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National College of Education 

Curriculum Records 
of the Children's School 



Clara Belle Baker, Director of the Children's School 
David W. Russell, Assistant Director 
Louise Farwell Davis, Director of Research 
Sara Loffler Black James Griggs 
Arthur Witt Blair Edith Maddox 

Maurine Bredeson Margaret McPherson 

Lynn E. Brown, Jr. Jean Rumry 
Miriam Brubaker Alida Shinn 

Anne De Blois Elizabeth Springstun 

Edith Ford Dorothy Weller 

Violet Rush Geiger Nellie Ball Whttaker 

Miriam Wiggenhorn 

Bureau of Publications 


Copyright, 1940, by 
National College of Education 

All Rights Reserved 



THE Children's School of the National College of Education 
was established in 1926, for the purpose of studying and guid- 
ing the development of boys and girls from the nursery school to 
the high school period. The school includes the six elementary 
grades, a nursery school for children two and three years of age, a 
junior kindergarten for four-year-olds, and a senior kindergarten 
for five-year-olds. Boys and girls completing the sixth grade enter 
the junior high school of National College of Education. 

The children come for the most part from the homes of teachers, 
physicians, and other professional people who are keenly interested 
in the problems of education. The National College of Education 
conducts courses for parents, and the Children's School sponsors a 
program of activities in which teachers and parents cooperate. The 
school is organized for demonstration and informal investigation. 
Each group is under the direction of an experienced teacher, who 
is assisted by two or more senior students. 

The attack on curriculum problems has been experimental. 
Teachers have made use of children's spontaneous interests in de- 
veloping projects, and have also initiated enterprises, observing 
and recording pupil responses. Group and individual records of 
progress have been made, and checks have been used in the form 
of educational tests and informal rating sheets. A careful study of 
each child's development is made by the room teacher, with the 
help of physician, psychologist, and a staff of specialists. 

Members of the staff have worked together to formulate certain 
aims and principles for creative curriculum-making, to collect 
source material for children's enterprises, to build a bibliography 
for both teachers and pupils, and to organize certain forms for 
recording units of experience and also for recording group and 
individual progress in various types of activities. 

This volume of records is presented in the hope that it may be 
helpful to other schools engaged in the adventure of creative 
curriculum making. 


Indebtedness is acknowledged to several groups who have given 
aid in the preparation of this volume: for helpful suggestions con- 
cerning certain phases of curriculum making and record keeping, 
to Edna Dean Baker, Laura Hooper, Harriet Howard, Frances Kern 
and Caroline Crawford McLean, of the staff of National College 
of Education; for aid in developing children's enterprises and in 
recording progress of individual children, to Viggo Bovbjerg, 
George Wilson, Martha Fink, Nellie MacLennan, Ruth Wendel- 
ken, Etta Mount, Mary H. Pope, M. D., specialists on the staff of 
the Children' s School; for assistance in preparing bibliographies, 
to Clarence R. Graham, librarian of National College of Education, 
and to Marjorie Walker Davis, secretary to the director of the 
Children's School. 

The staff wishes also to acknowledge indebtedness to that larger 
group of philosophers, scientists, and creative teachers in American 
education who are doing so much at the present time to clarify 
our thinking and to inspire us all to greater effort. The names 
of many of these leaders are listed in the Bibliography for Teachers 
at the end of the book. 


ies Which Sup 


Some General Aims and Principles . 
Source Material for Curriculum Making 

Living in the Complete Modern Home 

Living in the Modern Community 

Activities Involved in the Arts and Industr 
port Home and Community . 

Experiences of Various Peoples in Adapting to Environ- 
ment . ......... 

Experiences Involved in the Discovery and Development of 
Our Own Country and Our Own Community 

Experiences Involved in the Development of the Modern 
World and the Contribution of Certain Peoples to Civ- 
ilization ......... 










Developing and Recording Group Enterprises 
Units of Experience in Kindergarten 

Raising Animal Families 

Traveling by Train .... 

Traveling by Boat .... 

Traveling in the Air .... 

Playing with the Leaves 

Helping the Birds .... 
Units of Experience in First Grade . 

Enjoying and Using Autumn Treasures 
" Creating an Autumn Festival 

Enjoying and Caring for Pets 

Using Cars and Filling Stations . 

Conducting a Post Office 

Conducting a Toy Store 
Units of Experience in Second Grade 

Living in a Trailer .... 

Developing a Harbor .... 

Carrying the Mail .... 

Developing Pottery and a Pottery Shop 

Living on a Farm ..... 

Creating a Garden and a Garden Market 














VI 11 


Units of Experience in Third Grade 
Conducting an Art Gallery . 
Traveling in Old and New Ways 
Visiting the Indians 
Visiting Mexico . 
Following Hobbies in Science 

Units of Experience in Fourth Grade 
Making a Trip Around the World 
How America Was Discovered and Explored 
How Chicago Grew from Wigwams to Skyscrapers 
Learning to Choose Healthful Lunches . 

Making a Star Observatory 

How Baby Chicks Are Developed .... 

Units of Experience in Fifth Grade .... 

What Other Sections of the United States Share with 

Chicago ...... 

How Chicago Obtains and Uses Iron . 

How Chicago Obtains and Uses Lumber 

Enjoying Playgrounds of the United States 

How New York Became Our Greatest City 

How the United States Moved West from New York to San 

Francisco .... 
Learning to Use and Control Water 

Units of Experience in Sixth Grade . 
Planning a Community 
How Architecture Has Developed 
What Is Our Heritage from the Middle Ages? 
What Has Modern Europe Contributed to the U 


Behind the News in China and Japan 
Sharing the Earth with Insects . 
Maintaining an Aquarium . 




•3 1 









21 1 








Arranging the Program . . . . . . . . 285 

The Changing Schedule, Provision for Individual Interests, 
Provision for Inter-class Assemblies, Provision for Use 
of Community Resources ...... 285 

Contents ix 


Arranging the Program— continued 

Daily Procedure in the Nursery School, Junior Kindergar- 
ten, Senior Kindergarten, First Grade, Second Grade . 296 
Tentative Weekly Program for Third Grade, Fourth Grade, 

Fifth Grade, Sixth Grade 303 

Sketches of Various Days 307 

Nursery School: A Day in September, A November Day, A 

Rainy Day in April . . . . . . 308 

Junior Kindergarten: An October Day, A Snowy Day in 

January, A Day in June 317 

Senior Kindergarten: A Day in December . . . .323 

First Grade: A Morning in March . . . . .328 

Second Grade: An October Day ...... 332 

Third Grade: A Tuesday in May ...... 335 

Fourth Grade: A Morning in November .... 338 

Fifth Grade: A Morning in the Summer Session . . . 341 
Sixth Grade: A Wednesday in April (including a descrip- 
tion of The National News) ...... 344 


Recording Progress in Terms of Specific Skills . . . 355 
English Records 

Development of Reading Readiness in the Kindergarten . 356 
Language and Literature Experience in the Senior Kinder- 
garten 358 

Provision for Language Progress in the Elementary Grades . 364 
Language, Writing and Spelling in First Grade, Second 
Grade, Third Grade, Fourth Grade, Fifth Grade, Sixth 

Grade 365 

Reading Records 

Provision for Reading Progress in the Elementary Grades . 409 
Reading and Literature in First Grade, Second Grade, Third 

Grade, Fourth Grade, Fifth Grade, Sixth Grade . . 411 
Arithmetic Records 

Development of Number Concepts in the Kindergarten . 466 
Number Experience in the Senior Kindergarten . . . 466 
Provision for Arithmetic Progress in the Elementary Grades . 47 1 
Arithmetic in the First Grade, Second Grade, Third Grade, 

Fourth Grade, Fifth Grade, Sixth Grade . . .472 



Meeting the Needs of the Individual . 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 

Relationship of Parents to the School . 

Child's Original Enrollment Record 

Initial Conference with Parents (Nursery School and 
Kindergarten) ........ 

Key and Typical Reports from Nursery School and Kinder- 
garten .......... 

Key and Typical Reports from Primary Grades . 
Key and Typical Reports from Intermediate Grades . 

Physician's Records 

Functions of the Health Department . 
Health History (Contributed by Parent and Family 
Physician) ........ 

Health Record (Kept by School Physician) . 
Physician's Report to Parents ..... 

Records of the Guidance Laboratory .... 

Personnel of the Laboratory, Description of the Laboratory 

Types of Tests Used, Major Responsibilities . 
Intelligence Tests and Personality Studies . 
Policies Related to Evaluation of Achievement and the Im 

provement of Learning ...... 

Standardized Achievement Tests, Achievement Test In 

ventory and Interpretation, Letters of Transfer, Indi 

vidual Profile Graphs ...... 

Reading Aptitude Tests, Positive Traits of Children Basic 

to Learning ........ 

Research Studies in Status and Improvement of Learning 
Summary Record of a Pupil Attending the School for Eight 

Years ......... 

Bibliography for Teachers 





55 6 



5 6 3 







Fr 07ii Photographs 

The School and Its Neighborhood . 

Thanksgiving Brings Fresh Gifts and Old Tales 

Chickens Are Amusing Friends . 

Service Is Good on this Train . 

The Wind Is North by East . 

Watching Mechanics Install a Motor in a Plane 

Bulbs Now and Tulips By and By . 

Young Rabbits Show Growth in Weight 

Hooded Rats Are Interesting . 

A Stop Is Made at the Filling Station . 

Gifts Are Exchanged Through the Post Office 

The Lake Tests Water Toys . 

A Trailer Family Meets Wood Folk 

New Boats Will Soon Be Launched 

Important Letters Are Posted 

It's Fun to Model ..... 

Pottery Is Produced to Sell . 

Mothers Are Good Customers 

Art Enriches Living ..... 

Old Time Vessels Reappear . 

Indian Arts Are Practiced 

Mexican Curios Stimulate Crafts . 

Experiments Prove Interesting Facts . 

Crew of Santa Maria Sights Land . 

Fort Dearborn Protects Early Settlers . 

Cooking Stimulates Wholesome Appetites 

A Picnic Is Enjoyed at the Campus Fireplace 

School Telescope Is Investigated . 

Observatory Shows Mysteries of the Sky 

An Incubator Requires Scientific Care . 

A Jig-Saw Puzzle Map Intrigues Its Makers 

The Covered Wagon Spells Adventure . 

Temperature of Water Is Tested . 

Local Officers Become Teachers . 






1 10 







Sixth Graders Evaluate City's Fire Protection 

Neighborhood Airport Is Approved . 

Jean Is Made Knight of the Cathedral . 

Each Contributes to World's Fair . 

Notes Are Taken on Radio Travel Talks 

Water Creatures Fascinate . 

Individual Interests ..... 

Camera Club Develops and Enlarges Photograpi 

Dressing Is a Big Task .... 

Pets Are Fed Each Morning . 

Logs and Boxes Prevent Unemployment . 

Soap Bubbles Are Enjoyed on Rainy Days 

The Pony Is a Favorite at the Farm . 

Snow Brings Jolly Fun .... 

Home-Making Consumes Much Time . 

Rhythm Instruments Add to Joy in Music 

Summer School Brings Water Play 

Boys Develop Skill in Baseball 

Sixth Grade Publishes a Newspaper 

Stories and Pictures Provide Stimulus for Conversation 

Language and Art Join Hands in Creating a Play 

Puppets Show School Courtesies . 

Drama Develops Language Powers 

A Radio Broadcast Is Presented . 

Children Share Vacation Trips . 

It Is Fun to Read 

Getting Acquainted with the Library . 

The Library Leads to New Adventure . 

First Aid to Librarians .... 

Facts from Reading Are Used in Writing and Art 

Buying Is Enthusiastic at Play Time . 

Scales Show Satisfactory Gains . 

Balancing Prices and Vitamins 

Study of Temperature and Humidity Affords Problems 

Managing the National News Involves Mathematics . 


Teachers' Guides 


Far off the Fairy Horns are blowing 
Through the morning, through the dew 
Above the emerald green and blue 
The windy clouds are white and new. 
We'll carry through this windy morn 
Hearts fit to meet the Fairy Horn. 

£. G. (age ten) 

Children's School. 


THE school shares the belief that a chief purpose of the cur- 
riculum is to habituate the children to ways of living that are 
satisfying and worth while now and that will lead them into rich 
and productive living as they grow more mature. With this purpose 
in view, the school wishes for the individual these attainments, 
which should grow gradually from year to year: 

1. Such development and integration of personality as can come 
only through the individual's active and enthusiastic response to 
a challenging yet flexible curriculum and standards of achieve- 

2. An understanding of the important activities of the home 
and the community and of the arts and industries which support 
the home and the community, and also the significant experiences 
of the race, the nation and the modern world, in so far as these 
influence or explain present ways of living and trends of creative 

3. The ability to think constructively, to evaluate, compare and 
form sane judgments, developed through a curriculum that pre- 
sents unanswered questions and unsolved problems and encourages 
research, experiment and discussion. 

4. The habit of working purposefully toward a goal with the 
recognition of the need for added knowledge and skill emerging 
in the effort. 

5. The mastery of essential skills and techniques (such as read- 
ing, arithmetic, spelling) with the aid of scientific data now avail- 
able, and with the stimulus of practical application. 

6. A readiness to participate in worthy social living, cultivated 
by actual contacts and experiences with the institutions of real 
life and a continuance of such experiences through a variety of life- 
like activities in the school. 

7. A recognition that the social order is continually changing, 
and a willingness to participate in building a better school and a 
better community. 

. . 3 

4 National College oj Education 

8. Such social attitudes or traits that the individual can make 
the best possible use of his own powers and can enter into the full- 
est cooperation with other people. 

9. The development of power to understand and appreciate the 
artistic resources of our race inheritance and of the present age, 
in art, literature, music, and related fields. 

10. The urge to create art forms that represent the individual's 
finest skill and his own evaluation of the meaning of experience. 

11. Through these experiences and through the practice of de- 
sirable health habits, such physical development that the body 
becomes the finest possible instrument for expression. 

With these aims in view the school seeks to provide for the chil- 
dren a program of dynamic living. In such a program there is a con- 
tinuous stream of experiences and enterprises which are real and 
vital to the children, and therefore challenge their wholehearted 
effort. Information is gained through the study of real problems, 
and practice in the mastery of skills is provided as there is readiness 
on the part of the child. 

Since education has a responsibility both for guiding the de- 
veloping life of the child and also for molding the future of society, 
the experiences and enterprises in which the children engage can 
not be left entirely to chance. Rather the teachers as they work with 
their groups must guide in the selection of activities which will 
bring to the children all desirable forms of experience, and at the 
same time provide the true conditions for effective learning. Con- 
ditions for learning are most favorable when the children enter 
into all experiences freely and joyously. 

In this volume, the familiar phrase "unit of work" has been 
omitted as it has been widely used to refer either to an extended 
lesson plan in a particular subject, or to a complex correlation of 
activities around a topic selected by the curriculum maker. The 
"unit of experience" described in the present volume has been de- 
fined by the authors as "any series of activities and experiences oc- 
curring is the pursuit of a vital interest or purpose by an individual 
or a group." The terms "enterprise," "project," and "study of a 
problem" are all used at times in referring to such units of ex- 


IN CREATING a curriculum, it seems desirable that teachers 
should have some guide further than the interests of the children 
in the group. What constitutes valuable curriculum material for the 
present decade? Many methods of approach to this problem are 
being made; and the "source material" here presented suggests one 
possible method of approach. If the purpose of the curriculum is to 
habituate the children to ways of living that are satisfying and worth 
while, then it is important that they become familiar with de- 
sirable ways of living in the modern home and community and 
also that they understand ways of living in other parts of the world 
and in earlier times, in so far as these explain or interpret their own 

The outline which follows lists significant experiences or activi- 
ties of the well-equipped modern home and community, and of the 
arts and industries that support the home and the community. It 
also lists experiences of the race, the nation and the modern world, 
which help to explain present-day activities and to shape present 
trends of creative thinking. These experiences involve meanings, 
appreciations, habits and skills which must have worth for educa- 

The outline provides "source material" for curriculum making 
in all grades of the elementary school. It not only integrates history, 
geography and civics, and provides material for a program in the 
social studies, but also suggests activities in the sciences and in all 
the arts. 

While the outline includes much more material than could be 
covered in any one year in any one school, it has given to teachers 
perspective in formulating problems with the children. The selec- 
tion and development of units of study in this school over a period 
of years tend to show that the most valuable and interesting studies 
throughout the elementary school are those that concern the child's 
own environment and provide opportunity for firsthand investiga- 
tion. Experiment has shown, however, that studies relating to 


G National College oj Education 

distant times and places may in middle and upper grades prove 
of high interest if action and adventure are involved and oppor- 
tunities are provided lor dramatic play, and that such studies may 
prove valuable in helping the child to understand and enjoy our 
own heritage of song and story, science and art. Studies tracing 
the development of certain social customs from early times to the 
present, as the development of architecture, communication, trans- 
portation, and lighting, have also proved successful in developing 
understandings and appreciations. Choices of units of study by the 
children and teachers are highly desirable, since the curriculum 
is richer if many different types of projects are undertaken, and 
if enterprises vary in each grade from year to year. Thus boys and 
girls in each group may have an enriched experience through 
school assemblies and through observing exhibits and dramatiza- 
tions in other rooms. Opportunities for following individual as 
well as group interests should be provided. 

Much study of children's readiness for the various learnings listed 
in the following outlines has been made. Spontaneous interests in 
each group have been observed, and also children's responses to 
activities initiated by the teacher. The brief introductions to the 
different outlines indicate the age levels at which certain material 
has been found suitable. Problems related to the child's own 
environment are of vital interest and importance at all levels, 
since these can always be wholly or partly solved by firsthand in- 
vestigation. Older children are ready for more complex organiza- 
tion and more intense and prolonged study of the questions 
involved. Problems relating to remote periods and places may well 
be postponed until the child has developed sufficient reading ability 
to use the library and sufficient background of real experience to 
interpret what he finds in books and pictures. Actual units of study 
which have been chosen and developed by children and teachers 
at various afire levels are included in Part II. 

Living in the Complete Modern Home 

SINCE the school becomes the home of the children for many 
hours each day, home activities have a vital place in the school 
program. The school also seeks contacts with each child's real home 
and through parent education, endeavors to unify his experience in 
the school home and in the actual home. Because the modern home 
is often limited in space, materials and activities, it becomes in- 
creasingly necessary that the school supplement the home in pro- 
viding all desirable forms of experience. 

These activities begin in nursery school and kindergarten and 
continue with gradually expanding appreciations and skills through 
the elementary school. At times, the play house or doll house be- 
comes the scene of desirable experience. Again, the school room, 
the school building and school ground form the background for 
carrying on home activities. 

These include all the simple everyday acts that build the habits 
and attitudes, arts and skills, fundamental to good daily living. 

I. Providing and maintaining a house. 

i. Building the house. 

2. Decorating the house. 

3. Furnishing the house. 

4. Care of the house— order, cleanliness, careful usage. 

5. Improving the house in convenience and beauty. 

II. Living in the home. 

1. Provision and preparation of foods. 

2. Provision and use of suitable clothing. 

3. Development of proper health habits: diet, clothing, sleep, 
cleanliness, self-control. 

4. Development of proper attitudes toward self, family, events, 

5. Sharing of responsibilities among members of the family. 

III. Social life in the home. 

1. Entertainment of guests; planning parties. 

2. Participating in games. 

3. Visiting other people's homes. 

4. Writing letters and notes to friends; receiving letters. 


8 National College of Education 

IV. Reading in the home. 

i. Selection of books, magazines, papers. 

2. Reading silently for personal satisfaction, and to gain in- 
formation on specific problems. 

3. Reading aloud to children, older people, or for pleasure of 
family group. 

4. Listening to stories read or told. 

5. Discussion of books and articles read. 

V. Music in the home. 

1. Selection of musical instruments; as, piano, victrola, radio. 

2. Selection of music books and records. 

3. Listening to music for enjoyment. 

4. Reproducing or composing music for personal satisfaction 
and for pleasure of family and friends. 

VI. Creative work in language and art. 

1 . Providing materials for writing, drawing, painting, and other 

2. Providing and enjoying magazines, books, pictures, objects, 
that give inspiration and background for expression. 

3. Adding design and decoration in house furnishings and 

4. Writing and drawing to commemorate or interpret experi- 

5. Writing and drawing for publication or for other social 

VII. Plants and pets in the home. 

1 . Making a garden 

a. Selection of vegetables, flowers, shrubs, trees. 

b. Planting a garden. 

c. Care of garden. 

2. Attracting birds to garden. 

3. Contact with insects in garden. 

4. Use and care of flowers and plants in home decoration. 

5. Provision for pets. 

6. Care of pets. 

VIII. Adaptation to changing weather and seasons in the home. 

1. Studying causes and signs of changes in weather and seasons. 

2. Reading thermometer and hygrometer. 

3. Adapting clothing and food to weather conditions. 

Source Material for Curriculum Making 9 

4. Enjoying sports for different seasons. 

5. Noting effect of weather and seasons on plants and animals 
in garden. Providing protection and care as needed. 

IX. Use of time in the home. 

• 1. Recognition of the divisions of time, and scientific reasons. 

2. Telling time by natural phenomena: sun, moon, stars. 

3. Telling time by instruments: hourglass, sundial, clock, cal- 

4. Planning wise use of time, with consideration of physical 

5. Making records and reminders: time schedule, date book, 
calendar, diary. 

6. Using time so that all responsibilities are discharged 
promptly and all appointments kept punctually. 

X. Celebration of festivals in the home. 

1. Searching for the meaning of each festival. 

2. Continuing old traditions— jack-o'-lantern, Christmas trees, 
valentines, May baskets, birthday candles. 

3. Enjoyment of the traditional art forms in song, story, pic- 
ture, costume, decoration. 

4. Expressing the meaning of the festival through creative 

5. Cooperating with a group in the school, church, or neighbor- 
hood in a creative art expression of the meaning of the 

XI. Thrift in the home. 

1. Careful spending of money to secure the greatest possible 

2. Saving for worthy purposes. 

3. Generous use of whatever is available to make living most 
worth while. 

4. Avoidance of unnecessary waste. 

5. Conservation by careful usage, making needed repairs and 

Living in the Modern Community 

THE school is itself a small community, and many community 
activities are carried forward within the school. The school 
also develops contacts with the larger community, helping the chil- 
dren to learn its institutions and share with increasing understand- 
ing the responsibilities and privileges of citizenship. 

Experiences in certain phases of community activity are provided 
in nursery school and kindergarten, and these experiences are en- 
larged in first and second and later grades. The historical develop- 
ment of the community and its institutions has been studied in the 
intermediate grades. A study of community planning has been of 
vital interest in the upper grades. 

I. Buying and selling. 

1. Construction and furnishing of shops; as, clothing, grocery, 
florist, toy shop, gift shop, book shop, pottery shop, garden 

v. Providing capital and securing the initial stock. 

3. Organization into departments. 

4. Obtaining and arranging supplies, goods for sale. 

5. Decorating and displaying wares attractively. 

6. Making inventories. 

7. Handling of money: fixing prices, making change, making 
bills, keeping accounts. 

8. Advertising by means of newspapers, posters, dodgers. 

9. Cooperating with all engaged in the enterprise: owner, man- 
ager, salesperson, cashier, floorman. 

II. Transportation in the community. 

1. Obtaining vehicles for family or community use. 

2. Assembling and repairing vehicles— providing fuel and oil. 

3. Operating vehicles: 

a. Cars for family use. 

b. Delivery wagons, trucks, freight cars and boats, for trans- 
portation of supplies. 

c. Buses, trains, boats, airplanes, streetcars, for carrying pas- 

4. Training officers and mechanics for operating conveyances. 

5. Providing for comfort and pleasure of passengers on long 
trips: food, sleep, entertainment, communication. 


Source Material for Curriculum Making 1 1 

6. Providing stopping and starting points for vehicles: garages, 
car barns, hangars, stations, yards, docks. 

7. Developing traffic regulations and safety rules— insuring 
against accidents. 

8. Financing public transportation. 

III. Public service. 

1. Organization of institutions to meet needs: 
Education— School, library, church, summer camp. 
Communication— Newspaper, printing shop, post office, tele- 
phone, telegraph, radio. 

Health— Medical and dental offices, hospital, health depart- 

Sanitation and Comfort— Filtration plant, street cleaning, 
light and fuel plants, drainage. 

Protection— Police department, fire department, military 
camp, lighthouse, lifesaving station. ' 
Government and Finance— Town assembly, law court, bank. 

2. Providing suitable buildings and equipment. 

3. Choosing officers and dividing responsibilities. 

4. Enlisting cooperation of citizens. 

5. Studying to improve quality of service. 

6. Keeping records of activities. 

7. Financing these institutions. 

IV. Recreation. 

1. Organization of centers: 

Sports— Bathing beach, swimming or wading pool, skating 
rink, golf course, tennis court, stadium for games, play- 
ground, toboggan. 

Arts— Art gallery, museum, theatre, motion picture theatre, 
concert hall, bandstand, circus, broadcasting studio. 
Exliibits— Fair, baby show, flower show, stock show, pet 
show, automobile show, aviation show, parade. 

2. Providing buildings and equipment. 

3. Securing contributions of artists, coaches, directors, work- 

4. Creating new art forms for public enjoyment. 

5. Arranging programs, guidebooks, sporting events. 

6. Participating as actor or audience. 

7. Working to improve skill as performer or participant. 

8. Evaluating and discriminating in choice of recreations. 

9. Securing funds to support public recreation (enters. 

12 National College of Education 

10. Securing funds through benefit entertainments to support 
other worthy projects. 

V. Opportunities for study of nature. 

1. Setting aside of centers: forest preserve, park, lake or pool, 
conservatory, zoo, birdhouse, aquarium, observatory, plane- 

2. Preserving and introducing interesting varieties of plants, 
animals, rocks, shells. 

3. Providing conditions and care for growth and propagation. 

4. Observing habits and characteristics of plants and animals. 

5. Sketching, photographing and recording interesting phases 
of plant and animal life, earth formation, and astral bodies. 

6. Safeguarding natural resources while enjoying these experi- 

7. Securing funds for enlarging such opportunities in the com- 

VI. Improving the community in convenience and beauty. 

1. Zoning for residence, business and factory areas and for 

2. Laying out and widening streets and boulevards; building 
bridges and subways. 

3. Beautifying streets and parks with trees, plants, fountains, 

4. Removing any unnecessary sources of ugliness or untidi- 

Activities Involved in the Arts and Industries 
which Support Home and Community 

KINDERGARTEN, first and second grade children often wish 
to investigate the industries that are carried on in the com- 
munity or nearby. Unusual interest is shown in all phases of trans- 
portation. The study of the farm has proved successful when actual 
farm activities could be observed and could be carried on at school. 
Children of the intermediate grades have traced to their sources 
some of the materials and products which we use daily, and have 
studied the development of certain modern industries from early 
times to the present. 

I. Providing food. 

1. Maintenance of sources of food supply— truck farm, fruit 
grove, poultry and cattle ranches, fishery, grain farms, sugar 
plantation, dairy farm. 

2. Adapting production to natural conditions; as, climate, soil. 

3. Studying plants and animals— their habits and development. 

4. Developing methods of culture, propagation, using machines. 

5. Studying birds and insects which help or hinder food produc- 

6. Keeping records and spreading information concerning plant 
and animal culture. 

7. Studying the cycle of seasons in the country, what each 
season brings in beauty and in produce— interpretation of 
the seasons in art, music and literature. 

8. Provision for workers in these situations— their duties and 
recreations, songs and stories. 

9. Preparation of food stuffs for market— cannery, mill, factory. 
. io. Transportation and marketing of food stuffs. 

II. Providing clothing. 

1. Maintenance of sources of supply— sheep ranch, cotton plan- 
tation, fur farm, raising of silkworms, mining for silver, 
gold, jewels. 

2. Adapting labor to natural resources and limitations. 

3. Studying to improve amount and quality of production. 

4. Keeping records and preparing books and magazines for 
spread of information. 


i.j National College of Education 

5. Originating and improving processes of making cloth— weav- 
ing, dyeing; use of machinery. 

6. Making jewelry: metalwork, cutting gems. 

7. Making of clothing with help of designers, dressmakers, 
tailors, factory workers. 

8. Development of fashions, styles, and patterns. 

9. Financing business enterprises. 

III. Providing buildings, tools, utensils. 

1. Preparation of materials— lumber, glass, steel, stone, brick, 
plaster, china, tile, cement, rubber, paper. 

2. Adventures of workers in contact with nature— forest, mine, 

3. Developing processes of molding and beautifying raw ma- 
terials—mill, kiln, pottery. 

,j. Making of plans and designs by architects, artists. 

5. Practical construction by contractors, mechanics, artisans. 

(3. Financing building enterprises. 

7. Preparation of books and magazines containing information 
and creative suggestions for building and decorating. 

8. Studying to conserve and extend natural resources. 

IV. Providing transportation. 

jl. Engineering of railroads, bridges, tunnels, roads, canals. 

2. Construction of boats, trains, automobiles, airplanes. 

3. Originating and improving means of locomotion. 

4. Training of workers in technique of handling vehicles. 

5. Adventures of those who control and use vehicles. 

6. Making records of experiments and achievements. 

7. Financing the production and running of vehicles. 

V. Providing light and power. 

j. Experimenting with the forces of nature,— water, coal, oil, 
gas, steam, electricity, radio. 

2. Harnessing natural forces to provide light and power. 

3. Adventures of pioneers— discovery and mastery of these 

4. Originating and improving machinery for various indus- 

5. Keeping records and spreading information on science and 

(5. Conserving natural resources. 

Experiences of Various Peoples in 
Adapting to Environment 

THROUGH their own vacation experiences and through hear- 
ing travel stories from parents and friends, children have be- 
come interested in studying living conditions in other parts of the 
world. Home and community life under varying environmental 
conditions has proved a fascinating study in the middle grades. 
One fourth grade group enjoyed an imaginary trip around the 

I. Types of environment to which simple independent peoples have 

1. Cold climates. 

2. Hot climates— deserts, jungles, volcanic regions. 

3. Temperate climates— mountains, lowlands, seaside, forest. 

II. Providing shelter, tools and utensils. 

1. Seeking protection from natural discomforts, dangers, diffi- 
culties inherent in the geographic situation: cold, heat, 
storms, earthquakes, wild beasts. 

2. Discovery of available materials and forces in the environ- 
ment: clay, ice, snow, reeds, skins, bones, wood, stone, fire. 

3. Experimenting with materials and adapting to meet needs 
peculiar to locality. 

.{. Adventures in overcoming obstacles and dangers. 
5. Improving types of construction. 

Til. Providing food. 

1. Discovering edible plant and animal foods in the environ- 

2. Devising means of securing foods— hunting, trapping, fish- 
ing, digging, gathering. 

3. Adventures in hunting and foraging. 

4. Discovering ways and means of preparing foods. 

5. Domesticating plants and animals as food supply. 

6. Developing methods of culture and propagation suited to 
the environment: clearing, draining, irrigation, building 

. J 5 

i6 National College of Education 

IV. Providing clothing. 

i. Seeking bodily protection from changing weather conditions; 
also seeking personal adornment. 

2. Discovering and using available materials in the environ- 
ment-skins, foliage, grasses, leathers; also teeth, bones, shells, 
berries, minerals, and precious stones. 

3. Systematic hunting, trapping or raising of animals; also 
the raising of certain plants as clothing supply. 

4. Originating and improving processes of making clothing and 
ornament— weaving, dyeing, sewing, metalwork. 

5. Developing costumes suited to the environment and occupa- 
tions of the people, and reflecting racial characteristics. 

V. Development of transportation. 

1. Migrating because of changes in climatic conditions or ex- 
haustion of local resources. 

2. Seeking easier ways of bearing burdens and quicker means 
of travel. 

3. Devising and developing receptacles and vehicles for carry- 
ing burdens and for traveling on water and land: vehicles 
carried, drawn or pushed by men, vehicles drawn or borne 
by animals, vehicles or vessels propelled by natural forces; 
as, water, wind. 

4. Improving natural trails by marking, removing obstacles, 
shortening, leveling, bridging, dredging. 

5. Adventures in learning to control and use beasts and vehicles 
on land and water. 

6. Devising instruments to guide travel; as, maps, compass. 

7. Explorations and discoveries. 

VI. Developing social organization. 

i. Forming groups for defense and for supply of needs: family, 
tribe, clan, village, state. 

2. Developing traditions, customs, mores, laws, for regulating 
social interaction; as, trade, property, government, conserva- 
tion of resources. 

3. Developing ceremonials for the celebration of noteworthy 

4. Devising methods of exchanging goods— trade, barter, mone- 
tary system, with founding of trading centers; as, post, market, 

5. Building for common use— meeting hall, church, fort. 

Source Material for Curriculum Making 17 

VII. Developing communication and education. 

1 . Growth in use of speech and development of oral expression. 

2. Devising signs and signals for communication. 

3. Originating and improving forms of keeping and transmit- 
ting records: pictures, symbols, alphabet, figures, transcribed 
with suitable implements and materials. 

4. Growth in written expression and in book-making. 

5. Educating the young in traditions of the group and in its 
skills and arts. 

VIII. Expression through the arts. 

1. Seeking to express the meaning of experience through the 
various arts. 

2. Making pictures to commemorate significant experiences. 

3. Depicting detail in the environment through design and 
decoration in costumes and in household articles; as, pottery, 
baskets, rugs, blankets. 

4. Expressing values and meanings through architectural de- 

5. Creating and telling stories to commemorate interesting 
events, and to afford symbolic interpretation of experience— 
the crystallizing of many of these into permanent artistic 

G. Originating and using songs and dances to express emotions 
accompanying various experiences. 

7. Development of musical instruments for the accompaniment 
of song and dance. 

8. Originating and using games and sports to express exuber- 
ance of spirits and to develop skill in use of body. 

Experiences Involved in the Discovery and 

Development of Our Own Country 

and Our Own Community 

IN AN effort to understand our patriotic holidays, our American 
traditional stories and songs, the treasures of homespun days 
in our houses, the children have become curious about the de- 
velopment of life in America. In fourth and fifth grades studies 
have been made of pioneer days and the development of our own 
community and some other areas in the United States. A fuller 
study of the development of American culture has been made in 
the junior high school. 

I. Beginnings of our country. 

A. Discovery and settlement. 

i. Seeking a shorter route to the East. 

2. Discovering the western hemisphere. 

3. Exploration to gain wealth, adventure and glory. 

4. Surmounting natural barriers and obstacles: ocean, moun- 
tains, forests, lakes, rivers. 

5. Claiming the land in the name of the mother country. 

6. Planting forts, missions and trading posts. 

7. Founding colonies to better religious, social or economic 

8. Establishing contacts with the Indians and repelling hos- 
tile attacks. 

B. Life in colonial times. 

1. Importation of customs, traditions, and industrial proc- 
esses from the mother country. 

2. Adaptation of manner of living to the new environment- 
climate, topography, natural resources. 

3. Development of characteristic home life, arts, and indus- 
tries, local government, and forms of worship in each 
colonial group. 

4. Development of devices and materials for education, and 
extension of educational opportunity. 

5. Service of leaders in situations of need. 

6. Influences of the colonial period in modern American 

Source Material for Curriculum Making ig 

C. Growth into a nation. 

1. Expansion of English possessions in the new world, and 
corresponding spread of English civilization. 

2. Gradual growth of democratic ideas of government and 
consequent dissatisfaction with autocratic rule. 

3. Unification of the colonists under skillful leadership in 
the struggle for independence and in the establishment 
of a democracy. 

4. Winning of recognition and respect from other nations. 

II. Development of our own community. 

A. Founding the community. 

1. Early explorations in this section of the country. 

2. Contacts with local tribes of Indians. 

3. Discovering in this locality suitable geographic features 
for the meeting of certain needs; as lake, harbor, river, 
mineral deposits, fertility of soil. 

4. Building of explorers' huts, trading post, fort, mission. 

5. Settling of pioneers, traveling westward, seeking new 

6. Hardships endured in travel and in establishing homes. 

7. Solution of early problems in gaining a livelihood and 
protecting the community in the new environment. 

B. Expansion and change in the community. 

1. Growth in population, due to the coming of immigrants 
from various parts of the world, attracted by commercial 
and industrial opportunities. 

2. Development of architecture to meet changing needs and 
altitudes of the people. 

3. Changes in transportation by land, water, air; inventions 
and improvements of vehicles; construction of bridges, 
roads, and railroads; building of railway stations, docks, 
and airports; influence of improved methods of trans- 
portation on growth of the city. 

4. Development of means of communication through ex- 
panding postal service, and through invention of tele- 
phone, telegraph, wireless, radio. 

5. Development of natural resources and changes in geo- 
graphic features; as, straightening the river, building the 
canal, deepening the harbor, "filling in" to increase avail- 
able land, leveling. 

6. Improvement and expansion of industry and commerce 

^o National College of Education 

through the application of growing scientific knowledge; 

the invention of machinery and the development of 

7. Changes in government as the community grows from a 
village into a city; provision for financing public utilities. 

8. Growing provision for the welfare and safety of the com- 
munity; water supply, sanitation, light and fuel supply, 
police and fire protection. 

9. Changes in education and growth in educational facilities. 

10. Development of institutions for the unfortunate; as, hos- 
pitals, settlements, homes for the needy. 

11. Increase in the standard of living and the amount of 
leisure, with consequent expansion of recreational facili- 
ties; as, parks, playgrounds, theatres, museums. 

12. Contributions of gifted citizens in art, music, literature, 

C. Looking forward. 

1. Recognition of possibilities for future growth in com- 
merce, industry, education, and other fields. 

2. Effort to solve the city's problems; as, traffic congestion, 
accidents, smoke, noise, ugliness and untidiness. 

3. Creative planning for a "city beautiful." 

III. Development of different sections of the country and their con- 
tributions: the South, the East, the Middle West, the Far West. 

A. Story of each section. 

1. Exploring and acquiring the territory. 

2. Settlement by people of various nationalities, attracted by 
natural resources and favorable geographic factors; as, 
climate, soil, topography, mineral deposits. 

3. Development of avenues of transportation; as, trails, 
roads, canals, railways, highways, air routes. 

4. Improvement of vehicles from early times to present; 
wagons, boats, automobiles, trains, airplanes. 

5. Adventures of pioneers in various fields of activity, in- 
fluencing expansion and growth. 

B. Modes of living and contributions of each section. 

1 . Utilization of climate, topography and soil in the produc- 
tion of typical crops; as, cotton, fruit, grain. 

2. Selecting and propagating animals suited to the region; as, 
sheep, bees, fish. 

Source Material for Curriculum Making 2 1 

3. Obtaining raw materials from regional sources of sup- 
ply: lumber, coal, iron, oil, tin, copper, zinc, gold, silver. 

4. Development of industries, transforming the raw prod- 
ucts of the section. 

5. Utilization of transportation facilities in importing and 
exporting raw products and manufactured goods. 

6. Use of power resources in the section and development 
of machinery. 

7. Conservation and extension of natural resources. 

8. Modes of living and characteristics of the people in- 
fluenced by climate, occupations and relative wealth. 

9. Growth of cities and reasons for this growth in geographic 
factors and type of service rendered. 

10. Expression of attitudes and appreciations in the arts: char- 
acteristic stories, songs, architecture, beauty in manu- 
factured products. 

C. Interdependence and interchange of ideas of people in differ- 
ent sections. 

1. Growing specialization and dependence of each region 
upon others for products. 

2. Constantly increasing ease and rapidity of communica- 
tion: mail service, telegraph, telephone, radio, daily 
papers, moving and talking pictures. 

3. Continued improvement of transportation facilities and 
growing use of these: national conventions, traveling 
business agencies, sight-seeing tours. 

4. Sharing and conserving the nation's playgrounds: ocean 
and lake resorts, national parks, scenic wonders. 

5. Sharing the benefits and responsibilities of national gov- 

6. Common responsibilities in helping to solve national 
problems; as, education, public health, taxation, coopera- 
tion with law. 

Experiences Involved in the Development of 

the Modern World and the Contribution 

of Certain Peoples to Civilization 

IN THE upper grades, boys and girls have shown a growing in- 
terest in current events, with which they have become ac- 
quainted through the radio, daily and weekly newspapers, news 
reels in motion picture programs, and discussions in their homes. 
This interest has led to a desire to learn more about certain foreign 
countries and their relations to our country and to one another. 
At the sixth grade level and in junior high school some countries 
have been chosen for detailed study, with stress upon their con- 
tribution to our own civilization. 

I. Various continents and countries that have influenced modern 

1. Countries or city-states famous for early contributions to 
present civilization; as, Egypt, Palestine, Greece, Rome, 

2. Countries that have exercised leadership in medieval and 
modern times; as, Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, 
Spain, Japan, Russia. 

3. Younger countries that are at present contributing; as, Can- 
ada, Mexico, South American countries. 

II. Story of the country. 

1. Influence of natural conditions and resources upon develop 
ment: location, climate, topography, soil, mineral resources. 

2. Characteristics of people as determined by ancestral back- 
ground and environment. 

3. Exploits of heroes in dramatic incidents or episodes. 

4. Activities of great leaders and their influence in shaping 

5. Changes in occupations and modes of living at different 

III. Economic contributions. 

i. Raising crops and animal products peculiar to that region; 
as, flax, coffee, rubber, rice. 


Source Material for Curriculum Making 23 

2. Mining and quarrying of minerals and stones; as, marble, 

3. Manufacturing of articles of beauty and utility character- 
istic of the country; as, Italian leather, Swiss watches, Japa- 
nese silks, Persian rugs. 

4. Work of scientists and inventors in forwarding progress; as, 
Marconi of Italy, James Watt of England. 

IV. Cultural contributions. 

1. Development of dances, games and sports expressive of the 
environment and characteristics of the people. 

2. Development of the stage and drama; work of famous actors. 

3. Expression in literature: folk lore, classic and modern com- 

4. Evolution of musical forms and instruments; service of ar- 
tists in rendering and composing music. 

5. Evolution of traditions, customs, fashions; as, celebration of 
festivals, design in costume, social courtesies and conven- 

6. Creative work in architecture, painting, sculpture. 

V. Interdependence and interchange of ideas between nations. 

1. Exchange of products through exports and imports. 

2. Intermingling of people through emigration and immigra- 

3. Sharing of art treasures through reproduction and exchange. 

4. Appreciation of cultural contributions and natural beauty 
through travel. 

5. Interchange of ideas through various means of communica- 
tion: books, plays, magazines, newspapers, radio, cable, 
postal service, moving and talking pictures. 


Some Typical Units of Experience 


Selecting the Problems 

THE Staff of the Children's School, working as a curriculum 
committee, have, after considerable experiment and study, 
selected tentatively certain large aims and certain large areas of 
experience which seem appropriate at different age levels. Specific 
enterprises, however, are selected and planned by the teachers and 
the children together. Outstanding interests in the community, 
children's vacation experiences, problems that arise in the homes, 
all influence the selection and trends of particular units of ex- 
perience. The teacher studies the records of previous enterprises 
in which these children have engaged, and also the records of suc- 
cessful projects carried on by other groups of children at this age 
level; and she endeavors to provide experiences which will lead 
the children into studies rich in values for their development. 

The teachers of the youngest children provide orientation by 
arranging excursions and introducing suggestive pictures, stories 
and materials. Problems usually arise one at a time as the children 
work and talk together. 

s As the children grow older, they assist not only in selecting the 
unit, but in making the preliminary plans. They suggest excursions, 
list questions, collect books, pictures and other materials; and often 
initiate experiments and constructive activities. Usually the group 
divides itself into small groups or committees for certain phases 
of the work, and each child is helped to choose the group where 
he can work effectively. 

The length of time spent upon any enterprise depends upon 
the continuance of keen interest on the part of the children, and 
the unfolding of valuable new problems and new forms of ex- 
pression as the work progresses. 

Classroom Enterprises 

Observation and analysis of what actually occurs in carrying on 
a unit of experience has led to the organization of the outline form 


28 National College of Education 

used here. Any successful unit of learning is preceded and ac- 
companied by certain enriching experiences which rouse and foster 
interest and give background for various types of activity. These 
experiences may include excursions, collection and exhibit of illus- 
trative materials, study of photographs, films and slides, and recall 
of past experiences of members of the group gained through social 
contacts, travel, and other opportunities. 

As the children enjoy these shared experiences, certain questions 
arise which lead to pursuit of further and more detailed informa- 
tion. These questions may be listed at the beginning of the unit 
by the teacher and the group, or they may arise one at a time 
as the class works together. The solution of these problems may 
involve oral discussion, study of books for added facts, and con- 
structive activities for the purpose of experiment and illustration. 

In the kindergarten and primary grades, construction is often 
of supreme importance and may be the starting point of the whole 
enterprise. Many of the problems that arise at this level are practi- 
cal problems in construction, and their solution involves discussion, 
observation, experiment, and use of the picture-story library, with 
the teacher as guide and interpreter. In almost every enterprise 
at every age level, arithmetic is needed to give more accurate in- 
formation concerning size, time and distance, and to aid in con- 
struction and dramatization. 

As knowledge and experience grow, attitudes and appreciations 
are acquired that relate to the subject of study, and these attitudes 
and appreciations find expression in the arts. The skilful teacher 
introduces appropriate songs, poems and dances from her art col- 
lections, and the child finds expression in the reproduction of 
these forms. Often as the work proceeds, there is a spontaneous 
blossoming into picture-making or into composition of original 
song or verse or story. 

With the kindergarten-primary children, the climax of the 
project is often dramatic play, making use of the buildings and 
equipment that have been constructed. With older children, the 
final expression may be a sharing of experiences with others, 
through dramatization, assembly program, gift-giving or a room 
exhibit of constructive and creative work. If the enterprise has 

Some Typical Units of Experience 29 

been valuable, new interests have arisen which suggest other lines 
of activity or new topics of study. 

In a school year, at every level, many interests arise, which may 
involve only one child or a group of two or three. It is perhaps 
desirable to record in detailed fashion only units in which a fairly 
large group of children take part, in which the time covers several 
days or weeks, and the outcomes in child development are signifi- 
cant. No detailed units of learning occur in the nursery school 
or junior kindergarten. These children tend to work individually 
or in small groups, and any social enterprises which are undertaken, 
are short-lived and fragmentary. Beginning with the five-year-old 
kindergarten, group enterprises grow in organization and duration, 
as the children show greater social readiness. 

The units of experience in this volume were recorded first in 
parallel column form, and later for convenience in reading and 
printing were recast into outline form. The worth of an outline 
form like the one used here, is that it enables the teacher to compare 
different units for possibilities and values. The danger of a set form 
of recording is that it may encourage a forced correlation which 
represents no fundamental need or relationship. It will seldom 
occur that every type of activity is linked up with a particular 
unit of experience, and certainly the form of art expression will 
depend on the attitudes and capacities of the individuals within 
the group, and may vary with different children and different 
topics of study. 

The units of experience which follow were developed in two or 
three different years. It is hoped that in each successive year many 
new units of learning will be developed, reflecting the varying 
interests of the children and the outstanding new developments in 
the community. If certain units are occasionally repeated, these 
should be expanded and enriched by the growing experience and 
continued study of the teacher, and the suggestions and questions 
of each new group of children. 

School Enterprises 

In addition to projects in each grade, there have been some 
enterprises in which the whole school participated. The building 

: >o 

National College of Education 

if # •*, * 

Thanksgiving Brings Fresh Gifts and Old Tales 

up of the Children's Library has been a common goal which has 
captivated the interest of both parents and children. Library Gift 
Day was planned by mothers, children and teachers together, and 
gave everyone who wished the opportunity to join in a processional 
bearing books to the Library. Mothers with the cooperation of 
local bookstores and the school librarian, sold desirable books 
at the school, and children from their individual savings made their 
own selections of books to give. 

At Thanksgiving all the children have joined in a processional 
bearing harvest gifts for a settlement nursery school, and at Christ- 
mas several groups have cooperated in a festival to which parents 
have been invited. A gift of toys and puzzles for the Children's 
Memorial Hospital was an enterprise in the workshop which in- 
terested the children from several grades. A song and rhythm 
assembly in the spring, and a field day of games and sports 
events have been enjoyed by boys and girls of various age levels. 


MAINTAINING an environment and a program suitable for 
promoting and retaining both physical and mental health, 
is one of the first considerations of the kindergarten. A comfortable, 
happy atmosphere, free from tension and strain yet stimulating 
to thought, action, and all-round growth, is considered to be of 
utmost importance. Other objectives of the kindergarten have been, 
to help the children to understand better their own immediate 
environment, and to provide the opportunity for social living in 
a way acceptable in the worthy modern home and community. The 
children have in the main initiated their own enterprises, guided 
by materials, pictures, stories and conversations. The interest in 
construction and dramatic play has been encouraged by the avail- 
ability of large floor blocks, workbenches and tools, large materials 
of many kinds for use in art and industrial enterprises, and ample 
space for freedom of bodily movement. 

Transportation has frequently been a center of interest. The 
keen interest in all phases of transportation is explained by the 
school environment. The school is situated just one block from 
Lake Michigan, where small boats of many sorts may be seen at 
any time of the year. In front of the school is Sheridan Road, the 
favorite lake-shore drive between Chicago and Fort Sheridan. Two 
large airports are located in the vicinity, and stations for steam 
and electric railway systems are only a few blocks away. The chil- 
dren's individual experience records show that many of them have 
traveled extensively. In each group several have traveled by air- 
plane, and most of them have taken trips by boat, automobile and 
train. Three units of experience dealing with transportation are 
included in this volume, and all of these occurred in a single year. 

There has been a continuing interest also in activities related 
to nature. The community is one of homes and gardens, with many 
parks available, and forest preserves and farms not far distant. The 
seasons and the festivals have had their share in suggesting activities. 
A few short units of experience dealing with nature problems are 


32 National College of Education 

included in this volume. The raising of animal families has been 
of special interest. 

A corner equipped with a few pieces of playhouse furniture and 
some durable dolls has been available for housekeeping activities, 
and playing house has also been a live interest. Frequently the 
house has been combined with transportation projects, and has 
been the point of departure for journeys by land, air and sea. 

Much of the activity in kindergarten occurs in small groups. 
Usually several centers of interest may be noted at one time. The 
units of experience described in this section interested the entire 
group at times. 

Outcomes in social meanings and appreciations peculiar to each 
unit are included with the unit. All of the experiences described 
have afforded opportunity for growth in desirable social attitudes 
and habits; as, cooperation in making plans and solving problems, 
consideration for others, respect for the opinions of others, ap- 
preciation of the need for dependability, willingness to give and 
take helpful suggestions, joy in individual and group successes. 
These experiences have also afforded opportunity for growth in 
expression in the various arts and for an awakening interest in 
the attainment of certain needed skills. Outcomes in terms of 
certain arts and skills are summarized under Group Records of 
Progress, in Part IV. 

Raising Animal Families 

A Series of Experiences in Senior Kindergarten 

I. Enriching experiences which roused and fostered interest. 

A. One child whose father was a physician brought white rats 
to school from the hospital laboratories. 

B. The teacher encouraged bringing any form of animal life 
to school, which resulted in a variety of fish, insects, snails, 
turtles, caterpillars, and household pets being present in 
the schoolroom from time to time. 

C. Children were encouraged to handle and observe these as 
much as possible. 

D. Teachers provided rabbits, guinea pigs, canaries, and a 
hen at various times. 

II. Some of the questions which led to investigation. 

A. Where shall we keep our various animals? 

B. What kind of shelter will they need? Size? Materials? 

C. Who will take care of them? 

D. What do they eat? 

E. Where will we get the food? 

F. How do the tracks of the various pets differ? 

G. Why do hens and canaries need gravel? 

H. How long does it take for the eggs to hatch? 
I. How can we keep an accurate account of the days? 
J. Where are the young before birth? 
K. Why must the male be removed to another cage (in some 

L. What shall we do with the young? 

III. Finding solution of problems and answers to questions. 
A. Through experience. 

1. Playing with the animals indoors and out. 

2. Watching their habits. 

3. Excursions to the country to learn from farmers. 

4. Caring for animals. 

5. Opening a hen's egg from time to time to see what was 

6. Opening a cocoon to see the chrysalis. 

7. Gathering clover, digging worms, and so on, to obtain 
food for pets. 



National College of Education 

Chickens Are Amusing Friends 

B. Through constructive activities. 

1. Making pens and shelters. 

2. Making carriers to take pets back and forth to school. 

3. Making feed boxes. 

C. Through books. 

1. Older children searched through picture books for sug- 
gestions concerning shelters. 

2. Teacher read extracts from government bulletins. 

Picture and Story Books for Children and Teachers 

Barlow, Ruth C. 

Fun At Happy Acres 



Rianco, Margery 

All About Pets 



Bianco, Margery 

The Good Friends 



Ets, Marie Hall 

Mr. Penny 



Gag Wanda 

\. B. C. Bunny 


Coward -McCann 

Howard, Constance 

The Twins and TabifTa 


Macrae Smith 

Kunhardt, Dorothy 

Little Ones 



Lathrop, Doiothy 

Who Goes There? 



Lord, Isabel 

Picture Book of Animals 

l $3 l 


Newbery, Clare T. 




Piper, Watty 

Animal Friends Story Book 


Piatt Sc Munk 

Units of Experience in Kindergarten 35 

Picture Books 
Book of Animals Saalfield Pub. Co (Illustrations by C. M. 

Friends of Fur and Feather Samuel Gabriel and Sons 

The Second Picture Book of Animals (Photographs) Macmillan 

References for Teachers 

Comstock, Anna B. Handbook of Nature Study 1939 Comstock 

Russell, David W. Suggestions for the Care of Pets in the Elementary Classroom. 
Reprinted from School Science and Mathematics, April 1939. (Bulletins from the 
United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, proved most up-to-date 
and reliable for authentic information.) 

1). Through discussions concerning: 

1. Differences and similarities in young rats, guinea pigs, 

2. Differences and similarities in nests of canaries and 

3. Differences and similarities in eggs of canaries and 

4. Methods and materials of constructing shelters. 

5. Undue handling of the young. 

G. Disposition to be made of the young. 
E. Through use of numbers. 

1 . Use of rulers by some children to measure wood for pens 
and shelters. 

2. Counting days before the arrival of the young to find 
the date, and checking these off the calendar. 

3. Some slight attention to cost, to justify the sale of the 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, and appreciations gained through the 

A. Knowledge of the importance of care in: 

1. Providing food and water. 

2. Shelter. 

3. Cleanliness. 

B. Interest in providing these. 

C. Realization of our dependence on sources of information, 
such as farmer, science teacher, printed material. 

D. Appreciation of the joy which pets bring. 

E. Information concerning reproduction. 

F. Wholesome attitude toward process of reproduction. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through story telling. 

1. Many creative stories were told by the children. 

»,() National College of Education 

2. Stories of pets (see list above), were told by the teacher. 

B. Through picture making and clay modelling. 

i. Paintings and drawings were made of various pets. 
2. Clay was an especially good material for expression. 

C. Through music. 

1. Some creative songs were sung by individuals. 

2. Songs were used also from the teacher's collection. 

D. Through dramatization. 

i. Rhythmic expression, (such as rabbits hopping), was 

supplemented by music. 
2. Loosely organized dramatic play, not especially rhythmic 

in nature, was enjoyed from time to time. 

E. Through poetry. 

Such collections were used as: 

Baruch, Dorothy I Like Animals 1933 Harper 

Lear, Edward The Alphabet Book 1915 Reilly & Lee 

Untermeyer, Louis Rainbow in the Sky 1935 Harcourt, Brace 

Traveling by Train 

A Center of Interest in Senior Kindergarten 

I. Enriching experiences which roused interest and provided back- 
ground for activities. 

A. The interest grew out of the contribution of one child who 
had just had his first experience of riding on a train. His 
enthusiasm for his trip to New York on "The Century" 
spread to the group with the result that a large train was 
built of the Hill floor blocks. 

B. As many of our children go by motor when traveling, we 
found that some of the group had never had any train ex- 
perience. We asked that they be given that experience even 
though it could be only a ride on the suburban train into 
Chicago. The parents responded very well to our request and 
made the most of the opportunity to show the children the 
engine, coal car, and other parts of a train. 

C. Pictures of trains of all kinds, interiors of sleeping cars, 
parlor cars, diners, helped provide background. 

II. Problems and questions which led to experiment and investigation. 
Many questions arose which necessitated our asking questions of 
the fathers and using encyclopedias. 

A. Of what use is the sand dome? The steam dome? 

B. Why did the older types of engines have tall stacks and new 
ones low stacks? 

C. Why must trains have water? 

D. How do trains on long runs "pick up" water? 

E. How long is the run for an engineer on a train? 

F. When is the bell used? 

G. When is the whistle blown? 

H. What do the different uses of the whistle mean? 
I. Why do some trains have automatic stokers? 
J. What do different colored signals mean? 
K. Where do trains go when they are not making a run? 
L. How does a turntable operate? 
M. Why are electric engines sometimes used? 
N. When does the train crew eat and sleep? 
O. How are the Pullman seats made into beds? 

III. Finding solution of problems and answers to questions. 

A. Through correlative construction. 

1. The interest centered about the construction of a large 



National College of Education 

Service Is Good 

this Train 


train made of the Hill blocks. The engine, coal car and 
one passenger car comprised the original train. Each day 
as dramatic play developed there was need for more 
detail. More cars were added— a Pullman car, diner and 
baggage car. 

Blocks proved unsatisfactory as seats. Kindergarten 
chairs were substituted. Light weight boards (12 inches 
by 3 feet) were used across the chairs in the Pullman. 

3. The doll dishes were used in the diner. 

4. A station and ticket office were made after the play had 
continued for two weeks. 

B. Through conversation. 

Many conversations in small groups and in the whole group 
took place concerning the train. Each day brought new 
problems for discussion. There was much freedom of verbal 
expression in the discussions. The children sought informa- 
tion at home and made valuable contributions to the group 
on their findings. 

C. Through use of books. 

The children gained a feeling for the use of books which 
would give necessary information. While the teachers did 
the reading and interpreted what was read, the children 

Units of Experience in Kindergarten 


had the experience of going to the library to get the books 
and seeing them used. 

Picture and Story Books for Children and Teacher 
Kuh, Charlotte The Engineer 1929 -Macmillan 

Lent, H. B. 
Pryor, W. C. 
Read, Helen S. 
Smith, E. B. 

The Engineer 
Clear Track Ahead! 
The Train Book 
An Engine's Story 
The Railway Book 

1932 Macmillan 

1933 Harcourt 
1928 Scrihner 


Samuel Gabriel 

Books for the Teacher 

Dalgliesh, Alice America Travels 

Eaton, J. The Story of Trans- 


Henry, R. S. Trains 

Reed, Brian Railway Engines of 

the World 

Van Metre, T. B. Trains, Tracks and 

Webster, H. H. Travel by Air, Land 

and Sea 

Selected material from Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia and the World 
Book Encyclopedia. 

1933 Macmillan 
1927 Harper 

1938 Bobbs-Merrill 

1934 Oxford 

1931 Simmons-Boardmai 
1933 Houghton 

D. Through use of number. 

1. Time entered in to a small degree. Trains run on sched- 
uled time, and the children gained some feeling for the 
necessity of promptness. 

2. The problem of too many children for the number of 
seats came up from time to time. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes and appreciations developing through 
these experiences. 

A. A spirit of cooperation developed as the children shared 
duties in constructing and operating the train. 

B. An appreciation was gained for the responsibility placed 
upon the train crew— their interest in the comfort and safety 
of the passengers. 

C. Knowledge was gained concerning the members of the train 
crew and the duties of each one. 

D. Understanding and appreciation developed for the various 
functions of trains and their importance; in carrying pas- 
sengers, in transporting mail, in shipping provisions to 
our cities— milk, fruit, vegetables, cattle. 

E. Knowledge was gained of the construction and use of dif- 
ferent parts of a train and different kinds of cars; as, en- 
gine, coal car, caboose, baggage car, diner, sleeping car, 
parlor car, oil car, cattle car, mail car. 

40 National College oj Ed a cat ion 

F. Appreciation developed for the importance of punctuality 
in running and using trains. 

V. Expression and interpretation of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

Selections were enjoyed from these sources: 

Piper, Walty The Little Engine That 1930 Plait 

Tippett, James I Go A-Traveling 1929 Harper 

B. Through picture-making. 

The interest was richly expressed through drawing, paint- 
ing and through paper cutting and paste work: 

1. Many children did individual drawings and paintings of 
trains, stations, water tanks, gates at crossing and like 

2. A few group paintings were made, using four or five 
full sheets of unprinted newspaper pasted together. This 
was fastened to the blackboard with adhesive tape. Four 
or five children worked together on these group pic- 
tures, doing cooperative planning, as to what should 
go into each picture and what part each person should 

3. Several group drawings were made on the blackboard 
in like manner. 

C. Through music. 

1. The development of train play through rhythmic activity 
was interesting to note. At first the children were merely 
trains running at great speed down the tracks. Gradu- 
ally more organization came into their play: the slow 
pulling out of the train from the station, the gain in 
speed and then the slowing down to stop. Music was 
helpful in supplementing the children's mood and in 
controlling the play. 

2. Two original songs were created, which were jotted 
down by the teacher, and given back to the group, and 
became favorite songs to sing. "The Train Song" from 
Singing Time by Thorne and Coleman was also used. 

D. Through dramatic play. 

A wealth of dramatic play was carried on each day. 

1. The serving of meals in the diner, the going to bed, the 
firing of the boiler, the taking of tickets, all came up in 
the play of each day. 

2. Dolls were taken traveling. There was desirable inter- 

Units of Experience in Kindergarten 41 

play between the doll corner and the train. The engineer 
and the conductor would go "home" to the doll corner 
when they were not on their runs. 

VI. New interests. 

Other means of travel (boats, busses, automobiles and air- 
planes) were discussed, and were possibilities for future 

Traveling by Boat 

A Center of Interest in Senior Kindergarten 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused interest and provided back- 
ground for activities. 

A. Many pictures were used lo help clarify ideas and to provide 
background. Several parents sent photographs of different 
kinds of boats. 

B. Excursion to Wilmettc harbor gave information about 
small boats, yachts, motor boats and speedboats. 

C. A trip to the lighthouse enriched ideas of the size and con- 
struction of a lighthouse. 

D. One child brought a real compass which opened up a new 
line of interest in how a captain can find his directions. 

II. Some of the questons which led to investigation. 

A. What is meant by such terms as: stern, prow r , bridge, pilot or 
wheelhouse, decks, gangplank, anchors, dry dock, crow's- 
nest, mast, funnel, ventilators, ship's log, captain's flag, 
buoy, Union Jack, waterline? 

B. How is a ship loaded? 

C. Why are there portholes? 

D. Why are there numbers down near the waterline? 

E. How can sailors tell when a ship is nearing an iceberg? 

F. How do ships send messages? 

G. What does "S.O.S." mean? 

H. How does the captain signal the engine room that the ship is 
ready to sail? 

I. How does a captain recognize different lighthouses? 

J. How does the fog horn "work"? 

K. What is the principle on which a compass is made? 

L. Why can some ships go faster than others? 

M. Of what are life belts made? How are they adjusted? 

III. Finding solution of problems and answers to questions. 

A. Through correlative construction. 

1. A boat was built with floor blocks. Boards, boxes and 
scraps of beaver board were also used. 

2. A Union Jack and captain's flag were added. 

3. A pilot wheel was made and placed so that it could be 


Units of Experience in Kindergarten 


The Wind Is North by East 

4. A lighthouse was built. Colored paper was used over the 
light to designate which lighthouse it was. 

5. A few children made small boats at the workbench. 
B. Through conversations. 

1. There was a wealth of discussion relating to experiences 
on boats. 

2. Discussion of pictures, excursions, experiments, films, en- 
joyed by the group, helped to answer questions. 

Picture Books for Children 

Lent, H. B. Full Steam Ahead! 1933 Macmillan 

Read, H. S. A Story About Boats 1928 Scribner 

Teacher's References 


Cunard Lines 

French Line— Sectional View of a Great Liner 

Smithsonian Institution— Bulletin No. 127— Catalog of Watercraft Col- 

44 National College of Education 


Jackson, O. P. & Book of American 192G Stokes 

Evans, F. E. Ships 

Rocheleau, W. F. Transportation 1928 A. Flanagan 

Van Metre, T. W. Tramps and Finers 1931 Doiibleday 

Webster, H. H. Travel by Air, Land 1933 Houghton 

and Sea 

Selected material from Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia and World Book 
"Queen of the Waves," American Museum of Natural History, New York City 

C. Through use of number. 

1 . A decided interest developed in the use of thermometers 
in reading the temperature of water for detecting ice- 
bergs. This led into a short study of temperature. 

2. Interest in numbers at the prow of the ship led to some 
understanding of the loading and the weight carried on 

3. The number of passengers was counted following a dis- 
cussion in which the children learned that each ship has a 
maximum capacity. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes and appreciations developed through 
these experiences. 

A. A fine attitude of cooperation in the play on the ship; in 

taking turns as captain, mates, mechanics. 

B. Knowledge and appreciation of "marine ethics": signaling 

of another ship; response to calls for help; need for team- 
work on the part of a crew as well as cooperation with 
other crews when need arises. 

C. Recognition and appreciation of characteristics of a good 

captain: steadiness, carefulness, skill, courage. 

D. Some knowledge and appreciation of shipbuilding. 

E. Recognition of various kinds of boats and different parts of 

a boat. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

1. Several original realistic stories were told by children 
and teachers. 

2. These stories and verses were also found interesting: 

Goodwin, Myra A. The Lighthouse Keeper's 

Mitchell, Lucy Sprague Fog Boat Story 

Read, Helen Story About Boats 

Tippett, James I Go A-Traveling 

Units of Experience in Kindergarten 45 

B. Through picture-making. 

1. Pictorial expression was a source of great joy throughout 
the interest. Incidental drawings of boats, lighthouses, 
buoys, bridges were made, and also several large group 
paintings of boats. 

2. Large boat posters were made. 

C. Through music. 

These songs were favorites: 

"A Song of Ships," One Hundred and Forty Folk-Songs, Davison 

and Surette. 

(This was sung to the children for appreciation, but the swing 
and rhythm caught their interest and they learned it.) 

"I Had a Little Sail-boat," One Hundred and Forty Folk-Songs, 

Davison and Surette. 

D. Through dramatic activity. This interest offered great out- 
let in a dramatic way. Every day there was rich dramatic play 
on the boat: pilot steering ship; mechanics fixing machinery; 
passengers riding on ship, disembarking. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further activities. 

A. Other means of transportation. 

B. Other types of boats. 

Traveling in the Air 

A Center of Interest in Senior Kindergarten 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused interest and provided back- 
ground for activities. 

A. A visit to the airport enriched our background and did a 
great deal in sustaining the interest in aviation. The group 
spent the morning at the field and saw planes going and 
coming, taxiing, landing, and banking curves. The children 
were allowed in the hangar and had a close view of many 
different kinds of planes. 

l>. Some of the children had attended aviation shows with 
their parents. 

C. Children brought toy planes to school. 

D. Several children had airplane trips during the summer. 
The relating of their experiences promoted great interest. 

II. Some of the questions which led to investigation. 

A. Why do some planes have more than one motor? 

B. Why do some planes have one wing and others two? 

C. What kind of fuel does a plane use? 

D. How is an airplane "wound up"? 

E. What is the purpose of such things as: stabilizer, flipper 
wings, coils on the motor, wind determiner, the "boats"? 

F. What is the fuselage? Why is it shaped like a bird? 

G. Why do pilots wear goggles and helmets at times? 
H. How can a pilot do such things as: 

1. Tell the direction of the wind at night? 

2. Distinguish different fields at night? 

3. Make the plane "bank" when turning a curve? 

4. Know where he is going if he can't see land? 
1. What is the purpose of beacons? 

] . What is done in towns to help pilots tell what town they are 

lv. What do the colored lights on planes mean? 
L. How does it look above the clouds? 
M. Why are planes made in different shapes? 

III. Finding solution of problems and answers to questions. 

A. Through correlative construction. 

1. Airplanes were built with floor blocks. 

2. Small airplanes of wood were made at the workbench. 


Units of Experience in Kindergarten 


Photographed at the Municipal Airport, Chicago 

Watching Mechanics Install a Motor in a Transport Plane 

3. Some children enjoyed making airplanes of clay. 
There was a steady gain in constructive work. New phases 
were added and work improved through discussion and 
study of pictures. The children themselves commented upon 
the improvement shown in the small wooden airplanes. 
B. Through conversations. 

1 . The subject was most conducive to valuable language ex- 
pression. Every child was full of the interest and there- 
fore talked freely. The children told of their experiences 
in seeing planes and riding in them. 

2. Pictures and toy models were discussed. 

48 National College of Education 

Teacher's References 

Fairchild Aviation Corporation Plain Facts for Plain People 

Smithsonian Institution Handbook of National Aircraft 


Driggs, L. Heroes of Aviation 1927 Little, Brown 

Floherty, J. J. 'Board the Airliner 1934 Doubleday 

Fraser, C. C. Heroes of the Air 1927 Crowell 

Fraser, C. C. Model Aircraft Builder 1931 Crowell 

Post, A. Skycraft 1933 Oxford 

Thomson, Jay E. Aviation Stories 1929 Longmans, Green 

Webster, H. H. Travel by Air, Land 1933 Houghton 
and Sea 

C. Through use of number. 

There was an interest in counting such things as seats in a 
plane, cylinders, windows. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes and appreciations developed through 
these experiences. 

A. Recognition and appreciation of the fact that one must be 
thoroughly trained for one's job. 

B. Recognition and appreciation of the necessity of being 
dependable. Mechanic must be sure that all is well with the 
plane before it takes off. 

C. Attitude of respect for mail pilots who fly through all kinds 
of weather to serve the public. 

D. Knowledge and appreciation of the piloting of a plane and 
the qualities which a pilot must possess. 

E. Knowledge of the most important facts regarding airplane 

F. Some understanding of the purpose and need of maps. 

G. Recognition of various kinds of planes and the different 
parts of a plane. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

These stories and verses were enjoyed by the children: 

Page, Victor A. B. C. of Aviation 

Read, Helen An Airplane Ride 

Tippett, James My Airplane 

(From I Go A -Traveling) 

B. Through creative composition. 

The children created some stories about airplanes, based on 
their own experiences; as, 

Monday we went to the airport. 
We saw airplanes. 

Units of Experience in Kindergarten 49 

We saw monoplanes. 

We saw biplanes. 

It was fun when we went to the airport. 

Airplanes fly at the airport. 
They fly through the rain. 
They fly through the fog. 
They fly through the clouds. 
I would like to fly. 

C. Through picture-making. 

1. There was much interest in pictorial expression. Several 
group paintings (involving three or four children) of 
the airport were created. There were many individual 
drawings and paintings of planes, hangars, beacons, 

2. Scrapbooks were made containing cut-out pictures of 
different kinds of airplanes. 

D. Through dramatic activity. 

1. There was a wealth of dramatic play with pilots carrying 
passengers in their airplanes of large blocks. Dolls were 
taken for rides. Dramatic feeling ran high in the thrills 
of air pockets, tail spins, and other adventures. 

2. Children played with small wooden airplanes. Landing 
fields of blocks were the scene of planes taxiing, landing, 
taking off. 

VI. New interest foreshadowing further activities. 

An interest was shown in other forms of air transportation: 
balloons and gliders. 

Playing with the Leaves 

An Interest in Senior Kindergarten 

I. Enriching experiences which roused and fostered interest. 

A. Excursions were made about the neighborhood to gather 
leaves and to observe the outstanding differences of the most 
common trees (five or six in all). 

B. Excursions were made in the spring to sec the bursting of 

C. Branches from bushes were brought in to watch (lie leaves 
come out, when these were put in water. 

II. Some of the questions which led to investigation. 

A. Why do leaves fall? 

B. Why do some trees keep their leaves all winter? 

C. What makes leaves turn different colors? 

D. Why do some trees stay green all winter? 

E. What makes the new leaves grow? 

F. How may falling leaves be used: for fun? for the garden? 

G. What kinds of trees grow r in our own gardens? 

H. How do they differ in shape, size and color of leaf? 

III. Answering questions. 

A. Through constructive activities. 

1. Hats of colored leaves were made to wear for a "leaf 

2. Leaves were mounted on tagboard. 

3. A few children enjoyed making blueprints of leaves. 

B. Through conversation. 

1. There was much discussion as to how leaves are used: to 
furnish shade, to cover gardens, to make homes and gar- 
dens beautiful. 

2. The children talked about the kinds of trees, their shapes, 
the kinds and colors of leaves. 

3. Questions were asked and discussion ensued about the 
causes of the changing colors and the falling of leaves. 

4. The children wished to keep the pretty leaves, and there 
w r as discussion about ways to preserve them. Plans were 
made for a room collection. 

5. There was some discussion of pictures and informational 
material which were found in the school library, and in- 
terpreted to the group by the teacher. 


Units of Experience in Kindergarten 51 

Teacher's References 

Comstock, Anna B. Handbook of Nature Study 1939 Comstock 

Downing, Elliot R. Our Living World 1928 Longmans, 

Emerson, A. I. & Our Trees 1937 Lippincolt 

Weed, J. B. 
Farquhar, F. F. World Book Encyclopedia i936Quarrie 

and others 
Ford, A. S., Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia 1938 Compton 

and others 
Hough, Romeyn B. Handbook of the Trees 1924 Romeyn B. 


IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developed through these 

A. Recognition of leaves of a few common trees. 

B. Some understanding of the cycle of growth from spring to 

C. Appreciation of the value of leaves in providing shade, mak- 
ing gardens and parks beautiful, covering the garden in 

D. An understanding that leaves and branches must not be 
taken from trees on private property. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through picture-making. 

A few children were interested in drawing different kinds of 

B. Through songs and rhythm. 

Songs about leaves were enjoyed, and a leaf dance was 

C. Through social activity. 

There was much delightful activity in raking and playing 
in the leaves. 

Helping the Birds 

An Interest in Senior Kindergarten 

I. Enriching experiences which roused and fostered interest. 

A. The children were interested in the mating of the kinder- 
garten canaries. They saw the nest put into the cage, and 
watched the mother and father carry material to line the 

B. The return of the wild birds was a source of delight. 

C. Excursions were arranged about the neighborhood to see 
birds, birds' nests and birdhouses. 

D. Colored pictures of common birds were enjoyed. 

II. Some of the questions which led to investigation. 

A. Why do some birds live in houses and some in nests? 

B. Why do some birds like to live in colonies? 

C. What decides the size of the hole? 

D. What materials do the various birds use in making their 

E. Why don't all birds' eggs hatch? 

F. What do birds need besides nesting materials? 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 

A. Through constructive activities. 

1. Cloth and string were cut up for the canaries' nest. 

2. Birdhouses were built. 

B. Through conversation. 

1. The children talked about the birds they had seen, their 
habits and ways of living, nests that birds had built in 
their own yards, birdhouses and bird baths in neighbor- 
ing yards. 

2. The eggs in the canaries' nest formed a topic of question 
and discussion. 

3. Problems arising in the making of birdhouses were dis- 

C. Through use of books. 

1 . The names of the more common birds were used in con- 
nection with the pictures. 

2. Extracts from bird guides were read to the children, giv- 
ing outstanding facts about our common birds. 

3. Directions for making birdhouses were found in "The 
Birdhouse Book," put out by the Boy Scouts. 


Units of Experience in Kindergarten 53 

Teacher's References 

Allen, A. A. The Book of Bird Life 1930 Van Nostrand 

Baynes, E. H. Wild Bird Guests 1931 Dutton 

Blanchan, Neltje The Bird Book 1932 Doubleday 

Comstock, Anna B. Handbook of Nature 1939 Comstock 


King, Julius Birds i934Harter 

Pearson, T. G. Birds of America 1936 Garden City 

Peterson, R. T. Junior Book of Birds 1939 Houghton 

Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia 1940 Complon 

World Book Encyclopedia 1940 Quarrie 

D. Through use of number. 

1. The ruler was used to measure wood for the birdhouses. 
A few of the children were able to measure independ- 

2. The calendar was used in order to keep a record of when 
the canary eggs were laid, and when they were due to 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, and appreciations developing through 
these experiences. 

A. An attitude of friendliness and protection toward birds. 

B. Some understanding of the needs of birds and a desire to 

help by providing nesting materials, shelter, food and 

C. Some knowledge and appreciation of how carefully nesting 

birds must be protected:— the cage or house must not be 
moved, the nest must not be touched with the hands, 
the birds must not be frightened. 

D. Some knowledge and appreciation of bird life: interesting 

habits and ways of living, beauty of color and song. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through story telling. 

1. Many creative stories were given by the children. 

2. The teachers told some realistic stories about birds. 

B. Through picture making and modeling. 

1. Many spring pictures were drawn and painted, including 
birds building their nests, feeding their baby birds, sing- 
ing in the trees. 

2. Some children spontaneously made birds and birds' nests 
of clay. 

C. Through music. 

The children created a few songs about birds, and three 
of these were used over and over again. 



IMPORTANT objectives in first grade, as in kindergarten, 
have been to help the child to understand more fully his own 
immediate environment and to provide the opportunity for worthy 
social living. 

The children are still in the period of dramatic play, and they 
have greatly enjoyed reliving in play the activities of the com- 
munity. The interest in construction is very keen. Two sets of large 
floor blocks with roofing pieces have been provided for building, 
and these have been supplemented by large boxes and composition 
board. A workbench and tools have been included in the room 
equipment, and sometimes the help of the teacher of arts and crafts 
has been sought. The wholesome dramatic activity rendered pos- 
sible by the large building enterprises, has made the effort and 
expense of this type of work tremendously worth while. 

The children often beg to save one building when starting an- 
other, so that as the year progresses, the first-grade room becomes 
a ''street," with many sorts of enterprises going on. Transportation 
is still a leading interest, but transportation at this level has usually 
been studied in its relationship to other activities of the community. 
The play store with its opportunities for dramatization of buying 
and selling and transporting goods has been a favorite activity. 
The grocery store, the toy store, and the valentine shop have ap- 
peared in different years. Conducting a post office and sending mail 
by truck, train and airplane has been a favorite enterprise. One 
group of children thought it fun to have "a school in a school," 
and they built a schoolhouse and a school bus, and dramatized 
with glee their own daily experience of going to school. Another 
group enjoyed building an automobile and a filling station. A 
bungalow and an apartment house have been enjoyed in different 
years. At Christmas time a house with a fireplace was built by one 
class, and a small Santa Claus in a school-made suit arrived with 
a well-constructed sleigh and a troop of two-legged reindeer. A 
baby show with dolls for babies, a motion-picture show, an aviation 


Units of Experience in First Grade 55 

show, and a circus have in different years afforded an opportunity 
to study community recreation; and in one summer session, the 
Fourth of July was recognized by a parade of well-constructed 
floats which was conducted through the corridors, while children 
from other grades looked on. 

The interest in a single such dramatic enterprise may continue 
anywhere from one to six weeks, or even longer, but as a rule sev- 
eral such enterprises occur in the year's program. Sometimes all ol 
the children are keenly interested in a single enterprise. At other 
times interest is divided among two or three or many different 

In addition to the study of community activities, there has been 
a continual interest in nature and particularly in the seasonal 
changes, which in this locality are very marked. The children have 
enjoyed decorating the room with poster pictures of each season as 
it comes, and making collections of the season's treasures. The 
interest in pets has been very keen and many kinds of small animals 
have found a temporary home in the first-grade room: goldfish, 
turtles, white mice, baby chicks, squirrel, canary, finches, lovebirds. 
Through the courtesy of one of the fathers, who has been engaged in 
experimental work with animals, families of rabbits, guinea pigs 
and white rats have been loaned to the school for short periods of 
time. Because it is a common and keen interest of all first-grade 
children, the topic of pets has been a source of much delightful 
work in creative language; and songs, stories and verses have been 
composed, which have later found their way into original reading 
books. First-grade records show many experiences with individual 
pets, but for convenience these are summarized here in a single 

The enterprises outlined here have been selected from the records 
of three different years. Outcomes in social meanings and apprecia- 
tions peculiar to each unit have been included with the unit. All 
of the experiences described have afforded opportunity for growth 
in certain desirable social and personal habits and attitudes; as, 
cooperation in group purposing and planning, responsibility in 
carrying out group plans, wise use of time and materials, self-control 
in observing group regulations, respect for the rights and possessions 

rfi National College of Education 

of others, willingness to give and take helpful suggestions, satisfac- 
tion in worthy group and individual achievement, appreciation 
of the efforts of others. These enterprises have also afforded op- 
portunity for growth in art expression and for progress in funda- 
mental skills. Some outcomes of this sort are summarized under 
Group Records of Progress in Part IV. 

Enjoying and Using Autumn Treasures 

A First Grade Interest in October 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Observation of autumn changes on the school grounds, on 
walks, in the children's own gardens. 

B. Examination of leaves brought in by the children: oak, elm, 
maple, catalpa, sumac, horse chestnut, cottonwood. 

C. Enjoyment of other fall treasures contributed by members 
of the group: milkweed pods, corn and corn stalks, acorns, 
chestnuts, pumpkins, flowers, bittersweet, cocoons. 

D. Study of pictures placed on bulletin boards: harvesting 
apples, grapes, corn, wheat; raking, piling, playing in leaves; 
storing vegetables for winter. 

E. Observation of Halloween decorations in shops and in other 

II. Problems and questions leading to discussion and experiment. 

A. How can we make our room look like the out-of-doors in 
autumn? Through the use of nature materials? Through 
pictures brought from home? Through pictures and post- 
ers made at school? 

B. How can we use the autumn leaves? Where can we find 
pretty colored leaves? How can we classify and mount them? 

C. What flowers bloom in the garden in autumn? 

D. W T hat can we plant in the garden in autumn? 

E. What fruits and vegetables are gathered in the autumn? 

F. How may we use our autumn collection for Halloween? 

III. Finding answers to questions and problems. 

A. Through constructive activities. 

1. Collecting autumn leaves and mounting these on big 

2. Arranging an exhibit of seeds and pods, collected on short 

3. Decorating the room from day to day with flowers, leaves 
and corn shocks brought from home and from the 

4. Bringing bulbs from home and planting these in the 
school garden. 

5. Stringing acorns for beads by a few skilful children. 



National College of Education 

('). Making Halloween plaee cards from leaf designs. 

7. Making doilies for a Halloween luncheon. 

8. Arranging and decorating tables for the Halloween 

B. Through oral language. 

1. Discussion related to nature facts and materials. 

a. Simple discussions of the causes of seasonal changes 
and which nature treasures belong to the autumn 

b. Discussion of types of autumn activities in the home, 
the farm, the forest, the animal kingdom. 

c. Discussion of which autumn treasures will best 
beautify our room; many discussions as to best place- 
ment and arrangement. 

d. Oral contributions from the children suggesting 
ways of recognizing oak, maple, elm, cottonwood, 
sumac leaves. 

e. Reports of children's autumn experiences outside of 

2. Discussion related to Halloween festivities. 

a. Reports of activities on previous Halloween days. 

b. Discussions of best ways to plan Halloween fun. 

c. Making plans for Halloween luncheon. 

C. Through factual reading. 

1 . Reading of phrases and sentences posted beneath pictures 
on the bulletin boards. 

2. Making and reading from the blackboard lists of autumn 
materials suitable for room decorations. 

3. Reading a few labels beside the exhibits. 

4. Reading the place cards to find places at the table. 

Comstock, Anna B. 
Downing, Elliot R. 

Emerson, A. E 
Farquhar, F. E., 

and others 
Ford, A. S., 

and others 
Fox, Frances M. 
Fultz, Frances M. 

Hough, Romeyn B. 

Kenley, Julie C. 

Parker, B. M. & 

Cowles, H. C. 

Teacher's References 

Handbook of Nature Study 
Our Living World 

Our Trees 

World Book Encyclopedia 

Pictured Encyclopedia 

Flowers and Their Travels 
The Fly Aways and 

Other Seed Travelers 
Handbook of the Trees 

Green Magic 

The Book of Plants 

1939 Comstock 
1928 Longmans, 

1937 Lippincott 

1940 Quarrie 

1940 Compton 

1936 Bobbs-Merrill 
1928 Public School 

1924 Romeyn B. 

1930 Appleton 

1925 Houghton 


Bulbs Now and Tulips By and By 

60 National College of Education 

1). Through use of numbers. 

1. Developing a sense of balance. 

a. In placing objects on the posters. 

b. In placing autumn specimens about the room. 

c. In planning size of posters to fit wall space. 

2. Recognizing groups of objects. 

a. Seeing how many groups of corn shocks there are in 
the corners of the room. 

b. Seeing how many posters are arranged in one space. 

c. Seeing quickly how many acorns or seeds are in each 
little group in the exhibit. 

3. Counting. 

a. Counting to see of which type leaf we had found 
the most. 

b. Counting the bulbs each child brought, and the 
number to be set in each garden bed. 

c. Counting involved in Halloween luncheon prepara- 
tion: doilies, place cards, glasses. 

Note: Some of these activities were spontaneous, and 
only part of the children participated. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developing through 
these experiences. 

A. Some appreciation of the beauty of the autumn time. 

B. The beginning of an understanding of the efforts of the 
farmers in realizing a plentiful harvest. 

C. Some appreciation of the need for combined effort and un- 
selfishness to create a beautiful room. 

D. The beginning of an ideal of beauty through well-kept, 
orderly surroundings. 

E. Some development in an attitude of reverence toward the 
richness of the harvest. 

F. The beginning of an appreciation for the need of appro- 
priate behavior at a party. 

G. An increasing friendliness between children and teachers 
through working toward one goal. 

H. An increased attitude of possession and feeling at home in 
the new room. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through telling and listening to stories. 

The Maple Tree (from The Beginner's Book in Religion, Edna Dean 


Farmer Brown and the Apples (from The Beginner's Book in Religion, 

Edna Dean Baker) 

Units of Experience in First Grade Gi 

The Little Black Cat and the Big Orange Pumpkin (from My Book 

B. Through creating original verses, later written and com- 
piled for an autumn booklet; as, 

Flowers, Flowers! 

Gently sway, 

When the autumn winds come, 

To blow you away. 

Pumpkins and witches on Halloween night 
Will frighten everyone 
Who is in sight. 

C. Through poster making. 

1. Series for a frieze made by small groups: 

a. Children gathering apples in the orchard. 

b. Children raking falling leaves. 

c. Children and fathers burning leaves. 

d. Halloween night. 

e. Poster of the story— The Little Black Cat and the 
Big Orange Pumpkin. 

2. One large poster made by a group. 

A corn field with a pumpkin in the shocks, and to the 
right a glorious group of autumn trees and falling leaves. 

D. Through music. 

1. Singing and dramatizing songs such as: 

The Gay Leaves. Jack-o'-lantern. 

The Wild Wind. If I Were a Tiny Elfin. 

The Orchard. The Journey of the Leaves. 
The Harvest. 

2. Playing brownies and goblins with music: 

"Elves Dance"— Grieg, and other suitable music found 
in excerpts from such composers as Haydn, Wagner, 

Source Books 

Baker and Kohlsaat Songs for the Little Child 1938 Abingdon Press 

Davison and One Hundred Forty Folk 1922 E. C. Schirmer 

Surette Songs 

McConathy, Meiss- Music Hour in Kinder- 1929 Silver Burdett 

ner, Birge and garten and First Grade 


Robinson, Ethel School Rhythms 1923 Clayton Summy 

E. Through social activity. 

1. Playing out-of-doors with seeds from the milkweed pods. 

2. Preparing and participating in a simple Halloween 
luncheon as final, complete enjoyment of the room they 
had beautified. 

> National College of Education 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further activities. 

A. Interest in studying farm and farmer's preparation for fall 

B. Interest in playing store or fruit market. 

C. Interest in planning an autumn festival. 

Creating an Autumn Festival 

A First Grade Interest in November 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. The previous enterprise of beautifying the room for 

B. The memory of the school festival of the previous year. 

C. The study of pictures: actual photographs of the previous 
school Thanksgiving festival; pictures brought in of harvest 

II. Problems and questions which led to discussion and experiment. 

A. What fruits are harvested in the autumn? 

B. How can we make fruits and vegetables to play with? 

C. How shall we use these objects? 

D. How may we tell in a festival our joy in the harvest? 

E. How may we make costumes for an autumn festival? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through constructive activities. 

1. Modeling from clay, apples, pears, corn. 

2. Painting objects with enamel paint to make them more 

3. Making of grape vines, using cotton, crepe paper, and 
covered flower wire. 

4. Designing costumes to represent autumn fruits, leaves, 
and vegetables. 

5. Dyeing cloth for costumes. 

6. Cutting, sewing and decorating apple, leaf, grape and 
corn costumes. 

B. Through oral language. 

1. After making clay fruits and vegetables, the children sug- 
gested a store and a festival. The decision was made to 
have a festival. 

2. Plans were discussed for the festival. Suggestions were 
made for costumes to represent fruits; for a dramatization 
of leaves falling, fruits being picked, corn swaying; for a 
choir to furnish music. 

C. Through reading. 

Plans were read from the blackboard for costumes, color 
schemes, activities. 


64 National College of Education 

1). Through use of numbers. 

1. Counting and grouping of children for different ac- 

2. Counting of costumes and clay fruits. 

3. Measuring for costumes. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developing through 
these experiences. 

A. Some understanding and appreciation of the importance of 
a plentiful harvest. 

B. A spirit of thankfulness for an abundant harvest. 

C. An attitude of joy toward the autumn season. 

D. Joy in participating in a festival, and an appreciation of the 
beauty of color, music and rhythmic movement in the fes- 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through original verses: as, 

The grapes are blue 
And good for you. 

The leaves are falling, 
For it is fall. 
We rake up the leaves 
And heap them all. 

Green grapes! Green grapes! 
Yellow corn! Yellow corn! 
Red apples! Red apples! 
Golden pears! Golden pears! 
Beautiful autumn! Beautiful autumn! 

B. Through picture making and design. 

1. Pictures and freehand cuttings as ideas and designs for 

2. Crayola drawings and water-color paintings of the child's 
reaction to the festival. 

C. Through music and dramatization. 

The children worked out a simple dramatization in costume. 
They carried the clay fruits constructed and moved rhythmi- 
cally (walked, danced, skipped or swayed) to appropriate 
music. A choir sang the songs or the piano furnished the 
music as the need arose. 

Units of Experience in First Grade 65 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further activity: 

Interest in sharing autumn treasures with others. The fol- 
lowing week the children brought a Thanksgiving gift of 
fruits and vegetables for Mary Crane Nursery School at 
Hull House, and carried their gifts in a processional with 
other grades. 

Enjoying and Caring for Pets 

A Series of Experiences in First Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Observation of pets in the room. 

1. Goldfish in the room when children came. 

2. Turtles and finches presented to the room by two chil- 

3. A parrot purchased from pet store. 

4. A pair of rabbits given to the room in the spring, and a 
family of young which arrived one week-end. 

5. A pair of hooded rats loaned to the room in the sum- 
mer session. . 

B. Observation of animal families in other rooms and on the 
playground: canaries, guinea pigs, baby chicks, ducks, 

C. Trips to pet stores to buy parrot, to secure supplies for pets, 
and to observe their care. 

D. Children's stories of pets at home: dogs, kittens, rabbits, 

E. Trips to Children's Library to secure pictures and stories 
about pets. 

F. Pictures of children and their pets on bulletin boards from 
time to time. 

II. Problems and questions which led to discussion and experiment. 
For pets studied, such questions as these arose: 

A. What kind of a house is needed? As, cage, aquarium, house. 

B. What materials are needed in the home? 

C. How shall the home be kept sanitary? 

D. What kinds of food are needed? 

E. How often should the pet be fed and what amount? 

F. How can friendship of pets best be gained? 

G. What interesting habits does the pet show: responses to per- 
sons; to other animals; to food; to objects; to noises; care 
of young? 

H. Where can pets be purchased? 

I. How are pets raised and handled at the pet store? 

}. How are different pets valued in selling? 
K. Where can supplies for pets be obtained? 
L. How can information be secured as to proper care of pets? 


Units of Experience in First Grade 

G 7 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 

A. Through constructive activities. 

1. Provision and equipment of suitable homes for school 

2. Provision and preparation of food for school pets. 

3. Mounting of colored pictures of children and pets for 
bulletin boards. 

4. Construction of a series of reading books to record in- 
formation about pets. 

B. Through oral language. 

1. Discussion of needs of pets in room. 

2. Plans for responsibility in care of room pets. 

3. Oral stories of pets at home: their habits, tricks and care. 

4. Oral reports of information gained from visits at pet 

5. Oral reports of observation of pets in other rooms. 

6. Composition of factual stories about different pets, 
which were written on the board by teacher and later 
placed on bulletins, or duplicated for children's books. 

C. Through reading. 

1. Reading of short factual stories of school and home pets, 
first from the blackboard, later from charts and from 
little books made by the children: fish book, finch book, 
turtle book, kitten book, dog book. 

2. Reading later from pre-primers and primers realistic 
stories about children's activities with their pets. 

Baker and Reed 
Baker and Baker 
Baker and Baker 
Hardy, Marjorie 
Hill and Martin 
Lewis and Genres 
Stevens, Avis 
Storm, Grace E. 


Toots in School 

The Pet Pony 

Wag and Puff 

Bob and Baby Pony 

Tots and Toys 


Nip and Tuck 

1938 Bobbs-Merrill 
1938 Bobbs-Merrill 
1938 Bobbs-Merrill 
1926 Wheeler 
1934 Scribner 
1931 Winston 
1936 Webster 
1936 Lyons and 

Bianco, Margery 
Comstock, Anna B. 
Downing, Elliot R. 

Johnson, Constance 

Mathiews, F. K. 

Russell, David W. 

Teacher's References 

All About Pets 

Handbook of Nature Study 

Our Living World 

When Mother Lets Us 

Keep Pets 
Boy Scouts Book of 

Indoor Hobby Trails 
Suggestions for the Care of Pets 

1929 Macmillan 
1939 Comstock 
1928 Longmans, 

1926 Dodd Mead 

J 939 Appleton 

(Reprinted from School Science and Mathematics, April, 1939) 


Natioiial College of Education 

Young Rabbits Show Growth in Weight 

D. Through use of numbers. 

1. Adjustment of size of living quarters to size of pet. 

2. Estimate of quantity of food needed according to num- 
ber and size of pets. 

3. Inquiry at pet store as to money value of different pets. 

4. Decision to buy a parrot because funds available would 
provide one. 

5. Purchase of food and supplies needed for pets. 

6. Counting number in different animal families at school. 

7. Weighing baby animals to check diet. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. Appreciation and knowledge of some small animals: — 
their coloring, texture of covering, their habits and cun- 
ning responses to new situations. 

B. Readiness to give needed care and protection to small 
friendly animals. 

C. Willingness to share with others the responsibility of care 
and the privilege of observation of pets. 

D. Appreciation of need for scientific information concerning 
the correct care of pets. 

Units of Experience in First Grade 


Hooded Rats Are Interesting 

E. Appreciation of need for responsible and regular care of 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

1. Spontaneous memorization of certain favorite poems. 

Aldis, Dorothy The Gold Fish 

Farrar, John 
Lindsay, Vachel 


The Turtle 

2. Enjoying with the teacher picture-story books found in 

Ets, Marie 
Gag, Wanda 

Gag, Wanda 

Hill and Max- 
Hill, Mabel B. 

Hogan, Inez 

Lofting, Hugh 
Nevvbery, Clare 

Mr. Penny 

A. B. C. Bunny 

Millions of Cats 

Charlie and His Puppy 

Big, Little, Smaller 

and Least 
The White Kitten and the 

Blue Plate 
The Story of Mrs. Tubbs 

1935 Viking Press 
1933 Coward- 

1928 Coward- 

1927 Macmillan 

1936 Stokes 

1930 Macmillan 

1923 Stokes 
1936 Harper 


National College of Education 

B. Through creative composition. Original verses were com- 
posed; as, 

Singing, singing, 
The birds arc singing 
And I will sing to yon. 

Swinging, swinging, 
The doves are swinging 
And I will swing with yon. 

C. Through picture-making, design, decoration. 

i. Free drawing of pictures of different pets, with their 
homes, with children feeding them, engaged in play. 

2. Free cutting of some pictures which were mounted to 
make "poster pictures." 

3. Designs made lor covers of animal books. 

D. Through music. 

i. Through songs related to pets of particular interest; as, 

Pretty Pussy 

Bunny, Pretty Runny 

The Squirrel 

Dusty Bob 

Naughty Bird 

Oli, Where Is My Little Dog Gone 

My Big Black Dog 

The Proper Kitten 

2. Pantomiming and dramatizing such songs as: 

Little Chickens 
The Pony Ride 
On a Frosty Morning (About a family of squirrels) 

3. Altering words of songs to fit pets at school. 

Creating new verses to familiar songs; as, 

Oh, I am little Susie Finch, 
Susie Finch, Susie Finch, 
Oh, I am little Susie Finch, 
I like you. 

4. Rhythmic pantomime such as: 


Frogs— teacher at the piano improvised music to suit the rhythm 

and tempo set by the children. 

Music References 

Songs for the Little Child 

Baker and 
Hofer, Mari 



Davison and 


Old Tunes, New Rimes and 

Songs from Many Lands 

A Child's Book of Songs 

One Hundred and Forty 

Folk Songs 
Come and Caper 



A. Flanagan 






E. C. Schirmer 

1932 G. Schirmer 

Units of Experience in First Grade 7 1 

E. Through social activity: sharing room pets with children of 
other grades who came to see them. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. Interest in owning pets at home and caring lor them 

B. Interest in wild animals and their care and protection; as, 
wild birds and squirrels. 

C. Interest in animals at zoo, and how they are kept and cared 

D. Interest in the training of animals for circus or animal 

Using Cars and Filling Stations 

A First Grade Interest in the First Semester 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Trips to filling station to see gas, oil and water put in a 
car; car greased; oil changed; tire changed and mended; 
bulk truck deliver gas. 

B. Identifying types of cars in nearby parking lot. 

C. Watching traffic being controlled at busy corner— by police- 
man and traffic light. 

D. Trip to garage to see mechanic at work on motor. 

E. Riding past freight trains and identifying oil cars. 

F. Riding on a city bus. 

II. Problems and questions which led to discussion and investigation. 

A. How can we make a car to ride in? 

B. How can we make it go? 

; /fRi 


A Stop Is Made at the Filling Station 


Units of Experience in First Grade 73 

C. Where can we get gas? 

D. How does a real filling station get gas? 

E. How can we make a filling station with gas pumps, air 
pumps, oil, etc.? 

F. How can we raise our car to work on the engine? 

G. What does a garage man do to fix a flat tire? 
H. How do they get old oil out of a car? 

I. Why does Ethyl gas cost more than regular? 
J. What does a filling station handle besides gas? 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 

A. Through constructive activities. 

1. Big car of wood, boxes, steel rods for axles and wheels- 
strong enough to carry children. 

2. Filling station of blocks and boxes, including: 

a. gas pumps. 

b. air pump. 

c. hoist of ropes and pulleys. 

d. oil bottles 

e. tires— wheels from blocks. 

3. Small wooden cars for floor play. 

4. Small cars of cardboard boxes for floor play. 

5. Accessories for above— small filling stations, traffic lights, 
bridges, etc., of wood, boxes, and odds and ends. 

B. Through oral language. 

1. Conferences to decide about such problems of construc- 
tion as: 

a. What shall we use for lights, tail lights, bumpers, 
steering wheel, axles? 

b. Where is a good place to ride a car? 

c. How high does the filling station need to be? 

d. How can we make it light enough to see inside the 
filling station? 

2. Conferences to plan the dramatic play. 

a. Who is the filling station attendant to-day? 

b. Who takes care of washing the car? 

c. What does the garage mechanic do? 

d. Who is responsible for putting the car away? 

3. Free conversation during the dramatic play expressive 
of the activities being portrayed. 

a. The family on a trip. 

b. Being towed by the wrecker. 

c. Fixing a flat tire. 

74 Nali on (i I College oj lulu cat ion 

(1. Engine trouble. 

e. Buying gas. 

f. Bringing home vegetables from the farm. 

C. Through written language. 

j . Memoranda of things needed and how they are to be ob- 

2. Listing of groups for certain purposes— those building 
the filling station, those playing car to-day, etc. 

3. Writing of stories about group experiences, such as let- 
ters to absent children or stories for our own enjoyment. 

D. Through factual reading. 

1. Reading of experience stories about trips made by the 

2. Reading of riddles about cars and filling stations made 
by small groups of children. 

3. Reading of cards sent by children away on trip— finding 
where they are on map. 

4. Dramatic play with road maps, with some location of 
nearby or important places. 

5. Use of picture material to get some knowledge of process 
of oil refining and delivering, car assembling, etc., from 
various sources; as, 

a. Auto show. 

b. Magazine advertising. 

c. Advertising departments of gasoline companies. 

d. Book: Lent, H. B., Wide Road Ahead, 1933, Mac- 

6. Identifying names of popular cars— Ford, Buick, Cadil- 
lac, De Soto, etc. 

7. Reading license numbers on cars. 

8. Making and reading signs for use in play— Ethyl Gas, 
Free Air, etc. 

E. Through the use of number. 

1. Measuring floor space and height of filling station. 

2. Measuring wood and boxes to make car large enough 
and symmetrical. 

3. Counting the number of gallons of gasoline or quarts 
of oil put in car. 

4. Some concept of quantity in liquid measure— quart, gal- 
lon, 200 gallon storage tanks. 

5. Growing knowledge of money values— penny, nickel, 
dime, quarter, half dollar, dollar, five dollars. 

6. Some concept of relative cost of gas, oil, new tires, new 

Units of Experience in First Grade 75 

7. Some concept of distance covered in cross country travel- 
in terms of days on the road, miles traveled per day. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes and appreciations developing through 
these experiences. 

A. A knowledge that gas comes from underground. 
\\. A knowledge that gas is transported in various ways— by 
train, boat, truck. 

C. A knowledge that gas is used as fuel for many kinds of 
engines— boats, trains, cars, airplanes. 

D. An appreciation of the fact that a filling station attendant 
is well-trained, courteous, responsible. 

E. An appreciation of the fact that many workers contribute 
to make possible what we consider very ordinary expe- 

F. Growing knowledge of how to make auto traffic safe- 
motorists and pedestrians obey signals, motorists have good 
brakes, children riding in cars should remain seated, etc. 

G. A knowledge that the use to which a car is put determines 
its construction; as, dump truck, van, bus, pleasure car. 

H. Appreciation of the fact that driving demands a specialized 
technique, especially if the vehicle is a heavy one. 

I. A concept that automobiles have changed through the 
years as they have developed. 

J. A knowledge that travel is a means of learning about people. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

1. Stories. 

From Cooperative School Pamphlet No. 2— "Streets" 

Story of Little Old Car. 

Red Gasoline Pump. 

Big Street in Big City. 

Taxi that Hurried. 

Boy Who Thought with His Ears. 
From Here and Now Story Book— Lucy S. Mitchell 


2. Verse. 

From Cooperative School Pamphlet No. 2— "Streets" 

Three Autos. 

Police Cop Man. 
From Golden Flute— Hubbard and Babbitt. 

Cars Go Fast— Annette Wynne. 

Old Coach Road-Rachel Field. 
From Here and Now Story Book— Lucy S. Mitchell. 

Automobile Song. 

j6 National College of Education 

From I Go A-traveling -James Tippett. 

Traffic Sounds. 

My Taxicab. 



Our Automobile. 

Green Bus. 


River Streets. 
From Taxis and Toadstools— Rachel Field. 

Good Green Bus. 


B. Through picture making. 

1. Spontaneous drawing and painting of individual and 
group experiences, such as: 

a. Family going lor a ride. 

b. Moving day. 

c. Wrecker coming to tow car. 

d. A grocery truck. 

C. Through dramatic play. 

1. Individual and small group play centering around 
small cars and accessories depicting such things as: 

a. A busy street. 

b. Delivering coal. 

c. Auto race. 

2. Play centering around big car and filling station on such 
themes as: 

a. Fixing a flat tire. 

b. Engine trouble. 

c. A trip to New York. 

d. Helping the flood victims. 

e. Driving a bus. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further activities. 

A. How people touring by car get food, leading to grocery 
store, restaurant or tourist home. 

B. Kinds of automobiles— leading to study of bus or truck 

C. How people get word to family at home when on a trip- 
leading to a study of mail. 

Conducting a Post Office 

A First Grade Interest in the Second Semester 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background for activities. 

A. Delivering valentines from the valentine box. 

B. Receiving letters from relatives and friends. 

C. Trips to the local post office with parents. 

D. Observing the mailboxes on the corner. 

E. Observing the mailman collecting mail. 

F. Getting mail from the mailbox at home. 

G. An excursion to the post office with the whole class. 
H. Pictures, stamps, letters mounted on the bulletin boards. 
I. An excursion to the airport. 

II. Problems and questions which led to discussion and investigation. 

A. Problems which arose concerning the construction of the 
post office building. 
1. Of what material should it be constructed? 

w ■ 

...■.«#**1«,MIIJ.JHII Mill .. ....... 

Gifts Are Exchanged Through the Post Office 


78 National College of Education 

2. What shape is a post office? 

3. What type of windows are used in a post office? . 

B. Problems which arose concerning interior equipment. 

1. What furniture is needed? 

2. How is mail sorted? Where do people call for their mail? 

C. Questions dealing with names, labels, signs. 

1. Where do you see names and signs in a post office? 

2. Is a clock found in a post office? 

1). Problems dealing with an organization of the dramatic 

1 . What officers are needed? 

2. What time shall mail be collected? 

3. What time shall the post office be open? 

E. Problems which arose concerning carrying of mail. 

1. How is mail carried from tow r n to town? 

2. How shall we construct a mail truck? 

3. How shall we construct a mail plane? 

4. How and why are stamps used? 

F. Problems which arose concerning uniforms worn by dif- 
ferent employees. 

1. What type, color, decorations on the real uniforms? 

2. How can we make some simply that would fit our need? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through constructive activities. Small groups of children 
were interested in different phases of the construction. 

1. Construction of buildings. 

a. Constructing a post office of floor blocks and pieces 
of beaver board. 

b. Providing flag pole and flag. 

c. Constructing a stamp window. 

d. Making chutes for letters and packages. 

e. Constructing individual cubby holes for mail boxes, 
of cigar boxes nailed together. 

2. Constructing vehicles for carrying the mail. 

a. Building a large truck for collecting mail from boxes. 

b. Building an airplane large enough to carry mail 

3. Making labels and signs. 

a. Printing signs for the front of the post office, the mail 
truck, the airplane, the stamp window, the post box. 

b. Printing labels for the letter and package chute. 

c. Printing numbers for individual mail boxes. 

Units of Experience in First Grade 79 

4. Making materials to be posted. 

a. Cutting and making picture post cards. 

b. Modeling objects of clay as cats, book ends, paper 
weights, pencil holders, to mail to friends. 

5. Making stamps and envelopes. 

a. Making large envelopes when manufactured ones 
would not fit. 

b. Making one, two, and three-cent stamps. 

c. Making air mail stamps. 

6. Making uniforms. 

a. Constructing blue and gold postman's caps. 

b. Making oil cloth bags for postman's bags. 

B. Through oral language. 

1. Oral discussion to solve problems suggested. 

2. Discussion of visits to the local post office and to the 

3. Oral reports of trips to the corner post boxes to find out 
what was printed on them. 

4. Discussion to decide upon color schemes; size and type 
of equipment; officers and employees of the post office. 

5. Reports on information gleaned from parents, books, 
friends, on the rules for stamping letters, addressing let- 
ters, amounts of postage, and transportation of mail. 

C. Through factual reading. 

1. Blackboard reading. 

a. Reading daily plans for work for the day. 

b. Reading names of postal employees and their duties. 

c. Reading plans for the trip to the post office and the 

2. Bulletin boards. 

a. Reading captions beneath pictures. 

b. Reading names and amounts from a stamp chart. 

Picture-Story Books for Children's Use 

Kuh, Charlotte The Postman 1929 Macmillan 

Park, Dorothea Here Comes the Postman 1936 Houghton 

Read, Helen S. Billy's Letter 1928 Scribner 

Teacher's References 

Harlow, A. F. Old Post Bags 1928 Appleton 

McSpadden, J. W. How They Carried the Mail 1930 Dodd, Mead 

Storm, Grace E. The Social Studies in the 1931 Lyons and 

Primary Grades Carnahan 

Webster, H. H. Travel by Air, Land and 1933 Houghton 


8o National College of Education 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

i. Measuring: framework for the post office; sides and roof 
for the post office; windows for the post office; chassis 
for automobile; wings and body for airplane; tagboard 
for signs; paper for stamps. 

2. Recognition of numbers. 

a. Reading time on the clock. 

b. Reading numbers on the post boxes. 

c. Reading numbers on stamps. 

d. Reading time of collections. 

3. Counting. 

a. Counting stamps. 

b. Counting pennies by i's and by 2's to $1.00. 

c. Counting nickels to $1.00. 

4. Computing. 

a. Computing the cost of mailing 2 or 3 letters or 
post cards. 

b. Computing cost of sending package at 5c a pound. 

5. Weighing. 

a. Weighing packages to ascertain postage needed. 

b. Weighing letters to see if more than one stamp is 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developing through these 

A. An understanding and appreciation of the importance and 
value of the post office in a community. 

B. An appreciation of the efficiency of mail service. 

C. An appreciation of the privilege of communication by let- 

D. Some knowledge and appreciation of the work of the post 
office, and the responsibility borne by its employees. 

E. Some knowledge and appreciation of the responsibility 
borne by those who transport mail; their faithfulness, 
courage and skill. 

F. An appreciation of the need for orderliness, accuracy, and 
speed on the part of post-office employees. 

G. An appreciation of the need for honesty and care in han- 
dling property belonging to another. 

H. A partial understanding of correct form in writing and 
mailing letters, and need for accuracy, legibility and neat- 

Units of Experience in First Grade 81 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through creative composition. 

1. Some composition of short messages for post cards. 

Dear Sue: 

Do you like the picture? 
I made it. 


Dear Phillip: 

I like the spring. I like the birds. 
I like the flowers. Do you? 


2. Some original composition in letter writing, by a few 
capable writers. 

Dear Peter: 

Can you guess my riddle? 
It has a head. 
It has four feet. 
But it cannot walk. What is it? 

B. Through picture making. 

1. Making pictures with crayolas on post cards to send to 

2. Painting and drawing pictures to send to friends. 

C. Through singing. 

The Postman 
The Engine 
The Aeroplane 

(In Baker, Clara Belle, and Kohlsaat, Caroline. Songs for 

the Little Child. 1938 Abingdon) 
The Mailbox 

(In Davison, A. T., and Surette, T. W. One Hundred and 

Forty Folk Songs. 1922 E. C. Schirmer) 

D. Through dramatic play. 

1. Playing postman: delivering mail, collecting mail, tak- 
ing it by truck or airplane to the post office. 

2. Playing clerk: cancelling the stamps, sorting the mail, 
waiting on customers. 

3. The play of sending letters, picture post cards, and gifts. 
The children spent most of their free time for some weeks 
in this play. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further activities. 

A. An interest in the different methods of transportation. 

B. A broader interest in the community and its various public 

Conducting a Toy Store 

An Enterprise in the First Grade Summer Session 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background for activities. 

A. Boats and sand toys used in the children's summer play 
on the lake shore. 

B. Water toys brought to school by various children. 

C. Children's stories of playing on the lake shore. 

D. Pictures placed on the bulletin boards: children playing 
with toys; children playing in the water. 

II. Problems and questions which led to discussion and experiment. 

A. Problems of construction. 

1. Which toys are most salable in the summer? 

2. What qualities in a toy do people look for when buying? 

3. Of what materials are store buildings made? 

4. What material is most practical for our store? 

5. What shape and size are good for store buildings? 

6. How can a delivery truck be made? 

B. Problems of organization. 

i.What employees are needed in a toy store? 

2. What are the duties of each? 

3. Will there be delivery service? 

C. Problems related to buying and selling. 

1. How does one fix the prices? 

2. Do prices change from customer to customer? 

3. How does a customer know the price? 

4. Whom does one pay? 

D. Problems related to money. 

1 . What shall we use for money? 

2. Under what conditions may we use another's money? 
(It was decided to borrow $5 from the school bank in 

nickels, dimes, and pennies to use in playing store.) 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through constructive activities. Different children were in- 
terested in different phases of construction. 
1. Construction of buildings. 

a. Store built of double set of floor blocks. 

b. Show cases outside built of blocks. 

c. Counters inside built of orange crates. 


Units of Experience in First Grade 83 

d. Cashier's booth built on as an extra wing. 

2. Construction of toys. 

a. Building of wood: hydroplanes, boats, steamers, 
tug boats, barges, sail boats, motor boats, engines 
and trains, wooden spades. 

b. Painting large gallon tomato cans for sand pails. 

c. Cutting from oiled cardboard toy ducks, frogs, fish, 
turtles, and mounting them on large corks. 

3. Constructing a large auto from packing boxes for de- 
livery truck. 

4. Constructing incidentals for the store. 

a. Making labels, price tags, price lists, checks. 

b. Making tagboard and raffia purses. 
P>. Through oral language. 

1. Related to construction and organization. 

a. Solving problems through discussions, relating to 
children's experiences in stores. 

b. Selecting clerks, cashiers, janitors, delivery boys to 
run the store. 

c. Deciding duties and responsibilities of each. 

2. Related to buying and selling. 

a. Listing rules to assure good usage of money. 

b. Deciding how much to charge for articles, accord- 
ing to size, amount of labor. 

c. Working out procedure: 

Get money from the bank; write withdrawal slip. 
Select toys with help of a clerk. 
Get bill from clerk. 
Pay the cashier. 

C. Through factual reading. 

1. Blackboard reading. 

a. Reading lists of toys suggested for construction. 

b. Reading names of employees and children's names. 

2. Reading charts and lists. 

a. Reading price lists, labels, price tags. 

b. Reading name, date, amount on withdrawal slip. 

D. Through use of number. 

1 . Developing a sense of the value of money. 

a. Using and caring for real money. 

b. Fixing fair prices for the toys. 

2. Counting and using money. 

a. Counting nickels and dimes to find amount needed 
to make purchases. 

84 National College of Jul neat ion 






The Lake Tests Water Toys 

b. Counting nickels and dimes by cashier to see if he 
is given right amount. 
3. Measuring. 

a. Measuring wood to be used for toys. 

b. Measuring floor space to build store right size. 

c. Measuring paper for withdrawal slips, price tags, 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developing through 
these experiences. 

A. Some understanding and appreciation of toy manufacturers. 

B. Some understanding and appreciation of the skill required 
to organize, equip and manage a store. 

C. More appreciation of attractive, well-made toys; and more 
joy in playing with toys. 

D. Better understanding of the value of toys and the value of 

E. Some understanding and appreciation of the responsibility 
accepted by a clerk and cashier, in a store. 

F. Some appreciation of honest, careful workmanship in 
manufactured articles. 

G. Eagerness to be fair and honest in business endeavors. 
H. Some development toward an attitude of thrift. 

I. A desire to be polite and courteous when serving people. 

Units of Experience in First Grade 85 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

1. Stories told by the teacher and by the children. 

The Doll's Boat 

(In Baker, C. B. and E. D. Fifty Flags. 1938 Bobbs-Merrill) 
Lindsay, Maud The Toy Shop. 1926 Lothrop 
Dicky's Birthday 

(In Baker, C. B. and E. D. The Sailing Tub. 1938 Bobbs-Merrill) 

2. Verses memorized by some of the children. 

Stevenson, Robert L. When I Was Down Beside the 

Lindsay, Vachel The Little Turtle 

Aldis, Dorothy The Goldfish 

Stevenson, Robert L. Dark Brown Is the River 

B. Through music. 

Singing and dramatizing such songs as: 

The Engine 
The Aeroplane 

(In Baker, C. B. and Kohlsaat, C. Songs for the Little Child. 

1938 Abingdon) 
The Sailboat 
The Little Ship 

(In Davison, A. T. and Surette, T. W. One Hundred and Forty 

Folk Songs. 1922 E. C. Schirmer) 

C. Through dramatic activity and social activity. 

1. Playing with toys in the room after they had been pur- 

2. The variety of playing bank and store. 

3. A trip to the lake shore to sail boats and hydroplanes, 
to play with the turtle and fish floats, and to play in the 
sand with the trains and buckets. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. Interest in other types of stores. 

B. Interest in the wider activities of the community. 

C. Interest in other industries. 


PARTICULAR objectives in the second grade have been to 
extend the children's knowledge of their own community, and 
to help them to appreciate more fully their own responsibilities and 
privileges as citizens. The dependence of the community on nearby 
industries has also been emphasized. 

The interest in clay modeling led to an excursion to the Haeger 
pottery and art shop in Dundee where the potter's wheel and the 
making of clay articles in molds were observed. A pottery unit fol- 
lowed which culminated in a Christmas gift shop. 

The interest in transportation is still keen at this level. A study 
of travel by trailer, and a harbor unit have been particularly suc- 
cessful. A dramatization of carrying the mail, using puppets and 
models of vehicles was the center of interest for an extended period. 

Through excursions and stories, an interest in farming has some- 
times been created, and the dairy farm, the poultry farm, and the 
wheat farm have been studied in different years. One of the parents 
presented the school with an incubator, so that it has been possible 
to experiment with the hatching of hens' eggs and ducks' eggs. The 
investigation of methods in farming has led to much experimental 
study of the germination of seeds, and to the making of a garden 
on the school grounds. A garden market was a successful spring 
enterprise of two different years. 

The enterprises included in this volume have been selected from 
the records of three different years, and are some that have been 
attended by special success. Outcomes in social meanings and ap- 
preciations peculiar to the particular unit are included with the 
unit. All of the enterprises have proved valuable in developing 
certain desirable social and personal habits and attitudes; as, the 
habit of planning work before beginning, good use of time and 
of materials, neatness and carefulness in using tools and materials, 
desire to improve quality of work, persistence in finishing work 
begun, sharing of ideas and materials, respect for rights and opinions 
of others, sympathy and appreciation for the efforts of others. 


Units of Experience in Second Grade 87 

readiness to give and receive constructive criticism, self-control 
in observing the rules of the group, pride in worthy individual and 
group attainments. The enterprises have also provided opportunity 
for growth in the powers of expression through music, dramatiza- 
tion, fine and industrial arts, and creative language, and for progress 
in fundamental skills. Outcomes in terms of particular arts and 
skills are summarized under Group Records of Progress in Part IV. 

Living In a Trailer 

An Enterprise in Second Grade in the Fall 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background for activities. 

A. Summer traveling experiences of the children: seeing trail- 
ers in the road; seeing trailer camps. 

B. A trip into the city to a trailer distributor to examine real 
trailers and to seek answers to questions. 

C. A trip to a trailer camp in Evanston. 

D. A trip to the lake shore to cook lunch on the beach. 

E. Sending for and showing to the school a March of Time 
film on the history, construction, and use of trailers. 

II. Problems and questions which led to investigation. 

A. What is the approximate size of a real trailer? 

B. What equipment is needed in a trailer to make housekeep- 
ing and living possible? 

C. How can the needs of a family be met in such a small amount 
of space? 

D. Is it healthy to live in a trailer? 

E. Why do some people prefer living in a trailer? 

F. Will trailers some day take the place of permanent homes? 

G. What are the good points and the bad points of trailer life? 
H. How can we put electric lights in our trailer? 

I. Where will we get power? How do ocean liners and trains 

and automobiles get electric power? 
J. Are trailers used for any purposes other than homes? 
K. Why do cities object to trailer homes? 
L. How much do trailers cost? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through oral and written language. 

1. Relating observations of trailers seen on the road and 
owned by friends. 

2. Discussion of plans for the building of a trailer: size, 
number of windows, material to use. 

3. Discussion of the trip to inspect a trailer. 

4. Planning a healthful luncheon to be prepared outdoors. 

5. Composing letters and sending them to various trailer 
companies for pamphlets, pictures and information. 

Units of Experience in Second Grade 


A Trailer Family Meets Wood Folk 

6. Writing road signs; writing the name of the trailer on it; 
writing signs for the various parts of their play. 

7. Writing letters to parents, other classes, and faculty 
friends to come and see their trailer play. 

B. Through constructive activities. 

1. Building a large trailer six feet high, five feet wide, and 
ten feet long. 

2. Making furniture: table and benches, sofa, stove, ice- 
box, and cupboards. 

3. Making curtains for the windows. 

4. Wiring the trailer for electric lights. 

5. Connecting and using dry cell batteries. 

6. Cutting and painting large trees, bushes, and ponds for 
their trailer play. 

7. Making dishes to use in the trailer. 

C. Through writing letters; as, 

The United States Coach Company. 
Dear Sirs: 

Please send us some pictures of trailers. Please tell us something 
about trailers. We want to build one in our room. We are going to Mr. 
Zepp's to see trailers. Stephen. 

c)o National College of Education 

I). Through making of a trailer scrapbook. 

1. Many illustrations, painted and drawn. 

2. Original verses, stories, and songs. 

3. Newspaper and magazine clippings. 

4. Newspaper and magazine illustrations. 

5. Letters written to trailer companies. 

6. Letters received from trailer companies. 

7. Pamphlets and booklets about trailers. 

8. Records of their own activities. 

E. Through factual reading. 

1. Reading letters from various trailer companies. 

2. Reading parts of trailer pamphlets. 

3. Reading parts of newspaper and magazine articles about 

4. Reading class plans from charts, blackboard. 

5. Reading titles on the March of Time film on trailers. 

6. Reading plans for the class play. 

Teacher's References 

Sims, Blackburn. The Trailer Home. 1937 Longmans. 
Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia. 1938 Compton. 
World Book Encyclopedia. 1936 Quarrie. 

F. Through arithmetic. 

1. Measuring lumber and beaverboard used in construct- 
ing the trailer. 

2. Estimating the number of lights needed for the trailer. 

3. Shopping for food for lunch. 

a. Keeping within a budget allowed them. 

b. Keeping a record of amount spent. 

c. Making a report to the dietitian on money spent. 

4. Getting some idea of various expenditures involved in 
supporting a family. 

5. Getting some idea of comparative cost of living in a 
trailer and living in a home. 

IV. Meanings, attitudes, and appreciations probably developed through 
these experiences. 

A. An appreciation of a permanent home. 

B. An appreciation of the climate and natural beauty of various 
parts of our country. 

C. Some appreciation for sanitation and its part in the com- 
munity health program. 

D. An increasing appreciation for nature and outdoor experi- 

Units of Experience in Second Grade gi 

E. A willingness to share experiences with other classes; as, 
March of Time film. 

F. The beginning of an understanding of the cost of keeping 
a family. 

G. Willingness to share responsibilities in family living. 

Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through composition, as: 

We rode on the North Shore and then we rode on the elevated 
when we went to see trailers. We saw the elevated round house. We 
saw a car that didn't have any wheels on it. I guess it is used for a 
house now. Yes, a work house where they keep the tools. 

We went up, up in the air on the "L". We saw the tops of houses 
and old shoes on the roof tops and sign boards on the roof tops. 
We went down, down again. 

We rode over two bridges that went over rivers. And we walked 
across a bridge that went over the "L" tracks. Then we waited for the 
North Shore train to come. 

Peter thought the train would tip over rocking back and forth. 
Tippity, Tippity, 
Sideways and straight, 
Sideways and straight. 

It was fun looking out of the windows. We passed many stations 
and read the signs on them. Some were funny. Some were big. Some 
were good. 

B. Through verse and song writing, as: 

I had a little trailer; I went down by a river 

Nothing would it bear, To catch a little fish; 

But a little table I cooked him and I fried him; 

And some little chairs. I put him in a dish. 

One day I went a-riding I put him on the table; 

Down the road afar, I ate him with a swish; 

With my trailer hooked on And that was the end 

Behind my little car. Of my poor little fish! 

(Tune: I Had a Little Nut Tree) 

C. Through design and picture making. 

1. Many pictures were made of trailers in various geo- 
graphical settings, pictures of trailer camps, and outdoor 

2. Simple scenery for the play was designed and painted. 

3. Simple costumes were designed and decorated. 

D. Through making a trailer scrapbook including finger- 
painted cover. 

1. Illustrations painted and drawn. 

2. Story for original play. 

E. Through dramatic play: playing house; traveling in a 

92 National College oj Education 

F. Through the creation of an original play on trailer life in 
the summer. 
Scene I. In the family automobile with trailer attached. 

Looking for a place to spend the night. 
Scene II. Animal life at a trailer camp. Watching active 

squirrels, rabbits, birds, frogs. 
Scene III. Dinner time in the trailer. Walking in the sunset 

at the camp. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further projects. 

A. An interest in nature, animal and bird life in the autumn. 

B. An interest in sanitation— the city's problem. 

C. A desire to know more about different kinds of homes. 

Developing a Harbor 

An Enterprise in Second Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Stories were told of vacation experiences at lakes where 
children had ridden in various kinds of small craft. Some 
had had trips on the Great Lakes on yachts and on the lake 

B. Frequent trips were made to Wilmette Harbor and the 
drainage canal to see small lake craft. 

C. A trip to see the "lookout" tower at the harbor and a visit 
to the U. S. Coast Guard Station were made. 

D. Children brought in pictures of boats, bridges, buoys, and 
also some ship models. 

E. A trip to the Navy Pier in Chicago to see various kinds of 
boats and the way they are put in winter storage, to see 
tugs take ore-boats into the Chicago River, and the operat- 
ing of the new boulevard link bridge, and to make a tour 
through the coast guard cutter Rush, proved rich in build- 
ing background. 

F. The Evanston Lighthouse was visited. 

G. Seeing a dredge and barge at work in the canal during the 
first week of school was an incentive for further study of 

II. Problems and questions which led to investigation. 

A. Relating to the making of boats. 

1. What kinds of boats to make and what sizes should they 
be for best play use? 

2. Which boats are large and which ones are small? 

3. Why are some boats pointed at the prow and others 
straight across the front? 

4. How can an even point be made on the keel? 

5. How can boats be made to look as real as possible? 

6. How do the new streamlined liners differ from older 
models of steamships? 

7. What are the various parts of a boat called? 

8. What do the colors on funnels of steamships signify? 

9. Why is the pilothouse on an airplane carrier on one side 
of the boat? What makes the boat balance? 

10. Why is its funnel so tall? 


94 National College oj Education 

li. Where are its cabins? 

12. Where are lifeboats carried? Is the position the same on 
all boats? 

B. Relating to the different purposes of boats, 
i. What does a liner carry besides people? 

2. What are tugs used for? How does their crew know when 
and where they are needed? 

3. Why do barges have no engines? 

4. What is a tramp steamer and how does it differ from a 

5. What is a police boat and what is it used for? 

6. Why do large harbors have fire boats? 

7. Where do the ore boats come from and why do they come 
to Chicago? 

8. Of what use is a coast guard cutter? 

9. Why does our government have a navy? 

10. What is a lightship? 

11. Why does the government have airplane carriers? 

12. Why are ferryboats used in some places instead of build- 
ing bridges? 

13. Do boats have traffic laws like cars have? 

C. Relating to the responsibilities of a crew. 

1. What does the captain do? 

2. Who are his helpers? 

3. Why does he wear brass braid on his sleeves? 

4. Who operates the radio and who gives signals with the 
"ship's flags"? 

5. What is a steward? 

6. Who stays in the crow's-nest and why? 

7. Who blows the foghorn and the boat's whistles? 

8. What do the whistles mean? 

9. What do deep sea divers do? 

1 o. How can the crew detect icebergs? 

11. Why do liners have "harbor pilots"? 

12. How does the compass help the captain? 

13. On which side do ships pass one another? 

14. How are icebergs detected? 

15. How does an ice cutter cut through the ice? 

16. What happens to stowaways? 

17. What happens if some one falls overboard? 

18. How do the men on deck know when a deep sea diver 
wants to come up? 

D. Relating to lighthouses. 

1 . What is their purpose? 

Units of Experience in Second Grade 95 

2. Where are they located? 

3. Why does each lighthouse have certain flashes? 

4. Why is a lighthouse built round? 

5. How does one go to the top? 

6. What kind of a light does it have? 

7. Why cannot it be seen in the daylight? 

8. Where does the lighthouse keeper live? 

9. Why doesn't the Evanston Lighthouse use a foghorn? 

E. Relating to harbors. 

1 . Why are some places better than others to build harbors? 

2. Why do some harbors need breakwaters? 

3. What are breakwaters made of? 

4. What are slips or berths? 

5. What is the purpose of buoys and what kinds of buoys 
are there? 

6. Why are they made in different shapes? 

7. What happens to boats in winter? Are all boats stored? 

8. What is the purpose of a dry dock? 

F. Relating to bridges. 

1. Why are some bridges stationary and some movable? 

2. What kinds of bridges are there? 

3. What makes them move? 

4. Why cannot a swing span bridge be used in a narrow 

5. What are the sections that lift up called? 

G. Relating to locks. 

1. Why are there locks at Wilmette Harbor? 

2. How do they work? 

III. Finding answers to questions and problems. 

A. Through firsthand experiences. 

Trips were made to the harbors, coast guard cutters, yacht, 
lighthouse, coast guard station locks, etc. 

B. Through oral expression. 

1. Told stories of experiences on boats. 

2. Discussed group experiences and information gained 
through this means. 

3. Discussed conversations held with parents at home about 
problems that arose at school in connection with study. 

4. Discussed pictures found in books and shown to group. 

5. Gained firsthand information from captain of the Rush, 
and from a father of one of the group who deals in boats. 

C. Through factual reading. 

1. Read simple books about boats. 


National College o\ Education 

2. Teachers read more difficult books, extracts from ency 
clopedia, etc. 

Beaty, John Y. 

Bourgeois, Florence 
Curtis, Nell 
Dalgleish, Alice 
DuBois, William 
Petersham, Maud 8 

Starbuck, Wilson 

Children's Picture-Story Books 

Story Pictures of 
Beachcomber Bobbie 
Sailor Sam 
Otto at Sea 
The Story of Boats 

Liners and Freighters 

1939 Beckley-Cardy 

1935 Doubleday Doran 
1927 Rand McNally 

1935 Scribners 

1 936 The Viking Press 
1935 Winston 

1934 Thomas Nelson 

Branie, Sheila E. 

Cartwright, Charles E. 
Collins, Francis Arnold 
Curtis, Nell C. 
Dukelow, Jean H. & 

Webster^ H. 
Reck, F. M. 

Romer, Ralph & 

Van Metre, T. W. 
Webster, Hanson Hart 

Burrow, Clayton 

Books for the Teacher 

Merchant Ships and What 

They Bring Us 
The Boys' Book of Ships 
Sentinels Along Our Coast 
The Ship Book 

Romance of American 

Sky Travel 

1931 Dutton 

1925 Dutton 
1922 Century 
1927 Rand McNally 
1931 Houghton 

1938 Crowell 

1930 Houghton 

1931 Doubleday Doran 
1933 Houghton 

Material on Airplane Carriers 

Tramps and Liners 
Travel by Air, Land and 


Community Life in the Harbor, Curriculum Units for 
Elementary Schools, No. 1, Department of Education, 
Sacramento, California, 1935 

D. Through constructive activities. 

1. Built boats. 

2. Laid out harbors. 

3. Made lighthouses and breakwaters. 

4. Built bridges of various kinds. 

E. Through use of arithmetic. 

1. Compared sizes of various kinds of boats. 

2. Used linear measurement in construction of keels, mak- 
ing of prows, making of funnels, making of bridges. 

3. Used liquid measurement in the making of cement for 
breakwaters. (Children gained a valuable lesson in mak- 
ing one section of a breakwater. They were careless in 
measuring the cement and dumped in an extra quantity, 
and the result was that the section cracked into several 

Units of Experience in Second Grade 


New Boats Will Soon Be Launched 

pieces. Accuracy in measuring was an important factor 
after that experience.) 
4. Discussed "water line" and its meaning— how it showed 
the weight on board, etc. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. Some understanding of water travel and shipping. 

B. Appreciation for the responsibilities of a crew, lighthouse 
keepers, coast guard man, bridge tenders, keepers of the 

C. Some realization of what is needed to make water travel 

D. A dawning realization of distance. 

E. A knowledge of different kinds of boats and their uses. 

F. A feeling for the life of seamen, the thrill of adventure, and 
the joy of travel. 

G. An emotional thrill in seeing the beauty of water, the roll- 
ing of waves, lights on the water, etc. 

H. An emotional thrill in hearing the swish of waves, the 
whistles of boats, calls of seamen. 


National College oj Education 

V. Interpretation and expressions of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

1. Oral reading of selected stories from school readers. 

2. Oral reading of a few poems, such as 

Bennett, Rowena "Boats" 

from The Golden Flute John Day 

Fyleman, Rose "The Boat" and "The Deck 


from Gay Go Up Doubleday 

Fyleman, Rose "Fairies by the Sea" 

from Fairies and Friends Doubleday 

Field, Rachel "I'd Like to Be a Lighthouse" 

from Taxis and Toadstools Doubleday 

Field, Rachel "Whistles" 

from The Pointed People Macmillan 

Sandburg, Carl "F°g" 

from Early Morn Harcourt 

Tippett, James "Motor Boats" and "Sand Boats" 

from / Spend the Summer Harper 

Tippett, James "Ferry Boats" and "Freight 


from / Go A -Traveling Harper 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Poems were created by the group. 

2. Charts were composed by the children. 

C. Through picture making. 

1. Pictures were drawn by individuals of various kinds of 

2. Group pictures made of harbor life depicted ships, cargo 
being loaded, lighthouses, deep sea divers, life under the 
sea, etc. 

D. Through music. 

1. Rhythmic pantomime. 

a. Rowing boats. 

b. Ploughing liners through the water. Out of several 
types of music, the children chose music in three-two 
meter with a majestic swing. 

2. Songs were sung of boats and sea life; as, 

By Boat. 

Blow the Man Down 

The Tarpaulin Jacket 

I Had a Little Sailboat 

A Song of Ships 

The Lighthouse 

The Sea Gull 


Our Motor Boat (Rhythmic activity followed the singing.) 

Sailors on Shore (Rhythmic activity followed the singing.) 

Song of the Boisterous Sailors 

I Wish I Were a Sailor 

Units oj Experience in Second Grade 99 

Music References 

Surette, T. W. Songs from Many Lands 1937 Houghton MiHlin 

Palmer, W. B. American Songs for Chil- 1931 Macmillan 

Davison and Surette One Hundred and Forty 1921 E. C. Schirmer 

Favorite Songs of the Peo- 1927 Theodore Presser 

Hofer, Mari Old Tunes, New Rimes 1917 A. Flanagan 

and Games 
Perham, Beatrice Songs of Travel and Trans 1937 Keil Kjos 


E. Through dramatic interests, using small dolls. 

Shipping of cargo; carrying of passengers; rescuing of boats 
in trouble; docking of ships at dry dock; diving; the fire 
and police boats in action; operating the various kinds of 
bridges as boats pass through. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. A developing of a community where the crews and the 
people who travel on the boats may live. 

B. An interest in sea specimens— whales, starfish, octopus, etc. 

C. An interest in mail through some discussion of mail boats 
and carrying of mail on ocean liners. 

D. An interest in map making— beginning with a local map of 
points of interest, such as, National College, the Wilmette 
Harbor, Coast Guard Station, Lighthouse, the homes of the 
children, elevated railroad and North Shore electric lines. 

Stories and Poems Created in the Study of Harbors 

The Sinking Ship 

In the harbor there is a horrible racket. 

The whistles of boats are blowing. 

The sirens of fire boats are ringing. 

One loud fire alarm rings. 

Away dashes the fire boat No. 84. 

A whistle blows— 

Up come four tugs— 

Another whistle blows. 

Away goes the police boat. 

A coast guard cutter follows. 

They are going to the rescue of a sinking ship. 

There must have been two sinking ships. 

A steamer came bounding out of its dock at a hundred knots an hour 

instead of 18. 
All the tugs and everything started leaping out of the harbor, for they 

know if they hear an S.O.S. call they should not stand around. 
They answered the S.O.S. call and they went plenty fast— don't worry. 
Down the river went all the harbor boats. 
Soon they came to a few masts sticking out of the water. 

ioo National College of Education 

The boats stopped suddenly. 

They heard the S.O.S. coming out of the water. 
They knew that was the boat they had come to rescue. 
A steamer sent a radio call out tor a submarine. 
Down the harbor came the submarine and all the boats saved the 
sinking ship. 


Out of the harbor goes the tramp steamer. 

It is going to Florida. 

Ding, dong goes the bell buoy. 

It is warning the steamer of dangerous rocks. 

She is carrying a cargo of wheat to Florida. 


The beacon light shines over the water. 

It is beautiful, so beautiful. 

The harbor is very big. 

The lighthouse looks very far away. 


See the boats 

Afloating on the rippling sea 

And the bell buoy 

Sings dingedy-dong. 

When the sea 

Goes up and down 

The light 

Of the lighthouse 

Flickers in the night. 


In the harbor a freighter is coming in. 

It has come from Canada. 

The captain is on the bridge. 

He signals to the engine room to shut off the engine. 

The engineer shuts off the engine. 

The boat stops. 

A harbor boat drives up. 

The harbor pilot climbs up a rope ladder. 

Tugs whistle to the freighter. 

The freighter whistles back. 

Soon little tugs drive up. 

The tugs go puff-puff-puff, pulling the freighter. 

The tugs pull the freighter into its dock. 


Some boats are out on the sea, 
It looks as if they were going too fast to me, 
Its sails are swinging wide and free, 
And the people on it laugh with glee. 


When the waves go up. 
The bell buoy says "Ding." 
When the waves go down, 
The bell buoy says "Dong." 
"Dingety-dong, dingety-dong," 
Goes the bell buoy's lonesome, 
Lonesome song. 


Units of Experience in Second Grade 1 

It's a very foggy night 

And a ship is out at sea. 

The ship is brightly lighted 

On this foggy, foggy night. 

The captain drops the anchor. 

The fog horn blows and blows. 

Out of the dark comes its "Too-ot, to-o-ot, too" 

Wait, captain, wait 

Until it's safe to travel. 

—A Group Poem. 

The lighthouse stands in the rock sea 
And along comes a tug boat out to sea. 
The bell buoy rocks to and fro, 
While the south wind blows soft and low. 
The bell buoy tells of dangerous rocks, 
"Oh, captain brave, look out, look out! 
For there are rocks ahead." 

—A Group Poem 

The sun shines down on the greenish blue, 
And far, far down in the deep, deep sea, 
Sea divers go in search of pearls . 
And I hope they'll bring some pearls to me. 

—A Group Poem 

Carrying the Mail 

An Enterprise in Second Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background for activities. 

A. Cards were sent to members of the group by the teacher on 
her vacation trip. These were mailed from different parts 
of the country. Cards received by the children from other 
sources, during the summer, were brought in. 

B. Group visited the old post office in Evanston; also visited 
the new one in the process of construction. 

C. Two letters were mailed by the group, addressed to the 
group at the school. One was sent by regular delivery and 
the other by special delivery to determine difference in 
amount of time for delivery. 

D. Letter was written to postmaster to gain permission to visit 
post office. 

E. Excursion was made through new post office. A guide was 
supplied. Children followed the processes a local letter goes 
through from time it was brought in on truck from a street 
box to placing the letter in bag of carrier. A letter was also 
mailed to a second grade group in another city. Group 
saw letter placed in bag and put on truck, then followed 
truck to railroad station two blocks away and saw bag put 
on mail train. 

F. Stamps were collected. Two foreign children in the group 
and one or two fathers whose business brought foreign mail 
added much to the room collection. Emphasis was on United 
States stamps at first. Later as foreign stamps were collected 
the children were interested in looking up places where 
foreign stamps came from. 

G. Children wrote letters to parents who were out of town. 
Exchanged letters with two other second grade groups— one 
in a private school in Chicago, another in Michigan. Wrote 
letters to absent members of the group from time to time. 

H. Made a collection of pictures and interesting newspaper 
clippings that told of how mail was carried in various parts 
of the world. 
I. Rode on suburban train to Northwestern Station in Chicago 
to see mail trains loaded and unloaded— to see mail dumped 
on conveyor belts between tracks. Visited mail room in 

1 02 

Units of Experience in Second Grade 


Important Letters Are Posted 

J. Visited municipal airport to see mail received and loaded. 
K. Some members of group were taken by parents to Historical 

Society to see setup of country store containing post-office 

boxes, and to see collection of early stamps. 
L. Neighborhood excursions were made to see carriers get 

mail from storage boxes and to see trucks pick up mail. 

II. Problems and questions which led to investigation. 

A. Problems relating to the delivery of mail. 

1. How does mail reach its destination? 

2. How should a letter be addressed? 

3. In how many ways does mail travel? 

4. How was it carried long ago? 

5. How is mail picked up in small towns? 

6. Why do people in small towns call for their mail? 

7. Why do not all cities have air service? 

8. Why is not the autogyro used in delivering mail in all 
large cities? 

9. Why do some people have "curb service" instead of boxes 
on their homes? 

04 National College of Education 

10. Where must rural boxes be placed? 
What kind of boxes must they be? 

1 1 . How far does a rural carrier have to ride and how far 
does a city carrier have to walk? 

12. How far did the Pony Express rider have to ride and 
how fast did the horses go? 

13. What happens to dead letters and smashed packages? 

14. How does a sorting clerk know which sorting box a letter 
should go in for city delivery? 

15. How do the employees unlock street boxes? Why must 
their keys for these be turned in at the office each night? 

1 6. How is registered and special delivery mail different from 
other mail? 

B. Questions concerning responsibility towards mail. 

1 . Why is it considered serious to open other people's mail? 

2. Why is it serious for an employee to tamper with mail? 

3. Why do larger post offices have a "catwalk"? 

4. W^hat happens to dishonest employees? 

5. Must mail be delivered in any kind of weather? 

C. Questions relative to postal savings and money orders. 

1 . What are money orders and what is their advantage? 

2. Why does the post office have a postal savings depart- 

3. How is it different from a bank? 

D. Problems relative to the building of a post office in the 

1 . What material can be used for building it? 

2. What size should it be in relation to floor space in the 
room? (Due to limited floor space and the children's 
desire to correlate other activities such as planes, trains, 
boats, trucks, etc., to carry mail, it was the unanimous 
decision of the group to construct the post office on a 
small scale and carry on dramatic play through dolls.) 

3. What will be needed in the post office? 

4. What means of transportation will be needed? 

E. Problems concerning dramatic play. 

1. What are the activities and responsibilities of those 
working in the post office? 

2. What are the activities and responsibilities of those who 
handle mail on planes, boats, trucks, trains, etc.? 

F. Questions concerning the post office as a government build- 

1 . Why does it belong to the government? 

2. Why does it fly the American flag? 

Units of Experience in Second Grade 105 

3. When is the flag put up and taken down? 

4. Why does it hang at half-mast at times? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through constructive activities. Several small groups 
worked on the building of the post office and its furnishings. 
Others made the small houses and furnishings and laid 
out the streets in the community— built the harbor, docks, 
airport and railroad station. Many children contributed 
their individual constructions of trucks, trains, boats, 
planes, etc. 

1. Building of the post office. This was made of scrap wood, 
boxes, beaver board and other scrap material. 

a. Post office was constructed so as to leave part of it 
open, making possible play within the building. 

b. Pulley arrangement was made to raise and lower flag. 
(This seemed an important part of the post office. 

The children were delighted one morning to find 
their pet parrot had gotten out of his cage and was 
perched on the top of this flag pole. "Now we have 
a bird on our flag pole, just like the brass eagle down 
at the real post office!") 

c. Stamp windows, mail chutes, sorting tables, boxes, 
mailbags and corner mailboxes were constructed. 

2. Constructing of boats, mail boats, trains and airplanes 
to carry mail bags. 

3. Building of houses using boxes, orange crates and heavy 
cardboard cartons. 

4. Making of people— clothespin dolls and pipe cleaner 
dolls. " 

5. Laying out of community. 

B, Through oral and written language. 

1. Group discussions pertaining to questions that arose 
during construction periods, and relative to knowledge 

2. Discussions relative to excursions, their purpose and 

3. Individual contributions relative to experiences con- 
cerning mail, trips to post office, etc., or information 
gained outside of school. 

4. Making of labels and signs. 

a. Signs on post office, mail trucks, boats, trains and 

b. Labels for windows in post office, on mailbox, etc. 

1 ()(] 

National College of Education 

C. Through reading. 

1. Reading from blackboard material, answering questions 
the members of the group wanted answered. 

2. Sharing with one another stories in readers dealing with 
the post office. 

3. Reading of letters from one another. (Children would 
often write letters at home to one another and have on 
desks to surprise one another.) Reading of letters from 
other groups with whom they corresponded. 

4. Bulletin board material— interesting bits written by the 
teacher concerning mail. Labels on new or unusual 

Park, Dorothea 
Read, Helen S. 
Smith, Nila B. 

Books Read By Children 
Here Comes the Postman 1936 Houghton 

Billy's Letter 
The Postman 

1929 Scribner 
1935 Silver Burdelt 

Stories Told to Children 

Ingersoll, M. I. Owney of the Mail Bags (In Baker, C. B. and E. D. Diniv 
the Porcupine and Other Stories. 1938 Bobbs-Merrill) 

Lyvers, Helen The Mail goes Through (In Baker, C. B. and E. D. Our 
World and Others. 1938 Bobbs-Merrill) 

Bibliography for Teacher 

Chapman, Arthur 
Hall, C. G. 
Hall, C. G. 
Hall, C. G. 
Harlow, Alvin F. 
Hughes, Avah 

McSpadden, J. W. 

The Pony Express 
Mail Comes Through 

Through by Rail 
Old Post Bags 
Carrying the Mail 

1932 Putnam 
1938 Macmillan 
1938 Macmillan 
1938 Macmillan 
1928 Appleton 

1933 Teachers College 

United States Post Office 

How They Carried the 1930 Dodd, Mead 

A Brief History of the United States Postal 
Service. 1938, Government Printing Office 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Measuring carefully all construction work whenever 
there was a real need. 

2. Recognizing need for good proportion in making build- 
ing, means of conveyance, etc. 

3. Recognizing of numbers on clock and stamps of various 
denominations, time collections on boxes. 

4. Counting and computing. 

a. Playing games with stamps mounted on cards. 

b. Playing games with the above stamp cards plus using 
real coins to "buy" the stamps. Amounts up to 50 
cents were used. 

Units of Experience in Second Grade 107 

c. Comparing cost of sending letters today with cost of 
transportation by Pony Express. 

d. Learning the number of miles traveled by an Express 

5. Weighing. 

Experimenting with scales to determine the weight of 
various size packages. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developing through 
these experiences. 

A. Some understanding of how the postal system operates. 

B. An appreciation of the need for the dependability of those 
working for the postal system. 

C. Some conception of the need for accuracy and speed on the 
part of employees. 

D. Some understanding of the inter-relationships involved in 
transporting mail. 

E. An interest in various cities and in foreign countries and 
their location. 

F. Some conception of the route of the Pony Express. 

G. Some understanding of how to write a letter and address 
an envelope in proper form. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through creative expression. 

1. Many letters written by individuals. 

2. Group letters composed to postmaster. 

3. Stories written by individuals about carrying the mail. 

4. Poems created by individuals; as, 

The Mail Plane 

Br-r-r- The airplane 

is carrying mail 

through the sky; 
Far below the airport's lights 

are gleaming. 
She roars down to a landing. 
The mail trucks are waiting. 
Off to the post office with the mail. 
The men sort the mail and— 
Off to the houses it goes. 

The Mail Plane 

The wonderful bird gets ready to fly. 
She goes over mountains and cities. 
Away goes the mail plane with its 
passengers and all. 

io8 National College of Education 

Through night and day it flies- 

snow or no snow 
She goes on and on 
On she flies. 

Drop, drop the leiteis in the slot. 
Air mails and special deliveries, 
last they niiist go- 
Fast on their way. 

B. Through picture making. 

1. Drawing of pictures by individuals. 

2. Painting of pictures relative to processes in handling 
mail. The incentive for these was to share with others at 
an assembly the group's experience in finding out what 
happens to a letter when it is mailed. 

C. Through dramatic play. 

1. Delivering and collecting mail, using small dolls as 

2. Loading and unloading mail from trains, trucks, boats, 
planes and busses. 

3. Dramatization of Owney the Postal Dog— using a toy 
dog and having him travel with the mail on various con- 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. A desire to go more deeply into a study of the Pony Express 
and Indian life in the west. 

B. An interest in the life of Buffalo Bill and Kit Carson and 
other pioneers of the west. 

Developing Pottery and a Pottery Shop 

An Enterprise in the Second Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Moist clay was available in the room for the children's use, 
and modeling became a favorite occupation. Discussion 
of the children's work led to an interest in pottery. 

B. Pictures of beautifully designed clay bowls were studied 
from the bulletin board. 

C. An exhibit of pottery made by college students increased the 
children's interest. 

D. A trip to Haeger Pottery at Dundee enabled the children 
to see various ways of making pottery. 

E. The group visited the pottery shop run in connection with 
the Haeger Pottery at Dundee, and purchased a vase and 
a bowl for their room. 

F. The making of plaster of Paris molds at school provided a 
means of producing many bowls, and the idea occurred to 
the children that these might be sold in a pottery shop of 
their own. 

G. A bazaar held by the college students gave suggestions to 
the children of ways of organizing a sale. 

II. Problems and questions which led to investigation. 

A. Concerning the making of pottery. 

i . Where does clay come from? How do we get it? 

2. What makes clay harden? How can we keep unfinished 
clay objects moist? 

3. How are the dishes in our homes made and decorated? 

4. How can dishes which are exactly alike be made? 

5. What are the different ways of making clay objects? 

a. How are molds made? 

b. How is the potter's wheel operated? 

c. How is liquid clay used? 

6. By what process is pottery fired and decorated? 

B. Concerning the operation of a gift shop. 

1. What shall we do with the molds we have made? Could 
we make many bowls and plates and sell them? 

2. What might be sold in a gift shop? What articles shall 
we make for our shop? 

3. What persons are needed to conduct a gift shop? 


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National College of Education 

,\. How is the value of articles determined? How shall our 
pottery be priced? 

5. What does the shopkeeper do with his money? Where 
does money go from a bazaar? What shall we do with 
our money? 

6. How shall we build our booths? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 
A. Through group discussions. 

1. Discussions were held concerning the children's clay 
modeling, how the work could be improved, how un- 
finished clay objects could be kept, how finished articles 
could be hardened and decorated. 

2. Conversations were held concerning the kinds of dishes 
the family used at home, where and how these wares 
were made. 

3. Observations at the Haeger Pottery were discussed at 
length. Many questions were asked and answered both 
during the excursion and later. 

It's Fun to Model 

Units of Experience in Second Grade 

1 1 1 

Pottery Is Produced to Sell 

4. Plans for making molds and duplicating articles were dis- 

5. The decision to conduct a gift shop led to many discus- 
sions concerning the making of articles, the construction 
of booths, the organization for selling, and the prices. 

B. Through constructive activities. 

1. The children at first carried on much experimentation 
with clay, making bowls, candlesticks, inkwells, pencil 
holders, and plaques. 

2. After the trip to the Haeger Pottery, they experimented 
with plaster of Paris molds, as follows: 
a. Mixed plaster of Paris with water. 

Made molds by placing original object in pan of 

soft plaster. 

Made liquid clay by mixing clay with water to a 

pouring consistency. 

Made duplicate objects by pouring liquid clay into 





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National College of Education 


3. The best objects made were fired and decorated. The 
children helped to pack and unpack clay articles sent to 
be fired. 

4. Articles were constructed from wood to sell with the clay 
objects in the gift shop: book ends, bookracks, book- 
cases, letter openers, door stops, doll furniture, boats. 

5. Booths were constructed and decorated. 

6. Price tags, lists, posters and signs were made. 
Through factual reading. 

1 . Plans and directions were written on the blackboard from 
time to time and read. 

2. Signs, posters, labels and price lists all required reading. 

3. Some informational material was simplified by the 
teacher and placed on charts for the children's reading. 

Teacher's References 

Bragg, William Henry Creative Knowledge (Old 
Trades and New 
Bruce, Marjory Book of Craftsmen 

Cox, George James Pottery 

Parker, Arthur C. Indian How Book 

Scacheri, Maria Indians Today 

Wheeler, Ida W. Playing with Clay 

D. Through arithmetic. 

1927 Harper 

1937 Dodd, Mead 

1926 Macmillan 

1927 Doubleday Doran 
1936 Harcourt, Brace 
1927 Macmillan 

Children learned to judge the quantity of clay needed for 
a certain object. 

Measurement was required in pouring liquid clay into 

Values of pottery were learned from the purchase of arti- 
cles at the Haeger Pottery Shop. 

Valuation of the children's work was made in pricing 
articles for the shop. 

The sale gave opportunity for application of the follow- 
ing skills: 

a. Reading figures on price labels and price lists. 

b. Using some addition, subtraction and multiplication 

c. Handling coins in making change. 

d. Using certain arithmetic terms; as, price, purchase, 
borrow, lend, equals. 

IV. Meanings, attitudes and appreciations probably developed through 
these experiences. 

A. Respect for the skillful work of others and for those who 
create beautiful things. 

Units of Experience in Second Grade 1 1 3 

B. Knowledge and appreciation of what constitutes beauty in 
pottery: form, color, design. 

C. Appreciation of the need for carefulness, patience, skill in 
making pottery. 

D. Knowledge of the commercial process of making pottery 
and its commercial value. 

E. Knowledge and appreciation of fairness and accuracy in 
buying and selling. 

F. Increased understanding of the contribution of the factory 
and the merchant to the community. 

G. Appreciation of the need for courtesy, cheerfulness and 
helpfulness in conducting a business. 

V. Interpretation and expressions of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through creative composition. 

1. Original stories were written in diaries about the trip to 
the pottery. 

2. Letters were written to absent children about the trip and 
about the plans for a shop. 

B. Through picture-making, design, decoration. 

1. Designs were drawn sometimes before objects were deco- 

2. Many clay articles were decorated with original designs. 

3. Booths and posters were designed and decorated by the 

C. Through social activity, sharing experiences with others. 

1. Some of the clay articles made were presented as gifts to 
mothers at the Christmas party. 

2. Other grades came in to see the booths before the sale 
was opened. 

3. The children enjoyed both buying and selling. Parents, 
friends, teachers and college students were patrons of 
the gift shop. 

VI. New interests, foreshadowing other activities. 

A study of designs on Indian pottery led to an interest in 

Living on a Farm 

A Spring Interest in Second Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. One of the children related frequently stories of his sum- 
mer on a farm, arousing an interest in farm life. 

B. The class took an excursion to a farm. 

C. Many farm pictures were brought to school. 

D. A college student brought six baby ducks to visit for a few- 

E. A mother presented the room with a small incubator. 

II. Problems and questions which led to investigation. 

A. Concerning farm buildings. 

1. In making a farm, what are some of the buildings we 
should have? 

2. Why is the barn usually larger than the house? For what 
purposes is the barn used? 

3. Why does the farmer like to have a cement floor for the 

4. Where are the hay and corn kept? 

5. Why is the silo placed near the barn? 

6. What kind of house should the farmer have? 

7. What color are farm buildings usually painted and why? 
R. Concerning the farm animals. 

1 . What space is needed for large animals to roam? 

2. Why does gravel make a good covering for the barnyard? 

3. What is a pasture? What animals go to the pasture? 

4. What kind of fence is best to have on a farm? 

5. What care must be given to cows? How is milk protected 
and used? 

6. Why do sheep need a different type of shelter than cows 
and horses? 

C. Concerning the raising of poultry. 

1. What is an incubator? What is a brooder? 

2. What kind of eggs do we have to get for hatching? 

3. What temperature must the incubator be set? Should the 
eggs be moist or dry? How often should the eggs be 

4. How long does it take the eggs to hatch? 

5. What care must be given to baby chicks and ducks? 


Units of Experience in Second Grade 1 15 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through discussion. 

1. Children told of their personal experiences in living on 

2. There was much discussion of the class excursion to a 
farm. Reference was made to this trip as problems arose 
in constructing a farm. 

3. Pictures stimulated discussion and aided in solving prob- 

4. Planning for building the farm involved comparison of 
suggestions and sometimes real debate. 

5. The gift to the room of an incubator stimulated ques- 
tions and discussions concerning the raising of baby 
chicks and ducks. 

B. Through constructive activities. 

1. A farm was constructed on the floor along one side of 
the room. Buildings and vehicles were built of boxes and 
lumber: house, barn, silo, hen house, chicken coop, dog 
house, wagon, hayrack. 

2. Spaces were measured off for yard, barnyard and pastures. 
Fences were constructed and installed. 

3. The barnyard was covered with gravel, and a well and 
trough were constructed. 

4. The yard and pasture were covered with earth, over a 
heavy piece of linoleum. Grass seed was planted. 

5. A pool and swing were made for the yard. 

6. Many farm animals were made of wood and clay. 

7. Dolls were dressed to represent the farmer, his wife and 

8. The children wished to experiment with the incubator 
which had been presented to the room. Eggs were pur- 
chased and the incubator was watched and tended with 
great care. 

9. Children tried the experiment of making butter. 

C. Through factual reading. 

1. Accounts of the children's actual farm experiences were 
read from the blackboard. 

2. Plans for constructing the farm were also read. 

3. Material from government bulletins on the raising and 
care of poultry and other farm animals was simplified 
by the teacher and placed on charts. 

4. The care of the incubator required reading of the time 
and temperature chart; and also the weekly calendar, list- 
ing each child's time to turn the eggs. 


National College of Education 

References for Children and Teacher 

Bulletin from the Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Story Pictures of Farm Animals 
Story Pictures of Farm Foods 
Story Pictures of Farm Work 
Handbook of Nature 

Farm Animals 
The Farmer 
Smiling Hill Farm 
Dean and Don at the Dairy 
The Story Book of Foods 

Food Products 

What the World Eats. 

1934 Beckley-Cardy 

1935 Beckley-Cardy 

1936 Beckley-Cardy 
1939 Comstock 

1935 Rand McNally 

1937 Macmillan 

1937 Ginn 

1936 Houghton Mifflin 
1936 Winston 

1924 Macmillan 

1938 Houghton Mifflin 

Beaty, John Y. 
Beaty, John Y. 
Beaty, John Y. 
Comstock, Anna B. 

Lawson, J. G. 

Lent, H. B. 

Mason, M. E. 

Miller, M. 

Petersham, Maud and 

Sherman, H. C. 
Webster, H. H. and 

Polkinghorne, A. R. 

Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia. 1940 Compton. 
World Book Encyclopedia. 1940 Quarrie. 

D. Through use of arithmetic. 

1. Measurement was acquired in constructing farm build- 
ings and fences, and in setting off spaces for yard, barn- 
yard, pasture. 

2. Eggs were purchased and counted for incubator. 

3. Thermometer was used in keeping accurate temperature 
of incubator. 

4. Terms pint, quart, pound, were used in butter making. 

5. Calendar was kept for timing the hatching of the eggs. 

IV. Meanings, attitudes, appreciations probably developed through 
these experiences. 

A. Some understanding of what the farmer does for us in pro- 

viding food. 

B. Appreciation of farm animals, their value and service. 

C. Some knowledge of the organization of the old-fashioned 
farm and its varied activities. 

D. Some appreciation of the dependence of the city on the sur- 
rounding farms. 

E. Some appreciation of the need for well-kept and sanitary 

F. An appreciation of the picturesque charm of a farm, at dif- 
ferent seasons of the year. 

G. Some understanding and appreciation of the farmer's re- 
sponsibility, in providing proper care for animals and 
plants, under changing weather conditions. 

H. An eagerness to participate in farm activities by raising 
chickens and making a garden. 

Units of Experience in Second Grade 


Interpretation and 

A. By means of 
dren enjoyed 

Agnew, K. E. &* 

Coble, M. 
Baker, C. B. and 

Reed, M. 
Hader, Mrs. B. 
Orton, Helen F. 
Orton, Helen F. 
Orton, Helen F. 
Perkins, Lucy Fitch 
Read, E. & Lee, H. 
Stong, P. D. 
Tippett, James S. 
Troxell, E. & 

Dunn, F. 
Zirbes, Laura 

expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

picture-story books about farm life. The chil 
silent and oral reading from these books: 

World Book 

Baby Animals on the 

Friends Here and Away 

The Farmer in the Dell 

Summer on the Farm 

Bobby at Cloverfield Farm 

Prancing Pat 

The Little Lost Pigs 

The Farm Twins 

Grandfather's Farm 

Farm Boy 

The Singing Farmer 

Baby Animals 

Book of Pets 


1938 Bobbs Merrill 

1931 Macmillan 

1926 Scribner 
1922 Stokes 

1927 Stokes 
1925 Stokes 

1928 Houghton Mifflin 
1928 Scribner 

1934 Doubleday Doran 

1927 World Book 

1928 Row Peterson 

1936 Keystone 

Selected farm stories and poems from several readers. 

B. By means of music. 

1. The children enjoyed singing about farm life and its ac- 
tivities, such songs as: The Bee, Little Chickens, My 
Pony, Little Boy and the Sheep, Planting a Garden, 
Harvest Song, The Shower, Song of Bread. 

2. Some nonsense songs were learned, such as: 

This is how we milk the cow; The milkmaid; Turkey in 
the straw. 

3. Many of the songs suitable for action were dramatized. 

Baker and Kohlsaat 
Coleman, Satis 
Davison and Surette 

O'Neill, Norman 

Palmer, Winthrop 

LaSalle, Dorothy 
Robinson, Ethel 

Source Books 

Songs for the Little Child 

The Gingerbread Man 

One Hundred Forty Folk- 

A Song Garden for Chil- 

American Songs for Chil- 

Rhythms and Dances 

School Rhythms 

1938 Abingdon Press 
1931 John Day 
1922 E. C. Schirmer 

1928 Edward Arnold 

1931 Macmillan 

1930 A. S. Barnes 
1928 Clayton Summy 

C. By means of dramatic activity. 

The children greatly enjoyed carrying on farm activities 
with the dolls as puppets, dramatizing these activities: 

1. Carrying hay on the rack and tossing it into the barn. 

2. Drawing water from the well, and placing it in the trough 
for the animals. 

3. Taking the cows to pasture and bringing them back to 
the barn. 

i i8 National College of lulu cat ion 

4. Hauling farm produce in the wagon. 

VI. New interests, foreshadowing further activities. 

A. A keen interest in poultry raising. 

B. An interest in making a garden. A garden on the campus 
was started while the interest in the farm was still high. 

Creating a Garden and a Garden Market 

A Second Grade Interest During Spring Months 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. The study of farm life involved listing of different vege- 

tables and fruits raised on a farm. 

B. During the excursion to a farm, the children saw extensive 

C. A trip to a grocery store afforded observation of many dif- 
ferent kinds of vegetables. 

D. Seed catalogs brought by the children stimulated an interest 
in raising vegetables and flowers. 

E. Planting the garden led to an interest in experimenting with 

F. Maturing vegetables brought a desire for a garden market. 

G. Another trip to the grocery store was made to learn prices 
of vegetables and methods of displaying them for sale. 

II. Problems and questions which led to discussion and experiment. 

A. Concerning preparation for a garden. 

1. How shall we prepare to make a garden? 

2. What kind of soil is needed? Do different plants need 
different soils? 

3. How does the soil have to be prepared? 

4. What is the best location for a garden? 

5. How should the garden be plotted? 

6. What kind of tools will we need? 

B. Concerning the planting and care of a garden. 

1. What is the best time to plant? 

2. What kind of seeds shall we plant in our garden? 

3. Where will be the best place to plant each kind? Which 
vegetables grow under the ground and which above? 
Which grow tall and which short? 

4. What kind of care does a growing garden need? 

5. Who will care for the garden? 

C. Concerning experimentation with seeds. 

1. Do seeds grow best in dark or sunlight? 

2. Do seeds grow best with or without water? 

3. What gives the plants their colors? 

D. Concerning the marketing of produce. 

i. What are we going to do with our vegetables? 


1 2() 

National College of Ed neat ion 

Mothers Are Good Customers 

2. What are right prices for vegetables? 

3. How are they arranged and prepared for selling? 

4. How shall we make our market? 

5. Who will be most likely to buy our vegetables? How shall 
we advertise? 

6. What else might be sold in a garden market besides vege- 
tables and flowers? 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 

A. By means of oral discussion. 

1. Many problems as they arose were solved by group dis- 

2. Particular problems were referred to committees for dis- 
cussion and investigation. Committees brought reports 
to the whole group. 

3. Experiences in home gardens and in excursions were re- 
called and used to throw light on problems. 

4. Much spontaneous conversation developed among the 
children as they talked over their plans for making the 
garden and for selling their vegetables. 

Units of Experience in Second Grade 1 2 1 

B. By means of constructive activities. 

1. In making the garden the children engaged in a variety 
of activities. 

a. Marked out the garden plot. 

b. Turned up the ground, pulverized the dirt, raked it 

c. Drew a diagram of best places to plant seeds. 

d. Divided the garden plot according to the diagram. 

e. Planted the seeds at correct depth. 

f. Made garden markers for different plants. 

g. Weeded and watered the garden. 

2. The children carried on some experimentation with 

a. Planted two boxes of peas and beans, one left in 
dark and one in sunlight. 

b. Planted beans and peas in earth and on wet cotton. 

c. Planted two boxes of beans and peas, one to be 
watered and one not. 

3. In preparing for the garden market the class carried on 
these activities. 

a. Made and decorated booths in which to sell vege- 

b. Decorated boxes and baskets for holding vegetables; 
pots for holding flowers. 

c. Made garden markers of wool to sell, and garden 
kneeling pads of oilcloth. 

d. Pulled up vegetables, sorted and priced them for 

e. Made signs, posters and price tags. 

C. By means of factual reading. 

1. Extracts were read from seed catalogs, telling names of 
vegetables and flowers and how to plant them. 

2. The diagram of the garden plot was read. 

3. The children made and read a chart, recording results of 
experiments with seeds. 

Teacher's References 

Comstock, Anna B. Handbook of Nature 1939 Comstock 


Dubois, Gertrude and Peter and Penny Make a 1936 Stokes 

Frances Garden 

Encking, L. F. The Little Gardeners 1935 Whitman 

Fox, Frances M. Flowers and Their Travels 1936 Bobbs-Merrill 

Jenkins, D. H. The Children Make a 1936 Doubleday 


McGill, Janet The Garden of the World 1930 Follett 

Wodell, H. P. Beginning to Garden 1928 Macmillan 

122 National College oj Education 

I). By means of arithmetic. 

i. Children used measuring and counting in making the 

a. Measured the garden plot. 
1). Divided the plot into quarter sections. 

c. Measured in drawing garden diagram for the room. 

d. Counted kinds of seeds, and number of rows. 

e. Planted some seeds ^ inch deep; others y 2 inch and 
i inch deep. 

2. The market required counting and handling of money. 

a. Sorted vegetables in bunches; as, 6 radishes, 5 onions, 
10 lettuce leaves. 

b. Priced vegetables for sale. 

c. Made change in selling. 

d. Counted money and deposited in bank. 

3. The decision was made to use funds for helping in 
decoration of children's dining room. 

IV. Meanings, attitudes and appreciations probably developed through 
these experiences. 

A. Understanding of activities required in raising plants. 

B. Appreciation of thought and time and responsible care 
which must be given to production of vegetables and 

C. Understanding of activities involved in marketing vege- 

D. Appreciation of service of truck farmer, gardener, grocer, 
and our dependence on them. 

E. Appreciation of value of sunshine and rain and part they 
play in gardening. 

F. A respect for scientific experimentation. 

G. A pleasure in the beauty of growing and blooming plants. 
H. A greater readiness to eat and enjoy fresh garden vegetables. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. By means of creative composition. 

1. Results of different experiments with beans and peas 
were written up. 

2. Letters were sent to mothers telling them about the gar- 
den market, and inviting them to come. 

3. Spring poems were written about the garden, rain, sun- 
shine, flowers; as, 

Units of Experience in Second Grade 123 


Spring is here and I am glad, 
'Cause I hear the birds calling, 
And see the rain falling, 
And hear the wind blowing, 
And see the flowers growing. 

What Is Coming? 

What is coming? What is coming? 

Spring is coming. Spring is coming. 

What is here? What is here? 

Spring is here. Spring is here. 

And all the flowers and all the trees are in bloom. 


Rain, rain, coming fast, 
It is coming down at last. 
When the sun comes out 
There is a spluttering sprout. 

Rain, rain, do not fall, 

Do not make the grass grow tall. 

When the rain goes away, 

I am going out to play. 

The Rainbow 

Rainbow, rainbow, 

As you stretched across the sky, 

The sky was so blue, 

The sun was so bright, 

And so were the clouds 

That went slip-sliding by. 

B. By means of picture making. 

1. Farm pictures were drawn with gardens included. 

2. There was spontaneous painting and drawing of flowers 
and vegetables. 

3. Posters were designed to announce the garden market. 

C. By means of music. 

1. Songs of spring and gardens were used, such as: 

The Shower One Hundred Forty Folk Songs 

The Apple Tree House One Hundred Forty Folk Songs 

Planting a Garden One Hundred Forty Folk Songs 

The Farm One Hundred Forty Folk Songs 

My Garden of Flowers One Hundred Forty Folk Songs 

Singing Kindergarten Book of Folk Songs 

2. The class enjoyed selecting and orchestrating, for rhythm 
instruments, music with a spring-like mood. 

In May One Hundred Forty Folk Songs 

Come Lasses and Lads A Book of Songs 

The Sleepy Miller Kindergarten Book of Folk Songs 

Burny-Bee Kindergarten Book of Folk Songs 

Lavender's Blue Kindergarten Book of Folk Songs 


National College of Education 

3. Music was found suitable for one of the children's own 
poems, "Rain." The familiar old song, "Rain, rain, go 
to Spain" found in the Kindergarten Book of Songs was 

Diller and Page 
Davison and Surette 
Davison, Surette, 


Source Books 

Rote Songs for Rhythm Bands 1930 Schirmer 

One Hundred Forty Folk Songs 1922 Schirmer 

A Book of Songs 1922 Schirmer 

A Kindergarten Book of Folk 1923 Schirmer 

D. By means of social activity. 

1. Some of the radishes and lettuce were used for the school 

2. The children enjoyed buying and selling at the garden 
market. The teachers and mothers were patrons of the 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further activities. 

A. Study of flowers and flower arrangement. 

B. Preparation of vegetables and other foods for the table. 

C. Hygienic value of vegetables and fruits. 


OPPORTUNITIES offered by the community for broadening 
interests and information have been utilized in the third 

A delight in picture-making led to the study of the art centers 
in the community. The children constructed an art gallery in the 
room and exhibited there many famous pictures loaned from home 
collections. In one wing their own best art productions were ex- 
hibited. A visit to the Chicago Art Institute enabled them to see 
the originals of some of their favorite prints. 

The children have enjoyed constructing a puppet theater or a 
shadow theater, making or dressing dolls as actors, and dramatizing 
their favorite stories for other groups in the room and for boys and 
girls of neighboring rooms. Attendance at children's plays given by 
professional actors and puppeteers has given background. 

As in other grades, the interest in transportation and travel is 
very keen. The third-grade children have enjoyed reporting on 
their vacation trips, and sometimes this interest has led to a study 
of the means of traveling used in different parts of the world today 
or the development of transportation in our own country. Visits 
to airports, railway stations, and boat piers have been supple- 
mented by trips to the museum to see models of vehicles used in 
other countries and in earlier times. 

Sometimes the interest in travel has led to the study of a differ- 
ent community; as, American Indians or Mexicans. Such studies 
have been enriched by many beautiful objects which the children 
or their parents have collected during vacation trips; and by pic- 
tures and motion pictures which parents have loaned. 

In addition to these experiences in the social studies, the chil- 
dren have had some live science interests. Individual hobbies in 
science have been followed for extended periods. A large aquarium 
was purchased by the third-grade children one year, and a study 
of water life was inherited by the succeeding group. Many kinds 
of water creatures have been kept at different times in the room 


isG National College of Education 

aquarium, and excursions to the new Shedd Aquarium in Chicago 
have afforded an enriched experience. 

An alert third-grade group became curious about the making of 
maple sugar, through a story read in the room library; and made 
an intensive study of maple trees and the art of sugar-making. A 
correspondence was carried on with the owner of a maple sugar 
farm in Vermont; and the children took orders for maple syrup and 
sugar and imported a small amount to sell. A picturesque maple 
sugar camp was erected under the maple trees on the campus, 
where their wares were displayed. 

The studies outlined here were some that provoked particular 
interest on the part of the group engaged in the study. They have 
been selected from the work of three or four different years. Out- 
comes in social meanings and appreciations peculiar to the par- 
ticular unit are included with the unit. All of the enterprises have 
afforded opportunity for growth in certain desirable social attitudes 
and habits; as, cooperation and responsibility in carrying on group 
activities, independence in working out a small problem alone, 
respect for the rights and opinions of others in the group, apprecia- 
tion of the contribution of others, readiness to share ideas and 
materials with others, courteous conduct at school and on ex- 
cursions, resourcefulness in using materials at hand, persistence 
in completing work begun. The studies have contributed, too, 
in the development of the powers of expression through fine and 
industrial arts, music, dramatization and other avenues. Outcomes 
in terms of the specific skills, arithmetic and English, are sum- 
marized in Group Records of Progress, Part IV. 

Conducting an Art Gallery 

An Interest in Third Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background for activities. 

A. Children spontaneously drew and painted pictures at easels 

and on worktables. 

B. Children's original pictures were exhibited and discussed. 

C. Pictures in the room by great artists were studied. 

D. Children brought from home prints of masterpieces. 

E. Trips were made to the Art Institute by the group and by 
individual children in company with their parents. It was 
possible to see originals of some of the prints in the room 

F. Trips were made around the building to study pictures in 
different rooms. 

II. Problems and questions which led to investigation. 

A. What pictures are master paintings? 

B. Who are some of the master painters? 

C. What is meant by "original paintings"? 

D. Which pictures are copies and which are originals? 

E. Where are originals of famous pictures found? 

F. What is the present valuation of some of these originals? 

G. What are the names of some of the master paintings? Why 
did the artists name their pictures as they did? 

H. What materials are needed to make an art gallery in our 

I. How shall pictures be arranged and hung? 
J. How shall visitors be guided? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through discussion. 

1. Children discussed the permanent pictures in their 
room; learned the title of the picture and the name of the 

2. As prints were brought in, each picture was studied and 
talked about. Children reported what their parents had 
said about the picture; where they had seen copies; why 
the picture was considered great. 

3. Trips to see pictures stimulated discussions about the 



National College of Education 

Art Enriches Living 

selection of pictures for a school, a home, a gallery; the 
arrangement, hanging and lighting of pictures. 

4. Plans were made for building and conducting an art gal- 
lery in the room and for making guidebooks. 

Through constructive activities. 

1. An art gallery was constructed of composition boards, 
covered with cheesecloth to give a soft background. 

2. Prints of master paintings were arranged and hung. 

3. Pictures in the art gallery were labeled with title and 
name of artist. 

4. Guidebooks were constructed containing miniature 
copies of the paintings in the room gallery. 

5. As gifts for parents, plaques of wood were designed, made 
and shellacked. Each child selected and mounted a print 
of a master painting upon his plaque. 

Through factual reading. 

1 . The children read the cards which recorded the name and 
title of each picture. 

2. They kept and read a chart recording each child's con- 
tribution to the gallery and the guidebook. 

Units of Experience in Third Grade 129 

3. Articles from magazines about, famous pictures and 
artists were brought in and read by children and teachers. 

4. Reference was made to books as questions arose. 

References for Teacher and Children 

Berry, A. M. Art for Children 1929 Studio Pubs. 

Bulliet, C. J. Paintings 1934 Reynal 

Chandler. Anna C. Treasure Trails in Art 1937 Hale 

Hillyer, V. M. Child's History of Art 1933 Appleton 

Lester, K. M. Great Pictures and Their 1927 Mentzer 

Stories (fixe volumes) 

Whitford, W. G. Art Stories 1935 Scott Foresman 

D. Through arithmetic. 

i. Children were much interested in the money value of 
certain master paintings; enjoyed stories of auction sales 
of these pictures and surprising changes in value when 
the artist's name was discovered; compared prices of 
originals and prints. 
2. Pictures in the room gallery were counted and num- 

IV. Meanings, attitudes and appreciations probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. Understanding and appreciation of a few master paintings: 
their beauty, color, meaning. 

B. Knowledge and admiration of a few master painters: their 
lives, greatest works, characteristic technique. 

C. Recognition and appreciation of the artist's contribution 
to the community and the home. 

D. Greater appreciation of the work of children in creating 
various art forms. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature and creative composition. 

1. Children listened with pleasure to stories told by teacher 
about certain pictures and artists. 

2. Children created original stories about the prints hung 
in the room gallery. Some of these were written and in- 
cluded in the guidebooks. 

B. Through painting and drawing. 

1. The study of famous pictures stimulated greater interest 
in creative painting and drawing on the part of the 
children. Much easel painting was done. 

2. Covers were designed for the original books. 

3. Gift cards were designed to accompany the plaques. 

130 National College oj Education 

C. Through social activity, sharing experiences with others. 

1. Parents and other grades were invited from time to time 
to see the gallery and use the guidebooks. 

2. The plaques were presented to the parents as gifts. 

VI. New interests, foreshadowing other projects. 

Interest in various types of art; as, clay modeling, sketching, 
block printing, architecture, sculpture. 

Traveling in Old and New Ways 

An Enterprise in Third Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
gave background for activities. 

A. Previous experiences. 

In the reports on summer vacations, the children told of the 
various ways they traveled during the summer. Thus they 
glimpsed the many interesting ways one might travel; and 
then followed organization of this unit. 

B. Conversations. 

Conversation led from familiar types of travel to the older 

C. Pictures. 

Snapshots, post cards, picture books, motion pictures, 
newspaper and magazine clippings, library picture collec- 
tion, were all brought into use. 

D. Travel stories. 

1. Miss B. told the story of her trip to Alaska. 

2. Miss S. related the story of her travels in Mexico. 

E. Bringing of articles from home. 

1. Models. Pack horses, automobiles, coaches, covered 
wagons, many types of airplanes, birchbark canoe, kayak, 
were brought in from homes. 

2. Books. Books brought in by the children included Pic- 
torial Portfolio of the World; The Picture Book of 
Travel; A Book of Ships; Wheel, Sail and Wing. 

3. Magazines. Magazines brought included copies of Na- 
tional Geographic, Travel, Alaska. 

II. Problems and questions which guided investigations. 

A. For the group. 

1. What are the kinds of transportation? 

2. What are some of the vehicles used in each kind of 
travel; land, water, air? 

3. How will it be best to study all about transportation? 

4. Would it be a good idea to have three committees? How 
should the class be divided into committees? 

5. In what ways can we gain information about transporta- 

6. What would be the best way to use the picture collections 
and models brought in? 

I 3 I 


National College of Education 

Old-Time Vessels Reappear 

7. What can we make that will show different sorts of trans- 

8. How can we share what we learn with other people? 

B. For the committee on land transportation. 

1. What were the first kinds of land travel in our country? 

2. Why do the people use dogs and sledges in Alaska? 

3. Why do men still use pack animals in many places to-day? 

4. What did the Pony Express carry? 

5. What was the covered wagon? Who used it and why? 

6. Why do we need bridges and tunnels for travel? 

7. When were the first trains made? What were they like? 

8. When were the first automobiles made? How were they 
different from ours to-day? 

C. For the committee on water transportation. 

1. What was the first way men crossed bodies of water? 

2. How were the first canoes made? 

3. What is a kayak? Why is it suitable for use even today? 

4. What are some important differences between the earliest 
boats, the sailboats, and the steamers of to-day? 

5. How have different peoples constructed ships? 

Units of Experience in Third Grade 133 

6. Are submarines ships? 

7. Why do ships travel so fast now? 

8. How did early ocean trips vary in time of crossing from 
the ones to-day? 

D. For the committee on air transportation. 

1. For what purposes are airplanes used? 

2. What was the first means of transportation in the air? 

3. What makes a balloon rise from the ground? 

4. What are the kinds of planes and how do they differ? 

5. For what are amphibians used? 

6. How are planes equipped differently for landing on land, 
water, ice? 

7. How does an autogiro differ from other air craft? 

8. What were some of the famous air trips made by Amer- 
ican pilots? 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 

A. Through oral discussion. 

1 . Group discussions were held concerning general organi- 
zation of the work. 

2. Committee discussions were held on all phases of their 

3. Individuals reported progress to the teachers. 

4. Individuals shared bits of information with other mem- 
bers of the committee. 

5. The class organized a report of the unit to be put into a 
class bulletin for other grades to read. 

6. The class planned a program in which the various com- 
mittees might share with each other and their guests the 
information they had gained. 

B. Through constructive activities. 

1 . The children prepared an exhibit of pictures and models 
brought in, labeling each one with a card bearing 
country, time and purpose. 

2. From wood individual children made models to use in 
connection with their committee reports: dogs and 
sledges, jinrikisha, pack animals, covered wagon and 
oxen, carriages, dugout, canoe, Viking ship, airplane and 
other similar articles. 

3. Each committee made large posters on transportation. 
Freehand cutting from colored paper was done. 

4. Animals and boats were modeled from clay. 

5. One committee made a block print of a ship and printed 
it on a muslin square. 


National College of Education 

6. Individuals made scrapbooks containing collections of 
pictures and clippings on particular phases of the study, 
with written explanations. 
C. Through factual reading. 

1. Pamphlets on transportation were collected and used for 

2. Books and magazines on travel were collected from the 
home and school libraries and used for study. 

3. Individuals did much silent reading, followed by oral 
reports and occasionally oral reading to the committee. 

Children's References 

Aitchison, A. E. 

Across Seven Seas to 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

and Uttley, M. 

Seven Continents 

Beaty, John Y. 

Story Pictures of Trans- 

1939 Beckley-Cardy 

Curtis, Nell C. 


1927 Rand McNally 

Dalgliesh, Alice 

America Travels 

1933 Macmillan 

Dobias, Frank 

Picture Book of Flying 

1928 Macmillan 

Floherty, J. J. 

'Board the Airliner 

1934 Doubleday 

Fox, Florence C. 

How the World Rides 

1929 Scribner 

Fraser, C. C. 

The Model Aircraft 

1931 Crowell 

Gravatt, Lila 

Pioneers of the Air 

1928 Mentzer Bush 

Hader, B. and E. 

Picture Book of Travel 

1928 Macmillan 

Henry, R. S. 


1938 Bobbs-Merrill 

Holland, R. S. 

Historic Airplanes 

1928 Macrae Smith 

Holland. R. S. 

Historic Railroads 

1927 Macrae Smith 

Holland, R. S. 

Historic Ships 

1926 Macrae Smith 

Lent, H. B. 

Clear Track Ahead! 

1932 Macmillan 

Lent, H. B. 

Full Steam Ahead! 

1933 Macmillan 

Nathan, A. and E. 

The Iron Horse 

1931 Knopf 

Stephenson, M. B. 

Wheel, Sail and Wing 

1930 Rockwell 

Swift, Hildegarde 

Little Blacknose 
Teacher's References 

1929 Harcourt Brace 

Bridges, T. C. 

Young Folks' Book of the 

Bird's Eye View of In- 

1928 Little Brown 

Collins, A. F. 

1926 Crowell 


Daniel, H. 

Ships of the Seven Seas 

1925 Doubleday 

Hall, C. G. 


1938 Macmillan 

Hall, C. G. 

Through by Rail 

1938 Macmillan 

Leeming, Joseph 

Ships and Cargoes 

1926 Doubleday 

Post, A. 


1933 Oxford 

Reck, F. M. 

Romance of American 

1938 Crowell 

Rocheleau, W. F. 


1928 Flanagan 

Van Metre, T. B. 

Trains, Tracks and Travel 

1931 Simmons 

Van Metre, T. B. 

Tramps and Liners 

1931 Doubleday 

Wade, M. H. 

Adventurers All 

1927 Appleton 

Webster, H. H. 

Travel by Air, Land and 

1933 Houghton 

Units of Experience in Third Grade 135 

D. Through use of number. 

1. Careful measuring was required to construct in propor- 
tion the dogs, oxen, pack animals; and also sledges, 
covered wagons, and other vehicles. Attempt was made 
to work out a fairly accurate scale of sizes. 

2. Much computation was needed in woodwork; as, 

a. If one ox is nine inches long, how long a strip of 
wood is needed to cut four oxen? 

b. If it takes four minutes to saw one dog, how long a 
time will be needed to complete six dogs? 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. Some understanding of the development of transportation, 
of the crude and slow methods used in early times. 

B. Knowledge of how methods of transportation in different 
countries have depended on geographic conditions. 

C. Understanding and appreciation of the continuous achieve- 
ments of men in overcoming difficulties in transportation. 

D. Wonder and gratitude for the attainments of modern 
science in construction of vehicles, bridges, tunnels, high- 

E. Some appreciation of the changes wrought by growing speed 
of transportation. 

F. Admiration of the accomplishment of classmates in pro- 
duction of models and gathering of information. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through creative composition. 

1. Individuals created original narratives to commemorate 
interesting events in the development of transportation. 
These were told or read aloud to the group and also 
incorporated in individual scrapbooks. 

2. Individuals wrote descriptions on such topics as: Covered 
Wagons, The Jinrikisha, Pack Animals, Carriages of 
Early Days, Sledges, Canoes, Autogiros. These were used 
either in scrapbooks or in connection with exhibits. 

3. A class report was composed for a class bulletin. 

B. Through picture-making. 

There was much spontaneous picture-making. 

1. Large pictures on travel were painted. 

2. Large crayon drawings were also made. 

3. Large blackboard drawings were made, several children 
often working together. 

136 National College of Education 

4. Covers were designed for individual scrapbooks. 
C Through social activity. 

1. At an assembly of ihe entire class, each committee re- 
ported on the results of its study and work. The class was 
so enthusiastic, that it was decided to share the reports 
with other groups. 

2. The fourth grade was invited to attend an assembly, to 
see the exhibits, and hear a review of the study. 

3. A program was arranged for the mothers, and invitations 
were sent. The chairman of each committee announced 
the contributions from his committee, together with the 
names of the speakers. 

VI. New interests. 

After completing this unit of study, the children were eager to 
take an imaginary trip together traveling in as many ways as 

Visiting the Indians 

A Study of Modern Indian Life in Third Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. A study of "Carrying the Mail" led to an historical survey 
involving the Pony Express and the encounters the riders 
had with the Indians. 

B. Several children contributed experiences in visiting Indians 
in Arizona, New Mexico and Wisconsin. 

C. Some children brought Indian materials from home— some 
they had gathered in their travels or had been given by 
parents and friends. 

D. The class made collections of pictures of different tribes of 
Indians, later placing emphasis on those of the Southwest. 

E. Shared with the whole school at an assembly two excellent 
motion pictures showing the present modes of living of 
Indians in the Southwest. 

F. Made an excursion to the Field Museum where observation 
and study were confined to Indians of the Southwest. (The 
teachers guided the investigation in order to make a more 
concentrated study of Indian culture today as found in 
Hopis, Navajos and Apaches, rather than diffuse interest on 
any or all Indians.) 

G. Shared with the whole school a dramatization using one 
chapter of Dancing Cloud (see bibliography) which was 
presented in connection with a Book Week program. 

H. Arranged an exhibit of all Indian material which they col- 
lected and placed in the library as part of the Book Week 
I. Carried on correspondence with children of an Indian 
school in northern Wisconsin. 

J. Made Christmas gifts for these children and received from 
them a box of cones and Christmas greens to decorate 
the room at school. 

II. Problems and questions which led to investigation. 

A. Relating to shelter. 

1. Where are Indians living today and in what types of 

2. Why do their homes vary in material and construction? 

3. How are they furnished? 


138 National College oj Education 

4. Why are sonic tribes nomadic? 
L>. Relating to food. 

1. What are the problems involved in the food supply in 
various tribes throughout the country? 

2. What do the Indians of the Southwest eat, and how do 
they prepare their foods? 

3. What utensils do they use and how arc these made? 

C. Relating to clothing. 

1. What is the dress of the Indians in different parts of 
the country today? 

2. How does it vary from earlier days and why? 

3. How are their dyes made? 

4. What variety is seen in their hairdress, and of what 
significance is this? 

5. Why do not Indian men have whiskers? 

D. Relating to means of livelihood. 

1. How do the Indians make a living? 

2. What is the contribution of the Indians of the South- 
west to the arts and crafts of today? 

3. What meanings have the designs used in rug weaving, 
sand painting, silver work, and pottery? 

4. What are their opportunities for barter and buying and 

E. Relating to transportation. 

1 . By what means do Indians travel today? 

2. How did they travel in earlier days? 

3. What materials were used and how were dugouts, bull- 
boats, canoes, and papoose cases made? 

4. What animals are used by the Indians in traveling and 
in conveying materials? 

F. Relating to ceremonies and dances. 

1. W T hat forms of religion do the Indians have? 

2. What meanings have their ceremonies and dances? 

3. What part does costume and decoration play in their 

4. How do they care for their sick today and previously? 

5. What instruments do they use and of what materials are 
these made? 

III. Finding answers to questions and problems. 

A. Through oral discussion. 

1. Children exchanged firsthand experiences in visiting In- 
dian centers. 

2. Teacher (who had rich background of experience among 

Units of Experience in Third Grade 


Indians of the Southwest and Wisconsin) contributed to 

3. Shared stories found in readers, library books, and told 
stories heard at home and from other adults. 

4. Discussed factual material gathered from many sources. 

5. Discussed problems involved in use of materials, con- 
structions, arranging exhibit, presentation of dramatic 

6. Discussed questions provoked by use of pictures, motion 
pictures, and excursion to museum. 

B. Through factual reading. 

A room library was established with a wealth of books 
which children used extensively as problems arose. The 
material varied greatly in difficulty so that all children could 
participate in carrying on some research either for their own 
benefit or to share with others their findings. 

Armer, Laura Adams 
Brock, Emma L. 
Buff, Mary and Conrad 
Deming, Therese O., 

and Edwin W. 
Deming, Therese O., 

and Edwin W. 
Deming, Therese O., 

and Edwin W. 
Gifford, J. C. 

Henderson, Rose 
^Kellogg, Harold and 

Lyback, Johanna R. 
Moon, Grace 
Sperry, Armstrong 
Walker, Hattie Adell 

Applegate, Frank G. 
Buttree, Julia M. 
Coolidge, M. R. 
Goddard, Pliny E. 

Goddard, Pliny E. 
Harrington, Isis L. 

Hunt, W. Ben 
Lincoln School Staff 

Parker, Arthur C. 
Salomon, Julian H. 
Smith, (Mrs.) White 

Wissler, Clark 

Bibliography of Children's Books 
Waterless Mountain 
One Little Indian Boy 
Dancing Cloud 
Indians in Winter Camp 

Little Eagle 

Red People of the Wooded 

Red Feather's Adventures 

Five Little Indians 
Indians of the Southwest 


The Book of Nah-Wee 
Little Eagle, A Navajo Boy 
Shining Star 

References for Teachers 
Indian Stories from the Pueblo 
The Rhythm of the Redman 
The Rain Makers 
Indians of the Southwest 

First Families of the Southwest 
Nah-le Kah-de (He Herds His 

Indian and Camp Handicraft 
Curriculum Making in an Ele- 
mentary School 
The Indian How Book 
Indian Crafts and Indian Lore 
Indian Tribes of the Southwest 

The American Indian 

1931 Longmans 

1932 Knopf 

1937 Viking Press 
1931 Laidlaw 

1931 Laidlaw 

1932 Whitman 

1923 Lyons and 

1931 McBride 

1936 Rand McNally 

1932 Abingdon 
1932 Doubleday 

1938 Winston 
1932 Beckley-Cardy 

1929 Lippincott 

1930 Barnes 
1929 Houghton 

1931 American 
Museum Press 

1928 Fred Harvey 

1937 E. P. Dutton 

1938 Bruce 
1927 Ginn 

1927 Doubleday 

1928 Harper 

1933 Stanford Univ. 

1938 Oxford Press 


National College of Education 

Films Used in Study of Indian Civilization 

Cheeka, an Indian Boy 
Arts and Crafts 
Dances of the Southwest 
His Contribution to 

Modern Civilization 
Navajo Weaving 
Indians at Work 

To! Cil! (Water! Grass!) 

Wee Anne Sees the Indians 

(all rental fdms) 

Eastman Kodak Company 

Y.M.C.A. Motion Picture Bureau 

American Museum of Natural History, New York City 

Y.M.C.A. Motion Picture Bureau 

American Museum of Natural History, New York City 
Dept of Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, Washington, 

D. C. 
Dept. of Interior, Division of Information, Photographic 

Section, Washington, D. C. 
Cinegraphic Corp., Pasadena, California, or University 

of Illinois Visual Aids Service 

C. Through constructive activities. 

Clay bowls were made and decorated. 

Designs were made by a few for bead work, and some 

children executed small motifs on small commercial 


A rack for jerk meat was made to use in dramatic setting. 

The girls made costumes of dyed unbleached muslin to 

use in the play of Dancing Cloud. 

Indian Arts Are Practiced 

Units of Experience in Third Grade 141 

5. The boys made Navajo belts, using circles cut from tin 
cans as silver on which they put meaningful Indian 
designs. These were perforated in the tin with nails. 

6. Blankets were designed, using powder paints on un- 
bleached muslin. 

7. Models in miniature of a hogan, tepee, and pueblo were 
made, emphasizing the authentic materials and means 
of construction. 

8. Drums and rattles were made and used in dramatic play. 
D. Through use of arithmetic. 

1. Gained an understanding of relative size of shelters as 
compared to height of persons, number of people to be 
accommodated, etc. 

2. Compared size of hogan with pueblo. 

3. Gained some understanding of barter and the need for it 
among the Indians of today. 

4. Learned something about purpose of trading posts and 
their operation. 

5. Used linear measure in all construction work (pueblos, 
tepees, hogans, etc.). 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. Recognition and appreciation of cunning and skill of 

B. Recognition and appreciation of the Indian's contribution 
in arts and crafts. 

C. Understanding of the ability of Indians to adjust and make 

use of environment. 

D. Some knowledge of actual processes used by them. 

E. Respect for their courage, loyalty and endurance. 

F. Some knowledge of their customs and beliefs. 

G. Some appreciation, sympathy and a friendly respect for the 
"red man." 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through creative composition. 

1. Stories were composed about Indian customs relative to 
food, shelter, clothing, transportation, etc. (Each child 
has his own loose leaf notebook with a stiff cover on 
which an Indian design was worked out as an art enter- 

2. Stories were composed using beautiful colored plates, 

42 National College of Education 

depicting Indian life, found in National Geographic 
Magazine, November, 1937. 

B. Through picture making, design, decoration. 

1. Designs were made for pottery and book covers. Boys 
made designs for their Navajo belts; girls cut designs of 
leather to glue on costumes for play. 

2. Some of the children made a border (twelve inches in 
width) of Indian designs to frame the doorway of the 
room as a decoration for Book Week. 

3. Individual children drew and painted many pictures ex- 
pressing their ideas of Indian life. 

C. Through music. 

1. Listened to recordings of native and idealized Indian 
music such as: 

a. Chant of the Eagle Dance, Hopi Indian Chanters. Victor 20043. 

b. Shawnee Hunting Dance, Suite Primeval, by Skilton, Victor 

c. Cheyenne War Dance, Suite Primeval, by Skilton, Victor 2214]. 

2. Sang Indian songs such as: 

a. At Parting (Dakota). Used the Indian words. 

b. Mooki, Mooki (Hopi Lullaby). Used the Indian words. 

c. Song of the Captive Deer. 

d. Song of the Owl. 

e. Song of the Red Blanket. 

f. Song of the Bear. 

3. Listened to piano arrangements and recordings, noting 
the thin quality of the melodies, the frequent changes 
in meter, and characteristic rhythmic patterns. 

4. Selected rhythmic patterns from favorite song and dance 
music and made scores for percussion instruments. 

5. Made tom-toms and rattles. 

6. Saw exhibits of Indian musical instruments. 

7. Attended programs of music and dance given by small 
group of professional Indians and by a Boy Scout Troop. 

Source Books and References for Music 

Botsford Folk-Songs of Many Peoples Womans Press 

Palmer American Songs for Chil- 1931 Macmillan 


Gest North American Tunes for 1934 Boston Music 

Rhythm Orchestra 
Jeanson, Jean Indian Song Book Denver Allied 


Buttree, Julia The Rhythm of the Redman 1930 A. S. Barnes 

Curtis, Natalie The Indians' Book 1907 Harper 

Whitlock Come and Caper 1932 G. Schirmer 

Units of Experience in Third Grade 143 

D. Through dramatic activity and social activity. 

1. Played Indians on playground. 

2. Dramatize chapter of Dancing Cloud. 

3. Wore costumes about the room and "lived" the part of 
the Navajos. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further studies. 

A. An interest in the Mexican Indians which may lead to a 
study of Mexico. 

B. Some knowledge gained through this experience of the 
early days on the western frontier— the days of Kit Carson 
and Buffalo Bill— may lead to an interest in western ex- 

Visiting Mexico 

A Study in Third Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background for activities. 

A. A previous study of Indian life in the Southwest. 

B. An interesting talk by a teacher who had taught in a school 
on the Mexican border. 

C. An exhibit of Mexican handicraft by this same teacher. 

D. Many colorful Mexican curios brought by children from 
home collections. 

E. A display of attractive books from the school library and 
from home libraries. 

F. An excursion to the Field Museum to see the Mexican ex- 

G. An excursion to the Art Institute. 
H. A large picture map of Mexico. 

I. A colored film on Mexico which was taken and presented 

by one of the room mothers. 
J. Mexican films presented at the School Assembly. 

II. Problems and questions which led to investigation. 

A. Concerning the country. 

1. What states touch this southern neighbor? 

2. How can Mexico be reached from Chicago? 

3. Where is the Pan-American Highway? 

4. Why is Mexico sometimes called the "horn of plenty"? 

5. What parts of Mexico are mountainous? 

6. In what part of the country do most of the people live? 

7. What cities should we learn more about? 

B. Concerning home life in Mexico. 

1. How do the natives in the Mexican villages build their 

2. Why do the pictures show so many with tile roofs? 

3. What kind of houses are found in the cities? 

4. Where is the garden of a Mexican house? What is it 

5. How does the Mexican food differ from ours? 

6. What are their chief foods? 

7. How are tortillas made? 

8. Do the Mexicans wear the gay colored clothes we see in 


Units of Experience in Third Grade 145 

9. How do the people in the cities dress? 
10. How are the serapes made? Do the designs woven in them 
have any meaning? 
C. Concerning the people and their activities. 

1. What things do the Mexicans do to earn a living? 

2. What are their important industries? 

3. What kind of valuable mines are found in this country? 
Who develops the mines? 

4. What products does Mexico send to the United States 
and other countries? 

5. What kind of government do they have? 

6. What are the arts and crafts of Mexico? 

7. What is sold in a Mexican market? 

8. What kind of money do they use? What is it worth in 
our money? 

9. How do the Mexicans buy and sell? 

10. What languages are spoken in Mexico? 

1 1. What kind of schools do the children attend? 

12. What games do they play? 

13. What are some of the festival days in Mexico? 

14. How do the children celebrate Christmas? 

15. What kind of toys do the Mexican children like? 

16. Do the people enjoy singing and dancing? 

17. How do the people travel? 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 

A. Through oral discussion. 

1. Conversations about Mexican pictures, costumes, toys, 
and art which had been brought in by individual chil- 

2. Conversations about group experiences: films, excur- 

3. Discussions following reading concerning topics of in- 

4. Comparisons made between life in Mexican villages and 
life in the city. 

5. Discussion of books which might be used as material 
for dramatization; selection of Pablo and Petra, as a 
suitable story. 

6. Learning and understanding some common Spanish 

7. Discussing plans for dramatization, and offering sug- 
gestions as the play developed. 

/jG National College of Education 

B. Through informational reading. 

1. Independent reading in order to answer questions. 

2. Reading eaptions under pictures and posters. 

3. Reading to interpret maps, globes and charts in study- 
ing location and physical features. 

/[. Reading newspapers and various clippings brought in by 
the children. 


Aitchison, A. E. 
and Uttley, M. 
Brandeis, M. 
Decatur, D. D. 

Holmes, Burton 
Lee, M. H. 
May, S. B. 

Morrow, E. R. 
Peck, Anne 
Perdue, H. A. 
Smith, S. C. 
Thomas, M. L. 
Thomas, *M. L. 

erences for Teacher and Pupil 

North America by Plane 

and Train 
Little Mexican Donkey Boy 
Two Young Americans in 


Pablo and Petra 
Children of Mexico 

(10 cent book) 
Painted Pig 
Young Mexico 
How Other Children Live 
Made in Mexico 
The Burro's Moneybag 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

1931 Flanagan 

1929 Heath 

1939 Wheeler 

1934 Crowe! 1 

1936 Rand McNalh 

1930 Knopf 
1934 McBride 
1927 Rand McNallv 

1930 Knopf 

1931 Abingdon 

1938 Bobbs-Merrill 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Preparing exhibits of articles from Mexico contributed 
by teachers and children; making labels for use in ex- 

2. Making tortillas as they are made in Mexico. 

3. Planting various kinds of cactus plants in a window box 
which was made for that purpose. 

4. Building a Mexican house to hold exhibit of curios. 

5. Building two booths which could be used in a Mexican 
market scene, in the play. 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 
Measuring ingredients used in making tortillas. 
Comparing the size and population of Mexico with that 
of the United States. 

Measuring material used in constructing market booths. 
Measuring material to make serapes. 

Finding relative values of certain Mexican coins. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developing through these 

A. An appreciation of the creative ability of the Mexicans. 

B. An appreciation of their love of beauty and color. 

C. An appreciation of their achievements in the way of art. 

Units of Experience in Third Grade 


Mexican Curios Stimulate Crafts 

D. An understanding of the great resources of Mexico. 

E. An understanding of the importance of festival days. 

F. An understanding of why more and more people go to 
visit this neighboring country every year. 

G. An understanding of the difference in living conditions 
found in Mexico and our own country. 

H. An understanding of how the people have adapted to their 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

• A. Through creative composition. 

1. Writing original stories about Mexico. 

2. Writing a play based on one chapter from the book, 
Pablo and Petra, by Melicent Lee. This play was pre- 
sented at an assembly during Book Week. 

B. Through literature. 

Oral reading and telling parts of favorite books and stories: 

Armer, L. 
Rannon, L. 
Brann, Esther 

Forest Pool 
Manuela's Birthday 
Lupe Goes to School 

1938 Longmans 

1939 Whitman 
1930 Macmillan 


National College of Education 

The Burro of Angelitos 

Pablo's Pipe 

Pancho and His Burro 


Pablo and Petra 

The Painted Pig 

The Wishing Owl 

Si. Si. Rosita 

1936 Suttonhouse 
1936 Dutton 
1930 Morrow 
• 937 Whitman 
1934 Crowell 

1930 Knopf 

1931 Macmillan 
1936 American Book 

Church, P. 
Eliot, Frances 
Gay, Zhenya 
Humason, M. 
Lee, Melicent 
Morrow, E. R. 
Purnell, Idella 
Russell, Mary 

C. Through picture making, design and decoration. 

1. Drawing large pictures, showing Mexican costumes and 
interpreting Mexican customs. 

2. Making designs for serapes. 

3. Dyeing materials for serapes. 

4. Making border designs for room. 

5. Making and decorating clay pottery. 

D. Through music. 

1. Singing typical Mexican songs such as: 

Las Golondrinas (The Swallows) 

La Cucaracha (The Cockroach) 

Tecolotito (Little Owl) 

The Bumblebee 

The Pilgrims (Christmas ballad) 

2. Singing and playing the groups' own orchestration for 

percussion instruments: 

The Peacock 
The Cradle 

3. Observing characteristic patterns of rhythm— stepped 
them, used them with the instruments, and transcribed 
them on the blackboard in plane rhythm: 

a. Piano scores: 

The Peasant Girl 

To Jerez We Will Go 

Selections from Mexican Border Songs 

b. Phonograph records such as: 

Spanish Rhapsody— Chabrier— Victor 1337 
Jota (The Lamb's Mother)— Victor 79364 

Music References 

Spanish Folk Songs of New Mexico, Ralph Fletcher Seymour, 

Third Book of Songs, Foresman-American Book Company. 
Folk Songs of Many Peoples, Vol. 11, Botsford, Womans Press. 
North American Tunes for Rhythm Orchestra, Gest, Boston 

Music Company. 
American Songbag, Sandburg, Harcourt, Brace and Company. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further studies. 

1. An interest in other neighboring countries particularly 
those of Central America. 

Following Hobbies in Science 

Science Interests in Third Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused interest and gave rise to 

A. Children were encouraged to bring in their individual col- 
lection of science materials to form a class museum. 

1 . Collection of shells from Florida. 

2. Cigar boxes filled with mounted butterflies and moths 
collected at camp. 

3. Insect collections from camps and summer outings. 

4. Assortment of seeds. 

5. Snake skin found on the golf course adjoining the play- 

6. Cotton bolls sent from the South. . 

7. Collection of gourds. 

8. Three birds' nests abandoned and found near the play- 

9. Home aquarium. 

B. Field trips near the school. Children went out in interest 
groups with a student teacher. 

1. To parks to see autumn flowers and foliage, birds and 

2. To vacant lots to gather seeds, fallen leaves, and cocoons. 

3. To the exhibit of the Evanston Garden Club, in order 
to follow the "Nature Trail." 

C. Field trips to Harms Woods (Forest Preserve) to collect 
additional information and material to encourage the 
science hobbies. The class divided into small groups and 
followed various interests. 

1. Experimenting with the pond water by use of the mi- 

2. Tracing the small creek to its source to determine the 
direction of- its flow and observe the living creatures in 
the water. 

3. Observing the leaves and bark of trees, and also the 
fungus and lichens growing on trees and dead wood. 

4. Observing different types of seeds. 

5. Studying the cat family and talking to a Forest Ranger. 
A family of cats was discovered living in a drain pipe 
emptying into the creek. The cats were friendly, and of 
course the children wanted to take the kittens home. A 


150 National College of Education 

Forest Ranger approached and suggested they leave the 
cats in the woods and help to build protection for the 
cat house. This they did. The Forest Ranger gave the 
children some "tips" on forestry and caring for a forest 
preserve. They did not pick flowers, leaves, and seeds, 
but looked at them. The Forest Ranger said "Goodby," 
and invited the group to come back again. 

D. Visits to the Academy of Natural Sciences and the Field 

1. To investigate how museums are arranged. 

2. To survey methods of mounting specimens. 

3. To notice how museum cases are lighted and protected. 

4. To study the methods of labeling specimens. 

5. To secure material for the classroom library. 

E. Excursions to the Chicago Zoological Park and the Lincoln 
Park Zoo, by a group especially interested in live animals. 

1. Observing the general living condition of animals in 
relation to food and shelter. 

2. Noticing attitude of people toward animals. 

3. Securing material for the classroom library. 

F. Visit to the Hobby Show held at the Evanston Woman's 
Club to observe and list new ideas in the line of science 
hobbies. Some of the children had entered materials in 
the show which is an annual center of interest in the 

G. Talks by teachers and outsiders on their science hobbies 
and interesting things to do in spare time at school and 

H. Observing collections of plaster of Paris casts and blueprints 
made by the upper grade children. 

II. Problems and suggestions which led to research and investigation. 
Not all suggestions were followed, but all were discussed by the 

A. Related to the collection of science materials brought by 
the class and the building of a museum. 

1. How shall we build cabinets to display our collections? 

2. How shall we display and label our materials? 

3. How shall we light our cabinets? 

4. How may we improve on the science material already 
on hand to make the material different and more inter- 
esting than most collections? 

5. How shall we divide responsibility for constructing and 
managing the museum? 

Units of Experience in Third Grade 151 

6. How can we house properly our exhibits of insects, 
moths, butterflies, and cocoons? 

7. How shall we classify our collections of seeds, leaves, 
and shells? 

B. Related to the trip taken to the Garden Club Exhibit, the 
Forest Preserve, and the Hobby Show. 

1. How can we make a ''nature trail" near the school play- 

2. Shall we plant various kinds of seeds, and have a "guess- 
ing contest" when they sprout, to see who can name the 
most plants correctly? 

3. How can we secure more collections for our museum, 
like some seen at the Hobby Show? 

4. How shall we record the information given us by the 
Forest Ranger concerning the care and protection of 
the forest preserve? 

C. Related to the study of animals. One group of children 
were interested in live animals rather than in museum col- 

i. How can we construct shelters for animals, like some 
seen at the outdoor museums? 

2. How can we encourage better treatment of animals in 
this vicinity? 

3. How can we prepare a food chart and outline for the 
care of common household and school pets? 

4. How shall we determine whether the gray squirrels are 
beneficial or detrimental to the people of Evanston? 
(Some Evanstonians have objected to the number of 
gray squirrels that make their homes in the city and 
have asked to have them exterminated. Many residents 
like and enjoy the squirrels, and so the problem has 
become a community issue.) 

5. How can we organize an aquarium and "balance" its 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

Each activity mentioned was not carried on by the entire class, 
but as a rule was planned by a committee, or interest group, 
working under the guidance of the teacher who gave individual 
help in accordance with needs. 
A. Through construction. 

1. Building a museum case in the shop, which was a large 
5' x 6' cabinet, with movable shelves for display pur- 


National College of Education 

w gtsr* 

Experiments Prove Interesting Facts 

2. Installing lighting equipment with a storage battery 
and miniature lamps and sockets. 

3. Making wooden prisms to use as backs for labels of 

4. Building a small aquarium. 

B. Through experiment and demonstration. 

1. Organizing an aquarium and stocking it with fish. 

2. Demonstrating how oxygen is given off by plants in an 
aquarium. By use of a glass funnel covering some plants 
in an aquarium, the oxygen can be captured and its 
presence shown by the use of a spark on a pine splint. 

3. Arranging leaf and plant specimens for observation. 

4. Conducting experiments in transpiration with leaves 
collected from the playground. (Leaves are collected 
and put into a tumbler with their stems passing through 
a cardboard cover into another glass. The water goes 
up the stems, into the leaves, out of the leaves, and de- 
posits on the sides of the tumbler, thus illustrating the 
passage of water from one tumbler to another through 
the medium of leaves.) 

Units of Experience in Third Grade 153 

5. Arranging exhibit of insects and cocoons for the mu- 

6. Classifying and arranging seeds for observation. 

7. Caring for a few pets: tame squirrel; hooded rats; gold- 

C. Through creative activities. 

1. Making plaster of Paris casts of leaves and footprints. 

2. Making blueprints of leaves and sprays and making 
spatter prints on colored paper. 

3. Planning and making posters, labels and charts. 

4. Making lists of flower and vegetable seeds, with draw- 

5. Writing original nature stories and rhymes. 

6. Writing records of excursions, experiments, and other 
experiences for diaries. 

7. Sketching trees, shrubs, and plants in the open. 

D. Through arithmetic and its application. 

1 . Measuring material for the display cases and other items 
built in the shop. 

2. Estimating space necessary for displays. 

3. Estimating time and materials needed for experiments 
and demonstrations. 

E. Through use of the classroom library and the school library. 

1 . Collecting pictures and pamphlets during excursions, to 
add to the classroom library. 

2. Withdrawing pictures from the picture collection in the 
school library to use in the classroom. 

3. Searching for material in the school library to aid in 
solving specific problems. 

4. Using encyclopedias and other reference books with the 
aid of the teacher. 

Bibliography for Teachers and Pupils 

Beard, Dan American Boy's Book of Bugs, 1932 Lippincott 

Butterflies and Beetles 

Comstock, John H. An Introduction to Entomology 1936 Comstock 

Comstock, Anna B. Handbook of Nature Study 1939 Comstock 

Emerson, A. I., and Our Trees 1937 Lippincott 

Weed, J. B. 

Farquhar and World Book Encyclopedia 1940 Quarrie 


Ford, G. S., and Compton's Pictured 1940 Compton 

others Encyclopedia 

Fox, M. F. Flowers and Their Travels 1936 Bobbs-Merrill 

Kaempfer, Fred The Aquarium— Care and 1930 Kaempfer 


Smalley, Janet Do You Know About Fishes? 1936 Morrow 

54 National College of Education 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, and appreciations probably developed. 

A. Becoming better acquainted with the immediate environ- 
ment and its relation to science and science hobbies. 

B. Becoming better acquainted with some interesting insti- 
tutions in greater Chicago and their relation to science 
and hobbies. 

C. Appreciation of the opportunity to carry on hobbies re- 
lated to science experiences at school, under guidance. 

D. Satisfying curiosity through exploration and investigation. 

E. Learning respect for truth by searching for principles of 
science that affect our everyday living. 

F. Developing an enthusiastic attitude toward investigating 
for information and enjoyment. 

G. Learning some facts that are useful and interesting. 

H. A beginning of intelligent use of the encyclopedia and other 
resource materials. 

V. Expression of attitudes and appreciations through social sharing. 

A. Telling other groups about field trips. 

B. Demonstrating some of the science experiments for other 

C. Sharing some of the original rhymes, stories, and records 
with other groups. 

D. Inviting other grades to see the museum, and giving ex- 
planations to them concerning the exhibits and experi- 

VI. Suggested projects, which may lead to future activity. 

A. Building a "nature trail" near the school. 

B. Developing an outdoor "zoo" for the school. 


TO HELP the children to understand the development of their 
own community, and to appreciate the marvelous changes that 
have taken place in the last century, has been one objective in the 
fourth grade. The teachers have sought also to enlarge the concept 
of citizenship responsibility within the community. A thorough 
review and sharing of the children's vacation experiences has 
afforded an introduction to the history and geography of this region, 
and indeed of the whole United States. 

One fourth-grade class spent a year in an intensive study of the 
city of Chicago. During the first semester the exploration of the 
region was studied, the first settlements and life in pioneer days. 
The second semester's study included the development of sanita- 
tion, fire protection, transportation, and communication. Many 
excursions were arranged, and comparisons were made between 
early days and our own era. 

Another class through a celebration of Columbus Day became 
interested in the discoveries and explorations of early American 
history, and developed a study on this topic. Following a review 
of vacation experiences, one group planned a trip around the 
world, which involved a study of methods of travel, and ways of 
living in some typical geographical areas. 

When the children reach fourth grade, they are permitted to 
use the school cafeteria and to choose their own menu each day. 
It has seemed appropriate, therefore, to include in the fourth-grade 
curriculum a study of foods and food values, and the planning of 
a day's menu. This unit has sometimes involved a study of sources 
and preparation of foods, as well as the hygiene of foods. 

As in early grades, interest in natural science is keen, and some 
studies in science have been included in each year's program. One 
class after an excursion to the Illinois Garden Show planned a 
garden show in the fourth-grade room. A successful study in one 
summer session was based on the birds of this vicinity. A wealth 
of story, verse and picture material was available, and the topic 


156 National College of Education 

proved to be a stimulus for some delightful creative language work. 
One fourth grade group made a star observatory and another con- 
ducted an experiment in raising baby chicks. 

The teachers of fourth grade have sought in various ways to 
enlarge the concept of citizenship responsibility within the com- 
munity. One class made a study of the opportunities for showing 
consideration in the home and school community, and developed 
a puppet show on consideration. In some years the fourth grade has 
participated in the publication of a school magazine or year book. 

The outlines which follow were selected from the records of three 
different years. The outcomes in social meanings and appreciations 
peculiar to the unit are included with the unit. All of the studies 
have been found valuable in developing certain desirable social 
habits and attitudes; as, cooperation in planning and carrying on 
small group activities; responsibility in caring for materials in the 
proper way; appreciation of work done by others in the group; 
willingness to give and receive friendly, helpful criticism; inde- 
pendence in working out individual problems; initiative in sug- 
gesting plans for the group; resourcefulness in using materials at 
hand; respect for the opinions and rights of others; courteous 
conduct at school and on excursions; persistence in seeing a job 
completed. The studies have also proved valuable in developing the 
powers of expression in the fine and industrial arts, music and crea- 
tive language. Outcomes in terms of fundamental skills in English 
and arithmetic are summarized under Group Records of Progress, 
Part IV. 

Making a Trip Around the World 

An Enterprise in Fourth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background for activities. 

A. Reports on vacation experiences. One child had been to 
Alaska; others had been in various sections in the United 
States and Canada. Class decided to take a trip around the 
world. Stories were read from diary of child who had been 
in Alaska. 

B. Pictures and objects contributed by teachers, children and 

C. Large new globe which children found in the room after 

D. Excursions to Field Museum to sec exhibits from various 

£. Plays given by the college students for children of the school 

and community. 
F. Motion pictures shown on the school projector. 

II. Problems and questions which led to investigation. 

A. Related to plans for the trip. 

1. What countries shall be included in the trip? 

2. What continents will be touched? What oceans crossed? 

3. What possible routes can be taken? 

4. What are the best means of transportation? 

5. What should be taken in clothing, conveniences? 

6. Which countries are cold? Which are warm? 

7. What is the meaning of equator, zone? 

8. What causes climate, day, night, seasons? 

9. How may records be kept of the trip? 

B. Related to the trip across the United States. 

1. What of interest can be seen crossing the United States? 

2. What states are crossed in going to San Francisco? 

3. What is a country, state, city, village? 

4. What farm areas are passed? What prairies, mountains, 
rivers? What famous scenic regions? 

5. How much time is needed for the trip to San Francisco? 

C. Related to the ocean voyage. 

1. What sights are seen on the ocean? What kinds of boats, 

2. What causes rain, fog, snow, wind, icebergs? 


58 National College of Education 

D. Related to travel in foreign lands. 

1. What of interest can be seen in countries visited: 
A cold region: Northern Alaska. 

An island region: Hawaii. 

A hot wet region: Jungle of India. 

A hot dry region: The Arabian desert. 

A mountainous region: Norway. 

2. How do the people dress? How are their homes built? 
How is food produced and prepared? 

3. What plants and animals are seen? 

4. How does climate affect the living conditions? 

5. What are the customs of each country? 

6. How do the people travel? 

E. Related to a trip home by airplane. 

1. How much time would be saved by flying home? 

2. What would be the probable expense? 

3. What routes might be followed? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through oral discussion. 

1. Discussion of travel possibilities and plans, followed by 
decision to write letters to travel agencies. 

2. Discussion of how to keep a diary of the trip. 

3. Discussion of how to make a map to trace trips, kinds of 
maps and map symbols. 

4. Discussion of possible routes to San Francisco. 

5. Discussing of plans for collecting and exhibiting objects 
of interest. 

6. Oral reports on material read about different countries. 

7. Discussion of objects brought by the class and of the ex- 
hibits seen at the Field Museum. 

B. Through informational reading. 

1. Reading of pamphlets sent by travel bureaus. 

2. Study of globe to learn continents, oceans, zones, equator, 
and location of countries to be visited. 

3. Study of geography references to learn more about cli- 
mate, seasons, weather. 

4. Study of map of United States; learning to read map 
symbols for highlands, lowlands, water bodies. 

5. Study of railroad maps; tracing trip to San Francisco. 

6. Study of books describing foreign lands; learning to use 
the library for reference materials. 

Units of Experience in Fourth Grade 



Aitchinson, A. E. 

Atwood, W. and 

Thomas, G. 
Baker, C. B., and 

E. D. 
Ford, G. S., and 

Parker, E. P. & 

Barrows, H. H. 
Shinn, Alida V. 
Smith, N. B. 
Smith, N. B; and 

Bayne, S. F. 

Children's References 

Across Seven Seas to Seven 

Home Life in Far Away 

The Earth We Live On 

Compton's Pictured En- 
Journeys in Distant Lands 

Children of Hawaii 
Near and Far 
Distant Doorways 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 
1933 Ginn 
1937 Bobbys-Merrill 
1940 Compton 
1936 Silver, Burdett 

1939 McKay 

1935 Silver, Burdett 

1940 Silver, Burdett 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Making of large world map upon which to trace trip. 

2. Making of individual pictorial maps of some countries. 

3. Constructing book for diary. 

4. Making sand-pan land and water forms. 

5. Arranging exhibit of pictures and objects collected. 

6. Making charts showing foods used in different countries. 

7. Making charts of plants, animals of different countries. 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Finding the cost of transportation. 

2. Finding approximate cost of bags, clothing, accessories 
for the trip. 

3. Measuring and drawing to scale, to make maps. 

4. Computing approximate time for trip, changes of time 
and causes for such. 

5. Reading and writing large numbers, used in learning 
size of population of various countries. 

6. Comparing size of other countries with the size of the 
United States and separate states; also population. 

7. Computing mileage. 

Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. Recognition and appreciation of the bigness of the world. 

B. Some understanding and appreciation of wonder of forces 
governing natural conditions around the world. 

C. Some knowledge and appreciation of grandeur and beauty 
in our own country and others. 

D. Understanding of the part environment plays in molding 
habits and customs. 

E. Appreciation of gifts given by other countries to us. 

i6o National College of Education 

F. Appreciation of the unique charm of each country visited, 
revealed in natural beauty, type of buildings, picturesque 
costumes, characteristic habits. 

G. Gratitude to travel bureaus affording help, and understand- 
ing of their sen ice to the community. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through creative composition. 

1. Composing letters to absent members of the class telling 
them about group experiences. 

2. Composing a diary describing imaginary journey. 

a. Trip on the train. 

b. Day in San Francisco; embarking on an ocean liner. 

c. Story of interesting sights in each country visited. 

d. Story of airplane trip home. 

B. Through picture making, design, decoration. 

1. Drawing to illustrate diary stories of trip. 

2. Making posters for diaries, showing typical scenes of 
each country visited. 

C. Through dramatic activity and social activity in sharing 

i. Holding assemblies with other grades: giving talks, 
playing phonograph records, showing lantern slides, and 
motion pictures of places visited. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further studies. 

A. Explorers and discoverers of the North and South Polar 

B. Explorations and settlement of the United States by people 
of other countries. 

How America Was Discovered and Explored 

A Study in Fourth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Previous studies of people of other lands. 

B. Pictures of boats of early days; of adventurers of today; as, 
Byrd and Lindbergh; of adventurers of early days; as, 
Columbus, Marco Polo; of old maps. 

C. Stories read by the teacher; as, parts of "Little America," 
"Boys' Life of Marco Polo." 

D. Objects brought in; as, a model of a Viking boat and the 

E. Lantern slides of early explorers. 

F. Excursion to Lincoln Park to see a "Viking Boat." 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. Concerning discoveries and explorations. 

1. Why did men wish to reach the countries in the Far 

2. Which countries sent out explorers first? 

3. Who was Marco Polo? What did he do? Why was he 

4. Who were the Vikings? What did they do? 

5. Who first had the idea that the world is round? 

6. Who were Prince Henry, The Crusaders, Columbus? 
Why were they important? 

7. How was sailing made safer by the invention of the 
compass, maps, globes and charts? 

8. What effect did the invention of printing have? 

9. What did the nations especially desire to get from the 
new world? 

10. Where did the Spanish people explore? What did they 
want in the new world? 

1 1 . Who were some of the Spanish explorers? 

12. What adventures did they have on the high seas and on 

13. How did the other nations feel when Spain was so suc- 

14. What did England, France, and the Dutch people do? 

15. Were they successful in the new world? 


162 National College of Education 

16. Who were the most important people who came to the 
new world? 

17. What did each of the countries finally succeed in getting 
from the new world? 

18. What were some of the important events that took place 
during the period of exploration and discovery? 

B. Concerning the first settlements. 

1. How did the climate and topography of the land affect 
the kind of settlements made? 

2. Why did the English people come to live in the new 

3. How did England come to own most of North Amer- 
ica instead of Spain or France? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through oral composition. 

1 . Giving reports from individual and group research. 

2. Discussing the setting up of goals and standards of work. 

3. Planning the making of the time chart of important 

4. Discussing stories read to the group by the teacher, 
groups of children, and individual pupils. 

5. Planning the making of the large picture map of the 
early explorations. 

6. Planning of dramatizations to be given to groups within 
the room and to other rooms. 

7. Discussing many problems, involved in the display of 
pictures, stories, graphs, on the bulletin board. 

8. Discussing the best means of making individual books 
and folders, to keep collections in. 

9. Beginning to outline for written composition. 
-10. Composing captions for pictures painted. 

11. Holding informal debates upon topics of interest to the 

B. Through informational reading. 

1. Reading to find answers to specific problems in order to 
reproduce information in graphic and plastic materials. 

2. Reading to verify conclusions by citing authorities. 

3. Reading to find the most descriptive phrases describing 
places and characters. 

4. Learning to skim to locate information needed for re- 

5. Reading to take mastery tests of the unit. 

Units of Experience in Fourth Grade 


6. Reading maps, charts, graphs. 

7. Reading to organize material read into simple outline. 

8. Study of symbols needed in finding distances on dif- 
ferent kinds of maps; tracing routes of the Crusaders, 
Marco Polo, Spanish, French, Portuguese, English; lo- 
cating important places with reference to explorations 
and discoveries. 

9. Reading from encyclopedias, reference books; learning 
to use library facilities. 

References for Children 

Baker, C. B., 

The Earth We Live On 



and E. D. 

Barker, E. C, 

The Story of Our Nation 


Row, Peterson 

and others 

Barker, E. C, 

Old Europe and Our 


Row, Peterson 

and others 


Barnard, E. F. 

How the Old World 



& Tall, L. L. 

Found the New 

Gordy, W. F. 

Stories of Early American 

J 93° 


Kelty, Mary G. 

The Beginning of Ameri- 
can People and Nation 



McGuire, E. & 

Adventuring in Young 



Phillips, C. A. 


Melbo, I. R. 

Our America 



Nida, W. L. 

Pilots and Pathfinders 



Nida, W. L. 

Explorers and Pioneers 



Sherwood, H. N. 

Makers of the New World 



Sherwood, H. N. 

Our Country's Beginnings 



Smith, N. B., and 

Distant Doorways 


Silver, Burdett 

Bayne, S. F. 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Making of larger world map, upon which voyages of 
various explorers were traced, resulting in a pictorial 
map of early discoveries. 

2. Organizing and making a time chart, upon a long strip 
of wrapping paper, showing the dates of important dis- 
coveries and their relative importance. 

3. Making and binding books, for keeping in permanent 
form the best work of individuals and of the class. 

4. Building an exhibit table for various exhibits brought 
by children and teachers. 

5. Constructing boats, showing early models; as, Mayflower, 
a Viking boat. 

6. Giving of a play by one group of children, depicting the 
voyage of Columbus. 

7. Making of costumes for characters in the play. 

6 4 

National College of Education 

Crew of Santa Maria Sights Land 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Comparing sizes; as, the square miles of land on the 
various continents, the vastness of the ocean, the depth 
of the ocean, and height of mountains. 

2. Comparing dates, length of time, intervals, days, months, 
years, decades, centuries. 

3. Measuring great distances; as, miles across continents, 
oceans; making comparisons of relative sizes and dis- 

4. Reading and writing large numbers, of thousands, mil- 
lions, in dealing with population and area of countries, 
tonnage of boats, mileage. 

5. Using dollars and cents in computing the cost of voyages. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes and appreciations probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. A keen appreciation of the bravery of the explorers and 
their contribution to the world. 

B. A keener appreciation of things which we have, and which 
have usually been taken for granted; as, sugar, light, maps, 
comparative safety of travel. 

Units of Experience in Fourth Grade 165 

C. A keener appreciation for the contribution of those who 
have collected interesting facts that we might understand 
history and geography better. 

D. An understanding of how geographical factors influence 
the habits and lives of various peoples. 

E. An understanding of the progress made in methods of 
communication, transportation by man's use of scientific 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

1. Oral reading of selected stories from: 

Byrd, R. E. Little America 1930 Putnam 

Coffman, R. Our America 1930 Dodd 

Melbo, I. R. Our America 1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

2. Oral reading of a few poems: 

Miller, Joaquin Columbus 

Newbolt, Henry Drake's Drum 

Thackeray, Wm. M. Pocahontas 

Whitman, Walt O Captain, My Captain 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Composing and writing captions for painted scenes from 
early explorations. 

2. Writing scenes for play by individuals and in groups. 

3. Composing imaginary letters written by sailors on the 

4. Writing descriptions of beauties of nature, the natives, 
and occupations found in the newly discovered lands. 

C. Through picture making, design, decoration. 

1. Drawing pictures depicting historical scenes of the dis- 

2. Painting background for historical tables, set up. 

3. Modeling figures of people, animals to be used on the 

4. Designing houses, trees, shrubs, to be used on the tables. 

5. Painting large friezes for the room, showing historical 
scenes; as, Columbus on the Sea of Darkness. 

6. Decorating charts and posters for exhibits and reports. 

D. Through music. 

Learning songs that express the struggles of seamen, the 
daring of explorers, the longing for home. The songs were 
used at music assemblies. 

iGG National College of Education 

From the Concord Series No. 4 E. C. Schirmer 

Col umbus— I talian 

My Banjo— Italian 

A Mystery of the Sea— Italian 

Fair are These Fields— French 

Over the Sea— English 

The Wanderer— Spanish 
From Third Book of Songs— Foresman American Book 

Music of Spain— Spanish 

My Native Land— Spanish 

Spanish Lullaby— Spanish 

Sailing, Sailing— French 
From Dido and Aeneas— Henry Purccll Oxford Press 

The Sailor's Song 

E. Through dramatic interests. 

1. Playing scenes of discoveries on the playground; as, 
Drake and his trip around the world, Columbus find- 
ing America, Cortez and his entrance to Mexico, Cham- 
plain discovering the St. Lawrence, Landing of the Pil- 
grims at Plymouth. 

2. Giving of a play by small group for other groups within 
the room. 

3. Presenting pantomimes and charades by small groups 
for other groups within the room. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further studies. 

1. Interest in different kinds of transportation, especially in 
the evolution of boats. 

2. Interest in the life of the peoples across the sea. 

3. Interest in how we secured some of the lands we use 

4. Interest in further study of useful inventions and how 
they have influenced life as it is today. 

5. Interest in the earth as a planet, leading to a study of the 
solar system and other heavenly bodies. 

How Chicago Grew from Wigwams 
to Skyscrapers 

A Study in Fourth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest, and 
provided background for activities. 

A. Vacation exhibit of places visited during the summer, lead- 
ing to an interest in the development of our own com- 

B. Pictures and objects exhibited in the room, such as, an old 
fire bucket, plate from Chicago Fire, pictures from news- 
paper depicting early history of Chicago. 

C. Excursion to Chicago Historical Society to see objects of 

D. Excursion to Evanston Historical Society. 

E. Excursion to Mandel Brothers' (Chicago) exhibit, showing 
the growth of Chicago. 

F. Excursion to a pumping station to see method of present 
day sanitation system. 

G. Excursion to fire department to study modern methods of 
fighting fire. 

H. Talks given to class by members of the community. 

II. Problems and questions proposed by children which led to research. 

A. Relating to early days in Chicago. 

1. Who were the first explorers? How did they happen to 
find the present site of Chicago? What tribes of Indians 
did they find? 

2. Why did the French come? How was English supremacy 
established here? 

3. Who were the first people to establish homes here? How 
was the present site of Chicago chosen? 

4. How did the early settler live? 

a. How did he provide himself with food, clothing, shel- 

b. How did he amuse himself? 

c. How were other persuaded to come to Chicago? 

5. What was the appearance of Chicago as an early settle- 

B. Relating to growth and improvement in the city. 

1. Why did Chicago gain so fast when other cities remained 



National College of Education 

How did Chicago learn to protect itself from fire? 
How has Chicago developed communication and trans- 

How did Chicago solve its sanitation difficulties? 
How has the architecture in Chicago changed to meet 
the needs of a big city? 
How can Chicago become a better city? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through informational reading. 

1. Independent reading of pamphlets on Chicago to solve 

2. Reading captions under pictures, current events, press 
notices and cartoons, relating to growth of Chicago. 

3. Reading to interpret maps, globes, charts in studying 
location and physical features of the Chicago area. 

4. Oral reading to report information found as the result 
of individual and group research. 

5. Reading to answer questions in tests, checking the in- 
dividual's mastery of subject matter. 

6. Independent reading for information along interests 
stimulated by the study of Chicago. 

Campbell, Edna 
Clark, Imogene 
Gordy, W. F. 

Hall, Jennie 
Johnson, W. H., 

and others 
Johnson, W. H., I 

Mayer, R. M. 
Kane, A., and 

Mitch, R. I. 
Nida, Wm. Lewis 
Strong, Wm. D. 

Children's References 

Our City Chicago 

Old Days and Old Ways 

Leaders in Making Ameri 

can History 
Story of Chicago 

Stories of Chicagoland 

The Making of Chicago 

Explorers and Pioneers 
Indian Tribes of the Chi- 
cago Region 

1930 Scribner 

1928 Crowell 
1935 Scribner 

1929 Rand McNally 
1933 Newson 

1933 Newson 

1933 Lyons and 

1934 Macmillan 
1926 Field Museum 

Bowen, Louise 
Currey, J. S. 

Kirkland, Caroline 
Lewis, L., and 
Smith, H. J. 
Masters, Edgar Lee 
Smith, Henry J. 

References for Teacher 

Growing Up with a City 
Story of Old Fort Dear- 
Chicago Yesterday 

The Tale of Chicago 
Chicago, a Portrait 

1912 McClurg 

1919 Doubleday 
1929 Harcourt, Brace 

1933 Putnam 
1931 Century 

Units of Experience in Fourth Grade 


Fort Dearborn Protects Early Settlers 

B. Through oral discussion. 

1. Discussing of stories and articles read (as a group and 
individuals), excursions taken, pictures displayed, and 
talks given by member of the community. 

2. Organizing and giving talks and reports as the result of 
individual and committee research. 

3. Outlining of subject matter to be used in written re- 

4. Discussing plans for constructive activities illustrating 
facts learned. 

5. Discussing ways and means of handling, using and or- 
ganizing materials, setting goals and standards of work. 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Constructing individual portfolios for use in collecting 
and caring for materials related to study of Chicago. 

2. Making of a large blackboard map, to show the coming 
of the early explorers and settlers and to show the re- 
lationship of the site of Chicago to the rest of North 

3. Constructing a model of early Chicago: making log 
cabins, forts, clay animals, ships, people, wagons, trees 
and landscape. 

i7° National College of Education 

4. Planning, arranging and maintaining a news bulletin 
board for photographs, newspaper articles, kodak pic- 
tures, individual creative contributions; as, poems, stories 
and paintings. 

5. Making and binding of books, both class and individual, 
for keeping in permanent form the work accomplished. 

6. Organizing and constructing charts and graphs for group 
and individual reports. 

7. Planning and constructing of motion picture: the ex- 
plorations in the Chicago area and life in pioneer days. 

8. Making of costumes for the play "From Wigwams to 

9. Making some of the stage properties and scenery of the 

D. Through arithmetic. 

1. Measuring, involving the use of the tables of time, linear 
measure, surface and liquid measure: in making book 
covers, objects used in model, charts, maps, in building 
cabins, in constructing movie, scenery for play, pictures 
for movies, costumes. 

2. Drawing to scale in making map. 

3. Reading and writing large numbers dealing with popu- 
lation and statistics, real estate values, dates. 

4. Using Roman numerals in outlining chapters or sections 
for original books. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations developing through these 

A keener understanding and appreciation of the following: 

A. The work and hardships of the early settlers and explorers. 

B. The people who realized the advantage of the site of Chi- 

C. The people who have helped to build the great city of 

D. Those people in Chicago who have made industrial and 
artistic contributions to the world. 

E. All that is provided by the city for public enjoyment, health 
and safety: public parks, museums, art institute, schools, 
roads, sanitation, protection of life and property. 

F. The natural beauty of this area. 

G. That each child is a citizen of a great community, a great 
country, and of the world, and that as such, he has his 
contribution to make. 

Units of Experience in Fourth Grade 171 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through use of literature for enjoyment and expression 
of feeling. 

1. Oral reading of some stories of special interest and 

Gale, Edwin Reminiscences of Early Chicago 

Hall, Jennie Story of Chicago 

2. Oral reading of poems: 

Longfellow, Henry W. Hiawatha 

Sandburg, Carl Chicago 

Whitman, Walt Pioneers! O Pioneers! 

3. Oral reading of paragraphs describing some of the beau- 
tiful buildings and scenic spots in Chicago. 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Writing stories to be incorporated in individual his- 

2. Writing of articles about Chicago for the school news- 
paper and the yearbook. 

3. Writing letters to parents and absent classmates telling 
of excursions and other experiences. 

4. Writing descriptions of beautiful places to visit in Chi- 

5. Composition of epilogue for the movie on Early Chi- 
cago History; writing stories describing pictures for the 

G. Group composition of the play, "From Wigwams to 
Skyscrapers," presented at the end of the year for parents 
and friends. 

C. Through picture making, design, decoration. 

1. Making of individual and group pictorial maps of early 
Chicago; and individual map of present day Chicago. 

2. Creating designs for portfolios and book covers. 

3. Drawing illustrations for the history of Chicago. 

4. Painting large pictures showing scenes from early days 
in Chicago (used in the movie). 

5. Painting landscape background for model of early 

6. Creating posters depicting the evolution of transporta- 
tion, fire protection, and sanitation in Chicago. 

7. Designing decoration for dodgers, invitations, and pro- 

grams for the play and the movie. 

8. Designing and making block prints for use in decora- 

172 National College of Education 

9. Drawing and painting scenery for the play. 

D. Through music. 

1 . Creating rhythms to old dance tunes such as reels, lancers 
and quadrilles. 

2. Learning songs to interpolate into a play, featuring the 

Chicago Fire. 

"Hard Times Conies Again No More"— Stephen Foster 
"Home, Sweet Home"— Payne and Bishop 

3. Learning an old square dance. 

4. Harmonica and rhythm orchestra playing during in- 
termissions of the play. 

Source and Reference Books 

Blue Book of Favorite 1928 Hall & McCreary 


Hofer, Mari Popular Folk Games and 1914 A. Flanagan 


La Salle, Dorothy Rhythms and Dances 1926 A. S. Barnes 

Robinson, Ethel School Rhythms 1923 Clayton Summy 

Sandburg, Carl The American Songbag 1927 Harcourt, Brace 

Palmer, Winthrop American Songs for 1931 Macmillan 


E. Through dramatic activity and social activity, sharing ex- 

periences with others. 

1. Spontaneous dramatization in the room and on the play- 
ground of scenes from Chicago's history, as: 

a. Marquette and LaSalle on the Mississippi River. 

b. The Chicago Fire. 

c. The Arrival of the Newcomers to Chicago. 

d. Life at Fort Dearborn. 

2. Dramatization of original historical play of Chicago: 
"From Wigwams to Skyscrapers." 

3. Presenting an original movie at a school assembly. 

4. Giving the play and exhibiting the model of Chicago as 
a part of a school fair held near the end of the year. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further studies. 

A. Desire to study other interesting places in Chicago; such 
as, industries, the Tribune plant. 

B. Interest in present day needs of Chicago. 

C. Desire to study the development of other large cities of 
the United States. 

D. Desire to know what Chicago gives to the world and what 
the world gives to Chicago. 

E. Desire to study other sections of the United States and to 
learn how they were discovered and settled. 

Units of Experience in Fourth Grade 173 

Some Essays on Chicago by the Fourth Grade 

(Reprinted from the Children's Year Book, the Blue Moon) 


The Improvements of Roads in Chicago 

After the people of Chicago found out that the wagons could not travel over dirt 
roads, they put boards over them and that worked very well for a little while, but 
when the frost went out of the ground the boards rose up, bumpy and uneven. 
Pretty soon the rains washed them out altogether. Next they tried gravel, but like 
the board roads, they were washed out by the rains. Next they tried macadam. 
But soon they had to fix some way of draining the water off. So they dug ditches 
on either side of the roads so the water would drain off. The ditches were supposed 
to empty into the river, but they did not go down hill enough for the water to 
run through them. 

Soon the citizens of Chicago decided that they would raise the city of Chicago 
seven feet so the water would run down hill to the river. There were many men 
in Chicago who could raise a frame house, but they could not find any one who 
could raise a brick building. Finally they found a man from New York who could 
raise a brick building. In this way the process of raising Chicago went on and they 
did not have any more trouble with their roads for a long time because the water 
could drain off into the river. 

Now we use cement for our roads. In Chicago there are so many people that there 
aren't enough roads to suit the people, so they have to build in part of the lake. 
They have one road called the Outer Drive, and they are going to build it along 
the North Shore in Evanston. 

Transportation on Water in Chicago 

In Chicago, on water as well as on land, people had different ways of travel. First 
they had canoes, then flat boats, and then canal boats. The canal boats were drawn 
by horses. The horses were on the land pulling while the canal boats were on 
the water. Then there were paddle-wheel boats. They were quite good boats. 

In the present day of transportation on water, we use steamboats, both for 
people and freight. Some boats are larger than others. Some boats carry more than 
a thousand people. Some people are already using aquaplanes, which are planes used 
for flying over water and landing on water. They are very expensive now, but 
when they get less expensive more people will use them in flying over Lake Michigan 
to and from the Loop. 

Water Supply in the Early Days 

In the early days of Chicago people drank out of the Chicago river, but they got 
diseases. They used snow and had clean water to drink then. When that became 
unsatisfactory, they dug wells, but the marshwater soaked into them. 

One' man had a bright idea. He dipped up water from the lake and took it in carts 
to the people. All the people thought this was a good plan, but later more people 
came and it was too much work and cost too much money. The people chose officers 
and these officers made laws, and these are the laws: 

I. No person could throw a dead carcass of any animal into the river. 
II. No person could throw any garbage into the river, streets, or vacant lots. 

III. All people must go a mile out of town to dump garbage. 

Then they elected a board of health. 

They built a hospital for those with diseases, and warned people against poisoned 
wells. They then wanted city water, so the city built pipes that went into the lake 
from the pumps. But still that was not so good because fishes and splinters came 
up the pipes, and dirt came up, too. So they built breakwaters to keep out the dirt 

174 National College of Education 

and fishes. But splinters still came up the pipes. They had an idea to build iron 
pipes so splinters did not come in. 

There was another question as important as the water question. That was drainage. 
Chicago was built in a swamp. In spring her streets were swimming. In hot summer 
they festered with slimy pools. They had an idea. They sloped their streets down 
to the river and put planks down. They thought their plans had worked, but the 
flood of 1849 came and it washed all the planks away with it. Then they rebuilt their 
streets. They had sand from the river and filled in their streets and put planks in again, 
but this time they sloped their streets into the middle, where a trough took it down 
to the river. 

A Modern Waterworks 

We took a trip to a modern waterworks and saw many interesting things there. 
These are the processes: 

First the lake water comes in from a pipe in the lake and then it goes to a large 
tank where alum is put into it. Alum is a compound that when it settles to the 
bottom carries a lot of the dirt with it. Then the water goes to the filters. In the 
niters there are strainers as fine as the finest cloth that take the finest particles of 
dirt out. Then to make sure it is clean, the men put chlorine in it. Chlorine is a 
gas that purifies water. 

First Fire Laws 

"No stovepipe shall run through a wooden roof unless the roof is covered with 
tin for six inches around the hole. 

"No person shall carry fire through the streets unless it is covered. 

"Every person shall have a fire bucket for each stove or fireplace in his house. 
These buckets, when not in use at a fire, shall be kept in a convenient place. The 
owner's name shall be painted in white paint on each bucket. In case of a fire, 
every man shall appear with his bucket or buckets, and shall help put out the 
fire. Anyone found disobeying these laws shall be fined two dollars." 

These are not exactly the words of the first fire laws, but they show us how Chicago 
has changed. Houses were so little then that men could put fires out with buckets. 
It would look funny now. There was always the river or a well nearby, so it was not 
a hard job to get water. But tall grass stretched from cabin to cabin. A spark might 
burn the whole town. 

Fire Fighting in the Early Days 

When there was a fire people could not run to a fire box and ring the alarm, 
but the first one who saw it would run toward it shouting: "Fire! Fire!'' 

Everyone who heard dropped whatever he was doing, picked up his fire bucket, 
and went to the fire, shouting also. When they got there they made a line from 
the house to the nearest well, and while one man dipped up water, the others passed 
the buckets back and forth (usually they passed the full ones to the fire with one 
hand and the "empties" to the well with the other hand). After the fire had been 
put out the owner of the saved house treated them to a supper of oysters, or some 
such thing. 

Some men, who liked excitement, got together and formed the first fire department 
of Chicago, the "Neptune Bucket Co." They were not paid. 

As the city grew, there were more fires so Chicago bought its first fire engine. 
Men were proud to belong to the company which owned the engine, even though 
it was only a strong hand pump on wheels. When the church bell rang to sound 
the alarm, the firemen ran to the engine house (for the firemen did not live in 
the engine house then), clutched the ropes and pulled the engine out and to the 
fire. Soon they had several engines, and then started to have contests to see which 
could shoot the highest stream of water. Once, when there was a big fire, two 
of the engines were out of order because they had been used too much at one of 
the contests. 

Units of Experience in Fourth Grade 175 

Then they organized the first paid fire department to stay at the engine house 
all the time and tend to the engines. They put a bell in the dome of the courthouse 
to ring the alarms. They hired watchmen to stay there all the time. 

But yet they did not have the best kind of fire protection. Chicago had a few 
laws about lumber yards and coal yards in the crowded part of town, and no wooden 
building down town, but nobody cared for these rules. The city officers did not 
tell them. 

The Chicago Fire 

Eighteen hundred seventy-one came and found Chicago a large city. They 
had three hundred thousand or more people, and nearly sixty thousand buildings. 
They had a few fireproof buildings, but most of them were brick or stone. Ttie 
river was crowded and so were the streets. Also they had many parks; and Chicago 
was only forty years old! But she had forgotten the little things. Here was a wooden 
house, there, next door, was a beautiful marble building. It was that way all over 

They had a fair fire department, seventeen steam engines, four hook and ladder 
trucks, and a river for water supply. 

But just the same it was a dry year, with only a few showers. Every day there 
were forest fires. Then, on Sunday, October 8, a cow upset a lamp in a barn or a 
man dropped a lighted match in the hay, and Chicago was ablaze. 

The fire started at night, on the west side of the river. These people did not obey 
the fire laws as well as the rest. Their little wooden houses .burned like matches. The 
people did not think to run to the fire boxes. The first one to notify the fire depart- 
ment was the watchman in the courthouse tower, who sent in the wrong alarm. After 
a mile's run an engine got there, but could do nothing. After a while, the watchman, 
seeing it spread so fast, sent in the general alarm. The fire drove everything before 
it and soon crossed the river. The engines also crossed to fight from the south side. 
It rapidly spread, and burned all Monday and Monday night. 

On Tuesday morning a strip nearly four miles long and a mile wide was burned. 
The best part of the city had been burned— more than seventeen thousand buildings. 
On Monday and Tuesday mornings it was easy to guess what the headlines of most 
of the papers of the country said: "Chicago is wiped out, Chicago can never rise 
again." But we all know very well that with the help of other cities (who gave 
money) it did rise again. 

From Wigwams to Skyscrapers 

Act I— Exploration 

Sc. l— Marquette and Joliet exploring the Mississippi River. 

Sc. 2— LaSalle on the shore of Lake Michigan. 

Sc. 3— Fur trading in Chicago. 
Act II— Early settlers. 

Sc. 1— Coming to Chicago. 

Sc. 2— Good times in early days. 
Act III— The Chicago fire. 
Act IV— A street scene in Chicago of today. 

Learning to Choose Healthful Lunches 

A Continuing Interest in Fourth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Exploring the cafeteria and the children's dining room. 

B. Feeling the responsibility and privilege of choosing 
balanced lunches at school. 

C. Studying pictures placed on the bulletin board showing 
what foods do for the body; also pictures showing right 
and wrong ways of sitting, standing, eating. 

D. Observing height and weight chart of children in the room, 
placed on the bulletin board. 

E. Excursions to stores to see how foods are cared for in the 

F. Excursions to the home economics department of the col- 
lege, to see some of the experiments which the college 
girls were carrying on. 

G. Looking at and discussing slides and Spencer films, on 
health topics. 

H. Excursions to the Water Filtering Plant of Evanston. 
I. Excursion to the Bowman Dairy Company. 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. Concerning food values. 

1. What constitutes a well-balanced meal? 

2. What foods build strong healthy bodies? 

3. What foods are protective, building, regulating, and 
energy giving? 

4. How does food become a part of the body? 

B. Concerning everyday foods. 

1. Why is milk a good food? How do we get our milk 

2. Why is it necessary to eat thin-leafed vegetables? 

3. Where do they come from? How can they be prepared? 

4. Where do we get our fruit? 

5. What effect do climate, altitude, soil, have upon the 
growing of different fruits and vegetables? 

6. What are the most important fruit centers of the world? 

7. Where are some of the important vegetable markets? 

8. What is truck farming? Where do we find truck farm- 
ing carried on? 


Units of Experience in Fourth Grade 177 

9. Where do our meats come from? How do we get meat? 

10. How are we supplied with sugar? 

1 1 . How is beet sugar made? 

12. How is cane sugar made? 

13. How do we get maple sugar? 

14. Why is it best not to eat too much sweet; as, candy, cakes, 

15. What are the best ways to prepare meats, vegetables, 

C. Concerning exchange of foods. 

1. How does the United States supply us with valuable 

2. What foods does Illinois give to the rest of the country? 

3. What factors influence the price of foods? 

4. How are foods prepared for shipping? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through oral discussion. 

1. Discussion of values of choosing properly balanced 

2. Discussion of luncheons chosen by individual children 
and how to improve choice. 

3. Discussion of values of proper eating habits. 

4. Talks on kinds, sources and preparation of foods. 

5. Reports on independent reading carried on by several 
groups and individuals. 

6. Discussion of charts and posters made by groups. 

7. Reports on experiments carried on by groups and in- 
dividuals; as, the starch and mold experiment. 

8. Planning of health books and folders that were kept by 
individual children. 

9. Discussion of pamphlets secured from various fruit and 
packing companies. 

B. Through informational reading. 

1. Reading pamphlets sent by food companies. 

2. Reading books chosen by committee of children as 

3. Reading to answer questions in tests and checking the 
individual mastery of subject matter. 

4. Reading as an aid to written stories and reports. 

5. Reading to interpret graphs and charts. 

6. Independent reading to answer questions asked during 
class discussions. 


National College of Education 

Andress, J. M., 

and others 
Baker, C. B., 

and E. D. 
Bruner, H. B., and 

Smith, C. M. 
Burkard, W. E., 

and others 
Clamp, R. O. 
Farquhar, F. F., 

and others 
Ford, G. S., 

and others 
Fowlkes, J. C, 

and others 
Nathan, A. G. 

Petersham, Maud 
and Miska 

Books Used by Children 
Safety Every Day 

The Earth We Live On 

Unit V 
Social Studies, Unit I 

Health by Doing 

Story of Markets 

World Book Encyclopedia 

Compton's Pictured En- 
Healthy Living 

The Farmer Sows His 

The Story Book of Foods 

1939 Ginn 

1937 Bobbs- Merrill 

1936 Merrill 

1936 Lyons and 

1929 Harper 

1940 Quarrie 

1940 Compton 
1936 Winston 
1932 Winston 
1936 Winston 

Through constructive activities. 

1. Arranging exhibit of posters, pamphlets about various 
topics studied; as, milk, meat, fruits. 

2. Arranging and setting up several experiments and 
demonstrating for the group. 

3. Making charts of healthful lunches, breakfasts and din- 

4. Organizing and arranging large wall chart showing 
foods belonging to each class. 

5. Preserving fruits, drying grapes, making jellies. Making 
own recipe book of various foods cooked by group. 

6. Making charts and slogans of various health rules. 

7. Planning, marketing, preparing and serving luncheon 
two or three times during the year. Preparing certain 
dishes for luncheon during the year; as, salads, starchy 
foods. Making cookies for luncheon for mothers. Mak- 
ing cranberry jelly as gift for mothers at Christmas time. 

8. Collecting exhibit of fruits from foreign countries; as, 

9. Making of picture map showing where our foods are 

Making folder (individual) for collection of interesting 
pictures, original stories, poems, maps, and pamphlets. 
Keeping individual records of luncheons chosen and 
checking food charts. 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Measuring, involving the use of linear and liquid 


1 1 

Units of Experience in Fourth Grade 


Cooking Stimulates Wholesome Appetites 

a. Folio covers, charts, mounts for pictures, lettering. 

b. Ingredients used in buying and cooking projects. 
Using the thermometer in cooking. 

Computing distances that food is brought. 

Reading and making simple graphs to show importation 

of various food products. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes and appreciations developing through 
these experiences. 

A. Desire to take proper care of the body; as, washing hands 
before meals, washing teeth, drinking plenty of water. 

B. Satisfaction in being able to choose properly balanced 


C. A keener appreciation and understanding of what the 

right choice of food does for the body. 

D. A willingness to eat and enjoy all sorts of foods. 

E. An understanding of the need for regulating eating habits, 

and not eating sweets between meals. 

F. An understanding of the requirements for sanitary use 
and care of rest rooms. 


National College of Education 

A Picnic Is Enjoyed at the Campus Fireplace 

Units of Experience in Fourth Grade 181 

G. Appreciation of plain well-cooked, wholesome food. 

H. Appreciation for those whose labor gives us healthful 

I. Appreciation for the seasonal changes, and the riches 
brought by each season. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through use of literature: oral reading. 

Johnny Apple Seed— Legend 
The Story of Luther Burbank 
The Dentist— Rose Fyleman 
Joys— Rose Fyleman 
King's Breakfast— A. A. Milne 
Rice Pudding— A. A. Milne 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Writing reports of farms and ranches where foods are 

2. Writing introduction to fruit books, recipe books and 
class enterprise book. 

3. Writing invitations to mothers, inviting them to lunch. 

4. Composing and writing health slogans. 

C. Through picture making, design and decoration. 

1. Making designs for health book covers. 

2. Mounting pictures artistically for bulletin board. 

3. Designing and making folios for health pictures and 

4. Making table decorations for luncheons served to 
mothers at Christmas time and to teachers at Hallo- 

5. Designing and making wrapping paper and cards for 
wrapping jelly as gifts. 

6. Drawing and painting pictures of fruit. 

D. Through social activity. 

1. The children entertained some of the special teachers 
and officers of the school at a Halloween luncheon which 
they had prepared themselves. 

2. At Christmas time they entertained their mothers at a 
luncheon. Glasses of jelly which they had made them- 
selves were the gifts. 

3. In the spring outdoor lunches were enjoyed at the 
campus fireplace. 

VI. Leads into other fields. 

1. Further study of industries in the United States. 

2. Further study of inventions. 

Making a Star Observatory 

A Science Enterprise in Fourth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided a background. 

A. Previous study of the early explorations, culminating in 
the discovery of the new world, led to an interest in the 
earth as a planet. 

B. Pictures pertaining to the solar system were clipped from 
current magazines and newspapers and placed on the bul- 
letin board. 

C. Pictures of observatories were brought in, such as the Mt. 
Wilson Observatory and the Yerkes Observatory. 

D. Articles clipped from publications were placed on the bul- 
letin board. 

E. Objects were brought in for exhibition; as, a specimen 
believed to be a piece of a satellite. 

F. Excursions were made to places of interest: 

1. The Chicago Historical Society in Lincoln Park to see 
the miniature observatory. 

2. Adler Planetarium where a lecture was given and the 
heavenly bodies and their location in the heavens were 
pointed out. 

3. An evening was spent in the open so as to make practical 
application of the knowledge the group had obtained. 

G. Talks were given the class by the special teacher of science. 
H. Each child chose the one body in the heavens which was 

of most interest to him and prepared to make an extensive- 
study of it. 

II. Problems and questions were proposed by the class leading to in- 

A. In relation to the different heavenly bodies: 

1. What different kinds of bodies are in the sky? 

2. What is the difference between a planet and a star? 

3. What is a comet and how is it formed? 

4. Why is it that we rarely see a comet? 

5. Are all of the stars really as small as they appear? 

6. How does a star fall from the sky? 

7. What are meteors? 

8. What makes the stars shine and twinkle at night? 

9. What is meant by a constellation of stars? 


Units of Experience in Fourth Grade 


School Telescope Is Investigated 





B. In 





How do we measure distance in the sky? 

Of what is the Milky Way composed? 

How did the sun get the fire in it? 

Of what is the moon made? 

How did all these bodies come into existence? 

What is an eclipse? 

What causes the moon to appear to change its shape? 

Are we able to see all of the stars when we look at the 

sky on a clear night? 

relation to the planets: 

Are all of the planets the same size? 

Are any of the other planets inhabited? 

Why are the sun and the planets called the Solar System? 

What makes the planets all revolve around the sun? 

When and by whom was the first planet discovered? 

Which planet was discovered recently? 

Which planet is nearest the sun? 

What is peculiar about the planet Saturn? 

Of what are the rings around Saturn composed? 

Why do some planets have more heat than others? 

Do the planets always remain in the same location? 

184 National College of Education 

C. In relation to the earth: 

1. How old is the earth? 

2. How was the earth formed? 

3. What is the distance of the earth from the sun? 

4. If we are so near the sun, why do we not feel the heat 

5. How long does it take the earth to move around the 

6. Why do we have leap year? 

7. What makes our seasons? 

8. What accounts for the different climates in various sec- 
tions of our country? 

9. What brings about day and night? 

10. What is meant by the rotation of the earth on its axis? 

11. How long does it take the earth to make a complete 
rotation on its axis? 

12. W r hat is meant by the gravity of the earth? 

13. How fast does the earth move? 

14. How does gravity keep us from going off into space? 

III. Questions were answered and problems were solved. 

A. Through oral composition. 

1 . Books read aloud by the teacher and by individuals were 

2. Magazine articles and newspaper clippings brought in 
by members of the class were discussed. 

3. Pictures stimulated interest, and discussion followed 
which aided in solving problems. 

4. Group discussion determined the general organization 
of the work. 

5. Discussion of terms and their meanings aided under- 
standing; as, gravity, axis, light year, constellation. 

6. Oral comparisons were made between the different 

a. Their distance from the sun. 

b. The diameter. 

c. Temperature. 

d. Length of time it takes each planet to make the 
revolution around the sun. 

e. Length of time it takes each planet to make a com- 
plete rotation on its axis. 

7. Charts made by individuals were explained. 

8. Reports were made of outstanding scientists and their 
contributions in this field. 

Units of Experience in Fourth Grade 185 

9. Observatories where research is being carried on were 

10. Excursions were planned. 

11. Detailed reports were made by individuals on the ob- 
servations made while on the excursions. 

12. Talks given at the planetarium and the observatory were 

13. The group planned an assembly program in which they 
might share with the school the information they had 

14. The group planned a miniature observatory to be used 
in the assembly. 

15. Organization of the topics to be used on the program 
was determined in discussion. 

B. Through factual reading: 

1. Group and individual reading of books was carried on 
to gain information necessary for the solution of the 
general problems. 

2. Articles found in current magazines and newspapers were 

3. Each child did some independent reading to gain in- 
formation concerning the special problem which he had 

4. Oral reading was done to report the information found 
by individuals when carrying on their research. 

5. Independent reading was done to answer questions asked 
during" class discussions. 

6. Some reading was done to find answers to specific prob- 
lems in order to prepare the report for the school as- 

7. Some reading was done in order to reproduce the in- 
formation on the charts which were to be used with the 

8. Reading was required to interpret graphs and charts 
used in studying the placement of the constellations and 
the orbits of planets. 

9. Reading was done of charts and graphs made by indi- 
viduals depicting specific information. 

10. The children became more skilled in the use of the table 
of contents and the index. 

References for Children and Teacher 

Baker, R. H. When the Stars Come Out 1934 Viking Press 

Comstock, Anna B. Handbook of Nature Study 1939 Comstock 

Fontany, Elena Other Worlds Than This 1930 Follett 

■ 80 

National College of Education 

Johnson, Gaylord 
Johnson, Gaylord 
Johnson, (,a\ lord 
Mitton, G. E. 
Reed, W. M. 
Washburne, C. W 
White, W. B. 

Stars for Children 

Sky Movies 

Star People 

Book of Stars for Young People 

Stars for Sam 

Story of Earth and Sky 

Seeing Stars 

1934 Macmillan 

1934 Macmillan 

1934 Macmillan 

1925 Macmillan 

1931 Harcourt 

1933 Appleton 

'935 Harter 

C. Through constructive activities: 

1. The class carried on these activities in making a minia- 
ture observatory. 

a. Constructing the observatory. 

b. Painting the observatory. 

c. Printing the name on the observatory. 

d. Cutting a circular opening for the observatory to 
make it appear that one was looking through a tele- 
scope at the stars. 

e. Installation of the electrical appliance which was to 
light the charts. 

2. Charts were made by individuals of the following sub- 

a. The planets. 

b. The relative sizes of the planets. 

c. The relative distance of each planet from the sun. 

Observatory Shows Mysteries of the Sky 

Units of Experience in Fourth Grade 187 

d. Saturn and Saturn's rings. 

e. The earth. 

f. The sun. 

g. The moon, 
h. An eclipse. 

i. The Milky Way. 

j. Comets. 

k. Meteors. 

1. Well-known constellations. 

m. Draco, The Dragon. 

n. The North Star. 

3. Enlarged charts were made later, involving these ac- 

a. Enlarging the charts to fit into the observatory. 

b. Choosing the color which would show the designs to 
best advantage. 

c. Pricking with a large pin on the designs. 

4. Posters to advertise the assembly program were con- 

D. Through arithmetic: 

1. Linear measures were used in making the observatory 
and the charts. 

2. The four fundamental processes with integers and frac- 
tions were used in drawing the charts. 

3. Drawing to scale was done in making the enlargement 
of the charts. 

4. Learning to use the compass was involved in making 

5. Reading and writing large numbers was required in 
making comparisons of the distance of the planets from 
the sun. 

6. Comparing the differences in the diameters of the dif- 
ferent bodies in the solar system also involved reading 
of large numbers. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes and appreciations were developed 
through these experiences. 

A. An understanding and appreciation of: 

1. The work done by the astronomers of the past and the 

2. The knowledge and skill needed by the men who carry 
on research. 

3. The care and accuracy with which observations made 
must be recorded. 

1 88 National College of Education 

4. What it means to base opinions upon reliable data. 
B. An understanding of: 

1. The many factors which influence the lives of men. 

2. Our location in relation to other bodies in the sky. 

V. New interests foreshadowing future work. 

A. The children were interested in the weather; as, the tem- 
perature of the atmosphere; the clearness and cloudiness 
of the sky; the direction and speed of the wind; the forma- 
tion of dew, rain, fog, frost and snow; the warmth or lack 
of warmth upon the earth. 

B. The origin ot the earth, how old the earth is, the changes in 
the earth's surface, the early vegetation and animal life as 

How Baby Chicks Are Developed 

A Science Experiment in Fourth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. The children were interested in the development of life: 
its origin, period and types of incubation or pregnancy, 
nourishment of prenatal offspring, methods of furnishing 
the young with food. 

B. Pictures from current newspapers and magazines pertain- 
ing to the development of the baby chick and of a poultry 
farm were brought in. 

C. Excursion to a poultry farm was arranged. 

D. Newspaper and magazine clippings were posted on the bul- 
letin board. 

E. Enlightening books and pamphlets were collected. 

F. One mother presented the room with an electric incubator, 
another with five dozen eggs. 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. Related to the functioning of the incubator. 

1. What must be the temperature of the incubator? 

2. Why must the temperature remain uniform? 

3. Why must the eggs be kept moist? 

4. Why did the temperature go down when the eggs were 
placed in the incubator? 

5. What is the value of candling the eggs? 

B. Related to the development of the baby chicken. 

1. What is meant by the fertility of an egg? 

2. How can we tell that an egg is fertile? 

3. What is the white spot on the yolk of the egg? 

4. Of what value are the blood vessels? 

5. What is the source of nourishment for the baby chick? 

6. What makes the eyes of the chick look so large? 

7. How does the baby chick know when it is time to come 
out of the shell? 

8. How long does it take the chicken to pip his way out of 
the shell? 

9. Why do not all of the eggs hatch? 

10. What caused one baby chick to be deformed? 

C. Related to the care of the baby chickens. 

1. When should the chick receive its first food? 

1 ()() 

National College of Education 

2. What kind of food should be given him? 

3. What is a brooder? 

4. What temperature is best suited to the new chick? 

5. Why is it best not to handle the baby chick? 

6. What is the importance of keeping the brooder clean 
and the water fresh? 

D. Related to all forms of life. 

1. Does all life begin in the same way? 

2. Do all babies come from an e^g? 

3. How do the different mothers carry their young? 

4. What methods are employed in feeding the young? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 
A. Through oral composition. 

1. Discussion of experiences on different types of farms. 
Special emphasis was placed on a chicken farm. 

2. Planning an excursion to a chicken farm. 

3. Discussion of articles read by the teacher and by indi- 

4. Discussion of newspaper clippings and magazine articles. 

5. Discussion of terms and their meaning; as, fertile, em- 
bryo, blood vessels, incubation, etc. 

An Incubator Requires Scientieic Care 

Units of Experience in Fourth Grade 1 9 1 

6. Discussion of the procedure to be followed in the use 
of the incubator. 

7. Discussion of diary records to be written by each indi- 

8. Organizing and planning material for reports which 
explained the experiment to visitors. 

9. Discussion of plans for constructive activities; as, the 
making of a candler and a chicken coop. 

10. Planning captions and their placement for the motion 
picture film on the chickens, which was photographed 
by one of the fathers. 

B. Through factual reading. 

1. Reading of bulletins sent by the government. 

2. Reading of pamphlet which accompanied the incubator. 

3. Reading captions under pictures relating to develop- 
ment of a baby chicken. 

4. Reading articles found in current magazines and papers. 

5. Independent reading to answer questions asked during 
class discussions. 

References for Teacher and Pupil 

Comstock, Anna B. Handbook of Nature Study 1939 Comstock 

Farquhar, F. F., World Book Encyclopedia 1940 Quarrie 

and others 
Ford, A. S., and others Compton's Pictured 1940 Compton 


C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Arranging exhibits of pictures and clippings obtained 
from magazines and newspapers. 

2. Arranging and setting up the preserved models of the 
baby chicks and demonstrating for the groups from other 

3. Making labels for the bottles containing the specimens. 

4. Organizing and arranging a large chart for the record- 
ing of the temperature of the incubator. 

5. Writing diary records. 

6. Writing letters to absent classmates telling of the prog- 
ress and development of the experiment. 

7. Writing captions for the motion picture. 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Reading the thermometer in the incubator. 

2. Recording the temperature of the thermometer. 

3. Counting of the eggs used in the incubator. 

4. Keeping record of time required for propagation of the 

92 National College of Education 

5. Measurements required for construction of chicken coop 
and egg candler. 

6. Buying and keeping account of the materials purchased. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes and appreciations probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. Scientific attitude toward the origin of life. 

B. Understanding and appreciation of the transformation 
which takes place in the embryo. 

V. Continuing interests. 

A. Much discussion leading to an increased understanding of 
the development of the human embryo was carried on in 
the homes and in the school. 

B. Interest indicated further study of the development of both 
plant and animal life. 

Diary Record 

Selected from Teacher's and Children's Individual Diaries 

Thursday, April 22. 

The electric incubator arrived and was set up. Directions were read 
and incubator started. 

Friday, April 23. 

The children watched the incubator and regulated the temperature. 
The incubation process was discussed in detail. 

Monday, April 26. 

We recorded incubator temperature and found it was running fairly 
uniform at a temperature of 103 degrees. (It was necessary to keep 
the temperature near 103 degrees so that the baby chicks would not 

Tuesday, April 27. 

We recorded the temperature of the incubator and found it con- 
tinued to run uniformly. The sixty eggs for the incubator arrived. 
We marked the eggs, putting a red cross on one side so as to know 
when the eggs had been turned. (Turning the egg twice a day assures 
a more uniform development of the baby chick.) 

Units of Experience in Fourth Grade 193 

Wednesday, April 28. 

The five dozen eggs were placed in the incubator. We observed that 
the temperature of the incubator was lowered because the eggs were 
cold. By the end of the school day the temperature had risen to 100 
degrees. We purchased the solution to preserve the chicken models. 

Thursday, April 29. (Second day of incubation) 

We checked the temperature of the incubator and found it running 
103 degrees. Directions specified the incubator was to remain closed 
for two days. Therefore, the incubator was not opened. 

Friday, April 30. (Third day of incubation) 

We recorded the temperature, 103 degrees, and turned the eggs in 
the incubator. Excursion to the Biology Department of Northwestern 
University was made to inspect little wax models of the baby chick 
in the various stages of development. An egg was taken from our 
incubator, opened, the embryo removed and placed under the micro- 
scope. Each child was given the opportunity to observe by means of 
the microscope the palpitation of the baby chicken's heart. The 
embryo was placed in the preservative solution and returned to our 
laboratory. The janitor was asked to check the temperature of the 
incubator and to turn the eggs during the week end. 

Monday, May 3. (Sixth day of incubation) 

We opened the second egg and found the baby chick had grown a 
great deal. It was as big as a small button. Its eyes were big and 
black. There was a tiny beak and the wings and the feet had begun 
to grow. We could see the blood vessels around the embryo. 

Tuesday, May 4. (Seventh day of incubation) 

The third egg was opened. The baby chick was about the size of a 
penny. The legs and wings had grown and there was a light covering 
of down on the body. 

Wednesday, May 5. (Eighth day of incubation) 

The fourth egg was opened. The baby chick's bill had started to 
develop. The eyes, wings and feet were much larger. 

Thursday, May 6. (Ninth day of incubation) 

The fifth egg was opened. The eyes of the chick had little white spots 
on them, indicating the eyelid was growing. The claws had begun 
to grow. The separation on the beak could be seen. 
We candled the eggs. Each child was given an opportunity to candle 

1 94 National College of Judication 

an egg. Out of the sixty eggs only seven were found which were not 
fertile. Mr. Russell visited the room, and, after the models had been 
displayed to him, he remarked that the development of the chicks 
seemed somewhat advanced and that in all probability the baby chicks 
would hatch before the twenty-first day. We were very much excited. 

Friday, May 7. (Tenth day of incubation) 

There was no noticeable change in the development of the baby chick 
except that it had grown much larger and we could see each part 
more clearly. 

Monday, May 10. (Thirteenth day of incubation) 

For the first time there were signs of life in the baby chick. The body 
was covered with down. We could see the ear. His bill was almost 
full grown and his claws could be seen much better. 

Tuesday, May 11. (Fourteenth day of incubation) 

The whole chick was much bigger. There was a great deal more fuzz 
on his body. There seemed to be a covering over the eyes. We candled 
the eggs and found that only three of the eggs were not fertile. We 
were happy, because we knew so many fertile eggs would mean that 
many baby chicks would hatch. 

Wednesday, May 12. (Fifteenth day of incubation) 

When the egg was opened, the baby chick showed real signs of life. 
He turned over in the shell and opened his beak several times. There 
was a noticeable development in the whole chicken. He was a great 
deal larger than the day before. The down was much thicker. 

Thursday, May 13. (Sixteenth day of incubation) 

When we arrived at school we found that the electric plug which 
was attached to the incubator had been disconnected. We thought 
surely we would not have any baby chickens. 

We took an egg out of the incubator and opened it only to find that 
the baby chick was dead. We opened a second egg and this baby 
chick moved. We were then assured that the baby chickens had lived 
through this accident and that we would have a good hatch. 
The baby chick's claws were almost as large as when he came out of 
the shell. The feathers were growing. The eyes did not look nearly 
so large as they did at first, because the eyelids had developed. 

Friday, May 14. (Seventeenth day of incubation) 

The feathers were a little thicker, making the chick appear more 
plump. The chick moved about such a great deal that we hoped he 

Units of Experience in Fourth Grade 1 95 

might live. He was returned to the incubator. However, he lived 
only a very short time. 

Monday, May 17. (Twentieth day of incubation) 

After all of the children had arrived at school we all gathered around 
the incubator. Everyone was very quiet and we could hear a "Peep- 
peep." The top was then lifted off and there was one little baby chick 
in the incubator. He was fluffy and yellow. Several eggs were pipped. 
We put the top back on the incubator so as to keep the baby chick 
and the eggs warm. 

Before the end of the school day we had three baby chickens. Mr. 
Russell's prediction had come true. 

Tuesday, May 18. (Twenty-first day of incubation) 

We could hear a great deal of peeping inside the incubator as we 
all gathered around to see what was inside. We took the top off. The 
incubator seemed full of little yellow baby chickens. Some were dry 
and fluffy; some were partly dry and the feathers clung to their bodies. 
Some were very wet, while others were just coming from the shell 
and several eggs were just pipped. During the morning we observed 
a baby chick emerge from the shell. We saw how he used his beak to 
cut a ring around the shell. (It takes the baby chicken about four 
hours to pip this ring.) He then pushed the cap off the shell. About 
an hour later when we looked in the incubator he was out of the shell. 
He was all wet and too wabbly to stand on his legs. We had another 
baby chick! By noon we had twenty-one baby chickens. There re- 
mained nine to be hatched. Late in the afternoon we removed these 
eggs from the incubator as there were no signs that they might hatch. 
It was necessary to convert the incubator into a brooder, so that the 
baby chicks would have a comfortable place in which to live. With 
the hatching of the baby chickens the temperature had gone up. 
This made it necessary to place them in the brooder which would 
be cooler and yet would give them the warmth which they needed. 
We opened the remaining eggs— found in four of the eggs that the 
baby chicks had died at different stages of their development. The 
only chicken which showed any signs of life was a little deformed 
chick which had only one eye and one leg was shorter than the other. 
He died soon after he was taken from the egg. The remaining eggs 
were not fertile. 

Wednesday, May 19. 

We held open house and invited the upper grades in to see the baby 
chickens and to see the specimens we had preserved. The children 

1 96 National College of Education 

explained in detail the experiment. The baby chickens all seemed 
to thrive upon the care which they were given. 

Thursday, May 20. 

We held open house again and invited the lower grades in to see 
the chickens and specimens. An explanation was made by members 
of the group of the experiment. 

Friday, May 21. 

All of the baby chickens continued to thrive. We had a motion pic- 
ture taken of the children and the baby chickens. 

All of the twenty-one chicks lived. It had been suggested that the baby 
chickens be given to a farmer. Children in the school had offered to 
purchase a chicken. The fourth grade felt they had mothered this brood 
of chickens. They were reluctant to part with even one baby chick, 
saying, "We brought them up and took a great deal of trouble to raise 
them. We want to keep them." 

The last day of school each child took home a baby chicken. 


ABETTER understanding of the development of our country 
and the contribution of different sections to this community, 
has been one attainment desired for the children of the fifth grade. 
The dependence of one community upon another and the need for 
cooperation has been emphasized. 

One class followed their unit on Chicago in the fourth grade 
with a study in the fifth grade, of the problem, "What do other 
sections of the United States contribute to Chicago?" This prob- 
lem led into a study of the development of industry in the United 
States; and there was a very thorough review of the changing 
methods of conducting certain fundamental industries. Corn, 
lumber, iron and steel, cattle raising, were the industries selected 
for intensive study. The class was divided for part of this work, 
and each committee developed a "talkie" on a particular industry. 

Another group of children, after completing a study of Chicago, 
wished to know more about the development of other large cities 
in the United States. Many large cities were studied on the map, 
and the reasons for their size were discussed in relation to location 
and tributary industry. New York, New Orleans, and San Francisco 
were chosen for intensive study, and much of the history and 
geography of the United States was found to be involved in the 
problems that arose concerning the development of these three 
interesting cities. 

Still another group spent their year in fifth grade in an imagi- 
nary journey across the United States. They visited the New 
England States, the Mid-Atlantic States, the South, and the West. 
Their journey took them to historical shrines, where they learned 
the story of the section, to scenic spots, and to fields and factories, 
where they studied the industries. 

A delightful enterprise for the summer session has proved to be 
a study of America's playgrounds. Niagara Falls, Yellowstone 
Park, the seacoasts of Florida and California, and other resorts and 
scenic wonders have been studied with enthusiasm. This unit has 



National College of Education 

A Jig-Saw Puzzle Map Intrigues Its Makers 

prepared the children to enjoy more fully their own vacation trips, 
which usually follow the short summer term in school. It has in- 
cluded not only a study of geographical conditions in scenic regions, 
but also means of transportation, expenses, routes, and other 
matters. Posters and pamphlets published by travel bureaus and 
transportation lines have been among the materials used. 

The outlines which follow include a year's study of industries 
of the United States, and a study, conducted in a different year, 
on the development of New York City and the Westward Move- 
ment. A study of America's playgrounds and a study of water and 
its uses, both developed in summer sessions, are also included. 
The outcomes in social meanings and appreciations peculiar to the 
particular unit have been included with each unit. All of the units 
have offered opportunities for the practice of certain desirable 
social attitudes and habits; such as, cooperation with others, readi- 

Units of Experience in Fifth Grade 199 

ness to participate in group activities, willingness to accept both 
group and individual responsibility, consideration for the opinions 
and possessions of others, independence in carrying out ideas, per- 
severance in seeing a job finished, conservation of time and ma- 
terials. The studies have also been accompanied by growth in the 
powers of expression through creative language, fine and industrial 
arts, music and dramatization. Outcomes in terms of the specific 
skills, English and arithmetic, are summarized under Group Rec- 
ords of Progress in Part IV. 

What Do Other Sections of the United States 
Share with Chicago? 

A Problem in Fifth Grade Which 
Introduced a Later Study of Industries 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused or fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Previous study of Chicago. 

B. Discussion of how the rest of our United States has helped 
and is helping Chicago. 

C. Excursion to the beach to see different land forms. 

D. Exhibit of physical, product, and resource maps. 

E. Reading of stories and clippings. 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. What crops do the different sections of the United States 
raise that they can share with others? 

1. Considering the surface of the different parts of the 
United States, what crops would you expect them to 

2. The climate? 

3. The soil? 

4. Considering all three, what crops do they raise? 

B. Which crops are sent to Chicago? What is done with the 

C. What natural resources do we find in different sections of 
the United States? 

D. Which raw materials are sent to Chicago? What is done 
with the rest? 

E. What else do the different sections contribute? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through factual reading. 

1. Group silent reading to gain information necessary to 
solve problems. 

2. Independent silent reading to solve problems. 

3. Independent reading for information along lines where 
interest had been stimulated by the study. 

4. Oral reading to report results of individual research. 

5. Oral and silent reading to interpret globes, graphs, 
diagrams, maps. 


Units of Experience in Fifth Grade 


6. Reading to answer tests given to check on understanding 
of subject matter. 


Aitchison, A. E. 

North America by Train 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

and Uttley, M. 

and Plane 

Allen, N. B. 

United States 

1937 Ginn 

Atwood, W. W. & 

The Americas 

1929 Ginn 

Thomas, H. G. 

Baker, C. B., 

Making America 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

and E. D. 

Barker, E. C. 

The Story of Our Nation 

1933 Row, Peterson 

Dakin, W. S. 

Great Rivers of the World 

1925 Macmillan 

Pitkin, W. B. & 

Seeing Our Country 

1939 Macmillan 

Hughes, H. F. 

Smith, J. R. 

Human Use Geography 

1939 Winston 

B. Through composition. 

1. Oral composition. 

a. Giving reports as a result of research. 

b. Discussing material read, information brought in, 
and exhibits. 

c. Discussing plans for working out problems. 

2. Written composition. 

a. Writing labels for product maps. 

b. Labeling and explaining diagrams and drawings. 

c. Writing answers to questions checking comprehension. 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Making different land forms and physical features in 
sand at the beach. 

2. Making a physical map of the United States in relief, 
using a mixture of flour and salt on beaver board. 

3. Making map showing products of different sections 
being sent to Chicago. 

a. Tracing of map on beaver board. 

b. Painting and shellacking map. 

c. Making and painting clay animals for the map. 

d. Gathering and mounting grains and natural resources. 

e. Making small boat to carry products brought by water. 

f. Labeling trains and trucks used in transporting goods. 

g. Assembling of map. 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Measuring, using linear table of measure in drawing 
and constructing maps. 

2. Practicing exercises in proportion to gain skill in draw- 
ing maps. 

3. Using four fundamental processes with integers and 
fractions in drawing and constructing maps. 

202 National College of Education 

IV. Meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developing through these ex- 

A. An understanding and appreciation of— 

1. Our natural location. 

2. The wonders of nature in America. 

3. The influence of nature in determining men's activities. 

4. Man's skill in adapting his activities to his natural sur- 

5. Abundance of the resources of our United States. 

6. Extent of our interdependence. 

B. A desire to learn more of our use of natural resources. 

V. New interests foreshadowing further studies. 

A. Industries in which these products are used. 

B. Life in different regions of the United States. 

C. What Chicago sends to different parts of the United States. 

Note: Following this study, the class divided itself into 
three committees. One committee studied lumber; 
another group investigated the iron and steel industry; 
and a third group conducted a unit on stock raising. 
Outlines of two of these studies follow. 

How Does Chicago Obtain and Use Iron? 

A Study Conducted by a Committee of the Fifth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused or fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Previous studies. 

1. Study of Chicago. 

2. Study of contributions different sections of United 
States make to Chicago. 

B. Exhibits. 

1. Pictures posted. 

2. Clippings brought in. 

C. Excursions. 

i. Trip to farm to see machinery. 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. How does Chicago obtain and use iron? 

i. Where are iron deposits found in the United States? 
From which deposits does Chicago get iron? Why? 

2. How is iron mined? How is it brought to Chicago? 

3. What process is necessary to change iron into pig iron? 
How is steel made? What progress has been made in 
these processes? 

4. Where is coal found in the United States? Where does 
Chicago get coal for her steel industry? 

5. What is coal? How was it formed? 

6. How is coal mined today? How does this differ from 
the way it was mined long ago? 

7. How is the coal brought to the blast furnace? 

8. What are the products made from iron? How are they 

9. What are the products made from steel? How are they 

10. What is done with these products? 

B. How shall we show our classmates who are working on 
other industries how the iron and steel industry is car- 
ried on? 

III. Finding answers to questions and problems. 
A. Through factual reading. 

1. Group reading to gain information necessary to solve 


204 National College of Education 

2. Independent reading of material to solve problems. 

3. Oral reading to report information found. 

4. Independent reading for pleasure following interests 
stimulated by the study. 

5. Silent and oral reading to interpret maps, charts, globes, 

6. Reading to answer tests given to check on information 

Akchison, A. E., 

& Uttley, M. 
Allen, N. B. 
Baker, C. B., 

and E. D. 
Camp, J. M. & 

Francis, C. B. 
Pitkin, W. B. & 

Hughes, H. F. 
Rocheleau, W. F. 

Smith, J. R. 


North America by Train 1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

and Plane 
United States 
Making America 

1937 Ginn 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

Making, Shaping & Treat- 
ing of Steel 
Seeing Our Country 

Great American Indus- 
tries Series (Bk. I) 
Human Use Geography 

Carnegie Steel 

1939 Macmillan 

1928 Flanagan 

1939 Winston 

B. Through oral composition. 

1. Organizing and giving talks as a result of individual or 
group research. 

2. Discussing of material read, information brought in, 
pictures in exhibits. 

3. Discussing of plans for work and setting up standards to 
be attained. 

4. Outlining material to be used in stories. 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Making a motion picture. 

a. Constructing a theater. 

b. Making curtains. 

c. Mounting pictures on cambric. 

2. Making wall hanging of block prints. 

a. Cutting linoleum. 

b. Printing prints on sateen background. 

3. Collecting and arranging an exhibit of different kinds of 
coal and products of iron. 

4. Planning and constructing posters to advertise motion 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Measuring in construction of theater, making the cur- 
tains, and mounting pictures, using the linear measure. 

2. Measuring in dyeing the curtains, using liquid measure. 

3. Reading and writing large numbers in interpreting 

Units of Experience in Fifth Grade 205 

United States production of iron, steel, and commodities 
made of them. 

4. Using four fundamental processes with integers in mak- 
ing the motion picture and theater. 

5. Using four fundamental processes with fractions in 
measuring cloth for curtains and motion picture. 

6. Using four fundamental processes with decimals in prob- 
lems dealing with the production of iron and steel. 

7. Using principles of percentage in comparing the pro- 
duction of the United States in comparison with world 
production of iron and steel. 

IV. Meanings, attitudes, appreciations developing through these ex- 

A. A recognition and appreciation of the extent of iron ore 
and coal resources in the United States. 

B. An understanding and appreciation of 

1. The marvel of the industrial process. 

2. What miners are doing for us. 

3. The mining possibilities of the United States. 

C. A knowledge and appreciation of the change in the life of 
people brought about by increased production and use of 
these materials. 

D. An expressed desire to help conserve our iron and coal re- 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature: oral reading by teacher and pupils of 

some selections of special charm. 

Guiterman, Arthur— Coal 
Sandburg, Carl— Chicago 
Bryant, William Cullen— Coal 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Writing stories to accompany the pictures in the motion 
picture program. 

2. Writing stories for the school magazine about the study 
of industries. 

C. Through picture-making, design, decoration. 

1. Painting pictures (18 x 24) with poster paint to show 
each step in the iron and steel industry, including the 
part played by coal and the coal industry. 

2. Designing in paper, painting or coloring posters to ad- 
vertise motion picture. 

206 National College of Education 

3. Making designs of the industry to be used for block 
D. Through social activity in sharing experiences with others. 
Giving sound motion picture program to classmates and 
other classes. Original pictures were shown on a hand-made 
reel, and original talks were given to explain them. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further projects. 

A. Studying other industries. 

B. Making other motion pictures. 

How Does Chicago Obtain and 
Use Lumber? 

A Study Carried on by a Committee of the Fifth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused or fostered interest and pro- 
vided background. 

A. Previous studies. 

1. Study of Chicago. 

2. Study of contributions different sections of the United 
States make to Chicago and to the rest of the world. 

B. Preliminary discussions. 

1. What use is made of products sent to Chicago? 

2. What does she send out? 

C. Trip to farm where branches and cones were gathered. 

D. Spencer films. 
i. Lumbering. 

2. Our Forests and What They Mean to Us. 

E. Exhibits. 

i. Pictures and clippings posted. 
2. Piece of redwood tree brought in. 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. How is the lumber industry carried on? 

i. Where" are the most important forests in the United 

2. What kinds of trees are found in them? How can one 
tell these different kinds? 

3. How does the amount of forest land to-day compare 
with that of colonial times? 

4. Why is there less? 

5. How are the forests protected to-day? 

6. How are the trees cut for lumber? 

7. Plow are they taken to the sawmill? 

8. How are they made into lumber? 

9. Where is this lumber sent and how? 

B. How shall we show the committees on other industries how 
the lumber industry is carried on? 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 
A. By factual reading. 

1. Independent reading of material to solve problems. 


National College of Education 

2. Independent reading for information along interests 
stimulated by the study. 

3. Group silent reading to gain information necessary to 
solve problems. 

4. Oral reading to report results of individual research. 

5. Oral reading of explanations accompanying Spencer 
film slides. 

6. Oral and silent reading to interpret maps, diagrams, 
globes, graphs. 

7. Reading to answer tests given to check on understand- 
ing of subject matter. 

Aitchison, A. E., 
and Uttley, M. 

Allen, N. B. 

Baker, C. B., 
and E. D. 

Barrows & Parker 

Brigham & 

Comstock, A. 

Farquhar, F. F., 

and others 
Ford, A. S., 

and others 
Patch, E. M. 

Smith, J. R. 
Trafton, G. H. 


North America by Train 

and Plane 
United States 
Making America 

United States and Canada 
Essentials of Geography 

Handbook of Nature 

World Book Encyclopedia 

Compton's Pictured En- 

First Lessons in Nature 

Human Use Geography 

Nature Study and Science 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

1937 Ginn 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

1925 Silver, Burdett 
1925 American Book 

1939 Comstock 

1936 Quarrie 

1938 Compton 
1932 Macmillan 

1939 Winston 
1927 Macmillan 

B. By language. 

1. Organizing and giving talks as a result of individual or 
group research. 

2. Discussing material read, information brought in, ex- 
hibits, pictures. 

3. Discussing plans for work and setting up standards to 
be attained. 

4. Outlining material to be used for stories. 

C. By constructive activities. 

1. Making of extensive tree exhibit consisting of a tree, 
bark, lumber, leaves, buds, and cones. 

a. Collecting. 

b. Identifying and labeling. 

c. Arranging. 

2. Building a showcase to use in displaying the exhibit. 

3. Planning, making and binding books of stories, maps, 
and illustrations. 

Units of Experience in Fifth Grade 209 

4. Making a wall hanging of industry prints. 

a. Cutting designs in linoleum. 

b. Printing on sateen background. 

5. Making maps to show where different trees are found in 
the United States. 

D. By use of arithmetic. 

1. Measuring. 

a. Using linear measure in construction of books and 
exhibit case. 

b. Using board measure in working lumber problems. 

2. Reading and writing large numbers in interpreting sta- 
tistics concerning acreage of forests, production of lum- 
ber in the United States. 

3. Counting and using four fundamental processes in de- 
termining age of trees by their rings and figuring to place 
different trees' histories in relation to the history of our 

IV. Meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developing through these ex- 

A. An understanding and appreciation of 

1. Our forests. 

2. What those engaged in lumber industry are doing for 

3. Our city comforts. 

B. A desire to help protect and conserve our forests. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. By means of creative composition. 

1. Creating stories and verses about trees. 

2. Writing descriptions of the journey from forest to lum- 
beryard, to be placed in lumber books. 

3. Writing items about the study for the school newspaper. 

B. By means of picture-making and design. 

1. Painting large pictures of trees as a part of tree exhibit. 

2. Making illustrations of the steps in the lumber industry 
to accompany stories in books. 

3. Making sketches of buds, leaves, winter and summer 
shape, cones, to show others how to identify different 

4. Designing covers for books. 

5. Making designs of the lumber industry for block prints. 

C. By means of social activity. 
Sharing exhibit with classmates. 

2io National College of Education 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further units of work. 

A. Collecting specimens to show summer characteristics of 


B. Learning uses of forests other than for lumber; as, making 
of paper. 

Enjoying Playgrounds of the United States 

An Enterprise in the Fifth Grade Summer Session 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background for activities. 

A. Previous studies. 

1. Fifth grade work on industries of the United States. 

2. Fourth grade study of Chicago. 

B. Exhibits. 

1. Large colored posters put out by the railroad companies. 

2. Folders and booklets advertising tours. 

3. Pictures. 

C. Spencer film slide: Yellowstone Park. 

D. Motion pictures. 

1. Dude ranches in New Mexico. 

2. Glacier Park. 

E. Trip to the lake. 

F. Striking bits of description from folders read to children. 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. What do people in the United States do for pleasure? 

B. Since traveling seems to be the most important way of 
spending a vacation, where do people travel in the summer? 

C. Why should they go to these places? What is there interest- 
ing on a. tour of the Great Lakes? Historical and scenic 
New England? New York City? Washington, D. C, and 
vicinity? Philadelphia? The Southern States? Estes Park? 
California? The Indian Country of the Southwest? Yosem- 
ite Park? Salt Lake City? Rainier National Park? Glacier 
National Park? Yellowstone National Park? Dude Ranches? 
Wisconsin Lake region? 

D. How might we get some pleasure out of these places this 
summer while here at school? 

Note: Individual children chose particular places for de- 
tailed study. 

III. Finding answers to questions and problems. 

A. Through factual reading. 

1. Group silent reading to solve problems. 

2. Independent silent reading to solve problems. 

3. Independent reading for information following inter- 
ests stimulated by the study. 


2 1 2 

National College of Education 

4. Oral reading to report information found. 

5. Oral and silent reading to interpret maps, diagrams, 

Aitchison, A. E., 
and Uttley, M. 
Allen, Nellie B. 
Atwood & Thomas 

Gather, K. D. & 
Jordon, D. S. 
Halliburton, R. 
Krapp, G. P. 

Smith, J. R. 
Retold from St. 


North America by Plane 

and Train 
United States 
The Americas, The Earth 

and Its People 
Highlights of Geography 

—North America 
Book of Marvels 
Inland Oceans 
Pictorial Atlas of the 

World Atlas 
Human Use Geography 
Stories of the Great Lakes 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

1937 Ginn 

1929 Ginn 

1927 World Book 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 
1927 Rand McNally 
1931 Reilly and Lee 

1930 Rand McNally 
1939 Winston 


B. Through language. 

1. Discussing and suggesting plans for work. 

2. Practice in outlining material and organizing informa- 
tion for talks. 

3. Organizing and giving talks as each child conducted 
the class around the chosen city or park. 

4. Discussing and criticising work done. 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Marking out on maps suggested places to visit and tours 
to make. 

2. Making large poster advertisements for the purpose of 
inducing classmates to visit certain scenic spots on their 
imaginary trip. 

3. Making models to advertise places. 

4. Making charts to advertise places. 

5. Making class book containing diary of the trip. 

D. Through use of arithmetic. 

1. Using four fundamental processes with integers in figur- 
ing distances and cost of the trip. 

2. Using linear measure in making advertisements. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations developing through these 

A. A knowledge and appreciation of the beauties and wonders 
of our country. 

B. A knowledge and appreciation of those who make it pos- 
sible for us to see and enjoy them: travel bureaus; trans- 
portation companies; guides. 

Units of Experience in Fifth Grade 213 

C. A feeling of gratitude to the national and local govern- 
ments, to historical societies and other organizations for 
preserving these interesting places, and offering their use 
to the public. 

D. Some appreciation of the responsibility of those who visit 
public playgrounds for their care and protection. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

Oral reading of some selections of special interest and 


Harper, VV. & Treasure Trail Series 1929 Macmillan 

Hamilton, A. J. (Far-Away Hills) 

Rolfe, M. A. Our National Parks 1927 Sanborn 

(Books I and II) 
Seymour, F. W. Indians Today 1926 Sanborn 

B. Through creative composition: writing of diary by each 
child of one place visited on the trip. 

C. Through picture-making. 

1 . Sketching of scenes by the lake in pastels. 

2. Painting scenes for advertisements and class diary. 

3. Making posters in colored papers for advertisements. 

D. Through dramatic activity. 

An imaginary trip to the playgrounds of the United States, 
the children taking turns in acting as guide and pointing 
out places of interest. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further studies. 

A. Playgrounds and interesting places in other countries. 

B. Beautiful scenery. 

How New York Became Our Greatest City 

A Fifth Grade Problem of the First Semester 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Previous studies. 

i. Discovering America. 

2. Study of own community— Chicago. 

3. Vacation exhibit. 

B. Exhibits. 

1. Pictures and clippings on bulletin boards about New 
York City. 

2. Relics from old New York. 

C. Stories read to the children. 

1. Peeps at Great Cities— New Yor k— Hawthorne. 

2. Selections from recent magazines and newspapers. 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. What is New York's early history? 

1. Who discovered it? 

2. Who explored it? 

3. Who first settled there and why did they? 

4. How did the early settlers live? 

5. What was the appearance of New York in the early days? 

6. Who ruled it? 

7. Who were some of the important people in the early 
history of New York? 

B. Why are cities built? 

1. Why do people live in cities to-day instead of on isolated 
farms as long ago? 

2. What changes did discoveries and inventions make in 

3. What changes in living did changes in power make? 

4. How do we come to have coal? How does it help to 
build cities? 

5. How do we come to have oil? How does it help? 

6. How does water power help to build cities? 

7. How does iron help to build cities? 

C. How has its geography helped New York to become a great 

1. How has its climate helped? 

2. What crops can it get easily? 


Units of Experience in Fifth Grade 215 

3. What natural resources can it get easily? 

4. How has its harbor helped? 

5. What advantages does its location have for trade both 
with the rest of the United States and foreign countries? 

D. How have men helped to make New York a great city? 

1. How have men aided the growth of New York by im- 
proving transportation? 

2. How have men solved the sanitation problem for a great 

3. How have men helped New York by building great 

4. How have men helped by building buildings? 

5. What has the artist and sculptor done for New York? 

6. How has the immigrant helped? 

7. How have men helped by building playgrounds, parks 
and museums? 

8. How have publishing companies helped New York? 

9. What have men done to make New York a great trad- 
ing center? 

10. What have men done to make New York a great buying 

Note: Problems A, B and C were worked upon by the 
group together; in Problem D each child chose one topic 
to work on and report to the group. 

III. Solution of problems. 

A. Through factual reading. 

1. Reading to find answers to problems (group and indi- 

2. Reading for general information along interests stimu- 
lated by the study. 

3. Reading maps, charts, graphs, globes for information. 

4. Reading tests given to check on mastery of subject matter. 

Book References 

Aitchison, A. E., North America by Plane 1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

and Uttley, M. and Train 

Allen, N. B. United States 1937 Ginn 

Atvvood, W. W., The Americas 1929 Ginn 

and Thomas, H. 

Chamberlain, J. F. North America 1927 Macmillan 

Farquhar, F. F., World Book Encyclopedia 1936 Quarrie 

and others 

Ford, A. S., Compton's Pictured En- 1938 Compton 

and others cyclopedia 

Fox, F. C. How the World Rides 1929 Scribner 

2 I () 


wnal College oj Educat 


Halliburton, R. 

Book of Marvels 



Hawthorne, H. 

Peeps at Great Cities 



Hotchkiss, C. W. 

Representative Cities of 

1 9 ' 3 


the United Stales 


Irwin, W. 

Highlights of Manhattan 



kelty, M. G. 

Beginnings of the Ameri- 
can People and Nation 



Pitkin, W. B. & 

Seeing Our Country 



Hughes, H. F. 

Rugg, H. O. 

Our Country and Our 



Webb, V. L., 

New World Past and 

'93 8 


and others 



New York Times Picture Section 

Fortune Magazine, July, 1939 

"New York's World's Fair 1939" (Edited by L' Illustration) 

B. Through language. 

1. Outlining and giving reports on information found. 

2. Discussing problems of work and of subject matter. 

3. Setting up standards to be attained. 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Constructing a replica of New Amsterdam. 

a. Cutting houses from wood. 

b. Making trees of sponges. 

c. Making fences of pebbles and clay. 

d. Making ships of clay. 

2. Making maps. 

a. Large freehand maps of the harbor for the model. 

b. Maps showing the coal, oil, iron and water power 
regions of the United States. 

c. Maps of steamship routes to New York. 

d. Maps showing places from which New York gets 

3. Making a radio for broadcasting stories. 

4. Making a table for exhibits. 
1). Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Addition of integers. 

Adding different amounts in statistics to get totals. 

2. Subtraction. 

Subtracting dates to find how long ago. 

3. Double multiplication. 

a. Finding area of plots of ground. 

b. Finding cost of land valued at New York prices. 

4. Long division. 

Finding value of one square foot of land in New York 
when total was given. 

Units of Experience in Fifth Grade 217 

5. Reading large numbers in statistics on New York. 

6. Fractions. 

a. Expressing parts as a fraction. 

b. Reducing per cents to common fractions in statistics 
on New York. 

c. Adding common fractions in measuring. 

d. Subtracting common fractions in construction prob- 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developing through these 

A. An understanding of the beginnings made by the early 

B. An understanding and appreciation of the marvels that 
mechanical power has brought about. 

C. Some understanding of the wealth of our country in sources 
of power. 

D. Some understanding of the wealth of our country in ores 
and metals. 

E. An appreciation of the values of natural resources and the 
necessity of conserving them. 

F. An understanding of the important part geographic fac- 
tors play in determining man's activities. 

G. An appreciation of the contribution made by the immi- 
grant, the artist, the sculptor, the musician, and the engi- 

H. Knowledge and appreciation of the conveniences to be 
had in a city made possible by man's use of scientific knowl- 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

Oral reading by teacher and pupils for pleasure. 
Read to children 

Allen, N. B. United States 1925 Ginn 

Irving, W. Rip Van Winkle 1908 Altemus 

Irving, W. Legend of the Sleepy 1924 Lippincott 

Read by the children 
Dodge, M, M. Hans Brinker or the 1903 Century 

Silver Skates 
Hilles, Helen T. Play Street 1936 Random House 

Lewis, W. D. & Scouting Through 1930 Winston 

Rowland, A. L. 

B. Through creative composition. 
Writing stories for books on New York. 

2 i 8 National College of Education 

C. Through picture making, design, decoration. 

i. Making pictures to illustrate the stories written for the 
New York books. 

a. Crayon drawings. 

b. Diagrams in ink. 

c. Pencil sketches. 

d. Paintings. 

2. Making covers for books. 

a. Cutting designs from poster paper. 

b. Cutting letters from poster paper for titles. 

D. Through music. 

1. Discussing and exchanging information and experiences 
relating to the great musical organizations in New York: 
ensembles, orchestras, opera, music centers and music 

2. The making and balancing of programs from available 
piano scores, representing the many fields listed above to 
be used in appreciation hours. 

3. Singing and listening to old Dutch folk music. 

Source Books and Materials 

Hamilton, Clarence Outlines of Music History Oliver Ditson 

Rontgen, Elkin, Old Dutch Nursery Augener Ltd. 

LeMair Rhymes 

Davison, Surette A Book of Songs E. C. Schirmer 

Purcell, Henry Dido and Aeneas Oxford Press 

Mozart The Magic Flute Novello 

Schubert Symphony in B Minor G. Schirmer 

Brahms Symphony in C Minor N. Simrock 

Current circulars and programs from New York music organizations. 

E. Through social activity, sharing experiences with others. 

t. Radio talks for classmates: sharing the stories written 
with classmates, by reading them behind the scenes as 
if they were broadcast over the radio. 

2. New York Assembly. Radio idea was used for a New 
York program for parents and grades four and six. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further study. 

The children were interested in other large cities of the United 
States, especially San Francisco and New Orleans. 

Fifth Grade Impressions of the City 

A City of Steel 

A city of steel and of iron and of smoke, 

A city of oil and bricks and of coke, 

A city of autos and street cars and trains, 

Units of Experience in Fifth Grade 2 1 9 

A city of boats and of swift airplanes,— 
A village of horses and dirt roads is gone, 
But a city of skyscrapers stands in the dawn. 

Sounds of the City 

Autos whiz. 

Street cars thump. 

Taxis honk. 

Huge trucks bump. 

Iron wheels screech. 

Fast trains boom. 

Whistles scream. 

Airplanes zoom. 

The city knows 

These noisy sounds. 

They sound all day 

When they make their rounds. 

The City at Night 

Over the city 

Night is closing. 

Many tired workers 

Are quietly dozing. 

One by one 

Twinkling lights fade away. 

The city is sleeping 

Until dawns the day. 

There is a City 

There is a city about which I dream 
When the shadows of the evening gleam. 
I dream about its marble towers 
And about its sweet-scented flowers, 
Where its highways are paved with gold, 
Where its spires pierce the clouds and hold 
Tn darkened chests a treasure great. 
Rut in this city lies the treasure seeker's fate, 
For in these chests of jewels and rich stones 
And in this city of sparkling domes 
Demons dark and cruel lie, — 
The treasure seeker they will defy. 

And my dream is not truthless. 

With America's treasure, man is ruthless. 

So, people, I demand, do not waste 

Our country's treasure in greed and haste. 

The Broker 

The Broker, the Broker, 

The Beast of the City — 

Three balls is his sign. 

There's money in his line. 

Some folks would like to throw him 

In the deep and foamy brine. 

Isn't it a pity 

That the Broker is 

The Beast of the City? 

How the United States Moved West 
from New York to San Francisco 

A Second Semester s Problem in Fifth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Previous studies. 

1. Discovering America. 

2. Development of Chicago. 

3. Development of New York including the factors which 
influence the growth of any city. 

B. Preliminary discussions. 

1. Discussions of other important cities of the United States 
besides New York. 

2. Discussions which resulted in choice of San Francisco as 
next city to be studied. 

3. Discussions as to who settled San Francisco led to the 
conclusion that settling San Francisco involved the set- 
tling of our country to Pacific. 

4. Choosing of topic "How the United States moved west 
from New York to San Francisco" for study. 

C. Exhibits. 

1. Pictures of events in United States history. 

2. Clippings from newspapers and magazines. 

3. Pioneer relics. 

D. Excursions. 

1. To a modern farm in the Northwest territory. 

2. To the Chicago Historical Society to see a replica of a 
pioneer home, Conestoga wagon, pioneer farm imple- 
ments, relics of the Civil War. 

E. Spencer film— strips. 

1. Fishing. 

2. Lumbering. 

3. Yellowstone National Park. 

4. Wild animals of North America. 

5. Our forests and what they mean to us. 

II. Problems and questions which led into research. 

A. How did the pioneers overcome the first barrier, the Appa- 
lachian Mountains, and move into the Northwest territory? 
1 . Why had the colonists first settled on the coast? 


Units of Experience in Fifth Grade 221 

2. How were these difficulties of mountains and enemies 

3. What advantages did the land west of the mountains 
offer the settlers? 

4. How did the United States open the land west of the 
mountains for settlement? 

5. What routes were used in moving into this territory? 

6. By what means did the settlers move into this territory? 

7. Who were some of the outstanding people in settling 
this territory? 

B. What has the Northwest territory in the central section of 
the United States contributed? 

1. The climate, soil, and topography of this section are 
suited to what activities? 

2. What natural resources are found here? 

3. What are the advantages for trade? 

C. How was the frontier pushed to the Pacific coast? 

1. How did the United States come to gain the land west 
of the Mississippi? 

2. How did the people find out about this vast new land? 

3. How did they get there to settle? 

4. What improvements were made in roads? 

5. What part did the canals play in the westward move- 

6. Steamboats? 

7. Railroads? 

8. How could the settlers take care of the vast farms which 
were now available? 

9. Who were the inventors who helped the early pioneers? 

10. How did the people live in this new region? 

1 1 . What part did the new West take in the government? 

12. How did Florida come to be a part of the United States? 

13. How did Texas come to be a part of the United States? 

14. How did the Oregon territory come to be a part of the 
United States? 

15. What led the people to the Far West? 

16. Who were some of the outstanding people in building 
the West? 

D. What is the Far West contributing to-day? 

1. The climate, the soil, the topography of the different sec- 
tions are suited to what activities? 

2. What natural resources are found here? 

3. How have men used the advantages and overcome the 

National College of Education 

A rw |HH| 

~l!mW*\ • 


91 »P * Jr "?^l 

m -r. ^?v ■ "•' v l r** "^^^^i 

The Covered Wagon Spells Adventure 

4. How do people differ here from those in other sections? 
E. How have all the sections of the United States been brought 
more closely together today? 

III. Finding answers to questions and problems. 

A. Through factual reading. 
1. Types of silent reading. 

a. Independent reading to solve problems. 

b. Independent reading following interests stimulated 
by the study. 

c. Group reading to gain information necessary to solve 

d. Reading to interpret maps, globes, diagrams. 

e. Reading to answer informal objective tests given to 
check on understanding of subject matter. 

f. Reading suggestions made out by teacher and children 
for working out problems. 

Units of Experience in Fifth Grade 


2. Types of oral reading. 

a. Oral reading to report results of individual research. 

b. Oral reading of explanations accompanying the 
Spencer film strips. 

c. Oral reading to interpret maps, diagrams, graphs, 

Adams, J. T. 
Allen, N. B. 
Atwood, M. W. & 

Thomas, H. G. 
Baker, C. B., and 

E. D. 
Barker, E. C. 
Burnham, S. 
Farquahar, F. F., 

and others. 
Ford, G. S. 

Halliburton, R. 
Kelty, M. G. 

Kelty, M. G. 

Melbo, I. R. 
Pitkin, W. B. k 
Hughes, H. F. 
Rugg, H. O. 

Smith, N. B. and 

Bayne, S. F. 
Webb, V. L., and 



Epic of America 
United States 
The Americas 

Making America 

The Story of Our Nation 
Hero Tales from History 
World Book Encyclopedia 

Compton's Pictured En- 

Book of Marvels 

Beginnings of American 
People & Nation 

The Growth of American 
People & Nation 

Our America 

Seeing Our Country 

Our Country and Our 

Frontiers Old and New 

New World Past and 

1933 Little Brown 
1937 Ginn 
1930 Ginn 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

1933 Row Peterson 
1930 Winston 
1940 Quarrie 

1940 Compton 

1937 Bobbs Merrill 

1930 Ginn 

1931 Ginn 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

1939 Macmillan 

1938 Ginn 

1940 Silver, Burdett 
1938 Scott 

B. Through language. 

1. Discussing readings, exhibits, and excursions. 

2. Discussing plans for working out solutions to problems. 

3. Setting up standards to be attained. 

4. Organizing and giving reports as a result of individual 

5. Outlining as a group the important events in the West- 
ward Movement. 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Making individual models of clay or wood illustrating 
different episodes in Westward Movement. 

2. Making maps showing routes traveled, canals or rail- 
roads built, extent of various territories. 

3. Making large charts of 24" by 36" tag board, containing 
stories, maps, pictures and diagrams. 

4. Making stage properties for the play. 

24 National College of Education 

a. Cutting large covered wagon (6' x 8'), oxen, trees, 
hushes, sage hrush and fireplace from beaver board 
and making standards for them. 

b. Making pioneer cradle, stools and guns from lumber. 
5. Making costumes for the play. 

a. Cutting dresses by patterns from cambric. 

b. Cutting hunting shirts from cambric to be worn with 
long khaki trousers. 

c. Cutting sunbonnets. 

d. Making costumes. 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Using linear measure in making charts, stage properties, 

2. Reading and writing large numbers in interpreting statis- 
tics on present crop values, distances. 

3. Counting money, making change, and keeping accounts 
in connection with the play. 

4. Using the four fundamental processes with integers. 

a. Adding integers in finding crop values in the United 
States; cost of land. 

b. Subtracting integers in finding how long ago an event 
took place. 

c. Multiplying to find cost of several acres of land at 
early values and value today; finding area of plots of 

d. Dividing to find number of acres in a plot of ground. 

5. Using the four fundamental processes with fractions. 

a. Adding fractions in finding amount of different 
colored cambric needed for costumes, amount of 
beaver board needed for stage properties. 

b. Subtracting fractions in finding amount of cambric 
left after cutting one costume. 

c. Multiplying fractions to find the cost of the cloth for 
each costume, the amount needed for several costumes 
which are alike. 

d. Dividing fractions to find how many costumes can be 
cut from material on hand. 

6. Decimal fractions. 

Reading decimal fractions in interpreting statistics. 

7. Percentage. 

Expressing per cents as common fractions with 100 as 
the denominator and reducing them to their lowest 
terms in interpreting statistics. 

Units of Experience in Fifth Grade 225 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations developing through these 

A. Knowledge and appreciation of the hardships endured by 
the early settlers in surmounting the natural barriers in 
moving west, and of the hardships endured in making a 
home and earning a living in a new wild country. 

B. Understanding of the important part geographic factors play 
in determining man's occcupation in the different sections 
of our country. 

C. An appreciation of the vastness of our country. 

D. Knowledge of the wealth of the natural resources. 

E. Appreciation of the importance of conserving natural re- 

F. Appreciation for the bravery of men who dared to go into 
a wilderness and build a country. 

G. Understanding of the progress made in methods of com- 
munication and transportation through man's use of scien- 
tific knowledge. 

H. Understanding of the progress made in the industries 

through man's use of scientific knowledge. 
I. Appreciation of the ease and luxury of the present-day life 
compared with that of the early settler. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through creative composition. 

1 . Writing of the play as an expression of the enjoyment of 
the dramatic incidents in the westward expansion of the 
United States. 

a. Writing some scenes for the play as a big group. 

b. Writing some scenes in smaller committees with 

c. Writing some scenes as committees without teacher 

d. Writing some scenes individually. 

e. Writing dodgers to advertise the play. 

f. Writing thank-you notes to those who assisted in giv- 
ing the play. 

g. Writing thank-you notes for the use of the auditorium. 

2. Writing stories or descriptions of activities carried on in 
different sections to-day. 

B. Through literature. 

1. Poems read to and by the children: 

Austin, Mary A Pioneer 

Braley, Burton The Pioneers 


National College of Education 

Bryant, \V. C. 
Guiterman, Arthur 
Guiterman, Arthur 
Lomax, John A. 
Mac Diarmid 
Miller, Joaquin 
Miller, Joaquin 

The Prairies 

The Oregon Trail 

The Tall Men 

The MacKenzie Trail 

The Call of the Plains 

Pioneers, Pioneers 

The Ship in the Desert 

2. Stories from which selections were read orally by the chr 
dren for pleasure: 

Baker, C. B., & 

E. D. 
Bindloos, H. 
Carr, M. J. 

Coffman, R. 
Gabriel, R. H. 
Grey, K. 
Grey, K. 
Halliburton, R. 
Jackson, H. M. 
Lewis, W. D. & 
Rowland, A. L. 

Lewis, W. D. & 
Rowland, A. L. 

Smith, N. B. and 
Bayne, S. F. 

Wilder, L. I. 

Wilder, L. I. 

Making America 

The Frontiersman 
Children of the Covered 

Our America 
Lure of the Frontier 
Rolling Wheels 
Hills of Gold 
Book of Marvels 
Nellie's Silver Mine 
Opening the Great West 

from "Scouting 

Whys and Wherefores 

Frontiers Old and New 

Little House on the 

Little House in the Big 


1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

1929 Stokes 
1934 Crowcll 

1930 Dodd 

1929 Yale 

1932 Little Broun 

1933 Little Brown 
1937 Bobbs-Merrill 
1924 Little Brown 

1930 Winston 

1930 Winston 
1940 Silver, Burdett 
'935 Harper 
1932 Harper 

C. Through picture making, design, decoration. 

1. Making pictures and posters depicting events in the 
Westward Movement. 

2. Making pictures in paint and crayon to show activities in 
different sections to-day. 

3. Making block print designs for the programs. 

D. Through music. 

1. Singing some of the typical songs of the various sections 
of the country: 

Songs of the plains and hills as: "The Dying Cowboy," "Get 

Along Little Dogies" 
Kentucky mountain songs and ballads: "The Swapping Song." 
Southern songs: "Oh Susannah" (Words "California") 

"My Old Kentucky Home." 
General: "Quilting Party," "My Darling Nellie Gray." 

2. Playing games such as: "Old Dan Tucker," "Jolly is 
the Miller." 

3. Learning old dances such as "Virginia Reel." 

Units of Experience in Fifth Grade 


Botsford, F. H. 

Davison, Surette 

and Zanzig 
Hofer, Mari 

La Salle, Dorothy 
Lomax, J. A. 

Palmer, Winthrop 

Sandburg, Carl 

White and Shack- 

Source Books 

Folk Songs of Many Peo- 
A Book of Songs 

Popular Folk Games and 

Rhythms and Dances 

Cowboy Songs— Frontier 

American Songs for Chil- 

The American Songbag 

The Blue Book of Favor- 
ite Songs 

Sociability Songs 

The Lonesome Cowboy 

Womans Press 

E. C. Schirmer 

A. Flanagan 

A. S. Barnes 


Harcourt, Brace 
Hall & McCreary 

G. T. Worth 

E. Through dramatic activity. 

1. Giving informal dramatizations of incidents in the West- 
ward Movement. 

2. Giving the finished play, "Pioneer Days." 

Act I 

Sc. I.— In 1783 Mr. and Mrs. Peter Brinker are living in eastern Pennsylvania 
with Mr. Blinker's grandfather. The grandfather has a trunk containing relics 
of New Amsterdam. He tells their stories to his granddaughter-in-law. 

Sc. II.— That evening some neighbors, the Tollivers, spend the evening with the 
Brinkers discussing the recent treaty of peace and their part in the Revolution. 
Two friends of Boone return from Maryland where they saw him. They persuade 
the Tollivers and Brinkers to move to Kentucky. 

Sc. III.— The Brinkers and Tollivers are packing their wagons to move to 

Act II 

Sc. I.— In about 1808 the Brinkers are having a party for their grown children 
in their home near St. Louis. They are very much interested in the Louisiana 
Territory. During the evening Lewis and Clark come in and tell of their trip. 

Sc. II.— One afternoon in 1812 Mrs. Brinker and daughter are sewing in the yard 
when some people who are on their way to the Oregon territory stop for water. 
They tell about seeing Fulton's steamboat tried out. They urge the two Brinker 
boys to go west. The boys, however, have decided to help out in the trouble with 
England before they go. 

Act III 

Sc. I.— One evening in 1819 young Dave Tolliver and John Brinker and their 
families have camped on their way farther west. Dave Tolliver is going to Oregon 
and John Brinker to western Texas. 

Sc. II.— In 1849 a wagon train of forty-niners, among whom is John Brinker, has 
stopped on the way to California. They meet Kit Carson and discuss the trail. 
They also discuss the annexation of Texas, the acquisition of Oregon, and the 
building of railroads. 

228 National College of Education 

Act IV 

In 1931 the Brinker descendants in San Francisco are entertaining the descendants 
of the Brinker who remained in the South after the war of 1812 and the Tolliver 
descendants from Oregon. The children discover the old Brinker trunk which has 
come across the country and examine its relics which now also consist of the letters 
from the South concerning the Civil War and letters from Oregon. The man of the 
house returns from New York by airplane and the grandmother marvels at the 
difference in the present day and the old. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further studies. 

A. Study of how our country is related to other countries. 

B. Study of other countries. 

Note: The children were unanimous in their expressions 
that the above topics should constitute their next piece of 

Learning to Use and Control Water 

Summer School Experiences in Fifth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Members of the class collected rain in open jars. 

B. A collection of water was made about the school. 

1. Drinking fountain in the corridor. 

2. Taps in the science room benches. 

3. Taps in the washroom. 

4. Drinking fountain in the cafeteria. 

5. Dish washing basins in the cafeteria kitchen. 

6. Cubes of ice allowed to melt in glass. 

7. Water dipped from Lake Michigan. 

C. Uses of water were listed. 

1. Relating to health and safety: foods and beverages, 
cleanliness, refrigeration, recreation, fire protection. 

2. Relating to industry: promotion of plant growth, irri- 
gation, chemicals, machines, plastic arts, navigation. 

D. Members of the class dug into the ground on a dry day 
until the dirt appeared moist. 

E. A visit was made to the water pumping station in Wilmette. 

F. Inspection was made of a gravity feed water tank in Evan- 

G. A visit was made to a farm where rain water was collected 
for washing dishes and cleanliness. 

H. Swimming lessons were given in Lake Michigan, from the 

Wilmette Beach. 
I. A homemade boat race was held in Lake Michigan. 

II. Problems and questions which led to experiment and investigation. 

A. The kinds of water. 

1 . Why is the rain water collected in the bottle, dirty? 

2. Is all the tap water the same? 

3. Why should drinking water be purified? 

4. Is it safe to eat ice? What kind of water is ice made 

5. Where does the salt come from in salt water? 

6. Is the salt in salt water real salt? 

7. If salt water does not freeze, why do we have icebergs? 

B. Source and testing of water. 

1. When water evaporates, where does it go? 

2 30 

National College of Education 

Temperature of Water Is Tested 

Can we keep water from evaporating? 
Does water always evaporate at the same speed? 
Where does the lake water come from? 
Why is the ground dry on top and wet underneath? 
When we pour water into the ground, where does it go? 
Where does the rain water come from? 
How do trees give off so much water into the air? 
Is there more water in the air in a forest than above 
thinly vegetated land? 
How does an irrigation system work? 
C. Importance and uses of water. 
1. Could we live without water? 

Could plants and animals live without water? 

Do some plants live in dry regions because they need 

little water, or do only plants that grow in dry regions 

need little water? 

What makes us thirsty? How much water should a person 




Units of Experience in Fifth Grade 231 

5. Why do some animals require little water? 

6. How does water give us power? 

7. When is water an enemy of man? 

D. Characteristics of water. 

1. How much does water weigh? 

2. Why does water make persons feel cool? 

3. What is water made of? 

4. How can water be purified or distilled? 

5. Does water contain life? 

6. Are snow, ice, hail, and sleet forms of water? What 
causes these forms? 

7. Why do water drops form on the outside of a cold glass? 

8. Why does ice form on the inside of a window in the 

9. How can living things live in water? 

E. Transportation of water. 

1. How does water get into the air? 

2. How does water get into the clouds? 

3. Why does the water rush out of the taps in different parts 
of the building? 

4. Is water ever transported? 

5. What makes waves? tides? 

6. How are" floods caused? 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 

A. Through constructive activities and experiments. 

1. Comparing water from different sources. 

2. Boiling water and examining the sediment. 

3. Melting ice in a tumbler, recording the temperature. 

4. Recording temperature of tap water and rain water. 

5. The "evaporation" contest. 

Each pupil brings two half-pint milk bottles. Each is 
filled with water, but one is sealed with a bottle cap and 
paraffin, and the other is left open. Each child puts his 
bottles in the same place. Daily record is made of the 
amount of evaporation. 

6. Digging a well on the beach until water is "struck." 

7. Floating ice cubes in water. How far into the water do 
they sink? 

8. Construction of faucet water motors in the shop. 

9. Building a dam on the beach. 
10. Making weight charts of liquids. 

Samples of oil, milk, cream, water, salt water were 

232 National College of Education 

brought into the classroom. Equal quantities were 
weighed and compared. 

1 1. Examination under the microscope of pond water. 

1 2. Observing water form on the outside of a cold glass. 

13. Weighing a bowl of water— add a goldfish. Does the 
weight increase, decrease, or stay the same? 

14. Weighing a stone. Tie it to a string. Insert it in water. 
Re-weigh it. 

15. Examining the water pipes in the basement. 

16. Blowing an electric fan over a pan of water and recording 
thermometer variations, if any. 

17. Swimming in Lake Michigan. Learning to "float," etc. 

B. Through uses of arithmetic. 

1. Calculating weight of various quantities of water. 

2. "A pint's a pound, the world around" ... Is this true? 

3. Making charts of comparative weights of liquids. 

4. Pouring water into jars of unknown capacity to deter- 
mine volume. 

5. Recording temperatures of water containing different 
amounts of heat. 

6. Reading water meters. 

7. Calculating water bills. 

8. Measuring material for making boats and water motors. 

9. Measuring amount of evaporation in the "evaporation" 

C. Through factual reading and language. 

1. Individual investigations and reports on the following 

a. Drinking fountains. 

b. Irrigation projects. 

c. The Boulder Dam and the Tennessee Valley Dams. 

d. Drainage canals. 

e. City water supply. 

f. How plants use water. 

g. Weather, especially snow, rain, sleet and ice. 
h. Manufacturing ice. 

i. How pumps lift water. 

j. The "water cycle." 

k. How steamboats and locomotives are propelled by 

1. How steel boats float. 

2. Selected stories read in class relating to water. 

3. Making a list of words related to water and its various 

Units of Experience in Fifth Grade 


4. Collecting pictures in newspapers and other periodicals 
related to water. 

IV. Meanings, attitudes, and appreciations probably developed. 

A. Water is extremely important in our everyday living. 

B. Water can be both friend and enemy of man. 

C. Water is closely related to our health. 

D. Temperature, climate, and other phases of our environ- 
ment depend somewhat on water. 

E. Water exists in many forms and follows a "water cycle." 

F. Water is power, and the power of water has not yet been 
fully utilized by man. 

New interests foreshadowing further classroom experience. 

A. Interest in thermometers. 

B. Interest in fog maps, weather maps, and steamship lanes. 

C. Interest in keeping the proper amount of water in the air 
we breathe. 

D. Curiosity about the influence of the moon and sun in pro- 
ducing tides, and their relationship to other heavenly bod- 

Andress, J. M., and others 
Baldwin, S. E. 
Beauchamp, W. L., and 

Beck, G. E. 

Craig, G. S. 
Craig, G. S. and 

Johnson, G. M. 
Craig, G. S., and others 
Craig, G. S. and ' 

Hurley, B. D. 
Fowlkes, J. G., and others 
Fowlkes, J. G., and others 
Fowlkes, J. G., and others 
Fowlkes, J. G., and others 
Fowlkes, J. G., and others 
Fowlkes, J. G., and others 
Lummis, J. I. 
Patch, Edith M., and 

Howe, Harrison E. 
Patch, Edith M., and 

Howe, Harrison E. 
Patch, Edith M., and 

Howe, Harrison E. 
Persing, E. C, and others 
Phillips, M. G., and 

Wright, J. M. 

Pupil References 

Safe and Healthy Living 
Our Wide, Wide World 
Science Stories 

(Books 1, 2, and 3) 
What Makes the Wheels Go 

Folkways in Science Series 
Our Earth and Its Story 

Learning About Our World 
The Earth and Living Things 

Keeping Well 
Healthy Bodies 
Healthy Growing 
Healthy Living 
Making Life Healthful 
Success Through Health 
Guide for a Health Program 
Science at Home 

Through the Four Seasons 


Elementary Science by Grades 
Our Earth and Its Life 

•939 Ginn 

1932 Ginn 
1936 Scott, 


1931 Macmillan 

1933 Ginn 

1932 Ginn 

1932 Ginn 

1932 Ginn 

1936 Winston 

1936 Winston 

1936 Winston 

1936 Winston 

1938 Winston 

1938 Winston 

1929 World Book 

1934 Macmillan 

1933 Macmillan 
1933 Macmillan 

1930 Appleton 
1938 D. C. Heath 


National College of Education 

Phillips, M. G., and 

Plants and Animals 

1938 D. C. Heath 

Wright, J. M. 

Reed, W. M. 

And That's Why 

1932 Harcourt 

Teeters, W. R., and 

Early Journeys in Science 

1931 Lippincott 

Heising, C. M. 

Weed, H. T. and 

Useful Science 

1933 Winston 

Rexford, F. A. 

Teacher's References 

Caldwell, O. W., 

Science for Today 

1936 Ginn 

and Curtis, F. D. 

Clement, A. G., and 

Our Surroundings 

1935 Iroquois 


Davis, I. C, and 


1936 Holt 

Sharpe, R. W. 

Deming, F. R., and 

Science in the World of 

1936 McGraw-Hill 

Nerden, J. T. 


Hessler, J. C. 

First Year of Science 

1932 Sanborn 

Hunter, G. W., and 

Problems in General 

1930 American Book 

Whitman, W. G. 


Fake, C. H., and 

Exploring the World of 

1934 Silver, Burdett 



Pieper, C. J., and 

Everyday Problems in 

'933 Scott, Foresman 

Beauchamp, W. L. 


Powers, S. R., and 

Man's Control of His En- 

1936 Ginn 



Regenstein, A. R. 

Science at Work 

1935 Rand McNally 

and Teeters, W. 

Skilling, W. T. 

Tours through the World 
of Science 

1934 McGraw Hill 

Trafton, G. H., and 

Science in Daily Life 

1936 Lippincott 

Smith, V. C. 

Van Buskirk, E. F. 

Science of Everyday Life 

1936 Houghton 

and others 


A GROWING interest in the study of the community found 
expression in one sixth-grade group in a study of community 
planning, and the construction of a model community. The work 
was accompanied by much study on the topics of housing, sanita- 
tion, recreation, safety, protection, and other vital problems. 

Some understanding of the relationship of other countries to our 
own country and to our own community have been among the 
attainments desired for the children of the sixth grade. The need 
and possibility of world cooperation in the present day have been 
emphasized; and also the importance of a tolerant and understand- 
ing attitude. Some classes have got "cues from the news." Current 
happenings have suggested problems concerning the relationship of 
a particular country to neighboring countries and to the United 
States. A desire to understand the current situation has led at times 
to the study of history, geography, government, and the economic 
progress of the country under discussion. 

Certain periods have sometimes been selected for detailed study. 
One class made a study of the problem, "What is our heritage from 
the Middle Ages?" The contribution of medieval Europe in art, 
architecture, literature, and book-making was studied. The unit 
was followed by a study of the problem, "What has modern Europe 
contributed to the United States?" The class investigated the per- 
centage of our population which had been drawn from each country 
of Europe, the subject of immigration and emigration, and the 
question of exports and imports. 

Other classes have undertaken developmental studies. One group 
made an extended study of the development of architecture through 
the ages. Another class chose to study the development of communi- 
cation in ancient and medieval times. A unit followed on our re- 
lations to the modern world, made possible by modern methods of 
communication and transportation. A World's Fair developed, 
stimulated by pictures and announcements of the New York Fair 
and the San Francisco Fair. 


236 National College of Education 

It has been customary to give some time especially during the 
spring and summer terms to the study of natural science. Two 
different classes have found keen interest in an intensive study of 
the larger insects of the region. A study of temperature and hu- 
midity has proved of value in everyday living. One class found the 
organization and maintenance of a large aquarium a fascinating 

The units outlined here were developed in two or three differ- 
ent years. Outcomes in social meanings and appreciations peculiar 
to the particular unit have been listed with each unit. All of the 
units have afforded opportunities for the continued development 
of certain desirable social habits and attitudes; such as, coopera- 
tion with others, respect for the opinions of others, courtesy and 
consideration, willingness to share ideas and materials, and also 
such valuable personal habits as thinking a problem through, 
making sensible and reasonable judgments, carrying on research 
and using illustrative materials in solving of problems. These units 
have also been accompanied by growth in the powers of expression 
through creative language, fine and industrial arts, music and 
dramatization. Outcomes in the fundamental skills of English and 
arithmetic have been summarized under Group Records of Progress 
in Part IV. 

Planning a Community 

A Study in Sixth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused interest and provided back- 

A. Reports by a few children and the teacher concerning visits 
to small towns in older sections of the United States, where 
streets were winding and poorly arranged. 

B. Clippings from the local newspaper on poor planning for 
the future, as illustrated by Fountain Square in Evanston. 

C. Discussion of the merits of a planned community as illus- 
trated by the "World of Tomorrow" at the New York 
World's Fair. 

D. Pictures from the "World of Tomorrow" at the New York 
World's Fair. 

E. The children expressed a desire to study in greater detail 
the functioning of an ideal community. 

II. Problems and questions which led into the investigation. 

A. Relating to the beginning of cities or towns. 

1 . How do most cities begin? 

2. What civic problems might be eliminated if towns were 
properly planned? 

3. What are the most important aspects of city planning? 

4. What are the most effective ways used for making the 
average town beautiful? 

B. Concerning an ideal planned community. 

1. What public buildings should be included? 

2. What are the requirements of a modern home today? 

3. What should be the width of the streets and of the side- 

4. What should be the length of the blocks? 

5. How should the highways be planned? Checkerboard or 
spider web? Clover leaf crossings? 

6. Should the height of the buildings be regulated? 

7. What are the influences in architecture in public build- 

8. What styles should the homes be? 

9. What plans should be made for communication? 

10. Where should railway stations and airports be located? 

C. Concerning the financing of homes. 
1. What is the F.H.A.? 


238 National College o) Education 

2. What percent will the government loan? 

3. Mow much of your income should go into the building of 
a home? 

4. How much are laborers paid? 

5. What is the role of the labor unions in construction? 

6. Why should a contractor be employed? 

7. What percent does a contractor make when he builds 
a house? 

8. If the laborers charged less, woidd there be more build- 
ing and therefore more actual days of work for the 

9. What is a mortgage? 

jo. What is a building and loan company? 

1 1. What is the basis for determining rent? 

12. What is a real-estate company? 

13. Can a real-estate company secure a government loan? 

D. Concerning the government of a city. 

1. Who is the executive? 

2. What comprises the judicial department of a town? 

3. What body makes the laws in the town? 

4. What is meant by commissions? 

E. Concerning the protection of life and property. 

1. What is property insurance? 

2. How does the police department function? 

3. How does the fire department afford protection? 

F. Relating to provisions made for education and recreation. 

1. How is a school financed? 

2. Should a man without children pay school taxes? 

3. How is a school governed and regulated? 

4. What are the benefits of an education? 

5. Why are adult education courses offered? 

6. Is there a community center in our town? 

7. Is the system of parks adequate? 

G. Concerning community dependents. 

1. What forces cause slum areas? 

2. What provisions are made for the blind, deaf, crippled, 
feeble-minded, orphaned, and those unable to work? 

3. Do the social security laws provide a permanent remedy 
for unemployment? 

4. Can any of these dependents be educated to care for 

H. Concerning the safeguarding of industrial life. 

1. How do banks and credit aid a community? 

2. What is industrial insurance? 

Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 


Local Officers Become Teachers 


National College of Education 

r 4 i /I 

Sixth Graders Evaluate City's Fire Protection 

3. What is the purpose of labor organizations? 

4. How do they benefit employee and employer? 

5. What is the W.P.A.? 

6. What is the N.L.R.B.? 

I. Concerning the safeguarding of the community against 
traffic accidents. 

1. How can bicycle riders help prevent accidents? 

2. What rules should pedestrians follow? 

3. What are the driving regulations? 

4. What steps have been taken to make Evanston safe? 
J. Relating to the cultural side of the community. 

1 . What provisions are made to keep the standard of the 
city theater high? 

2. Is there an adequate library? Is it used? 

3. Does the community center sponsor concerts or art 

K. Relating to the religious life of the community. 

1. How many churches are there? 

2. Are they attended? 

L. Concerning communities of tomorrow. 

1. Why is so little building being carried on? 

2. Are all the needs for homes being filled today? 

3. What will the homes of the future be like? 

Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 


III. Answering questions and solving problems. 
A. Through factual reading. 

1 . Reading reference material in order to answer questions. 

2. Studying maps of modern cities. 

3. Reading pamphlets on the subject. 

4. Studying actual blue prints of homes under construction. 

Blough, G. L. and 

Mc Clure, C. H. 
Campbell, E. F. 
Carpenter, Frances 

Farquhar, F. F. and others 
Floherty, John J. 
Glaser, Samuel 

Holway, H. 
Johnson, William 
Kreml, F. M. 
Rogers, Reynolds 

Rugg and Krueger 

Shultz, Hazel 

Wilson, Wilson and Erb 

Safe Bicycle Riding 
Safe Driving Practice 
Safety 'Round the World 

Traffic Safety Rules for 
Boys and Girls 

Album of Engines 
Better Homes 
City Life 

Frank Lloyd Wright 
Homes in the Future 
New Uses for Glass 
Warp and Woof 
Where Accidents Don't 

Kimball, Fiske 
Perry, C. A. 

References for Pupils 


Fundamentals in Citizenship 

Our City Chicago 
Ourselves and Our City 

World Book Encyclopedia 
Make Way for the Mail 
Designs for 60 Small Houses from 

$2,000— $10,000. 
The Story of the Water Supply 
Public Safety 
Famous American Trains 

Communites of Men 
Making Homes 
Richer Ways of Living 


Division of Highways, State of Illinois. 
Division of Highways, State of Illinois. 
American Automobile Association, Safety and Traffic 

Department, Washington, D. C. 
Division of Highways, State of Illinois. 

1939 Laidlaw 

1930 Scribner 
1928 American 


1940 Quarrie 
»939 Lippincott 
1939 Coward 

1939 Harper 

1933 Newson 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

1934 Grosset and 

1936 Ginn 

1931 Appleton 

1938 American 



Model Builders 
Scholastic (Junior) 
Scholastic (Junior) 
Architectural Forum 
Scholastic (Junior) 
Scholastic (Junior) 
Scholastic (Junior) 
American Magazine 

References for Teacher 

American Architecture 
Housing for the Machine Age 

February, 1940. 
October 30, 1939. 
November 13, 1939. 
January, 1938. 
October 23, 1939. 
November 22, 1939. 
December 4, 1939. 
April, 1935. 

1929 Bobbs-Merrill 
1939 Russell Sage 

B. Through constructive activities and experiences. 
1.. Making maps of an ideal community. 
2. Building a city to scale. 


National College of Education 

Neighborhood Airport Is Approved 

3. Laying out plots and acting as real-estate agents. 

4. Interviewing contractors. 

5. Visiting homes under partial construction. 

6. Seeing a motion picture of the building, step by step, of 
a moderate priced home. 

7. Viewing a motion picture about new plastics being 
created by Dupont for household use. 

8. Visit to City Hall and Fire Department. 

9. Sponsoring an assembly upon "Safety" with an officer 
from the local traffic department. 

C. Through language. 

1. Outlining done by the group. 

2. Taking notes upon reference materials read. 

3. Giving reports upon findings. 

4. Discussion of completed work. 

D. Through the use of science and arithmetic. 

1. Wiring of each home in the model community for elec- 
tric lighting. 

2. Scale construction of buildings, streets, trees, and street 

3. Drawing to scale maps of the planned community. 

Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 243 

4. Figuring yearly and weekly wage of laborers. 

5. Figuring percentage of loan granted by the government. 

6. Estimating percentage of income a man should invest in 
a home. 

7. Estimating income of the contractor. 

8. Problems relating to mortgages. 

9. Problems relating to rent. 

10. Computation of taxes. 

11. Computing cost of property insurance. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations developing through these 

A. An appreciation of the beauty of our own community, and 
the effort required to make it so. 

B. Knowledge of zoning and zoning laws. 

C. An appreciation of the need to plan carefully both home 
and community for efficient and happy future living. 

D. A knowledge of various architectural designs in homes and 
public buildings. 

E. An appreciation of carefully planned highways and their 
part in the safety of the community. 

F. An attitude of appreciation toward the value of owning a 

G. An understanding of the financing of a small home on a 
modest salary. 

H. An appreciation of the amount of labor, and its cost, needed 

in home building. 
I. A better understanding of the role of the government in 
maintaining a city. 

J. An understanding of the paternalism of the Federal Govern- 
ment in granting loans to small home owners. 

K. The Federal Government's role in providing Social Security. 

L. An understanding of the work of the government in aiding 
community projects. 

M. An understanding of the need of law enforcement in regard 
to traffic regulation. 

V. New interests foreshadowing further studies. 

A. Interest in the origin of our Federal Government. 

B. Interest in chemistry which produces so many materials 
used in housing to-day. 

How Architecture Has Developed 

A Study in Sixth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background for activities. 

A. Previous studies. 

1 . Early explorers of the New World. 

2. Waterways of the United States and their development. 

B. Excursions. 

1. To the Field Museum to see the building and its Egyp- 
tian and Roman exhibits. 

2. To the Art Institute to see decorations used in Egyptian 
and Greek buildings. 

3. To the Deering Library to see the building itself. 

4. To the First Methodist Church of Evanston to see the 
stained glass windows. 

5. Around the city to note the use of different types of 

C. Exhibits. 

1. Pictures of famous buildings brought in by children. 

2. Teacher's collection of prints showing famous buildings, 
stained glass windows, etc. 

3. University prints of famous buildings. 

D. Reading of stories to children: 

Eloise Lownsbery's "The Boy Knight of Rheims." 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. Factors influencing the architecture of any country. 

1 . How does the location of a country affect its architecture? 

2. What effect does the climate of a country have upon its 

3. What, if any, effect does the topography of a lancl have 
upon its architecture? 

4. May the soil of a country affect its architecture in any 

5. How does a country's natural resources affect its archi- 

6. How might the architecture of a thinly populated coun- 
try differ from that of a densely populated one? 

7. How might the history of a country affect its architec- 

8. How might a people's religious ideas affect its architec- 


Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 245 

B. Problems considered in connection with each type of archi- 
tecture studied. 

1. Reasons for particular architecture. 

a. Geography of the country. 

(1) Location. 

(2) Surface and drainage. 

(3) Climate. 

(4) Type of vegetation. 

(5) Population and people. 

(6) Natural resources. 

b. Brief history of the nation. 

(1) Type of government. 

(2) Important events. 

(3) Important people and leaders. 

c. Customs of the people. 

d. Religious ideas of the people. 

2. The architecture. 

a. Characteristics. 

b. Materials used. 

c. Details and decorations. 

d. Symbols. 

3. Famous buildings of this period. 

a. Where built. 

b. Why built. 

c. By whom and when. 

d. Why famous. 

4. Modern adaptations of this type of architecture. 

C. Types of architecture studied. 

1. Buildings of primitive people. 

2. Architecture of Egypt (5,000 B.C. to 115 B.C.). 

3. Architecture of Asia: Mesopotamia, Persia, the Orient. 

4. Greek architecture (460 B.C. to 100 B.C.). 

5. Roman architecture (146 A.D. to 365 A.D.). 

6. Early Christian and Basilican architecture. 

7. Byzantine architecture (fourth century A.D. to present 

8. Romanesque architecture (fifth to thirteenth century). 

9. Norman architecture. 

10. Gothic architecture (1200 A.D. to 1500 A.D.). 

a. On the continent. 

b. English Gothic. 

c. In Southern Europe. 

1 1. Architecture of the Renaissance (fifteenth to eighteenth 

2 .jfi 

National College of Education 

Jean Is Made Knight of the Cathedral 

12. Architecture of the United States (Colonial Period to 
about 1900). 

13. Modern architecture. 

14. Architecture of the future. 

III. Solution of problems. 

A. Through factual reading. 
1. Types of silent reading. 

a. Reading to find answers to problems (individually 
and in large and small groups). 

b. Reading for information along lines of interest stimu- 
lated by the study. 

c. Reading charts, maps, graphs, and globes for infor- 

(1) Consulting maps and globes for locations. 

Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 


(2) Consulting maps on distribution of natural re- 
sources, rainfall, ocean currents, ice sheets, popu- 
lation, etc. 

(3) Comparing physical maps and uses of each. 

(4) Consulting maps for trade routes. 

(5) Consulting charts and graphs for pertinent in- 

d. Reading plan or guide sheet for study. 

e. Reading tests given. 
Types of oral reading. 

a. Reading orally to report information or to prove a 

b. Reading orally to share information. 

Atwood, Thomas and 

Ross, Helen 
Baker, C. B. and E. D. 
Beard, C. A., and 

Bagley, W. C. 
Beeby, Daniel J. 
Brown, Katherine S. 
Burnham, Smith 

Butterfield, Emily H. 

Farquhar, F. F., editor 
Ford, A. S., and others 

Hall, Jennie 
Halliburton, R. 
Halliburton, R. 
Hartman, Gertrude 
Hillyer, V. M., and 

Huey, E. G. 
King-Hall, Stephen 
Knowlton, D. C, and 

Wheeler, M. A. 
Lamprey, L. 
Lirinell, Gertrude 
Naumburg, Elsa H., and 

Parker, Cornelia S. 
Power, Eileen and Rhoda 

Smith, J. Russell 
Verpilleau, E. A. 
Vollintine, Grace 

Wells, Margaret E. 

Whall, C. W. 
Woodburn, J. A., and 
Moran, T. F. 


Nations Beyond the Sea 

Our World and Others 
Elementary World History 

America's Roots in the Past 

The Young Architects 

Our Beginnings in Europe and 

The Young People's Story of 

World Book Encyclopedia 

Compton's Pictured Encyclo- 

Buried Cities 

Book of Marvels 

Second Book of Marvels 

The World We Live In 

Child's History of Art 

A Child's Story of Civilization 
Our Past in Western Europe 

All the Ways of Building 
Behind the Battlements 

Watching Europe Grow 
Cities and Their Stories 

Foreign Lands and People 
The Picture Book of Houses 
The American People and Their 

Old World Ancestors 
How the Present Came from the 

Stained Glass Work 
Introduction to American 


1930 Ginn 

1938 Bobbs-Merrill 

1932 Macmillan 

1927 Merrill 

1929 Harper 

1930 Winston 

1933 Dodd, Mead 

1936 Quarrie 
1938 Compton 

1929 Macmillan 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

1938 Bobbs-Merrill 

1935 Macmillan 
*933 Appleton 

1933 Morrow 

1933 American 

*933 Macmillan 

1936 Macmillan 

1 934 John Day 

1930 Liveright 
1927 Houghton 

1933 Winston 

1931 Macmillan 

1930 Ginn 

1932 Macmillan 

1931 Pitman Sons 
1930 Longmans 

248 National College oj Education 

B. Through language. 

1. Discussing problems planned for the purpose of clarify- 
ing understanding to those having difficulty. 

2. Making plans for procedure. 

3. Setting up standards to be attained. 

4. Checking on finished work to see if standards were at- 

5. Evaluating worth of own work with suggestions for bet- 
tering the next job. 

6. Discussing skills needing added practice and making 
provision for this practice, such as: 

a. Outlining. 

b. Note taking. 

c. Punctuation. 

d. Good sentence structure. 

e. Paragraphing. 

f. Writing. 

g. Spelling of important words, 
h. Skills in reading. 

i. Phases of arithmetic. 

7. Learning to spell words commonly needed by the group 
and by the individual. 

C. Through written composition. 

1 . Taking notes on information read. 

2. Outlining information for notebooks. 

3. Writing individual and committee reports. 

D. Through collecting materials. 

1. Collecting pictures to clarify ideas for notebooks. 

2. Collecting clippings on architecture for notebooks. 

3. Collecting materials for bulletin board. 

E. Through constructive activities. 

1. Making maps. 

a. Labeling diagrams of world climatic zones. 

b. Coloring maps to show location of different peoples 
and countries for notebooks on committee reports. 

c. Making freehand maps to show locations. 

d. Showing on maps the routes for interchange of build- 
ing materials. 

2. Making title pages for different sections of notebooks. 

3. Making charts and diagrams to clarify points on reports 
such as blueprints of building plans. 

4. Making models. 

a. Making models in soap of Grecian columns and the 
Roman coliseum. 

Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 249 

b. Making a cross section of a pyramid in beaver board. 

5. Making properties for a play on the story "The Boy 
Knight of Rheims." 

a. Making furniture for Master Anton's shop. 

b. Making clay models of objects in the shop. 

c. Making a clay model of Jean's and Marcel's statue. 

6. Making costumes for the play. 

a. Cutting costumes. 

b. Sewing costumes. 

c. Dyeing cloth. 

7. Making posters to advertise the play. 
F. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Figuring cost of the play. 

2. Selling tickets for the play. 

3. Keeping accounts. 

4. Settling accounts. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, and appreciations developing through 
these experiences. 

A. An understanding of the influence of geographic factors 
upon the lives of people. 

B. A knowledge of the ways in which people through the ages 
have met such problems as providing themselves with 

C. A knowledge of the cultural products which nations of the 
past have left for later people to enjoy. 

D. An understanding of some of the physical, social and polit- 
ical factors of the world which have influenced the lives 
of people. 

E. A growing understanding of the interdependence of one 
section of the world upon another. 

F. An appreciation for the architecture of our modern world 
and for the work of all those people of the past who have 
contributed to it. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

1. All reading together. 

a. "The Boy Knight of Rheims," by Lownsbery. 

b. "Wonder Tales of Architecture," by Lamprey. 

c. "In the Days of the Guild," by Lamprey. 

2. Individual reading of short stories and poems. 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Writing short stories on architecture. 

National College of Education 

2. Writing a complete play from the story, "The Boy 
Knight of Rheims." 

C. Through picture making, design, and decoration. 

1. Designing title pages for notebooks. 

2. Making pen and ink illustrations for notebooks. 

3. Making large pencil sketches of famous buildings. 

4. Making street scene in chalk on muslin for back drop 
in the play. 

5. Making tapestry of chalk on muslin to use in castle scene 
of play. 

6. Shading strips of cloth to represent pillars in cathedral 
scene of the play. 

7. Designing costumes. 

8. Painting designs on costumes. 

9. Making sketches of stage settings for the play. 
10. Designing posters to advertise the play. 

D. Through clay modeling. Modeling properties to be used 
in the play. 

E. Through music, selected for use in dramatizing "The Boy 
Knight of Rheims." 

1. "Miserere"— Palestrina. An old Latin chant, 
McConothy, Beattie, and Morgan, Music of Many Lands 
and Peoples, Silver, Burdett and Company. 

2. "Crusaders' Hymn"— 12th Century, Anonymous, 
Davison, Surette, and Zanzig, Concord Junior Song and 
Chorus Book, E. C. Schirmer Music Company. 

3. "Duke of Marlborough"— Old folk tune, 
Thomasine McGehee, My Musical Measure, Allyn and 

4. "Robin M'aime"— Adam De La Halle (1285), 
My Musical Measure, Thomasine McGehee. 

5. "Summer is i-cumen in"— 13th Century, Anonymous, 
Davison, Surette and Zanzig, A Book of Songs, E. C. 
Schirmer Music Company. 

F. Through dramatic activities. 

1. Dramatizing scenes from books on architecture for 
Library Day. 

2. Informal dramatizations of scenes from the book "The 
Boy Knight of Rheims." 

3. Giving the finished play. 

Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 251 

Synopsis of the play 

Scene I 

At the home of Master Jean d'Orbais, a cathedral builder of France, the family 
gathers for the feast of St. Anne. To this feast also come Master Anton, a goldsmith, 
and Marcel and his father. Here plans for Marcel and young Jean d'Orbais are 
discussed. Marcel is to become an apprentice to Master Jean d'Orbais and young 
Jean is to enter the shop of Master Anton to learn the trade of the goldsmith in 
accordance with his grandfather's wishes. 

Scene II 

Jean d'Orbais' family bring him to Master Anton's shop to begin his work as an 
apprentice there. Jean soon discovers that Master Anton is a hard master as well as 
a cheat, but that Colin is his friend. 

Scene III 

Jean continues his work in Master Anton's shop. He loses his friend Colin as he 
is summoned to war, but he gains a friend, the Countess. Jean and Marcel decide 
to model in secret as Jean still finds that his greatest hope is to work some day for 
the cathedral. 

Jean confides to his uncle that his real work is modeling. The masters of the 
guild come to inspect the shop of Master Anton. Jean is requested to take an order 
to the Countess. 

Scene IV 

In returning from the chateau of the Countess, Jean and Marcel have an en- 
counter with robbers but are saved by Jean's father. 

Scene V 

The masters of the goldsmiths' guild come to his home to question Jean about 
Master Anton's work. As they have discovered Master Anton's deceit Jean asks to be 
released from his apprenticeship to work for his father as a cathedral builder. 

Scene VI 

Jean takes his father and mother to see the statue which he and Marcel have been 
working on. The Countess brings the bishop there, too. Although Marcel has long 
ago given up work on the statue, he brings some rough friends there who break 
the statue. 

Jean creeps into the cathedral with his grief over the broken statue and falls 
asleep. A vision of the first Jean d'Orbais, the great cathedral builder, brings a 
message to young Jean d'Orbais. 

Scene VII 

At the chapel of the Countess she makes Jean d'Orbais a knight of his beloved 

What Is Our Heritage from the Middle Ages? 

A Study in Sixth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background for activities. 

A. Our annual Book Fair and book assembly to celebrate 
National Book Week. 

B. Book displays in libraries and stores visited by individuals 
and groups. 

C. Reports by two children and a teacher who had visited 
monasteries, cathedrals, and castles in Europe. 

D. Kodak pictures of cathedrals, castles, and monasteries taken 
by visitors in Europe. 

E. Recalling stories of knights and castles. 

F. A trip to the Treasure Room of Deering Library to see 
illuminated manuscripts. 

G. A trip to Newberry Library to see old manuscripts and 
hear a talk on them. 

H. Picture exhibits of knights, castles, famous buildings of 
Gothic architecture and old manuscripts of the Middle 
I. Book, "Gabriel and the Hourbook," by E. Stein, read to 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. Concerning book-making in the Middle Ages. 

1. Who made the manuscripts before books w T ere printed? 

2. Where did the monks live? 

3. How was the monastery built? 

4. Why did the monks make books? 

5. What materials and methods were used? 

6. What was an illuminated book? 

7. How did the monks do the other work of the monastery? 

8. How did the monks help preserve peace during the 
Middle Ages? 

9. When and where was the first printing press invented? 
10. Who invented the first printing press? 

i 1 . How did the first press differ from the modern ones? 

12. How did printed books differ from hand written ones? 

1 3. Who owned and read the hand-made books? The printed 


Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 253 

B. Concerning the feudal organization. 

1. What type of social order developed during the Middle 
Ages when there was no ruler strong enough to keep 
order in the land? 

2. How did the great land owners or feudal lords live? 

a. Why were feudal castles necessary? 

b. How were the castles made? 

c. How were they fortified? 

d. How did men become knights? 

e. What were the duties of a knight? 

f. What amusements did people who lived in castles 

g. How did these people dress and what did they eat? 
h. What interest did these people have in books? 

i. What stories do we have in our library of life in 

3. How did the serfs live? 

a. What were their duties? 

b. What methods of farming did they use? 

c. What were the obligations of the lord to the serf? 

d. What did serfs wear and eat? 

e. What contact did the serf have with learning or books? 

C. Concerning rural and urban life. 

1. What part did the towns play in the Middle Ages? 

2. What did the people in the towns do to make a living? 

3. Why were most of the towns of the Middle Ages sur- 
rounded by walls? 

4. What was meant in the Middle Ages by a "free city"? 

5. Why did the people of some towns build great cathe- 

6. How did the people build these cathedrals? 

7. How did life in country villages in the Middle Ages 
differ from life in the large cities and towns? 

8. What were the guilds? 

9. Have we any organizations today which compare with 
the guilds? 

10. What stories of cathedrals or life in the towns of the 
Middle Ages have we in our library? 

D. Concerning art and literature. 

1. What type of art developed at this time? 

2. Who were the great artists of this period? 

3. What kind of literature was written during this period? 

4. What type of architecture developed? 

5. What are the characteristics of Gothic architecture? 


National College of Education 

f>. In what buildings was this type used? 

7. What buildings do we have around us of this type? 

8. What were the characteristics of the music of this period? 

9. How has the art and literature of the Middle Ages con- 
tributed to modern life? 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 
A. Through factual reading. 

1. Independent silent reading by group to discover an- 
swers to questions, followed by reports and discussion. 
Reading by individuals along lines in which they were 
particularly interested. 
Oral reading to prove points. 


Barker, E. C. 
Beard, W. C. and 

Bagley, M. 
Butterfield, Emily 

Campbell, Edna F. and 

Farquhar, F. F., and 

Ford, G. S., and others 

Halliburton, R. 
Hartman, Gertrude 

Hillyer, V. M. 
Hillyer, V. M. and 

Huey, E. G. 
King, S. Hall 
McQuire, Edna 


Old Europe and Our Nation 
Elementary World History 

The Young People's Story of 

The Old World Past and Present 

World Book Encyclopedia 

Compton's Pictured 

Book of Marvels 
The World We Live In and How 

It Came to Be 
Child's History of the World 
Child's History of Art 

Child's Story of Civilization 
Glimpses Into the Long Ago 

1932 Row, Peterson 

1932 Macmillan 

1933 Dodd, Mead 

1937 Scott, 


1936 Quarrie 

1938 Compton 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 
1935 Macmillan- 

1931 Century 
*933 Appleton 

1933 Morrow 
1937 Macmillan 

B. Through oral discussion. 

1. Reports by individuals on such subjects as old manu- 
scripts, developing printing. 

2. Group discussions about pictures and diagrams, such 
as that of a monastery, found in books. 

3. Reports on famous English castles. 

4. Reports on famous European cathedrals. 

5. Discussion of costumes and customs of the Middle Ages. 

6. Explanations of individual and group diagrams and 
pictures presented in connection with reports. 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Making models of knights in soap. 

2. Drawing maps showing plans for fortification of a 

Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 255 

3. Drawing plan of a village in medieval times. 

4. Drawing plan of a monastery of the medieval times. 

5. Drawing plans for stage settings to be used in drama- 
tization of "Gabriel and the Hourbook." 

6. Making such furniture as a table, a monk's writing table, 
for play based on "Gabriel and the Hourbook." 

7. Making such properties as swords, shields, window 
frame, and candle holders for the same play. 

8. Making costumes for the play. 

9. Constructing an hourbook, to be used in the play. 
D. Through use of arithmetic. 

1. Placing "time" of the Middle Ages. 

2. Learning coins used during this period. 

3. Finding number of books printed in comparison to hand- 
work done before. 

4. Comparing the cost of handmade books and those 
made by machine. 

5. Measuring involved in making properties for play. 

6. Measuring stage before making scenery for play. 

7. Study of proportion in setting and background for play. 

8. Measuring involved in making costumes. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations, developing through 
these experiences. 

A. An understanding and appreciation of the ways of living 
during the Middle Ages. 

B. An appreciation of the customs of chivalry. 

C. Knowledge and appreciation of the work which the monks 
did in preserving classic learning for the world. 

D. An appreciation of handmade books and paper. 

E. An appreciation of old books. 

F. A recognition of the significance of the printing press. 

G. A recognition of the importance of modern inventions in 
connection with printing. 

H. Appreciation of the religious painting during this period. 
I. Appreciation of work of such artists as Michelangelo, 

Giotto, and others. 
J. Appreciation of the beauty of Gothic architecture. 
K. Knowledge and appreciation of the Middle Age period and 
its contributions to present-day Europe and America. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through silent and oral reading of selected stories and 


National College of Education 

Alden, R. M. 

Baker, C. B., and 
E. D. 

Hawthorne, Daniel 
Lamb, Harold 
Lamprey, L. 
Lownsbery, Eloise 
Lownsbery, Eloise 

Parker, Beryl and 

McKee, Paul 
Pyle, H. 
Pyle, H. 

Pyle, H. 
Stein, E. 

Tappan, E. M. 

Knights of the Silver 

Our World and Others 

The Gauntlet of Dunmore 


In the Days of the Guild 

Lighting the Torch 

The Boy Knight of 

Highways and Byways 

Men of Iron 

Story of King Arthur and 

His Knights 
Otto of the Silver Hand 
Gabriel and the Hour 

When Knights Were Bold 

190G Bobbs-Merrill 
1938 Bobbs-Merrill 

1937 Matmillan 
1930 Garden City 
1918 Stokes 

1934 Longmans, Green 
1927 Houghton Mifflin 

1938 Houghton Mifflin 

1904 Harper 

1903 Scribner 

1904 Scribner 
1906 Page 

1911 Houghton Mifflin 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Writing stories on different phases of the work. 

2. Writing a diary such as a knight might have written. 

3. Writing an imaginary diary of a serf. 

4. Writing a letter from son or daughter of a lord to a 

5. Creating a play based on story, "Gabriel and the Hour- 

6. Writing invitations to play. 

7. Composing programs to be mimeographed. 

8. Composing presentation talk in language of the Middle 
Ages to use in giving their hourbook to the director 
of school. 

C. Through picture-making, design, decoration. 

1. Illustrating material and stories read. 

2. Creating designs for shields. 
Creating designs for costumes. 

Drawing costumes of knight, squire, page, lady, and 
other characters of the Middle Ages. 
Illuminating pages for the hourbook, to be used in the 

Designing a tapestry for a castle scene in the play. 
Designing a stained glass window for monastery chapel 
scene of the play. 

8. Drawing of feudal castles on a large scale. 

D. Through music. 

Seeing exhibits of old instruments and old manuscripts pro- 
vided background and led to the discussion of music nota- 
tion and the story of the Neumes; and, listening to stories 






Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 


about the bards, minstrels and minnesingers provided a 
growing interest and led to the story of Wagner's opera. 

1. Listening to selections from "Die Meistersinger"— Wag- 

Listening to piano arrangements of old country dances. 

2. Learning old songs and rounds; such as: 
"Song of the Watch"— English. 
"Sumer is Acumen in"— 13th Century. 

3. Singing old ballads; such as: 
"Oh, no John!" 
"Strawberry Fair!" 

4. Learning old country dances; such as found in: 
"Guild of Play"— Kimmins. 

"Country Dance Book"— Cecil Sharpe. 

Davison, A. T., 

and Surette, T. \V 
Davison, A. T., 

and Surette, T. W. 
Grove, Sir George 

Ordway, E. B. 
Pratt, W. S. 
Sharpe, Cecil 
Sharpe, Cecil 

Source Books and Reference Material 

Concord Series, No. 4 

Concord Series, No. 8 

Dictionary of Music and Musi- 
The Opera Book 
History of Music 
Country Dance Tunes, Set VIII 
Country Dance Book, Part II 

1922 E. C. Schirmer 

1922 E. C. Schirmer 

1927 Macmillan 

1917 George Sully 
1935 G. Schirmer 



E. Through dramatic activity. 

1. Dramatizing scenes from different phases of life in the 
Middle Ages— castle life, life of monks, and life of a 

2. Giving original play based on the story "Gabriel and 
the Hourbook." Songs and ballads were used in the 

3. Giving play for fathers and mothers, and for children 
of other grades. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further studies. 

Interest in modern European countries and recent contribu- 
tions in the fields of art, literature, music, science, and in- 

Sixth Grade Compositions About Feudal Days 

Diary of a Young Serf 

Monday, January 16, 1400. 

I want to be a knight. I would like to be like Sir John, who saved Lady 
De Vere's dog, "Fefe." I am ten years old, but I wish I were older. I have been 
doing very hard work. I get up at four in the morning and go to bed at eleven 
at night. 

The Lord's sister, Lady De Vere, has been keeping me very busy, but now she 
is asleep and I can write in my diary, which I am very glad to do. 

Lady De Vere is an invalid; so I have been doing endless errands to-day and 
I am glad to get a rest. 

This morning I went riding with the lord, which is a great honor. 

Tuesday, January 17, 1400. 

To-day I groomed the lord's horse and saddled and bridled him. Then the 
lord went riding. 

After that I had to help put down the draw bridge and then pull it up again 
as some strange people were coming. Everybody was frightened, lest there be war. 
But Sir Galad made them go away. 

Now Lady De Vere is calling me, so I must go. 

Letter from a Castle 

The following letter is the kind supposed to have been written during the 
Middle Ages, and is from the daughter of one of the feudal lords to a friend in 
another castle. 
Dear Priscilla: 

You have asked me to describe my home, for you have told me about yours. 

The castle I live in is square, with a tower at each corner. The wall around 
the court is twelve feet thick. Of course we have a wall and moat around our 
castle. My Honorable Father, who is the Lord, just put up a new drawbridge, 
for he is thinking he will have to fight. 

I am glad it is summer now, for it is cool in the castle. In the winter, it is 
cold, damp and dreary. We plan to have a big feast in the Friendly Room and 
invite all the serfs if we win this war. We shall build a grand bonfire in the fire- 
place, so the castle will be warmer. 

One of the serfs has a little girl my size that I would like ever so much to play 
with, and I've heard the watchman in the tower is very jolly. I should like to visit 
him. I do wish I had someone to play with. It will be even more lonely during the 
war, for I will not be allowed out of the castle gates. 

I hope your life is as nice as mine and better. 

Sincerely yours, , 


Diary of a Knight During Days of Feudalism 

Tuesday, July 11, 1250. 

The town is all excited. From the castle the clear blast of the bugle was 
blowing. The knights soon made ready for war. At dawn we charged the enemy 
and won our way into town. We tried to get into the castle. Finally another knight 
and I thought of a way to do it. We divided ourselves into groups and surrounded 
the castle. Then we took boarding ladders and put them over the moat. We chose 
the bravest knight to cross the moat first, and then one by one we crossed. We 
Finally took the castle and marched home, arriving at sunset. There was much 
rejoicing and a great banquet. There was music and dancing, and great fires in 
the fireplaces. 

2 5 8 

What Has Modern Europe Contributed 
to the United States? 

A Study in Sixth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. Reports with slides. 

1. Given by one child who had visited Europe. 

2. Given by adults who had visited European countries. 

B. Exhibits. 

1. Pictures and clippings showing changes in transatlantic 

2. Newspaper articles and pictures showing relations be- 
tween the United States and European countries. 

3. Articles made in European countries. 

4. Pictures of people of European countries. 

5. Pictures and folders showing well-known pleasure re- 
sorts of Europe. 

6. Pictures showing sports in different countries. 

C. Slides and motion pictures of Europe as a whole and dif- 
ferent sections. 

D. Display of books containing stories and poems from Europe. 

E. Excursions. 

1. To the Evanston Public Library to see models showing 
life in different countries. 

2. To Art Institute to see European contributions in art, 
sculpture, and architecture. 

F. Radio reports concerning events in Europe. 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. (The class was 
divided into committees, each committee preparing a report on a 
particular country.) 

A. Topography, climate and location. 

1. What effect does the topography of the land have upon 
the occupations carried on in each country? 

2. What effect does the climate have upon the occupations 
and products? 

3. What advantages or disadvantages does the location of 
each country have upon its development? 

B. Government and people. 

1. What assistance or hindrance has the government of the 
country been to its development and contribution? 



National College of Education 

. ' II 

Each Contributes to World's Fair 

2. Who are some of the outstanding people in this country 
today? Why are they famous? 

3. What are some of the interesting customs of the people? 

C. Industries. 

1. What industries are carried on in each country? 

2. How is the country especially suited to these? 

3. What cities have gained importance from these indus- 

4. What products are exported to other countries? 

D. Contributions. 

1. What distinctive contribution has each country made in 
folk or modern literature? 

2. In art and sculpture? 

3. In architecture? 

4. In science and invention? 

5. In ideas of government? 

6. In music? 

7. To travelers visiting the country? 

8. What are the leading recreational centers? 

Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 


E. Immigration to the United States. 

1. What proportion of our people have come from Europe? 

2. From what countries have most of our immigrants come? 

3. What contributions have these people made in coming to 
our country? 

4. What are some of the problems their coming has raised? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 
A. Through factual reading. 

1. Reading reference material needed to answer questions 
brought up in class discussions. 

2. Studying railroad and steamship folders describing Euro- 
pean countries. 

3. Map study locating European countries and cities. 

4. Map study locating main commercial routes between 
the United States and Europe. 

5. Map study tracing some of the air flights across the At- 

6. Oral reading to answer questions and prove points. 

Aitchison, A. E. 
Atwood, W. and 

Thomas, H. G. 
Atwood, W. and 

Thomas, H. G. 
Baker, C. B., and 

E. D. 
Barrows, C. A., and 

Parker, E. P. 
Beard, C. A., and 

Bagley, W. C. 
Bryant, L. M. 

Farquhar, F. F. 

Ford, G. S. 


Hillyer, V. M. 

Hillyer, V. M. 

King-Hall, S. M. 

Leeming, J. 
Lester, K. M. 

Powers, E. and R. 
Powers, E. and R. 


Europe the Great Trader 
Nations Beyond the Seas 

Home Life in Far Away 

Our World and Others 

Europe and Asia 

Elementary World History 

Children's Book of Cele- 
brated Buildings 
World Book Encyclopedia 

Compton's Pictured 

Book of Marvels 

A Child's Geography of 
the World 

A Child's History of the 

A Child's Story of Civili- 

Ships and Cargoes 

Great Pictures and Their 

Boys and Girls of History 

More Boys and Girls of 

1939 Bobbs-Merrill 
1938 Ginn 

1933 Ginn 

1938 Bobbs-Merrill 

1936 Silver, Burdett 

1932 Macmillan 
1924 Century 

1940 Quarrie 
1940 Compton 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 
1929 Century 

1931 Century 

1933 Morrow 

1926 Doubleday 

1927 Mentzer 

1936 Macmillan 
1936 Macmillan 

262 National College of Education 

Smith, J. R. Human Use Geography 1939 Winston 

Vollintine, G. The American People and 1930 Ginn 

Their Old World 


B. Through discussion. 

1. Study of problems and questions: those relating to 
separate countries were made by individual children or 
committees and reports given to the class. 

2. Discussion of picture exhibits. 

3. Discussion of completed work. 

4. Voluntary contributions of material read in magazines 
and books. 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Making maps. 

a. Showing commercial routes between the United States 
and Europe. 

b. Showing recreational centers of Europe. 

c. Showing air flights across the Atlantic. 

d. Showing where artists have lived, inventions have 
been made, famous buildings are located. 

2. Making graphs. 

a. Showing percentage of various European nationalities 
in the United States. 

b. Showing exports and imports of different countries. 

3. Making posters. 

a. Advertising recreational centers to the traveler. 

b. Showing customs, costumes and life of people of 
various countries. 

c. Showing contributions different countries make to 

4. Collecting pictures and newspaper stories for notebooks. 

5. Making models. 

a. Showing types of architecture in soap. 

b. Making models of typical scenes from different coun- 

D. Through use of arithmetic. 

1. Measuring in making maps. 

2. Measuring in making posters. 

3. Comparing time required to cross Atlantic now with that 
of years ago. 

4. Computing cost of passage to Europe. 

5. Computing cost of sending cables to Europe. 

6. Making graph showing percentage of various Euro- 
pean nationalities in the United States. 

Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 263 

7. Making graphs showing leading exports of various coun- 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes and appreciations probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. A certain understanding of the problems of other races 
and other nationalities. 

B. An appreciation of the interdependence of people and 

C. An appreciation of the courage displayed by immigrants 
coming to this country. 

D. An understanding of the many adjustments people have to 
make when living in a foreign country. 

E. An understanding of the present-day transatlantic trans- 

F. An appreciation of the daring and courage displayed by 
aviators crossing the Atlantic. 

G. An appreciation of the work of such people as Madame 
Curie, Pasteur, Marconi, and others. 

H. An appreciation of the value in being able to speak French 
and other languages. 

I. An appreciation of the representative music of European 

J. Some appreciation of European art, architecture and litera- 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

1 . Folk stories of various countries read or told by members 
of the class. 

2. Stories of some outstanding people as Pasteur, Madame 
Curie, and others, read or told to the class. 

3. Sharing of some modern books about European coun- 

4. Enjoyment of some stories about immigrants. 

Folk Tales from Europe 

Casserley, Anne Michael of Ireland 1927 Harper 

Casserley, Anne Whins of Knockattan 1928 Harper 

Fleming, R. M. Round the World in 1925 Harcourt 

Folk Tales 

Gask, Lilian Folk Tales from Many 1929 Crowell 


Grimm Brothers Grimm Fairy Tales 1917 Harper 

Mac Donnell, Anne The Italian Fairy Book 1914 Stokes 

Steel, F. A. English Fairy Tales 1918 Macmillan 


National College of Education 

Aanrud, Hans 
Beuret, G. 

Brann, Esther 
Burglon, Nora 
Byrne, Bess 

Hertzman, A. M. 

Quiller-Couch, A. 
Seredy, Kate 
Spyri, J. 

Antin, Mary 
Beard, A. E. 

Bercovici, Konrad 

Bok, E. W. 

Modern Stories of Europe 

Sidsel Longskirt 
When I Was a Girl in 


Children of the Soil 
With Mikko through 

When I Was a Girl in 

Roll Call of Honor 
The Good Master 

Books About Immigrants 

Promised Land 
Our Foreign-Born 

Around the World in 

New York 
A Dutch Boy Fifty Years 


1935 Winston 

1925 Lothrop 

1931 Macmillan 
1933 Doubleday 

1932 McBride 

1926 Lothrop 

1926 Nelson 

1935 Viking 

1924 Winston 

1917 Houghton 
1922 Crowell 

1924 Century 

1921 Scrihner 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Writing stories about any contribution any country had 

2. Writing stories urging friends to see certain places in 
certain countries. 

3. Writing stories of what children found especially in- 
teresting in any country. 

C. Through picture making and design. 

1. Drawing pictures showing costumes and customs of 
different countries. 

2. Making illustrations representing the various recrea- 
tional centers of Europe. 

3. Drawing illustrations on topics of notebooks. 

4. Drawing airships and ocean liners to show means of in- 

D. Through music. 

A little knowledge of the nationality of some of the great 
composers and their compositions, together with the folk 
music of European countries, already known to the chil- 
dren, provided a background and a live interest. Singing 
and hearing folk music gave a source for the discussion 
and analysis of social and temperamental characteristics 
of several nations. The similarity of many folk tunes of 
several nations led to the study of exchange through 
bards, minstrels and the like. 

Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 



a. Folk songs in unison and in parts such as: 

German,— Winter Goodbye 
Bohemian,— Annie, the Miller's Daughter 
Russian— The Peddlar— Gloria 
Italian,— Funiculi, Funicula— Santa Lucia 
Swedish,— The Locust Tree— Country Dance 
British,— Londonderry Air— Loch Lomond— Dear Harp 
—Keel Row 

b. Composed songs: 

Die Lorelei— Silcher 

The Smith— Brahms 

Chorales— Bach 

The Golden Day Is Dying— Palgren 

Instrumental music (heard by means of records): 

a. Small forms of the Masters— minuets, sarabands, 
gigues, bourrees,— 

Bach, Rameau, Purcell, Scarlatti, Handel and others. 

b. Excerpts from operas: 

Siegfried— Motives and story from Angela Diller's 

Ni belting Ring— Motives and story from Berstein. 
Sigfrido— Wagner— Piano Score— G. Ricordi. 
Magic Flute— Mozart. 

Bernstein, A. M. 

Botsford, F. 

Botsford, F. 



Diller, Angela 
Grove, Sir George 

Hamilton, C. 
Jacques— Dalcroze, 
Pratt, W. S. 

Scholes, P. 

Source and Reference Books 

The Do-Re-Mi of the 

Nibelung Ring 
Folk Songs of Many 

Folk Songs of Many 

Peoples— 2 
One Hundred Forty Folk 

A Book of Songs 
Concord Junior Song and 

Chorus Book 
Wagner's Siegfried 
Dictionary of Music and 

Outlines of Music History 
Art and Education 
A History of Music 
Folk Songs for Children 

1928 Greenberg 

1922 Womans Press 

1922 Womans Press 

1922 Schirmer 

1922 Schirmer 
1927 Schirmer 

1931 Schirmer 
1927 Macmillan 

1913 Ditson 
1930 Barnes 
1935 Schirmer 
1903 Ditson 



1917 Houghton Mifflin 
1927 Harper 

Complete Book of the 
Great Musicians 
Surette, T. W. Music and Life 

Welch, R. D. Appreciation of Music 

E. Through social activity. 

Assemblies were held in which the various committees 
shared exhibits, reports, literature and music with other 
committees or other grades. 

266 National College of Education 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further studies. 

After this survey of European countries the interest spread to 
other continents. Questions such as the following were raised: 

1. What do we get from South Africa? 

2. What does Alaska send to the United States? 

3. What do the Hawaiian Islands raise? 

Behind the News in China and Japan 

A Study in Sixth Grade 

I. Experiences which aroused interest and provided background. 

A. The undeclared war between China and Japan, which the 
children had become acquainted with through: 

1 . Newspaper and magazine articles. 

2. Pictures of conditions in China and Japan. 

3. Radio news bulletins and news reports. 

4. Newsreels, March of Time, etc. 

B. Motion pictures based on China, such as The Good Earth, 
which some of the children had seen at motion-picture 

C. Library collection of pictures showing life in the two coun- 
tries, placed on bulletin board. 

D. Selected films and slides shown at the school. 

II. Problems and questions which led to research. 

A. Relating to conditions in modern times. (Question asked 
by the children.) 

1. Why did Japan send her troops into China? 

2. Where and how does China obtain money and materials? 

3. Where do Japan and China get their airplanes? 

4. How do the other countries feel about the situation? 

5. What can Americans do to help relief in China? 

B. Relating to China. (Questions for study suggested by the 

1. What are some of the customs of the Chinese people? 

2. What kinds of houses do they live in? 

3. What do the people eat? 

4. What are the main rivers and seas of China? 

5. What are the important cities of China and where are 
they located? 

6. What kind of schools do the Chinese have? 

7. How do the Chinese make a living? 

8. What kind of weather do they have in China? 

9. What kind of religion do they have? 

10. Is the Chinese government like ours? 

11. What is the Great Wall of China? 

12. How old is China? What is its history? 

13. What inventions originated in China? 

14. Do the Chinese do much manufacturing? 



National College of Education 

15. How large is China? How many people are there in 
C. Relating to Japan. (Topics for study and discussion sug- 
gested by the children.) 

1. History of Japan. 

2. The Japanese silk industry. 

3. Customs, clothes, houses. 

4. Physical conditions. 

5. Trade and transportation. 

6. Japanese cities. 

7. Farming in Japan. 

8. Size and population of Japan, 
g. Expansion of Japan. 

10. Religion in Japan. 

1 1. The fishing industry. 

12. The mining industry. 

13. Manufacturing. 

14. The government of Japan. 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 
A. Through factual reading. 

1. Individual and group research on topics chosen from 
those above, using the following references: 

Atwood & Thomas 

Nations beyond the Seas 

2 938 


Barrows and Parker 

Europe and Asia 

J 936 

Silver, Burdett 

Beard and Bagley 

Elementary World History 



Carpenter, Frances 

Our Neighbors Near and 

The World Book 


American Book 

Farquhar, F. F., 

1936 Quarrie 

and others 


Ford, A. S., and 

Compton's Pictured 

1938 Compton 



Franck, H. A. 




Franck, H. A. 

The Japanese Empire 



Franck, H. A. 

Glimpses of Japan and 


Appleton • 

Halliburton, R. 

Second Book of Marvels 



Hillyer, V. M. 

A Child's Geography of 
the World 



Hillyer, V. M. 

A Child's History of the 



Seeger, Elizabeth 

The Pageant of Chinese 



Smith, J. R. 

Foreign Lands and 



Stull and Hatch 

Our World Today 


Allyn and Bacon 

Whittemore, K. T. 

Asia the Great Continent 



2. Study of the globe— proximity of China and Japan to 
the United States. 

Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 


Notes Are Taken on Radio Travel Talks 

3. Map study, including scale of miles, key, latitude and 
longitude, physical and political features. 

B. Through language. 

1. Writing stories about the maps and what they tell. 

2. Writing reports on the individual and group topics. 

3. Conducting group discussions with all children par- 

4. Making oral reports on research topics. 

5. Making oral reports on news broadcasts, newspaper and 
magazine articles, etc. 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Coloring and filling in outline maps of China and Japan. 

2. Drawing freehand maps of China. 

3. Making individual maps with original ideas, including 
such things as pictures of cities and areas. 

4. Making and keeping scrapbooks of newspaper articles, 
pictures, maps and stories of China and Japan. 

5. Drawing small maps of Japan, then enlarging them to 
scale by the method of squares. 

270 National College 0/ Education 

6. Stenciling and mimeographing small outline maps for 
each child. 
D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Using rulers to sixteenths in measurement of distances 
on maps. 

2. Using fractions in figuring out enlargements. 

3. Estimating the area of China by multiplying length 
times width, then correcting for deviations from a true 

4. Looking up the area of China in books and comparing 
it with the estimate. 

5. Figuring out why different books give different areas. 

6. Looking up and comparing the population of China, 
Japan, the United States and other countries. 

7. Using long division to figure out density of population. 

8. Figuring the age of China and Japan. 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes and appreciations developing through 
these experiences. 

A. A sympathetic understanding and appreciation of the prob- 
lems of other peoples of the world, which have grown out 
of historical and geographical factors. 

B. A growing appreciation of the interdependence of peoples. 

C. An increasing ability to draw conclusions from reliable 
information— to substitute facts for opinion or hearsay. 

D. An increasing ability to read newspapers and magazines 
more carefully and more critically. 

E. A growing interest in world affairs, as evidenced by more 
listening to news broadcasts, more interest in the front 
pages of the newspaper, and an eagerness to discuss in- 
formation gained in this manner. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

1. Reading Chinese and Japanese stories and reporting 
them to the class. 

2. Class reading of He Went With Marco Polo, by Kent. 

3. Listening to a young lady from Korea, who told stories 
about her country, the children, their costumes, sports, 
houses, and way of living. 

4. Writing stories and making short talks on the more 
pleasant phases of Japanese and Chinese life. 

B. Through picture making and design. 

1. Creating designs for borders on maps. 

Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 271 

2. Drawing, coloring and painting pictures of Chinese and 
Japanese scenes to illustrate stories. 

3. Designing, cutting and decorating a Chinese wall hang- 
ing made of linoleum. 

4. Choosing contrasting colors for maps made of colored 
paper, and arranging the color scheme. 

C. Through social activity. 

1. Making a trip to Chicago's Chinatown, visiting stores, 
shops, museums, town hall, and many other interesting 

2. Eating Chinese food in a Chinese restaurant. 

3. Showing and explaining to other children in school some 
of the souvenirs brought from Chinatown. 

4. Holding room assemblies to exchange ideas and in- 
formation about individual and group activities. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further studies. 

A. A desire to study other countries of the world and their 
relations with each other, especially Russia, Germany, 
Italy, England and France. 

B. A desire on the part of some to continue the study of 
ancient history which they began in connection with China. 

C. A desire to use radio in the classroom wherever possible as 
a source of information and of interesting material in the 
field of social studies. 

Sharing the Earth with Insects 

A Study in Sixth Grade 

Summer Session 

I. Enriching experiences which aroused and fostered interest and 
provided background. 

A. A Polyphemus moth was found on the playground and 
brought into the class for study. 

B. A microscope was brought to school by one of the boys. 

C. A new boy entered summer school who had much informa- 
tion to offer and made many contributions. 

D. Many insects were soon brought in for study, including a 
swallowtail butterfly, monarch butterfly, Cecropia moth, 
grasshoppers, dragonflies, bees, stag beetles and many 

E. Glass cages were brought, so that we might watch and care 
for the insects. 

F. A collection of mounted butterflies was brought in by a 
member of the class. 

G. Several walks were taken in the school vicinity and observa- 
tions made of butterflies, bees and other insects. 

II. Problems and questions which led to experiment and investigation. 

A. General questions. 

1. What are the different stages in the life of an insect? 

2. What are meant by the terms egg, larva, pupa, chrysalis 
and cocoon? 

3. What is the best way to catch and care for insects? 

4. What types of insects are helpful to man? 

5. What may be done to protect and foster desirable insects? 

B. Specific questions about the Monarch Butterfly: 

1. How is the monarch butterfly distinguished from all 

2. Is the flight of the monarch rapid or leisurely? 

3. Are its bright colors an advantage or disadvantage? 

4. Where is the monarch caterpillar found? 

5. What are the colors and markings of the monarch 

6. What does it do when frightened? 

7. How long does it take to mature? 

8. How does it shed its skin? 


Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 273 

9. Why is the monarch chrysalis called a "jewel of jade and 

10. Where may the chrysalis be found? 

11. How is it attached to the object? 

12. How does the chrysalis change in color? 

13. After the change to chrysalis how long before the but- 
terfly emerges? 

14. Where does the butterfly deposit her eggs? 

C. Specific questions about the Red-legged Grasshopper: 

1. Why is this insect called a grasshopper? 

2. Which pair of legs is the longest? 

3. Which is the shortest? 

4. How does the grasshopper prepare to jump? 

5. Why is he so skilful in jumping? 

6. How far can he see? 

7. How many eyes are there, and where are they situated? 

8. How long are the antennae? 

9. How does the grasshopper eat? 

10. What kind of crops does he destroy? 

11. Can the grasshopper fly as well as jump? 

12. How many pairs of wings has it? 

13. How do they differ in size and use? 

14. How does this insect breathe? 

15. Where are the ears of the grasshopper located? 

16. If the grasshopper is caught, how does it show that it is 

17. What becomes of the grasshoppers in winter? 

18. Where are the eggs laid? 

19. How can you tell a young from a full-grown grasshopper? 

20. What enemies does the grasshopper have? 
2i. Is it useful to the people of any country? 

Note: Similar questions were asked about other insects 

III. Finding answers to problems and questions. 

A. Through constructive activities. 

1. Insects were kept in glass cages for study. 

2. Some of the specimens were mounted on cards for study. 

3. Slides were made according to directions to be used in 
microscope. Slides were made of different butterfly 
wings, tibia and claw of grasshopper, leg of bee, and 
several others. 


National College of Education 

B. Through use of arithmetic. 

1. Some arithmetic was involved in making the slides ac- 
cording to the directions given. 

2. Enlarged drawings were made, showing insects two or 
three times their natural size. Drawings were mounted 
carefully for display. 

C. Through language. 

1. Oral reports were given of individual observations. 

2. Class discussions were held concerning facts discovered 
in observations and in reading. 

3. Written records were kept of each study. 

4. Observations made on walks were kept and recorded by 
the children. 

D. Through factual reading. Books were used to supplement 

Beard, Dan 

Comstock, Anna B. 

Comstock, John H. 

Fabre, J. Henri 
Farqnhar, F. F., and 

Ford, A. S., and 

Lutz, Frank E. 
Powers, Margaret 
Weed, Clarence M. 


American Boy's Book of 1932 Lippincott 

Bugs, Butterflies & 

Handbook of Nature 1939 Comstock 

An Introduction to 1936 Comstock 

Insect Adventures 1927 Dodd, Mead 

World Book Encyclopedia 1936 Quarrie 

Compton's Pictured 

Fieldbook of Insects 
The World of Insects 
Insect Ways 

1938 Compton 

1935 Putnam 
1931 Follett 
1930 Appleton 

IV. Meanings, attitudes and appreciations probably developed. 

A. An attitude of curiosity about insects and their relation 
to plants and to men. 

A recognition of the economic value of many insects and 
their function in nature. 

C. An appreciation of the beauty of many insects and the 
interesting characteristics they display. 
Understanding and appreciation of the way insects are pro- 
tected by means of coloring, scent and other gifts. 

E. An attitude of respect for the rights of all living things. 

F. An eagerness to share experiences and observations. 

G. An attitude of respect for those children who had a wide 
background for the study through previous reading and 



Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 275 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through literature. 

The children enjoyed reading orally bits from two or three 

books of special interest: 

Bertelli, Luigi The Prince and His Ants 1910 Holt 

Maeterlinck, M. The Children's Life of 1919 Dodd, Mead 

the Bee 

B. Through picture-making. 

1. Graphic drawings were made of insects studied. 

2. Illustrative blackboard drawings were made by the 

3. Designs and borders were developed using the monarch 
and swallowtail butterflies as motifs. 

VI. New interests foreshadowing further studies. 

A keen interest was developed in other phases of nature. Ques- 
tions were asked about trees, wild flowers and birds, and many 
children said they were going to continue their reading through 
the summer. One child who was disappointed because we did 
not study wild flowers, said she was going to start her study 
early next spring. 

Maintaining an Aquarium 

A Continuing Interest in Sixth Grade 

I. Enriching experiences. 

A. Exhibits. 

i. Those brought by children from home, including fish, 

tadpoles, snails, turtles. 
2. Those found in the science laboratory of the college. 

B. Excursions. 

1. To the canal (not far from the school). The brink was 
visited and observations made as to the kind of water 
life which could be found nearby. 

2. To the Fish Hatchery at the Wilmette Harbor. 

3. To the Shedd Aquarium in Chicago. 

4. To the Zoology Laboratory at Northwestern University 
to observe various aquaria and to make inquiries con- 
cerning the making of a balanced aquarium. 

5. To the pet and fish store to buy plants and fish for the 
school's large aquarium, which had not been in use for 
a while. 

C. Pictures of various types and kinds of fish. (National Geo- 
graphic, Nature Magazine, and Outdoor America provided 

D. Articles posted on the bulletin board, cut from magazines 
and newspapers. 

E. Reports given by various children explaining the prepara- 
tion of home aquariums. 

F. Reading of letters received from various organizations for 
the care of fish; as, Department of Interior, Washington, 
D. C; also the Izaak Walton League. (A list of available 
films may be had.) 

G. Making close observation of the development of animal 
life in the aquarium after it was set up in the room. 

II. Problems and questions. 

A. Concerning the aquarium. 

1. Why do people have aquariums? 

2. What is a balanced aquarium? How can we balance our 

3. What kind of an aquarium do we wish to set up, tropical, 
salt water, or an ordinary one? 


Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 


Water Creatures Fascinate 

4. What are the main points to keep in mind in the prepara- 
tion of an aquarium: — 

a. How much water should be used? 

b. How many fish to a gallon of water? 

c. What creatures can be kept in an aquarium? 

d. How many gallons of water will our aquarium hold? 
How long is it? How wide and how high? How 
many cubic inches in a gallon? How can we measure 
the amount of water? 

e. What kind of plant life do we need and how much? 

f. How should the water be changed and how often? 

g. What is the best location in the room for an aquar- 

B. Concerning the fish. 

1. What and how and when are fish and other water crea- 
tures fed? 

2. How can sick fish be cared for? What are the symptoms 
of sick fish? What are some of the common diseases of 

3. How are fish fitted for living in the water? How do they 
protect themselves? 

27K National College of Education 

4. How arc baby fish born, and how are they cared for? 

5. What are the names and habits of some of the common 

6. What kind of water creatures are there, that are not fish? 

7. What are some of the queerest fish? 

8. How do fish eat, breathe? Can fish hear, feel? 

9. What are the names of parts of the fish and the purpose 
of each part; as, gills, fins, scales? 

10. How do snails, tadpoles, differ from fish? 

1 1 . Where do various kinds of fish come from? How can 
fish be brought to a large aquarium (as the Shedd Aquar- 
ium in Chicago)? 

III. Answering questions and solving problems. 

A. Through oral reports and discussions. 

1. Discussion of excursions taken to hatcheries, stores and 

2. Reports and discussions of stories read from books and 
pamphlets, and films seen both by children and teacher. 

3. Discussion of oral and written reports brought in by 
groups and individual children, on various topics, such 

"What kind of plant life do we need?" 

"How many fish can we keep in our aquarium?" 

"How are fish especially fitted for living in the water?" 

4. Reports of detailed observations made by individuals, 
while visiting hatcheries and aquariums, and also while 
observing life in room aquarium. 

5. Discussion of letters received from informational 
sources; as, State Game and Fish Commissioner, United 
States Bureau of Fisheries. 

G. Appointing committees for care of fish, and other re- 

B. Through informational reading. 

1. Reading pamphlets sent by Bureau at Washington, D. C. 

2. Reading informational material found in encyclopedias 
and natural science readers and books. 

3. Studying maps to locate the native home of various kinds 
of fish. 

4. Studying diagrams and pictures of anatomy of fish to 
learn how they are fitted for life in the water. 

5. Reading pictures, shown in books, magazines and films, 
used in explaining fish and plant life. 

Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 


6. Reading records of experiments performed. 

7. Reading directions for the performing of experiments. 

Burgess, Thornton 

Farquhar, F. F., and 

Ford, A. S., and 

Henderson, D. M. 
Kaempfer, Fred 

Mellen, Ida 

Patch, Edith M. 

Persing, E. C. & 
Thiele, C. L. 
Smalley, Janet 

Trafton, Gilbert H. 

Comstock, Anna B. 
Crowder, William 
Curtis, Brian 

Books Used By Children 

The Burgess Sea Shore 

Book for Children 
World Book Encyclopedia 

Compton's Pictured En- 

Children of the Tide 

The Aquarium— Care and 

The Young Folk's Book 
of Fishes 

First Lessons in Nature 

Elementary Science 

Do You Know About 

Nature Study and Science 

1929 Little, Brown 
1936 Quarrie 

1938 Compton 

1926 Appleton 

1930 Kaempfer 

1927 Dodd, Mead 
1926 Macmillan 
1930 Appleton 
1936 Morrow 
1930 Macmillan 

Downing, Elliot R. Our Living World 

Books Used By the Teacher 

Handbook of Nature 1939 Comstock 

Dwellers of the Sea and 1923 Macmillan 

The Life Story of the Fish 

I nnes, William T. 

Goldfish Varieties and 
Tropical Aquarium 

1938 Appleton 
ig28 Longmans, 

1929 Innes 

C. Through constructive activities. 

1. Arranging exhibit of pictures collected. 

2. Making diagrams of various kinds and parts of fish, 
snails, tadpoles. 

3. Making map or diagram of aquarium, placing the castles 
and plants. 

4. Making of class folder, to keep important pictures, pam- 
phlets for future reference. 

5. Making pictorial map, showing the sources of various fish 
at the Shedd Aquarium. 

D. Through the use of arithmetic. 

1. Measuring size of aquarium, length, width, depth. 

2. Computing cubic inches in the aquarium. 

3. Understanding the terms cubic inches, volume, rectangle. 

4. Computing gallons of water needed for the aquarium. 

5. Estimating the number of fish for amount of water. 

280 National College oj Education 

6. Estimating the number of plants for number of fish and 
other creatures. 

7. Measuring quarts, gallons. 

8. Keeping account of cost of equipping the aquarium. 

9. Using thermometer to test temperature of water. 

10. Keeping record of time required for propagation of 

IV. Social meanings, attitudes, appreciations probably developed 
through these experiences. 

A. Wholesome attitude and outlook toward reproduction. 

B. Appreciation of the conservation of natural resources other- 
wise exterminated by industry. 

C. Understanding of the work done by hatchery to conserve 
little fish. 

D. Some understanding of nature's provision for protection 
and care of water life. 

E. Appreciation of the beauty found in sea life. 

F. Gratitude to those who have made such places as the Shedd 
Aquarium, Field Museum, available for boys and girls. 

G. Understanding of the knowledge and skill needed by those 
who care for fish life. 

H. Appreciation of the work of men called scientists, in dis- 
covering facts. 

I. Appreciation and understanding of the care and accuracy 
needed in reporting any observation and experiments. 

J. Appreciation of the value of close, correct observation of 
even small details in answering questions accurately. 

K. Appreciation of what it means to base opinions on ample 
reliable data. 

V. Interpretation and expression of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Through use of literature. 

1. Silent and oral reading of some delightful stories from 
books such as: 

Bronson, W. S. Finger Fins 1930 Macmillan 

Butler, Evah Along the Shore 1930 John Day 

Carr, William H. The Stir of Nature 1930 Oxford Press 

Heal, Edith How the World Began 1930 Thomas Rockwell 

Reed, W. M. The Earth for Sam 1929 Harcourt, Brace 

2. Listening to interesting descriptions from magazines: 
as, National Geographic and Nature Magazine. 

Units of Experience in Sixth Grade 281 

B. Through creative composition. 

1. Composing letters to absent class members, telling of 
balancing the aquarium. 

2. Writing accounts describing the process of balancing 
the aquarium, excursions taken, and experiments tried. 

C. Through picture making, designing and decorating. 

1. Drawing pictures of fish. 

2. Mounting lovely pictures of fish life for individual 
science books and for the bulletin board. 

D. Through social sharing. 

By means of a microphone and amplifier the class broad- 
casted a program on water life from the science laboratory 
to the children's assembly. 

VI. New interests, foreshadowing other studies. 

A. A study of water and what it means to life. 

B. A study of various types of plant life in water. 

C. A study of the development of plant and animal life upon 
the earth. 


The Day's Procedure 


The Changing Schedule 

ALTHOUGH the program provides a time for each type of ac- 
L tivity, these various types of activity are not carried on as 
isolated "subjects," but are usually unified by certain large purposes 
or goals. Time is allowed for individual creative enterprises and for 
individual practice in the mastery of certain fundamental skills. 
Small groups are formed within each room according to individual 
needs and interests. 

The program is flexible and may be altered from month to month 
or day to day, except that periods devoted to physical needs must 
remain fairly constant. Both room teachers and special teachers 
are willing to adjust the schedule to allow time for excursions, 
sketching trips, cooking enterprises, experiments in science, pro- 
jection of films and slides, and other enriching experiences. 

The school offers a day program for all children enrolled in the 
second grade and in higher grades. Below second grade, there is a 
choice of morning session or day session. The day session for younger 
children is open only to those whose physical and emotional needs 
and home situation suggest that a day at school is desirable. 

The day program for all groups includes a dinner, with careful 
attention to habits and attitudes in relation to foods. The menu for 
the younger children is planned by a nutritionist and sent to the 
parents for each week in advance. Beginning with fourth grade the 
children learn to choose their own menu under guidance, and a 
study of foods and food values is included as a part of the program. 
In the nursery school, kindergarten, and three primary grades, the 
noon meal is followed by a rest period on cots, with training in 
relaxation. Sleep and outdoor play constitute the afternoon program 
for the nursery school and kindergarten children. 

A number of special teachers assist in the guidance of children's 
activities, beginning in the primary grades, but all work in close 
touch with the room teachers. The teachers of music, art, crafts, 
and physical education, assist the children and the room teachers 
of certain grades in carrying on group projects, and they also pro- 


^86 National College of Education 

vide for creative enterprises and for the development of apprecia- 
tions and skills in their own fields. 

Provision for Individual Interests 

In any school, "progressive" or otherwise, children's interests 
beyond the offerings of the curriculum will appear and may provide 
some of the most valuable experiences in the child's growth. These 
interests or "hobbies" often present an important cue to a child's 
character development. Hobbies can, in general, be divided into 
four groups, and experience in the Children's School has shown 
that children's responses in many experiences are often parallel to 
their hobbies. 

To desire knowledge and to satisfy a sense of curiosity seem at 
least partly responsible for some hobbies that children have pursued 
in the Children's School. Extracurricular experiences of this type 
usually relate to an unusual interest in books, a desire to know and 
identify birds and insects and other natural phenomena, and to 
pry and investigate into otherwise unknown fields of the academic 
type. Children with such hobbies make extensive use of the library. 
Time for free reading in the library must be provided in making 
the weekly program. 

As the cross section of any community would show, the first 
group of hobbies has the smallest number of devotees, and is over- 
shadowed by that great group of hobbies of the second type, those 
based on the acquisition of things and objects. Illustrations of these 
are experiences relating to collecting autographs, pictures or designs 
of vehicles, buttons, coins, sometimes butterflies, labels, newspapers, 
postmarks, maps, rocks, shells, stamps, streetcar transfers, timetables, 
wrappers, and other objects that circulate in various colors, values, 
and denominations. All hobbies mentioned and many others have 
had outlets in the program of the Children's Schools. Hobby periods 
and hobby clubs for children interested in collecting have been 
common in the middle grades. Collecting and arranging objects 
of insignificant value, has afforded training in organization, and 
has sometimes led to collection of more valuable materials later. 

The third class of hobbies, those related to the creation or making 
of objects, generally involves manual activity. Like the second 

Nancy Likes to 

Frances Enjoys the 

Lionel is Lost in 
the Library 

288 National College of Education 

group, experiences in these fields are very popular with children and 
again provide opportunity for experiences of lasting value. The 
most common hobbies in this group are building aquaria, block 
printing, leather work, metal craft, basketry, and other kinds of 
creative work and constructive activities in the manual arts shops. 
Some of these kinds of hobbies and interests lend themselves readily 
to use in group projects or enterprises. Others are pursued individ- 
ually in the shop, the art room, the science laboratory, and all the 
classrooms. Knitting and sewing, photography, printing, cooking, 
instrumental music, experimental work with electricity, radio, 
chemicals, and similar hobbies, provide additional creative and 
constructive situations. Photography has become one of the most 
popular hobbies with young and old alike, and it is this hobby, de- 
veloped into professionalism, that has given us so many popular 
picture magazines that are among the most successful periodicals in 
America today. In the middle and upper grades of the Children's 
School, camera clubs, sewing clubs, groups in instrumental music, 
groups in various crafts, and groups interested in scientific experi- 
ment and invention, have from time to time been accorded addi- 
tional periods for work, outside the class program. One or two 
periods a week have been set aside in certain grades for interest 
groups of this sort. Play clubs for baseball, badminton, and other 
sports have been popular after-school activities. 

The fourth type of hobby is the one that sometimes must be given 
the most serious consideration from a standpoint of child develop- 
ment. Hobbies in this class tend to give a cue to an inferiority feel- 
ing, worship, or a quest for power where the satisfactions to desires 
are not readily available. Children in the upper grades who are 
unduly fond of animals and strongly revel in their superiority over 
the animal and their ability to make the living creatures "obey" are 
often wanting in success in other lines of activity. Likewise this is 
sometimes true with hobbies concerned with hunting and fishing 
and the collection of miniature objects that in life possess superb 
power or attraction; as, toy soldiers or implements of war. An over- 
dose of hero worship, evidenced in collecting pictures of persons 
unusually prominent in present-day activities, is an indication of 
this psychological background. The scientific care of animals holds 

Arranging the Program 


The Camera Club Developes and Enlarges Photographs 


National College of Education 

interest for many children, but may have a special appeal for the 
child whose social relationships to others of his own age are not 
fully satisfying. Camping and hiking, with their opportunities to 
master and control natural forces, while of value to nearly all 
boys and girls, may give particular satisfaction to the reserved child 
who has not achieved the social leadership he craves. 

All the types of hobbies and interests described have provided 
valuable experiences for boys and girls in the Children's School 
at certain levels of growth. Teachers, however, have at times sought 
to lead a child who had an all-engrossing individual hobby into some 
form of social cooperation or sharing that would give equal or 
greater satisfaction. 

A Check List of Fifty Famous Fancies Popular with 
Boys and Girls 

.Airplanes 1, 2, 3 
Animals 1, 2, 4 
Aquaria 3 
Autographs 2 
Automobiles 2, 3 

.Hiking 4 
.Hotel Soap 2 
.Insects 1, 2 
.Knitting 3 
.Labels 2 

Art Appreciation 
Basketry 3 
Birds 1, 4 
Block Printing 3 
Boats 1, 2, 3 

.Leather Work 3 
.Metal Work 3 
.Miniature Objects 2, 4 
.Musical Instruments 3 
.Newspapers 2 

.Books 1 
.Buttons 2 
.Camping 4 
.Chemistry 3 
.Coins 2 

Pets 1, 4 
.Photography 3 
Playing Cards 2 
Postmarks 2 
Printing 3 

Dogs 1, 4 
.Dolls 2 

.Dressmaking 3 
.Fishing 4 
.Gardening 3 

.Radio, Wireless, Tele- 
phone 3 
_Road Maps 2 
.Rocks 2 
.Shells 2 
.Souvenirs 2 

Arranging the Program 291 

Sport and Celebrity Travel 1 

Photographs 4 Tropical Fish 3 

Stamps 2 Wood Carving 2 

Streetcar Tranfers 2 Woodwork 3 

Timetables 2 Wrappers 2 

Trains 2, 3 


1— To Acquire Knowledge or Satisfy Curiosity. 
2— Acquisition of Objects and Things. 
3— To Create or Make Objects. 

4— To Provide Satisfaction for Feeling of Inferiority, Worship, Quest 
for Power. 

Provision for Inter-Class Assemblies 

With social sharing an important goal in the Children's School, 
assemblies have become longer and more frequent. An informa- 
tional assembly occurs at nine o'clock on every Tuesday morning, 
when all groups from first to eighth grade meet to hear the an- 
nouncements of the Student Cabinet and of the various committees 
working on festivals and other school activities. Complying with a 
request from the Student Cabinet for "longer" assemblies, the 
eighth grade, acting as an assembly committee, has invited each 
grade to share their plays and their lore with the school. Volunteers 
for each week have supplied interesting programs. Following are 
some of the programs that occurred in a single semester. 

The eighth grade presented a skit advertising their Supreme In- 
surance Company, Safe, Sane and Secure! The skit revealed a well- 
organized stock company, ready to sell insurance on schoolbooks 
and other belongings to their schoolmates, and eager both to protect 
their patrons from losses and to pay dividends to stockholders. 

A group of the seventh grade presented a humorous and instruc- 
tive radio skit, telling of their vacation experiences in different 
parts of the United States. At another time a few skilful artists from 
the junior high school art class drew original cartoons for the amuse- 
ment of the school. 

The fourth grade prepared an original "movie," called "Explorers 
and Explorations." Each picture depicted some of the colorful 
breath-taking adventures of the first men to reach the shores of the 

-'()-' National College oj Education 

new world and to explore this section of the continent. These were 
explained by the boys and girls as their pictures were shown on a 
large and ingenious reel of their own making. 

The fifth graders, who had been studying the development of 
transportation in our country, prepared a series of lantern slides for 
an assembly, showing the vehicles of pioneer days, the first engines 
and steamboats, and the latest inventions in streamlined trains, 
trailers, and airplanes. 

The sixth grade presented some book riddles during National 
Book Week. They also presented a skit at another assembly, adver- 
tising their newspaper, The National News. 

The primary children preferred to share their projects with 
neighboring grades rather than to perform before the school in a 
large assembly. The first grade circus was given separately for junior 
kindergarten, senior kindergarten and second grade. Agile ponies 
showed their ability to stand on a chair, to push a ball, to race, buck, 
bow, and tell their ages. Ponderous gray elephants proved that they 
could stand on a ball, catch peanuts, parade, stand on two chairs, 
and walk with front feet on another elephant's back. Strong men, 
clowns, dancing ladies and dancing Indians, in appropriate cos- 
tumes, all did their parts with zest. 

The third grade invited the fourth grade and the second grade 
on separate days to see an exhibit of their science hobbies and to 
hear the different members of their class explain and demonstrate 
their collections of butterflies, shells, agates, sea-animals in bottles, 
and mounted autumn leaves; and demonstrate their experiments 
with germination of seeds, transpiration of leaves, and water life in 
an aquarium. 

After a trip to the Navy Pier, where they saw boats lowered to the 
water level, and went through a coast-guard cutter, the second grade 
constructed a model harbor and invited friends to see it. 

In two music assemblies held every w 7 eek by a primary group and 
an upper grade group, the children shared with one another their 
favorite songs, and also their favorite melodies for the instruments 
which they were learning to play. The senior kindergarten visited 
one of the primary music assemblies and invited the first and second 
grades to come in to their rooms and have a sing with them. 

Arranging the Program 293 

The Thanksgiving assembly began with a processional in which 
all the children of the school carried gifts of fruits and vegetables 
for the Mary Crane Nursery School at Hull House. The fifth grade 
with the help of original drawings told of their excursion to Hull 
House to see the nursery school there. 

For two weeks preceding Christmas all assembly periods were 
used for the creation and preparation of the Christmas festival in 
which several groups participated. The program included a pro- 
cessional and singing by the younger children, and an original 
Christmas play written by the seventh and eighth grades, and pre- 
sented by all the grades from fourth to eighth. A king of merrie old 
England, in seeking an heir, disguised himself as a beggar, so ran 
the story, and stood on the street before the cathedral, as groups of 
children, carollers, soldiers and revelers passed by. His observations 
disclosed a worthy heir, and the announcement of the one who 
would be his successor was made at the Christmas feast, following the 
songs and dances and miracle plays with which the courtiers en- 
tertained their king. 

Provision for Use of Community Resources 

The Chicago area provides a community rich in resources, which 
can add inestimably to the vitality and reality of learning experi- 
ence. All groups in the school spend considerable time, as interests 
and needs suggest, in observing and utilizing community resources. 
Many points of interest are within walking distance of the school. 
School cars, parents' cars, and public conveyances have been used 
for longer trips. Excursions may occupy a half-hour period, a half- 
day, or a day; and occasionally an upper grade group has taken an 
excursion lasting two or three days. The children are helped to 
learn the regulations of the institution which they visit, and to give 

An excursion may be the starting point of a new interest; but 
usually the group goes with a definite purpose: to transact business; 
to gain needed information; or to enjoy an aesthetic experience. 
Children of nursery school, kindergarten and primary grades go to 
the beaches to play; to gardens, greenhouses and parks to see flowers 
and birds; to the pet store to buy a pet or food for pets; to the 

2 94 National College of Education 

market or to a special shop to buy materials for activities; to the 
post oflice to mail a package; to a farm to get fruits or vegetables for 
use at school; to the airport to get facts needed for construction; to 
the harbor to watch boats of many kinds. A ride to the city on a 
suburban train brings the children into a large station, where over- 
land trains may be visited. The zoo is often the destination of an 
eager group. 

For middle and upper grades the neighborhood includes the en- 
tire Chicago area. Groups of children have enjoyed community 
recreation with their teachers. Together they have attended inter- 
collegiate football games at the Stadium; concerts of the Chicago 
Symphony Orchestra at Orchestra Hall; matinees at the Chicago 
City Opera House; approved motion pictures and plays at local 
theatres. Among the institutions where they have frequently gone 
to see exhibits and to get information of various sorts are: the Field 
Museum of Natural History; the Chicago Academy of Science; the 
John G. Shedd Aquarium; the Museum of Science and Industry; 
the Museum of American History; the Art Institute of Chicago. 
Factories, large department stores, business offices, banks, publish- 
ing houses, social settlements, markets, mail-order houses, broad- 
casting studios, have all been at times the environment of firsthand 

The school has prepared for teachers' use an Excursion Guide 
Book, which gives brief descriptions of centers that have proved 
valuable for education; notations concerning exhibits, pictures, 
pamphlets, guides and guidebooks, that may be found at each 
center; and information concerning advance arrangements and 
transportation. The office of the Children's School aids teachers in 
arranging excursions and providing transportation. 

The Chicago area provides not only interesting centers for ex- 
cursions, but excellent libraries, where books and films may be 
secured by loan. Audio-visual aids and equipment for their use are 
available in the school library for loan to classrooms, as follows: 

55 phonograph records. 
Magnovox electric phonograph, 
it reels of 16 mm. films. 

Arranging the Program 295 

Sound motion picture projector. 

Silent motion picture projector. 

Microphone for use with sound projector. 

Portable radio. 

Film strip projector. 

26 Spencer film strips. 


Lantern slide projector. 

300 lantern slides. 

68 maps. 

3,000 miscellaneous pictures. 

700 pictures of Visualized Curriculum Series. 

The school library also has available lists of films which may be 
obtained free or for low rental prices from various film libraries in 
the Chicago Area; and teachers are given aid in selecting and order- 
ing films for classroom use. 

The portable phonograph and records are in continual use in 
connection with music activities; the portable radio is used fre- 
quently by middle and upper grades both for music appreciation 
and for study of current events. Original radio broadcasts by the 
children have afforded an interesting type of assembly program. 

The school encourages children also to take their own pictures of 
school and community activities, and for this purpose has available 
a Graflex camera, a motion-picture camera, and an Elwood en- 
larging machine. 

In many other ways the children share in the life of the com- 
munity. Parents and other citizens have come to the school upon 
invitation to talk to the children about school and community 
problems, or to share with them pictures, films, curios, and tales col- 
lected in travel. Frequently upper grade children have had the 
experience of conferring with school officials, business men, and 
city officers concerning school and community projects. Occasionally 
the opportunity has presented itself for the children to serve the 
neighborhood in some vital way; as, beautifying the school environ- 
ment, or notifying city authorities of points where warning signs 
are needed. 


National College of Education 

Dressing Is a Big Task 

Daily Procedure in the Nursery School 

The Nursery School of National College of Education is an inte- 
gral part of the Children's School. In this respect it belongs to a 
very small group of nursery schools which hold the same relation- 
ship to the rest of an elementary school as any grade within the 
school. The children upon leaving the Nursery School automatically 
go into the next level, the Junior Kindergarten, which is ap- 
proximately the four-year-old group. The teaching staff consists of 
a trained and experienced director with one full-time assistant. The 
cooperating members of the school staff are: psychologist, parent 
education advisor, physician, nurse, speech specialist, nutritionist. 
A group of advanced students give part-time assistance. 

Children are accepted in the school usually in order of applica- 
tion, but preference is given to children and to families where there 
is special need of the help that the nursery school affords. Some chil- 
dren are in the school on the recommendation of the family phy- 
sician. A physical examination and psychological tests are required 

Arranging the Program 997 

before the child is admitted to the school. The child must be phys- 
ically in condition to enter into the nursery school activities suc- 
cessfully, and must be normal or superior in mentality. The group, 
twenty in number, with nearly an even number of boys and girls, 
ranges in age from two years to four years. Only fifteen are accepted 
for the day session. 

The session varies according to the needs of individual children. 
Those enrolled for the morning session only, come at eight-thirty 
and go home at eleven-thirty. Children living at a considerable 
distance from the school, those whose parents are engaged in study 
or work, and those who have special needs, are usually enrolled for 
the full-day session. The afternoon program closes at three o'clock. 

The procedure follows. The program is very flexible, except for 
rest, meals, elimination. 

8:30 Arrival by school car, or with the parents. 

Medical inspection by school physician. Isolation of doubtful 
cases. Children admitted to their room after receiving pass from 
the physician. Toilet period for a few children. Drink of water. 
Out-of-door play, if the weather permits. Play on apparatus, 
boxes, boards, barrels, with Kiddie Kars, wagons, and other 
wheel stock. Excursions and trips to points of interest in the 
neighborhood, climbing on logs, picking flowers, playing in the 
field, . . . Songs, stories, and rhythms are used out-of-doors as 
freely as indoors when the interest warrants their use. 
Play indoors if weather is stormy. Water play, use of all indoor 
materials such as clay, small toys, hollow blocks, easels and paints. 
As children come in a few at a time, wraps are removed, with em- 
phasis on creating a desire to help one's self. 
10:15 or later. Toilet period for all—a few children at a time— with 
special emphasis on procedure, and on growth in independence. 

10:20 Mid-morning luncheon of fruit juice or tomato juice served to 
a few at a time, as the children are ready. (Some exceptions are 
made according to the advice of the physician.) As a rule the 
children help in the preparation and serving of this mid-morn- 
ing meal, and in the clearing of tables. 

Rest on cots (with blankets if necessary) in a quiet room, lasting 
from ten to twenty minutes, depending on the needs of the 
children. The children are divided into a younger and older 
group .at this time, and rest alternates with guided activity. 
Stories, poems, songs, rhythms and constructive materials are 

298 National College oj Education 

introduced to the two groups to meet the needs of varying ages. 

Children are free to join centers according to interests. 
1 1 130 Dismissal of those children enrolled for the morning session only. 

Toilet period for remainder of group. Thorough grooming for 

11:45 Dinner— served by children. Emphasis is placed on creating a 

happy atmosphere, which is conducive to good eating habits and 

attitudes. Dinner is followed by a toilet period, and removal of 

outer garments. 
12:30 Nap on cots, using sheets and blankets in darkened, cool, well- 
ventilated room. Nap is followed by toilet period, dressing, 

putting on wraps. 
2:30 (or when children are dressed, following nap). Out-of-door play 

until time to go home. 
3:00 Dismissal. Many children use school car. Some go with parents. 

Daily Procedures in the Junior Kindergarten 

(Very flexible, except for rest, meals, elimination.) 
8:30 Arrival of children by school car, or with parents. Medical in- 
spection by school physician. Isolation of doubtful cases. The 
children are admitted to their room after receiving pass from 
the physician. 

Drink of water.— Children serve themselves from small pitchers 
and drink from small cups on trays. 
Toilet period for those children who need it. 
Out-of-door play if the weather is favorable. The children play 
on apparatus, boxes, boards, barrels, tricycles, wagons, and other 
wheel toys. Clay, paint and soap bubble materials are taken out 
for use on warm, sunny days. Excursions to points of interest 
in the neighborhood, climbing on logs, picking flowers, playing 
in the field, are common activities. Singing, listening to stories, 
and simple rhythms are used out-of-doors as freely as indoors 
when the interest warrants their use. 

Sleds and snow shovels are provided in winter time. (On very 
cold days, children go indoors at 9:30.) 

Outdoor toys are put away; five or six children come inside at a 
time after they have helped put away the toys they were using. 
Play indoors if weather is stormy. The children may play with 
water and with all indoor materials such as clay, paints, work 
bench, puzzles, etc. 
10:00 Removal of wraps, with emphasis on creating a desire for inde- 
Toilet period for all— a few children at a time— with special em- 

Arranging the Program 299 

phasis on proper procedure, and on growth in independence. 
Groups gather as they are ready for fruit juice or tomato juice, 
served at little tables. 

Free play, including activities in the doll corner, building with 
blocks, spontaneous dramatic play. Any creative materials such 
as clay, crayons, paint, which may interest the children, are used. 
Music. Rhythms are developed from the interests of the group 
and may include clapping, skipping, hopping, marching, rolling, 
skating, swimming, and many other interpretations. Musical in- 
struments including gongs, bells, sandblocks, and drums tare 
sometimes used. Songs are correlated with the activities of the 
days, seasons, and particular interests of the group. 

10:50 Story groups. Two or more teachers establish centers, using pic- 
ture books, rhymes or simple stories. Story groups alternate with 
rest, using adjoining rooms. 

Rest on individual cots, with blankets. Morning pupils rest first, 
and then put on wraps to go home. Day pupils rest later. 

11:25 Dismissal of morning children with parents or by bus. 

Toilet period for day children. Hands are washed and hair is 
combed, in preparation for dinner. 

11:30 Dinner at small tables. The children get their own dinner from 
a serving table and replenish their own dishes from little covered 
dishes in the center of the small tables. The emphasis is 
placed on creating a happy atmosphere, which is conducive to 
good eating habits and attitudes. 

12:00 Undressing and placing shoes under chairs at side of beds and 
clothes on chairs. Children put on sleepers, for sleeping. 
Sleep on cots with a sheet and blanket, surrounded by individual 
2:00 Dressing. Children learn to take responsibility for themselves. 

Toilet period. Putting on outdoor wraps. 
2:30 Outdoor play, weather permitting. (Indoor free play or music in 

inclement weather.) 
3:00 Dismissal of children with parents or in the buses. 

Daily Procedure in the Senior Kindergarten 

(The program is flexible, except for the time for food, elimina- 
tion and rest, and varies with the seasons and interests of the 
day. In general, however, this procedure is followed.) 

8:30 Children arrive by school car or with parents. Medical inspec- 
tion by school physician. Children present the physician's pass 
for entrance into their room. Wraps are removed with attention 

300 National College of Education 

to skills and orderly habits. Emphasis is placed on a buoyant be- 
ginning for the day. 

Work period includes caring for pets and plants; following in- 
dividual and group interests: constructive activities using blocks, 
wood, clay, crayons, paint, and many other materials; dramatic 

Conference— bringing to the group interesting activities of the 
first period, discussion and evaluation of work done, solving prob- 
lems, planning for the needs of the next day. 
9:50 Toilet period. Serving of fruit juice. 

Small groups rotate going to the toilet, accompanied by a teacher. 
Tomato or fruit juice is served informally. Centers are established 
by the teachers using books, pictures, poems, nature materials 
and so forth, so that small groups may rotate. 

10:20 Music— including singing, rhythmic movement, use of simple 
instruments, listening to instrumental and vocal music; litera- 
ture—including stories read and told, creative expression in 
terms of original verses, stories, relating incidents; excursions 
in the school building and community; outdoor play; and at 
times directed handwork. The activities depend on weather, in- 
terests, and the needs which have grown out of the earlier ac- 
tivities of the day. Frequently two groups alternate— one going 
outdoors and one remaining indoors for music, literature, etc. 

11:20 Dismissal of children who do not stay for the afternoon session. 
Preparation of other children for dinner— toilet, washing, comb- 
ing hair, rest. 

11:40 Dinner served to small groups at small tables. Toilet period 
following dinner, and removal of outer garments. 

12:30 Naps— on cots with sheets and blankets in darkened, well venti- 
lated rooms. As children waken they put on shoes and outer 
garments. Then follows a toilet period, and putting on wraps. 
Outdoor play until dismissal. 
3:00 Dismissal. Many children use school cars; some go home with 
their parents. 

Daily Procedure in the First Grade 

(Flexible, except for certain periods devoted to physical needs.) 

8:30 Inspection by school physician— Isolation of doubtful cases. 
Removal of wraps, with emphasis on proper care of belongings. 
Care of room plants and pets. 

Self-initiated activities, engaged in by individuals or groups, usu- 
ally in the fields of fine and industrial arts social studies and 
science. Constructive activities may be preceded or followed by 

Arranging the Program 301 

a discussion period for the purpose of planning further activities, 
evaluating what has been accomplished, or solving problems 
common to the group. 
9:50 Attention to physical needs. Toilet period. Informal serving of 
fruit juice or tomato juice. 

10:10 Reading activities, which may include group composition of 
stories about some special interest, reading of such stories from 
charts or booklets made by the children, or reading of interest- 
ing stories from "real books." The class is usually divided into 
small groups for reading, and one group may be engaged in 
some sort of individual reading activity. 

11:00 Music activities, which include listening to folk songs and arts 
songs, singing, and bodily response to music. 
Outdoor play. Activities on the playground include play with 
apparatus and with toys, such as wagons, sleds, balls; construc- 
tive activity and dramatic play with boxes, logs, snow; simple 
active games. 

11:45 Preparation for dinner. Use of toilet rooms. 

Dinner at small tables with teachers. The menu is planned by a 
nutritionist and emphasis is upon desirable attitudes and habits 
in relation to foods. 

12:45 Preparation for naps by placing individual sheets and blankets 
on cots, and removing shoes. 

Rest or nap in cool darkened room. Toilet period following nap. 
1:30 Activities adapted to group interests or needs. These may in- 
clude stories, art work, more reading, choric verse, manuscript 
writing, or other types of experiences. 
2:30 Outdoor play, similar to morning period. 
3:00 Dismissal. 

Daily Procedure in the Second Grade 
(Flexible, except for certain periods devoted to physical needs) 

8:30 Inspection by school physician— Isolation of doubtful cases. 
Care of wraps and belongings; attention to plants and pets. 
Art and industrial activities, individual or related to some group 
interest; as, carrying the mail or developing a harbor. 
Discussion period for planning and judging work, reporting on 
excursions and other related experiences, may precede or follow 
activity period. 

9:50 Reading activities involving use of literary, informational or 
work-type materials, according to needs and interests of individ- 
uals or small groups. Children's library is used by small groups 
on certain days. 

<]oz National College of Education 

10:20 Toilet period, followed by informal serving of fruit juices. 

10:30 Music activities, including music appreciation, singing, and 
bodily rhythm. Music may provide interpretation or expres- 
sion for the outstanding interests of the group. 

11:00 Arithmetic activities involving either solution of number prob- 
lems related to group activities, arithmetic games, or practice in 
mastering certain needed skills. Children often work individu- 
ally or in small groups. 

11:30 Outdoor play, varying with the season: constructive and dra- 
matic play with materials; free play on apparatus, group games. 

12:00 Preparation for noon meal. Use of toilet rooms. 

Noon meal, with menu planned by nutritionist. Emphasis on 
desirable habits and attitudes at table. 

12:50 Rest on cots in cool, darkened room. (Sheets and blankets pro- 
vided.) Stories are read aloud by the teacher during part of 
this period. Rest is followed by a toilet period. 
1:40 Written and oral composition related to individual or group 
interests. Needs for spelling and improved handwriting become 
evident in written work, and practice is provided. 
2:30 Flexible period for nature experiences, excursions, dramatic 
play, and other activities, suggested by interests of the group. 
3:00 Dismissal. 

Arranging the Program 


Tentative Weekly Program — Grade Three 


Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 


Individual Activities 


Social Studies, 
Science and 


Social Studies, Science and Handicraft 


Reading Activities (individual or in small groups) 


Language and 

Music Activities 

Language and 


Games and Play (playground or gymnasium) 


Art (individual 
and group) 

Language, Spelling and Literature 

Art (individual 
and group) 


Lunch and Rest (menu planned by a nutritionist) 


Outdoor Play or Free Reading in Library 


Group Interests 
and Needs 

French Elective or 
Individual Interests and Needs 

Group Interests 
and Needs 


Individual and Group Work in Arithmetic 



Note. Activities such as handicraft, music and art, carried on by 
special teachers, frequently, though not necessarily, are connected with 
some enterprise which the group is pursuing. A strong interest in group 
undertakings is manifested by these specialists and ample opportunity 
is given to enrich the work through the channels of shop work, music 
and art. 

The program is flexible, and periods are frequently extended to 
provide for continued interest in a particular field. The teacher is 
free to arrange for excursions, experiments and other enriching ex- 


National College oj Education 

Tentative Weekly Program — Grade Four 


Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 


Making Plans for the Day 


Social Studies 
and Science 


Social Studies and Science 


Shop (Group 

and Individual 


Music Activities 

Shop (Group 

and Individual 



Individual and Group Work in Arithmetic 


Reading in Groups and Reading Conference 


(Menu planned by child as part of the work in hygiene) 


Language and 

Art (Group 
and Individual) 

Language and 

Art (Group 
and Individual) 

Language and 

1:15, Sports, and Dancing (Playground or Gymnasium) 


Group Work in Literature or 
Individual Free Reading in the Library 

Music Assembly 
Game Assembly 


Group Interests 
and Needs 

French Elective or 
Individual Interests and Needs 






Note. The daily program for the fourth grade is a flexible schedule 
which may be adjusted easily to meet the needs of the group. It is 
changed from day to day as need arises. Children and teachers together 
often talk over and plan the work of the day. When longer work periods 
are required in order to accomplish the purposes of the group or of 
individual children, more time is allowed. 

While certain scheduled periods are taught by specialists, the 
teachers in these various fields work closely with the room director and 
so are informed concerning room activities and interests of major im- 
portance. Because of this cooperation there is no definite break or 
boundary between the many phases of the school work. 

Arranging the Program 


Tentative Weekly Program — Grade Five 


Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 


Individual Work Period 


Social Studies, 

Science, and 



Social Studies, Science and English 


Language Usage and Spelling 


Games, Sports, and Dancing (Playground or Gymnasium) 


Social Arithmetic and Arithmetic Practice 


(Menu chosen by children as part of the work in hygiene) 


Group Interests 


Music Activities 

Hobby Clubs 


French Elective or Individual Needs 

(Sewing, Cook- 
ing, Camera, 


Group Work in Literature or Individual Free Reading in Library 



Enterprises in the Shop and Art Room 
(Group and Individual) 

Music Assembly, 
Game Assembly 





Note. Due to the fact that our special teachers also teach classes 
in the college department we schedule a definite time when they are 
available to work with each group; however, this schedule is most 
flexible. Groups may exchange periods, or one grade may have more 
time in the shop, when some activity demands, and another may have 
more help from the music teacher at that time. On some days the needs 
and interests may fit the planned schedule; on another day the program 
may be entirely disregarded while the group spends a whole half day 
on an excursion, or perhaps working on an assembly program for other 
groups. The daily and weekly program of activities tends to be deter- 
mined by, and centered around large group enterprises, with special 
provision for individual needs and interests. 


National College of Education 

Tentative Weekly Program — Grade Six 



Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 


Individual Activities 


Social Studios, 
Reading and 


Social Studies, Reading and Composition 


Social Arithmetic and Arithmetic Practice 


Games, Sports and Dancing (Playground or Gymnasium j 

11 :30 

Language Usage and Spelling 


(Menu chosen by child as part of the work in hygiene) 




and Hobbies 

French Elective or Individual Needs 


1 :15 

Music Activities 

and Hobbies 


Group Work in Literature or Individual Free 
Reading in the Library 


Enterprises in the Shop and Art Room 
(Group and Individual) 

Music, Game or 





Note. Jn making the above program attention was given first to the 
general routine of living. Children arrive at school between 8:30 and 
9:00 and leave at 3:00. Lunch for this group comes at 12:00. A long 
play period is considered essential. Second, attention was given to 
those things which belong in the school week and which are largely 
determined by the program of the school as a whole; such as, assemblies 
and time for activities guided by special teachers in music, art, shop, 
and French. Third, attention was given to those activities which are 
common in the program for a sixth grade. Next, and most important 
of all, attention was given to insuring its flexibility in order to adjust 
to vital and dynamic interests which arise and which should take pre- 
cedence over routine. Changes are frequently made, ranging from 
slight variation to complete deviation, as in the case of excursions. It 
may be added that we are committed to use any or all offerings when- 
ever they will serve to enhance our studies. 


IN EVALUATING the work of a school or a class, perhaps the 
most important record is the story of a day, for the day is the 
child's unit of living. In the modern school it is impossible to choose 
a typical day for description, since no two days are alike. 

The section which follows includes sketches of several days in the 
pre-school, and one selected from the records of each grade teacher. 
Growing purposefulness in activities, ability to work and play in 
larger groups, more sustained interest in a single center, readiness 
to work for more remote goals, are evident as the children grow 

Since the nursery school is the newest child in the school family, 
a brief explanation concerning the organization of the program 
and the objectives is included here. 

Organization of the Nursery School 

As the program of the nursery school is carried out day by day, 
it may be noted that the only set periods which come at regular 
times each day are those which relate to physical needs such as food, 
sleep and elimination. The other activities of the day vary accord- 
ing to the needs and interests of the children, as well as weather. 

The group is often divided into smaller groups in order to pre- 
vent over-stimulation and fatigue which sometimes come with a 
large group of children. This division allows for following up in- 
dividual interests by giving opportunities to choose what individual 
children wish to do or see. Division of the group also makes for 
growth, as a few who are ready for something more advanced may 
have it without exposing those in a less mature state. Those verging 
on four may be ready for some form of handwork, some rhythmic 
work or an excursion which would be beyond the level of the 
younger members. 

It may be noted that children are not required to join social 
groupings such as a group coming together for songs or stories, or to 
look at pictures, but they come and go of their own free will. The 
teacher with the group at the time tries to make the center of interest 
so interesting that the children will want to come and join in. At 


308 National College of Education 

various times throughout the year records have been kept which 
show the span of the children's attention as they join such centers 
of interest. The records show a gain in some individuals from two 
to twenty minutes. It has been our aim to keep the nursery school 
free from organization and routine except as the social development 
of the children reached a stage where they were ready to come to- 
gether and do more in groups. It has been our aim also to have as 
free and homelike an atmosphere as possible and to avoid falling 
into the category of schools where "children like hothouse plants 
are forced into premature development," as one of our American 
educators has expressed it. 

While all phases of the school curriculum have their beginnings 
in the nursery school, we are stressing those beginnings only by 
giving the children ample opportunity to enjoy the stages of in- 
vestigation, experimentation and manipulation in their use of ma- 
terials. Health habits, gain in emotional control and stability, de- 
velopment of desirable attitudes and appreciations along with the 
development of skill in the use of the body are the main objectives 
of the nursery school. 

Parent education through conferences, parents' meetings, ob- 
servations in the nursery school, and through mothers' classes are 
considered of utmost importance in our work with the nursery 
school child. A specialist in the field of parent education plans the 
classes for the mothers but is assisted by the nursery school director 
and other members of the preschool staff. The director holds the 
conferences with student teachers who are working in the nursery 
school, keeps the records of the children, and arranges for the co- 
operation of specialists on the staff. She is not a detached person, an 
executive or overseer who acts as an administrator for the nursery 
school, but she is the head teacher who works closely with the 
children and students in her group throughout the entire day. 

Nursery School 

Number enrolled, 20 Chronological Age range, 2-4 to 3-7 

Number present, 16 Mental Age range, 2-4 to 4-5 

At eight-thirty two children came up the hall, having arrived in one 
of the school cars. Following them was a student teacher who reminded 

Sketches of Various Days 


Pets Are Fed Each Morning 

them that a visit to the doctor's office was the first thing to be done 
upon arrival. One child willingly cooperated with the doctor in the 
morning inspection of eyes, throat, neck, ears, hands and chest, while 
the other one, not yet feeling entirely secure and free in the physician's 
hands, was loath to be inspected. The doctor asked about the child's 
dog and approached the child in a very friendly, informal way. The 
inspection given was somewhat superficial, but a step or two in ad- 
vance over the inspection of this particular child on previous days, 
the doctor appreciating the need for building up a favorable attitude 
and confidence before proceeding very far in her work. 

After inspection the children went down to the nursery school room 
where the director was waiting near the door to greet them and help 
make them feel at home. They put their "tickets" (slips of colored 
paper given to them to show they had been to the doctor's office) in 
a basket used for that purpose. The teacher helped them remove their 
sweaters. In completing the task one child turned his inside out. She 
assisted in showing the child how to turn the sweater right side out. 

gio National College of Education 

She reminded the children that they should look for their "markers" 
on their own lockers. This they did and having found them they hung 
up their sweaters and caps. They then went to the toilet room where 
an assistant teacher was ready to give necessary help. (Care is taken 
at the beginning of the year to build favorable attitudes and not burden 
the children with too much stress on procedures and habits all at once. 
As each child appears ready and interested in carrying on certain pro- 
cedures leading to definite routines and habits he is encouraged. Cau- 
tion against fatigue and boredom is necessary if right attitudes are to 
be formed and right habits happily established.) 

Following a toilet period these children returned to the playroom 
where they were interested in watching and in helping care for the bird, 
feed the rabbit and the turtles, and change the water on two bouquets. 
Other children came in about this time, some with their mothers, some 
having come in the school cars. They too brought their "tickets" from 
the doctor's office. One child, a very young one with hospital experience 
and unpleasant associations, was admitted without going to the doctor's 
office. The mother had been especially conscientious in looking over 
the child before bringing him. Some of the children went to the toilet 
immediately, while others after removing their wraps, sought the various 
play materials and centers of interest. (The director in individual con- 
ferences held with the mothers before the opening of school had been 
given the span and schedule for each child in regard to toilet needs 
and was meeting individual needs accordingly.) 

A free informal play time indoors ensued until about nine ten when 
most of the group had arrived. All of the children then got ready to 
go out-of-doors. They w r ent to the playground where they had a happy, 
free and lively time with wagons, kiddy cars, boards, boxes and jungle- 
gym, sawhorses, barrels and other flexible and crude equipment. They 
played house, train, iceman and many other dramatic plays. There was 
almost no cooperative play, but "each man for himself" was happy 
and busy in his own interests. Several children trotted back and forth 
on the walk, ran up and down boards and flitted from one bit of equip- 
ment to another, investigating, experimenting, manipulating, learning. 

During this time the milkman arrived with his friendly, toothless old 
horse, "Nig," who had already won the friendship of the children in 
the few days they had been in the nursery school. Several children 
had brought apples or sugar from home which they placed on a cement 
wall which separates the sidewalk from the sloping driveway. The 
children's heads were on a level with the horse's head, yet they were 
safely out of danger of the horse's feet— an ideal arrangement for feed- 
ing and petting the horse. 

An airplane flew by which the children stopped to watch. One of 

Sketches of Various Days 


Logs and Boxes Prevent Unemployment 

l)\2 National College of Education 

the teachers spontaneously sang a simple short airplane song. The 
children looked at her and listened as she sang it over and over again 
while several children joined in singing it as best they could. 

At ten minutes before ten several children went indoors to the 
lavatory to get ready for the mid-morning luncheon consisting of orange 
juice. As they finished, having gone to the toilet, washed their hands, 
and combed their hair, some went to the rug where there was a supply 
of picture books and where a teacher was enjoying looking at books, 
too. Four children joined her and together they looked at pictures, 
talked about them and said Mother Goose rhymes over and over again. 
Some of the children played with the dolls, while others watched the 
rabbit in his cage. When all of the children had come in from the play- 
ground and were ready for orange juice, the teachers went to the tables 
which were set with glasses of orange juice and napkins. Each child 
had a certain place at the table, but some needed help in remembering 
where they sat. The children took care of their chairs, napkins and 
glasses when finished. (During the first few days of school the tables 
were not set, but glasses of orange juice were given to the children in a 
most informal way, with as little ceremony as possible.) 

After this mid-morning luncheon two mothers came and took their 
children. (These youngsters were of the type easily over-stimulated 
and were making their adjustment to the nursery school a very gradual 
one by coming for part of each morning but lengthening the time of 
their stay each day.) A rest period on cots was the next procedure. This 
rest time was of about ten minutes duration— just long enough to 
have the children settle down and get a "feeling" for the atmosphere 
of a rest period. 

Another out-of-door period followed, but this time the group was 
divided and went to different centers of interest. Some went to the 
log pile where they climbed and jumped and had a delightful dramatic 
play time of riding on trains and airplanes. A group of four with a 
teacher, went down to the canal which adjoins the playground, to throw 
stones in the water and to watch the sea gulls. Another group went 
to the school garden where they picked asters and cosmos. As they came 
walking up the playground bearing their flowers the teacher spon- 
taneously began "One foot up and one foot down. This is the way 
to London town." Several children joined in the rhythm with her 
and chanted the rhyme as they walked on up to the door. They took 
their flowers to the nursery school room and helped arrange them in 
vases for the luncheon tables. 

At eleven o'clock the children who remained for the afternoon ses- 
sion began entering the room in small groups and had a toilet period. 
They were given ample time to enjoy the process of making ready for 

Sketches of Various Days 313 

the noon meal. Those who present no problems in food and sleep 
and whose parents desire they stay for the half day only were dismissed 
at eleven-thirty. As the others finished at the lavatory, they helped set 
the tables (put on doilies, napkins, silver and cups). Two children 
helped an assistant teacher put the sheets and blankets on the cots. 
Several others of their own volition got picture books from the shelf, 
while some played with dolls. (Paints, sand and other materials that 
would tend to soil their hands are taboo at this time.) 

When luncheon was ready to serve one child asked to ring the chimes 
to call the children together for luncheon. When all were seated at their 
places, the teacher at each table asked one child to go to the serving 
table for the plates. (Small servings were given to several children 
who were appetite problems. Two of these, however, asked for second 
helpings.) As each child finished, he placed his napkin beside his plate, 
pushed his chair under the table and was excused. He then went to 
the lavatory, and after going through the regular toilet procedure, he 
removed his outer garments, hung them up, and went to his bed, where 
he removed his shoes and then got into bed. 

As the luncheon was about over, two children were asked to help 
clear the tables, which they did with a good deal of joy and efficiency. 
By one o'clock all of the group were ready for their naps. Screens 
were placed around each bed. Several children needed help in relaxa- 
tion, but by one thirty-five all but one child was asleep. This child 
rested for three quarters of an hour and then was allowed to get up and 
dress. As the others wakened (their naps varied from an hour to an 
hour and twenty minutes) they went to the lavatory, dressed and got 
ready to go out-of-doors. When three children were up, a teacher 
went to the playground, and as each one of the others was ready, he 
joined the group in out-of-door play. At a few minutes before three 
several mothers came, to take their children home. Each child was 
given a note on which was recorded the length of his nap, how much 
he ate at luncheon, any defecation and any unusual happenings that 
the teacher wanted the parents to know about (as, emotional upheavals, 

By three o'clock all were dismissed, many of them going home in 
the school cars, each car having not only the driver but a student teacher 
in charge of the children. 


Nursery School 

The children, on coming from the doctor's office, removed their 
coats and hats. After the usual toilet procedure they returned to the 

314 National College of Education 

playroom where ea( h one sal at a table, poured a cup of water for him- 
self and drank it. This new phase of procedure had been under way 
just a few days. Some children gave evidence of not caring for water 
and therefore poured and drank only a small amount. Others poured 
a full glass and drank it down heartily. As each finished he put on 
his wrajxs and went to the playground. There the children used the 
boards, boxes, kegs, junglegym and wheel stock. Several children asked 
for water and paint brushes so they could "paint." A large hollow box 
of soft wood with all sides nailed on, served as a very satisfactory 
place for driving nails. The children used heavy hammers and large 
headed shingle nails. Later on a group of five children went to the other 
end of the playground where they had a rollicking time turning somer- 
saults and playing wheelbarrow in the grass. The rabbits were let loose 
on the grass and the children had fun watching them eat. 

At quarter of ten the children began taking their wheel stock to 
the "play house." The group then went indoors for toilet period and 
rest. Following this rest time they put on their wraps and went out- 
of-doors again. Eight of the children traveled on kiddy cars and in 
wagons two short blocks to the neighborhood grocery where they bought 
various kinds of vegetables. They carried these unwrapped back to 
the school. (These children were chosen for this experience because 
they live in hotels or have servants so that they have little or no contact 
with kitchens, cooking, seeing vegetables and groceries in their "raw" 
state. The aim was to familiarize them with the common vegetables and 
let them handle, feel and play with them.) 

While this small group went to the store, the rest of the children 
went to see the construction work on the Bahai Temple, a large edifice 
two blocks away. They were deeply interested in seeing the great trucks 
dump stone and gravel and in observing iron beams hoisted high into 
the air. After watching for a half hour and asking many questions 
they went back to the school and got ready for dinner. 

On their return trip some of the children ran along, playing they 
were driving dump trucks. They stopped for a few moments in front 
of one of the neighbor's houses to watch and talk to a puppy in the 
yard. Two children gave evidence of being somewhat afraid of the 
dog and ran up and stood close to a teacher. She expressed a great 
liking for the dog, called him and petted him as the children looked on. 
(The teacher made a point later of visiting the dog every few days. 
She took with her five children, including the two skeptical ones, and 
after several visits all were thoroughly enjoying "Scotty.") 

The preparation for dinner, serving and the rest of the afternoon 
procedure was much the same as described in the record of a "Day in 

Sketches of Various Days 


Soap Bubbles Are Enjoyed on Rainy Days 


Nursery School 

It was a very rainy day. After the children had come in and gone 
through the usual procedures of morning inspection, toilet and a drink 
of water, the group was divided, the younger children staiying in the 
nursery school room to play with wagons, kiddy cars and other wheel 

;>i6 National College of Education 

stock. These children put on sweaters and caps and the windows were 
opened wide so that they could have the advantage of the outdoor air 
without being in the rain. 

The older children went to the Children's Library where they spent 
a delightful half hour looking at picture books and telling rhymes. (The 
teacher used in addition to Mother Goose, some of Dorothy Aldis' 
poems and some from Tippetts, "I Go A-Traveling.") On their way 
back from the Library they went into the school gymnasium where ten 
minutes were spent in running, hopping and galloping, the teacher ac- 
companying their rhythmic expressions with suitable music on the 

When they returned to the room the usual lavatory period followed, 
in preparation for their mid-morning luncheon. Some of the children 
helped set the tables, and to clear them when finished. After the rest 
period of fifteen minutes the younger children left the room to go on 
an excursion about the building. They went to the fountain in the 
front of the building where they fed and watched the goldfish. From 
there they went down to the boiler rooms to see the great boilers which 
heat the building. They were interested in watching the engineer shovel 
coal and in watching the fire when the doors were opened. 

While the younger children were off on this "excursion," the older 
ones were given their choice of blowing soap bubbles or helping the 
maid in the kitchen make sandwiches for the luncheon. (Both were 
familiar experiences.) Three children wanted to make sandwiches, 
while the other six wanted to blow bubbles. Just before the younger 
ones returned at eleven o'clock, these older children were asked if they 
would not like to come together for a story. All but one came, and he 
preferred to continue making sandwiches. The story used was "The 
Wee Little Woman" by Elsa Beskow. Following the story the children 
got ready for the noon meal. The rest of the program for the day was 
much the same as recorded for "A Day in September." 

When the children were up and dressed following their naps, the 
rain was still streaming down; so clay was put on one table for the 
children and paper and crayons at another. The children busied them- 
selves with these materials while one teacher moved among them, mak- 
ing suggestions, giving approval or encouragement and genuinely 
enjoying the activity with them. (On days when there is a damp, 
penetrating wind or a steady downpour of rain and the weather is such 
that the children cannot go out, we make a point of having some ex- 
perience or activity outside of the nursery school room so that the 
children will not feel so confined to one place.) 

Sketches of Various Days 


The Pony Is a Favorite at the Farm 


(following a day at a farm) 

Number enrolled, 24 
Number present, 21 

Chronological age range, 3-9 to 4-9 
Mental age range, 3-9 to 5-8 

With the approach of Halloween had come the query, "Where shall 
we get pumpkins to make jack-o'-lanterns?" One of the children said 
he had seen pumpkins at a farm nearby, and several mothers had agreed 
to take us in cars. 

We had spent a whole morning at the farm; we had seen pumpkins 
in the fields, beets and carrots buried in dirt trenches, hens and geese 
strutting across a farm yard, puppies playing in the barn, and a huge 
pig in a pen. We had participated in farm activities to the extent of 
sliding down the haystack, patting the horses and climbing on the low 
branches of the apple tree. 

When we returned to school, each child carried a small pumpkin, and 
the teachers had pumpkins for the room and bags of fresh vegetables 
for the school pets. 

When the children came to school the following day, it was evident 
that the farm interest was still keen. They entered the room in small 
groups from the doctor's office, where the daily health inspection takes 


18 National College oj Education 

place. Richard discovered sonic wooden farm animals in the "help 
yourself" cupboards, and without a word went to work making block 
fences, inside which he put the animals. Joan and Bradford joined 
him, offering to make a barn. Joe and Roy made a truck with blocks and 
directed Arthur to help load cabbages and drive the truck. Betty 
painted a picture of some pumpkins, and Jean drew a picture of a 
teacher sliding down a haystack. Georgiana's drawing was of a guinea 
pig saying, "Thank you for the lettuce you brought from the farm." 
Anne and Marian made apples and pumpkins out of clay, and Mary- 
ellen looked at a picture book of animals. Out of the twenty-one chil- 
dren present, twelve were working on some representation of the farm 

At the end of the activity period we all went to see Richard's farm- 
yard. He explained where each animal lived. Joan showed us how 
the barn doors opened. Roy drove the vegetable truck and told us he 
was going to Chicago. We looked at the painting and drawings, wrote 
stories about them and tacked them on the bulletin board. The clay 
fruits were put away to dry. Blocks and animals were put away in 
the cupboards again. 

After the toilet period some of the children went to the library to 
look at picture books; some went to a corridor where posters of dairy 
farming were on display. On their return to the room, the teacher 
read "Grandfather's Farm" by Read and Lee. 

Mid-morning lunch of orange juice and a short rest period followed. 
Then the teacher called the children to sit on the rug and said, "Who 
can sing a song about a pumpkin?" Immediate response from the 
children showed a wealth of ideas, an eagerness to sing for the group 
and a willingness to listen to others. These are some of the songs we 

Richard: Halloween night, 

Halloween night, 
We will see some jack-o'-lanterns. 

Gene: I see a pumpkin, 

I see a pumpkin, 
I see a pumpkin. 

Dick: Once a man took a pumpkin 

and put a light in it, and 
then it was a jack-o'-lantern. 

Georgiana: Halloween, Halloween, 

Halloween is coming soon. 

The words of this last song seemed to fit the tune of a German 
folk song, "The Chickadee" found on page 75 of Surrette's book, "One 
Hundred Forty Folk Songs." The teacher sang the first part of the 

Sketches of Various Days 319 

song, using Georgiana's words, and sang "tra-la-la" for the rest of 
the song. She suggested that the children think of other phrases to 
sing. Many suggestions were received, and the finished song was sung 
over and over again: 

Halloween, Halloween, 

Halloween is coming soon. 

Pumpkins bright 

Shine at night 

On the window sill. 

We will go out to the farm, 

We'll buy pumpkins big and small. 

Halloween, Halloween, 

Now it's Halloween! 

After singing we all put on wraps. Each one helped himself as much 
as he could. Outdoors we played on boxes and planks, climbed on the 
junglegym, or coasted down the driveway in wagons. At dismissal 
time, some children went home, and the rest came into the room to get 
ready for dinner. Each child went to the lavatory, washed his hands 
thoroughly and combed his hair. 

Sixteen of us sat down at four tables to a dinner of creamed lamb, 
baked potato, buttered spinach, raw carrot sandwich, milk and fruit cup. 
The teacher had put the portions of food on the plates, and each child 
had carried his own to his place. During the dinner we talked of how 
we would make jack-o'-lanterns, using the pumpkins we had brought 
from the farm. 

When dinner was over the children went to the room where cots 
had been set up for the naps. Each cot was provided with a pair of 
blankets and a sheet. Each child removed his shoes, his suit or dress, 
and lay on the cot that bore his name. The teachers sat beside several 
children who needed help in quieting down. Soon every child was 

As each child awoke, he got up, put on his shoes and suit, went to 
the toilet and dressed for outdoor play. We went to play on the logs, 
dramatizing boats, with passengers and captains. When the school cars 
came into the driveway, each child ran to the car that was to take him 
home. Some children went home with their mothers. 

Junior Kindergarten 

"It's snowing, it's snowing 
The north wind is blowing." 

We heard the children singing in the halls long before they reached 
the rooms. When they did come in, after they had seen the doctor, their 
suggestions were curiously alike— "Let's go out right away." So after 

3 2 ° 


National College of Education 



Snow Brings Jolly Fun 

Sketches of Various Days 321 

the admittance slips had been deposited and everyone had his coat 
buttoned warmly, we went out. 

The playground was deep with white, glittering snow. It was too 
deep to use sleds, but just right for other activities. Some children 
scuffed through the snow, tumbling down every few feet. A small group 
played "Follow the leader," making tracks across a wide stretch of 
snow. One little girl rolled over and over, occasionally lying flat and 
watching the snowflakes that were still flying. A little boy started to 
make a snow man. Others joined him and rolled enough balls to make 
several snow men. Some of us made and threw snowballs at the trees, 
or just to see how far we could throw them. Nearly everyone tasted the 
snow and many brought snowballs into the room "to see what would 
happen to them." 

After having been out for about forty minutes, we brushed and 
stamped as much snow as possible off ourselves and went into our room. 
The children talked happily about the good time they had had while 
they removed their snow suits, galoshes, caps and mittens. The janitor 
had been asked to lay a fire in the fireplace which the teacher lighted 
as soon as she came in. The children hung their mittens on the fire 
screen and stayed to watch the blazing logs. 

A toilet period followed; then two of the teachers read stories to 
groups of us as we sat on the rug near the fire. One read "The Snow- 
Man" by Kruger and Sondergaard; the other, "The Snowball" in 
Maud Lindsay's book, "Story Garden for Little Children." We sang 
all the snow songs we knew, "Jingle Bells," "Little Snowflakes," "It's 
Snowing," and "The North Wind Does Blow." 

Mid-morning luncheon was served to us on the rug, the teachers 
passing cups of orange juice on trays. Later, the children carried the 
trays of empty cups to the kitchen. Then they lay on small cots to rest. 
It was a particularly pleasant rest period, because we could hear the 
crackling of the logs in the fireplace, and see the shadow of the dancing 

After the rest period, the teacher called the children and said, "If you 
had paper and chalk, what story would you tell?" "About snow falling," 
"I would tell about snow men," "I can draw snow on the roofs," "I can 
make tracks in the snow," were some of the replies. Black paper and 
chalk were quickly placed on the tables and everyone worked on his 
picture. Some children drew snow men with stick arms and hats; some 
made children sliding down hills on sleds; others made snowflakes fall- 
ing on roofs and sidewalks. One little boy made a picture of a boy shovel- 
ing in the deep snow. The teachers drew pictures, too, and offered 
suggestions to children about their work. 

As it was snowing too hard to carry pictures home, everyone put his 


National College of Education 

Home-Making Consumes Much Time 

in his locker. We had to stop work in time to get some of the children 
ready to go home in the school cars or with their mothers. The chil- 
dren staying for the afternoon helped to put away chalk and wipe off the 
tables before getting ready for dinner. 

Junior Kindergarten 

In the fall a group of children had shown great interest in having 
parties for the Kindergarten dolls. The children had outlined a house 
with blocks into which the doll furniture had been moved and in which 
housekeeping had been set up. The dolls were undressed and put to 
bed; they were dressed and brought to the table for meals. 

This play lasted several days; later in the year it reappeared, and the 
teacher suggested that dolls might be brought from home to enjoy a 
school party. The idea was hailed with enthusiastic response. "I'll 
bring my doll, Mary Anne. She has such pretty clothes." "Oh, I'll 
bring my baby doll. She likes parties." Some children offered to bring 
toy dogs, cats, or monkeys. 

Certain preparations for the party were made. Some children washed 
and ironed the doll clothes; others washed and dried all the doll dishes. 
Another group cut and folded paper napkins. 

Sketches of Various Days 323 

On the day of the party all the dolls arrived wearing their best dresses 
and smiles. The toy animals looked all ready to perform tricks and 
stunts. One of the children said, "Oh, it's too crowded in this room 
with all the dolls. Let's go out on the lawn." So out we went, carrying 
dolls, small chairs and tables, and dishes. The dolls were cared for 
by several children while others went to pick flowers for table decora- 
tion. The garden yielded bouquets of pretty pansies and the tables 
looked very attractive. As soon as each group finished its work of set- 
ting tables or arranging flowers, the children went into the building for 
a toilet period. 

When we came out again, we carried pitchers of orange juice and 
cups. Each child sat on the grass near his doll and poured fruit juice 
into a cup for himself and into a doll cup for his guest. During lunch 
the children talked about their dolls, told us their names and how they 
played with them at home. 

Some of the children wanted to give an animal show for us. We all 
sat on the logs while the toy dogs turned somersaults, the toy monkeys 
climbed trees and a toy kitten played with a string. 

One of the teachers had brought some books for us to read. Among 
them, "The,Katy Kruze Book of Dolls," "The Animal Mother Goose" 
and in Maud Lindsay's book, "A Story Garden for Little Children," we 
found a story of "The Lost Doll." We sat under the trees and enjoyed 
stories and pictures until the school cars came to take the children and 
dolls home. 


Senior Kindergarten 

Number enrolled, 30 Chronological age range, 4-8 to 5-9 

Number present, 26 Mental age range, 5-0 to 6-10 

The Senior Kindergarten children began to arrive at 8:20. They 
went to the doctor's office where the daily medical inspection took place, 
and were given their tickets of admission to the room. The teacher and 
the student assistants were on hand to greet the children, making such 
suggestive comments as "You're just in time to help feed the rabbits"— 
"I'm sure you can manage your galoshes yourself, but I'll be glad to 
help you if you really need help with your leggings"— "Did you find 
something at home for the headlight of your engine?"— "I have the 
paint ready for your book ends." . . . The children came in, a few 
at a time, until nine o'clock, when twenty-six had arrived. Each child 
had his own hooks for his wraps, and his own shelf for unfinished work 
and sundry treasures, labelled with his full name in manuscript writ- 

324 National College of Education 

After the wraps were removed and hung up, the children began to 
work in varying degrees of rapidity. Some got out their materials with 
decided definiteness of purpose, while others wandered about the room, 
chatting with the teachers, the children, to the pets (two birds, fish, 
turtles, white mice), watching others paint, work with clay, wood or 
blocks, assisting with folding and cutting napkins, watering plants, 
buttoning smocks for their neighbors, commenting upon and asking 
questions about the work of others. By 9:10 all but three children had 
settled into some sort of purposeful activity. 

"We need some more icicles for Santa Claus' house," said the teacher 
to one of the children. "Dunder and Blitzen have broken their stalls. 
Those big corner blocks will probably hold them together better than 
the way they were built before. Try them, and see if they are stronger," 
she said to another, and to the third, "Jane and Marie are at home with 
colds today. Let's wrap up some of our jelly (made in October) and 
when you go home you can stop at their houses and leave the jelly at 
their doors. Of course you will not go in where some one has a cold." 

Some of the group had built a large structure with the set of Fox 
Blox the day before, which they called "Santa Claus' house." They 
had made a mailbox, and on it had placed a sign which read "Santa 
Claus" (a carry-over from a previous house-play, where the children 
who live in apartments had used names on their mailboxes). In the 
house was an upturned soap box, a telephone (made from a scrap of 
broom handle, a few pieces of wood, and a buttonmold with pencilled 
numbers for a dial), many sheets of manila paper, and several pencils- 
all of which constituted Santa Claus' desk and materials. There were 
three chairs in the house in addition to Santa Claus' chair. Outside the 
house were some crude partitions known as the reindeer's stalls. A 
great deal of dramatic play went on, in and about these structures, 
interspersed with work upon them. 

By 9:45 nearly all of the children had joined the play, some pretend- 
ing to hang up their stockings and go to sleep, while others were Santa 
Claus, reindeer, or helpers. Some scribbled make-believe notes which 
they stuffed into Santa Claus' mailbox, and then registered real con- 
cern if he were not prompt about jotting down the messages, on his 
book. Finally the number of children involved in the play made it 
unwieldy for them to manage happily alone. 

"Let's have all these reindeer go back to their stalls to be fed," said 
the teacher. "Here, Dasher, is a place for you . . . and one for Dan- 
cer . . . and for Prancer," and so on, until about a third of the children 
were in the "barn." "And here, helper, is a pail of water for these little 
animals— they must be very thirsty." "Now all of the children are 
going to bed," said one child. "Hang up your stockings securely," said 

Sketches of Various Days 325 

the teacher, "and when every one is sound asleep, perhaps the rein- 
deer will come prancing over your roof-tops." "I think it's almost mid- 
night, Santa Claus! You had better be on your way!" 

With such suggestions from teacher and children, the play was kept 
moving— interchanging characters, incorporating every one into the 
fun. "Reindeer have antlers. We should have antlers. Antlers are horns 
that stick up like this," said David, stretching his arms above his head 
and spreading out his fingers. Forthwith many of the children adopted 
his suggestion. "If we make a lot of noise they'll hear us," said Betsy. 
"You're right," agreed the teacher. "Anyway, reindeer have small feet," 
suggested someone else. "Small feet that move very swiftly," was the 

Gradually all of the other children finished their work, or arrived at a 
point where it could be stopped for the day. Materials were put away, 
and all joined in the Santa Claus play. As the fleet reindeer circled 
about the room, the teacher began to supplement the activity with 
piano music (Jingle Bells), thereby adding to the activity, and also 
defining a span of time so that it did not continue too long. (The free- 
activity, or work period, had dovetailed into a period of dramatic and 
rhythmic play.) 

After all had had fun and satisfaction it was suggested that they sit 
together on the big rug, and that one of the student teachers be asked 
to tell "The Night Before Christmas." "I know what 'miniature' means; 
it means 'little.' "... "Yes, and that's the story that says 'St. Nicholas' 
instead of 'Santa Claus.' "... "And I know what 'Dunder and Blitzen' 
means. That's German for 'Thunder and Lightning' "... remarked 
the children. Then the teacher began, " 'Twas the Night Before Christ- 
mas," with the children joining in, where they knew the lines. After 
they had finished telling the story, the teacher showed the pictures, while 
the children pointed out various details of interest, and repeated occa- 
sional sentences or phrases in the story such as "He was chubby and 
plump, a right jolly old elf," when they came to that picture. 

After the pictures had been shown, the teacher said, "It is ten o'clock 
now. The big hand is straight up, on twelve, and the little hand is 
on" . . . "Ten," chorused the children. . . . "Time to get ready for 
our mid-morning luncheon." . . . Then, "Let's have Miss X. . .'s chil- 
dren go down the hall to the toilet room." And when this group had 
separated from the rest, "Now Miss Y. . .'s children may set the tables, 
and my children please step over to the desk. There are several errands 
to be done." As the first children came back from the toilet-rooms, 
the others went, while small tasks were given those who had returned 
first, such as placing chairs at the tables and straightening the doll 
corner, until all were ready. 

326 National College of Education 

Then the teachers sat down at the various tables, remarking "Lunc h- 
con is all ready now," and the children went to their places, too. Some 
were called by name. (The method of getting the groups together at this 
time is quite casual. Sometimes the children are seated first. Two or 
three will sit and chat, or sing, or tell rhymes, while waiting for the 
rest. Each child has a specified table at which to sit. They all under- 
stand that no one begins to pour until all are seated, and rarely need 
reminding.) Then followed such exclamations as— "O boy, we have 
tomato juice this morning." . . . "When are we going to have grape- 
fruit juice again? I like that!" Someone started to pour the tomato 
juice while the teacher commented, "Bob always passes the pitcher 
so that the next person can take hold of the handle." . . . "June, you 
haven't spilled a drop. When you first came, you had much trouble 
about tipping your cup, but you never do that anymore. I believe 
you're getting bigger!" When everyone was served the children began 
drinking. The teacher finished first, and with great ceremony asked, 
"Will you please excuse me? I have finished." All but one child did 
likewise. One child from each table gathered the cups and pitcher on 
the tray (the children rotate the responsibility of clearing the tables), 
discarded the napkins and doilies, and took the tray to the kitchenette, 
which is in one corner of the room. 

In the meantime the teacher had lighted a row of red candles along 
the top of the piano. Someone started to sing, "Christmas time is 
coming soon." A teacher caught the tune, and played it on the piano. 
All gathered around and joined in the song, some standing, some sitting, 
and some pretending to dance around an imaginary tree. This was re- 
peated several times. Then the teacher seated herself beside the piano, 
with a number of the children's products (of the activity period) in her 

"Annette has made a book about the story called 'The Little Fir 
Tree.' If you will all sit down on the rug, everyone can see it. Annette, 
tell the children what this printing on the cover says." (It was "The 
Little Fir Tree, Picture Book" on two lines.) "Annette wanted to num- 
ber her pages and had trouble in remembering how some of the num- 
bers looked. So this is what she did. She just started with number one on 
the clock, and counted down to the number she wanted." Then the 
teacher asked the child to demonstrate how she had found four, seven, 
three. "Well, let's see these pictures! Here are the giant fir trees with 
their great branches. And down here beside them is that little fir tree. 
And on page two, you can see the men coming into the forest in their 
one-horse open sleigh. Jingle Bells . . . Jingle Bells," and all sang the 
song through twice. They went on through the book, the child ex- 
plaining some of the pictures, the children making suggestions about 

Sketches of Various Days 327 

how the city streets should look, and so on. When they came to the 
last page showing the decorated tree, they sang, "O Christmas Tree" 
(German folk tune). "We haven't had 'Away in a Manger,' " said 
Jimmy, and without further ado he started it. 

After the songs were over, the teacher said, "I have some other things 
here that you will want to see. This is the engine that Larry is making 
for his little brother. It's a good engine, isn't it— smokestack, bell, 
cab? But Larry can't make the wheels stay on. Perhaps someone can 
help him with his problem. Jack, can you think of a better way to 
fasten these wheels on? ..." There were a number of new discoveries 
in method, as well as problems, which were discussed in the group. 
Suggestions and comments were made which gave many of the chil- 
dren a spur for proceeding on the coming day, and interested many 
in the work of others. (Such a conference period often follows the initial 
work period.) 

Following this discussion the teacher placed the names (on cards) 
of seven children, in a rack, who were to accompany a student to the 
gymnasium for play. (Often all of the children go, but at times the 
group is divided in order to give special help to one-legged skippers, and 
to children whose coordination is below average generally.) While these 
children were gone, the remainder of the group started getting their 
wraps on. (And winter in Evanston means the whole category of outer 
wearing apparel.) With a divided group, the teachers were able to 
stress self-help, encouraging a child here, helping another there, and 
commending others. As soon as four were completely clad, a student 
teacher started for the playground with them so that they were not kept 
waiting. (The policy is "first ready, first out.") As others finished 
dressing, the teacher sent them down to join their playmates, and she 
brought up the rear with the last contingent. 

While this preparation for out-of-door play was going on, the children 
who had gone to the gymnasium raced around the room a number of 
times, with evident enjoyment in the freedom of space there. Then a 
large pad was placed in the center of the room, and the teacher sug- 
gested, "Let's have some donkeys over here. All these donkeys place 
their front hoofs on this pad, and kick as hard and as high as you can, 
with your hind hoofs." (According to Richardson's "The Pre-School 
Child and His Posture.") They also played crab, elephant, duck (from 
the same series), and then tried hopping about the room, first on one foot, 
and then on the other. After playing in the gymnasium, the children 
all went to get washed, in leisurely fashion, and then returned to their 
room, which was now empty, to get ready for out-of-door play, too. 

The out-of-door play was quite varied in nature. Some of the chil- 
dren climbed on logs and jumped off, while others climbed up and 

328 National College of Education 

played airplane. A few ran 'round and 'round in the bushes, some 
pushed packing boxes together and got inside and played "bear." Two 
sleds were pressed into service. Both teachers participated in the play, 
moving about from group to group. After about fifteen or twenty 
minutes the teacher raised her hand. (The signal for the group to get 
together.) Those who were very intent on their play were told "Miss 

has her hand up." One child did not come. In a chorus the 

children shouted, "Let's play Black Tom"— (the favorite game). "All 
right," said the teacher. "Who shall we have for Black Tom"— "You," 
was the answer, so the teacher was Black Tom. Just as the game was well 
under way the one dissenting child came to join the game. "I'm sorry," 
said the teacher, "but you did not obey the signal. Please stay outside 
the fence." (There is an enclosure— a disused tennis court— within the 
playground, which is usually used for games.) . . . After the group had 
played Black Tom three times, it was 11:30. The school cars had ar- 
rived to take the children home. One group of children went inside 
with one teacher to get ready for luncheon; a second group went to the 
front corridor with another teacher, to meet their mothers; and the 
third group went home in the school car with a student. 

(The afternoon session is similar to that of the Junior Kindergarten, 
described on Page 319.) 


First Grade 

Number enrolled: 25 
Number present: 23 

With a skip and a hop down the hall, and a joyous entrance into the 
first grade room came a pair of twins. A "ticket" from the examining 
physician was in one hand. A flashlight was in the other. 

"Good morning, Miss ! Lookie," said Jane, "I can be an usher 

in our movie." "And I," said Billy, "can be the one to make the pic- 
tures move. Daddy let us bring his flashlight!" 

More soberly, but still in an enthusiastic mood came Nanette. This 
time it was a pattern for an usher's cap, which she had made at home. 
And so they came— some with "material" contributions; some with good 
news about home events; some with interesting comments on observa- 
tions made on the way to school. 

A word of explanation concerning the orienting experiences that 
initiated this movie interest, will help the reader to understand the 

One day a member of the group brought in a unique shadow picture 
that he had made at home. Silhouettes of objects had been cut of black 

Sketches of Various Days 329 

paper— a house, a tree, some flowers, a kite, and a child. They had been 
pasted very loosely on light-weight white paper. When the child moved 
a flashlight behind the picture in a darkened room, the trees swayed and 
twisted in the wind. The flowers nodded their heads. The child ran, 
his arms tugged at the string, and the kite dipped and rose at sudden 

As might easily be imagined, there was an immediate response, and 
twenty-five six-year-olds wanted to do likewise. The outcome was a 
unanimous desire to have a movie. Experiments in cutting and pasting 
were made, and the plan finally developed into A Story Movie with the 
selection of The Three Bears, The Three Little Pigs, and Little Sambo 
as the stories to be depicted. A decision was also made to select some 
verses to portray. 

It had been decided to invite the kindergarten to come to the theatre 
and to see the movie. In order that the guests might better appreciate 
the humor and the plot it was thought a good plan to read the stories 
dramatically, before the pictures were shown. 

The theatre building, housing the screen and equipment necessary 
for the performance, had been built the day before of large floor blocks. 
It was a good-sized structure, seven feet long and three feet high. The 
center screen section was two feet, five inches wide. 

This day in March, materials were already about the rooms as the 
children entered, to stimulate good habits of purposefulness in using 
the self-directed period. Nanette immediately got to work on her usher 
caps, and five or six children, attracted by her pattern, worked with her. 
The open space for the screen had been measured by two children 
who arrived early and they, with the help of a teacher, were soon busily 
engaged in measuring some dark red sateen for a curtain. One half 
of the curtain had been cut and a child was hemming it. At the 
other end of the same group of tables several children were cutting 
animals, freehand, from some gold paper. These were to be pasted on 
the curtain for decoration, in accordance with a plan previously made. 

Some children were engaged in activities unrelated to the group inter- 
est. A few were looking at books in the room library, and others were 
drawing and writing at the blackboard. The playing of the chimes 
culminated this activity. The children cleared away materials, swept 
the floor and put the room in order. When each child had done all he 
could to help, he came to join the group on the rug. 

The main theme of the following discussion was the wording and 
planning of an invitation to extend to the kindergarten. Various sug- 
gestions were given, as: Come to our movie; We hope you will come 
to see our movie; We want you to see our movie. The teacher sug- 
gested that sometimes invitations were sent in rhyme, like a little song. 

330 National College of Education 

She then asked if anyone had a suggestion. Many attempts were made 
and the two following really took shape. 

Will you come! Will you come! 

On the run! On the run! 

To see our movie! To see our movie! 

It will be fun! It will be fun! 

The Three Bears 
You will see. 
Come to the Movie 
And sit with me. 

This last idea made an immediate appeal. The last lines seemed to 
come more or less as an accident. But the idea of sending an individual 
invitation and having an individual guest pleased the children. It was 
to be sent as a letter. 

After a little stretch, reading numbers from the board and taking a 
corresponding number of jumps, hops and stoops, the children were 
ready to go to work on the next unit of their plans. 

To make possible greater individual help, and to allow each child to 
develop as closely as possible at his maximum rate, the children were 
divided into three major groups. The classes were named for indi- 
viduals in each group. The name of the class was changed frequently, 
and the children were shifted from group to group as a need was felt. 
This was done not only to recognize accelerations or retardations, but to 
eliminate any feeling of inferiority or superiority among the individuals 
or groups. Different books and materials were used in each case to 
make it impossible or at least difficult to check up on the other class. 

Theodore's class set to work immediately to learn to write on the 
blackboard part of the message that had been planned. They worked 
in the smaller room of the first grade unit. 

Allan's class got their primers to review the story of Little Sambo, 
and to organize it into various scenes to be cut for posters. 

James' class found materials to use in cutting silhouettes. These were 
mounted on unprinted newspaper. Each scene from the story of The 
Three Bears was to be mounted on a separate sheet. The scenes had 
been selected the day before with the help of their books. 

Having worked for about twenty minutes, the children that had been 
writing arranged their chairs for a reading time. They tried out for 
the various parts in The Three Little Pigs, to see which ones could 
more closely imitate the tone of voice and the mannerisms of each 

Allan's class felt that they had their ideas for the various posters of 
Little Sambo well in mind, and they were ready to attack the cutting 
and arranging of characters and properties, with vim. 

James' class used the blackboard to practice writing the titles of the 

Sketches of Various Days 

33 1 

Rhythm Instruments Add to Joy in Music 

three stories, since these would be needed in making programs, and 
also in writing the invitations. 

As the groups finished their work, opportunity was given for them 
to go to the lavatories. Tomato juice was served from a buffet table 
informally, as they returned. A center was established for choric verse, 
which the children joined a few at a time after they had finished drink- 
ing the juice. 

A great deal had been accomplished, much effort had been expended 
during the last hour, and the children were ready and eager to go to 
the floor below for music. The children's music interest lately was in a 
rhythm orchestra. The teacher had the rhythm sticks ready, and the 
children, after greeting her, found places about the room. Different 
meters were tapped while the children were seated. Then they tried 
to see if they could walk and tap the meter with the sticks. Bells and 
tambourines were used to find the strong beat in each measure. All 
the children took part. Songs about animals were sung and dramatized; 
also miscellaneous songs were selected by the children. 

The children returned to their classroom after music to put on wraps 

332 National College of Education 

for an outdoor play period. About thirty minutes were spent out-of-doors 
in vigorous play. There was play on the junglegym, the turning bars, 
the teeter, the balance boards and the jumping board. Some children 
entered into dramatic play with big packing boxes and boards, and on 
a big pile of logs. Other children played games; as, stoop tag and the 
hen and her chickens. 

Following play time came preparation for dinner. After the noon 
meal and the rest period were over, the children tried out some of 
the movie posters they had made in the morning. One group had been 
promised a trip to the library to look through Mother Goose and other 
books for suitable verses to use for motion pictures. The other two 
groups had a most joyous, in fact hilarious time, enjoying for the first 
time the funny gyrations of their characters. 

In addition to a good time, very valuable suggestions were given for 
pasting down parts that moved too much, and loosening arms, legs, ears, 
or parts of objects when more movement would give greater charm 
or fun. Objects pasted here and there with a little puff in the middle 
cast good shadows. 

We also discovered that by moving the flashlight in various ways, 
quite different results were given. Moving the light up and down gave a 
getting up and stooping down effect. Moving the light back and forth 
quickly gave a shivering effect, required each time Sambo was ap- 
proached by a tiger. Moving the light in a circular fashion gave a 
running reaction, again much required in these stories. 

Three o'clock came much too soon this day, but we had more days of 
fun and preparation ahead of us and therefore our good-byes were as 
happy as usual. 


Second Grade 

Number enrolled: 22 
Number present: 20 

Eight-fifteen and the first school car had arrived. Several children 
came bounding into the room bearing their tickets which showed they 
had passed the daily inspection at the doctor's office. "Urn! How's the 
jelly? It sure smells good." They were at once attracted to the two large 
bags of grapes and apples which had been dripping during the night. 
The children had had an excursion to the country on the previous day 
and had experienced a glorious time washing and preparing the fruit 
for cooking. 

After inspecting the bags, and commenting on the "lots of juice," 
one child cared for the bird, another fed the mice, while another fed and 

Sketches of Various Days 333 

chatted with Polynesia, a much beloved parrot that is frequently loaned 
to the school. As other children came in, they too inspected the bags 
and fruit juice, and then set to work on the construction of small mail 
trucks, mail boats, a post office made of apple boxes, and some small 
doll furniture. Some went on to designing covers for the stamp books 
they were making, while others pasted stamps, brought from home, in 
their books. A donation of Japanese stamps for everyone from our 
little Japanese girl, caused great enthusiasm. Others used clay or painted 
at the easels. 

At the close of the work period, a conference followed. Usually the 
needs and accomplishments of the morning's work is the basis for dis- 
cussion, but this morning, the jelly making was the chief concern. 
Several children had brought recipes for grape jelly, and the simplest 
one had been made into a chart and was ready for use. The recipe was 
consulted and discussed. The next step was to measure the juice. The 
group donned their smocks and gathered in a circle about the tables, 
while the children took turns measuring the juice with a standard cup. 
On the day before, they had discussed measuring cups, pints, and quarts. 
The recipe called for one cup of sugar to one cup of juice; so after 
finding out how much juice there was, an equal amount of sugar was 
measured. Two of the group put the juice on an electric grill in the 
room. The hands on a picnic plate clock were set so that the time needed 
for cooking could be figured. 

A discussion of the need for sterilizing the glasses followed. Some 
children filled a dish pan with water, while others washed the 
glasses and placed them in the pan to sterilize. Others went to the 
lavatory to prepare for mid-morning lunch of fruit juice and crackers. 
This was served in the usual informal style of helping oneself as each 
returned to the classroom. 

When finished with juice, each took out his reading rack and reader. 
Each child selected the book he wished to read or had been reading 
previously. Those who wanted to begin new books, chose them from 
the room bookshelves and took them to the teacher for approval. 
In this way guidance was given in selecting books that were suitable 
to the ability of the individual. The books available represented a 
wide range in degree of difficulty with a wealth of easy material so 
that each child might be able to travel at his own pace without dis- 
couragement of competition. There was also a wide variety of material 
to choose from, so that individual tastes in reading content might be 
satisfied. A tagboard filing card for each child served as a record of 
the books read. The teacher noted books completed on this card. If a 
book proved too difficult and the child turned to another volume, the 
number of pages read was recorded. The teacher also made occasional 

334 National College of Education 

notes on reading habits and abilities. This period lasted for a half- 
hour, as the teacher moved about, listening to an individual read, or 
enjoying some humorous bit, or helping some pupils attack and sound 
out new words. Toward the end of the reading time, a lew of the 
children asked if they might read to other children; so there were 
several groups of twos reading to each other. 

A half-hour of outdoor activity followed with lively play on the log 
pile, or in self-organized ball games, while some had great fun raking 
and piling leaves, then jumping in them. With outdoor play over and 
wraps removed, the cry arose, "How's the jelly? What do we do now?" 
The group assembled and three children were asked to add the sugar 
to the juice. Others removed the glasses from the boiling water by 
using tongs, and placed them on trays ready for the jelly. While the 
juice and sugar cooked, three game centers were suggested by the 
teacher. Some children played India; others played a number game 
using dominoes as the combinations to be added; and the third group 
used real coins. In this group one child who was advanced in under- 
standing of arithmetic gave each child a problem in imaginary purchas- 
ing and then asked him to select and add the coins needed. The teacher 
interrupted the games for a few minutes to show the children that the 
juice was ready to be removed. A discussion of how to test had taken 
place the day before. Time on the real clock in the room was noted, and 
by looking at the make-believe clock, they could figure out how much 
time it had taken to cook the jelly. Now that the juice was ready, each 
child left his game long enough to fill three glasses as the teacher care- 
fully supervised the process. One glass was for the child, another for 
his mother, and the third to be left at school for children who might 
be ill and absent during the winter. "I'm going to get sick often!" was 
the laughing remark of several. 

With the juice safely poured into the glasses, games ended, and 
a clean-up committee was appointed for washing the cooking utensils. 
This was done by the children in the diet kitchen. The others went to 
the lavatories to get ready for dinner. After hand washing and combing 
of hair was completed they returned to the room for a few minutes of 
poetry. Those who had been at work in the kitchen soon joined the 
others and made ready for luncheon, too. At twelve-thirty the group 
went to the children's dining room where the main meal of the day was 
served. Hearty appetites and lively conversation were much in evidence. 
The meal was served in as homelike style as possible, and social visiting 
and good spirit prevailed. When all were finished, the children returned 
to their room where cots had been set up by the janitor. The shades 
were drawn. Each child got his own sheet and blanket from his com- 
partment in the cupboard, made his bed, removed shoes and settled 

Sketches of Various Days 335 

down for a half-hour. After this time of quiet and relaxation, the 
teacher read several chapters in the beloved ''Story of Dr. Doolittle." 

The teacher asked individual children to get up by writing on the 
board such suggestions as "Mike, you may put on your shoes," or 
"Lois, please get up now." When all were ready, with sheets and blankets 
put back in the cupboard, and cots folded and stacked in the corridor, 
the children gathered for a brief discussion about what more they 
needed to do to the jelly. Plans were made for the next morning for 
the melting of the paraffin and covering the jelly. The question of 
what paraffin is made of and why it is put on jelly, entered into their 
conversation. One child mentioned that it was "too bad John was absent 
for he had missed the fun of helping make the jelly," but another 
suggested we could take a glass to him and also write letters telling 
him how we made our jelly. With eagerness on the part of most of the 
children, they set-to work writing simple letters to John. One child 
addressed a large envelope, and when finished, each put his letter in 
the envelope. Teddy volunteered to mail the letters on his way home. 
Armin went to the school office to purchase the necessary stamps to 
carry John's letter. 

The remaining half hour was spent on the playground, most of the 
children engaging in self-organized dramatic play about the pirates 
on "Dr. Doolittle's" ship. The junglegym served as the sea-worthy craft. 
Others played on the seesaw or watched younger brothers or sisters 
at play in the nursery school sand box. Two-fifty found the school cars 
pulling into the driveway. The children assembled at the gate to await 
the arrival of their particular car and to leave for home after a happy 
day of learning, experiencing and living together. 


Third Grade 

Number enrolled: 25 
Number present: 24 

Upon coming into the room this May morning the children went at 
once to their committee groups to participate in their particular work 
toward completing plans for the Third Grade Fair which was to be held 
the following morning at ten thirty. These committee groups were the 
classes as they were divided for reading, and each group was working 
on a different interest. One group had planted seeds and bulbs and 
was preparing potted plants for sale. Another group had made puppets 
and a stage and was going to give an original nature play they had 
worked out. The other group, with the help of all the children, had 
studied rather intensively about maple syrup and maple sugar. After 

336 National College of Education 

having corresponded with two firms in Vermont, they had bought 
maple sugar cakes and maple syrup, had made booklets telling about 
the maple sugar, and had made recipes to sell. So this morning there 
were many plans to complete and a great deal of work to do. 

At nine o'clock the children all went to their music class. The music 
room was on the first floor and a teacher went with them. Interest was 
held in the work of the day and the discussion continued as they walked 
along. Spring songs were used, and the music period was a happy time. 

When the group came back to the room again, the children working 
on the puppets had some finishing work to do with them. One puppet 
needed an apron made and another needed the hair sewed on. There 
were seven working in this group. Some added new ideas to the com- 
plicated strings that worked the puppets. 

The group arranging the garden sale had their flowers pretty well 
ready. Two boys finished the planting, and the rest cooperated with 
those getting the booklets put together. The stories for the booklets had 
been composed by the children, stencils had been cut by the teacher, 
and all the children had helped with the mimeographing. The covers 
had been designed in art class, and the children had cut the stencil and 
run the covers off on bright colored paper, using the mimeograph. 
This morning the pages of the booklets had to be put together. Each 
part was put in a separate pile, and the children went to work. It 
required skill to get the pages in order, for they discovered they had 
not numbered the pages, and so it was necessary to read parts of the 
stories. The matter of punching the holes for the brads required so 
much strength that the engineer, who came into the room at that time, 
assisted. There were fifteen children working. The books were almost 
finished in the thirty minutes. 

Most of the group went to the home economics laboratory on the 
third floor, at ten o'clock. There the children took turns pouring the 
maple syrup into half-pint, pint, and quart containers. They took turns 
also in putting on the covers. There was discussion as they worked 
about the prices that should be charged for the syrup, and they decided 
that a quart should sell for less than two pints, if they were sold sep- 
arately, because it was less trouble to prepare a quart. When the syrup 
was poured, two girls washed the funnels and cleared away the tables, 
leaving the jars of syrup in neat rows. Three boys carried the empty 
tin cans and boxes to the basement. The rest of the group went back 
to the room and finished some work in their arithmetic workbooks. 
One little girl worked alone with a teacher, using the cards for review- 
ing subtraction facts. 

At ten-thirty all the children went out on the playground. The entire 
play period was used in making definite plans for the arrangement of 

Sketches of Various Days 337 

booths for the sale. The group that was going to give the puppet show 
measured the space and set the stakes for the tent which was to be 
placed in the back part of the fair grounds. The children decided to 
place the booths selling the maple syrup products and the plants at the 
outside of the fair grounds. At the close of the outdoor period the 
pupils went to the lavatories, washed their hands, and afterward drank 
tomato juice in their room. 

During the spelling period, which followed, a review of the follow- 
ing words was made: leaves, flowers, syrup, expensive, puppets. These 
new words were studied: buckets, boil, sounds, amount. The teacher 
wrote each new word on the board. After the word has been discussed 
as to syllables and sounds, she erased the word and the children wrote 
it on their papers. Then the teacher wrote the word on the board again 
for comparison with the word the children had written. The review 
words were spelled orally by the children and written in the same way. 
At the close of the study period, the children found their spelling 
books, and the teacher dictated the words. 

During the period set aside for social studies, the group working on 
the puppet show moved the little stage into the art room, which was 
next to the third grade room, and went with their teacher to have a last 
rehearsal. The group that had worked out the flower and garden booth 
finished a story they were reading from "Peter and Polly in Spring," 
which told about the process of taking the maple sap from the trees. 
The other reading class read from the booklets they had helped make. 
Each child chose the story he wished and read orally. 

At twelve o'clock the chairs and all materials were put back into place, 
^and all of the children except three went to the toilet room and got 
ready for lunch. These three girls who did not stay at school for the 
luncheon went outside to play while they waited for the school car to 
take them home. 

The noon meal was served in the children's dining-room, second 
and third grades sharing the room from twelve to twelve-thirty. The 
children sat in small groups of six or eight, with teachers at some of 
the tables. The dining-room had been newly furnished by the Parents' 
Council with early American tables and chairs; and the children were 
very eager to add drapes, pottery and pictures. The earnings from the 
Third Grade Fair were to be used for this purpose. Part of the con- 
versation at the table concerned the size of possible earnings at the Fair, 
and how far the money would go in securing the materials desired. 

When the children in the dining-room had finished their lunch, they 
went back to their room to get the individual bags containing their 
sheets and blankets. Then they went to one of the first grade rooms 
which had been aired, the shades lowered, and cots set up for rest. 

;;;>8 National College of Education 

At one-thirty the children engaged in individual activities. Several 
had spelling corrections to make. A few children went to the library. 
Some read books there, and three checked books out to take home. Two 
girls and two boys went with a teacher to finish painting a booth in 
the manual training room. Two girls made some price tags. 

The whole group went outside to play at one-fifty. They played 
together— "Fox and Chickens" and "Three Deep." A teacher played 
in the games and the pupils were very energetic and played hard. As 
they came in every child took a drink at the fountain. 

The French teacher came to the room for the French lesson at two- 
twenty. After the close of the lesson there was a short discussion with 
the room director as to the time the "Fair" products and materials would 
have to be carried outside the following morning. Children volunteered 
to help with the work they thought they could do best, and a few last 
reminders were given from one to another to make sure that everything 
would be taken care of when the sale began. The children then hurried 
outside to the school cars. 


Fourth Grade 

Number enrolled: 20 
Number present: 19 

As the boys and girls came into the room, they went about selecting 
their lunch from the menu on the blackboard. One food was selected 
from each group, thereby assuring a balanced meal. This routine had 
become so habitual that it required none of the teacher's time. As soon 
as the pieces of paper on which they had written their menu were 
turned over to the child who was checking them, the boys and girls felt 
free to do what interested them most. A few chose to read; others 
worked on drawings begun the day before; some looked at the animal 
map which the class had been making; more than half were chatting 
in a pleasant tone to each other or to the teacher. 

At nine o'clock the teacher sat down at the large table in the center 
of the room, around which the children's tables were arranged. 

"It is time for our news reports, boys and girls. Let's put all other 
work aside." 

Without hurrying, the children became attentive and several hands 
were raised. Thornton was chosen to speak. 

"Yesterday afternoon I went with Mother and Dad to see Mrs. Smith. 
There were several kinds of stuffed animals in this house. Some of 
them had been killed by Mr. Smith; others had been given to him." 

"What kinds were they?" 

Sketches of Various Days 339 

This and many other questions followed. Then a boy told of similar 
animals he had seen at the museum. Another child had read in the 
paper that the Giant Baby Panda which had died earlier in the year 
could now be seen in the same museum. The Student Cabinet repre- 
sentative, Nancy, was then called upon to report the previous day's 
meeting. Among other things she said that she had volunteered for 
the fourth grade to explain their animal map in assembly, and that if 
the class wanted to do it the next assembly date could be theirs. At 
first the others were not enthusiastic, but when it was explained that the 
program would be only a report of the work they had done, the 
responsibility was accepted very seriously. 

"Our time is going by very rapidly. Don't you think it would be well 
to hear from the groups who read stories yesterday?" suggested the 
teacher. "Will you need to have short group meetings first to remind 
yourselves of your plans?" 

Groups two and three went to their leaders and began discussing 
their plans; group one looked over their stories. Within three minutes 
all worth-while discussion seemed to have been completed; and the 
teacher asked which group would like to report first. Group three was 
chosen first as the teacher knew they had a fine report and needed the 
encouragement of an eager audience. Although the four boys who made 
up the group were slow readers, they told in a very interesting way two 
short stories their leader had chosen. After the report they asked if 
there were any questions. 

"Did the book tell about any other animals in the far North?" 

"Do the walruses eat seals, too?" 
v "What does forage mean?" 

When these were answered, the group leader asked if there were 
any comments. 

"It would have been better if John hadn't leaned against the board all 
the time." 

"Sometimes it is hard to hear what Pat says." 

"I thought the last story was very well told." 

There was generous agreement to this comment and a member of the 
class suggested that it was good enough to be told in assembly. When 
asked if the members of the group would like to tell the story in as- 
sembly, they were quite willing. 

In a similar way groups one and two reported. The teacher then 
asked the group if there were unfinished plans that should be provided 
for during the morning. The class responded with the comment that 
the map needed more animals on it and should have some names on it. 
The class then decided to cut letters that could be placed on the map, 
marking all the oceans and continents. Several children agreed to help 

34° National College of Education 

get the map ready. One child suggested making some small animals for 
a table display, like the Japanese paper animals that were to be seen 
in the display ease in the hall. The teacher suggested they take that 
idea to the art teacher in the afternoon. One of the group leaders asked 
to choose another animal story for his group to read. The other group 
leaders thought they had better do the same. So while the leaders went 
about finding the stories, the teacher and the remainder of the group 
began the work on the map. Some cut out animals, others tried to find 
"new" animals to put on those continents that the class felt needed 
more. A few worked out the size of letters that would look well on the 
map and began cutting them. 

A few minutes before ten all the work was put away in order for 
the group to go down to the music room. When asked what they would 
prefer doing during the period the music teacher was with them, the 
children asked to dramatize airplanes. The imagination that this and 
succeeding rhythms took was very enjoyable to the group. Finally the 
music teacher asked them if they knew a song she had prepared to sing 
for them. It was a new song about animals of the forest. They im- 
mediately asked to learn it. 

Fruit juice was waiting for the group when they returned to their 
room. After the music hour, three days a week, the children had 
become accustomed to studying words. Sixteen new words from the 
Newlon-Hanna list were presented for discussion and analysis. When 
asked if there were words the class wanted to add, one boy suggested 
some animal names that interested him. A member of the group who 
was cutting out letters thought all should learn to spell the names of 
the oceans and continents. It was decided to add the continents to 
this week's list and the oceans to the following week's work. 

The time from ten fifty to eleven thirty was set aside for reading. 
For several days the questions arising in the conference time had been 
answered at the reading time through group research. As the group 
leaders had already selected stories, they were asked to put the' names 
of the books and the page numbers of the stories on the board. Then 
each child read the story selected for his group, the teacher moving 
among them to help as was needed. As the group finished reading, 
each one assembled in a corner of the room to discuss the story and 
plan a report, or perhaps to read it aloud. The reports were to be made 
at the next day's conference period. 

At eleven-thirty the boys and girls went outside for forty-five minutes 
of play under supervision of the playground director. At twelve fifteen 
the children came in to wash hands and get ready for lunch. They were 
all looking forward to the period with the art teacher which was to 
follow lunch. 

Sketches of Various Days 341 

Fifth Grade 

Number enrolled: 24 
Number present: 24 

As the fifth grade children came in one morning in. summer school, 
several got out their science scrapbooks to work on them. Each had 
made his own cover design and was working it out in his own individual 
manner. Some were using chalk or crayon and others were cutting 
their cover designs out of paper. Several needed help from the art 
teacher, so took their materials into the art room to work. 

Other children arrived with collections of leaves to be used in various 
ways in their scrapbooks. Some children asked the teacher for help in 
getting leaves ready for pressing. Others put their leaves into containers 
of water to keep them fresh until a later date when they would make 
blueprints or splatter prints of them for their scrapbooks. 

Still other children arrived with travel booklets or maps and either 
showed them to classmates or started getting information from them 
related to their work in social studies on interesting spots in America. 
Two children brought insects which they were interested in studying. 
The teacher and several children found material in the bookcase on 
the various subjects desired. A few went to the library to find addi- 
tional material. 

At nine twenty the children all put away their individual jobs to 
work together in choric verse. Children first chose review poems in 
which they could show the rhythm with some physical activity. They 
v walked to such verses as "Hannibal crossed the Alps," "The Grand Old 
Duke of York," and "We be the king's men." They pulled imaginary 
bell ropes to "The little white chapel is ringing its bell," and did an 
Indian step to "Beat on the buckskins." 

As the class had enjoyed one Jonathan Bing poem very much, the 
teacher presented a new one she had found. After the teacher had read 
the poem she asked who the different speakers were in the story. Then 
the children were asked to listen again to what each said. The third 
time the poem was given children volunteered to take the parts of the 
soldier, the archbishop, and Jonathan Bing. After the poem had been 
read several times with different children taking individual parts, the 
class was closed. 

Next the children turned to their jobs in social studies. Each child 
had been reading and writing stories about interesting spots of America. 
From the first week of the session they had been interested in showing 
their mothers what they had been doing. It happened that several of 
their mothers were themselves students in the summer session of the 

342 National College of Education 

college. Several ways had been suggested such as individual books about 
the places chosen, a dramatization of an imaginary trip around Amer- 
ica, or a scene in a travel bureau. Some objections had been raised to 
all the suggestions. 

Today the teacher introduced their problem by asking them if they 
could think of any other place where people talked a good deal about 
vacations besides in a travel bureau. One child immediately suggested 
the Union Station. The teacher asked if they could work out a drama- 
tization in the Union Station which would tell about interesting 
summer playgrounds in America. All began enthusiastically suggesting 
how it could be done. 

Out of the discussion plans were evolved for a scene in the Union 
Station. A trainman would call a train from the East, and the people 
who had taken trips to eastern points would come in from the train. 
Some would be talking to one another about points they had visited, 
and some would talk to the people who met them. Then other people 
would come in to buy tickets west. These people would be talking to 
their friends who came with them about the proposed trips. After 
tickets were bought the western train would be called and all would 
go out. The children who had studied spots in the South were to meet 
those coming in, bring friends to the train, or take the parts of the 
ticket agent, and the person at the information desk. Before the class 
closed, a list was made of the characters each would take, how they would 
dress, and what topics they would discuss. Then the class went down to 
the music room for rhythms. 

As soon as the children were seated on the floor near the piano, choices 
were given for the first part of the period. Walking to music with full, 
precise Dalcroze arm movements to indicate the meter was the first 
activity. Changing the accent and the movement one measure after 
the music had changed proved to be challenging and afforded fun. 
The group was then divided into three, four, or five parts as indicated 
by the meter used and each group assigned a definite pulse on which to 
step; as, group one stepped on the first or accented pulse, group two 
stepped on the second beat, and so on. The suggestion was then given 
that instead of stepping the pulse of the meter, each group should 
improvise a rhythmic pattern of its own which it would step to an 
assigned phrase while hearing the given pattern of the music played. 
This required strenuous concentration and effort but the children 
worked at it until each group had succeeded. They enjoyed this activity. 
They now agreed that they were ready for some quieter enterprise. 
The last part of the period was given over to rhythmic pantomiming 
and dramatization of familiar songs. 

On the w r ay back from rhythms the children were given a few minutes 

Sketches of Various Days 


Summer School Brings Water Play 

to go to the lavatory and to get a drink of water. When they returned 
to the room, they got ready for their arithmetic work. 

The day before someone had asked how much farther from Chicago 
it was to San Francisco than to New York, and they had discovered 
how they could figure distances from the large wall map. A child ex- 
plained the scale of miles and another had found from the map that 
the scale was 45 miles to the inch. There had followed a discussion of 
how to use the scale of miles. 

Today the teacher gave each child a paper on which were the names 
of ten pairs of cities followed by blanks for writing the distances be- 

344 National College of Education 

tween them in inches and in miles. Individual children came to the 
map, measured the distance between different cities, and gave the 
information to the group. Distances were taken to the nearest inch. 
Then the group spent a half-hour in working out individually the 
actual distance between the cities. 

When the half-hour was over, all work was laid aside in the room. 
Instead of going to the playground for games, plans had been made to 
go to the nearby beach for swimming. Children dressed at school and 
then walked to the beach. At the beach the boys and girls were divided 
into three groups. Some swam, several waded, and others played games 
on the beach. After forty-five minutes of fun the children walked back 
to the building to dress before going home for the day. 


Sixth Grade 

Number enrolled: 22 
Number present: 22 

"Today is the day we pour!" "Let's get ready now!" "Did the plaster 
of Paris come?" 

Such were the remarks of some sixth graders as they came into the 
room. This was the event to which the group had been looking forward 
for days. At the back of the room five boys were somewhat proudly 
surveying a huge diorama of Switzerland. This was their work and their 
idea, and now the time had come to put on the finishing touches. 

Two boys interested in the study of electricity had brought their 
electric trains to school sometime before, and had run them in the 
back of the room. The class had been studying present-day living in 
Europe, and one group was preparing a report on Switzerland. One 
of the boys suggested that they construct a Swiss scene and make it 
alive by running the trains through mountain passes and a tunnel. 
This idea was eagerly seized upon by the other boy, and they invited 
three of their friends to help them out. 

For three weeks the boys had worked together, drawing plans, build- 
ing a table, elevating and banking the track so that the train would 
stay on the curves, building the mountains out of wadded newspapers, 
figuring out the size and shape of the tunnel, and making sure that 
the trains would run. Some of the boys wanted to start pouring right 
away, but it was agreed to wait until 12:45 when the art teacher could 
help them, as the group had not used plaster of Paris before and 
wanted to do it right. 

Then the children settled down to the problem of choosing their 
menu for lunch. This activity is a regular part of the hygiene program 

Sketches of Various Days 345 

in the middle grades. The children chose a meat or meat substitute, 
vegetable, salad, bread and butter, dessert and milk. Those who did 
not care for meat or salad were allowed to choose an extra vegetable. 
It was the turn of a boy to act as secretary, and he recorded the choices 
and took the menu slip down to the dietician. 

The first period was scheduled for arithmetic and was set aside for 
individual work. Most of the children worked in their workbooks, 
each on a different aspect of fractions or decimals. They had started out 
in two groups and now had twenty-two, each individual progressing at 
his own rate of speed. From time to time there was a small group at 
the board with a teacher discussing some difficulties and problems 
common to all of them. Then they would return to their seats as they 
felt that their difficulties were smoothed out, and continue to work 
under their own direction. 

Near the end of the period the teacher asked each one in turn what 
he had learned. Many had learned small details and one or two had 
been successful in overcoming a hitherto major difficulty. Individual 
plans and suggestions for the next work period were made jointly by 
children and teacher. 

A teacher came in at that moment for the English activities, and was 
greeted with smiles and expressions of joy, for today was set aside for 
work on their newspaper, The National News (described in a separate 
record at the end of this sketch). Some children had already put away 
their arithmetic and were writing original poems or completing news 
assignments. Others, after a short conference with a teacher, took 
pads and pencils and started out on their rounds of the classrooms 
in search of news and other material for the newspaper. A few who 
had finished their written work were discussing the arrangement of 
the paper and the illustrations. The period went so quickly that it 
was past time to go outside before the children noticed it. 

At ten-fifteen the group split, the girls dressing in gym suits and 
sandals for dancing, the boys putting on sports clothing for outside play. 
On Mondays and Wednesdays the girls of the fifth and sixth grades 
enjoyed dancing together, while the boys of those grades had supervised 
activities on the playground. Today the dancing class was particularly 
concerned with developing graceful and rhythmical form in walking, 
running, and leaping. The girls asked at the end if they could do their 
Russian dance, which they executed very skillfully. 

The boys, meanwhile, had organized into two teams, had chosen their 
captains, and were engaging in a game of softball under the supervision 
of the director of physical education. One boy recovering from an 
operation and another with a heart ailment were acting as officials. 
The director frequently, and especially when mistakes were made, gave 


National College of Education 

Sketches of Various Days 347 

suggestions and instructions that would improve the individual skill 
and technique and also the teamwork in the game. The game ended 
in a close score of 8 to 9. Judging from their remarks the boys seemed 
to be well satisfied with their efforts and were looking forward to 
Thursday when both girls and boys would engage in such activities as 
Softball, soccer, kickball and others. On Tuesdays, Thursdays and 
Fridays, boys and girls played together. 

The social studies period at eleven o'clock was one of great activity. 
Some were making maps of European countries, others were reading 
to find answers to key questions, or outlining material for reports. Near 
the close of the period the boys at the back of the room carefully covered 
up the train tracks and other vulnerable portions of the Swiss scene so 
that they would not be smeared with plaster of Paris. A number of 
newspapers were brought up from the basement and spread around 
the table to keep the floor clean. At last everything was in readiness and 
all washed up for lunch. 

Two children had previously set the tables in the children's dining 
room and were waiting for the others as they came down. The boys and 
girls formed in line at the cafeteria counter and took their lunch on 
trays to the dining room next door. There was an informal seating 
arrangement in groups of six or eight at a table, divided today into two 
tables of girls and two of boys. Most of the children were hungry and 
some went back for second servings of vegetables and milk. 

After lunch there was a ten-minute free period when the children 

could direct themselves. Some of them wandered around the building 

looking at posters and displays in other rooms. Others dressed and went 

v outside to watch the Junior High School boys play soccer. The only 

restriction was that this was to be a quiet period with no violent activity. 

At 12:45 the art teacher came in to help with the plaster of Paris. 
Two large pans were borrowed from the cafeteria, water and plaster 
of Paris were mixed and the fun began. The boys thought that it was 
better than making mud pies. They soon found out, however, that the 
material was much more difficult and had to be handled quickly or it 
would become hard. Those who did not pour were working in the art 
room drawing pictures and making clay figures, but one by one they 
drifted in to watch the activity. Before long most of the class was help- 
ing. Even so, it was two o'clock before the work was finished— time to go 
to the library. 

Three of the boys volunteered to stay down and clean up while the 
others went to the library. Some continued to read books which they 
had previously chosen; others were guided in the selection of books by 
librarian and teacher; and still others went at once to the magazine rack 
to find Popular Science, The American Boy, and other favorite maga- 
zines. After such an active day a quiet library period was enjoyed by all. 


National College of Education 

Sixth Grade Publishes a Newspaper 

As there was no play club after school today, the children went home, 
some in the school buses, some in private cars, and others in public 
conveyances, to share with families and playmates the experiences of the 

The National News 

On certain mornings throughout the year the halls and bulletin 
boards of the school displayed large, colorful posters bearing such re- 
minders as, "Get Your Copy! Four cents." These gay posters had been 
made by the fifth and sixth grade children in their art classes to ad- 
vertise their newspaper, The National News. This paper, published 
several times a year, was the work of the fifth and sixth grade classes 
in English. It was a typewritten copy of from five to eight sheets, 
mimeographed, arranged, and stapled by the children. 

In the beginning the classes listed all of the topics likely to be found in 
a good school newspaper. For suggestions they referred to My Weekly 
Reader, Young America, local newspapers, and publications from other 
schools. After a long list had been made, each child chose the topic 
in which he was most interested as his particular responsibility. 

The compiled list included the following suggestions. All, of course, 
were not included in each issue, and in some numbers certain topics 
were given special emphasis. 

Sketches of Various Days 349 

World news Holiday customs 

Excursions French stories (from the French classes) 

Sports Interviews with teachers and children 

Room activities Unusual facts 

Book reviews Inquiring reporter's questions 

Movie news Recipes 

Cartoons "How to keep well" column 

Illustrations School calendar for the month 

Maps Student Cabinet news 

Assemblies All school activities, such as festivals 

Personal news Customs in other lands as, "A Swedish Dinner" 

Riddles Individual experiences, such as "Fun on Skis" o\ 

Jokes "Our House Boat" 

Puzzles Advertisements 

Origin of holidays 

Being reporters and visiting the various classrooms with pads and 
pencils in search of news, appealed to several. Interviewing teachers and 
children who had returned from vacation trips or who had had unusual 
experiences, was an opportunity for others. Reporters with a "nose for 
news" conducted the column containing personal items. Inquiring re- 
porters besieged teachers and children alike with such questions as 
"What do you want most for Christmas?" "What is your favorite sport?" 
"Where would you like to spend your summer vacation?" 

A variety of interests, however, allowed for tasks appealing to all. 
The artists in the group took over the work of designing the heading 
and providing the illustrations. It was found that small illustrations in 
keeping with the content or season of the year, added life and interest 
to the page. The art teacher gave help and suggestions as needed. 

A few articles of world interest appeared in each issue. The sixth 
grade, interested in current world affairs, made many fine contribu- 
tions. Occasionally these were accompanied by illuminating maps and 
diagrams. Many members of the group considered this type of article 
very important, and were always on the alert for items of interest. 

Others centered their interests in the school world about them, and 
made a real effort to be "up to the minute" on what was going on in all 
grades as well as plans made for the future. It was found that "future 
events" make real news. Excursions, a maple syrup sale, a garden sale, 
the May Festival, activities of the Student Cabinet, the sixth grade play, 
Waggery Town, graduation plans, and many similar activities were 
to be found on every hand. 

While The National News was sponsored by two grades, it attempted, 
in a general way, to represent the school and to appeal to children of all 
ages. It was soon learned that "names make news," and that a really 
successful issue of the paper should contain names of some children 
in all grades. Such columns as the personal news, news flashes, future 
ambitions of our National classmates, and new friends at National, 
added many names. 

350 National College of Education 

Another effort made to eatch the interest of all ages was to ask the 
readers to participate actively by doing such things as draw pictures or 
write the last line to a jingle. Occasionally readers were asked to con- 
nect dots to make a picture, write the answer to a riddle, work a puzzle, 
or write the name of a person described. 

In every group are to be found a few "class poets." Several verses were 
printed in every issue of the paper, and at times there was a full poetry 
page. Some of the contributions appear below. 

February Spring House Cleanin' 

February is a month of frost and slush, Mother's spring house cleanin' 

Birthdays coming in a rush! And puttin' things away 

Washington, Lincoln and others great, And I can't find my baseball 

Almost a birthday lor every date! Or anythin' today. 

And then comes Valentine's day, too, 

When Valentine greetings are sent to She put away my pencils 

you. And she put away my bat 

But I will not be the one to sigh, Cause mother's spring house cleanin'; 

When this famous month goes rolling by, I can't even find my hat! 

For then Sweet Spring is on its way— 

We can expect it any day! In boxes big and small 

J. K. She put everythin' away 

And things are in a turmoil 

April Cause it's spring house cleanin' day. 

.,,......,, M. H. 

It s been raining, raining all day long, 

The birds have stopped their little song, 

Now it's clearing up, I think— 

The sky is turning a bluish pink. 

J. D. 

Sports held first place in the interest of many, particularly the boys. 
All games and athletic events were covered by energetic reporters. Book 
and movie reviews were very popular with the girls. Good books and 
motion pictures were recommended. Cartoons, individual experiences, 
holiday customs, and unusual facts were contributed in great numbers. 
With the school newspaper as an incentive, the children read more 
widely and became more discriminating in recognizing topics of real 
interest. At the suggestion of one child several short animal stories 
written in French were included. 

All contributions were discussed and commented on by the class. All 
of the material offered could not be used and so selections had to be 
made by the group. This work called for judgment made on the basis of 
interest, style, originality, and good English. After the material was 
chosen and typed time was devoted to the arrangement. Here some- 
thing was learned about the "make-up" of a newspaper, such as the 
location of outstanding articles, correct groupings, and the place of 

The fact that The National News sold for four cents a copy added 
great stimulus to the venture. Each time two business managers were 

Sketches of Various Days 351 

elected, one from each grade. These two leaders were to check on all 
expenses and profits and were elected to their offices because of their 
ability in arithmetic. Even so, they were given the help of the class, 
for the business end of the project provided work for the entire group. 

All paper and stencils used were bought from the school store. A bill 
was received giving the exact amount purchased. This expense, of 
course, had to be subtracted from the profits. With cost in mind, the 
children estimated the number of papers which should be sold so that 
a fair profit might be netted. To add to the profits, advertising space 
was sold, according to the prices listed below. 



Prices for advertising 

For \/ % of page 7c 

For 14 of page 13c 

For 3/g of page ' 20c 

For \/ 2 of page 26c 

For full page 50c 

National News 4c a copy 
For particulars speak to any member of 
the sixth grade. 

Space was sold to the "Supreme Insurance Company" operated by the 
eighth grade, to the faculty committee in charge of the Clare Tree 
Major Plays to advertise their productions, to the College girls ad- 
vertising different activities, and to committees in charge of various 

s After all materials were paid for and a receipt sent to the class, the 
remaining money was deposited in the school bank. With each issue 
this amount increased and was drawn on from time to time to fulfill a 
sudden and worthy desire on the part of the class. 


Group Records of Progress in a Few 
Important Skills 



HE school does not advocate the integration of all activities 
in large group enterprises or "units of work." Many incidental 
activities and short-lived interests have great value both for in- 
dividuals and groups. Fields like music, art, and literature afford 
vast opportunities for pleasure and enrichment of experience out- 
side the particular studies which the group may have chosen to 
make. Skills like arithmetic, reading, and spelling require some 
systematic practice in addition to the experience afforded in prac- 
tical activities. 

Group records of progress are included in Part IV of this volume 
for English, including composition and spelling, for reading, and 
for arithmetic. Such records have been made in the senior kinder- 
garten and grades one to six. Part V describes individual records of 
progress which are kept at all levels. 

The group records of progress beginning in senior kindergarten 
follow a form that has been used in courses of study for other 
schools. They list books and materials and types of activities for 
children of varying abilities in each grade, and also include some 
probable outcomes in information, attitudes, appreciations, habits 
and skills. In making the record for each skill, as arithmetic, teach- 
ers have summarized all the practical experience that children have 
gained in that skill through their various units of experience. In 
addition to the summary of activities carried on in group projects, 
the record for each skill also includes incidental activities growing 
out of children's spontaneous interests, and reference to sys- 
tematic practice and testing wherever this has been carried on. 
The records were made first in parallel column form, and later for 
convenience in printing and reading were recast in outline form. 

Such records will change from year to year as better materials be- 
come available, and investigation and experiment suggest improved 
procedures. They will also reflect particular interests of each new 
group of children. 



AN OUTSTANDING growth in language power should be one 
„ significant outcome of the kindergarten activities. Through 
spontaneous informal conversation about interesting experiences, 
through guided discussions related to children's projects, through 
dramatic play, through literature and creative composition, the 
kindergarten offers numberless opportunities for growth of vocabu- 
lary and power of expression. It is largely through this expanding 
understanding and use of language that the kindergarten prepares 
for reading and for the composition work of the elementary school. 

Much of the content of children's early reading material centers 
about nature, home and community life. The kindergarten builds 
readiness for reading by providing experiences in these areas. Vari- 
ous pets are raised and observed. Plants bud and blossom under the 
children's care. Playing in the woods, by the lake and in the spaci- 
ous outdoor playground during the different seasons of the year 
gives contacts with birds, elements, and growing plants. 

The community in which the school is located is rich in oppor- 
tunities for visits to harbors, lighthouse, airports, fire stations, 
electric and steam trains, stores, and other centers. The school is 
well equipped with materials for use in dramatic play. Thus, 
through firsthand experiencing, dramatic play, discussion, and 
through use of picture books and story books which are read to the 
children, concepts are developed which make it possible for them 
to interpret clearly and with rich association the material they will 
find later in books. 

Occasionally, a few children who have high mental ages and 
previous experience in nursery school and junior kindergarten 
show a spontaneous interest and a high degree of readiness for read- 
ing. This interest is fostered and guided. 

References on Reading Readiness 

Betts, E. A. Prevention and Correction of Reading Difficulties, pages 18-26. 1936, 
Row Peterson. 


Development of Reading Readiness 357 

Harrison, Lucile. Reading Readiness. 1936, Houghton Mifflin. 

Hildreth, Gertrude. Learning the Three R's, Chapter V. 1936, Educational Pub- 
lishers, Inc. 

Lane, Robert. The Progressive Elementary School, Chapter V. 1938, Houghton 

McKee, Paul. Reading and Literature in the Elementary School, pages 99-100. 
1934, Houghton Mifflin. 

Reed, Mary E. An Investigation of Practices in First Grade Admission and Promo- 
tion. 1927, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University. 

Smith, Nila B., and others. Reading— A Tool for Learning. 1938, Association for 
Childhood Education. 

Witty, Paul, and Kopel, David. Reading and the Educative Process. 1939, Ginn. 

Language and Literature Experience in the 
Senior Kindergarten 

A Ac 

iv hies 

I. Oral composition — individual. 

A. Morning greetings. 

As each child enters the room in the morning one of the 
teachers is always available to greet him and to make him 
feel that she is glad to see him. Very often this opportunity 
leads the child into telling of something that has happened 
at home— father gone on a trip, the purchase of a new car, 
or some trivial bit of information, such as, "We had straw- 
berries on our corn flakes this morning." This contact 
enables the shy child to feel more free and to express him- 
self more readily than he would if he were asked to partici- 
pate in the conversation of a group of children. 

B. fudging work. 

In group discussions many children contribute in making 
suggestions or constructive criticisms of one another's work 
guided by questions, such as, "Why should John's boat be 
made pointed on the front?" "How can Julia make moc- 
casins that will stay on her feet?" If interest is high, there 
is little need for stimulating verbal expression, but it takes 
artistic guidance on the part of the teacher to lead the con- 
versation along worth-while channels and to give individ- 
uals opportunity that will make for individual growth. 

C. Making plans. 

The children gain freedom in language ability by being 
allowed to assist in the making of plans; such as planning 
for a trip to a farm, to the airport or the museum; planning 
for the making of cookies, or for giving a movie before an- 
other group. 

D. Discussing common experiences. 

Frequently the discussion of stories used in the group, of 
films the group has seen, or other experiences they have 
had together furnishes stimulus for worthwhile language 

E. Relating anecdotes. 

The luncheon period with its informality and air of so- 
ciability brings forth the relating of personal anecdotes 
and humorous stories. 


Language Experience in Kindergarten 359 

F. Dramatic play. 

Dramatic play, rich in mood, and largely spontaneous, of- 
fers unlimited possibility in expressing of ideas, in creating 
of dialogue, and in the building up of vocabulary. Children 
will often use words or expressions not characteristic of 
their daily use of language, which they have heard in stories 
and which become their own when they relive the incidents 
and characters in dramatic play. 

G. Creative composition of stories and verse. 

Mood or experience may lead the child into creative ex- 
pression of an original story, or bit of verse, or song. 

II. Oral composition — group. 

A. Correspondence. 

At times occasions arise when the children feel the need of 
sending invitations for some affair. The group may com- 
pose an invitation to the first grade to see the baby guinea 
pigs which have just arrived or to the mothers asking them 
to attend a party planned for them. 

If information is needed (such as, "On what day of the 
week may we visit the lighthouse?" or "Where can we get 
some pictures of planes?"), the children cooperate in dic- 
tating a letter which will bring the desired answer. 

B. Group expression in story composition. 

Following an experience which has been common to the 
group and which has made a deep impression on the chil- 
dren, the group may create together a story, a poem or a 

III. Language interests leading to beginning reading. 

A. Interest in names. 

The kindergarten child soon begins to feel the need of 
learning to write his own name in order to label his draw- 
ings, woodwork and other belongings. Whenever he wants 
to write his name the teacher does it for him in manuscript 
writing on the blackboard or on a sheet of paper, and he 
watches her do it. In this way he is seeing the movements 
and forms in the process so that he may learn to form the 
letters correctly. When children are left to copy words, many 
poor habits arise because they have no imagery for pro- 
cedure. The child uses crayons to write his name. The inter- 
est in learning to do this often carries over into writing his 
name on the blackboard. Nearly all of the children learn to 
recognize their own names and the names of their friends. 

3 6o 

National College of Education 

Stories and Pictures Provide Stimulus for Conversation 

B. Need for labels. 

As the year goes on, many types of labels prove necessary, 
such as the name of a boat, a train, or a store built of 
blocks. "To Mother" on a Christmas card or Valentine, 
"The Senior Kindergarten Movie," "Cookie Sale," are 
typical examples of the need for labels. The teacher writes 
these and they naturally serve as a basis for beginning read- 

C. Reminders and news notes. 

Many situations arise where reading comes in naturally. 
As a reminder, the teacher may write out notes to be taken 
home; such as, "Wear rubbers to-morrow," "Bring recipe 
for jelly." From time to time sentences about interesting 
things that are going to happen, are put on the bulletin 
board; such as, "Thursday we go to the airport," "Bill 
will be six Tuesday." These notes are discussed and form 
a center of interest for reading. 

D. Records of experiences. 

As the year goes on some mature children who show especial 
interest, are exposed to more reading material and are given 

Language Experience in Kindergarten 361 

opportunity to evolve very simple stories following a com- 
mon experience, such as: 

"We had fun at the airport. 
We saw the planes in the sky. 
We saw the planes on the ground. 
There were planes in the hangar. 
I wish I could fly." 

These little stories are often printed on charts, and are 
"read" by the children with great delight. Their reading, 
however, is chiefly by sentences. There is no formal drill 
in word recognition, but a few words and phrases of especial 
interest and importance are learned. No attempt is made 
to secure independent reading of new material. 

B. Points on Which the Teacher 
Must Be Constantly Alert 

She must be an example in the linguistic development of 
her children by: 
I. Using good diction. 
II. Enunciating distinctly. 

III. Using correct grammatical form. 

IV. Having fluent speech. 

V. Using well-modulated tones. 
VI. Being sensitive to child's speech difficulties and helping 

him as intelligently as possible to overcome these. 
VII. Helping child in every way to develop emotional stability 
and confidence so that he may gain in freedom of expression. 

C. Books and Materials Used 

I. All books and materials used form a basis for oral com- 
position with the kindergarten child. Because of his in- 
ability to read, much of the information needed to carry 
on activities must come through the language contribu- 
tions of the teachers and the parents. 
II. Pictures relating to group interests, to children's individual 
experiences, and those to be enjoyed for their beauty only, 
are often incentives to language expression. 

III. Excursions of all kinds and the objects seen lead to an 
abundance of conversation. The inhibited type of child not 
given to free verbal expression often forgets himself and 
becomes quite talkative when on an excursion. 

IV. Things brought from home, nature materials, things the 


National College of Education 

children make, letters, postal cards, all furnish valuable 
stimulus for conversation at the kindergarten level. 
V. Stories read or told to the children furnish much stimulus 
for conversation and creative effort in original stories or 
poetry. Some of the favorite stories which have been used 
and have been most conducive to discussion or have stimu- 
lated creative effort on the part of the children are from the 
following collections: 

Alclis, Dorothy 
Aldis, Dorothy 
Clark, Margery 

Fyleman, Rose 
Milne, A. A. 

Tippett, James S. 
Tippett, James S. 
Tippett, James S. 
Thomsen, Gudrun 

Here, There & Everywhere 
Everything & Anything 
Poppy Seed Cakes 

Fairies & Chimneys 
When We Were Very 

I Live in a City 
I Spend a Summer 
I Go a -Traveling 
East o' the Moon and 

West o' the Sun 

1928 Minton Balch 
1927 Minton Bah h 
1924 Douhleday 

1920 Doubleday 
1924 Dutton 

1929 Harper 

1930 Harper 
1929 Harper 

1912 Row Peterson 

Some other books which are included in the kindergarten li- 
brary are as follows: 

Told under the Green Umbrella 1930 Macmillan 

Sung under the Silver Umbrella 1935 Macmillan 

Told under the Blue Umbrella 1937 Macmillan 

Told under the Magic Umbrella 1939 Macmillan 

Association for Child 

hood Education 
Association for Child 

hood Education 
Association for Child 

hood Education 
Association for Child 

hood Education 

Bannerman, H. 

Barlow, Ruth C. 
Beskow, E. 
Brock, E. L. 
Brooke, L. L. 
Flack, M. 
Gag, Wanda 

Heward, C. 
Kunhardt, D. 
Lathrop, D. 
Lee, E. & Reed, H. 
Martin, C. M. 

Story of Little Black 

Fun at Happy Acres 
Pelle's New Suit 
The Greedy Goat 
Johnny Crow's Garden 
Angus and the Ducks 
Snippy and Snappy 

The Twins and Tibiffa 
Little Ones 
Who Goes There? 
Social Science Readers 
At the Farm 

1903 Stokes 

1935 Crowell 

1930 Piatt & Munk 

1931 Knopf 

1929 Warne 

1930 Doubleday 

1931 Coward- 


1923 Macrae 

1935 Viking 

1935 Macmillan 

1928 Scribner 

1930 Scribner 

D. Probable Outcomes 

I. Related to oral composition. 

A. Poise and fluency in verbal expression, gained through the 
social opportunities offered. 

Language Experience in Kindergarten 363 

B. Ability to participate in making plans which will be for 
the good of the group. 

C. Readiness to accept criticism which will be of help, and 
to give suggestions to others in the spirit of helpfulness. 

D. Respect for the opinion of others and some independence 
in expressing his own opinion. 

E. Enjoyment of conversation with others. 

F. An appreciation for language as a means of interchange 
of ideas. 

G. Some ability to express mood through language in the 
form of stories, verses or dramatic interpretation. 

II. Related to literature and reading. 

A. Some appreciation of beauty and rhythm in language. 

B. Appreciation of literary stories and verses on child's plane 
of experience. 

C. Appreciation of written forms as something necessary to 

D. Feeling of need for reading, which becomes a meaningful 
medium through which individuals can interpret and ex- 




THE mastery of oral and written composition, writing and spell- 
ing in all of the six elementary grades is motivated by the chil- 
dren's activities. Opportunities for all forms of oral and written 
composition are continual, and as these are used, needs for practice 
work in handwriting, spelling and language usage become apparent. 
In first grade, handwriting and spelling have been subordinated to 
composition, and practice has been provided as specific needs have 
arisen. Beginning in second grade, some systematic practice in spell- 
ing has been included. Words have been selected both from compo- 
sition needs and from standard lists. Beginning in fourth grade, 
systematic practice in language usage has been found desirable. 

Since the children read and use in many ways their own compo- 
sitions, reading is closely related to the development of language. 
It is impossible to separate the records for reading and language 
without involving some repetition. For all English activities, the 
class is often divided into small groups, and materials and procedure 
are adapted to meet the needs of the group. 

A special teacher of speech visits each grade in the school during 
a conversation period, and selects the few who need speech reeduca- 
tion. After a study has been made of each child's needs, individuals 
and small groups meet with the speech teacher until the difficulty 
has disappeared. The children enjoy this work, and sometimes ask 
to continue it after the need has been met. 

In the intermediate grades those children who are considerably 
above standard in English attainments are excused from practice 
work, and frequently bear heavier responsibilities in social activi- 

In the outlines which follow, outcomes tend to be cumulative 
from year to year. Effort is made in each grade to maintain desirable 
attitudes and appreciations, habits and skills, developed in preced- 
ing grades. 



Language and Writing 

A. Activities 

(The oral English is spontaneous, and may occur at any time 
during the school day, as the opportunity or need arises.) 

I. Activities related to personal experiences outside of school. 

A. Oral individual reports of week-end or daily excursions. 

B. Oral individual reports of home interests. 

C. Relating stories about members of the family. 

D. Relating experiences and retelling stories of plays, home 
movies, dramatizations. 

E. Retelling bits of news about airplanes, boats, famous peo- 
ple, community activities. 

II. Activities related to good health and citizenship. 

A. Oral formation of necessary rules. (Occasionally written 
for charts, signs.) 

B. Oral discussion of need for safety and care in crossing 
streets, playing in the water, playing on the playground. 

C. Voting to elect representative leaders for activities: oral 
discussion of qualities needed. 

D. Oral discussion of relative value of foods, stressing those 
desirable and beneficial. 

E. Oral discussion of value of sleep and advisable hours for 
retiring and arising. 

F. Discussion of proper types of clothing for varying tempera- 
tures and weathers. 

G. Discussion of worth-while activities on the playground- 
conduct on the playground. 

III. Activities related to group enterprises. 

(General interests and types of activities listed here. See records 
of units of experience for details and specific activities.) 
A. Oral. 

1. Purposing and planning activities. 

2. Deciding by discussion which activity or method to use. 

3. Intelligent solving of problems in construction, block 
building, measuring, in balance and artistic arrange- 
ment, by group discussion. 


fiG National College of Education 

4. Critical evaluation and judgment of the worth of an 
activity, idea, art production or art form. 

5. Finding ways and means of carrying ideas to completion. 

6. Seeking information from each other and giving infor- 
mation to each other. 

7. Organizing ideas for individual pictures or posters or 
for a frieze. 

8. Composing of letters by individuals and the group. 
IS. Written. 

1. Writing on the blackboard the number of votes in an 
election, number of articles made for a project. 

2. Writing numbers on stamps, house numbers, price tags 
and lists. 

3. Making signs for buildings, vehicles of transportation, 
departments in stores or post offices. 

4. Labeling exhibits of curios, materials. (Phrase units 

5. Writing simple letters to mail to friends; as, 

Dear Mother: 
I like school. 
I like to read. 

Dear John David: 

We are having a fine time at school. We made 
a rhyme. I will tell it to you: 
"Squirrel, squirrel, scamper up the tree, 
And throw the little nuts down to me." 

We have a squirrel. Miss Baker found him in her 
bedroom and she brought him to school. We named 
him Little Mitchell. He climbs all over us and eats 

I wish that you would come back to school. 


6. Invitations to parents or friends to see an exhibit or 
dramatization or to attend a party. 

IV. Activities related to nature. 
A. Oral. 

1. Telling anecdotes, stories, about pets. 

2. Planning for care of room pets. 

3. Relating personal experiences with nature. 

4. Individual creating of verses about pets, elements, sea- 
sons, birds, insects, flowers. 

5. Group work in creative verse making; as, 

O Butterfly! O Butterfly! 
You come in the Spring. 

English in First Grade 367 

You dance upon the flowers. 
You are a pretty thing. 

Little bird! Little bird! 

Where do you go? 

I go to the South 

Where the warm winds blow. 

The clouds are white, 
The sky is blue. 
We will go skating to-day 
With you. 

6. Group and individual work in creating songs, words, 

7. Group composing of stories about pets, related to ex- 
perience reading; as, 

The Gray Squirrel 

My squirrel can eat nuts. 

He can hop and climb trees. 

He ran out to find nuts. 

He climbed a big, big tree. 

There were so many branches that he was lost. 

It began to get dark. 

Gray Squirrel began to cry. 

A bluebird came to him. 

He said, "Why do you cry, Gray Squirrel?" 

The squirrel said, "I cry because I can't find my way 

"I will help you. Follow me," said the bluebird. 
Gray Squirrel was glad to get home again. 

Baby's Surprise 

Molly was a little baby. 

She was only two years old. 

She lived on a farm. 

There were little ducks and chickens on the farm. 

Baby went to get eggs. 
She saw no eggs. 
She looked and looked, 
But she could see no eggs. 

One day she went to look for eggs. 

She saw no eggs, 

But she saw little baby chickens. 

B. Written. 

1. Learning to write names of the pets in the room. 

2. Writing simple stories of two or three sentences. 

V. Activities related to reading and the use of the library. 
A. Oral. 

1. Discussing ways and means of keeping books clean and 
in good condition. 

3 68 National College of Education 

2. Discussion of values of holding books correctly. 

3. Group discussion of subtle points in a story. 

4. Asking and answering questions. 

5. Telling of personal experiences similar to those in the 

6. Retelling story read, or the part read the preceding day. 
B. Written. 

1. Writing on the blackboard the page numbers for daily 

2. Writing "yes" and "no" answers to silent reading tests. 

3. Writing names of characters in solving work-type prob- 

VI. Activities related to the lunch period. 

A. Telling anecdotes and comparing experiences. Much of the 
discussion related to personal experiences, nature, good 
health and citizenship takes place at this time. 

B. Conversation about beauty in color schemes, pottery, ar- 
rangement of tables. 

C. Telling of riddles and conundrums. 

D. Composing original riddles and conundrums. 

E. Playing guessing games as, "I see something blue," or "My 
father owns a grocery store and in it he sells something that 
begins with s." 

B. Procedure in Learning to Write and Spell 

I. Group or individual composition of material to be used for signs, 
letters, or other purposes; blackboard reading of material which is 
to be written later. 

II. Study of words needed. 

A. Each word is taken separately. 

B. The teacher pronounces slowly and simultaneously writes 
word on the blackboard three or four times. Manuscript 
("print writing") is used. 

C. The child is given opportunity to pronounce the word as the 
teacher writes it on the blackboard. 

III. Practice in writing on the blackboard. 

A. The child goes to the blackboard and practices pronouncing 
and simultaneously writing the word. 

B. After some experimentation by the child specific suggestions 
are given for improving technique and the practice con- 
tinues with increasing skill. 

English in First Grade 369 

C. When separate words are learned, phrases from the com- 
position, as, Dear Mother, I like, will go, may be practiced 
to gain knowledge of spacing. 

D. For the beginning stages a teacher may: 

1. Teach only one or two letters at a time . . . adding each 
time to the first part, a new letter, (example: D— Da— 

2. Later if the word is long or difficult, teach it in syllables, 
as Val-en-tine. 

IV. Practice in writing on paper. 

A. Very little writing is done on paper, as blackboard writing 
encourages freedom and large writing. Paper is introduced 
only when the writing is to be used for some specific pur- 
pose, as an invitation or holiday greeting. 

B. Words or simple phrases are practiced separately. It is often 
advisable to build a word by letters as suggested above, as 
it is a problem to adjust size and proportion to paper. 

C. Then whole sentences may be practiced, with attention to 

C. Materials Used 

I. These materials are used for written work. 

A. The blackboard. 

B. Soft, dustless chalk. 

C. Soft blackboard erasers. 

D. Soft, large practice pencils, with blunt point. 

E. Ruled practice paper: wide ruling. 

F. Soft pencil erasers. 

G. Plain envelopes for mailing letters. 

II. These materials are used in connection with spelling. 

A. Spelling list made by teacher. 

Lists of words needed in practical application are made. 
Words are stressed that child will need repeatedly in writ- 
ten composition. 

B. Spelling notebooks. 

A list is kept by the children of the words they have learned. 

D. Probable Outcomes 

I. Information, attitudes, appreciations. 

A. Related to oral conversation and composition. 
1. Interest, alertness, and joy in conversation. 

37° National College of Education 

2. A growing feeling of confidence in addressing a small 

3. A willingness to share experiences. 

4. Alertness toward evaluating ideas, good form in expres- 
sion, and a happy response to constructive suggestions for 
improving own work. 

5. Growing respect for ideas and opinions of others and 
a willingness to wait turns to express child's own opinion. 

6. A growing willingness to condense and organize material 
and a willingness to consume a minimum amount of time 
in addressing the group. 

7. Some understanding of simple sentence structure and a 
desire to use complete sentences. 

8. A willingness to use well-modulated tone that can be 
easily heard. 

g. A willingness to use a pleasant tone rather than use a 

loud, harsh tone. 
10. A desire to use expressive language with a minimum 
amount- of slang. 
B. Related to written composition. 

1. An interest in learning to write and spell. 

2. An eagerness to improve his technique. 

3. A feeling of joy and satisfaction in completing some 
undertaking in handwriting. 

4. Some understanding of the use and function of letters 
and letter writing. 

II. Habits and skills. 

A. Related to oral composition. 

1. Gradual elimination of nervous habits and the develop- 
ment of poise in speaking before a small group. 

2. Growth in ability to speak distinctly, slowly and in a 
tone that is easily understood. 

3. Growth in ability to hold to the topic of conversation. 

4. The ability to wait turns. 

5. Some ability in original thinking in planning or problem 

6. Some ability to retell incidents or short stories with cor- 
rect sequence of events. 

7. Growth in ability to be a courteous listener. 

8. The ability to compose a friendly letter of two or three 
short sentences. 

9. Growth in ability to use simple, complete sentences, 

English in First Grade 37 1 

correct tense, and a vocabulary that will make fluent 
speech possible. 
10. The ability to recognize rhyming words, and for many 
the ability to compose simple two to four line verses. 
B. Related to written composition. 

1. The ability to write legibly with chalk or large soft 

2. The ability to use large arm movement while at the 
blackboard and relaxed movement when writing on 

3. Ability to form all commonly used letters accurately 
and with correct movements. 

4. Some degree of skill in obtaining correct proportion of 
various letters. 

5. The use of capitals at the beginning of a sentence and 
for names. 

6. The use of periods and question-marks at the ends of 

7. Ability to spell and write from thirty to sixty simple 
words used in practical situations during the year. The 
number of words depends on the readiness of the child or 
the group for this type of work. 

English in Second Grade 

Language, Writing and Spelling 

A. Activities 

(The oral English is spontaneous, and may occur at any time 
during the school day, as the need or opportunity arises.) 

I. Activities related to incidental experiences. 

A. Discussion of nature material brought in, obtaining as 
much information as possible. 

B. Reports on experiments and observations of nature ma- 

C. Written reports of the results of nature experiments and 

D. Discussion and explanation of pictures and toys brought 
in, sometimes composition of original stories about pic- 

E. Making own book of experiences, and writing stories about 
the pictures, as "The Funny Book," "Dolly's Book." 

F. Retelling anecdotes and humorous stories at the lunch table. 

G. Making original riddles and taking part in guessing games. 
H. Writing of verses and songs, expressing appreciations. 


Rocking! Rocking! Rocking! 
Tired from being pushed by the waves- 
Lonely too, for no ships have passed 
For many days. 
Ding-dong! Ding-dong! 
Ringing and telling the boats 
That there is danger. 

Group composition. 


Some people 

When they are in their boats 

See milkweeds growing 

Along the shore. 

Fly! Fly! 

The seeds with their silk 

Fly through the air 

Like a plane in slow motion 

And then they float down 

Like a parachute. 

Group composition. 


English in Second Grade 


Language and Art Join Hands in Creating an Original Play 

II. Activities related to group enterprises. 

A. Offering suggestions in forming purposes and plans. 

B. Offering constructive criticism of work of group, as to best 
color to use, durability of material, fitness for the purpose. 

C. Composing group and individual stories for different proj- 
ects; as, captions for movies, book of stories of animals. 

D. Making plans for excursions; oral discussions on what to 
look for, standards of conduct. 

E. Relating orally experiences and observations of excursions. 

F. Writing individual stories on excursions. 

III. Activities related to health and good citizenship. 

A. Group discussion of activities on playground. 

B. Forming of rules in both organized and informal play. 

C. Discussion in forming necessary school rules to make for 
better citizenship; constructive criticism and suggestions 
arising from such needs. 

D. Keeping a careful record of each child's weight and height, 
leading to discussion on how to obtain correct weight and 

E. Informal talks concerning healthful foods, hygienic habits. 
(Often held at lunch time.) 

374 National College of Education 

IV. Activities related to reading. 

A. Discussion of stories read individually or by the group. 

B. Group discussion of current topics brought in for bulletin 

C. Forming library rules and discussing use of library cards. 

D. Discussing various library readings and activities. 

E. Writing answers to comprehension checks on reading. 

V. Activities related to correspondence and communication. 

A. Composing and writing group and individual letters to 
parents and absent children. 

B. Writing "Thank you" notes for gifts, parties, favors. 

C. Composing and writing invitations, programs, notices, for 
school plays and entertainments. 

D. Composing and writing messages for greeting and gift 
cards: Christmas, Easter, Mother's Day, Valentine's Day, 

B. Procedure 

I. Procedure in writing. 

A. Continuing with manuscript writing. # 

B. Thirty minute period a week in improving technique of 
writing: watching the teacher make the correct form; study- 
ing the form carefully; then writing without the copy; not- 
ing improvement. 

C. Stress laid on writing of complete sentence and correct use 
of capitals, periods and question marks. 

D. Stress placed on use of margins in writing letters and 

II. Procedure in spelling. 

A. Lists prepared of words needed in written composition. 

B. Method: 

1. Words to be studied are first presented in a sentence. 

2. Individual child pronounces and spells word orally as 
teacher writes word on board. 

3. Closes eyes and spells word before writing. 

4. Writes word on board or paper without copy; rewrites 
to improve form or correct errors. 

5. Often pronounces word slowly and simultaneously 
writes it. 

6. Places word in individual spelling book. 

English in Second Grade 375 

7. Uses word as further need arises in written work. 

8. Reviews spelling of word until certainly learned. 

C. Words taken from children's interests and needs. 

D. Some additional words taught from standard lists. 

E. Much practice in spelling by analogy, writing phonetic lists 
of similar words. 

III. Use of tests and scales. 

A. Handwriting compared with scale; scale placed on bulletin 
board for study. 

B. Spelling tests given near the end of each semester by psy- 

C Books and Materials Used 

I. Materials for written composition. 

A. Wide ruled composition paper. 

B. Soft lead pencils, with blunt point. 

C. Narrower lined paper for numbers. 

D. Large envelopes for mailing letters. 

II. Spelling lists. 

A. Words coming from group projects and individual needs. 

B. Standard spelling list (used for checking): Horn's List of 
300 words most likely to be used in children's writing 
during the first three years. 

C. Individual spelling books for words often needed. 

III. Standard tests: 

Metropolitan Achievement Test. World Book Company. 
Morrison-McCall Spelling Test. World Book Company. 
New Standard Achievement Test. World Book Company. 

Note: Forms are selected which have not been used for 
over a year. 

IV. Writing scale. 

Conard, Edith N. Manuscript Writing Standards. Bureau of Puhlications, Teachers 
College, Columbia University. 

D. Probable Outcomes 

I. Information, attitudes, appreciations. 

A. Readiness to participate in purposing and planning group 

376 National College of Education 

B. Willingness to give and accept constructive criticism for 
the improving of work. 

C. Respect for the opinions of others and an independence in 
own thinking and manner of expression. 

D. Understanding the need of expressing oneself clearly, con- 
cisely and in an interesting manner. 

E. Realizing the need for gaining the interest of an audience 
when telling stories, riddles, anecdotes, by knowing well 
what one is going to say. 

F. Understanding the importance of a pleasing and well- 
pitched voice so that one can be heard easily. 

G. Some appreciation of the beauty of language and a desire 

to use it well in speaking and writing. 
H. Appreciation of beautiful and legible handwriting and a 

desire to improve own handwriting. 
I. Desire to enlarge spelling vocabulary and to be accurate in 

spelling words. 

II. Habits and skills. 

A. Growing ability to speak before a group with poise, to 
speak distinctly, to participate in group planning and con- 
structive criticism. 

B. Growing ability to tell stories, anecdotes, in an interesting 

C. Ability to compose letters or compositions independently, 
of six to eight sentences in length (many compose two 
sheets and more). 

D. Ability to write with a smaller pencil with some degree of 
legibility and uniformity. 

E. Greater neatness and more artistic appearance in all writ- 
ten work. 

F. Ability to leave margins in written work; to use capital 
letters for sentence beginning, proper names, days of week 
and special days; period or question mark at the end of a 

G. Mastery of words commonly needed in own compositions; 
mastery of selected words from standard spelling lists. 

English in Third Grade 

Language, Writing and Spelling 

A. Activities and Procedure 

Oral and written composition. 

A. Related to personal experiences and current events. 

1. Oral reports and sometimes written stories about trips 
taken during the year to farms, forest preserves, lake; 
travel of greater distance, as trips to Florida, California. 

2. Oral discussions about current events posted on bulletin 
board and reported from home reading. 

3. Writing verses and songs expressing appreciations. 

Birds and Flowers 

Spring is here and I am glad. 
'Cause I hear the birds calling 
And see the leaves falling 
And see the flowers growing 
And hear the wind blowing. 

The lilac bush is budding, 
The birds are on the wing. 
The flowers are slowly opening, 
Now, we know it is Spring. 

Spring is in the air, 

Gardens, gardens everywhere, 

Boys and girls in the Kindergarten 

Working all morning in their spring garden. 

—Reprinted from the Children's Magazine. 

The Pumpkin 

I found a yellow pumpkin 

Growing in a field, 

And I asked the yellow pumpkin 

What he would like to do. 
And much to my surprise, he said, 
He would like to go to school. 
So I asked the yellow pumpkin 

If he would be good, 
And much to my surprise 
He said, he would. 
So I told the yellow pumpkin 

I would tell him what to do. 
He must smile at the children 
And keep every rule. 
So I and my Daddy fixed up his smile 
So he could go to school for awhile. 

—Reprinted from the Children's Year Book, 
"The Blue Moon" 


378 National College of Education 

B. Related to health and good citizenship. 

1. Discussion of food, toilet habits, rest habits, drinking 
water and milk, as these points arise in the daily routine. 

2. Discussions about standing, sitting and walking well. 

3. Discussions pertaining to school property and the right 
way to care for one's self in the corridors, library, 

4. Discussion of points that make good citizenship in the 
community; regard for one's own safety and the safety 
and welfare of others; conduct on the street and in pub- 
lic buildings (often arising in connection with walks 
and excursions). 

5. Choosing responsible leaders for group activities and 
committees, discussion of qualities needed. 

6. Comparisons made of different officers and working 
groups in our school and their duties. 

7. Discussion of characters in stories; such traits as kind- 
ness, bravery, jealousy and helpfulness. 

8. Composition of rules for games and for use of play- 

9. Group composition and presentation of a puppet show, 
illustrating school and home courtesies. 

C. Related to group enterprises. 

1. Oral reports on reference readings. 

2. Oral suggestions made in purposing and planning group 
work; as play, maple sugar sale. 

3. Discussion of pictures, slides and motion pictures used; 
questions asked leading to further research. 

4. Outlining plays, class working together. 

5. Spontaneous conversation in dramatization. 

6. Oral discussions in planning costumes and properties 
for plays. 

7. Reports on experiments with seeds, flowers, plants, and 
observations of water creatures. 

8. Reports following excursions on points observed. 

9. Constructive criticism offered on all group work, during 
execution and after completion. 

10. Making books recording interesting facts learned and 
discoveries made: composing and writing individual 
stories for books on topics of individual or group interest. 

D. Related to use of library and books. 

1. Discussion of use of encyclopedias, dictionaries, maga- 
zines, large globe, and other library materials. 

English in Third Grade 


Puppets Show School Courtesies 

2. Sharing with one another material found in library 
through book reports and stories. 
E. Related to correspondence. 

i. Writing letters to the group when away on a trip. 

2. Writing informational letters to absent children. 
Writing to children in other schools. 
Writing letters of inquiry to business firms. 
Writing notes thanking people for help and gifts. 
Writing invitations to mothers and to other grades to 
attend functions. 

Writing greeting cards for special days: Easter, Mother's 
Day; writing notes or cards to accompany gifts and dona- 

Oral discussions about letters written and letters re- 


II. Practice in improving manuscript writing. 

A. Studying handwriting scales posted for a short time in 

B. Comparing writing of individual children with scale; with 
samples from other rooms and from other children in room. 

C. Noting weakness and working for improvement in size, uni- 

380 National College of Education 

formity, spacing of words, evenness of margins, neatness 
and beauty of finished page. 

I). Watching the teacher's movements in writing and correct- 
ing wrong habits in forming letters; practicing single letters, 
words and phrases from compositions. 

E. Noting progress; practicing with pen after a certain degree 
of proficiency with pencil has been attained. 

III. Procedure in learning to spell. 

A. Lists made of words needed in compositions. 

B. Practice activities. 

1 . New words are used in oral sentences to make clear the 

2. Children watch as word is written on the blackboard by 
the teacher. 

3. The word is pronounced slowly, and the parts or syl- 
lables noted; attention is called to peculiarities; line may 
be drawn under the difficult or familiar part of the word. 

4. Children pronounce the word, spell it softly. Some chil- 
dren learn more accurately by pronouncing the word 
slowly while simultaneously writing the word quickly, 
emphasizing the visual imagery. 

5. Children close eyes and spell silently. 

6. Then the word is written without a copy, and later com- 
pared with the correct form. Study is continued if 

7. Often the word is written in a sentence or used imme- 
diately in written composition. 

8. Words are reviewed as frequently as needed. 

C. Lists made from children's compositions are checked on 
standard lists and other words from the standard lists are 

IV. Use of tests. 

A. Frequent informal tests are given by the teacher, to deter- 
mine what review work is needed; what words from stand- 
ard lists are already mastered. 

B. Standard tests are given by the psychologist at the end of 
each semester. Progress chart for each child is made and 
studied to determine where special help is needed. 

English in Third Grade 381 

B. Books and Materials Used 

I. Materials used in written work. 

A. Paper. 

1. Wide spaced paper for composition work. 

2. Manila tag board for making posters. 

3. Large envelopes for mailing letters. 

4. Unruled white construction paper for making greeting 
cards, valentines. 

5. Colored construction paper and poster paper to use in 
making covers of books, programs, posters. 

B. Soft lead pencils. 

C. Fountain pens. 

D. Manila folders to hold compositions and other written ma- 

II. Spelling materials. 

A. Lists made from words used in letters, written stories, 
poems, arid a few from reading. 

B. Published lists used for checking only. 

Newlon. J. H. and Hanna, P. R. 1935. The Newlon-Hanna Speller. 
Houghton Mifflin. 

Horn's List of 300 words most likely to be used in children's writing dur- 
ing the first three years. 

C. Mimeographed lists of words causing special difficulty to 

D. Individual filing boxes for children's own list of words 

III. Standard spelling tests. 

Morrison-McCall Spelling Test. World Book Company. 
New Stanford Achievement Test. World Book Company. 
Metropolitan Achievement Test. World Book Company. 

Note:— Forms are selected which have not been used for a 
year or more. 

IV. Writing scale. 

Conard. Edith N. Conard Manuscript Writing Standards. Bureau of 
Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University. 

C Probable Outcomes 

I. Information, attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Readiness to take part in purposing and planning class 

382 National College of Education 

B. Growing willingness to give and receive suggestions for im- 
proved work. 

C. Increasing respect for opinions of others, and regard for 
approval and disapproval of others. 

D. Realization of need for expressing one's self clearly. 

E. Beginning of a desire for clever and unusual forms of ex- 

F. Growing desire to compose stories, and friendly letters that 
will inform and amuse the reader. 

G. Growing desire to attain a clear, pleasing speaking voice, 
with distinct pronunciation. 

H. Appreciation of good handwriting of others, and a desire 

to improve in writing. 
I, Growing desire to make written work artistic as well as 

legible and neat. 
J. Growing desire to enlarge the vocabulary, both oral and 


II. Habits and skills. 

A. More ease when relating experiences to the group or talk- 
ing to adults; greater poise and better voice control. 

B. More ability to tell a story well, orally or in writing, giving 
incidents as experienced. 

C. Ability to compose an interesting letter, two or more pages 
in length. 

D. Some facility in composing original verses, songs and riddles. 

E. An enlarged vocabulary and a growing ability for individ- 
ual forms of expression. 

F. A growth in eliminating slang, undesirable colloquialisms 
and gross errors in speech and written composition. 

G. Improvement in form and legibility of handwriting; ability 
to use a fountain pen the latter part of the year. 

H. Ability to use correct form in writing friendly letters with 
superscription, salutation, complimentary close. 

I. Habit of using capital letters for proper names, days of week 
and month, town, street, and state; also beginning of sen- 
tence or exclamation. 

J. Habit of using period at end of sentence and after abbrevia- 
tions. Correct use also of question mark, exclamation point, 
hyphen and apostrophe for possession. 

K. More independence in all written work and fewer errors. 

L. Mastery of spelling words most used in the grade. 

M. Mastery of all selected words from a recognized spelling 

English in Fourth Grade 

Language, Writing and Spelling 

A. Activities and Procedure 

I. Activities related to personal experiences. 

A. Oral. 

1. Reports on events in the home and community dining 
the week end. 

2. Reports on vacation experiences: Summer, Thanksgiv- 
ing, Christmas, Spring, and other holidays. 

3. Telling jokes and humorous stories at lunch time. 

4. Discussing the local weather conditions. 

B. Written. 

1. Outlining, organizing reports to be given. 

2. Writing captions for booklets, charts of vacation. 

3. Writing letters to absent friends, telling of interesting 
events at school. 

4. Keeping personal account books of allowances. 

5. Writing talks, poems, stories relating to vacation ex- 

6. Writing poems and rhymes expressing feelings about 
nature and other experiences. 


Hiding is a lot of fun, 

You have to duck around, 

And sit very still in the hiding place 

Until you are found. 

And while the person hunting you, 
Goes looking round and round, 
It's very hard to sit still, 
Until you are found. 


April has come at last, 
All of the winter has past, 

The buds are all out, 
And the flowers are about, 

Because April has come at last. 

April has come at last, 
All the winter has past, 
When I go to sleep at night, 
It is still very light, 
Because April has come at last. 


384 National College of Education 

My Pony 

As down the street I rode my pony 

The flowers nodded their heads at me. 

I saw my little playmate Tony 

As gay as gay could be. 

I waved to him, he waved to me, 

As down the path I trotted. 

A hird was singing in a tree. 

Over the hill the tows were dotted. 

Then I turned my pony's head. 

I was headed for home. 

Away, away and away we sped. 

Upon That Lonely Shore 

The middle of a lonely night 

Upon a lonely shore 

The lonely wind blew 

Upon the lonely four. 

Father, Mother, Sister, Brother, 

On that lonely shore. 

The lighthouse, the lighthouse 

That sheltered the lonely four, 

The lighthouse, the lighthouse 

Upon that lonely shore. 

—Reprinted from the Children's Magazine. 

II. Activities related to citizenship and good health. 

A. Oral. 

1. Reports and discussion of Student Cabinet projects. 

2. Discussing needs of the group, relative to setting stand- 
ards for the use of the halls, the toilet rooms, dining 
room, auditorium, library. 

3. Planning a rating chart for individual behavior. 

4. Discussing methods used in choosing officers for any 

5. Listing desirable qualities for certain officers. 

6. Discussing the value of making right choice of food for 

7. Discussing the height and weight charts relative to in- 
dividual needs. 

8. Discussing the hygienic care of the body— posture, light, 
desks, chairs, handling and using books. 

9. Discussing happenings of the day, local and national, 
or current events. 

B. Written. 

1. Organizing and making good citizenship chart, captions 
and individual rating chart. 

2. Writing notices for committee meetings. 

3. Writing notices of various projects sponsored by the Stu- 
dent Cabinet. 

English in Fourth Grade 


Drama Develops Language Powers 

4. Writing ballots in voting. 

5. Posting list of nominees for office. 

6. Writing and posting examples of healthful lunches as 
guides in choosing menu. 

7. Writing and composing health slogans. 

8. Keeping records of lunches and comparing with chart 
showing well-balanced meals. 

III. Activities related to group enterprises. 
A. Oral. 

1. Organizing and giving talks, or reports, as a result of 
individual and group research. 

2. Discussing experiences and information brought in from 
making inquiry or reading. 

3. Discussing excursions taken— before going and upon 

4. Discussing movies and slides used in the class room. 

5. Discussing working problems and means of solving. 

386 National College of Education 

G. Setting up of standards of workmanship for various 
phases of the work. 

7. Discussing and giving constructive criticism of finished 

8. Discussing the problems related to the cooking and serv- 
ing of special luncheons. 

9. Giving group and individual reports upon assigned 

10. Giving dramatizations, dialogues, shadow plays. 

11. Discussing the contents of the Class Diary— judging the 
best story, poem, anecdote to be included in the diary. 

12. Giving announcements and reports of progress of vari- 
ous committees engaged in research problems. 

13. Giving explanations of various experiments carried on. 

B. Written. 

1. Outlining material for both talks and written stories. 

2. Taking notes from reference materials read. 

3. Keeping records of progress in work. 

4. Writing stories, poems, of explorations and discoveries, 
colonial days, and other topics. 

5. Writing stories for books, talkies, plays, dialogues. 

6. Writing labels and captions for maps, charts, paintings, 

7. Writing notices to advertise various enterprises, as Jelly 
Sale, April Magazine. 

8. Making booklet of cooking recipes used in cooking proj- 

9. Making calendar of historical events. 

10. Writing announcements and bulletin notices for other 
rooms about interesting exhibits. 

1 1. Writing money orders, checks, receipts. 

IV. Activities related to reading and the library. 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussing books and stories read. 

2. Sharing interesting parts of books with others. 

3. Telling stories read for the enjoyment of others. 

4. Reporting good points of books, in order to recommend 
them to others. 

5. Dramatizing sections of books— impersonating certain 
characters in books. 

6. Organizing and planning book activities; as, Book Days, 
Day with Certain Authors. 

English in Fourth Grade 387 

7. Discussing the use of the files, reference books, in the 

8. Discussing answers to check tests given upon selected 
books read by the group, or books read to the children 
by the teacher. 

B. Written. 

1. Filling in the form (mimeographed) of books read by 
the pupils. 

2. Writing advertisements for books. 

3. Making book file for individual book reports of books 

V. Correspondence — personal and business. 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussing when to write letters, how to write various 
kinds of letters, to whom to write.- 

2. Discussing letters received as result of correspondence. 

B. Written. 

1. Notes, letters asking for privileges, to College authorities. 

2. Notes thanking both groups and individuals for kind- 
nesses or aid. 

3. Notes of apology when needed. 

4. Invitations for several room enterprises. 

5. Business letters to firms requesting material. 

6. Notes accompanying money donations for various pur- 

VI. School publications. 

A. Oral. 

1. Planning the organization needed for the publishing of 
a magazine. 

2. Discussing the financing, the staff and their duties. 

3. Planning the means of advertising. 

4. Discussing how to secure interesting material for pub- 

5. Discussing how to set the standards for materials pub- 

6. Discussing the mechanical problems, as binding and 

B. Written. 

Writing interesting and worth-while selections for the pub- 

388 National College of Education 

VII. Practice in language usage. 

A. Class discussion of points of correct usage. 

B. Practice in work books. 

C. Practice on mimeographed materials to help maintain skill 
and for review. 

D. Correcting own compositions with teacher's guidance. 

E. Working in pairs, correcting work. 

VIII. Practice in manuscript handwriting. 

A. Using charcoal for large letter forms; using broad-edged 
pens for large letter forms; practicing with chalk at the 
blackboard; writing with pencils and with fountain pens. 

B. Practice on letter forms and phrases for legibility, beauty 
and speed. (Marjory Wise— Manuscript Writing Tech- 
nique, used as a guide.) 

C. Samples of writing kept in individual folders for each child, 
improvement in legibility and speed noted; often scored 
and discussed. 

IX. Practice in spelling. 

A. Words needed in written work. 

1 . Words are checked by children and teacher. 

2. Tests in context are given on words needed by y s of the 
group. These are rechecked from time to time and rating 
sheets or graphs are kept by each child noting his im- 

3. A class list or dictionary is kept, made available for 
children who need help. 

B. Words from spelling list. 

1. Discussion of words in list, sentence work and black- 
board practice. 

2. Pretest on list. 

3. Study words needed or missed on pretest. 

4. Study words missed on second test and review previous 

5. Sentences involving words in new list and review list. 
Individual checking on words. 

X. Taking of standardized tests and improvised tests made by the 

Graphs of improvement are made by the children and teacher 
and by the psychologist. 

English in Fourth Grade • 389 

B. Books and Materials 

I. Materials used in written work. 

A. Kinds of notebooks. 

1. Composition notebooks (10 x 8). 

2. Loose leaf notebooks (12 x 10). 

3. Folders (tag board 9x12) for filing work sheets. 

B. Kinds of paper. 

1. Lined paper (81/2 x 11) (7 x 81/2). 

2. Manila tag. 

3. Regular construction paper. 

4. Regular poster paper. 

5. Mechanical drawing paper. 

6. Unlined paper (pads 81/2 x 11 and 6 x 9). 

C. Kinds of pencils. 

1. Charcoal for large writing of letter forms. 

2. Medium soft lead pencils. 

D. Pen and ink. 

1. Broad-edged pen sets. 

2. India ink for broad-edged pens. 

3. Fountain pen. 

4. Fountain pen ink. 

E. Envelopes. 

1. For business purposes: 

School envelopes (large and small). 
Plain 3^ x 614. 

2. For notes or friendly letters: 

Plain (small and medium). 
Hand-made ones to match paper. 

II. Work-type materials. (Used by individuals as needed.) 

Guitteau, W. B. Constructive English Exercises. 1936, Johnson Publishing Company. 
Hatfield, W. W., and Lewes, E. E. Practice Activities in English. 1936, American 

Book Company. 
Thorndike-Century Junior Dictionary. 1935, Scott Foresman. 

III. Spelling materials. 

A. Standard lists: 

Breed, F. S., and Seale, E. C. My Work Book. 1937, Lyons and Carnahan. 
Newlon, J. H., and Hanna, P. Newlon-Hanna Speller. 1935, Houghton Mifflin. 

B. Class compiles list of words needed. 

C. Individual compiled list of words needed. 

D. Spelling notebooks. 

1. Large notebook (10 x 11)— for dictation work, sentence 
building and vocabulary study. 

39° National College of Education 

2. Small (6 x 4)— for child's own list of words needing 
special drill from standardized lists and class lists. 

3. Medium (8 x 10)— for child's own dictionary containing 
lists of words needed by the individual child for original 
composition work, and for lists of correct expressions 
and new words and phrases. 

IV. Standardized tests. 

Morrison -McCall Spelling Test. World Book Company. 
New Stanford Achievement Test. World Book Company. 
Progressive Achievement Test. California Test Bm can. 

V. Writing scales. 

A. Manuscript scale. 

Conard, Edith N. Conard Manuscript Writing Scale— Pen Form. Bureau 
of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia. 

B. Cursive writing. 

Ayres, Leonard P. Measuring Scale for Handwriting. Department of 
Education, Russell Sage Foundation. 

G. Probable Outcomes 

I. Appreciations and attitudes. 

A. An interest in developing the ability to enunciate clearly 
with a pleasant voice. 

B. An appreciation of distinct and correct speech of others and 
a sincere effort to overcome one's own speech faults. 

C. Realization that natural tone of voice in oral composition 
is quite as essential as an interesting subject. 

D. A readiness to participate in purposing and planning group 

E. Willingness to give and receive constructive criticism for 
improving work along factual and artistic lines. 

F. An appreciation of beauty of language forms and a desire 
to use them artistically and effectively. 

G. An appreciation of beautiful and legible handwriting and 
a desire to improve own handwriting, as to legibility, form 
and rate. 

H. An understanding of the need for accuracy in spelling and 
a desire for enlarging the spelling vocabulary. 

I. An understanding of the value of language in business and 
a desire to use it correctly and effectively. 

J. Greater confidence and satisfaction in talking and writing. 

English in Fourth Grade 391 

II. Habits and skills. 

A. Language. 

1. Growing ability to speak briefly and in an interesting 
way from an outline. 

2. Growing ability to use a good quality o.f tone, enunciate 
clearly and pronounce correctly. 

3. An increasing skill in the choice and use of new words. 

4. Growing ability to think and speak clearly and honestly. 

5. Growing ability to think and speak well on one's feet. 

6. Growth in mastery of conversational style without the 
excessive use of run-on sentences introduced by and, but. 
and so, and the overuse of incomplete expressions. 

7. A noticeable growth in vocabulary, especially with refer- 
ence to use of more expressive words. 

8. Some facility in using the dictionary for word meanings. 

9. Growing effectiveness in the use of the paragraph 
through better beginning and ending sentences and 
through the introduction of interesting details. 

10. Increasing skill in writing a brief composition which 
has unity, sequence, climax; margin, title; capitals in 
proper places; correct punctuation and spelling. 

1 1. Increasing skill in writing short stories and articles with 
attention to paragraphing, sentence formation and de- 
velopment of the story. 

12. The ability to write a friendly letter one paragraph 
long, with attention to correct form. 

13. The ability to write a note of thanks, apology, invitation, 
with attention to correct form. 

14. The ability to write a simple business letter, ordering 
supplies, seeking information, or making a request. 

15. More skill in phrasing titles that are brief, attractive 
and keep the point of the story or article in suspense. 

16. Ability to address cards, envelopes, letters, packages, 
properly for mailing. 

17. Growing skill in recognizing and correcting one's own 

18. The habit of reading all written work for the purpose 
of self correction; and of looking over the first draft for 
a better selection of vocabulary, possible errors and gen- 
eral improvement. 

B. Form. 

1. Continued accuracy in the use of forms introduced in 
preceding grades: 

392 National College of Education 

a. Capitals for months of year, days of week, holidays, 
beginning of line of verse, etc. 

b. Apostrophe in contractions and possessive forms. 

c. Abbreviations of days, months, measurements, some 

d. Exclamation point, quotation marks, question mark, 
period and comma. 

2. Skill in use of single verbs and subjects, plural verbs and 

C. Handwriting. 

1 . The ability to reproduce accurately, manuscript to manu- 
script, print to manuscript, script to manuscript, black- 
board to paper, books to paper. 

2. Ability to write legibly with pencil and fountain pen. 

3. Growing ability to do uniform and artistic lettering 
and writing. 

D. Spelling. 

1. Continued gain in technique in studying spelling. 

2. Continued growth of spelling conscience, indicated by 
fewer mistakes in papers. 

3. Ability to use a dictionary for help in spelling words. 

English in Fifth Grade 

Language, Writing and Spelling 

A. Activities and Procedure 

I. Activities relating to personal experiences. 

A. Oral. 

1. Reports on interesting events of the week-end, evening, 
or morning before school. 

2. Discussion of neighborhood happenings common to 

3. Reports on vacation experiences. 

4. Telling anecdotes or humorous experiences for pleasure. 

B. Written. 

1. Outlining talks to be given. 

2. Writing reports or stories of vacation experiences. 

3. Writing stories or poems to express personal experiences 
or feelings. 


I think that a map's a silly thing, 
A few colors, some lines, a dot and a ring, 
Showing mountains and cities, perhaps a fall, 
Something great and something small. 


He will always be there when you come home, 

He will greet you with a rapturous bark. 

He will kiss your hand when it has no food to offer. 

He will stay with you in times of sorrow and pain. 

He alone remains when all others have deserted you. 

He loves you from birth until death. 

While other animals turn traitor on you he is still your friend. 

From the tiny Yorkshire terrier to the great St. Bernard 

The dog is always your best friend. 

II. Activities relating to citizenship and health. 
A. Oral. 

1. Discussions of happenings of the day, both local and na- 

2. Deciding on desirable standards of good citizenship and 
how attained. 

3. Discussions of how to improve individual records of 
weight kept by school nurse. 

4. Discussions of food problems arising from choosing own 


394 National College of Education 

5. Discussions of how to make environment conducive to 
good health. 
B. Written. 

1. Writing captions for good citizenship or health posters. 

2. Drawing up constitutions for good citizenship organiza- 

3. Posting resolutions for room reminders. 

4. Writing individual menu from room menu. 

III. Activities related to group enterprises. 

A. Oral. 

1. Organizing and giving reports or talks as a result of in- 
dividual research. 

2. Discussing exhibits, information brought in, readings. 

3. Discussing work problems and making plans for solution. 

4. Setting up standards of work to be attained. 

5. Discussing and criticizing work finished. 

6. Discussing excursions both before and after going. 

B. Written. 

1. Outlining material for both talks and written stories or 

2. Taking notes. 

3. Writing stories for books, plays, talkies. 

4. Writing labels for diagrams, maps, charts. 

5. Writing answers to questions checking comprehension 
of subject matter covered. 

6. Writing notices to advertise talkies, plays. 

7. Writing notices of projects for school newspaper. 

8. Writing poems or verses. 

IV. Activities related to reading and use of the library. 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussing books or stories read. 

2. Sharing interesting bits from books read by telling them. 

3. Telling stories read for the enjoyment of others. 

4. Reporting good points of certain books for the purpose 
of advertising them to others. 

5. Formulating and discussing book projects such as Book 
Clubs, Book Days, and Book Assemblies. 

B. Written. 

1. Filling in mimeographed book report blanks of books 

2. Writing advertisements for books read which were 
thought especially good. 

English in Fifth Grade 

A Radio Broadcast Is Presented 

V. Activities relating to room procedure. 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussion of problems arising on the playground, in 
the halls, dining room or classroom. 

2. Discussion of plans for daily or weekly program. 

3. Parliamentary procedure in making and passing mo- 
tions, voting on questions, and electing officers or repre- 

4. Discussions of care of room and equipment. 

B. Written. 

1. Writing notices of results of games, articles lost, coming 
events, for bulletin board. 

2. Writing committee notes and reports. 

3. Writing lists of officers and committees. 

VI. Correspondence on personal and business relationships. 
A. Oral. 

1. Discussions of where letters are necessary. 

2. Discussion of the questions, to whom to write and what 
to write. 

396 National College of Education 

3. Reports of committees or representatives on results of 

4. Oral reports or requests made to other rooms asking co- 
operation on certain projects. 

B. Written. 

1. Composing business letters for information. 

2. Composing letters to accompany money donated for any 
purpose from class earnings. 

3. Writing informal notes of invitation to exhibits, talkies, 

4. Writing notes to school authorities, asking privileges. 

5. Writing notes of thanks for kindnesses shown and aid 

6. Sending notes of apology where privileges have been 

7. Sending notes to other rooms asking for cooperation and 
accepting invitations. 

VII. School publications. (See National News, page 348.) 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussion of what would interest others. 

2. Discussion of how to make items interesting. 

B. Written. 

1. Writing items for newspaper. 

2. Writing contributions for the magazine. 

VIII. Practice in language usage. 

A. Class discussion of points in correct usage. 

B. Practice in work book on needs arising in class. 

C. Taking mimeographed exercises for maintenance and re- 

D. Taking tests to see if minimum essentials are mastered or 
to see if further practice is necessary. 

IX. Procedure in improving handwriting. 

A. Manuscript. 

1. Making large letter forms in charcoal on paper lined 
for height. 

2. Practice for manipulation of broad-edged pen. 

3. Practice on letter forms, words, and phrases for legibility 
and speed. 

B. Cursive or script. 

1. All children in fifth grade learn to read script. 

English in Fifth Grade 397 

2. Those who desire learn to write script. 

a. Comparison of script letter forms with manuscript 
letter forms in words and phrases. 

b. Watching words and phrases being written. 

c. Watching letter forms being made. 

d. Practicing on letter forms in words and phrases on 
the blackboard under supervision. 

e. Writing in script with pencil and then with ink on 

C. Progress in writing. 

1. Keeping samples of writing to note improvement. 

2. Having samples of writing scored. 

3. Comparison of results with handwriting scales. 

X. Procedure in learning to spell. 

A. Words needed in written work. 

1. Keeping list of words asked for in small notebook. 

2. Check by another pupil or teacher on common words 
needed by child. 

3. Making class list by pupils and teacher of words needed 
by several. 

B. Words from spelling lists. 

1. Program. 

a. Pretest on new words. 

b. Study words missed. 

c. Test on new and review. 

d. Study words missed on last test. 

e. Test in content. 

f. Individual check on words missed in content. 

2. Method. 

a. Studying according to plan in Newlon-Hanna 

b. Pairing children for checking. 

c. Keeping record of each individual child by teacher 
of all words missed. 

d. Keeping record by each pupil of all words he missed. 

e. Keeping composite list by teacher of words causing 

f. Using large composition book for spelling book. 

C. Review words. 

1. Individual check on all words. 

2. Reviewing each week words missed previous weeks. 

398 National College of Education 

XI. Use of standardized tests. 

A. By psychology department. 

1. For group placement. 

2. For location of spelling difficulties. 

3. For check on attainment. 

B. By teacher. 

1 . For locating difficulties. 

2. For check on learning and teaching. 

B. Books and Materials Used 
I. Written work. 

A. Kinds of paper used. 

1. Lined ink paper (81/2 x 11). 

2. Manila tag board. 

3. Construction paper (9 x 12)— (12 x 18). 

4. Poster paper (9 x 12)— (12 x 18). 

5. Mechanical drawing paper. 

6. Note pads. 

B. Kinds of pencils. 

1. Charcoal for large writing of letter forms. 

2. Medium soft lead pencils. 

C. Kinds of pen and ink. 

1. Broad-edged pens, sets of round-hand pens. 

2. India ink for broad-edged pens. 

3. Fountain pen. 

4. Fountain pen ink. 

D. Composition notebooks. 

Folders (tag board 9x12) for filing work. 

II. Work-type material. (Used by individuals as needed.) 

Guitteau, Win. B. Constructive English Exercises. 1936, Johnson Publish 

ing Company. 
Hatfield, Lewis, Sheldon. Practice Activities in English. 1936, American 

Book Company. 
Kibbe and others. Handbook of English. 1939, Scott Foresman. 
Thorndike-Century Junior Dictionary. 1935, Scott Foresman. 
Winston Simplified Dictionary. 1939, Winston Publishing Company. 

III. Spelling materials. 

A. Standard list: 

Newlon, J. H., and Hanna, P. Newlon-Hanna Speller. 1935, Houghton 

B. Individual lists and class lists compiled by teachers and 

C. Notebooks: Composition books. 

English in Fifth Grade 399 

IV. Handwriting scales. 

A. Manuscript writing. 

Conard, Edith N. Conard Manuscript Writing Standards. Bureau of 
Publications, Teachers College, Columbia. 

B. Script writing. 

Ayres, Leonard P. Measuring Scale for Handwriting. Department of 
Education, Russell Sage Foundation. 

V. Standardized tests in spelling and language. 

Metropolitan Achievement Test. World Book Company. 
Morrison-McCall Spelling Test. World Book Company. 
New Stanford Achievement Test. World Book Company. 
Progressive Achievement Test. California Test Bureau. 

C. Probable Oulcomes 

I. Information, attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Willingness to give constructive suggestions lor improving 
own and others' work. 

B. Willingness to receive criticism on own work. 

C. Readiness to participate in purposing group enterprises. 

D. Willingness to accept a share in the responsibility of plan- 
ning group enterprises. 

E. Respect (for the opinions of others. 

F. Independence in expressing own opinion. 

G. Understanding of need for clear, concise statements in mak- 
ing reports. 

H. Appreciation for the need of order in telling stories. 
I. A desire to use correct English. 
J. A desire to improve own handwriting. 
K. An appreciation for beautiful and legible handwriting. 
L. A desire to enlarge spelling vocabulary. 
M. An understanding of the need for the ability to spell. 
N. An understanding of the need for the ability to speak 

concisely and distinctly before a group. 
O. An understanding of the need for the ability to write legibly 
with a fair degree of speed. 

II. Habits and skills. 

A. In oral composition. 

1. Ability to organize and outline talks and reports. 

2. More skill in speaking before a group clearly and dis- 

3. Increased poise in speaking before a group. 

400 National College of Education 

\. More skill in expressing oneself concisely. 

5. Ability to tell a story or anecdote in an interesting way. 

6. Ability to criticise constructively both own work and 
others' work. 

7. Increased ability to accept and profit by criticism. 

8. Increased ability to think a proolem through. 

9. Increased ability to follow a problem in a class dis- 

10. Ability to follow an outline in giving a talk. 

B. In letter writing and composition writing. 

1. Ability to write a business letter using correct form. 

2. Ability to write a friendly letter in an interesting way. 

3. Ability to write informal notes of invitation or thanks. 

4. Ability to make a simple outline of material to be used 
in a composition. 

5. Ability to write a composition of some length following 
an outline and paragraphing material. 

6. Ability to take notes. 

C. In handwriting. 

1. Ability to write either in manuscript or script with pen 
and ink, working toward a higher standard on a writing 
D. In mechanics of written composition. 

1. Ability to use with increasing accuracy the following 
marks of punctuation: period, question mark, exclama- 
tion point, comma, quotation mark, and the apostrophe. 

2. Ability to use capital letters correctly in all uses. 

3. Ability to arrange written work on paper allowing for 

4. Increased skill in writing good sentences. 

5. Increased skill in writing a paragraph containing good 
topic sentences. 

E. In language usage. 

1. More skill in using correctly such words as learn, teach, 
lie, lay, rise, raise, set, sit, their, there, to, too, two. 

2. More skill in using verb forms correctly. 

3. More skill in pronouncing words correctly. 

4. More skill in avoiding the use of double negatives. 

5. Increased skill in using different words rather than over- 
working a few. 

F. In spelling. 

1. Ability to spell words needed in written work. 

2. Ability to spell selected words from standard lists. 

3. Ability to use dictionary as an aid in spelling. 

English in Sixth Grade 

Language, Writing and Spelling 

A. Activities and Procedure 

I. Activities relating to personal experiences. 

A. Oral. 

1. Reports of vacation experiences. 

2. Reports on interesting week-end experiences. 

3. Interesting observations which have been made. 

4. Reports on outside activities (often given during lunch 

B. Written. 

1. Writing reports or diaries of vacation experiences. 

2. Outlining reports to be given. 

3. Writing stories and verses of personal experiences. 

March Wind 

If you should ask the raw March wind 

where he was going and why, 

he might answer this: 
I must awaken the flowers, 
And blow the clouds away, 
And hurry to waken the earth for the Spring, 
And the birds must be told to come back on the wing. 

A Poem 

A poem that does not rhyme 

Is just a lovely thought, 

Of rivers, fields, mountains, streams, 

Of winter, fall, summer, spring, 

And oh! of everything. 

—Reprinted from the Children's Magazine. 

II. Activities relating to citizenship and health. 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussions as to standards of good citizenship in school 
and as a member of the community. 

2. Reports on events of present day interest. 

3. Discussions as to food values and combinations. 

B. Written. 

1. Writing rules for good citizenship. 

2. Choosing and writing lunch menu from cafeteria menu 
sent to the room. 


402 National College of Education 

III. Activities related to group studies in social studies and science. 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussing problems and possibilities in a unit of expe- 

2. Giving of reports by individual children. 

3. Discussing pictures, original illustrations, and exhibits. 

4. Discussing completed work. 

5. Planning any dramatization or program as a summary to 

B. Written. 

1. Outlining material before writing or giving to class 

2. Writing stories for booklet or chart. 

3. Writing answers to questions checking mastery of sub- 
ject matter. 

4. Taking notes in good form. 

5. Writing notices to advertise play. 

6. Writing original poems. 

7. Writing an imaginary diary which might be a record of 
the period studied. 

IV. Activities relating to reading and use of library. 

A. Oral. 

1. Telling stories read, for pleasure of the class. 

2. Recommending interesting books to the class. 

3. Describing parts of favorite books brought from the 
home library. 

4. Making plans for Book Week. 

5. Discussing material in different magazines enjoyed. 

6. Discussing different types of material found in library. 

7. Discussing ways of finding material quickly. 

8. Examining parts of a book, as title page and table of 
contents, and discussing value of each. 

9. Discussion of new words. 

B. Written. 

1. Writing recommendations for books. 

2. Placing book reports on mimeographed blank. 

3. Making book puzzles. 

4. Writing short descriptions of books, letting class supply 

V. Letter writing. 
A. Oral. 

1. Discussion as to types of letters. 

English in Sixth Grade 



Children Share Vacation Trips 

2. Discussion as to correct form for business and friendly 

3. Discussion as to content. 
B. Written. 

1. Writing thank you letters. 

2. Writing letters to children who have moved away. 

3. Writing notes to other rooms. 

/[. Writing notes to school authorities asking privileges. 
5. Composing letters to imaginary people, as book char- 

VI. Activities relating to room procedure. 

A. Oral. 

1. Making plans for any group activity. 

2. Discussion of any room problem. 

3. Electing officers or representatives. 

B. Written. 

1. Writing notices for bulletin board. 

2. Writing lists of officers or committees. 

404 National College of Education 

VII. Publishing school newspaper. (See National News, page 348.) 

A. Oral. 

1. Discussion as to types of material to use. 

2. Discussion as to value of a striking title, interesting open- 
ing sentence, and good closing sentence. 

3. Examination and discussion of magazines and news- 
papers published by other schools. 

4. Discussion as to number of magazines to print, the price, 
expenses, and method of selling. 

B. Written. 

1. Writing articles, stories and poems for the magazine. 

2. Outline made by group for organizing the material. 

VIII. Practice in language usage. 

A. Class discussion of points in usage. 

B. Exercises on points discussed in class. 

IX. Procedure in improving handwriting. 

A. Manuscript. 

1. Charcoal used in making large letter forms. 

2. Practice with broad-edged pens. 

3. Practice on letters, words and sentences, working for 
uniformity and speed. 

B. Script. (Those who wish may learn and use script.) 

1. Study of letter forms as they are made. 

2. Practice on letter forms and words at blackboard. 

3. Attention given to height of letters, slant, finishing 
strokes, and to comfortable position when writing. 

4. Writing in script with pencils. 

5. Writing in script with pen. 

C. Progress in writing. 

1. A portfolio is kept throughout the year containing 
samples of work. 

2. Comparison is made with writing scales. 

X. Procedure in learning to spell. 

A. Words needed in written work. 

1. Class list made by group of words needed in various 

2. List made of errors frequently found in written work. 

B. Words taken from spelling lists. 

English in Sixth Grade 405 

C. Plan for teaching. 

1. General procedure. 

a. Test all pupils on the new words in the week's as- 

b. Supervise pupil's individual study, of words missed. 

c. Test all pupils on the new and review words. 

d. Individual study of the words missed. 

e. Test all pupils on the new and review words. 

2. Method. 

a. Say the word. 

b. Use in a sentence. 

c. Say the letters to yourself. 

d. Write the word and say the letters to yourself as 
you write. 

e. Draw a line under difficult part. 

f. Write the word without looking. 

g. Check to see if you are right. - 

D. Review words. 

1. Review constantly words missed before. 

2. Individual check on words. 

XI. Use of standardized tests. 

A. For checking growth in spelling and language ability. 

B. For discovering difficulties common to all. 

C. For discovering individual difficulties. 

D. For grouping in the room. 

B. Books and Materials Used 
I. Materials for written work. 

A. Kinds of paper used for making books, letters and posters. 

1. Lined ink paper (81^ x 11). 

2. Construction paper (9 x 12)— (12 x 18). 

3. Manila tag board. 

4. Note pads (51^ x 8i/0. 

5. Envelopes and stationery for letter-writing. 

B. Kinds of pencils. 

1. Charcoal. 

2. Medium soft lead pencils. 

C. Kinds of pen and ink. 

1. Round hand pens. 

2. India ink to use with broad-edged pens. 

3. Fountain pens. 

406 National College of Education 

4. Fountain pen ink. 
U. Portfolio (9 x 12) for filing work. 

II. Work-type materials. (Used by individuals as needed.) 

Guitteau, Wm. B. Constructive English Exercises. 1936, Johnson Pub- 
lishing Company. 

Hatfield and others. Practice Exercises in English. 1936, American Book 

Kibbe and others. Handbook of English for Boys and Girls. 1939, Scott 

Thorndike-Century Junior Dictionary. 1935, Scott Foresman. 

Winston Simplified Dictionary. 1939, Winston Publishing Company. 

III. Spelling materials. 

A. Standard lists. 

Newlon, J. H., and Hanna, P. R. Newlon-Hanna Speller. 1935, Houghton 

B. Individual spelling lists and class lists from subject matter 
and needs. 

C. Notebooks. 

1. Composition book (6^ x 814). 

2. Graph paper for records. 

IV. Standardized tests in language and spelling. 

Metropolitan Achievement Test. World Book Company. 
Morrison-McCall Spelling Test. World Book Company. 
New Stanford Achievement Tests. World Book Company. 
Progressive Achievement Test. California Test Bureau. 

V. Handwriting scales. 

A. Manuscript writing. 

Conard, Edith N. Conard Manuscript Writing Standards. Bureau of 
Publications, Teachers College. 

B. Script writing. 

Ayres, Leonard P. Measuring Scale for Handwriting. Department of 
Education, Russell Sage Foundation. 

G. Probable Outcomes 

I. Information, attitudes and appreciations. 

A. A readiness to take part in any class activity. 

B. A willingness to give and accept criticism, which at this 
stage should be more discriminating; a critical attitude 
toward our work. 

C. Respect for the opinions of others. 

D. Understanding of need for written articles that are unified, 

English in Sixth Grade 407 

planned, and unmarred by misspelled words or other tech- 
nical errors. 

E. Desire to develop greater ability in securing interest through 

F. Desire to continue vocabulary development. 

G. An appreciation of oral work which is given distinctly, con- 
cisely and with poise. 

H. A desire to speak before a group with increasing attention 
to definite subject, logical order, and well-chosen words. 
I. An appreciation of clear, legible, and beautiful handwrit- 

J. A desire to improve own handwriting. 

K. Eagerness to enlarge spelling vocabulary. 

L. A desire for accuracy in spelling words. 

II. Habits and skills. 

A. Oral composition. 

1. Growth in organizing reports from various types of 

2. Increased ability to follow outline or notes. 

3. Increased ability to speak distinctly and with poise. 

4. Ability to participate helpfully in group discussions. 

5. Increased ability to give constructive criticism. 

6. Development of critical attitude toward own work. 

7. Growth in ability to choose interesting and worth-while 
materials for class reports. 

B. Written composition. 

1. Ability to write a friendly letter with attention to cor- 
rect form. 

2. Growth in making content of friendly letter interesting. 

3. Ability to write a business letter, with attention to cor- 
rect form. 

4. Growth in making content of a business letter courteous 
and concise. 

5. Ability to outline and organize material read, as well as 
original material. 

6. Ability to write a composition of one page or more in 
acceptable composition form. 

7. Increased accuracy in proofreading and correcting own 
written work. 

C. Handwriting. 

1. Ability to write legibly and neatly with pencil, fountain 
pen or broad-edged pen. 

408 National College of Education 

2. Ability to use cither script or manuscript, working 
toward a higher standard on a writing scale. 

D. Mechanics of composition. 

1. Ability to use acceptable composition form, allowing for 
margins, and leaving one space between title and first 

2. Ability to paragraph consistently. 

3. Increased ability to write good opening and closing sen- 

4. Ability to use capitals correctly in all cases. 

5. Ability to use the following marks of punctuation con- 
sistently as needed: period, comma, exclamation mark, 
question mark, quotation marks, apostrophe, semicolon, 

E. Language usage. 

1. A continuing habit of using correctly, words which have 
been studied in the previous grades; as, there and their; 
to, two and too. 

2. Progress in eliminating such expressions as this here one. 

3. Progress in eliminating the use of double negatives. 

4. Habit of enunciating all syllables correctly. 

5. Addition of many new words to the vocabulary, with 
special attention to definite picture words and phrases. 

6. Some acquaintance with common and proper nouns, 
pronouns, verb forms, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, 

F. Spelling. 

1. Ability to spell words needed in the writing vocabulary. 

2. Ability to spell words selected from standard lists for 
the grade. 

3. Habit of using dictionary to find correct and preferred 

4. Growth in the ability to eliminate careless spelling errors. 




BECAUSE the children in this school come from a community 
1 where books and magazines are much used, interest in reading 
is very early developed. The nursery school and the kindergartens 
afford many pre-reading experiences through the use of literature 
and creative language. The preparatory reading experiences of the 
senior kindergarten are described on page 358. A mental age of six 
or over has been found necessary for the rapid attainment of inde- 
pendence in reading; and undesirable attitudes and habits have 
been the result of expecting progress in reading before the child 
was ready. As a rule children have remained in the senior kinder- 
garten until a mental age of six or over has been reached. In the 
case of a child who attains a mental age of six and a half or seven 
before he is six chronologically, the physical development, social 
adjustment and emotional stability are considered carefully, and 
he is allowed to join a reading group only after approval has been 
given by the teacher, parents, school physician and psychologist. 
s Reading at all levels is closely related to the activity program. 
A great deal of the reading material is composed by the teacher and 
the children, in response to interests and needs arising in connec- 
tion with the children's experiences. As the children progress in 
reading power, books are used continually to extend their ex- 
periences and to throw light on their problems. 

So great has been the eagerness for contact with real books, and 
so keen has been the desire to learn to read that it has been thought 
appropriate to set aside definite reading periods each day beginning 
in first grade. No one method and no one set of books or work books 
has been used as basal. Methods and reading materials in all grades 
have been chosen to meet the capacities and interests of individuals 
and particular groups. 

As a rule, the children are grouped for reading according to 
ability. Each child is placed in a group or given individual guidance 


410 National College of Education 

follow in" a study of his individual capacities and needs. With the 
least mature "roup it has been Found especially desirable to provide 
materials and books that have not been previously used by the more 
advanced groups in the room. P>y this means the teachers have been 
able to eliminate any feeling of discouragement or inferiority that 
might otherwise prevail among the less capable children. 

Promotions from one grade to another are made on the basis of 
social adjustment and readiness for participation in the activities of 
the next group. The teacher in each grade continues ability group- 
ing when found desirable, and provides reading materials that meet 
the capacities of different groups and individuals. 

Because many children find joy in independent reading, and do 
much free reading at home and in the school library, individual 
differences in reading ability tend to increase, and the need for 
group practice tends to diminish. 

In the outlines that follow, outcomes tend to be cumulative. 
Effort is made in each grade to maintain desirable attitudes and ap- 
preciations, habits and skills, developed in preceding years. 

Reading Activities in First Grade 

An outline based on records for one year 

A. Activities 

I. Reading activities related to group experiences. (Material com- 
posed by children and teachers.) 

A. From bulletin boards: reading signs, captions under pic- 
tures, posters, personal or group notes from the teacher and 
from each other, as: 

Dear John, 

Will you water the plants to-day? 

Miss Brown. 

B. From blackboard and charts. 

1. Reading directions or suggestions for activities, reading 
to follow plans made previously by. the group, filling sup- 
plies from lists of materials, reading names of com- 

In our baskets we will put 
a pair of scissors 
one jar of paste 
one lead pencil 
one box of crayolas 

To-day we will finish the furniture. 

John will finish a chair. 

Peter will finish a chair. 

Nancy will finish the table. 

Patsy will put the design on the bookcase. 

Jo will sandpaper the cupboard. 

2. Reading records of excursions, records of room activities, 
stories about pets, toys, nature materials. 

C. From booklets. 

Reading from booklets made by the children, stories of 
group interests and creative individual stories and songs. 

D. From correspondence or communications. 

i. Reading letters, invitations sent from another room or 

child; as, 

Dear First Grade: 

The farm is ready. 
Will you come to see it? 

Second Grade. 

2. Reading advertising posters and dodgers; as, 

All aboard for a sailing party! 
Be on deck Saturday at 9:00 a.m. 
Station WMAQ. 
Stories and songs about boats. 


412 National College of Education 

II. Guided reading from books. 

(Pre-primers, primers, and first readers are chosen for groups, 
for their special interest appeal or because of their adaptation 
to the needs of the children. Usually different material is 
selected for each group.) 

A. Activities related to the care and use of the child's own 

1. Reading from the blackboard suggestions for care of 

2. Reading names from the bookplates. 

3. Reading page numbers. 

4. Learning to find stories from the titles rather than pic- 
tures alone. 

5. Learning to know and read the names of the various 
primers and first readers. 

B. Individual study. 

1. To find the solution of a problem in the plot. 

2. To prepare for dramatic oral reading. 

3. To select a story to be used for a specific purpose. 

C. Oral reading. 

1. To share enjoyment with the group. 

2. For fuller understanding. 

3. To read the dialogue in parts. 

III. Enjoyment of the libraries. 

A. The room library. 

1. With teacher reading or telling stories. 

a. Listening to stories told or read. 

b. Listening to and learning beautiful poems. 

2. With the child reading. 

a. Free choice of books to read during self-directed or 
library periods. 

b. Free choice of books to take home to read to the 

c. Audience reading to a group or retelling stories 
found during free reading. 

B. The school library. 

1. Referring to school library when room library is lack- 
ing in material wanted. 

2. Referring to library for stories, pictures, books related 
to group interests. 

3. Seeking additional easy reading material to take home. 

Reading Activities in First Grade 


It Is Fun to Read 

414 National College of Education 

IV. Individual use of work-type materials. 

(These materials emphasize careful discrimination and compre- 
hension. They are related to experience reading or selected 
to correlate with book reading.) 

A. Drawing picture to illustrate sentence stories or phrases 
written by the teacher. 

B. Cutting up stories into sentence or phrase units and putting 
the story puzzle together. 

C. Finding the word or phrase to fit the picture in mimeo- 
graphed material. 

D. Framing like words in a column or list. 

E. Finding the correct word or phrase to finish the sentence in 
multiple choice type of exercises. 

B. Procedure or General Method 

I. Beginning reading related to the child's experiences. 

A. Child's name, names of pets, are used as an approach to 

JB. Material composed by children with teacher's help is used 

as an approach. This material must have: 

i. Interesting content. 

2. Literary quality, rhythm, lilting repetition, colorful 
words and phrases. 

3. Simple vocabulary. 

4. Short sentences. 

5. Short units or groups of sentences. 

6. Much repetition in the story. 

7. Much repetition from story to story. 
C. The plan for the first lessons follows: 

1. This material is presented on the blackboard, or it may 
be printed on a chart. 

2. Children read the unit as a whole. 

3. Teacher suggests content through skillful suggestions 
and questions. 

4. Teacher runs pointer under sentences, to establish cor- 
rect habit of eye movement; to help the child get the 
correlation between the spoken and written symbols. 

5. The children find separate sentences. 

6. The children find short phrases containing interesting 

7. Eventually some practice is given to fix important and 
interesting w^ords. 

Reading Activities in First Grade 415 

II. Pre-primer reading. 

A. The procedure is similar except that material is taken from 
the book rather than from the children's immediate ex- 

B. When experience reading has been done from charts and 
the blackboard, for six weeks or more, reading may be 
done directly from the book without the intermediate 
presentation on the blackboard or chart. 

C. Phrase and word cards are found valuable if the child can 
compare words and phrases on the card with those in the 
book, and thus make the transfer. 

D. Word cards are especially valuable in beginning reading 
when used for rapid phrase and sentence building. 

III. Advanced book reading. o 

A. Individual study. (The study is quiet, but may not be en- 
tirely "silent.") 

1. A thought unit is selected for individual study, short or 
longer, depending on the ability of the group and the 
difficulty of the selection. 

2. Emphasis is put on comprehension, and study is directed 

a. Questions related to the content. 

b. Problems to solve. 

c. Looking for a humorous part. 

d. Looking for a kind or gracious deed or idea. 

e. Looking for the solution to plot. 

B. Oral reading. 

1. In first grade oral reading usually follows individual 
study to develop fluency. 

2. Child's motive for oral reading may be: 

a. To help the class see the picture. 

b. To understand the story better. 

c. To share the story with another class or room. 

d. To read the story in parts to enjoy the dialogue. 

e. To prepare for a dramatization. 

C. Discussion. A discussion is often desirable: 

1. To clear up meanings. 

2. To select favorite characters. 

3. To select kind, gracious characters or deeds. 

4. To select characters and outline scenes for dramatization. 

D. Study of new and difficult words. 

1. They may be used in oral discussion before the study 

1 6 National College of Education 

and written on the blackboard to point out characteris- 

2. They may be discovered through the content if good con- 
cise suggestions as to content are given before reading. 

3. The sounds of the letters are emphasized when two or 
more words are found which begin with the same sound. 
Bringing this similarity to the child's consciousness soon 
helps him to learn independently the function of the 
letter sounds. 

4. Differences in words, as clock and lock, took and look, 
spin and in, as well as the similarity, are noted. 

5. Like endings or beginnings as in father and mother, 
began and before, are noted. 

IV. The testing program. 

Standardized tesfs are given at the end of the year, by a psy- 

1. Results are used as a basis for recommendations for 
summer reading. 

2. Results are used as a basis for guiding in the next grade. 

G. Books and Materials Used 

I. Materials used for experience reading. 

A. Chart and bulletin board. 

1. Manila tag board— 36 x 24. 

2. India ink. 

3. Broad-edged pens for manuscript writing— sizes 1, 2, 3, 

4. Magazine illustrations. 

5. Colored mounting paper. 

6. Show card color. 

7. Crayolas. 

B. Blackboard. 

1. White and colored chalk. 

2. Pointers and erasers. 

C. Booklets. 

1. Manila drawing paper (12 x 18). 

2. Colored mounting paper. 

3. Art materials for illustrations. 

a. Colored poster paper. 

b. Show card color. 

c. Crayolas. 

4. Typewriting paper— (heavy quality, for story material). 

Reading Activities in First Grade 


5. Sight-saving typewriter. 

6. Machine for mimeographing. 

7. Brads and raffia for binding books. 

II. Graded readers. (Pre-primers, primers, and first readers are se- 
lected according to the interests and abilities of small groups.) 


Baker and Reed 
Baker and Baker 
Baker and Baker 
Elson and Gray 
Gates, A. I., 
and others 
Hahn and Harris 

Hildreth, G., 

and others 
Hill and Martin 
O'Donnell and 

Smith, 'Nila B. 
Storm, Grace E. 

Curriculum Readers 
Bobbs-Merrill Readers 
True Story Series 
Elson Basic Readers 
New Work-Play Books 

Child Development 

Easy Growth in Reading 

Real Life Readers 
Alice and Jerry Books 

Unit Activity Series 
Guidance in Reading 

1938 Bobbs-Merrill 

1939 Bobbs-Merrill 
1938 Bobbs-Merrill 
1936 Scott Foresman 
J 939 Macmillan 

1935 Houghton Mifflin 

1940 Winston 

1930 Scribners 

1936 Row Peterson 

1935 Silver Burdett 

1936 Lyons and 


Library equipment. 

A. Room library equipment. 

1. Reading table and chairs. 

2. Low bookshelves. 

B. Picture books and story books for teacher to read to chil- 
dren; as, 

Clark, Mary E. 
Ets, Marie 
Flack, Marjorie 
Flack, Marjorie 
Gag, Wanda 
Hey ward, D. 
Hill, H. & Max- 
well, V. 
Hogan, Inez 

Hogan, Inez 

Kunhardt, D. 

Lathrop, D. 

Leaf, Munro 


Li da 


Lofting, Hugh 

Milne, A. A. 

Orton, Helen F. 
Orton, Helen F. 
Tippett, J. S. 
Tippett, J. S. 
Youmans, E. 

Poppy Seed Cakes 

Mr. Penny 

Restless Robin 

William and His Kitten 

Millions of Cats 

Country Bunny 

Charlie & His Puppy 

Little Black & White 

The White Kitten & the 

Blue Plate 
Little Ones 
Who Goes There? 
Little French Farm 

Story of Mrs. Tubbs 
When We Were Very 

Little Lost Pigs 
The Twin Lambs 
The Singing Farmer 
I Go a-Traveling 
Skitter Cat 

1924 Doubleday 
1935 Viking 

1937 Houghton 

1938 Houghton 

1928 Coward-McCann 

1939 Houghton 
1923 Macmillan 

1927 Macrae 

1930 Macmillan 

1935 Viking 

1935 Macmillan 

1936 Viking 
1939 Harper 

1937 Harper 
1936 Harper 

1923 Stokes 

1924 Dutton 

1925 Stokes 

1931 Stokes 

1927 World Book 

1929 Harper 

1925 Bobbs-Merrill 

41 8 National College of Education 

C. Easy books for individual children to read; as, 

Bannerman, H. Utile Black Sambo 1923 Stokes 

Bannerman, H. Sambo and the Twins 1936 Stokes 

Lincoln School Picture Scripts 1935 Edward Sterne 

Read, H. S. Social Science Readers 1928 Scribner 

Sondergaard, A. & Ten Little Reading Books 1931 Gazette Press 

Krueger, L. 

S/alatiiey, R. D. Cock and the Hen 1925 Harper 

Troxell, E. Pammy and His Friends 1928 Scribner 

Wright, L. E. The Magic Boat 1927 Ginn 

D. Additional material available in school library: picture 
file, many story books and informational books. 

IV. Practice materials. 

A. Word and phrase cards (accompanying charts, pre-primer 
and first primer). 

B. Published work books (accompanying some primers and 
first leaders chosen for individual or group use). 

C. Mimeographed materials composed by teacher, related to 
experience reading. 

V. Standardized tests. 

Oral Reading Check Tests. William S. Gray. Public School Publish- 
ing Company. 
Primary Metropolitan Test. World Book Company. 

D. Probable Outcomes 
I. Information. 

A. Related to the function and the purpose of reading. An 
understanding of the uses of reading in: 

1. Record keeping. 

2. Following directions. 

3. Correspondence and advertisement. 

4. Gaining information. 

5. Recreation. 

B. Related to book construction. 

1. The beginning of an understanding of bookbinding, 
printing, illustration. 

2. An understanding of the terms: author, artist, printer. 

3. Some understanding of the organization of a book: cover, 
frontispiece, table of contents, story, title. 

C. Related to types and use of literature. 

1. Some knowledge of various types of literature: stories, 
verses, riddles, jokes. 

2. An idea of the differing functions of books, letters, maga- 
zines, newspapers. 

Reading Activities in First Grade 419 

D. Related to library. 

1. The knowledge of a library as a book center. 

2. A little idea of the personnel of a library. 

3. An idea of appropriate behavior in the library. 

II. Attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Related to learning to read. 

1. Joy and interest in learning to read. 

2. Appreciation of the value of knowing how to read. 

3. A willingness to enter into all types of reading activities. 

4. An appreciation of the need of careful, conscientious 

B. Related to the use and ownership of books. 

1. A desire to own good books. 

2. A childlike appreciation of the beauty of illustrations 
and binding. 

3. Some appreciation of the value of books. 

4. A willingness to exercise care and thought in handling 

5. A willingness to share books and stories with others. 

C. Related to the library. 

1. joy in browsing in the library. 

2. A willingness to cooperate with library requirements. 

III. Habits and skills. 

A. Related to the use and care of books. 

1. The ability to use books with a minimum amount of 
wear and tear. 

2. The habit of using a bag, or wrapping a book if it is to 
be taken home in inclement weather. 

3. The beginnings of an established habit of sitting cor- 
rectly, holding book correctly, and sitting under cor- 
rect lighting conditions when reading. 

4. The ability to find stories by page numbers. 

5. For many, the ability to find stories in the table of con- 

B. Related to the use of the library. 

1. A partially established habit of using the library for 
help on problems. 

2. The habit of quiet manner and conduct in the library. 

C. Related to mastery of technique. 
1. In group reading. 

a. The ability to concentrate and work purposefully 
during the reading periods. 

420 National College of Education 

b. The ability to listen attentively to others read. 

c. By the end of the first semester the habit of keeping 
the place accurately while others read, in a group. 

2. For individual reading. 

a. The ability to get the thought when reading indi- 
vidually from any easy book. 

b. The ability to read orally with a considerable de- 
gree of accuracy. 

c. The ability to read fluently from simple primers or 
first readers. 

d. The ability to read orally with sufficient dramatic 
interpretation to hold the interest of a small group. 

e. The ability to follow simple directions within a vo- 
cabulary of primer difficulty. 

f. The ability to distinguish between words with like 
endings but different consonant beginnings, as book 
and took. 

g. The ability to name several words beginning with 
the common consonants, or consonant combinations. 

h. A growing independence in pronouncing simple 
phonetic words of three or four letters. 

i. The habit of attacking new words through the con- 

j. The beginning of an ability to solve new words 
through recognition of small words or word parts 
within the new words. 

Reading in Second Grade 

An outline based on records for one year 

A. Activities 

Reading activities related to group experiences. (Material com- 
posed by children and teachers.) 

A. From the bulletin board. 

1. Reading of the room duties. 

2. Reading names on the weekly calendar for care of the 

June i— Monday— Billy, Katharine 
June 2— Tuesday— Amos, Fred 

3. Reading notices, posters and the like sent in from other 

B. From blackboard and chart. 

1. Reading directions or suggestions for activities. 

a. Definite plans made for following day. 

b. Suggestions for each child of his duty or responsi- 
bility toward unit of work; as, 

Leonore will paint the barn. 
Tom will care for the grass. 

c. Recipes, as when making crab-apple jelly. 

d. Names and duties of different committees. 

e. Rules to improve conduct in school and on play- 

2. Reading original poems, records of excursions, stories 
of room activities, records of nature experiments. 

a. Original poems stimulated by the seasons, weather, 
group experiences. 

b. Story of our trip to the farm, "What we learned at 
the farm," composed by the group. Other farm stories 
written individually. 

c. Nature experiments and results of experiments; as, 

What we did: 

We planted peas and beans. 

We kept one box in the dark. 

We kept the other box in the sunlight. 
What we discovered: 

Peas and beans grown in the dark are white. 

Plants grown in the sunlight are green. 

Sunlight makes the color in nature. 


422 N a I tonal College of Education 

C. From booklets (made by children containing records or 
stories of group interests); as, 

i. My Pottery Book— containing original records of 
a. Trip to the Haeger Pottery. 
1). Mow liquid clay is made. 
c. How we made our molds. 

2. My Farm Book— containing original stories of trip to the 
farm and different farm activities. 

3. Nature Books— containing original poems and stories, 
blueprints with the name of each flower and leaf under 
the print. 

4. Miscellaneous books made by individual children, con- 
taining pictures and stories; as, 

a. The Funny Book. 

b. My Doll Book. 

c. My Family. 

D. From correspondence or communications. 

1. Reading letters, invitations, sent from other rooms. 

2. Reading messages sent from the office concerning school 
car, playground and other school activities. 

3. Reading posters and dodgers sent around to the rooms. 

a. Radio program announcements. 

b. Announcements of sales, programs, plays, at the 

4. Reading school newspaper and magazine, especially 
first and second grade contributions. 

II. Guided reading from books. (Readers are chosen for individuals 
and groups according to the special interest and ability of the 
child or the group. Grade labels are disregarded.) 

A. Activities related to the care and use of child's own book. 

1. General browsing through a new book. 

2. Careful making of name plate for book. 

3. Learning to find a story through the table of contents and 
page number. 

4. Practicing the correct way to turn pages in a book, care 
for the cover and binding. 

B. Silent reading. 

1. To read for the plot and enjoyment of the story. 

2. To be better prepared for oral reading. 

3. To select story for some special activity. 

4. To gain desired information. 

C. Oral reading. 

1. To enjoy the story with the group. 

Reading in Second Grade 


Getting Acquainted with the Library 

2. To read clearly and distinctly so that the group will 
enjoy the story. 

3. To read dialogue in parts. 

4. To prepare for dramatization. 

5. To make clear, points not understood. 

III. Free reading. 

A. Use of room library. 

1. Listening to teacher read or tell stories. 

2. Choosing books for free reading at school. 

3. Choosing books to take home. 

4. Reading to a group, story of own selection from library. 

B. Use of school library for material not found in room library. 

1. For informational purposes, as material on farm ac- 

2. For pictures in picture file. 

3. For variety of story and picture books. 

424 National College of Education 

IV. Individual use of work-type material emphasizing careful com- 

A. Using mimeographed material made by the teacher for 
books containing no tests: yes and no tests, completion, 
multiple choice. 

B. Using workbooks published to accompany some readers in 

1. Careful check-up by child and teacher on each page be- 
fore proceeding to the next page. 

2. Developing independence, by referring to the book for 
help rather than to the teacher. 

B. Procedure for Guided Reading 

I. Presentation of new material. (Teacher attempts to stimulate 
an interest in the story through discussions, pictures, and other 
materials. Often questions are formulated to guide the study.) 

II. Individual study. 

A. Books are selected according to interests and abilities of 
individuals or small groups. 

B. Children read short story or chapter individually without 

C. As children ask for unknown words, teacher tells word and 
then underscores word in her book, or places it on an 
individual list. 

D. Check-up is made on comprehension through: 

i. Questions related to content, either oral or written. 

2. Solving riddles and problems. 

3. Looking for the high points of interest in the story. 

III. Oral reading of literary selections. 

A. Oral reading may follow individual study of the story: 

1. To form the basis for oral discussion. 

2. To help group understand the story better. 

3. To help group relive the story: see the pictures, hear the 
sounds, feel the emotions. 

4. To share a story which one child has studied, and the 
others have not heard. 

B. Emphasis is placed on reading so that the audience will 
understand and be interested: 

1. Knowing material well before reading. 

2. Speaking in a clear distinct tone of voice. 

3. Interpreting the story in an individual way. 

Reading in Second Grade 425 

IV. Word mastery in connection with book reading (presented at 
a separate time from the reading period). 

A. Words are taken from list obtained in preceding reading 

B. Words are written on board (preferably not in a column 
but at random) and studied one at a time for similarity 
to known words, noting beginnings and endings and em- 
phasizing sounds of letters and combinations. Meanings are 

V. Testing program. 

Standardized tests are given at end of each semester by psy- 
chologist. Results are used: 

1. As a basis for grouping within the class. 

2. As a basis for recommendations for summer reading. 

3. As a basis for selecting those who need individual help. 

C. Books and Materials Used 

I. Related to experience reading. 

A. Chart and bulletin board. 

1. Manila tag board— cut in sizes for writing stories, ex- 
periments, announcements. 

2. India ink. 

3. Round head pens for manuscript writing. 

B. Blackboard. 

1. White dustless chalk. 

2. Pointer and erasers. 

C. Booklet making. 

1. Manila drawing paper (12 x 18). 

2. Colored mounting paper. 

3. Materials for illustration. 

a. Poster paper— colored. 

b. Magazine pictures. 

c. Crayolas and water colors. 

4. Writing paper for story material (wide-lined composi- 
tion paper). 

5. Brads and raffia for binding books. 

II. Primers and readers (selected according to the interests and ability 

of the group or the individual). 

Baker and Reed Curriculum Readers 1938 Bobbs-Merrill 

Baker and Baker Bobbs-Merrill Readers 1939 Bobbs-Merrill 

Baker and Baker True Story Series 1938 Bobbs-Merrill 


National College of Education 

Cutright, P. and 

Dopp, K. E., and 

Elson and Gray 
English and 

Gates, A. I., and 

Ha'hn and Harris 

Hildreth, G., and 

Hill and Martin 
O'Donnell and 

Smith, Nila B. 
Storm, Grace E. 

Democracy Readers 

Happy Road to Reading 

Elson Basic Readers 
Happy Hour Readers 

New Work-Play Books 

Child Development 

Easy Growth in Reading 

Real Life Readers 
Alice and Jerry Books 

Unit Activity Series 
Guidance in Reading 

III. Library equipment. 

A. Room library equipment. 

1. Low bookshelves. 

2. Reading table and chairs. 

3. Library card file. 

4. Bookrests. 

B. Books to read to children; as. 

Aimer, L. A. 
Bennett, Richard 
Cobb, B. 
Milne, A. A. 
Monvel, de— M. B. 
Phillips, E. C. 
Verdey, E. 
Wells, R. 
Wells, R. 
Whitney, E. 

Youmans, E. 

C. Easy material 
Beskow, Elsa 

Beskow, Elsa 
Beskow, Elsa 
Flack, Marjorie 
Flack, Marjorie 
Gag, Wanda 
GAg, Wanda 
Gay, Zhenya 
Hill. H. & Maxwell, 

Hill, H. & Maxwell, 

lee, E. & Read, H. 

1940 Macmillan 

1935 Rand, McNally 

1936 Scott Foresman 
1935 Johnson 

1939 Macmillan 

1935 Houghton Mifflin 

1940 Winston 

1930 Scribner 

1936 Row Peterson 

1935 Silver Burdett 

1936 Lyons and 


Forest Pool 

Shawneen and the Gander 


Now We Are Six 

Susanna's Auction 

Little Friend Lydia 

About Ellie at Sandacre 

Coco, the Goat 

Peppi, the Duck 

Tyke-y, His Book and His 

Great Adventures of Jack, 

Jock and Funny 

for individual children 

Aunt Green, Aunt Brown, 

Aunt Lavender 
Olle's Ski Trip 
Pelle's New Suit 
Walter, the Lazy Mouse 
Willy Nilly 
The ABC Bunny 
Snippy and Snappy 
Charlie and His Kitty 

Charlie and His Puppy 

Social Science Readers 

1938 Longmans 

1937 Doubleday 

1927 Putnam 

1928 Dutton 
1927 Macmillan 

1920 Houghton Mifflin 
1925 Dutton 

1929 Doubleday 
1927 Doubleday 
1925 Macmillan 

1938 Bobbs-Merrill 

to read; as, 
1929 Harper 

1929 Harper 

1930 Harper 
1937 Doubleday 

1936 Macmillan 

1933 Coward-McCann 
1928 Coward-McCann 

1937 Viking 
1927 Macmillan 

1927 Macmillan 

1928 Scribner 

Reading in Second Grade 


LeFevre, F. 

LeFevre, F. 
Lincoln School 
Lindman, Maj. 

Lofting, Hugh 
Lofting, Hugh 
Newberry, Clare 
Newberry, Clare 
Orton, Helen F. 

Orton, Helen F. 
Orton, Helen F. 
Orton, Helen F. 

Tippett, James 
Tippett, James 
Tippett, James 

The Cock, the Mouse and 

the Little Red Hen 
The Little Gray Goose 
Picture Scripts 
Snipp, Snapp, Snurr and 

the Buttered Bread 
Noisy Nora 
Story of Mrs. Tubbs 
Bobby of Cloverfield 

Little Lost Pigs 
Prancing Pat 
Prince and Rover of 

Cloverfield Farm 
I Go a-Traveling 
I Live in a City 
The Singing Farmer 

1920 Jacobs 

1925 Jacobs 

1935 Edward Sterne 
1934 Whitman 

1929 Stokes 

1923 Stokes 

1938 Harper 

1936 Harper 
1922 Stokes 

1925 Stokes 

1927 Stokes 

1921 Stokes 

1929 Harper 

1929 Harper 

1927 Harper 

D. Additional material available in school library: picture file, 
many story books, dictionary, large globe. 

IV. Practice materials. 

A. Published workbooks, accompanying some readers chosen 
for individual or group use. 

B. Mimeographed comprehension checks made by teacher to 
accompany books without tests. 

V. Tests. 

A. Informal tests, given from time to time. 

1. Oral reading— chart kept recording the number and 
kind of errors made by each child, in mispronunciation, 
substitution, insertion, words unknown, omission. 

2. Silent reading— same type of chart as used in oral read- 
ing, recording words child asks for when reading silently. 

B. Standardized tests. 

Metropolitan Achievement Test. World Book Company. 
New Stanford Achievement Test. World Book Company. 

D. Probable Outcomes 

I. Information. 

A. Related to the function and purpose of reading: fuller reali- 
zation of the uses of reading in record keeping, outlining 
plans, following directions, correspondence, advertisement, 
gaining information, recreation. 

B. Related to book construction. 

1. A fuller understanding of bookbinding, printing, en- 
graving, work of author, artist and printer. 

428 National College of Education 

2. Better understanding of organization of a book: cover, 
frontispiece, table of contents, chapters. 

3. Some understanding of the construction of a newspaper 
and magazine. 

C. Related to types of literature. 

1 . A clearer knowledge of various types of literature: stories, 
factual articles, prose, poetry, riddles, jokes, songs. 

2. A better idea of the differing functions of books, letters, 
magazines, newspapers, posters, dodgers. 

D. Related to library. 

1. The knowledge of library as source of getting informa- 
tion through maps, pictures, magazines, encyclopedias, 

2. The knowledge of library as a place to enjoy books of all 

3. An understanding of the personnel of a library. 

4. Knowledge concerning the function of a library card; 
the taking out and returning of books. 

5. Understanding of appropriate behavior in the library. 

6. Beginning of knowledge of where to find books wanted 
in the library. 

II. Attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Related to learning to read. 

1. Added interest and joy in learning to read because of 
desire to gain knowledge about certain things. 

2. Deeper appreciation of the value of knowing how to 

a. Satisfaction in solving problems through reading. 

b. Joy in being able to read to others. 

c. Joy derived from being able to read interesting stories 
and poems for own pleasure. 

3. Feeling of need for all types of reading activities. 

a. Reading for pleasure. 

b. Reading for information. 

c. Reading to give to others. 

d. Reading carefully to follow directions. 

4. Confidence in ability to read with increasing inde- 

B. Related to the use and ownership of books. 

1. Stronger desire to own good books as child realizes how 
much book world can give. 

2. A fuller appreciation of the beauty of books as shown 
through printing, illustrations, bindings. 

Reading in Second Grade 429 

3. Better appreciation of the value of books and willing- 
ness to exercise more care in the handling of books. 

4. Willingness to share books and stories as home library 

C. Related to the library. 

1. Added joy in browsing in the library. 

2. Continued willingness to cooperate with library rules 
and regulations. 

a. In taking out books. 

b. In care and use of library books. 

c. In responsibility in returning books. 

III. Habits and skills. 

A. Related to the use and care of books. 

1. Ability to use a book with very little wear and tear, not 
marking in the books, folding the leaves, bending cover 

2. Ability to mark the place correctly in a book if needed. 

3. Continued habit of sitting correctly, holding the book 
correctly and in right lighting conditions when reading, 
at the same time enjoying a natural relaxed freedom. 

4. Ability to find a story by the page number and through 
the table of contents. 

5. The habit of caring for a book taken home from school. 

a. Protecting from the weather when needed. 

b. Not leaving on playground or in the school car. 

c. Treating book carefully at home. 

d. Seeing that book is brought back. 

B. Related to the use of the library. 

1. Beginning of a habit of using library. 

2. Habit of quiet manner and conduct in the library. 

3. Effort toward being responsible for returning books 
within the time limit, and without a reminder. 

4. Ability to take books out and return books independ- 
ently with the help of the librarian and not the room 

C. Related to the mastery of technique. 

1. Well-established habit of concentration and purposeful 
work through the reading period. 

2. Increased ability in getting the thought when reading 

3. Certain degree of ability in retelling or discussing the 
story read. 

4. Considerable accuracy and independence in taking com- 

430 National College of Education 

prehension tests, and answering comprehension ques- 

5. Ability to read orally with a marked degree of accuracy. 

6. The ability to read orally fluently and with sufficient 
dramatic interpretation to hold the interest of the 

7. Habit of listening courteously to others read. 

8. The ability to keep the place in group reading. 

9. The ability to read material used in the group inde- 
pendently and quite fluently. 

10. The ability to follow somewhat simple directions within 
the child's reading vocabulary. 

11. The ability to note differences and likenesses in be- 
ginnings and endings of words. 

12. The ability to attack many new words phonetically, pro- 
nouncing them as wholes. 

13. A growing ability to recognize new words through the 

Reading in Third Grade 

An outline based on records for one year 

A. Activities 
Reading activities related to group experiences. (Materials com- 
posed by children and teachers.) 

A. From the bulletin board. 

1. Reading notices from other rooms and from the school 

2. Reading changes of program and special invitations to 
programs and assemblies. 

B. From the blackboard. 

1. Reading suggestions for work before regular school day 
begins; as, 

Finish number work. 
Correct spelling. 
Mount pictures. 

2. Reading daily plans made by the group; as, 

Bill and Andrew will work on the Mexican house. 
Loraine and Edith will paint scenery. 

3. Reading directions for committees working on specific 

C. From children's papers and notebooks. 

1. Reading poems composed by groups and individuals; 
records of trips taken during vacations; stories written 
about animals and pets; stories telling of excursions, as 
to Field Museum and Shedd Aquarium. 

D. From booklets containing original work of children; as, 

1. Book of Poems. 

Vacation Poems. 
Halloween Poems. 
Winter Poems. 
Rainy Day Poems. 

2. Individual books made by children according to par- 
ticular interests; as, 

My Trip to the Aquarium. 
A Trip to the Country. 
Gathering Seeds in Autumn. 
My Book of Flowers. 

E. From correspondence. 

1. Invitations from other rooms. 

2. Dodgers sent to the room from other rooms. 


432 National College of Education 

3. Letters from business firms of whom questions had been 

4. Letters from children who were absent from school for 
several days at a time. 

F. From school newspapers and magazines. 

II. Guided reading from books. (Readers are chosen for individuals 
and groups according to ability and different interests. Grade 
labels are disregarded.) 

A. Activities related to the care and use of child's own book. 

1. Using the table of contents to find selections. 

2. Practicing the correct way to turn pages in a book, care 
for cover and binding. 

3. Practicing correct way to open a new book. 

B. Silent reading. 

1. To enjoy an interesting story. 

2. To select story for some special activity. 

3. To find outcome of story. 

4. To gain specific information. 

C. Oral reading. 

1. To take part in a dramatic reading of the story. 

2. To help the group to enjoy the humor or beauty of the 

3. To prove points that were not clear. 

4. To provide the basis for a group discussion. 

5. To share a story which one child has enjoyed and the 
others have not heard. 

III. Free reading. 

A. Use of room library. 

1. Choosing books to read alone. 

2. Selecting books for home reading. 

3. Selecting material to read to the group. 

B. Use of school library. 

1. Enjoying library period by looking at books on shelves. 

2. Using school library for material not in room library: 
information about topics of study; pictures and maga- 
zines; large globe; variety of story books. 

IV. Individual use of work-type material, emphasizing comprehension. 

A. Using booklets accompanying some sets of readers; check- 
ing up after each test to be sure work is correct. 

B. Using independent work-type books to gain certain needed 

Reading in Third Grade 433 

B. Procedure for Guided Reading 

I. Presentation of new material. (Teacher stimulates interest in the 
story through discussions, pictures, or objects. Questions to guide 
study may be formulated.) 

II. Silent study. 

A. Children read entire story silently, if story is not too long. 

B. Teacher underlines unknown words in her book as children 
ask for them; makes list of words found difficult. 

C. Check-up is made on comprehension through questions and 

III. Oral reading of literary selections. 

Oral reading often follows silent study of story, with emphasis 
on these points: 

A. Reading so that audience will enjoy, story, hear the sounds, 
see the pictures, understand the meaning. 

B. Knowing the material before reading. 

C. Speaking clearly in a pleasing tone. 

IV. Word study in connection with book reading (presented as needs 

A. Words are presented from lists made in preceding lessons. 

B. Words are written on board, alone or in phrases, meaning 
explained, similarity to familiar words noted. 

V. Testing. 

Standardized tests are given at the end of each semester by 
psychologist and results are used: 

A. As a basis for grouping within the class. 

B. As a basis for selecting those who need special help. 

C. As a basis for recommendations for home reading. 

G. Books and Materials Used 

I. Graded readers (chosen according to the interests and ability of 

the individual or the group). 

Baker and Reed Curriculum Readers 1938 Bobbs-Merrill 

Baker and Baker Bobbs-Merrill Readers 1939 Bobbs-Merrill 

Baker and Baker True Story Series 1938 Bobbs-Merrill 

Cutright, P. and Democracy Readers 1940 Macmillan 


Dopp, K. E., and Happy Road to Reading 1935 Rand-McNally 


Elson and Gray Elson Basic Readers 1936 Scott Foresman 


National College of Education 

English and 
Gates, A. F., and 

Halm and Harris 

Hildreth, Ci., and 

Hill atid Martin 
Hnher. M.B., 

and others 
O Donnell and 

Smith, Nila B. 
Storm, Grace E. 

Happy Flour Readers 

New Work Play Rooks 

Child Development 

Easy Growth in Reading 

Real Life Readers 
Wonder-Story Rooks 

Alice and Jerry Books 

Unit Activity Series 
Guidance in Reading 

II. Room Library. 

A. Equipment. 

1. Low bookshelves. 

2. Reading table and chairs. 

3. Library file cards. 

4. Bookrests. 

B. Books read to the children; as, 

Bemelmans, Ludwig 
Bemelmans, Ludwig 
Cohb, B. B. & E. 
Collodi, C. 
Morley, M. W. 
Sterne, E. G. 

C. Books read by 

Adams, S. W. 
Batchelder, M. 
Bianco, M. W. 
Bianco, M. W. 
Brock, E. L. 
Burgess, T. W. 
Burnett, E. 
Col urn, P. 
Coolidge, F. C. 
Dalgliesh, Alice 
Grahame, K. 
Hill, Helen & 

Maxwell V. 
Home, R. H. 
Hulbert, W. D. 
Hunt, C. W. 
Hunt, C. W. 
Hyams, L. 

Lang, A. 

Lathrop, Dorothy 
Lathrop, Dorothy 
Lindman, Maj 

Castle Number Nine 
Golden Basket 
Little Mitchell 
White Swallow 

individual children; as, 

Five Little Friends 

Peggy Stories 

Poor Cecco 

The Velvet Rabbit 

Little Fat Gretchen 

Old Mother West Wind 

Little Lord Fauntleroy 

The Peep Show Man 

Little Ugly Face 

American Travels 

The Wind in the Willows 

Little Tonino 

The Good Natured Bear 
Forest Neighbors 
Peggy's Playhouse 
About Harriet 
The Dog Who Looked 

Bouncing Betsy 
Hide and Go Seek 
Spiky, the Hedgehog 
Snipp, Snapp, Snurr 

and the Big Surprise 

•935 Johnson 

1939 Macmillan 

1 935 Houghton Mifflin 

if)|o Winston 

1930 Scribners 

1938 Row, Peterson 

1936 Row, Peterson 

1935 Silver-Biirdett 

1936 Lyons and 


1937 Viking 
1936 Viking 
1927 Putnam 
1923 Winston 
1904 McClurg 
1927 Duffield 

1922 Macmillan 

1924 Scribners 

1925 Doran 

1927 Doran 
1934 Knopf 

1910 Little Brown 

1914 Scribner 

1929 Macmillan 

1925 Macmillan 
1933 Macmillan 
1908 Scribners 

1928 Macmillan 

1930 Macmillan 

1915 Row Peterson 
1924 Houghton Mifflin 

1916 Houghton Mifflin 
1939 Bobbs-Merrill 

1926 Longmans Green 

1936 Macmillan 
1938 Macmillan 
1938 Harper 

1937 Whitman 

Reading in Third Grade 


Milne, A. A. 
Morrow, E. 
Mulock, D. M. 
Orton, H. F. 
Phillips, E. C. 
Phillips, E. C. 
Phillips, E. C. 
Reno, E. W. 

Simon, B., & 
Michelle, M. 
Wells, R. 
Wells, R. 

Now We Are Six 
The Painted Pig 
Adventures of a Brownie 
Little Lost Pigs 
Little Friend Lydia 
Wee Ann 

The Pop-Over Family 
The Pup Called 

Peg and Pete See New 

Coco the Goat 
Peppi the Duck 

1927 Dutton 

1930 Knopf 

1924 Harper 

1930 Stokes 

1920 Houghton Mifflin 

1919 Houghton Mifflin 

1927 Houghton Mifflin 

1939 Bobbs-Merrill 

1939 Bobbs-Merrill 

1929 Doubleday 
1927 Doubleday 

Note: Books related to units of work are included with units 
of work and are not repeated here. 

III. Additional material available in the school library: picture files, 
large globe, large dictionary, encyclopedias, many easy books 
suitable for independent reading, magazines. 

IV. Practice materials. 

A. Published work-type materials, accompanying some readers, 
selected for group use. 

B. Mimeographed comprehension checks made by teacher to 
accompany some stories not followed by tests. 

V. Tests. 

A. Informal test records kept by teacher. 

1. Oral reading chart kept with errors of each child. 

2. Silent reading chart kept of words asked for in inde- 
pendent reading. 

B. Standardized tests. 

Metropolitan Achievement Test. World Book Company. 
New Stanford Achievement Test. World Book Company. 

D. Probable Outcomes 

I. Information. 

A. Related to the function and purposes of reading: fuller 
realization of needs for reading to follow directions, to 
carry on correspondence, to gain information and pleasure. 

B. Related to book construction. 

1. Better understanding of processes involved in making a 
book, work of author, artist, printer, binder. 

2. Better understanding of organization of book into cover, 
table of contents, frontispiece, chapters, index. 

436 National College of Education 

C. Related to types of literature. 

1. Better understanding of different types of literature: 
fables, fairy stories, poetry, jokes, factual reading, 
humorous stories. 

2. A better idea of functions of books, magazines, letters, 

D. Related to library. 

i. Fuller knowledge of the library as a source of informa- 
tion: encyclopedias, dictionary, reference books. 

2. Fuller knowledge of library as a place to read books for 

3. Fuller knowledge of effective use of library. 

II. Attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Related to reading. 

1. Added interest and pleasure in learning to find out 
things alone. 

2. Increased appreciation of value of knowing how to read. 

3. Satisfaction in solving own problems through reading 

4. Joy In reading to others and in reading for own pleasure. 

5. Feeling of need for various kinds of reading skills; pains- 
taking reading to follow directions or master facts; 
thoughtful reading to solve problems; rapid reading for 
pleasure; fluent reading to give pleasure to others. 

B. Related to the use and ownership of books. 

1. Increased desire to own good books. 

2. Appreciation of the beauty of books, in binding, illustra- 
tion, arrangement. 

3. More of an idea of value of books. 

4. Increased willingness to share books with others. 

C. Related to library. 

1. Increased interest in going to library alone and in co- 
operating with librarians in regulations of library, for 
taking out books, for care and use of books, and for re- 
turning books on time. 

2. Interest in starting a home library. 

III. Habits and skills. 

A. Related to the use and care of books. 

1. Ability to use books carefully with as little wear and tear 
as possible. 

2. Improvement in posture while reading. 

Reading in Third Grade 437 

3. Ability to find the story by using the page number in 
table of contents. 

4. Better habits in caring for books taken home from school: 
protecting from weather; not losing books on campus or 
in school car; bringing book back on. time. 

B. Related to the use of the library. 

1 . Increased skill in using the library. 

2. Good self control in the library; ability to consider a 

C. Related to mastery to technique. 

1. Continued habits of concentration and purposeful work 
in reading. 

2. More skill in reading to solve problems. 

3. Increased ability at getting thought when reading si- 

4. Ability to follow directions accurately. 

5. Independence in taking comprehension tests. 

6. Increased ability to retell a story read, and to report 
orally on factual material acquired through reading. 

7. Improved ability to read orally so that others can un- 
derstand and enjoy what is read. 

8. Increased ability to read orally, smoothly, accurately and 
in a pleasing tone. 

g. Development of speed in silent reading and fluency in 
oral reading. 

10. Continued habit of listening courteously while others 

11. Increased ability in attacking new words in parts, and 
in recognizing common word beginnings and word end- 
ings; increased ability in pronouncing new words by com- 
parison with words previously learned. 

Reading in Fourth Grade 

A. Activities and Procedure 

I. Reading of material composed by teacher and children. 

A. Related to personal experiences. 

1. Stories describing vacation experiences. 

2. Stories of interesting happenings at home. 

3. Original conundrums, riddles and puzzles. 

4. Personal account books and diaries. 

B. Related to group interests. 

1. Signs, posters, maps, charts, pictures, graphs, pertaining 
to vacation, Halloween, Valentine's Day, Christmas, and 
other interests. 

2. Captions for movies, titles of books, pictures. 

3. Stories written about various aspects of problems under 
study, as, "How We Get Oranges for Breakfast," "How 
to Feed Baby Chicks." 

4. Lists of books prepared for use as reference material 
on various problems. 

5. Various cooking recipes. 

6. Group and individual diaries kept of experiments per- 

7. Directions given on blackboard for conduct and plans 
for excursions taken, as excursion to fire department in 
study of Chicago. 

8. Class records and stories from bulletin board. 

9. Bills, receipts and financial reports related to selling 

10. Original poems and stories, included in school news- 
paper and magazine. 

1 1 . Orders made out for supplies needed for various activi- 

12. Records of achievement both of group and individual. 

13. Correspondence with other rooms, firms, school authori- 
ties; personal letters; announcements, advertisements 
and programs. 

14. Scenes of original plays. 

15. Reports giving facts found in answer to questions and 

16. Lists of spelling words formulated by the group, grow- 
ing out of needs. 

17. Lists of materials available or needed. 


Reading in Fourth Grade 


The Library Leads to New Adventure 

C. Related to citizenship and health. 

1. Charts for height and weight. 

2. Original health slogans and rhymes. 

3. Original stories for health play, given by the group. 

4. Original menus, composed for parties. 

5. Charts, records, graphs, pertaining to habit formation, 
rules for self-control. 

6. Committee reports and recommendations pertaining to 
right use of halls, toilet, playground, school equipment. 

D. Related to room procedure. 

1. Program for the day; plans for the week; plans for large 
units of work. 

2. Notices posted by individuals (teacher and children) 
pertaining to room activities, committee meetings, use 
of materials. 

II. Library activities. 

A. Organizing and using the room library. 

1. Reading plans for organization of room library. 

2. Reading book lists chosen to be included in room library. 

44° National College oj Education 

3. Scanning individual and class lists of books read. 
/[. Reading selections from favorite books, brought from 
home, placed in room library. 

5. Reading book reports written by teachers and children. 

6. Listening to interesting poems, stories, articles read by 
the teacher, individual children and groups of children. 

B. Learning to use the school library. 

1. Learning to know the position of groups of books, as 
reference, fiction, science. 

2. Understanding and using the card catalogue and picture 

3. Understanding and using the globe, encyclopedias, large 
dictionary and other reference material. 

4. Using individual cards for drawing out books, with 
proper procedure. 

5. Learning best methods of finding materials effectively. 

6. Learning the habits necessary for effective use, as low 
voices, placing books upon shelves in right order. 

C. Enjoying the school library. 

1. Finding books of interest and sharing with others. 

2. Sharing beautiful pictures, new books and magazines. 

3. Dramatization of stories read. 

4. Reading poetry and memorizing parts liked best. 

D. Caring for books. 

1. Learning value and care of books. 

a. Discussing the process of making books, their history 
and development. 

b. Looking at pictures, movie of a book in the making. 

c. Discussing the value of books, cost of making. Com- 
parative prices. 

d. Discussing the proper treatment of new books, as 
opening the book, using a marker, inserting a book- 

e. Making bookplates and markers for books. 

f. Making of book ends and book standards for dis- 
playing books. 

2. Learning to use books. 

a. Maintaining hygienic habits of reading, as correct 
posture both standing and sitting; proper way of 
holding book, for turning pages and securing light. 

b. Reading charts as reminders of above points. 

c. Discussing and learning to use title page, preface, 
table of contents, chapter headings, index, notes, 
references, appendix and illustrative materials. 

Reading in Fourth Grade 441 

d. Using the dictionary for the purpose of arriving at 
pronunciation of new words independently. 

III. Guided reading activities for appreciation and skills (from books). 

A. Silent reading. 

1. Reading to answer questions related to social studies, 
natural and general science. 

2. Reading to follow directions: 

a. Making various objects. 

b. Cooking experiments. 

c. Arithmetic problems. 

d. Playing games. 

e. Following daily program. 

3. Reading to reproduce ideas and information through 
graphic and plastic materials, as pictorial tables, puppet 
show, time chart of historical events. 

4. Reading to verify conclusions, by citing authorities. 

5. Reading to judge values. 

a. To find favorite stanza or paragraph. 

b. To find most beautiful descriptive scenes, the best 
character sketches, well-chosen words and phrases. 

c. To get general impression to see if material is usable 
for certain definite work. 

6. Organizing and outlining material by listing main points. 

7. Selecting the central thought of a story, or a paragraph. 

8. Reading to note important details. 

9. Interpreting maps, graphs, charts. 

10. Reading and discussing new words, helping to build a 
more comprehensive vocabulary. 

1 1 . Reading and discussing selections for the purpose of 
visualizing details. 

B. Oral reading. 

1. Giving informal programs of stories and poems by the 
Book Club. 

2. Giving dramatizations of poems, stories. 

3. Sharing selections from favorite authors and poets. 

4. Reading worth-while sections from magazines, news- 
papers and books, related to various class discussions in 
social studies, natural and general science. 

5. Sharing humorous stories and conundrums at birthday 
parties and on festival days. 

6. Reading to support judgment and to prove points in dis- 

7. Reading certain parts to discuss the answers to questions 

442 National College of Education 

proposed by the children or the teacher. 

8. Reading poems lor enjoyment; dialogues and mono- 
logues for interpretation. 

9. Sharing interesting, exciting, dramatic and humorous 

10. Reading in relay: children working in small group pre- 
pare to read a selection to another group, the purpose 
being pleasure and not to have any break in the story. 

1 1 . Group to group reading: children in small groups, each 
group having a different book, read the story to another 

12. Reading to select stories and poems for room programs. 

13. Reading to advertise books to other children. 

14. Reading to understand the story better. 

IV. Use of work-type material (as needed by groups and individuals). 

A. Teacher made. 

1. Practice to build vocabulary, as selecting words from 
content to use in original sentences. 

2. Underlining word that means the same. 

3. Underlining word that has opposite meaning. 

4. Underlining phrase which best gives thought of para- 
graph read. 

5. Using checks on comprehension of reading: true-false; 
completion tests; multiple choice. 

6. Using three-minute tests to check rate of reading. 

7. Using objective tests on social studies, natural and gen- 
eral science. 

8. Keeping individual and class score sheets. 

9. Practice in finding reference to topics on certain pages. 
10. Practice in using the index as an aid in finding references 

to questions and problems. 

B. Printed material. 

Using practice exercises and tests as individual needs sug- 

V. Use of standardized tests. 

A. To determine standard of accomplishment for individuals 
and the group. 

B. To form basis for organizing groups within the room. 

C. To help in diagnosing difficulties of both group and indi- 

D. To provide basis for remedial help in a group and for indi- 

Reading in Fourth Grade 


B. Books and Materials Used 

Library equipment in the room. 

A. Furniture and equipment. 

1. Reading tables and chairs. 

2. Bookcases, book ends, bookrests. 

3. Maps, globes, puzzle maps. 

4. Stamps for marking dates. 

5. Rack for placing books advertised by groups and in- 

6. Bulletin board for posting library notices, newspaper 
clippings, pictures. 

7. Museum table (made by group) upon which to place 
completed books and posters. 

B. Accessories. 

1. List of books suitable for fourth grade reading. 

2. Mimeographed copies of book report forms, including: 

Name of child. 

Name of book. 


Date completed. 

List of important characters. 

The best points about the book. 

3. File for pictures used in social studies. 

4. File for pamphlets dealing with natural and general 
science and social studies. 

5. Card file, with cards containing comprehension ques- 
tions, concerning certain books, dealing with specific 

II. Books for individual 

Atkinson, Agnes A. 
Carroll, L. 
Chrismas, A. B. 
Coatsworth, E. J. 
Davis, Lavinia 
DeAngeli, M. 
DeAngeli, M. 
Dyott, George M. 
Ekerle, I. 
Emerson, Caroline 

Field, Rachel 

Ghosh, P. S. 

Kipling, Rudyard 
Leetch, D. L. 

reading; as: 

Skinny the Gray Fox 

Alice in Wonderland 

Shen of the Sea 

Away Goes Sally 

The Keys to the City 

Copper-Toed Boots 

Petite Suzanne 

Nip and Tuck 

Through the Harbor 

Father's Big Improve- 

Hitty, Her First Hundred 

The Wonders of the 

Just So Stories 

Annetje and Her Family 

1936 Viking Press 
1920 Macmillan 
1925 Dutton 

1934 Macmillan 

1936 Scribner 
1938 Doubleday 

1937 Doubleday 

1935 Viking Press 

1938 Bobbs-Merrill 

1936 Stokes 

1930 Macmillan 

1915 Heath 

1920 Doubleday 
1928 Lothrop 


National College oj Education 

Leetch, D. L. 

Mukerji, D. G. 
Muloch, Dinah 
Muloch, Dinah 
Ratzesberger, Anna 
Reed, W. M. 
Reed, W. M. 
Thompson, A. T. 
Walker, J. L. 
Wiggin, K. D. 

Wilder, Laura I. 
Wynne, A. 
Youmans, Eleanor 

1 oininy Tuckei 

Kari, the Elephant 

The Little Lame Prince 

Adventures of a Brownie 

Camel Bells 

The Earth for Sam 

The Stars for Sam 

The Birch and the Star 

How They Carried Mail 

The Birds' Christmas 

Farmer Boy 
For Days and Days 
The Forest Road 

1925 Lothrop 
1927 Dutton 
1918 Lippincott 

1918 Lippincott 
1936 Whitman 

1930 Harcourt Brace 

1931 Harcourt Brace 
1910 Row Peterson 
1930 Sears 

1916 Houghton Mifflin 

1933 Harper 

1919 Stokes 

1939 Bobbs-Merrill 

III. Books for reading groups (used according to interests and abilities 
of the groups, disregarding grade labels). 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

1939 Bobbs-Merrill 

1940 Macmillan 

1935 Houghton Mifflin 

1936 Scott Foresman 
1932 Macmillan 

1938 Houghton Mifflin 

1931 Winston 

1940 Silver Burdett 

1931 Doubleday 

1934 Johnson 

1935 Macmillan 
1935 Scott Foresman 

Baker and Baker 
Baker and Baker 
Cutright, P., and 

Eichel, C. G. and 

Elson and Gray 
Gates and Ayer 
Hahn, Julia L., and 

Lewis and Rowland 
Smith and Bayne 
Smith, E. E., and 

Wright, Wendell 

W., and others 
Yoakum, G. A., and 


The Earth We Live On 
Bobbs-Merrill Readers 
Democracy Readers 

Treasure Chest of 

Elson Basic Readers 
Work-Play Books 
Child Development 

New Silent Readers 
Distant Doorways 
Adventures in Reading 

Modern World Readers 

Reading to Learn 

Junior Dictionary 

IV. Periodicals. 

National Geographic (for pictures). 
Nature Magazine. 
Popular Mechanics. 
My Weekly Reader. 
Story Parade. 

V. Practice materials. 

A. Work-type printed material, accompanying some readers 
chosen for group or individual use. 

B. Teacher made material. 

1. Sets of vocabulary cards, using words needed by children. 

2. Mimeographed material— involving: 

a. Material to test comprehension (true-false, comple- 
tion, multiple choice). 

Reading in Fourth Grade 445 

b. Material assisting children to do research in phases 
of natural and general science and social studies. 

VI. Standardized tests. 

New Stanford Achievement Test World Book Company 

Progressive Achievement Test California Test Bureau 

C. Probable Outcomes 

I. Outcomes in information. 

A. A growing knowledge of how books, newspapers, periodi- 
cals, have developed. 

B. A better knowledge of the work of the author, artist, printer, 

C. Some background for judging the mechanical make-up of 
the book; as, the cover, title page, contents, type, paper. 

D. A growing knowledge of books as sources of information 
and pleasure. 

E. A growing knowledge of kinds of books and their uses; as 
encyclopedias, dictionaries, readers' guide, atlas. 

F. An increasing knowledge of the origin, function and use 
of the library: 

1. Proper procedure in drawing out books. 

2. The library as an index to the best books to read. 

3. How libraries get books— source of money and gifts. 

4. The work of the various officers in the library. 

G. An increased understanding of the cost of books and their 

H. A growing knowledge of authors and something of their 
life and works. 

I. A better understanding of how to use books in solving prob- 

J. A better understanding of the hygienic way of using books, 
holding book for proper light, posture of body when read- 

K. Some knowledge of best means of making progress in read- 

L. Some knowledge of best habits of study. 

II. Outcomes in attitudes and appreciations. 

A. An appreciation of the beauty of descriptive words and 

B. A growing appreciation of good literature and the charm 
of certain characters and incidents described in classic 

446 National College of Education 

C. A growing capacity for securing enjoyment from the use 
and ownership of books. 

D. A developing love and appreciation for good books. 

E. An enjoyment in hearing stories read and an appreciation 
of the need for courtesy on the part of the listener or audi- 

F. A growing joy in selecting and preparing a story to read to 

G. A willingness to use books as a source for information. 
H. A growing pride in the school library. 

I. An increasing desire to cooperate with others to build a 
better library. 

J. An increasing responsibility in the care and use of library 
books, and a willingness to handle books carefully. 

K. An appreciation and growing- desire to improve the quality 
of voice, to secure clear enunciation and correct pronuncia- 
tion in reading. 

L. A growing appreciation of the value of different kinds of 
reading skills, as: 

1. Reading to follow directions. 

2. Reading to find details. 

3. Reading to predict outcomes. 

4. Reading to solve problems, answer questions. 

M. An increasing willingness to practice necessary skills in 
order to insure growth and overcome wasteful habits. 

III. Outcomes in habits and skills. 

A. Progress in eliminating undesirable habits; as, head and lip 
movement, repetition. 

B. Increasing ability to master new and unfamiliar words, by 
i. Fitting word into the context. 

2. Picking out phonetic elements. 

3. Using dictionary. 

C. More ability to make effective use of table of contents, word 
lists, chapter and marginal headings. 

D. More ability to read with a definite purpose, to judge, or- 
ganize, during the process of reading. 

E. A growing ability to scan books to judge their worth or 

F. A beginning of ability to skim over material quickly and 
to get the gist of it. 

G. A beginning of ability to take notes on material read. 

H. A beginning of ability to organize material in terms of prob- 
lem or purpose and to locate information for such, involv- 

Reading in Fourth Grade 447 

ing the use of reference books and readers' guides. 

I. A beginning of ability to collect and arrange isolated ma- 
terial found in different sources dealing with the same prob- 

J. A beginning of ability to find main topics and details under 
these topics, in a selection. 

K. An increased ability to read accurately and fluently both 
silently and orally. 

L. An improvement in the ability to read orally with a well- 
modulated voice and with poise. 

M. Progress in power to hold the interest of a group in oral 

Reading in Fifth Grade 

A. Activities 

I. Reading of material composed by teacher and children relating to 
group interests. 

A. Reading bulletin board (blackboard also used for some no- 

1. Directions or suggestions for work, excursions, play ac- 

2. Names on committees. 

3. Lists of materials available for certain projects. 

4. Class records in spelling, arithmetic, and other work. 

5. Signs and notices from other rooms and school office. 

6. Financial reports from activities; other committee re- 

7. Class weight and height chart. 

8. Class lists of spelling words needed. 

9. Room menu. 

io. Daily or weekly program. 

B. Reading finished pieces of work in social studies. 

1. Finished stories and poems. 

2. Finished books. 

3. Stories for talkies. 

4. Parts in plays written. 

5. Graphs, charts, posters, diagrams, and maps made by 
children to show information gained. 

6. Titles or captions of pictures. 

7. Diaries written on vacation trips. 

8. Reports gained through reference material. 

C. Reading correspondence. 

1. Letters, invitations, and notices written to share with 
classmates and for criticism. 

2. Invitations, letters, and notices from other rooms. 

3. Correspondence from school office and outside firms. 

4. Letters received from absent classmates. 

D. Reading school publications. 

1. Articles submitted for use in school publications. 

2. School newspaper and magazine. 
E. Reading individual records. 

1. Individual progress charts. 

2. Individual records of jobs finished and jobs yet to do. 


Reading in Fifth Grade 


First Aid to Librarians 

II. Caring for and using books. 

A. Caring for books. 

1. Continuing respectful handling of books. 

2. Preparing new books for use, by careful opening and 
marking for identification. 

3. Discussing points to remember in care of book. 

4. Proper marking of place when leaving story. 

5. Making book ends and book markers. 

B. Continuing good reading habits. 

1. Practicing proper posture when reading, both standing 
and sitting. 

2. Continuing proper holding of book with reference to 
distance from eyes, convenience for turning pages, and 
proper lighting. 

C. Using books effectively. 

1. Finding pages quickly. 

2. Using table of contents, index, title page, maps and pic- 
tures to the best advantage. 

45<> National (College of Education 

III. Library activities. 

A. Enjoying room library with teacher. 

1. Listening to teacher read books, read or tell favorite 
poem or story. 

2. Reading aloud favorite story, poem, or portion from 

3. Reading pictures together. 

4. Memorizing favorite poems. 

5. Bringing favorite book from home for room library. 

B. Use of school library. 

1. Learning plan of library and location of books, such as: 

a. Location of reference material. 

b. Location of historical material. 

2. Learning how to find different material related to group 
interest, by use of readers' guide, encyclopedias, book 

3. Learning how to take books from the library by a new- 

4. Continuing to use the library so that all concerned may 
enjoy it; as, using low voices, no unnecessary talking, 
replacing books correctly. 

5. Enjoying new books and magazines. 

IV. Independent individual reading for pleasure and information. 

A. Advertising good books to induce others to read. 

1. Reading aloud portions of the book, stopping so that 
other children will want to go on and read the book. 

2. Dramatizing bits from a book. 

3. Placing the book itself on display. 

4. Posting report of book read. 

5. Making poster advertisements of books enjoyed. 

B. Keeping records of books read. 

1. Filling in mimeographed blanks for books read, stating 
title, author, date read, opinion of book, and a sentence 
or two as to its content. 

2. Keeping records in individual folders of books read. 

C. Organizing a Book Club (a spontaneous activity). 

1. Forming club of those people who wish to do extensive 
home reading. 

2. Making wall poster for club members. 

3. Keeping a classified list of books in different fields read 
by each member. 

D. Guiding individual reading (activities carried on with help 
of teacher and librarian). 

Reading in Fifth Grade 451 

1. Checking on book report as to whether book is listed in 
Children's Catalogue. 

2. Posting list of good books tor children to choose from. 

3. Posting advertisements of good books for boys and for 
girls, such as lists of pirate stories, school stories, animal 

4. Discussing why care should be used in selecting books. 

5. Discussing what constitutes a good book. 

E. Using books of informational type to solve problems. 

1. Looking up material on topics in social studies. 

2. Reading material found on problems to classmates. 

3. Collecting books for committees on specific topics. 

4. Making simple bibliographies for social studies topics. 

Group reading activities for skills and appreciations (from books 
chosen according to group interests and needs). 

A. Silent. 

1. Reading for main idea of the story after an introduction 
of one or two motivating questions by teacher. 

2. Reading for specific information such as answers to 

3. Reading selection quickly and carefully to be followed 
by a comprehension test. 

4. Reading for main idea of paragraph for the purpose of 
outlining or retelling. 

5. Reading to find topic sentence in a paragraph. 

6. Learning to skim through material for information 

7. Reading to note new and interesting words. 

8. Discussing new words met for the purpose of building a 

9. Reading to dramatize. 

10. Reading directions for playing games, making objects, 
following suggestions for work. 

11. Reading to note details. 

12. Reading arithmetic problems. 

13. Using dictionary as aid. 

B. Oral. 

1. Giving informal story and poem programs by one group 
for another. 

2. Reading parts of stories enjoyed, such as humorous bits 
to group. 

3. Reading to prove point in discussion. 

4. Reading portions to answer question. 

452 National College of Education 

5. Reading poems for enjoyment of pictures, rhythm, 

6. Reading to enjoy dialogue. 

7. Reading to understand the story better. 

VI. Use of work-type material (as needed by groups and individ- 

A. Teacher made. 

1. Using exercises to build vocabulary, such as: 

a. Using words from content in original sentences. 

b. Taking multiple choice test on words, such as: 

Underline the words that mean the same: 
large small big wide hard 

2. Using checks on comprehension after reading; as, true- 
false tests, multiple choice tests, and completion tests. 

3. Using work sheets on topics in social studies to be filled 
in as information is found. 

4. Using work sheets on finding material, as finding pages 
where certain topics will be discussed in a given book. 

5. Taking three-minute reading tests, checking on words 
read per minute and comprehension. 

6. Taking objective tests on material in the social studies. 

B. Printed material. 

Using work-type readers or workbooks accompanying 
readers selected for individual or group use. 

VII. Use of tests. 

A. By teacher— giving informal objective tests to check on 
skills worked for. 

B. By psychologist— giving standardized tests as basis for group- 
ing, for remedial work, and for summer reading. 

B. Books and Materials Used 

I. Library equipment in room. 

A. Furnishings. 

1. Bookcase. 

2. Library table (30 x 50) and four chairs. 

3. Book ends (made by children). 

4. File for library cards (made by children). 

5. Bookrests. 

B. Materials. 

1. Tagboard folders (9 x 12) for each child's book reports. 

2. Mimeographed blanks for reports on books. 

Reading in Fifth Grade 


II. Books for group study. Selections are made according to needs 
and interests of groups, without regard to grade labels. 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

1939 Bobbs-Merrill 

1940 Macmillan 

1935 Houghton Mifflin 

1936 Scott Foresman 
1932 Macmillan 

1938 Houghton Mifflin 

1931 Winston 

1940 Silver Burdett 

1931 Doubleday 

1934 Johnson 

1935 Macmillan 

*935 Scott Foresman 
*939 Winston 

Baker and Baker 
Baker and Baker 
Cutright, P., and 

Eichel, C. G., and 

Elson and Gray 
Gates and Ayer 
Hahn, Julia L., and 

Lewis and Rowland 
Smith and Bayne 
Smith, E. E., and 

Wright, Wendell 

W., and others 
Yoakum, G. A., and 

Winston Simplified 

Making America 
Bobbs-Merrill Readers 
Democracy Readers 

Treasure Chest of 

Elson Basic Readers 
Work -PI ay Books 
Child Development 

New Silent Readers 
Frontiers Old and New 
Adventures in Reading 

Modern World Readers 

Reading to Learn 

Junior Dictionary 
Dictionary for Schools 

III. Room library. 

A. A few such books as: 

Alcott, Louisa M. 
Carr, Mary J. 

Colum, P. 
Eggleston, E. 
Enright, Elizabeth 
Field, Eugene 
Fox, F. C. 
Fox, Frances M. 
Grey, Katherine 
Grey, Katherine 
Grinnell, G. B. 
Grinnell, G. B. 
Hader, B. & D. 
Halliburton, R. 
Hawthorne, N. 
Hilles, Helen T. 
Kipling, Rudyard 
Knox, Rose B. 

Lear, Edward 
Lee, Melicent H. 
Lee, Melicent H. 
Melbo, Irving R. 
Patch, Edith M. 

Phillips, E. C. 
Riley, James W. 

Sidney, M. 
Simon, Charlie M. 
Simon, Charlie M. 

Jack and Jill 

Children of the Covered 

Arabian Nights 
Hoosier School Master 
Thimble Summer 
Poems of Childhood 
How the World Rides 
Flowers and Their Travels 
Rolling Wheels 
Hills of Gold 
Jack Among the Indians 
Jack in the Rockies 

Book of Marvels 
Wonder Book 
Play Street 
Jungle Book 
The Boys and Sally 

Down on a Plantation 
Nonsense Book 
Pablo and Petra 
Children of Banana Land 
Our America 
First Lessons in Nature 

Gay Madelon 
Little Orphan Annie and 

other Childhood Poems 
Five Little Peppers 
Teeny Gay 
Lost Corner 

1928 Little Brown 
1934 Crowell 

1923 Macmillan 

1928 Macmillan 
1938 Farrar 
1925 Scribner 

1929 Scribner 

1936 Bobbs-Merrill 

1932 Little Brown 

1933 Little Brown 
1900 Stokes 

1904 Stokes 
1932 Macmillan 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 
1910 Houghton Mifflin 
1936 Random House 
1916 Doubleday 

1930 Doubleday 

1925 Little Brown 

1934 Crowell 

1936 Crowell 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

1926 Macmillan 

1931 Houghton Mifflin 
1931 Bobbs-Merrill 

1909 Lothrop 
1936 Dutton 
1936 Dutton 


National College oj Education 

Simonds, Tom A. 

A Roy with Edison 

1931 Doublcday 

Spyri, Johanna 


1927 Ginn 

Stevenson, B. E. 

The Home Book of Verse 
for Young Folks 

1922 Henry Holt 

Thomas, M. L. 


1938 Bobbs-Merrill 

Thomson, J. E. 

Aviation Stories 

1929 Longmans Green 

Weil, Ann 

The Silver Fawn 

1939 Bobbs-Merrill 

White, S. E. 

The Magic Forest 

1928 Macmillan 

Wilder, Laura I. 

Little House in the Big 

1932 Harper 

Wilder, Laura I. 

Little House on the 

1935 Harper 

B. Maps. 

1. One political map of the United States. 

2. One physical map of the United States. 

3. One blackboard outline map of the United States. 

C. Pictures. 

1. Four permanent framed French prints of village, forest, 
lake and harbor. 

2. Picture file containing photographs and prints related 
to seasonal material, industries, history of the United 
States, miscellaneous topics. 

D. Periodicals. 

1. National Geographic (for pictures). 

2. Nature Magazine. 

3. Popular Science. 

4. My Weekly Reader. 

5. Story Parade. 

IV. Practice material. 

A. Publishers' material. 

Workbooks accompanying some readers chosen for group 
or individual use. 

B. Teacher-made material. 

1. Informal objective tests, to test comprehension. 

2. Informal vocabulary drills. 

3. Work sheets to guide reading. 

V. Standardized tests. A choice is made of the following: 

Metropolitan Achievement Test World Book Company 

New Stanford Achievement Test World Book Company 

Progressive Achievement Test California Test Bureau 

G. Probable Outcomes 

I. Information. 

A. A better knowledge of how books and magazines are made. 

Reading in Fifth Grade 455 

B. More knowledge of particular authors, artists, publishers, 
and their contribution. 

C. A better understanding of how to use books to solve prob- 

D. Added information concerning the kinds of books, such as 
encyclopedias, history, fiction, science, poetry, drama. 

E. A better understanding of what constitutes a good book. 

F. A better understanding of how to select a book to read. 

G. A fuller understanding of where and how to find material 
in the library. 

H. More knowledge of the work of the librarian, how books 

are accessioned, checked out, catalogued. 
I. A better knowledge of the purposes for which reading is 

II. Attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Growing joy in using books. 

B. More appreciation of the beauty of illustrations, binding, 

C. More appreciation for fine quality of paper in a book, read- 
ability of print, wide margins, artistic arrangement. 

D. Growing delight in reading stories which are well written. 

E. Beginning of appreciation for definite qualities in style of 
writing, such as choice of words, humor, rhythm, forceful 

F. Better appreciation for informational value of books. 

G. Better appreciation for books as a means of solving our 
everyday problems. 

H. Growing respect for the value of books, especially of su- 
perior editions. 
I. Growing pride and pleasure in ownership of books. 

J. Continued willingness to handle books correctly. 

K. Appreciation for skill in different kinds of reading, such as 
ability to read carefully in following directions, ability to 
read rapidly to get the story. 

L. Glowing pride in the school library. 

M. A desire to cooperate with others to build a better library. 

N. A growing responsibility in using library books. 

O. A desire and willingness to share pleasure found in books 
with others. 

P. A growing willingness to find information to help solve 
group problems. 

Q. A willingness to help others find information. 

456 National College of Education 

III. Habits and skills. 

A. Continued habit of handling books so as to preserve them 
in good condition. 

B. Continued habit of handling books correctly and hygieni- 
cally with reference to light, eyes, posture. 

C. Development in ability to find books needed or desired in 
the library. 

D. Development in skill in finding topics desired in reference 
material, as in encyclopedias. 

E. Continued habit of listening courteously and attentively 
while others read. 

F. Progress in elimination of faulty habits of reading such as 
repetition, omissions, insertions, faulty eye-movements. 

G. Growth in ability to skim through material for most impor- 
tant facts or material relevant to some problem which is 
being solved. 

H. Development in ability to select gist of a paragraph. 
I. Beginning of ability to select gist of a story and put down 

in proper sequence in an outine. 
J. Growth in ability to take a few simple notes from reading. 
K. Growth- in ability to note details in reading. 
L. Ability to read and carry out directions within known vocab- 
M. Ability to read orally from books used in the group, so that 

others can comprehend. 
N. Growth in ability to interpret so that others can enjoy the 

O. Ability to read silently and get the thought independently 

from books used in the group. 
P. Growth in ability to recognize new words from context, from 

phonetic elements, or resemblance to familiar words. 
Q. Development in skill in using the dictionary as an aid in 


Reading in Sixth Grade 

A. Activities and Procedure 

I. Reading of material composed by teacher and children relating to 
group interests. 

A. Reading notices from bulletin board or blackboard. 

1. Daily program. 

2. Room menu. 

3. Notices and posters announcing activities in other rooms. 

4. Weight charts. 

5. Reports from committees, such as final reports on sale of 

6. Results of playground activities. 

7. Arithmetic reasoning problems from blackboard. 

8. Directions as to excursions, assemblies, and other group 

9. Notices of materials needed in special classes such as 
music and art. 

10. Maps, diagrams and graphs. 

B. Reading correspondence. 

1 . Letters received from former and absent members of the 

2. Invitations and notes received from other rooms. 

3. Letters of various types which have been written as class 

C. Reading completed work. 

1. Completed books made by individuals. 

2. Original stories and poems. 

3. Diaries or reports of vacation trips. 

4. Reports prepared for social studies, science or current 

5. Parts written for play. 

6. Maps, charts and diagrams made by children. 

D. Reading school magazine. 

1. Articles which have been written for magazine. 

2. Titles of articles to be used (with organization of ma- 
terial in mind). 

3. Completed magazine. 

E. Reading individual records. 

1. Book charts which show each child's record. 

2. Contracts giving suggestions as to amounts of work to 
be accomplished in a given period of time. 



National College of Educatio\ 

Facts from Reading Are Used in Writing and Art 

II. Library. 

A. Enjoying room library with teacher. 

1 . Reading pictures together. 

2. Reading or telling favorite story or poem. 

3. Hearing teacher read or tell favorite stories and poems. 

4. Bringing favorite books from home to be shared with 
the class. 

5. Planning exhibits of books for library table, such as dif- 
ferent collections of poetry and science books. 

B. Use of school library. 

1. Learning arrangement of library, so as to find refer- 
ence material and pictures easily. 

2. Using reference material, encyclopedias, atlas, in an effi- 
cient way. 

3. Checking books from the library and keeping rules gov- 
erning book loans. 

4. Observing rules of quiet in library which make for 
efficient use. 

Reading in Sixth Grade 459 

III. Caring for and using own books. 

A. Caring for books. 

1. Treating a book as a valued possession, to be handled 
with respect. 

2. Using correct way of marking place in book. 

3. Making book ends and bookcases in manual training for 
home and school use. 

4. Discussing ways of making an occasional note or com- 
ment in own book. 

5. Discussing individual bookplates and manner of mark- 
ing books for identification. 

B. Handling of books. 

1. Continuing correct position when reading. 

2. Discussing the convenient and comfortable ways for 
holding book, with reference to light, distance from eyes, 
and rapid turning of pages. 

3. Using title page, preface, table of contents, index, chap- 
ter headings, topic headings, maps, pictures, in an effec- 
tive way. 

IV. Independent individual reading for pleasure and information. 

A. Guiding individual reading (with help of teacher and li- 

1. Posting lists of good books suitable to read. 

2. Exhibiting suitable books. 

3. Occasionally bringing in magazine reviews of good 
books, such as the prize books of the year. 

4. Occasionally reading what children in other schools 
have written concerning certain books. 

B. Keeping records of reading. 

1. Filling in mimeographed blank, for some book read, 
giving title, author, date, main characters, a few sentences 
about story, opinion of book, and opinion as to reading 

2. Writing name of book and author on wall chart, which 
makes a permanent record for the term. 

C. Pleasure reading. 

1. Reading aloud from a favorite book which the child 
wishes to recommend to the class. 

2. Telling briefly parts of books to arouse interest of class. 

3. Giving a few sentences describing book, letting class 
give title. 

4. Reading book reports children have written. 

460 National College of Education 

5. Dramatizing portions of story. 
D. Reading to gain help in solving problems. 

1. Reading reference material in social studies. 

2. Reading charts and graphs, such as those showing ex- 
ports from various countries. 

3. Reading and interpreting maps for such information as 
rainfall, physical features, population. 

4. Reading pictures relating to social studies and science. 

5. Reading factual material of general interest to class. 

6. Collecting books for room use, which have to do with 
subject under discussion. 

7. Listing helpful books connected with any unit. 

8. Discussing parts of book, and their value in finding ma- 
terial quickly. 

V. Group reading from book (chosen for probable appeal to group 
and for adaptation to ability of group, without regard to grade 

A. Silent reading. 

1. To interpret statistical materials, such as tables, maps, 

2. To follow printed or written directions with accuracy, as 

3. To visualize described details through reading. 

4. To "skim" reading material in search of statements bear- 
ing upon problem; to scan paragraph headings, index 
page, table of contents. 

5. To select the central thought of a paragraph. 

6. To select details in order to outline material. 

7. To collect, organize, and interpret data presented in 

8. To determine relative importance of different facts. 

9. To determine whether statements are based on facts or 

10. For specific answers to questions. 

1 1 . In order to prepare for some type of comprehension test. 

12. In order to prepare for dramatization. 

B. Oral reading. 

1. To answer questions. 

2. To verify opinions and statements. 

3. To check accuracy of previous reading. 

4. To learn dramatic or dialogue parts in preparation for 
a play. 

5. To interpret character parts in a narrative. 

Reading in Sixth Grade 461 

6. To enjoy poetry, interpreting the mood, the story 
through the voice. 

7. For purpose of sharing that which has been enjoyed with 

8. To interpret maps, charts, graphs. 

VI. Use of work-type material (when needed by groups or individuals). 
Exercises made by teacher and pupils. 

A. Using guide sheets in social studies, giving questions, direc- 
tions and suggestions. 

B. Checking comprehension of reading by true-false tests, com- 
pletion sentences, multiple choice tests, writing answers to 
mimeographed questions. 

C. Practicing exercises to build vocabulary, such as: 

1. Finding as many synonyms as possible for given words. 

2. Rearranging lists of words so that synonyms will be op- 
posite one another. 

3. Making individual lists of difficult words found in read- 

4. Using set of mimeographed sentences such as the follow- 

His very manner was hostile— (unfriendly, gracious, timid). 

Underline the word in parenthesis that means about the same as 
the word underlined in the sentence. 

5. Underlining well-chosen words and phrases in para- 

D. Preparing maps and diagrams interpreting quantitative 

E. Occasional use of outlines giving main headings, with chil- 
dren filling in sub-topics. 

F. Taking three-minute reading tests checking on comprehen- 
sion and number of words read per minute. 

VII. Check tests. 

A. Given by teacher. Informal objective tests to check reading 
ability, used as a basis for choosing books and material. 

B. Given by psychologist. Standardized tests used as basis for 
summer reading, remedial work, and for grouping. 

B. Books and Materials Used 

I. Library equipment in room. 
A. Furniture. 
1. Bookcase. 


National College of Education 

2. Library table and chairs; bookrests. 

3. Book ends, made by children in woodwork class. 

4. File for library cards. 
B. Materials. 

1. Library loan cards. 

2. Mimeographed forms for book reports. 

II. Books for group study, used according to interests and abilities of 

groups; as, 

Baker and Baker 
Baker and Baker 
Cutright, P., 

and others 
Eichel, C. G., 

and others 
Elson and Gray 
Gates and Ayer 
Hahn, Julia L., 

and others 
Lewis and Rowland 
Smith and Bayne 
Wright, Wendell 

W., and others 
Yoakum, G. A., and 

Winston Simplified 

Our World and Others 
Bobbs-Merrill Readers 
Democracy Readers 

Treasure Chest of 

Elson Basic Readers 
Work-Play Books 
Child Development 

New Silent Readers 
On the Long Road 
Modern World Readers 

Reading to Learn 

Junior Dictionary 
Dictionary for Schools 

1938 Bobbs-Merrill 

1939 Bobbs-Merrill 

1940 Macmillan 

1935 Houghton Mifflin 

193G Scott Foresman 
1932 Macmillan 

1938 Houghton Mifflin 

1931 Winston 

1940 Silver Burden 

1934 Johnson 

1935 Macmillan 

1935 Scott Foresman 

1939 Winston 

III. Room Library. 

A. Books for individual use; as, 

Baldwin, J. 
Beard, D. C. 

Brann, Esther 
Burgess, T. W. 
Burglon, Nora 
Byrne, Bess S. 

Church, A. J. 
Church, A. J. 

Halliburton, R. 
Halliburton, R. 
Hillyer, V. M. 

Hillyer, V. M. 

Kingsley, C. 
Lamprey, Louise 
Lamprey, Louise 
McMurray, F. I. 

Pyle, H. 

The Story of Roland 

1930 Scribner 

American Boys' Book of 

1932 Lippincott 

Bugs, Butterflies and 



1931 Macmillan 

Burgess Bird Book 

1919 Little Brown 

Children of the Soil 

1932 Doubleday 

With Mikko through 

1932 McBride 


Iliad for Boys and Girls 

1924 Macmillan 

Odyssey for Boys and 

1925 Macmillan 


Book of Marvels 

1937 Bobbs-Merrill 

Second Book of Marvels 

1938 Bobbs-Merrill 

A Child's Geography of 

1929 Century 

the World 

A Child's History of the 

1924 Century 


Greek Heroes 

1928 Macmillan 

In the Days of the Guild 

1918 Stokes 

Masters of the Guild 

1920 Stokes 

Pathways of Our 

1939 Bobbs-Merrill 


King Arthur and His 

1903 Scribner 


Reading in Sixth Grade 


Pyle, H. 

Reed, W. M. 
Seredy, Kate 
Stein, Evaleen 

Untermeyer, L. 
Van Loon, H. W. 
Walker, Joseph 

Washburne, C. ■& H. 
Veager, Dorr 

Merry Adventures of 

Robin Hood 
Stars for Sam 
The Good Master 
Gabriel and the Hour 

This Singing World 
Story of Mankind 
How They Carried the 

Story of Earth and Sky 
Bob Flame, Ranger 

1883 Scribner 

1931 Harcourt, Brace 
1935 Viking Press 
1906 Page 

.1923 Harcourt 
1926 Liveright 
1930 Dodd Mead 

1937 Appleton 
1934 Dodd Mead 


Periodicals such as the following: 

1. National Geographic (for pictures). 

2. Nature Magazine. 

3. Popular Mechanics. 

4. Story Parade. 

C. Maps. 

1. One political map of Europe. 

2. One political map of Asia. 

3. One map of the world. 

D. Pictures. 

1. Four framed French prints- 

2. Picture file including science material, pictures pertain- 
ing to ancient civilization, pictures to be used for special 

-series on the four con- 

IV. Practice materials. 

A. Guide sheets to guide factual reading. 

B. Mimeographed checks to test comprehension. 

V. Standardized tests, selected from the following list: 

World Book Company 
World Book Company 

Metropolitan Achievement Test 
New Stanford Achievement Test 
Progressive Achievement Test 

California Test Bureau 

C Probable Outcomes 

A. A better knowledge of well-known authors, artists, pub- 
lishers, of juvenile books. 

B. A thorough knowledge of the parts of a book, such as title 
page, preface, table of contents, index, chapter and para- 
graph headings, glossary, bibliography. 

C. An understanding of how to use this information for find- 
ing material quickly. 

464 National College of Education 

D. A thorough knowledge of kinds of books, such as dictionary, 
encyclopedias, atlas, history, science, fiction, poetry, drama. 

E. A knowledge of the cost of books; different editions of the 

F. A knowledge of the purposes for which reading is used; as 
advertising, communication, recreation, problem solving, 
general information, specific directions. 

G. Detailed information concerning favorite authors. 

H. A knowledge as to the arrangement and plan of the school 
library and the public library; the duties of the librarian; 
the card catalogue; how books are checked from the library; 
how the library is supported. 

I. A knowledge of various magazines and types of informa- 
tion each contains. 

J. A better understanding of the information gained through 
reading charts, graphs, maps, diagrams. 

II. Attitudes and appreciations. 

A. A keen appreciation of books with beautifully colored il- 
lustrations, fine bindings, artistic printing and decoration. 

B. A continued willingness to handle all books properly. 

C. A better appreciation of style; of such qualities as humor, 
repetition, rhythm, apt phrasing. 

D. An appreciation of the vivid imagery, simple direct ex- 
pression, and musical word selection found in poetry. 

E. An appreciation of the informational value of books. 

F. Readiness to refer to books for solution of problems. 

G. An appreciation of cost and value of books. 

H. An appreciation of the value of a private library. 
I. An appreciation of different kinds of reading; as, 

1. Rapid reading for pleasure and general information. 

2. Careful reading for details. 

3. Exact reading for following directions. 

4. Thoughtful reading for problem solving. 

J. An appreciation of and pride in school library. 

K. Pleasure in cooperating with others in building school 

L. Willingness to share books for pleasure of the group and to 

bring information to group. 
M. Attitude of responsibility in using library books. 

III. Habits and skills. 

A. Continued habit of handling and treating all books with 

Reading in Sixth Grade 465 

B. Continued habit of handling all books correctly and hy- 
gienically with reference to light, eyes, posture. 

C. Greater skill in using library; finding books quickly. 

D. Greater skill in using bibliographies, encyclopedias, table 
of contents, index, reader's guide. 

E. Continued habit of being an attentive member of the 
audience while others read. 

F. Continued growth in building a reading vocabulary. 

G. Growth in ability to read maps, charts, pictures, graphs. 
H. Growth in ability to follow printed directions with ac- 

I. Development of ability to visualize described details. 

J. A growth in the ability to locate data. 

K. Ability to "skim" reading material effectively. 

L. Ability to select central thought with supporting details. 

M. Growing ability to distinguish between main heading and 
subheads and to tabulate such in outline form. 

N. Growing ability to judge the soundness and general worth 
of statements. 

O. Growth in ability to determine the relative importance of 
different facts. 

P. Growing ability to read with critical attitude. 

Q. Ability to read orally from books used in the grade, so that 
others can comprehend and enjoy what is read. 

R. Ability to read silently and get thought from books used 
in the grade. 

S. Ability to reproduce material read in a concrete way through 
dramatization and oral reports. 

T. Ability to see likenesses and differences in words, to dis- 
criminate between words that look much alike, and to 
recognize new words from their similarity to words pre- 
viously learned. 

U. Ability to use glossary and dictionary. 


IN THE use of number the kindergarten does not formulate 
definite lists of skills to be mastered, but seeks merely to utilize 
opportunities as they arise for building number concepts and de- 
veloping a number sense. The record which follows includes the 
experiences of a single year, and some of these opportunities may 
not recur. However, the activities of the senior kindergarten each 
year afford many situations where interest in number is stimulated. 
The ability to count accurately and to recognize objects in groups 
has been found fundamental to rapid progress in arithmetic; and 
the kindergarten may well supplement the home and community in 
providing practical experiences of this sort. 

Number Experience in Senior Kindergarten 

A. Activities 
I. Activities related to the kindergarten program. 

A. Serving of luncheon. 

Children placed a certain number of napkins and the same 
number of glasses on each table. Some children were given 
a tray full of glasses and were asked to place them on tables, 
then come back and tell the director how many glasses were 
on his tray. For many children this number has run up to 
eighteen or twenty. Chairs about the tables were counted 
in order that the number would correspond to the places 

B. Toilet procedure. 

The children were asked to use one towel only. They were 
requested to push the liquid soap container only three times 
so as not to waste soap. There was counting of number of 
toilet facilities, and counting of children to determine how 
many children must wait. 

C. Passing out of constructive materials. 

As need arose the children counted papers, crayons and 
other materials. 

D. Use of the calendar. 

With the beginning of the New Year an interest arose in 

Number Experience in Senior Kindergarten 467 

calendars. A large calendar for the room was introduced 
and the guinea pigs' birthday was recorded. This stimulated 
an interest in the birthdays of the children. When a child 
had memorized when his birthday came, he was shown on 
the calendar which was his month. He then counted up 
until he came to the date of his birth, and if he could write 
his name to mark the day, he did so. If not, it was written 
for him. The teachers commented on children's ages, and 
comparison was made of ages. 

E. Use of the clock. 

With a number interest has come many questions about 
numbers on a clock face and how a person can tell time. 
The use of the hours was our starting point. We counted the 
minute marks and have timed ourselves in doing certain 
activities, as replacing of materials "in five minutes," or 
while the big hand moves from one number to the next. 
Drawing of clock faces on the blackboard and counting out 
the time on these has been of decided help and interest. 
An hour glass was shown to the children, and a discussion 
as to its use followed. There was great interest in its opera- 

F. Use of the index in books, and numbers on page. 

The teachers have made a point of using the index in story 
and song books, and of commenting on the page numbers. 

II. Activities related to group interests. 

A. Use of thermometer in connection with study of tempera- 

This interest arose when the group was engaged in play- 
ing boat. The detecting of icebergs was discussed, and 
while "play" thermometers were made at first, many chil- 
dren wanted to go on into a consideration of a real ther- 
mometer. A large one was secured and the temperature in- 
doors was recorded, and later the temperature out-of-doors 
was noted. Many children followed this interest for a period 
of five weeks, each day recording the findings. Children 
ruled off a chart, for days of the week and for temperature 
indoors and out-of-doors. The teacher recorded the days of 
the week and the date. Children recorded temperature. The 
children found that water placed in a shallow pan on the 
window sill would freeze if the temperature was below 32 . 

B. Measuring of wood used for various articles made by chil- 

Use of inches came first and a need for counting up 

468 National College of Education 

inches on the ruler. This led to a discussion of the foot rule. 
The children soon fell into the habit of counting up the 
inches on their pieces of wood. This was true of a group 
of about seven who showed an early interest in anything 
that involved numbers. These children found that it took 
twelve one-inch spaces to fill out the ruler and that the 
ruler was called a foot. By marking the ruler off on a yard 
rule, with crayon, they found that three lengths of the ruler 
was as much as the length of the yard stick. This was only 
of passing interest, however. 

C. Counting of money in connection with Book Fair conducted 
by parents. 

Children brought pocketbooks containing money in all 
denominations, and also checks to pay for books. A brief 
explanation of what a check is and what it stands for, was 
given to the group. 

D. Cooking experiences. 

The children made candy for their fathers at Christmas 
time. They also enjoyed the making of applesauce, of jelly 
and of cookies. These activities involved simple counting 
and measuring. Actual measuring of ingredients helped 
children to gain some sense of quantity. They found in 
pouring out the jelly that the measuring cup held more 
than one jelly glass could hold. 

E. Voting. 

Voting on questions that arose in connection with the work; 
such as, what story to have, what activity to pursue next, 
name for new dolls, has led to counting and abiding by the 

F. Making numbers. 

The children made numbers for engines, license plates for 
cars, etc. 

B. Books and Materials Used 

I. Materials used in daily program. 

A. Glasses, napkins, chairs to count, used at the lunch period. 

B. Towels, soap container, facilities for toilet procedure. 

C. Paper, crayons, scissors, paste jars, and other supplies. 

D. Calendar with numbers 1I/2 inches high, with each number 
ruled off in a square, so that there was little confusion in 
reading numbers. 

E. Clock face supplied by Ideal School Supply Company, Chi- 
cago, Illinois; the room clock with Arabic numbers; hour- 

Number Experience in Senior Kindergarten 469 

glass and three-minute sandglasses; pictures of sundials. 
F. Song books and story books, with pages numbered. 

II. Materials used in units of work. 

A. A large thermometer, compliments of "The Chicago Daily 
News." The numbers on this were almost an inch high with 
spaces over an eighth of an inch marking off the degrees. 

B. A foot ruler with inches clearly marked. Later a yardstick 
was introduced. 

C. Pennies, nickels, dimes, half dollars, dollar bills and checks. 

C. Probable Outcomes 

I. Related to kindergarten program. 

A. Number consciousness increased through practical applica- 
tion at the luncheon period. Children felt need for knowing 
how many places were to be set, so that no one would have 
to go without orange juice. 

B. Felt need for being economical in use of lavatory materials 
so that there would be a supply of towels and soap. Appre- 
ciation that selfishness on part of some would deprive others 
of material. 

C. Skill in counting developed through passing of materials 
for the group. Felt need for being able to count. 

D. A knowledge gained as to the purpose of calendars. Ability 
to recognize figures, and to name them in sequence. 

E. Ability to tell time even to the minute gained by several 
children. Favorable attitude in learning to tell time. A feel- 
ing for time or time sense by using time for one activity and 
then finding there was no time left to do certain other 
things. Knowledge concerning the hour glass and its use. 

F. Some idea of how one finds a desirable place in a book, 
gained by seeing the teacher use index and page numbers. 

II. Related to group interests. 

A. Information as to how a thermometer operates, and how 
temperature is recorded. Knowledge that the thermometer 
acts as a means of telling whether or not the weather is cold. 
Skill (attained by many) in reading the thermometer. 

B. Knowledge of linear measure gained to some degree. Felt 
need for some means of measurement in order to have ac- 
curacy in woodwork. 

C. Knowledge of various coins, pennies, nickels, dimes, quar- 
ters, half dollars, and dollar bills: number of pennies to 

470 National College of Education 

make a nickel and dime. Some idea as to the value and use 
of checks. Some understanding of the value of money. 

D. Knowledge that to have cooking successful there must be 
accuracy and directions must be followed. 

E. Knowledge of which numbers are larger than others, gained 
by counting votes. Some understanding of the fact that the 
majority rules, and that the social thing to do is conform 
happily to the wishes of the majority. 


THE objective in the teaching of arithmetic has been to use 
arithmetic continually and naturally in school enterprises, 
wherever the need for it appears, thereby developing knowledge 
and appreciation of its importance in life situations, and at the same 
time to provide for the systematic mastery of the skills which are 
deemed necessary by those who have studied the subject scientifi- 
cally. No attempt is made to subordinate the teaching of arithmetic 
to an activity program, or to force arithmetic practice into social 
activities where it does not belong. However, numerous practical 
problems involving arithmetic arise in every grade, and these often 
provide direct motivation for practice exercises. 

In the first grade, no definite period is set aside for number ex- 
perience, but opportunities for developing a number sense and for 
mastering certain fundamental concepts are utilized wherever they 
occur. Beginning in second grade, time is provided each day for the 
mastery of skills in computation, and for the discussion and solution 
of the number problems of the group. Much of the practical work, 
however, can not wait for a time schedule, and arithmetic experi- 
ence is afforded in connection with many other activities. In mastery 
of fundamental processes, the newer grade placement is followed, 
which postpones certain complicated processes until greater readi- 
ness has been developed. 

As in the case of reading, the children are often grouped for arith- 
metic according to capacities and needs; and methods and materials 
are selected to fit the capacities and provide for the normal develop- 
ment of individuals and groups. Individual practice materials care- 
fully made or selected for each child, have been found most de- 
sirable in developing independence, in overcoming weaknesses, and 
in building specific skills. 

In the outlines that follow, outcomes tend to be cumulative from 
grade to grade. Each year effort is made to maintain desirable 
attitudes and appreciations, habits and skills, developed in preced- 
ing years. 


472 National College of Education 

Number Experience in First Grade 

A Summary Based on Records for One Year 

A. Activities 

I. Activities related to room procedure. 

A. Counting and learning to sec number of objects in a group. 

1. Taking attendance in small groups. 

2. Grouping children for committees, reading classes, songs, 
rhy.thm work, playground activities. 

3. Voting occasionally on debated questions and counting 
to determine majority. 

4. Setting small tables for lunch periods and for parties, 
counting out articles needed for each table. 

5. Arranging chairs and distributing materials for group 
work, counting number needed for group. 

B. Measuring, weighing. 

1. Dividing blackboard for writing and drawing. 

2. Measuring for various art and industrial enterprises. 

3. Getting measured and weighed in doctor's office at regu- 
lar intervals. 

C. Learning to make and recognize figures. 

1. Numbering pages in original booklets. 

2. Recognizing pages in primers and readers. 

D. Using and understanding time. 

1. Using clock as a guide in daily program. 

2. Using days and months in planning events; recognizing 
dates of special days. 

3. Recognizing dates of children's birthdays and their ages. 

II. Activities related to group enterprises. 

(For fuller account see Units of Experience in First Grade) 
A. Playing post office. 

1. Depositing $5.00 in first grade bank for use in playing 
post office; pennies for letters; nickels for packages. 

2. Counting to find number of stamps needed to mail let- 
ters. Writing withdrawal slip for amount of money 
needed from bank. 

3. Counting money to see what was income in post office 
for day. 

4. Counting money in bank each day to be sure none has 
been lost. 

Number Experience in First Grade 


Buying Is Enthusiastic at Play Time 

5. Weighing packages when children wish to mail little 
gifts made from clay and wood. 

6. Writing house numbers in sending letters. 

B. Playing store. 

1. Depositing $5.00 in first grade bank, in pennies, nickels 
and dimes, for playing store. 

2. Pricing; estimating proportionate value of article; writ- 
ing price tags; writing price lists. 

3. Buying and selling; drawing amount needed from bank 
to make purchases; computing to give customer total 
cost of articles chosen. 

4. Paying cashier. 

C. Planning a picture-story movie. 

1. Outlining program— number and sequence of pictures. 

D. Making cookies for valentine gift. 

1. Reading figures in recipe. 

2. Measuring with teaspoon, tablespoon, cup; using pint 
and quart containers. 

E. Playing with children's toys and games. 

1 . Balls and bean bags: used for counting and easy addition. 

474 National (College of Education 

2. Lotto: used for recognizing figures. 

3. Dominoes: used for recognizing objects in groups. 

III. Practice in reading and writing figures and other skills, as need 
arises and children show readiness. 

B. Books and Materials Used 

I. Materials for practical experience with numbers. 

A. Materials used in counting: 

1. Children (counting for attendance and grouping). 

2. Handwork materials, books, pencils. 

3. Articles used at lunch: tables, chairs, doilies, glasses. 

B. Materials used in measuring. 

1. Rulers (in woodwork, sewing). 

2. Yardstick (in building, dividing blackboard, making 

3. Nails (in measuring various sizes). 

4. Teaspoons, tablespoons, cups, pint and quart bottles (in 
cooking enterprises). 

5. Clock and calendar (in planning time). 

C. Materials used in weighing. 

1. Scales (pound for weighing packages, children, dolls). 

2. Scales (ounce for weighing letters in play post office). 

D. Materials used in handling money. 

1. Pennies, nickels, dimes. 

2. Cash box, cash register. 

E. Children's own toys and games. 

1. Dolls. 

2. Balls. 

3. Bean bags. 

4. Games like lotto and dominoes. 

II. Informal individual checks. 

(Involving counting, recognizing objects in groups, reading 
and writing figures, given from time to time to find out how 
mature each child is in dealing with concrete number). 

C. Probable Outcomes 
I. Information. 

A. Recognition of many practical uses for accurate counting. 

B. Recognition of several instruments for measuring and 
weighing and their value. 

C. Recognition of many uses for reading and writing figures. 

Number Experience in First Grade 475 

D. Recognition of some divisions of time and their importance. 

E. Introduction to use of money. 

1. Use of money in buying and selling. 

2. Recognition and value of penny, nickel, dime, dollar. 

F. Beginnings of information about banking. 

1. Reasons why one may draw money from the bank. 

2. Method of withdrawing funds. 

3. Protection of money in banks. 

4. Officers and workers in banks. 

G. Some information about postage. 

1. Reason for paying postage. 

2. Variety of postage rates: regular, special, air mail, regis- 
tered mail, parcel post. 

H. Some information about keeping store. 

1. Duties and responsibilities of storekeeper. 

2. Comparative cost of articles. 

II. Attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Appreciation of need for accuracy in counting and measur- 
ing, and in reading and writing figures. 

B. Beginning of appreciation of value of money and a desire 
to use money wisely for daily needs and for pleasure. 

C. Beginning of an appreciation of just remuneration for 

D. Respect and care for others' money. 

E. Beginnings of an appreciation of good proportion in plan- 
ning buildings, and other constructions. 

III. Skills. 

A. Counting objects accurately by 1, 2, 5, 10 to 100. 

B. Recognition of groups of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 articles. 

C. Recognition of figures to 100; much higher for many. 

D. Ability to write figures to 20; to 100 and over for many. 

E. Mastery of a few easy addition and subtraction facts by all 
children; mastery of further addition and subtraction facts 
by those more ready. 

IV. Comprehension of terms and ability to think through these terms. 

A. Inch, foot, yard, pound, ounce, scales. 

B. Hour, minute, day, week, month, year, date. 

C. Penny, nickel, dime, dollar. 

D. Cash, cash box, cash register, bill, check, balance. 

E. Cashier, clerk, salesperson, customer. 

F. Vault, safe, bank. 

476 National College of Education 

Number Experience in Second Grade 

A Summary Based on Records for One Year 

A. Activities 

I. Activities related to room procedure. 

A. Use of ruler and yardstick. 

1. In many art and industrial enterprises. 

2. In measuring seats and desks to fit the child. 

B. Watching weight and height chart made by the nurse, in- 
troducing pounds and feet. 

C. Watching temperature of room; noting differences in de- 
grees inside and outside; testing thermometer in refrigera- 

D. Testing the dryness of the room with the hygrometer. 

E. Telling time in order to plan and follow the day's program. 

F. Celebrating birthdays and special days (stressing dates and 
ages; using calendar). 

II. Activities related to group enterprises. 

A. Conducting gift shop and garden market. 

1. Listing number of articles to be sold. 

2. Estimating how many articles are needed and quantity 
each child can produce. 

3. Pricing different articles. 

4. Printing price signs. 

5. Acting as a cashier. 

6. Drawing money out of room bank for change. 

7. Handling and making change with real money. 

B. Spending money earned. 

1. Committee was chosen to go to town to buy a flag. 

2. Committee charged flag to school account. 

3. School sent bill to second grade. 

C. Baking cookies for party. 

1. Buying the material for cookies. 

a. Finding how much sugar, butter, eggs, milk is needed 
if the recipe is trebled. 

b. Purchasing supplies and counting of change. 

2. Interpreting recipe. 

Use of measuring cup, teaspoon and tablespoon, scales, 

D. Making crab-apple jelly in connection with a study of fall 

Number Experience in Second Grade 477 

fruits. (Further experience in interpreting recipe and meas- 
uring accurately.) 

E. Handling money in connection with other school enter- 

1. Buying books at Book Fair. 

2. Paying carfare on excursions. 

F. Counting and measuring in connection with group projects. 
Many needs for counting and measuring and for use of 
number facts arose in connection with the study of farm 
and garden. (See Units of Experience in the Second Grade.) 

III. Number games. 

A. Playing games brought by the children; as, dominoes, 
marbles, tenpins. 

B. Playing outdoor games, involving grouping of children and 
keeping score. 

IV. Explanation and demonstration of new processes. 

A. Presentation of most addition and subtraction facts, and a 
few multiplication and division facts in concrete situations. 

B. Placing numbers under each other in straight columns when 
adding or subtracting. 

C. Making and placing the addition and subtraction signs cor- 

D. Learning to begin on the right side to add or subtract, and 
to begin at top and add down. Learning different ways to 
write addition and subtraction exercises. 

V. Practice activities. 

A. Practicing on blackboard new processes just demonstrated. 

B. Using mimeographed sheets of new processes. 

C. Using work type books as needed. 

D. Using number cards for both individual needs and in a 
group, but never for competitive purposes. 

E. Scoring and keeping records of individual achievement. 

B. Books and Materials Used 

I. Materials for practical experiences with numbers. 

A. Ruler and yardstick. 

B. Clock with Roman numerals. 

C. Calendar. 

D. Thermostat. 

E. Hygrometer (brought in to test humidity of room). 

47 '8 National College of Education 

F. Measuring devices for cooking: measuring cup, tablespoon, 
teaspoon, quart and pint measures, recipes. 

G. Money and related materials. 

1. Pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters, half dollars, paper 

2. Bank book, withdrawal slips, deposit slips, bills, receipts, 

II. Number games. 

A. The Jolly Bobbers. 

B. Dominoes. 

C. Marbles. 

D. Tenpins. 

III. Practice material. 

A. Mimeographed material relating to children's number ex- 

B. Some practice cards in addition and subtraction facts (both 
for group and individual use). 

IV. Arithmetic tests. 

(So far have not found satisfactory standard of measuring arith- 
metic ability in Second Grade until end of year. Informal arith- 
metic tests have been devised by the teacher to be used during 
the year.) 

New Stanford Achievement Test— Primary World Book Company 

Metropolitan Achievement Test— Primary World Book Company 

C Probable Outcomes 

I. Information. 

A. Use of money in buying and selling. 

B. Recognition of all the coins and paper money. 

C. Manner of buying and selling in different enterprises. 

D. Use and need of banks. 

E. Necessity of being a quick, accurate thinker when handling 

F. Comparison of prices. 

i. Why a standard price. 
2. When prices are fair. 

G. Better understanding of value of books, pictures, pottery 
and other articles. 

H. Necessity of accurate measurement in cooking, art enter- 
prises and other fields. 

Number Experience in Second Grade 479 

II. Growth of attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Wise and careful judgment in buying and selling. 
B: Desire to be reliable when handling money. 

C. Appreciation that responsibility in handling money in- 

1. Keeping accurate records. 

2. Making correct change. 

3. Being fair in your prices. 

D. Respecting others' money as well as your own. 

E. Realizing values of money; and that earning money de- 
mands conscientious thinking and hard work. 

F. Appreciation of importance of numbers in care of health; 
and of duties of school nurse, janitor and engineer. 

G. Desire to use time to best advantage. 

H. Appreciation of fairness in playing games. 

III. Skills in computation. 

A. Notation and numeration. 

1. Counting accurately by 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10, as needs arise. 

2. Reading numbers in hundreds and thousands, as needs 

3. Reading Roman numerals to XII. 

4. Writing numbers to 500 and above, as occasion demands. 

5. Writing dollars and cents in decimal form. 

B. Addition and subtraction. 

1. Mastery of most addition facts, both in column form and 
equation form. ^ 

2. Ability to add two and three addends of two figures each 

(no carrying). 

3. Mastery of subtraction facts corresponding to addition 
facts, in column form and in equation form. 

4. Ability to subtract with two and three figures in the 
minuend and in the subtrahend (no carrying). 

5. Ability to check answers. 

C. Multiplication and division. 

1. Ability to multiply by 2 and by 3 and 5 as needs arise in 
practical situations. 

2. Ability to handle the simplest fractions in practical prob- 
lems: i/ 2 , 14. 

D. Problems. 

1. Ability to solve one-step problems based on child's needs 
and experiences, involving addition and subtraction 
facts and simple units of measure. 

2. Ability to compose original problems. 

480 National College of Education 

IV. Comprehension of terms , 

A. Addition, add, plus, equals, sum. 

B. Subtraction, subtract, minus, less, least, left, remainder. 

C. Multiplication, multiply, times. 

D. Fraction, divide, half, third, fourth. 

E. Price, buy, sell, lend, borrow, charge, pay, pay back, owe. 

F. Bank, check, receipt, bill, withdrawal slip, deposit slip, 

G. Time, minute, hour, half-hour, quarter-hour, day, week, 
month, year. 

H. Length, inch, half-inch, foot, yard. 
I. Liquid, pint, quart, gallon. 

J. Weight, pound, half-pound, ounce, dozen, half-dozen. 
K. Money, penny, nickel, dime, quarter, half dollar, dollar, 

five dollar bill. 
L. Shape, square, rectangle, circle. 

Arithmetic in Third Grade 

An Outline Based on Records for One Year 

A. Activities 

I. Activities related to room procedure. 

A. Recording number present and number absent. 

B. Preparing record of absences for school nurse; preparing 
record of number to be present at noon meal for dietitian. 

C. Planning use of time for outdoor and indoor periods. 

D. Planning time for certain group enterprises and setting 
dates for special events. 

E. Estimating number of books and other supplies needed for 
small groups and for room; ordering supplies from school 
supply store. 

F. Measuring desks and chairs, then .measuring children for 
correct adjustment. 

G. Studying height and weight chart prepared with the help of 
the school nurse and noting individual gains. 

H. Much measuring in art and woodwork. 
I. Beginning of interpretation of maps and globes; determin- 
ing distances as related to time of travel. 

II. Activities related to group enterprises. 

A. Planting bulbs^ 

1. Estimating number of bulbs needed for different areas. 

2. Computing cost of bulbs. 

3. Computing cost of painting flowerpots. 

4. Computing amount of dirt needed for filling flowerpots 
and cost. 

5. Purchase of soil from the florist— wise selection of suit- 
able bulbs. 

6. Recording time required for flowers to bloom. 

7. Recording number of days flowers will last. 

B. Churning. 

1. Measuring cream to be used and decision of size of churn 
to use for the amount of cream. 

2. Ascertaining proportion of cream that became butter ac- 
cording to the amount of buttermilk. 

3. Measuring of small amount of salt used. 

C. Making cheese. 

1. Measuring milk to be used. 

2. Draining milk and measuring part not used. 



National College of Education 

Scales Show Satisfactory Gains 

3. Measuring cream used to season cheese. 

D. Presenting plays. 

1. Measuring accurately the parts for buildings to be used 
in dramatization. 

2. Measuring materials for costumes for plays; computing 
the number of yards of cloth needed. 

E. Conducting orange juice booth during school fair. 

1 . Counting change to be used. 

2. Measuring orange juice for glasses. 

3. Poinding cost when several glasses of orange juice were 
bought at one time. 

4. Giving change back to customers. 

5. Counting money made after booth was closed each time. 

6. Finding the amount cleared after estimating the cost 
of ingredients. 

F. Selling maple sugar and maple syrup. 

1. Importing maple sugar and maple syrup from a farm in 

2. Taking orders in advance from parents and members of 
the staff. 

Arithmetic in Third Grade 483 

3. Ordering amount needed. 

4. Fixing price in relation to cost of supply and cost of 
transportation, so as to assure a profit. 

5. Delivering orders and collecting money. 

6. Paying bills and determining amount earned. 

7. Presenting the amount earned to fund for buying drapes 
for the children's dining room. 

III. Spontaneous interests — Questions which led to discussion and 

A. How far does a photographer have to be from a volcano 
when he photographs it? 

B. How long would it take to walk the distance into a mine? 

C. How did people first tell time? 

D. How long until clocks were made? 

E. What makes banks "break"? 

F. What is interest? 

G. Why are. checks used? 

H. Why do people pay taxes? 
I. What is income tax? 

IV. Activities related to play. 

A. Counting by twos for "Three-Deep." 

B. Counting by threes for "Squirrel in a Tree." 

C. Dividing even sides for "Kick Ball." 

D. Counting by fives for "Hide and Seek." 

V. Explanation of new processes. 

A. Usually from board, demonstrations given; sometimes direc- 
tions with pupils following in arithmetic books or work 

B. Attention called to new parts of processes. 

C. Much emphasis upon signs and terms and upon the correct 
way of writing column numbers. 

VI. Practice activities and records. 

A. Use of mimeographed sheets adapted to ability of groups, 
followed by individual sheets when needed. 

B. Writing on board: practice in column writing and in writ- 
ing new forms like dollars, cents, decimal signs. 

C. Use of work books with definite goals for small groups. 

D. Use of individual cards, for individual practice on facts not 
yet mastered. 

E. Keeping of graph records showing daily progress by child. 

484 National College of Education 

VII. Uses of tests. 

Tests given by psychologist near the end of each semester. 
Graph report on tests shown to child— weaknesses noted and 
plans made for improvement. 

B. Books and Materials- Used 

I. Materials for practical experience with numbers. 

A. Materials for measuring: foot rules, yardstick, scales, meas- 
uring cups, measuring spoons, pint and quart bottles. 

B. Coins, bills, checks. 

C. Clock, calendar. 

D. Thermometer. 

E. Maps, globes, geography games. 

F. Balls and other materials used on the playground. 

G. Art and manual training materials. 

H. Natural science and social studies materials. 

II. Practice materials. 

A. Drill cards for mastery of number facts, arranged accord- 
ing to difficulty. 

B. Mimeographed sheets of abstract work for practice. 

C. Mimeographed sheets of reasoning problems. 

D. Individual cards for children who have difficulty with par- 
ticular number facts. 

E. Individual workbooks (used as needed). 

III. Workbooks used for reference and review. 

Brueckner, L. J., and others. New Curriculum Workbooks 1936, Winston 
Upton, C. B. Adventures in Arithmetic 1938 Upton 

IV. Tests. 

Metropolitan Achievement Test World Book Company 

New Stanford Achievement Test World Book Company 

C. Probable Outcomes 
I. Information. 

A. Better knowledge of value and use of money in buying and 
selling projects. 

B. Proper use of order slips when materials are ordered from 
supply room. 

C. Recognition of need for a bill and receipt when articles are 
paid for. 

D. Additional uses of scales in weighing and measuring and 
use of ruler and yardstick in making definite measurements. 

Arithmetic in Third Grade 485 

E. Fuller understanding of thermometer and telling time, 
using seconds on watch. 

F. Ideas of heights of buildings in number of stories, and sizes 
of rooms according to feet. 

G. Meaning and use of calendar. 

II. Attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Realization of need for responsible bankers and clerks. 

B. Appreciation of necessity of exact balance in keeping ac- 

C. Importance of buying within means and of careful selec- 

D. Appreciation of need for careful measurement in cooking 
and in various art and industrial enterprises. 

E. Appreciation that accuracy is needed for all positions, espe- 
cially where money is involved. 

F. Greater sense of value of time and need of careful planning 
for wise use of time. 

III. Habits and skills. 

A. Notation and numeration. 

1. Reading and writing large numbers of common interest 
—into the thousands. 

2. Reading and writing of Roman numerals to XX. 

3. Writing of dollars and cents in decimal form, signed. 

4. Using equation form for all processes. 

B. Addition and subtraction. 

1. Progress toward automatic response to 100 addition facts 
and of sums needed in column addition and in multi- 

2. Ability to add single columns involving 5 or 6 addends; 
two and three figure numbers with 4 or 5 addends. 

3. Ability to add with addends of unequal length. 

4. Progress toward automatic response to 100 subtraction 

5. Ability to subtract, using minuend and subtrahend of 2, 
3, 4 and 5 figures involving carrying. 

6. Ability to check answers. 

C. Multiplication and division. 

1. Progress toward automatic response to 100 multiplica- 
tion facts. 

2. Ability to multiply with two and three figures in the 
multiplicand and one in the multiplier, and by 10 and 

486 National College of Education 

3. An introduction to division (using long division form), 
as needed in class problems. 

4. Ability to deal with fractions in concrete situations, cor- 
responding to multiplication and division facts mastered; 
as, 1/2, 1/4, 1/3. 

5. Ability to check all work. 

D. Measurement. 

1. Ability to use common facts of units of measure, as 

a. Length— inches, foot, yard. 

b. Liquid— pints, quarts, gallon. 

c. Weight— ounces, pound. 

d. Time— second, minutes, hour, day, week, month, year. 

2. Ability to compute distances around areas. 

E. Problems. 

1. Ability to solve one-step problems and some two-step 
problems from local environment and schoolroom needs, 
involving units of measurement and dollars and cents. 

2. Ability to think through imaginary problems. 

3. Ability to create original problems. 

IV. Comprehension of terms. 

A. Addition, add, plus, sum, check, column. 

B. Subtraction, subtract, minus, difference, remainder. 

C. Multiplication, multiply, times, product. 

D. Division, divisor, divide, quotient, fraction. 

E. Meanings and abbreviations for units of measure; as, in., ft., 
yd., pt., qt., gal., etc. 

Arithmetic in Fourth Grade 

A. Activities 

I. Activities related to room procedure. 

A. School program. 

1. Planning daily program and carrying it out. 

2. Deciding on time required for large units of work. 

3. Allotting time for various types of activities. 

4. Completing work within a given time. 

B. Menu making. 

1. Choosing a balanced menu for a given price. 

2. Keeping records of lunches, comparing them with chart 
which showed well-balanced meals. 

3. Keeping records of amount of fruit juice and milk 
needed for mid-morning lunch. 

4. Computing cost of fruit juice and milk by the week and 
by the year for individual children and for the group. 

5. Organizing and arranging the room and supplies for 
birthday parties held at lunch time. 

6. Marketing for special luncheons, as Halloween. 

C. Passing and collecting materials. 

1. Counting number of articles needed for classes; as 
paper, pencils, books, pens. 

2. Choosing number of children to serve on committees for 
care and distribution of materials. 

3. Marking off spaces in cupboards for various sizes of 

D. Providing and caring for equipment. 

1. Ordering supplies needed; as, paper, pens, paste, and 
computing the cost. 

2. Commuting the cost of framing pictures for the room. 

3. Mastering the combination on locks for individual 

4. Measuring and making of files for work-type papers in 
manual training. 

5. Measuring and making garden box for window. 

6. Measuring and making a museum table for exhibits. 

E. Health in the room. 

1. Keeping record of height and weight of individual chil- 

2. Measuring desks and chairs for proper seating. 

3. Making graphs, showing gains in weight. 

4. Keeping record of room temperature. 


488 National College of Education 

5. Keeping record of glasses of water drunk during the day 
(during the food unit study). 

6. In use of lavatory materials, allotting the number of 
paper towels and amount of soap necessary for each 
child. Computing the cost of towels for our grade, if 
each child uses three in one day. 

7. Measuring the distance in holding reading material 
from the eyes. 

II. Activities related to play. 

A. Measuring high and broad jumps in contest games. 

B. Keeping score in ball games. 

C. Measuring wood needed for hurdles on the playground. 

D. Measuring and marking off diagrams for playing games, as 

E. Finding sizes of soft-soled shoes needed for gymnasium. 

III. Activities related to the library and its uses. 

A. Learning to use file and index in library, reading numbers. 
Learning to find reference material in World Book, Pageant 
of America, Compton's Encyclopedia, using index volume, 
chapter headings, both Roman and Arabic. 

B. Subtracting to find number of days left to keep a book out, 
computing dates ahead to find when books are due. Paying 
fines for over-due books. 

IV. Activities related to social studies. 

A. Drawing, measuring to scale, using \/±, i/ 2 , i/g inches in 
making large world map used in tracing early discoveries; 
time charts which showed relationship of past and present 

B. Drawing and measuring in making health charts, health 
folders, book covers; preparing topical outlines. 

C. Computing and measuring mileage on maps in reviewing 
trips taken during vacation and in learning the miles various 
explorers traveled. 

D. Telling time, using calendars, clocks, sundial, and sun 
markers. Understanding relationship of past, present, 
future, century, month, year, day; relationship of day and 
night, seasons, using longitude and latitude in a simple 
manner. Computing time with reference to how many years 
ago events took place, how old would certain prominent 
people be, were they living now. 

E. Discussion of taxes: how taxes are collected; what they are 
used for at present. 

Arithmetic in Fourth Grade 


Balancing Prices and Vitamins 

F. Discussion of how money was first invented, what the In- 
dians and early pioneers used in trading; as, wampum, furs. 

G. Measuring, using the dry and liquid measure pints, quarts, 
gallons, pecks, also pounds, dozens, when buying food for 
Christmas and Halloween luncheons prepared by the chil- 
dren; also when making cookies and jelly as gifts for 

H. Computing the cost of food, total and per person, comput- 
ing the amount needed for the group. Measuring the ingre- 
dients for various recipes, involving fractional parts; as, 14, 

Y%> Y* 

Keeping accounts of these activities. 
I. Keeping accounts, finding cost and profit made in editing 

and selling the April number of the school magazine. 
J. Frequent use of the four fundamental processes in solving 

problems related to all units of learning. (See outlines of 

units of experience.) 

V. Activities related to explanation and demonstration of new 

A. Actual measuring of an acre of land on school grounds to 

49° National College of Education 

find how big it really is. Measuring a mile on the speed- 
ometer on the automobile (a school bus activity). 

B. Using units of measurement: as, a quart bottle and gallon 
bottle; scales with ounce weights; clocks with minute and 
second hands. 

C. Picture making in developing understanding of terms: 
division and multiplication, fractional parts; elements con- 
tained in problems. 

D. Cutting cardboard, paper, apples, to illustrate fractional 

E. Outlining steps of procedure in problem solving and in 
difficult computation exercises. 

VI. Activities related to practice material. 

A. Taking timed tests on the four fundamental processes (ad- 
dition, subtraction, multiplication and division). 

B. Keeping records and graphs of both group and individual 
progress on timed tests and work book tests. 

C. Using individual, self-corrective practice cards for improv- 
ing accuracy and speed in four fundamental processes. 

D. Using individual cards, containing special exercises needed 
by groups and individuals, at the blackboard. 

E. Using workbooks for drill as needed in activities. 

VII. Activities related to arithmetic books. 

A. Using books for further practice in problem solving and 
in mastering fundamental facts. 

B. Using books for review tests and diagnostic purposes. Us- 
ing books for the introduction and explanation of new 

C. Using books as reference material for tables of measurement. 

D. Using books as source material by advanced children, within 
the group. 

VIII. Activities related to use of diagnostic tests and remedial work 
(carried on by teacher with aid of psychologist). 

A. Giving of standardized achievement tests to ascertain the 
ability of the group as a whole and individually at the be- 
ginning of the year, and also before beginning any new 
work unit. 

B. Organizing groups and materials for special practice periods, 
according to information gained from tests given. 

C. Giving of oral tests to aid in diagnosing work habits and 
mental procedure of individual children. 

Arithmetic in Fourth Grade 491 

D. Planning and preparing practice material for group and 
individual use. 

1. Practice cards for use at blackboard. 

2. Mimeographed sheets. 

B. Books and Materials Used 

I. Materials for practical experiences with number. 

A. Foot rule, yardstick, tape measure. 

B. Hourglass, clock. 

C. Scales, quart, pint, gallon bottles. 

D. Peck, bushel measures. 

E. Art and handwork materials. 

F. Manual training materials. 

G. Playground, natural science and social studies materials. 
H. Room equipment and supplies. 

I. Money, checks, account books. 
J. Geography games, maps, globes. 

II. Work type and supplementary materials. 

A. Mimeographed materials related to group units or interests. 

B. Mimeographed materials consisting of abstract work for 
practice; as: 

r 100 addition facts 
100 subtraction facts 
100 multiplication facts 
90 division facts 

C. Mimeographed materials consisting of reasoning problems. 

1. Those related to needs of group. 

2. Those of graded difficulty for children having special 

D. Individual work books. 

Brueckner, L. J., New Curriculum Work- 1936 Winston 

and others books 

E. Individual work sheets of facts and problems to overcome 
difficulties shown in diagnostic tests. 

F. Individual number cards for drill on facts of four funda- 
mental processes. 

G. Individual number cards for blackboard work, to build ac- 
curacy and speed in computation. 

III. Arithmetic books for reference and review. 

Brueckner, L. J., New Curriculum 1936 Winston 

and others Arithmetics 

Knight, F. B., Study Arithmetics 

and others 

492 National College of Education 

IV. Standardized tests. 

A. Given by teacher. 
Standardized tests from work books. 

B. Given by psychologists. 

Metropolitan Achievement Test World Book Company 

New Stanford Achievement Test World Book Company 

Progressive Achievement Test California Test Bureau 

C. Probable Outcomes 

I. Informational values. 

A. Some knowledge of the development of methods of telling 
time and of measures used in telling time. 

B. Knowledge of relative prices of food and the keeping of 
household accounts. 

C. Knowledge of how retail and wholesale business is carried 

D. A better understanding of cost and preparation of food, 
menu making in relation to body building. 

E. Knowledge of cost and methods of shipping fruits and other 
perishable foods to the United States. 

F. Knowledge of how prices of foods are influenced by supply 
and demand. 

G. Information about how liquids and dry materials are 
measured and weighed. 

H. Knowledge of how to read both the room thermometer and 

the physician's thermometer. 
I. Knowledge of how mileage is computed on land and sea. 
J. Knowledge of how accounts are kept, correct form for bills 

and receipts. 
K. A beginning of an understanding of value and use of 

L. Knowledge of cost of making books, and what discount 

M. Information concerning the development of the Arabic and 

Roman number systems. 
N. Information about dates in history with reference to 

present-day developments. 
O. Information concerning bartering, trading and present 

monetary system used in the United States, including banks, 

checks, accounts (checking and savings), loans, etc. 

II. Social values. 

A. Appreciation of reasons for budgeting time and using it 

Arithmetic in Fourth Grade 493 

B. A better appreciation of value of money and its wise use. 

C. An appreciation of need for careful estimating and order- 
ing supplies. 

D. An appreciation of need for careful and thoughtful plan- 
ning ahead for any work; as in measuring for booklets, 

E. Desire to care for the library equipment and to learn to use 
it correctly; as, return of books on date due, prompt pay- 
ment of fines. 

F. An appreciation and desire to build habits of accuracy, 
speed, neatness in achieving results in the four fundamental 
processes with integers. 

G. An appreciation of the fact that guessing is dangerous. 
H. An appreciation that the ability to handle numbers with 

facility is an asset and a necessity in every day affairs. 

I. An appreciation of the mathematical skill involved in the 
building of a boat, a clock, the electric lamp and other in- 

J. An appreciation of the cost and value of school supplies. 

K. A desire to pay bills promptly. 

L. A willingness to spend money for the good of others. 

M. A desire to be fair in fixing prices and to make honest 

III. Computational skills. 

A. Ability in reading and writing. 

1. Reading and writing Arabic numbers to 100,000. 

2. Reading and writing Roman numerals one to twenty, 
tens to 100, 500, 1000. 

3. Forming concepts of large numbers. 

4. Reading and writing dollars and cents. 

B. Abilities developed in fundamental processes. 

1. Addition of integers. 

a. 100 addition facts. 

b. Adding by endings to 39. 

c. Column addition, with 1, 2, 3 and 4 figures and 5 or 
6 addends. 

d. Combinations needed for column addition; addi- 
tional combinations as needed for multiplication. 

2. Subtraction of integers. 

a. 100 subtraction facts. 

b. Subtraction facts as needed for division. 

c. Subtraction, carrying, 1, 2, 3 places. 

494 National College of Education 

3. Multiplication of integers. 

a. 100 multiplication facts. 

b. Multiplicands 2, 3, 4, 5 figures involving carrying 
with 1 figure multiplier, and with 2 and 3 figures. 

4. Division of integers. 

a. 90 division facts. 

b. Division using one-figure divisors and long division 
form; dividends of 2, 3, 4 figures with and without 

C. Growing ability to use common units involved in measures 
of length, time, liquid, dry, weight, money, temperature. 

D. Growing concepts of meaning of fractional parts, skill in 
reading fractions, writing fractions, adding and subtracting 
simple like fractions. 

E. Ability to solve one and two-step problems using all above- 

1. Problems involving school and out-of-school needs. 

2. Original problems of the group and individual. 

IV. Comprehension of terms. 

A. Familiarity with the following list of terms used in the 
four fundamental processes: 

Addition: sum, total, column, add, signs (-f- and =). 
Subtraction: subtract, difference, remainder, sign (— ). 
Multiplication: multiplier, multiplicand, product, sign (x). 
Division: divide, dividend, divisor, quotient, sign (-^-). 

B. Terms used in tables of measurements: pints, quarts, gal- 
lons, pecks, bushels, inches, feet, yard, mile, acre, pound, 
ounce, dozen. 

C. General terms: charge, checks, due, discount, depth, 
amount, increase, height, average, degree, length, per, buy- 
ing, profit, loss, retail, wholesale, degree. 

Note: Children above average in ability should master the above attainments 
in a shorter time, and also develop ability to solve more difficult practical problems. 
Differences in ability are provided for mainly on the time basis. 

Arithmetic in Fifth Grade 

A. Activities 
I. Activities connected with room procedure. 

A. The program. 

i. Deciding on time needed for big pieces of work and for 

2. Planning the daily program. 

a. Deciding on jobs for the day and allotting time needed 
for each. 

b. Setting time for each. 

3. Carrying out program planned. 

a. Telling time. 

b. Individuals figuring how much time is left to finish 
work or get ready for next class. 

B. Making out menu and conducting lunch period. 

1 . Making out balanced menu from price list to amount to 
exactly the sum allowed in annual fees paid by parents. 

2. Buying extra food for parties and special luncheons. 

C. Taking care of health of room group. 

1. Adjusting chairs and desks to fit by measuring. 

2. Reading thermometer. 

3. Weighing and measuring height every two months. 

4. Comparing records to see if overweight or underweight. 

D. Conducting supply store for the school. 

1 . Making inventories of supplies on hand. 

2. Estimating extra supplies needed. 

3. Ordering fresh supplies; as, paper, pencils, crayolas, 
erasers, clips. 

4. Making sales and keeping accounts. 

E. Taking attendance. 

F. Mastering combinations on lockers. 

II. Activities growing out of spontaneous interests. 

A. Finding volume of air in the room and amount for each 

B. Finding averages. 

1. On tests. 

2. On self-reliance scores. 

III. Activities relating to play. 

A. Choosing equal number on sides.. 

B. Adding and comparing scores. 

C. Laying off diagrams and fields for different games. 


49 6 

National College of Education 

Study of Temperature and Humidity Affords Problems 

IV. Activities related to social studies. 

A. Reading large numbers in statistics on value of natural re- 
sources of the United States, crop production of the United 
States, value of the industrial production, changes in urban 
and rural population, value of imports and exports. 

B. Writing large numbers for charts, books, committee reports, 
and for stories for talkies on industries. 

C. Reading and writing Roman numerals as chapter headings 
in books. 

D. Measuring. 

1. Using inch, foot, yard, and rod in laying out acre of 
ground to get an idea of its size, in constructing a theater 
for motion pictures, buying cloth for curtains and for 
foundation for pictures, measuring pictures, making 
books on industries. 

2. Using liquid, dry, and avoirdupois measure in dyeing 
material for theater curtains. 

E. Handling United States money in charging admission to 
talkies, buying books for library with money earned. 

Arithmetic in Fifth Grade 497 

F. Keeping account of money earned and money spent in giv- 
ing the motion pictures and the play. 

G. Adding integers to get total amount earned, expenses in- 
curred, money spent for books. 

H. Subtracting integers to find out how long ago events hap- 
pened, time between events, how much money cleared, costs 
after discount. 

I. Multiplying integers to find areas of pieces of land, and to 
find cost at urban and rural prices. 

f. Dividing to find price per acre when price on total is given, 
amount of discount where discount is expressed as a frac- 
tional part, etc. 

K. Enlarging concepts in fractions such as expressing fractional 
parts, reducing large fractions, in statistics on part of 
world's resources found in the United States. 

L. Adding fractions in finding part United States plays in 
world production, figuring materials needed in construc- 
tion, etc. 

M. Subtracting fractions in comparing values of United States 
with certain other countries; figuring amount of material 
left in construction or amount more needed. 

N. Multiplying fractions in estimating amount of cloth needed 
for mounting pictures when measurement of one picture 
has been found. 

O. Dividing fractions in estimating number of pictures which 
can be mounted on material on hand. 

P. Building concept of percentage by expressing per cents as 
hundredths and reducing as they are met in statistics and 
discounts on books. 

Q. Drawing to scale in constructing map to show what each 
section of United States contributes to Chicago and the rest 
of the world. 

V. Activities for explanation and demonstration. 

A. Drawing diagrams. 

1 . Drawing diagrams on the blackboard for explaining steps 
in four fundamental processes with integers and frac- 
tions, as: 

i/ 2 of i/ 2 = i4 
i/ 2 x 1/ 2 =14 

2. Laying out diagrams on floor or playground to show 

1 sq. ft.= 144 sq. in. 
1 sq. yd.= 9 sq. ft. 

4<j8 National College of Education 

B. Outling steps on the blackboard. 

1. Outlining steps from old to new process for children to 
draw own conclusions as to how to solve new types of 

2. Outlining steps for children to use as guides in new proc- 
ess, that correct habits of procedure may be formed. 

C. Drawing pictures to clarify points. 

D. Cutting apples to illustrate fractional parts. 

E. Cutting cardboard and paper figures to explain steps in frac- 

F. Using different units of measure to explain their equivalents 
in other units. 

VI. Use of practice materials. 

A. Taking time tests on fact sheets and keeping individual 
records of progress. 

B. Using work book for drill on class needs arising in social 
studies or other group activities. 

C. Keeping individual records by pupil to show his own prog- 

D. Taking curriculum test once a month to check progress. 

VII. Use of books. 

A. Using books for additional drill on points needed. 

B. Using books for review. 

C. Referring to books for explanation of new processes. 

D. Using books for reference for tables of measure. 

E. Using books for their diagnostic tests. 

VIII. Use of diagnostic tests (conducted by teacher with help of 

A. Group. 

1. Using diagnostic tests with a new group to find where 
teaching should begin. 

2. Using diagnostic tests during teaching a process to see 
if certain pupils need to be taught all steps. 

3. Using diagnostic tests after teaching to see if some in- 
dividuals may require further teaching. 

B. Individual. 

Giving oral diagnostic tests to pupils having difficulty, to 
discover mental processes used. 

IX. Remedial work (conducted by teacher with advice of psychologist). 

A. Division of class into smaller groups according to needs. 

Arithmetic in Fifth Grade 499 

B. Group work. 

1. Allowing superior children time for additional creative 
activities by excusing them from much drill. 

2. Planning practice work for those who need it. 

a. Mimeographed work sheets. 

b. Keyed cards for blackboard drill. 

c. Teacher-made cards on work causing difficulty. 

C. Individual. 

1. Individual drill with fact cards both by self and with 

2. Use of individual work sheets on steps giving difficulty. 

3. Oral work with teacher going through process correctly 
and child going through process correctly. 

4. Graphs to show progress. 

B. Books and Materials Used 

I. Materials for practical experiences with number. 

A. Measures— foot rule with sixteenth inch graduation, yard- 
stick, 50 foot tape, pint, quart, gallon, scales, peck, and 

B. Materials. 

1. Lumber and material in manual training. 

2. Ground included in school campus. 

3. Equipment in the room such as desks, chairs, clock, pen- 

4. Art and handwork material. 

5. Social and natural science material. 

C. Games. 

1. Soccer balls. 

2. Baseballs and bats. 

II. Work type and supplementary material. 

A. Mimeographed sheets. 

1. 100 facts in addition, subtraction, multiplication, and 
90 in division graded according to difficulty. 

2. Practice sheets of more difficult steps in four funda- 
mental processes with integers and fractions for group 

3. Sheets of practical problems from interests and needs of 
the group. 

B. Workbooks. 

Brueckner, L. J. New Curriculum 1936 Winston 

& others Workbooks 

500 National College of Education 

C. Supplementary material. 

1. Individual number cards for drill on facts in the funda- 
mental processes. 

2. Individual cards made by teacher containing steps of 
processes needing drill by certain pupils. 

3. Printed keyed cards for self-correction in fundamental 

4. Individual work sheets to overcome difficulties. 

III. Arithmetic books for reference and review. 

Brueckner, L. J. New Curriculum 1936 Winston 

& others Arithmetics 

Knight, F. B., Study Arithmetics 1935 Scott Foresman 

and others 

IV. Standardized tests. 

Metropolitan Achievement Test World Book Company 

New Stanford Achievement Test World Book Company 

Progressive Achievement Test California Test Bureau. 

C. Probable Outcomes 

I. Informational outcomes. 

A. Related to measurement. 

1. How to find area or surface of rectangles. 

2. How to measure length using common units of linear 

3. How to find perimeter of rectangles. 

4. How to draw simple maps to scale. 

5. How to use scale of miles on maps. 

6. How to construct simple graphs. 

7. How to measure dry materials, dry goods, weight. 

B. Related to the social studies. 

1. A knowledge of land values. 

a. In early days of United States. 

b. In both rural and urban localities today. 

2. A knowledge of how land is measured. 

3. A knowledge of taxes, how levied, and purpose. 

4. Information about dates in history. 

5. Information about the size of the United States and 
various sections of it. 

6. Value of crops in the United States. 

7. Value of exports and imports of the United States. 

8. Part the United States plays in world production. 

9. Population of the United States both urban and rural. 
10. Changing population of the United States. 

Arithmetic in Fifth Grade 501 

1 1. Cost of wars. 

12. Extent and value of the natural resources of the United 

13. Change in volume and time required in the industrial 
output brought about by change from hand to me- 
chanical power. 

C. Related to the use of money. 

1. Reasons for discounts. 

2. Better understanding of accounts. 

3. How we come to have our decimal system. 

4. Meaning of per cent. 

5. Different kinds of bank accounts. 

6. How to open a savings account. 

7. How to draw money out of a savings account. 

8. How to draw money out of a checking account. 

9. Meaning of interest. 

10. Some understanding of the meaning of percentage and 

II. Attitudes and appreciations. 

A. A better appreciation of the benefits derived through tax- 
ation, such as police and fire protection in a city. 

B. An appreciation for the value of land and why land differs 
in value. 

C. An appreciation for the number of comforts which have 
been made possible by mechanical power. 

D. An appreciation for the number of comforts which have 
been made possible by the natural resources of the United 

E. An appreciation of the importance of conserving our 
natural resources. 

F. An appreciation for the value of the crops of the United 
States and the part the United States plays in world pro- 

G. A better appreciation for the ease and accuracy with which 
we can measure in comparison with ancient times. 

H. Better conception of money value. 
I. Desire to give and get money's worth in dealings. 
J. A better appreciation of accuracy as a time saver. 
K. A desire to avoid unnecessary waste of school materials 

and time. 
L. A desire to pay bills promptly. 
M. A desire to save money. 
N. A willingness to spend money for the good of others. 

502 National College of Education 

O. An appreciation of arithmetic as an aid in solving every- 
day problems. 

P. An enjoyment in accomplishing, or attaining skill in various 

III. Computational skills. 

A. Minimum attainments for average pupil. 
i. Notation and numeration. 

a. Ability to read and write numbers in millions. 

b. Ability to read and write common Roman numerals 
1 to 20, by tens to 100, 500, and 1000. 

2. Fundamental processes with integers. 

a. Automatic response to fundamental facts— 100 addi- 
tion, 100 subtraction, 100 multiplication, and 90 

b. Greater speed and accuracy in addition, subtraction, 
and multiplication containing all types of difficulty. 

c. Increased skill with division enlarged to include 
ability to divide with two figure divisors. 

d. Greater speed and accuracy with short division now 
enlarged to include ability to use as short division. 

e. Ability to check all processes. 

f. Increased ability to solve one and two-step prob- 
lems involving all processes. 

3. Fundamental processes with fractions. 

a. Ability to add, subtract and multiply fractions, in- 
cluding all the specific abilities involved. 

b. Ability to apply these skills in the solution of prob- 

4. Denominate numbers. 

a. Ability to use common units of dry, liquid, linear, 
avoirdupois, surface, solid, and time measures." 

b. Ability to solve problems involving denominate 
numbers in United States money and in measures. 

B. Attainments for pupils above average. 

1. Mastery of attainments listed above in less time. 

2. Ability to solve more difficult practical problems. 

3. Attainment of more information concerning quantita- 
tive aspects of modern living. 

Note: The adjustment between the superior and average child has been 
made in this group largely on a time basis. The superior child devotes 
less time to arithmetic practice and spends more time in problem solving 
and in pursuit of information. 

Arithmetic in Fifth Grade 




A. Familiarity with the following minimum list of terms in the 
four fundamental processes with integers. 

1. Addition— add, sum, total, column, addends. 

2. Subtraction— subtract, difference, remainder. 

3. Multiplication— multiply, product, multiplier. 

4. Division— divide, divisor, dividend, quotient, remainder. 

B. Familiarity with the following terms in the three funda- 
mental processes with fractions: 

fraction common fraction 

fractional part improper fraction 

integer like fraction 

mixed number unlike fraction 

proper fraction numerator 

change denominator 

C. Familiarity with the following terms in measurement: 
pint pounds . sq. in. 
quart ton sq. ft. 
gallon inches sq. yd. 
dozen foot second 

peck yard minute 

bushel rod hour 

ounces mile day 


D. Familiarity with the following common terms: 
average width per 
increase weight rectangle 
decrease account square 
amount discount circle 
length height triangle 
area perimeter per cent 


Arithmetic in Sixth Grade 

A. Activities 

I. Activities related to room procedure. 

A. Attendance. 

1. Recording daily attendance. 

2. Finding percent of attendance over a period of time. 

B. Program. 

1. Deciding on time allotment for units of study. 

2. Planning the program for the day or week. 

3. Computing the percentage of time each week devoted to 
certain types of work. 

4. Completing a "job" within a specified time. 

C. Choosing daily menu, which must contain certain food 
values, and not exceed a certain price. 

D. Taking care of health. 

1. Adjusting chairs and desks to sizes of pupils. 

2. Computing the percent of each size needed for the group, 
and comparing with standard. 

3. Keeping monthly height and weight record for the group. 

4. Computing average height and average weight for the 

5. Finding percent over or under weight for each member 
of class. 

E. Care of equipment and supplies. 

1. Making inventories of supplies on hand. 

2. Estimating amount needed. 

3. Ordering additional supplies. 

4. Mastering combinations on lockers. 

F. Spelling practice. 

1. Keeping a spelling graph over a period of time.- 

2. Finding percent of words correct over a period of time. 

II. Activities related to group enterprises. 

A. Enlarging the school library. 

1. Selecting books to be purchased from class earnings, 
with content and price of book considered. 

2. Figuring total cost of books purchased. 

3. Figuring discounts allowed by publishers and money 

4. Computing balance to class credit, and considering 
further expenditures. 


Arithmetic in Sixth Grade 


Editing and Managing the National News Involves 

B. Publication of magazine. 

1. Estimating amount of paper and stencils to order. 

2. After approximating cost, deciding on price that would 
offer a fair profit. 

3. Checking number sold and money collected. 

4. Depositing money. 

5. Decision to spend part of money in framing pictures; and 
part in subscription to National Geographic Magazine 
for school library. 

6. Receiving bill for framing pictures from school office. 

7. Paying bill and receiving receipt. 

8. Checking amount left in class treasury. 

C. Cooking enterprises in home economics room. 

1. Finding i/ 2 , \/±> or .% of the recipe, sometimes doubling 
or trebling amounts. 

2. Figuring cost of recipe. 

3. Estimating economy or extravagance of recipe. 

III. Activities related to spontaneous interests. 

A. Finding averages and percentages in many situations. 

B. Listing all reasons possible for discounts being offered. 

506 National College of Education 

IV. Activities related to social studies. 

A. Comparing cost and size of ancient and medieval buildings 
and art treasures with modern productions. 

B. Comparing coins and methods of trading in medieval times 
with our own. 

C. Comparing of medieval methods of book making and num- 
ber of books available with methods used in modern times. 

D. Placing time of various periods by years and centuries with 
reference to our present era; making a time-line as a border 
around three sides of the room. 

E. Finding percentages in comparing modern Europe with 
our own country. 

1. Percentage of exports and imports. 

2. Percentage of emigration and immigration. 

3. Percentage of United States population from different 

F. Measuring in making of maps and in use of maps and 
globes; measuring and computing costs in making proper- 
ties and costumes for play of knights. 

V. Activities for explanation and demonstration. 

A. Explaining steps in a new process on the blackboard. 

B. Outlining on board procedure which will assist in solving 
reasoning problems. 

1 . Read problem carefully. 

2. Try to see in your mind just what the problem describes. 

3. Decide what numbers you should add, subtract, multi- 
ply or divide. 

4. Estimate the answer. 

5. Work carefully. 

6. See if your answer agrees with estimate. 

7. See if you can prove your answer to be correct. 

C. Drawing diagrams, such as a large square divided into one 
hundred small squares, to be used in introducing per- 
centage. Drawing circles and other figures which are di- 
vided and shaded. 

D. Marking off on floor measurements which are not well 
known, such as rods. 

E. Using units of measure in explaining problems involving 
denominate numbers. 

F. Cutting cardboard figures to be used in finding areas. 

G. Drawing plans of fields, yards and gardens when finding 

H. Drawing graphs. 

Arithmetic in Sixth Grade 507 

VI. Use of practice materials (adapted to needs of individuals). 

A. Use of mimeographed practice sheets covering new proc- 

B. Using work book for drill. 

C. Completing exercises in workbooks, usually working by 
contract method. 

D. Taking curriculum test once a month. 

E. Keeping individual graphs of results of monthly test. 

VII. Use of books. 

A. Using books for review and drill after practice has been 

B. Using books for diagnostic tests. 

C. Using book as a reference for tables. 

VIII. Use of diagnostic tests (by teacher or psychologist). 

A. Finding difficulties of individual children. 

B. Finding difficulties common to the group as a whole. 

B. Books and Materials Used 
I. Materials for practical experience with number. 

A. Measures: rules, yardstick, tape measure, liquid and dry 
measures, measuring devices used in cooking, scales. 

B. Cardboard figures used in finding areas. 

C. Cubes used in finding volume. 

D. Height and weight charts. 

E. Attendance records. 

F. Graph paper. 

G. Art and woodwork materials. 
H. Playground materials. 

I. Natural science and social studies materials. 
J. Food and utensils used in cooking. 

II. Practice materials. 

A. Mimeographed sheets. 

1. Mimeographed sheets of four fundamental processes to 
develop greater skill. 

2. Mimeographed sheets covering new processes. 

3. Mimeographed sheets of reasoning problems. 

B. Workbook. 

Brueckner, L. J. New Curriculum Work- 1936 Winston 

& others books in Arithmetic 

C. Individual cards for practice in fundamental facts and 
processes used chiefly in remedial work. 

508 National College of Education 

III. Arithmetic books for reference and review. 

Brueckner, L. J. New Curriculum 1936 Winston 

& others Arithmetics 

Knight, F. B., Study Arithmetics 1935 Scott Foresman 

& others 

IV. Standardized tests. 

Metropolitan Achievement Test World Book Company 

New Stanford Achievement Test World Book Company 

Progressive Achievement Test California Test 


C. Probable Outcomes 
I. Information. 

A. Necessity of "checking accounts." 

B. Better understanding of personal expense accounts and al- 

C. Correct form for bills. 

D. Correct form for receipts. 

E. Reasons for discounts. 

F. Better understanding of advertising. 

G. Knowledge of "good time" to buy. 

H. Knowledge of adding machines and automatic devices. 

I. Better understanding of uses of graphs. 

J. Better understanding of uses of percentage and meaning of 

K. Better understanding of use of measurement in cooking, 
and proportion in making or altering recipes. 

L. Information about dates and periods in history. 
M. Information about size and cost of buildings of different 

N. Knowledge of how buying was done in different periods. 

O. Knowledge of early coins; how they were made; values in 
United States money. 

P. Information about comparative number and cost of books 
in different periods. 

Q. Knowledge about size of armies and cost of wars in dif- 
ferent periods. 

R. Statistics about population, immigration, exports and im- 
ports in the United States. 

S. Information about use of different types of measures. 

II. Attitudes and appreciations. 

A. Better conception of value of money. 

B. Appreciation of need for careful estimating in ordering 

Arithmetic in Sixth Grade 509 

C. Desire to pay bills promptly and hold receipts carefully. 

D. Desire to be exact and careful in handling money belonging 
to a group. 

E. Desire to benefit by "bargains" and discounts. 

F. Desire to fix price honestly and make fair profit. 

G. Desire to avoid unnecessary waste and extravagance. 
H. Appreciation of need for accuracy in all accounts. 

I. Recognition of need for careful measuring and estimating 

in using recipes. 
J. Readiness to spend money for good of whole school. 
K. Desire to spend time to best advantage. 
L. Appreciation of contribution of machinery to number of 

comforts available compared with ancient times. 
M. Appreciation of simplicity and convenience of United 

States decimal system of coinage. 

III. Skills in computation. 

A. Attainments for average group. 

1. Fundamental processes. 

a. Mastery of fundamental facts. 

b. Use of four fundamental processes with increased 
speed and accuracy. 

c. Skill in using process of long division, with some 
ability to divide by two and three figure divisors. 

d. Increased ability to solve reasoning problems involv- 
ing all processes. 

2. Fundamental processes with fractions. 

a. Skill in adding, subtracting, multiplying and divid- 
ing common fractions. 

b. Ability to solve problems involving these steps. 

3. Decimal fractions. 

a. Ability to read and write decimal fractions accurately. 

b. Ability to add, subtract, multiply and divide com- 
mon decimal fractions. 

c. Ability to solve problems involving these steps. 

4. Denominate numbers. 

a. Ability to use denominate numbers in the four fun- 
damental processes. 

b. Ability to solve reasoning problems involving these 

5. Percentage. 

a. Ability to use the table of aliquot parts. 

b. Ability to find a percent of a number. 

r-,10 National College of Education 

c. Ability to work all types of percentage problems 
based on these two processes. 

d. Ability to use pcrcents larger than one hundred. 

6. Finding areas: Ability to find areas of rectangles and 
B. Attainments for pupils above average. 

1. Mastery of work listed in a shorter period of time. 

2. Time given to more difficult reasoning problems. 

3. Many original problems made by this group based on 
their own interests. 

4. Attainment of more information concerning the quanti- 
tative aspects of modern life. 

IV. Terms. 

A. All terms used in the four fundamental processes. 

B. All terms used in the four fundamental processes with com- 
mon fractions. 

C. All terms used in measurement. 

D. Familiarity with the following terms in decimal fractions: 
decimal point, decimal fraction, tenths, hundredths, thou- 
sandths, ten thousandths, hundred thousandths, millionths. 

E. Terms in percentage: percent, discount, profit, loss, at the 
rate of, list price, selling price, deposit, interest, commis- 

F. Terms in finding areas: square, rectangle, triangle, base, al- 

Individual Records and Their Use 


IN STUDYING the capacities and interests of each child, the 
teachers make use of the various records that are filed at the time 
the child is enrolled. In registering the child, the parent is asked 
to fill in an experience record and a health history, and to sign a 
permit for a physical examination. If a child is enrolled in the 
nursery school or one of the kindergartens, the teacher in addition 
holds a personal conference with the mother before the child enters, 
seeking in this way to gain a more intimate knowledge of the child's 
home situation and experience. The records of this and further 
conferences are kept on file. 

The school physician gives a physical examination each year, 
during the opening weeks of school, and records in the form pro- 
vided certain physical characteristics. A fuller examination by the 
family physician or by a specialist is recommended when the child's 
condition seems to need further study. There is also daily health 
inspection by the physician assisted by the school nurse, and further 
notes and recommendations are made from time to time. 

An individual intelligence test is given to each child before he 
enters school. The test record is supplemented by the psychologist's 
judgment of the physical, mental and social characteristics revealed 
during the test. Since the school is not equipped and staffed to take 
care of handicapped children, only normal, superior and gifted chil- 
dren are accepted. The child's complete development is considered 
in placing him in the group where he can probably attain success. 
For'purposes of research, an individual intelligence test is given 
every two years. 

A "key" for studying and guiding the child's responses in the 
school situation has been worked out for each field of activity. The 
teachers have various ways of keeping individual records. Some 
teachers keep daily brief accounts of significant happenings on indi- 
vidual file cards. When a child's behavior seems to need special 
study, a diary record is made. Teachers also keep folders for each 
child, filing from time to time samples of drawing, writing or other 


514 National College of Education 

bits of work. In grades above second, individual progress charts are 
kept in the acquisition of certain important skills. 

At the end of the semester, the teachers prepare a descriptive re- 
port for each child, summarizing the various individual records and 
including recommendations. One copy of the descriptive report is 
sent to parents and one copy is filed with other permanent records 
at the school. With the teacher's report a blank is sent to parents, 
asking for a report of the child's progress and of his needs as seen in 
the home. While the descriptive reports require much time and 
study, the results in increased parent cooperation and in the 
teacher's own understanding of the child's development have been 
so evident, that teachers have considered them most worth while. 

In all grades, beginning with second, achievement tests have been 
given by a psychologist near the end of each semester, and individual 
graph records have been made, based on average scores of tests 
given. Further study of the problem has been provided in a few cases 
when a child's educational age fell decidedly below his mental 
age. Grouping within the room and providing individual instruc- 
tion when needed, take care of individual differences in the mastery 
of skills so that a child need not fall behind the group where his 
general development suggests his placement. The school seeks to 
eliminate failure and repetition of grades, with the accompanying 
emotional maladjustments. 

All the records pertaining to the individual child are kept in his 
permanent folder in a central office. Teachers draw out these folders 
at the beginning of the school year in order to study the past experi- 
ences of each child in the new group, and also at other times as ques- 
tions arise. Sometimes the teacher is promoted with her children, 
and remains with the same group two years. This procedure has 
been found especially favorable to certain children needing help 
in social adjustment. 

In this section copies are included of actual reports exchanged 
between parents and teachers, and also the keys for guiding the 
teacher's study of individual children. To protect the children 
whose records have been used, names have been omitted or fictitious 
names have been substituted, and dates have been altered. 


ALTHOUGH both teachers and parents prepare records and 
L reports which are exchanged, these do not in any way take 
the place of individual conferences. Before the child is enrolled, 
the parents hold an interview with the director of the school or the 
assistant director, in order that the aims of the school and the 
parents' purpose in enrolling the child may be fully understood. 
Usually conferences are held also with the room teacher, the school 
physician, and the psychologist who gives the initial tests. After 
the physical examination and the intelligence test, parents are ad- 
vised concerning the type of work the child is ready to do, and the 
group where he will probably be most successful. The exact intel- 
ligence quotient is not as a rule given out, since this has been found 
to fluctuate in later tests. 

During the year parents hold frequent conferences with the room 
teachers and special teachers. Two days each week are set aside as 
parents' visiting days, and informal conversations with teachers 
often occur following an observation in the room. Prearranged 
interviews occur also as needs arise in the school and the home. In 
nursery school and kindergarten it is customary to hold interviews 
before the child enters, and at all levels interviews are arranged at 
the close of each semester when semester reports are exchanged. 
Thus the reports and the recommendations may be fully discussed. 
Both teachers and parents have found such interviews very helpful, 
but have been unwilling to omit the written reports, since these may 
be read many times, may be referred to later as problems arise, and 
may be shared with relatives at home and other staff members at 
school who deal with the child. 

All the specialists on the staff are ready to give help to parents 
and teachers in understanding and meeting particular needs. Indi- 
vidual parents frequently ask for conferences with the school physi- 
cian, the psychologist, the nutritionist, the speech specialist, and the 
director of the Children's School. Sometimes a conference is ar- 
ranged with one or both parents present, and two or more members 
of the staff. 


5 1 6 National College of Education 

Parents have been interested also in holding group meetings to 
discuss common problems. Each room group of parents chooses a 
room chairman, and this officer with the room teacher plans for 
several meetings of the group during the year. As a rule the 
room director or some other member of the staff is invited to lead 
the discussion, and the problem is one of vital interest to the group 
at the time. 

The room officers and room teachers, together with the director 
of the school, serve on the Executive Board of the Parent-Teacher 
Council. This Board plans activities for the entire group of parents 
and teachers. Usually three or more evening meetings are held 
during the year, presenting speakers of note in the field of educa- 
tion, or providing for forum discussions or panel discussions in 
which parents and staff members participate. In two different years 
an All-Day Conference has been held, one on Guidance for Social 
Growth, and the second on Guidance for Growth in Personality. 

In addition to such meetings of general interest, the Council has 
arranged each year for one or more courses devoted to important 
problems at particular levels. In these symposium courses several 
members of the staff and outside lecturers participate. Plans and 
subjects for these courses vary from year to year so that interested 
parents may continue their studies for several years. Supervised 
observation in the Children's School has been a regular part of 
some of these courses. The following courses have been given suc- 
cessfully in the past few years: 

Child Care and Training in the Early Years. 

Behavior Problems of Early Childhood. 

The Child and His Learning. 

Educative Experiences of Childhood. 

Our Children— Knowing Them and Living with Them. 

Home Guidance of Children. 

The Child and Society. 

Problems of Early Adolescence. 

Adolescence— Its Problems and How to Deal with Them. 

Problems in Child Development from Infancy to Adolescence. 

Progressive Education in School and Home. 

The Specialist Looks at the Child. 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 517 



National College of Education 

(Filled by parent for each new child who enters the school) 

To the Parent: 

We are asking for the following information, so that we may know 
and understand your child and be able to deal with him as intelligently 
as possible. We will appreciate your cooperation in filling out this 
record as completely as you can, recognizing that the information we 
seek is for the welfare of your child. 

Name of Child Girl Date of Birth January, 1934 

Name of Parent Date of Enrollment September, 1939 


Home telephone 
Business telephone of Father 
of Mother 

Physician's Name 
Previous schools child has attended 

School Dates of Attendance Grades 


Physical Environment 

Does he live in a house, hotel or apartment? House 
How many rooms are there in his home? Seven 
Does he have his own room? Yes 
Does he sleep alone? Yes 

Has he his own playroom? Yes, during the summer only 
Are there shelves or cupboards for his play materials and books? Yes 
How much responsibility is expected of him in caring for these? / 
try to have her put them back after she has had friends in and before 
she goes to bed. But she never does it unless I tell her to— in other 
words it is far from a habit. 
Is there yard space where he may play? Yes 

What play equipment is there in the yard? Two playhouses-swing 
^sand pile 

Where does he spend most of his playtime? Outdoors in our yard 
and in adjoining yards. Part of each day outdoors; some time play- 
ing at home and some time playing at the homes of her friends here in 
the neighborhood. 

5 18 National College of Education 


What toys and play materials docs your child have? Check his 
favorite ones. 

crayons dresser iron 

scissors table and chair puzzles 

moulding clay serving cabinet blocks 

doll bed ironing board 

What arc his favorite books? 

Mother Goose Millions of Cats 

Cinder A Pocketful of Rhymes 

Peter Rabbit The Fire Engine Book 

How does he spend his free time when at home? Plays outdoors 
with, other children as much as possible. In winter she cuts, draws 
a great deal, washes and irons, plays with her dolls once in a while. 
Has he any definite responsibilities or duties to carry out each day, 
so that he feels that he is cooperating and contributing to the home? 
Name these. She must hang up her towel and wash cloth on the rack 
and put her clothes away— at nap time and at bedtime. These are 
practically all of the duties she has to perform other than picking up 
her toys. 

The Family 

Of whom does the immediate family consist? Father, mother, one 


Ages of younger sisters two years younger brothers 

older sisters older brothers 

What other relatives live in the home? None— grandmother often 


How many servants are there? one 

What has been the education of parents? 


High school graduate? Yes College graduate? Yes 
From where? From where? N. U. 


High school graduate? Yes College graduate? Yes 
From where? From where? Smith 

Is there any deviation from family life- 
Child adopted? 
Either or both parents dead? 
Parents separated? 
Parents divorced? 
Either or both parents away for long periods? 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 519 

Who cares for the child most of the time? Mother 

How much time does he spend with his parents? Eats breakfast and 



Father Usually the hour after dinner and some time on Saturdays 

and Sundays. 

Social Contacts and Experiences 

With whom does the child play? There are twelve children ranging in 

age from two to eight. 

What type of play does he carry on, active or rather quiet? Very 


Is he shy or does he approach others with ease? Very easy for her to 

make friends. 

Is he inclined to lead or to follow? To lead. 

Does he get on happily with companions? Yes— sometimes directs 

them too much. 

What contacts does he have with the community? Does he visit the 

grocery, market, dairy, the beach, forest preserves, railroad station? 

Name. Grocery, other stores, beach, railroad station, The Community 


Has he visited a farm, aviation field, train yards, factories of various 

kinds? Name. Farm, aviation field. 

By what means has he traveled? Boats, trains, automobile, aeroplane? 

Auto, train. 

To what places? Please name. Indiana and Wisconsin. 

Has he attended Sunday School? 

What is his participation in family activities? 

Nature Experiences 

Has he a garden? We have a small garden. 

What pets has he? None 

What responsibility does he take toward his pets or plants? She 

Jielps me pick flowers once in a while. Has planted seeds. 

Has he gone to the woods for picnics, to gather nuts, leaves? 

Give other nature experiences. 

Aesthetic Experiences 

What lessons has your child had outside of school in music, art, 

dancing? None 

What are you doing to cultivate an interest in these lines? We play 

the piano together and sing. I often play and she and her sister 


520 National College of Education 


What, if any, special help does your child need? Please describe the 
problem, (discipline, habits of sleep, food, social relationships, phys- 
ical needs.) / believe she needs help in forming the habit of neat- 
ness. She is not naturally untidy, but likes to get out of picking up. 
I believe I have erred here and did not insist early enough that she 
form this habit. I am naturally unmethodical, and have found it easier 
to pick up after than to start her on the right track herself. I can't 
rely on her to tell the truth always. Lately she has been very dis- 
obedient. I have to tell her three or four times to do a thing. 
What are your reasons for enrolling your child in this school? / be- 
lieve she is advanced and needs some kind of intelligent direction. J 
know she will get it at National College of Education. 
Through whom did you become interested in the school? 
Name of person filling out this blank. 



Date of Conference 

Child's Name Date of Birth 

Name of Parent or Guardian 

Name of Teacher 

General Physical Status 

What was the date of the last physical examination? By whom given? 
Did it include a blood test? Urinalysis? Footprint? 
What diseases has the child had? How recently? 
What, if any, operations has he had? 
Has he any physical defects— vision, hearing, etc. 
Is he left or right handed? 

What is his coordination: Can he button? Use scissors? Feed self? 
Dress self? 


What terminology does the child use in asking to go to toilet? 
Does he take any responsibility for elimination? 
Defecation— Time? Conditions? Use of oil, suppository? 
Urination— Frequency? Wet bed at nap? At night? 
If boy, does he stand or sit? 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 521 


At night— Time in bed? Time asleep? Time awake? 

Nap— Time in bed? Time asleep? Time awake? 

Condition of sleep? 

Does he sleep alone? In room alone? 

Is he sensitive to light or dark? To noise? 

Does child get out of bed? Sing in bed? Play in bed? 

Does he rock? Is he dependent on toy or thumb? 

Has he a set position for sleeping? 

What is his attitude on waking? 


Does child eat alone or with family? 

Who supervises child's feeding? Who plans his meals? 

Type of appetite? 

What are his food dislikes? How dealt with? Allergies? 

Abilities— Feed self? Use spoon or fork? Use bib? 

Does he vomit at will? Throw food on floor? Get up from table? 

A Typical Day's Menu 

At what time did he have breakfast this morning? 

Of what did it consist? 

At what time did he have supper last night? 

Of what did it consist? 

At what time did he have dinner yesterday? 

Of what did it consist? 

Is he accustomed to a midmorning feeding? If so, at what time, and 

of what does the feeding consist? 
Is he accustomed to a midafternoon feeding? If so, at what time, 

and of what does the feeding consist? 
What is the average length of time for breakfast? dinner? supper? 


Is the child sunny, happy? 

What are his special enjoyments? 

Does the child cry easily? Often? Why? How treated? 

Is he afraid? Why? How treated? 

Are there displays of temper? Causes? How treated? 

What are his social attitudes— toward parents? servants? brothers and 

sisters? playmates? 
What nervous habits does he have; as, biting nails, sucking thumb, 

handling self? 
Are you anticipating any homesickness or difficulty in the child's first 

days at school? 

£22 National College of Education 


What was the age of talking— Using words? Combinations? Sentences? 
Speech— Is there any impediment? Letter substitutions? Tendency to 

stammer? How treated? 
What is the extent of his vocabulary? 


Is there music in the home— Piano? Radio? Phonograph? 

Do the parents sing? Play an instrument? 

Does the child show interest in music? 

Does the child sing? Spontaneously? Creatively? 

Can he carry a tune? Can he whistle? 

Is he rhythmic? 


Will the child use the school car? The first day? 

If not, who will bring him to school? 

Who will call for him? 

What will be his schedule on the first day? Later? 

What was the attitude of the parent during the conference? 



Physical Status 

A. General Health 

i. What is the general condition of the child's health? • 

2. W 7 hat were the results of the physical examination? 

3. Has he defects or disabilities: Poor sight? Defective hearing? 
Adenoids? Defective speech? Knock-knees? Bowlegs? Pro- 
truding abdomen? Defective teeth? Rachitic symptoms? 

4. What illnesses has he had? 

5. What was the height and weight at the beginning of term? 

6. What is height and weight now? 

7. Is he susceptible to colds? 

8. Is he hyperactive? Normally active? Lethargic? 

9. Is his color good? Are there circles under his eyes? 

10. Does he relax? 

11. Has he a sensitive skin? 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 523 

12. Does he run temperature easily? 

13. Does he carry himself well? Walk with a spring in his step? 

B. Muscular Coordination 

1. Does he use alternate feet in skipping? 

2. Does he alternate feet going up and down stairs? 

3. Does he trip often? 

4. Can he catch, bounce, throw a ball? 

5. Is he right or left handed? 

6. Can he button and unbutton? 

7. Can he zip fasteners? 

8. Can he put on wraps and rubbers alone? 

9. How does he manipulate brush, crayon, and scissors? 

10. Can he climb on junglegym? 

1 1. Can he carry things without dropping? 

C. Sleep 

1. Total hours of sleep? 

2. Time in bed at nap? Asleep? Awake? 

3. Does he always sleep? 

4. Attitude during nap period? 

5. Attitude on waking? 

6. Is he dependent upon toys or adults? 

7. Has he an habitual way of going to sleep? Any set position? 
Rolling? Sucking thumb? 

8. Is he sensitive to noise? Light? 

9. What is the condition of child's sleep? Sound? Restless? 

D. Food 

1. Does child have a good appetite? Indifferent to food? 

2. Is he happy during the lunch period? 

3. What is his attitude toward new foods? 

4. What is his attitude toward disliked foods? 

5. What foods does he dislike and why? Allergies? 

6. Do the meals which the child has at home balance the meals 
which he has at school? 

7. What is the average length of meal time? 

8. What helpful suggestions are effective? Home cooperation? 

9. Eating skills: Use of silver? Napkin? Pouring milk? Carrying 
food? Feeding without spilling? 

10. Ability to concentrate on eating? 

11. Ability to converse and eat simultaneously? 

Emotional Stability 

A. Temperament 

1. Does he adapt to disappointments? 

2. Accept criticism? 

524 National College of Education 

3. Easily excited? 

4. Cry easily? 

5. Fearful? What fears if any? 

(3. Affectionate? Sympathetic? Kindly? 

7. Sensitive? Self-conscious? 

8. Sensitive to atmosphere and beauty? 
g. Is he joyous and free? 

10. Has he a sense of humor? Laugh easily? Become silly easily? 

11. Is he dependent upon parent, teacher, children, or toys? 

12. Are there any physical manifestations of insecurity, such as, 
biting nails, sucking thumb, handling self, picking lips? 

B. Altitude Toward Work 

1. Does he have emotional drive? 

2. Does he show determination? 

3. What is his attitude toward failure? 

4. Does he show persistence in event of failure? 

Social Adjustment 

A. Attitudes Toward Other People 

1. What is the attitude of the child toward the parents? Toward 
brothers and sisters? Toward the servant? 

2. What is the attitude of the child toward the teacher? Toward 

B. Social Habits and Tendencies 

1. Does he play alone? Does he play with others? If so, how 
many children? 

2. Can he play alone? 

3. Is he conscious of other children and their activities? What 
responses does he make? 

4. Does he willingly cooperate in upholding group rules? 

5. Does he initiate his own activities? 

6. Does he show tendencies toward leadership? Following? 

7. Does he attempt to solve his own problems? 

8. Do his school and home behavior supplement each other? 

9. To what degree does he share? 

10. Is he equally interested in both boys and girls? 

11. Does he take responsibilities voluntarily: For playthings 
which he has used? For playthings which others have used? 
For wraps? For room? 

12. Is he dependent upon adults? Does he solicit attention? 

Capacities, Appreciations, Interests 

A. General Capacities 

1. What evidence does the child give of: Concentration? 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 525 

Memory? Imagination? Alertness? Comprehension? Effort? 
Purpose? Initiative? Perseverance? Reasoning? 

2. What attempt has he made to solve his own problems? 

3. What is the length of his attention span? 

4. Does his interest carry over from day to day? 

5. Does he bring things to school which show that his interest 
has carried over? 

6. Does he have few or many interests? 

7. What are his special interests: blocks, dolls, creative mate- 
rials, pets, books, music, nature, etc.? 

8. How does he use equipment? Experimentally? Manipula- 
tively? Dramatically? Constructively? 

9. What concepts does he have with regard to: Space? Number? 
Time? Place? Direction? 

10. Does he have the ability to count? Name colors? Name the 
days of the week? 

11. Is he observant? 

12. Does he use his time wisely? Dependable? 

13. Does he ask thoughtful questions? 

14. Does he face reality? 

B. Dramatic Play 

1. Is he interested in dramatic play? Does he create his own 

2. Is there originality of ideas? Is his play creative? Or imita- 

3. Is he an organizer or a cooperative participant? 

4. Is there freedom and joy in expression? 

C. Use of Creative Art Materials 

1. What type of creative materials does he use? 

2. Workbench; what is ability to saw? Pound nails? Care for 
tools? What does he do with the materials? 

3. Scissors, crayons, clay, and paint. Responsibility for care of 
the materials? Discrimination of color and form? Technique 
in handling materials? Originality? Joy in the doing? 

D. Music 

1. Singing.— Does he have opportunity of hearing members of 
the family play and sing? Does he participate in singing with 
the group or alone? Does he create his own songs? What is 
his voice quality? How accurate is his pitch? Tempo? 

2. Rhythms.— Is he creative in his rhythmic response? Does he 
enjoy rhythmic expression? Is his bodily coordination good? 

3. Experimentation with instruments.— Is he interested in ex- 
perimenting with rhythm and tone by means of bells, gongs, 
and so forth? 

r,Lj() National College of Education 

\. Appreciation.— Does he enjoy listening to music? Docs he 

recognize familiar music? 
5. Does he enjoy playing the piano himself? 

E. Language 

1. Docs he stutter or stammer? 

2. Is his enunciation good? 

3. Does lie use complete sentences? Correct grammatical form? 

4. Is he sensitive to new words? 

5. Does he play with sounds and words? 

(i. What is the approximate size of his vocabulary? Extensive? 
Average? Limited? 

7. Does he converse readily? With whom? 

8. What is the quality of his voice? 

F. Literary Experience 

1. Does he enjoy stories? 

2. What type of stories does he seem to enjoy most? 

3. Does he create original stories? 

4. Does he enjoy poetry? 

5. Does he create original poetry? 

6. What is his attention span? 

7. Can he relate simple stories, giving main events? 

8. Does he show an appreciation of the humorous parts in 
stories and poems told and read to him? 

9. Is he able to comprehend and relate new experiences and 
facts into his play? 


Nursery School and Kindergarten 

Name of Child A. 

Date of birth June 30, 1935 Group Nursery School 

Semester beginning January 31, 1939 Days absent 10 
Semester ending June 2, 1939 Days present yy 

Height 38.8 Weight 57.2 

Physical Status — 

A. is a healthy looking boy, apparently in fine physical condition- 
round rosy cheeks, bright eyes, sturdy, well built little body, and an 
excellent appetite. He is very active in his play. At times, his eyes look 
tired, and he becomes easily irritated, depending upon his left thumb 
for comfort. 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 527 

His health habits are good, with the exception of afternoon nap. In 
the beginning, he refused afternoon resting at all, and has had to learn 
to lie quietly. He rarely falls asleep, but with the help of an adult, he 
manages to lie pretty quietly for \\/ 2 hours. 

His appetite is splendid— always eats several servings— has very few 
food dislikes. 

His motor coordination is well developed, as shown in his walking, 
running, and climbing, and in his excellent ability in handling wagons 
and shovels. The finer muscles in his fingers are not as well developed— 
he becomes impatient in trying to button buttons and lace his shoes. 

Emotional Status — 

A. has shown some improvement in emotional stability, but he is still 
far from feeling secure within himself. He has a happy, sunny disposi- 
tion and a sympathetic, kindly attitude toward the children when every- 
thing is going smoothly for him. Upon meeting opposition, he is in- 
clined to dissolve into tears, hit, bite, or grab. He flares into an outburst 
of temper, but soon quiets down again, using the thumb and twirling 
of eyelash as his comfort. Biting is very rare now, and he announced 
with great pride, not long ago, that he no longer grabbed things he 
wanted. He is making a decided effort to overcome some of these handi- 
caps, and does show much more control in using speech instead of force 
in settling his problems. 

Only recently has he been willing to get into the school car before the 
teacher in charge is in sight. He still is hesitant to place himself in the 
charge of people he does not know. He needs a great deal of assurance 
and reassurance in feeling safe and secure in new situations. 

Social Adjustment- — 

A. is a friendly, sociable child, affectionate towards both children and 
adults. He can play happily alone, but prefers to play with at least 
one other child. He both gives and takes suggestions in play and is 
showing a fine spirit of cooperation. He is learning to share, take turns, 
and respect the rights of others. He is quick to assert his own rights as 
well as those of his friends. 

In spite of A.'s inclination to hide the toys he likes best at picking up 
time, he has many generous impulses. One day he brought three powder 
puffs for three special friends and handed them out with much cere- 
mony. He shows special loyalty for his best friends. His sincerity and 
friendliness make him a staunch friend of all the children. 

Capacities, Attitudes and Interests — 

A. is very active in his play. He loves to be out-of-doors where he can 
use tricycles, wagons, shovels and wheelbarrows, all of which he handles 

528 National College of Education 

skillfully and adroitly. Dramatic play enters into all his activities and 
in it he displays a wealth of ideas, a store of knowledge and vivid imagi- 
nation. He is usually a workman of some occupation or other— "an oil 
truck man, ice cream cone man, balloon man, fireman, engineer, police- 
man, garbage man"; some busy active person who engages in an equal 
amount of conversation and physical activity at the same time. 

He shows initiative, originality, and resourcefulness in using what- 
ever materials are at hand. A pail is all that is needed to bring forth 
the garbage man, two blocks clipped together are an alligator opening 
and shutting its mouth, pussy willows fallen from the branches or 
leaves from the trees make good garbage or food, whichever the demand 
may be. 

He is observant and alert to everything in his environment. The 
advantages and disadvantages of similar toys are all known to A. and 
if one of the less desirable should be his lot, he exerts persuasive powers 
in making a more advantageous trade. He is usually successful. 

He has been too busy and social to listen to stories at any scheduled 
time in a group, but is none the less appreciative of books. He prefers 
informational books and stories full of action. All his knowledge is 
utilized in his play. 

Music is enjoyed as a physically active participant— as a drummer ac- 
companying the piano in almost perfect rhythm, as a marcher playing 
a trumpet (stick used as such) or, as some animal being dramatized. 
Singing is a little tame and he generally loses his interest because it does 
not call for movement from his whole body. 

His reasoning powers are excellent when not hampered by immature 
emotional stability. 

His powers of speech are well developed. He enunciates clearly and 
distinctly, and possesses a good sized vocabulary for one of his age. 

A. is a very normal, alive little boy, with real and healthy boy interests. 

Recommendations — 

A. has been a great asset to the group. He is an unusually healthy, 
active, well-developed little boy. He does need firm and consistent 
handling, and at the same time an understanding and appreciation of 
his ideas and interests in order to become more mature emotionally. 

We have appreciated your thoughtful interest and cooperation, Mr. 
and Mrs. M. 


Parents' and Teachers' Records 529 


Nursery School 
Name of child A. 
Date June 8, 1939 

What school interests has your child most often mentioned at home? 
Songs? He sings Jingle Bells and This Old Man much of the time. 
Rhymes? / have noticed a greater interest in word sounds and rhym- 
ing words. 

Toys and other play materials? Occasionally speaks of barrels and 

Pets? Talks about the guinea pigs and turtles. 
Activities and experiences of the day? 

Other children? Mentions Peter and Dickie frequently. Sometimes 
speaks of Nancy, wanting to know where she lives. 
Any other persons or things? 

He speak of the teachers often, Mr. Olson, the "furnace man," 
and Mr. Todd, who drives his school car. He frequently relates 
happenings, though they have such a fanciful sound that I don't 
know just how much to believe. 
Have you noticed progress at home: 

Socially— Attitude toward other children? Decided. 

Attitude toward parents? A little less irritable. 
Attitude toward strangers? No particular change. 
In other ways? 
Mentally— Is he alert to things about him? Very. 

Does he solve his own problems? Yes, as a general rule. 
How long does he play with one thing? Long time if 

outdoors, or playing with cars. 
Other forms of progress? Shows increased interest in 
Physically— Has he improved in health habits? Yes, more inde- 
Has he gained in coordination? Yes. 
Other gains? 
Has he improved in habits of eating? He has always 

eaten well. 
Has he improved in habits of sleeping? Not in after- 
noon nap. 

In what forms of work or play does he engage most frequently at 

Uses small cars, trucks and trains with blocks, making tracks and 

530 National College oj Education 

garages. Out-of-doors with tricycle much of the time. Watches janitor 
at work repairing odd jobs. 

What is the attitude toward coming to school? 

Always eager for school i :ar to arrive but does not complain when 
he stays home on Saturdays. Enjoys using his own toys. 

What, if any, undesirable tendencies is your child showing al home 
just now ? 

He says "Yon dumbbell" to everyone. He fights bed-time and runs 
off to hide when called, usually dissolving into tears before he is 
settled for the night. Sucks his thumb when thwarted. 

Suggestions or questions: 

We have been very gratified that the school has held his interest 
so unflaggingly. 

Do yon have any suggestions about making bed-time a more 
pleasant situation for all concerned? We are willing to try almost 
anything and are always appreciative of your suggestions. 

Signed ____ 


Name of Child S. 

Date of birth September 20, 1934. Group Senior Kindergarten 

Semester beginning September 18, 1939. Days absent 9 

Semester ending January 31, 1940. Days present yy 

Physical status — 

S. has good muscular coordination but does not really enjoy vigor- 
ous physical activity; seems to be fearful of adult criticism. 

Was decidedly phlegmatic at first but has showed considerable im- 

Dark rings and puffiness under his eyes at times. Has the cause for 
this condition been determined? 

Relaxes very well when resting. 

Weight, Sept.— 42.3 Weight, Jan.— 46.5. 

Emotional status — 

He has made very satisfactory improvement in this respect for he 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 531 

was reserved, timid and extremely self-conscious when he first came to 
Senior Kindergarten. Would become silly, rub eyes and make faces, 
if attention was focused upon him. There is still need for improvement 
along this line, but we feel that ignoring him when he feels he is not 
measuring up is the best method to use with him. Is not willing to 
accept criticism, but pouts or sulks. We are sure that as he proceeds 
in school he will overcome this, but criticism should be used very spar- 
ingly now. 

Has given evidence of real temper, but lie keeps this well under con- 
trol. S. is affectionate and "warms up" to people fairly well if any 
affection is shown him. Is sensitive to his environment and often com- 
ments on things of beauty— color combinations, flowers. Is cautious but 
not fearful under most circumstances. 

Social adjustment — 

S. has attained a satisfactory degree of friendliness. He joins in play 
with others voluntarily and often makes valuable suggestions to their 
play. At first he would find something to do which did not require any 
social contact, and in the entire group activities he would hang back 
and refuse to join. He now presents no social problem, but comes 

He follows the lead of others intelligently and in a cooperative man- 
lier. He has given a few evidences of leadership, but we can not expect 
much of him along this line until he forgets self. 

Has respect for the property of others. 

Will take responsibility when definitely given to him but does not 
assume it to any degree. 

Capacities, attitudes and interests — 

S. has excellent ability in concentrating. Is persistent almost to the 
point of fatigue at times. 

Has a long memory span. 
. He has good reasoning power— often very quick to see through a 
situation. Needs to be encouraged to do fyis own thinking. Asks for 
help when, with a little suggestion or a word to Jielp him feel the prob- 
lem is not beyond him, he can go ahead. His interests are many. Most of 
the materials of the kindergarten make an appeal to him. He prefers 
those activities, however, which do not involve lively physical effort. 

He draws and paints with a good deal of skill. His work is meaning- 
ful. While he is greatly interested in the doing he is always interested 
and pleased with his product. 

His work with wood and with blocks shows some creative ability. 
Works with a purpose in mind. 

He sings with a sweet voice; has more than average ability. He en- 

532 National College of Education 

joys music and will listen intently to piano music. Good sense of rhythm. 
He was most self-conscious in rhythm work at first and would not par- 
ticipate. After a discussion between S. and myself in private, he has 
entered into rhythms. I told him he could do anything with his feet 
and hands that he wished while the others were skipping, etc. Because 
we have not commented on how he did things, but praised him because 
he was doing something, he has seemed to feel much more at ease. We 
are beginning now to work with him alone in helping him to attain 
greater skill. Freedom in speech is fairly satisfactory when his interest 
is so high that he forgets himself. Good vocabulary. 

Is just beginning to be interested in reading. 

Has a good background of information. 

Recommendations — 

S.'s progress has been satisfactory this term. His greatest need is to 
feel free, to develop a greater sense of humor and to be less concerned 
about the opinion of others. I feel sure that he has too close supervision 
and too much commenting has been made on his shortcomings. I would 
suggest that he be "put on his own" to a greater degree and that when 
self-consciousness or spells of stubbornness appear he be joked with 
and cajoled out of his mood. 


Name of child 5. 

Group Senior Kindergarten Date February 10, 1940. 

What school interests has your child most often mentioned at home? 

S. doesn't talk very much about his school work at home unless ques- 
tioned, but he asks many questions about things, the ideas of which I 
think he must have obtained at school. When anything special aside 
from the daily routine comes up he mentions it— auto trips, great inter- 
est in the houseboat and Indians. He voluntarily comments on paint- 
ing, making things of wood and building. 

In what phases of our work is his progress most evident? 

Most progress has been made in social adjustment, although there is 
still much room for improvement. Also, has progressed in ability to 
manipulate things with his hands. He can carry a tune much better but 
still needs to work on it. Listens more attentively when being read to. 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 533 

In what forms of work or play does he engage most frequently at home? 
When weather requires him to be inside he spends the greater part of 
his time building with his blocks— all kinds of things; then the mechan- 
ical toys— airplane and fire engines, electric train. He and his sister 
have great times in dramatic play. Out-of-doors he plays much with the 
neighborhood children, climbs, rides bike, plays with wagon, roller 
skates. Worked at shovelling snow and will help in the garden later. 
During the present year what, if any, changes have you noted: 

In habits of eating? 

S. always has a good appetite, but is often slow and dreamy. There 
hasn't been much change here. 

In habits of sleeping? 

Very little change. I have noticed that he gets along just as well 
without his afternoon nap and doesn't seem to get more tired on the 
occasions when he goes without, but these are few and he still takes 
his nap. 

What, if any, changes have you noted: 
In attitude toward parents? 

Has come to have greater respect for the parent-child relationship 
and seems to try hard to please. Has become very companionable. 

In attitude toward other children? 

Has grown more respectful of other children's belongings and more 
tactful in playing with others. Seems to like to be with them more 
than before. 

What is the attitude toward coming to school? 

S. loves to go to school and eagerly anticipates it every morning. It 
is the one time when he will hurry through dressing and eating in order 
to be ready to go. 

What, if any, undesirable tendencies is your child showing at home just 

He shows a tendency to be quite silly when asked to repeat anything 
he has learned. He is very slow about putting on and taking off clothes 
and wraps and sometimes about eating, showing a tendency to dream. 

Suggestions or Questions: 

I found the teacher's report very enlightening and helpful in pointing 
out a way to handle S. more successfully. I do wish that at the times 
when they are having their physical activities, he could be greatly en- 
couraged. May I have a conference with you after school opens? I'd 

534 National College of Education 

like to talk about his ability to assume responsibility and about helping 
him to feel free. Thank you very much for such a detailed and helpful 


Physical and Emotional Status 

1. Is the general physical condition contributing to success in school 
work? Is there vitality, energy, robustness? 

2. What, if any, physical handicaps hinder the child's progress? 

3. Has the child nervous stability, poise, self-control? 

4. Are emotional disturbances frequent— laughter, tears, anger, fear? 

5. Is there a tendency to self-consciousness, timidity, aggressiveness, 
obstinacy, over-sensitiveness? Is the child easily discouraged? 

6. What is usual attitude or mood at school? Happy, anxious, dreamy, 
sulky, enthusiastic, serious, eager, ambitious, indifferent? 

7. What health habits need special attention: habits of eating, resting, 

8. Is there proper care of body and clothing: wraps, handkerchief, 
hands, nails, teeth? 

9. What, if any, nervous habits are there: blinking, handling face or 
body, chewing nails, tongue, handkerchief. 

Social Adjustment 

1. Is there a friendly attitude? Is the child broad in choice of friends? 

2. Is there proper respect for rights and opinions of others? Is there 
a sense of fair play? 

3. Is there willingness to share experiences and possessions with 

4. Does the child give and accept help willingly? 

5. Does the child show a tendency to work and play in a group or in- 

6. Does he show leadership and ability to cooperate under leadership? 

7. What is the attitude toward responsibility? 

8. Is there observation of common courtesies? 

9. Is there obedience to rules— in schoolroom, on playground, in halls, 
in bus, in lunchroom? 

Social Studies 

1. Has there been interest in social studies? 

a. Housekeeping— care of room, doll corner, making things for 

Parents' and, Teachers 1 Records 535 

room or playhouse, cooking, preparation for lunch, picnics, 

b. Festivals— significance, planning programs, making gifts, cards, 

c. Community activities— stores, post office, bank, library, art gal- 
lery, museum, circus, band, show, concert, newspaper— con- 
structing buildings, properties, costumes, dramatic play. 

d. Industries— study of food, shelter, clothing, transportation- 
making exhibits, posters, booklets. 

2. To what extent does the child aid in purposing and planning group 

3. To what extent does he show resourcefulness, initiative, independ- 
ence, originality in working toward a goal? 

4. To what extent does he show industry, perseverance, in complet- 
ing work begun? 

5. To what extent can he express attitude and appreciation in art 

6. In what degree does he show ability to criticize or judge his own 
work and the work of the class? Does he profit by suggestions? 


1. Has the child exhibited any outstanding interest in nature?— pets, 
flowers, trees, leaves, birds, insects, shells, stones, weather, seasons? 

2. Is there a readiness to nurture; care of pets, garden, plants or 
flowers in the room? 

3. Has the child shown observation or appreciation in creating nature 
songs or verses, in composing nature stories, in making nature draw- 
ings or paintings? 

4. Has interest been shown in physical science: causes and effects re- 
lated to airplanes, steam engine, automobile, radio, electric ma- 
chines, derricks, light, heat? 

5. Is there curiosity about facts; desire to experiment, investigate, 
ask questions? 

Oral Composition 

1. Are there voluntary and worth-while contributions? Do they reveal 
a wealth of first-hand experiences? 

2. Is there poise in speaking before a group? 

3. What is the quality of voice? 

4. Is the choice of English good? Is there normal growth in vocabu- 

5. Is enunciation distinct? 

6. Is the child able to give courteous attention in a conversation 

536 National College of Education 

Written Composition and Spelling 

i. What is the attitude toward writing? 

2. To what extent does the child show ability to compose his own 
letters, verses, stories? Is he original? 

3. What is the status of handwriting in fluency, uniformity? In what 
respects is improvement needed? 

4. Is the child apt in learning to spell new words and in retaining 
words learned? 

5. Is he conscientious in asking for words that he does not know rather 
than guessing? 

6. What types of errors in spelling does the child make? 


1. What is the attitude toward reading? 

2. To what extent is there ability to master vocabulary? Is there a 
clear understanding of word meanings? • 

3. To what extent is there independence in attacking new material? 

4. In silent reading are effort, ability to comprehend, and speed, 
normal for the grade? 

5. In oral reading are accuracy, dramatic interpretation, fluency, clear 
and distinct rendition, satisfactory for the grade? 

6. If there is retardation, what are the causes? absence; left-eye dom- 
inance; physical defects of the eye, ear, speech; nervousness; im- 
maturity; bad habits, such as spelling or analyzing each word 
phonetically, memory reading or guessing. 

7. What types of errors are made? 


i. Is there interest in numbers? Is there a good number sense? 

2. Is there ability to count objects accurately by ones, twos, threes, 
fives, tens? 

3. Is there ability to recognize the number of objects in a small group 
without counting? 

4. Is there ability to make and recognize figures accurately? 

5. Is there mastery of number facts required or needed in the grade? 

6. Is there ability to apply number facts in concrete situations? 

7. To what extent can the child use coins, scales, ruler, clock, calendar, 
page numbers? 

8. What, if any, type of error is frequent? 

Outdoor Experiences 

1. What is the attitude toward play? 

2. How does the child spend his time out-of-doors? 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 537 

3. Does he play agreeably with others? Does he show a protective 
attitude toward a younger child? 

4. Does he show ability to organize or participate in group play? 

5. How well can he handle his body? Is there improvement? 

6. How does he react to balls and toys, to apparatus? 

7. How well can he adjust to changes in weather? 


1. What activities might the child profitably engage in at home? 

2. What, if any, special help is needed in order that the child may 
meet the desired standards? 

3. What habits or attitudes need special guidance? 

4. Is any change in the child's program suggested? 

5. Is the child ready for more advanced work? 


Name of child E. 

Date of birth September 19, 1933 Group First Grade 

Term beginning September 18, 1939 Days absent 4 

Term ending January 31, 1940. Days present 82 

Physical and Emotional Status— 

E. always appears in the best of health in the schoolroom. She lias 
a great deal of vitality and energy and rarely shows signs of fatigue. 
She has a sunny temperament and is happy and enthusiastic in her work. 
She is usually well poised except for self-consciousness with adults. 
E. requires much encouragement, as she tends to lose interest and, 
becomes easily discouraged. E. is neat in the care of her person and her 

Social Adjustment — 

E. is generally friendly but with only her special friends. If she takes 
a dislike to another child she tends to coax others to be unkind to the 
unfavored one. In this way she has caused unhappiness in the group. 
She is usually willing to give help, and is always anxious to receive it. 
E. is usually cooperative with the teachers and other children, and she 
is for the most part eager to obey the group rules. 

Social Studies — 

E. is much interested in all room activities. She displays ability in 

r,",S National College oj Education 

dramatic play in the playhouse and .store. She also helped in the con- 
struction of the buildings. She has a sense of orderliness and has in 
several instances shown an interest in the care of the room. She is 
independent in finding work to do, but she relies too much on adult 
help and suggestions for planning and executing her tasks. If she is 
encouraged to (firry her work through to completion, it will help her to 
develop perseverance and, willingness to surmount obstacles. She is 
skillful in basket weaving. She likes to draw and she shoxos some ability 
in this field. 

Science — 

There is a natural childlike interest in nature. E. is interested, in 
watching pets, but she does not like to touch them or care for them. 
She likes to help arrange flowers. In the fall she composed a pet story 
telling of her pel at home. 

Music — 

E. has a clear, sweet voice which she occasionally forces in an effort 
to excel. She can sing about eight songs without help, carrying the tune 
and keeping on pitch,. She shows excellent rhythmic perception and fine 

Oral Composition — 

E. often volunteers suggestions to the group during the conversation 
period. She has poise in speaking before a group, and the quality of 
her voice is good. She uses good English. She needs to be encouraged 
to plan her idea before presenting it, in order to get from her the best 
solution to a problem, or the most worth-while suggestions. She gives 
courteous attention unless she sits beside her special friends. 

Written Composition and Spelling — 

There is keen interest in learning to write. The last month E. has 
grown in ability to form the letters accurately. She puts forth good 
effort. She has developed an unusual degree of fluency and she writes 
with great ease. 

Reading — 

E. is enUiusiastic about learning to read. She learns words easily and 
usually retains them. She is generally conscientious, but in Jier zeal to 
equal the accomplishments of others she sometimes guesses and skims 
over material. When held to accuracy, she reads well. E. enjoys the 
stories and she puts forth much effort to do her best. 

Arithmetic — 

We expect little in number work the first semester, as it is taught 

Parents* and Teachers' Records 539 

incidentally in connection with the room projects. E. does display a 
background of understanding in numbers especially in the games played 
during the activity period. She can count accurately by ones, fives, and 

Outdoor play — 

E. enjoys going to the playground. She prefers few companions as 
she likes to be a leader. Dramatic play is most frequently entered into. 
She is always active. She is usually cooperative and willing to conform to 
the playground rules. 

Recommendations — 

E.'s progress has been satisfactory. She may read simple primers at 
home if she is interested, as extra practice gives greater independence 
and fluency. 


Name of child E. 
Group First Grade. 
Date February 10, 1940. 

What school interests has your child most often mentioned at home? 

E. speaks frequently of her Music and Reading. The interest seems 
to be quite evenly divided. Her Music seems to be very much enjoyed, 
as she claps softly the time of -the songs and has us guess the name of 
the song. 

In what phases of our work is his progress most evident? 

/ feel that E. has made splendid progress in the Reading as well as 
Writing. She has brought some simple primers home from the school 
library and is able to read them surprisingly well. She is a good listener 
and gets a story which is read to her. 

In what forms of work or play does he engage most frequently at home? 

E. usually plays out of doors with her roller skates or bicycle, as in 
this, she usually has companionship. 

E. enjoys "Old Maid," checkers, and dominoes. 

During the present year what, if any, changes have you noted: 
In habits of eating? 

E. is eating a greater variety of foods. I am happy to have her eatirig 
lettuce, and enjoying it for the first time. 

540 National College of Education 

In habits of sleeping? 

E. sleeps well, and goes to bed cheerfully. 

What, if any, changes have you noted: 
In attitude toward parents? 

There is no great change; perhaps she is a little less dependent 
upon us. 

In attitude toward other children? 

/ believe that E. is learning to take care of her own interests and 
depend less upon the intervention of older people. She seems to be 
fair in her play. She plays with children of all ages happily. 

What is the attitude toward coming to school? 

She likes her school very much and enjoys going, and loves her 

What, if any, undesirable tendencies is your child showing at home? 

/ would like it if she would obey a little more promptly, but perhaps 
I expect too much. There is too much of this "wait a minute" to suit me. 

Suggestions or questions: 

You mention the fact that E. seems to take a dislike to a child and 
tends to get others to be unkind to this child. I believe that she is 
imitating an older child with whom she plays a great deal, here on the 
street. This child will "get mad" at her and then try to coax the other 
children away from her, so that she will have no one to play with. I have 
felt for some time that the child's influence was not good. I have ques- 
tioned E. and I believe that I know where the trouble lies and have told 
her that she must not make another little girl unhappy. I shall be very 
glad to know if she persists in this, but I don't believe that you'll have 
any more trouble. She usually is very sympathetic. 


Physical and Emotional Status 

1. Is the general physical condition contributing to success in school 
work? Is there abundant energy or does he' lack reserve strength? 
Does this energy vary? 

2. What health habits need attention: eating habits, rest habits, walk- 

3. Is there proper and orderly care of the body, clothing and other 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 541 

possessions: wraps, handkerchiefs, hands, nails, hair, toilet, desk? 

4. What nervous habits has he: nail biting, playing with face, pencils, 
masturbation, chewing tongue? 

5. What, if any, physical handicaps hinder the child's progress? 

6. What is his usual disposition: happy, sulky, dreamy, moody, serious, 
eager, enthusiastic, passive? 

7. What evidence is there of timidity, anger, obstinacy, jealousy, over- 
sensitiveness, aggressiveness, self-consciousness? Is he easily dis- 

8. How does he meet a new or unusual situation? 

9. Has there been growth in self-control when using halls, lunchroom, 
toilets, school car? How much adult control is necessary? When? 

Social Adjustment 

1. Was he slow in adjusting to the group, or does he work well with 
a group? 

2. Is he broad in his choice of friends? What type of personality is 

3. Is he consciously sympathetic in his understanding of others: 
teachers, pupils, school officers? 

4. Is he usually courteous in speech and manner? 

5. Does he respect authority? 

6. Does he respect property rights? 

7. Does he respect differences in opinion on various issues? 

8. Is he prompt in accepting and performing his share of group and 
individual responsibilities? 

g. Can he be depended upon both to lead and follow? 

10. Is he fair in taking turns; in talking, using tools, in special duties? 

1 1 . Does he share his experiences and possessions with others? 

Social Studies 

1. What evidence is there of interest in social studies? 

2. Does he originate new group or individual enterprises? 

3. Is there skill in organizing and presenting material? Does he use 
resources at his command in a creative manner? 

4. Is there mastery of facts and clear understanding of units studied? 

5. Does he work independently and persistently, completing his work 

6. Does he give and accept help willingly? 

7. Does he use his time to advantage? 

8. Is he able to criticize constructively himself and others? 

9. In what degree does he show skill, artistic ability in constructive 

542 National College of Education 


1. In what phases of science is the child interested? 

a. What interest has been manifested in cause and effect as seen in 
solar system, weather, seasons? 

b. What interest has been manifested in physical science; as, elec- 
tricity, radio, principles of mechanics? 

c. What interest has been shown in household science: chemistry 
of foods, composition of textiles? 

d. What evidence of interest is there in the beginnings and develop- 
ment of life, trees, plants? 

e. What is the attitude toward protecting and nurturing life? 

2. In which of these fields has there been growth in information and 

3. Is there curiosity about cause and effect, leading to keen observa- 
tion, desire to experiment, investigate? 

4. Is the interest leading toward creativeness in construction, inven- 
tion, expression in arts or language? 

Oral Composition 

1. Are there voluntary and worth-while contributions? 

2. Is there mental and physical poise? Does he talk to the point and 
express himself clearly? 

3. Is there good choice of English? Is there normal growth of vocab- 

4. What is the quality of voice? Is enunciation distinct? 

5. Is there interest in dramatization? 

6. Is there evidence of dramatic ability? 

7. Does he listen to selections read, carefully enough to reproduce im- 
portant elements? 

8. Is he a courteous listener? 

Written Composition and Spelling 

1. What interest is there in written composition? 

2. Is originality and initiative shown in writing? 

3. Can he write a simple short story or experience in the order that it 

4. Can he write informal notes, giving all necessary information? Can 
he write an interesting, friendly letter and a correct business letter? 

5. What skill is there in the correct usage of simple marks of punctua- 
tion and correct sentence and paragraph construction? 

6. What is the quality of form and appearance of written work? 

7. What is the condition of handwriting as to speed, form and legi- 
bility? In what respects is improvement needed? 

8. Is there a spelling consciousness shown? 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 543 

9. Is mastery of spelling satisfactory for the grade? 
10. What are the important errors in spelling? 


1. What is the attitude toward reading? 

2. To what extent can the child read books independently and with 

3. Does he know how to use books to find information for himself? 

4. Can he select and read aloud stories, interpreting so as to hold the 
interest of his audience? 

5. Can he retell a story read silently? 

6. What skill has he in mastering and understanding new words? 

7. Does he understand the use of the dictionary, the encyclopedia? 

8. Is progress in rate and comprehension in both oral and silent read- 
ing satisfactory? 

9. If there is retardation, what is the cause: absence; left-eye dom- 
inance; physical defects of eye, ear, speech; nervousness; immatu- 
rity; bad habits such as spelling or analyzing each word phonetically, 
memory reading, or guessing? 

io. Are there special reading disabilities which need correction; as, 
omissions, reversals, faulty vowels and consonants? 


1. What is the attitude toward arithmetic? 

2. Is the child gaining an understanding and appreciation of the social 
uses of arithmetic? 

3. Is there growth in the application of arithmetic in concrete situa- 

4. Is there mastery of the skills in computation needed or required 
in the grade? 

5. Is there appreciation of the need for organization, accuracy and 
neatness in written work, and effort to attain a high standard? 

6. What, if any, type of error is frequent? 


1. What activities might the child profitably engage in at home? 

2. What, if any, special help is needed in order that the child may 
meet the desired standards? 

3. What habits or attitudes need special guidance? 

4. Is any change in the child's program suggested? 

5. Is he handicapped by lack of fundamental skills? 

6. Is he doing the best work of which he is capable? 

7. Is the child recommended for more advanced work? 

544 National College of Education 


Art (Grades I to VI) 

1. What is the child's attitude toward art in general and his art work 
in particular? 

2. Is child willing to adventure with materials? 

3. Does the child show originality and freedom in expressing ideas? 

4. What is the child's development in workmanship and the handling 
of tools? 

5. In what types of work does he show special aptitude: modeling, 
sketching, painting, design? 

G. What individual characteristics does his work show: lightness, neat- 
ness, daring, feeling for color and form, accuracy, skill in composi- 

7. To what extent does he show persistence in completing work begun? 

8. To what degree has the child developed flexibility in analyzing his 
own work? 

9. To what extent does the child show respect for his own finished 
products? Is his appreciation properly balanced with his own skills? 

Crafts (Grades I to VI) 

1 . What are the child's attitudes with respect to materials and tools? 

2. What special interests does he show in construction: articles of 
utility, articles for play or articles of art? 

3. What has his progress been in developing skill in construction? 

4. To what extent does he show initiative, independence, originality 
in constructive enterprises? 

5. To what extent does he show industry and persistence in completing 
work begun? 

6. In what degree does he show ability to judge his own work and 
the work of the group? Does he profit by suggestions? 

Music (Grades I to VI. Points starred are not expected below Grade IV) 

1. In what ways does the child show interest in music? What evi- 
dence does he show of having had contact with good music outside 

2. How does the child respond to folk or art songs: listening; sens- 
ing possibility for rhythmic action and participating in such inter- 
pretation; choosing songs for the group to sing; volunteering to 
sing alone or with small groups? 

3. What is the voice quality? 

4. What is the child's development in ear training through pitch: 
difference in pitch; tonal memory; recognition of major and minor 
modes; *singing in canon form; # singing a second part? 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 545 

5. What is the child's development in ear training through rhythm: 

recognition of meter, mood, rhythmic pattern of a suitable piece 

of music and interpretation of these through bodily movements? 

*6. To what extent does the child use notation as an aid in learning new 

7. To what extent has the child developed appreciation: response to 
general character, tempo, pitch, register; familiarity with a few 
instrumental compositions and their composers; * interest in attend- 
ing concerts and recitals; * interest in planning the music period? 
*8. Does the child keep any record of the music activities in the form 

of a diary or notebook? 
9. To what extent has creative ability been shown? 

Creative Dancing (Grades III to VI) 

1. To what extent has the child developed a sense of rhythm and a 
responsiveness to music? 

2. Does the child's work show evidence of interest, freedom, color and 

3. What are the individual characteristics of the child's work: daring, 
lightness, grace, imagination? 

4. What has been the child's development in control and coordination 
of bodily movement? 

5. What are the types of work in which the child has shown special 
creative ability or enthusiasm? 

Physical Education (Grades III to VI) 

1. What is the attitude toward play and exercise? 

2. Does the child play agreeably with others? Does he show a protec- 
tive attitude toward younger children? 

3. Does he show ability to organize or participate in group play? 

4. To what extent does he show poise, self-control? 

5. Is there a tendency to self-consciousness, timidity, aggressiveness, 
obstinacy, oversensitiveness, discouragement? 

6. How is he learning to handle his body? 

7. Is he afraid of balls and collision with other children? 

8. How does he react to cold weather? 

French (Grades III to VI. Questions starred are not used below Grade 

1. Does the child show interest and pleasure in the study of language? 

2. What has been his progress in oral work: ability to understand and 
respond to directions or questions; ability to express ideas in phrases 
or sentences; ability to memorize rote songs or verses; pronuncia- 
tion; mastery of vocabulary? 

546 National College of Education 

*3« What has been the child's progress in written work: accuracy in 
writing and spelling, neatness, fluency? 

*4. What progress has the child made in reading ability: comprehen- 
sion, fluency, pronunciation in oral reading? 

Speech (Individual children needing speech reeducation) 

1 . To what extent does the child show interest and cooperation? 

2. What progress has the child made in gaining relaxation? 

3. What progress has the child made in the development of speech 

4. What has been the child's progress in overcoming his difficulty: 
voice control and breathing; position and sound of difficult letters 
and combinations; stuttering? 

5. To what extent does his speech work carry over into conversation? 


Name of child G. 

Date of birth March 2j, 1931 Group Fourth Grade 

Term beginning September 18, 1939 Days absent / 
Term ending January 5/ , 1940. Days present 85 

Physical and Emotional status — 

G. seems to be well physically. Slie has grown less tense and nervous, 
since Christmas. There is better self-control and a happier, freer feel- 
ing apparently. She continues however to be a little secretive especially 
when there is something which she dislikes. She is very sensitive to 
beauty but would rather not show it, also likes praise but is self-conscious 
if complimented before the group. 

Social Adjustment — 

G. is making a marked effort to cooperate ivith the group, though 
still feels more at home with one or two chosen friends. She has un- 
usual ability as a leader, and needs to be guided in offering the right 
sort of leadership. She is helpful whenever her own interests are not 
too greatly concerned. There is a lovable, sweet, sympathetic quality 
which we must try to bring more to the foreground. 

Social Studies — 

G. has been keenly interested in the studies of food and in pioneer 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 547 

life. She has a splendid mastery of the subject matter covered. She is 
very critical of others, and belittles her own accomplishments , which 
are usually very original and worth ivhile. She takes much pride in the 
appearance of her work and is eager that it be the best. She has marked 
ability in starting new projects, in creating new situations without sug- 
gestions from others. 

Science — 

G. has an unusual interest in the beginnings of life in all forms, 
eagerly seeks the source and cause of everyday happenings. She has 
a very keen appreciation of beauty in all forms. 

Oral Composition — 

G. shares her experiences, but is very timid about speaking before the 
group. She makes worth-while contributions and is quite dramatic in her 
approach to any topic. She has a fine command of English, often using 
lovely descriptive phrases. 

Written Composition and Spelling — 

G. enjoys writing poems and stories, is often original in her ideas. 
She uses splendid sentence and paragraph structure as ivell as the simple 
marks of punctuation. Her work is usually neat and carefully done. 
She is well up to grade in spelling. 

Reading — 

Reading is one of her chief interests. She reads from many fields: 
history, travel, fairy and folk tales. She finds it difficult to read ex- 
pressively before the group because of a self -consciousness, but compre- 
hends in a fine way material read silently. 

Arithmetic — 

There is a growing interest in arithmetic, which needs constant en- 
couragement. When she can do the work with little real effort she 
enjoys it, but the utter distaste for it noticed in the fall has nearly 
disappeared. She is able to make fine practical application, but is handi- 
capped by her lack of knowledge of the facts of the four fundamental 

Recommendations — 

Would be well to encourage G. to finish her Third Grade Arithmetic 
Book, as it would help to give her the practice needed. Sympathy with 
firmness seems to yield a desired change in G's attitudes. There is much 
joy in her improvement. 

548 National College of Education 


Name of child G. 

Semester beginning September 18, iy$() 

Semester ending January 31, 1940 

Art — 

G's Christmas cards showed gain in not overcrowding one thing with 
too many ideas. I should like to see her gain more in control of her- 
self, as her attitude toward her work and at times toward the group is 
satisfactory. She has ability and it should give her much happiness. 

Manual Training — 

Is doing quite well when working alone; needs a better understanding 
of cooperation. She has initiative but needs help in developing origi- 
nality and appreciation of group contact. 

Physical Education — 

At the beginning of the school year, G. objected to playing in group 
activities; she would run off with a few others, developing an anti-social 
attitude. Now she seems to enjoy the group play. She has very good 
control and physical coordination. 

Music — 

There is no doubt as to G's ability in ear training or singing, nor as to 
her well-directed taste, but she has not shown as much progress as we 
would like her to display. Her cliquishness has impeded her progress. 

Creative Dancing — 

Is in a transitory stage where she wishes to express through move- 
ments that are broad and heavy; so I miss the exquisite creative work 
of last year. When not leading she is tempted to ridicule. I feel that 
G. has had too much attention. 

French — 

G's progress has been rather slow this semester; her attitude in class 
has been too playful at times. Her written work is good. More eager- 
ness and more dependability are wanted. 

Parents' and Teachers Records 549 


Name of child G. 
Date March 1, 1940 

What school interests has your child most often mentioned at home? 

G. has shown intense interest in the social studies at school. She has 
a thirst for historical information, and is getting to he quite an omniv- 
orous reader along many lines. She appreciates any special program 
at school, such as Rose Fyleman's readings. 

In what phases of our work is his progress most evident? 

She seems to have grown up amazingly this year. One can almost talk 
to her as an adult. Her vocabulary is very wide, and she has a store 
of miscellaneous information. She has an eager interest in learning 
that I hope she will never lose. I can see progress all aloitg the line, 
even in arithmetic, but most markedly in the social studies. 

In what forms of work or play does he engage most frequently at home? 
G. reads a great deal, draws incessantly and is always making things. 
She is eager to be out-of-doors. She skates a good deal, and plays on 
our apparatus. She and her little friend play many imaginative games 
around horses. She collects odds and ends and her pockets are as full as 
a boy's, all with some imaginative significance. She likes to memorize. 

What, if any, changes have you noted: 
In attitude toward parents? 

G's attitude toward her parents has improved. 
In attitude toward other children? 

G's attitude toward her younger brother is changing from one of 

hostility to one of indifference— which seems a step in the right direc- 

- tionl She seems too busy and interested in larger affairs to be able 

to concentrate on him as she has done during the fall and early winter. 

Her brothers form one unit and she another. 

What is the attitude toward coming to school? 

G. enjoys school extremely. She is always eager to go. Arithmetic 
is the only subject that seems difficult for her. I think that G. is a 
child who might easily dislike school, and it is most gratifying to us to 
have her enjoy it so thoroughly. 

What, if any, undesirable tendencies is your child showing at home just 

G. is careless of property. She tracks mud over the rugs, strews her 

550 National College of Education 

belongings on the floor, and loses many things. She is not orderly, even 
in a rudimentary ivay. Her mind seems elsewhere. 

She indulges often in lies and near lies. "Yes, I brushed my teeth," 
saves a trip upstairs. "Yes, I washed my hands. Well, at least I wet 
them." All for convenience. Does not as a rule welcome suggestions. 
She is jealous of her "free time" and her chances to do as she "pleases." 
Anything required outside of school she definitely resents. We stopped 
piano lessons and a class in acrobatic and tap dancing because of the 
emotional difficulties involved. It has proved to be a wise move. There 
lias been a noticeable lessening in tension. We have come to the con- 
clusion that outside of school the least possible should be required of G. 
and that she should be let pretty much alone. After all, why not? What 
are a few extra skills as against a feeling of general "rightness" and 
ease? I wish G. would oftener do some spontaneous, generous, lovely 
thing. She seems to have her own interests and comfort well to the fore 
in her thinking and living. 


Name of child R. Group Fifth Grade 

Date of birth December 14, 1929 Days absent 2 

Term beginning September 18, 1939 Days present 84 

Term ending January 31 , 1940. 

Physical and Emotional Status — 

R's physical condition contributes abundant energy for all activities. 
He is always happy and attacks his work eagerly. He is careful of his 
personal appearance, but is very disorderly in the care of his possessions. 
There has been less evidence of boastfulness of late than formerly. 
There is good self-control in the use of halls, lunch room, except when 
he encounters his brother. He seems sometimes to take delight in hurt- 
ing him. 

Social Adjustment — 

R. is well liked by the group and is friendly toward all. He is very 
anxious to receive commendation from others. He is courteous in his 
manner, respects the opinions of others, and willingly shares his posses- 
sions and suggestions. 

Social Studies — 

R. has show?i a keen interest in our study of American industries. He 

Parents'- and Teachers' Records 551 

gains a great deal of information and collects materials, but has difficulty 
in organizing his work. There has been a most decided growth, though, 
in thoroughness. He no longer rushes a piece of work through just for 
the sake of finishing it. He attacks work with zest and without sugges- 

Science — 

jR. was very much interested in our study of kinds of power, sources 
of power, natural resources, and how they help to build a city. This 
interest led to mastery of facts and creativeness in the form of drawing. 

Oral Composition — 

R. makes voluntary and worth-while contributions to the class. These 
are usually in the form of information rather than any solutions to prob- 
lems which he has thought out. He shows poise both physically and 
mentally when speaking before a group. 

Written Composition and Spelling — 

R. seems to enjoy uniting stories. He has good ideas and an interest- 
ing way of stating them, but his work needs better organization and 
more logical sequence of events and topics. The appearance of his writ- 
ing has improved immensely. His class work in spelling is very good. 

Reading — 

R. has shown an interest in improving his reading, but lie gets quite 
arrogant over any progress he makes. He reads independently for 
pleasure or information. 

Arithmetic — 

R. is intensely interested in arithmetic, spending much of his leisure 
time working in his work book. He is able to handle the four funda- 
mental processes with integers with accuracy except where mistakes are 
made due to carelessness in writing. He has an understanding of the 
beginning work in fractions. 

Recommendations — 

Stories on the history of the United States would be helpful to R. in 
his work. 

552 National College of Education 


Name of child R. 

Semester beginning September 18, 1939. 

Semester ending January 31 , rp^o. 

Art — 

R. never wastes time in expressing his ideas. Sometimes his work 
seems crude because he does not hesitate to put into one picture all that 
he sees. But the type of work he does promises to develop into an indi- 
vidual thing with charm and originality. 

Manual Training — 

Has a great respect for materials and tools. Is careful to use them in 
the right way. Has lately been working on a boat for the mantel. Seems 
more interested in useful articles than those of play or art. Seems to 
have progressed in his work. Shows some skill. Has a good deal of 
initiative— doesn't have to be told to go ahead. Is independent and orig- 
inal. Always anxious to finish a problem and works hard to finish. Is 
critical of his work and does profit by suggestions. 

Physical Education — 

Has made a great improvement in the soccer game, and I believe it 
has made him very much more interested in sports. He is clever at soccer, 
and the children are beginni?ig to think that he is one of their best 
players. He plays fair until someone does something he does not approve 
of; then he will play very hard to make his goal, not being as careful as 
he usually is. 

Music — 

Has shown marked growth in interest and abilities. His singing voice 
is smooth and clear. In ear training he shows development in both pitch 
and rhythm perception. He has become interested in the group and in 
its attainments. 

Instrumental Music — Piano 

R's progress is symmetrical. I am very much pleased especially with 
the creative trend his music seems to be taking. His rhythm, pitch, feel- 
ing for harmony, sense of form are good. There now remains the work 
of developing these to their ultimate possibilities. He should always 
have the opportunity to take part in some kind of music as he is essen- 
tially musical. 

Parents' and Teachers' Records 553 

French — 

R's attitude is excellent in the French class; he shows eagerness and 
comprehension; his progress is good. 


Name of child R. 

Group Grade V Date Feb. iy, 1940 

What school interests has your child most often mentioned at home? 
Study of New York. 
Book Club. 

In what phases of our work is his progress most evident? 


Silent Reading: for the first time lie reads alone for long periods. 

In what forms of work or play does he engage most frequently at home? 
Group activity centering around his "Club House" of logs, on which 
he has worked for several weeks. 

What, if any, changes have you noted: 
In attitude toward parents? 

Is maturing rapidly. He now considers himself one of the "adults," 
and so conducts himself. 

In attitude toward other children? 

Tries to play mentor to his brother, sometimes assuming discipline 
if not watched. Is most protective of his younger sister, and seems to 
be a favorite with his gang. 

What is the attitude toward coming to school? 
He cannot get there early enough! 

What, if any, undesirable tendencies is your child showing at home just 

We are trying to work out an attitude of self-control over wrath that 
often is partly at least righteous. R. is probably too fond of defending 
his rights. 



THE medical work of the Children's School, including physical 
examinations and daily inspection, is directed by a physician 
and a trained nurse. 

The health of the children is safeguarded by a close cooperation 
between the home and the school, and by the careful examination 
and daily inspection of all children by an attending physician and 
graduate nurse. The physician is present daily during the first 
hour of the morning while the physical inspection of the children 
is being made. The nurse is in attendance throughout the day. 
The services of the nurse are many. She assists in the examination of 
the children, keeps records, and observes the children during the 
day, taking care of minor hurts. She measures chairs and children 
so that proper seating will insure correct posture. She keeps height 
and weight charts. She ascertains the causes of absences by tele- 
phoning parents, and she arranges for conferences between the 
school physician and the parents. 

Letters are sent from the school physician to the parents in the 
early part of the school year giving the policy of the school regarding 
health and requesting parents to fill in a detailed record of the 
health of the child from birth. Letters are again sent to parents 
whenever contagion occurs in the school, with a brief description 
of signs and symptoms of the disease, for which to watch. Careful 
health records and observations in the classroom are kept on all 
children, and significant findings are sent to parents. 

Physical examinations are made each year after a written permit 
has been obtained. Examination and observation of eyes and ears 
are made on all children of the school. Recording of heights and 
weights is done throughout the year, and charts are kept on all 
children of the school. All data are sent to the parents, especially 
whenever children are not gaining satisfactorily or when for any 
reason the care of the family physician is indicated. 


Physician's Records 555 

No child is allowed in school with a cold in the infectious stage, 
or after contact outside of the school with a contagious disease. 

Underlying the plan for medical work is an effort to make the 
children realize that the possession of health is a privilege and a 
joy, and that all privileges are secured by self-control and effort. 
The children respond instantly to this very natural and normal 
attitude. They easily excel the adults. This idea carried out in their 
homes, in their classrooms, on the playground, makes health part of 
a social adjustment and a social responsibility. 

Daily inspection of children for colds or other signs of ill health 
then becomes a cooperative enterprise. Cooperation of parents is 
part of this plan— a very necessary part. Physical examinations are 
of great interest to the children, evidenced by a hundred questions. 

Histories from parents, frequent observation from the classroom 
correlated with the intelligence quotient, the achievements and the 
social responses of the child and the physical findings, are used to 
determine the best procedure to bring physical and mental health, 
and to lead parents and children to see that living is an art, not an 

556 National College of Education 


Name Gh-ant, Mary Date September 18, 1939. 

Address Grade Nursery School. 

Telephone Dale of Birrti April 19, 1936. 

Please fill nut tallowing 
atnily Record Number of children in family One 

Health of Father QOOd Mother Good Children 
ifancy Record: 

1. Was child born at term? Tee Was delivery normal' Yeo 

>. Birth weight. 7 lbs. 3/4 OZ. Details of any feeding difficulties PonHUle Changed several tines. 
I. Earliest age of following:— 
Holding HraH Up 

Walking 14 months. 
Talking 13 months. 

Age of First Tooth 5 months, 
ealth Record: 

I. Has child control of urine? YOB 
». Nervous habits as biting nails, sucking fingers, handling body Bites nails. Habit Of SUCklng index 

i. Sleeping habits: finger upon retiring practically stopped. 

Number hours at night Ten 

Place Own room. 

Condition of sleep— Usually quiet. 
I. Eating habits: Good 


Foods that disagree 

Special dislikes Custards - string beans - fish. 

Attitude toward meals 
i. Bowel habits HegUlaT 

6 Has child ever been ill with any of the following and at what age? 

Diphtheria German Measles Mumps 

Scarlet Fever Measles Tons.lit.s No of attacks 

Whooping Cough Frequent colds Jan. & June, 19S9£hicken Po* 

Glandular trouble Rheumatism (growing pains, etc) S. Vitus Dance 

Ear trouble Heart trouble 

Eye condition (red lids, styes etc Tests for eye strain ) 

7. Injuries, accidents or deformities, Rupture (with description) 

8. Operations (including removal of tonsils and adenoids) 

9. Weakness or tendency to ill health, nervousness, etc. 

10. Has your child been protected against Smallpox by vaccination and when? Yee - January, 1938. 

11. Has your child been protected against Diphtheria? Yes 

12. Has your child been protected against Scarlet Fever? NO 

School Data: (Please leave blank) 

Filled by Parent for Entering Child. 

Physicians Records 



name Grant, Mary 

date September 30, 1939 grade Nursery School 

nat ion G ood cooperation - alert. 

Good tissue turgor. 

:K Tonsll8 and 


No bowing. 

ight Normal apparently. 

lEARiNGNormal apparentljr 
^7r Good position 

Normal child. No defects. 

Latter sent to mother giving data. 

Report sent to Demonstration School 


Conference with teacher who reports 

good cooperation, alertness, good 



d.te 1939-40 c! "° E Nursery School 











































1 0. 11? 

remarks Physically normal. 

Filled by Physician Following Physical Examination. 

558 National College of Education 


The form used in the following letter is the same for all children, 
from nursery school through sixth grade. The findings inserted in 
the blanks correspond to those noted on the Health Record, a copy 
of which is found on page 557. 

To the Parents: 

We appreciate the cooperation of the parents in maintaining a high 
standard of health in our school. 

Physical examinations have been made of children where permission 
has been received. Eye tests and ear tests have been made on all children 
above the Junior Kindergarten and careful observations have been 
made, relative to defects and health, on all the children of the school. 
The response of children below Senior Kindergarten in eye and ear 
tests is usually unsatisfactory. 

Weight is an individual matter dependent in part on racial charac- 
teristic and family type. Healthier children generally are found to 
weigh more than the "average weight." This average has been esti- 
mated from observations made upon thousands of school children. 
20% or more over average weight generally means that the child needs 
more exercise and needs to eat less sweets. 7% or more under average 
weight needs special attention. Care should be taken not to worry the 
child about his weight. It is better to emphasize the positive side. 
If the child gains steadily and normally, actual weight may be in- 

Name: J.S. 

Physical Examination: 

Group: First Grade 

Date: Sept. 20, 1939 

Height 44.8 inches. Weight ^2.5 lbs. Average Weight 45 lbs. 

We should like to call your attention to the following findings: 

Tonsils show infection— large . 


Poor posture. 

We advise consultation witli your physician concerning these matters. 


Children's Physician 


Personnel of the Laboratory 

THE personnel of the guidance laboratory includes three edu- 
cational psychologists. One of these gives intelligence tests to 
preschool children in the nursery school, junior and senior kinder- 
gartens, and observes behavior patterns of children in order to 
adjust the child to more successful living in both school and home. 
The specialized training of this psychologist in parent education 
and mental hygiene has prepared her to conduct classes for parents 
of the children in the Children's School, to guide them in planning 
their educational programs and in knowing the policies and prin- 
ciples underlying the management of the school. Following the 
giving of an intelligence test she may invite the parent or parents 
to confer with her so that there may be better understanding of the 
child and his reactions to test items as well as to his general daily 
routine in school and home. Suggestions are often made to correct 
negative personal habits and attitudes, and if medical attention 
seems pertinent, the medical department is consulted. In any case 
notations are made and placed in the child's permanent file. 

The other two psychologists give intelligence tests and achieve- 
ment tests to children in the grades. Having specialized in learning 
problems which some children encounter, they spend considerable 
time creating and giving diagnostic tests and planning instruction 
of a preventive or corrective nature so that successful learning 
may result. Parents are periodically advised concerning any progress 
made. In case children are achieving so rapidly that acceleration 
seems inevitable an enriched curriculum is strongly advised and 
the examiner confers with both parent and teacher. 

One important aim of all the psychological service is to aid 
children in growing mentally, emotionally, physically, and aca- 
demically so that a normal balance is maintained. A psychiatric 
social worker has been lately added to the staff to aid in maintaining 
this important balance in living and growing. She interviews the 
teacher, visits the schoolroom, and occasionally makes home visits 


560 National College of FAucation 

with the purpose of knowing individual children more completely. 
In a few instances, this member of the staff cooperates with a 
psychiatrist not directly connected with the school but in sympathy 
with its policies. 

Two teachers on the staff in the Guidance Laboratory, expert 
in the field of the "three R's," give individual instruction to those 
children who seem to need special guidance for a time. 

A visual training expert and her assistant train children and col- 
lege students to use their eyes more efficiently. The training edu- 
cates the eyes in conjunction with the brain to fuse images more 
quickly and accurately; to change focus from the far point to the 
near point with precision and speed; to see depth when looking at 
a distance; to follow a slowly moving object with smoothness in 
fixations; and furthermore to decrease any habits of suppression 
to a minimum and use all the vision there is. These training experts 
work in cooperation with the medical department or with family 
pediatricians or ophthalmologists. 

The services of the specialists in the Guidance Laboratory are 
available to the community, and many children and adults outside 
the school come in for diagnosis and for periods of training. Guid- 
ance is given also to student teachers who wish to specialize in learn- 
ing problems. 

Description of the Laboratory 
The main room in this laboratory is divided into sections so that 
individuals or small groups may be given instruction independent from 
that given to other individuals or groups. The room is divided by screens, 
bookshelves or filing cases so that the person giving visual training 
may have a child use one or the other piece of equipment planned for 
that purpose; a teacher may be using the kinaesthetic method with the 
child who needs practice on new or difficult words; another teacher may 
be guiding a child in his typing of an original composition with primer- 
sized type to be later read by him to his class. There are two smaller 
offices adjoining this main room of the laboratory for the director 
and assistant. When diagnostic tests are given the examiners work in 
these smaller rooms. 

Types of Tests Used in Diagnosis 
When diagnosing problems presented by children in the elementary 
grades, the procedure usually includes an intelligence test; a reading 

Records of the Guidance Laboratory 561 

aptitude test for the younger child only; tests to determine preference of 
hand, foot, eye and ear; tests to ascertain skill of hand and. foot and of 
eye (if the child has learned to read) and ear; a photographic record 
of eye movements while reading silently for the child who has learned to 
read; a reading, spelling or arithmetic diagnostic test, and standardized 
achievement tests which fit the level of learning. Comprehensive letters 
regarding the findings of each case are written with conclusions and 
recommendations so that the parents, teachers, psychiatrist, physician, 
principal, or eye specialist may have a copy of the written report. 

Major Responsibilities 
The responsibilities of this laboratory, which are varied and numer- 
ous, are listed below with brief descriptions and later some are de- 
scribed in more detail, so that those particularly interested may under- 
stand the methods of guidance, principles and applications. 

1. An individual intelligence test is given to each child entering the 
school and again after an interval of six months to a year, and usu- 
ally every two years after that. As the child is tested, particular 
attention is given to emotional disturbances, physical peculiarities, 
habits of response, or negative habits. These are recorded and 
slipped into the test booklet. 

2. Two booklets of standardized school achievement tests are given at 
the close of each semester to children from the second grade 
through the eighth grade. The test results are organized into 
tabular form with averages computed for each subject and for each 
child. Copies are given to each teacher, to the director of the school, 
and to members of the guidance department. Graph reports re- 
cording the average test scores are prepared once or twice a year 
after third grade, so that both parents and children may have an 
inventory of present attainments and a comparison with previous 
records in the various school subjects. Reading aptitude tests 
are given to either first grade applicants or to children in the five- 
year-old kindergarten group toward the end of the year. 

3. Detailed letters are sent to the school to which a child is trans- 
ferred. These letters state information regarding the intelligence 
test findings and achievement test results (if the child is in the 
grades) for several consecutive testing periods. The letters give in- 
formation concerning the rate and quality of learning of the 
child, some idea of his social and emotional characteristics, his 
classroom activities and interests, and his physical development. 
Any deviations in learning are noted. 

4. Interviews with parents, physicians, and visiting educators consti- 
tute a major responsibility. The discussions center around a child 

562 National College of Education 

and his current problems, recommendations, demonstrations of 
methods or explanations regarding the use of materials which 
might be of value to the child. Visits to the home are often planned 
as an important means of understanding and solving emotional 
and social difficulties which the child may present. Stimulus- 
response and diary records are used as a means of evidence to show 
to parents the need for emphasizing a certain method of attack 
or to show that improvement has taken place. Lists of positive 
traits have been organized to use as a key when studying a child. 
These can be found on page 586. 

5. Research studies have been carried on each year to aid in the 
selection of tests and in the originating of tests so that the diag- 
nosis of children will'be more comprehensive. An extensive study 
has been made of visual factors relative to functioning; data con- 
cerning intelligence and achievement tests, attendance, and edu- 
cational quotients have been computed for the yearly report; spe- 
cial emphasis has been placed upon better methods in learning to 
spell; and controlled techniques in the teaching of reading have 
been under way for several years. 

6. A considerable amount of supervision is given to student teachers 
assisting in the Children's School, as they give individual instruc- 
tion to children encountering learning handicaps, and to college 
students enrolled in the courses in improvement of academic learn- 
ing. Children from other schools are also given guidance. Mimeo- 
graphed material is prepared as an aid in this supervision. 

7. A considerable amount of time is spent in answering correspond- 
ence, for teachers write for advice concerning tests; school adminis- 
trators write for recommendations on types of equipment; parents 
and physicians ask for appointments to bring a child in whom they 
are interested for diagnosis. Many visitors come throughout the 
year for brief or extended visits depending upon their purposes 
and needs. 

Studies of Intelligence and Personality 

Intelligence Tests 

In the nursery school, junior and senior kindergarten, children are 
given either the Merrill Palmer Scale of Mental Tests, the Minnesota 
Pre-School Scale, or the Revised Stanford-Binet, Form L and M, all 
depending upon the ability and interests of the child. The older chil- 
dren are given the Revised Stanford-Binet, the Grace Arthur Perform- 
ance Scale, the Durrell-Sullivan Capacity Test or the Chicago Non- 
verbal Test, according to the age and needs of the child. The two latter 
tests do not seem fair to children whose eyes are not functioning 
efficiently, for the pictures are small, crowded with detail, and often too 
close together. The Binet is not a wise choice for the non-reader who 
talks very little, whose language development is limited, and who 
doesn't care to express himself. Since the Children's School does not con- 
tinue beyond the eighth grade, no mechanical aptitude tests are given. 
The tests as named above give probably the most reliable indication of 
the child's mental make-up for academic learning. They do not always 
indicate the complete innate mental characteristics of a child. 

Each child is retested after six or seven months. Very often the test 
results are questioned because the child being tested may have been 
emotionally blocked, may have shown a definite language retardation, 
or may have been physically fatigued. The second or third examination 
is often given before we attempt to estimate his mental capabilities. 
In the case of those children whose academic achievement far sur- 
passes their predictions for learning, the intelligence rating is ques- 
tioned, and a further study may be made of them. We also question 
intelligence ratings on children who have not been successful in 
school, since so many test items contain reading or activities includ- 
ing language skills. Recently a twelve-year-old girl raised her intelli- 
gence quotient over twenty points after a year's individual instruction 
in reading. She was apparently released emotionally through successful 
learning and through the acquisition of more adequate visual efficiency 
by means of visual training. In fact she reacted more normally in all 
school situations after a period of a year. 

Teachers are given an opportunity to discuss and examine all facts 
relative to these tests, inclusive of the personality report which accom- 
panies each psychological examination. Samples of these reports are 
included on pages 566 to 569. 

Two lists are prepared for the teacher and director of the school 
twice a year. One contains an alphabetical list of names (see page 564) 
with the child's birthday, his chronological age calculated for a day 
selected near the beginning of each semester, the corrected mental age 



National College of Education 




• l b> ] 939 



* Name 

)ate of Birth 


M. A. 

I. Q. 

Ratings in I. 0. 

Barns, Jean 





98, 103, 1 1 1 

Bitler, Anne 






Bonner, Jack 






Buckly, Frank 






Chapin, Mary 





1 1 1,126 

Deeinan, Coral 




9 1 

92, 9 1 

Gillet, George 





120, 112, 110, 110 

Hull, Meredith 





98, 96, 89 

Manard, Marie 





96, 125, 96 

Nadler, Norman 






Reeman, Louise 





116, 117 

Roth, John 





105, 125, 131 

Schamer, Victor 






Seaton, Robert 





112, 124 

Whitly, Dan 





116, 115, 128 

Whorner, Joan 





!33> J 52 

Woolright, Jim 





118, 120 

Zackry, Nancy 




V 2 5 


* Names are fictitious, but facts are authentic. 

(I. Q. times C. A. in terms of months), and all the ratings from intelli- 
gence tests which have been given. 

The other list (see page 565) is arranged with the class intervals for 
inclusive corrected mental ages in the horizontal columns and headings 
for types of minds in the vertical columns as low normal, high normal, 
superior, very superior, etc. Each child in the class has his name written 
where it belongs in respect to these criteria. From these two lists the 
teacher may readily study each child in relation to others in the group 
if she cares to do so. 

The test results are further used to indicate the academic level that 
the child might attain, providing other factors are not interfering. The 
mental age is corrected for the time the achievement tests are given, 
so that it may be compared with the educational age of the child as deter- 
mined by the achievement tests. 

All of these findings are considered with reservations, since none of 
the tests are perfect instruments of measure and since human beings 

Records of the Guidance Laboratory 


* Fifth Grade 
September, 1939 

Classifications of Intelligence Ratings 

Mental Ages 

Low Normal 

High Normal 






Buckly, F. 



Manard, M. 

Gillet, G. 

Seaton, R. 


Roth, J. 
Whitly, D. 

Zachry, N. 





Bonner, J. 

Nadler, N. 

1 1-6 


Bitler, A. 

Ghapin, M. 
Reeman, L. 
Schamer, V. 



Barnes, J. 


10-1 1 

Deeman, G. 

1 0-0 


Hull, M. 

* Names are fictitious, but facts are authentic. 1 

react unexpectedly to certain factors which might occur during any 
one of the testing periods. Evaluations based on tests are always altered 
by the more complete study of an individual and by knowledge of the 
environmental factors. However, these intelligence and achievement 
test data seem to be superior to judgments of any individual teacher, and 
if used with discretion can be of vital aid in the guidance of an indi- 
vidual child's activities and development. The guide as to our own 
current policies in a testing and follow-up program is duplicated on 
pages 570 to 573. 

566 National College of Education 

Parents are rarely given the exact numerical finding relative to the 
intelligence tests but often are told the classification in which the 
intelligence rating falls as seen by the results of three or four tests. 
The tester explains the items in which the child was successful and those 
in which he failed, but guards against details which might lead to 
coaching. Since most parents are naturally ambitious for their children, 
they might unconsciously adopt this method of aiding their child for 
another examination. The psychologist may discuss with the parent per- 
sonality characteristics as observed during the examination, and feels 
free to give suggestions for guidance in this field of social-emotional and 
physical welfare. 

Each child enrolled in the school has his own manila folder in which 
all tests are placed which have been given to him. These are filed 
according to the grade placement and are available to the teachers. 

Personality Studies Accompanying Intelligence Test Records 
The following personality studies of children who have been tested 
recently seem to be fair illustrations of the endeavor to ascertain char- 
acteristics of children presenting a variety of problems. 

Subject No. 1 

Chronological age when tested 7-5 

Earned mental age from Binet 8-8 

Resulting I. Q. 118 

Scatter from the sixth year through the tenth year. 

Physical traits 

X was a nervous, unstable type of child going through all types of 
overt actions in the testing periods such as: facial distortions, moving 
his chair up and down first on the front legs and then on the back; 
moving knees back and forth; tipping chair forward with his hands. 
X continued these activities throughout the test. It was suggested he go 
to the toilet and get a drink of water which he did. We also changed 
the chairs around and examined a few things in the room as a restful 
diversion. When observed in the classroom later X was found to be 
restless and nervous especially in the music period. We understand 
that the teachers have had conferences with the mother concerning this 
nervousness but she reports the pediatrician cannot find any cause. He 
is a right-handed child. 

Mental traits 

X gave a detailed description of small things in pictures; in making 
change all of his subtraction facts were incorrect; his drawing of a 
diamond showed good proportions. 

Records of the Guidance Laboratory 567 

Social and emotional traits 

X conversed freely with the examiner and revealed some sense of 
responsibility when he responded to the question, "What's the thing 
to do when you have broken something of some one else's?" He said, 
"Buy another one. Earn money by selling lemonade. Get some stock- 
ings, repair them and sell them." 

Child's reaction to the test 

X was anxious to go with the examiner and was especially curious 
about the contents of all the envelopes containing the test materials. 
He said, "What do you ask the children in the seventh and eighth grade 
to do?" He appeared to enjoy the experience and conversed rather 
freely about the materials. 

Subject No. 2 

Chronological age when tested 14-7 

Earned mental age ' 15-0 

Resulting I. Q. 107 

Physical traits 

This subject has gray eyes, dark brown hair, brunette complexion, 
healthy looking skin. She is physically mature, of medium height and 
stockily built. She is inclined to be round-shouldered when seated, but 
carries herself well when standing or walking. 

She made many facial contortions such as scowling or contracting 
the muscles in her face and upper part of her body. X squinted her left 
eye when drawing or counting and held her head on the left side. Her 
left hand was used in all writing. Her speech was not as clear as it should 
be. A possible nasal obstruction might be causal. 

Mental traits 

The basal age of X was found to be at the fourteen-year level. She 
failed all tests at the Superior Adult Level I. She passed all tests at the 
Average Adult Level which involved language but failed to record sen- 
tences exactly. She moved her lips while listening. Her attention was 
excellent throughout the course of the examination. When asked to 
repeat the digits she said, "There is no connection between these num- 
bers", showing that she sensed difficulty in abstract series. 

Social-emotional traits 

X felt very much at ease during the entire examination. We under- 
stand from the room teacher that her social development is splendid; 
that she is well poised in most situations and has mature interests. As 
far as her reactions to the test are concerned, she was interested and 

568 National College of Education 

tried to do her best. She exclaimed several times, "Gee, that's a sticker," 
especially when she was not sure of what response to make. 

Subject No. 3 (Examined for a reading disability) 
Chronological age at the time of the test 10-0 

Earned mental age 11-10 

Resulting I. Q. 118 

X has an attractive personality. She seemed to enjoy the testing pro- 
gram, was friendly and her cooperation was good. The testing was done 
during two periods with an interval of one week between the giving 
of the first part of the test and its completion. In the meantime she 
seemed to have set up a defense but with the first part she seemed much 
more responsive. 

This subject very frequently drawled a self-conscious "Oo h!" This 

was followed by a rather high-pitched giggle. When X had taken a 
few test items she said, "These are tests. Some are reading and I can't 
read very well." 

The Basal age on the Revised Stanford Binet was at the nine-year 
level and all test items were failed at the Superior Adult I Level. She 
had difficulty with all tests involving reading but her response to the 
code (Test 2 at the Average Adult) was given in much less than the al- 
lotted time. 

The final rating places this subject in the superior classification. This 
rating might be still higher if the subject had been able to pass items 
involving reading. 

During the entire testing program we noticed that the subject was 
negatively affected by her mother. Due to the latter's misconception 
of the reading disability she has become overly anxious and extremely 
critical of her daughter. She apparently never sees the things that she 
can do well but constantly indicates her disgust in her daughter's in- 
ability to read. The girl was much more relaxed when the mother was 
not present. 

Subject No. 4 

Chronological age at the time of test 4-5 

Resulting I. Q. 126 

(Minnesota Preschool Scale) 

Physical traits 

This subject was forty-one and a half inches tall and weighed thirty- 
eight pounds. She had light blue eyes, light brown hair and a clear color. 
Her daintiness was outstanding. 

Records of the Guidance Laboratory 569 

Mental traits 

She was successful in repeating four digits and was very good in 
recognizing forms. Her comprehension of word meanings was good. 
She talked freely and easily, expressing herself clearly. She gave some 
description in the picture test. Her muscular coordination seemed good 
for her movements were free and easy in drawing circle and tracing 

She indicated some weakness in comprehension of absurdities, giving 
stereotyped answers. 

Social-emotional traits 

She seemed quite at ease in the testing situation and was happy, 
cheerful and friendly. She hummed little songs as she worked, often 
laughed and showed pleasure at success. 

She gave eager attention but showed signs of fatigue toward the end. 
Her cooperation was complete and willing helpfulness was shown. Rap- 
port was immediately established. 

Policies Relating to the Evaluation of Achieve- 
ment and the Improvement of Learning 

The Interpretation of Test Results 

Intelligence and achievement tests are regarded as valuable aids in 
measuring progress of individual children in attaining certain academic 
skills and facts; and in comparing results of an experimental program 
with results achieved in schools following a more conservative pattern. 
Extreme care must be exercised in the interpretation of tests, however, 
that their use does not hinder progress in revising the curriculum in 
accord with the latest findings in child development and the changing 
goals of a modern philosophy of education. The following policies are 
considered important: 

A. The school is interested in the development of the entire per- 

sonality. In this development it is considered highly desirable 

1. The curriculum for all children and especially for kinder- 
garten-primary children shall include abundant opportunity 
for bodily activities such as excursions, outdoor play, 
rhythms, dramatization, construction, and the like. 

2. The approach to mastery of such skills as reading, arithmetic 
and spelling shall be gradual with no immediate concern 
that the child shall reach fixed standards in academic achieve- 
ment in relation to his mental ability. 

3. The curriculum shall be enriched for superior and gifted 
children, and overemphasis of "fundamental subjects" shall 
be avoided. Allowing these children to "work to capacity" in 
academic subjects is likely to lead to acceleration and the 
placement of the child in a group where he is physically and 
socially maladjusted. 

B. The school is interested in helping the child develop wholesome 

attitudes toward learning at each stage and to increase his abil- 
ity to use what he acquires in situations of everyday living. The 
following policies are considered in evaluating test results: 
1. In primary reading, the child is believed to have a good 
foundation if he has developed an interested and en- 
thusiastic attitude and sufficient skill to read new stories 
independently, however simple the material may be. As his 
interest leads him to read outside of reading periods, his 
vocabulary will grow. Teachers, parents, and children should 
not become discouraged by test results which do not reach 


Records of the Guidance Laboratory 571 

fixed standards, if there is no discovered handicap which 
would interfere with normal learning. 

2. In spelling, it is the teachers' judgment that interest is keener 
and spelling in written work is more accurate when a con- 
siderable percentage of words is taken directly from the 
child's immediate writing needs, rather than from spelling 
books or standardized lists. The method of studying words is 
more important than the particular words being studied. 
This policy of learning to spell words which are taken from 
daily needs rather than from recognized lists may tend to 
lower the child's grade scores in standardized spelling tests. 

3. In arithmetic, the Children's School has accepted the new 
grade placements which postpone certain processes like long 
division and fractions until the children are more mature. 
At certain levels test scores in arithmetic computation may 
fall below the normal grade placement until someone stand- 
ardizes arithmetic tests geared to the newer grade placements. 

4. In social studies, it seems desirable that stress be put on prob- 
lems of contemporary living— rather than on the far-distant 
past. History of a particular country or period may prove 
less interesting and valuable to some groups of elementary 
children than developmental studies, which trace the de- 
velopment of social customs and scientific inventions from 
early times to the present; as, development of light and heat, 
of communication, transportation, architecture, and the like. 
These trends in curriculum making may tend to lower history 
and geography scores, since the content of most of the stand- 
ardized tests includes a great deal of unrelated informational 
material, of the type found in the older textbooks. 

The school maintains that in general, facts relating to the child's 
progress shall be interpreted to parents rather than concealed 
from them. The age level has its influence upon the character 
of this interpretation. For instance: 

1. In the primary grades, test results may be interpreted to par- 
ents in the teacher's descriptive reports or in personal confer- 
ences. If some handicapping factor has been found to be 
present it is thoroughly explained and recommendations 
given which are the concensus of the opinion of different 
adults in the school interested in the child. 

2. In grades above the third, parents may be shown graph re- 
ports during personal interviews after their children have 
had an opportunity to see their own reports. No graph re- 
ports are mailed unless there has been an interview, so that 
misunderstandings may be avoided. 

572 National College of Education 

Policies Used in Improving Learning Ability 

A. It is believed highly desirable that, for children who get their 
first school experience in the Children's School, factors likely to 
retard learning shall be detected early and the need for preven- 
tive instruction ascertained. The specific plans are as follows: 

1. Reading aptitude tests are given near the end of the senior 
kindergarten or to first grade applicants either during the sum- 
mer or early in the fall before school opens. The scores are 
compared with the child's intelligence test rating, the record 
of visual efficiency, the preference of hand, foot, eye, and ear, 
and the report from the school physician. 

2. Children who show marked mental and emotional immaturity 
are given experiences preparatory to reading, but systematic 
instruction in reading is withheld until there is evidence of 
greater readiness. The school has few mentally immature chil- 

3. Children who reveal either in the testing or in the initial 
learning that some persistent handicap is retarding progress, 
such as low auditory acuity, difficulty in sound discrimination, 
visual anomalies, confusion in directional movement, or 
non-interest in learning to read, are given further diagnostic 

B. When special individual instruction seems desirable to prevent 
or correct disabilities, conferences between the teacher, guidance 
worker, principal and parent are planned, so that recommenda- 
tions for particular children may be efficiently carried out. Basic 
policies include the following: 

1. Since children often find it difficult to adjust to a number of 
personalities, individual instruction is carried on in the room 
by the regular teachers whenever possible. 

2. If the child's difficulty suggests the use of special equipment 
or special methods in the Guidance Laboratory, these steps are 

a. The school physician is informed of the nature of the diffi- 
culties and the type of treatments recommended. 

b. The parents are asked to sign a permit allowing individual 
instruction to be given. 

c. The child is taken from the room at an individual work 
period or study period, so that he will not miss group ac- 
tivities of special value or interest to him. Individual in- 
struction in middle and upper grades may be set at the 
period for French, since children who have difficulty with 
English usually do not enjoy learning a foreign language. 

Records of the Guidance Laboratory 573 

d. The teacher cooperates by permitting the child to leave at 
the time set and by visiting the Guidance Laboratory fre- 
quently to see the methods actually tried out, and to report 
on the room interests which might be used in the reading 
material prepared by or for the child. 

e. Reports are sent to parents and teachers of the child's 
progress at frequent intervals. 

f. Student teachers in the Children's School are encouraged 
to enroll in college classes stressing improvement of learning 
ability, so that special help may be given to any child need- 
ing it by one of the student assistants in the room rather 
than by an outsider. 

Records of Achievement 

Standardized Achievement Tests 

Since some of the faculty members wished to check the educational 
growth of their pupils, a graph record based on the results of educa- 
tional tests standardized in American public schools was organized, and 
has been in use for six or seven years. Two batteries of tests are selected 
and given to children enrolled in grades three through eight. One list 
from the Morrison-McCall Spelling Scale is chosen so that three spelling 
tests may be averaged. Four silent reading tests, two arithmetic reasoning 
tests, and two arithmetic computation tests are used. In grades five to 
eight tests in English, literature, language and grammar, history and 
geography are added. Oral reading tests are given to children in grades 
two, three and four, and to any children in higher grades who continue 
to have difficulty in learning to read well. Different colors on the graph 
indicate the test scores from various semesters, since tests are given 
in January and May in grades two, three, four, seven and eight. In 
grades five and six tests have been given in April, since children at 
this age do not seem to show significant gains per semester. Scores of 
the preceding May are recorded on the graph for the current year so 
that progress may be noted from May to the following January. New 
children are tested in the fall. Public school norms are used. 

Tests in English, history, geography, literature or language are not 
introduced until the last month of the fourth grade. The organization 
of graphs for third and fourth grades is different from those prepared 
for the older children. Copies of some of these graphs prepared during 
1939 are duplicated on pages 582 to 585. 

Most children are very eager to see their graph reports, since progress 
is easily discerned. If there has been little or no progress, the graph is an 
incentive to put forth more effort on the part of many individuals. A 
teacher or a member of the Guidance Laboratory has a conference with 
each child who has taken the tests so that he may see his own report 
before his parents see it. A conference afternoon for parents and teach- 
ers of each group is planned so that individual parents may discuss 
learning and emotional-social or developmental problems of their chil- 
dren with the room teachers, the special teachers, and the director of 
the guidance staff. The physician is present if possible. The graphs are 
thoroughly explained and interpreted to those parents who have at- 
tended the conference. 

During these informal but personal conferences, with either pupil or 
parent, stress is placed upon the child's academic growth, his strength 
and needs, rather than upon any comparison with anyone else in the 
class. In other words rivalry is never encouraged. 


Records of the Guidance Laboratory 575 

In order that individual growth from year to year may be conven- 
iently shown in the files, a cumulative record card has been organized for 
recording all the grade placements the child has earned by semesters 
in each subject during one year. Total scores are included with educa- 
tional age, achievement quotient and his educational quotient. 

Various factors have determined the selection of the tests used; as, 
type of content, organization of content, size of type, length in line of 
print, sufficient range in grade norms, evenness in the increase of grade 
norms, and range of difficulty in the content. Power tests have been 
preferred to timed tests because speed is not particularly emphasized in 
the daily work of the children. Teachers are not informed as to just 
which tests shall be used, and new tests are tried out as they are 

It is recognized that these tests do not test the specific information 
which any particular teacher has covered with a group of children and 
that newer ideas in curriculum making of necessity must be tried out 
before they become general enough to warrant their inclusion into tests. 
For instance, in arithmetic computation some schools include fractions 
in fourth grade, while others defer this teaching until the latter part 
of fifth grade or the sixth grade. There seems to be little uniformity as 
yet as to which arithmetic processes to teach, and when to teach them. 
Geography and history are included in social studies units by some 
teachers, as they undertake to study certain social problems. Thus the 
type of problem determines the amount or kind of history and geog- 
raphy taught rather than the outline of a textbook. Most children show 
vital interest in reading the historical and geographical information 
necessary to a complete understanding of the problem under study. 
However, the general information gained may be quite different from 
that found in the usual textbook. Teachers who carry on original 
studies or "units of work" frequently compile newer type examinations 
on the specific material covered and give these examinations at the 
close of the enterprise so that individual learning may be determined, 
needs and strengths of both individual and class discovered, and par- 
ents may know outcomes of the project as well as the teacher. 

Standardized achievement tests, as a rule, are given by the members 
of the Guidance Laboratory, and all the scoring and checking is super- 
vised by the staff of this department. A typewritten listing of the grade 
scores earned by individual children in each test from both batteries of 
tests is prepared for the different teachers including average rating by 
subjects, average total scores, average educational ages, each child's 
chronological age at the time of the testing, his corrected mental age, 
his average I. Q., the achievement quotient, educational quotient, and 
percentage of attendance. These same facts are also organized on an- 

576 National College of Education 

other sheet with all horizontal lines representing inclusive grade place- 
ments according to these tests from the lowest score made in each sub- 
ject to the highest in terms of a ten-months school year. The vertical 
columns are used for each main academic subject and one at the ex- 
treme right is reserved for total grade placements and achievement and 
educational quotients for each child. Each child's name is then recorded 
for each subject exactly where his average grade score places him, as 
6.3 or three months in the sixth grade in reading, or 4.5 or five months 
in the fourth grade in spelling. By studying this listing, the teacher may 
immediately see the ability groupings by subjects and by keeping in 
mind the calibre of the daily work of the pupil can arrange her class 
into more homogeneous groupings and plan the instruction accord- 
ingly. This sheet is at least one basis for grouping pupils so that instruc- 
tion is more efficient. However, it is merely a guide and children should 
be adjusted and readjusted as the need arises. A typical inventory of test 
results with the accompanying interpretation can be found on pages 577 

to 579- 

The Gray Oral Reading Paragraph test is given to second, third, and 

fourth grade children and to those children in grades above the fourth 
who do not read and spell with the sufficient skill. It is found that scores 
made on an oral reading test agree very well with the scores which 
children make in spelling, and it is therefore believed that children 
who fail to make normal progress in either of these subjects should be 
thoroughly diagnosed. 

In the last few years the following tests have been given to the chil- 
dren in the various grades. All available forms are used over a period of 
two or three years so that no form is repeated within that time unless, 
of course, there is only one form, as the Gray Oral Reading Paragraph 

First Grade— Metropolitan Achievement Test— Primary Battery I, Forms A, B and C. 
Testing is done at the end of the year. 

Second Grade— Third Grade— Metropolitan Achievement Test, Primary Battery I 
to those not achieving rapidly, and Primary II to those who are learning at a normal 
pace or above. These children are also given the New Stanford Achievement Test, 
Primary Battery, and a list from the Morrison-McCall Spelling Scale. Tests are 
given at the end of each semester. 

Fourth Grade— New Stanford Achievement Test, Primary Battery, and Metropolitan 
Achievement Test, Primary Battery II, to those progressing slowly, or the Progres- 
sive Achievement Primary Battery, in January and May; Advanced New Stanford 
and Progressive Elementary Battery or the Metropolitan Intermediate to those 
achieving at a normal rate or rapidly, in January and May. The organization of 
arithmetical computational tests is satisfactory, from our experience, in the Pro- 
gressive Elementary Battery. A list from the Morrison-McCall is also given at each 
testing period. 

Fifth and Sixth Grades— New Stanford Advanced Battery, Metropolitan Intermediate 
Battery, or Progressive Achievement Elementary Battery are used interchangeably. 
The National Achievement Test, Municipal Battery (Acorn Publishing Company, 
Rackville Center, New York) is another possibility. 

Records of the Guidance Laboratory 

* Fifth Grade 
September, 1939 

Achievement Test Inventory 


Grade Reading Spelling 











. Com p. 

& Lang. 

Above Roth 




Whorner Whornei 












































1 12 







1 10 























Schamer Chapin 













































s 4.4 
















Schamer Nadler 



Deeman Manard 


























*Names are fictitious, but facts are authentic. 

578 National College of Education 

As a rule a member of the Guidance Staff scores the tests first, and the 
room teacher or an assistant checks this scoring. After the test for 
each child is recorded, this recording is checked before averages in grade 
placement are obtained by another person. These averages are used for 
the Profile Graphs and for the inventory sheet which has already been 
described. Children are never shown their test booklets after they have 
been graded, but those above grade three are told their grade scores 
and types of needs and strengths are pointed out to them. Often a 
child's percentage of accuracy for each test is explained to him espe- 
cially if he has attempted too much and has not done anything well. 
The teachers examine each child's booklets and record findings of a 
general nature which will affect the content and calibre of instruction 
following the testing period. Specific problems or paragraphs are not 
taken from the test booklets for drill purposes but similar problems 
are often used to explain the needs of individuals or of the class. 

During the testing period notations are made concerning the work 
habits of individual children, their application to the task, their per- 
sistence, their absorption, their willingness to try even though the prob- 
lem is difficult, their judgment as to time values. Following the testing 
period, individual conferences are had relative to these notations or 
even as the testing proceeds. Occasionally a child is allowed to work 
alone in a small office if he is too annoyed by behavior of others or be- 
comes too tense in the group situation. Children are often urged to do 
their best, but aid is not given, and an atmosphere of seriousness con- 
cerning the testing period prevails. Since the children know that they 
will be informed of the results, they are more willing to cooperate and 
seem to be doing their best. 

Interpretation of Fifth Grade Achievement Test Inventory 

The beginning fifth grade group is reading silently very well if one 
may judge by their test scores. Daily responses, however, would, aid a 
teacher in determining those children who need further direct experi- 
ences, more concrete contacts, a richer meaning vocabulary, or emphasis 
upon wider reading. The scores in history and geography indicate that 
more factual reading might be done. 

The boy who has the lowest score in reading has recently entered 
the school and has had individual instruction for only a semester, but 
is taking hold very well because of his persistence, ambition and splen- 
did physical background. Two other children who are not reading well 
are also receiving individual instruction. One has many emotional diffi- 
culties to iron out. Two other children are new to the group. They come 
from classes close to forty in size, but are responding readily to the 
present program. One child has already become more relaxed, is eat- 

Records of the Guidance Laboratory 579 

ing better, and to the surprise of his parents gets himself ready for 
school before the scheduled time. 

Some of the group can well spend more time learning how to spell. 
What words are learned is not as much the problem as the method to 
be emphasized. If purely visual methods with some auditory approach 
have not been successful, the kinaesthetic method plus the use of the 
tactile sense is recommended. Some of these children may need careful 
analyses of words so that they may gradually learn to recognize vowel 
and consonant digraphs, silent letters, final e's, murmur diphthongs, 
prefixes and suffixes, etc. Each child might appreciate having his own 
filing box to use to file away the words which have been of interest to 
him and words which were difficult for him to spell. An alphabetical 
arrangement is the most efficient. Word meanings should be included 
for each word, synonyms or antonyms, and the word should be used in 
a sentence. 

Because of the newer grade placements in arithmetic, the class as a 
whole may be learning in accord with the instruction. However, there 
are in most classes some children not interested in arithmetic who might 
need to solve some of their own original problems, others who do not 
read problems accurately or who cannot judge as to the process perti- 
nent to the solving of the problem, others who have habituated them- 
selves to inefficient habits in adding, subtracting, etc., and who need to 
recite orally to the teacher as they work a problem so that she in turn 
will know what instruction is needed. 

Surely, some of these children who are still eight and nine years of 
age as Chapin, Bonner, Nadler, Schamer, Whorner, and Zachry, should 
have considerable time in which to carry out their own purposeful ac- 
tivities, to enlarge their scope of learning by adding instrumental music, 
drama, speech, art or nature study. They need to spend their time, too, 
in real concrete learning, in seeing first-hand methods of production, of 
distribution or selling, to learn vicariously by having a sufficient amount 
of visual education aids planned for them. One child, Roth, should be 
carefully watched so that her placement in this class or another will be 
correct for her. 

Letters of Transfer 
The following letter of transfer is a typical letter. In this case a 
brother and sister left the Children's School at the same time and trans- 
ferred to the same school. 

Similar letters are written for all children who leave our school, and 
a copy of each letter is kept for the school files. Such letters are written 
for school administrators and teachers only. 

580 National College of Education 

Miss , Principal, 


Public Schools, 

My dear Miss : 

In regard to your letter of September 26, 1939, I am very happy to 
know that both B and S have entered your school.