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Full text of "The Cyclopaedia of American biography. New enl. ed. of Appleton's cyclopaedia of American biography, originally edited by James Grant Wilson and John Fiske. Revision to 1914 complete under editorial supervision of Charles Dick and James E. Homans"

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■■ OF 





James Grant Wilson and John Fiske 


James E. Homans 


RossiTER Johnson, Litt. D. 

John W. Fat, Managing Editor 

/. I', 


with index 



1/. 2 

CoPTBiGHT. 1886, 1887, 1894, 1898, 1900 


Revised and Enlarged Edition 


J$tu€d by special arrangement with D Appleton <& Co., wTio have granted 
the present publishers the use of their plates and copyrighted material. 


When The CYCLOP.ia)iA op American Biography was completed by the 
publication of the sixth volume, it was the most extended and most perfect work 
of its kind that ever had been made in America. It was the product of expert 
editors with a specially chosen and carefully trained staff of writers, backed by 
one of the oldest and most liberal publishing-houses in the country. Every 
source of authentic information — printed, manuscript, or oral — was laid under 
contribution. Every subject treated was shown at his best, with mention of his 
most interesting and most significant work, but with no taint of fulsome eulogy 
— nothing extenuated, nothing set down in malice. Every page was made up 
of honest work; every square inch was carefully edited. 

But any book of reference is impaired by age — not because it becomes 
untrue, but because the world moves continually. The schoolboy of yesterday 
is the vigorous man of to-day, and may be the gray-haired sage of to-morrow. 
The youth who drives a team on the towpath may become President, and the 
newsboy in the train may turn out to be the greatest inventor of the age. One 
man passes into history, and another springs into prominence. There comes a 
time when it seems as if art, literature, statesmanship and economic invention 
had arrived at their zenith, and there is nothing to do but close the record and 
bind up the work. Then pessimistic critics talk complacently about degeneracy 
and the ''twilight of the gods." But suddenly a new genius arises, and creates 
a new school ; or there is a scientific or economic development that calls for new 
energies, and the new energies are forthcoming, and it seems as if a greater 
sun had risen upon the earth. The electric telegraph appeared to be the ultimate 
thing for transmission of intelligence, until the telephone came, and after that 
the wireless. Tennyson's vision of ''the nations' airy navies grappling in the 
central blue" was only a poet's dream till the astronomer Langley and the 
Wright brothers made it a possibility, and the great war in Europe made it 
a reality. 

The cardinal principles of any science remain unchanged, while the dis- 
coveries and materials with which it must work are new. As with the original 
volumes, so in preparing the new volumes of this work the same general course 
has been followed — the same careful choice of writers, the same wide but dis- 
criminating search for subjects, the same nice scrutiny of all the work. One 
strong feature of the original volumes was recognition of the fact that the 
Americans are the most inventive people that ever lived, and their notable and 


successful inventions outnumber those of all other nations together. In view 
of this, the editors of that work took especial pains to record the lives and 
achievements of American inventors. In all earlier works of the kind, while 
statesmen, clergymen, authors and artists had been looked after, inventors had 
been neglected. 

Similarly to that, the editors of the Seventh and Eighth volumes have 
recognized the fact that ours is the richest and most powerful nation on the 
globe, and have also recognized the fact that it has been made so largely by 
our oaptains of industry and other foremost men of business. These, therefore, 
are well represented; so that when one looks upon our evidences of prosperity 
and asks: "Who brought this about?" these volumes will answer his question. 
How much and how rapidly events have moved may be comprehended if 
but a few names are recalled of men and women who were not mentioned in 
the six volumes, but have since risen to such eminence that no such work can 
now omit them. These include: Presidents and vice-presidents of the United 
States; numerous governors of states who have risen to national prominence; 
several now noted statesmen and former candidates for the Presidency; 
numerous army and navy officers, whose names are now constantly before the 
public; several prelates already historic for their good works; great scientists, 
inventors, captains of industry, authors, artists and men of affairs. 

These later volumes are enriched with an unusual number of excellent 
portraits; so that the reader may not only learn of a distinguished man's 
achievements but meet him face-to-face and exercise whatever he possesses of 
the art of physiognomy. 




Adams, Charles Kendall, 

President Cornell University. 

Agassiz, Alexander, 

Author and Professor. 

Allen, Joseph Henry, D.D., 

Author " Hebrew Men and Times." 

Allibone, S. Austin, 

Author " Dictionary of Authors." 

Amory, Thomas C, 

Author " Life of General Sullivan," etc. 

Bancroft, George, 

Author " History of the United States." 

Barrett, Lawrence, 

Author " Life of Edwin Forrest." 

Bayard, Thomas F., 

Secretary of State. 

Benjamin, Samuel G. W., 

Late U. S. Minister to Persia. 

Bigelow, John, 

Author " Life of Franklin," etc. 

Boker, George H., 

Poet, late Minister to Russia. 

Botta, Mrs. Vincenzo, . 

Author and Poet. 

Bradley, Joseph P., 

Judge United States Supreme Court. 
Brooks, Phillips, 

Author " Sermons in English Churches." 

Buckley, James Monroe, D.D., 

Methodist Clergyman and Editor. 

Carter, Franklin, 

President Williams College. 

Chandler, William E., 

Ex-Secretary of the Navy. 

Clarke, James Freeman, 

Author " Ten Great Religions " etc. 

Conway, Moncure D., 

Miscellaneous Writer. 

Cooper, Miss Susan Fenimore, 

Author '* Rural Hours," etc. 

Coppee, Henry, 

Professor Lehigh University, Pa. 

Coxe, Arthur Cleveland, 

Bishop Western New York. 

CuUum, Gen. George W., 

Author " Register of West Point Graduates,' 

Curry, Daniel, D.D., 

Author and Editor. 

Curtis, George Ticknor, 

Author " Life of James Buchanan," etc. 
Curtis, George William, 

Author and Editor. 

Custer, Mrs. Elizabeth B., 

Author " Boots and Saddles." 

Didier, Eugene L., 

Author " Life of Edgar Allan Poe." 

Diz, Morgan, 

Rector Trinity Church, New York. 

Doane, William C, 

Bishop of Albany. 

Drake, Samuel Adams, 

Author " Historic Personages of Boston," etc. 

Draper, Lyman C, 

Secretary Wisconsin Historical Society. 

Du Pont, Col. Henry A., 

U. S. Senator from Delaware. 
Egan, Maurice, F., LL.D., 

U. S. Minister to Denmark. 
Fiske, John, 

Author and Professor.. 

Frothingham, Octavius B., 

Author " Life of George Ripley." 
Gayarre, C. E. A., 

Author " History of Louisiana." 
Gerry, Elbridge T., 

Member of New York Bar. 
Gilder, Jeanette L., 

Editor and Critic. 

Gilman, Daniel C, 

President Johns Hopkins University. 
Goodsell, Rev. D. A., 

Methodist Episcopal Bishop. 

Greely, A. W., U. S. A., 

Author " Three Years of Arctic Service." 
Hale, Edward Everett, 

Author " Franklin in France," etc. 

Hart, Samuel, D.D., ^ 

Professor in Trinity College. 

Hay, Col. John, 

Late U. S. Secretary of State. 

Haydon, Rev. Horace E., 

Author " Pollock Genealogy " etc. 
Higginson, Col. T. W., 

Author " History of the United States," etc. 
Hilliard, Henry W., 

Ex-United States Senator from Georgia. 



Holmes, Oliver Wendell, M.D., 

Phytician and Poet. 

Howe, Mrs. Julia Ward, 

Author •• Later Lyric*," etc. 
Howe, Bt. Bev. M. A. de Wolfe, 

Protestant Episcopal Bishop. 
Isaacs, Abraxn S., Ph. D., 

Editor " The Jewish Messenger." 
Jay, John, 

Late Minister to Austria. 
Johnson, Oen. Bradley T., 

Member Maryland Bar. 

Johnson, Bossiter, 

Author " History of the War of 1812," etc. 

Johnston, William Preston, 

President Tulane University. 

Jones, Bev. J. William, 

Secretary Southern Historical Society. 

Kendrick, J. Byland, D.D., 

Ex-President Vassar College. 

Kobbe, Oustav, 

Musical Editor of New York " Mail and 

Lathrop, George Parsons, 

Author *' A Study of Hawthorne," etc. 
-Lincoln, Bobert T., 

Ex-Secretary of War. 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, 

Author " Life of Hamilton." 

Lowell, James Bussell, LL.D., 

Poet and Author. 

MacVeagh, Wayne, 

Ex-Attorney-General, U. S. 

Harble, Manton, 

Late Editor " The World." 

Ilathews, William, 

Author " Orators and Oratory," etc. 

McMaster, John Bach, 

Author " History of the People of the United 

Mitchell, Donald G., 

Author " Reveries of a Bachelor," etc. 
Norton, Prof. Charles Eliot, 

Professor Harvard University. 

O'Neal, Edward A., 

Governor of Alabama. 

Parker, Cortlandt, 

Member of the New Jersey Bar. 

Parkman, Francis, 

Author " Frontenac," " French in Canada," etc. 

Parton, James, 

Author and Essayist. 

Phelps, William Walter, 

Member of Congress from New Jersey. 
Porter, David D., 

Admiral United States Navy. 

Porter, Gen. Horace, 

Ex-U. S. Ambassador to France. 

Preston, Mrs. Margaret J., 

Author and Poet. 

Bead, Gen. J. Meredith, 

Late Minister to Greece. 

Beid, Whitelaw, 

Editor of New York " Tribune." 
Bobinson, E. G., 

President Brown University. 

Bomero, Mattias, 

Mexican Minister to United States. 

Boyce, Josiah, 

Professor California University. 
Sanborn, Miss Kate, 

Miscellaneous Writer. 

Schurz, Carl, 

Ex-Secretary of the Interior. 

Shaler, Nathaniel Southgate, ^ 

Professor in Harvard College. 

Sherman, William T., 

Late General of the Army. 

Sloane, Prof. T. O'Conor, 

Electrical Expert and Author. 

Smith, Charles Emory, 

Editor Philadelphia " Press." 

Spencer, Jesse Ames, 

Author and Professor. 

Stedman, Edmund C, 

Author " Poets of America," etc. 

Stoddard, Bichard Henry, 

Author " Songs of Summer," etc. 

Stone, William L., 

Author " Life of Red Jacket," etc. 

Strong, William, 

Ex-Judge U. S. Supreme Court. 
Todd, Charles Burr, 

Author " Life of Joel Barlow." 
Tucker, J. Bandolph, 

Member of Congress from Virginia. 
Waite, Morrison B., 

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. 
Warner, Charles Dudley, 

Author and Editor. 

Washburne, E. B., 

Late Minister to France. 

Welling, James C, 

President Columbian University. 

Whitman, Walter, 

Author " Leaves of Grass," etc. 

Whittier, John Greenleaf, 

Poet, Essayist and Reformer. 
Wilson, Gen. Jas. Grant, 

President Genealogical and Biographical Society. 
Winter, William, 

Poet and Theatrical Critic. 
Winthrop, Robert C, 

Ex-United States Senator. 

Young, John Russell, 

Late U. S. Minister to China. 



For kind assistance in the preparation of the present revised edition of the Cyclopaedia of American Biog- 
raphy, special acknowledgments are due to the following for suggestions, revisions of articles, or for original 
contributions. .'"^ 

Abbott, Rev. Lyman, D.D., LL.D., L.H.D., 

Editor "The Outlook"; Author. 

Adams, Oscar Fay, 

Critic, Poet and Lecturer. 

Ade, George, 

Author and Playwright. 

Bacon, Edwin Munroe, 

Former Chief Editor Boston " Post." 

Bailey, Liberty Hyde, 

Author and Horticulturist. 

Baldwin, Simeon E., 

Ex-Governor of Connecticut. 

Bartlett, Robert A., 

Arctic Explorer. 

Bates, Lindon W., 

Civil Engineer and Author. 

Bigelow, Poultney, , 

Author and Traveler. 

Bolton, Charles Knowles, 

Author; Librarian Boston Atheneum. 
Bowker, Richard R., 

Editor and Author. 

Brashear, John Alfred, Sc.D., LL.D., 

Chairman Educational Fund Commission, Pitts- 
burgh; Scientist. 

Brigham, Johnson, 

Librarian Iowa State Library. 

Brown, Elmer Ellsworth, Ph.D., LL.D., 

Chancellor New York University. 

Burrell, Rev. David James, D.D., LL.D., 

Pastor Marble Collegiate (Reformed) Church, 
New York; Author. 

Burroughs, John, 

Naturalist and Author. 

Caffey, Francis Gordon, 


Cameron, Charles E., M.D., 

Historian and Surgeon. 

Carus, Paul, Ph.D., 

Editor, Philosopher, Orientalist. 

Casson, Herbert Newton, 

Journalist and Author. 

Cattell, James McKeen, Ph.D., LL.D., 

Professor Columbia University, New York. 

Chambers, Julius, 

Journalist, Author, Playwright. 

Church, William Conant, 

Journalist, Soldier and Author. 

Clark, Champ, 

Speaker United States House of Representatives. 
Clarke, Joseph I. C, 

punia/Mt and Playwright. 

Coffin, William Anderson, 

Artist and Author. 

Coley, William Bradley, M.D., 

Professor Cornell University Medical School. 

Cook, John Williston, 

President N. Illinois State Normal School. 

Coolidge, Hon. Louis Arthur, 

Ex-Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. 
Connor, Robert Digges Wimberly, Ph.D. 

Secretary N. C. Historical Commission. 

Crandall, William S., 

Journalist and Historian. 

Davenport, Charles Benedict, Ph.D., 

Biologist, Carnegie Institution. 

Day, Rev. James Roscoe, D.D., LL.D., 
S.T.D., D.C.L., 

Chancellor Syracuse University. 

De Land, Frederic, 

Director Volta Bureau, Washington, D. C. 

Dixon, Hon. Joseph Moore, 

Ex-Senator from Montana, Lawyer, Editor. 

Doane, Rt.-Rev. William Croswell, D.D- 
LL.D., D.C.L., 

Late Episcopal Bishop of Albany, N. Y. Author. 

Ettinger, F. Sumner, 

Editor and Historian, 

Eitel, Edmund H., 

Author and Biographer. 

Fackenthal, Frank Diehl, 

Secretary Columbia University. 

Farley, Most Rev'd John Cardinal, 

Cardinal Archbishop of New York, N. Y. 

Farwell, Arthur, 

Journalist and Composer. 

Fay, John W., 

Editor and Historian. 

Finley, John Huston, A.M., Ph.D., LL.D., 

Ex-President College City of New York. 
Foster, William Eaton, A.M., Litt.D., 

Librarian Public Library, Providence, R. I. 
George, Henry, Jr., 

Congressman and Author. 

Gilbert, Henry Franklin Belknap, 

Musician and Composer. 

Gilman, Lawrence, 

Musical Critic and Author. 

Goethals, George W., LL.D., 

Major-General United States Army; Builder of 
the Panama Canal. 

Gore, Hon. Thomas Pryor, 

U. S. Senator from Oklahoma. 

Grosvenor, Gilbert H., 

Director National Geographic Society. 



Hamilton, J. O. d« Boulhac, 

Trofckftor UniverMly of North Carolina. 

Hanna, Hon. Louia Benjamin, 

Governor of North Dakota. 

Hazard, Caroline, A.M., Litt.D., LL.D., 

I'roidcnt WclloJey College, Mass. 

Henderson, Archibald, A.M., Ph.D., 

I'rofcssor University of North Carolina. 

Henry, Horace Chapin, C.E., 

Railroad Builder. 

Hill, Bev. John Wesley, D.D., LL.D., 

Clergyman. Lecturer and Reformer. 

Holland, William Jacob, Ph.D., Sc.D., 

Zoologist, Director Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh. 

Hooper, William L., Ph.D., 

Professor Tufts College, Mass. 

Howard, Herbert S., 

Naval Constructor, U. S. Navy. 

lies, George, 

Author and Editor. 

James, Henry, Jr., 

Manager Rockefeller Institute, New York. 

Jenks, George Charles, 

Author and Journalist. 

Johnson, Bossiter, 

Editor and .\uthor. 

Kelley, William Valentine, D.D., LL.D., 

Clergyman, Author and Editor. 

Kennelly, Arthur Edwin, A.M., Sc.D., 

Professor Harvard University. 

Kenyon, James Benjamin, Litt.D., 

Poet, Author, Editor. 

Lawrence, Bt.-Bev. William, S.T.D., LL.D., 

Bishop of Massachusetts. 

Lodge, Hon. Henry Cabot, Ph.D., LL.D., 

U. S. Senator from Massachusetts, Author. 

MacCracken, Bev. Henry Mitchell, D.D., 

Former Chancellor of New York University. 

McGill, William A., 

Editor and Historian. 

McGovem, Hon. Francis Edward, 

Governor of Wisconsin. 

Mantle, Lee, 

Former U. S. Senator from Montana. 

Markham, Edwin, 

Poet, .Author and Reformer. 

Martin, Frederick Boy, 

Assistant General Manager Associated Press. 

Marvin, Bev. Frederick Bowland, D.D.. 

Clergyman, Author and Essayist. 
Maxim, Hudson, Sc.D., 

Inventor and Author. 

Mead, William Butherford, LL.D., 


Meany, Edmond Stephen, M.S., Litt.M., 

Professor University of Washington. 

Miller, Marion Mills, Litt.D., 

Editor and Poet. 

Mitchell, Silas Weir, M.D., LL.D., 

Physician and Author. 

Moore, Hon. Miles Conway, 

Last Governor Washington Territory. 

Morgan, Forrest, A.M., 

Asst. Librarian Watkinson Library, Hartford. 
Moss, Frank, LL.D., 

Asst. Dist. Attorney, New York City. 

Muir, John, A.M., LL.D., L.H.D., 

Geologist, Naturalist, Author. 

Munroe, Charles Edward, Ph.D., 

Dean Corcoran Scientific School. Washington. 

Nelson, Bt.-Bev. Charles Kinloch, D.D., 

Bishop of Atlanta. 

Norris, Hon. Edwin Lee, 

Ex-Governor of Montana. 

Parkinson, Arthur E., 

Educator and Historian. 

Penrose, Bev. Stephen, B.L., D.D., 

President Whitman College, Washington. 

Piper, Edgar Bramwell, 

Mng. Editor " Morning Oregonian," Portland, 

Porter, Gen. Horace, LL.D. 

Soldier, Diplomat, Author. 

Bajrmond, Bossiter Worthington, Ph.D., 

Mining Engineer, Editor, Author. 

Boberts, Brigham Henry, 

Ex-Congressman from Utah; Author. 

Sargent, Charles Sprague, 

Arboriculturist and Author. 

Seward, Hon. Frederick William, LL.D., 

Lawyer, Statesman, Author. 

Simmons, Dr. George H., M.D., L.M. 

Physician, Medical Writer and Editor. 
Sheer, Bev. Thomas Boberts, A.M., D.D., 

Pastor All Souls' Church, New York; Author. 
Smalley, Frank, A.M., LL.D., 

Dean College Liberal Arts, Syracuse University, 

Sonnichsen, Albert, 

Author, Journalist, Economist. 
Spencer, Frederick W., 

Educator and Historian. 

Stewart, Hon. Samuel Vernon, 

Ex-Governor of Montana. 

Stuart, Hon. Granville, 

Librarian Public Library, Butte, Mont. 

Taft, Hon. William Howard, LL.D., 

Ex-President of the United States. 
Taylor, Charles Henry, 

Editor " Boston Daily Globe." 

Turner, Hon. George, 

Ex-Senator from Washington. 

TJpham, Warren, A.M., 

Secretary Minnesota State Historical Society. 
Van Dyke, Hon. Henry, D.D., LL.D., 

U. S. Minister to Holland. 

Van Dyke, John Charles, L.H.D., 

Professor in Rutgers College. 

Wakefield, Hon. W. J. C, 

Lawyer and Jurist. 

White, Hon. Andrew Dickson, LL.D.. 
L.H.D., D.C.L., * 

^°Educ t^* ^" ■'^'"'^*^'" *° Germany; Author; 
Wood, Charles Erskine Scott, 

Soldier, Lawyer, Author. 

Woodberry, George Edward, Litt.D., LL.D., 

Professor Columbia University. 




CHOATE, Joseph Hodges, lawyer, b. in Salem, 
Mass., 24 Jan., 1832; d. in New York City, 14 
May, 1917, son of George and Margaret Man- 
ning (Hodges) Choate. His first paternal 
American ancestor, John Choate, emigrated 
from Colchester, England, in 1643, and settled 
in the town that is now Ipswich, Mass. His son 
Thomas was the first of the family to occupy 
Choate Island. Thomas's son Francis (1701- 
77 ) was a farmer. William, son of Francis 
(1730-85), was a sea captain. His son George 
married Susanna, daughter of Judge Stephen 
Choate. Their son George, a physician (1796- 
1880 ) , married Margaret Manning, daughter 
of Gamaliel Hodges, of Salem. He was a 
graduate of Harvard, and to that institution 
he sent his sons William Gardiner and Joseph 
Hodges, who were graduated in 1852, William 
being valedictorian and Joseph ranking fourth 
in the class and delivering the Latin oration. 
Joseph studied two years in Dane Law School, 
then for one year in the ofhce of Leverett 
Saltonstall in Boston, and in 1855 was ad- 
mitted to the Massachusetts bar. In that 
year he went to New York, bearing a letter 
of introduction from his father's cousin, Rufus 
Choate, to William M. Evarts. In 1856 he 
was admitted to the New York bar and en- 
tered the office of Butler, Evarts and South- 
mayd. In 1859 he became a member of the 
firm of Evarts, Southmayd and Choate and 
in 1884 this firm became Evarts, Choate and 
Beaman. By his habit of close study, his 
fine presence, his masterly oratory, his wide 
reading, his marvelous memory, and his keen 
wit Mr. Choate rapidly attained high rank in 
his profession and was known as one of the 
ablest and best-equipped lawyers of the New 
York bar. It was said that he was " a spe- 
cialist in every branch of the law." This 
was due to the fact that when he entered 
upon a case he carefully studied everything 
connected with it, so that in some instances 
he might be said to have mastered a science 
in order to apply his knowledge of it to the 
case in hand. It was notable that his talents 
were not always arrayed in defense of the same 
general principles. He might at one time 
plead for the rights and privileges of the fed- 
eral government, against the encroachments of 
corporations, and again push to the utmost 
the^ claims of individuals or corporations 
against the government. His justification may 


be found in some of his public utterances. In 
his speech when he unveiled the statue of 
Rufus Choate he said : " His theory of ad- 
vocacy was the only possible theory consistent 
with the sound and wholesome administration 
of justice: that, with all loyalty to truth 
and honor, he must devote his best talents 
and attainments, all that he was and all that 
he could, to the support and enforcement of 
the cause committed to his trust." And of 
James C. Carter he said : " He was very far 
from limiting himself to causes that he 
thought would win, or to such as were sound 
in law or right in fact. No genuine advocate 
that I know of has ever done that. He held 
that an advocate may properly maintain either 
side of any cause that a court may hear." 
Mr. Choate appeared probably in more trials 
of note than any of his contemporaries; in 
fact, his services were sought in all the cele- 
brated cases of his time. Among his memo- 
rable cases was the income tax case, probably 
the one of widest interest, involving the con- 
stitutionality of the Income Tax Law of 1894. 
He appeared before the Supreme Court in May, 
1895, to argue against the law; and though 
he was opposed by James C. Carter and other 
eminent counsel, the court decided in his 
favor. Maj.-Gen. Fitz John Porter, accused 
of gross disobedience of orders at the second 
battle of Bull Run, 29 Aug., 1862, was tried 
by court-martial, cashiered, and " forever dis- 
qualified from holding any office of trust or 
profit under the .government of the United 
States." This led to a long and acrimonious 
controversy, with petitions for a reversal. 
President Hayes appointed an advisory board 
of three major generals, and Mr. Choate ap- 
peared as advocate for General Porter. The 
board recommended annulment of the sentence, 
but a bill to that effect failed to pass Congress. 
It was passed later, but was vetoed on a tech- 
nical objection by President Arthur. When 
it was passed a second time, President Cleve- 
land signed it. This was perhaps the most 
famous case of the kind that ever occurred. 
The circumstances of the battle were so pecul- 
iar, and the testimony so conflicting, that 
there was room for honest difference of opin- 
ion. Mr. Choate's chief credit was due to the 
minute and patient care with which he studied 
the campaign in its every element — military, 
topographical, psychological, legal — and made 



himself complete master of the problem; and 
Mr. Choate not onlv succeeded in establishing 
Porter's innocence, but in having him restored 
to rank. Another unique and intricate case 
was that of Luigi di Cesnola, who, while Ameri- 
can consul at Cyprus, exhumed a great num- 
ber of antiquities in thiit island, and brought 
them to the MetroiK)litan Museum of Art. 
Certain critics questioned their genuineness, 
declaring that many of them were either wholly 
spurious or patched up The newspapers were 
fiercely partisan, and the matter was sub- 
mitted to a committee of five well-known citi- 
zens, who pronounced in Cesnola's favor. Then 
a lil)el suit was brought against him, and the 
jury disagreed Mr. Choate, as Cesnola's ad- 
voctite. made an extensive study of archaeology. 
It might be said that in such cases he was his 
own expert. Among other important cases in 
which he appeared were the contests over the 
wills of Commodore Vanderbilt and Samuel 
J. Tilden. In the test of the Chinese Exclu- 
sion Act he argued against the validity of the 
law. Another singular case was that of David 
Naegle. Da:vid S Terry, who had killed Sena- 
tor Broderick in a duel, had a grudge against 
Justice Field of the Supreme Court, because 
of a decision that disinherited his wife, and he 
threatened the life of the Justice. Therefore 
Naegle, a detective, was assigned to duty to 
protect him. When Terry found Field in a 
railroad restaurant in California, and struck 
him while Mrs. Terry ran back to the train 
for a revolver, Naegle promptly shot him dead. 
For this, Naegle was tried, the plea being that 
the fiKleral government had no right to author- 
ize such a proceeding in California. Mr. 
Choate argued for the supremacy of the gov- 
ernment, and Naegle was acquitted. The 
Pribilof Islands in Behring Sea, which belong 
to the United States, are the breeding-grounds 
of the very valuable Alaska seal herd; and 
serious complaints were made when Canadian 
boats from Victoria persisted in pursuing the 
seals on their way to and from the breeding- 
ground and killing them indiscriminately in 
the deep sea, which threatened destruction of 
the entire herd. The American contention in- 
volved the assumption that Behring was a closed 
sea and the seals belonged to the United States. 
The question was arbitrated, Mr. Choate con- 
ducted the case for the Canadians, and they 
won. He was counsel for David Stewart in 
his suit against Collis P. Huntington, one of 
the principal owners of the Central Pacific 
Railway, for recovery of a very large sum, 
claimed as the result of a stock transaction ; 
and he was counsel also for Riclmrd ^I. Hunt, 
the eminent architect, against Paran Stevens, 
for whom he built the Victoria Hotel. In the 
former case he was opposed by Roscoe Conk- 
ling, and in both cases his powers of ridicule 
were displayed liberally. But the most notable 
and picturesque case in this respect was that 
of Laidlaw against Sage. A lunatic had en- 
tered the office of Russell Sage carrying a 
bomb and demanding a million dollars. Pres- 
ently he dropped the bomb, which exploded, 
killing him and another man, and wounding 
Laidlaw, who was there on a business errand 
Laidlaw declared that Mr. Sage had seized him 
and used him as a shield to protect himself. 
Mr. Choate who appeared for the plaintiff, in 
his cross-questioning and his plea played 

humorously upon Mr. Sage's reputation for 
penuriousness and won a verdict of $25,000 
for his client. On appeal, the verdict was set 
aside, and a second trial gave the plaintill 
$43,000. This also was set aside on appeal, 
the higher court holding that ridicule of Mr. 
Sage's personal peculiarities should not have 
been allowed. Mr. Choate was engaged in two 
notable political cases. One was the prosecu- 
tion of the notorious Tweed ring in the city 
of New York; the other was known as the 
♦* theft of the State Senate by the Hill ring," 
one Maynard being seated there on the strength 
of a spurious return. In the contest over the 
will of Mrs. Leland Stanford, Mr. Choate's 
success secured the establishment of Leland 
Stanford Junior University with a magnifi- , 
cent endowment. He also appeared in the 
Credit Mobilier case, involving the contract 
for the construction of the Union Pacific Rail- 
road ; several cases against the so-called 
Standard Oil Trust and the Tobacco Trust, 
involving millions of dollars; Gebhard vs. 
Canada Southern Railway Company, affecting 
the rights of holders of foreign railway bonds; 
Miller vs. Mayor, etc., of New York, con- 
cerning the lawfulness of the construction of 
the first New York and Brooklyn Bridge; the i 
Bell Telephone case, involving the validity of ' 
the basic Bell telephone patent; Philadelphia 
Fire Association vs. New York, involving the 
constitutionality of the reciprocal and retail- . 
atory taxation laws against foreign corpora- 1 
tions enacted by many of the States; the de- 1 
fense of Commodore McCalla, charged with 
alleged breaches of the naval regulations, be- 
fore the naval court-martial; the Kansas pro- 
hibition law case, in which was attacked the 
validity of the Kansas liquor law^; Hutchinson 
vs. the New York Stock Exchange and of 
Loubart vs. the Union Club, in each of which 
he succeeded in securing the reinstatement of 
the plaintiff to membership, and because of 
the novel questions involved, attracted great 
public interest. Among the sensational will 
contests in which he participated were the 
Cruger, A. T. Stewart, Hopkins-Searles, Hoyt 
and Drake, and he also conducted the investi- 
gation of the Defender-Valkyrie controversy, 
arising out of charges made by Lord Dunraven 
as to the conduct of the international yacht 
race between those boats. His audacity in the 
courtroom was not exhibited solely toward 
witnesses and opposing counsel; on occasion 
it struck toward the bench. To one judge who 
was listless he said : " Your honor, I have 
forty minutes in which to sum up, and I shall 
need every minute of it and your strict atten- 
tion besides." " You shall have it," said the 
judge. On another occasion the presiding 
judge was about to punish John W. Goff for 
alleged discourtesy to the court while defend- 
ing a prisoner. Mr. Choate denied that Goff 
had committed the offense. " But I saw him 
do it," said the judge. "Then," said Mr. 
Choate, " of course it becomes a question be- 
tween your honor's personal observation and 
the observation of a cloud of witnesses who 
testify to the contrary. Was your honor ever 
conscious of being absolutely convinced from 
the very outset of a trial, that a certain per- 
son was guilty? If not, you are more than 
human. W^as your honor ever conscious, as 
the trial proceeded, that it was impossible to 




conceal your conviction? If not, you are more 
than human. That has happened in many 
courts, and when it does happen it rouses the 
spirit of resistance in every advocate who 
understands his duty." And Mr. Choate car- 
ried his point. His abounding humor, ready 
wit, and easy delivery made him a successful 
after-dinner speaker and he was called on for 
popular addresses on many public occasions. 
His published work consists of little else than 
such addresses, some of which were greatly 
admired. Among these were his tributes to 
Abraham Lincoln, Admiral Farragut, Benja- 
min Franklin, Rufus Choate, and the United 
States Supreme Court. He spoke also in favor 
of abolishing the exemption of American ships 
from tolls in using the Panama Canal. Though 
he sometimes took part as a speaker in po- 
litical campaigns, beginning with his speeches 
for Fremont in 1856, he was a candidate for 
political office but once. He had said that he 
would neither seek office nor decline it if it 
were offered. In 1897, Republicans who were 
dissatisfied with Senator Piatt attempted to 
replace him with Mr. Choate; but Mr. Piatt 
secured his re-election by control of the Re- 
publican caucus in the Legislature. Mr. Choate 
presided over the State Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1894, and headed the American dele- 
gation to The Hague Conference. He never 
saved up his wit for special occasions, but let 
it fly out whenever and wherever circumstances 
suggested it. Much of it came from his famil- 
iarity with classic literature and his ready 
knack of giving an unexpected application to a 
familiar passage. On an occasion when he was 
addressing a large audience, while the portly 
form of President Cleveland was beside him, 
after the famous witticism about the " Sun " 
and the " Post," and their alternative relations 
to vice and virtue, he pretended to increase 
the perplexity with, " We are puzzled, too, to 
know ' on what meat doth this our Caesar 
feed that he has grown so great.' " Many epi- 
grams and bits of unstudied humor have been 
popularly attributed to Mr. Choate, some of 
which he disowned; but he acknowledged the 
authorship of the most original and pleasing 
of them all. Being asked at a dinner who he 
would choose to be if he could not be Joseph 
H. Choate, he answered promptly, "Mrs. 
Choate's second husband." In 1899 President 
McKinley appointed Mr. Choate Ambassador 
to the Court of St. James's, to succeed Hon. 
John Hay, and he held that office six years. 
His great learning, ready wit, and geniality 
made him a favorite in England. And well he 
might be; for his interest was not confined to 
the Court and the attractions of London. Ac- 
companied by his daughter, he made frequent 
tours in the kingdom, entered into the spirit 
of village life, and especially visited the coun- 
try schools, where sometimes he catechized the 
children in a pleasantly humorous way, re- 
warding the best answers with a little money. 
In a Fourth-of-July speech in London he said 
that studies of English manners and institu- 
tions took him back to " the time when the 
dear mother country had not seceded from the 
common partnership," and he momentarily 
took away tlie breath of his auditors by add- 
ing gravely that the way was open for the 
mother country to come back. When his term 
of office was ended and he was preparing to 

return home, every possible honor was con- 
ferred upon him. Oxford gave him the degree 
of D.C.L. as a matter of course; but, most 
notable of all, he was made a bencher of the 
Inner Temple, an honor that had not been 
presented to an American since it was given 
to five signers of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. He received also the freedom of the city 
of Edinburgh. He was entertained by the 
Pilgrims Club, Lord Roberts presiding, and 
bench and bar united in an affectionate fare- 
well. Both of his law partners died during 
his absence, but on his return he resumed 
practice. He was now called upon for many 
public services. At various times he was presi- 
dent of the American Bar Association, the New 
York State Bar Association, New York City 
Bar Association, Harvard Law School Associa- 
tion, Harvard Alumni Association, the Union 
League and Harvard Clubs, the New England 
Society of New York, and the Pilgrim Society; 
a governor of the New York Hospital, a trus- 
tee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and 
of the American Museum of Natural History 
since the foundation of each, vice-president of 
the American Society for Judicial Settlement 
of International Disputes, foreign honorary 
fellow of the Royal Society of Literature, 
member of the Colonial Society (Mass.), the 
American Philosophical Society, trustee of the 
Equitable Life Assurance Society, the New York 
Life Insurance Company, and director in the 
German Alliance Insurance Company and the 
German-American Insurance Company. He 
was also president of the New York Associa- 
tion for the Blind and of the Board of Man- 
agers of the State Charities' Association. On 
24 April, 1917, he delivered a notable address 
at the annual meeting of the members of 
the Associated Press, in which he said : " If 
Lincoln were here today, his prayer would be 
verified and glorified into the prayer that all 
civilized nations shall now have a new birth 
of freedom, and that government of the people, 
by the people, and for the people shall not 
perish from any portion of the earth. Now 
I think it is not difficult to understand what 
this war is. It is a war for the preservation 
of free government throughout the civilized 
world. And I believe that I may include in 
that not only free governments of the allied 
nations and the neutral nations, but of Ger- 
many itself." This same speech contained a 
specimen of his high magnanimity. From the 
beginning of the war in Europe his sympathies 
were ardently with the Allies. Impatient at 
what was commonly regarded as delay on the 
part of the Administration, he became a severe 
critic of President Wilson, and his demand, 
" For God's sake, hurry up ! " echoed through- 
out the country. But relations with Germany 
had just been severed, and Mr. Choate re- 
marked : " But now we see what the President 
was waiting for and how wisely he waited." 
Mr. Choate was a lover of peace and of jus- 
tice secured by peaceful means. At the Second 
Hague Peace Conference, where he headed the 
American delegation, he was the champion of 
every method of abolishing war. In his proposal 
for compulsory arbitration, which succumbed 
to the fatal opposition of Germany, he had 
an impassioned burst about the alternatives to 
settlement of international disputes by judicial 
process — a burst which almost has a prophetic 



air, in view of what haa since occurred: "Let 
us resume all the savage practices of ancient 
tiroes. Let us sack cities and put their inhabi- 
tants to the sword. Let us bombard undefended 
towns. I^t us cast to the winds the rights of 
security that have l)een accorded to neutrals. 
Let us make the sulTerings of soldiers and sail- 
ors in and aftor l>attle as frightful as possible. 
Let U8 xvipt' out all that tlu' Red Cross has ac- 
coroplisheil at Geneva, and the whole record of 
the First Peace Conference at The Hague, and 
all the negotiations and lofty aspirations that 
have resulted in the summoning of the present 
conferenc<»." If since the war he displayed 
indignation against GtTnuiny's reversion to 
kKarlmroiH warfare, it was prompted by his in- 
stincts as an international lawyer and a friend 
of peace. In May, when the city of New York 
wehxmuHl and fettnl the French and British 
envoys— Marshal Joffre, M. Ren6 Viviani, and 
the Right Uonorable Arthur James Balfour — 
Mr. Choate, as chairman of the Mayor's Com- 
mittee, was the chief speaker at all the func- 
tions. Sunday, 13 May, he attended the serv- 
ices in the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, 
and on bidding farewell to Mr. Balfour at the 
close he said cheerily: '* Remember, we shall 
meet again, to celebrate the victory." Mon- 
day night he was taken seriously ill, and with 
the words, *' I think this is the end," he passed 
away. Although he had just recovered from 
an attack of grippe, he seemed in good health 
and entered with zest into the various re- 
ceptions tendered the French and the English 
war missions. His death, however, due to 
heart failure, was attributed directly to over- 
exertion incident to his participation in these 
many celebrations. It was a shock to the com- 
munity. Besides the countless tributes of af- 
fection and admiration and tokens of grati- 
tude by the civic and benevolent associations 
in which he was interested in America, it 
brought expressions of sorrow from every quar- 
ter of the globe. President Wilson in his 
message of sympathy to Mrs. Choate said: 
" May I not join in expressing what I be- 
lieve to be the grief of the whole nation at 
the death of your honored and distinguished 
husband. The news of it came as a great 
shock to me, and I wish to carry to you my 
most heartfelt sympathy." Among the con- 
dolences from abroad was one from King 
George to Mrs. Choate, which read : " The 
Queen and I are much distressed to hear of 
the sudden death of 'Sir. Choate, whom we 
knew so well and regarded with a strong feel- 
ing of friendsliip and respect. My people will 
join witli me in mourning the loss of your 
husband." There were many eulogiums in 
America. Tlie special memorial meeting of the 
Union League Club, of which he was a mem- 
ber for fifty years and president in 1873, 
vibrated with speeches of deep and personal 
feeling by many of its meml)ers, including 
Charles E. Hughes, president of the club, and 
Chauncey M. Depew. The resolutions which 
they adopted characterized him as " eminent 
in all his walks in life and pre-eminent in the 
hearts of all his fellow citizens. ... To Mr. 
Choate was given the supreme blessing of 
arriving at the wisdom and distinction of age 
without revealing the penalties of advancing 
years. Never did he stand more gracefully or 
more majestically in the public eye than dur- 

ing those last days when he filled a part 
exacting and conspicuous in the civic cere- 
monials of welcome to the allied commissioners 
of France and England." The Merchants' 
Association in an extensive statement said: 
" For the benefit of those who give or will 
have the future opportunity to give personal 
service in civic aflfairs we earnestly commend 
a study of the life of Joseph Hodges Choate, 
distinguished lawyer, diplomat, statesman, 
companion, and friend." As a mark of honor 
all the official flags and those on many office 
buildings, clubs and private residences in New 
York were lowered to half-mast. Mr. Choate 
was interested in numerous charities, especially 
those devoted to tlie blind, in appreciation of 
which the school and workshop in Paris for 
soldiers blinded in battle was named in his 
honor — the Phare de France-Choate War Me- 
morial, of which he had become president of 
the committee at its organization soon after 
the war started. Not only did high officials 
of the European nations join in tribute at the 
funeral ceremony in America, but impressive 
memorial services in his honor were held 
abroad. In St. Margaret's Church, Westmin- 
ster, England, the Archbishop of Canterbury 
said : " Mr. Choate was a pre-eminently great 
American citizen, a conspicuous example of 
what is pure and without reproach in the pub- 
lic civil life of a great country." At the serv- 
ices in Temple Church, London, the Lord Chief 
Justice said: 'Mr. Choate was a lawyer above 
everything. He was cradled in the law, loved 
his profession, and his thoughts were influenced 
by the study of the law. He was not only an 
American lawyer but a bencher of the Inner 
Temple. He also was a great Ambassador and 
one of the most distinguished citizens of the 
United States. He is remembered as one who 
was graceful and eloquent in his orations and 
dignified and lofty in his more serious utter- 
ances. He had charm and humor in his 
lighter eff"orts, and throughout all there could 
always be traced one great ideal, co-operation 
between our two nations." Besides the host of 
distinguished men gathered within St. Barthol- 
omew's Church, New York, at the funeral serv- 
ice, thousands, with bared heads, kept silent 
vigil outside, while the school children in New 
York in special assembly were learning the life 
of their country's first citizen — the highest 
type of American culture. He was buried in 
his private cemetery at Stockbridge, and the 
ceremony was marked by the revival of an 
ancient burial custom: the body was carried 
to the grave on a farm wagon covered with 
branches of laurel and drawn by two horses 
from his estate, " Naumkeag." He was mar- 
ried, 16 Oct., 1861, to Caroline Dutcher Ster- 
ling, daughter of Frederick A. Sterling, of 
Cleveland, Ohio, and they were the parents of 
five children. He is survived by his wife and 
three children: George, Joseph Hodges, Jr., 
and Mabel Choate. 

PORTER, Horace, soldier, author, and diplo- 
mat, b. in Huntingdon, Pa., 15 April, 1837, 
son of David Rittenhouse and Josephine (Mc- 
Dermett) Porter. His father was State sena- 
tor and twice elected governor of the State of 
Pennsylvania, and upon his retirement from 
public office engaged extensively in the manU' 
facture of iron at Reading, Harrisburg, and 
Lancaster, Pa. The first American ancestor 

An^ i,^- w y 



was Robert Porter, who emigrated from Lon- 
donderry, Ireland, in 1720, and settled in 
Londonderry, N. H., afterward buying land in 
Montgomery County, Pa. His son, Andrew 
Porter, the grandfather of Horace Porter, was 
a man of great distinction in both State and 
military affairs. He early manifested talent 
for mathematics, and under the advice of Dr. 
David Rittenhouse opened, in 1767, an English 
and mathematical school in Philadelphia. On 
the outbreak of the Revolution he was ap- 
pointed, by Congress, a captain of the marines ; 
was transferred later to the artillery, where 
he was advanced through various promotions 
to the rank of colonel of the Fourth Pennsyl- 
vania Artillery, and held this command to the 
close of the war. In 1773 he declined the 
chair of mathematics at the University of 
Pennsylvania, and in 1812, on account of the 
infirmities of old age, declined the offices of 
brigadier-general of the U. S. army, and of 
Secretary of War in President Monroe's Cabi- 
net. Gov. David R. Porter lived in Har- 
risburg, Pa., during his tenure of oflfice, and 
his son Horace there obtained his early educa- 
tion. Later he attended school in Lawrence- 
ville, N. J., preparatory to entering Princeton 
University; but having decided upon a mili- 
tary career, he entered the Lawrence Scientific 
School of Harvard University in 1854. He was 
appointed to West Point a year later, being 
graduated 1 July, 1860, in a class that was 
one of the only two that ever passed through a 
five-year term. He was third in rank among 
forty-one classmates, many of whom later be- 
came famous in military life. Horace Porter 
was unusually well equipped by nature and 
training for a successful career and his educa- 
tion was completed just at the time when his 
country stood most in need of his services. 
From his grandfather he had inherited a math- 
ematical turn of mind as well as a preference 
for military life, and when a boy had become 
thoroughly acquainted with machinery in his 
father's iron works. He early manifested 
great inventive genius and invented a water- 
test for boiling water, which was successfully 
employed in his father's furnaces. He is also 
the inventor of the ticket-canceling boxes in 
use on the subway and elevated stations in 
New York City. This peculiar mental com- 
bination of mechanical and military tendencies 
* strongly biased General Porter in the selection 
of his arm of service, and he adopted the 
ordnance, being appointed to a brevet second 
lieutenant, 1 July, 1861. He remained at 
West Point as inspector for the next three 
months, and then joined the expedition against 

kPort Royal under General Sherman and Ad- 
miral Dupont. Later he received his appoint- 
ment as first lieutenant of ordnance, and in 
the next year acted as assistant ordnance 
officer at Hilton Head, afterward engaging as 
chief of ordnance and artillery, in the erection 
of batteries at Tybee Island, Ga., for the reduc- 
tion of Fort Pulaski. During the ensuing siege, 
which occurred 10 and 11 April, 1862, Lieu- 
tenant Porter was breveted captain, his com- 
mission having been granted " for gallant and 
meritorious services at the siege of Fort 
Pulaski." He was also presented with a 
sword captured from an officer of the enemy, 
bearing Captain Porter's name and the in- 
scription, " For gallant and meritorious serv- 


ice." Captain Porter was next connected with 
the James Island expedition, and during the 
assault on Secessionville, S. C, was wounded 
in the hand by a piece of shell. In July, 1862, 
he was made chief of ordnance of the Army of 
the Potomac under General McClellan; joined 
his new command at Harrison's Landing, on 
James River, and superintended the military 
transfer into Maryland. After the battle of 
Antietam, 29 Sept., 1862, he was made chief 
of ordnance of the Army of the Ohio; on 28 
Jan., 1863, became chief of ordnance of the 
Army of the Cumberland; and 13 March was 
appointed as captain, and, until November, en- 
gaged in general staff duty on the field. At 
the battle of Chickamauga, 19 and 20 Sept., 
1863, Captain Porter won particular distinc- 
tion. With 500 men, and without orders, he 
rode to the top of a hill that was partly 
screened by underbrush, and by keeping up a 
rapid fire, to give the impression of a much 
larger force, delayed the enemy for at least 
twenty minutes, so that a number of guns and 
provision wagons were saved for the forces of 
General Rosecrans, of whose staff Captain Por- 
ter was a member. Nearly all of his men were 
killed or wounded, and he himself was wounded 
by a fragment of a shell, but was the last to 
leave the hill. For his conspicuous gallantry 
and initiative on this occasion Captain Porter 
received the Congressional Medal of Honor. 
He was next assigned to duty at Chattanooga 
under General Thomas, who succeeded General 
Rosecrans as head of the Army of the Cum- 
berland. Here he first met General Grant, 
upon whom he made such an excellent impres- 
sion that the general shortly afterward wrote 
to Washington asking for the appointment of 
the young officer as brigadier-general in his 
own military division. \Vhen General Grant 
was made lieutenant-general of all the armies, 
he appointed Captain Porter an aide-de-camp 
upon his staff with the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel, the appointment dating April, 1864. 
In this capacity he served with General Grant 
in the field through the Wilderness and Peters- 
burg campaigns, and until the end of the war. 
At the battle of the Wilderness, he was bre- 
vetted major, " for gallant and meritorious 
service." During the four years of his mili- 
tary career he was promoted five times, always 
for " gallant and meritorious military serv- 
ice " in the field. After the explosion of the 
mine at Petersburg, when General Grant went 
to the front on foot to order the withdrawal 
of the assaulting columns, he took with him 
only one aide-de-camp. Colonel Porter. To- 
gether they climbed over the obstructions, 
passed through the artillery fire of the enemy, 
and successfully executed this heroic act which 
they would not have asked of any private. On 
16 Aug., 1864, Colonel Porter was brevotted 
lieutenant-colonel of the U. S. army, and in 
February, 1865, he was made brigadier-general 
of volunteers. He was present with Grant at 
the capitulation of Lee at Appomattox Court 
House, and in recognition of his services was 
presented by General Grant with the head- 
quarters flag used on that occasion. On 13 
March, 1865, he was brevettod a brigadier- 
general of the U. S. army. At the close of the 
war General Porter remained with General 
Grant at headquarters at Washington. His 
relations with General Grant continued to be 



▼ery close, and on occaBiona when Grant was 
pr«8ent at receptions given in his honor, Gen- 
eral Porter always responded in behalf of hia 
old commander to the toasts and addresses 
made complimentary to him. On these occa- 
sions General Grant found a brilliant substi- 
tute in General Porter, whose eloquence and 
wit as an orator rank him among the great 
after-dinner speakers of the country, sUch as 
Joseph H. Choate, Chauncey M. Depew, James 
T. Brady. William M. Kvarts, Richard O'Gor- 
man. Ogden Ilotrman, and John Van Buren. 
Apropos of his ability as an orator is the 
following anoodole: " Ji>aeph II. Choate, in 
concluding one of his brilliant speeches at a 
dinner at which both General Porter and 
Chauncey M. IK^pew were present, extended to 
them a 'greeting that was warmly applauded: 
• I am sure,' he said, his face beaming with 
delight, * you would not allow me to quit this 
pleasing program if 1 did not felicitate you 
upon the presence of two other gentlemen with- 
out whom no banquet is ever complete. I 
mean, of course, General Porter and Mr. 
Depew. Their splendid efforts on a thousand 
fields like this have fairly won their golden 
spurs.' " At the close of Grant's first ad- 
ministration, in 1873, General Porter retired 
from active military life. He had been en- 
gaged in inspection of army posts from 1866; 
as Assistant Secretary of War, in 1868; and 
as private secretary charged with private busi- 
ness during Grant's term of office. General 
Porter later entered business life as vice- 
president of the Pullman Palace Car Company. 
Tliis connection brought him into contact with 
the promoters of the West Shore Railroad, and 
he became its first president, in 1883. He w^as 
also asstx'iated with a number of other, large 
ventures and was recognized as a pow^erful 
element in important financial operations. He 
became the first president of the New York, 
West Shore and Buflfalo Railroad Company; 
president of the St. Louis and San Francisco 
Railway Company; director in the Atlantic 
and Pacific Railway; Burlington, Cedar 
Rapids and Northern Railway; Oregon Rail- 
way and Navigation Company; Ontario and 
Western Railroad; Hannibal and St. Joseph 
Railroad; the U. S. Guarantee Company; 
Equital)le Life Assurance Company; Land 
and Improvement Company; and the Conti- 
nental National Bank. General Porter was 
not content to rest with his reputation as an 
army officer and a financier, but rendered im- 
portant public service in many ways. He 
personally collected the necessary funds, 
amounting to $600,000, for the erection of 
Grant's Tomb, in Riverside Drive, New York 
City. He spent $35,000 of his own money and 
the greater part of six years in France in 
locating and bringing to* the United States 
the body of John Paul Jones, receiving for his 
services, by unanimous vote, the thanks of 
Congress and the privilege of the floor of both 
Houses for life. The remarkable search which 
ultimately resulted in the finding of the body 
of John Paul Jones, not improperly considered 
the father of the U. S. Navy, was begun in 
June, 1890. The admiral had died in Paris, 
18 July, 1702, during the most turbulent days 
of the French Revolution, which may, in ' a 
measure, account for the little interest that 
was taken in the event on this side of the 

Atlantic. The place of his burial remained a 
mystery, not to be solved for more than 100 
years. The account of General Porter's long 
search reads like a modern detective novel. 
His first task was to find some record of the 
burial. This had undoubtedly been registered, 
but the register, which had been housed in an 
annex of the Hotel de Ville, was burned dur- 
ing the days of the Commune, in 1871. The 
elder Dumas, in his romance " The Pioneer," 
indicates that John Paul Jones was buried in 
the Per6 Lachaise Cemetery. An examination 
of the old register of this cemetery soon proved 
that this statement was really not more than 
it pretended to be — fiction. An examination 
of the registers of other cemeteries which had 
existed at the time of Paul Jones' death 
proved equally unavailing. The first promis- 
ing clew that presented itself was an article 
in an old antiquarian magazine, written by 
Charles Read, an archeologist, who quoted 
what he declared was a copy of the registra- 
tion of the burial which had been burned with . 
the Hotel de Ville. This stated that John 
Paul Jones had been buried in the cemetery 
for foreign Protestants. Mr. Read added his 
personal opinion that this must have been the 
Cemetery of St. Louis, since the word " the " 
would indicate only one such a cemetery, and 
the Dutch ambassador had requested the 
French government that the Cemetery of St. 
Louis be reserved for this purpose. An in- 
vestigation of all old records bearing even 
indirectly on this point finally convinced Gen- 
eral Porter that Mr. Read's opinion had been 
based on sound logic. But the Cemetery of 
St. Louis had been closed in 1793, within six 
months after John Paul Jones' burial there. 
The space it had once covered was now in a 
very unpleasant quarter of the city, one of the 
slums, in fact, on which stood a block of build- 
ings of inferior class, the neighborhood being 
known as " Le Combat," from having been 
formerly the scene of dog and cock fights. 
Old plans of that section of the city were 
next consulted and the ancient boundaries of 
the cemetery were defined with some accuracy. 
From letters written at the time of John Paul 
Jones' death to his sister, by a friend who 
was with him during his last moments, it was 
known that he had been buried in a lead cof- 
fin, at the expense of a French police official. 
Thus there was hope that there might remain 
some means to identifying the remains. Gen- 
eral Porter now proposed to tunnel the old 
site of the cemetery, under the houses. After 
a delay of two years, on account of the ex- 
orbitant prices demanded by the house owners, 
this work was finally begun, under the super- 
vision of M. Paul Weiss, a member of the 
Paris municipal engineers, assigned to the 
work by the mayor. Several shafts were sunk, 
then began the tunneling, back and forth. 
That there had been no mistake in the loca- 
tion was indicated by the heaps of bones that 
were unearthed. On 22 Feb., 1906, the work- 
men unearthed a lead coffin, the first of five 
that were discovered during the operations. 
The copper plate fastened to this coffin, how- 
ever, proved its occupant to have been one 
Richard Hay. The second lead coffin also 
contained unmistakable proofs that the end of 
the search was not yet. On 31 March, the 
third lead coffin was discovered. This bore 

VT^^AA^VU t> o^^^'^\^ 



no plate, or any other outer means of identi- 
fication. It was, therefore, removed from the 
tunnels and opened. A powerful smell of 
alcohol escaped through the first aperture that 
was made, and as the work proceeded it was 
obvious that the body had been preserved in 
spirits, a custom by no means uncommon in 
those days. Finally the body was entirely un- 
covered, except for the winding sheet. When 
this was removed from the features of the 
corpse, the crowd of spectators gasped, for not 
only were they in a wonderful state of preser- 
vation, but those present who were acquainted 
with the appearance of John Paul Jones, 
through portraits and busts, had no difficulty 
in recognizing him. All the tests that science 
was able to apply were now brought into 
requisition. An autopsy showed unmistakable 
signs of the disease from which John Paul 
Jones had died; not only that, the lungs still 
bore scars of pneumonia, and it was known 
that he had suffered from pneumonia while in 
the Russian service, and that he had been com- 
pelled to leave Russia on that account. On 
20 April, the body was carefully restored to 
its lead coffin, which was placed in a second 
and a larger lead coffin, then placed in the 
vaults of the American Church of the Holy 
Trinity, to await the disposition of the Ameri- 
can government. On receipt of the reports 
President Roosevelt immediately sent a battle- 
ship squadron to bring the body home, there 
to be interred in the crypt of the new chapel 
of the Naval Academy, at Annapolis. A 
French fleet welcomed the American squadron. 
With magnificent and impressive ceremonies, 
participated in by the French government, the 
body was brought aboard the American battle- 
ship, and so carried across the ocean under 
the flag which John Paul Jones had been the 
first to fly from the gaff of any warship. 
Included among the many historical occa- 
sions upon which General Porter has been 
orator was, the inauguration of the Washing- 
ton Arch, New York, 1895; dedication of 
Grant's Tomb, April, 1897; inauguration of the 
Rochambeau Statue, Washington, D. C, May, 
1902; centennial of the foundation of West 
Point Military Academy, June, 1902; inter- 
ment of the body of John Paul Jones at An- 
napolis, April, 1906; unveiling of the statue 
of General Sheridan, in Washington, D. C, 
November, 1909; memorial services in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., upon the death of General Sher- 
man; unveiling of the bust of General Han- 
cock; unveiling of the Grant Equestrian 
Statue in Brooklyn; and the laying of the 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorial at Pittsburgh, 
Pa., General Porter has held many positions 
of public trust. In 1892 he was delegate to the 
National Republican Nominating Convention, 
making the speech nominating Whitelaw Reid 
for vice-president. In November, 1897, Gen- 
eral Porter organized the " sound money " 
parade in New York City, and on this occasion 
marched at the head of a column of 135,000 
citizens. He also commanded the inaugural 
parade in Washington, D. C, on the occasion 
of McKinley's first inauguration. He was 
appointed U. S. ambassador to France in 1897; 
and served until 1905. For several years also 
he was honorary president of the American 
Chamber of Commerce in Paris. In 1901 the 
Sultan of Turkey bestowed upon him the 

"Gold Medal for Patriotism"; in 1904 the* 
French government conferred upon him 
the " Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor," the 
first time it was ever awarded to an American. 
While in Paris, General Porter delivered a 
number of notable orations in the French lan- 
guage. In 1907 he was appointed delegate, 
with the rank of ambassador, to the Second 
Hague Peace Conference, where he succeeded 
in having adopted by the nations the " Prop- 
osition Porter," which prohibited the collec- 
tion by force of arms of contract debts, claimed 
to be due from one government to the citizens 
of another government, and he compelled re- 
sort to peaceful arbitration. General Porter 
is a fluent writer, a lover of books, and an 
accomplished linguist. I^e is the author of 
" West Point Life " (1866) ; " Campaigning 
with Grant" (1898), and has contributed 
many articles of interest to the newspapers 
and periodicals of the country. He is a mem- 
ber of many prominent military and social 
organizations; is president of the Grant Monu- 
ment Association, Union League Club, Society of 
the Army of the Potomac, Association of West 
Point Graduates, U. S. Navy League, National 
Society of the Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion; vice-president of the International Law 
Association, and honorary member of the So- 
ciety of the Cincinnati; a member of the New 
York State Bar Association; New York Cham- 
ber of Commerce; Society of Foreign Wars; 
Literary Society of Princeton University; the 
Metropolitan, Century, University, Authors', 
Lotus, and other clubs; is commander of the 
George Washington Post of the G. A. R., and 
the Military Order of the Loyal Legion; and 
is a patron of the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art and the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York City. He has received the 
degree of LL.D. from Williams College, and 
from Union, Princeton, and Harvard Universi- 
ties. On 23 Dec, 1863, General Porter mar- 
ried Sophie K., daughter of John McHarg, of 
Albany, N. Y. They had three sons and one 
daughter, of whom two, Clarence and Elsie 
Porter, survive. 

FRICK, Henry Clay, b in West Overton, Pa , 
19 Dec, 1849, son of John Wilson and Eliza- 
beth (Overholt) Frick. His earliest American 
ancestor came from Switzerland in 1750, set- 
tling in western Pennsylvania. The line of 
descent is then traced through his son, George 
Frick, who established himself on a farm in 
that region; his son, Daniel Frick, b in 1796, 
who married Catherine Miller in 1819; and 
their son, John W. Frick, b. in 1822, who was 
the father of the subject of this review. His 
mother was of German ancestry, the daughter 
of Abraham Overholt, a landowner and a lead- 
ing miller and distiller in western Pennsyl- 
vania. Henry Clay Frick early gave evidence 
of the earnestness of purpose that distinguished 
his subsequent career. At the ago of ton he 
is found attending the district school and, dur- 
ing the summer holidays, gathering sheaves in 
the whoatfield and performing other light 
chores on the farm, thereby earning sufficient 
money to buy his clothes for the ensuing year. 
At the ago of fourteen he began his phe- 
nomenal business career as a clerk in a country 
store at Mount Pleasant, Pa., conducted by 
Overholt, Shallenborgor and Company. At 
nineteen, he left the store to become book- 



Jceeper in his grandfather Overholt's flouring- 
mill and distillery at Broad Ford, Pa., the 
center of the Connellsville coal district. A 
survey of Prick's activities in the coke in- 
dustry is necessarily a history of the Connells- 
ville region. He has been the leading spirit in 
its development, and he alone effected the con- 
solidation of the industry as it now stands. 
With a foresight unusual in one of his years, 
he was the first to recognize the importance to 
the expanding iron industries of this rich de- 
posit of coking coal; he built roads for trans- 
porting it, and m some centers Connellsville coke 
is known only as Frick coke. In 1871 young 
Frick, with Abraham O. Tintsman, one of his 
grandfather's partners, and Joseph Hist, organ- 
ized the firm of Frick and Company. They had 
three hundred acres of coal lands and fifty coke- 
ovens. At this time there were not four hun- 
dred ovens in the whole Connellsville section, 
covering an area of one hundred square miles. 
In the following year Frick and Company 
erected one hundred and fifty more ovens. He 
was one of the projectors of the Mount Pleas- 
ant and Broad Ford Railroad, built about that 
time. During the financial panic of 1873 he 
displayed a capacity for business that made 
him supreme in the coke industry: he pur- 
chased or leased all the works and lands offered 
by frightened competitors, including the in- 
terests of his partners, and, in 1876, became 
sole owner of Frick and Company. By 1882, 
when Frick admitted the Carnegies into his 
business, it had acquired, under his masterful 
administration, 1,026 ovens and 3,000 acres of 
coal land. The company was then reorganized 
with a capital of $2,000,000, and a year later 
this was increased to $3,000,000 to keep pace 
with the growth of the trade. In 1889 the 
capital was further increased to $5,000,000, 
and the H. C. Frick Coke Company owned and 
controlled 35,000 acres of coal land, nearly 
two-thirds of the 15,000 ovens in Connells- 
ville, three water plants with a pumping 
capacity of 5,000,000 gallons daily, thirty-live 
miles of railroad track, 1,200 coke-cars, and 
gave employment to 11,000 men, and its ship- 
ments of coal and coke amounted to 1,100 car- 
loads a day. In 1895, when the capital of the 
H. C. Frick Coke Company was further in- 
creased to $10,000,000, it owned 11,786 ovens 
and 40,000 acres of Connellsville coal lands, with 
a capacity of 25.000 tons of coke a day — 80 per 
cent, of the entire production of the Connells- 
ville region. A little later its monthly out- 
put amounted to 1,000,000 tons, and the seem- 
ing miles of ovens, heaps of coal awaiting con- 
version, and the armies of workmen, were 
classed among the industrial wonders of 
Pennsylvania. By acquiring the interest of 
David A. Stewart, in 1889, Frick became sec- 
ond largest stockholder in Carnegie Bros, and 
Company, Ltd., was elected its chairman, be- 
came director in Carnegie. Phipps and Com- 
pany, and resumed the presidency of the H. C. 
Frick Coke Company, which he had previously 
resigned. As chairman of Carnegie Bros, and 
Company, Ltd., he immediately achieved the 
signal victory of the many Carnegie successes. 
Alert to the advantages to be derived from the 
acquisition of a rival organization, the 
Duquesne Steel Works, he succeeded by the 
most skillful financiering and management in 
absorbing this formidable competitor without 

the outlay of a single dollar. Bought with 
nothing but a bond issue of $1,000,000, the 
plant paid for itself within one year. It soon 
became the most modern and best equipped 
steel works in the country ; and its labor-saving 
appliances cut the cost of labor per ton of iron 
produced to one-half that prevailing elsewhere. 
In 1892 all the Carnegie interests, except coke, 
were consolidated into the Carnegie Steel Com- 
pany, Ltd., and Frick was elected its chair- 
man. His plans of unification, long maturing 
in his mind, were now to be realized. They 
not only involved the concentration of the 
corporate strength of the company, but the 
assembling of the many scattered establish- 
ments into a perfect industrial unit. This he 
effected by building the Union Railway — a 
masterly conception; for, besides enabling the 
company to regain possession of its own yards 
— hitherto preempted by the railroad com- 
panies — it united the widely separated works 
and connected them with every important rail- ^ 
way in western Pennsylvania. As iron ore 
was now the only raw material purchased of 
outsiders, the acquiring of ore-fields next en- 
gaged his attention; and the Carnegie Com- 
pany, by Frick's initiative and promptitude in 
securing one-half interest in the Oliver Mining 
Company, obtained a supply of high-grade 
Bessemer ore for its furnaces by the com- 
paratively trivial arrangement of a $500,000 
loan, secured by a mortgage on the properties, 
to be spent in development work. According to 
"The Inside History of the Carnegie Steel 
Company," a publication containing the most 
comprehensive statement of facts and figures 
upon the subject, this transaction met with 
the opposition of Carnegie, who prophesied its 
failure, not only in his letters from abroad, 
but also on his return from Europe, when he 
expressed himself so vigorously in condemna- 
tion of it that there ensued the first coolness 
between himself and Frick. Notwithstanding 
the successful working of the arrangement, 
Carnegie continued to place himself on record, 
with increasing emphasis, as opposed to the 
venture. It resulted, however, in a triumph 
for Frick; for the control of these great ore 
holdings gave the Carnegie Steel Company its 
impregnable position in the iron industry of 
the country. In 1896, when Oliver and Frick 
made a mining and transportation arrange- 
ment with the Rockefellers, these ore ven- 
tures resulted in a visible saving of $27,000,- 
000;, and upon the organization of the United 
States Steel Corporation the value of the Car- 
negie-Oliver Company's mines, according to the 
estimate of Mr. Schwab, w^as upwards of 
$500,000,000. Having thus provided an un- 
failing supply of ore at the mere cost of 
mining, Mr. Frick next became interested in 
perfecting plans for its economical transporta- 
tion to the furnaces. Negotiations were ac- 
cordingly opened for the acquisition of the 
Pittsburgh, Chenango and Lake Erie Railroad 
— " little more than a right-of-way and two 
streaks of rust," but with valuable terminal 
facilities at Conneaut Harbor, These resulted 
favorably; and by a number of constructive 
and engineering triumphs, including a steel 
bridge across the Allegheny River tw^o-thirds 
of a mile long, its forty-two miles of road, 
now to be known as the Pittsburgh, Bessemer 
and Lake Erie Railroad, was rebuilt. In 



October, 1897, fifteen months after letting the 
first contract, ore trains consisting of thirty- 
five steel cars, each carrying 100,000 pounds, 
were running from the company's docks at Lake 
Erie over the company's ovi^n line to Bessemer. 
There they were distributed over the company's 
Union Railroad to the blast-furnaces at Brad- 
dock, Duquesne, and Pittsburgh. This great 
development likewise had cost nothing beyond 
an issue of bonds, made gilt-edged by the volume 
of traffic furnished by the Carnegie Steel Com- 
pany itself. The only gap that now remained 
in Frick's plans of unification was on the 
Great Lakes; and to fill it the company bought 
a fleet of six steamers, of 3,000 tons capacity 
each, which it operated under the title of the 
Pittsburgh Steamship Company. Thus, did 
Frick accomplish the immense task of uniting 
the varied and often conflicting Carnegie in- 
terests. He had assembled the disorganized 
parts into a complete industrial unit that now 
owned its own mines, dug its own ore with 
machines of amazing power, loaded it into its 
own steamers, landed it at its own ports, trans- 
ported it on its own railroads, distributed it 
among its many blast-furnaces, and smelted it 
with coke brought from its own coal mines and 
ovens and with limestone brought from its own 
quarries. From the moment the crude ore was 
dug from the earth until its final distribution 
as finished steel there was never a profit or 
royalty paid to an outsider. About this time 
Mr. Frick appointed a committee to report on 
a project he had formed for building a tube- 
works at Conneaut, the Lake Erie terminal of 
the Bessemer Railroad. Mr. Clemson, its 
chairman, after investigation, also favored 
the tube-works, but action was deferred be- 
cause of a contemplated sale of the steel com- 
pany to the Moore syndicate. Of course it was 
originally a simple business plan to build 
blast-furnaces and a tube-works at Conneaut 
that would call for Pittsburgh coal and coke 
and avoid the hauling of empty cars to the 
lake; but Carnegie, who as 6arly as 1889 had 
been desirous of selling his interest, revived 
this project in 1899, and utilized it to force 
the purchase of the Carnegie Company by the 
United States Steel Corporation. Summariz- 
ing results, Frick, during his tenure of office, 
increased the annual earning power of the 
Carnegie works from $1,941,555 to $40,000,- 
000, and their annual production of steel from 
332,111 tons to 3,000,000 tons. Wide publicity 
was given this achievement on the occasion of 
the equity suit arising out of the threatened 
confiscation of a large share of Mr. Frick's in- 
terest in the Carnegie Steel Company, and the 
public, amazed at the high degree of efficiency 
attained, accordingly recognized him as the 
world's industrial monarch. Upon Mr. Frick's 
assumption of the office of chairman of the 
Carnegie Steel Company on 1 July, 1892, there 
began the fiercest labor battle ever waged — 
the Homestead Strike. Seven strikes in one or 
other of the Carnegie works had preceded this 
one, all accompanied by the customary im- 
portation of labor or the employment of non- 
union men, the engagement of Pinkerton de- 
tectives and the usual disorder and violence. 
Since 1886, however, labor conditions had be- 
come greatly intensified. Carnegie's series of 
lectures and essays glorifying the toiler were 
given full publicity throughout the country; 

and a liberal distribution of them by the labor 
leaders among the workmen rendered dissen- 
sion comparatively easy. That he had fur- 
nished the labor leaders with a powerful argu- 
inent Carnegie himself learned when he en- 
leavored to settle a strike at the Edgar 
Thomson Mill in 1888. Regarding this, we 
quote from " The Inside History of the Car- 
negie Steel Company " : " The usual strike re- 
sulted; but before it had gone far a committee 
of the strikers went to see Mr. Carnegie at 
the Windsor Hotel, New York. There he rea- 
soned with them, and talked them into a con- 
ciliatory frame of mind; and they agreed to 
sign the contract he put before them. The 
affair seemed to have reached a happy conclu- 
sion; and the labor leaders left for Pittsburgh 
in the best of spirits. As Mr. Carnegie bade 
them good-bye, he pressed into the hands of 
each a copy of his ' Foriun ' essay. This the 
men read on the train; and on their arrival 
at Braddock they promptly repudiated the 
agreement they had signed and continued the 
strike." Carnegie, chagrined at the complica- 
tions occasioned by the literal interpretation 
of his theories and unable to consider them 
free from the bias of self-interest, had Pinker- 
ton guards engaged to protect the non-union 
workmen; and after a five-months' strike, 
accompanied by disorder and loss of life, the 
company won the contest in May, 1888. Dur- 
ing the conflict Carnegie was in retirement in 
Atlantic City, where he was kept informed of 
its developments by his cousin, George Lauder. 
The cause of the Homestead Strike of 1892, 
which took on a militant aspect with opposing 
armed forces, pitched battles, sieges, night- 
surprises, and sharpshooting, was compara- 
tively insignificant in itself, but in its impli- 
cations was all-important. It involved the 
right of the Carnegie Company to conduct its 
own business, and grew out of the unfortunate 
settlement of a dispute at the same works in 
1889 — three years before Frick was in full con- 
trol. The agreement then entered into, which 
expired in 1892, was productive of most irk- 
some conditions. It not only detracted from 
the efficiency of the business by permitting the 
interference of the unions in many details of 
operation, but based the wages of a small num- 
ber of the men on tonnage-output, which had 
since been so enormously increased by the in- 
troduction of new machinery and the adoption 
of improved methods that the " tonnage-men," 
as they were called, were receiving twice as 
much in wages as they themselves expected to 
get under the agreement, and which were far in 
excess of what competing manufacturers were 
paying for the same work. This prosperity 
enabled the tonnage-men to acquire great power 
in the labor organizations; and at their in- 
stigation the labor leaders refused to ratify 
a new agreement in which was reduced this 
excessive compensation of tonnage-men. Not- 
withstanding Carnegie's aversion to any con- 
ference with the workmen — as expressed in his 
letter from Europe, 10 June, 1892, when he 
said : " Of course, you will be asked to con- 
fer, and I know you will decline all confer- 
ences," and another, 17 June, in which he 
emphasized his uncompromising attitude to- 
ward the labor-union, saying: "Perhaps if 
Homestead men understand that non-accept- 
ance means non-union forever, they will ac- 



cept " — Frick cherished the hope of an amicable 
adjustment of the dispute, and conferred for 
six hours with a large committee of the work- 
men on 23 June. It resulted in an important 
concession to the men on one of the points at 
variance, but neither side would yield on 
other matters involved. In view of the defiant 
attitude of the labor leaders, Mr. Frick, with 
equal determination, proceeded in accordance 
with the plans formulated by Carnegie in his 
notice of 4 April, 1892, before he left for 
Europe. At that time Mr. Carnegie said: 
•* These works, therefore, will be necessarily 
Non-Union after the expiration of the present 
agreement." Then the strike began and, not- 
withstanding the fact that out of over 3,800 
men the wages of only 325 were affected, it 
soon involved not only the tonnage-men, but all 
other workers in the mill. The contest was 
characterized by great violence on the part of 
the workmen and a steadfast adherence to his 
own policy by Mr. Frick. The strikers formed a 
military organization, deposed the municipal 
authorities, and sent threatening letters to the 
company's officials, who, upon the failure of the 
sheriff to protect their property, attempted to 
land 300 watchmen from two barges. These 
being attacked with rifle shot and cannon, 
there resulted a serious loss of life on both 
sides. However, in extenuation of the hostility 
of the strikers — we quote from " The Romance 
of Steel " : " The workmen had a conviction, 
almost a religious belief, that no outsiders had 
a right to come in and take their places dur- 
ing a strike. Andrew Carnegie himself a few 
years before had said: 'There is an unwritten 
law among the best workmen. Thou shalt not 
take thy neighbor's job.' " To Carnegie's be- 
nevolent theories the workmen evidently at- 
tributed the happy condition of affairs dur- 
ing the existence of the old agreement; al- 
though as the time approached for its revision 
he made elaborate preparations to avoid a 
repetition of the former blunder. He was also 
in full accord with the manner in which the 
strike was being conducted, having cabled 
Whitelaw Reid, who was endeavoring to bring 
about a settlement of the affair, that no com- 
promise would be considered by him, and that 
he would rather see grass growing over the 
Homestead works than advise Mr. Frick to 
yield to the strikers. During all these exciting 
happenings at Homestead Mr. Carnegie, in 
order to elude the appeals of the workmen 
which it was foreseen his speeches and writ- 
ings would call forth, was in seclusion at Ran- 
noch Lodge, in Scotland, in accordance with 
plans made by him long before. In a cable- 
gram to Mr. Frick, he said: ". . . Use your 
own discretion about terms and starting. 
George Lauder, Henry Phipps, Andrew Car- 
negie solid. H. C. Frick forever! " But the 
workmen seemed to believe that Mr. Frick was 
preventing the adoption of the Carnegie ideal- 
ism. Much comment was provoked by Mr. 
Carnegie's inconsistency. The " St. James 
Gazette " reported that " Mr. Carnegie has 
preserved the same moody silence toward the 
members of the American Legation here; and 
all other persons in London with whom he is 
usually in communication have not heard a 
word from him since the beginning of the 
troubles at Homestead. . . . The news, of the 
shooting of Mr. Frick has intensified the feel- 

ing of all classes against Mr. Carnegie." The 
" London Times " said : " The avowed cham- 
pion of trade-unions now finds himself in al- 
most ruinous conflict with the representatives 
of his own views. He has probably by this 
time seen cause to modify his praises of 
unionism and the sweet reasonableness of its 
leaders." Shortly after, a writer in the St. 
Louis " Post-Dispatch " wrote : " Say what 
you will of Frick, he is a brave man. Say what 
you will of Carnegie, he is a coward. And 
gods and men hate cowards." Incidentally, to 
this strike was attributed the defeat of Presi- 
dent Harrison for re-election; and Senator 
Depew said : " . . . The Republican leaders at- 
tempted early in the campaign to have the 
strike settled and cabled to Mr. Carnegie direct 
without consulting Mr. Frick." In both the 
reports of the Committee of Investigation of 
the House of Representatives and of the Sen- 
ate Committee, appointed to investigate the 
strike, there appeared quotations by the work- 
men of Carnegie's terse commandment to illus- 
trate the course which Mr. Frick ought to have 
followed in his treatment of them. Thus ap- 
pears the testimony of T. V. Powderly, gen- 
eral master workman of the Knights of Labor: 
"Does your organization countenance the pre- 
vention of non-union men taking the place of 
striking or locked-out men ? " Powderly's preg- 
nant reply was : " We agree with Andrew 
Carnegie, * Thou shalt not take thy neighbor's 
job.' " On 23 July, 1892, a Russian anarchist 
gained access to Mr. Frick's office, shot him 
twice and stabbed him repeatedly. With a 
magnificent display of courage, he struggled 
to his feet and helped Mr. Leishman to subdue 
the fanatic, whom Mr. Frick later saved from 
the summary punishment of a deputy sheriff 
who rushed in and seemed about to shoot him. 
"No, don't kill him," said Mr. Frick; "raise 
his head and let me see his face." Although 
in a critical condition himself, — the doctors 
at first expressed little hope of his recovery, — 
Mr. Frick's chief concern was for his wife, 
who was seriously ill. While the doctors 
were operating upon him, Mr. Frick, with 
remarkable fortitude, completed several ur- 
gent business matters, including a cable- 
gram to Mr. Carnegie stating that he was 
not mortally injured. Convinced of the fair- 
ness of the company's position in the strike 
— and subsequent events prove him to have 
been right — Mr. Frick did not permit this 
culmination of unbounded fury to influence 
his policy. Propped up in bed and swathed 
in bandages, he conducted the affairs of the 
strike until thirteen days later, when he un- 
ceremoniously returned to his office, having, the 
previous day, attended the funeral of his 
youngest child, born during the excitement. 
Despite the great efforts by which politicians 
and others sought to divert him from his 
course, Mr. Frick, with decency and firmness, 
kept steadily on and finally won the fight. 
When the troops were called out to quell the 
open reign of terror at Homestead, the Car- 
negie officials were put in possession of their 
property and the men returned to work. After 
less than a year's trial of the new scale of 
wages the men admitted the fairness of Frick's 
adjustment of the difficulties, and strikes and 
disagreements ceased. Having inherited a ter- 
rific labor conflict upon assuming the chail- 




manship of the Carnegie Steel Company, an 
equally tempestuous situation threatened him 
upon his retirement, seven years later; and 
again there was no hesitation and no compro- 
mise. The trouble arose from certain diflfer- 
ences between himself and Carnegie, which 
gradually widened into personal antipathy. 
From what can be learned from the many pub- 
jiications upon the subject, it was due to the 
cumulative effect of their disagreements upon 
several questions, such as Frick's ore venture; 
the price the steel company should pay for coke ; 
Carnegie's chagrin at the failure to complete 
the sale of the business to the Moore Syndicate, 
and the company's contemplated purchase of 
land from Frick. Carnegie's insinuation 
concerning the profit Frick might have made 
from this last was the culminating factor in 
the clash. The company wanted to purchase 
this land, and Frick offered it at $500 an acre 
less than its appraised value; but upon learn- 
ing of Carnegie's criticisms, he withdrew his 
offer, and later sold it elsewhere for half a 
million dollars more than he had asked the 
Carnegie Steel Company. Mr. Frick indig- 
nantly resented this insinuation by an arraign- 
ment of Mr. Carnegie which he made official in 
an open minute, spread upon the records of the 
Carnegie Steel Company. To this Carnegie did 
not reply until the Board of Managers ap- 
proved the minutes at their next meeting. 
He then called the Board of Managers together 
and demanded that they request Mr. Frick's 
resignation. The junior partners were reluc- 
tant to comply, but by his power of majority 
Interest in the company Carnegie silenced all 
opposition; and Mr. Frick, in the interest of 
harmony, tendered his resignation. Messrs. 
Henry Phipps and Schwab tried to bring 
about a reconciliation, but failed; and Schwab, 
in a letter to I'rick, wrote : " . . . Under these 
circumstances there is nothing left for us to 
do but obey, although the situation the board 
is thus placed in is most embarrassing. . . ." 
Schwab had admitted his obligations to 
Frick, and frankly attributed his success to 
him. " If I have anything of value in me," 
he wrote, Mr. Frick's " method of treatment 
will bring it out to its full extent " ; and he 
" regarded with more satisfaction than any- 
thing else in life — even fortune — the conscious- 
ness of having won " Mr.. Frick's " friendship 
and regard." Having accomplished Frick's ex- 
pulsion from the chairmanship, Carnegie ap- 
parently seemed satisfied; but a month later 
he returned to the attack with an elaborate 
scheme which he had meditated for the com- 
plete " ejecture " of Frick. He called a meet- 
ing of the managers and urged them to go 
through the ritual he had prepared. This con- 
templated the forcible seizure of Frick's in- 
terest at book values, the inadequacy of which 
is shown by the fact that in the case of the 
Upper Union Mills, it was $91,857 less than 
the net profits actually made in the previous 
year; and the discrepancies in the value of the 
other works were almost as great. At this 
juncture Frick, desiring a peaceful solution, 
offered to sell his interests to Carnegie at a 
price to be fixed by arbitrators, or to purchase 
Carnegie's on the same terms. Carnegie, how- 
ever, declined to consider either offer, but pro- 
ceeded to effect Frick's " ejecture " and compel 
him to sell his interest in the Carnegie Com- 

pany at $11,000,000 less than its value, to be 
paid in such small installments during a term 
of years of such duration, as would enable its 
being paid out of the profits earned by Frick's 
interest. In an effort to make this scheme 
effective, a minute on the books of the Carnegie 
Steel Company was expunged, to revive an 
agreement made thirteen years before by the 
members of an entirely different corporation 
— namely, Carnegie Bros, and Company. An 
attempt was then made to graft onto this Car- 
negie Bros.' agreement a " supplemental iron- 
clad " of the Carnegie Steel Company, eight 
years old, which had never been signed by the 
principal owners. To make this double-decked 
instrument applicable there were now added the 
signatures of Carnegie himself and of some 
members who had no connection with the enter- 
prise at the time the agreement was signed 
by Frick. It was on these proceedings that 
was based the greatest lawsuit ever commenced 
in the State of Pennsylvania. Henry Phipps 
and Henry M. Curry refused to sign the de- 
mand, and Phipps joined Frick in protesting 
against the action of the board; but of the 
many debtor partners, only one, F. T. F. 
Lovejoy, was bold enough to counsel re- 
sistance to Carnegie's wishes. He simply 
signed it in his official capacity, and filed a 
separate answer in the equity suit questioning 
the validity of his colleagues' act. The stu- 
pendous profits and amazing exhibition of 
industrial efficiency revealed by Frick's bill of 
equity attracted universal attention, and the 
promised disclosures were awaited with the 
greatest expectancy by legislators and pub- 
licists. These disclosures, however, were never 
made, for negotiations were at once entered 
into to stop the litigation; and five days after 
Carnegie's answer had been filed to Frick's 
citation, a settlement was effected by which 
Frick received more than $31,000,000 in 
securities which later yielded him $23,000,000 
more than Carnegie tried to force him to sell 
for. Thus ended the second of the two most 
sensational conflicts in industrial history. Al- 
though possessed of a business acumen and 
mental alertness that made him transcendent 
in the business world and extorted wonder 
from his opponents and admiration from his 
associates, Mr. Frick's conceptions of right and 
wrong never permitted him to take advantage 
of another's mistake. His sympathies are 
broad and easily stirred, but his modesty 
causes him to conceal his frequent benefac- 
tions. Society functions do not appeal to him; 
his tastes are simple and his domestic life 
exemplary. He is without pretense of any 
sort; living his natural life as a quiet, un- 
assuming gentleman. His extensive interests 
at present (1017) fully occupy his attention. 
In 1901 he built the largest office building in 
Pittsburgh, the Frick Building, and later added 
to it the Frick Building Annex. In 1916 he 
built the still more beautiful Union Arcade 
Building, covering an area of 230 by 240 feet. 
Aside from being the largest owner of real 
estate in Pittsburgh, and constantly adding 
to his holdings, he is director in many impor- 
tant corporations, including the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company; Chicago and Northwoslorn 
Railway; Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fo Rail- 
way; Norfolk and Western Railway Company; 
United States Steel Corporation; the Mellon 




National Bank, and the Union Trust Company 
of Pittsburgh. Mr. Frick is a member of many 
clubs, among them the Union League, Metro- 
politan. National Arts, New York Yacht, Co- 
rinthian Yacht, Racquet and Tennis, City, 
Midday, Riding, Country, the Automobile 
Club of America, and the Union Club of Pitts- 
burgh. He married, in Pittsburgh, Pa., on 15 
Dec, 1881, Adelaide Howard Childs, daughter 
of Asa P. Childs, of Pittsburgh. They were 
the parents of four children, of whom one son, 
Childs, and one daughter, Helen Clay Frick, 
survive. His handsome home at Seventieth 
Street and Fifth Avenue, New York, was given 
over to Marshal Joffre, ex-Premier M. Viviani, 
and the other members of the French W&r 
Mission during their visit to the United 
States, incident to this country's entry into 
the European War. The dinner in honor of 
the Commission, a private affair at which a 
number of prominent men participated, was 
an historic event. "The World" (N. Y.) 
characterized it : " As distinguished a gather- 
ing as ever sat down at one table in this 
city." Although it included many noted 
orators, no speeches were made, but at the 
close of the dinner Mr. Frick, who presided, 
proposed a toast " To France and our 
Guests." M. Viviani, of the French Com- 
mission, responded with a toast: "To the 
United States and our Host." Then Colonel 
Roosevelt proposed the third and last toast: 
"To the Presidents of the United States and 
France." Mr. Frick's home is destined to be 
regarded as one of the city's landmarks. It 
is designed to become a public museum, and 
arrangements have been made to present it and 
its magnificent contents, including one of the 
world's notable collections of paintings, to the 
city of New York after the death of Mr. and 
Mrs. Frick — an appropriate monument lo the 
magnanimous character of both. See "The 
Inside History of the Carnegie Steel Com- 
pany," by James Howard Bridge ; " The Ro- 
mance of Steel," by Herbert L. Casson. 

MORGAN, John Pierpont, banker and finan- 
cier, b. in Hartford, Conn., 17 April, 1837; 
d. in Rome, Italy, 31 March, 1913, son of 
Junius Spencer and Juliet (Pierpont) Mor- 
gan. His father (1813-00) w-as a native of 
West Springfield, Mass., and a descendant of 
Capt. Miles Morgan, a Welshman, who emi- 
grated to New England in 1636 as one of the 
company which founded Springfield, Mass. 
He and his immediate descendants fought the 
Indians and later the British, always figuring 
actively in the development of the new coun- 
try, which is now the United States. Junius 
S. Morgan was a man of energy and splendid 
business ability. He was at one time an asso- 
ciate of George Peabody, establishing a suc- 
cessful banking-house in London. His wife, 
the mother of the banker, was the daughter of 
Rev. John Pierpont, a noted clergyman, poet, 
and temperance worker. The first fourteen 
years of the life of J. Pierpont Morgan were 
spent in his native city. For a short period 
he attended a country school, but in 1851 the 
family removed to Boston, and the son became 
a student in the English high school. His 
mind inclined strongly toward the scholar's 
life, his special forte being mathematics. He 
completed the course at the Boston school at 
the age of seventeen, and for two years con- 

tinued his studies at the University of Got 
tingen, Germany. Here he heard lectures 
history and political economy, and won dc 
cided distinction by his mathematical work.1 
Before he left this historic institution he re-1 
ceived the offer of a professorship. But he felt 
the call of his father's business in his blood, 
and returned home. At the age of twenty J. 
Pierpont Morgan began his career as a banker, 
entering the house of Duncan, Sherman and 
Company of New York City. In 1860, when 
twenty-three years of age, he was appointed 
the American agent for George Peabody and 
Company of London. Experience with the 
risks and responsibilities of great business 
transactions then became familiar to him. Af- 
ter four years he organized the firm of Dabney, 
Morgan and Company. In 1871 he entered a 
business relationship with the Drexels of Phil- 
adelphia. The elder Morgan died in 1890, 
leaving his London house and connections all 
over the world to his son. In 1895 Drexel, 
Morgan and Company became J. P. Morgan 
and Company, and all the vast financial inter- 
ests were then under the sole dictatorship of 
J. Pierpont Morgan. In 1901 the house of 
Morgan was commonly reported to represent 
$1,100,000,000, if not more. Its creator was 
regarded as a Midas whose touch turned every-- 
thing into gold. Few persons possess a clear 
idea of the Morgan firm and its operations. 
Frequently Mr. Morgan was compared with 
speculators, railroad men, and real estate own- 
ers. He was none of these. He was primarily 
a banker, and, as such, acted as an agent for 
wealthy clients in the investment of money. 
Some people would call him a practical rail- 
road man, a steel manufacturer, a coal opera- 
tor, because he was interested in such things 
and dealt in them. But Mr. Morgan was 
essentially a worker with money — a master of 
finance. While his business was a partner- 
ship, and not a corporation, he was its domi- 
nant factor. No man had greater influence in 
financial and industrial circles, nor was any 
individual more trusted. He has been called 
the statesman of the business world — a builder 
of a gigantic industrial empire. He was a 
director in numerous railroad companies, in- 
cluding the New York Central and Lake 
Shore systems. The foremost railroad system 
of the Southern States, with over 8,000 miles 
of track, was veritably his creation. Only 
within recent years his power in the so-called 
" coal roads " of Pennsylvania was exhibited 
during the miners' strike. Mr. Morgan was 
also a director in the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company, the Pullman Palace Car Com- 
pany, the ^^tna Fire Insurance Company, and 
the General Electric Company. Reorganizing 
and reconstructing bankrupt corporations has 
been such a marked feature of Mr. Morgan's 
career that the process in Wall Street has be- 
come known as re-Morganizing. On 12 Dec, 
1900, Charles M. Schwab delivered an address 
on the steel and iron industry of America, at 
a dinner at the University Club, which Mr. 
Morgan attended. He was much impressed 
with Mr. Schwab's address, and at once con- 
ceived the idea of a gigantic combination of 
steel interests, and the result was the organi- 
zation of the biggest corporation on earth. 
The swiftness with which he accomplished this 
financial masterpiece astonished the world. In 


C^^ri^Af,a! i^ /'meA Bram 


/--.v /■>. ^^' '*^'''- '-■ ■ '■ -•'■■■'• ■''^•' 



three months he had overcome all obstacles, 
and in the spring of 1901 formed the United 
States Steel Corporation. It was capitalized 
at $1,404,000,000, and consolidated ten of the 
largest steel corporations in America. This 
immense achievement attracted the attention 
of both hemispheres, and J. Pierpont Morgan 
loomed up as the most notable financier and 
organizer that modern business had produced. 
The United States Steel Corporation owns as 
much land as is contained in the States of 
Massachusetts, Vermont, and Rhode Island; it 
employs 180,000 workmen, with a pay roll of 
nearly $128,000,000 yearly; it owns and op- 
erates a railroad trackage that would reach 
from New York to Galveston, possessing 30,000 
cars and 700 locomotives; it has 19 ports 
and owns a fleet of 100 large ore-ships; it pro- 
duces one-sixth of all the iron ore in the 
world, and makes more steel than either Great 
Britain or Germany. Soon after the success- 
ful launching of this enormous corporation, 
Mr. Morgan went to England and purchased 
one of the largest English steamship com- 
panies, the Leyland line. His movements were 
regarded with intense interest by Lombard and 
Wall Streets. The ultimate result was the 
organization of the International Mercantile 
Marine, controlling several of the most im- 
portant American and foreign steamship lines 
plying between American and European ports. 
Both England and Germany owe much of their 
latter-day growth to iron and steel manufac- 
ture, and Mr. Morgan represented the formida- 
ble arch-ironmaster, contracting the greatest 
and cheapest supply. J. Pierpont Morgan was 
first of all a creator, and not a destroyer, in 
spite of adverse criticism. He sought to con- 
serve force and economize time and expense. 
Very often he has come to the aid of Wall 
Street in times of panic, and acted the part 
of financial balance-wheel. Furthermore, Mr. 
Morgan again and again relieved the United 
States government of serious fiscal stress. 
Drexel, Morgan and Company were chiefly re- 
sponsible in 1876 for placing this country on a 
gold basis after the fearful expenditure occa- 
sioned by the Civil War. Two years after the 
panic of 1893, when gold was flowing out of 
the country, Mr.- Morgan, together with other 
bankers, agreed to buy government bonds, pay- 
ing in gold. At that time President Cleve- 
land and the Senate were at odds, and there 
was a prospect of the country's financial sys- 
tem being changed to a silver basis. Mr. Mor- 
gan went to Washington, called on President 
Cleveland, and off'ered to sell the government 
$100,000,000 in gold. Within half an hour a 
contract was drawn up whereby the U. S. 
treasury obtained $60,000,000 in gold through 
a foreign syndicate, and, what threatened to be 
the greatest financial panic the world had 
ever witnessed, was in this way averted. Be- 
cause large pay was exacted for their services 
public prints unjustly poured forth torrents 
of abuse on Mr. Morgan and his associates. 
Until 1899 London had been the world's money 
center. In that year J. P. Morgan and Com- 
pany led in a most significant departure in 
finance. Up to that time the United States 
had been borrower, not a lender. Now, in 
1899, the Morgan firm financed the first for- 
eign loan ever negotiated in this country. 
Supported by its connection abroad the Mexi- 1 

can national debt of $110,000,000 was con- 
verted. Great Britain was supplied with 
war money by the Morgan firm in 1900. Since 
that time it has taken a prominent part in 
several other foreign loans. In 1903 Mr. Mor- 
gan acted as fiscal agent for the U. S. gov- 
ernment in the purchase of the stock of the 
French Panama Canal Company, a $40,000,000 
transaction in which he did not derive one 
cent of profit. During the "panic" of 1907, 
when the question of closing the N. Y. Stock 
Exchange was under advisement, he secured 
$25,000,000 which he passed out to loan- 
seekers at 6 per cent., thus alleviating the 
general depression. Business did not consume 
all of Mr. Morgan's time or energy. Doubt- 
less his first passion, outside of work, was the 
collecting of rare books and manuscripts, as 
well as other works of art. He possessed 
many famous canvases. Rare china, especially 
Limoges ware, was one of his leading hobbies. 
Hardly a day passed that he did not buy some 
art object worth a prince's ransom. His pri- 
vate library was a bibliophile's paradise. It 
contained a notable array of old Caxton edi- 
tions among others, and original manuscripts 
from all parts of the world. It is estimated 
that his art treasures represented an expendi- 
ture of nearly $50,000,000. Mr. Morgan was 
extremely liberal in donating art collections 
to public institutions. Cooper Union has on 
display a collection of fabrics which he gath- 
ered. Both the Metropolitan Museum of Art 
and the American Museum of Natural History 
possess rare gifts from him: the former a 
priceless cabinet of Greek coins and Egyptian 
scarabs, rare engravings, also a porcelain col- 
lection valued at $500,000; the latter has on 
exhibition the collection of Tiffany gems worth 
a million dollars. It was largely due to the 
efforts of Mr. Morgan that Sir Caspar Purdon 
Clarke came to the United States and accepted 
the office of director of the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art. Not long before his death Mr. 
Morgan had a curious experience in his search 
for art objects. Unwittingly he purchased a 
precious cope, once the property of Pope 
Nicholas IV that had been stolen from the 
cathedral at Ascoli in 1902. Upon learning 
the state of affairs he returned the cope at 
once to Italy. In recognition of this act King 
Victor Emmanuel conferred upon him the 
Grand Cordon of Saints Mauritius and 
Lazarus, which made Mr. Morgan " a cousin 
of his majesty." Pope Pius X gave him audi- 
ence, and later the Italian Academy of Twenty- 
four Immortals presented him with a medal 
commemorating his generous act. After his 
death the objects of art left by him were pub- 
licly exhibited for the first time in the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, in New York City. 
Later, many of his collections were sold to 
wealthy purchasers. Though a member of 
many clubs, Mr. Morgan had little time to be 
a club man in the ordinary sense of the word. 
He was, however, an active member of the New 
England Society and an active church worker. 
As senior warden of St. George's Church in 
Stuyvesant Square, he took especial interest 
in the boys there. His chief concern was to 
keep them off the streets and have them taught 
useful trades. Two of his best known philan- 
thropies have been the establishment of the 
New York Trade School, at the cost of over 




$500,000, and a similar but smaller trade 
school for the boys of St. George's Church. 
Mr. Morgan may be ranked among the world's 
great givers. His charitable work was ex- 
tensive. Hia yearly donations easily amounted 
to $1,000,000. Among other gifts Mr. Mor- 
gan gave Harvard University $1,000,000 for a 
medical school ; for a lying-in hospital near 
Stuyvesant Square, New York, $1,350,000; 
toward completing St. John's Cathedral, $500,- 
000; to the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, $100,000; to the Loomis Hospital for 
Consumptives, $200,000; for a library at his 
father's birthplace, Holyoke, Mass., $100,000; 
for the preservation of the Hudson River Pali- 
sades, $125,000; for a new parish house for St. 
George's Church, $350,000; for a department 
of natural history at Trinity College, Hart- 
ford, $70,000. Mr. Morgan was a large con- 
tributor to the Queen Victoria memorial fund 
and to the Galveston relief fund. He installed 
a complete electric plant in St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral in London, and built a hospital at Aix-les- 
Bains in France. Many of his private chari- 
ties were unknown, even to his closest friends. 
On 7 Jan., 1913, three weeks after he had 
testified before the Pujo committee investigat- 
ing the so-called " Money Trust," Mr. Morgan 
sailed from New York for Egypt. He had been 
complaining for some time that he was far 
from well, suffering greatly from indigestion. 
After a ten-day trip up the Nile, Mr. Morgan 
returned to Cairo apparently benefited in 
health, but in reality a failing man. So seri- 
ous was his condition that fresh eggs and but- 
ter were rushed to him halfway round the 
world from his New York farm. Because of 
the uncertain condition of his health, he went 
to Rome, Italy, landing there on 13 March, 
1913. He grew rapidly worse, and for several 
days prior to his death, he lay in a comatose 
state. Mr. Morgan was recognized as a co- 
lossal figure in the world of finance, and his 
counsel and presence were always influential. 
His breadth of vision, keenness of conception, 
and ability to immediately grasp and under- 
stand the most difficult problems made him a 
giant power among financial men in all parts 
of the world. By many prominent financiers 
and business men he was looked upon as the 
greatest financier the world has produced for 
at least a century. It was an obvious conclu- 
sion after even a bird's-eye view of such a life 
that here we have an extraordinary man — a 
Titan of industrial and financial achievement. 
He has played a big role in the drama of civi- 
lization and in the history of this country's 
phenomenal progress. Like every leader of 
men, he passed through the white heat of 
public opinion, and was trusted, respected, and 
loved by those who knew him best. Mr. Mor- 
gan was twice married, first in 1861 to Amelia 
Sturges, daughter of Jonathan and Mary Cady 
Sturges. She died in 1862, and in 1865 he 
married Frances Louise Tracy, who survives 
him. By this union he had one son and three 
daughters, all of whom are living. 

PUTNAM. Frederic Ward, geologist, ethnol- 
ogist, and anthropologist, b. in Salem, Mass., 
16 April, 1839; d. in Cambridge, Mass., 14 
Aug., 1915, son of Ebenezer and Elizabeth 
(Appleton) Putnam. His grandfathers were 
Ebenezer Putnam (1768-1826) and Nathaniel 
Appleton (1779-1818): his grandmothers, be- 

fore marriage, were Elizabeth Fiske and 
Elizabeth Ward. His father (1797-1876) for 
a short time after leaving college engaged 
in fitting young men for college, but soon ■ 
embarked in business in Cincinnati as a 9 
commission merchant, a line in vvhich he was ■ 
successful. Recalled to Salem by his father's 
death in 1876, he married there and never 
after engaged in business, devoting himself 
to the study and cultivation of plants and 
fruits, and in the study of politics and the 
management of the Democratic party in his 
county. Although frequently offered office he 
never accepted, except to serve as alderman in 
the so-called " model -government " of Salem 
when that town was first chartered as a city, 
and as postmaster of Salem. His first Ameri- 
can ancestor was John Putnam who settled in 
that part of Salem now called Danvers in 
1640-41, having previously lived in Aston 
Abbots, a Buckinghamshire parish adjoining 
Wingrave, one of the early homes of the 
family, and close by Puttenham in Hertford- 
shire, whence came the family name. The 
Putnam line is traced through many genera- 
tions of Putnams (or Puttenhams), an ar- 
morial family, and lords of the manor, to the 
twelfth century. From these early ancestors 
Professor Putnam inherited the blood of Bro- 
cas, Warbleton, Foxle, Hampden, Dammar- 
tin, Spigornell, etc., and of families still " 
more illustrious in the history of both Eng- 
land and France. (See the Putnam Lineage, 
by Eben Putnam.) On his mother's side he 
claimed descent from the Appletons of Suf- 
folk, England, another armorial family of dis- 
tinguished lineage and connections. A not re- 
mote ancestor was Nathaniel Appleton, D.D. 
(son of John by Elizabeth, daughter of Presi- 
dent Rogers of Harvard College ) , who mar- 
ried the daughter of Rev. Henry Gibbs (Har- 
vard, 1685), and who had a long and honor- 
able connection with the college, and whose 
patriotism during the Revolution was note- 
worthy. The Fiskes were also an ancient Suf- 
folk family, and some of his direct ancestors 
suffered religious persecution in the time of 
Queen Mary. Rev. John Fiske, who emi- 
grated to New England, was the ancestor of 
a long line of ministers, all of whom grad- 
uated from Harvard. Professor Putnam's 
great-grandfather, John Fiske, a noted sea- i 
man and merchant, was commander of the 
" Tyrannicide," the first armed vessel commis- ' 
sioned by Massachusetts in the Revolution, and 
after retiring from the sea became major-gen- 
eral of militia. Joshua Ward (great-grand- 
father, on his mother's side) was also a promi- 
nent patriot during the Revolution. Professor 
Putnam was also a descendant of Rev. Francis 
Higginson, Rev. Jose Glover, whom many es- 
teem as the prime mover in the foundation of 
the college at Cambridge. His ancestry in- 
cludes such famous names as Maverick, Ger- 
rish, Derby, Scollay, Pratt, Dennison, Dudley, 
Byfield, Whipple, Waldron, Sheaffe, Lander, 
Hawthorne, Brocklebank, Porter, all of them 
prominent in early New England history. ^ 
Professor Putnam's father, Ebenezer, 1815; his 
grandfather, Ebenezer, 1785; his great-grand- 
father, Ebenezer, 1739, were graduates of 
Harvard College. Nevertheless his first in- 
tentions were not to seek an education at Har- 
vard, but to go to West Point, to which he 




had the promise of an appointment. His going 
to Cambridge was the result of a happy, and 
indeed fortunate, incident, the discovery of his 
genius by Louis Agassiz, then on a visit to 
Salem. His love for all things in nature had 
from early childhood and through his youth 
led him to study natural history, and in this 
study he had been warmly encouraged. As a 
boy he was a helper about home, worked with 
his father in cultivating and propagating 
plants, and considered that early training in 
work and in regular duties had much to do 
with making him handy in the use of tools, 
and ready in emergencies of after life. His 
mother's gentle ways had a marked influence 
on his intellectual, moral, and spiritual life. 
He had no obstacles to overcome in acquiring 
an education, except delicate health in early 
boyhood, which caused absence from school. 
The books he read and found of interest as 
well as helpful in life were upon natural 
science in various branches, in early years, also 
historical works, and in later life zoological, 
anthropological, and geological works. His 
preparatory instruction until 1856 was re- 
ceived in private schools, and at home under 
his father's tuition. He then entered the 
Lawrence Scientific School, under Prof. Louis 
Agassiz, and received the degree of B.S. His 
class is that of 1862. He was honored by 
Williams College, in 1868, with the degree of 
A.M., and by the University of Pennsylvania 
in 1894 with that of S.D. His active scien- 
tific life began at Salem, and in 1856 he was 
appointed curator of ornithology in the Essex 
Institute, and was assistant to Professor 
Agassiz at Cambridge in 1857. His deter- 
mination to devote his life to zoology arose 
from his unusual aptitude for research in 
natural history. His early inclination toward 
West Point, and his later studies under Dr. 
Jeff'ries Wyman, had both originated from his 
natural bent toward science, and what the en- 
gineering wing of the army or medical science 
may have lost, was to the ultimate gain of the 
natural sciences and eventually of the great 
science of anthropology. The influences which 
most helped him to success in life have been 
the home, early companionship, private study, 
and contact with men in active life. The pro- 
fessional positions he has held in corporations 
and institutions are as follows: Curator of 
ornithology, Essex Institute, Salem, 1856-64; 
assistant to Prof. Louis Agassiz, Harvard 
University, 1857-64; curator of vertebrata, 
Essex Institute, 1864-66; superintendent mu- 
seum, Essex Institute, 1866-71; superintendent 
museum. East Indian Marine Society, Salem, 
1867-69; director museum, Peabody Academy 
of Science, 1869-73; curator of ichthyology, 
Boston Society of Natural History, 1859-68; 
permanent secretary, American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, 1873-98; assist- 
ant, Kentucky Geological Survey, 1874; in- 
structor, Pennikese School of Natural History, 
1874; assistant to United States engineers in 
surveys west of 100th meridian, 1876-79; 
assistant in ichthyology. Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology, 1876-78; curator of the Peabody 
Museum, 1875-1909, honorary curator, 1909, 
honorary director, 1913 to his death, 14 Aug., 
1915; Peabody professor of American Arch- 
eology and Ethnology, Harvard University, 
1886-1909, Peabody professor emeritus, 1910 

to his death; State commissioner of fish and 
game, Massachusetts, 1882-89; chief of de- 
partment of ethnology. World's Columbian 
Exposition, 1891-94; curator of anthropology, 
American Museum, New York, 1894-1903; pro- 
fessor of anthropology and director of the 
Anthropological Museum of the University of 
California, 1903-09; professor emeritus of 
anthropology, 1909. He was also for a brief 
period a member of the School Committee of 
the city of Salem. Prior to entering the Scien- 
tific School, Professor Putnam was an active 
member of the Salem Light Infantry, and al- 
though he had no war record he ever main- 
tained his interest in military matters, and at 
his death was a member of the Salem Light 
Infantry, Veteran Association, and of the 
Cambridge Battalion. He was vice-president 
of the Essex Institute, 1871-94; Boston So- 
ciety of Natural History, 1880-87, and presi- 
dent, 1887-89; president American Folk-Lore 
Society, 1891, and of the Boston Branch of 
that society since 1890; president American 
Association for Advancement of Science, 1898, 
and permanent secretary, 1873-98; vice- 
president Numismatic and Antiquarian So- 
ciety of Philadelphia since 1896; vice-presi- 
dent for the United States at the International 
Congress of Americanists in New York, in 
1902; chairman Division of Anthropology, In- 
ternational Congress of Arts and Sciences, at 
St. Louis Exposition in 1904; president of the 
American Anthropological Association in 
1905-06. He received the cross of the Legion 
of Honor from the French government in 1896; 
Drexel gold medal from the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1903; both for services in 
aid of American archeology; and was made a 
member of the Phi Beta Kappa, Harvard 
University, 1892; and of the Sigma Chi of 
California University in 1903. Professor Put- 
nam has written more than 400 papers, re- 
ports, and notes on zoology and anthropology 
since 1855. He has also done a large amount 
of editorial work. (See Bibliography in the 
Putnam Anniversary Volume.) He has made 
extensive research and investigation in Ameri- 
can archeology. He considered the * greatest 
achievements of his life work to be: The es- 
tablishment and development of new depart- 
ments of anthropology in Harvard and Cali- 
fornia Universities; the development of 
anthropological museums; and the preserva- 
tion of prehistoric monuments in the United 
States. Since the year 1858 he has been a 
member of many societies at home and abroad. 
Prominent among those in the United States 
are the following: American Philosophical So- 
ciety; National Academy of Sciences; Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society; the Historical So- 
cieties of Maine, of Ohio, and of Minnesota; 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences; 
American Antiquarian Society; American 
Association for Advancement of Science; San 
Francisco Academy of Science; Archeological 
Institute of America (a founder) ; Academy 
of Natural Science of Philadelphia, of Daven- 
port, and of Washington; American Ethnologi- 
cal Society; American Anthropological Asso- 
ciation (a founder) ; Anthropological Society 
of Washington; American Folk-Lore Society 
(a founder) ; Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory. Among those abroad: honorary member 
of the Anthropological Societies of London, 




I, and Florence; Geographical Society 
of Lima: and of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh. Honorary academician of the Museum of 
the National University of La Plata; Foreign 
Associate, Anthropological Societies of Paris 
and Stockholm. Corresponding member of An- 
thropological Societies of Berlin and Rome; of 
British Association for the Advancement of 
Science; the Society of Americanists in 
Paris; and the Academy of Belles-Lettres, 
History and Antiquities of Stockholm. He was 
a member of the following clubs: Cambridge 
Saturday Club; Harvard Religious Club; Har- 
vard Travellers' Club; Naturalists' Club; 
Thursday Club; Examiner Club, Boston; Ex- 
plorers Club, New York; Colonial Club, Cam- 
bridge; Century Association and Harvard 
Club, New York, and of the Society of the 
Governor and Company of the Massachusetts 
Bay. In politics he was independent, but with 
few exceptions in national elections cast his 
ballot for the Democratic electors. In re- 
ligious faith and church affiliations he was a 
Unitarian. For sport and relaxation in youth 
he enjoyed the study of nature, fencing, horse- 
back riding, and baseball; and was a member 
of the first regular baseball club organized 
in any of the departments of Harvard Uni- 
versity; in later years archeological explora- 
tion and research in the field. Professor Put- 
nam married, first, 1 June, 1864, Adelaide 
Martha, daughter of William Murray and 
Martha Adams (Tapley) Edmands, and 
granddaughter of John and Mary (Murray) 
Edmands, and of John and Lydia (Tufts) 
Tapley, and a descendant of Walter Edmands, 
who came from Norfolk County, England, to 
Concord, Mass., previous to 1639. Three chil- 
dren came of this marriage: Eben, actively 
engaged in genealogical and historical work; 
Alice Edmands; and Ethel Appleton Fiske, 
wife of John Hart Lewis (Harvard University, 
1895), an attorney-at-law and referee in bank- 
ruptcy in North Dakota. He married, second, 
29 April, 1882, Esther Orne Clarke, daughter 
of John L. and Matilda (Shepard) Clarke, a 
descendant of Rev. John Clarke, of Boston, and 
of Rev. Thomas Shepard, of Cambridge. No chil- 
dren were born of this marriage. Professor 
Putnam, from his observation and judgment, 
offered as suggestions to young Americans for 
strengthening sound principles, methods and 
habits in American life and most helpful to 
young people in gaining life success, the fol- 
lowing: High Ideals; Honesty; Charity; 
Courtesy; Hard Work. Frederic Ward Put- 
nam died at his home, 149 Brattle Street, 
Cambridge, Mass., 14 Aug., 1915. He was 
buried in Mount Auburn, the funeral services 
being held in Appleton Chapel, Harvard Uni- 
versity, 17 Aug. 

DEPEW, Chauncey Mitchell, U. S. Senator 
and railroad president, b. in Peekskill, N. Y., 
23 April, 1834, son of Isaac and Martha 
(Mitchell) Depew. Through his father he is 
descended from Francois Du Puy, a Huguenot 
refugee, who came to this country from France, 
in the middle of the seventeenth century, and 
settled in Brooklyn, where he married the 
daughter of a prominent Dutch burgher. His 
maternal ancestry is of English origin. In 
the light of his later career it is peculiarly 
interesting that Mr. Depew's father, together 
with his uncle, both prosperous and enterpris- 


ing fanners and merchants, had almost com- 
plete control of the transportation of freight 
up and down the Hudson River. There were 
no railways in those days, but the New York 
and Albany steamboats engaged in an active 
traffic. The favorable situation of Peekskill 
on the east bank of the Hudson made it the 
market for the country back of it, as far as 
the Connecticut State line, and the shipping 
point of its produce to New York, about forty 
miles distant. Chauncey Depew received his 
elementary instruction from his mofher, a 
woman of unusual education and culture. He 
next attended a small school conducted by 
the wife of a local clergyman, for children 
under the age of ten. Even at this early age 
young Depew was an omnivorous reader, and 
possessed a fund of general information much 
broader than that of the average boy of his 
years. Yet he was ever a real boy, and the 
leader of his fellows in the sports and frolics 
familiar to all country boys. After his tenth 
year, until his eighteenth, Mr. Depew was a 
student in the Peekskill Academy, an old- 
fashioned institution, whose chief purpose was 
to prepare boys for a business career. It was 
Isaac Depew's intention that, as soon as his 
son had completed the course in this institu- 
tion, he should join him in his business, but 
the boy, influenced probably by his mother and 
his pastor. Dr. Westbrook, had visions of a 
career that should extend beyond the horizon 
of the little country river town. He desired 
a college education. To this the elder Depew 
was at first opposed, but he finally changed 
his opinion, being much influenced by the ad- 
vice of Judge Thomas Nelson, son of the Hon. 
William Nelson, who spoke strongly in favor 
of a collegiate training for the young man. 
After a period of thoughtful consideration, the 
father finally agreed and Mr. Depew entered 
Yale College in 1852, being graduated with the 
class of 1856, the " famous class," as it was 
subsequently called, because of the prominence 
attained by several of its members. In this 
class, numbering some 125 men, Depew at- 
tained distinction, not only through his mag- 
netic personality, but, especially through his 
gift as a speaker, which made him the orator 
of the class. After graduation, he became a 
student in the law office of the Hon. W^illiam 
Nelson, and, in 1858, was admitted to the bar. 
In the year following he began practice in his 
native town. Mr. Depew was destined, how- 
ever, to distinguish himself in other fields than 
that of the law. Already in his later boy- 
hood he had begun to take a keen interest in 
politics. He entered college a Democrat. Like 
his father and the other members of his family, 
he belonged to the conservative wing of the 
party, which was willing; to leave slavery, 
then becoming a burning question, in abey- 
ance, contrary to the policy of the "Free 
Soil " Democrats. There were three presiden- 
tial candidates in the field in Depew's first 
year in college: Franklin Pierce, the candi- 
date of the National Democratic party; Gen. 
Winfield Scott, of the Whig party; and John 
P. Hale, the nominee of the Free Soil Demo- 
crats. In the frequent debates on the campus 
over the Fugitive Slave Law, the Personal 
Liberty bills, and the question of the exten- 
sion of slavery, Depew at first argued for the 
traditional politics of his family. But, in 

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his very efforts to be logical, he felt the weak- 
nesses of his own contentions, and gradually 
his opinions underwent a radical change. In 
1853 the famous Kansas-Nebraska Bill caused 
the disintegration of the old parties, and a 
new alignment followed on the burning issue 
of slavery. Then, also, there came to New 
Haven such prominent and eloquent abolition- 
ist speakers as Wendell Phillips, William 
Lloyd Garrison, and George William Curtis, 
and their arguments made a deep impression 
on the young man. When, early in 1856, the 
Anti-Nebraska men adopted the name Eepubli- 
can, Depew enrolled himself as a warm sup- 
porter of the new party. Hardly had he re- 
ceived his degree when he threw himself heart 
and soul into the campaign in support of 
Fremont and Dayton, making speeches in their 
behalf, and thus beginning the political career 
in which he has achieved such prominence in 
every succeeding presidential campaign. As 
he has himself said, his defection from the 
political faith of his family almost broke his 
father's heart, causing him a bitter disappoint- 
ment, which reached its climax when the son 
addressed an audience in his native town from 
a Republican platform. On taking up his law 
practice, Mr. Depew lost none of his early en- 
thusiasm for politics; indeed, it began presently 
to interfere seriously with his business. In 
1858 he was elected a delegate to the Republi- 
can State Convention. He was one of the four 
delegates-at-large from his State to the Re- 
publican National Conventions in 1888, 1892, 
1896, 1900, 1904, and a delegate in 1908 and 
1912. In 1860 Mr. Depew stumped the coun- 
try for Lincoln, and attracted a great deal of 
attention as a campaign speaker. In the fol- 
lowing year he was elected to the New York 
assembly from a district in which the Demo- 
crats were normally in a majority. In 1862 
he was re-elected, and, at the commencement of 
the legislative session of 1863, was named in 
caucus as party candidate for speaker. But he 
subsequently withdrew in favor of the candi- 
date of the Independent Democrats. During 
part of the session he acted as speaker pro 
tem., was chairman of the Committee on Ways 
and Means and, as such, leader of the ma- 
jority on the floor. In that same year Mr. 
Depew was the candidate of his party for 
Secretary of State. The result was a notable 
victory, Mr. Depew being elected by a majority 
of 30,000. He declined a renomination for 
this office, owing to business interests. Dur- 
ing President Johnson's administration, Wil- 
liam H. Seward, who was then Secretary of 
State, secured the appointment of Mr. Depew 
as minister to Japan, which was confirmed 
by the Senate, but, after considering the mat- 
ter for a month, Mr. Depew declined the honor 
for family reasons. At about this same time, 
also, Mr. Depew became acquainted with Cor- 
nelius Vanderbilt, whose steamboat navigation 
enterprises had earned for him the title of 
'• Commodore." Already he had laid the foun- 
dation of that great railway system which was 
afterward associated with his name. One day 
Mr. Depew was surprised to receive from the 
** Commodore " the offer of a responsible posi- 
tion in the company. He at once accepted the 
offer, and immediately applied himself to a 
thorough and detailed study of transportation. 
In 1866 he became attorney for the New York 

and Harlem Railroad Company, and three 
years later, when this road was consolidated 
with the New York Central Railroad Com- 
pany, with Cornelius Vanderbilt at the head, 
Mr. Depew was chosen attorney for the new 
corporation. Soon after, he became a mem- 
ber of the board of directors. As the Van- 
derbilt system expanded Mr. Depew's responsi- 
bilities and interests increased in a correspond- 
ing degree. In 1875 he was appointed gen- 
eral counsel for the entire system, and was 
elected a director in each of the roads of 
which it was composed. In spite of the energy 
which he was now obliged to direct into these 
new business channels, Mr. Depew's keen in- 
terest in public affairs made it impossible for 
him to abandon politics entirely. In 1872, at 
the earnest solicitation of Horace Greeley, he 
permitted' the use of his name as a candidate 
for lieutenant-governor on the Liberal Repub- 
lican ticket, at the head of which was Greeley. 
Inevitably, however, he shared in the general 
defeat. The following year he acted with the 
Republican party, and has remained constant 
to this affiliation ever since. Two years later 
Mr. Depew was appointed by the State legis- 
lature as a regent of the State University, and 
also as one of the commissioners to build the 
State capitol at Albany. Meanwhile, William 
H. Vanderbilt resigned from the presidency of 
the New York Central, and a reorganization 
of the company followed, James H. Rutter 
being chosen president, and Mr. Depew as 
second vice-president. In 1885 Mr. Rutter 
died and Mr. Depew was chosen to take his 
place. This latter. office he held for thirteen 
years, acting, also, as president over most of 
the subsidiary companies, and as a director in 
twenty-eight additional lines. In 1898, on re- 
signing from the presidency, he was made 
chairman of the board of directors of the 
entire system. In 1888, when Mr. Depew was 
a delegate-at-large to the Republican National 
Convention, he received seventy votes from the 
State of New York for the presidency. On 
subsequent ballots the vote was increased. At 
his own request his name was withdrawn in 
favor of Benjamin Harrison, who was finally 
nominated. After his election. President Har- 
rison showed his appreciation of this act of 
self-sacrifice by offering Mr. Depew any place 
in his Cabinet except that of Secretary of 
State, which had already been promised to 
James G. Blaine, but Mr. Depew felt compelled 
to decline. In 1892, at the Republican Na- 
tional Convention, held at Minneapolis, Mr. 
Depew again supported Mr. Harrison so 
strongly that the latter attributed his nomi- 
nation to the former's efforts, and after his 
re-election he again sought to show his grati- 
tude, this time by offering Mr. Depew the 
portfolio of the Secretary of State, left vacant 
by the resignation of Mr. Blaine. But, again, 
Mr. Depew decided not to accept office. In 
1899, however, he allowed himself to be nomi- 
nated for U. S. Senator and was elected by the 
unanimous vote of the Republican majority in 
the legislature. In 1905 he was re-oleoted. 
Altogether he served in the Senate twelve 
years; he would have been given a third term 
had it not happened that the Republicans lost 
control of the legislature. As a candidate for 
U. S. Senator Mr. Depew has received the 
ballots of the members of his party in the 




State legislature oftener than any other citi- 
zen of the country; sixty ballots, pne each 
day for sixty days in 1881, and sixty-four 
during forty-live days in 1911. Few men, in- 
dependent of the positions that they have held, 
have attained so wide a prominence in the 
country as Mr. Depew, and this is almost en- 
tirely due to his own personality. Partly, no 
doubt, his immense popularity rests on his 
abilities' as an orator. He has been considered 
the best after-dinner speaker in the United 
States. Even after their appearance in cold 
print his magnetism seems to cling to his 
speeches, so that it impresses itself even on 
readers who have never seen him personally. 
Aside from this, he has also found time to 
edit a series of the world's greatest orations 
in twenty-four volumes, and a massive work 
entitled, " One Hundred Years of American 
Commerce." In this latter work, as well as 
in his collected speeches, is shown the firm 
grasp that he has of the great questions, not 
only of his own time, but of those that have 
agitated the country throughout its history. 
In addition to his duties as the head of the 
New York Central and as a federal legislator, 
Mr. Depew has been very active as a director 
of many financial, fiduciary, and other cor- 
porations and trusts. The degree of LL.D. 
was conferred on him by Yale University in 
1887. Among the many societies of which he 
is a member may be mentioned the Huguenot 
Society, the Society of the Cincinnati, the 
Sons of the American Revolution, the Union 
League, the Metropolitan, and the Century 
Clubs, the Holland Society, the New England 
Society, and the Society of Colonial Wars. 
He is also a member of the American Bar 
Association, the New York Bar Association, 
and the New York Chamber of Commerce. He 
was for many years in succession elected presi- 
dent of the Yale Alumni Association, declin- 
ing re-election after ten years of service. For 
seven successive years he was president of the 
Union League Club, a longer term than has 
ever been filled by any other, and on declining 
further re-election, he was made an honorary 
» member. In 1871 Mr. Depew married Elise, 
daughter of William Hegeman, of New York 
City. She died in 1892, leaving one son, 
Chauncey M. Depew, Jr. In 1900 Mr. Depew 
married Mav, daughter of John Palmer, of 
New York City. 

CLARK, William Andrews, U. S. Senator, 
b. near Connellsville, Pa., 8 Jan., 18.39, son of 
John and Mary (Andrews) Clark. His father, 
who had cultivated a farm under the discour- 
aging conditions of impoverished soil and poor 
markets, sold his farm in 1856, and seized a 
favorable opportunity to remove to Van Buren 
County, la. There ^ the family continued to 
reside for a number of years. In the mean- 
time, the future Senator, who had already laid 
the foundations of an education, began his 
active life; displaying even at the start the 
remarkable energy and achieving the conspicu- 
ous success that has been characteristic of his 
entire career. He drove a team across the 
plains in 1862 to Colorado, where he worked 
in the quartz mines at Central City for almost 
a year, and there, with three companions, pur- 
chased a team and traveled for sixty days to 
the recently discovered gold placer mines at 
Bannack, Idaho, now in the State of Montana. 

Although he had studied law, Mr. Clark nevei 
practiced his profession, choosing rather ai 
active career along varied lines, in which h( 
has been so conspicuously successful. He 
worked in the placer mines for two years anc 
was quite successful, and then engaged in mer- 
cantile pursuits. Starting as a small but con- 
stantly growing merchant, he increased his 
fortunes gradually, by careful attention to de- 
tails, the exercise of an excellent judgment, 
which seems to be a native characteristic of 
his mind, and a tireless energy which ever 
seeks after new outlets, and is determined to 
make the best of the advantages which they 
offer. Like other enterprising spirits of the 
time, he afterward invested his capital in min- 
ing, principally copper at the start, although, 
later, in coal, silver, and other mining enter- 
prises, in all of which he has reaped a wonder- 
ful success, the result solely of his own efforts 
and industry. By virtue of his inborn and 
sedulously cultivated personal endowments, 
Mr. Clark stands alone among the great cap- 
tains of industry of our country in the fact 
that he has always been sole owner and man- 
ager of all his vast enterprises, and has so 
skillfully managed the affairs of all of them 
that of all the twenty-eight companies with 
which his name is associated not one share of 
stock or bonds is quoted upon any exchange 
in the world. All of them have been built up 
solely by his energy and industry, and in all 
of them he is entirely untrammeled by boards 
of directors, stockholders with their numerous 
interests and constant liability to produce em- 
barrassing situations, and of all stock market 
conditions. He has thus achieved the remark- 
able ability of weathering all panics, depres- 
sions, and other conditions of " tightness " in 
financial circles. For the reason, also, that 
all his companies are thus close corporations, 
little is heard of his industrial enterprises 
which render no public reports, and conduct 
their affairs without making the usual signs 
upon the surface of the business world. 
Through his vast holdings in both Montana 
and Arizona, Senator Clark is the largest in- 
dividual owner of copper mines and smelters 
in the world, and has always been entirely un- 
allied with any other copper interests what- 
ever. He owns nearly all of the stock of the 
United Verde Copper Company at Jerome, 
Ariz., which is conceded to be the greatest 
copper mine in the world. He has nearly com- 
pleted a large smelting and converting plant 
at Clarkdale, five miles below Jerome on the 
Verde River, which will cost over $3,000,000 
and have a capacity of 6,000,000 pounds of 
fine copper per month. He also owns and 
operates large coal mines in Colorado, zinc 
mines in Montana, and silver mines in Utah. 
He was one of the first in America to enter 
the beet sugar business, Jiaving purchased a 
large tract of land near Los Angeles, Cal., 
established a large plant as early as 1898, 
which is one of the few sugar factories in the 
country wholly independent of the so-called 
sugar trust. He has, also, vast lumber in- 
terests in Montana, has developed and owns 
great water powder plants in Utah and Mon- 
tana for the generation of electric current and 
street raihvays in two large cities, Butte and 
Missoula. In the development of all his varied 
interests, it has been necessary for him to 


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enter, also, the field of practical railroad 
builder and operator. In addition to several 
freight lines for the carriage of the products 
of his mines and lumber regions, he is the 
projector, owner, and operator of the San 
Pedro, Los Angeles ,and Salt Lake Railroad, 
with its extensive system of feeders. Among 
his numerous other interests, Senator Clark 
operates a powder mill recently erected at 
Corry, Pa., for the manufacture of a new kind 
of blasting-powder, a large cattle ranch in 
Montana, a still larger coffee, sugar, and cattle 
ranch in Mexico, a big wire works in New 
Jersey, where a large part of his copper is 
made into wire, a bronze factory in New 
York, an influential daily newspaper in Butte, 
and a bank in the same city. This latter is 
one of the most remarkable financial institu- 
tions in the United States, inasmuch as it is 
a private ownership and partnership, started 
over thirty years ago, and owned by himself 
and brother. Being unincorporated, its lia- 
bility to its depositors is unlimited, except by 
the resources of its two owners. In all of Mr. 
Clark's varied interests two extraordinary 
things are to be noted: first, that he has com- 
plete technical knowledge of every one of these 
diverse industries, and, second, that there is no 
man in his employ in any department who is 
indispensable to him. He is even an expert 
mining engineer and a thoroughly informed 
metallurgist. He keeps the management of all 
his vast enterprises in his own hands, and al- 
though superintendents make reports daily, 
weekly, or monthly to him, as the importance 
of the particular undertaking may warrant, 
everything from the making of a contract for 
the paper used for his newspaper, to the buy- 
ing of equipment for his railroad, he does him- 
self. It is frequently declared that he is the 
greatest living master of detail in the world. 
If it were not for his exceptional faculty of 
taking a matter up, deciding it, and then 
dismissing it from his mind, he could not pos- 
sibly get through his daily routine of work, 
to say nothing of having time left for recrea- 
tion and social enjoyment. Yet, while han- 
dling all these great enterprises, he served the 
people of Montana most acceptably in the 
Senate of the United States from 1901 until 
1907, where he brought to bear all his mar- 
velous ability and power of concentration, and 
made a record as one of the most diligent 
members and hardest workers in committee 
that ever entered that body. Soon after he 
entered the Senate, owing to his intimate 
knowledge of several languages, he was placed 
upon the Committee on Foreign Relations in 
which he served throughout his term. Al- 
though a ready thinker and fluent orator, he 
never addressed the Senate unless he had some 
subject of more than passing importance to 
speak upon, and when this happened his views 
were always given marked attention and car- 
ried exceptional weight. Few men have been 
more misunderstood by a large part of the 
public than has Mr. Clark. Many imagine 
that he entered public life through a desire 
to satisfy a purely personal ambition, when 
as a matter of fact nothing could be further 
from the truth. It was not by his own seek- 
ing that he came into active politics. He 
was forced into it at a time when a large 
class of citizens in Montana rebelled against 

the domination of a powerful machine in their 
affairs. The insurgent leaders of the time 
canvassed the situation and came to the con- 
clusion that only one man could successfully 
lead their forces to victory. Mr. Clark was 
then in New York, and a committee was sent 
to urge him to take the leadership of the 
movement. At first he declined, but after re- 
peated solicitations of the committee, and an 
appeal to his love of his State, and his obliga- 
tion to the people of that commonwealth, he 
reluctantly consented to enter the fight. A 
political battle followed, which for unre- 
strained fierceness, bitterness, and malignity 
has never been equaled in this country. How- 
ever, a leading characteristic of Mr. Clark is 
tenacity of purpose. In all his industrial un- 
dertakings, the difficulties encountered seem 
only to have added to his determination. In- 
deed, the more stubborn the resistance, the more 
determined this man has been to conquer. So 
it was in politics. Although he had entered 
the field unwillingly enough, as he advanced 
and the road was beset by increasing obstruc- 
tions, he became all the more interested in 
fighting his way to success. For years this 
warfare waged, sometimes Mr. Clark was re- 
pulsed, but he never was routed and he never 
gave up until the goal was reached. With 
such a leader there could be but one termina- 
tion to such a fight. But people of the na- 
tion never knew how high and unselfish has 
been the purpose of Mr. Clark in undertaking 
the overthrow of conditions which had laecome 
intolerable to a large portion of people in his 
State. It has been said of him that he was 
the richest man who ever entered the United 
States Senate as a member, and, although that 
is undoubtedly true, he is the last man who 
would ever claim such distinction. The one 
thing he never mentions to his most intimate 
associates in his wealth. At no time has he 
ever sought notoriety on this account, but on 
the contrary it is the one subject he shuns 
in conversation, for he appears to have the 
highly creditable pride of wanting to be meas- 
ured rather by mental standards than by any 
other. He is as willing to match intellects 
with a man who has not a dollar as he was 
to try conclusions in industrial life with a 
genius like the late E. H. Harriman. Mr. 
Clark is a man whom wealth has not spoiled 
nor even changed. The humblest man in his 
employment can obtain easy access to him and 
a stranger listening to a conversation between 
them would never know from anything in Mr. 
Clark's manner which was the employer and 
which the employee. He keenly appreciates 
also the higher objects in life. His love of 
the beautiful is almost a weakness with him. 
Among his pictures, where he spends hours of 
enjoyment alone, he seems to give full play 
to the poetic side of his nature. Among art 
lovers both in Europe and this country he is 
recognized as an unerring judge of paintings. 
He has purchased, from time to time, some of 
the world's great masterpieces, solely because 
he appreciates their every beauty, and is in 
complete sympathy with the ideals expressed 
by the artist. He constructed and completed 
a few years ago, on Fifth Avenue, New York, 
what is considered the finest private residence 
in the world — a veritable palace — and has 
placed therein a collection of tapestries of 




the fifteenth, sixteenth, and eighteenth cen- 
turies of the highest quality — also the greatest 
number of sixteenth century Persian carpets 
in any single collection. His collection of 
pictures comprises the finest examples of the 
great masters of all schools of painting, both 
ancient and modern, and more particularly of 
the Harbizon School, which is unsurpassed in 
the world. It is indeed remarkable that this 
man who can converse so technically and in- 
structively with men in all professions and 
walks of life can also in the company of the 
greatest artists and authorities in matters of 
that kind captivate them with the depth of his 
knowledge of their own departments. There 
is a marked love of humanity in Mr. Clark's 
nature which finds expression in intelligent 
works of charity. His generosity takes prac- 
tical forms. In giving to others he believes in 
exercising the mind as well as the heart. Do- 
nating money without seeing it put to the beat 
possible use does not appeal to him, but when 
he gives of his wealth, he also contributes his 
time and attention to the charitable objects 
in which he has been interested. In Butte he 
has built as memorial to his youngest son, 
who died at the age of sixteen, when prepar- 
ing to enter Yale University, the Paul Clark 
Home for Children. In this institution some 
eighty boys and girls who may have lost one 
or both parents have their loss made up to 
them so far as it is in the power of human 
love and kindness to do so. There is nothing 
suggestive of a charitable institution about 
this home, but it is a real home full of fun 
and laughter. Here the children not only have 
the advantage of a good common school educa- 
tion, but the boys are taught trades and the 
girls loam to sew and cook and become good 
housewives Mr. Clark maintains this insti- 
tution entirely alone, although, in order to dis- 
guise its charitable phase, those who are able 
to do so are allowed to pay something toward 
the board of their children, but the great ma- 
jority do not contribute, and no difference is 
made in the treatment of the children on this 
account. They are all members of one big 
happy family with as little restraint thrown 
around them as is foimd in any private home. 
No one appeals to Mr. Clark's heart like a 
child In one of the canyons near Butte years 
ago he established a beautiful breathing spot, 
known as Columbia Gardens. He employed the 
best landscape gardeners that could be ob- 
tained and these grounds were laid out in a 
manner that is the wonder of every visitor, 
and it is the one place to which every 
stranger in Butte is at once taken. Here i's 
found a thoroughly equipped playground for 
the children, with all kinds of swings, see-saws, 
ladders, sliding apparatus, and everything that 
can be imajrined to gladden the "heart of a 
child. Little streams fed by the eternal snows 
of the main range of the' Rocky Mountains, 
against which this beautiful spot nestles, me- 
ander through the grounds, and emptv into a 
lake, in which the children bathe and boat 
LaAvns and flower beds are laid out in a man- 
ner that is most captivating to the eye, and 
in the summer time the children are' turned 
loose in one portion of the gardens and allowed 
to pick all the flowers they want. Nearly all 
the different wild animals of Montana, includ- 
ing buffalo, elk, bear, and deer, are found in 


another portion of the grounds, and at one side 
large greenhouses are located together with a 
fish hatchery. In the large grove tables and 
easy rustic seats are provided for the family 
parties who want to picnic under the trees. 
The unique feature of this institution is that 
each Thursday in the spring and summer 
every child in Butte and vicinity is Mr. Clark's 
guest, being carried to and from the gardens 
in street cars free of charge, and generally 
on these days he has 8,000 to 12,000 children 
as his guests. Many children owe it to Mr. 
Clark's kind heart that they are not destined 
to go through life crippled, for he has borne 
the expense of having notable medical experts 
treat these little folks and straighten their 
crooked or dislocated limbs. In addition to 
this Mr. Clark has educated at his expense 
many children who have shown talent along 
artistic lines, and who never would have had 
their gift cultivated without his aid. Recently 
in Los Angeles, as memorial to his mother, 
who died there a few years ago, he made a 
large donation for the erection of a home for 
working-girls, which is to be under the man- 
agement of the Young Women's Christian As- 
sociation of that city. This institution, which 
cost a large sum, now provides a comfortable 
home for 200 working-girls at a nominal cost. 
It is doubtful if there has been a church built 
in Montana, or any other good institution 
started in the commonwealth, that does not 
have to acknowledge a debt of gratitude to Mr. 
Clark. His power of mental concentration, his 
mastery of detail, and his unsurpassed expert- 
ness in a number of professions and technical 
knowledge of numerous complicated industrial 
lines in which he is interested, make him the 
marvel of everyone who has any intimate 
knowledge of the many-sidedness of his char- 
acter and the dynamic force of his tireless 
energy. He is a living example of the fact 
that it is possible for some minds backed by 
limitless will power to acquire the highest pos- 
sible knowledge upon any number of subjects, 
to obtain expertness in any one of which the 
average individual would consider a life's task. 
Farseeing, genial, and democratic in the ex- 
treme, his character and career stand forth as 
an inspiration to ambitious youth, while his 
remarkable achievements are the admiration 
and w'onder of his contemporaries. 

ARCHBOLD, John Dustin. financier and in- 
dustrial leader, b. at Leesburg, Ohio, 26 July, 
1848; d. at Tarrytow^n, N. Y., 5 Dec, 1916, 
son of Rev. Israel and Frances (Dana) Arch- 
bold The founder of the family in America 
was James Archbold, a native of County Kil- 
dare, Ireland, where he was born in 1766, 
migrating to America and landing in Balti- 
more on 16 Nov., 1787. Three years after 
his arrival from Ireland — in 1790 — he mar- 
ried Miss Ann Kennedy, of Prince George 
County, Md. He followed some scholastic call- 
ing. They had a large family, eight sons and 
four daughters, and moved from place to 
place through Maryland, Washington City, 
and Virginia, finally taking the trail to Ohio. 
James Archbold died on 20 Sept., 1819, in 
his fifty-third year. His widow, Ann, sur- 
vived him twenty-four years, dying in her 
seventy-fifth year in Moorfield, Harrison 
County, Ohio, 25 July, 1843. James Arch- 
bold came of a family settled in Ireland for 





six hundred years and during all that time 
prominent in Wicklow and Kildare as gentle- 
men landholders, identified with one side or 
the other of the successive struggles that 
marked the history of the troubled island. 
They intermarried with the families of native 
chieftains, but there were always men of the 
family to carry forward the Archbold name. 
William Archbold was created baron of the 
Irish Exchequer in the late nineties of the 
fourteenth century and Henry IV appointed 
another William Archbold, in 1400, constable 
of the Castle of Mackinnegan in Wicklow. 
Richard Archbold of the family was elected 
prior of the noble Mitred House of Kilmain- 
ham in 1491. Under Queen Elizabeth some 
of the family estates were confiscated by the 
Crown to be restored under James I. In the 
Irish revolt of 1641 most of the family acted 
with the Irish lords to judge by the many 
attainders issued under Charles I against 
their lands and persons, some of these after- 
ward released. Six of the family fought on 
the side of James II — ofl&cers in Dongan's 
Dragoons — at the siege of Limerick. When 
the Jacobite Irish officers and regiments left 
Ireland for service in European armies, two 
of the Archbolds are found on the Spanish 
rosters, Don Diego (James) Archbold, lieu- 
tenant, and Don Miguel (Michael) Archbold, 
lieutenant-colonel of the regiment of Ultonia. 
At what time or what branch of the family 
became Protestant is obscure, but James 
Archbold, the emigrant of 1787, was probably 
of that faith. He is described as " a fine 
scholar," and wrote a fair hand as seen in 
the entries he made in one of the family 
Bibles. Two of his sons preached the Gos- 
pel in the Methodist Episcopal Church, one, 
his youngest, Noah, who, as the family Bible 
says, " having preached Christ departed in 
peace from this sublunary scene," on 13 Aug., 
1836, in his twenty-seventh year. The other 
was Israel, father of John Dustin Archbold, 
born in Mount Prosperous, Harrison County, 
Ohio, 2 Nov., 1807. He lived a life of service 
rich in the esteem of his co-religionists. He 
married at Newport, Ohio, Miss Frances Dana, 
daughter of Colonel William Dana who trav- 
eled by wagon from Massachusetts to Mari- 
etta, Ohio — one of the true Ohio pioneers. 
For twenty-five years the Rev. Israel Arch- 
bold was a member of the Pittsburgh Confer- 
ence. He died in 1859. Thus we see that the 
gentle dominie's son, one of four orphaned 
children in the little Ohio town, was dowered 
by blood with high qualities from fighting, 
dominating, devoted forbears whether of 
Irish or New England strain. Of this the 
boy of eleven knew little or nothing: but 
these aids from the elder days were soon to be 
fighting on his side in a long and successful 
battle with the world. John Dustin was the 
third son. His eldest brother entered the 
church, his second brother went to the war: 
little John's the task then to look after his 
mother and his little sister. The family 
moved to Salem, Columbia County, and John 
after a short term at school went to work 
in a grocery store for an exceedingly modest 
wage. He soon showed his grit and his am- 
bition for before a year was out it is recorded 
that he was earning $5.00 a week — more than 
three times hie initial pay. Oil had first been 

struck in the world's history on Oil Creek, 
near Titusville, Pa., on 26 Aug., 1859, not 
more than sixty miles from Salem, and the 
great stroke of Colonel Drake was all the 
talk in Schilling's grocery as well as in all 
others the country round. The story of the 
wells, the flowing oil, the fortunes made by 
farmers owning lucky " territory," the tale 
of huge sums of money won or lost in quick 
turns of the oil market or the gushing or 
shrinking of the wells, reached Salem as else- 
where. For long it tempted John who had 
ambitious dreams, but his duty to his mother 
and the intense interest he bestowed on Mr. 
Schilling's business still riveted him to Salem. 
He formed a plan. This was to increase his 
weekly gains by increased work, so as to be 
able to save something and next to' give every 
waking moment outside his task to increas- 
ing his knowledge. He was growing brighter, 
sharper, stronger, but his inches were not, so 
that when in 1864 and his sixteenth year, he 
resolved to go with his little hoard of savings 
to Titusville in search of fortune, he looked 
barely fourteen. Except in the depths of his 
heart, he had nothing of the minister's son 
about him. Bright, alert, fearless, quick at 
figures and bubbling over with high spirits he 
appeared in Titusville, which in a short five 
years had been metamorphosed from a sleepy 
village of 400 inhabitants, one store, and one 
little inn to the oil metropolis with 8,000 
residents, banks, churches, hotels, pretentious 
stores, and a seething floating army of 2,000 
adventurers and transients all seeking the 
road to wealth in petroleum. He found em- 
ployment with a typical Connecticut merchant, 
W. H. Abbot, who hired him as a clerk and 
was not long in discovering that the boy 
could do better things than office work. Mr. 
Abbot was' making money buying crude oil 
at the wells and shipping it in barrels — ^the 
best mode of transport of the time — to New 
York. The new railroad had been pushed 
down Oil Creek to Oil City, and twice a day 
Abbot traveled down and back, picking up 
bargains in oil. After a while he brought 
young John along, but so rapid had been the 
clerk's progress in learning the turns of the 
trade that Abbot shortly turned over the 
whole purchasing to " the boy." He was 
now earning largely. Keeping back $1,000 
against contingencies, he spent his profits on 
buying a new home for his mother and send- 
ing his sister to college. Before he was nine- 
teen he was made a partner by Mr. Abbot. 
A contemporary, still living, Joseph Seep, 
first met John D. Archbold in 1869 and testi- 
fies to his cheerful humor, ready wit, and the 
whole-souled way he went about his work. 
" Well I recall my amazement at the large 
transactions the boy would carry through. 
He was about twenty years of age, but looked 
like sixteen. I remember on one occasion he 
sold to Jonathan Watson a line of 5,000 bar- 
rels a month, buyer's option, running through 
the year at $6.00 a barrel, amounting to 
$360,000 in money. Watson, a little sick of 
his bargain, told John that he wanted the oil 
delivered in barrels. John's reply was, ' I will 
put it in bottles if you furnish thorn.' " As 
a proof of John D. Arehbold's moral courage, 
Mr. Seep recalls that when the South Im- 
provement Company was started, excitement 




ran high along Oil Creek, and he with other 
employees of the Standard Oil Company was 
threatened with a coating of tar and feathers 
and a ride out of town on a rail. Actually 
their resignation from the Titusville Oil Ex- 
change was demanded. There was a meeting 
with violent, menacing speeches in favor of ex- 
pelling them when, says Mr. Seep: "Little 
John D. Archlwld — one of the strongest op- 
ponents of the South Improvement Company — 
his boyish face aglow, rose out of that meet- 
ing of angry, bearded, husky men, and in his 
big, manly voice protested, saying, ' We should 
not l)e held responsible for the views or the 
doings of our employers.' " Two others fol- 
lowed John and the expulsion idea fell 
through. Two or three years later, the Abbot 
firm was dissolved and John D. joined an- 
other firm, Porter, Moreland and Company, 
which built a large refinery at Titusville. He 
was selected to attend to the sales and the 
financing of the business, and made his first 
entrance into New York in that capacity with 
offices in William Street. Joining the sales 
of other oil region refining concerns with his 
own he had great success. In 1870 he mar- 
ried Miss Annie Mills, daughter of Maj. S. M. 
Mills, of Titusville, a Civil War veteran who 
owned the chief hotel of the town. It was 
in this year that the Standard Oil Company 
of Ohio was born. The two brothers, John 
D. Rockefeller and William Rockefeller, with 
Henry M. Flagler and Samuel Andrews, were 
the incorporators, and with it a new power 
arose in the world of oil. This is not the 
place to dwell at length on the factors of the 
struggle in which it gained its mastery; but 
it was in open fight from the beginning with 
the producers and refiners of the " Oil Re- 
gion " of Pennsylvania, yet with scarce an 
exception in the five years from its start, it 
gathered into its fold the leading refiners of 
the country. With John D. Rockefeller this 
material growth of the company was best 
seconded by securing men of brains, capacity, 
and audacity to captain its forces, and when, 
in 1875, after John D. Archbold had been 
elected president of the newly reconstructed 
and vigorous Acme Oil Company of Titus- 
ville, the Standard Oil Company made pro- 
posals for its purchase on highly advan- 
tageous terms, perhaps the greatest asset it 
brought to the buyer was Mr. Archbold him- 
self. He was by this time master of the de- 
tails and the entire business from drilling 
and manufacturing to marketing and financ- 
ing. His rare talents were at once fully em- 
ployed. In the fall of 1875 he was elected a 
director of the Standard Oil Company of 
Ohio — and he was twenty-seven years old! 
Thirty-five years later John D. Rockefeller in 
his "Random Reminiscences" writes: "I 
can never cease to wonder at his capacity for 
hard work." From the period of Mr. Arch- 
bold's election to the directorate onward to 
the close of 1916, full forty-one years, Mr. 
Archbold's history is that of the Standard 
Oil Company, perhaps the greatest, certainly 
one of the greatest and most powerful busi- 
ness organizations the world has ever seen. 
His great mental force, his buoyant spirit, his 
sense of humor no less than his sense of 
justice and outreach after progress carried 
him forward and all with him. His capacity, 

80 early ehowii, of instantly grasping the es- 
sentials of any business problem only broad- 
ened with the years. The uses of lubricating 
oils, the production of the vaselines, wax, and 
naphthas were so much added to his cares. 
Organizing for the spread of the company's 
activities in new fields, the pipe lines, the oil 
cars, the tank steamers — a great fleet of them 
— all came in the day's work. Finally the 
brunt of the long legal fights against the very 
existence of the company fell on no shoulders 
more heavily than on his. He seemed equal 
to it all. Henry M. Flagler practically re- 
tired from the company in the eighties: John 
D. Rockefeller in 1806. William Rockefeller 
too ceased active administration a few years 
later. With his great associate, Henry H. 
Rogers, Mr. Archbold never faltered under the 
greater load. And when, a few short years 
since, Henry H. Rogers passed away, John 
D. Archbold still manfully stood at the helm. 
As to official honors, Mr. Archbold was named 
as one of the nine trustees chosen to ad- 
minister the first Standard Oil Trust on 4 
Jan., 1882. When the trust was dissolved 
ten years later and all the vast properties 
were vested in the Standard Oil Company 
of New Jersey in 1892 with nominal capital 
of $100,000,000 representing a far greater 
actual value, he was elected to the director- '^ 
ate, and on the entire liquidation of the trust, 
he was elected vice-president, 18 June, 1899. 
This title he held until the dissolution in 
1911 of the great company into its thirty-four 
subsidiary companies by order of the U. S. 
Supreme Court under the Sherman Anti-Trust 
Act of 1890, after four years of harassing liti- 
gation. Then on the retirement of John D. 
Rockefeller, Mr. Archbold was elected presi- 
dent of the company and so remained till his 
death. Long before this his sagacity had 
made clear to him that under the existing 
corporation laws of forty-seven different 
states conflicting conditions were manifold 
and that there was no real safety in the 
transaction of a nation-wide business against 
running counter to the provisions of federal 
laws aimed blindly at the repression of the 
greater corporations. His judgment led him 
to favor a frank federal incorporation law 
which, under proper provision for penalties 
in case of violation of the principles of fair i 
competition, should permit the free function- 
ing of the largest companies. He did not 
overlook State rights of policing and taxa- 
tion in this, but pleaded for the simple right 
to run a large business under a proper fed- 
eral charter. He set this forth at length be- 
fore the Industrial Commission in 1899. It 
is a landmark in the history of American 
business. Mr. Archbold made New York his 
permanent home, and acquired the beautiful 
estate of Cedar Cliffs at Tarrytown in the 
early eighties where he raised his family , 
amid the most genial surroundings, and rested ': 
from his severe daily labors. He had nat- 
urally acquired wealth from the sheer incre- 
ment of his Standard Oil holdings. He never 
showed any disposition for outside specula- 
tion, but was assiduous in a philanthropy as 
wide as it was modest in operation. His deep 
religious convictions have been mentioned. 
They early led him to a close friendship 
with Rev. Dr. James Roscoe Day, pastor 


-injraved iy tJ.iJ. Oaile.N'ew'YoTk:. 




of St. Paul's Methodist Episcopal Church, 
then a conspicuous edifice on Fourth Avenue, 
New York. Mr. Archbold became a trustee 
of the church, and when in 1894 Dr. Day 
was translated to the chancellorship of Syra- 
cuse (N. Y.) University, Mr. Archbold ac- 
cepted a trusteeship there also. In a short 
time he became chairman of the board of 
trustees. As long as he lived he continued 
to give freely of his time, his counsel, and 
his money to the university. It was a con- 
tinuous benevolence, but among other gifts 
he furnished the funds for Sims Hall, a 
large dormitory for men, built and equipped 
the fine gymnasium, the largest in the col- 
lege world, and the noble stadium with its 
seating capacity of 20,000. He was rewarded 
by seeing the university grow with giant 
strides. To the New York Kindergarten he gave 
its building, endowing it with half a million 
dollars in memory of his deceased daughter, 
Frances ( Mrs. Wolcott ) . He was a member 
of the Board of St. Christopher's Home and 
Orphanage. In his many charities he en- 
tirely ignored denominational lines. Mr. 
Archbold was a member of the Manhattan, 
Union League, Racquet and Riding Clubs, of 
the Ardsley Casino, and the Ohio Society 
whose annual banquets he loved to attend 
surrounded by a bevy of friends. He was 
survived by the wife of his early days and 
three of their children: Mary L. (Mrs. M. M. 
Van Beuren), Anne M. (Mrs. Armar D. 
Saunderson), and John Fletcher Archbold. 

FLAGLER, Henry Morrison, capitalist and 
railroad financier, b. in Hopewell, N. Y., 2 
Jan., 1830; d. at his winter home, West Palm 
Beach, Fla., 20 May, 1913, son of Isaac and 
Elizabeth (Morrison) Flagler. The first of 
the family to come to this country was Zach- 
ariah Flegler (the original spelling), who emi- 
grated from German Palatinate through Hol- 
land, landing in West Camp, Columbia County, 
N. Y., in 1710. Later, he removed to Dutchess 
County, N. Y., and settled in what is now the 
town of Beekman. Henry M. Flagler, the sub- 
ject of this review, attended the district school 
until fourteen years of age, when he concluded 
that the meager $400.00 yearly salary which 
his father received as Presbyterian clergyman 
was inadequate for the needs of the family. 
He left home; walked nine miles to Medina, 
where he boarded a freight boat on the Erie 
Canal for Buffalo, from which place he went 
by vessel to Sandusky, Ohio, a three days' trip 
in a continuous storm. It was a harrowing 
experience of seasickness and loneliness for 
young Flagler, who, upon landing, staggered 
along the wharf from exhaustion. He had 
eaten the lunch his mother had put in his 
carpetbag and his negotiable .possessions 
totaled a five-franc piece, a French coin the 
equivalent of a dollar; five cents in silver, and 
four copper pennies. The five-franc piece he 
retained till his death. He immediately ob- 
tained employment as clerk in a country store 
at $5.00 a month and his board. Soon after- 
ward, he removed to Fostoria, Ohio, then called 
Rome, where he entered the employ of the 
father of Charles Foster, who became governor 
of Ohio and later Secretary of the Treasury 
in President Harrison's cabinet. By thrift and 
industry young Flagler accumulated a little 
money, and then removed to Bellevue, an ad- 

joining county. Here he embarked in the grain 
commission business, in which he soon displayed 
the talent that distinguished his subsequent 
career, and built up for his firm the largest 
grain shipping business in the city. It was 
in this capacity that he became acquainted 
with John D. Rockefeller, through whose firm, 
Clark & Rockefeller, commission merchants, he 
sold many carloads of wheat. In the mean- 
time, as an outlet for much of his grain, Mr. 
Flagler acquired an interest in a distillery. 
All of his interests in Bellevue he later dis- 
posed of, and his business activities there 
netted him $50,000. He then located in Sagi- 
naw, Mich., where he engaged unsuccessfully 
in the manufacture of salt. In this venture 
he dissipated his little fortune, and was left 
$50,000 in debt. However, he borrowed suffi- 
cient money at 10 per cent, interest to liqui- 
date these debts, and removed to Cleveland 
where he again entered the grain and produce 
commission business. His subsequent activities 
soon afterward (1867) resulted in his becom- 
ing associated with Messrs. Rockefeller and 
Andrews in their small oil business, which 
ultimately developed into the Standard Oil 
Company, the greatest industrial enterprise in 
history. A glowing tribute to Mr. Flagler's 
business ability is well outlined by his partner, 
John D. Rockefeller, in his book, " Random 
Reminiscences of Men and Events" (1909), 
from which the following is taken : " The part 
played by one of my earliest partners, H. M. 
Flagler, was always an inspiration to me. He 
invariably wanted to go ahead and accomplish 
great projects of all kinds; he was always on 
the active side of every question, and to his 
wonderful energy is due much of the rapid 
progress of the company in the early days. 
It was to be expected of such a man that he 
should fulfill his destiny by working out some 
great problems at a time when most men want 
to retire to a comfortable life of ease. This 
did not appeal to my old friend. He under- 
took, single-handed, the task of building up the 
East Coast of Florida. I first knew Mr. Flagler 
as a young man who consigned produce to 
Clark & Rockefeller. He was a bright and 
active young fellow, full of vim and push. 
About the time we went into the oil business 
Mr. Flagler established himself as a commis- 
sion merchant in the same building with Mr. 
Clark, who took over and succeeded the firm 
of Clark & Rockefeller. A little later he bought 
out Mr. Clark and combined the trade with his 
own. Naturally I came to see more of him. 
The business relations which began with the 
handling of produce he consigned to our old 
firm grew into a business friendship, because 
people who lived in a comparatively small 
place, as Cleveland was then, were thrown to- 
gether much more often than in such a place 
as New York. When the oil business was de- 
veloping and we needed more help I at once 
thought of Mr. Flagler as a possible partner 
and made him an oft'er to come to us and give 
up his commission business. This ofTcr he 
accepted, and so began that lifelong friendship 
which has never had a moment's interruption. 
It was a friendship founded on business, which 
Mr. Flagler used to say was a good deal bet- 
ter than a business founded on friendship, and 
my experience leads me to agree with him. 
For years and years this early partner and I 




worked ghoulder to shoulder; our desks were 
in the same room. We both lived in Euclid 
Avenue, a few ro<iu apart. We met and walked 
to the office together, walked home to luncheon, 
back again after luncheon, and home again at 
night. On these walks, when we were away 
from the oflice interruutioiw, we did our think- 
ing, talking, and planning together. Mr. 
Flagler drew practically all our contracts. He 
has always had the faculty of being able to 
clearly express the intent and purpose of a 
contract so well and so accurately that there 
could bt« no misunderstanding, and his con- 
tracts were fair to lK)th sides. There are a 
number of persons still alive who will recall 
the bright, straiglitforward young Flagler of 
those days with satisfaction. At the time 
when we bought certain refineries at Cleveland 
he was very active ..." Mr. Flagler dis- 
played rareaptitude in the development of the 
oil business, and was actively connected with 
the management of the Standard Oil Company 
from the time of its formation, 18C7, till 1908, 
when he resigned from the vice-presidency, 
though continuing as a director until 1911. 
Standard Oil, however, is not the only monu- 
ment to his constructive genius. In 1885, at 
the age of 55, when most men are about to 
retire, his capacity for achievement impelled 
him to embark in the immense undertaking of 
developing the East Coast of Florida into an 
American Riviera. Upon his visit to Florida 
in that year, his power of quick discernment 
and accurate observation enabled him imme- 
diately to recognize its latent possibilities, and 
he conceived most elaborate plans for its de- 
velopment. So, with his money and ability, 
he devoted himself to transforming the East 
Coast from St. Augustine to Key West from 
a barren wilderness into a veritable paradise. 
He built the Florida East Coast Railroad and 
later erected the following hotels: Ponce de 
Leon and Alcazar at St. Augustine; Ormond 
at Ormond ; Royal Poinciana, and The Breakers 
at Palm Beach; Royal Palm at Miami; Conti- 
nental at Atlantic Beach, and the Colonial at 
Nassau, New Providence, Bahamas. In these 
stupendous undertakings, Mr. Flagler was not 
actuated by self-aggrandizement. He was not, 
at his age, influenced +o put $30,000,000 into 
it because of its attractiveness as a financial 
venture. He was fired with a great desire 
to do something for humanity, and he yielded 
to his boundless capacity for achievement. As 
fast as the wilderness was cleared, roads, 
houses, hotels, gardens, parks, and palaces 
dotted the landscape. St Augustine, Ormond, 
Daytona, Palm Beach, ]\Iiami, and the many 
beautiful villages were developed throughout 
the three-hundred-mile region. His extensive 
irrigation and drainage schemes gave addi- 
tional fertility, and the opportunity to move 
the crops afforded by the railroads established 
the prosperity of that section of the country. 
Not content with having virtually created an 
empire. Mr. Flagler rounded out his great 
cycle of achievements with the miracle of an 
" Over-Sea " railroad, an extension of the 
Florida East Coast Railroad from Miami to 
Key West, spanning the glistening keys, a dis- 
tance of 156 miles. For many years his plan 
was ridiculed as impracticable and was called 
" Flagler's Folly," but the seemingly insur- 
mountable obstacles with which it fairly 

bristled fascinated him, and he launched into 
it with unusual enthusiasm. The length of the 
many bridges which span the keys varies up to 
seven miles, the Flagler viaduct, the longest 
bridge in the world, and from which no land 
is visible on either side. It spans the point 
where the waters of the Atlantic Ocean and the 
Gulf of Mexico meet, where the depth is from 
twenty-six to thirty-six feet. It is built with 
all concrete piers, some of which have con- 
crete arches. After the construction of the 
bridge had progressed for about four years, the 
engineers declared its completion impossible, 
and work was discontinued. Notwithstanding 
that many of Mr. Flagler's associates, who re- 
garded the project as purely visionary, tried 
to dissuade him from further attempt, he, in- 
spired by the fine encouragement of Mrs. Flag- 
ler, resumed operations on it a year later. 
The railroad was completed in 1912, and its 
formal opening, at Key West, in January, 1913, 
was attended by the largest delegation of 
United States Senators and Representatives 
ever appointed to represent those bodies. Mr. 
Flagler, then eighty-one years of age and 
feeble, was present at the celebration. He not 
only received the plaudits of the nation for 
his prodigious individual achievement but was 
heartily felicitated in having lived to the real- 
ization of his great ambition. This unique 
railroad through the jungle and across the 
sea, besides furnishing an outlet for Florida's 
crops, is of international importance. Its 
operation has helped to focus the world's at- 
tention on Florida and the South in connection 
with the rapid development of the West Indies, 
and the enormous expansion of commerce sure 
to come through the completion of the Panama 
Canal and the resultant growth in our trade 
with Central and South America and the 
Orient. It also strengthens the power of the 
government in protecting its shores along the 
Gulf of Mexico and on to Panama. Mr. Flag- 
ler always showed great consideration for the 
w^elfare and safety of his thousands of em- 
ployees, and he used every precaution for the 
prevention of occupational accidents. He was 
highly complimented by General Brooke, 
U. S. A., upon the occasion of his visit to the 
camp of the 8,000 workmen. He said: " I wish 
the United States men received as good treat- 
ment." Mr. Flagler desired no distinction as 
a philanthropist, yet no religious, charitable, 
or civic organization on Florida's East Coast 
ever appealed to him for aid unsuccessfully. 
Besides maintaining innumerable private chari- 
ties, he assisted in one way or another every 
community on the line of his railroad. He gave 
ground for the building of churches and school 
houses, for public buildings and public clubs 
without number. He furnished public utilities 
and maintained them at financial loss to him- 
self. He built streets and country roads, sew- 
ers and canals, and turned them over, without 
charge, to many towns and cities. If the rain 
or the frost destroyed a crop, his quick sym- 
pathy and ready purse were immediately in 
evidence with an offer to supply as much seed 
and fertilizer as might be needed. Measured 
by the importance to humanity of the monu- 
mental results of his splendid judgment and 
lavish expenditure on his project, Mr. Flagler 
can be justly regarded as one of the most use- 
ful men of his generation and an inspiration 





to the youth of the country. The greatest 
monument to him is the love and affection he 
built up in the hearts of thousands of men and 
women who achieved prosperity and financial 
safety by the immense, enduring work he has 
done. Mr. Flagler's humanitarian work has 
not been interrupted because of his death, for 
Mrs. Flagler, who always displayed rare en- 
thusiasm and sympathy in all of her hus- 
band's plans, continued his work in accord- 
ance with his wishes. In fact, the completion 
of the " Over-Sea " road is largely due to her 
influence, as she not only consented to but 
advised unlimited expenditure to eflFect the 
realization of her husband's most ambitious 
effort. Mr. Flagler looked forward to the com- 
pletion of the road as the " romance of his 
life." It was their principal topic following 
their marriage, in 1901, one year before work 
on the road was commenced. Although Mr. 
Flagler retained his alertness of mind till the 
end and gave his attention to the affairs of the 
road and the hotels, the vicissitudes of old 
age destroyed his sight and hearing some 
months before his death. Much responsibility, 
therefore, devolved upon Mrs. Flagler, who 
was thoroughly conversant with all matters 
concerning his immediate and future plans for 
development. Important among these was the 
increase made in the freight-car ferry service 
between Cuba and Key West. The original 
car ferry, the " Henry M. Flagler," became in- 
adequate for handling the immense volume of 
shipments to and from these points, and an- 
other, built by Cramp and Company, was in- 
stalled in 1916. It has a capacity of thirty 
freight cars and is equipped with tanks that 
hold many hundred barrels of oil, the 
" Joseph R. Parrott," in honor of an associate, 
whose death occurred shortly after Mr. Flag- 
ler's, in 1913. In appreciation of Mrs. Flag- 
ler's assistance and the zeal with which she 
entered into his work, he left her his im- 
mense fortune; and she, in her devotion to her 
husband's memory, continued the improve- 
ment and development of the empire which he 
founded. Mr. Flagler was for many years 
vice-president and director of the Standard 
Oil Company; president and chairman of the 
board of directors of the Florida East Coast 
Railway and Jacksonville Terminal Company, 
director of the Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany, Morton Trust Company, and other cor- 
porations. He was a member of the Union 
League Club ( New York ) , New York Yacht, 
and the Larchmont Yacht Clubs. Mr. Flagler 
was thrice married: First, in Bellevue, Ohio, 
9 Nov., 1853, to Mary Harkness, and they 
were the parents of three children, one of 
whom, Harry H. Flagler, survives; married 
secondly, on 6 June, 1883, to Ida A. Shourds, 
and, thirdly, in Kenansville, N. C, on 24 Aug., 
1901, to Mary Lily Kenan, daughter of William 
R. and Mary (Hargrave) Kenan, of Wilming- 
ton, N. C. 

BRADY, Anthony Nicholas, capitalist, b. in 
Lille, France, 22 Aug., 1843; d, in London, 
England, 22 July, 1913, son of Nicholas and 
Ellen (Malone) Brady. In 1843 he came, 
with his parents, to this country, settling in 
Troy, N. Y. He attended the public schools of 
Troy until the age of thirteen, when, am- 
bitious to engage in business, he entered the 
employ of the Delevan Hotel. Upon attain- 

ing his majority he opened a tea store in 
Albany, N. Y., and soon displayed the capacity 
for business that distinguished his subsequent 
career. In 1870, by purchasing or absorbing 
all of his competitors, he acquired exclusive 
possession of the retail tea trade in Albany 
and Troy; and through his competent man- 
agement of the business, soon accumulated 
considerable capital. This he invested in 
granite quarries, which he developed into a 
large enterprise. He then became interested 
in a company which purchased gas plants 
in Albany, Troy, and Chicago, and street car 
lines in Albany and Troy. Because of the 
rare ability he displayed in the organization 
and administration of the affairs of these tran- 
sit and lighting companies, his counsel was 
sought in the interest of these important 
branches of public service in New York, 
Brooklyn, Washington, Philadelphia, and 
other cities, in all of which he succeeded in 
rehabilitating and perfecting numerous pub- 
lic utility undertakings. The transit and 
lighting systems of New York and Brooklyn 
probably afforded the best opportunities for 
the display of his capabilities, and the splen- 
did results of his efforts in both of these 
cities are evidence of his unusual construc- 
tive genius and executive talents. His activi- 
ties in New York in the transit branch con- 
sisted of rebuilding the " Huckleberry " rail- 
way system, and in planning and effecting the 
consolidation of the surface lines of that sec- 
tion. In Brooklyn, he unified a large number 
of inefficiently and indifferently conducted 
traction organizations of small size into one 
great, perfect organization. Nor were his 
efforts in the light and power corporations of 
New York and Brooklyn any less successful. 
In fact, the development of the New York 
Edison Company, which he organized in 1901 
and of which he became president and chair- 
man of the board, was probably the most 
notable of his great cycle of business achieve- 
ments. By his previous satisfactory man- 
agement of public utilities in other cities, Mr. 
Brady brought into this company an element 
of assurance that immediately riveted the 
confidence of the New York public; and it is 
entirely through his energy and ability that 
the company grew to its subsequent impor- 
tance. He served as executive head of the 
company by successive re-elections till his 
death in 1913; and its rapid growth during 
his twelve years' tenure of office was a striking 
example of the fertility of his methods. The 
number of its consumers, which included those 
in Manhattan and Bronx, increased during the 
period of his activity from 11,015 to 184,775, 
and the horsepower from 30,000 to 400,000, 
while the cost of lighting was reduced from 
621^ to I2V2 cents for 1,000 candle-power 
hours; and in Brooklyn, as executive head of 
the lighting companies, he accomplished pro- 
portionate results. Mr. Brady's field of ac- 
tion was broad; and his construction of the 
great dam on the Tennessee River, at Chat- 
tanooga, which effected a great industrial im- 
provement in a large section of the South, 
is further proof of the versatility of liis busi- 
ness genius. Its benefits were so manifest 
that upon its opening he was extolled by the 
Manufacturers' Association of Chattanooga as 
follows: "The entire citizenship of Chatta- 




nooga expresses its deep appreciation of the 
tremendous confidence Mr. Brady has shown 
in our city and section." That the dam was 
finally completed is entirely due to the indomi- 
table persistence of Mr. Brady. Apparently 
insurmountable obstacles were encountered 
during its construction, and work on it had 
been discontinued on the advice of the engi- 
neers. Mr. Brady, however, with character- 
istic perseverance, was attracted by the resist- 
less nature of the undertaking and advised re- 
sumption of work with unlimited expenditure, 
with the result that its ultimate completion 
cost six times the amount originally estimated. 
Mr. Brady was for many years actively iden- 
tified with many of the leading public utilities 
corporations of the country, among them, as 
president, the Municipal Gas Company (Al- 
bany) ; Edison Electric Illuminating Com- 
pany (Brooklyn) ; Memphis Consolidated Gas 
and Electric Company; Kings County (New 
York) Electric Light and Power Company, 
and the United Gas and Electric Company. Of 
the following companies he was chairman of 
the board of directors: Brooklyn Heights 
Railroad Company; Queens County and Sub- 
urban Railroad Company (Brooklyn) ; Brook- 
lyn Union Elevated Railroad Company; Nas- 
sau Electric Railroad Company (Long Island) ; 
and People's Gas Light and Coke Company 
(Chicago) ; director in the Westinghouse 
Electric and Manufacturing Company; Ameri- 
can Tobacco Company; United States Rubber 
Company; United Cast Iron Pipe and Foun- 
dry Company, and about thirty other cor- 
porations. Although public-spirited, the only 
public office he ever held was that of fire 
commissioner of Aibany, 1882-86. Mr. Brady 
was always influenced to an extraordinary de- 
gree by a warm and enthusiastic considera- 
tion for the welfare of his employees; and in 
the ceaseless industry throughout his long 
life his relationship with labor was marked 
by uninterrupted harmony. This was attrib- 
uted not only to the fairness of the wages 
but to a personal interest he delighted in show- 
ing in employees individually, and to the 
generous attention they received in his com- 
prehensive constructive plans. These in- 
cluded the institution of profit-sharing and 
savings and investment plans in the Edison 
Company of Brooklyn, through which all of 
its employees have become stockholders; the 
care of those growing old in the service; of 
those injured and their dependents; the in- 
stitution of educational courses in electrical 
technique, accounting and in business; of asso- 
ciations for relief and for friendly intercourse; 
for providing comfortable homes for the em- 
ployees of the company; for the encourage- 
ment he gave to the National Electric Light 
Association in its welfare work, and for the 
hygienic regulations and the protection af- 
forded the employees in preventing occupa- 
tional accidents, the latter being so adequate 
that the Traveler's Insurance Company medal 
was awarded to the company by the American 
Museum of Safety. Mr. Brady's humanita- 
rian principles were applied also to the peo- 
ple his many companies served. In recogni- 
tion of this and as a means of inculcating 
upon the minds of railroad officials the im- 
portance of these principles, the American 
Museum of Safety instituted the Anthony N. 

Brady Memorial Medals, which arc eagerly 
contested for annually by the managers of all 
the railroads throughout the country. The 
award is based on accident prevention by the 
railroads, not only among their own employees, 
but to the traveling public; on the sanitary 
conditions of their cars and shops, and on the 
welfare and benefit work they are carrying 
on among their employees. The first award of 
the Brady memorial medals was made in 1914 
to the Boston Elevated Railroad, and in 1915 
to the Union Traction Company of Anderson, 
Ind. Through the nature and extensiveness 
of the enterprises with which Mr. Brady was 
identified and his masterful administration of 
the companies that engaged his attention, he, 
by means that will bear the severest scrutiny, 
acquired a fortune that placed him in the 
front rank of the world's wealthiest men. 
That he became transcendent in the business 
world, was attributed to his power of quick 
discernment and accurate observation; and yet 
his fine sense of fairness always prevented 
him from seeking improper advantage of 
others. Mr. Brady's brilliant rise to emi- 
nence in the nation's business affairs stamps 
him as one of the most illustrious examples 
of self-development. The immense transit and 
lighting organizations built up by him are of 
great intrinsic value to their respective com- 
munities, and, while they serve as enduring 
testimonials to his ability, his family, in 
commemoration of his name, donated $125,000 
to Yale University for the erection and equip- 
ment of a clinical and «pathological laboratory 
to be known as the Anthony N. Brady Me- 
morial Laboratory, and established the Anthony 
N. Brady Memorial Foundation of $500,000 for 
medical school endowment and building funds 
— fitting monuments to his generous char- 
acter. Mr. Brady married 20 Aug., 1867, 
Marcia Ann, daughter of Harmon and Mar- 
garet Ruth Myers, of Bennington, Vt. They 
were the parents of six children: Nicholas F., 
James C, Margaret R., who married James C. 
Farrell; Mabel, who married Francis P. Gar- 
vin; Marcia, who married Carl Tucker, and 
Flora (Mrs. E. P. Gavit), who died in 1912. 
ARNOLD, Bion Joseph, electrical engineer 
and inventor, b. in Casnovia, Mich., 14 Aug., 
1861, son of Joseph and Geraldine (Reynolds) 
Arnold. The Arnold family settled before 
the beginning of the eighteenth century in 
the colony of Rhode Island, where many of 
its members have attained distinction. The 
earliest recorded ancestor in his direct line 
was Jeremiah Arnold (b. at Smithfield, R. I., 
in 1700), and from him the line of descent is 
traced through Jeremiah Arnold (2d) and his 
wife, Elizabeth Knight; their son, Ichabod 
Arnold; his son, Jeremiah (3d) and his wife, 
Percy Rounds, grandparents of Bion J. Ar- 
nold. His paternal grandfather, Joseph 
Rounds, was a soldier in the Revolution; his 
maternal ancestor, Edward Rawson, was secre- 
tary of the Massachusetts Bay Colony (1650- 
86) ; his maternal grandmother was Louisa 
Hale, of the Hale family of Massachusetts. 
Edmund Rawson, grandson of Edward Raw- 
son, and grandfather of Rhoda Rawson Taft, 
ex-President Taft's great-grandmother, and 
Susanna Raw^son, grandmother of Constant 
Reynolds, grandmother of Geraldine Reynolds, 
mother of Mr. Arnold, were brother and sis- 

\ud^.-0^<.x.^^(i%UU^dM^ ^ 



ter. Thus, as will be seen, Mr. Arnold comes 
of several of those excellent families who 
made the strength of the early colonies. 
Joseph Arnold, his father, following the cus- 
tom of many young men of that time, emi- 
grated with his family from Michigan to Ne- 
braska in the summer of 1864, driving the 
entire distance by wagon. After wintering at 
De Soto, near what is now the town of 
Blair, the family finally located, in the spring 
of 1865, four miles south of what was then 
an Indian trading-post, called Salt Creek 
Ford, but which is now known as Ashland. 
The succeeding years, until the fall of 1872, 
they spent upon the prairie farm. In these 
strenuous times, Joseph Arnold supplemented 
his income from the farm by teaching school, 
acting as a justice of the peace, and serving 
as a member of the territorial legislature, 
in which he sat as a member from the Ash- 
land District in 1865 and 1866, just prior to 
the admission of the Territory into the Union. 
Mrs. Arnold, a former school teacher, added 
to her duties as the wife of a pioneer, by 
thoroughly instructing her children not only 
in the elements of education, in which she 
was so well grounded, but also in self-re- 
liance and those other cardinal principles 
which inspire ambition in the child and 
establish stability of character in the man. 
In 1872 the family moved into Ashland, Neb., 
where the father engaged in the practice of 
law. Naturally he wished his son to adopt 
the legal profession, but the boy's natural de- 
sire for mechanical work constantly directed 
his mind and eventually determined his 
course. His father's lack of patience with 
his constant " tinkering " with mechanical 
things, caused him, at the age of fourteen, to 
run away from home and join a steam thresh- 
ing machine crew, the only one in the State, 
so far as he knew, and his only opportunity 
to acquire the experience he desired. For 
two years he followed the crew as its en- 
gineer, and it was this experience, by bring- 
ing him to a realization of his limitations, 
unless he listened to the advice of his par- 
ents and secured an education, that largely 
shaped the course of his life. Thus con- 
vinced, he informed his father that he de- 
sired to return to school. While still upon 
the farm his great aptitude for mechanics was 
shown in the many crude models of farm 
machinery which he constructed. During his 
school years at Ashland, he was " always 
building something," and between the years 
1872 and 1880 he produced, in rapid succes- 
sion, numerous boats, scroll saws, and models 
of steam engines. At twelve years of age he 
built a steam engine; at seventeen a bicycle, 
and at eighteen a small locomotive which 
was, in all details, a complete operating engine. 
All of these were built under the most ad- 
verse conditions and with only such tools as 
were^ available in the local blacksmith shop 
of his home town, for there were neither ma- 
chine shops nor manufactories in the vicinity 
to awaken his interest or guide his work. 
Unlike most ambitious youths, his early ef- 
forts did not exhaust his capacity, but, con- 
trary to the general rule, were really indic- 
ative of the possibilities awaiting develop 
ment with maturity. In 1879 he entered the 
University of Nebraska, where he attended 

for one year, leaving because he wished to 
enter the U. S. Naval Academy at An- 
napolis, Md., as the State University did not 
then offer a mechanical engineering course. 
In the following year he was commissioned 
to apply for examination as a cadet engineer 
at the Naval Academy, but, through lack of 
sufficient preparation, failed to enter, as the 
examination was then competitive. He de- 
cided to study another year, obtain a reap- 
pointment and enter the academy a year 
later, but, on the advice of naval officers, who 
persuaded him that with the same amount of 
work he ought to do better in less time out- 
side of the navy than in it, he gave up his 
naval ambition, and determined to secure an 
education without the assistance of the gov- 
ernment. He entered Hillsdale (Mich.) Col- 
lege (where his parents were educated) in 
October, 1880, and was graduated B.S. in 
1884, paying his way through college by 
traveling summers as an expert for engine 
manufacturing companies. He took the 
mathematical prize for a four years' course, 
and three years later was awarded the degree 
of M.S. In 1889 the same institution con- 
ferred upon him the degree of M.Ph. for 
engineering work done subsequent to his 
graduation. It was at this time, in April, 
1889, that Mr. Arnold finished a postgradu- 
ate course in electrical engineering at Cornell 
University. In 1903 he received from Hills- 
dale College an engrossed testimonial di- 
ploma in recognition of his " distinguished 
learning and achievement in invention and in 
mechanical and electrical engineering," — a 
unique form of honor. After graduation at 
Hillsdale, in 1884, Mr. Arnold engaged as 
general agent and expert with the Upton 
Manufacturing Company, manufacturers of 
traction engines, at Port Huron, Mich., in 
which position he traveled throughout the 
United States, and secured a general business 
training. In order to enter the broader field 
of engineering work, he obtained employment 
as a draftsman with the Edward P. Allis 
Company of Milwaukee, Wis. (now the Allis- 
Chalmers Company), in January, 1886, and 
continued with them until June of the fol- 
lowing year, when he became chief designing 
engineer of the Iowa Iron Works, Dubuque, 
la. Here he remained for more than a 
year, and during that time designed and 
built numerous steam engines and other 
heavy machinery. Subsequently he engaged 
with the Chicago, St. Paul and Kansas City 
Railway Company (now the Chicago Great 
Western Railway) in the civil engineering 
department; afterward acting as its me- 
chanical engineer, in which capacity he re- 
designed some of their locomotives, and pre- 
pared the drawings for new equipment. Dur- 
ing these years immediately after graduation 
his plan was to secure a broad foundation for 
the future ratlier than to anchor at any one 
place, and at three different times lie re- 
signed from good paying positions, which he 
could have retained, and went to M'ork for 
less than half his former pay, in order to get 
experience in different lines of engineering 
work. After five years of such experionoe lie 
became convinced that electric railroading, 
which was then in its extreme infancy, offered 
him the best future in the engineering field. 




He decided, therefore, to adopt electrical 
engineering as a specialty, and prepared him- 
self for this work by spending the winter of 
1888-89 in postgraduate engineering study 
at Cornell University, this being the first 
technical instruction he had ever received at 
an educational institution. Upon leaving 
Cornell in the spring of 1889 he obtained em- 
ployment with the Thomson-Houston Electric 
Company, and was placed in charge of the 
St. Louis office. In the following year he 
became consulting engineer of the company, 
after its consolidation with the Edison Gen- 
eral Company into the General Electric Com- 
pany. In this capacity he designed and built 
the intramural railroad at the World's Co- 
lumbian Exposition, Chicago, — the first com- 
mercial installation of the third rail on a 
large scale and the forerunner of the present 
elevated electric road. In October, 1893, Mr. 
Arnold resigned from the General Electric 
Company, to open offices in Chicago as an in- 
dependent consulting engineer. In this ca- 
pacity (in 1894) he built the St. Charles 
Street Railway, New Orleans, and since then 
has designed and constructed many electric 
properties throughout the United States and 
other countries, as well as perfecting many 
inventions and improvements which have 
added to his reputation. Mr. Arnold was 
early impressed with the value of storage 
batteries for use in connection with electric 
plants, and set himself to perfecting plans for 
their use. He conducted experiments in a 
laboratory which he fitted up in the base- 
ment of his home, and finally invested his 
entire means in their production. This busi- 
ness, after a long and desperate struggle, so 
common to the storage battery business at 
that time, survived the panic of 1893. In 
1895, through the sale of the company he 
realized a comfortable fortune, and with the 
money thus secured he was in position to 
more eflfectually advance his own ideas re- 
garding electric traction and other matters. 
He made valuable contributions to the prob- 
lem of compact and efficient power plants for 
large buildings, his plan being to use steam 
generating units in conjunction with storage 
batteries, and to operate all machinery, in- 
cluding the elevators, by electric motors. 
This plan has been widely adopted, and was 
first used by him when acting as consulting 
engineer for the Chicago Board of Trade in 
1895. One of his earliest successes in the 
electric railway field was the equipment 
(1897-98) of the Chicago and Milwaukee 
Electric Railway, using high tension alternat- 
ing current for power transmission, in com- 
bination with rotary converter storage bat- 
tery substations, by means of which the first 
cost and expense of operation of electric rail- 
roads has been largely reduced. In connec- 
tion with this work the opposition to his 
ideas, owing to the road's having changed 
ownership during construction, was so great 
that he was forced to take the contract for 
the road, thereby assuming the financial risk, 
under a bonus and forfeiture agreement, for 
its successful operation, in order to demon- 
strate the feasibility of the plan which he had 
laid down as consulting engineer on the 
w^ork. This plan proved a success, becoming 
standard despite the opposition encountered 

upon the start, and has since been universally 
followed in the construction of interurban 
roads, the highest type of its development 
being represented in the magnificent equip- 
ment of the New York Terminal of the New 
York Central Railroad. In 1901 Mr. Arnold 
was commissioned by the New York Central 
Railroad Company, to study and report upon 
the feasibility of electrically operating its 
trains in and out of New York City, and was 
a member of the Electric Traction Commis- 
sion which carried out the work of electrically 
equipping something over 300 miles of track 
involving, with the terminal thus created, an 
expenditure of more than $60,000,000, and by 
means of which all trains on the road within 
thirty miles of New York are propelled by 
electricity. As a further instance of Mr. 
Arnold's pioneer spirit may be mentioned the 
fact that from 1900 to 1905 he carried on, 
at his own expense, exhaustive experiments 
at Lansing, Mich., in connection with the in- 
stallation of the Lansing, St. Johns and St. 
Louis Railway, and demonstrated the practi- 
cability of operating electric trains with 
alternating current motors from a high po- 
tential single-phase alternating current con- 
ductor. This system, since developed by dif- 
ferent manufacturing companies, is best ex- 
emplified in the conversion from steam to 
electrical operation of the St. Clair Tunnel 
of the Grand Trunk Railway, between Port 
Huron, Mich., and Sarnia, Ontario, where Mr. 
Arnold, in 1907, as consulting engineer, de- 
vised and installed the first single-phase high- 
tension system for heavy electric railway 
work, and in the equipment of the New York, 
New Haven and Hartford system, now in 
operation between New York City and Stam- 
ford, Conn. He was also a member of the 
Electric Traction Commission for the Erie 
Railroad in 1906-07. In 1902 he was engaged 
by the city of Chicago to make an exhaustive 
study and report upon the entire traction 
system within its limits. The result of this 
study was a report so complete and conclu- 
sive that his recommendations were largely 
adopted in the settlement between the city 
and the several companies effected by the 
passage of the 1907 ordinances. In these 
ordinances, Mr. Arnold was named chief 
engineer of the work and chairman of the 
Board of Supervising Engineers, Chicago 
Traction, appointed to carry out the terms 
of the ordinances. Under this board there 
have been expended about $100,000,000 to 
date. In 1910 he was commissioned by the 
Committee on Local Transportation, Chicago 
City Council, to make a study of conditions 
and prepare plans for a subway system, and 
January, 1911, he submitted complete plans 
for a most comprehensive passenger subway 
system. In 1913 Mr. Arnold was chosen by 
the Citizens' Terminal Plan Committee of 
Chicago to review^ plans submitted by the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, and others, 
for terminals and to recommend a compre- 
hensive system of railroad terminals for 
Chicago. His complete and analytical report 
was produced and delivered in less than 
ninety days. In order to co-ordinate the 
work of tlie Citizens' Terminal Plan Commit- 
tee of the Chicago Plan Commission, and of 
the city council in steam railroad matters, 




the Chicago Railway Terminal Commission 
was created by authority of the city coun- 
cil, and Mr. Arnold was appointed a mem- 
ber. This commission spent a part of the 
summer of 1914 in studying the railway 
terminals and harbors of Great Britain and 
Continental Europe. In January, 1916, he 
was appointed by the Chicago city council 
as a member of the Chicago Traction and 
Subway Commission, to value and co-ordinate 
all of the present surface street and elevated 
railways of Chicago with a subway system, 
and to formulate a method of constructing, 
operating, and financing such a system. The 
work of this commission has since been com- 
pleted, and its report rendered. He has also 
acted as chairman of the various valuation com- 
missions which have valued all of the street 
railway properties of Chicago, and as consult- 
ing engineer for the Wisconsin State Railway 
Commission (1905-07), in valuing the street 
railway properties of Milwaukee. In 1908 he 
was retained as consulting engineer for the 
Public Service Commission, First District, 
State of New York, to solve certain problems 
connected with the operation of the Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Company's subway 
system, and the new subway systems for the 
city of New York. In this capacity he is- 
sued a series of valuable reports. Many of 
his ideas were adopted and applied to the 
Interborough Rapid Transit System, thereby 
largely increasing its capacity, and also in 
the new subways now under construction in 
New York and Brooklyn. He also acted as 
director of appraisals for that commission 
in the valuation of all the surface line prop- 
erties of the city of New York and the Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit system. Acting as con- 
sulting engineer, he made exhaustive studies 
and reports upon traction matters for the 
cities of Pittsburgh (1910); Providence, Los 
Angeles, and San Francisco (1911); Toronto 
and Cincinnati (1912). In 1911 he was se- 
lected by the Public Service Commission, 
Second District, State of New York, to ap- 
praise for the company the properties of the 
International Traction Company at Buffalo, 
and afterward prepared data for the commis- 
sion in connection with the reorganization of 
the company. He appraised the properties of 
the Seattle Electric Company, Puget Sound 
Electric Railway Company, Southern Cali- 
fornia Edison Company (Los Angeles, 1911); 
Metropolitan Street Railway System of Kan- 
sas City, and of the Toronto Street Railway 
(1913). He has also been engaged by the 
municipalities or by civic or commercial 
bodies to advise regarding steam and electric 
railway terminals and other matters in the 
cities of Des Moines, Omaha, Winnipeg, 
Sacramento, New Orleans, Detroit, Harris- 
burg, Rochester, Syracuse, and Jersey City. 
Early in 1916 he was engaged by the Public 
Service Commission, Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts, to review certain valuations and 
operating costs of the electric railways sur- 
rounding Boston, and the report made by 
him to the commission, in which he pointed 
out how economies aggregating $750,000 per 
year could be effected, has led to his being 
retained by the Bay State Railway Company, 
at^ the request of the commission, to assist 
this company in producing the economies 

suggested. Mr. Arnold, either personally or 
as head of the Arnold Company (organized 
in 1895) has made appraisals of the prop- 
erties of the Chicago Telephone Company 
(1912); Lincoln (Neb.) Telephone and Tele- 
graph Company (1913), and the Mountain 
States Telephone and Telegraph Company of 
Denver (1914). During his professional 
career he has had charge of the expenditure 
of something over $100,000,000 of work built 
under his own designs, and in addition has 
had charge of the valuation of properties 
built by others aggregating in value over 
$900,000,000. Mr. Arnold is the inventor of 
a magnetic clutch; a power station system, 
storage battery improvements and new sys- 
tems and devices for electric railways; is, as 
before stated, one of the pioneers in the de- 
velopment of the single-phase electric traction 
system, as well as the present standard alter- 
nating-direct current system, and was the 
first to recognize the advantage of and to put 
into practice the recently developed auto- 
matically controlled substation for electric 
railroads. He became interested in aeronau- 
tics in 1889. He was a member of " Com- 
mittee on Aeronautics " at the World's Co- 
lumbian Exposition, Chicago, in 1893, and 
later, an interested observer and believer in 
the " gliding experiments " of Octave Chanute 
on the sand dunes at the head of Lake Michi- 
gan, and afterward purchased a farm at St. 
Joseph, Mich., located on Water, in order 
to carry on experiments of his own. Believ- 
ing, from information later given him pri- 
vately by Mr. Chanute, that the Weight 
brothers had succeeded in accomplishing me- 
chanical flight, he abandoned his project and 
followed the work of those pioneers with in- 
terest; gave the prize for the international 
balloon race held in Chicago, July 4, 1908; 
witnessed, as the guest of army officers in 
charge, the first flight of Orville Wright, at 
Fort Myer, and was with Wright and Lieu- 
tenant Selfridge just prior to the fall in 
which the latter was killed and Wright 
badly injured. He is a member of the Aero 
Club of America; was a director of the Aero 
Club of Illinois at the time of the Gordon 
Bennett race, held in Chicago in 1912, and 
was president of the club in 1912-13. In 
1916 he was elected by the Anierican Society 
of Aeronautical Engineers to represent that 
body on the Naval Consulting Board of the 
United States. One of Mr. Arnold's char- 
acteristics seems to be to keep in advance of 
his profession. His solution of engineering 
problems, therefore, has often been carried 
out against much opposition. As he demon- 
strated the success of one after another, ad- 
verse criticism turned into well-morited 
praise, and more than once he has had the 
pleasure of seeing his work become commonly 
accepted prd.ctice. An idea of the character 
of the man is furnished in the fact, previ- 
ously referred to, that on tliree distinct oc- 
casions in his early career as an engineer, he 
withdrew from profitable, and what were as- 
sured to him as permanent, positions at con- 
siderable financial loss, in order to take up 
another line of work which he considered 
necessary for his ultimate success. As a re- 
sult he has gained a broad and varied 
engineering experience of great value in his 




professional work. His career as a student, 
whose hours of relaxation were devoted to 
the practical application of the knowledge 
gained to enable him to earn a livelihood, has 
been followed by gratifying experience as a 
lecturer in the scenes of his early studies. 
Viewed in this light, the life of Mr. Arnold 
presents many strong contrasts, but tliey are 
all relieved by the brilliant setting of ulti- 
mate success, much of which was achieved 
at an unusually early period, and the re- 
spect and esteem in which he is held by his 
fellow workers. Mr. Arnold is in demand as 
a special lecturer on engineering subjects. He 
has in this capacity addressed the engineer- 
ing students of the University of Illinois, the 
University of Michigan, University of Wis- 
consin, Cornell University, Iowa State Col- 
lege, and Purdue University; and, in 1897, he 
delivered at the University of Nebraska a 
course of ten lectures on " The Design and 
Construction of Electric Power Plants." 
The faculty of the institution recognized his 
work by conferring the honorary degree of 
E.E. upon him in 1897, and in 1911 the hon- 
orary degree of Doctor of Engineering. In 
1907 Armour Institute of Technology, Chi- 
cago, conferred upon him the honorary de- 
gree of D.Sc. A gold medal was awarded him 
by the Trans-Mississippi Exposition at Omaha 
(1898), for a personal exhibit. He showed 
some of the crude models and devices, which 
he had built at Ashland many years before, 
alongside of the drawings of his later en- 
gineering triumphs. Medals and diplomas 
have also been awarded him by Franklin In- 
stitute of Philadelphia, the Pan-American 
Exposition, Buffalo, and the World's Fair of 
St. Louis. Besides contributing frequently to 
the proceedings of the societies to which he 
belongs, Mr. Arnold's report, entitled " The 
Chicago Transportation Problem" (1902), 
has become a text-book upon traction mat- 
ters, as have many of his other reports. Mr. 
Arnold has been a careful student and an 
earnest investigator of electrical phenomena, 
and has placed the results of his experiments 
at the command of his fellow workers. Tech- 
nical electrical literature has been enriched 
by his contributions in the form of papers 
and discussions before the principal societies 
of which he is a member. He was a repre- 
sentative of the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers, the foremost body of his 
country in this profession, at the Inter- 
national Electrical Congress at the Paris Ex- 
position of 1900, and took advantage of the 
opportunity afforded by this trip to make a 
careful study of European practice. In 1903- 
04 he was elected president of the American 
Institute of Engineers — the first western 
man to receive this honor — and represented 
this organization (1903-07) as a member of 
the building committee and a trustee of the 
United Engineering Society, the joint en- 
gineering society organ ized"^ for the purpose 
of acting as trustee for the expenditure of 
the $1,500,000 given by Andrew Carnegie for 
the erection of the Engineering Societies 
Building and the Engineers' Club, in New 
York City. In 1904 he was chairman of the 
executive committee and vice-president of the 
International Electrical Congress, St. Louis; 
in 1906-07 president of the Western Society 

of Engineers, for which he acted as a 
trustee in 1900-02. Since 1905 he has been 
a trustee of Hillsdale College, his alma 
mater, has served as president of the Chicago 
Alumni Associations of Hillsdale College, 
Cornell University, and the University of 
Nebraska, and is a member of the board of 
managers of the Lewis Institute, Chicago. 
In addition to these offices Mr. Arnold is a 
member of the Inventors' Guild; American 
Institute of Consulting Engineers; American 
Institute of Aeronautical Engineers; Ameri- 
can Society of Automobile Engineers; Ameri- 
can Society for Promotion of Engineering 
Education; a vice-president of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science; 
a member of the New York Electrical So- 
ciety; the American Defense Society; Na- 
tional Highways Association; Chicago His- 
torical Society; chairman of the i^erican 
Committee on Electrolysis; chairman of the 
Committee representing the American Insti- 
tute of Electrical Engineers on organization 
of a National Reserve Corps of Civilian 
Engineers; major in the Engineer Officers' Re- 
serve Corps, \J. S. Army; chairman of the 
Transportation Committee of the U. S. Naval 
Consulting Board; chairman of the Commit- 
tee on Award of the Anthony N. Brady Me- 
morial Medals (1915-17), appointed by the 
New York Museum of Safety; a member of 
the Engineers' Club of New York and of the 
Engineers', Electric, Mid-day, South Shore 
Country, Kenwood, and Union League Clubs, 
and of the Art Institute, all of Chi- 
cago. On 14 Jan., 1886, Mr. Arnold mar- 
ried Stella, daughter of Henry and Rachel 
(De Voe) Berry, who, when in college with 
him at Hillsdale, received the literary prize 
of her class. Mrs. Arnold died in Colorado 
Springs, 1 Feb., 1907, leaving two sons, 
Stanley Berry and Robert Melville Arnold, 
and one daughter, Maude Lucille, wife of Le 
Roy Hartley Moss. He married again in 
New York City, 22 Dec, 1909, Mrs. Margaret 
Latimer Fonda, daughter of George L. 

ALDRICH, Nelson Wilmarth, Senator, b. in 
Foster, R. I., 6 Nov., 1841; d. in New York 
City, 16 April, 1915, son of Anan and Abby 
Ann (Burgess) Aldrich. He first attended the 
local public schools of his native town, in 
1857 became a student of the Academy at 
East Greenwich, R. I., and after graduation 
entered the employ of Waldron and VVightman, 
wholesale grocers, at Providence, R. I., begin- 
ning as bookkeeper and later becoming a 
member of the firm. In 1862 he enlisted as a 
private in Company G, Tenth Regiment of the 
Rhode Island Infantry, and served with his 
regiment for ten months but saw no fighting as 
he was engaged in guarding the national capi- 
tal, being a member of the garrison at Fort 
Pennsylvania, on the Virginia bank of the 
Potomac. Mr. Aldrich was elected to the com- 
mon council of Providence in 1869, where he 
served until 1875, being president of the body 
in 1872-73. His preparedness and readiness 
in debate were at once recognized and espe- 
cially effective against his political opponents. 
In 1875 he was elected to the State legislature, 
where he served one term. His experience in 
national politics began in 1879 when he was 
elected to Congress from the First District of 


,7y ty 



Rhode Island. He was re-elected in 1880, but 
resigned the following year, in the Fortieth 
Congress, to take the seat in the Senate left 
vacant by the death of Gen. A. E. Burnside, 
having been the unanimous choice of the Re- 
publicans of the General Assembly. He was 
successfully re-elected to the Senate, 1887, 
1893, 1899, and 1905. Mr. Aldrich's part in 
the framing of tariff and financial laws began 
soon after he took his seat in the Senate and 
continued until he retired, in 1911, having 
declined to be a candidate for re-election. He 
was a consistent protectionist and gold stand- 
ard advocate and had made a profound life- 
long study of tariff and financial subjects, 
coming to be generally regarded as an author- 
ity in both. Possessed of great natural ability, 
Mr. Aldrich was a close student of every 
question he discussed and a hard worker when 
there was work to be done. His power of con- 
centration was strong and he dealt only with 
essentials. In his preparation of tariff bills 
and in organizing the Monetary Commission, 
out of which grew the present currency law 
and the Federal Reserve Board, Mr. Al- 
drich collected a valuable public and private 
library on economic subjects. He personally 
visited the great bankers of the world and 
read in the original the text-books and stand- 
ard authors of other countries. In 1903 he 
introduced a bill for increasing the elasticity 
of the currency. It provided that the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury be authorized to deposit 
in the national banks " public money received 
from all sources," thus permitting the de- 
posit of customs receipts in banks instead of 
in subtreasuries. As security for government 
funds, the Secretary of the Treasury was to 
be authorized to " accept bonds, or interest- 
bearing obligations, of any state," or any 
legally authorized bond issued for municipal 
purposes by any city in the United States 
which complied with certain prescribed condi- 
tions. The rate of interest to be paid by the 
banks for the use of such moneys was to be 
fixed by the Secretary of the Treasury but was 
not to be less than ll^ per cent. This bill was 
defeated at the time by the Democrats, in 
retaliation for the defeat of the Statehood 
bill. Then came the panic of 1907 and Sena- 
tor Aldrich found his opportunity to express 
his ideas again. Some of them were soon 
embodied in certain amendments in the law 
governing deposits of government funds. On 
30 May, 1908, the Aldrich- Vreeland Emer- 
gency Currency Bill was passed, in which was 
incorporated some of the provisions of the old 
bill of 1903. This measure provided also for 
the appointment of a National Monetary Com- 
mission to reform the currency system. Of 
this body Mr. Aldrich was not only a member, 
but chairman, and it is the universal opinion 
of public men that the Aldrich -Vreeland law 
saved the financial situation and the country 
from a financial panic in the interval between 
its enactment and the operation of the Fed- 
eral Reserve Board. A tariff bill when intro- 
duced in the House of Representatives, or 
when reported from the Ways and Means Com- 
mittee, has generally been prepared in advance 
with the aid of statistical experts from the 
Treasury Department and political experts 
from the outside. The bill that has eventually 
become a law or that has been made the party 

measure has always been almost wholly the 
work of a subcommittee of the Committee on 
Finance, and of this subcommittee Senator 
Aldrich was from the time he became a mem- 
ber of the Senate, in 1881 until his death, 
either the chairman or the dominating mem- 
ber. Mr. Aldrich's rise to commercial and po- 
litical power was due largely to his life-long 
habit of mastering details, which gave him a 
knowledge of the subject not always possessed 
by his opponents, his fixity of purpose and hiL 
engaging manner. He was always patient, 
especially with those whose ability and knowl- 
edge were less than his own, rarely lost his 
temper and was not bothered by " little 
things." After his retirement from the Senate 
he continued to give his attention to important 
commercial enterprises to which he had ex- 
pended time and thought while in public life. 
Mr. Aldrich married 9 Oct., 1866, Miss Abby T. 
Chapman, who survives. Eleven children were 
born, seven of whom are living, Edward B.; 
Stuart M.; William T.; Richard S.; Win- 
throp W.; Lucy T.; Abby Green (Mrs. John 
D. Rockefeller, Jr.), and Elsie (Mrs. S. M. 
Edgell ) . 

BALDWIN, William Henry, Jr., railroad 
president, b. in Boston, Mass., 5 Feb., 1863; 
d. in New York, 3 Jan., 1905. His father was 
for many years the leading spirit in the 
Young Men's Christian Union, and his place 
and influence in Boston, his philanthropic 
work, and his extended and unselfish service 
to young men were a living force in the son's 
life. The lad's boyhood was a wholesome and 
happy one. He attended the Roxbury Latin 
School, and later matriculated at Harvard 
College, where he came under the influence 
of Prof. N. S. Shaler, of whom he said, 
" Shaler has done more to broaden my intel- 
lect than any other." Mr. Baldwin was treas- 
urer of the Harvard Co-operative Society, 
chairman of his Class Committee, and a mem- 
ber of the "Hasty Pudding," "Dickey," 
"Alpha Delta Phi," " O. K.," and "Shake- 
speare Clubs." He was also freshman editor 
of the " Harvard Echo," the first daily paper 
at college. After leaving Harvard he entered 
the auditor's office of the Union Pacific Rail- 
road, at Omaha. Thereafter he served in the 
general traffic department, and later as 
division freight agent in Butte, Mont., and as 
assistant freight agent in Omaha. He then 
became manager of the Leavenworth division 
of the same road. In 1889 he was general 
manager of the Montana Union Railroad, and 
in 1890 assistant vice-president, with head- 
quarters at Omaha. In June, 1891, he was at 
Saginaw, Mich., as manager of the Flint and 
Pere Marquette Railroad. In July, three years 
later, he became general manager of the South- 
ern Railroad, with headquarters at Washing- 
ton, D. C. From October, 1896, until his death 
in 1905, he was in New York City as president 
of the Long Island Railroad, In every re- 
sponsible position which he occupied, the en- 
largement and growth of the enterprise in 
hand engaged his unre^iitting attention. Re- 
garding his policy in railroad management he 
said, " I want freight and 1 want passengers. 
I want business that shall benefit consumers, 
shippers, and road together." When he took 
in hand the Long Island system, he was 
greatly interested in the problem of the dis- 




tribution of the congested population of New 
York, and gave much anxious thought to the 
service tliat his road might render in lessening 
the awful pressure. He declared that the pub- 
lic good was the first imperious fact with 
which railroad men had to reckon. He be- 
lieved that the function of the railroad should 
not be first and solely to make money for man- 
agers and stockholders; but that the first 
vigorous obligation should be public utility 
and service of every citizen." Mr. Baldwin was 
frequently called upon to deliver lectures and 
addresses at various institutions, educational 
and religious, and also to speak before indus- 
trial and other organizations. He was always 
heard with profound respect, and often with 
intense enthusiasm. PI is honesty and integrity 
of purpose were seldom or never questioned. 
He was once told by a man great in the busi- 
ness and political world that it was " pretty 
rotten all round, but you really had to do these 
things, or your competitors will walk over 
you." When Mr. Baldwin challenged this 
statement, he was warned, " Very well, then, 
you simply pass the business over to your less 
scrupulous rival." Mr. Baldwin replied, *' I'll 
take that risk. What I can't do straight, he 
shall have." By one who knew him it was 
said, "Mr. Baldwin 'made good' as business 
manager in a most difficult field and at points 
in the railroad area where competition was at 
white heat. He was the hardest kind of a 
worker, and I never saw him discouraged. . . . 
His advice was sought by some of our ablest 
men, and yet I often wondered if Baldwin was 
ever primarily a 'business man' as we com- 
monly use the term. ... No one could really 
know him without feeling that the master 
influence of his life was above and beyond the 
thing called business." No recent career of a 
business man illustrates better tlian Mr. Bald- 
win's what young men with high ideals should 
seek, and what they should wisely avoid. His 
way was often beset with heavy shadows, but 
he always saw the liglit shining beyond. After 
his death Dr. Felix Adler spoke of him as 
"the Galahad of the Market-Place," and Dr. 
Thomas R. Slicer named him " the uncorrupted 
knight." A memorial fund for the Depart- 
ment of Economics was raised by the Har- 
vard class of 1885, and a memorial window 
was placed in the chapel of the George Junior 
Republic. The National ^Municipal League se- 
cured a fund to insure an annual prize of $100, 
known as the William II. Baldwin prize, for 
essays on Municipal Government; and a greater 
fund of .^loCOOO was raised by business men 
and social friends in New York City, and be- 
stowed upon Tuskegee Institute in Mr. Bald- 
win's memory. :Mr. Baldwin married Ruth 
Standish Bowles, of Springfield, Mass., 30 Oct., 

BELMONT, Perry, lawyer, b. in New York 
City, 28 Dec, 1851, son of August and Caroline 
Slidell (Perry) Belmont. His father (1816- 
90), a native of Alzey, Alsace, was a son of 
Simon Belmont, who long held tlie office of 
commissioner by appointment of Napoleon I. 
He came to New York in 1837, founded the 
firm of August Belmont and Company, and was 
thereafter prominently identified with the life 
and afTairs of the metropolis. For six years 
(1844-50) he was Austrian consul-general at 
New York, and then entering the diplomatic 


service of the United States, was appointed, in 
1853, charge d'afl"aires at The Hague, and in 
1854 became minister resident. After four 
years of distinguished service, for which he 
received the thanks of his government, he re- 
turned to New York. During his business 
career Mr. Belmont was identified with some 
of the most important events in the history of 
finance, and was long the accredited repre- 
sentative of powerful interests at home and 
abroad. In politics he was equally prominent, 
having been chairman of the National Demo- 
cratic Committee from 1860 to 1872, and, after ■^ 
his resignation from the office, continuing a ] 
potent factor in national affairs. His wife was 
a daughter of Commodore Matthew Galbraith ! 
Perry, who in 1854 negotiated the memorable 
treaty with Japan which opened the ports of 
the Island Empire to the commerce of the 
world. Perry Belmont was educated in the ' 
schools of his native city, and at a military . 
academy at Hamden, Conn., was graduated 
A.B. from Harvard University in 1872, and 
completed the course in the Columbia Law 
School in 1876. On his admission to the bar he 
became a member of the firm of Vinton, Bel- 
mont and Frelinghuysen, with which he was 
associated until 1886. He was elected repre- 
sentative in Congress from the First Congres- 
sional District, composed of Suffolk, Queens, 
and Richmond Counties, in 1880, and served , 
during four consecutive terms, until 1888, 
when he resigned to become minister to Spain. 
During his first term he was a member of the 
Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of 
Representatives, and came into national prom- 
inence through his able cross-examination of 
the Hon. James G. Blaine, former Secretary 
of State, who had testified on charges of com- 
plicity wath a syndicate of American capital- 
ists, supposed to have been interested in the 
government's efforts to mediate in the clash 
between Chili and Peru. The exposure of the 
effects of Mr. Blaine's policy of interference in 
the internal affairs of South American states 
resulted in its reversal by the Arthur admin- 
istration. The various propositions for inter- 
oceanic transit across the Isthmus were advo- 
cated, exclusively, during the eight years of 
Mr. Belmont's service, before the Committee on „ 
Foreign Affairs of the House. Ferdinand de 
Lesseps, himself, presented his plan to the Com- 
mittee for the Panama Canal, the Nicaragua 
project by its promoters, the Eads Ship Rail- 
way scheme by Mr. Eads himself, the Tehuan- 
tepec Canal by its advocates. Mr. Belmont, 
chiefly on the ground that the political re- 
sponsibilities of the proposed exclusive guar- ; 
antee on the part of the L'^nited States of the 
neutrality and free use by all maritime powers 
of an interoceanic highway across the Isthmus, 
were not sufficiently taken into consideration, 
strenuously opposed all these projects in the 
committee and on the floor of the House. He 
maintained that under such conditions to open 
a new arm of the sea to the free use of the 
maritime nations of the world would impose 
upon us the obligations of a military power of 
the first rank. And he, also, pointed out that 
at that time the sovereignty of the United 
States did not extend its jurisdiction over any 
part of the Isthmus. Since the Panama Canal 
became an actuality, INIr. Belmont, in accord- 
ance with the view^s expressed by him in Con- 




gress, is now one of the chief advocates of a 
powerful navy of the first rank, and of equal 
and universal military service on the part of 
every American citizen. " The size of our 
Navy," he says in the " Navy League Maga- 
zine," " is not a naval but is a diplomatic 
question and should be determined in accord- 
ance with our policy in regard to th^ Isthmus 
and other features of our foreign policy." In 
defining the obligations of an exclusive guar- 
antee of neutrality, 11 Dec, 1882, he said, in 
a report to the House: "The responsibility of 
guaranteeing the neutrality of a canal, either 
at Panama or at Nicaragua, is certainly Amer- 
ican. It may be that such responsibility is not 
exclusively ' American ' in the sense of repell- 
ing all other States on this Continent other 
than the United States of Anierica, but it 
manifestly is ' American ' in that it includes 
the United States of America, Mexico, the 
States of Central America, the United States 
of Colombia, and the States of South America. 
If in the growth of "the-..United States 
of America the dominion o^"^~-tlie Union 
were to extend southward from CaHlornia, 
New Mexico, and Texas to the Isthmus of 
Darien, there would not be any serious ques- 
tion as to whose would be the right, duty, and 
obligation to police a canal at Panama or 
Nicaragua, and to guarantee the neutrality 
thereof whenever the United States saw fit to 
be neutral between other belligerent powers 
engaged in war." Under Mr. Belmont's lead- 
ership, 28 Feb., 1885, the Committee on For- 
eign Affairs of which he was chairman recom- 
mended to the House the adoption of a resolu- 
tion expressing its emphatic dissent from the 
policy of the Arthur administration in provid- 
ing for the participation in the so-called Congo 
Conference. The resolution offered by Mr. 
Belmont was " That the House of Representa- 
tives, heedful of the admonitions of Washing- 
ton, and faithful to the neutral policy of 
separation and peace which our situation and 
the wisdom of a free people have hitherto en- 
abled us to maintain, hereby explicitly declares 
its dissent from the act of the President of the 
United States in accepting the invitation of 
Germany and France to participate in the 
International Conference at Berlin." In sub- 
mitting to Congress his reasons controlling his 
action upon that important question, Mr. Bel- 
mont said, on 28 Feb., 1885: "What was de- 
sired, as we now clearly see, by assembling the 
Conference at Berlin, was to define the jurisdic- 
tion in Africa of the International African 
Association, or of France, or of Portugal, or of 
some other power, or to reconcile the rivalries 
and conflicting claims of each and all, in order 
that the rights of the aboriginal and uncivi- 
lized tribes may be respected ; slavery and slave 
labor be prevented; facilities afforded in Africa 
for Christian missionaries of all nations; fair 
and equal access to the Congo region; a limit 
to all charges and taxes on foreign trade, and 
all offensive monopolies excluded. Certainly 
all those are desirable objects. But at least 
for us in the United States they are, when 
worked out in Berlin for Africa, European 
objects. The promotion of our export trade 
has come to be a subject of national impor- 
tance to which the attention of our govern- 
ment is beginning to be directed. But can the 
promotion of that trade be better accomplished 

by an international European conference, or 
by commercial treaties, or by our own do- 
mestic legislation, aided when necessary by 
navigation conventions ? " President Cleve- 
land's Inaugural Address contained a declara- 
tion similar to Mr. Belmont's resolution, and 
one of the first acts of Secretary Bayard was 
the withdrawal from the Senate of the proto- 
cols resulting from the Berlin Conference. On 
26 April, 1886, Mr. Belmont as chairman of 
the Committee on Foreign Affairs presented a 
unanimous report in favor of a bill, H.R. 6520, 
Forty-ninth Congress, previously introduced by 
him, a most complete measure drafted in co- 
operation with the State Department, for the re- 
organization and reform of the consular service. 
The purpose of the bill was to put that service 
on a salaried basis, establishing the principle 
of the merit system. This bill formed the basis 
of a similar bill introduced in 1895 by Senator 
Morgan, chairman of the Committee on For- 
eign Relations of the Senate. Though Congress 
failed to enact either of these bills. President 
Cleveland, in an executive order, 20 Sept., 1895, 
carried out some of their purposes, and in a 
message to Congress said: "It is not assumed 
that this system will prove a full measure of 
consular reform. It is quite probable that 
actual experience will show particulars in 
which the order already issued may be 
amended and demonstrate that for the best re- 
sults appropriate legislation by Congress is 
imperatively required." Troublesome ques- 
tions had long been pending in regard to 
Canadian fisheries, when on 23 Feb., 1887, Mr. 
Belmont, as chairman of the Foreign Affairs 
Committee, presented to the House what be- 
came known as the Canadian Non-intercourse 
Bill which had the support of the Administra- 
tion, and, on its enactment, conferred on the 
President discretionary power to " prohibit 
vessels bearing the British flag and coming 
from such Canadian ports from entering 
the ports of the United States," and by 
proclamation " forbid the entrance to the 
United States of all merchandise coming 
by land from the Provinces of British North 
America " — referring to the transit of merchan- 
dise in bond. Until Congress had taken the 
action referred to the British government 
seemed to have regarded the fisheries question 
as rather of minor importance and of local 
interest chiefly in Massachusetts, but its na- 
tional aspects being thus made evident the 
way was paved for the advent of Joseph 
Chamberlain in Washington when a modus 
Vivendi satisfactory to both governments was 
finally established. On 18 Jan., 1887, Mr. Bel- 
mont introduced a joint resolution securing its 
adoption and cordially accepting the invitation 
of the French Republic to officially take part 
in an exhibition to commemorate in 1889 the 
events of the French Revolution of 1789, the 
fall of the Bastile and of the monarchy. The 
governments of the great powers of Europe did 
not and could not well accept such an invita- 
tion, and they limited their participation to 
commercial and trade relations in tlu> exhibi- 
tion. Its success was of great political im- 
portance to the government of the French Re- 
public, at that time menaced by the conspira- 
cies of General Boulanger and the royalists. 
Mr. Belmont's speech in Congress was emphatic 
in aflSrming the confidence of our government 




in the permanence of republic government in 
France. In recognition of his services to the 
Republic, the president of the French Republic 
conferred upon Mr. Belmont the decoration of 
Commander of the Legion of Honor, which he 
was unable tot accept until after his service in 
Congress and as minister to Spain had ended. 
The French government again tendered it to 
him, at that time, and he then accepted it. 
In 1885 he was appointed chairman of the 
committee, serving in this capacity until his 
resignation three years later to accept ap- 
pointment as minister to Spain. He was dele- 
gate to the Democratic National Conventions of 
1892, to the Chicago and Indianapolis Demo- 
cratic Conventions of 1806, 1900, 1904, and in 
1912 as a delegate from New York secured the 
platform declaration in favor of a strong navy 
and the establishment of a Council of National 
Defense. In his professional practice Mr. Bel- 
mont was retained in several prominent cases, 
notably in the suit of the Pensacola Company 
vs. the Western Union Telegraph Company, be- 
fore the U. S. Supreme Court. In this connec- 
tion he won the memorable decision that since 
telegraphy is an instrumentality of commerce, 
it falls under the commerce clause of the Con- 
stitution defining the powers of Congress to 
regulate commerce with foreign nations and be- 
tween the States of the Union (96 Otto). This 
decision forms a precedent of immense impor- 
tance in subsequent legislation and the numer- 
ous cases arising under the administration of 
federal laws for the regulation of business. 
Mr. Belmont's name will be long remembered 
as that of the originator of the movement for 
the abolition of the secrecy of party funds by 
securing publication of all contributions to and 
expenditures of national, congressional, State, 
and local party committees, and of all political 
committees. Such publication is now required 
by legal enactments, both by federal and State 
legislation, and has contributed very greatly to 
the purification of politics and has been instru- 
mental in preventing the purchase and sale of 
public offices. In February, 1905, his forcible 
paper on the subject appeared in " The North 
American Review," forming the initial impetus 
to the movement which has since become nation- 
wide. Upon its publication the National Cam- 
paign Publicity Association was formed, of 
which he was chosen president. The New York 
State Campaign Publicity Association was also 
then organized, Mr. Belmont becoming its presi- 
dent. As a direct result the legislature of 
New York passed a stringent and effective law 
in the following year. Mr. Belmont also 
headed the committee which framed the Con- 
gressional Bill of 1906 requiring publication of 
all contributions, national and congressional. 
At the meeting of the Democratic National 
Committee, 12 Dec, 1907, called to select the 
place for holding the nominating convention 
in the approaching presidential election, an 
unusual departure from the ordinary procedure 
occurred in the adoption of a resolution com- 
mending the work of National Publicity Law 
Associations, and declaring " that the thanks 
of the committee and of the Democratic party, 
so far as the committee can tender them, be 
extended to the Hon. Perry Belmont, of New 
York, for his earnest and faithful advocacy of 
the principles involved in the resolution just 
adopted by the committee." At the following 

National Convention, the Democratic party 
adopted in its platform a comprehensive reso- 
lution declaring in detail its approval of the 
movement to secure campaign fund publicity 
by federal and State legislation. Owing almost 
entirely to his able and vigorous advocacy of 
the movement fiifteen States adopted laws re- 
quiring publicity for campaign contributions 
and expenditures by political committees, and 
of expenditures incurred in presidential and 
congressional elections, and others have since 
followed, making the reform of national sig- 
nificance. Mr. Belmont's activities in the 
cause had its origin during the presidential 
campaign of 1904 when he was serving as a 
member of the New York Democratic State 
Committee. Reference was made by him to 
the practice of presidents and directors of great 
insurance and other corporations of contribut- 
ing secretly to party funds which were, in 
fact, the property of the policy-holders and 
stockholders of these institutions. The amounts 
required having outgrown all reasonable pro- 
portions members of political organizations as 
well as managers of corporations having 
knowledge and experience of conditions that 
have become intolerable and were threatening 
widespread corruption were the first to wel- 
come a remedy. A measure to supplement the 
New York Statute of 1890 limiting its re- 
quirements to the publication of expenditures 
of candidates only was accordingly prepared by 
a legislative committee composed of lawyers 
and representative men of both the great po- 
litical parties. As originally framed, it pro- 
vided that political campaign committees 
should not only account for their expenditures 
and for money received, but should also specify 
the sources of such contributions and the in- 
volved liabilities and expectations; that writ- 
ten and detailed vouchers for all expenditures 
should be obtained and preserved; that the con- 
tributions should be made and recorded in the 
true name of the contributor, and that every 
person, directly or indirectly, paying or con- 
tributing money or valuable aid to election, ex- 
cept to a candidate, or a political committee 
or member thereof, or to an authorized agent, 
should file a statement setting forth all such 
receipts and expenditures with the Secretary 
of State. Although the measure failed of passage 
in the New York legislature of 1905, the work 
of the committee had served to arouse public 
sentiment, and the success of the movement 
was assured. Even at the time of apparent 
failure, Mr. Belmont received encouraging 
letters published at the time from Judge Gray, 
of Delaware, Carl Schurz, Edward M. Shepard, 
Samuel Gompers, Francis Lynde Stetson, John 
E. Parsons, and other influential citizens. At 
a public meeting of the New York Campaign 
Publicity Association on 20 Nov., 1905, the 
membership was augmented by such leaders in 
public affairs as Oscar S. Straus, Col. George 
Harvey, Charles A. Towne, and G. W. Wicker- 
sham. On this occasion a committee was ap- 
pointed, including Charles A. Gardiner, chair- 
man, John F. Dillon, ex-Governor Frank E. 
Black, Francis Lynde Stetson, John S. Crosby, 
John Ford, Edward Mitchell, John G. Mil- 
burn, DeLancey Nicoll, and Martin V. Little- 
ton, which redrafted the bill. It was accorded 
a hearing by the judiciary committees of the 
State senate and assembly in January, 1906, 




and was soon after passed apd promptly 
signed by the governor. It was pointed out at 
a meeting of the national organization at 
Washington, when the committees on cam- 
paign publicity measures of fifteen or twenty 
States were present, that the bill presented 
to the New York legislature by the publicity 
organization embodied the most practical and 
effective features of that form of legislation 
then under consideration by the several States. 
In 1905 the National Campaign Publicity Bill 
Organization, with Mr. Belmont as permanent 
president, was formed at Washington, which 
was the immediate outgrowth of the New 
York State Publicity Law Organization. Its 
membership included ex-President Cleveland, 
former Judge of the Court of Appeals Alton 
B. Parker, the presidents of almost every uni- 
versity in the country, the governors of most 
of the States, and many other distinguished 
men who now continue to be members of the 
association. The bill which was introduced 
into the House of Representatives on 12 Jan., 
1906, by Hon. Samuel W. McCall, and known 
as the McCall Bill, became a law 25 June, 

1910, and a second McCall bill more in accord 
with the far-reaching purposes of Mr. Bel- 
mont and his associates was enacted 14 Aug., 

1911. The abolition of the secrecy of party 
funds before and after elections through pub- 
licity laws is an idea originating and developed 
in our own country; it is not embodied in 
the legislation of any others. Mr. Belmont 
repeatedly pointed out that it is not penal 
legislation as are corrupt practices acts. A 
higher standard has been established, by the 
enactment of federal and State publicity laws, 
than prevails elsewhere. Secrecy of party 
funds still exists as a serious menace to the 
English party system, under which many in- 
stances of the purchase and sale of titles and 
peerages, carrying with them legislative power, 
are tolerated. With us a complete revolution 
or change in the point of view \vas brought 
about. Formerly, public sentiment in the 
United States had been satisfied by corrupt 
practice acts, designed to aff'ect candidates 
and operating only at the close of their election 
campaigns. In 1882 Mr. Belmont secured the 
appointment of a select committee to inquire 
into the decline of the American foreign carry- 
ing trade. Out of investigation and report of 
that committee grew the establishment of the 
standing committee of the House on Merchant 
Marine. For this service he received the 
thanks of the Maritime Association of the 
Port of New York. In recognition of his 
services for the relief of shipping from some 
of its burdens, including a repeal of tonnage 
dues, Mr. Belmont received the thanks of the 
ocean steamship companies. He also secured 
passage of the resolution authorizing the 
President to call an International Conference 
to establish a common Prime Meridian, so im- 
portant to navigation. Another important 
service of Mr. Belmont was securing, in 1888, 
the passage of the bill to provide for an In- 
ternational Marine conference which was held 
in Washington, October, 1889, for the protec- 
tion of commerce and the safety of human life. 
It was at this conference that a more effective 
system of signaling was adopted, the Inter- 
national Code of Flag Signals revised, the 
employment of national vessels for the re- 

moval of dangerous wrecks from the path- 
way of shipping agreed upon, and the steam- 
ship lanes were established. Mr. Belmont has 
for a number of years taken an active part in 
the movement to give members of the Presi- 
dential Cabinet seats on the floor of both 
branches of Congress, with the privilege to take 
part in the discussion of matters which might 
arise affecting the business of their depart- 
ment and duty to be imposed by Congress to 
give verbal information in regard to such de- 
partment affairs. Mr. Belmont is convinced 
that the welfare of the country would be served 
by such a change. That his conviction is 
shared by many other public men who have 
given the subject earnest study is shown by 
the records in Washington. As early as 1865 
Congressman Pendleton, of Ohio, presented it in 
the House of Representatives. Mr. Pendleton 
afterward became U. S. Senator and in 1883 
a resolution favoring granting of the privilege 
of the floor to Cabinet members was presented 
in the Senate by him. A favorable report was 
signed by Allison, of Iowa; Blaine, of Maine; 
Ingalls, of Kansas; O. H. Piatt, of Connecti- 
cut; Voorhees, of Indiana, and M. C. Butler, of 
South Carolina. In his message in 1912 Presi- 
dent Taft advocated an amendment to the rules 
that would admit his Cabinet to the debates 
in Congress and gave cogent reasons for his 
indorsement of the project. In a striking ad- 
dress before the American Club of Paris, 2 
July, 1914, Mr. Belmont opened by saying that 
" the presence of members of the Cabinet in 
Congress is not suggested by the parliamentary 
systems of other governments. Those systems, 
in their fundamental principles, are so different 
from ours as to be hardly a safe guide for us. 
The suggestion belongs to the development of 
our own laws and must be discussed within its 
capacity of adjustment to our American sys- 
tem. We Americans have reached the point 
when we are asking ourselves do we or do 
we not want executive supremacy to assert it- 
self with increasing emphasis, and has it grad- 
u lly developed to such a degree as to require 
an effort, in order to restore the equilibrium 
between the executive and legislative depart- 
ments of the governments." He declared that 
the inquiry was non-partisan and impersonal, 
and that " equal non-partisan and impersonal 
is the proposed plan to enlarge the intercourse 
between these two great departments, provid- 
ing, through a mere change in the rules of 
procedure, for the presence in Congress of mem- 
bers of the Cabinet — the heads of executive 
departments created by Congress to whom new 
duties can be assigned. No encroachment by 
the legislative branch upon the constitutional 
privileges of the President or of his Cabinet 
is suggested, and no invasion by the Executive 
of the jurisdiction of the legislative branch; 
nor does it involve any modification of the con- 
stitutional distribution and separation of the 
functions of the three departments of our gov- 
ernment, its distinctive and characteristic fea- 
ture. Nor would such a change in the rules 
of procedure interfere with the existing meth- 
ods of communication, by written reports or by 
the personal presence before congressional com- 
mittees of members of the Cabinet and sub- 
ordinate chiefs of bureaus of the executive 
departments. The subjects rise immeasurably 
above party interests. Democrats and Repub- 




licana can unite in promoting this movement 
for better administrative and legislative 
methods." Referring to the increasing per- 
sonal influence of the President in controlling 
the law-making branch of the government, Mr. 
Belmont said in a letter to the National Se- 
curity League's Congress in Washington, Jan- 
uary, 1917: "Much has happened recently in 
confirmation of the great advantages of the 
proposed effort to minimize, without the slight- 
est change of our Constitution, the dangers of 
personal government ; that the President be not 
enabled to initiate personal policies, of which 
the consequence even so great and powerful a 
nation as ours might have cause to regret. 
The Executive may advocate a policy which 
Congress opposes and the absence of author- 
ized means of oral communication may prevent 
the establishment of the harmony of action 
necessary for the p iblic welfare. When, on 
the contrary, there exists an agreement be- 
tween the Legislature and Executive branches, 
an intercourse resulting from a common pur- 
pose would be promoted by free oral com- 
munication." It was on 4 March, 1916, that 
Mr. Belmont addressed a communication to the 
Vice-President, Marshall, which the latter laid 
before the Senate and was printed in the '* Con- 
gressional Record " on 25 March, 1916, of which 
the salient paragraphs were as follows: "That 
the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the 
Treasury, the Secretary of War, the Secretary 
of the Navy, the Attorney-General, the Post- 
master-General, the Secretary of Agriculture, 
the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of 
Labor shall be entitled to occupy seats on the 
floor of the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives, with the right to participate in debate 
on matters relating to the business of their 
respective departments, under such rules as 
may be prescribed by the Senate and House 
respectively. That the said Secretaries, the 
Attorney-General, and the Postmaster-General 
shall attend the sessions of the Senate on the 
opening of the sittings on Tuesday and Friday 
of each week, and the sessions of the House of 
Representatives on the opening of the sittings 
on Monday and Thursday of each week, to give 
information asked by resolution or in reply to 
questions which may be propounded to them 
under the rules of the Senate and the House; 
and the Senate and the House may, by standing 
orders, dispense with the attendance of one or 
more of said officers on either of said days. 
The proposed legislation would confer a privi- 
lege at the same time imposing a duty on the 
heads of the departments, who, it must be re- 
membered, are the creations of Congress and 
therefore not mere adjuncts of the President. 
The privilege is a voluntary attendance to take 
part in debate under established rules. The 
duty is to give direct oral information under 
compulsory attendance. The law organizing 
the Treasury may be accepted as a solution of 
this question. Congress, in creating the office 
of Secretary of the Treasury, declared that 
the Secretary shall make report and give in- 
formation to either branch of the Legislature, 
either in person or in writing, respecting all 
matters which shall appertain to his office, as 
either House may require. The relation of 
the Executive Department and Congress en- 
gaged the attention of the men who formed 
the Confederate government, and they modeled 

its constitution and laws upou those of the 
Federal government. Long experience of the 
Federal system suggested to them in framing 
their provisional and permanent constitution 
as well that to allow the members of the Cabi- 
net seats on the floor of their congress would 
be an improvement. They, therefore, preserved 
the existing provision of our Constitution dis- 
tributing the functions of government, and 
after the words ' and no person holding any 
office under the Confederate States shall be a 
member of either house during his continuance 
in office,' they introduced the following clause: 
* But Congress may by law grant to the 
principal officers in each of the Executive 
departments a seat upon the floor of either 
house, with the privilege of discussing any 
measures appertaining to his department.' " 
Mr. Belmont is forceful and aggressive, 
stubborn in the advocacy of any move- 
ment which he is convinced is for the 
public good, and uncompromising in his ad- 
vocacy. He is possessed of character, energy, 
and the ability to convince others. His public 
record has been effective in a marked degree. 
During the Spanish War of 1898 he served 
as inspector general of the First Division of 
the Second Army Corps, on the staff of Maj.- 
Gen. M. C. Butler. In 1917 he again offered 
his services, and was commissioned an officer 
in the reserve corps, detailed to the remount 
service. He is vice-president of the Army 
League, a director of the Navy League, 
an active member of both organizations. He 
holds membership in the Knickerbocker, 
Union, Metropolitan, Manhattan, New York 
Yacht, and Jockey Clubs; is president of the 
United Hunts Racing Association, and member 
of the Metropolitan, University, Army and 
Navy Clubs, Washington; and the Marlbor- 
ough Club of London. Mr. Belmont married, 
in New York in 1899, Jessie Robbins, daughter 
of Daniel C. Robbins, of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

GARDINER, David Lion, lawyer, soldier, b. 
in New York City, 23 May, 1816; d. there 3 
May, 1892, son of Hon. David and Juliana 
(MacLachlan) Gardiner. Lion Gardiner, the 
first of this illustrious family in America, and 
from whom David Lion Gardiner is a lineal 
descendant, was born in England in 1599 and 
died in East Hampton, N. Y., in 1663. He was 
a military engineer, an officer in the British 
army, and served in the Netherlands under 
Lord Fairfax. While thus engaged he was 
persuaded by Hugh Peters, and other English- 
men then residing in that country, to enter the 
service of a company of lords and gentlemen, 
the proprietors of a tract of land lying at the 
mouth of the Connecticut River. He was to 
serve for four years, and to be employed in 
drawing plans for a city, towns, and forts in 
that locality, and to have three hundred able- 
bodied men under his control. On his arrival 
in Boston on 28 Nov., 1635, the authorities 
requested him to draft designs for a fort. This 
he did, and a committee was appointed to 
supervise the erection of the work, each citizen 
being compelled to contribute two days' labor. 
Gardiner then sailed for his destination and 
proceeded to build a fort, which he named Say- 
brook, after Lord Say and Seal and Lord Brook. 
Here he remained for four years during the 
exciting period of the Pequot War. In 1639 
he purchased from its Indian owners an island 






called by them Monchonock, which he renamed 
the Isle of Wight, but which has since been 
known as Gardiner's Island. This was the 
first English settlement within the present 
boundaries of New York State. While at Say- 
brook a son was born to him, 29 April, 1636, 
which was the first white child born in Con- 
necticut. His daughter, Elizabeth, b. in the 
" Isle of Wight," was said to be the first white 
child born in New York. The original grant 
by which Gardiner acquired proprietary rights 
in the island made it a separate and inde- 
pendent " plantation," in no way connected 
either with New England or New York. He 
was empowered to draft laws for church and 
state, observing the forms, so ran the instru- 
ment, " agreeable to God, to the king, and to 
the practices of the country." Several other 
patents were subsequently issued, the last by 
Governor Dongan, erecting the island into a 
lordship and manor to be called " Gardiner's 
Island," giving Gardiner full powers to hold 
" court leet and court baron, distrain for rents, 
exercise the rights of advowson," etc. The 
island is now a part of the township of East 
Hampton, Suffolk County, New York, and is 
nine miles long and a mile and a half wide, 
containing about 3,500 acres. It was kept in 
the family by entail up to 1829, and is the 
only instance of the law of primogeniture in 
this country covering so long a period. By 
purchase and unentailed inheritance, however, 
the island has been retained in the Gardiner 
family since then. The manor house on the 
island was built in 1774. During the life of 
John, the third owner, the island was visited 
by Captain Kidd, who deposited goods and 
treasure there, which were secured by Governor 
Bellomont after Kidd's death. During the 
early part of the eighteenth century the island 
was frequently visited and pillaged by priva- 
teersmen, smugglers, and freebooters, and suf- 
fered greatly by their depredations. The 
British fleet made Gardiner's bay a rendezvous 
during the Revolution, and took supplies from 
the island. The same thing occurred during 
the War of 1812-15 between the United States 
and England, and in 1869 it was selected as 
the rallying-point of an expedition intended to 
liberate Cuba from the Spanish yoke. David, 
the father of our subject (b. 1784, d. 1844), 
was the son of Abraham and Phoebe (Dayton) 
Gardiner. He was graduated at Yale Uni- 
versity in 1804; was a lawyer by profession, 
and elected State senator from the first dis- 
trict of New York, serving from 1824 to 1828. 
David Gardiner was a man of magnificent 
physique, and of fine intellectual attainments; 
and author of " The Chronicles of East Hamp- 
ton." Personally, he was esteemed by all who 
knew him. He married Juliana, daughter of 
Michael MacLachlan, a native of Scotland, 
though for many years a resident of New York, 
and whose father. Colonel MacLachlan, fell in 
the battle of Culloden, 8 April, 1746, while 
gallantly leading the united clans of Mac- 
Lachlan and MacLean in the cause of Prince 
Charles Edward Stuart. Issue: David Lion, 
Alexander, Julia, and Margaret. His son, 
David Lion, the subject of this review, passed 
his early years in East Hampton, L. I., at that 
time the seat of Clinton Academy, a school 
of note throughout the country, where he re- 
ceived his early education. At the age of 

seventeen he entered the sophomore class of 
Princeton College, and was graduated in 1836. 
He studied law with the firm of Emerson and 
Pritchard, New York, and in 1842 was ad- 
mitted to the bar. He practiced several years, 
and was one of the U. S. Commissioners for 
the District of New York. In 1844 he was 
appointed aide-de-camp, with the rank of 
Colonel, to John Tyler, President of the United 
States. It was in this year that his sister, 
Julia, married President John Tyler. She was 
with her father a guest of President Tyler on 
board the " Princeton " when the explosion of 
the gun fired in salute when off Mount Vernon 
caused the death of her father and several 
other guests of the President. Mr. Gardiner's 
body was taken to the White House, she accom- 
panying the same. From this sad occurrence 
the formal acquaintanceship with the Presi- 
dent grew into love and marriage, and she was 
mistress of the White House, Washington, 
D. C, up to the close of her husband's term 
of office, March 3, 1845, after which they lived 
in his beautiful estate, Sherwood Forest, 
Charles City County, Virginia. Her husband, 
ex-President Tyler, died at the Exchange Hotel, 
Richmond, Va., 18 Jan., 1862, and she died 
at the same hotel, 10 July, 1889, in a room 
opposite that in which her husband had died 
27 years before. At the close of our war 
with Mexico, Colonel Gardiner joined a 
party of young men who left New York for 
California, via Mexico. Some of the members 
had been prominent in society; and all, with 
the exception of Colonel Gardiner, who traveled 
for pleasure, were lured by a love of adventure 
or a desire to better their fortunes in our newly 
acquired territory. They sailed from New 
York to Vera Cruz, where arrangements were 
completed for the journey overland to the 
Pacific Coast. For the transportation of the 
baggage and supplies, pack-mules were pur- 
chased; also a number of army wagons at 
$15.00 each, wagons which had been left in 
Vera Cruz on the withdrawal of the American 
forces under Gen. Winfield Scott. These were 
the first wheeled vehicles to cross Mexico, and 
were sold for $1,500 each on the arrival of 
the expedition in California. From Vera Cruz 
the party traveled on horseback to the City 
of Mexico, and thence to San Bias, on the 
Pacific Ocean, a distance of 1,500 miles, which 
was covered in forty consecutive days. Much 
difficulty was experienced in hauling the 
wagons, as most of the country westward of 
the City of Mexico was without roads, and 
trees had frequently to be felled to clear a way. 
Relative to the arduousness of the task, Colonel 
Gardiner, who was a frequent contributor to 
the New York " Journal of Commerce " during 
his sojourn in California, writes as follows: 
"Harbor of San Bias, 18 March, 1848. We 
have accomplished, to the surprise of the Mexi- 
cans and all others, what was never done be- 
fore, and what was thought perfectly imprac- 
ticable; that is, the bringing of loaded wagons 
from Vera Cruz to the Pacific. The roads from 
Guadalajara are the worst ever seen; in fact, 
scarcely traversable by mules. As we passed 
the several towns on our route from Guadala- 
jara, the inhabitants cheered us with cries of 
"Bravo! Bravo! " and when we entered San 
Bias we received three times three. At one 
place on the route we were obliged to descend 




a baranco, or ravine, three hundred feet deep, 
and three-quarters of a mile wide. Tlie de- 
scent was almost perpendicular and deemed 
impracticable, but we accomplished it without 
unloading; the mules were taken out and the 
wagons let down by ropes." At San Bias the 
party had the good fortune to find a sailing 
vessel bound to San Francisco, aboard of which 
they took passage. The ship called on the way 
at San Diego, at that time a small hamlet of 
adobe houses. Here Colonel Gardiner and his 
friend, John R. Bleeker, disembarked, their 
companions proceeding to San Francisco. 
Through the persuasions of a surveyor, a 
chance acquaintance, who predicted that San 
Diego, in virtue of its harbor, the only one 
south of San Francisco, was destined to be a 
great city. Colonel Gardiner and Mr. Bleeker 
purchased for the sum of $50.00 a plot of 
ground on the waterfront, facing Coronado 
Island, a price which included the cost of sur- 
veying the land and the fee for recording the 
deed with the alcalde. This property was held 
by its joint owners until the land speculation 
was rife in San Diego, about twenty-five years 
ago, wlien it was sold for $40,000, the taxes on 
the same having been but a nominal sum yearly 
from the time of its purchase. Colonel Gardi- 
ner eventually reached San Francisco, which 
was little else than a vast mining camp, filled 
largely with adventurers and rough characters 
from all parts of the world, attracted by the 
excitement attending the discovery of gold 
which was then at its height. Lying at an- 
chor in the harbor were sixty full-rigged ships, 
including the United States sloop-of-war, 
" St. Mary's." All were deserted with the ex- 
ception of the " St. Mary's," the officers and 
crews having left for the gold diggings. Colo- 
nel Gardiner visited the mines, where he saw 
the practical operation of panning for gold, 
or placer mining, besides having an oppor- 
tunity of studying life among the miners. 
Fabulous prices were paid at the mines for 
the bare necessities of life, flour, for instance, 
selling at $250.00 a barrel. One miner whose 
sole working capital was a pair of strong arms, 
a shovel, and pick, exhibited a strong par- 
tiality for Colonel Gardiner's necktie, offering 
him the equivalent of $16.00 in gold dust, 
which he proceeded to weigh in anticipation of 
the owner's willingness to part with it, al- 
though the offer was declined. Another pro- 
posed to purchase his gold watch for a sum 
many times greater than its original cost; and 
several coveted his Colt's revolver, for which 
a price far beyond its intrinsic value w^ould 
have been cheerfully paid. Wliile exploring the 
course of the Sacramento River, Colonel Gar- 
diner was stricken wnth malarial fever, with 
no one to minister to him but a faithful negro 
servant. A tent pitched on the bank of the 
river served as their only protection from the 
elements. At night thefr slumbers were dis- 
turbed by wild swine or peccaries entering the 
tent in search of food, and their leather boots 
would have been devoured had they not taken 
the precaution of placing them beyond the 
reach of the ravenous animals. Much to Colo- 
nel Gardiner's astonishment, while lying on his 
back, low with fever, there appeared one day 
before the tent a hunter attracted by the 
extraordinary sight of a tent so far from 
civilization. The stranger wore a long gray 


beard, and a suit of buckskin clothed his tall 
and lanky figure. A sombrero covered his head, 
and he carried a Kentucky rifle with its bar- 
rel of exaggerated length, a characteristic of 
that type of firearm. After an exchange of 
greetings, the hunter inquired of Colonel Gardi- 
ner if he had seen anything of a party of sur- 
veyors. Receiving a negative reply the old 
man said that he had recently met them at the 
very place where Colonel Gardiner was en- 
camped, and that they believed it to be a 
desirable site for a city. The hunter, however, 
held dissimilar views, predicting that were a 
city located there it would be in danger of 
inundation, as the river had been known to 
overflow its banks; in proof of which the old 
man, looking upward, pointed out to the sur- 
veyors the marks left on the tree trunks by 
former floods. But notwithstanding his warn- 
ings, the city of Sacramento, the capital of 
California, occupies the site of Colonel Gardi- 
ner's tent, and, as the old hunter predicted, the 
river has on more than one occasion flooded 
its streets, to the discomfort of its inhabitants. 
Recovering from his illness. Colonel Gardiner 
returned to San Francisco, where, by chance, 
he met Captain Edwards, of Sag Harbor, L. I., 
who had just come around Cape Horn in com- 
mand of a schooner hailing from his native 
place. The vessel was loaded with lumber, 
and at the suggestion of Captain Edwards, 
whom Colonel Gardiner had known as a boy, 
he bought the cargo. As Colonel Gardiner 
was on his way back to San Diego, Captain 
Edwards agreed to carry the lumber down the 
coast, and assisted by his crew, most of whom 
were carpenters, wheelwrights, and black- 
smiths, from the east end of Long Island, he 
erected for Colonel Gardiner a substantial 
dw^elling. This was the first American house 
built in San Diego, and was occupied by Colonel 
Gardiner until his return home in 1851. The 
house overlooked the harbor, and from its 
porch the sight of whales disporting them- 
selves was not an uncommon one in those early 
days. In consequence of his brother Alexan- 
der's death and of his presence being needed 
at home, Colonel Gardiner left San Diego in 
1851. The homeward journey from San Bias 
to the City of Mexico was over the same ground 
as that traversed three years previously. 
Colonel Gardiner being a man oi remarkable 
self-reliance and of undaunted courage, ex- 
pected to make the trip alone with only his 
compass to guide him, but just as he was bid- 
ding farewell to the Pacific, he was joined by a '* 
fellow traveler, a German, bound also to Mex- 
'ico City. The two men, though strangers to 
each other and unable to speak any language 
but their respective native one, rode side by 
side for forty consecutive days, yet managed 
by means of signs to make themselves under- 
stood. At night they slept under no covering 
but their blankets, their saddles serving for 
pillows; their horses were hobbled, and a fire 
kindled as a protection against prowling 
wolves. Colonel Gardiner's long ride ended in 
the City of Mexico, whence he completed the re- 
mainder of his journey overland by stage-coach 
to Vera Cruz. From Vera Cruz he sailed for New 
York in the brig " Ninfea," — Spanish for water- 
lily. Tempestuous weather was met with in 
the Gulf, the sea running so high that grave 
fears were entertained for the safety of the 



brig. At times it seemed as though the small 
vessel must surely founder, but the peninsula 
of Florida was successfully doubled, and the 
brig's course laid to the northward. All went 
well until abreast of Cape Hatteras, when a 
severe storm arose, carrying the brig before 
it to the vicinity of the West India Islands. 
The fury of the gale having subsided, the brig 
was again headed for her destination, but no 
sooner had she reached the American coast 
than another storm of equal intensity was en- 
countered, driving her back to nearly the same 
position. A second attempt to recover the 
ground lost was no more successful, as a third 
storm drove the vessel well off the coast. 
Finally New York was reached, but not in 
time to save the life of a pet goat belonging 
to the sailors, which had to be sacrificed for 
food, as the brig was long overdue and the 
supply of provisions was well-nigh exhausted. 
On his return from California, Colonel Gardi- 
ner settled on Staten Island, leading the life 
of a country gentleman until he went abroad 
in 1875, and resided in France for a num- 
ber of years. In personal appearance Colo- 
nel Gardiner was a distinguished looking, 
dignified gentleman of fine military bear- 
ing, with a strikingly handsome face, a 
high, noble forehead, and refined clear-cut 
features. Of great repose of manner, and of 
the strictest integrity of character, he was of 
a genial disposition, free from all vanity or 
ostentation, and uniformly courteous toward 
all. Just in all his dealings, he was a man 
who enjoyed life rationally; the possessor of 
a sound mind, and of a temperament of un- 
usual equanimity under all circumstances. He 
was an admirer of the beautiful in art and 
nature; an accomplished horseman, a good 
shot, and well versed in ornithology. His in- 
terest in historical matters evinced itself at 
an early age, and few were better informed 
than Colonel Gardiner on the Indian lore of 
Long Island, or of its history in Colonial days., 
Politically, Colonel Gardiner was a Democrat 
of the old school, though a stanch supporter 
of the Union throughout the Civil War. He 
never sought office, but was, nevertheless, 
nominated by acclamation for member of Con- 
gress from the First Congressional District of 
New York, at the Union Convention held at 
Jamaica, L. I., 19 Oct., 1860. There were four 
nominees for Congress in the district. The 
convention went into an informal ballot which 
resulted in the naming of Colonel Gardiner, of 
Richmond County, and Tunis G. Bergen, of 
; Kings County; and Colonel Gardiner receiving 
a majority of the votes cast; on motion of 
James Ridgeway, he was declared by acclama- 
tion the nominee of the convention. Subse- 
quently at a meeting of the committee of 
conference having in view the selection of a 
Union Committee of Fifteen of New York and 
Union candidate in the First Congressional Dis- 
trict, which committee was composed of the 
fifteen from the body of the district represent- 
ing the respective candidates, each candidate 
naming five representatives, held at the Mer- 
chants' Exchange, New York City, 30 Oct., 
1860, after a full interchange of views, Colonel 
Gardiner, for the purpose of eff'ecting a com- 
promise in the First Congressional District, 
consented to withdraw his name in favor of 
Edward Henry Smith. He married in New 

York, on 26 April, 1860, Sarah Gardiner 
Thompson, daughter of David Thompson, a 
noted financier of New York, and Sarah Dio- 
dati (Gardiner) Thompson, daughter of John 
Lion Gardiner, seventh proprietor of Gardiner's 
Island. They were the parents of three chil- 
dren: David, Sarah Diodati, and Robert Alex- 
ander Gardiner. David, the oldest son (b. at 
Castleton, S. I., 7 April, 1861 ) , was educated 
in this country and abroad. He is interested 
in science and art, and, although he studied 
architecture, he never practiced. He is also 
a student of polite literature and compiled the 
excellent family narrative from which this 
sketch was written. David Gardiner is pres- 
ent owner of Sagtikos Manor, situated at West 
Islip, L. I., having inherited the ancient do- 
main of his uncle. Count Frederick Diodati 
Thompson. Sagtikos Manor, called by the 
English Appletreewick, was purchased from the 
native Indians in 1692, and a charter or patent 
was subsequently issued for the same in the 
name of King William III. The estate com- 
prises an area of 1,206 acres, and extends from 
the Great South Bay on the south to within a 
mile and a quarter of Smithtown on the north. 
Much of it is woodland, and the arable portion, 
composed of a rather light soil, yields, never- 
theless, bountiful crops as a result of scien- 
tific methods of agriculture instituted by the 
present owner. The manor house, built in 
1697, is in excellent preservation, though its 
exterior has been greatly modified by the late 
owner of the manor, who built an extension 
and large wing with modern appointments. 
The manor house, especially the original por- 
tion, is an interesting repository of old furni- 
ture of the Colonial period, and of engravings 
and mementoes of Revolutionary days. Sarah 
Diodati Gardiner (b. at Castleton, S. I.) was 
educated in private schools in this country and 
in Geneva, Switzerland. At an early age she 
showed a marked disposition for drawing and 
painting, which led her to enter the Yale 
School of Fine Arts, a department of Yale 
College, from which institution she graduated 
with honor. She then went abroad, spending 
several years in the study of art in Paris. 
She is a miniature painter and an accomplished 
linguist. She is unmarried, and resides with 
her mother and brother, David Gardiner, at 
Sagtikos Manor, West Islip, L. I. Robert 
Alexander Gardiner (b. in Castleton, S. I., 
16 Oct., 1863) was educated at the Anthon 
Grammar School, New York, and in schools 
in Geneva and Vevey, Switzerland. Subse- 
quently he became a student in the Lycee of 
Tours, France, and on his return to this coun- 
try he entered the Academic Department of 
Yale College, graduating in 1887. After his 
graduation he was prominently identified with 
society in New York, and later with that of 
Paris, in which city he resided for several 
years. Though not actively engaged in busi- 
ness, he is a clever financier, managing several 
estates with unusual ability, and his advice on 
investments is frequently sought by corpora- 
tions and private individuals. He is fond of 
athletic sports; is a collector of old prints; 
is interested in historical and genealogical sub- 
jects, and resides with his family in SufTolk, 
England. He married Nora Loftus, of Mount 
Loftus, County Kilkenny, Ireland, the wedding 
ceremony taking place 22 Feb., 1908, in Lon- 




don, at St. Margaret's Church, Westminster, 
and they are parents of two children: Alex- 
andra Diodati Gardiner, b. 7 Feb., 1910; 
Robert David Lion GJardiner, b. 25 Feb., 1911. 
STETSON, Lemuel, lawyer and statesman, 
b. in Champlain, N. Y., 13 March, 1804; d. 
at Plattsburg. N. Y., 17 May, 1886, son of 
Reuben and Lois (Smedley) Stetson. He came 
of Colonial ancestry, tracing his descent from 
Robert Stetson, who was cornet of the first 
" Troop of Horse," raised in Plymouth Colony, 
in the year 1058. Cornet Robert's eldest son, 
Joseph, had a second son, Robert (b. 9 Dec, 
1670), a cordwainer and a constable in Han- 
over, Mass. He married Mary CoUamore, 
daughter of Capt. Anthony Collamore, and 
died in 1760, aged ninety years. His son, 
Robert (b. 3 Sept., 1710; d. 27 Feb., 1768), 
married Hannah Turner, and lived in Han- 
over. Their son, Robert (b. in Hanover, 8 
May, 1740), married Lydia Rich, daughter of 
Samuel Rich, of Truro, lived first in Scit- 
uate, Mass., and removed later to Hardwick, 
Worcester, Mass., dying in Hardwick, 18 Jan., 
1814. His second son, Reuben (b. 23 March, 
1775), accompanied by his elder brother, 
Robert, purchased land in the southeastern 
part of the town of Champlain, where their 
families continued for more than a century. 
He married Lois Smedley, daughter of John 
Smedley, Jr., of Williamstown, Mass., and a 
woman of great force of character and of 
unusual vigor of mind and body. He died 
25 Aug., 1838. Lemuel Stetson was one of 
thirteen children, and of all the descendants 
of Cornet Robert Stetson none attained 
greater public distinction. From early boy- 
hood he exhibited marked ability and an in- 
terest in study. His youth was spent on his 
father's farm, where he took his part in its 
cultivation, at the same time attending the 
public schools of his district, and later pur- 
sued a course at Plattsburgh Academy. Un- 
til he reached the age of eighteen he was well 
content to remain a farmer, but his future 
career was then decided by a chance remark 
of his neighbor, " Squire " Julius Caesar Hub- 
bell, of Chazy: "Stetson, why don't you 
study law? You can do better as a lawyer 
than as a farmer." After a brief period of 
reflection, the young farmer determined to 
act upon the suggestion, entering first the 
law office of Julius C. Hubbell, then that of 
Henry K. Averill, of Rouse's Point, and finally 
that of John Lynde, of Plattsburg, one of 
the most eminent lawyers and citizens of 
Northern New York. Mr. Stetson was ad- 
mitted to the practice of law about the year 
1828, and from that time became an active 
and leading politician, without, however, los- 
ing his interest in the study of his profession. 
His zeal was such that, even before his ad- 
mission to regular practice, he acted as at- 
torney for every prisoner in Clinton County 
Jail, thus acquiring the familiarity with crim- 
inal procedure that led to his being retained, 
for or against, every person charged with 
murder in Clinton County during the forty 
years of his professional life. His investiga- 
tion and preparation of cases were marked by 
care and ability, and he was vigorous and 
powerful in argument, and remarkable for his 
intellectual acumen. Although in all walks 
of life he showed sound judgment and great 

good sense, he possessed a forensic rather than 
a judicial mind, and few trial lawyers were 
more formidable than he. Honorable and lib- 
eral in his practice, he abhorred all technical 
or undue advantage, and was willing to meet 
his opponent on the real merits of his case. 
Judge Stetson's political preferment was as 
rapid and remarkable as his professional suc- 
cess. He reached his varied positions solely 
through the native vigor of his mind and his 
energetic character. He was Democratic 
leader in his county, and was many times 
chosen for public office; was district attorney 
(1838-43); member of the assembly in 1835, 
1836, 1842, and 1882; member of the Twenty- 
eighth Congress (1843-45); and a member of 
the convention of 1846, which framed the con- 
stitution of the State of New York. While a 
member of the assembly he came into promi- 
nence through his opposition to the measure, 
proposing the abolition of capital punishment, 
and established a reputation as a legislator of 
more than ordinary power and eloquence. In 
Congress he was a leading debater and an 
active and influential member; while many 
of his suggestions are incorporated in the 
present State constitution. From 1847 to 
1851 he served as county judge, changing his 
residence from Keeseville to Plattsburg. the 
county seat, in order to discharge the duties 
of his office. In 1855 Judge Stetson was 
Democratic candidate for State comptroller, 
running 500 votes ahead of Samuel J. Tilden, 
candidate for the office of attorney-general on 
the same ticket. He was a delegate to the 
Democratic National Convention at Charles- 
ton, S. C, and at Baltimore, Md., in 1860, 
giving hearty and efficient support to his 
friend, Stephen A. Douglas. In 1862 he went 
to the legislature as a War Democrat, and 
in the fall of that year was defeated for re- 
election along with Gen. James S. Wadsworth 
and the rest of the Union ticket. At the first 
outbreak of the Civil War, he presided at the 
first Union meeting in Plattsburg, when he 
outlined his attitude as follows: "In this 
crisis all party feeling should be put aside and 
everyone stand for the preservation of the 
Union and with the Administration in enforc- 
ing the laws, and recovering the property of 
the United States, unlawfully seized." He re- 
mained patriotically devoted to the cause of 
his country, and was called upon to bear the 
loss of his second son, John L. Stetson, lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the Fifty-ninth New York 
Regiment, who heroically fell, the most bravely 
exposed of his regiment, upon the battlefield 
of Antietam. Judge Stetson went South to 
bury his son, and while on this mission wrote 
a letter to a friend, noteworthy for the broad- 
minded sympathy expressed for the suff'erings 
brought upon the enemy by a war waged in 
their own territory, and for its brilliant de- 
scriptive qualities. Judge Stetson always en- 
joyed the friendship and appreciation of emi- 
nent men. During his term in the Twenty- 
eighth Congress, he was known as one of 
" Silas Wright's boys " from the fact that to- 
gether with Preston King, Henry C. Murphy, 
and Governor Fairfield, he resided with the 
Senator from New York. Here he formed his 
life-long friendship with Stephen A. Douglas; 
his seat was directly opposite that of John 
Quincy Adams, and in the memoirs of that 



hu W '/'. /; other A . 




statesman occurs the following : " Yesterday 
three young men spoke, Robert C. Schenck, 
Stephen A. Douglas, and Lemuel Stetson. I 
prophesy that they will be heard from later." 
He was a warm supporter of Martin Van 
Buren and Samuel J. Tilden; his instructive 
discussions in the Constitutional convention 
of 1846 are referred to by President Lincoln 
in his " Constitutional History." During his 
last legislative term, in 1862, he was chairman 
of the Judiciary Committee, of which Charles 
S. Benedict, U. S. judge, and Gen. Benjamin 
F. Tracy were members. Among the eulogies 
delivered upon the character of Judge Lemuel 
Stetson in the memorial proceedings of the 
Clinton County Bar, on the occasion of his 
death, one may be quoted here : "... by the 
death of Judge Stetson this bar has lost its 
ablest member, and this community a man who 
always took a deep interest in its prosperity. 
... He was truly an honest, upright man. 
During my long acquaintance with him, I 
have never heard his honesty or integrity 
called in question. The accumulation of 
wealth never seemed to be an object of much 
importance to him. Notwithstanding the 
large business he did, and the opportunity 
he had of acquiring wealth, he accumulated but 
a limited amount of property. He was evi- 
dently ambitious of standing high as a law- 
yer, politician, and statesman. Uniformly 
courteous and kind, he was warm-hearted and 
peculiarly sympathetic with the sorrows of 
others; a firm and ardent friend, he was 
zealous in the performance of the offices that 
friendship imposed." On 2 Feb., 1831, Judge 
Stetson married, in Plattsburg, N. Y., Helen, 
daughter of Ralph Hascall, a pioneer lawyer 
and public man of Essex, N. Y. Mrs. Stetson 
was a devout Christian, and united unusual 
powers of mind with loveliness of disposition. 
He fittingly caused to be inscribed upon her 
monument this line: "She did him good and 
not evil all the days of her life." Judge and 
Mrs. Stetson had four sons: Ralph Hascall (b. 
in Keeseville, N. Y., 22 Jan., 1832; d. in New 
York City, 5 Nov., 1859) ; John Lemuel (b. in 
Keeseville, N. Y., 8 March, 1834; d. at An- 
tietam, 17 Sept., 1862), lieutenant-colonel of 
the Fifty-ninth New York Volunteers; Francis 
Lynde (b. in Keeseville, 23 April, 1846) ; 
William Sterne (b. in Plattsburg, 2 April, 
1850; d. 29 May, 1883). 

STETSON, Francis Lynde, lawyer, b. in 
Keeseville, Clinton County, N. Y., 23 April, 
1846, son of Lemuel and Helen (Hascall) 
Stetson. Five generations of his ancestors 
lived in Scituate and Hanover, Mass., and he 
is the descendant of Cornet Robert Stetson, of 
Plymouth Colony, whom early records show to 
have been cornet of the first " Troop of Horse," 
in 1658. In about the year 1800, Reuben Stet- 
son, grandfather of the subject of this review, 
removed to Champlain, N. Y., where his de- 
scendants resided for more than a century. 
His father, Lemuel Stetson, was eminent 
as a jurist and a lawyer. Many other 
members of the family won distinction in 
various callings, including Levi P. Morton, 
ex-Vice-President of the United States, 
the late John B. Stetson, manufacturer and 
philanthropist, of Philadelphia, and Henry A. 
Pevear, capitalist and philanthropist, of Bos- 
ton, Mass. In the year 1847, shortly after the 

birth of his son, Judge Lemuel Stetson re- 
moved his family to Plattsburg, N. Y. Fran- 
cis Lynde Stetson was prepared for college at 
the Plattsburg Academy and entered Williams 
College, and graduating there in 1867, in a 
class famous in college annals for the number 
of men it contained who afterward came into 
national prominence. Among these were 
Hamilton Mabie, of New York; Stanley Hall, 
president of Clark University, whose intimate 
friend he became; Governor Dole of Hawaiian 
fame, and Henry Loomis Nelson, journalist. 
He was awarded the Master's Degree at Wil- 
liams College in 1868, and matriculated in 
Columbia University Law School, where, in 
1870, he received the degree of LL.D. Later 
the degree of LL.D. was given him at St. John's 
College, Maryland, and at Colgate University. 
He was admitted to the New York bar in 1869; 
I his first practice dating from 1870, when he 
formed a partnership with his uncle, William 
S. Hascall. While in this connection his readi- 
ness in making friends and skillful management 
of the law business, attracted the attention of 
William C. Whitney. Mr. W^hitney, who was 
at that time head of New York City's legal 
department, urged his appointment as assist- 
ant corporation counsel. When the Whitneys 
became conspicuous in Washington, Mr. Stet- 
son was closely identified with them, drawing 
the will of the first Mrs. Whitney. In 1894 
he left the office of the corporation counsel 
to become a partner in the law firm of Stetson 
and Bangs, one of the most notable law firms 
of New York and one of the most generally 
known among the lawyers of the country. In 
the fall of that year the firm name was changed 
to Stetson, Jennings and Russell. For nearly 
half a century Mr. Stetson has practiced law 
in New York, for five years in association with 
Grover Cleveland, who became a member of the 
firm of Stetson and Bangs after his first term as 
President; Mr. Stetson was organizer of the 
United States Steel Corporation, the most 
powerful industrial organization of the coun- 
try, and has been general counsel of the com- 
pany since its inception. The most important 
railway litigation has been directly or in- 
directly managed by Mr. Stetson. He was re- 
tained by the late J. P. Morgan as counsel in 
all the interests of that firm, and in that 
capacity advised Mr. Morgan in regard to his 
loan to the government, one of the most spec- 
tacular financial deals Wall Street had ever 
known. He is also general counsel for the 
United States Rubber Company, Northern 
Pacific Railway Company, International Mer- 
cantile Marine Company, and Southern Railway 
Company. Aside from his professional activi- 
ties as a great corporation lawyer, Mr. Stetson 
has demonstrated his remarkable capacity for 
business by his affiliation as director with the 
following important companies: Erie Railway 
Company; Chicago and Erie Railway Com- 
pany; Niagara Development Company; New 
York, Susquehanna and Western Railway 
Company; Alabama Great Southern Rail- 
road; Belleview and Lancaster Railway; 
Buffalo Railway; Cincinnati, Now Orleans and 
Texas Railway; Niagara Falls Power Com- 
pany; Niagara tJunction Railway; South Caro- 
lina and Georgia Railway; Southern Railway 
in Kentucky; Southern Railway in Mississippi; 
and first vice-president and director in the 



Cataract Construction Company. With all his 
remarkable intellectual equipment, organiza- 
tional ability, and intimate association with 
the leading men of the day in politics and 
finance, Mr. Stetson could have aspired to al- 
most any public honor, but steadfastly refused 
political preferment of any kind. No man \yas 
more completely in the confidence of the faction 
known in New York as the " Cleveland Democ- 
racy " than he, while his faithfulness com- 
manded the respect of the other faction of the 
party. He was the friend and political ad- 
herent of Grover Cleveland before Mr. Cleve- 
land's elevation to the presidency, and, though 
the younger of the two by many years, was in 
the councils of his party long before Mr. Cleve- 
land. The following story well illustrates Mr. 
Stetson's independent spirit and personal 
modesty. In tlie last Administration of Mr. 
Cleveland, a coterie of New York Democrats 
asked Mr. Cleveland to honor Mr. Stetson with 
an appointment that would approximately 
recognize his merits and party service. To 
this application the President replied: "You 
gentlemen can go back home with the assur- 
ance that, if Mr. Stetson would have accepted 
an appointment in this Administration, his 
friends would not have to ask it for him. But 
the trouble with Stetson is his friends can do 
nothing for him." When Tilden and Hendricks 
were the presidential candidates of the Demo- 
cratic party and were compelled to give up 
what the party considered their victory, Mr. 
Stetson was one of the men called in confer- 
ence by Mr. Tilden. To him was given what 
is known in the contest as the " Florida re- 
turns " — the returns of several Southern states 
which were in question. Mr. Stetson prepared 
the Florida case, a task that required the best 
trained legal mind and truest party spirit, 
for the tribunal that had been created to pass 
upon the greatest election contest in history. 
In this connection it was authoritatively 
stated, " That, if all the cases had been pre- 
pared as Francis Lynde Stetson prepared his, 
it would have been better for the party." In 
1874 Mr. Stetson had declined the position 
of secretary to which he had been invited by 
Mr. Tilden, who was then governor of New 
York State. Mr. Stetson is esteemed by those 
who know him not only for his high rank as 
a lawyer, but for his unsullied character as a 
man, his fidelity as a citizen, his loyalty to 
his party, his devotion to his church, also his 
acknowledged scholarly attainments, and his 
spotless private life. He is a zealous church- 
man, and a warden in the Church of the In- 
carnation (Episcopal) in New York City. He 
has been a delegate to every Episcopal con- 
vention for many years, and it was he who 
framed the canon on " divorce and marriage," 
which at the time of its promulgation pro- 
voked much discussion both by the church and 
the press. On the occasion of the annual meet- 
ing of the " Stetson Kindred of America," held 
in August, 1913, at the old Stetson homestead, 
Dr. Hamilton W. Mabie sent an appreciative 
tribute on the character of Mr. Stetson, pref- 
aced with the remark : " I have no dearer 
friend, and know of no man in whose integrity 
I have greater confidence." In part, he said: 
'". . .It would have been easy to forecast 
Mr. Stetson's future from his aims and atti- 
tude in college. Eectitude was then the basis 



of his character. He has a directness of moral 
perception which predestined him to clear and 
unswerving integrity in all the relations and 
affairs of life. Add to this fundamental recti- 
tude an open and frank nature, and a habit, 
not only of personal kindness but of general 
good will and an instinctive desire in all dif- 
ferences of opinion to bring men together on a 
common ground, and the high and warm re- 
gard in which Mr. Stetson is held and his 
notable success in his profession are easily 
understood. ... To his friends his steadfast- 
ness, companionable intelligence, and unfailing 
humor have been a continual delight; while all 
who have any claim on his sympathy or aid 
have found him not only quick, but generous 
in response. To use a commercial phrase, he 
has honored at sight all the drafts which life 
has drawn on him." Mr. Stetson is a director 
of the New York Botanical Gardens; a mem- 
ber of the Alpha Delta Phi and Phi Beta 
Kappa college fraternities; the Century, Uni- 
versity, Tuxedo, Riding, Down Town, Church, 
Democratic, Grolier, Bar Associations; and 
member of the board of trustees of Williams 
College, the Dunlap Society, New England So- 
ciety, Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the 
American Geographical Society. On 26 June, 
1873, he married Elizabeth Ruff, daughter of 
William Ruff, of Rahway, N. J. In the 
winter he resides at 27 Madison Avenue, New 
York, and in the summer finds his greatest 
happiness in leading a quiet life with his wife 
at his country home, " Skylands," in Ring- 
wood, N. J. Some years ago, together with 
the late John B. Stetson, of Philadelphia, he 
purchased and presented to the " Stetson Kin- 
dred of America " the home of their ancestors 
in England. 

VANDERBILT, Alfred Gwynne, capitalist, 
b. in New York City, 20 Oct., 1877; d. near 
Kinsale Head, Ireland, 7 May., 1915, third son 
of Cornelius and Alice (Gwynne) Vanderbilt, 
and a grandson of William Henry and Louise 
(Kissam) Vanderbilt. The first known rep- 
resentative of the family in this country was 
Jan Aertsen Van-der-Bilt, a Holland farmer, 
who settled in the neighborhood of Brooklyn, 
N. Y., about 1650. As the name indicated 
the family belonged to either the village of 
Bilt, a suburb of Utrecht, or the parish of 
Bilt in Frisia. In the second generation, the 
family divided, one of the sons removing from 
Brooklyn to New Dorp, Staten Island, in 1715. 
They were successful farmers and pursued in- 
dustrious lives. In the fifth generation, the 
leading member was Cornelius Vanderbilt 
(1794-1877), better known as "The Commo- 
dore," who was the great-grandfather of Al- 
fred Gwynne Vanderbilt. He laid the founda- 
tion of the family fortune, when, in 1814, he 
obtained a contract from the government for 
the transportation, by water, of supplies to 
the nine military posts around New York City. 
His success constantly emboldened him to 
larger efforts, so that when the gold "fever" 
was prevalent in California in 1849, he estab- 
lished a passenger line to the Pacific via 
Nicaragua. In the meantime he became im- 
pressed with the importance of great trunk 
line railways running into New York, and, in 
1844, acquired an interest in the New York 
and New Haven Railroad, by disposing of the 
Sound steamboats, which he then owned. In 



/^ Qvo^CM.,^ 

K<^ Vtet^crv^ 



1863 he purchased a large part .of the stock 
of the New York and Harlem Railroad, and 
eflfected a consolidation with the Hudson River 
Railroad. Four years later he was elected 
president of the New York Central Railroad, 
and his descendants have uniformly main- 
tained an interest in its management. Alfred 
G. Vanderbilt was prepared for college at St. 
Paul's School, Concord, N. H., and entered 
Yale University with the class of 1899. Dur- 
ing his college career he was voted the most 
popular man in the institution, and, although 
his family had given large sums of money to 
Yale, he was noted among his fellow students 
for democracy and unassuming manners. Soon 
after graduation Mr. Vanderbilt, with a party 
of friends, started on a tour of the world 
which was to have lasted two years. When 
they reached Japan on 12 Sept., 1899, he re- 
ceived news of the sudden death of his father, 
and hastened home as speedily as possible to 
find himself, by his father's will, the head of 
his branch of the family. Soon after his re- 
turn to New York, Mr. Vanderbilt began 
working as a clerk in the offices of the New 
York Central Railroad, as preparation for 
entering into the councils of the company as 
one of its principal owners. Subsequently, 
he was chosen a director in other companies 
as well, among them the Fulton Chain Rail- 
way Company, Fulton Navigation Company, 
Raquette Lake Railway Company, Raquette 
Lake Transportation Company, and the Plaza 
Bank of New York. Mr. Vanderbilt was a 
good judge of real estate values and projected 
several important enterprises. On the site of 
the former residence of the Vanderbilt family, 
and including, also, several adjacent plots, he 
built the beautiful Vanderbilt Hotel at Park 
Avenue and Thirty-fourth Street, New York, 
which he made his city home. Mr. Vander- 
bilt found great enjoyment in society and in 
travel. He had keen pleasure in his associa- 
tion with men of note and prominence, and his 
social gifts and his wealth enabled him to 
bear his part in that life with grace and dis- 
tinction. But social entertainment given or 
received, was by no means the whole of his 
career. Mr. Vanderbilt was an expert whip, 
and whether tooling a coach along the roads 
of this country or enjoying his favorite 
pastime in England, he was always a genial 
and enthusiastic sportsman. Although he be- 
came an automobilist as soon as automobiles 
were introduced in this country, he never 
gave up his great liking for coaching, and de- 
veloped the sport until it became an art. 
Even when an undergraduate he had made 
four-in-hand driving his favorite sport. At 
his country place, Oakland Farm, Newport, 
R. L, Mr. Vanderbilt had the largest private 
riding-ring in the world, and it was there that 
his horses were trained for public road-coach- 
ing, as well as for private horse shows, 
amateur circuses, and country fairs. In 1906 
his coach, " Venture," gained much fame. 
When he drove this coach from the Victoria 
Hotel, London, England, for his first trial run 
along the Brighton road in 1908, his party re- 
ceived an ovation along the entire route, and 
Mr. Vanderbilt said that that had been the 
greatest day of his life. He later established 
regular daily runs with his famous coach, 
from Victoria Hotel in London to the Metro- 

pole Hotel in Brighton. Some time before he 
had become one of the most prominent horse- 
men in America, his horses winning blue rib- 
bons at every show of importance both here 
and abroad. In looking back throughout his 
career one is impressed by the modesty of his 
sportsmanship. If he had chosen, he could 
easily have taken front rank as an exhibitor 
of show horses; he preferred, however, to 
keep only a comparatively small stable with 
which to be merely represented, and which 
was so regulated as always to permit others 
of lesser means an equal chance. In the last 
analysis, this might be said to have been 
one of the finest characteristics that a true 
sportsman could display, unconsciously con- 
forming with the spirit of his country — ^human- 
ity itself. When the automobile was in its 
infancy he spent $30,000 for a racing-car for 
the Florida beach tracks, and awarded many 
costly trophies to record,-breaking automo- 
bilists. Mr. Vanderbilt owned a camp in the 
Adirondack Mountains, New York; a private 
railroad car, and a yacht, the " Wayfarer." 
He was a victim of one of the world's greatest 
tragedies of the sea as a passenger aboard 
the great British steamer " Lusitania " en 
route from New York to Liverpool, England, 
which was torpedoed by a German submarine, 
and sunk off the coast of Kinsale Head, Ire- 
land, 7 May, 1915. The last recorded act of 
Mr. Vanderbilt, who could not swim, was that 
he nobly removed his life belt and gave it to 
a woman. The ship sank a, few seconds later. 
The following tribute to his memory appeared 
in the "Westminster Gazette," of London: 
" To most of us the name Vanderbilt suggests 
the great wealth used in this country in re- 
viving and sustaining the pleasant pastime of 
coaching, but for the future the name will 
always remind us of the gallant gentleman 
who knew how to die. Not the least 
affecting of the many moving stories which 
we have read of the ' Lusitania ' is the 
story of how Vanderbilt organized search- 
ing parties for ' kiddies ' and got them 
into boats, and how, just before the end, 
unable to swim a yard himself, he gave 
his life belt to an old woman. These are days 
when it is the commonest thing for men to 
meet death with coolness and courage, but 
even in these days we will not forget the 
story of Vanderbilt's humanity and sacrifice." 
To his friends he was ever accessible, cordial, 
and generous, to strangers he was dignified, 
courteous, and aff'able. He was a benefactor 
of various philanthropies, among them the 
Y. M. C. A., a building for which organization 
he erected in Newport, R. I., in memory of his 
father. Mr. Vanderbilt held membership in 
the Knickerbocker, Piping Rock, Metropolitan, 
New York Yacht, Riding, Meadow Brook, 
Turf and Field, the Brook, Yale, Automobile 
of America, and Ardsley Clubs. He married, 
first, 14 Jan., 1901, Elsie French, daughter 
of Francis Ormond French, by whom he had 
one son, William H. Vanderbilt; and second, 
17 Dec, 1911, at Reigate, England, Margaret 
Emerson McKim. daughter of Capt. Isaac E. 
Emerson, of Baltimore, Md., by whom he had 
two sons, Alfred Gwynne, Jr. (b. 22 Sept., 
1912), and George Vanderbilt (b. 23 Sept., 




GABNEGIE, Andrew, manufacturer, finan- 
cier, philanthropist, b. in Dunfermline, Scot- 
land, 25 Nov., 1835, son of William and Mar- 
garet (Morrison) Carnegie. His father was a 
weaver of fine damasks, taking the materials 
from merchants and working them up on his 
own loom at home. The introduction of steam- 
looms and the extension of the factory system 
put him out of work; and in 1848, with his 
wife and two sons — Andrew, aged thirteen, 
and Thomas, six — he migrated to America, set- 
tling in Pittsburgh, where they had relatives. 
Andrew Carnegie received scant early school- 
ing, and that Ijefore he was twelve years of 
age. The father found work in the Black- 
stock Cotton Mill, Allegheny City, where An- 
drew presently joined him as bobbin-boy at 
$1.20 a week. To their earnings were added 
the small sums which the mother could earn 
taking in washing and binding boots for the 
father of Henry Phipps who lived next door. 
At the age of fourteen Andrew secured a posi- 
tion at $3.00 a week in a bobbin-turning shop, 
firing a furnace in the cellar, and assisting in 
running a small engine. Shortly afterward he 
was made a bill clerk in the factory. At the 
age of fifteen he left to become a messenger boy 
for the Ohio Telegraph Company, and later, 
having learned telegraphy, became an operator, 
at $450.00 a year. By assiduous attention to 
duty, he was rewarded in 1854, when he was 
nineteen, with the position of private secretary 
to Thomas A. Scott, then superintendent of the 
western division of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company. He became Scott's prot^g^, and to 
this fact may be attributed a large part of 
his subsequent prominence in the business 
world. His pay was only $50.00 a month; but 
being secretary to the most influential railroad 
man in Pennsylvania afforded him peculiar 
advantages, leading him to engage in many 
successful speculative ventures. For the first 
of these, the purchase of ten shares of Adams 
Express Company stock for $600.00, he raised 
$500.00 by a mortgage on his mother's home, 
and the remainder was lent by Mr. Scott. The 
latter also gave him an interest in the Wood- 
ruff Sleeping Car Company and the Columbia 
Oil Company, which are known to have been the 
basis of his fortune. He also had interests in 
a company formed to build telegraph lines 
along the Pennsylvania Railroad; in a project 
for establishing a sutler's business in soldiers' 
camps; in a horse-trading concern, in connec- 
tion with General Eagan, for the supply of 
cavalry mounts to the government ; in a bridge- 
building company; in a locomotive works; in 
the Duck Creek Oil Company; Birmingham 
Passenger (horse-car) Railroad; in the Third 
National Bank of Pittsburgh; in the Pitts- 
burgh Grain Elevator; in the Citizens' Pas- 
senger Railroad; in the Dutton Oil Company, 
and many others. By 1863 his speculative 
activities had netted him considerable capital. 
In that year, also, he was promoted to Scott's 
old position a^ local superintendent of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, with offices at the Outer 
Df^not, Pittsburgh, and with his brother, Tom, 
nine years his junior, as his assistant. His 
entry into the iron business occurred in 1865, 
when he and Thomas N. Miller, his most inti- 
mate friend, organized the Cyclops Iron Com- 
pany. It was intended as a rival mill to the 
Kloman-Phipps Iron City Forges, but through 

the inexperience of its projectors proved a 
failure. Carnegie found himself in the iron 
business more by accident than preference, and 
the future iron king reproached Miller in a 
letter for getting him in the " most hazardous 
enterprise I ever expect to have anything to 
do with." In fact, his success in the specu- 
lative field had inspired him with the desire 
for a financial career. However, he extricated 
himself. The year before he had furnished his 
brother Tom the money, $8,925, with which to 
purchase a one-sixth interest in the Kloman- 
Phipps mill; and through Tom's persuasiveness 
he succeeded in consolidating the latter works 
with the Cyclops concern. Kloman was a 
mechanical genius, and his mill had shown 
steady growth since its organization as a small 
forge in 1857; and at the beginning of 1865 it 
had increased its capital from $60,000 to 
$150,000. Thenceforward the two mills, or- 
ganized as the Union Iron Mills and capitalized 
at $500,000, were known as the Upper and 
Lower Union Mills, and are so known today. 
The Civil War was then drawing to a close, 
causing a great loss of government business, 
and involved the finding of new markets and 
the making of other kinds of goods. During 
this transition period the company was saved 
from failure on more than one occasion by 
Miller, the wealthiest of the partners, fre- 
quently loaning the money to pay the work- 
men's wages. Carnegie resigned his railroad 
position in this year, and he and Phipps went 
to Europe on a nine-months' walking tour. 
On their return in the spring of 1866, Phipps 
assumed the financial management of the com- 
pany, and Carnegie, in the role of salesman, 
essayed to create an outlet for their product. 
In this capacity, which cpnstituted his prin- 
cipal duties during his long connection with 
the iron industry, he displayed rare resource- 
fulness. He immediately procured profitable 
orders through a connection he had formed 
with the bridge-building firm of Piper and 
Shiffler. In 1865 he had promoted the re- 
organization of this company and incorporated 
it as the Keystone Bridge Company, with a 
capital of $300,000; and his principal in- 
terest in the company was given to him for 
promoting the project. The Union Mills, with 
the sustenance thus furnished by the Keystone 
Bridge Company, together with the general re- 
vival of the iron trade throughout the country, 
entered upon an era of prosperity, and Mr. 
Carnegie now revised his former opinion that 
the iron business is a " most hazardous enter- 
prise." His optimism, in fact, inspired him 
with a desire to gain control of the company. 
This he accomplished in the next twenty years 
by a series of " ejectures," as he termed them, 
of partners. His first victim was his friend 
Miller, in 1867. Carnegie effected it by de- 
preciating the value of the company to Miller, 
to whom he wrote that he would like to sell 
his stock at $27.50 a share. Miller sold his 
at $32.00 a share supposedly to David A. 
Stewart, but when the sale was finally made 
the purchaser proved to be Andrew Carnegie 
himself. This gave him 39 per cent, of 
the outstanding shares. The firm was re- 
organized in 1870 under the style of Kloman, 
Carnegie and Company, and constructed the 
first Lucy furnace, so called after the wife of 
Thomas Carnegie, who was a daughter of 








William Coleman, a manufacturer of iron rails 
in Pittsburgh. In 1871 Coleman, who had just 
completed observations of the many Bessemer 
converters which were installed in America in 
the preceding four years, proposed to Thomas 
Carnegie that they organize a company to 
manufacture Bessemer steel. They succeeded 
in interesting David McCandless, David A. 
Stewart, and other prominent Pittsburgh men, 
and obtained an option on a tract of 107 
acres of land called Braddock's field. Thomas 
Carnegie presented the matter to his brother 
Andrew, who lived in New York, but the 
latter strongly opposed it, and refused to 
connect himself with it in any way. However, 
fate had decreed that Andrew Carnegie should 
play a prominent part in the organization of 
this famous company. While the plans were 
still in embryo Andrew Carnegie's patron saint, 
Colonel Scott, had him commissioned by Presi- 
dent J. Edgar Thomson, of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, to go to Europe and market a block 
of the bonds of a new railroad which was to 
run to Davenport, la. Carnegie sailed in 
April, 1872, and was successful in selling 
$6,000,000 of the bonds, from which his aggre- 
gate commissions amounted to $150,000. " In- 
cidentally the loss to the purchasers of the 
bonds was $6,000,000 — every cent they put in; 
and a futile effort was afterward made to hold 
Carnegie responsible for the loss. During this 
European trip, however, Carnegie made a 
study of the Bessemer steel situation there. 
In England the industry was firmly estab- 
lished. At Derby visitors were shown a 
double-headed Bessemer rail which had been 
laid down in 1857 — at a point on the Midland 
Railway where previously iron rails had some- 
times to be renewed within three months — and 
which, after fifteen years' constant use, was 
still in good condition. The nature of these 
exhibits made the Pittsburgh scheme now ap- 
peal to Carnegie, and he became an enthusiastic 
supporter of Coleman's Bessemer project, es- 
pecially at the prospect of an additional out- 
let for the product of the Lucy Furnace. And 
on his return he eagerly put into the venture 
the whole of his European profits, in addition 
to a commission of $75,000 which he had made 
the previous October on the sale of a block of 
Gilman bonds, also won through the friend- 
ship of Colonel Scott. So on 1 Jan., 1873, 
Coleman took up the option on Braddock's 
field, and on the 13th of the same month the 
firm of Carnegie, McCandless and Company 
was organized with a capital of $700,000. 
Carnegie put altogether $250,000 into the 
venture and acquired the largest individual 
interest. Coleman put into it $100,000, and 
Kloman, Phipps, McCandless, Scott, Stewart, 
Shinn, and Thomas Carnegie each supplied 
$50,000. Thus was started the great enter- 
prise which afterwards became famous as the 
Edgar Thomson Steel Works. Ground was 
broken 13 April, 1873. Before the work was 
more than well started, however, the panic in- 
volved the firm in great financial difficulty; 
and but for the high standing of McCandless, 
Stewart, and Scott, it would have succumbed. 
As it was, an issue of bonds was found neces- 
sary. These conferred on the purchaser the 
right to exchange them within three years for 
paid-up stock in the company. J. Edgar 
Thomson, president of the Pennsylvania Rail- 

road and Colonel Scott, Carnegie's pi*otector8, 
took $150,000, and Gardiner McCandless, son of 
the chairman, bought about $70,000 for himself 
and friends. Notwithstanding that these pur- 
chases saved the company and brought to it 
the prestige and favor of President Thomson 
and Colonel Scott, as was found when it en- 
tered the market with its rails, Carnegie re- 
fused to permit them to convert their bonds 
into stock upon maturity and compelled them 
to accept cash instead. Young McCandless, 
however, upon seeking legal redress, was given 
stock in exchange and taken into the firm as 
Carnegie's secretary. In the meantime Mr. 
Carnegie had availed himself of the oppor- 
tunity to acquire Kloman's interest in the 
Kloman, Carnegie Company, which had re- 
mained a separate concern. Kloman had be- 
come interested in a project for mining and 
smelting ore in Michigan. Its ore proved de- 
ficient in quality and the company failed, in- 
volving Kloman. Lest the affairs of the other 
partners in Kloman, Carnegie and Company 
also become involved through pressure of 
Kloman's creditors, Carnegie made a written 
offer to restore Kloman to full partnership if 
he would make a voluntary assignment and 
get a judicial discharge. This Kloman agreed 
to do; and a committee of the creditors was 
formed to appraise his interests, which the 
Carnegies bought. Kloman was thus enabled 
to make a settlement of fifty cents on the dol- 
lar. But after the disentanglement of his 
affairs Carnegie offered him an interest of 
$100,000. This did not satisfy Kloman, who. 
valued his interest at several times that; and 
he demanded complete reinstatement in all the" 
Carnegie companies, in accordance with the 
previous understanding. But as he had no 
binding contract — the written offer and its ac- 
ceptance carried no legal consideration — he was 
unable to force his demands. So in bitterness 
he withdrew from Carnegie, Kloman and Com- 
pany, although he retained his interest in 
Carnegie, McCandless and Company until 1876. 
On 12 Oct., 1874, the latter firm was dissolved, 
and the J. Edgar Thomson Steel W^orks, Ltd., 
was incorporated, with a capital of $1,000,000, 
to take its place. Its personnel was almost 
exclusively of railroad men, and naming the 
works after the president of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad insured that company's favor. By 
1875 the Edgar Thomson mill was yielding a 
golden stream of profits, and its sole owner- 
ship was becoming a passion with Mr. Car- 
negie. In a letter from Europe, dated 13 April, 
1876, in which he estimated the annual profits 
would be $300,000, he wrote : " Where is there 
such a business! ... I want to buy Mr. 
Coleman out & hope to do so. . . . Kloman 
will have to give up his interest. These divided 
between Harry You and I would make the 
Concern a close Corporation. Mr. Scott's loan 
is no doubt in some banker's hands, and may 
also be dealt with after a little. . . . Then 
we are right and have only to watch the bond 
conversions." According to schedule, the ejec- 
ture of Mr. Coleman, the founder of the enter- 
prise, was effected, and his interest acquired 
by Mr. Carnegie. Shortly afterward Kloman, 
whose interest in the Carnegie, Kloman 
Company Mr. Carnegie had previously seized, 
again succumbed to the latter's pressure 
and yielded up his interest in the Edgar 




Thomson mill. Concerning the next victims 
whose interests were coveted, Carnegie wrote 
on 1 May, 1877, to Mr. Shinn: " It is not likely 
that McCandless, Scott and Stewart will re- 
main with us. I scarcely think they can. . . . 
I know Harry and Tom have agreed with me 
that you, out of the entire lot, would be wanted 
as a future partner, and I think we will one 
day make it a partnership Lucy F. Co. U 
Mills, E. T. &c., and go it on that basis the 
largest and strongest Concern in the Country." 
David McCandless, however, was eliminated by 
the kindly hand of death; and Andrew Car- 
negie in a pathetic letter, dated 22 Feb., 1879, 
in Bombay, where he received the news, said: 
" It does seem too hard to bear, but we must 
bite the lip and go forward, I suppose, assum- 
ing indifference; but I am sure none of us 
can ever efface from our memories the image 
of our dear, generous, gentle and unselfish 
friend. To tlie day I die I know I shall never 
be able to think of him without a stinging 
pain at the heart. Let us try to be as kind 
and devoted to each other as he was to us. 
One thing more we can do, attend to his 
affairs, and get them right that Mrs. Mc- 
Candless and Helen may be provided for. I 
know you will all be looking after this, and 
you know how anxious I shall be to co-operate 
with you.*' Accordingly nothing was done 
about it until Carnegie's return the following 
July, when, besides refusing to credit David 
McCandless' interest with any of the profits 
of the last five months, Carnegie insisted on 
purchasing his interest at book value appraise- 
ment made before McCandless' death. Mrs. 
McCandless and her daughter Helen received 
$90,000 for her husband's interest. It had 
cost $65,000 in cash. Gardiner McCandless, 
David's son, who was ejected shortly afterward, 
received $183,000 for his original investment of 
$42,000 in the convertible bonds. William P. 
Shinn, the next to go, was eliminated in 1881, 
and his case found its way into the courts. 
His interest amounted to the same as David 
McCandless', but he received $200,000. In 1881 
the Edgar Thomson Steel Works, Lucy Fur- 
naces, and the Union Iron Mills were consoli- 
dated into the Carnegie Brothers and Com- 
pany, Ltd., with a capital of $5,000,000. In 
the following year the " ejecture " was again 
set in operation, and Gardiner McCandless, 
mentioned above, and John Scott, after the 
usual personal difficulty with Carnegie preced- 
ing these events, relinquished their interests 
in the company. In 1883 the Homestead Mills 
were added to the Carnegie group. The Home- 
stead, intended as a rival of the Edgar Thom- 
son Mill, had been incorporated in 1879 as the 
Pittsburgh Bessemer Steel Company, Ltd., 
with a capital of $250,000. Its founders, own- 
ers of various mills, had been customers of the 
Edgar Thomson Mill; but experiencing diffi- 
culty in getting their orders for billets filled, 
they built the Homestead plant as a measure 
of self -protection. After a year its prospects 
were exceedingly bright, but it became in- 
volved in labor difficulties which extended into 
the individual plants of the different owners; 
and the Carnegies effected a consolidation in 
October, 1883. On 1 Jan., 1886, the Pittsburgh 
Bessemer plant at Homestead, the Lucy Fur- 
naces, and the Upper and Lower Union Mills 
were organized into Carnegie, Phipps and Com- 

pany, Ltd. The net earnings of the Carnegie^ 
companies rose from $512,068 in 1879 to^ 
$2,128,422 in 1882. While 1883, 1884, and 1885J 
each averaged a million dollars less. In 1886' 
they increased to $2,925,350, in 1887 to 
$3,441,887, but decreased in 1888 to $1,941,565. 
This drop in profits led Mr. Carnegie to be- 
lieve that the steel business had reached its 
zenith of prosperity, and in 1889 he entered into 
negotiations with certain English bankers and 
capitalists with a view to selling out. Phipps 
resisted the project, although he finally yielded 
reluctantly to Carnegie's insistence. However, 
the negotiations had no satisfactory result, 
much to the delight of Phipps, who, writing 
to Carnegie in Europe said : " I am gratified 
that we are not to go out of business. With 
Mr. Frick at the head, I have no fear as to 
receiving a good return upon our capitaL 
Being interested in manufacturing keeps us 
within touch of the world and its affairs." 
In 1882, when Carnegie had acquired an inter- 
est in the coke business of Frick and Company, 
he first became familiar with the ability of 
Henry C. Frick. In 1889 he persuaded Mr. 
Frick to accept the chairmanship of Carnegie 
Brothers and Company, Ltd. Frick, by ac- 
quiring the interest of David A. Stewart, be- 
came the second largest stockholder in the 
company. He became director in Carnegie, 
Phipps and Company, and was also president 
of the H. C. Frick Coke Company. Fortune 
favored Carnegie when he failed to sell the 
company, for in the same year (1889), al- 
though the price of rails dropped to their 
lowest point, under Frick's management all 
previous Carnegie records for profits were ex- 
ceeded, and they steadily increased from 
$3,540,000 in 1889, to $40,000,000 in 1900, the 
last year of the Carnegie Steel Company's sep- 
arate existence. Shortly after assuming the 
chairmanship of Carnegie Brothers and Com- 
pany Frick skillfully effected the absorption of 
a rival organization, the Duquesne Steel 
Works, without the outlay of a dollar, by a 
bond issue of a million dollars. It added to 
the Carnegie group the best steel works in the 
country, paying for itself within one year. 
In 1892 all the Carnegie interests, except coke, 
were consolidated as the Carnegie Steel Com- 
pany, Ltd., and Frick was elected its chair- 
man. Under this magician of steel its profits 
multiplied. He devoted his attention to per- 
fecting economies of operation, and the changes 
he effected revolutionized the iron industry. 
He did not depend on an intense human drive, 
and immediately dissipated the animosities of 
the petty factions which had been created out 
of the former system of unfriendly rivalry for 
speed. Frick organized the many separate 
Carnegie establishments into a coherent unit 
of harmonized movement. He built the Union 
Railway, which connected the scattered works 
with every important railway in Western 
Pennsylvania. He obtained a one-half interest 
in the Oliver Mining Company, whose ore- 
fields provided an unfailing supply of high 
grade Bessemer ores; and for its economical 
transportation he built the Pittsburgh, Besse- 
mer and Lake Erie Railroad and the Pitts- 
burgh Steamship Company. This ore acquisi- 
tion, which actually gave the Carnegie Steel 
Company supremacy in the iron industry, was 
opposed by Andrew Carnegie. When consulted 




concerning it, he wrote from Scotland in 
August, 1892: "If there is any department of 
business which offers no inducement, it is ore." 
And two years later, in April, 1894, after 
Frick had made the arrangement and proven 
its efficacy, Carnegie wrote from Sussex, Eng- 
land : " The Oliver bargain I do not regard as 
very valuable. You will find that this ore 
venture, like all our other ventures in ore, 
will result in more trouble and less profit than 
almost any branch of our business. If any 
of our brilliant and talented young partners 
have more time, or attention, than is required 
for their present duties, they will find sources 
of much greater profit right at home. I hope 
you will make a note of this prophecy." His 
prophecy proved a source of much amusement 
to the other members, for this ore venture in 
1896, through an arrangement with the Rocke- 
fellers, resulted in a visible saving of $27,000,- 
000; and upon the organization of the United 
States Steel Corporation, Charles M. Schwab 
estimated the value of these ore holdings at 
upward of $500,000,000. By the acquisition of 
this ore, and by the building of railroads and 
steamships for its economical transportation, 
Frick had co-ordinated every branch of the 
vast Carnegie interests. They formed now a 
complete industrial unit of amazing efficiency; 
and the profits were increasing annually by 
millions. In 1899 Mr, Carnegie, who for sev- 
eral years had been living abroad, again sought 
to sell, valuing the company, including the 
H. C. Frick Coke Campany, at $250,000,000; 
and soon afterwards, March, 1899, ex- Judge 
W. H. Moore made overtures for the pur- 
chase of Carnegie's interests in the Carnegie- 
Frick properties. Carnegie stipulated that 
negotiations should be conducted through his 
principal partners, Phipps and Frick. They 
agreed, with the understanding that Moore and 
his friends should finance the entire scheme. 
Carnegie demanded a million dollars for a 
ninety days' option on his entire interests at 
a price of $157,950,000; and he afterward 
raised this bonus to $1,170,000. The increase 
was met by Phipps and Frick each contributing 
$85,000, Carnegie agreeing to return these 
sums to them later. Negotiations ended 
abruptly, however, because of the panic due 
to the death of Roswell P. Flower. Frick and 
Phipps went to Carnegie at Skibo Castle, 
Scotland, to get an extension of the option, 
but he refused. He was desirous of selling 
out, and keenly disappointed at the failure to 
complete the transaction. Besides, he was 
chagrined at the ridiculous aspects that arose 
out of the premature publicity of its consum- 
mation. The failure to sell also was one of 
a series of causes that brought on the sensa- 
tional dispute between him and Frick. Many 
reasons contributed to Carnegie's anxiety to 
sell. Lack of practical knowledge of the busi- 
ness had shaken his faith in the future of the 
iron industry ten years before, when he at- 
tempted to sell to the English capitalists; and 
now, in his estimation, steel had passed its 
• golden age. Besides, he was sixty-four years 
of age and living principally abroad. He was 
fascinated by the international attention he 
had achieved through association with the 
world's political and social leaders, and busi- 
ness affairs no longer appealed to him. In per- 
sonal success, at least, he had conquered the 

business world, but he dreaded the possibility 
of reverses. Furthermore, his industrial prestige 
was being eclipsed by the achievements of the 
unostentatious Frick; and Mr. Carnegie had 
never tolerated any partner who threatened to 
overshadow him in prominence. Two Ameri- 
can beauty roses on one stem did not accord 
with his esthetic tastes; so the ejecture process 
was revived to expel Frick from the company 
and seize his interests at millions below their 
value. This iron-clad (ejecture) agreement 
was a practice inaugurated in 1884 of reward- 
ing exceptional services of employees by credit- 
ing them with an interest in the company; 
many received its favor. The book value of 
the interests thus assigned was credited against 
recipients; and the shares were held by the 
company as security until the indebtedness had 
been paid off. Usually the profits alone sufficed 
to liquidate the debt. In 1887 an automatic 
ejecture was added to it, so that no junior 
partner need be kept in the association any 
longer than his favor lasted. It was an ex- 
cellent device, keeping the young " geniuses " 
in an humble frame of mind and spurring 
them to further eff'ort, but it was never in- 
tended to apply to partners whose interests 
were paid up, such as Frick and Phipps. In 
1892 Carnegie made a futile attempt to revise 
it and include all partners. At his palace near 
Windsor, England, he besought Phipps to sign 
this new document, but Phipps, not to be thus 
beguiled, refused, and Carnegie's was the only 
signature ever appended to it. Concerning 
this document Phipps wrote from London, 4 
Oct., 1892: "Please inform the chairman, 
president, and board of managers that I re- 
fuse to sign the ' Iron-clad ' or any paper of 
a similar character, and that I shall resist the 
buying of the company's stock as the proposed 

agreement contemplates . Besides the 

act would be illegal. For these and other good 
reasons, I beg that no action in the matter 
be taken." That was the status of the iron- 
clad in 1899 when Carnegie revived it to effect 
Frick's ejecture. After an extraordinary 
ritual in an attempt to make the iron-clad 
applicable to the Frick case, Carnegie desig- 
nated Charles M, Schwab, one of the junior 
partners, to obtain signatures to it; and domi- 
nated by Carnegie's overruling influence, all 
of the junior partners signed it except two, 
F. T. F. Lovcjoy and H. M. Curry. Henry 
Phipps, the other senior partner, whose in- 
terests were on a par with Frick's, not only 
refused to sign the demand, but joined the 
latter in a protest against the action of the 
board. He wrote : " I dissent from some of 
the statements of alleged facts therein con- 
tained, and I, certainly, do not agree, but 
object to and deny, that the said actions of 
the Board of Managers on 8 Jan., 1900, and, 
indeed, any action of the Board of Managers, 
could or did reinstate the so-called agreement 
of 1887." Notwithstanding the apparent liol- 
lowness of the whole proceeding, Carnegie 
directed Schwab, as Frick's attorney in the 
pretended transfer of the latter'a interest to 
the company, which amounted to its seizure 
at $11,000,000 less than its value, and to be 
paid in installments of such long duration, 
as would enable its being paid out of the 
profits earned by Frick's interest. Frick 
sought protection in the courts, which resulted, 



five days later, in his receiving an interest 
which later yielded him $23,000,000 more than 
Carnegie tried to force him to sell for. This 
was followed, in 1900, by a reorganization of 
the Carnegie interests, including the H. C. 
Frick Coke Company, into the Carnegie Com- 
pany, incorporated under the laws of New 
Jersey, with a capital of $160,000,000. In 
this company both Mr. Carnegie and Mr. Frick 
were omitted from the directorate. The Frick 
fiasco now made Mr. Carnegie desperately 
anxious to sell out, and his methods of accom- 
plishing it stand as a monument to his re- 
sourcefulness. About a year before Frick re- 
signed as liead of the Carnegie Steel Company, 
he appointed a committee to report on a 
project for building a tube works at Conneaut, 
the Lake Erie terminus of the Bessemer Rail- 
road. There being little freight from Pitts- 
burgh to the Lake port, the ore trains returned 
for the most part empty; and to utilize this 
profitless haul, various plans had been dis- 
cussed by Frick and his colleagues for the 
building of blast-furnaces and other works at 
Conneaut that would call for Pittsburgh coal 
and coke. The minutes of the meeting of the 
Board of Managers of 16 Jan., 1899, show that 
Mr. Clemson, whom Frick had authorized to 
investigate the matter, also was in favor of 
starting the tube works. But further action 
was deferred because of the contemplated sale 
of the Carnegie Steel Company to the Moore 
syndicate. The Conneaut terminal was in- 
tended as a simple business plan and grew out 
of the need for filling the empty ore-cars on 
their return to Conneaut. There was no in- 
tention during Prick's regime of holding the 
tube project as a threat over anybody. But 
now it occurred to Mr. Carnegie that this 
might be revived and utilized to force the 
purchase of at least his own holdings, and 
perhaps of the whole Carnegie concern. So 
the plan was perfected and given to the news- 
papers by the Carnegie press agent and by 
Carnegie interviews. This project, in addi- 
tion to becoming a rival of the powerful 
National Tube Works, threatened to enter into 
competition with the Pennsylvania Railroad. 
The consternation thus produced was well 
described in a magazine of that period: 
" Either project as a threat would have been 
alarming. The two together as imminent and 
assured accomplishments produced a panic. 
And a panic among millionaires, while hard 
to produce is, when once under way, just as 
much of a panic as is a panic among geese. 
... At last they ran to their master, Mor- 
gan, and he negotiated with Carnegie." An 
effective feature of the propaganda, arranged 
by the credit manager of the Carnegie Com- 
pany, was a dinner given in New York by 
bankers at which Schwab described with en- 
thusiasm the future of the steel industry. 
Concerning this, Prof. Henry Loomis Nelson 
says: "Views so large, so wise and so interest- 
ing that Mr. Morgan was strongly impressed 
by the speech and the speaker. Then there 
began a series of interviews which eventually 
led to the founding of the United States Steel 
Corporation, to the realization of Mr. Car- 
negie's desire to retire from control of the 
business." It was the most masterly piece of 
diplomacy in the history of American industry, 
and formed a fitting climax to Andrew Car- 




negie's romantic business career. Carnegie has 
claimed to have been the first to introduce 
into this country the manufacture of iron 
bridges and the Bessemer process of making 
steel. But statistics prove these claims un- 
warranted. In a biography of himself he 
wrote : " There were so many delays on rail- 
roads in those days from burned or broken 
bridges that I felt the day of wooden bridges 
must end soon, just as the day of wood- 
burning locomotives was ended. Cast iron 
bridges, I thought, ought to replace them, so 
I organized a company, principally from rail- 
road men I knew, to make these iron bridges, 
and we called it the Keystone Bridge Com- 
pany." The facts are, according to " The In- 
side History of the Carnegie Steel Company," 
that the formation of the Keystone Bridge 
Company was merely the incorporation of 
the firm of Piper and Shiffler, which had been 
building iron bridges since 1857 — eight years 
before Mr. Carnegie became associated with it. 
Concerning his introduction of the Bessemer 
process into this country, he writes : " On my 
return from England [he is speaking of the 
year 1868] I built at Pittsburgh a plant for 
the Bessemer process of steel-making, which 
had not until then been operated in this coun- 
try, and started in to make steel rails for 
American railroads." The facts are that the 
construction of the first Carnegie Bessemer 
steel plant, which was the eleventh in America 
to adopt the process, was not commenced until 
April, 1873, and was not in operation until 
the end of August, 1875. All encyclopedic 
data on the subject is to the effect that the 
first Bessemer steel produced in America was 
made at Wyandotte, Mich., in 1864, and that 
the first Bessemer steel rails made in America 
were rolled at the North Chicago Rolling Mill 
in presence of the American Iron and Steel 
Institute in May, 1865, from ingots made at 
Wyandotte. In September, 1875, the " Ameri- 
can Manufacturer," commenting on the com- 
pletion of the Edgar Thomson works, remarked : 
'* We [in Pittsburgh] have been slow to take 
advantage of the Bessemer process. This j 
dilatoriness is all the more remarkable as | 
there has not been the least doubt as to its - 
success and value practically and commer- 
cially." It is a fact that Mr. Carnegie is not 
credited with having invented or contributed 
any innovation to any practical branch during 
his long connection with the iron industry. 
On the contrary, he is on record as having 
strongly opposed vital, improvements, such as 
building the Universal Slabbing Mill at Home- 
stead, Coleman's Bessemer project in 1871, and 
Frick's acquisition of the Oliver ore-fields. 
For the sakj of accuracy, reference might also 
be made to another error in fact which has ap- 
peared in several biographical articles on Mr. 
Carnegie, and exhibits a tendency toward in- 
accuracy. In the same biography in which he 
claims to have been the first to introduce the 
Bessemer process in America, he says : " My 
father, who had been naturalized as an Ameri- 
can citizen in 1853, had died soon afterwards. * 
. . . At the age of sixteen I was the family 
mainstay." But " The Inside History of the 
Carnegie Steel Company," whose exhaustive ref- 
erence to original documents has established 
the date of every salient event, says : " The 
facts, as shown by the Allegheny County rec- 




ords on file in the Pittsburgh court house, are 
as follows : On 14 Sept., 1855, the father of An- 
drew Carnegie made a will. . . . Andrew was 
then within ten weeks of being twenty years of 
age." Nevertheless, in the important role he did 
assume, that of creating outlets for the com- 
pany's products, he displayed extraordinary 
ability. " The part at first selected by Andrew 
Carnegie for himself," says " The Inside His- 
tory of the Carnegie Steel Company," " was the 
procurement of orders. Here he displayed an 
originality so marked that it amounted to 
genius. Endowed with a ready wit, an ex- 
cellent memory for telling stories, and a nat- 
ural gift for reciting them, he became a social 
favorite in New York and Washington, and 
never missed a chance to make a useful ac- 
quaintance. His mental alertness, ready 
speech, and enthusiastic temperament made 
him a delightful addition to a dinner party; 
and many an unconscious hostess, opening her 
doors to the little Scotchman, has also paved 
the way to a sale of railroad material. Car- 
negie early found that his power to promote 
sales grew in proportion to his own impor- 
tance. His natural love of prominence was thus 
fortified by its commercial value. Never was 
a band wagon driven with such skill. The box 
of Carnegie's chariot became the ' seats of the 
mighty.' And so a politico-social campaign 
went on hand in hand with the rail, bridge, 
armor-plate, and structural-steel business, 
through seasons of opera, concerts, lecturings, 
and book-publishings, until the name of Car- 
negie was written in bright letters across the 
sky of two hemispheres, and people forgot that 
there were any other steel works in the world. 
Meanwhile in Pittsburgh the partners worked 
steadily on, building dollar by dollar the great 
golden pyramid by which their majority stock- 
holder was to be immortalized." " Carnegie 
owes a great deal to his habit of traveling," 
said George Lauder, his cousin. " While 
other men were wallowing in details, he was 
able to take a wider view." Supplied with 
daily reports of the product of every depart- 
ment of each of the works, Carnegie had lei- 
sure to make comparisons, and to prod with 
a sharp note any partner or superintendent 
whose work did not rank with the best. In 
time he became very expert at these postal 
proddings; and with a few words scribbled 
on the back of his address card, he could spur 
the best of his managers to more furious effort. 
" Carnegie did not roost in the tree," wrote 
David Graham Phillips; "he would sit afar 
off, on the rail-fence, apparently watching the 
waterers and spaders and caterpillar-killers, 
all desperately at work, with the sweat stream- 
ing. Presently he would descend from his rail- 
perch, catch up a great club and lay franti- 
cally about him. Bruised skulls here; broken 
skulls there; corpses yonder; fellows with raw 
heads and aching bones, crawling rapidly into 
the cover of the tall grass; imprecations fill- 
ing the air. A scene of peaceful industry 
transformed into a sliambles. Grinning at his 
club, Carnegie would stroll back to his rail- 
perch, usually Skibo." In 1885 he began a 
series of lectures and essays on the natural 
rights of labor, and a year later he published 
"Triumphant Democracy," a vehicle for his 
advanced views on tlie political and social 
equality of all men. It was a glorification of 
the toiler, among whom it was widely dis- 

tributed. In the same year he also published, 
in the " Forum," an essay on the relations of 
capital and labor. It was lofty in spirit and 
purpose and contained his famous aphorism: 
" There is an unwritten law among workmen : 
* Thou shalt not take thy neighbor's job.' " 
However, Carnegie in theory and Carnegie in 
practice were brought into sharp contrast 
shortly afterward by the Edgar Thomson 
strike of 1887, caused by his intention to re- 
sume the twelve-hour day. Captain Jones, 
superintendent of the mill, had previously 
effected a reduction from twelve hours, and 
said that " I soon discovered it was entirely 
out of the question to expect human flesh and 
blood to labor incessantly for twelve hours." 
Nevertheless, Mr. Carnegie desired its resump- 
tion. The workmen refused to accede to the 
demand, and a strike resulted. " The Inside 
History of the Carnegie Steel Company " says : 
" But before it had gone far a committee of 
the strikers went to see Mr. Carnegie at the 
Windsor Hotel, New York. There he reasoned 
with them, and talked them into a conciliatory 
frame of mind; and they agreed to sign the 
contract he put before them. The affair 
seemed to have reached a happy conclusion; 
and the labor leaders left for Pittsburgh in 
the best of spirits. As Mr. Carnegie bade 
them good-by, he pressed into the hands of 
each a copy of his ' Forum ' essay. This the 
men read on the train; and on their arrival 
at Braddock they promptly repudiated the 
agreement they had signed and continued the 
strike," Under the protection of Pinkerton 
guards, the works were put in operation by 
non-union men. The usual disorders took 
place, resulting in loss of life; and after a* 
five-months' struggle the company won the 
contest in May, 1888. During the strike Mr. 
Carnegie was in retirement in Atlantic City, 
where he was kept informed of its develop- 
ments by his cousin, George Lauder. Nor did 
time effect any favorable change in his atti- 
tude toward labor. His humanitarian precepts 
became thorns under the perversion of the 
labor agitators; in fact, to these are directly 
attributed the Homestead strike. Although in 
this strike the men presented less grievance 
than in any of the others, it proved to be the 
most sensational of all the many Carnegie 
labor troubles. And it was aggravated by the 
belief of the workmen that Mr. Carnegie, who 
was in Europe, would settle matters to their 
satisfaction if he were apprised of their de- 
sires. But the strike was being conducted in 
accordance with plans made by him before his 
departure. On 4 April, 1892, three months be- 
fore the strike began, in a notice intended 
for the workmen he stated : " These works, 
therefore, will be necessarily Non-Union after 
the expiration [1 July, 1892] of the present 
agreement." This refers to an agreement en- 
tered into at the same works three years be- 
fore, which, through the installation of im- 
proved machinery, was enabling many of the 
workmen to earn upwards of $15.00 a day. It 
also compelled the company to submit to the 
interference of labor loaders in the operation 
of nearly every department. Thus all'airs had 
smoldered for ne'arly tliree years, greatly to 
the chagrin of Mr. Carnegie, who now fanned 
the conflagration, and ])rudently retired to 
Scotland. From there, on 10 June, 1892, he 
wrote to Frick: "Of course, you will be asked 




to confer, and I know you will decline all con- 
ferences. You will win and win easier than you 
suppose, owing to the present condition of mar- 
kets." On 17 June, 181)2, he emphasized his un- 
compromising attitude by writing: " Perhaps if 
Homestead men understand that non-acceptance 
means non-union forever, they will accept." 
•He also cabled VVhitelaw Reid, who was trying 
to bring about a settlement of the strike, that 
no compromise would be considered by him, 
and that he would rather see grass growing 
over the Homestead works than advise Mr. 
Frick to yield to the strikers. " The Romance 
of Steel " says : " The workmen had a con- 
viction, almost a religious belief, that no out- 
siders had a right to come in and take their 
Elacfs during a strike. Andrew Carnegie 
imself had said, a few years before: 'There 
is an unwritten law among the best workmen, 
"Thou shalt not take thy neighbor's job."'" 
Mr. Carnegie, however, had selected the secluded 
residence at Rannoch Lodge, in Scotland, for 
the purpose of eluding the appeals which it 
was apparent his speeches and writings would 
call forth; and his silence during the conflict 
at Homestead was in accordance with plans 
made by him long before. An Associated 
Press representative located Mr. Carnegie in 
Scotland and after much difficulty succeeded 
in getting a short statement from him. He 
said: " Well, I authorize you to make the fol- 
lowing statement: I have not attended to 
business for the past three years, but I have 
implicit confidence in those who are managing 
the mills. Further than that I have nothing 
to say." This aroused a storm of criticism 
both at home and abroad. The St. Louis 
''Post-Dispatch" said: "One would naturally 
suppose that if he had a grain of manhood, 
not to say courage, in his composition, he 
would at least have been willing to face the 
consequences of his inconsistency. But what 
does Carnegie do? Runs off to Scotland out 
of harm's way to await the issue of the battle 
he was too pusillanimous to share." The Lon- 
don " Financial Observer," of 16 July, 1892, 
said: " Here we have this Scotch-Yankee pluto- 
crat meandering through Scotland in a four- 
in-hand, opening public libraries, and receiving 
the freedom of cities, while the wretched Bel- 
gian and Italian workmen who sweat them- 
selves in order to supply him with the ways 
and means for his self-glorification are starving 
in Pittsburgh." In America, on the same date, 
Carnegie was burnt in effigy at Little Rock, 
Ark. How eagerly the labor leaders had 
seized upon Carnegie's terse commandment to 
etfect their purpose became evident in the 
testimony of General Master Workman T. V. 
Powderly at the Congressional investigation of 
the strike: "Does your organization coun- 
tenance the prevention of non-union men tak- 
ing the place of striking or locked-out men?" 
he was asked. To which he replied: "We 
agree with Andrew Carnegie, ' Thou shalt not 
take thy neighbor's job.' " Public sentiment 
became so enraged at the Homestead strike 
that it became a national political issue and 
brought defeat to the Republicans in the presi- 
dential campaign of November, 1892. One of 
the disappointed leaders, General Grosvenor, 
of Ohio, stigmatized Mr. Carnegie as "the 
arch-sneak of the age." Vainglory and ab- 
normal astuteness furnish the key to Mr. Car- 

negie's conflicting, enigmatical personality. 
He took unscrupulously from his partners, and 
gave lavishly of public bequests; he glorified 
his workmen, yet drove them inhumanly; he 
said : " I would as soon leave to my son a 
curse as the almighty dollar," while his only 
child is a daughter, born in 1897. He possessed 
an inordinate craving for public attention, and 
his departure or entrance into the country was 
always chronicled by an interview. Unfor- 
tunately the one that attracted the most at- 
tention contained praise of the Kaiser, just 
after the outbreak of the European War. He 
was roundly criticized for this, and in Scot- 
land, of which country he had been regarded 
as "Patron Saint," his statue was splattered 
with mud and filth. In the early eighties, to 
remedy the defects due to his neglected early 
training, Carnegie devoted considerable time to 
study under the guidance of tutors, and soon 
became a prolific writer, largely in the form 
of magazine articles. But he has also pro- 
duced, with the aid of literary assistants, a 
number of works in more permanent form: 
" An American Four-in-Hand in Britain " 
(1883); "Round the World" (1884); "Tri- 
umphant Democracy" (1886); "The Gospel 
of Wealth" (1900); "The Empire of Busi- 
ness " ( 1902 ) ; " Life of James Watt " ( 1905 ) ; 
and "Problems of To-day" (1908). Mr. Car- 
negie's stupendous charities include, .besides 
$60,000,000 for 2,500 libraries, the endowment 
of various institutions for the advancement of 
learning. These institutions are supported by 
the interest from the endowments, which in- 
clude $125,000,000 for the Carnegie Corpora- 
tion of New York; $22,000,000 for the Car- 
negie Institution of Washington; $16,000,000 
for the Carnegie Foundation for the Advance- 
ment of Teaching; $13,000,000 for the Car- 
negie Institute at Pittsburgh; $10,000,000 for 
the Carnegie Institute of Technology; $5,000,- 
000 for the Carnegie Hero Fund; $10,000,000 
for the Carnegie Endowment for International 
Peace ; $6,000,000 for church organs ; $4,000,000 
for steel workers' pensions; $2,000,000 for the 
Church Peace Union; and $1,500,000 for The 
Hague peace palace. He married, in 1887, 
Louise Whitfield, of New York City. They 
are the parents of one child, Margaret (b. in 

KAHN, Otto Hermann, banker and art 
patron, b. in Mannheim, Germany, 21 Feb., 
1867, Son of Bernhard and Emma (Eberstadt) 
Kahn. From his father, a prosperous banker 
of Mannheim, Otto inherited a love of art in 
its various developments which caused him to 
become internationally distinguished as an 
earnest advocate and liberal supporter, not 
only of what was excellent in music, painting, 
sculpture, and literature, but of all that prom- 
ised to become so. He always has been broad, 
democratic, and catholic in his artistic judg- 
ment, a judgment that has seldom been ques- 
tioned, and never successfully controverted. 
He grew up in an atmosphere of art, for his 
father's home in Mannheim was a rendezvous 
for a wide circle of artists, musicians, singers, 
sculptors, and writers. His own ambition was 
to be a musician, and he learned to play sev- 
eral instruments before he was graduated at 
the high school. But he was one of eight chil- 
dren and his father had set plans for the 
career of each one. In his own case he was 


;•;•-■.', /r,.//,*.^ A-'Y 




destined to be a banker and perhaps, to his 
disgust, certainly to his disappointment, in- 
stead of being permitted to make the study of 
music his life work, after passing through col- 
lege, at the age of seventeen, he was placed in 
a bank at Karlsruhe, near Mannheim, to learn 
finance from the very fountain. His principal 
duties for some time were those of junior 
clerk. Speaking of the months when he filled 
this hard-working and undignified position, 
Otto Kahn is quoted as having said : " It was 
a useful salutary training, for it taught dis- 
cipline and order. One must learn to obey be- 
fore he is fit to command. It instilled a proper 
sense of one's place, and emphasized that the 
most humble duties must be performed con- 
scientiously and without any loss of self- 
respect. I suppose I must have wiped the ink- 
wells fairly satisfactorily, for it was not long 
before I was promoted and had another novice 
to clean my inkwell and fetch my lunch." For 
three years Otto Kahn remained in the bank at 
Karlsruhe, advancing until he was thoroughly 
grounded in the intricacies of finance, and could 
properly be called a good banker at that time. 
Then the call of the army came and he entered 
the Kaiser's Hussars to give the required years 
of service. As a soldier he was as thorough as 
in everything else, and the eff'ect of his mili- 
tary training has always remained with him 
in his upright carriage and easy grace of move- 
ment. On leaving the army he went to the 
important London agency of the Deutsche Bank, 
where he remained five years. Here he dis- 
played such unusual talents that he became sec- 
ond in command when he had been there but 
a comparatively short time. The English mode 
of life, both political and social, appealed to 
him so forcefully that, when he had become 
thoroughly familiar with its traditions, its 
freedom and broadness of outlook on the 
world he decided to renounce his German citi- 
zenship and became naturalized as an English- 
man. As he has expressed it, very happily, he 
became an " Englishman from conviction." 
Notwithstanding that he was an aristocrat by 
birth, education, and associations, he was thor- 
oughly democratic at heart and his aversion to 
everything that savored of coercion and abridg- 
ment of freedom was deep and sincere. When 
he went to London first he had no intention 
of becoming a British subject. His course was 
prompted solely by his admiration for the in- 
stitutions of the country as they appealed to 
him, and in that, as in every important act of 
his life, he never lacked for an instant the 
courage of his convictions. It was in 1893 
that the marked talents of Mr. Kahn attracted 
the notice of the heads of the great London 
banking firm of Speyer and Company, and they 
offered him an important position in their New 
York house. He accepted, but intended to re- 
main only temporarily in America. Before he 
had been long in New York, however, he 
changed his mind. He decided that both the 
people and climate of the United States were 
congenial to his temperament, and soon he be- 
came so completely absorbed in the business 
and social activities of New York that he had 
no wish for any others. On the first of Jan- 
uary, 1897, he became a member of the bank- 
ing firm of Kuhn, Loeb and Company. He did 
much to enhance the already great prestige 
and influence of that famous institution of high 

finance. Almost immediately he was thrown 
into contact with the railroad builder, E. H. 
Harriman. These two, gifted with the clear, 
quick thought that is always the precursor of 
brilliant deeds, took to each other immediately. 
In spite of sharply defined diff'erences in tem- 
perament and method, they became as brothers. 
In opposition to Harriman's gruff, domineer- 
ing, aggressive manner in business, was Mr. 
Kahn's calm, good-humored, almost gentle de- 
portment. True, the velvet glove he extended 
so smilingly covered a fist of steel, but the fist 
did not smite unless real occasion arose. Then 
the blow came hard, swift, and sudden, and al- 
ways was eff"ective. The, traveled, cultured 
banker and diplomat had early learned the 
value of cultivating the good will of others, 
thus enlisting their co-operation, rather than 
arousing a spirit of combativeness in them by 
a challenging truculence. That was the dif- 
ference in the methods of these two excep- 
tionally able men. Otto Kahn at this time 
was only thirty years of age, but he took an 
almost equal part with Harriman in the gi- 
gantic task of reorganizing the Union Pacific 
Railroad, a work which in its early stages 
had been handled by that master of finance 
and railroad management, Jacob H. Schiff, 
the head of the firm of Kuhn, Loeb and 
Company. Otto Kahn proved his ability to 
analyze mathematically and scientifically 
the innumerable problems that were con- 
stantly presented in this enormously respon- 
sible undertaking. It was not only his im- 
portant part in perfecting the Northern 
Pacific system that caused Mr. Kahn soon to 
be acknowledged as the ablest reorganizer of 
railroads in the United States. His unerring 
judgment has been applied to the Baltimore 
and Ohio; Missouri Pacific; Wabash; Chicago 
and Eastern Illinois; the Texas and Pacific; 
and other great systems. He saved the Missouri 
Pacific almost from total ruin by a singularly 
bold stroke, which wrested the control of the 
road from a management that had proved it- 
self inadequate, although fighting to hold its 
power to the very end. More than once the 
prompt and vigorous action of Otto Kahn 
averted an imminent financial panic. A notable 
instance was his rescuing from collapse the 
famous Pearson-Farquhar syndicate when it 
found itself in deep water in a daring attempt 
to combine several existing lines of railroad 
into a great transcontinental system that would 
excel any other in existence. When the Ameri- 
can International Corporation, with its $50,- 
000,000 capital and its vast protentialities for 
making • eminent America's position in the 
world of trade and finance, was in process of 
formation, it was Otto H. Kahn who took an 
active part in the negotiations, and brought 
them to a successful issue. In fact, the presi- 
dent of the corporation, Charles A. Stone, con- 
fessed to an interviewer : " I don't know what 
we should have done without the counsel and 
practical assistance of Mr. Kahn. He is a 
wonder, his understanding of international af- 
fairs is amazing." Another great work in 
which Mr. Kahn showed his transcendent 
ability was in conducting the intricate, deli- 
cate negotiations which led to the opening of 
the doors of the Paris Bourse to American 
securities and the listing there of $50,000,000 
Pennsylvania bonds, in 1906, the first official 



listing of American securities in Paris. Also 
he had a large share later in the negotiations 
which resultt^ in the issue by Kuhn, Loeb and 
Company of $50,000,000 of City of Paris bonds 
and $60,000,000 Bordeaux-Lyons and Mar- 
seilles bonds. As an art connoisseur, Otto H. 
Kahn is probably better known to the world at 
large than he is as a banker. He reorganized 
the Metropolitan Opera in New York as he 
would have reorganized a railroad. Regard- 
less of expense to liimself personally, he in- 
tro<luced many valuable reforms both artisti- 
cally and raanagerially, ended costly and use- 
less* excrescences, raised the tone of artistic 
aspiration, and in general put new life into the 
institution. He is chairman of the Metropoli- 
tan Opera Company and he gives a great deal 
of valuable time to its affairs inspired only 
by his genuine love of music, coupled with the 
determination that what is offered by the 
organization shall be of the finest quality it is 
possible to acquire, no matter at what expense 
or labor. To Mr. Kahn music, beautiful paint- 
ings, vitalized statuary, and real literature are 
the essentials of a full life, and he would as 
soon try to live without food as to deprive 
himself of an interest in the beautiful and the 
true as exemplified in art in all its aspects. 
Nor has he ever been selfish in his enjoyment 
of art. His sentiments in this regard he once 
put into words which are well worth quoting, 
" Maecenases are needed," he said, " for the 
dramatic stage, the operatic stage, the con- 
cert stage; for conservatories and art acad- 
emies; for the encouragement and support of 
American writers, painters, sculptors, decora- 
tors, in fact for all those things which in 
Europe are done by princes, governments, and 
communities ... to strive toward fostering 
the art life of the country, toward counter- 
acting harsh militarism, toward relieving the 
monotony and strain of the people's every-day 
life by helping to awaken or foster in them 
the love and the understanding of that which 
is beautiful and inspiring, and aversion and 
contempt for that which is vulgar, cheap, and 
degrading, that is a humanitarian effort emi- 
nently worth making." In all his activities 
aside from those of his banking house, Mr. 
Kahn has been inspired not by a wish to cater 
to the whims of people of his own social stand- 
ing, but by a sincere desire to furnish for the 
masses the mental and spiritual nourishment 
afforded by genuine art and beauty and cul- 
ture. In addition to holding the chairmanship 
of the Metropolitan Opera Company, he was 
chairman of the Century Opera Company, 
founded to give opera at popular prices, treas- 
urer of the New Theater, vice-president and 
principal founder of the Chicago Grand Opera 
Company, director of the Boston Opera Com- 
pany, and honorary director of the Royal Opera 
Company, Covent Garden, London. Among 
other institutions in which he takes a help- 
ful interest are the Boys' Club, New York 
City, which was founded by E. H. Harriman, 
and the Neurological Institute, also in New 
York, and which Mr. Kahn helped to establish. 
Besides his membership in the banking firm 
of Kuhn, Loeb and Company, he is a director 
of the following: Equitable Trust Company, 
Union Pacific Railroad Company, Southern 
Pacific Company, Oregon Short Line Railroad 
Company, Oregon-Washington Railroad and 


Navigation Company, and Morristown Trust 
Company. Mr. Kahn drives a four-in-hand, 
and likes riding, automobiling, golfing, and 
sailing, and has a proper respect for the great 
American game of baseball. Also he under- 
stands cricket. He plays both violin and 
cello with the skill and taste of a virtuoso, 
and is an omnivorous reader. One of his 
inviolable rules is to read for one hour every 
night before retiring no matter how late it 
may be. Although an Englishman by adop- 
tion and with a clear road to membership in 
the British parliament, had he chosen to ac- 
cept it, after more than twenty years of resi- 
dence in the United States, in which, as he 
expressed it, " my roots have gone too deeply 
into American soil ever to be transplanted," 
he took the necessary steps to become 
legally an American, thus consummating in 
due form what he long had been actually — a 
loyal representative citizen of the country 
which he had cause to look upon as his very 
own. One of Mr. Kahn's projects for the ad- 
vancement of art, and which has met with 
universal approval, is to establish in America 
a counterpart of the Luxembourg gallery of 
Paris, a place where the work of contemporary 
American artists can be exhibited free to the 
people, where the artist can go for recognition, 
and where the people will gain a better under- 
standing of art. It is characteristic of Mr. 
Kahn that he is ever ready to aid genuine 
talent, especially in the young, and that he 
takes time to seek opportunities to do real 
service in the cause of art and culture in 
America. In 1896 he married Sadie, daughter 
of Abraham Wolff, one of the founders of the 
banking house of Kuhn, Loeb and Company, 
and they have two sons and two daughters. 

LOREE, Leonor Fresnel, railroad president, 
b. in Fulton City, 111., 23 April, 1858, son of 
William Mulford and Sarah Bigelow (Marsh) 
Loree. He attended Rutgers College, New 
Brunswick, N. J., where he specialized in 
mathematics and science, and, after his grad- 
uation in 1877, entered the service of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad. Natural predilection and 
education contributed to give him an excel- 
lent equipment for the work which he was 
called upon to perform, which consisted at 
first of surveying; and in two years he had 
acquired a thorough practical knowledge of 
railroad engineering. The following two years 
he spent as a transitman in the engineering 
corps of the United States army, and the suc- 
ceeding period (1881-83) as leveler, transit- 
man, and topographer of the Mexican National 
Railway. In that capacity he made the pre- 
liminary surveys for the line between the Rio 
Grande and Saltillo, Mexico. Upon his return 
to the United States, Mr. Loree again entered 
the service of the Pennsylvania Railroad. His 
experience had by this time qualified him for 
responsible positions. After a brief service 
as assistant engineer of the Chicago division, 
he was made engineer of maintenance of way 
of the Indianapolis and Vincennes division and 
later of the Chicago division, remaining until 
1888; then for another year he held a similar 
office on the Cleveland and Pittsburgh division 
of which he was the superintendent until 1896. 
During this incumbency, he devised and ap- 
plied the arrangement of lap-passing tracks 
with numbered switches, and worked out a 





system of train-dispatching that greatly 
facilitated single-track operation. In January, 
1896, Mr. Loree succeeded to the important 
post of general manager of the Pennsylvania 
Lines west of Pittsburgh. With this vast sys- 
tem under his control he found an adequate 
scope for the application of his principles of 
construction and operation. Straightening of 
tracks, elimination of grades, enlargement and 
adaptation of yards and terminals, and the 
general construction carried out on an ex- 
tensive scale — these were elements in a general 
improvement that aroused nation-wide atten- 
tion. On the operating side other sweeping re- 
forms were carried out; established methods 
of operation were analyzed and revised; em- 
ployees were more carefully selected and more 
thoroughly trained; the modern freight car 
with greatly increased capacity, and the mod- 
ern locomotive with greater tractive power 
were adopted. Thus only was the road enabled 
to cope properly with the sudden increase of 
traffic incident to the great business revival 
in 1898. It is also worthy of notice that Mr. 
Loree, as general manager, established the 
first organized railroad police force in the 
United States, and so, with the aid of Josiah 
Flynt Willard, the well-known criminologist, 
eliminated the tramps and yeggmen on the 
Pennsylvania Railroad. Mr. Loree was elected 
fourth vice-president of the Pennsylvania 
Lines west of Pittsburgh on 1 Jan., 1901, but 
soon resigned that position to accept the presi- 
dency of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
Company, to which he was elected in the same 
year. In this office he remained until his 
resignation in 1904. In the course of his ad- 
ministration, Mr. Loree was given splendid 
opportunities for the display of his talents, 
and his four years' administration of this 
road was replete with marked reforms and im- 
provements. His thorough remodeling of it 
showed in the highest degree his constructive 
genius. He revolutionized the road's affairs 
by completely overhauling the entire operating 
organization. The new system of disburse- 
ment accounting which he established was 
quickly adopted by the Pennsylvania and other 
lines, and became the basis for the " present 
system of the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion. He caused the construction of the first 
articulated locomotive, and, in connection 
therewith, introduced the Welschaert valve 
gear. The upper quadrant system of sema- 
phore signaling, one of his inventions, is now 
the standard of all American roads. Mr. 
Loree also projected and built the great piers 
of the Baltimore and Ohio road at Canton on 
Chesapeake Bay, and was instrumental in 
bringing about the thirty-five-foot channel im- 
provement of the harbor and consequent ex- 
pansion of commerce of the city of Baltimore. 
On resigning the presidency of the Baltimore 
and Ohio, in 1904, he was elected to the presi- 
dency of the Rock Island; at the same time 
serving as chairman of the executive com- 
mittee of the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific 
Railway Company, and of the St. Louis and 
San Francisco Railroad Company. These of- 
fices he resigned in October, 1904. In June, 
1906, he was made chairman of the executive 
committee of the Kansas City Southern Rail- 
way Company, and in April, 1907, was elected 
president of the Delaware and Hudson Com- 

pany, which offices he still (1916) occupies, 
as well as the presidency and directorship of 
thirty-four companies controlled by or affiliated 
with it. Both the Kansas City Southern and 
Delaware and Hudson he rehabilitated in a 
manner which demonstrated anew his extraor- 
dinary executive skill. He is also a director 
of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, 
the Erie Railroad Company, the National Rail- 
road Company of Mexico, the Seaboard Air 
Line Railway Company, the New York, On- 
tario and Western Railway Company, the 
Southern Pacific Company, and the Wells- 
Fargo Express Company. In 1899 Mr. Loree 
was elected president of the American Rail- 
way Association, was re-elected in 1900 and 
declined re-election in 1901. He represented 
the association at the International Railway 
Congress in Paris in 1900, and secured the 
selection of Washington as the place of the 
next meeting (1905). In April, 1913, Mr. 
Loree was elected chairman of the Eastern 
group of the Presidents' Conference Committee 
on Federal Valuation of the Railroads in the 
United States. He is also a member of the 
Railway Executives' Advisory Committee on 
Federal Relations. At the Chicago Exposition 
in 1893 he was judge of transportation. At 
the outbreak of the European War, in 1914, 
great anxiety was felt in the United States re- 
garding the amount of American securities 
held abroad and the effect on the financial sit- 
uation here should these securities be offered 
for sale. Attempts were made by bankers and 
by the United States government to ascertain 
the facts in this respect, but without success, 
and finally Mr. Loree was requested to in- 
vestigate the situation. The results of the 
inquiry were placed at the disposal of the 
Federal Reserve Bank. The data assembled 
in this investigation was considered of great 
public importance and was given wide pub- 
licity. What Mr, Loree has contributed to the 
profession of railroading cannot easily be 
gauged, but a comprehensive survey of the en- 
during work which he did and the ease with 
which he maintained his early gained position 
of superiority, show great ability and tireless 
industry. He has given unselfishly and in a 
fine professional spirit all that his profound 
study and vast experience have taught him, and 
that his keen and progressive mind has de- 
veloped. His counsel on economic conditions 
is highly valued, and to his extraordinary 
knowledge of that subject is attributed his 
convincing public arguments on behalf of the 
railroads. Aside from his railroad connec- 
tions, Mr. Loree is a trustee of the Equitable 
Trust Company, New York; and a trustee of 
the American Surety Company of New York. 
He is a director of the National Em])loyment 
Exchange; the Boston, Cape Cod, and New 
York Canal Company, and the Mechanics and 
Metals National Bank of New York. IIo is 
a member of the Metropolitan, Century, l^rook, 
Manhattan, New York Athletic, India House, 
Mid-day, and Bankers' Clubs of New York ; tlio 
Oakland Golf, Club of Bayside, L. I., the Bal- 
tusrol Golf Club of Short Hills, N, J.; the 
Maidstone Club of East Hampton, L. I.; the 
Essex County Country Club of Orange, N. J., 
and the Automobile Club of America. He 
married 29 Jan., 188.1, Jessie, dau;,'liter of 
Jesse Taber, of Logansport, Ind. They have 




two Bon8, James Taber, Robert Fresnel, and 
one daughter, Louise Claire I^ree. 

ARMOUR, Philip Danforth, merchant, b. in 
Stockbridp', N. V, 1(> May, 1H.T2; d. in 
Chicago, 111., G Jan., 1901. His ancestors for 
generations were noted for strength of char- 
acter and shrewd common sense, the maternal 
side being of Puritan stock. His father, Dan- 
forth Armour, and his mother (Julianna 
Brooks) left Union, Conn., September, 1820, 
and settled at Stockbridge, Madison County, 
N. Y., where Philip D. Armour was born. 
There were five brothers and three sisters. 
Farming was their occupation, and habitual 
frugality and industry were their fundamental 
principles. His schooldays were the best the 
local red schoolhouse could afford, but Philip 
was fortunate enough to attend the neighbor- 
ing village seminary at Cazenovia, becoming 
a natural leader of his schoolmates there. 
During the winter of 1851 and 1852, the ex- 
citement attending the gold discovery in Cali- 
fornia having spread over the country, a party 
was organized to make the overland trip to 
California and Philip was invited to join, 
being influenced to accept by a growing desire 
to get out into the world. The party left 
Oneida, N. Y., in the spring of 1852, and 
reached California six months later. In mak- 
ing the trip they were not exempt from the 
trials and dangers attending similar journeys. 
Armour was too resolute and had too fixed 
a purpose to yield to the temptations of an 
adventurous life, and the vicissitudes of this 
early experience broadened his views and 
strengthened his character. With natural and 
trained prudence he saved the returns from 
his mining and trading ventures, returning 
East in 1856 with a sum considered ample in 
those days for embarking in commerce. After 
a long visit to his parents and family in 
Stockbridge, N. Y., he returned West again, 
settling in the grain commission business in 
Milwaukee in March, 1859. His first partner 
was Frederick B. Miles. They were suc- 
cessful, but dissolved in 1863. During the 
same year, 1863, a co-partnership was formed 
by John Plankinton and Philip D. Armour, 
which continued many years and was singu- 
larly successful. Mr. Plankinton had been for 
some years previously engaged in the pork 
and beef-packing business with Frederick Lay- 
ton. Mr. Plankinton was Mr. Armour's senior 
and had been a resident of Milwaukee for a 
much longer period. He had established a 
most thriving business which had been con- 
ducted with great judgment. He stood high 
as a merchant and commanded the respect of 
all as a public-spirited citizen. This was Mr. 
Armour's opportunity. How well he handled 
himself and the affairs that fell to him the 
history of the commercial world is our wit- 
ness. To the business of Mr. Plankinton he 
brought that unremitting labor and concen- 
tration of thought that were so peculiarly his 
own. The fluctuations in the prices of pro- 
visions at the close of the war left the firm 
with a fortune. This, with the development 
of the country, gave them an opportunity of 
extending their growing business. At Chicago, 
in 1862, Mr. Armour's brother, Herman 0. 
Armour, had established himself in the grain 
commission business, but was induced by 
Philip to surrender this to a younger brother, 

Joseph F. Armour, in 1865, and take charge 
of a new firm in New York, then organized 
under the name of Armour, Plankinton and 
Company, The organization of the New York 
house was most timely and successful. The 
financial condition of the West at that period 
did not permit of the large lines of credit 
necessary for the conduct of a business assum- 
ing such magnitude, and it was, therefore, as 
events proved, most fortunate that the duties 
devolving on the head of this house should 
fall to one so well qualified to handle them. 
He was not only equal to the emergency, but 
was soon favorably known as a man of great 
financial ability, and he became the Eastern 
financial agent of all the Western houses. The 
firm name of H. O. Armour and Company was 
continued at Chicago until 1870.. They con- 
tinued to handle grain and commenced pack- 
ing hogs in 1868. This part of the business, 
however, was conducted under the firm name 
of Armour and Company, which, in 1870, as- 
sumed all their Chicago operations. The busi- 
ness of all these houses under their efficient 
management grew to dimensions that were the 
marvel of the trade. Their brands became 
as well known in all the markets of the world 
as at home. In all these developments Philip 
D. Armour was the leading and dominant 
spirit. It became evident in 1871 that the 
live stock producing power of the country was 
migrating westward, and in order to keep 
abreast of it they established at Kansas City 
the firm known as Plankinton and Armour. 
This packing-plant was under the imme- 
diate supervision of Simeon B. Armour, an 
elder brother. The total output of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee, and Kansas City houses 
under their vigorous leadership was truly ^ 
enormous. The failing health of Joseph at 
Chicago necessitated assistance, and conse- 
quently Philip moved to Chicago in 1875, 
where he resided until his death in January, 
1901. Joseph Armour died in January, 1881. 
The fraternal feeling manifested by Mr. Ar- 
mour on every occasion for the welfare and 
prosperity of his family was noticeable again, 
when, in 1879, he induced another brother, 
Andrew Watson Armour, the last one to leave 
the old homestead at Stockbridge, to remove 
to Kansas City to take charge of the Armour 
Bros.' Bank, which he managed with suc- 
cess. The settling of A. W. Armour in 
Kansas City led later to the admission into 
the Kansas City packing-house of his sons, 
Kirkland B. Armour and Charles W. Armour, 
who became the active managers there. Large 
plants were later established at Omaha, Sioux 
City, East St. Louis, St. Joseph, and Fort 
Worth. A. W. Armour died in May, 1892, 
and S. B. Armour in March, 1899. In August, 
1901, H. 0. Armour died, and in September 
of the same year Kirkland B. Armour passed 
away. His sons, Watson and Laurance, have 
since entered the business and take part in 
the Chicago management. Quite recently 
Philip D. Armour (3d), the grandson of the 
founder of the house, has also entered the 
management. As a manufacturer Mr. Armour 
was constantly seeking greater economy and 
efficiency by preventing waste. Tankage, 
blood, bones, and other animal by-products 
were turned to greater value by a vigorous 
and complete system, which eliminated the 


urCct^ d /yWk-^i-ii^---.-^ 




comparatively wasteful methods previously 
used. Many articles formerly removed at an. 
expense, or given away, or sold for trifling 
amounts, were, by good handling and by mix- 
ture with other suitable raw material bought 
for the purpose, made into glue, curled hair, 
ammonia, and above all into fertilizers, which 
have almost revolutionized agriculture. As 
a merchant he was quick to see and grasp 
new outlets for all his products by furnishing 
them to consumers at the lowest possible 
prices, with guaranteed excellence. Thus, 
economy in manufacture, with energy and 
initiative in marketing, worked together for 
great results. In the years 1881 and 1882 a 
new departure in handling beef for the East- 
ern markets began its development. For a 
number of years experiments had been made, 
and cattle that had formerly been slaughtered 
and dressed at their destination were now 
killed at Western points and the dressed 
product . shipped successfully in refrigerator 
cars to Eastern dealers. This required a 
large outlay of capital and could only be suc- 
cessfully carried out by doing an immense busi- 
ness in order to reduce the cost of handling 
to a minimum. The house of Armour and 
Company became one of the leaders of this 
trade. Even before incorporation, and before 
control of all plants was officially centered in 
Chicago, the strength, wisdom, and genius of 
Philip D. Armour were so manifest that his 
brothers and the lieutenants at all the plants 
followed his wishes and suggestions with an 
alacrity and willingness that not only showed 
their confidence in him, but resulted in a co- 
operation of energy that in itself insured suc- 
cess. It is impossible to convey its magnitude 
to one not familiar with the wide scope of the 
business, which in its wonderful ramifications 
catered not only to the various needs of the 
human family, but also to the numerous re- 
quirements of the soil itself. Mr. Armour's 
capacity for work was something wonderful. 
He was at his desk by 6:00 a.m. and fre- 
quently before. Fatigue was an unknown 
term. He traveled extensively, but wherever 
time found him it was among those who con- 
sumed his products and where necessarily his 
agencies had been established. His mind 
would turn intuitively to his industries and 
thus his recreation became a method by which 
he qualified himself as to the merits of his 
representatives, as well as the requirements 
of the people and their condition. He was a 
close observer, forming remarkably clear and 
accurate forecasts of financial conditions and 
acting upon them promptly and decidedly. 
His foresight in estimating the probable sup- 
plies of, and demand for, the agricultural 
products of the country, notably provisions 
and grain, was truly wonderful, and it led 
naturally to large returns. Mr. Armour in- 
spired respect and afi"ection among his friends 
and business associates to an unusual degree. 
Particularly among those connected with the 
interests he controlled, loyalty to him and to 
his wishes was pre-eminent, and naturally 
aided his progress. He could always count 
upon the co-operation of his men. Seldom 
indeed was disloyalty found among them. His 
extensive grain and elevator interests were 
conducted under a separate organization from 
modest beginnings in 1875 to a commanding 

position in the trade — a position the Armour 
Grain Company still holds. The energy, 
genius, and shrewdness always shown in his 
other undertakings were also pre-eminently 
evident in the grain business. At the earnest 
solicitation of the late Alexander Mitchell, he 
became one of the directors of the Chicago, 
Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway. This is the 
only office he ever held. Political preferment 
was not the bent of his mind or his ambition. 
Mr. Armour was married to Malvina Belle 
Ogden, in Cincinnati, Ohio, October, 1862. She 
was the only daughter of Jonathan Ogden. 
The home life of this remarkable couple was 
singularly happy. Mr. Armour always had the 
happy faculty of leaving his business cares at 
his office and entering his family circle with 
content and enjoyment of a simple and gracious 
life. They had two sons, J. Ogden and Philip 
D., Jr., who became partners with their 
father. Philip, Jr., died in 1900. J. Ogden 
Armour, to whom full responsibility has de- 
scended, carries his honors gracefully and with 
becoming modesty. He is quiet in manner; 
nothing can agitate him; and under his steady 
hand the interests to which he succeeded have 
very greatly expanded and have continued to 
prosper. Modern methods have been adopted and 
efficiency increased thereby so that his posi- 
tion in the world is fully as great as was that 
of his father. In January, 1881, Joseph F. 
Armour died and bequeathed $100,000 for the 
founding of a charitable institution, the 
Armour Mission. He wisely directed that 
the carrying out of his benevolent design 
should be chiefly intrusted to his brother, the 
subject of this sketch. In accepting the trust 
so imposed, Philip D. Armour gave to it the 
same energetic and critical attention that he 
had given to his private affairs, and added 
a large amount to his brother's bequest. The 
mission is a broad and wholly non-sectarian 
institution. It is free and open to all to the 
full extent of its capacity, without any con- 
dition as to race, creed, or otherwise. The 
Armour Institute of Technology is the out- 
growth of this working purpose, which has 
been shared by the family. It is a school of 
engineering, whose graduates number more 
than a thousand. The institution was founded 
for the purpose of giving to young men an 
opportunity to secure a scientific and engi- 
neering education. Its aim is broadly phil- 
anthropic. Profoundly realizing the impor- 
tance of self-reliance as a factor in the 
development of character, the founder condi- 
tioned his benefactions in such a way as to 
emphasize both their value and the student's 
self-respect. To these institutions P. D. 
Armour contributed more than $1,500,000 and 
his son has contributed $2,000,000. It was 
the combination of industry, untiring energy, 
and philanthropy that has made the name 
of Philip D. Armour not only so potent in 
the West, but also a recognized leader among 
the merchants of the world. 

SHUEY, Edwin Longstreet, manufacturer, b. 
in Cincinnati, Ohio, 8 Jan., 1857, son of Wil- 
liam John and Sarah (Berger) Shuey. 
Through his father he is of French stock, being 
descended from Daniel Shuey, a Huguenot, 
who came to this country about 1732 and set- 
tled in Lancaster County, Pa. His great- 
grandfather, John Martin Shuey, distinguished 




himself as a soldier of the Revolutionary army 
under Washington. His grandfather, Adam 
Shuey, was one of the pioneer settlers in the 
Miami valley, in Ohio, where he became the 
first postmaster of Miamishurg, and was for a 
while the assessor of Montgomery County. 
The most prominent member of the family, 
however, was Mr. vShuey's father, William 
John Shuey, one of the first ministers of the 
United Brethren in Christ denomination and 
perhaps the best known figure in the history 
of that religious denomination. William John 
Shuey was the manager of the United Brethren 
Publishing House, which issued all the litera- 
ture of the organi- 
zation. He found- 
ed the first mission 
of the United 
Brethren Church 
in Sierra Leone, 
Africa, which has 
since become one 
of the chief cen- 
ters of Christian 
influence on that 
continent. Young 
Edwin's boyhood 
was spent in the 
city of Dayton, 
Ohio, where he at- 
tended the public 
schools, graduating 
from the high school of that city in 1877. He 
then entered the Otterbein University, of which 
his father was a trustee, and in due time was 
graduated at that institution, with the degree 
of A.B. Having finished his education, he be- 
gan to teach in Green Hill Seminary, in In- 
diana, and later in the Fostoria Academy, 
where he remained until 1881, when he was 
appointed principal of the academy of the 
Otterbein University, in Westerville, Ohio. 
Here he remained for four years, resigning to 
take the position of manager of the book 
department of the United Brethren Publishing 
House, in Dayton, Ohio. He remained here 
for twelve years, until 1897, when he became 
head of the welfare department of the Na- 
tional Cash Register Company, in Dayton. It 
was during the three years that he carried on 
the welfare work among the working people 
of this big commercial enterprise that Mr. 
Shuey first became actively interested in the 
welfare features of business affairs. In 1900 
he joined the Lowe Brothers Company of that 
city as advertising manager, and a little later 
became one of its directors. Since then his 
business interests have widened and he is, at 
the present time, connected with a number of 
large corporations as an official and director. 
It is not as a business man, however, that Mr. 
Shuey's career demands most attention. His 
most lasting service probably has been, outside 
of his business pursuits, performed merely for 
the love of the work, gratuitously. Inspired 
by the home atmosphere in which he was 
brought up, he early acquired an interest in 
the welfare, material as well as spiritual, of 
working people. This tendency he was first 
able to give expression on becoming head of 
the welfare department of the National Cash 
Register Company, representing one of the 
first organized efforts on the part of a large 
corporation to improve the material welfare 

of its employees. In this line of endeavor Mr. 
Shuey may properly be considered one of the 
pioneers. His book, " Factory People and 
Their Employers" (1901), is regarded as one 
of the best authorities on the early phases of 
welfare social work in general. Aside from 
this, Mr. Shuey became very much interested 
in the Young Men's Christian Association as 
president and chairman of the educational 
committee of the Dayton Association, with 
which he has been identified since 1887. He 
has had a strong influence in shaping the 
work of establishing night schools in his own 
city, and so gave the impetus for the work 
of this kind which has since been done all 
over the country. Since 1893, as a member 
of the International Committee, he has been 
closely associated with the extension of night 
school education for mechanics in all sections 
of the United States. Through his writings 
and lectures and by actual supervision he has 
taken part in the establishment of a great 
number of such schools. He is now recognized 
within the organization as one of the leading 
authorities of this class of work and his help 
is sought by Y. M. C. A. workers in other 
cities and towns. In 1895 he was editor of 
" Helps " in a new Teachers' Bible for Sunday 
school teachers and workers, the first work to 
be issued in this country in this form. This 
proved so helpful and so popular that its plan 
has been followed by some of the largest firms 
in the country. Though a business man of 
keen and practical judgment, Mr. Shuey is 
essentially a man of deep religious convictions, 
and of a profoundly religious temperament. 
This tendency in his character, however, has 
found expression in civic and educational 
work, rather than in the preaching of re- 
ligious, or church doctrines, for it is Mr, 
Shuey's belief that a truly religious character 
must be based on intelligence, and that first of 
all intelligence must be developed by education. 
To him business has been largely incidental. 
Most of his enthusiasm has gone to the efforts 
which he has developed to the social, material, 
and spiritual betterment of his fellows. Mr. 
Shuey was for fifteen years a member of the 
library board of his home city, Dayton, Ohio; 
he was for one term member of the Board of 
Education of Dayton; he was twice delegate 
to the General Conference of his church; he 
was, for one term, president of the Association 
of National Advertisers, the largest organiza- 
tion of business men directly interested in na- 
tional promotion of business, Mr. Shuey is 
a member of the American Academy of Social 
and Political Science. He is also a trustee of 
Otterbein University, at Westerville, Ohio, an 
institution founded in 1847, and conducted 
under the auspices of the United Brethren 
Church. On 15 Aug,, 1882, Mr. Shuey mar- 
ried Effie Mitchell, daughter of Ross Mitchell, 
one of the founders of the great agricultural 
implement business of this country. They 
have had three children, Amy M., Edwin Lin- 
coln, and Sarah C. Shuey. 

HAMMOND, John Hays, mining engineer, b. 
in San Francisco, Cal., 31 March, 1855, son of 
Richard Pindell and Sarah Elizabeth (Hays) 
Hammond. His father was a graduate of West 
Point, and served as an officer of artillery in 
the Mexican War. He was twice brevetted for 
" gallant and meritorious conduct " in the bat- 






ties of Cherubusco and Cerro Gordo. At the 
close of the war with Mexico, Major Hammond 
resigned his commission in the army, and a few 
years later settled in San Francisco, where he 
was appointed collector of the port of San 
Francisco by President Pierce. Subsequently, 
he held for several years the position of presi- 
dent of the Board of Police Commissioners of 
San Francisco, and during his tenure of office 
made a noteworthy record in police reforms 
and administrative methods. Mr. Hammond's 
mother was a daughter of Harmon Hays, of 
Tennessee, and a sister of Col. John Coffee 
Hays, the noted Texas Ranger. Mr. Hammond 
spent a great part of his boyhood at the home 
of Colonel Hays, who had removed to Cali- 
fornia, and was the first sheriff of San Fran- 
cisco. The boy was taught to ride, shoot, and 
swim, and early developed a fondness for wood- 
craft and out-of-door life. He obtained his 
preliminary education in the public schools of 
San Francisco, and subsequently at the Hop- 
kins Grammar School in New Haven, Conn., 
and entered the Sheffield Scientific School of 
Yale University, where he was graduated in 
1876 with the degree of Ph.B. He then took 
a post-graduate course in mining at the Royal 
School of Mines in Freiberg, Saxony, where he 
remained until 1879. On his return to America 
in that year, he was engaged as assayer by the 
late Senator George Hearst. Subsequently, he 
became mining expert on the United States 
Geological Survey to exapiine the gold mines 
of California, and from the information he ob- 
tained at that time became a recognized author- 
ity on the subject of gold mining, which re- 
sulted later in his being called to South Africa 
to take charge of important mining properties 
there. At this period of his career, Mr. Ham- 
mond was also consulting engineer to the 
Union works of San Francisco, and to the Cen- 
tral and Southern Pacific Railroad; manager 
of various mines in the Republic of Mexico; 
manager and consulting engineer of the Em- 
pire and North Star mines, situated in Grass 
Valley, Cal.; and consulting engineer and 
president of the Bunker Hill and Sullivan 
Mining and Concentrating Company, located 
in the Coeur d'Alene District of Idaho. This 
last-named property, one of the largest silver 
and lead mines in the world, was purchased on 
Mr. Hammond's recommendation. During the 
years 1888 to 1902 he was consulting engineer 
of the State Mining Bureau of California. In 
1893 Mr. Hammond went to South Africa as 
mining expert for the Barnato Brothers of 
London, to take charge of their important min- 
ing operations in that country. The following 
year he became associated with Cecil Rhodes, 
and took entire charge of the vast mining in- 
terests of the companies controlled by him in 
South Africa. Indeed, no one man in the his- 
tory of mining has shouldered a greater bur- 
den of professional and personal responsibility 
than fell upon Mr. Hammond in the fulfillment 
of his contract with Mr. Rhodes. A warm per- 
sonal friendship sprang up between Mr. Ham- 
mond and Mr. Rhodes, and Mr. Hammond 
never loses an opportunity to extol the virtues 
and far-sightedness of that great " Empire 
Builder." Contemporaneously with his engage- 
ment as consulting engineer of the Consoli- 
dated Gold Fields of South Africa, one of Mr. 
Rhodes' companies, Mr. Hammond retained for 

a time the position of consulting engineer of 
the important Barnato mines; of the Rand- 
fontein estate, the properties controlled by the 
J. B. Robinson group; and of other competi- 
tive mining groups. He was also consulting 
engineer of the British South Africa Char- 
tered Company, which had the political con- 
trol of, and the mineral and agricultural 
rights to, that large territory now known as 
Rhodesia. In 1894 Mr. Hammond headed a 
reconnoitering expedition into the country 
south of the Zambesi River, in South Africa. 
Mr. Rhodes and Dr. Jameson accompanied him 
a part of the way, after which Mr. Hammond 
and three companions made a dash into the 
interior for an inspection of the fabled King 
Solomon's mines. After enduring many hard- 
ships, he and his three companions arrived 
safely back and joined the main party. His 
examination resulted in the reopening of the 
old mines, which had been abandoned for cen- 
turies and which are regarded by eminent 
archeologists as the site of the King Solomon 
mines mentioned in the Bible. Of the four 
that composed this special expedition, Mr. 
Hammond is the only man alive today. It 
was while on this trip that Mr. Hammond 
advised Mr. Rhodes, who was, as has been 
stated, the controlling spirit in the Consoli- 
dated Gold Fields of South Africa, to sell the 
enormous holdings of that company in its 
Witwatersrand (Transvaal) outcrop properties, 
then being operated, and to purchase, in their 
stead, other deeper areas. These latter tracts 
gave no surface indications of ever becoming 
mines, and, in fact, some of them were under 
cultivation as farming land; but, in Mr. Ham- 
mond's opinion, as expressed at that time, de- 
velopments to a sufficient depth would en- 
counter rich ore bodies and result in these 
properties becoming valuable mines. Owing 
to the depth, at times 4,000 feet, to which it 
was necessary to sink shafts in order to reach 
the ore bodies in the deep level areas, ex- 
penditures, in some instances of several mil- 
lion dollars, were necessary. As time was of 
great importance, the erection of large mills 
and cyanide works was undertaken simulta- 
neously with the sinking of the shafts and the 
development of ore in the property. Mr. 
Hammond's remarkable prophecy proved to be 
entirely correct, and subsequently, as a direct 
result of his advice, and under his supervision, 
the wonderful deep level mines of the Rand 
came into existence, and have since that time 
added hundreds of millions of dollars to the 
world's gold supply. Many difficulties wore 
encountered in the selling of these vast hold- 
ings of securities in the London market and 
in convincing the London Board of the wisdom 
of parting with such valuable assets, which 
appeared to them at the time to be the wildest 
folly. These transactions constitute a record 
chapter in the history of mining finance, and 
especially so when it is r(>alizcd that one man 
was pitting his teclinical knowledge against the 
protests of some of the greatest financiers of 
that day in a matter whore the entire assets of 
the largest mining company in the worhl were 
at stake. But sub.seciuent develo|)men1s en- 
tirely justified Mr. Hammond's ])oliey, for his 
company made millions of dollars in this 
transaction through the liquidation of its hold- 
ings in the outcrop companies. This was fur- 




ther demonstrated by the fact that within two 
years, by legitimate flotation of properties of 
undoubted intrinsic value, they were iible to 
pay an annual dividend of ten million dollars. 
One of the sensational chapters in Mr. Ham- 
mond's career was his connection with the so- 
called Jameson Raid. This " Raid," which 
occurred in the winter of the years 1895-96, 
really was but an incident in a bona fide move- 
ment for reform. In this movement Mr. Ham- 
mond was one of the four leaders of the Re- 
form Committee, the other members being 
Col. Frank Rhodes, brother of Cecil Rhodes, a 
retired British army officer; George Farrar, 
now Sir George Farrar; and Lionel Phillips, 
now Sir Lionel Phillips. The Johannesburg 
reform movement was an uprising of the Uit- 
landers, or foreigners, against the regime of 
Paul Kruger, then president of the Transvaal 
Republic. The Uitlanders in Johannesburg num- 
bered about 70,000, as against about 14,000 
Boers. They paid nine-tenths of the taxes of 
the entire Transvaal Republic, and yet were 
denied citizenship and had no voice whatso- 
ever in the conduct of the government affairs, 
in which they were vitally interested. This 
was an extreme case of taxation without rep- 
resentation. Their grievances, as recorded in 
the history of the period, were many and se- 
vere. They protested individually and collec- 
tively, on many occasions, against the unfair 
treatment they suffered at the hands of the 
Boer government, but without avail; and 
finally, when a deputation of Uitlanders was 
sent from Johannesburg to President Kruger 
in Pretoria, to ask him for the redress of 
certain grievances, they were told by Presi- 
dent Kruger that " if you want your so-called 
* rights ' you had better fight for them." This 
they decided to do, and secretly organized a 
committee and made arrangements with Cecil 
Rhodes, who was at that time Prime Minister 
of Cape Colony, Alfred Beit, and other capi- 
talists heavily interested in the mining de- 
velopments in the Transvaal, to furnish money 
for the purchase of guns and ammunition to 
enable them " to fight for their rights." The 
leaders of the Reform Committee, which com- 
mittee numbered, finally, sixty men, of whom 
twelve were Americans prominently identified 
with the mining industry, and men of other 
nationalities than English, made a secret ar- 
rangement with Dr. Jameson, then Administra- 
tor of Rhodesia, the British territory adjoin- 
ing the Transvaal on the north, to come to 
their relief under certain contingencies when 
called upon to do so. Arms had been im- 
ported from abroad by the Reform Committee 
and smuggled into Johannesburg, but few guns 
and little ammunition had arrived at the time 
that Jameson crossed the border. In spite of 
positive instructions from the leaders of the 
Reform Committee that he was not to cross 
the border until he had received telegraphic 
instructions from them to do so, he disobeyed 
their orders. Jameson was defeated by a con- 
tingent of Boers, who learned of his intention 
to cross the border, and he and his officers were 
captured before they reached Johannesburg. 
They were taken to Pretoria and imprisoned 
there until subsequently removed to Great 
Britain for trial. The premature action of 
Dr. Jameson in crossing the border, which was 
represented as having been made for the relief 

of the women and children of Johannesburg, 
precipitated the failure of the Reform move- 
ment. The impression was created by Boer 
emissaries immediately after the raid had 
taken place, that it was for the purpose of 
enabling Great Britain to secure the territory 
of the Transvaal. That this was not true has 
been subsequently proved, and no further evi- 
dence is required than the fact that Mr. Ham- 
mond himself took occasion to make the mem- 
bers of the Reform Committee swear allegiance 
to the flag of the Transvaal Republic, and that 
this flag remained over the headquarters of 
the committee until after the collapse of the 
Reform movement. Furthermore, Mr. Ham- 
mond, in addressing a meeting of Americans 
in Johannesburg, who subsequently became 
identified with the movement and formed a 
George Washington Corps, and took up arms 
in its cause, made the statement that he would 
shoot anyone who attempted to remove the 
Boer flag and substitute the flag of any other 
nation. The Boer government, under the im- 
pression, which was skillfully created by the 
Reform leaders, that Johannesburg was well 
armed, sent to the Johannesburg Reform Com- 
mittee an accredited deputation from Pretoria 
to endeavor to arrange terms that would pre- 
vent bloodshed and to remove the grievances 
of the Uitlanders. An arrangement was made 
that no action of force should be taken by the 
Reform Committee or by the Boer government 
pending the arrival -of the high commissioner 
of Great Britain, Sir Hercules Robinson, who 
was to act as mediator. On Sir Hercules 
Robinson's arrival in Pretoria the Boer gov- 
ernment stipulated, as a condition precedent 
to the consideration of the grievances of the 
Uitlanders, that they should lay down their 
arms, and were assured by Sir Hercules that 
when they did so they would receive the pro- 
tection of the British government and, at the 
same time, their grievances would be redressed. 
This stipulation was sent to the Reform Com- 
mittee as a request by Sir Hercules Robinson, 
and a special plea was urged by him that the 
guns be surrendered in order to save the lives 
of Dr. Jameson and his officers. Therefore the 
reformers laid down their arms. Unfortu- 
nately Sir Hercules was taken ill and was 
compelled to suddenly return to Cape Town. 
Immediately following his departure, the lead- 
ers, being disarmed, were arrested and taken 
to Pretoria jail. Although offers were made by 
friends to enable the leaders to escape into the 
friendly colony of Natal, they refused to desert 
the cause, for which they had risked their 
lives, and after being confined in jail for three 
months, were brought to trial. Meanwhile, be- 
cause of a painful illness, which Mr. Ham- 
mond contracted during his trip to the Zam- 
besi region some months previously, he was 
allowed by the Boer government to go on 
parole to Cape^Town. After a fortnight's stay 
there, he courageously returned to Pretoria to 
attend his trial, in spite of the warnings he 
received from many friends that he was liable 
to be shot by the Boers on the way back, and 
that if he succeeded in reaching Pretoria, he 
would sure receive sentence of death. The next 
act in this drama of real life, which came so 
near to becoming a tragedy, was the trial of 
the four leaders by a Boer jury. Under an 
agreement between their counsel and the at- 




torney for the Boer government, they were 
promised that they would be tried under what 
was known as the statute law of South Africa. 
With this understanding, they pleaded guilty 
to revolution, the penalty for which would not 
have been severe. It developed, however, that 
they had been deceived by the government's 
attorney, who tried them according to the old 
Roman Dutch law, under which the penalty 
for revolution was death; and their plea of 
guilty resulted in the four leaders receiving 
death sentences. After many months of agon- 
ized uncertainty and suffering, and after the 
entire civilized world had been wrought up, 
and every possible effort brought to bear on 
the Boer government, the death sentences 
passed on the four leaders were commuted to 
fifteen years' imprisonment, and eventually 
they were liberated on the payment of $125,000 
each to the Boer government. After the close 
of this memorable epoch, Mr. Hammond went 
to England, and from his headquarters in Lon- 
don continued to conduct the extensive mining 
operations which had previously been under 
his supervision in South Africa. It should be 
stated here that Mr. Hammond was not exiled 
from South Africa, as many people believe, be- 
cause of his participation in the Reform move- 
ment. He made several trips to that country 
after the occurrence of the events recorded 
above. It was while on one of these trips, 
just preceding the Boer War, and the day be- 
fore Sir Alfred Milner (now Lord Milner) had 
a conference with President Kruger, that Mr. 
Hammond, at the request of his friends among 
the progressive Boers, interceded with Kruger 
to make concessions to the British government 
in order to obviate the necessity of war. Al- 
though Kruger promised Mr. Hammond that 
he would follow his suggestion, he unfortu- 
nately failed to do so, for, at the conference 
with Milner he stated that he was not ready 
to make terms for the redress of the Uit- 
landers' grievances. The result of Milner's con- 
ference with Kruger was a failure; and war 
resulted. Recently, when asked regarding the 
political effect which the Reform movement, if 
successful, would have had on the affairs of 
South Africa, Mr. Hammond stated : " What 
has been accomplished politically in South 
Africa is exactly what the members of the Re- 
form Committee were striving for — the con- 
federation of South Africa and the elimination 
of grafting officials." As an indication of the 
friendly feeling which sprang up between the 
English and the Boers after the war, Lionel 
Phillips and George Farrar, among others of 
the Reform movement, were knighted in Eng- 
land, on the recommendation of a former 
Boer general, Louis Botha, who was then the 
Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa. 
Dr. Jameson, who, subsequently to the Boer 
War, was for a time Prime Minister of the 
South African union, was also knighted on the 
recommendation of General Botha. Today the 
progressive Boers and the Uitlanders are 
working in complete accord in the economic de- 
velopment of South Africa. In 1900 Mr. Ham- 
mond returned to America, and devoted the 
greater part of his time to large mining 
projects in the interests of a group of English 
capitalists with whom he was associated. It 
was during this period that he was responsible 
for the purchase of the celebrated Camp Bird 

Mine, situated in the San Juan District of 
Colorado. Mr. Hammond has been identified 
with enterprises of great magnitude, not only 
in the development of important mining dis- 
tricts, which have added greatly to the world's 
stock of metals — gold, silver, copper, lead, etc. 
— and the development of which has resulted 
in the extension of railway systems and the 
building of important industrial centers, but 
he is likewise responsible for the development 
of large agricultural areas, which have added 
enormously to the food products of the world. 
One of his largest undertakings is the de- 
velopment of 1,000 square miles of land at 
the mouth of the Yaqui River, in the state 
of Sonora, Mexico. Over 400 miles of irriga- 
tion ditches have been built; and, in spite of 
interruption by present political troubles, over 
20,000 acres are already under cultivation. 
This irrigation system will develop a greater 
irrigated area than ten of the largest irriga- 
tion projects in the United States combined. 
It has an acre-feet capacity which is 50 per 
cent greater than that of the Roosevelt Dam, 
situated in the Salt Lake District of Utah. 
He is also interested in the development of a 
large tract of oil-bearing land on the east 
coast of Mexico, and in the Mt. Whitney 
Power Company, in California, which, by a 
system of irrigation through pumping, intro- 
duced by Mr. Hammond, in Tulare County, has 
brotight into profitable cultivation thousands 
of acres of citrus fruit. Among his other 
accomplishments was the construction of the 
first electric street railways in South Africa 
and in the City of Mexico. Likewise, he was 
a prime mover in the development of one of 
the largest hydro-electric projects in Mexico, 
the Guanajuato Power Company As a result 
of his connection with the Tonopah Mining 
Company, in Nevada, in the capacity of con- 
sulting engineer, mining developments were 
successfully carried out under his direction; 
and the construction of railways resulted, 
making possible further profitable mining in- 
vestments in other parts of that section of the 
country. In 1903 Mr. Hammond became gen- 
eral manager, consulting engineer, and a di- 
rector of the Guggenheim Exploration Com- 
pany, at present one of the largest mining cor- 
porations in the world. When he took over the 
management of this company, it was compara- 
tively unknown and practically a failure. Mr. 
Hammond surrounded himself with a competent 
technical staff, and within a few years had 
secured for the Guggenheim Exploration Com- 
pany properties which have since been opened 
and, developed under their direction, liave 
netted them enormous profits reckoned by 
many millions of dollars. These properties 
are the Utah Copper, Nevada Consolidated 
Copper, Esperanza Gold Mine, in Mexico, lead 
mines in the Federal district of Missouri, and 
other mines in this country and in Mexico. 
The successful development of these and other 
mines made possible the success of the Ameri- 
can Smelting and Refining Company, con- 
trolled by the Guggenheims, and resulted in 
providing opportunities for the employment of 
thousands of men. During liis connection with 
this company, which he severed in 1907, Mr. 
Hammond was the highest salaried man in the 
world. In 1910 Mr. Hammond took a promi- 
nent part in negotiations for the sale of one 




of the largest silver mines in Mexico, the 
Santa Gertrudis. An interesting fact in this 
connection is that tlie largest single check ever 
issued in payment of a mine, one for $10,000,- 
000 in Mexican currency, was drawn to the 
order of Mr. Hammond's clients. Mr. Ham- 
mond was twice invited by the Russian govern- 
ment to visit Rufjsia and give his advice re- 
garding the development of the industrial re- 
sources of that country. In 1898 he made a 
trip through Russia, Siberia, and into Mon- 
golia, and examined the mineral resources of 
Russia; and in 1011 sent an expedition into 
Russian Turkestan to investigate the possi- 
bilities of irrigating 600,000 acres of land in 
that country. He had previously sent experts 
to investigate a proposed grain elevator system 
for Russia. WHien summoned to an audience 
with the Czar a few years ago, in connection 
with the industrial and commercial develop- 
ment of Russia, and the relations between 
Russia and the United States, the Czar re- 
marked to one of his ministers, after the inter- 
view had taken place, that " Mr. Hammond 
talked," as he expressed it, " straight from the 
shoulder, and as man to man, and not as man 
to sovereign." In the summer of 1908, only 
a few weeks before the National convention in 
Chicago, Mr. Hammond was urged by numer- 
ous friends throughout the entire country to 
announce his candidacy, as a resident of 
Massachusetts, for the office of Vice-president 
of the United States. Mr. Hammond stated 
at that time: "Like all candidates, I place 
myself in the hands of my friends." This was 
indeed the case, for before he fully realized it, 
he found that his friends all over this country 
had made up their minds that he should enter 
this race, and his boom was launched whether 
he would or no. Mr. Hammond discovered that 
his political strength w^as increasing tremen- 
dously, and believed that his chances were as 
good as those of any other candidate for this 
office. Upon his arrival in Chicago, this feel- 
ing was greatly strengthened because of the 
assurances of support which he received from 
a great many delegates, as well as from numer- 
ous Republican leaders there. Indeed, entire 
delegations, among them some of the largest, 
came to Mr. Hammond's headquarters in their 
enthusiasm, and requested that they be allowed 
to stampede the convention for him. At the 
eleventh hour, and because he received word 
that any but a New York candidate for the 
office of Vice-president would jeopardize the 
success of the ticket and endanger the election 
of William H. Taft, Mr. Hammond withdrew 
from the race, feeling no disappointment in 
doing so, as his greatest ambition was to se- 
cure the election of his friend Mr. Taft. 
Shortly after President Taft's inauguration, 
Mr. Hammond was offered the post of Minister 
to China, which the President had stated was 
one of the most important diplomatic appoint- 
ments he had to make. Personal considera- 
tions, however, determined Mr. Hammond to 
decline the proffered honor. One of the special 
honors of Mr. Hammond's life was his selec- 
tion by President Taft to represent the Presi- 
dent and the people of the United States at 
the coronation of King George V. It was par- 
ticularly fortunate that a typical American 
was sent to the coronation, as the impression 
upon the British people, as well as the ulti- 


mate reputation of our country, was enhanced 
thereby. As president of the Commission 
extraordinary of the Panama-Pacific Inter- 
national Exposition (to which position he was 
appointed on the suggestion of President Taft ) , 
he visited, in 1912, the capitals of the princi- 
pal countries of Europe, and there interviewed 
the rulers and foreign ministers of the various 
countries, in behalf of the interests of the in- 
ternational exposition, held in San Francisco 
in 1915. Being a Californian, his appointment 
was a peculiarly fitting one, and he carried out 
the duties of his commission with success. Mr. 
Hammond has given a great deal of time and 
thought to his alma mater — Yale University. 
His devotion to this institution led him to 
accept the professorship of mining engineering, 
and he delivered numerous lectures there. Mr. 
Hammond presented the university with a min- 
ing and metallurgical laboratory which bears 
his name, and this structure is complete with 
modern mining and metallurgical machinery 
and equipment. Mr. Hammond has often said, 
in regard to the making of moHey, that that 
should be a secondary consideration in a man's 
efforts, and that in mining the success attend- 
ing an engineer's professional duties brought 
with it, usually, a certain amount of emolu- 
ment, but he deprecates young men joining the 
engineering profession with the sole object of 
making money; that, he says, should be the 
result of the engineer's success and not his 
aim. In addition to the time which Mr. Ham- 
mond has given to Yale, he has lectured ex- 
tensively at various other large institutions 
throughout the country, as well as before va- 
rious scientific bodies. He has done much to 
help young men in their professional careers, 
and has had under him men of all nationalities 
and graduates from nearly all the leading in- 
stitutions of the world, especially the technical 
institutions. He has taken great interest in 
the elevation of his profession, and has in- 
sisted on adequate compensation being paid by 
employers to engineers. Indeed, it is a known 
fact that the engineers who have worked for 
him have received the largest salaries paid to 
the profession. Mr. Hammond has served, dur- 
ing the past few years, as chairman of the 
Visiting Committee of the Harvard Mining and 
Metallurgical Department. The other members M 
of the committee are distinguished engineers, m 
who are alumni of Harvard. His activities in 
civic, philanthropic, and political work have 
been carried on as an officer and member of 
many organizations. He was until recently 
chairman of the North American Civic League 
for Immigrants, wdth headquarters in New 
York City. He is a member of the executive 
committee and chairman of the newly created 
Department of Industrial Economics of the Na- 
tional Civic Federation, and has devoted much 
time tow^ard the solution of national problems. 
The honorary degrees conferred on Mr. Ham- 
mond are Yale, A.M.; Stevens Institute of 
Technology, DE.; St. John's College, LL.D.; 
Colorado School of Mines, E.M. He is a mem- 
ber of the hospital and school boards in the 
city of Gloucester, Mass., w^here he has a 
summer home, and takes an active interest in 
all matters pertaining to the public welfare. 
Some of the clubs of wiiich Mr. Hammond is 
a member are Yale, University, Century, Engi- 
neers, Lotos, Racquet and Tennis, Metropoli- 



yu-yj'^^rr.^-- jV 



tan, Union League, New York Yacht, Republi- 
can, and Rocky Mountain Clubs, American In- 
stitute of Mining Engineers, American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers — all of New York; 
Chicago and University Clubs of Chicago; 
Metropolitan, University, Cosmos, Chevy Chase, 
and National Press Clubs of Washington; 
Union and Boston Press of Boston; Denver 
and University Clubs of Denver; Maryland 
Club, Baltimore ; California Club, Los Angeles ; 
Pacific Union, University, and Press Clubs of 
San Francisco; and the University Club of 
Salt Lake City. As an advocate of universal 
peace, Mr. Hammond has taken a deep interest 
in the work of the American Society for Ju- 
dicial Settlement of International Disputes, of 
which, in 1910, he was president. He is presi- 
dent of the National Republican League, which 
numbers among its membership 1,000,000 
voters. In politics he belongs to the new 
school; that is, he believes that success is best 
attained by a frank, unreserved statement of 
views on the issues of the day. He is of the 
opinion that the great majority of voters pre- 
fer a candidate for office who frankly acknowl- 
edges that he disagrees with their opinion on 
some questions, and insists on the right of in- 
dependent action on these questions. He is 
unqualifiedly against the domination of bosses 
and has taken a strong position on that sub- 
ject on many occasions; and yet he recognizes 
the necessity of political organization and po- 
litical leadership. An essential part of Mr. 
Hammond's philosophy of life is to produce 
results. His career, which has been filled with 
adventure, has been one long exemplification 
of this principle. In his younger days, in the 
examination of mining properties, and in pros- 
pecting for mines in the Southwest and in 
Mexico, he had many narrow escapes from In- 
dians and bandits. He made frequent trips 
through that part of the country which was 
overrun by the murderous Apaches, and had 
numerous thrilling experiences in revolutions 
in Mexico and on trips into the wilderness of 
Central and South America. Mr. Hammond 
was married, 1 Jan., 1881, to Natalie, daugh- 
ter of Judge J. W. M; Harris, of Mississippi. 
Their children are Harris, John Hays, Jr., 
Richard P., and Natalie Hammond. In their 
early married life, Mrs. Hammond took her 
full share of the hardships, perils, and dis- 
appointments which in those days fell to the 
lot of the young mining engineer endeavoring 
to achieve success. She accompanied her hus- 
band into countries full of danger and disease, 
and her fortitude and courage never failed. 
When Mr. Hammond's duties grew more ex- 
acting and trying, and his life grew bigger, 
there was no one whose praise he cherished 
more highly, nor whose encouragement meant 
more to him, than that of his devoted wife. 

GATES, John Warne, capitalist, b. near 
Turner Junction (now West Chicago), 111., 18 
May, 1855; d. in Paris, France, 9 Aug., 1911, 
son of Asel A. and Mary Gates. He was the 
son of a farmer, and, as a boy, assisted his 
father in this pursuit when his studies were 
not absorbing his attention. He attended 
Wheaton College, Illinois, and was graduated at 
Northwestern College, Illinois. He early dis- 
played a marked capacity for business. At the 
age of sixteen he contracted to husk a neigh- 
boring farmer's corn. From this, his first 

venture, he earned sufficient to purchase a 
third interest in a threshing machine. The 
following season, one of abundant harvests, 
proved very profitable to young Gates, who 
bought out his partners and became sole 
owner of the threshing machine. A patch of 
woodland next engaged his attention, and he 
entered into an agreement with the owner, 
giving his threshing machine as security, 
whereby he was to pay for the timber as 
rapidly as he sold it; and after working most 
diligently during the winter months, with the 
single woodchopper he had hired, the wood- 
lot was cleared and the owner was paid in 
full. The budding capitalist now, at eighteen, 
had a thousand dollars in the bank, and was 
still owner of the threshing machine. He 
then invested his capital in a hardware store 
which, although it proved a satisfactory finan- 
cial venture, he soon disposed of and became 
a salesman of barbed wire for a Col. Isaac 
Elwood, who had acquired the right to manu- 
facture it from the inventor, a Missouri 
blacksmith. Elwood was having much diffi- 
culty in launching his product upon the mar- 
ket and, attracted by Gates' enthusiasm and 
forceful eloquence, offered him $25.00 a week 
to sell the barbed wire in Texas. Gates, 
quick to grasp its possibilities, accepted the 
offer; thus was the future wire king set in 
motion toward the Texas cattle country with 
his bristling samples. Gates, however, did not 
meet with immediate success. He found the 
cattlemen very skeptical as to the merits of 
this novelty. They ridiculed the idea that 
such flimsy material could restrain a herd 
of cattle. Gates, consequently, on his mettle, 
conceived a convincing selling plan which in- 
cluded an elaborate demonstration of his 
product. This took place in San Antonio, 
where he hired a plaza, wrapped it round with 
the barbed wire, and put into it a herd of the 
wildest steers that could be found. The steers, 
after numerous displays of boldness, became 
subdued, and the cattlemen admitted the 
efficiency of the barbs. Enormous sales re- 
sulted from this exhibition; and Gates later, 
in view of his very successful subsequent 
efforts, applied for a partnership in the com- 
pany. Upon the refusal of Elwood to agree 
to this, Gates, with the first display of his 
extraordinary constructive ability, built a 
barbed wire mill of his own. As a competitor. 
Gates soon ^proved too formidable for Elwood, 
who, provoked at the conditions brought 
about by ambitious young Gates, sued him 
for infringements of patents. Gates, how- 
ever, finally persuaded Elwood to enter into 
a partnership with him which lasted many 
years. Gates soon became a specialist in the 
wire branch of the steel industry, and utilized 
every dollar he could get for the expansion 
of the business. In 1886 he put into it 
$100,000, the profits of his first big transac- 
tion — a sale of English steel. He bought or 
absorbed competitors whenever possible, and, 
in 1892, by merging several large wire com- 
panies, he became monarch of the wire in- 
dustry. In 1895 he became president of the 
Illinois Steel Company, which, in 1808, he 
enlarged into the Federal Steel Company; in 
1897, in connection with his interests in the 
American Steel and Wire Company, he cleared 
$10,000,000, and in 1901, Mr. Gates' com- 




panics entered the merger of the bill ion dollar 
United States Steel Corporation. As the lat- 
ter concern did not alTord adequate oppor- 
tunity for his grqat energy, he, in 1907, went 
to Texas and became interested in the oil 
fields in the southwestern part of the State. 
The success of his subsequent activities there 
is a further tribute to the versatility of his 
business genius. He was identified with the 
Texas Company, which, under his masterful 
administration, became the largest independ- 
ent oil company in the country, with a capital 
stock of $3(),00{).0()0, and owning 800 miles of 
pipe line, reaching Texas, Oklahoma, and 
Louisiana oil fields, with an ocean terminal 
in Europe and a number of terminals on the 
Atlantic seaboard in this country, besides 
many local distributing stations in the in- 
terior. Port Arthur, Tex., before 1900 pos- 
sessed only a few hundred inhabitants. Its 
rapid and substantial growth is due to the 
leadership of Mr. Gates. Under his guidance 
it became in a few years a modern city with 
20,000 inhabitants, and has one of the most 
accessible harbors on the Gulf Coast, through 
which 45 per cent of the export tonnage of all 
Texas ports is handled. In fact, it now (1917) 
ranks among the first ten export cities of the 
United States; has many modern buildings, 
first-class hotels, substantial banks, and a 
$140,000 federal building. Its extensive public 
park system includes a fine residential section; 
drives and boulevards; a splendid public school 
system; manual training school; adequate 
public utilities; an extensive traction system; 
churches of all denominations; the Mary Gates 
Hospital, one of the charities of Mr. and Mrs. 
Gates, which ranks with the pretentious hos- 
pitals of the first-class cities, and the Port 
Arthur College, another of their benefactions 
to the city. This " magic city," the product of 
Mr. Gates' industry and ingenuity, was made 
possible by the establishment of two immense 
oil companies — the Texas Company and the 
Gulf Refining Company. These corporations 
now have a combined capital of more than 
$100,000,000 and a monthly payroll of nearly 
$300,000. The Port Arthur College, Mr. Gates' 
pet philanthropy, was the result of his desire 
to found and endow the finest business school 
in the entire South. In commemoration of his 
name, Mrs. Gates has planned to build the 
Gates Memorial Library. Mr. Gates was the 
dominant factor in practically all of the indus- 
tries of the town, was its largest real estate 
owner, and was the principal owner of the Kan- 
sas City Southern, the successor of the Kansas, 
Pittsburgh and Gulf Railway, which was the 
reason originally for Port Arthur's existence. At 
the time of his death, Mr. Gates was a director 
of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, 
Century Realty Company, Hippodrome Amuse- 
ment Company, New York Hippodrome, Plaza 
Operating Company, Republic Iron and Steel 
Company of New Jersey, United Realty and 
Improvement Company, Texas Company, Moose 
Mountain Limited, and the Western Mary- 
land Railroad Company. Besides the connec- 
tion as director of the many companies already 
named, he held high office in other corpora- 
tions. To the very last he enlisted all his 
great energies and unusual constructive genius 
in the development of the several large enter- 
prises with which he was most closely iden- 

tified. Naturally, many were buflFeted in his 
forceful advance to the front rank of the 
world's financiers. This he accomplished be- 
fore he was thirty-seven years of age, and, for 
lack of better reasons, his disregard for con- 
ventionalities and his manner of indulging in 
personal diversions were trivially utilized in 
an attempt to throw a construction on his con- 
duct prejudicial to his business interests. His 
speedy rise from obscurity to eminence in the 
world's business affairs proclaims him one of 
the striking characters that stand as examples 
of self -development; and his broad and lib- 
eral views of life were combined with the 
charm of a most genial disposition. Mr. 
Gates married on 25 Feb., 1874, Dellora R., 
daughter of Edward and Martha Baker, of 
St. Charles, 111., and they were the parents 
of one son, Charles Gilbert Gates. . 

GATES, Charles Gilbert, capitalist, b. near 
Turner Junction (now West Chicago), 111., 
21 May, 1876; d. in Cody, Wyo., 28 Oct., 1913, 
son of John Warne Gates and Dellora R. 
(Baker) Gates. He was educated at Smith 
Academy, St. Louis, and later attended Har- 
vard School, Chicago, and Lake Forest Col- 
lege, where he was regarded as an apt scholar. 
At the age of seventeen, with characteristic 
confidence, he yielded to his own inclination 
to engage in business, and entered the employ 
of the Consolidated Steel and Wire Company, 
remaining there four years. Here he exhibited 
the inherent energy and enormous business 
capacity which distinguished his father, and, 
in 1897, became a partner in the firm of 
Baldwin, Gurney and Company of Chicago, 
stock commission brokers. In 1902, with 
John F. Harris, he organized the brokerage 
firm of Harris, Gates and Company with head- 
quarters in New York and branch offices in 
the principal cities throughout the country. 
This firm was dissolved in 1904 to be reor- 
ganized as Charles G. Gates and Company; 
and through his masterful management Mr. 
Gates made this one of the foremost stock 
brokerage houses of the country. As head of 
this enterprise, the responsibility of affording 
adequate protection for the vast interests of 
his father devolved upon Charles, and the 
unusual knowledge of intricate stock exchange 
operations which he displayed can be fully 
appreciated only by those conversant wuth the 
firm's immense transactions. It is estimated 
that about 10 per cent of the entire trading 
of the New York Stock Exchange during the 
period, 1902-07, originated from his company. 
During this time his father acquired large 
business interests in southeast Texas and 
launched into the development of Port Arthur. 
This afforded an opportunity for constructive 
achievement of a high order, and, attracted 
by the magnitude of the undertaking, Charles 
disposed of his brokerage business in 1907 and 
became identified with the development of that 
project, which resulted in creating the city of 
Port Arthur (John W. Gates, q.v.). It was 
not due alone to the position of his father, 
who w^as one of the world's leading financiers, 
that Charles G. Gates became prominent in 
business affairs; he himself possessed con- 
spicuous business talent, and his rapid rise 
bore witness to great individual ability, in- 
dustry, and force of character. His prodigious 
memory and remarkably keen perception and 


^'rto J-IJ W 7'r! .rh^. 



power of observation were frequently remarked 
upon by his associates. Personally, too, there 
was little to distinguish him from his father; 
for he also disliked all sham and hypocrisy. 
He bestowed the same generous judgment of 
men and affairs; was esteemed for his in- 
numerable private charities, and combined cul- 
ture with a charm of unconventional manner 
and utterances that had a wholesome influence 
upon his large circle of friends and attracted 
popular appreciation both in this country and 
abroad. His favorite diversions were yacht- 
ing, traveling, and big game hunting, and it 
was on his return from one of the latter ex- 
peditions in the Thoroughfare Mountains near 
Yellowstone National Park, in 1913, that his 
death occurred. It happened at Cody, Wyo., 
as the result of a stroke of apoplexy. Mr. 
Gates' expedition had attracted considerable 
public attention and the news of his sudden 
death came as a shock to his many friends. 
Although only thirty-seven years of age when 
he died, he may justly be regarded as having 
been one of the leaders among the men of his 
generation. Mr. Gates was a member of the 
principal stock exchanges in this country, 
among them the New York Stock Exchange, 
New York Cotton Exchange, and Chicago 
Board of Trade. At the time of his death he 
was president and a director of Moose Moun- 
tain, Ltd., another of his business developments; 
president and a director of the Port Arthur 
Rice Milling Company; a member of the execu- 
tive committee and a director of the Texas Com- 
pany; a member of the executive committee 
and a director of the United States Realty and 
Improvement Company, and a director also 
in the following corporations: The Plaza 
Operating Company, the First National Bank 
of Port Arthur, Tex., the Port Arthur Realty 
Company, Helsig and Norvell, Inc., Griffing 
Brothers Company, the Port Arthur Rice 
Milling Company, and East Texas Electric 
Company. Among the clubs of which he was 
a member were the New York Yacht Club, 
Automobile Club of America, Atlantic Yacht, 
Columbia Yacht, and Westchester Country 
Clubs of New York, the Chicago Athletic and 
Calumet Clubs of Chicago. Charles G. Gates 
was twice married, first, in 1898, to Mary 
W. Edgar, of St. Louis, Mo., and second, in 
1911, to Florence Hop wood, of Minneapolis, 

SCHWAB, Charles M., capitalist, b. Wil- 
liamsburg, Pa., 18 April, 1862. At the age 
of five he removed with his parents to Loretta, 
Pa., where his father kept one of the village 
stores. Young Schwab was educated at St. 
Francis College, acquiring the rudiments of 
engineering. When his studies were not oc- 
cupying his attention he improved his time by 
driving the old stage between the village and 
Cresson station, a distance of five miles. 
After his graduation at St. Francis College, in 
1878, he went to Braddock, Pa., and became a 
clerk in a dry goods store at $5.00 a week. 
In 1880, prompted by a slight increase in 
salary rather than any attraction he may have 
felt for the stoel business, he entered the serv- 
ice of the Edgar Thomson Steel Works of 
Carnegie Bros, and Company, in the capacity 
of stake driver, at a salary of $1.00 a day. 
He soon showed rare aptitude for these more 
arduous duties, and his advance was rapid. 

In six months he became chief assistant engi- 
neer; from 1881 till 1887 he was chief of the 
engineers department; in 1887 he became super- 
intendent of the Homestead Steel Works; in 
1889 Frick appointed him general superin- 
tendent of the Edgar Thomson Works, and in 
1892, upon the consolidation of all the Car- 
negie interests into the Carnegie Steel Com- 
pany, Frick, as chairman, appointed him gen- 
eral superintendent of the Homestead works 
also. Schwab's appointment to this position, 
superseding Mr. Potter, who was promoted to 
the position of consulting engineer of all the 
Carnegie works, was to facilitate matters per- 
taining to the famous Homestead strike. In 
this position Schwab, through his ability as 
a manager and his popularity with the work- 
men, rendered most important service to the 
company; and with fine tact and conciliation 
he soon persuaded the heads of departments 
and the foremen to return to work, which soon 
resulted in the general resumption of the 
business. And the remainder of his tenure of 
general superintendent of both the Homestead 
and Edgar Thomson plants was free from fur- 
ther labor troubles and marked by a continu- 
ance of his good understanding with the work- 
men. He held the position of general super- 
intendent of both the Edgar Thomson and the 
Homestead works until 1897. In that year he 
was advanced to the presidency of the Board 
of Managers of the Carnegie companies, liav- 
ing become a member of the association a year 
before. This was an institution that grew out 
of Frick's plans of efficiency for the unifica- 
tion of the company. In the same year Car- 
negie, in an attempt to diminish the impor- 
tance of Frick, made Schwab president of the 
Carnegie Steel Company, although Frick, as 
chairman of the board, remained at the head 
of affairs. Schwab retained the presidency of 
the Carnegie company until its absorption by 
the United States Steel Corporation in 1901. 
He was then made president of the new cor- 
poration. His three-years' tenure of this office, 
however, was not marked by any notable tri- 
umph. In fact, in 1903 the United States 
Steel Corporation reached a precarious con- 
dition, due probably to the adjustment of this 
mastodonic organization to its normal level. 
In 1904 Mr. Schwab resigned this position and 
was succeeded by William E. Corey. He then 
engaged unsuccessfully in extensive ship- 
building operations, after which he secured an 
option on the Bethlehem plant. After much 
difficulty he, succeeded in interesting John D. 
Ryan, E. H. Harriman, Jacob Schiff, and 
other equally sagacious financiers, and in 1908 
effected the organization of the Bethlehem 
Steel Corporation and the Bethlehem Steel 
Company. This was considered a doubtful 
undertaking, for the Betlilehem works were re- 
garded as mainly a military plant. But ]\Ir. 
Schwab was influenced by the fact that he 
controlled the exclusive rights in this country 
of patents which simplified tlie process of 
making steel structural-shapes. The company 
achieved a measure of suc('(>ss until the out- 
break of the European War in l!)14, when it 
attained prosperity hitherto uiitliought of by 
its founders. It soon hociimc the largest con- 
tributor of weapons, ships, stoel, and arms to 
tlie Allied governments, and its success was 
meteoric. Mr. Schwab's rise to eminence in 




the busineas world was marked by more than 
one notable achievement. He is supposed to 
have devised the scheme in 1001 which enabled 
Carnegie to accomplish his utmost desire — the 
sale of the Carnegie Company. During the 
preceding twelve years Carnegie had made sev- 
eral unsuccessful attempts to sell out, and it 
now had become a passion with him; so 
Prick's plan of operating a tube works at 
Conneaut was resurrected and utilized by 
Schwab and Carnegie to compel the purchase 
of the Carni'gie company by the millionaires 
interested in the National Tube Company, the 
Standard Oil Company, and the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, all of which it threatened with seri- 
ous competition. The scheme was gloriously 
effective. Schwab, conducting negotiations for 
the steel company, persuaded J. P. Morgan and 
other equally astute financiers to purchase the 
Carnegie Steel Company for $500,000,000, 
double the amount that Carnegie tried to sell 
at three years before. This is generally recog- 
nized as the most monumental of Isusiness 
transactions. Aptitude and opportunity fur- 
nish the keynote to Mr. Schwab's success. 
From 1880 to 1889 he received his mechanical 
training under Capt. William R. Jones, and 
from 1880 to 1900 he was under the guidance 
of the greatest of all steel men, Henry C. Prick. 
Mr. Schwab has gratefully acknowledged his 
appreciation of Captain Jones, who was a 
mechanical genius. But to the experience he 
received under Prick during this steel master's 
revolutionizing of the steel industry, Schwab 
gratefully attributes his present enviable posi- 
tion. " If I have anything of value in me," 
he once wrote, Mr. Prick's " method of treat- 
ment will bring it out to its full extent"; and 
he " regarded with more satisfaction than any- 
thing else in life — even fortune — ^the con- 
sciousness of having won " Mr. Prick's " friend- 
ship and regard." In 1900, however, upon the 
culmination of the personal and business dif- 
ferences between Carnegie and Prick in a bit- 
ter altercation, Schwab was heartily reproached 
for his activities in opposition to Prick. In 
fact, his part as Carnegie's agent in the lat- 
ter's sensational attempt to seize Prick's in- 
terest in the Carnegie Steel Company fur- 
nished a sharp contrast to the many positive 
achievements of Schwab's career. 7" is event 
arrested nation-wide attention, and contem- 
plated, by means that will not bear the closest 
scrutiny, the expulsion of Prick from the Car- 
negie Steel Company and the confiscation of 
upward of $11,000,000 of his interest therein. 
But in extenuation of Schwab's compliance 
with Carnegie's demands, it may be said that 
he strove earnestly, as did Henry Phipps, to 
effect a reconciliation. Upon the failure of 
this, he wrote: "I just returned from New 
York this morning. Mr. Carnegie is en route 
to Pittsburgh today, and will be at the office 
in the morning. Nothing could be done with 
him looking toward a reconciliation. He seems 
most determined. I did my best. So did Mr. 
Phipps. I feel certain he will give positive in- 
structions to the Board and Stockholders as to 
his wishes in the matter. . . . Under these 
circumstances, there is nothing left for us to 
do but obey, although the situation the board 
is thus placed in is most embarrassing." So, 
with a full appreciation of the eloquent power 
of Carnegie's holdings in the company, Schwab 

reluctantly yielded to his domination and se- 
cured the names to the famous " Iron Clad " 
Agreement. This was a process for eliminating 
debtor partners, such as Schwab and about 
thirty other junior partners — " young gen- 
iuses " — but it was not applicable to Prick or 
Phipps, who were paid-up partners. Carnegie, 
though, by expunging minutes on the books of 
the company and other acts of doubtful 
validity, hoped to adapt it to his scheme of 
including paid-up partners. Schwab, under 
Carnegie's domination, assumed the functions 
of Prick's attorney in the pretended transfer 
of Prick's interest to the company for $5,000,- 
000 and payable on terms that approximated 
confiscation. However, the attempt proved 
abortive. Prick sought justice in the courts, 
and five days later he received an interest 
which about a year later brought him $28,000,- 
000. Contrasted with the submission of Mr. 
Schwab and many junior members of the com- 
pany was the attitude of P. T. P. Lovejoy, its 
secretary, who, with Henry M. Curry, were 
the only two of the thirty-one junior partners 
who withstood Carnegie's pressure. Lovejoy 
not only refused to sign the agreement, but 
questioned the validity of his colleague's acts 
in a separate answer which he filed in the 
Equity Suit brought by Prick. Henry C. 
Phipps in self-protection also strongly op- 
posed the scheme and filed a separate answer. 
The settlement of the dispute necessitated re- 
organization of the company, and in 1900 it 
was incorporated as the Carnegie Company. 
Carnegie rewarded Schwab with the presidency 
of the company, while Lovejoy, who had re- 
fused to comply with Carnegie's demands, was 
dropped from the directorate. Among Mr. 
Schwab's known public benefactions are an j 
industrial school at Homestead, Pa.; an audi- 
torium to State College, Pennsylvania ; a school 
at Weatherly, Pa.; a convent at Creston, Pa.; ■ 
a Catholic church at Braddock, Pa.; a $150,- 1 
000 Catholic cathedral at Loretta, Pa.; and a 1 
$1,000,000 home for sick and crippled chil- » 
dren at Staten Island, N. Y. Besides being | 
president and chairman of the board of both ' 
the Bethlehem Steel Corporation and the Beth- ? 
lehem Steel Company, Mr. Schwab is director 
in other iron, steel, coal, and coke corporations, 
including the Carnegie Steel Company; H. C. 
Prick Coke Company; Minnesota Iron Com- 
pany; National Tube Works Company; Pneu- 
matic Tool Company; American Universal 
Mill Company, and the Pore River Shipbuild- 
ing Company. He is president of the Silver 
Company; trustee of the New York Trust 
Company, and director also in the United 
States Realty and Improvement Company; 
Carnegie Trust Company, Chicago; Lehigh 
Valley Transit Company; Empire Trust Com- 
pany, and managing director of Chase National 
Bank, Washington, D. C. As his immense 
Bethlehem enterprises require his constant per- 
sonal attention, Mr. Schwab removed to Beth- 
lehem, and foregoes the pleasures of the mag- 
nificent $7,000,000 New York home which he 
built on Riverside Drive. He married Eurania 
Dinkey, of Loretta, Pa., 1883. 

WILLYS, John North, manufacturer, b. in 
Canandaigua, N. Y., 25 Oct., 1873, son of 
David Smith and Lydia (North) Willys. His 
father owned a brick and tile plant in his 
native town, and it was there that the youthful 




John N. Willys did his first manual labor. 
For working in the factory two hours a day 
after school his father paid him twenty-five 
cents a week. Mr. Willys has admitted since 
that he could still make a fair article of brick 
or drain tile if it were necessary. It was at 
this period of his youth, when he was about 
eleven years of age, that he made his first deal 
in commerce. He was a boy of unusually quick 
observation, and he had noticed that the reins 
on his father's horses had a way of falling 
to the ground and entangling the animals' feet. 
Then he found out that there were certain little 
clamps made to prevent this very trouble, so 
he bought a. dozen of them and sold them to 
his father. With the profits from this dozen 
he bought two dozen more and disposed of 
them to other horse owners in Canandaigua. 
He traded in other specialties, and in time 
accumulated a neat little account in a savings 
bank. He gave up his work in the brickyard 
to sell a " Life of Garfield " after school hours, 
but, although he developed into a successful 
book agent, as such employment goes, the re- 
turns were not large enough to satisfy him. 
He felt that he could earn more money in 
other ways, with less expenditure of time and 
energy. Before he was sixteen he went into 
the laundry business, in company with a chum 
two years older than himself, at Seneca Falls, 
about thirty miles from Canandaigua, after 
his parents had given their consent. His 
partner had worked in a laundry, and knew 
something about the technique of that occupa- 
tion. At the end of a year they had placed 
the laundry on a paying basis, and they sold 
out with a net profit of $100.00 apiece. As his 
parents figured that a week away from home 
and roughing it would be enough for their son, 
they were obliged to confess that there was 
more enterprise and application in their young 
son than they credited to him. On his return 
home from the laundry experience, John N, 
Willys decided to work his way through col- 
lege and become a lawyer. With characteristic 
energy, he was making good headway with his 
studies and working in a law office (one of the 
partners in which. Royal R. Scott, afterward 
became secretary of the Willys-Overland Com- 
pany), when his father died. This compelled 
John to give up his hope of being graduated 
from college. He had to take up the stern 
work of making a living. At that time bicycles 
were popular and becoming more so every day. 
John Willys decided that here was his oppor- 
tunity and he invested the $100.00 he had made 
in the Seneca Falls laundry in a sample bicycle, 
called the " New Mail," and became agent for 
the machine in his own town. He sold bi- 
cycles to all his friends and neighbors, and 
before he was eighteen had organized a sales 
company, opened a store, with a repair shop 
in the rear — for he could mend anything about 
a bicycle, besides riding it expertly — adver- 
tised freely, but judiciously, and soon had to 
take larger premises on the main thorough- 
fare. His mind being naturally adapted to 
organization, as well as mechanics, he saw 
the logical way to succeed in the bicycle busi- 
ness was to handle the product in large 
quantities, and he established a jobbing trade 
to reach a market which he saw existed, but 
which up to that time had been nothing more 
than a vision to the manufacturers. It was 

this idea of his, of selling wholesale, which 
later brought about his entrance into the auto- 
mobile business, first as a creator of markets, 
and later as a manufacturer. He sold a great 
many bicycles, but had difficulty in collecting 
his accounts. So, in 1896, when the Free Silver 
movement disturbed trade so dismally, he de- 
cided he would close out his bicycle business 
and do something else while he looked things 
over. He became a traveling salesman for the 
Boston Woven Hose and Rubber Company, all 
the time keeping on the lookout for the oppor- 
tunity that he knew, even then, was always 
lying in wait for the " live " man. One of his 
customers was the Elmira Arms Company, a 
sporting goods establishment. When the Klon- 
dike gold fever broke out, the proprietor was 
so anxious to dispose of the business that he 
sold his stock, appraised at $2,800, to John 
N. Willys, for $500.00 cash. The latter in- 
stalled a manager and began an advertising 
campaign for his new venture, at the same 
time retaining his own position with the Bos- 
ton Woven Hose and Rubber Company. Be- 
fore long, however, the Boston concern went to 
the wall, and Mr. Willys took personal charge 
of the Elmira Arms Company. He made a 
specialty of bicycles, and in eight months had 
sold $2,800 worth of them, of which $1,000 
was profit. Having worked into the whole- 
sale distribution of bicycles, he eventually took 
the entire output of a factory, and by the time 
he was twenty-seven years of age was doing 
a business of half a million dollars a year. 
It was at this time that he was attracted to the 
automobile business. He never saw an auto- 
mobile until one day in 1899, when he hap- 
pened to be looking out of a window of a high 
building in Cleveland, he noticed a thing on 
four wheels creeping along the street without 
any horse attached. He found out afterward 
that the " thing " was a Winton car — like all 
other motor cars of that day, a very different 
article from the high-powered, easily controlled 
machines of later years. Mr. Willys was 
agent for the Pierce-Arrow bicycles, so he 
bought a motor car from the company for 
$900.00, for a demonstrator, and set out to 
sell cars. He found everybody anxious for a 
demonstration, but at the end of the year he 
had sold only two automobiles. The second 
year he disposed of four. Then he took up 
the Rambler agency, as well as the Pierce, and 
in 1903 he sold twenty cars. At that time 
automobiles were held in disfavor by most 
people, but by 1905 Mr. Willys found that it 
was easier to get orders for cars than to 
supply them, and he decided that there would 
be more profit in manufacturing cars than in 
selling them. Therefore, in 1906 he formed 
the American Motor Car Sales Company, with 
headquarters at Elmira, and undertook the 
sale of the whole output of the American and 
Overland companies, both in Indianapolis. The 
Overland had been in business for six years, 
and its largest output for a year was in 1006, 
when it made forty-seven cars. In a short 
time Mr. Willys had made contracts with deal- 
ers to supply them with 500 Overland cars, 
and deposited with the Overland Company as 
a part guarantee for the delivery of the cars, 
the money paid him by the dealers. Then, 
though he had been under the impression that 
the concern was absolutely sound, he discovered 



that the Overland Company was in serious 
financial straits. The panic of 1907, which 
liopan in Octobt-r, had aflocted it severely. In 
I)eceinl>cr of that year Mr. Willys went to 
Indianapolis to visit the plant and see for 
himself how matters stood. He found the 
Overland in difficulties that threatened not 
only the company's bwn existence, but that of 
his own enterprise, the American Motor Car 
Sales Company, also. The danger of seeing his 
all go down in the wreck aroused him to a real 
display of his lighting ability. His inspection 
of the plant ended on a Saturday, and he 
calle<l a conference of the officials of the Over- 
land Company for the next afternoon in an 
Indianapolis hotel. At this conference he for- 
mally demanded to know why the firm had 
failed to deliver the cars on which he had 
made deposits. The demand was only a for- 
mality, however, for he knew what was the 
matter with the Overland as well as did its 
oflicials. He was told that the company would 

fo into the hands of a receiver the next day. 
t had been able only partly to meet its pay- 
roll for the week. Mr. Willys asked how much 
cash was required to tide the company over 
the morrow, and the hopeless answer was, 
" Three hundred and fifty dollars." Then it 
was that John N. Willys gave proof of his 
resourcefulness and determination. He went 
down to see the hotel manager and wrote a 
check for $500.00 on a little bank in Wells- 
boro. Pa., and told the hotel man he must 
cash it. The manager was satisfied that the 
check was good, but he had no cash. Willys 
was equal to this difficulty, too. With the 
co-operation of the hotel proprietor, all the 
available assets of the hotel were comman- 
deered, and some of his friends and acquain- 
tances came to his aid, with the result that 
the check was cashed, and the Overland saved 
— temporarily, at least. In consideration of 
this aid, the control of the Overland plant was 
turned over to Mr. Willys, and he immediately 
put it through a complete reorganization. On 
9 Jan., 1908, John North Willys became presi- 
dent of the Overland Company, and with his 
master hand at the wheel, the firm's business 
picked up in marked fashion. During the 
year 401 cars were manufactured, and, with 
cash on hand, a steadily growing demand for 
its product, the company found itself with 
clear sailing ahead. The business took a great 
jump in 1900, for 4,000 cars were manu- 
factured, and the factory was so inadequate 
for the amount of work to be done that Mr. 
Willys purchased two large circus tents, and 
the making of Overland cars was carried on 
under canvas. This was only a temporary ex- 
pedient, however. It would be entirely incon- 
sistent with the dignity of a rapidly growing 
industry, whose bounds seemed to be illimi- 
table, for the factory to be what circus men 
call " big tops." President Willys took an 
option on thirty acres of land in Indianapolis 
and planned a building on a large scale and 
modern lines. But an unexpected opportunity 
prevented his building this particular manu- 
factory. At his home, in Indianapolis, he was 
preparing for a business trip to New York, 
when his Toledo representative called him up 
on the long-distance telephone to advise him 
that the Pope-Toledo Manufacturing Company 
was in financial difficulties and desired to sell 




its plant. The next morning, instead of going 
to New York, where he had intended to meet 
capitalists in connection with his Indianapolis 
building project, he was in Toledo, inspecting 
the old Pope plant. In the evening he was on 
his way East, and the next day he closed with 
Albert A. Pope, president of the Pope-Toledo 
Manufacturing Company, for the plant, ma- 
chinery, stock, and good will of that concern. 
A deposit of $25,000 bound the bargain, and 
less than forty-eight hours after he first heard 
of the factory, John N, Willys was owner of 
the Pope property. At that time it consisted 
of seven acres of land, a few buildings in a more 
or less indiflferent state of repair, an equipment, 
and a meager supply of Pope parts and used 
cars. Prosperity came in at the door and 
through the windows of the new Overland 
establishment. The first year in Toledo saw H 
12,000 cars manufactured. Each year saw a w 
larger number produced, until, in 1917, the 
factory was turning out a thousand cars a 
day, with the prospect of manufacturing not 
less than 300,000 Overland and Willys-Knight 
automobiles in the twelve months, with every 
car contracted for in advance. In eight years 
from the time Mr. Willys took control of the » 
Toledo plant the Overland evolved from a little 
two-cylinder, chain-driven buggy into several 
models, ranging from the four-cylinder, ca- 
pable of developing 31.& horsepower, to the big, 
aristocratic and popular four and eight Willys- 
Knight, which can develop forty-five horse- 
power. The plant has grown, since 1908, from 
a few dilapidated buildings, scattered over 
seven acres of ground, to one of the largest 
single automobile factories in the world. It 
occupies more than four and a half million 
square feet of floor space. Somewhat over 
20,000 persons are employed in the Overland 
establishment in Toledo, and some 5,000 more 
find occupation in other factories controlled by 
Mr. Willys. With the single exception of 
Henry Ford, Mr. Willys is the largest auto- 
mobile manufacturer in the world. Besides 
the Toledo property, Mr. Willys owns all or a 
controlling interest in a number of the big 
concerns in various parts of the United States. 
He is interested in the Electric Auto Lite Com- 
pany, Toledo, Ohio, where 2,200 hands are em- 
ployed; the Flint Varnish and Color Works, 
Flint, Mich.; the Fisk Rubber Company, Chico- 
pee Falls, Mass., 4,000 men; the Federal Motor ; 
Works, Indianapolis, and the Willys-Morrow 
Company, Elmira, N. Y. At the last named 
plant there are 4,200 employees. As an ex- 
ample of the financiering ability of John North 
Willys, it is told of him that when he found 
himself in possession of the Overland Com- 
pany, after saving it from annihilation by 
raising $350.00, to pay off the employees, all 
he had in the way of a plant was a sheet iron 
shed 300 feet long by 80 feet wide, with a 
shopworn outfit of machinery and not enough 
material on hand to put out a single complete 
car. By superhuman efforts, he procured enough 
material to enable the company to finish a few 
cars, enough to keep the working force to- ; 
gether. But the company owed $80,000, and ". 
had not so much as $80.00 to its credit. I 
Willys was confident he could put the con- * 
cern on its feet with only a small amount of y 
money, but it seemed as if he could not get - 
anything. By the exercise of persuasive powers 


»i,- W 7:I^af^,e-T- .V : 




belonging to his old calling as a salesman, he 
induced an acquaintance, an old lumber man, 
to lend him $15,000 in cash. It wasn't much 
to pay debts of $80,000, buy raw material, and 
pay wages and salaries. But Willys was not 
dismayed. He believed he could see his way 
through, and he had a well-defined plan. 
Under his direction, the company's lawyer drew 
up a proposed form of settlement with credi- 
tors. By its provisions, the company was to 
pay ten cents on the dollar at once, and other 
installments later to those who insisted on part 
cash, with preferred stock for the remainder. 
At this juncture the lumber man changed his 
mind about lending the $15,000, and decided 
that he would not do it. He was induced 
finally to advance $7,500. But as Mr. Willys 
had agreed in writing to pay insistent creditors 
$15,000, he was still in a quandary. Then a 
happy thought came to him, and he amended 
the sentence in the agreement to read that he 
would, if called upon, pay creditors *' not to 
exceed $15,000." At a meeting of the prin- 
cipal creditors with him, his eloquence, sin- 
cerity, and faith in the future of the auto- 
mobile industry won over all the important 
creditors, and a majority of them elected to 
accept preferred stock for their entire claims, 
without demanding any cash at all. As a 
matter of fact, it took only $3,500 cash to 
arrange the Overland's $80,000 debts, and 
launch the reorganized company without any 
financial burdens whatever. Then Mr. Willys 
got in touch with the four largest firms that 
supplied the Overland with parts, and after 
painting in glowing terms the future of the 
company as it would be if he were allowed 
to go on, he said he wanted them to assist in 
re-establishing the company's credit, and asked 
them to accept three months' notes for addi- 
tional supplies as they might be required. He 
finished with the naive remark : " Then I will 
let other people know how you have shown 
faith in the company. Anybody who hesi- 
tates to give us credit will be told to com- 
municate with you, and it will be up to 
you to convince them that we are right." 
Mr. Willys is a hard worker. He likes it, 
and it agrees with him. Every day he goes 
all over his plant, notwithstanding that it 
covers several acres, and he is on speaking 
terms with most of the individuals in his 
great army of employees, from whom he gets 
ideas, in exchange for his own. It is his de- 
light to work side by side with his draftsmen 
and designers, and if the day happens to be 
warm, his coat will be ojT, and he will drive 
into the work with sleeves rolled up, like all 
the others. He is always at his desk in the 
morning before any of his assistants, and he 
can be found about the plant all day long. 
The affable manner native to him, and which 
was polished more and more during his career 
as a salesman, is with him yet. The curt 
speech and demeanor of many men of affairs 
and big business is not found in him. Yet he 
is a man of lightning decision, and rarely does 
he have to change a course of action once he 
has laid it out. He is fond of golf, yachting, 
automobiling, and all outdoor sports. He is 
a member of many clubs. Among them are the 
Union League and Bankers, of New York, the 
Toledo Country Club, the Toledo Club, of 
which he is president, the Inverness Club, the 

Midwick Country Club, the Crags Country 
Club, the California Club of Los Angeles, the 
Indian Harbor Yacht Club, the Greenwich 
Country Club of Greenwich, Conn., and the 
Eastern Yacht Club, Marblehead, Mass. Mr. 
Willys is a modest man, and will not talk 
about his achievements, wonderful as they are. 
His intimate friends declare that the keystone 
of his success is the finding out what people 
want and need, telling them in generous and 
judicious advertising that he has it, and then 
giving it to them a little better than others 
and at as low a price as the market can stand. 
But, if anybody asks Mr. Willys if that is his 
secret, he only smiles. Perhaps in that smile 
lies a large part of the secret. John North 
Willys married 1 Dec, 1897, Isabella Irene 
Van Wie, of Canandaigua, N. Y., and they 
have one daughter, Virginia Clayton. Mr. 
Willys has always been a great lover of art, 
and in his home in Toledo he has a collection 
of oil paintings, by distinguished American 
and European artists, such as is seldom seen 
in a private gallery. 

DEERE, John, manufacturer, b. in Rutland, 
Vt., 7 Feb., 1804; d. in Moline, 111., 17 May, 
1886, son of William Rinold and Sarah 
(Yates) Deere. His father, a native of Eng- 
land, came to America early in the nineteenth 
century. His mother, born in Connecticut, 
was the daughter of a captain in the British 
army, who, after serving his King throughout 
the Revolutionary War, became an American 
citizen. In 1805 the father located in Middle- 
bury, Vt., where for nearly seven years he 
conducted a merchant tailoring business. He 
then left to return to England on a visit, but 
was never again heard from. The mother con- 
ducted the business until her death in 1826, at 
the age of forty-six years. In Middlebury, 
among the rugged scenes of his humble New 
England home, John Deere entered upon a 
life of toil and close economy characteristic 
of the people of his native State. He re- 
ceived a good common school education and 
in his early youth, before he was sixteen years 
old, his industry and ambition were keenly 
exhibited. He ground bark for a tanner, re- 
ceiving a pair of shoes and a suit of clothes 
as his pay. In the year 1821, when seven- 
teen years old, he was sent to Middlebury 
College, but left and apprenticed himself to 
Capt. Benjamin Lawrence, of Middlebury, to 
learn the blacksmith trade and particularly 
to assist his mother. In four years he fully 
mastered this trade, receiving in the meantime 
for his services $30.00, $35.00, $40.00, and 
$45.00 each year, respectively. When his time 
was out in 1825 he took a situation with 
William Wills and Ira Allen, ironing wagons, 
buggies, and coaches, at $15.00 a month. In 
1826 he went to Burlington, Vt., and alone 
did the wrought iron work on a sawmill, also 
all of the iron work on a flax mill at Col- 
chester. He thus acquired a great local repu- 
tation as an efficient mechanic. In 182!) he 
moved to Leicester, where in his own shop 
he manufactured shovels and pitchforks, ac- 
quiring a reputation for superiority of goods 
that he maintained in other branches during 
his entire business career. While in Vermont 
in the early eighties, Mr. Deere found some 
of his shovels and pitchforks that had been 
used almost half a century and were still 




doing good service. In 1837 he sold his shop 
and determined to try his fortune in the great 
Central West, which at that time was just 
beginning to open up with its vast opportuni- 
ties. Traveling by canal and the Great Lakes, 
he landed at the* village of Chicago, a place 
that then looked to him unpromising enough 
indeed, and he at once transferred all his 
eflfects to wagons and journeyed on to Grand 
Detour, Ogle County, 111. An inventory of his 
material wealth at that time showed him to 
be the possessor of $73.73 in cash, a good set 
of blacksmith's tools, and a limited comple- 
ment of household goods. Upon arrival he 
immediately resumed his occupation of horse- 
shoeing and general blacksmithing. An early 
biographer stated, " A good mechanic is al- 
ways an important accession to a new country 
and his arrival was particularly opportune 
for this little settlement, and his mechanical 
ability was immediately brought into requisi- 
tion to put into repair a sawmill, which was 
standing idle from the breaking of a pitman 
shaft. There was no forge in readiness, but 
he at once set to work and with stone from 
a neighboring hill, constructed a rude forge 
and chimney by digging a hole in clay soil 
and making mortar of the clay and within two 
days after his arrival the mill was running, 
thus saving the owners and customers many 
days that otherwise would have been occupied 
in procuring the work from distant shops. 
Mr. Deere was an excellent mechanic and the 
few people residing in his vicinity soon found 
it out. They piled upon the floor of his shop 
their broken trace chains and clevises, their 
worn-out ' bull tongues ' and worse worn 
shares; and while the young blacksmith ham- 
mered out lap rings for their chains, welded 
their clevises, ' drew out ' their ' bull tongues ' 
and laid their shares, his mind dwelt upon 
the improvement of the plow, the imple- 
ment of greatest importance to the pio- 
neer." The Middle West, at the time of the 
coming of John Deere, was beginning to de- 
velop into a great agricultural area. There 
was dire need of agricultural implements, 
especially the plow\ To meet this demand, 
Mr. Deere added the building of plows to his 
general work. The sharpening and edging of 
breaker-shares soon led to the building of 
breaking-plows. Iron, proving unsatisfactory, 
John Deere utilized old mill saws and any- 
thing in the line of steel that he could- find 
to make the shares for these breakers. In 
1838 he began sending to Chicago for new 
mill saws, one saw blade being sufficient for 
two shares for a twenty-four-inch plow. The 
farmers were constantly complaining that the 
iron plow with the wooden moldboard, then 
used, would not work satisfactorily. The 
fault of the implements furnished was that 
they were rough, entered the ground with 
difficulty, and did not clean easily, the soil 
sticking to the face, causing them to clog up, 
which would throw them out of the furrow. 
The one great object was to find a plow that 
would obviate this difficulty. Mr. Deere be- 
came interested in this matter and set himself 
to supply the needs of the farmers. After 
much patient experimenting he developed a 
plow that seemed to meet all requirements; 
it cleaned readily and at once became very 
popular with the farmers. It w^as a crude 

affair, considering the perfected plow of today, 
but he did not then have the machinery to do 
the work well. The first plow of the scouring 
type was made with a " wrought iron land- 
side and standard, steel share and moldboard 
cut from a sawmill saw and bent on a log 
shaped for the purpose, with beam and handles 
of white oak rails." After making these first 
plows he had a great deal of trouble in get- 
ting a plow to scour satisfactorily in ground 
that had been plowed four or five times — in 
black, sticky soil. He went to different farms 
to try his plow, in Ogle. Lee, Whiteside, and 
other counties, where farmers had never been 
able to make plows scour. It was in the 
shaping of the moldboard that Mr. Deere's 
ingenuity more particularly manifested itself. 
He was unquestionably the first man to con- 
ceive and put in operation the idea that the 
successful self-scouring of a steel moldboard 
depended pre-eminently upon its shape. This 
idea was his and he worked upon it until its 
correctness was fully demonstrated. Thus he 
laid the foundation of the great plow indus- 
tries of today — by giving to the world the 
proper plow. In 1838 three of these plows 
were made. In 1839 ten plows were built and 
the entire iron works of a new saw and flour- 
ing-mill were constructed with no help ex- 
cept that of an inexperienced man as a blower 
and striker. In 1840 a second anvil was 
placed in the shop, a journeyman employed, 
and in 1842 one hundred plows were made 
and sold. Steadily and rapidly the business 
grew until in 1846 the output of the little 
shop was 1,000 plows. At this period it was 
difficult to deliver plows. Either the pur- 
chaser had to come and get his implement or 
it was sent to him by wagon. It was not 
unusual for a man to load up a wagon with 
implements and drive out across country with 
the purpose of selling them to any possible 
buyer. During the year 1838 not only did 
Mr. Deere ply his plow and blacksmith trade, 
but he also found time to build himself a 
dwelling-house eighteen by twenty-four feet 
and to this unpretentious though comfortable 
abode he brought his wife and five children 
from the East. The family journeyed from 
Hancock, Vt., in wagons to Buffalo, from there 
by lake steamer to Detroit and from there 
continued the journey by carriage and wagons. 
The family was accompanied by two brothers 
of Mrs. Deere with their families. John 
Deere's fame as a plowmaker rapidly ex- 
tended and the tide which was then set clearly 
in his favor afterward bore him steadily on 
to fortune. In 1843 he took Major Lemuel 
Andrus into partnership and enlarged his 
factory by erecting a brick shop two stories 
high, added horsepower for the grindstone, 
and established a small foundry. As time ad- 
vanced, improvements were made, but the 
difficulty of obtaining steel of proper dimen- 
sions and quality was found to be a great 
obstacle to the complete success of the busi- 
ness. Mr. Deere accordingly wrote to Nailor 
and Company, importers. New York City, and 
explained the demand of the growing agri- 
cultural States of the West for a steel plow^ 
He stated in his communication the size, 
thickness, and quality of the steel plates that 
were needed. The reply was that no such 
steel could be had in America, but that it 


JI O^li^nyl^ ^^^ej^o-s.^ 



could be procured from England after rollers 
had been made for the purpose of producing 
these special sizes of steel. An order was 
accordingly sent and the steel made and 
shipped to Illinois — the first imported ship- 
ment of plow steel to this country. During 
this same year, with the view of developing 
a market nearer home, where he could obtain 
material for his plows, Mr. Deere opened 
negotiations in Pittsburgh for the manufac- 
ture of plow steel, as is shown by the follow- 
ing extract from Mr. James Swank's book, 
*' Iron in All Ages," from which volume, page 
297, is quoted : " The first slab of cast plow 
steel ever rolled in the United States was 
rolled by William Woods at the Steel Works 
w of Jones and Quiggs in 1847 and shipped to 
John Deere, Moline, 111., under whose direc- 
tion it was made." Mr. Deere's practical fore- 
sight enabled him to see that his location in 
Grand Detour was not advantageous for a 
growing business. Coal, iron, and steel must 
be hauled from La Salle, a distance of forty 
miles, and his plows taken a long distance to 
market in the same slow and expensive man- 
ner. He, therefore, sold his interest in the 
business to his partner. Major Andrus, and 
moved to Moline, 111., in 1847. Here was good 
water power, coal was near in abundance, 
and there was cheap river transportation. A 
partnership was formed between Mr. Deere, 
R. N. Tate, and John M. Gould, a shop thirty 
by sixty feet was constructed, and seven hun- 
dred plows were made the first year. In 

1852 Messrs. Tate and Gould retired from the 
firm, Mr. Deere buying their interests. In 

1853 the shops were enlarged, new machinery 
added, and the sales greatly increased. Mr. 
Deere continued alone through 1857, 'in which 
year his factory made 10,000 plows. In 
1858 he took his son, Charles H., into the 
business as a partner and the firm continued 
under the name of Deere and Company, until 
1868 when it had assumed such proportions 
that a company was incorporated under the 
general laws of the State of Illinois, with 
John Deere as president, a position which he 
held until his death, Charles H. Deere, vice- 
president and manager, and Stephen H. Velie, 
one of his sons-in-law, secretary. It is con- 
ceded that John Deere gave to the world 
the steel plow. When he manufactured his 
first plows there were no steel plows in 
America, nor was steel manufactured for the 
express purpose of making plows. The in- 
fluence of this improvement in the manu- 
facture of plows cannot be estimated. John 
Deere was a pioneer in the strictest sense of 
the word and his work was the practical ad- 
vancement of civilization. For over three- 
score years a life of sterling usefulness, of 
progress, and of generosity made him a lead- 
ing figure in the history of the best interests 
of his country. To every farmer in this coun- 
try and to thousands of others in far-oflf lands, 
his name has always been associated with the 
development and improvement of the steel 
plow. In this field he was not an imitator, 
but in truth an inventor. He was not content 
to follow his calling without contributing 
something to the industry. Mr. Deere was 
not only active in his own business but de- 
voted a great amount of time and energy 
toward the betterment of the community in 

which he lived. Though he had neither the 
desire nor time for the many offices for which 
his services were sought, he was always in 
sympathy with public interests and gave lib- 
erally of his means to advance them. He was 
a Republican in politics from the organiza- 
tion of that party and an active member of 
the Congregational Church. He was elected 
mayor of the city of Moline and served two 
years. He was president of its first National 
bank. In personal appearance Mr. Deere was 
about six feet in height, well proportioned, 
and very strongly built. He was blessed with 
an iron constitution which gave him almost 
unlimited endurance. " In his young man- 
hood he could stand at his anvil from five 
o'clock in the morning until nine at night, 
building plows, shoeing horses, and construct- 
ing machinery for mills." His features were 
strong, indicating great will power and de- 
cision of character. His face was frank and 
open and his address generally evidenced a 
genial social nature and noble soul. He was 
very tender-hearted and an appeal for any 
worthy individual or cause found a quick re- 
sponse from him. He was possessed of abun- 
dant energy, life, and vigor. He was a capable 
mechanic, a man of keen foresight and excel- 
lent business judgment. A generous hospitality 
was shown at his comfortable home, and few 
men were more entertaining in the social cir- 
cle or had a more happy faculty of making 
everyone feel at ease. He once made the 
statement that through his whole life it had 
been a great source of consolation to him to 
know that he had never willfully wronged any 
man and never put on the market a poorly 
made article. Mr. Deere was married 28 Jan., 
1827, to Demarius Lamb, of Granville, Vt. 
She died in 1865. Two years later Mr. Deere 
married her sister, Lucinda Lamb. Of his 
nine children, five survived him: one son, 
Charles H. Deere, and four married daughters. 
SPENCER, Samuel, railway president and 
financier, b. in Columbus, Ga., 2 March, 1847; 
d. at Lawyer's Station, Va., 29 Nov., 1906, 
only child of Lambert and Vernona (Mitchell) 
Spencer, and a descendant of James Spencer, 
who came from England in 1670 and settled in 
Talbot County, Maryland. Samuel Spencer 
was educated in the common schools of his 
native city until his fifteenth year, when he 
entered the Georgia Military Institute at 
Marietta. In the following year (1863), 
however, he enlisted in the Confederate serv- 
ice as a private in Nelson's rangers, a 
cavalry company that attained distinction 
before the close of the Civil War. He 
saw his first active service before Vicksburg, 
where he was detailed on scout outpost duty. 
Later he served with the army of Gen. N. B. 
Forrest; with the army of General Hood in 
the Atlanta and Nashville operations, and, 
finally, with the army of General Johnston, 
until the surrender in April, 1805. After the 
close of the war he entered the ITnivorsity of 
Georgia with the junior class, and was grad- 
uated with honors in 1867. During the fol- 
lowing two years he studiod civil enginooring 
in the University of Virginia and was grad- 
uated with the degree of C.E. at the head of 
his class in 1860. He began his active ])rofeR- 
sional career in the same year in the servics 
of the Savannah and Memphis Railroad, with 




which he continued during the next four 
years, rising, meanwhile, through all interme- 
diate grades to the oflice of resident engineer. 
In July, 1872, he accepted the position of 
assistant to the superintendent of the New 
Jersey Southern Railroad at Long Branch, but 
resigned it in that winter to become a divi- 
sion manager in the transportation depart- 
ment of the Baltimore and Ohio. He held the 
latter position until 1877, then served as 
superintendent of the Virginia Midland for 
several months, and finally in January, 1878, 
became general superintendent of the Long 
Island Railroad. In 1879 he returned to the 
service of the Baltimore and Ohio, this time 
as assistant to the president, but was regu- 
larly advanced in office, becoming third vice- 
president in 1881, second vice-president in 
1882; first vice-president in 1884, and presi- 
dent in 1887. Mr. Spencer's one year's serv- 
ice as president of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad covered the period of the company's 
greatest embarrassment, but owing to his 
careful management all difficulties were over- 
come, and the system was placed upon a pros- 
perous and paying basis. This achievement 
led to the invitation from the banking-house 
of Drexel, Morgan and Company (later J. P. 
Morgan and Company), to become their ex- 
pert and representative in the vast railroad 
transactions on which they were entering at 
this time. His connection with this firm con- 
tinued for many years, during which he was 
actively engaged in all of its numerous rail- 
road operations, but in July, 1893, he be- 
came receiver for the Richmond and Danville 
and the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia 
Railroad Companies. Within a year the 
Southern Railway Company was organized to 
take over the properties of these defunct cor- 
porations, and Mr. Spencer was elected presi- 
dent. In this position he had ample oppor- 
tunity to display his organizing and executive 
abilities, which had already distinguished him 
in all his previous connections. Under his ad- 
ministration of its affairs, the mileage of the 
railroad system controlled and operated by 
the Southern Railroad was more than doubled, 
having been increased from 4,391 miles, in 
1893, to 9,553 in 1906, of which 7,515 miles 
were represented by the lines owned by the 
company, the remainder, by lines leased and 
controlled. During these thirteen years also 
the assets and properties of the railroad were 
correspondingly increased. Thus, in 1893, it 
operated with 623 locomotives and 19,694 cars 
which hauled a grand total of 3,427,858 pas- 
sengers and 6,675,750 tons of freight, while 
in 1906 it operated 1,429 locomotives and 
50,119 cars, which hauled 11,663.550 passen- 
gers and 27.339,377 tons of freight. In the 
meantime also the earnings were increased 
from $17,114,791 in the first year to $53,641,- 
438 in the last, although the number of em- 
ployees had been doubled from 16.700 in 
1904 to 37,000 in 1906, and the salary ex- 
penditure more than trebled, or increased 
from $6,712,796 to $21,198,020. In fact, be- 
ginning with a new company formed to take 
over the properties of two railroads which 
had been operated at a loss, the Southern 
Railroad, by virtue of the management on the 
part of Mr. Spencer, was transformed into one 
of the great continental systems of North 


America, and the most important railroad in 
the whole section in which it operates. There 
was throughout the Southern States, of course, 
a pre-eminent opportunity to . enlarge travel- 
ing facilities and build up the country, every- 
thing was in favor of the very enterprise 
which Mr. Spencer conducted to euch success, 
but the accomplishment of the work demanded 
the leadership of a man possessed of the abili- 
ties of the true commander. Mr. Spencer pos- 
sessed to an unusual degree the power to 
obtain and hold the faithful allegiance of the 
men under him. He was at all times in- 
terested in their welfare. He was the first, 
at all times, to move for the adjustment of 
all matters resulting in discontent and dis- 
pute among his men, and opposed movements 
leading to strikes by trying to eliminate the 
grounds for such unfortunate consequences of 
poor management. It is a noble and stirring 
tribute to his generalship and consistent hu- 
manity that four years after his death a 
bronze statue, paid for by subscription among 
his 40,000 employees, was erected to his mem- 
ory at the terminal station of the Southern 
Railway in Atlanta, Ga. In addition to the 
office of president of this railroad, Mr. 
Spencer was also president of the Mobile and 
Ohio, the Alabama Great Southern, the Cin- 
cinnati, New Orleans and Texas Pacific, the 
Georgia Southern and Florida, and the North- 
ern Alabama Railroad Companies, most of 
which were operated by, or in connection with, 
the Southern. He was also a director of sev- 
eral of these companies, as well as of the 
Central Georgia, of the Chicago, Milwaukee ^ 
and St. Paul and the Erie Railroad Com- i 
panics, the Old Dominion Steamship Com- 3 
pany, the* Western Union Telegraph Company, j. 
the Hanover National Bank of New York 
City, the Standard Trust Company, and the 
Trust Company of America. He was also a 
member of the New York Chamber of Com- 
merce, the American Academy of Political a 
Science, the American Forestry Association, | 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Ameri- j 
can Museum of Natural History, the New * 
York Zoological Society, and the Association 
for the Preservation of the Adirondacks, all 
of New York City, also of the Union, Tuxedo, 
Metropolitan and Jekyl Island Clubs of New 
York; the Capital City Club of Atlanta, the 
Queen City Club of Cincinnati, and the Chi- 
cago Club"^ of Chicago. He was actively in- 
terested in the great public questions of the 
day, and wrote and spoke on them with 
marked ability. Socially he was noted for 
his kindly and approachable manner, and his 
consistent ability to choose and keep a multi- 
tude of friends. Moreover, he possessed the 
faculty, all too rare among men of the pres- 
ent day, of meeting all men, high or low, great 
or small, upon the ground of a common hu- 
manity, which was capable of translating the 
loyalty of the employee into terms of the 
affection of the friend. On the occasion of 
the dedication of the statue of Mr. Spencer, 
W. W. Finley, his successor as president 
of the Southern Railway, spoke as follows: 
" Mr. Spencer was essentially an organizer 
and a builder. His highest ambition was the 
development of the Southern Railway into a 
more efficient transportation system, and thus 
making it a still more important factor in the 





upbuilding and prosperity of the South. It 
was to this problem that Mr. Spencer was con- 
stantly devoting the best energies of his con- 
structive mind, and, as we, his successors, 
carry forward the great work which he had 
planned, I believe that the people of the 
South will recognize, even more fully than 
they do today, the inestimable value to our 
entire section of the crowning work of his life. 
Standing before this terminal station, this 
monument will be seen daily by thousands of 
the citizens of Georgia and the other South- 
ern States. It will stand as a perpetual in- 
spiration to the youth of Georgia and of the 
South — ^portraying a Georgian, who by pa- 
triotism, strict integrity, a high Christian 
character, and untiring industry won honor 
and success in life and a reputation that en- 
dures after death." With similar high ap- 
preciation of Mr. Spencer's character and 
abilities, Hon. Robert F. Maddox, mayor of 
Atlanta, spoke as follows: "One of Mr. 
Spencer's most striking traits was his kind- 
ness of heart, and no higher tribute to his 
make-up can be made here today than the 
following excerpt from a letter of J. W. Con- 
nelly, of date 1 Jan., 1907, which Mr. Connelly, 
as chairman of the committee which built this 
monument, addressed to the employees of the 
Southern Railway, in which he said : ' Mr. 
Spencer's kindness of heart ever led him to 
treat with the same consideration his hum- 
blest employee and his highest officer. Mr. 
Spencer was one of the most accurate of men. 
In the study of any subject which interested 
him, whether historical, esthetic, or business, 
he went to the bottom, and when he spoke, it 
was ex cathedra. He was distinguished for 
a justness of mental vision and decision 
rarely possessed by men concerned with such 
a diversity of large questions. He was one of 
those men who sought to find the just path, 
and having found it, he walked straight for- 
ward. There were times when he lamented to 
his nearest friends about the bitter attacks 
against some of his railroad policies, but he 
always said that the time would come when 
the Southern people would understand him.' " 
At a meeting of the trustees of the Southern 
Railway, held 2 Dec, 1906, resolutions were 
adopted, lauding the work of Mr. Spencer as 
president of the company. Here the following 
sentences occur: "The personal qualities of 
Mr. Spencer, his integrity in heart and mind, 
his affectionate and genial disposition, his 
loyal and courageous spirit, his untiring de- 
votion to duty, his persistent achievement of 
worthy ends and his comradeship on the fields 
of battle, of affairs, and of manly sport, com- 
bined to establish him in the loving regard 
of hosts of friends in every section of the 
country and nowhere more securely than in 
the affection of his fellow workers in the serv- 
ice of the Southern Railway Company. The 
importance of his service to this company is 
matter of common knowledge throughout the 
railroad world, but the character, the extent, 
and the consequence of that service are and 
can be appreciated at their full worth only by 
his associates . . . the mighty fabric which 
for twelve years he has been molding must 
continue under others to develop, and to im- 
prove in the service that it shall render to the 
public, but never can it cease to bear the im- 

press, or to reveal the continuing impulse of 
the master mind of its first president. In 
the height of his usefulness and his powers he 
has been called away, but the inspiration of 
his shining example and his lofty standards 
must ever animate his successors." Mr. 
Spencer married on 6 Feb., 1872, Louisa 
Vivian, daughter of Henry L. Benning, judge 
of the Georgia Supreme Court, and a briga- 
dier-general in the Confederate army. They 
had two sons: Henry Benning and Vivian 
Spencer, and one daughter, Vernona Mitchell 

SPERRY, Elmer Ambrose, inventor, b. at 
Cortland, N. Y., 12 Oct., 1860, son of Stephen 
Decatur and Mary (Borst) Sperry. His 
original American ancestor was Richard 
Sperry, a native of England, who, in 1634, 
while still a young man, emigrated from Eng- 
land, and became one of the early settlers of 
the New Haven colony in Connecticut. As 
recorded in Stiles' History, he resided in the 
second house between Mills Creek and Hud- 
son's River. He is particularly deserving of 
a place in history from the fact that it was 
he who afi'orded protection for a considerable 
period to the " regicide judges," Goffe, Whal- 
ley, and Dixwell. Although on the restoration 
of the Stuarts to the throne, 1660, a general 
amnesty was proclaimed by Charles II, the 
members of the court who had condemned his 
father, Charles I, were not included. Of the 
fifty-nine men who signed the death warrant 
of the King, twenty-four were dead in 1660; 
twenty-seven were at once ^irrested, and nine 
of them beheaded, while the others fled from 
England and went into hiding. Of these, 
three, Maj.-Gen. Edward Whalley, Ma j .-Gen. 
William Goffe, and Col. John Dixwell, fled 
to New Haven colony, and were taken in 
charge by Richard Sperry, who secreted them 
in a cave on his farm at West Rock, known 
now as the Judges' Cave. His children car- 
ried food and left it at a designated place in 
the forest, and at night the hunted men would 
secure it. They were safely kept until the 
pursuit died away, although large rewards 
were offered for their capture. Sperry's house 
was searched twice by the " red coats " in 
this interest. Capture meant death to Whal- 
ley and Goffe as they were special objects of 
the King's vengeance, because of their promi- 
nence in the affairs of the " Protectorate." 
They were not safe until 1688, when the 
Stuarts were succeeded by the Hovise of 
Orange. A full account may be found in the 
history of three of the Judges of Charles I, 
by Rev. Ezra Stiles, president of Yale Col- 
lege, published in 1794. Only one copy is 
now available and that is in the Congressional 
Library, Washington, D. C. Richard Sperry's 
son, Richard (2d), built upon the Sperry 
farm near New Haven a stone house wliich 
still stands and is occupied by dosccndanta of 
the builder, having never been out of the 
family. From Richard Sj)erry, the colonist, 
the line of descent runs llirougli his son, 
Richard, and his wife, Martha Mansfield; 
through their son, Jonathan, and his wife, Mc- 
hitable Collins; through their son. Kichard, 
and his wife, Abigail Northrop; tlirough their 
son, Mcdad, and his wife, Eli/abelh Tline; 
through their son,, and his wife, 
Mary B. Corwin, grandparents of the inven- 




tor. Deriving descent from a long line of 
representative people, who were alike strong 
in mind and strong in body, also representa- 
tives of all that goes to make the good citi- 
zen and consistent Christian, Elmer A. Sperry 
began life with a splendid heritage. He was 
educated in the State Normal School of his 
native town and during a single year (1879- 
80) attended Cornell University. Like most 
pioneers, however, his training in the lines of 
special efforts in after life came through his 
own labors and interest. Already in 1879, 
when not yet twenty years of age, he had be- 
come the inventor of a successful and revolu- 
tionary device, then perfecting one of the first 
electric arc lights in America, and securing 
its practical adoption. In the following year, 
although not yet of age, he had founded his 
own company, the Sperry Electric Company, 
of Chicago, and had entered upon the manu- 
facture of arc lamps, dynamos, motors, and 
other electric appliances. This corporation, 
however, was only the first of a goodly series 
of enterprises launched to produce and market 
the products of his inventive genius. Indeed, 
his activities have been as various as they 
have been numerous, spreading out, in fact, 
into nearly every branch of electrical activity, 
and always with brilliant and conspicuous 
success. In 1883 he erected on Lake Michigan 
the highest electric beacon in the world, about 
350 feet in height, and equipped it with 
40,000 candle-power of arc lights. In 1888 he 
entered a competition and won the distinction 
of having been the first to produce electrical 
mining machinery. His inventions in this 
field cover a wide range of appliances, from 
reciprocating mining machinery to rotary and 
chain-cutting equipment, electric locomotives 
for mines, etc. Since the date of their first 
appearance, the Sperry mining appliances have 
ranked among the best known and most widely 
used of their class, and have represented a 
profitable field of business. Shortly after his 
first conspicuous successes in mining machin- 
ery, Mr. Sperry appeared also as a practical 
designer of electrical street railway cars, then 
achieving the first signs of the success and 
popularity that they have since attained. He 
founded the Sperry Electric Railway Com- 
pany, of Cleveland, Ohio, to manufacture his 
cars, and continued with success and profit 
until 1894, when the stock and patents were 
purchased by the General Electric Company 
of New York, which still controls them. 
From the electric street railway car to the 
electric motor vehicle, the transition was easy 
and natural. At a time when the earliest 
pioneers of the American gasoline automo- 
bile were still conducting their experiments, 
Mr. Sperry appeared as an early designer of 
a successful electric carriage, which he manu- 
factured for several years to fill such demand 
as was then available. He also drove the first 
American built automobile in the streets of 
Paris in 1896 and 1897, where a large num- 
ber of these automobiles were sold and de- 
livered. The field of electro-chemistry is also 
indebted to Mr. Sperry; an important com- 
mercial process for producing caustic soda 
and bleach, now used by the Hooker Electro- 
Chemical Company of Niagara Falls, N. Y., 
is due to his activity. To other work in this 
field is due the National Battery Company, 

which was organized and operates under Mr. 
Sperry's patents. Among other minor inven- 
tions may be mentioned his detinning process, 
now used by extensive detinning interests, and 
also his machinery for producing fuse wires, 
on which was based the Chicago Fuse Wire 
Company, doing an extensive business through- 
out the country. He was instrumental, also, 
in designing several varieties of machinery 
for the General Electric Company, the Good- 
man Manufacturing Company, and others. 
Previous to 1910 there were already six in- 
dustrial corporations founded to manufacture 
Mr. Sperry's inventions, doing in the aggre- 
gate an annual business of upward of $5,000,- 
000. With these companies Mr. Sperry has 
been actively connected in engineering and ex- 
ecutive capacities. About 1890 he first turned 
his attention seriously to the possibilities of 
the gyroscope, which, since its first demon- 
stration by the French scientist Foucault in 
1851, had been little more than a scientific 
curiosity or mathematician's toy, though of 
large possibilities, and embodying obscure and 
intricate physical principles. Within the dec- 
ade beginning about 1898, however, the phe- 
nomena of the gyroscope strongly suggested to 
a number of inventors profound possibilities 
in the direction of stabilizing ships at sea, 
and even rendering possible single rail tram 
cars. As in other connections, however, there 
is a wide gap between the recognition of the 
availability of a given contrivance for a spe- 
cial purpose and the devising of the means 
for applying it to the practical accomplish- 
ment of that purpose. Several inventors, both 
in America and Europe, worked on various 
applications of the gyro for steering torpe- 
does and for monorail railroads. In this field 
Mr Sperry has made a remarkable contribu- 
tion to practical mechanics through the use 
of the gyroscope. This is in the perfection of 
the gyroscopic compass. The principle in- 
volved has been recognized from the earliest 
days of gyroscopic experiment. Indeed Fou- 
cault enunciated the principle in the following 
laws: "first, that the inertia of a rapidly ro- 
tating wheel, suspended with freedom to move 
upon all axes, is relative to space, and conse- 
quently that a gyroscope suspended in that 
manner will maintain its plane of rotation in 
space; second, that a gyroscope suspended 
with its axis of rotation horizontal, and with 
freedom about the horizontal axis partly or 
wholly suppressed, will tend to precess, or turn, 
about the vertical axis in an effort to place its 
plane of rotation coincident with that of the 
earth." As may be seen, then, the action of 
a given gyroscope is precisely that of a me- 
chanical magnet, in which the immensely 
rapid rotation of the axis is analogous to 
the interatomic " circulation " of the magnetic 
forces in a bar of magnetized steel. It shows 
also the effect of "polarity," since the direc- 
tion of rotation, "clockwise" or " counter- 
clockwise," determines precisely which end of 
the rotating axis shall point to the north. 
Turning away from the unsatisfactory meth- 
ods of using mercury floats to sustain the ro- 
tating wheel, Mr. Sperry produced what he 
calls " reducing the whole gyroscope proposi- 
tion to a strictly mechanical basis easily 
within the comprehension of all and contain- 
ing no unknown quantities," such as are liable 





to be incurred with the use of mercury, etc. 
Mr. Sperry also employs an excellent method 
of driving his gyroscope, using the wheel rim 
as the rotor of a three-phase electric motor, 
reducing the gyroscopic compass to a per- 
fectly practical basis, immensely superior to 
the magnetic compass. It involves the further 
advantage that the master compass may be 
placed at any convenient safe place, and that 
the record at all times may be read on " re- 
peating instruments " at other parts of the 
ship, being transferred electrically. It re- 
mained for Elmer A. Sperry to produce en- 
tirely practical apparatus for the stabilization 
of ships. Proceeding upon thoroughly scien- 
tific principles, and as the result of lengthy 
experiments, he set himself deliberately to the 
problems relating to the placing, mounting, 
and driving of the apparatus so as to secure 
the maximum of effect under all conditions. 
In the solutions of these problems lie the suc- 
cessful issue of Mr. Sperry's experiments. 
Previous to his successful solutions, several 
noted engineers had attacked the problem of 
stabilizing ships, notably by the use of mov- 
ing weights on vertical axes, or by the in- 
stallation of large tanks of water. In both 
cases the apparatus depended for effect upon 
a certain periodicity in the movement of the 
vessel, and was of little use under other con- 
ditions. With the use of the gyroscope, how- 
ever, as explained in the words of Mr. Sperry 
himself, there is no need to depend upon 
" any particular period of the boat ; it simply 
responds to whatever motion the ship has, 
synchronous or non-synchronous. Barring the 
matter of list produced by the changes of 
center of gravity of the ship by the moving 
weight, the reason is perfectly apparent when 
you recall the magnitude of the stresses ob- 
tainable from a small machine. Every pound 
in the rotating mass of the gyroscope can 
easily be made to do the work of from 150 
to 200 pounds, and directed in any desired 
line or plane, whereas, when we use water 
or any other form of moving weight, each 
pound represents a pound only, and can do 
the work of only a pound, and only in a 
vertical direction." By the use of the gyro 
stabilizer all rolling of the ship is entirely 
prevented, i.e., the ship never begins to roll — 
rolling being prevented in its incipiency by 
neutralizing each wave impulse as it arrives 
from either direction, be it large or small, 
inasmuch as rolling of ships is always caused 
by an accumulation of individual wave im- 
pulses; a ship so stabilized possesses many 
technical advantages over a rolling ship out- 
side of those that are apparent, such as level 
gun platform, comfort to passengers and crew, 
preserving live stock in transit, preserving the 
Bhip's structure from excessive wrenching and 
stress, etc., etc. His gyroscopic stabilizer for 
ships has been already successfully applied to 
a warship of the United States. With the 
advent of the aeroplane, also, the problem im- 
mediately emerged as to how the new device 
was to be prevented from losing its balance 
in the air and being precipitated to the earth, 
an accident which occurred only too often in 
the earliest days. To this question several 
inventors proposed mechanical solutions, such 
as warping tips, auxiliary wing tips, ailerons, 
etc., but the idea specially dawned upon the 

most advanced engineers that only some kind 
of kinetic stabilizer operated at a high speed 
could appropriately imitate the self-balancing 
action of the living flying-machine, viz., the 
bird or insect; and the thoughts of designers 
inevitably turned to the gyroscope as the most 
promising solution. Mr. Sperry's apparatus 
for aeroplanes seems to be the only really 
efficient device of its kind as yet invented. In 
recognition of his contribution to the science 
of aviation, he was in December, 1914, awarded 
the Collier trophy offered for the most val- 
uable contribution to aeroplane construction 
and operation during the current year. Mr. 
Sperry's various inventions are protected by 
over 250 patents in the United States and 
foreign countries. His achievements have 
been recognized by various learned bodies, and 
by the first prize of the Aero Club of France, 
the medal of the Franklin Institute of Phila- 
delphia, the first in recognition of his gyro- 
scopic aeroplane stabilizer, the latter of his 
gyro compass for ships. Mr. Sperry is a mem- 
ber of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, of which he was a founder; as he 
is also of the American Electro-Chemical So- 
ciety; of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers; the American Chemical Society, 
the Society of Naval Architects and Marine 
Engineers, the Aero Club of America, the 
Engineers' Club of New York City, and sev- 
eral social organizations. He married, in 
1887, Zula Augusta, a daughter of Edward 
Goodman, proprietor of the " Standard " of 
Chicago, and a prominent man of affairs. 
They have three sons and one daughter: Ed- 
ward Goodman, Lawrence Borst, Elmer Am- 
brose, Jr., and Helen Marguerite Sperry. 

TOWNE, Henry Robinson, engineer and 
manufacturer, b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 28 Aug., 
1844, son of John Henry and Maria R. (Tevis) 
Towne. He traces his descent from William 
Towne, of Yarmouth, England, who emigrated 
to America in 1640 and settled near Salem, 
Mass. John Henry Towne, father of Henry 
Robinson, was long identified with the engineer- 
ing industries of Philadelphia, and was actively 
interested in scientific pursuits of all kinds, 
particularly in those connected with his pro- 
fession. During his later years much of his 
time was given to the advancement of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, of which he was one 
of the trustees, and to which he bequeathed 
nearly $1,000,000 to organize the scientific de- 
partment, now known as the Towne Scientific 
School. Henry Robinson Towne was educated 
at private schools and entered the University 
of Pennsylvania in the class of 1865, but left 
without graduating to enter upon his profes- 
sional career. In 1866 he went abroad to study 
engineering establishments in England. Bel- 
gium, and France, and during a six months' 
stay in Paris attended lectures at the Sor- 
bonne. In 1887 the honorary degree of M.A. 
was conferred upon him by his alma mater. 
His first employment was as a nioohanical 
draftsman in the Port Richmond Iron 
Works, Philadelphia, where he received his 
early training in mechanics and engineering. 
Besides general engineering work, ho was en- 
gaged on the construction of heavy machinery 
in the monitors " Monadnook " and " Aga- 
menticus," at the Charlestown (Mass.) and 
Kittery (Me.) navy yards. In October, 1868, 




he formed a partnership with Linus Yale, Jr. 
(q.v.), the inventor of the Yale cylinder lock, 
and went to Stamford, Conn., where the Yale 
Lock Manufacturing Company was organized 
and a small factory building, employing at the 
start thirty hands, was erected. Mr. Yale died 
suddenly within two months, leaving the young 
enterprise in the hands of Mr. Towne and John 
B. Yale, the former's son. Mr. Towne succeeded 
to the presidency in 1869 and has remained in 
practical control ever since. During all the 
years of experiment, expansion, and continuous 
progress, ^Ir. Towne stood at the head of the 
concern and shouldered the weight of responsi- 
bility. As time went on and the business in- 
creased, he was required to devote more and 
more attention to the larger questions of policy 
and trade relations, and in the late nineties he 
began a search for a capable assistant to take 
charge of the works. The choice fell to Fred- 
erick Tallmadge Towne (q.v.), his son, who 
retained the position until the time of his 
death in February, 1906. Mr. Towne was presi- 
dent of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers in 1888-89, and in 1889 was" chosen 
chairman of a party of over three hundred 
American engineers which visited England and 
France as the guests of the engineers of those 
countries. He has written considerably on en- 
gineering and mechanical subjects. He is the 
author of "Towne on Cranes" (1883) and 
" Locks and Builders' Hardware " ( 1904 ) . Mr. 
Towne has also attained success as a writer on 
practical subjects; he presented a paper at the 
annual meeting of the Society of Mechanical 
Engineers in 1906, entitled " Our Present 
Weights and Measures and the Metric Sys- 
tem," in which the history and technical as- 
pects of the metric system are ably and inter- 
estingly discussed. In 1907 he was honored 
with election to the presidency of the Mer- 
chants' Association, New York, and was re- 
elected annually until he resigned in 1913. He 
has been active in the work of the association 
since 1900, when he became a member of its 
committee which investigated the Ramapo 
water project, and rendered valuable services 
in that connection. He then became, and still 
remains, chairman of the association's commit- 
tee on water supply, and particularly the un- 
dertaking of the Catskill project. From 1903 
to 1914 he was a member of the executive com- 
mittee of the association and took a prominent 
part in the important work which, as 
president of the association, he long personally 
directed. He was the mediator who, with 
Mayor Gaynor, brought about the settlement 
of the big express strike in New York in 1911, 
and later he has directed the movement which 
resulted in an investigation of the express 
companies by the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, and a reorganization of the express 
business, accompanied by a material reduction 
in the entire schedule of rates. In April, 1912, 
he prepared a memorial to Congress on the 
Sherman Anti-Trust Law, in which he con- 
vincingly argued that the Sherman Anti-Trust 
Law, as now construed, adversely influences the 
industry and commerce of the country. He 
then reviewed the Combines Investigation Act 
of Canada, and argued for similar legislation 
here. As president of the Merchants' Associa- 
tion, he helped to establish its bureau of pub- 
licity, which aims to make known the mass of 

hitherto hidden facts advantageous to New 
York ; its industrial bureau, which gathers and 
distributes information relative to New York's 
industrial and commercial advantages; its for- 
eign trade bureau, intended to stimulate for- 
eign trade; and its traffic bureau, devoted to 
protecting the interests of New York in all 
readjustments of freight rates. He is a stanch 
advocate of organized business. Mr. Towne 
was one of the organizers of the National 
Tariff Commission Association in 1909, and has 
been its treasurer and a chief promoter of its 
aims ever since. These aims may be briefly 
summarized as the creation of a permanent, 
non-partisan tariff" commission for the scientific 
ascertainment of facts as a basis for legislation 
by Congress. In an address before the National 
Convention at Indianapolis in 1909, since pub- 
lished and widely circulated under the title of 
" The Neutral Line," Mr. Towne presented, in 
clear, concise, and striking form, the main argu- 
ments for the scientific study of tariff prob- 
lems, at home and abroad. In June, 1911, he 
prepared, as chairman of a special committee 
of the Tariff Commission Association, a " Re- 
port of an Investigation of the Tariff Board," 
which is a careful study of the technical work 
of the tariff board, and the findings of the 
committee were presented to Congress by Presi- 
dent Taft. Mr. Towne also took a prominent 
part in the hearings before the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission in 1911 in relation to the 
proposed general increase by the railroads in 
freight rates. In 1914 he was elected, by the 
banks of New York City, a director of the new 
Federal Reserve Bank of New York, and took 
an active part in its organization. Mr. Towne 
is a member of the University, Century, Union 
League, Hardware, Engineers', and St. Anthony 
Clubs. Since 1892 he has made his home in 
New York. He was married in 1868 to Cora E., 
daughter of John P. White, of Philadelphia, 
Pa., by whom he had two sons: John H. and 
the late Frederick Tallmadge Towne. Al- 
though one of the youngest of the commer- 
cial organizations of New York City, the Mer- 
chants' Association, of which Mr. Towne was 
president, is the largest and, in many respects, 
the most influential. It includes in its mem- 
bership all the leading business men of the 
city, covering every field of business activity. 
Many of the leading professional men are also 
members. The association was organized in 
1897, being incorporated under the Member- 
ship Corporation Law of the State. Soon 
after its incorporation, in 1898, the city of 
New York found its water supply inadequate 
and there was fear of a water famine. The 
Ramapo Water Company, aided by a group of 
city officials, attempted to impose upon the city 
a contract which would have cost the city 
$100,000,000, leaving it without any water 
supply system at the end of the contract. The 
Merchants' Association led the fight against 
this contract in a campaign which involved an 
expenditure of $40,000 and extended through- 
out the State. Largely through its efforts, 
the scheme was defeated and the charter which 
had been obtained from the legislature to 
enable the company to hold the city at its 
mercy was finally repealed. The association 
has always taken great interest in the adequacy 
and purity of the city's water supply, recog- 
nizing the fact that this supply is of the ut- 


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most importance to the city. It has also been 
vigilant in preventing the unnecessary con- 
tamination of the waters about the city with 
sewage. Much of the work of the association 
is conducted through its standing bureaus and 
committees. The committees are made up from 
the membership, the members being appointed 
by the president of the association, William 
Fellowes Morgan. They consider subjects 
brought forward for the consideration of the 
association, and report to the governing body, 
the board of directors. The bureaus include 
the Research Bureau, which makes investiga- 
tions and prepares material for the use of the 
association and its committees in the consid- 
eration of various subjects and projects of 
importance to the city. It also prepares argu- 
ments for presentation before Congressional or 
Legislative Committees or public officials. 
Through a subdivision, it examines and pre- 
pares abstracts of all bills of importance in- 
troduced into the legislature. The Traffic 
Bureau renders service of a twofold character. 
First, the protection of New York in its rela- 
tion to other cities and manufacturing sec- 
tions of the country under the readjustment of 
the freight rate structure of the country, 
which is now taking place as a result of new 
conditions. This work is of fundamental im- 
portance because to a material extent the 
future of the city in manufacturing and as a 
trade distributive center will be largely deter- 
mined by its competitive relation with other 
cities in freight rates. Second, service to 
members in connection with the daily problems 
and difficulties arising from the physical ship- 
ment and receipt of goods. This service com- 
prises information concerning rates, route, 
classifications, methods of packing, validity of 
claims, form in which claims should be pre- 
sented, rules and regulations relative to termi- 
nal regulations and charges, etc. Tariff and 
classification files are maintained for the use 
of members. This service is being used to a 
great advantage by an increasing proportion 
of the members of the association. The In- 
dustrial Bureau has recently been organized 
and is now continuing the work of surveying 
various lines of industry in the community in 
order thus to ascertain the exact conditions 
and to gather information concerning the 
various factors which enter into the advan- 
tageous or disadvantageous position of New 
York City for those particular industries. The 
Industrial Bureau is working in full harmony 
with those interests engaged in upbuilding the 
various sections of the city, and is locating 
here new industries whenever it can be shown, 
as a result of the survey, that the conditions 
in New York are favorable for the successful 
operation of such industries. The Foreign 
Trade Bureau has been supplying information 
in connection with an average of 125 com- 
modities a week, giving information concern- 
ing actual trade opportunities to an average 
of about 750 business houses each week. Much 
assistance has been rendered in connection with 
the importation of goods purchased in Ger- 
many, Australia, and Belgium; the delivery 
of American manufactured goods intended for 
the various countries directly affected by the 
war; and the regulation of exchange with 
Holland. The work of the Foreign Trade 
Bureau is rapidly developing in scope and in 

value and in the future it must be of prime 
importance to members of the association in 
particular and the community in general. The 
Convention Bureau has made New York the 
leading convention city of the country. 
Largely as a result of its efforts, 663 con- 
ventions were held in New York in 1916, a 
larger number than has been recorded by any 
other city excepting San Francisco, which had 
about 700 conventions during the Panama- 
Pacific Exposition year. The Publicity Bureau 
obtains free advertising for New York City 
and its "business interests and attractions. It 
also assists in obtaining public support for 
projects championed by the association which 
are of value to the city. The advertising which 
it obtains without charge would cost upward 
of a quarter of a million dollars a year if paid 
for at the usual rates. The association has 
also a Membership Bureau, whose duty it is to 
keep in touch with the membership of the asso- 
ciation, to answer complaints and to main- 
tain the level of membership necessary to effi- 
cient work. The association has been success- 
ful in bringing about the readjustment of 
telephone rates for the proportionate benefit 
of the various classes of telephone subscribers. 
As far back as 1907 the association secured 
reductions in telephone charges in this city 
amounting to $1,500,000 a year. Again, in 
1913, the association moved for a general re- 
vision of telephone rates and a new scale of 
charges based upon an appraisal of the tele- 
phone company's property, the value of the 
property used by each class of subscribers and 
the extent of use by each class. The Public 
Service Commission took the matter under 
consideration and finally agreeing with the 
association, made a ruling which saves to the 
telephone subscribers in this city a total 
amount of $2,250,000 a year. Through the 
active efforts of the association, the State of 
New York and the United States government 
joined in a suit to restrain the State of New 
Jersey from discharging the entire sewage of 
the Passaic Valley into the upper bay. This 
resulted in a modification of the plan, which 
substantially prevents pollution from this 
source. The association induced the United 
States government to compel Westchester 
County to install a sewage purification plant 
at the Hudson River outlet of the Bronx Val- 
ley sewer and it is now moving to enforce the 
fulfillment of this agreement. It started the 
fight which the city is now waging for the 
removal of the Mohansic State Hospital and 
the New York Training School for Boys from 
the Croton Watershed and their location else- 
where. If these institutions should be built 
in the watershed, their sewage would con- 
taminate the Croton water supply with grave 
danger to the city's health. Largely upon the 
strength of an investigation and report made 
by the association, the city has given its ap- 
proval to the immediate extension of the Cats- 
kill water supply system to include the Scho- 
harie Basin. The associaiton was a chief agent 
in securing a constitutional anieiulniont ex- 
empting water bonds in computing the city's 
debt limit. The association i)rev(Mi<ed the con- 
struction of the useless Patcrson Kesorvoir in 
the Bronx, at a cost of $3,.^)()().()()(), by ])r()cur- 
ing an injunction against tlie Aqueduct Com- 
mission which was followed by the abolition 




of that body. The Committee on Foreign Trade 
after an exhaustive study has recommended to 
the association the approval of the general 
proposition to establish a free zone in this 
port somewhat similar in type to the Free 
Port at Hamburg. The committee's recom- 
mendation has been accepted and the associa- 
tion is now advocating the establishment of 
Buch a free zone. Upon the initiative of the 
association, a Joint Committee, representing 
the various commercial interests and the trunk 
line railroads, has been created, and a Board of 
Engineers provided for, to fully study the 
entire terminal situation and recommend plans 
for a complete reorganization of the city's 
terminal facilities. This is one of the most 
important movements ever undertaken for the 
protection of New York's prosperity. The asso- 
ciation first suggested the Brooklyn water- 
front terminal railroad and actively sup- 
ported the legislation which has made this 
important improvement possible. It has been 
active in the movement for readjustment of 
the New York Central Railroad Lines along 
the Hudson River in such manner as greatly 
to improve rail shipping facilities and to re- 
lease the Hudson River waterfront for the 
more complete use of water-borne commerce. 
The association opposed the adoption of the 
so-called " Ship Purchase Bill " upon the basis 
that the bill was wrong and harmful in prin- 
ciple, and would fail, if adopted, to accom- 
plish the results intended. The association 
has been active in connection with matters re- 
lating to national defense, advocating greater 
co-operation on the part of employers, includ- 
ing the city of New York, in favoring enlist- 
ment in the National Guard and Naval Militia 
on the part of their employees and in giving 
them the time necessary for military duty 
without a deduction from salary or vacation 
period. The association is oflfieially advocating 
the adoption by the federal government of 
proper provisions for national defense, in- 
volving the speedy increase of the navy until 
it is restored to its former position of second 
naval power on the Atlantic and until it is 
in the position of first naval power on the 
Pacific. The association was mainly instru- 
mental in the creation by law of an effective 
Bureau of Fire Prevention and the adoption 
of systematic inspection as a means of reduc- 
ing fire hazards, and lessening the insurance 
burden. The association first suggested and 
effectively urged the construction of the exist- 
ing high-pressure water service for fire pre- 
vention, which was followed by a substantial 
reduction of insurance rates. The association, 
during several years, in co-operation with the 
fire insurance authorities, urged upon the city 
the construction of the new fire alarm service. 
The association has systematically and suc- 
cessfully promoted the enforcement of ordi- 
nances relating to placing rubbish in the 
streets, exposure of ashes and garbage, regu- 
lation of traffic, use of sidewalks, etc. It pre- 
pared and published a summary of ordinances 
relating to these and similar subjects which 
has become a standard manual for police use. 
More than 40,000 copies have been distributed. 
The association has offices on the ninth floor 
of the Woolw^orth Building, occupying most of 
the floor. These headquarters contain an 
assembly-room for the use of the members and 

for hearings which bring together a consider- 
able number of the members, and a directors* 
room in which the meetings of the Board of 
Directors and Executive Committee are held, 
and the offices of the bureaus which the associa- 
tion conducts. In the headquarters also is a 
library containing publications of current or 
permanent value relating to the work of the 

INGRAM, Orrin Henry, lumberman and 
banker, b. at Southwick, Mass., 12 May, 1830, 
son of David Asel and Fannie (Granger) In- 
gram. The family is of English origin, the 
first representative in this country having 
been David Ingram, grandfather of 0. H. In- 
gram, who emigrated from Leeds early in the 
nineteenth century, and located at Southwick. 
The father was a farmer, first at Southwick, 
later at Saratoga, N. Y., where he died in 
1841, leaving his widow and eight children. 
At this time young Ingram was taken into the 
home of a farmer named Palmer, who re- 
sided seven miles from Glens Falls, N. Y., 
and remained with him for two years. At the 
end of this period, he took up his home with 
a family named Boyd at Bolton, N. Y., where 
his mother, now remarried, was then residing. 
In the intervals of doing " chores " for his 
board and lodging, he attended the neighbor- 
hood school, laying the foundations of a rudi- 
mentary education. Later he resided for a 
time with Nathan Goodman, a farmer of 
Goodman's Corners, where he did chores and 
attended school, until, having found this life 
too " monotonous," he persuaded Mr. Good- 
man to allow him to return to his birthplace 
in Massachusetts, and try to find a favorable 
" opening " there. Having made the journey 
over the newly-finished Boston and Albany 
Railroad, he came to the house of his moth- 
er's brother, Asahel Granger, who took a large 
interest in the lad, and did his best to have 
him apprenticed to some good trade, first at 
the government arsenal at Springfield, later 
at a locomotive works, then recently opened 
in the same neighborhood. Openings in these 
establishments seemed few and difficult to 
obtain, and young Ingram was regretfully 
obliged to accept such employments as were 
available. He served for about six weeks as 
clerk and general hand in a small hotel at 
Southwick, also earning a small additional 
income by ringing the bell of the village Con- 
gregational Church, three times daily, to in- 
dicate stated hours. This occupation, how- 
ever, proved unsatisfactory to the young man, 
who evidently seemed to feel himself capable 
of greater things, and was anxious to obtain 
a suitable start. He returned, therefore, to 
New York State, and accepted the offer from 
Harris and Bronson, to work in their sawmill 
at Lake Pharaoh. This was the beginning of 
Mr. Ingram's real active career, and his intro- 
duction into the lumber business, in which he 
has made so conspicuous a success. He be- 
gan his work here operating an edging ma- 
chine, which, according to the process then 
followed, worked by cutting off one edge of a 
plank, and having brought it back to the 
starting point, the other also. This \yas a 
crude method, as viewed from the practice of 
the present day, and involved nearly twice as 
much work for the operator, but^ the satis- 
faction of actually earning his living at a 


STn^i^ WTBarAe 






trade with real prospects, greatly appealed to 
the young man, who missed no opportunity to 
acquaint himself thoroughly with all the de- 
tails of the business. His industry and char- 
acter so appealed to his employers that they 
did not hesitate to leave him in full charge 
of the mill at the end of two years' employ- 
ment. About this same time Mr. Ingram re- 
ceived an offer of the managership, at a 
salary of $1,000 per year, from the Fox and 
Angling Company, who were interested in the 
building of a new sawmill about eight miles 
from Kingston, Canada. He gladly accepted 
this position, and soon afterward proceeded 
to Canada. The mill was located on the line 
of the Rideau Canal, was operated by water 
power, equipped with the latest patterns of 
gang saws, and had a working capacity of 
about 150,000 feet per day. Mr. Ingram ar- 
rived in time to superintend the completion 
of the building, and the installation of the 
machinery, and, thereafter, for several months 
conducted the business with marked efficiency. 
The neighborhood was unhealthy, however, 
and he suffered considerably from chills and 
fever, as did also a number of the men em- 
ployed about the mill. After staying one 
year, he accepted an offer to superintend the 
building and starting of a steam mill at Belle- 
ville, on the Bay of Quinte, some fifty miles 
from Kingston. He completed this mill and 
two others within the next eighteen months, 
superintended the operation of the first one 
completed during the summer months, and 
then erected another on the Moirah River 
about nine miles distant. In the meantime, 
lured perhaps by Mr. Ingram's accounts of the 
great development of the lumber business in 
Canada, his old employers, Harris and Bron- 
son, purchased a millsite at Bytown (now 
Ottawa) and started the erection of a first- 
class power mill. Mr. Bronson was anxious 
to secure the services of Mr. Ingram, who had, 
in the meantime, married his wife's sister, and 
made him a sufficiently satisfactory offer to 
draw him from his Belleville connections. On 
the completion of the mill, Mr. Ingram under- 
took its management, taking his pay accord- 
ing to the amount of lumber actually sawed, 
the agreed rate being 75 cents per thousand. 
On this basis he was able to earn on the 
average $10.00 per day. Although, in order 
to achieve this result, he had, as he states, 
done the work of three men, having only two 
assistants, sawing 150,000 feet per day and 
paying their wages out of his own gross re- 
ceipts, Mr. Harris suggested a reduction of 
the scale, giving him 50 cents per thousand 
instead of 75 cents. This was too much for 
the ambitious young man, who was only too 
willing to work hard for his money, and had 
actually saved his employers more than the 
difference between their low figure and that 
for which the average superintendent could 
be expected to do the work. Consequently he 
resigned his position, and immediately entered 
the employ of Gilmore and Company, then the 
largest lumber concern in the British posses- 
sions or United States, as superintendent of 
all their mills in Canada and the eastern 
provinces, at a salary of $4,000 per year. 
This company, which had several large mills 
at various points, notably at Trenton, Gati- 

neau, Ottawa, and Quebec, exported an im- 
mense amount of sawed lumber and square 
timber to the United Kingdom, and other 
parts of Europe, owning, as stated, as many 
as 600 vessels on the Atlantic. They operated 
under the name of Gilmore and Rankin in 
New Brunswick, as John Gilmore and Com- 
pany, in Quebec, as James Gilmore and Com- 
pany, in Montreal, as Allan Gilmore and 
Company, in Ottawa, and as Pollock and Gil- 
more in London, Liverpool, and Glasgow. 
Mr. Ingram quickly demonstrated his ability, 
not only as a competent manager, but also as 
a thoroughly practical millwright by suggest- 
ing and installing several novel features in 
the machinery and equipment of the mills and 
his salary was increased to $6,000 per year. 
Several of these new machine features were 
of his own invention, thus demonstrating a 
marked mechanical genius in the young man- 
ager. At the time of his incumbency the 
mills were turning out, on the average, 500,000 
feet of sawed lumber daily at the Gatineau 
mills, and a less amount per day at the other 
mills. About 1853 the Gilmores purchased 
a tract of land in Troy, N. Y., and laid out 
a lumber yard at the junction of the Mo- 
hawk River and North River. To this point 
the lumber was brought down in canal boats. 
Mr. Ingram began operations here by design- 
ing a special arrangement of railroad tracks 
to convey the lumber from the boats to the 
yard. The result was still further advanced 
by the use of cars specially designed by him- 
self, each one having a turntable, turning 
on a centered kingbolt so that the lumber 
could be conveniently transferred from one 
car to another, when the tracks were at right 
angles, thus avoiding switches or curves. 
This mechanical improvement has done a 
great deal to make the business of lumbering 
easier and profitable. While with the Gil- 
mores Mr. Ingram made extensive journeys 
through the lumber country near Quebec, the 
company owning mills at Wolf and Indian 
coves, also into Michigan, in order to investi- 
gate the opportunities there, since, even in 
the possession of a business connection that 
netted him a handsome income, he felt am- 
bitious to make a trial on his own account. 
About this time, he invented the first gang 
edger ever used in the lumber business in 
America, had several machines built to his 
designs in Ottawa, and installed in the Gil- 
more mills. Not being a citizen of Canada, 
he was unable, at that period, to secure patent 
rights. This was a misfortune, since, on this 
machine alone, he could undoubtedly have 
realized profits to the amount of many mil- 
lions of dollars. Mr. Ingram's negloot in this 
particular, however, did not deter others, who 
had seen his machines working in his mills, 
from applying for and obtaining i)atonts. 
One of these men offered him a royalty on 
all machines sold in Wisconsin but this ar- 
rangement was not to Mr. Ingram's liking, 
and his refusal eventually oompollod those 
who sought to profit by his efforts and gcMiiTis 
to relinquish their efforts to maintain their 
rights by legal proeoodinga against alleged in- 
fringers. In 18r)7 INlr. Ingram finally broke 
away from the Gilmores. on account of over- 
work, after securing a man in liis place, and 
began in the lumber business on his own ac- 




count, in association with a millwright and 
engineer, named Donald Kennedy, who was 
an old employee of the Gilmore Company, at 
Eau Claire, Wis. During the next forty or 
forty-five years they cut and floated down the 
Chippewa River to their mill many millions 
of feet of logs. In order to handle properly 
this immense output, various devices were at- 
tempted, and successfully operated, although 
there was considerable opposition on the part 
of some of their competitors. The constantly 
growing difficulty of arranging for the sorting 
of logs belonging to the various mills operat- 
ing along the Chippewa and Mississippi 
eventually led to the incorporation of the 
pool, known as the Chippewa Logging Com- 
pany. This concern later purchased the plant 
and lands of the Union Lumber and Boom 
Company for $1,275,000, issuing bonds at 5 
per cent for $1,000,000 and paid cash $275,- 
000. Mr. Ingram was active in the manage- 
ment of the combination from the time of its 
incorporation, and later became vice-president, 
an office which he still holds (1914). The 
company, also after an extended fight against 
organized opposition, finally succeeded in ob- 
taining a franchise from the Wisconsin legis- 
lature to build a dam below Chippewa Falls, 
for water power to operate the sawmills and 
for sorting logs. The construction of this 
dam, with the necessary accessory works, was 
undertaken by the Dells Improvement Com- 
pany, of which Mr. Ingram was the first 
president. The building of the dam was pro- 
vided for by the subscriptions to the capital 
stock of the company, which amounted to 
$100,000. The city of Eau Claire also issued 
bonds to the amount of $100,000 although 
only $00,000 was necessary, the interest to 
be paid on the booming charges. The instal- 
lation of all necessary improvements, includ- 
ing a large area of water to hold the logs 
that were to be stopped for sorting, also sep- 
arate flumes and sluiceways into Half Moon 
Lake. All these operations called for the ex- 
penditure of ready money, and the directors 
of the company were often at a loss to sup- 
ply the demands. In the course of his man- 
agement of the business of the company, Mr. 
Ingram was draw-n into the banking business 
also, in partnership with DeWitt Clark, treas- 
urer of the Dells Improvement Company. 
He purchased the interest of C. E. Spafford, 
whose health had failed, in the banking-house 
of Spafford and Clark, which thereafter be- 
came Clark and Ingram. Because of the 
high reputation for integrity and business 
capacity enjoyed by both partners, the firm 
immediately won, and always maintained, a 
standing throughout the country. After 
vainly trying, through several agents, to ar- 
range for selling the city bonds in New York 
and Philadelphia, Mr. Ingram himself under- 
took the matter, and consummated it satis- 
factorily in the one-day visit to the metrop- 
olis, armed with a strong letter of recom- 
mendation from his banker in Chicago, W. F. 
Coolbaugh, president of the Union National 
Bank. The letter from Mr. Coolbaugh was 
to Austin Corbin referring to Mr. Ingram 
in most complimentary terms and it influ- 
enced the house of Ballou and Company to 
purchase the bonds. The money was paid in 
on very favorable terms, and the success of 

the dam project was fully assured. Even 
after its erection, according to the specifica- 
tions of the best engineers available to the 
projectors, it was found that even greater 
strengthening was required, in order to re- 
sist the great head water liable to follow on 
the spring floods. Among the other enter- 
prises which took advantage of the power 
facilities afforded by the building of the dam 
was a small paper mill company, which in 
1879 erected a mill, and began the manu- 
facture of paper from rags. The stock of 
the company was largely subscribed by small 
investors, many of whom were persons of 
limited means. Consequently, the failure of 
the project threatened many of them with 
the loss of all their savings. This was the 
very sort of contingency which appealed to 
the interest of Mr. Ingram, who, although a 
man who had made a large success through 
his own efforts and industry, retained, never- 
theless, a vivid sense of the meaning of priva- 
tion. Accordingly, with the intention of pur- 
chasing the plant and property with no other 
desire than to protect the small shareholders, 
he attended the sale,' and although others 
were determined to obtain the plant, raised 
the bidding to $48,500, only $1,500 less than 
the actual capitalization of the company. His 
kindheartedness, however, had thus saddled 
him with a plant, and the necessity of con- 
ducting a business of which he knew nothing. 
He succeeded, however, in obtaining capable 
paper men to take over a part of the prop- 
erty, and operate the mill and eventually dis- 
posed of his entire interest, only receiving 
back his original investment — ^no more. The 
mill was later rebuilt and equipped wath ma- 
chinery for manufacturing paper from wood 
pulp, a logical development in that region, 
and has since been increasingly prosperous. 
On several other occasions Mr. Ingram has 
been persuaded to take over the property of 
the Chippewa Valley Light and Power Com- 
pany, in which he had already invested 
$25,000 to assist the originator in his difficul- 
ties. He has also invested considerably in 
Southern lumber lands, particularly in Loui- 
siana and Mississippi, being interested in the 
Louisiana Long Leaf Lumber Company, the 
Louisiana Central Lumber Company, the 
Gulf Lumber Company, the Ingram-Day 
Lumber Company of Mississippi, and others. 
He has also invested on the Pacific Coast in 
the Weyerhaeuser Timber Company of Wash- 
ington. In the meantime, Mr. Ingram's Wis- 
consin enterprises prospered greatly. On the 
withdrawal of his partner, Mr. Kennedy, in 
1882, he reorganized the business of his firm 
and incorporated it as the Empire Lumber 
Company, capitalized at $800,000, with him- 
self as president. He continued in active 
management of the business until 1907, since 
which time he has been largely engaged in 
the closing out of its affairs. Mr. Ingram 
organized, in 1882, the Eau Claire National 
Bank, as successors to the banking-house of 
Clark and Ingram, becoming its president and 
later he was elected president of the Union 
National Bank. His benevolent activities 
have been many and constant. He contributed 
$20,000 toward the building of the Y. M. C. A. 
of Eau Claire, Wis., donating a commodious 
building, Ingram Hall, to Ripon College, and 




' ^ 




has been a cheerful assistant in numerous 
movements for the public good and the edu- 
cation of youth throughout the Middle West, 
He has always been an active and devoted 
member of the Congregational Church, and 
since coming to Eau Claire has been in the 
front rank of those who have sought to ex- 
tend the activities of this denomination in 
Wisconsin and elsewhere. He has also earned 
a wide reputation as a builder of handsome 
edifices in various parts of the country. In 
1911 and 1912 he built the Ingram Memorial 
Congregational Church of Washington, D. C, 
in memory of his son, Charles H. Ingram. 
The cornerstone was laid by President Taft 
with much ceremony in 1911. He also built 
the Fanny Ingram Memorial Chapel at Boise, 
Idaho. Mr. Ingram has presented to the city 
of Eau Claire a handsome bronze statue of 
Adin Randall, a tribute of high regard from 
a successful man to a truly remarkable one. 
Mr. Randall had influenced Mr. Ingram to 
locate in Wisconsin, pointing out to him the 
advantage and opportunity afi'orded by the 
vast forests of pine. Mr. Ingram has been a 
member for many years of the American 
Board of Foreign Missions and at the meeting 
held in Hartford, Conn., in 1906, he was in- 
strumental in bringing about the release of 
Ellen Stone and her companion, the Ameri- 
can missionary who was in the hands of the 
brigands in Bulgaria. Mr. Ingram offered 
to be one of ten men to contribute $80,000 
for her release. Afterward the government 
authorities at Washington paid the necessary 
money to release her. In 1905 he was ap- 
pointed, by Governor LaFollette, a member of 
the Wisconsin Capitol Commission, on which 
he still serves. He was elected president of 
the body on its first meeting, and still holds 
the office. Nor can we doubt that the work of 
building this, the most beautiful of our State 
capitols, if not one of the most beautiful 
buildings in the world, has been in a very 
real sense another monument to the extraordi- 
nary talent and taste of these captains of in- 
dustry. Mr. Ingram has insisted in render- 
ing all services to this commission free of 
salary or charges of any kind. He has been 
a member of the Iroquois Club of Chicago, of 
the Milwaukee Club of Milwaukee, and is now 
of the Eau Claire Club of Eau Claire, Wis., 
also of several of the leading boards and asso- 
ciations of the Congregationalist denomina- 
tion. He was married 11 Dec, 1851, to Cor- 
nelia, daughter of Capt. Pliny Pierce, of Fed- 
eral Hill, N, Y. They have had six children, 
of whom two are living, Miriam, wife of Dr. 
E. S. Hayes, of Eau Claire, and Erskine B 
Ingram, who is associated with his father in 
the management of his numerous and great 
enterprises. Another son, Charles Ingram, 
died in 1907, Fanny, wife of W. J. Shellman, 
of Chicago, in 1896, and two daughters in in- 

EANDALL, Adin, lumberman and pio- 
neer, b. Clarksville, Madison County, New 
York, 2 Oct., 1829; d. Reed's Landing, Minn., 
April, 1868. School facilities were meager 
in those days and he had no great opportunity 
to take advantage of even the little education 
obtainable. In his youth he learned the trade 
of carpenter and worked at it until he was 
twenty-five years of age. In 1854 he moved 

west and settled in Madison, Wis. There he 
became a building contractor, making a little 
money he built a small portable sawmill in 
Eau Claire in the fall of 1855. He located 
there in the same year, and seeing the advan- 
tage of the location, sold his interest in the 
sawmill. He became associated with Gage and 
Reed, but soon sold out and purchased the 
land which is now the west side of the city of 
Eau Claire south of Bridge Street and be- 
tween Half Moon Lake and the Chippewa 
River, and was known as Randall Town, To 
the northward it was a wilderness, but he 
realized the future of Eau Claire. He built 
a small planing mill, and secured the right to 
operate a ferry on the Chippewa River. Hav- 

ing great faith in the future of Eau Claire, 
which is now realized, he donated the land for 
Randall Park to the corporation, also the 
site for the West Side Cemetery, also the land 
to the First Congregational Church and had 
planned to build his own residence upon the 
site now occupied by the courthouse. Owing 
to depressed financial conditions from 1857 
to 1860, Mr. Randall sold his planing mill, 
and the property he owned was sold to meet 
the claims of mortgagees. He then moved to 
Chippewa Falls, remaining there but a sliort 
time, and then built a sawmill at Jim Falls, 
Later he purchased a grist mill at Rood's 
Landing and made it over into a sawmill, 
which he operated until his death, at the age 
of thirty-nine years. In 1856 ho was eh>ctod 
the first County Treasurer. :Mr. Randall in- 
vented the sheer boom, which rovolutionizod 
the methods of handling logs in running 
waters, lie worked out the plan, and credit 
is due him alone for this invention, it was 




adopted by the lumbermen of the United States. 
A handsome bronze statue commemorates Mr. 
Randall in the park he gave to Kau Claire, 
being a gift to the city from O. H. Ingram 
(see illustration). The sculptor is Miss Helen 
Farnsworth Mears, of New York. Mr. Randall 
was mainly responsible for Mr. Ingram's re- 
maining in Eau Claire in 1857, when he was 
disposed to return to his interests in Canada. 
Mr. Randall talked with Mr. Ingram of the 
great advantages of the location and showed 
him the vast forests of pine. Mr. Randall was 
a man of cheerful disposition and of great 
courage, whom disaster could no crush. He 
married Clamenzia Babcock in 1852 and had 
one son, Edgar H., now living in Eau Claire. 
AGASSIZ, Alexander, naturalist, b. in Neu- 
chatel, Switzerland, 17 Dec, 1835; d. at sea 
27 March, 1910, the only son of Louis Agassiz, 
the famous naturalist, by his first wife, Cecile 
Braun. He was educated in the schools of his 
native town and at Freiburg, Baden, Germany, 
where his maternal uncle was a professor in 
the university, and where his mother then 
resided. The latter was an artist, and her 
temperament, quite different from that of his 
father, was in a measure inherited by the son. 
Alexander followed his father to the United 
States in 1849, and after his arrival in this 
country he prepared for Harvard College, 
where he was graduated in 1855. He then 
studied engineering at the Lawrence Scientific 
School, and in 1857 received the degree of 
B.S., after which he took a further course In 
the chemical department. During 1856-59 he 
taught in his father's school for young ladies, 
where he met, as a pupil, his future wife. 
In 1859 he went to California as an assistant 
on the U. S. Coast Survey, and was engaged 
on the northwest boundary. He also collected 
specimens for the museum at Cambridge. In 
1860 he returned to Cambridge and became 
assistant in zoology at the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, founded by his father, tak- 
ing charge of it in 1865 during the latter's 
absence in Brazil. His connection with this 
institution lasted until his death, fifty years 
later. He succeeded his father as curator in 
1874; after his resignation in 1898, serving 
on the museum faculty as secretary, and after 
1902, as director of the University Museum. 
Some time in the early sixties Agassiz became 
interested in coal-mining in Pennsylvania, 
and soon after in the copper mines of Lake 
Superior, where he was engaged in 1867-68 
as superintendent of the Calumet and Hecla 
mines. He developed these deposits until they 
became the most successful copper mines in 
the world, and from the wealth they brought 
to him he made gifts to Harvard amounting 
to over $1,500,000 From the effects of over- 
work, anxiety, and exposure at Calumet, he 
suffered a severe illness in 1869, from which 
he is said never to have fully recovered 
Primarily for the purpose of recuperation he 
visited Europe in the fall of that year, and 
took the opportunity to examine the museums 
and collections of England, France, Germany, 
Italy, and Scandinavia, particularly with re- 
gard to Echini, in which he had become in- 
tensely interested, having published no less 
than twenty papers, largely on marine organ- 
isms, before the age of thirty. Conjointly 
with his stepmother, Mrs. E. C. Agassiz, he had 


published a popular book on marine life en- 
titled *' Seaside Studies in Natural History," 
and he had taken a keen interest in the va- 
rious deep sea explorations which were grad- 
ually disclosing the wonders of ocean life. He 
now visited Wyville Thomson in Belfast, with 
whom he had been in correspondence about the 
distribution and development of Echinoderma, 
and who had just published a statement of 
results of the " Lightning " and " Porcupine " 
expeditions. Upon his return in December, 
1870, his " Revision of the Echini " began to 
appear, and the three years succeeding his 
trip were the most active and fruitful of his 
whole life. The contents of the museum in 
Cambridge still bear testimony of his generous 
and untiring labors. During the summer of 
1873 he acted as director of the Anderson 
School of Natural History on Pekinese Island, 
and in 1875 he visited the western coast of 
South America, examining the copper mines 
of Peru and Chile, and making an extended 
survey of Lake Titicaca and collecting for the 
Peabody Museum a great number of Peruvian 
antiquities. He afterward went to Scotland 
to assist Sir Wyville Thomson in arranging 
the collections made during the 68,900-mile 
exploring expedition of the " Challenger," part 
of which he brought to this country. He 
wrote one of the final reports on the zoology 
of the expedition, that on Echini. From 1876 
to 1881 his winters were spent in deep sea 
dredging expeditions in connection with the 
coast survey, the U. S. steamer '* Blake " hav- 
ing been placed at his disposal for this pur- 
pose With it he made three separate expedi- 
tions in the Atlantic, and subsequently three 
in the Pacific in the U. S. ship " Albatross," 
visiting the Panamic regions and Galpapagoa, 
the Central Pacific, and Eastern Pacific re- 
spectively. These expeditions dealt especially 
with the deep sea and yielded an immense 
number of new organisms and new observa- 
tions concerning the physical, chemical, bio- 
logical, and geological conditions of the great 
ocean basins. Being a practical engineer, he 
was able to suggest many improvements in 
deep sea instruments and methods, among 
which were the wire rope for dredging and 
modified trawl for deep sea work. According 
to Sir John Murray, the present state of our 
knowledge in this field is due more to the 
work and inspiration of Alexander Agassiz 1 
than to any other single man. During the | 
last thirty-five years of his life, Agassiz's ac- 
tivities and interests were many and varied. 
The control and direction of the Calumet and 
Hecla mines demanded frequent visits to the 
West, and there he conducted valuable ex- 
periments in the distribution of underground 
temperatures in the great depths of the mine. 
He also produced carbonic acid gas to put out 
a disastrous fire in the mines, which is said 
to be the first time this method was thus 
employed on a large scale. The first Ameri- 
can attempt to found a zoological station at 
Pekinese having failed, he established a zo- 
ological laboratory at Newport to take its 
place. This institution was carried on for 
twenty-five years, till it was superseded by the 
establishment of the Woods HoU Marine 
Biological Station. In latter years his atten- 
tion was greatly occupied with coral-reef 
problems and he organized many extended ex- 

ir \ 




peditions, almost entirely at his own expense, 
for their study, notably to the Sandwich 
Islands, the West Indies, the Fiji Islands, and 
the great barrier reef of Australia. Indeed he 
explored and described with much detail every 
important coral-reef region of the world in 
the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. In 
1898 he presented to the Cambridge Museum 
his valuable West Indian, Central and South 
American, and Pacific zoological collections. 
Mr. Agassiz was a fellow of Harvard College 
from 1878 to 1884 and 1886 to 1890, and also 
served as an overseer. He was a member of 
the National Academy of Sciences, and was 
its president for many years; a member of the 
American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, being its vice-president during the 
Boston meeting of 1880; of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, of which he 
was president in 1898. He was foreign mem- 
ber of the academies of science at Paris, Lon- 
don, Vienna, Munich, Rome, Stockholm, and 
Copenhagen, and received high honors abroad 
for his contributions to science, being deco- 
rated with the order of merit by Emperor 
William of Germany in 1902, and made an 
oflScer of the Legion of Honor of France in 
1906. His publications, in the form of 
pamphlets, reports, and contributions to scien- 
tific periodicals and the proceedings of so- 
cieties, covering a period of over fifty years, 
are very numerous. They include " Explora- 
tions of Lake Titicaca " ; " Three Cruises of 
the Blake"; "Revision of the Echini"; 
" Coral Reefs of Florida, Bahamas, Bermudas, 
West Indies, of the Pacific, of the Maldives " ; 
Panamic Deep Sea Echini " ; " Hawaiian 
Echini " ; " Embryological Memoirs of Fishes, 
Worms, Echinoderms," and many others. Be- 
sides the " Seaside Studies in Natural His- 
tory " (Boston, 1865) he also published "Ma- 
rine Animals of Massachusetts Bay" (1871), 
and the fifth volume of " Contributions to the 
Natural History of the United States," left 
incomplete by his father. In surveying the 
life work of Alexander Agassiz, one is struck 
at once by its amount, variety, and quality. 
All his efforts were devoted to the one pur- 
pose of adding to the sum total of human 
knowledge, and while he achieved a notable 
record in many fields, his name stands first 
among the authorities on certain forms of 
marine life. Not only his knowledge, but his 
fortune acquired only after long years of 
struggle, was consecrated to the cause of 
science and the Museum of Cambridge stands 
as a monument to his generosity. He mar- 
ried at Brookline, Mass , 13 Nov., 1860, Anna, 
daughter of George Russell, whose death in 
1873 deeply affected the remainder of his life. 
He had three children. 

WINANS, William Parkhurst, banker, b. at 
Elizabethtown, N. J., 28 Jan., 1836, son of 
Jonas Wood and Sarah (Stiles) Winans. He 
is a descendant of John Winans who came 
from Holland in 1640, and settled at Elizabeth- 
town on land purchased from the Indians. The 
descent is traced from John Winans through 
his son, Isaac, his grandson, Isaac, his great- 
grandson, Moses, who was, in turn, father of 
Jonas Wood Winans. Isaac (2d) and Moses 
Winans both served in the Revolution. Wil- 
liam P. Winans was educated in the public 
schools, and began his career as clerk in a 



local store. Later he engaged in business in 
Pittsfield, 111., and in April, 1859, he crossed 
the plains to Oregon. For over a year he re- 
sided in Umatilla County, engaged in farming 
and teaching. He served also as clerk in the 
first State election in 1860, which resulted in 
the election of Abraham Lincoln as President. 
In July, 1861, he went to Fort Colville, where, 
on the organization of Spokane County, he was 
appointed deputy 
county auditor. In 
1862 he was elected 
auditor, and served 
two terms. Later he 
was clerk of the U. 
S. district court for 
Spokane and Mis- 
soula counties. Af- 
ter about one year's 
absence in the East, 
he returned again 
to Colville, and en- 
gaged in mercantile 
business. In June, 
1866, he was elected 
county school superintendent, and, as such, 
built the first schoolhouse north of Snake 
River, in a district 200 by 400 miles in area. 
He was elected to the State legislature in 
1867 and again in 1871; was treasurer of 
Stevens County in 1872, and was appointed 
special Indian agent in 1870-72. In 1873 he 
removed to Walla Walla, where, during the 
next fifteen years, he was engaged in mercan- 
tile business under the firm name of Rees and 
Winans. He organized the Farmers Savings 
Bank in 1889, with a paid-up capital of 
$60,000, and has since been its president. The 
capital and surplus of this bank are now 
$300,000. Mr. Winans has been twice mar- 
ried,, and has four sons and one daughter. 

YTTLE, George, manufacturer, b. in Rathen, 
near Fraserburgh, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, 31 
Aug., 1824, son of Alexander and Margaret 
(Leeds) Yule. His father (1796-1871) came 
to America in 1840, and settled on a farm in 
Somers, Kenosha County, Wis. George Yule 
was reared on his father's farm, with but few 
opportunities to acquire an education ; however, 
these he improved to such an extent that he 
had a fair education. At the age of eighteen 
he began what was to be his life work as a 
wagon-maker in Southport (now Kenosha) 
with the firm of Mitchell and Quarles. The 
junior member of this firm was the father of 
the late Hon. J. V. Quarles, U. S. district 
judge for the Eastern District of Wisconsin. 
In 1852 the late Edward Bain purchased the 
business, and began to make the Bain wagon. 
Under his capable management, unfaltering 
self-reliance, and foresighted sagacity, the 
business prospered in all its branches. The 
Bain factory soon became the leading industry 
of the town, and its product earned for itself 
the reputation which it still maintains. When 
the Bain Wagon Company was incorporated in 
1882 Mr. Yule was o'lectod vico-i)rcai(lent, 
which office he held until after the death of 
Edward Bain when he was choaon to the 
presidency. Seldom, indeed, is it that a man 
as active and successful in buainoas as Mr. 
Yule takes the keen and holpfnl interest in 
civic affairs which he manifests. His name 
has been associated with various projects of 




the utmost municipal concern. He is vice- 
president of the First National Bank, and also 
holds the same olhee in the Northwestern Loan 
and Trust Company, both of Kenosha, Wis. 
In 1896, as one of the organizers of the 
Kenosha Library Association, Mr. Yule took 
great interest in its success and was the first 
to make a liberal donation for the support 
and was a frequent contributor until it was 
succeeded by the Gilbert M. Simmons Library 
in 1900. In that 
year Hon. James 
Gorman, then may- 
or of the city, 
named Mr. Yule 
one of the board of 
directors of the 
new library, and 
at the organiza- 
tion of the board, 
Mr. Yule was 
chosen vice-presi- 
dent, which of- 
fice he now holds 
(1916). The per- 
sonality of Mr. 
Yule is that of a 
man of deep con- 
victions, extraordi- 
nary force, and an 
unusual degree of magnetism. Those who 
are familiar with his fine personal ap- 
pearance cannot fail to observe how well 
it illustrates his character. His strong 
face, accentuated by a small snow-white 
beard, is lighted by a pair of keen, search- 
ing eyes and on every feature energy, de- 
termination, and fidelity are deeply written. 
At the same time his countenance is indicative 
of the genial nature and kindly disposition 
which have surrounded him with friends and 
his whole bearing shows him to be what he is 
— a keen, aggressive man, and a polished 
gentleman. While Mr. Yule does not play 
golf, he enjoys being part of a gallery when 
two good players are on. Every golf player 
in Winconsin knows the " Yule Cup," a val- 
uable trophy which is contested for at the 
annual tournament of the Wisconsin Golf 
Association by five-men teams representing the 
constituent clubs of the association, and many 
players have received beautiful gold medals 
which are the gifts of Mr. Yule. One of his 
grandsons, William H. Yule, has been State 
champion of Wisconsin, and another, George 
Yule, holds (1916) the title of champion of 
Yale Although Mr. Yule is the owner of an 
automobile, he prefers his horse and buggy, 
and nearly every day he may be seen driving 
his horse through the streets of Kenosha. In 
politics Mr. Yule is a Republican and was one 
of the members of the first Fremont and Day- 
ton Club when the Republican party first came 
into existence. He is a Baptist in his re- 
ligious connections and has always been a 
liberal contributor to the First Baptist Church 
of Kenosha, and to the activities of the church 
in general. He married 1 Jan., 1848, Kath- 
erine, daughter of William Mitchell. They 
have five children: Maria (died in childhood), 
Louise, wife of William Hall (both deceased), 
George A., general manager of the Bain Wagon 
Company, Kenosha, Wis., William L. (died in 
1914), and Harvey (died in childhood). 

JOHNSON, Rossiter, author and editor, b. 
in Rochester, N. Y., 27 Jan., 1840. His father, 
Reuben Johnson, a native of Norwich, Conn., 
was a member of the small force that beat 
ofT the barges and defeated the fleet of the 
British commodore. Hardy, when Stonington 
was bombarded, 9 Aug., 1814. His mother 
was Almira Alexander, a native of Stonington. 
Reuben Johnson studied at Williams College, 
emigrated to western New York, and became 
a teacher. His two most noted pupils were 
Lewis Swift, the astronomer, who received 
special honors for his discovery of comets, and 
Col. Patrick H. O'Rorke, who led his class at 
West Point and fell at the head of his regiment 
in occupying Little Round Top, Gettysburg. 
Rossiter Johnson received his early education 
in the common schools and was graduated at 
tho University of Rochester in 1863. He read 
the poem on class day, and in later years was 
three times called to deliver the poem before 
the University in commencement week. He 
received the degree of Ph.D. in 1888, and that 
of LL.D. in 1893. In 1864-68 he was on the 
editorial staff of the Rochester " Democrat," 
associated with Robert Carter, author of " A 
Summer Cruise on the Coast of New England," I 
who had been Lowell's partner in editing " The f 
Pioneer," a short-lived but famous magazine. 
Dr. Johnson attributes largely to the wise and 
kindly tutelage of Mr. Carter whatever edi- 
torial skill he has developed. In 1869-72 he 
was editor of the Concord, N. H. " Statesman." 
He removed to New York City in 1873, and 
from that date till 1877 was an associate 
editor with George Ripley and Charles A. Dana 
in the revision of the " American Cyclopaedia." 
That work being completed, he made a tour 
in Europe with his wife, going as far north as 
Scotland, and as far south as Pompeii. In 
1878 he was associated with Clarence King in 
editing the " Report of King's Survey of the 
Fortieth Parallel"; in 1879 he edited " Loy- 
all Farragut's Biography of the Admiral." 
Then he removed to Staten Island, to assist 
Sydney Howard Gay in the preparation of 
Volumes III and IV of the Bryant and Gay 
" History of the United States." The year 
1881, when he removed to New York, was spent 
upon a new revision of the " American Cyclo- 
paedia," which had to be discontinued because 
the census of 1880 had been so overloaded that 
its statistics were not promptly available. In 
1883 William J. Tenney, editor of " Appletons' 
Annual Cyclopaedia," died and Dr. Johnson suc- 
ceeded him, continuing that editorship till 
1902. In May, 1886, he was engaged as man- 
aging editor of " Appletons' Cyclopaedia of 
American Biography " ( 6 vols. ) . He collected 
the necessary library, chose the staff of writers, 
laid out and systematized the work, and super- 
vised it constantly till the book was completed, 
early in 1889. He sometimes speaks proudly 
of the fact that in the process of producing 
those six volumes the waste was only two per 
cent., whereas a waste of forty to fifty per 
cent, is not uncommon in such work. In 1889, 
with his wife and daughter, he made an ex- 
tensive tour across the continent and on the 
Pacific slope, from the Yosemite to the Cana- 
dian Rockies. Meantime, while attending to 
those heavier tasks, he edited some works of 
lighter literature. These include " Little 
Classics," which he revised and edited (18 




vols., 1875-76); "Lives and Works of the 
British Poets, from Chaucer to Morris " ( 3 
vols., 1876); "Play-Day Poems" (1878); 
" Famous Single and Fugitive Poems " (1880) ; 
and " Fifty Perfect Poems," with Charles A. 
Dana (1882). He contributed several notable 
short stories to " Oliver Optic's Magazine " and 
to " St. Nicholas," and his first long story, 
" Phaeton Rogers," ran as a serial through 
the latter in 1881 and then appeared in book 
form. To the series entitled, " Minor Wars of 
the United States " he contributed two vol- 
umes — " A History of the French War Ending 
in the Conquest of Canada " and " A History 
of the War of 1812-15 Between the United 
States and Great Britain " (both inl882) . His 
other original works include : " Idler and 
Poet," poems (1883) ; "A History of the War 
of Secession" (1888; fifth edition, enlarged, 
1910; quarto edition, with 1,000 illustrations, 
1894) ; "The End of a Rainbow" (1892) ; "A 
Short History of the War Between the tlnited 
States and Spain " ( 1899 ) ; " The Hero of 
Manila" (1899); "Morning Lights and Even- 
ing Shadows," poems (1902); "The Alphabet 
of Rhetoric" (1903) ; "The Story of the Con- 
stitution of the United States" (1906) ; "The 
Clash of Nations" (1914); "Captain John 
Smith" (1915) ; "A Simple Record of a Noble 
Life" (1916); and "The Fight for the Re- 
public" (1917). He devised the book of the 
Authors' Club, entitled " Liber Scriptorum," 
and chose John D. Champlin and George Cary 
Eggleston as his associates in editing it. A 
committee of the board of managers of the 
Columbian Exposition, held in Chicago in 
1893, invited bids from publishers for the 
authorized history of that enterprise, stipu- 
lating that, by whatever house published, the 
work must be edited by Rossiter Johnson. It 
was finished in 1897 in four sumptuous vol- 
umes beautifully illustrated (D. Appleton & 
Co.), For a year and a half Dr. Johnson con- 
tributed to the "Overland Monthly," a serial 
entitled " The Whispering-Gallery," and he 
was an associate editor of the " Standard Dic- 
tionary." He edited " The World's Great 
Books" (40 vols., 1898-1901); Fortier's "His- 
tory of Louisiana" (4 vols., 1904); "The 
Great Events, by Famous Historians" (20 
vols., 1905); "The Literature of Italy," with 
Dora Knowlton Ranous (16 vols., 1906-07); 
and "Author's Digest: the World's Great 
Stories in Brief," with Dora Knowlton Ranous 
(20 vols., 1908). He edited and largely wrote, 
the historical volume in the " Foundation 
Library for Young People" (1911). He has 
lectured extensively on American historical sub- 
jects, and has contributed frequently to 
periodicals. Though he has edited political 
newspapers and has made popular addresses 
in political campaigns, he never has aspired 
to any political office. In the Authors' Club 
he has been successively secretary, chairman, 
and treasurer; and he has held the office of 
president in the Quill Club, the Delta Upsilon 
Fraternity, the Association of Lecturers, the 
Rochester Associated Alumni, and the New 
York Association of Phi Beta Kappa. In 1898, 
with J, Eugene Whitney, ho founded in New 
York "The People's University Extension So- 
ciety," of which, from that date to the present, 
he has been president. His wife, Helen Ken- 
drick Johnson (b. in Hamilton, N. Y., 4 Jan., 

1844; d. in New York City, 3 Jan., 1917), was 
a daughter of Prof. Asahel C. Kendrick, the 
noted Greek scholar and author. She married 
Mr, Johnson 20 May, 1869, and began life 
with him in Concord. She was author of 
"The Roddy Books" (3 vols., 1847-76); 
" Raleigh Westgate," a novel (1889) ; " Woman 
and the Republic" (1897, third edition, en- 
larged, 1913); and "Woman's Peace in 
Nature," which was completed in manuscript 
shortly before her death. She edited " Our 
Familiar Songs, and Those Who Made Them " 
(1881); "Poems and Songs for Young Peo- 
ple" (1884); "The Nutshell Series" (6 small 
vols., 1884); and "The American Woman's 
Journal," a monthly magazine (1893-94). She 
founded, in 1886, The Meridian, a club of 
women, which meets monthly at noonday. Mrs. 
Johnson was a notable opponent of woman 
suffrage, wrote and spoke much on the subject, 
and addressed legislative committees in x\l- 
bany and Washington. 

ARBTJCKLE, John, merchant and philan- 
thropist, b. in Scotland in 1839; d. in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., 27 March, 1912. He was brought 
to this country at an early age and received 
his education in the public schools of Al- 
legheny and Pittsburgh. With his brother, 
Charles, he engaged in the coffee business in 
Pittsburgh, and in 1871 they established the 
house of Arbuckle Brothers, in New York. 
They were the first to put up coffee in 
packages, and their business grew to enor- 
mous proportions. With the aid of a drafts- 
man and machinist, John Arbuckle invented 
a machine which filled, weighed, sealed, and 
labeled coffee in paper packages as fast as it 
came from the hopper. This machine, which 
would do the work of 500 girls, gave the Ar- 
buckles full control of the package coffee 
trade of the world. John Arbuckle became 
known in the trade as the " Coffee King." 
After his brother's death, about twenty years 
ago, he built a large sugar refinery compet- 
ing with the " sugar trust," and thereby 
forcing down the price of sugar. In conjunc- 
tion with his wife he became interested in 
various philanthropies, which included a 
free home for the necessitous on the shores 
of the Hudson and a " fioating boarding- 
house " for tired wage-earners. His charities 
included boat trips for children, boat-raising, 
and life-saving schemes. Mr. Arbuckle was 
a director of the Importers and Traders 
Bank, Lawyers Title Insurance and Trust 
Company, Mortgage Bond Company of New 
York, a trustee of the Kings County Trust 
Company, president of the Royal Horse As- 
sociation, and owned vast ranches in the 
Western States. In 1868 he was married to 
Mary Kerr, of Pittsburgh, who died in 

JONES. Frank Smith, merchant, capitalist, 
and philanthropist, b. in Stamford, Conn., 19 
Aug, 1847, son of Isaac Smith and Frances 
(Weed) Jones. Through his father he was 
descended from William Jones, governor of 
Connecticut colony, who landed in America in 
1660 with the regicides, Goffe and Whalley, 
whom he helped hide in the new world. His 
mother came of the well-known \\'eed family 
of Stamford. Mr. Jones was educnted in the 
schools of Stamford, and at the Eastman Busi- 
ness College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., where he 




completed his etudies in 1862. He began his 
active career as messenger in the employ of 
A. J. Johnson, publisher of Johnson's Uni- 
versal Cyclopedia. During the next seven 
years he gave ample proof of his business 
capacity, rising by frequent promotions to the 
position of general manager under Mr. John- 
son. Although not a contributor to the pages 
of this monumental work, Mr. Jones proved 
himself second to none in securing its ulti- 
mate success, and earned the well -deserved 
tribute in the preface of the cyclopedia for 
" most valuable aid in furthering this colossal 
undertaking." The year 1872 was a memo- 
rable one in Mr. Jones' career, at Scranton, 
Pa., when in partnership with his brothers, 
Charles Fisher and Cyrus Daniel Jones, he 
made the small beginnings in the tea and 
coffee business which, under the name of the 
Grand Union Tea Company, has since grown 
to one of our country's greatest enterprises. 
The brothers gave ample evidence of their 
industry and endurance, scouring the country 
for miles around in all directions, drumming 
up custom, and ever seeing in the gravest 
obstacles only new opportunities to out-dis- 
tance timid competitors. As a result, the 
gross income for the first year was $12,000, 
which, although representing only moderate 
profits above expenditures, indicated a bulk 
of business possible only with the greatest 
energy and enterprise. The progress of the 
firm of Jones Bros., from the modest begin- 
nings in Scranton, Pa., to the vast activities 
now represented in the daily routine of the 
Grand Union Tea Company, is a story of hard 
work and indefatigable energy. Solely be- 
cause they possessed the true American will- 
ingness to work, and work untiringly, for a 
desired end, has their success been so con- 
spicuous. In the spring of 1876 their first 
branch was established at Saginaw, Mich., 
with Frank S. Jones in charge. Here again 
the plan was put into operation, with the 
same result, success, surely even though 
slowly achieved. Other branches were estab- 
lished in time, each with its squadron of 
wagons scouring the country around and bring- 
ing the firm's wares to every door. At the 
present time over 5,000 wagons are in con- 
stant use in 200 cities, and the work of ex- 
pansion is still in progress. In 1886 Mr. 
Jones located in Brooklyn in charge of the 
headquarters of the Grand Union Tea Com- 
pany's business. But, even with the vast pro- 
portions already attained, the enterprise was 
no more than really begun. The brick and 
steel warehouses and factories of the com- 
pany now cover an entire city block in Brook- 
lyn and contain more than 260,000 square feet 
of floor space. To the 55.000 tons of tea and 
coffee annually received and distributed by 
their respective departments, the bulk of the 
business is further increased by similarly huge 
outputs of baking-powder, spices, flavoring ex- 
tracts, and soap. The company makes its own 
soap in a factory having a daily output ca- 
pacity of 1.500 boxes of eighty pounds each 
In another factory are made the tin cans for 
the baking-pow^der and spices, 50,000 daily. 
A private printing-plant prints the labels. 
250,000 every day, as well as all stationery 
requirements and the printing-matter used at 
branch stores. In a vast bottling-plant 750 


Quarts of flavoring extracts are bottled each 
day. Such immense figures might seem suffi- 
ciently large to satisfy the active ambition of 
most men, but Mr. Jones has still found time 
for other enterprises. With his brother, 
Cyrus D., he established and conducts the 
Anchor Pottery, of Trenton, N. J., and is 
largely interested in coal, lumber, and other 
extensive undertakings in rarious parts of the 
country. Mr. Jones is an enthusiastic par- 
ticipator in the activities of numerous or- 
ganizations devoted to the public good. He is 
a trustee of Wesleyan University, Middletown, 
Conn., of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and 
Sciences, and of the Central Congregational 
Church. He was also for several years a trus- 
tee of the Brooklyn Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Children; and he is a member 
of the Chamber of Commerce, and the Manu- 
facturers' Association, both of New York. 
Among his numerous benefactions was a gift 
of $40,000, which, at a time when it was sorely 
needed, was largely instrumental in assisting 
the Bedford Branch of the Y. M. C. A. to its 
present beneficent efficiency. The Brooklyn In- 
stitute of Arts and Sciences has also been 
benefited by him not only in priceless addi- 
tions to its museums, but also in numerous 
contributions of money. Among these must be 
mentioned the gift of 1898 of the Gebbard Col- 
lection of Minerals and the Neumogen Entomo- 
logical Cabinet, the latter containing many 
specimens unduplicated elsewhere in the world. 
Mr. Jones holds that the scientific principles, 
essential to the conduct of a successful com- 
mercial enterprise, apply with equal consist- 
ency to deriving the fullest enjoyment from 
life. He finds the highest satisfaction in giv- 
ing happiness to others. No more affecting 
example of this quality could be mentioned 
than the fact that the choice products of his 
well-appointed farm near Sayville, L. I., are 
reserved exclusively as gifts to friends and to 
the needy. This estate, " Beechwold," is a 
masterpiece of landscape gardening, with pic- 
turesque alternations of broad lawns, cool 
dales, winding walks, and pleasant waterways. 
Mr. Jones is a member of the National Arts 
Club of New York and of the Brooklyn 
League, Union League, Crescent Athletic, Rid- 
ing and Driving, Rembrandt, and Congrega- 
tional Clubs, all of Brooklyn, and has held 
office in most of them. He was the donor in 
1907 of the "Beechwold Plate" presented as 
a competitive trophy to the Bayshore Horse 
Show Association, for the best trained saddle 
horse. Mr. Jones married 4 June, 1879, Mary 
Louisa, daughter of Henry A. T. Granbery, a 
native of Virginia. They have two daughters, 
Henrietta Louise, wife of William R. Simons, 
and Maude Virginia, wife of Clarence F. 

FUNK, Isaac Kauffman, clergyman, author, 
editor, lexicographer, publisher, b. in Clifton, 
Ohio, 10 Sept., 1839; d. in Montclair, N. J., 
4 April, 1912, son of John and Martha (Kauff- 
man) Funk. He was descended from Dutch 
and Swiss ancestors who came to this country 
early in the Colonial period and settled in 
Pennsylvania. His mother wes deeply religious 
and a member of the Lutheran denomination. 
It was largely due to the influence that she ex- 
ercised over her son that already in his boy- 
hood days he had decided to dedicate his career 




to the service of the Church. After concluding 
his common school courses he entered Witten- 
berg College, in Springfield, Ohio, from which 
he graduated in 1860, being awarded the de- 
gree of D.D. a few years later and the degree 
of LL.D. in 1896. Early in the following year 
he began active work in the Lutheran ministry 
near Moreshill, Ind., but soon after assumed 
charge of the Lutheran church at Carey, Ohio. 
Four years later, in 1865, he became pastor of 
St. Matthew's English Lutheran Church in 
Brooklyn, N. Y. Here he remained in active 
charge until 1872, when he resigned to make 
an extended tour of Europe, Egypt, and Pales- 
tine. On his return he became associate 
editor of the " Christian Radical," which was 
then published in Pittsburgh, but was sub- 
sequently removed to New York City. In 
1876 Dr. Funk founded and continued publish- 
ing the " Metropolitan Pulpit," in New York 
City. Of this publication, now the " Homiletic 
Review," he was for a long time editor-in- 
chief. At about this time the Rev. Adam W. 
Wagnalls, of Atchison, Kan., who had been 
a classmate of Dr. Funk in college, entered 
the service of the latter's publishing busi- 
ness as clerk. In 1877 Mr. Wagnalls be- 
came a partner and the firm became known as 
Funk and Wagnalls and, later, as the Funk 
and Wagnalls Company, under which name it 
has since acquired a nation-wide reputation. 
In 1881 Dr. Funk, convinced that the public 
was ready for clean and wholesome literature, 
especially if it were issued in cheaper form, 
determined to publish books of this class. He 
began this experiment by launching the 
Standard Series, a large quarto, which in- 
cluded many such works as Macaulay's 
"Essays," Blackie's "Self Culture," and Car- 
lyle's " Essays." The venture proved a com- 
plete success and was followed by the Standard 
Library, in small octavo size, which included 
such works as Ruskin's "Letters of Work- 
men," Tennyson's " Idylls of the King," Gold- 
smith's " Citizens of' the World," Carlyle's 
*' Sartor Resartus," Delitzsch's " Jewish Ar- 
tizan Life,'' and Proctor's " Nature Studies," 
altogether comprising more than two hundred 
works of high character, the pick of the world's 
standard literature. Other important works 
published by the firm at this time included the 
Homiletic Commentary, Butler's " Bible Work," 
" Historical Side Lights," Hoyte's " Cyclo- 
pedia of Quotations," " The Cyclopedia of 
Classified Dates," the "Jewish Encyclopedia," 
and a " Standard Bible Dictionary." In 1884 
the firm republished Charles h! Spurgeon's 
" Treasury of David," which proved quite as 
popular in this country as in Great Britain. 
Next came Dr. Joseph Parker's •" People^s 
Bible," in twenty-seven volumes, which was 
followed by the " SchaflF-Herzog Encyclopedia 
of Religious Knowledge." This latter work 
met with remarkable success and has recently 
(1908-12) been entirely rewritten and pub- 
lished in twelve volumes. It was also in 1884 
that " The Voice " was launched, a paper in 
the interests of Prohibition, which soon had a 
circulation of 130,000. During the Presidential 
campaign of 1888, over 700,000 copies were 
issued weekly for a number of weeks. In 
1888 the " Missionary Review " was founded, 
followed by the " Literary Digest," both of 
which are still popular publications. A great 

number of important reference works have been 
issued by the firm. Pre-eminent among these 
is the " Standard Dictionary of the English 
Language" (1894), of which Dr. Funk was 
editor-in-chief. In 1913 this work was enlarged 
and revised. More than three hundred editors 
and specialists and five hundred readers, for 
quotations, besides a large staff of writers, 
were engaged on its preparation and its origi- 
nal cost of production was close to one million 
dollars. In 1901 Dr. Funk edited and an- 
notated a new edition of Dr. Croly's " Sala- 
thiel," issued under the title of " Tarry Thou 
Till I Come." In 1902 was published his book, 
" The Next Step in Evolution." To a large 
portion of the public Dr. Funk was more gen- 
erally known on account of his interest in 
psychical research and his connection with the 
American Society for Psychical Research. As 
a result of his personal investigations into 
this little explored field of human knowledge 
he wrote and published " The Widow's Mite, 
and Other Psychical Phenomena" (1904) and 
"The Psychic Riddle" (1907). Psychical re- 
search is often, and erroneously, associated in 
the popular mind with spiritualism, but the 
difference between the two is wide. The spirit- 
ualist, without demanding more evidence than 
his own feelings, believes in the survival of 
the individual after death and the ability of 
the spirit to communicate with mortals 
through human mediums. The psychical re- 
searcher approaches the subject believing noth- 
ing which cannot be demonstrated by scientific 
evidence. He investigates such psychical phe- 
nomena as are supposed to occur at a spiritual 
seance, but by no means is he prepared to 
accept them at their face value. He endeavors 
to test and weigh them : many reputed mediums 
have been exposed by the psychical researchers. 
Yet so much evidence has been discovered in 
favor of the survival of the individual after 
death that a great many psychical researchers 
believe in it. Among such are or were such 
eminent scientists as Sir Oliver Lodge, Prof. 
Hyslop, Lombroso, Alfred Russel Wallace and 
others almost as eminent. Of this type of in- 
vestigators was Dr. Funk. " Spiritualism," 
said Dr. Funk, " has not been scientifically 
demonstrated and, to be frank, I think we are 
many miles from such a demonstration. But 
I do say this ; that I believe such a demon- 
stration is far more likely than are the prob- 
abilities that spiritualism is not true. That 
is, the proofs in favor of it are much stronger 
than those against it." In Dr. Funk's "The 
Psychic Riddle " the alleged spirit of Dr. Rich- 
ard Hodgson, one of the foremost psychical 
researchers during his lifetime, speaking 
through Mrs. Piper, the famous medium, thus 
describes death: " It is delightful to go tlirough 
the cool ethereal atmosphere, cool — cool — cool 
into this life, and shake off the mortal body." 
James L. Kellogg, of the Metropolitan Psychi- 
cal Society, in 1908, sent Dr. Funk a oliock 
for a hundred dollars as a reward for any 
spiritualist who could, through spirit guidance, 
tell the ntimber of oranges in a given pil<\ In 
returning the check Dr. Funk annonnccd that 
he was " out of the spiritualist li(>l(l." Dr. 
Funk was essentially a scholar, with Uio tem- 
perament of the true sciontist, iiiterestod in 
the search for truth for the sake of truth 
itself, regardless of whether the results of 




his investigations or studies corroborated the 
theori«'8 he may have formulated or not. He 
had a sane, evenly Imlanced mind which was 
litth* influenced in forming its judgments by 
emotion or by prejudices. Yet, as so many 
Bcholars are not, he was also a business man 
of a high order of ability, possessed of a calm, 
dispassionate judgment in business afrairs. In 
him brilliant intellect and strong character 
went hand in hand. He was the sturdy cham- 
pion of Prohibition when its principles and 
party were the objects of popular aversion, 
and when anti-Semitism was rife he gave un- 
Btinttxl support to the Jewish cause. He was 
a persistent supporter of simplified spelling 
and looked forward with a firm faith to that 
future which shall make the English language 
the most perfect medium to express human 
thought, in 186.] Dr. Funk married Eliza E. 
Thompson, daughter of James Thompson, of 
Carey, Ohio. His wife died in 1868 and in 
1809 he married her sister, Helen G. Thomp- 
son, From his first marriage one daughter sur- 
vives: Mrs. Lida M. Scott. From his second 
marriage a son survives: Wilfred J. Funk. 

METZ, Herman A., man of affairs and 
publicist, b. in New York City, 19 Oct., 1867, 
son of Edward J. and Frances Metz, both 
natives of Germany who came to the United 
States in 1848. He was born on the lower 
East Side whence so many self-made men have 
sprung, and his earliest years were marked by 
toil and self-sacrifice. It has always been his 
proud boast that after he had attained his 
twelfth year, he never cost his parents a 
penny. While attending the public schools he 
earned enough money selling newspapers to 
cover his living expenses. Shortly after he 
had graduated from public school No. 13, on 
East Houston Street, the family removed to 
Newark, N. J., where he attended the high 
school for one year. This was the extent of 
his educational opportunities, which it is quite 
likely the already keen instinct of the lad for 
affairs, curtailed of his own volition, for at 
the age fourteen, in 1881, he entered as office- 
boy a house of which but a few years later he 
emerged as the head, a position which he has 
held for the past seventeen years. This was 
the office of P. Schulze-Berge, the founder of 
the business which later became the corpora- 
tion of Victor Koechl & Co., and later still, 
the Farbwerke-Hoechst Company. His father 
dying two years later the whole burden of 
the support of the family, a mother and three 
younger brothers at school, was thrown upon 
the lad. And now he began at once to show those 
qualities which have ever lain at the founda- 
tion of true greatness in the American man of 
affairs. Utter self-reliance, unswervingness, 
and high devotion, to principle. Ever looking 
forward to a full career he at once took up 
the study of the science of chemistry evenings 
at Cooper Union, the trade branch being what 
occupied his daytime hours. This determina- 
tion to master his subject whatever it might 
be, has been his distinguishing characteristic 
through life. His career on this his first job 
was as has been intimated one of progressive 
success. As office-boy, laboratory assistant, 
clerk, he advanced in the practical branches 
to city salesman, traveling salesman, and as 
a real factor in expansion opened and managed 
a branch house in Boston and later in Chicago 

In 1903, he divided the business, of which he^ 
had been in full control for several years, ii 
corporating the firm of H. A. Metz and Com'^ 
pany to handle the chemicals and dye-stuffs, 
becoming president and sole owner of both cor- 
porations. In the business of importing dye- 
stuffs and medicinal products from European 
countries he became the leading power in the 
trade before he was thirty-five years old. The 
house of H. A. Metz and Company, and Farb- 
werke-Hoechst Company, with main offices in 
New York City have branches in Boston, Provi- 
dence, Philadelphia, Chicago, Atlanta, San 
Francisco, Charlotte, N. C, Montreal, Toronto, 
and Hamburg. A purely American enterprise 
in the same field which he has brought to great 
success is the Consolidated Color and Chemical 
Company, with factories at Newark, N. J. He 
has also lately established in Brooklyn the H. 
A. Metz Laboratories where certain important 
and essential drugs, hitherto made only in 
Germany, are successfully manufactured. One 
of the many interests outside of that business 
in which he laid the foundations of his great 
fortune is the plant called the Ettrick Mills at 
Auburn, Mass., devoted to the manufacture of 
carpets and rugs. The town of Auburn in- 
cludes the village of Stoneville nearly all of 
whose land, buildings, water-rights, etc., be- 
long to the Stoneville Company, of which he is 
the president. In his various business enter- 
prises he employs over 2,000 people. From an 
early day made his home in Brooklyn and 
for more than a quarter of a century he took 
an active interest in local politics. This finally 
culminated in his election to Congress by a 
very large popular vote in 1912. Meantime 
his career in public affairs was full and very 
notable. Always a stanch Democrat he was 
the founder and first president of the Kings 
County Democratic Club of Brooklyn. After- 
ward he was president of the National Civic 
Club, the Democratic Club of Brooklyn, and a 
governor of the National Democratic and Re- 
form Clubs of New York. In public affairs 
as in business his methods were broad-minded 
and expansive as soon became evident. From 
Mayor Van Wyck he received in 1898 an ap- 
pointment on the Brooklyn School Board, and 
was appointed a delegate to the Board of Edu- 
cation of Greater New York. Mayor McClel- 
lan, in 1910, appointed him to the same office 
for five years. His great executive ability and 
great willingness to serve brought him various 
appointments to the public service. By Gov- 
ernor Dix, he was made a commissioner of 
the State Board of Charities for the term of 
eight years. From Governor Hughes came the 
appointment as a member of the Charter Re- 
vision Commission of New York, and Presi- 
dent Taft made him an honorary commissioner 
to the American Exposition in Berlin to be 
held in 1910. The crown of his services to the 
municipality was his triumphant election to 
the comptrollership of Greater New York in 
1906. His administration for the next four 
years was memorable. It was that of a 
highly-trained and thoroughly capable man of 
aflairs whom the office had sought out and who 
liked his job. He was now so fully in the 
public eye that his nomination for Congress 
in the campaign of 1912 came unsought, and 
his election as a Democrat in a Republican 
district, of which he was not even a resident, 




followed as a matter of course. His strong 
personality and splendid record as a man of 
affairs and as a politician immediately brought 
him into notice, and he was constantly sought 
out for counsel on measures affecting the busi- 
ness of the country after the outbreak of the 
war. He was known in the House of Represen- 
tatives as a forcible speaker whose brief, clear, 
pointed speeches always held attention. Per- 
sonally he was very popular among his col- 
leagues. He served with distinction on the 
Committee on Claims, and the Committee on 
Patents. Declining to run again for Congress 
although practically sure of re-election, he a 
little later declined the nomination of his 
party for United States Senator. On the out- 
break of the war, Mr. Metz, although naturally 
of strongly German affiliations, both in busi- 
ness and social affairs, hastened to prove his 
fervent patriotism to the land of his birth. 
In every way by word and deed he stands by 
his country. He is a large contributor to every 
patriotic cause, including the Red Cross. He 
is one of the founders and the president of the 
National School Camp Association, which has 
given rudimentary training to 2,000 school and 
working boys in New York. He is a reserve 
officer, having served ten years in the National 
Guard, and in the prime of his manhood stands 
ready at any time to respond to his country's 
call. The purely philanthropic side of Mr. 
Metz's nature is a very large part of the man. 
He has the genuine instinct of the true phi- 
lanthropist, combining a deep interest in all 
movements for the betterment of his fellows, 
with large benefactions to them all, irrespective 
of race or creed. As the common saying about 
him goes : " Everybody knows him, everybody 
relies on him, and his shoulders only seem to 
grow stronger under the burden." A large 
part of his time, too limited for even his 
personal affairs, is devoted to hearing and help- 
ing the innumerable many who keep calling 
on him for aid and comfort. Still in his active 
and youthful prime, he is now devoting his 
attention to his large business affairs. First 
and foremost, of course, come the great dye- 
stuff, drug, and chemical enterprises which 
were the foundation of his business career. 
But his activities are so varied that they can- 
not be described in detail, and can only be in- 
dicated by recording the various organizations 
of which he is an active part. As the Brook- 
lyn " Daily Eagle " once said of him : " He is 
an excellent financier, an excellent executive, 
an excellent judge of the capacity and char- 
acter of others, and an organizer and manager 
of personal forces, and of business purposes 
probably without a superior among men of 
his age in this great city." He is a member of 
the Aldine Club, the Academy of Political 
Sciences, the Army and Navy Club, the Aero 
Club of America, the Brooklyn Club, the 
Banker's Club of America, the Bibliophile So- 
ciety, the Crescent Club, the City Club of New 
York, the Chamber of Commerce of the United 
States, the Chamber of Commerce of the State 
of New York, the Chemists' Club, the Drug 
and Chemical Club, the Engineers' Club, of 
Boston, the Franklin Institute, the Hanover 
Club, the Hardware Club, the Insurance So- 
ciety of New York, the Japan Society, the 
League to Enforce Peace, the Municipal Art 
Society, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the 

Manhattan Club, the Montauk Club, the Na- 
tional Association of Manufacturers, the Na- 
tional Geographic Society, the National Asso- 
ciation of Cotton Manufacturers, the National 
Democratic Club, the National Woolen Manu- 
facturers' Association, the National Arts Club, 
the Rotary Club of New York, the Silk Asso- 
ciation of America, the Society of Chemical 
Industry of London, Swiss Benevolent Society, 
Textile Club, Worcester Club, and very many 
other social commercial, political, scientific, and 
philanthropic organizations. He is a director 
of the Germania Savings Bank, and of the 
First National Bank, both of Brooklyn. His 
business affiliations included the presidency of 
tlie Manufacturers' Association of New York, 
director of the Merchants' Association of New 
York, chairman of the Committee on Inland 
Waterways, and a member of the committee 
on Tariff and Revenue Laws, so important to 
New York merchants in connection with for- 
eign duties. A member of the Chamber of 
Commerce in the State of New York, member 
of the New York Board of Trade and Trans- 
portation, member of the American Chamber 
of Commerce in Berlin, and American Cham- 
ber of Commerce in Paris. He was chairman 
of the Finance Committee and director of the 
North American Civic League for Immigrants 
and vice-president (for New York State) of 
the National Rivers and Harbors Commission. 
There is scarcely any branch of human ac- 
tivity into which his strong hand does not 
reach. From Union College he received the 
degree of Doctor of Sciences in 1911, and from 
Manhattan College, the degree of Doctor of 
Laws in 1914. Mr. Metz is a thirty-second 
degree Mason, a member of Palestine Com- 
mandery, and Mecca Temple of the Mystic 
Shrine, and president of the Board of Trus- 
tees of the Masonic Hall and Asylum Fund. 
He is a member of Gilbert Council, Royal Ar- 
canum, and Brooklyn Lodge No. 22, B. P. 0. E, 
He is particularly proud of his military connec- 
tions, being an associate member of U. S. Grant 
Post, and the Old Guard, and having served 
as captain and commissary of the Fourteenth 
Regiment of the National Guard of New York 
State. He was one of the militia officers de- 
tailed to the United States army during the 
manoeuvers in Texas a few years ago. His 
personal and private character can scarcely 
better be described than in the words of the 
great journal already quoted which at the 
time of his candidacy for Comptroller of 
Greater New York said of him : " American 
by birth, German by descent, he is a scholarly, 
broajd-minded, enterprising and honorable busi- 
ness man. He is a friend of education, a 
friend of broad ethical and humane movements, 
and his work for schools, for parks, for play- 
grounds, for the uplift of the poor and of the 
distraught has been notable. He has done 
none of the fine things to his credit for any 
other reason than the good which has thereby 
come to others, by the addition of health, of 
opportunity, and of leisure to their lives. He 
has done all this without ostentation or dem- 
agogy, or any lowering considerations what- 
ever, and wherever the results of this election 
may be, he will keep on the benign tenor of 
his life without haste and without rest. Suc- 
cess found him simple and sincere and has left 
him so. The friendships of his youth and of 




his manhood have been retained, augmented, 
and vindicattKl by him; his loyalty to the 
obligations of principle, of friendship, and of 
partisansiiip has been unquestionable." As 
to hia temporamental characteristics he has 
been aptly called a human dynamo. " Rest- 
less, unri'sisting, irresistible energy is his, from 
the earliest hour till late at night. There is a 
tradition about New York that four hours is 
a long sleep for this high-strung, keen, nerv- 
ously active man. His day of work is literally 
that of three stalwart men at constant pres- 
sure. The working hours of Metz are the ex- 
traordinary incident in business or political 
life today." In manner he is frank, demo- 
cratic, and easy a man who at once proclaims 
himself a master of men by his utter simplicity 
and readiness to meet any man on his own 
ground, and having once met him you are 
thereafter his friend. Besides the business 
enterprises mentioned he is president and di- 
rector of the Texti leather Company, of New- 
ark, N. J., manufacturers t of leather substi- 
tutes, vice-president of the International Alco- 
hol Corporation of Louisiana, manufacturing 
ethyl-alcohol from wood-waste; president of the 
Grain-Chemical Company, and largely inter- 
ested in the management of the Central Dye- 
stutf and Chemical Company, of Newark, N. J. ; 
the General Drug Company, of New York, and 
a director of the Pathe Freres Phonograph 
Company, and president of the Ettrick Realty 

SEED, Miles Ainscoe, manufacturer and in- 
ventor, b. in Preston, Lancashire, England, 24 
Feb., 1843; d. at Pelham, N. Y., 4 Dec, 1913, 
son of Richard and Anne Elinor (Ainscoe) 
Seed. He was a direct descendant of the old 
house of the Red Cross Knights, and came to 
America in 1867. In 1874 he entered the 
photographic studio of John A. Scholten in 
St. Louis, Mo. During his spare time he ex- 
pierimented at his home with a view to simpli- 
fying the process of producing photographic 
negatives. After some years of experiment he 
perfected and brought into practical use the 
photographic dry plate, which became known 
as the " Seed Dry Plate," and was used over 
the entire world. With this production the 
photographer was enabled to carry with him 
on his travels a sensitively prepared dry plate 
by which an exposure could be made, and later 
develop it at his own leisure. Previously 
only the " wet " plate was used, therefore, this 
was a revolution which opened up photog- 
raphy to the entire world and widened greatly 
the field of application. The introduction of 
the dry plate condensed the use of the ch'emi- 
cals, changed the apparatus, and compelled the 
opticians who manufactured lenses to improve 
and enlarge the field of their productions. It 
expanded the whole world of photography, 
and it was the beginning of the creation of 
the great business that is represented to- 
day by the manufacture of photographic 
materials. Photography has reached and 
attached itself to every branch of industry, 
but the dry plate was one of the great starters 
of this revolution. Mr. Seed, with untiring 
energy, worked against innumerable obstacles 
and probed hundreds of failures to reach the 
cause. As he himself once concisely stated: 
" I never cared what the trouble was, if I 
could only reach the cause of the trouble," 

and it was always a source of worry to him 
when he got into trouble and got out of it 
without knowing the cause. The Seed dry 
plate was launched on the market in 1879 and 
even then it was only in its embryonic stage 
for it entailed upon him canvassing and trav- 
eling over the United States to demonstrate 
the products in the large cities, and instruct 
photographers in the working of them. He 
was compelled at the same time to introduce 
the new product and overcome the prejudice 
of the photographers, who, feeling that they 
were well equipped in their line, viewed the 
new introduction with considerable bias. His 
patience and perseverance were eventually 
crowned with success, and he was finally 
obliged by the growth of his business to 
abandon traveling and demonstrating and to 
devote himself to superintending the produc- 
tion of the goods. In 1882 his factory was 
destroyed by fire, but with renewed pluck and 
energy, he at once set about rebuilding it, and 
in less than four months, the '* Seed Dry 
Plates" were again in the hands of the con- 
sumer. He then arranged for a demonstra- 
tion to be made in the various sections of the 
United States and with carefully selected 
practical photographers, who were chosen not 
only for their ability, but for their good, up- 
right character, an organization was started 
by which the entire United States was care- 
fully covered and visited and the Seed Dry 
Plate demonstrated to every consumer who 
handled photographic materials. With Mr, 
Seed at the factory, carefully inspecting the 
product, and having all the new automatic 
appliances, he was enabled to supervise per- 
sonally the shipping of the goods and their 
condition when shipped. Soon it became a 
regular trade word that the " Seed Dry Plate " 
was reliable and uniform, and, through its 
high merit and the careful manner in wjiich 
it was made, it was generally accepted as the 
leading dry plate of the world. Mr. Seed's 
great aim in all his business career was not 
only to push his goods, but also to help and 
instruct photographers in the use of them, 
so in order that they might be able to obtain 
a higher grade of work. This was recognized 
throughout the trade and at every national 
convention of photographers of the United 
States Mr. Seed was called upon to make an 
address on matters connected with the photo- 
graphic art. The M. A. Seed Dry Plate Com- 
pany, which had been incorporated in July, 
1883, was purchased by the Eastman Kodak 
Company in 1902, and a few years later Mr. 
Seed retired from business. Thereafter, until 
his death, he ' spent much of his time in re- 
ligious work, to which he was ardently de- 
voted, and he was prominently afl[iliated with 
the Y. M. C. A. in both civil and military 
circles. Weekly he taught a Bible class at 
Fort Slocum, N. Y., and eternity alone will 
reveal the results of that faithful sowing of 
the truth in the hearts of soldiers there, who 
later were sent out over the United States. 
His zealous efforts for mankind through per- 
sonal conversation with individuals were con- 
stant, and he found opportunities which many 
of us would fail to observe or utilize. Since 
the death of Mr. Seed many letters have been 
received from men prominent in the financial 


^ a <2^ 




and professional world, recounting with deep 
gratitude their indebtedness to him, not only 
for a successful business career, but also for 
the power of his Christian example and in- 
fluence. His life in the church was inspiring 
and helpful, an appreciative listener, a liberal 
giver, and a wise counselor. It was a treat 
and illumination to hear him expound the 
deep, wonderful truths of the great book — the 
Bible — ^and in his dying Mr. Seed was the 
same calm, confident, triumphant believer in 
Christ as in his living. There were no fears, 
no shrinking in the last hours. He whispered 
to his great friend, the pastor, "The Master 
is more precious than ever," and again, " I'll 
soon be Home." This is fulfilling the state- 
ment of old, " the path of the just is as a 
shining light that shineth more and more to 
the perfect day." To quote from " Snap 
Shots," " He was a practical and earnest 
Christian, a good father and sincere friend, 
peculiarly devoted, thoughtful and self-sacri- 
ficing, and his loss will be deeply regretted, 
not only in the photographic fraternity, but 
to men all over this entire world. His life 
was a success and a great pillar of light, and 
while his loss will be felt deeply, a good man 
and strong has passed from us, yet his work 
done leaves behind him a monument represent- 
ing everything honorable in business, and 
everything high in Christian life." Mr. Seed 
is survived by his wife, Lydia Seed, three 
sons: Frederick Ainscoe, Miles Richard, and 
Robert William; and four daughters: Eleanor, 
Edythe A., Lucile L , and Avis Rosilla. 

JENKS, George Charles, author, b in Lon- 
don, England, 13 April, 1850, son of George 
Stillwell and Eliza (Miller) Jenks. It often 
has been observed that the inclinations of 
early youth point the way to the career sought 
in maturity. Certainly it was so in the case 
of George C. Jenks, for, many years before he 
ventured to try his hand at writing fiction for 
print, he had gained schoolboy fame as a story- 
teller of merit. Like most British boys, he was 
sent to a boarding-school in the country when 
he had passed the rudimentary stage of edu- 
cation. They believe, or used to believe in 
England, in sending boys to bed early. At 
school the retiring hour for youth was eight 
o'clock. Naturally it was impossible for active- 
minded lads to go to sleep at that hour, espe- 
cially in the summer, in broad daylight, so it 
had long been the custom to while away the 
time till slumber stole over them, for each 
boy, in turn, to tell a story for the entertain- 
ment of the others. With twenty boys in a 
dormitory, this was not very exacting on any 
one. Some weird narratives were related, and 
some were liked better than others. The yarns 
spun by George Jenks — which he confesses were 
largely a rehash, with original interpolations 
of " Robinson Crusoe," " The Swiss Family 
Robinson," " Grimm's Fairy Tales," " The 
Arabian Nights," " ^sop's Fables," and mis- 
cellaneous juvenile talcs that had happened to 
come his way — made a pronounced hit, and 
often he paid the penalty of his popularity by 
being required to act as bedroom entertainer 
out of his turn. On leaving school, and hav- 
ing the choice of several callings, he selected 
that of Benjamin Franklin and Horace Greeley, 
and in time became a good printer. It was 
when he was a full-fledged compositor, after 

his apprenticeship, in 1872, that he came to 
the United States by way of Canada, and 
finally took up his residence in Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. Here he found it a short and 
easy step from the type case to the editorial 
room. His first reportorial work was done on 
Pittsburgh papers. In the fifteen years he 
resided in that city he did newspaper work of 
all kinds. For seven years he was an editorial 
writer on the Pittsburgh "Press," and also 
wrote editorial comment for the " Post " and 
"Times" of that city. For thirty years he 
was a dramatic critic — first in Pittsburgh and 
afterward in New York, and early established 
a reputation for discernment and strict fair- 
ness as a theatrical reviewer — a reputation 
which led to his being offered the position of 
dramatic editor on the New York " Commer- 
cial Advertiser" (later the "Globe"), where 
he remained some years. Mr. Jenks has been 
connected with various New York magazines 
in the same capacity, and always has retained 
his interest in theatrical affairs. In 1891 he 
produced "As You Like It" on the lawn of a 
suburban hotel in Pittsburgh, with Rose Cogh- 
lan for his Rosalind, the late Joseph Haworth 
as Orlando, and William Muldoon — once a 
champion wrestler, and now owner of a sani- 
tarium known the world over — as Charles the 
Wrestler. This was the first time a Shake- 
spearean play had ever been produced out of 
doors at night, although it has been done 
many times since. From the beginning, in 
what leisure he could steal from his news- 
paper and theatrical work, Mr. Jenks has writ- 
ten popular fiction, both in the magazines and 
between book-covers. Readers have liked his 
writing, and he has a large following, which 
always insures a profitable sale for his books 
and causes him to be welcomed by magazine 
editors. He has written other books besides 
novels, however. One of his most important 
productions is " The Official History of the 
Johnstown Flood," (1890) which was written 
from personal olDservation of the awful de- 
vastation of Johnstown a few days after the 
waters broke loose from South Fork dam, 
and in an hour made a charnal heap of what 
had been a prosperous, cheerful city. For 
twelve months Mr. Jenks was New York cor- 
respondent of the Pittsburgh " Dispatch," and 
for five years longer acted in that capacity for 
the " Gazette-Times " of that noted manu- 
facturing center. During that period he was 
frequently brought into personal contact with 
Henry C. Frick, Andrew Carnegie, Charles M. 
Schwab, and other famous captains of industry. 
One of the few intimate sketches of the first- 
named personages that have appeared in print 
was written by Mr. Jenks for a large New York 
newspaper. Mr. Jenks writes book reviews 
for the New York " Times," and has con- 
tributed to the " Bookman " and otlior literary 
publications in New York and London. But 
his main vocation is producing fiction, and 
this he does so industriously that liis name 
is well known to readers of popular novels 
all over the country. He is tht; author of 
several plays that have been produced success- 
fully, and he turns out a photo-play to order 
now and then. George C. Jenks was married 
in 1878, in Detroit, to Sarah Jane Lambert, 
who died in 1895; to Elizabeth Jowcphine 
Aylward, in New York, 1897, who died three 




months later, and in 1899, in New York, to 
Katherine Baird, of Latrobe, Pa. He has two 
sons: Frank llewson Jenks, in business in 
Detroit, Mich., and Charles John, who is in 
the business ollice of the New York "Times," 
also one daughter, Mrs. Guy H. (Beatrice) 
W inters teene, of Auburn, N. Y. George C. 
Jenks resides with Mrs. Jenks, at Owasco, 
N. Y. in summer, and in New York in winter. 
ELY, Horace Selden, real estate operator, 
b. at Franklinville, Cattaraugus County, N. Y., 
18 Feb., 1832, son of Seth and Laura (Mead) 
Ely; d. in New York 
City, 27 April, 1904. 
On both sides he was 
descended from old 
and well-known fam- 
ilies of the State of 
Connecticut. He re- 
ceived his education 
in the local academy 
and in private 
schools at Euclid, a 
suburb of Cleveland, 
Ohio, In 1854 he 
removed to New 
York City, and 
there began his busi- 
ness career in the 
employ of his uncle, 
'^ Abner L. Ely, who 
was engaged in the real estate business. At 
the same time he continued his studies by at- 
tending evening schools. Being both gifted 
and industrious, he soon mastered every de- 
tail of the business, and upon the death of his 
uncle, in 1871, he became head of the firm. 
Mr. Ely devoted all his energies and abilities 
to the interests of his clients, and gradually 
established an influence and prominence in his 
own line second to none. The high degree of 
confidence which was reposed in him both by 
his clients and the public brought him many 
positions of trust and responsibility. He was 
appointed executor of numerous important es- 
tates, and was frequently called upon to act 
as commissioner in appraising property. As 
the agent for some of the largest office build- 
ings in New York City, his became one of the 
best known business names in the metropolis. 
He was also a member of the New York Cham- 
ber of Commerce, and was president of the 
Real Estate Exchange »Mr. Ely was a trustee 
of the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church and 
a member of the Union League, City, Repub- 
lican, and Lawyers' Clubs. He married 16 
Sept., 1875, Fanny Rogers, daughter of Mat- 
thew Griswold, and granddaughter of Gov- Ed- 
gar Griswold, of Connecticut. The Griswold 
family is connected by marriage to the famous 
Wolcott family of Connecticut and Mrs. Ely 
is thus descended from no less than five gov- 
ernors of the State of Connecticut. Mr. and 
Mrs. Ely had two sons, Horace Griswold and 
Matthew Griswold, and two daughters, Fanny 
Griswold and Marion Griswold Ely. 

CASE, Jerome I., manufacturer and inven- 
tor, b. in Williamston, N, Y., 11 Dec, 1819; 
d. in Racine, Wis., 22 Dec, 1891, son of 
Caleb and Devorah (Jackson) Case. His 
earliest American paternal ancestor was of 
English birth, and came to this country early 
in the Colonial period. Through his mother, 
he was of Irish stock and was a close kinsman 

of Gen. Andrew Jackson, the first American 
representative of the family coming from Car- 
rickfergus, on the north coast of Ireland. Dur- 
ing the early years of the century his parents 
moved from Rensselaer County, N. Y., to Wil- 
liamston, N. Y., in the midst of what was then 
an unbroken wilderness and where, with the 
pioneer spirit, the elder Case, proceeded to 
carve out a home for himself and his family. 
In this rugged environment, Jerome grew up, 
laboring with his father on the farm during 
the summers and attending the log-cabin dis- 
trict school during the winters. When he was 
about sixteen, his father bought a one-horse 
tread-power threshing-machine, with which »he 
not only threshed his own crops, but took 
over contracts for threshing those of his less 
progressive neighbors as well. This mechanism 
he placed under the charge of his son, Jerome, 
who manipulated it during working hours and 
kept it in working order. From this ap- 
parently insignificant incident large results 
were to follow, not only in the life of the boy 
himself, but in the development of American 
agricultural industry. On attaining his ma- 
jority, in 1840, young Case continued thresh- 
ing for the farmers on his own account. The 
care of the machine had developed in him a 
a natural fondness for mechanics and perhaps 
inspired in him a desire to acquire a broader 
knowledge of the science. After a season's 
work he had saved up enough money to satisfy 
his ambition to continue his studies in a more 
advanced school and, accordingly, in the fall of 
1840, he entered an academy in Mexicoville, 
N. Y. Though he proved exceptionally apt at 
his books, he soon began to realize instinctively, 
that it was not in the direction of academic 
study that his proclivities lay. When his 
mind should have been busy with Latin and 
Greek verbs, he found the levers and ratchets 
of his threshing-machine intruding and evolv- 
ing themselves into wonderful new mechanisms. 
It gradually came to him that his education 
must be acquired through his own initiative 
and not by means of conventional school 
courses. At the end of the first term he left 
the academy and set himself at once to the 
work which he felt he had to do. He was now 
twenty-two and with no capital, aside from the 
enthusiasm of youth, he turned once more to 
his threshing machinery. Obtaining six ma- 
chines on credit, he went West, to what was 
then Wisconsin territory, and located at Ra- 
cine, then a mere village. Here he sold five of 
his machines to good advantage; the sixth he 
retained that he might earn his living thresh- 
ing the farmer's grain and continue his ex- 
periments. During the days he worked the 
machine, and the evening and night he spent 
devising improvements. With such tools and 
implements as he could obtain, he gradually 
rebuilt the mechanism of his thresher until he 
had eff'ected a very decided improvement on the 
original machine. Previously the machine was 
what was called an open thresher; the grain, 
chaff, and straw being delivered together from 
it. Afterward the winnowing had still to be 
done, to separate the chaff from the grain. It 
was in the winter of 1843-44 that Mr. Case 
succeeded in including in his mechanism the 
functions of a separator, following out an 
idea which had long occupied his mind. With 
the enthusiasm inspired by this first success he 


jbfy l-l'' y"x>U(r.-tffJ- A 




determined to do the impossible, and without 
capital, except the little money he had saved 
from his earnings, he rented a small machine 
shop in Racine and began to manufacture his 
machines. His first attempt contemplated only 
six, but when he confided his plans to one of 
the best agricultural experts of the state, the 
latter remarked that if they worked satis- 
factorily they would still be more than were 
needed in the state. Nevertheless, the ma- 
chines were not only made, but they were sold. 
The agriculture of the country was developing 
fast and the broad prairies were not only 
proving exceedingly, fertile, but they were also 
especially adapted to the use of agricultural 
labor-saving machinery, and the farmers were 
intelligent enough to realize it. For the fol- 
lowing three years Mr. Case continued experi- 
menting, demonstrating, improving, and manu- 
facturing new machines. His steady persever- 
ance and patience brought their logical results ; 
he sold the products of his workshop and grad- 
ually acquired a working capital. In 1847 he 
was able to erect his first machine shop, not far 
from the site of the present extensive works 
which he lived to hand down to posterity. It 
was only thirty feet wide and eighty feet long, 
but at the time it seemed far too large for the 
plant he had hopes of establishing. By this 
time he had developed a serviceable machine, 
and the demand increased as fast as his grow- 
ing plant could turn it out. By 1855, only 
thirteen years after he had begun in his small 
rented shop, he was in a position to realize 
that he had been successful, in the fullest 
sense of the word. His plant covered several 
acres, including a dock at which vessels could 
load, a belt factory, paint shops, furnace and 
molding rooms and vast workshops filled with 
costly and complicated machinery. During the 
first year he had felt elated over turning out 
eleven machines; during the second he had 
reached the number of one hundred. Within 
ten years he had made and sold 1,600 machines. 
So the enterprise continued to expand until at 
the time of his death the plant had become the 
largest ©f its kind in the world, covering an 
area of forty acres with an annual capacity of 
2,500 machines, and his name became familiar 
throughout all the civilized countries of the 
world. It was of such pioneers of American 
agriculture that William H. Seward said: 
" Owing to the inventions of these men the 
line of civilization moves westward thirty miles 
a year." Seward had good reason to appre- 
ciate what these inventors did for the Union 
cause during the Civil War, for it was by the 
utilization of their machines that the wheat 
fields of the West could be harvested after the 
men had gone to the front, while the South 
was obliged to endure hunger. By displacing 
hand labor, men could be spared for the armies. 
In 1863 Mr. Case organized the firm of J. I. 
Case and Company, and in 1880 the business 
was incorporated under the name of the J. I. 
Case Threshing Machine Company. Having 
achieved success in the development of his 
thresher, Mr. Case turned his energy into 
other directions. In 1876 the plow business 
which today bears his name was established 
and has grown to immense proportions with 
branches in all the important agricultural 
implement sections of the country and to this 
business he gave much of his personal time and 

attention, and had the utmost confidence in its 
ultimate growth and development. He said of 
it, " It is the most fundamental business I 
know, for though crops may fail the land 
must be plowed and plowed again, and the 
first essential to the raising of crops is the 
plow." He established and developed the J. I. 
Case Plow Works, which has also grown to 
large proportions. With other capitalists, he 
was interested in the Northwestern Life In- 
surance Company, of Milwaukee, being a mem- 
ber of its board of trustees for many years. 
In 1871 he assisted in founding the Manu- 
facturers' National Bank of Racine, and dur- 
ing the same year established the First Na- 
tional Bank of Burlington, Wis., of both he 
remained president until his death. Later he 
was connected, as a large stockholder, with the 
First National Bank of Crookston, Minn., the 
First National Bank of Fargo, N. D,, the 
Pasadena Nation^ Bank of Pasadena, Cal., 
and the Granite Bank of Monrovia, Cal. He 
also owned extensive tracts of land in Call* 
fornia, where he established a winter home. 
Outside of Racine, he acquired a large area of 
land which he developed into what has since 
become known as Hickory Grove Farm. Asso- 
ciated with others, he purchased and improved 
the Glenwood Stock Farm, near Louisville, 
Ky., which was afterward conveyed to a stock 
company. From his association with this lat- 
ter enterprise he acquired a keen interest in 
the breeding of fine horses, and in this pastime 
activity he was as eminently successful as in 
his more serious aff'airs. Among the famous 
race horses bred and owned by him were Jay- 
Eye-See, whose name was familiar to every 
child of that period. Later, when his life 
work had been well established, he interested 
himself in local civic affairs and was twice 
elected mayor of Racine and he served his 
term as state senator. In 1876 he was ap- 
pointed by the governor as one of the commis- 
sioners to represent the state at the Centennial 
Exposition in Philadelphia. He helped to 
found the Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts, 
and Letters. Though he had acquired a large 
fortune before his death, to the last he re- 
mained the plain citizen that his father was 
before him; he was essentially a democrat at 
heart. He was born in and belonged to that 
period of hardy American pioneers who were 
masterful in the things they accomplished and 
he stood out as a master among men. His was 
a powerful personality, dominated by an ele- 
mental force which found its vent in the doing 
of big things and which influenced not only its 
own times, but which is still felt by those 
who were associated with him in active busi- 
ness. He was essentially a self-reliant man, 
with absolute confidence in his own judgment 
of men and things and with a superlative 
courage when it came to carrying out smything 
which he had once undertaken. " I have yet 
to come in contact with a man of such <iuii'k 
and decisive judgment," said 11. M. Wallis. 
president of the J. 1. Case Plow Works. It 
was a day of big men, that period in which 
J. I. Case lived, when the "(heat West" was 
in process of building, but his name must stand 
out prominently in the history of that epoch, 
together with McCormick, who created the 
harvester, James J. Hill, who built railroads, 
and other pioneers of that section. In 1840 




Mr. Case married Lydia A. Bull, daughter of 
De Grove Bull, of Yorkville, Wis. They had 
four children: Jackson I. Case, Mrs. Percival 
S. Fuller, Mrs. H. M. Wallis, and Mrs. J. J. 
Crooks, of San Francisco. 

O'BEIRNE, James Rowan, soldier, journalist, 
b. in Roscommon County, Ireland, 25 Sept., 
1840; d. in New York City, N. Y., 17 Feb., 
1917, son of Michael Horan and Eliza (Rowan) 
O'Beirne. His father was descended from an 
ancient Irish family, but early in life became 
affiliated with the young Ireland party which 

opposed it- 
self strenu- 
ously against 
English rule. 
He was close- 
ly associated 
with such 
prom i n e n t 
leaders as 
Michael Doh- 
erty, Thomas 
Fra n c i s 
^\ Smith O'Bri- 
, ^ en, and oth- 
ers. When 
the younger 
O'Beirne was 
only a child 
of nine 
months his 
parents emi- 
grated to 
this coun- 
try in a sailing ship and settled in New 
York City, where the elder O'Beirne became a 
member of the firm of Roche Brothers. Here 
in New York City, Mr. O'Beirne spent his boy- 
hood and attended the St. Francis Xavier and 
the St. John's colleges. From the latter in- 
stitution he graduated at the age of nineteen 
with the degree of A.M., being later also 
awarded the degree of LL.D. Having con- 
cluded his education, he entered the firm of 
Roche, O'Beirne and Company, of which his 
father was a partner, but not long after he 
severed his connection with this firm and went 
into business for himself. But he was not 
long to remain in business, for soon afterward 
the Civil War broke out and Mr. O'Beirne was 
one of the first to respond to the President's 
call for volunteers. He immediately enlisted 
as a private in the Seventh Regiment, N. G. 
S. N. Y. His term of service expired before 
he could see active service at the front, where- 
upon he immediately joined the Thirty- Seventh 
New York Irish Rifles Volunteers, also known 
as the Irish Rifles, with the rank of second 
lieutenant. He served with distinction at the 
Battle of Fair Oaks, he and his command 
maintaining their position on the firing-line 
under a heavy fire until ordered to fall back. 
For this achievement he was awarded a medal 
of honor by Congress. At the Battle of Chan- 
cellorsville, 3 May, 1863, in which he partici- 
pated as captain of his company, the Color 
Company, he was severely wounded, a ball 
passing through his chest and piercing one 
lung. His rise in rank was now rapid and 
when he w^as finally mustered out of service, 
at the close of the war and having refused a 
commission in the regular army, he was a 

Brigadier-General of the Veteran Reserve 
Corps of the U. S. A. So serious had been his 
wound at the Battle of Chancellorsville that 
he was found unfit for further service in the 
field, whereupon he was assigned to duty in 
the Provost Marshal General's Bureau, in the 
War Department, in Washington. Toward the 
close of the war he was appointed military 
provost marshal of the District of Columbia. 
During July, 1864, when the Confederate 
general, Jubal Early, invested the national 
capital. General O'Beirne was appointed acting 
provost marshal general of the defenses north 
of the Potomac by Secretary of War Edward 
M. Stanton. General O'Deirne was on duty in 
the national capital at the time of President 
Lincoln's assassination by Wilkes Booth, and 
in the scenes immediately succeeding the mur- 
der he took a very prominent part, for it was 
directly through his efforts that the assassin 
was overtaken and killed. From the moment 
that Lincoln was laid on his deathbed, until 
he breathed his last, O'Beirne, as provost 
marshal of the District of Coliunbia, was in 
constant attendance, under the direct orders 
of Secretary of War Stanton. By the latter 
he was sent to summon Vice-President Johnson 
from the Kirkwood House and it was he who 
escorted the Vice-President through the dense 
crowds in the streets to the bedside of the 
dying President. He was present next morn- 
ing when Johnson was quietly sworn into office 
as President of the United States, less than a 
dozen persons being there. Under written or- 
ders from Secretary Stanton he then began 
his successful pursuit of the assassin. Already 
he had made an investigation. When he had 
informed Vice-President Johnson that the 
President had been shot, the latter immediately 
told him that his suspicions had been aroused 
that night at the Kirkwood House. For 
hours Johnson and his negro servant had heard 
footsteps in the room above. In this room 
General O'Beirne, after an investigation, found 
a blank book belonging to Wilkes Booth, a 
large Bowie knife, a Colt's navy revolver. The 
room had been let to George Atzerodt, one of 
the accomplices. He also established the fact 
that Payne, the assailant of Secretary Seward, 
had also frequented the room. After present- 
ing this and other evidence to Secretary Stan- 
ton, the later immediately ordered him to 
begin the pursuit, authorizing him to call on 
all army and navy forces for aid. In twenty- 
four hours he had detectives at the lower gate- 
way of Maryland and others scattered over the 
country through which the fugitive was sup- 
posed to be fleeing. Then he, with six de- 
tectives and twenty-five privates and non-com- 
missioned officers, dashed down the Potomac on 
the flagship " Martin " to Port Tobacco, where 
Booth and his accomplices were known to have 
played poker and hatched their plot. Going 
ashore, they scoured the swamps in that vi- 
cinity, a noisome, pestilential, oozing morass. 
After some hours in this sea of slime General 
O'Beirne stopped in a comparatively dry spot 
to light his pipe In throwing down the 
lighted match he set fire to some dry leaves. 
As he was stamping out the small blaze his 
eye caught sight of a peculiar three-cornered 
hole in the ground. It was the print of a 
crutch and Booth was known to have a crutch. 
The crutch prints were followed to the river, 





which was crossed, and the trail was taken up 
again on the opposite bank. For miles and 
miles they followed this peculiar trail, until 
the men could go no further from sheer ex- 
haustion. Secretary Stanton was then in- 
formed by telegraph that Booth had been 
tracked to the vicinity of Port Royal, and 
there he was captured and killed the next day. 
After the war General O'Beirne was appointed 
register of wills in the District of Columbia. 
Later he entered the field of journalism as the 
Washington correspondent of the New York 
" Herald," after which he became editor and 
proprietor of the Washington " Gazette." Then 
followed various appointments under the Fed- 
eral government; for a while he was special 
agent for the Office of Indian Affairs in the 
Department of the Interior, which position he 
resigned in order to participate in the political 
campaign of Ira Davenport, candidate for 
governor of New York. Later he was for a 
while commissioner of immigration for the port 
of New York, and' under Mayor Strong, of 
New York, he served as commissioner of chari- 
ties. At the time of his death General O'Beirne 
was clerk of the supreme court of the State of 
New York. In character General O'Beirne was 
a man of intense convictions. When he offered 
his services to his adopted country to serve 
as a soldier against the Southern States, he 
was impelled by more than a sense of duty as 
a patriot. To him the idea of human liberty 
was an intense reality, and quite aside from 
patriotism, his sympathies must have been 
strongly against the cause which could uphold 
the institution of chattel slavery. Thus the 
enthusiasm which impelled him to fight for 
the Union cause was of double origin; from a 
sense of patriotic duty and from love of human 
liberty. His devotion to this latter ideal Gen- 
eral O'Beirne probably inherited from his 
father, for throughout his whole life he was 
a strong supporter of the Irish movement for 
freedom in America. He was a member of 
the Irish Parliamentary Fund Association and 
a close friend of the Irish patriot, Parnell, 
whom he persuaded to visit and to speak in 
this country. It was through General 
O'Bierne's efforts that Parnell was accorded 
the privilege of speaking in the House of Rep- 
resentatives. Human liberty, however, was to 
him by no means the prerogative of any one 
people. He was intensely interested in all the 
struggles for liberty going on throughout the 
world, whether in the Balkans, in Russia, or 
in South Africa. During the Boer War he 
was appointed by President Kruger, commis- 
sioner extraordinary to represent the Trans- 
vaal in the United States. General O'Beirne 
was very active as a member of the Grand Army 
of the Republic. He was president of the United 
States Army and Navy Congressional Medal 
of Honor Legion of the United States and 
associate organizer, treasurer, and president of 
the American Boy Scouts. During the Co- 
lumbian celebration, in 1893, he was marshal 
of the Catholic schools and colleges. General 
O'Beirne was decorated by the government of 
Venezuela with the " Bust of the Liberator " 
for his work in the removal of the body of 
General Paz from New York to Venezuela. At 
the time, a parade was held in honor of Gen- 
eral O'Beirne. He was also in charge of Presi- 
dent Johnson's " swing round the circle," at 

the time the latter was under trial for im- 
peachment. General O'Beirne was awarded a 
medal from the organized labor organizations 
in this country for his activities as chairman 
of a committee which called on General Grant 
in the interest of the eight-hour law, being one 
of the first to agitate this reform. General 
O'Beirne was for many years president of the 
Washington Savings Bank and president of the 
Yonkers Electric Light Company. On 26 Oct., 
1862, he married Martha, daughter of Patrick 
Brennan, of New York City, and they were the 
parents of one daughter, Gertrude M. O'Beirne. 
The marriage was solemnized in the home of 
Patrick Brennan, at Eighty-fourth Street and 
Old Bloomingdale Road, now Broadway, New 
York City. Patrick Brennan was a man of 
unusual literary talent and the author of " The 
Battle of Chancellorsville." 

CHENEY, Benjamin Pierce, transportation 
pioneer, b. in Hillsboro, N. H., 12 Aug., 1815; 
d. in Wellesley, Mass., 23 July, 1895, son of 
Jesse and Alice (Steele) Cheney. He traces 
his descent from the best New England fami- 
lies, many members of which figured in the 
early history of the colonies. One of his an- 
cestors, John Cheney, was a prominent free- 
man of Newbury, and served several terms as 
selectman. From him the line of descent fol- 
lows through six generations to Peter and 
Hannah (Noyes) Cheney (1639-95); John 
and Mary (Chute) Cheney (1666-1750); John 
and Elizabeth (Dakin) Cheney (1705-53); 
Tristram and Margaret (Joyner) Cheney 
(1726-1816); Elias and Lucy (Blanchard) 
Cheney (1760-1816), and his parents. His 
grandfather, Elias Cheney, enlisted in the 
Revolutionary War at the age of seventeen and 
was wounded in the battle of Fort Ticonder- 
oga. Benjamin P. Cheney was named for 
Benjamin Pierce, a governor of New Hamp- 
shire, at the governor's request. He was edu- 
cated in the common schools of his native 
town, and at the age of ten was employed in 
his father's blacksmith shop. At twelve he 
found work in the country tavern and store 
at Francestown, and at the age of sixteen 
drove a stage coach between Nashua and 
Keene, an occupation which continued for 
nea,rly five years. In those days railroads 
were few, did not compete seriously with the 
stage coach, and Mr. Cheney was frequently 
called upon to pick up passengers from a dis- 
abled train and carry them to their destina- 
tion. He made the acquaintance of many 
noted men, among them Daniel Webster, whose 
friendship he enjoyed throughout his lifetime. 
The carrying of express matter was an im- 
portant source of revenue in the stage coach 
business, and in 1842, Mr. Cheney with 
Nathaniel White, of Nashua, N. IL, and Wil- 
liam Walker, of Concord, N. IL, formed the 
United States and Canada Express Company, 
combining several stage linos into one or- 
ganization. In 1852 he purchased the Fish 
and Rice Express, and operated a lino be- 
tween Boston and Burlington. Vt,, later merg- 
ing this thriving luisinoas with other com- 
panies. Mr. Cheney built a large and pros- 
perous industry from nniall hcgi linings, and 
in 1879 consoiidatod Ills IiuhIiiohs with the 
American E.\pr(>HH ('oiiipany. of whidi ho be- 
came the largoHf .stockliohior and was treas- 
urer and a moinbor of Kh hoard of directors 




Through his remarkable knowledge of transit 
systems and his ability to judge men, Mr. 
Cheney laid the foundation of one of the main 
transportation corporations of the country. 
His transit interests brought him promi- 
nently into the foreground, and in succeeding 
years he was enabled to develop other impor- 
tant enterprises. He became connected with 
the overland mail to San Francisco; was an 
organizer of the Wells-Fargo Express Com- 
pany and the Vermont Central Railroad; and 
was a pioneer in the construction of leading 
Western railroads. Among these may be men- 
tioned the Northern Paciiic Kailroad, and the 
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad. His 
loyalty to the enterprises to which he lent his 
name was well illustrated at the time of the 
Atchison railroad failure, when he declined 
to take advantage of inside information and 
follow^ the other directors in unloading his 
holdings of the stock of the company. Mr. 
Cheney amassed a fortune through honest 
business efiort, and was regarded in the com- 
mercial world as a man of tenacious purpose 
and intense convictions. He was quick to see 
opportunities offered by the expansion of the 
country, and early demonstrated that he was 
not unworthy of the responsibilities placed 
upon him. He was a tireless worker, with a 
thorough knowledge of business affairs, and 
kept himself well informed concerning indus- 
trial developments. A man of high personal 
honor, he took pride in his reputation as an 
express and transit pioneer. Mr. Cheney 
found time to devote to the study of history, 
and was an active member of the New England 
Historical and Genealogical Society. He con- 
tributed liberally to worthy charities, and en- 
couraged every movement for the welfare of 
the community. Among his donations may be 
mentioned $50,000 to Dartmouth College; also 
a large sum toward the founding of an academy 
named in his honor in Washington Territory. In 
1886 he presented to the State of New Hamp- 
shire a statue of Daniel Webster, which was 
erected in Concord. Early in his career, Mr. 
Cheney was deprived of the use of his right 
hand by a railway accident, but this mis- 
fortune did not interfere with his business 
activities. In June, 1865, he was married to 
Elizabeth Clapp, of Dorchester, and they had 
five children: Alice Steele, Mary, Elizabeth, 
and Benjamin Pierce Cheney, Jr. 

BAKER, John Sherman, banker, b. in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, 21 Nov., 1861, son of Asabel Morse 
Baker and Martha Patience Sprague Baker. 
He is a descendant from Edward Baker, who 
emigrated to this country from London in 
June, 1860, settling in Boston. At the age of 
twenty, John S. Baker engaged in business on 
his own account, operating a general store at 
Carbonado, Wash., and in the following year 
migrated to Tacoma. In 1880, in company 
with others, he organized the Fidelity Trust 
Company, in the state of W^ashington, of 
w^hich he is now president. Mr. Baker is 
prominently connected wuth many enterprises 
in Tacoma, building and owning many of the 
larger office and Ijusiness structures of the 
city. He is interested in many financial and 
manufacturing corporations, including flour 
and lumber mills, and steamship lines. In 
1889 the citizens of Tacoma elected him to the 
state senate, where he served four years. For 

more than twenty years Mr. Baker has been 
the largest individual taxpayer in Tacoma. 
He is a member of many social and fraternal 
organiz a t i o n s , 
and is the or- 
ganizer and pres- 
ident of the first 
professional base- 
ball club started 
in Tacoma. Mr. 
Baker was mar- 
ried on 12 May, 
1887, to Laura, 
daughter of Capt. 
John C. Ains- 
worth, president 
of the Oregon 
Steam Naviga- 
tion Company, 
and a pioneer set- 
tler in Oregon. 

They have one ^^"i/C^^^^-^^X^ ^ 
child, BerniceC/ 
Ainsworth Baker. 

MILLER, Alfred Jamieson, merchant, b. in 
Monmouth County, N. J., 15 Feb., 1846; d. in 
Camden, Me., 2 July, 1904, son of James Har- 
vey and Sarah (Jamieson) Miller. His ear- 
liest American paternal ancestor was Henry 
Miller, who came to this country from Hol- 
land early in 1680 and settled in New York. 
His grandfather. Captain Miller, commanded 
a company in the Continental army; an uncle, 
on his father's side, built one division of the 
Erie Railroad. His father was in the busi- 
ness of tanning in New York City in 1829, 
but during a cholera epidemic removed to 
New Jersey, where he became connected with 
the Camden and Amboy Railroad. At one 
time he was a member of the notable fire bri- 
gade of citizens of New York. In 1858, when 
only twelve years of age, Alfred J. Miller went 
with an older sister to visit the family of 
William Whitehead, at that time a resident 
of Middlesex County, N. J. Having no sons 
of their own, and being strongly attracted by 
the engaging personality of the boy, the 
Whiteheads persuaded his parents to allow 
him to remain with them on an indefinite 
visit. Thus was begun a friendship which 
was later to be cemented with closer bonds, 
and was also to merge into a life business re- 
lationship. In 1861 Mr. Miller visited an 
aunt, Mrs. Winibish, the wife of an editor of 
a leading newspaper in Montgomery, Ala., 
who had been obliged to leave the South on 
account of their Northern sympathies. They 
had just arrived in St. Paul, Minn., when 
Mr. Miller came to them on his visit and it was 
there and then that he met the late James J. 
Hill, who was attracted by the latent abilities 
which the lad seemed to possess, and offered 
him a position in his employ. In the mean- 
time, however, Mr. Whitehead, whose infant 
son had just died, Avrote, asking him to return 
and make his home with him, which he de- 
cided to do in preference to accepting Mr. 
Hill's offer. In 1866 Mr. Miller, when twenty 
years of age, entered the firm of which Mr. 
Whitehead was the head, in the foundry sup- 
ply business. It was then known as C. W. 
and J. Whitehead, but was finally incorpo- 
rated under the name of Whitehead Bros. 
Company, Here he rapidly rose from one 


37^ iy W7:-^c.Tht^T~ jvy 



position of trust to another, until finally he 
became vice-president. For many years he 
was also the New England agent of the firm. 
From 1869 to 1872 he was also a shipbroker, 
with an office on South Street, New York City. 
In spite of his busy life, Mr. Miller still found 
time to travel extensively, even extending his 
tours into the Orient, which was then not 
within the beaten line of American travel. 
While abroad he met many notable people, 
notably the late King Edward of England, 
then Prince of Wales, and Earl Spenser, who 
talked with him, and who valued his opinions 
on questions of the day concerning the United 
States. Mr. Miller was a keen votary of out- 
door sports, such as sailing, golf, driving, and 
motoring. In earlier years he had been a 
member of an amateur theatrical society, and 
all through his life he was a constant reader 
and a devoted admirer of Shakespeare. In 
politics his sympathies were wuth the Repub- 
lican party, especially in the earlier days, 
when its platform strongly enunciated the 
principles of anti-slavery and a consolidated 
Union. On 10 Dec, 1873, Mr. Miller married 
Charlotte, daughter of his old-time friend and 
business associate, William Whitehead. They 
had two children, one son, Alfred Jamieson 
Miller, and one daughter, Isabel Miller. 

HARPER, Francis Alexander, attorney and 
banker, b. at Ora, Ontario, Canada, 28 March, 
1874, son of Marmaduke and Margaret (Thomp- 
son ) Harper, 
His father (1829- 
1909) was a 
farmer. His edu- 
cation was re- 
ceived in district 
schools, and in 
the high school 
at Champion, 
Mich. He then 
entered the law 
department of 
the University of 
Michigan, and 
was graduated 
LL.B. in 1896; 
being admitted to 
practice in both 
Michigan and Il- 
linois in the same 
year. Since then 
he has been in 
active practice in Chicago, and has confined his 
attention almost entirely to corporation and 
real estate matters. Throughout his career 
of nearly twenty years, he has practiced as an 
individual, having been connected with no 
firm, and his name has appeared in connection 
with many important cases in litigation in 
Cook County courts. He resides at Tinley 
Park, where he is president of the village, 
also vice-president of the Bremen State Bank 
of the same place, and one of the recognized 
leaders of local affairs. For seven years Mr. 
Harper was a member of the faculty of the 
Chicago Law School, holding the chair of 
evidence and torts. He is a member of the 
Chicago and Illinois Bar Associations; is 
affiliated with the Knights of Columbus, and 
belongs to the Hamilton Club, Woodlawn Park 
Club, the Irish Fellowship Club, and the Mich- 
igan Society. Mr. Harper was married 12 

Oct., 1898, to Mary Angela Kennedy, of Ish- 
peming, Mich. Their children are: Francis A., 
Jr., Ellen, and Mary Angela. 

GROSVENOR, William, physician and man- 
ufacturer, b. in Killingly, Conn., 30 April, 
1810; d. in Maplewood, N. H., 12 Aug., 1888, 
son of Dr. Robert and Mary (Beggs) Gros- 
venor. He was descended, in the fifth genera- 
tion, from John Grosvenor, who, with his wife 
Esther and four sons, William, John Leicester, 
and Joseph, came to this country from 
Cheshire, England, in 1680, and settled at 
Roxbury, Mass. Three children, Susanna, 
Ebenezer, and Thomas, were born at Roxbury, 
In 1686 he was associated with Samuel Bug- 
gies, John Chandler, Benjamin Sabin, Samuel 
Ruggles, Jr., and Joseph Griffin, who, for 
thirty pounds, purchased 15,100 acres of wil- 
derness land in the Wabbaquasett country, 
from Maj. James Fitch, of Norwich. The 
region thus purchased w^as called Mosamoquet. 
This tract included the territory afterward 
occupied by the towns of Pomfret, Killingly, 
Woodstock, and Thompson, Conn, and was 
given by Uncas, sachem of the Mohegans, to 
his son, Aweneco, who sold it to Major Fitch. 
The purchasers of Mosamoquet, mostly resi- 
dents of Roxbury, Mass., did not at first form 
a settlement, and John Grosvenor died at Rox- 
bury, 26 Sept., 1691. His widow, with her 
children, except the eldest son, moved with 
the party of settlers to Mosamoquet in 1692. 
William Grosvenor, the eldest son, was then 
a student at Harvard College, where he was 
graduated in 1693. He afterward resided at 
Charlestown, Mass , and was the ancestor of 
the Grosvenors of Eastern Massachusetts. Mrs. 
Grosvenor had set off to her 540 acres near the 
center of the new settlement. Among her de- 
scendants have been men who have distin- 
guished themselves in the colony and State; 
one of whom was the Colonel Grosvenor who 
commanded a portion of the Connecticut 
troops at the battle of Bunker Hill. The 
youngest son of John and Esther Grosvenor 
was Col. Thomas Grosvenor (b. in Roxbury, 
Mass., in 1685). His name frequently appears 
in the annals of the time. He had four sons, 
of whom the youngest was Joshua. The 
last-named also had four sons, of whom 
the youngest was Robert, who attained 
a wide reputation as a skillful physician. 
Robert's son, William, subject of this article, 
was educated to the same profession; and 
having completed his studies in the office 
of Dr. George McClellan and in the wards of 
the Pennsylvania Hospital, entered Jefferson 
Medical College, where he was graduated 
M.D. in 1830 at the head of the class. He 
then returned to his native place, where he 
practiced medicine for some years in partner- 
ship with his father, who had an extensive 
practice. Following his marriage, in 1837, he 
removed to Providence, B I , and began busi- 
ness in that city as a wholesale merchant in 
drugs and dyestuffs For five years he was 
the senior partner in the firm of Grosvenor 
and Chace, wholesale druggists, but having 
made himself familiar with the business of 
stocking the printers of calico with cloth he 
embarked in that business, in which he con- 
tinued until 1852. The death of Amasa 
Mason, a relative on his wife's side, prepared 
the way for him to engage in the manufactur?* 




of cotton fabrics, and the result was the fac- 
tories of the Grosvenor-Daie Company, situated 
in the valley of Grosvenor Dale, Conn. The 
first purchase of less than 8,000 spindles has 
been, by wise administration, increased to 
95,696 spindles, the largest establishment for 
the manufacture of cotton textile fabrics in 
Connecticut, and one of the largest in the 
country The business capacity and integrity 
of Dr. Grosvenor won for him a high place 
among the business men of New England. Out- 
side of the industrial world Dr Grosvenor 
made his influence felt in many ways. At the 
commencement of the Civil War and as chair- 
man of the committee on finance of the State 
senate, he occupied a responsible position, and 
among other matters which were brought to 
the attention of the committee was a petition 
to which were affixed the names of a large 
number of highly respected citizens of South 
Kingston, asking for appropriations for the 
erection of a monument to the memory of Gen. 
Isaac P. Rodman. It was at a time when the 
State was issuing her bonds by millions for 
the defense of the government, and many gal- 
lant and distinguished sons of Rhode Island 
had lost their lives in the service of their 
country. The committee recommended " that 
a monument becoming the affluence of the 
State and the memory of her illustrious heroes 
in this war with the rebels, be speedily 
erected." Subsequently, at the session of 1866, 
Dr. Grosvenor introduced a resolution for the 
appointment of a committee to select a site 
and obtain designs for the proposed monu- 
ment, the result of which action was the 
memorial in granite and bronze which stands 
in front of the city hall in Providence. Dr. 
Grosvenor married on 22 Aug., 1837, Rosa 
Anne, daughter of Hon. James Brown and 
Alice (Brown) Mason. They had seven chil- 
dren: William, Jr , who became treasurer and 
manager of the business at the home office in 
Providence, upon the death of his father; 
James B. M., who was founder of the house of 
Grosvenor and Company in New York, selling 
agent in that city; Amasa M, who died in 
infancy; Alice M., wife of Dr John J. Mason, 
of New York; Robert, a graduate of Norwich 
University, who was associated with his 
brother in the Providence office until his 
death, 19 July, 1879; Eliza Howe, who died 
in infancy, and Rosa Anne Grosvenor. 

GROSVENOR, William, Jr., financier and 
manufacturer, b. in Providence, R I., 4 Aug , 
1838; d. in Providence, R I, 20 June, 
1906, son of Dr. William (1810-88) and Rosa 
Anne (Mason) Grosvenor He received his 
education at Brown University, from which he 
was graduated in the class of 1860 with the 
degree of MA. Soon after graduation he 
entered the office of the Grosvenor-Dale Com- 
pany, of which his father was the head, and 
it was in connection with cotton manufactur- 
ing that he was most prominently known 
through his long connection with the company 
of which he became treasurer and manager 
upon the death of his father in 1888. This 
great cotton manufacturing enterprise was 
brought to its high standard of development 
by his father, who secured the original plant 
in 1852. By a liberal outlay, and as the 
result of a thorough and wise organization, 
the first purchase of 8,000 spindles was in- 

creased until it ultimately became considera- 
bly the largest establishment for the manu- 
facture of cotton textile fabrics in the State 
of Connecticut, and one of the largest of its 
class in the country. Of a very retiring dis- 
position, Mr. Grosvenor devoted his whole 
energy and attention to the company and was 
very successful. He was a charter member of 
the Hope Club of Providence, and a member 
of the Agawam Hunt and Newport Golf Clubs. 
He married on 4 Oct., 1882, Rose D., daughter 
of Theodore W. Phinney, of Newport, R.I,, 
and they had seven children: Alice (Mrs. 
Dudley Davis), Caroline (Mrs. G. Maurice 
Congdon), William, Rose (Mrs. George Pea- 
body Gardner, Jr. ) , Robert, Anita, and Theo- 
dore Phinney Grosvenor. 

ABBETT, Leon, governor of New Jersey, b. 
in Philadelphia, Pa., 8 Oct., 1836; d. in Jersey 
City, N, J., 4 Dec, 1894. His great-grand- 
father, an English Quaker, came to America in 
1750, and located in Montgomery County, Pa. 
Mr. Abbett completed his studies at the Cen- 
tral high school of Philadelphia, with the class 
of 1853, of which he was valedictorian. He 
then entered the law office of John W. Ash- 
mead of Philadelphia, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1858. .In 1859 he removed to Ho- 
boken, and passed the examinations for admis- 
sion to the bars of New York and New Jersey. 
He quickly acquired a reputation for learning 
and eloquence, his services being especially 
sought in cases that required familiarity with 
constitutional and municipal law. In 1863 he 
was appointed corporation counsel of Hoboken, 
and in 1869, president of the board of educa- 
tion of New Jersey. In 1864 he was elected 
to the New Jersey legislature, and in 1874, al- 
though absent in Europe, was nominated for 
the State senate. His election followed, and 
he was chosen president of the senate in 1877. 
In 1883 he was elected governor on the Demo- 
cratic ticket, and re-elected on the same ticket 
in 1889. It was due to Governor Abbett that 
the railroads of New Jersey were obliged to 
pay the taxes they had long evaded. In his 
first inaugural address. Governor Abbett 
called attention to this evasion, and it was due 
to his influence that the legislature passed 
laws to remedy the evil. The Morris and Es- 
sex Railroad Company tried to escape the new 
laws under an alleged contract with the State 
whose terms exempted the road from taxation, 
but Governor Abbett used every means in his 
power to compel the surrender of the contract 
and finally forced the road to pay into the 
State treasury $235,000 as arrears of taxes. 
Governor Abbett also remedied many evils in 
the labor laws of New Jersey. He was one of 
the most popular governors the State has ever 
had; thoroughly democratic in manner, and 
an active worker in many good causes. He 
was fond of sports, especially yachting, and 
for a long time was commodore of the New 
Rochelle Yacht Club. In 1887, and again in 
1892, he unsuccessfully competed for the office 
of U. S. Senator from New Jersey. In 1893 
he was appointed an associate justice of the 
Supreme Court of New Jersey. Governor Ab- 
bett was married in 1862 to Mary Briggs of 
Philadelphia, who died in 1879. 

BOLDT, Hermann Johannes, physician and 
surgeon, b. in Neuentempel, Germany, 24 
June, 1856, son of Hermann and Amalie 




(Kruger) Boldt. His parents came to America 
when he was nine years of age, locating at 
Milwaukee, Wis., where he received his early 
education in the public schools, and later en- 
tered a school of pharmacy. He was engaged 
in the drug business for several years, and in 
1876 entered the medical department of the 
New York University, where he was graduated 
in 1879. In that year he was appointed as- 
sistant professor of gynecology under Dr, M. 
A. Fallen, with whom he served three years. 
When the Post-Graduate Medical School was 
formed, in 1881, Dr. Boldt became instructor 
in female diseases and midwifery, but resigned 
after a few months to enter private practice. 
He was appointed professor of female diseases 
at the Post-Graduate Hospital in 1890, hold- 
ing this chair, in addition to his large private 
practice, and his duties at the German 
Poliklinik, which he helped to found. Since 
1893 he has devoted his attention to gynecology. 
He is a consulting physician of Beth Israel, 
St. Vincent's, St. Mark's, and other hospitals. 
Each year it has been his custom to spend 
several months in foreign hospitals, for the 
purpose of acquainting himself with the latest 
discoveries of European surgeons. Dr. Boldt 
was the first investigator in America to deter- 
mine the psychological action of cocaine, and 
is considered an authority on the subject. He 
was an early advocate of the original method 
of operation' in certain cases of pelvic surgery, 
and was one of the first surgeons to undertake 
the bodily removal of the fibromyomatous 
inter i. He has invented a number of instru- 
ments and contrivances for the use of sur- 
geons, among them various kinds of operating 
and examination tables, which have been 
widely used and commended. He is a member 
of the American, International, and British 
Gynecological Societies and the Gynecological 
Society of Germany; he is an ex-president of 
the German Medical Society of New York, and 
a member of several American obstetrical and 
pathological societies. In 1891 he married 
Hedwig Kruger, of Berlin. They have one 
son, Hermann J. Boldt, Jr. 

6EISC0M, Lloyd Carpenter, diplomat, b. at 
Riverton, N. J., 4 Nov., 1872, son of Clement 
A. and Frances Canby (Biddle) Griscom. He 
received his early education in Geneva and 
Paris, and took the course of the Wharton 
School of Finance and Economy at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, where he was grad- 
uated Ph B. in 1891 Subsequently he studied 
law at the University of Pennsylvania Law 
School, and in 1892 was appointed attache 
to the U S embassy in London, there becom- 
ing private secretary to the ambassador, Mr 
Bayard. In 1895 he made a journey through 
Central and South America in company with 
Henry Somers Somerset and Richard Harding 
Davis, the events of which were chronicled in 
the latter's ** Three Gringoes in Central 
America." He was admitted to the bar of 
New York in 1896 and, in the following year, 
was appointed deputy assistant district at- 
torney of New York City. He resigned that 
office after a few months, owing to failing 
health, and purchased a ranch in Arizona. On 
the outbreak of the Spanish-American War he 
received a staff appointment from President 
McKinley, and was commissioned captain and 
quartermaster. He served for three months 

on the staff of Maj.-Gen. James F. Wade, at 
Chickamauga and subsequently accompanied 
General Gage to Cuba as personal aide-de- 
camp. In 1899 he was appointed first secretary 
of the U. S. legation at Constantinople, and 
he held that office for nearly two years, acting 
during fifteen years of the time as charg6 
d'affaires. In the latter capacity he success- 
fully settled the question of the Armenian in- 
demnity claims, and as a result of his success 
he was appointed envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary to Persia in 1901. 
His chief service as minister to Persia was the 
opening up of a new trade route for American 
commerce in that country. He was appointed 
envoy extraordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary to Japan by President Roosevelt in 
1902 and held that office during the difficult 
period of the Russo-Japanese War. In 1906 
he was appointed ambassador extraordinary 
and plenipotentiary to Brazil, and in 1907 
was chosen to represent the United States in 
Italy. He resigned the latter office in 1909 
and since 1911 has been a member of the law 
firm of Philbin, Beekman, Menker and Gris- 
com, New York. Mr. Griscom received the 
Order of Bolivar from the government of 
Venezuela in 1895, and the grand cordon of 
the Lion and the Sun from the shah of Persia 
in 1902. He was president of the Republican 
County Committee, New York County, in 
1910-11, and is a member of the inner com- 
mittee of the Charity Organization Society, 
the Society of International Law, the Geo- 
graphical Society, the American Red Cross 
Society, the Japan Society, and the Pennsyl- 
vania Society of New York. He was married 
2 Nov., 1901, to Elizabeth Duer, daughter of 
Frederic Bronson, of New York. 

LYNCH, Frederick Becknell, real estate and 
lumber dealer, b. in Cottage Grove, Wis, 4 
May, 1896, son of John Wesley and Helen 
(De Camp) Lynch. He is of Irish ancestry, 
his great-grandfather, James Lynch, having 
come to this country from County Galway, 
Ireland, in 1809, and located at Hackensack, 
N. J, He was a widower and brought with 
him from Ireland his young son, James. 
John W. Lynch (1831-1906) lived first in 
Wisconsin and then went to South Dakota, 
where he reared his family. He was a pros- 
perous farmer and miller, and at the outbreak 
of the Civil War volunteered for service, and 
served until its close. His son was educated 
in the public schools of Yankton, S. D., and 
later attended Yankton College. He took up 
engineering as a profession and followed that 
calling for some time, beginning his work as 
chainman on the U. S survey in Dakota, in 
1882, with E. H. Van Antwerp, U. S. deputy 
surveyor. From 1892 to 1896 he was deputy 
U. S surveyor, thereby gaining the exjiorionce 
in land values which he afterward turned to 
good account in his business career. In 1897 
Mr. Lynch removed to St. Paul. Minn., and 
engaged in real estate and lumbering enter- 
prises, dealing extensively in coal lands In 
fifteen years he became one of the largest 
dealers of land in the country, with interests 
extending from Canada to Florida, and in- 
cluding lumber, coal, iron, and other proper- 
ties. In 1907, ten years after his arrival in 
St. Paul, he was secretary of the Northwest 
Colonization Company, vice-president of the 




Canada Land and Colonization Company, the 
Alberta and Saskatchewan Land Company, the 
Madison Land Company, Minnesota Invest- 
ment Company, Williams Iron Company, and 
a director of the Western Canada Coal and 
Coke Company. He is now president of the 
Southern Colonization Company, Minnesota In- 
vestment Company, Osage Coal Company, and 
Western Canada Land Company. Mr. Lynch 
is active in politics, both local and national, 
and his influence has always been directed 
toward the uplift and betterment of political 
principles and the public welfare. He has 
become a national figure in the political arena, 
and is recognized as one of the most represen- 
tative exponents of progressive Democracy of 
the present time. His personal following is 
large and it is said that he probably has 
more friends than any other one man in Min- 
nesota. He was a member of the Democratic 
National Committee, representing the State 
of Minnesota in 1904-08, and it was largely 
through his influence that Woodrow Wilson 
secured the Minnesota delegation at the con- 
vention held in Baltimore in 1912. He was 
one of the chief factors among the Wilson 
forces in securing the nomination of Mr. Wil- 
son for the presidency. In 1912 he was again 
chosen upon the Democratic National Commit- 
tee and still holds that position. He was a 
member of the council of the city of St. Paul 
from 1904 to 1908. Mr. Lynch is a man of 
fine physical proportions, being over six feet 
two inches in height and as well endowed 
mentally as physically. He has a pleasing 
personality w^hich has doubtless been one vital 
reason for his large business success. He is 
a member of the Minnesota and University 
Clubs of St. Paul, and the Seminole Club of 
Jacksonville, Fla., and a trustee of St. Paul 
Institute. Mr. Lynch married 15 Dec, 1887, 
Isabella, daughter of James Purdon, of Wah- 
peton, N. D. They have three daughters: 
Jeanette Gaynor, Elinore W., and Rachel D., 
and one son, Lawrence S. Lynch. 

HART, Albert Bushnell, educator, b. at 
Clarkesville, Mercer County, Pa., 1 July, 1854, 
son of Albert Gaillard and Mary Crosby (Hor- 
nell) Hart. His first American ancestor was 
Stephen Hart, who came from England about 
1630, locating first at Cambridge, Mass., and 
later in Connecticut. He received his early 
education at Humiston's Cleveland Institute 
and the West high school of Cleveland and 
was graduated at Harvard College in 1880. 
From 1871 to 1875 he was engaged in busi- 
ness in Cleveland. After his graduation he 
attended the Ecole des Sciences Politiques, 
Paris, and the LTniversities of Berlin and 
Freiburg. He received the degree of Ph.D. 
from the University of Freiburg in 1883, and 
in the same year was appointed instructor in 
history at Harvard University. In 1884 he 
was appointed assistant professor and in 1897 
full professor. Since 1894 he has been joint 
editor of the " Harvard Graduates Magazine," 
and since 1895 of the " American History Re- 
view." His writings include, " Introduction 
to the Study of Federal Government" (1890) ; 
"Epoch Maps" (1891); "Formation of the 
Union" (1892) ; "Practical Essays on Ameri- 
can Government" (1893) ; "Studies in Ameri- 
can Education" (1895) ; "Guide to the Study 
of American History" with Edward Chan- 

ning (1897); "Salmon Portland Chase'* 
(1899); "Foundation of American Foreign 
Policy " ( 1901 ) ; " Actual Government " 
(1903); "Essentials of American History" 
(1905); "Slavery and Abolition" (1906); 
" National Ideals Historically Traced ** 
(1907); "Manual of American History, 
Diplomacy, and Government" (1908). Pro- 
fessor Hart was joint editor of " American His- 
tory Leaflets" (1895-1902), and editor of 
"Epochs of American History" (3 vols., 1891- 
96 ) ; " American History Told by Contempo- 
raries " (4 vols., 1898-1901); "American Citi- 
zen Series" (since 1890); "Source-Book of 
American History" (1899); "Source Readers 
in American History" (4 vols., 1901-03); 
"The American Nation" (1903-08). He re- 
ceived the degree of LL.D. from Richmond in 
1902, Tufts in 1905, and Western Reserve in 
1907, and that of Litt.D. from Geneva, Switz- 
erland, in 1909. He was married 11 July, 
1889, to Mary Hurd Putnam, of Manchester, 
N. H. 

LEWIS, Isaac Newton, soldier and inventor, 
b. at New Salem, Pa., 12 Oct., 1848, son of 
James H. and Anne (Kendall) Lewis. His 
paternal ancestors early settled in western 
Pennsylvania. His maternal grandfather was 
a commissioned officer in Washington's army. 
In June, 1880, he entered the United States 
Military Academy at West Point, N. Y., as a 
cadet from Kansas, and was graduated in June, 
1884. His first assignment to duty was as a 
second lieutenant of artillery. He served con- 
tinuously in this arm of the service until his 
retirement as colonel in 1913. Throughout his 
army life he was particularly interested in 
inventive work, designed to improve the effi- 
ciency of the service and was almost continu- 
ously occupied with experiments in this direc- 
tion. While stationed at Fort Leavenworth, 
Kan., in 1888-89, he invented and developed 
the first successful artillery range and posi- 
tion finder, which instrument became the basis 
of the elaborate system of artillery fire control 
afterward officially adopted for all harbor forti- 
fications in the United States. Seventeen years 
later. Colonel Lewis at his own expense de- 
veloped and presented to the government an 
improved model of his position finder, which 
after exhaustive official trials was adopted to 
the exclusion of all others and is now in use 
in all coast defense works. Colonel Lewis is 
the inventor of numerous other military in- 
struments, devices, and mechanisms now in 
general use, among which may be mentioned: 
the first successful replotting and relocating 
system for coast batteries; the time-interval 
clock and bell system of signals; the quick- 
reading mechanical verniers used in the ar- 
tillery defenses; a quick-firing field gun and 
mount. It was an official report from Colonel 
Lewis on the inadequacy and inefficiency of the 
obsolete ordnance equipment supplied artillery 
troops in the Philippines during the war with 
Spain that first drew the attention of Secre- 
tary of War Elihu Root to the needs of that 
branch of the service. W'hen Secretary Root 
decided a few months later to bring the matter 
to the attention of Congress, he instructed 
Colonel Lewis to prepare a plan for a modern 
corps organization for the artillery. That 
plan, with but few minor modifications, was 
accepted by the Military Committees of both 


.-,// ^v y.'B^/Jhs^''- .vy: 



houses of Congress and became a law. Colonel 
Lewis served as a member of the Board on the 
Regulation of Sea-Coast Artillery Fire in New 
York Harbor, from 1894 to 1898, and as 
recorder of the board of Ordnance and Fortifi- 
cation in Washington, from 1898 to 1902. 
From 1904 to 1911 he served as instructor and 
director of the Coast Artixiery School at Fort 
Monroe, Va. In the summer of 1900, Colonel 
Lewis was selected by Secretary Root, upon the 
recommendation of Gen. Nelson A. Miles, to 
proceed to Europe for the purpose of studying 
and making a confidential report upon the 
methods of manufacture and supply of ord- 
nance materials in the various European 
armies. The immediate result of Colonel 
Lewis' confidential report to the Secretary 
upon his return to Washington was a complete 
re-armament of the field artillery of the United 
States with modern quick-firing guns on mod- 
ern long-recoil carriages. As an electrical and 
mechanical engineer, Colonel Lewis had done 
original and successful work while yet a young 
man. He was the first to develop and put into 
use the well-known differentially-wound, self- 
regulating dynamo, which is practically con- 
stant in voltage under widely varying speeds 
when operating upon a low resistance circuit. 
This dynamo, with its automatic electric 
switches and pole-changing devices of his in- 
vention, formed the basis of the Lewis Electric 
Car Lighting and Windmill Electric Lighting 
systems. He also took out a number of patents 
on internal combustion engines. For three 
years prior to his retirement from active mili- 
tary service. Colonel Lewis devoted his entire 
leisure time to the practical development of 
the automatic machine gun which bears his 
name and which has been accomplishing such 
wonderful work for the Allies since the very 
beginning of the present war in Europe. His 
conception of the gun was the result of his 
observation that a gun was needed that would 
bridge the gap between the soldier's rifle and 
the heavy machine gun. The former being 
comparatively slow because of the laborious 
hand operation necessary, and the latter too 
ponderous to move about with rapidity and ease. 
The outcome of his ingenuity, a light weight 
machine gun, bridged the gap so successfully 
that it has become the most effective weapon 
in present warfare. It has been officially 
adopted by the British as their first line 
machine gun; it can be fired from the shoulder 
like a rifle; its light weight — it weighs but 
25 V^ pounds — enables its being carried in the 
vanguard of an attack; it is used exclusively 
on aircraft and by the motor-cycle corps of 
the Allied armies, and this versatile little spit- 
fire is equally efficient in " tank " and marine 
warfare. It was successfully fired with ac- 
curacy from an aeroplane by Captain Chandler 
of the U. S. Signal Service, in June, 1912, 
a feat which had never ])efore been attempted. 
This accomplishment attracted the attention 
of the whole military world, and, according 
to the " Army and Navy Register," marked a 
new era in warfare It also has the distinc- 
tion of having been the first weapon to bring 
down a Zeppelin. In September, 1916, the 
well-directed fire of one of the guns from an 
aeroplane, brought a giant Zeppelin crashing 
down near London; and Lewis guns have 
accounted in all for eight of the nine Zeppe- 

lins that have so far been shot down. Lord 
Hugh Cecil, speaking in the House of Com- 
mons, referred to the Lewis gun as " the 
weapon that is the envy of all Europe"; Lord 
Northcliffe described it as " the favorite 
weapon with Haig's armies," and it has also 
been championed strongly by the U. S. Army 
officers, Gen. Leonard Wood and General 
Funston, the former declaring it to be " easily 
the best machine gun I have ever seen." The 
gun is air-cooled, having an aluminum jacket 
with longitudinal fins radially disposed and 
contained in a steel casing which is extended 
beyond the barrel, so that each time the gun 
is fired a vacuum is created which sucks in 
air through the sector-shaped passage outside 
the barrel. The gun is gas operated, that is 
to say, by trapping a portion of the powder 
gases formed by the explosion a plunger is 
driven back which operates the automatic 
mechanism for firing the gun and ejecting the 
shells. The cartridges are contained in cir- 
cular rotating steel magazines holding forty- 
seven rounds each, It is but the work of a 
moment to change the magazines, simply re- 
moving the old one and snapping a new one 
into place. For the acquisition of this won- 
derful weapon, the British may be thankful 
to the persistence of Colonel Lewis. Reports 
are unanimous concerning the discouragement 
he received through the repeated rejections of 
his offer by the Ordnance Bureau of the U. S. 
Army. Without encouragement or assistance 
from that bureau — in fact, despite its active 
opposition — he perfected the weapon and dem- 
onstrated its military advantages before vari- 
ous officials of the War Department in 1912. 
Consistent with the manner in which he had 
offered all his previous inventions to the U. S. 
Government, he also offered the Lewis gun to 
the War Department without thought of per- 
sonal compensation in any form, but he failed 
to secure acceptance of his offer and only re- 
cently has he received any recognition from 
his own government. Confident of the merit 
of his invention, Colonel Lewis immediately 
upon his retirement from active duty pro- 
ceeded to Europe in 19L3, where he personally 
undertook its introduction and manufacture. 
A Belgian company was formed to purchase 
the European rights, an exclusive manufactur- 
ing alliance was made with the well-known 
Birmingham Small Arms Company of Birming- 
ham, England, and eighteen months after his 
arrival in Antwerp, the Lewis gun had been 
successfully tested by all the Great Powers of 
Europe. It proved a most opportune acquisi- 
tion for Great Britain, for it has consistently 
ranked as the most effective weapon in use in 
the European War. More than 50,000 of them 
are in use on the firing line at tlie present 
moment; and besides the United States plant, 
which is working to full capacity, the fac- 
tories in England and France engaged in its 
manufacture are working day and night. Mnoh 
public comment has bei^n provoked by the con- 
sistently hostile attitude of the Ordnance 
Bureau of the U. S. Army toward tlie gun, 
even after it had gained a brilliant inter- 
national reputation. As Germany's loss of 
supremacy in the air was so obviously duo to 
this ordnance wonder, it had fully justified 
itself in the estimation of the public, and 
popular interest became keenly manifested in 




the controversy. Since the entry of this coun- 
try into the European conflict, the U. S. gov- 
ernment has contracted for many thousands 
of Lewis guns for the use of the Army, Navy, 
and .Marine Corps, and for the Aviation Serv- 
ice. Colonel Lewis is a member of the New 
York I'ress Club and the Lawyers' Club of 
New York City; the Army and Navy Club, 
Washington, D. C; the Montclair Club, and 
the Montclair Athletic Club of Montclair, N. J. 
He was married on 21 Oct., LS8C, to Miss Mary 
Wheatlev, daughter cf the late Rev. Richard 
Wheatley, D.D. They have four children: 
Richard W. Lewis, graduate of the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology (1910); Lieut. 
George F. Lewis, U. S. Corps Engineers (U. S. 
M. A. Class, 1915); Miss Laura Lewis, and 
Miss Margaret Lewis. 

BILLINGS, Albert Merritt, capitalist and 
pioneer in elevated railroads, b. at Royalton, 
Windsor County, Vt., 21 April, 1814; d. in 
New York City, 7 Feb., 1897, son of John and 
Hannah (Brown) Billings. On his father's 
side he was descended from the earliest col- 
onists of Plymouth County, Mass., some of 
his ancestors having been among the settlers 
arriving there shortly after the landing of 
the "Mayflower," in 1620. Many of them 
were prominently identified with every move- 
ment in the interest of the State. A later 
representative, John Billings, a deacon of the 
church, and also a man of arms, served in 
the Connecticut Militia, and was in action 
under both Washington and General Stark. 
Judge Jonathan Brown, of Pittstown, N. Y., a 
maternal ancestor of Mr. Billings, also served 
through the Revolutionary War. Mr. Billings' 
father, a farmer by occupation, was engaged 
in the service of his country during the War 
of 1812: his mother was a daughter of Judge 
Jonathan Brown, also a soldier in the same 
war. Albert M. Billings began life as an 
apprentice in the harness- and trunk-making 
trade at Royalton, but in 1833 removed to 
New Hampshire, and joined his brother, Ed- 
win A. Billings, in the manufacture of looms 
at Claremont. His great business acumen and 
high character secured for him the respect and 
appreciation of his fellow townsmen, and in 
1835 he was elected sheriff; being annually re- 
elected for eleven successive years. He re- 
mained in Claremont for twenty years and 
acquired much real estate, as well as interest- 
ing himself largely in the advancement of the 
town and the development of several valuable 
patents which he had secured. He moved to 
Groton, Mass , in 1854, entered into business 
as a manufacturer of yeast, and, then, after 
one year in business at Saratoga Springs, 
N. Y., removed to Chicago in 1860. His 
genius for acquiring meritorious patents led 
him to secure one for making gas, and, hav- 
ing ascertained that the West Side Gas Com- 
pany was harassed financially, in conjunc- 
tion with Cornelius K Garrison, of New York, 
he succeeded in acquiring their franchise. En- 
couraged by this success they then secured a 
franchise for an elevated railroad, and the 
road erected by Billings and Garrison was the 
first to be operated in New York City. They 
subsequently built the St. Louis, Kansas City 
and Colorado Railroad, which afterward was 
merged in the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 
System. Always alert for business oppor- 

tunities, Mr. Billings came to the rescue of 
the Home National Bank of Chicago, in 1873, 
when it was badly embarrassed and succeeded 
in putting it, and the Home Savings Bank, in 
a solid commercial condition. Again, in 
1890, the Citizens Street Railroad of Memphis, 
Tenn., having failed to furnish satisfactory 
collateral security for a large loan, Mr. Bill- 
ings acquired the majority interest in the 
stock, and, at an expenditure of over $2,000,- 
000, electrified the road, and established a 
model city railroad system, with resultant 
profits to the stockholders. Mr. Billings took 
an active part in evangelistic work and pur- 
chased a building in Chicago which became 
known as the " Green Street Church," where 
he frequently conducted missionary work him- 
self and gave talks on the Bible and its les- 
sons to the congregation. The Jerry McAuley 
Mission in New York also received much as- 
sistance from him and kindred institutions in 
other cities throughout the States found in 
him a ready supporter. He was twice mar- 
ried, first, in 1837, to Lucinda A. Corbin, of 
Claremont, N. H., by whom he had two chil- 
dren: a son, Henry A., and a daughter, who 
died at an early age. On 1 June, 1859, he 
married Mrs. S. Augusta S. Farnsworth Allen, 
of Woodstock, Windsor County, Vt. They had 
two daughters, since deceased, and one son, 
Cornelius Kingsland Garrison Billings, a 
prominent New York financier. 

WHITE, Carleton, business man, b. in Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, 24 Sept., 1860, son of Carleton 
and Elizabeth H. White. He went with his 
parents to Chi- 
cago at the early 
age of eight 
years, and since 
that time has 
been identified 
with that city. 
He received a 
public school edu- 
cation in Cin- 
cinnati and Chi- 
cago. His first 
employment was 
with the Water- -^ 
bury Needle Com- ^ 
pany, with whom 
he remained un- 
til the company 
gave up its Chi- 
cago office. In 

1874 he entered the employ of J. L. Wayne 
and Sons, dealers in cabinet hardware and up- 
holstery goods, and, after four years spent 
with them, during which time he gained a 
complete knowledge of the hardware and furni- 
ture industry, and its relations to trade, he 
became connected with the well-known furni- 
ture house of W. D. Gibson, wholesale dealer 
in furniture, carpets, and household goods. 
This firm, which was one of the most impor- 
tant in its line in the Middle West, afforded 
Mr. Wliite an opportunity for advancement 
in this line of trade which few other houses 
could have afforded at the time. Some years 
later this firm was succeeded by that of Gib- 
son, Parish and Company, and they, in turn, 
were superseded, in 1889, by Lussky, Payn 
and Company, a partnership consisting of 
E. G. H. Lussky, R. E. Payn, Carleton White, 




^ n 




and F. W. Coolidge, of Detroit, all business 
men of acknowledged ability and enterprise. 
On the death of Mr. Payn, several years later, 
the surviving partners acquired the business, 
and, on 1 Jan., 1903, the firm became that of 
Lussky, White and Coolidge. It is now one 
of the leading concerns in its department in 
the West. In politics Mr. White is a Republi- 
can, and, while taking an interest in polities, 
has never held public office, preferring to de- 
vote his time and energies to his business af- 
fairs. He takes much interest in athletic 
sports of all kinds, and is a member of the 
Chicago Athletic Club. He is also enrolled 
with the Calumet, Golf, and Hamilton Clubs, 
of Chicago. Mr. White married 17 Oct., 1887, 
Alice Luther, of Belding, Mich., by whom he 
had one son, Gale Carleton Luther. On 21 
April, 1896, he married Louise A. White, of 
Chicago, 111. 

HERRICZ, Myron T., U. S. ambassador to 
France (1912 — ), b. at Huntington, Ohio, 9 
Oct., 1854, son of Timothy R. and Mary L. 
Herrick. Both his paternal and maternal 
great-grandfathers served in the Revolution, 
and his grandfather, Timothy Herrick, fought 
with distinction in the War of 1812, receiving 
for his services a land-claim in Lorain County, 
Ohio. Myron T. Merrick was educated at 
Oberlin College and the Ohio Wesleyan Uni- 
versity. Subsequently he taught school for 
a time and traveled extensively in the West, 
writing descriptive articles for Eastern news- 
papers. He settled at Cleveland, Ohio, in 
1875, and read law in the office of J. F. and 
Z. E. Herrick. Three years later he was ad- 
mitted to the bar and began the practice of 
law in Cleveland. In 1886 he organized the 
Euclid Avenue National Bank, and for a time 
was one of its directors. He resigned to be- 
come secretary and treasurer of the Society 
for Savings, of which he was elected president 
in 1894. In addition to his banking interests 
he has been concerned in the erection of some 
of the largest business buildings in Cleveland, 
among them the Cleveland Arcade, Cuyahoga 
and Mohawk buildings. For many years he 
has been a member of the Republican Na- 
tional Committee and of its advisory commit- 
tee. He was a delegate to the Republican Na- 
tional Conventions of 1888 and 1892, and a 
delegate-at-large in 1896 and 1900. During 
the administration of William McKinley as 
governor of Ohio, he served on the governor's 
staff, with the rank of colonel. In 1892 he 
was a presidential elector-at-large for the 
State of Ohio, and he was a delegate to the 
sound-money convention at Indianapolis. He 
was elected governor of Ohio in 1903 by the 
largest majority ever given to a guberna- 
torial candidate in that State. He was ap- 
pointed U. S. ambassador to France in 1912, 
Mr. Herrick was president of the American 
Bankers' Association in 1901. He is chairman 
of the board of directors of the Wheeling and 
Lake Erie Railroad, and is an officer or di- 
rector in a number of other railroad and finan- 
cial enterprises. He is also trustee and treas- 
urer of the McKinley National Memorial Asso- 
ciation. The honorary degree of AM. was 
conferred upon him by Ohio Wesleyan Uni- 
versity in 1899. He was married 30 July, 
1880, to Caroline M., daughter of M. B. 
Parmely, of Ashland, Ohio, and has one son. 

'C/e/i^ ^^tn/^i^ 

HORTON, Dexter, banker, b. in Catherine, 
Schuyler County, N. Y., 15 Nov. 1825; d. in 
Seattle, Wash., 28 July, 1904, son of Darius 
and Hannah (Olmstead) Horton. Until his 
fifteenth year he resided on the farm in his 
native county, attending the district schools, 
and then removed to De Kalb County, 111., 
where his father had taken up a "claim " of 
government land. In 1852 he crossed the 
plains with a train of pioneers, who pushed on 
to the Pacific 
Coast. He set- 
tled first in Ore- 
gon, but in the 
spring of 1853 
removed to Se- 
attle, Wash., 
thus gaining the 
distinction of 
being one of 
that city's ear- 
liest citizens. The 
climate was in- 
vigorating, other 
settlers came in 
rapidly, and Mr. 
Horton met with 
success from the 
start. Soon af- 
ter his arrival in 
Seattle he start- 
ed a general mer- 
chandise store, 
which proved a highly successful enterprise. 
By 1870 it had developed into one of the 
most important mercantile houses in the 
State of Washington. About that time Mr. 
Horton decided to engage in the banking bus- 
iness and, selling out his store, established 
the Dexter Horton and Company Bank. This 
was the first bank established in the State of 
Washington and since the death of its founder 
has become the Dexter Horton National Bank. 
Mr. Horton's most salient characteristics were 
his forcefulness of character and his uncon- 
querable spirit. His name was a synonym 
throughout his part of the country for re- 
liability and steadfast integrity. He was gen- 
ial and helpful, faithful to his friends, but 
resented any attempt at unfairness or double- 
dealing; altogether a fitting type of the men 
who conquered the great Northwest territory. 
In 1864 Mr. Horton married Hannah Shondy, 
daughter of Israel Shondy. She died 30 Dec, 
1871. On 30 Sept , 1873, he married Caroline 
E. Parsons (d. 24 March, 1878); and on 14 
Sept., 1882, he married Arabella C. Agard, 
daughter of Eaton Agard. He was the father 
of two children: Nebbie Horton Jones and 
Caroline E. Horton. 

ILOORE, George Gordon, financier, b. in 
Lambton County, Ont., Canada, 2 Oct., 1876. 
He passed his early years in Canada, obtain- 
ing his education in the public and high schools 
of his county, and then studied law in Port 
Huron, with O'Brien J. Atkinson, one of the 
foremost corporation lawyers in the middle 
western states. Immediately upon his admis- 
sion to the bar in 1897, he formed a partner- 
ship with Mr. Atkinson, which continued until 
the latter's death, the firm having an extensive 
clientele among th<' large corporations. 
Equipped with the experience, both legal and 
practical, obtained in this way Mr. Moore en- 




gaged in business on his account in 1901 and 
became heavily interested in the interurban 
railway developments of Michigan, and within 
a few years, under the name of the Michigan 
United Railways, built and acquired one of 
the most extensive street railway operations in 
the country, lie extended his activities along 
these lines and financed electric railway and 
other public utility corporations in the states 
of Georgia, Nebraska, Vermont, and other 
states, and later extended his business activi- 
ties in many other directions. Since 1908, he 
has spent much of his time in England, and 
some years before the War formed a close 
friendship with Sir John French, now Vis- 
count French, so close that they made their 
home together in London and now have a 
house together at 94 Lancaster Gate, London. 
On the outbreak of the War, Mr. Moore joined 
Lord French at his headquarters in France and 
in the stress of the difficulties of the early 
campaign in France Lord French, on account 
of his knowledge of Mr. Moore's remarkable 
record as a practical director of large under- 
takings, appointed him to the work of dealing 
with certain " novel, grave, and difficult 
problems involving scientific knowledge and 
the organization of scientific work and labor." 
The assistance rendered by Mr. Moore in this 
connection was publicly stated by the great 
commander as " invaluable " and of such a 
character as could have been rendered by no 
other man then available to him. Mr. Moore 
has been a strong advocate of the Allied cause 
from the beginning of the War, and has 
strongly urged preparedness upon his own 
countrymen, not only against alien enemies, 
but also against disloyalty and sedition in our 
midst. Aside from his many and great activi- 
ties, Mr. Moore is a keen sportsman and an 
enthusiastic exponent of out-of-door life. He 
owns an extensive estate at St. Clair, Mich , in 
connection with which he maintains a well- 
equipped stock farm. Here was foaled and 
bred the famous trotting stallion, " Justice 
Brooke," which won the world's championship 
for two-year-olds in 1911. Mr. Moore is also 
a discriminating dog-fancier, and breeds sev- 
eral varieties of blooded dogs, notably wolf 
hounds and Irish terriers. He owns a large 
game preserve in North Carolina, which is well 
stocked with wild boar, deer, elk, and buffalo. 
LATHROP, Gardiner, lawyer, b. at Wau- 
kesha, Wis., 16 Feb , 1850. He spent the first 
nine years of his life in Wisconsin, and grew 
to manhood at Columbia, Mo, and there he 
lost his father when but sixteen years of age 
He was graduated A B. at the University of 
Missouri in 1867, and took his master's de- 
gree in 1870. In 1869, just fifty years after 
his father's graduation, he received the degree 
of A B. from Yale University, and also like 
his father was the salutatorian of his class. 
The same university gave him his master of 
arts degree in 1872, and in 1873 he graduated 
LLB from the Harvard Law School. In 1907 
the University of Missouri and Washington 
University at St, Louis conferred upon Gardi- 
ner Lathrop the honorary degree of LL D. Ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1873, Mr. Lathrop en- 
gaged in practice at Kansas City, Mo., and 
from 1885 was senior member of the firm of 
Lathrop, Morrow, Fox and Moore. In 1905 
he was appointed general solicitor for the 

Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Sys- 
tem, with headquarters in the Railway Ex- 
change Building, Chicago. He has taken much 
interest in the affairs of his alma mater, the 
University of Missouri, and was at one time 
president of its board of curators. For eight- 
een years he was a member of the Kansas City 
School Board, and its vice-president several 
years. Mr. Lathrop is a member of the Uni- 
versity Club of Chicago, the Chicago Club, the 
Kansas City 
Club, the Uni- 
versity Club 
of Kansas 
City, has 

membership in 
the Sons of 
the American 
Revo 1 u t i o n, 
and belongs to 
the Wisconsin 
Society of Chi- 
cago. He was 
at one time 
president of ^ 
the Kansas J' 
City Bar Asso-^V 
elation, has^k" 
membership in / 
the Missouri State Bar Association, and the 
American Bar Association. In politics he is 
a Republican. At Kansas City 16 Jan., 1879, 
Mr. Lathrop married Eva Grant, a native of 
Missouri. They have had four daughters and 
one son, Frances E., Jessie, John H., Louise, 
and Lothrop. 

PARIS, John Waldorf, real estate operator, 
b in Rensselaer, Ind , 9 March, 1860, son of 
Berry and Sarah (Dwiggins) Paris, and de- 
scendant of Samuel Paris, who came from 
England and settled on Long Island in 1655. 
He was educated in the public and high 
schools of Rensselaer, and completed his 
studies at Purdue University, where he at- 
tended one year. Ambitious to acquire a thor- 
ough education, he taught school while at col- 
lege and saved sufficient of his earnings to pay 
the expenses of tuition. After leaving col- 
lege he traveled extensively throughout the 
United States and Canada, and the knowledge 
gained on this journey equipped him for a 
successful business career. His first employ- 
ment w^as as a clerk in the Commercial Bank 
of Oxford. He was quick to grasp all the 
details of his duties and won rapid promotion. 
In 1883 he became cashier of the Citizens' 
National Bank of Attica, Ind. He removed to 
Indianapolis, Ind , in 1889, and there engaged 
in the investment banking business in associa- 
tion with Hon. J. Shannon Nave, under the 
firm name of Paris and Nave. This firm at- 
tained an eminent position in Western bank- 
ing circles. In 1896 his attention was at- 
tracted by the enormous fortunes made in 
New York real estate, and he decided to de- 
vote his energies to the development of metro- 
politan property. His earliest operations were 
in Brooklyn, but, when the building of the 
Pennsylvania tunnels, the Belmont tunnels, 
and the Queensborough Bridge were assured, 
he turned his attention toward Long Island 
real estate and the prospects it held forth. 
His foresight w^as rewarded in the succeeding 
years, and the initiative displayed aroused the 


y.-v'i H';"3^/A^.-,V>' 





admiration of his competitors. As one of the 
most successful developers of real estate in 
that section of the city, he was honored with 
the office of president of the Real Estate Ex- 
change of Long Island. The result of his 
efforts has fostered one of the most sensible 
movements of recent years, the drift from city 
to suburbs, and the tendency to suburban 
home-making. Among other responsible offices, 
he is president of the real estate firm of John 
W. Paris and Sons, Inc.; president and di- 
rector in the Paris-Hencken Company; presi- 
dent and director in the Mutual Profit Realty 
Company; secretary, treasurer, and director in 
the Woodside Heights Land Corporation and 
the Park Terrace Company; secretary and di- 
rector in the Kissena Park Corporation and 
the Flushing Inlet Realty Company; and a 
stockholder in the Interborough Realty Com- 
pany, Flushing Business Men's Realty Com- 
pany, Bayside Yacht Club Holding Company, 
and the Republican Realty Company of the 
Third Ward. Mr. Paris is a Mason, and a 
member of the Flushing Men's Club, the Bay- 
side Yacht Club, the Flushing Country Club, 
the City Club of New York, and the Business 
Men's Association. He married 30 Sept., 
1883, Frances, daughter of J. D. Johnston, of 
Oxford, Ind. They had three daughters and 
one son. 

STONE, John Timothy, clergyman, b. in 
Stowe, Mass., 7 Sept., 1868, son of Rev. 
Timothy Dwight Porter and Susan Margaret 
(Dickinson) Stone. He comes of distinguished 
ancestry on both sides of the family, his fore- 
fathers on both sides having been prominent 
in the religious, civic, and military life of the 
New England colonies. The first of the line 
in America was the Rev. Samuel Stone, a 
Presbyterian minister, and son of a minister 
in Hertford, England, who came to this coun- 
try with Rev. Samuel Hooker, and settled in 
Hartford, Conn., in 1630. The two ministers 
associated together as pastors of the church 
in Hartford, until the death of Mr. Hooker, 
when Mr. Stone became sole pastor in charge, 
continuing until 1663, when he also died. He 
was an able, scholarly man, who exerted great 
influence on the religious and secular life of 
the colonies. His brother was the Rev. John 
Stone, of Cambridge. From the Rev. Samuel 
Stone the line is traced as follows: Nathaniel 
Stone (1648-1708) and his wife Mary Bartlett; 
Col. Timothy Stone (1696-1765) and his wife 
Rachel Morton; Rev. Timothy Stone (1742-98) 
and his wife Eunice Williams, whose brother, 
William, was one of the signers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence; Rev. Timothy Stone 
(1774-1852) and his wife Mary Merwin; Rev. 
Timothy Dwight Porter Stone (1811-87) and 
his wife Susan Margaret Dickenson (1827- 
1910). The Rev. Timothy Dickenson, grand- 
father of Susan Margaret Dickenson, joined 
the patriot army at Ticonderoga and served 
for fifteen months. Her father was Dr. Ed- 
wards Dickenson. John T. Stone was reared 
in Albany, N. Y., where his father held a 
pastorate. He attended Albany Academy and 
the Albany high school, and was graduated at 
Amherst College in 1891, being the class 
orator. He then took up the study of theology 
in the University of Maryland, and was or- 
dained to the ministry 18 June, 1894, by the 
Presbytery of New York State. His first pas- 

torate was over the Olivet Presbyterian 
Church, Utica, N. Y., where he spent three 
years. In 1897 he accepted a call to the Pres- 
byterian Church at Cortland, N. Y., where he 
remained until 1900, going thence to Balti- 
more, Md., to become pastor of Brown 
Memorial Presbyterian Church, one of the old- 
est and most important parishes in the city. 
Here he built up and broadened the work of 
the church to such an extent that his reputa- 
tion as an aggressive, forceful, and brilliant 
minister brought him, in 1900, a call to the 
Fourth Presbyterian Church of Chicago, 111., 
in which capacity he still serves (1917). This 
church had its typical " city problem " — the 
change from an " exclusive " to a floating and 
shifting residence district; the invasion of the 
" picture-show " and the dance halls, which 
claimed the time of the young people of the 
neighborhood. Dr. Stone possesses a gift for 
organization and for this found ample oppor- 
tunity. He undertook to make every one of 
the young men and women in the lodging and 
boarding-houses of the district, of which there 
were many, into valuable workers in the up- 
building of the church. Today the men's club 
has nearly 1,000 members and the young wom- 
en's club several hundred; there is a flourish- 
ing company of Boy Scouts, and the little 
girls have been organized in various classes 
and as neighborhood visitors. After five years 
spent in pursuing the neighborly ideal, the 
Fourth Presbyterian Church of Chicago is 
noted for its fine pulpit, large active relation 
to city and community service; and its many 
effective agencies for civic work, service 
branches, and mission churches among the 
foreign element of the city. As a body the 
church is also noted for its activity in foreign 
and home missions. It now occupies a handsome 
new building, one of the most beautiful and 
perfectly equipped church properties in Amer- 
ica, the cost of which, including the site, was 
$600,000. Dr. Stone has written several in- 
spiring books, among them '' Recruiting for 
Christ" (1911); "Footsteps in a Parish" 
(1908) ; "The Invitation Committee" (1913) ; 
also many articles, booklets, and monologues 
on varied religious and biographical subjects. 
During the years 1913-14 he acted as moderator 
of the Presbyterian General Assembly of the 
United States. He is chaplain, with the rank 
of captain, of the First Illinois Cavalry; was 
chaplain of the Illinois Sons of American Revo- 
lution in 1911-12-13; and has been chaplain of 
the Illinois Society Founders and Patriots, 
and chaplain-general of the Founders and 
Patriots Society of the United States. He 
is a member of the City Committee of Fifteen, 
City Club, University Club of Chicago, and a 
trustee of Amherst College Dr. Stone mar- 
ried 28 Nov., 1895, Bessie, daughter of Rev. 
Henry Martyn Parsons, D.D , of Toronto, 
Canada. They have three daughters: Eliza- 
beth, Margaret Dickenson, and Katlierinc Dud- 
ley Parsons. 

OLIVER, James, inventor, manufacturer, b. 
in Roxburgh, Scotland, 28 Aug., 1823; d. in 
South Bend, Ind., 2 March. 1908. son of Ceorgc 
and Elizabeth (Irving) Oliver. Ili^^ father was 
a simple shophord on a largo o.stato and earned 
just enough to keep his largo family from 
suffering from the kooner odge.s of poverty. 
The boy Oliver was the youngest of eight cliil- 




dren; there were six boys and two girls. In 
1830 the eldest boy, John, acting on an initia- 
tive which the children seemed to have in- 
herited from the mother, emigrated to this 
country and found remunerative employment 
near Geneva, N. Y. His letters wore so en- 
couraging that shortly afterward another 
brother and one of the sisters followed and es- 
tablished themselves successfully. In April, 
1835, when Oliver was twelve years of age, and 
had still not been to school, the entire family 
left Scotland and embarked on a sailing ship, 
to join the three children in America. The 
voyage was made without incident and the 
family was reunited. Young Oliver imme- 
diately took up his first remunerative employ- 
ment, which was as a chore boy on a farm, for 
fifty cents a week and his board. In the follow- 
ing year a number of Scotch families in the 
community decided to migrate westward, 
toward the great plains region which were re- 
ported to be so fertile and where land was to 
be had from the government for the asking. 
The Olivers joined this band and with it ar- 
rived in Lagrange County, Ind., later moving 
to Mishawaka, in St. Joseph County, where 
Andrew Oliver had previously gone and taken 
up an abode. In this frontier town, as it 
then was, there was a log schoolhouse, and 
here young Oliver studied for one winter. 
Then the father died, and the boy's academic 
training was permanently ended, for he Avas 
needed to assist in supporting the family with 
his earnings. He was, however, gifted with 
the capacity for studying on his own initia- 
tive and his lack of schooling was a deficiency 
which in no way hampered him in later life. 
Leaving school, young Oliver hired himself out 
to a farmer for $6.00 a month, yet was able 
to take home to his mother $5.00 every pay 
day. Though only fourteen, he was large and 
strong for his age and could do a man's work. 
Always acting on the strong initiative which 
was one of his dominating characteristics, Mr. 
Oliver did not remain long on the farm as a 
boy, but became, first a raftsman on the river, 
then a helper in a grist mill and still house. 
Determined to acquire skill in some trade, he 
here had the opportunity to become an expert 
cooper. At this trade he accumulated a small 
surplus capital. After working for a time 
at the coopers' trade, Mr. Oliver felt that his 
scope would be very limited in that line and 
decided to learn the trade of an iron molder. 
This he did with his usual energy and soon 
became an expert workman in the foundry of 
the St. Joseph Iron Company at Mishawaka. 
Here he remained for several years and then 
came the step that influenced his whole after 
life. It was during this period of his life 
that he became acquainted with the Doty 
family, people of somewhat superior culture 
and education, and through this contact, Mr. 
Oliver acquired his first taste for reading good 
books. In 1855 he went to South Bend, Ind., 
only a few miles down the river from Misha- 
waka, and there he accidentally met a man 
who wanted to sell a one-fourth interest in a 
foundry, at inventory cost. The price was less 
than a hundred dollars, and Mr. Oliver was 
able to take advantage of what seemed to him, 
and eventually proved to be, an extremely good 
bargain. The small foundry business was en- 
gaged in the manufacture of plows, and so, at 

the age of thirty-two, Mr. Oliver entered 
modestly into the industry which was to make 
his name known all over the world where mod- 
ern husbandry is practiced. Though he had 
worked as a cooper, Mr. Oliver knew plows, 
for he had also farmed as a side line. 
As a farmer he knew plows, and he knew 
that there was a good plow in the world. 
And after he had acquired his small 
interest in the small plow business there 
gradually developed in his mind an image of 
the ideal plow; the plow that would cut 
through the soil like a knife and slice a 
clean furrow. He began formulating a theory 
of a plow which should be as light in weight 
as was consistent with endurance and good 
work, that a moldboard should scour so as 
to turn the soil with a singing sound, that the 
share, or cutting edge, must be made separate 
from the moldboard so that it could be easily 
and cheaply replaced when worn out. This 
ideal grew and developed in his mind and in- 
spired him to undertake a long series of ex- 
periments. It was twelve years before this 
ideal materialized, but it finally did^n the 
Oliver chilled plow. Meanwhile, however, he 
had been moderately successful in the manu- 
facture of the ordinary plows which were 
turned out by his foundry. It was not long 
before his fourth interest expanded and he 
acquired full ownership of the small business. 
There were innumerable difficulties to over- 
come; first, his capital was hopelessly inade- 
quate at first. Then his furnace was flooded 
by the breaking of a dam and twice the fac- 
tory was destroyed by fire. At first, he per- 
formed all the functions of foundry man, book- 
keeper, office boy and salesman. For some 
weeks he would devote himself entirely to cast- 
ing and putting together a stock of plows. 
Then he would load them about among the 
farmers in the vicinity. When they were sold 
he would return to his furnace and begin 
again, casting plows. Then gradually, he found 
it possible to hire help and the business slowly 
expanded. It was while contending with 
these early difficulties that he carried out his 
experiments. It was in 1868 that the United 
States Patent Office issued to James Oliver a 
patent for " an improvement in moldboards 
for plows," which embraced the distinguished 
features of the chilling process, the first pat- 
ent which was ever issued for the manufacture 
of chilled plows. Quoting from this document, 
the invention is described as a " new and use- 
ful process in the manufacture of moldboards 
for plows whereby the same are greatly im- 
proved as regards their durability as well as 
their usefulness; and the invention consists in 
hardening the wearing surface or face of the 
moldboard by chilling it while in the sand 
mold and in treating it afterward so as to 
prevent damage from the unequal shrinkage of 
the chilled and hardened surface and the softer 
back side of the moldboard and in tempering, 
or carbonizing it to a certain degree and 
thereby improving the iron." This very proc- 
ess had previously been attempted by others, 
but the results of these experiments had always 
been failures because of the cavities or • blow- 
holes," which were made in the metal by the 
escaping gas. Mr. Oliver's conclusions were 
that these blowholes were the result of mois- 
ture in the molding sand as well as of gases. 


J?r,n J^L,^ U'TIJa/Zie-r ^i/X 



and working on that theory he invented a chill 
which obviated both these obstacles and gave 
him a moldboard perfectly and evenly chilled 
over its entire wearing surface. His special 
process may be briefly described. The upper, 
or wearing surface of the moldboard is formed 
by the molten metal coming in direct contact 
with the bottom of a hollow, oblong piece of 
iron, conforming in shape to the moldboard 
which is to be cast. This portion of the mold, 
known as the " chill " is carefully shaped by 
filing, smoothening, and planing the surface. 
Into this finished surface creases, or grooves, 
are sawn, the grooves crossing each other at 
right angles and giving the surface a checkered 
appearance. It is through these grooves that 
the gases escape and the molten metal comes 
pat against the surface of the chill, the result 
being a perfect and evenly tempered casting 
To insure an even flow metal in the chilling 
process the chills must be warmed, otherwise 
contact with the cold iron would disturb the 
flow and spoil the cast. The iron chill is 
hollow and is filled shortly before the cast with 
hot water. The castings are taken from the 
molds as soon after pouring as possible and 
excluded from the air by being deposited in 
sand pits, covered with sand and allowed to 
remain for thirtv-six to forty-eight hours 
undergoing the cooling process. This not only 
cools them gradually and evenly, but anneals 
them to a certain extent, thus adding to their 
strength, yet retaining all the advantages 
gained by chilling. As soon as the new chilled 
plow was put on the market it proved an 
immediate success, for not only was it far 
superior, but it was much cheaper than the 
ordinary plow. Oliver's early dreams of a 
perfect plow were entirely realized, for from 
that day to this there has been hardly any im- 
provement in his invention. In showing the 
value of Mr, Oliver's invention to the agri- 
cultural interests of the United States, Mr. 
Coffin, in testifying before the House Com- 
mittee on Patents, after a very extensive in- 
vestigation in 1877, estimated that the saving 
in the cultivation of farm lands would have 
been $45,000,000 had the Oliver chilled plow 
been universally used (Senate Reports, 2nd 
Session of the Forty-fifth Congress, p. 276). 
With the advent of the new plow the little 
factory on the St. Joseph River rapidly ex- 
panded. New buildings were added, steam 
power was substituted for water power. To- 
day the works cover an area approaching a 
hundred acres, employing in the neighborhood 
of 3,000 men. The enterprise is now without 
a serious rival in the field and before the War 
shipped its plows to all jarts of the world. 
Incidentally Mr. Oliver acquired a very ex- 
tensive fortune; incidentally it must be said, 
for it was fundamentally characteristic of him 
that he emphasized the actual value of a product 
rather than its commercial value. To produce 
the best plow in the world had gradually become 
an obsession with him. Having succeeded in 
his object, he left its commercialization to 
others. " Without detracting from the meed 
of praise that is due James Oliver," said El- 
bert Hubbard, in one of his " Little Journeys 
to the Homes of Great Business Men," '* The 
truth should be stated that alone he could 
never have built up or extended his business 
to its present colossal proportions. The fact 

that an invention is useful and much needed 
does not insure its success . . . and let this 
be said, James Oliver was big enough to leave 
all questions of salesmanship and finance to 
his son. For over thirty years Joseph D. Oliver 
has been the actual working manager of the 
business." James Oliver was essentially the 
inventor; it was his good fortune to have a 
son who was a business genius. Yet there 
were occasions on which the elder man asserted 
himself in the formation of the business policy 
of the great institutions founded on his inven- 
tion. " The Olivers," said Elbert Hubbard, 
" have never been in a trust or a combination. 

. . When James Oliver was approached on 
this theme, after the matter had been pushed 
upon his attention several times with various 
and sundry tempting oflTers, he replied, ' I do 
not care for your money, neither do I or my 
family care to go out of business. We are 
not looking for ease or rest or luxury. I love 
this institution, and if I go into this combine, 
granting that I will make more money than 
now, what is to prevent your shutting down 
these works and throwing all these people 
who have worked for me all these years out of 
employment? And how would that affect this 
city which has been my home and the home 
of those I love? No, sir, your talk of more 
money and less responsibility means nothing 
to me.' Those were words typical of the man. 
Though of a commanding personality, he re- 
mained during all his later years of success 
the plain, simple, unassuming man he had been 
during the days of struggle. It was his pride 
to class himself as a farmer and the fellow 
of farmers, thoroughly unconscious of the fact 
that he towered above his fellows like a veri- 
table collossus. James Oliver was not what is 
usually termed a religious man For the quib- 
bles of theology he had scant patience. But 
his attitude toward his fellow men was such 
as is inspired by all the true religions in the 
world. During the financial panic of the early 
'nineties, though there was a marked decrease 
in the demand for agricultural machinery, he 
demanded that the works should continue with 
full forces at work. Not one man was laid 
off and the surplus produced by the factories 
was stored for better times. " Man's first 
business was to till the soil," said Mr. Oliver, 
" his last business will be to till the soil. I 
help the farmers to do their work, and for my 
product there will always be a demand." Thus, 
rather than to cause temporary suffering 
among his many employees, he preferred to 
invest a great deal of capital in non-interest 
bearing products, being stored until the de- 
mand should reassert itself again. On 30 
May, 1844, Mr. Oliver married Susan C. Doty, 
daughter of Joseph Doty, of Mishawaka, Ind. 
She died in 1902. They had one daughter and 
one son: Josephine (Mrs. George Ford, secre- 
tary of the Oliver Chilled Plow Works), who 
died in 1914, and Joseph Doty Oliver, the presi- 
dent of the great corporation which his father 

OLIVER, Joseph Doty, manufacturer, b. 
Mishawaka, Ind., 2 Aug, 1860, son of James 
Oliver and Susan Catherine (Doty) Oliver. 
His father was the inventor of the chilled 
plow, which revolutionized the plow trade of 
the world, and founder of the Oliver Chilled 
Plow Works, South Bend, Ind., and president 




of the corporation up to the time of his death 
in 1908. The son Joseph attended the common 
schools of South Bend, the University of 
Notre Dame and De Paw University, Green- 
castle, Ind. He entered his father's factory 
1 July, 1867, and by remarkable business 
ability became treasurer, general manager, and 
finally president of the immense concern which 
his father founded. He has entire charge of 
the financial affairs of the company and han- 
dles them vith great success. Under his man- 
agement the Oliver Chilled Plow Works has 
grown from infancy to a giant's stature. Its 
products to-day are known and used through- 
out the civilized world. Mr. Oliver has never 
held any political position other than serving 
as a member of the County Council of St. 
Joseph County, Indiana, and on several occa- 
sions as the delegate of the Republican party 
to state and national conventions. He is a 
member of the Chicago Club and of the Hamil- 
ton Club, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. He is 
a trustee of Purdue University and at present 
(1917) president of the Board; a director of 
the National Park Bank, New York, of the 
First National Bank, Chicago, and also a di- 
rector of the P. C. C. & St. L. Railroad Com- 
pany, and of the South Bend Chamber of 
Commerce. Mr. Oliver was married 10 Dec, 
1884, at Johnstown, N. Y., to Miss Anna Ger- 
trude Wells, daughter of David A. Wells, 
manufacturer of gloves. They have two sons 
and two daughters: James (2d), vice-president 
Oliver Chilled Plow Works, Gertrude W., wife 
of Charles Frederick Cunningham, Lowell, 
Mass., Joseph D., Jr., treasurer of the Oliver 
Chilled Plow Works, married April 30, 1917, 
to Eleanor F. McMillin, daughter of Hon. 
Benton McMillin, ex-governor of Tennessee, 
and now (1917) United States Minister to 
Peru, and Miss Susan Catherine Oliver. Fol- 
lowing his father's example, Joseph D. Oliver 
has kept in touch with the practical features 
of the works of which he is the executive head. 
He is thoroughly familiar with all improve- 
ments and changes and spares neither time nor 
money when necessary. He is easily approach- 
able and always ready to listen patiently to 
the good or bad and give timely counsel. He 
has always refused political office and is de- 
voted to his home and family. The business 
of which he is the head is his great source of 
pride and he is never happier than when work- 
ing out its problems. Personally, and as 
trustee of his father's estate, he had been of 
much help in civic affairs. His most severe 
critic could not say more than to tind fault 
with his too strict devotion to business — but the 
answer is, " It's in the blood and was bred in 
the bone and he can't help it." Although an 
ardent Republican and always ready to re- 
spond to the legitimate calls of his party, he 
is not bigoted and enjoys the friendship and 
confidence of many who are politically opposed 
to him. He is an active member of the Pres- 
byterian Church. 

BUCKLEY, James Monroe, clergyman, 
editor, and author, was born in Rahway, 
N. J., 16 Dec, 1836, son of Rev. John and 
Abbie L. (Monroe) Buckley. He was edu- 
cated at Pennington Seminary, and entered 
Wesleyan University in the class of 1860, but 
left during his freshman year. For some 
time he pursued the study of medicine; later, 

he studied theology under private tutors at 
Exeter, N. H., meanwhile preaching there as 
a supply. In 1859 he joined the New Hamp- 
shire Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and was stationed at Dover, in that 
State. After proving his efficiency in several 
large and important stations, he was trans- 
ferred to Detroit, Mich., in 1863, and to 
Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1866. He was a member 
of the General Conference (the delegated 
law-making body of Methodism which holds 
its sessions quadrennially) in 1872, 1876, 
1880, 1884, 1888, 1892, 1896, 1900, 1904, 
1908, and 1912. In this great deliberative as- 
sembly, representing a world-wide ecclesi- 
asticism, he has been a leader of acknowl- 
edged power. Whatever the question at issue, 
he has never come to its discussion without 
ample information concerning it; thus, a 
tenacious memory, adroitness in debate, and 
thorough skill as a parliamentarian have ac- 
corded him a dominant influence in Christian 
councils for many years. He was a delegate 
to the Methodist Ecumenical Conference in 
London, 1881, in Washington, 1891, and in 
Toronto, 1911. In 1880 he was elected editor 
of " The Christian Advocate," published in 
New York, the chief official organ of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. His editorial 
pre-eminence, both as a versatile writer and 
cogent thinker, has received wide recognition, 
not only among the large constituency of 
readers in his own church, but among those 
of other denominations as well. As a speaker 
appointed for notable occasions, he has 
evinced an easy mastery of his theme, cou- 
pled with dignity and eloquence. He has 
served as president of the Board of Foreign 
Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and of the Board of Officers of the Methodist 
Episcopal (Seney) Hospital in Brooklyn, 
N. Y. He received the degree of D.D. from 
Wesleyan University in 1872, that of LL.B. 
from Emory and Henry College, Virginia, in 
1882, and that of LH.D. from Syracuse Uni- 
versity in 1890. He has written "Two 
Weeks in the Yosemite Valley" (1873); 
"Supposed Miracles" (1875); "Christians 
and the Theatre" (1877); "Oats or Wild 
Oats" (1885); "The Land of the Czar and 
the Nihilists" (1886); "Faith Healing, 
Christian Science, and Kindred Phenomena'* 
(1892); "Travels in Three Continents— Eu- 
rope, Asia, Africa" (1895); "History of 
Methodism in the United States" (1897); 
"Extemporaneous Oratory for Professional 
and Amateur Speakers" '(1899); "The Fun- 
damentals and Their Contrasts" (1906); 
" The Wrong and Peril of Woman Suffrage " 
(1909) ; " Theory and Practice of Foreign Mis- 
sions " (1911). Dr. Buckley's home address 
is Morristown, N. J. 

HILL, David Jayne, diplomat and historian, 
b. at Plainfield, N. J., 10 June, 1850, son of 
Daniel Trembley and Lydia Ann (Thompson) 
Hill. His first American ancestor was Abra- 
ham Hill, a native of England, who settled in 
Massachusetts in 1636. He received his early 
education at the common schools of Plainfield, 
at the Suffield Academy, Connecticut, and at 
Cooperstown, N. Y., and was graduated at the 
L^niversity of Lewisburg (now Bucknell Uni- 
versity ) , Pennsylvania, in 1874. After his grad- 
uation he became instructor in ancient lan- 




guages; was appointed professor of rhetoric 
there in 1877, and in 1879 was elected president. 
In 1888 he accepted the presidency of the Uni- 
versity of Rochester and held that office until 
his resignation in 1896. Under his adminis- 
tration the curriculum of the university was 
enlarged by the addition of more than forty 
new courses of study, and the faculty was ma- 
terially increased. After his resignation he 
spent nearly three years in the study of the 
public law of Europe, and from 1899 to 1903 
was professor of European diplomacy in the 
school of comparative jurisprudence and 
diplomacy, Washington, D. C. In 1888 he was 
appointed Assistant Secretary of State by 
President McKinley. He resigned that office 
in 1903 to accept the post of envoy extraordi- 
nary and minister plenipotentiary of the 
United States to Switzerland, and two years 
later he was sent in the same capacity to the 
Netherlands. In 1908 he was appointed am- 
bassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary to 
Germany, and held that post until 1911. Dr 
Hill is the author of " Life of Washington 
Irving " ( 1877 ) ; " Life of William Cullen 
Bryant" (1878); "Elements of Rhetoric" 
(1877) ; "Science of Rhetoric" (1878) ; "Ele- 
ments of Psychology" (1886); "Social Influ- 
ence of Christianity" (1888); "Principles 
and Fallacies of Socialism" (1888) ; "Genetic 
Philosophy" (1893); "International Jus- 
tice " ; "A Primer of Finance ; " The Concep- 
tion and Realization of Neutrality" (1902); 
"The Life and Work of Hugo Grotius " 
( 1902 ) ; " The Contemporary Development of 
Diplomacy" (1904); "A History, of Diplo- 
macy in the International Development of 
Europe " ; " The Struggle for Universal Em- 
pire " (Vol. I, 1905); "The Establishment of 
Territorial Sovereignty" (Vol. II, 1906); 
" World Organization as Affected by the Na- 
ture of the Modern State" (1911); "The 
Diplomacy of the Age of Absolutism " (1914) ; 
and " The People's Government " (1915). Dr 
Hill was a delegate to the Second Peace Con- 
ference at The Hague in 1907, and is a mem- 
ber of the Permanent Administrative Council 
of The Hague Tribunal. He is vice-grand 
commander of the Society of American Wars; 
a member of the American Philosophical So- 
ciety, the American Society of International 
Law, the American Historical Association, and 
other learned societies. He married 3 June, 
1886, Juliet Lewis, daughter of Judge Heze- 
kiah B. Packer, of Williamsport, Pa. 

WOOLNER, Samuel, business man and phi- 
lanthropist, b. in Senitz, Hungary, 11 March, 
1845; d. in Peoria, 111., 4 Jan., 1911, fifth son 
of Solomon and Sallie Woolner. Both parents 
were natives of Hungary, and there Samuel 
spent his early years, deriving a good educa- 
tion in the common schools of his native town. 
When little more than a boy he learned the 
distiller's trade, and feeling that the United 
States offered better opportunities in business 
than the old country, came to America at the 
age of eighteen years. He landed at Philadel- 
phia practically empty-handed, but made his 
way to Cleveland, Ohio, whore he sought any 
kind of honest work. Finally he returned to 
Philadelphia and secured a position in a dis- 
tillery. His equipment for his trade had been 
obtained after the thorough, painstaking, and 
honest methods of the Old World, and this 

fact, together with his native ability and re- 
sourcefulness, won him rapid advancement. 
He soon amassed a small capital, and with 
his brothers, Adolph and Ignatius, established 
a distillery at Louisville, Ky., in 1869. After 
two years the brothers sold out this enter- 
prise and purchased several distilleries in 
Peoria, 111., which they operated successfully 
for many years, and developed the extensive 
business now carried on by their descendants. 
When they found themselves well established, 
they sent back to Hungary for two other 
brothers, Jacob and Morris H. Woolner, who 
also became partners in the firm, each super- 
intending certain parts of the work. Thus, 
by co-operation and good management, the 
concern grew into one of the most prosperous 
and favorably known in the distilling business. 
Samuel Woolner did not confine his activities 
to the distilling line alone, but was instru- 
mental in building up many other enterprises 
in Peoria. It was through his agency that the 
grape-sugar industry was established in that 
city. He held a large interest in the Peoria 
Grape Sugar Company, which he and his 
brothers had organized. He was a prominent 
figure in banking circles, and, after serving 
some time as a director, was elected to the 
vice-presidency of the German-American Na- 
tional Bank, the leading financial institution 
of Peoria, and the predecessor of the Com- 
mercial German National Bank. He was also 
a large stockholder in several of the leading 
banks) of Chicago. In 1894 Mr. Woolner built 
the Atlas Distillery, the largest in Peoria, and 
in 1890, with his brother, Adolph, erected the 
Woolner Building, one of the city's larg- 
est and most complete business houses. Mr. 
Woolner held many positions of a public 
or semi-public nature. He was for many years 
a member of the board of trade, also of the 
city council; and was at one time tendered 
the nomination for mayor of Peoria, but was 
forced to decline the honor, on account of 
business. The influence of the Woolner 
brothers on the growth and development of the 
city of Peoria was very great. Samuel Wool- 
ner himself was everywhere respected for his 
sterling qualities and his helpful humanita- 
rianism. He contributed liberally to, or was 
an active worker in, almost every form of 
Jewish and non-sectarian charity A firm be- 
liever in conservative, reformed Judaism, he 
became well known as one of the foremost 
Jewish philanthropists of America, giving 
generously wherever there was need, and seek- 
ing always the welfare and advancement of 
his race. He was a member of Schiller Lodge 
F. & A. M., a thirty-second degree Mason, 
Scottish Rite; president of the Anshai Amoth 
congregation of Peoria, also president of the 
order of B'nai B'rith for the Peoria district. 
He was president of the Homo for Agod and 
Infirm Israelites, at Cleveland, Ohio; trustee 
of the Jewish Orphan Asylum of that city; 
and served as president of the Union Ameri- 
can-Hebrew congregations, at Cincinnati. It 
has been well said that " nature ondowod him 
with indefatigable will-powor and thoroiigh 
business sagacity, which, coupled with sterling 
honesty and truthful habit h, not only gained 
him the reputation of being one of the fore- 
most business men of Pooria. but also won 
him fame throughout the country." Mr, Wool- 





ner married 20 March, 1869, Johanna Levy, 
who died in 1872, leaving a daughter, Hannah, 
now the wife of William B. Woolner. On 19 
Oct., 1892, he married Miriam, daughter of 
Louis Sternbach, of New York City, by whom 
he had one son, Seymour Woolner, now (1917) 
a student at Yale University. 

MAECH, Frank Morrison, banker, b. in St. 
Paul, Minn., 22 Oct., 18C3, son of Nelson 
Jonathan and Mary Jane (Morrison) March. 
His father served 
as deputy provost 
marshal during the 
Civil War, and in 
1874-78 was sheriflf 
of Muker County, 
Minn. His earliest 
American ancestor 
was Hugh March, 
who emigrated to 
this country from 
Newbury, England, 
in 1638, settling 
in Newburyport, 
Mass. The two 
sons of Hugh 
March, Col. John 
and Capt. Hugh 
March, built and 
operated the first 
ferry across the Merrimac River. Frank 
M. March was educated in the public schools 
of his native town, and at an early age 
obtained employment in a mercantile house. 
In 1884 he accepted a position with the 
firm of A. H. Reed and Company, at Glen- 
coe, Minn , where he found an opportunity to 
study the operation of an extensive business 
enterprise. He resigned his connection with 
the firm in 1889, and went to Pierre, S. D., 
where he engaged in the wholesale and retail 
crockery and grocery business in partnership 
with his brother, George K. March. He di- 
rected his attention to the development of the 
business which grew rapidly and in the spring 
of 1894 he sold out his interest in the firm 
and went with his family to Zumbrota, Minn. 
Here he organized the Security State Bank, 
of which he was made cashier. In 1901, 
stories of great fortunes being made in West- 
ern Canada led him to Winnipeg, where he 
organized the Manitoba Land and Investment 
Company, in partnership with his brothers, 
N. U., C. H., and G K. March. He was made 
president of the company, which, during the 
next ten years, handled 500,000 acres of West- 
ern Canada land. In 1903 he organized the 
Export Elevator Company, building a line of 
elevators along the Canadian Northern and 
the Canadian Pacific Railways The poor 
health of his wife, in the summer of 1909, 
made it necessary for him to go W^est, and he 
went to Spokane, Wash., where he organized 
the National Bank of Commerce, assuming the 
presidency. In every work committed to his 
hands, Mr. March has labored with diligence, 
perseverance, and efficiency, and the wholesome 
practical results testify to the value of his 
business ability. His quick intuitive mind 
has never failed to meet an emergency 
when it arises. Mr. March is a director of 
the Spokane Fruit Growers' Company, and an 
officer in many banks and corporations He is 
a member of the Grain Exchange, Real Estate 

Exchange; director of the Industrial; trustee 
and treasurer of the Spokane Chamber of 
Commerce, and at one time served as mayor 
of Zumbrota, Minn. In Spokane he is a mem- 
ber of the Spokane, Inland, and Athletic 
Clubs. He was married 19 June, 1891, at 
Glencoe, Minn., to Emma F. Wadsworth, who 
died at Monrovia, Cal , 24 Aug., 1913. 

MANTON, Frank Stead, inventor and manu- 
facturer, b. in Providence, R. I., 28 Feb., 1838; 
d. in North Wakefield, N. H., 19 Aug , 1909, 
son of Salma Manton and Anstis Pearce 
(Dyer) Manton. His father was a cotton 
broker, who though he died in his thirty- 
eighth year did much for the advancement of 
his native city, being noted always for his 
public spirit and progressiveness. Salma Man- 
ton was born on 12 Feb., 1798, less than eight 
years after Rhode Island had ratified the Con- 
stitution, which, as one of the original thir- 
teen States, he had a hand in framing. Soon 
after his death his son, Frank Stead Manton, 
youngest of three brothers, was born. Al- 
though Frank never saw his father, he had 
been endowed with the same restless energy, 
and even in boyhood was regarded as one of 
whdm his city might well be proud. He was 
educated first in the public schools of Provi- 
dence, and afterward went through an aca- 
demic course in a private school. He did not 
follow his father's example in his choice of a 
calling. He might have been also a cotton 
broker had his taste so inclined him. But 
from some of his ancestors he had inherited 
inventive talent, together with a liking for 
mechanics and engineering science. So he be- 
gan his business career as a civil engineer and 
surveyor, for which the records show that lie 
had a remarkable aptitude. For several years 
he held important positions in the Hope Iron 
Works, and then became manager and presi- 
dent of the Ameri(fan Ship W'indlass Company 
of Providence. It was here that he found his 
true vocation. The company was newly estab- 
lished in 1857, when he became its head. Un- 
der his able direction and with the aid of his 
inventive genius in increasing in many ways 
the efficiency of ships of all kinds, it became 
one of the most noted marine manufactories in 
America. That Mr. Manton's personal con- 
tributions to the large sum total of new ideas 
emanating from the works of the American 
Ship Windlass Company had much to do with 
its unprecedented success is beyond question. 
In windlasses, towing machinery, and other 
appliances on shipboard, which have a more 
important bearing on the management of ves- 
sels than is easily comprehended by non- 
nautical persons, he introduced an incalculable 
number of improvements. His inventive genius 
seemed to be inexhaustible. Marine men 
throughout the world are indebted to Frank 
Manton for a practical application of me- 
chanics to the steering and general manage- 
ment of ocean and lake vessels that save 
labor, while adding to their efficiency and 
safety. He invented the first iron windlass 
ever used. Later he proved that iron would 
do the work much better than wood, and at M 
the same time disposing of the objection of m 
the old-fashioned mariner that iron would be ^ 
too heavy by proving that its weight was little 
if any heavier. When once his iron windlass 
had been accepted, he designed other wind- 




lasses and capstans and practically all that 
are in use in the twentieth century, every- 
where on the seven seas, as well as on the 
Great Lakes of America, and in other coun- 
tries, are of the pattern that Frank S. Man- 
ton made. During the fifty years as head of 
the company the number of improvements that 
were tested can hardly be estimated. Mr. 
Manton made a deep scientific study of the 
windlass. He recognized in it one of the most 
important factors in the management of a 
ship, and he knew, as does every experienced 
navigator, that there are times when the per- 
fect working of the windlass may mean the 
salvation of the ship. There is no guesswork 
on the windlasses invented or perfected by Frank 
S. Manton. All the steam windlasses made by 
the American Ship Windlass Company have a 
direct connection between the engine and wind- 
lass, without counter shafts or additional gear- 
ing. They also have a counter-balance for the 
engines and an automatic lubricator for the 
worm and worm-gear, and the engines are 
placed together in the most accessible posi- 
tion. One improvement made by Mr. Manton 
in his early days with this company was a 
patent reversing motion that is now taken as 
a matter of course, but which had been over- 
looked until he showed how it would be used. 
The American Ship Windlass Company of 
Providence had the most extensive windlass 
plant in the world. Nine-tenths of the wind- 
lasses and capstans used in America were 
built by this company. Mr. Manton was al- 
ways much interested in yachts, and several 
of his inventions came into being with the 
convenience and utility of yacht navigators ex- 
pressly in view. He personally superintended 
considerable work done for the United States 
navy. Among the battleships he fitted with 
steam windlasses, steel bibbs, etc., was the 
U. S steel cruiser " Maine," which was sunk 
in Havana harbor, and whose loss precipitated 
if it did not actually cause the war between 
the United States and Spain. It was not only 
in his own inventions that Mr. Manton was 
able to do so much for the maritime world. 
He was always on the alert for any valuable 
discovery bv others. From the beginning the 
company, through its president, carefully in- 
vestigated every idea or suggestion of im- 
provement in windlasses or capstans. If prac- 
tical it was adopted, and always with gener- 
ous regard to the claims of the inventors. The 
works of the American Ship Windlass Com- 
pany were at the corner of Waterman and East 
River Streets, in the eastern part of the city, 
on the banks of the Seekonk River, quite away 
from the general hum of business. Few of 
Providence's manufactories were so widely and 
favorably known. Soon the company's steam 
windlasses, steam capstans, improved hand 
windlasses, and hand capstans had been put 
upon thousands of vessels, and were carried 
by them over the oceans of the world and 
America's Great Lakes. From a small be- 
ginning in 1857 the business grew to extensive 
dimensions and employed a large capital. The 
company, with ample facilities in its shops 
and tools, devoted itself exclusively to this 
one work of supplying the vessels of the 
American navy, merchant steamers, pleasure 
yachts and sailing vessels with reliable ma- 
chinery for handing their heavy anchors, 

loading and unloading, warping ships, etc. 
Great excellence is usually attained wherever 
any industry admits of sufficient expansion, so 
that all tools may be especially adapted to one 
purpose, and workmen become expert from 
continually reproducing duplicate machines. 
Many hundreds of testimonials — from the press, 
as well as from eminent navy officers, heads of 
departments, experienced commanders of ves- 
sels, and naval engineers, give evidence that 
to the patient, persistent, and well-directed 
efforts of Frank S. Manton, the manager, was 
due the remarkable efficiency of the ibnerican 
Ship Windlass Company's products. In the 
years now long past there were only small ves- 
sels, and ropes were used instead of the chains 
of to-day for anchoring. An upright wooden 
windlass stood in the bows of a vessel. Then, 
with handspikes of wood inserted in the wind- 
lass, many sailors walked around, and by 
main strength brought up the anchors; now, 
on the leviathans of the deep, the seaman 
stands by to see the work better done by 
steam. Nowadays, two sailors can anchor a 
three-thousand-ton ship with ease; to do the 
same work in the old way would demand the 
services of about twenty-five men, and take 
twenty times as long. To-day a great battle- 
ship can have anchor up and under headway 
in five minutes. Sailing ships supplied with 
steam windlasses, when anchored in deep seas 
like the English Channel, can be off and out 
of sight before a vessel rigged in the old man- 
ner could get her anchor aboard. Many dan- 
gers of the seas are less to be dreaded with 
these ample provisions for anchoring. When 
on a lee shore, or getting under way in a 
gale of wind, then the value of a good wind- 
lass is shown. Indeed, at such times the whole 
cost is paid for in a few moments. It is 
beyond question that on steamships, next in 
importance to the engine comes the windlass 
with its chain and anchors. To hold its own 
against the active competitors of to-day, the 
modern vessel, whether propelled by steam or 
sail, must have the most complete labor- 
saving devices, and every mariner the world 
over knows that nobody has done more in 
the line than was accomplished by the Ameri- 
can Ship Windlass Company, under the active 
management of Frank Stead Manton. It is 
estimated that seven-eighths of all the ves- 
sels sailing from American ports, both on the 
salt seas and the great fresh-water lakes, are 
provided with machines made by this company. 
The American Ship Windlass Company was 
favorably known in foreign lands, as well as 
in America, by a towing machine manufactured 
only by this organization. ]\lr. Manton was 
particularly proud of an achievement of this 
machine in Great Britain, wlion on the light- 
house steamer " Alexandra," of towing the 
lightship " Kittiwake " from Kingston back 
to her station at Coningbog Rook, after being 
repaired. The machine had opportunity fully 
to demonstrate its value, as the " Alexandra " 
nearly all the way fought against a head wind 
and sea, and the lightship " Kittiwake " roared 
and plunged in her headlong oourso astern at 
a speed of about olovon knots an hour, tho fast- 
est she ever had traveled. The task was suc- 
cessfully performed, and tho maohino that made 
the diflioult and dangerous undertaking pos- 
sible and safe won the warmest praise from 



those who had the management of it, and from 
the British press represented on board the 
" Alexandra." Another demonstration of the 
great elhciency of this apparatus was the tow- 
ing of a dry dock from Newport News, Va., to 
Manila, P. I. Many leading marine experts 
at the time said this could not be done. Since 
Mr. Manton's death the American Ship Wind- 
lass Company has been merged in other com- 
panies, but for more than half a century it 
was pre-eminent. Its products were standard 
and it was the genius of Frank Stead Manton 
that gave them the quality which made them 
so. Mr. Manton was held in high esteem by 
all who knew him, particularly by his em- 
ployees. He was confined to his home by seri- 
ous illness at one time, and, upon his return 
to the plant, all the employees showed their 
respect and appreciation of him by abandoning 
their work to shake his hand. Frank Stead 
Manton was of English descent, although for 
centuries his ancestors had lived in America. 
Edward Manton it was who came over from 
England in the train of that valiant fighter for 
liberty and founder of the city of Providence, 
R. I., Roger Williams, in the early years of 
the seventeenth century. He settled at Provi- 
dence Plantations, in Narragansett Bay, where, 
later, the town of Manton was named for him. 
Naturally Edward Manton was its most im- 
portant citizen, and the Mantons are still 
prominent in the community which bears that 
name. Shadrach JVIanton, son of the founder 
of the family in the United States, was the 
first town clerk of Providence. Frank Stead 
Manton married in June, 1863, Miss A. Frances 
Manton, daughter of Dr. Shadrach Manton, of 
Providence, R. I. Some years after her death 
he married Miss Jennie Sage, of New York. 
He had four children: Amey, Edith, Salma, 
and Fanny. He was a member of the Home 
Market Club, Mechanical Engineers' Society, 
Athletic Association, Board of Trade, Cham- 
ber of Commerce, and Naval Engineers. His 
portrait is in Howell's Album of Marine 

COOK, John Williston, educator, b in 
Oneida, N. Y., 20 April, 1844, son of Harry 
De Witt and Joanna (Hall) Cook. When 
he was seven years of age, the family re- 
moved to Illinois, where his father became a 
prominent figure in railway activities He 
w^as educated in the public schools of Illinois, 
and at the Illinois State Normal University, 
where he was graduated in 1865. He then be- 
gan his career as a teacher in the public 
schools of Brimfield, 111., and soon after was 
appointed principal. His tact and versatility 
won for him many friends, and in September, 
1866, he was chosen principal of the grammar 
school department of the model school in the 
Illinois State Normal University. Two years 
later he became professor of geography and 
history in the same institution during the 
absence of the head of that department In 
September, 1869, he became professor of read- 
ing and elocution, in which capacity he con- 
tinued until June, 1876, when he was elected 
professor of mathematics and physics. He 
showed great aptitude for administrative 
affairs, and in June, 1890, was elected presi- 
dent of the Illinois State Normal University, 
which position he resigned in 1899 to be- 
come president of the Northern Illinois State 



Normal School at DeKalb, 111. Professor Cook 
possesses the faculty to a wonderful degree 
of arranging his subject logically by outline, 
and being able to explain matters intelligently 
to others. He is a thorough, positive, prac- 
tical educator, who is always enthusiastic and 
knows how to instill that enthusiasm into his 
students. Professor Cook is the author of a 
series of text-books in arithmetic in collabora- 
tion with Miss M. Cropsey (1892), and of the 
"Educational History of Illinois" (1912). 
He was editor and publisher of the " Illinois 
School Master," in September, 1874; editor 
and publisher of the " Illinois School Journal,'* 
in 1883-86. Besides his educational and literary 
activities. Professor Cook has appeared on the 
public lecture platform since 1869, since which 
time he has delivered more than 2,000 lectures. 
He was secretary of the Illinois State Teachers* 
Association, in 1873; president in 1880; presi- 
dent of the normal department of the National 
Education Association, in 1896; president in 
1904, and is now a member of the University 
Club of Chicago, and the Quadrangle Club, 
University of Chicago. On 26 Aug., 1867, he 
married Lydia Farnham Spofford, of North 
Andover, Mass , and they have two children. 

BAKRETT, John, journalist and diplomat, b. 
in Grafton, Vt., 28 Nov , 1866, son of Charles 
and Caroline (Sanford) Barrett. He was edu- 
cated at Vermont Academy, continued at Wor- 
cester Academy, and after teaching for one year 
he entered Dartmouth College in 1885. The 
expenses of his college course were defrayed, 
largely through his own efforts, as a teacher, 
hotel clerk, and newspaper correspondent. He 
graduated in 1889 and took charge of the Eng- 
lish department of Hopkins Academy, Oakland, 
Cal. He next devoted his time to the publica- 
tion of the "Annual Statistician and Econo- 
mist " in San Francisco, and later was on the 
staffs of newspapers in Seattle, Tacoma, San 
Francisco and Portland. In 1894, after acquir- 
ing prominence in editorial work and as an au- 
thority on political and economic questions, he 
was appointed U. S. minister to Siam, although 
but twenty-seven years of age and the youngest 
person ever appointed to a similar position. 
He successfully negotiated a difficult question 
with the Siamese government, securing an in- 
demnity of $250,000 for an American claimant, 
and made clear the extra-territorial treaty 
rights of Americans in Asia. On resigning 
this position in 1898, he went to Manila, where 
he was war correspondent during the Spanish- 
American War and a part of the Filipino insur- 
rection, returning to America in June, 1899. 
Mr. Barrett was the American representative 
to the International Confederation of American 
Republics in Mexico, 1901; minister to Argen- 
tina in 1903; minister of Panama in 1904-05; 
and to Colombia in 1905-06. Since 19 Dec, 
1906, he has been director-general of the Pan- 
American Union. Mr Barrett is the author 
of "Admiral Dewey" (1889); "The Far East 
and Siam— A Wonderland of Asia " ( 1903 ) ; 
" Pan-American Union — Peace, Friendship, 
Commerce" (1911); "The Panama Canal: 
What It Is, What It Means" (1913), and a 
contributor to the magazines and reviews on 
Latin-American and Asiatic subjects He was 
elected an honorary member of the American 
Asiatic Association for his services in the de- 
velopment of American commercial interests in 



Asia, and received a special diploma at the 
University of Bogota, Colombia, for his services 
as a diplomat. In 1910 he was decorated with 
the order of Bolivar, Venezuela, in recognition 
of his efforts in the interest of the South 
American republics. In 1916 he was secretary 
of the General Pan-American Scientific Con- 
gress in Washington. Mr. Barrett is a mem- 
ber of several leading clubs. 

ABRAHAM, Abraham, merchant, b, in New 
York, 9 March, 1843; d. in the Thousand 
Islands, N, Y., 28 June, 1911. He was a son 
of Judah Abraham, a Bavarian merchant who 
emigrated to this country a few years before 
the birth of his son. Young Abraham's par- 
ents desired him to become a lawyer, but he 
was determined on a mercantile career, and 
at the age of fourteen obtained employment in 
a dry goods store in Newark, N. J. His in- 
domitable zeal won for him rapid promotion, 
and at the age of twenty-two he engaged in 
the dry goods business at 297 Fulton near 
Johnson Street, Brooklyn, N. Y, in partner- 
ship with Joseph Wechsler, under the style of 
Wechsler and Abraham. The business enjoyed 
a steady growth, and in 1883 it was moved to 
the present location on Fulton Street. In 1885 
Mr. Abraham startled his friends and business 
associates when he purchased a building in 
Fulton Street known as " Wheeler's Folly." 
This building was the first one built of steel in 
the borough, and was located a good distance 
from the business center. The store was vacant 
many months of the year, and at other times 
was occupied by cheap store and auction 
rooms. Mr. Abraham opened the store and his 
success was instantaneous. In 1893 Mr. 
Wechsler retired from the business and the 
firm of Abraham and Straus was organized 
with Nathan Straus, Isidor Straus, and Simon 
F. Rothschild as partners. Mr. Abraham was 
directly connected with one of the most strik- 
ing developments in America, the department 
store, and the business which he founded now 
occupies a block covering about fifteen acres. 
Mr. Abraham w».s conspicuous for his charita- 
ble work. He helped to found the Jewish hos- 
pital, and at the time of his death was its 
president; president of the board of trustees 
of the Brooklyn Hebrew Orphan Asylum; 
president of the Temple Israel; vice-president 
of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Children; director of the Brooklyn Bureau of 
Charities; trustee of the American branch of 
the Baron de Hirsch fund; and incorporator 
and trustee of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts 
and Sciences. Mr. Abraham was a trustee and 
director in a number of financial and indus- 
trial institutions and a member of several 
prominent clubs. Mr. Abraham labored hard 
and unselfishly for his fellow man. His kind- 
ness, toleration, and humanity won him the 
title of •' leading citizen of Brooklyn." On 
several occasions he declined public office of- 
fered to him by State and city officials, prefer- 
ing to work in the ranks. Once he consented 
to serve on an important condemnation pro- 
ceeding, for which he received a check for sev- 
eral thousand dollars. This he promptly re- 
turned to the city. On another occasion, when 
he was injured in a trolley accident, the rail- 
way company sent him $10,000 as a settle- 
ment for a suit he might bring. He turned 
over this check to charity. In his will Mr. 

Abraham set aside $50,000 for the Jewish 
hospital of Brooklyn, $25,000 to the Brook- 
lyn Federation of Jewish Charities; $10,000 
to the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sci- 
ences; and several large sums to other public 
institutions. Mr. Abraham was survived by 
his wife Rosa, and four children — Mrs. Lillian 
Rothschild, Mrs, Florence Blum, Mrs. Edith 
Straus, and Lawrence Abraham 

TALCOTT, John Butler, manufacturer, b. at 
Enfield, Conn., 14 Sept., 1824; d at Thompson- 
ville, Conn, 19 Feb, 1906, son of Seth and 
Charlotte Stout (Butler) Talcott. He was a 
direct descendant of John Talcott, who came 
from England to Hartford in 1636, where he 
was a prominent member of the Hartford 
Colony. Mr. Talcott's family removed to West 
Hartford in 1828. His early life was spent in 
the country, where he assisted in the work of 
his father's farm and mill. He was prepared 
for college in the Hartford grammar school, 
and was graduated at Yale College in 1846, as 
salutatorian of his class. The years immedi- 
ately following he devoted to teaching and the 
study of law. He was clerk of the probate 
court in Hartford and taught in the Hartford 
Female Seminary. Upon recommendation of 
the Yale faculty he was appointed instructor 
in Middlebury College, and later at Yale, where 
he remained for three years as tutor in Greek. 
On his return to Hartford he was admitted to 
the bar, intending to make the law his pro- 
fession; but being urged by the late Seth J, 
North to take charge of the knit goods depart- 
ment of the firm of North and Stanley at New 
Britain, he accepted the position. This interest 
was later consolidated with the New Britain 
Knitting Company, of which Mr Talcott acted 
as manager for fourteen years In 1868 he 
organized the American Hosiery Company, the 
success and recognized position of which are 
due largely to his skillful and sagacious man- 
agement- At first secretary and treasurer of 
the company, he afterward became its presi- 
dent. Mr. Talcott gave valuable service in 
other enterprises, being a director of the P. 
and F. Corbin Company, Corbin Cabinet Lock 
Company, the New Britain Savings Bank, the 
Connecticut General Life Insurance Company 
of Hartford, and the Mechanics National Bank 
of New Britain, of which he became president 
in 1894. He was a member of the city council 
of Hartford from 1876 to 1880, and mayor 
from 1880 to 1882 He was at the time of his 
death president of the New Britain Institute, 
to which he gave $20,000 to establish an art 
fund in 1903. Mr, Talcott was a member of 
the South Congregational Church from 1853, 
and a deacon in 1884. In 1848 he married 
Jane Croswell Goodwin, of West Hartford, by 
whom he had one daughter and three sons. 
She died in 1878, and in 1880 Mr. Talcott mar- 
ried Fannie Hall Hazen, who, with two daugh- 
ters, survives him. Mr Talcott's success was 
largely due to his tireless industry, to his 
remarkable personal attention to details, and 
to a probity and courage tempered with cau- 
tion. He was a business man of the highest 
integrity and signal ability, rich in experience, 
large-hearted, and faithful in all his relations. 
PARSONS, John, clergyman, b. at Alfred, 
Me., 25 Sept, 1820; d. at Brookline, Mass., 31 
March, 1910, son of William and Mary (Par- 
sons) Parsons. He was a lineal descendant 




through both parents of Cornet Joseph Par- 
sons, a native of England, who settled in 
Springfield, Mass , in 1635. He was educated 
in the public schools and the academy in his 
native place, and when he was seventeen years 
of age taught in the district school in Lyman, 
an adjoining town. In February, 1839, he 
entered Brown University, where he was grad- 
uated in 1842. He studied for the ministry at 
Yale and subsequently at Andover, being grad- 
uated at the latter institution in 1848. Later 
he did postgraduate work at the theological 
seminaries in Andover and Bangor. His pas- 
toral activities extended over a period of about 
twenty-live years, during which time he served 
in Limington, Kennebunkport, York, and 
Lebanon Centre, Me. In 1873 he retired from 
the pulpit and devoted himself mainly to lit- 
erary labor. While his studies took wide 
range, the results of his researches are em- 
bodied in his book, " Each for All and All for 
Each — the Individual in His Relation to the 
Social System" (1910). His keen analysis 
and love of exact classification appear through- 
out the work. Defining the social system, he 
traces the variaus methods by which the mu- 
tual influences of the individual and of society 
are exercised. In his chapter on " Harm in 
the System," he makes everything contingent 
on " structural harm." His theories all re- 
flect the thoroughgoing optimist. Mr. Par- 
sons married 22 April, 1856, Sarah Ayer, 
daughter of Samuel and Sally Adams (Gile) 
Chase, of Haverhill, Mass. Two sons survived 
him: Charles Chase and William Edwin Par- 

WEBER, Jessie (Palmer), librarian and 
editor, b. in Carlinville, 111., 1 Aug., 1863, 
daughter of John McAuley and Malinda Ann 
(Neely) Palmer. Her earliest American an- 
cestor came to this country from England in 
1624 and settled in Virginia. Her grandfather, 
Louis D. Palmer, a Kentucky planter, being 
one of those Southerners who detested the in- 
stitution of slavery, came to Illinois that his 
children might be brought up on free soil. 
Her father, John McAuley Palmer, was a law- 
yer, who rose to the rank of major-general 
during the Civil War in the federal service, 
and was later governor of the State of Illinois 
and U S. Senator. Mrs Weber was educated 
in the public schools of Springfield and by 
private tutors, after which she studied at the 
Stuart Institute, in Springfield. She then be- 
came assistant to Judge H. W. Beckwith, the 
noted historian, thus beginning her studies of 
Illinois State history. From 1891 to 1897 
she was secretary to her father, during his 
term of service in the U. S Senate, assisting 
him especially in the matter of procuring pen- 
sions for Civil War veterans. In 1898 Mrs. 
Weber became librarian of the Illinois State 
Historical Library and since 1904 has also 
been secretary of the Illinois State Historical 
Society, as well as one of its directors. In 
that same year she also became a trustee and 
secretary of the Fort Massac State Park. 
Since 1908 she has been editor-in-chief of the 
" Journal of the Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety " and since 1913 she has been a commis- 
sioner and secretary of the Illinois State Cen- 
tennial Commission. To her charge was given 
the task of preparing and installing the his- 
torical exhibits in the Illinois buildings at 

the expositions at St. Louis; Portland, Ore.; 
and Jamestown, Va.; and a notable Lincoln 
exhibit at the Panama-Pacific Exposition at , 
San Francisco. Mrs. Weber is a member of ; 
the National Society of the Daughters of the ' 
American Revolution; the United States 
Daughters of 1812; the American Historical 
Association; the American Library Associa- 
tion; the Mississippi Valley Historical Asso- 
ciation, and the Illinois State Library Associa- 
tion. On 8 June, 1881, she married Norval 
Wilson Weber, a journalist, son of George R. 
Weber, a pioneer newspaper editor of Illinois. 
They have had one daughter, Malinda Ellen, 
wife of Dr. J. W, Irion, a prominent physician, 
of Fort Worth, Tex. 

MITCHELL, John Raymond, banker, b. in 
Franklin, Pa., 9 Jan., 1869, son of John Lamb 
and Harriet (Raymond) Mitchell, of Scotch- 
Irish descent. He traces his American an- 
cestry to the Rev. David Mitchell, a native of 
Ireland and a Methodist minister, who came 
to America late in the eighteenth century. 
His father (1826-68) was born in Center 
County, Pa., and was one of the pioneer oil 
men of that region. Later in life he engaged 
in the banking business and was well known 
throughout his part of the State as a success- 
ful business man and representative citizen. 
Mr. Mitchell spent his early years in Franklin 
and attended the schools of that place. After 
the usual preparatory course he entered Yale 
University, where he was graduated with the 
degree of Ph.B., in 1889. He was thoroughly 
equipped for either a business or professional 
career, and for a time centered his activities 
upon civil engineering, but soon gave up that 
calling for the more congenial occupation of 
banking. In 1897 he removed from Pennsyl- 
vania to Minnesota, locating at Winona, where 
he became identified with the Winona Deposit 
Bank, and from the beginning of his residence 
there occupied a position of exceptional im- 
portance in the financial and social life of the 
community. In 1906 he broadened his banking 
operations by purchasing the Capital Bank of 
St. Paul, Minn., and removing to that city 
with his family, made it his permanent home. 
The same year in which Mr. Mitchell assumed 
control of the Capital Bank, that institution 
was nationalized and a consolidation was ef- 
fected with the St Paul National Bank, -under 
the name of the Capital National Bank, and 
Mr- Mitchell was made president of the joint 
enterprise. During the ten years of his man- 
agement this bank has grown to be one of the 
foremost banking concerns of the Northwest. 
He still retains the presidency of the Winona 
Deposit Bank, and is also the chief executive of 
the Duluth Savings Bank, at Duluth, Minn. In 
addition to his banking interests he has also 
during his business career become largely in- 
terested in oil development and iron-mining, 
and is everywhere recognized as a shrewd and 
able financier. His capabilities in the banking 
business have been recognized by his election 
to the position of president of the Minnesota 
Bankers' Association. He has also been chosen 
as president of the St. Paul Clearing House 
Association, and is a member of the executive 
council of the American Bankers' Association. 
Mr. Mitchell is a member of the Minnesota 
Club, University Club, Town and Country 
Club, all of St. Paul ; and of the University 




Club, Chicago, 111. He married 29 Jan , 1896, 
Mary Eleanor (now deceased), daughter of the 
late Hon. Henry W. Lamberton, of Winona, 
Wis. Their three children are: John Lamber- 
ton, Mary Eleanor, and Raymond Otis Mitchell. 

BIGELOW, PoTiltney, author, b in New 
York, 10 Sept., 1855, the son of John and 
Jane Tunis (Poultney) Bigelow. He is a 
descendant in the eighth generation from 
John Bigelow, who settled in Watertown, 
Mass., in 1632. At the age of six years 
Poultney Bigelow was taken to Paris by his 
parents, where he received his early educa- 
tion. In 1870 he visited Germany, and three 
years later entered Yale University. He be- 
came editor of the "Yale Courant," and after 
graduating in 1879 entered the Columbia Law 
School. He was admitted to the bar in 1882, 
and for a number of years practiced in New 
York. In 1892 he visited Russia in company 
with Frederic Remington, the artist. At the 
outbreak of the Spanish -American War he 
went to Cuba as correspondent for the New 
York "Herald" and the London "Times." 
Mr. Bigelow has traveled extensively, and in 
1891 descended the Danube in a canoe. He 
has visited China, Japan, Borneo, Java, New 
Guinea, Australia, and the countries of Europe 
and Africa. He is the author of a number 
of books, of which the following are the best 
known, " The German Emperor and His East- 
ern Neighbors" (1891); "Paddles and Poli- 
tics Down the Danube" (1892); "The Bor- 
derland of Czar and Kaiser" (1893); "His- 
tory of the German Struggle for Liberty " 
(1895); "White Man's Africa" (1896); 
" Children of the Nations," and " Prussian 
Memories." Several of his books have been 
translated into German, French and other 
languages. Mr. Bigelow is an honorary 
member of the Royal Artillery Institution, 
Royal United Service Institution, and the 
Ethological Society, London; life member of 
the American Geographical Society, Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, American Political Science 
Association, the New York Historical Society, 
and a member of several clubs. He married in 
1911, Lillian Pritchard, of Worcester, England. 

PAGE, J. Seaver, manufacturer, b. in New 
York City, 30 Nov., 1844, son of Thomas and 
Harriett (Mikels) Page. His father, the son 
of Thomas Page, an English army officer, came 
to this country from Wootandundridge, in 
1812, settling in Boston, Mass. Here Thomas 
Page became one of Boston's most eminent and 
honored merchants and manufacturers J 
Seaver Page was educated in the public schools 
of New York City and after graduation at the 
College of the City of New York, in 1862, be- 
gan teaching in the German-American School 
in Twenty-second Street," New York City. 
While occupying this position, he participated 
in a competition for the professorship of Eng- 
lish in the German-American Institute, in 
Hoboken, N. J., then the largest German col- 
lege in America. His papers failed to arrive 
until after the competing papers had all been 
considered, but his work was so superior that 
he was chosen for the office. Six months later, 
he resigned his professorship and the salary 
of $2,000 a year, and entered the firm of F. 
W. Devoe and Company, now F. W. Devoe 
8 nd C. T, Raynolds Company, as a dork, where 
le received $12.00 a week. Intelligence, in- 

dustry, and careful methods on his part speed- 
ily won recognition from his employers and 
successive promotion. In 1869 he was ad- 
mitted to partnership in the business. His 
entire career was destined to be identified 
with this enterprise, which he saw developed 
from a comparatively small business only a 
few years old, into what is now a gigantic in- 
dustry with a world-wide reputation. In this 
period, also, he has influenced many important 
changes in the 
production of 

paints, colors, 

brushes, and var- 
nishes. In 1895 
Mr, Page was 
elected vice-presi- 
dent of the com- 
pany, when the 
firm was reorgan- 
ized and assumed 
its present name. 
Mr. Page has been 
connected with the 
enterprise more 
than fifty years. 
He is esteemed no 
less for his char- 
acteristics of cour- 
tesy and affability 
than he is re- /I ^ . 

spected for his C^ gci^jcu^r<^\^ /^-^jt^ 
business ability, /j ^ 

sturdy integrity, ^ 

and unflinching devotion to his responsi- 
bilities. Though of simple tastes and quiet 
demeanor, his strong personality impresses 
itself upon all with whom he comes in 
contact. He is a man of deep culture, and has 
been long identified with the College of the 
City of New York. He is also a member of 
the New York Athletic Club, Union League 
Club (secretary in 1891-92), St Nicholas So- 
ciety, Westminster Kennel Club, and of St. 
Bartholomew's Church He was appointed a 
trustee of the Brooklyn Bridge by Mayor 
Strong, and served until the consolidation of 
Greater New York. Mr. Page is an ardent Re- 
publican in politics and for many years has 
labored earnestly for the interests of the 
party. On 15 Dec , 1869, he married Lizzie, 
daughter of Henry B Deventer, of Bound 
Brook, N. J. They have one daughter, Helen, 
wife of Arthur W Francis, of New York City. 
KEECH, Frank Browne, banker and broker, 
b. in Wicomico, Md , son of 

James Alexander and Emily (Bean) Keech 
His earliest paternal American ancestor, James 
Keech, came to this country from England in 
1670, settling in St Mary's County, Md. He 
was a member of the first legislative assembly 
of Maryland, and captain of a company formed 
for the protection of the colony Frank B. 
Keech was educated in the Charlotte Hall 
School, and entered the National :Military 
Academy at West Point He relinquished the 
intention of serving in the army, however, and 
entered upon a business career in a brokerage 
office in New York City in 189:^ Ho early 
developed marked business lahMits and un- 
tiring energy, his well-bjilancod forces being 
manifest in sound judgment and a roii<ly and 
rapid understanding of any ijroblcin (hat might 
be presented for solution The number of Mr. 




Keech's interests throughout his business 
career would seem nothing short of marvelous 
to one unacquainted with his extraordinary 
mental powers and rare executive ability. In- 
tensely public-spirted, he takes an active 
part in every movement which in his judgment 
tends to promote the best interests of his city 
and State Mr. Keech is a stanch believer 
in preparedness and declares that " every 
American citizen should be prepared in time 
of need to protect the flag and that all young 
men should obtain a military education " The 
liberal views and genial personality of Mr 
Keech have drawn around him a circle of 
friends and he is one of the city's most prom- 
inent club men, being governor in the Tuxedo 
Club, and a member of the Union, Metro- 
politan, Riding, and Racquet Clubs. Mr. 
Keech's personal appearance is an index to 
his character, giving the impression of intense 
vitality and alertness, while the keen yet 
kindly eyes idicate penetrating observation and 
withal a lovable and magnetic nature — a fact 
which goes far to account for the uniform 
success of his undertakings. In 1893 he mar- 
ried Clara Joy, daughter of George G Wil- 
liams, president of the Chemical National 
Bank of New York City. They have one son, 
Gilbert Keech. 

MOHLER, Adam I., railway official, b. in 
Reamstown, Pa , 6 May, 1849, son of George 
and Elmira (Ruth) Mohler. Through his 
father he is of Swiss extraction, the first of 
the name to come to this country, having emi- 
grated from Switzerland in 1730 and settled in 
Ephrata, Pa. He spent his boyhood days in 
healthy activity on his father's farm, laying 
up a store of energy and health for future 
years. His educational advantages were 
meager, being confined to those aflforded by the 
common schools of Sterling, 111., whence his 
father had removed in the hope of bettering 
his fortune in the West. In 1867 he entered 
the railroad service, in which he was destined 
to have such a remarkable career, becoming, 
in 1868, assistant to the station agent of the 
Chicago and Northwestern Railway, at the 
small town of Gait, 111. From the beginning 
his rise was steady and uninterrupted until 
he became the chief executive of one of the 
most important railroad systems of the coun- 
try. He was soon promoted to the position of 
station agent at Gait, and remained there 
several years, his varied duties as a country 
station-master giving him an intelligent grasp 
of many phases of railroad management The 
year 1882 saw the real beginning of Mr Moh- 
ler's rise to prominence in railroading, when 
he was made general freight agent of the St 
Paul, Minneapolis and Manitoba Railway 
After several intermediate promotions he be- 
came assistant general manager of the Great 
Northern Railway, and in 1888 was made gen- 
eral manager of that road, an office which he 
retained for two years. During 1880-93 he 
served as general manager of the Montana 
Central Railway, resigning this position to be- 
come general manager of the Minneapolis and 
St. Louis Railway. In 1897 he entered a new 
field of activity as president and general man- 
ager of the Oregon Railway and Navigation 
Company, a position which he filled from 1 
July, 1897, to" 1 April, 1904. He was also 
president of the Portland and Asiatic Steam- 

ship Company, and of the Ilwaco Railway and 
Navigation Company. He became vice-presi- 
dent and general manager of the Union Pacific 
Railroad in 1904, serving in that capacity for 
four years. On 13 Oct., 1911, he became 
president and general manager of the Union 
Pacific System, comprising the Union Pacific 
and Oregon Short Line Railways. Mr. Moh- 
ler is a member of the Omaha Club, the Tech- 
nical Club, and the Bear River Club of Utah. 
He married, in Cedar Rapids, la , 7 Feb., 1877, 
Jennie, daughter of Capt W. W. Smith, of 
Cedar Rapids, la. Of their two children, one, 
Anna Marie Mohler, survives. 

ADE, George, author and humorist, b. in 
Kentland, Ind., 9 Feb., 1866, son of John and 
Adaline (Bush) Ade. He was graduated at 
Purdue University in 1887 with the degree of 
B S. While in college he displayed his ready 
wit in the college paper and shortly after 
graduation became reporter and telegraph 
editor on the Lafayette (Ind.) '* Evening Call." 
In 1891 he joined the Chicago "Daily News" 
(now the "Record") as reporter and special 
writer.' His brisk, humorous style immedi- 
ately attracted attention, and he began to 
write semi-philosophical and wittily slangy 
sketches. In his original way he clearly ex- 
pressed what he meant to say, and his pic- 
turesque writings enjoyed a heavy demand. 
His "Fables in Slang," which appeared first 
in the New York "Herald," helped to make 
him famous throughout the United States. 
In 1900 he resigned his position on the Chi- 
cago "Record." His published works include 
"Artie" (1896); "Pink Marsh" (1897); 
"Doe Home" (1898); "Fables in Slang" 
(1899); and "More Fables" (1900); "The 
Girl Proposition" (1902); "People You 
Knew" (1903); "Breaking into Society" 
(1903); "True Bills" (1904); "In Pastures 
New" (1906); "The Slim Princess" (1907); 
"Knocking the Neighbors" (1912); " Ade's 
Fables" (1914). From these sketches and 
stories he "graduated" into the rank of the 
comedy dramatist and comic opera librettist, 
his dialogue retaining the snap and humor of 
his earlier work. His operas and plays in- 
clude "The Sultan of Sulu " (1902); "The 
County Chairman" (1903); "Peggy from 
Paris" (1903); " Sho-Gun " (1904); "College 
Widow" (1904); "The Bad Samaritan" 
(1905); "Just out of College" (1905); 
"Marse Covington" (1906); "Mrs. Peck- 
ham's Carouse" (1906); "Father and the 
Boys" (1907); "The Fair Co-Ed " (in which 
Elsie Janis starred in 1908) ; " The Old Town " 
(1909); and "Nettie" (1914). Mr. Ade 
is an active and respected citizen of Indiana, 
where his reputation is second only to that of 
the late James Whitcomb Riley. He was a 
delegate to the Republican National Conven- 
tion in 1908; has been a trustee of Purdue 
University since 1909, was one of the grand 
council of the Sigma Phi Fraternity in 1909, 
and is a member of the National Institute of 
Arts and Letters. He is unmarried. 

HABERKORN, Christian Henry, manufac- 
turer, b, in Detroit, Mich, 27 July, 1856; 
d in Detroit 2 June, 1915, son of Henry and 
Margaret (Kolby) Haberkorn. He was of 
German ancestry, the descendant of an old 
Bavarian family which moved to Hesse 
Darmstadt early in the fifteenth century. 




His father (1831-1908), born in Altenburg, 
Hesse Darmstadt, the youngest son of the 
mayor of that city, came to America in 1851, 
and settled in Detroit, Mich., where he be- 
came a prominent builder. His mother was 
also a native of Germany. Henry Haberkorn 
was educated in the public schools of Detroit, 
and in his young manhood followed his 
father's trade. Early in the seventies he went 
to California and engaged in the construction 
of several of the first pretentious buildings 
erected in San Francisco. Then returning to 
Detroit, he began the manufacture of furni- 
ture, and in 1878, started his first indepen- 
dent business venture by establishing the firm 
of C. H. Haberkorn and Company. The busi- 
ness was incorporated in 1904 with Mr. Haber- 
korn as its president, a position which he re- 
tained until his death. From the time of its 
inception he had been the leading spirit and 
guiding genius of the enterprise, which under 
his management grew to be one of the largest 
concerns of its kind in the United States, 
Mr. Haberkorn held a prominent place among 
the business men of the country, and al- 
though his energy was mainly devoted to the 
building up of C. H. Haberkorn and Com- 
pany, he was identified with a number of other 
interests in Detroit. He early saw the possi- 
bilities of real estate investment in and about 
Detroit, and owned considerable property 
which he improved and developed. He also in- 
vested largely in various manufacturing and 
banking activities throughout the country. 
He was vice-president of the Pressed Steel 
Manufacturing Company in 1908-11; presi- 
dent of the Universal Motor Truck Company 
in 1910-11; treasurer of Grosse Pointe Park 
Corporation in 1913-15; and president of the 
Haberkorn Investment Company in 1914-15. 
He was never interested in politics to any 
great degree, and never held or desired pub- 
lic office. He was a member of the Detroit 
Club, the Detroit Country Club, Detroit Golf 
Club, the Old Club, Wayne Club, the Detroit 
Board of Commerce, and the Geographical So- 
ciety of America. He married, in 1884, 
Frances Harriet Ruehle, daughter of Fred- 
erick Ruehle, a prominent figure in the early 
city government of Detroit, who had been 
president of the board of public works and 
one of the four founders of the old " Michigan 
Democrat." She died in 1910, and Mr. 
Haberkorn married, in 1913, Helen Hortense 
Harvey, daughter of Fred C. Harvey, an at- 
torney of Detroit, who died the following year. 
He was the father of two children by his first 
marriage: Christian Henry Haberkorn, Jr., 
and Adelaide Dorothea Haberkorn. By his 
second marriage there was one child, Henry 
Harvey Haberkorn. 

WILSON, William Lyne, statesman and first 
president of Washington and Lee University, 
b, in JefTerson County, Va , 3 May, 1843; d 
in 1900, son of Benjamin and Mary (Lyne) 
Wilson He studied at Charlestown Academy 
and Columbian University (D. C), and in 
1860, after graduation at the latter institu- 
tion, entered the University of Virginia. 
There he remained until the outbreak of the 
Civil War, when he enlisted in the Confed- 
erate ranks At the close of the war, Mr Wil- 
son was made professor of Latin in Columbian 
University, but after a few years resigned 

to practice law in Charlestown, Va., continu- 
ing in this occupation for more than eleven 
years. He was a delegate to the Democratic 
National Convention of 1880, and two years 
later he was made president of West Virginia 
University, but resigned shortly afterward, 
being elected to the Forty-eighth Congress. 
He served by re-election six successive terms, 
or until the Fifty-fourth Congress, when he 
was defeated. In 1890 Mr. Wilson declined 
the offer of the presidency of Missouri Uni- 
versity, preferring to remain in Congress. He 
was made permanent chairman of the Demo- 
cratic National Convention in 1892. During 
his last term in Congress Professor Wilson 
was chairman of the Committee of Ways and 
Means, and it was largely due to his efforts 
that the purchasing clause of the Sherman 
Silver Act was repealed. Professor Wilson 
was also the author of the much-discussed 
tariff bill, which bears his name, and upon 
its passage in the House he was lifted to the 
shoulders of his admirers and borne trium- 
phantly from the hall. The Wilson tariff act 
contained a provision for an income tax, a 
feature which was declared unconstitutional 
by the Supreme Court. Thus the bill was 
stripped of one of its principal sources of 
revenue, and the national treasury was speed- 
ily emptied, bringing upon the author of the 
bill much unmerited abuse. In 1895 Mr. 
Wilson was appointed to the Cabinet of Presi- 
dent Cleveland as Postmaster-General, and 
served until the close of his term, when he 
accepted the presidency of Washington and 
Lee University. Professor Wilson served six 
years as a regent in the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution. The degree of LL.D. was conferred 
upon him by the University of Mississippi, 
West Virginia University, Tulane University, 
Hampden-Sidney College, Va , Columbian Uni- 
versity, and the Central College (Mo.). Mr. 
Wilson married 6 Aug., 1868, Nannie, daugh- 
ter of Rev. Dr. A. J. Huntington, dean of 
Columbian University (now George Washing- 
ton University), Washington, D. C. 

WALKER, Thomas Barlow, lumberman, b. 
in Xenia, Ohio, 1 Feb., 1840, son of Piatt and 
Anstis Keziah (Barlow) Walker. He traces 
his descent from New England and Puritan 
stock. Early thrown upon his own resources, 
he steadfastly adhered to the ambition to se- 
cure a thorough education. He attended Bald- 
win University, at Berea, Ohio, for a limited 
period, and by close application and improv- 
ing every extra hour, he was able to complete 
a thorough course of study, mostly outside of 
the university. He taught school for a time, 
and later was a traveling salesman. In 1862 
he went to Minneapolis, and for about twelve 
years was engaged on surveys for the govern- 
ment and for the St. Paul and Duluth Rail- 
road. He has been the largest operator in 
Minnesota timber lands, and lumbering in the 
pine timber, in that State. He also has ex- 
tensive interests in California white and sugar 
pine. He was projector and builder of St. 
Louis Park, on the outskirts of Minneapolis, 
and of the trolley line loading to it, Mr. 
Walker has extensive property in Minneapolis. 
He built there the central city market, and 
the wholesale commission district, by which 
Minneapolis has boon placed in the front rank 
as a wholesale and retail market. It ia 




aflBrmed that this central market is beyond 
doubt the best adapted for doing produce busi- 
ness of any in the United States. Mr. Walker 
was primarily responsible for the development 
of the library system of Minneapolis. For a 
long period he labored to enlarge "the old 
Athenseum Library Association into a more 
public and generally useful institution, ex- 
tending its benefits to the whole city. He 
then became instrumental in establishing the 
present public library, and was one of the 
most generous contributors to the fund re- 
quired by the city from private sources be- 
fore entering upon public appropriations to 
build and maintain it. In establishing this, 
he was particularly interested in providing for 
the Public Art Gallery, the Museum, and the 
Minneapolis Art School. He has been an- 
nually elected as a director and as president 
of the board ever since it was organized 
twenty-five years ago. He donated a large 
and magnificent collection of paintings for the 
library, which for many years was in its origi- 
nal art room. Within the past decade he has 
paid the expense of finishing the new gallery 
and the museum room. More than four-fifths 
of the pictures in the main art room were 
donated by him. He has also been deeply in- 
terested in building up the Academy of 
Science, to which he has contributed many 
cases of valuable specimens, He is president 
of the association, and is continually adding 
to the already considerable collection of rare 
and beautiful objects of art and nature. Mr 
Walker's collection of old-world and American 
masterpieces has contributed greatly to the 
pleasure and education of all lovers of art who 
have had opportunity to visit the gallery in 
the wing of the Walker residence, which is 
open to visitors six days of the week with no 
admission fee. Containing examples of the 
highest art, it is accounted the finest and most 
attractive collection, either public or private, 
in the world. The entire collection in the gal- 
leries at Mr. Walker's home, together with 
those in the public library, number more than 
five hundred, all selected on the basis of the 
most careful judgment. In addition to the 
collection of paintings, there is an equally 
unexcelled collection of porcelains, bronzes, 
jades, ancient and modern high-grade glass, 
carved crystals of pink and white, including 
white and rose quartz, amethyst, lapis lazuli, 
ancient Chinese snuff-bottles, and ivory carv- 
ings Mr. Walker is deeply interested in the 
conservation of our forests, having prepared 
an important review of the forestry question 
in the " National Magazine," besides furnish- 
ing various papers for the Conservation Com- 
mission, the U. S. Forestry Department, the 
Interior Department, and the Ways and 
Means Committee of the House, for considera- 
tion in the tariff on lumber. He has also de- 
livered an address on conservation before the 
Minnesota Academy of Science. Mr. Walker 
has given much time and attention, and has 
contributed liberally, to the work of the local, 
State, and national Young Men's Christian 
Association. He is chairman of the board of 
trustees of the local institution in Minne- 
apolis, and is a member of the International 
Committee of New York City; also a member 
of the American Economical Association, Na- 
tional Geographical Society, American For- 

estry Association, American Academy of Po- 
litical and Social Science, Minnesota State 
Horticultural Society, Minneapolis Chapter of 
the American Institute of Banking, Forestry 
Society of California, State Forestry Associa- 
tion of Minneapolis, Commonwealth Club of 
California, and the Commercial Club of 
Minneapolis. He is especially a practical 
business man, and seeks by careful study and 
the results of his own experience and that of 
others, to view public questions from the 
standpoint of business affairs His character 
is above reproach, and no dishonest dollar 
has ever come into his possession. He mar- 
ried 19 Nov., 1863, Harriet Granger, daughter 
of Fletcher Hulet, of Berea, Ohio. For many 
years Mrs. Walker has been widely known for 
her philanthropic work. Mr. and Mrs. Walker 
have eight children. 

AGNEW, Daniel, jurist, b. in Trenton. N. J., 
5 Jan., 1809; d. in Beaver, Pa., 9 March, 
1902, His grandfather was a native of Ireland 
and a soldier in the Revolution, his father 
was a noted physician of Pittsburgh, and his 
mother, a daughter of Maj. Richard Howell 
of Revolutionary fame. He was graduated at the 
Western University, Pittsburgh, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar at the age of twenty, engag- 
ing in the practice of law first in Pittsburgh 
and then in Beaver. From the beginning of 
his career he was active in politics, first as a 
Whig, later as a Republican. He composed 
the so-called " Dickey Amendment," which 
was proposed in the Pennsylvania legislature 
by his colleague, John Dickey, under which 
the appointment and length of office of the 
judiciary were regulated until 1850. A nomi- 
nation for the U. S. Senate was offered 
to him, but he declined, stumping the State, 
however, for President Harrison in 1840, for 
Henry Clay in 1844, and for Taylor and Fill- 
more in 1848. In 1851 Mr. Agnew was ap- 
pointed president judge of the Seventeenth 
.Judicial District, and in 1861 was unanimously 
elected, serving until his nomination as 
judge, Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, on the 
ticket with Governor Curtin. Among Judge 
Agnew's most famous decisions was that in 
the case of John Welsh, who was made pris- 
oner on board the Confederate vessel " Jeff 
Davis"; the decision in the matter of Con- 
gress' right to issue treasury notes as legal 
tender; the decision against a deserter's right 
to vote; a decision in 1867 against race dis- 
crimination, previous to the passage of the 
fourteenth amendment; and the decision ren- 
dered in 1872, modifying the rule to exclude 
jurors, who had formed a previous opinion, 
from serving in a capital case. This last de- 
cision, which largely modified previous prac- 
tice, was followed notably in the trial of 
Guiteau, the assassin of President Garfield. 
In 1873 he was made chief justice, from which 
office he retired in 1879, devoting the re- 
mainder of *his life to wielding his weighty 
influence for the public good. He appeared as 
counsel for Allegheny County in the prosecu- 
tions following the riots of 1877, as also in 
the case of Kelly vs. City of Pittsburgh. The 
degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by both 
Washington and Dickinson Colleges. He was 
married to Elizabeth Moore, daughter of Gen. 
Robert Moore, and was survived by six chil- 




MANNING, Daniel, Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, b. in Albany, N. Y., 16 Aug., 1831; d. 
there 24 Dec, 1887. Leaving school when 
but twelve years old, he obtained a position 
in the office of a local newspaper, the " Atlas," 
which shortly afterward became the "Argus." 
With this paper he was identified all his life. 
During 1865, when he became its associate ed- 
itor, he assumed full charge. About this 
time Mr. Manning gave considerable atten- 
tion to politics and the able editorials from 
his pen proved telling blows in the subsequent 
war on the Tweed " ring," when he was the 
acknowledged leader of his country among 
those of the Democratic party who were com- 
bating the influence of the Tammany "boss." 
Mr. Manning's energetic work finally resulted 
in breaking the power of the "ring" in the 
legislature. In 1873 he became proprietor of 
the "Argus," and, changing somewhat the 
policy of the paper, soon brought it to a point 
where it attained a powerful political in- 
fluence, not only in the county, but through- 
out the State. In 1874 he was a delegate to 
the Democratic State Convention at Syra- 
cuse, and upon the subsequent election of 
Samuel J. Tilden to the governorship, Mr. 
Manning devised several measures for reform 
in the management of prisons and canals, 
which were later adopted and proved very 
successful. In 1876 he was a member of the 
Democratic State Committee; became its sec- 
retary in 1879, and chairman in 1881, con- 
tinuing in the latter office until 1883. In 
the Democratic National Conventions of 1876, 
1880, and 1884, he controlled the delegations 
from his State. Throughout the presidential 
campaign of 1884 Mr. Manning worked ard- 
uously for the election of Grover Cleveland, 
for whom he had always entertained a high 
regard. When, in March, 1885, President 
Cleveland was forming his Cabinet, he ap- 
pointed Mr. Manning Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, considering him well fitted for this office 
by his long service as a director of the Albany 
and Susquehanna Railroad and of the Nation- 
al Savings Bank of Albany. Mr. Manning 
had also been a director of the National Com- 
mercial Bank of Albany since 1873; becoming 
its vice-president in 1881, and its president in 
the following year. At the time of his ap- 
pointment to the Cabinet of Clevelend he was 
also a director of the Electric Light Company 
of Albany. As Secretary of the Treasury, 
he evinced many sterling qualities, but in 
April, 1887, after two years' service, he was 
forced to resign because of ill health. Upon 
taking several months of complete rest, he re- 
cuperated, and in October of the same year 
accepted the presidency of the Western Na- 
tional Bank of New York. The change in his 
condition, however, was only temporary, and 
his death occurred two montlxs later. Mr. 
Manning was married in 1853 to Mary Lee, 
and had four children. 

HADLEY, Herbert Spencer, governor of Mis- 
souri, b. at Olathe, Kan., 20 Feb., 1872, son of 
John Milton and Harriet (Beach) Hadley. He 
is a descendant of Simon Hadley, a native of 
Ireland, who located in Pennsylvania in 1712. 
His father served in the Civil War, attaining 
the rank of major, and. held sundry civil 
offices, including that of State senator. Her- 
bert S. Hadley was graduated at the Kansas 

State University in 1892, and the Northwestern 
Law School in 1894. Admitted to the bar 
in the same year he began practice in Kansas 
City, Mo. He was first assistant city coun- 
selor from 1898 to 1901 and prosecuting at- 
torney of Jackson County, Mo., for the two 
years following. In 1904 he was elected attor- 
ney-general of Missouri, and became identified 
with the reform movement, which, initiated 
by the wide publicity given to various trust 
scandals, had become country-wide. The pros- 
ecution of the Standard Oil Company in Mis- 
souri was conducted by him. Securing the tes- 
timony of Messrs. Archbold, Rogers, and other 
magnates, he proved his charges and gave the 
basis for prosecutions in other States. Rail- 
road, fire insurance, and lumber companies, the 
harvester trust and the race-track gamblers 
were also successfully prosecuted by him, and 
in case of the first mentioned his efforts re- 
sulted in fixing the passenger rate at two 
cents per mile in the State. His fame as a 
champion of the people's rights had become 
national and his popularity in Missouri re- 
sulted in his election on the Republican ticket 
in 1908, as governor of the State by a majority 
of 15,879. Radical reform measures were 
enacted during his administration, including 
the initiative and referendum (Constitutional 
amendment) ; the establishment of a third court 
of appeals and juvenile courts for counties of 
50,000 population and over. Governor Hadley 
became a power in the councils of the Re- 
publican party, siding with the younger, rad- 
ical element in the party, represented in Con- 
gress by the so-called insurgents. In 1912 
he was prominently mentioned for the vice- 
presidency, and even the presidency. He 
was, however, too much out of sym- 
pathy with Mr. Taft's policies to accept a 
place on the ticket with him; yet he refused 
to leave the ranks of the party to join the 
Progressives, as many others did. Mr. Hadley 
received the degree of LL.D. from North- 
western University in 1909, and from Mis- 
souri State University in 1910. He was one 
of the organizers of the young Republican 
Association of Missouri, the National Associa- 
tion of Attorneys-General and the Knife and 
Fork Club of Kansas City, Mo. He married 
8 Oct., 1901, Agnes, daughter of Charles S, 
Lee, and had three children. 

BAEBEE, Ohio Columbus, manufacturer, 
man of afi'airs, b. at Middlebury, now a part 
of Akron, Ohio, 20 April, 1841, son of George 
and Eliza (Smith) Bafber. He was named 
after his native state and its capital and few 
of her sons have contributed more to her 
manufacturing fame, "^'he family is of English 
origin and was founded in America in the 
seventeenth century by five brothers. A well- 
authenticated tradition, which is commonly 
accepted as a genealogical fact, is that one of 
his forbears, Anna Bacon, was a full cousin 
to Francis Bacon, the groat English statesman 
and philosopher. His mother was of Holland 
stock. Her mother was born in America when 
Washington was President, and lived within 
the lifetime of every President down to Presi- 
dent Wilson. At the time of her death, she 
was within eighteen months of the ripe age 
of 100 years. His father, George Barl)er, was 
a native of Hartford, Conn., who was brought 
by his parents to Onondaga County, New 




York, as a child. Here he grew to manhood, 
learning the trade of a cooper. Moving west- 
ward to Ohio, he established himself as a 
cooper at Middlebury and so continuing un- 
til 1847, when he developed an initiative which 
culminated in a great industry, by embarking 
on a small scale in the making of matches. 
The " Lucifer," or sulphur match, was then 
almost unknown in the West, and a scarce arti- 
cle outside of the larger cities everywhere. 
This enterprise proved to be far-seeing and 
successful, finally developing into the largest 
manufactory of its kind in the world. He 
died 12 April, 1879, in his seventy-seventh 
year. Ohio C. Barber, his son, destined to be- 
come the head of this great industry, received 
a common-school education and began work for 
his father when he was fifteen years old. He 
developed in his youth an aptitude for affairs 
of which the chronicle is little short of mar- 
velous. At the age of twenty he became a 
partner in the match manufacturing business, 
and at the age of twenty-one, its general man- 
ager. The growth of the business was rapid, 
and in 1868 it was incorporated as the Barber 
Match Company with his father, George Bar- 
ber, as president, himself as secretary, treas- 
urer and general manager. Shortly before his 
father's death, in 1879, he became the presi- 
dent of the company. Two years later (1881), 
with that far-seeing genius for organization 
which has distinguished all the great captains 
of industry, he began the consolidation which 
resulted in the formation of the Diamond 
Match Company, which has become one of the 
largest industries in the world. Originally, 
Mr. Barber was vice-president of the company 
but became president in 1888, and continued 
for twenty-five years. His influence and meth- 
ods dominated the manufacture of matches 
to a great degree throughout the world for 
a quarter of a century. The system worked 
out in the research department of the Diamond 
Match Company, has been extended to every 
quarter of the globe. Machinery for making 
matches — manufactured at Barberton, a city 
of 20,000 population, founded by and named 
after Mr. Barber, the headquarters of this 
American industry — can be found all over 
Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, 
and South America. The sun never sets on 
factories in active operation making matches 
by the method and machinery developed by the 
genius and initiative, and the unflagging enter- 
prise of Ohio C. Barber. Not long after its 
inception, a branch of the Diamond Match 
Company was established in London, in asso- 
ciation with the well-known firm of Bryant 
and May, under which name the business was 
conducted. The factory for this enterprise was 
built in Liverpool and was the largest plant 
devoted to the making of matches in all the 
Eastern Hemisphere. From this plant matches 
were exported to all parts of the world. It 
was the greatest stimulus the business had 
known abroad since the first match was made, 
three-quarters of a century before. Later, 
plants were established in Germany and Switz- 
erland; still later, the May Company was or- 
ganized to consolidate the business of South 
Africa, where the manual process was per- 
formed by native Africans. Another develop- 
ment of world-embracing value of the research 
department of the Diamond Match Company 

was the manufacture of potash for commercial 
uses. It is said that no other concern has ever 
made a commercial success in the extraction 
of potash from kelp. The chemical process 
was discovered and worked out to perfection by 
VV. A. Fairburn, a chemist long connected with 
the Barber interests, and is one of the notable 
practical achievements in the science of chem- 
istry of the past century. Owing to this dis- 
covery the price of matches has not been 
raised since the European War shut ofT the 
old sources of potash supply. Mr. Fairburn 
is now president of the Diamond Match Com- 
pany. Naturally, as the president of a great 
corporation, Mr. Fairburn originates and de- 
velops numerous impro ements in methods of 
manufacture and for the extension of the com- 
pany's business, but he is also big enough to 
accept and put into active operation the sug- 
gestions of the man who first created and 
developed this great industry. While relieved 
of the burden of responsibility, Mr. Barber, 
as a sort of president emeritus, co-operates 
with the active president in solving the vari- 
ous perplexing problems which are encountered 
in the constant expansion of the company's 
business. Thus Mr. Barber and Mr. Fairburn 
perfected the modern process of match-making 
in which the "occupational disease," due to 
poisoning with phosphorus, was finally elimi- 
nated. This discovery was made public, in the 
interest of humanity, thus removing an aggra- 
vated cause of suflFering among workers. Also, 
Mr. Fairburn has worked out and applied the 
altruistic views of Mr. Barber in the treat- 
ment of employees and the promotion of their 
welfare. In the words of Mr. Fairburn : " The 
rule in handling the workers in all the Bar- 
ber concerns is that of co-operation, good- 
fellowship, and the development of an esprit 
de corps, rather than the method of ' scientific 
welfare work,' in which employees are treated 
rather as automatons and machines than as 
intelligent entities. The watchword is, there- 
fore, ' good-fellowship,' which is realized when 
there is an opportunity for unfettered develop- 
ment, and it is often expressed in a positive, 
reasoning, and harmonious co-operation with 
others, If the creed of the good-fellowship 
worker cauld find expression, I think it might 
run something like this : ' I believe in myself, 
my work and my fellows. I am a part of the 
company, and the company is mine. I am in 
part responsible for its progress and its stand- 
ing; it is worthy of my best thought and 
loyalty. My work is my channel of develop- 
ment, therefore the better service rendered 
the company, the greater my growth. It is 
interesting to note, in this connection, that, 
while the company heads have encouraged 
organization among its workers, there has 
never been a strike among them, and that, 
even when excellent off'ers have been made to 
many of them by large manufacturers of 
munitions, etc., there have been no cases of 
defection. The leading feature in this en- 
lightened policy is ready recognition and re- 
ward of exceptional effort, ability, and fidelity. 
Thus, each worker is encouraged to do his or 
her best, and to gain other advantages than 
a mere money bonus in the development of 
innate powers and abilities. With the suc- 
cessful development of the manufacture of 
matches on a scale hitherto unknown, Mr. 




Barber turned his attention to other 
lines of industry. Like so many other 
great men of affairs, he seemed to find his 
recreation in the pursuit of new enterprises. 
Thus, in 1889, he founded and organized the 
American Straw Board Company, of which he 
is still president. He is recognized as the 
potent spirit of this industry the world over. 
He was one of the early manufacturers of rub- 
ber products, which, as an industry, has devel- 
oped to such mammoth proportions. Mr. Barber 
organized ahd managed the Diamond Rubber 
Company up to the time of its acquirement by 
the B. F. Goodrich Company. The sewer-pipe 
and steel-tube industry next engaged his at- 
tention, and he became a western pioneer in 
this line of endeavor. He founded the Sterling 
Company which was merged a few years ago 
with the Babcock and Wilcox Boiler Manu- 
facturing Company of Barberton and Bayonne, 
N. J., the concern thus becoming the largest 
manufacturer of steel boilers in the world, 
working as they did under the most improved 
patents. For a number of years they con- 
structed four-fifths of the product used by the 
United States navy. One of the biggest 
achievements of Mr. Barber's career, particu- 
larly from the humanitarian and economical 
standpoints, was the establishment, with Fred- 
erick Grinnell and others, of the General Fire 
Extinguisher Company. No other of the sev- 
eral concerns in this field of industry has 
equaled the results of this one. Mr. Barber 
is the founder and sole owner of the O. C. 
Barber Concrete Company, whose plant at 
Barberton is said to be the largest of its kind 
in the world. It also makes art works in 
concrete. Another large enterprise originated 
by himself is the 0. C. Barber Fertilizer Com- 
pany, of Barber, Va. He has also undertaken 
the development of large tracts of land in and 
about the city of Canton, Ohio, in connection 
with which he has organized and is operating 
a large plant under the name of the 0. C. Bar- 
ber Allied Industries Company. Some of these 
lands contain valuable coal, lime, and clay 
properties. He is the original genius and 
guiding spirit of the great centralization trans- 
portation system, known as the Barber Sub- 
ways, at Cleveland. This is a plan which calls 
for the building of an underground system of 
subways connecting every railroad entering 
Cleveland, at the Lake Front, thus facilitating 
the handling of freight, and the establishment 
of the great warehouse system on the Lake 
Shore, where he owns large frontages. He has 
been the leading spirit in aff'airs in his own 
home town, Akron, for many years. He was, 
for many years, president of the First National 
Bank of Akron, and when it was consolidated 
with the Second National Bank under the name 
of the First-Second National Bank he was 
unanimously elected to the presidency of the 
combined institutions. He built the City Hos- 
pital of Akron at a cost of a quarter of a 
million dollars and presented it to the cor- 
poration. He has contributed generously to 
other important movements for the welfare of 
the community. In 1891 he founded and be- 
gan the development of the city of Barberton, 
Ohio, which, under his guiding hand, has 
grown into an important industrial center with 
a population of over 20,000. Of all Mr. Bar- 
ber's numerous enterprises none has come quite 

so near to his heart as the ideal country estate 
known as the "Anna Dean Farm," not far 
from Barberton, which he has developed not 
only into what is undoubtedly the model farm 
of the United States, but also, with his usual 
genius for the practical, into what promises 
to be a great utilitarian industry. This farm 
contains 3,500 acres, or nearly six square miles, 
in one of the most charming locations in the 
state. One of the natural features is a chain 
of beautiful lakes. Its topographical features 
are ideal, both for practical and recreative 
purposes. On the improvement of this beauti- 
ful tract, Mr. Barber has spent millions of 
dollars, constantly adding to it year by year, 
and all this wealth of natural and developed 
usefulness and beauty is to be left for the 
benefit of the general public at the owner's 
death. It is unquestionably the largest and 
most ideal venture in progressive agriculture 
and horticulture in the world to-day. It is 
Mr. Barber's purpose that it become a head 
center of special instruction of the highest 
type in these arts. Several colleges are now 
collaborating with Mr. Barber to combine and 
found on this beautiful estate a training-school 
in all the branches of the allied arts of agri- 
culture and horticulture, recognizing that op- 
portunities are here offered for instruction and 
practical experimentation which can be found 
nowhere else. The school will be a residential 
institution, governed by the broadest policy of 
improvement and opportunity for making good, 
and will be open to both sexes. Nearly 1,000 
head of cattle, horses, and other livestock are 
maintained constantly on the farm, in a series of 
model barns and pastures. Every modern method 
for the improvement of breeds and rearing of 
stock is in operation, on a scale scarcely ever 
attempted before, and with results that in- 
terest even experts. There is also an exten- 
sive poultry farm, squabbery, dairy, cannery, 
a slaughtering house and packing department, 
a mill for the grinding of meals, feeds, and 
flour, extensive silos, and all other equipment 
of the most up-to-date establishments. Every 
by-product is also utilized in a most intelli- 
gent and systematic manner. For example, 
animal by-products are utilized as fertilizer, 
which, together with large acreage of green 
vegetable manuring crops, are annually plowed 
under, making a combination of elements that 
cannot be equaled in any other way, and which 
is producing results that are attracting the 
attention of experts throughout the world. 
The great advantage of the system thus in 
operation is, that it is equally adaptable to 
the limited means of the ordinary farmer. 
Several of the cows on the farm have held, or 
now hold, the world's record for milk produc- 
tion, and, as is claimed with evident truth, 
no herd in the world to-day can equal that of 
the Anna Dean Farm in production, individ- 
uality, show animals, prominence of breeding, 
and general values. Among the large herd of 
horses, most of which are bred for heavy 
drafting, is the great Belgian sire ".lupitcr 
Chief," now (1917) about six years old, who, 
like many of his colta, has won niniu'rous jui/es 
and medals throughout the Tnited States. A 
force of 300 men is kept constantly at work in 
all departments of tlu; Anna Dean Farm. As 
a man of large affairs, all his life, Mr. Barber 
has of late years become a thinker for the 



people at large, and his recent pamphlets on 
various public questions have attracted 
national attention. Always fearless in his 
convictions, he has not hesitated to use strong 
words in his criticisms of public men and 
measures, and yet always there biats the sound 
heart of a true patriot and broad-minded friend 
of humanity. Shortly after the outbreak of 
the European War, he issued a carefully pre- 
pared personal document entitled, '* Rational 
Preparedness," which exhibited wide and ac- 
curate knowledge of national aflairs, and while 
sounding a true note of warning, took up, one 
by one, the problems of defense involved by 
land and sea, and pointed their solution with 
rare sagacity and knowledge. With a record 
of achievements which can modestly be called 
great, Mr. Barber, now in his seventy-seventh 
year, is still a man of large affairs — an or- 
ganizer, builder, and doer of large things. His 
physical strength is equal to his courage, and 
both to his ambition, and it is the beautiful 
wish of a very large and united community 
that his long, useful, and unselfish life may 
be prolonged to see the fullest realization of 
his splendid vision. Mr. Barber has married 
twice; first in 1866, Laura L. Brown, of 
Akron (deceased), by whom he had one daugh- 
ter, who is Mrs. Arthur Dean Bevan, of Chi- 
cago, and second Mary Orr, daughter of R. 
W. Orr, of Akron. 

COCHRANE, Alexander, manufacturer and 
capitalist, b. in Bar Head, Scotland, 12 May, 
1840, son of Alexander and Margaret (Rae) 
Cochrane, and a descendant of Archibald 
Douglas, fifth Earl of Angus, known in 
Scotch history as " Bell the Cat." He also 
traces his descent from King Robert Bruce, 
a leading figure in the history of Scotland. 
Mr. Cochrane's father, Alexander Cochrane, 
emigrated to this country in 1847, settling at 
first in Lodi, N. J. Later he removed to 
Billerica, Mass., where he engaged in the 
manufacture of chemicals. Alexander Coch- 
rane, Jr., was educated in the public and pri- 
vate schools of Billerica and Lowell, and at 
the age of eighteen was employed in his fa- 
ther's factory. He soon acquired a practical 
understanding of the business and, in 1859, 
when his father erected a chemical factory of 
his own in Maiden, Mass., his sons, Alex- 
ander, Jr., and Hugh Cochrane, were admitted 
as partners in the firm. The business was 
successful from the start, and in 1883 it was 
incorporated as the Cochrane Chemical Com- 
pany, with a capitalization of $350,000, and 
Alexander Cochrane as its president. A 
few years later the increase of the company's 
business made necessary its removal to 
Everett, Mass. Mr. Cochrane is a capable and 
efficient executive officer, and to his intelli- 
gence and good judgment may be attributed 
the prominent position held by the company 
-. in the chemical trade. His compelling en- 
thusiasm and indomitable energy, combined 
with his originality of conception, secure the 
unflagging devotion of those about him. He 
has extensive commercial and industrial inter- 
ests, and is a director in the American Bell 
Telephone Company, American Telephone and 
Telegraph Company, New York, New Haven 
and Hartford Railroad Company, the Boston 
and Maine Railroad Company, New England 
Navigation Company, Maine Central Railroad 




Company, director and vice-president New 
England Trust Company, trustee of the 
Massachusetts Electric Companies and presi- 
dent of the board of trustees of the Peter 
Bent Brigham Hospital. He was formerly a 
director in the Boston and Lowell Railroad 
Company and the Chicago, Burlington and 
Northern Railroad Company. Mr. Cochrane 
is a member of the Country Club, Brookline; 
the Somerset, Thursday Evening, and Union 
Clubs of Boston; the Restigouche Salmon and 
Long Point Shooting Clubs of Canada; and 
the Canaveral Club of Florida. In March, 
1869, he married Mary Lynde Sullivan, of 
Maiden, Mass., and they have seven children: 
Alexander L., Charlotte B., Hester S., F. 
Douglas, Marjorie C, James S., and Ethel 

OREENE, Charles Lyman, physician, b. in 
Gray, Me., 21 Sept., 1862, son of William 
Warren and Elizabeth (Lawrence) Greene. 
His father, a native of North Waterford, Me., 
was a surgeon of wide reputation, and pro- 
fessor in surgery at the University of Michi- 
gan, the Berkshire Medical College, Long 
Island Hospital College, and Bowdoin Col- 
lege. He was remarkable for his surgical 
daring and resource, and for his unusual 
dexterity and rapidity in operating, hav- 
ing been the first to operate successfully 
for goiter, then better known as " broncho- 
cele.'* Charles L. Greene was educated in the 
public schools of Portland, Me., and for two 
years in a private academy. He entered the 
University of Michigan in 1881, but was un- 
able to complete the first year laecause of his 
father's unexpected death at the comparatively 
early age of fifty years, and the financial 
stress which followed Later, however, he 
entered upon the study of medicine at the 
University of Minnesota, where he was grad- 
uated M.D. in 1890. He then pursued a 
course of graduate study abroad and in 
1890-91 was externe at Great Ormund Street 
Hospital, London; served in the same capacity 
at Johns Hopkins University in 1893; and 
at Harvard University during the years 1894, 
1895, and 1897. The year 1902 he spent in 
London and Paris, and in 1906 was in Heidel- 
berg, Germany. In 1889-90, while attending 
the University of Minnesota, he was appointed 
house physician of the City and County Hos- 
pital at St. Paul; was first assistant city and 
county physician in 1891-92; became instruc- 
tor in applied anatomy at the University of 
Minnesota in 1891, and was appointed clinical 
professor of physical diagnosis in 1897- In 

1903 he was made professor of theory of prac- 
tice of medicine and chief of the department, 
a position which he filled with honor until 
his resignation in June, 1915. From 1892 to 

1904 he was also medical director of the Min- 
nesota Life Insurance Company. Dr. Greene 
is widely known as a learned and successful 
physician and surgeon, and is prominent in 
all movements for promoting the public health. 
He is the author of several authoritative 
books, including his " Medical Diagnosis," of 
which the fourth edition has been issued; of 
"Medical Examinations for Life Insurance 
and Its Associated Clinical Methods," a val- 
uable treatise, now in its second edition, which 
is the result of many years' experience as 
medical examiner for life insurance companies. 



and of numerous monographs and contribu- 
tions to medical journals. He is a member 
of the Minnesota State Board of Health, Asso- 
ciation of American Physicians, American Medi- 
cal Association, American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, American Geographi- 
cal Society, Minnesota Academy, and other 
medical and scientific societies; also of the 
Town and Country Club, Minnesota Club, White 
Bear Yacht Club; Country Life, Golf, Auto, 
and Minneapolis Clubs; is also of the Authors' 
Club, the American Universities Club, and the 
Royal Universities Club of London. He mar- 
ried 6 Oct., 1886, Jessie Rice, daughter of the 
late Justus B. Rice, of St. Paul, Minn. Their 
children are: Jessie Rice Greene, who married 
Frederick Ritzinger, and Dorothy Lawrence 

POND, Irving Kane, architect, b. in Ann 
Arbor, Mich., 1 May, 1857, son of Elihu Bart- 
lit and Mary Barlow (Allen) Pond. His 
earliest American ancestor, Samuel Pond, 
came from England and settled in Connecticut, 
at a date not definitely known, though there 
is a record of his marriage in the year 1642. 
His father was a pioneer newspaper editor 
and publisher in Michigan, being first presi- 
dent of the Michigan Press Association and 
for twenty-five years editor and publisher of 
the Michigan (afterward the Ann Arbor) 
"Argus." He was also a member of the 
Michigan senate and for two years warden 
of the State prison. Irving K. Pond was edu- 
cated in the public schools of Ann Arbor and 
in the University of Michigan, where he was 
graduated in 1879 with the degree of C.E 
In the same year he went to Chicago, where 
he spent a few years in the office of a promi- 
nent architect. After this he traveled abroad, 
to finish his architectural studies by means of 
actual observation. In 1886 he entered into 
partnership with his brother, Allen Bartlit 
Pond. Together they have designed numerous 
buildings, private, institutional, and public, 
among the latter being the Federal Building 
at Kankakee, 111. They also built Hull House, 
in Chicago, for Miss Jane Addams; the Chi- 
cago Commons, for Dr. Graham Taylor, and 
numerous other settlement houses, being them- 
selves interested in social and political better- 
ment movements. They are also the archi- 
tects for the new Michigan Union, the college 
home of the students and alumni of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan. Mr. Pond has met the 
problems of his social and professional life 
with a force and determination of character 
which have not alone enabled him to win his 
way to success, but have earned for him the 
commendation of his fellow citizens and prac- 
titioners. He has served on the board of di- 
rectors of the American Institute of Archi- 
tects, six years; was its vice-president one 
year, and president for two years. He rep- 
resented the U. S. government and the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects at the Interna- 
tional Congress of Architects at Rome and 
Venice, in 1911, delivering addresses before 
the congress in both cities. In November of 
the same year he also appeared before the 
Royal Institute of British Architects. The 
honorary degree of A.M. was conferred on him 
by the University of Michigan in 1911. Mr. 
Pond was one of the founders of the Chicago 
Architectural Club, of which he is now an 


honorary member. He is an honorary mem- 
ber of the San Francisco, Los Angeles and the 
South Bend Architectural Clubs; of the Na- 
tional Institute of Arts and Letters; of the 
Little Room (a founder) ; of the Cliff Dwell- 
ers (a founder) ; of the Chicago Literary Club, 
and of the City and University Clubs of Chi- 
cago. He was president of the Illinois Society 
of Architects, In recent years he has con- 
tributed liberally to the architectural journals 
and has reviewed many books dealing with 
the subject for the Chicago " Dial " and other 
literary papers. 

JENKINS, John James, jurist, b. in Wey- 
mouth, England, 20 Aug. 1843; d. at Chip- 
pewa Falls, Wis., 10 June, 1911, son of, Fran- 
cis K. and Mary 
Ann (Atkins) Jen- 
kins. When he 
was an infant his 
parents emigrated 
to this country. 
He was educated 
in the public 
schools of Sauk 
County, Wis., and 
although an ele- 
mentary school 
training was all 
that he was able V 
to acquire in \ 
youth, his keen V 
mind and habits 
of study and ob- 
servation enabled 
him to acquire a 
broad culture. At the outbreak of the 
Civil War, he enlisted in the Federal army, 
and was mustered out after four years of 
service. He then entered upon the study 
of law, and a few years later began his 
professional career in Sauk County, Wis., 
where he rapidly built up an extensive prac- 
tice. In 1867 he was appointed clerk of the 
circuit court of Sauk County, and after serv- 
ing three years, resigned his position to go 
to Chippewa Falls, Wis., where he was as- 
semblyman and county judge. He was also 
city attorney during five terms; U. S. district 
attorney for Wyoming one year, and a mem- 
ber of Congress for fourteen years, from 1887 
to 1910. During this period he served with 
credit as a member of several important com- 
mittees. In 1910 he was made justice of the 
Supreme Court of Porto Rico, but his career 
was terminated by his death after one year 
of service. Judge Jenkins was a man of lofty 
ideals, high principles and accurate judgment, 
which commanded confidence and respect. He 
was a thirty-second degree Mason and a mem- 
ber of several fraternal and social organizations. 
On 15 Nov., 1868, he married Esther M. 
Thompson, of Oconomowoe. Wis. 

McMURTRY, George Gibson, manufacturer, 
b. near Belfast, Ireland, 28 May, 18;?8: d. in 
Atlantic City, N. J., 5 Aug., 1015, son of 
Thomas and Agnes (Gibson) MoMurtry. He 
belonged to a distinguished Ulster family of 
Scottish origin, whose ancestors had ooine oxer 
to Ireland during the reign of .Tames I., when 
the British government songht to leaven the 
spirit of Irish rebellion by establishing the 
"Ulster Plantation," a colony of loyal Scott. 
Mr. McMurtry's father, Thomas McMurtry, was 




a prominent merchant of Belfast, who married 
the daughter of a manufacturer in the linen 
industry, on which is based the industrial im- 
portance of the city. Both his parents died 
while Mr. McMurtry was still a mere child and 
he came under the care of an uncle, who 
farmt'd an estate near the city. Here he ac- 
quired his early education, but the boy's super- 
abundant energy, combined with a boyish thirst 
for adventure, created in him a restless desire 
to obtain a broader view of the world than 
could be attained from a small Irish village. 
Recognizing a quality in the boy which needed 
intelligent guidance rather than suppression, 
his uncle finally consented to his departure 
for America, whither an elder brother had 
already gone some years previously. Being 
provided with the means to travel, young Mc- 
Murtry finally sailed and eventually reached 
Detroit, Mich., where he joined his brother. 
Then began a somewhat varied business career. 
As with all ambitious young men he resisted 
the temptation to settle in the first groove in 
which he established himself and constantly 
sought new opportunities. This tendency 
brought him to Chicago, where he found em- 
ployment in the office of Jones and Laughlin. 
Another change brought him to Pittsburgh, 
where he was in the service of James Wood 
and Company for a while. Then, for a while, 
he was in independent business with a partner, 
William Charles, under the firm name of 
Charles and McMurtry, manufacturing nuts 
and bolts. Again he entered the service of 
Jones and Laughlin, now known in the steel 
industry as the Jones and Laughlin Steel Com- 
pany. Then came the outbreak of the Civil 
War, and abandoning his business connections, 
Mr. McMurtry responded to the call of the 
President for volunteers by enlisting in Knapp's 
Pennsylvania Battery, in which he served 
throughout the four years' duration of hos- 
tilities. After being mustered out of service 
he returned to Pittsburgh and resumed his 
business career. He became connected with 
the Volta Iron Company, Ltd., in Apollo, Pa,, 
from which emerged, at a later date, the Volta 
Galvanizing Works and which bought black 
sheets from the parent organization and gal- 
vanized them. In 1885 Mr. McMurtry began 
his first independent business operations by 
organizing the Apollo Iron and Steel Com- 
pany, which acquired the puddling mill and 
sheet plant of the Volta Iron Works, in 
Apollo, and also built two fifteen-ton open- 
hearth furnaces, for the purpose of manufac- 
turing black sheet steel. From the beginning 
the enterprise developed with almost phe- 
nomenal success, until to-day it is the largest 
single sheet mill in the country and the model 
plant of its kind under the control of the 
United States Steel Corporation. On this busi- 
ness success alone Mr. McMurtry's name looms 
up big not only in the steel industry, but in the 
industrial development of the whole country. 
He was, during his active career, reckoned as 
one of the big figures of that small group of 
men which established the industrial inde- 
pendence of the United States from the 
European nations of cheap labor. In the eco- 
nomic history of our country, which has yet 
to be written, Mr. McMurtry's name must 
necessarily run through more than one chap- 
ter. But aside from this his personality is 

closely associated with a more human phase of 
the steel industry than the mere development 
of giant manufacturing plants. While he may 
not have solved, at least he did clearly point 
to a solution of, the eternal problem of the 
relationship between capital and labor. His- 
tory must write him down as one who strug- 
gled with this problem; as one who refused to 
ignore the human element in the development 
of a nation's industries. During the early 
years of his management of the Apollo Iron 
and Steel Company, Mr. McMurtry came into 
very close contact with the labor problem. 
Regarding intemperance as the cause of much 
misery among the working people, as well as 
of inefficiency in the work performed, he en- 
deavored to eliminate this evil. In this en- 
deavor he found the whole forces of the labor 
unions arrayed against him. Strikes and other 
forms of friction followed and caused endless 
trouble. Mr. McMurtry saw no immediate so- 
lution. He then made an extended tour of the 
great European industrial centers, that he 
might study the labor problem in various 
fields, under varying conditions. The Krupp 
Works in Germany probably suggested to him 
the idea of a separate community; at any rate, 
he determined to experiment in this idea, apply- 
ing certain improvements of his own concep- 
tion. He therefore reorganized the Apollo 
Iron and Steel Company and built a new plant 
a few miles below Apollo, on the Kiskiminetas 
River, on a tract of farm land comprising 
some 640 acres. About this new plant he 
caused to be built, in the middle nineties, a 
small city of model homes, entirely given up 
to the employees of the mills, naming the com- 
munity Vandergrift, after his partner and 
great friend, Capt. J. J. Vandergrift. A de- 
tailed description of the new community was 
published in the "Iron Age" (21 Nov., 1901), 
just six years after it was founded. It con- 
stitutes one of the most remarkable and origi- 
nal experiments in the adjustment of the in- 
terests of labor with those of capital ever at- 
tempted in this country. For years the suc- 
cess of this experiment was of even importance 
to him with the interests of the business side 
of the Apollo Company itself. Eventually he 
proved conclusively that these two interests, 
those of the workers and those of the stock- 
holders of the company, were mutual. Sup- 
ported by the community spirit which he grad- 
ually developed among the employee-inhabitants 
of the city, he devoted his energy to making 
of it a model community. School buildings, 
libraries, churches, water supply, sewer system, 
lighting plant, sanitation, well-paved streets; 
these were all instituted on a model basis. The 
liquor traffic was completely eliminated, and 
the people found that that was good. Poverty 
disappeared before prosperity; content took 
the place of misery, and families who had 
known the bitterness of want found themselves 
gradually possessed of the luxuries of life. The 
keen pleasure which he found in this creative 
work finally culminated in an incident which 
gave him the full realization that his effort 
had been successful. When the American 
Sheet Steel Company was formed, in 1900, 
with Mr. McMurtry as president, then later 
merged into the American Sheet and Tin Plate 
Company, a subsidiary of the United States 
Steel Corporation, Mr. McMurtry felt justified 



Tn Q (5^4A^^<^ 



in retiring and taking up his residence in New 
York City. Shortly after this event he paid 
a casual visit to the city of his making, 
Vandergrift. Through a friendly ruse on the 
part of a committee hastily elected by the in- 
habitants, his stay was prolonged for a day, 
and then he suddenly found himself faced by 
a popular demonstration on the part of the 
entire population, including in its program the 
presentation to him by the people of a mag- 
nificent punch bowl, or loving cup, as some 
of the newspaper reports of the proceedings 
more elegantly described it. In words stum- 
bling over genuine emotion, the spokesman of 
the committee making the presentation speech, 
a roller in one of the mills, reviewed the his- 
tory of the community, then, after describing 
the ideal conditions existing, added : " The con- 
ditions in Vandergrift to-day are due largely 
to keeping the hearts of the working people 
above the bags of gold. When this policy be- 
comes more universal much will have been 
done to solve the problems of the industrial 
world . . . there is no mortal man dearer 
to the hearts of these sturdy steel workers 
than is their friend, president, and benefactor, 
George G. McMurtry." To this expression of 
sentiment the assembled inhabitants responded 
with an almost turbulent demonstration of 
enthusiasm. Deeply moved by the scene, Mr. 
McMurtry responded by immediately making 
every church in the community a present of 
a pipe organ. The punch bowl itself, a work 
of art from the studios of the famous Tiffany 
company in New York, was described as " a 
massive piece of fine repousse and modeled 
work, about sixteen inches in height, eighteen 
in diameter, and with a capacity of twenty 
quarts. The outside of the bowl is richly orna- 
mented with medallions, on which are engraved 
various progressive scenes from the history 
of the community and a portrait of Mr. Mc- 
Murtry." From his works may be judged the 
character of a man; Mr. McMurtry was pos- 
sessed of that broader vision which enables 
men to see into future epochs of a country's 
history. Of these there are the theoretical 
idealists, who reproduce their visions in the 
pages of printed books, and the practical men 
who adapt themselves to the laws of evolu- 
tion and work together with them, creating 
and developing the material evidences of the 
new age. Of the latter was George G. Mc- 
Murtry. He builded, and he builded so well 
that what he created stands to-day as one of 
the permanent institutions of the civilization 
which he so clearly foresaw a generation ago. 
Many of his contemporaries possessed these 
qualities also, but not all of them were pos- 
sessed of that human sympathy which caused 
him to attempt to alleviate that suffering which 
is naturally involved in the series of changes 
constituting progress. Mr. McMurtry also de- 
voted his energies to other enterprises outside 
of steel and iron; he was a director of the 
Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway, the 
American Can Company, the Rock Island Trust 
Company, and the Pittsburgh Trust Company. 
He was a member of the American Iron and 
Steel Institute, the British Iron and Steel In- 
stitute, and of many loading clubs, among them 
the Metropolitan Club of New York City. On 
7 June, 1870, Mr. McMurtry married Clara 
Lothrop, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Sylvanus 

Lothrop, of Pittsburgh, Pa. They had four 
children: Charles Wood (d. 25 Nov., 1914); 
George G., Jr.; Alden L.; and Edward P. 

BALATKA, Hans, musician, b. in Hoffnungs- 
thal, Moravia, Austria, 5 March, 1836; d. in 
Chicago, 111., 17 April, 1899. His parents were 
noted musicians. He studied law at Olmiitz, 
and after finishing the course was engaged as 
tutor by a wealthy family in Vienna. While 
there he perfected his knowledge of harmony 
and composition under Proch and Sechter. He 
began his musical career as conductor for sing- 
ing societies. In 1849 he started for America, 
settling in Milwaukee, Wis., where he founded 
the famous Musical Verein of Milwaukee, in 
1851. He produced several oratorios and 
operas, and conducted musical festivals in 
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Detroit, Chicago, and 
Pittsburgh. In 1860 he became leader of the 
newly founded Philharmonic Society of Chicago, 
in 1867 director of the Germania Mannerchor, 
and in the same year conducted a musical 
festival in Indianapolis. In 1868 he directed 
a musical festival at Chicago, which was pro- 
nounced the greatest that had been held in this 
country up to that time. He organized the 
Liederkranz Society in 1873, and later the 
Mozart Club and the Chicago Musical Verein. 
He was also director to the Arion des Western 
Musical Society and in 1879 he founded the Ba- 
latka Academy of Musical Art, in which his son 
Christian and his daughter Annie were teach- 
ers. He conducted the great Saengerfest in 
Chicago, with a chorus of 2,200, a mixed 
chorus of 1,200, and an orchestra of 150. Ba- 
latka's compositions, though few in number, 
reveal fine artistic taste and technical skill. 
Besides his addition of a suitable climax to 
Chopin's " Funeral March," in place of its 
abrupt ending, he composed a grand aria for so- 
pranoi with accompaniment, a piano quartette, 
a sonata, and several songs. He was the author 
of "A Condensed History of Music" (1888); 
"A History of Orchestra Music in Chicago," 
and contributed musical articles regularly to 
the Chicago " Daheim." 

OWENS, Michael Joseph, inventor and manu- 
facturer, b. in Mason County Va. (now West 
Virginia), 1 Jan., 1859, son of John and Mary 
(Chapman) Owens. His parents were natives 
of County Wexford, Ireland, and came to this 
country in the early forties of the last century. 
While a mere boy, Mr. Owens secured employ- 
ment in the glass factory of the Hobbs, 
Brockuenier Company, of Wheeling, W. Va. 
Being quick of perception he soon became one 
of the most proficient glass workers employed 
at the factory. In 1882, due to his progreasive- 
ness, he assisted in the organization of the 
Union Flint Glass Company, at Martins Forry, 
Ohio. Six years later he was offered an ad- 
vanced position with the Libbey Glass Com- 
pany, in Toledo, Ohio. Here he enjoyed a 
wider scope to display his abilities and his 
capacity was promptly recognized by the com- 
pany, and within three months' time ho was 
promoted to the position of managing the glass- 
working department. The oonHdonco of the 
company in his ability may be judged from tlio 
fact that when it bocamo an exhibitor at the 
World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 
1893, and established there a model glass fac- 
tory, Mr. Owens was placed in charge of the 




works. In 1895 Mr. Owens with Edward D. 
Libbey organized the Toledo Glass Company, 
for the purpose of manufacturing glass tum- 
blers, gas globes, lamp chimneys, etc., by means 
of a special machine which he had invented 
and patented. The United States rights were 
sold to the Macbeth-Evans Glass Company of 
Pittsburgh, Pa., and the Canadian rights sold 
to the Dominion Glass Company, of Montreal, 
Quebec. The greatest achievement of Mr. 
Owens' was his invention of the Automatic 
Bottle Machine, which bears his name. This 

mechanical marvel has revolutionized the 
bottle-making industry. The importance of 
this wonderful machine is shown by the re- 
sults: in 1908 there were produced in the 
United States by the Owens machine a total 
of 105,000,000 bottles, while in 1916, with the 
use of the Owens Automatic Bottle Machine, 
1,565,000,000 bottles were produced in the same 
territory. Mr. Owens is not only responsible for 
the improvements in the machines, but is also 
effective in the management and development 
of this important industry. He is vice-presi- 
dent and general manager of the Owens Bottle 
Machine Company, and the Libbey-Owens Sheet 
Glass Company of Toledo, Ohio. He super- 
intended the erection of the bottle factory at 
Traflford Park, near Manchester, England, and 
demonstrated its success abroad, and later 
conducted negotiations with Continental Euro- 
pean Syndicate for the right to introduce and 
operate the machine in foreign countries, and 
he sold the Trafford Park factory and the for- 
eign rights to a Continental European syndi- 
cate for 12,000,000 marks, and the machines 
are now operated in Germany, England, Scot- 
land, Ireland, Mexico, and Cuba, under syndi- 
cate management, and they have arranged to 
place the machine in operation in South Amer- 
ica and Japan. The inventive genius of Mr. 
Owens has also greatly expanded the cut glass- 
ware industry, by which means cut glassware 
has been placed within the reach of the great 
middle class, or families of modest incomes. 
It is no longer confined to the means of the 
wealthy. Previous to 1902 all glass blanks 
produced for rich cut glassware were made 
by hand. It was in that year that Mr. Owens 
perfected his mechanism for the manufacture 
of cut glass. By this method the pattern is 
molded instead of Being cut by hand, thus 
saving the enormous expense as well as time 
consumed in production by the old method, 
and, at the same time, retaining its artistic 
beauty. Mr. Owens interested H. C. Fry in 
this modern process, resulting in the organiza- 
tion of the H. C. Fry Glass Company, Roches- 
ter, Pa., now a very prominent concern in the 
glass business. Mr. Owens served as a di- 
rector in this company for several years. 
Early in the year of 1915, The Franklin In- 

stitute of the State of Pennsylvania for the 
promotion of mechanic arts, without solici- 
tation, instituted an investigation into the 
merits of the Owens Automatic Bottle Ma- 
chine. In its report. No. 2633, dated at Phila- 
delphia, Pa., 5 May, 1915, after a detailed 
description of the machine, including its con- 
struction and operation, the committee con- 
cludes its report as follows : " Besides his 
patents on bottle-making machines, Mr. Owens 
holds patents on a glass tank and also on a leer, 
which latter he has made in a continuous tank 
form to correspond with the continuous opera- 
tion of the bottle machine and to be con- 
nected to it, the whole forming a continuous 
bottle-making and annealing means. The in- 
ventor appears to be solely responsible for the 
development of the entirely automatic bottle- 
making machine. All others on the market are 
semi-automatic machines, based on the prin- 
ciple of the Arbogast invention. As indicated, 
these semi-automatic machines require the 
glass to be gathered by hand. One fifteen unit 
Owens machine, making 250 gross of bottles 
per twelve hours, can be operated by one un- 
skilled man, but to produce the same amount 
of ware with the semi-automatic machine re- 
quires at least eight machines and forty men, 
eight of whom must be skilled workmen. 
These semi-automatic machines would, how- 
ever, produce this quantity of ware in nine 
hours, which is the usual shift on such ma- 
chines. In 1914 annual report of the Owens 
Bottle Machine Company, it is stated that 
the aggregate yearly capacity of the Owens 
machines at that time operating in the United 
States was approximately 9,000,000 gross of 
bottles, while in the previous report the ca- 
pacity of all the machines in operation was 
given as one-third of the estimated production 
of bottles in this country. It is claimed that, 
since its commercial introduction in 1908, the 
Owens machine has brought about a reduction 
in price of the ware it makes of 16 per cent. 
The inventor has devoted many years of effort 
to the development of the bottle-making ma- 
chine. He has succeeded in producing an 
entirely automatic machine, which effects a 
great saving in labor which, moreover, does not 
require any skilled labor to operate it, thereby 
lessening the cost of its product. In considera- 
tion of its novelty and utility, the institute 
awards the Elliott Cresson Medal to Michael 
J. Owens, of Toledo, Ohio, for his Automatic 
Bottle Machine." [Facsimile of the obverse 
and reverse sides of the medal are shown 
herein.] Unlike most men of inventive genius, 
Mr. Owens is by no means a dreamer; he is 
possessed of keen business judgment, a fiery 
energy which knows no fatigue until the end 
of a certain task has been accomplished, and 
the will power to carry out his purposes. He 
is a member of the Toledo Club, the Inverness 
Club, of Toledo, Ohio, and devotes a great 
deal of his leisure to playing golf. In 1889 
Mr. Owens married Mary E. McKelvey, of 
Bellaire, Ohio. They have two children: Mrs. 
A. R. Bcesch and John Raymond Owens. 

ABLER, Cyrus, educator, b. in Van Buren, 
Ark., 13 Sept., 1863, son of Samuel and 
Sarah (Sulzberger) Adler. He was graduated 
at the University of Pennsylvania in 1883 and 
then entered Johns Hopkins, where he was 
successively a fellow, instructor, and associate 





in Semitic languages, receiving in 1878 the 
degree of Ph.D. in course. In 1888 he be- 
came honorary assistant curator of oriental 
antiquities in the National museum and ar- 
ranged the collections there. As special com- 
missioner for the World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion, Chicago, in 1890-92, he visited Egypt, 
Turkey, and Morocco. He was made librarian 
of the Smithsonian Institution in the latter 
year, and in 1905 became assistant secretary, 
serving until 1908. He was curator of historic 
archeology and historic religions at the U. S. 
National museum from 1889 to 1908, and since 
September of that y-ear has been president of 
Dropsie College for Hebrew and cognate learn- 
ing, Philadelphia. Dr. Adler has contributed 
many papers to the journals of learned so- 
cieties, among these being " Progress of Ori- 
ental Science in America During 1888"; "The 
Shofar: Its Use and Origin"; and with Allen 
Ramsay wrote " Told in the Coffee House — a 
Book of Turkish Tales" (1898). He is one 
of the editors of the " Jewish Encyclopedia," 
the " American Jewish Year Book," and the 
" Jefferson Bible." Dr. Adler is president of 
the American Jewish Historical Society; 
member of the American Oriental Society, 
American Philosophical Society, Washington 
Academy of Sciences; and was president of 
the board of directors of the Jewish Theo- 
logical Seminary of America (1902-05). He 
was married in September, 1905, to Racie 
Friedenwald, of Philadelphia. They have no 

GILLIE, John, mining engineer, b. in Ottawa, 
Canada, 25 Sept., 1858, son of James M. and 
Mary Jane (Shannon) Gillie. His grand- 
father, Robert Gil- 
lie, came to Can- 
ada from Scotland 
in 1844, settling in 
Grenville, Canada. 
He was educated 
in the public 
schools of Ottawa, 
and entered the 
University of Ot- 
tawa where he was 
graduated with the 
degree of civil and 
mining engineer in 
1878. In the fol- 
^^ lowing year he was 
engaged on con- 
struction work 
along the De- 
troit, Lansing and 
Northern Railroad, 
west of Big Rapids, Mich. In order to gain 
a more thorough and practical knowledge of 
mining he went to Montana in April, 1880, 
where he was employed in the quartz 
mines and mills until August, 1881. Finding 
this practice so advantageous, he moved to 
Philipsburg, Mont., and later to Butte, Mont., 
where he was employed as assistant engineer 
in the office of Ringeling and Kellogg. He 
continued with this firm until 1884, when he 
opened an office for the general practice of 
civil and mining engineering. In 1900 he was 
appointed manager of the Butte and Boston 
Consolidated Manufacturing Company, and in 
the following year was chosen general super- 
intendent of mines for the Amalgamated Cop- 

per Company. The position and influence 
which he now enjoys were obtained by his own 
exertions, as was also the competency he now 
possesses. Mr. Gillie is a member of the 
American Institute of Mining Engineers, Mon- 
tana Society of Engineers, Silver Bow Club, 
Country Club, and other scientific and social 
organizations. On 19 Jan., 1887, he married 
Nettie Emerson, of Butte, Mont., and they 
have two children. 

LINCOLN, Rufus Pratt, soldier and surgeon, 
b. in Belchertown, Mass., 27 April, 1841; d. 
in New York City, 27 Nov., 1900, son of Rufus 
S. and Lydia (Baggs) Lincoln. He was di- 
rectly descended from Thomas Lincoln, who 
came to this country from England in 1635 
and settled in Hingham, Mass., later removing 
to Taunton, Mass. Dr. Lincoln's early educa- 
tion was acquired at Williston Seminary, in 
Easthampton, Mass., and at the Phillips 
Academy, in Exeter. He then entered Am- 
herst College, from which he graduated in 
July, 1862. It was his intention to study 
for the medical profession, but the War of the 
Rebellion was then at its height and the Union 
sadly in need of men. Young Lincoln decided 
to enlist in the cause of the country and was 
immediately given a commission as second 
lieutenant in the Thirty-seventh Regiment of 
Massachusetts Volunteers. In less than two 
months he had risen to the command of his 
company as captain. In December he had 
arrived at the front and saw his first fighting 
at the battle of Fredericksburg. From then 
on until the end of the war he experienced a 
great deal of active service. He fought in 
the Mud campaign, at the battles of Salem 
Heights, Gettysburg, Funkstown, Rappahan- 
nock Station, Mine Run, the Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania, Opequan, Fisher's Hill, Cedar 
Creek, Hatcher's Run, Dabney's Mills, Forts 
Steadman and Wadsworth, and the assault on 
Petersburg. In July, 1864, he had been raised 
to the rank of major and on 19 Oct., 1864, he 
was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for "dis- 
tinguished gallantry during the present cam- 
paign before Richmond and for meritorious 
services at the battle of Cedar Creek, Virginia." 
In June, 1865, he was transferred as lieutenant- 
colonel to the Twentieth Massachusetts Volun- 
teers, which regiment was expected to be or- 
dered to Mexico as part of the army which was 
to be employed in expelling Maximilian from 
the American continent. He served as assist- 
ant inspector-general of the First Division of 
the Sixth Army Corps, on the staff of Gen. 
David A. Russell, and Gen. Frank Wheaton 
from August, 1864, until the end of the war. 
He was slightly wounded in the battle of the 
Wilderness and very severely wounded twelve 
days later, 12 May, 1864, at "the Anglo." 
After being mustered out, at the conclusion of 
the war, Mr. Lincoln resumed his studies, 
spending one year in the College of riiysioiuns 
and Surgeons' in New York and two years in 
the Harvard Medical School, in Boston, from 
which he received his JNf.D. degree in ISlJS. 
Then followed a term of general praetioo, later 
becoming associated with Dr. Wiilard Parker. 
Gradually he began to specialize in diseases of 
the throat, lungs, and nose and as such made 
his way to the front rank of the medical pro- 
fession, not only in this country, but inter- 
nationally. When Emperor Frederick, of Ger- 




many became aflBicted with cancer of the 
throat Dr. Lincoln was requested to attend a 
consultation over the imperial patient. He 
was one of the most progressive members of 
the profession, ever looking forward to taking 
advantage of every discovery that science had 
to offer for the relief of physical suffering. Dr. 
Lincoln was one of the first to apply electric 
cautery to operations on the throat; it was 
by this method that he removed a large tumor 
from the throat of Gen. Judson Kilpatrick. In 
his operations he sliowed himself possessed of 
remarkable manual dexterity, working with a 
dispatch and decision that excited the ad- 
miration even of his senior colleagues. His 
great success, however, was due to his scien- 
tific attitude of mind, his ability to grapple 
with and overcome the complex problems of 
modern surgery. While many young surgeons 
allow themselves to crystallize on having at- 
tained a certain degree of efficiency and knowl- 
edge, Dr. Lincoln was never content to pause at 
any point, but continued ever onward in the 
pursuit of further knowledge and experience. 
So high was his professional ideal that he 
never attained it, as, indeed, no man can who 
seeks perfection. As an independent investi- 
gator in medical science he was able to add a 
great deal to the scientific knowledge of the 
profession, the results of his researches form- 
ing the subject matter of a great many works 
which he wrote and had published, some of 
which are still regarded as authoritative in a 
field of knowledge which has perhaps progressed 
more rapidly than any other department of 
science. How Dr. Lincoln was regarded as a 
soldier and a man is perhaps best shown 
through the following resolutions, passed by 
the New York Commandery of the Military 
Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States, 
on the occasion of his death: "Resolved, that 
in the death of our companion, the late Brevet- 
Colonel Rufus P. Lincoln, this Commandery 
has lost from its membership a gentleman of 
rare gifts and great accomplishments. He was 
ever a chivalrous gentleman; and during the 
War of the Rebellion a brave soldier, and upon 
the return of peace by his talents and in- 
dustry succeeded in reaching the front rank 
of the profession of medicine and surgery in 
the metropolitan city of New York. No phy- 
sician ever fought harder battles against dis- 
ease than he has done, when struggling with 
pneumonia or consumption in behalf of those 
who have been his patients. Few men have 
met with so large a measure of success in such 
encounters. Through the guidance of a merci- 
ful Providence he was the means of prolonging 
many lives and relieved much suffering. By 
his death the state loses a patriotic citizen; 
science mourns for a gifted son and the circle 
of his acquaintances misses a valued friend and 
a wise counselor." Dr. Lincoln was the author 
of the following works : " Laryngeal Phthisis " 
(1875); "Selected Cases of Disease in the 
Nasal and Post-Nasal Regions. Treated with 
the Galvano Cautery" (1876); "Naso- 
pharyngeal Polypi" (1879); "On the Treat- 
ment of Naso Pharyngeal Fibromata" (1883) ; 
" A Case of Melano-Sarcoma of the Nose " 
(1885); "The Surgical Use of Electricity in 
the Upper Air Passages" (1886); "Recurrent 
Naso-Pharyngeal Tumor, Cured hj Electroly- 
sis " (1887); "Report of the Evulsion of a 

Laryngeal Tumor Which Has Returned Twenty- 
Two Years After Its Removal by Laryngot- 
omy (1890); "The Use of Pyoctanin and 
Antiseptic in Diseases of the Upper Air Pas- 
sages " (1891); "The Exanthemata in the 
Upper Air Passages" (1897); and "Oro- 
pharyngeal Mycosis" (1898). He was a mem- 
ber of many scientific societies, among them 
being the Massachusetts Medical Society, the 
New York County Medical Society, the New 
York Academy of Medicine, the New York 
Pathological Society, the American Medical 
Association, the American Academy of Medi- 
cine, the American Laryngeological Associa- 
tion, the American Climatological Association, 
the Harvard Medical Society, and various 
others. He was also a member of the Loyal 
Legion, the University Club, the Arts Club of 
New York, and the New England Society. 
After the death of Dr. Lincoln his widow 
made a gift of $100,000 for the foundation of a 
professorship in science at Amherst University, 
the letter from Mrs. Lincoln suggesting " that 
the professorship receiving said salary shall 
be known and designated in the proper records 
and publications of the college as the Rufus 
Tyler Lincoln Professorship, the gift of his 
father and mother to the memory of Rufus 
Tyler Lincoln, a brilliant student, a loved 
companion and always an affectionate son. 
Died July 15, 1890, aged sixteen years." This 
gift was accepted by the board of trustees of 
the college. On 20 Aug., 1869, Dr. Lincoln 
married Caroline Carpenter, daughter of WMl- 
ington H. Tyler, of New York City. They had 
three children: Rufus Tyler, in whose memory 
the gift to Amherst College was made, and 
Carrie Anna and Helen Lincoln. 

BORDEN, Gail, inventor and manufacturer, 
was b. in Norwich, N. Y., 6 Nov., 1801; d. at 
Borden, Texas, 11 Jan., 1874, son of Gail 
(1777-1863) and Philadelphia (Wheeler) Bor- 
den. His first American ancestor, Richard 
Borden, emigrated from Wales, England, in 
1636, settling in Boston. He shortly after- 
ward removed to Portsmouth, and then to 
Rhode Island, where he lived during the re- 
mainder of his life, achieving prominence and 
frequently filling important public positions. 
The Bordens are of Norman-French origin, and 
their ancestors of the early centuries were con- 
spicuous in the history of England. The lead- 
ing authority in England, Hasted's Notices of 
the Churches of Kent," says : " When Julius 
Caesar invaded England he cut a road through 
the woodlands of Kent from the place where he 
landed on the English Channel to a camp which 
he established at or near the place where 
London now stands. This road passed through 
the parish of Borden and the village of Bor- 
den [thirty-nine miles from London] was built 
beside it." In December, 1814, Gail Borden's 
parents removed their family, which included 
his brothers Thomas H., Paschal P., and John 
P. and his sister, Esther, from New York to 
the vicinity of Cincinnati, Ohio, where they 
remained about a year. While there young 
Gail assisted in laying out Covington, Ky., at 
that time a farm upon which were only two 
houses and a barn, and cultivated corn on the 
site now occupied by the City Hall of Coving- 
ton. In 1816 the family removed to Jefferson 
County, Indiana, which was still a territory, 
and just beginning to be settled. Gail Borden 


^ ^ o^r^r^ /^J^/^^/f^lt 



attended such schools as the primitive settle- 
ment afforded, although for no more than two 
or three months in a year; his entire educa- 
tional experience being less than a year and a 
half. He was uncommonly fond of hunting, 
and became very proficient in the use of the 
rifle. Owing to his possessing a decidedly mili- 
tary turn of mind, he was elected captain of 
the Hoosier Company of 100 men (before he 
was twenty-one ) . Soon after leaving school, 
as a pupil, he taught for two years. Then, at 
the age of twenty-two, his health having be- 
come very much impaired, by the advice of 
his physician, he determined to try a southern 
climate. In accordance with this plan he 
traveled as supercargo of a flat-bottomed boat 
to New Orleans, and after disposing of the 
cargo went to Amite County, Miss. Here he 
had charge of a school for six years, and 
served as county surveyor and deputy U. S. 
surveyor. In February, 1828, he married, and 
in the following year removed to Texas, where 
his father and father-in-law with their fam- 
ilies had preceded him. All of them settled 
Austin's Colony, and engaged in such agri- 
cultural and business pursuits as were suited 
to the conditions of the country. These sturdy 
pioneers were destined for important parts in 
the political and business history of Texas. 
Gail, Jr.'s first employment there was farm- 
ing and stock-growing. He was elected a dele- 
gate from the La Vaca district to the con- 
vention held in 1833, at San Felipe, to define 
the position of the colonies, and to petition the 
Mexican government for separation from the 
state of Coahuila. Appointed by Gen. Austin 
to superintend the official surveys, he compiled 
the first topographical map of the colonies, and 
up to the time of the Mexican invasion had 
charge of the land office at San Felipe, under 
direction of Samuel M. Williams, then colonial 
secretary. During his seven years' sojourn in 
the piney woods of Mississippi, nearly all of 
which he spent in teaching, Mr, Borden had 
supplemented his neglected early schooling by 
extensive reading, and in the turbulent period 
preceding the revolution of Mexico, he launched 
into the turmoil and warmly espoused the 
cause of the settlers. With his brother, 
Thomas, he procured a press and printing ma- 
terials and conducted the only newspaper, 
" Telegraph and Texas Land Register," pub- 
lished in Texas during the conflict— 1835 to 
1837. Its policy vigorously advocated the 
separation of Texas from Mexico; in fact, he 
so agitated conditions that General Santa Ana, 
in April, 1836, a few days before the battle 
of San Jacinto, destroyed the press and all 
the materials. Mr. Borden, not to be thus 
daunted, re-established the plant four months 
later, and continued without further interrup- 
tion during the war. The paper was then sold 
and removed to Houston, where it was pub- 
lished until about 1898. While Gail, Jr., was 
creating sentiment for the revolution, his 
father and brothers were rendering gallant 
service in General Houston's army. At the 
conclusion of hostilities, and Texas had been 
declared a republic, President Houston ap- 
pointed Gail, Jr., first collector of the port of 
Galveston. This city had not previously been 
laid out, and, prior to taking charge of the 
customs, he made its first surveys. It was 
the origin of Galveston's development, and 

Mr. Borden's first dwelling there was a rough 
structure, on the bay shore, erected by two 
carpenters in half a day, his office being in 
what had been the Mexican custom house. 
From 1839 till 1851 he was agent of the Gal- 
veston City Company, a corporation holding 
several thousand acres on which the city is 
built. Mr. Borden possessed keen power of 
observation, and about 1849 his attention was 
drawn to the urgent need of more suitable food 
supplies for the emigrants and travelers across 
the plains, the want of which involved great 
suff'ering and even loss of life. His experi- 
ments, prompted more by humanitarian con- 
siderations than by hope of profit, yielded the 
" pemmican " that Dr. Kane carried with him 
on his Arctic expedition, and also in producing 
a " meat biscuit," a most simple, economical, 
and efficient form of portable concentrated food. 
The merits of the latter were so fully recog- 
nized that he felt warranted in embarking all 
his means in its extensive manufacture. It 
was exhibited under his personal supervision 
at the World's Exhibition, London, 1851, and 
gained for him the highest award, the " great 
council medal," and in further recognition he 
was elected an honorary member of the London 
Society of Arts, in 1852. But, notwithstand- 
ing the evident merit of the meat biscuit, in- 
sidious opposition of the army contractors 
compelled Mr. Borden to abandon its produc- 
tion in 1853, with the loss of his entire for- 
tune. During his voyage to Europe, in 1851, 
to attend the World's Exhibition, above re- 
ferred to, an incident occurred that molded 
his future activities. The severe weather en- 
countered by the sailing vessel on which he had 
taken passage resulted in the death of all the 
cows aboard, leaving the passengers without 
milk the remainder of the long journey. Mr. 
Borden grieved over the babies aboard. The 
condition seemed to him both unnatural and 
preventable, and he remarked to the captain of 
the vessel that " there undoubtedly will come a 
time when milk will be so prepared as to en- 
able its being kept to meet such emergencies." 
Thus was evolved the first idea of condensed 
milk, which has become a monument to his 
sympathy, ingenuity, and perception. The con- 
ditions attending the collapse of his meat- 
biscuit venture only spurred Mr. Borden to 
renewed effort, and he removed to the North 
and devoted his attention to the preservation 
of milk. The result of his investigation and 
labors was the now famous Borden's condensed 
milk that has perpetuated his name among 
the world's benefactors. In the experiments 
with milk he profited by the lessons taught him 
by the results of his various tentative manipu- 
lations in connection with the meat biscuit. 
Foremost among these was his wholesome 
dread of incipient decomposition; conscHiuently 
he sought security against possible detriment 
from the time when the milk was drawn from 
the cow. He gave the question much study 
and at length removed about 75 per cent, of 
the water, and with the milk added a sullieient 
quantity of sugar to preserve it. Hut the 
principal feature of his discovery, as con- 
tained in his first application for a patent, 
May, 1H53, was deelared to be <'vai)()ra<i<)n in 
vacuo, which he einplialieally asserted pre- 
vented incipient decomposition by i)roteoting 
the milk from atmospheric action. This point 




met the opposition of the patent officials, how- 
ever, who refused the application, chiefly be- 
cause the process lacked the essential requisites 
of novelty and usefulness. He encountered 
many discouragements ; in fact, the controversy 
with the patent officials lasted three years and 
was replete with rejections. But Mr. Borden 
possessed a redoubtable nature and seemed 
literally to thrive on disappointment. His 
patent attorney, after exhaustive search of the 
records, had disponed of the " lack-of-novelty " 
reason in 1853. But it was not until 1856 
that the patent was issued, and then only 
after several leading scientists, having experi- 
mented by condensing milk by all the processes 
commonly in use, unhesitatingly testified that 
no other method equaled that in vacuo — out 
of contact with the air. Having conquered that 
phase of the struggle, he now launched into 
the development of the invention for commer- 
cial results, and here too he met with very 
trying experiences. For aid rendered him dur- 
ing his long siege at the patent office, Mr. 
Borden had parted with three-eighths of his 
interest in the patent; and after dispensing of 
two-eighths more to obtain means to erect a 
moderate plant, he retained about one- third 
interest in the business. His first attempt to 
establish works was at Wolcottville, Conn., in 
1856, and resulted in disappointment. In 
1857 the owners of the patent began its manu- 
facture at Burrville, where a small quantity 
of milk was condensed. The excellence of the 
product was admitted; yet there was not im- 
mediate public response, and the panic of that 
year caused the company to suspend opera- 
tions. However, early in 1858 Mr. Borden 
secured the first adequate capital to develop 
his invention. This was furnished by Jeremiah 
Milbank, and in 1800, under the title of the 
New York Condensed Milk Company, the com- 
pany built an extensive plant at Wassaic, 
N. Y. Fortune had at last favored Mr. Bor- 
den. Not only was a strong popular demand 
soon created for condensed milk, but it came 
to be extensively used in the army and navy 
during the Civil War. Enlargement of the 
plant soon became necessary; in fact, repeated 
enlargements followed, and other factories 
erected. In 1863 a factory was opened at 
Brewsters, N. Y., and in 1865 one at Elgin, 
111. The rapid increase in the business neces- 
sitated the opening of other factories and con- 
denseries in New York — at Wallkill, Miller- 
ton, Deposit, and New Berlin; in 1882 one 
was started at Carpentersville, 111., and an- 
other at Algonquin in 1892. The Elgin plant, 
besides manufacturing the famous " Eagle 
Brand " of condensed milk, deals in every 
variety of dairy products, and is the largest 
of the Borden establishments. As with many 
other important discoveries, false claimants 
arose to contest the credit for the invention, 
causing Mr. Borden considerable trouble and 
expense for several years. The United States 
granted Mr, Borden patents on the following 
dates: 18 Aug,, 1856; 13 May, 1862; 10 Feb., 
1863; 14 Nov,, 1865, and 17 April, 1866, but 
complete foreign patents were unfortunately 
not taken out, and parties abroad early at- 
tempted to appropriate his invention. How- 
ever, in the controversy on the subject that 
existed about 1871, it became established as 
an indisputable fact that Gail Borden was en- 

titled to all the credit attached to the inven- 
tion of condensing milk in vacuo. These mat- 
ters, however, concerned Mr. Borden but little 
from a pecuniary standpoint. He possessed a 
truly beneficient nature, and long before he 
reaped any material benefits from his in- 
vention, he had applied his ingenuity to per- 
fecting other concentrated food products. The 
next experiment to engage his attention was 
the condensing of meat juices. That his 
meat-juice experiments coincided with those 
of Baron Justus von Liebig was a striking 
phase of this invention. Nevertheless, while 
the latter was engaged in the researches into 
the nature of flesh and animal juices in his 
well-appointed laboratory at Giessen, Germany, 
which resulted years later in the production 
of " Extractima Carnis," Gail Borden, in his 
crude workshop in the wilds of Texas, was 
independently investigating the same problem, 
for which his reward was the great council 
medal before mentioned. At first the Borden 
beef extract was made at Elgin, but later an 
establishment was erected especially for the 
purpose at Borden, Texas, which enabled com- 
bining a superior quality of beef with very 
moderate cost. Subsequently he produced ex- 
cellent preparations of condensed tea, coff'ee, 
and cocoa. He had become an expert at pre- 
paring perishable foodstufl's, and in 1862 he 
patented a process by which the juices of 
fruits could be reduced to one-seventh their 
original bulk. Reminiscent of this is one of 
the many anecdotes with which his life was 
enriched: At the conclusion of services one 
Sunday in a church at Winchester Centre, 
Conn., during the Civil War, Mr. Borden 
raised his hand to the clergyman to stay the 
congregation from departing. He then ad- 
dressed them, saying: "Dress appropriately 
and devote your afternoon to picking black- 
berries, and I will prepare and forward them 
to the soldiers." So industriously did the 
members respond that their labors yielded 
nearly 300 bushels. On receipt of these General 
Sherman sent Mr. Borden a most appreciative 
letter of thanks. A just estimate of Mr. Bor- 
den may be formed in the characterization of 
him written shortly before his death by an 
intimate acquaintance. Prof. S. L. Goodale, 
then secretary of the Maine Board of Agri- 
culture : " In person, Mr. Borden is tall and 
spare. The portrait gives a fair representa- 
tion of his face — but as it is rarely seen — 
when at rest; for his temperament being nerv- 
ous and his enthusiasm unbounded, the coun- 
tenance in conversation immediately lightens 
up with animation and varied expression be- 
yond the skill of the artist to fix. His mental 
powers are unimpaired, his thoughts actively 
pervading his chosen field of labor. His pow- 
ers of observation are keen, critical, and ap- 
preciative; his faculty for devising and adapt- 
ing means to ends remarkable; his habits 
active beyond those of most persons in the 
noontide of life. The snows of seventy winters 
have silvered and thinned his locks, forming 
a ' crown of glory,' according to Solomon, 
being ' found in the way of righteousness ' ; but 
their weight rests not heavily upon his shoul- 
ders." After his death his youngest son, John 
Gail Borden (q.v.), succeeded to the presi- 
dency of the company, which he retained 
until 1885. He possessed the energy and 


c$ Brc- //y^ 



ability which characterized his father, and 
under his management the company became 
the foremost in the milk industry of the 
world. His eldest brother, Henry Lee Borden, 
then became president and continued the work 
of increasing the company's activities. Mr. 
Borden was thrice married: first, 28 Feb., 
1828, to Penelope Mercer, of Amite County, 
Miss. She died September, 1844; second to 
Mrs. A. F. Stevens; third to Mrs. Emmeline 
Eunice (Eno) Church. His first wife was the 
mother of all his children: Mary (1829-33), 
Henry Lee, Morton Q., Philadelphia Wheeler, 
Stephen F., Mary Jane, who married Mills S. 
Munsill in 1859, and John Gail. The two 
sons of his third wife, Alfred B. and Samuel 
M. Church, became associated with him in 
business, the first managing the factory at 
Elgin for about seven years. On 22 Feb., 
1894, a handsome library inscribed with the 
inventor's name was dedicated as a memorial 
to him by the city of Elgin. The county of 
Borden, Texas, and its county seat, Gail, also 
were named in his honor. 

BORDEN, John Gail, b. 4 Jan., 1844, at Gal- 
veston, Texas; d. 20 Oct., 1891, at Ormond, 
Fla., son of Gail and Penelope (Mercer) Bor- 
den. At the age of thirteen his father re- 
moved to Brooklyn, N. Y., and commenced his 
experiments in the concentration of milk. 
Young Borden attended Brooklyn schools for 
a year or two, and then went to Winchester 
Academy, at Winchester Centre, Conn. Pres- 
ently he entered Eastman's College at Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y., to prepare for an academic 
education, but while there he enlisted in the 
150th New York Volunteers, a Dutchess County 
regiment. This proved highly pleasing to his 
father, for young Borden, who was born and 
reared during his youth in the South, had 
shown decided sympathy for the Southern side 
of the controversy. But the tolerance and 
nice sensibility which he had inherited from 
his father enabled him to disregard the senti- 
ments influenced by the memory of boyhood 
associations, and at the beginning of the war 
he attended a mass meeting at which Governor 
Dix's appeal for the preservation of the Union 
dissipated his rebel tendencies. At the age of 
nineteen he entered the army, and after serving 
two years and a half with much distinction, 
for which he was made second lieutenant, rank- 
ing as captain, he was compelled to retire be- 
cause of sickness, the result of exposure and 
service. His retirement was only temporary, 
however, and after a sea voyage, taken to re- 
cover his health, he was transferred to the 
Forty-seventh New York Regiment, and again 
plunged into the conflict, serving until the 
close of the war. He was a member of the 
Baptist Church, and on the 10 Jan., 1864, 
during his furlough, he was baptized in the 
uniform of lieutenant. On his return from the 
war, he assisted his father in the management 
of the condensery, and he soon displayed un- 
common ability and ingenuity in business af- 
fairs. On the death of his father in 1874, he 
succeeded to the presidency of the New York 
Condensed Milk Cqmpany, and prodigious 
energy and capacity marked the tenure of his 
administration. Thoroughness was his busi- 
ness tenet. He was a genius for detail, and 
brought to perfection the process of preserving 
milk by condensation which his father origi- 

nated. Under his management the business 
showed rapid development, and he soon found 
it necessary to build a condensery at Wallkill. 
He also rebuilt the Brewsters factory and 
planned and virtually built the one at Elgin. 
Since the war he had not been robust, and the 
enthusiasm with which he entered into his 
labors told upon his health. As early as 1879 
his condition made it advisable for him to so- 
journ in Florida for a time; but on his return 
he again yielded too vigorously to the demands 
of business, and in 1885 permanent retirement 
became imperative, and he relinquished the 
presidency of the company to his brother, 
Henry Lee Borden. He then returned to 
Florida, but for one of his indefatigable nature 
it was difficult to remain inactive. He invested 
heavily in property in and near Green Cove 
Springs, where, during his nine years' resi- 
dence, he effected many public improvements. In 
Wallkill, where he built a model factory in 
1881, he developed an extensive estate of 1,500 
acres, upon which he spared neither attention 
nor money. This he named Home Farm. It is 
an historic location, the manor house having 
been built in 1771. It is situated on a command- 
ing elevation and affords one of the most pic- 
turesque views anywhere to be seen. Directly 
opposite, in the distance, is the Shawangunk 
range blending up from the intervening 
valley and rolling uplands. The valley, through 
which flows the Wallkill River, is a gentle undu- 
lation of forest and field, dotted here and there 
with the homes of the natives, cottages of the 
workmen, barns, outbuildings, and herds of cat- 
tle — ^a scene of perfect rest and quiet. He was 
buried on Home Farm, as he had desired, in 
a spot he had selected. He was held in high 
esteem by the people of that section, who 
shared liberally of his bounty. His chief 
pleasure was the blissful domesticity afforded 
by his homestead, but he was also a patron of 
the arts — painting, sculpture, engraving and 
etching. He was a Mason, and was raised 
to the sublime degree of Master Mason in 
Brewsters, N. Y., exalted to the sublime de- 
gree of Royal Arch, knighted a Templar, Sir 
Knighte' in the Red Cross and made Knight of 
Malta at White Plains, N. Y., Crusader Com- 
mandery No. 56, and later in Florida he was 
made a Knight of the Palm and Shell. John G. 
Borden was married 14 Dec, 1865, to Miss 
Ellen L. Graves, daughter of Dr. Lewis Graves 
and Adaline (Janes) Graves, of Albany, and 
they were the parents of five children: Penel- 
ope A., Gail, Bessie, Lewis M., and Marion. 

STACKPOLE, Joseph Lewis, soldier, lawyer, 
author, b. in Boston, 20 March, 1838; d. in 
Boston, 2 Jan., 1904, son of Joseph Lewis and 
Susan Margaret (Benjamin) Stackpole. The 
founder of the family in England is traced to 
Guillaume de Montvalct, who came over with 
William the Conqueror and was given an 
estate at Hoosham, Sussex, near the battle- 
field of Hastings. Mr. Stackpolo's earliest 
American ancestor was James Stackpole, who, 
some time before 1680, settled at Dover, N. H. 
Joseph L. Stackpole was graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1857, taking special rank as 
a Latin scholar. In 18.')0 he was graduated 
at the Harvard Law School, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar of Suflolk County, Mass., in 
the following year. At the outbreak of the 
Civil War he was commissioned captain in 




the Twenty -fourth Massachusetts Regiment, 
and served with a distinction until the end of 
the struggle, becoming a major and judge- 
advocate-general in 1863, and being brevetted 
lieutenant-colonel in 1865. Writing of Major 
Stackpole's services as judge-advocate-general 
of the department of Virginia and North 
Carolina, Gen. Benjamin F. Butler referred to 
him as " one of the most competent officers 
that I have ever seen filling that position." 
He resigned in April, 1865, and resumed the 
practice of law in Boston. Even before the 
war he had given evidences of conspicuous 
talent as a lawyer. In 1870 he was appointed 
first assistant solicitor in the law department 
of the city of Boston. During his term of 
office he had charge of all the accident cases 
against the city and acquired a high reputa- 
tion as a jury lawyer. He tried many cases 
in the superior court and was counselor for 
the city in many cases which were carried to 
the Supreme Court. In the trial or adjust- 
ment of the numerous petitions brought to 
recover damages incident to the great Boston 
fire of 1872, Mr. Stackpole represented the 
city with skill and success against some of 
the most eminent jury lawyers of the day. 
He resigned his office in 1876. In 1890 he 
was appointed by President Harrison one of 
the U. S. general appraisers under the new 
customs administration bill — but he found the 
duties of the office uncongenial and resigned 
after a few months. Mr. Stackpole was an 
able and entertaining writer on legal topics 
and contributed a number of articles to the 
" American Law Review " and the " North 
American Review." Among these were: 
" Military Law," " Rogers vs. Attorney-Gen- 
eral," " Law and Romance," " Book About 
Lawyers," "Lord Plunkett," "Campbell's 
Lives of Lyndhurst and Brougham," " How- 
land Will Case," and " Early Days of Charles 
the military order of the Loyal Legion of 
the United States, and the Military Histori- 
cal Society of Massachusetts. He was mar- 
ried at Cambridge, Mass., 3 March, 1863, to 
Sumner." Mr. Stackpole was a member of 
sons and granddaughter of Chief Justice Par- 
Martha Watson, daughter of William Par- 
sons, and had four children: Elizabeth Vir- 
ginia, who married George Howland, Alice, 
Joseph Lewis (d. 1873), and Joseph Lewis 
(b. 1874). 

HUNT, Ebenezer Kingsbury, physician, son 
of Eleazer and Sybil (Pomeroy) Hunt, b in 
Coventry, Conn., 26 Aug., 1810; d. in Hart- 
ford, Conn., 2 May, 1889. He traces his de- 
scent from Jonathan Hunt who was among the 
early settlers of North Hampton, Mass., and 
who married Clemance Hosmer. Ebenezer 
Kingsbury Hunt was educated in the schools 
of Middleto\vn, Conn., and Amherst, Mass., and 
was graduated at Yale College in 1833. After 
teaching for a year in Munson Academy, Mas- 
sachusetts, he went as a private tutor to Nat- 
chez, Miss., and, during a residence there of two 
years, studied medicine, and then taught in 
the medical schools. In 1836 he attended a 
course of lectures at Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege in Philadelphia, and after a summer spent 
at Hudson, N. Y., in the office of Dr. Samuel 
White, a celebrated practitioner and head of a 
private asylum for the insane, he returned to 
Philadelphia and was graduated at Jefferson 

Medical College in 1837. In April of that 
year he began the practice of his profession 
in Ellenville, N. Y., but later removed to 
Hartford. He was asked, in 1840, to take 
charge of the Hartford Retreat for the Insane, 
and on three occasions was chosen acting su- 
perintendent. He continued to take an active 
interest in the institution and for thirty years 
was one of the directors, while for over forty 
years he was one of its medical visitors. For 
several years he was one of the commission 
appointed to make provision for insane crimi- 
nals at the State prison, and was also ap- 
pointed on a commission for the erection of 
new buildings for the State prison at Wathers- 
field. In 1866 Dr. Hunt was chosen chair- 
man of the Sanitary Commission appointed by 
the city authorities, and at once advocated the 
adoption of the most stringent sanitary 
measures. He was much interested in the 
subject of education, and as a committeeman 
to the High and Brown schools, gave much 
time to the affairs of both. For twenty-five 
years he was physician to the American 
Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, and so in- 
terested was he in the children that even after 
tendering his resignation he continued to visit 
the institution. Dr. Hunt co-operated in 
establishing the Hartford Hospital, and was 
for many years on the staff of consulting 
physicians. He was also active in establishing 
the Hartford Medical Society; a member, and 
chosen fellow of the County Medical Society, 
and twice elected president of the State Medi- 
cal Society. His work as the author of many 
scholarly papers and biographical sketches 
was much appreciated, and his translation 
from the French in 1848 of the valuable 
treatise by Esquirol on insanity, to which were 
added notes of his own, long remained a stand- 
ard and is still frequently consulted. Dr. 
Hunt was a medical examiner for the Hart- 
ford Life Insurance Company; medical ex- 
aminer for the Connecticut Mutual Life Insur- 
ance Company, for many years; a trustee of 
the Industrial School for Girls at Middletown; 
president of the Young Men's Institute; trus- 
tee of the Watkinson library, and of the Se- 
curity Company, and a director of the ^tna 
National Bank. As a practitioner he was 
earnest in everything that tended to its ad- 
vancement. He had a natural contempt for 
quackery wherever found. In disposition he 
Avas frank, positive, and outspoken, but always 
tolerant of the opinion of others. The Hunt 
Memorial Building was built by members of the 
Hartford Medical Society. A charter was ob- 
tained in 1889, and a fund started for a build- 
ing. His widow made these wishes possible in 
her will that was probated in November, 1893. 
The building was erected on Prospect Street 
near the home of Dr Hunt, and plans prepared 
by McKim, Mead and White. Dispensary 
rooms have been arranged and the library of 
medical and scientific books is available to 
the public. The building also contains labora- 
tories for research work, and a large assembly 
room convenient for the county and State so- 
cieties and for lectures. ' Dr. Hunt was mar- 
ried in June, 1848, to Mary Crosby, and they 
had four children. 

COOLBRITH, Ina Donna, author, b. in Illi- 
nois about 1845, of New England parentage. 
Her father died while she was in her infancy, 






and her mother married William Pickett, a 
lawyer of St. Louis, Mo. In 1852 he jour- 
neyed with his wife and stepdaughter across 
the great overland trail to California, finally 
locating in Los Angeles, where the subject of 
this sketch was educated in the public schools. 
At an early age she began writing for the 
press, and became associated with Bret Harte, 
then editor of the " Overland Monthly," by 
whose friendship and interest she greatly 
profited. She also had a close friendship with 
Joaquin Miller and Charles Warren Stoddard. 
She was librarian of the Oakland (Cal.) pub- 
lic library from 1874 to 1893, of the Mercan- 
tile Library, San Francisco, from 1897 to 
1899, and of the Bohemian Club, San Fran- 
cisco, from 1899 to 1906. For many years 
she has been a contributor to the " Overland," 
" Californian," " Century," " Scribner's " " Har- 
per's Weekly," and other magazines. She has 
taught in the public schools of San Francisco 
and has written editorials and reviews for 
various newspapers of that city. She is an 
honorary member of the Athenian, California 
Writers', and Ebell Clubs, Oakland; the Bo- 
hemian, Browning, Century, Floral, and 
Sequoia Clubs, and of the Pacific Coast 
Women's Press Association, San Francisco; 
the Arts and Crafts Club, Carmel-by-the-Sea, 
Cal.; the Pacific Short Story Club, San Jos6, 
Cal. She is a member of the Society of Women 
Journalists, London, and of the Poetry So- 
ciety of America. Her published writings in- 
clude, "Perfect Day, and Other Poems" 
(1884); "The Singer of the Sea" (1891); 
and "Songs of the Golden Gate" (1895). 

NEWPORT, Reece Marshall, real estate 
merchant, b. in Sharpsburg, Pa., 27 May, 1833, 
d. in Greenwich, Conn., 1 Nov., 1912, son of 
Reece Cadwaler and Mary Ann (Cole) New- 
port. In his early childhood his parents moved 
to a farm near Newport, Ohio, and there he 
later engaged in farm work. He was grad- 
uated at Marietta College in 1860, and later 
edited a Republican newspaper during the Lin- 
coln campaign. In 1862 he participated in 
Fremont's campaign against Stonewall Jack- 
son, and was for a short time with the Army 
of the Potomac. On 24 Jan., 1863, he was ap- 
pointed captain and assistant quartermaster 
of volunteers, assigned to duty at Washington 
City and finally at Baltimore. He was made 
colonel in 1864, and then chief quarter- 
master at Baltimore. Under his direction 
a large amount of supplies for the army 
of General Sheridan, operating in the Val- 
ley of Virginia, and for General Grant's 
army, was delivered. His money disburse- 
ments during the last year of the war 
amounted to more than $13,000,000. One 
check issued by him was for $850,000. For 
faithful and meritorious services, he was 
brevetted brigadier-general and mustered out 
of the service in March, 1866. Six years later 
he went to Minnesota, where he became local 
treasurer of the Northern Pacific Railroad 
Company, in which capacity and as auditor 
he served for ten years. He then assumed the 
management of the land department of the 
Western Railroad Company, of Minnesota, a 
subsidiary of the Northern Pacific Railroad 
Company. In this capacity he aided immigra- 
tion into the Northwest and the founding of 
many flourishing communities. In 1882 he 

engaged in the loan and real estate business 
on his own account and established a profit- 
able clientele. He retired to private life in 
1910 because of poor health. Mr. Newport was 
for many years director in the Duluth Ter- 
minal, West Duluth Land Company, numerous 
grain elevator companies, and was for many 
years the financial correspondent for the Con- 
necticut Mutual Life Insurance Company, in 
St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Duluth. He was 
recognized as an accomplished and public- 
spirited citizen and a man of dignified yet 
kindly manners. In 1863 he married Miss 
Eliza Edgerton, of Marietta, Ohio, and they 
had three children, Luther E., Mary M., and 
Reece Marshall Newport. 

SORG, Paul John, b. in Wheeling, W. Va., 
23 Sept., 1840; d. in Middletown, Ohio, 28 
May, 1902. He came of that sturdy and enter- 
prising German stock which has left so many 
landmarks in the history of the state, particu- 
larly in Cincinnati, at one time the metropolis 
of the West. He attended the common schools 
until the age of twelve, when the family joined 
the swelling tide of immigration westward 
settling in Cincinnati. Following the thrifty 
custom of the average western settler in those 
days, he was as soon as he grew strong enough 
put to making his own living and lightening 
the burdens of the family. He began at the 
trade of a molder in the large shops of Adams, 
Peckover and Company. Here he at once be- 
gan to discover that remarkable intelligence 
and executive force which afterward made him 
one of the most influential men of his section, 
and was advanced rapidly till he finally reached 
the post of superintendent of the foundry. 
But his mind was already working in other 
directions and foreseeing the enormous de- 
mand in the great and growing West for to- 
bacco, and being next door to what he fore- 
saw was to become the largest tobacco-growing 
district in the world, he formed at the early 
age of twenty-four a partnership with John 
Aver for the manufacture of plug tobacco. 
His aim was to produce in immense quantities 
at the lowest possible price the cheaper grades 
of home-grown tobacco. The enterprise finally 
grew to be the largest in Ohio, and exceeded 
only in size by one other in the United States. 
Thus by keen foresight and judgment, combined 
with marvelous executive capacity, were the 
foundation of his great fortune laid in his early 
twenties. An important change in the busi- 
ness entailing the addition of needed capital 
was admission of Robert Wilson to the firm in 
1872, the style becoming Wilson, Sorg and 
Company. The works were removed to ]\Iid- 
dletown where expenses were less, and the 
chances of expansion just as good. The con- 
cern is called to-day, from its founder, the 
Paul J. Sorg Tobacco Company, and, is a 
branch of the great Continental Tobacco Com- 
pany. The size to which the business had 
grown during his lifetime may be estimated 
from the fact that its international revenue 
payments for thirty-five years were stated in 
terms of millions of dollars. Aside from his 
business, Paul J. Sorg grew to be the loading 
spirit of Middletown in every branch of 
local enterprise, and the town as it stands 
to-day is a living monumont to his 
memory. He not only built up the community 
directly by the erection of public buildings, 




but he was always on the lookout to offer 
prompt and powerful inducements to manu- 
facturing coneernH to settle in Middletown. 
The Sherry Drill Works moved thither through 
his efforts and developed from a small begin- 
ning to ft nation-wide trade. His keen eye 
saw the future of the bicycle industry in its 
earliest beginnings, and he may have even 
foreseen the great war of the nations which 
was to come only a few years after his death, 
for his development of the Miami Cycle Com- 
pany included, first, the introduction of its 
wheeled productions into every market, and 
second, the manufacture of shells and shrapnel 
which were immediately in demand by the 
United States government. Fully realizing 
the vital necessity of railroads to the growth 
of a western community, he was the chief in- 
strument in securing for Middletown a branch 
of the great Panhandle System, known as the 
M. and C. Railroad. He was the good genius 
of the town at critical periods. When the 
Merchants' National Bank stood on the verge 
of failure, he purchased a controlling interest 
in its stocks and set the wheels in motion 
again, saving many depositors among his fel- 
low townsmen from serious loss. He financed 
the Middletown Paper Company, in a period 
of nation-wide depression that had forced it 
to close down, and its employees returned to 
work. He took charge of the affairs of the 
Middletown Gas Company at a critical period 
due to poor management, and brought it back 
to prosperity. In the Middletown Opera House, 
he gave the town a splendid theater, and in the 
United States Hotel, a hestelry equal to the 
best in the state outside of the great cities. 
All his life long he was an active Democrat, 
although he never sought political honors — 
as a result of his prominence in public affairs 
the honors sought him, and in 1894 he was 
elected to Congress to fill the unexpired term 
of George W. Houk, being re-elected the en- 
suing November for the full term of three 
years. His Congressional record, like his life 
at home, was marked by a special desire for 
helpfulness, and he will be remembered in 
that body, as well as by hundreds of the men 
of the Grand Army, for his success in promot- 
ing measures of assistance to the old soldiers. 
He died in Middletown, 28 May, 1902. He 
was married in 1876, to Jannie Gruver, of 
Middletown, Butler County, Ohio, who sur- 
vived him. Two children, Paul Arthur and 
Ada Gruver Sorg, are the fruits of this union. 
His son, Paul A. Sorg, w^as elected president 
of the Merchants' National Bank, on obtaining 
his majority, being at that time the youngest 
national bank president in the United States. 
BLUM, Robert Frederic, artist, b. in Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, 9 July, 1857; d. in New York 
City, 8 June, 1903. He received his education 
in the schools of his native city, and in early 
manhood established himself in New York, 
where he won a wide reputation as an etcher 
and an illustrator of books. One of the first 
to be attracted by young Blum's boyish inde- 
pendence of spirit was Alexander W. Drake, 
at that time art-editor of " Scribner's Maga- 
zine," who recognized the excellence of his 
technique and original creative enthusiasm. 
In one of his printed articles, Mr. Blum has 
told how his earliest artistic awakening seemed 
to come from Japanese fans that he purchased 

in 1872, during a music festival in Cincinnati. 
In, 1890 he journeyed to Japan to illustrate a 
series of articles by Sir Edwin Anold for 
'* Scribner's Magazine." These drawings, up to 
that time, were the best that Blum had done, 
and gave impetus to his talent as a decorative 
painter. He cared little for the praise of his 
brother artists, and exhibited only occasion- 
ally. His temperament wae such that he must 
have been practically self-taught, although he 
had studied and painted in Italy and Spain. 
He had a poet's dreaminess, a tunefulness of 
spirit, and a delicate play of imagination, 
which expended itself on subjects permitting 
of feeling and expression. He was frail of 
health, and shrank from contact with the 
world, even from the fellowship of those who 
would have been his friends, keeping himself to 
the close companionship of a few intimates. 
Yet he struck the note of gladsomeness ; a 
sparkling vivacity, a freshness and spontaneity 
— his work displays them all. He was only 
forty-seven years old when he died, and at the 
time of his death was at work on a large 
decoration for a new theater in New York. He 
was a member of the National Academy of 
Design, the American Artists' Society, the 
Water-Color Society, and was president of the 
Painters in Pastel. He received a gold medal 
at the Paris Exposition for his painting, " The 
Lace-Makers." Among his well-known works 
may be named, " Toledo Water-Carriers," 
"Going and Coming" (1881), "A Bright 
Day" (1882), "Moods of Music," "The Vil- 
lage Festival," and "The Feast of Bacchus." 
He first exhibited in New York in 1879. 

WALDRON, Edward Mathew, master 
builder, b. in Ireland, 1 Nov., 1864, son of 
William Joseph and Helen Waldron. His 
education was acquired in the private and 
public schools of his native district, but in 
his sixteenth year he came to the United 
States. In August, 1888, he began his busi- 
ness career in Newark, N. J., by organizing 
the building firm of Waldron and Borg, which 
was successively changed to Moran and W^al- 
dron, and E. M. W^aldron and Company. Of 
this concern he was the head until 1912, when 
he retired from business. Finding a life of 
comparative idleness uncongenial, he again 
went into business, this time under the firm 
name of Edward M Waldron, Inc., a corpora- 
tion including several of his old employees. 
Mr. Waldron has had under his personal 
supervision the erection of some of the most 
important public buildings in Newark, in- 
cluding the City Hall, costing nearly $2,000,- 
000. At the present time he is engaged in 
superintending the building of the Cathedral 
of the Sacred Heart, which will cost about 
$3,000,000. As an employer he has been very 
popular with his workingmen and is able to 
point to the fact that during his long busi- 
ness career he has never experienced a strike 
of his own employees. Being keenly interested 
in politics, Mr. Waldron has occasionally been 
connected with the activities of the Demo- 
cratic party. In 1896 he was elected a mem- 
ber of the common council of Newark, where 
he served for three years, being president of 
the council during the last year of his term. 
In September, 1912, he was appointed by 
Woodrow Wilson, then governor of New 
Jersey, a delegate to the Deep Water Way 


i-ngravsc. riy tJ.xI. Cade,>reWi&T}c. 




Convention, held in New London, Conn. It 
was in that same year that he also served as a 
presidential elector. For many years he has 
been a member of the Newark Board of Trade; 
he has also been a director of the New York 
Life Insurance Company, and of the Washing- 
ton Trust Company. He is president of the 
Waldron Bros. Realty Company and of the 
Municipal Realty Company. In 1892 Mr. 
Waldron married Margaret, daughter of James 
Moran, also a prominent builder of Newark. 
Their eight children are: Helen R., Mary G., 
William J., Edward M., James R., Austin A., 
Robert Emmett, and Margaret E. Waldron. 

FOGG, Charles Sumner, lawyer, b. in Stet- 
son, Mo., 1 Oct., 1851, son of Simon and Han- 
nah (Witherel) Fogg, both natives of Maine. 
His earliest Ameri- 
can ancestor was 
Samuel Fogg, who 
came to this coun- 
try from England 
in 1638, settling in 
Hampton, N. H. He 
was educated in the 
public schools of his 
native town, and 
when he was sixteen 
his parents removed 
to Panora, Iowa. 
Here he attended 
the Iowa State 
University, taught 
school during two 
terms, and then re- 
turned to Maine, 
where he entered 
the East Maine 
Conference Seminary. In 1870 he came back 
to Iowa, and began the study of law in the 
office of his brother, Edward R. Fogg, after 
which he pursued his studies in the law school 
of the Iowa State University. On 28 Nov., 
1871, he was admitted to the bar, and in the 
following year engaged in practice in Panora, 
la. In 1873 he formed a partnership with 
his brother, who had removed in the mean- 
time to Stuart, la. This association continued 
one year. In 1881 he formed the firm of 
Fogg and Neal, which through his energy and 
through familiarity with details enabled 
them to establish a highly profitable clientele. 
He abandoned this practice in Nov., 1889, in 
the hope of finding health and revived strength 
in a milder climate, settling in Tacoma, Wash. 
His intention was to engage in the legal pro- 
fession there after being assured that his health 
was permanently restored. In the same year 
he formed a partnership with W. H Doolittle, 
under the style of Doolittle and Fogg, and 
at the time of his retirement in 1903, his 
practice was regarded as the most profitable 
in Tacoma. His brother George entered the 
firm upon his retirement, and later his son 
Fred S., a graduate of the Harvard Law 
School, assumed a share of the office duties. 
Mr. Fogg is a man who combines with ability 
and fearlessness, justice and conservatism. 
These qualities as well as his extensive benevo- 
lence and public spirit have made him not 
only a successful lawyer, but a promoter of 
the development and prosperity of Tacoma. 
Mr. Fogg was mayor of Stuart, la., one term; 
vice-president of the First National Bank, and 

*l^C-wv-«£w jc/i^^^ 

is president of the State Bar Association. He 
was admitted to the bar of Nebraska in 1889; 
to the bar of Washington in 1892; and to the 
Supreme Court of the United States, 24 Dec, 
1899. He married in Iowa City, la., 20 Oct., 
1873, Delia Iowa Seydel, and they have four 

SPOONER, John Colt, U. S. Senator and 
lawyer, b. in Lawrenceburg, Ind., 6 Jan., 
1843, son of Philip Loring and Lydia (Coit) 
Spooner. His first American ancestor was 
William Spooner, who came from England in 
1637, and settled at Dartmouth, in the colony 
of Massachusetts. His wife was Mercy De- 
lano. Their son Nathaniel married Hannah 
Blackwell, and their son Philip was John Coit 
Spooner's great grandfather. Philip Spooner 
was an officer in the Revolutionary War, as 
was Samuel Coit, Senator Spooner's great- 
grandfather on his maternal side. One of his 
uncles, Benjamin Spooner, served in the Mexi- 
can War, and raised the first regiment from 
Indiana in 1861 for the Civil War. For three 
centuries the Spooner family has been active 
in public affairs, and most of them have been 
lawyers and soldiers. Philip L. Spooner, 
father of John Coit Spooner, was a judge in 
Indiana and Wisconsin courts. He moved 
from Lawrenceburg, Ind., to Madison, Wis., 
1 June, 1859. John, his son, attended the 
Madison public schools and in 1860 entered 
the University of Wisconsin. He was graduated 
in 1864, just about the time that President 
Lincoln was sending out his call for men to 
defend the Union. The young man recruited 
a company from the university student body. 
He had no money, and was compelled to bor- 
row $300.00 to meet the expenses involved in 
mobilizing his men. He felt that he had a 
patriotic duty to perform, and money mat- 
ters were of no importance except in their 
bearing on which he had to do for his country. 
His services entitled him to a commission in 
the army, but he preferred to fight elbow to 
elbow with his fellow students who, with a 
number of professors almost entirely composed 
Company C, Fourth Wisconsin Infantry. In 
this company he served through the 100 days 
term, and re-enlisted as captain of Company 
A, Fiftieth Infantry. Indians in the Sioux 
country were troublesome about this time, and 
it fell to the Fiftieth to quell them. Having 
done this, the regiment took its place with the 
rest of the army in fighting in the South for 
the preservation of the Union, At the close 
of the war, 1865, he was brevetted major and 
mustered out of military service. He studied 
law in his father's office, and with such assidu- 
ity that he was admitted to the bar two 
years later, in 1867. In the interim ho had 
been the private and military secretary of 
Governor Lucius Fairchild, of Wisconsin, rank- 
ing as colonel by virtue of his secretaryship. 
During 1868 he was quartermaster-genoral of 
Wisconsin, and assistant attornt'y-gonoral 
1869-70. In 1870 he removed to Hudson, Wis., 
where he formed a law partiicrsliip with Harry 
E. Baker. Mr. Spooner had already acijuirod 
a high reputation as an able lawyer, and the 
new firm quickly hecanK' kiiown as one of the 
most dependable in the West. The result was 
a large and lucrative practice. It happened 
that the new railroad companies were looking 
for a bright man to whom it might be safe 




to intrust their legal business. Their eyes 
fell upon young Spooner. With a natural 
legal ability which had brought him steadily 
forward, he showed such aptitude for railroad 
litigation and such a grasp of its numberless 
intricacies, that he was appointed general 
counsel of the two roads. Later when they 
were merged into the Chicago, St. Paul, Min- 
neapolis and Omaha Railroad, he continued to 
be at tho head of the new company's legal de- 
partment. Among important actions conducted 
for Mr. Spooner while in Hudson was that of 
Schulenburg vs. llarriman. The case involved 
the principle that the failure of any railroad 
corporation to comply with conditions subse- 
quent of a land grant which ,it may be at- 
tempting to earn, does not operate as a re- 
version or forfeiture of the grant, but that 
such a forfeiture can come only through a 
specific act of Congress. Mr. Spooner won 
his case before the United States Circuit Court, 
and on appeal the United States Supreme Court 
sustained him. Thus was settled for all time 
a question of very great importance to the 
Northwest. It added greatly to his already 
enviable fame as a lawyer of deep learning and 
remarkable astuteness. In 1872 he was elected 
a member of the State legislature from St. 
Croix County. He was placed on the com- 
mittee on education and railroads and at 
once plunged into the questions of the day 
that came before the assembly. He worked as 
hard against what he considered bad or un- 
necessary bills as he did for those whose pas- 
sage he believed would be beneficial to the 
community. Bold and outspoken, his col- 
leagues knew immediately which side he joined. 
Among the conspicuous services he rendered to 
education from time to time none was greater 
than his procuring the passage of a bill to levy 
a general State tax to be added annually for- 
ever to the income of his alma mater, the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. It was the foundation 
and beginning of the university's splendid 
career of prosperity, growth, and usefulness. 
In 1884, when the Vanderbilt interests obtained 
control of the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis 
and Omaha Railroad, Mr. Spooner resigned the 
position as general counsel. In 1885 he was 
elected United States Senator, to succeed Angus 
Cameron, and took his seat on 4 March, 1885. 
The opposing candidates were William T. 
Price, Gen. Lucius Fairchild, and Senator 
Edward S. Bragg. The reputation of the 
young man from Wisconsin as an orator and a 
lawyer of broad culture lifted him to a seat 
in the United States Senate. He was placed 
on important committees, including those on 
Privileges and Elections, District of Columbia, 
Public Buildings and Ground, Epidemic Dis- 
eases, and Claims. It is said that, as chair- 
man of the last-named committee, he was in- 
strumental in saving the government more 
than $30,000,000. He served in the United 
States Senate until 1891, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Wm. F. Vilas, Democrat. In 1892 
Mr. Spooner was the unanimous choice of the 
Republican Convention as candidate for Gov- 
ernor of Wisconsin, but was defeated by Mr. 
Peck by comparatively a few votes. He moved 
from Madison to Hudson in 1893 and was 
actively engaged as a lawyer until 1897, when 
he was again elected United States Senator, 
succeeding William F. Vilas. In December, 

1898, President McKinley tendered him the 
position in his Cabinet as Secretary of the 
Interior, but Senator Spooner declined the 
ofter, as he did that of membership in the 
United States and British Joint High Com- 
mission which the President tendered him. 
On 3 Jan., 1901, President McKinley asked 
him to become Attorney General under his sec- 
ond administration, which would begin 4 
March, 1901, but this honor too was declined. 
These repeated refusals of a seat in the Presi- 
dential Cabinet were in accordance with his 
formal announcement on 6 July, 1900, in a 
communication to the Republicans of Wiscon- 
sin, that he would not be a candidate for re- 
election in the Senate. He had never been an 
active candidate for any office, and he ear- 
nestly desired now to retire to private life. 
On 27 March, 1903, in spite of his renunciation 
he was elected for another term in the United 
States Senate, to take his seat on 4 March. 
He was obliged to yield to the voice of the 
people of the State, and he served three more 
years, working as vigorously for their in- 
terests as if he had desired the office. In 
1907, however, he resigned his seat, and took 
up the practice of law again, but this time 
in New York City. During the ten years of 
his second service in the United States Senate 
he made speeches or participated in debates 
upon not less than 450 different questions, 
many of them of vital importance to the coun- 
try at large. His most important law-making 
achievement was his Panama Canal bill, gen- 
erally known as the " Spooner Bill " — which 
provided first, for acquiring the Panama route 
and canal should the price conform to the 
ancillary agreement, and a good title be pro- 
cured, and, second, that, if there should be 
failure at Panama, the President should have 
authority to negotiate for and purchase the 
Nicaragua route. Mr. Spooner was a member 
of the Board of Regents of Wisconsin Uni- 
versity. In 1869, the University conferred 
upon him the degree of A.M. and Ph.D., and 
in 1894 that of LL.D. Yale and Columbia 
Universities likewise have recognized his 
scholarship and eminence as a representative 
American statesman by each giving him the 
degrees of Bachelor of Philosophy and LL.D. 
He is a member of the Century Club, Lawyers' 
Club, Association of the Bar in New York 
City, the American Bar Association, and Psi 
Upsilon Fraternity. On 10 Sept., 1860, he 
married Annie E., daughter of Alfred Main, 
of Madison, Wis., and they have three sons: 
Charles Philip, Willet Main, and Philip Lor- 
ing Spooner. 

ALTMAN, Benjamin, merchant, art col- 
lector, b. in New York City, 12 July, 1840; 
d. there, 7 Oct., 1913. His father, at the 
time of his birth, was the owner of a small 
dry goods establishment. Until he was 
twelve years of age he attended the New 
York public schools, where he obtained the 
rudiments of that learning which was later 
supplemented by his own private studies. 
Leaving school, he began his business career 
in his father's store. Here he remained only 
long enough to obtain such practical business 
training as was needed to carry on business 
on his own account. His father died in 1854, 
but already by that time Mr. Altman and his 
brother, Morris, had formed a partnership 




and had opened a small department store on 
Third Avenue and Tenth Street. Early in the 
eighties this establishment had developed to 
such proportions that more commodious quar- 
ters were obtained at the corner of Sixth Ave- 
nue and Nineteenth Street. It had always 
been Mr. Altman's ambition to establish his 
business on Fifth Avenue, which he was con- 
vinced would some day be the busiest artery of 
trade in New York City. He acquired parcels 
of property on Thirty-fourth and Thirty-fifth 
Streets, until the entire Fifth Avenue frontage 
had been acquired. Then he purchased the 
Madison Avenue frontage of the same block 
and, when his plans had fully matured, he 
designed an imposing structure of granite in 
1905, in accordance with plans which permit- 
ted additions from time to time as the leases 
of adjacent property matured. Today, the 
building is one of the handsomest and the 
best adapted to department store business in 
New York City. While Mr. Altman's business 
success placed him among the front rank of 
the merchant princes of America, it can 
hardly be said that the building up of his 
great mercantile establishment was his life 
work. Rather was it the means to an end, 
for when the net results of his life are 
summed up, it will be found that his fame as 
a collector and patron of art far exceeds his 
renown as a successful business man. Al- 
ready as a boy of sixteen he was interested 
in the works of great artists, of all times and 
all countries, but at that time and for long 
after this craving had to remain largely un- 
satisfied. Possibly it had not a little to do in 
inspiring that energy which made his busi- 
ness a success, that he might have the means 
to gratifying it. Mr. Altman was probably 
the most discerning art collector that ever 
lived. He was satisfied with nothing but the 
very best of its kind. His tastes, like those 
of J. Pierpont Morgan, were within the lim- 
its that he set for himself. His earlier in- 
terests centered largely in classical and ori- 
ental art, especially in Chinese and Persian, 
and in European works from the fifteenth to 
the seventeenth century. In later years, he 
became more absorbed in his paintings, while 
still retaining a great interest in some of his 
sculptures, his gold and silver works, such as 
the Cellini Cup, a French triptych in trans- 
lucent enamel of the fifteenth century, and his 
collection of Chinese porcelains which was 
of the highest quality and was only rivaled 
by that of Mr. Morgan, the Salting collection 
in London and the one in the Louvre. His 
oriental rugs, too, comprised the finest weav- 
ings of Persian and Indian art of the six- 
teenth century, most of them in silk and 
some of them with gold and silver thread. 
The masterpiece of these, which he called his 
"Rembrandt of Rugs," contained 719 knots to 
the square inch. In his collection of paint- 
ings, Rembrandt stood out foremost, for Rem- 
brandt he considered the greatest artist on 
canvas of all time, though he considered 
Velasquez almost, if not quite, his equal. It 
was his opinion that no one could properly 
appreciate Velasquez who had not viewed liis 
paintings in the Prado, in Madrid. Although 
Mr. Altman frequently consulted the opinions 
of others in matters of art, even outside the 
circle of professional experts, his final deci- 

sions invariably rested on his own judgment. 
Like many American collectors, he began with 
the Barbizon masters and with English por- 
traits, and when he first arranged his gal- 
lery, these had a prominent place on the 
walls. Gradually these were made to give 
room to specimens of the earlier schools and 
the English portraits were relegated to less 
conspicuous places. It was not his idea that 
pictures were solely for decorative purposes. 
He sought for works which showed soul and 
character. For this reason he was not much 
interested in eighteenth century French paint- 
ings, nor in the English school. When he 
turned toward paintings of the eighteenth 
century, Rembrandt immediately became his 
chief favorite, the deep humanity of that 
master's works appealing strongly to his own 
nature. His Rembrandt collection was the 
largest of any private collection; his last ac- 
quisition before his death was a work by this 
painter. Next in order followed Velasquez, 
Van Dyck, Ruysdael, Cuyp, Vermeer, all of 
whom were represented by exceptionally fine 
examples. This magnificent collection Mr. 
Altman willed to the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art of New York City, on condition that it 
be arranged in a gallery in the same manner 
it had been arranged in his own private gal- 
lery and that it continue under the charge 
of his secretary, who had assisted him in his 
labors. In the paintings by Rembrandt, the 
most prominent are : " Portrait of Rembrandt's 
Son, Titus"; "Old Woman Paring Her 
Nails"; "Pilate Washing His Hands"; 
"Portrait of Rembrandt"; "The Man with 
the Magnifying Glass"; and "The Toilet of 
Bathsheba after the Bath." Of the Franz 
Hals collection the following examples are 
perhaps best known: "The Merry Company 
after a Meal"; "Portrait of the Artist"; 
and "A Youth with a Mandolin." Other no- 
table paintings of this school are : " Young 
Herdsman with Cows," by Cuyp; "Young 
Girl Peeling an Apple," by Nicholas Maes; 
" Portrait of the Marehesa Durrazzo," by 
Van Dyck ; " Wheatfields," by Jacob Ruisdael ; 
and " The Portrait of an Old Man," and " The 
Betrothal of St. Catherine," by Hans Mem- 
ling. The masterpieces of the Italian school 
include: "The Crucifixion," by Fra Angelico; 
" Christ and the Pilgrims of Emmaus," by 
Velasquez; "The Virgin and Child with 
Angels," by Sebastianno Mainardi; "The Last 
Communion of St. Jerome," by Botticelli; and 
" The Holy Family," by Mantegna. Included 
in the whole collection are also: a marble 
bust, representing Louise Brongniart, by Jean 
Antoine Houdon; a marble statue representing 
a bather, by Falconet; a marble group rep- 
resenting Venus instructing Cupid, by the 
same artist ; " Virtue Overcoming Vice," a 
statue by Giovanni da Bologna. Then there 
are bronees, limoges, enamels, tapestries, rugs, 
Italian and Persian art objects, glass, scarabs, 
furniture, a Greek terra cotta vase and Greek 
glass. The Barbizon paintings, of early col- 
lection, are: "The Ferryman"; "Souvenir of 
Normandy"; " Allie des Arbres," by Jean 
Baptiste Camile Corot; " Landscape," by 
Theodore Rousseau; " Les bords dc I'Oisc," 
and " Landscape with Storks," by Cliarles 
Francois Daubigny; and a "Clearing in the 
Forest of Fontainebleau," by M. V. Diaz. 




In the collection of these masterpieces it may 
be said that Mr. Altman gave the better part 
of his life. During the later years of his life 
he left the management of the btisiness to his 
associates and devoted his time to his collec- 
tions. By nature of a very retiring, almost a 
sensitive, disposition, he gave little time to 
social intercourse outside of his own home. 
Though his name was kno\vn to every inhabi- 
tant of New York City, there were probably 
not a hundred people who knew him by 
sight. But among that hundred were a great 
number of very close personal friends. His 
donations to charitable causes were given with 
almost the secrecy of unlawful schemes, so 
much did he fear publicity. It was only in 
his will, whereby he made munificent contri- 
butions to charitable institutions, that he 
could no further conceal himself Foremost in 
his consideration, however, were the em- 
ployees who had been partly the means 
whereby he gained his large fortune. In Feb- 
ruary of the year in which he died, he ob- 
tained the adoption by the New York State 
legislature of a bill incorporating the Altman 
Foundation. The purpose of this foundation, 
as stated in the bill, was to receive and ad- 
minister funds and to promote the social, 
physical, and economic welfare of the em- 
ployees of B Altman and Company. The 
foundation plan includes a system of profit- 
sharing and provides also that the funds may 
be used for charitable and educational pur- 
poses. Mr. Altman was never married. 

READ, William Angustus, banker, b. in 
Brooklyn, N. Y, 20 May, 1858; d. in New 
York City, 7 April, 1916, son of George W. 
and Rowland and Augusta (Curtis) Read. 
He was educated at the Brooklyn Juvenile 
High School and at Polytechnic Institute, 
where he was graduated in 1872, ready to 
enter Yale at the age of fourteen. Instead, he 
obtained employment in the banking house of 
Vermilye and Company, in a subordinate ca- 
pacity, and it was not long before his close 
attention to business and his marked ability 
won him promotion to positions of greater re- 
sponsibility. In 1896 he vras admitted to 
membership in the firm from which he retired 
in 1905, to organize the banking house of Wm. 
A. Read and Company, which became one of 
the leading banking houses of the country 
Mr. Read possessed an intimate knowledge of 
bonds and securities, and his advice on invest- 
paents was frequently sought by many lead- 
ing business men and corporations. He was 
highly respected in banking circles and his 
firm was a member of many syndicates or- 
ganized to sell large municipal and state bond 
offerings. At the time of his death, he Avas 
director in the Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company, and the Bank of New York 
(National Banking Association), Central Trust 
Company of New York, Twin City Rapid 
Transit Company, and the Alliance Assurance 
Company of London. Notwithstanding the 
great demand upon his time made by these 
business connections, he was well known also 
as a collector of rare editions of fine books 
in rare bindings, and he possessed a library 
of great value and artistic beauty. Mr. Read 
was active in many charitable organizations, 
particularly those devoted to the education of 
the young. He was one of the trustees of the 

East Side House, to which he contributed lib- 
erally. Among the clubs in which he held 
membership were the Union, Century, Metro- 
politan, New York Yacht, Riding, Downtown, 
Grolier, Players, and Hamilton Club of 
Brooklyn, the Apawamis of Rye, and the Lenox 
Club, of Lenox, Mass. On 20 Nov., 1894, 
Mr. Read married Miss Caroline Hicks Sea- 
man, daughter of Samuel Hicks Seaman, of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., by whom he is survived, and 
five sons and two daughters. Mr. and Mrs. 
Read maintained a summer home at Purchase, 
N. Y., which was one of the finest residences in 
Westchester County. 

BLISS, Aaron Thomas, governor of Michi- 
gan (1901-05), b. in Smithfield, N. Y., 22 May, 
1837; d. in Milwaukee, Wis., 16 Sept., 1906, 
son of Lyman and Anna (Chaffee) Bliss. He 
was educated at the country school and spent 
his early boyhood on his father's farm. At 
the age of seventeen he found employment in 
a store, holding the position until the out- 
break of the Civil War. He enlisted as a 
private in a regiment of New York cavalry, 
and was subsequently raised to first lieutenant 
and then to captain. In an engagement at 
Ream's Station, Va., he was taken prisoner, 
and spent the ensuing six months in the Con- 
federate prison. He escaped from the Colum- 
bia prison with some companions in November, 
1864, and reached the Union lines footsore and 
nearly starved after three weeks of travel 
through wilderness At the close of the war 
he removed to Saginaw, Mich., where he en- 
gaged in lumbering and salt manufacture. He 
was instrumental, with others, in promoting 
the growth of these industries so that Sagi- 
naw became known as the greatest lumbering 
and salt producing center of the United States. 
When America realized that there was a 
threatening shortage in the lumber supply, 
he was among the first to turn to Canada as 
a source of supply for his lumber mills. With 
the logs he obtained in Canada, the sawTnilla 
in which he was interested were kept in opera- 
tion, and furnished employment for many peo- 
ple. In addition to his salt and lumber in- 
terests, he became connected with various com- 
mercial and agricultural movements. He 
found time to devote to politics, and held the 
positions of alderman, supervisor, member of 
the board of educatibn, and State senator. In 
1885 he was appointed an aide on the gover- 
nor's staff, and in 1888 .he was elected to 
Congress, serving two years. He was elected 
governor of the State in 1900, serving two 
terms, 1901-05. During his administration 
numerous reforms were inaugurated and econ- 
omies eflfected. 

PALMER, Bertha Honore (Mrs Potter Pal- 
mer), social leader, b. in Louisville, Ky., 
daughter of the Hon. Henry Hamilton and 
Eliza Dorsey (Carr) Honors. She is de- 
scended from an old and aristocratic family. 
Her groat-grandfather, Jean Antoine Honors, 
a French nobleman, was an intimate friend of 
Lafayette, sharing his political views. In 
177G, at the age of twenty-one, he came to 
America and participated in the American 
struggle for liberty under the leadership of 
his great compatriot. In 1781 he finally set- 
tled in Baltimore, Md., where he remained for 
twenty-five years. He then removed to Louis- 
ville, Ky., became active in the development 





of that section of the country, and took a lead- 
ing part in the business affairs of the city. 
Jean Antoine Honore was the owner of the 
first steamer plying between Louisville and 
New Orleans. His son, Francis (grandfather 
of Mrs. Potter Palmer), was a country gentle- 
man on his plantation near Louisville. He 
married the beautiful and accomplished 
daughter of Capt. Benjamin Lockwood, U. S. A. 
Their son was Henry Hamilton Honore (father 
of Mrs. Potter Palmer), who engaged in the 
hardware business in Louisville. In 1853 he 
visited Chicago, and upon his return was so 
enthusiastic over the possibilities he saw 
there that not only he, but many other promi- 
nent families of Louisville, went to Chicago 
and settled there. Here he invested in real 
estate located in the business section and be- 
came one of the leading merchants of the city. 
The splendid park system was the result of 
his initiative and his public spirit. Mrs. Pot- 
ter Palmer, together with her sister (Mrs. 
Frederick Dent Grant), was educated at the 
famous Georgetown, Ky., Convent, a favorite 
school among the best Southern families. It 
was not long after her graduation and her 
entree into society that she met Potter Palmer, 
a forceful business man and real estate owner 
of Chicago, to whom she was married, in 1871. 
The residence which they established in the 
Lake Shore Drive soon became the center of 
the social life of the city. Mrs. Palmer was 
the organizer and the leading spirit of the 
magnificent balls given for charity or in honor 
of great civic occasions. To the Hon. William 
M. Springer, of Illinois, who was a member of 
the sub-committee of the Quadro-Centennial 
Committee of the House of Representatives, is 
due the honor of first proposing that the man- 
agement of the Columbian Exposition should 
be shared by a body of women. The clause 
written by him for that purpose received the 
cordial approval of his associates on the com- 
mittee and became a part of the World's Fair 
bill; At the rirst meeting of the Columbian 
Commission, held in June, 1890, it was agreed 
that the " Board of Lady Managers " should 
be constituted after the pattern of the com- 
mission itself; of two women from each State 
and Territory and the District of Columbia and 
also nine members from the city of Chicago, 
to be appointed by the president of the com- 
mission. Thus was brought into existence the 
Board of Lady Managers, with 115 members. 
The first meeting was called for 19 Nov., 1890, 
and was called to order by Thomas W. Palmer, 
president of the Commission, The next day 
the Bo. rd of Lady Managers gathered for the 
purpose of permanent organization and to con- 
sider whom to choose as president. That the 
choice fell to Mrs. Potter Palmer, who was 
unanimously elected, was hardly a surprise. 
No one could have been more eminently fitted 
for the position. It depended largely on its 
president whether the Board of Lady Man- 
agers should remain largely an honorary body 
or whether it should really participate in the 
executive powers of the general management. 
This situation became more obvious when the 
Columbian Commission decided that it could 
not legally delegate, even to one of its own 
committees, authority that had been vested in 
it by Congress, and much less was it inclined to 
assign any share of its duties to the Board of 

Lady Managers. When the House of Rep- 
resentatives passed the bill for the expenses 
of the Columbian Commission for the year 
1891-92, there was keen disappointment over 
the limited amount of the appropriation. This 
feeling was still further intensified when the 
Senate reduced the appropriation stilV* more. 
Mrs. Potter Palmer, as president of the Board 
of Lady Managers, went to Washington in 
February, arriving just after this unfavorable 
action had become known. Accompanied by 
several members of the Board, she appeared 
before the Appropriation Committee of the 
Senate and the House, and made a full ex- 
planation of the work planned, or proposed, 
by the Board of Lady Managers. The result 
of her appeal was that the appropriation was 
increased to $95,000, of which $36,000 was for 
the use of the Board of Lady Managers. The 
gratitude of the Columbian Commission toward 
Mrs. Palmer for the efforts which she had ex- 
ercised so effectively was expressed in a reso- 
lution of thanks. But what was more im- 
portant, nothing could have been so effective 
in establishing cordial relations between the 
two bodies, nor could anything have estab- 
lished the authority of the Board of Lady 
Managers within its own jurisdiction on a 
more solid basis. The important work that 
came up next was to persuade the individual 
states to appoint women's commissions, or 
committees, to co-operate with the Board of 
Lady Managers in the general work of rep- 
resenting women at the Exposition. The Co- 
lumbian Commission, in appealing to the 
States to participate in the work, was per- 
suaded to add a suggestion that women be 
appointed, either as members of their re- 
spective State Boards, or that they have an or- 
ganization of their own, in which case a specific 
sum should be appropriated for their work. 
Mrs. Palmer and other Illinois members of 
the Board of Lady Managers next exerted 
themselves to secure an appropriation from the 
legislature of that State. Many of the mem- 
bers of the legislature were then visiting Chi- 
cago to estimate the scope of the coming Ex- 
position. These were invited to Mrs. Palmer's 
residence where they were addressed by some 
of the most active personalities connected with 
the organization of the Exposition. After- 
ward Mrs. Palmer visited Springfield, 111., 
where she laid before the Appropriations Com- 
mittee of the legislature a full explanation of 
the purpose of her organization and asked 
that a State Board of Women be organized, 
to which should be given one-tenth of the gen- 
eral appropriation for the State's participa- 
tion in the Exposition. This was actually 
done, the Illinois Women's Board received 
$80,000 out of the entire sum of $800,000. By 
the fall of the year thirty-one states and terri- 
tories had followed this example; tlie work 
of the Board of Lady Managers was now estab- 
lished on a national basis, largely through the 
energetic and diplomatic efforts of Mrs. Pal- 
mer. The Board of Lady Managers, having 
been so successful within the limits of the 
United States, now turned to other countries, 
encouraged to believe that they miglit give an 
international scope to their plans. Here the 
task was even more delicate, for there now rose 
before them the obstacles of different languages 
and national prejudices and customs. The 




interest of the Secretary of State was enlisted, 
but the assistance he promised could not be 
brought into operation at once on account of 
his illness. Mrs. Potter Palmer decided to 
go abroad personally and secure the co-opera- 
tion of foreign governments, on behalf of 
womerit as she had enlisted the co-operation 
of the State of Illinois. Bj means of personal 
interviews and conferences, she found that the 
sentiment of the higher officials was uniformly 
favorable. By the same means, she also 
aroused the interest of many of the most in- 
fluential women abroad. The American Min- 
ister in London arranged for Mrs. Palmer a 
private audience with her Royal Highness, the 
Princess Christian. The Princess was ex- 
tremely conservative regarding the woman 
question in general, believing that the place 
of every woman was in the home, with her 
children, yet she was persuaded to give her 
support. She herself suggested the formation 
of an English Women's Committee for the Co- 
lumbian Exposition and consented to act as 
its patroness. In Paris, the Corps Legislatif, 
before adjournment, had responded to the gen- 
eral invitation to participate in the Exposition 
by creating a " Committee Provisoire," and 
Antonin Proust had been appointed Director of 
Fine Arts. Mrs. Palmer met socially several 
members of this committee, as well as the Fine 
Arts Director. * Their response was most cor- 
dial. A special conference was held and the 
active assistance of some of the most influential 
people of the nation was enlisted, among them 
being Senator Jules Simon, who had presided 
at a Women's Congress at the Paris Exposition 
of 1889; Mme. de Morsier, M. and Mme. Jules 
Siegfried, the former of whom was a member 
of the Chamber of Deputies and at that time 
president of the Provisional Committee for the 
Columbian Exposition; and Mme. Carnot, wife 
of the President of the French Republic. The 
result of Mrs. Palmer's eff'orts was that at a 
meeting of the Provisional Committee a reso- 
lution was adopted authorizing the creation of 
a committee of French women and appropriat- 
ing a sum of 200,000 francs with which to 
finance their work. M. Berger, organizer of 
the French Exposition, immediately planned an 
exhibition of the work of women in the Palais 
de rindustrie, to be held the following sum- 
mer, from which a choice was later to be made 
of the cream of the exhibits and sent to the 
United States. Mrs Palmer now visited Aus- 
tria, and here she found a task before her from 
which the most able of diplomats might well 
have shrunk. Commercial relations with the 
United States had been recently broken be- 
cause of the passage of a high tariff bill. 
Great distress prevailed in Vienna on account 
of the unemployment of many who had formerly 
been occupied in industries exporting heavily 
to the United States, and this material evi- 
dence of the broken-off trade relations created 
a very bitter sentiment toward all things 
American. Notwithstanding, Mrs. Palmer was 
able to interest the Princess Metternich, to 
whom the idea of a Women's Commission made 
a strong appeal. Princess Windisgratz, who 
was at the head of a movement seeking to open 
new lines of employment for peasant women 
in the handicrafts, also agreed to co-operate. 
Having accomplished so much, Mrs. Palmer 
now turned homeward. She now sought to 

arouse an interest among the women in those 
countries she had not visited through the 
Secretary of State. In due time responses 
came announcing the formation of women's 
commissions in Austria, Belgium, Brazil, 
France, Germany, Great Britain, Guatemala, 
Italy, japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, 
Russia, Siam, Spain, and Sweden. The hopes 
that all these promising indications aroused 
were not to be disappointed. There now de- 
veloped a women's organization wider in its 
scope than had ever been brought into existence 
before, supported by the most influential women 
all over the world. The British Committee 
was under the patronage of no less a person 
than the Queen herself, and its members in- 
cluded such women as the Duchess of Aber- 
corn, the Marchioness of Salisbury, the Count- 
ess of Aberdeen, Lady Henry Somerset, Lady 
Brassey, the Baroness Burdett-Coutts, Lady 
Knutsford, and many others. In France, 
Madame Carnot had finally decided to under- 
take the active presidency of the French Com- 
mittee. In Germany, another committee was 
active under the direction of the Princess 
Friedrich Carl, Fraulein Lange, Frau Morgen- 
stern, and other noted members of the highest 
nobility. Italy, almost the first to announce 
its committee, was working under the most 
active supervision of Queen Margherita. In 
Belgium, too, the Queen was directly interested. 
Not least active in her nation's share of the 
general work was the Queen of Japan. The 
story of the women's organizations and their 
work, under the leadership of Mrs. Palmer, 
forms an integral part of the history of the 
Columbian Exposition. The culmination of all 
these efforts, the great meeting held in Chi- 
cago in 1892, representing over a million and a 
half of women all the world over, presided over 
by Mrs. Palmer, was assuredly an epoch- 
marking event in the participation of women 
in the ac'ive affairs of the world. As Mrs. 
Palmer herself remarked in her opening ad- 
dress, on the occasion, it was " The o'pen 
sesame for woman's participation in national 
affairs.' After the close of the Exposition Mrs. 
Palmer again resumed her social activities in 
Chicago, and if there ever had been any ques- 
tion of her absolute leadership in this field, 
there was none now. For over twenty years 
she continued in this position, extending her 
social influence into Europe, where she spent 
a good part of each year. In Paris her salon 
became a powerful center of attraction in 
the social life of the Continent. In 1900 Mrs. 
Palmer was appointed the only woman member 
of the United States Commission sent to rep- 
resent the government at the Paris Exposi- 
tion, the French government expressing its 
appreciation of the appointment by awarding 
her membership to the Legion of Honor. In 
1910 she acquired a considerable tract of land 
on Cerasota Bay, Fla., and here she spends 
her winters, interested in a sociological ex- 
periment which she has initiated: an agricul- 
tural colony. Recently she requested the rail- 
road company to build a branch line to her 
colony, but no notice was taken of it. Where- 
upon, with her accustomed energy, she under- 
took to organize a railroad company of her 
own and began building a road. At this point 
the railroad company came to terms and agreed 
to build the branch. 




From, the- orn^tna/patnUna 
bt/ StanUf/ Todd 



PEARSON, William Henry, manufacturer, b. 
in Lancaster, N. H., 31 July, 1832, eldest son 
of William and Lucinda Maria (Greenleaf) 
Pearson. He lived in his native town during 
his youth, and has always retained a deep 
affection for the place and for his native 
state. In the year 1845 his father's family 
removed to Boston, Mass. In his business ca- 
reer of over forty years he was identified with 
the boot and shoe industry. In the year 1857 
he conducted a shoe store on Hanover Street, 
later on Washington Street and Temple Place 
for about twenty-five years. He manufactured 
shoes at Woburn and Lynn. For twenty-five 
years he was a deputy collector of the city of 
Boston. His retirement from that position in 
his eightieth year, in 1912, was marked by an 
appreciative testimonial from his associates in 
the collecting department. He then made his 
residence in West Newton. He was a member 
of the Mercantile Library Association, an or- 
ganization that brought together, during the 
early Boston days, many of the men prompted 
by high civic interests. He has served the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows as chief 
patriarch and as grand representative, now 
(1917) being in the sixty-fourth year of his 
membership. In early life he became a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic 
Association, of Boston, the owners of Me- 
chanics' Building on Huntington Avenue, and 
has served them as trustee for many terms, 
and as trustee of their Charity Fund, retiring 
from the board in the year 1916. He has 
taken much interest in fraternal societies and 
gatherings of historic concern. He attended 
the first meeting of the Massachusetts Society 
of the Sons of the American Revolution and 
served on their first board of managers. Six 
of his ancestors gave service in the Continental 
army. He is a member of the Society of 
Colonial Wars in the Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts, being eligible to membership through 
more than twenty lines of descent from for- 
bears who gave military or civil service under 
the Colonial governments; one of whom. Major 
Jeremiah Swayne, who was severely wounded 
in the Great Swamp fight when King Philip 
met his death, and who, later, was appointed 
commander-in-chief of all the forces of Massa- 
chusetts Bay Colony, in 1688, and then led an 
expedition against the "Indian Enemy, in the 
direction of the Kennebec." He is descended 
in the seventh generation from John Pearson, 
a resident of Lynn and Keading in the year 
1637, one of the seven founders and sometime 
deacon of the First Church of Christ in Read- 
: ing. The second in the line, Lieut. John Pear- 
son, was chairman of the committee appointed 
to build the meeting-house on Lynnfield Com- 
mon, which structure is one of the oldest 
houses of worship standing in New England 
(1917). As a boy and young man living at 
the W^est End, he was much interested in the 
amateur games of baseball played on Boston 
Common, the game then just beginning to be 
popular. He participated in the organization 
of the Bowdoin Base Ball Club in the year 
1859, which was afterward merged into the 
Lowell Base Ball Club, named for their cap- 
tain, John A. Lowell. In the year 1910, Mr. 
Pearson presented the President's pew in the 
Washington Memorial Chapel at Valley Forge, 
Pa. The complement to this beautiful gift, 

the screen to the President's pew, was given 
by Mrs. Pearson in the succeeding year. He 
married on 21 Feb., 1861, at North White- 
field, Me., Nancy Delia Benjamin, daughter of 
Benaiah and Elizabeth (Noyes) Benjamin. 
Mrs. Pearson, endeared to many through her 
devotion to her home and friends, died on 
9 June, 1917, after a married life of more than 
fifty-six years. They had three children: Seth 
Greenleaf Pearson, who died in 1864, Nella 
Jane Pearson and Arthur Emmons Pearson 

PEARSON, Arthur Emmons, manufacturer, 
b. in Boston, Mass., 9 Jan., 1869, second son 
of William Henry and Nancy Delia (Benja- 
min) Pearson. He resided in Roxbury, a sub- 
urb of Boston, and removed to West Newton 
in 1911. For nearly thirty years his business 
life has been identified with Hollingsworth and 
Whitney Company, manufacturers of paper and 
paper bags. In 1915 he donated the New 
Hampshire Bay in the Cloister of the Colonies 
of the Washington Memorial Chapel at Valley 
Forge, Pa. This is the Sanctuary Bay and 
from it beautiful memorial doors lead to the 
chapel and the choir room. The structure is 
of Holmsburg granite, the interior being lined 
with Indiana limestone, which stone is also 
used in the trifold open Gothic window tracery 
facing on the grassed garth. In the center of 
the floor of Knoxville marble is a massive seal 
of the Province of New Hampshire executed 
in bronze, while the arms of the State of New 
Hampshire are emblazoned in colors in the 
center of the oak paneled ceiling. The in- 
scription is cut on the interior structural stone 
of one of the supporting pillars of the arch. 
The- motto was that furnished by Whitefield 
and placed on the banner of the troops of the 
Province of New Hampshire when they moved 
with the Expedition to Louisburg in the year 




On 28 May, 1917, a presentation took place 
in the bay, when Mr. Pearson donated to the 
Valley Forge Library a valuable mjinuscript 
letter of George Washington, which ho has 
had in his possession for some years. It had 
been given to him by a relative in whose 
keeping it had been for ronsiderable period. 
The letter is dated at Cambridge, Mass., 10 




Dec., 1775, while General Washington was in 
command of the Continental Army and was 
addressed, *' To the Honbie The Geni Court 
of the Province of Massachusetts Bay." Mr. 
Pearson's guests from Massachusetts included 
his parents, sister, relatives, and friends. The 
Rev. VV. Herbert Burk, as curator, accepted the 
gift on behalf of the Library. It was Mr. 
Pearson's privilege to unveil the John Ben- 
jamin Tablet in the chapel ( 1908 ) . John Ben- 
lamin, his maternal great-grandfather, served 
in Col. Crane's regiment, Massachusetts Ar- 
tillery, Continental army. In his service of 
seven consecutive years, he participated in all 
the principal engagements of the Continental 
army and the winter encampment at Valley 
Forge. He died 2 Dec, 1814, at the home of his 
son, Benaiah, in North Whitefield, Me. The 
powder horn he carried throughout the Revolu- 
tionary War has been presented to the Valley 
Forge Museum of American History by Mr. 
Pearson. Lieut. Samuel Benjamin, his brother, 
gave a long service. His diary and his oath 
of fidelity witnessed at Valley Forge by Baron 
De Kalb are in the possession of his descend- 
ants. The New Hampshire State Panel in the 
chapel is the gift of Mr. Pearson and his sis- 
ter. Miss Nella Jane Pearson. Mr. Pearson 
has compiled and edited a record of about 
four hundred progenitors of his father and 
mother which was published in " Colonial 
Families of the United States of America," 
Vol. II (Baltimore, 1911), and a more detailed 
account including several charts, all of which 
were published in '* American Families of His- 
toric Lineage " ( New York ) . Military and 
civil services of these families have been given 
in various state «,nd general society publica- 
tions. A comprehensive chart, including the 
allied families, was published in "Colonial 
Wars," Vol. I, No. 1 (Dec, 1913), the pub- 
lication of the Society of Colonial Wars in 
the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and will 
appear in their chart book now in the course 
of preparation. Hiram Pearson, paternal 
great-grandfather of Mr. Pearson, was one of 
the petitioners to the legislature of Vermont 
for the incorporation of the lirst public library 
in that state. The emigrant ancestor of 
Benaiah Benjamin, the maternal grandfather 
of Mr. Pearson, was John Benjamin, who with 
his family arrived in Boston Harbor on the 
ship " Lion," 16 Sept., 1632. In 1642 he owned 
the largest homestall in Newtowne, now Cam- 
bridge, Mass. He had the finest library in 
;New England. In his writings Governor Win- 
throp says : " Mr. Benjamin's house was un- 
surpassed in elegance and comfort by any in 
the vicinity. It was the mansion of intelli- 
gence, religion, and hospitality; visited by the 
clergy of all denominations and by the literati 
at home and abroad." The will of John Ben- 
jamin is in the handwriting of Governor Win- 
throp. John Benjamin married (1G19) Abi- 
gail Eddy. She was the daughter of Rev. 
William Eddy, vicar of St. Dunstan's Church, 
of Cranbrook, County Kent, England, and 
Mary, daughter of John and Ellen (Munn) 
Fosten, whom he married 20 Nov., 1587. 
Benaiah Benjamin d. 28 Dec, 1888, in his 
ninety-eighth year. He never failed to vote in 
the nineteen presidential elections occurring 
during his majority. Elizabeth Noyes, wife 
of Benaiah Benjamin, was descended from 

Nicholas Noyes, who arrived on the ship 
" Mary and John," from London in the year 
1633. This ancestor settled in Newbury, Mass., 
and married Mary, daughter of Capt. John Cut- 
ting, formerly shipmaster of London. His 
father. Rev. William Noyes, was rector of 
Choulderton Parish near Salisbury, England, 
and he was succeeded in the parish by his son. 
Rev. Nathan Noyes. Rev. William ^oyes mar- 
ried in the year 1595 Anne Parker, a sister 
of Rev. Robert Parker. Mather speaks of Dr. 
Parker as one of the greatest scholars of the 
English nation. Elizabeth (Noyes) Benjamin, 
the mother of Nancy Delia (Benjamin) Peai-- 
son, had a remarkable knowledge of the Bible 
and memorized the Book of Romans in its 
entirety. She read the New Testament in the 
Greek, although she did not acquire that lan- 
guage until after her sixtieth year. About 
thirty of the New England ancestors of Benaiah 
and Elizabeth (Noyes) Benjamin, gave mili- 
tary and civil services under the (Colonial gov- 
ernment of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. 
Mr. Pearson is a life member of the Society 
for the Preservation of New England An- 
tiquities, the Bostonian Society, and the So- 
ciety of Colonial Wars in the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts: he is a member of the Mas- 
sachusetts Society of the Sons of the American 
Revolution and the Society of the War of 1812 
in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

ABBEY, Henry Eugene, theatrical manager, 
b. in Akron, Ohio, 27 June, 1846; d. in New 
York City, 17 Oct., 1896. He was educated in 
the public schools, and entered business as a 
clerk in his father's jewelry store, which he 
inherited in 1871. From a very early age, 
however, he had been interested in theatrical 
matters, always holding the ambition of becom- 
ing a manager. Accordingly, in 1876, he 
formed a partnership with John B. Schoeffel, 
with whom he acquired proprietorship in th« 
Academy of Music in Buffalo. At the end of 
a year Mr. Abbey came to New York, and be- 
came manager of the Park Theater, located at 
Twenty-second Street and Broadway. In 1880 
he went to Europe and made a contract with 
Sarah Bernhardt for an American tour, which 
he managed with such ability and success as to 
win for himself the title " Napoleon of Mana- 
gers." During 1883-84, in association with Mr. 
SchoeflFel, he controlled the Metropolitan Opera 
House in New York City, Maurice Grau being 
business manager. Colonel Mapleson, who was 
then directing the production of grand opera 
at the Academy of Music, caused considerable 
trouble by his opposition, but Mr. Abbey's 
friends gave him a benefit in 1884, which net- 
ted $36,000, and established him on a firmer 
basis. In 1889-90 he managed the American 
tours of Adelina Patti and the London Gaiety 
Company, both notably successful. The firm of 
Abbey, Schoeffel and Grau again obtained con- 
trol of the Metropolitan Opera House in 1891, 
and during the following season presented 
Italian opera, Mr. Abbey also introduced to 
the American public such prominent actors as 
Lawrence Barrett, the elder Sothern, Lotta, 
Irving, Coquelin, and Jane Hading. In 1893 i 
his firm produced a grand spectacular piece, en- 
titled "America," at the World's Columbian 
Exposition, Chicago, and the same year they 
opened Abbey's Theater in New York City. 
Three years later the firm was dissolved. In 


<^4^n^.l ^/'n-}7unc4y/ jL^ 





addition to the theaters already mentioned, Mr. 
Abbey managed Booth's, the Casino, the Grand 
Opera House, the Star, and Wallack's in New 
York City; the Park in Philadelphia; and 
the Metropolitan, Park, and Tremont Theaters 
in Boston. 

POOR, James Harper, merchant, b. in Boa- 
ton, Mass., 17 Dee., 1862, son of Edward Erie 
and Mary (Lane) Poor. He is a descendant 
of an old New England family of English 
origin, his first American ancestor being John 
Poor, who came from Wiltshire, England, in 
1635, and settled at Newbury, Mass. From 
him the line of descent is traced through his 
son, Henry, who married Abigail Hale; their 
son, Benjamin, who married Elizabeth Felt; 
their son, Jeremiah, who married Joanna Carr ; 
their son, Benjamin, who married Rtfth Poor; 
and their son, Benjamin, who married Arline 
E. Peabody, and was the father of Edward 
E, Poor. The wife of Benjamin Poor belonged 
to one of the most notable of the old Massa- 
chusetts families, descended from Lieut. Fran- 
cis Peabody, of St. Albans, Herts, England, 
who came to America about 1635, and became 
a large landowner in Massachusetts. Among 
his descents are George Peabody, the famous 
philanthropist. James H. Poor received his 
education in private schools. His natural 
bent was for business, and, in 1880, while still 
a boy, he began his career in the dry goods 
commission house of Jacob Wendell and Com- 
pany. During the following three years, he 
evinced unusual aptitude and gained sufficient 
experience to be of value in his father's firm of 
Denny, Poor and Company, which he joined in 
1883. Here he steadily advanced, and was 
intrusted with greater responsibilities from 
year to. year. In 1892 he was admitted as a 
partner, and acted in that capacity till 1898, 
when he established, together with his brother, 
E. E. Poor, Jr., the dry goods commission 
firm of Poor Bros. He entered upon a still 
larger independent venture in 1901, organiz- 
ing the firm of J. Harper Poor and Company, 
of which he was the sole active member. 
Under his guidance the firm entered upon a 
period of success, and in 1906 it was consoli- 
dated with the dry goods commission house 
of Amory, Browne and Company, in which, by 
virtue of his exceptional knowledge of busi- 
ness, his enterprise and executive ability, Mr 
Poor at once became a chief factor. The firm 
stands in the front rank of the dry goods com- 
mission business, and as in that line the 
Americans predominate throughout the world, 
that distinction carries with it international 
renown. Mr. Poor is noted for his urbanity, 
and is regarded in the trade as an example 
of success through a keen sense of business 
ethics. He is a member of the New York 
Chamber of Commerce, and the Metropolitan, 
New York Yacht, Riding, Automobile, and 
Merchants' Clubs of New York; the Sleepy 
Hollow and Ardsley Clubs of Westchester, and 
the Algonquin Club of Boston, Mass He mar- 
ried 20 Jan., 1885, Evelyn, daughter of Thomas 
J. Bolton, of New York City. They have two 
daughters: Evelyn Terry, wife of Philip Park- 
hurst Gardiner, and Mildred Harper Poor 

BRASHEAR, John Alfred, manufacturer 
and educator, b. at Brownsville, Pa , 24 Nov , 
1840, son of Basil B. and Julia (Smith) Bra- 
shear. He was educated in the public schools 

of Pennsylvania and learned the machinist's 
trade in the works of John Snowden in Pitts- 
burgh. From 1860 to 1870 he engaged in me- 
chanical engineering, and in the latter year he 
began the construction of astronomical and 
physical instruments in Pittsburgh. He has 
been engaged in the manufacture of such in- 
struments since 1880, and during that time has 
constructed the optical parts of many large 
telescopes in this country as well as nearly 
all the large astronomical spectroscopes and 
astronomical cameras for American observa- 
tories. He has also constructed the optical 
parts of some large telescopes in foreign coun- 
tries. In 1886 he removed his workshops to 
Alleghany, Pa., where they are now situated. 
Much of his time has been devoted to scientific 
research, and for eighteen years he was asso- 
cited with Prof Henry A. Rowland, of Johns 
Hopkins University, in the development of his 
diffraction grating. He was a director of the 
Alleghany Observatory in 1898-1900, acting 
chancellor of the Western University of Penn- 
sylvania in 1900-02 Dr Brashear is also a 
fellow of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science (vice-president, 1900) 
and of the Royal Astronomical Society of 
Great Britain; past president of the Western 
Pennsylvania Engineers Society and the Pitts- 
burgh Academy of Arts and Sciences; honor- 
ary member of the Royal Astronomical Society 
of Canada, honorary member of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers (president, 
1915) ; member of the British Astronomical As- 
sociation, the Societe Astronomique de France, 
the American Philosophical Society, the Astro- 
physical Society, and the Nautical Geographical 
Society. The degree of Sc D. was conferred 
upon him by the Western University of 
Pennsylvania and Princeton University and 
the degree of LL D by the University of 
Wooster and Washington and Jefferson Col- 
lege. He was married 25 Sept., 1862, to 
Phoebe, daughter of Thomas Stewart, of Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

GLIDDEN, Joseph Farwell, inventor and 
manufacturer, b, in Charlestown, Sullivan 
County, N. H, 18 Jan, 1813; d at De Kalb, 
111, in 1906. He was the son of David and 
Polly Hurd Glidden, who, while Joseph was 
still an infant, removed to Orleans County, 
NY. His boyhood and youth were spent at 
farm work of various kinds, while during the 
winter months he attended the district school. 
For a time he was a student in Middlebury 
Academy, in Genesee County, and in the semi- 
nary at Lima, N Y After teaching school 
a few years he went to Illinois, in the fall of 
1842 T'hence he proceeded to Detroit, Mich., 
with two threshing-machines of primitive con- 
struction and spent a month on the wheat 
farms of Michigan, operating his threshers 
with the assistance of his brother, William, 
and two other men Having acquired some 
capital, he purchased a tract of land in De 
Kalb, 111 , which he began to improve and de- 
velop. The scarcity of timber in that part of the 
country making the cost of fencing very high, 
Mr. Glidden set about devising some cheaper 
means of inclosing his stock farm It was in 
this manner that ho invented the Imrhod wire, 
with which his name is most broadly con- 
nected. In 1873 he applied for a patent, which 
was granted. He then entered into partner- 




ship with I. L. Ell wood, a hardware merchant 
and business man of De Kalb, and manufactur- 
ing was begun under the firm name of Glidden 
and Ellwood. In 1876 he sold his interest in 
the business to the Washburn and Moen Manu- 
facturing Company, of Worcester, Mass., but 
continued to draw large royalties until 1891. 
Mr. Glidden was also owner of the De Kalb 
Roller Mills, vice-president of the De Kalb 
National Bank from its organization in 1883 
and proprietor of the Glidden House. He was 
elected county sheriff in 1852, being the last 
Democratic official of the county. Mr. Glid- 
den was twice married. In 1837 he married 
Clarissa Foster, in Clarendon, N. Y. Mrs. 
Glidden and her three children died. In 1851 
Mr. Glidden married Lucinda Warne. They 
had one daughter, Elva Frances, now Mrs. W. 
H. Bush, of Chicago. 

ALDEN, Cynthia M. (Westover), philanthro- 
pist and author, b. in Afton, la., 31 May, 
1862, daughter of Oliver S. and Lucinda 
(Lewis) Westover. Her father was a de- 
scendant of the Westovers, who emigrated 
from Holland in the early part of the seven- 
teenth century, settling in Virginia. On her 
maternal side she was descended from Francis 
Lewis, one of the signers of the Declaration 
of Independence, After her graduation at the 
University of Colorado and the Denver Busi- 
ness College, she taught bookkeeping, geology, 
and vocal music for several years. In 1882 
she went to New York, where she studied 
singing, and later became a soprano soloist in 
church choirs. She received several offers to 
go on the opera stage, all of which she de- 
clined. The study of languages commanded 
her attention, and she soon mastered several 
foreign tongues. She tested her knowledge in 
the annual Civil Service examinations, and in 
1887 headed a list of 200 for the appoint- 
ment of U. S. Customs Inspectress. She ac- 
cepted the position and figured prominently in 
several important seizures. She acted as in- 
terpreter on German, French, Italian, and 
Spanish steamships and won for herself an 
enviable position in the service. In 1900 she 
became secretary to Hans S. Beattie, the 
street-cleaning commissioner of New York, 
and for her interest in the department work- 
ers she became known as the '' workingman's 
friend." She invented and patented a dump 
cart with movable body, and suggested the 
use of the small carts used by the street- 
cleaners to collect the accumulations of dirt 
after the day's cleaning. In 1893 she began 
writing stories for the newspapers and maga- 
zines, and in 1895 edited the woman's page 
of the New York " Recorder," and later was 
connected with the New York " Tribune," the 
New York " Herald," and the " Ladies' Home 
Journal," with which she was associated for 
ten years. Mrs. Alden is the author of sev- 
eral books, among them " Manhattan Historic 
and Artistic" (1892); " Bushby, or Child 
Life in the Far West" (1896); and "Wom- 
en's Ways of Earning Money" (1904). Mrs. 
Alden is best known for her activity in help- 
ing to found the International Sunshine So- 
ciety, in 1896, which has now a membership 
of over 100,000. She is president-general of 
the Sunshine Society, and in 1904 started the 
International Sunshine Branch for the Blind. 
Mrs, Alden has contributed many hundred 

articles on philanthropic and educational 
work. On 15 Aug., 1896, she was married to 
John Alden, an editor of the Brooklyn " Daily 
Eagle," and nephew of Henry Mills Alden, of 
" Harper's Magazine." 

PEARSON, William Edward, civil engineer, 
b. in New York City, 24 Oct., 1869, son of 
Edward Asher and Sophia Downing (Owens) 
Pearson, and a descemiant of John Pearson, 
of Lynn and Reading (1615-79). From early 
childhood his home was in Orange, N. J., until 
he entered Princeton College in the class of 
1892; he attended the John C. Green School 
of Science in special course of civil engineering. 
On the completion of his studies he became 
the civil engineer for one of the largest con- 
cessions issued under the World's Columbian 
Exposition Commission. He then entered the 
employ of the Cape Ann Granite Company and 
from 1896 to 1901 was superintendent of their 
Gloucester quarries. In December, 1901, he 
sailed from Seattle for the Philippine Islands, 
by way of Japan. After being out five days 
the ship was found to be on fire, and the re- 
turn to port was delayed for twenty-four hours 
owing to the heavy seas. After a second em- 
barkation, he arrived in Manila, P. I., to 
superintend all the stone work required for 
the building of a breakwater, the dredging of 
the harbor, and the construction of the new 
docks at that place, under the government con- 
tract held by the Atlantic Gulf and Pacific 
Company. The work necessitated the tun- 
neling and chambering of a hill 468 feet high; 
the blast was the largest ever exploded in the 
East, all of the rock required then being dis- 
lodged. He later entered the Bureau of Engi- 
neering of the Civil Government of the Philip- 
pine Islands, and was appointed supervisor of 
Cagayan Province. The trip to the seat of the 
local government from Manila required two 
weeks. He exceeded the usual length of serv- 
ice in this trying climate, returning through 
Japan to the United States in 1905. He be- 
came first assistant superintendent of con- 
struction on the Yuma Dam on the Colorado 
River, then in course of building by J. G. 
White Engineering Corporation. This project 
was for the irrigation of a large area of hith- 
erto useless land. The next work on which he 
was engaged was the construction and installa- 
tion of the dam and hydro -electric plant on the 
Yadkin River by the Rockingham Power Com- 
pany. In 1908 he was employed by the Con- 
necticut River Power Company, now a part of 
the New England Power Company, which sup- 
plies power for public utilities and industrial 
concerns in all of the New England States 
excepting the State of Maine. His work at 
first was toward the construction of their dam 
at Brattleboro, Vt., the completion of which 
inundated a large portion of the adjacent river 
basin, Mr. Pearson was much employed in the 
adjustment of incidental land takings. For 
several years he has superintended the pur- 
chasing of rights of way for their high-power 
transmission lines, Mr. Pearson now resides 
in Worcester, Mass (1917). He is a member 
of the IMassachusetts Society of the Sons of 
the American Revolution, Union Lodge No, 11, 
Free and Accepted Masons, of Orange, N. J., 
and the Princeton Club, of New York City. 
He married at Gloucester, Mass., 23 Dec, 1909, 
Caroline Frances Hillier. 




PEARSON, Edward Lowry, merchant, b. at 
Orange, N. J., 16 Nov., 1880, son of Edward 
Asher and Annie Anderson (Lowry) Pear- 
son. He is descended in the eighth gen- 
eration from John Pearson (1615-79), of 
Lynn and Reading, Mass., whose son, Lieut. 
John Pearson, was chairman of the committee 
appointed to effect the establishment of Lynn- 
field and representative to the General Court, 
1702-03 and 1710-11. Capt. James Pearson, the 
third of the line in America, was a resident 
of Lynnfield, later removing to Haverhill, Mass. 
Mr. Pearson's great-great-grandfather, Amos 
Pearson, answered the call at Lexington, April 
19, 1775 (see "Colonial Families of United 
States of America, Vol. II, Baltimore, 1911). 
His maternal grandfather. Maxwell Lowry, 
for many years was an importer and dealer in 
linens in Boston, Mass. ; a stalwart personality 
of kindly attributes, and a beloved and promi- 
nent layman of the Congregational Church. 
His ancestry was Scotch, his forbears having 
lived in Aberdeen. His business necessitated 
frequent trips to Europe. Mrs. Lowry sur- 
vives her husband and is now in her ninety- 
fourth year (1917). Her maiden name was 
Jane Stitt; her brother, John Riddle Stitt, was 
first lieutenant of the Twenty-eighth Massa- 
chusetts Regiment of the Union Army. He was 
wounded in the second Battle of Bull Run. 
Mrs, Lowry is descended from Sir Ralphs Styte 
( Stitt ) , who came to England from Holland 
with his sovereign, William III, of England, 
Prince of Orange. He was given a grant of 
land in the North of Ireland. The home of 
Mrs. Lowry's father was Ballycreely at Bally- 
nahinch, some few miles from Belfast. Many 
of the men of the fumily held commissions in 
the British army. For several years Mr. Pear- 
son was a successful traveling salesman for one 
of the leading shoe manufacturers of Brock- 
ton, Mass. He is now a wholesale and retail 
dealer in installed vacuum-cleaning plants and 
electrical household utilities. Mr. Pearson is 
a member of the Brockton Commercial Club. 
He is a member of the Episcopalian Club of 
Massachusetts and as a choir boy participated 
in many of the choir festivals in the cathedral 
and other Boston churches. He is a vestry- 
man of St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church 
of Brockton, Mass. 

EDISON, Thomas Alva, inventor, b. in Alva, 
Ohio, 11 Feb., 1847. His mother, who had 
been a teacher, gave him the little schooling 
he received, and at the age of twelve he 
became a newsboy on the Grand Trunk line 
running into Detroit While thus engaged he 
acquired the habit of reading. He also studied 
qualitative analysis, and conducted chemical 
experiments on the train till an accident 
caused the prohibition of further work of 
the kind Afterward he obtained the exclusive 
right of selling newspapers on the road, and, 
with the aid of four assistants, he set in 
type and printed the " Grand Trunk Herald," 
which he sold with his other papers. The 
operations of the telegraph, which he constantly 
witnessed in the stations along the road, 
awakened his interest, and he improvised 
rude means of transmitting messages be- 
tween his father's home in Port Huron and 
the house of a neighbor. Finally a station- 
master, whose child he had rescued in front 
of a comilig train at the risk of his own life, 

taught him telegraph operating, and he wan- 
dered for several years over the United States 
and Canada, acquiring great skill in this art, 
but frequently neglected his practical duties 
for studies and experiments in electric science. 
At this time he invented an automatic re- 
peater, by means of which a message could 
be transferred from one wire to another 
without the aid of an operator, and in 1864 
conceived the idea of sending two messages at 
once over the same wire, which led to his ex- 
periments in duplex telegraphy. Later he was 
called to Boston and placed in charge of the 
" crack " New York wire. While in that city 
he continued his experiments, and perfected 
his duplex telegraph, but it did not succeed 
till 1872. He came to New York in 1871, 
and soon afterward became superintendent of 
the Gold and Stock Company, inventing the 
printing telegraph for gold and stock quota- 
tions. For the manufacture of this appliance 
he established a large workshop at Newark, 
N. J., and continued there till 1876, when he 
removed to Menlo Park, N. J., and thence- 
forth devoted his whole attention to inventing. 
Among his principal inventions are his sys- 
tem of duplex telegraphy, which he subse- 
quently developed into quadruplex and sex- 
tuplex transmission; the carbon telephone 
transmitter, now used by nearly all telephones 
throughout the world, in which the variation 
in the current is produced by the variable 
resistance of a solid conductor subjected to 
pressure, rendering more faithfully than any 
other transmitter the inflections and changes in 
the intensity of the vocal sounds to be trans- 
mitted; the microtasimeter, used for the de- 
tection, on the same principle, of small varia- 
tions in temperature, and successfully em- 
ployed during the total eclipse of 1878 to 
demonstrate the presence of heat in the sun's 
corona; the aerophone, which may be used to 
amplify sound without impairing the dis- 
tinctness of articulation; and the megaphone, 
which, when inserted in the ear, so magnifies 
sounds that faint whispers may be heard at a 
distance of 1,000 feet. The phonograph, which 
records sound in such a manner that it may 
be reproduced at will; and the phonometer, an 
apparatus for measuring the force of sound- 
waves produced by the human voice, are in- 
ventions of this period. His attention then 
became absorbed in the problem of electric 
lighting. He believed that the process of 
lighting by the voltaic arc, in which great 
results had already been achieved by Charles 
F. Brush, would never answer for general 
illumination, and so devoted himself to the 
perfection of the incandescent lamp. After 
entirely perfecting a device for a lamp with a 
platinum burner, he adopted a filament of 
carbon inclosed in a glass chamber from which 
the air was almost completely exhausted. He 
also solved the problem of the commercial sub- 
division of the light in a system of general 
distribution of electricity, like gas, and in 
December, 1879, gave a public exhibition in 
Menlo Park of a complete system of electric 
lighting. This was the first instance of sub- 
division of the electric light, and created 
great interest throughout the world, especially 
as scientific experts had testified before a 
committee of the English House of Commons 
in the previous year that such a subdivision 




was impossible. His system is now in gen- 
eral use, and in 1882 Mr. Edison went to 
New York for the purpose of supervising its 
establishment in that city. From 1880 to 
1885, while still engaged in developing his 
electric light system, he found opportunity to 
plan crushing and separating machinery. On 
this subject his first patent was issued early 
in 1880. Mr. Edison says: "I felt certain 
that there must be large bodies of magnetite 
in the East which, if crushed and concen- 
trated, would satisfy the wants of the East- 
ern furnaces for steel-making. Having de- 
termined to investigate the mountain region 
of New Jersey, I constructed a very sensitive 
magnetic needle which would dip toward the 
earth if brought over any considerable body 
of magnetic iron ore. ... I had a number of 
men survey a strip reaching from Lower 
Canada to North Carolina. . . . The amount 
of ore disclosed by this survey was simply 
fabulous." Mr. Edison, conceiving the idea 
of constructing enormous rolls which would 
be capable of crushing rocks of greater size 
than ever before attempted, reasoned that the 
advantages to be obtained would be fourfold, 
viz.: a minimum of machinery and parts; a 
greater compactness ; saving of power ; and 
greater economy in mining. Through no fault 
of the inventor or the invention, the colossal 
magnetic ore-milling enterprise did not prove 
successful. Hence he turned his attention 
toward the production of Portland cement. 
He began to manufacture the Edison Port- 
land cement by new processes, some of which 
have been preserved as trade secrets. He then 
set himself to produce the "poured cement 
house," which involved the overcoming of 
many engineering and other technical diffi- 
culties, all of which he attacked with vigor 
and disposed of patiently, one by one. The 
result of this invention, which is practically a 
gift to the workingman, not only of America, 
but of the world, will be that, sooner or later, 
all who care to do so will forsake the crowded 
and insanitary tenements, and be comfortably 
housed " far from the madding crowd " at 
a mere nominal monthly rental. The sug- 
gestion of the possibility of securing the re- 
productions of animate motion was made 
many years before the instantaneous photo- 
graph became possible. The kinetoscope was 
the earliest form of exhibiting machines. 
This was an apparatus by which a positive 
print was exhibited to the eyes through a 
small aperture or peep-hole. In 1895 the 
films were applied to magic lanterns in modi- 
fied forms, projecting the images upon a 
screen. The industry has developed with 
great rapidity since that date, and all the 
principal manufacturers of motion pictures 
are paying a royalty to Edison under his 
basic patents. The development of the motion 
picture has resulted in the creation of an art 
that must always make a special appeal to 
the mind and emotions of mankind. In 1900 
Mr. Edison undertook to solve the problem 
of the storage-battery. After completing 
more than ten thousand preliminary experi- 
ments, he began to obtain some positive re- 
sults, and now has so far perfected the 
storage-battery as to render it entirely suit- 
able for truck and automobile work, and the 
moving of street and railroad cars. In 

"Popular Electricity" for June, 1910, Mr, 
Edison says : " For years past I have been try- 
ing to perfect a storage-battery, and have now 
rendered it entirely suitable to automobile and 
other work. There is absolutely no reason 
why horses should be allowed within city 
limits; for between the gasoline and electric 
car, no room is left for them. They are not 
needed. The cow and pig have gone, and 
the horse is still more undesirable A higher 
public ideal of health and cleanliness is work- 
ing toward such banishment very swiftly; and 
then we shall have decent streets, instead of 
stables made out of strips of cobble-stones 
bordered by sidewalks." Mr. Edison has in- 
vented a system of train-telegraphy between 
stations and trains in motion, by which mes- 
sages can be sent from the moving train to 
the central office, the precursor of wireless 
telegraphy. He has also invented a method 
of separating placer gold by a dry process. 
During the Spanish-American War, Edison 
suggested to the navy department the adop- 
tion of a compound of calcium carbide and 
calcium phosphite, which, when fired in a 
shell from a gun, would explode and ignite 
on striking the water, thereby producing a 
blaze that, during several minutes, would 
render visible the vessels of a hostile fleet for 
miles around. A large number of electrical 
instruments are included in Mr. Edison's in- 
ventions, many of them in their original 
forms being devised for his systems of light 
and power. Among his numerous devices for 
which he has filed caveats at the patent office 
in Washington, the following have been 
named: Forty -one inventions pertaining to the 
phonograph; eight forms of electric lamps 
using infusible earthy oxides and brought to 
high incandescence in vacuo by high potential 
current of several thousand volts; a loud- 
speaking telephone with quartz cylinder and 
beam of ultra-violet light; four forms of arc 
light with special carbons; a thermostatic 
motor; a device for mechanically sealing to- 
gether the inside part and bulb of an incan- 
descent lamp; regulators for dynamos and 
motors; three devices for utilizing vibrations 
beyond the ultra-violet; a great variety of 
methods for coating incandescent lamp fila- 
ments with silicon, titanium, chromium, 
osmium, boron, etc ; several methods of mak- 
ing porous filaments; a number of methods of 
producing squirted filaments of various ma- 
terials; seventeen different methods and de- 
vices for separating magnetic ores; a con- 
tinuously operative primary battery; a musi- 
cal instrument operating one of Helmholtz's 
artificial larynxes; a siren operated by the 
explosion of small quantities of oxygen and 
hydrogen mixed; three other sirens giving 
vocal sounds or articulate speech; a device for 
projecting sound-waves to a distance in a 
straight line and without spreading, on the 
principle of smoke-rings; a device for con- 
tinuously indicating on a galvanometer the 
varying depths of the ocean; a method of 
largely preventing the friction of water 
against the hull of a vessel, and incidentally 
preventing fouling by barnacles; a telephone 
receiver by which the vibrations of the dia- 
phragm are appreciably amplified; two 
methods of space telegraphy at sea; an im- , 
proved and extended string-telepfione ; de- 







vices and methods of talking through water 
for considerable distances; an audiphone for 
deaf persons; a sound-bridge for measuring 
resistance of tubes and other materials for 
conveying sound; a method of testing a mag- 
net to discover the existence of flaws in the 
iron or steel of which it is composed; a 
method of distilling liquids by an incandescent 
conductor immersed in the liquid; a method 
of obtaining electricity directly from coal; an 
engine operated by steam produced by the 
hydration and dehydration of metallic salts; 
a device for telegraphing photographically; 
a carbon crucible kept brilliantly incandescent 
by current in vacuo, for obtaining reaction 
with refractory metals; a device for examin- 
ing combinations of colors and their changes 
by rotation at different speeds. Mr. Edison's 
fertility in invention is nothing short of 
amazing. It has been said that his guess is 
more than a mere starting-point, and often 
turns out to be the final solution of a problem. 
Even " the failure of an experiment simply 
means to him that he has found something 
else that will not work, thus bringing the pos- 
sible goal a little nearer by a process of 
painstaking elimination." In 1878 Mr. Edi- 
son received the degree of Ph.D. from Union 
College, and the same year was made Cheva- 
lier, and later Officer and Commander of the 
Legion of Honor by the French government. 
In 1903 he was appointed honorary chief con- 
sulting engineer of the St Louis Exposition 
of 1904 Mr. Edison has married twice. His 
first wife was Mary G. Stilwell whom he 
wedded in 1873; his second wife was Miss 
Miller, of Ohio. 

FERGUSON, Francis Marion, contractor, b. 
1 Oct, 1863, at Corydon, Wayne County, la.; 
d. at Denver, Colo., 22 June, 1910. His father, 
Oliver Ferguson, Was a pioneer contractor in 
railway construction, and an important factor 
in the history of several of the foremost rail- 
roads of the United States. His business, al- 
ready extensive at the time of his death, was 
immensely augmented by the enterprise of his 
son. Francis M Ferguson received his edu- 
cation in the public schools of his native state, 
but at an early age entered the wider school 
of practical experience, as an employee of his 
father, who was a firm believer in the educa- 
tional principle, " learn by doing." Moreover, 
he insisted that his son learn the business 
literally from the bottom. Thus, his first 
assignment was as " water boy " for one of 
his father's construction gangs, his duty being 
to keep the men supplied with drinking water 
But, as if imbued with the strenuous spirit of 
his father, the boy never faltered, and even in 
this humble capacity soon made a reputation 
for unflagging industry and an ambition to 
cope with every duty as it emerged, which 
must have won promotion for any lad, even 
for one not actually in training for the head- 
ship of an already vast and increasing busi- 
ness In consequence, therefore, of his faith- 
fulness and willingness to obey, he was 
steadily promoted to more and more responsi- 
ble positions, as his abilities were developed, 
and in 1889 at the youthful age of twenty -six 
years, he had proved himself worthy to as- 
sume the duties of partner with his father in 
the firm of Oliver Ferguson and Son, then 
organized. The new firm continued actively 

in the work of railway construction, and, as if 
in demonstration of the extraordinary apti- 
tude and enterprise of the young partner, its 
operations were so rapidly extended as to 
double their former profits within the next six 
years. In 1896, after the death of his father, 
Mr. Ferguson removed to New York City, 
where, with the co-operation of his brother 
and others, among whom may be mentioned 
James Gilfillan, a former treasurer of the 
United States, he organized the Ferguson Con- 
struction Company, with offices at 37 Wall 
Street. In the new company Francis M. Fer- 
guson was the sole organizing and directing 
head, and it is due largely to his executive 
ability, to his knowledge of men and condi- 
tions, and to his untiring zeal in discovering 
and measuring all the difficulties to be encoun- 
tered in the execution of any given contract 
that the company won and retained a unique 
reputation in its line, and had constantly in 
process several extensive contracts It is esti- 
mated that Mr. Ferguson, during his com- 
paratively brief lifetime, constructed more 
than 3,000 miles of railway, and was identi- 
fied, during three decades, with the greatest 
railroad construction works in both East and 
West. Conspicuous among these was the ex- 
tension of the Wabash Railway into Pitts- 
burgh, which although but twelve miles in 
length presented unusual difficulties. Several 
tunnels had to be driven, notably that on the 
Northern shore of the Bonongahela River 
which was 1,111 yards in length and cost at a 
rate exceeding $400,000 per mile. Among 
other notable contracts were twenty-eight 
miles of track for the West Side Belt Railroad, 
at Pittsburgh; twenty miles for the Pitts- 
burgh, Bessemer and Lake Erie Railroad; fif- 
teen miles for the Erie and Jersey Railroad 
above Port Jervis, where unusually heavy 
grades were encountered and unusually large 
cuts made; also the Coal and Coke Road in 
West Virginia, and on the " Mackay System," 
in Indiana. Considerable construction work 
was also done for the Chesapeake and Ohio, 
the Baltimore and Ohio, the Pennsylvania and 
the Lake Shore Railroads, as well as for the 
New York, Westchester and Boston Subur- 
ban lines. Extensive improvements were also 
made in river and canal conditions; includ- 
ing a large contract on the Erie Canal for 
building two of the largest locks at Water- 
ford, N. Y In several of the states bordering 
on the Mississippi and its tributaries, three 
levees, which were built, required the handling 
of over 6,000,000 cubic yards of earth Still 
another of the enterprises of the firm was the 
construction of over 100 miles of gravel high- 
way in the State of Indiana. The magnitude 
of these undertakings, which represent, how- 
ever, but a small portion of the work done 
by the Ferguson Contracting Company, serves 
to indicate the exceptional ability of its ex- 
ecutive head. Francis M Ferguson was one 
of the younger generation of Amcrinui con- 
tractors', and believed implicitly in iho oflicacy 
of thorough organization of his forces and the 
use of apcoial and improved devices for in- 
creasing output or dimini.shing cxponacs His 
death, at a comparatively early ago. was has- 
tened by exposure to the rarefied afmoa|)here 
of Denver, whither he had gone to arrange 
for an extensive contract, hia death occurring 




on the very day on which he had submitted 
his bid. Mr. Ferguson was married 1 Oct., 
1905, to Bertha B. Henshaw, of Chicago, who 
survives him with one daughter. His ac- 
quaintance in business circles was extensive, 
particularly among those of railroad and con- 
tracting interests. At the time of his death 
he was president, treasurer, and director of 
the Ferguson Contracting Company; president 
of the Cobleskill Crushed Stone Company; 
chairman of the board of directors of the Fer- 
guson and Edmondson Company; of the Fer- 
guson-Gerow Company, Limited, and of the 
Hamilton Contracting Company. He was a 
member of the New York, Manhattan, New 
York Athletic, Lawyers' and Economic Clubs, 
and of the Business Railway Association. 

AIKENS, Andrew Jackson, editor, b. at 
Barnard, Vt., 31 Oct., 1830; d. in Milwaukee, 
Wis., 22 Jan., 1909. He completed the high 
school course at Barnard at the age of fif- 
teen, and served an apprenticeship of four 
years in a printing-office at Woodstock, Vt. 
His ability as a WTiter soon gained recogni- 
tion and at an early age he became editor 
of the Woodstock newspaper. Shortly after 
he established a weekly paper at Bennington, 
Vt., and later, one at North Adams, Mass, 
He was engaged for a time as reporter in the 
State legislature for a Boston paper, leaving 
that employment to act as western corre- 
spondent for the New York "Evening Post." 
In 1854 he visited Milwaukee and secured the 
editorship of the " Evening Wisconsin," to 
whose upbuilding he devoted all his energies 
until it became one of the most prominent and 
prosperous newspapers of the West. Mr. 
Aikens deserves particular notice as the origi- 
nator of the so-called " patent inside," now 
so widely used by country newspapers. On 
the plan of supplying to such publications 
ready printed inside pages including general 
news, fiction, and useful and amusing items, 
together with considerable advertising, several 
large establishments throughout the country 
now conduct a thriving business, while greatly 
assisting small editors, who are thus saved the 
preparation of so much copy and the cost of 
additional printing. The country editor then 
fills only the outside pages with local news 
and advertising. This plan was originated 
during the Civil War, when, owing to the ab- 
sence of so many men at the front, small local 
editors were often unable to bring out edi- 
tions of their papers. One of these appealed 
to Mr. Aikens for assistance in 1863, and he 
forthwith devised the ready expedient of re- 
printing the inside pages of the " Evening 
Wisconsin" with the front and back pages of 
the local newspaper. 

• BERWIND, Edward J., financier, b in Phil- 
adelphia, 17 June, 1848. He was graduated 
in the U. S Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md , 
in 1869, and appointed ensign in the navy, 
4 July, 1870. In due course of service he 
became a master 24 March, 1872, but retired 
on 14 May, 1875, his title being changed to 
lieutenant (junior grade) 3 March, 1883 
After his retirement, Mr Berwind gave his at- 
tention to business enterprises, particularly in 
connection with the production and distribu- 
tion of coal. He founded, and became presi- 
dent of, the Berwind-White Coal Mining 
Company, which is now one of the largest 

concerns of its kind in the country, control- 
ling several extensive mines. Mr. Berwind is 
also president of the International Coal Com- 
pany, the Havana Coal Company, the Wilmore 
Coal Company, and the Ocean Coal Company; 
is a trustee of the Morton Trust Company; 
is a director of the Alexandria Coal Company, 
of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway 
Company, the Fifth Avenue Trust Company, 
the Santa Fe, Prescott and Phoenix Railway, 
the Virginia Iron, Coal and Coke Company, the 
Colorado and Southern Railroad, the National 
Bank of Commerce, and the Girard Trust Com- 
pany of Philadelphia. He is a member of the 
Metropolitan, Union, University, New York 
Yacht, Racquet and Tennis, and Riding Clubs 
of New York City; of the Philadelphia Club 
of Philadelphia, the Union Club of Boston, 
and the Metropolitan Club of Washington. 
He is also a member of the U. S. Naval Acad- 
emy Alumni Association, and of the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, Geographical Society, 
and the American Museum of Natural History. 
BOGUE, Virgil Gay, civil engineer, b. in 
Norfolk, N Y., 16 July, 1846; d. at sea, on 
steamship " Esperanza," 14 Oct., 1916, son of 
George Charles and Mary W. (Perry) Bogue. 
Through his father he was directly descended 
from John Bogue, of Glasgow, Scotland, who 
came to this country in 1680 and settled at 
East Haddam, Mass. His father, George Chase 
Bogue, was a prominent broker on the Produce 
Exchange, well able to give his son all the 
advantages of a thorough education. After 
his preliminary school training, young Bogue 
was a student at the Claverack School, a mili- 
tary academy on the Hudson. At the age of 
fifteen he entered General Russell's School at 
New Haven, Conn., also a military institu- 
tion which prepared boys for admission to 
West Point. From this school, where he stood 
highest in his class, he entered Rensselaer 
Poly technique Institute, graduating in 1868 as 
grand marshal of his class, and with the de- 
gree of C.E. Before the close of that year 
he received an appointment as assistant engi- 
neer of Prospect Park, in Brooklyn, N. Y. 
He did not remain long here, however, for soon 
afterward he went to South America and 
assisted in the construction of the Oroya Rail- 
road, the famous trans- Andean system, in Peru, ; 
an experience which covered eight years. Then, 
for a year, he was manager of the Trujillo 
Railroad, also in Peru. Returning to the 
United States, Mr. Bogue became assistant 
engineer of the Northern Pacific Railroad, his 
experience in building railroads over mountain- 
ous country making him especially valuable, 
some of the work he had performed on the 
Oroya Railroad being over 15,000 feet above 
sea level. It was during this period of his 
professional career that Mr. Bogue discovered 
the Stampede Pass in the Cascade Mountains 
and supervised the construction of that branch 
of the Northern Pacific across Idaho and 
Washington. In 1886 he resigned his posi- 
tion to become chief engineer of the Union 
Pacific Railroad, a position he filled for five 
years, also acting as chief engineer of the 
Western Pacific Railroad for a period. He 
was in charge of the construction of the latter 
railroad and its western terminus, on San 
Francisco Bay. In 1891, Mr. Bogue went tc 
New York and there opened an office as a con- 



Virgil G. Bocjck 




suiting engineer, after which he was at various 
times employed by a great number of big in- 
vestors, corporations, and four governments, 
both in this country and abroad. During these 
later years he led a very busy life, for by 
this time he had acquired an international 
reputation as one of the foremost civil engi- 
neers of the world. Among some of the big 
construction undertakings of which he was 
consulted were the railroad across South 
Island, in New Zealand, and the terminal of 
the Western Maryland Railroad, in Baltimore, 
the latter being built according to his plans 
and under his supervision. He has done con- 
siderable consulting work on the Canadian 
Pacific and the Grand Trunk Pacific, on the 
latter building the terminal at Prince Rupert, 
British Columbia, also for the Tehuantepec 
Railroad, Mexico. He was a member of the 
commission of experts appointed by President 
Harrison to survey the Columbia River and to 
devise means for deepening it for navigation. 
He prepared the plan and report for Greater 
Seattle, Wash., and for the harbor of Tacoma 
and for Gray's Harbor, Wash. Under the ad- 
ministration of Mayor Strong he acted as con- 
sulting engineer for the Department of Public 
Works, of New York City, trom 1905 to 
1909 he was chief engineer and vice-president 
of the Western Pacific Railroad. In the civil 
engineering world of his time, Mr. Bogue easily 
stood forth as one of its foremost figures, one 
whose opinion and advice were sought and 
given weighty consideration all over the civ- 
ilized globe. His peculiar specialty was solving 
the difficulties of railroad construction over 
country so rough and mountainous as to puzzle 
the skill of the average engineer, and here his 
superior knowledge was frankly recognized by 
his colleagues in the profession. As a per- 
sonality he was no less respected and ad- 
mired. He was a man of remarkable poise; 
he had the reputation of never having shown 
anger. Rugged as the mountains whose ridges 
and spurs he overcame, he was direct in his 
dealings with his fellow men, in consequence of 
which he numbered his friends among the peo- 
ple of many lands and of many tongues. Mr. 
Bogue was a member of the American Society 
of Civil Engineers (also a director) and a 
fellow of the American Geographic Society. 
ne was also a member of the Union League 
Club, in New York, the Merchants' Associa- 
tion, the Engineers' Club, the Pacific Union 
Club, of San Francisco, and various other 
clubs. On 1 March, 1872, Mr. Bogue married 
Sybil Estelle Russell, the daughter of John 
Russell, of Canton, N. Y., and a sister of the 
late Justice Leslie W. Russell. They have 
had four children, three of whom survive: 
Samuel Russell, and Virginia and Malcolm 

PARKER, Robert Meade, railroad president 
and manufacturer, b. in Newark, N. J., 19 
Sept., 1864, son of Hon. Cortlandt and Eliza- 
beth (Stites) Parker. His earliest American 
ancestor was Elisha Parker, a native of Eng- 
land, who settled in Barnstable, Mass., in 1640, 
and removed to New Jersey in 1667. Mr. 
Parker's father, Hon. Cortlandt Parker, was 
a noted jurist, diplomat, and orator. For two 
years (1878-80) he attended St. Paul's School, 
at Concord, N. H., and after a year at Philips 
Exeter Academy, completed his education at 

Princeton University, where he graduated 
A.B., in 1885. He served for a short time as 
clerk in the office of the president of the Erie 
Railroad Company, becoming a division freight 
agent in 1890, and six years later assistant 
general freight agent. He was promoted to 
general freight agent in 1902, successfully fill- 
ing that office until 1905, when he became 
traffic manager of the American Sugar Refin- 
ing Company. He was elected president of the 
Brooklyn Cooperage Company in 1906, which 
position he has held until the present time. 
He is also president of the Pennsylvania Stave, 
the Butler County Railroad, and the Great 
Western Land Companies, and vice-president 
of the Oleona Railroad Company. Mr. Parker 
is interested in military affairs, particularly 
in the volunteer service. He served as a pri- 
vate in the Essex Troop of New Jersey for 
eight years, and on the outbreak of the 
Spanish-American War received a commission 
in the Twelfth Infantry, New York Volunteers, 
having charge of the field equipment of the 
regiment. He resigned his commission at the 
close of the war; later he joined the Twelfth 
Regiment, N. Y. N. G., and was elected cap- 
tain of Company A in 1900. He resigned 1 
Jan., 1908. Mr. Parker is a member of the 
University, Union, Brook, New York Yacht, 
and Midday Clubs, and of Holland Lodge, 
Free and Accepted Masons, of New York City. 
He is also a member of the Essex Club of 
Newark, N. J. 

STRUVE, Henry G., lawyer, b. in the Grand 
Duchy of Oldenburg, Germany, 17 Nov., 1836, 
son of Frederick W. and Marie Margaret 
(Classen) Struve. He received an academic 
education in the German schools, but in 1852 
came to this country. He went to the Western 
coast in 1854 and settled in Amidor County, 
Cal., where he pursued various occupations 
for a number of years, numbering among them 
mining, the study of law, and journalism. In 
1859 he was admitted to the bar, but in 
February, 1860, removed to Vancouver County, 
Wash., and purchased the Vancouver " Chron- 
icle," which he conducted for one year. 
In the winter of 1861 he resumed law practice, 
and soon afterward was elected district at- 
torney of the Second Judicial District of Wash- 
ington, serving for nearly four terms by re- 
election, and resigning from the office in 1869. 
In 1865 he was elected to the State legislature, 
in which he was a member and chairman of 
the judiciary committee, and in 1867 he was 
elected to the legislative council ( State senate ) 
and served as its president for the first bi- 
ennial session, and also for the session of 
1869-70. He was also chairman of the Ways 
and Means Committee, and in that capacity 
introduced the common property law, an im- 
portant measure regulating the rights in prop- 
erty interests of married people and was 
largely instrumental in securing its passage. 
In 1871 Mr. Struve once more took up jour- 
nalistic work in Olympia, Wash , as managing 
editor of the " Daily Courier," the leading 
daily Republican newspaper of the territory. 
He soon won a wide reputation liiroughout 
the State for his fearless expression of his 
views and convictions as to public matters; 
his clear vision and vigorous thought, and his 
elegant diction and unusual gifts of expres- 
sion. In recognition of his signal services in 




behalf of the Republican party in his State 
and his general ability, Mr. Struve was ap- 
pointed by President Grant as secretary of 
Washington Territory, which position he re- 
tained until the end of General Grant's first 
presidential term In 1882 he was chosen as 
a delegate to the National Republican Con- 
vention which nominated Grant for his second 
presidential term In 1877 he was appointed a 
member of the commission to codify the laws 
of Washington Territory. After one year's 
work, however, he found his public duties so 
far interfering with his professional life that 
he was compelled to resign from the commis- 
sion Two years later he removed to Seattle, 
then fast becoming the metropolis of the 
Northwest coast, and formed a law partner- 
ship with John Leary under the firm name 
of Struve and Leary. In 1880 Col. J. C. 
Haines became a partner; after four years of 
successful practice Maurice McMicken took 
Mr Leary's place, and in 1889, Colonel Haines 
withdrew. In 1893 Senator John B Allen be- 
came associated with the firm as a member, and 
a reorganization took place under the style of 
Struve, Allen, Hughes and McMicken. Judge 
Struve had become prominently identified with 
the civic life of Seattle when, in 1882, he was 
elected mayor. He served for two terms, by 
re-election His administration of the affairs 
of the city was notable for the many improve- 
ments made, and an increase in population 
from 5,000 to 10,000 inhabitants He was also 
interested in the cause of higher education, 
and in 1879 was appointed regent of the Terri- 
torial University, serving by reappointment 
until the expiration of four terms, for the most 
of which time he was president of the board. 
He did much to extend and perfect facilities 
for public education in Seattle, and from 1844 
to 1887 was a director on the board of educa- 
tion of tliat city and was responsible for many 
improvements in the public school system He 
was reappointed advocate-general in 1886, and 
was supervising court reporter in 1887, having 
under his charge the preparation of the third 
volume of Washington Territorial Reports 
He was one of the board of freeholders, which, 
in 1890, drew up the city charter, in accord- 
ance with which the municipal affairs of Seattle 
are now conducted, and served on that body 
as chairman of the committee on judiciary 
and title lands. Another innovation in the 
municipal affairs of Seattle, which Avas largely 
due to Mr Struve's initiative and executive 
ability, is the cable system of street railways 
of that city He was himself a large stock- 
holder in the Madison Street line, and its 
president from the time of its organization 
to 1899 He was also one of the organizers of 
the Home Insurance Company and an incor- 
porator of the Boston National Bank, having 
served on its board of directors and as its 
president Mr. Struve is a member of the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows and other 
societies In 1874 he was elected grand 
master of the Grand Lodge of Odd Fellows 
in Oregon, which embraced under its jurisdic- 
tion the States of Washington, Oregon, and 
Idaho In 1876 he was elected representative 
sovereign of the Grand Lodge of the Order 
He married in October, 1863, Lascelle Knighton, 
at Vancouver, Wash., and is the father of four 

WAKEFIELD, William J. C, lawyer, b. in 
Ludlow, Vt., 4 Sept., 1862, son of Luther F. 
and Lorinda L. (Place) Wakefield. He traces 
his descent from John Wakefield, who emi- 
grated to this country from Gravesend, Eng- 
land, in 1647, settling in Martha's Vineyard, 
Mass. On his maternal side he is a descend- 
ant of old New England stock. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools of Ludlow, and 
was graduated at Dartmouth College in 1885. 
Going West thereafter he taught school in 
Austin, Nev. He then studied law in the 
oflSce of Judge McKenna. After spending 
some time in Nevada, he removed to San Jos6, 
Cal., where he completed his legal studies in 
the office of Archer and Bowden. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1889, and then moved 
to Spokane, Wash., where he engaged in the 
practice of law with Judge L. B. Nash, a 
partnership which continued until 1892, when 
he associated with George M. Forster, form- 
ing the firm of Forster and Wakefield. Fol- 
lowing the death of Mr Forster in 1905, he 
organized with A W. Witherspoon the firm 
of Wakefield and Witherspoon, a connection 
he still continues. Through their conscien- 
tious and aggressive efforts in the interests 
of clients, during the past twenty years, they 
have established a large and profitable prac- 
tice. Since 1890 Mr. Wakefield has held the 
office of master of chancery in the U. S cir- 
cuit court. He was a member of the national 
guard of Nevada and Washington for many 
years, retiring from the latter with the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel and chief signal officer. 
He is an officer and director in many corpora- 
tions that are active in the development of 
the resources of Eastern Washington, North- 
ern Idaho, and Western Montana. Through- 
out his long residence in Spokane, Mr. Wake- 
field has been prominently identified with its 
welfare and progress, and is an enthusiastic 
supporter of every movement to advance its 
material interests. He is a member of the 
American, W^ashington, and Spokane Bar As- 
socations and of many social, educational, and 
athletic clubs On 10 June, 1896, he mar- 
ried Louise, daughter of Arnold Annmann, of 
Springfield, 111 , and they have six children. 

HART, William Henry, manufacturer, b. in 
New Britain, Conn., 25 July, 1834, son of 
George and Elizabeth Frances (Booth) Hart. 
He is a direct descendant of Stephen Hart, 
who came to this country from South Bain- 
tree, England, early in the seventeenth cen- 
tury and settled in Farmington, Conn. On 
his maternal side, his grandparents were Cyrus 
and Nancy ( North ) Booth, of New Britain ( the 
latter a sister of Seth J. North). His father, 
George Hart (1800-90), was engaged in truck- 
ing, stage and express business, between New 
Britain and Hartford Upon the opening of 
the New Britain station (H. P. & F. R, R.) 
1 Jan., 1850, he became its first passenger and _ 
freight agent. W^illiam H. Hart was educated M 
in the public schools of his native town, and |P 
with his studies combined the responsibility 
of assisting his father at the railroad station, 
assuming the clerical work of the passenger 
and freight departments. At the age of seven- 
teen, his executive ability was already notable, 
and he was authorized by the superintendent 
to make special transportation contracts for 
the company, of which he thus became nomi- 





nally the acting agent. This was an unusual 
burden for a lad of seventeen, but he never- 
theless kept up his school work and was grad- 
uated from the New Britain high school at 
the age of nineteen. Upon his graduation he 
devoted himself entirely to railroad work. He 
rapidly made friends among the traveling pub- 
lic, among whom F. T. Stanley and C. B. 
Erwin, president of the Russell and Erwin 
Manufacturing Company, attracted by the 
young man's assiduous attention to his duties, 
prevailed upon the senior Hart to permit his 
son to accept a position with the Stanley 
Works, at New Britain, of which Mr. Stanley 
was founder and president, and Mr. Erwin a 
director. The Stanley Works was incorporated 
in New JcJritain in August, 1852, for the manu- 
facture of wrought-iron door butts and hinges. 
In March, 1854, he entered the employ of this 
concern and two months later, 16 May, 1854, 
although only nineteen, was elected its secre- 
tary and treasurer. Such rapid advancement 
needs no commentary. When Mr. Hart be- 
came connected with the Stanley Company its 
capital was but $30,000,