice? 

8. How does an autogiro differ from other air vessels? 

9. What are some of the famous air trips made by Colonel 
Lindbergh and others? 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 

A. Through oral discussion. 

1. Group discussions were held concerning general organiza- 
tion of the work. 

2. Committee discussions were held on all phases of their 

3. Individuals reported progress to the teachers. 

4. Individuals shared bits of information with other members 
of the committee. 

5. The class organized a report of the unit to be put into a 
class bulletin for other grades to read. 

6. The class planned a program in which the various com- 
mittees might share with each other and their guests the 
information they had gained. 

B. Through constructive activities. 

1. The children prepared an exhibit of pictures and models 
brought in, labeling each one with a card bearing country, 
time and purpose. 

2. From w r ood individual children made models to use in con- 
nection with their committee reports: dogs and sledges, 


National College of Education 

jinrikisha, pack animals, covered wagon and oxen, car- 
riages, dugout, canoe, Viking ship, airplane and other simi- 
lar articles. 

3. Each committee made large posters on transportation. Free 
hand cutting from colored paper was done. 

4. Animals and boats were modeled from clay. 

5. One committee made a block print of a ship and printed 
it on a muslin square. 

6. Individuals made scrap books, containing collections of 
pictures and clippings on particular phases of the study, 
with written explanations. 

C. Through factual reading. 

1. Pamphlets on transportation were collected and used for 

2. Books and magazines on travel were collected from the 
home and school libraries and used for study. 

3. Individuals did much silent reading, followed by oral re- 
ports and occasionally oral reading to the committee. 

Aitchison, A. E. 

and Uttley, M. 
Chamberlain, J. F. 
Curtis, Nell C. 
Eaton, J. 

Fox, Florence C. 
Gravatt, Lila 
Hader, B. and E. 
Headley, E. A. 
Holland, R. S. 
Holland, R. S. 
Holland, R. S. 
Methley, A. A. 
Nathan, A. and E. 
Stephenson, M. B. 
Swift, Hildegarde 

Bachman, F. P. 

Bridges, T. C. 

Bridges, T. C. 

Caldwell, O. W. 
and Meier, W. H. 

Collins, A. F. 

Daniel, H. 
Dunham, Edith 

Children's References 

Across Seven Seas to 
Seven Continents 

How We Travel 


The Story of Transpor- 

How the World Rides 

Pioneers of the Air 

Picture Book of Travel 

How Other People Travel 

Historic Airplanes 

Historic Railroads 

Historic Ships 

How the World Travels 

The Iron Horse 

Wheel, Sail and Wing 

Little Blacknose 

Teacher's References 

Great Inventors and Their 

Young Folks' Book of the 

Young Folks' Book of 

Open Doors to Science 

Bird's Eye View of In- 
Ships of the Seven Seas 
Jogging Around the 

1925 Bobbs Merrill 

1924 Macmillan 
1927 Rand McNally 

1927 Harper- 

1929 Scribner 

1928 Mentzer Bush 
1928 Macmillan 

1926 Rand McNally 

1928 Macrae Smith 

1927 Macrae Smith 
1926 Macrae Smith 
1922 Stokes 

1931 Knopf 

1930 Rockwell 

1929 Harcourt Brace 

1918 American Book 
1928 Little Brown 

1925 Little Brown 

1926 Ginn 

1926 Crowell 

1925 Doubleday 

1905 Stokes 

Units of Work in the Third Grade 127 

Teacher's References — continued 

Leeming, Joseph Ships and Cargoes 1926 Doubleday 

Rocheleau, W. F. Transportation 1928 Flanagan 

Smith, L. Y. Romance of Aircraft 1919 Stokes 

Tappan, E. M. American Hero Stories 1920 Houghton Mifflin 

Van Metre, T. B. Trains, Tracks and 1926 Simmons 

Travel Boardman 

Wade, M. H. Adventurers All 1927 Appleton 

Williams, A. Romance of Modern Lo- 1904 Lippincott 


D. Through use of number. 

1. Careful measuring was required to construct in proportion 
the dogs, oxen, pack animals ; and also sledges, covered 
wagons, and other vehicles. Attempt was made to work 
out a fairly accurate scale of sizes. 

2. Much computation was needed in woodwork; as, 

(a) If one ox is nine inches long, how long a strip of 
wood is needed to cut four oxen? 

(b) If it takes four minutes to saw one dog, how long a 
time will be needed to complete six dogs ? 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. Some understanding of the development of transportation, of 
the crude and slow methods used in early times. 

B. Knowledge of how methods of transportation in different 
countries have depended on geographic conditions. 

C. Understanding and appreciation of the continuous achieve- 
ments of men in overcoming difficulties in transportation. 

D. Wonder and gratitude for the attainments of modern science 
in construction of vehicles, bridges, tunnels, highways. 

E. Some appreciation of the changes wrought by growing speed 
of transportation. 

F. Admiration of the accomplishment of classmates in production 
of models, gathering of information, and other work. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through creative composition. 

1. Individuals created original narratives to commemorate in- 
teresting events in the development of transportation. 
These were told or read aloud to the group and also in- 
corporated in individual scrap-books. 

2. Individuals wrote discriptions on such topics as : Covered 
Wagons, The Jinrikisha, Pack Animals, Carriages of 
Early Days, Sledges, Canoes, Autogiros. These were used 
either in scrap-books or in connection with exhibits. 

128 National College of Education 

3. A class report was composed for a class bulletin. 

B. Through picture-making. 

There was much spontaneous picture-making. 

1 . Large pictures on travel were painted. 

2. Large crayon drawings were also made. 

3. Large blackboard drawings were made, several children 
often working together. 

4. Covers were designed for individual scrap books. 

C. Through social activity. 

1. At an assembly of the entire class, each committee reported 
on the results of its study and work. The class was so 
enthusiastic, that it was decided to share the reports with 
other groups. 

2. The Fourth Grade was invited to attend an assembly, to 
see the exhibits, and hear a review of the study. 

3. A program was arranged for the mothers, and invitations 
were sent. The chairman of each committee announced 
the contributions from his committee, together with the 
names of the speakers. 

VI. New interests. 

After completing this unit of work, the children were eager to 
take an imaginary trip together traveling in as many ways as pos- 

Making a Trip Around the World 

An Enterprise in the Third Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background for activities. 

A. Reports on vacation experiences. One child had been to 
Europe; others had been in various sections in the United 
States. Class decided to take a trip around the world. Stories 
were read from diary of child who had been in England. 

B. Pictures and objects contributed by teachers, children and 

C. Large globe (new) which children found in the room after 

D. Excursions to Field Museum to see exhibits from various 

E. Plays given by the college students for children of the school 
and community. 

II. Problems and questions which led to investigation. 

A. Related to plans for the trip. 

1. What countries shall be included in the trip? 

2. What continents will be touched? What oceans crossed? 

3. What possible routes can be taken? 

4. What are the best means of transportation? 

5. What should be taken in clothing, conveniences? 

6. Which countries are not cold? 

7. What is the meaning of equator, zone? 

8. What causes climate, day, night, seasons? 

9. Plow may records be kept of the trip ? 

B. Related to the trip across the United States. 

1. What of interest can be seen crossing the United States? 

2. How can the class divide and go by three routes ? 

3. What states are crossed by each group? 

4. What cities are glimpsed? 

5. What is a country, state, city, village? 

6. What farm areas are passed? What prairies, mountains, 
rivers ? What famous scenic regions ? 

7. How are land and water bodies formed: rivers, lakes, 
plains, mountains, rapids? 

8. How was Grand Canyon and Salt Lake made? 

9. How are different soils and minerals formed : rocks, salt, 


130 National College of Education 

10. How much time is needed for the trip to San Francisco? 
C. Related to the ocean voyage and travel in foreign lands. 

1 . What sights are seen on the ocean ? What kinds of boats, 
airplanes ? 

2. What causes rain, fog, snow, wind, icebergs? 

3. What of interest can be seen in countries visited: Alaska, 
Hawaii, China, Sahara Desert? 

4. How do the people dress? How are their homes built? 
How is food produced and prepared? 

5. What plants and animals are seen? 

6. How does climate effect the living conditions? 

7. What are the customs of each country? 

8. How do the people travel? 

9. What do these countries give to the United States? 

10. What kind of a play could represent all countries studied? 
What costumes of each country could be used? What 
scenery would be typical of each country? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through oral discussion. 

1. Discussion of travel possibilities and plans, followed by 
decision to write letters to travel agencies. 

2. Discussion of how to keep a diary of the trip. 

3. Discussion of how to make a map to trace trips, kinds of 
maps and map symbols. 

4. Discussion of possible routes to San Francisco. 

5. Reports of groups choosing each route, as to what they 
would see. 

6. Discussing of plans for collecting and exhibiting objects 
of interest. 

7. Oral reports on material read about different countries. 

8. Discussion of objects brought by the class and of the ex- 
hibits seen at the Field Museum. 

9. Discussion of plans for play to be given. 

10. Discussion of play as means of showing work studied and 
giving pleasure. 

B. Through informational reading. 

1. Reading of pamphlets sent by travel bureaus. 

2. Study of globe to learn continents, oceans, zones, equator, 
and location of countries to be visited. 

3. Study of geography references to learn more about climate, 
seasons, weather. 

4. Study of map of United States; learning to read map 
symbols, for highlands, lowlands, water bodies. 

Units of Work in the Third Grade 131 

5. Study of railroad maps ; tracing trip to San Francisco by 
three routes. 

6. Study of pamphlets describing travel in United States. 

7. Study of books describing foreign lands ; learning to use the 
library for reference materials. 

8. Review of books previously read to get accurate ideas for 
costumes, scenery and properties. 

Books Read by all the Children 

Aitchinson, A. E. Across Seven Seas to 1926 Bobbs Merrill 

Seven Continents 
Carpenter, Frank Around the World with 1917 American Book 

George Children 

Perdue, Hannah Child Life in Other 1918 Rand McNally 

Avis Lands 

Thompson, Ruth P. Our Neighbors Near and 1926 Wagner Harr 

Books Used by Some Children 

Parker, E. P. & Journeys in Distant 1924 Silver Burdett 

Barrows, H. H. Lands 

Perkins, Lucy Fitch Twin Series 1926 Houghton Mifflin 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Making of large world map upon which to trace trip. 

2. Making of individual pictorial maps of some countries. 

3. Constructing book for diary. 

4. Making sand-pan land and water forms. 

5. Arranging exhibit of pictures and objects collected, illus- 
trating trip across the United States. 

6. Making charts showing foods used in different countries. 

7. Making charts of plants, animals of different countries. 

8. Arranging pictorial tables representing the various coun- 

9. Making costumes for the play. 

10. Making properties and scenery for the play. 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Finding the cost of transportation. 

2. Finding approximate cost of bags, clothing, accessories 
for the trip. 

3. Measuring and drawing to scale, to make maps. 

4. Learning and using table of linear measure in measuring 
for constructive activities. Use of ruler involving y 2 , Y\, 
}i inches. 

5. Learning and using table of time; computing time for trip, 
changes of time and causes for such. 

6. Reading and writing large numbers, used in learning size 
of population of various countries. 

132 National College of Education 

7. Comparing size of other countries with the size of the 
United States and separate states; also population. 

8. Computing mileage. 

9. Purchasing materials needed for stage properties and cos- 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. Recognition and appreciation of the bigness of the world. 

B. Some understanding and appreciation of wonder of forces 
governing natural conditions around the world. 

C. Some knowledge and appreciation of grandeur and beauty in 
our own country and others. 

D. Understanding of the part environment plays in molding habits 
and customs. 

E. Appreciation of gifts given by other countries to us. 

F. Appreciation of the unique charm of each country visited, re- 
vealed in natural beauty, type of buildings, picturesque cos- 
tumes, characteristic habits. 

G. Gratitude to travel bureaus affording help, and understanding 
of their service to the community. 

H. Joy in preparing to share knowledge with others. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through use of literature. 

1. Memorization of poem, "The Wonderful World." 

2. Oral reading of some stories of foreign lands. 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Composing letters to absent members of the class telling 
them about group experiences. 

2. Composing a diary describing imaginary journey. 

(a) Trip on the train. 

(b) Stop-overs at scenic regions. 

(c) Day in San Francisco; embarking on an ocean liner. 

(d) Story of interesting sights in each country visited. 

3. Imaginary letters to friends about the trip. 

4. Articles written for school newspaper and magazine about 
the places visited. 

C. Through picture making, design, decoration. 

1. Drawing to illustrate diary stories of trip to San Francisco. 

2. Painting of some of the scenic beauties, as Grand Canyon, 
Rocky Mountains. 

3. Making posters for diaries, showing typical scenes of each 
country visited. 

Units of Work in the Third Grade 133 

4. Painting scenery for play. 

5. Making designs for programs. 

D. Through music. 

1. Creating rhythms to typical folk-music of many of the 
countries visited. 

2. Singing some of the folk-songs such as : 

African — "Day Dawns with Freight to Haul" 

Recorded by Natalie Curtis in "Songs and Tales 
from the Dark Continent." 
Chinese — "Song of the Chinese Rowers", with music from 
Hamilton's History, and text created by the class. 
"New Year's Wishes" 
Hawaiian — "Bamboo Fairies" 
"My Boat" 
"Aloha Oe" 

Sources and Reference Books 

Botsford, Florence Folk-Songs of Many 1922 Womans Press 

Peoples, Vol. II 

Crossm, Ermine Child Songs from Hawaii 1922 C. C. Birchard 

Hamilton, Clarence Outlines of Music His- 1924 Oliver Ditson 


La Salle, Dorothy Rhythms and Dances 1926 A. S. Barnes 

Lincoln, Jennette The Festival Book 1929 A. S. Barnes 

Myers and Officer Folk-Songs of the Four 1929 G. Schirmer 


E. Through dramatic activity and social activity in sharing experi- 

1. Playing games of different countries on the playground. 

2. Holding assemblies with Fourth and Fifth grades ; giving 
talks, playing victrola records, showing lantern slides of 
places visited. 

3. Acting one scene for each country in the play written by 
the children. 

4. Giving play once for parents ; once for children of higher 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. Explorers and discoverers of the North and South Polar 

B. Settlement of United States by people of other countries. 

Our Trip Around the World 

Some Typical Extracts from Children s Diaries 

Across the United States 

I am going around the world. First I will leave Evanston and go to Chicago 
to take the train. I get on the train. The porter will show me the room to take. 
Then the train pulls out of the station and we are on our way. 

Then we come to the country, and I see a farm. Oh, I see a cow and a 
calf. Oh, I see a pig and a horse. I see a pasture with sheep in it. I soon 
come to a woods. Then we see lots of trees and birds. I see a robin in the tree. 
We soon get out of the woods. We come to hills after we cross a bridge. We 
go up a hill. We stop at a station, then start off on the way again. When the 
engine starts we hear the puff, puff, puff. 

Night comes. Then the porter makes the beds. The next morning we 
are near the mountains. Soon we come to a tunnel. We go in the tunnel. It 
is very dark, but it is a little, short tunnel so that we get out quick. We come to 
another station and we see people getting off the train. 

Then we see an Indian town. We see pots that the Indians made. Soon we 
see a big bear. He is eating honey. We see a ranch and many horses. A man 
is riding the horse. Soon we come to a woods. We see a wolf. He is chasing 
a rabbit. And we see an eagle flying in the air. We come to a hilly place. We 
go up it and down. 

Soon we come to the Grand Canyon. We stop there a week. The last day 
we get on the train and we start again. We are on our way. 

We saw a lot of pretty things at the Grand Canyon. Soon we came to Los 
Angeles. We got off the train and went to the hotel. The next day we got our 
trunks and called a cab. We were almost late, but we-got on the boat and were 
on the way to Alaska. 

My Stay in Alaska 

I am in Alaska. It is cold in Alaska. I am landing in Nome. I am putting 
on my fur coat. It is warm with my fur coat on. Then I get off the boat and go 
to an igloo on a sled. I like the igloo very much. I see some Eskimos hunting. 
I like the lunch they have. When they have light for six months and night for 
six months it is a lot different from our days. There are no trees in Alaska like 
there are in Chicago. 

Arriving in Hawaii 

We are arriving in Honolulu. Hawaiian lais girls are meeting us on the 
docks. They have lais around their necks. We get off the boat and a little girl 
comes up to us. We each get a lai. The Hawaiian band is playing. Hawaiian 
girls are singing a song. 

We go up the street to the hotel. We get our suitcases unpacked, and we 
go down and get a carriage and go out sight-seeing. We leave town and we ride 
along the ocean. We see many cocoa palms. Then we go inland and see many 

My Story of Hawaii 

In Hawaii it is very hot, and in Alaska it is cold. It was very funny when 
1 got in Hawaii because in Alaska it was so cold and in Hawaii it's so hot. 
When we got in the harbor of Honolulu the coin boys dived after nickels and 
pennies. They held them in their mouths. Some mountains are so high that 
when you climb them you find snow on them. Hawaii has lots of Chinese and 
not many natives. 


Visiting in Japan 

A Study in Third Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Previous study of people in Hawaiian Islands which led to 
an interest in Japan. 

B. Contact with Japanese students in college. 

C. Exhibit of these students' costumes. 

D. Excursion to see the Japanese exhibits at the Field Museum. 

E. Writing and receiving letters from Japanese children in Hawaii. 

F. Playing Japanese games on the playground. 

G. Japanese exhibit in the room made possible by the contribu- 
tions of the children. 

H. Talks about the customs of the people given by a student in 
the college who had formerly lived in Japan. 

I. Report of a child who attended a luncheon in Chicago where 
a Japanese princess talked. 

J. Silk exhibit from a silk mill, showing the life of a silkworm. 

K. Attending World Mart, — a bazaar given by the foreign girls of 
the college. 

II. Problems and questions proposed by the children which led to 

A. Concerning the country. 

1. Where is Japan? 

2. How long would it take to go there ? 

3. Are there high mountains? 

4. What causes volcanoes ? 

5. What kind of climate does Japan have? Does it rain often? 

6. How are their houses made? 

7. Why are there no high buildings? 

B. Concerning the people. 

1. Do many of the Japanese people dress like we do? 

2. Why don't they wear leather shoes? 

3. Do most of the people live like early Japanese or have they 
adopted the customs of the Americans ? 

4. Do they have street cars and taxis? 

5. What things do they eat? 

6. How is rice cultivated? 

7. Are other clothing materials than silk manufactured in 
Japan? Do they have factories? 


136 National College of Education 

8. What kinds of churches do they have? 

9. What holidays do they celebrate? Do they keep Christ- 
mas ? 

10. What are their schools like? How do they write? 

11. Do the children work ? 

12. Why is their skin so dark? 

13. Would you see many jinrikishas if you went to Japan? 

14. Why do the Japanese have so many flowers? 

15. Do they have a president? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through oral language. 

1. Conversation between teachers and children about general 
interests in Japan. 

2. Outline worked out by teachers and children, giving defi- 
nite things to find out about Japan. 

3. Study of these definite things — usually read from stories, 
then discussed. 

4. Many conversations with Japanese students. 

B. Through factual reading. 

1. Study of globe and maps to get comparative ideas of the 
size of Japan with other countries and an idea of the loca- 
tion of the country. 

2. Reading of many pamphlets to find out about the silk in- 

3. Reading many books to find out about the country, homes, 
gardens, modes of travel, food, religion, schools, of Japan. 

4. Reading from encyclopedia in the library to find the number 
of people living in Japan and to find out about the size of 
the country. 

5. Reading clippings from newspapers brought in by children 
and teachers. 

6. Listening to Japanese student read from Japanese news- 

Children's References 
Carpenter, F. G. Around the World With 1917 American Book 

the Children 
Perdue, H. A. Child Life in Other Lands 1918 Rand McNally 

Piper, Watty Little Folks of Other 1929 Piatt & Munk 

Redway, J. W. All Around Asia 1910 Scribner 

Shillig, E. E. The Four Wonders 1913 Rand McNally 

Sugimoto, E. & With Taro and Hara in 1926 Stokes 

Austin, N. V. Japan 

Thompson, Ruth Our Neighbors Near and 1926 Wagner 

Altemus Publishers Wee Folks from Every- 1929 Altemus 


Units of Work in the Third Grade 


Beauty Lures to Far-away Japan 

Anderson, Isabel 
Bryan, J. Ingram 
Clark, J. I. 
Clement, E. W. 

Goodrich, J. K. 

Gunsaulus, H. C. 

Gunsaulus, H. C. 

Headley, E. A. 

Hearn, L. 

Hershey, A. S. 
Holmes, Burton 
Methley, A. A. 

Street, Julian 
Weston, W. A. 

Teacher's References 

The Spell of Japan 

The Civilization of Japan 

Japan at First Hand 

A Handbook of Modern 

Our Neighbors : The 

Japanese Festivals, Games 

and Pastimes 
Japanese Temples and 

How Other People 

Japan, An Attempt at In- 
Modern Japan 
Happy Homes in Foreign 

Mysterious Japan 
A Wayfarer in Japan 

1914 Page 

1928 Holt 

1918 Dodd Mead 
1913 McClurg 

1913 Browne 

1923 Field Museum 

1924 Field Museum 
1926 Rand McNally 
1924 Macmillan 

1919 Bobbs Merrill 

1922 Stokes 

1921 Doubleday Doran 
1926 Houghton Mifflin 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Making Japanese pottery. 

2. Making maps showing where Japanese Islands and Korea 
are and the location of China. 

138 National College of Education 

3. Making covers for booklets. 

4. Making scenery for the play. 

5. Planning the kimonos and cutting and sewing them. 

6. Dyeing the materials for the sashes. 

7. Pressing crayon designs in the materials and ironing the 

8. Making a few Japanese shoes. 

9. Building and painting the Japanese house. 

10. Making a Japanese screen. 

11. Making programs for the play. 
D. Through arithmetic. 

1. Writing of numbers in estimating the size and population 
of the country. 

2. Use of money in comparing Japanese coins with ours and 
in figuring prices of their products and salaries of their 
working people. 

3. Much measuring in the construction of the house. 

4. Measuring to get the proportions in the scenery. 

5. Measuring for spacing of the designs on the booklets. 

6. Measuring to get an idea of the heights of their low build- 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. Interest in the habits and customs of the people of Japan and 
a realization of many of the reasons why foreign people are 
unlike us. 

B. Realization that foreign people are no more strange to us than 
we are to them. 

C. Very fine attitude toward the contributions to society made by 
Japan, and other foreign countries, through their exports, art, 
books, inventions. 

D. Realization of the need for trade and cooperation of the 
countries. • 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through creative composition. 

1. Writing original Japanese stories. 

2. Writing Japanese verses. 

3. Composing an original play, in which three American 
travelers visit a Japanese family, and learn all the customs 
of Japan. 

B. Through literature. 

1. Reading orally and telling Japanese tales. 

Units of Work in the Third Grade 139 

Hearn, L. Japanese Fairy Tales 1924 Boni and Liveright 

Perkins, L. F. The Japanese Twins 1912 Houghton Mifflin 

Rowe, Dorothy The Begging Deer 1929 Macmillan 

Williston, T. P. Japanese Fairy Tales 1904 Rand McNally 

2. Hearing Japanese tales told in the Japanese language and 
translated by a Japanese student. 

3. Reading orally translations of Japanese verses. 

My Travelship (Book of Japan) 1927 Bookhouse 

C. Through picture-making, design, decoration. 

1. Making decorative designs for clay pottery. 

2. Creating illustrations of stories read. 

3. Making designs for kimonos. 

4. Making designs for booklet covers. 

5. Designing the scenery for the play. 

6. Decorating the screen. 

D. Through music. 

1. Hearing Japanese children's songs sung by two Japanese 

2. Singing Japanese songs such as : The Moon, The Four 
Seasons in Kiota, Momotaro (The Peach Boy), Cherry 
Blooms, The Tortoise and the Hare. 

3. Creating rhythms to Japanese folk music. 

4. Learning Japanese dances. 

Source Books 

Botsford, F. Folk-Songs of Many 1922 Woman's Press 

Peoples, Vol. II 

Foresman, Robert First Book of Songs 1925 American Book 

Foresman, Robert Second Book of Songs 1925 American Book 

Armitage, Teresa Junior Laurel Songs — 1917 C. C. Birchard 

Special Edition 

E. Through dramatic activity. 

1. Dramatization of doll festival on March 3. 

2. Dramatization of original Japanese play, "A Day in Japan." 
The information gained from the study of Japan was given 
out to three American travelers who had just arrived in 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. Study of people in other foreign lands. 

B. Interest in clothing, growing out of the study of silk. 

C. Keen interest in foods. 

D. Much interest in different methods of transportation used in 
the world to-day, started with the jinrikisha and early modes 
of travel. 

Living in Holland 

A Unit of Work in the Third Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused interest and provided 
background for activities. 

A. Clippings from a local newspaper describing an old Dutch 
windmill located in Evanston. 

B. Excursion to see windmill. 

C. Spring operetta on Holland given in Evanston; newspaper 
pictures and articles about the operetta. 

D. Tulips blooming in Lincoln Park of Chicago. 

E. Reports made by different pupils of their trip to Holland, 
Michigan (a Dutch settlement). 

F. Interesting talks by Miss B about her experiences in Hol- 

G. Dutch costumes owned by a few children. 

H. Many interesting Dutch curios brought by children from home 

I. Use of slides and films : 

Spencer Film Slide Library — Holland 
Kodascope Library — Holland (1028) 

II. Problems and questions proposed by the children which led 
to investigation. 

A. Concerning the country. 

1. Where is Holland? 

2. How is it reached from Chicago? . 

3. How is the country different from the State of Illinois? 

4. What are dykes? Where are the dykes in Holland? 

5. Why are the dykes not built entirely around the sea- 
coast ? 

6. What is the Zuider Zee? 

7. Why are there so many canals? 

8. What is the climate? 

B. Concerning the people and their activities. 

1. Do the people dress now as shown in the pictures of Dutch 
villages ? 

2. Why do the peasant people wear wooden shoes? 

3. How are wooden shoes made? 

4. What are the houses like in the old Dutch villages ? Why 
were they built "on stilts"? How are they furnished? 


Units of Work in the Third Grade 141 

5. Are there brick houses in the cities? Where do the people 
get lumber? Are there forests? 

6. Do storks really live on the tops of houses? Are they as 
useful as Dutch stories indicate? 

7. How large are the windmills and for what are they used? 

8. Why is Holland a dairy country? 

9. What do the people do besides making butter and cheese? 

10. Are there factories? 

11. Are there many trains or is most of the travel by water? 

12. How is transportation by water carried on in winter when 
the canals are frozen ? 

13. Is the food much the same as ours? 

14. Are the children in school the same amount of time each 
"day that American children are? Are there colleges and 
universities ? 

15. What is the language like? 

16. Are the Dutch children good swimmers? 

17. Do the Dutch children like nature? What kind of animals 
and birds are found in Holland? Are there other flowers 
besides tulips? 

18. What kinds of games do Dutch children like? 

19. Have the Dutch people ever fought in wars? Do they 
have schools like West Point ? 

20. Do they have a king or a president? 

21. Where does the queen live and what does she do? How 
came she to be queen? How did the very first queen or 
king become the ruler? 

Note: Although the study began with peasant life in Holland, 
the children showed keen interest in learning about present- 
day living there. 

III. Finding answers to questions and problems. 

A. Through oral discussion. 

1. Oral conversations recalling all past experiences of in- 
dividual children that would throw light on questions : trips 
of parents and friends to Holland, plays seen. 

2. Oral conversations about Dutch pictures, curios, costumes 
brought in by individual children. 

3. Oral conversations about group experiences : excursion, 

4. Oral reports and discussion following reading, day by day, 
concerning the dykes, canals, windmills, houses, clothing, 
food, and industries, and their adaptation to the country. 

5. Oral comparisons made between Holland and other coun- 


National College of Education 

tries and Holland and our own country, as to habits and 
customs of the people, industries, resources. Comparisons 
made continually between village life in Holland and 
modern city life. 

6. Talks with people who had visited Holland; many ques- 
tions asked and answered about their personal experiences 
in Holland. 

7. Oral discussion of plans for constructive activities illustrat- 
ing life in Holland. 

B. Through informational reading. 

1. Study of large globe and map to determine location, size 
and physical features of Holland, compared with other 
countries of Europe. 

2. Independent reading of books on Holland to discover 
answers to questions, followed often by oral reports and 

3. Reading from encyclopedias in the library to gain informa- 
tion not found in story books. 

Carpenter, F. G. 

Chance, L. M. 

Dalrymple, J. & 
McDonald, E. A. 
Hall, M. E. 
McManus, Blanche 
Perdue, Hannah A. 
Perkins, Lucy Fitch 
Shaw, E. R. 

Thompson, R. P. 

Children's References 

Around the World with 

Little Folks of Many 

Marta in Holland 

Jan and Betje 
Our Little Dutch Cousins 
Child Life in Many Lands 
The Dutch Twins 
Big People and Little 

People of Other Lands 
Our Neighbors Near and 


1917 American Book 
1904 Ginn 

1911 Little Brown 

1914 Merrill 
1906 Page 

1918 Rand McNally 
1911 Houghton Mifflin 
1900 American Book 

1926 Wagner Harr 

Selected material from school readers and children's encyclopedias. 

Beard, C. A. & 

Bagley, W. C. 

Burnham, Smith 

Clark, Vinnie B. 
Dunton, Lucy 

Teachers' References 

Our Old World Back- 

Our Beginnings in Europe 
& America 


School Children the 
World Over 

1925 Macmillan 

1918 Winston 

1925 Silver, Burdett 
1909 Stokes 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Preparing exhibits of articles from Holland contributed 
by teachers and children ; making labels for use in exhibit. 

2. Making butter and cheese to find out how this industry 
was conducted in Dutch villages. 

3. Painting flower pots for bulbs; planting of bulbs. 

Units of Work in the Third Grade 143 

4. Building Dutch windmill and three houses large enough 
for children to play in ; painting houses and windmills 
(composition board used). 

5. Making curtains for the Dutch houses. 

6. Making Dutch peasant costumes and caps ; dyeing the cloth 
and sewing the garments. 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Measuring liquids in using milk for cheese and for churn- 
ing butter. 

2. Much counting and multiplying in figuring the number of 
bulbs used for planting a certain area when a given estimate 
of an area was known. 

3. . Measuring to know how much soil to buy for bulb pots ; 
work with money in buying bulbs and soil for planting. 

4. Much measuring of lengths in making windmill and Dutch 
houses ; and in making costumes and curtains. 

5. Making comparisons in size of Holland and other countries, 
using square miles and statistics on population. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes and appreciations, probably 
developed through these experiences. 

A. Appreciation of characteristics of Dutch people: industry, 
thrift, cleanliness. 

B. Understanding of reasons why their environment caused them 
to live differently, in many respects, than people of other 

C. Appreciation of quaint costumes worn by Dutch peasants ; of 
picturesque landscapes dotted with windmills ; of unusual habits 
and customs. 

D. Admiration for progress that has been made in Holland. 

E. Understanding of the changes that have taken place in Holland 
in types of building, in dress, in transportation, in methods of 
conducting industry. 

F. Admiration for the ability of the Dutch children in skating 
and other sports. 

G. Admiration for the peaceable attitude of the Dutch people; 
and their interest in education and peaceful pursuits. 

H. Some understanding of the type of government in Holland. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

Oral reading of some stories of especial interest and charm ; as, 

The Leak in the Dyke Dutch legend 

The Dutch Twins Lucy Fitch Perkins 

Jan and Betje Hall 

144 National College of Education 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Writing of verses and original stories following picture 

2. Writing of stories telling of phases of peasant life, for 
Dutch books. 

3. Group composition of a play based on the legend, "The 
Leak in the Dyke." 

4. Much original oral expression in acting the parts of the 

C. Through picture-making, design, decoration. 

1. Drawing crayon pictures illustrating stories read from 

2. Drawing pictures to illustrate stories in original books. 

3. Creating designs for house decorations and border for 

4. Creating designs for girls' aprons. 

5. Originating decoration for covers of Dutch books. 

D. Through music. 

1. Learning Dutch folk-songs and tunes such as: A Spring 
Maid, A Night in the Woods, Ponto's Lost His Tail, Tiny 

2. Singing games such as : Follow the Leader, Going to 

3. Learning Dutch clog dance. 

Source Books and Material 

Foresman, Robert First Book of Songs 1925 American Book 

Roentgen, J. Old Dutch Nursery 1917 McKay 

Rhymes and Singing 

Surette, Davison One Hundred Forty Folk- 1922 E. C. Schirmer 


E. Through dramatic activity. 

1. Giving original play centered around the legend, "The 
Leak in the Dyke." 

2. Repeating play as part of School Fair held during last 
week of school. Parents and several children from other 
grades shared the pleasure of the play and the exhibit. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. Interest in people of other countries where industries are 
similar to those of Holland, as Switzerland. 

B. Interest in different kinds of transportation. 

C. Interest in different foods and the preparation of them. 

D. Interest in people living in countries where the climate and 
physical features are extremely different. 

Maintaining an Aquarium 

A Continuing Interest in the Third Grade 

I. Enriching experiences. 

A. Exhibits. 

1. Those brought by children from home, including fish, tad- 
poles, snails. 

2. Those found in the science laboratory of the College. 

B. Excursions. 

1. To the canal (not far from the school). The brink was 
visited and observations made as to the kind of water life 
which could be found nearby. 

2. To the Fish Hatchery at the Wilmette Harbor. 

3. To the Shedd Aquarium in Chicago. 

4. To the Pet and Fish store to buy plants and fish for the 
large aquarium which had been purchased by the Third 
Grade the previous year. 

C. Pictures of various types and kinds of fish. (National Geo- 
graphic, Nature Magazine and Outdoor America provided 
many. ) 

D. Articles posted on the Bulletin board, cut from magazines and 

E. Reports given by various children explaining the preparation 
of home aquariums. 

F. Reading of letters received from various organizations for the 
care of fish ; as, Department of Interior, Washington, D. C. ; 
also the Izaak Walton League. (A list of available films may 
be had.) 

G. Making close observation of the development of animal life 
in the aquarium after it was set up in the room. 

II. Problems and questions. 
A. Concerning the aquarium. 

1. Why do people have aquariums? 

2. What is a balanced aquarium? How can we balance our 
aquarium ? 

3. What kind of an aquarium do we wish to set up, tropical, 
salt water or an ordinary one? 

4. What are the main points to keep in mind in the prepara- 
tion of an aquarium: — 

(a) How much water should be used? 

(b) How many fish to a gallon of water? 


146 National College of Education 

(c) What creatures can be kept in an aquarium? 

(d) How many gallons of water will our aquarium hold? 
How long is it? How wide and how high? How 
many cubic inches in a gallon? How can we measure 
the amount of water ? 

(e) What kind of plant life do we need and how much? 

(f) How should the water be changed and how often? 

(g) What is the best location in the room for an aquarium ? 
B. Concerning the fish. 

1. What and how and when are fish and other water creatures 

2. How can sick fish be cared for? What are the symptoms 
of sick fish? What are some of the common diseases of 

3. How are fish fitted for living in the water? How do they 
protect themselves? 

4. How are baby fish born, and how are they cared for ? 

5. What are the names and habits of some of the common 

6. What kind of water creatures are there, that are not fish? 

7. What are some of the queerest fish? 

8. How do fish eat, breathe? Can fish hear, feel? 

9. What are the names of parts of the fish and the purpose 
of each part; as, gills, fins, scales? 

10. How do snails, tadpoles, differ from fish? 

11. Where do various kinds of fish come from? How can 
fish be brought to a large aquarium (as the Shedd Aqua- 
rium in Chicago) ? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through oral reports and discussions. 

1. Discussion of excursions taken to hatcheries, stores and 

2. Reports and discussions of stories read from books and 
pamphlets, and films seen both by children and teacher. 

3. Discussion of oral and written reports brought in by groups 
and individual children, on various topics, such as, 

"How big is our aquarium?" 

"What kind of plant life do we need?" 

"How many fish can we keep in our aquarium?" 

"How are fish especially fitted for living in the water?" 

4. Reports of detailed observations made by individuals, while 
visiting hatcheries and aquariums, and also while observ- 
ing life in room aquarium. 

Units of Work in the Third Grade 


5. Discussion of letters received from informational sources; 
as, State Game and Fish Commissioner, United States 
Bureau of Fisheries. 

6. Discussion of drawings made by group. 

7. Discussion of stories written by children. 

8. Making plans for keeping records, writing stories and 
poems, and making drawings or illustrations. 

9. Appointing committees for care of fish, and other responsi- 

B. Through informational reading. 

1. Reading pamphlets sent by Bureau at Washington, D. C. 

2. Reading mimeographed material, composed by the teacher, 
also group compositions. 

3. Reading informational material found in encyclopedias and 
natural science readers and books. 

4. Studying maps to locate the native home of various kinds 
of fish. 

5. Studying diagrams and pictures of anatomy of fish to learn 
how they are fitted for life in the water. 

6. Reading pictures, shown in books, magazines and films, 
used in explaining fish and plant life. 

7 . Reading records of experiments performed. 

8. Reading directions for the performing of experiments. 

Burgess, Thornton 

Compton, F. E. 

Henderson, Daniel 
Kaempfer, Fred 

Mellen, Ida 

Patch, Edith M. 

Persing, E. C. & 

Thiele, C. L. 
Trafton, Gilbert H. 

Books Used By Children 

The Burgess Sea Shore 
Book for Children 

Compton's Pictured En- 

Children of the Tide 

The Aquarium — Care and 

The Young Folk's Book 
of Fishes 

First Lessons in Nature 

Elementary Science 

Nature Study and Science 

1929 Little Brown 

1926 Appleton 

1930 Kaempfer 

1927 Dodd Mead 
1926 Macmillan 
1930 Appleton 
1930 Macmillan 

Comstock, Anna B. 

Crowder, William 

Downing, Elliot R. 
Innes, William T. 

Wolf, Herman T. 

Books Used By the Teacher 

Handbook of Nature 

Dwellers of the Sea and 

Our Living World 
Goldfish Varieties and 

Tropical Aquarium 

Goldfish Breeds and other 

Aquarium Fish 

1929 Comstock 
1923 Macmillan 

1928 Longmans Green 

1929 Innes and Sons 

Innes and Sons 

148 National College of Education 

Pamphlet and Magazine References 

James, M. C. Propagation of Pond Fishes — Document No. 


Bureau of Fisheries, Washington, D. C. 
Mellen, Ida Tropical Toy Fishes 

National Geographic Magazine — March, 
Smith, Hugh M. Goldfish and Their Cultivation in America. 

National Geographic Magazine— Vol. XLVI 
Townsend, Chas. Haskins Our Heritage of Fresh Waters 

National Geographic Magazine — Vol. XLIV 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Arranging exhibit of pictures collected. 

2. Making diagrams of various kinds and parts of fish, snails, 

3. Making map or diagram of aquarium, placing the castles 
and plants. 

4. Making of class folder, to keep important pictures, pam- 
phlets for future reference. 

5. Making pictorial map, showing the sources of various fish 
at the Shedd Aquarium. 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Measuring size of aquarium, length, width, depth. 

2. Computing cubic inches in the aquarium. 

3. Understanding the terms cubic inches, volume, rectangle. 

4. Computing gallons of water needed for the aquarium. 

5. Estimating the number of fish for amount of water. 

6. Estimating the number of plants for number of fish and 
other creatures. 

7. Measuring quarts, gallons. 

8. Keeping account of cost of equipping the aquarium. 

9. Using thermometer to test temperature of water. 

10. Keeping record of time required for propagation of young. 

11. Measuring for charts and pictures for exhibits. 

12. Planning time element in program on fish to be given as 
an assembly for fourth grade. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. Wholesome attitude and outlook toward reproduction. 

B. Appreciation of the conservation of natural resources other- 
wise exterminated by industry. 

C. Understanding of the work done by hatchery to conserve little 

Units of Work in the Third Grade 149 

D. Some understanding of nature's provision for protection and 
care of water life. 

E. Appreciation of the beauty found in sea life. 

F. Gratitude to those who have made such places as the Shedd 
Aquarium, Field Museum, available for boys and girls. 

G. Understanding of the knowledge and skill needed by those who 
care for fish life. 

H. Appreciation of the work of men called scientists, in discover- 
ing facts. 
I. Appreciation and understanding of the care and accuracy 

needed in reporting any observation and experiments. 
J. Appreciation of the value of close, correct observation of even 

small details in answering questions accurately. 
K. Appreciation of what it means to base opinions on ample re- 
liable data. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through use of literature. 

1. Oral reading of sea poems: 

"The Little Turtle" — V. Lindsay — from Hutchinson's 
Chimney Corner Poems. Following bit from Max East- 

"Serene the silver fishes glide 
Stern-lipped and pale and wonder-eyed ! 
As through the aged deeps of ocean 
They glide with wan and wavy motion. 
They have no pathway where they go, 
They glide like water, to and fro, 
They watch with staring cold surprise 
The level people in the air, 
The people peering, peering there." 

2. Silent and oral reading of some delightful stories from 
books such as : 

Bronson, W. S. Finger Fins 1930 Macmillan 

Butler, Evah Along the Shore 1930 John Day 

Curr, William H. The Stir of Nature 1930 Oxford Press 

Heal, Edith How the World Began 1930 Thomas Rockwell 

Reed, W. M. The Earth for Sam 1929 Harcourt Brace 

3. Listening to interesting descriptions from magazines : 
as, National Geographic and Nature Magazine. 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Composing letters to absent class members, telling of 
balancing the aquarium. 

2. Writing accounts describing the process of balancing the 
aquarium, excursions taken and experiments tried. 

150 National College of Education 

3. Creating compositions to be read in assembly program. 

4. Composing original poems and imaginary stories of fish 

C. Through picture making, designing and decorating. 

1. Drawing pictures of fish. 

2. Painting pictures illustrating original poems and stories 

3. Making designs for programs for assembly. 

4. Mounting lovely pictures of fish life for individual science 
books and for exhibits. 

D. Through social activity. 

Giving the assembly program for fourth grade. 

VI. New interests, foreshadowing other studies. 

A. A study of water and what it means to life. 

B. A study of various types of plant life in water. 


TO HELP the children to understand the development of their 
own community, and to appreciate the marvelous changes that 
have taken place in the last century, has been one objective in the 
Fourth Grade. The teachers have sought also to enlarge the concept 
of citizenship responsibility within the community. A thorough re- 
view and sharing of the children's vacation experiences has afforded 
an introduction to the history and geography of this region, and in- 
deed of the whole United States. 

One fourth-grade class spent a year in an intensive study of the 
city of Chicago. During the first semester the exploration of the 
region was studied, the first settlements and life in pioneer days. 
The second semester's study included the development of sanitation, 
fire protection, transportation, and communication. Many excursions 
were arranged, and comparisons were made between early days and 
our own era. 

Another class through a celebration of Columbus Day became in- 
terested in the discoveries and explorations of early American history, 
and developed a unit of work on this topic. A unit on colonial life 
followed, which was the more appealing because the teacher and some 
of the children had enjoyed summer vacation trips in New England. 
At the conclusion of the study the children were exceedingly eager 
to know how people lived in early days in Illinois ; and a unit on the 
development of Evanston followed. 

When the children reach Fourth Grade, they are permitted for the 
first time to use the school cafeteria and to choose their own menu 
each day. It has seemed appropriate, therefore, to include in the 
fourth-grade curriculum a unit on foods and food values, and the 
planning of a wholesome day's menu. This unit has frequently 
involved a somewhat intensive study of sources and preparation of 
foods, as well as the hygiene of foods. 

As in early grades, interest in natural science is keen, and at least 
one nature unit has been included in each year's program. One class 
after an excursion to the Illinois Garden Show planned a garden 
show in the fourth-grade room. A successful unit in one summer 
session was based on the birds of this vicinity. A wealth of story, 


152 National College of Education 

verse and picture material was available, and the topic proved to be 
a stimulus for some delightful creative language work. 

The teachers of Fourth Grade have sought in various ways to 
enlarge the concept of citizenship responsibility within the community. 
One class made a study of the opportunities for showing considera- 
tion in the home and school community, and developed a puppet show 
on consideration. Each year the Fourth Grade has participated in 
the publication of a school magazine or year book. 

The outlines which follow were selected from the records of two 
different years. The unit on Chicago as outlined here covered 
nearly a year of time. The other units were all -included in a single 
year's work. The outcomes in social meanings and appreciations 
peculiar to the unit are included with the unit. All of the units have 
been found valuable in developing certain desirable social habits and 
attitudes; as, cooperation in planning and carrying on small group 
activities ; responsibility in caring for materials in the proper way ; 
appreciation of work done by others in the group; willingness to 
give and receive friendly, helpful criticism ; independence in working 
out individual problems ; initiative in suggesting plans for the group ; 
resourcefulness in using materials at hand; respect for the opinions 
and rights of others; courteous conduct at school and on excursions; 
persistence in seeing a job completed. The units have also proved 
valuable in developing the powers of expression in the fine and in- 
dustrial arts, music and creative language. Outcomes in terms of 
fundamental skills in English and Arithmetic are summarized under 
Group Records of Progress, Part IV. 

How America Was Discovered 
and Explored 

A Unit of Work in the Fourth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. A previous study of people of other lands. 

B. Pictures of boats of early days ; of adventurers of today, as 
Byrd and Lindbergh ; of adventurers of early days, as Colum- 
bus, Marco Polo ; of old maps. 

C. Stories read by the teacher, as parts of ''Little America," 
"Boys' Life of Marco Polo." 

D. Objects brought in, as a model of a Viking boat, and the May- 

E. Lantern slides of early explorers. 

F. Excursion to Lincoln Park to see a "Viking Boat." 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. Concerning discoveries and explorations. 

1 . Why did men wish to reach the countries in the Far East ? 

2. Which countries sent out explorers first? 

3. Who was Marco Polo? What did he do? Why was he 
important ? 

4. Who were the Vikings? What did they do? 

5. Where did the idea that the "World is round" come from? 

6. Who were Prince Henry, The Crusaders, Columbus ? Why 
were they important? 

7. How was sailing made safer by the invention of the com- 
pass, maps, globes and charts? 

8. What effect did the invention of printing have? 

9. What did the nations especially desire to get from the 
new world? 

10. Where did the Spanish people explore? What did they 
want in the new world? 

11. Who were some of the Spanish explorers? 

12. What adventures did they have on the high seas and on 

13. How did the other nations feel when Spain was so success- 

14. What did England, France, and the Dutch people do? 

15. Were they successful in the new world? 


154 National College of Education 

16. Who were the most important people who came to the new 
world ? 

17. What did each of the countries finally succeed in getting 
from the new world? 

18. What were some of the important events that took place 
during the period of exploration and discovery? 

B. Concerning the first settlements. 

1. How did the climate and topography of the land affect 
the kind of settlements made? 

2. Why did the English people come to Jive in the new world? 

3. How did England come to own most of North America 
instead of Spain or France? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through oral composition. 

1. Giving reports from individual and group research. 

2. Discussing the setting up of goals and standards of work. 

3. Planning the making of the time chart of important events. 

4. Discussing stories read to the group by the teacher, groups 
of children and individual pupils. 

5. Planning the making of the large picture map of the early 

6. Planning of dramatizations to be given to groups within 
the room and to other rooms. 

7. Discussing many problems, involved in the display of pic- 
tures, stories, graphs, on the bulletin board; in the con- 
struction of several miniature tables depicting scenes of 
early explorations. 

8. Discussing the best means of making individual books and 
folders, to keep collections in. 

9. Organizing outlines for written composition. 

10. Composing captions for pictures painted. 

11. Holding informal debates upon topics of interest to the 

B. Through informational reading. 

1. Reading to find answers to specific problems in order to 
reproduce information in graphic and plastic materials. 

2. Reading to verify conclusions by citing authorities. 

3. Reading to find the most descriptive phrases describing 
places and characters. 

4. Learning to skim to locate information needed for reports. 

5. Reading to take mastery tests of the unit. 

6. Reading maps, charts, graphs. 

7. Reading to organize material read into outline. 

Units of Work in the Fourth Grade 


8. Study of symbols needed in finding distances on different 
kinds of maps; tracing routes of the Crusaders, Marco 
Polo, Spanish, French, Portuguese, English; locating im- 
portant places with reference to explorations and dis- 

9. Reading from encyclopedias, reference books ; learning to 
use library facilities. 

Barker, E. C. 

& others 
Barnard, E. F. 

& Tall, L. L. 
Blaisdell, A. F. 

& Ball, P. K. 
Burnham, S. 
Coffman, R. 
Coffman, R. 
Gordy, W. F. 

Kelty, Mary G. 

McGuire, E. & 

Phillips, C. A. 
Nida, W. L. 
Nida, W. L 

Breasted, W. J. 
Brigham, A. P. 

Kelty, Mary G. 

Henderson, J L. 

References for Children 

The Story of Our Nation 

1929 Row Peterson 

How the Old World Found the 1929 Ginn 

Pioneers of America 1919 Little Brown 

Hero Tales from History 1922 

New World Settlement " 1927 

The Age of Discovery 1927 

Stories of Early American 1929 


The Beginning of American 1930 

People and Nation 

Adventuring in Young America 1929 

F. A. Owen 
F. A. Owen 




Pilots and Pathfinders 1928 

Explorers and Pioneers 1926 

References for Teacher 

The^ Conquest of Civilization 1926 Harper 
Geographic Influences in Amer- 1903 Ginn 

ican History 
Teaching History in the Middle 1928 Ginn 

Materials and Methods in the 1928 Ginn 

Middle Grades 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Making of larger world map, upon which voyages of 
various explorers were traced, resulting in a pictorial map 
of early discoveries. 

2. Building and depicting typical scenes from great moments 
in exploration upon tables ; as, Cortez entering Mexico, 
Henry Hudson sailing the Hudson River, Champlain 
founding Quebec. 

3. Organizing and making a time chart, upon a long strip of 
wrapping paper, showing the dates of important discoveries 
and their relative importance. 

4. Making and binding books, for keeping in permanent form 
the best work of individuals and of the class. 

5. Making of pottery, similar to that made by the Indians 
whom the Spanish found living in Mexico and South 

156 National College of Education 

6. Building an exhibit table for various exhibits brought by 
children and teachers. 

7. Constructing boats, showing early models ; as, Mayflower, 
a Viking boat. 

8. Dressing of figures showing some of the prominent people 
who took an active part in the settlement of the new world. 

9. Giving of a shadow play by one group of children, depict- 
ing the voyage of Columbus. 

10. Making of costumes for characters in the shadow play. 
D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Learning to use the compass, including the degrees of a 
circle, finding parts ; as, one-fourth of the circle. 

2. Comparing sizes ; as, the square miles of land on the 
various continents, the vastness of the ocean, the depth of 
the ocean and height of mountains. 

3. Comparing dates, length of time, intervals, days, months, 
years, decades, centuries. 

4. Measuring great distances ; as miles across continents, 
oceans ; making comparisons of relative sizes and distances. 

5. Drawing to scale, in making the time chart, scenic tables 
and maps. 

6. Using the beginnings of fractions and percentage in meas- 
uring for tables, charts, and in reading graphs. 

7. Reading and writing large numbers, of thousands, millions, 
in dealing with population and area of countries, tonnage 
of boats, mileage. 

8. Using dollars and cents in computing the cost of voyages. 

9. Using Roman numerals in outlining chapters and sections 
for original books and talks. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes and appreciations probably de- 
veloped through these experiences. 

A. A keen appreciation of the bravery of the explorers and their 
contribution to the world. 

B. A keener appreciation of things which we have, and which 
have usually been taken for granted ; as, sugar, light, maps, 
comparative safety of travel. 

C. A keener appreciation for the contribution of those who have 
collected interesting facts that we might understand history 
and geography better. 

D. An understanding of how geographical factors influence the 
habits and lives of various peoples. 

E. An understanding of the progress made in methods of com- 
munication, transportation by man's use of scientific knowledge. 

Units of Work in the Fourth Grade 157 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

1. Oral reading of selected stories from: 

Hall, J. Viking Tales 1902 Rand McNally 

Byrd, R. E. Little America 1930 Putnam 

Coffman, R. Our America 1930 Dodd 

2. Oral reading of a few poems: 

Miller, Joaquin Columbus 

Newbolt, Henry Drake's Drum 

.Thackeray, Wm. M. Pocahontas 

Whitman, Walt O Captain, My Captain 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Writing stories and poems for individual hook of ex- 

2. Writing introduction for books. 

3. Composing and writing captions for painted scenes from 
early explorations. 

4. Writing scenes for shadow play by individuals and in 

5. Composing imaginary letters written by sailors on the boats. 

6. Writing descriptions of beauties of nature, the natives and 
occupations found in the newly discovered lands. 

C. Through picture making, design, decoration. 

1. Drawing pictures depicting historical scenes of the dis- 

2. Painting background for historical tables, set up. 

3. Modeling figures of people, animals to be used on the 

4. Designing houses, trees, shrubs, to be used on the tables. 

5. Painting large friezes for the room, showing historical 
scenes ; as, Columbus on the Sea of Darkness. 

6. Making designs for Indian Pottery. 

7. Designing book covers for individual books of exploration. 

8. Decorating charts and posters for exhibits and reports. 

D. Through music. 

Learning songs that express the struggles of seamen, the daring 
of explorers, the longing for home. The songs were used at 
music assemblies. 

From the Concord Series No. 4 : E. C. Schirmer 

Columbus — Italian 
My Banjo — Italian 
A Mystery of the Sea — Italian 
Fair are These Fields — French 
Over the Sea — English 
The Wanderer — Spanish 

158 National College of Education 

From Third Book of Songs — Foresman American Book 

Music of Spain — Spanish 

My Native Land — Spanish 

Spanish Lullaby — Spanish 

Sailing, Sailing — French 
From Dido and Aeneas — Henry Purcell Oxford Press 

The Sailor's Song 

E. Through dramatic interests. 

1. Playing scenes of discoveries on the playground; as, Drake 
and his trip around the world, Columbus finding America, 
Cortez and his entrance to Mexico, Champlain discovering 
the St. Lawrence, Landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. 

2. Giving of a shadow play by small group for other groups 
within the room. 

3. Playing dramatic scenes on the pictorial table (much puppet 
play resulted from these tables). 

4. Presenting pantomimes and charades by small groups for 
other groups within the room. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

1. Interest in how the United States was finally settled by 
the various nations, leading to a study of "Early Colonial 

2. Interest in different kinds of transportation, especially in 
the evolution of boats. 

3. Interest in the life of the peoples across the sea. 

4. Interest in how we secured some of the lands we use today. 

5. Interest in further study of useful inventions and how 
they have influenced life as it is today. 

6. Interest in study of astronomy, rock and soil formation, 
land and water forms ; the climate and weather, including 
the forecasting bureau, and the observatories. 

-How Our Nation Beg; 

(Colonization and Settlement of the United States) 

A Unit of Work in the Fourth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Previous study of early exploration and discovery of the new 

B. Exhibits of various articles brought by the children ; as, old 
cradle, early American spoons and silverware, candle molds 
and looms. 

C. Exhibits of various materials, showing complete processes from 
cotton to cloth, from silkworm to cloth, from sheep to cloth. 

D. Selected lantern slides of early colonial days : Spencer Films — 
United States History Series, Agricultural Series and Holi- 

E. Excursions to several interesting places. 

1. Carson Pirie's Department Store to see an exhibit of weav- 
ing and looms, such as are found in the Kentucky moun- 

2. The home of one of the children's relatives, who had a 
collection of rare antiques, dishes, furniture, linens. 

3. Chicago Historical Society to see a model cabin of pioneer 

4. Art Institute to see some rare pottery samples. 

5. Evanston Library to look up interesting facts to bring to 
the group. 

F. Newspaper and magazine clippings posted on the bulletin board. 

G. Class scrap-book of pictures, folders, and maps. 

H. Talks given by teacher and some mothers who had traveled 
extensively through the New England States and had much 
interesting information to give to the group. 

II. Problems and questions which led into research. 

A. Related to settlement or the coming of the colonists to America. 

1. Were all thirteen colonies settled for the same purpose? 

2. Why were the English interested in founding a colony? 

3. Where were the French settlements made? 

4. Who were some of the leaders of the Dutch colonists? 

5. Why was Georgia settled? 


160 National College of Education 

6. Who were the outstanding leaders during the colonization 
period; what contribution did they make? 

7. What were the types of government most often found in 
the colonies? 

8. Why was it important that the people asked for a share in 
the government? 

9. How was a town meeting held ; what things did it consider ? 

10. Why did the South adopt a different plan of government 
from the North? 

11. How did the climate, soil and topography influence the 
growth of home life, occupations and industries in the 
colonies ? 

12. What was the relationship between the mother countries 
and the colonies? 

13. What discoveries and inventions influenced the settlement 
and development of the new world? 

B. Related to home life in colonial days. 

1. How did the home life differ in the New England, Middle 
and Southern Colonies? 

2. What kind of homes were built? What influenced the 
building of various types of homes? 

3. How were the colonial homes furnished? 

4. How were the homes heated and lighted? What did the 
people think of Franklin's stove? 

5. What kind of food did they eat and what was the source; 
how was it prepared? 

6. What kind of dishes, utensils did they use; how did they 
get them? 

7. How did the people dress? What materials did they use? 
Where did they secure the raw materials? How did they 
feel about home manufacture of clothing? 

8. What were the steps in preparation of flax and wool for 
weaving? How was cloth woven? 

9. How did the church buildings and services differ from 
those of today? What were some of the common beliefs, 
customs, in the northern, middle and southern colonies? 
What was the Sabbath like in New England and in Vir- 
ginia ? 

10. What was the attitude toward education in the various 
colonies ? What kind of schools did they have ? What were 
the books, lessons, and teachers like? In what ways was 
education in colonial days like education today? In what 
ways was it different? 

11. What were the chief occupations of the members of the 

Units of Work in the Fourth Grade 


Colonial Homes Are Reproduced 

community and of the home? How did the children help? 
How did they get salt and sugar? How were candles 
made ? How did they make soap ? 

12. What were pleasures enjoyed in colonial days? How did 
the Northern and Southern people feel about games, 
sports ? 

13. What kind of toys did the children have? What games 
were played by the colonial children? What pleasures 
did the grown people have? 

14. How were the methods of traveling and transportation 
affected by the surroundings? What were the chief 
methods ? 

15. Why were methods of communication so poor in colonial 

16. Why were taverns necessary? How did they get their 
names? How were they managed? 

C. Related to the separation from England. 

1. How did the colonists come to separate from England? 

2. What were some of the most important events which led 
to the actual separation? 

162 National College of Education 

3. How was the Revolution fought? Who were some of the 
outstanding leaders? 

4. How did the Declaration of Independence make the colo- 
nies into the United States? 

5. How did the United States organize its new government? 

6. How was the new nation received by the nations of the 
old world? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through oral composition. 

1. Discussion of various exhibits set up by small groups of 
children and the teachers ; as, wool, cotton, silk, linen ; 
collections of pewter, pictures, dishes. 

2. Discussion of oral reports given by members of the group, 
on various topics ; as, "Making Candles in Colonial Days," 
"Making Soap," "How the People Dressed," "Colonial 
Schools and Churches," "A Day in a Colonial Home," 
"Transportation in Colonial Days." 

3. Debates ; as, Which was the better place to live, in the South 
or North, during early colonial days. 

4. Discussion of excursions taken. 

5. Discussion of various stories read by small groups and 
reported to large group. 

6. Discussion of terms and their meaning; as, Dutch-oven, 
trundle bed, pewter, woof, trenchers, house of burgess, 
assembly, parliament, taxes. 

7. Discussion of newspaper clippings and pictures displayed 
on bulletin board and in class scrap book. 

8. Discussion of stories and reports written and presented 
before the large group, or displayed on the bulletin board. 

9. Giving reports of interesting books read. These reports 
were often illustrated by using pictures drawn by the chil- 
dren, or objects that had been made ; as, candles and soap. 

10. Planning for a colonial dinner given for the Fifth Grade. 

11. Planning the musical program of the orchestra for the clos- 
ing program. 

B. Through informational reading. 

1. Reading to find answers to specific problems, in order to 
give report to the group. 

2. Reading of graphs and charts made by group and individ- 
uals depicting some specific information. 

3. Reading maps to locate the various settlements. 

4. Reading to take mastery tests covering the unit. 

Units of Work in the Fourth Grade 


5. Reading recipes for making soap and candles, and for cook- 
ing of various dishes served at the colonial dinner. 

6. Reading of bills and receipts connected with the dinner. 

7. Reading to verify findings in order that the costumes and 
setting for the dinner be accurate. 

8. Independent reading for wider information. Many inter- 
esting books were available. 


Bailey, C. S. 

Boys and Girls of Dis- 
covery Days 



Bailey, C. S. 

Boys and Girls of Pio- 
neer Days 



Baisdell, A. F. 


Log Cabin Days 


Little Brown 

Ball, F. K. 

Barker, Ew C. 


The Story of Our Nation 


Row Peterson 


Chadwick, M. L. 

America's Story for 
America's Children 



Chadwick, M. L 

Stories of Colonial Chil- 


Educational Pub- 
lishing Co. 

Earle, A. 

Child Life in Colonial 



Earle, A. 

Costumes in Colonial 


Empire State Book 

Earle, A. 

Stage Coach and Pioneer 



Earle, A. 

Home Life in Colonial 



Gordy, W. F. 

Stories of Early Ameri- 
can History 



Hall, J. 

Viking Tales 


Rand McNally 

Halleck, R. P. 


Founders of Our Nation 


American Book 

Frantz, J. 

Hart, A. B. 


Colonial Children 



Hazard, B. E. 

Heard, S. D. 


Stories of American Pio- 



King, M. W. 


Kelty, Mary G. 

Beginnings of American 
People & Nation 



MacElroy, M. H 

Work and Play in Colo- 
nial Days 
Adventuring in Young 



McGuire, Edna 




Phillips, C. A. 


Nida, W. L. 

Following Columbus 



Prescott, D. R. 

A Day in a Colonial 


James Marshall 

Pumphrey, M. B 

Pilgrim Stories 


Rand McNally 

Stone, G. L. 


Everyday Life in the 



Fickett, M. G. 


Stone, G. L. 


Day and Deeds 



Fickett, M. G. 

Tappan, E. M. 

American Hero Stories 


Houghton Mifflin 

Walker, A. J. 

Little Plays from Ameri- 
can History 



Warren, M. L. 

Little Pioneers 


Rand McNally 


National College of Education 

Adams, J. T. 
Adams, J. T. 

Beeby, Dorothea & 

Daniel, J. 
Clark, I. 
Earle, A. 

Earle, A. 

Johnson, Clifton 

Phillips, U. B. 

Woodburn, J. A. & 

References for Teachers 

Epic of America 

The Founding of New 

Community Life Today 

and in Colonial Times 
Old Days and Old Ways 
Child Life in Colonial 

Home Life in Colonial 

Old Time Schools and 

School Books 
Life and Labor in the Old 

Our United States 

1931 Little Brown 

1921 Little Brown 

1925 Merrill 

1928 Crowell 
1899 Macmillan 

1898 Macmillan 

1904 Macmillan 

1929 Little Brown 
1931 Longmans Green 

C. Through constructive activities. 
1. Making of log cabin, furnishing it to show the home life. 

Making of a model of George Washington's home at 
Mount Vernon. 

Making charts to show evolution of heating and lighting, 
various kind of cloth. 

Weaving large rug on loom made by children. 
Collecting and displaying pictures of colonial bed spreads, 
rugs, furnishings. 

Making a movie, or talkie, reporting the various kinds of 
utensils used (a report given by two children). 
Making of both soft and hard soap. 
Making of candles. 

Preparing and serving colonial dinner. 
Making of costumes worn at the colonial dinner. 
Making class book, of study of colonial days. 
12. Dressing dolls to represent famous personages during 
colonial days. 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Making candles. 

(a) Measuring ounces, pounds, half pounds, yards. 

(b) Buying materials, keeping accounts. 

(c) Dividing the wicking into lengths so that every child 
would have his share. 

(d) Counting the number of dippings it took to make a 
candle 1" in diameter. 

(e) Estimating the time it took a good candle dipper to 
make enough candles for the year. 

2. Making soap. 

(a) Figuring the proportion of fat to lye. 

(b) Buying materials, keeping accounts. 





Units of Work in the Fourth Grade 165 

(c) Telling time — measuring time for cooking. 

(d) Judging the number and size of molds needed for the 

(e) Dividing the molds so that each child might have an 
equal share to take home. 

3. Preparation for colonial dinner. 

(a) Planning menu. 

(b) Buying food, estimating amount needed. 

(c) Purchasing materials, keeping accounts, settling bills. 

(d) Preparing for a large number of people, the number 
of servings, amount of food. Much use was made of 
denominate numbers, some introduction to fractions. 

4. Measuring for large panels to decorate room. Measuring 
size of room, estimating and comparing with actual meas- 
urements for the size of panels. 

5. Use of fractions through much measuring of material for 
costumes, food for dinner. 

6. Finding the cost of transportation in various excursions 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. An appreciation of the wonders of nature in our country. 

B. An appreciation for men's skill in adapting his activities to 
natural surrounding and using them for his betterment. 

C. An understanding and appreciation of the work and hardships 
of the early settlers in building our country. 

D. An appreciation of the conveniences which we have today, and 
for those who have given them to us. 

E. A knowledge of the important part geographic factors play in 
determining man's occupations. 

F. An appreciation for the daring of the men who fought for 
the building of the country. 

G. An increasing respect for intelligent leadership found in men 
of the times ; as, Franklin, Washington. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 
A. Through use of literature. 

1. Oral reading from several delightful books; as, 

Brooks, E. S. True Story of George 1904 Lothrop 


Eaton, J. Story of Light 1928 Harper 

Leetch, D. L. Tommy Tucker on a 1925 Lothrop 


Perkins, L. F. The Colonial Twins 1924 Houghton Mifflin 

Pumphrey, M. B. Stories of the Pilgrims 1912 Rand McNally 

Warren, M. L. Little Pioneers 1916 Rand McNally 

166 National College of Education 

2. Reading and enjoying poems ; as, 

Bryant Song of Marion's Men 

Emerson Concord Hymn 

Hemans, Felicia Landing of the Pilgrims 

Longfellow Paul Revere's Ride 

Simms The Swamp Fox 

Whittier Barbara Fritchie 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Composing stories of colonial schools, churches, heating, 
and lighting. 

2. Composing play, "A Day in a Colonial Home." 

3. Composing maxims such as Franklin made. 

4. Writing imaginary letters of colonial children. 

5. Writing descriptive paragraphs of important people and 

6. Composing letters sent to absent members of the class 
about the work. 

7. Composing captions for large panels painted. 

C. Through picture making, design and decoration. 

1. Drawing to illustrate episodes taking place during the 
colonization; as, "Landing of the Pilgrims," "Mayflower 
on a Stormy Sea," "Penn Making Peace with the Indians." 

2. Painting of large 6'x9' panels depicting scenes of colonial 
days; as, "A Colonial Garden," "The Tavern." (These 
were used as decorations in the room.) 

3. Painting of a long panel showing the many modes of 
traveling on land and water during this period. 

4. Designing menu covers for use in the dining-room. 

5. Designing covers for individual books of colonial days. 

6. Making pictorial maps of southern plantations. 
D. Through music. 

1. Singing: 

Hymns — Old Hundredth 

Now Thank We — Cruger 
Hymn to St. Francis 
Ballads — English, French and German 
Chanteys — Cape Cod Chantey 
Sea Songs — A Mighty Ship — Norwegian 
The Keel Row— Scotch 
Over the Sea — English 
Mystery of the Sea — Italian 
General — The Wanderer — Spanish 

Fair are These Fields — French 
Spirituals — Nobody Knows the Trouble I've Seen 
The Blue Jay 

2. Using orchestra for plays and assemblies. 

Old dance tunes 
Old formal dances 
Music of Stephen Foster 

Units of Work in the Fourth Grade 


3. Listening to piano arrangements of such music as: 

Largo, New World Symphony — Dvorak 
Selections from "Skyscraper" — John A. Carpenter 
Dance forms of Handel, Rameau, Bach and others 
Informal dances such as reels, jigs and square dances 

Note: Story of the development of school music in America 
from the old singing school proved to be of interest 
to the children. 

Grove 2nd Edi- 
The Oxford 
Concord Series 
Gilbert, H. F. 

Botsford, F. H. 

Johnson, J. W. 

Foresman, Robert 
Tours, Berthold 

Hughes, Edwin 

Whitmore, C. 

La Salle, Dorothy 
Hofer, Mari 

O'Neill, N. 

Source Books: 

Dictionary of Music and 

History of Music 
A Book of Songs 
One Hundred Folk- 

Folk Songs of Many 

Peoples, Volume II 
The Book of American 

Negro Spirituals 
Book of Songs, 3 and 4 
Piano Album No. 4 — 

Minuets, Gigues 
Master Series for the 

Young — Piano 
Hundred Best Classics, 

Bk. 3 
Rhythms and Dances 
Popular Folk Games and 

Song Garden 

1922 Presser 

Oxford Press 
1922 E. C. Schirmer 
1910 C. C. Birchard 

1922 Womans Press 

1925 Viking Press 

1927 American Book 

1915 Abingdon Press 

1926 Paterson 

1926 A. S. Barnes 
A. Flanagan 

1914 A. Flanagan 

E. Through dramatic activity and social activity. 

1. Playing games of early colonial days, on the playground. 

2. Holding assemblies with the Fifth Grade, giving talks and 
sharing songs. 

3. Giving simple dramatizations from the life of the colonists, 
as "A Colonial School," "Going to Church in Colonial 
Days," "A Day in a Colonial Home." 

4. Acting charades, taking the part of some character in the 
books read. 

5. Much puppet play using the log cabin, and model of Mount 
Vernon, with the dolls dressed to represent some of the 
prominent people of the times. 

6. Enjoying a Colonial dinner with the Fifth Grade. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. How the United States moved westward. 

B. The evolution of a book. 

C. The development of transportation through the ages. 

D. Industries in the United States. 

E. Study of weather. 

Fourth Grade Stories of Colonial Times 

(Reprinted from the Children's Magazine) 

The Fourth Grade at Work 

We have been studying all about the life in Colonial times. We divided into 
small groups and made reports on different things. Some children studied 
heating and lighting and demonstrated the making of candles. Other children 
worked on materials, foods, transportation and clothing. 

We are going to make some soap as they made it in Colonial times. 

Going to School in Colonial Days 

When I was a child, I went to a school made of logs. The windows were 
made of oil paper and were built up high so that we could not look out. The 
benches and desks were split logs with pegs for legs. 

Our only books were the New England Primer and a Horn Book. Our ink 
was made of berries, herbs and bark. The pens were quills and the pencils 
were charcoal. The paper was birchbark. 

In the school that I went to, all the grades were in one room. We had only 
one teacher. Teachers in those days believed in punishment, when we did wrong. 
Sometimes the teacher tapped you on the hand when you did wrong or she put 
your hands on hot coals. 

Making Candles 

Have you ever made candles? If you have you know how much fun it is. 

The first think to do is to get a tall kettle in which to melt the paraffin and 
beeswax. If you use one pound of paraffin and one pound of beeswax you will 
need to put with it one and one half ounces of stearic acid. 

The next thing to do is fix the wicks for dipping. The wicking can be cut 
the length you want it and then dipped in a strong salt peter solution. Four or 
five strings can be tied to a thin stick for dipping. 

The strings are then dipped in the hot liquid. They must be very straight so 
the candles will not be bent. After each dipping the string should be allowed 
to cool. The candle will crack if it does not cool each time. 

It took us about forty-three dippings to make a candle of three-fourths of an 
inch thick. 

Aren't you glad that we have electric lights to-day? 

My Diary of the Sabbath 

The beating of the drum stopped my reading Sunday morning. The drum 
I heard, was to tell all the people to get ready for church. I am only a little 
girl of nine, but I know my mother will scold me quite severely. So I put 
down my book and put on my cape which was made of white rabbit fur, and my 
bonnet that was made of white velvet with red rose buds on it. And in a minute 
I was beside my mother in our carriage. When I got out of the carriage, I went 
up a lot of stone steps till I came to a big door. I went down a long hall, where 
on each side of me were pews. These were box-like things. 

We went to one of the pews and sat down. Once I fell asleep, and was 
awakened by someone tickling me in the face. I looked up, and there stood the 
tithing man. The tithing man is a person who goes around the church with a 
long pole ; on one end of the pole there is a knob, and on the other, is a squirrel's 
tail. If anyone laughs he gets rapped on the head with the knob; and if you 
fall asleep, you get tickled in the face, as I was. 


Following Chicago Through a 
Hundred Years 

A Years Study in the Fourth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest, 
and provided background for activities. 

A. Vacation exhibit of places visited during the summer, leading 
to an interest in the development of our own community. 

B. Pictures and objects exhibited in the room, such as, an old 
fire bucket, plate from Chicago Fire, pictures from newspaper 
depicting early history of Chicago. 

C. Excursion to Chicago Historical Society to see objects of 

D. Excursion to Evanston Historical Society. 

E. Excursion to Mandel Brothers' (Chicago) exhibit, showing 
the growth of Chicago. 

F. Excursion to a pumping station to see method of present day 
sanitation system. 

G. Talks given to class by members of the community. 

II. Problems and questions proposed by children which led to 

A. Who were the first explorers? How did they happen to find 
the present site of Chicago? What tribes of Indians did they 

B. Why did the French come? How was English supremacy 
established here? 

C. What part did these early Americans play in the establishment 
of the colonies as an independent nation? 

D. Who were the first people to establish homes here ? How was 
the present site of Chicago chosen? 

E. How did the early settler live? 

1. How did he provide himself with food, clothing, shelter? 

2. How did he amuse himself ? 

3. How were others persuaded to come to Chicago? 

F. What was the appearance of Chicago as an early settlement? 
H. Why did Chicago gain so fast when other cities remained 

small ? 

I. How did Chicago learn to protect itself? 

J. How has Chicago developed communication and transporta- 



National College of Education 

K. How did Chicago solve its sanitation difficulties? 

L. How has the architecture in Chicago changed to meet the needs 

of a big city? 
M. What contributions have been made by gifted citizens in art, 

science, and industry? 
N. How can Chicago become a better city? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through informational reading. 

1. Independent reading of pamphlets on Chicago to solve 

2. Reading captions under pictures, current events, press 
notices and cartoons, relating to growth of Chicago. 

3. Reading to interpret maps, globes, charts in studying loca- 
tion and physical features of the Chicago area. 

4. Oral reading to report information found as the result of 
individual and group research. 

5. Reading to answer questions in tests, checking the in- 
dividual's mastery of subject matter. 

6. Independent reading for information along interests stimu- 
lated by the study of Chicago. 

Baldwin, J. 

Beeby, D. J. 

Blaisdell, A. F. & 

Ball, F. K. 
Campbell, Edna 
Channing, Edward 
Clark, Imogene 
Eggleston, E. 

Fletcher, M. 
Gale, Edwin 
Gordy, W. F. 

Gordy, W. F. 

Hall, Jennie 
Hotchkiss, C. W. 

Nida, Wm. Lewis 
Strong, Wm. D. 

Currey, J. S. 

Kirkland, Caroline 
Parrish, Randal 
Smith, Henry J. 

Children's References 

Conquest of the Old 

Community Life To-Day 

and in Colonial Times 
Short Stories from 

American History 
Our City Chicago 
Story of Great Lakes 
Old Days and Old Ways 
Stories of American Life 

and Adventure 
Old Settler Stories 
Reminiscences of Chicago 
Leaders in Making 

American History 
Elementary History of 

the United States 
Story of Chicago 
Representative Cities of 

the United States 
Explorers and Pioneers 
Indian Tribes of the 

Chicago Region 

References for Teacher 

Story of Old Fort Dear- 
Chicago Yesterday 
Historic Illinois 
Chicago, a Portrait 


American Book 






American Book 









Rand McNally 
Houghton Mifflin 


Field Museum 







Units of Work in the Fourth Grade 171 

B. Through oral discussion. 

1. Discussing of stories and articles read (as a group and 
individuals) excursions taken, pictures displayed, and talks 
given by member of the community. 

2. Organizing and giving talks and reports as the result of 
individual and committee research. 

3. Outlining of subject matter to be used in written reports. 

4. Discussing plans for constructive activities illustrating 
facts learned. 

5. Discussing ways and means of handling, using and or- 
ganizing materials, setting goals and standards of work. 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Constructing individual portfolios for use in collecting and 
caring for materials related to study of Chicago. 

2. Making of a large blackboard map, to show the coming of 
the early explorers and settlers and to show the relation- 
ship of the site of Chicago to the rest of North America. 

3. Constructing a model of Chicago : making log cabins, forts, 
clay animals, ships, people, wagons, trees and landscape. 

4. Planning, arranging and maintaining a news bulletin board 
for photographs, newspaper articles, kodak pictures, in- 
dividual creative contributions, as, poems, stories and 

5. Making and binding of books, both class and individual, 
for keeping in permanent form the work accomplished. 

6. Organizing and constructing charts and graphs for group 
and individual reports. 

7. Planning and constructing of motion picture, the explora- 
tions in the Chicago area and life in pioneer days. 

8. Making of costumes for the play "From Wigwams to Sky- 

9. Making some of the stage properties and scenery of the 

D. Through arithmetic. 

1. Measuring, involving the use of the tables of time, linear 
measure, surface and liquid measure: in making book 
covers, objects used in model, charts, maps, in building 
cabins, in constructing movie, scenery for play, pictures 
for movies, costumes. 

2. Drawing to scale in making map. 

3. Reading and writing large numbers dealing with popula- 
tion and statistics, real estate values, dates. 

4. Using Roman numerals in outlining chapters or sections 
for original books. 

172 National College of Education 

5. Dealing with money values, involved in putting on the 
movie and later the play : fixing prices, keeping accounts, 
buying materials, banking. 

6. Using fundamental processes as addition, subtraction, 
multiplication and division of the whole numbers ; some 
simple fractions and decimals in solving practical prob- 
lems, growing out of financing the movie, and later the play. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations developing through 
these experiences. 

A keener understanding and appreciation of the following: 

A. The work and hardships of the early settlers and explorers. 

B. The people who realized the advantage of the site of Chicago. 

C. The people who have helped to build the great city of Chicago. 

D. Those people in Chicago who have made industrial and artistic 
contributions to the world. 

E. All that is provided by the city for public enjoyment, health 
and safety : public parks, museums, art institute, schools, roads, 
sanitation, protection of life and property. 

F. The natural beauty of this area. 

G. That each child is a citizen of a great community, a great 
country, and of the world, and that as such, he has his contribu- 
tion to make. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through use of literature for enjoyment and expression of 

1. Oral reading of some stories of special interest and charm: 

Gale, Edwin Reminiscences of Early Chicago 

Hall, Jennie Story of Chicago 

2. Oral reading of poems : 

Longfellow, Henry W. Hiawatha 

Sandberg, Carl Chicago 

Whitman, Walt Pioneers! O Pioneers! 

3. Oral reading of paragraphs describing some of the beau- 
tiful buildings and scenic spots in Chicago. 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Writing stories to be incorporated in individual histories. 

2. Writing of articles about Chicago for the school newspaper 
and the year book. 

3. Writing letters to parents and absent classmates telling of 
excursions and other experiences. 

4. Writing descriptions of beautiful places to visit in Chicago. 

Units of Work in the Fourth Grade 173 

5. Composing of verses expressing appreciations for the beau- 
tiful and marvelous in Chicago. 

6. Composition of epilogue for the movie on Early Chicago 
History; writing stories describing pictures for the movie. 

7. Group composition of the play, "From Wigwams to Sky- 
scrapers," presented at the end of the year for parents and 

C. Through picture making, design, decoration. 

1. Making of individual and group pictorial maps of early 
Chicago; and individual map of present day Chicago. 

2. Creating designs for portfolios and book covers. 

3. Drawing illustrations for the history of Chicago. 

4. Painting large pictures showing scenes from early days in 
Chicago (used in the movie). 

5. Painting landscape background for model of early 

6. Creating posters depicting the evolution of transportation, 
fire protection, and sanitation in Chicago. 

7. Designing decoration for dodgers, invitations, and pro- 
grams for the play and the movie. 

8. Designing and making block prints for use in decoration. 

9. Drawing and painting scenery for the play. 

D. Through music. 

1. Creating rhythms to old dance tunes such as reels, lancers 
and quadrilles. 

2. Learning songs to interpolate into a play, featuring the 
Chicago Fire. 

"Hard Times Comes Again No More" — Stephen Foster 
"Home, Sweet Home" — Payne and Bishop 

3. Listening to compositions by Chicago composers such as : 

Adolph Weidig, Leo Sowerby and John Carpenter. 

4. Learning an old Square Dance. 

5. Harmonica and rhythm orchestra playing during intermis- 
sions of the play. 

Source and Reference Books 

Blue Book of Favorite 1928 Hall & McCreary 


Hofer, Mari Popular Folk Games and 1914 A. Flanagan 


La Salle, Dorothy Rhythms and Dances 1926 A. S. Barnes 

Robinson, Ethel School Rhythms 1923 Clayton Summy 

Sandburg, Carl The American Songbag 1927 Harcourt Brace 

Palmer, Winthrop American Songs for 1931 Macmillan 


E. Through dramatic activity and social activity, sharing ex- 
periences with others. 

174 National College of Education 

1. Spontaneous dramatization in the room and on the play- 
ground of scenes from Chicago's history, as : 

(a) Marquette and LaSalle on the Mississippi River. 

(b) The Chicago Fire. 

(c) The Arrival of the New-comers to Chicago. 

(d) Life at Fort Dearborn. 

2. Dramatization of original historical play of Chicago: 

"From Wigwams to Skyscrapers" 

3. Holding assemblies, giving talks and showing lantern slides 
of interesting places to be seen in Chicago; presenting 
original movie. 

4. Gmng the play and exhibiting the model of Chicago as a 
part of a School Fair held near the end of the year. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. Desire to study other interesting places in Chicago; such as, 
industries, the Tribune plant. 

B. Interest in present day needs of Chicago. 

C. Desire to study the development of other large cities of the 
United States. 

D. Desire to know what Chicago gives to the world and what 
the world gives to Chicago. 

E. Desire to study other sections of the United States and to learn 
how they were discovered and settled. 

Some Essays on Chicago by the 
Fourth Grade 

(Reprinted from the Children's Year Book, the Blue Moon) 

Our Chicago Study 

Each year we take a different subject to work on. This year we took early 
and later Chicago. 

First we studied about the men who explored the country where Chicago 
now is. Then we studied about the early settlers of Chicago. We wrote stories 
and drew pictures to put in a book of our own on Chicago. 

Then we chose three subjects to study. The children chose the subjects 
they wanted to work on and divided into groups according to the subjects. The 
subjects were both early and present day. They were Sanitation, Transportation 
and Fire Protection. 

First we read and found all the material on early Sanitation, Transportation, 
and Fire Protection and made stories. Then we drew pictures and cut them out 
of magazines and newspapers to put in our book. Each group then reported to 
the other groups and they wrote little short stories and made some pictures. 
When we got through the early section, we did the same with present day. 

We are making covers for our books now to put our stories and pictures in. 
We are making a play to give for our fathers and mothers. Some time when 
we are older we will probably look through our books and have something to 
be proud of. 

The Story of Our Table of Chicago 

The children in the fourth grade made a table of early Chicago. They 
had Fort Dearborn with its cannons, guns, Indians, and Whites. The scenery 
was hand-made, but many of the horses and people were not. The children 
brought toy cannons which they used for real ones on their table. It turned 
out a very interesting study. 

Our Trip to the Chicago Historical Society 

We went to the Chicago Historical Society. We saw many interesting old 
Chicago relics there. There was a case of old money and some of the pennies 
were twice as big as our silver dollars. You see you could buy a lot more 
for a penny then than you can now. 

On the first floor there was a single cannon from Fort Dearborn. Even 
the building was a relic in itself, because it was the only building to stand in 
the great fire of 1871. They had the first fire engine Chicago had. It was 
called "Fire king No. 1" and it had a hand pump. The first thing you saw 
when you came in was a model of Fort Dearborn in a glass case. 

In a room there were pictures of early explorers. In one room there was 
an end of a log cabin with all sorts of interesting things like an old-fashioned 
waffle iron, a home-made apple corer and other cooking utensils. 

In the hall they had an anchor. It was very heavy and made of hammered 

Land and Air 

After stage coaches, people invented automobiles. The first one ran in 
1896. About eight years after many people were using automobiles. Now 
there are thirty-five million autos in the United States. The street cars and 
trains were invented about the same time. The first train in Chicago was in 
1842. They were very funny. The first ones were pulled by horses. Now 
Chicago is one of the greatest railroad centers in the world. Aeroplanes were 


176 National College of Education 

next. It is the latest of all inventions. The biggest plane made in America 
will hold forty-five passengers. 

The Improvements of Roads in Chicago 

After the people of Chicago found out that the wagons could not travel over 
dirt roads, they put boards over them and that worked very well for a little 
while, but when the frost went out of the ground the boards rose up, bumpy and 
uneven. Pretty soon the rains washed them out altogether. Next they tried 
gravel, but like the board roads, they were washed out by the rains. Next they 
tried macadam. But soon they had to fix some way of draining the water off. 
So they dug ditches on either side of the roads so the water would drain off. 
The ditches were supposed to empty into the river, but they did not go down 
hill enough for the water to run through them. 

Soon the citizens of Chicago decided that they would raise the city of 
Chicago seven feet so the water would run down hill to the river. There were 
many men in Chicago who could raise a frame house, but they could not find 
any one who could raise a brick building. Finally they found a man from New 
York who could raise a brick building. In this way the process of raising- 
Chicago went on and they did not have any more trouble with their roads for a 
long time because the water could drain off into the river. 

Now we use cement for our roads. In Chicago there are so many people 
that there aren't enough roads to suit the people., so they have to build in part 
of the lake. They have one road called the Outer Drive, and they are going to 
build it along the North Shore in Evanston. 

Transportation on Water in Chicago 

In Chicago, on water as well as on land, people had different ways of travel. 
First they had canoes, then flat boats, and then canal boats. The canal boats 
were drawn by horses. The horses were on the land pulling while the canal 
boats were on the water. Then there were paddle-wheel boats. They were quite 
good boats. 

In the present day of transportation on water, we use steam boats, both for 
people and freight. Some boats are larger than others. Some boats carry more 
than a thousand people. Some people are already using aquaplanes, which 
are planes used for flying over water and landing on water. They are very 
expensive now, but when they get less expensive more people will use them in 
flying over Lake Michigan to and from the Loop. 


Water Supply in the Early Days 

In the early days of Chicago people drank out of the Chicago river, but 
they got diseases. They used snow and had clean water to drink then. When 
that became unsatisfactory, they dug wells, but the marshwater soaked into them. 

One man had a bright idea. He dipped up water from the lake and took 

it in carts to the people. All the people thought this was a good plan, but later 

more people came and it was too much work and cost too much money. The 

people chose officers and these officers made laws, and these are the laws : 

I. No person could throw a dead carcass of any animal into the river. 

II. No person could throw any garbage into the river, streets, or vacant lots. 

III. All people must go a mile out of town to dump garbage. 

Then they elected a board of health. 

They built a hospital for those with diseases, and warned people against 
poisoned wells. They then wanted city water, so the city built pipes that went into 
the lake from the pumps. But still that was not so good because fishes and 
splinters came up the pipes, and dirt came up, too. So they built breakwaters to 
keep out the dirt and fishes. But splinters still came up the pipes. They had 
an idea to build iron pipes so splinters did not come in. 

There was another question as important as the water question. That was 
drainage. Chicago was built in a swamp. In spring her streets were swimming. 

Units of Work in the Fourth Grade 177 

In hot summer they festered with slimy pools. They had an idea. They sloped 
their streets down to the river and put planks down. They thought their plans 
had worked, but the flood of 1849 came and it washed all the planks away with it. 
Then they rebuilt their streets. They had sand from the river and filled in their 
streets and put planks in again, but this time they sloped their streets into the 
middle, where a trough took it down to the river. 

A Modern Waterworks 

We took a trip to a modern waterworks and saw many interesting things 
there. These are the processes : 

First the lake water comes in from a pipe in the lake and then it goes to 
a large tank where alum is put into it. Alum is a compound that when it settles 
to the bottom carries a lot of the dirt with it. Then the water goes to the filters. 
In the filters there are strainers as fine as the finest cloth that take the finest parti- 
cles of dirt out. Then to make sure it is clean, the men put chlorine in it. Chlorine 
is a gas that purifies water. 

First Fire Laws 

"No stovepipe shall run through a wooden roof unless the roof is covered 
with tin for six inches around the hole. 

"No person shall carry fire through the streets unless it is covered. 

"Every person shall have a fire bucket for each stove or fireplace in his 
house. These buckets, when not in use at a fire, shall be kept in a convenient 
place. The owner's name shall be painted in white paint on each bucket. In 
case of a fire, every man shall appear with his bucket or buckets, and shall help 
put out the fire. Anyone found disobeying these laws shall be fined two dollars." 

These are not exactly the words of the first fire laws, but they show us how 
Chicago has changed. Houses were so little then that men could put fires out 
with buckets. It would look funny now. There was always the river or a 
well nearby, so it was not a hard job to get water. But tall grass stretched from 
cabin to cabin. A spark might burn the whole town. 

Fire Fighting in the Early Days 

When there was a fire people could not run to a fire box and ring the alarm, 
but the first one who saw it would run toward it shouting: "Fire! Fire!" 

Everyone who heard dropped whatever he was doing, picked up his fire 
bucket, and went to the fire, shouting also. When they got there they made a 
line from the house to the nearest well, and while one man dipped up water, 
the others passed the buckets back and forth (usually they passed the full ones 
to the fire with one hand and the "empties" to the well with the other hand). 
After the fire had been put out the owner of the saved house treated them to 
a supper of oysters, or some such thing. 

Some men, who liked excitement, got together and formed the first fire 
department of Chicago, the "Neptune Bucket Co." They were not paid. 

As the city grew, there were more fires so Chicago bought its first fire engine. 
Men were proud to belong to the company which owned the engine, even though 
it was only a strong hand pump on wheels. When the church bell rang to sound 
the alarm, the firemen ran to the engine house (for the firemen did not live in 
the engine house then), clutched the ropes and pulled the engine out and to the 
fire. Soon they had several engines, and then started to have contests to see 
which could shoot the highest stream of water. Once, when there was a big 
fire, two of the engines were out of order because they had been used too much at 
one of the contests. 

Then they organized the first paid fire department to stay at the engine house 
all the time and tend to the engines. They put a bell in the dome of the court 
house to ring the alarms. They hired watchmen to stay there all the time. 

But yet they did not have the best kind of fire protection. Chicago had a 
few laws about lumber yards and coal yards in the crowded part of town, and 

178 National College of Education 

no wooden building down town, but nobody cared for these rules. The city 
officers did not tell them. 

The Chicago Fire 

Eighteen hundred seventy-one came and found Chicago a large city. They 
had three hundred thousand or more people, and nearly sixty thousand buildings. 
They had a few fireproof buildings, but most of them were brick or stone. 
The river was crowded and so were the streets. Also they had many parks ; 
and Chicago was only forty years old! But she had forgotten the little things. 
Here was a wooden house, there, next door, was a beautiful marble building. 
It was that way all over town. 

They had a fair fire department, seventeen steam engines, four hook and 
ladder trucks, and a river for water supply. 

But just the same it was a dry year, with only a few showers. Every day 
there were forest fires. Then, on Sunday, October 8, a cow upset a lamp in a 
barn or a man dropped a lighted match in the hay, and Chicago was ablaze. 

The fire started at night, on the west side of the river. These people did 
not obey the fire laws as well as the rest. Their little wooden houses burned like 
matches. The people did not think to run to the fire boxes. The first one to 
notify the fire department was the watchman in the courthouse tower, who sent 
in the wrong alarm. After a mile's run an engine got there, but could do nothing. 
After a while, the watchman, seeing it spread so fast, sent in the general alarm. 
The fire drove everything before it and soon crossed the river. The engines 
also crossed to fight from the south side. It rapidly spread, and burned all 
Monday and Monday night. 

On Tuesday morning a strip nearly four miles long and a mile wide was 
burned. The best part of the city had been burned — more than seventeen thousand 
buildings. On Monday and Tuesday mornings it was easy to guess what the 
headlines of most of the papers of the country said : "Chicago is wiped out, Chicago 
can never rise again." But we all know very well that with the help of other cities 
(who gave money) that it did rise again. 

From Wigwams to Skyscrapers 


Act I — Exploration 

Sc. 1 — Marquette and Joliet exploring the Mississippi River. 
Sc. 2 — LaSalle on the shore of Lake Michigan. 
Sc. 3 — Fur trading in Chicago. 

Act II — Early settlers. 

Sc. 1 — Coming to Chicago. 

Sc. 2 — Good times in early days. 

Act III — The Chicago fire. 

Act IV — A street scene in Chicago of today. 

Learning to Choose Healthful Luncheons 

A Unit in the Fourth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Exploring the new cafeteria and the children's dining room, 
just completed and ready for use. 

B. Feeling the responsibility and privilege of choosing balanced 
lunches at school. 

C. Studying pictures placed on the bulletin board showing what 
foods do for the body; also pictures showing right and wrong 
ways of sitting, standing, eating. 

D. Observing height and weight chart of children in the room, 
placed on the bulletin board. 

E. Excursions to stores to see how foods are cared for in the 

F. Excursions to the home economics department of the college, 
to see some of the experiments which the college girls were 
carrying on. 

G. Looking at and discussing slides and Spencer films, on health 

H. Excursions to the Water Filtering Plant of Evanston. 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. Concerning food values. 

1. What constitutes a well-balanced meal? 

2. What foods build strong healthy bodies? 

3. What foods are protective, building, regulating and energy 

4. What is meant by vitamines, minerals, proteins, starches, 
sugars ? 

5. How can one test food for starch? 

6. What foods contain starch? 

7. How does food become a part of the body? 

B. Concerning everyday foods. 

1. Why is milk a good food? How do we get our milk 
supply ? 

2. Why is it necessary to eat thin-leafed vegetables ? 

3. Where do they come from? How can they be prepared? 

4. Where do we get our fruit? 

5. What effect does climate, altitude, soil, have upon the grow- 
ing of different fruits and vegetables? 



National College of Education 

Cooking Stimulates Wholesome Appetites 

6. What are the most important fruit centers of the world? 

7. Where are some of the important vegetable markets? 

8. What is truck farming? Where do we find truck farm- 
ing carried on? 

9. Where do our meats come from? How do we get meat? 

10. How are we supplied with sugar? 

11. How is beet sugar made? 

12. How is cane sugar made? 

13. How do we get maple sugar? 

14. Why is it best not to eat too much sweet; as, candy, cakes, 
puddings ? 

15. What are the best ways to prepare meats, vegetables, 
fruits ? 

16. How are jellies, preserves made? 
Concerning exchange of foods. 

1. How does the world supply us with valuable foods? 

2. What foods does the United States give to the rest of 
the world? 

3. What are the most important shipping centers? 

4. What factors influence the price of foods ? 

5. How are foods prepared for shipping? 

Units of Work in the Fourth Grade 


III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through oral discussion. 

1. Discussion of values of choosing proper balanced lunch- 

2. Discussion of luncheons chosen by individual children and 
how to improve choice. 

3. Discussion of values of proper eating habits. 

4. Talks on kinds, sources and preparation of foods. 

5. Reports on independent reading carried on by several 
groups and individuals. 

6. Discussion of charts and posters made by groups. 

7. Reports on experiments carried on by groups and in- 
dividuals, as the starch and mold experiment. 

8. Planning of health books and folders that were kept by 
individual children. 

9. Discussion of pamphlets secured from various fruit and 
packing companies. 

10. Discussing the best means for preventing colds; — the 
Junior Red Cross ; — how people have grown strong, as 
Theodore Roosevelt. 

B. Through informational reading. 

1. Reading pamphlets sent by food companies. 

2. Reading books chosen by committee of children as valuable. 

3. Reading to answer questions in tests and checking the in- 
dividual mastery of subject matter. 

4. Reading as an aid to written stories and reports. 

5. Reading to interpret graphs and charts. 

6. Independent reading to answer questions asked during class 

Books Used By the Children 

Andress, J. M. & 
• Evans, W. A. 
Caldwell, O. W. & 
^ Meier, W. H. D. 
Carpenter, Frances 
Carpenter, F. G. 
Carpenter, F. O. 
Dye, E. E. 
Camp, R. O. 
Chamberlain, J. F. 
Crissy, F. 
Delos, Fall 
Grenfell, Wilfred T. 
Hopkins, W. J. 

Kirby, Mary 

Health and Good Citizen- 1925 Ginn 

Open Doors to Science 1926 Ginn 

Ourselves and Our City 
How the World Is Fed 
Foods and Their Uses 
The Conquest 
Story of Markets 
How We Are Fed 
Story of Foods 
Science for Beginners 
Yourself and Your Body 
The Sandman, His Farm 

Aunt Martha's Corner 


1928 World Book 
1925 American Book 
1907 Scribner 

1922 Doubleday 

1929 Harper 

1923 Macmillan 

1917 Rand McNally 

1918 World Book 

1924 Scribner 

1903 Page 

1904 Educational 

182 National College of Education 

Books Used By the Children — continued 

Newmayer, S. W. & Health Habits 1928 American Book 

Broome, E. C. 

Newmayer, S. W. & The Play Road to Health 1928 American Book 

Broome, E. C. 

O'Shea, M. V. & Kel- The Body in Health— 1924 Macmillan 

logg, J. H. Book III 

Smith, E. L. Everyday Science 1925 Houghton Mifflin 

Tappan, E. M. Farmer and His Friends 1916 Houghton Mifflin 

White, M. L. & Han- Do and Learn Readers — 1930 American Book 

thorn, A. Book III 

Zirbes, L. Story of Milk 1925 Keystone 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Arranging exhibit of posters, pamphlets about various 
topics studied — as Milk, Meat, Fruits. 

2. Arranging and setting up several experiments and demon- 
strating for the group. 

3. Making charts of healthful lunches, breakfasts and din- 

4. Organizing and arranging large wall chart showing classes 
of foods belonging to each class. 

5. Preserving fruits, drying grapes, making jellies. Making 
own recipe book of various foods cooked by group and 

6. Making charts and slogans of various health rules. 

7. Planning, marketing, preparing and serving luncheon 
several times during the year. Preparing certain dishes 
for luncheon during the year, as salads, starchy foods. 
Making cookies for luncheon for mothers. Making cran- 
berry jelly as gift for mothers at Christmas time. 

8. Collecting exhibit of fruits from foreign countries, as 

9. Making of world picture map showing where foods are 
found. Showing also the largest shipping ports and 
steamship lines. 

10. Making salt. Tracing the salt trails in the United States. 

11. Making folder (individual) for collection of interesting 
pictures, original stories, poems, maps, and pamphlets. 

12. Keeping individual records of luncheons chosen and check- 
ing food charts. 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Measuring, involving the use of linear and liquid measures. 

(a) Folio covers, charts, mounts for pictures, lettering. 

(b) Ingredients used in buying and cooking projects. 

2. Keeping accounts of expenses, cost, profit. 

3. Using the thermometer in cooking. 

Units of Work in the Fourth Grade 183 

4. Computing distances that food is brought. 

5. Reading and making simple graphs to show importation of 
various food products. 

6. Composing original problems by the group, concerning 
food products. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes and appreciations developing 
through these experiences. 

A. Desire to take proper care of the body; as, washing hands be- 
fore meals, washing teeth, drinking plenty of water. 

B. Satisfaction in being able to choose properly balanced luncheon. 

C. A keener appreciation and understanding of what the right 
choice of food does for the body. 

D. A willingness to eat and enjoy all sorts of foods. 

E. An understanding of the need for regulating eating habits, and 
not eating sweets between meals. 

F. An understanding of the requirements for sanitary use and 
care of rest rooms. 

G. Appreciation of plain well-cooked, wholesome food. 

H. Appreciation for those whose labor gives us healthful foods. 
I. Appreciation for the seasonal changes, and the riches brought 
by each season. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through use of literature: oral reading. 

Johnny Apple Seed — Legend 
The Story of Luther Burbank 
The Dentist — Rose Fyleman 
Joys — Rose Fyleman 
King's Breakfast— A. A. Milne 
Rice Pudding— A. A. Milne 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Writing reports of farms and ranches where foods are 

2. Writing introduction to fruit books, recipe books and class 
enterprise book. 

3. Writing invitations to mothers, inviting them to luncheon. 

4. Composing stories of various kinds of fruit, their growth 
and marketing. 

5. Composing and writing health slogans. 

C. Through picture making, design and decoration. 

1. Making designs for health book covers. 

2. Mounting pictures artistically for bulletin board. 

3. Designing and making folios for health pictures and stories. 

184 National College oe Education 

4. Making table decorations for luncheons served to mothers 
at Christmas time and to teachers at Hallowe'en. 

5. Designing and making wrapping paper and cards for wrap- 
ping jelly as gifts. 

6. Drawing and painting pictures of fruit. 

7. Painting pictures illustrating the steps involved in bringing 
fruit from the orchard to the table — (shown by a small 
group in form of a talkie.) 

D. Through social activity. 

1. The children entertained some of the special teachers and 
officers at the school at a Hallowe'en luncheon which they 
had prepared themselves. 

2. At Christmas time they entertained their mothers at a 
luncheon. Glasses of jelly which they had made themselves 
were the gifts. 

VI. Leads into other fields. 

1. Further study of industries in the United States. 

2. Further study of inventions. 

.-..,_ ^roWe**-* OT t»>~v^w-3=< |rJ 


ABETTER understanding of the development of our country 
and the contribution of different sections to this community, 
has been one attainment desired for the children of the Fifth Grade. 
The dependence of one community upon another and the need for 
cooperation has been emphasized.^ 

One class followed their unit on Chicago in the Fourth Grade 
with a study in the Fifth Grade, of the problem, "What do other 
sections of the United States contribute to Chicago?" This problem 
led into a study of the development of industry in the United States ; 
and there was a very thorough review of the changing methods of 
conducting certain fundamental industries. Corn, lumber, iron and 
steel, cattle raising, were the industries selected for intensive study. 
The class was divided for part of this work, and each committee 
developed a "talkie" on a particular industry. 

Another group of children, after completing a study of Chicago 
in the Fourth Grade, wished to know more about the development 
of other large cities in the United States. Many large cities were 
studied on the map, and the reasons for their size were discussed in 
relation to location and tributary industry. New York, New Orleans, 
and San Francisco were chosen for intensive study, and much of the 
history and geography of the United States was found to be involved 
in the problems that arose concerning the development of these three 
interesting cities. 

Still another group spent their year in Fifth Grade in an imagi- 
nary journey across the United States. They visited the New Eng- 
land States, the Mid-Atlantic States, the South, and the West. Their 
journey took them to historical shrines, where they learned the story 
of the section, to scenic spots, and to fields and factories, where they 
studied the industries. \W && - r.-e-^f" 

A delightful unit for the summer session has proved to be a study 
of America's playgrounds. Niagara Falls, Yellowstone Park, the 
seacoasts of Florida and California, and other delightful resorts and 
scenic wonders have been studied with enthusiasm. This unit has 
prepared the children to enjoy more fully their own vacation trips, 
which usually follow the short summer term in school. It has in- 


186 National College of Education 

eluded not only a study of geographical conditions in the regions 
studied, but also means of transportation, expenses, routes and other 
matters. Posters and pamphlets published by travel bureaus and 
transportation lines have been among the materials used. 

The outlines which follow include a year's study of industries of 
the United States, and a study, conducted in a different year, on the 
Development of New York City and the Western Movement. A 
unit on America's playgrounds is also included. The outcomes in 
social meanings and appreciations peculiar to the particular unit 
have been included with each unit. All of the units have offered 
opportunities for the practice of certain desirable social attitudes and 
habits ; such as, cooperation with others, readiness to participate in 
group activities, willingness to accept both group and individual re- 
sponsibility, consideration for the opinions and possessions of others, 
independence in carrying out ideas, perseverance in seeing a job 
finished, conservation of time and materials. The units have also 
been accompanied by growth in the powers of expression through 
creative language, fine and industrial arts, music and dramatization. 
Outcomes in terms of the tool subjects, English and Arithmetic, are 
summarized under Group Records of Progress in Part IV. 

What Do Other Sections of the United 
States Share with Chicago? 

A Problem in the Fifth Gradej Which 
Introduced a Later Study of Industries 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused or fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Previous study of Chicago.- 

B. Discussion of how the rest of our United States has helped 
and is helping Chicago. 

C. Excursion to the beach to see different land forms. 

D. Exhibit of physical, product, and resource maps. 

E. Reading of stories and clippings. 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. What crops do the different sections of the United States raise 
that they can share with others ? 

1. Considering the surface of the different parts of the United 
States, what crops would you expect them to raise? 

2. The climate? 

3. The soil? 

4. Considering all three, what crops do they raise ? 

B. Which crops are sent to Chicago? What is done with the rest? 

C. What natural resources do we find in different sections of the 
United States? 

D. Which raw materials are sent to Chicago? What is done with 
the rest? 

E. What else do the different sections contribute? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through factual reading. 

1. Group silent reading to gain information necessary to solve 

2. Independent silent- reading to solve problems. 

3. Independent reading for information along lines where 
interest had been stimulated by the study. 

4. Oral reading to report results of individual research. 

5. Oral and silent reading to interpret globes, graphs, dia- 
grams, maps. 

6. Reading to answer tests given to check on understanding of 
subject matter. 


188 National College of Education 


Allen, N. B. United States 1925 Ginn 

Atwood, W. W. & The Americas 1929 Ginn 

Thomas, H. G. 

Brigham A. P. & Essentials of Geography 1925 American Book 

McFarlane, C. T. 

Dakin, W. S. Great Rivers of the World 1925 Macmillan 

Pitkin, W. B. & Seeing America 1924 Macmillan 

Hughes, H. F. 

Shepherd, E. P. Geography for Beginners 1921 Rand McNally 

Smith, J. R. Human Geography 1930 Winston 

B. Through composition. 

1. Oral composition. 

(a) Giving reports as a result of research. 

(b) Discussing material read, information brought in, and 

(c) Discussing plans for working out problems. 

2. Written composition. 

(a) Writing labels for product maps. 

(b) Labeling and explaining diagrams and drawings. 

(c) Writing answers to questions checking comprehension. 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Making of different land forms and physical features in 
sand at the beach. 

2. Making of a physical map of the United States. 

(a) Drawing of large free-hand maps from which to 
choose one suitable for class map. 

(b) Constructing on beaver board a relief map of the 
United States with a mixture of flour and salt. 

(c) Painting of background. 

3. Making map showing products of different sections being 
sent to Chicago. 

(a) Tracing of map on beaver board. 

(b) Painting and shellacing map. 

(c) Making and painting clay animals for the map. 

(d) Gathering and mounting grains and natural resources. 

(e) Making small boat to carry products brought by water. 

(f ) Labeling trains and trucks used in transporting goods. 

(g) Assembling of map. 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Measuring, using linear table of measure in drawing and 
constructing maps. 

2. Practicing exercises in proportion to gain skill in drawing 

3. Using four fundamental processes with integers and frac- 
tions in drawing and constructing maps. 

Units of Work in the Fifth Grade 189 

IV. Meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developing through these 

A. An understanding and appreciation of — 

1. Our natural location. 

2. The wonders of nature in America. 

3. The influence of nature in determining men's activities. 

4. Man's skill in adapting his activities to his natural sur- 

5. Abundance of the resources of our United States. 

6. Extent of our interdependence. 

B. A desire to learn more of our use of natural resources. 

V. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. Industries in which these products are used. 

B. Life in different regions of the United States. 

C. What Chicago sends to different parts of the United States. 

Note: Following this study, the class divided itself into 
three committees. One committee studied lumber; 
another group investigated the iron and steel industry ; 
and a third group conducted a unit on stock-raising. 
Outlines of two of these units follow. 

How Does Chicago Obtain and Use Iron? 

A Unit Conducted by a Committee of the Fifth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused or fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Previous studies. 

1. Study of Chicago. 

2. Study of contributions different sections of United States 
make to Chicago. 

B. Exhibits. 

1. Pictures posted. 

2. Clippings brought in. 

C. Excursions. 

1. Trip to farm to see machinery. 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. How does Chicago obtain and use iron ? 

1 . Where are iron deposits found in the United States ? From 
which deposits does Chicago get iron? Why? 

2. How is iron mined? How is it brought to Chicago? 

3. What process is necessary to change iron into pig iron? 
How is steel made ? What progress has been made in these 
processes ? 

4. Where is coal found in the United States? Where does 
Chicago get coal for her steel industry? 

5. What is coal? How was it formed? 

6. How is coal mined today? How does this differ from the 
way it was mined long ago? 

7. How is the coal brought to the blast furnace? 

8. What are the products made from iron? How are they 

9. What are the products made from steel? How are they 
made ? 

10. What is done with these products? 

B. How shall we show our classmates who are working on other 
industries how the iron and steel industry is carried on? 

III. Finding answers to questions and problems. 

A. Through factual reading. 

1. Group reading to gain information necessary to solve prob- 


Units of Work in the Fifth Grade 


2. Independent reading of material to solve problems. 

3. Oral reading to report information found. 

4. Independent reading for pleasure following interests stimu- 
lated by the study. 

5. Silent and oral reading to interpret maps, charts, globes, 

6. Reading to answer tests given to check on information 


Allen, N. B. 
Barrows, H. H. & 

Parker, E. P. 
Brigham, A. P. & 

McFarlane, C. T. 
Camp, J. M. & 

Francis, C. B. 
Carpenter, F. G. 

Chase, A. & Clow, 

Pitkin, W. B. & 

Hughes, H. F. 
Rocheleau, W. F. 

Smith, J. R. 


United States 
United States and Canada 

Essentials of Geography 

Making, Shaping & 
Treating of Steel 

How the World is 

Stories of Industry — ■ 
Vol. I 

Seeing America Mill and 

Great American Indus- 
tries Series (Bk. I) 

Human Geography 

1925 Ginn 

1925 Silver-Burdett 

1925 American Book 

Carnegie Steel Company 

1911 American Book 

1913 Educational 

Publishing Co. 

1926 Macmillan 

1927 Flanagan 
1922 Winston 

B. Through oral composition. 

1. Organizing and giving talks as a result of individual or 
group research. 

2. Discussing of material read, information brought in, pic- 
tures in exhibits. 

3. Discussing of plans for work and setting up standards to 
be attained. 

4. Outlining material to be used in stories. 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Making a talkie. 

(a) Constructing a theater. 

(b) Making curtains. 

(c) Mounting pictures on cambric. 

2. Making wall hanging of block prints. 

(a) Cutting linoleum. 

(b) Printing prints on sateen background. 

3. Collecting and arranging an exhibit of different kinds of 
coal and products of iron. 

4. Planning and constructing posters to advertise talkie. 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Measuring in construction of theater, making the curtains, 
and mounting pictures, using the linear measure. 

192 National College of Education 

2. Measuring- in dyeing the curtains, using liquid measure. 

3. Reading and writing large numbers in interpreting United 
States production of iron, steel, and commodities made of 

4. Using four fundamental processes with integers in making 
the movie and theater. 

5. Using four fundamental processes with fractions in meas- 
uring cloth for curtains and movie. 

6. Using four fundamental processes with decimals in prob- 
lems dealing with the production of iron and steel. 

7. Using principles of percentage in comparing the produc- 
tion of the United States in comparison with world pro- 
duction of iron and steel. 

IV. Meanings, attitudes, appreciations developing through these 

A. A recognition and appreciation of the extent of iron ore and 
coal resources in the United States. 

B. An understanding and appreciation of 

1. The marvel of the industrial process. 

2. What miners are doing for us. 

3. The mining possibilities of the United States. 

C. A knowledge and appreciation of the change in the life of 
people brought about by increased production and use of these 

D. An expressed desire to help conserve our iron and coal re- 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature: oral reading by teacher and pupils of 
some selections of special charm. 

1. Story. 

Bassett, S. W.— The Story of Iron. 

2. Poems. 

Guiterman, Arthur. — Coal 
Sandburg, Carl.— Chicago 
Bryant, William Cullen. — Coal 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Writing stories to accompany the pictures in the movie. 

2. Writing stories for the school magazine about the study of 

C. Through picture-making, design, decoration. 

1. Painting pictures (18 x 24) with poster paint to show 

Units of Work in the Fifth Grade 193 

each step in the iron and steel industry, including the part 
played by coal and the coal industry. 

2. Designing in paper, painting or coloring posters to advertise 

3. Making designs of the industry to be used for block prints. 
D. Through social activity in sharing experiences with others. 

1. Giving talkie to classmates and other classes. 

2. Giving talkie for college class in Social Science. 

3. Giving talkie before parents. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. Studying other industries. 

B. Making other talkies. 

How Does Chicago Obtain and 
Use Lumber? 

A Unit Carried on by a Committee of the Fifth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused or fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Previous studies. 

1. Study of Chicago. 

2. Study of contributions different sections of the United 
States make to Chicago and to the rest of the world. 

B. Preliminary discussions. 

1. What use is made of products sent to Chicago? 

2. What does she send out ? 

C. Trip to farm where branches and cones were gathered. 

D. Spencer films. 

1. Lumbering. 

2. Our Forests and What They Mean To Us. 

E. Exhibits. 

1. Pictures and clippings posted. 

2. Piece of redwood tree brought in. 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. How is the lumber industry carried on? 

1 . Where are the most important forests in the United States ? 

2. What kinds of trees are found in them ? How can one tell 
these different kinds? 

3. How does the amount of forest land to-day compare with 
that of colonial times? 

4. Why is there less? 

5. How are the forests protected to-day? 

6. How are the trees cut for lumber ? 

7. How are they taken to the sawmill ? 

8. How are they made into lumber? 

9. Where is this lumber sent and how ? 

B. How shall we show the committees on other industries how the 

lumber industry is carried on? 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 

A. By factual reading. 

1. Independent reading of material to solve problems. 

Units of Work in the Fifth Grade 


2. Independent reading for information along interests stimu- 
lated by the study. 

3. Group silent reading to gain information necessary to solve 

4. Oral reading to report results of individual research. 

5. Oral reading of explanations accompanying Spencer film 

6. Oral and silent reading to interpret maps, diagrams, globes, 

7. Reading to answer tests given to check on understanding of 
subject matter. 

Allen, N. B. 
Barrows & Parker 
Brigham & 

Carpenter, F. G. 
Comstock, A. 
Patch, E. M. 

Smith, J. R. 
Trafton, G. H. 


United States 
United States and Canada 
Essentials of Geography- 
How We are Housed 
Handbook of Nature 
First Lessons in Nature 

Human Geography 
Nature Study and 


1925 Ginn 

1925 Silver Burdett 

1925 American Book 

1911 American 
1926 Compton 
1926 Comstock 

1926 Macmillan 

1922 Winston 

1927 Macmillan 


B. By language. 

1. Organizing and giving talks as a result of individual or 
group research. 

2. Discussing material read, information brought in, exhibits, 

3. Discussing plans for work and setting up standards to be 

4. Outlining material to be used for stories. 

C. By constructive activities. 

1. Making of extensive tree exhibit consisting of a tree, bark, 
lumber, leaves, buds, and cones. 

(a) Collecting. 

(b) Identifying and labeling. 

(c) Arranging. 

2. Building a show case to use in displaying the exhibit. 

3. Planning, making and binding books of stories, maps, and 

4. Making a wall hanging of industry prints. 

(a) Cutting designs in linoleum. 

(b) Printing on sateen background. 

5. Making maps to show where different trees are found in 
the United States. 

196 National College oe Education 

D. By use of arithmetic. 

1. Measuring. 

(a) Using linear measure in construction of books and 
exhibit case. 

(b) Using board measure in working lumber problems. 

2. Reading and writing large numbers in interpreting sta- 
tistics concerning acreage of forests, production of lumber 
in the United States. 

3. Counting and using four fundamental processes in de- 
termining age of trees by their rings and figuring to place 
different trees' histories in relation to the history of our 

4. Using four fundamental processes with fractions in con- 
structing case and books. 

5. Using decimals and principles of percentage in figuring 
lumber problems. 

IV. Meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developing through these 

A. An understanding and appreciation of 

1. Our forests. 

2. What those engaged in lumber industry are doing for us. 

3. Our city comforts. 

B. A desire to help protect and conserve our forests. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. By means of literature. 

Oral reading for pleasure of stories and poems. 

Bassett, S. W. The Story of Lumber. 

Bjornson B. The Tree. 

Kilmer, Jovce. Trees. 

Abbey, Henry. What Do We Plant When We Plant a Tree. 

B. By means of creative composition. 

1. Creating stories and verses about trees. 

2. Writing descriptions of the journey from forest to lumber- 
yard, to be placed in lumber books. 

3. Writing items about the study for the school newspaper. 

C. By means of picture-making and design. 

1. Painting large pictures of trees as a part of tree exhibit. 

2. Making illustrations of the steps in the lumber industry 
to accompany stories in books. 

3. Making sketches of buds, leaves, winter and summer shape, 
cones, to show others how to identify different trees. 

4. Designing covers for books. 

5. Making designs of the lumber industry for block prints. 

Units of Work in the Fifth Grade 197 

D. By means of social activity. 

1. Sharing exhibit with classmates. 

2. Giving fair for the purpose of raising money for the new 
children's library. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. Collecting summer characteristics of trees. 

B. Making individual collections at home. 

C. Interest in uses of forests other than for lumber. 

Enjoying Playgrounds of the United States 

A Unit of Work in the Fifth Grade Summer Session 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background for activities. 

A. Previous studies. 

1. Fifth grade work on industries of the United States. 

2. Fourth grade study of Chicago. 

B. Exhibits. 

1. Large colored posters put out by the railroad companies. 

2. Folders and booklets advertising tours. 

3. Pictures. 

C. Spencer film slide : Yellowstone Park. 

D. Motion pictures. 

1. Dude ranches in New Mexico. 

2. Glacier Park. 

E. Trip to the lake. 

F. Striking bits of description from folders read to children. 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. What do people in the United States do for pleasure ? 

B. Since traveling seems to be the most important way of spend- 
ing a vacation, where do people travel in the summer? 

C. Why should they go to these places? What is there interest- 
ing on a tour of the Great Lakes ? Historical and scenic New 
England? New York City? Washington, D. C, and vicinity? 
Philadelphia? The Southern States? Estes Park? Cali- 
fornia? The Indian Country of the Southwest? Yosemite 
Park? Salt Lake City? Rainier National Park? Glacier 
National Park? Yellowstone National Park? Dude Ranches? 
Wisconsin Lake region? 

D. How might we get some pleasure out of these places this sum- 
mer while here at school ? 

Note: Individual children chose particular places for 
detailed study. 

III. Finding answers to questions and problems. 

A. Through factual reading. 

1. Group silent reading to solve problems. 

2. Independent silent reading to solve problems. 

3. Independent reading for information following interests 
stimulated by the study. 


Units of Work in the Fifth Grade 


4. Oral reading to report information found. 

5. Oral and silent reading to interpret maps, diagrams, posters. 

Allen, Nellie B. 
Atwood & Thomas 

Barrows, H. H. & 
Parker, E. P. 

Brigham, A. P. & 
McFarlane, C. T. 

Cather, K. D. & 
Jordon, D. S. 

Hotchkiss, C. W. 

Krapp, G. P. 

Nida, W. L. 
Smith, J. R. 

Southworth, G. & 
Kramer, S. E. 

Retold from St. 


United States 

The Americas, The 

Earth and Its People 
Geography of United 

States and Canada 
Essentials of Geography 

Highlights of Geography 

— North America 
Representative Cities of 

the United States 
Inland Oceans 
New Pictorial Atlas of 

the World 
Following the Frontier 
World Atlas 
Human Geography — 

Book I 
Great Cities of the 

United States 
Stories of the Great 


1925 Ginn 

1929 Ginn 

1925 Silver-Burdett 

1925 American Book 

1927 World Book 

1913 Houghton Mifflin 

1927 Hand 

1931 Reilly and Lee 

1924 Macmillan 

1930 Rand McNally 

1926 Winston 

1922 Iroquois 

B. Through language. 

1. Discussing and suggesting plans for work. 

2. Practice in outlining material and organizing information 
for talks. 

3. Organizing and giving talks as each child conducted the 
class around the chosen city or park. 

4. Discussing and criticising work done. 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Marking out on maps suggested places to visit and tours 
to make. 

2. Making of large poster advertisements for the purpose of 
inducing classmates to visit certain scenic spots on their 
imaginary trip. 

3. Making models to advertise places. 

4. Making charts to advertise places. 

5. Making class book containing diary of the trip. 

D. Through use of arithmetic. 

1. Using four fundamental processes with integers in figuring 
distances and cost of the trip. 

2. Using linear measure in making advertisements. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations developing through 
these experiences. 

A. A knowledge and appreciation of the beauties and wonders of 
our country. 

200 National College of Education 

B. A knowledge and appreciation of those who make it possible 
for us to see and enjoy them : travel bureaus ; transportation 
companies ; guides. 

C. A feeling of gratitude to the national and local governments, to 
historical societies and other organizations for preserving these 
interesting places, and offering their use to the public. 

D. Some appreciation of the responsibility of those who visit public 

playgrounds for their care and protection. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

Oral reading of some selections of special interest and charm. 


Harper, W. & Treasure Trail Series 1929 Macmillan 

Hamilton, A. J. (Far- Away Hills) 

Rolfe, M. A. Our National Parks 1927 Sanborn 

(Books I and II) 
Seymour, F. W. Indians Today 1926 Sanborn 

B. Through creative composition: writing of diary by each child 
of one place visited on the trip. 

C. Through picture-making. 

1. Sketching of scenes by the lake in pastels. 

2. Painting scenes for advertisements and class diary. 

3. Making posters in colored papers for advertisements. 

D. Through dramatic activity. 

An imaginary trip to the playgrounds of the United States, the 
children taking turns in acting as guide and pointing out places 
of interest. 

VI. New interests, foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. Playgrounds and interesting places in other countries. 

B. Beautiful scenery. 

How New York Became Our Greatest City 

A Fifth Grade Unit of the First Semester 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Previous studies. 

1. Colonization of America. 

2. Study of own community — Chicago. 

3. Vacation exhibit. 

B. Exhibits. 

1. Pictures and clippings on bulletin boards about New York 

2. Relics from old New York. 

C. Stories read to the children. 

1. Peeps at Great Cities — New York — Hawthorne. 

2. Selections from recent magazines and newspapers. 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. What is New York's early history? 

1. Who discovered it? 

2. Who explored it? 

3. Who first settled there and why did they? 

4. How did the early settlers live? 

5. What was the appearance of New York in the early days? 

6. Who ruled it ? 

7 . Who were some of the important people in the early history 
of New York? 

B. Why are cities built? 

1. Why do people live in cities to-day instead of on isolated 
farms as long ago? 

2. What changes did discoveries and inventions make in 
power ? 

3. What changes in living did changes in power make? 

4. How do we come to have coal? How does it help to build 
cities ? 

5. How do we come to have oil? How does it help? 

6. How does water power help to build cities? 

7. How does iron help to build cities? 

C. How has its geography helped New York to become a great 

1. How has its climate helped? 

2. What crops can it get easily? 



National College of Education 

3. What natural resources can it get easily? 

4. How has its harbor helped? 

5. What advantages does its location have for trade both with 
the rest of the United States and foreign countries ? 

D. How have men helped to make New York a great city ? 

1. How have men aided the growth of New York by improv- 
ing transportation? 

2. How have men solved the sanitation problem for a great 

3. How have men helped New York by building great schools ? 

4. How have men helped by building buildings ? 

5. What has the artist and sculptor done for New York? 

6. How has the immigrant helped? 

7. How have men helped by building playgrounds, parks and 
museums ? 

8. How have publishing companies helped New York? 

9. What have men done to make New York a great trading 
center ? 

10. What have men done to make New York a great buying 
center ? 

Note : Problems A, B and C were worked upon by the 
group together; in Problem D each child chose one topic 
to work on and report to the group. 

III. Solution of problems. 

A. Through factual reading. 

1. Reading to find answers to problems (group and indi- 

2. Reading for general information along interests stimulated 
by the study. 

3. Reading maps, charts, graphs, globes for information. 

4. Reading tests given to check on mastery of subject matter. 

Allen, N. B. 
Atwood, W. W. 

and Thomas, H. 
Barrows, H. H. & 

Parker, E. P. 
Chamberlain, J. F. 
New York Times 
Fox, F. C. 
Hawthorne, H. 
Hotchkiss, C. W. 

Irwin, W. 
Kelty, M. G. 


United States 
The Americas 

United States and Canada 

North America 
Picture Section 
Pictured Encyclopedia 
How the World Rides 
Peeps at Great Cities 
Representative Cities of 

the United States 
Highlights of Manhattan 
Beginnings of the Ameri- 
can People and Nation 

1925 Ginn 
1929 Ginn 

1925 Silver Burdett 
1927 Macmillan 

1926 Compton 

1929 Scribner 
1911 Macmillan 

1913 Houghton Mifflin 

1927 Century 

1930 Ginn 

Units of Work in the Fifth Grade 203 

References — continued 

Nida, W. L. & Our Country Past and 1930 Scott 

Webb, V. L. Present 

Nida, W. L. Following the Frontier 1924 Macmillan 

Pitkin, W. B. & Seeing America 1926 Macmillan 

Hughes, H. F. 
Rugg, H. O. Mill and Factory 1929 Ginn 

Introduction to the 
American Civilization 
Southworth, G. & Great Cities of the 1913 Houghton Mifflin 

Kramer, S. E. United States 

B. Through language. 

1. Outlining and giving reports on information found. 

2. Discussing problems of work and of subject matter. 

3. Setting up standards to be attained. 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Constructing a replica of New Amsterdam. 

(a) Cutting houses from wood. 

(b) Making trees of sponges. 

(c) Making fences of pebbles and clay. 

(d) Making ship of clay. 

2. Making maps. 

(a) Large freehand maps of the harbor for the model. 

(b) Maps showing the coal, oil, iron and water power 
regions of the United States. 

(c) Maps of steamship routes to New York. 

(d) Maps showing places from which New York gets 

3. Binding books on New York made by each child. 

4. Making a radio for broadcasting stories. 

5. Making a table for exhibits. 

6. Making and dressing paper dolls to show appearance of 
immigrants in New York. 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Addition of integers. 

Adding different amounts in statistics to get totals. 

2. Subtraction. 

Subtracting dates to find how long ago. 

3. Double multiplication. 

(a) Finding area of plots of ground. 

(b) Finding cost of land valued at New York prices. 

4. Long division. 

Finding value of 1 square foot of land in New York when 
total was given. 

5. Reading large numbers in statistics on New York. 

204 National College oe Education 

6. Fractions. 

(a) Expressing parts as a fraction. 

(b) Reducing per cents to common fractions in statistics 
on New York. 

(c) Adding common fractions in measuring. 

(d) Subtracting common fractions in construction prob- 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developing through 
these experiences. 

A. An understanding of the beginnings made by the early settlers. 

B. An understanding and appreciation of the marvels that mechan- 
ical power has brought about. 

C. Some understanding of the wealth of our country in sources of 

D. Some understanding of the wealth of our country in ores and 

E. An appreciation of the values of natural resources and the 
necessity of conserving them. 

F. An understanding of the important part geographic factors 
play in determining man's activities. 

G. An appreciation of the contribution made by the immigrant, 
the artist, the sculptor, the musician and the engineer. 

H. Knowledge and appreciation of the conveniences to be had in 
a city made possible by man's use of scientific knowledge. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

Oral reading by teacher and pupils for pleasure. 

Read to children 

Allen, N. B. United States 1925 Ginn 

Irving, W. Rip Van Winkle 1908 Altemns 

Irving, W. Legend of the Sleepy 1924 Lippincott 


Read by the children 

Dodge, M. M. Hans Brinker or the ,1903 Century 

Silver Skates 
Lewis, W. D. & Scouting Through 1930 Winston 

Rowland, A. L. 

B. Through creative composition. 
Writing stories for books on New York. 

C. Through picture making, design, decoration. 

1. Making pictures to illustrate the stories written for the 
New York books. 

(a) Crayon drawings. 

(b) Diagrams in ink. 

Units of Work in the Fifth Grade 205 

(c) Pencil sketches. 

(d) Paintings. 

2. Decorating replica of New Amsterdam. 

(a) Painting houses. 

(b) Painting background. 

3. Making covers for books. 

(a) Cutting designs from poster paper. 

(b) Cutting letters from poster paper for titles. 

D. Through music. 

1. Discussing and exchanging information and experiences 
relating to the great musical organizations in New York: 
ensembles, orchestras, opera, music centers and music 

2. The making and balancing of programs from available 
piano scores, representing the many fields listed above to 
be used in our appreciation hours. 

3. Singing and listening to old Dutch folk music. 

Source Books and Materials 

Hamilton, Clarence Outlines of Music History Oliver Ditson 

Rontgen, Elkin, Old Dutch Nursery Augener Ltd. 

LeMair Rhymes 

Davison, Surette A Book of Songs E. C. Schirmer 

Purcell, Henry Dido and Aeneas Oxford Press 

Mozart The .Magic Flute Novello 

Schubert Symphony in B Minor G. Schirmer 

Brahms Symphony in C Minor N. Simrock 

Current circulars and programs from New York music organizations. 

E. Through social activity, sharing experiences with others. 

1. Radio talks for classmates: sharing the stories written with 
classmates, by reading them behind the scenes as if they 
were broadcast over the radio. 

2. New York Assembly. Radio idea was used for a New 
York program for parents and grades four and six. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

The children were interested in other large cities of the 
United States, especially San Francisco and New Orleans. 

Fifth Grade Impressions of the City 

A City of Steel 

A city of steel and of iron and of smoke, 
A city of oil and bricks and of coke, 
A city of autos and street cars and trains, 
A city of boats and of swift airplanes,— 
A village of horses and dirt roads is gone. 
But a city of skyscrapers stands in the dawn. 

206 National College of Education 

Sounds of the City 

Autos whiz. 

Street cars thump. 

Taxis honk. 

Huge trucks bump. 

Iron wheels screech. 

Fast trains boom. 

Whistles scream. 

Airplanes zoom. 

The city knows 

These noisy sounds. 

They sound all day 

When they make their rounds. 

The City at Night 

Over the city 

Night is closing. 

Many tired workers 

Are quietly dozing. 

One by one 

Twinkling lights fade away. 

The city is sleeping 

Until dawns the day. 

There is a City 

There is a city about which I dream 
When the shadows of the evening gleam. 
I dream about its marble towers 
And about its sweet-scented flowers, 
Where its highways are paved with gold, 
Where its spires pierce the clouds and hold 
In darkened chests a treasure great. 
But in this city lies the treasure seeker's fate, 
For in these chests of jewels and rich stones 
And in this city of sparkling domes 
Demons dark and cruel lie, — 
The treasure seeker they will defy. 

And my dream is not truthless. 

With America's treasure, man is ruthless. 

So, people, I demand, do not waste 

Our country's treasure in greed and haste. 

The Broker 

The Broker, the Broker, 

The Beast of the City — 

Three balls is his sign. 

There's money in his line. 

Some folks would like to throw him 

In the deep and foamy brine. 

Isn't it a pity 

That the Broker is 

The Beast of the City? 

How the United States Moved West 
from New York to San Francisco 

A Second Semester's Problem in the Fifth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Previous studies. 

1. Colonial days in America. 

2. Development of Chicago. t 

3. Development of New York including the factors which 
influence the growth of any city. 

B. Preliminary discussions. 

1. Discussions of other important cities of the United States 
besides New York. 

2. Discussions which resulted in choice of San Francisco as 
next city to be studied. 

3. Discussions as to who settled San Francisco led to the 
conclusion that settling Francisco involved the settling of 
our country to Pacific. 

4. Choosing of topic "How the United States moved west 
from New York to San Francisco" for study. 

C. Exhibits. 

1. Pictures of events in United States history. 

2. Clippings from newspapers and magazines. 

3. Pioneer relics. 

D. Excursions. 

1. To a modern farm in the Northwest territory. 

2. To a Southern puppet show. 

3. To the Chicago Historical Society to see a replica of a 
pioneer home, Conestoga wagon, pioneer farm implements, 
relics of the Civil War. 

E. Spencer Films. 

1. Fishing. 

2. Lumbering. 

3. Yellowstone National Park. 

4. United States history from discovery through the War of 

5. Wild animals of North America. 

6. Our forests and what they mean to us. 


208 National College of Education 

II. Problems and questions which led into research. 

A. How did the pioneers overcome the first barrier, the Appa- 
lachian Mountains, and move into the Northwest territory? 

1. Why had the colonists first settled on the coast? 

2. How were these difficulties of mountains and enemies 
overcome ? 

3. What advantages did the land west of the mountains offer 
the settlers? 

4. How did the United States open the land west of the 
mountains for settlement? 

5. What routes were used in moving into this territory? 

6. By what means did the settlers move into this territory? 

7 . Who were some of the outstanding people in settling this 
territory ? 

B. What has the Northwest territory in the central section of the 
United States contributed? 

1. The climate, soil, and topography of this section are suited 
to what activities? 

2. What natural resources are found here? 

3. What are the advantages for trade? 

C. How was the frontier pushed to the Pacific coast ? 

1. How did the United States come to gain the land west of 
the Mississippi? 

2. How did the people find out about this vast new land ? 

3. How did they get there to settle? 

4. What improvements were made in roads? 

5. What part did the canals play in the westward movement? 

6. Steamboats? 

7. Railroads? 

8. How could the settlers take care of the vast farms which 
were now available? 

9. Who were the inventors who helped the early pioneers? 

10. How did the people live in this new region? 

1 1 . What part did the new west take in the government ? 

12. How did Florida come to be a part of the United States? 

13. How did Texas come to be a part of the United States ? 

14. How did the Oregon territory come to be a part of the 
United States? 

15. What led the people to the far west? 

16. Who were some of the outstanding people in building the 
west ? 

D. What is the West contributing to-day? 

1. The climate, the soil, the topography of the different sec- 
tions are suited to what activities ? 

Units of Work in the Fifth Grade 


The Covered Wagon Spells Adventure 

2. What natural resources are found here? 

3. How have men used the advantages and overcome the dis- 
advantages ? 

4. How do people differ here from those in other sections? 

E. How did the North and South come to quarrel? 

1. The climate, the soil, and the topography of the south 
were suited to what activities ? 

2. What natural resources were found there? 

3. How did the way people lived here differ from the way 
people lived in other sections? 

4. What effect did the difference in the two sections indus- 
trially have upon their misunderstanding of each other? 

5. How was their misunderstanding settled? 

6. What is the South contributing to-day? 

F. How have all the sections of the United States been brought 
more closely together today? 

III. Finding answers to questions and problems. 
A. Through factual reading. 
1. Types of silent reading. 

(a) Independent reading to solve problems. 


National College of Education 

(b) Independent reading following interests stimulated by 
the study. 

(c) Group reading to gain information necessary to solve 

(d) Reading to interpret maps, globes, diagrams. 

(e) Reading to answer informal objective tests given to 
check on understanding of subject matter. 

(f ) Reading suggestions made out by teacher and children 
for working out problems. 

Types of oral reading. 

(a) Oral reading to report results of individual research. 

(b) Oral reading of explanations accompanying the 
Spencer Film slides. 

(c) Oral reading to interpret maps, diagrams, graphs, 


Adams, J. T. 
Allen, N. B. 
Atwood, M. W. 

Thomas, H. 
Barker, E. C. 
Barker, E. C. 
Barrows, H. H. 

Parker, E. P. 
Burnham, S. 
Dakin, W. S. 

Darrow, F. L. 
Edison, A. W. 
Laing, M. E. 
Evans, L. B. 

Ford, G. S. 

Gordy, W. F. 

Kelty, M. G. 
Kelty, M. G. 
McMaster, J. 


Nida, W. L. 
Nida, W. L. & 

Webb, V. L. 
Perry, A. & Price, 

G. A. 
Pitkin, W. B. & 

Hughes, H. F. 
Pitkin, W. B. & 

Hughes, H. F. 
O'Shea, M. V. and 

Rugg, H. O. 

Epic of America 
United States 
The Americas 

The Growth of a Nation 

The Story of Our Nation 

The United States and 

Hero Tales From History 

Great Rivers of the 

Thinkers and Doers 

Opportunity Readers 
IV and V 

First Lessons in Amer- 
ican History 

Compton's Pictured En- 

Elementary History of 
the United States 

Beginnings of American 
People & Nation 

The Growth of Amer- 
ican People & Nation 

Primary History of the 
United States 

Following the Frontier 

Our Country Past and 

American History 

1931 Little Brown 
1925 Ginn 
1930 Ginn 

1928 Row Peterson 

1929 Row Peterson 
1925 Silver Burdett 

1930 Winston 
1925 Macmillan 

1925 Silver Burdett 

1925 Sanborn 

1929 Sanborn 

1926 Compton 
1925 Scribner 

1930 Ginn 

1931 Ginn 

1925 American Book 

1924 Macmillan 
1930 Scott 

1914 American Book 

Seeing America, 

Seeing America, 

and Field 
The World Book- 

Mill & 1924 Macmillan 
Farm 1924 Macmillan 

An Introduction to Amer- 
ican Civilization 

1931 Quarrie 
1929 Ginn 

Units of Work in the Fifth Grade 211 

B. Through language. 

1. Discussing readings, exhibits, and excursions. 

2. Discussing plans for working out solutions to problems. 

3. Setting up standards to be attained. 

4. Organizing and giving reports as a result of individual 

5. Outlining as a group the important events in the Move- 
ment Westward. 

6. Discussing plans for constructive activities. 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Making individual model of clay or wood illustrating dif- 
ferent episodes in Westward Movement. 

2. Making maps showing routes traveled, canals or railroads 
built, extent of various territories. 

3. Making large charts of 24" by 36" tag board, containing 
stories, maps, pictures and diagrams showing activities of 
different sections to-day. 

4. Making stage properties for the play. 

(a) Cutting large covered wagon (6' x 8'), oxen, trees, 
bushes, sage brush and fire place from beaver board 
and making standards for them. 

(b) Making pioneer cradle, stools and guns from lumber. 

5. Making costumes for the play. 

(a) Cutting dresses by patterns from cambric. 

(b) Cutting hunting shirts from cambric to be worn with 
long khaki trousers. 

(c) Cutting sun bonnets. 

(d) Making costumes. 

Note: See ''Adventuring in America" by McGuire and 
Phillips, page 298. 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Using linear measure in making charts, stage properties, 

2. Reading and writing large numbers in interpreting statistics 
on present crop values, distances. 

3. Counting money, making change and keeping accounts in 
connection with the play. 

4. Using the four fundamental processes with integers. 

(a) Adding integers in finding crop values in the United 
States; cost of land. 

(b) Subtracting integers in finding how long ago an event 
took place. 

(c) Multiplying to find cost of several acres of land at 
early values and value to-day ; finding area of plots of 

212 National College of Education 

(d) Dividing to find number of acres in a plot of ground. 

E. Using the four fundamental processes with fractions. 

1. Adding fractions in finding amount of different colored 
cambric needed for costumes, amount of beaver board 
needed for stage properties. 

2. Subtracting fractions in finding amount of cambric left 
after cutting one costume. 

3. Multiplying fractions to find the cost of the cloth for each 
costume, the amount needed for several costumes which 
are alike. 

4. Dividing fractions to find how many costumes can be cut 
from material on hand. 

F. Decimal fractions. 

Reading decimal fractions in interpreting statistics. 

G. Percentage. 

Expressing per cent — as common fractions with 100 as the 
denominator and reducing them to their lowest terms in inter- 
preting statistics. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations developing through 
these experiences. 

A. Knowledge and appreciation of the hardships endured by the 
early settlers in surmounting the natural barriers in moving 
west, and of the hardships endured in making a home and earn- 
ing a living in a new wild country. 

B. Understanding of the important part geographic factors play 
in determining man's occupation in the different sections of our 

C. An appreciation of the vastness of our country. 

D. Knowledge of the wealth of the natural resources. 

E. Appreciation of the importance of conserving natural resources. 

F. Appreciation for the bravery of men who dared to go into a 
wilderness and build a country. 

G. Understanding of the progress made in methods of communi- 
cation and transportation through man's use of scientific 

FI. Understanding of the progress made in the industries through 

man's use of scientific knowledge. 
F Appreciation of the ease and luxury of the present-day life 
compared with that of the early settler. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through creative composition. 

1. Writing of the play as an expression of the utmost enjoy- 

Units of Work in the Fifth Grade 



ment of the dramatic incidents in the westward expansion 

of the United States. 

(a) Writing some scenes for the play as a big group. 

Writing some scenes in smaller committees with teach- 

Writing some scenes as committees without teacher 

(d) Writing some scenes individually. 

(e) Writing dodgers to advertise the play. 

(f ) Writing thank-you notes to those who assisted in giv- 
ing the play. 

(g) Writing thank-you notes for the use of the auditorium. 
2. Writing stories or descriptions of activities carried on in 

different sections to-day. 
Through literature. 
1. Poems read to and by the children: 

Austin, Mary 
Braley, Burton 
Bryant, W. C. 
Guiterman, Arthur 
Guiterman, Arthur 
Lomax, John A. 
Mac Diarmid 
Miller, Joaquin 
Miller, Joaquin 

A Pioneer 

The Pioneers 

The Prairies 

The Oregon Trail 

The Tall Men 

The MacKenzie Trail 

The Call of the Plains 

Pioneers, Pioneers 

The Ship in the Desert 

Stories from which selections were read orally by the chil- 
dren for pleasure : 

Bindloos, H. 

The Frontiersman 

1929 Stokes 

Blaisdell, A. F 

Stories of the Civil War 

1912 Lothrop 

Brooks, E. S. 

The True Story of Abra- 
ham Lincoln 

1905 Lothrop 

Coffman, R. 

Our America 

1930 Dodd 

Gabriel, R. H. 

Lure of the Frontier 

1929 Yale 

Gabriel, R. 


The Pageant of America 

1925 Yale 


Grinnell, G. B. 

Jack in the Rockies 

1906 Stokes 

Jackson, H. M. 

Nellie's Silver Mine 

1924 Little Brown 

Lewis, W. D. 


Opening the Great West 

1930 Winston 

Rowland, A. 


from "Scouting 

Lewis, W. D. 


Whys and Wherefores 

1930 Winston 

Rowland, A. 


Meeker, E. 

Ox Team Days on the 
Oregon Trail 

1922 World Book 

C. Through picture making, design, decoration. 

1. Making pictures and posters depicting events in the West- 
ward Movement. 

2. Making pictures in paint and crayon to show activities in 
different sections to-day. 


National College of Education 

3. Making a series of large paintings (18 x 24) on trans- 

(a) Pictures showing the development of land transporta- 

(b) Pictures showing the development in water transporta- 

(c) Making block print designs for the programs. 
D. Through music. 

1. Singing some of the typical songs of the various sections 
of the country: 

Songs of the plains and hills as : "The Dying Cowboy," "Get 

Along Little Doggies." 
Kentucky mountain songs and ballads : "The Swapping 

Southern songs: "Oh Susannah" (Words "California") 
"My Old Kentucky Home." 
General : "Quilting Party," "My Darling Nellie Gray." 

2. Playing games such as : "Old Dan Tucker," "Jolly is the 

3. Learning old dances such as : "Virginia Reel." 

4. Creating dances : Dutch Dance to "Oh where, Oh where 
is my little dog gone," from "Old Dutch Nursery 
Rhymes" — McKay. 

Botsford, F. H. 

Davison, Surette 

and Zanzig 
Hofer, Mari 

La Salle, Dorothy 
Lomax, J. A. 

Palmer, Winthrop 

Sandburg, Carl 

White and Shack- 

Source Books: 

Folk Songs of Many 

A Book of Songs 

Popular Folk Games and 

Rhythms and Dances 
Cowboy Songs — Frontier 

American Songs for 

The American Songbag 
The Blue Book of Favor- 
ite Songs 
Sociability Songs 
The Lonesome Cowboy 

1922 Womans Press 
1922 E. C. Schirmer 
1914 A. Flanagan 

1926 A. S. Barnes 

1929 Macmillan 

1931 Macmillan 

1927 Hartcourt, Brace 

1928 Hall & McCreary 

1928 Rodeheaver 

1930 G. T. Worth 

E. Through dramatic activity. 

1. Giving informal dramatizations of incidents in the West- 
ward Movement. 

2. Giving the finished play, "Pioneer Days." 

Units of Work in the Fifth Grade 215 

Act I 

Sc. I. — In 1783 Mr. and Mrs. Peter Brinker are living in eastern Pennsylvania 
with Mr. Brinker's grandfather. The grandfather has a trunk containing relics 
of New Amsterdam. He tells their stories to his granddaughter-in-law. 

Sc. II. — That evening some neighbors, the Tollivers, spend the evening with the 
Brinkers discussing the recent treaty of peace and their part in the Revolution. 
Two friends of Boone return from Maryland where they saw him. They persuade 
the Tollivers and Brinkers to move to Kentucky. 

Sc. III. — The Brinkers and Tollivers are packing their wagons to move to 

Act II 

Sc. I. — In about 1808 the Brinkers are having a party for their grown children 
in their home near St. Louis. They are very much interested in the Louisiana 
Territory. During the evening Lewis and Clark come in and tell of their trip. 

Sc. II. — One afternoon in 1812 Mrs. Brinker and daughter are sewing in the 
yard when some people who are on their way to the Oregon territory stop for 
water. They tell about seeing Fulton's steamboat tried out. They urge the two 
Brinker boys to go west. The boys, however, have decided to help out in the 
trouble with England before they go. 

Act III 

Sc. I — One evening in 1819 young Dave Tolliver and John Brinker and their 
families have camped on their way farther west. Dave Tolliver is going to 
Oregon and John Brinker to western Texas. 

Sc. II. — In 1849 a wagon train of forty-niners, among whom is John Brinker, 
has stopped on the way to California. They meet Kit Carson and discuss the trail. 
They also discuss the annexation of Texas, the acquisition of Oregon, and the 
building of railroads. 

Act IV 

In 1931 the Brinker descendants in San Francisco are entertaining the descendants 
of the Brinker who remained in the South after the war of 1812 and the Tolliver 
descendants from Oregon. The children discover the old Brinker trunk which 
has come across the country and examine its relics which now also consist of 
the letters from the south concerning the Civil War and letters from Oregon. 
The man of the house returns from New York by airplane and the grandmother 
marvels at the difference in the present day and the old. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. Study of how our country is related to other countries. 

B. Study of other countries. 

Note: The children were unanimous in their expressions that 
the above topics should constitute their next piece of work. 



SOME understanding and appreciation of the contribution of 
other countries to our own country and to our own community 
have been attainments desired for the children of the Sixth Grade. 
The need and possibility of world cooperation in the present day have 
been emphasized. The children have been helped to find on the globe 
those countries which made a valuable contribution to civilization in 
ancient times, and to learn some of the reasons for their importance. 
Countries famous for their contribution in mediaeval times have been 
listed ; and also the younger countries that have risen rapidly to posi- 
tions of world influence and power. 

Certain periods and civilizations have been selected for more de- 
tailed study. One class investigated the contributions of ancient 
Greece and Egypt, and followed with a study of the days of feudalism 
and knighthood. The stories of life in the feudal castle were of 
thrilling interest. The class constructed a castle with a drawbridge 
that could be let down, and used it as background for an original 
play, expressing the ideas of knighthood which the class had gained. 

This unit was followed by a study of the problem, "What is our 
relation to modern Europe?" This study was the more interesting 
because it came at a time when world depression seemed to make im- 
perative some plan of world cooperation. The class investigated 
the percentage of our population which had been drawn from each 
country of Europe, the subject of immigration and emigration, and 
the question of exports and imports. The study was continued into 
the summer session of 1931, when our financial relationships with 
Europe became a paramount topic of national interest. 

Another sixth-grade class chose to study the keeping of records 
in ancient and mediaeval times. Much interesting material was found 
available on this topic. A unit followed on our relations to the 
modern world, made possible by modern methods of communication 
and transportation. A World's Fair developed, stimulated by plans 
for the "Century of Progress" exposition in Chicago. 

The study of both physical geography and political geography has 
been involved in these units, as well as much material drawn from 
history. It has been possible to give some time especially in the 


Units of Work in the Sixth Grade 217 

spring and summer terms to the study of natural science. Two 
different classes have found keen interest in an intensive study of 
the larger insects of the region. 

TJie units of work outlined here were developed in a single school 
year and summer session. Outcomes in social meanings and apprecia- 
tions peculiar to the particular unit have been listed with each unit. 
All of the units have afforded opportunities for the continued develop- 
ment of certain desirable social habits and attitudes ; such as, coopera- 
tion with others, respect for the opinions of others, courtesy and 
consideration, willingness to share ideas and materials, and also such 
valuable personal habits as thinking a problem through, making 
sensible and reasonable judgments, carrying on research and using 
illustrative materials in solving of problems. These units have also 
been accompanied by growth in the powers of expression through 
creative language, fine and industrial arts, music and dramatization. 
Outcomes in the tool subjects, English and Arithmetic, have been 
summarized under Group Records of Progress in Part IV. Similar 
records of progress in music, fine and industrial arts and physical 
education are being made, but are not yet ready to publish. 

What Egypt Has Contributed 
to the World 

A Unit of Work in the Sixth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. A colorful Egyptian wall hanging brought in by a member of 
the class. 

B. Exhibit of Egyptian pictures, showing pyramids, sphinx, 

C. Clippings and pictures posted on bulletin fcoard of recent ex- 
cavations in Egypt. 

D. Trip to Egyptian room in Chicago Art Institute; excursion to 
Egyptian Library in Western Theological Seminary, Evanston. 

E. Spencer Film Slides. 

1. Africa as a whole — 77. 

2. Egypt— Part 1—80. 

3. Egypt— Part 11—81. 

F. Picture of writing in hieroglyphics. 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. Egypt and the Nile River. 

1. What is the size, location, and physical features of Egypt? 

2. How has the Nile river affected the life and history of the 
people of Egypt? 

(a) What has been the attitude of the people toward the 

(b) When does the Nile River overflow? 

(c) What are the occupations and products of the Nile 
River Valley? 

(d) How was irrigation carried on by the early Egyptians? 

(e) How do these methods compare with modern methods ? 

(f ) Why was the Assuan Dam built across the Nile? 

B. What the ancient Egyptians built. 

1. Why is the temple of Karhak considered one of the wonders 
of the world? Plow many years did it take to build it? 

2. Why are there many huge statues of Rameses II? 

3. How were the great pyramids of Egypt built? 
How large are they? 

For what were they used? 

Units of Work in the Sixth Grade 219 

4. What is the size of the Great Sphinx? 
Why is the Sphinx still a mystery? 

5. What are Obelisks and where were they placed? 
What has happened to them in recent times? 

C. Social life of ancient Egypt. 

1. What were the five classes of people in Egypt? 

2. What two classes were most powerful? 

3. What were the social pastimes of the people? 

4. Do we enjoy any of these things to-day? 

D. Writings. 

1. Why did the Egyptians use papyrus instead of wood pulp 
as material for paper? 

2. How did they make paper from the papyrus plant ? 

3. What kind of pen did they use? 

4. What were the duties of scribes ? 

5. What kind of information was written on walls of temples? 

6. What was the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians? 

7. How did the hieratic writing differ from the hieroglyphic 
pictures ? 

8. How did the Rosetta Stone open the door to long-closed 
Egyptian libraries? 

E. Art. 

1. Did the Egyptians copy any one in matters pertaining to 

2. Why did they use the palm and lotus as models for orna- 
ment ? 

3. What were the characteristics of their figure drawing? 

4. How did the cabinet makers, jewelers and weavers show 
the artistic ability of ancient Egypt? 

F. Religion. 

1. What were the religious beliefs of the Egyptians? 

2. W T hy were there many religious festivals? 

3. How did the Egyptians embalm the dead? 

4. Why did they consider this so important? 

G. Relation of Egypt to Phoenicia. 

1. Why were the Phoenicians trading people? 

2. What kinds of boats did they use? 

3. How far away from home did the Phoenician sailors ven- 
ture ? 

4. What goods were exchanged? 

5. What colonies were founded? 

6. What did they carry to their colonies in the way of culture 
and civilization ? 

7. What was Phoenicia's greatest gift to the world? 


National College of E 


III. Answering questions and solving problems. 
A. Through factual reading. 

1. Silent reading of factual material in order to find answers 
to questions. 

2. Map study to find extent of Nile valley. 

3. Map study locating Phoenicia as it existed in ancient times. 

4. Examination of a large assortment of pamphlets and maps 
describing travel in Egypt. 

5. Oral reading to answer specific questions and prove points. 

Arnold, Emma J. 
Ashley, R. L. 

Beard, C. A. & 
Bagley, W. C. 

Best, S. M. 

Botsford, G. W. 
& J. B. 

Breasted, J. H. 

Brooksbank, F. H. 

Ford, G. S. 


Gosse, A. B. 

Greenwood, J. H. 

Lamprey, Louise 
O'Shea, M. V. & 

Wells, M. E. 

Wells, H. G. & 
Carter, E. H. 


Stories of Ancient Peo- 

Early European Civiliza- 

Our Old World Back- 

Egypt and Her Neighbors 

A Brief History of the 

Ancient Times 

Legends of Ancient 

Compton's Pictured En- 

The Civilization of the 
Ancient Egyptians 

Our Heritage from the 
Old World 

Children of Ancient Egypt 

World Book for Teach- 

How the Present Came 
from the Past 

A Short History of 

1901 American Book 
1916 Macmillan 

1925 Macmillan 

1918 Macmillan 

1920 Macmillan 

1916 Ginn 

1923 Crowell 

1926 Compton 

1917 Stokes 

1921 Appleton 

1924 Little Brown 
1931 Quarrie 

1917 Macmillan 

1925 Macmillan 

B, Through language. 

1. Taking notes and giving reports on topics studied. 

2. Group discussion on certain phases of material. 

3. Expressions showing particular interests of children. 

4. Some outlining done by class as a whole. 

5. Comparison and discussion of completed work. 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Making large map of the entire Nile Valley. 

2. Making map of Nile, Red Sea, Egypt and Sahara Desert. 

3. Arranging written material, guide sheets, maps, and illus- 
trations into booklet form. 

4. Making clay models of pyramids, sphinx, Rameses II. 

5. Lining and hemming wall hangings decorated with Egyptian 

Units of Work in the Sixth Grade 221 

6. Making collections of Egyptian pictures from travel charts 
and magazines. 
D. Through use of arithmetic. 

1. Collected figures giving size of pyramids, number of men 
and length of time required to build them. 

2. Realized size by comparison. 

3. Compared time required to build them with that required 
to erect large buildings to-day. 

4. Collected measurements and cost of Assuan Dam. 

5. Learned that the ancient Egyptians did not have money 
and their trade was by means of barter. 

6. Learned that taxes received from the people were paid in 
grain, live stock, wine, honey and linen. 

7. Learned that store-houses and granaries formed the 
treasury of the kings. 

8. Measured in making booklets. 

9. Used measuring and proportion in making maps. 

IV. Meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developing through these 

A. Desire to watch papers for articles and pictures about excava- 
tions that are made in Egypt. 

B. An appreciation of the importance of the Nile River to Egypt. 

C. A realization of the value of Egyptian and Phoenician alphabets. 

D. An appreciation of the value of ancient Egyptian records. 

E. A realization of the stupendous task of building the pyramids ; 
the labor of hundreds of thousands of laborers and captives. 

F. A knowledge of the absolute power of the ancient kings. 

G. An appreciation of early Egyptian art. 

H. An appreciation of the workmanship of their weavers, jewelers, 
cabinet makers and makers of pottery. 

I. An appreciation of the early Egyptian calendar. 

J. An appreciation of the proficiency of the Egyptians in all 
mathematical sciences. 

K. An understanding of how Phoenicia aided in spreading civiliza- 
tion and culture. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature — Reading orally and telling poems and 
stories for pleasure. 

Baikie, James Wonder Tales of the 1925 Macmillan 

Ancient World 
Baker. C. B. and The Story of Joseph 1921 Abingdon 
E. D. from The Bible 

in Graded Story 


National College of Education 

Carter, Howard The Tomb of Tutank- 1927 Doran 

Lamprey, Louise Children in Ancient 1926 Little Brown 

Lamprey, Louise Long Ago in Egypt 1926 Little Brown 

B. Through creative composition. 

Writing stories for original booklets about Egypt. 

C. Through picture making, design, decoration. 

1. Creating illustrations showing phases of Egyptian life; as 
irrigation, boats on the Nile. 

2. Study of motifs common in Egyptian design for booklet 

3. Making Egyptian designs for booklet covers. 

4. Making original designs for Egyptian wall hangings. 

5. Sketching in Egyptian room at Art Institute. 

6. Studying and imitating characteristics of Egyptian pottery. 

7 . Drawing of Phoenician War Galleys. 

D. Through music. 

1. Hearing a short story of Egyptian music. 

2. Seeing pictures and exhibits of Egyptian instruments. 

3. Singing one or two modern Egyptian songs found in 
Engel's book. 

4. Comparing Egyptian instruments and possible scales with 


Engel, Carl 


Hamilton, C. 

Pratt, W. S. 

History of Music 

Music of the Most An- 
cient Nations 

Dictionary of Music and 

Outlines of Music His- 

History of Music 

History of Music 

Chappell and Sons 
William Reeves 

Theodore Presser 

Oliver Ditson 

G. Schirmer 
Trubner, London 
(out of print) 

E. Through social activity. 

Arranged booklets and art work for an exhibit in show case in 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. What people developed still further the Egyptian and Phoeni- 
cian alphabets? 

B. When was the early calendar changed? 

What Greece Has Contributed 
to the World 

A Unit of Work in the Sixth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest 
and provided background. 

A. Discussion as to who carried on the work of the early Egyp- 
tians such as improvement of alphabet and calendar. 

B. Showing Spencer films of Ancient Greece. 

C. Listing some of the gods and goddesses known through read- 

D. Exhibit of Greek pictures. 

(a) Famous buildings. 

(b) Greek heroes. 

(c) Greek borders and pillars. 

(d) Works of art. 

E. Display of collection of myths and legends on library table. 

F. Pictures of Greek alphabet. 

G. Clippings on Olympic games. 

H. Construction of guide sheets for the study. 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. City States. 

1. What are the two most famous city states of Greece? 

2. Why did they remain city states and not unite? 

3. What conditions made it profitable to unite? 

B. Sparta. 

1. How were the Spartan boys trained? 

2. What were the rules by which a Spartan soldier was 
governed ? 

C. Leaders. 

1. For what is the name Leonidas remembered? 

2. In what way was Pericles the leader of Athens? 

3. What is the story of Alexander, the Great? 

D. Architecture and famous buildings. 

1. What three types of pillars did the Greeks use? 

2. Are these pillars- found in buildings of to-day? 

3. Why is the Parthenon one of the most beautiful buildings 
of the world? 

4. What are other famous ruins of Greece? 

5. How were the Greek theatres built? 


224 National College of Education 

E. Religion. 

v 1. Where were the gods of the Greeks supposed to live? 

2. Why did they believe in so many? 

3. What names were given to the most important ones? 

4. Did the Greeks have anything like our present day gym- 
nasiums ? 

5. How was music regarded in a boy's education? 

6. Why were the Greeks so interested in the theatre? 

F. Art. 

1. Why were the Greeks better artists than the Egyptians? 

2. Were the Greeks creative in their work? 

3. Why are their statues some of their most wonderful 
achievements ? 

4. What designs are found often in Greek art? 

5. Do artists to-day use the work of the early Greeks as 
models ? 

G. Alphabet and Literature. 

1. From what country did the Greeks adopt their alphabet? 

2. How did they perfect it? 

3. Who is the best known writer of Greek literature? 

4. What is the story of the Illiad? 

5. What tale does the Odyssey tell? 

6. What did the Greeks know about the writing of plays? 

7. How do people of the present day feel about the writings 
of the Greeks? 

H. Great Teachers. 

1. What three names are remembered as those of great 
teachers of Greece? 

2. What is the story of Socrates? 
I. Amusements. 

1. Why were the Greek athletic games and contests held? 

2. How were the victors crowned? 

3. How often are Olympic contests held at the present time? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 
A. Through factual reading. 

1. Reading reference material in order to answer questions. 

2. Studying pamphlets and maps describing present day 
travel in Greece. 

3. Map study locating city states of ancient Greece. 

Beard, C. A. & Our Old World Back- 1925 Macmillan 

Bagley, W. C. ground 

Greenwood, J. H. Our Heritage from the 1921 Appleton 

Old World 
Hall, Jennie Buried Cities 1922 Macmillan 

Units of Work in the Sixth Grade 225 

References — continued 

Hall, Jennie Men of Old Greece 1905 Little Brown 

Hall, Jennie Our Ancestors in Europe 1916 Silver Burdett 

Hillyer, V. M. A Child's History of the 1924 Century 


King-Hall, S. A Child's Story of Civili- 1928 Morrow 


MacGregor, Mary The Story of Greece 1914 Stokes 

O'Neill, Elizabeth The World's Story 1926 Nelson 

Tappan, E. M. The Story of the Greek 1908 Houghton Mifflin 


Van Loon, H. The Story of Mankind 1926 Boni Liveright 

B. Through language. 

1. Taking notes and giving reports on certain topics. 

2. Group discussions on readings. 

3. Voluntary contributions from books read outside. 

4. Outlining done by the group. 

5. Discussion and comparison of completed work. 

6. Writing answers to questions suggested in guide sheet. 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Making map showing location of the city states of Ancient 

2. Cutting copies of the Parthenon from squared paper. 

3. Arranging written material, guide sheets, maps, and il- 
lustrations into booklet form. 

4. Mounting illustrations on cardboard for exhibit. 

5. Making a collection of Greek pictures. 
-6. Making clay models of Greek soldiers. 

7. Making a list of things we use which have Greek names. 

D. Through use of arithmetic. 

1. Study of the size and capacity of the Greek theatres. 

2. Discussion of some of the engineering feats involved in 
ancient building. 

3. Study of measurements used in the Parthenon. 

4. Value of statue of Athena found in the Parthenon. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations developing through 
these experiences. 

A. An appreciation of the creative ability of the Greeks. 

B. An appreciation of their love of beauty. 

C. An appreciation of their achievements in the way of art and 

D. Some knowledge and appreciation of the works of Homer. 

E. Knowledge that we owe the Greeks for our gymnasiums, 
athletic games, glee clubs and orchestras. 

F. An understanding of the Greek and Roman alphabets. 

G. An appreciation for some of the heroes of Ancient Greece. 


National College of Education 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through creative composition. 

Poems and stories were written by children about Greek 
heroes, Parthenon, Helen of Troy. 

B. Through literature. 

Greek stories were read and told to the class by children. 

Church, A. J. 

Church, A. J. 

Colum, Padriac 
Harding, C. H. & 

S. B. 
Hawthorne, N. 
Kingsley, Charles 
Lamprey, L. 

The Illiad for Boys and 

The Odyssey for Boys 

and Girls 
The Children's Homer 
Stories of Greek Gods, 

Heroes and Men 
The Wonder Book 
The Heroes 
Children of Ancient 


1923 Macmillan 

1925 Macmillan 

1925 Macmillan 

1897 Scott Foresman 

1905 Macmillan 

1925 Macmillan 

1924 Little Brown 

C. Through picture making, design, decoration. 

1. Drawing of ancient Greek vases. 

2. Making sketches of well-known statues. 

3. Making of Grecian borders. 

4. Drawing three types of Greek pillars. 

5. Drawing of Greek letters. 

6. Drawing plans of Greek theatres. 

7. Drawing Greek costumes. 

8. Making sketches of Parthenon and other buildings. 

9. Drawing illustrations for various stories, such as the "Pass 
at Thermopylae." 

10. Making designs for booklet covers. 

D. Through music. 

1. Discussion and study of the Greek dance and chorus. 

2. Seeing pictures of Greek instruments. 

3. Singing some of the Greek Modes. 

4. Singing an Anacreontic Song found in Hamilton's History. 

5. Comparison of the ancient Greek instruments and scales 
with ours of today. 

Engel, Carl 



Mathews, J. E. 

Pratt, W. S. 


Music of the Most 
Ancient Nations 

Dictionary of Music and 

Outlines of Music His- 

Manual of Musical 

History of Music 

The History of Music 

Wm. Reeves, 

Theodore Presser 

Oliver Ditson 

H. Grevel 

G. Schirmer 
Trubner, London 

Units of Work in the Sixth Grade 227 

E. Through social activity. 

Exhibited books and art work done in connection with this 
unit in case in corridor. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. Interest in the story of Rome, and how Rome differed from 

B. Interest in finding what would happen after the fall of both 
Greece and Rome. 

How Europe Developed in the 
Middle Ages 

A Unit of Work in the Sixth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background for activities. 

A. Previous studies of ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. 

B. Discussion of Rome's downfall, developing an interest in what 
would follow. 

C. Reports by a few children who had visited old English castles. 

D. Kodak pictures of old castles taken by members of the class. 

E. Recalling stories of knights and castles. 

F. Picture exhibits of knights, castles, famous buildings of Gothic 
architecture and old manuscripts of the middle ages, done by 

G. Spencer film slides of early England. 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. Concerning the feudal organization. 

1. What developed during the Middle Ages when there was 

no ruler strong enough to keep order in the land? 

2. How did the great land owners or feudal lords live? 

3. Why were feudal castles necessary? 

(a) How were the castles made? 

(b) How were they fortified? 

(c) What amusements did the people have? 

4. How did the serfs live? 

(a) What were their duties? 

(b) What methods of farming did they use? 

(c) What were the obligations of the lord to the serf? 
B. Concerning rural and urban life. 

1. What part did the towns play in the Middle Ages? 

2. What did the people in the towns do to make a living? 

3. Why were most of the cities of medieval Europe sur- 
rounded by walls? 

4. What was meant in the Middle Ages by a "free city?" 

5. How did life in country villages in the Middle Ages differ 
from life in the large cities and towns? 

6. What are some of the differences today in America between 
country and city life ? 

7. What were the guilds? 


Units of Work in the Sixth Grade 


8. Have we any organizations today which compare with the 

C. Concerning the monastery and the castle. 

1. What is a monastery? 

2. How were they built? 

3. How did the monks help preserve peace in the time of the 
Middle Ages ? 

4. How did the monks promote learning? 

5. How did they make books? 

6. Why did the monks make the books ? 

7. What was an illuminated book? 

8. When was the art of printing first invented? 

9. Who invented the first printing press ? 

10. How did life in a monastery differ from that in a castle? 

11. How did men become knights? 

12. What were their duties? 

D. Concerning art and literature. 

1. What type of art developed at this time? 

2. Who were the great artists of this period? 

3. What kind of literature was written during this period? 

4. What type of architecture developed? 

5. What are the characteristics of Gothic architecture? 

6. How does this differ from Greek and Roman architecture ? 

7. What were the characteristics of the music in this period? 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 

A. Through factual reading. 

1. Independent silent reading by group to discover answers 
to questions, followed by reports and discussion. 

2. Reading by individuals along lines in which they were par- 
ticularly interested. 

3. Oral reading to prove points. 

Beard, W. C. & 

Bagley, M. 
Ford, J. S. 

Greenwood, J. 

Hall, Jennie 
Harding. C. H. 
Hillyer, V. M. 

King, S. Hall 

O'Shea, M. V. & 


Our Old World Back- 

Compton's Pictured En- 

Our Heritage From the 
Old World 

Our Ancestors in Europe 

Story of the Middle Ages 

Child's History of the 

Child's Story of Civiliza- 

The World Book 

1925 Macmillan 

1926 Compton 

1921 Appleton 

1916 Silver Burdett 

1915 Century 

1928 Morrow 

1931 Quarrie 


National College of Education 

Romance Is Found in Old Castles 

Van Loon, H. W. 
Wells, H. G. & 
Carter, E. H. 

References — Continued 

The Story of Mankind 
A SWt History of Man- 

1926 Boni & Liveright 
1925 Macmillan 

B. Through oral discussion. 

1. Reports by individuals on such subjects as old manuscripts, 
developing of printing. 

2. Group discussions about pictures and diagrams, such as 
that of a monastery, found in reading. 

3. Reports on famous English castles. 

4. Discussion of costumes, helmets, swords used in this 

5. Explaining pictures showing costumes of the period. 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Making models of knights in wood. 

2. Making marionettes of wood showing knights in battle. 

3. Drawing maps showing plans for fortification of a castle. 

4. Drawing plan of a village in Medieval times. 

5. Drawing plan of monastery of Medieval times. 

6. Making castle of beaver board (6' x 10') to be used in 

Units of Work in the Sixth Grade 231 

7. Making drawbridge of wood, manipulated by pulleys. 

8. Painting castle with calcimine paint and show card colors, 
showing stones, growing ivy, windows. 

9. Making swords of wood. 

10. Making helmets of tag board and painting them silver. 
D. Through use of arithmetic. 

1. Placing "time" of the Middle Ages. 

2. Learning coins used during this period. 

3. Finding number of books printed in comparison to hand 
work done before. 

4. Comparing the cost of hand-made books and those made 
by machine. 

5. Measuring involved in making castle and draw-bridge. 

6. Measuring stage before making scenery for play. 

7. Study of proportion in setting and background for play. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developing through 
these experiences. 

A. An understanding and appreciation of the ways of living dur- 
ing the Middle Ages. 

B. An appreciation of the customs of chivalry. 

C. Knowledge and appreciation of the work which the monks did 
in preserving classic learning for the world. 

D. An appreciation of handmade books and paper. 

E. An appreciation of old books. 

F. A recognition of the significance of the printing press. 

G. A recognition of the importance of modern inventions in 
connection with printing. 

H. Appreciation of the religious painting during this period. 
I. Appreciation of work of such artists as Michelangelo, Giotto, 

and others. 
J. Appreciation of the beauty of Gothic architecture. 
K. Knowledge and appreciation of the Middle Age period and 

its contributions to present-day Europe and America. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through silent and oral reading of selected stories and poems : 

Alden, R. M. Knights of the Silver 1906 Bobbs Merrill 


Baldwin, James Story of Roland 1883 Scribner 

Lamprey, L. In the Days of the Guild 1918 Stokes 

Pyle, H. Story of King Arthur 1903 Scribner 

and His Knights 

Pyle, H. Merry Adventures of 1883 Scribner 

Robin Hood 

Pyle, H. Men of Iron 1904 Harper 


National College of Education 

Pyle, H. 

Scott, Sir Walter 

Stein, E. 

Tappan, E. M. 

Otto of the Silver Hand 


Gabriel and the Hour 

When Knights Were 


1904 Scribner 

1904 American Book 

1906 Page 

1911 Houghton Mifflin 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Writing stories on different phases of the work. 

2. Writing a diary such as a knight might have written. 

3. Writing an imaginary diary of a serf. 

4. Writing a letter from son or daughter of a lord to a friend. 

5. Creating a play based on story "Knights of the Silver 

6. Writing invitations to play. 

7. Composing programs to be mimeographed. 

C. Through picture-making, design, decoration. 
1. Illustrating material and stories read. 

Creating designs for shields. 

Drawing of feudal castles on a large scale (36x36). 
Drawing costumes of knight, squire, page and lady. 
Illuminating letters and pages. 

D. Through music. 

Seeing exhibits of old instruments and old manuscripts pro- 
vided background and led to the discussion of music notation 
and the story of the Neumes ; and, listening to stories about 
the bards, minstrels and minnesingers provided a growing in- 
terest and led to the story of Wagner's opera. 


Listening to selections from "Die Meistersinger" — 


Listening to piano arrangements of old country dances. 

Learning old songs and rounds ; such as : 

"Song of the Watch" — English. 

"Sumer is acumen in" — 13th Century. 
Singing old ballads ; such as : 

"Oh, no John!" 

"Strawberry Fair!" 
Learning old country dances ; such as found in : 

"Guild of Play" — Kimmins. 

"Country Dance Book" — Cecil Sharpe. 

Source Books and Reference Material 

Concord Series, number 4 
Concord Series, number 8 
French Rounds — Games 
for Singing and Dane- 

Davison and Surette 
Davison and Surette 

E. C. Schirmer 
E. C. Schirmer 

Units of Work in the Sixth Grade 


Source Books 

and Reference Material- 


Country Dance Tunes — 

Cecil Sharpe 



Oxford Book of Carols 

Oxford Press 

Grove's Dictionary of 

Theodore Presser 

Music and Musicians 

History of Music 

W. S. Pratt 

G. Schirmer 

Oxford History of Music 

Oxford Press 

—Vols. I and II 

Musical Instruments, 

Carl Engel 

Wm. Reeves 

National Music — 

Manual of Musical His- 

T. E. Matthews 

H. Grevel 


The Opera Book 

Edith B. Ordway 

George Sully 

Bulletin No. 91— Vol. XV 

Museum Fine Arts 

Guild of Play— Vol. II 

G. T. Kimmins 

J. Curwen 

Country Dance Book — 

Cecil Sharpe 


Part II 

E. Through dramatic activity. 

1. Dramatizing scenes from castle life. 

2. Giving original play based on story "Knights of the Silver 
Shield." Songs, ballads and dances were used in the play. 

3. Giving play for fathers and mothers, and for children of 
other grades. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

Interest in Modern Europe, stimulated by reports and movies given 
by children who had visited European countries and by reading the 
class had done. 

Sixth Grade Compositions About 
Feudal Days 

Diary of a Young Serf 

Monday, January 16, 1400. 

I want to be a knight. I would like to be like Sir John, who saved Lady 
De Vere's dog, "Fefe." I am ten years old, but I wish I were older. I have 
been doing very hard work. I get up at four in the morning and go to bed 
at eleven at night. 

The Lord's sister, Lady De Vere, has been keeping me very busy, but now 
she is asleep and I can write in my diary, which I am very glad to do. 

Lady De Vere is an invalid ; so I have been doing endless errands to-day and 
I am glad to get a rest. 

This morning I went riding with the lord, which is a great honor. 

Tuesday, January 17, 1400. 

To-day I goomed the lord's horse and saddled and bridled him. Then the 
lord went riding. 

After that I had to help put down the draw bridge and then pull it up again 
as some strange people were coming. Everybody was frightened, lest there be 
war. But Sir Galad made them go away. 

Now Lady De Vere is calling me, so I must go. 

Letter from a Castle 

The following letter is the kind supposed to have been written during the 
Middle Ages, and is from the daughter of one of the feudal lords to a friend 
in another castle. 

Dear Priscilla : 

You have asked me to describe my home, for you have told me about yours. 

The castle I live in is square, with a tower at each corner. The wall around 
the court is twelve feet thick. Of course we have a wall and moat around our 
castle. My Honorable Father, who is the Lord, just put up a new draw-bridge, 
for he is thinking he will have to fight. 

I am glad it is summer now, for it is cool in the castle. In the winter, it is 
cold, damp and dreary. We plan to have a big feast in the Friendly Room and 
invite all the serfs if we win this war. We shall build a grand bonfire in the 
fire place, so the castle will be warmer. 

One of the serfs has a little girl my size that I would like ever so much to 
play with, and I've heard the watchman in the tower is very jolly. I should like 
to visit him. I do wish I had someone to play with. It will be even more lonely 
during the war, for I will not be allowed out of the castle gates. 

I hope your life is as nice as mine and better. 

Sincerely yours, 

Diary of a Knight During Days of Feudalism 

Tuesday, July 11, 1250. 

The town is all excited. From the castle the clear blast of the bugle was 
blowing. The knights soon made ready for war. At dawn we charged the 
enemy and won our way into town. We tried to get into the castle. Finally 
another knight and I thought of a way to do it. We divided ourselves into 
groups and surrounded the castle. Then we took boarding ladders and put them 
over the moat. We chose the bravest knight to cross the moat first, and then 
one by one we crossed. We finally took the castle and marched home, arriving at 
sunset. There was much rejoicing and a great banquet. There was music and 
dancing, and great fires in the fireplaces. 


Interdependence Between the United 
States and European Countries 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Reports with slides. 

1. Given by children who had visited Europe. 

2. Given by adults. 

B. Exhibits. 

1. Pictures and clippings showing changes in trans-Atlantic 

2. Newspaper articles and pictures showing relations between 
the United States and European countries. 

3. Articles made in European countries. 

4. Pictures of people of European countries. 

5. Pictures and folders showing well-known pleasure resorts 
of Europe. 

6. Pictures showing sports in different countries. 

C. Spencer films of Europe as a whole and different sections. 

D. Display of books containing stories and poems from Europe. 

E. Excursions. 

1. To the Evanston Public Library to see models showing life 
in different countries. 

2. To Art Institute to see European contributions in art, 
sculpture, and architecture. 

II. Problems and questions which led to research (for each coun- 
try studied.) 

A. Topography, climate and location. 

1. What effect does the topography of the land have upon the 
occupations carried on in the different countries of Europe ; 
as, Holland, Switzerland? 

2. What effect does the climate have upon the occupations and 
products ? 

3. What advantages or disadvantages does the location of 
each country have upon its development? 

B. Government and people. 

1. What assistance or hindrance has the government of the 
country been to its development and contribution? 

2. What great rulers or leaders have helped to make the 
country what it is now? What did they contribute? 


236 National College of Education 

3. Who are some of the outstanding people in this country to- 
day? Why are they famous? 

4. What are some of the interesting customs of the people 
in early times and to-day? 

C. Industries. 

1. What industries are carried on in each country? 

2. How is the country especially suited to these? 

3. What cities have gained importance from these industries? 

4. What products are exported to other countries? 

D. Their contributions. 

1. What distinctive contribution has each country made in folk 
or modern literature ? 

2. In art and sculpture? 

3. In architecture? 

4. In science and invention? 

5. In ideas of government? 

6. In music ? 

7. To travelers visiting the country? 

8. What are the leading recreational centers? 

E. Their needs. 

1. What necessities do these people get from the United 

2. What ideas do they get? 

3. What are the commercial routes between these countries 
and the United States? 

F. Immigration to the United States. 

1. What proportion of our people have come from Europe? 

2. From what countries have most of our immigrants come? 

3. What contributions have these people made in coming to 
our country? 

4. What are some of the problems their coming has raised? 

Note : — For most of the study, the class was divided into committees, 
each committee preparing a report on a particular country. 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through factual reading. 

1. Reading reference material needed to answer questions 
brought up in class discussions. 

2. Studying railroad and steamship folders describing Euro- 
pean countries. 

3. Map study locating European countries and cities. 

4. Map study locating main commercial routes between the 
United States and Europe. 

Units of Work in the Sixth Grade 


Each Contributes to World's Fair 

5. Map study tracing some of the air nights across the At- 

6. Oral reading to answer questions and prove points. 

Atwood, W. and 
Thomas, H. G. 

Atwood, W. and 
Thomas, H. G. 

Bachman, Frank O. 

Barrows, C. A. and 
Parker, E. P. 

Beard, C. A. and 
Bagley. W. C. 

Bishop, A. L. and 
Keller, A. G. 

Bryant, L. M. 

Carpenter, F. G. 

Chamberlain, J. F. 

and A. H. 
Clark, V. B. 
Finnemore, John 


Nations Beyond the Seas 1930 Ginn 

Home Life in Far Away 1928 Ginn 

Great Inventors and 

Their Inventions 
Europe and Asia 

Our Old World Back- 
Industry and Trade 

1918 American Book 

1927 Silver Burdett 

1925 Macmillan 

1918 Ginn 

Children's Book of Cele- 1924 Century 

brated Buildings 
New Geographical 1922 American Book 

Europe 1927 Macmillan 

Europe 1925 Silver Burdett 

France 1921 A. C. Black 

Ford, G. H. (Editor) Compton's Pictured En- 1926 Comptons 


National College of Education 

Genn, C. T. 
Hillyer, V. M. 

King-Hall, S. M. 

Laughlin, C. E. 

Lester, K. M. 

Leeming, J. 
Marshall, H. E. 
Masson, R. 
O'Shea and others 

References — Continued 

Rome 1919 A. C. Black 

A Child's History of the 1924 Century 

A Child's Story of Civili- 1928 Morrow 

When It All Comes True 1929 Houghton Mifflin 

in Scandinavia 
Great Pictures and Their 1927 Mentzer 


Packard, L. O 
Sinnott, C. P. 
Powers, E. and R. 
Powers, E. and R. 

Ships and Cargoes 
An Island Story 

World Book Encyclo- 
and Nations as Neighbors 

1926 Doubleday 
1920 Stokes 
1923 A. C. Black 
1931 Quarrie 

1925 Macmillan 

1927 Houghton Mifflin 
1927 Macmillan 

Powers, E. and R. 

Schott, H. C. 
Smith, J. R. 
Stuart, D. M. 

Terry, A. G. 
Thomson, M. P. 
Vollintine, G. 

Watter, Edna 
Whitcomb, C. 

George M. 
Winslow, I. O 

Cities and Their Stories 

Boys and Girls of His- 

More Boys and Girls of 1928 Macmillan 


Human Geography 

Young Folks Book of 
Other Lands 

The Modern World 

Sweden and Finland 

The American People 
and Their Old World 


E. and A Little Journey in Italy 1928 Flanagan 
Spain and Portugal 


1926 A. C. Black 
1922 Winston 

1927 Little Brown 

1924 Row Peterson 
1921 A. C. Black 
1930 Ginn 

1919 A. C. Black 

1921 D. C. Heath 

B. Through discussion. 

1. Reports by certain children on trips abroad. 

2. Class discussions on these experiences. 

3. Study of recreational and commercial centers : those of 
separate countries were made by individual children or 
committees and reports given to the class. 

4. Discussion of picture exhibits. 

5. Discussion of completed work. 

6. Voluntary contributions of material read in magazines and 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Making maps. 

(a) Showing commercial routes between the United States 
and Europe. 

(b) Showing recreational centers of Europe. 

(c) Showing air flights across the Atlantic. 

(d) Showing where artists have lived, inventions have 
been made, famous buildings are located. 

Units of Work in the Sixth Grade 239 

2. Making graphs. 

(a) Showing percentage of various European nationalities 
in the United States. 

(b) Showing exports and imports of different countries. 

3. Making posters. 

(a) Advertising recreational centers to the traveler. 

(b) Showing customs, costumes and life of people of 
various countries. 

(c) Showing contributions different countries make to 

4. Collecting pictures for note books. 

5. Making models. 

(a) Showing types of architecture in soap. 

(b) Making models of typical scenes from different coun- 

D. Through use of arithmetic. 

1. Measuring in making maps. 

2. Measuring in making posters. 

3. Comparing time required to cross Atlantic now with that 
of years ago. 

4. Computing cost of passage to Europe. 

5. Computing cost of sending cables to Europe. 

6. Making graph showing percentage of various European 
nationalities in the United States. 

7. Making graphs showing leading exports of various coun- 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes and appreciations probably de- 
veloped through these experiences. 

A. A certain understanding of the problems of other races and 
other nationalities. 

B. An appreciation of the interdependence of people and nations. 

C. An appreciation of the courage displayed by immigrants coming 
to this country. 

D. An understanding of the many adjustments people have to 
make when living in a foreign country. 

E. An understanding of the present-day trans-Atlantic transporta- 

F. An appreciation of the daring and courage displayed by aviators 
crossing the Atlantic. 

G. An appreciation of the work of such people as Madame Curie, 
Pasteur, Marconi, and others. 

H. An appreciation of the value in being able to speak French 
and other languages. 


National College of Education 

I. An appreciation of the representative music of European 

J. Some appreciation of European art, architecture and literature. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

1. Folk stories of various countries read or told by members 
of the class. 

2. Stories of some outstanding people as Pasteur, Madame 
Curie, and others, read or told to the class. 

3. Sharing of some modern books about European countries. 

4. Enjoyment of some stories about immigrants. 

Bay, J. C. 

Casserley, Anne 
Casserley, Anne 
De Blumenthal, V. 

Filmore, Parker 
Fleming, R. M. 

Gask, Lilian 

Grimm Brothers 
Mac Donnell, Anne 
Steel, F. A. 

Folk Tales from Europe 

Danish Folk Tales 1899 Harper 

Michael of Ireland 1927 Harper 

Whins of Knockattan 1928 Harper 

Folk Tales from the 1903 Rand McNally 


Czechoslovak Fairy Tales 1919 Harcourt Brace 

Round the World in 1925 Harcourt Brace 

Folk Tales 

Folk Tales from Many 1929 Crowell 


Grimm Fairy Tales 1917 Harper 

The Italian Fairy Book 1914 Stokes 

English Fairy Tales 1918 Macmillan 

Modern Stories of Europe 

Ambrosia, M. When I Was a Girl in 1906 Lothrop 


Beuret, G. When I Was a Girl in 1925 Lothrop 


Colum, P. Boy in Eirinn 1913 Dutton 

Haskell, H. E. • Katrinka, the Story of a 1915 Dutton 

Russian Child 

Hertzman, A. M. When I Was a Girl in 1926 Lothrop 


Lisbeth Longfrock 1907 Ginn 

Heidi J 924 Winston 

Roll Call of Honor 1926 Nelson 

Poulsson, L. E. 
Spyri, J. 
Quiller-Couch, A. T. 

Antin, Mary 
Beard, A. E. 

Bercovici, Konrad 

Bok, E. W. 

Books About Immigrants 

Promised Land 
Our Foreign-Born 

Around the World in 

New York 
A Dutch Boy Fifty Years 1921 Scribner 


1917 Houghton Mifflin 
1922 Crowell 

1924 Century 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Writing stories about any contribution any country had 

Units of Work in the Sixth Grade 241 

2. Writing stories urging friends to see certain places in cer- 
tain countries. 

3. Writing stories of what children found especially interest- 
ing in any country. 

4. Composing stories summarizing the study of separate coun- 

C. Through picture making and design. 

1. Drawing pictures showing costumes and customs of dif- 
ferent countries. 

2. Making illustrations representing the various recreational 
centers of Europe. 

3. Drawing illustrations on topics of notebooks. 

4. Drawing airships and ocean liners to show means of inter- 

D. Through music. 

A little knowledge of the nationality of some of the great 
composers and their compositions, together with the folk 
music of European countries, already known to the 'chil- 
dren, provided a background and a live interest. Singing 
and hearing folk music gave a source for the discussion 
and analysis of social and temperamental characteristics of 
several nations. The similarity of many folk tunes of 
several nations led to the study of exchange through bards, 
minstrels and the like. 

1. Singing. 

(a) Folk songs in unison and in parts such as: 

German, — Winter Goodbye 
Bohemian, — Annie, the Miller's Daughter 
Russian, — The Peddlar — Gloria 
Italian, — Funiculi, Funicula — Santa Lucia 
Swedish, — The Locust Tree — Country Dance 
British, — Londonderry Air — Loch Lomond — Dear 
Harp — Keel Row 

( b ) Composed songs : 

Die Lorelei — Silcher 

The Smith — Brahms 

Chorales — Bach 

The Golden Day is Dying — Palgren 

2. Instrumental music: 

(a) Small forms of the Masters — minuets, sara- 
bands, gigues, bourres, — 

Bach, Rameau, Purcell, Scarlatti, Handel and others. 

(b) Excerpts from operas: 

Siegfried— Motives and story from Angela Diller's 

Nibelung Ring — Motives and story from Berstein. 
Sigfrido— Wagner— Piano Score— G. Ricordi. 
Magic Flute — Mozart. 


National College of Education 

Source and Reference Books 


Botsford, F. 

Botsford, F. 



Diller, Angela 

Hamilton, C. 

Jacques — Dalcroze, 
Pratt, W. S. 
Radcliffe— Whitehead 
Scholes, P. 

Surette, T. W. 


The Do-Re-Mi of the 

Niblelung Ring 
Folk Songs of Many 

Folk Songs of Many 

Peoples — 2 
One Hundred Forty Folk 

A Book of Songs 
Concord Junior Song and 

Chorus Book 
Wagner's Siegfried 
Dictionary of Music and 

Outlines of Music His- 
Art and Education 
A History of Music 
Folk Songs for Children 
Complete Book of the 

Great Musicians 
Music and Life 
Appreciation of Music 

1928 Greenberg 

1922 Womans Press 

1922 Womans Press 

1922 Schirmer 

1922 Schirmer 
1927 Schirmer 

1931 Schirmer 

1922 Presser 

1913 Ditson 

1930 Barnes 
1907 Schirmer 
1903 Ditson 

1923 Oxford 

1917 Houghton Mifflin 
1927 Harper 

E. Through social activity. 

Assemblies were held in which the various committees shared 
exhibits, reports, literature and music with other committees 
or other grades. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

After this survey of European countries the interest spread to 
other continents. Questions such as the following were raised. 

1. What do we get from South Africa? 

2. What does Alaska send to the United States? 

3. What do the Hawaiian Islands raise? 

Sharing the Earth with Insects 

A Unit of Work in the Sixth Grade 

Summer Session 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. A Polyphemus moth was found on the playground and brought 
into the class for study. 

B. A microscope was brought to school by one of the boys. 

C. A new boy entered summer school who had much information 
to offer and made many contributions. 

D. Many insects were soon brought in for study, including a 
Swallow-Tail Butterfly, Monarch Butterfly, Cecropian Moth, 
Grasshoppers, Dragon Flies, Bees, Stag Beetles and many 

E. Glass cages were brought, so that we might watch and care 
for the insects. 

F. A collection of mounted butterflies was brought in by a member 
of the class. 

G. Several walks were taken in the school vicinity and observa- 
tions made of butterflies, bees and other insects. 

II. Problems and questions which led to experiment and inves- 

A. General questions. 

1. What are the different stages in the life of an insect? 

2. What are meant by the terms tgg, larva, pupa, chrysalis 
and cocoon? 

3. What is the best way to catch and care for insects? 

4. What types of insects are helpful to man? 

5. What may be done to protect and foster desirable insects? 
B. Specific questions about the Monarch Butterfly: 

1. How is the Monarch butterfly distinguished from all 
others ? 

2. Is the flight of the Monarch rapid or leisurely? 

3. Are its bright colors an advantage or disadvantage? 

4. Where is the Monarch caterpillar found? 

5. What are the colors and markings of the Monarch cater- 
pillar ? 

6. What does it do when frightened? 

7. How long does it take it to mature ? 


244 National College of Education 

8. How does it shed its skin? 

9. Why is the Monarch chrysalis called a "jewel of jade and 

10. Where may the chrysalis be found? 

11. How is it attached to the object? 

12. How does the chrysalis change in color? 

13. After the change to chrysalis how long before the butterfly 
emerges ? 

14. Where does the butterfly deposit her eggs? 

C. Specific questions about the Red-legged Grasshopper: 

1. Why is this insect called a grasshopper? 

2. Which pair of legs is the longest? 

3. Which are the shortest? 

4. How does the grasshopper prepare to jump? 

5. Why is he so skilful in jumping? 

6. How far can he see? 

7. How many eyes are there, and where are thev situated? 

8. How long are the antennae? 

9. How does the grasshopper eat? 

10. What kind of crops does he destroy? 

11. Can the grasshopper fly as well as jump? 

12. How many pairs of wings has it? 

13. How do they differ in size and use? 

14. How does this insect breathe? 

15. Where are the ears of the grasshopper located? 

16. If the grasshopper is caught, how does it show that it is 
offended ? 

17. What becomes of the grasshoppers in winter? 

18. Where are the eggs laid? 

19. How can you tell a young from a full-grown grasshopper? 

20. What enemies does the grasshopper have? 

21. Is it useful to the people of any country? 

Note : Similar questions were asked about other insects studied. 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 
A. Through constructive activities. 

1. Insects were kept in glass cages for study. 

2. Some of the specimens were mounted on cards for study. 

3. Slides were made according to directions to be used in 
microscope. Slides were made of different butterfly wings, 
tibia and claw of grasshopper, leg of bee, and several others. 

B. Through use of arithmetic. 

1. Some arithmetic was involved in making the slides accord- 
ing to the directions given. 

Units of Work in the Sixth Grade 245 

2. Enlarged drawings were made, showing insects two or 
three times their natural size. Drawings were mounted 
carefully for display. 

C. Through language. 

1. Oral reports were given of individual observations. 

2. Class discussions were held concerning facts discovered in 
observations and in reading. 

3. Written records were kept of each study. 

4. Observations made on walks were kept and recorded by 
the children. 

D. Through factual reading. Books were used to supplement 


Beard, Dan American Boy's Book of 1915 Lippincott 

Bugs, Butterflies & 

Comstock, Anna B. Handbook of Nature 1929 Comstock 

Comstock, John H. An Introduction to 1929 Comstock 

Fabre, J. Henri Insect Adventures 1927 Dodd Mead 

Lutz, Frank E. Fieldbook of Insects 1929 Putnam 

Weed, Clarence M. Insect Ways 1930 Appleton 

IV. Meanings, attitudes and appreciations probably developed. 

A. An attitude of curiosity about insects and their relation to plants 
and to men. 

B. A recognition of the economic value of many insects and their 
function in nature. 

C. An appreciation of the beauty of many insects and the interest- 
ing characteristics they display. 

D. Understanding and appreciation of the way insects are pro- 
tected by means of coloring, scent and other gifts. 

E. An attitude of respect for the rights of all living things. 

F. An eagerness to share experiences and observations. 

G. An attitude of respect for those children who had a wide back- 
ground for the study through previous reading and experience. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 
A. Through literature. 

The children enjoyed reading orally bits from two or three books of 
special interest 

Bertelli, Luigi The Prince and His Ants 1910 Holt 

Maeterlinck, M. The Children's Life of 1919 Dodd Mead 

the Bee 

246 National College of Education 

B. Through picture-making. 

1. Graphic drawings were made of insects studied. 

2. Illustrative blackboard drawings were made by the children. 

3. Designs and borders were developed using the Monarch 
and Swallow-tail butterflies as motifs. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A keen interest was developed in other phases of nature. Ques- 
tions were asked about trees, wild flowers and birds, and many 
children said they were going to continue their reading through the 
summer. One child who was disappointed because we did not 
study wild flowers, said she was going to start her study early 
next spring. 


The Days Procedure 


The Changing Schedule 

ALTHOUGH the program provides a time for each type of ac- 
J~\. tivity, these various types of activity are not carried on as 
isolated ''subjects," but are usually unified by certain large purposes 
or goals. Time is allowed for individual creative enterprises and for 
individual practice in the mastery of certain fundamental skills. 
Small groups are formed within each room according to individual 
needs and interests. 

The program is flexible and may be altered from month to month 
or day to day, except that periods devoted to physical needs must 
remain fairly constant. Both room teachers and special teachers 
are willing to adjust the schedule to allow time for excursions, sketch- 
ing trips, cooking enterprises, experiments in science, projection of 
films and slides, and other enriching experiences. 

The school offers a day program for all children enrolled in the 
second grade and in higher grades. Below second grade, there is a 
choice of morning session or day session. The day session for 
younger children is open only to those whose physical and emotional 
needs and home situation suggest that a day at school is desirable. 

The day program for all groups includes a dinner, with careful at- 
tention to habits and attitudes in relation to foods. The menu for 
the younger children is planned by a nutritionist and sent to the 
parents for each week in advance. Beginning with fourth grade the 
children learn to choose their own menu under guidance, and a study 
of foods and food values is included as a part of the curriculum. 
In the nursery school, kindergarten and three primary grades, the 
noon meal is followed by a rest period on cots, with training in 
relaxation. Sleep and outdoor play constitute the afternoon program 
for the pre-school children. 

While the programs allow no set periods for school assemblies, 
informal assemblies do occur from time to time. There are frequent 
music assemblies in which children of certain classes share with one 
another their songs and instrumental music. Occasionally before one 
of the holidays, there is a song and story assembly in which several 


250 National College of Education 

groups may participate. Each grade invites certain other grades from 
time to time, to see a play, a "movie" or a "talkie" which they have 
prepared, or to engage in some other event of common interest. Oc- 
casionally the older children attend assemblies in which artists present 
readings, songs, dances or instrumental music. 

Special Teachers 

A number of special teachers assist in the guidance of children's 
activities, but all work in close touch with the room directors. A 
special teacher of speech gives help to all children of the school who 
have speech difficulties. This help is given after a clinical study of 
the child's physical needs and his responses in social situations. 

The teachers of music, art, and manual training assist the children 
and the room directors of certain grades in carrying on units of work, 
and they also provide for creative enterprises and for the development 
of appreciations and skills in their own fields. 

Beginning in second or third grade, some differentiation in pro- 
gram has occurred, allowing for individual interests and capacities. 
Children of special music ability and interest have been encouraged 
to join classes in instrumental music. Many children have been eager 
to join the French classes and have greatly enjoyed this work. Those 
who have special difficulties with English have been given additional 
opportunity for English work instead of French. However, no child 
eager to study instrumental music or French has been barred from 
these opportunities because of disability in "fundamental subjects," 
and some children "below standard" in measurable skills have found 
keenest delight in expression through these other avenues. 

Creative dancing has been of special interest to girls, beginning in 
second grade, while boys have enjoyed more vigorous activities in 
the gymnasium. The same types of recreation have appealed to girls 
and boys on the playground, and they usually play together, under 
the supervision of the room teachers and the playground director. 
Both girls and boys have enjoyed woodwork, sewing, cooking and 
rhythmic work in music, when appealing goals were present. 

For boys and girls of fourth, fifth and sixth grades after-school 
clubs are popular. Play clubs meet after school twice a week, and 
the music club, once a week. 

Arranging the Program 


Keeping Ceean Is a Big Task 

Daily Procedure in the Nursery School 

The Nursery School of National College of Education is an inte- 
gral part of the Children's School. In this respect it belongs to a 
very small group of nursery schools which hold the same relationship 
to the rest of an elementary school as any grade within the school. 
The children upon leaving the Nursery School automatically go into 
the next level, the Junior Kindergarten, which is approximately the 
four-year-old group. The teaching staff consists of a trained and 
experienced director with one full-time assistant. The cooperating 
members of the school staff are : psychologist, parent education ad- 
visor, physician, nurse, speech specialist, nutritionist. A group of 
advanced students give part-time assistance. 

Children are accepted in the school usually in order of application, 
but preference is given to children and to families where there is 
special need of the help that the nursery school affords. Some chil- 
dren are in the school on the recommendation of the family physician. 
A physical examination and psychological tests are required before 

252 National College of Education 

the child is admitted to the school. The child must be physically in 
condition to enter into the nursery school activities successfully, and 
must be normal or superior in mentality. The group, twenty in num- 
ber, with nearly an even number of boys and girls, ranges in age from 
two years to four years. Only fifteen are accepted for the day 

The session varies according to the needs of individual children. 
Those who present no problems as to food or sleep come at eight- 
thirty and go home at eleven-thirty. Children living considerable 
distance from the school, and those whose parents are engaged in 
study or work, may have the opportunity of the full-day session. In 
general, however, those staying for the full day present food and sleep 
problems, and need the training that the nursery school offers. The 
afternoon program closes at three o'clock. 

The procedure follows. The program is very flexible, except for 
rest, meals, elimination. 

8:30 Arrival by school car, or with the parents. 

Medical inspection by school physician. Isolation of doubtful 

Children admitted to their room after receiving pass from- the 

Removal of wraps with emphasis on skills or orderly habits. 
Toilet period for two or three children. 

Caring for pets, flowers, and performing other household ac- 

Out-of-door play, if the weather permits. Play on apparatus, 
boxes, boards, barrels, with Kiddie Kars, wagons, and other 
wheel stock. Excursions and trips to points of interest in the 
neighborhood, climbing on logs, picking flowers, playing in the 
field, . . . Songs, stories, and later in the year a few simple games 
(such as Ring-a Round-a Rosie) are used out-of-doors as freely 
as indoors when the interest warrants their use. 
Play indoors if weather is stormy. Water play, helping prepare 
dinner, use of all indoor materials such as clay, small toys, hollow 

10:00 Toilet period for all — a few children at a time — with special 
emphasis on procedure, and on growth in independence. 
A center established by the teacher at times, using picture books, 
simple stories, or through some means bringing points of interest 

Arranging the Program 253 

in the morning play to the attention of the group. The children 
are not required to join such a group. The aim is to build 
the organization on their interest and social development rather 
than by force brought to bear by the adults. 

10:20 Mid-morning luncheon of fruit juice, or tomato juice. (Some 
exceptions are made according to the advice of the physician.) 
As a rule the children help in the preparation and serving of 
this mid-morning meal, and in the clearing of tables. Proper 
table habits are encouraged. 

Rest on rugs (with clean paper napkin under head) lasting from 
three to fifteen minutes, depending on the temperature of the 
room, the floor, and the needs of the children. The children are 
divided into a younger and older group at this time. 

Sometimes construction materials, stories, poems, songs, are 
introduced to the two groups to meet the needs of varying ages. 
Donning wraps with emphasis on self help. Out-of-door play. 

1 1 :30 Dismissal of those children who present no feeding or sleeping 
problems, or who live nearby. 

Toilet period for remainder of group. Thorough grooming for 

11 :45 Dinner — served by children. Special emphasis on table habits. 

Dinner is followed by a toilet period, and removal of outer gar- 

12:30 Nap on cots, using sheets and blankets (in darkened, cool, well- 
ventilated room). Nap is followed by toilet period, dressing, 
putting on wraps. 

2:30 (or when children are dressed, following nap) Milk for under- 
weight children. Out-of-door play until time to go home. 

3 :00 Dismissal. Many children use school car. Some go with parents. 

Daily Procedure in the Junior Kindergarten 

(Very flexible except for rest, meals and elimination. Periods 
are lengthened, shortened, omitted or exchanged as children's 
interests warrant.) 

8:30 Arrival by school car or with the parents. Medical inspection 
by school physician. Isolation of doubtful cases. Children go 
to their own rooms after receiving a pass from physician. Re- 

254 National College of Education 

moval of wraps, with emphasis on skills and orderly habits. 
Toilet for several children. Caring for pets, flowers and plants 
and performing other household activities. 

Equipment such as blocks, doll playthings, work bench, tools 
and wood, clay and handwork materials are available for chil- 
dren's use at this time. At the beginning of the year, the chil- 
dren's work is individual ; later small groups work together ; 
near the end of the year, there are a few activities which interest 
a majority of the group. These "units" are of short duration 
however, and are not comparable to the units worked out in 
Senior Kindergarten. 

Replacement of materials ; discussion of children's work, raising 
standards and making plans for further work. 

9 :50 Toilet period for all. Small groups of children go to each toilet 
room. Special emphasis is placed on proper procedure and 
growth in independence. 

At times, a book center for small group is established by each 
teacher. At other times, small groups visit the gymnasium where 
rhythm work may be observed. Sometimes the entire group 
has this period for rhythm work. Individual response to music 
is encouraged. 

10:20 Groups gather for songs and for a short prayer before luncheon. 
Mid-morning luncheon of fruit juice or tomato juice. Some 
exceptions are made according to the advice of the physician. 
As a rule, the children help in the preparation and serving of 
this mid-morning meal and in the clearing of the tables. Proper 
table habits are encouraged. 

Rest on individual, washable rugs lasting from three to ten 
minutes, depending upon the temperature of the room, the floor 
and the needs of the children. 

Period for stories, poems, or songs. Original expression is en- 

10:50 Putting on wraps — with emphasis on independence. Outdoor 
play, using apparatus, boxes, boards, barrels, and wheel stock. 
Playing in the field, climbing on logs, caring for garden. . . 
Songs and stories and games are used as freely as indoors. 

1 1 :30 Dismissal of children who present no feeding or sleeping prob- 
lems or who live nearby. 

Toilet period for children who stay for the day. Thorough 
grooming for dinner. 

Arranging the Program 255 

11 :40 Dinner served by the children. Special emphasis on table habits. 
Followed by toilet period and removal of outer garments. 

12:40 Nap on cots, using sheets and blankets. Room is darkened, cool, 
and well-ventilated. Followed by toilet period, dressing and 
putting on wraps. 

2:00 (or when children are dressed following nap) Milk for under- 
weight children. Outdoor play. 

3 :00 Dismissal. Many children use school cars ; some go with their 

Daily Procedure in the Senior Kindergarten 

(Very flexible, except for rest, food and elimination, although 
in general the procedure is as follows) 

8:30 Arrival by school cars or with the parents. Medical inspection 
by school physician. Isolation of doubtful cases. Children ad- 
mitted to their own room after receiving pass from physician. 
Removal of wraps with emphasis on skills and orderly habits. 
Each child then has a glass of water. 

Caring for pets and flowers and performing other household 

Self -initiated activity period ; carrying on of individual or group 
projects. Industrial, plastic and fine arts, dramatic play, nature 
interests and other lines of work are pursued. 

Replacement of materials. Habits of orderliness, caring for 
unfinished work, promptness and assuming of responsibility are 
all stressed. 

Conference period, — bringing to the attention of the group in- 
teresting activities of the first period, discussion of work done, 
constructive criticism and suggestions given. Discussion of be- 
havior, evolving of group rules growing out of needs. 

10:05 Toilet period for all — small groups going to each toilet room. 
Special emphasis on procedure and growth in independence, and 
building up of wholesome attitudes towards sex hygiene. 

As children return to room they go to a center established by 
the teacher using pictures, poems, nature material, or other 
interest. Some children are preparing tables for mid-morning 

256 National College of Education 

10:20 Mid-morning luncheon of fruit juices or tomato juice — excep- 
tions being made according to the advice of family physician. 

The children assist in preparation and also in clearing away and 
washing of glasses, pitchers, doilies. Desirable table habits are 

Rest on individual washable rugs. 

10:35 Stories, group handwork periods, out-of-door play, gardening, 
rhythms, excursions, dramatizations, come at this time. This 
period is flexible and the activity that goes on depends entirely 
on the type of work carried on throughout the morning and 
needs of children. 

1 1 :30 Dismissal of those who do not stay for afternoon session. Prep- 
aration for dinner. Thorough grooming. 

1 1 :40 Dinner served by the children. Special emphasis on table habits. 
Followed by toilet period and removal of outer garments. 

12:40 Naps on cots, using sheets and blankets. Room is darkened, 
cool, and well ventilated. Followed by toilet period, dressing 
and putting on wraps. 

2:00 (or when children are dressed following nap) Milk for under- 
weight children. Outdoor play. 

3 :00 Dismissal. Many children use school cars ; some go with their 

Daily Procedure in the First Grade 

(Flexible, except for certain periods devoted to physical 

8:30 Inspection by school physician — Isolation of doubtful cases. 

Removal of wraps, with emphasis on proper care of belongings. 

Care of room plants and pets. 

Self-directed activities, often centering about some large group 
interest, as playhouse, a post office, a store or library. 

Constructive activities may be preceded or followed by a dis- 
cussion period for the purpose of planning further activities, and 
judging what has been accomplished. 

9:40 Music activities which include listening to folk songs and art 
songs, singing and bodily response to music. Music often pro- 

Arranging the Program 257 

vides an interpretation or expression of the outstanding interests 
of the group. Sometimes the group is divided for music accord- 
ing to special needs or interests. 

10:00 Reading activities, which may include group composition of 
stories about some special interest, reading of such stories from 
charts or booklets made by the children, or reading of interest- 
ing stories from "real books." The class is always divided into 
small groups for reading, and one group is usually engaged in 
some sort of silent reading activity. 

10:30 Use of toilet with emphasis on hygienic procedure. Two or three 
minutes of rest. 

Serving of orange juice or tomato juice by children with em- 
phasis on table courtesies. During the lunch period, stories, 
verses or riddles may be used, and creative language work is 

Outdoor play. Activities on the playground include play with 
apparatus and with toys, such as wagons, sleds, balls ; construc- 
tive activity and dramatic play with boxes, logs, snow; simple 
active games. 

11:15 Reading, writing and art activities, w T ith class divided into small 
groups. Writing of very simple letters about school interests 
is a favorite activity. Writing little verses and stories and illus- 
trating these for original books is also a frequent enterprise. 
Practice in gaining a writing vocabulary is provided. 

12:15 Dismissal of morning group. 

Preparation for dinner by those who stay for the day session. 
Use of toilet rooms. 

12:30 Dinner at small tables with teachers. The menu is planned by a 
nutritionist and emphasis is upon desirable attitudes and habits 
in relation to foods. 

1:15 Preparation for naps by placing individual sheets and blankets 
on cots, and removing shoes. 
Rest or nap in cool darkened room. Toilet period following nap. 

2:00 Activities adapted to group interests or needs. These may in- 
clude stories, art work, more reading or other types of expe- 

2 :30 Outdoor play, similar to morning period. 

3:00 Dismissal. 

258 National College of Education 

Daily Procedure in the Second Grade 
(Flexible, except for certain periods devoted to physical needs) 

8:30 Inspection by school physician — Isolation of doubtful cases. 
Care of wraps and belongings ; attention to plants and pets. 
Art and industrial activities, usually related to some group in- 
terest ; as farm, garden market, school fair. Manual training 
room, art room, home economics room, are available on certain 

Discussion period for planning and judging work, reporting on 
excursions and other related experiences, may precede or follow 
activity period. 

9:30 Reading activities involving use of literary, informational or 
work-type materials, according to needs and interests of individ- 
uals or small groups. Children's library is used by small groups 
on certain days. 

10:00 Music activities, including music appreciation, singing and bodily 
rhythm. Music may provide interpretation or expression for 
attitudes and appreciations developed in units of work. 

10 :30 Outdoor activities, varying with the season : gardening and care 
of animals, constructive and dramatic play with materials, group 
games. Use of toilets, following outdoor play period. 

Serving of orange juice or tomato juice, often combined with 
enjoyment of a story or a poem, or creative language expression. 

1 1 :00 Arithmetic activities involving either solution of number problems 
related to group activities, or systematic practice in mastering 
certain needed skills. Children often work individually or in 
small groups. 

1 1 :30 Written composition related to some interest of the group. 

Needs for spelling and improved handwriting become evident in 
written work, and practice is provided. 

12:00 Preparation for noon meal. Use of toilet rooms. 

Noon meal, with menu planned by nutritionist. Emphasis on 
desirable habits and attitudes at table. 

12:50 Rest on cots in cool, darkened room. (Sheets and blankets pro- 
vided.) Training in relaxation. 

Arranging the Program 259 

1 :20 Physical activities, including either guided play on the play- 
ground or in the gymnasium, or creative dancing. 

1 :50 Activities related to group interests and needs. These may in- 
clude stories, dramatic play, additional art work, or other types 
of experience. On certain days there is class work in beginning 
French, for children who are ready for this experience. 

3 :00 Dismissal. 

260 National College of Education 

Tentative Weekly Program — Grade Three 








Examination of pictures and objects of interest brought by teachers and children; 

group conference 


Social studies 
and English 

Music activities (including bodily rhythm, singing, 
music appreciation) 

Reading activities (individual or in small groups) 
Children's library available 


Individual and group work in arithmetic 


Playground activities 
Serving of fruit juice 


Manual training 

Social studies 
English and art 

Manual training 

Social studies 

Social studies 
and English 

Spelling practice 

Spelling practicei 

Writing practice 


Lunch (menu planned by nutritionist) 


Rest on cots in cool darkened room (individual sheets and blankets provided) 


Activities adapted to children's interests and needs 


Games and 
creative dancing 

Outdoor play 

Games and 
creative dancing 

Outdoor play 


Art (individual 
and grade) 


Art (individual 
and grade) 




Tentative Weekly Program — Grade Four 


Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 


Self-directed activities and conference (remedial work for some) 


Social arithmetic 
Arithmetic practice and spelling practice 


Reading in small groups 




Playground activities 


Social studies, 
English and art 

Music activities 


Manual training 

Social studies 
and English 

Manual training 

Free reading 
in library 

Social studies 


Free reading 
in library 

and English 


Lunch and rest 
(Children choose menu as part of work in hygiene) 


Group interests 
and needs 

Art (individual 
and grade) 

Group interests 
and needs 

Art (individual! Group interests 
and grade) and needs 


Games and 
creative dancing 


Games and 
creative dancing 



Literature and 
creative language 


Literature and 
creative language 




Arranging the Program 


Tentative Weekly Program — Grade Five 


Monday Tuesday 

Wednesday Thursday Friday 


Individual help 
in arithmetic 

Manual training 
(individual and 
grade enter- 

Art and social 

Manual training 
(individual and 
grade enter- 

Art and social 


Reading and 

Social arithmetic and arithmetic practice 

Reading and 


Informational work in social studies (involving- reading, oral and written 


Playground activities 


Practice in 

Music activities 


Grade needs in English (including practice 
in spelling and language usage) 


Lunch and rest 
(Children choose menu as part of work in hygiene) 



Individual read- 
ing in library 


Individual read- 
ing in library 



Group interests 
and needs 

Outdoor play 

Group interests 
and needs 

Outdoor play 


Games and 
creative dancing 

Art (individual 
and grade) 

Games and 
creative dancing 

Art (individual 1 Free reading 
and grade) in library 



Tentative Weekly Program — Grade Six 





Thursday Friday 


Individual work period 


Social arithmetic and arithmetic practice 


Manual training 
room and home 

Spelling and 
language usage 

Manual training 

room and home 

economics room 


Spelling and language usage 


economics room 

Art and social 

Art and social 1 Writing 
studies 1 practice 


Projection room 

Music activities 


Playground activities 


Informational work in social studies 
(involving reading, oral and written composition) 


Lunch and rest 
(Menu chosen by child as part of work in hygiene) 


Art (individual 
and grade) 


Art (individual 
and grade) 



Group interests 
and needs 

Outdoor play 

Group interests j „ . . 
and needs Outdoor play 


Games and 
creative dancing 

Free reading 
in library 

Games and 1 Individual reading in the library 
creative dancing' Individual help for some 




IN EVALUATING the work of a school or a class, perhaps the 
most important record is the story of a day, for the day is the 
child's unit of living-. In the modern school it is impossible to choose 
a typical day for description, since no two days are alike. 

The section which follows includes sketches of several days in the 
pre-school, and two or three selected from the records of grade 
teachers. Growing purposefulness in activities, ability to work and 
play in larger groups, more sustained interest in a single center, 
readiness to work for more remote goals, are evident as the children 
grow older. 

Since the nursery school is the newest child in the school family, 
perhaps a word of explanation concerning the organization of the 
program and the objectives would not be amiss. 

Organization of the Nursery School 

As the program of the nursery school is carried out day by day, 
it may be noted that the only set periods which come at regular times 
each day are those which relate to physical needs such as food, sleep 
and elimination. The other activities of the day vary according to 
the needs and interests of the children, as well as weather. 

The group is often divided into smaller groups in order to prevent 
over-stimulation and fatigue which sometimes come with a large 
group of children. This division allows for following up individual 
interests by giving opportunities to choose what individual children 
wish to do or see. Division of the group also makes for growth, as a 
few who are ready for something more advanced may have it without 
exposing those in a less mature state. Those verging on four may be 
ready for some form of handwork, some rhythmic work or an ex- 
cursion which would be beyond the level of the younger members, 
who, in such a situation, would be a hindrance to the others. 

It may be noted that children are not required to join social group- 
ings such as a group coming together for songs or stories, or to look 
at pictures, but they come and go of their own free will. The teacher 
with the group at the time tries to make the center of interest so 
interesting that the children will want to come and join in. At 


Sketches of Various Days 263 

various times throughout the year records have been kept which 
show the span of the children's attention as they join such centers 
of interest. The records show a gain in some individuals from two 
to twenty minutes. It has been our aim to keep the nursery school 
free from organization and routine except as the social development 
of the children reached a stage where they were ready to come to- 
gether and do more in groups. It has been our aim also to have as 
free and homelike an atmosphere as possible and to avoid falling into 
the category of schools where ''children like hothouse plants are 
forced into premature development," as one of our American educa- 
tors has expressed it. 

While all phases of the school curriculum have their beginnings in 
the nursery school, we are stressing those beginnings only by giving 
the children ample opportunity to enjoy the stages of investigation, 
experimentation and manipulation in their use of materials. Health 
habits, gain in emotional control and stability, development of de- 
sirable attitudes and appreciations along with the development of 
skill in the use of the body (large muscular coordination) are the 
main objectives of the nursery school. 

Parent education through conferences, mothers' meetings, 
parents' meetings, observations in the nursery school and through 
mothers' classes are considered of utmost importance in our work 
with the nursery school child. A specialist in the field of parent 
education plans the classes for the mothers but is assisted by the 
nursery school director and other members of the pre-school staff. 
The director holds the conferences with students who are working 
in the Nursery School, makes the records of the children, is the 
person who calls for any staffing of cases and holds the conferences 
with parents. She is not a detached person, an executive or over- 
seer who acts as an administrator for the nursery school, but she is 
the head teacher who works with the children and students in her 
group throughout the entire day. 


Nursery School 

Number enrolled, 20 Chronological Age range, 2-4 to 3-7 

Number present, 16 Mental Age range, 2-4 to 4-5 

At eight-thirty two children came up the hall, having arrived in one 
of the school cars. Following them was a student teacher who reminded 
them that a visit to the doctor's office was the first thing to be done 
upon arrival. One child willingly cooperated with the doctor in 
the morning inspection of eyes, throat, neck, ears, hands and chest, 
while the other one, not yet feeling entirely secure and free in the 
physician's hands, was loath to be inspected. The doctor asked about 
the child's dog and approached the child in a very friendly, informal 
way. The inspection given was somewhat superficial, but a step or two 
in advance over the inspection of this particular child on previous days, 
the doctor appreciating the need for building up a favorable attitude 
and confidence before proceeding very far in her work. 

After inspection the children went down to the nursery school room 
where the director was waiting near the door to greet them and help 
make them feel at home. They put their "tickets" (slips of colored 
paper given to them to show they had been to the doctor's office) in 
a basket used for that purpose. The teacher helped them remove their 
sweaters. In completing the task one child turned his inside out. She 
assisted in showing the child how to turn the sweater right side out. 
She reminded the children that they should look for their "markers" 
on their own lockers. This they did and having found them they hung 
up their sweaters and caps. They then went to the toilet room where 
an assistant teacher was ready to give necessary help. (Care is taken 
at the beginning of the year to build favorable attitudes and not burden 
the children with too much stress on procedures and habits all at once. 
As each child appears ready and interested in carrying on certain pro- 
cedures leading to definite routines and habits he is encouraged. Cau- 
tion against fatigue and boredom is necessary if right attitudes are to 
be formed and right habits happily established.) 

Following a toilet period these children returned to the playroom 
where they were interested in watching and in helping care for the bird, 
feed the rabbit and the turtles, and change the water on two bouquets. 
Other children came in about this time, some with their mothers, some 
having come in the school cars. They too brought their "tickets" from 
the doctor's office. One child, a very young one with hospital experience 
and unpleasant associations, was admitted without going to the doctor's 
office. The mother had been especially conscientious in looking over 


Sketches of Various Days 265 

the child before bringing- him. Some of the children went to the toilet 
immediately, while others after removing their wraps, sought the various 
play materials and centers of interest. (The director in individual con- 
ferences held with the mothers before the opening of school had been 
given the span and schedule for each child in regard to toilet needs 
and was meeting- individual needs accordingly.) 

A free informal play time indoors ensued until about nine ten when 
most of the group had arrived. All of the children then got ready to 
go out-of-doors. They went to the playground where they had a happy, 
free and lively time with wagons, kiddie-kars, boards, boxes and Jungle- 
gym, saw horses, barrels and other flexible and crude equipment. They 
played house, train, ice man and many other dramatic plays. There was 
almost no cooperative play, but "each man for himself" was happy 
and busy in his own interests. Several children trotted back and forth 
on the walk, ran up and down boards and flitted from one bit of equip- 
ment to another, investigating, experimenting, manipulating, learning. 

During this time the milk man arrived with his friendly, toothless old 
horse, "Nig," who had already won the friendship of the children in 
the few days they had been in the nursery school. Several children 
had brought apples or sugar from home which they placed on a cement 
wall which separates the sidewalk from the sloping driveway. The 
children's heads were on a level with the horse's head, yet they were 
safely out of danger of the horse's feet — an ideal arrangement for feed- 
ing and petting the horse. 

An airplane flew by which the children stopped to watch. One of 
the teachers spontaneously sang a simple short airplane song. The 
children looked at her and listened as she sang it over and over again 
while several children joined in singing it as best they could. 

At ten minutes before ten several children went indoors to the 
lavatory to get ready for the mid-morning luncheon consisting of orange 
juice. As they finished, having gone to the toilet, washed their hands, 
and combed their hair, some went to the rug where there was a supply 
of picture books and where a teacher was enjoying looking at books, 
too. Four children joined her and together they looked at pictures, 
talked about them and said Mother Goose rhymes over and over again. 
Some of the children played with the dolls, while others watched the 
rabbit in his cage. When all of the children had come in from the play- 
ground and were ready for orange juice, the teachers went to the tables 
which were set with glasses of orange juice and napkins. Each child 
had a certain place at the table, but some needed help in remembering 
where they sat. The children took care of their chairs, napkins and 
glasses when finished. (During the first few days of school the tables 
were not set, but glasses of orange juice were given to the children in a 
most informal way, with as little ceremony as possible.) 


National College of Education 

Logs and Boxes Prevent Unemployment 

Sketches of Various Days 267 

After this mid-morning luncheon two mothers came and took their 
children. (These youngsters were of the type easily over-stimulated 
and were making their adjustment to the nursery school a very gradual 
one by coming for part of each morning but lengthening the time of 
their stay each day.) A rest period on the rugs was the next pro- 
cedure. This rest time was of about eight minutes duration — just 
long enough to have the children settle down and get a "feeling" for 
the atmosphere of a rest period. 

Another out-of-door period followed, but this time the group was 
divided and went to different centers of interest. Some went to the 
log pile where they climbed and jumped and had a delightful dramatic 
play time of riding on trains and airplanes. A group of four with a 
teacher, went down to the canal which adjoins the playground, to throw 
stones in the water and to watch the sea gulls. Another group went 
to the school garden where they picked asters and cosmos. As they 
came walking up the playground bearing their flowers the teacher spon- 
taneously began "One foot up and one foot down. This is the way 
to London town." Several children joined in the rhythm with her 
and chanted the rhyme as they walked on up to the door. They took 
their flowers to the nursery school room and helped arrange them in 
vases for the luncheon tables. 

At eleven o'clock the children who remained for the afternoon ses- 
sion began entering the room in small groups and had a toilet period. 
They were given ample time to enjoy the process of making ready for 
the noon meal. Those who present no problems in food and sleep 
and whose parents desire they stay for the half day only were dismissed 
at eleven thirty. As the others finished at the lavatory, they helped set 
the tables, (put on doilies, napkins, silver and cups.) Two children 
helped an assistant teacher put the sheets and blankets on the cots. 
Several others of their own volition got picture books from the shelf, 
while some played with dolls. (Paints, sand and other materials that 
would tend to soil their hands are taboo at this time.) 

When luncheon was ready to serve one child asked to ring the chimes 
to call the children together for luncheon. When all were seated at their 
places, the teacher at each table asked one child to go to the serving 
table for the plates. (Small servings were given to several children 
who were appetite problems. Two of these, however, asked for second 
helpings.) As each child finished, he placed his napkin beside his plate, 
pushed his chair under the table and was excused. He then, went to 
the lavatory, and after going through the regular toilet procedure, he 
removed his outer garments, hung them up, and went to his bed, where 
he removed his shoes and then got into bed. 

As the luncheon was about over, two children were asked to help 
clear the tables, which they did with a good deal of joy and efficiency. 

268 National College oe Educ 


By one o'clock all of the group were ready for their naps. Screens 
were placed around each bed. Several children needed help in relaxa- 
tion, but by one-thirty-five all but one child was asleep. This child 
rested for three quarters of an hour and then was allowed to get up and 
dress. As the others wakened (their naps varied from an hour to an 
hour and twenty minutes) they went to the lavatory, dressed and got 
ready to go out-of-doors. When three children were up, a teacher 
went to the playground, and as each one of the others was ready, he 
joined the group in out-of-door play. At a few minutes before three 
several mothers came, to take their children home. Each child was 
given a note on which was recorded the length of his nap, how much 
he ate at luncheon, any defecation and any unusual happenings that 
the teacher wanted the parents to know about (as, emotional upheavals, 

By three o'clock all were dismissed, many of them going home in 
the school cars, each car having not only the driver but a student teacher 
in charge of the children. 

Nursery School 

The children, on coming from the doctor's office, removed their 
coats and hats. After the usual toilet procedure they returned to the 
playroom where each one sat at a table, poured a cup of water for him- 
self and drank it. This new phase of procedure had been under way 
just a few days. Some children gave evidence of not caring for water 
and therefore poured and drank only a small amount. Others poured 
a full glass and drank it down heartily. As each finished he put on 
his wraps and went to the playground. There the children used the 
boards, boxes, kegs, Junglegym and wheel stock. Several children asked 
for water and paint brushes so they could ''paint." A large hollow box 
of soft wood with all sides nailed on, served as a very satisfactory 
place for driving nails. The children used heavy hammers and large 
headed shingle nails. Later on a group of five children went to the other 
end of the playground where they had a rollicking time turning somer- 
saults and playing wheel barrow in the grass. The rabbit and guinea 
pig were let loose on the grass and the children had fun watching 
them eat. 

At quarter of ten the children began taking their wheel stock to 
the "play house." The group then went indoors for toilet period and 
rest. Following this rest time they put on their wraps and went out- 
of-doors again. Eight of the children traveled on kiddy kars and in 
wagons two short blocks to the neighborhood grocery where they bought 
various kinds of vegetables. They carried these unwrapped back to 

Sketches of Various Days 269 

the school. (These children were chosen for this experience because 
they live in hotels or have servants so that they have little or no contact 
with kitchens, cooking, seeing vegetables and groceries in their "raw" 
state. The aim was to familiarize them with the common vegetables and 
let them handle, feel and play with them.) 

While this small group went to the store, the rest of the children 
went to see the construction work on the Bahai Temple, a large edifice 
two blocks away. They were deeply interested in seeing the great trucks 
dump stone and gravel and in observing iron beams hoisted way into 
the air. After watching for a half hour and asking many questions 
they went back to the school and got ready for dinner. 

On their return trip some of the children ran along, playing they 
were driving dump trucks. They stopped for a few moments in front 
of one of the neighbor's houses to watch and talk to a puppy in the 
yard. Two children gave evidence of being somewhat afraid of the 
dog and ran up and stood close to a teacher. She expressed a great 
liking for the dog, called him and petted him as the children looked on. 
(The teacher made a point later of visiting the dog every few days. 
She took with her five children, including the two skeptical ones, and 
after several visits all were thoroughly enjoying "Scotty.") 

The preparation for dinner, serving and the rest of the afternoon 
procedure was much the same as described in the record of a "Day in 

Nursery School 

It was a very rainy day. After the children had come in and gone 
through the usual procedures of morning inspection, toilet and a drink 
of water, the group was divided, the younger children staying in the 
nursery school room to play with wagons, kiddy kars and other wheel 
stock. These children put on sweaters and caps and the windows were 
opened wide so that they could have the advantage of the outdoor air 
without being in the rain. 

The older children went to the Children's Library where they spent 
a delightful half hour looking at picture books and telling rhymes. (The 
teacher used in addition to Mother Goose, some of Dorothy Aldis' poems 
and some from Tippetts, "I Go A-Traveling.") On their way back from 
the Library they went into the school gymnasium where ten minutes 
were spent in running, hopping and galloping, the teacher accompany- 
ing their rhythmic expressions with suitable music on the piano. 

When they returned to the room the usual lavatory period followed, 
in preparation for their mid-morning luncheon. Some of the children 
helped set the tables, and to clear them when finished. After the rest 
period of fifteen minutes the younger children left the room to go on 


National College of Education 

Rainy Days Bring Indoor Play 

an excursion about the building. They went to the fountain in the front 
of the building where they fed and watched the gold fish. From there 
they went down to the boiler rooms to see the great boilers which heat 
the building. They were interested in watching the engineer shovel 
coal and in watching the fire when the doors were opened. 

While the younger children were off on this "excursion," the older 
ones were given their choice of blowing soap bubbles or helping the 
maid in the kitchen make sandwiches for the luncheon. (Both were 
familiar experiences.) Three children wanted to make sandwiches, 
while the other six wanted to blow bubbles. Just before the little ones 
returned at eleven o'clock, these older children were asked if they would 
not like to come together for a story. All but one came, and he pre- 
ferred to continue making sandwiches. The story used was "The Wee 
Little Woman" by Elsa Beskow. Following the story the children got 
ready for the noon meal. The rest of the program for the day was 
much the same as recorded for "A Day in September." 

When the children were up and dressed following their naps, the 
rain was still streaming down; so clay was put on one table for the 
children and paper and crayons at another. The children busied them- 
selves with these materials while one teacher moved among them, mak- 
ing suggestions, giving approval or encouragement and genuinely 

Sketches of Various Days 271 

enjoying the activity with them. (On days when there is a damp, 
penetrating wind or a steady down pour of rain and the weather is such 
that the children cannot go out, we make a point of having some ex- 
perience or activity outside of the nursery school room so that the 
children will not feel so confined to one place.) 


(following a day at a farm) 

Number enrolled, 28 Chronological age range, 3-9 to 4-9 

Number present, 21 Mental age range, 3-9 to 5-8 

With the approach of Hallowe'en had come the query, "Where shall 
we get pumpkins to make Jack o' Lanterns?" One of the children said 
he had seen pumpkins at a farm nearby, and several mothers had agreed 
to take us in cars. 

We had spent a whole morning at the farm ; we had seen pumpkins 
in the fields, beets and carrots buried in dirt trenches, hens and geese 
strutting across a farm yard and puppies playing in the barn. We had 
participated in farm activities to the extent of sliding down the hay- 
stack, patting the horses and climbing on the low branches of the apple 

When we returned to school, each child carried a small pumpkin, and 
the teachers had pumpkins for the room and bags of fresh vegetables 
for the school pets. 

When the children came to school the following day, it was evident 
that the farm interest was still keen. They entered the room in small 
groups from the doctor's office, where the daily health inspection takes 
place. Richard discovered some wooden farm animals in the "help 
yourself" cupboards, and without a word went to work making block 
fences, inside which he put the animals. Joan and Bradford joined 
him, offering to make a barn. Joe and Roy made a truck with blocks and 
directed Arthur to help load cabbages and drive the truck. Betty 
painted a picture of some pumpkins, and Jean drew a picture of a teacher 
sliding down a haystack. Georgiana's drawing was of a guinea pig 
saying, "Thank you for the lettuce you brought from the farm." Anne 
and Marian made apples and pumpkins out of clay, and Maryellen looked 
at a picture book of animals. Out of the twenty-one children present, 
twelve were working on some representation of the farm experience. 

At the end of the activity period we all went to see Richard's farm- 
yard. He explained where each animal lived. Joan showed us how 
the barn doors opened. Roy drove the vegetable truck and told us he 
was going to Chicago. We looked at the painting and drawings, wrote 
stories about them and tacked them on the bulletin board. The clay 


National College of Education 

The Pony Is a Favorite at the Farm 

fruits were put away to dry. Blocks and animals were put away in 
the cupboards again. 

After the toilet period some of the children went to the library to 
look at picture books ; some went to a corridor where posters of dairy 
farming were on display. On their return to the room, the teacher 
read "Grandfather's Farm" by Read and Lee. 

Mid morning lunch of orange juice and a short rest period followed. 
Then the teacher called the children to sit on the rug and said, "Who 
can sing a song about a pumpkin?" Immediate response from the 
children showed a wealth of ideas, an eagerness to sing for the group 
and a willingness to listen to others. These are some of the songs we 
heard : 

Richard: Hallowe'en night, 

Flallowe'en night, 
We will see some Jack o' Lanterns. 

Gene : I see a pumpkin, 

I see a pumpkin, 
I see a pumpkin. 

Dick : Once a man took a pumpkin 

and put a light in it, and 
then it was a Jack o' Lantern. 

Georgiana : Hallowe'en, Hallowe'en, 

Hallowe'en is coming soon. 

Sketches of Various Days 273 

The words of this last song seemed to fit the tune of a German 

folk song, "The Chickadee" found on page 75 of Surrette's book, "One 

Hundred Forty Folk Songs." The teacher sang the first part of the 

song, using Georgiana's words, and sang "tra-la-la" for the rest of 

the song. She suggested that the children think of other phrases to 

sing. Many suggestions were received, and the finished song was sung 

over and over again : 

Hallowe'en, Hallowe'en, 

Hallowe'en is coming soon. 

Pumpkins bright 

Shine at night 

On the window sill. 

We will go out to the farm, 

We'll buy pumpkins big and small. 

Hallowe'en,. Hallowe'en, 

Now it's Hallowe'en ! 

After singing we all put on wraps. Each one helped himself as much 
as he could. Outdoors we played on boxes and planks, climbed on the 
Junglegym, or coasted down the driveway in wagons. At dismissal 
time, some children went home, and the rest came into the room to get 
ready for dinner. Each child went to the lavatory, washed his hands 
thoroughly and combed his hair. 

Sixteen of us sat down at four tables to a dinner of creamed lamb, 
baked potato, buttered spinach, raw carrot sandwich, milk and fruit cup. 
• The teacher had put the portions of food on the plates, and each child 
had carried his own to his place. During the dinner we talked of how 
we would make Jack o' lanterns, using the pumpkins we had brought 
from the farm. 

When dinner was over each one took his dishes to the serving tables, 
folded his napkin and went to the room where cots had been set up for 
the naps. Each cot was provided with a pair of blankets and a sheet. 
Each child removed his shoes, his suit or dress and lay on the cot that 
bore his name. The teachers sat beside several children who needed 
help in quieting down. In a few minutes every child was asleep. 

As each child awoke, he got- up, put on his shoes and suit, went to 
the toilet and dressed for outdoor play. We went to play on the logs, 
dramatizing boats, with passengers and captains. When the school cars 
came into the driveway, each child ran to the car that was to take him 
home. Some children went home with their mothers. 


Junior Kindergarten 

"It's snowing, it's snowing 
The north wind is blowing." 

We heard the children singing in the halls long before they reached 

the rooms. When they did come in, after they had seen the doctor, their 


National College of Education 

. Snow Brings Jolly Fun 

Sketches of Various Days 275 

suggestions were curiously alike — "Let's go out right away." So after 
the admittance slips had been deposited and everyone had his coat but- 
toned warmly, we went out. 

The playground was deep with white, glittering snow. It was 
too deep to use sleds, but just right for other activities. Some children 
scuffed through the snow, tumbling down every few feet. A small 
group played "Follow the leader," making tracks across a wide stretch 
of snow. One little girl rolled over and over, occasionally lying flat 
and watching the snowflakes that were still flying. A little boy started 
to make a snow man. Others joined him and rolled enough balls to 
make several snow men. Some of us made and threw snow balls at 
the trees, or just to see how far we could throw them. Nearly every- 
one tasted the snow and many brought snow balls into the room "to 
see what would happen to them." 

After having been out for about half an hour, we brushed and stamped 
as much snow as possible off ourselves and went into our room. The 
children talked happily about the good time they had had while they 
removed their snow suits, galoshes, caps and mittens. The janitor had 
been asked to lay a fire in the fireplace which the teacher lighted as 
soon as she came in. The children hung their mittens on the fire 
screen and stayed to watch the blazing logs. 

A toilet period followed ; then two of the teachers read stories to 
groups of us as we sat on the rug near the fire. One read "The Snow- 
man" by Kruger and Sondergaard; the other, "The Snow Ball" in 
Maud Lindsay's book, "Story Garden for Little Children." We sang 
all the snow songs we knew, "Jingle bells," "Little Snowflakes," "It's 
snowing," and "The north wind does blow." 

Mid-morning luncheon was served to us on the rug, the teachers 
passing cups of orange juice on trays. Later, the children carried the 
trays of empty cups to the kitchen. Then they lay on small rugs to rest. 
It was a particularly pleasant rest period, because we could hear the 
crackling of the logs in the fireplace, and see the shadow of the dancing 

When all the small rugs were hung on the hooks, the teacher called 
the children and said, "If you had paper and chalk, what story would 
you tell?" "About snow falling," "I would tell about snow men," 
"I can draw snow on the roofs," "I can make tracks in the snow," were 
some of the replies. Black paper and chalk were quickly placed on the 
tables and everyone worked on his picture. Some children drew 
snowmen with stick arms and hats ; some made children sliding down 
hills on sleds ; others made snowflakes falling on roofs and sidewalks. 
One little boy made a picture of a boy shoveling in the deep snow. 
The teachers drew pictures, too, and offered suggestions to children 
about their work. 


National College of Education 

As it was snowing too hard to carry pictures home, everyone put his 
in his locker. We had to stop work in time to get some of the children 
ready to go home in the school cars or with their mothers. The chil- 
dren staying for the afternoon helped to put away chalk and wipe oft the 
tables before getting ready for dinner. 

Junior Kindergarten 

In the fall a group of children had shown great interest in having 
parties for the Kindergarten dolls. The children had outlined a house 
with blocks into which the doll furniture had been moved and in which 
housekeeping had been set up. The dolls were undressed and put to 
bed; they were dressed and brought to the table for meals. 

This play lasted several days ; later in the year it reappeared, and the 
teacher suggested that dolls might be brought from home to enjoy a 
school party. The idea was hailed with enthusiastic response. "I'll 
bring my doll, Mary Anne. She has such pretty clothes." "Oh, I'll 
bring my baby doll. She likes parties." Some of the boys offered to 
bring toy dogs, cats, or monkeys. 

Certain preparations for the party were made. Some children washed 

Home-making Consumes Much Time 

Sketches of Various Days 277 

and ironed the doll clothes ; others washed and dried all the doll dishes. 
Another group cut and folded paper napkins. 

On the day of the party all the dolls arrived wearing their best dresses 
and smiles. The toy animals looked all ready to perform tricks and 
stunts. One of the children said, "Oh, it's too crowded in this room 
with all the dolls. Let's go out on the lawn." So out we went, carrying 
dolls, small chairs and tables, and dishes. The dolls were cared for 
by several children while others went to pick flowers for table decora- 
tion. The garden yielded bouquets of pretty pansies and the tables 
looked very attractive. As soon as each group finished its work of set- 
ting tables or arranging flowers, the children went into the building for 
a toilet period. 

When we came out again, we carried pitchers of orange juice and 
cups. Each child sat on the grass near his doll and poured fruit juice 
into a cup for himself and into a doll cup for his guest. During lunch 
the children talked about their dolls, told us their names and how they 
played with them at home. 

Some of the children wanted to give an animal show for us. We all 
sat on the logs while the toy dogs turned somersaults, the toy monkeys 
climbed trees and a toy kitten played with a string. 

One of the teachers had brought some books for us to read. Among 
them, "The Katy Kruze Book of Dolls," "The Animal Mother Goose" 
and in Maud Lindsay's book, "A Story Garden for Little Children" we 
found a story of "The Lost Doll." We sat under the trees and enjoyed 
stories and pictures until the school cars came to take the children and 
dolls home. 


Senior Kindergarten 

Number enrolled, 30 Chronological age range, 4-8 to 5-9 

Number present, 26 Mental age range, 5-0 to 6-10 

The Senior Kindergarten children began to arrive at 8 :20. They 
went to the doctor's office where the daily medical inspection took place, 
and were given their tickets of admission to the room. The teacher and 
the student assistants were on hand to greet the children, making such 
suggestive comments as "You're just in time to help feed the rabbits"' — ■ 
"I'm sure you can manage your galoshes yourself, but I'll be glad to 
help you if you really need help with your leggings" — "Did you find 
something at home for the headlight of your engine?" — "I have the 
paint ready for your book-ends." . . . The children came in, a few 
at a time, until nine o'clock, when twenty-six had arrived. Each child 
had his own hooks for his wraps, and his own shelf for unfinished work 
and sundry treasures, labelled with his full name in manuscript writing. 

278 National College of Education 

After the wraps were removed and hung up, the children began to 
work in varying degrees of rapidity. Some got out their materials with 
decided definiteness of purpose, while others wandered about the room, 
chatting with the teachers, the children, to the pets (two birds, fish, 
turtles, white mice), watching others paint, work with clay, wood or 
blocks, assisting with folding and cutting napkins, watering plants, 
buttoning smocks for their neighbors, commenting upon and asking 
questions about the work of others. By 9:10 all but three children had 
settled into some sort of purposeful activity. 

"We need some more icicles for Santa Claus' house," said the teacher 
to one of the children. "Dunder and Blitzen have broken their stalls. 
Those big corner blocks will probably hold them together better than 
the way they were built before. Try them, and see if they are stronger," 
she said to another, and to the third, "Jane and Marie are at home with 
colds today. Let's wrap up some of our jelly (made in October) and 
when you go home you can stop at their houses and leave the jelly at 
their doors. Of course you will not go in where some one has a cold." 

Some of the group had built a large structure with the Patty Hill 
blocks the day before, which they called "Santa Claus' house." They 
had made a mailbox, and on it had placed a sign which read "Santa 
Claus" (a carry-over from a previous house-play, where the children 
who live in apartments had used names on their mailboxes). In the 
house was an upturned soap box, a telephone (made from a scrap of 
broom handle, a few pieces of wood, and a button-mold with pencilled 
numbers for a dial) many sheets of manila paper, and several pencils — 
all of which constituted Santa Claus' desk and materials. There were 
three chairs in the house in addition to Santa Claus' chair. Outside the 
house were some crude partitions known as the reindeer's stalls. A 
great deal of dramatic play went on, in and about these structures, 
interspersed with work upon them. 

By 9 :45 nearly all of the children had joined the play, some pretend- 
ing to hang up their stockings and go to sleep, while others were Santa 
Claus, reindeer, or helpers. Some scribbled make-believe notes which 
they stuffed into Santa Claus' mailbox, and then registered real con- 
cern if he were not prompt about jotting down the messages, on his 
book. Finally the number of children involved in the play made it 
unwieldy for them to manage happily alone. 

"Let's have all these reindeer go back to their stalls to be fed," said 
the teacher. "Here, Dasher, is a place for you . . . and one for 
Dancer . . . and for Prancer," and so on, until about a third of the 
children were in the "barn." "And here, helper, is a pail of water for 
these little animals — they must be very thirsty." "Now all of the chil- 
dren are going to bed," said one child. "Hang up your stockings se- 
curely," said the teacher, "and when every one is sound asleep, perhaps 

Sketches of Various Days 279 

the reindeer will come prancing over your roof-tops." "I think it's 
almost mid-night, Santa Claus ! You had better be on your way I" 

With such suggestions from teacher and children, the play was kept 
moving — interchanging characters, incorporating every one into the 
fun. "Reindeer have antlers. We should have antlers. Antlers are 
horns that stick up like this," said David, stretching his arms above his 
head and spreading out his fingers. Forthwith many of the children 
adopted his suggestion. "If we make a lot of noise they'll hear us," 
said Betsy. "You're right," agreed the teacher. "Anyway, reindeer 
have small feet," suggested someone else. "Small feet that move very 
swiftly," was the answer. 

Gradually all of the other children finished their work, or arrived at a 
point where it could be stopped for the day. Materials were put away, 
and all joined in the Santa Claus play. As the fleet reindeer circled 
about the room, the teacher began to supplement the activity with piano 
music (Jingle Bells), thereby adding to the activity, and also defining a 
span of time so that it did not continue too long. (The free-activity, or 
work period, had dove-tailed into a period of dramatic and rhythmic 

After all had had fun and satisfaction it was suggested that they sit 
together on the big rug, and that one of the student teachers be asked 
to tell "The Night Before Christmas." "I know what 'miniature' means ; 
it means 'little.' "... "Yes, and that's the story that says 'St. Nicholas' 
instead of 'Santa Claus.' "... "And I know what 'Dunder and Blitzen' 
means — That's German for 'Thunder and Lightning' "... remarked 
the children. Then the teacher began, " 'Twas the Night Before Christ- 
mas," with the children joining in, where they knew the lines. After 
they had finished telling the story, the teacher showed the pictures, while 
the children pointed out various details of interest, and repeated occa- 
sional sentences or phrases in the story such as "He was chubby and 
plump, a right jolly old elf," when they came to that picture. 

After the pictures had been shown, the teacher said, "It is ten o'clock 
now. The big hand is straight up, on twelve, and the little hand is 
on" . . . "Ten," chorused the children. . . . "Time to get ready for 
our mid-morning luncheon." . . . Then, "Let's have Miss X. . .'s chil- 
dren go down the hall to the toilet room." And when this group had 
separated from the rest, "Now Miss Y. . .'s children may set the tables, 
and my children please step over to the desk. There are several errands 
to be done." As the first children came back from the toilet-rooms, 
the others went, while small tasks were given those who had returned 
first, such as placing chairs at the tables and straightening the doll 
corner, until all were ready. 

Then the teachers sat down at the various tables, remarking "Luncheon 
is all ready now," and the children went to their places, too. Some were 

280 National College of Education 

called by name. (The method of getting the groups together at this 
time is quite casual. Sometimes the children are seated first. Two or 
three will sit and chat, or sing, or tell rhymes, while waiting for the rest. 
Each child has a specified table at which to sit. They all understand 
that no one begins to pour until all are seated, and rarely need remind- 
ing.) Then followed such exclamations as — "O boy, we have tomato 
juice this morning." . . . "When are we going to have grape-fruit juice 
again? I like that!" Someone started to pour the tomato juice while 
the teacher commented, "Bob always passes the pitcher so that the next 
person can take hold of the handle." . . . "June, you haven't spilled a 
drop. When you first came, you had much trouble about tipping your 
cup, but you never do that anymore. I believe you're getting bigger!" 
When everyone was served the children began drinking. The teacher 
finished first, and with great ceremony asked, "Will you please excuse 
me? I have finished." All but one child did likewise. One child from 
each table gathered the cups and pitcher on the tray (the children rotate 
the responsibility of clearing the tables), discarded the napkins and 
doilies, and took the tray to the kitchenette (which is in one corner of 
the room). One of the student teachers washed the cups and pitchers, 
while the child helper from each table dried them. 

In the meantime the teacher had lighted a row of red candles along 
the top of the piano. Someone started to sing, "Christmas time is 
coming soon." A teacher caught the tune, and played it on the piano. 
All gathered around and joined in the song, some standing, some sitting, 
and some pretending to dance around an imaginary tree. This was re- 
peated several times. Then the teacher seated herself beside the piano, 
with a number of the children's products (of the activity period) in her 

"Annette has made a book about the story called 'The Little Fir 
Tree.' If you will all sit down on the rug, everyone can see it. 
Annette, tell the children what this printing on the cover says." (It 
was "The Little Fir Tree, Picture Book" on two lines.) "Annette 
wanted to number her pages and had trouble in remembering how some 
of the numbers looked. So this is what she did. She just started with 
number one on the clock, and counted down to the number she wanted." 
Then the teacher asked the child to demonstrate how she had found 
four, seven, three. "Well, let's see these pictures! Here are the giant 
fir trees with their great branches. And down here beside them is that 
little fir tree. And on page two, you can see the men coming into the 
forest in their one-horse open sleigh. Jingle Bells . . . Jingle Bells," and 
all sang the song through twice. They went on through the book, the 
child explaining some of the pictures, the children making suggestions 
about how the city streets should look, and so on. When they came to 
the last page showing the decorated tree, they sang, "O Christmas Tree" 

Sketches of Various Days 281 

(German folk tune). "We haven't had 'Away in a Manger','' said 
Jimmy, and without further ado he started it. 

After the songs were over, the teacher said, "I have some other things 
here that you will want to see. This is the engine that Larry is making 
for his little brother. It's a good engine, isn't it? — Smokestack, bell, 

cab, But Larry can't make the wheels stay on. Perhaps someone 

can help him with his problem. Jack, can you think of a better way to 
fasten these wheels on? . . ." There were a number of new discoveries 
in method, as well as problems, which were discussed in the group. Sug- 
gestions and comments were made which gave many of the children 
a spur for proceeding on the coming day, and interested many in the 
work of others. (Such a conference period often follows the initial 
work period.) 

Following this discussion the teacher placed the names (on cards) 
of seven children, in a rack, who were to accompany a student to the 
gymnasium for play. (Often all of the children go, but at times the 
group is divided in order to give special help to one-legged skippers, and 
to children whose coordination is below average generally. ) While these 
children were gone, the remainder of the group started getting their 
wraps on. (And winter in Evanston means the whole category of outer 
wearing apparel.) With a divided group, the teachers were able to 
stress self-help, encouraging a child here, helping another there, and 
commending others. As soon as four were completely clad, a student 
teacher started for the playground with them so that they were not kept 
waiting. (The policy is "first ready, first out.") As others finished 
dressing, the teacher sent them down to join their playmates, and she 
brought up the rear with the last contingent. 

While this preparation for out-of-door play was going on, the children 
who had gone to the gymnasium raced around the room a number of 
times, with evident enjoyment in the freedom of space there. Then a 
large pad was placed in the center of the room, and the teacher sug- 
gested, "Let's have some donkeys over here. All these donkeys place 
their front hoofs on this pad, and kick as hard and as high as you can, 
with your hind hoofs." (According to Richardson's "The Pre-School 
Child and His Posture.") They also played crab, elephant, duck, (from 
the same series) and then tried hopping about the room, first on one foot, 
and then on the other. After playing in the gymnasium, the children 
all went to get washed, in leisurely fashion, and then returned to their 
room, which was now empty, to get ready for out-of-door play, too. 

The out-of-door play was quite varied in nature. Some of the chil- 
dren climbed on logs and jumped off, while others climbed up and 
played airplane. A few ran 'round and 'round in the bushes, some 
pushed packing boxes together and got inside and played "bear." Two 
sleds were pressed into service. Both teachers participated in the play, 

282 National. College of Education 

moving about from group to group. After about fifteen or twenty 
minutes the teacher raised her hand. (The signal for the group to get 
together.) Those who were very intent on their play were told "Miss 

has her hand up." One child did not come. In a chorus 

the children shouted, "Let's play Black Tom" — (the favorite game). 
"All right," said the teacher. "Who shall we have for Black Tom" — 
"You," was the answer, so the teacher was Black Tom. Just as the 
game was well under way the one dissenting child came to join the 
game. "I'm sorry," said the teacher, "but you did not obey the signal. 
Please stay outside the fence." (There is an enclosure — a disused 
tennis court — within the playground, which is usually used for games.) 
. . . After the group had played Black Tom three times, it was 1 1 : 30 
The school cars had arrived to take the children home. One group 
of children went inside with one teacher to get ready for luncheon; a 
second group went to the front corridor with another teacher, to meet 
their mothers ; and the third group went home in the school car with 
a student. 

(A description of the afternoon session, which is held jointly with the 
Junior Kindergarten, is found on Page 273.) 


First Grade 

30 enrolled 
25 present 

With a skip and a hop down the hall, and a joyous entrance into the 
first grade room came a pair of twins. A "ticket" from the examining 
physician was in one hand. A flash light was in the other. 

"Good morning, Miss ! Lookie," said Jane, "I can be an 

usher in our movie." "And I," said Billy, "can be the one to make the 
pictures move. Daddy let us bring his flash lights !" 

More soberly, but still in an enthusiastic mood came Nanette. This 
time it was a pattern for an usher's cap, which she had made at home. 
And so they came — some with "material" contributions ; some with good 
news about home events ; some with interesting comments on observa- 
tions made on the way to school. 

A word of explanation concerning the orienting experiences that 
initiated this movie interest, will help the reader to understand the 

One day a member of the group brought in a unique shadow picture 
that he had made at home. Silhouettes of objects had been cut of black 
paper — a house, a tree, some flowers, a kite, and a child. They had been 
pasted very loosely on light-weight white paper. When the child moved 
a flash light behind the picture in a darkened room, the tree swayed and 

Sketches of Various Days 283 

twisted in the wind. The flowers nodded their heads. The child ran, 
his arms tugged at the string, and the kite dipped and rose at sudden 

As might easily be imagined, there was an immediate response, and 
thirty little six-year-olds wanted to do likewise. The outcome was a 
unanimous desire to have a movie. Experiments in cutting and pasting 
were made, and the plan finally developed into A Story Movie with the 
selection of The Three Bears, The Three Little Pigs, and Little Sambo 
as the stories to be depicted. A decision was also made to select some 
verses to portray. 

It had been decided to invite the kindergarten to come to the theatre 
and to see the movie. In order that the guests might better appreciate 
the humor and the plot it was thought a good plan to read the stories 
dramatically, before the pictures were shown. 

The theatre building, housing the screen and equipment necessary for 
the performance, had been built the day before of the Patty Hill blocks. 
It was a good-sized structure, seven feet long and three feet high. The 
center screen section was two feet, five inches wide. 

This day in March, materials were already about the rooms as the 
children entered, to stimulate good habits of purposefulness in using the 
self-directed period. Nanette immediately got to work on her usher 
caps, and five children were attracted by her pattern. Some others were 
measuring and cutting strips of heavy red paper for shoulder bands. 
Other children were cutting the letters U S H E R of gold paper. 
The open space for the screen had been measured by two children 
who arrived early and they, with the help of a teacher, were busily 
engaged in measuring some dark red sateen for a curtain. One 
half of the curtain had been cut and a child was hemming it. At 
the other end of the same group of tables four children were cut- 
ting animals, freehand, from some gold paper. These were to be 
pasted on the curtain for decoration, in accordance with a plan pre- 
viously made. 

A group of seven were at work building a platform by the side of the 
screen structure. This was for the orchestra that was to entertain be- 
fore the performance. The foundation of the stand was made with 
some newly acquired Fox blocks and three children were sawing planks 
to form a strong floor. 

A few children were engaged in activities unrelated to the group inter- 
est. Some were looking at books in the room library and some were 
drawing and writing at the blackboard. The playing of the chimes 
culminated this activity. The children cleared away materials, swept 
the floor and put the room in order. When each child had done all he 
could to help, he came to the rug. 

The main theme of the following discussion was the wording and 

284 National College of Education 

planning of an invitation to extend to the kindergarten. Various sug- 
gestions were given, as : Come to our movie ; We hope you will come 
to see our movie ; We want you to see our movie. The teacher sug- 
gested that sometimes invitations were sent in rhyme, like a little poem. 
She then asked if anyone had a suggestion. Many attempts were made 
and the two following really took shape. 

Will you come ! Will you come ! 

On the run ! On the run ! 

To see our movie ! To see our movie ! 

It will be fun ! It will be fun ! 

The Three Bears 
You will see. 
Come to the Movie 
And sit with me. 

This last idea made an immediate appeal. The last lines seemed to 
come more or less as an accident. But the idea of sending an individual 
invitation and having an individual guest pleased the children. It was 
to be sent as a letter. 

After a little stretch, reading numbers from the board and taking a 
corresponding number of jumps, hops and stoops, the children were 
ready to go to work on the next unit of their plans. 

To make possible greater individual help, and to allow each child to 
develop as closely as possible at his maximum rate, the children were 
divided into three major groups. The classes were named for indi- 
viduals in each group. The name of the class was changed frequently, 
and the children were shifted from group to group as a need was felt. 
This was done not only to recognize accelerations or retardations, but to 
eliminate any feeling of inferiority or superiority among the individuals 
or groups. Different books and materials were used in each case to 
make it impossible or at least difficult to check up on the other class. 

Theodore's class set to work immediately to learn to write on the 
blackboard part of the message that had been planned. They worked 
in the smaller room of the first grade unit. 

Allan's class got their primers to review the story of Little Sambo, 
and to organize it into various scenes to be cut for posters. 

James' class found materials to use in cutting silhouettes. These were 
mounted on imprinted newspaper. Each scene from the story of The 
Three Bears was to be mounted on a separate sheet. The scenes had 
been selected the day before with the help of their books. 

Having worked for about twenty minutes, the children that had been 
writing arranged their chairs for a reading time. They tried out for 
the various parts in The Three Little Pigs, to see which ones could 
more closely imitate the tone of voice, and the mannerisms of each 

Sketches of Various Days 285 

Allan's class felt that they had their ideas for the various posters of 
Little Sambo well in mind, and they were ready to attack the cutting 
and arranging of characters and properties, with vim. 

James' class used the blackboard to practice writing the titles of the 
three stories, since these would be needed in making programs, and 
also in writing the invitations. 

A great deal had been accomplished, much effort had been expended 
during the last hour, and the children were ready and eager to go to the 
floor below for music. They had already discussed with the music 
director the needs for a rhythm orchestra, and possibly some songs. 
The teacher had the rhythm sticks ready, and the children, after greet- 
ing her, found places about the room. Different meters were tapped 
while the children were seated. Then they tried to see if they could 
walk and tap the meter with the sticks. Bells and tambourines were 
used to find the strong beat in each measure. All the children took part. 
Songs about animals were sung and dramatized ; also miscellaneous 
songs were selected by the children. 

The tomato juice had been brought to the room, and four of the chil- 
dren who were first to finish washing their hands in the lavatory, helped 
to arrange the tables with doilies, napkins, glasses and some decoration 
of plants or flowers. The others, while they waited, enjoyed hearing a 
jolly animal tale about a fox, a rooster and a foolish cat. The conversa- 
tion at table centered about the children, their homes and families, and 
their special interests. Riddles, jokes and conundrums also were in order. 
This is typical of the conundrum : "How can the farmer hurt the corn?" 
The answer was, "By pulling its ears." 

As each group finished, one child cleared the glasses, doilies and 
napkins. The group was excused to put on wraps for an outdoor play 
period. About twenty minutes were spent out-of-doors in vigorous play. 
There was play on the junglegym, the turning bars, the teeter, the balance 
boards and the jumping board. Some children entered into dramatic 
play with big packing boxes and boards, and on a big pile of logs. 
Other children played games, as, stoop tag and the hen and her chickens. 

When the children returned to their rooms, time still remained to try 
out some of the movie posters they had made earlier in the morning. 
One group had been promised a trip to the Library to look through 
Mother Goose and other books for suitable verses to use for motion 
pictures. The other two groups had a most joyous, in fact hilarious 
time, enjoying for the first time the funny gyrations of their characters. 

In addition to a good time, very valuable suggestions were given for 
pasting down parts that moved too much, and loosening arms, legs, ears, 
or parts of objects when more movement would give greater charm 
or fun. Objects pasted here and there with a little puff in the middle 
cast good shadows. 

286 National College of Education 

We also discovered that by moving the flash light in various ways, 
quite different results were given. Moving the light up and down gave a 
getting up and stooping down effect. Moving quickly the light back 
and forth gave a shivering effect, required each time Sambo was ap- 
proached by a tiger. Moving the light in a circular fashion gave a 
running reaction, again much required in these stories. 

Twelve-thirty came much too soon this day, but we had more days of 
fun and preparation ahead of us and therefore our good-byes were as 
happy as usual. 


Third Grade 

Number enrolled : 25 
Number present : 24 

Upon coming into the room this May morning the children went at 
once to their committee groups to participate in their particular work 
toward completing plans for the Third Grade Fair which was to be held 
the following morning at ten thirty. These committee groups were the 
classes as they were divided for reading, and each group was working 
on a different interest. One group had planted seeds and bulbs and 
was preparing potted plants and Japanese gardens for sale. Another 
group had made puppets and a stage and was going to give an original 
nature play they had worked out. The other group, with the help of 
all the children, had studied rather intensively about maple syrup and 
maple sugar. After having corresponded with two firms in Vermont, 
they had bought maple sugar cakes and maple syrup, had made booklets 
telling about the maple sugar, and had made recipes to sell. So this 
morning there were many plans to complete and a great deal of work 
to do. 

At nine o'clock the children all went to their music class. The music 
room was on the first floor and a teacher went with them. Interest was 
held in the work of the day and the discussion continued as they walked 
along. Spring songs were used, and the music period was a happy time. 

When the group came back to the room again, the children working 
on the puppets had some finishing work to do with them. One puppet 
needed an apron made and another needed the hair sewed on. There 
were seven working in this group. Some added new ideas to the com- 
plicated strings that worked the puppets. 

The group arranging the garden sale had their flowers pretty well 
ready. Two boys finished the Japanese gardens, and the rest co- 
operated with those getting the booklets put together. The stories for 
the booklets had been composed by the children, stencils had been cut 
by the teacher, and all the children had helped with the mimeographing. 
The covers had been designed in art class, and the children had cut the 

Sketches of Various Days 287 

stencil and run the covers off on bright colored paper, using the mimeo- 
graph. This morning the pages of the booklets had to be put together. 
Each part was put in a separate pile, and the children went to work. 
It required skill to get the pages in order, for they discovered they had 
not numbered the pages, and so it was necessary to read parts of the 
stories. The matter of punching the holes for the brads required so 
much strength that the engineer, who came into the room at that time, 
assisted. There were fifteen children working. The books were almost 
finished in the thirty minutes. 

Most of the group went to the home economics laboratory on the 
third floor, at ten o'clock. There the children took turns pouring the 
maple syrup into half-pint, pint, and quart containers. They took turns 
also in putting on the covers. There was discussion as they worked 
about the prices that should be charged for the syrup, and they decided 
that a quart should sell for less than two pints, if they were sold sep- 
arately, because it was less trouble to prepare a quart. When the syrup 
was poured, two girls washed the funnels and cleared away the tables, 
leaving the jars of syrup in neat rows. Three boys carried the empty 
tin cans and boxes to the basement. The rest of the group went back 
to the room and finished some work in their arithmetic work books. One 
little girl worked alone with a teacher, using the cards for reviewing 
subtraction facts. 

At ten-thirty all the children went out on the playground. The entire 
recess period was used in making definite plans for the arrangement of 
booths for the sale. The group that was going to give the puppet show 
measured the space and set the stakes for the tent which was to be 
placed in the back part of the fair grounds. The children decided to 
place the booths selling the maple syrup products and the plants at the 
outside of the fair grounds. At the close of the outdoor period the 
pupils went to the lavatories, washed their hands, and afterward drank 
tomato juice in their room. 

During the spelling period, which followed, a review of the follow- 
ing words was made : leaves, flowers, syrup, expensive, puppets. These 
new words were studied : buckets, evaporator, boil, sounds, amount. 
The teacher wrote each new word on the board. After the word has been 
discussed as to syllables and sounds, she erased the word and the chil- 
dren wrote it on their papers. Then the teacher wrote the word on the 
board again for comparison with the word the children had written. 
The review words were spelled orally by the children and written in the 
same way. At the close of the study period, the children found their 
spelling books, and the teacher dictated the words. 

During the period set aside for social studies, the group working on 
the puppet show moved the little stage into the art room, which was next 
to the third grade room, and went with their teacher to have a last re- 

288 National College of Education 

hear sal. The group that had worked out the flower and garden hooth 
finished a story they were reading from "Peter and Polly in Spring," 
which told about the process of taking the maple sap from the trees. 
The other reading class read from the booklets they had helped make. 
Each child chose the story he wished and read orally. 

At twelve o'clock the chairs and all materials were put back into place, 
and all of the children except three went to the toilet room and got 
ready for lunch. These three girls who did not stay at school for the 
luncheon went outside to play while they waited for the school car to 
take them home. 

The noon meal was served in the children's dining-room, Second 
and Third Grades sharing the room from twelve to twelve-thirty. The 
children sat in small groups of six or eight, with teachers at some of 
the tables. The dining-room had been newly furnished by the Parents' 
Council with early American tables and chairs ; and the children were 
very eager to add drapes, pottery and pictures. The earnings from the 
Third Grade Fair were to be used for this purpose. Part of the con- 
versation at the table concerned the size of possible earnings at the Fair, 
and how far the money would go in securing the materials desired. 

When the children in the dining-room had finished their lunch, they 
went back to their room to get the individual bags containing their 
sheets and blankets. Then they went to one of the first grade rooms 
which had been aired, the shades lowered, and cots set up for the rest 

At one-thirty the children engaged in individual activities. Several 
had spelling corrections to make. A few children went to the library. 
Some read books there, and three checked books out to take home. Two 
girls and two boys went with a teacher to finish painting a booth in 
the manual training room. Two girls made some price tags. 

The whole group went outside to play at one-fifty. They played 
together — "Fox and Chickens" and "Three Deep." A teacher played 
in the games and the pupils were very energetic and played hard. As 
they came in every child took a drink at the fountain. 

The French teacher came to the room for the French lesson at two- 
twenty. After the close of the lesson there was a short discussion with 
the room director as to the time the "Fair" products and materials would 
have to be carried outside the following morning. Children volunteered 
to help with the work they thought they could do best, and a few last 
reminders were given from one to another to make sure that everything 
would be taken care of when the sale began. The children then hurried 
outside to the school cars. 


Group Records of Progress in a Few 
Important Skills 


WHILE units of work may include materials from nearly all 
"school subjects" the unit of work can scarcely be called upon 
to bear the full load of education. There are skills like arithmetic 
and spelling where considerable systematic practice is needed in 
addition to the experience afforded in practical activities. There are 
fields like music, art and literature where there are vast oppor- 
tunities for pleasure and enrichment of experience outside the par- 
ticular units of work which the group may have chosen to develop. 

It seems desirable, therefore, that in addition to provision for 
units of work in science and the social studies, the possibilities and 
demands of other school subjects should be considered separately, 
and that group records of progress in each important type of experi- 
ence should be kept and carefully studied for comparative values. 

Group records of progress are included in this volume for arith- 
metic and English, including reading, composition and spelling. 
Similar records are being made in fine and industrial arts, music, 
physical education, character education and other phases of child 

Although the beginnings of art, language and music, and even 
reading and arithmetic occur in the nursery school, so much of the 
work at the three and four-year level is individual or conducted in 
very small groups, that it seems undesirable to keep group records 
before the five-year-old level. Very full individual records of prog- 
ress in the nursery school and junior kindergarten are kept, and 
these are described in another section. 

The group records of progress beginning in the senior kindergarten 
follow a form that has been used in courses of study for other schools. 
They list books and materials and types of activities for children of 
varying abilities in each grade, and also include some probable out- 
comes in information, attitudes and appreciations, habits and skills. 
In making the record for each subject, teachers have summarized 
all the practical experience that children have gained in that subject 
through their various units of work. While this procedure involves 
some repetition in record keeping, it makes possible a study of 


292 National College of Education 

all the activities and outcomes that relate to each subject, and an 
evaluation of the work that is being done in terms of school subjects. 
In addition to the summary of activities carried on in the units of 
work, the record for each subject also includes incidental activities 
growing out of children's spontaneous interests, and reference to 
systematic practice, testing and remedial instruction wherever this 
has been carried on. The records were made first in parallel column 
form, and later for convenience in printing and reading were recast 
in outline form. 

Such records will change from year to year as better materials 
become available, and investigation and experiment suggest im- 
proved procedures. They will also reflect particular interests of each 
new group of children. 


AN OUTSTANDING growth in language power should be one 
L significant outcome of the kindergarten activities. Through 
spontaneous informal conversation, through guided discussions re- 
lated to units of work, through dramatic play, through literature and 
creative composition, the kindergarten offers numberless oppor- 
tunities for growth of vocabulary and power of expression. It is 
largely through this expanding understanding and use of language 
that the kindergarten prepares for reading and for the composition 
work of the elementary school. A keen desire to read and ability to 
master the symbols of reading are shown by some children during 
the year in Senior Kindergarten. 

The subject of reading is treated and the interest is met in kinder- 
garten when there is a readiness and desire for it, just as drawing, 
dramatization and other phases of the curriculum are provided for 
and opportunity given for expression. However, the particular 
situation which the Senior Kindergarten of our school offers is not 
common to all kindergartens. In this situation the children come 
from homes of good educational background. The parents provide 
material equipment above the average, coupled with sympathetic 
understanding and intelligent guidance. Many of the children who 
reach the Senior Kindergarten (five-year old group) have had at 
least one and some of them, two previous years in school, having 
completed the Nursery School and Junior Kindergarten. They are 
well-adjusted socially, have established in general good emotional con- 
trol and are physically well-developed. In addition, the school does 
not have mid-year promotion, so that by February many children of 
the group have attained a mental age of six years and some seven 
years. It seems, therefore, logical and fitting that as the year goes 
on, introductory reading should be provided for individuals and 
small groups who show sufficient evidence of readiness. 

References on Reading Readiness 

Arthur, Marie. Grouping First-Grade Children According to Mental Age. 

Journal of Educational Research, Volume XII, Page 173. 
Clowes, H. C. Measures Which Can Be Used in Kindergartens to Prevent Reading 

Disability Cases. Childhood Education, Volume VI, Page 452. 


294 National College of Education 

References on Reading Readiness — continued 

Holmes, M. C. Reading Readiness. Childhood Education, Volume III, Page 215. 

MacLatchey, J. H. Attendance at Kindergarten and Progress in the Primary 
Grades. Bureau of Educational Research. Monograph, No. 8. 

Reed, Mary E. An Investigation of Practices in First Grade Admission and 
Promotion. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University — 

Points of View on the Problem of Reading Readiness. Contributed by Members 
of The Committee on Reading Readiness, 1929-30. International Kinder- 
garten Union. 

Language and Literature Experience in 
the Senior Kindergarten 

A. Activities 
I. Oral composition — individual. 

A. Morning greetings. 

As each child enters the room in the morning one of the teach- 
ers is always available to greet him and to make him feel that 
she is glad to see him. Very often this opportunity leads the 
child into telling of something that has happened at home — 
father gone on a trip, the purchase of a new car, or some trivial 
bit of information, such as, "We had strawberries on our corn 
flakes this morning." This contact enables the shy child to 
feel more free and to express himself more readily than he 
would if he were asked to participate in the conversation of a 
group of children. 

B. Judging work. 

In group discussions many children contribute in making sug- 
gestions or constructive criticisms of one another's work guided 
by questions, such as, "Why should John's boat be made pointed 
on the front?" "How can Julia make moccasins that will stay 
on her feet?" If interest is high, there is little need for stimu- 
lating verbal expression, but it takes artistic guidance on the 
part of the teacher to lead the conversation along worth-while 
channels and to give individuals opportunity that will make 
for individual growth. 

C. Making plans. 

The children gain freedom in language ability by being allowed 
to assist in the making of plans ; such as planning for a trip 
to a farm, to the airport or the museum ; planning for the mak- 
ing of cookies, or for giving a movie before another group. 

D. Discussing common experiences. 

Frequently the discussion of stories used in the group, of films 
the group has seen, or other experiences they have had together 
furnishes stimulus for worth-while language contributions. 

E. Relating anecdotes. 

The luncheon period with its informality and air of sociability 
brings forth the relating of personal anecdotes and humorous 

F. Dramatization. 

Dramatic play, rich in mood, offers unlimited possibility in ex- 


296 National College of Education 

pressing of ideas, in creating of dialogue, and in the building 
up of vocabulary. Children will often use words or expressions 
not characteristic of their daily use of language, which they 
have heard in stories and which become their own when they 
re-live the incidents and characters in dramatic play. 
G. Creative composition of stories and verse. 

Mood or experience may lead the child into creative expression 
of an original story, or bit of verse, or song. 

II. Oral composition — group. 

A. Correspondence. 

At times occasions arise when the children feel the need of 
sending invitations for some affair. The group may compose 
an invitation to the first grade to see the baby guinea pigs which 
have just arrived or to the mothers asking them to attend a 
party planned for them. 

If information is needed, (such as, "On what day of the week 
may we visit the lighthouse?" or "Where can we get some pic- 
tures of planes?") the children cooperate in dictating a letter 
which will bring the desired answer. 

B. Group expression in story composition. 

Following an experience which has been common to the group 
and which has made a deep impression on the children, the 
group may create together a story, a poem or a song. 

III. Language interests leading to beginning reading. 

A. Interest in names. 

The kindergarten child soon begins to feel the need of learn- 
ing to write his own name in order to label his drawings, wood- 
work and other belongings. Whenever he wants to write his 
name the teacher does it for him in manuscript writing on the 
blackboard or on a sheet of paper, and he watches her do it. 
In this way he is seeing the movements and forms in the process 
so that he may learn to form the letters correctly. When chil- 
dren are left to copy words, many poor habits arise because 
they have no imagery for procedure. The child uses crayons 
to write his name. The interest in learning to do this often 
carries over into writing his name on the blackboard. Nearly 
all of the children learn to recognize their own names and the 
names of their friends. 

B. Need for labels. 

As the year goes on, many types of labels prove necessary, such 
as the name of a boat, a train, or a store built of blocks. "To 
Mother" on a Christmas card or Valentine, "The Senior Kin- 

English Records 


Fighting Fire Is Stern Reality 
The vocabulary grows through dramatic play 

dergarten Movie," "Cookie Sale," are typical examples of the 
need for labels. The teacher writes these and they naturally 
serve as a basis for beginning reading. 

C. Reminders and news notes. 

Many situations arise where reading comes in naturally. As a 
reminder, the teacher may write out notes to be taken home ; 
such as, "Wear rubbers to-morrow," "Bring recipe for jelly." 
From time to time sentences about interesting things that are 
going to happen, are put on the bulletin board ; such as, "Thurs- 
day we go to the airport," "Bill will be six Tuesday." These 
notes are discussed and form a center of interest for reading. 

D. Records of experiences. 

As the year goes on some children who show especial interest, 
are exposed to more reading material and are given opportunity 
to evolve very simple stories following a common experience, 
such as : 

"We had fun at the airport. 
We saw the planes in the sky. 
We saw the planes on the ground. 
There were planes in the hangar. 
I wish I could fly." ^ 

298 National College of Education 

These little stories are often printed on charts, and are "read" 
by the children with great delight. Their reading, however, is 
chiefly by sentences. There is no formal drill in word recog- 
nition, but a few words and phrases of especial interest and 
importance are learned. No attempt is made to secure inde- 
pendent reading of new material. 
B. Points on which the teacher must be constantly alert 
She must be an example in the linguistic development of her chil- 
dren by: 

1. Using good diction. 

2. Enunciating distinctly. 

3. Using correct grammatical form. 

4. Having fluent speech. 

5. Using well-modulated tones. 

6. Being sensitive to child's speech difficulties and helping him 
as intelligently as possible to overcome these. 

7. Helping child in every way to develop emotional stability and 
confidence so that he may gain in freedom of expression. 

C. Books and Materials Used 

I. All books and materials used in units of work form a basis for oral 
composition with the kindergarten child. Because of his inability 
to read, much of the information needed to carry on units of work 
must come through the language contributions of the teachers and 
the parents. 
II. Pictures relating to units of work, to children's experience and 
those to be enjoyed for their beauty only, are often incentives to 
language expression. 

III. Excursions of all kinds and the objects seen lead to an abundance 
of conversation. The inhibited type of child not given to free 
verbal expression often forgets himself and becomes quite talkative 
when on an excursion. 

IV. Things brought from home, nature materials, things the children 
make, letters, postal cards, all furnish valuable stimulus for con- 
versation at the kindergarten level. 

V. Stories read or told to the children furnish much stimulus for con- 
versation and creative effort in original stories or poetry. Some 
of the favorite stories which have been used and have been most 
conducive to discussion or have stimulated creative effort on the 
part of the children are from the following collections : 

Aldis, Dorothy Here, There & Everywhere 1928 Minton Balch 

Aldis, Dorothy Everything & Anything 1927 Minton Balch 

Baker, E. D. The Bible in Graded Story, 1921 Abingdon Press 

Vol. 1 & 2 

Clark, Margery Poppy Seed Cakes 1924 Doubleday 

English Records 


Fyleman, Rose 
Milne, A. A. 

Tippett, James S. 
Tippett, James S. 
Tippett, James S. 
Thomsen, Gudrun 

Fairies & Chimneys 
When We Were Very 

I Live in a City 
I Spend a Summer 
I Go a-Traveling 

1920 Doran 
1924 Dutton 

1929 Harpers 

1930 Harpers 
1929 Harpers 

East o' the Moon and West 1912 Row Peterson 
o' the Sun 

Other books which are included in the kindergarten library are 
as follows : 

Bannerman, H. 

Story of Little Black 

1903 Stokes 

Beskow, E. 

Pelle's New Suit 

1930 Piatt & Munk 

Brock, E. L. 

The Greedy Goat 

1931 Knopf 

Brooke, L. L. 

Johnny Crow's Garden 

1929 Warne 

Flack, M. 

Angus and the Ducks 

1930 Doubleday 

Gag, Wanda 

Snippy and Snappy 

1931 McCann 

Heward, C. 

The Twins and Tibiffa 

1923 McRae 

International Kin- 

Told Under a Green Um- 

1930 Macmillan 

dergarten Union 


Martin, C. M. 

At the Farm 

1930 Scribner 

Lee, E. & Reed, H. 

Social Science Readers 

1928 Scribner 

D. Probable Outcomes 

I. Related to oral composition. 

A. Verbal expression and poise, gained through the social oppor- 
tunities offered. 

B. Ability to participate in making plans which will be for the good 
of the group. 

C. Readiness to accept criticism which will be of help, and to give 
suggestions to others in the spirit of helpfulness. 

D. Respect for the opinion of others and some independence in 
expressing his own opinion. 

E. Enjoyment of conversation with others. 

F. An appreciation for language as a means of interchange of ideas. 

G. Some ability to express mood through language in the form of 
stories, verses or dramatic interpretation. 

II. Related to literature and reading. 

A. Some appreciation of beauty and rhythm in language. 

B. Appreciation of literary stories and verses on child's plane of 

C. Appreciation of written forms as something necessary to attain. 

D. Feeling of need for reading, which becomes a meaningful 
medium through which individuals can interpret and express. 


THE mastery of oral and written composition, writing and spell- 
ing in all of the six elementary grades is motivated by the 
children's activities. Opportunities for all forms of oral and written 
composition are continual, and as these are used, needs for practice 
work in handwriting, spelling and language usage become apparent. 
In first grade, handwriting and spelling have been subordinated to 
composition, and practice has been provided as specific needs have 
arisen. Beginning in second grade, some systematic practice in spell- 
ing has been included. Words have been selected both from compo- 
sition needs and from standard lists. Beginning in fourth grade, 
systematic practice in language usage has been found desirable. 

Since the children read and use in many ways their own compo- 
sitions, reading is closely related to the development of language. 
It is impossible to separate the records for reading and language with- 
out involving some repetition. For all English activities, the class 
is often divided into small groups, and materials and procedure are 
adapted to meet the needs of the group. 

Beginning in second grade, handwriting is occasionally compared 
with a scale; and standardized tests have been used in spelling. 
Children who have special difficulties in spelling are given individual 
help. The procedure is described in Part V. 

A special teacher of speech visits each room in the school during a 
conversation period, and selects the few who need speech reeducation. 
After a study has been made of each child's needs, individuals and 
small groups meet with the speech teacher until the difficulty has 
disappeared. The children enjoy this work, and sometimes ask to 
continue it after the need has been met. 

In the intermediate grades those children who are considerably 
above standard in English attainments are excused from practice 
work, and frequently bear heavier responsibilities in social activities. 

In the outlines which follow, outcomes tend to be cumulative from 
year to year. Effort is made in each grade to maintain desirable 
attitudes and appreciations, habits and skills, developed in preceding- 


English in the First Grade 

Language and Writing 

A. Activities 

(The oral English is spontaneous, and may occur at any time during 
the school day, as the opportunity or need arises.) 

I. Activities related to personal experiences outside of school. 

A. Oral individual reports of week-end or daily excursions. 

B. Oral individual reports of home interests. 

C. Relating stories about members of the family. 

D. Relating experiences and retelling stories of plays, home 
movies, dramatizations. 

E. Retelling bits of news about airplanes, boats, famous people, 
community activities. 

II. Activities related to good health and citizenship. 

A. Oral formation of necessary rules. (Occasionally written for 
charts, signs.) 

B. Oral discussion of need for safety and care in crossing streets, 
playing in the water, playing on the playground. 

C. Voting to elect representative leaders for activities : oral dis- 
cussion of qualities needed. 

D. Oral discussion of relative value of foods, stressing those de- 
sirable and beneficial. 

E. Oral discussion of value of sleep and advisable hours for retir- 
ing and arising. 

F. Discussion of proper types of clothing for varying temperatures 
and weathers. 

G. Discussion of worth-while activities on the playground — con- 
duct on the playground. 

III. Activities related to units of work in social studies. 

(General interests and types of activities listed here. See records 
of units of work for details and specific activities.) 
A. Oral. 

1. Purposing and planning activities. 

2. Deciding by discussion which activity or method will be 

3. Intelligent solving of problems in construction, block build- 
ing, measuring, in balance and artistic arrangement, by 
group discussion. 


302 National College of Education 

4. Critical evaluation and judgment of the worth of an ac- 
tivity, idea, art production or art form. 

5. Finding ways and means of carrying ideas to completion. 

6. Seeking information from each other and giving informa- 
tion to each other. 

7 . Organizing ideas for individual pictures or posters or for 
a frieze. 

8. Composing of letters by individuals and the group. 

9. Composing stories of literary merit for booklets which de- 
scribe activities. 

B. Written. 

1. Writing on the blackboard the number of votes in an elec- 
tion, number of articles made for a unit. 

2. Writing numbers on stamps, house numbers, price tags and 
lists, number of acts for movies and dramatizations. 

3. Making signs for buildings, vehicles of transportation, de- 
partments in stores or post offices. 

4. Labeling exhibits of curios, materials. (Phrase units en- 

5. Making and filling out withdrawal slips in connection with 

6. Writing letters to mail to friends ; as, 

Dear Mother: 

I like school. 
I like to read. 

Dear John David: 

We are having a fine time at school. We made 
a rhyme. I will tell it to you : 
"Squirrel, squirrel, scamper up the tree, 
And throw the little nuts down to me." 

We have a squirrel. Miss Baker found him in her 
bedroom and she brought him to school. We named 
him Little Mitchell. He climbs all over us and eats 

I wish that you would come back to school. 


7. Invitations to parents or friends to see the unit, dramatiza- 
tion, sale. 

8. Writing on simple advertising posters. 

IV. Activities related to nature. 

A. Oral. 

1. Telling anecdotes, stories, about pets. 

2. Planning for care of room pets. 

3. Relating personal experiences with nature. 

English Records 303 

4. Individual creating of verses about pets, elements, seasons, 
birds, insects, flowers. 

5. Group work in creative verse making. 

6. Group and individual work in creating songs, words, tunes. 

7. Group composing of stories about pets, related to experi- 
ence reading: as, 

The Gray Squirrel 

My squirrel can eat nuts. 

He can hop and climb trees. 

He ran out to find nuts. 

He climbed a big, big tree. 

There were so many branches that he was lost. 

It began to get dark. 

Gray squirrel began to cry. 

A bluebird came to him. 

He said, "Why do you cry, Gray Squirrel ?" 

The squirrel said, 'T cry because I can't find my way 

"I will help you. Follow me," said the bluebird. 
Gray Squirrel was glad to get home again. 

Baby's Surprise 

Molly was a little baby. 

She was only two years old. 

She lived on a farm. 

There were little ducks and chickens on the farm. 

Baby went to get eggs. 
She saw no eggs. 
She looked and looked, 
But she could see no eggs. 

One day she went to look for eggs. 

She saw no eggs, 

But she saw little baby chickens. 


1. Learning to write names of the pets in the room. 

2. Writing verses for Spring or Autumn booklet, as 

Butterfly! O Butterfly! 
You come in the Spring. 
You dance upon the flowers. 
You are a pretty thing. 

Little bird! Little bird! 
Where do you go? 

1 go to the South 

Where the warm winds blow. 

The clouds are white, 
The sky is blue. 
We will go skating to-day 
With you. 

3. Writing simple stories of two or three sentences. 

304 National College of Education 

V. Activities related to reading and the use of the library. 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussing ways and means of keeping books clean and in 

good condition. 
2: Discussion of values of holding books correctly. 

3. Group discussion of subtle points in a story. 

4. Asking and answering questions. 

5. Telling of personal experiences similar to those in the 

6. Retelling story read, or the part read the preceding day. 

B. Written. 

1. Writing on the blackboard the page numbers for daily 

2. Writing "yes" and "no" answers to silent reading tests. 

3. Writing names of characters in solving work-type prob- 

4. Writing names and sometimes dates on library cards. 

VI. Activities related to the lunch period. 

A. Telling anecdotes and comparing experiences. Much of the 
discussion related to personal experiences, nature, good health 
and citizenship takes place at this time. 

B. Conversation about beauty in color schemes, pottery, arrange- 
ment of tables. 

C. Telling of riddles and conundrums. 

D. Composing original riddles and conundrums. 

E. Playing guessing games as, "I see something blue," or "My 
father owns a grocery store and in it he sells something that 
begins with s." 

B. Procedure in Learning to Write and Spell 

I. Group composition of material to be used as letters or verses 
for class books ; blackboard reading of material by several chil- 

II. Study of words needed. 

A. Each word is taken separately. 

B. The teacher pronounces slowly and simultaneously writes word 
on the blackboard three or four times. Manuscript ("print 
writing") is used. 

C. Several children are given turns to pronounce the word as 
teacher writes it on the blackboard. 

English Records 305 

III. Practice in writing on the blackboard. 

A. Children go to the blackboard and practice pronouncing and 
simultaneously writing the word. 

B. Children are called to their chairs and specific suggestions are 
given for improving technique. They return and practice 

, C. When separate words are learned, phrases from the composi- 
tion, as, Dear Mother, I like, will go, may be practiced to gain 
knowledge of spacing. 
D. For the beginning stages a teacher may : 

1. Teach only one or two letters at a time adding each 

time to the first part, a new letter, (example: D — Da — 
Dad— Daddy) 

2. Later if the word is long or difficult, teach it in syllables, 
as Val-en-tine. 

IV. Practice in writing on paper. 

A. Very little writing is done on paper, as blackboard writing 
encourages freedom and large writing. Paper is introduced 
only when the writing is to be used for some specific purpose, 
as an invitation or holiday greeting. 

B. Words or simple phrases are practiced separately. It is often 
advisable to build a word by letters as suggested above, as it 
is a problem to adjust size and proportion to paper. 

C. Then whole sentences may be practiced, with attention to spac- 

C. Books and Materials Used 

I. These materials are used for written work. 

A. The blackboard. 

B. Soft, dustless chalk. 

C. Soft blackboard erasers. 

D. Soft, large practice pencils, with blunt point. (Eagle practice 
pencil No. 283) 

E. Ruled practice paper : wide ruling. 

F. Soft pencil erasers. 

G. Plain envelopes for mailing letters. 

II. These materials are used in connection with spelling. 

A. Spelling list made by teacher. 

1. Lists of words needed in practical application are made. 
Words are stressed that child will need repeatedly in writ- 
ten composition. 

306 National College of Education 

2. Reference is made to the following lists to be sure the 
children are learning some words that will be needed in 
second grade. 

Pearson and Suzzalo : Essentials of Spelling. American Book Company. 
Buckingham Extension of the Ayres Spelling Scale. Public School Publishing 

B. Spelling notebooks. 

A list is kept by the children of the words they have learned. 

D. Probable Outcomes 

I. Information, attitudes, appreciations. 

A. Related to oral conversation and composition. 

1. Interest, alertness, and joy in conversing with another in- 
dividual or in a small group. 

2. A growing feeling of confidence in addressing a small group. 

3. A willingness to share experiences. 

4. Alertness toward evaluating ideas, good form in expres- 
sion and a happy response to constructive suggestions for 
improving own work. 

5. Growing respect for ideas and opinions of others and a 
willingness to wait turns to express child's own opinion. 

6. A growing willingness to condense and organize material 
and a willingness to consume a minimum amount of time 
in addressing the group. 

7. Some understanding of simple sentence structure and a de- 
sire to use complete sentences. 

8. A willingness to use well-modulated tone that can be easily 

9. A willingness to use a pleasant tone rather than use a loud, 
harsh tone. 

10. A desire to use expressive language with a minimum amount 
of slang. 

B. Related to written composition. 

1. An interest in learning to write and spell. 

2. An eagerness to improve his technique. 

3. A feeling of joy and satisfaction in completing some under- 
taking in handwriting. 

4. Some understanding of the use and function of letters and 
letter writing. 

II. Habits and skills. 

A. Related to oral composition. 

1. Gradual elimination of nervous habits and the development 
of poise in speaking before a small group. 

English Records 307 

2. Growth in ability to speak distinctly, slowly and in a tone 
that is easily understood. 

3. Growth in ability to hold to the topic of conversation. 

4. The ability to wait turns. 

5. Some ability in original thinking in planning or problem 

6. Some ability to retell incidents or short stories with correct 
sequence of events. 

7. Growth in ability to be a courteous listener. 

8. The ability to compose a friendly letter of two or three 
short sentences. 

9. Growth in ability to use simple, complete sentences, correct 
tense, and a vocabulary that will make fluent speech possible. 

10. The ability to recognize rhyming words, and for many the 
ability to compose simple two to four line verses. 
B. Related to written composition. 

1. The ability to use a simple salutation and complimentary 
close in letter composition. 

2. The ability to write legibly with chalk or large soft pencil. 

3. The ability to use large arm movement while at the black- 
board and relaxed movement when writing on paper. 

4. Ability to form all commonly used letters accurately and 
with correct movements. 

5. Some degree of skill in obtaining correct proportion of 
various letters. 

6. The use of capitals at the beginning of a sentence and for 

7. The use of periods and question marks at the ends of 

8. Ability to spell and write from thirty to eighty simple words 

used in practical situations during the year. The number of 
words depends on the readiness of the child or the group 
for this type of work. 

English in the Second Grade 

Language j Writing and Spelling 

A. Activities 

(The oral English is spontaneous, and may occur at any time during 
the school day, as the need or opportunity arises.) 

I. Activities related to incidental experiences. 

A. Discussion of nature material brought in, obtaining as much 
information as possible. 

B. Reports on experiments and observations of nature material. 

C. Written reports of the results of nature experiments and ob- 

D. Discussion and explanation of pictures and toys brought in, 
sometimes composition of original stories about pictures. 

E. Making own book of experiences, and writing stories about the 
pictures, as "The Funny Book," "Dolly's Book." 

F. Retelling anecdotes and humorous stories at the lunch table. 

G. Making original riddles and taking part in guessing games. 
H. Writing of verses and songs, expressing appreciations. 


Snow white, snow white, 
How beautiful you are. 
You are a bird, a pretty bird, 
You came from afar. 

The Butterfly 

I saw a butterfly 
When I was by a brook. 
It was so beautiful 
I stopped to look. 

The Baby 

Little baby in the night, 
Dressed in clothes of rosy white, 
When the stars come out to peer 
The little baby's such a dear. 

— Reprinted from the Children's Year Book, 
"The Blue Moon" 

II. Activities related to units of work. 

A. Offering suggestions in forming purposes and making plans. 

(See Units of Works.) 

B. Offering constructive criticism of work of group, as to best 
color to use, durability of material, fitness for the purpose. ' 


English Records 


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Language and Art Join Hands in Creating an Original Play 

C. Composing group and individual stories for different units, 
as, captions for movies, book of stories of master paintings, 
class play. 

Making plans for excursions ; oral discussions on what to look 
for, standards of conduct. 

Relating orally experiences and observations of excursions. 
Writing individual stories on excursions. 

III. Activities related to health and good citizenship. 

A. Group discussion of activities on playground. 

B. Forming of rules in both organized and informal play. 

C. Discussion in forming necessary school rules to make for better 
citizenship ; constructive criticism and suggestions arising from 
such needs. 

D. Keeping a careful record of each child's weight and height, 
leading to discussion on how to obtain correct weight and 

E. Informal talks concerning healthful foods, hygienic habits. 

(Often held at lunch time.) 

IV. Activities related to reading. 

A. Discussion of stories read individually or by the group. 

B. Group discussion of current topics brought in for bulletin 

310 National College of Education 

C. Forming library rules and discussing use of library cards. 

D. Discussing various library readings and activities. 

E. Writing answers to comprehension checks on reading. 

V. Activities related to correspondence and communication. 

A. Composing and writing group and individual letters to parents 
and absent children. 

B. Writing "Thank you" notes for gifts, parties, favors. 

C. Composing and writing invitations, programs, notices, for 
school plays and entertainments. 

D. Composing and writing messages for greeting and gift cards : 
Christmas, Easter, Mother's Day, Valentine's Day, birthdays. 

E. Publishing the school newspaper: 

1. Discussion of organization of paper, collecting of material 
through room reporters, discussion of material. 

2. Writing individual news notes for the paper. 

B. Procedure 
I. Procedure in writing. 

A. Continuing with manuscript writing. 

B. Thirty minute period a week in improving technique of writ- 
ing : watching the teacher make the correct form ; studying the 
form carefully ; then writing without the copy ; noting improve- 

C. Stress laid on writing of complete sentence and correct use of 
capitals, periods and question marks. 

D. Stress placed on use of margins in writing letters and stories. 

II. Procedure in spelling. 

A. Lists prepared of words needed in written composition. 

B. Method: 

1. Words to be studied are first presented in a sentence. 

2. Individual child pronounces and spells word orally as 
teacher writes word on board. 

3. Closes eyes and spells word before writing. 

4. Writes word on board or paper without copy ; rewrites 
to improve form or correct errors. 

5. Often pronounces word slowly and simultaneously writes 

6. Places word in individual spelling book. 

7. Uses word as further need arises in written work. 

8. Reviews spelling of word until certainly learned. 

C. Words taken from children's interests and needs checked on 
standard lists. 

English Records 311 

D. Some additional words taught from standard lists. 

E. Much practice in spelling by analogy, writing phonetic lists of 
similar words. 

III. Use of tests and scales. 

A. Handwriting compared with scale ; scale placed on bulletin 
board for study. 

B. Spelling tests given near the end of each semester by psy- 
chologist ; children shown record of progress. 

IV. Individual work given in spelling if child has special diffi- 
culties. (See Part V). 

C. Books and Materials Used 

I. Materials for written composition. 

A. Wide ruled composition paper. 

B. Eagle Practice Pencil No. 283. 

Mongol Faber Pencil No. 1 (used as children grow more ma- 
ture in writing). 

C. Narrower lined paper for numbers. 

D. Large envelopes for mailing letters. 

II. Spelling lists. 

A. Words coming from units of work. 

B. Standardized spelling lists: 

Buckingham Extension of Ayres Spelling Scale. Public School Publishing Com- 

Pearson and Suzzalo. Essentials of Spelling. American Book Company. (Selected 
because words correlated with children's needs.) 

C. Individual spelling books for words often needed. 

III. Standard tests: 

Morrison-McCall Test. Teachers College, Bureau of Publications. 

New Standard Achievement Test. World Book Company. 

Public School Achievement Test. Public School Publishing Company. 

Note : Forms are selected which have not been used for over 
a year. 

IV. Writing Scale. 

Conard, Edith N. Manuscript Writing Standards. Bureau of Publications, 
Teachers College, Columbia University. 

D. Probable Outcomes 

I. Information, attitudes, appreciations. 

A. Readiness to participate in purposing and planning group ac- 

312 National College of Education 

B. Willingness to give and accept constructive criticism for the 
improving of work. 

C. Respect for the opinions of others and an independence in own 
thinking and manner of expression. 

D. Understanding the need of expressing oneself clearly, concisely 
and in an interesting manner. 

E. Realizing the need for gaining the interest of an audience when 
telling stories, riddles, anecdotes, by knowing well what one is 
going to say. 

F. Understanding the importance of a pleasing and well-pitched 
voice so that one can be heard easily. 

G. Some appreciation of the beauty of language and a desire to 
use it well in speaking and writing. 

H. Appreciation of beautiful and legible handwriting and a desire 

to improve own handwriting. 
I. Desire to enlarge spelling vocabulary and to be accurate in 
spelling words. 

II. Habits and skills. 

A. Growing ability to speak before a group with poise, to speak 
distinctly, to participate in group planning and constructive 

B. Growing ability to tell stories, anecdotes, in an interesting 

C. Ability to compose letters or compositions independently, of 
six to eight sentences in length (many compose two sheets and 

D. Ability to write with a smaller pencil with some degree of 
legibility and uniformity. 

E. Greater neatness and more artistic appearance in all written 

F. Ability to leave margins in written work; to use capital letters 
for sentence beginning, proper names, days of week and special 
days ; period or question mark at the end of a sentence. 

G. Mastery of words commonly needed in own compositions ; 
mastery of all or nearly all the words in Pearson and Suzzalo's 
Second Grade List. 

English in the Third Grade 

Language, Writing and Spelling 
A. Activities and Procedure 
I. Oral and written composition. 

A. Related to personal experiences and current events. 

1. Oral reports and sometimes written stories about trips 
taken during the year to farms, forest preserves, lake; 
travel of greater distance, as trips to Florida, California. 

2. Oral discussions about current events posted on bulletin 
board and reported from home reading. 

3. Writing verses and songs expressing appreciations. 

Birds and Flowers 
Spring is here and I am glad. 
'Cause I hear the birds calling 
And see the leaves falling 
And see the flowers growing 
And hear the wind blowing. 

The lilac bush is budding, 
The birds are on the wing. 
The flowers are slowly opening, 
Now, we know it is Spring. 

Spring is in the air, 
Gardens, gardens everywhere, 
Boys and girls in the Kindergarten 
Working all morning in their spring garden. 

— Reprinted from the Children's Magazine. 

The Pumpkin 

I found a yellow pumpkin 

Growing in a field, 

And I asked the yellow pumpkin 

What he would like to do. 
And much to my surprise, he said, 
He would like to go to school. 
So I asked the yellow pumpkin 

If he would be good, 
And much to my surprise 
He said, he would. 
So I told the yellow pumpkin 

I would tell him what to do. 
He must smile at the children 
And keep every rule. 
So I and my Daddy fixed up his smile 
So he could go to school for awhile. 

— Reprinted from the Children's Year Book, 
"The Blue Moon" 

314 National College of Education 

B. Related to health and good citizenship. 

1. Discussion of food, toilet habits, rest habits, drinking water 
and milk, as these points arise in the daily routine. 

2. Discussions about standing, sitting and walking well. 

3. Discussions pertaining to school property and the right 
way to care for one's self in the corridors, library, dining- 

4. Discussion of points that make good citizenship in the 
community ; regard for one's own safety and the safety and 
welfare of others ; conduct on the street and in public 
buildings (often arising in connection with walks and ex- 

5. Choosing responsible leaders for group activities and com- 
mittees, discussion of qualities needed. 

6. Comparisons made of different officers and working groups 
in our school and their duties. 

7. Discussion of characters in stories ; such traits as kindness, 
bravery, jealousy and helpfulness. 

8. Composition of rules for games and for use of playground. 

9. Group composition and presentation of a puppet show, 
illustrating school and home courtesies. 

C. Related to units of work in social studies and science. 

1. Oral reports on reference readings. 

2. Oral suggestions made in purposing and planning group 
work ; as Dutch play, maple sugar sale. 

3. Comparisons of customs of various foreign peoples with 
our own customs. 

4. Comparisons made of two different countries studied, as 
Holland and Switzerland: land features, climate, people, 
animals, industries. 

5. Discussion of pictures, slides and motion pictures used; 
questions asked leading to further research. 

6. Outlining Dutch and Japanese plays ; class working to- 

7. Spontaneous conversation in dramatization. 

8. Oral discussions in planning costumes and properties for 

9. Reports on experiments with seeds, flowers, plants, and 
observations of water creatures. 

10. Reports following excursions on points observed. 

11. Constructive criticism offered on all group work, during 
execution and after completion. 

12. Making books recording interesting facts learned and dis- 

English Records 


Puppets Show School Courtesies 

coveries made : composing and writing individual stories 
for books on maple sugar, water life, Holland, Japan. 

D. Related to use of library and books. 

1. Discussion of use of encyclopedias, dictionaries, magazines, 
large globe, and other library materials. 

2. Sharing with one another material found in library through 
book reports and stories. 

3. Discussing plans for Library Endowment Day and Book 
Day; writing book plates and posters for Library Day. 

4. Writing answers to comprehension checks on stories read. 

E. Related to correspondence. 

1. Writing letters to the group when away on a trip. 

2. Writing informational letters to absent children. 

3. Writing to Japanese children in Honolulu. 

4. Writing to the boy in Vermont whose mother sent the 
maple sugar for the sale. 

5. Writing notes thanking people for help and gifts. 

6. Writing invitations to mothers and to other grades to at- 
tend functions. 

7. Writing greeting cards for special days : Easter, Mother's 
Day; writing notes or cards to accompany gifts and dona- 

8. Oral discussions about letters written and letters received. 

316 National College of Education 

II. Practice in improving manuscript writing. 

A. Studying handwriting scales posted for a short time in room. 

B. Comparing writing of individual children with scale; with 
samples from other rooms and from other children in room. 

C. Noting weakness and working for improvement in size, uni- 
formity, spacing of words, evenness of margins, neatness and 
beauty of finished page. 

D. Watching the teacher's movements in writing and correcting 
wrong habits in forming letters ; practicing single letters, words 
and phrases from compositions. 

E. Noting progress ; practicing with pen after a certain degree of 
proficiency with pencil has been attained. 

III. Procedure in learning to spell. 

A. Lists made of words needed in compositions. 

B. Practice activities. 

1. New words are used in oral sentences to make clear the 

2. Children watch as word is written on the blackboard by 
the teacher. 

3. The word is pronounced slowly, and the parts or syllables 
noted ; attention is called to peculiarities ; line may be drawn 
under the difficult or familiar part of the word. 

4. Children pronounce the word, spell it softly. Some chil- 
dren learn more accurately by pronouncing the word slowly 
while simultaneously writing the word quickly, emphasiz- 
ing the visual imagery. 

5. Children close eyes and spell silently. 

6. Then the word is written without a copy, and later com- 
pared with the correct form. Study is continued if needed. 

7. Often the word is written in a sentence or used immediately 
in written composition. 

8. Words are reviewed as frequently as needed. 

C. Lists made from children's compositions are checked on 
standard lists and other words from the standard lists are 

IV. Use of tests. 

A. Frequent informal tests are given by the teacher, to determine 
what review work is needed ; what words from standard lists 
are already mastered. 

B. Standard tests are given by the psychologist at the end of each 
semester. Progress chart for each child is made and studied 
to determine where special help is needed. See Part V. 

English Records 317 

Books and Materials Used 
I. Materials used in written work. 

A. Paper. 

1. Wide spaced paper for composition work. 

2. Manila tag board for making posters. 

3. Large envelopes for mailing letters. 

4. Unruled white construction paper for making greeting 
cards, valentines. 

5. Colored construction paper and poster paper to use in 
making covers of books, programs, posters. 

B. Pencils — Eberhard Faber Number 2. 

C. Pens — Welty fountain pens. 

D. Manila folders to hold compositions and other written ma- 

II. Spelling materials. 

A. Lists made from words used in letters, written stories, poems, 
and a few from reading. 

B. Published lists. 

Iowa Spelling Scale. Public School Publishing Company. 

Buckingham Extension of the Ayres Spelling Scale. Public School Publishing Com- 
Pearson and Suzzalo. Essentials of Spelling. American Book Company. 

C. Mimeographed lists of words causing special difficulty to group. 

D. Individual note-books for children's own list of words needed. 

III. Standard spelling tests. 

Morrison-McCall Test. Teachers College Bureau of Publications. 

New Stanford Achievement Test. World Book Company. 

Public School Achievement Test. Public School Publishing Company. 

Note : — Forms are selected which have not been used for a year 
or so. 

IV. Writing scale. 

Conard, Edith N. Conard Manuscript Writing Standards. Bureau of Publications, 
Teachers College, Columbia University. 

C. Probable Outcomes 
I. Information, attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Readiness to take part in purposing and planning class activi- 

B. Growing willingness to give and receive suggestions for im- 
proved work. 

318 National College of Education 

C. Increasing respect for opinions of others, and regard for ap- 
proval and disapproval of others. 

D. Realization of need for expressing one's self clearly. 

E. Beginning of a desire for clever and unusual forms of ex- 

F. Growing desire to compose stories, and friendly letters that 
will inform and amuse the reader. 

G. Growing desire to attain a clear, pleasing speaking voice, with 
distinct pronunciation. 

H. Appreciation of good handwriting of others, and a desire to 

improve in writing. 
I. Growing desire to make written work artistic as well as legible 

and neat. 
J. Growing desire to enlarge the vocabulary, both oral and written. 
K. Willingness to work to eliminate errors from written work. 
L. Enlarged understanding of the use and value of language, writ- 
ing and spelling. 

II. Habits and Skills. 

A. More ease when relating experiences to the group or talking 
to adults ; greater poise and better voice control. 

B. More ability to tell a story well, orally or in writing, giving 
incidents as experienced. 

C. Ability to compose an interesting letter, two or more pages in 

D. Some facility in composing original verses, songs and riddles. 

E. An enlarged vocabulary and a growing ability for individual 
forms of expression. 

F. A growth in eliminating slang, undesirable colloquialisms and 
gross errors in speech and written composition. 

G. Improvement in form and legibility of handwriting ; ability to 
use a fountain pen the latter part of the year. 

H. Ability to use correct form in writing friendly letters, address- 
ing envelopes, superscription, salutation, complimentary close. 
I. Habit of using capital letters for proper names, days of week 
and month, town, street, and state ; also beginning of sentence 
or exclamation. 

J. Habit of using period at end of sentence and after abbrevia- 
tions. Correct use also of question mark, exclamation point, 
hyphen and apostrophe for possession. 

K. More independence in all written work and fewer errors. 

L. Mastery of spelling words most used in the grade. 

M. Mastery of all or nearly all words in Pearson and Suzzalo's 
list for third grade. 

English in the Fourth Grade 

Languagej Writing and Spelling 
A. Activities and Procedure 

I. Activities related to personal experiences. 

A. Oral. 

1. Reports on events in the home and community during the 
week end. 

2. Reports on vacation experiences : Summer, Thanksgiving, 
Christmas, Spring, and other holidays. 

3. Telling jokes and humorous stories at lunch time. 

4. Discussing the local weather conditions. 

B. Written. 

1. Outlining, organizing reports to be given. 

2. Writing captions for booklets, charts of vacation. 

3. Writing letters to absent friends, telling of interesting 
events at school. 

4. Keeping personal account books of allowances. 

5. Writing talks, poems, stories relating to vacation ex- 

6. Writing poems and rhymes expressing feelings about na- 
ture and other experiences. 


Hiding is a lot of fun, 

You have to duck around, 

And sit very still in the hiding place 

Until you are found. 

And while the person hunting you, 
Goes looking round and round, 
It's very hard to sit still, 
Until you are found. 


April has come at last, 

All of the winter has past, 

The buds are all out, 

And the flowers are about, 

Because April has come at last. 

April has come at last, 
All the winter has past, 
When I go to sleep at night, 
It is still very light, 
Because April has come at last. 

320 National College of Education 

My Pony 

As down the street I rode my pony 

The flowers nodded their heads at me. 

I saw my little playmate Tony 

As gay as gay could be. 

I waved to him, he waved to me, 

As down the path I trotted. 

A bird was singing in a tree. 

Over the hill the cows were dotted. 

Then I turned my pony's head. 

I was headed for home. 

Away, away and away we sped. 

Upon That Lonely Shore 

The middle of a lonely night 

Upon a lonely shore 

The lonely wind blew 

Upon the lonely four. 

Father, Mother, Sister, Brother, 

On that lonely shore. 

The lighthouse, the lighthouse 

That sheltered the lonely four, 

The lighthouse, the lighthouse 

Upon that lonely shore. 

— Reprinted from the Children's Magazine. 

II. Activities related to citizenship and good health. 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussing ways and means for organization of Good 
Citizenship Club. 

2. Discussing needs of the group, relative to setting standards 
for the use of the halls, the toilet rooms, dining room and 
auditorium, library. 

3. Planning a rating chart for individual behavior. 

4. Discussing methods used in choosing officers for any 

5. Listing desirable qualities for certain officers. 

6. Discussing the value of making right choice of food for 

7. Discussing the height and weight charts relative to in- 
dividual needs. 

8. Discussing the hygienic care of the body — posture, light, 
desks, chairs, handling and using books. 

9. Discussing happenings of the day, local and national, or 
current events. 

B. Written. 

1. Organizing and making good citizenship chart, captions and 
individual rating chart. 

2. Writing notices for committee meetings. 

3. Writing notices of meetings of the Good Citizenship Club. 

English Records 



Drama Descends to the Dining-room 

A colonial luncheon is followed by stories and poems 

4. Writing ballots in voting. 

5. Posting list of nominees for office. 

6. Writing and posting examples of healthful lunches as 
guides in choosing menu. 

7. Writing and composing health slogans. 

8. Keeping records of lunches and comparing with chart 
showing well-balanced meals. 

III. Activities related to units of work in the social studies. 

A. Oral. 

1. Organizing and giving talks, or reports, as a result of 
individual and group research. 

2. Discussing experiences and information brought in from 
making inquiry or reading. 

3. Discussing excursions taken — before going and upon re- 

4. Discussing movies and slides used in the class room. 

5. Discussing working problems and means of solving. 

6. Setting up of standards of workmanship for various phases 
x \ of the work. 

322 National College of Education 

7. Discussing and giving constructive criticism of finished 

8. Discussing the problems related to the cooking and serving 
of special luncheons. 

9. Giving group and individual reports upon assigned topics. 

10. Giving dramatizations, dialogues, shadow plays. 

11. Discussing the contents of the Class Diary — judging the 
best story, poem, anecdote to be included in the Diary. 

12. Giving announcements and reports of progress of various 
committees engaged in research problems. 

13. Giving explanations of various experiments carried on, as 
soap and candle making. 

14. Giving to the group a simple bibliography found useful in 
locating answers to problems. 

B. Written. 

1. Outlining material for both talks and written stories. 

2. Taking notes from reference materials read. 

3. Keeping records of progress in work. 

4. Writing stories, poems, of explorations and discoveries, 
colonial days, and other topics. 

5. Writing stories for books, talkies, plays, dialogues. 

6. Writing labels and captions for maps, charts, paintings, 

7 . Writing notices to advertise various enterprises, as Jelly 
Sale, April Magazine. 

8. Making booklet of cooking recipes used in cooking projects. 

9. Making calendar of historical events. 

10. Writing announcements and bulletin notices for other 
rooms about interesting exhibits. 

11. Writing money orders, checks, receipts. 

12. Writing answers to questions checking comprehension of 
subject matter covered. 

IV. Activities related to reading and the library. 

A. Oral. I 

1. Discussing books and stories read. 

2. Sharing interesting parts of books with others. 

3. Telling stories read for the enjoyment of others. 

4. Reporting good points of books, in order to recommend 
them to others. 

5. Dramatizing sections of books — impersonating certain 
characters in books. 

6. Organizing and planning book activities as, Book Days, 
Library Endowment Day, Day with Certain Authors. 

English Records 323 

7. Discussing the use of the files, reference books, in the 

8. Discussing answers to check tests given upon selected 
books read by the group, or books read to the children by 
the teacher. 

B. Written. 

1. Filling in the form (mimeographed) of books read by the 

2. Writing advertisements for books. 

3. Writing book plates, cards and posters for Library Day. 

4. Making book file for individual book reports of books read. 

V. Correspondence — personal and business. 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussing when to write letters, how to write various 
kinds of letters, to whom to write. 

2. Discussing letters received as result of correspondence. 

B. Written. 

1. Notes, letters asking for privileges, to College authorities. 

2. Notes thanking both groups and individuals for kindnesses 
or aid. 

3. Notes of apology when needed. 

4. Invitations for several room enterprises. 

5. Business letters to firms requesting material. 

6. Notes accompanying money donations for various pur- 

VI. School publications. 

A. Oral. 

1. Planning the organization needed for the publishing of 
a magazine. 

2. Discussing the financing, the staff and their duties. 

3. Planning the means of advertising. 

4. Discussing how to secure interesting material for publica- 

5. Discussing how to set the standards for materials pub- 

6. Discussing the mechanical problems, as binding and print- 

B. Written. 

Writing interesting and worth while selections for the publica- 

324 National College of Education 

VII. Practice in language usage. 

A. Class discussion of points of correct usage. 

B. Practice in work books. 

C. Practice on mimeographed materials to help maintain skill and 
for review. 

D. Correcting own compositions with teacher's guidance. 

E. Working in pairs, correcting work. 

VIII. Practice in manuscript handwriting. 

A. Using charcoal for large letter forms ; using broad-edged pens 
for large letter forms ; practicing with chalk at the blackboard ; 
writing with pencils and with fountain pens. 

B. Practice on letter forms and phrases for legibility, beauty and 
speed. (Marjory Wise— Manuscript Writing Technique, used 
as a guide.) 

C. Samples of writing kept in individual folders for each child, 
improvement in legibility and speed noted; often scored and 

IX. Practice in spelling. 

A. Words needed in written work. 

1. Words are checked by children and teacher. 

2. Tests in context are given on words needed by 1/3 of 
the group. These are rechecked from time to time and 
rating sheets or graphs are kept by each child noting his 

3. A class list or dictionary is kept, made available for children 
who need help. 

B. Words from spelling list. 

1. Discussion of words in list, sentence work and blackboard 

2. Pretest on list. 

3. Study words needed or missed on pretest. 

4. Study words missed on second test and review previous 

5. Sentences involving words in new list and review list. 
Individual checking on words. For method of studying 
words, see "How to Teach Spelling" — Breed. 

X. Taking of standardized tests and improvised tests made by the 

Graphs of improvement are made by the children and teacher. 
Individual instruction is provided for those who have special 
difficulties. See Part V. 

English Records 325 

B. Books and Materials 

I. Materials used in written work. 

A. Kinds of note books. 

1. Composition note books (10x8) 

2. Loose leaf note books (12x10) 

3. Folders (tag board 9x12) for filing work sheets. 

B. Kinds of paper. 

1. Lined paper (8^x11) (7x8y 2 ) 

2. Manila tag. 

3. Regular construction paper. 

4. Regular poster paper. 

5. Mechanical drawing paper. 

6. Unlined paper (pads 8^x11 and 6x9) 

C. Kinds of pencils. 

1. Charcoal for large writing of letter forms. 

2. Mongol Eberhard Faber No. 1. 

D. Pen and ink. 

1. Broad-edged pen sets. 

2. Higgins India ink for broad-edged pens. 

3. Welty-life pen (fountain). 

4. SchafTer's fountain pen ink. 

E. Envelopes. 

1. For business purposes: 

School envelopes (large and small) 
Plain 3y 8 x6y 2 . 

2. For notes or friendly letters: 

Plain (small and medium) 
Hand-made ones to match paper. 

II. Work-type materials. 

Guitteau, W. B. English Exercises and Tests. Johnson Publishing Company. 

Rudy, I. O. and Smalley, G. My Progress Book in English. American Education 

Sharp, R. A. and Wallace, Grace. Language Practice for the Fourth Grade. Webster 
Publishing Company. 

Winston Simplified Dictionary (Intermediate edition). Winston Publishing Com- 

III. Spelling materials. 

A. Standard lists: 

Buckingham Extension of the Ayres Spelling Scale. Public School Publishing 

Iowa Spelling Scale. Public School Publishing Company. 

B. Class compiles list of words needed. 

C. Individual compiled list of words needed. 

326 National College of Education 

D. Spelling note books. 

1. Large note book (10x11) — for dictation work, sentence 
building and vocabulary study. 

2. Small (6x4) — for child's own list of words needing 
special drill from standardized lists and class lists. 

3. Medium (8x10) for child's own dictionary containing 
lists of words needed by the individual child for original 
composition work, and for lists of correct expressions and 
new words and phrases. 

IV. Standardized tests. 

Morrison-McCall Test. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College. 

New Stanford Achievement Test. World Book Company. 

Public School Achievement Test. Public School Publishing Company. 

V. Writing scales. 

A. Manuscript scale. 

Conard, Edith N. Conard Manuscript Writing Scale — Pen Form. Bureau of 
Publications, Teachers College, Columbia. 

B. Cursive writing. 

Ayres, Leonard P. Measuring Scale for Handwriting. Department of Education, 
Russell Sage Foundation. 

C. Probable Outcomes 

I. Appreciations and attitudes. 

A. An interest in developing the ability to enunciate clearly with 
a pleasant voice. 

B. An appreciation of distinct and correct speech of others and a 
sincere effort to overcome one's own speech faults. 

C. Realization that natural tone of voice in oral composition is 
quite as essential as an interesting subject. 

D. A readiness to participate in purposing and planning group 

E. Willingness to give and receive constructive criticism for im- 
proving work along factual and artistic lines. 

F. An appreciation of beauty of language forms and a desire 
to use them artistically and effectively. 

G. An appreciation of beautiful and legible handwriting and a 
desire to improve own handwriting, as to legibility, form and 

H. An understanding of the need for accuracy in spelling and a 

desire for enlarging the spelling vocabulary. 
I. An understanding of the value of language in business and a 

desire to use it correctly and effectively. 
J. Greater confidence and satisfaction in talking and writing. 

English Records 327 

II. Habits and skills. 

A. Language. 

1. Growing ability to speak briefly and in an interesting way 
from an outline. 

2. Growing ability to use a good quality of tone, enunciate 
clearly and pronounce correctly. 

3. An increasing skill in the choice and use of new words. 

4. Growing ability to think and speak clearly, cleverly, 

5. Growing ability to think and speak well on one's feet. 

6. Growth in overcoming the use of run-on sentences and 
the incorrect use of and, but and so, also the use of in- 
complete expressions. 

7. A noticeable growth in vocabulary, especially with refer- 
ence to use of more expressive words. 

8. Some facility in using the dictionary for better choice of 

9. Growing effectiveness in the use of the paragraph through 
better beginning and ending sentences and through the 
introduction of interesting details. 

10. Increasing skill in writing a brief composition which has 
unity, sequence, climax ; margin, title ; capitals in proper 
places ; correct punctuation and spelling. 

11. Increasing skill in writing short stories and articles with 
attention to paragraphing, sentence formation and develop- 
ment of the story. 

12. The ability to write a friendly letter one paragraph long, 
correct in form. 

13. The ability to write a note of thanks, apology, invitation, 
correct in form. 

14. The ability to write a simplified business letter, ordering 
supplies or seeking information, correctly and effectively. 

15. More skill in phrasing titles that are brief, attractive and 
keep the point of the story or article in suspense. 

16. Ability to address cards, envelopes, letters, packages, 
properly for mailing. 

17. Growing skill in recognizing and correcting one's own 

18. The habit of reading all written work for the purpose of 
self correction ; looking over the first draft for a better 
selection of vocabulary, possible errors and general im- 

328 National College of Education 

B. Form. 

1. Continued accuracy in the use of forms introduced in pre- 
ceding grades : 

(a) Capitals for months of year, days of week, holidays, 
beginning of line of verse, . . . 

(b) Apostrophe in contractions and possessive forms. 

(c) Abbreviations of days, months, measurements, some 

(d) Exclamation point, quotation marks, question mark, 
period and comma. 

2. Skill in use of single verbs and subjects, plural verbs and 

C. Handwriting. 

1. The ability to reproduce accurately, manuscript to manu- 
script, print to manuscript, script to manuscript, black- 
board to paper, books to paper. 

2. Ability to write legibly with pencil, broad-edged pen and 
fountain pen. 

3. Growing ability to do uniform and artistic lettering and 

D. Spelling. 

1. Continued gain in technique in studying spelling. 

2. Continued growth of spelling conscience, indicated by 
fewer mistakes in papers. 

3. Ability to use a dictionary for help in spelling words. 

English in the Fifth Grade 

Language j Writing and Spiling 
A. Activities and Procedure. 
I. Activities relating to personal experiences. 

A. Oral. 

1. Reports on interesting events of the week-end, evening, 
or morning before school. 

2. Discussion of neighborhood happenings common to several. 

3. Reports on vacation experiences. 

4. Telling anecdotes or humorous experiences for pleasure. 

B. Written. 

1. Outlining talks to be given. 

2. Writing reports or stories of vacation experiences. 

3. Writing stories or poems to express personal experiences 
or feelings. 

I think that a map's a silly thing, 
A few colors, some lines, a dot and a ring, 
Showing mountains and cities, perhaps a fall, 
Something great and something small. 


He will always be there when you come home, 

He will greet you with a rapturous bark. 

He will kiss your hand when it has no food to offer. 

He will stay with you in times of sorrow and pain. 

He alone remains when all others have deserted you. 

He loves you from birth until death. 

While other animals turn traitor on you he is still your friend. 

From the tiny Yorkshire terrier to the great St. Bernard 

The dog is always your best friend. 

II. Activities relating to citizenship and health. 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussions of happenings of the day, both local and na- 

2. Deciding on desirable standards of good citizenship and 
how attained. 

3. Discussions of how to improve individual records of weight 
kept by school nurse. 

4. Discussions of food problems arising from choosing own 

5. Discussions of how to make environment conducive to good 


330 National College of Education 

B. Written. 

1. Writing captions for good citizenship or health posters. 

2. Drawing up constitutions for good citizenship organiza- 

3. Posting resolutions for room reminders. 

4. Writing individual menu from room menu. 

III. Activities related to units of work. 

A. Oral. 

1. Organizing and giving reports or talks as a result of in- 
dividual research. 

2. Discussing exhibits, information brought in, readings. 

3. Discussing work problems and making plans for solution. 

4. Setting up standards of work to be attained. 

5. Discussing and criticising work finished. 

6. Discussing excursions both before and after going. 

B. Written. 

1. Outlining material for both talks and written stories or 

2. Taking notes. 

3. Writing stories for books, plays, talkies. 

4. Writing labels for diagrams, maps, charts. 

5. Writing answers to questions checking comprehension of 
subject matter covered. 

6. Writing notices to advertise talkies, plays. 

7 . Writing notices of projects for school newspaper. 

8. Writing poems or verses. 

IV. Activities related to reading and use of the library. 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussing books or stories read. 

2. Sharing interesting bits from books read by telling them. 

3. Telling stories read for the enjoyment of others. 

4. Reporting good points of certain books for the purpose of 
advertising them to others. 

5. Formulating and discussing book projects such as Book 
Clubs, Book Days, Book Assemblies, and Library Endow- 
ment Day. 

6. Discussing answers to checks in work-type material. 

7. Discussing word meanings. 

B. Written. 

1. Filling in mimeographed book report blanks of books read. 

2. Writing advertisements for books read which were thought 
especially good. 

English Records 331 

3. Writing book plates, cards, for books donated to the 

4. Writing answers to comprehension checks on work-type 

V. Activities relating to room procedure. 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussion of problems arising on the playground, in the 
halls, dining room or classroom. 

2. Discussion of plans for daily or weekly program. 

3. Parliamentary procedure in making and passing motions, 
voting on questions, and electing officers or representatives. 

4. Discussions of care of room and equipment. 

B. Written. 

1. Writing notices of results of games, articles lost, coming 
events, for bulletin board. 

2. Writing committee notes and reports. 

3. Writing lists of officers and committees. 

VI. Correspondence on personal and business relationships. 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussions of where letters are necessary. 

2. Discussion of the questions, to whom to write and what to 

3. Reports of committees or representatives on results of 

4. Oral reports or requests made to other rooms asking co- 
operation on certain projects. 

B. Written. 

1. Composing business letters for information. 

2. Composing letters to accompany money donated for any 
purpose from class earnings. 

3. Writing informal notes of invitation to exhibits, talkies, 

4. Writing notes to school authorities, asking privileges. 

5. Writing notes of thanks for kindnesses shown and aid 

6. Sending notes of apology where privileges have been 

7. Sending notes to other rooms asking for cooperation and 
accepting invitations. 

332 National College oe Education 

VII. School publications. 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussion of what would interest others. 

2. Discussion of how to make items interesting. 

B. Written. 

1. Writing items for newspaper. 

2. Writing contributions for the magazine. 

VIII. Practice in language usage. 

A. Class discussion of points in correct usage. 

B. Practice in work book on needs arising in class. 

C. Taking mimeographed exercises for maintenance and review. 

D. Taking tests to see if minimum essentials are mastered or to 
see if further practice is necessary. 

IX. Procedure in improving handwriting. 

A. Manuscript. 

1. Making large letter forms in charcoal on paper lined for 

2. Practice for manipulation of broad-edged pen. 

3. Practice on letter forms, words, and phrases for legibility 
and speed. 

B. Cursive or script. 

1. All children in fifth grade learn to read script. 

2. Those who desire learn to write script. 

(a) Comparison of script letter forms with manuscript 
letter forms in words and phrases. 

(b) Watching words and phrases being written. 

(c) Watching letter forms being made. 

(d) Practicing on letter forms in words and phrases on 
the blackboard under supervision. 

(e) Writing in script with pencil and then with ink on 

C. Progress in writing. 

1. Keeping samples of writing to note improvement. 

2. Having samples of writing scored. 

3. Comparison of results with handwriting scales. 

X. Procedure in learning to spell. 

A. Words needed in written work. 

1. Keeping list of words asked for in small notebook. 

2. Check by another pupil or teacher on common words 
needed by child. 

English Records 333 

3. Making class list by pupils and teacher of words needed 
by several. 

B. Words from spelling lists. 

1. Program. 

(a) Pretest on new words. 

(b) Study words missed. 

(c) Test on new and review. 

(d) Study words missed on last test. 

(e) Test in content. 

(f) Individual check on words missed in content. 

2. Method. 

(a) Studying according to Breed's "How to Teach Spell- 

(b) Pairing children for checking. 

(c) Keeping record of each individual child by teacher 
of all words missed. 

(d) Keeping record by each pupil of all words he missed. 

(e) Keeping composite list by teacher of words causing 

(f) Using large composition book for spelling book. 

C. Review words. 

1. Individual check on all words. 

2. Reviewing each week words missed previous weeks. 

XI. Use of standardized tests. 

. A. By psychology department. 

1. For group placement. 

2. For location of spelling difficulties. 

3. For check on attainment. 
B. By teacher. 

1. For locating difficulties. 

2. For check on learning and teaching. 

B. Books and Materials Used 
I. Written work. 

A. Kinds of paper used. 

1. Palmer lined ink paper (8^x11). 

2. Manila tag board. 

3. Construction paper (9x 12) — (12x 18). 

4. Poster paper (9 x 12)— (12 x 18). 

5. Mechanical drawing paper. 

6. Note pads. 

B. Kinds of pencils. 

1. Charcoal for large writing of letter forms. 

334 National College of Education 

2. Mongol — Eberhard Faber No. 1. 
C. Kinds of pen and ink. 

1. Broad-edged pens, sets of round-hand pens — Mitchell, 
Birmingham, England. 

2. Higgins India ink. 

3. Wahl fountain pen. 

4. Fountain pen ink. 
D. Composition notebooks. 

Folders (tag board 9x 12) for filing work until bound or used. 

II. Work-type material. 

Guitteau, Win. B. English Exercises & Tests — Fifth Grade. Johnson Publishing 

Lyles, Victoria. Language Helps for Written English — Fifth Grade. Webster 

Publishing Company. 
Rudy, I. O. and Smalley, G. My Progress Book in English, Grade V. American 

Education Press. 
Sharp, Russell A. Sharp's Language Drills and Tests for Fifth Grade. Webster 

Publishing Company. 

III. Spelling materials. 

A. Standard lists : 

Buckingham's Extension of the Ayres Spelling Scale. Public School Publishing 

Iowa Spelling Scales. Public School Publishing Company. 

B. Individual lists and class lists compiled by teachers and children. 

C. Notebooks: Composition books (7^x10) (6^x4>4) 

IV. Handwriting scales. 

A. Manuscript writing. 

Conard, Edith N. Conard Manuscript Writing Standards. Bureau of Publications, 
Teachers College, Columbia. 

B. Script writing. 

Ayres, Leonard P. Measuring Scale for Handwriting. Department of Education, 
Russell Sage Foundation. 

V. Standardized tests in spelling and language. 

New Stanford Achievement Test. World Book Company. 
Morrison-McCall Test. Teachers College, Bureau of Publications. 
Public School Achievement Test. Public School Publishing Company. 

C. Probable Outcomes 

I. Information, attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Willingness to give constructive suggestions for improving own 
and others' work. 

B. Willingness to receive criticism on own work. 

C. Readiness to participate in purposing group enterprises. 

English Records 335 

D. Willingness to accept a share in the responsibility of planning 
group enterprises. 

E. Respect for the opinions of others. 

F. Independence in expressing own opinion. 

G. Understanding of need for clear, concise statements in making 

H. Appreciation for the need of order in telling stories. 

I. A desire to use correct English. 

J. A desire to improve own handwriting. 
K. An appreciation for beautiful and legible handwriting. 
L. A desire to enlarge spelling vocabulary. 
M. An understanding of the need for the ability to spell. 
N. An understanding of the need for the ability to speak clearly, 

concisely and distinctly before a group. 
O. An understanding of the need for the ability to write legibly 
with a fair degree of speed. 

II. Habits and skills. 

A. In oral composition. 

1. Ability to organize and outline talks and reports. 

2. More skill in speaking before a group clearly and dis- 

3. Increased poise in speaking before a group. 

4. More skill in expressing oneself concisely. 

5. Ability to tell a story or anecdote in an interesting way. 

6. Ability to criticise constructively both own work and others' 

7. Increased ability to accept and profit by criticism. 

8. Increased ability to think a problem through. 

9. Increased ability to follow a problem in a class discussion. 
10. Ability to follow an outline in giving a talk. 

B. In letter writing and composition writing. 

1. Ability to write a business letter using correct form. 

2. Ability to write a friendly letter in an interesting way. 

3. Ability to write informal notes of invitation, thanks or 

4. Ability to outline material to be used in a composition. 

5. Ability to write a composition of some length following 
an outline and paragraphing material. 

6. Ability to take notes. 

C. In handwriting. 

1. Ability to write with broad-edged pens using India ink 
and doing work up to fifth grade standard. 

2. Ability (of some) to write script. 

336 National College of Education 

D. In mechanics of written composition. 

1. Ability to use correctly the following marks of punctua- 
tion: period, question mark, exclamation point, comma, 
quotation mark, and the apostrophe. 

2. Ability to use capital letters correctly in all uses. 

3. Ability to arrange paper allowing for margins. 

4. Increased skill in writing good sentences. 

5. Increased skill in writing a paragraph containing good topic 

E. In language usage. 

1. More skill in using correctly such words as can, may, learn, 
teach, lie, lay, rise, raise, set, sit, their, there, these, them, 
to, too, two, well and good. 

2. More skill in using verb forms correctly. 

3. More skill in pronouncing words correctly. 

4. More skill in avoiding the use of double negatives. 

5. Ability to identify common and proper nouns. 

6. Ability to identify verb forms. 

7. Increased skill in using different words rather than over- 
working a few. 

F. In spelling. 

1. Ability to spell words needed in the written work of the 

2. Ability to spell words listed in Buckingham-Ayres words 
list through column Q. 

3. Ability to use dictionary as an aid in spelling. 

English in the Sixth Grade 

Languagej Writing and Spelling 
A. Activities and Procedure 
I. Activities relating to personal experiences. 

A. Oral. 

1. Reports of vacation experiences. 

2. Reports on interesting week-end experiences. 

3. Interesting observations which have been made. 

4. Reports on outside activities (often given during lunch 

B. Written. 

1. Writing reports or diaries of vacation experiences. 

2. Outlining reports to be given. 

3. Writing stories and verses of personal experiences. 

March Wind 

If you should ask the raw March wind 

where he was going and why, 

he might answer this : 
I must awaken the flowers, 
And blow the clouds away, 
And hurry to waken the earth for the Spring, 
And the birds must be told to come back on the wing. 

A Poem 

A poem that does not rhyme 

Is just a lovely thought, 

Of rivers, fields, mountains, streams, 

Of winter, fall, summer, spring, 

And oh ! of everything. 

— Reprinted from the Children's Magazine. 

II. Activities relating to citizenship and health. 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussions as to standards of good citizenship in school 
and as a member of the community. 

2. Reports on events of present day interest. 

3. Discussions as to food values and combinations. 

B. Written. 

1. Writing rules for good citizenship. 

2. Choosing and writing lunch menu from cafeteria menu 
sent to the room. 


338 National College of Education 

III. Activities related to units of work in social studies or science. 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussing problems and possibilities in a unit of work. 

2. Giving of reports by individual children. 

3. Discussing pictures, original illustrations, and exhibits. 

4. Discussing completed work. 

5. Planning any dramatization or program as a summary to 

B. Written. 

1. Outlining material before writing or giving to class orally. 

2. Writing stories for booklet or chart. 

3. Writing answers to questions checking mastery of subject 

4. Taking notes in good form. 

5. Writing notices to advertise play. 

6. Writing original poems. 

7. Writing an imaginary diary which might be a record of 
the period studied. 

IV. Activities relating to reading and use of library. 

A. Oral. 

1. Telling stories read, for pleasure of the class. 

2. Recommending interesting books to the class. 

3. Describing parts of favorite books brought from the home 

4. Making plans for Book Week and Library Endowment 

5. Discussing material in different magazines enjoyed. 

6. Discussing different types of material found in library. 

7. Discussing ways of finding material quickly. 

8. Examining parts of a book, as title page and table of 
contents, and discussing value of each. 

9. Discussion of new words. 

B. Written. 

1. Writing book plates, cards, and numbers for books given 
to the library. 

2. Writing recommendations for books. 

3. Placing book reports on mimeographed blank. 

4. Writing answers to tests checking mastery of informational 

5. Making book puzzles. 

6. Writing short descriptions of books, letting class supply 

English Records 


Children Share Vacation Trips 
With the use of a reflcctoscope children exhibit their souvenir cards 

types of letters, 
correct form for 

business and friendly 

V. Letter Writing. 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussion as to 

2. Discussion as to 

3. Discussion as to content. 

B. Written. 

1. Writing thank you letters. 

2. Writing letters to children who have moved away. 

3. Writing notes to other rooms. 

4. Writing notes to school authorities asking privileges. 

5. Composing letters to imaginary people, as book characters. 

VI. Activities relating to room procedure. 

A. Oral. 

1. Making plans for any group activity. 

2. Discussion of any room problem. 

3. Electing officers or representatives. 

340 National College of Education 

B. Written. 

1. Writing notices for bulletin board. 

2. Writing lists of officers or committees. 

VII. Publishing school magazine. 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussion as to types of material to use. 

2. Discussion as to value of a striking title, interesting open- 
ing sentence, and good closing sentence. 

3. Examination and discussion of magazines published by 
other schools. 

4. Discussion as to number of magazines to print, the price, 
expenses, and method of selling. 

B. Written. 

1. Writing articles, stories and poems for the magazine. 

2. Outline made by group for organizing the material. 

VIII. Practice in language usage. 

A. Class discussion of points in usage. 

B. Exercises in Sharp's drill book on points discussed in class. 

C. Use of mimeographed sheets originated by teacher as a re- 
view and check. 

IX. Procedure in improving handwriting. 

A. Manuscript. 

1. Charcoal used in making large letter forms. 

2. Practice with broad-edged pens. 

3. Practice on letters, words and sentences, working for 
uniformity and speed. 

B. Script (Those who wish may learn and use script.) 

1. Study of letter forms as they are made. 

2. Practice on letter forms and words at blackboard. 

3. Attention given to height of letters, slant, finishing 
strokes, and to comfortable position when writing. 

4. Writing in script with pencils. 

5. Writing in script with pen. 

C. Progress in writing. 

1. A portfolio is kept throughout the year containing 
samples of work. 

2. Comparison is made with writing scales. 

X. Procedure in learning to spell. 
A. Words needed in written work. 

1. Class list made by group of words needed in various 

2. List made of errors frequently found in written work. 

English Records 341 

B. Words taken from spelling lists. 

C. Plan for teaching. 

1. General procedure. 

(a) Test all pupils on the new words in the week's as- 

(b) Supervise pupil's individual study of words missed. 

(c) Test all pupils on the new and review words. 

(d) Individual study of the words missed. 

(e) Test all pupils on the new and review words. 

2. Method — following Breed's ''How to Teach Spelling." 

(a) Say the word. 

(b) Use in a sentence. 

(c) Say the letters to yourself. 

(d) Write the word and say the letters to yourself as 
you write. 

(e) Draw a line under difficult part. 

(f) Write the word without looking. 

(g) Check to see if you are right. 

D. Review words. 

1. Review constantly words missed before. 

2. Individual check on words. 

XI. Use of standardized tests. 

A. For checking growth in spelling and language ability. 

B. For discovering difficulties common to all. 

C. For discovering individual difficulties. 

D. For grouping in the room. 

B. Books and Materials Used 
I. Materials for written work. 

A. Kinds of paper used for making books, letters and posters. 

1. Lined ink paper (8^ x 11). 

2. Construction paper (9 x 12) — (12 x 18). 

3. Manila tag board. 

4. Note pads (5y 2 x Sy 2 ). 

5. Envelopes and stationery for letter-writing. 

B. Kinds of pencils. 

1. Charcoal. 

2. Mongol No. I. 

C. Kinds of pen and ink. 

1. Round Hand Pens — Wm. Mitchell — Birmingham, Eng- 

2. India Ink. 

342 National College of Education 

3. Wahl fountain pens. 

4. Fountain pen ink. 

D. Portfolio (9 x 12) for filing work. 

II. Work-type materials. 

Guitteau, Wm. B. English Exercises and Tests, Sixth Grade. Johnson Publishing 

Sharp, Russell A. Language Drills and Tests for Sixth Grade. Webster Pub- 
lishing Company. 

III. Spelling materials. 

A. Standard lists. 

Buckingham Extension of the Ayres Spelling Scale. Public School Publishing 

Iowa Spelling Scale. Public School Publishing Company. 

B. Individual spelling lists and class lists from subject matter and 

C. Notebooks. 

1. Composition book (63/J x 8*4). 

2. Graph paper for records. 

IV. Standardized tests in language and spelling. 

New Stanford Achievement Tests. World Book Company. 
Morrison-McCall Test. Bureau of Publications, Teachers' College. 
Public School Achievement Test. Public School Publishing Company. 

V. Handwriting scales. 

A. Manuscript writing. 

Conard, Edith N. Conard Manuscript Writing Standards. Bureau of Publications, 
Teachers College. 

B. Script writing. 

Ayres, Leonard P. Measuring Scale for Handwriting. Department of Education, 
Russell Sage Foundation. 

C. Probable Outcomes 
I. Information, attitudes and appreciations. 

A. A readiness to take part in any class activity. 

B. A willingness to give and accept criticism, which at this stage 
should be more discriminating. 

C. Respect for the opinions of others. 

D. Understanding of need for written articles that are unified, 
planned, and unmarred by misspelled words or other technical 

E. Desire to develop greater ability in securing interest through 

English Records 343 

F. Desire to continue vocabulary development. 

G. An appreciation of oral work which is given distinctly, con- 
cisely and with poise. 

H. A desire to speak before a group with increasing attention to 
definite subject, logical order, and well-chosen words. 

I. An appreciation of clear, legible, and beautiful handwriting. 

J. A desire to improve own handwriting. 
K. Eagerness to enlarge spelling vocabulary. 
L. A desire for accuracy in spelling words. 

II. Habits and skills. 

A. Oral composition. 

1. Growth in organizing reports to be given. 

2. Increased ability to follow outline or notes. 

3. Increased ability to speak distinctly and with poise. 

4. Ability to accept a share of responsibility in any group 

5. Increased ability to give constructive criticism. 

6. Development of critical attitude toward own work. 

7. Growth in ability to choose interesting and worthwhile ma- 
terials for class reports. 

B. Written composition. 

1. Ability to write a friendly letter in correct form. 

2. Growth in making content of friendly letter interesting. 

3. Ability to write a business letter in correct form. 

4. Growth in making content of a business letter courteous and 

5. Ability to outline and organize material read, as well as 
original material. 

6. Ability to write a composition of one page or more in cor- 
rect composition form. 

7. Increased accuracy in proof-reading and correcting own 
written work. 

C. Handwriting. 

1. Ability to write legibly and neatly with pencil, fountain pen 
or broad-edged pens. 

2. Ability of some to write script. (Parents and children 
choose if script writing is to be mastered before seventh 
grade. ) 

D. Mechanics of composition. 

1. Ability to use correct composition form, allowing for 
margins, and leaving one space between title and first sen- 

2. Ability to paragraph consistently. 

344 National College of Education 

3. Increased ability to write good opening and closing sen- 

4. Ability to use capitals correctly in all cases. 

5. Ability to use the following marks of punctuation consist- 
ently: period, comma, exclamation mark, question mark, 
quotation marks, apostrophe, semicolon, colon. 

E. Language usage. 

1. A continuing habit of using correctly, words which have been 
studied in the previous grades; as may and can; there and 
their; to, two and too. 

2. Progress in eliminating such expressions as this here one. 

3. Progress in eliminating the use of double negatives. 

4. Habit of enunciating all syllables correctly. 

5. Addition of many new words to the vocabulary, with special 
attention to definite picture words and phrases. 

6. Ability to identify and use common and proper nouns, pro- 
nouns, verb forms, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, inter- 

F. Spelling. 

1. Ability to spell words needed in the writing vocabulary. 

2. Ability to spell words listed in the Buckingham Ayres Spell- 
ing scale through column U. 

3. Habit of using dictionary to find correct and preferred 

4. Growth in the ability to eliminate careless spelling errors. 


BECAUSE the children in this school come from a community 
where books and magazines are much used, interest in reading 
is very early developed. The nursery school and the kindergartens 
afford many pre-reading experiences through the use of literature and 
creative language. The preparatory reading experiences of the Senior 
Kindergarten are described on page 295. Systematic work in reading, 
however, does not begin until the first grade. A mental age of six 
or over has been found necessary for the rapid attainment of inde- 
pendence in reading ; and undesirable attitudes and habits have been 
the result of expecting progress in reading before the child was ready. 
As a rule children have remained in the Senior Kindergarten until 
a mental age of six has been reached. In the case of a child who 
attains a mental age of six and a half or seven before he is six chrono- 
logically, the physical development, social adjustment and emotional 
stability are considered carefully, and he is allowed to join regular 
reading classes only after approval has been given by the kindergarten 
director, parents, school physician and psychologist. 

Reading in all six grades is closely related to the activity program. 
In the early grades, a great deal of the reading material is composed 
by the teacher and the children, in response to interests and needs 
arising in connection with the children's experiences. As the children 
progress in reading power, books are used continually to extend their 
experiences and to throw light on their problems. 

So great has been the eagerness for contact with real books, and 
so keen has been the desire to learn to read that it has been thought 
appropriate to set aside definite reading periods each day beginning 
in first grade. No one method and no one set of books or work 
books has been used as basal. Methods and reading materials in all 
grades have been chosen to meet the capacities and interests of indi- 
viduals and particular groups. 

As a rule, the children are grouped for reading according to 
ability. The clinical approach to reading is made, and each child is 
placed in a group or given individual help following a study of his 
individual capacities and needs. With the least mature group it has 


346 National College of Education 

been found especially desirable to provide materials and books that 
have not been previously used by the more advanced groups in the 
room. By this means the teachers have been able to eliminate the 
feelings of discouragement, inferiority and pressure that might other- 
wise prevail among the less gifted children. 

Promotions from one grade to another are made on the basis of 
social adjustment and readiness for participation in the activities of 
the next grade. The teacher in each grade continues ability grouping 
when found desirable, and provides reading materials that meet the 
capacities of different groups. 

Standardized reading tests are used at the end of the first grade, 
and in each succeeding grade, and a careful study of the problem is 
made if any child's reading age falls decidedly below his mental age. 
The procedure in remedial work is described in Part V. 

Because many children find joy in independent reading, and do 
much free reading at home and in the school library, individual dif- 
ferences in reading ability tend to increase, and the need for group 
practice tends to diminish. 

In the outlines that follow, outcomes tend to be cumulative. Effort 
is made in each grade to maintain desirable attitudes and apprecia- 
tions, habits and skills, developed in preceding years. 

Reading in the First Grade 

t An outline based on records for one year 

A. Activities 

I. Reading activities related to group experiences. (Material 
composed by children and teachers.) 

A. From bulletin boards : reading signs, captions under pictures, 
posters, personal or group notes from the teacher and from 
each other, as : 

Dear John, 

Will you water the plants to-day? 

Miss Brown. 

B. From blackboard and charts. 

1. Reading directions or suggestions for activities, reading to 
follow plans made previously by the group, filling supplies 
from lists of materials, reading names of committees. 

In our baskets we will put 
a pair of scissors 
one jar of paste 
one lead pencil 
one box of crayolas 

To-day we will finish the furniture. 

John will finish a chair. 

Peter will finish a chair. 

Nancy will finish the table. 

Patsy will put the design on the bookcase. 

Jo will sandpaper the cupboard. 

2. Reading records of excursions, records of room activities, 
stories about pets, toys, nature materials. 

C. From booklets: 

Reading from booklets made by the children, stories of group 
interests and creative individual stories, verses and songs. 

D. From correspondence or communications. 

1. Reading letters, invitations sent from another room or 

child; as, 

Dear First Grade : 

The farm is ready. 
Will you come to see it? 

Second Grade. 

2. Reading advertising posters and dodgers ; as, 

All aboard for a sailing party ! 
Be on deck Saturday at 9:00 a.m. 
Station W.M.A.Q. 
Stories and songs about boats. 

348 National College of Education 

3. Reading parts of the school magazine or newspaper, 
especially parts they had contributed. 

II. Reading from books in a group. 

(Pre-primers, primers, and first readers are chosen for the directed 
groups, for their special interest appeal or because of their adap- 
tation to the needs of the children. Usually different material is 
selected for each group.) 

A. Activities related to the care and use of the child's own book. 

1. Reading from the blackboard suggestions for care of book. 

2. Reading names from the bookplates. 

3. Reading page numbers. 

4. Learning to find stories from the titles rather than pictures 

5. Learning to know and read the names of the various 
primers and first readers. 

B. Silent reading. 

1. To find the solution of a problem in the plot. 

2. To prepare for dramatic oral reading. 

3. To select a story to be used for a specific purpose. 

C. Oral reading. 

1. To share enjoyment with the group. 

2. For fuller understanding. 

3. To read the dialogue in parts. 

III. Reading related to the libraries. 

A. The room library. 

1. With teacher reading or telling stories. 

(a) Listening to stories told or read. 

(b) Listening to and learning beautiful poems. 

2. With the child reading. 

(a) Free choice of books to read during self -directed or 
library periods. 

(b) Free choice of books to take home to read to the 

(c) Answering questions based on free library reading. 

(d) Audience reading to a group or re-telling stories found 
during free reading. 

B. The school library. 

1. Enjoying Library Endowment Day. 

(a) Looking at books before making purchases. 

(b) Scanning shelves of school library to find their own 
gift books in the library. 

(c) Enjoying books given by their friends. 

\ -Engli s h Records 



WK^lMKi . ^-^ ilk s^Mippp 

■ ^-^ — - • 

— — — — ~* 

i l M/ Mr ii'lH 

i €* . $r if -^f^m 

it * 


"•■:,F ^J K 

v' - * '& 

...„ ^J'^^WBil 

It Is Fun to Read About Christmas 
The poem and the house were both used in a Christmas dramatization 

2. Using school library. 

(a) Referring to school library when room library is lack- 
ing in material wanted. 

(b) Referring to library for stories, pictures, books re- 
lated to group interests. 

(c) Seeking additional easy reading material to take home. 

IV. Individual use of work-type materials. 

(These materials emphasize careful discrimination and compre- 
hension. They are related to experience reading or made by the 
teacher to correlate with book reading.) 

A. Drawing picture to illustrate sentence stories or phrases written 
by the teacher. 

B. Cutting up stories into sentence or phrase units and putting the 
story puzzle together. 

C. Checking yes and no statements. 

D. Finding the word or phrase to fit the picture in mimeographed 

E. Circling like words in a column or list. 

350 National College of Education 

F. Finding the correct word or phrase to finish the sentence in 
multiple choice type of exercises. 

B. Procedure or General Method 

I. Beginning reading related to the child's experiences. 

A. Child's name, names of pets, are used as an approach to 

B. Material composed by children with teacher's help is used as 
an approach. This material must have 

1. Interesting content. 

2. Literary quality, rhythm, lilting repetition, colorful words 
and phrases. 

3. Simple vocabulary. 

4. Short sentences. 

5. Short units or groups of sentences. 

6. Much repetition in the story. 

7. Much repetition from story to story. 

C. The plan for the first lessons follows: 

1. This material is presented on the blackboard, or it may be 
printed on a chart. 

2. Children read the unit as a whole. 

3. Teacher suggests content through skillful suggestions and 

4. Teacher runs pointer under sentences, to establish correct 
habit of eye movement ; to help the child get the correla- 
tion between the spoken and written symbols. 

5. The children find separate sentences. 

6. The children find simple phrases containing interesting 

7. Eventually some practice is given to fix important and 
interesting words. 

II. Pre-primer reading. 

A. The procedure is similar except that material is taken from the 
book rather than from the children's immediate experiences. 

B. When six weeks or more of experience reading has been done 
from charts and the blackboard, reading may be done directly 
from the book without the intermediate presentation on the 
blackboard or chart. 

C. Phrase and word cards are found valuable if the child can 
compare words and phrases on the card with those in the book, 
and thus make the transfer. 

D. Word cards are especially valuable in beginning reading when 
used for rapid phrase and sentence building. 

English Records 351 

III. Advanced book reading. 

A. Silent study. 

1. A thought unit is selected for silent study, short or longer, 
depending on the ability of the group and the difficulty of 
the selection. 

2. Emphasis is put on comprehension and silent reading is 
directed by: 

(a) Questions related to the content. 

(b) Problems to solve. 

'(c) Looking for a humorous part. 

(d) Looking for a kind or gracious deed or idea. 

(e) Looking for the solution to plot. 

B. Oral reading. 

1. In first grade oral reading usually follows silent reading 
to develop fluency. 

2. Child's motive for oral reading may be : 

(a) To help the class see the picture. 

(b) To understand the story better. 

(c) To share the story with another class or room. 

(d) To read the story in parts to enjoy the dialogue. 

(e) To prepare for a dramatization. 

C. Discussion. A discussion is often desirable : 

1. To clear up meanings. 

2. To select favorite characters. 

3. To select kind, gracious characters or deeds. 

4. To select characters and outline scenes for dramatization. 

D. Study of new and difficult words. 

1. They may be used in oral discussion before silent reading 
and written on the blackboard to point out characteristics. 

2. They may be discovered through the content if good con- 
cise suggestions as to content are given before reading. 

3. The sounds of the letters are emphasized when two or 
more words are read which begin with the same sound. 
Bringing this similarity to the child's consciousness soon 
helps him to learn independently the function of the letter 

4. Differences in words, as clock and lock, took and look, 
spin and in, as well as the similarity, are noted. 

5. Like endings or beginnings as in father and mother, began 
and before, are noted. 

6. In work-type material, similar words may be presented for 
choice, and training afforded in phonetic discrimination. 

352 National College of Education 

IV. The testing program. 

A. After the first semester informal and standardized tests are 
given at intervals, by the teacher. 

1. The results of the tests combined with results of daily work 
are a basis for grouping. 

2. The results of tests are used as a basis for selecting ma- 
terial and books. 

3. The results of tests are used as a basis for diagnosing 
individual difficulties and for giving individual help. 

B. Standardized tests are given at the end of the year, by a psy- 

1. Results are used as a basis for recommendations for sum- 
mer reading. 

2. Results are used as a basis for grouping in the next grade. 

C. Books and Materials Used 

I. Materials used for experience reading. 
A. Chart and bulletin board. 


Manila tag board — 36 x 24. 


India ink. 


Esterbrook pens for manuscript writing — sizes 

1, 2, 3, 
4, 5. 

4. Magazine illustrations. 

5. Colored mounting paper. 

6. Show card color. 

7. Crayolas. 

B. Blackboard. 

1. White and colored chalk. 

2. Pointers and erasers. 

C. Booklets. 

1. Manila drawing paper (12 x 18). 

2. Colored mounting paper. 

3. Art materials for illustrations. 

(a) Colored poster paper. 

(b) Show card color. 

(c) Crayolas. 

4. Typewriting paper — (heavy quality, for story material). 

5. Primer typewriter. 

6. Machine for mimeographing. 

7. Brads and raffia for binding books. 


English Records 


II. Sets of books for group reading. (Selected according to the 
interests and abilities of the group). 

A. Pre-primers; as, 

Baker, E. D. & 

Toots in School 



Baker, C. B. 

Elson, W. H. & 

Elson Pre-Primer 


Scott Foresman 

Gray, W. S. 

Hardy, Marjorie 

The Little Book 



Lewis, W. D. & 

Tots and Toys 



Gehres, E. M. 

Martin, C. M. & 

Bob and Baby Pony 



Hill, P. S. 

B. Primers and first readers ; as, 

Baker, E. D. & 

Bobbs-Merrill Readers 



Baker, C. B. 

Baker, E. D. & 

True Story Series 



Baker, C. "B. 

Elson, W. H. & 

Elson Basic Readers 


Scott Foresman 

Gray, W. S. 

Firman, S. G. & 

The New Winston 



Gehres, E. H. 

Freeman, F. N. & 

Child Story Readers 


Lyons & 

Storm, Grace E. 


Gates, A. I. & 

The Work Play Books 



Huber, M. B. 

Hardy, Marjorie 

The Child's Own Way 



Hill, P. S. & 

The Real Life Readers 



Martin, C. M. 

Pennell, M. E. & 

Children's Own Readers 



Cusack, A. M. 

Stone, Clarence R. 

Webster Readers 



III. Library equipment. 

A. Room library equipment. 

1. Reading table and chairs. 

2. Low book shelves. 

3. Furniture made for library building by children. (See 
Library Unit.) 

4. File for library cards. 

5. Book ends, candlesticks, vases, made by children. (See 
Library Unit.) 

B. Picture books and story books for teacher to read to children ; 


Clark, Mary E. 
Gag, Wanda 
Hill, H. & Max- 
well, V. 
Hogan, Inez 

Hogan, Inez 

Poppy Seed Cakes 1924 Doubleday 

Millions of Cats 1928 McCann 

Charlie & His Puppy 1923 Macmillan 

Little Black & White 1927 MacRae Smith 

The White Kitten & The 1930 Macmillan 

Blue Plate 


National College of Education 

Lofting, Hugh 

Story of Mrs. Tubbs 



Milne, A. A. 

When We Were Very 



Orton, Helen F. 

Little Lost Pigs 



Orton, Helen F. 

The Twin Lambs 



Tippett, J. S. 

The Singing Farmer 


World Book 

Tippett, J. S. 

I Go A-Traveling 



C. Easy books 

for individual children to read ; as 


Bannerman, H. 

Little Black Sambo 



Brooke, L. L. 

Johnny Crow's Garden 



Potter, B. 

Peter Rabbit 



Read, H. S. 

Social Science Readers 



Sondergaard, A. 

& Ten Little Reading Books 


Gazette Press 

Krueger, L. 

Szalatney, R. D. 

Cock and The Hen 



Troxell, E. 

Pammy and His Friends 



Wright, L. E. 

The Magic Boat 



D. Additional material available in school library 
many story books and informational books. 

IV. Practice materials. 

picture file, 

A. Word cards (accompanying charts, pre-primer and first 

B. Phrase cards (accompanying charts, pre-primer and first 

C. Published work books (accompanying primers and first readers 
chosen for group use). 

D. Mimeographed materials composed by teacher, related to ex- 
perience reading. 

V. Standardized tests. 

Gray's Oral Reading Check Tests. William S. Gray. Public School Pub- 
lishing Company. (Given every four or five weeks beginning the second 

Gray's Oral Reading Paragraphs. William S. Gray. Public School Pub- 
lishing Company. (Given in May or June.) 

Gates' Primary Reading Test — Types I, II, and III. Arthur I. Gates. 
Teachers College, Columbia University. (Given in May or June.) 

D. Probable Outcomes 

I. Information. 

Related to the function and the purpose of reading, 
standing of the uses of reading in: 

1. Record keeping. 

2. Following directions. 

3. Correspondence and advertisement. 

4. Gaining information. 

5. Recreation. 

An under- 


Ew GWS it Records 355 

B. Related to book construction. 

1. The beginning of an understanding of book binding, print- 
ing, illustration. 

2. An understanding of the terms : author, artist, printer. 

3. Some understanding of the organization of a book: cover, 
frontispiece, table of contents, story, title. 

C. Related to types and use of literature. 

1. Some knowledge of various types of literature: stories, 
verses, riddles, jokes. 

2. An idea of the differing functions of books, letters, maga- 
zines, newspapers. 

D. Related to library. 

1. The knowledge of a library as a book center. 

2. A little idea of the personnel of a library. 

3. Enough information to take out and return books to the 

4. An idea of appropriate behavior in the library. 

II. Attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Related to learning to read. 

1. Joy and interest in learning to read. 

2. Appreciation of the value of knowing how to read. 

3. A willingness to enter into all types of reading activities. 

4. An appreciation of the need of careful, conscientious read- 

B. Related to the use and ownership of books. 

1. A desire to own good books. 

2. A childlike appreciation of the beauty of illustrations and 

3. Some appreciation of the value of books. 

4. A willingness to exercise care and thought in handling 

5. A willingness to share books and stories with others. 

C. Related to the library. 

1. Joy in browsing in the library. 

2. A willingness to cooperate with library requirements. 

III. Habits and skills. 

A. Related to the use and care of books. 

1. The ability to use books with a minimum amount of wear 
and tear. 

2. The habit of using a bag, or wrapping a book if it is to 
be taken home in inclement weather. 

356 National College of Education 

3. The beginnings of an established habit of sitting correctly, 
holding book correctly, and sitting under correct lighting 
conditions when reading. 

4. The ability to find stories by page numbers. 

5. For many, the ability to find stories in the table of contents. 

B. Related to the use of the library. 

1. A partially established habit of using the library for help 
on problems. 

2. The habit of quiet manner and conduct in the library. 

3. With adult cooperation, the habit of returning books with- 
in the time limit. 

C. Related to mastery of technique. 

1. In group reading. 

(a) The ability to concentrate and work purposefully dur- 
ing the reading periods. 

(b) The ability to listen attentively to others read. 

(c) By the end of the first semester the habit of keeping 
the place accurately while others read, in a group. 

2. For individual reading. 

(a) The ability to get the thought when reading silently 
from a primer or first reader. 

(b) The ability to read orally with a considerable degree 
of accuracy. 

(c) The ability to read fluently from simple primers or 
first readers. 

(d) The ability to read orally with sufficient dramatic 
interpretation to hold the interest of a small group. 

(e) The ability to follow simple directions within a vo- 
cabulary of primer difficulty. 

(f) The ability to distinguish between words with like 
endings but different consonant beginnings, as book 
and took. 

(g) The ability to name several words beginning with the 
common consonants, or consonant combinations. 

(h) A growing independence in pronouncing simple 
phonetic words of three or four letters. 

(i) The habit of attacking new words through the con- 

(j) The beginning of an ability to solve new words 
through recognition of small words or word parts 
within the new words. 

Reading in the Second Grade 

An outline based on records for one year 

A. Activities 

I. Reading activities related to group experiences. (Material 
composed by children and teachers.) 

A. From the bulletin board. 

1. Reading of the room duties. 

2. Reading names on the weekly calendar for care of the room. 

June 1 — Monday — Billy, Katharine 
June 2 — Tuesday — Amos, Fred 

3. Reading notices, posters and the like sent in from other 

B. From blackboard and chart. 

1. Reading directions or suggestions for activities. 

(a) Definite plans made for following day. 

(b) Suggestions for each child of his duty or responsi- 
bility toward unit of work ; as, 

Leonore will paint the barn. 
Tom will care for the grass. 

(c) Recipes, as when making cranberry sauce. 

(d) Names and duties of different committees. 

(e) Rules to improve conduct in school and on playground. 

2. Reading original poems, records of excursions, stories of 
room activities, records of nature experiments. 

(a) Original poems stimulated by the seasons, weather, 
group experiences. 

(b) Story of our trip to the farm, "What we learned at 
the farm," composed by the group. Other farm stories 
written individually. 

(c) Nature experiments and results of experiments; as, 

What we did: 

We planted peas and beans. 

We kept one box in the dark. 

We kept the other box in the sunlight. 
What we discovered : 

Peas and beans grown in the dark are white. 

Plants grown in the sunlight are green. 

Sunlight makes the color in nature. 

(d) Records of how we made an Indian tepee. 

C. From booklets (made by children containing records or stories 
of group interests, with original compositions by the children.) 


358 National College of Education 

1. My Pottery Book — containing original records of 

(a) Trip to the Haeger Pottery. 

(b) How liquid clay is made. 

(c) How we made our molds. 

2. My Farm Book — containing original stories of trip to the 
farm and different farm activities. 

3. Nature Books — containing original poems and stories, blue 
prints with the name of each flower and leaf under the 

4. Miscellaneous Books made by individual children, contain- 
ing pictures and stories ; as, 

(a) The Funny Book. 

(b) My Doll Book. 

(c) My Family. 

D. From correspondence or communications. 

1. Reading letters, invitations, sent from other rooms. 

2. Reading messages sent from the office concerning school 
car, playground and other school activities. 

3. Reading posters and dodgers sent around to the rooms. 

(a) Radio program announcements. 

(b) Announcements of sales, programs, plays, at the 

4. Reading school newspaper and magazine, especially first 
and second grade contributions. Children read other con- 
tributions as far as possible, and teacher reads the re- 
maining part. 

II. Reading from books in a group. (Readers are chosen for read- 
ing groups according to the special interest and ability of the 
group; usually, different material is selected for each group.) 

A. Activities related to the care and use of child's own book. 

1. General browsing through a new book. 

2. Careful making of name plate for book. 

3. Learning to find a story through the table of contents and 
page number. 

4. Practicing the correct way to turn pages in a book, care 
for the cover and binding. 

B. Silent reading. 

1. To read for the plot and enjoyment of the story. 

2. To be better prepared for oral reading. 

3. To select story for some special activity. 

4. To gain desired information. 

C. Oral reading. 

1. To enjoy the story with the group. 

\ English- Records 359 

2. To read clearly and distinctly so that the group will enjoy 
the story. 

3. To read dialogue in parts. 

4. To prepare for dramatization. 

5. To make clear, points not understood. 

III. Individual reading. 

A. Use of room library. 

1. Listening to teacher read or tell stories. 

2. Choosing books for free reading at school. 

3. Choosing books to take home. 

4. Reading to a group, story of own selection from library. 

B. Use of school library. 

1. Choosing books to give for Library Endowment Day. 

2. Locating one's own gift book on the shelves and recogniz- 
ing books of friends. 

3. Enjoying library period by browsing through the book- 

4. Using library for material not found in room library. 

(a) For informational purposes, as material on farm ac- 

(b) For occasional study of maps and globe to locate 
places where school friends have gone, or locate 
countries mentioned in reading material. 

(c) For pictures in picture file. 

IV. Individual use of work-type material emphasizing careful com- 

A. Using mimeographed material made by the teacher for books 
containing no tests : yes and no tests, completion, multiple 

B. Using booklets or sheets published to accompany sets of readers. 

1. Careful check-up by child and teacher on each page before 
proceeding to the next page. 

2. Developing independence, by referring to the book for 
help rather than to the teacher. 

C. Using work booklets independent of reader for additional read- 
ing practice, with similar careful check-up. 

B. Procedure for Group Reading 

I. Presentation of new material. (Teacher attempts to stimulate 
an interest in the story through discussions, pictures, and other 
materials. Often questions are formulated to guide the study.) 

360 National College of Education 

II. Silent study. 

A. At beginning of year children read a short unit at a time 

B. As children ask for unknown words, teacher tells word and then 
underscores word in her book, or places it on an individual 

C. As soon as ability and interest of group warrant, children read 
whole story silently without interruption. 

D. Check-up is made on comprehension through : 

1. Questions related to content, often written on board in 
the story vocabulary. 

2. Solving riddles and problems. 

3. Looking for the high points of interest in the story. 

III. Oral reading of literary selections. 

A. Oral reading often follows silent study of the story. 

1. To form the basis for oral discussion. 

2. To help class understand the story better. 

3. To help class relive the story: see the pictures, hear the 
sounds, feel the emotions. 

B. Emphasis is placed on reading so that the audience will under- 
stand and be interested: 

1. Knowing material well before reading. 

2. Speaking in a clear distinct tone of voice. 

3. Interpreting the story in an individual way. 

IV. Word mastery in connection with book reading (presented at 
a separate time from the reading period.) 

A. Words are taken from list obtained in preceding reading 

B. Words are written on board (preferably not in a column but 
at random) and studied one at a time for similarity to known 
words, noting beginnings and endings and emphasizing sounds 
of letters and combinations. Meanings are stressed. 

C. Occasionally games are played with word list. 

1. Teacher says word and child erases the word; or teacher 
erases the word and asks child to tell word erased. 

2. Teacher gives a sentence and asks child to tell word she 
used in the sentence; then lets child give sentence. 

V. Testing program. 

A. Gray's Oral Reading Check Tests are given by teacher every 
four or five weeks. The results of tests are used for study 
of individual needs, and adaptation of method and material 
to meet individual problems. 

\ v ©*f^fSf* Records 361 

B. Standardized tests are given at end of each semester by psy- 
chologist. Results are used 

1. As a basis for grouping in next semester. 

2. As a basis for recommendations for summer reading. 

3. As a basis for selecting those who need remedial work. 

C. For remedial work see Part V. 

C. Books and Materials Used 
I. Related to experience reading. 

A. Chart and bulletin board. 

1. Manila tag board — cut in sizes for writing stories, experi- 
ments, announcements. 

2. India ink. 

3. Round head pens for manuscript writing, sizes 1, 2, 3, 
4, 5. 

B. Blackboard. 

1. White dustless chalk. 

2. Pointer and erasers. 

C. Booklet making. 

1. Manila drawing paper (12 x 18). 

2. Colored mounting paper. 

3. Materials for illustration. 

(a) Poster paper — colored. 

(b) Magazine pictures. 

(c) Crayolas and water colors. 

4. Writing paper for story material (wide-lined composition 

5. Brads and raffia for binding books. 

II. Sets of books for group reading (selected according to the 
interests and ability of the group.) 

A. First readers as needed — (selected from first grade list). 

B. Second readers; as, 

Baker, C. B. & 

Baker, E. D. 
Baker, C. B. & 

Baker, E. D. 
Coleman, B. B. & 

Firman, S. G. & 

Gehres, E. M. 
Freeman, F. M. 
Gates, A. I. & 

Huber, M. B. 
Hardy, Marjorie 
Hill, Patty S. & 

Martin, C. M. 

Bobbs-Merrill Readers 



True Story Series 



Pathway to Reading 


Silver Burdett 

New Winston 



Child Story Series 
Work Play Books 


Lyons & Carnahan 

Child's Own Way Series 
Real Life Series 




National College of Education 

Lucia, R. 

Pennell, M. E. & 
Cusack, A. M. 

Troxell, E. & 
Dunn, F. W. 

Troxell, E. 

Peter and Polly Books 
Children's Own Readers 

Mother Nature Series 
Pammy and His Friends 

III. Library Equipment. 

A. Room library equipment. 

1. Low book shelves. 

2. Reading table and chairs. 

3. Library card file. 

B. Books to read to children. 

1918 American Book 

1929 Ginn 

1928 Row Peterson 

1928 Scribner 

Cobb, B. 
Milne, A. A. 
Monvel, de — M. 
Phillips, E. C. 
Phillips, E. C. 
Verdey, E. 
Wells, R. 
Wells, R. 
Whitney, E. 


Now We Are Six 
B. Susanna's Auction 
Little Friend Lydia 
Wee Ann 

About Ellie at Sandacre 
Coco, the Goat 
Peppi, the Duck 
Tyke-y, His Book and 
His Mark 

1927 Putnam 

1928 Dutton 
1927 Macmillan 

1920 Houghton Mifflin 

1919 Houghton Mifflin 

1925 Dutton 

1929 Doubleday 
1927 Doubleday 
1925 Macmillan 

C. Easy material for individual children to read. 

Beskow, Elsa 

Beskow, Elsa 

Beskow, Elsa 

Hill, H. & Max- 
well, V. 

Hill, H. & Max- 
well, V. 

Lee, E. & Read, H. 

LeFevre, F. 

LeFevre, F. 
Lofting, Hugh 
Lofting, Hugh 
Orton, Helen F. 

Orton, Helen F. 
Orton, Helen F. 
Orton, Helen F. 















Aunt Green, Aunt Brown, 

Aunt Lavender 
Olle's Ski Trip 
Pelle's New Suit 
Charlie and His Kitty 

Charlie and His 


Social Science Readers 
The Cock, the Mouse and 

the Little Red Hen 
The Little Gray Goose 
Noisy Nora 
Story of Mrs. Tubbs 
Bobby of Cloverfield 

Little Lost Pigs 
Prancing Pat 
Prince and Rover of 

Cloverfield Farm 
Benjamin Bunny 
Jemima Puddleduck 
Mr. Jeremy Fisher 
Squirrel Nutkin 
I Go a-Traveling 
I Live in a City 
The Singing Farmer 

1929 Harper 

1929 Harper 

1930 Harper 
1927 Macmillan 

Puppy 1927 Macmillan 

1928 Scribner 

1920 Jacobs 

1925 Jacobs 

1929 Stokes 
1923 Stokes 
1922 Stokes 

1925 Stokes 

1927 Stokes 

1921 Stokes 

1904 Warne 
1910 Warne 
1906 Warne 

1905 Warne 
1929 Harper 
1929 Harper 
1927 Harper 

D. Additional material available in school library: picture file, 
many story and informational books, dictionary, large globe. 


Records 363 

IV. Practice materials. 

A. Published work-type material, accompanying sets of readers 
chosen for the group. 

B. Printed material for individual use. 

Buswell, D. W. Practice Exercises in Wheeler 

Careful Silent Reading 
Johnson, E. M. My Progress Book in Educational Press 

Reading II 

C. Mimeographed comprehension checks made by teacher to ac- 
company books without tests. 

V. Tests. 

A. Informal tests, given once a week. 

1. Oral reading — chart kept recording the number and kind 
of errors made by each child, in mispronunciation, sub- 
stitution, insertion, words unknown, omission. 

2. Silent reading — same type of chart as used in oral read- 
ing, recording words child asks for when reading silently. 

B. Standardized tests. 

Gates, Arthur I. Gates Primary Reading Teachers College, Colum- 

Tests bia University 

Gray, Wm. S. Gray's Oral Reading Public School Publishing 

Check Tests Company 

Gray, Wm. S. Gray's Oral Reading Public School Publishing 

Paragraphs Company 

Kelley, Ruch & New Stanford Achieve- World Book Company 

Terman ment Test 

Williams, Allan J. Williams Primary Read- Public School Publishing 

ing Test Company 

D. Probable Outcomes 

I. Information. 

A. Related to the function and purpose of reading : fuller realiza- 
tion of the uses of reading in record keeping, outlining plans, 
following directions, correspondence, advertisement, gaining 
information, recreation. 

B. Related to book construction. 

1. A fuller understanding of bookbinding, printing, engrav- 
ing, work of author, artist and printer. 

2. Better understanding of organization of a book: cover, 
frontispiece, table of contents, chapters. 

3. Some understanding of the construction of a newspaper 
and magazine. 

364 National College of Education 

C. Related to types of literature. 

1. A clearer knowledge of various types of literature: stories, 
factual articles, prose, poetry, riddles, jokes, songs. 

2. A better idea of the differing functions of books, letters, 
magazines, newspapers, posters, dodgers. 

D. Related to library. 

1. The knowledge of library as source of getting information 
through maps, pictures, magazines, encyclopedias, globe. 

2. The knowledge of library as a place to enjoy books of all 

3. An understanding of the personnel of a library. 

4. Knowledge concerning the function of a library card; the 
taking out and returning of books. 

5. Understanding of appropriate behavior in the library. 

6. Beginning of knowledge of where to find books wanted 
in the library. 

II. Attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Related to learning to read. 

1. Added interest and joy in learning to read because of de- 
sire to gain knowledge about certain things. 

2. Deeper appreciation of the value of knowing how to read. 

(a) Satisfaction in solving problems through reading. 

(b) Joy in being able to read to others. 

(c) Joy derived from being able to read interesting stories 
and poems for own pleasure. 

3. Feeling of need for all types of reading activities. 

(a) Reading for pleasure. 

(b) Reading for information. 

(c) Reading to give to others. 

(d) Reading carefully to follow directions. 

B. Related to the use and ownership of books. 

1. Stronger desire to own good books as child realizes how 
much book world can give. 

2. A fuller appreciation of the beauty of books as shown 
through printing, illustrations, bindings. 

3. Better appreciation of the value of books and willingness 
to exercise more care in the handling of books. 

4. Willingness to share books and stories as home library 

C. Related to the library. 

1. Added joy in browsing in the library. 

2. Continued willingness to cooperate with library rules and 

A N English Records 365 

(a) In taking out books. 

(b) In care and use of library books. 

(c) In responsibility in returning books. 

3. Joy in giving a book on Library Endowment Day, to aid 
in building a better library. 

III. Habits and skills. 

A. Related to the use and care of books. 

1. Ability to use a book with very little wear and tear, not 
marking in the books, folding the leaves, bending cover 

2. Ability to mark the place correctly in a book if needed. 

3. Continued habit of sitting correctly, holding the book cor- 
rectly and in right lighting conditions when reading, at 
the same time enjoying a natural relaxed freedom. 

4. Ability to find a story by the page number and through the 
table of contents. 

5. The habit of caring for a book taken home from school. 

(a) Protecting from the weather when needed. 

(b) Not leaving on playground or in the school car. 

(c) Treating book carefully at home. 

(d) Seeing that book is brought back. 

B. Related to the use of the library. 

1. Beginning of a habit of using library. 

2. Habit of quiet manner and conduct in the library. 

3. Effort toward being responsible for returning books within 
the time limit, and without a reminder. 

4. Ability to take books out and return books independently 
with the help of the librarian and not the room teacher. 

C. Related to the mastery of technique. 

1. Well-established habit of concentration and purposeful 
work through the reading period. 

2. Increased ability in getting the thought when reading 

3. Certain degree of ability in re-telling or discussing the 
story read. 

4. Considerable accuracy and independence in taking compre- 
hension tests, and answering comprehension questions. 

5. Ability to read orally with a marked degree of accuracy. 

6. The ability to read orally fluently and with sufficient dra- 
matic interpretation to hold the interest of the group. 

7. Habit of listening courteously to others read. 

8. The ability to keep the place when a child is reading in a 

366 National College of Education 

9. The ability to read material used in the group independently 
and quite fluently. 

10. The ability to follow somewhat complex directions within 
the child's reading vocabulary. 

11. The ability to note differences and likenesses in beginnings 
and endings of words. 

12. The ability to attack many new words phonetically, pro- 
nouncing them as wholes. 

13. An independence in recognizing new words through the 

Reading in Third Grade 

An outline based on records for one year 

A. Activities 

I. Reading activities related to group experiences. (Materials 
composed by children and teachers.) 

A. From the bulletin board. 

1. Reading notices from other rooms and from the school 

2. Reading changes of program and special invitations to pro- 
grams and assemblies. 

B. From the blackboard. 

1. Reading suggestions for work before regular school day 
begins, as, 

Finish number work. 
Correct spelling. 
Mount pictures. 

2. Reading reminders for each child toward getting his share 
of the unit of work done; as, 

Bill and Andrew will work on the Japanese house. 
Loraine and Edith will paint scenery. 

3. Reading directions for committees working on specific 

C. From children's papers and notebooks. 

1. Reading poems composed by groups and individuals; 
records of trips taken during vacations ; stories written 
about animals and pets ; stories telling of excursions, as 
to Field Museum and Shedd Aquarium. 

D. From booklets containing original work of children ; as, 

1. My Book About Japan. 

The Country of Japan. 

Clothing of the People. 





2. Book of Poems. 

Vacation Poems. 
Hallowe'en Poems. 
Winter Poems. 
Rainy Day Poems. 


368 National College of Education 

3. Individual books made by children according to particular 
interests; as, 

My Trip to the Aquarium. 
A Trip to the Country. 
Gathering Nuts in Autumn. 

E. From correspondence. 

1. Invitations from other rooms. 

2. Dodgers sent to the room from other rooms. 

3. Letters from Japanese children in Honolulu. 

4. Letters from business firms of whom questions had been 

5. Letters from children who were absent from school for 
several days at a time. 

F. From school newspapers and magazines — own grade's contri- 
butions and many from other grades. 

II. Reading from books in a group. (Readers chosen for groups 
according to ability and different interests.) 

A. Activities related to the care and use of child's own book. 

1. Using the table of contents to find selections. 

2. Practicing the correct way to turn pages in a book, care 
for cover and binding. 

3. Practicing correct way to open a new book. 

B. Silent reading. 

1. To become better prepared for oral reading or dramatiza- 

2. To select story for some special activity. 

3. To find outcome of story. 

4. To gain specific information. 

C. Oral reading. 

1. To take part in a dramatic reading of the story. 

2. To help the group to enjoy the humor or beauty of the 

3. To prove points that were not clear. 

4. To provide the basis for a group discussion. 

III. Individual reading. 

A. Use of room library. 

1. Choosing books to read alone. 

2. Selecting books for home reading. 

3. Selecting material to read to the group. 

B. Use of school library. 

1. Enjoying library period by looking at books on shelves. 

2. Using school library for material not in room library: 

V S : wG faisg Records 369 

information about topics of study ; pictures and magazines ; 
large globe; variety of story books. 

IV. Individual use of work-type material, emphasizing compre- 

A. Using booklets accompanying sets of readers ; checking up 
after each test to be sure work is correct. 

B. Using independent work-type books to gain certain needed 

B. Procedure for Group Reading 

I. Presentation of new material. (Teacher stimulates interest in 
the story through discussions, pictures, or objects. Questions 
to guide study may be formulated.) 

II. Silent study. 

A. Children read entire story silently, if story is not too long. 

B. Teacher underlines unknown words in her book as children 
ask for them; makes list of words found difficult. 

C. Check-up is made on comprehension through questions and 

III. Oral reading of literary selections: 

Oral reading often follows silent study of story, with emphasis on 
these points: 

A. Reading so that audience will enjoy story, hear the sounds, 
see the pictures, understand the meaning. 

B. Knowing the material before reading. 

C. Speaking clearly in a pleasing tone. 

IV. Word study in connection with book reading (presented as 
needs suggest). 

A. Words are presented from lists made in preceding lessons. 

B. Words are written on board, alone or in phrases, meaning ex- 
plained, similarity to familiar words noted. 

V. Testing. 

A. Gray's Oral Reading Check Tests are given every few weeks. 
Results are used for study of individual needs, and adaptation 
of method and material to meet the individual problems. 

B. Standardized tests are given at the end of each semester by 
psychologist and results are used: 

1. As a basis for grouping next semester. 

2. As a basis for selecting those who need remedial work. 

3. As a basis for recommendations for home reading. 


National College of Education 

C. Books and Materials Used 

I. Sets of books and papers for group reading (chosen according 
to the interests and ability of the group). 

A. Second readers for some — from second grade list. 

B. Third readers; as, 

Baker, C. B. & 

Baker, E. D. 
Baker, C. B. & 

Baker, E. D. 
Coleman, B. B. & 

Freeman, F., & 

Gates, A. I. & 

Huber, M. B. 
Manly, J. M. & 

Martin, C. M. & 

Hill, P. 
Pennell, M. E. & 

Cusack, A. M. 
Walker, A. & 

Summy E. 
White, M. L. & 

Hanthorn, A 

C. The Pilot: two-star edition, (weekly 
II. Room Library. 

A. Equipment. 

1. Low book shelves. 

2. Reading table and chairs. 

3. Library file cards. 

B. Books read to the children: 

Cobb, B. B. & E. Clematis 
Collodi, C. Pinocchio 

Morley, M. W. Little Mitchell 

Sterne, E. G. White Swallow 

C. Books read by individual children: 

True Story Series 
Bobbs Merrill Readers 
Pathway to Reading 
Child Story Readers 
Work Play Books 
Good Reading 
Real Life Readers 
Children's Own Readers 
Study Readers 
Do and Learn Readers 






Silver Burdett 


Lyons and 










American Book 


for each child) 

Adams, S. W. 
Batchelder, M. 
Bianco, M. W. 
Bianco, M. W. 
Brooks, E. S. 

Burgess, T. W. 
Burnett, F. 
Colum, P. 
Coolidge, F. C. 
Grahame, K. 
Hill, Helen & 
Maxwell, V. 
Home, R. H. 

Five Little Friends 
Peggy Stories 
Poor Cecco 
The Velvet Rabbit 
True Story of Christo- 
pher Columbus 
Old Mother West Wind 
Little Lord Fauntleroy 
The Peep Show Man 
Little Ugly Face 
The Wind in the Willows 
Little Tonino 

1927 Putnam 

1923 Winston 

1904 McClurg 

1927 Duffield 

1922 Macmillan 

1924 Scribner 

1925 Doran 

1927 Doran 
1915 Macmillan 

1910 Little Brown 

1914 Scribner 

1929 Macmillan 

1925 Macmillan 

1908 Scribners 

1928 Macmillan 

The Good Natured Bear 1930 Macmillan 



Hulbert, W. D. 

Forest Neighbors 


Row Peterson 

Hunt, C. W. 

Peggy's Playhouse 


Houghton Mifflin 

Hunt, C. W. 

About Harriet 


Houghton Mifflin 

Lindsay, M. 

The Toy Shop 



Lang, A. 



Longmans Green 

Milne, A. A. 

Now We are Six 



Morrow, E. 

The Painted Pig 



Mulock, D. M. 

Adventures of A Brownie 



Orton, H. F. 

Little Lost Pigs 



Phillips, E. C. 

Little Friend Lydia 


Houghton Mifflin 

Phillips, E. C. 

Wee Ann 


Houghton Mifflin 

Phillips, E. C. 

The Pop-Over Family 


Houghton Mifflin 

Wells, R. 

Coco the Goat 



Wells, R. 

Peppi the Duck 



Note : Books related to units of work are included with units of work 
and are not repeated here. 

III. Additional material available in the school library : picture files, 
large globe, large dictionary, encyclopedias, many easy books 
suitable for independent reading; magazines. 

IV. Practice materials. 

A. Published work type materials related to sets of readers : 

Gates and Huber Work and Play Work Books Macmillan 

B. Mimeographed comprehension checks made by teacher to ac- 
company some stories not followed by tests. 

V. Tests. 

A. Informal test records kept by teacher. 

1. Oral reading chart kept with errors of each child. 

2. Silent reading chart kept of words asked for in independent 

B. Standardized tests. 

•Gray's Oral Read- 
ing Paragraphs 

New Stanford A- 
chievement Test 

Primary Reading 

Wm. S. Gray 

Kelley, Ruch & Terman 

Allan J. Williams 

Public School Pub- 
lishing Company 

World Book Com- 

Public School Pub- 
lishing Company 

D. Probable Outcomes 

I. Information. 

A. Related to the function and purposes of reading: fuller reali- 
zation of needs for reading to follow directions, to carry on 
correspondence, to gain information and pleasure. 

372 National College of Education 

B. Related to book construction. 

1. Better understanding of processes involved in making a 
book, work of author, artist, printer, binder. 

2. Better understanding of organization of book into cover, 
table of contents, frontispiece, chapters, index. 

C. Related to types of literature. 

1. Better understanding of different types of literature: 
fables, fairy stories, poetry, jokes, factual reading, humor- 
ous stories. 

2. A better idea of functions of books, magazines, letters, 

D. Related to library. 

1. Fuller knowledge of the library as a source of informa- 
tion: encyclopedias, dictionary, reference books. 

2. Fuller knowledge of library as a place to read books for 

3. Fuller knowledge of effective use of library. 

II. Attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Related to reading. 

1. Added interest and pleasure in learning to find out things 

2. Increased appreciation of value of knowing how to read. 

3. Satisfaction in solving own problems through reading 

4. Joy in reading to others and in reading for own pleasure. 

5. Feeling of need for various kinds of reading skills: pains- 
taking reading to follow directions or master facts ; 
thoughtful reading to solve problems ; rapid reading for 
pleasure ; fluent reading to give pleasure to others. 

B. Related to the use and ownership of books. 

1. Increased desire to own good books. 

2. Appreciation of the beauty of books, in binding, illustra- 
tion, arrangement. 

3. More of an idea of value of books. 

4. Increased willingness to share books with others. 

C. Related to library. 

1. Increased interest in going to library alone and in co- 
operating with librarians in regulations of library, for tak- 
ing out books, for care and use of books, and for return- 
ing books on time. 

2. Joy of giving books to aid in building up the library. 

X - Englis^ Records 373 

III. Habits and skills. 

A. Related to the use and care of books. 

1. Ability to use books carefully with as little wear and tear 
as possible. 

2. Improvement in posture while reading. 

3. Ability to find the story by using the page number in 
table of contents. 

4. Better habits in caring for books taken home from school : 
protecting from weather ; not losing books on campus or 
in school car ; bringing book back on time. 

B. Related to the use of the library. 

1. Increased skill in using the library. 

2. Good self control in the library; ability to consider a group. 

C. Related to mastery of technique. 

1. Continued habits of concentration and purposeful work in 

2. More skill in reading to solve problems. 

3. Increased ability at getting thought when reading silently. 

4. Ability to follow directions accurately. 

5. Independence in taking comprehension tests. 

6. Increased ability to retell a story read, and to report 
orally on factual material acquired through reading. 

7. Improved ability to read orally so that others can under- 
stand and enjoy what is read. 

8. Increased ability to read orally, smoothly, accurately and 
in a pleasing tone. 

9. Development of speed in silent reading and fluency in oral 

10. Continued habit of listening courteously while others read. 

11. Increased ability in attacking new words in parts, and in 
recognizing common word beginnings and word endings ; 
increased ability in pronouncing new words by comparison 
with words previously learned. 

Reading in the Fourth Grade 

A. Activities and Procedure 
I. Reading of material composed by teacher and children. 

A. Related to personal experiences. 

1. Stories describing vacation experiences. 

2. Stories of interesting happenings at home. 

3. Original conundrums, riddles and puzzles. 

4. Personal account books and diaries. 

B. Related to units of work in social studies. 

1. Signs, posters, maps, charts, pictures, graphs, pertaining 
to vacation, Hallowe'en, Valentine's Day, Christmas, 
Colonial Life, Exploration and Discoveries, and other 

2. Captions for movies, titles of books, pictures. 

3. Stories written about various aspects of units of work, as, 
"A Day in a Colonial Home," "How We Get Oranges for 

4. Lists of books prepared for use as reference material on 
units of work. 

5. Various cooking recipes. 

6. Paragraphs containing necessary data for units of work. 

7. Group and individual diaries kept of experiments per- 
formed as "making soap," "making candles." 

8. Directions given on blackboard for conduct and plans for 
excursions taken, as excursion to see weaving exhibit at 
Mandel's Store. 

9. Class records and stories from bulletin board. 

10. Bills, receipts and financial reports related to selling enter- 

11. Original poems and stories, included in school newspaper 
and magazine. 

12. Orders made out for supplies needed for various activities. 

13. Records of achievement both of group and individual. 

14. Correspondence with other rooms, firms, school authori- 
ties ; personal letters ; announcements, advertisements and 

15. Scenes of original plays. 

16. Reports giving facts found in answer to questions and 

17. Original arithmetic problems, related to various units of 


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The Library Leads to Far-off Lands 

18. Lists of spelling words formulated by the group, growing 
out of units. 

19. Lists of materials available or needed. 

C. Related to citizenship and health. 

1. Charts for height and weight. 

2. Original health slogans and rhymes. 

3. Original stories for health play, given by the group. 

4. Original menus, composed for parties. 

5. Charts, records, graphs, pertaining to habit formation, rules 
for self control. 

6. Committee reports and recommendations pertaining to 
right use of halls, toilet, playground, school equipment. 

7. Comments from the consideration box. 

8. Questions formulated by individual children concerning 
certain selections read. 

D. Related to room procedure. 

1. Program for the day; plans for the week; plans for large 
units of work. 

2. Notices posted by individuals (teacher and children) per- 
taining to room activities, committee meetings, use of ma- 

376 National College of Education 

II. Library activities. 

A. Room library. 

1. Reading plans for organization of room library. 

2. Reading book lists cbosen to be included in room library. 

3. Scanning individual and class lists of books read. 

4. Reading selections from favorite books, brought from 
home, placed in room library. 

5. Reading book reports written by teachers and children. 

6. Looking at pictures and reading captions for pleasure and 
those related to unit of work. 

7. Listening to interesting poems, stories, articles read by the 
teacher, individual children and groups of children. 

B. School library and public library. 

1. Excursion to the school library to become acquainted with 
the librarian and the library, learning the proper procedures 
for using the library. 

2. Excursion to library to give books as gifts on Endowment 

3. Excursion to help in the accession of books, given on 
Library Endowment Day. 

4. Excursions to find pictures and books related to group 
interests in science and social studies. 

5. Excursion to public library to find additional material on 
related topics. 

C. Learning to use the library. 

1. Learning to know the position of groups of books, as ref- 
erence, fiction, science. 

2. Understanding and using the card catalogue, picture file 
and daily stamp. 

3. Understanding and using the globe, encyclopedias, large 
dictionary and other reference material. 

4. Using individual cards for drawing out books, with proper 

5. Learning best methods of finding materials effectively. 

6. Learning the best habits necessary for effective use, as low 
voices, placing books upon shelves in right order. 

D. Enjoying the library. 

1. Finding books of interest and sharing with others. 

2. Sharing beautiful pictures, new books and magazines. 

3. Dramatization of stories read. 

4. Reading poetry and memorizing parts liked best. 


Singles if Records 377 

E. Caring for books. 

1. Learning value and care of books. 

(a) Discussing the process of making books, their history 
and development. 

(b) Looking at pictures, movie of a book in the making. 

(c) Discussing the value of books, cost of making. Com- 
parative prices. 

(d) Discussing the proper treatment of new books, as 
opening the book, using a marker, inserting a book 

(e) Making book plates and markers for books. 

(f) Making of book ends and book standards for display- 
ing books. 

2. Learning to use books. 

(a) Discussing hygienic habits of reading, as correct pos- 
ture both standing and sitting; proper way of holding 
book, for turning pages and securing light. 

(b) Reading charts as reminders of above points. 

(c) Discussing and learning to use title page, preface, 
table of contents, chapter headings, index, notes, 
references, appendix and illustrative materials. 

(d) Using the dictionary for the purpose of arriving at 
pronunciation of new words independently. 

III. Group reading activities for appreciation and skills (from 

A. Silent reading. 

1. Reading to answer questions related to social studies, 
natural and general science. 

2. Reading to follow directions: 

(a) Making various objects. 

(b) Cooking experiments. 

(c) Arithmetic problems. 

(d) Playing games. 

(e) Following daily program. 

3. Reading to reproduce ideas and information through 
graphic and plastic materials, as pictorial tables, puppet 
show, time chart of historical events. 

4. Reading to verify conclusions, by citing authorities. 

5. Reading to judge values. 

(a) To find favorite stanza or paragraph. 

(b) To find most beautiful descriptive scenes, the best 
character sketches, well-chosen words and phrases. 

378 National College of Education 

(c) To get general impression to see if material is usable 
for certain definite work. 

(d) To judge worth of material for special topic by using 
the index and table of contents. 

6. Organizing and outlining material. 

7. Selecting the central thought of a story, or a paragraph. 

8. Reading to note details when giving specific directions to 
the group. 

9. Interpreting maps, graphs, charts. 

10. Reading and discussing new words, helping to build a more 
comprehensive vocabulary. 

11. Reading and discussing selections for the purpose of 
visualizing details. 

For suggestions involving procedure, see 

"Reading Objectives" — Anderson & Davidson — Part III. 
"Reading and Study"' — Yoakam — Chaps. 11, 12, 15. 
B. Oral reading. 

1. Giving informal programs of stories and poems by the 
Book Club. 

2. Giving dramatizations of poems, stories. 

3. Sharing selections from favorite authors and poets. 

4. Reading worth-while sections from magazines, newspapers 
and books, related to various class discussions in social 
studies, natural and general science. 

5. Sharing humorous stories and conundrums at birthday 
parties and on festival days. 

6. Reading to support judgment and to prove points in dis- 

7. Reading certain parts to discuss the answers to questions 
composed by the children or the teacher. 

8. Reading poems for enjoyment ; -dialogues and monologues 
for interpretation. 

9. Sharing interesting, exciting, dramatic and humorous pas- 

10. Reading in relay: children working in small group prepare 
to read a selection to another group, the purpose being 
pleasure and not to have any break in the story. 

11. Group to group reading: children in small groups, each 
group having a different book, read the story to another 

12. Reading to select stories and poems for room programs. 

13. Reading to advertise books to other children. 

14. Reading to understand the story better. 

English Records 379 

IV. Use of work-type material (as needed by groups and individ- 

A. Teacher made. 

1. Practice to build vocabulary, as selecting words from con- 
tent to use in original sentences. 

2. Underlining word that means the same. 

3. Underlining word that has opposite meaning. 

4. Underlining phrase which best gives thought of paragraph 

5. Using checks on comprehension of reading: true-false; 
completion tests ; multiple choice. 

6. Using three-minute tests to check rate of reading. 

7. Using objective tests on social studies, natural and general 

8. Keeping individual and class score sheets. 

9. Practice in finding reference to topics on certain pages. 
10. Practice in using the index as an aid in finding references 

to questions and problems. 

B. Printed material. 

Using practice exercises and tests as individual needs suggest. 

V. Use of standardized tests. 

A. To determine standard of accomplishment for individuals and 
the group. 

B. To form basis for organizing groups within the room. 

C. To help in diagnosing difficulties of both group and individuals. 

D. To provide basis for remedial help in a group and for individ- 

VI. Remedial work (See Part V). 

B. Books and Materials Used 

I. Library equipment in the room. 

A. Furniture and equipment. 

1. Reading tables and chairs. 

2. Book cases, book ends, file for cards. 

3. Maps, globes, puzzle maps. 

4. Stamps for marking dates. 

5. Rack for placing books advertised by groups and in- 

6. Bulletin board for posting library notices, newspaper clip- 
pings, pictures. 

7. Museum table (made by group) upon which to place com- 
pleted books and posters. 


National College of Education 

B. Accessories. 

1. List of books suitable for fourth grade reading. 

2. Mimeographed copies of book report forms, including: 

Name of child. 

Name of book. 


Date completed. 

List of important characters. 

The best points about the book. 

3. File for pictures used in social studies. 

4. File for pamphlets dealing with natural and general science 
and social studies. 

5. Card file, with cards containing comprehension questions, 
concerning certain books, dealing with specific topics. 

II. Books for individual reading; as: 

X Carroll, L. 
^-Qratrerton, E. K. 

^ Field, Rachel 

/c Ghosh, P. S. 

Harris, J. C. 
King-Hall, S. 

/ Y Kipling, Rudyard 
, ■>, Leetch, D. L. 
" McFce-, I. N. 

^Mukerji, D. G. 
/$'-Muloch, Dinah 
, n Reed, W. M. 
Smith, J. R. 
"Stoddard, A. 

Theison, W. W. 
Thompson, Jay E. 
Thompson, A. T. 
j -Wiggin, K. D. 

•/ 'iW.ynne, A. 
^ | Walker, J. L. 

Alice in Wonderland 

Sailing Ships and Their 

Hitty, Her First Hun- 
dred Years 

The Wonders of the 

Uncle Remus 

Child's Story of Civiliza- 

Just So Stories 

Annetje and Her Family 

The Wonderful Story of 

Kari, the Elephant 

The Little Lame Prince 

The Earth for Sam 

Picture Geography 

Young Heroes of the 

Real Life Stories 

Aviation Stories 

The Birch and the Star 

The Birds' Christmas 

For Days and Days 

How They Carried Mail 

1920 Macmillan 

1923 Lippincott 

1930 Macmillan 

1915 Heath 

1920 Appleton 

192$ Morrow 

1920 Doubleday 

1928 Lothrop 

1929 Putnam 

1927 Dutton 

1918 Lippincott 

1930 Harcourt Brace 
1930 Garrique 

1930 Century 

1929 Macmillan 

1929 Longmans Green 
1910 Row Peterson 

1916 Houghton Mifflin 

1919 Stokes 

1930 Sears 

Note: Books used in units of work are listed with records of units. 

III. Sets of books for reading groups (used according to interests 
and abilities of the groups). 

Baker, C. B. & Bobbs-Merrill Fourth 

Baker, E. D. Reader 

Campbell* E. F. & Our City Chicago 

others \ 
Coatsworth\E. Cat and th\ Captain 


1929 Bobbs-Merrill 

1931 %ribner 

1927 Macmillan 

English Records 381 

Hall, Jennie The Story of Chicago 1929 Rand McNally 

Horn, E. & others Learn to Study Readers 1926 Ginn 

Leetijh, Dorothy L. Tommy Tucker on a 1925 Lothrop, Lee 

\ Plantation & Shepherd 

Lewis, W. D. & New Silent Readers 1927 Winston 

Rowland, A. L. \ 

McGuiire, E. & Adventuring in Young 1929 Macmillan 

Phillips, C. A. America \ \ 

Pumphrey, M. Stories of trie Pilgrims 1912 Rand McNally 

IV. Periodicals. 

1. National Geographic (for pictures). 

2. Nature Magazine. 

3. Popular Mechanics. 

4. The Pilot: two-star edition (Copy for each child). 

V. Practice materials. 

A. Work-type printed material. 

Crabb-McCall Test Lessons in Reading Teachers College, 

^ — Book III Columbia University 

Gates & Peardon Practice Exercises in Teachers College, 

Reading Columbia University 

B. Teacher made material. 

1. Sets of vocabulary cards, using words needed by children. 

2. Mimeographed material — involving: 

(a) Material to test comprehension (true-false, comple- 
tion, multiple choice). 

(b) Material assisting children to do research in phases 
of natural and general science and social studies. 

(c) Material to check individual reading clone by pupils, 
as forms for book reports ; topical questions, listed 
on cards for stories read in individual readers and 
recreational books. 

VI. Standardized tests. A choice is made of the following: 

New Stanford Achieve- Kelley, Ruch & Terman World Book Company 

ment Test 

Gates' Silent Read- Arthur I. Gates Teachers College, 

ing Test Columbia University 

Silent Reading Test Allan J. Williams Public School Pub- 

v lishing Company 

Reading Test Sangren-Woody World Book Company 

Public School Achieve- J. S. Orleans Public School Pub- 

ment Test lishing Company 

C. Probable Outcomes 

I. Outcomes in information. 

A. A growing knowledge of how books, newspapers, periodicals, 
have developed. 

382 National College of Education 

B. A better knowledge of the work of the author, artist, printer, 

C. Some background for judging the mechanical make-up of the 
book; as, the cover, title page, contents, type, paper. 

D. A growing knowledge of books as sources of information and 

E. A growing knowledge of kinds of books and their uses; as 
encyclopedias, dictionaries, readers' guide, atlas. 

F. An increasing knowledge of the origin, function and use of the 
library : 

1. Proper procedure in drawing out books. 

2. The library as an index to the best books to read. 

3. How libraries get books — source of money and gifts. 

4. The work of the various officers in the library. 

G. An increased understanding of the cost of books and their 

H. A growing knowledge of authors and something of their life 

and works. 
I. A better understanding of how to use books in solving problems. 
J. A better understanding of the hygienic way of using books, 
holding book for proper light, posture of body when reading. 
K. Some knowledge of best means of making progress in reading. 
L. Some knowledge of best habits of study. 

II. Outcomes in attitudes and appreciations. 

A. An appreciation of the beauty of descriptive words and phrases. 

B. A growing appreciation of good literature and the charm of 
certain characters and incidents described in classic books. 

C. A growing capacity for securing enjoyment from the use and 
ownership of books. 

D. A developing love and appreciation for good books. 

E. An enjoyment in hearing stories read and an appreciation of 
the need for courtesy on the part of the listener or audience. 

F. A growing joy in selecting and preparing a story to read to 

G. A willingness to use books as a source for information. 
H. A growing pride in the school library. 

I. An increasing desire to cooperate with others to build a better 

J. An increasing responsibility in the care and use of library 

books, and a willingness to handle books carefully. 
K. An appreciation and growing desire to improve the quality of 

voice, to secure clear enunciation and correct pronunciation in 


English Records 383 

L. A growing appreciation of the value of different kinds of read- 
ing skills, as : 

1. Reading to follow directions. 

2. Reading to find details. 

3. Reading to predict outcomes. 

4. Reading to solve problems, answer questions. 

M. An increasing willingness to practice necessary skills in order 
to insure growth and overcome wasteful habits. 

III. Outcomes in habits and skills. 

A. Progress in eliminating undesirable habits, as head and lip 
movement, repetition. 

B. Increasing ability to master new and unfamiliar words, by 

1. Fitting word into the context. 

2. Picking out phonetic elements. 

3. Using dictionary. 

C. More ability to make effective use of table of contents, word 
lists, chapter and marginal headings. 

D. More ability to read with a definite purpose, to judge, organize, 
during the process of reading. 

E. A growing ability to scan books to judge their worth or merit. 

F. A beginning of ability to skim over material quickly and to 
get the gist of it. 

G. A beginning of ability to take notes on material read. 

H. A beginning of ability to organize material in terms of problem 
or purpose and to locate information for such, involving the 
use of reference books and readers' guides. 

I. A beginning of ability to collect and arrange isolated material 
found in different sources dealing with the same problem. 

J. A beginning of ability to find main topics and details under these 
topics, in a selection. 

K. An increased ability to read accurately and fluently both silently 
and orally. 

L. An improvement in the ability to read orally with a well- 
modulated voice and with poise. 
M. Progress in power to hold the interest of a group in oral read- 

Reading in the Fifth Grade 

A. Activities 

I. Reading of material composed by teacher and children relat- 
ing to group interests. 

A. Reading bulletin board (blackboard also used for some 

1. Directions or suggestions for work, excursions, play ac- 

2. Names on committees. 

3. Lists of materials available for certain projects. 

4. Class records in spelling, arithmetic, and other work. 

5. Signs and notices from other rooms and school office. 

6. Financial reports from activities ; other committee reports. 

7. Class weight and height chart. 

8. Class lists of spelling words needed. 

9. Room menu. 

10. Daily or weekly program. 
R Reading finished pieces of work in social studies. 

1. Finished stories and poems. 

2. Finished books. 

3. Stories for talkies. 

4. Parts in plays written. 

5. Graphs, charts, posters, diagrams, and maps made by chil- 
dren to show information gained. 

6. Titles or captions of pictures. 

7. Diaries written on vacation trips. 

8. Reports gained through reference material. 

(See records of units of work in fifth grade for further de- 

C. Reading correspondence. 

1. Letters, invitations, and notices written to share with class- 
mates and for criticism. 

2. Invitations, letters, and notices from other rooms. 

3. Correspondence from school office and outside firms. 

4. Letters received from absent classmates. 

D. Reading school publications. 

1. Articles submitted for use in school publications. 

2. School newspaper and magazine. 

E. Reading individual records. 

1. Individual progress charts. 

2. Individual records of jobs finished and jobs yet to do. 


English Records 


First Aid to Librarians 

Children help to accession new books zvhich they have presented to the 

school library 

II. Caring for and using books. 

A. Caring for books. 

1. Continuing respectful handling of books. 

2. Preparing new books for use, by careful opening and 
marking for identification. 

3. Discussing points to remember in care of book. 

4. Proper marking of place when leaving story. 

5. Making book ends for holding books, and book markers. 

B. Continuing good reading habits. 

1. Practicing proper posture when reading, both standing and 

2. Continuing proper holding of book with reference to dis- 
tance from eyes, convenience for turning pages, and proper 

C. Using books effectively. 

1. Finding pages quickly. 

2. Using table of contents, index, title page, maps and pic- 
tures to the best advantage. 

386 National College of Education 

III. Library activities. 

A. Enjoying room library with teacher. 

1. Listening to teacher read books, read or tell favorite poem 
or story. 

2. Reading aloud favorite story, poem, or portion from book. 

3. Reading pictures together. 

4. Memorizing favorite poems. 

5. Bringing favorite book from home for room library. 

B. Use of school library. 

1. Learning plan of library and location of books, such as: 

(a) Location of reference material. 

(b) Location of historical material. 

2. Learning how to find different material related to group 
interest, by use of readers' guide, encyclopedias, book lists. 

3. Learning how to take books from the library by a new 

4. Continuing to use the library so that all concerned may 
enjoy it, as : using low voices, no unnecessary talking, re- 
placing books correctly. 

5. Enjoying new books and magazines. 

C. Helping to build a better library. 

1. Buying books for Library Endowment Day. 

2. Marking gift books with book plates. 

3. Helping librarians in the accession of new books. 

IV. Independent individual reading for pleasure and information. 

A. Advertising good books to induce others to read. 

1. Reading aloud portions of the book, stopping so that other 
children will want to go on and read the book. 

2. Dramatizing bits from a book. 

3. Placing the book itself on display. 

4. Posting report of book read. 

5. Making poster advertisements of books enjoyed. 

B. Keeping records of books read. 

1. Filling in mimeographed blanks for books read, stating 
title, author, date read, opinion of book, and a sentence 
or two as to its content. 

2. Keeping records in individual folders of books read. 

C. Organizing a Book Club (a spontaneous activity) 

1. Forming club of those people who have read and reported 
on twelve books. 

2. Making wall poster for club members. 

3. Keeping up membership by reading four books a month 
of three different kinds. 

English Records 387 

D. Guiding individual reading (activities carried on with help 
of teacher and librarian). 

1. Checking on book report as to whether book is listed in 
Children's Catalogue. 

2. Posting list of good books for children to choose from. 

3. Posting advertisements of good books for boys and for 
girls, such as lists of pirate stories, school stories, animal 

4. Discussing why care should be used in selecting books. 

5. Discussing what constitutes a good book. 

E. Using books of informational type to solve problems. 

1. Looking up material on topics in social studies. 

2. Reading material found on problems to classmates. 

3. Collecting books for committees on specific topics. 

4. Making simple bibliographies for social studies topics. 

V. Group reading activities for skills and appreciations (from 
books chosen according to group interests and needs.) 

A. Silent. 

1. Reading for main idea of the story after an introduction 
of one or two motivating questions by teacher. 

2. Reading for specific information such as answers to ques- 

3. Reading selection quickly and carefully to be followed by a 
comprehension test. 

4. Reading for main idea of paragraph for the purpose of 
outlining or retelling. 

5. Reading to find topic sentence in a paragraph. 

6. Learning to skim through material for information sought. 

7. Reading to note new and interesting words. 

8. Discussing new words met for the purpose of building a 

9. Reading to dramatize. 

10. Reading directions for playing games, making objects, 
following suggestions for work. 

11. Reading to note details. 

12. Reading arithmetic problems. 

13. Using dictionary as aid. 

B. Oral. 

1. Giving informal story and poem programs by one group 
for another. 

2. Reading parts of stories enjoyed, such as humorous bits 
to group. 

3. Reading to prove point in discussion. 

388 National College of Education 

4. Reading portions to answer question. 

5. Reading poems for enjoyment of pictures, rhythm, rhyme. 

6. Reading to enjoy dialogue. 

7. Reading to understand the story better. 

VI. Use of work-type material (as needed by groups and individ- 

A. Teacher made. 

1. Using exercises to build vocabulary such as: 

(a) Using words from content in original sentences. 

(b) Taking multiple choice test on words, such as: 
Underline the words that mean the same : 

Large Small Big Wide Hard 

2. Using checks on comprehension after reading, as true false 
tests, multiple choice tests, and completion tests. 

3. Using work sheets on topics in social studies to be filled 
in as information is found. 

4. Using work sheets on finding material, as finding pages 
where certain topics will be discussed in a given book. 

5. Taking three-minute reading tests, checking on words 
read per minute and comprehension. 

6. Taking objective tests on material in the social studies. 

B. Printed material. 

1. Using checks on comprehension and vocabulary exercises 
in Walker Parkman Study Reader Manual. 

2. Using Standard Test Lessons in Reading, graphing results 
of three-minute tests. 

VII. Use of tests. 

A. By teacher— giving informal objective tests to check on skills 
worked for. 

B. By psychologist — giving standardized tests as basis for group- 
ing, for remedial work, and for summer reading. 

VIII. Remedial work as needed. See Part V. 

B. Books and Materials Used 

I. Library equipment in room. 

A. Furnishings. 

1. Bookcase. 

2. Library table (30x50) and four chairs. 

3. Book ends (made by children). 

4. File for library cards (made by children). 

English Records 


B. Materials. 

1. Library loan cards. 

2. Tagboard folders (9x12) for each child's book reports. 

3. Mimeographed blanks for reports on books. 

II. Sets of books for group reading (selections made according to 

needs and interests of groups.) 

Baker, C. B. & 

Biker, E. D. 
Lewis, W. D. & 

RoWland, A. L. 
Nida,\W. L. & 

Welik V. L. 
Walke^, A. & 

Parkman, M. R. 

& others 
III. Room library. 

Bobbs-Merrill Fifth 

Fact and Fancy Readers 

Our Country, Past and 

Study Reader— Book V 

Story ai\d Study Fifth 
Reader \ 

A. A few such books as 

\ Alcott, Louisa M. 

^A44e«r N. B.~ 

^- BUisdell, A. F. 
& Ball, F. K. 
Blaisdell, A. F. 
Burnham, S. 
Caldwell, O. W. 
& Meier, W. H. 
3 Carter, M. H. 
Cobb, W. F. 

Coffman, R. 
if Colum, P. 
^Eggleston, E. 
/ Field, Eugene 
7 Fox, F. C. 
/ / Grinnell, G. B. 
1 3 Grinnell, G. B. 
/ s<Hawthorne, 
/ 7 Kipling, Rudyard 

Lanier (editor) 
/^Lear, Edward 
Nida, W. L. 
Page; T. 
23 Patch, Edith M. 

A 6* Riley, James W. 

1 & Sidney, M. 
3^5 Spyri, Johanna 
^ I Stevenson, B. E. 

Swan, O. G. 
3>Thomson, J. E. 
Trafton, G. H. 
Winston - 

£2> White, S. E. 

Jack and Jill 
United States 
Heroic Deeds of Ameri- 
can Sailors 
Stories of the Civil War 
Hero Tales from History 
Open Door to Science 

Stories of Brave Dogs 
Chalk Talks on Health 

and Safety 
Our America 
Arabian Nights 
Hoosier School Master 
Poems of Childhood 
How the World Rides 
Jack Among the Indians 
Jack in the Rockies 
Wonder Book 

Jungle Book 

The Boy's King Arthur 

Nonsense Book 

Following the Frontier 

Among the Camps 

First Lessons in Nature 

Little Orphan Annie and 

other Childhood Poems 
Five Little Peppers 
The Home Book of Verse 

for Young Folks 
Frontier Days 
Aviation Stories 
Nature Study and Science 
Simplified Dictionary ( In- 
termediate Edition) 
The Magic Forest 

1925 Bobbs-Merrill 
1930 Winston 
1930 Scott Foresman 
1924 Merrill 
1928 \ Johnso\i 

1928 Little Brown 

1925 Ginn 
1915 Macmillan 

1912 Lothrop 

1930 Winston 

1926 Ginn 

1904 Century 

1925 Macmillan 

1930 Dodd-Mead 

1923 Macmillan 

1928 Macmillan 
1925 Scribner 

1929 Scribner 
1900 Stokes 
1904 Stokes 

1910 Houghton Mifflin 




Little Brown 




1931 Bobbs-Merrill 

1909 Lothrop 

1899 Ginn 

1922 Henry Holt 

1928 McCrae-Smith 

1929 Longmans Green 

1927 Macmillan 

1928 Macmillan 

390 National College of Education 

B. Maps. 

1. One political map of the United States. (Goode, Rand 

2. One physical map of the United States. (Goode, Rand 

3. One blackboard outline map of the United States. (Rand 

C. Pictures. 

1. Four permanent framed French prints of village, forest, 
lake and harbor. 

2. Picture file containing photographs and prints related to 
seasonal material, industries, history of the United States, 
miscellaneous topics. 

D. Periodicals. 

1. National Geographic (for pictures). 

2. Nature Magazine. 

3. Popular Science. 

4. The Pilot: three-star edition. (Copy for each child). 

IV. Practice material. 

A. Publishers' material. 

Crabb-McCall Standard Test Lessons in Read- Teachers College, 

ing — Book IV — 
Walker-Parkman Study Reader Manual Merrill 

B. Teacher-made material. 

1. Informal objective tests, to test comprehension. 

2. Informal vocabulary drills. 

3. Work sheets to guide reading. 

V. Standardized tests. A choice is made of the following: 

New Stanford Achieve- Kelley, Ruch and Ter- World Book Company 
ment Test 

Silent Reading man Public School Publish- 

Test Allan J. Williams ing Company 

Reading Test World Book Company 

Public School Achieve- Sangren-Woody Public School Publish- 
ment Test J. S. Orleans ing Company 

Gates' Silent Read- Teachers College, Co- 

ing Test Arthur I. Gates lumbia University 

C. Probable Outcomes 

I. Information. 

A. A better knowledge of how books and magazines are made. 

B. More knowledge of particular authors, artists, publishers, and 
their contribution. 

C. A better understanding of how to use books to solve problems. 

English Records 391 

D. Added information concerning the kinds of books, such as 
encyclopedias, history, fiction, science, poetry, drama. 

E. A better understanding of what constitutes a good book. 

F. A better understanding of how to select a book to read. 

G. A fuller understanding of where and how to find material m 
the library. 

H. More knowledge of the work of the librarian, how books are 

accessioned, checked out, catalogued. 
I. A better knowledge of the purposes for which reading is used. 

II. Attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Growing joy in using books. 

B. More appreciation of the beauty of illustrations, binding, deco- 

C. More appreciation for fine quality of paper in a book, read- 
ability of print, wide margins, artistic arrangement. 

D. Growing delight in reading stories which are well written. 

E. Beginning of appreciation for definite qualities in style of writ- 
ing, such as choice of words, humor, rhythm, forceful repeti- 

F. Better appreciation for informational value of books. 

G. Better appreciation for books as a means of solving our every- 
day problems. 

H. Growing respect for the value of books, especially of superior 

I. Growing pride and pleasure in ownership of books. 
J. Continued willingness to handle books correctly. 
K. Appreciation for skill in different kinds of reading, such as 

ability to read carefully in following directions, ability to read 

rapidly to get the story. 
L. Growing pride in the school library. 

M. A desire to cooperate with others to build a better library. 
N. A growing responsibility in using library books. 
O. A desire and willingness to share pleasure found in books with 

P. A growing willingness to find information to help solve group 

Q. A willingness to help others find information. 

III. Habits and skills. 

A. Continued habit of handling books so as to preserve them in 
good condition. 

B. Continued habit of handling books correctly and hygienically 
with reference to light, eyes, posture. 

392 National College of Education 

C. Development in ability to find books needed or desired in the 

D. Development in skill in finding topics desired in reference ma- 
terial as in encyclopedias. 

E. Continued habit of listening courteously and attentively while 
others read. 

F. Progress in elimination of faulty habits of reading such as 
repetition, omissions, insertions, faulty eye-movements. 

G. Growth in ability to skim through material for most important 
facts or material relevant to some problem which is being 

H. Development in ability to select gist of a paragraph. 
I. Beginning of ability to select gist of a story and put down in 
proper sequence in an outline. 

J. Growth in ability to take a few simple notes from reading. 

K. Growth in ability to note details in reading. 

L. Ability to read and carry out directions within known vocabu- 

M. Ability to read orally from books used in the group, so that 
others can comprehend. 

N. Growth in ability to interpret so that others can enjoy the story. 

O. Ability to read silently and get the thought independently from 
books used in the group. 

P. Growth in ability to recognize new words from context, from 
phonetic elements, or resemblance to familiar words. 

Q. Development in skill in using the dictionary as an aid in read- 

Reading in the Sixth Grade 

A. Activities and Procedure 

I. Reading of material composed by teacher and children relat- 
ing to group interests. 

A. Reading notices from bulletin board or blackboard. 

1. Daily program. 

2. Room menu. 

3. Notices and posters announcing activities in other rooms. 

4. Weight charts. 

5. Reports from committees, such as final reports on sale of 

6. Results of playground activities. 

7. Arithmetic reasoning problems from blackboard. 

8. Directions as to excursions, assemblies, and other group 

9. Notices of materials needed in special classes such as music 
and art. 

10. Maps, diagrams and graphs. 

B. Reading correspondence. 

1. Letters received from former and absent members of the 

2. Invitations and notes received from other rooms. 

3. Letters of various types which have been written as class 

C. Reading completed work. 

1. Completed books made in Social Studies. 

2. Original stories and poems. 

3. Diaries or reports of vacation trips. 

4. Reports prepared for Social Studies, Science or Current 

5. Parts written for play. 

6. Maps, charts and diagrams which were made by children. 

D. Reading school magazine. 

1. Articles which have been written for magazine. 

2. Titles of articles to be used (with organization of material 
in mind). 

3. Completed magazine. 

E. Reading individual records. 

1. Book charts which show each child's record. 

2. Contracts giving suggestions as to amounts of work to 
be accomplished in a given period of time. 


394 National College of Education 

II. Library. 

A. Enjoying room library with teacher. 

1. Reading pictures together. 

2. Reading or telling favorite story or poem. 

3. Hearing teacher read or tell favorite stories and poems. 

4. Bringing favorite books from home to be shared with the 

5. Planning exhibits of books for library table, such as dif- 
ferent collections of poetry and science books. 

B. Use of school library. 

1. Learning new arrangement of library, so as to find refer- 
ence material and pictures easily. 

2. Using reference material, encyclopedias, atlas, in an effi- 
cient way. 

3. Checking books from the library and keeping rules govern- 
ing book loans. 

4. Observing rules of quiet in library which make for efficient 

C. Helping to build a better library. 

1. Giving books on Library Endowment Day. 

2. Helping librarians to prepare books for circulation. 

3. Subscribing to National Geographic magazine for library, 
as a class gift. 

III. Caring for and using own books. 

A. Caring for books. 

1. Treating a book as a valued possession, to be handled with 

2. Using correct way of marking place in book. 

3. Making book ends and book cases in manual training for 
home and school use. 

4. Discussing ways of making an occasional note or comment 
in own book. 

5. Discussing individual book plates and manner of marking 
books for identification. 

B. Handling of books. 

1. Continuing correct position when reading. 

2. Discussing the convenient and comfortable ways for hold- 
ing book, with reference to light, distance from eyes, and 
rapid turning of pages. 

3. Using title page, preface, table of contents, index, chapter 
headings, topic headings, maps, pictures, in an effective 

English Rfxords 395 

IV. Independent individual reading for pleasure and information. 

A. Guiding individual reading (with help of teacher and li- 
brarian) . 

1. Posting lists of good books suitable to read. 

2. Exhibiting suitable books. 

3. Occasionally bringing in magazine reviews of good books, 
such as the prize books of the year. 

4. Occasionally reading what children in other schools have 
written concerning certain books. 

B. Keeping records of reading. 

1. Filling in mimeographed blank, for some book read, giving 
title, author, date, main characters, a few sentences about 
story, opinion of book, and opinion as to reading difficulty. 

2. Writing name of book and author on wall chart, which 
makes a permanent record for the term. 

C. Pleasure reading. 

1. Reading aloud from a favorite book which the child wishes 
to recommend to the class. 

2. Telling briefly parts of books to arouse interest of class. 

3. Giving a few sentences describing book, letting class give 

4. Reading book reports children have written. 

5. Dramatizing portions of story. 

D. Reading to gain help in solving problems. 

1. Reading reference material in social studies. 

2. Reading charts and graphs, such as those showing exports 
from various countries. 

3. Reading and interpreting maps for such information as 
rainfall, physical features, population. 

4. Reading pictures relating to social studies and science. 

5. Reading factual material of general interest to class. 

6. Collecting books for room use, which have to do with 
subject under discussion. 

7. Listing helpful books connected with any unit. 

8. Discussing parts of book, and their value in rinding ma- 
terial quickly. 

V. Group reading from book (chosen for probable appeal to group 
and for adaptation to ability of group). 
A. Silent reading. 

1. To interpret statistical materials, such as tables, maps, 

2. To follow printed or written directions with accuracy, as 

396 National College oe Education 

3. To visualize described details through reading. 

4. To "skim" reading material in search of statements bear- 
ing upon problem ; to scan paragraph headings, index page, 
table of contents. 

5. To select the central thought of a paragraph. 

6. To select details in order to outline material. 

7. To collect, organize, and interpret data presented in books. 

8. To determine relative importance of different facts. 

9. To determine whether statements are based on facts or 

10. For specific answers to questions. 

11. In order to prepare for some type of comprehension test. 

12. In order to prepare for dramatization. 
B. Oral reading. 

1. To answer questions. 

2. To verify opinions and statements. 

3. To check accuracy of previous reading. 

4. To learn dramatic or dialogue parts in preparation for a 

5. To interpret character parts in a narrative. 

6. To enjoy poetry, interpreting the mood, the story through 
the voice. 

7. For purpose of sharing that which has been enjoyed with 

8. To interpret maps, charts, graphs. 

VI. Use of work type material (when needed by groups or in- 
dividuals). Exercises made by teacher and pupils. 

A. Using guide sheets in social studies, giving questions, direc- 
tions and suggestions. 

B. Checking comprehension of reading by true false tests, com- 
pletion sentences, multiple choice tests, writing answers to 
mimeographed questions. 

C. Practicing exercises to build vocabulary, such as 

1. Finding as many synonyms as possible for given words. 

2. Rearranging lists of words so that synonyms will be op- 
posite one another. 

3. Making individual lists of difficult words found in reading. 

4. Using set of mimeographed sentences such as the follow- 

His very manner was hostile — (unfriendly, gracious, 


Underline the word in parenthesis that means about the 

same as the word underlined in the sentence. 

English Records 


5. Underlining well-chosen words and phrases in paragraphs. 

D. Preparing maps and diagrams interpreting quantitative facts. 

E. Occasional use of outlines giving main headings, with children 
filling in sub-topics. 

F. Taking three-minute reading tests checking on comprehension 
and number of words read per minute. 

VII. Check tests. 

A. Given by teacher. Informal objective tests to check reading 
ability, used as a basis for choosing books and material. 

B. Given by psychologist. Standardized tests used as basis for 
summer reading, remedial work, and for grouping. 

VIII. Remedial work as needed. (See Part V.) 

B. Books and Materials Used 
I. Library equipment in room. 

A. Furniture. 

1. Book case. 

2. Library table and chairs. 

3. Book ends, made by children in woodwork class. 

4. File for library cards. 

B. Materials. 

1. Library loan cards. 

2. Mimeographed forms for book reports. 

II. Sets of books for group reading, used according to interests 
and abilities of groups. 

Baker, C. B. & 

Bobbs-Merrill Sixth 



Baker, E. D. 


BeaVd, C. A. & 

Our Gild World Back- 



Ba,glev, W. C. 

Our Heritage from the 





Old W\rld 

Walker, A. & 

Study Reader for Sixth 



Sumrny, E. 

Grade \ 

Withers; J. W. 

Story and ^tudy Sixth 



& others 


III. Room Library. 

A. Books for individual use ; as, 

/ Baldwin, J. 
Barrows, H. H. 
& -Parker, M. 
£, Beard, D. C. 

jj Burgess, T. W. 

The Story of Roland 

American Boys' Book of 
Bugs, Butterflies and 

Burgess Bird Book 

1930 Scribner 

1927 Silver Burdett 

1915 Lippincott 

1919 Little Brown 


National College of Education 

n Church, A. J. 
\ Church, A. J. 

Comstock, Anna 
L\ Fabre, J. H. 

King-Hall, S. 
,'SKingsley, C. 
I I Hillyer, V. M. 

- Hilly er, V. M. 

Holmes, Burton 
Martin, M. E. 
/£ Pyle, H. 

; 7 Pyle, H. 

Scott, Sir Walter 
' Untermeyer, L. 
, .Van Loon, H. W. 

Iliad for Boys and Girls 
Odyssey for Boys and 

Handbook of Nature 

Insect Adventures 
Story of Civilization 
Greek Heroes 
A Child's Geography of 

the World 
A Child's History of the 

Travels in Egypt 
The Friendly Stars 
King Arthur and 

Merry Adventures 

Robin Hood 

This Singing World 
Story of Mankind 
Simplified Dictionary 

(Intermediate Edition) 


1924 Macmillan 

1925 Macmillan 

1929 Comstock • 

1917 Dodd Mead 

1928 Morrow 

1928 Macmillan 

1929 Century 

1924 Century 

1925 Wheeler 
1907 Harper 
19*03 Scribner 

of 1883 Scribner 

1923 Harcourt 
1926 Liveright 
1929 Winston 

B. Periodicals such as the following: 

1. National Geographic (for pictures). 

2. Nature Magazine. 

3. Popular Mechanics. 

4. The Pilot: three-star edition (copy for -each child). 

C. Maps. 

1. One political map of Europe. 

2. One political map of Asia. 

3. One map of the world. 

D. Pictures. 

1. Four framed French prints — Series on the four continents. 

2. Picture file including science material, pictures pertaining 
to ancient civilization, pictures to be used for special days. 

IV. Practice materials. 

A. Guide sheets to guide factual reading. 

B. Mimeographed checks to test comprehension. 

V. Standardized tests, selected from the following list: 

New Stanford Achieve- Kelley, Ruch and Terman World Book Company 

ment Test 
Reading Tests Sangren — Woody World Book Company 

Silent Reading Test Arthur I. Gates Teachers College, Colum- 

bia University 
Silent Reading Test Allan J. Williams Public School Publish- 

ing Company 
Public School Achieve- J. S. Orleans Public School Publish- 

ment Test ing Company 

English Records 399 

C. Probable Outcomes 
I. Information. 

A. A better knowledge of well-known authors, artists, publishers, 
of juvenile books. 

B. A thorough knowledge of the parts of a book, such as title 
page, preface, table of contents, index, chapter and paragraph 
headings, glossary, bibliography. 

C. An understanding of how to use this information for finding 
material quickly. 

D. A thorough knowledge of kinds of books, such as dictionary, 
encyclopedias, atlas, history, science, fiction, poetry, drama. 

E. A knowledge of the cost of books ; different editions of the 

F. A knowledge of the purposes for which reading is used ; as 
advertising, communication, recreation, problem solving, 
general information, specific directions. 

G. Detailed information concerning favorite authors. 

H. A knowledge as to the arrangement and plan of the school 
library and the public library ; the duties of the librarian ; the 
card catalogue ; how books are checked from the library ; how 
the library is supported. 

I. A knowledge of various magazines and types of information 
each contains. 

J. A better understanding of the information gained through 
reading charts, graphs, maps, diagrams. 

II. Attitudes and appreciations. 

A. A keen appreciation of books with beautifully colored illus- 
trations, fine bindings, artistic printing and decoration. 

B. A continued willingness to handle all books properly. 

C. A better appreciation of style ; of such qualities as humor, 
repetition, rhythm, apt phrasing. 

D. An appreciation of the vivid imagery, simple direct expression, 
and musical word selection found in poetry. 

E. An appreciation of the informational value of books. 

F. Readiness to refer to books for solution of problems. 

G. An appreciation of cost and value of books. 

H. An appreciation of the value of a private library. 
I. An appreciation of different kinds of reading; as, 

1. Rapid reading for pleasure and general information. 

2. Careful reading for details. 

3. Exact reading for following directions. 

4. Thoughtful reading for problem solving. 

400 National College of Education 

J. An appreciation of and pride in school library. 
K. Pleasure in cooperating with others in building school library. 
L. Willingness to share books for pleasure of the group and to 

bring information to group. 
M. Attitude of responsibility in using library books. 

III. Habits and skills. 

A. Continued habit of handling and treating all books with respect. 

B. Continued habit of handling all books correctly and hygienically 
with reference to light, eyes, posture. 

C. Greater skill in using library ; finding books quickly. 

D. Greater skill in using bibliographies, encyclopedias, table of 
contents, index, reader's guide. 

E. Continued habit of being an attentive member of the audience 
while others read. 

F. Continued growth in building a reading vocabulary. 

G. Growth in ability to read maps, charts, pictures, graphs. 

H. Growth in ability to follow printed directions with accuracy. 

I. Development of ability to visualize described details. 

J. A growth in the ability to locate data. 

K. Ability to "skim" reading material effectively. 

L. Ability to select central thought with supporting details. 

M. Growing ability to distinguish between main heading and sub- 
heads and to tabulate such in outline form. 

N. Growing ability to judge the soundness and general worth of 

O. Growth in ability to determine the relative importance of dif- 
ferent facts. 

P. Growing ability to read with critical attitude. 

O. Ability to read orally from books used in the grade, so that 
others can comprehend and enjoy what is read. 

R. Ability to read silently and get thought from books used in the 

S. Ability to reproduce material read in a concrete way through 
dramatization and oral reports. 

T. Ability to see likenesses and differences in words, to discrim- 
inate between words that look much alike, and to recognize 
new words from their similarity to words previously learned. 

U. Ability to use glossary and dictionary. 


IN THE use of number the Kindergarten does not formulate 
definite lists of skills to be mastered, but seeks merely to utilize 
opportunities as they arise for building number concepts and develop- 
ing a number sense. The record which follows includes the expe- 
riences of a single year, and some of these opportunities may not 
recur. However, the activities of the Senior Kindergarten each year 
afford many situations where interest in number is stimulated. The 
ability to count accurately and to recognize objects in groups has 
been found fundamental to rapid progress in arithmetic; and the 
kindergarten may well supplement the home and community in pro- 
viding practical experiences of this sort. 

Number Experience in the Senior 

A. Activities 
I. Activities related to the kindergarten program. 

A. Serving of luncheon. 

Children placed a certain number of napkins and the same 
number of glasses on each table. Some children were given a 
tray full of glasses and were asked to place them on tables, 
then come back and tell the director how many glasses were 
on his tray. For many children this number has run up to 
eighteen or twenty. Chairs about the tables were counted in 
order that the number would correspond to the places set. 

B. Toilet procedure. 

The children were asked to use one towel only. They were re- 
quested to push the liquid soap container only three times so 
as not to waste soap. There was counting of number of toilet 
facilities, and counting of children to determine how many 
children must wait. 

C. Passing out of constructive materials. 

As need arose the children counted papers, crayons and other 


402 National College of Education 

D. Use of the calendar. 

With the beginning of the New Year an interest arose in 
calendars. A large calendar for the room was introduced and 
the guinea pigs' birthday was recorded. This stimulated an 
interest in the birthdays of the children. When a child had 
memorized when his birthday came, he was shown on the 
calendar which was his month. He then counted up until he 
came to the date of his birth, and if he could write his name 
to mark the day, he did so. If not, it was written for him. 
The teachers commented on children's ages, and comparison 
was made of ages. 

E. Use of the clock. 

With a number interest has come many questions about num- 
bers on a clock face and how a person can tell time. The use 
of the hours was our starting point. We counted the minute 
marks and have timed ourselves in doing certain activities, as 
replacing of materials "in five minutes," or while the big hand 
moves from one number to the next. Drawing of clock faces 
on the blackboard and counting out the time on these has been 
of decided help and interest. An hour glass was shown to 
the children, and a discussion as to its use followed. There 
was great interest in its operation. 

F. Use of the index in books, and numbers on page 

The teachers have made a point of using the index in story 
and song books, and of commenting on the page numbers. 

II. Activities related to units of work. 

A. Use of thermometer in connection with study of temperature. 
This interest arose when the group was having a unit in study- 
ing ocean liners. The detecting of icebergs was discussed, and 
while "play" thermometers were made at first, many children 
wanted to go on into a consideration of a real thermometer. 
A large one w r as secured and the temperature indoors was 
recorded, and later the temperature out-of-doors was noted. 
Many children followed this interest for a period of five weeks, 
each day recording the findings. Children ruled off a chart, 
for days of the week and for temperature indoors and out- 
of-doors. The teacher recorded the days of the week and the 
date. Children recorded temperature. The children found 
that water placed in a shallow pan on the window sill would 
freeze if the temperature was below 32°. 

B. Measuring of wood used for various articles made by children. 
Use of inches came first and a need for counting up inches on 
the ruler. This led to a discussion of the foot rule. The 

Arithmetic Records 403 

children soon fell into the habit of counting up the inches on 
their pieces of wood. This was true of a group of about seven 
who showed an early interest in anything that involved num- 
bers. The children found that it took twelve one-inch spaces 
to fill out the ruler and that the ruler was called a foot. By 
marking the ruler off on a yard rule, with crayon, they found 
that three lengths of the ruler was as much as the length of 
the yard stick. This was only of passing interest, however. 

C. Counting of money in connection with book sale for Library 
Endowment Day. 

Children brought pocketbooks containing money in all de- 
nominations, and also checks to pay for books. A brief ex- 
planation of what a check is and what it stands for, was given 
to the group. 

D. Cooking experiences. 

The children made candy for their fathers at Christmas time. 
They also enjoyed the making of applesauce, of jelly and of 
cookies. These activities involved simple counting and measur- 
ing. Actual measuring of ingredients helped children to gain 
some sense of quantity. They found in pouring out the jelly 
that the measuring cup held more than one jelly glass could 

E. Voting. 

Voting on questions that arose in connection with the work ; 
such as, what story to have, what activity to pursue next, name 
for new dolls, has led to counting and abiding by the results. 

B. Books and Materials Used 
I. Materials used in daily program. 

A. Glasses, napkins, chairs to count, used at the lunch period. 

B. Towels, soap container, facilities for toilet procedure. 

C. Paper, crayons, scissors, paste jars, and other supplies. 

D. Calendar with numbers \y 2 inches high, with each number 
ruled off in a square, so that there was little confusion in read- 
ing numbers. 

E. Clock face supplied by Ideal School Supply Company, Chicago, 
Illinois ; the room clock with Arabic numbers ; hour glass and 
three minute sand glasses ; pictures of sun dials. 

F. Song books and story books, with pages numbered. 

II. Materials used in units of work. 

A. A large thermometer, compliments of "The Chicago Daily 
News." The numbers on this were almost an inch high with 
spaces over an eighth of an inch marking off the degrees. 

404 National College of Education 

B. A foot ruler with inches clearly marked. Later a yardstick 
was introduced. 

C. Pennies, nickels, dimes, half dollars, dollar bills and checks. 

C. Probable Outcomes 
I. Related to kindergarten program. 

A. Number consciousness increased through practical application 
at the luncheon period. Children felt need for knowing how 
many places were to be set, so that no one would have to go 
without orange juice. 

B. Felt need for being economical in use of lavatory materials so 
that there would be a supply of towels and soap. Apprecia- 
tion that selfishness on part of some would deprive others of 

C. Skill in counting developed through passing of materials for 
the group. Felt need for being able to count. 

D. A knowledge gained as to the purpose of calendars. Ability 
to recognize figures, and to name them in sequence. 

E. Ability to tell time even to the minute gained by several chil- 
dren. Favorable attitude in learning to tell time. A feeling for 
time or time sense by using time for one activity and then find- 
ing there was no time left to do certain other things. Knowl- 
edge concerning the hour glass and its use. 

F. Some idea of how one finds a desirable place in a book, gained 
by seeing the teacher use index and page numbers. 

II. Related to units of work. 

A. Information as to how a thermometer operates, and how tem- 
perature is recorded. Knowledge that the thermometer acts 
as a means of telling whether or not the w r eather is cold. 
Skill (attained by many) in reading the thermometer. 

B. Knowledge of linear measure gained to some degree. Felt 
need for some means of measurement in order to have accuracy 
in woodwork. 

C. Knowledge of various coins, pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters, 
half dollars, and dollar bills : number of pennies to make a 
nickel and dime. Some idea as to the value and use of checks. 
Some understanding of the value of money. 

D. Knowledge that to have cooking successful there must be ac- 
curacy and directions must be followed. 

E. Knowledge of which numbers are larger than others, gained 
by counting votes. Some understanding of the fact that the 
majority rules, and that the social thing to do is conform happily 
to the wishes of the majority. 


THE objective in the teaching of arithmetic has been to use arith- 
metic continually and naturally in school enterprises, wherever 
the need for it appears, thereby developing knowledge and appre- 
ciation of its importance in life situations, and at the same time to 
provide for the systematic mastery of the skills which are deemed 
necessary by those who have studied the subject scientifically. No 
attempt is made to subordinate the teaching of arithmetic to an activ- 
ity program, or to force arithmetic practice into social activities 
where it does not belong. However, numerous practical problems 
involving arithmetic arise in every grade, and these often provide 
direct motivation for practice exercises. 

In the first grade, no definite period is set aside for number ex- 
perience, but opportunities for developing a number sense and for 
mastering certain fundamental concepts are utilized wherever they 
occur. Beginning in second grade, time is provided each day for the 
mastery of fundamental skills, and for the discussion and solution 
of the number problems of the group. Much of the practical work, 
however, can not wait for a time schedule, and arithmetic experience 
is afforded in connection with many other activities. The story of 
the contributions of number in the development of social life has 
proved a fascinating branch of the social studies. 

As in the case of reading, the children are often grouped for arith- 
metic according to capacities and needs ; and methods and materials 
are selected to fit the capacities and provide for the normal develop- 
ment of individuals and groups. Individual practice materials care- 
fully made or selected for each child, have been found most desirable 
in developing independence, in overcoming weaknesses, and in build- 
ing specific skills. 

In the outlines that follow, outcomes tend to be cumulative from 
grade to grade. Each year effort is made to maintain desirable 
attitudes and appreciations, habits and skills, developed in preceding 


Number Experience in the First Grade 

A Summary Based on Records for One Year 
A. Activities 
I. Activities related to room procedure. 

A. Counting and learning to see number of objects in a group. 

1. Taking attendance in small groups. 

2. Grouping children for committees, reading classes, songs, 
rhythm work, playground activities. 

3. Voting occasionally on debated questions and counting to 
determine majority. 

4. Setting small tables for lunch periods and for parties, 
counting out articles needed for each table. 

5. Arranging chairs and distributing materials for group 
work, counting number needed for group. 

B. Measuring, weighing. 

1. Dividing blackboard for writing and drawing. 

2. Measuring for various art and industrial enterprises. 

3. Getting measured and weighed in doctor's office at regular 

C. Learning to make and recognize figures. 

1. Numbering pages in original booklets. 

2. Recognizing pages in primers and readers. 

D. Using and understanding time. 

1. Using clock as a guide in daily program. 

2. Using days and months in planning events ; recognizing 
dates of special days. 

3. Recognizing dates of children's birthdays and their ages. 

II. Activities related to group enterprises. 

(For fuller account see Units of Work for First Grade) 
A. Playing post-office. 

1. Depositing $5.00 in first grade bank for use in playing 
post-office; pennies for letters; nickels for packages. 

2. Counting to find number of stamps needed to mail letters. 
Writing withdrawal slip for amount of money needed 
from bank. 

3. Counting money to see what was income in post-office for 

4. Counting money in bank each day to be sure none has been 


Arithmetic Records 


Buying Is Enthusiastic at Pi.ay Time 

This store offers kites, jump-ropes, hoops, pin-wheels and other toys for use on 

the playground 

5. Weighing packages when children wish to mail little gifts 
made from clay and wood. 

6. Writing house numbers in sending letters. 

B. Playing store. 

1. Depositing $5.00 in first grade bank, in pennies, nickels 
and dimes, for playing store. 

2. Pricing; estimating proportionate value of article; writing 
price tags ; writing price lists. 

3. Buying and selling; drawing amount needed from bank 
to make purchases; computing to give customer total cost 
of articles chosen. 

4. Paying cashier. 

C. Conducting a Baby Show. 

1. Weighing dolls and recording weight. 

2. Measuring dolls and recording height. 

3. Recording age of dolls. 

4. Recording number of teeth. 

5. Giving ribbon to each doll, designating first, second or 
third place. 

408 National College of Education 

D. Planning a picture-story movie. 

1. Outlining program — number and sequence of pictures. 

E. Making cookies for valentine gift. 

1. Reading figures in recipe. 

2. Measuring with teaspoon, tablespoon, cup; using pint and 
quart containers. 

F. Playing with children's toys and games brought for toy party. 

1. Balls and bean bags; used for counting and easy addition. 

2. Lotto : used for recognizing figures. 

3. Dominoes : used for recognizing objects in groups. 

III. Practice in reading and writing figures and other skills, as need 
arises and children show readiness. 

B. Books and Materials Used 
I. Materials for practical experience with numbers. 

A. Materials used in counting: 

1. Children (counting for attendance and grouping). 

2. Handwork materials, books, pencils. 

3. Articles used at lunch : tables, chairs, doilies, glasses. 

B. Materials used in measuring. 

1. Rulers (in woodwork, sewing). 

2. Yardstick (in building, dividing blackboard, making 

3. Nails (in measuring various sizes). 

4. Teaspoons, tablespoons, cups, pint and quart bottles (in 
cooking enterprises). 

5. Clock and calendar (in planning time). 

C. Materials used in weighing. 

1. Scales (pound for weighing packages, children, dolls). 

2. Scales ( ounce for weighing letters in play post-office). 

D. Materials used in handling money. 

1. Pennies, nickels, dimes. 

2. Cash-box, cash register. 

E. Children's own toys and games. 

1. Dolls. 

2. Balls. 

3. Bean bags. 

4. Games like lotto and dominoes. 

II. Informal individual checks. 

(Involving counting, recognizing objects in groups, reading and 
writing figures, given from time to time to find out how mature 
each child is in dealing with concrete number). 

Arithmetic Records 409 

C. Probable Outcomes 

I. Information. 

A. Recognition of many practical uses for accurate counting. 

B. Recognition of several instruments for measuring and weigh- 
ing and their value. 

C. Recognition of many uses for reading and writing figures. 

D. Recognition of some divisions of time and their importance. 

E. Introduction to use of money. 

1. Use of money in buying and selling. 

2. Recognition and value of penny, nickel, dime, dollar. 

F. Beginnings of information about banking. 

1. Reasons why one may draw money from the bank. 

2. Method of withdrawing funds. 

3. Protection of money in banks. 

4. Officers and workers in banks. 

G. Some information about postage. 

1. Reason for paying postage. 

2. Variety of postage rates : regular, special, air mail, regis- 
tered mail, parcel post. 

H. Some information about keeping store. 

1. Duties and responsibilities of storekeeper. 

2. Comparative cost of articles. 

II. Attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Appreciation of need for accuracy in counting and measuring, 
and in reading and writing figures. 

B. Beginning of appreciation of value of money and a desire to 
use money wisely for daily needs and for pleasure. 

C. Beginning of an appreciation of just remuneration for service. 

D. Respect and care for others' money. 

E. Beginnings of an appreciation of good proportion in planning 
buildings, and other constructions. 

III. Skills. 

A. Counting objects accurately by 1, 2, 5, 10 to 100. 

B. Recognition of groups of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 articles. 

C. Recognition of figures to 100; much higher for many. 

D. Ability to write figures to 20; to 100 and over for many. 

E. Mastery of a few easy addition and subtraction facts by all 
children; mastery of further addition and subtraction facts by 
those more ready. 

410 National College of Education 

IV. Comprehension of terms and ability to think through these 

A. Inch, foot, yard, pound, ounce, scales. 

B. Hour, minute, day, week, month, year, date. 

C. Penny, nickel, dime, dollar. 

D. Cash, cash box, cash register, bill, check, balance. 

E. Cashier, clerk, salesperson, customer. 

F. Vault, safe, bank. 

Arithmetic in the Second Grade 

A Summary Based on Records for One Year 

A. Activities 
I. Activities related to room procedure. 

A. Use of ruler and yardstick. 

1. In many art and industrial enterprises. 

2. In measuring seats and desks to fit the child. 

B. Watching weight and height chart made by the nurse, intro- 
ducing pounds and feet. 

C. Watching temperature of room ; noting differences in degrees 
inside and outside ; testing thermometer in f rigidaire box. 

D. Testing the dryness of the room with the hygrometer. 

E. Telling time in order to plan and follow the day's program. 

F. Celebrating birthdays and special days (stressing dates and 
ages; using calendar). 

II. Activities related to group enterprises. 

A. Publishing the children's newspaper. 

1. Buying the unprinted paper and stencils from the school 

2. Borrowing $2.00 in change from the school bank. 

3. Selling paper for 3c (requiring addition, multiplication of 

4. Making change from all denominations of money. 

5. Dividing papers among the newsboys. 

6. Giving change to each of the newsboys. 

7. Counting money to see that they had 3c for every paper 

8. Deducting money that was borrowed for change. 

9. Depositing money made, in room bank. 

B. Conducting gift shop. 

1. Listing number of articles to be sold. 

2. Estimating how many articles are needed and quantity each 
child can produce. 

3. Pricing different articles. 

4. Printing price signs. 

5. Acting as a cashier. 

6. Drawing money out of room bank for change. 

7. Handling and making change with real money. 


412 National College of Education 

C. Spending money earned. 

1. Committee was chosen to go to town to buy a flag. 

2. Committee charged flag to school account. 

3. School sent bill to Second Grade. 

D. Baking cookies for party. 

1. Buying the material for cookies. 

(a) Finding how much sugar, butter, eggs, milk is needed 
if the recipe is trebled. 

(b) Purchasing supplies and counting of change. 

2. Interpreting recipe. 

Use of measuring cup, teaspoon and tablespoon, scales, 

E. Making cranberry sauce in connection with a study of fall 
fruits. (Further experience in interpreting recipe and measur- 
ing accurately.) 

F. Handling money in connection with other school enterprises. 

1. Buying books for Library Endowment Day. 

2. Paying carfare on excursions. 

G. Counting and measuring in connection with units of work. 
Many needs for counting and measuring and for use of number 
facts arose in connection with the study of farm and garden. 
(See Units of Work in the Second Grade.) 

III. Number Games. 

A. Playing games brought by the children ; as, dominoes, marbles, 

B. Playing outdoor games, involving grouping of children and 
keeping score. 

IV. Explanation and demonstration of new processes. 

A. Presentation of addition and subtraction facts, and also multi- 
plication and division facts in "teaching units." (See Teach- 
ing Arithmetic in the Primary Grades — Morton.) 

B. Placing numbers under each other in straight columns when 
adding or subtracting. 

C. Making and placing the addition and subtraction signs cor- 

D. Learning to begin on the right side to add or subtract, and to 
begin at top and add down. Learning different ways to write 
addition and subtraction exercises. 

E. Learning correct form in writing fractions ( J / 2 , %) . 

Arithmetic Records 413 

V. Practice activities. 

A. Practicing on blackboard new processes just demonstrated. 

B. Using mimeographed sheets of new processes. 

C. Using work type books as needed. 

D. Using number cards for both individual needs and in a group, 
but never for competitive purposes. 

E. Scoring and keeping records of individual achievement. 

B. Books and Materials Used 
I. Materials for practical experiences with numbers. 

A. Ruler and yardstick. 

B. Clock with Roman numerals. 

C. Calendar. 

D. Thermostat. 

E. Hygrometer (brought in to test dryness of room). 

F. Measuring devices for cooking: measuring cup, tablespoon, 
teaspoon, quart and pint measures, recipes. 

G. Money and related materials. 

1. Pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters, half-dollars, paper 

2. Bank book, withdrawal slips, deposit slips, bills, receipts, 

II. Number games. 

A. The Jolly Bobbers. 

B. Dominoes. 

C. Marbles. 

D. Tenpins. 

III. Practice material. 

A. Mimeographed material relating to children's number experi- 

B. Some practice cards in addition and subtraction facts (both 
for group and individual use). 

C. Published materials. 

My Progress Book in Arithmetic, No. 1 Eleanor M. Johnson 

Objective Drills in Arithmetic (Second Year) Stone, Hopkins, Browns- 

(This material is given as individual children show readiness). 

IV. Arithmetic Tests. 

(So far have not found satisfactory standard of measuring arith- 
metic ability in Second Grade until end of year. Informal arith- 
metic tests have been devised by the teacher to be used during the 

414 National College of Education 

New Stanford Achievement Test — Primary World Book Company 

Computation and Reasoning 

Public School Achievement Test in Computa- Public School Publishing 

tion and Reasoning Company 

C. Probable Outcomes 
I. Information. 

A. Use of money in buying and selling. 

B. Recognition of all the coins and paper money. 

C. Manner of buying and selling in different enterprises. 

D. Use and need of banks. 

E. Charging accounts and why sometimes wise to have. 

F. Necessity of being a quick, accurate thinker when handling 

G. Comparison of prices. 

1. Why a standard price. 

2. When prices are fair. 

H. Better understanding of value of books, pictures, pottery and 

other articles. 
I. Necessity of accurate measurement in cooking, art enterprises 
and other fields. 

II. Growth of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Wise and careful judgment in buying and selling. 

B. Desire to be reliable when handling money. 

C. Appreciation that responsibility in handling money involves : 

1. Keeping accurate records. 

2. Making correct change. 

3. Being fair in your prices. 

D. Respecting others' money as well as your own. 

E. Realizing values of money; and that earning money demands 
conscientious thinking and hard work. 

F. Appreciation of importance of numbers in care of health; and 
of duties of school nurse, janitor and engineer. 

G. Desire to use time to best advantage. 

H. Appreciation of fairness in playing games. 

III. Skills in computation. 

A. Notation and numeration. 

1. Counting accurately by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10, as needs arise. 

2. Reading numbers in hundreds and thousands, as needs 

3. Reading Roman numerals to XII. 

4. Writing numbers to 500 and above, as occasion demands. 

Arithmetic Records 415 

5. Writing dollars and cents in decimal form. 

6. Using equation form, signs -f-, — > =• 

B. Addition and subtraction. 

1. Mastery of most addition facts, including zero combina- 
tions, both in column form and equation form. 

2. Ability to add two and three addends of two and three 
figures each (no carrying). 

3. Ability to add single columns of 3 and 4 digits, using higher 
decade addition. 

4. Mastery of subtraction facts corresponding to addition 
facts, in column form and in equation form. 

5. Ability to subtract with two and three figures in the 
minuend and in the subtrahend (no carrying). 

6. Ability to handle zeros in the subtrahend and in the re- 

7. Ability to check answers. 

C. Multiplication and division. 

1. Ability to multiply by 2 and by 3 and 5 as needs arise in 
practical situations. 

2. Ability to handle the simplest fractions in practical prob- 
lems : Yo, %. 

Using signs -—, X • 

D. Problems. 

1. Ability to solve one-step problems based on child's needs 
and experiences, involving addition and subtraction facts 
and simple units of measure. 

2. Ability to compose original problems. 

IV. Comprehension of terms (previously used and new). 

A. Addition, add, plus, equals, sum. 

B. Subtraction, subtract, minus, less, least, left, remainder. 

C. Multiplication, multiply, times. 

D. Fraction, divide, half, third, fourth. 

E. Price, buy, sell, lend, borrow, charge, pay, pay back, owe. 

F. Bank, check, receipt, bill, withdrawal slip, deposit slip, balance. 

G. Time, minute, hour, half -hour, quarter-hour, day, week, month, 

H. Length, inch, half-inch, foot, yard. 
I. Liquid, pint, quart, gallon. 

J. Weight, pound, half-pound, ounce, dozen, half-dozen. 
K. Money, penny, nickel, dime, quarter, half dollar, dollar, five 

dollar bill. 
L. Shape, square, rectangle, circle. 

Arithmetic in the Third Grade 

An Outline Based on Records for One Year 
A. Activities 
I. Activities related to room procedure. 

A. Recording number present and number absent. 

B. Preparing record of absences for school nurse; preparing 
record of number to be present at noon meal for dietitian. 

C. Planning use of time for outdoor and indoor periods. 

D. Planning time for certain group enterprises and setting dates 
for special events. 

E. Estimating number of books and other supplies needed for 
small groups and for room ; ordering supplies from school 
supply store. 

F. Measuring desks and chairs, then measuring children for cor- 
rect adjustment. 

G. Studying height and weight chart prepared with the help of 
the school nurse and noting individual gains. 

H. Much measuring in art and woodwork. 

I. Beginning of interpretation of maps and globes ; determining 
distances as related to time of travel. 

II. Activities related to group enterprises. 

A. Planting bulbs. 

1. Estimating number of bulbs needed for different areas. 

2. Computing cost of bulbs. 

3. Computing cost of painting flower pots. 

4. Computing amount of dirt needed for filling flower pots 
and cost. 

5. Purchase of soil from the florist — wise selection of suit- 
able bulbs. 

6. Recording time required for flowers to bloom. 

7. Recording number of days flowers will last. 

B. Churning. 

1. Measuring cream to be used and decision of size of churn 
to use for the amount of cream. 

2. Ascertaining proportion of cream that became butter ac- 
cording to the amount of buttermilk. 

3. Measuring of small amount of salt used. 

C. Making cheese. 

1. Measuring milk to be used. 

Arithmetic Rfxords 


Scales Show Satisfactory Gains 
Children assist the school nurse in keeping height and weight charts 

2. Draining milk and measuring part not used. 

3. Measuring cream used to season cheese. 

D. Presenting plays (Japanese and Dutch Units). 

1. Measuring accurately the parts for Japanese pagoda, Dutch 
house and Dutch windmill. 

2. Measuring materials for Japanese and Dutch costumes ; 
computing the number of yards of cloth needed. 

E. Making a collection of foreign coins. 

1. Determining value of coins in United States money. 

2. Finding out how money is made and where mints are 

3. Discussion of meaning of "duty" and "commerce." 

4. Comparing prices of articles bought in other countries and 
in United States. 

F. Conducting orange juice booth during school fair. 

1. Counting change to be used. 

2. Measuring orange juice for glasses. 

3. Finding cost when several glasses of orange juice were 
bought at one time. 

418 National College of Education 

4. Giving change back to customers. 

5. Counting money made after booth was closed each time. 

6. Finding the amount cleared after estimating the cost of 

G. Selling maple sugar and maple syrup (in connection with 
Maple Sugar Unit. 

1. Importing maple sugar and maple syrup from a farm in 

2. Taking orders in advance from parents and members of 
the staff. 

3. Ordering amount needed. 

4. Fixing price in relation to cost of supply and cost of trans- 
portation, so as to assure a profit. 

5. Delivering orders and collecting money. 

6. Paying bills and determining amount earned. 

7. Presenting the amount earned to fund for buying drapes 
for the children's dining room. 

H. Purchase of library books on Library Endowment Day. 

1. Adding amount of money all children had saved to spend 
for books. 

2. Finding number of books that might be bought according 
to certain prices (involved even numbers — as $10.00 would 
buy five books at $2.00 each). 

3. Adding amount spent for all books (saved slips to get 
accurate amounts). 

4. Figuring the amount that would have been spent by sev- 
eral grades if all had spent the same amount the third 
grade did. 

III. Spontaneous interests — Questions which led to discussion and 
investigation : 

A. How far does a photographer have to be from a volcano when 
he photographs it? 

B. How long would it take to walk the distance into a mine? 

C. How did people first tell time ? 

D. How long until clocks were made ? 

E. What makes banks "break"? 

F. What is interest? 

G. Why are checks used? 

H. Why do people pay taxes? 
I. What is income tax? 

J. Why do people buy stocks instead of leaving money in the 

Arithmetic Records 419 

IV. Activities related to play. 

A. Counting by twos for "Three-Deep." 

B. Counting by threes for "Squirrel in a Tree." 

C. Dividing even sides for "Kick Ball." 

D. Counting by fives for "Hide and Seek." 

V. Explanation of new processes. 

A. Usually from board, demonstrations given; sometimes direc- 
tions with pupils following in arithmetic books or work books. 

B. Attention called to new parts of processes. 

C. Much emphasis upon signs and terms and upon the correct way 
of writing column numbers. 

VI. Practice activities and records. 

A. Use of mimeographed sheets adapted to ability of groups, 
followed by individual sheets when needed. 

B. Writing on board : practice in column writing and in writing 
new forms like dollars, cents, decimal signs. 

C. Use of work books with definite goals for small groups. 

D. Use of individual cards, for individual practice on facts not 
yet mastered. 

E. Keeping of graph records showing daily progress by child. 

VII. Use of arithmetic books. 

A. Books used for explanations of new processes. 

B. Books used for information needed concerning tables of 

C. Books used for additional practice in problem solving, when 

VIII. Uses of tests. 

Tests given by psychologist near the end of each semester. 
Graph report on tests shown to child — weaknesses noted and 
plans made for improvement. 

B. Books and Materials Used 
I. Materials for practical experience with numbers. 

A. Materials for measuring: foot rules, yardstick, scales, meas- 
uring cups, measuring spoons, pint and quart bottles. 

B. Coins, bills, checks. 

C. Clock, calendar. 

D. Thermometer. 

E. Maps, globes, geography games. 

420 National College of Education 

F. Balls and other materials used on the playground. 

G. Art and manual training materials. 

H. Natural science and social studies materials. 

II. Practice materials. 

A. De Groat cards for mastery of number facts, arranged accord- 
ing to difficulty. 

B. Mimeographed sheets of abstract work for practice. 

C. Mimeographed sheets of reasoning problems. 

D. Individual cards for children who have difficulty with par- 
ticular number facts. 

E. Individual work books : 

Diagnostic Tests and Exercises for Third Grade — Brueckner. 

III. Books used for reference and review. 

Brueckner, L. J. & Triangle Arithmetic, 1928 Winston 

others Book I, Part I 

Kent, R. & Olsen, Bobbs-Merrill Arithmetic, 1927 Bobbs-Merrill 

M. Book I 

IV. Tests. 

New Stanford Achievement Test — Primary — World Book Com- 

in Reasoning and Computation. pany 

Public School Achievement in Reasoning and Public School Pub- 
Computation, lishing Company 

C. Probable Outcomes 
I. Information. 

A. Better knowledge of value and use of money in buying and 
selling projects. 

B. Proper use of order slips when materials are ordered from 
supply room. 

C. Recognition of need for a bill and receipt when articles are 
paid for. 

D. Additional uses of scales in weighing and measuring and use 
of ruler and yardstick in making definite measurements. 

E. Fuller understanding of thermometer and telling time, using 
seconds on watch. 

F. Knoweldge of finance. 

1. What discount means. 

2. What interest on money means. 

3. Why taxes are necessary. 

4. What income tax means. 

5. Why people buy stock instead of leaving money in banks. 

6. Whv banks fail. 

Arithmetic Records 421 

7. Why checks are used. 

8. What is the relative value of silver and paper money. 

G. Comparison of our money with German, English and Dutch 

H. Comparison in prices of articles bought in our country and 

similar articles bought in other countries. 
I. Meaning of "duties" on articles. 
J. Meaning of trade and barter. 
K. Meaning of commerce. 
L. Purpose of mints. 
M. Ideas of space in acres, heights of buildings in number of 

stories, and sizes of rooms according to feet. 
N. Meanings and uses of dates. 

II. Attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Realization of need for responsible bankers, clerks and 

B. Appreciation that failures are often caused by irresponsible 
persons, success by responsible. 

C. Appreciation of necessity of exact balance in keeping accounts. 

D. Importance of buying within means and of careful selection. 

E. Appreciation of need for careful measurement in cooking and 
in various art and industrial enterprises. 

F. Appreciation that accuracy is needed for all positions, espe- 
cially where money is involved. 

G. Greater sense of value of time and need of careful planning 
for wise use of time. 

III. Habits and skills. 

A. Notation and numeration. 

1. Reading and writing large numbers of common interest — 
into the thousands. 

2. Reading and writing of Roman numerals to XX. 

3. Writing of dollars and cents in decimal form, signed. 

4. Using equation form for all processes. 

B. Addition and subtraction. 

1. Automatic control of 100 addition facts and of sums 
needed in column addition and in multiplication. 

2. Ability to add single columns involving 6 addends ; two 
and three figure numbers with 5 addends, — carrying 1, 2 
and 3. 

3. Ability to add with addends of unequal length. 

4. Automatic control of 100 subtraction facts and all sub- 
traction facts necessary in short division by 2, 3, 4, 5. 

422 National College of Education 

5. Ability to subtract, using minuend and subtrahend of 2, 
3, 4 and 5 figures involving carrying, and with zero in both 
the minuend and the subtrahend. 

6. Ability to check answers. 

C. Multiplication and division. 

1. Automatic control of 100 multiplication facts. 

2. Ability to multiply with two and three figures in the multi- 
plicand and one in the multiplier, and by 10 and 100. 

3. Automatic control of 90 division facts, and of the primary 
facts with remainders. 

4. Ability to divide, using one figure divisor and two or three 
figure quotient, with and without remainders and with and 
without carrying; ability to divide with zeros in two and 
three figure quotients. (All work done by long division 

5. Ability to deal with fractions in concrete situations, cor- 
responding to multiplication and division facts mastered; 
as, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, 1/8. 

6. Ability to check all work. 

D. Measurement. 

1. Mastery of facts of units of measure. 

(a) Length — inches, foot, yard. 

(b) Liquid — pints, quarts, gallon. 

(c) Weight — ounces, pound. 

(d) Time — second, minute, hour, day, week, month, year. 

2. Ability to compute distances around areas. 

E. Problems. 

1. Ability to solve one-step problems and some two-step prob- 
lems from local environment and schoolroom needs, in- 
volving units of measurement and dollars and cents. 

2. Ability to think through imaginary problems. 

3. Ability to create original problems. 

IV. Comprehension of terms, (previously used and new) 

A. Addition, add, plus, sum, check, column. 

B. Subtraction, subtract, minus, difference, remainder. 

C. Multiplication, multiply, times, product. 

D. Division, divisor, divide, quotient, fraction. 

E. Meanings and abbreviations for units of measure; as, in., ft., 
yd., pt., qt., gal, etc. 

F. Discount, tax, stock, check, mint, coin, duty, trade, barter, 

Arithmetic in the Fourth Grade 

A. Activities 
I. Activities related to room procedure. 

A. School program. 

1. Planning daily program and carrying it out. 

2. Deciding on time required for large units of work. 

3. Alotting time for various types of activities. 

4. Completing work within a given time. 

B. Menu making. 

1. Choosing a balanced menu for a given price. 

2. Keeping records of lunches, comparing them with chart 
which showed well-balanced meals. 

3. Keeping records of amount of fruit juice and milk 
needed for mid-morning lunch. 

4. Computing cost of fruit juice and milk by the week and 
by the year for individual children and for the group. 

5. Organizing and arranging the room and supplies for 
birthday parties held at lunch time. 

6. Marketing for special luncheons — as Hallowe'en. 

C. Passing and collecting materials. 

1. Counting number of articles needed for classes; as paper, 
pencils, books, pens. 

2. Choosing number of children to serve on committees for 
care and distribution of materials. 

3. Marking off spaces in cupboards for various sizes of 

D. Providing and caring for equipment. 

1. Ordering supplies needed; as paper, pens, paste, and 
computing the cost. 

2. Computing the cost of framing pictures for the room. 

3. Mastering the combination on locks for individual 

4. Measuring and making of files for work-type papers in 
manual training. 

5. Measuring and making garden box for window. 

6. Measuring and making a museum table for exhibits. 

7. Measuring and making small individual boxes (for in- 
dividual supplies) for desks. 

E. Health in the room. 

1. Keeping record of height and weight of individual chil- 


424 National College of Education 

2. Measuring desks and chairs for proper seating. 

3. Making graphs, showing gains in weight. 

4. Keeping record of room temperature. 

5. Computing the amount of floor space for each child. 

6. Computing the amount of air space for each child. 

7. Keeping record of glasses of water drunk during the day 
(during the food unit study). 

8. In use of lavatory materials, allotting the number of 
paper towels and amount of soap necessary for each 
child. Computing the cost of towels for our grade, if 
each child uses three in one day. 

9. Measuring the distance in holding reading material from 
the eyes. 

II. Activities related to play. 

A. Measuring high and broad jumps in contest games. 

B. Keeping score in ball games. 

C. Measuring wood needed for hurdles on the playground. 

D. Measuring and marking off diagrams for playing games, as 
base ball. 

E. Finding sizes of soft-soled shoes needed for gymnasium. 

III. Activities related to the library and its uses. 

A. Spending $30 earned, for books. 

1. Finding price of books and estimating the number pos- 
sible to buy. 

2. Making out order blanks, computing cost. Computing 
discounts allowed, 10%, 20%, and 25%. Subtracting to 
find out how much was saved through discounts. 

3. Making out check to pay for books. 

B. Learning to use file and index in library, reading numbers. 
Learning to find reference material in World Book, Pageant 
of America, Compton's Encyclopedia, using index volume, 
chapter headings, both Roman and Arabic. 

C. Subtracting to find number of days left to keep a book out, 
computing dates ahead to find when books are due. Paying 
fines for over-due books. 

D. Finding the amount of money spent for books on ''Library 
Endowment Day." 

E. Measuring for making book ends and file box for individual 
library cards. Measuring and making a folder for book 

Arithmetic Records 


Balancing Prices and Vitamins 
The daily menu planning involves choosing a healthful meal for a fixed sum 

IV. Activities related to social studies. 

A. Drawing, measuring to scale, using j4, y 2 , % inches in mak- 
ing large world map used in tracing early discoveries ; pic- 
torial maps of southern plantation life ; time charts which 
showed relationship of past and present time ; pictorial tables 
representing Spanish, English and French settlements in 
North America. 

B. Drawing and measuring in making health charts, health 
folders, book covers ; preparing topical outlines. 

C. Computing and measuring mileage on maps in reviewing trips 
taken during vacation and in learning the miles various ex- 
plorers (Magellan, Columbus) traveled. 

D. Telling time, using calendars, clocks, sundial, and sun 
markers. Understanding relationship of past, present, future, 
century, month, year, day; relationship of day and night, 
seasons, using longitude and latitude in a simple manner. 
Computing time with reference to how many years ago events 
took place, how old would certain prominent people be, were 
they living now. 

426 National College of Education 

E. Understanding and computing of foreign exchange of money 
and its relationship to our own monetary system; application 
to travel and to exports and imports. 

F. Discussion of taxes levied (as the tax on tea during the 
Revolutionary War) ; how taxes are collected; what they are 
used for at present. 

G. Discussion of how money was first invented, what the Indians 
and early pioneers used in trading — as wampum, furs. 

H. Measuring, using the dry and liquid measure pints, quarts, 
gallons, pecks, also pounds, dozens, when buying food for 
Christmas, Colonial and Hallowe'en luncheons prepared by 
the children ; also when making cookies and jelly as gifts for 
mothers ; in making candles and soap in the Colonial unit. 

I. Computing the cost of food, total and per person, computing 
the amount needed for the group. Measuring the ingredients 

for various recipes, involving fractional parts as J^, J 

2, Vs 

Keeping accounts of these activities. 
J. Keeping accounts, finding cost and profit made in editing and 

selling the April number of the school magazine. 
K. Reading and writing large figures, showing population of 

different colonies and states ; square miles of countries and 

states, value of exports, and imports of various materials, 

fruits, sugar, tea, silk. 
L. Constant use of the four fundamental processes in solving 

problems related to all units of work. See outlines of units of 

work — Chicago, Study of Food, Discoveries and Colonial Life. 

V. Activities related to explanation and demonstration of new 

A. Drawing of diagrams on blackboard, on the floor and paper, 
illustrating, as square inch, square foot, square yard, also 
linear measure. 

B. Actual measuring of an acre of land on school grounds to 
find how big it really is. Measuring a mile on the speed- 
ometer on the automobile (a bus activity). 

C. Using units of measurement: as, a quart bottle and gallon 
bottle ; scales with ounce weights ; clocks with minute and 
second hands. 

D. Picture making in developing understanding of terms: di- 
vision and multiplication, fractional parts ; elements contained 
in problems. 

E. Cutting card board, paper, apples, to illustrate fractional parts. 

F. Outlining steps of procedure in problem solving and in diffi- 
cult computation exercises. 

Arithmetic Records 427 

VI. Activities related to practice material. 

A. Taking timed tests on the four fundamental processes (addi- 
tion, subtraction, multiplication and division). 

B. Keeping records and graphs of both group and individual 
progress on timed tests and work book tests. 

C. Using individual, self-corrective practice cards for improving 
accuracy and speed in four fundamental processes. 

D. Using individual cards, containing special exercises needed 
by groups and individuals, at the blackboard. 

E. Using work books for drill as needed in activities. 

F. Planning and letting individual weekly contracts for types of 
work needed, using individual folders of mimeographed ma- 
terial and the work books. 

G. Matching types of problems with cues to assist in problem 

VII. Activities related to arithmetic books. 

A. Using books for further practice in problem solving and in 
mastering fundamental facts. 

B. Using books for review tests and diagnostic purposes. Using 
books for the introduction and explanation of new processes. 

C. Using books as reference material for tables of measurement. 

D. Using books as source material by advanced children within 
the group. 

VIII. Activities related to use of diagnostic tests and remedial work 
(carried on by teacher with aid of psychologist). 

A. Giving of standardized achievement tests to ascertain the 
ability of the group as a whole and individually at the be- 
ginning of the year, and also before beginning any new work 

B. Organizing groups and materials for special practice periods, 
according to information gained from tests given. 

C. Giving of oral tests to aid in diagnosing work habits and 
mental procedure of individual children. 

D. Planning and preparing practice material for group and in- 
dividual, to take care of needed remedial measures. 

1. Practice cards for use at blackboard. 

2. Mimeographed sheets. 

E. Organizing work units of informational and social nature for 
advanced children. 

F. Making of charts and graphs of groups and individuals to 
show improvement and to give encouragement. 

428 National College of Education 

B. Books and Materials Used 

I. Materials for practical experiences with number. 

A. Foot rule, yardstick, tape measure. 

B. Hour glass, clock. 

C. Scales, quart, pint, gallon bottles. 

D. Peck, bushel measures. 

E. Art and handwork materials. 

F. Manual training materials. 

G. Playground, natural science and social studies materials. 
H. Room equipment and supplies. 

I. Money, checks, account books. 
J. Geography games, maps, globes. 

II. Work type and supplementary materials. 

A. Mimeographed materials related to group units or interests. 

B. Mimeographed materials consisting of abstract work for prac- 
tice ; as : 

100 addition facts 
100 subtraction facts 
100 multiplication facts 
90 division facts 

C. Mimeographed materials consisting of reasoning problems. 

1. Those related to needs of group. 

2. Those of graded difficulty for children having special needs. 

D. Individual work books. 

Johnson, E. M. My Progress Book in 1929 Educational Press 

Brueckner, L. J. Diagnostic Tests and 1930 Winston, 

and others Practice Exercises 

Buswell, G. T. and Teaching and Practice 1927 Wheeler 

John, L. Exercises in Arithmetic 

E. Individual work sheets of facts and problems to overcome diffi- 
culties shown in diagnostic tests. 

F. Individual number cards for drill on facts of four funda- 
mental processes. 

G. Individual number cards for blackboard work, to build ac- 
curacy and speed in computation. 

III. Arithmetic books for reference and review. 

Brueckner, L. J. Triangle Arithmetic, 1929 Winston 

and others Book I 

Kent, R. and Bobbs-Merrill Arithme- 1927 Bobbs-Merrill 

Olson, M. tic, Book I 

McMurray, F. M. Social Arithmetic, Book I 1926 Macmillan 

Arithmetic Records . 429 

IV. Standardized tests. 

A. Given by teacher. 

Standardized tests from work books. 

B. Given by psychologists. 

New Stanford Achievement Tests Advanced — World Book Com- 

in Computation and Reasoning pany 

Monroe's Standardized Arithmetic Survey Public School Pub- 
Tests lishing Company 

Public School Achievement Test in Computa- Public School Pub- 

tion and Reasoning lishing Company 

C. Probable Outcomes 

I. Informational values. 

A. Some knowledge of the development of methods of telling time 
and of measures used in telling time. 

B. Knowledge of relative prices of food and the keeping of house- 
hold accounts. 

C. Knowledge of how retail and wholesale business is carried on. 

D. A better understanding of cost and preparation of food, menu 
making in relation to body building. 

E. Knowledge of cost and methods of shipping fruits and other 
perishable foods to the United States. 

F. Knowledge of how prices of foods are influenced by supply 
and demand. 

G. Information about liquids, how dry materials and dry goods 
are measured and weighed. 

H. Knowledge of how to draw to scale in making maps. 

I. Knowledge of how to read both the room thermometer and the 
physician's thermometer. 

J. Knowledge of how mileage is computed on land and sea. 

K. Knowledge of how accounts are kept, correct form for bills 
and receipts. 

L. A beginning of an understanding of value and use of graphs. 

M. Knowledge of cost of making books, and what discount means. 

N. Information concerning the development of the Arabic and 
Roman number systems. 

O. Information about dates in history with reference to present- 
day developments. 

P. Information concerning development of bartering, trading and 
present monetary system used in the United States, including 
banks, checks, accounts (checking and savings), loans, deposit 
slips, traveler's checks, mints. 

Q. Knowledge of how taxes are levied and for what purposes. 

430 National College of Education 

II. Social values. 

A. Appreciation of reasons for budgeting time and using it wisely. 

B. A better appreciation of value of money and its wise use. 

C. An appreciation of those who contribute to any given meal and 
of the labor that is entailed in bringing it to the home. 

D. An appreciation of need for careful estimating and ordering 

E. An appreciation of need for careful and thoughtful planning 
ahead for any work ; as in measuring for booklets, charts. 

F. Desire to care for the library equipment and to learn to use it 
correctly, as return of books on date due, prompt payment of 

G. An appreciation and desire to build habits of accuracy, speed, 
neatness in achieving results in the four fundamental processes 
with integers. 

H. An appreciation of the fact that guessing is dangerous. 

I. An appreciation that the ability to handle numbers with facility 
is an asset and a necessity in every day affairs. 

J. An appreciation of the mathematical skill involved in the build- 
ing of a boat, a clock, the electric lamp and other inventions. 

K. An appreciation of the cost and value of school supplies. 

L. A desire to pay bills promptly. 

M. A desire to save money. 

N. A willingness to spend money for the good of others. 

O. A desire to be fair in fixing prices and to make honest profit. 

III. Computational skills. 

A. Ability in reading and writing. 

1. Reading and writing Arabic numbers to 100,000. 

2. Reading and writing Roman numerals one to twenty, tens 
to 100, 500, 1000. 

3. Forming concepts of large numbers. 

4. Reading and writing dollars and cents. 

B. Abilities developed in fundamental processes. 

1. Addition of integers. 

(a) 100 addition facts. 

(b) Adding by endings to 39. 

(c) Column addition, single, 7 addends. 
Three-figured, 3, 4, 5, 6 addends. 
Four-figured, 5 addends. 

All steps in adding whole numbers as outlined in Diag- 
nostic and Remedial Teaching in Arithmetic by 
Brueckner, p. 110. 

Arithmetic Records 431 

(d) 225 combinations needed for column addition: 87 ad- 
ditional combinations needed for multiplication as 
given in Corrective Arithmetic by Osburn, Vol. 1. 

2. Subtraction of integers. 

(a) 100 subtraction facts. 

(b) Subtraction facts needed for division (see Osburn 
Corrective Arithmetic, Vol. 1). 

(c) Subtraction, carrying, 1, 2, 3 places. 
Subtraction, carrying with zeros. 
Subtraction, carrying, empty spaces. 

Checking results — See Brueckner Diagnostic and 
Remedial Teaching in Arithmetic for all steps in Sub- 
traction, p. 125. 

3. Multiplication of integers. 

(a) 100 multiplication facts. 

(b) Multiplicands 2, 3, 4, 5 figures and carrying more 
than 1 or 2, with 1 figure multiplier. 
Multiplicands 2, 3, 4, 5 figures with multipliers 2-3 
figures. Examples involving no carrying, carrying in 
one or two columns and zero difficulties. 

Short methods of multiplying by 10 or 100. (See 
Brueckner Diagnostic and Remedial Teaching in 
Arithmetic for all steps in teaching multiplication — p. 
135 — checking results.) 

4. Division of integers. 

(a) 90 division facts. 

(b) Short division without remainders and with re- 
mainders, using long division form. 

Dividends of 2, 3, 4 figures with and without re- 
mainders. Zero difficulties. 
*(c) Long division — involving quotient evident, no carry- 
ing in multiplication and subtraction ; carrying in 
multiplication and subtraction; zero difficulties in 
dividend and in quotient ; zero difficulties in both divi- 
dend and quotient. 

Remainders as whole numbers and as fractions. 
Dividends of 2, 3, 4, 5 figures. 
Divisors of 2 and 3 figures. 

Checking of problems. (See Diagnostic and Remedial 
Teaching in Arithmetic by Brueckner — p. 145 — for 
steps in Long Division). 

* The teacher has found long division extremely difficult for many fourth-grade 
children, and recommends that it be postponed until a later grade. 

432 National College of Education 

C. Ability to use units involved in measures of length, square, time, 
liquid, dry, weight, money, temperature. 

D. Growing concepts of meaning of fractional parts, skill in read- 
ing fractions, writing fractions, adding and subtracting like 
fractions, with a beginning of reduction as used in remainders 
in division. 

E. Ability to solve problems using all above skills. 

1. One and two-step problems in 4 processes, classified; 
simple analysis and solution of problems not classified. 

2. Problems involving school and out-of-school needs. 

3. Original problems of the group and individual. (See 
Brueckner Diagnostic and Remedial Teaching in Arith- 
metic p. 259.) 

IV. Comprehension of terms. 

A. Familiarity with the following list of terms used in the four 
fundamental processes : 

Addition: sum, total, column, add, signs (-f- and = ). 
Subtraction: subtract, difference, remainder, sign ( — ). 
Multiplication: multiplier, multiplicand, product, sign (x). 
Division: divide, dividend, divisor, quotient, trial quotient, true 
quotient, sign (-^). 

B. Terms used in tables of measurements: pints, quarts, gallons, 
pecks, bushels, inches, feet, yard, mile, acre, pound, ounce, 
dozen, square foot, etc. 

C. General terms : charge, checks, due, discount, depth, amount, 
increase, height, average, degree, length, per, diameter, per- 
imeter, surface, buying, profit, loss, retail, wholesale, degree, 
fractional part, numerator, denominator, 

See Corrective Arithmetic, Vol. II. — Osburn, p. 267 for graded 
list of terms. 

D. A beginning acquaintance with terms used in cues for prob- 
lem solving as given by Osburn, Volume II of Corrective 

1. Terms used preceding years. 

2. Terms used in cues for fourth grade as listed on pages 

Note: Children above average in ability should master the above attainments 
in a shorter time, and also develop ability to solve more difficult practical problems. 
Differences in ability are provided for mainly on the time basis. The superior 
children give more time to creative activities in science, social studies and arith- 
metic ; serving as business and finance managers for the school magazine ; keeping 
room accounts of materials used, such as pencils, paper ; planning for sales and 

Arithmetic in the Fifth Grade 

A. Activities 
I. Activities connected with room procedure. 

A. The program. 

1. Deciding on time needed for big pieces of work and for 

2. Planning the daily program. 

(a) Deciding on jobs for the day and allotting time 
needed for each. 

(b) Setting time for each. 

3. Carrying out program planned. 

(a) Telling time. 

(b) Individuals figuring how much time is left to finish 
work or get ready for next class. 

B. Making out menu and conducting lunch period. 

1. Making out balanced menu from price list to amount to 
exactly the sum allowed in annual fees paid by parents. 

2. Buying extra food for parties and special luncheons. 

C. Taking care of health of room group. 

1. Adjusting chairs and desks to fit by measuring. 

2. Reading thermometer. 

3. Weighing and measuring height every two months. 

4. Comparing records to see if over weight or under weight. 

D. Conducting supply store for the school. 

1. Making inventories of supplies on hand. 

2. Estimating extra supplies needed. 

3. Ordering fresh supplies ; as, paper, pencils, crayolas, 
erasers, clips. 

4. Making sales and keeping accounts. 

E. Taking attendance. 

F. Mastering combinations on lockers. 

II. Activities growing out of spontaneous interests. 

A. Finding volume of air in the room and amount for each 

B. Finding averages 

1. On tests. 

2. On self-reliance scores. 

C. Finding the area of a circle. 


434 National College of Education 

III. Activities relating to play. 

A. Choosing equal number on sides. 

B. Adding and comparing scores. 

C. Laying off diagrams and fields for different games. 

IV. Activities related to social studies. 

A. Reading large numbers in statistics on value of natural re- 
sources of the United States, crop production of the United 
States, value of the industrial production, changes in urban 
and rural population, value of imports and exports. 

B. Writing large numbers for charts, books, committee reports, 
and for stories for talkies on industries. 

C. Reading and writing Roman numerals as chapter headings 
in books. 

D. Measuring. 

1. Using inch, foot, yard, and rod in laying out acre of 
ground to get an idea of its size, in constructing a theater 
for talkies, buying cloth for curtains and for foundation 
for pictures, measuring pictures, making books on in- 

2. Using liquid, dry, and avoirdupois measure in dyeing 
material for theater curtains. 

E. Handling United States money in charging admission to 
talkies, buying books for library with money earned. 

F. Keeping account of money earned and money spent in giving 
the talkies and the play. 

G. Adding integers to get total amount earned, expenses in- 
curred, money spent for books. 

H. Subtracting integers to find out how long ago events hap- 
pened, time between events, how much money cleared, costs 
after discount. 

I. Multiplying integers to find areas of pieces of land, and to 
find cost at urban and rural prices. 

J. Dividing to find price per acre when price on total is given, 
amount of discount where discount is expressed as a frac- 
tional part, etc. 

K. Enlarging concepts in fractions such as expressing fractional 
parts, reducing large fractions, in statistics on part of world's 
resources found in the United States. 

L. Adding fractions in finding part United States plays in world 
production, figuring materials needed in construction, etc. 

M. Subtracting fractions in comparing values of United States 
with certain other countries ; figuring amount of material left 
in construction or amount more needed. 

Arithmetic Records 


School Supplies Afford Serious Business 

Children draw out their deposits from the school bank in order to purchase 
supplies at the store 

N. Multiplying fractions in estimating amount of cloth needed 

for mounting pictures when measurement of one picture has 

been found. 
O. Dividing fractions in estimating number of pictures which 

can be mounted on material on hand. 
P. Building concept of percentage by expressing per cents as 

hundredths and reducing as they are met in statistics and 

discounts on books. 
Q. Drawing to scale in constructing map to show what each 

section of United States contributes to Chicago and the rest 

of the world. 

V. Activities for explanation and demonstration. 
A. Drawing diagrams. 

1. Drawing diagrams on the blackboard for explaining steps 
in four fundamental processes with integers and frac- 
tions, as : 

y of y 2 =y 4 
y x y 2 =y 

436 National College of Education 

2. Laying out diagrams on the floor or playground 
to show 1 sq. ft. =144 sq. in. 
1 sq. yd.= 9 sq. ft. 

B. Outlining steps on the blackboard. 

1. Outlining steps from old to new process for children to 
draw own conclusions as to how to solve new types of 

2. Outlining steps for children to use as guides in new proc- 
ess, that correct habits of procedure may be formed. 

C. Drawing pictures to clarify points. 

D. Cutting apples to illustrate fractional parts. 

E. Cutting cardboard and paper figures to explain steps in frac- 

F. Using different units of measure to explain their equivalents 
in other units. 

VI. Use of practice materials. 

A. Taking time tests on fact sheets and keeping individual 
records of progress. 

B. Using work book for drill on class needs arising in social 
studies or other group activities. 

C. Planning and letting of contracts for maintenance drills on 
different processes needed by groups. 

D. Keeping individual records by pupil to show his own progress. 

E. Taking curriculum test once a month to check progress. 

VII. Use of books. 

A. Using books for additional drill on points needed. 

B. Using books for review. 

C. Referring to books for explanation of new processes. 

D. Using books for reference for tables of measure. 

E. Using books for their diagnostic tests. 

VIII. Use of diagnostic tests (conducted by teacher with help of 

A. Group. 

1. Using diagnostic tests with a new group to find where 
teaching should begin. 

2. Using diagnostic tests during teaching a process to see 
if certain pupils need to be taught all steps. 

3. Using diagnostic tests after teaching to see if some in- 
dividuals may require further teaching. 

Arithmetic Records 437 

B. Individual. 

Giving oral diagnostic tests to pupils having difficulty, to dis- 
cover mental processes used. 

IX. Remedial work (conducted by teacher with advice of psy- 

A. Division of class into smaller groups according to needs. 

B. Group work. 

1. Allowing superior children time for additional creative 
activities by excusing them from much drill. 

2. Planning remedial work for those who need it. 

(a) Mimeographed work sheets. 

(b) Keyed-cards for blackboard drill. 

(c) Teacher-made cards on work causing difficulty. 

C. Individual. 

1. Individual drill with fact cards both by self and with 

2. Use of individual work sheets on steps giving difficulty. 

3. Oral work with teacher going through process correctly 
and child going through process correctly. 

4. Graphs to show progress. 

B. Books and Materials Used 

I. Materials for practical experiences with number. 

A. Measures — foot rule with sixteenth inch graduation, yardstick, 
50 foot tape, pint, quart, gallon, scales, peck, and bushel. 

B. Materials. 

1. Lumber and material in manual training. 

2. Ground included in college campus. 

3. Equipment in the room such as desks, chairs, clock, pencils. 

4. Art and handwork material. 

5. Social and natural science material. 

C. Games. 

1. Soccer balls. 

2. Baseballs and bats. 

II. Work type and supplementary material. 

A. Mimeographed sheets. 

1. 100 facts in addition, subtraction, multiplication, and 90 in 
division graded according to Clapp's investigation as to 


National College of Education 

2. Practice sheets of more difficult steps in four fundamental 
processes with integers and fractions for group needs. See : 

Morton, R. L. Teaching Arithmetic in 1927 Silver Burdett 

1924 Houghton Mifflin 

Teaching Arithmetic in 
the Intermediate Grades 
Osburn, W. J. Corrective Arithmetic, 

Vol. I 

3. Sheets of practical problems from interests and needs of 
the group. 
B. Work Books. 

Brueckner, L. J. 
& others 

Buswell, G. T. 

Diagnostic Tests and 
Practice Exercises in 

Teaching and Practice 
Exercises in Arithmetic 

1930 Winston 
1927 Wheeler 

C. Supplementary material. 

1. Individual number cards for drill on facts in the funda- 
mental processes. 

2. Individual cards made by teacher containing steps of proc- 
esses needing drill by certain pupils. 

3. Printed keyed-cards for self-correction in fundamental 

4. Individual work sheets to overcome difficulties. 

III. Arithmetic books for reference and review. 

1929 Winston 

Brueckner, L. J. 

& others 
Fowlkes, J. G. 

& Goff, T. T. 
Kent, R. 

McMurray, F. M. 
& Benson, C. B. 

The Triangle Arithme- 
tic, Book II, Part I 

Modern Life Arithmetic, 
Book II 

Bobbs-Merrill Arithmetic, 
Book II 

Social Arithmetics, Vol. 
I and II 

1930 Macmillan 
1927 Bobbs-Merrill 
1926 Macmillan 

IV. Standardized tests. 

A. Given by teacher. 

Standard survey tests and diagnostic tests from work books 

Brueckner, L. J. 

Curriculum Tests in 
Arithmetic Processes 

B. Given by psychology department. 

New Stanford Achievement (Advanced in 
Computation and Reasoning 

Public School Achievement in Computation and 

Monroe's Standardized General Survey Arith- 
metic Scales 

Woody-McCall Mixed Fundamentals 


World Book Com- 

Public School Pub- 
lishing Company 

Public School Pub- 
lishing Company 

Teachers College, 

Arithmetic Records 439 

C. Probable Outcomes 
I. Informational outcomes. 

A. Related to measurement. 

1. How to find area or surface of rectangles and triangles. 

2. How to measure length using all units of linear measure. 

3. How to find volume or cubical contents. 

4. How to find perimeter of rectangles and triangles. 

5. How to find the circumference of a circle. 

6. How to draw maps to scale. 

7. How to use scale of miles on maps. 

8. How to construct graphs. 

9. How to measure dry materials, dry goods, weight. 

10. How to use units of power, such as horse power, kilowat. 

B. Related to the social studies. 

1. A knowledge of land. values. 

(a) In early days of United States. 

(b) In both rural and urban localities today. 

2. A knowledge of how land is measured. 

3. A knowledge of taxes, how levied, and purpose. 

4. Information about dates in history. 

5. Information about the size of the United States and various 
sections of it. 

6. Value of crops in the United States. 

7. Value of exports and imports of the United States. 

8. Part the United States plays in world production. 

9. Population of the United States both urban and rural. 

10. Changing population of the United States. 

11. Cost of wars. 

12. Extent and value of the natural resources of the United 

13. Change in volume and time required in the industrial out- 
put brought about by change from hand to mechanical 

C. Related to the use of money. 

1. Reasons for discounts. 

2. Better understanding of accounts. 

3. How we come to have our decimal system. 

4. Meaning of per cent. 

5. Different kinds of bank accounts. 

6. How to open a savings account. 

7. How to draw money out of a savings account. 

8. How to draw money out of a checking account. 

9. Meaning of interest. 

440 National College of Education 

II. Attitudes and appreciations. 

A. A better appreciation of the benefits derived through taxation, 
such as police and fire protection in a city. 

B. An appreciation for the value of land and why land differs 
in value. 

C. An appreciation for the number of comforts which have been 
made possible by mechanical power. 

D. An appreciation for the number of comforts which have been 
made possible by the natural resources of the United States. 

E. An appreciation of the importance of conserving our natural 

F. An appreciation for the value of the crops of the United States 
and the part the United States plays in world production. 

G. A better appreciation for the ease and accuracy with which 
we can measure in comparison with ancient times. 

H. Better conception of money value. 
I. Desire to give and get money's worth in dealings. 
J. A better appreciation of accuracy as a time saver. 
K. A desire to avoid unnecessary waste of school materials and 

L. A desire to pay bills promptly. 
M. A desire to save money. 

N. A willingness to spend money for the good of others. 
O. An appreciation of arithmetic as an aid in solving everyday 

P. An enjoyment in accomplishing, or attaining skill in various 


III. Computational skills. 

A. Minimum attainments for average pupil. 

1. Notation and numeration. 

(a) Ability to read and write numbers in millions. 

(b) Ability to read and write common Roman numerals 
1 to 20, by tens to 100, 500, and 1000. 

2. Fundamental processes with integers. 

(a) Thorough mastery of fundamental facts — 100 addi- 
tion, 100 subtraction, 100 multiplication, and 90 

(b) Greater speed and accuracy in addition, subtraction, 
and multiplication containing all types of difficulty. 

(c) Increased skill with long division enlarged to include 
ability to divide with all two figure divisors. 

(d) Acquaintance of principle of dividing by three figure 

Arithmetic Records 441 

(e) Greater speed and accuracy with short division now 
enlarged to include ability to use as short division. 

(f) Ability to check all processes. 

(g) Increased ability to solve one and two step problems 
involving all processes. 

3. Fundamental processes with fractions. 

(a) Ability to add fractions including all the specific 
abilities involved in the addition of fractions as listed 
by Brueckner in "Diagnostic and Remedial Teaching 
in Arithmetic," page 161. 

(b) Ability to subtract fractions including all specific 
abilities involved in the subtraction of fractions as 
listed by Brueckner, page 165. 

(c) Ability to multiply fractions including all specific 
abilities involved in the multiplication of fractions as 
listed by Brueckner, page 167. 

(d) Ability to divide fractions including all the specific 
abilities involved as listed by Brueckner, page 170. 

(e) Ability to apply these skills in the solution of prob- 

4. Percentage. 

Ability to express as hundredths and reduce. 

5. Decimals. 

Ability to add and subtract decimals. 

6. Denominate numbers. 

(a) Ability to use units of dry, liquid, linear, avoirdupois, 

surface, solid, and time measures, 
(b) Ability to solve problems involving denominate num- 
bers in United States money and in measures. 
B. Attainments for pupils above average. 

1. Mastery of attainments listed above in less time. 

2. Ability to solve more difficult practical problems. 

Note: The adjustment between the superior and average child has been 
made in this group largely on a time basis. The superior child devotes 
less time to arithmetic practiceand spends more time in problem solving 
in connection with creative activities. 

IV. Terms. 

A. Familiarity with the following minimum list of terms in the 
four fundamental processes with integers. 

1. Addition — add, sum, total, column, addends. 

2. Subtraction — subtract, difference, remainder. 

3. Multiplication — multiply, product, multiplier. 

4. Division — divide, divisor, dividend, quotient, remainder. 

442 National College of Education 

B. Familiarity with the following terms in the four fundamental 
processes with fractions: 

fraction common fraction 

fractional part improper fraction 

integer like fraction 

mixed number unlike fraction 

proper fraction reduce 

change numerator 

C. Familiarity with the following terms in measurement : 

pint inches minute 

quart foot hour 

gallon yard day 

dozen rod year 

peck mile cu. in. 

bushel sq. in. cu. ft. 

ounces sq. ft. cu. yd. 
pounds sq. yd. 
ton second 

D. Familiarity with the following common terms: 


















per cent 


E. Acquaintance with the terms used as cues to problem solving 
as given by Osburn in Volume II of "Corrective Arithmetic." 

1. Terms used as cues of previous years. 

2. Terms used in cues for fifth grade as listed on page 183 
except those dealing with percentage. 

Arithmetic in the Sixth Grade 

A. Activities 
I. Activities related to room procedure. 

A. Attendance. 

1. Recording daily attendance. 

2. Finding percent of attendance over a period of time. 

B. Program. 

1. Deciding on time allotment for units of work. 

2. Planning the program for the day or week. 

3. Computing the percentage of time each week devoted to 
certain types of work. 

4. Completing a "job" within a specified time. 

C. Choosing daily menu, which must contain certain food values, 
and not exceed a certain price. 

D. Taking care of health. 

1. Adjusting chairs and desks to sizes of pupils. 

2. Computing the percent of each size needed for the group, 
and comparing with standard. 

3. Keeping monthly height and weight record for the group. 

4. Computing average height and average weight for the class. 

5. Finding percent over or under weight for each member of 

E. Care of equipment and supplies. 

1. Making inventories of supplies on hand. 

2. Estimating amount needed. 

3. Ordering additional supplies. 

4. Mastering combinations on lockers. 

F. Spelling practice. 

1. Keeping a spelling graph over a period of time. 

2. Finding percent of words correct over a period of time. 

II. Activities related to group enterprises. 

A. Enlarging the school library. 

1. Selecting books to be purchased from class earnings, with 
content and price of book considered. 

2. Figuring total cost of books purchased. 

3. Figuring discounts allowed by publishers and money saved. 

4. Computing balance to class credit, and considering further 

5. Adding amounts spent by individuals for books given on 
library Endowment Day. 


444 National College of Education 

6. Figuring reductions at probable discounts. 

7. Earning money as individuals for purchase of gift books 
on Library Day. 

8. Computing fines on library books. 

B. Publication of magazine. 

1. Estimating amount of paper and stencils to order. 

2. After approximating cost, deciding on price that would 
ofTer a fair profit. 

3. Checking number sold and money collected. 

4. Depositing money. 

5. Decision to spend part of money in framing pictures; and 
part in subscription to National Geographic Magazine for 
school library. 

6. Receiving bill for framing from school office. 

7. Paying bill and receiving receipt. 

8. Checking amount left in class treasury. 

C. Cooking enterprises in home economics room. 

1. Finding T / 2 , Y\, or ^4 of the recipe, sometimes doubling 
or trebling amounts. 

2. Figuring cost of recipe. 

3. Estimating economy or extravagance of recipe. 

III. Activities related to spontaneous interests. 

A. Finding averages and percentages in many situations. 

B. Listing all reasons possible for discounts being offered. 

IV. Activities related to social studies. 

A. Comparing cost and size of ancient buildings and art treasures 
with modern productions. 

1. Cost and size of pyramids in Egypt. 

2. Cost and size of Assuan Dam. 

3. Size and seating capacity of Greek Theatre. 

4. Size and cost of Parthenon. 

5. Size and value of famous Greek statues. 

B. Comparing size of armies in famous battles in ancient times 
with those of World War. 

C. Comparing size of debt paid by Carthage to Rome with modern 
war debts (200 talents, a talent worth about $1,180). 

D. Comparing ancient money and methods of trading with our 

1. Study of Egyptian trading and bartering (sometimes 
weighing gold, copper and silver). 

2. Study of Greek coins (iron supplanted by gold and silver). 

Arithmetic Records 445 

3. Examining pictures of Roman coins, showing head of 
Janus, prow of ship. 

4. Studying use of coins in Middle Ages. 

E. Comparing of ancient methods of book making and number of 
books available with methods used in Middle Ages and in mod- 
ern times. 

F. Placing time of various periods by years and centuries with 
reference to our present era. 

G. Finding percentages in comparing modern Europe with our 
own country. 

1. Percentage of exports and imports. 

2. Percentage of emigration and immigration. 

3. Percentage of United States population from different 

H. Measuring in making of maps and in use of maps and globes ; 
measuring and computing costs in making properties and cos- 
tumes for play of knights. 

I. Charging admission for play, computing profits and planning 
expenditure of money earned. 

V. Activities for explanation and demonstration. 

A. Explaining steps in a new process on the blackboard. 

B. Outlining on board procedure which will assist in solving 
reasoning problems. 

1. Read problem carefully. 

2. Try to see in your mind just what the problem describes. 

3. Decide what numbers you should add, subtract, multiply 
or divide. 

4. Estimate the answer. 

5. Work carefully. 

6. See if your answer agrees with estimate. 

7. See if you can prove your answer to be correct. 

C. Drawing diagrams, such as a large square divided into one 
hundred small squares, to be used in introducing percentage. 
Drawing circles and other figures which are divided and shaded. 

D. Marking off on floor measurements which are not well known, 
such as rods. 

E. Using units of measure in explaining problems involving de- 
nominate numbers. 

F. Cutting cardboard figures to be used in finding areas. 

G. Drawing plans of fields, yards and gardens when finding areas. 
H. Drawing graphs. 

446 National College of Education 

VI. Use of practice materials. 

A. Use of mimeographed practice sheets covering new processes. 

B. Using work book for drill. 

C. Completing exercises in work books, usually working by con- 
tract method. 

D. Taking curriculum test once a month. 

E. Keeping individual graphs of results of monthly test. 

VII. Use of books. 

A. Using books for review and drill after practice has been given. 

B. Using books for diagnostic tests. 

C. Using book as a reference for tables. 

VIII. Use of a diagnostic tests (by teacher or psychologist). 

A. Finding difficulties of individual children. 

B. Finding difficulties common to the group as a whole. 

IX. Remedial work (conducted by teacher with the advice of 

A. Group remedial work for those who need it. 

1. Blackboard drill under supervision. 

2. Mimeographed work sheets. 

3. Careful analysis of reasoning problems by the group. 

B. Individual remedial work. 

1. Individual work sheets on phase of work needing emphasis. 

2. Careful explanation of each process given by teacher. 

3. Supervision of child's work. 

B. Books and Materials Used 

I. Materials for practical experience with number. 

A. Measures : rules, yard stick, tape measure, liquid and dry 
measures, measuring devices used in cooking, scales. 

B. Cardboard figures used in finding areas. 

C. Cubes used in finding volume. 

D. Height and weight charts. 

E. Attendance records. 

F. Graph paper. 

G. Art and woodwork materials. 
H. Playground materials. 

I. Natural science and social studies materials. 
J. Food and utensils used in cooking. 

Arithmetic Records 447 

II. Practice materials. 

A. Mimeographed sheets. 

1. Mimeographed sheets of four fundamental processes to 
develop greater skill. 

2. Mimeographed sheets covering new processes. 

3. Mimeographed sheets of reasoning problems. 

B. Work book. 

Brueckner, L. J. Diagnostic Tests and 1929 Winston 

& others Practice Exercises in 


C. Individual cards for practice in fundamental facts and processes 
used chiefly in remedial work. 

III. Arithmetic books for reference and review. 

Brueckner, L. J. Triangle Arithmetic 1929 Winston 

& others Book II 

Clapp, F. L. Clapp Drill Book for 1926 Silver Burdett 

Sixth Grade 
McMurray, F. M. Social Arithmetic Book 1926 Macmillan 

& Benson, C. B. II 

IV. Standardized tests. 

A. Given by teacher. 

Diagnostic tests from work book used. 
Brueckner, L. J. Curriculum Tests in Winston 

Arithmetic Processes 

B. Given by psychology department. 

New Stanford Achievement (Advanced Form) World Book Company 

Public School Achievement in Computation Public School Pub- 

and Reasoning lishing Company 

Monroe's Standardized General Survey Scale Public School Pub- 

in Arithmetic lishing Company 

Schorling, Clark and Potter Test World Book Company 

C. Probable Outcomes 
I. Information. 

A. Necessity of "checking accounts." 

B. Better understanding of personal expense accounts and al- 

C. Correct form for bills. 

D. Correct form for receipts. 

E. Reasons for discounts. 

F. Better understanding of advertising. 

G. Knowledge of "good time" to buy. 

H. Knowledge of adding machines and automatic devices. 
I. Better understanding of uses of graphs. 

448 National College of Education 

J. Better understanding of uses of percentage and meaning of 

K. Better understanding of use of measurement in cooking, and 

proportion in making or altering recipes. 
L. Information about dates and periods in history. 
M. Information about size of ancient buildings, statues and costs. 
N. Knowledge of how buying was done in ancient times. 

0. Knowledge of early coins ; how they were made ; values in 
United States money. 

P. Information about number of books available in ancient times ; 

comparative number and cost of modern books. 
Q. Knowledge about size of armies and cost of wars in ancient 

and modern times. 
R. Statistics about population, immigration, exports and imports 

in the United States. 

II. Attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Better conception of value of money. 

B. Appreciation of need for careful estimating in ordering sup- 

C. Desire to pay bills promptly and hold receipts carefully. 

D. Desire to be exact and careful in handling money belonging to 
a group. 

E. Desire to benefit by "bargains" and discounts. 

F. Desire to fix price honestly and make fair profit. 

G. Desire to avoid unnecessary waste and extravagance. 
H. Appreciation of need for accuracy in all accounts. 

1. Recognition of need for careful measuring and estimating in 
using recipes. 

J. Readiness to spend money for good of whole school. 

K. Desire to spend time to best advantage. 

L. Appreciation of contribution of machinery to number of com- 
forts available compared with ancient times. 
M. Appreciation of simplicity and convenience of United States 
decimal system of coinage. 

III. Skills in computation. 

A. Attainments for average group. 
1. Fundamental processes. 

(a) Mastery of fundamental facts. 

(b) Use of four fundamental processes with increased 
speed and accuracy. 

(c) Skill in using process of long division, with ability 
to divide by three figure divisors. 

Arithmetic Records 449 

(d) Increased ability to solve reasoning problems involv- 
ing all processes. 

2. Fundamental processes with fractions. 

(a) Skill in adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing 
common fractions. 

(b) Ability to solve problems involving these steps. 

3. Decimal fractions. 

(a) Ability to read and write decimal fractions accurately. 

(b) Ability to add, subtract, multiply and divide common 
decimal fractions. 

(c) Ability to solve problems involving these steps. 

4. Denominate numbers. 

(a) Ability to use denominate numbers in the four funda- 
mental processes. 

(b) Ability to solve reasoning problems involving these 

5. Percentage. 

(a) Ability to use the table of aliquot parts. 

(b) Ability to find a percent of a number. 

(c) Ability to work all types of percentage problems based 
on these two processes. 

(d) Ability to use percents larger than one hundred. 

(e) An introduction to the process of rinding a number 
when a percent of it is given. 

6. Finding areas : Ability to find areas of rectangles, triangles 
and parallelograms. 

B. Attainments for pupils above average. 

1. Mastery of work listed in a shorter period of time. 

2. Time given to more difficult reasoning problems. 

3. Many original problems made by this group based on their 
own interests. 

IV. Terms. 

A. All terms used in the four fundamental processes. 

B. All terms used in the four fundamental processes with com- 
mon fractions. 

C. All terms used in measurement. 

D. Familiarity with the following terms in decimal fractions : dec- 
imal point, decimal fraction, tenths, hundredths, thousandths, 
ten thousandths, hundred thousandths, millionths. 

E. Terms in percentage : percent, discount, profit, loss, at the rate 
of, list price, selling price, deposit, interest, commission. 

F. Terms in finding areas : square, rectangle, triangle, parallelo- 
gram, base, altitude. 


Individual Records and Their Use 


IN STUDYING the capacities and interests of each child, the 
teachers make use of the various records that are filed at the time 
the child is enrolled. In registering the child, the parent is asked to 
fill in an experience record and a health history, and to sign a permit 
for a physical examination. If a child is enrolled in the nursery 
school or one of the kindergartens, the teacher in addition holds a 
personal conference with the mother before the child enters, seek- 
ing in this way to gain a more intimate knowledge of the child's 
home situation and experience. The records of this and further 
conferences are kept on file. 

The school physician gives a physical examination each year, dur- 
ing the opening weeks of school, and records in the form provided 
certain physical characteristics. A fuller examination by the family 
physician or by a specialist is recommended when the child's condi- 
tion seems to need further study. There is also daily health inspec- 
tion by the physician assisted by the school nurse, and further notes 
and recommendations are made from time to time. 

An individual intelligence test is given to each child before he 
enters school. The test record is supplemented by the psychologist's 
judgment of the physical, mental and social characteristics revealed 
during the test. Since the school is not equipped and staffed to take 
care of handicapped children, only normal and gifted children are ac- 
cepted. The child's complete development is considered in placing 
him in the group where he can probably attain success. For purposes 
of research, an individual intelligence test is given each successive 

A "key" for studying and guiding the child's responses in the 
school situation has been worked out for each field of activity. The 
teachers have various ways of keeping individual records. Some 
teachers jot down incidents from time to time which reveal a child's 
characteristic attitudes or habits. When a child's behavior seems 
to need special study, a diary record is made. Teachers also keep 
folders for each child, filing from time to time samples of drawing, 
writing or other bits of work. In grades above second, individual 
progress charts are kept in the acquisition of certain important skills. 


454 National College of Education 

At the end of the semester, the teachers prepare a descriptive re- 
port for each child, summarizing the various individual records and 
including recommendations. One copy of the descriptive report is 
sent to parents and one copy is filed with other permanent records at 
the school. With the teacher's report a blank is sent to parents, ask- 
ing for a report of the child's progress and of his needs as seen in 
the home. While the descriptive reports require much time and study, 
the results in increased parent cooperation and in the teacher's own 
understanding of the child's development have been so evident, that 
teachers have considered them most worth while. 

In all grades, beginning with second, achievement tests have been 
given by a psychologist near the end of each semester, and individual 
graph reports have been made, based on average scores of tests given. 
Individual remedial work has been provided in a few cases when a 
child's educational age falls decidedly below his mental age. Group- 
ing within the room and providing individual instruction when 
needed, take care of individual differences in the mastery of skills 
so that a child need not fall behind the group where his general de- 
velopment suggests his placement. The school seeks to eliminate 
failure and repetition of grades, with the accompanying emotional 

All the records pertaining to the individual child are kept in his 
permanent folder in a central office. Teachers draw out these folders 
at the beginning of the school year in order to study the past experi- 
ences of each child in the new group, and also at other times as 
questions arise. Sometimes the teacher is promoted with her chil- 
dren, and remains with the same group two years. This procedure 
has been found especially favorable to certain children needing 
individual study. 

In this section copies are included of actual reports exchanged 
between parents and teachers, and also the keys for guiding the 
teacher's study of individual children. 


ALTHOUGH both teachers and parents prepare records and 
^ reports which are exchanged, these do not in any way take 
the place of individual conferences. Before the child is enrolled, 
the parents hold an interview with the director of the school or the 
assistant to the director, in order that the aims of the school and the 
parents' purpose in enrolling the child may be fully understood. 
Usually conferences are held also with the room director, the school 
physician, and the psychologist who gives the initial tests. After 
the physical examination and the intelligence test, parents are advised 
concerning the type of work the child is ready to do, and the group 
where he will probably be most successful. The exact intelligence 
quotient is not as a rule given out, since this has been found to 
fluctuate in later tests. 

During the year parents hold frequent conferences with the room 
teachers and special teachers. Two days each week are set aside as 
parents' visiting days, and informal conversations with teachers 
often occur following an observation in the room. Prearranged in- 
terviews occur also as needs arise in the school and the home. In 
nursery school and kindergarten it is customary to hold interviews 
before the child enters and also at the close of each semester when 
semester reports are exchanged. Thus the reports and the recom- 
mendations may be fully discussed. Both teachers and parents have 
found such interviews very helpful, but have been unwilling to omit 
the written reports, since these may be read many times, may be 
referred to later as problems arise, and may be shared with relatives 
at home and other staff members at school who deal with the child. 

All the specialists on the staff are ready to give help to parents 
and teachers in understanding and meeting particular needs. Indi- 
vidual parents frequently ask for conferences with the school physi- 
cian, the psychologist, the nutritionist, the speech specialist, and the 
director of the Children's School. Sometimes a conference is ar- 
ranged with one or both parents present, and two or more members 
of the staff. 

Parents have been interested also in holding group meetings to 


456 National College of Education 

discuss common problems. Each room group of parents chooses a 
room chairman and a secretary, and these officers with the room 
director plan for several meetings of their own group during the 
year. As a rule the room director or some other member of the 
staff is invited to lead the discussion, and the problem is one of vital 
interest to the group at the time. 

The room officers and room directors, together with the director 
of the school, form a Council, which plans activities for the entire 
group of parents and teachers. Usually three or more evening meet- 
ings are held during the year, presenting speakers of note in the 
field of education, and several daytime meetings on topics of special 

In addition to these informal meetings arranged by the Parents' 
Council, the National College of Education offers courses each 
semester for the parents of the school and community. These in- 
clude both classes in child-study meeting each week under one 
leader, and symposium courses in which several members of the 
staff and outside lecturers participate. Plans and subjects for these 
courses vary from year to year so that interested parents may con- 
tinue their studies for several years. Supervised observation in the 
Children's School has been a regular part of some of these courses. 
The following courses have been given successfully in the past two 
or three years : 

Child Care and Training in the Early Years. 

Behavior Problems of Early Childhood. 

The Child and His Learning. 

Educative Experiences of Childhood. 

Our Children— Knowing Them and Living With Them. 

Home Guidance of Children. 

The Child and Society. 

Child Study — The Early Years. 

Child Study — The Pre-Adolescent Years. 

Problems of Early Adolescence. 

Adolescence — -Its Problems and How to Deal with Them. 

Problems in Child Development from Infancy to Adolescence. 


National College of Education 

(Filled by parent for each new child who enters the school) 

To the Parent : 

We are asking for the following information, so that we may know 
and understand your child and be able to deal with him as intelligently 
as possible. We will appreciate your cooperation in filling out this 
record as completely as you can, recognizing that the information we 
seek is for the welfare of your child. 

Name of Child Girl Date of Birth 

January, 1925 

Name of Parent Date of Enrollment September, 1930 


Home telephone 

Business telephone of Father 


of Mother 


Physician's Name 



Previous schools child has attended 

School Dates of Attendance Grades 


Physical Environment 

Does he live in a house, hotel or apartment? House 
How many rooms are there in his home ? Seven 
Does he have his own room? Yes 
Does he sleep alone? Yes 

Has he his own playroom? Yes, during the summer only 
Are there shelves or cupboards for his play materials and books ? Yes 
How much responsibility is expected of him in caring for these? 1 
try to have her put them back after she has had friends in and before 
she goes to bed. But she never does it unless I tell her to — in other 
zvords it is far from a habit. 
Is there yard space where he may play? Yes 

What play equipment is there in the yard? Tzvo play houses — 
swing — sand pile 

Where does he spend most of his playtime? Outdoors in our yard 


458 National College of Education 

and in adjoining yards. Part of each day outdoors; some time play- 
ing at home and some time playing at the homes of her friends here in 
the neighborhood. 


What toys and play materials does your child have? Check his 
favorite ones. 

crayons dresser iron 

scissors table and chair puzzles 

moulding clay sewing cabinet blocks 

doll bed ironing board 

What are his favorite books ? 

Aldis — Everything and Anything 
Lindsay — Toy Shop 
Stevenson — Child's Garden of Verses 
Book Trails, Vol. 1 and 2 
Children of the New Testament 

How does he spend his free time when at home? Plays outdoors 
with other children as much as possible. In winter she cuts, draws 
a great deal, 'washes and irons, plays with her dolls once in a while. 
Has he any definite responsibilities or duties to carry out each day,- 
so that he feels that he is cooperating and contributing to the home? 
Name these. She must hang up her towel and wash cloth on the rack 
and put her clothes away — at nap time and at bed time. These are 
practically all of the duties she has to perform other than picking up 
her toys. 

The Family 

Of whom does the immediate family consist? Father, mother, one 


Ages of younger sisters two years younger brothers 
older sisters older brothers 

What other relatives live in the home? None — grandmother often 


How many servants are there? one 

What has been the education of parents? 


High school graduate? Yes College graduate? Yes 

From where? From where? N. U. 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 459 


High school graduate? Yes College graduate? Yes 

From where? From where? Smith 

Is there any deviation from family life — 

Child adopted? 

Either or both parents dead? 

Parents separated? 

Parents divorced? 

Either or both parents away for long periods? 
Who cares for the child most of the time? Mother 
How much time does he spend with his parents ? Eats breakfast and 


Father Usually the hour after dinner and some time on Saturdays 

and Sundays 

Social Contacts and Experiences 

With whom does the child play? There are tzvelve ranging in age 

from two to eight. 

What type of play does he carry on, active or rather quiet? Very 


Is he shy or does he approach others with ease ? Very easy for her to 

make friends. 

Is he inclined to lead or to follow ? To lead 

Does he get on happily with companions? Yes — sometimes directs 

them too much 

What contacts does he have with the community? Does he visit the 

grocery, market, dairy, the beach, forest preserves, railroad station? 

Name. Grocery, other stores, beach, railroad station, The Community 


Has he visited a farm, aviation field, train yards, factories of various 

kinds? Name. Farm, aviation field. 

By what means has he traveled ? Boats, trains, automobile, aeroplane ? 

Auto, train. 

To what places ? Please name. Indiana and Wisconsin 

Has he attended Sunday School ? 

Nature Experiences 

Has he a garden? We have a small garden 

What pets has he ? None 

What responsibility does he take toward his pets or plants? She 

helps me pick flowers once in a while. Has planted seeds. 

460 National College of Education 

Has he gone to the woods for picnics, to gather nuts, leaves? 
Give other nature experiences. 

Aesthetic Experiences 

What lessons has your child had outside of school in music, art, 

dancing ? None 

What are you doing to cultivate an interest in these lines ? Wc play 

the piano together and sing. I often play and she and her sister 



What, if any, special help does your child need? Please describe the 
problem, (discipline, habits of sleep, food, social relationships, phys- 
ical needs.) I believe she needs help in forming the habit of neat- 
ness. She is not naturally untidy, but likes to get out of picking up. 
I believe I have erred here and did not insist early enough that she 
form this habit. I am naturally unmethodical, and have found it easivr 
to pick up after than to start her on the right track herself. I cant 
rely on her to tell the truth always. Lately she has been very dis- 
obedient. I have to tell her three or four times to do a thing. 
What are your reasons for enrolling your child in this school ? / be- 
lieve she is advanced and needs some kind of intelligent direction. I 
know she will get it at National College of Education. 
Through whom did you become interested in the school? 
Name of person filling out this blank 


Date of Conference 

Child's Name Date of Birth 

Conference with (Mother, Father, Guardian.) 
Teacher's Name 

Physical Status 

Date of last physical examination? By whom? 
Did it include blood test? Urinalysis? Foot print? 
What diseases has the child had? Recently? 
What operations? 
Has he any physical defects? Hearing, vision, etc.? 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 461 

Defecation — Time? Conditions? Use of oil, suppository? 

Urination — Wet bed at nap? At night? 

If boy, does he stand or sit? 

What terminology does child use in asking to go to toilet? 

Does he take any responsibility for elimination? 

Is he left or right handed? 

Coordination? Can he button? Use scissors? Feed self? Dress 


Has he any nervous habits? Bite or pick nails, or lips, or nose? 


At night, time in bed? Time asleep? Time awake? 

Nap, time in bed ? Time asleep ? Time awake ? 

Condition of sleep? 

Alone? In room alone? 

Sensitive to light or dark? To noise? 

Does child get out of bed? Sing in bed? Play in bed? 

Does he rock? Is he dependent on toy? Fetish? Thumb? 

Has he a set position for sleeping? 

Attitude on waking? 


Does child eat alone or with family? 

Who supervises child's feeding? Who plans his meals? 

Type of appetite? 

Dislikes? How dealt with? Idioscyncracies ? 

Abilities — feed self? Use spoon or fork? Bib? 

Does he vomit at will? Throw food on floor? Get up from table? 

What "Manners" have been required by the parent? 


Is child sunny, happy? 

Does child cry easily? Often? Why? How treated? 

Is he afraid? Why? How treated? 

Tantrums? How treated? 

Is he affectionate? 

Does he masturbate? Suck thumb? 


Age of talking? words? combinations? sentences? 
Any impediment? Enunciation? 
Stammer? Stutter? How treated? 
Mispronounce ? Vocabulary ? 

462 National College of Education 


Is there music in the home? Piano? Radio? Victrola? 
Do the parents sing? Play? 
Does the child show any interest? 
Does the child sing? Spontaneously? 
Can he carry a tune ? Can he whistle ? 
Is he rhythmic? 

Are you anticipating any homesickness or difficulty in child's first 
days at school? 

Who will call for the child daily? (If he does not use school car) 
What was the attitude of parent during conference ? 
Record of later conferences. Did parent or teacher ask for con- 
ference ? 

A Typical Day's Menu 

At what time did he have breakfast this morning? 

Of what did it consist? 

At what time did he have supper last night ? 

Of what did it consist? 

At what time did he have dinner yesterday? 

Of what did it consist? 

Is he accustomed to a mid-morning feeding? If so, at what time, 

and of what does the feeding consist? 

Is he accustomed to a mid-afternoon feeding? If so, at what time, 

and of what does the feeding consist? 




Home Environment 

1. Why was the child entered in the school? 

2. What attitude was shown by the parent during the conference ? 

3. Has the child both mother and father? At home? 

4. Is he an adopted child? 

5. Who else is in the home? 

6. Are both parents employed? 

7. What is the education of the parents? 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 463 

8. Do the parents show an interest in the school? Attend meet- 
ings? Visit? Contribute in any way? 

9. What is the parents' attitude toward the child? Indulgent? 
Companionable ? Indifferent ? Over-critical ? 

10. What is the child's attitude toward the parent? 

1 1 . How often is the child with his mother ? Father ? 

12. Is the home adequate for the child's play needs? Crowded? 

13. Does the child live in a house? Hotel? Apartment? 

14. Are the parents interested in giving the child worthwhile ex- 
periences ? Pets ? Excursions ? Participation in home activi- 

Physical Status 

A. Health 

1. What is the general condition of the child's health? 

2. What were the results of the physical examination? 

3. Has he defects or disabilities : Poor sight ? Defective hearing ? 
Adenoids? Defective speech? Knock knees? Bowed legs? 
Protruding abdomen ? Defective teeth ? Rachitic symptoms ? 
Flat feet? 

4. What illnesses has he had? 

5. Does his weight correspond to his height now? 

6. Did it at the beginning of the term? 

7. Is he susceptible to colds? 

8. Has he good muscular coordination? Can he skip on two 
feet? Hop? Carry things without dropping? Does he fall 
down often? Does he use feet alternately in going up or 
down stairs? Can he use a ball? Can he put on wraps? 
Rubbers? Can he button and unbutton? Is he left handed 
or right handed? Can he use scissors? Can he use crayons? 
Does he use tools with a fair degree of caution ? What other 
evidences of coordination does he give? 

9. Has he established proper health habits : Sleep ? Food ? 
Elimination ? Cleanliness : Does he flush the toilet ? If a 
boy, does he raise seat? Does he wash his hands and wrists? 
Does he dry his hands ? Does he leave bowl clean ? Does he 
cover a cough and sneeze? Does he wipe his nose? 

10. Is he hyperactive? Normally active? Lethargic? 

11. Is his color good? Are there circles under his eyes? 

12. Does he relax? 

13. Has he a sensitive skin? 

464 National College of Education 

14. Does he run temperature frequently? 

15. Does he rock, eat sand, bang head, or show any other peculiar- 

16. Has he any nervous habits: Bite nails? Pick nose? Pick 
cuticle? Wet lips? Stretch lips? Other nervous tendencies? 

17. Does he relax when resting? 

18. Does he carry himself well; walk with a spring in his step, or 
is he slouchy? 

B. Sleep 

1. What time does the child go to bed at night? What time does 
he get to sleep ? When does he waken ? Total hours ? 

2. Does he have a nap or does he only rest? Always? What 
time does he go to bed? What time does he go to sleep? 
How long does he sleep? 

3. What are his sleeping conditions at home ? 

4. What is his attitude toward going to bed? 

5. What are his habits on going to bed ? Sing? Play? Get out 
of bed? 

6. Is he accustomed to having toys in bed? 

7. Has he any set way of going to sleep? Rock body? Rock 
head? Use fetish? Suck thumb? Masturbate? 

8. Has he a set position for going to sleep? Back? Side? 
Stomach ? 

9. Do light or dark have any effect ? 

10. Is he sensitive to noise? 

11. Is he dependent on the adult in any way? 

12. What is the condition of the child's sleep? Cry in sleep? 
Nightmares ? 

13. Does he have to be wakened? 

14. How does he waken? Cry? Fret? Alert? 

15. Is he allowed to get up when he wakens? 

C. Food 

1. Is the child really hungry? Indifferent? 

2. What is the average length of time for breakfast? Dinner? 
Supper ? 

3. Do the meals which the child has at home balance the meals 
which he has at school? 

4. What foods does he dislike? How do you account for these 
dislikes ? 

5. Does he refuse foods? What? How treated? Do parents 
cooperate ? 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 465 

6. Has the child any real idiosyncrasies? 

7. Does he vomit at will? Spit out food? Drop food on floor 
purposely ? 

8. How do these compare with habits at home ? 

9. How does he handle silver? Fist? Correctly? 

10. Can he get food on his fork without a pusher? 

11. Does he eat with his fingers? 

12. Does he get up from the table? Turn around in chair? 

13. Does he put on his napkin without being told? 

14. Is he sufficiently neat about eating, so that he may have his 
napkin on his lap? 

15. Does he break his bread? 

16. Does he keep silver and food on his plate? 

17. Does he serve successfully? 

18. Does he pour his own milk? Successfully? 

19. Does he pass food correctly? 

20. Does he wipe his mouth and place his napkin on the table 
when finished? 

21. Does he excuse himself from the table? 

Emotional Stability 

1. Has the child normal emotional control? 

2. Does he play joyously with freedom and abandon? 

3. Has he a sense of humor? Does he laugh easily? 

4. Does he become silly easily? 

5. Can he adapt to emergencies? 

6. Can he adapt to disappointments? 

7. Is he habitually happy? Contented? 

8. Can he accept criticism in good spirit ? 

9. Is he easily excited? 

10. Has he a kind and sympathetic nature? Or destructive? 

11. Does he cry easily? Under what circumstances? 

12. Has he fears? Under what circumstances? 

13. Does he exhibit temper? To what degree? Under what cir- 
cumstances ? Can one reason with him at such times ? 

14. Is he affectionate? Toward whom? Unduly affectionate? 
Toward whom? 

15. Is he sensitive? Self-conscious? 

16. Is he sensitive to atmosphere and beauty? 

17. Does he masturbate? 

18. Does he suck his thumb? 

466 National College of Education 

19. Is he at all dependent on a fetish? 

20. What other emotional tendencies does he exhibit? 

Social Adjustment 

1. What is the child's attitude toward other children? 

2. Does he play alone? With the group? 

3. If alone, does he play near the group? 

4. Can he play alone ? 

5. Can he play in both large and small groups? 

6. Does he initiate group activities ? 

7. Does he organize a group ? 

8. Can he conform to the group? 

9. Does he respond to group rules? 

10. Is he a leader? Follower? Intelligent, or passive? 

11. Has he a courteous manner? 

12. Does he respect the property rights of others? 

13. Is he helpful? To whom? 

14. Is he selfish? 

15. Is he domineering? 

16. Is he equally interested in both boys and girls? 

17. Does he like to share toys? 

18. Does he defend himself? 

19. Does he take responsibility voluntarily: For playthings which 
he has used? For playthings which others have used? For 
wraps? For room? 

20. What is his attitude toward adults : Does he solicit attention ? 
Is he dependent on the adult for happiness? Does he desire 
social approval? Does he object to the adult in any way? 

21. Does he adapt to emergencies? 

22. Is he a problem in a social situation? 

23. What situations have been most conducive to his growth? 

24. What are the child's home conditions? 

25. What social experiences has he had outside of school? 

Capacities, Attitudes, Interests 

A. General Capacities 

1. What evidence does the child give of: Concentration? 
Memory? Imagination? Alertness? Comprehension? 
Effort? Purpose? Initiative? Perseverance? Reasoning? 

2. What attempt has he made to solve his own problems ? 

3. Does he ask for help when the solution is possible for himself ? 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 467 

4. What is his span of interest in a day? 

5. Does his interest carry over from day to day? 

6. Does he bring things to school which show that his interest 
has carried over? 

7. Does he have few or many interests? 

8. Types of interests? Favorite interests? 

9. Interest in materials : What materials does he use indoors ? 
How does he use them ? Manipulate ? Experiment ? Carry ? 
Construct ? Construct with a purpose ? What apparatus does 
he use outdoors ? How does he use wagons, kiddie cars ? 

10. Interest in colors: Does he know colors? Does he show any 
interest in colors? 

1 1 . Number interest : Can he count ? How far ? Does he know 
what numbers mean? 

12. Interest in beginning of reading and w r riting? What evi- 
dences ? 

13. Does he know time? Tomorrow? Yesterday? Afternoon? 

14. Does he know places? Directions? 

15. Interest in pictures: Does he enumerate details and separate 
objects? Does he describe? Does he interpret? 

16. Does he originate stories, verses? 

17. Is he creative along any lines? Which ones? 

18. Does he use his time wisely? Purposeful? Self-reliant? 
Dependable ? 

19. Does he ask intelligent questions? 

20. Has he any obsessions or abnormal interests? 

21. Has he ever had imaginary playmates? 

B. Dramatic Play 

1. What kind of play does he prefer — dolls, games, stories? 
With the group or alone? 

2. Is there freedom and joy in expression? 

3. Is there depth of dramatic feeling? 

4. Is there originality of ideas? Is his play creative? Or imi- 
tative ? 

5. Does he sometimes use materials to meet his needs in dramatic 

6. Is he an organizer or merely a tolerant participant? 

7. What is his contribution to the play? 

C. Industrial Art 

1. What kind of interest has he shown? 

468 National College of Education 

2. What particular materials does he choose? With what fre- 
quency does he make this choice? 

3. Does he choose materials and tools wisely to meet his play 
needs ? 

4. Does his interest carry over from day to day? 

5. Is his interest in the activity itself or in the result? 

6. Is his product crude or well-made? Has there been improve- 
ment in technique? 

7. Does he show originality or ingenuity? 

8. Does he give evidence of distinct pleasure in showing, talking 
about and using his product? 

9. Is he beginning to have a sense of orderliness in care of ma- 
terials and tools? 

D. Pictorial Art 

1. What media of expression does he choose? Crayons? Paints? 
Paper-cutting ? 

2. Is he free in expressing himself through these materials? 

3. Does his work show wealth of ideas or is it limited? Mean- 
ingful? Is it a language? Does it show clear imagery? 

4. Is there color discrimination? Is there a love of color? 

5. Is there a sense of proportion? 

6. What evidences are there of growth in technique? 

7. Is he beginning to show an interest and ability to interpret 
his own pictures and those shown to him? 

8. What kind of interest does he show in the work of others ? 

9. Does he take responsibility in the care of materials ? 

E. Plastic Art 

1. Is there enjoyment in use of this material? 

2. Is it enjoyed for the activity or result obtained? 

3. Is there freedom in expressing himself in plastic materials? 

4. Does his work show a wealth of ideas or is he limited in his 
work? Is there clear imagery? 

5. Is there a growth in technique? 

6. Is there an interest in the work of others? 

7. Does he take responsibility in the care of materials? 

F. Nature 

1. Is he interested in and observant of his environment? 

2. How is this interest shown ? 

3. What phases of nature make an especial appeal? 

4. Does he have pets, garden, plants and other nature material at 
home ? Does his home encourage nurturing interest ? 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 469 

5. Does he voluntarily care for school pets and plants? 
G. Music and Rhythm 

1. Is he interested in music and does he enjoy singing? 

2. Does he participate in songs? 

3. Does he sing spontaneously? 

4. Does he show feeling and appreciation for music? Vocal 
and instrumental? 

5. Does he recognize familiar selections? 

6. Does his interest in music carry over from home to school 
and from school to home? 

7. Does he come voluntarily to a music situation? 

8. Does he enjoy using the piano as a means of a musical ex- 
pression ? 

9. Is he aware of tones in music and other sounds about him ? 

10. Is his voice sweet or harsh? 

11. Has he a good range? (High — low) What is his range? 

12. Can he carry a tune accurately or almost accurately? With 
others ? Alone ? 

13. Does he sing on the key? 

14. Does he create words and tunes? 

15. Does he have opportunity of hearing members of the family 
play and sing? 

16. Has he sufficient motor control to express himself through 
rhythm at least spasmodically? 

17. Is he light and free in movement or heavy and awkward? 

18. Has he sense of rhythm? Evidences? 

19. Has he ability to adjust his own rhythm to the group? 

20. Does he show evidences of pleasure in rhythmic expression ? 

21. Does his mood often or only casually seek expression through 
rhythm ? 

22. Does he join in group rhythms as well as express himself 
individually ? 

23. What evidences has he shown of originality? 
H. Language 

1. Has he any speech impediment? 

2. Is he forming good habits in use of English through encour- 
agement of correct grammatical forms? 

3. Does he use pronouns correctly? 

4. Is there good enunciation ? Baby talk ? Incorrect consonants ? 
Stutter? Incorrect pronunciation? 

5. Is he sensitive to new words and does he make use of them? 

470 National College of Education 

6. Does he play with new words and sounds ? 

7. What is his quality of voice? High? Low? Disagreeable? 
Well-placed ? 

8. Does he enjoy language as a form of communication? Does 
he confine his conversation to adults? 

9. Does he express himself freely in conversation, rhymes, 
stories, relating his experiences and ideas? When with the 
whole group, of only a few, or an individual ? 

10. Is his vocabulary superior? Average? Limited? 
I. Literary Experience 

1. Does he enjoy stories of all kinds (fanciful, realistic, humor- 
ous, folk and fairy tales) ? 

2. What type of stories does he prefer? 

3. Has he a good literary background of stories and poems? 

4. Does his home give him literary experiences that meet his 
growing needs? 

5. Do these enable him to express feeling and interpret experi- 
ences ? 

6. Can he relate simple stories, giving main events? 

7. Is his imaginative power developing normally? 

8. Can he create simple stories, poems and rhymes? 

9. Does he show a sense of humor in his own stories and poems ? 

10. Does he show an appreciation of the humorous in stories and 
poems told and read to him? 

11. Is he sensitive to rhyme words and to the rhythm of poetry? 

12. Does he memorize poems easily? 


Name of Child M, 

Date of birth January 19, 1928 Group Nursery School . 

Semester beginning September 17,1 930 Days absent 23 
Semester ending January 29, 1931 Days present 63 

Physical status — 

Please refer to the report of the school physician. Coordination is 
exceptional — as noted in skipping, bouncing a ball, and so on. In spite 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 471 

of this, he needed a great deal of help in caring for his personal needs, 
but at present is quite independent. 

Has good health habits, covers cough, wipes nose, and so on. Neat 
about his person. Lips often cracked or chapped. M. is very good about 
letting such irritations alone. 

Many absences due to colds and asthma. Rallies well after these at- 
tacks. Has an excellent appetite. Doesn't care for fruit, and needs help 
in finishing it, but does not refuse. Weight — September 29 to January 
30 — Normal. Relaxes well at nap time. Takes a good nap daily, which 
has increased in length to 1 hr. 15 min. (Sleeps with eyes partly open.) 

Emotional status — 

Cried the first few days when mother left. Was shy and self con- 
scious. Lacked freedom and abandon in his play. 

Wanted attention and approval for his performances, all out of pro- 
portion to their worth. Was not interested in activity for his own en- 
joyment or for its worth. There has been decided progress here. 

Shows temper but does not have tantrums. Subsides quickly. (It is 
wise to avoid exciting or irregular experiences which cause over- 

Adapts well to emergencies — very matter-of-fact. 

Shows affection to both children and adults. 

Social adjustment — 

Made all of his social contacts with the adults at first, which was to be 
expected, having had practically no experience with children. Was 
aware of the activities of the children, and was an intelligent observer 
from the first. The adults purposely let M. alone a great deal, so that 
he would make more contacts with children. At present he has several 
good friends, and has a rollicking time with them. Is an active partici- 
pant in small group plays. 

Defends self well, especially so, for his size. 

Conspicuously cooperative for his age. Rarely shows negativism. 

M. is comfortable to live zvith — amiable, interested, responsive — never 
a nuisance in a social situation. 

Capacities, attitudes and interests — 

Did not initiate own activities at all at first, was dependent on adults 
for suggestions and stimuli, — but has progressed most satisfactorily. He 
attacks his work zvith genuine interest, and retains an interest in it for a 
reasonable length of time. His play with toys has progressed from the 

472 National College of Education 

purely manipulative type (handling, carrying, hauling) to the dramatic 
type. (Reliving his real experiences — eating, riding in a bus, and 
so on.) 

Systematic about routine habits. 

Solves his play problems well — rarely asks for help. 

Converses freely, with great expression and dramatic feeling. Has 
superior language ability. Enunciation clear except for Th — which he 
pronounces D. Plays with new words, repeating them over and over. 
Likes rhymes and stories. Thoroughly enjoys songs and rhythmic ac- 
tivities, although he did not participate in the latter until January. Knozvs 
all of the school songs — sings original songs. Has a szveet voice, a wide 
range. Sings spontaneously (in fact constantly while at play.) 

Recommendations — 

We are sorry that M. has been absent so much, but feel that he has 
made the most of the days on which he did attend. 

He is a well-rounded little boy, capable and cooperative. 

We greatly appreciate the spirit of interest and cooperation shown by 
the parents. 


Name of child M. 

Date February 5, 1931 

What school interests has your child most often mentioned at home? 

Songs? He sings at home many songs learned at school. 

Rhymes? / have noticed a heightened interest in rhymes used at 


Pictures? He hasn't mentioned any. 

Toys and other play materials? Occasionally speaks of clay. 

Pets ? Occasionally. 

Activities and experiences of the day? Occasionally. 

Other children? With increasing frequency. "Where is so-and-so?" 

Any other persons or things? He speaks of the teachers often, and 
has from the first. He does not regidarly relate the day's happen- 
ings. There has been somezvhat more of this in the past week. For 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 473 

a time whenever he zvas asked what he had to cat, he said, "Car- 
rots." — and zvith apparent pleasure. 
Have you noticed progress at home: 

Socially — Attitude toward other children? Decided. 

Attitude toward parents? Considerable. 

Attitude toward strangers ? He has greater ease in meet- 
ing them. 

In other ways? He shows a great deal of negativism 
toward other members of the family. I think this has in- 
creased rather than decreased. 

Mentally — Is he alert to things about him? Exceedingly. 

Does he solve his own problems? Yes and everyone else's. 

How long does he play with one thing? Not very long. 

Other forms of progress ? He is decidedly fascinated just 
now by all sorts of experiments and practice in language. 
His imitation of tap dancing shows what seems to us 
unusual coordination and rhythmic accuracy. He 
amuses himself much better than he used to. 

Physically — Has he improved in health habits? Yes. 
Has he gained in coordination? Yes. 
Other gains? 

Has he improved in habits of eating? Somewhat. 
Has he improved in habits of sleeping? Somewhat. 

In what forms of work or play does he engage most frequently at home? 
Playing the victrola. Pushing a small automobile. Riding a kiddie 
car. Imitating adult activities. Investigating adult working materials 
and property. 

What is the attitude toward coming to school? 

He beams when he goes out to the car, but he never complains about 
having to stay at home. 

What, if any, undesirable tendencies is your child showing at home just 

He says "Shut up" and "No" far too frequently. He has had two 
tantrums in the last month. He occasionally demands attention when we 
become engrossed in conversation and he ceases to be the center of at- 
tention. When he has been away from school for some time, he reverts 
to demanding as much attention and entertainment as he can get. 

474 National College of Education 

Suggestions or Questions: 

/ am very happy that M. has been in school this year and feel that the 
school has contributed tremendously to his development ; that it has prob- 
ably been the salvation of his character and personality. I have been dis- 
tressed that he has had to miss so much. We greatly appreciate the care- 
ful and full analysis made in the school report and feel that it is very 
helpful to us. 



Name of Child £. 

Date of birth September 20, 1925 Group Senior Kindergarten 

Semester beginning September 17, 1930 Days absent 9 
Semester ending January 29, 1931 Days present 77 

Physical status — 

5\ has good muscular coordination but docs not really enjoy vigorous 
physical activity; seems to be fearful of adult criticism. 

Was decidedly phlegmatic at first but has showed considerable im- 

Dark rings and puffiness under his eyes at times. Has the cause for 
this condition been determined? 

Relaxes very well zvhen resting. 

Weight, Sept.— 42.3 Weight, Jan.— 46.5. 

Emotional status — 

He has made very satisfactory improvement in this respect for he 
was reserved, timid and extremely self-conscious when he first came to 
Senior Kindergarten. Would become silly, rub eyes and make faces, 
if attention was focused upon him. There is still need for improvement 
along this line, but we feel that ignoring him when he feels he is not 
measuring up is the best method to use with him. Is not willing to 
accept criticism, but pouts or sulks. We are sure that as he proceeds 
in school he will overcome this, but criticism should be used very spar- 
ingly now. 

Has given evidence of real temper, but he keeps this well under con- 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 475 

trol. S. is affectionate and "warms up" to people fairly well if any 
affection is shown him. Is sensitive to his environment and often com- 
ments on things of beauty — color combinations, flowers. Is cautious but 
not fearful under most circumstances. 

Social adjustment — 

6\ has attained a satisfactory degree of friendliness. He joins in play 
with others voluntarily and often makes valuable suggestions to their 
play. At first he would find something to do which did not require any 
social contact, and in the entire group activities he would hang back and 
refuse to join. He now presents no social problem, but comes happily. 

He follows the lead of others intelligently and in a cooperative manner. 
He has given a few evidences of leadership, but we can not expect much 
of him along this line until he forgets self. 

Has respect for the property of others. 

Will take responsibility when definitely given to him but does not 
assume it to any degree. 

Capacities, attitudes and interests — 

S. has excellent ability in concentrating. Is persistent almost to the 
point of fatigue at times. 

Has a long memory span. 

He has good reasoning power — often very quick to see through a 
situation. Needs to be encouraged to do his own thinking. Asks for 
help when with a little suggestion or a word to help him feel the problem 
is not beyond him, he can go ahead. His interests are many. Most of 
the materials of the kindergarten make an appeal to him. He prefers 
those activities, however, which do not involve lively physical effort. 

He draws and paints with a good deal of skill. His work is meaning- 
ful. While he is greatly interested in the doing he is always interested 
and pleased with his product. 

His work with wood and with blocks shows some creative ability. 
Works with a purpose in mind. 

He sings with a sweet voice; has more than average ability. He en- 
joys music and will listen intently to piano music. Good sense of rhythm. 
He was most self-conscious in rhythm work at first and would not par- 
ticipate. After a discussion between S. and myself in private, he has 
entered into rhythms. I told him he could do anything with his feet 
and hands that he wished while the others were skipping, etc. Because 
zve have not commented on how he did things, but praised him because 
he was doing something, he has seemed to feel much more at ease. We 

476 National College of Education 

are beginning now to work with him alone in helping him to attain 
greater skill Freedom in speech is fairly satisfactory when his interest 
is so high that he forgets himself. Good vocabulary. 

Is just beginning to be interested in reading. 

Has a good background of information. 

Recommendations — 

S/s progress has been satisfactory this term. His greatest need is to 
feel free, to develop a greater sense of humor and to be less concerned 
about the opinion of others. I feel sure that he has too close supervision 
and too much commenting has been made on his shortcomings. I would 
suggest that he be "put on his own" to a greater degree and that when 
self-consciousness or spells of stubbornness appear that he be joked with 
and cajoled out of his mood. 

Continues in Senior Kindergarten — term February to June 1931. 



Name of child S. 

Group Senior Kindergarten Date February 10, 1931. 

What school interests has your child most often mentioned at home? 

S. doesnt talk very much about his school work at home unless ques- 
tioned, but he asks many questions about things, the ideas of which I 
think he must have obtained at school. When anything special aside 
from the daily routine comes up he mentions it — auto trips, great inter- 
est in the house-boat and Indians. He voluntarily comments on painting, 
making things of wood and building. 

In what phases of our work is his progress most evident ? 

Most progress has been made in social adjustment, although there is 
still much room for improvement. Also, has progressed in ability to 
manipulate things with his hands. He can carry a tune much better but 
still needs to work on it. Listens more attentively when being read to. 

In what forms of work or play does he engage most frequently at home ? 
When weather requires him to be inside he spends the greater part of 
his time building with his blocks — all kinds of things ; then the mechan- 
ical toys — airplane and fire engines, electric train. He and his sister 
have great times in dramatic play. Out-of-doors he plays much with the 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 477 

neighborhood children, climbs, rides bike, plays with zvagon, roller 
skates. Worked at shovelling snow and will help in the garden later. 
During the present year what, if any, changes have you noted : 

In habits of eating ? 

S. always has a good appetite, but is often slow and dreamy. There 
hasn't been much change here. 

In habits of sleeping? 

Very little change. I have noticed that he gets along just as well 
without his afternoon nap and doesn't seem to get more tired on the 
occasions when he goes without, but these are few and he still takes 
his nap. 

What, if any, changes have you noted: 

In attitude toward parents? 

Has come to have greater respect for the parent-child relationship 
and seems to try hard to please. Has become very companionable. 

In attitude toward other children ? 

Has grown more respectful of other children's belongings and more 
tactful in playing zvith others. Seems to like to be zvith them more 
than before. 

What is the attitude toward coming to school ? 

5\ loves to go to school and eagerly anticipates it every morning. It 
is the one time when he will hurry through dressing and eating in order 
to be ready to go. 

What, if any, undesirable tendencies is your child showing at home just 

He shows a tendency to be quite silly when asked to repeat anything he 
has learned. He is very slozv about putting on and taking off clothes and 
wraps and sometimes about eating, showing a tendency to dream. 
Suggestions or Questions : 

/ found the teacher's report very enlightening and helpful in pointing 
out a way to handle S. more successfully. I do wish that at the times 
when they are having their pJiysical activities, he could be greatly en- 
couraged. May I have a conference with you after school opens? I'd 
like to talk about his ability to assume responsibility and about helping 
him to feel free. Thank you very much for such a detailed and helpful 

478 National College of Education 


Physical and Emotional Status 

1. Is the general physical condition contributing to success in school 
work? Is there vitality, energy, robustness? 

2. What, if any, physical handicaps hinder the child's progress? 

3. Has the child nervous stability, poise, self-control? 

4. Are emotional disturbances frequent — laughter, tears, anger, fear? 

5. Is there a tendency to self -consciousness, timidity, aggressiveness, 
obstinacy, over-sensitiveness? Is the child easily discouraged? 

6. What is usual attitude or mood at school ? Happy, anxious, dreamy, 
sulky, enthusiastic, serious, eager, ambitious, indifferent? 

7. What health habits need special attention: habits of eating, resting, 
walking ? 

8. Is there proper care of body and clothing: wraps, handkerchief, 
hands, nails, teeth? 

9. What, if any, nervous habits are there: blinking, handling face or 
body, chewing nails, tongue, handkerchief. 

Social Adjustment 

1. Is there a friendly attitude? Is the child broad in choice of friends? 

2. Is there proper respect for rights and opinions of others ? Is there 
a sense of fair play? 

3. Is there willingness to share experiences and possessions with 
others ? 

4. Does the child give and accept help willingly ? 

5. Does the child show a tendency to work and play in a group or in- 
dividually ? 

6. Does he show leadership and ability to cooperate under leadership? 

7. What is the attitude toward responsibility? 

8. Is there observation of common courtesies? 

9. Is there obedience to rules — in schoolroom, on playground, in halls, 
in bus, in lunchroom? 

Social Studies 

1. Has there been interest in social studies? 

a. Housekeeping — care of room, doll corner, making things for 
room or playhouse, cooking, preparation for lunch, picnics, 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 479 

b. Festivals — significance, planning programs, making gifts, cards, 

c. Community activities — stores, post-office, bank, library, art gal- 
lery, museum, circus, band, show, concert, newspaper — con- 
structing buildings, properties, costumes, dramatic play. 

d. Industries — study of food, shelter, clothing, transportation — 
making exhibits, posters, booklets. 

2. To what extent does the child aid in purposing and planning group 
activities ? 

3. To what extent does he show resourcefulness, initiative, independ- 
ence, originality in working toward a goal? 

4. To what extent does he show industry, perseverance, in complet- 

ing work begun? 

5. To what extent can he express attitude and appreciation in art 
forms ? 

6. In what degree does he show ability to criticize or judge his own 
work and the work of the class ? Does he profit by suggestions ? 


1. Has the child exhibited any outstanding interest in nature? — pets, 
flowers, trees, leaves, birds, insects, shells, stones, weather, seasons ? 

2. Is there a readiness to nurture ; care of pets, garden, plants or 
flowers in the room? 

3. Has the child shown observation or appreciation in creating nature 
songs or verses, in composing nature stories, in making nature draw- 
ings or paintings? 

4. Has interest been shown in physical science: causes and effects re- 
lated to airplanes, steam engine, automobile, radio, electric machines, 
derricks, light, heat? 

5. Is there curiosity about facts; desire to experiment, investigate, 
ask questions ? 

Oral Composition 

1 . Are there voluntary and worth-while contributions ? Do they reveal 
a wealth of first-hand experiences? 

2. Is there poise in speaking before a group? 

3. What is the quality of voice? 

4. Is the choice of English good? Is there normal growth in vocabu- 

5. Is enunciation distinct? 

6. Is the child able to give courteous attention in a conversation group ? 

480 National College of Education 

Written Composition and Spelling 

1. What is the attitude toward writing? 

2. To what extent does the child show ability to compose his own 
letters, verses, stories? Is he original? 

3. What is the status of handwriting in fluency, uniformity? In what 
respects is improvement needed? 

4. Is the child apt in learning to spell new words and in retaining words 
learned ? 

. 5. Is he conscientious in asking for words that he does not know rather 
than guessing? 
6. What types of errors in spelling does the child make? 


1. What is the attitude toward reading? 

2. To what extent is there ability to master vocabulary? Is there a 
clear understanding of word meanings? 

3. To what extent is there independence in attacking new material? 

4. In silent reading are effort, ability to comprehend, and speed, normal 
for the grade? 

5. In oral reading are accuracy, dramatic interpretation, fluency, clear 
and distinct rendition, satisfactory for the grade? 

6. If there is retardation, what are the causes? absence; left-eye dom- 
inance; physical defects of the eye, ear, speech; nervousness; im- 
maturity ; bad habits, such as spelling or analyzing each word 

phonetically, memory reading or guessing. 

7. What types of errors are made? 


1. Is there interest in numbers? Is there a good number sense? 

2. Is there ability to count objects accurately, — by ones, twos, threes, 
fives, tens ? 

3. Is there ability to recognize the number of objects in a small group 
without counting? 

4. Is there ability to make and recognize figures accurately ? 

5. Is there mastery of number facts required or needed in the grade? 

6. Is there ability to apply number facts in concrete situations? 

7. To what extent can the child use coins, scales, ruler, clock, calendar, 
page numbers ? 

8. What, if any, type of error is frequent? 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 481 

Outdoor Play 

1. What is the attitude toward play? 

2. How does the child spend his time out-of-doors? 

3. Does he play agreeably with others? Does he show a protective 
attitude toward a younger child? 

4. Does he show ability to organize or participate in group play? 

5. How well can he handle his body? Is there improvement? 

6. How does he react to balls and toys, to apparatus ? 

7. How well can he adjust to changes in weather? 


1. What activities might the child profitably engage in at home? 

2. What, if any, special help is needed in order that the child may 
meet the desired standards? 

3. What habits or attitudes need special guidance? 

4. Is any change in the child's program suggested? 

5. Is the child ready for more advanced work? 


Name of child E. 

Date of birth September 19, 1924 Group First Grade 

Term beginning September 17 , 1930 Days absent 4 
Term ending January 29, 1931 Days present 82 

Physical and Emotional Status — 

E. always appears in the best of health in the school room. She has 
a great deal of vitality and energy and rarely shows signs of fatigue. 
She has a sunny temperament and is happy and enthusiastic in her work. 
She is usually well poised except for self-consciousness with adults. 
E. requires much encouragement, as she tends to lose interest and 
becomes easily discouraged. E. is neat in the care of her person and her 

Social Adjustment — 

E. is generally friendly but with only her special friends. If she takes 
a dislike to another child she tends to coax others to be unkind to the 

482 National College of Education 

unfavored one. In this way she has caused unhappiness in the group. 
She is usually willing to give help, and is always anxious to receive it. 
E. is usually cooperative with the teachers and other children, and she 
is for the most part eager to obey the group rules. 

Social Studies — 

E. is much interested in all room activities. She displays ability in 
dramatic play in the play house and store. She also helped in the con- 
struction of the buildings. She has a sense of orderliness and has in 
several instances shown an interest in the care of the room. She is 
independent in finding work to do, but she relies too much on adult 
help and suggestions for planning and executing her tasks. If she is 
encouraged to carry her work through to completion, it will help her to 
dez>elop perseverance and willingness to surmount obstacles. She is 
skillful in basket weaving. She likes to draw and she shows some ability 
in this 

Science — 

There is a natural childlike interest in nature. E. is interested in 
watching pets, but she does not like to touch them or care for them. 
She likes to help arrange flowers. In the fall she composed a pet story 
telling of her pet at home. 

Music — 

E. has a clear, szveet voice which site occasionally forces in an effort 
to excel. She can sing about eight songs without help, carrying the tune 
and keeping on pitch. She shows excellent rhythmic perception and fine 

Oral Composition — 

E. of ten. volunteers suggestions to the group during the conversation 
period. She has poise in speaking before a group, and the quality of 
her voice is good. She uses good English. She needs to be encouraged 
to plan her idea before presenting it, in order to get from her the best 
solution to a problem, or the most worth-while suggestions. She gives 
courteous attention unless she sits beside her special friends. 

Written Composition and Spelling — 

There is keen interest in learning to write. The last month E. has 
grown in ability to form the letters accurately. She puts forth good 
effort. She has developed an unusual degree of fluency and she writes 
with great ease. 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 483 

Reading — 

E. is enthusiastic about learning to read. She learns words easily and 
usually retains them. She is generally conscientious, but in her zeal to 
equal the accomplishments of others she sometimes guesses and skims 
over material. When held to accuracy, she reads well. E. enjoys the 
stories and she puts forth much effort to do her best. 

Arithmetic — 

We expect little in number zvork the first semester, as it is taught 
incidentally in connection with the room projects. E. does display a 
background of understanding in numbers especially in the games played 
during the activity period. She can count accurately by ones, fives, and 

Outdoor play — 

E. enjoys going to the playground. She prefers few companions as 
she likes to be a leader. Dramatic play is most frequently entered into. 
She is always active. She is usually cooperative and willing to conform 
to the playground rules. 

Recommendations — 

E/s progress has been satisfactory. She may read simple primers 
at home if she is interested, as extra practice gives greater independence 
and fluency. 


Name of child E. 
Group First Grade 
Date February 10, 1931 

What school interests has your child most often mentioned at home? 

E. speaks frequently of her Music and Reading. The interest seems 
to be quite evenly divided. Her Music seems to be very much enjoyed, 
as she claps softly the time of the songs and has us guess the name of 
the song. 
In what phases of our work is his progress most evident ? 

484 National College of Education 

/ feel that E. has made splendid progress in the Reading as well as 
Writing. She has brought some simple primers home from the school 
library and is able to read them surprisingly well. She is a good listener 
and gets a story which is read to her. 
In what forms of work or play does he engage most frequently at home ? 

E. usually plays out of doors with her roller-skates or bicycle, as in 
this, she usually has companionship. 

E. enjoys "Old Maid," checkers, and dominoes. 
During the present year what, if any, changes have you noted : 

In habits of eating? 

E. is eating a greater variety of foods. I am happy to have her 

eating lettuce, and enjoying it for the first time. 

In habits of sleeping? 

E. sleeps well, and goes to bed cheerfully. 
What, if any, changes have you noted: 

In attitude toward parents? 

There is no great change; perhaps she is a little less dependent 

upon us. 

In attitude toward other children? 

/ believe that E. is learning to take care of her own interests and 

depend less upon the intervention of older people. She seems to be 

fair in her play. She plays with children of all ages happily. 
What is the attitude toward coming to school? 

She likes her school very much and enjoys going, and loves her 
What, if any, undesirable tendencies is your child showing at home? 

/ would like it if she would obey a little more promptly, but perhaps 
I expect too much. There is too much of this "wait a minute" to suit 

Suggestions or Questions : 

You mention the fact that E. seems to take a dislike to a child and 
tends to get others to be unkind to this child. I believe that she is 
imitating an older child zvith whom she plays a great deal, here on the 
street. This child will u get mad" at her and then try to coax the other 
children away from her, so that she will have no one to play with. I 
have felt for some time that the child's influence was not good. I have 
questioned E. and I believe that I know where the trouble lies and have 
told her that she must not make another little girl unhappy. I shall 
be very glad to knozv if she persists in this, but I don't believe that you'll 
have any more trouble. She usually is very sympathetic. 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 485 



Physical and Emotional Status 

1. Is the general physical condition contributing to success in school 
work? Is there abundant energy or does he lack reserve strength? 
Does this energy vary ? 

2. What health habits need attention: eating habits, rest habits, walk- 

3. Is there proper and orderly care of the body, clothing and other 
possessions: wraps, handkerchiefs, hands, nails, hair, toilet, desk? 

4. What nervous habits has he : nail biting, playing with face, pencils, 
masturbation, chewing tongue? 

5. What, if any, physical handicaps hinder the child's progess? 

6. What is his usual disposition : happy, sulky, dreamy, moody, serious, 
eager, enthusiastic, passive? 

7. What evidence is there of timidity, anger, obstinacy, jealousy, over- 
sensitiveness, aggressiveness, self-consciousness? Is he easily dis- 
couraged ? 

8. How does he meet a new or unusual situation? 

9. Has there been growth in self-control when using halls, lunchroom, 
toilets, school car ? How much adult control is necessary ? When ? 

Social Adjustment 

1. Was he slow in adjusting to the group, or does he work well with 
a group? 

2. Is he broad in his choice of friends? What type of personality is 
annoying ? 

3. Is he consciously sympathetic in his understanding of others : 
teachers, pupils, school officers? 

4. Is he usually courteous in speech and manner ? 

5. Does he respect authority? 

6. Does he respect property rights? 

7. Does he respect differences in opinion on various issues? 

8. Is he prompt in accepting and performing his share of group and 
individual responsibilities ? 

9. Can he be depended upon both to lead and follow ? 

10. Is he fair in taking turns; in talking, using tools, in special duties? 

11. Does he share his experiences and possessions with others? 

486 National College of Education 

Social Studies 

1. What evidence is there of interest in history and geography? 

2. Does he originate new group or individual enterprises? 

3. Is there skill in organizing and presenting material? Does he use 
resources at his command in a creative manner? 

4. Is there mastery of facts and clear understanding of units of work 
studied ? 

5. Does he work independently and persistently, completing his work 

6. Does he give and accept help willingly? 

7. Does he use his time to advantage? 

8. Is he able to criticize constructively himself and others? 

9. In what degree does he show skill, artistic ability in constructive 
activities ? 


1. In what phases of science is the child interested? 

a. What interest has been manifested in cause and effect as seen in 
solar system, weather, seasons? 

b. What interest has been manifested in physical science; as elec- 
tricity, radio, principles of mechanics? 

c. What interest has been shown in household science: chemistry 
of foods, composition of textiles? 

d. What evidence of interest is there in the beginnings and develop- 
ment of life, trees, plants? 

e. What is the attitude toward protecting and nurturing life? 

2. In which of these fields has there been growth in information and 
appreciation ? 

3. Is there curiosity about cause and effect, leading to keen observa- 
tion, desire to experiment, investigate? 

4. Is the interest leading toward creativeness in construction, inven- 
tion, expression in arts or language? 

Oral Composition 

1. Are there voluntary and worthwhile contributions? 

2. Is there mental and physical poise? Does he talk to the point and 
express himself clearly? 

3. Is there good choice of English? Is there normal growth of vocab- 
ulary ? 

4. What is the quality of voice? Is enunciation distinct? 

5. Is there interest in dramatization? 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 487 

6. Is there evidence of dramatic ability? 

7. Does he listen to selections read, carefully enough to reproduce im- 
portant elements? 

8. Is he a courteous listener ? 

Written Composition and Spelling 

1. What interest is there in written composition? 

2. Is originality and initiative shown in writing? 

3. Can he write a simple short story or experience in the order that it 
occurred ? 

4. Can he write informal notes, giving all necessary information ? Can 
he write an interesting, friendly letter and a correct business letter? 

5. What skill is there in the correct usage of simple marks of punctua- 
tion and correct sentence and paragraph construction? 

6. What is the quality of form and appearance of written work? 

7. What is the condition of handwriting as to speed, form and legi- 
bility? In what respects is improvement needed? 

8. Is there a spelling consciousness shown? 

9. Is mastery of spelling satisfactory for the grade? 
10. What are the important errors in spelling? 


1. What is the attitude toward reading? 

2. To what extent can the child read books independently and with 
understanding ? 

3. Does he know how to use books to find information for himself ? 

4. Can he select and read aloud stories, interpreting so as to hold the 
interest of his audience? 

5. Can he retell a story read silently? 

6. What skill has he in mastering and understanding new words ? 

7. Does he understand the use of the dictionary, the encyclopedia? 

8. Is progress in rate and comprehension in both oral and silent read- 
ing satisfactory? 

9. If there is retardation, what is the cause : absence ; left-eye dom- 
inance ; physical defects of eye, ear, speech ; nervousness ; im- 
maturity; bad habits such as spelling or analyzing each word 
phonetically, memory reading, or guessing? 

10. Are there special reading disabilities which need correction; as, 
omissions, reversals, faulty vowels and consonants? 


1. What is the attitude toward arithmetic? 

488 National College of Education 

2. Is the child gaining an understanding and appreciation of the social 
uses of arithmetic? 

3. Is there growth in the application of arithmetic in concrete situa- 
tions ? 

4. Is there mastery of the skills in computation needed or required 
in the grade? 

5. Is there appreciation of the need for organization, accuracy and 
neatness in written work, and effort to attain a high standard? 

6. What, if any, type of error is frequent? 


1. What activities might the child profitably engage in at home? 

2. What, if any, special help is needed in order that the child may 
meet the desired standards? 

3. What habits or attitudes need special guidance? 

4. Is any change in the child's program suggested ? 

5. Is he handicapped by lack of fundamental skills? 

6. Is he doing the best work of which he is capable? 

7. Is the child recommended for more advanced work ? 


Art (Grades II to VI) 

1. What is the child's attitude toward art in general and his art work 
in particular? 

2. Is child willing to adventure with materials? 

3. Does the child show originality and freedom in expressing ideas? 

4. What is the child's development in workmanship and the handling 
of tools? 

5. In what types of work does he show special aptitude: modeling, 
sketching, painting, design? 

6. What individual characteristics does his work show : lightness, neat- 
ness, daring, feeling for color and form, accuracy, skill in composi- 

7. To what extent does he show persistence in completing work begun ? 

8. To what degree has the child developed flexibility in analyzing his 
own work? 

9. To what extent does the child show respect for his own finished prod- 
ucts? Is his appreciation properly balanced with his own skills? 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 489 

Manual Training (Grades II to VI) 

1. What are the child's attitudes with respect to materials and tools? 

2. What special interests does he show in construction: articles of 
utility, articles for play or articles of art? 

3. What has his progress been in developing skill in construction? 

4. To what extent does he show initiative, independence, originality 
in constructive enterprises? 

5. To what extent does he show industry and persistence in completing 
work begun? 

6. In what degree does he show ability to judge his own work and 
the work of the group ? Does he profit by suggestions ? 

Physical Education (Grades II to VI) 

1. What is the attitude toward play and exercise? 

2. Does the child play agreeably with others? Does he show a protec- 
tive attitude toward younger children? 

3. Does he show ability to organize or participate in group play? 

4. To what extent does he show poise, self-control? 

5. Is there a tendency to self-consciousness, timidity, aggressiveness, 
obstinacy, oversensitiveness, discouragement ? 

6. How is he learning to handle his body? 

7. Is he afraid of balls and collision with other children? 

8. How does he react to cold weather? 

Music (Grades I to VI. Points starred are not expected below Grade 

1. In what ways does the child show interest in music? What evi- 
dence does he show of having had contact with good music outside 
school ? 

2. How does the child respond to folk or art songs : listening ; sens- 
ing possibility for rhythmic action and participating in such inter- 
pretation ; choosing songs for the group to sing ; volunteering to 
sing alone or with small groups? 

3. What is the voice quality? 

4. What is the child's development in ear training, through pitch: 
difference in pitch; tonal memory; recognition of major and minor 
modes ; *singing in canon form ; *singing a second part independ- 
ently ? 

5. What is the child's development in ear training through rhythm: 
recognition of meter, mood, rhythmic pattern of a suitable piece 
of music and interpretation of these through bodily movements? 

490 National College of Education 

*6. To what extent does the child use notation as an aid in learning new 
compositions ? 
7. To what extent has the child developed appreciation: response to 
general character, tempo, pitch, register; familiarity with a few 
instrumental compositions and their composers ; ^interest in attend- 
ing concerts and recitals ; interest in planning the music period ? 
*8. Does the child keep any record of the music activities in the form of 
a diary or note book? 
9. To what extent has creative ability been shown? 

Creative Dancing (Grades II to VI) 

1. To what extent has the child developed a sense of rhythm and a 
responsiveness to music? 

2. Does the child's work show evidence of interest, freedom, color and 
originality ? 

3. What are the individual characteristics of the child's work: daring, 
lightness, grace, imagination? 

4. What has been the child's development in control and coordination 
of bodily movement? 

5. What are the types of work in which the child has shown special 
creative ability or enthusiasm ? 

French (Grades II to VI — Questions starred are not used below Grade 


1. Does the child show interest and pleasure in the study of language? 

2. What has been his progress in oral work : ability to understand and 
respond to directions or questions ; ability to express ideas in phrases 
or sentences ; ability to memorize rote songs or verses ; pronuncia- 
tion; mastery of vocabulary? 

*3. What has been the child's progress in written work: accuracy in 

writing and spelling, neatness, fluency? 
*4. What progress has the child made in reading ability : comprehension, 

fluency, pronunciation in oral reading? 
Speech (Individual children needing speech reeducation) 

1. To what extent does the child show interest and cooperation? 

2. What progress has the child made in gaining relaxation? 

3. What progress has the child made in the development of speech 
consciousness ? 

4. What has been the child's progress in overcoming his difficulty: 
voice control and breathing; position and sound of difficult letters 
and combinations ; stuttering ? 

5. To what extent does his speech work carry over into conversation? 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 491 


Name of child G. 

Date of birth March 27, 1922 Group Fourth Grade 

Term beginning September 17, 1930 Days absent 1 
Term ending January 3, 1931 Days present 85 

Physical and Emotional status — 

G. seems to be well physically. She has grown less tense and nervous, 
since Christmas. There is better self-control and a happier, freer feel- 
ing apparently. She continues however to be a little secretive especially 
when there is something which she dislikes. She is very sensitive to 
beauty but would rather not show it, also likes praise but is self-conscious 
if complimented before the group. 

Social Adjustment — 

G. is making a marked effort to cooperate with the group, though 
still feels more at home with one or two chosen friends. She has un- 
usual ability as a leader, and needs to be guided in offering the right 
sort of leadership. She is helpful whenever her own interests are not 
too greatly concerned. There is a lovable, szveet, sympathetic quality 
which we must try to bring more to the foreground. 

Social Studies — 

G. has been keenly interested in the studies of food and in colonial 
life. She has a spendid mastery of the subject matter covered. She is 
very critical of others, and belittles her ozvn accomplishments, which 
are usually very original and worth while. She takes much pride in the 
appearance of her work and is eager that it be the best. She has marked 
ability in starting new projects, in creating new situations without sug- 
gestions from others. 

Science — 

G. has an unusual interest in the beginnings of life in all forms, 
eagerly seeks the source and cause of everyday happenings. She has 
a very keen appreciation of beauty in all forms. 

492 National College of Education 

Oral Composition — 

G. shares her experiences, but is very timid about speaking before the 
group. She makes worthwhile contributions and is quite dramatic in 
her approach to any topic. She has a fine command of English, often 
using lovely descriptive phrases. 

Written Composition and Spelling — 

G. enjoys writing poems and stories, is often original in her ideas. 
She uses splendid sentence and paragraph structure as well as the simple 
marks of punctuation. Her work is usually neat and carefully done. 
She is well up to grade in spelling. 

Reading — 

Reading is one of her chief interests. She reads from many fields: 
history, travel, fairy and folk tales. She finds it difficult to read ex- 
pressively before the group because of a self -consciousness, but compre- 
hends in a fine way material read silently. 

Arithmetic — 

There is a growing interest in arithmetic, which needs constant en- 
couragement. When she can do the work with little real effort she 
enjoys it, but the utter distaste for it noticed in the fall has nearly 
disappeared. She is able to make fine practical application, but is handi- 
capped by her lack of knowledge of the facts of the four fundamental 

Recommendations — 

Would be well to encourage G. to finish her Third Grade Arithmetic 
Book, as it would help to give her the practice needed. Sympathy with 
firmness seems to yield a desired change in G's attitudes. There is much 
joy in her improvement. 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 493 


Name of Child G. 

Semester beginning September 17, 1930 

Semester ending January 30, 1931 


G's Christmas cards showed gain in not overcrowding one thing with 
too many ideas. I should like to see her gain more in control of her- 
self, as her attitude toward her zvork and at times toward the group is 
satisfactory. She has ability and it should give her much happiness. 

Manual Training — 

Is doing quite zvell when zvorking alone; needs a better understanding 
of cooperation. She has initiative but needs help in developing origi- 
nality and appreciation of group contact. 

Physical Education — 

At the beginning of the school year, G. objected to playing in group 
activities; she would run off zvith a few others, developing an anti-social 
attitude. Now she seems to enjoy the group play. She has very good 
control and physical coordination. 

Music — 

There is no doubt as to G's ability in ear training or singing, nor as 
to her well-directed taste, but she has not shozvn as much progress as 
we would like her to display. Her cliquishness has impeded her prog- 

Creative Dancing — 

Is in a transitory stage where she wishes to express through move- 
ments that are broad and heavy; so I miss the exquisite creative zvork 
of last year. When not leading she is tempted to ridicule. I feel that 
G. has had too much attention. 

French — 

G's progress has been rather slozv this semester; her attitude in class 
has been too playful at times. Her written work is good. More eager- 
ness and more dependability are wanted. 

494 National College of Education 



Name of child G. 
Date March 1, 1931 

What school interests has your child most often mentioned at home ? 

G. has shown intense interest in the social studies at school She has 
a thirst for historical information, and is getting to be quite an omniv- 
orous reader along many lines. She appreciates any special program 
at school, such as Rose Fyleman's readings. 
In what phases of our work is his progress most evident ? 

She seems to have grown up amazingly this year. One can almost talk 
to her as an adult. Her vocabulary is very zvide, and she has a store 
of miscellaneous information. She has an eager interest in learning 
that I hope she will never lose. I can see progress all along the line, 
even in arithmetic, but most markedly in the social studies. 
In what forms of work or play does he engage most frequently at home ? 
G. reads a great deal, draws incessantly and is always making things. 
She is eager to be out-of-doors. She skates a good deal, and plays on 
our apparatus. She and her little friend play many imaginative games 
around horses. She collects odds and ends and her pockets are as full as 
a boys, all with some imaginative significance. She likes to memorise. 
What, if any, changes have you noted: 
In attitude toward parents? 

G's attitude toward her parents has improved. 
In attitude toward other children? 

G's attitude toward her younger brother is changing from one of 
hostility to one of indifference — zvhich seems a step in the right direc- 
tion! She seems too busy and interested in larger affairs to be able 
to concentrate on him as she has done during the fall and early winter. 
Her brothers form one unit and she another. 
What is the attitude toward coming to school? 

G. enjoys school extremely. She is always eager to go. Arithmetic 
is the only subject that seems difficult for her. I think that G. is a 
child who might easily dislike school, and it is most gratifying to us to 
have her enjoy it so thoroughly. 

What, if any, undesirable tendencies is your child showing at home just 

G. is careless of property. She tracks mud over the rugs, strews her 
belongings on the floor, and loses many things. She is not orderly, even 
in a rudimentary way. Her mind seems elsewhere. 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 495 

She indulges often in lies and near lies. "Yes, I brushed my teeth," 
saves a trip upstairs. "Yes, I zvashed my hands. Well, at least I wet 
them." All for convenience. Does not as a rule welcome suggestions. 
She is jealous of her "free time" and her chances to do as she "pleases." 
Anything required outside of school she definitely resents. We stopped 
piano lessons and a class in acrobatic and tap dancing because of the 
emotional difficulties involved. It has proved to be a wise move. There 
has been a noticeable lessening in tension. We have come to the con- 
clusion that outside of school the least possible should be required of G. 
and that she should be let pretty much alone. After all, why not? What 
are a fezv extra skills as against a feeling of general "rightncss" and 
ease? I wish G. would oftener do some spontaneous, generous, lovely 
thing. She seems to have her own interests and comfort well to the fore 
in her thinking and living. 



Name of child R. Group Fifth Grade 

Date of birth December 14, 1920 Days absent 2 

Term beginning September 15, 1930 Days present 84 
Term ending January 30, 1931 

Physical and Emotional Status — 

R's physical condition contributes abundant energy for all activities. 
He is always happy and attacks his work eagerly. He is careful of his 
personal appearance, but is very disorderly in the care of his possessions. 
There has been less evidence of boastfulness of late than formerly. 
There is good self control in the use of halls, lunch room, except when 
he encounters his brother. He seems sometimes to take delight in hurt- 
ing him. 

Social Adjustment — 

R. is well liked by the group and is friendly toward all. He is very 
anxious to receive commendation from others. He is courteous in his 
manner, respects the opinions of others, and willingly shares his posses- 
sions and suggestions. 

Social Studies — 

R. has shown a keen interest in our study of New York. He gains 
a great deal of information and collects materials, but has difficulty in 

496 National College of Education 

organising his work. There has been a most decided growth, though, 
in thoroughness. He no longer rushes a piece of work through just for 
the sake of finishing it. He attacks work with zest and without sugges- 

Science — 

R. was very much interested in our study of kinds of power, sources 
of power, natural resources, and how they help to build a city. This 
interest led to mastery of facts and creativity in the form of drawing. 

Oral Composition — 

R. makes voluntary and worthwhile contributions to the class. These 
are usually in the form of information rather than any solutions to prob- 
lems which he has thought out. He sJiozvs poise both physically and 
mentally when speaking before a group. 

Written Composition and Spelling — 

R. seems to enjoy writing stories. He has good ideas and an interest- 
ing way of stating them, but his work needs better organisation and more 
logical sequence of events and topics. The appearance of his writing has 
improved immensely. His class work in spelling is very good. 

Reading — 

R. has shozvn an interest in improving his reading, but he gets quite 
arrogant over any progress he makes. He reads independently for 
pleasure or information. 

Arithmetic — 

R. is intensely interested in arithmetic, spending much of his leisure 
time working in his work book. He is able to handle the four funda- 
mental processes with integers with accuracy except where mistakes are 
made due to carelessness in writing. He has an understanding of the 
beginning work in fractions. 

Recommendations — 

Stories on the history of the United States would be helpful to R. in 
his work. 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 497 



Name of Child R. 

Semester beginning September 17, 1930 

Semester ending January 30, 1931 


7^. never zvastcs time in expressing his ideas. Sometimes his work 
seems crude because he does not hesitate to put into one picture all that 
he sees. But the type of zvork he does promises to develop into an indi- 
vidual thing with charm and originality. 

Manual Training — 

Has a great respect for materials and tools. Is careful to use them in 
the right way. Has lately been working on a boat for the mantle. Seems 
more interested in useful articles than those of play or art. Seems to 
have progressed in his work. Shozvs some skill. Has a good deal of 
initiative — doesn't have to be told to go ahead. Is independent and orig- 
inal. Always anxious to finish a problem and works hard to finish. Is 
critical of his work and does profit by suggestions. 

Physical Education — 

Has made a great improvement in the soccer game, and I believe it has 
made him very much more interested in sports. He is clever at soccer, 
and the children are beginning to think that he is one of their best players. 
He plays fair until someone does something he does not approve of; then 
he will play very hard to make his goal, not being as careful as he usually 

Music — 

Has shown marked growth in interest and abilities. His singing voice 
is smooth and clear. In ear training he shows development in both pitch 
and rhythm perception. He has become interested in the group and in 
its attainments. 

Instrumental Music — Piano 

R's progress is symmetrical. I am very much pleased especially zvith 
the creative trend his music seems to be taking. His rhythm, pitch, feel- 

498 National College of Education 

ing for harmony, sense of form are good. There now remains the work 
of developing these to their ultimate possibilities. He should always 
have the opportunity to take part in some kind of music as he is essen- 
tially musical. 

French — 

R's attitude is excellent in the French class; he shozvs eagerness and 
comprehension; his progress is good. 



Name of child R. 

Group Grade V Date Feb. 17, 1931 

What school interests has your child most often mentioned at home ? 

Study of New York. 

Book Club. 

Wood Work. 
In what phases of our work is his progress most evident? 


Silent Reading: for the first time he reads alone for long periods. 
In what forms of work or play does he engage most frequently at home? 

Group activity centering around his "Club House" of logs, on which 
he has worked for several weeks. He designed same as copy of Fort 
What, if any, changes have you noted : 

In attitude toward parents? 

Is maturing rapidly: He now considers himself one of the "adults," 

and so conducts himself. 

In attitude toward other children? 

Tries to play mentor to his brother, sometimes assuming discipline 

if not watched. Is most protective of his younger sister, and seems to 

be a favorite with his gang. 
What is the attitude toward coming to school ? 

He cannot get there early enough! 
What, if any, undesirable tendencies is your child showing at home just 

We are trying to work out an attitude of self-control over wrath that 
often is partly at least righteous. R. is probably too fond of defending 
his rights. 


THE medical work of the Children's School, including physical 
examinations and daily inspection, is directed by a physician and 
a trained nurse. 

The health of the children is safeguarded by a close cooperation 
between the home and the school, and by the careful examination and 
daily inspection of all children by an attending physician and graduate 
nurse. The physician is present always during the first hour of the 
morning while the physical inspection of the children is being made. 
The nurse is in attendance throughout the day. The services of the 
nurse are many. She assists in the examination of the children, 
keeps records, and observes the children during the day, taking care 
of minor hurts. She measures chairs and children so that proper 
seating will insure correct posture. She keeps height and weight 
charts. She ascertains the causes of absences by telephoning parents, 
and she arranges for conferences between the school physician and 
the parents. 

Letters are sent from the school physician to the parents in the 
early part of the school year giving the policy of the school regarding 
health and requesting parents to fill in a detailed record of the health 
of the child from birth. Letters are again sent to parents whenever 
contagion occurs in the school, with a brief description of signs and 
symptoms of the disease, for which to watch. Careful health records 
and observations in the classroom are kept on all children, and 
significant findings are sent to parents. 

Physical examinations are made each year after a written permit 
has been obtained. Examination and observation of eyes and ears 
are made on all children of the school. Recording of heights and 
weights is done throughout the year, and charts are kept on all chil- 
dren of the school. All data is sent to the parents, especially whenever 
children are not gaining satisfactorily or when for any reason the 
care of the family physician is indicated. 

No child is allowed in school with a cold in the infectious stage, 
or after contact outside of the school with a contagious disease. 


500 National College of Education 

Underlying the plan for medical work is an effort to make the 
children realize that the possession of health is a privilege and a joy, 
and that all privileges are secured by self-control and effort. The 
children respond instantly to this very natural and normal attitude. 
They easily excel the adults. This idea carried out in their homes, 
in their classrooms, on the playground, brings health in as part of 
a social adjustment and a social responsibility. 

Daily inspection of children for colds or other signs of ill health 
then becomes a cooperative enterprise. Cooperation of parents is 
part of this plan — a very necessary part. Physical examinations 
are of great interest to the children, evidenced by a hundred questions. 

Histories from parents, frequent observation from the classroom 
correlated with the intelligence quotient, the achievements and the 
social responses of the child and the physical findings, are used to 
determine the best procedure to bring health, and to lead parents and 
children to see that living is an art, not an accident. 

Physician's Records 501 

(Filled by parent for each child entering the Children's School) 
H. R. Date OCtOOer 1, 1930 


Address Grade Nursery School 

Telephone Date of Birth 4-22-27 Age 3 Year 5 Months 

Please fill 

out following 

family :2 

all 0. 

Family Record : Number of children 

Health of Father Mother Children. all 0. K» 

Infancy Record : 

1. Was child born at term? y©S Was delivery normal! y©8 

2. Birth weight. Details of any feeding difficulties. 

3. Earliest age of following:— 

Holding Head Up 
Walking If mOS. 
Talking 1 § 

Age of First Tooth 8 months 
Health Record: 

1. Has child control of urlnef y68 

2. Nervous habits as blllng nails, sucking fingers, handling b oily. nO 
». Sleeping habits: 

Number hours at night 12 hOUTS 

piace in separate room 

Condition of sleep — 

Quiet Usually quiet 


4. Eating habits: Good 


Foods that disagree 

special dislikes Custard - string beans - fish 

Attitude toward meals Enjoyg meals & 

'•• 1,ow " ha,,,,s Regular 

6. Has child ever been III with any of the following and at what age.' 

Diphtheria German Measles Mumps 

Scarlet Fever Measles Tonsllitls ySSNo. of i 

Whooping Cough Frequent colds Occasionally Chicken Pox 

Glandular trouble «, _ Rheumatism (growing pains, etc.) St. Vitus Dance 

Ear troubieOtitie Media 2 yrs^ eart trouble 

Eye condition (red lids, styes, etc. Tests for eye strain.) 

7. Injuries, accidents or deformities, Roptnre (with description) HOCe 
H. Operations (Including removal of tonsils and adenoids) 

9. Weakness or tendency to 111 health, nervousness, etc. Slightly nerVOUS . Easily Stimulated 

10. Has your child been protected against Smallpox by vaccina Hon und when? y6S 

11. Has your child been protected against Diphtherial yes 

12. Has your child been projected against Scarlet Fevert XIO 

School Data : (Please leave blank) 

December 1930 . Otitis Media 

March 1931. Removal of tonsils and adenoids advised by school 

physician and family physician. Tonsillectomy and 

Adenoidectomy March 15, 1931. 


National College of Education 

name h. R. 

(Filled by physician at time of annual physical examination 
for each child in the Children's School.) 

D4T " October 3, 1930 °"" Nursery 
physical examination Good nutrition. Skin clear 


headend necic Teeth O.K. Tonsils large-some- 

chronic infection 
chest Heart-normal size-regular rhythm-no murmur 

Lungs-good expansion- Breath sounds normal 
abdomen Normal 
EXTREMiTAEsReflexes normal, Very slight condition 


feet Tendency to flat feet 

hearing Normal 

sight Normal apparently . Wo strabismus 


Advise watching tonsils. Advise 
padding in shoes to correct flatness of 











D at« 1930 - 1931 GBADE Nursery 















































1. Q- 110 

remarks October 8, 1930 . Letter to parents 
telling of need for corrective shoes. 
Tonsils to be watched. 
October 15, 1930. Parents have obtained 
corrective shoes. Will report any further 
attacks of Tonsillitis 

1. Q. 


Physician's Records 503 


The form used in the following letter is the same for all children, 
from nursery school through sixth grade. The findings inserted in 
the blanks correspond to those noted on the Health Record, a copy 
of which is found on page 502. 

To the Parents : 

We appreciate the cooperation of the parents in maintaining a high 
standard of health in our school. 

Physical examinations have been made on children where written per- 
mission has been received. Eye tests and ear tests have been made on 
all children above the Junior Kindergarten and careful observations 
have been made, relative to defects and health on all the children of the 
school. The response of children below Senior Kindergarten in ear 
and eye tests is unsatisfactory. 

The average weight recorded is that taken from observations made on 
thousands of school children. 10 — 15% over the standard weight is a 
good investment. Healthier children generally are found in the upper 
portion of the normal range, unless racial or familial reasons place them 
elsewhere. In cases of 20% or more over standard weight, the child 
probably needs to take more exercise and eat less candy. 7% or more 
under the standard weight needs attention. Care should be taken not 
to worry the child about his weight. It is better to emphasize the posi- 
tive side. If the child gains steadily and normally, actual weight may 
be insignificant. 

Name : /. 5\ Group : First Grade 

Physical Examination : Date made : Sept. 20, 1930. 

Height 39.7 inches. Weight 37 lbs. Average weight 36 lbs. 

We should like to call your attention to the following findings : 

Eyes: examination by chart method shows poor vision. Class room 
report shows child cannot see blackboard clearly. 

Tonsils show infection. 

We advise consultation with your physician concerning these matters. 

Signed — ■ 
Children's Physician 


THE responsibilities of this department include the giving of 
intelligence tests, standarized achievement tests, diagnostic tests, 
and the taking of stimulus-response records and diary accounts of 
children who seem to require a special study, as well as supervising 
remedial instruction, interviewing parents, consulting with teachers, 
sending out reports of children who have transferred to other schools, 
and conducting or supervising research studies. A brief explanation 
of these various responsibilities follows : 

Intelligence Tests 

New children are given either the Merrill Palmer Scale of Mental 
Tests or the Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Intelligence 
Scale before entering the Children's School or near the beginning of 
their registration. They are retested after six or seven months and 
occasionally group tests are given to substantiate the initial test score. 
Those children whose intelligence quotients fall below the normal 
range are excluded since the school is not equipped to educate them. 

Teachers are given all facts relative to these tests, and also the 
personality report of the examiner accompanying the test. Some of 
these reports are included beginning on page 507. Two lists are 
prepared for the teacher two times a year. One includes an alpha- 
betical list of names with the child's birthday and his chronological 
age calculated for the day selected near the beginning of the semester, 
the corrected mental age and all of the intelligence quotients which 
are on record for the child. The other list is arranged in horizontal 
class intervals for corrected mental ages and in vertical columns to 
indicate those who rate low normal, high normal, superior, very 
superior, and gifted. From these two lists the teacher may very 
readily study each child in relation to others in the group, since all 
chronological and mental ages are obtained for the same day. 

The tests are further used to indicate the academic level that the 
child might attain, provided some other factors are not interfering. 
The average I.Q. is always used rather than any single result because 
of the variability in a certain percentage of scores. 


Psychologist's Records 505 

r Standardized Achievement Tests 

Since therparente- of the Children's School expressed a desire to 
know the exact school achievement of their children and si-nce the 
^.faculty of the school wished to check the educational success of their 
pupils, a Teport based on educational achievement tests has been 
organized. An average grade score based on two or more standard- 
ized tests is recorded on graphs. Different colors indicate semester 
scores so that growth can be seen. For each year the preceding June 
scores are duplicated on the new graph. The second and third grade 
report differs from that of the fourth, fifth, and sixth grade report 
in content and type. Copies of some of the graph reports actually 
sent out to parents and the accompanying letters are included on 
pages 512 to 522. The children themselves are very eager to see 
these cards, since progress is easily recognized. They become very 
business-like in their learning, and make a real effort to raise low 
points on the graph. Stress is placed on working up to one's own 
capacity, and rivalry is not encouraged. In order that individual 
growth from year to year may be conveniently shown in the files, a 
cumulative record card has been organized, for recording all the test 
scores of each child. 

Various factors have determined the selection of the tests used; 
as, kind of content, organization of content, size of type, sufficient 
number of norms, B score norms, and the range of difficulty. Power 
tests have been preferred to timed tests in the second and third grades 
because of the fact that speed is not emphasized in the daily work 
with these younger children. Teachers are not informed as to just 
what tests shall be given, and new tests are tried out as they appear. 

All tests are given by one trained psychologist^ and all the scoring- 
is supervised by this person. A typewritten list of all the raw scores 
and their equivalent grade scores is given to each teacher, as well as 
a chart showing each child's average grade level in the various school 
subjects in relation to every other pupil in the class. In this way 
efficient groupings according to achievement are more readily planned. 
The educational and achievement quotients are computed for each 
child based upon the total scores from the New Stanford Achieve- 
ment Test, and the average intelligence quotients as obtained from the 
Stanford-Binet tests which have been given to the child. Those few 

506 National College of Education 

children who are decidedly below the norm in their grade placements 
and whose achievement quotients are below 85 are given further 
tests of a strictly diagnostic nature so that remedial instruction will 
be as scientific as possible. This individual instruction is explained 
in the section beginning on page 523. 

Children who need remedial work are placed in a class with chil- 
dren as near their own chronological and mental ages as it seems wise, 
so that the social development will be normal, and personality traits 
positive. They are, however, given individual instruction and tests, 
until the particular disability has been overcome. The remedial work 
is enjoyed by the children, and they sometimes ask to resume it, when 
they are not satisfied with their own progress. 

Stimulus-Response and Diary Records 

Since one of the important aims of the school is to train for social 
growth as well as for academic learning, the psychology department 
is often called upon to make a special study of individual children 
and to call a conference when enough facts have been collected. The 
parent or parents, room teacher, physician, and playground director 
are called in to confer on the matter when the need arises. The 
diary and stimulus response records have been very valuable in such 
a study. 

Interviews With Parents and Teachers 

Parents ask for interviews to discuss behavior in the home, emo- 
tional trends, or negative reactions ; to become informed of child's 
recent progress ; or to be guided in reading. 

Teachers are informed of new experiments, interesting articles, 
or recent books which would be of help to them. They are guided 
in their methods with the various groups in their rooms, and given 
mimeographed copies of any research work which has been completed 
in the department. 

Transfer Records 

When a child transfers to another school a report is sent which 
gives the intelligence test facts, achievement levels, and growth ratios 
as well as portions of the teacher' descriptive report. Reasons for 
the grade placement of the child in the Children's School have been 

Psychologist's Records 507 

given, and any outstanding facts inhibiting the normal academic 
learning are included if pertinent. Copies of the record of educational 
tests are included in order to prevent any duplication of the same 

Research Studies 

This department guides upper-class college students in writing 
theses required either for a supervisor's diploma, or for college 
classes in which a major responsibility is to conduct some bit of 
research. Detailed records are kept by students working with in- 
dividual children so that much information is on file for those chil- 
dren receiving remedial instruction. It is hoped in the future that 
the question of brain dominance with the body and its effect upon 
academic learning will be sufficiently studied to aid others. 




December 11, 19U.. 
Chronological Age at time»of test: 5:4, Mental age 6:0, I.Q. 113. 

Outstanding Physical Traits. 

N — . is a most attractice boy. He is well built and is straight and tall. 
He seems very healthy and has good color. His vision and hearing are 
apparently good. He speaks quite clearly and distinctly. He seems to 
have average muscle control in his handling of test materials. 

Outstanding Mental Traits. 

He was very responsive and gave some interesting contributions. He 
was particularly outstanding in the following processes: — 

a. Counting 13 pennies. He had a definite idea of taking away tzvo 
each time and then counting to see the number remaining. 

b. Comprehension of the number four without counting. 

c. Discrimination of right and left as shown in that test on the six 
year level. 

508 National College of Education 

d. Visual perception of form and association as shown in mutilated 
picture test on the six year level. 

e. Memory and information as evident from the response in counting 
the 13 pennies on the six year old test. 

f. Clear understanding as shown in the answers given to compre- 
hension questions on the six year level. 

g. Auditory memory as evidenced in repeating sentences on the six 
year level. 

h. Information and association as shown in the giving of differences 
on the seven year level. 

Outstanding Social and Emotional Traits. 

N — . was very adaptable and was very much at ease. He was well 
poised and controlled. He seemed very happy and contented. His re- 
sponses were interesting and offered some insight into his personality. 
He said that he never took naps because he was never sleepy and what he 
did in his sleep was to dream. During the test he remarked, "We have a 
lot of tricks in here." 

Attitude Toward Test and Materials. 

N — . seemed to enjoy the test very much. He seemed eager to go on 
and also to know what was coming next. There was no sign of any par- 
ticidar like or dislike for any part of the test. 

Attitude Toward Examiner. 

N — . was most friendly and displayed a delightful spirit of coopera- 
tion. He zvorked well and easily and zvas interesting to work with. 


January 5, 1932. 

Chronological Age at time of test 8:0 I.'Q. 142 

Mental Age 11:4 

Outstanding Physical Traits. 

T — . appears stocky in weight and is of average height for his age. 
There is fair color in Jiis cheeks. He is right handed. His voice rises 
as he talks, and he is inclined to stammer a little when talking hurriedly. 

Psychologist's Records 509 

Outstanding Mental Traits. 

T — . was deliberate in his responses. He seemed aggressive at times, 
saying that certain things were easy before the examiner had finished 
with the instructions. He remembered the absurdities from his previous 
test, repeated the instructions verbatim and gave his answer. This also 
was apparent in the vocabulary test, for T — . said, "I did not know what 
a juggler was the last time, but I do now." This revealed a good memory, 
for the test was previously given eight months ago. He was dogmatic 
and confident of most of his responses, until the tests became too hard. 
He showed good reasoning as exhibited when asked what day of the 
month it was. He replied, "That's easy, all I have to do is to count 
from Friday for that was New Year's Day." He showed over-confidence 
and cockiness when given the test with weights, for he said, "I usually 
get them right." His vocabulary was good, reaching the twelve year 
level. He showed good comprehension in his answer to the question, 
"What ought you to do before beginning something very important?" 
T — . replied, "Find out what you are going to do and how you are going 
to do it." His ball and field plan was superior, his interpretation of 
fables was { good, and his similarities were good. He also showed good 
reasoning and comprehension in using three zvords in a sentence, saying 
"Lakes and rivers are not in a desert." T — . has a good sense of humor. 
He often went into long discussions in explaining what he meant. T — . 
showed good auto-criticism in correcting himself, saying, "Wait, that's 
not right," or "I am not sure but that's all I know." 

Outstanding Social and Emotional Traits. 

T — . seemed stable emotionally. Towards the end of the test he 
seemed self-conscious and a little embarrassed. He played with any- 
thing within his reach, as the blocks, putting a piece of paper in his 
mouth, or a pencil. He would also hum to himself. T — . was very 
friendly and talkative. 

Attitude Toward Test and Test Materials. 

When asked to repeat numbers backwards, T — . replied, "I am not 
very good at saying numbers backward." He also found some things 
hard to explain as for example, when given some words as nerve, T — . 
said, "I know what it is, but I can't explain it." When asked to read 
the problems and give the answers T — . replied, "If I could write it 
down I could get it, but I can't figure it in my head." When given the 
induction test, T — . remarked, "I'm not good at this stuff, I never was." 
T — . seemed to enjoy the entire test and did not show any marked pref- 


National College of Education 

erence for any one test more than another, although he did give those 
remarks to some of the tests. 

Attitude Toward Examiner : 

T — . cooperated in a friendly spirit. His responses were quick and 
his willingness to respond to everything, made the test interesting and 



A Summary Record by Grades 

The following facts are based upon grade placements. For instance, 
the range of silent reading scores for the fourth grade is from 3.5 to 
8.3 or from third grade and eight months to eighth grade and three 
months ; the lower quartile is 4.6 or fourth grade and six months ; the 
median 5.4 or fifth grade and four months; and the upper quartile 6.3 
or sixth grade and three months. The gains in school months are given 
for the second semester only in terms of the medians. It will be noted 
that the reading gains for the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades are neg- 
ligible. During the second semester the teachers and pupils practice 
on those skills which need stress ; and reading is usually a year or more 
above the norm at the mid-year. 

Second Grade 


January 15, 1931 
Range Ql Med. Q3 

May 15, 
Range Ql 



Gains in 

Medians for 

Second Semester 

Silent Reading 

1.7-6.8 2.2 2.6 3.3 





4 months 

Oral Reading 

0-6.1 1.9 2.5 4.6 





10 months 


1.9-3.6 2.1 2.4 2.9 





5 months 


Tests too difficult for 
30% of the class 





Total New 

Entire score not avail- 






able for 30% of class 

Third Grade 


January 15 
Range Ql 



May 15, 
Range Ql 



Gains in 

Medians for 

Second Semester 

Silent Reading 









8 months 

Oral Reading 









5 months 










4 months 










8 months 

Total New- 










6 months 

Psychologist's Records 


Fourth Grade 


January 15 
Range Ql 



May 15, 1931 
Range Ql Med. 


Gains in 

Medians for 

Second Semester 

Silent Reading 





3.3-10.1 5.0 5.5 


1 month 

Oral Spelling- 





3.8-10.0 4.6 5.1 


2 months 






3.9-6.5 4.7 5.0 


4 months 

Social Studies 





4.0-8.0 5.8 6.4 


8 months 

Total New 






3.9-8.1 5.4 5.8 


7 months 

Fifth Grade 


January 15 
Range Ql 



May 15, 

Range Ql 



Gains in 

Medians for 

Second Semester 

Silent Reading 









1 month 










6 months 










8 months 

Social Studies 









6 months 

Total New 










8 months 

Sixth Grade 

January 15 


May 15, 


Gains in 

Medians for 

Second Semester 

Range Ql 



Range Ql 



Silent Reading 

6.6-10.0 8.0 



6.7-10.0 8.1 



1 month 


5.3-8.9 6.0 



5.9-10.0 6.7 



11 months 


5.8-10.0 7.1 



6.8-10.0 7.3 



9 months 

Social Studies 

6.7-10.0 7.0 



6.7-10.0 7.6 



4 months 

Total New 


6.4-10.0 7.2 



7.1-10.0 7.6 



5 months 

Individual Profile Graphs 

On the following pages will be found four of the individual profile 
graphs, which are used at the end of each semester for children in 
Grades Two to Six. The graphs printed here were all selected from the 
upper half of the class. The teachers' reports for G. and R. will be 
found on pages 491 to 498. 

A graph chart of a child needing special individual instruction is given 
on page 547. 


National College of Education 


Grades Two and Three 

National College of Education 

Name of Child ...W«. 

Percent of Days Present: 

Sept. to Feb. 19.31 

Feb. to June 19.31 97$ 

... Grade. .A 

Key to Report: 

Red May .20, ... 1930. 

Jan. 20. 1931 

Green May.. 25,.. 1951 


This report is based upon a ten months school year and represents average 
results of standardized tests given throughout the United States. 


Psychologist's Records 513 

Comments on progress for First Semester 

This graph indicates that W. is doing superior 
work in silent reading and spelling, very superior 
work in oral reading, and average work in arithmetic, 
I am sorry we haven't comparative tests which would 
indicate gains, but in silent reading there is a gain 
of approximately eight months. 


Director of Measurement 

Signature of Parent 

Comments on progress for Second Semester 

This is an excellent report especially in oral 
reading, arithmetic, and spelling. The improvement 
is very steady and in keeping with the mental 
capacity. More emphasis should be spent on silent 
reading than oral reading from now on. 


Director of Measurement 

Signature of Parent 


National College of Education 


Grades Two and Three 
National College of Education 

Name of Child ...•?.• Grade 5 

Key to Report: 

Percent of Days Present: Red May ...£.Q.,... 19.5.0.. 

Sept. to Feb. 19.31 96$ m Blue Jan.*. .20.,... 1951 

Feb. to June wQ 97 £ WM Green May 25*^951 

This report is based upon a ten months school year and represents average 
results of standardized tests given throughout the United States. 


Psychologist's Records 515 

Comments on progress for First Semester 

This graph indicates several interesting facts. 
First, J. is doing superior work in silent and oral 
reading; second, in arithmetic and spelling she is 
well above average attainment; third, the gains have 
been unusually fine. 

Other facts from our most comprehensive test in- 
dicate that she is working up to her mental capacity, 


Director of Measurement 

Signature of Parent 

Comments on progress for Second Semester 

This is a strong record in silent and oral reading, 
and in arithmetic for fourth grade work. The spelling 
level is normal. The twenty months gain for the year 
in silent reading is outstanding, and the fifteen 
months gain in arithmetic is splendid. The gains in 
oral reading and spelling are practically negligible 
this semester, but when a need arises for more em- 
phasis probably J. will meet the occasion with zest. 


Director of Measurement 

Signature of Parent 


National College of Education 


Grades Four, Five, and Six 
National College of Education 

of Child ..Mi - - - Gradp 


Key to Report: 

Pp ,, May 20. 1950 

Sept. to Feb. 19.231. 

Feb. to June 19.51 .< 


Blue Jan 

. 20, 1931 

L0Q* €reenMay. 25,.. 1931 


Fundamental School Subjects 




Social Studies 

10.5 E 

10.0 = 

9.5 E 

9.0 E 

8.5 E 

8.0 = 

7.5 E 


7.0 E 


6.5 = 


6.0 = 


5.5 E 

\ \ 


5.0 = 

* x 

\ y 


4.5 - 


4.0 E 


3.5 E 


3.0 E 

2.5 E 

2.0 Z 

This report is based upon a ten months school year and represents average 
results of standardized tests given throughout the United States. (over) 

Psychologist's Records 


Comments on progress for First Semester 

E. is doing veiy superior work in reading and social 
studies, superior work in spelling and average work in 
arithmetic. The gains are very consistent* 

I trust that E. will concentrate somewhat on the 
arithmetic this semester, so that the variation will 
not be as extreme. 

Signed — „... 

Director of Measurement 

Signature of Parent 

Comments on progress for Second Semester 

This is an excellent record for a nine-year-old 
girl. The gains are more than satisfactory in all 
subjects except social studies. However, the grade 
level is high enough to warrant no gain at this time. 


Director of Measurement 

Signature of Parent 


National College of Education 



Grades Four, Five, and Six 

National College of Education 

of Child ....&« Grade .*> 

Key to Report: 

. -r r^_... r, r,., MflV ?0 - 1 QSO 

Sept. to Feb. 19.53L....85BL 

Feb. to June 19.31. 94$ 

rii, J«r>, ?o, 19?>1 

Green MajT ?5, .1931 


Fundamental School Subjects 




Social Studies 

10.5 E 

io.o E 

9.5 E 

9.0 E 

8.5 E 

8.0 E 

7.5 E 

,_ . 


7.0 E 

-- .— """* """" 



6.5 = 

"" „\ 

6.0 - 

w ^" 



5.5 E 


5.0 E 


4.5 - 

4.0 = 

3.5 E 

3.0 E 

2.5 E 

2.0 E 

This report is based upon a ten months school year and represents average 
results of standardized tests given throughout the United States. (over) 

Psychologist's Records 519 

Comments on progress for First Semester 

We have attained the needed gain in reading for 
the silent reading has jumped a year and a half from 
grade 5.1 to 6.7 and the oral reading, not shown on 
the card, from 5.4 to 7.7 or a gain of two years and 
three months] If R. can be encouraged to read infor- 
mational material now, there will be a gain in social 


Director of Measurement 

Signature of Parent 

Comments on progress for Second Semester 

R's achievement is now a year to a year and a 
half in advance of the average child in America, which 
is as it should be for a child of his ability and 
background* The year's improvement is splendid in 
reading where the need is the greatest. More varied 
reading of an informational type this summer would 
continue to aid not only the reading skill but the 
social studies content. 


Director of Measurement 

Signature of Parent 

520 National College of Education 


February 1, 1931. 
To the Parents of the Second and Third Grade Children : 

Our printed profile graphs are slightly different from those sent out 
last year for we have added a space for oral reading and omitted pen- 
manship because of the lack of a truly standardized measure. We have 
included the per cent of days present so that improvement could be 
studied in relation to attendance. 

We have not given tests other than silent reading to the children at 
the close of the first grade so that many of the second graders do not 
have comparative tests for this report. However, one can determine 
the approximate grade level of attainment at this time by the blue 
coloring on the graph. 

Tests are not as valid with the younger children because many have 
not learned to use the time given to them to advantage. This school 
experience has to be met several times before the real meaning of tests 
is clearly understood. We often retest a child individually who has not 
concentrated well when in a group so that the test results will be more 
of a test of learning rather than conduct. 

There are not as many children in the second grade working up to 
their mental capacity in a test situation as in the third grade. We find 
as the children mature they are much more apt to work up to capacity. 

A comment has been written on the back of each report in order to 
explain the individual level of attainment and gain at this time as well 
as to give advice on outstanding weaknesses, or suggestions of possible 
value to the parents. Will the parent — either one — please sign this card 
and mail back to us immediately in the enclosed envelope. 

If you have any comments relative to these reports or any questions 
you would like to ask, will you feel free to place them on the card? 
We would appreciate this very much. We are not only trying to give 
you information as to the school achievement of your child according 
to standardized test results, but we hope the graphs are an incentive to 
greater effort from the child. 

The next report will be sent out the first of June. 

Very sincerely, 
Director of Measurement. 

February 1, 1931. 
To the Parents of Children in the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Grades : 

Our new printed profile graph has omitted the penmanship record 
because we felt the scales by which we judged the writing were not re- 
liable enough. We have added the per cent of attendance because of its 
relationship to improvement. 

Psychologist's Records 521 

The fourth grade children were given an advanced form of a test 
this January rather than the primary form given last May which in- 
cludes five social studies — Language, Literature, History and Civics, 
Geography, and Physiology and Hygiene. This is the reason for no 
comparative test scores in the social studies on the fourth grade reports. 

The average scores this time are built upon different tests than those 
given last May but they are w r ell standardized so that there should be 
no appreciable difference. We are trying to select the best of tests so 
that these graphs will approximate facts. 

The comments on the back of the card are added so that the indi- 
vidual parent will have our analysis of the particular child's grade level 
placement or gain. If there are any questions or comments which you 
as a parent would like to ask or make, we should be glad to have you 
include them when you return the graph signed by either parent. We 
should appreciate a prompt return of these cards so that they can be 
filed away ready for the next report to be sent out the first of June. 

Very sincerely, 
Director of Measurement. 

To the Parents of the Children in Grades Two to Six : 

As the school year of 1930-1931 comes to a close we have taken sev- 
eral types of inventories. This letter and enclosed graph pertains to 
the achievement of the children in the basic school subjects. The second 
and third graders were given three silent reading tests and four arith- 
metic tests. The upper grades had in addition the five tests in the social 
studies — Language Usage, Literature, Geography, History and Physi- 
ology or Hygiene. 

There are several interesting conclusions which I should like to bring 
to your attention at this time: 

1. No two children have identical graphs. There are varying degrees 
of acceleration and retardation in each group and each subject. This 
corresponds with facts from other schools. 

2. Most children do not gain in every subject each semester. The 
majority of children have made satisfactory gains. 

3. Poor attendance affects the gains negatively. The median per cent 
of attendance is 91%. One half of the ninety cases range in per cent 
from 83% to 95%. Twenty-five per cent of the ninety cases are be- 
low an attendance of 83%, and twenty-five per cent are above 95%. 

4. Children gain in the skill in which they are given practice. For in- 
stance if oral reading is being emphasized there is not necessarily a 
gain in silent reading. Or if speed in silent reading is being urged, 

the comprehension is not necessarily positively affected. 

5. Some of our children receiving the individual, diagnostic instruction 
have physiological handicaps as left-eyedness, and right-handedness 

522 National College of Education 

or, right-eyedness and left-handedness. Also some do not distinguish 
between sounds in words as came and cane. 

6. A history of shifting from one school to another results in retarda- 
tion. Also long extended trips in the beginning stages of learning 
react negatively on learning. Poor work habits are distinctly detri- 
mental to learning. 

7. Our median intelligence quotient for all the grade children is 115 
(a superior type of academic mind) ; the lower quartile is 106 
(normal) and the upper 123 (very superior). The median educa- 
tional quotient (Educational Age from the New Stanford Achieve- 
ment Test divided by the chronological age) is 117; the lower quartile 
is 107 and the upper quartile is 127. In other words about 92% of 
our children are working above 90% of their mental capacity for 
academic study, as determined by our tests. We are very proud of 
this record. 

8. The medians for the upper grades are more distinctly beyond the 
grade norms than for our lower grades, and the range between the 
low and high scores is likely to be wider. 

9. Spelling is likely to have the lowest grade placement of all the funda- 
mental skills. We find this true no matter what school the child has 
attended before registering here. 

If any parent wishes an individual conference at any time kindly 
make an appointment. Also, will you feel free to give us suggestions or 
comments which will help us to do more efficient work than we have in 
the past? We aim to deal with children individually and are anxious 
that each one shall accomplish what he or she is capable of doing, phys- 
ically, mentally, emotionally and socially. 

Very sincerely, 
Director of Measurement. 

Procedure in Individual Instruction 
in Reading and Spelling 

IN ORDER that the individual child may have the maximum op- 
portunity for success, the Psychology Department makes a 
careful study of each child's progress in relation to his capacities. 
When a child falls very far behind the expected achievement in 
reading and spelling, a diagnosis is made, and an intensive form 
of individual instruction is provided. This work is under the 
direction of a psychologist who is also a reading specialist. She is 
assisted by a specialist in measurement, a specialist in speech and by 
the school physician, when physical causes seem indicated. A small 
group of advanced students, some of them experienced teachers, 
aid in giving tests and in conducting scientific individual instruction. 
Courses in the Teaching of English, Educational Measurement, and 
Measurement and Schoolroom Procedure, are prerequisite for this 
work. The following procedure" was- used during the years 1929-1930 
and 1930-1931 : juA^c^ p^ y 

A. Teacher activity involved in the thorough understanding of the 
subject matter difficulty. 

1. Giving of standardized achievement tests in silent and oral 
reading, spelling, and arithmetic in order to obtain : 

a. Average grade placement for each of the fundamental school 

b. Specific types of errors as may be analyzed from the tests. 

c. Child's spontaneous reactions to the subjects — his emotional 

2. Giving and scoring of Dr. Marion Monroe's Diagnostic Read- 
ing Examination. (C. H. Stoelting Co., Chicago, Illinois). 

3. Giving of an intelligence test or using information from pre- 
vious tests so that the mental age can be corrected to the day 
when the diagnostic test was given. 

4. Constructing profile graphs so that the problem may be graph- 
ically seen noting the child's : 

a. Present grade-room placement. 

b. Chronological and mental age. 

c. Specific grade levels in each one of the tests given. Choices 
have been made from the following tests : 


524 National College of Education 

New Stanford Achievement Test for reading, spelling and arithmetic. 

World Book Company. 
Sangren-Woody Reading Test (for fifth and sixth graders). World 

Book Company. 
Williams Primary Reading Test (for second and third graders). Public 

School Publishing Company. 
Williams Reading Test (for fourth, fifth, and sixth graders). Public 

School Publishing Company. 
Public School Achievement Tests in reading, spelling, and arithmetic. 

Public School Publishing Company. 
Gates Primary Reading Tests (for second and third graders). Bureau 

of Publications — Teachers College, Columbia University. 
Gates Silent Reading Tests (for third, fourth, fifth, and sixth graders). 

Bureau of Publications — Teachers College, Columbia University. 
Morrison-McCall Spelling Scale. Bureau of Publications — Teachers Col- 
lege, Columbia University. 
Gray's Oral Reading Paragraph Test. Public School Publishing Company. 

d. Specific errors in each subject in which the child will need 
remedial instruction. For instance, Dr. Monroe's analysis 
of errors in reading. 

5. Giving handedness, footedness and eye-sighting tests to obtain 
the brain dominance or lack of it. (Research is now being 
carried on in this field.) 

6. Seeking an oculist's opinion as to the condition of the child's 
^>x^vision, his eye dominance and any muscular imbalance. 

7. Interviewing the parents in order to explain the achievement 
levels of the child, his outstanding difficulties, the program of 
remedial instruction and to obtain among other facts from the 
parents the child's : 

a. Health history, including illnesses, past and present, condi- 
tion of the eyes, ears and speech. 

b. Family history of handedness, speech disabilities, writing 
handicaps, or reading difficulties. 

c. School history including attendance record, retardation, ac- 
celeration and causes for each. 

d. Subject matter difficulties as seen by the parents or former 
teachers including any emotional and personality conflicts. 

e. Interests of the child both current and permanent. 

f. Home stimuli, as books belonging to the child, reading op- 

g. History of methods of guidance in building up habits, such 
as independence, concentration, persistence. 

h. History of remedial instruction which may have been given. 

B. General methods used with those children requiring remedial 
instruction in reading. 

1. Allowing the child to aid in the selection of books for reading 
or in the decision as to the content of original reading material. 

Psychologist's Records 525 

2. Training the child to study the content first. This may be either 
oral or silent depending upon the stage of learning. The 
teacher's task at this time is to record : 

a. Difficult words as the child meets them and is unsuccessful 
in his attack. 

b. Child's method of attack. 

c. Type of aid given by adult for each word child is unsuccess- 
ful with. 

3. Training the child to read orally immediately after the study. 
The teacher's task then is to: 

a. Record all errors made by the child on a duplicate copy of 
the content, and aid when necessary, underscoring words 

thus aided. (Dr. Monroe's techniques have been followed in 
the recording of errors. See her manual for the Diagnostic 
Reading Examination. Stoelting and Company, Chicago.) 

b. Transfer all of the above notations and the analyses of errors 
to the diary account of the case. 

c. Graph the percent of lines, sentences, or words read correctly 
so that the child may see his learning curve as the weeks go 
by. If advisable have the child reread the material in order 
to show him immediate gains. It is often helpful if some 
drill is given between the first and second opportunities to 
read orally so that more gain may be possible. 

4. Emphasizing the oral reading in phrase units which might 
readily result from emphasis placed upon accurate reading of 
this type. 

5. Ignoring speed of reading until child is accurately reading from 
85% — 95% of the lines, sentences or words. Continue with 
the type of content in which this accuracy is possible but intro- 
duce some more difficult content in which the per cent of ac- 
curacy begins at about 50% — 60%. Thus fluency in reading 
and stronger attack on words may be planned simultaneously, 
but records of the two types should be kept separate. Speed 
emphasis should be used with easy material only. A time 
record might be kept of the number of lines read in three 
minutes. Planning ahead with the child just what words should 
be read in units would be an aid to increasing the eye span which 
in turn increases the amount read. 

6. Using a variety of drill material planned to lessen gradually 
errors obtained from the child's oral reading. Context words 
and miscalled words are both used as well as words which the 
child cannot read. The teacher's responsibilities are as follows : 
a. Duplicate the content so that it may be separated into lines, 

phrases, or words depending upon the need of the child. 

526 National College of Education 

(1) If typewritten material, the first carbon is carefully 
pasted upon a piece of manila tag so that when thor- 
oughly dry the material may be separated as desired. 
("Yes," paste eliminates wrinkling.) 

(2) If book material, two extra copies are cut up so that 
each page may be pasted upon manila tag for later 

(3) If only a portion of the context needs duplicating, the 
teacher writes, prints, or manuscripts the content or 
uses a printing press. 

1). Write or print the context word and miscalled word on sepa- 
rate cards or slips of paper for each child so that he may 
have his own set of words on which he needs particular drill 
in careful pronunciation, rapid reading, tracing, or sentence 

c. Prepare reading content for kinaesthetic drill which either 
has been dictated by the child or originated by the teacher, 
using the main errors of the child for a period of two or 
three weeks. Use wide spacing between words and when 
typing words keep sounds together which belong together 
as indicated in a slow pronunciation of the word. Keep the 
lines about three quarters of an inch apart. The child is 
trained in writing the words quickly as he pronounces them 
slowly. The following sample illustrates the method. The 
same content should also be typed for ordinary reading to 
be used after the kinaesthetic drill. 

Th e trainer went into the cage to 
get the old elephant wh o was to 
do his t r i ck s. 

d. Prepare kinaesthetic drill for words and phrases with which 
the child has had unusual or repeated difficulty so that plenty 
of repetition may be possible. The teacher may have this 
typed or the work may be done on the board. Little children 
enjoy tracing over the teacher's copy under which is a carbon 
paper so that their own attempts may be individual. Com- 
parison may also be made resulting in more pointed sug- 
gestions for improvement. 

e. Originate incomplete sentences using the child's errors and 
other words like them or questions whose answers contain 
similar word combinations as: 

He them at the store. as saw so was 

Which do I need for cooking? tar tire fire ripe 

Psychologist's Records 527 

f. Prepare drills to meet an outstanding difficulty with words 
such as confusion with word endings or word beginnings. 

C. Specific methods used for outstanding reading difficulties of chil- 
dren included in this study. 

1. For the child whose mental capacity and interests are advanced 
beyond his reading skill. The teacher's task is to 

a. Find books in keeping with this capacity and interest and 
then either rewrite simplifying the vocabulary or have the 
child listen very intently so that at intervals he may dictate 
the content in his own words. Type this revision according 
to correct hygienic form. 

Note. The child may help obtain material if not in the 

b. Find other books pertinent to this interest but too difficult for 
the child to read in its entirety. The teacher may read the 
most difficult sections to the child, training the child to fol- 
low closely and let child read occasional sections of easier 
material. Let child reread material later. 

c. Have the child organize original matter as suggested by any 
of the following: 

Pictures to describe or to use in organizing true-false state- 
ments including some humorous ideas. 
School movies. 

Diary, including accounts of excursions, interesting as- 
semblies and other activities. 
Riddles, jokes, conundrums. 
Past trips taken with .parents or friends. 
Current events or nature interests. 

Directions for physical activities or games of directions 
with small movable toys originated for some other child 
to follow. 
Original stories. 

2. For the child who has poor work habits, the teacher's task is to 
a. Organize a ten-point scale descriptive of those habits most 

needed by the individual child. Let the child assist in the 
selection and wording. Count each item as worth ten points 
so that a grading may be possible for each at the close of 
the daily period. Place the total score on a graph. Change 
the items as the need arises. The following lists are illustra- 

Case A 
Come in on time. 
Go right to work. 

528 National College of Education 

Keep eyes on reading. 

Pay attention to reading only. 

Sit still. 

Know word as a word after sounding it out. 

Use a card to keep the place. 

Believe the teacher when she says the work is good. 

Show that improvement is wanted. 

Read most of the words independently. 

Case B 
I had lots of "pep" today. 
I came to the room by myself. 
I went right to work. 
I did not look around the room. 
I kept my feet still and did not wiggle. 
I sat up straight and did not lean my head on my hand. 
I didn't visit during the lesson. 
I did the things I was asked to do without arguing. 
I was business-like and used my time well. 
I try to do better each day. 

b. Have child choose easy but interesting material from a selec- 
tion previously made by the teacher. 

c. Give much satisfaction when a gain in work habits is seen. 
Gradually lengthen the periods of work and plan a variety 
of material and activities. Gradually lessen the amount of 
physical activity. 

d. Put special emphasis upon the activity or attitude which most 
interferes with good work habits. For instance a child who 
fooled away a good deal of his time helped to organize this 
five-point scale and consistently evaluated himself by it until 
improvement seemed permanent. Point one is high and five 
is low — 

(1) Knows the right kind of work to do and does it with 
a good spirit without suggestion from the teacher and 
without wasting time. 

(2) Begins work at once and usually works hard. Wastes 
little time and seldom needs suggestions. 

(3) Usually works well and gets a good deal done but often 
needs suggestions from the teacher. 

(4) Is slow in beginning to work. Wastes time unless told 
exactly what to do from day to day. 

(5) Needs constant attention. Does very little work. Has 
to be told to do everything or it won't be done. 

3. For the child who continually repeats words or phrases, the 
teacher's task is to determine the reasons for the repetitions and 

Psychologist's Records 529 

adjust the drill accordingly. For instance if the child repeats to 

a. Clarify the meaning, the teacher might organize comprehen- 
sion questions for the child to answer after his silent study. 
Or, after the silent reading the teacher and pupil might 
organize an outline of the important and less important events 
or facts. Or, the meaning of certain words might be stressed 
and synonymous terms found to substantiate phrases used 
in the reading. 

b. Return to a punctuation mark which had been ignored, the 
various marks should be examined previous to the reading 
and possibly exaggerated by the use of a colored pencil. The 
meaning of the variety of marks should be made clear. 

c. Return to a word with which he was not successful, the 
teacher should give preliminary practice in reading and under- 
standing new and difficult words. 

d. Correct errors made because of too rapid reading, the speed 
should be drastically cut in imitation of the teacher's speed. 
Chorus reading is often beneficial or a game to see if the 
child can read just as the teacher points. (A rhythmical 
sweep of a pencil under phrases aids in more meaningful 

e. Comply with a speech habit, the teacher might cover up the 
material as it is read so that the child cannot see it again. 
(Of course if the speech habit is very serious a specialist 
should be referred to.) 

4. For the child who is reading word by word even though he may 
be a rather independent reader, the teacher's task is to 

a. Put phrases on long slips of paper for a pre-study before 
oral reading, drilling on the new words emphasizing their 

b. Read for the child, over-emphasizing the rhythm of the 
phrases before he reads orally so that imitation may help to 
correct the word calling. 

c. Indicate to the child before he reads, the units of thought 
which should be read together. Vertical lines might be 
drawn to aid the memory. 

d. Keep a card under the lines as the child reads, and often 
when the child's voice arrives at a point near the beginning 
of a line, at which there is some kind of a punctuation mark, 
cover up the rest of the line with the card to see how many 
individual letters, or spaces and letters, are read even though 
covered. Repeat this procedure at least ten times during 
a lesson so that the average number of letters, or letters and 
spaces, may be recorded day by day. Avoid those lines hav- 

530 National College of Education 

ing punctuation marks other than the one near the beginning 
of the line. 

e. Observe the way a child talks, for the underlying reason of 
word-calling in his reading may be due to habits of speech. 

f. Encourage the child to originate his own reading material, 
for undoubtedly this material would be read more naturally by 
phrases than new material. 

g. Type the reading material for those children who are ex- 
treme word callers, keeping phrases together but the phrases 
widely separated as : 

The boy went to the river to play ball with the dog. 

Have the child reread the identical material printed normally. 

h. Check the percent of phrases read together after several 

pages have been read. Continue to check until improvement 

has been established. 

5. For the child who does not comprehend well when reading 
silently, the teacher's task is to 

a. Select easier content which is unfamiliar. 

b. Have the child originate comprehension questions for an- 
other child to answer. 

c. Organize a variety of problems for the child to answer by 
studying. Keep a record of the percent of correct responses. 
Plan a variety of problems so as to stress important details 
and general understanding of the content. 

d. Encourage the child to start an individual card catalogue 
dictionary, including the word, its meaning, a sentence in- 
cluding the word, synonymous words, also included in sen- 
tences, and the original word written according to syllables if 
that is necessary. 

e. Plan many experiences for the child of a concrete type in 
order to increase the meaning of his every-day life. 

f. Train the child to use a published dictionary as Winston's 
Simplified Dictionary if the child is old enough and mature 
enough in his reading. 

g. Select work books in which the child may read independently 
and be later checked as to accuracy. Have child read pas- 
sages orally in which errors are found to see if corrections 
might be made independently. 

6. For the child who has not learned to read independently or who 
has little or no phonetic attack, the teacher's task is to discover 
the weaknesses and treat accordingly. 

a. If the child is not sure of some of the consonant sounds, 
(1) Have him select pictures representing words beginning 
with a certain sound; 

Psychologist's Records 


(2) Let him reorganize lists of words so that words be- 
ginning with the same sound are in one list ; 

(3) Encourage him to trace the letter as he says it, noting 
the position of the lips and tongue by looking in a 
mirror ; 

(4) Stress the double consonants which produce one sound 
as th and sh ; 

(5) Give experience in the various sounds of c-g-s as they 
are found in words. 

If the child is not sure of the short vowel sounds, 

(1) Make a list of key words as hat — let — it — hot — us, and 
keep these before the child for continual reference as 
long as it is necessary and wise. 

(2) Train the child to isolate the vowel sound as saying 
puddle then pu, and finally u as in us. (See A. Cordts, 
"The Word Method of Teaching Phonics," Ginn and 

(3) Have him sort pictures which represent words contain- 
ing the short vowel which is being studied. Single pic- 
tures should be mounted on cards for this drill. The 
following nouns can be illustrated by pictures and used 
for this purpose. They have been collected from Thorn- 
dike's The Teacher's Word Book, Gates, A Reading- 
Vocabulary for the Primary Grades, the Wheeler- 
Howell List, (Elem. School Jour. Sept. 1930) and other 























































































































National College of Education 



























































If the child cannot determine when the vowels are long, 

(1) Select pictures illustrating short a and long o or short 
e and long a before short a and long a. 

(2) Have child help in making lists of words illustrating 
short and long vowels. 

(3) Have child work in Miss Hardy's Work Book in Phonics 
or select suggestions from Miss Cordt's book. 

(4) Have child pronounce familiar words found in a book 
or gained from ordinary conversation, letting him tell 
whether there is a long or short vowel sound in the word 
or possibly both. 

(5) Use the following list as suggestive of nouns which 
might be used for drill purposes especially for picture 









































ice box 















































Psychologist's Records 















































(6) Pronounce words illustrating both short and long sounds 

to see if child can distinguish the vowel and its type of 

If the child knows the various sounds but is not successful 
in pronouncing the word, 




Train him in writing the word, keeping sounds together 
as th-sh-ph or the initial consonant and vowel so that 
he can then sound it more carefully as la n t er n or 
Ian ter n. 

Encourage slow pronunciation of familiar words to see 
which letters are apt to belong together as er-ir-ur or 

Indicate repeatedly the usual dominance of r in ar ; the 
dominance of 1 in el; the long sound of the first vowel 
if accompanied by another or later followed by an e, 
keeping non-phonetic words separate. 
Graph the percent of words on which the child hesi- 
tated in his oral reading but was finally successful. 
Record the method used by the child in successfully 
attacking a word or the aid which was necessary by the 
adult in some such form as this : 

Word on which 
child hesitated 

Child's method of attack 

Adult suggestions to aid in 


I saw the word broke 


Cover up the or. Both vowels 
are short. 


The u sound as in us. Watch 
to see if the first letter is a b 
or a d. 


I tried the hard sound of c first, 
then soft. 

I covered up the ing, then saw 
the word cat. 



That is a word you just have 
to remember. Look at it closely, 
write it and say it at the same 


National College of Education 

(6) Separate the unphonetic words from those which might 
be attacked phonetically so that the child memorizes 
them as total words, noting peculiar characteristics or 
if very difficult to remember encourage kinaesthetic drill. 

(7) Review difficult words by listing them. Have child un- 
derline all those words read correctly the first time. 

If the child is not successful with very long words use the 
suggestions for syllables which are given in Anna Cordt's, 
"The Word Method of Teaching Phonics," Chapter 7. 

Books Used for Remedial Instruction in Reading 

Allard, Lucile & 

McCall, Wm. 
Baker, E. D. & 

Baker, C. B. 
Coleman, B. P. 
Gareissen, Mariana 
Hardy, Marjorie 
Hardy, Marjorie 
Lewis, W. D. & 

Gehres, E. M. 
Martin, Cora M. 

Teeny Tiny Rimes 

Toots in School 

My First Book 


Easy Steps to Playtime 

Sally and Billy 

The Little Book 

Tots and Toys 

Bob and Baby Pony 
Jack and Nell 

1927 Johnson 

1929 Bobbs-Merrill 

1927 Silver Burdett 

1930 Scott Foresman 

1931 Newson 

1928 Wheeler 
1928 Wheeler 
1931 Winston 

1931 Scribners 

1931 Johnson 

Primers and Readers for Primary Gtfades 

Bryce, Catherine & 
Hardy, Rose 

Gates, Arthur & 
Huber, Miriam 

Geeks, M. C. 

Hardy, Marjorie 

Hardy, Rose & 

Hecox, Geneva 
Lewis, Wm. D. & 

Rowland, Albert 
Lisson, Albert & 

Thonet, E. V. 
Martin, Cora M. 
Stone, Clarence R. 
Suzzallo, H. 
Tuttle, Florence P. 
White, M. L. & 

Hanthorn, Alice 

Newson Readers (Work 

The Work-Play Books 

(Work Books) 
Story and Study Readers 
The Child's Own Way 

Series (Work Books) 
Good Companions 

The New Silent Readers 

The Happy Childhood 

Real Life Readers 
The Webster Readers 
Fact and Story Readers 
Our Book World 
Do and Learn Readers 

1927 Newson 

1930 Macmillan 

1928 Johnson 
1926 Wheeler 

1931 Newson 

1931 Winston 
1930 F. A. Owen 

1930 Scribners 

1932 Webster 

1930 American Book 

1931 Longmans Green 
1930 American Book 

Psychologist's Records 


Baker, C. B. & 
Baker, E. D. 

Johns, Lina & 
Averill, May 

Read, Helen S. 

Troxell, Eleanor & 
Dunn, F. W. 

Youngquist, Livia 

Supplementary Books for Primary Grades 

True Story Series 1928 Bobbs-Merrill 

Moths and Butterflies 1930 F. A. Owen 

Social Science Readers 
Mother Nature Series 


Row Peterson 

My Other Reading Book 1930 Rand McNally 

Books for Intermediate Grades 

Arnold, Margaret 

Collins, Earl & 

Hale, Lyda 
Geeks, M. C. & 

Skinner, C. E. 
Headley, Edia A. 

Lange, D. 
Perdue, H. Avid 

Withers, J. W. 

Worthington, J. 
& Matthews, C. 

Folk Tales Retold 

Hero Stories for Chil- 

Days and Deeds (Fifth 

How Other People 

On the Fur Trail 

How Other Children 

Fact and Fancy (Sixth 

Our Food 

1926 Bruce 

1930 Macmillan 

1930 Johnson 

1926 Rand NcNally 

1931 Newson 

1927 Rand McNally 

1930 Johnson 

1930 F. A. Owen 

D. Specific methods used for locating outstanding spelling diffi- 
culties of children included in this study. 

1. Collect from 70-80 misspelled words from the tests given to 
the child or from his daily work so that a detailed analysis can 
be made of the specific errors. This analysis includes some of 
the same types of errors as Dr. Monroe's reading analysis, but 
spelling is noted rather than sounds, and the letter or letters 
involved are always specified. An illustration of this analysis 
follows of 77 spelling errors made by a fourth grade girl. It 
will be noted that she wrote leade for led. An analysis shows a 
vowel error and the addition of e. In writing hosu for house, 
her errors were the reversal of s and u, and the omission of e. 
Her total errors indicate that drill is needed to correct a confusion 
between b and d ; between s and sh, z and c ; between the short 
and long vowels and diphthongs ea, ou, ey, ay, and ai ; concern- 
ing words ending with e. 


National College of Education 

Original Child's 
word Response 








led leade 
lay law 
lot lott 
house hosu 






home howe 
late leat 
make mike 
land laand 
good goob 
around arund 
burn birn 
able abl 








anything anthing 
buy bey 
afraid afrade 
coat coute 







strange Strang 
horse hores 
grade gread 
fairy fary 




try trie 
open oupen 
horse hores 
state stait 






water warter 
bear bair 
wheat weat 
cloud cloub 






oak ook 
fail feal 
set stet 
easy eazzy 





light lait 
shut suet 
sir seve 
dead dide 



oms. gh 


leave leve 
close clols 
flower folur 
many meny 







morning moreing 

mind minb 
order oder 
third thired 




within withen 
body bobby 
lesson lasson 




Psychologist's Records 


Original Child's 
word Response 








summer sumer 


walk wack 
bay bey 
corn curn 





orange orung 



they thay 
would wold 



seem seme 
more mour 





chair chire 
hang hing 
store stor 



mouse mouce 
sits sites 
said sead 
still stile 





gold gloul 




brave breve 


corn cron 
dance dane 
south shouth 




sister sisster 
block blok 
went want 
back bact 






paper papy 
free firee 
spent spint 
about adout 
for four 






Analysis of 


b-d ; five 


s confused 
sh, z, c 

i- 9 
o- 4 
u- 5 


oms.e- 8 
add.t- 3 




538 National College of Education 

2. Give Gates Graded Word Pronunciation Test (Teachers' Col- 
lege, Columbia University) in order to note child's attack on 
words, his ability to separate words into syllables. 

3. Give Gates Test of Phonetic Abilities (Teachers' College, 
Columbia University) in order to discover further strengths 
and weaknesses in consonants and vowels. 

4. Record any speech inaccuracies, handicaps, mispronunciations. 
If serious, plan special instruction with specialist. 

5. Give the child a word discrimination test in order to discover 
any serious difficulty in hearing slight differences in consonant 
or vowel sounds ; in addition or omission of sounds ; or in 
knowing when words are the same. A possible test to use fol- 
lows. The idea of the test was suggested by Dr. Marion 


Examiner's Introduction. "Please sit with your back toward me. I 
am going to say two words and when I am through you are to tell me 
whether the two words are the same or different. Are smile and mile 
the same or different? Yes, they are different. Are desk and disk the 
same or different? Yes, they are different. Are stack and stack the 
same or different? Yes, they are the same. Now, I would like you to 
tell me each time if the two words I give are the same or different. Be 
sure to listen carefully. If the words are different, tell me whether the 
difference is in the beginning, middle, or end of the word." (Ex- 
aminer reads the lists and records the child's response. The per cent 
of correct responses can be calculated after the child leaves.) 

Psychologist's Records 

























































































♦like pairs (25) 

Total score 75 

Correct responses 

Per cent of 
accuracy in 
analysis of 

540 National College of Education 

E. General methods used for overcoming outstanding difficulties 
in spelling. 

1. Encourage original unaided written expression in order to 
stimulate a natural motive for writing and spelling. Use for 
content imaginative stories as suggested by pictures and un- 
finished stories ; diary records ; letters, notes, invitations. 

2. Check the child's work against a scale especially adapted to his 
stage of development in written expression. The following 
is one recently used by a twelve-year-old girl : 

(1) Keep to the topic. Organize your main thoughts be- 
fore writing. 

(2) Be original in what you say — keep to the main purpose. 

(3) Make your points clear to the reader by including 
enough detail. 

(4) Use the best choice of words, choosing between words 
of the same meaning. 

(5) Keep to correct forms of words, choosing between ad- 
verbs and adjectives, subjective and objective forms. 

(6) Use correct punctuation marks in the right places. 

(7) Keep to the same verb tense. 

(8) Watch the sentence structure, keeping thought units 

(9) Keep in one paragraph all different thoughts which are 

(10) Hand in a neat paper with handwriting readable. 
Count the number of main words attempted by the child, omit- 
ting the very simple words and words repeated. Find the per- 
cent of words correctly spelled so that a continuous record of 
improvement may be kept by the child. In case the child has 
used a dictionary or has asked for the spelling of a word, the 
word on which aid was asked should be underlined by the child 
and not be counted in the scoring. This habit of looking up 
a word or inquiring for correct spelling should be encouraged 
rather than the habit of guessing at words. 


A Twelve- Year-Old Girl's Description of the picture "Eve- 
ning" by I wan F. Choultse. 

I have always been a great lover of nature. Morning, noon, 
and night I roam the fields and wood finding mericals un- 

For two weeks I have been visiting in the city. I find 
it exciting in the city, but I could never live there. In fact 
I nearly shortened my visit. 

Psychologist's Records 541 

This afternoon I got home again back to the fields and 
wood I love so much. As I write this I am on the side 
of a mountain, one of my faverot spots. The vew is nore 
buitiful than I have ever seen it. The clouds in the blue 
hevans are crean collar egded with the highest of orcades. 
Two poplar trees near me reach high into the sky and leave 
long shadows accross the hills. The hills are a golden brown in 
the distance. I could lie and dream all night if the sunsett 
would only stay. (There are approximately 74 words with 
13 misspellings or 82%. Surely according to the above ten- 
point scale this story would have a high rating.) 

4. Plan a series of drills which will insure independence in look- 
ing up correct spellings in such a dictionary as the John C. 
Winston Simplified Dictionary. Children are often more inter- 
ested when they can help themselves. 

5. If the child is having such serious difficulty with his spelling 
that the failure checks any possible interest, the teacher might 

a. Have the child dictate simple content to her, which in turn 
would be later typed for kinaesthetic drill (see page 3). 

b. Encourage child to read and write this content under the 
typewritten copy. 

c. Have further drill on words in the kinaesthetic typing which 
were found to be difficult. 

d. Ask the child to write the same content later from your dic- 
tation with no copy before him so that the percent of correct 
spelling may be obtained. By this time there ought to be 
enough success to indicate improvement to the child. 

6. Plan to include words necessary to the grade level in which 
tests show the child is working, as included in such lists as 
Buckingham's Revision of the Ayres Scale (Public School Pub- 
lishing Company) ; Iowa Spelling Scales (Public School Pub- 
lishing Company) ; Breed's list in "How to Teach Spelling" (F. 
A. Owen Publishing Company). 

7. Stress meanings of words' especially used in context so that 
the child may become more interested in words. Discuss words 
centering around topics as preparation for a later original com- 
position on the topic. Stress correct enunciation of the word 
and kinaesthetic drill of the word dividing it into natural units. 
Use some prepared material which has been carefully graded 
according to vocabulary; as Kniss, Charles S. The Story 
Speller (Webster Publishing Company). 

8. Use the results obtained by the analysis of 70 or 80 errors 
which the child has made by planning drills necessary to over- 
come the difficulty. For instance, 

542 National College of Education 

a. For the child who is reversing letters or confusing as b for 
d, the teacher's task is to 

(1) Check further as to the native dominance of the brain 
with the child's eyes, hands, or feet, and to start reedu- 
cation when it is needed. (Further research is being 
done on this problem now, and it is hoped that some 
publication of our findings will be ready in 1933.) 

(2) Emphasize kinaesthetic drill, stressing movement from 
left to right and associating as many ideas as possible ; 
as, ''When one writes the letter d, he makes a c first." 
Use tracing. 

(3) Include an oral spelling of the word so that auditory 
memory may be reinforced, especially with truly non- 
phonetic words, as are, once, says. 

b. For the child who has difficulty with consonants, the teacher's 
task is to 

(1) Determine those which are causing the greatest amount 
of difficulty and give plenty of practice in using words 
beginning or ending or containing those letters. A book 
like Barrows and Cordts "The Teacher's Book of 
Phonetics" (Ginn and Company) is most enlightening 
as to consonant pairs of voiced and voiceless sounds ; 
consonants made by the lips, by the lips and teeth, by 
forcing the breath through the nose and so on. Exer- 
cises included in this book are most helpful. 

(2) Determine whether the child hears fine discriminations 
between some of these consonants. If not, he should 
almost be treated as a deaf oral case under the direc- 
tion of an expert speech teacher. 

(3) Practice on both auditory and visual discriminations of 
words beginning with the various consonants which per- 
sist in giving trouble. Use the pictures illustrating 
nouns as suggested for the remedial reading cases (see 
page 6). 

(4) Look through manuals accompanying readers for drill 

c. For the child who has difficulty with vowels, the teacher's 
task is to 

(1) Become thoroughly familiar with vowel sounds herself 
so that the child will have a good example to follow. 
Anna D. Cordts, "The Word Method of Teaching 
Phonics" (Ginn and Company) has excellent sugges- 
tions to follow. 

(2) Interest children in the various vowel sounds through 

Psychologist's Records 543 

illustrated cards (see pages — and — ) so that they will 
be anxious to improve their auditory discrimination. 

(3) Plan drills so that similar words will be understood, 
as, pan-pane-pain, pick-pike, city-cities. The sound of 
y in a one-syllable word as my and in a two-syllable 
word as baby, is worth teaching as well as the influence 
of the letter r on the various vowels. 

(4) Encourage a visual memory of words that are purely 

d. For the child who adds or omits sounds, the teacher's task 

is to 

( 1 ) Plan lists of words where the lips give hints, as in lap- 
ping, rubber, immediate ; where the tongue aids, as at- 
tend, addition, assist, allow. 

(2) Give practice in dividing words into syllables. 

(3) Stress characteristics of words especially when there 
are silent letters as in through or eight. Auditory and 
visual memory would be strengthened by kinaesthetic 

e. For the child zvho has not learned to spell after considerable 
instruction has been given, the teacher's task is to 

(1) Build up her own knowledge of the subject by reading 
such books and articles as 

Gates, A. I. The Psychology of Reading and Spell- 
ing. Teachers College, Columbia University, 1922. 

Hollings worth, L. S. The Psychology of Special 
Disability in Spelling. Teachers College Contribu- 
tion to Education, No. 88, 1918. 

Orton, S. T. Special Disability in Spelling. Bulle- 
tin of the Neurological Institute of New York. 
June 1931, Vol. L No. 2. 

(2) Get advice from experts so that the proper method will 
be used as soon as possible with the child. 

Retest the child after two or three months of special help to note 
improvement in score and analyze 70 or 80 more errors which 
have occurred during the training period to discover any new 
trends or any persisting errors. Begin a new training period 
with these facts in mind. Always plan a variety of exercises 
and drills involving as many senses as possible. 

544 National College of Education 


Personal History. 

F. was born May 20, 1922, the older child in a family of two. The 
home is above average in socio-economic level. Since she entered the 
Children's School of the National College of Education on September 11, 
1929, there have been four Stanford-Binet ratings: 90, 91, 106 and 100 or 
an average of 97. The range including the basal age has been repeatedly 
three years. 

School History. 

Before entering the Children's School F. had had one year in first 
grade in a rural school, but had not learned enough to score on any 
test given to her. However, she was placed in the second grade because 
of the placement of the younger sister in the first grade. 

F. zvas given individual instruction that entire year from 1929-1930, 
and for one semester the following year, as well as the first semester of 
the current school year 1931 to 1932. No individual instruction in arith- 
metic has been given and only a minimum amount in spelling. 

Physical Characteristics. 

1. Eyes. The oculist reports better vision in the right than in the 
left eye and two sighting tests indicate that the right eye is dominant. 
There is a slight strabismus in the left eye. 

2. Ears. The hearing seems to be normal. 

3. Hand and Foot. F. always prefers her left hand and left foot 
when given tests for motor leads. However, her left hand averages only 
8% better than the right in ten tests, the range being from l°/o to 17%. 
In two tests there was no difference in score between the right and left 
hand, and in another test the score of the right hand was 12°/o better than 
the left. The left foot was 3°/o better than the right in five tests, rang- 
ing from 1% to 10%, and there was no difference in scores from four 
tests. From these facts it appears that there is a lack of a decided brain 
dominance with the hand and foot and that with the right eye dominance 
there is no unilateral lead, which is so essential to success in reading, 
spelling and writing. 

4. General. 

The school physician has reported poor posture and has advised ton- 
silectomy. F. has been up to weight for her height. The teachers re- 

Psychologist's Records 545 

port that there have been some nervous habits as twitching of the 
shoulders. F. has often seemed very tired in school and also listless. She 
is usually present about 85% of the time. 

Personality Traits. 

F. has been a timid, reticent child but very happy, responsible, depend- 
able, fair, and generous. The other children like her and she contributes 
somewhat freely when in a group situation. She is obedient to the rules 
of the school and shows excellent self control in all situations. She will 
stand up for her rights when it is necessary. Since there has always been 
a keen desire to learn there has been absolute cooperation. 

Outstanding Problem. 

F. has had a tendency to write zvords in reversed order and to reverse 
letters within a word zvhen reading. Vowel and consonant errors have 
been high as well as refusals. 

Since F. started in the Children's School with practically a handicap of 
a year, the gains have not been startling but tend to increase more as 
maturity advances. The gains as indicated in the following chart are 
slightly greater from January 1931 to January 1932 than from February 
1930 to January 1931. The rapid increase in the oral reading is prob- 
ably due to practice effect in repeating the only published form of Gray's 
Oral Reading Paragraphs. The two years as represented on the graph 
show a sixteen months gain in both arithmetic and spelling, but twenty 
months in silent reading. 

Future Plans. 

F. is now being encouraged to use her right hand for all kinaesthetic 
work on errors in reading and spelling. Special effort will be made to 
increase the skill of the right hand and right foot by keeping accurate 
records of increased skills in the various motor tasks required of her. 
Writing will be closely watched so that correct habits will be formed. 
Manuscript writing will be adhered to. 

TO JANUARY 13, 1932 WITH F. 

I. Specific reading problems of F. at the beginning of this period 
of instruction : — 

A. Inability to determine when a vowel within a word was short 
or long. 

546 National College of Education 

B. Feeling of insecurity when meeting vowels e, u and o. 

C. Inability to sound words beginning with en, em, tr, thr or end- 
ing with sh, tion, ng, n, and m. 

D. Confusion between the soft and hard sounds of the letter g. 

E. Habit of too rapid oral reading resulting in excess number of 
repetitions and additions of sounds. 

F. Inadequate number of sight words in the reading vocabulary. 

II. Books used. 

A. Good Companions — Book 3. 

B. New Winston— Book 3. 

C. Practice Exercises in Reading — Book III Type D. Gates- 

D. Child Story Reader— Book 4. 

III. Types of practice. 

A. Kinaesthetic practice on all words incorrectly read during 
the oral reading. 

B. Silent reading of story preparatory to answering questions on 
the content. Exact passages were required to be read answering 
the questions. 

C. Matching of pairs of words among others similar. The child 
was asked to underline the word among the four words at the 
right which was exactly like the word in the first column. For 









D. Selecting answers to questions (multiple choice) containing 
words which had been misread during several reading periods. 

E. Classifying separate pictures on cards in order to distinguish 
between long and short vowel sounds as : — 

Picture of a balloon. Child says, ''Balloon, bal-loon, ba." 
Then puts on the pile for short a sounds. 

Note : Initial sounds only are used in this exercise. 

F. Reviewing all words miscalled during a period of time by 
reading through the list and checking those read correctly the 
first time. 

G. Reading silently in order to follow specific directions. 

IV. Recommendations at the close of this period of instruction. 

A. Stress silent reading with occasional practice in oral reading 
since the percent of lines read correctly averages around 85%. 

Psychologist's Records 


B. Give practice in independent study of words by dividing words 
into syllables. 

C. Encourage the reading of easy material so that more and more 
self confidence will result. 


Anderson, C. S. and Merton, Eeda 

"Remedial Work in Reading," Elementary School Journal, May and June 

Arthur, Grace 

"An Attempt to Sort Children with Specific Reading Disability from Other 
Non-Readers," Journal of Applied Psychology, XI (August 1927), 251-263. 

Baker, Harry J. 

"Educational Disability and Case Studies in Remedial Teaching." Bloomington, 
Illinois: Public School Publishing Co., 1929, Pp. x-172. 

Bedwell, R. L. 

"Improvement of Reading in the Public Schools." George Peabody College 
for Teachers, Nashville, Tenn. 1929, p. 101. 

548 National College of Education 

Brueckner, Leo J., and Melby, Ernest O. 

"Diagnostic and Remedial Teaching." Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1931, 
Pp. xviii-598. 

Carter, H. L. 

"Disabilities in Reading," Elementary School Journal, Vol. 31. No. 2., October 

Clowes, Helen Coe 

"A Reading Clinic." Educational Research Bulletin (Ohio State Univ.) 
Vol. IX (May 14, 1930), 261-268. 

Clowes, Helen Coe 

"Measures Which Can Be Used in Kindergarten to Prevent Reading Dis- 
ability Cases," Childhood Education, Vol. VI, June 1930. 

Connecticut Board of Education 

"Remedial Measures for Reading Deficiencies : Eighteen Studies from Current 
Practice." Hartford, Conn: State Board of Education, 1931. pp. 64. 

Davis, Georgia 

"Procedures Effective in Improving Pupils of Poor Reading Ability in Regular 
Reading Classes," Elementary School Journal, Vol. XXXI, No. 5 (January 1931), 
p. 336-348. 

Dearborn, W. F. 

"Special Disability in Learning to Read." Eleventh Conference on Educa- 
tional Measurements, pp. 131-141 ; Bulletin of the School of Education, Indiana 
University, Vol. 1, No. 3, Bloomington, Indiana: School of Education, Indiana 
University, 1925. 

Dearborn, W. F. 

"The Nature of Special Abilities and Disabilities," School and Society, XXXI 
(May 10, 1930), p. 632-636. 

Dearborn, W. F. 

"Teaching Reading to Non-Readers," Elementary School Journal, Vol. XXX, 
No. 4. (Dec. 1929). 

Detraz, Julia 

"Reading Methods for Clinical Cases," Educational Research Bulletin (Ohio 
State University), IX (May 14, 1930), 269-272. 

Donovan, H. L. 

"Clinical Studies in Reading," Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. V. (March 
1928), No. 5. 

Dreis, Thelma A. 

"A Case in Remedial Reading," Elementary School Journal, XXXI, No. 4, 
(December 1930), pp. 292-301. 

Durrell, Donald D. 

"Reading Disability in the Intermediate Grades," Doctor's Thesis, 1930, Har- 
vard University, Cambridge, Mass. — 243 p. MS. 

Fernald, G. M. and Keller, H. 

"The Effect of Kinaesthetic Factors in the Development of Word Recognition 
in the Case of Non-Readers," Journal of Educational Research, No. 4, (1921) p. 

Ford, Charles A. 

"A Case of Congenital Word-Blindness Showing Its Social Implications," 
Psychological Clinic, XVII (May-June 1928), p. 73-84. 

Psychologist's Records 549 

Geiger, Ruth 

"A Study in Reading Diagnosis," Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 
VIII, June 1923, pp. 283-300. 

Gray, C. T. 

"Deficiencies in Reading Ability," D. C. Heath and Company, Boston; 1922. 

Gray, W. S. 

"Remedial Cases in Reading; Their Diagnosis and Treatment," Supplementary 
Educational Monographs, No. 22 (June 1922), p. 204. 

Gray, W. S. 

"The Diagnostic Study of an Individual Case in Reading," Elementary School 
Journal, XXI (1921) pp. 577-594. 

Gray, W. S. 

"Diagnostic and Remedial Steps in Reading," Journal of Educational Re- 
search, June 1921. 

Griffin, L. H. 

"A Plan of Remedial Instruction that Helps to Solve the Lock-Step Graded 
Classification of Elementary Schools," The Virginia Journal of Education, 
Vol. XXII, No. 9 (May 1929), p. 395-398. 

Hincks, Elizabeth M. 

"Disability in Reading and Its Relation to Personality," Harvard University 
Press, 1926. 


"Diagnostic and Remedial Steps in Reading," Journal of Educational Re- 
search, June 1921. 

Keller, Heeen Bass 

"The Teaching of Non-Readers," Third Yearbook of the Psychology and Edu- 
cational Research Division, pp. 52-60. School Publication No. 185. Los 
Angeles, California: Los Angeles City School District, 1929. 

Leeand, Bernice 

"Billy," Psychological Clinic, XVII (March 1928), p. 29-32. 

Levy, Florence A. 

"5A Reading Experiments," Contributions to Education, Vol. II, pp. 1-3 
(Edited by J. Carleton Bell and Ambrose L. Suhrie). Yonkers-on-Hudson, 
N. Y., World Book, 1928. 

Lord, E. E., Carmichael, L., Dearborn, W. F. 

"Special Disabilities in Learning to Read and Write," Harvard Monographs 
in Education, Whole No. 6., Cambridge, Mass. Graduate School of Education, 
Harvard University, 1925. 

Martin, Almira M. 

"Kinaesthetic Factors in the Learning of Reading and Spelling," Master's 
Thesis, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111., 1930. 

Mary Grace, Sister 

"Diagnosis and Treatment of Six Problem Cases in Reading," Catholic Edu- 
cational Review XXV (Sept. 1927), pp. 392-412. 

McElwee, E. W. 

"A Study of Retardation and Special Instruction in Reading," Elementary 
School Journal, Vol. XXXII, No. 2 (October 1931), pp. 135-143. 

550 National College of Education 

McLeed, L. S. 

"The Influence of Increasing Difficulty of Reading Material upon Rate — 
Errors — Comprehension," Elementary School Journal, Vol. XVIII (March 

McMaster, Dale 

"Case Studies of Failing Pupils in Seventh Year Reading and Arithmetic," 
University of Pittsburgh School of Education Journal, Vol. V. (December 
1929), pp. 39-46. 

Meriam, J. L. 

"Difficulties in Learning to Read," Childhood Education, Vol. VIII, No. 1. 
(September 1931), pp. 29-35. 

Miles, W. R. 

"Ocular Dominance Demonstrated by Unconscious Sighting," Journal of Ex- 
perimental Psychology, XII (1929), pp. 113-126. 

Monroe, M. 

"Methods for Diagnosis and Treatment of Cases of Reading Disability," 
Genetic Psychology Monographs, Vol. IV (October-November 1928), Nos. 4 
and 5. 

Monroe, M. 

"Suggestions for Remedial Instruction in Reading," Institute for Juvenile Re- 
search, Chicago, 111. 

Monroe, M. 

"Children Who Cannot Read," University of Chicago Press, 1932. 

Morrison, Arthur F. 

"The Improvement of Instruction in Reading through Diagnostic and Remedial 
Measures," Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Education, University 
of Chicago, 1924. 

Newell, Nancy 

"For Non-Readers in Distress," Elementary School Journal, Vol. XXXII, 
No. 3 (Nov. 1931), pp. 183-195. 

Oates, D. W. 

"Left-handedness in Relation to Speech Defects, Intelligence and Achieve- 
ment," Forum of Education, Vol. 7 (1929), pp. 91-105. 

Orton, S. T. 

"Familiar Occurrence of Disorders in the Acquisition of Language," Eugenics, 
April 1930. 

Orton, S. T. 

"A Physiological Theory of Reading Disability and Stuttering in Children," 
New England Journal of Medicine, Nov. 1928, pp. 1046-1052. 

Orton, S. T. 

"The Neurological Basis of Elementary Education," Archives of Neurology 
and Psychiatry, March 21, 1929, pp. 641-646. 

Orton, S. T. 

"Word Blindness in School Children," Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 
Vol. 14 (1925), pp. 581-615. 

Otto, H. J. 

"Remedial Instruction in Reading," Elementary School Journal, Vol. XXVIII, 
No. 5 (Jan. 1928), pp. 353-361. 

Psychologist's Records 551 


"Congenital Word Blindness or Inability to Learn to Read," Elementary 
School Journal, Vol. XVIII, No. 9 (May- June 1918). 

Selzer, C. A. 

"A Study of Lateral Dominance and Visual Fusion," Unpublished Doctor's 
Thesis, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University, 1929. 

Shields, James M. 

"Teaching Reading Through Ability Grouping." Journal of Educational 
Method, Sept.-Oct, 1927. pp. 7-10. 

Stone, Clarence R. 

"A Non-Reader Learns to Read." Elementary School Journal, Vol. XXX, 
(October 1929), pp. 142-146. 

Sultzer, Mary F. 

"Remedial Measures," Journal of the National Education Association, XIX 
(February 1930), 43-44. 


"Diagnosis and Treatment of Young School Failures," Government Printing 
Office Bulletin No. 1, Washington, D. C, 1923. Bureau of Education, Depart- 
ment of Interior. 

Zirbes, L. 

"Attacking the Causes of Reading Deficiency," Teachers College Record, Vol. 
XXXI (June 1925). 

Zirbes, L. 

"Diagnostic Measurement as a Basis for Procedure," Elementary School 
Journal, Vol. XVIII, March 1918, pp. 505-522. 

Note : Books on general methods in the teaching of reading are included in the 
Bibliography for Teachers following this section. 



Book, William F. 

"How a Special Disability in Spelling was Diagnosed and Corrected," Journal 
of Applied Psychology, Vol. XIII (August 1929), pp. 378-393. 

Book, William F. and Harter, Richards 

"Mistakes which Pupils Make in Spelling," Journal of Educational Research, 
XIX (February 1929), pp. 106-118. 

Bronner, A. 

"The Psychology of Special Abilities and Disabilities," Boston, Little, Brown 
and Company, 1917. 

Brueckner, Leo J. and Melby, Ernest O. 

"Diagnostic and Remedial Teaching," Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1931, Chap. X., 
pp. 380-408. 

Carroll, Herbert A. 

"Generalization of Bright and Dull Children : a Comparative Study with Special 
Reference to Spelling," Doctor's Thesis, 1930, Teachers College, Columbia 
University; Contributions to Education, No. 439. 

552 National College of Education 

Coleman, William H. 

"A Critique of Spelling Investigation," Colorado State Teachers College Edu- 
cation Series, No. 12, Greeley, Colorado: Colorado State Teachers College, 
1931, pp. X-120. 

Davis, G. 

"Remedial Work in Spelling," Elementary School Journal, Vol. 27, (April 
1927), pp. 615-626. 

Floyd, Hazel. 

"Cases of Spelling Disability : Their Diagnosis and Treatment," Unpublished 
Master's Thesis, Department of Education, University of Chicago, 1925. 

Foran, T. G. and Rock, R. T. 

"An Annotated Bibliography of Studies Relating to Spelling," Supplement No. 
1, Washington, D. C, Catholic Education Press, 1930: Catholic University of 
America, Educational Research Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 1 (Jan. 1930). 

Gates, A. I. 

"The Psychology of Reading and Spelling," Teachers College, Columbia Uni- 
versity, Contributions to Education, No. 129, 1922. 

Guller, W. S. 

"Improving Ability in Spelling," Elementary School Journal, Vol. 30 (April 
1930), pp. 594-603. 


"The Psychology of Special Disability in Spelling," Teachers College Contri- 
bution to Education, No. 88, New York ; Teachers College, Columbia Univer- 
sity. 1918. 

Horn, E. 

"The Influence of Past Experiences upon Spelling," Journal of Educational 
Research, Vol. 19, No. 4, April, 1929, pp. 283-288. 

Horn, Ernest, and Ashbaugh, Ernest J. 

"Fundamentals of Spelling," J. B. Lippincott Company, Phil. 1928, pp. 148. 

Kline, L. W. 

"A Study in the Psychology of Spelling," Journal of Educational Psychology, 
Vol. Ill, pp. 381-406. 

Masters, Harry V. 

"A Study of Spelling Errors," Studies in Education, Vol. 4, No. 4; College 
of Education, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, 1927. 

Mearns, Hughes. 

"A Report on a Specific Spelling Situation," Teachers College Record, XXVI, 
pp. 220-229. 1924. 

Mendenhall, James E. 

"An Analysis of Spelling Errors, a Study of Factors Associated with Word 
Difficulty," Doctor's Thesis, 1930, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1930, 
Bureau of Publications. 

Miller, Helen, Courtis, S. A. and Walters, G. 

"Creative Teaching in the Field of Spelling," A Manual of Instruction, Des 
Moines, Iowa : Wallace Publishing Co., 1931, pp. X-134. 

Moscrip, Ruth. 

"Meeting Individual Differences in Spelling Ability," Elementarv English Re- 
view, IV (1927) pp. 172-173. 

Psychologist's Records 553 

Orton, S. T. 

"Special Disability in Spelling," Bulletin of the Neurological Institute of New 
York, Vol. I, No. 2, June 1931. 

Otto, Henry J. 

"Instruction in Spelling," Elementary School Journal, Vol. XXVIII, No. 10 
(June 1928) pp. 743-747. 

Sartorius, Ina C. 

"Generalization in Spelling: a Study of Various Bases of Generalization in 
Teaching Spelling," Teacher's College Contributions to Education, No. 472. 
New York: Teacher's College, Columbia University (1931) pp. VIII-66. 

Sisters M. Irmina, O.S.B., M. et al. 

"An Annotated Bibliography of Studies Relating to Spelling," Educational 
Research Bulletin, Vol III, No. 1, The Catholic University of America, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 1928. 

Smith, R. 
"The Value of Spelling Rules," Greeley, Colorado, State Teachers College, 
1931, Master's Thesis. 

Thompson, Robert S. 

"The Effectiveness of Modern Spelling Instruction," New York : Teachers Col- 
lege, Columbia University, Contributions to Education, No. 436. 

Thorndike, Edward L. 

"Teacher's Word-Book of 2000 Words," New York City, Bureau of Publi- 
cations, Teachers College, Columbia University, (1931) p. 182. 

Witmer, Lightner. 

"A Case of Chronic Bad Spelling," Psychological Clinic, V-l (1907), pp. 53-64. 

Witty, P. A. 

"Diagnosis and Remedial Treatment of Poor Spellers," Journal of Educational 
Research, Vol. XIII, pp. 39-44. January 1926. 

Wyckoff, Adelaide E. 

"Constitutional Bad Spellers," Pedagogical Seminary, 11 (1892), pp. 148-151. 

Zyre, Claire T. 

"An Experimental Study of Spelling Methods," Teachers College Contributions 
to Education, No. 466, New York : Teachers College, Columbia University 
(1931), pp. VI-86. 

Note : Books on general methods in the teaching of spelling are included in the 
Bibliography for Teachers following this section. 

Bibliography for Teachers 

Curriculum and General Methods 

Bobbitt, Franklin 

Bonser, F. G. 

Burton, William H. 

Charters, W. W.