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Full text of "The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures"

THE 



CYCLOPAEDIA OF INDIA 

AND or 

EASTERN AND SOUTHERN ASIA. 



THIRD EDITION 










MORMSO, A» G.BB, EWXBOEOH 
PRra T E BS TO «* M«ESTVS »««»* OPFICE. 










THE 



CYCLOPAEDIA OF INDIA 



AND OF 



EASTERN AND SOUTHERN ASIA, 



PRODUCTS OF THE MINERAL, VEGETABLE, AND ANIMAL KINGDOMS, USEFUL 

ARTS AND MANUFACTURES. 



BY 

SURGEON GENERAL EDWARD BALFOUR, 

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OP THE IMPERIAL-ROYAL GEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, VIENNA; 
FELLOW OP THE MADRAS UNIVERSITY; 

AUTHOR OP 

1 THE TIMBER TREES OF INDIA AND OF EASTERN AND SOUTHERN ASIA,' ETC. ; 

POUNDER OP THE MADRAS MUHAMMADAN LIBRARY ; OP THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL MUSEUM, 

MADRAS ; OF THE MYSORE MUSEUM, BANGALORE. 



IN THREE VOLUMES. 



VOL. II. H— NYSA. 



THIRD EDITION. £ 




LONDON: 

BERNARD QUARITCH, 15 PICCADILLY. 

1885. 












[All Bights Reserved.] 

m 

Bis 



CYCLOPEDIA OF INDIA 



AND OF 



EASTERN AND SOUTHERN ASIA. 



H 



II. This letter in the English language, as an 
aspirate, shows that the vowel following it must 
be pronounced with a strong guttural emission of 
voice, as in hammer, house, humidity, helm, his- 
tory, hyson; but in a few English words it is 
quiescent, as in hour, honour. There is no letter 
h in the Tamil alphabet, and in foreign words 
introduced into it, the h is changed to g, q, or r ; 
but this English letter is represented in the Arabic, 
Persian, Urdu, Sanskrit, Hindi, Mahrati, Bengali, 
Uriya, Telugu, Karnatica, and Malealam, though 
the sounds are mere modifications of the simple 
breathing. Two of the sounds derived from the 
Arabic are not very nicely distinguished in Indian 
pronunciation. One may be something harsher 
than the other, and so far it agrees with the strong 
Sanskrit aspirate, whilst the softer breathing of 
the Nagari alphabet, the Visarga, or sign of the 
nominative case, may be regarded as peculiar. Sir 
William Jones distinguishes the harsher forms by 
an accent, as Ah'med. Gilchrist and Shakespear 
distinguish it by a dot underneath it ; Professor 
Wilson places the dot beneath the softer Arabic 
aspirate. In a suggested missionary alphabet, it 
has been proposed to indicate the unmodified 
flatus by an apostrophe, as ve'ement for vehement. 
With the people on the line of the Indus river, 
the letters s, h, and z are permutable. Hind 
becomes Sind ; Zalim Sing becomes Halim Hing. 
The difficulties, however, as to the letter h are 
not greater than in the Italian, where the initial 
h is quiescent before a vowel, and modifies 
the sounds of consonants. Colonel Tod says s 
and h are permutable letters in the Bhakka ; and 
he supposes that Sam or Sham, the god of the 
Yamuna, may be the Ham or Hammon of Egypt. 
He also thinks it not unlikely that the Chaora, the 
tribe of the first dynasty of Anhalwara, is a mere 
corruption of Saura, as the ch and s are perpetually 
interchanging. The Mahratt&s cannot pronounce 
the ch ; with them Cheeto is Seeto. 

HAASIA WIGHTII. Nees. This good-sized 
tree is not uncommon in the moist woods on the 
Tinnevelly and Travancore range of ghats, at 2000 
to 3000 feet elevation, and Animallays 4000 feet. 

VOL. II. 



H. oppositifolia, Thu\ y occurs in Ceylon. — Bed- 
dome. 

HAB, a river on the western frontier of Sind, 
and for some distance the boundary between 
British territory and Baluchistan. It rises in 
Kalat, falls into the Arabian Sea in lat 24° 52' N., 
long. 66° 42' E., after a total length of about 100 
miles. Except the Indus, it is the only permanent 
river in Sind. It abounds in fish. It has been 
proposed to supply Karachi (Kurachee) with 
drinking water from the Hab. — Imp. Gaz. 

HABAKKUK. This sacred writer says (i. 16), 
' They sacrifice unto their net, and burn incense 
unto their drag ; because by them their portion is 
fat, and their meat plenteous ; ' from which it 
would seem that the Jewish idolaters had a custom 
like that of the Hindu, who annually worship the 
implements of their trades. 

HABARUM, a mount close to the Dead Sea, 
on which Moses died, in the fortieth year of the 
exodus. ' In this interval the whole land of the 
Emorites had been taken, the Midianites over- 
thrown, and the country of the king of Basan 
conquered, the river Jabbok crossed, and the 
western country on the Jordan (Batanaea and 
Aulonites) taken eastward and northward as far as 
Hermon. — Bunsen, iii. 252. 

HABIB-us-SIYAR. A book written by Khond- 
amir. See Khond-amir. 

HABIL. Arab. Abel, who is suposed to have 
been buried at Damascus. See Abu Kubays. 

HABSHI. Hind. An African or Abyssinian, 
Habsh being the Arabic reading of Abyssinia. 
PI. Habush. 

HABZ-i-DAM. Pers. A retention of tho 
breath, or power to discontinue breathing, by which 
devout Mahomedans are supposed to prolong 
their lives. It is supposed to be a gift to devout 
men, and the notion is founded on the erroneous 
belief that human beings have to take a certain 
number -of respirations, and if the power to sus- 
pend breathing be acted on, to that extent life 
will be prolonged. 

HACKERY. Hind. A cart drawn by bullocks, 
from Akra, a cart. It may, however, be from the 
Portuguese Carro or Acarretai, to carry.— IF. 

HACKLES, upright pointed wires, through 
which the stems of flax are drawn to disentangle 



HADA. 



HAFIZ. 



or comb them out, being freed at the same time 
from remaining extraneous matter. The wire 
pins are arranged on different frames, in progres- 
sive degrees of fineness. The process is now 
performed by special machinery. 

HADA. Hind. A blight, drying up of leaves. 

HADAYK-ul-BALAGHAT. Arab. Literally, 

the Gardens of Eloquence, an Arabic treatise on 

eloquence by Mir Shams-ud-Din of Dehli, who 

lived at the end of the 18th century. 

HADI, a helot race, spread over all Bengal, who 
take their name from the original Santali word for 
man, Had, and who have supplied such terms 
as Hadd, base, low-born ; Hadduk, a sweeper ; 
Hunda, hog, blockhead, imp; Hudduka, a 
drunken sot, etc. Also, Hadi, in low Bengali 
Hadikath, is the name of a rude fetter or stock, 
by which landholders used to confine their serfs 
until they agreed to their terms. It means literally 
the helot's log. It was also used for fastening the 
head of the victim in the bloody oblations which 
the Aryan religion adopted from the aboriginal 
races, especially in the human sacrifices to Kali, 
to which the low castes even now resort in times 
of special need. In an account of such a human 
offering to Kali, during the famine of 1866, it 
was mentioned that the bleeding head was found 
fixed on the ' harcat,' i.e. helot's log. — Dr. W< W. 
Hunter, p. 30. 

HAD1AH. Arab. A maiden of good family 
and courage, who precedes in battle the Bedouin 
Arab, mounted on a camel, in the fore ranks. She 
has to shame the timid and excite the brave by 
taunts or praise. — Palgrave. 

HADIS. Arab. (PI. Ahadis.) The traditions 
of the sayings and practice of Mahomed. They 
are 5266 in number, and are considered a supple- 
ment to the Koran. They are also called Sunna 
or customs, also Ahadis Nabaweya, the Apostolic 
Acts. The Sunni, the Shiah, and the Wahabi 
sects all acknowledge traditions as binding on 
them ; but the Shiah sect do not acknowledge the 
same collection as binding on them which the 
Sunni adopt, and the Wahabi recognise six Sunni 
books as correct. 

HADIWICKE, a moderately hard, fine, close- 
grained, rather heavy Ceylon wood. 

HADRAMAUT, a province of Arabia Felix, on 
the sea-coast between Yemen and Oman. The 
chief products are frankincense, gum-arabic, 
dragon's blood, myrrh, and aloes. 

HADROSPHERUM, Mesospherum, and Micro- 
spherum are terms applied by Pliny to varieties of 
nard ; perhaps a mistake of his, as Dioscorides 
observes that some people made the mistake of 
regarding malabathrum as the leaf of Indian nard. 
— Yule, Cathay, i. p. cxlv. 

H^EMADIPSA CEYLANICA. Blain. The 
land-leech of Ceylon. Another is the Hsemadipsa 
Boscii, and another is Hsemopsis paludum. 

HiEMATIN, a colouring substance obtained 
from the Caesalpinia sappan tree. 

HAEMATITE. Tai-che-shih, Chin. 
Yu-yu-liang, . . Chin. I Bed haematite, . Eng. 
Brown htematite, . Eng. | Hydrated oxide of iron, „ 
A name given to certain forms of native 
peroxide of iron. When of a red colour it is 
called red haematite ■, and when brown, brown 
haematite. According to Hanbury, it resembles 
the old lapis settles. It occurs in British India 
and China in many places ; and the Chinese 



regard it as crumbs from the table of the great 
emperor Yu, and use it medicinally in powder 
and in tincture. — Smith. 

H^EMATORNIS CAFER is one of the bulbuls 
of Southern India. It is not a song bird, and is 
called the bulbul-i-gul-dum, or bulbul with the 
rose tail. Like quails and cocks, it is trained to 
fight, and when pitted against an antagonist it 
will sink from exhaustion rather than release its 
hold. 

H.EMATOXYLON CAMPECHIANUM, the 
logwood tree ; has been introduced .into India, 
where it grows readily and seeds abundantly. It 
is used only as a dye, and the bark is astringent. 
It is a low spreading tree, seldom thicker than a 
man's thigh. — Cleghorn in Madras E. J. R. 

H^ENKE. The Reliquiae Hsenkianse of Presl 
is a folio volume, with plates, devoted to the 
materials collected by Haenke, who was employed 
in the Spanish service, and collected in America 
and Manilla. The Indian plants described are 
few, and the descriptions and identifications far 
from satisfactory. — Hooker f. et Thomson. 

HAE-NUN, called by Europeans Amoy, an 
island on the S.E. of China about 22 miles in 
circumference. The town of Amoy is situated on 
the S.W. part of the island, opposite the small 
island of Ko-lan-soo, which affords protection to 
the town anchorage or inner harbour. On the 
western side of the island is that of Woo-seu- 
shan, also that of Woo-an. Amoy was delivered 
over to the British, after the first Chinese war of 
1841-2, and forms one of the consulates thereof, 
Shang-hai and Hong-Kong being others. 

HAE-TAN, a large and irregularly-shaped island 
on the E. coast of China, near the mainland, 
between lat. 25° 24/ and 25° 40' N. Its northern 
part, Hae-tan peak, is in lat. 25° 36' N, and rises 
to an elevation of 1420 feet ; but its eastern and 
western shores are low, and indented with deep 
sandy bays. — Horsburgh. 

H^ETUMAT, a land mentioned in the Vendidad 
of the Zoroastrians, as the eleventh of which the 
Aryans took possession. It is the valley of the 
Helmand to the west of Arachosia. — Bunsen. 

HAFIZ, Arab., from the Arabic Hifz, he did 
remember, is a Uterary title given to a Mahomedan 
who can recite the whole of the Koran from 
memory. It is generally earned by lads, some- 
times of very tender years, and in large towns 
there are always several of the Hafiz. Where so 
many are actual Hafiz, multitudes have almost 
attained thereto, and remember vast portions of 
their religious book ; and every Mahomedan with 
any education can indicate almost any passage 
under discussion. The Koran is not, perhaps, a 
third the size of the Old and New Testaments, and 
the feat of committing it to memory is compara- 
tively easy, which may explain why we so seldom 
hear of a Bible Hafiz. Recently, however, in 1860, 
a religious gentleman in Massachusetts having 
offered several prizes of Bibles to those, old or 
young, who should commit to memory and repeat 
the largest portion of the Bible, Mrs. Betsy Conant, 
who had been residing in Melrose, a lady sixty- 
eight years of age, committed to memory the 
entire Bible, Old and New Testament, reciting 
each day in the week. This was certified by her 
daughter, and also by the superintendent of the 
Sabbath school. An Irish servant girl repeated 
nearly 10,000 verses; three other women repeated 



11A1IZ. 



HAIL. 



above that number; ami a list was apjK'inb «1 of 
some 30 more who were able to repeat from 8000 
to 0000 verses. It is noticeable that more than 
two-thirds of the successful competitors were 
wi.iniii, showing how strong the faculty of 
memory is among tin- six as a general rule. 

HA FIZ, h lyric poet, native of Shiraz, author of 
tin- Dewan-i-Hafiz. Many of his poems have been 
translated ; one by Sir William J ones, and which 
perhaps surpasses the original, commences with 

'Sweet maid, if thou wouldst charm my sight, 
And bid these arms thy neck enfold ; 
That rosy check, that lily hand, 
"Would give thy lover more delight 
Than all Bokhara's vaunted gold — 
Than all the gems of Samarkand.' 

Hafiz is his takhallus, or poetical appellation. 
His own name was Muhammad Shams-ud-Din. 
Very little is known of his life ; and it appears to 
have been in no degree remarkable for incident 
He was born at Shiraz in the beginning of the 
14th century, and died and was buried near there 
in A.D. 1388. He is now regarded as a holy man, 
and oblations are offered at his shrine. He is 
buried in a small garden about half a mile outside 
the walls of the town. The tomb over his remains 
was erected by Karim Khan. It is a block of white 
marble in the form of a coffin, on which are cut, 
in the most exquisite Persian characters, two of his 
poems, and the date of his death. A copy of his 
works is kept in an adjoining house. The white 
material with which the tomb is formed, has 
become, from exposure to the weather, very much 
discoloured, and adds to the sombre effect pro- 
duced by the cypress trees that surround it. Four 
well-known distichs of Hafiz inculcate the return 
of good for evil : 

' Learn from yon orient shell to love thy foe, 
And store with pearls the hand that brings thee woe : 
Free, like yon rock, from base vindictive pride, 
Emblaze with gems the wrist that rends thy side : 
Mark where yon tree rewards the stony shower 
With fruit nectareous, or the balmy flower : 
All Nature calls aloud — Shall man do less 
Than heal the smiter, and the railer bless ? ' 

— Pottinger's TV. pp. 241-2; Ouseley, pp. 241-2; Sir 
William Jones; As. Res. iv. ; MacGregor, iv. p. 557. 

HAFT. Pers. Seven :— 

Haft-Aklim, the seven climates, into which 
Mahomedan geographers divide the earth. The 
term is meant to include the whole world, and 
kings have sometimes assumed the title of King 
of the Seven Climates. It applies, however, 
to the northern hemisphere, which they partition 
into zones of various breadth, from east to 
west. Haft-Kishwar has the same meaning and 
allusion as Haft-Akbm ; and the sovereignty of 
the world is sometimes assumed under that title. 

Haft-Dhat, literally seven metals, corresponding 
to the planets, each of which ruled a metal : hence 
Mohar, the sun, for gold ; Chandra, the moon, 
for silver. t 

Haft-Hind, the seven rivers of the Panjab. 

Haft-Khaneh, or Satgurh group of caves, is one 
of the Behar caves in the neighbourhood of Raja- 
griha, the most ancient caves in India, about 200 
B.C. The others are the Milkmaid's cave, the 
Brahman Girl's cave, the Nagarjun cave, and in 
the neighbourhood are the Kama chapara and 
Lomas Kishi caves. 

Haft-Rang, a beautiful variety of the rose. 

Haft-Lang, a tribe of the Bakhtiari. 



Haft-Tan, literally seven persons who, in the 
early days of Mahomedanism, were worshipped in 
Kurdistan by the Ali Ilahi sect as the incan 
< leit y. Baba Yadgar was one of the seven persons. 
His tomb is in the pass of Zardah, and is Um holy 
place of the Ali Ilahi sectarians, who believe in 
upwards of a thousand incarnations of the godhead. 
At the time of the Arab invasion of Persia, the 
Zardah pass was regarded as the abode of Elias. 

1 1 AFT-AKLIM. Amin Ahmad, Razi, author of 
a history of the Persian poets, entitled Haft- Aklim, 
or the Seven Climates, has illustrated his work with 
much geographical matter. Ahmad was surnamed 
liazi, being a native of RaL Amin Ahmad said the 
cuneiform character was then unintelligible to the 
learned of all religions. — Ouseley y s Tr. ii.402, iii.10. 

HAGENIA ABYSSINIA, the kosso or kousso, 
a moderate-sized tree of Abyssinia. Its flowers 
are largely used in tapeworm. It is a drastic 
purgative, and is largely used by the races who 
eat raw flesh. 

HAGGIS. Sultan Baber compares the jack- 
fruit to a haggis. 'You would say,' quoth he 
(p. 325), ' that the tree was hung all round with 
haggises.' — Yule, Cathay, ii. p. 362. 

HAIGA, a clan of Brahmans in Canara. 

HAIHAYA, son of Yadu, and grandson of 
Nahusha. The Haihaya are mentioned as a power- 
ful nation, who defeated and killed Jamadagni, 
and are supposed to be the same with the Persians. 
In Colonel Tod's time, a tribe of this race were 
occupying the top of the valley of Sohagpur in 
Baghelcund. They were aware of their ancient 
lineage, and though few in number, they were 
still celebrated for their valour. 

HAIL. In Exodus ix. 24, it is mentioned that 
there was hail, and fire mingled with the hail, very 
grievous, such as there was none like it in all the 
land of Egypt since it became a nation. Hail- 
storms of India occur in very limited patches, 
and seldom last above 15 or 20 minutes ; but falls 
of hail occur simultaneously in places many miles 
apart.. The hail occasionally consists of masses of 
ice, destroying houses, men, cattle, goats, and 
sheep. At the end of the 18th century, a mass 
fell at Seringapatam the size of an elephant, which 
took three days to melt. 

On the 10th April 1822, at Bangalore, 27 
bullocks were killed. 

In May 1823, a violent hail-storm, with stones of 
considerable size, occurred at Hyderabad in the 
Dekhan. Sufficient quantities were collected to 
cool the wine for several days. 

At Dharwar, in May or June 1825, a hail-storm 
occurred, with hail in size from that of a filbert 
to a pigeon's egg. 

In 1826, a mass, nearly a cubic yard in size, fell 
hi Kandesh. 

At Kotah, on the 5th March 1827, 6 persons 
were killed, 7 others severely injured, and animals 
and birds killed and hurt 

In April 1838, a mass of hailstones, 25 feet in 
its larger diameter, fell at Dharwar. 

On the 22d May, after a violent hail-storm 80 
miles south of Bangalore, an immense block of 
ice, consisting of hailstones cemented together, 
was found in a dry well. 

On the 12th May 1853, in the Himalaya, north 
of Peshawur, 84 human beings and 3000 oxen 
were killed by masses of ice, nearly a foot in 
circumference, hard, compact, and spherical. 



HAILEYBURY COLLEGE. 



HAIR. 



On the 11th May 1855, ice-pieces fell at Nairn 
Tal of the dimensions of cricket balls, and birds 
were killed. 

A hail-storm occurred at Futtehghur on the 
13th April 1878, when much injury to buildings 
resulted. 

In Ceylon hail has fallen at Kornegalle, at 
Badulla, Kaduganawa, and Jaffna. On the 24th 
September 1857, during a thunder-storm, hail fell 
near Matelle in such quantity that in places it 
formed drifts upwards of a foot in depth. 

One year a heavy fall of hailstones took place 
near Ashteh (the village where Bapoo Gokla fell), 
which caused severe injuries to people working in 
the fields, and the death of a girl about ten years 
of age. Many of the hailstones were larger than 
a good-sized wood-apple ; they fell in an oblique 
direction, and so accumulated at the foot of walls 
that it took two days in some places for them to 
melt away. One piece was larger than a man's 
head, and took two days to dissolve ; the wheat 
crops, which were then nearly ripe for taking 
down, were quite destroyed by it. A hail- storm 
of exceptional severity passed over Tiperah in 
Eastern Bengal on the evening of the 12th March 
1879 ; 17 persons were killed and 10 wounded. 
Native reports stated that 29 were killed and 
141 injured. Houses were blown down and un- 
roofed, the storm being accompanied by a strong 
wind. 

Hail-storms of India occur in each month of the 
year, but chiefly in the dry months. Of 127 such 
hail - storms, 102 occurred in the four months 
February to May inclusive : — 



January, . 


. 5 


May, . . 


. 17 


September, 


.' 2 


February, . 


. 20 


June, . . 


. 4 


October, . 


. 3 


March, . 


. 31 


July, . . 


. 2 


November, 


. 4 


April, . . 


. 34 


August, . 


. 


December, 


. 5 



In the first fortnight of March in one year, on 
the 3d, a violent hail-storm occurred at Bolarum, 
which dashed right through the roofs of the 
houses, and stripped the trees of their leaves and 
branches; it was experienced at Secunderabad, 
but did not extend to Hyderabad itself. A hail- 
storm occurred at Cawnpur on the 8th, and two 
violent hail- storms happened at the same time near 
Meerut, many of the fragments being the size of 
ostrich eggs. A violent squall, with hail, occurred 
at Hurryhur on the 12th ; 270 birds, which had been 
killed by it, were picked up in a single garden, and 
the river was found covered with dead fish, which 
seemed to have been attracted to the surface, and 
fell victims to the gratification of their curiosity. 
In Berar and in the parts of the Mahratta country 
there is a caste of hail- conjurors, the Garpagari, 
who pretend to have the power of preventing hail 
falling on fields. — Dr. Blast's Physical Research ; 
Dr. Turnbull Christie, Jam. Ed. Jo. ii. of 1830. 

HAILEYBURY COLLEGE, an institution near 
London, of the English E. I. Company, at which 
its civil servants were trained to be writers in 
India, for magisterial, revenue, and judicial offices. 
It was abolished on the assumption of India by 
the Queen of Great Britain. 

HAINAN, an island bounding the Gulf of Ton- 
quin to the eastward, extends 165 miles in a N.E. 
and S.W. direction, and is about 75 miles in 
breadth, between lat. 28° and 31° N, and long. 110° 
E. Viewed from the sea, it presents many high 
and uneven appearances, but inland there are 
many level districts, cultivated with rice, sugar- 



cane, tobacco, and betel-nut trees. These level 
tracts are separated by lofty mountains and 
impenetrable forests, through which paths are 
opened. The island is subject to the Chinese. 
The fishing boats are built of a hard, heavy wood, 
and sail fast. Their fishing voyages, commencing 
in March, last for two months, and they navigate 
to 700 or 800 miles from home, collecting beche 
de mer, dry turtle, and sharks' fins amongst the 
numerous shoals and sandbanks in the S.E. of the 
China Sea. — Horsburgh. See Tonking. 

HAINES, Sir FREDERICK, G.C.S.I., served 
in the Sutlej campaign of 1845-46, including the 
battles of Moodkee and Ferozeshah, at the latter 
of which he was severely wounded ; also in the 
Panjab campaign of 1848-49, and more recently 
in the Crimea, including the battles of the Alma, 
Balaclava, Inkermann, and siege of Sebastopol. 
He was, in 1871, appointed to the command of 
the Madras army, and in 1876 succeeded Lord 
Napier of Magdala as Commander-in-Chief in 
India. He was created a G.C.B. in 1877. 

HAIQ. The populations to whom the term 
Armenian is now applied, call themselves Haiq. 
Their chief occupancies are the Turkish province 
of Erzerum, and the Russian district of Erivan, 
and the patriarch resides in Erivan. They 
are now under the sway of Russia, Persia, 
and Turkey, but they are found in all Eastern 
countries. 37,676 are in European Russia alone ; 
and one important settlement of them is in 
Venice, that of the Mechitarist monks, on the 
island of St. Lazarus. In figure the Armenians 
have been likened to the Jew, the Turk, and the 
Afghan. They evince great commercial aptitude, 
and are bankers and merchants. In Armenia, 
however, they cultivate the soil. Before their 
conversion they were fire- worshippers. Many of 
them now are Nestorian Christians, some are 
Romanists. The language of the present day has 
affinities with the Iron, and Persian, Syrian, Arabic, 
and Turki. General tradition and the formation 
of language point alike to the mountains of 
Armenia as the birthplace of the Arab and 
Canaanitish races, and there is especial native 
evidence to the same effect as regards Edom, 
consequently the Phoenicians. 

HAIR. 
Haar, . Da., Du., Geh. 
Cheveux, Poil, . . Fr. 
Bal, . . . Guj., Hind. 

Pelo, It., Sp. 

Capilli, Pelles, . Lat. 
Ruma, Rula, . MALAY. 
Ranbut, Tailhan, ,, 

Cabello, .... Pokt. 

With the exception of man, the exposed parts 
of the bodies of mammals are covered with hair. 
Hair is a considerable article of traffic. Goats' 
hair is largely exported from Bombay to England. 
The hair of the elephant's tail and the bristles of 
the, wild boar are utilized in India. The value of 
the exports of hair from India amounts to about 
£2000 annually, about 200 to 300 tons. 

A remarkable command is given to the Israelites 
in Leviticus xix. 27 : 'Ye shall not round the 
corners of your head,' or, literally, ' Ye shall not go 
round,' i.e. with a razor, ' the sides of thy head.' 
The Septuagint renders this, ' Do not make Sisoen 
of the hair of your head.' Greek lexicographers 
say that Sisoen, though not a Greek word, means 
a lock, or circular portion of hair left unshaven, 



Voloss, .... Rus. 

Kesa Sansk. 

Cabellos Sp. 

Har, Sw. 

Mairu, .... Tam. 
Ventrukulu, . . . Tel. 
Sach, Turk. 



HAIR 



HAIYU. 



and consecrated to Saturn, the grandfather of 
Bacchus, who is thought to correspond with 
Siva. In some respects Saturn also resembles 
Siva. A recent commentator says on the above 
text, 'It seems probable that this fashion had 
been learned by the Israelites in Egypt, for the 
ancient Egyptians had their dark locks cropped 
-hurt, or shaved with great nicety, so that what 
remained on the crown appeared in the form of 
I circle surrounding the head. Frequently a lock 
Of tuft of hair was left on the hinder part of the 
head, the rest being cut round in the form of a 
ring, as the Turks, Chinese, and Hindus do at the 
present day.' 

Poole says ' the Gentiles cut their hair for the 
worship of devils or idols, to whom young men 
used to consecrate their hair, as Homer, Plutarch, 
and many others write.' Prof essor Vitringa looks 
upon this manner of trimming the hair in a 
circular form, while the rest of the head is shaven, 
as a symbol of the sun equally diffusing his rays, 
which the ancients called his hair. The Romans 
are said to have worn the hair of the head uncut, 
cither loose or bound behind in a knot, and con- 
secrated it to Apollos. 

Herodotus says that the Arabians cut their hair 
in such a manner, that the circumference of their 
head is found to be round all about as if they had 
been cut with a bowl, in imitation of Bacchus, and 
in honour of him. He says also that the Macians, 
a people of Sybia, cut their hair round so as to 
leave a tuft on the top of the head. We learn 
from Homer that it was customary for parents to 
dedicate to some god the hair of their children, 
which they cut off when they came to manhood. 
Achilles, at the funeral of Patroclus, cut off his 
golden locks, which Ids father had dedicated to 
the river-god Sperchias. From Virgil it appears 
that the topmost lock of hair was dedicated to the 
infernal gods. In Athens it is said Hercules and 
Apollos were the chief deities selected for dedi- 
cating the hair, — to the first by the humbler 
part of the community, and the latter by the 
more wealthy. Tertulhan speaks of an extra- 
ordinary rite about the dedication of the hair of 
infants, which was practised even before they well 
had any hair, and that cut off when they were 
named. 

The ancient Greeks, in laying out their dead, 
placed an obolus, a Greek coin, in the mouth to pay 
Charon's fare across the rivers Styx and Acheron, 
and a cake made of flour and honey to appease 
Cerberus. Greek men cut off their hair when they 
obtained the age of puberty, and dedicated it to 
some deity. Theseus is said to have repaired to 
Delphi to perform this ceremony, and to have con- 
secrated his shorn locks to Apollo. After this it 
was again allowed to grow long, and only cut off 
as a sign of mourning. Thus, at the funeral of 
Patroclus (Iliad, xxiii.) the friends of Achilles cut 
off their hair, and 

1 On the corse their scattered locks they throw.' 

In some parts of Greece, however, it was 
customary to wear the *hair short, and to allow 
it (Cassandr. 973) to grow long when in mourning. 
' Neglected hair shall now luxurious grow, 
And by its length their bitter passion show.' 

Hindu men, on the death of a relative, abstain 
from shaving, and the Burmese dead have a coin 
placed with them for the spirit-world. 

The women of nearly all the oriental races 



wear long hair, differently braided. The men of 
Baluchistan and Afghanistan shave the front, but 
weir hair long on the back and sides of the bead. 
Mahomedans of India as a rule shave their heads, 
Hindu men also shave, leaving only a scalp-lock 
on the crown. This scalp-lock is noticed by 
Martial, Seneca, and Tacitus as worn by German 
races. Brahman women, on the demise of their 
husbands, have their heads shaved. 

In Luristan, the women, on the death of their 
men relatives, cut off their hair, and hang the 
locks around the tomb. The hair of Hindu 
women, and often also that of men, is frequently 
made a votive offering to their gods. Crowds of 
the Hindu pilgrims to Triputty and other holy 
places, both men and women, return with heads 
shaved. Hindu lads have their heads shaved. 
Nero placed his first beard in a jewelled box, 
and dedicated it to Jupiter. Herodotus mentions 
(Melp. iv. c. 34) that the Delian maidens used to 
cut off a lock of their hair before marriage, in 
memory of the Hyperborean virgins who died in 
Delos. In some tribes of the Orang Benua of 
the Malay Peninsula, and among the Malay, it is 
customary to cut off a part of the bride's hair. 

The Somali of the east of Africa change their 
hair into red by mixing it with lime. Amongst 
the Romans, blonde auburn tresses were most 
admired, and to obtain these, men steeped their 
hair in a powerful alkali, as the Somali now do. 
Mahomedans of India have black hair, occasion- 
ally dye it red with henna or mehndi. The tuft 
of hair, or scalp -lock, Shik'ha, Sansk., D'zutu, 
Tel., Kudi mai, Tam., is worn by all who profess 
Hinduism, and it has been a subject of much dis- 
cussion with Christian missionaries, whether, on 
conversion, the new Christian's scalp-lock should 
be removed. — De Bode, ii. 218-19; Neicbold ; 
Postans ; Lvbbock. 

HAIR POWDER. 
Poudre a poudrer, . Fr. I Polvere di cipri, . . It. 
Puder Geb. \ Polvos de petuca, . Sp. 

Hair powder is generally made from pulver- 
ized starch, and perfumed with various scents. — 
Faulkner. 

HAI-TSAI. Chin. Literally, sea vegetable. 
Hai-tsai, Hai-wan, and Kwan-pu are Chinese 
names for several species of Laniinaria, Rhodo- 
menia, Iridse, etc., used in China for food, for 
size, and for jelly. Kwan-pu is the tangle. 

HAI-YANG is the Neptune of the Chinese. 
In Hi-ching-mian is a temple of the sea-god. At 
Ta-coo, in one hand he holds a magnet as em- 
blematic of security, and a dolphin in the other, 
to show his sovereignty over the inhabitants of 
the sea ; his head, beard, and hair are evidently 
intended as a personification of water. — Macart- 
ney's Embassy, i. 31. 

HAIYU, Haioo, Haya, or Vaya. The Haiyu, 
the Chepang, and the Kusundu are three un- 
civilised Bhot tribes, who dwell amid the dense 
forests of the central region of Nepal, to the 
westward of the great valley, in scanty numbers, 
and nearly in a state of nature. They live in 
huts made of the branches of trees, on wild 
fruits, and the produce of the chase. The 
Chepang arc slight, but not actually deformed, 
though with large bellies. Mr. Hodgson says 
they are of Mongol descent Their language is 
akin to that of the Lhopa. The Chepang, Haiyu, 
and Kusunda seem to belong to the Rawat group 



HAIZA. 



HAKODADI. 



of frontier populations. They are named by Mr. 
Hodgson as Durre, Denwar, and Bramho. They 
occupy the districts where the soil is moist, the 
air hot, and the effluvia miasmatic. They dwell 
in Nepal as the fragments of a tribe of great 
antiquity, with peculiar traditions, language, and 
appearance, all tending to isolate them from the 
people amongst whom they dwell. 

HAIZA. Arab., Hind. Cholera. Haiza-ka- 
patta, Kalanchoe varians. 

HAJ. Arab. A pilgrimage by a Mahomedan 
to Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Sinai, etc. ; hence 
the title Haji, a pilgrim. Hajjat, a woman pilgrim. 
The pilgrimage of Mahomedans to Mecca — en- 
joined by the Koran (Sura, xxii. 28)— is incumbent 
on all men and women who have sufficient means 
to meet the expenses of the journey, and to main- 
tain their families at home during their absence. 
Its ceremonial continues during three days of the 
month Zi-ul-haj. The day of the ceremony is 
the 10th Zi-ul-haj, on the Eed-ul-Kurban or 
Bakrid festival. The setting forth of the pilgrims 
from the distant parts of the world is generally 
attended with great show. The Persian Shiah sect 
resort in pilgrimage to three places. The town of 
Meshid is reckoned the least in the scale of 
sanctity ; and those who have been there to the 
tomb of Imam-Raza, obtain the title of Meshidi. 
The next after them are the Karbalai, who stand 
a degree higher in estimation ; while those only 
who have visited the Kaba at Mecca and the 
tomb of Mahomed at Medina, can lay claim to the 
title of Haji. A Persian will feel offended if you 
call him Meshidi, when he has a right to the 
superior degree of Karbalai, or the still higher 
and more pompous appellation of Haji. Thus 
Meshidi, Karbalai, and Haji become titles of 
distinction. Haj-ul-Asghar, the lesser pilgrimage. 
Haj-ul-Akbar, the greater pilgrimage. About 
70,000 annually visit Mecca. 

The Indian Haj is the most numerous of all the 
pilgrimages which arrive every year at Jeddah. 
In 1880 it consisted of 15,000 souls, the next 
most numerous being the Malay Haj, which num- 
bered 12,000. The latter consists mostly of Dutch 
subjects. The Dutch encourage their subjects 
to visit the holy places in Arabia, on the principle 
that the experience which is gained on the journey 
of the tyranny and extortion of the Musalman 
government in Hejaz tends to increase in a Haji 
the sense of the advantages he enjoys at home. 

Haj Darwazah, or Mecca Darwazah, the pilgrim 
gate of the city, from which the pilgrims issue 
when proceeding on pilgrimage. 

HA J AM, Hind., the Nai of the Hindus, a 
barber, who shaves, bleeds, cups, cleans the ears, 
pares the nails, etc., usually included among the 
members of the village establishment. 

HAJAR. Arab. A stone, any stone : — 

Hajar-ul-Akab, eagle - stones of the ancients. 
One of them was probably the bonduc nut of 
the Guilandina bonduc. The Greeks believed 
that the eagle -stones or setiles were only found 
in the nests of eagles ; and the Arabs describe 
them as resembling tamarind stones, but hollow 
and found in eagles' nests, and they believed that 
the eagles bring them from India. — King. 

Hajar-ul-Musa, asphalte. 

Hajar-us-Siah, also Hajr-ul-Aswad, a cele- 
brated black stone which is built into the Kaba 
at Mecca, an object of the greatest veneration. 



This stone is set in silver, and fixed in the 
south-east corner of the temple. It is deemed 
by Mahomedans one of the precious stones of 
paradise that fell to the earth with Adam, and, 
being preserved at the deluge, the angel Gabriel 
brought it to Abraham when he was building the 
Kaba. It Jwas, they say, at first white, but its 
surface has become black from coming in contact 
with those who are impure and sinful. It is semi- 
circular, about six inches in height, and eight inches 
in breadth. It is in the wall of the Kaba in the 
east outer corner, about four feet from the ground, 
its surface undulating and polished. Burton, on 
reaching the stone, despite popular indignation, 
testified by impatient shouts, monopolized the use 
of it for at least ten minutes. Whilst kissing it, 
and rubbing hands and forehead upon it, he 
narrowly observed it, and came away persuaded 
that it is a big aerolite. Ali Bey calls it, 
'mineralogically,' a black volcanic basalt, -whose 
circumference is sprinkled with little crystals, 
pointed and strawlike, with rhombs of tile-red 
feldspath upon a dark background, like velvet or 
charcoal, except one of its protuberances, which 
is reddish. Burckhardt (p. 137) thought it was 
* a lava containing several small extraneous par- 
ticles of a whitish and of a yellowish substance.' 

Hajar-ul-Yahudi is encrinite, sold in Peshawur 
at Rs. 10 the maund. — Burton's Mecca, iii. p. 210 ; 
Malcolm's Persia, ii. p. 336. 

HAJONG, a section of the Bodo tribe who 
dwell in the plains of Cachar. 

HAJRAH or Hajirah. Arab. Hagar, the 
kept woman of Abraham, the mother of Ismael, 
generally called the Bibi Hajirah. 

HAKARI, a tribe of N. Kurdistan inhabiting 
the mountains on either bank of the great Zab 
river above Amadia. They have 14 subdivisions, 
also 94 Christian villages, with 15,520 souls. 
Their country is precipitous and difficult, the 
people wilder than any Kurds. They have 25,000 
fighting men. — MacGregor. 

HAKIM. Arab. A doctor of philosophy, a 
doctor of medicine, a learned man, pronounced 
Hakeem. The Hakim or Tabib of British India is 
of the Mahomedan faith, and, like the Vydian Baid 
or Vaid, is usually a physician purist. The Hakim 
as a rule claims to be a follower of the Yunani or 
Grecian school of medicine. He designates the 
Hindu Vydian as of the Misri or Egyptian school, 
but recognises also a Suryani or Syrian school. 
General Ferrier says that the influence which the 
Hakim Sahib has generally exercised in the British 
embassy at Teheran, and the employment of such 
men as Jukes, Campbell, M'Neill, Riach, Bell, 
Lord, and others, in various important duties in 
those countries, led the chiefs of Harat to suppose 
that physicians occupy a higher place in the 
councils of the British than is accorded to them. 
— Ferrier, Journal, p. 149. 

HAKLUYT, RICHARD (Archdeacon), Bishop 
of Westminster, in 1601 was appointed Historio- 
grapher of the East Indies, by the first Chairman 
of East India Directors. He held constant 
communication with the seamen, and lectured at 
Oxford to the students. He died 1616, and his 
successor was the Rev. Samuel Purchas. — E. J. 
Murray, Surveys, 1871. 

HAKODADI was a small town of Japan. Within 
sight of Hakodadi, and at the distance of about 
25 miles, is an active volcano. The crater forms 



HAKRA. 



HALCYONII)^:. 



marly a circle, from 1600 to 2000 yards round. 
The ground is in some places so hot that the hand 
could not touch it. This volcano throws up a hot 
sulphur spring at about 20 miles distant, and 5 
from Hakodadi, the heat of its water being 109° 
in the warmest part.. The natives regard it as 
almost a certain cure in cases of skin disease. 
Men, women, and children, all nude, batho to- 
gether. 

HAKRA, a name of the river Caggar. 

HAL. Arab., Hind. Present, present state, 
condition, current, as Ibrahim Khan-i-hal, the 
present Ibrahim Khan ; Hal-ki-waste, for the 
occasion ; Hali-sikkah, current coin. It occurs 
frequently in combination, and is used in revenue 
accounts to represent the existing state of collec- 
tions. — EUiot, Supp. Gloss. 

HAL or Har. Hind. A plough. Hali, a 
ploughman. It has been suggested that as the 
Aryans were originally and essentially an agricul- 
tural and therefore a peasant race, they may have 
derived their name from their plough, and words 
of a similar sound relating to agriculture are found 
in several tongues. In Latin it is Aratrum, from 
Aro, I plough. In Egyptian (in Nefruari), Ar is 
said to mean a plough. In Tamil it is Er, in 
Telugu Araka, in Sanskrit, along with Nagala or 
Nagara, it is also called Hala or Hara; and the 
Aryan race may possibly have obtained their 
name from this implement of husbandry. The 
Hal is a pointed beam in a plough, which serves 
as the ploughshare. 

Hala-Ketana, Sansk., the plough-ensign, one 
of the insignia of royalty of the great Chalukya 
dynasty, when ruling at Kalian. Hali, a plough- 
man. 

HALA, also Halla Kandi, a ruined city on the 
Indus, 30 miles above Hyderabad. The Hala 
deputy collectorate is between lat. 25° 8' and 
26 f N., and between long. 68° 16' 30" and 69° 
17' E. 

HALA, a range of mountains, called also the 
Brahuic range. It is the great mountain system of 
Baluchistan, extending from the Suliman Hills, in 
lat. 30° 30' N., by the curved Bugti and Mari 
(Murree) chain to the north of Shawl, and thence 
in a generally S.S.W. direction to the ocean, 
which it reaches at Ras Mowari (Cape Monze), in 
long. 24° 46'. Its breadth and height vary. The 
Chahl-tan is 11,000 to 12,000 feet, 7000 feet being 
the highest part at Kalat. Shawl is 5900 feet. In 
the northern part is the Bolan pass, and the Moolla 
pass is near Gandava. It throws out to the W. 
and S.W. numerous offshoots, which traverse 
Makran, and either sink into the ocean or the 
desert plains of Eastern Persia, or into the moun- 
tain system of Persia. — MacGregor. 

HALAILI, a cotton stuff with long stripes of 
white silk, a favourite material amongst the city 
Arabs. At Constantinople, where the best is 
made, the piece, which will cut into two shirts, 
costs about thirty shillings. 

HALAL. Arab. The new moon. It is a 
favourite symbol in Mahomedan standards as a 
crescent, indicating continuous increase. 

HALAL. Hind. Lawful food for Mahomedans, 
a8 opposed to Haram, unlawful food. The lawful 
animals are such as chew the cud, and are not 
beasts of prey ; birds that pick up food with their 
bills, and do not seize their prey with their claws, 
or wound them with their bills ; fish, but no other 



marine animals, and locusts. Reptiles and wino 
and all intoxicants are unlawful. 

HALAL KHOR. Hind. Peru. A sweeper, 
a house scavenger. The words are Arabo-Persic, 
and mean a lawful eater, i.e. one to whom every- 
thing is lawful. Scavengers are usually Maho- 
medans, and are also called Mahtar, Bhangi, Toti, 
Lal-Begi. 

HALAR, a principality in the Gulf of Cutch, 
of wliich Nowanagar is the capital, ruled over by 
the Jam of Nowanagar. See Rajputs. 

HALAS, a branch of the Sakai population of 
the Malay Peninsula. They tattoo their face and 
breast, pierce their ears and nose, and insert 
porcupine quills. See Kedah. 

HALAYA PAIKA, or Old Paik, a race in 
Mysore. Wilson says Halepaik, Karn., is a term 
applied in Mysore to the drawers of tari, who 
speak the Tuluva language. 

HALAYUDHA BHATTA, author of the Abhi- 
dana Ratnamala, a Sanskrit dictionary. He lived 
about the 7th century. — Dowson. 

HALBA. Gond. Immigrants into the Central 
Provinces from the south, and their principal 
colony is in the S.W., where they hold 37 flourish- 
ing villages. They gain their living chiefly by 
distilling spirits, and worship deified distillers, at 
the head of whom is Bahadur Kalal, which 
merely means the ' bold distiller.' They are, next 
to the Teli, the best cultivators ; except in the 
jungles, they have generally become Hinduized. 
All that is necessary for a good Halba is that he 
should sacrifice once in his life three goats and a 
pig, one to each of the national deities, called 
Narayan Gosain, Burha Deo, Sati, and Ratna. 

HALCYONIDiE, the kingfisher family of birds, 
of the tribe Fissirostres, order Insessores. It has 
two sub-families, the Alcedininae and Halcyoninae. 
Sub-Fam. Halcyoninse. 

Halcyon amauropterus, Pearson, the brown- 
winged kingfisher of Bengal, Arakan, and 
Tenasserim. 

Halcyon fulgidus, Gould, is a very beautiful 
kingfisher of Lomhok. It lives in thickets away 
from water, and feeds on snails and insects picked 
from the ground, like the great laughing jackass 
of Australia. 



Halcyon fuscus, Bodd. 

H. Smyrnensis, Sykes. 
Sade-buk, ... Beno. 
Match-ran ga, . . ,, 
Kilkila, .... Hind. 

The white-breasted 
India, Ceylon, and eastwards to China 

Halcyon leucocephalus, Gmel 



Alcedo fusca, Bodd. 
Vichuli, .... Tam. 
Lak-muka, . . . Tel. 
Buche-gadu, . . „ 

kingfisher ; inhabits all 



H. gurial, Pearson. 
H. Capensis, Linn. 
H. Javana, Gray. 
Gurial, 



Beng. 



H. brunnioepe, Jerd. 
Alcedo leucoceph., Gmel-. 



Male poyma, 



Mal. 



The brown-headed kingfisher, is over all India 
and the Archipelago. 

Halcyon saurophaga, a very fine kingfisher, 
with white head, neck, and lower parts, green 
scapulars, and blue wings and tail, from New 
Guinea, is a very shy bird, frequenting the margin 
of the island, usually seen perched on some 
detached or solitary branch, as if sunning itself, 
and darting off into the dense bush upon being 
approached. — Macgillivray, Voyage, L p. 245, 

Halcyon atricapillus, Gmel. 
Alcedo atricapillus, Gm. | A. pileata, Bodd. 
A. brama, Lets. 



HALDA. 



HALIASTUR INDUS. 



The black-capped purple kingfisher ; is rare in 
India, but more common in the countries east- 
wards to China. 

Halcyon Coromandelianus, Scop. 
H. Coromandel. , Blyth. I H. lilacina, Sw. 
H. calipyga, Hodgt. \ H. Schlegelii, Bonap. 

The ruddy kingfisher of the Himalaya, Nepal, 
Sikkim, and the east coast of the Bay of Bengal. 

Besides these, are H. cyaniventris from Java, 
H. concreta from Sumatra, H. pulchella from 
Malacca and S. Tenasserim. 

Todiramphus collaris, Scopoli. 
A. chlorocephala, Gm. | A. sacra, Gm. 

The white- collared kingfisher of the Sunder- 
buns, Arakan, Tenasserim, Malayana, and Archi- 
pelago. Its feathers are largely prized by the 
Chinese, who buy the skins at 24 for a dollar. 

There are other species in the Nicobars and 
Archipelago. 

Ceyx tridactyla, Pallas. 
A. erythica, Pall. | A. purpurea, Gmel. 

The three-toed purple kingfisher, is found in 
Sikkim, Malayana, and the islands. 
Sub-Fam. Alcedininse. 

Alcedo Bengalensis, Gm., common Indian king- 
fisher. 

Alcedo euryzona, Temm., great Indian king- 
fisher. 

Several species occur east of the Bay of Bengal, 
viz. A. Beryllina from Java, A. Moluccensis from 
Moluccas, A. Meningting of Java. 

Ceryle rudes, Linn. 

Ispidia bicincta, Sw. \ I. bitorquata, Sw. 
Karikata, . . . Bkng. I Korayala kilkila, Hind. 
Phutka-matcli-ranga, ,, 

The pied kingfisher ; occurs in Africa and most 
parts of South Asia and south of Europe. 

Ceryle guttata, Vigors. 
Matchi bag, Hind. | Ung kashiya, Lep. 

The large-crested black and white kingfisher, is 
a native of the Himalaya. — Jerdon, i. pp. 221-235. 

HALDA or Harda, Hind., is a mildew affect- 
ing the cerealia, in which the plant turns yellow 
and withers. 

HALDA or Haldi. Hind. Among Mahomedans, 
the ceremony of smearing a couple with turmeric 
between the period of their betrothal and marriage. 

HALDAR or Holdar, a name borne by some 
Bengal families of the trading castes. — Wilson. 

HALDIA MOORA and Singia moora are roots 
brought to Ajinir mixed with haldi ; they are 
acrid and poisonous, and are carefully separated. 
Genl. Med. Top. p. 151. 

HALEBID, a village in the Hassan district, 
Mysore, lat. 13° 12' 20" N., long. 76° 2' E. ; popu- 
lation (1871), 1207 ; the site of the ancient city 
of Dorasamudra or Dvaravatipura, the capital of 
the Hoysala Ballala dynasty. It was apparently 
rebuilt in the 13th century by King Vira Somes- 
wara. To him is assigned the erection there of 
two magnificent temples in honour of Siva, which 
rank among the masterpieces of Hindu art. The 
larger, Haisaleswara, rises 25 feet high above the 
terrace on which it stands. The ornamentation 
consists of a series of friezes one above another, 
each about 700 feet long, and carved with the 
most exquisite elaboration. One frieze alone 
represents a procession of not less than 2000 
elephants. The Ballala kings ruled from about 
a.d. 950 to a.d. 1310. It was plundered by 
Ala-ud-Din's general Kafur, a eunuch and con- 



verted Hindu leader of a Mahomedan army, and it 
was finally destroyed by Mahomed in., in a.d. 
1326. Jonur, also called Moti-talao, twelve miles 
from Seringapatam, was afterwards made the 
capital. The entire walls of the Halebid Saiva 
temple are covered with carvings in stone, forming 
a Hindu pantheon. There are also two Jaina 
temples with colossal idols. The roofs are sup- 
ported by splendid columns, said to be of pot- 
stone, beautifully turned, and so highly polished 
as to be used as a mirror when wetted with water. 

HALFA. Arab. The Stipa tenacissima, a 
plant of North Africa, largely utilised as a paper 
material. 

HALHED. Nathaniel Brassy Halhed in 1776 
published a code of Gentoo laws or ordinations of 
the Pandits, from a Persian translation made from 
the original, written in the Sanskrit language ; 
author of a Grammar of Bengali, a.d. 1778. 

HALI, in Kamaon, one of the Dom race who has 
been bought as a slave. In Surat, the Hali slave 
was a voluntary bondsman, who had temporarily 
sold himself for a sum of money. — Wils. Gloss. 

HALLETUS, the sea eagle genus of birds, of 
the sub-family Aquilinae, family Falconidse, and 
order Raptores. 

H. fulviventer, Vieill., ring-tailed sea eagle. 



Falco Macei, Temm. 
Halisetus Macei, Blyth. 
H. albipes, Hodgs. 
Macha rang, . . Beng. 
Mach -manga, . . ,, 
Mach-korol, koral, „ 



H. unicolor, Gray. 
H. lanceolatus, ffodgs. 

Bala, Beng. 

Kokna, .... Kol. 
Ugus, „ 



F. dimidiatus, Baffles. 
F. maritimus, Gmel. 



The ring-tailed sea eagle is found throughout 
the N. of India, along the Ganges and Indus up 
to Kashmir. It lives on fish, tortoises, and snakes. 

H. leucogaster, Gmel., grey -backed sea eagle. 
Blagrus leucogaster, Blyth. 
Ichthysetus cultrungus, „ 
Falco blagrus, Daud. 

This sea eagle is found throughout India, in 
Burma, Malayana, and Australia, chiefly on the 
coast and near the mouths of rivers. It lives on 
sea-snakes, crabs, rats, and on fish which it picks 
up on the beach. 

H. leucocephalus is a bird of N. America and 
N.E. Asia. — Jerdon, Birds. 

HALIASTUR INDUS. Bodd. 
Falco Indus, Bodd. I Milvus ponticer., Jerd. 

Halijetusponticerian., »$>«/&. | M. rotundicaudus, Hodg. 
Sunker chil, . . Beng. Ru-mubarik, . . Hind. 
Dhobia chil, . . ,, Khemankari, . . Sansk. 

Garuda, Can. Ratta Ookab, . . Sind. 

Brahmany kite, . . Eng. Garudalawa, . . . Tel. 
Pis-gender, . . Gond. Shemberrid, . Yerkala. 
Bahmani chil, . Hind, i Garuda mantaru, ,, 

Europeans have given the name of the Brah- 
many kite to the Haliastur Indus, probably from ob- 
serving the feelings of the Hindus regarding it, who 
revere it as Garuda, the eagle vahan of Vishnu, and 
believe that when two armies are about to engage, 
its appearance prognosticates victory to the party 
over whom it hovers. The Brahmany kite is very 
useful in the populous seaport towns of India, in 
removing carrion and refuse, and is never killed. 
Major Moor mentions as an instance of this bird's 
boldness, of which he was a witness, viz. its 
stooping and taking a chop off a girdiron standing 
over the fire that cooked it. The religious Hindu 
feeds these birds on holidays, by flinging up little 
portions of flesh, to which they are attracted by 
the call Hari ! Hari ! meaning Vishnu, Vishnu. 



8 



HAUCACABUM. 



HAMAMKLIDK.K. 



I( ii found throughout all India. In Bengal, the 
kites and Brahman; kites breed chiefly in January 
and February, and disappear during the rains. 

HALICACABUM of Pliny, Biippoaed to have 
been Phyealu Bomnifera, var. Hexuoaa. 

II A I. M 'ORE DUGONG. Cuv. 



H. Indicus, Owen, 

Dugungus Indicus, Ham. 



Triohaohaa dugong, Omel 

Halicore cetaoon, III. 

H. Indica, Dtttn, 

Indian dugong, . . ENO. Duyung, . . . Malay. 

Dugong I-ainiintin, ,, Talla-maha, . . SlNUH. 

Le dugong des Indes, Fa. 

The dugong is an inhabitant of the narrow seas 
of the Eastern Archipelago; and Professor Owen 
denominated it Halicore Indicus, in distinction 
from tliat of the northern coast of Australia, at a 
time whin the former had not been ascertained 
to frequent (as a dugong of some kind is now 
known to do) the Malabar coast and Gulf of Cal- 
pentyn in Ceylon. It inhabits the shallows of 
the Indian Ocean and about Ceylon, where the 
water is not more than 2 or 3 fathoms deep. It 
does not appear to frequent the land or the fresh 
water. Its flesh is delicate. The dugong was 
noticed as occurring in Ceylon by the early Arab 
sailors, by Megasthenes (Fragm. fix.) and jElian, 
and subsequently by the Portuguese. It is this 
creature which gave rise to the tales about mer- 
maids, which have till the present day occupied 
the world, and doubtless had their origin in the 
tales of the Arab sailors. They are phytophagous, 
or plant-eaters. The species named by authors 
are — 

H. Indicus, Owen, the Malay dugong, an 
inhabitant of the narrow seas of the Eastern 
Archipelago. 

H. tabernaculi, Ruppell, the dugong of the 
coral banks of the Red Sea, has a feeble voice, 
and feeds on algae. It is about ten feet long. In 
February and March bloody battles occur between 
the males. Its flesh, teeth, and skin are utilized. 
Their skins, called tun, are used for sandals. 

H. Australis, the manate of Dampier, and white- 
tailed manate of Pennant, is a native of the west 
coast of Australia. 

H. Indicus, F. Cuvier, 
Trichechus dugong, Erx- 

leben. 
Halicore cetacea, Uleger. 
Halicore dugong, Cuvier 

apud Baffles. 
Dugong of Buffon. 
Dugong, . . . Malay. 

Under these synonyms Dr. Theodore Cantor 
unites all the above, which he says inhabits the 
Red Sea, the seas of the Malay Peninsula, Singa- 
pore, Sumatra, the Philippine Islands, Moluccas, 
Sunda Islands, and New Holland. — Eng. Cyc. ; 
Bh/th in. B. As. Soc. Journ. ; Tennanfs Ceylon ; 
Cantor in B. As. Soc. Jour., No. clxxii. of 1846. 

HALIFAX, Lord, better known as Sir Charles 
Wood, Secretary of State for India in the middle 
of the 19th century, and during the time of the 
revolt and mutiny. During his tenure of office, 
in 1854, the plan of educating the people of India 
was promulgated. 

HALIOTIDiE, a family of recent and fossil 
shells, belonging to the class Gasteropoda, of the 
mollusca. The genera include the haliotis, ear- 
shell, sea-ears ; deridobranchus ; stomatia ; scis- 
suiclla ; ianthina, violet snail. One species, the 
haliotis or sea- ear mollusc or ear-shell, is largely 



Halicore tabernaculum, 

Ruppell. 
Dugungus marinus, 

Tiedemann apud Schinz. 
H. Hemprichii, Ehrenb. 
Parampuan laut, Malay. 



food by the people on the OQad of Man- 
churia. They arc also dried and exported lo 

China, and sell at 300 for a dollar. — Adams. 

Haliotis funebria, ( 'umming and ileeve. 
II. iris, Auctorum. 
Shih-kiueh-ming, . Chin. | Fu-yu kiah, . . Chin. 

This mollusc ib found on the coasts of Slian- 
tung, Foh-kien, and Kwang-tung ; they are 4 or 
5 inches long, and are smooth and iridescent on 
their inner surface ; the pearly interior is levigated, 
and applied to opacities of the cornea. Shells 
with 7 or 9 foramina are most prized. — Smith. 

HALLI. Karn. A small village or hamlet ; 
written Hully, and added frequently to other 
names, as Harpan-hully. It is the Telugu Palli. 

HALLIKAR, also Hal-wakkal, a tribe of the 
agricultural Sudra in Mysore. — Wilton. 

HALWA, a hill race in Bustar, Bandara, and 
Raipur, who wear the sacred thread, which privi- 
lege those in Bustar purchase from the raja. 

HALWA. Hind. A kind of sweetmeat, 
specially that made of honey and camel's milk, 
and brought from the Persian Gulf, via Bombay, 
in saucers. Halwai is a sweetmeat seller. Halwa- 
rang means colour of sweetmeat, pale drab, first 
dyed with naspal, pomegranate rind, then with 
catechu. 

HALWAHA. Hind. In Oudh, a predial 
slave, employed as a ploughman. See Hal. 

HAM A DAN, a town of Persia, in the province 
of Irak-i-Ajam, 180 miles S.W. of Teheran. It 
is the ancient Ecbatana. It is said to have been 
founded by Jamshid, a king of the Peshdadian 
dynasty. The population is about 50,000 souls. 
It has a delightful neighbourhood, many beautiful 
bazars. The mountain streams contain gold. 
In the centre of the town is the tomb of Ali Ben 
Sina (Avicenna) ; and not far from it are those 
of Esther and Mordecai, which are revered by the 
Jews, and kept in repair. An inscription on the 
tombs is that, on Thursday, the 15th of the 
month Adar, the building of this temple over 
the tombs of Mordecai and Esther was finished 
by the hands of the two benevolent brothers, 
Elias and Samuel, sons of the late Ismail Kachan. 
The town people make felt carpets largely.— 
Kinneir; Menteith ; Morier; Rich; MacGregor, 
iv. p. 172 ; Ferrier, Journ. p. 35 ; J. B. Eraser, 
p. 221 ; Porter's Travels, ii. p. 91. 

HAMAL, or Haml. Arab. lit he carried. 
Hamilab, a pregnant woman. Hamal, a porter, a 
bearer of a palanquin or tonjons. They carry it 
by means of the pole on their shoulders, the first 
man on the right shoulder, the second on the left, 
and so on, thus always keeping the pole steady. — 
Frere, Antipodes, p. 197. 

HAMAM DASTAH. Hind. A mortar ; from 
the Persian Hawan. See Hawang-dastah. 

HAMAMELTDEJE, witch hazels, a very small 
group of woody exogenous plants of N. America, 
Japan, China, the central parts of Madagascar, S. 
Africa, the Khassya mountains, and Upper Assam. 
Some of the species are large forest trees, afford- 
ing good timber. Bucklandia populnea tree is 
found from Cherrapunji to Surureem. Altingia 
excelsa, Noronha, is a large tree of Assam and 
Burma ; the Liquidamber cerasifolia, Griff., occurs 
in the Malay Peninsula; and L. orientate, MiiUer, 
is the storax tree of Asia Minor. Hamamelis 
Chinensis is of China and the Jaintia Hills. — 
Hooker, Him. Jour. ii. p. 318 ; Gamhier. 






HAMD-ALLAH. 



HAMPI. 



HAMD-ALLAH. Arab. An abbreviation of 
the ejaculation Al-hamd-ul-illah ! The praise be to 
God. It is as commonly used by Mahomedans as 
the Thank God ! of the English. 

HAMILTON, CHARLES, Author of a 
Historical Account of the Rohilla Afghans, 
London, 1787. 

HAMILTON, De. FRANCIS, formerly Buch- 
anan, a Bengal medical officer, who published 
papers in the Linnsean Society's Transactions, 
author of a Journey through Mysore ; An 
Account of Nepaul ; Account of the Fishes 
found in the river Ganges and its Branches, with 
a volume of plates. He was the first after Rheede 
to explore the botany of Malabar. 

HAMILTON, Captain, visited Cambay in 
a.d. 1681, and gave an account of its quartzose 

iTnnPT*3ls 

HAMILTON, "WALTER, author of a Geo- 
graphical, Statistical, and Historical Description 
of Hindustan and the Adjacent Countries, 1820. 

HAMILTON, WILLIAM, surgeon to the em- 
bassy sent from Calcutta under John Surman and 
Edward Stephenson, which reached Dehli on the 
8th July 1715. He was successful in his treat- 
ment of the emperor Ferokhsir, who on recovery 
married the daughter of Jye Singh (Ajit Singh). 
Hamilton died 4th December 1717, and his 
epitaph is of historical interest : — 

' His Memory ought to be dear to Ms Nation, 

for the Credit he gained the English 

in Curing Ferrukseer, 

the present King of Hindustan, 

of a Malignant Distemper, 

by which he made his own name famous 

at the Court of that Great Monarch ; 

and without doubt will perpetuate his Memory 

as well in Great Britain as all other 

Nations in Europe.' 

— Orme, ii. p. 20 ; Hough, p. 4. 

HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS. Roxb. 

Niggi, Tulenni, . Ravi. 
Phul, Golunla of . „ 
Pudari of . . . Sutlej. 

A common shrub in the'Panjab Himalaya, up 
to near the Indus, at from 2500 to 6000 feet. 
Its wood is very small ; but in Chamba it is said to 
be used for making gunpowder charcoal. — Dr. 
Steicart ; Roxb. i. 554. 

HAMIR. The Balla race were of sufficient 
consequence in the thirteenth century to make 
incursions on Mewar, but the first exploit of the 
celebrated rana Hamir was his killing the Balla 
chieftain of Choteela. 

HAMIRA. There were four distinguished 
leaders of this name amongst the vassals of the 
last Rajput emperor of Dehli ; one of them, who 
turned traitor, and joined Shahab-ud-Din, was a 
Scythian of the Ghiker race, which maintained 
their ancient habits of polyandrism even in 
Baber's time. The Haoli Rao Hamira was lord 
of Kangra and the Ghikers of Pamir. — Tod's 
Rajasthan, i. 560. 

HAMIRPUR, a district in the N.W. Pro- 
vinces of India, lying between lat. 25° 5' and 26° 
10' N. and long. 79° 22' 45" and 80° 25' 15" E. 
Area, 2289 square miles. It encloses the Native 
States of Sarila, Jigni, and Banda. There are 62 
clans of Rajputs, and the Pariahar, Chauhan, and 
Bais have been specially guilty of infanticide. 
The Chandel and Bundela, the old dominant 
classes, now sunk to 548 and 612 respectively, 



Kanera, Pudari of Beas. 
Muskei, Kantalu,CHENAB. 
Fisanniof. . . ,, 



Martillo, Ii 

Martillo, .... Si 
Chekij, . . . Turk 



mostly still cling to the neighbourhood of Mahobs 
the seat of their former supremacy. The Bai 
are far the most numerous of the Rajput classe 
in the district. Among the Sudras the mos 
numerous are the Lodhi, the Chamar, and th 
Kori. The Mahomedans are the descendants c 
converted Hindus, who were originally Thakurs 
— Imp. Gaz. 

HAMITE. Mr. Logan says (J. E. Ar., Ma 
to June, 1854) the earliest Hebrew ethnograph 
indicates that the Semitic region was joint! 
occupied by Shemites and Hamites. Fou 
branches of the Hamites are enumerated, vis 
(1) the Cushites, embracing the tribes of Sheba 
Havilah, Raamah, etc., in Southern Arabia ; (2) th 
Ethiopan and Euphratan tribes of Nimrodians. 

HAMMA-i-JOUR, literally 'joining of hands, 
a Parsee ceremony practised in Pappati, simila 
to the English greeting of a ' Happy New Year.'- 
Parsees, p. 61. 

HAMMAM. Arab. A bath. Hammam lena 
to take a bath. Public baths, usual in Turkey 
Egypt, Persia, and Kabul, are unknown in India 
In the middle of the 19th century there were i 
hundred of them in Cairo alone. — Lane, ii. 43. 

HAMMER. 
Chakuj ; Matripat, Arab. 

Marteau Fr. 

Hathora, . . . Hind. 

The native sledge-hammer of Bombay is em 
ployed in breaking trap, granite, limestone, am 
other rocks. Its handle is generally of mal 
bamboo, about two feet long. Its head is somethinj 
like that of an ill-shapen axe, — thick all along 
It weighs about 18 lbs. In the face or strikin] 
portion is a bluntish wedge of steel, fastened ii 
with a piece of leather. With this the nativ 
quarryman will break up the most obdurate tra] 
into slabs or blocks of almost any size or form 
from a pavement flag 3 inches thick and 2 fee 
square, to a block 2 feet cube. He looks nar 
rowly at the grain of the stone, and then with i 
series of blows, of no great force, apparently, th 
stone falls in pieces, seemingly without effort 
Similar varieties of this, of exactly the sam 
pattern, are used as hand hammers ; they an 
called Sootki. The blasting, or rather the boring 
tool, or jumper, is a plain round rod of iron, abou 
three feet long, pointed at both ends with steel 
No hammer is ever employed in boring. Thi 
jumper is raised and struck in with both hands 
and a man will penetrate some inch or two in ai 
hour. The native punch is a short, dumpy, lancet 
pointed tool; it is sharpened by being turne( 
point up, and struck with a piece of flint. Whei 
used in stone-dressing, it is held in the left hand 
and struck with a hollow-faced iron hammer 
the cavity being about an inch in depth and as 
much in diameter. — Dr. Buist, Bombay Times. 

HAMPI, a ruined city, in lat. 15° 19' 50" N. 
long. 76° 30' 10" E., on the S. bank of th< 
Tumbudra, 36 miles N.W. of Bellary. It is th< 
site of an ancient capital of the Vijayanagar kings 
The ruins cover nine square miles, including 
Kamlapur on the south, and Anagundi, a latei 
seat of the dynasty. Hampi was founded, on the 
fall of the Ballala dynasty, about 1336 a.d., bj 
two brothers, Bukka and Harihara, whose descend- 
ants flourished here till the battle of Talikot, 
1565 a.d., and afterwards at Anagundi, Vellore, 
and Chandragiri for another century, until finally 



10 



HAMPSAGUR. 

Overwhelmed by the advancing powers of Beder, 
Ahmadna ggur, Bijapur, and Golconda. The 
¥ijayanagar rajas extended and beautified Hampi 
with many palaces and temples. — Imp. Gaz. 

HAMPSAGUR, lat. 15° 9' N., long. 76° 4' E., 
mi the rfgh< bank of the Tumbudra. The level 
of the Tumbudra in here 1647 feet above the sea. . 

HAMS. 



n, . . . Dot. 

.Illiniums, Ya. 

Schinken, . . . GEE. 
Prosciutti, . . . . It. 



Prosuntas, . . . PoKT. 
Okoroku, . . . Rus. 
Jamones, .... Sp. 
But, Tube. 



They are largely imported into India for the 
use of Europeans. Many Mahomedan shopkeepers 
will not fven sell them. 

II A MSA, the god of the Druse race. 

1 1 A \1 S A Y A. Hind. A neighbour, dependant, 

1IAMUN, a name for the lake of Seistan, 
H.i miii n is an Okl Persian word signifying expanse. 
— Ferrier, Journ. p. 429. See Ab-Istadah. 

11AMZA, uncle of Mahomed, slain by Wahsha, 
a negro slave. See Masailma-el-Aswad. 

HAN, the 5th dynasty of China, began B.C. 206, 
and lasted to a.d. 264. Most of the Han princes 
were munificent patrons of literature. During 
the reign of Ming-ti, the 15th of the Han dynasty, 
considerable intercourse was carried on between 
the princes of India and China. This had obtained 
from the earliest period, but particularly during 
the dynasties of Sum, Learn, and Tam, from the 
fourth to the seventh centuries, when the princes 
from Bengal, Malabar, and the Punjab sent 
embassies to the Chinese monarchs. The Han 
dynasty of China reformed the Chinese calendar. 

HANAFIYAH, a large vessel of copper, some- 
times tinned, with a stopcock in the lower part, 
and generally with a ewer, or a basin, to receive 
the water. — Burton's Mecca, ii. 43. 

HANBALI, a commentary of the Koran. The 
commentator was born at Baghdad a.h. 164, and 
died there A.H. 241, nearly 70 years old. 

HAND. 



Yadd, 
Main, 
Hat'h, 
Mano, 



Arab. 
. Fr. 
Hind. 
It. Sp. 



Manus, 
Dast, . 
Kai, . 



. . Lat. 
. . Pebs. 
Tam., Tel. 



The figure of the hand, amongst all nations, is 
utilized as an emblem. 

The hand is an emblem for V., with the three 
central fingers folded in ; and by placing the 
symbol below, the cardinal X. is produced. In 
India, amongst Mahomedans and Hindus, the 
right hand is more honoured than the left; in 
China the left hand is more honourable than the 
right ; in Siam the right more than the left. 

In British India, a person to whom you make a 
present, a servant to whom you do a kindness, 
will rush to your hand and press it to his lips. 
To seize a man's hand is to crave his protection, 
to profess yourself his servant ; hence the act is 
one of obedience and devotion, almost of servility. 
The person advancing to seize the hand always 
does so in a stooping posture, in an attitude of 
humility. The giving the hand amongst all 
nations (Prov. xi. 21) has been considered as a 
pledge for the performance or ratification of some 
act of importance, and it was the custom amongst 
the Scythic or Tartar nations of transmitting its 
impress as a substitute ; the hand being immersed 
in a compost of sandal-wood, is applied to the 



HAND-MILL 

paper, and the palm and five fingers (panja) is 
the signature. In Carne's letters from the East 
is given an anecdote of Mahomed, who, as 
erroneously supposed, unable to sign his name to 
a convention, dipped his hand in ink, and made 
an impression therewith, but Mahomed only fol- 
lowed an ancient solemnity, or custom, for all 
Mahomedans occasionally stamped or sealed 
their epistolary communications with the print of 
their hand. Hyder Ali often did it. It was 
considered a solemn form of signature. The 

Smja, or palm and five digit form hand, of the 
ahomedans, is used at the Maharram in erect 
Panjah flags or Alain, in the name of Husain and 
other martyrs. — 7W« Rajasthan, i. p. 368: 

HANDI. Hind. A cooking-pot or kettle 
made of pottery, of the same shape as a deghcha, 
which is of brass. 

HANDKERCHIEF. 
Mouchoir, . . . Fb. 
Tuch, Schnupftuch, Geb. 
Kmnal, .... Hind. 



Fuzzoletto, 
Panullo, . 
Mendil, Mahrama, 



It. 

Sp. 

Tube. 



Handkerchief pieces form a considerable article 
of manufacture and traffic in Southern India. 
Handkerchiefs, coloured, from Madras, red from 
Sydapet and Ventapollem, are much admired 
for the harmony and richness of the colours, and 
the superiority of texture. Nellore pocket-hand- 
kerchiefs of jean deserve unqualified approbation. 
The silk handkerchiefs manufactured in Bengal 
are known in the market as Bandana, Kora, 
and Chapa. They are generally figured, and of 
different colours. They are exported chiefly to 
the Burmese territories, and sold at from 1£ to 5 
rupees each. The coloured cotton handkerchiefs 
manufactured at Ventapollem, on the east coast, 
are well known in foreign markets, were formerly 
highly prized for their superior qualities and 
colours, but they have been driven from the 
markets by the Madras and Pulicat manufactures, 
which the community prefer for their superior 
qualities and colours. Madras handkerchiefs of 
superior kinds are sold at If rupee each, and 
inferior sorts at 4 annas to 12 annas ; the colour of 
the last description is very perishable. The ordi- 
nary colour of the Madras handkerchiefs is red, 
and Mahomedans and Hindus prefer them to those 
of other countries. The principal site of the manu- 
facture of silk handkerchiefs for the head is Sering- 
apatam in Mysore ; they are of superior quality, 
and of red and pink colours ; they are in squares 
of 6 cubits, and are, in consequence of their gold 
lace ;borders, sold at 35 to 100 rupees each. — 
Mad. Ex. J. Rep. 

HAND-MILL. 

Meula, .... Fb. I Mola, . ' It. 

Chakki, .... Hind. | 

The grinding at the hand-mill is noticed in 
Exodus xi. 5, Isaiah xlvii. 2, and Matthew xxiv. 
41. It is the quern of the GaeL In all tin- 
south of Asia, in small families, the labour of 
one person suffices to grind enough for the 
day's consumption ; but where the inmates are 
more numerous, two people sit on the ground 
with the hand-mill between them. A single 

ferson, to cause the upper stone to revolve, 
as to pull it towards and to push it from her ; 
but when two are working, each pulls towards her 
side. The Old and New Testament* notice the 
process, but it is well described in the 47th chap- 
ter of Isaiah. It is a heavy task, but they lighten 



11 



HAND-PLANT. 



HAN-LIN-YUEN. 



it by their labour-songs, and they work from the 
earliest morning hours, 2 or 8 a.m. 

HAND-PLANT, Cheirostemon platanoides, 
H. B. K., venerated by the ancient Mexicans, 
from the singular resemblance to a clawed hand 
presented by the curved stamens of the flower. 

HANDRO. Hind. ? A tree of Chutia Nagpur, 
with hard, red timber. — Cal. Cat. Ex. 1862. 

HANGI. Hind. A large horse-hair sieve, used 
by silk-dyers. 

HANGRANG PASS, lat. 31° 47' 7", long. 78° 
30' 6, in Kanawar, W. of the Sutlej, leads over to 
Spiti. The top of the pass is 14,530 feet above 
the sea, according to the G. T. S. 

HANG TUAH, a celebrated champion of 
Java, called the Laksamana. He must not be 
confounded with the Laksamana of the Portuguese 
writers, as the latter lived several generations 
after the first, who accompanied king Mansur to 
Majapahit. 

HANIA. Ar\b. An Arabic salutation, mean- 
ing, May it be good to you. 

HANIF, an expression employed in the Koran 
by Mahomed, to signify that he followed the pure 
and catholic faith of Abraham. One Mahomedan 
theological sect is called Hanifi. The Hanifi 
theology chiefly holds by the religion of Abraham. 

HANIFAH, a commentator of the Koran, was 
born at Kufa A.H. 80, and died at Baghdad, in 
prison, A.H. 150, nearly 70 years old. 

HAN JIN and Tan Jin, men of Han or of 
Tang, from the dynasties of those names. 

HANKA, also Ankus. Hind. The elephant- 
driver's spear-goad. 

HAN-KOW, Chin., means mouth or port of the 
Han. See Yang-tze-kiang. 

HANLE TSO, a fresh-water lake in Ladakh, in 
lat. 32° 48' N., long. 78° 54' E., at the monastery 
of Hanle, 14,600 feet above the sea. This is the 
largest sheet of fresh water in Ladakh. — Cunning- 
ham's Ladakh, p. 142 ; Schlagentweit. 

HAN-LIN- YUEN, the Imperial Academy of 
China, founded by Kablai Khan. For 600 years 
the small body of Han-lin scholars have held 
their sessions undisturbed by dynastic revolutions 
or political outbreaks. No learned society in the 
world can compete with it in age or in its intense 
exclusiveness. The examinations being open to 
all, and forming as they do the only recognised 
channel to official rank, every man in the empire 
who aspires to end his days as something more 
than a plebeian, enters the lists. At the first com- 
petition, which consists of five sessions separated 
by intervals of a few days each, and which is held 
annually in the chief city of each district, about 
2000 candidates generally present themselves. 
Out of this number from 20 to 80 of the best 
are chosen, and on these are conferred the degree 
of Siu-ts'ai, or 'budding genius.' Every third 
year the budding geniuses from every district in 
each province — and there may be 70 or 80 — go 
to the provincial capital to appear before an im- 
perial examiner as candidates for the next degree 
of Ku jin, or 'promoted scholars.' On this 
occasion 5000 or 6000 competitors contest the 
honour of being the one in each 100 who, as the 
ripest scholar, is admitted to the further degree 
of Ku jin. In company with all those who have 
won similar honours in the capital of the 18 pro- 
vinces of the empire, the successful Ku jin goes, 
in the succeeding spring, to Pekin, where, if 



fortune attend him, he wins the distinction i 
becoming a Tsin shi, or 'one ready for offic< 
In agreement with this descriptive title, the ne 
Tsin shi may, if they please, ballot for the vacai 
junior mandarinates, for which they have no 
shown themselves qualified, and from which th( 
may rise by their own exertions to seats in tl 
Grand Council of State, or to places in the in 
perial cabinet. But, if desirous of still furthi 
distinguishing themselves as scholars, and < 
obtaining the honour of places in the Imperii 
Academy, the 200 or 300 survivors of so mar 
contests present themselves at the palace, whei 
they are examined by the emperor in perso: 
Out of this number about 20 are chosen whoi 
scholarship is the ripest, whose penmanship is tl 
best, and whose literary style is the most perfec 
and to these are given seats among the Immorta 
of the Han-lin. On one only of these 20, chose 
out of the 300 million inhabitants of the empir 
la crime de la crime, is conferred the signal tit 
of Chwang-yuen, or model scholar of the empir 
Once in three years is this degree granted ; and i 
supreme is the prize, that provinces contend f( 
it, and the birthplace of the victor becomes famoi 
for ever. The instant that the imperial award 
given, heralds carry the news at express speed 1 
the friends of the laureate. We have, says D 
Martin, seen them enter a humble cottage, ant 
amid the flaunting of banners and the blare < 
trumpets, announce to its startled inmates thi 
one of their relations had been crowned by tl 
emperor as laureate of the year. And so hig 
was the estimation in which the people held tl 
success of their fellow-townsman, that his wil 
was requested to visit the six gates of the cit; 
and to scatter before each a handful of rice, thi 
the whole population might share in the goo 
fortune of her household. 

Members of the Han-lin are appointed tl 
official poets and historians of the reigning dynast; 
and every imperial compilation undertaken is tl 
work of these men. It was they who edited tl 
famous dictionary of the language which added 
lustre to the reign of K'ang-he (1661-1721), an 
who, at the bidding of the Emperor K'een-lun 
(1755-1795), compiled the celebrated encyck 
psedia in 5020 volumes, one of the few existing copi< 
of which is now in the library of the British Museun 
To act as examiners at the competitive examine 
tions, and as literary chancellors in the province 
form part also of their duties, as well as compos 
ing prayers for the use of the emperor on occs 
sions, writing inscriptions for the temples of varioi 
divinities, in acknowledgment of services, an 
choosing honorific titles for members of the in 
perial household. 

The holders of hereditary titles are so few, thi 
their existence cannot be said to impair the assei 
tion that the holders of official rank form th 
only aristocracy in China. Unlike the aristocrac 
of other lands, this charmed circle is, accordin 
to law, only to be entered by winning distinctio 
at the examinations; and as these are open t 
every man in the empire, of whatever age and c 
whatever station in life, except the very outcast! 
the highest prizes are as freely accessible to th 
peasant or shopman, as to the sons of the loftief 
dignitaries. China may thus be said to be 
democratic empire, tempered by an aristocrac 
of talent— Dr. W. A. P. Martin, The Chinese 



12 



HANNAMANTU'S PILLAR 



II AI'TA HINDI'. 



tueation and Letters; line, Chinese Empire, 
i. pp. 19, 95. 

HAN N A M A \ PIT'S PILLAR. About 50 feet 
w«st of the high road from Kurnool toGoofer, 604 
iiiilt-s from Kuroool town, stands this natural pillar of 
gneiss rook. There is scaroely Mich another in the 
world. Amongst a few smaller pillars of a similar 
kind, it towns 25 feel high, averaging 6 feet 
This average width is exceeded in the 
middle, and tapers off towards both ends; so that 
the top is I or 5 feet square, and the base about 
3 feet square. It is all solid, except that the 
upper 1 or 5 feet is separated from the rest of the 
pillar by a tine horizontal crack. The most strik- 
ing part of it is, that it does not Btand on its base 
fully, nor even upon half of it. A string 10 feet 
long will encircle the whole of the bearing points 
of the hate, which all lie within a space about 3 
feet long and 2 feet wide, in the form of a trun- 
cated right-angled triangle. This is a small base 
for a pillar weighing as much as a couple of loco- 
motive engines with their tenders complete. Yet 
even on this small base, if, as appears likely, the 
centre of gravity falls about the centre of the base, 
it will require a wind-pressure of 80 lbs. on the 
square foot to overturn the pillar. Years ago, 
some Hindu enthusiast painted a figure of the 
monkey god on this pillar. Recently some icono- 
clast has been removing the figure, by flaking off 
the stone in a very destructive way. — Traveller. 

HANNO, according to Pliny, a native of Car- 
thage. When that city was at the height of her 
prosperity, he circumnavigated the continent of 
Africa, sailing from Gades (Cadiz) to the extremity 
of the Arabian Gulf. He wrote all the details of 
his voyage in the Punic language. 

BANOMOREY, betle-box bearers of Oovah in 
Ceylon, a race or caste held to be more degraded 
than the Rodiya. — Tennunt. 

HAXSA or Hana8a. 

Cans, Ger. I Hanza, .... Pali. 

x«t», Gb. Ganso, .... Port. 

A user Lat. Ansar, .... Sp. 

Gangsa, . . . Malay. | 

A swan, a goose. AVhen the followers of the 
first crusade issued from England, France, and 
Flanders, they adored a goat and a goose, which 
they believed to be filled with the Holy Ghost. 
Salu, translated quails in Numbers xi. 31, are 
supposed to be red geese. Brahma is styled 
the Hansa rider, it being his vahan or vehicle. 
The figure on many Buddhist monuments is the 
Casarca rutila, or Brahmany goose. The goose is 
emblazoned on the national standard of Burma. 

II ANSI, a municipal town of Hissar district, 
Panjab, and headquarters of the Tahsil, lat. 29° 
6' 19" N., long. 76° 0' 19" E., population (1868) 
13,563. Dr. Hunter says it was founded, accord- 
ing to tradition, by Anang Pal Tuar, king of 
Dehli. Colonel Yule says it was founded by Raja 
rethora of Dehli. It was captured by Mahmud 
of Ghazni, a.d. 1035. The well within the lower 
fort, or fausse braye, is 120 feet deep. In the 
centre of the upper fort is a cistern capable of 
containing 184,000 gallons. It was the capital of 
George Thomas, who raised himself from being a 
sailor before the mast to be ruler of a small Indian 
prim 'ipality. — Yule, Cathay, ii. p. 406; Imp. Gaz. 

HANSRAJ. Hind. Adiantum caudatum, A. 
capillus veneris, A. venustum, the pari-soosa or 
mu-i-paii. fairy-hair ferns, the leaves of which are 



deemed by the natives of India heating and febri- 
fuge. — Gen. Med. Tup. p. 127. 

HANTU. Malay. A spirit, a ghost 

IIANUMAN, a Hindu deity. From Hanu, the 
cheek, Hanuman means long jaw. His figure is 
that of a man with a black monkey face and a 
long tail. Hanuman or Hanumat, in Hindu mytho- 
logy, is son of Pavana, the wind, by Anjana, wife 
of a monkey named Kesari, called also Laoka-dahi, 
also Yoga-chara, Marut-putra; and he has the 
patronymics Anili, Maruti, and the matronymic 
Anjaneya. His images are set up in temples, some- 
times alone, and sometimes in the society of the 
former companions of his glory, Rama and Sita. 
He is supplicated by Hindus on their birthdays to 
obtain longevity, which he is supposed to have the 
power to bestow. As the god of enterprise, offer- 
ings are made at his shrine by night. Hanuman is 
said to be a son of Siva. He is fabled to be the 
son of the wind, and is called Maruti, from Pavana 
being chief of the Marut, or genii of the winds. 
He is also called Muhabar. As the monkey- 
general who assisted Rama in his war with 
Havana, he is regarded and worshipped as a demi- 
god. Both Hanuman ji and Boosundi are said to 
have their lives protracted through the four yuga 
of Hindu chronology. Boosund was a crow who 
had more blood than he could drink in the wars 
of Sambhu and Nesambhu. He just quenched 
his thirst with blood in the wars of Rama. But 
in the wars of the Mahabharat he broke his beak 
by striking it against the hard dry earth, which 
had soaked in the little blood shed on the occasion. 
In 1868, Bala, potail of Assaye, who was five 
years old when Sir Arthur Wellesley fought the 
battle, was the pujari of the temple in which the 
editor put up. Bala daily walked in and poured 
water on the lingam (Abishegam), also on Hanu- 
man and on the bull (Basava) ; then put rice on all 
these, then walked around five times, then put rice 
on the tulsi, and the worship concluded. — Tr. 
Hind. ii. p. 207 ; Col. Myth. p. 59 ; Dowson. 

HANUMAN, the Bengal langur, Presbytes 
entellus of Bengal and Central India. The males 
live apart from the females, whom they visit at 
seasons. See Presbytes. 

HANUMAN NATAKA, a long drama on the 
adventures of Hanuman, by various hands, com- 
pleted by Damodara Misra, by request of King 
Bhoja, in the 10th or 11th century. 

HANXLEDEN and Paulinus a Sancto Barto- 
lomeo whose real name was Philipp Wesdin, in 
1790 published the first Sanskrit grammar. 

HAOU ? TSING ! TSING ! The Chinese 
salutation on meeting, meaning literally, Are you 
well ? hail ! hail ! See Chin. 

HAPTA HINDU, of the Vendidad, is the 
modern Panjab, the Hapta Sin or Hapta Hin. Of 
the seven rivers, called in the Vedas the Sapta 
Sindhava. These consist of the Sindhu or Indus, 
with its six eastern confluents, viz. : 
Vitasta or Hydaspes. Vipas or Hyphasig. 

Asikni or Ascesenes. Satadru or Hesydru». 

Parushni or Hydraote«. Kubha or Kophcn. 

In the journeying of the Aryan race, their 
fourteenth settlement was in Hapta Hindu (Pan- 
iab, vi. 19), the land of the seven Him la, that 
is, the country between the Indus and Sutlej. In 
the Vedas, the country of the five rivers is also 
called the land of the seven rivers. The tradi- 
tional Greek names also are seven. The Iudus 



13 



HAQ. 



HARA KIM. 



and the Sutlej are each formed by the junction 
of two arms, which in their earlier course were 
independent. According to this view, it stands 
thus : — 

1. Kophen (Kubha), . .) j j d 

2. Indus, Upper, . . .) 

3. Hydaapes (Bidaspes), . II. Hydaspes. 

4. Akesines (Asikni), . . III. Akesines. 

5. Hyarotis (Hydraotis, \ Iy H draote8 . 

Iravati-Parusm), . .) * 

6. Hyphasis (Vipasa), . . ) 

7. Saranges (Upper Sata- V V. Hyphasis. 

dru, Sutlej, Ghara), . ) 

Ritter supposes that the country extended as 
far as the Sarasvati, but such a supposition is at 
variance with history. It is now ascertained from 
the Vedas that the Aryans passed the Sutlej at a 
very late period, and settled in what is now India. 
It was not till their fourteenth settlement, after 
the migration from the primitive country in the 
north, that they passed the Hindu Kush and the 
Indus. The previous resting-places form an un- 
broken chain of the primitive abodes of the 
Aryans. — Bunsen, iii. 465, 487. See Aryans. 

HAQ. Arab. Right, truth ; also an attribute 
of the deity, Al Haq, the true God, a word in 
frequent combination. Haq also means any right 
or due to which a person is entitled. Haq-dar, a 
person entitled to any right. See Sufi. 

HAR. Hind. A necklace; a necklace of honour. 

HAR, the Rajput god of war, is Kumara. In 
the Hindu mythology he is represented with 
seven heads ; the Saxon god of war had six. The 
six-headed Mars of the Cimbri Chersonese, to 
whom was raised the Irmanseul on the Weser, 
was worshipped by the Sacasense, the Catti, the 
Siebi or Suevi, the Jetae or Gete, and the Cimbri, 
evincing in name, as in religious rites, a common 
origin with the martial warriors of Hindustan. 
The Rajput delights in blood ; his offerings to the 
god of battle are sanguinary, — blood and wine. 
The cup (cupra) of libation is the human skull, 
the calvarium. He loves them because they are 
emblematic of the deity he worships; and he is 
taught to believe that Har loves them, who in 
war is represented with the skull to drink the 
foeman's blood, and in peace is the patron of 
wine and women. With Parvati on his knee, his 
eyes rolling from the juice of the p'fool and 
opium, such is this Bacchanalian divinity of war, 
who is a perfect analogue of the manners of the 
Scandinavian heroes. The Rajput slays buffaloes, 
hunts and eats the boar and deer, and shoots 
ducks and wildfowl (cookru) ; he worships his 
horse, his sword, and the sun, and attends more 
to the martial song of the bard than to the litany 
of the Brahman. In the martial mythology and 
warlike poetry of the Scandinavians, a wide field 
exists for assimilation ; and a comparison of the 
poetical remains of the Asi of the East and West 
would alone suffice to suggest a common origin. 
The cupra of Har, a human skull, the calvarium, in 
the dialects pronounced cupar, is the cup in Saxon. 
The cup of the Scandinavian worshippers of Thor, 
the god of battle, was a human skull, that of the foe, 
in which they showed their thirst of blood ; and 
Har, the Hindu god of battle, leads his heroes in 
the ' red field of slaughter ' with the cupra in his 
hand, with which he gorges on the blood of the 
Blain. The Gosain are the peculiar priests of Har 
or Bal ; they seem all to indulge in intoxicating 
drugs, herbs, and drinks. — Tod's Rajasthan, i. 67. 



HAR, Terminalia chebula, and other thre< 
species, furnish all the discarded myrobalans o: 
old pharmacopoeias. The whole are much used ii 
dyeing. The myrobalan from Dehli and Harowti 
Hindustan and the Dekhan, are of four kinds 
namely, Gural harra, astringent and purgative 
used in mesalihs, given in medicine to children 
4 seers for 1 rupee ; Juwal harra, used in th< 
same way, 8 seers for 1 rupee ; Chaipel harra 
used only in dyeing, 10 seers for 1 rupee 
According to the size of the myrobalan, its valu< 
augments, so that a very large one may be wortl 
100 rupees or more, the natives believing that th< 
very large ones have the virtue of causing purg 
ing by being merely retained in the hands, and i 
esteemed to possess wonderful general deobstruen 
and purgative qualities, etc. etc., but is in reality 
worthless. — Genl. Med. Top. pp. 136, 153. 

HAR. Hind. A plough ; enters into the com 
position of many words. See Hal. 

HARA, a name of Siva or Mahadeo. 

HARA, a mountain range. See Hala. 

HARA, a branch of the Chauhan Rajputs 
who give their name to Haraoti, which include 
Kotah and Bundi. The Hara Rajputs have hel( 
Haraoti through all dynastic changes. Bundi i 
their capital, and they claim descent from thi 
family that ruled in Ajmir before the Mahomedai 
conquest in 1342. The Hara Rajput is above thi 
middle height, with graceful and well-proportione< 
limbs. He is wiry, upright, with a commanding 
presence ; with an air of pride and haught; 
superiority over all men, but devoted to thei 
chiefs. The face is well shaped ; nose and mout) 
finely cut ; eye small and long, bright and clear 
but not indicative of high intellect. The Han 
Rajput partakes freely of tobacco, spirits, anc 
opium, fish, and flesh of all kinds, except that o 
the cow or buffalo ; but thick and coarse cakes o 
flour form the chief food, with vegetables an< 
milk. This Hara branch of the Chauhan dynast; 
are descended from Anuraja, a son of Visaldeva 
or more properly of Manakya Rai (Tod, ii. p. 454) 
who in a.d. 695 founded Sambhur, hence his titl 
of Sambri Rao. In a.d. 1024 Anuraja too] 
possession of Asi or Hansi, in Hariana. Th 
Bundi branch of this family reckon from Ra 
Ratan, who built Ratanpur, the name of the chie 
town, in 1578 to 1821, in which year was Ran 
Sinh. The Kotah branch reckon from Madhi 
Sinh, son of Rao Ratan, in a.d. 1579, to Kiswa 
Sinh, Madhu Sinh, regent, in a.d. 1819.— 
Thomas' Priiisep, p. 249 ; Captain W. H. Beynon 
in vol. vii., People of India. 

HARA. Arab. A quarter of the city in Cairc 
Every quarter has its shaikh, called Shaikh-ul 
Hara. The whole city is also divided into eigh 
districts, over each of which there is a shaikh. 

HARAI is the most important of the hi] 
chiefships or zamindaris in the north of th 
Chindwara district. 

HARAKAT. Arab. Trouble, inconvenience 
Under British rule in India, Harakat na hui 
barakat hui, Trouble there has been none, bless 
ing hath there been. — Burton's Mecca, i. 11. 

HARA KIRI is from Hara, Japanese, the belly 
and Kiri, root form of Kiru, to cut ; a self-immola 
tion by disembowelling, a mode of self-executioi 
adopted in Japan. Practically, they make only i 
small wound in the belly, and in the act of s< 
doing a relative or other person, whom they hav 



U 



llAHAM. 



HARBURENNI. 



selected, cute off their head with a sweep of a sword. 
', when Taki Zenzaburo was permitted by 
the Mikado so to die, because be had ordered 
the Europeans to be fired upon at Kobe, he wore 
of ceremony and a zimbaori coat. He 
advanced to the high altar and prostrated himself j 
twice, with bis pupil on his left to act as the | 
kai.shaku or beheading friend. He was presented 
with the waki-zashi, short sword or dirk, 9£ 
long, which the victim raised to his head 
ami i .laced in front of himself. He then con- 
iloud, ' I, and I alone, unwarrantably gave 
tin older to fire on the foreigners at Kohe, and 
again as they tried to escape. For this crime 
1 disembowel myself, and 1 beg you who are 
present to do me the honour of witnessing the 
act." Bowing again, he let his clothes fall to the 
waist, tin n took the dagger, and, stabbing himself 
below the waist on the left side, he drew it slowly 
across to the right side, and, turning the dirk in 
the wound, he gave it a slight upward turn. He 
thin drew out the dirk, leant forward, and 
si niched out his neck. At that moment the 
kaishaku sprang to his feet, and with one blow 
severed the head from the body, made a low bow, 
wiped his sword, and retired. The stained dagger 
was then solemnly borne away as proof of the 
execution. The Samurai, or gentlemen of the mili- 
tary class, are trained from infancy to regard this 
self -execution as an honourable form of expiation. 
In some parts of Japan, as the victim criminal 
Stretches out his hand to take the wooden dagger, 
the kaishaku strikes off his head ; or a Daimio 
disembowels himself and cuts his own throat. — 
Mr. Mitford in Cornh. Mag., Nov. 1869 ; Oliphant, 
ii. 147 ; Manners and Customs of the Japanese, 193. 
HARAM. Arab. Sacred ; the most sacred 
place of a temple or a palace ; the seraglio of a 
great man. Harmain, the holy cities of Mecca 
and Medina. In Arabia, Egypt, and Turkey, the 
Haram or Harm means the female part of the 
family, and the word is used to avoid the inde- 
corum, in the eyes of a Mahomedan, of mention- 
ing his wives or daughters. It is likewise the 
name for that part of the house where the females 
dwell. Mahomedans are so scrupulous to avoid 
speaking personally of their female relations, that, 
when obliged to refer to them, they say, 'My 
house is sick,' or ' My house sends compliments 
to your house.' The haram in India means a 
purchased woman associating with her master. 
In Arabia, the haram woman would be a slave 
woman taken in war. — Rich's Kurdistan, i. p. 2. 

HARAM, in India, unlawful, forbidden ; 
whatever the Mahomedan law disallows ; unlawful 
food, such as pork, wine, mushrooms, etc., hence 
Harami and Hararazadah, a vicious, wicked man 
or beast. 

HARA - MUK or Gunga bul, Tib., means 
literally place of the Ganges, and is a sacred lake 
on the mountain of Haramuk, in Kashmir. It 
lies under the wildest and most lofty peaks of the 
mountain, is 1$ mile long and 200 or 300 yards 
wide, and is about 12,000 feet above the level of 
the sea. — Vigne. 

HARAN, the present Karra, a day's journey 
south of Odessa, to which Abraham went from 
Ur of the Chaldees. It is the capital of a Turkish 
pashalik, which extends in a north-west direction 
from the mouth of the Shat-ul-Arab to the rocks 
of Merdin, the Baghdad frontier towards Con 



sLantinoplc. In an east and west line it stretches 
from the confines of Persia to the banks of the 
Khabour, which separates it from the pashalik of 
Orfa, the Osrhoene of the Romans, and that part 
of Mesopotamia which contained the Haran of 
Abraham, and the famous Edessa of the crusades. 
— Hun* it, iii. 

HARA NO, a district in Eastern Baluchistan 
bordering on the Indus. It is one of the three 
eastern sections of Baluchistan. Harand and 
DajU, in Cutch Gandava, are inhabited by the 
Gurchani tribe of Rinds, and have the Muzari on 
their south. 

HARAQUAITA is the Arachosia of the classics, 
the country of the Rachos, with whom the immi- 
grant Aryans came in conflict, and who have been 
turned into the fearful Rakshasa of popular Hindu 
belief. According to General Ferrier, Arachosia. 
can be distinctly shown by the Greek measure- 
ments to have been at the ruins of Shahr-Zohak 
or Olan Robat, between Kilat-i-Ghilji and Mokoor. 
According to Ch. Bunsen, Haraquaita is south of 
Kabul, and is the Harauwati of the cuneiform 
inscriptions, and the Arachosia of the classics. 
It was the ninth settlement made by the Aryans 
(verse 13) in a country which they conquered, 
and it was here that they commenced to inter 
their dead, which the Zendavesta strictly pro- 
hibits, as being the greatest desecration of the 
sacred earth — an apostasy, therefore, from the true 
faith. The Arachotia mentioned on the coins of 
the Indo-Greek rulers was Kandahar. The Hara- 
quaita of the Zend language is the Saraswati of 
Sanskrit writers, the Greek Arachotos, and the 
Chinese Tsaukuta. — Bunsen, iii. 464 to 485 ; 
Ferrier's Journ. p. 323. 

HARAWAL. Turk. The advanced guard of 
an army ; the officer commanding it. 

HARB. Arab. Battle. Harbi, martial, valiant. 
In Mahomedan law, Dar-ul-Harb is a non- 
Mahomedan state, not subject to Mahomedan 
rule, and, although at peace, an incessant object 
of hostiUties. Dar-ul-Islam is a Mahomedan state. 
HARB, an Arab tribe who warred with 
Mahomed. Mahomed is fabled to have resusci- 
tated those killed in the war by the application of 
balsam of Mecca. 

HARBOURS. Captain Taylor gives a list of 
656 ports and harbours in British India, the chief 
of which are — Karachi in Sind ; on the west coast 
of India are Poshetra and Serai, in the Gulf of 
Cutch ; Chuch Bandar or Shalbet, on the south 
coast of Kattyawar, 30 miles east of Diu Head. 
It is formed by Shalbet Island. Bombay harbour 
is the best on the west coast. Jyghur and Vizia- 
drug is south of Bombay ; Karwar is the port of 
N. Canara. Cochin harbour is kept clear by its 
splendid backwater, which acts as a tidal reservoir. 
Kolachul, on the Travancore coast, has some out- 
lying rocks, and large ships can ride at anchor 
to leeward of them in still water. Tuticorin. in 
the Gulf of Manaar, is the port for all the large 
trade of Tinnevelly, but vessels have to lie 2$ 
miles from the shore. Chittagong harbour or 
port is 10 miles up the river Karnfuli. It is one of 
the best porta in India. TheHoogly, the Irawadi, 
and the Mouhnein rivers are much resorted to. 

HARBURENNI and other places in Ceylon 
have numerous rock inscriptions in the Pali 
language, from 104 B.c. to twelfth century, in the 
Lat to the modern Tamil character. Religion 

M 



HARDAUL-LALA. 



HARDWAR. 



mentioned is Buddhist, Sir Wilmot Horton says 
there are thousands of these inscriptions in 
Ceylon, and they exhibit the Deva Nagari in all 
its transitions. The inscriptions would appear to 
be much defaced, and little is yet made of them. 
— Vol. v. p. 554. 

HARDAUL-LALA, a chief of Bundelkhand, 
whose spirit, according to the natives of Northern 
India, visited the camp of Lord Hastings with 
cholera in consequence of the slaughter of cows 
in the grove where the chief's ashes were interred. 
Hardaur or Hardaul is the name given to the 
earth mounds on which a flag is placed, raised to 
avert epidemic disease from the villages of N. 
India. — Wilson. 

HARDEHA. Hind. A tribe of the Koclrhi. 
HARDINGE, Viscount, G.C.B., a general 
officer of the British army, who distinguished 
himself in the Peninsula under the Duke of 
Wellington. He took the office of Governor- 
General of India, 23d July 1844, and held it till 
the 12th January 1848. He endeavoured to 
preserve peace, but, after the death of the 
Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Sikh nation had 
been agitated, and anarchy followed. On the 
death of Kurruck Singh, the Sikh army freed 
themselves from all control, and 50,000 men in- 
vaded British territory, and they began to cross 
the Sutlej on the 11th December 1845. Lord 
Hardinge had left Calcutta on the 22d September, 
and placed himself under the orders of Sir Hugh 
Gough ; and on the British Indian army arriving 
at Moodkee on the 18th December, they found 
the enemy advancing in order of battle, and the 
battle that ensued lasted from three in the after- 
noon until nightfall. The Sikh army lost seventeen 
guns and several thousand men. In this battle 
Sir Robert Sale fell. The Sikhs retreated to 
Firoz Shahar, where for three days they were 
throwing up entrenchments around their camp. 
On the 21st December Sir Hugh Gough attacked 
their entrenchments, and the British army and 
its generals bivouacked on the field, exposed 
throughout the night to the fire of the enemy. 
The battle was renewed next day, and terminated 
in the success of the British, the camp being 
taken, after a long and bloody conflict. Prince 
Vladimir of Prussia was present in this engage- 
ment, and his physician, Dr. Hoffmeister, was 
killed. 

The Sikh army retired to the right bank of the 
Sutlej opposite Lodhiana, which Major-General 
Sir Harry Smith was sent to protect ; and in the 
subsequent movements the Sikh army opposed 
him at Aliwal on the 28th January 1846, but 
were defeated with great loss, and the left bank 
was cleared. Sir Harry Smith rejoined the 
commander-in-chief, and on the 10th February 
1846 the battle of Sobraon was fought and won, 
but with great loss on the part of the British, — 
thirteen officers were killed and above one 
hundred wounded. A treaty was signed, trans- 
ferring all the country between the Sutlej and 
Beas, and afterwards modified to the Beas and 
Indus. Raja Dhulip Singh was reinstated on 
the throne, and Raja Gulab Singh made inde- 
pendent, and granted Kashmir and other territory. 
Sir Henry Hardinge was created a viscount, Sir 
Hugh Gough a baron, and Sir Harry Smith a 
baronet. Lord Hardinge returned to England, 
and was succeeded by Lord Dalhousie. 

16 



HARDWAR, ancient historical town and place 
of Hindu pilgrimage in Saharunpur district, N.W. 
Provinces, lat. 29° 57' 30" N., long. 78° 12' 52" 
E. ; population (1872), 4800. It was originally 
known as Kapila or Gupila, from the sage Kapila, 
who passed his life in religious austerities at the 
spot still pointed out as Kapilasthana. Hard- 
war, or Hari-dwara, literally Vishnu's Gate, Beems 
to be of comparatively modern origin, as both Abu 
Rihan and Rashid-ul-Din mention only Ganga- 
dwara, or the Ganges gorge (literally, gate). Tom 
Coryat visited the place, and described it as 'Hari- 
dwara, the capital of Siva.' The level of the 
Ganges at Hardwar is 1024 feet. The Ganges falls 
rapidly to Hardwar, which is 1300 miles from the 
mouth. It is a great place of pilgrimage, the 
pilgrims often occupying the valley of the Ganges 
to a length of nine and a depth of two miles from 
the village of Doodea past Hardwar and Myapore 
to Kunkul and Jooalapore. Its celebrity is owing 
to the proximity of the Rikikase gorge, from 
which the Ganges escapes from the Siwalik Hills 
of the Himalaya mountains, thirteen miles above 
Hardwar. It was a scene of sacred rites long 
before either Sivaism or Vishnuism developed 
in their present forms. As the spot where the 
Ganges issues forth on its fertilizing career, 
Hardwar obtained the veneration of each of the 
great religions of India, and preserves the 
memorials alike of Buddhism, Sivaism, and 
Vishnuism, and of rites perhaps earlier than any 
of them. A dispute exists to this day between the 
followers of Siva and Vishnu as to which of these 
deities gave birth to the Ganges. The Vishnu 
Purana is cited by both, as it ascribes the Ganges 
to Vishnu, and the Alaknanda, or eastern branch 
of the Ganges, to ' Siva's Gate ; ' the Vishnuvites 
maintain that it is Hari-dwara, ' Vishnu's Gate.' 
The great object of attraction at the present day 
is the Hari-ke-charan, or bathing ghat, with the 
adjoining temple of Ganga-dwara. The charan, 
or footmark of Vishnu, is imprinted on a stone 
let into the upper wall of the ghat, and forms 
an object of special reverence. Each pilgrim 
struggles to be the first to plunge into the pool 
after the propitious moment has arrived, and 
stringent police regulations are required to pre- 
vent the crowd tramping one another to death, 
and drowning each other under the sacred water. 
In 1819, 430 persons, including some sepoys on 
guard, lost their lives by crushing in this manner, 
after which accident Government constructed the 
present enlarged ghat of sixty steps, 100 feet in 
width. Riots and bloody fights were of common 
occurrence amid the excited throng. In 1760, 
on the last day of bathing (10th April), the rival 
mobs of the Gosain and Bhairagi sects had a long- 
continued battle, in which the almost incredible 
number of 18,000 are said to have perished. In 
1795 the Sikh pilgrims slew 500 of the Gosains. 
In 1829, Gosains fought their way to the Ganges, 
and many were killed. The great assemblage of 
pilgrims takes place on the first day of the month 
of Baisakh, the commencement of the Hindu solar 
year (March — April), and the anniversary of the 
day upon which the Ganges first appeared upon 
earth. Every twelfth year, the planet Jupiter, 
being then in Aquarius, a feast of peculiar 
sanctity occurs, known as a Kumbh-mela, and is 
attended by an enormous concourse of people. 
The ordinary number of pilgrims at the annual 



HARDWARE. 

fair amounts to 100,000, and at tlio Kumbh-mela 
to 800,000. 

Pilgrims como to Hardwar from all parts of 
Hindustan and Bengal, from the Dekhan, the 
Panjab, from Kashmir, Afghanistan, Tartary, 
Tibet, and China, sonic as religious devotees, 
some as worldly tradesmen. For miles around 
the place it is one immense encampment. Colonel 
Yule has seen Buddhist pilgrims at Hardwar who 
had crossed the Himalaya from Maha-Chin, as 
they said, to visit the holy flame of Jawalamukhi 
in the Panjab. A great attack of epidemic 
cholera occurred at Hardwar in 1783, when 
20,000 people died in eight days. — Yule's Cathay, 
p. 411 ; Taylor's Visit, p. 177; Imp. Gaz. 

HARDWARE. 

Chincaglio, . . . .It, 



Isenkramvarer, . Dan. 
Yzerkramery, . . Dut. 

CliiuMiallerie, . . . Fr. 
Quincaillerie, . . . „ 
Kurze woaren, . . Ger. 
Loha kam, . Gi'j., Hind. 



QuincaTharia, . . Port. 
Mjeloizchnue Towar- 

wii Rus. 

Quinquilleria, . . . Sp. 
Jarnkram, . . . Sw. 



In commerce, goods of every kind made from 
metal.— M'CttUoch. 

HARDWARI PEORI, or Indian yellow, is the 
(hied deposit precipitated from the urine of cows 
that have been fed on the leaves of the mango 
(Mangifera Indica). It consists principally of 
magnesia and purreic acid, as it has been called 
by Sir R. Kane. On treating a solution with 
weak muriatic acid, after evaporation, yellow scaly 
crystals of purreic acid are obtained. Hardwari 
peori is usually met with in the bazars in lumps. 
Wilayiti peori is chrome yellow, in lumps 
(chromate of lead). Hardwari indicates the 
locality where it is obtained. A dye made of the 
Harsinggar is sold under the same name. — Powell, 
1>. Pr. Panf. p. 195. 

HARDWICKE, Major-General, a distinguished 
zoologist, who was employed in Northern India 
in the early part of the 19th century. His col- 
lection was described by Dr. Gray of the British 
Museum, in one volume. 

HARDWICKIA BINATA. Roxb. 



Kar-atchi, Kat-udugu, Ta. 
Epe, Nara epe, . . Tel. 



Caratchu, Kamra, . Can, 

Anjun Mahr 

Atcha, Attimaram, Tam, 

This large leguminous tree grows in the forests 
of the Godavery, in the Nullamallay, on the 
mountains of the Coromandel coast, in some parts 
of Kandesh, in the Padshapur jungles, in the 
Guzzelhutty pass, common in Lulling pass between 
Malligaum and Dhoolea, and on the hills of the 
Sone valley. It is a most elegant tree, tall and 
erect, with an elongated coma, and the branches 
pendulous. On the Godavery it is often hollow 
in the centre. Yields a timber of an excellent 
quality for beams, and a variety of uses. The 
wood is red or dark-coloured, very hard, very 
strong and heavy. As the shoots grow up very 
straight, it is also valuable for rafters. The bark 
yields a strong fibre, and the people of the island 
of Siva Samudram use it without further pre- 
paration. — Roxb. ; Voigt ; Mr. Rohde's MSS. ; 
Hooker's H. J. i. 50 ; W. and A. ; Beddome ; 
Dr. Gibson. 

HARDWICKIA PINNATA. Roxb. This very 
large tree is very conmon on the S. Travancore 
ghats (Asambu Hills), in the dense moist forests, I 
up to 3000 feet elevation, and is also found on the 
Tinnevelly side, just above Courtallum (between I 
the 2d and 3d falls), and on the new Manjerabad ! 

VOL. II. 1 



HARIANA. 

ghat (S. Canara), about 1500 feet up from Siradi. 
Tlic tree yields a dark red balsam, which is BMd 
medicinally. A deep notch is made into the heart 
of the tree, and after a time it begins to flow. 
The tree flowers in March and April, and the 
legumes ripen in July. The wood is much used 
by the coffee planters and others for building 
purposes. — Roxb. ; Beddome, Flo ra Sylr. p. 265. 
HARE. 



Ameb, . 
Li&vre, . 
Hare, . . 
Arnebeth, 



Arab. 
. Fr. 

Ger. 

Heb. 



Lepre, 
Liebre, . 

It z hong, 
Tawshnn, 



. It. 

. Sr. 
Tibet. 
Turk. 



See Lepus ; Mammalia. 

HARGILA, the Bengali name of the adjutant 
bird, said to be from Har or Hur, a bone, and 
Nigalua, to swallow. 

HAR GOVIND, a Sikh guru. See Guru. 

HAR-HAR, a subdivision or part of an estate. 
In Saugor it means the cultivated space imme- 
diately round a village, which is quite opposed 
to the meaning it generally bears in the N.W., 
where it is applied to the land most distant from 
the site of the village, i.e. beyond the Mungha. 
In Bundelkhand and some other places it signi- 
fies a tract of land, but the term in no way indicates 
separate possession of the tract designated. — 
Elliot, Supp. Gloss. 

HARI, the ancient Arya, the country of Herat, 
is the western province of Khorasan. — Belleu: 

HARI, a name of Krishna as an avatar of 
Vishnu. Hari, Hari-bol, amongst Hindus, a shout 
of applause. 

HARI. The great harvests are called in Hindi 
rabi and kharif, or by the Northern Hindu vil- 
lagers hari and sawani, from the names of the 
months in which the crops are ripe. Rabi is the 
spring harvest, kharif the autumn ; but it is not 
all land that bears two harvests. Land that does 
so is called do-fasli, and land that only bears 
once, ek-fasli ; but there are certain tracts of 
country where two or even three harvests are 
taken off the soil. The principal crops of the 
rabi are the cold-weather crops of wheat, barley, 
gram, mattar (Vicia), lentils, tobacco, Unseed, 
sarshaf or sarson, rai, etc. The kharif sowings are 
jawar, bajra (millet), maize, rice, moth, mung, 
mash, and other pulses, sugar-cane, and cotton. — 
Powell, Handbook. 

HARIALI GRASS, Cynodon dactylon. All 
its stems which lie near the ground take root, 
and by this means, though an annual plant, it 
increases and spreads very wide. It yields abun- 
dance of seed, of which small birds are very fond. 
It has been found very successful to allow the 
seed to ripen before the hay is cut, as it then 
propagates itself by seeds, in addition to the 
runners. This grass is also found in Great Britain, 
but in that country its produce and nutritive 

Sroperties are comparatively insignificant, while 
ere it constitutes three -fourths of the pasture. 
It is the most nutritious grass, indigenous to all 

fiarts of India, and, when cultivated, of most 
u Miriam growth in the hottest time of the year. 

HARIANA, a municipal town in Hoshiarpur 
district, Panjab, lat, 31° 38° 15" N., long. 75° 54' 
E. ; pop. (1868), 7745. The Hariana tract of 
country is in the Hissar and Rohtak districts, 
Panjab. It consists of a level upland plain, inter- 
spersed with patches of sandy soil, and largely 
overgrown with brushwood. The Western Jumna 



HARI CHANDRAGARH. 



HARMOZIA. 



canal now fertilizes a large number of its villages. 
During the troublous period which followed the 
decline of the Moghul empire, Hariana formed the 
battle-field where the Mahratta, the Bhatti, and 
the Sikh met to settle their territorial quarrels. 
In 1783, the terrible famine known as the San 
Chalisa devastated almost the whole surrounding 
oountry, which lay waste for several years. In 
1795, George Thomas took possession of Hissar 
and Hansi. By the close of 1799 he. had extended 
his power as far as Sarsa, and the Sikh chieftains 
of the Cis-Sutlej States began to fear his dangerous 
encroachments. In 1801 they combined in re- 
questing General Perron, Sindia's general at 
Dehli, to attack Thomas; and a force under 
Bourquien in 1802 drove him out of Hariana 
into British territory. — Imp. Gaz. 

HARI CHANDRAGARH, a mountain and hill 
fortress, about 20 miles S.W. from Ankole. It is 
the culminating point of the watershed of the 
Bhima and Godavery drainage systems, 4700 feet 
above the sea. The cap or plateau on its summit 
is about three miles in breadth. There are Jaina 
or Buddhist caves in its centre, with a vihara of 
750 a.d. according to Fergusson, and 1284 a.d. 
according to Wilson. 

HARIDAS, a disciple of Chaitanya. The name 
is given to the reader or reciter of the Ramayana, 
and preacher of the Kirtan during the Ram Naomi. 
The Haridasari of Mysore recite to music songs 
and tales from the ancient Hindu writings. See 
Yugbyasa. 

HARIGOLU. Tel. A basket boat 

HARIHAR, a town on the right bank of the 
Tumbudra river, in the Chittuldrug district of 
Mysore, lat. 14° 30' 50" N., long. 76° 50' 36" E. ; 
pop. (1871), 6401. Written Hurryhur. 

HARI-HARA, or Hari-Hara putra, a name of 
the Hindu deity Ayenar. 

HARI-MARIAH, a sacrifice of a live kid in 
front of the village god of the Mahrattas. 

HARINA and Sorendip, or Serandah, are 
Raneh and Madagascar. 

HARINAGHATTA, the Trinacachha, one of 
the mouths of the Ganges. 

HARINESWARA or Harinesa, a title of Siva. 

HARIPORE, about 12 miles from the Ravi on 
the eastern bank, supposed to be the Sangala of 
Alexander. It is west of Pakpatan. 

HARISCHANDI, a Vaishnava sect of Hindus, 
amongst the Dom or sweeper race of the Western 
Provinces of India. The founder was Haris- 
Chandra. See Hindu. 

HARIS-CHANDRA, the 28th king of the 
Solar dynasty. He was son of Tri-Sanku, and 
was celebrated for his piety and justice. There 
are legends about him in the Aitareya Brahmana, 
the Mahabharata, the Markandeya Purana, the 
only intelligible one being in the Aitareya 
Brahmana, that of his purchasing Suna Sepha 
to be offered up as a vicarious sacrifice for his 
son. He was a descendant of Ikshwaku. He is 
fabled to have had a hundred wives, but no son ; 
and he visited Varuna, offering, if a son were born 
to him, to sacrifice him to Varuna, A son was 
born, and named Rohita, and Varuna claimed the 
sacrifice, but was put off with excuses, until 
Rohita grew up and began to travel in the forests. 
There he met a starving rishi, who had three sons, 
and Rohita offered him 100 cows for one of his 
sons, to serve as a sacrificial ransom. To this the 



rishi and his wife agreed, and the middle son, 
Suna Sepha, was given, and for another hundred 
cows was bound to the sacrificial post by Ajigarta, 
son of Suyavasa ; but Suna Sepha prayed to Indra, 
to Agni, to Savitri, to Visva Deva, to the Aswina, 
to the Ushas, and the deities released him from 
Varuna's bond. — Garrett. 

HARIT, in Hindu mythology, the coursers of 
the sun, the analogue of the Greek Charites, from 
the root Ghar, to shine or glisten. The Harita 
in the Rig Veda are 7 or 10 mares of the sun, 
typical of his rays. — Doivson. 

HARI VANS, founder of the Radha Vallabhi 
sect of Hindus, whose special deity is Rad'ha, the 
mistress of Krishna. 

HARIVANSA, a poem of 16,374 verses, giving 
the genealogy of Hari or Vishnu. It is in three 
parts. It is thought to have been written in the 
S. of India in the time of the Puranas. The 
Harivansa is a comparatively modern sequel to the 
Mahabharata. — Growse, p. 50 ; Dowson. 

HARI WA, named in the cuneiform inscriptions, 
is the Aria of the Greeks, the Haroyu of the 
Vendidad, the modern Herat. — Bunsen, iii. 481. 

HARKARA. Hind., Pers. A messenger. 

HARM, Arab., means sacred, and is applied 
to the Mahomedan women's apartments, also 
to women captives and purchased women. The 
words Haram, unlawful, Hurmat, chastity, Hariimi 
and Haramzadah, a wicked person or animal, 
and Maharram, the first month of the Mahomedan 
year, come from this word. See Haram. 

HARMALA RUTA. — ? 
Peganum harmala, — ? | Ruta sylvestris, — ? 

Harka, .... Can. I Viragu Tam. 

Kodar, Harmal, . Hind. | Arkalu, .... Tel. 

Grows plentifully at Lahore. The ruins of the 
old city are covered with this weed and Asclepias 
gigantea. Harmal, in Lahore, is looked upon as 
the plant sacred to the Pariah caste ; yet though 
a Sikh or Hindu would not touch harmal, the 
seeds are in common us© among the natives to 
fumigate the rooms of the wounded. The natives 
regard a person suffering from any discbarge, as 
haemorrhoids, menses, etc., as unclean, and think 
that the exhalation proceeding from such person 
may be prejudicial to the wound ; therefore it is 
customary, on the entrance of every stranger, to 
strew a few grains of harmal upon a charcoal fire. 
The natives, with the exception of Sikhs and 
Hindus, use these seeds internally against weak- 
ness of sight and retention of urine. — Honig. 
p. 284 ; O'SJi. 

HAR-MANDUR, a celebrated Sikh temple at 
Amritsur. It was destroyed in 1762 by Ahmad Shah. 

HARMOZIA. This ancient town, in a bay of the 
Gulf of Ormuz, was subsequently called Gombroon, 
but now Bandar Abbas. It is a seaport town in 
the province of Kirman, in a barren country. It 
is fortified with double walls. Bussora did not 
long benefit by the fall of Hormuz, but appears 
to have been nearly ruined during the reign of 
Nadir Shah, whose tyranny extended its baneful 
influence even to this extremity of the Persian 
empire ; so that in 1750 Mr. Plaisted found there 
nine houses out of ten deserted. In the year 
1639 there seems to have been an English factory 
at Bussora, subordinate to that at Gombroon, 
and protected by firmans. — Ouseletfs Tr. i. p. 155 ; 
A Journal from Calcutta to Aleppo, etc. p. 11, 
Lond. 1758; Kinneir's Memoir, p. 201. 



18 



HAKMUzr. 



HA RUT. 



HARMUZI. Hind. A deep red earth. 

BARF W.WJE, a family of insects, found dis- 
persed in nearly all the countries of the globe : 
they abound more in the arctic than antarctic 
region*. The following genera are recorded as 
belonging to India, viz. Harpalus, Platymetopus, 
Belenophorus, Cyclosomus, and many others. 
Some species of Ophonos from Bengal and Poona 
closely resemble British species. 

1 1 A RPEGNATHOS SALTATOR, oneof a genus 
of ants of the Peninsula of India, in Malabar and 
Mysore. It has the name saltntor from its making 
most surprising jumps when alarmed or disturbed. 
It is very pugnacious, and bites and stings very 
severely. 1 1 makes its nest under ground, generally 
about the roots of some plant. Its society does 
not consist of many individuals. It appears to 
Feed on insects, which it often seizes alive. 

HARPOCRATKS. the ancient Egyptian god 
Aurora or Day-spring, is often represented seated 
on the lotus. 

HAR-PUJAH. Hini>. The worship of the 
plough on the day which closes the season of 
ploughing and sowing, usually in Kartik. See 
Hal ; Har ; Husbandry. 

HARPULLIA IMBRICATA. Blnme. 

Otonychium imbricatum, Bl., Rumphia, iii. 180, 

Streptostigma viridiflorum, Tim: 

This tree is common in the western moist forests 
of the Madras Presidency, from Canara to Cape 
Comorin, and ascends the mountains to about 
3500 feet elevation ; it is also found in Ceylon. 
When covered with its brilliant orange fruit, it is 
a beautiful sight on the ghats in Malabar and 
Canara. The tree flowers in the cold season, and 
ripens its fruit in March and April. The stigma 
is sometimes not at all twisted. — Bedd. Fl. Sylv. 

H. cupanioides, Roxb., is a small tree of the 
hilly parts near Chittagong ; it flowers in April, 
and the fruit ripens in July. — Roxb. i. 645. 

HARRIER, species of birds of the genus Circus. 

HARRIS, General Lord, commanded at the 
siege and fall of Seringapatam, a.d. 1799. 

HARRIS, Lord, grandson of the first Lord 
Harris, was born in 1810, and was educated at 
Christ Church, Oxford, where he took his degree 
in 1881. The first post that he held under 
Government was that of Lieutenant-Governor of 
Trinidad, of which island he was afterwards made 
Governor and Commander-in-Chief. In 1854 he 
was made Governor of Madras, and he held the 
post till 1859, when he was succeeded by Sir 
Charles Trevelyan. He made a re-valuation of the 
lands in N. and S. Arcot, from which great 
advantages resulted to the people and to the 
State. He sent to Northern India all the Madras 
soldiers, and, dismantling his own presidency of 
both men and guns, enabled Lord Clyde and Lord 
Canning to reconquer Northern India. — Thurhw, 
Com/in in/ and the Crown, pp. 82, 83. 

HAJRRIS, Sir WILLIAM CORNWALLIS, an 
officer of the Bombay Engineers, who entered the 
service in 1828, and died at Poona on 9th October 
1848. He wrote on The Wild Sports of Southern 
Africa, London 1844 ; and afterwards went to 
Shoa as an ambassador, of which mission he 
published a narrative, named The Highlands of 
Ethiopia, London 1844. 

HARSH A DEVA, a king of Kashmir, who 
reigned a.d. 1113 to 1125, author of the drama 
called Ratnavali, or the Necklace. 



HARSHA VARDDHANA was a paramount 
sovereign of 30 different states, comprising nearly 
one-half of India in extent, and including all its 
richest and most fertile provide, *. He was 
defeated by the Chalukya of Kalyani. — Cunning- 
ham, Ancient Geog. of India, p. 14. 

HAR-SULA. Sacrificial pillars are termed 
Sura or Sula in Sanskrit, which, conjoined with 
Har, the Indian god of war, would be Har-sula. 
The Rajput warrior invokes Har with Iub trident 
(tri-sula) to help him in battle, while his battle 
shout is Mar! mar! — 7W. 

HARTAL. Hind. Yellow sulphuret of arsenic, 
orpiment. Two varieties occur, -— tho hartal -i- 
wilayiti and hartal-warki, the last so called from 
its beautiful glittering lamellar texture 5 varieties 
of hartal-i-warki are called hartal pili and gulabi. 
— Powell, p. 63. 

HART'H. Panj. A Persian wheel for raising 
water. See Irrigation Wells. 

HARTIGHSEA, tp., in Java yields a fruit used 
as garlic. Hartighsea spectabihs, the Kohekohe, 
or New Zealand cedar, is a good timber tree. 

HART'S EAR, Cacalia kleinia, Linn. 
Lisan-us-saur, . . Arab. I Yerrimai nakn, . Tam. 
Gao-zaban, . . . Pkrs. | Yennapa nalika, . Tel. 

The leaves resemble the tongue of the cow 
(hence its Asiatic names) ; the stalks are prickly, 
and covered with white spots. While fresh, the 
leaves have a strong smell like hemlock, and are 
given by native practitioners, in the form of 
decoction, in rheumatism, syphilis, leprosy, and 
in all other cases in which sarsaparilla is usually 
employed by European physicians. It is brought 
to Bombay from the Persian Gulf, and is procur- 
able throughout India in most native druggists' 
shops. — Faulkner. 

HARTSHORN, the Luh-koh, Luh-jimg of the 
Chinese, in China used medicinally, in the form 
of powder, as a jelly, and in tincture. 

Hartshorn shavings, Luh-jung-p'ien and Luh- 
koh-shwang of the Chinese, is used in China in 
hematuria, spermatorrhoea. — Sm ith. 

HARUN-ur-RASHID, khalif of Baghdad from 
a.d. 786 till a.d. 808. He was famed throughout 
the world for his valour, love of justice, zeal for 
literature and the arts, and his encouragement of 
commerce. He placed all public schools under 
John Mesue, a Nestorian Christian. His household 
physicians were Manik and Saleh, two Hindu 
physicians. He is said to have caught the illness 
of which he died, on his way from Baghdad to 
Khorasan, whither he was going in order to 
suppress the revolt of Rafi. At that tune the 
empire of the khalifah was one of the most 
powerful that ever existed, and extended from 
the confines of India and Tartary to the Medi- 
terranean, including also all Northern Africa. 
The reign of Harun-ur-Rashid was prosperous 
and splendid. Although he has been famed for 
liberality and justice, his bloody cruelties throw 
an eternal stain on his memory. He died at Taos 
in Khorasan, after a reign of 22 years. The 
Daoudputra, the reigning family at Bahawulpur. 
claim to be descended From Harun-ur-Rashid. — 
Vambery, Bokhara, p. 53. 

HAEUT, in Mahomedan belief, the name of an 
angel who, together with another named Marut, 
having severely censured mankind before the 
throne of God, they were sent down to earth in 
human shape to judge of the temptations to 



10 



HARVEST. 



HASAN GANGA. 



which man is subject. They were seduced by 
women, and committed every sort of iniquity, for 
which they were suspended by the feet in a well 
in Babylon, where they are to remain in great 
torment until the day of judgment. 
HARVEST. 

Mietitura, .... It. 

Agosto, .... Sp. 

Bichun, Hossad, . Tukk. 



Abab. 
. Fe. 
. Gee. 
Hind. 



Hisal, . . . 
Moisson, . . 
Erute, Herbst, 
Fasl, . . . 

In British India there are very generally two 
harvests in a year, — the summer crop, sown in the 
spring, being reaped in the end of summer, and 
known in Northern India as the kharif. The 
other harvest, known as the rabi, is sown after 
the autumn, and reaped in early spring. In some 
localities there are three harvests, known to the 
Hindus as that of the spring (arit), asu or autumn, 
and paush or winter. The emperor Akbar intro- 
duced into India the harvest, or Fasl, as an era. 
See Fasli ; Rabi. 

HARAVAHA. Hind. Predial slaves of N. India. 

HARWUN. Hind. A pulse equal to rawan. 

HASAINZAI, an independent tribe on the 
N.W. frontier of India. In 1852 the British 
moved against them, to punish them for the 
murder of Mr. Carne and Mr. Tapp ; and again, 
in 1868, to punish them for an inroad on British 
territory at Agror. A force 14,762 strong, with 
20 guns, was moved under Major-General Wilde. 
—MacGr. N. W. F. I. pp. 248-268. See Agror. 

HASALE or Hussulleeru, Karn. One of the 
aboriginal tribes of Mysore, occupying the lull 
districts of Nagar, woodmen, but serving as agri- 
cultural labourers. 

HASAN and Husain, two sons of AH by his 
wife Fatima, daughter of Mahomed. After Ali's 
death, Hasan and Husain went to reside at 
Medina. Hasan was poisoned there, a.d. 659, by 
an emissary of the khalif. The poison was placed 
in Hasan's way by his wife Zainab. And several 
years afterwards, on the 10th of the Maharram, 
a.h. 46, Husain was slain at Kirbala, his eldest 
son, Zain-ul-Abidin, alone escaping. These events 
are commemorated in India by the ceremonies 
of the first ten days of the Maharram. Annually, 
as this season of mourning returns, the Shiah 
Mahomedans recite the melancholy story of the 
deaths of these martyrs. 

The deaths of this family, with the assassination 
of the khalif Omar in the mosque at Jerusalem, 
caused the great division into the Sunni and the 
Shiah sects, which continues amongst Mahomedans 
to the present day throughout all the Mahomedan 
world. After the death of the third successor of 
Mahomet, Ali ascended the throne ; but after a 
short reign of six years, during which he had to 
encounter a serious rebellion headed by Ayesha, 
he was at last assassinated. For this reason Ali is 
regarded as a martyr, and the first of the twelve 
Imams. Of the Shiahs Hasan and Husain, the 
two sons of Ali and Fatima were grandsons of 
Mahomet; as boys they had been his darlings, 
and as men they received much of that warm 
personal devotion which had been bestowed on 
the great founder of Islam. Hasan succeeded his 
father on the throne for a short time, but yielded 
to the pretensions of a Sunnite khalif. He was 
afterwards carried off by poison, and was thus in 
his turn regarded as a martyr, and the second of 
the twelve Imams. 



Husain and his followers rose in arms to assert 
his right to the throne of the khalifs. Near 
the banks of the Euphrates the enemy pressed 
against him in overpowering numbers. Nearly 
all his followers were slain, and his child was 
killed in his arms. He himself was fainting from 
thirst and fatigue ; but when the hour of prayer 
arrived, he performed his religious duties in the 
face of the enemy ; for there were few, even in 
that hostile host, who were prepared, under such 
circumstances, to draw the sword upon the 
grandson of the prophet. At last, exhausted by 
thirst, he bent his steps towards the Euphrates ; 
his adversaries now rushed forward to intercept 
him. Husain, however, had already thrown him- 
self on his breast over the stream, and w r as 
beginning to taste the refreshing water, when an 
arrow pierced his mouth. A confused crowd 
of warriors now closed around him, and began 
to assail him with their swords. A long and 
desperate struggle followed, but he was at last 
overpowered, and his head was carried away as a 
trophy. Husain was thus regarded as, if possible, 
the greatest martyr of the three ; and not only 
is he reverenced as the third Imam, but his repre- 
sentatives of the nine succeeding generations are 
reverenced as the niue Imams who make up the 
number to twelve. His death, or martyrdom, 
was followed by a ciy of grief wherever men had 
embraced the faith of Islam; and even in the 
present day the Shiah Mahomedans are afflicted 
with the profoundest sorrow throughout the days 
of the Maharram, and shed tears for their beloved 
and martyred Imams ; it is a melancholy sight. 

HASAN ABDAL, a village in the Rawal Pindi 
district of the Panjab, forming a part of the 
remarkable group of ancient cities which lie 
around the site of the ancient Taxila, lat. 33 c 
48' 56" N., long. 72° 44' 41" E. Hiwen Thsang 
in the 7th century visited the tank of the 
serpent king Elapatra, which has been identified 
with the spring of Baba Wali, or Panja Sahib. 
Successive legends of Buddhist, Brahman, Maho- 
medan, and Sikh origin cluster around this sacred 
fountain. The shrine of Panja Sahib crowns a 
precipitous hill, about a mile east of the town ; 
and at the foot stands the holy tank, a small square 
reservoir of pure water, generally full of fish. 
It is so called from its being the burial-place of 
Baba Hasan Abdal, a Sayyid of Sabzwar, in 
Khorasan, who came to India with Mirza Shah 
Rukh, son of Timur, and died at Kandahar, and 
whose tomb is much resorted to by pilgrims. 
Jahangir, in his memoirs, says : ' To-day I arrived 
at Baba Hasan Abdal. About a cos east of the 
town is a waterfall, the water of which rushes 
down with great rapidity. There is none like it 
in Kabul, but there are two or three like it in 
Kashmir. In the middle is a tank, from which 
the river flows. Raja Man Singh has built here 
a little villa. There are a great number of fish 
in the tank, half a yard and a quarter yard long, 
As the place is so nice, I stayed here for three 
days, and drank wine with my friends. I also 
enjoyed fishing. The fishes are caught with 
peculiar nets, which are difficult to be used. I 
caught twelve, had pearls strung through their 
snouts, and set them free.' 

HASAN GANGA. In a.d. 1347, four years 
before the death of Muhammad Taghalaq, Hasan 
Ganga, an officer of high station in the Dekhan, 



20 



HASAN-ii-.n-SaBHAH. 

headed a successful revolt against his master, and 
established what was known as the Rahinani 
dynasty of the Dekhau, fixing his capital at Kul- 
burga. His descendants reigned for thirteen 
generations, for 174 years, from a.d. 1847 to 
1518. He is said to have been an Afghan of low 
i.nik. a native of Dehli He farmed a small spot 
q! land belonging to a Brahman named Ganga, 
who wan in favour with the king; and Hasan, 
having accidentally found a treasure in his field, 
he gave it to his landlord. The Brahman, struck 
with his integrity, advanced his fortunes. Hasan 
rose to rank in the Dekhan, where he became a 
|aa4er in the revolt. He had before assumed the 
name of Ganga, and now added that of Bahmani, 
by which his dynasty was afterwards distinguished. 
liming the reign of Ala-ud-Din n., in a.d. 1437, 
dissensions broke out between the native Dekhani 
and foreign Mahomedan troops, but towards the 
end of the dynasty the Dekhani troops gained the 
ascendency. Yusuf Adal Khan, a Turk, and chief 
of the foreign troops, retired to his government 
of Bijapur, where he subsequently (a.d. 1489) 
took the title of king, and founded the dynasty 
of Adal Shahi. Nizam-ul-Mulk, the Dekhani 
chief, being afterwards assassinated by Kasim 
Barid, a Turk, his son Ahmad set up the dynasty 
of Nizam Shahi at Ahmadnaggur, in the Dekhan. 
Kasim Barid was now the master of the court 
of the Bahmani king, Mahmud II. (a.d. 1482), 
at Beder; and two other great chiefs became 
independent, and after a time each took the title 
of king. These were Kutub-Kuli, a Turkoman 
from Persia, and Imad-ul-Mulk, descended from 
a Hindu convert. The former (a.d. 1512) founded 
the dynasty of Kutub Shahi at Golconda, near 
Hyderabad, and the latter that of Imad Shahi at 
Ellichpur, in Berar. Ahmad Barid, son of Kasim, 
governed for some tune under a succession of 
pageants, but at length assumed the title of king, as 
the first of the Barid kings of Beder, the Bahmani 
family being thenceforth no longer mentioned. 

A temporary union of the kings of Bijapur, 
Golconda, and Ahmadnaggur, in 1564, enabled 
them to subvert the empire of Vijayanagar, and 
reduce the power of its chief to that of a petty 
raja. — Elphinstone's India, 416, ii. app. ; Briggs, 
The Nizam ; Shahab-ud-Diii's Hist. MSS. 

HASAN -ibn-SABBAH, or Hasan-us-Sabbah, 
was the founder of the sect known as the 
Assassins. He was brought up at Nishapur, 
under the then renowned saint, the Imam-ul- 
Muwakkaf, and had for his schoolmates the 
Persian freethinking poet, Omar-ul-Khaiyam, and 
another, afterwards known as Nizam-ul-Mulk, 
j Marshal of the Empire, 5 prime minister to Alp 
Arslan. The three lads had made a compact that 
whichever of them attained to rank and fortune 
should share his advantages with the other two ; 
and when the most successful of the three was 
established in his position as marshal-minister, the 
other two claimed fulfilment of the promise made 
in youth. Omar-ul-Khaiyam asked only for the 
means of devoting himself to literature and science, 
and has left a name as the most original poet and the 
greatest astronomer of his time ; Hasan-us-Sabbah 
asked for and obtained an important political post, 
but devoted his energies to endeavouring to sup- 
plant his schoolfellow and benefactor. Failing in 
this, he turned rebel, and, collecting round him a 
band of fanatics, took possession of the fortress 



HAHIT-ANGA. 

of Alamut, a mountain on the shores of the 
Caspian, and spread terror through both Islam 
and Christendom by the fierce bravery with which 
he and his followers encountered all opposition, 
and by the terribly insidious manner in which he 
removed his enemies by secret assassination, 
Nizam-ul-Mulk being among his many victims. 
One of the numerous stories told of him is that, 
having been summoned to surrender, he called 
two of his followers to him, and bade one to stab 
himself, and the other to throw himself from the 
highest battlements of the fortress. This order the 
' Devoted Ones' — Fidwi, as they were called — at 
once obeyed, and Hasan derisively asked the envoy 
what his masters troops could do against a chief 
who commanded such men as those. He was piti- 
less and inscrutable. It is said that he slew his 
own son because he drank wine. This does not 
seem to coincide with the belief that his followers 
were addicted to the use of the resin of Cannabis 
Indica, or Indian hemp, called hashish, whence 
some have derived their name of Hashishin, the 
' Assassin ' of European languages. Hasan-us- 
Sabbah was generally known as ' Shaikh-ul-Jabl,' 
from his mountain fortress ; and it is from the 
title Shaikh, which means both a ' chief ' and 
an 'old man,' that he is known to European 
history as the ' Old Man of the Mountain.' 
He gave his name to the Al-Hasani, a hetero- 
dox sect, now variously known as the Ismaili, 
Bathenians, or Assassins, who are spread through 
Asia from Persia to "Western India, and during 
the crusades he or one of his successors was 
known as the ' Old Man of the Mountain,' a mis- 
translation of the Shaikh-ul-Jabl. His career 
was from a.d. 1090 till his death in a.d. 1124, at 
Alamut, where he had lived 35 years. The 

Eolitical power of the sect was destroyed by 
[ulaku, grandson of Chengiz Khan, a.h. 654. — 
Porter's Travels, i. 286 ; Osbortie's Islam, p. 357. 

HASAN KHEL, (1) A section of the Gadai- 
zai Bunerwal ; (2) of the Adam Khel Afridi ; (3) 
of the Mahmud Khel Utmanzai Vaziri. — MacGr. 
N. W. F. I. i. p. 578. 

HASAN NIZAMI, author of the Taj-ul- 
Maasar, or Crown of Victories, was born at 
Naishapur. Mir Khond and Haji Khalfa call him 
Sadr-ud-Din Mahomed-bin-Hasan Nizami. He 
left his home during the troubles that overtook it, 
and went to Ghazni, and on to Dehli. His book 
gives the history of Kutub -ud- Din Aibek, with 
portions of the life of his predecessor, Muhammad 
Ghazi, and of his successor, Shams - ud - Din 
Altamsh.— H. Elliot. 

HASHIM- bin -HAKIM, born at Gaza, near 
Merv, is known as Mokanna, or the Veiled Prophet 
of Khorasan, because he was one-eyed, deformed 
in feature, and bald, and concealed his features. 
He claimed to be the deity ; his most numerous 
converts were near Samarcand and Bokhara. He 
was joined by hordes from Turkestan. He had a 
hundred of the loveliest women of Transoxiana. 
About the year 163 Hijira, he destroyed himself. 

HASH I Y A. Hind. A border or edging. 

HASHM. Arab. Train, retinue. PI. Ahsham. 

HASHMEE MAUND, equal to 16 Tabreez 
maunds of 7 J lbs. each, or about 116 lbs. English. 

HASHT-ANGA. Sansk. Literally, eight limbs. 
A reverential prostration of the Hindus, in which 
they touch the ground with the belly, breast, fore- 
head, and both sides of the face successively. 






21 



HASHTNAGAR. 



HASTINGS, FRANCIS. 



kiss the earth, half rise up, then pass the left over 
the right forearm, and vice versa ; and finally, 
after again saluting mother Hertha, stand erect. 

HASHTNAGAR ('Eight Cities'), a Tahsil of 
the Peshawur district, Panjab j lat. 34° 3' to 34° 
25' N., and long. 71° 37' to 71° 57' E. General 
Cunningham believes the modern term to be a 
corruption of Hastinagara, the city of Hasti. 

Hasti, Tod says, sent forth three grand branches, 
Ujamida, Deomida, and Poormida. Ujamida's 
progeny spread over all the northern parts of 
India, in the Panjab, and across the Indus ; the 
period, probably 1600 years before Christ. From 
Ujamida, in the fourth generation, was Bajaswa, 
who obtained possessions towards the Indus, and 
whose five sons gave their name, Panchalica, to 
the Panjab, or space watered by the five rivers. 
The capital founded by the younger brother, 
Kampila, was named Kampilnagara. The de- 
scendants of Ujamida by his second wife, Kesunee, 
founded the Kusika kingdom and dynaBty, cele- 
brated in the heroic history of N. India. — Tod. 

HASHU or Hashwi occupy the watershed 
between the Thoukye Khat and Poung-loung. 

HASISH. Arab. Tender tops of Cannabis 
sativa, after flowering, the Bhang of India and 
Persia, and Fasukh of Barbary. It is indulged in 
to some extent by Mahomedans of India. Egypt 
surpasses all other nations in the variety of 
compounds into which this drug enters. The 
Hottentots use it ; and the Siberians intoxicate 
themselves with the vapour of the seed thrown 
upon red-hot stones, as the Scythians of old did. 

HASORA, a town in Central Asia, 7198 feet 
above the sea, on the banks of the river which 
runs northwards to the Indus. The Hasora 
country is west of Deotsu, and lies to the south 
of Rongdo. The people speak the Tibetan lan- 
guage. Moorcroft gives it the name of Zungari. 
It is partially a Bhot district. According to Ad. 
Schlagentweit, Hasora, or Astor, or Tsunger, in 
lat. 35° 12' N., and long. 74° 53' E., is a fort in 
the valley of Astor or Hasora. — Moorcroft; Ad. 
Schl. ; Latham. 

HASSAN, a mountain forming part of Taurus 
and Zagros, between Diarbakar, Palo, and Moosh. 
The Kurd race, who inhabit all that part, are 
called Zaza, which means stuttering, mouthing, or 
speaking unintelligibly, and seems to be a nick- 
name. — Rich's Kurdistan, i. p. 376. 

HASSAN, a district of Mysore State, forming 
the north - western portion of the Ashtagram 
division, and lying between lat. 12° 30' and 13° 22' 
N., and between long. 75° 32' and 76° 58' E. 
The Jains have been numerous at Sravan-Belgola 
and other places since the 3d century B.C. ; and a 
Jaina image of Gomateswara, 60 feet high, is on a 
peak of Chandrabetta. The census of 1871 ascer- 
tained the population to be 669,961. Of inferior 
castes, by far the most numerous are the Wakliga 
(238,780), who are agricultural labourers ; next 
come the Kuruba (55,341), shepherds; and the 
Neyige (15,972), weavers. The Lingaets, who 
have always been influential in this part of the 
country, number 70,168. Out-castes are returned 
at 128,913; wandering tribes, 5109; wild tribes, 
3602. The village of Sathalli is the centre of an 
agricultural Christian community, founded by the 
Abbe Dubois. The total number of this com- 
munity is about 1000, and they are known as 
' Caste Christians,' — that- is to say, they retain all 



the social observances of their Hindu ancestors. 
The Malnad is greatly dreaded for the malarious 
fever which prevails after the early rains. — Imp. 
Gaz. 

HASSANDHUP. Hind. A hard, white clay, 
supposed to be a deposit from a mineral spring 
containing sulphur. But it is also a medicinal 
compound. 

HASSANIYEH, an Arab tribe, who have a 
very curious form of marriage. The woman is 
legally married for three days out of four, remain- 
ing perfectly free for the fourth. — Lubbock, Or'uj. 
of Civil, p. 54. 

HASSELTIA ABOREA, a handsome tree 
growing near Jampiam, in Java, with flowers 
large, yellowish -white, in axillary fascicles. The 
milk obtained from the trunk by incision, mixed 
with honey and reduced with boiling water, is 
employed as a powerful drastic for destroying the 
tape-worm ; it is, however, apt to produce inflam- 
mation of the intestines, and in some cases has 
proved fatal. — Lindley, Flora Medica, Eng. Cyc. 
HASSKARL, JUSTUS CHARLES, a botanist, 
Superintendent of the Gardens at Java, 1852- 
1854. Collected cinchona plants and seeds in 
South America, and took them to Java. He was 
created Knight of the Netherlands Lion, and 
Commander of the Order of the Oaken Crown. 
He was author of the Hortus Bogoriensis, a 
catalogue, with occasional notes and descriptions, 
of new species of the plants cultivated in the 
Government Botanical Garden of Buitenzorg, near 
Batavia, published in Batavia in 1844 ; also author 
of an octavo volume of descriptions, entitled 
Plantse Javanicse Rariores. — Hooker f. et Thomson; 
Markham, Peruv. Bark. 

HASTINAPUR, an ancient city of the Meerut 
district, N.W. Provinces, lying on the bank of the 
Burha Ganga, or former bed of the Ganges, 22 
miles north -east of Meerut, lat. 29° 9' N., and 
long. 78° 3' E. ; pop. (1872) 77. Its remains can 
still be traced on the banks of the river, but it 
was destroyed by the river encroaching on it. 
Hastinapur formed the capital of the great Pan- 
dava kingdom, celebrated in the Mahabharata. 
The legends of the Mahabharata centre around 
this city. 

HASTINGS, FRANCIS, second Earl of Moira, 
afterwards created Marquess of Hastings, G.C.B., 
assumed charge of the office of Governor-General 
of India, 4th October 1813, and held it till his 
re-embarkation, 9th January 1823. During his 
tenure of office, he took the field in person, on 
the 18th October 1817, against the Pindara. 
The forces under his command in the field 
were over 100,000 horse and foot, besides 
20,000 irregular cavalry. He allotted several 
positions to the brigades, and closed in upon 
the Pindara. One leader, Karim Khan, fell 
into the hands of Sir John Malcolm ; another, 
Sita or Chetu, was killed by a tiger, whilst shel- 
tered in the forests near Asirgarh. While the 
Governor-General was encamped in the part of 
the country formerly ruled by a noted chief, 
Lalla Hurdi, cholera broke out in the camp, and 
in ten days carried off 764 fighting men and 8000 
camp - followers. He broke up his camp, and 
marched S.E. from the Sind across to the right 
bank of the Betwa, and encamped at Erich, where 
the cholera disappeared. The natives of India 
attributed that outbreak to the malignity of Lalla 



22 



HASTINGS, WAH11KN. 



HATIM TAI. 



Hurdi's ghost, who had been poisoned under 
extraordinary circumstances. The Marquess in- 
line. <1 the <m>\. minent of Great Britain to extend 
tin Order of the Bath to officers of the E.I. 
Company's service, and before the conclusion of 
t in- third Mahratta war fifteen of them were created 
Knights Commander. lit- invested the first of 
these, Bis David Ouchterkmy, on the 20th March 
IMS. at Terwah. Tlie 10. 1.( 'ompauy acknowledged 
their sense of his services, bestowing on his family 
rants of money, in sums of £60,000 and 
£20,000 reepectively. His long rule of 9 years, 
from 1814*0 1829, was marked by two wars of the 
first magnitude, namely, the campaigns against the 
Gurkas of Nepal, and the last Mahratta struggle. 

HASTINGS, WARREN, the first Governor- 
(innnil of India. He was born in 1782, and 
came to India as a writer in 1749. He returned 
to England in 1763 ; but in 1769 he was appointed 
la be 2d Member of Council at Madras, m 1772 
lit of Council, Bengal, and in 1778 Gover- 
noi -tienend, and on the 1st February 1785 he made 
over the keys of the fort to the next senior Member 
of Council, and left India on the 6th of .the same 
month. He carried with him a modest fortune of 
£80,000. On his arrival in England in 1785, he was 
well received by the King, Queen, and Court of 
Directors, and was about to be made a peer, when 
Mr. Pitt opposed this, and, seven days after his 
arrival, he was impeached by Messrs. Burke, Fox, 
and Sheridan, accused of acts of oppression. His 
trial commenced on the 13th or 15th February 
1788, in the presence of the King and Queen. It 
proceeded for seven years, and at length, after an 
honourable defence, on the 23d April 1795 Hast- 
ings was acquitted; the verdict of an impartial 
posterity has long since affirmed the award 
(Marshman, L p. 427). He passed out at the gate 
of Westminster Hall ignorant whence the funds 
were to come by which the weekly bills of his 
household were to be discharged ; but the Court 
of Directors paid his costs, and granted him an 
annuity. From all parts of the empire, from men 
of various creeds and colours, from officers of 
renown, from Hindus and Mahomedans alike, 
poured in addresses of congratulation. The 
Prince Regent made him a Privy Councillor, and 
hinted at higher honours. Happy in his family 
life, blest with the healthy old age which is the 
appropriate reward of a pure and temperate man- 
hood, farming and writing little poems, studying 
Malthus, and following with delight the rising 
genius of Walter Scott, the great proconsul glided 
by an easy road into euthanasia and immortality. 
He died on the 22d August 1818, in his 86th 
year ; in which year also Sir Philip Francis, his 
opponent, died. He was the administrative organ- 
izer, as Clive had been the territorial founder, of 
the British Indian Empire. He rested his claims 
as an Indian ruler on his administrative work. 
He re-organized the Indian service, reformed 
every branch of the revenue collections, created 
courts of justice, and some semblance of a police. 
In 1781 he founded the Madrassa for Mahomedan 
teaching, and he extended his patronage alike to 
Hindu pandits and to European students. — Imp. 
Gaz. iv. 

HASYARNAVA. Sansk. Ocean of Laughter, 
a modern comic piece, by a pandit named Jaga- 
disa. — Dovsmi. 

HAT. Hind. A periodical market day, a fair. 



1 1 A I V or Saif is a long gauntleted weapon used 
in athletic exhibitions. 

HATCHING FOWL8' EGGS by artificial heat, 
though only obscurely described by ancient authors, 
appears to have been common in Egypt in very 
remote times. The building in which the process 
is now performed is called Maamal-el-Tirakh. In 
Chusan the hatching-house of ducks is a shed, the 
root thickly and compactly thatched with paddy, 
the walls plastered over with mud. There are a 
number of straw baskets, thickly besmeared with 
mud to prevent them from igniting ; a tile is so 
placed as to form the bottom of the basket, and 
a lid fits closely over the top. A small earthen fire- 

E)ot being placed under each basket, the eggs 
x-longing to different folks are put into the baskets 
as soon as they arrive. The baskets are kept 
closely shut for five days, a uniform heat being 
maintained under the basket by means of the 
before-named earthen fire-pot, and at the ex- 
piration of that period they are taken out and 
carefully examined ; the good are placed in holes, 
which have been cut in a board for their reception, 
and the bad are laid aside to be returned to their 
owners. Before the eggs have become cold, they 
are replaced in the baskets and kept there for 
nine or ten days ; that is, the eggs remain al- 
together in the baskets about a fortnight or fifteen 
days, the heat of the hatching- house ranging from 
93° to 100°. In the middle of the shed broad 
shelves are placed, on which the eggs are laid when 
taken finally from the baskets, being carefully 
covered over with a thickly wadded coverlet, and 
the little birds issue from their fragile domicile in 
about a fortnight or three weeks, — the whole pro- 
cess of hatching an egg occupying one month or five 
weeks. In the Philippines incubation is performed 
by placing warm paddy husks under and over the 
eggs, which are deposited in frames. A canvas 
covering is spread over the husks. The art is to 
keep up the needful temperature ; and one man is 
sufficient to the care of a large number of frames, 
from which he releases the ducklings as they are 
hatched, and conveys them in little flocks to the 
water - side. — Pococke's East, L 260 ; Bowling's 
Philippines, 104 ; Sirr's Chinese, i. 249. 

HATHIKRA-GILLI. Hind. An earthenware 
pestle, weighted, used for crushing gram. 

HATHILI, a reputed saint, one of five held in 
veneration by the lower orders in the N.W. Pro- 
vinces. He is buried at Barech. 

HAT'HPHOR, a tunnel on the northern face of 
Ramgarh Hill, Sirguja State, Chutia Nagpur. At 
its mouth it is about 20 feet in height by 30 in 
breadth, but at the inner extremity of its course 
of 150 yards it is not more than 8 feet by 12. 
On the southern side of the recess rises a sand- 
stone cliff, which contains two caves, the larger 
being 44 feet long, 10 feet wide, and about 6 feet 
high. It was here, according to the legend, that Sita 
was carried off by the demon Havana ; and two 
deep grooves in the rock, in front of the larger 
cave, are said to be portions of the enchanted 
circle which Rama drew around her for her 
protection. — Imp. Gaz. 

HATIM TAI, an Arab chief, famed amongst 
Mahomedans for his generosity. Many Persian and 
Hindustani romances have been written regarding 
him. He lived about a century before Mahomed. 
In all Mahomedan countries he is quoted as a 
model of generosity. Al Maidah says, when he 



23 



HATKAR. 



HAVELOCK, Sin HENRY. 



fought, it was to be triumphant ; when he had 
acquired spoils, he gave to the spoiled ; when he 
besought, he gave ; if he contested with the power- 
ful, it was to overcome ; when he took captives, he 
released them. — Major J. Daklon, p. 162; Pal- 
grave. 

HATKAR, a cowherd race of Berar. 
HATRAS, formerly highly predatory, under 
British rule became one of the busiest and most 
thriving places in Upper Hindustan, and a prin- 
cipal mart for the cotton and indigo of the neigh- 
bouring districts. — Tr. of Hind. ii. p. 122. 

HAUDA. Hind. The howdah or chair for 
riding on an elephant. It is in various forms. 
The Hauda-amari is a howdah with a canopy. 

HAUDIGA. Can. ? A Mysore wood used for 
furniture ; polishes and turns well ; is useful for the 
cabinetmaker, and would do for veneering. 

HAUG. Martin Haug, Doctor of Philosophy, 
in early life assisted Chevalier Bunsen in preparing 
his Bibelwerk. He was afterwards appointed 
Professor of Sanskrit at Poona, an office which 
he held from 1859 to 1865, and during this time 
he devoted himself to the study of the Zend. He 
published his Funf Gatha in the Journal of the 
German Oriental Society. In Bombay there ap- 
peared his essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, 
and Religion of the Parsees ; and he also edited a 
translation of the Aitareya Brahmana. He re- 
turned to Germany in the beginning of 1866, and 
was almost immediately afterwards appointed 
Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology 
in the University of Munich, which he held up to 
the time of his death. He and dastoor Hoshang 
Jamasp published two valuable glossaries of the 
Old Zend-Pehlavi, and an edition and translation 
of the Arda-Visaf. He died in Switzerland, 2d 
June 1876. 

HAUL. Arab. Power. La haul wa la quwat 
ila ba Allah, There is no power nor virtue but in 
God, — a solemn invocation of Mahomedans. 

HAURAN is a term applied to any solitude, 
whether barren or fertile, and sometimes ap- 
plied to extensive pasture lands. Hauran is the 
Auranitis of Josephus, and the Iturea of St. Luke. 
The countries south of Damascus, viz. the Hauran, 
the rocky wilderness of the Ledja, and the moun- 
tainous district lying east of the Jordan, collec- 
tively speaking, formed the country which was 
first conquered by the Israelites before the sub- 
jugation of the land of Canaan, and was allotted 
to the tribe of Reuben, Gad, and the half tribe of 
Manasseh. In the time of the Romans, nearly the 
whole was comprised under the district called 
Peraea, which was itself divided into the six 
cantons of Abilene, Trachonitis, Iturea, Gaulon- 
itis, Batansea, and Peraea, strictly called ; to which 
some geographers have added Decapolis. Abilene 
was the most northern of these provinces, being 
situated between the mountains of Libanus and 
Anti-Libanus, and deriving its name from the city 
of Abila or Abela. Trachonitis was bounded by 
the desert on the east, Batansea on the west, 
Iturea on the south, and the country of Damascus 
on the north, and included the rocky district now 
called El Ledja. Iturea, on the east of Batansea, 
and to the south of Trachonitis, derived its name 
from Ietur, the son of Ishmael, and was called 
Auranitis, from the city of Auran, which latter 
appellation it still retains, under that of Hauran. 
Gaulonitis was a tract on the east side of the lake 



of Gennesareth and the river Jordan, which 
derived its name from Gaulan, the city of Og, 
king of Bashan. Batansea, the ancient kingdom 
of Bashan, was situated to the north-east of 
Gaulonitis, and was celebrated for its excellent 
breed of cattle, its rich pastures, and for its stately 
oaks. A part of it is now called El Belka. Persea, 
in its strictest sense, included the southern part 
of the country beyond Jordan and Samaria. 

In May the whole of the Hauran plain is 
covered with swarms of Bedouin wanderers from 
the desert, who come for water and pasturage 
during the summer months, and to obtain a pro- 
vision of corn for the winter; they remain till 
after September. If they are at peace with the 
pasha, they encamp generally amongst the villages 
near the springs or wells; if at war with him, 
confine themselves to the district to the south 
of Boazra, towards Om-e-jaml and Jadheins, 
extending as far as Zerka. The Arabs of the 
Jabl Hauran (called the Ahl-ul-Jabl) and those 
of the Ledja seldom encamp beyond their usual 
limits ; they are kept in more strict dependence 
on the pasha than the other tribes. The Ahl-ul- 
Jabl are the shepherds of the people of the 
plains, who entrust them with their flocks during 
the winter to pasture amongst the rocks and 
mountains. In spring the Arabs restore the 
flocks to their proprietors, receiving for their 
trouble one -fourth of the lambs and kids, and 
a like proportion of the butter made from the 
milk during the spring months. Those which 
are to be sold are taken to Damascus. The soil 
of the Hauran consists of a fine black earth, ol 
great depth, but little cultivated. — Burckhardt, 
Robinson's Travels. 
HAUZ. Arab., Hind. A fountain, a tank. 
HAVELOCK, Sir HENRY, K.C.B., one oi 
three brothers, officers in the British army, whc 
served in India. William was killed in charging the 
Sikhs at Ramnuggur. Henry, born 1795 at Bishop- 
wearmouth, in 1815 entered the army in the 
95th Regiment, and afterwards exchanged into the 
13th Light Infantry, and in January 1823 em- 
barked for India. He served in the first Burmese 
war as Deputy Adjutant-General, and published 
his Experiences of Campaigns in Ava. On the 
9th February 1829 he married Hannah Shepherd, 
youngest daughter of the Rev. Dr. Marshman. 
He was with his regiment whilst it was cooped ur 
in Jalalabad. He was present at the battles oi 
Punniar and Maharajpur. In 1857 he commanded 
a division in the Persian war. When the mutinj 
and rebellion of 1857 occurred, Havelock sug- 
gested the formation of a moveable column al 
Allahabad, which was immediately formed, and 
among the troops were Neifl's Madras Fusiliers, 
From this time he commanded in many battles, — 
on the 11th July 1857, at Futtehpur ; on the 15th 
he fought at Aong ; on the 16th he fought and 
took Cawnpur. His last great effort was the firs! 
relief of Lucknow, on the 25th September 1857 
The second relief of Lucknow was effected by Sii 
Colin Campbell, on the 17th November 1857. Sii 
Colin Campbell had arrived in India, and the 
Government had superseded Havelock, putting 
Outram in command of the force in Oudh ; bui 
that noble soldier refused to supplant his brave 
comrade, preferring rather to act under bin 
than deprive him of his well-earned right to re- 
lieve Lucknow, and the two together advancing 
24 



HAVILDAK. 



HAW KINO. 



effected the relief. The Blue Caps (Fusiliers) 
charged tin- Char Bagh bridge, but Maade'i kwo 
gttu Bodd not silence the superior artillery of the 
. n.niv in tluir front. Almost every man at them 
i her killed or wounded, when General Neill, 
who commanded the first brigade in Sir James 
Out ram 's abseuce, allowed a charge, and the first 
Madras Fusiliers were ordered to advance. Lieu- 
tenant Arnold, a young officer ever conspicuous 
even among the daring spirits of that noble regi- 
ment, had been impatiently watching for the 
signal. At the first word, and without waiting 
fur the regiment to rise and form, he dashed on to 
the bridge with some ten of his men. Arnold 
himself fell, shot through both legs, and his devoted 
followers were swept down almost to a man. 
Lieutenant Havelock, the Deputy Assistant Ad- 
jutant-General, alone remained on the bridge, the 
mark for a hundred bullets. The Fusiliers dashed 
forward with a cheer, without giviug the enemy 
time to reload, advanced over the prostrate bodies 
of their comrades, and, rushing on the guns amidst 
a storm of bullets, wrested them from the enemy, 
and bayoneted the gunners. It was a second 
Lodi ! Poor Arnold died. l At length,' writes the 
general, * we found ourselves at the gates of the 
Residency, and entered in the dark in triumph.' 
General Havelock's career was finished. He 
fell sick, and died in perfect peace and hope, 
attended by his aide-de-camp, Hargood of the 
Fusiliers, and his son. Calling the latter to him, 
he said, ' I die happy and contented.' ' See how a 
Christian can die.' And when Outram came to 
visit his dying comrade, he said, ' I have forty years 
so ruled my life, that when death came I might 
face it without fear.' A statue has been erected 
to his memory in Trafalgar Square, London. 

HAVILDAR, in the British Indian armies, a 
non-commissioned officer of native soldiers equal 
to a sergeant. 

HAW AH or Hawa of the Arabs, the Eve of 
the Bible, the mother of the human race, and 
recognised under different names in all cosmo- 
gonies. The Astarte of the Assyrians, Isis nurs- 
ing Horus of the Egyptians, the Demeter and 
the Aphrodite of the Greeks, and the Scythian 
Friya. Baltis, in Byblius called Beuth or Behuth, 
Le. void of genesis, is identical with space, and 
means the mother's womb, the primeval mother, — 
the fundamental idea being the mother or source 
of life, which is the meaning of Havvah, and the Eve 
of Genesis. The tomb of Eve is pointed out in 
several places. Mecca is bounded on the east by 
a hill called Abu-Kubays, and, according to many 
Mahomedans, Adam, with Eve his wife and son 
Seth, lie buried there. Also, at less than a mile 
from the Medina gate of Jedda, is a tomb said 
to be of our common mother Eve. It is surmounted 
by a cupola and surrounded by walls, enclosing a 
pretty cemetery, in which many of her children 
lie around her. — Bunsen's Egypt; Hamilton, Sinai. 
HAWAIGAR, in Hindustan, firework manu- 
facturers. 

HAWK EAGLE, species of the genera Nissetus 
and Limnaetus. 

HAWKING is a pastime to which several 
Asiatic races are addicted. The employment of 
trained hawks may be traced to an exceedingly 
remote antiquity ; and Mr. Layard found a bas- 
relief at Khoreabad, in which a falconer is bearing 
a hawk on his wrist The Bedouins of Mesopotamia 



are attached to the sport, and especially so with 
reference to their food supply ; and the Arabs 
may possibly have introduced it, together with the 
creed of Mahomed, among the Malays of tie- 
Archipelago. In Africa this sport is confined to a 
few of the Mahomedans of the north. In Europe 
it seems to be first distinctly mentioned by authors 
about the fifth century ; but the garniture of the 
trained hawks would appear to have been unknown 
prior to the crusades. In the famous Bayeux 
tapestry, for instance, falcons are represented as 
carried upon the wrist unhooded. Trained 
ospreys were formerly employed in Europe for 
fishing ; and Colonel Montague cites an Act 
passed in the reign of William and Mary, by which 
persons were prohibited at a certain period of 
the year from taking any salmon, salmon peal, or 
salmon kind, by hawks, racks, guns, etc. There 
is at least one great hawk fair or sale in the 
Himalaya, at which Indian falconers, many of 
whom come from immense distances, congregate 
for the purpose of buying, selling, and comparing 
their hawks. 

The hawks commonly used are — 

1. Goshawk. — Astur palumbarius, Linn. Baz, Shah- 
baz, female ; Jurra, male. Europe, Himalaya, 
Sind, Neilgherries. 

2. Crested Goshawk. — A. trivirgatus, Temm. Gor- 
besra, Manik-berra, Kot - eswar. All the hilly 
wooded regions of India. 

The Shah - baz, or hawk - king, a large grey 
goshawk with yellow (gulab) eyes, caught in the 
hills of Afghanistan and its surrounding regions, 
is brought down to the plains, and sold, when well 
reclaimed, trained, and in good condition, for £5 
or £6. The tiercelet or male is, as usual, much 
smaller than the female, and is called Jurra in 
Persian, 'the active.' Both are uncommonly 
strong and ferocious. They are accounted the 
noblest birds ; the Sher-baz (lion-hawk), or pere- 
grine of Bokhara and the snowy regions, being 
all but unknown in Sind. 

3. Peregrine Falcon. — Falco peregrinus, Gm. Bhyri, 
female; Bhyri bacha, male. Native of Europe, 
N. Asia ; visits India from October to April. 

The Bhyri or Bhairi, Falco peregrinus, so 
celebrated amongst Indian falconers for her 
boldness and power, and her tiercel, in Sind 
improperly called the Shahin, are found in some 
parts of Sind. They fly at partridges, hares, 
bustards, curlews, herons, and the saras ; being 
long-winged hawks, or birds of the lure, they are 
taught to fly high, to wait on the falconer, and to 
make the point ; not greatly prized. 

4. Laggar. — Falco jugger, Gray. Laggar, female ; 
Jaggar, male. Common over all India, Sind, Panjab. 

The Laggar, and her mate the Jaggar, is the 
only long-winged hawk generally used in Sind ; 
she is large and black-eyed, with yellow legs, 
black claws, and a tail of a cinereous white colour. 
She is a native of Sind, moults during the hot 
months from April to October, and builds in 
ruined walls and old mimosa trees. The Laggar 
is flown at quail, partridge, curlew, bastard - 
bustard, and hares. The best sport is undoubtedly 
afforded by crows, only she is addicted to carrying 
the quarry, and is very likely to be killed by her 
angry enemies. She is trained for the season, and 
then let loose. 

5. Shahin Falcon.— Falco peregrinator. Sutid. Shahin, 
female; Kohi, Koela, male. Native of all India, 
Afghanistan, and Western Asia. 



25 



HAWKINS. 



HAWKS. 



The Shahin is the female of the Falco pere- 
grinator, and is esteemed the first of all the 
falcons for hawking. It is trained to hover and 
circle in the air over the falconer and party. 

6. Saker or Cherrug.— Falco sacer, Schl. Chargh, 

female; Charghela, male. Africa, Himalaya, 
Nepal, Europe. 
The Saker or cherrug falcon, F. sacer, is trained 
for striking hares, antelopes, florikin. 

7. The Merlin. — Hypotriorchis oesalon, Gm. 

8. Turumti, or Redheaded Merlin. — H. chicquera, 

Daud. Turumti, female; Chetwa, male. Europe, 
all India, and Sind. 
Both these have been trained in Europe and 
Asia. 

9. The Hobby.— Hypotriorchis subbuteo, L. Doureli, 

Kegi. Native of Europe ; a winter visitor to all 
parts of India. 

10. Indian Hobby.— H. severus, Horsf. Dhuti, female; 
Dhuter, male. Inhabits the Himalaya, Malay 
Peninsula, Java, and the Philippines. 

11. The Kestrel. — Tinnunculus alaudarius, Briss. 
Narzi, female ; Narzanak, male. A native of 
Europe ; a cold- weather visitor to India. 

12. Lesser Kestrel. — Erythropus cenchris, Naum. 
Kashmir, Neilgherries. 

13. Red-legged Falcon.— E. vespertinus, L. S. Europe, 
N. Africa, Western and Central Asia, India. 

14. Shikra. — Micronisus badius, Gm. Shikra, female; 
Chipka, Chipak, male. Afghanistan, all India, 
Ceylon, Assam, Burma, Malayana. 

15. European Sparrow-hawk. — Accipiter nisus, L. 
Basha, female; Bashin, male. Visits India, 
October to March. 

16. Besra Sparrow-hawk. — A. virgatus, Temm. Besra, 
female; Dhoti, male. All the large forests of 
India, Assam, Burma, and Archipelago. 

The Shikra and her tiercel the Chipak are 
flown at partridges, and by their swiftness and 
agility afford tolerable sport. At the same time 
they are opprobriously called dog-birds by the 
falconer, on account of their ignoble qualities, 
their want of stanchness, and their habit of carry- 
ing the game, — carrying being the technical word 
for flying away with the wounded bird. They 
could formerly be bought ready trained in most 
parts of Sind for a shilling or two. 

The Shikra, Micronisus badius, is more com- 
monly trained in India than any other hawk. 

The European sparrow-hawk, Accipiter nisus, 
and the Besra sparrow-hawk, A. virgatus, are both 
largely trained. 

The Bashah sparrow-hawk, A. nisus, and her 
mate the Bashin, a small, short-winged, low-flying 
bird with yellow eyes, and dark plumage in her 
first year, which afterwards changes to a light 
ash colour, marked with large grey bars, are very 
much valued on account of the rapid way in 
which they fill the pot, especially with partridges. 
As they remain in Sind during the cold weather, 
and retire in summer to the hills around, those 
trained are passage -hawks, or birds of the year. 
Their low price, 8s. or 10s., made it scarcely 
worth while to mew them, so they were let loose 
when the moulting season commenced. — Jerdorfs 
Birds ; Burtoii's Falconry in the Valley of the 
Indus. 

HAWKINS, an English captain who landed at 
Surat in the year 1608, in the reign of the 
emperor Jahangir. He proceeded to Agra to the 
court of the emperor, where he was well received. 

HAWKS, Kites, etc. 



Faucon, Fr. 

Habicht, Falke, . . Ger. 
Falcone, .... It. 



Halcon, Sp. 

Atmaja, . . . Turk. 



Eagles, hawks, kites, etc., are all classed by 
naturalists under the sub-families Accipitrinae or 
hawks, Aquilinse or eagles, Buteoninse or buzzards, 
FalconinaB or falcons, and Milvinse or kites, etc., 
all of the family Falconidse. They fly well, take 
their prey on the wing, feed on small mammals, 
birds, reptiles, fishes, and insects ; almost all are 
solitary and monogamous. Many of them are 
common to Great Britain and the E. Indies, as the 
peregrine and other falcons, the merlins, and 
kestrel. Astur trivirgatus, the goshawk, occurs 
in the hilly parts of Nepal, India, and the Malay 
countries. A. palumbarius is a native of Europe 
and the Sub-Himalaya. The kestrel is occasionally 
observed in extraordinary abundance, and har- 
riers (Circus) are often seen beating over the open 
ground. In Lower Bengal, kites quit Calcutta 
and neighbourhood during the rains and return in 
the cold weather. It is supposed that they go to 
the N.E. to breed. The kestrel, baza, and Indian 
hobby are most frequent in Bengal during the rains. 
In Bengal, the kites and Brahmany kites breed 
chiefly in January and February, and disappear 
during the rains ; but adjutants appear as soon 
as the rains set in, and, becoming in fine plumage 
towards the close of the rains, depart at that time 
to breed in the eastern portion of the Sunderbuns, 
and along the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal, 
upon lofty trees and rocks. In the island of Bom- 
bay, on the approach of the monsoon, nearly all the 
kites, hawks, vultures, and other carrion birds 
disappear from the sea-coast ; but the crows begin 
to build their nests and hatch their young just at 
the season that seems most unsuitable for incuba- 
tion, when the eggs are often shaken out, or the 
nests themselves are destroyed, by the violence and 
inclemency of rain and tempest. Carnivorous 
birds, as the rains approach, betake themselves to 
the comparatively dry air of the Dekhan, where 
they nestle and bring forth in comfort, and find 
food and shelter for their little ones. The scenes 
which follow the conclusion of the rains are 
curious enough. While the Mahomedans bury, 
and the Hindus burn their dead, the Parsee race 
expose their dead in large cylindrical roofless 
structures, called towers of silence, where birds 
of prey at all times find an abundant repast. Their 
family cares and anxieties over for the season, the 
carrion birds, which had left in May for the 
Dekhan, return in October to Bombay, and make 
at once for the usual scenes, now stored with a 
three months' supply of untasted food. As they 
appear in clouds approaching from the mainland, 
the crows, unwilling that their dominions should 
be invaded, hasten in flocks to meet them, and a 
battle ensues in the air, loud, fierce, and noisy ; 
the fluttering of the wings, the screaming and 
cawing of the combatante, resounding over the 
island, till the larger birds succeed, and, having 
gained the victory, are suffered henceforth to live 
in peace. 

In Ceylon, the beautiful peregrine falcon, Falco 
peregrinus, Linn., is rare, but the kestrel, Tinnun- 
culus alaudarius, Briss., is everwhere found ; and 
the bold and daring goshawk, Astur trivirgatus, 
Temm., is seen wherever wild crags and precipices 
afford safe breeding places. In the district of 
Anaradhpura, where it is trained for hawking, it 
is usual, in lieu of a hood, to darken its eyes by 
means of a silken thread passed through holes in 
the eyelids. The ignoble birds of prey the kites, 



26 



HAY. 



HAZARA. 



MilviiR govinda, 8jfk$$ } keep close by tho shore, 
and hover round the returning boats of the fisher- 
men, to feast on the fry ■ejected from their nets. 
AccijHtei ti inotatuB is a beautiful hawk of Celebes, 
with elegant rows of large round white spots on 
the tail. — TennanVs Ceylon, p. 246; Dr. Buist in 
liomhaij Times; Mr. Blyth, ' Z.,' m Indian Field. 
See Eagles. 

HAT. 



Hd\i, . . . 

I'"in, . . . 

II' u. . . . 

Bokha ghaiiH, 



DUT. 

. l'K. 

Gku. 

Go j. 

Hind. 



Fieno It. 

Fuunuin, .... Lat. 



Fono, 

Syeno, 

Heno, 

Hd, ... SW, 
Wolanda pillu, . . 
Kudu pnehika, . . 
Kuru ot, . . . . 



Pobt. 

BUB. 

. Sp. 
, Dan. 

Tam. 

Tkl. 
Tukk. 



Any kind of grass out and dried for the food 
of liorses, cattle, etc — M'Culloch; Faulkner. 

HAY, LORD ARTHUR, afterwards Marquess 
of Tweeddale, author of numerous contributions 
on the botany and natural history of India. 

HAYOBAN8, a Rajput tribe in the province of 
Benares, who once were dominant on the banks 
of the Xerbadda. — W. 

II A YWARD, GEORGE W„ a scientific explorer, 
who was endeavouring to reach the Pamir steppes 
and the country north of Peshawur, in the interest 
of the Royal Geographical Society of London, 
but was murdered, in a.d. 1870, in Chitral by 
Mir Wali, the nephew (sister's son) of Aman 
Malik, chief of Chitral, the valley north of Swat 
and Bajour and west of Gilghit. The Kashmir 
authorities urged him repeatedly to abandon the 
expedition, in which his life would not be safe. 
Iff. Hay ward resolved to persevere, although he 
was aware that beyond the Gilghit frontier the 
Maharaja of Kashmir would be absolutely unable 
to protect him. 

HAZAR. Arab. Present. Hence also Huziir, 
the presence, an appellation of royalty ; also 
Hazrat, a respectful address ; Uazari, breakfast. 

HAZARA, according to Bellew, is from Hazar, 
a thousand ; it means a division, a disposition by 
thousands, and is so applied by the Persians, 
by the mountaineers of Gnor, and by the Afghans, 
to the Mongol tribes occupying the mountain 
country of Ghor, lying between Kabul and Herat 
in one direction, and Kandahar and Balkh in 
another. He says (p. 205) it is the equivalent of 
the Tartar toman or tuman. Hazara tribes occupy 
the whole range of the Paropamisus, or the 
mountains extending between the Hindu Kush 
or Caucasus and the city of Herat, to within a few 
days' march of Kandahar. The Hazara districts 
between Kabul and Bamian are collectively called 
Bisut. and mallia or tribute is enforced from them 
by the authorities of Kabul. In the mountainous 
country between Kabul and Herat, the habitations 
of the Hazara tribes are at heights between 5000 
and 10,000 feet above the sea. Some of them 
claim to be of Turk origin ; others in appearance 
very much resemble the Gurkha. They nave the 
same high cheek-bones, the same small eyes, very 
little beard, and these no doubt are of Tartar 
origin. Some profess the Sunni, others the Shiah 
form of Mahomedanism. A tribe inhabiting the 
country to the east of the Taemuri of Khaff , between 
it and the great range from Khairabad to Rosanak, 
are violent Sunni. These are of Tartar origin, 
and are predatory, selling their captives to the 
Turkoman, and plundering up to Herat. Of the 



*7 



Hazara between Kabul and Herat, some claim 
descent from Toghiani Turk. 

The Deh Kundi Hazara assert their origin from 
a Koresh tribe of Arabs. The Deh Kundi muster 
12,000 fighting men. 

The Faoladi of Gujaristan are said to be bo 
called from a daughter of Afrasiab. 

The Deh Zangi Hazara, who were reduced by 
Murad Bey of Kunduz, are Shiahs, and from them 
most of the Hazara slaves are procured. They 
are rich in flocks, and their cavalry have been 
estimated at from 12,000 to 28,000. 

The Jaguri Hazara, who can assemble 5000, 
occupy the country bounded north by Gujaristan 
and Gul-Koh, east by Karabagh, Mukur, and 
Resana, south by Arghandab and Warazan, and 
westby Mahstan, 60 miles by 40 miles of beautiful 
and fertile valleys, and number about 60,000 souls. 
They are a short but well-made race, beardless, 
with flat nose, and some of their tribes follow 
the custom called Kooroo-bistan, which consists 
in lending their wives to strangers for a night or 
a week. 

The Faoladi Hazara number 1000 families. 
They dwell between Kabul and Bamian. 

The Deh Chafran or Zard-alu, near Karabagh, 
are about 3000 families. 

The Shaikh Ali, east of Bamian, from 8000 to 
5000 families, occupy between Bamian, Ghorband, 
and the Helmand. 

About forty other tribes are mentioned by 
Elphinstone, Burness, Wood, Leech, Lumsden, 
who estimate their numbers up to 800,000 souls. 

The Hazara assume as their titles, Ikhtiar, 
Khan, Mehtar, Sadiq, Sultan, Turkhan, and 
Vali. Grain is scarce ; their bread is tasteless ; 
and their food consists of the flesh of their 
sheep, oxen, and horses, with cheese. In 
years of scarcity they voluntarily sell their 
children to the Uzbak slave dealers. The Shiah 
Hazara detest and persecute the Sunni Afghan, 
Aimak, and Uzbak, yet revere Ali and all Syuds. 
They speak a Persian dialect, and are friendly 
with the Kazzilbash and Parsivan. Almost every 
tribe is at war with their neighbours, and with 
the Aimak and Uzbak, and even the chiefs of their 
own race carry off many into slavery. Hazara do 
all the labouring work of Kabul. Their country 
yields lead and sulphur. They breed dumba (tailed) 
sheep and horses. Their animals have the fine 
shawl- wool with which they manufacture carpets and 
the fabric called Burrick. Hazara Zeidnat was a 
tribe in the fertile KalaNao district, at the Murghab 
and Panjdeh rivers, who claim to be the original 
Hazara, and assume the title of Sar-i-khana. Their 
chief has jurisdiction over 28,000 tents. They 
are supposed to be 'Aimak. They had immense 
flocks and herds of sheep, goats, buffaloes, and 
camelB. In 1847, Yar Muhammad marched agamst 
and defeated Karimdad, the chief of this tribe, 
and removed 10,000 families to Herat ; and tho 
Persians, after the capturo of Herat in 1857, 
removed the whole tribe within Persian territory, 
and deprived them of all their baggage and cattle. 
They could assemble 4000 cavalry and 8000 
infantry. Ferrier, in his Caravan Journeys 
(pp. 194-237), mentions that he fell among the 
Aimak Hazara on the Murghab river, and other 
tribes about Dev-Hissar, more to the north and 
east. He says their women take part in every 
war, manage the horse, the sword, and the fire- 



HAZARA. 



HEAD. 



lock. Their courage amounts to rashness, and 
they are more dreaded than the men for cruelty 
and fierceness. It is, and, so far as they know, 
has always been, a national custom. Here we 
have an intelligible explanation of the Amazons of 
Alexander, and the 'female hosts' of Nemuchi. 
In an attack by the Firoz Kohi on a Hazara tribe 
near Singlah, in which he was engaged, he says 
it was a remarkable sight to see brave and 
energetic Tartar women under fire amongst, and 
as forward as, the men ; they fight also on horse- 
back, and ride or act under any circumstances as 
well as the other sex. He says 'more than one of 
them would, I have no doubt, meet any European 
horseman on more than equal terms : the dexterity 
with which they manage their horse is extra- 
ordinary, and their courage is not less great. 
They take part in every war, and the vanquished 
dread their cruelty more than that of the men.' 
— Cal. Rev. No. 64, p. 433 ; Vigne's Personal 
Narrative, pp. 113-171; Masson's Journeys, ii. 
pp. 217-295 ; E. I. Pari. Papers, Cabool and 
Afghanistan, pp. 135, 136 ; Yule's Cathay, ii. 
p. 540 ; Ferrier, Journeys, pp. 194, 222, 237 ; 
MacGregor ; Bellew, p. 205 ; Campbell, p. 54. 

HAZARA, a British district in the Panjab, 
lying between lat. 33° 45' and 35° 2' N., and 
between long. 72° 35' 30" and 74° 9' E. ; area, 
2771 square miles. It is bounded on the north 
by the Black Mountains, the Swati country, 
Kohistan, and Chilas, on the east by Kashmir, 
on the south by Rawal Pindi district, and on the 
west by the river Indus. It consists of a long 
and narrow valley, shut in on either side by lofty 
mountains, whose peaks rise to 17,000 feet above 
the sea. A group of ancient mounds, extending into 
the southern portion of this district from that of 
Rawal Pindi, have been identified by General 
Cunningham with the site of Taxila. Under the 
successors of Ranjit Singh, the Hazara people 
declared for independence, and Syud Akbar of 
Sitana was elected king by the assembled 
chieftains. Enumeration over a total area of 
2835 square miles disclosed a total population of 
367,218. The Hindus amount to 5*06 per cent. 
The Pathan tribes were — Jadun, 15,711 ; Swati, 
21,334; 'others,' 16,748. Other Mahomedans 
are— Syuds, 11,700; Dhund, 14,412; Kharal, 
10,734; Awan, 50,564; Gujar, 54,420. Hindus 
or Sikhs— Kshatriyas, 12,320; Brahmans, 3009. 
The Swati occupy the Khagan gorge ; while the 
other tribes of Pathan origin inhabit the western 
frontier of the district. The Dhund and Kharal 
hold the south-eastern hills ; the Awan and 
Gujar are scattered over the whole country, 
occupying inferior social positions. The Dhund, 
Kharal, and Swati in particular are of small 
stature, and deficient in strength. — Imp. Gaz. 

HAZARIBAGH, a British district in Bengal, 
lying between lat, 23° 25' and 24° 48' N., and 
long. 84° 29' and 86° 38' E. ; area, 7020 square 
miles ; population in 1872, 771,875. A central 
plateau, about forty miles in length, has peaks 
rising from 2463 to 3445 feet above the sea. 
Its aboriginal tribes are — Santal, 35,306 ; Kol, 
7307 ; Bhoi, 5835 ; Munda, 5664 ; Birhor, 132 ; 
Bhuiya, 73,824; Chamar, 26,112; Ghatwal, 
31,134 ; Bhogta, 20,546. The agriculturists are 
— Kurmi, 40,538; Koeri, 27,550. The traders 
are— Banya, 13,669; and Teli, 29,876. The 
Rajputs, known as the Panwar or Ujjaini, formerly 



supplied the Bhojpuria sepoys to the native 
army ; and the Nagbansi, who are peculiar to 
Chutia Nagpur, are Rajputs of pure blood. 
The Srawak or secular Jains are well-to-do 
merchants, and occupy a high social position. 
The religious Jains five at the foot of Parasnath 
Hill, and are custodians of the temples in the 
village of Madhuban, from which pilgrims ascend 
Parasnath. The Birhor of Hazaribagh and Lohar- 
dagga live in the jungles or hill - sides in huts 
made of branches of trees. They have hardly 
any cultivation, and never touch a plough. The 
men spend their time in snaring hares and 
monkeys, and also trade in various jungle pro- 
ducts. They worship female deities and devils, 
and it is supposed that they at one time practised 
cannibalism. The wealthier Ghatwals are con- 
siderable landholders in the N.E. of Hazaribagh, 
and claim to be zamindars under the permanent 
settlement of 1793. — Imp. Gaz. 

HAZ AR KINIAN, or the Thousand Springs, are 
in Kurdistan, in the district of Aalan, an alpine 
spot where innumerable springs start from the 
ground. — Rich's Kurdistan, i. p. 262. 

HAZEL NUT, Corylus avellana. 
Bindik, .... Beng. Avellane, . . . Lat. 
Tsin, .... Chin. Fenduk, . . . Pebs. 
Noisettes aveilenes, Fr. Avellaas, . . . Port. 
Haselnusse, . . Ger. Avellanas, . . . Sp. 

Naccinole, aveline, . It. 

The fruit of different species of the Coryli or 
hazel trees. The kernels have a mild, farinaceous, 
oily taste, agreeable to most palates. A kind of 
chocolate has been prepared from them, and 
they have been sometimes made into bread. 
They are grown in Europe, are produced abun- 
dantly in China and in the Himalayas ; and hazel 
nuts are imported into Bombay from the Persian 
Gulf.— APCulloch. 

HAZIRAT. Hind. In Mahomedan divination, 
in India, the flame of a charm-wick. 

HAZIR ZAMIN. Hind. A personal bail. 

HAZRAT. Arab. An honorific appellation, 
equivalent to lord, reverence, Mr., worship. Lord 
Jesus, Hazrat Isa. Hazrat Ali, the lord Ali. 

HAZRAT IMAM, a town on the south bank of 
the Oxus, producing good silk. 

HEAD. 

Ras, Arab. I Sar, . . Hind., Pers. 

Tete Fr. I Talle, . . Tam., Tel. 

The Mahomedan races of Arabia, Persia, and 
India, in acknowledging an order, stake their 
head on obeying it. The Arab will say, Dala 
rasi, On my head be it ; and the Persian and 
Indian Mahomedan, Ba-sar-o-chashm, On my 
head and eyes be it. Horses are numbered by 
their head, as Bis ras asp, 20 head of horses. 

Head cloths, or roomals, of cotton are manu- 
factured in the Madras districts. They are 
always in squares of 5^ and 6 cubits, with lace 
borders, and are always red - coloured, printed 
with white spots. These are worn by Hindus as 
turbands, and are of value from Rs. 8 to 250. 

Head - dress. The Turks of Turkey and of 
Egypt wear the turband and the red Fez cap. The 
Jews of Syria, Egypt, and Persia wear the turband 
(sar -band). All the Mahomedans and many 
Hindus of India use turbands. Many Persians wear 
caps. The Chinese history ascribes wing-like 
appendages to their emperor's cap. But wings 
attached to the cap are rather an ancient Hindu 



28 



UK AT. 



HEBREW. 



feature, and are remarkably preserved in the stab- 
costume of the kings of Burma and the sultanB of 
Java. — Yule, Cnthay, i. p. lix. 

1 1 1 •: AT. Poo hgying, Bukm. The heat in S. Asia 
is sometimes very great Major Sander's ther- 
liioiin 1. 1. mi the Farrah-Kud in 1840, rose to 
176° in the sun, a heat which enabled him to 
poach eggs in the burning sand. The mean heat 
at Bombay is 84°, at Madras 88°, Calcutta 79°, 
Delhi 72 . The gunpowder in the factory of 
Madras is dried on blackened platforms in the 
aun'8 rays, and the thermometer rises to 164° 
Falir. 

HEAVEN, the Assama, Al-Fardus, and the 
.Taimat of the Arab, Bihisht of the Persians, 
Himinel of the Germans, and Paridesh of the 
Hindu, with all is the place to which the souls 
of the virtuous dead are translated. Paridesh 
means the other world ; Himinel is from Himalaya, 
the abode of snow. Mahomedans and Jews have 
WTen heavens. The seven heavens of the Jews 
are — (1) the vellum or curtain, (2) the expanse 
or firmament, (3) the clouds of ether, (4) the 
habitation where the temple of Jerusalem and 
altar are situated, and (5) where Michael offers 
ncrifice ; (6) fixed residence, (7) Araboth or 
■pedal place of glory. The celestial place of the 
Saiva Hindus is Swerga, said to be on Kailasa, a 
mountain in the Himalayas north of Lake Manasa, 
also on Mount Meru. It is also called Sairibha, 
Mi8raka vana, Tavisha, Tridivam, Tripishtapam, 
and Urdhwa-loka. The heaven or paradise of 
Vishnu is Vaikuntha, also called Vaibhro, and 
sometimes described as on Mount Meru. The Saiva 
regards Vaikuntha, and the Vaishnava regards 
Kailas as merely a second Swerga. Each sect 
believes that the heaven of their opponents passes 
away with Indra's paradise at the Maha Prulay, 
but that their own heaven is not so much destroyed 
as re-created, Kailas merging into Maha Kailas, 
and Vaikuntha being elevated into Go Lok. 

HEAVY SPAR or sulphate of baryta is found 
near the village of Pudoor, on the banks of the 
Tumbudra, about 7 miles from Kurnool, on the 
slope of a low range of hills. Dr. Royle found it 
near the convalescent depot at Landour. 

HEBEL, the vanishing, Abel of the Bible. 

HEBER. The passage. A historical term con- 
nected with the race of Arphaxad, indicating their 
passage near the Upper Tigris in a south-western 
direction. — Bunsen. See Joktan. 

HEBER, REGINALD, bishop and metropolitan 
of India, an eminent writer. He was found dead 
in his bath at Trichinopoly on the 3d April 1826. 
He visited many parts of India, and consecrated 
most of the churchyards and churches, which led 
to after regulations. His narrative was published 
in London in 1828. 

HEBREW. The language of Tyre and Sidon 
was pure old Hebrew. Abram was a Hebrew, 
who spoke Aramaic as his mother tongue, but 
migrated from the Trans-Euphrates country, and 
adopted the language of Canaan. His first-born 
son was Sidon. 1400 years after Joseph, Canaan 
was occupied by the Israelite, Edomite, and 
Canaanite as separate nations. In the Old 
Testament (Isaiah xix. 18) the language of the 
Bible is called the language of Canaan, — in no 
instance Hebrew. The Hebrew language is used 
by the small colony of Jews residing in Cochin 
and its neighbourhood. Hebrew is a branch of 



the Semitic family of languages. Yemen and 
Arabia are considered by Jewish mediaeval tradi- 
tion as the land of the Ten Tribes, where powerful 
Jewish kings fought against infidels ; this belief 
exists even now among Eastern Jews. About 
the middle of the 19th century, Rabbi R. Jacob 
Saphir visited Yemen. After R. Jacob Saphir, 
Joseph Halevy was sent to Yemen by the French 
Government, in order to copy Himyaritic in- 
scriptions, and brought back manuscripts, which 
were partly acquired by the Bodleian Library. 
Mr. Shapira of Jerusalem revisited the Jews in 
Yemen, and through him the British Museum now 

Eissesses a considerable number of manuscript 
ibles, many of them provided with the super- 
linear punctuation (usually called the ' Assyrian ' 
vowel-points, while the punctuation used in our 
Bibles is called the ' Palestinian '), as well as with 
the Massorah. The Yemen manuscripts also 
contain a collection of Agadic books, called 
Midrashim, which embody many lost passages, 
known only from quotations by Maimonides and 
others. In Persia the Jews have adopted in their 
writings the native language, though still using 
Hebrew characters, just as their brethren have 
done in the Arabic -speaking countries, in Greece, 
Spain, France, and Germany, and as the Karaitic 
Jews have done among the Tatars. The Persian 
translation of the Bible to be found in manu- 
scripts of the National Library at Paris is, 
according to Solomon Munk, not earlier than the 
13th century and not later than the 14th ; but 
Bishop Theodoras in the 5th century mentions 
a Persian translation of the Bible. So does 
Maimonides in the 12th century, who refers to a 
translation of the Pentateuch made several cen- 
turies before Mahomed. If this translation is not 
based on an early translation, the Jews in Persia 
must have kept up the ancient Persian dialect, 
just as the German Jews still speak in the ghettos 
the pre-Lutheran German, or as the Spanish 
exiles in the East speak ancient Spanish, — in a 
word, the ' langue des exiles,' as Voltaire styles 
the French of the Huguenots at Berlin. We 
know, in fact, that in the time of the second 
temple the Pentateuch lessons read in the syna- 
gogues (Acts xv. 21) were interpreted by the 
Methurgeman in the vernacular ; hence the origin 
of the Targum or Chaldee translation. In Persia 
this rale was observed as late as the 13th century, 
for it is stated on the margin of Genesis xxxv. 22, 
' The translation of this verse ought not to be read 
publicly.' The same is said in the Talmud, ' The 
history of Reuben is read (in Hebrew), but not in 
the translation.' In the synagogues of the Greek 
rite, the practice of reading the translation of the 
Haftarah (section of the Prophets, Luke iv. 16 ; 
Acts xiii. 14) was still kept up in the 12th 
century, according to a ritual manuscript in the 
Bodleian Library, which contains the Greek 
translation of the book of Jonah in Hebrew 
characters with vowel points. This book forms 
the prophetical lesson of the afternoon service 
(called Minhah) on the Day of Atonement, and it 
is the oldest piece in prose written in modern 
Greek. Besides the Hebraeo-Persian manuscripts 
in Paris, the Imperial Library of St. Petersburg 
possesses a fragment of a Hebraeo - Talmudic 
dictionary, written at Djorjan in 1339, and the 
British Museum an astronomical treatise, tran- 
scribed in Hebrew characters from a Persian 



29 



HEDERACE.E. 



HEDYCHIUM. 



manuscript. This is about all that is known of 
Jewish writing in Persia. 

Recently, Mr. Neubauer acquired in Paris a 
Pentateuch and Psalms, written at Koom in the 
year 1483, to which a Jewish calendar in Persian 
is attached. Another manuscript contains a 
translation of the Psalms, which is missing in the 
Paris collection. The copyist states that it was 
written for the great king, Kibleh-i-Alam (the 
Kibleh of the world), possibly Kablai Khan, who 
was the great protector of art and science in that 
dark age, about 1294. Indeed, at that time, when 
Argun was the vassal king of Persia, the Jewish 
physician Saad-ud-Daula was his minister of 
finances, who not only restored order to the 
finances of the kingdom, and forced the Mongol 
generals to obey law and justice, but also attracted 
learned men and poets to the court of his master. 
The most curious of the manuscripts is a fragment 
of an epopee, which has for its subject the whole 
of the biblical history, and is simply an imitation 
of Firdausi ; its author, however, remains at 
present unknown. 

HEDERACE^E, the ivy tribe of plants, the 
Araliacese of A. Rich. Species of the genera panax, 
paratrophia, and hedera occur in India. H. 
heterophylla occurs in Penang, P. palmatain Nepal 
and Arakan, P. terebinthacea in Penang, and H. 
exaltata, Thw., is a large tree growing in the 
central* province of Ceylon, at an elevation of 
4000 to 6000 feet. H. umbellifera, the Sarura of 
Amboyna, has a shrubby, unarmed stem, and 
yields a blackish or dull-brown resin with a very 
powerful aromatic camphorated smell. — Eng. Cyc; 
Voigt ; I'hw. 

HEDERA HELIX, the ivy. 

Arab, i Arbambal, . . Jhelum, 
Beas. Karmora,Mandia,KAGHAN 



I. Plants adapted for field enclosures. 



Lablab kussus, 
Brumbrum of . 
Dakari, . . . 
Kural, Kuril of 
Harbambal of . 



Parwatti, Thans-Indus 
Chenab. I Karur, .... Ravi. 
Jhelum. | Karbam,Kaniuru, Sutlej. 

This ivy has a chmbing stem, with root-like 
fibres. It is found between the Canaries and 
Europe on the west, and the northern parts of 
China on the east. In the north of India, and 
indeed occasionally in Italy, the berries, instead 
of being black as in Britain, are bright yellow, 
and it is supposed that this is more particularly 
the Hedera of the Roman poets. The flowers are 
yellowish, and appear late in the season, and, in 
consequence, are much resorted to by bees at 
seasons when little other food is to be had. It is 
common in the Panjab Himalaya, at places from 
8200 to 8000 feet ; occurs in the Salt Range and 
Trans-Indus ; and Dr. Bellew got it at 9000 feet 
near the Saf ed Koh. It is stated to be a favourite 
food of goats, and in Kullu the leaves are said to 
be added to the beer of the country to make it 
strong. — Dr. J. L. Stetcart, Eng. Cyc. 

HEDGEHOG, the genus Erinaceus of the mam- 
malia. There are in India two species, E. collaris 
and E. mentalis. E. dealbatus, Swinhoe, is Chinese. 

HEDGES are not used for the cold-weather 
crops of India. For the garden crops, sugar-cane, 
betel vine, and others, the large species of sac- 
charum are used. Quick hedges are formed in 
Japan of the Lycium Japonicum, Citrus trifoliata, 
Gardenia, species of Viburnum, Thuja, Spiraea ; 
and arbours are made of the Dolichos polystachyos. 
Dr. Cleghorn gives the following as the wild and 
cultivated hedge plants of India :— 



Opuntia Dillenii, Haw. 
Agave Americana, L. 
Euphorbia tirucalli, L. 
E. antiquorum, L. 
E. nivulia, Buck. 
Csesalpinia sepiaria, Rox. 
C. sappan, L. 
Pterolobium lacerans. 
Guilandina bonduc, L. 
Parkinsonia aculeata, L. 
Poinciana pulcherrima, L. 
Mimosa rubicaulis, Lam. 
Inga dulcis, Willd. 
Acacia Arabica, Willd. 
A. concinna, D. C. 
Vachellia farnesiana, W. 
Hemicyclia sepiaria, W. 



Epicarpurus orientalis, 

Blume. 
Jatropha curcas, L. 
Pisonea aculeata, Rox. 
Capparis sepiaria, L. 
C. aphylla, Rox. 
Scutia Indica, Brong. 
Azima tetracantha, Lam. 
Gmelina Asiatica, L. 
Balsamodendron Berryi, 

Am. 
Toddalea aculeata, Pers. 
Bambusa arundinacea. 
Bambusa spinosa, Rox. 
B. nana, Rox. 
Dendrocalamus tulda, Nees. 
Pandanus odoratissimus. 



ii. Ornamental plants forming inner fences. 



Lawsonia inermis, Wall. 
Lonicera ligustrina, L. 
Citrus limetta, Riss. 
Morus Indica, L. 
Punica granatum, L. 
Phyllanthu8 reticulata. 
Hibiscus rosa Sinensis, L. 



Adhatoda vasica, Nees. 
A. betonica, Nees. 
Graptophyllum hortense, 

Nees. 
Gendarussa vulgaris, Nees. 
Gardenia florida, L. 
Allamanda cathartica, L. 



III. Plants used for edging garden walks. 
Pedilanthus tithymaloides, j Rosa semjierfiorens, Curtis. 



Heliotropium 
cum, L. 



Curassavi- 



Poit. 
Vinca rosea, Willd. 
Rosa Indica, L. 

The Cacti, Agave*, and Euphorbias are adapted 
to the arid districts, their structure enabling them 
to exist, when refreshed with only occasional 
showers ; the Mimoseae and Caesalpineae seem to 
enjoy the somewhat more cold and moist climate 
of the Balaghat districts; while the Bambuseae 
and Pandaneae luxuriate in the rich loamy soil of 
the Mulnad (i.e. rain country). Plants for railway 
fences ought to differ as the line is continued 
through various districts, in accordance with the 
conditions under which particular plants thrive 
best between certain limits of temperature and 
moisture. — Thunberq's Tr. iii. 8 ; Cleghorn in 
Rep. Brit. Ass. 1850, p. 811. 

HEDUNG of Java, the chopping knife of the 
Tenger mountaineers. 

HED-YA. Mahr. A drover or cattle-dealer. 

HEDYCHIUM, a genus of plants belonging to 
the natural order Zingiberacese. 28 species occur 
in the East Indies, some of them with sweet- 
smelling flowers. 

Hedychium coronarium, Linn. 
Doolal champa, . Beng. I Ganda suli, . . Malay. 
Khet-lan-thae, . Burm. | 

The garland flower, much cultivated. The 
flowers are fragrant; colours, orange, scarlet, 
yellow, and white. The yellow and white varieties 
are both common. This is the most charming of 
all the plants of this natural order; the great 
length of time it continues to throw out a profusion 
of large, beautiful, fragrant blossoms, makes it 
particularly desirable. The plants are increased 
by dividing the roots. 

Hedychium spicatum, Royle. 

Ban-haldi ; Shlui of Beas. | Bazar Roots. 

Sidhoul, . . . Hind, i San-nai, San-lah, Chin. 
Ban-kela ; Saki of Ravi. Kapur kachri, . Hixn. 
Khor ; Shalwi, . Sutlej. Kachur, Seer, Rutti, ,, 

This grows throughout the East Indies, in Nepal, 
in the Panjab Himalaya, up to near the Jhelum, 
at least, at from 8500 to 7500 feet, and also in 
China. Its large broad leaves are twisted, and 
made into coarse mats for sleeping on, etc. The 
root is fragrant, warm, and aromatic ; and Dr. 



30 



IIKPYOTIDEjE. 

Roylo thinks it may probably hi the rittc, or lesser 
nkngal of Ainslie. The root, capoor cutchery, 
in China, is cut into unmll pieces and dried for 
exportation ; lias internally a whitish colour, but 
externally it is rough and of a reddish colour; it 
ha* a pungent and bitterish taste, and a slightly 
aromatic smell. It is exported to Bombay, and 
from thence to Persia and Arabia; it is said to be 
iim (1 in jH-rfumery and for medicinal purposes, 
and also to preserve clothes from insects. In 
Garhwal they are used in washing the newly 
ma! lied ; and Madden states that they are pounded 
with tobacco for the hookah. — O'.S'A; memden j 
Roxb. ; \oiqt; Stewart. 

HKDVOTIDEiE, a section of plant* of the 
natural order Cinchonacese, containing species of 
Wendlandia. Dciitclla, lb dyotis, etc. Ihere are 
ten knows ipeciea of 1 Icily otis. 

Hedyotis Burmanniana, R. Br. 
Oldenlandia bifiora, Lam. 
( rcrontcgea biflora, Cham, and Schl. 
Khet-papra, . . Bkno. | Purputi, Papra, . Hind. 

Two-flowered Indian madder, is a plantof Ceylon, 
both Peninsulas of India, and Bengal. Appears in 
moist ground in the rainy season. The whole 
plant is used in infusion as an excellent tonic aud 
febrifuge in chronic fever. Dose 1 to 2 drachms ; 
piicc 8 annas per lb. Other species also occur, 
and are called Ganda badalee and Poonkha. 

Hedyotis Heynei, R. Br. 
H. herbacea, Willde. | Oldenlandia herbacea, Sox. 
Telia nela vemu Tel. 

A plant of the Peninsula of India. — Irvine. 

Hedyotis umbellata, Lamarck. 
H. hispida, Roth. Oldenlandia umbellata, 

H. Indica, Rcem. and 8ch. Linn. 

Chay-root, Anglo-Tam. Saya, Tam. 

Indian madder, . Exg. Emburel ckeddi, . ,, 

Choya Singh. Cherivelu, . . . Tel. 

Sayan ; Sayan mul, ,, 

This dye plant grows in sandy soils on the Coro- 
mandel coast. The root of that which grows wild 
is reckoned the best, but it is also cultivated 
to some extent. For the cultivation of the plant 
the finest sandy soil is required, as being the 
most favourable to the free growth of the root, 
on the length of which the value of the article 
greatly depends. The cultivation commences in 
the end of May or beginning of June, with 
the first falls of the south-west monsoon. Dur- 
ing the space of three months the sand is sub- 
jected to repeated ploughings, and is thoroughly 
cleaned from all weeds. Between each ploughing 
it is manured, and after the last ploughing it is 
levelled with a board, and formed into small beds 
of about six feet by three. The seed, which is 
extremely minute (so much so that it is impossible 
to gather it except by sweeping up the surface 
sand into which it has fallen, at the end of the 
harvest), is then sown by spreading a thin layer 
of sand over the prepared beds. They are then 
kept constantly moist, and are watered gently with 
a sieve made of palmyra fibres, five or six times 
a day ; care being taken that the water is quite 
sweet and fresh, for which purpose it is obtained 
from wells newly dug in the field. At the end of 
a fortnight the seeds under this treatment will 
have germinated freely, after which the young 
plants are only watered once a day, in addition to 
which, liquid cow-dung, greatly diluted with water, 
is daily sprinkled over them. In about four 



HEERA-KASSEES. 

months more, or at the end of six months from 
the time of sowing, provided the season has been 
good and the falls of rain regular, the plants will 
have reached maturity, and the roots be ready for 
digging. But no artificial irrigation will compear 
sate for a failure of the natural rain ; and when 
this happens, the plants must be left for ti, 
even four months longer, in which case the 
produce will be deficient both in quantity and 
quality. But in an ordinary season the produce 
of a podtt) or plot containing an acre ana three- 
quarters, will yield from 5 to 10, averaging about 
8, candies of 500 lbs. each. 

The plants are dug up with a light wooden spade 
tipped with iron, and are tied into bundles of 
a handful each, without outting off the stocks. 
They are then left to dry, the leaves wither and 
fall off, and the bundles are weighed and removed. 
Before the digging begins, the seeds, which have 
now ripened, are shed, and, being exceedingly 
minute, become inextricably mixed with the sand, 
the surface of which is therefore carefully scraped 
up, and reserved for future sowings. 

It is largely UBed by the Indian dyer in the south 
of India. It furnishes a red dye similar to 
manjith. Experiments in Great Britain with the 
chay-root have hitherto failed, in consequence, it 
is supposed, of deterioration during the voyage. 
In the case of this and of some other Indian dye- 
stuffs, the colouring matter could be extracted 
similarly to indigo before it is exported. — O'Sh. ; 
Ains.; R. Mad. Ex. 1857. See Chay-root; Dyes. 

HEDYSARUM. Ti-yu, Chin. Several occur 
in China, where the roots are employed as a Btyptic 
or vulnerary. The leaves are used as a vegetable, 
and as a substitute for the proper tea-leaf. 

H. lineare is used in Cochin-China as a 
stomachic, and H. alpinum in Siberia for the same 
purpose. 

H. junceum grows in vaBt quantities in Shek- 
hawatti and elsewhere, near Jeypore ; the small 
branches are sweet, and eaten by camels and other 
cattle. This becomes a considerable bush, and 
has no thorna 

H. edysarum tuberosum, Roxb. 
Pueraria tuberosa. — Bank's lc. Kemp. tab. 25. 
Kudsumi, . . . Hind. | Daree goomodee, . . Tkl. 

A rare species, a native of the valleys far up 
amongst the mountains. It flowers during the hot 
season, at which time it is perfectly naked of 
leaves, being deciduous about the beginning of 
the cold season. The root, peeled and bruised 
into a cataplasm, is employed by the natives of the 
mountains where it grows to reduce swellings of 
the joints.— Roxb. ii. 863 ; Gen. Med. Top. p. 205 ; 
Smith. 

HEEL. This part of the body is often alluded 
to by oriental nations. The only vulnerable part 
of Krishna's body was his heel, in which he was 
shot by a Bhil. 

HEEMACHA. HlNn. A bag made of the 
skin of a lamb, used by fakirs. 

HEEN. Every Chinese province is divided 
into a certain number of districts, called Fu, Ting, 
Chow, or Heen. A Fu is a large portion or 
department of a province under the general con- 
trol of a civil officer, immediately subordinate to 
the head of the provincial government. — Sirr, 
Chinese. 

HK.ERA-KASSEES. Hrm Dry persulphate 
of iron, used in dyeing, in making ink, blacking 



81 



HEERA-KHOND. 



HELICTIS. 



leather ; also in medicine, and made into missi to 
apply to the teeth. To make — 
Black missi. — Heera-kassees, chaipal harra, chooni- 
gond, lila tootiya, iron filings, kuth, equal parts, 
pounded and mixed ; rubbed on the gums. 
White missi.— Sufaid soorum (crystallized carbonate 
of lime, double refracting spar) and cinnamon 
pounded together ; used as tooth-powder. 
Sada-kassees.— Impure sulphate of iron, the refuse 
from the manufactory of the sulphate of copper ; 
four seers for one rupee. 

HEERA-KHOND, a place in Assam where 
diamonds occur. See Diamond. 

HEERANA or Hirana, in E. Oudh, manuring a 
field by penning a herd of cattle or flock of sheep 
in it for several hours. K'hhutana is used in a 
similar sense in Rohilkhand. This practice is 
known in England under the name of fold-course 
or foldage, and formerly meant a privilege 
which several lords reserved to themselves of 
setting up folds within their manors for the better 
manurance of the same. — Elliot, Supp. Gloss. 

HEGGADE. Karn. The headman of a town 
or village, but especially applied to one of the 
Jain religion. It is also used by certain castes as 
an affix to proper names, to intimate respectability, 
corresponding with Sahib or Mian in Hindustan. 
— Wilson's Glossary. 

HEI-MIN, in Japan, all below the nobles ; the 
commonalty. 

HEJAZ, Arab., is a large province of Arabia, 
containing the two sacred cities, Mecca and 
Medina. But geographers differ much as to its 
limits. Burton says that the Arab of the Hejaz 
still uses heathenish oaths and heathen names, 
few being Mahomedan. Their ordeal of licking 
red-hot iron, their practice of the salkh or scarifi- 
cation as a sign of manliness, and their blood 
revenge, their eating creatures which have not 
been made lawful by the usual formula, and their 
lending their wives to strangers, he indicates as 
showing how little Mahomedanism has influenced 
the uncivilised parts of the country. — Burton's 
Mecca, iii. 79. 

HELA, a man of a low caste ; an inferior 
division of the Bhangi, engaged in the lowest 
menial offices. The Hela pride themselves on 
eating the leavings of Hindus only. 

HELEOCHARIS TUBEROSA, Rcem. and Sch., 
the Ma-tai or Pe-tsi of the Chinese, is a rush which 
is cultivated in ponds for its edible tubers. H. 
fistulosa and H. plantaginea of Australia and India 
and H. sphacelata are allied plants. — Smith. 

HELFER, Dr., of the Bengal medical service, 
and a celebrated botanist, was murdered by the 
natives of the Andamans, in January 1839. See 
As. Jour. 1840, vol. xxxiii. Author of Notice of 
the Mergui Archipelago, ibid. vol. xxxiii. ; Report 
on Tenasserim and the surrounding Nations, Bl. 
As. Trans, vol. viii. Along with Lieutenant 
Hutchinson, he reported on the new coal-field of 
Tenasserim in Bl. As. Trans. 1839, vol. viii. 385. 
Author of Researches on the Tenasserim Coast, in 
Friend of India, 165, 638. — Dr. Buist, Catalogue. 

HELIANTHUS ANNUUS. L. Sun-flower. 



Shooria mukti, 
Suraj mukhi, . 
Suria mukhi, . 



Beng. 
Hind. 

Sansk. 



Aditya bhakti chettu. 
Poddu or Proddu 
tirugudda chettu, Tel. 



It is indigenous in Mexico and Peru; it was 
early introduced into Europe after the discovery 
of America. It is one of the cistaceae, or rock- 
rose tribe. An acre has been known to yield 



50 bushels of seed - like nutlets, from which 50 
gallons of oil have been pressed, useful for the 
table, for machinery, soaps, and for painting. The 
seeds are valued for feeding fowls, also as a sub- 
stitute for coffee. The large flower-heads yield 
much honey, the stalks a useful textile fibre, 
and the blossoms a brilliant, lasting yellow dye. 
The absorbing and exhaling powers of this plant 
are great, and it is valuable for raising quickly 
vegetation around fever morasses. A sun-flower, 
according to Laccupidan, will exhale \\ lb. of 
water in a day. Its products are yielded in a few 
months. — Roxb. ; Von Mueller. 

HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUM. Linn. 
Bheamoka, . . . Beng. | Jerusalem artichoke, Eng. 

A native of Brazil, but the plant is cultivated 
throughout India as a vegetable in gardens. 
Jerusalem artichoke is a corruption of the Italian 
Girasole. It was introduced into Europe at the 
Farnese Garden at Rome, whence it was originally 
distributed. The roots are composed of a number 
of oblong tubercles, very large and fleshy, reddish 
outside and white within, resembling a potato ; 
the stems are herbaceous, and upright. In France 
it is also known by the name of topinambour 
and poire de terre. According to Braconnot and 
Payen, the tubers do not contain fecula, but a 
vegetable principle called inulin or dahlin. . These 
tubers, when cooked, form a good substitute for 
potatoes, and by some are even preferred. The 
foliage and tubers increase the milk of cows ; the 
stem is rich in textile fibre. Its yield is as 
plentiful as potatoes, with less labour; and in 
fair land, rich in potash, continues uninterruptedly 
from year to year. — Roxb. ; Von Mueller. 

HELICIA ROBUSTA. Wall. 
Rhopala robusta, Roxb. | H. Travancorica, Bedd. 

A very handsome, good-sized tree, not un- 
common on banks of streams on the Travancore 
and Tinnevelly mountains, above Panpanassam, 
at about 4000 feet elevation ; it also inhabits 
Eastern Bengal and Burma. — Beddome, Fl. Sylv. 

HELICIDiE, a family of Gasteropodous mol- 
lusca, the land snails. See Mollusca. 

HELICTERES ISORA. Linn. Screw-plant. 
Isora corylifolia, Sch. and End. 

Avurtunni, . . . Sansk. 
Leeviya-gaha, . . Singh. 
Valambirikai, . . Tam. 
Syamali, . . . Tel. 
Ada syamali, Kavanchi, , , 
Nooli-tudda, . . „ 



Dukh. 



Dhamni, . . 
Muradsing?. . . ,, 
Kewun? Kewanni, „ 
Maror-phalli, . . Hind. 
Kupaisi, Joa-ka-phal, ,, 
Kisht, Bur-kisht, . Peks. 

This plant has a singular-looking contorted cap- 
sule, consisting of five fibres closely twisted in the 
shape of a screw, of various lengths, from 1 to 2| 
inches. A liniment is prepared from the powder 
of it, which is supposed to be a valuable applica- 
tion in cases of offensive sores inside of the ears. 
The Telugu name means that the juice of the root 
is a powerful stomachic. The powder of the fruit 
has also been used in griping pains of the bowels, 
but solely because the twisted fibres of the capsule 
were considered to stamp it as a remedy, accord- 
ing to the ancient doctrine of signatures. The 
fibre of the bark makes good ropes. — Powell ; 
Stewart; Ains. Mat. Med. p. 118; O'Sh. p. 228. 

HELICTIS. Gray. A genus of the mammalia, 
belonging to the order Carnivora and family 
Felidi. The species inhabit Eastern Asia, and 
have the general appearance and colouring of 
Mydaus, combined with a dentition resembling 



32 



HELILAH. 



HELOT. 



Cnfer, . . . 

lolle, . . . 

/inferno, . . 

Amongst Jews, Christians, Mahomedans, and 

VOL. II. 



Fr. 


Narakam, . . 


. SANRK. 


Gkk. 


Infierno, . • 


. . Sp. 


It. 


Jiihuiinain, 


. TlJtK. 



Kalikutki, Duk. 

Schwartz Neiss- 
wargel, . . . 



Ger. 



that of (iulo or Mustela, but differing from both 
die latter genera in the targe internal lobe of the 
Ma eannvorous tooth. There an three apeoiea, 
— II. moaohataof Cliina, H. Kepalenaia, the Nepal 
wolverine, and H. orientahs, Horsfield, from 
Malayana. They have long claws, adapted for 
burrowing. — Jerdon, Mammals, p. 80; Eny. Cyc. 
HELILAH. Arab., Pers. Myrobalan of Ter- 
minalia ohebula, Roxb. Of these there are six 
kind.-. Helilah rirah, th<' young fmit, dried, of 
the um of cumin seed ; Helilah jaoi, size of a 
barley-corn ; Helilah zengi, size of a raisin, and 
Hack like a negro; Helilah chini, larger than 
Helilah zengi. and greenish; Helilah aster, fruit 
ie;tr maturity and yellow; Helilah kabuli, the 

Yuit at full maturity, called also Sarwarri hirda, j Khertik Khcrbeck> AraB . 
Helilah -l-siah, Pers., Hehlaj-ul-aswad, Arab., | Kurbec-ul-nswad, . 
lelileh-i-kalan. PeRS., Helilaj -ul- kabuli, Arab., j Neiswurtel, . . . Dan. 
rerminalia chebula, myrobalan. I Kalikutki, Duk., Hind. 

HEUOPOLIS or Baalbec, the Baalith of 
Scripture, and Heliopolis or temple of the sun of 
he Greeks, is now a ruin. It is ou the lower 
lopes of the Anti-Libanus, 43 miles north-west 
4 Damascus, in lat. 34° 1' 30" N., and long. 36° 
1 K. The date of its origin is unknown ; but 
\ntoninus Tins built a great temple there. It 
vas sacked in a.d. 748 by the Mahomedans, and 
inally pillaged in a.d. 1400 by Timur, and now 
•ontains about 100 Arab families, cultivators, and 
lerdsmen, who reside in a quarter surrounded by 
i modern wall. The great temple of the sun and 
ts buildings ace at the western end, outside the 
node in walls. There were rows of pillars in the 
'orinthian order of architecture, almost all of 
vhich have now fallen, as also have the roofs of 
jreat courts, one of them 144 feet square, and 
Halted passages. On the east is a court 230 feet 
iy 118 feet, which had arches on its western and 
northern sides. See Baalbec. 

HELIOS. The sun-god. See Aditya Ra; Heri. 

IIELIOTHIS ARMIGERA, an insect of the 
amily Noctuidae, which in innumerable hordes 
.ttacked the poppy crops of Shahabad and Patna 
a the season 1877-78 ; it is equally destructive 
o the cotton crops. It eats into the capsules of 
he poppy and cotton ; careful hand-picking is the 
ole remedy. The pupae become entrapped in the 
apsule. In February and March it attacks the 
offce plant. 

HKLIOTROPE or Bloodstone, a quartzose 
oineral, which occurs abundantly in the trap 
ocks of the Dekhan. 

HELIOTROPIUM, a genus of flowering plants 
>f the natural order Boraginaceae ; several species 
re known in India. They should be grown in a 
oil more approaching to sand than clay. They 
re easily cultivated in pots, or the flower beds; 
■ropagated by cuttings in sand under glass. They 
■quire to be protected from the hot winds. — 
'!<>.<■!>. : Uiddell. 

Heliotropium Brevifolium, Wall. 
)hiti mirak, . Dkrajat. | Chittiphub, . . Panj. 

The herb is said to be laxative and diuretic ; 
he seeds are emenagogue. — WalUch; Poicell. 

HELIX, a genus of land-snails very numerous 
a India. 

HELL. 



Hindus, a place of after punishment, to which the 
kouIh of wicked people are lent Mahometan- 

call it by the Hebrew and Arabic term, Jahatrifcn, 

but also Dozakh ; the Hindus, Narakam. Amongst 
the .Japanese. (Jokuja. or hell— or, as it is other- 
wise called. Koja— is their cage. By this they 
"i. an their prison, which stands about the middle 
Of the town, at the corner of a descending street. 
The Hindus have seven or eight hells, named 
Atala, Nitala, Oabha-timat, Mahatala, Sutala, and 
Patala, each under a regent. The Siva Purana 
enumerates eight; other names not enumerated 
above, being Tala, Yidhi Patala, Sarkara-bhumi, 
and Vijaya. — Hist, qf Japan. 

HELLBBORUS NIGER, black hellebore. 

Kuddu, 



Guj., Hind. 
Hellebore, . . . PoBT. 
Kataka rohini katuruni, 

8an.sk., Tam., Tel. 
Calurana, . . . SlKOH. 



Under the native names, two kinds of hellebore 
are commonly met with in the Indian bazars, 
brought from Nepal and the Red Sea. The roots 
of both plants are used in medicine ; they are 
much used by farriers, and occasionally by native 
practitioners, as a powerful cathartic in maniacal 
and dropsical cases. The roots of one kind occur 
in pieces of 4 to 6 inches, are black all through 
their substance, externally of a greyish colour, 
with numerous joints. The second variety is in 
similar pieces, but of a whiter colour internallv 
—Faulk. ; O'Sh. p. 168. 

HELL-WATER, a narcotic spirit, distilled in 
Java from the fleshy part of the fruit of Arenga 
saccharifera. 

HELMAND RIVER is the Etymander of the 
classics, and the Haetumat of the Vendidad. It 
rises at Fazindaz, in the west slopes of the moun- 
tains of Paghman, about lat. 34° 40' N., and long. 
68° 2' E., and, flowing generally to the S.W., after 
a course of 700 miles falls into the lake of Seistan. 
It is fordable at fourteen places. It is capable of 
being navigated by steamers. Its banks are fertile 
and well wooded, and an industrious population 
at one time occupied it, but left it, disgusted with 
the insecurity that prevails ; and the accounts of 
it by travellers, writing at different times, have 
greatly varied. — MacUregor, p. 335 ; Malcolm's 
Persia, i. p. 3; Pottinger's TV. p. 316; Ferriers 
Journey, p. 428. See Aria Palus. 

HELMSMAN, the Sikani, Hind., Jurumudi, 
Malay. Sikani is from Sukhan, a helm. Sukhani, 
a helmsman. 

HELOT. Modern India is largely inhabited by 
Hindus proper and Helot races, who have become 
completely or partially amalgamated into Hindu 
society. The superior Helot classes, all over 
Northern India, cultivate to a considerable extent 
either on their own account or as the servants of 
others. In the south of India are the Pariah, who 
are represented in the Canarese Karnatiea by the 
Holar, and amongst the Mahrattas by the .M liar and 
Dher, and by the Malla in Telingana. The leather- 
workers, the Chakili of the Tamil jieople, are the 
Madiga of the Teling race, and the Mhang of the 
Mahrattas. In Northern India, the Dom, Dam, 
and Dumi ; in Central India, the Kharwar or 
Kheroar, or ancient Santal. and the present Kheria. 
In the Panjab are the Chun serfs, descendants of 
the Chaura military Helots of the .MahaUiarata. 
33 C 



HELWINGIA. 



HEMILEIA VASTATRIX. 



Throughout India are the Coolie or Kuli ; and the 
Hadi is a Helot race in Bengal. — Mr. Campbell 

HELWINGIA, a very anomalous genus of 
Himalaya and Japan, having the unisexual flowers 
sessile upon the middle of the leaf, owing to the 
adhesion of the flower-stalk to the leaf -stalk and 
midrib. H. Himalaica, Hook., grows at 7000 feet. 

HEMA. Sansk. Gold. Hemadai, golden 
mountain, i.e. Meru. Hema-Kuta, golden peak, 
a range between the Himalaya and Meru. 

HEMA CHANDRA, a great Jaina teacher who 
lived in the 12th century. He gained over to the 
Jaina faith the Hindu kings of Gujerat, shortly 
after which these princes disappeared before the 
Mahomedan conquests. Hema Chandra seems to 
have been the author of Abhidana Chintamani, 
a useful vocabulary, and of a life of Mahavira, 
printed under Mr. Colebrooke's superintendence. 

HEMADRI, a Brahman of the Madhyandiniya 
Sakha, of the Sukla Yajur-Veda. He wrote 
several books, the Chaturvarga Chintamani on 
law, the Muktaphala on religion, and a Commen- 
tary on Wagbhata, called Ayur Veda-Rasayana. 

HEMBAKO, the Tibetan name of the terri- 
tory in Ladakh which the Kashmirians call Dras. 

HEMEROCALLIS, a genus of plants belong- 
ing to the natural order Liliacese, called day-lilies. 
H. flava is a native of Germany, and H. f ulva of 
Italy ; H. disticha from China ; H. Sieboldii from 
Japan. H. speciosa and H. graminea are culti- 
vated in gardens. 

Hemerocallis fulva, Wilhle., Nargas, Gool-nargas, 
Hind., the narcissus of India, cidtivated as a 
flowering plant. 

Hemerocallis graminea, Tatarinov, Hiuen-ts'au, 
Chin. In China this is regarded as a charm for 
dispelling grief, and is worn in women's girdles to 
favour the birth of sons. The young leaves are 
eaten, and intoxicate slightly. The flowers of 
this day-lily, when dried, are called the Kin-tsin- 
ts'ai. — Smith; Roxb. ii. p. 168; Gen. Med. Top. 

HEMICYCLIA, a genus of moderate -sized trees 
of Ceylon and the Peninsula of India. H. Gardneri, 
Thw., not very abundant; H.lanceolata,TAu'., grows 
at Caltura, Ceylon ; and H. sepiaria u W. and A., 
Weera-gass, Singh., is abundant in the hot, drier 
parts in the peninsula of the island. 

H. Elata, Bedd., is a lofty, straight, glabrous 
tree, very common in the dense moist forests of the 
Wynad (2000-4000 feet elevation), also in the 
Animallays and Tinnevelly mountains. The leaves 
are less coriaceous than in H. venusta, but have 
exactly the venation and shape of that species^ 
which is a small drooping tree with a different 
inflorescence. H. sepiaria has much more coria- 
ceous, differently-shaped leaves, and is scarcely 
more than a shrub ; the timber is strong, and much 
valued for building purposes. — Thwaites ; Wight, 
Icones ; Beddome, Fl. Sylv. p. 279. 

HEMIDACTYLUS TRIEDRUS, a pretty little 
white and spotted lizard of Labuan. It is one of 
the Geckotidae. 

HEMIDESMUS INDICUS. R. Broivn. 
Smilax aspera. 
Periploca Indica, Willdc. 
ITnuntamul, Beng., Hind 



Kural, 

Muckwy, . . 

Magraba, . . 

Naru nindi, . . 

Shadijm, . . . 

Iri musu, . . 



. DUKH. 

. Hind. 
jVIaleal. 

. Sansk. 
. Singh. 



Asclepiaspseudosara, Rox., 

■ear. latifolia. 
Nunnari, . . . Tam. 
Gadi Sugandhi, . Tel. 
Nalla Sugandhi, . ,, 
Pala Sugandhi, . ,, 
Suganda-pala, . . ,, 
Pala Chukhanderu, „ 
Telia Sugandhi-pala, ,, 



Sapindus tetraphyllus, 

d. a 

Koriai Tel. 



Indian Sarsaparilla, or Country Sarsaparilla, is 
a common plant all over the Indian Peninsula. 
The root is long and slender, with few ramifica- 
tions, covered with rust-coloured very fragrant 
bark, the odour remaining after drying, and 
strongly resembling that of new-mown hay. The 
roots have long been employed in the Madras 
Presidency as a substitute for sarsaparilla, and 
have been also used in England, and very highly 
spoken of. It can be purchased of good quality at 
from 2 to 4 annas the seer. It occurs in bundles 
about a foot and a half long. Much of its virtues 
depend on a volatile principle ; and it should not 
be employed in decoction, as long boiling dissipates 
the active ingredient. The infusion is a fragrant 
and highly effectual alterative and diuretic, of great 
service in secondary venereal affections and 
chronic rheumatism. It is in every respect a 
perfect substitute for sarsaparilla. — O'Sh. Disp. 

HEMIGYMMA MACLEODII. Grif. ? 
Cordia Macleodii, Hooker. 
Deyngan of . Jubbulpur. | Botku, .... Tel. 

This tree is abundant in the Godavery forests 
near Mahadeopur, and near Warangal, and it is 
also indigenous to the Jubbulpur forests, where it 
is called Deyngan. It yields a very beautiful 
wood, which would answer as a substitute for 
maple for picture frames, etc. — Captain Beddome. 

HEMIGYROSA CANESCENS. Roxb. 
Molin?ea canescens, Roxb. 
Cupania canescens, W. A, 
Kurpa, .... Mahr 
Nekota, .... Tam. | 

A common tree in jungles on the eastern side 
of the Madras Presidency, Salem, Cuddapah, 
Mysore, etc. ; also found in Bombay and Ceylon. 
It does not ascend the mountains much above 
3000 feet. The wood is whitish, and is occasionally 
used by the natives for building purposes. — 
Beddome, Fl. Sylv. p. 151. 

HEMIGYROSA DEFICIENT W. A. 
Sapindus deficiens, W. A. 

A small or middling-sized tree of the Tinnevelly 
ghats, common at 2000 to 4000 feet elevation, Ani- 
mallays (head of the ghat from Palghat up to the 
Neliampatty coffee estates) 2500 feet elevation, and 
towards the higher ranges at 5000 feet elevation. 
It appears to be in flower all the year round. — 
Beddome, Fl. Sylv. p. 231. 

HEMIGYROSA TRICHOCARPA. Thw. A 
moderate-sized tree. One variety grows in the 
central province of Ceylon up to an elevation of 
3000 feet, another in the hot, drier parts of the 
island.— Thw. En. PI. Zeyl. i. p. 56. 

HEMILEIA VASTATRIX, the coffee-leaf 
disease, or leaf-fungus, has for several years 
seriously affected the coffee trees of the island of 
Ceylon. Though requiring careful inspection for 
its detection, it was present upon all the coffee 
trees examined about 1879. With the help of the 
microscope, it is found at all tunes to pervade the 
greater part of the stems and older leaves, in the 
form of very fine branching filaments, its effects 
being apparent in numerous somewhat translucent 
spots, which may be observed when holding one 
of the older leaves against the light. The direct 
injury so caused to the coffee tree is, however, 
very slight, as compared with the effect produced 
when the fungus attacks the young leaves, causing 
them to fall prematurely. The presence of thd 
fungus-filaments in such abundance on the outer 



34 



HEMIONITIS COUDIFOI.IA. 



I IK Ml'. 



surface of the tree is quite sufficient to account 
for phenomena whiofa it was first thought must 
be attributable to a poisoning of the juices of the 
tree, I »y an absorption of the fungus inatter through 

•>. The latter idea must therefore be given 
up. and the disease considered as external, except 
when it appears within the tissue of the young 
. ■ . i \ . -. Subsequently, from these enclosed masses 
of filaments short branches arc produced, •which 
iSJMBjt from the pores, and bear the conspicuous 
lyange-ooloured spores or reproductive bodies. 
3mm of these spores have been observed to 
[.Terminate on the outside of the leaf, producing 
branched filaments of exceeding tenuity, which 
!jrow with marvellous rapidity all over the! surface 
>f the leaf, and beyond to the stems. The ends 
.»f some of these filaments, too, have been observed 
[<> enter the pores of the leaf, to form fresh disease- 
-pots and fresh crops of spores. The true Liberian 
iOffee is said to be of hardy habit, and more able 
;•> n >ist tin- ravages of this disease. 

BEMIONITIS CORDIFOLIA. In Tenasserim, 
icar the sea-shore, this species of mule fern, with 
•ordate fronds, is sometimes seen. — Dr. Mason. 

HKMIITERA, an order of insects; several 
,'cneia occur in India; amongst them — 
(-'mil. l'acliycoriihe, Dall. Cantuo, Bymot and Serv. ; 

Callidea, Lap. 
Film. Eurygasterulft), Dall. Trigonosoma, Lap. 
|M. Plataspidaj, Dall. Coptosoma, Lap. 
Fam, Halydidre, Dall. Halys, Fabr. 
Fam. Pentetamidaj, St. Pentatoma, Olive.; Catacan- 

thus, Spin.; Rhaphigaster, Lap. 
Fam. Kdessidre, Dall. Aspongopus, Lap.; Tesseratoma, 

Lep. and Serv.; Cyclopelta, Am. and Serv. 
' ? am. Phyllocephalidre, Dall. Phyllocephala, Lap. 
''\im. HieUdlB, Dall. Mictis, Leach.; Crinocerns, Burm. 
'•'am. Aniroscelidie, Dall. Leptoscelis, Lap.; Serinetha, 

Spin, 
Fam. Alydidse, Dall. Alydus, Fabr. 
Fam. Stenocephalidse, Dall. Leptocorisa, Latr. 
]7 "am. Coreidae, Steph. Rhopalus, Schill. 
Fam. Lygseidae, Westw. Lygseus, Fabr. ; Rhyparoch- 

romus, Curt. 
Fam. Aradidse, Wlk. Piestosoma, Lap. 
Fam. Tingidae, Wlk. Calloniana, Wlk. 
Fam. Cimicidre, Wlk. Cimex, Linn. 
Fam. Keduviidae, Steph. Pirates, Burm.; Acanthaspis, 

Am. Sei-v. 
Fam. Hydrometridaj, Leach. Ptilomera, Am. Serv. 
Fam. Nepidse, Leach. Belostoma, Latr. ; Nepa, Linn. 
Fam. Notonectidse, Steph. Notonceta, Linn.; Corixa, 

Geoff. 
Of the aquatic species, the gigantic Belostoma 
[ndicum attains a size of nearly three inches. Some 
>f them are most attractive in colour. A green 
>ne, often seen on leaves, is quite inoffensive if 
inmolested, but if irritated exhales an offensive 
>dour. Insects known as coffee bugs have occa- 
sioned to the coffee planters great losses, against 
frhich. seemingly, at present they have no means 
)f protecting themselves. The whole order emit 
\ powerful odour, and they present a very large 
proportion of gay -coloured and conspicuous 
nsects. The ladybirds (Coccinellidse) and their 
dlies the Eumorphidse are often brightly spotted 
IS if to attract attention, but they can both emit 
Quids of a very disagreeable nature ; they are 
certainly rejected by some birds, and are probably 
never eaten by any. The genera of Homoplerous 
Hemiptera, cicada, lystra, monophlebus, poly- 
neura, and cyrene have several species in the E. 
Indies. — Tcnnant. See Insects. 

1 1 KM 1 1K\M I'l 1 1'S. a genus of fishes of the family 
Bcombresocidre, which includes the genera Belone. 



Scombresox, Hemiraiuphus, ArrhamphuM. and 
Exoccetus. 

lleiiiirainpliUH macrorhynchoB of the Bay of 
Bengali near Pondicherry, has an elongated 1 
and proboseis-like member pro ceed ing from it* 
mouth. 

II. JneselHi Cue. and IV//., To(hi pendek 
(I'endek, short). The Malays thus denominate 
all the species of Hemiramphus, to distinguish 
them from those of Belone fl'oda of the Malays). 
At Penang this species is numerous at all seasons, 
but larger individuals occur at irregular intervals. 
They appear at European tables under the appel- 
lation ofgna rd fish.— Ctmtor; Hartwigt 

HEMITRAGUS HYLOOKIUS. Jtrtbm 
Komas hylocriut), Ogilby. | Capra warryato, (/ray. 

Ibex Eng. I Warri-adu, . . . Tam. 

Neilgherry wild goat, „ | Warri-atu, ... ,, 

This is found on the Neilgherry and neighbouring 
hills, extending along the Western Ghats nearly 
to Cape Comorin ; also on the Pulney Hills, and 
is called ibex by the Madras sportsmen. They are 
very wary, feed like a flock of sheep, and flee to 
the precipices when alanned. Length, 4 ft 2 in. 
to 4 ft 8 in. to root of tail ; tail, or 7 in. ; height 
at shoulder, 32 to 34 in. ; horns occasionally 1 2 
to 15 in.— Jerdon, pp. 288-90. 

HEMITRAGUS J EM I, AICUS. Jerdon. 
Capra jharal, Hodgs. I Capra jemlaicus, H. Smith. 

C. quadrimamis, Hodgs. 

Himalayan wild goat, Eng. Kart of . . . . Kin. 
Tehr, Tare, Tahir, Hind. Jharal of . . . Nepal. 
Jhula (male), Kanawar. Jehr of ... . Him la. 
Thar, tharni (fern.), ,, Esbu, Esbi of . . Sctlej. 

Kras ; Jagla, . Kashh. 

It is found throughout the whole of the Hima- 
layas, generally in flocks, feeding on the grassy 
spots among the rocks. Length, 4 ft. 8 in. to root 
of tail ; tail, 7 in. ; height, 36 to 40 in. ; horns 12 
in. long, very thick at the base. 

HEMP. Cannabis sativa, Linn. 
Var. C. Indica. 



Kinnub, . . . . 
Ma, Lu-sung-ma, 
Ta-ma, Ya-ma, . 
Hwang-ma, . . 

Hamp 

Hinnep, Hinnup, , 
Kinnup, . . . . 
Chanvre, . . 
Hanf, . . . . 



Arab. 
Chin. 



Dan. 
Dut. 



Fr. 
Ger. 



Kannabis (canvas), . Gb. 

Canape, It. 

Ganja, .... Malay. 
Bhang, Chang, . Pees. 
Konope, .... Pol. 
Canamo, . . Port., Sp. 
Konapli, Konopel, Rus. 
Bhanga, Ganjika, Sansk. 
Hampa Sw. 



In the export commerce of India, hemp is a 
term applied to the fibres of several distinct plants, 
all valuable as cordage materials ; and the Chinese 
terms, Ho-ma, Ta-ma, Ya-ma, and Hwang-ma, are 
fibres of urticaceous, malvaceous, and tiliaceous 
plants. But the true hemp of Europe is the fibre 
of the Cannabis sativa of botanists. It possesses 
a remarkably tough kind of woody tissue, capable 
of being manufactured into linen and cordage. 
It is an annual plant from 3 to 10 feet high, with 
the males and females on separate sterna It is 
difficult to say of what country the true hemp 
plant is a native, — Willdenow says Persia, Gmelin 
Bays Tartary, Thunberg found it in Japan ; so that 
the varieties produced by climate have by some 
been thought to be distinct species, the European 
being called C. sativa, and the Indian C. Indica. 
I lei-odot us mentions it as a Scythian plant. Bieber- 
stein met with it in Tauriaand the Caucasian region. 
It is well known in Bokhara and Persia, and is 
grown everywhere throughout India, and in the 
Himalaya up to lO.OOOfeet In Euroj)ean coumrh - 



35 



HEMP. 



HENNA. 



it is cultivated only for its ligneous fibre, so 
extensively employed in the manufacture of ropes, 
and of coarse but strong kinds of cloth. It is 
cultivated in oriental countries to obtain the 
intoxicating leaves, called Ganja, from which 
bhang and subji or sidhi are produced, and for 
the resinous product called charras. The mode 
of cultivating is, however, different for each of its 
products. The plant requires exposure to light 
and air, and is therefore sown thin or transplanted 
out, when it is cultivated for its resinous and 
intoxicating secretion ; while the growth of fibre 
is promoted by shade and moisture, which are 
procured by thick sowing. 

In Arabia, Egypt, and Turkey, the leaves used 
as an intoxicant are known as Hashish, and 
Hashash is a term of obloquy ; the plural Hashasin 
has been supposed by some writers to be the 
source of the word Assassin. For its fibre 
it is chiefly grown in Russia, and is sent to the 
other European countries for cordage, canvas, and 
towelling. The finest quality of hemp, and that 
which brings the highest price, being sold at 50s. 
per cwt. when the best Russia brings only 47s., 
comes from Italy ; though French, English, and 
Irish hemps are much esteemed. The Russian 
hemp grows best in a friable soil of moderate rich- 
ness. At St. Petersburg hemp is assorted into clean 
hemp, or firsts ; outshot hemp, or seconds ; half- 
cleaned hemp, or thirds ; and hemp codilla. Riga 
hemp is classed as rein or clean, outshot, and pass 
hemp. Particular care is taken to ship hemp and 
flax in fine dry weather, and to preserve it from 
damp by packing with mats ; for if either get wet, 
they are apt to heat, and to be totally spoiled. 

The hemp imported into Great Britain from 
all countries, from 1877 to 1880, ranged from 
1,204,036 to 1,320,731 cwt., of value from 
£1,684,377 to £2,072,040, almost all from Russia, 
Germany, Italy, and the Philippines ; from India, 
between the years 1874-1879, the raw fibres 
exported under the commercial designation of 
hemp, in quantity and in value only ranged thus, — 
Cwt. Rs. Cwt. Rs. 



1874-5, 


80,050 


6,66,539 


1877-8, 


55,312 


5,76,911 


1875-6, 


75,878 


6,28,604 


1878-9, 


45,628 


4,62,334 


187G-7, 


85,207 


7,58,856 


1879-80, 


42,202 


4,03,076 



But during the same period the annual exports 
from India of coir, hemp, and jute averaged about 
280,000 tons, value £3,500,000, the coir and hemp 
being valued about £20 a ton, and jute £12 the ton. 

Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), called also Brown 
hemp, Madras hemp, Indian hemp, Konkani hemp, 
Salsette hemp, Bombay hemp, Travancore flax, and 
by the vernacular names, Sana, Ghore-san, Sunn, 
Shanamoo, Kenna, Ambari, Taag, Wuckoo-nar, 
and Janapa-nar. It is the kind most generally 
cultivated all over India, on account of its fibre, 
and is that usually mentioned in the exports from 
Calcutta under the name of hemp, but also as 
sunn. The plant may be distinguished by its 
flowers being of a bright yellow colour, and of 
the form of the pea and of the laburnum, while 
the leaves are entire and lanceolate. 

Ambari or Dekhanihemp (Hibiscus cannabinus), 
called in the languages of India, Mesta - pat, 
Nalkee, Pulooa, Sunni, Valaiti Sunn, Garnikura, 
Gongkura, Pooley-nammajii, Pundey, Pundrika, 
and Palungoo of Madras, is very generally culti- 
vated all over India, and exported of very good 
quality from the west side. The fibre is like that 



of jute. It is often confounded with that of the 
sunn, as it is one of the brown hemps of Bombay, 
though the two plants differ much from each other. 

Jubbulpur hemp is established as an article of 
commerce in India, and highly esteemed by good 
judges in Britain. 

Manilla hemp is from the Musa textilis, grown 
in the Philippines, and introduced into S. India by 
Major (now Sir George) Balfour. It is being 
imported into Great Britain in increasing quantities 
and value. 

1877, 332,304 cwt. £488,069 I 1879,337,687 cwt. £434,037 
1878,421,160 „ 551,856 | 1880,407,431 ,, 622,776 

A gigantic species of Cannabis hemp, growing 
from ten to fifteen feet in height, is in China a 
staple summer crop. This is chiefly used in 
making ropes and string of various sizes, such 
articles being in great demand for tracking the 
boats up rivers and in the canals of the country. 

Jute is the fibre of Corchorus capsularis, and C. 
olitorius, and also known to the people as Pat, 
Koshta, Bhungee pat, Ghanalita pat, Putta, 
Singin-ganasha. It is now imported as jute, being 
largely used in Dundee. 

Hemp seed and Oil, Ta-ma, Ho-ma-jin, 
Hwang -ma, Chin. The small, shining, brittle 
achsenia of the Cannabis sativa, are albuminous 
and oily, and entirely devoid of all narcotic pro- 
perties. They are crushed for oil, the Ganja 
yennai, Tamil, in many parts; in Russia, much 
used for burning in lamps. 

HEMROO. Hind. A satin fabric of India, 
value two rupees the yard. See Kimkhab. 

HENBANE SEED, Hyosciamus niger. 
Bung, Buzir-ul-bung, Ar. | Khorasani ajwain, Hind. 
Sikran, Urmanikou, . ,, Adas, Adas pedas, Malay. 
Jusquiame, .... Fa. Khorasani omam, Tam. 
Bilsenkrout, . . Ger. 

The seeds of the henbane plant have the odour 
of the plant, and an oily, bitter taste ; an oil is 
obtained from them. See Hyosciamus. 

HENDERSON, Dr., a Bengal medical officer, who 
travelled in disguise as a Syud from Lodhiana in 
1835, and passed by way of Mundi, Sanskar, or 
Lahul, to Ladakh and Iskardo, descending over 
the dangerous pass of Alunipilah, and by Burzel 
or Astor to Guryo and Kashmir. He again 
travelled to Dir and Bajwara, but was there 
plundered, and he returned to Lahore, where he 
died of fever in February 1836. He was the first 
projector of the Agra Bank. 

HENERY", properly Ondari, one of the Bombay 
islets, If miles due E. of Kenery Island, and 
surrounded by reefs. It is joined on the N. to | 
Trombay and Salsette, as these are united to each 
other by bridges and embankments. 

HENLE. In 1844 there was issued at Berlin 
the Systembong der Plagiostomen by Dr. Henle, 
which included several of the genera and species 
of the fishes of the seas in the S. and E. of Asia. 

HENNA, Hind., Picks., is the leaf of the 
Lawsonia alba, Lam., the camphire of Scripture, 
the Yen-chi-kiah of China, and the Cyprus shrub 
of the Greeks and Romans. It is a fragrant plant 
when in flower. The fresh leaves, when beat up 
with catechu, 

' Imbue 
The fingers' ends with a bright roseate hue, 
So bright that in the mirror's depths they seem 
Like tips of coral branches in the stream ! ' 

This use of the leaves is as old as the era of the 



3(5 



HENSLOWIA PANIOULATA. 



HERAT. 



\|>lian mummies, and is still followed by the 
Arabs, Persians, ami people of British India, the 
last of whom know it as the mehndi. The leaves, 
beaten up into a soft mass with rice water, are 
applied to the nails, tinker-ends, palms, and soles 
oi the feet overnight ; on being washed off the 
next morning, these parts are found stained a deep 

i'il ool -. Men use it to stain their moustaches 

and beards, and for dyeing the manes and tails of 
their horses. In China, the leaves or flower of 
Lawsonja alba, of the Impatiens balsamina, and of 
the Terustrcemia Japonica are mixed with lime or 
alum, and applied to stain the fingers, the mane, 
tail, and hoofs of horses, red. Chinese children, 
especially girls, often have a circular 8]>ot of rouge 
or henna placed between the eyes. It is also used 
as an ordinary dye-stuff. A decoction of the leaves 
is used in skin diseases, lepra, etc. The flowers 
when distilled are used as a perfume. — Smith. 

Hi:\S|.OWIA PANICULATA. Migu. An- 
amho. BORM. A reddish - coloured wood of 
British Burma, used occasionally for cart wheels. 
The average length of the trunk to the first branch 
is 50 feet,—/)/-. Brmidis, Cal. Cat. Ex., 1862. 

HENZA. Bun.\r. A large golden figure of the 
sacred bird is in front of the throne of the king of 
Burma. The word is of Sanskrit origin, — Hanza, 
a goose. The Henza is regarded as the king of 
birds. It is perhaps a mysticized swan. Amongst 
the Burmese, the bayet, an emblem of nobility, is 
a pretty necklace of several strings or chains of 
filigree work joined together, and sewn with little 
figures, in red gold, of the Henza, which hangs 
low down on the breast. — Yule's Embassy, p. 85. 

11 10 NZ AD A, Myanoung, and Tharawaddy, three 
districts in the Pegu division of British Burma, 
with a population of about 500,000. The 
number of Burmese in the district in 1876 was 
greatly in excess of Takings. On the conquest 
of the lower country by Aloungbhura (Alompra), 
every effort was made to destroy the Talaing 
nationality ; and now it is said that scarcely any 
one of Talaing descent calls himself anything but 
a Burmese, so completely has the national spirit 
been extinguished. — Imp. Gaz. 

HEPH^STUS MULCIBER, or Vulcan, the 
analogue of Visvakarma. 

HEPTAPLEURUM RACEMOSUM. Wight. 

Hedera racemosa, W. Ic. 
A large tree, common on the Neilgherries and 
Animallays, etc., at elevations from 3000 to 7000 
feet ; grows also in Ceylon. — Beddome, Fl. Sylv. 

HERA, a Babylonian goddess, the prototype of 
the Roman Juno and of the Egyptian Hora. 

HERACLEUM, a genus of plants of which 
several species grow in the Himalaya ; one of 
these, the padalli or poral, is collected for the 
winter fodder of goats, and is supposed to increase 
the milk. Wight, in Icones, gives H. pedatum. 

HERAT is also called Heri ; and the river 
on which it stands is called Hari-Rud. This 
river Hari is called by Ptolemy Apia, by other 
writers Arius ; and Aria was the name given to 
the country between Parthia (Parthuwa) in the 
west, Margiana (Marghush) in the north, Bactria 
(Bakhtrish) and Arachosia (Harauwatish) in the 
east. It is the Haroya of the Vendidad, and is 
supposed to be the same as the Haraiva (Hariva) 
of the cuneiform inscriptions, though this is 
doubtful. The importance of its situation is very 
orcat, and it has always exercised considerable 



influence over the affairs of Central Asia, and 
has endured more than forty riegea in ancient 
and modern times. It is one of the most ancient 
and most renowned of the cities of Central A.-n. 
It gave its name to an extensive province at 
the time of the expedition of Alexander, and in 
supposed by some to be Alexandria in Ariis. 
Before the invasions of Chengiz Khan, the city 
could boast of 12,000 retail shops, 350 schools, 
144,000 occupied houses, and 6000 baths, cara- 
vansaris. and water mills. It was for some time 
the capital of the empire which was transmitted 
by Timur to his sons. Under the mild and 
genial rule of his son, Shah Rukh Mirza, it 
recovered all it had lost. The restored prosperity 
continued till the beginning of the 16th century. 
Up to that period Herat was not only the richest 
city in Central Asia, but the resort of the greatest 
divines, philosophers, poets, and historians of the 
age. From the house of Timur it passed in the 
beginning of the 16th century to the Suffava 
dynasty of Persia, from whom it was taken by 
the Daurani in 1715. It was retaken by Nadir 
Shah in 1731, and it fell into the hands of 
Ahmad Shah in 1749. When the Daurani empire, 
created by Ahmad Shah, was lost by bis grand- 
sons, and parcelled out among the Barakzai 
brothers, Shah Kamran managed to maintain a 
precarious footing at Herat. He was the son of 
Mahmud, and therefore nephew of Zaman Shah, 
Shah Shuja-ul-Mulk, and Firoz - ud - Din, and 
the last remaining representative of the Saddozai 
princes in Afghanistan. Herat was all that 
remained to him of the empire of his family. 
Kamran was cruel and dissipated, and his minister, 
Yar Muhammad Khan, was even worse. Dost 
Muhammad was ruling at Kabul, and his half- 
brother, Kohun-dil Khan, ruled at Kandahar. 
Dost Muhammad was the son of Phound Khan, 
Barakzai. On the 23d November 1837, Muhammad 
Shah, king of Persia, laid siege to Herat, in 
pursuance of his ambitious policy for the re- 
conquest of Afghanistan. It was on this occasion 
that Herat sustained a memorable ten months' 
siege, and all the efforts of the Persian king to 
capture it, aided by the advice and direction of 
Russian officers, were defeated, principally by the 
efforts of Lieutenant Pottinger, of the Bombay 
Artillery. Shah Kamran and his minister, how- 
ever, continued intrigues with Persia, and the 
envoy, Major d'Arcy Todd, withdrew. On the 
occurrence of disasters in Kabul, Yar Muhammad 
was relieved of all apprehension of the interference 
of the British Government, and in 1842 strangled 
his sovereign, Shah Kamran, usurped the govern- 
ment of Herat, and professed himself a dependent 
of Persia. On his death in 1851, his son Syud 
Muhammad Khan succeeded him, only to be deposed 
in 1855, and succeeded by Muhammad Yusuf, 
grandson of Firoz, grand-nephew of Shall Zeman. 
Muhammad Yusuf was afterwards deposed, and 
Isa Khan succeeded ; but under him Herat fell to 
the Persians, and he was murdered within a few 
weeks by a party of Persian soldiers. By the 
treaty of Pans, concluded between Britain and 
Persia on the 4th March 1857, the Persians were 
required to evacuate Herat, Before they withdrew, 
they installed Sultan Ahmed Khan, better known 
by the name of Sultan Jan, as ruler of Herat, 
and the British Government did not refuse to 
recognise him as de facto ruler. Shortly after, 



37 



HERBA BENGALO. 



HERCULES. 



Sultan Jan attacked and took Furrah, but the 
Amir of Kabul retook Furrah on the 29th June, 
and on 28th of July laid siege to Herat. After a 
siege of ten months, during which Sultan Jan 
died, the Amir Dost Muhammad took Herat by 
storm on 27th May 1863. He died eleven days 
afterwards, and was succeeded in the government 
of Kabul by his son, Sher Ali, who placed his 
own son, Muhammad Yakub, in charge of the 
captured city. Herat was thus again annexed to 
the Afghan dominions. Herat was visited by Mr. 
Forster in 1783, by Captain Christie in 1810, by 
Arthur Conolly in 1831, and by Eldred Pottinger 
in 1837. It is a city of great political importance ; 
and in the strivings of the Persians and Afghans 
to obtain its possession, it has undergone great 
changes, but quickly recovers from the effects of 
war. 

Herat is on the high road between India and 
Persia, the centre spot of an extensive and fertile 
valley, well watered by channels made from a 
perennial stream. The climate is the finest in Asia. 
There are two hot months in the year, but the 
thermometer even then rarely stands higher than 
85 degrees (Fahrenheit) in the shade. The nights 
are always cool, often cold. The Heratis have a 
proverb, ' If the soil of Isfahan, the cool breezes 
of Herat, and the waters of Khwarizm were in 
the same place, there would be no such thing as 
death.' Herat is on the same level with the rest 
of the table -land of Western Afghanistan, and 
may be regarded as forming part of it, but it is just 
beyond the ridge which divides the waters that 
run to the south from those that flow northward 
to the Oxus. The winter is tolerably mild ; on 
the plain the snow melts as it falls, and does not 
lie long even on the summits of the mountains. 

The districts of Herat boast of extensive mines 
of iron and lead. The scimitars made at Herat 
are considered the best in Central Asia. The 
breed of Herati horses is scarcely less renowned ; 
they are very cheap, and are exported in large 
numbers. Herat, too, is famous for its carpets, 
worked in silk and in wool, and in both combined, 
they are made of any size, and command large 
prices. Hitherto the difficulty in the way of 
transport has prevented their being so well known 
as they deserve. Silk is spun in large quantities 
in the districts. The districts likewise produce 
largely asafoetida, saffron, pistachio nuts, gum, 
and manna. These and horses constitute the 
principal exports. Of skins, only those of the 
sheep and the lamb are used in Herat. Sheep- 
skins are made up into coverings. The people 
are Mongol, Parsivan, Tajak, and Hazara. — Bellew; 
Elphin. India, 629 ; East Lid. Pari. Papers, 133 ; 
Treaties, etc. vii. 165 ; Mailer's Lectures, 234. 

HERBA BENGALO. Mention is made in 
several old works relating to India, of cloths 
having been made of a plant called Herba Ben- 
galo, which appears to be now unknown as a 
material of manufacture. Linschoten, who visited 
Bengal in 1599, is one of the earliest travellers 
who notice it (vide Navigatio ac Itinerarium 
Johan. H. Linscotani, a.d. 1599). Mandelso speaks 
of it as 'a certain herb having on the top of its 
stalk (which is about the compass of a man's 
thumb) a great button like a tassel : this tassel is 
spun out, and there are excellent stuffs made of 
it. The Portuguese call it Herba Bengalo, and 
make of it hangings and coverlets, in which they 



represent all sorts of figures ' (vide Mandelso's 
Travels, A.D. 1639, translated by J. Davies, book 
ii. p. 94). A similar description is given of it 
by the Abbe Guyon in his History of the East 
Indies : — ' On trouve encore a Bengale une 
espece singuliere des toiles qui n'est ni fil ni 
coton, dont on fait des tapis et des couvertes. 
On les nomme simplement herbes. La tige de 
l'herbe, dont elles sont faites, a un pouce 
d'epaisseur et au haut une espece de houppe qui 
contient une sorte de bourree que les femmes du 
Paris filent on prendroit ces etoffes heure de 
loiser : mais elles sont sujettes a se couper dans 
les plis ' (vide Histoire des Indes Orientales, par 
M. l'Abbe Guyon, a.d. 1744, iii. p. 19). Fitch, 
about the year 1586, and Hamilton in 1744, 
both refer to it in their accounts of Orissa. The 
latter calls it Herba, a sort of tough grass of which 
they make ' ginghams, pinascos, and several other 
goods for exportation ' (New Account of the East 
Indies, by Captain A. Hamilton, a.d. 1744, i. 393). 

HERBELOT, D', author of the Bibliothequp 
Orientale, or the Oriental Library, was born at Paris. 
4th December 1625. He was Oriental Secretary 
and Interpreter to the court. He began the work 
at first in Arabic, but afterwards continued it 
in French. He died at 70 years of age, before 
the work was printed ; but it was continued by 
Antoine Galland, the translator of the Arabian 
Nights Entertainments. D'Herbelot understood 
critically the Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Chaldaic, 
Syriac, Arabic, Persian, and Turkish. It was 
history arranged alphabetically. — Oriental Herald. 

HERBERT, Captain J. D., wrote on the 
Mineral Productions of the Himalayas, in As. 
Res., 1833, viii., part 1, p. 216 ; Course and 
Levels of the Sutlej, ibid., 1825, xv. p. 339 : 
Coal within the Indo-Gangetic Mountains, ibid., 
1828, xvi. 397 ; Gypsum in the Indo-Gangetic 
Mountains, ibid., 1833, xviii. part 1, p. 216 ; Tour 
through Kumaon and Ghurwal, in Bl. As. Trans., 
1844, xiii., part 2, p. 734 ; Geological Map of 
Himalaya Survey, ibid., 1844, xiii. part 1, p. 171. 
— Dr. Buist. 

HERBERT, Sir THOMAS, a cadet of the 
Pembroke family, who travelled as secretary to 
the English embassy to Persia from 1627-29. 
In his book, entitled A Description of the Persian 
Monarchy now beinge, the Orientall Indyes, Isles, 
and other parts of the Greater Asia, and Afrik,' 
was published in 1634. He contends that Prince 
Madoc ap Owen Gwynedd discovered America 
300 years before Columbus. The third edition, 
1665, contains a beautiful etching of Persepolis 
by Hollar. 

HERCULES is supposed by Colonel Tod to 
represent Baldeva, a prince of Mathura, nephew 
of Koonti, the mother of the Pandua, and who, as 
in the days of Alexander, is still worshipped at 
Buldeo in Vrij, his club a ploughshare, and a 
lion's skin his covering. Megasthenes (iii. pp. 525- 
531) mentions the Indian tradition of Hercules 
as reigning in India fifteen generations after 
Dyonysus ; that he built Pahbrotha and other 
cities ; had numerous sons, to each of whom he 
left an Indian kingdom ; and a daughter Pandsea, 
to whom he likewise bequeathed a realm. Bunsen, 
following Lassen, says he was chiefly worshipped 
in the Suras-Sen country, and identifies him 
with Krishna ; says he founded Mathura. But 
there were many to whom this name was applied : 



38 



HKRDS.MKN. 



UKRMODACTYL. 



Varro ei n forty-four, Diodorussays tlirrr. 

ami Oioero six. Hercules Belui of Cicero is 
supposed to !"■ the Osiris *ho invaded »p to the 
Indus.— 2W, A'<i/</.«. i. 30; Buna. hi. 525, iv. 210. 
HEADSMEN in (Viitral Asia, and south to the 

Arabian Sea, are S large mass of the populations 

of their respective regions, — many of them in 
Aral>ia, Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, being 

purely nades. dwelling in tents, and migrating 

with the seasons; others of them in British India 
camping out only in the dry season. Numbers of 
Ahir or Gopa in Central India and Western 
Bengal cling to the nomade life of their ancestors, 
I h (iop, or pure Gopa, are settling down 
to husbandry. The Gareri herdsmen founded the 
llolkar dynasty. In the S. of the Peninsula are 
the Dhangar, the Kurumbar, also shepherds, who 
were -nice dominant, but now only pasture great 
locks oJ sheep. Amongst the Hindus of Bengal, 
di are numerous ; after them, the Brahman 
and Kaist races, are the Bagdi, an aboriginal people, 
an< 1 a class of cultivators called Kyurto. See Ahir ; 
Dhangar ; Gadaria ; Gaola; Gopa; Kurumbra. 

HERI, a name of Krislma, famUiarly Kaniya, 
was of the celebrated tribe of Yadu, the founder 
of the fifty-six tribes who obtained the sovereignty 
of India.' and descended from Yayat, the third 
son of Swayainbhuva Manu, or the man, lord of 
the earth, whose daughter Ella (Terra) was 
espoused by Budha (Mercury), son of Chandra 
(the moon), whence the Yadu are styled Chandra* 
vansi, or children of the moon, the Lunar race. 

The coincidence between the epithets of the 
Apollos of Greece and India, as applied to the sun, 
are striking. Heri, as Bhan-nath, the lord of 
beams, is Phoebus, and his heaven is Heripur 
(Hcliopolis), or city of Heri. Helios, of Greece, 
was a title of Apollo, whence the Greeks had their 
Elysium; and the Heripur or Bhan-t'han (the 
abode of the sun) is the highest of the heavens of 
the Rajput. Hence the eagle (the emblem of 
Heri as the sun) ,was adopted by the western 
warrior as the symbol of victory. — 7W« Rqjot- 
than, i. pp. 532-545. 

HERI, a tribe of Mahomedan Rajputs, chiefly 
found in Juspur, a pargana of Moradabad. 

HERI-RUD, written also Hari-Rud, a river of 
Afghanistan, which rises in lat. 34° 50' N., and 
long. 66° 20' E., at that point of the Koh-i-Baba 
range of mountains where it branches off into the 
Koh Siah and Safed Koh, at an elevation of 9500 
feet. It flows west through Shahrek, Obeh, and 
Herat. After leaving Herat, it flows through 
Persian territory, dividing into two branches, the 
smallest of which runs towards Maaliad. Its plains 
are harried by Hazara and Turkoman. It is said 
to have formerly joined the Murghab. The united 
stream is ultimately lost in the desert of Khorasan. 
At Herat it was formerly crossed by a brick 
bridge. — MacGregor. 

1 1 KRITIERA LITTORALIS. Ait., D. C. 
Balanopteris tothila, Goert. I Ka-na-zo, . . , BURM. 
Suudri, .... J5knii. I Kon-zo-za-loo, . ,, 

A species of the Sterculiaceae. Grows in the 
Mauritius, the Peninsula of India, the Sunder- 
buns, is common in the Rangoon district, and 
along the sea-shores in the Mergui Archipelago 
and Amherst province. Its wood is used for 
boats, boxes, planks of houses, etc. ; is very light, 
scented, durable, and tough. — Roxb. i. p. 142 ; 
Voigt; M'CUlland; Captain Dance. 



IIKKITIKKA MINOR lam. 

II. foinci, Willde. | Balanopt«ri» minor, Gcertn. 

.Sundri, .... Beng. | Kanaza, . . . Burm. 
A gloomy-looking tree, distinguishable from all 
other! many miles distant Wherever the tides 
occasionally rise and inundate the land, this tree 
is sure to be found, throughout the whole Tenas- 
serim coast, but is never found at home, either on 
the high, dry lands on the one hand, or in tin- 
wet mangrove swamps on the other. It grows in 
the Sunderbuns, is used in Calcutta for firewood, 
furnishes the sundri wood so well known in 
Bengal for its strength and durable qualities, and 
gives its name, as Captain Munro thinks, to the 
Sunderbuns. When seasoned, it floats in water, 
and is the toughest wood that has been tested in 
India. When Rangoon teak broke with a weight 
of 870 lbs., sundri sustained 1312 lbs. 

It is used for boats, piles of bridges, boxes? and 
many other purposes. It is recommended for 
helves, but should be killed a twelvemonth before 
being cut down, or otherwise should be seasoned 
by keeping, after it has been cut down. Dr. 
Wallich says it stands unrivalled for elasticity, 
hardness, and durability. He adds that the char- 
coal made from it is better than any other sort 
for the manufacture of gunpowder. — APC'lelfmn/, 
in Records, Foreign Dept. ix. p. 43 ; Dr. Mason ; 
Captain Dance; Voigt. 

HERITIERA PAPILIO. Bedd. A very lofty 
evergreen tree, common in the dense moist 
forests above Courtallum (Tinnevelly) at about 
3000 feet elevation, also about Peermede (Travan- 
core), 3500 feet ; in flower in August and Sep- 
tember ; it yields a very valuable, tough timber. — 
Beddome, Fl. Sylv. p. 218. 

HERIYA RAY AT, or chief rayat, also called 
Buddhavant, the wise, in Mysore; a person of 
importance, who takes the lead in all affairs of the 
community. 

HERMANN, PAUL, a medical man who fur- 
nished the materials of the Thesaurus Zeylanicus 
of the elder Burmann, published in Holland, and 
afterward of the Flora Zeylanica of Linnaeus. — 
H.et Th.v- 46. 

HERMES or Mercury, the analogue of Buddha. 
The worship of Hermes was established in Italy, 
Greece, Egypt, and Syria, and his ruined temple 
is 6 miles from Zahle, and a mile from Fursul. 

HERMIPPUS, according to Pliny, translated 
the Zendavesta into Greek about the same time 
as the Septuagint translation of the Bible. Her- 
mippus is supposed to have been the peripatetic 
philosopher,- the pupil of Callimachus, and one of 
the most learned scholars of Alexandria. 

HERMIT CRAB, the well-known Pagurus 
crustaceans that occupy the empty turbinated 
shells of testaceous molluscs. The fore part of 
the body is armed with claws, and covered with a 
shield, but it ends in a long, soft tail, provided 
with one or two small hooks. Some of them 
carry large shells to considerable heights and 
distances from the sea. The genus Coenobita 
inhabits the laud ; and in Kandavu, one of the Fiji 
group, they climb the hills and go far inland, 
bearing their shells with them. — Hart wig ; 
Mottle*, p. 304. 

HERMODACTYL. Pei - mu, Chin. This 
medicinal plant of the later Greeks and Arabs 
forms the sweet and bitter Surinjan of the Arabs, 
and both are supposed to be species of the genus 



89 



HERNANDI. 

Colchicum. The Persian name of the sweet is 
Surinjan shirin, and Surinjan talkh is the bitter. 
In India, the Surinjan talkh, or bitter, and Surinjan 
shirin, or mild, are both identical with the Hermo- 
dactyls of the ancient Arabian and Greek writers. 
The tasteless variety is about one inch long and the 
same in breadth, heart-shaped, rather flattened, 
grooved at one side, convex at the other. They 
are not wrinkled, are easily broken, and form a 
white powder. The bitter kind is smaller, and 
has a striped appearance. In some trials which 
Dr. O'Shaughnessy made with an acetous tincture 
of the Surinjan talkh, he was led to believe it 
possessed all the virtues of the dried Colchicum 
of Europe.— O'Sh. p. 661 ; Irvine. 

HERNANDI, a martial branch of the Koresh 
tribe of Mecca. Many of them in Syria are em- 
ployed as irregular horse. 

HERNANDIA PELTATA. D. C. Palati, 
Singh. This is a large tree, common on the sea- 
coast in Ceylon between Galle and Colombo ; also 
in Australia, and on the sea-coasts in the South 
Pacific and Eastern Archipelago, westward to the 
Mascarene Islands, and northward to the Philip- 
pines and Loo-Choo. Its wood is very light, and 
takes fire so readily from a flint and steel, that it 
might be used as tinder. The juice is a powerful 
depilatory, removing the hair without any pain ; 
the bark, seed, and young leaves are cathartic. — 
Beddome, Fl. Syl p. 300. 

HERNANDIA SONORA. Linn. Bong-ko, 
J a van. A tall, erect tree of the Moluccas and the 
Fiji Islands ; in the last, forming one of the sacred 
groves, — a complete bower. The genus was named 
after Hernandez, a naturalist sent out to Mexico 
by Philip II. of Spain, and obtained its name 
'sonora' from the noise made by the wind in 
whistling through its persistent involucels. The 
bark, the seed, and the young leaves are slightly 
cathartic. Rumphius says that the fibrous roots, 
chewed, and applied to wounds infected with the 
Macassar poison, act as an effectual cure. The 
juice of the leaves is employed as a depilatory. 
It destroys the hair wherever it is applied, and 
this without producing pain. The wood of this 
species is very light ; and Aublet says it takes fire 
readily from a flint and steel, and may be used as 
tinder. — Ains. ; O'Sh. ; Voigt ; Seeman's Fiji ; 
Eng. Cyc. ; W. Ic. ; Thw. Zcyl. p. 258. 

HERODOTUS, a Greek historian who travelled 
in Egypt and Persia, and visited Tyre, B.C. 460. 
He never gives us to understand that he was able 
to converse in any but his own language. He is 
called the father of history. He relates that, 
after Cyrus had conquered a large portion of Asia, 
his third successor, Darius Hystaspes, extended his 
conquests towards the Indian Peninsula. — Bjornst- 
jerna, p. 93. 

HERONS are classed by naturalists in the 
family Ardeidge, gen. Ardea, Ardeola, Herodias, 
Nycticorax. Those of the E. Indies are — 
Ardea Goliath, Temm., the great heron. 
A. Sumatrana, Raffles, the dusky grey heron. 
A. cinerea, Linn., the hlue heron. 
A. purpurea, Linn., the purple heron. 
Nycticorax griseus, Linn., night heron. 
Ardeola leucoptera, Bodd., pond heron. 
Butorides Javanica, Horsf. , little green heron. 
Herodias alba, the Ardea alba, large egret, or great 
white heron of Europe, Asia, N. Africa, very 
rare in Britain, is very common in India, though 
the race is considered different by some. 
H. bubulcus, the Ardea russata, or buff-backed heron 



HERONS. 

or egret of Europe, Asia, N. Africa, exceedingly 
rare in Britain, is very common in India. 

H. egrettoides, Temm., the smaller egret, Patang-ka- 
bagla of India, Burma, and Malayana. 

H. garzetta, the Ardea garzetta, or little egret of 
Europe, Asia, N. Africa, exceedingly rare in 
Britain, very common in India. Three specimens 
observed of an egret in winter dress seemed to 
differ only from ordinary Herodias garzetta in 
having black toes. 

Herons are plentiful in Kashmir, and a heronry 
is protected in the Shalimar Gardens. About 50 
miles S.E. from Madras, and 12 miles from Chingle- 
put, is a small village called Vaden Thangul, which 
means literally Hunter's Rest, from Vaden, hunter, , 
and Thangul, rest. To the south of the village lies 
one of the small tanks called Thangul by the Tamil 
ryots, implying a water-rest or temporary reservoir, 
with an area of about 4£ acres (30 cawnies). From 
the N.E. to the centre of the bed of the tank 
there are some 500 or 600 trees of the Barringtonia 
racemosa, from about 10 to 15 feet in height, 
with circular, regular, moderate -sized crowns, and 
when the tank fills during the monsoons, the 
tops only of the trees are visible above the level 
of the water. This place forms the breeding 
resort of an immense number of water-fowl ; 
herons, storks, cranes, ibises, cormorants, darters, 
paddy birds, etc., make it their rendezvous on 
these occasions. From about the middle of 
October to the middle of November, small flocks 
of 20 or 30 of some of these birds are to be seen, 
coming from the north to settle here during the 
breeding season. By the beginning of December 
they have all settled down ; each tribe knows its 
appointed time, and arrives year after year with 
the utmost regularity, within a fortnight later or 
earlier, depending partly on the seasons. They 
immediately commence building their nests or 
repairing the old ones. When they have fully 
settled down, the scene becomes one of great 
interest. During the day the majority are out 
feeding, and towards evening the various birds 
begin to arrive in parties of 10, 15, or more ; and in 
a short tune every part of the crown is hidden by 
its noisy occupants, who fight and struggle with 
each other for perches. Each tree appears like a 
moving mass of black, white, and grey; the snowy 
white plumage of the egrets and curlews contrast- 
ing with, and relieved by, the glossy black of the 
water-crows and darters, and by the grey and 
black plumage of the storks. The nests lie side 
by side, touching each other, those of the differ- 
ent species arranged in groups of 5 or 6, or even 
as many as 10 or 20, on each tree. The nests are 
shallow, and vary in inside diameter from 6 to 8 
inches, according to the size of the bird. The 
curlews do not build separate nests, but raise a 
large mound of twigs and sticks, shelved into 
terraces as it were, and each terrace forms a 
separate nest; thus eight or ten run into each 
other. The storks sometimes adopt a similar plan. 
The whole, of the nests are built of sticks and 
twigs, interwoven to the height of 8 or 10 inches, 
with an outside diameter of 18 to 24 inches ; the 
inside is slightly hollowed out, in some more and 
in others less, and fined with grass ; reeds and 
quantities of leaves are laid on the nests. In 
January the callow young are to be seen in the 
nests. During this time the parent birds are 
constantly on the wing in search for food, now 
returning to their young loaded with the spoil, 



40 



HERONS. 



HKUPESTES. 



and again going off in search of a further ftii)(|>Iy. 
About the end of January or early in February, 

poung arc able to leave their ncHts and 
scramble into those of others. They begin to 
jh -reh about the trees; and by the end of February 
nr the beginning of March those that were hatched 
first ere able to take wing and accompany their 
parents on expeditions; and a week or two later, 
in consequence of the drying up of the tanks in the 
vicinity, they begin to emigrate towards the north 
with their mends. Thus, in succession, the differ- 
ent birds leave the place, so that it is completely 
deserted by the middle of April, by which time 
the tank also becomes dry. and the village cattle 
■tees in its bed, or shelter themselves under the 
trees from the scorching heat of the midday sun, 
while the cow-boys find amusement in pulling 
down the deserted nests. The villagers hold an 
agreement from the Nawab's ancient government, 
which continues in force by a renewal from the 
British Government, that no one is to shoot over 
the tank, and this is strictly enforced. When the 
tank becomes dry, the silt of its bed is taken up 
to the depth of a foot, and spread over the rice- 

lield. 

Dr. Shortt visited the trees on the 8th March 
1864, on a raft pushed along by two fishermen 
swimming one on either side, their heads only 
visible above. As he got near the birds rose en 
masse overhead, and, uttering piercing cries, some, 
with threatening gestures, rested a moment on 
the adjoining trees, and then took to their wings 
again. Although so crowded, they performed their 
evolutions with the greatest nicety and dexterity, 
never interfering with each other's movements. 
Some ascended to a great height, and were hardly 
perceptible in the air, while others gyrated imme- 
diately above their heads ; many crowded on 
adjoining trees, and witnessed the intrusion with 
dismay. 

The small grey and black stork, Leptoptilos 
Javanica,//or.v/'., — Tamil name,Nutha cootee narai ; 
literally, shell-fish (Ampullaria) picking crane, — 
were the most numerous. Their nests were 2 feet 
in diameter, and contained three eggs or young. 
The eggs were of a dirty white colour, of the same 
shape, but not quite so large, as those of the 
turkey. The flesh is eaten by Mahomedans and 
Pariahs. The bird keeps entirely to marshy fields, 
edges of tanks, etc. Some half-dozen or more 
may often be seen in the morning sunning them- 
selves with outstretched wings in the dry fields. 
They nest early, and the young are firm on the 
wing in the month of February. 

The ibis or curlew, Ibis falcinellus, — Tamil, 
Arroova mooken ; literally, sickle -nosed, which 
name they take from their long curved beaks. 
The nests of this bird contain from three to five 
eggs, resembling in size and shape a medium- 
sized hen's egg, but are of a dirty white colour. 
The birds are white, with black head, feet, and 
neck, and have a long curved black bill. The 
young are fully fledged in March, and take to the 
wing in April. 

The grey heron, Ardea cinerea, Linn., — Tamil, 
Narai, sometimes Pamboo narai, or snake crane, — ■ 
has a similar nest, built of twigs, containing some- 
times two, sometimes three eggs. They are fledged 
from January to April, according to the time of 
depositing their eggs, which some do earlier than 
Others. The eggs are of a light green colour; 



they are not bo large in circumference as a large - 
H/rd henV egg, but are longer, with the small end 
sharp. 

The purple heron, Ardea purpurea, — Tamil, 
< 'umbly narai, or blanket crane. Nest the sjjjwf 
depo.-.itH two to three eggs, of same size and 
colour as hist ; seems to rear only two young. 
The young are fully fledged in April. 

Nycticoraxgiiseus. I, inn., — Tamil, Wukka. Nests 
are built after the same fashion, but smaller in 
si/e, ami contain five eggs the size of a bantam's, 
and of the same Bhape. The young are fledged 
in April. 

The cormorant, Graculus Javanicus, Ilorxf., — 
Tamil, Neer cakai, or water-crow. Nest buUt of 
sticks ; rears three or four young, which are 
fledged and on the wing in January ; eggs like 
those of a small-sized bantam's, rather sharp- 
pointed at small end, with a slight greenish tinge. 

The large cormorant, Graculus Sinensis, — Tamil, 
Peroon neer cakai, or large water-crow, — builds 
a very rude nest, chiefly formed of sticks; lays four 
eggs the size of a medium-sized hen's egg, and 
have a slight greenish tinge ; the young are fledged 
sometimes in January, sometimes in March. These 
birds, as well as G. pygmaeus, are to be seen fishing 
in the tank itself; and the rapidity with which 
they find their prey, by diving, is wonderful. 

The darter, Plotus melanogaster, — Tamil, Pam- 
boo t li.-tl.ii neer cakai, or snake-headed water- 
crow. Nest same as last ; three, sometimes four, 
eggs of same size and colour ; young fledged and 
on the wing, some in January, others not till April. 

The villagers of Vaden Thangul told Dr. Shortt 
that the pelican sometimes breeds here, as also the 
black curlew. Occasionally different kinds of teal, 
widgeons, etc., are said to nest in the rushes 
that bound the inner surface of the tank bund. 
The egrets, or Herodias garzetta, bubulcus, and 
intermedia, were congregated in very large num- 
bers, and roosted on the trees at night ; but they 
do not nest, which seems singular, for of all the 
birds that assemble here, these occur in the greatest 
number. Ardea alba, or Herodias alba, and H. 
intermedia are also found here ; and the natives 
say that they breed. — Dr. Shortt, in Linn. Soc. Jo. 

HERPESTES. Illiger. Mungoose, Mangouste. 

Ichneumon, Lacepede. Mangusta, Oliver. 

The Herpestes is a genus of digitigrade carni- 
vorous mammalia; and the Egyptian species, the 
ichneumon, has been noticed by writers from the 
earliest times, its combats with snakes and its 
alleged attacks on crocodiles having been men- 
tioned by Aristotle, Diodorus Siculus, Pliny, 
Strabo, iElian, and others. The mungoose of 
India and ichneumon of Egypt are frequently 
domesticated, and their search for snakes for food 
is continuous. Jerdon gives 12 species belong- 
ing to British India and the E. Archipelago, viz. 
H. brachyurus, exilis, fuscus, griseus, Javanicus, 
Jerdoni, Malaccensis, monticolus, Nipalensis, 
Smithii, and vitticollis, and retains as synonyms of 
other authors, Auro-punctatus, Elliotti, nyula, 
pallidus, pallipes, and rubiginosus. 

Herpestes fuscus, Waterhouse, the Neilgherry 
brown mungoose, occurs in the Neilgherries. 

Herpestes griseus, Geoff., Madras mungoose. 
II. pallidus, Schinz. | Mangusta mungos, Elliot. 



Mungli, . 
Koral, . 


. . . Can. 


Newul, Newara 


. . . GOND. 


nyul, .... Hind. 


Mangus, . 


Hind., Maui:. 


Yentawa, . . . Tki.. 



41 



HERPESTRIS MONNIERA. 



HEWANT. 



► Spread through most parts of S. India, in the 
open country, thickets, hedgerows. It eats eggs, 
and kills snakes, and their poison is believed not 
to affect the mungoose. It is very destructive to 
domestic fowls, pigeons. The plants Ophiorhizon 
mungos and 0. serpentinum are said to be eaten 
by it when bitten by a snake. 

Herpestes Malaccensis, F. Cuv., Bengal mungoose. 
H. nyula, Hodgs. 
Nwal, Newara, Nyul, Hind. | Baji biji, . . . Hind. 

Inhabits Bengal, N. India, Assam, Burma, and 
Malayana ; lives in burrows made by themselves. 

Herpestes monticolus, W. Elliot. 
Long-tailed mungoose, Eng. | Konda yentawa, . Tel. 

Its tail is long, and tip dark coloured ; occurs in 
the E. Ghats. 

Herpestes Nipalensis, Gray. 
H. auro-punctatus, Hodgs. | H. pallipes, Bhjth. 

The gold-spotted mungoose is found in the 
Panjab, all over the Lower Himalaya from Sikkim 
to Kashmir and Afghanistan ; also southwards in 
Bengal, Assam, Burma, and Malay Peninsula. 

Herpestes Smithii, Gray, ruddy mungoose. 
H. Elliotti, Blyth. | H. rubiginosus, Kelaart. 

Occurs near Madras, at the foot of the E. Ghats 
and Neilgherries, also in Ceylon. 

Herpestes vitticollis, Bennet, the stripe-necked 
mungoose of the W. Ghats, from near Dharwar to 
Cape Comorin. 

HERPESTRIS MONNIERA. H. Br. 

H. Brownei, Nutt. 
H. procumbens, Spreng. 
H. cuneifolia, Pursh. 
Bramia Indica, Lam. 
Calytriplex obovata, Roiz 

and Pav. 
Shwet chamini, . Beng. 
Adha birni, . . Hind. 
Beami, . . . Maleal. 
Jelabrimmi, . . Sansk. 

This creeping plant grows in many parts of 
India, near streams and tanks, in moist places; 
and the jointed root, stalks, leaves, and blue-bell 
flowers are all used in the medicines of the native 
physicians. — Roxb.; Ainslie; Voigt; Useful Plants. 

HERRINGS. 



Monniera Brownei, Pers. 
M. cuneifolia, Mich. 
Gratiola . portulacacea, 

Weinm. 
G. monniera, Linn. , Roxb. 

Jali-nim, . . . Sansk. 
Nir-pirimi, . . . Tam. 
Sambrani chettu, . Tel. 



Haringen, . . . DuT. 
Harengs, .... Fr. 
Haringe, Heringe, Geb. 

Aringhe, It. 

A well-known fish, 8 
and about 5i ounces. 



Arenques, . . . Port. 
Seldi, .... Res. 
Arenques, .... Sp. 

Sill, Sw. 

to 12 inches in length, 
It dies almost the instant 



it is taken out of the water. Herrings are met 
with in three different forms. Fresh herrings are 
the condition in which they are taken from the 
sea ; white or pickled herrings are merely salted, 
and put into barrels ; and red herrings are gutted 
and salted, and afterwards hung up and fired 
with the smoke of green wood. On the Tenas- 
serim coast are flat-bellied herrings, thryssa 
anchovies, Tenasserim sardines, bristle-finned 
sprats, shads, chatsesi, fresh -water herrings, flying 
fish, half -billed gar-fish, pikes, plagusia, soles and 
brachirus-turbots. — Mas. 

-, HESSING, Colonel. His tomb is a model of 
the taj. He was a Dutchman in Sindia's service, 
who rose from a common soldier to be the governor 
of Agra. — 2V. of Hind. i. p. 436. 
' HESTIA JASONIA, the sylph, floater, 
spectre, or silver-paper butterfly, is found only 
in the deep shades of the damp forests of Ceylon, 



in the vicinity of pools of water and cascades. — 
Tennant, i. p. 263. 

HESUDRUS, the ancient name of the Sutlej 
river, the Hesydrus of Alexander, and the Satadru 
of the Vendidad. In the oldest hymns of the 
Veda, about 1500 B.C., we find a war-song refer- 
ring to a battle fought on the banks of this river. 
— Bunsen. 

HETEROPA ASAROIDES. Birthwort, The 
Si-sin plant of China ; the dried root is used 
medicinally. 

HETEROPANAX FRAGRANS. Seem. A tree 
of Lakhimpur in Assam. The cocoons and silk 
of the Eria silk-worm feed on its leaves. 

HETEROPHRAGMA ROXBURGHII. D. C. 
A large timber tree of Chanda, the Godavery 
forests, and the Malabar coast. S. adenophylla, 
Seem., and S. sulphurea, Kurz, occur in Burma, 

HETEROPODA, a class of nucleobranch oceanic 
molluscs, of anomalous forms, with the foot 
variously modified for swimming. Amongst these, 
Pterosoma plana, Less., is a transparent, delicately- 
tinted, winged animal, thick and gelatinous, and 
almost invisible in the water ; it is found in the 
seas of the Eastern Archipelago. The Firola, of 
the same class, is a transparent creature, with a 
long proboscis, and swims by means of a fin 
below. The Sagitta, or arrow-fish, one of the 
same class, darts through the water by sudden 
instantaneous jerks ; it resembles a minute arrow. 
Its body is so transparent that its whole organiza- 
tion may easily be observed. Atlanta, a pretty 
little curly shelled nucleobranch of this class, 
Heteropoda, has both its shell and body trans- 
parent. All these range through the Mediterranean, 
Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. — Collingwood. 

HET-HER, a name of Aphrodite, called also 
Hather, Athyr, and Hathor, an Egyptian goddess, 
fabled to be the daughter of Ra or the sun. 

HETKARI. Mahr. Signifying down ; as ap- 
plied to country, down the coast to the south, a 
native of the country southwards of the Savitri 
river ; a native of the Southern Konkan, serving 
in the Mahratta infantry. — Wils. 

HEUMA or Shendu tribe inhabiting the hills 
north of Arakan. They occupy the Yeoma-toung 
hills, on the watershed between the Meeyk-young 
and the drainage of the Manipur rivers. The 
Heuma are placed by Captain Tickell in the higher 
hills to the N. and N. E. of the Kun tribes, 
between lat. 21° and 22° N., and long. 93° and 94° 
E. Their chiefs are called Aben, and their 
villages have about 50 to 400 houses. They use 
the trap-bow for shooting the elephant, but fire- 
arms are superseding the ruder weapons. They 
regard the sun and moon as deities. 

HEVEA BRAZILIENSIS yields the caoutchouc 
of commerce. H. Guianensis, the caoutchouc 
plant, its trunk 17 to 20 yards high, scaly like a 
pine-apple ; very straight, branched at the summit. 
Incisions in the bark cause the discharge of a 
juice which concretes into the well-known and 
very valuable caoutchouc of commerce. This is 
a product, however, of many other trees in this 
and allied families, — for example, of Jatropha 
elastica, Ficus Indica, Artocarpus integrifolia, 
Urceola elastica, etc. The juice when first ob- 
tained is white and milky, sp. gr. 1*011 ; spread 
in thin layers, it quickly dries into a colourless 
and often transparent solid substance. — O'Sh. 560. 

HEWANT. Hind. The autumn harvest of 



42 



iii.vm:. i;i:\.i.\mi\ 



HIBISCUS CANNABINUS. 



Northern India, intermediate between rabi and 

kharif, including hajra and j'uar. Hciiiauta in 
Bengal in a rice crop growing in the months 

Agnthajana and Pauslm ( November — December), 
ripening in December. 
liKV.Ni:. BENJAMIN, M.D., a Madras medical 

oltie,i. author of Mode of Manufacturing Catechu, 
Bl. A.-. Trans, vii. p. 108; Travels in India, ibid. ; 
On Copper at Nellore, ibid.; Tracts, Historical 
and Statistical, on India, with an Account of 
Sumatra, London |s| |. 

1 1 E Y N I : A A I I ' 1 N I S. Jugs. H. trijuga, Rvxb. 
Tliis is a vi y ornamental nuddling-sized tree of 
Nepal, common in many localities on the western 
mountains of the Madras Presidency, from 2000 
feet upwards; at Conoor, 6000 feet, abundant; 
Bolampatty valley, 3000 feet, very abundant. II. 
jramquijuga, /.'., is a native of the Moluccas, with 
the perfect habit of a Melia. — Roxb.; Bedd. 

Il'll.W IUA-PATI, i.e. resolute prince, also 
styled Shora-pati, lord of the oxen, a ruler who 
I Semiramis and drove her back across the 
Indus. The whole country on the right bank of 
the Upper Indus, the site of the present Peshawur, 
opposite Attok (Taxila) and still higher up, was 
tributary to the Assyrians, as it afterwards was to 
the Medes and Persians. Pliny tells us that 
Semiramis capitulated here, on the Kophen (the 
Kabul river, the Kubha of the Rig Veda) ; and on 
the black obelisk from Nineveh in the British 
Museum, which is at least of the 9th century B.C., 
the Bactrian camel is found side by side with the 
Indian rhinoceros and Indian elephant. Accord- 
ing to Diodorus (ii. 16-19), Semiramis fitted out an 
armament in Bactria, and between B.C. 1285 and 
1225 she crossed the Indus with a vast force. At 
first she drove back the opposing maharaja from 
the strong position that he had taken up with a 
vast force, especially of archers ; but, rallying his 
retreating forces, he soon drove back the Assyrians 
in total disorder to the river, which they had 
great difficulty of crossing, and only after immense 
loss. Semiramis concluded an armistice, made an 
exchange of prisoners, and retreated into Bactria 
with a third of the army which she had brought 
against India. At that time there must have been 
a supreme ruler in India, a sami raja, with a 
capital in the district to the south of the Saraswati, 
in the Jumna and Ganges Doab. — Bunsen, iii. 549. 

HIA, the first Chinese dynasty, descendants of 
Yu, from B.rj. 1991 to 1559, ruled 432 years. Its 
first emperor was Yu, beginning B.c. 1991. 

HIATILLA, or the White Huns, a Tartar tribe 
who issued from the plains near the north wall 
of China, and made themselves masters of the 
country of Transoxiana. Some years afterwards, 
Turkish tribes expelled the Hiatilla from the lands 
that they had taken from the Sacse or Scythians. 
There is every ground to conclude that it was an 
army of the Hiatilla that invaded Persia in the 
reign of Bahram-Gor, and that it was to one of 
their kings that Firoz fled. — Malcolm's Persia. 

HIBAVINIA OIL. Canarese. Under this 
name there was exhibited at the Madras Exhibi- 
tion of 1857 a solid oil from the Sampajey district. 
of a clove-brown colour. A small phial priced at 
4^ rupees. 

HIBISCUS, a genus of plants belonging to the 
Malvaceae or mallow tribe ; above 30 species of the 
genuB are known in the E. Indies. Several furnish 
useful commercial products, and most of the 



Indian species might be employed for the same 
purposes as hemp, as the bark is tough, and may 
almost always be stripped off in long slips. 

Hibiscus collinus, Roxb. (hriocarpus of I). ( '.), 
a native of the mountainous parts of the Northern 
Circars and of Peninsular India, where it is called 
Kanda-gang, and where the natives use the bark 
as a substitute for hemp. Dr. Roxburgh states 
that there are three varieties of this plant, the 
double red, double yellow, and double flesh red 

Hibiscus ficifolius, Roxb. In the Moluccas, an 
annual, growing straight, very tall, often 12 to 
11 feet high, with few branches. The fibres 
described as uncommonly beautiful, and rather 
stronger than the sunn fibre. 

Hibiscus furcatus, Roxb., W. and A. 

H. bifurcatuB, Roxb. H. aculeatus, Roxb. 

Koiula gongura, l 

A very prickly plant, growing in India to a 
height of from 6 to 8 feet. It yields abundance of 
strong, white, flaxy fibres, but from the prickli- 
ness of the plant it is very troublesome to handle. 
The stems are cut when in flower, and steeped 
immediately. — Roxb. ; W. and A. 

Hibiscus punctatus, Dalz., Gibson, an annual 
fibrous plant of Sind and Multan. — Von Mueller. 

Hibiscus vesicarius, Cav., a plant of the 
Peninsula. Good samples of its fibre were 
exhibited as wild Ambari at the Madras Exhibition 
of 1855. 

HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, L., Dekhani hemp. 
Kudrum of . . Behar. | Ambari, . . . Dukh. 



Bkng. 
Can. 

Chin. 



Sankokla patsan, 
Vatsan, Sunni of 
Palungo, . . . 
Pulacha, . . . 
Ghongu kuru, 



Panj. 



Tam. 

•1 
Tel. 



Mesta pat, Nalki, 
Punday, Pundrica, 
Hiang-ma, . . 
Peh-ma, Ye-ma, . „ 

Pula namaji, . . Coimb. 

Hibiscus cannabinus is an erect growing plant, 
to about 4 to 6 feet. It is slightly prickly over 
the stem. There is a dark, purplish - coloured 
species. Both are grown all over India for the 
acidulous leaves, and also for the fibres of its 
bark, called one of the hemps of India, which are 
used as cordage ; the cultivators sow a small 
quantity along the edges of the usual crops for 
their own use. In the beginning of the rains, and 
when it commences to flower, it is cut and treated 
exactly as the sunn hemp from Crotalaria juncea. 
The proportion of fibre is about half the weight of 
the plant. It is used for making rope, sackcloth, 
twine, paper, etc. The price of the prepared 
fibre is from 3 to 4 rupees per maund, according 
to its strength, length, and cleanliness. The fibre, 
like that of jute, is sometimes called Pat ; also, 
in Bombay, Dekhani hemp, to distinguish it from 
Taag or Konkani hemp ; also Indian hemp. Also, 
it is one of the brown hemps of Bombay, anil is 
often confounded with the fibre of sunn, though 
the two plants greatly differ, — the sunn, Crotalaria 
juncea, being known in Bombay as Taag. The 
length of the fibres of carefully cultivated Ambari 
is from 5 to 6 feet; they are of a paler brown 
than ordinary brown hemp of the Crotalaria 
juncea, harsher in feel, and stick more together; 
but they are divisible into fine fibrils, possessed of 
considerable strength, well calculated for rope 
making, as also for coarse fabrics. Though 
esteemed by some of the natives of Wi 
India, the hemp of the H. cannabinus is not, 
cither in strength or durability, so good as the 
I true hemp of Europe, or as the sunn or brown 

43 



HIBISCUS MUTABILIS. 



HIDES. 



hemp of the Crotalaria juncea. The strength of 
this iibre was tested by several scientific men, and 
breaking weight found to be — 

Experiments of H. eannabinus. Crotalaria juncea. 

Dr. Roxburgh, . . 110-115 lbs. 130-160 lbs. 

Dr. Royle 150 „ 190 „ 

Dr. Wight, ... 290 „ 404 „ 

The exports of this fibre are not distinguished 
from other hemps. An excellent substitute for 
tow might be profitably supplied from it. The 
rope made of the fibre is used in the Karnatic as 
a substitute for the jute of Bengal, the produce of 
Corchorus capsularis, a plant comparatively un- 
known in the Peninsula. Dr. Riddell strongly 
recommended this fibre as a paper material. — 
M. Ex. Jur. Rep. ; Royle ; Roxb. ; Voigt ; Stewart. 
HIBISCUS MUTABILIS. L. 



Gul-i-ajaib, 



Hind. 



Thalpadmo, . . Beng. 
Fu-yung, Mu-fu-yung, Ch. 

The changeable rose is a large shrub, native of 
China, remarkable for the changes which occur in 
the colour of its flowers, bearing white flowers in 
the morning, but changing in the course of the 
day, and in the evening to red ; easily propagated 
by cuttings. The flowers and leaves are used in 
China medicinally, and its fibre is there made into 
cloth. — Drs. Roxb., Riddell, Mason, Stewart. 

HIBISCUS KOSA-SINENSIS. L. Shoe-flower. 
Uru, Joba, Juva, Beng. Jaba, .... Sansk. 
Chu-kin, Fuh-sang, Chin. Sapata cherri, . . Tam. 
Fu-sang, Liu-hwa, ,, Dasana japa push- 
Jasun, .... Hind. pamu, .... Tel. 
Shem pariti, . Maleal. Jova pushpamu, . ,, 
Kambang saptu, ,, 

This plant is common in India ; the leaves are 
used as emollients, anodyne, and gentle aperients ; 
the flowers are deep scarlet, and yield a very 
mucilaginous juice, which turns rapidly to a dark 
purple. Applied to soft, unsized white paper, 
this colour is nearly as sensitive a test for acid as 
the celebrated litmus. Shoe flowers are some- 
times employed for dyeing lilac colour, but it does 
not appear to be a permanent dye ; they are also 
occasionally rubbed on leather for the purpose of 
blackening and polishing. The natives make 
pickles of the flowers, and they are used for 
giving a red tinge to spirituous liquors. The 
petals furnish a black liquid to dye the eyebrows. 
— Roxb. iii. p. 194. 

HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA. L. Roselle. 



Patwa, .... Panj. 
Pulychay kire, . Tam. 
Shimay kashli kire, ,, 
Yerra gogu, . . Tel. 



Mesta, .... Beng. 
Thaem-bau-khyen- 

boung, . . . Burm. 
Oseille, . . Mauritius. 

There are five varieties, cultivated in most 
gardens for the calyces, which, as they ripen, 
become fleshy, are of a pleasantly acid taste, and 
are much employed for making palatable tarts, as 
well as an excellent jelly. The stem, if cut when 
in flower, and the bark stripped off and steeped 
immediately, displays a mass of fibres of a fine 
silky nature. The leaves are used as greens, 
alone or mixed with others; often cultivated in 
flower-beds for its very pretty flowers. In the 
French West India Islands, a kind of cider or 
wine is prepared from it, termed Yin de ozeille. — 
Aim. ; Roxb. ; Von Mueller. 

HIBISCUS STFJCTUS. Roxb. A native of 
the Rajmahal Hills, with a straight stem of from 
6 to 14 feet in height, and a very smooth bark. 
It is in blossom about the termination of the 
rains, and the seed ripens in December and 



January, soon after which the plants perish. The 
bark abounds in flaxen fibres, beautiful, long, 
glossy, white, fine, and strong. Sow in the be- 
ginning of the rains in beds, and when about six 
inches high transplant out in rows about nine 
inches asunder, and about as much from each 
other in the rows. In 1801, 40 square yards 
planted in this manner yielded 33 pounds weight 
of very clean fibres. Dr. Roxburgh's original 
specimens are 9 and 10 feet in length, a fibrous 
mass apparently easily stripped off, and composed 
of fine and easily divisible fibres. — Roxb. ; Roijle. 

HIBISCUS SURATTENSIS. Linn., Roxb. 
Kashlikire, . . . Tam. | Mulu gogu, . . . Tel. 

A herbaceous plant, with speckled prickly 
stems, and yellow flowers ; the leaves are used as 
greens. — Roxb. ; Jaffrey. 

HIBISCUS SYRIACUS. Linn. 
Muh-kin, . . . Chin. | Oodha godhul, . Hind. 

There are four varieties of this plant cultivated 
for ornament in India, two purple, a single and 
a double ; and two white, a single and a double. 
The flowers are used to blacken the eyebrows and 
shoe leather. It is a common hedge plant of Hu- 
peh in China. — Roxb. iii. p. 195. 

HICK. Singh. A Ceylon wood, very hard, 
fine, close, very uniformly grained ; heavy, in 
colour resembling pencil cedar. 

HIDES. 



Hud, .... Dan., Sw. 

Huiden Dut. 

Peaux, Fr. 

Haute, .... Ger. 
Chamra, . . . Hind. 
Cuoja, Pelle, ... It. 

Pellis Lat. 

Hides and skins, raw 



Balulang, Kulit, Malay. 
Pelles, .... Port. 
Koshi, .... Rus. 
Charma, . . . Sansk. 
Pellejos, Pieles, . . Sp. 
Toll, Tolu, . Tam., Tel. 

Deri, Turk. 

dressed, and tanned, 



form a large item of the exports from India, and 
since the year 1851 the quantities and values ex- 
ported have largely increased, while amongst the 
millions of India they are largely used. In every 
part of S. India extensive tanneries have been 
established, chiefly by the Labbai Mahomedans. 
The value of the exports from India have been 
as under, for hides and skins, raw and dressed : — 



1851-52, 
1852-53, 
1853-54, 
1854-55, 
1855-56, 
1856-57, 
1857-58, 
1858-59, 
1859-60, 



£303,089 
337,849 
402,365 
402,386 
431,729 
572,530 
639,702 
544,680 
444,537 



1860-61, 
1874-75, 
1875-76, 

1876-77, 
1877-78, 
1878-79, 
1879-80, 
1880-81, 
1881-82, 



£656,629 
2,677,765 
2,943,573 
2,991,022 
3,756,887 
3,186,845 
3,733,005 
3,733,565 
3,948,792 



About the year 1850, nearly 40,000 tons of leather, 
hides, and skins were annually imported into 
Britain ; the total imports into Great Britain of 
hides and skins, in 1880, was 83,397 tons, value 
£6,910,847. 

All untanned leather is classed under the 
denominations of hides, kips, and skins. From 
these there are various kinds of leather tanned. 
Butts and backs are selected from the stoutest 
and heaviest ox hides. The butt is formed by 
cutting off the skin of the head for glue, also the 
cheeks, the shoulder, and a strip of the belly on 
each side. In the back, the cheeks and belly are 
cut off, but the shoulder is retained. The butt 
or back of the ox hide forms the stoutest and 
heaviest leather, such as is used for the soles of 
boots and shoes, for most parts of harness and 
saddlery, for leather trunks and buckets, hose 



44 



HIDIMI'.A. 



HIGH PLACES. 



tot fire - engines, pump - valves, eoM i ett 1 1 >olts, 

lad gloves for cavalry. Hides coiiHint of OOW 
hides, or the lighter ox 1u«1ok and buffalo hides; 
tiny are the saino as butts with the bellies on. 
Hides are sometimes tanned whole, and are struck 
for sole leather, in which case they are called crop 
bides. Skins are used for all the lighter kinds of 
leather. 

Hull hide is thioker, stronger, and coarser in its 
Brain than cow hide. The hide of the bullock is 
intermediate between the two. 

(alt-skin is thinner than cow's. It is tanned 
for the bookbinder, and tanned and curried for 
the upper jMirt of shoes and boots. 

Sheep-skins are tanned and employed for book- 
binding, leathering for common bellows, whip- 
lashes, bags, aprons, etc.; also for the cheaper 
kinds of wash-leather for breeches, gloves, and 
under-waistcoats ; and are also coloured and dyed 
leathers and mock morocco, used for women's 
shoes, for covering writing-tables, stools, chairs, 
and sofas, lining carriages, etc. 

Lunb-skins are dressed white or coloured, for 
gloves ; are very extensively used with the hair 
on in the N.W. Himalaya, Afghanistan, Hazara, 
Katiristan, Tartary, Tibet, China, and Persia, as 
articles of dress for the head, and for mantles. 

(i oat -skins form the best dyed morocco of all 
colours. Kid-skins supply the finest white and 
coloured leather for gloves and ladies' shoes. 

Deer-skins are all shamoyed, or dressed in oil, 
chiefly for riding breeches. Shamoyed leather of 
sheep, goat, and deer-skins was formerly a lucrat- 
ive branch of the leather trade, for breeches, 
white or dyed. 

Horse hide is tanned and curried for harness 
work, for collars, etc. Enamelled horse hide, 
split or shaved thin, is used for ladies' shoes, in 
imitation of seal, but does not produce so good a 
leather as seal. 

Dog-skin is thin, but tough, and makes good 
leather. Most of the dog-skin gloves are really 
made of lamb-skin. 

Seal-skin makes a valuable leather, but a large 
proportion of seal-skins is used as fur. 

Hog-skin affords a thin, porous leather, which 
is used for covering the seats of saddles. 

Iguana skins can be tanned and dyed black, or 
left of their natural colour. They are thin, even, 
soft, tough, elastic, and granular or shagreen-like 
in external appearance. It bids fair to be a dur- 
able article for light slippers, and a good covering 
for the commoner kinds of instrument boxes, such 
as are still done over with shagreen. Python 
skin, when tanned, makes excellent boots, much 
prized for their strength, pliability, and great 
beauty, as they are handsomely marked. The 
skins of young alligators are tanned, converted 
into leather, and the leather manufactured into 
boots. 

Wash-leather skins are prepared with oil, in 
imitation of chamois, for household purposes, 
such as cleaning plate, brasses, and harness. 

Leather is made from the skin of salmon and 
other fish. 

HIDIMBA, a wife of Bhima. Her brother was 
a cannibal, and was killed by Bhima. 

HIERONIMO DI SANTO STEFANO, a Geno- 
ese ; visited India about 1494-99 as a merchant 
adventurer. At Cairo he laid in a stock of coral 
beads and other wares, and passed down the 



Nile to Cane (Keneh), from which he travelled 
by land through the Egyptian desert for 7 days 
to Cosir (Cosseir) on the Red Sea, where he 
embarked on board a ship, which in 25 days 
carried him to Mazua (Massouah) ' off the country 
ad Presttf John;' and in 25 days more, during 
which he saw plenty of boats fishing for pearls, to 
Aden (Aden); and in 35 days more to Calicut. 
' We found that pepper and ginger grew here, . . . 
and the nut of India ' (cocoanute). From Calicut 
he sailed in another ship, and in 2<i days reached 
Ceylon, ' in which grow cinnamon trees, . . . many 
precious stones, such as garnets, jacinths, cats'- 
eyes, and other gems, . . . and trees of the sort 
which bears the nut of India.' Departing thence, 
after 12 days he arrived at a port on the coast of 
Coromandel, ' where the red sandal-wood grows ; ' 
and, after a long stay, departing thence in another 
ship, after 27 days reached Pegu in Lower India. 
' This country (Pegu) is distant 15 days' journey 
by land from another, called Ava, in which grow 
rubies and many other precious stones.' From 
Pegu, where he suffered many and great troubles, 
he set sail to go to Malacca, and, after being at 
sea 25 days, one morning found himself in a port 
of Sumatra, ' where grows pepper in considerable 
quantities, silk, long pepper, benzoin, wliite sandal- 
wood, and many other articles.' After further 
and greater troubles suffered here, he took ship 
to Cambay, where, after 6 months' detention among 
the Maldives, and subsequent shipwreck, he at 
length arrived, but stripped of all his goods. He 
notices that Cambay produced lac and indigo. In 
his destitution he was assisted by a Moorish mer- 
chant of Alexandria and Damascus, and after a 
time proceeded in ship of a sharif of Damascus 
as supercargo to Ormuz, in sailing to which place 
from Cambay he was 60 days at sea. From 
Ormuz, ' in company with some Armenian and 
Azami (Irak-Ajemi) merchants,' he travelled by 
land to Shiraz, Isfahan, Kazan, Sultanieh, and to 
Tauris ; whence he went on with a caravan, which 
was plundered by the way, to Aleppo, and finally 
to Tripoli. — India in the loth Century; Bird- 
wood's India Office Records. 

H IE-SHAN, a group of three islands and eight 
rocks on the east coast of China, which extend 4 
miles long. The southernmost is the largest, and 
the inhabitants are fishermen. 

HIGH PLACES. Sacred edifices were often 
erected by the Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans 
upon elevated sites. The custom is of very high 
antiquity. Hector, according to Homer, sacrificed 
upon the top of Ida. Abraham was commanded 
to offer up Isaac on Mount Moriah ; and Balak is 
represented as selecting three elevated stations, 
where he sacrificed with Balaam. — 

First station. — Numbers xxii. 41 : 'And brought 
him up into the high places of Baal.' 'And he led 
him to the high places of his god' (Chaldee and 
Samaritan). 'And he made him ascend Bemoth 
Baal' (Syriac). 'He made him ascend to the 

Eillar or mound of Baal' (Greek). 'And he led 
im up to some temples of his god ' (Arabic). 
Second station. — Numbers xxiii. 14: "And he 
brought him into the field of Zophim, to the top 
of Pisgah.' 'To the field of observation, to the 
top of the lull' (Chaldee). 'To the field of the 
watchers, to the top of the hill' (Syriac). 'To 
the field of the watchers, to the peak of observa- 
tion' (Samaritan). 'To the field of observation. 



45 



HI-HYA. 



HILL STATES. 



on the summit of a levelled place' (Greek). 'To 
an high place, on the top of a citadel ' (Arabic). 

Third station. — Numbers xxiii. 28: 'And Balak 
brought Balaam unto the top of Peor.' 

Numerous Hindu temples are erected on the 
summits and slopes of mountains, notably at Tri- 
puttyand Srirangam, in the Madras Presidency. — 
Archselogia; Milner's Seven Churches. 

HI-HYA, a tribe of the Lunar race, brave and 
valorous ; their remnants exist in the line of the 
Nerbadda at the very top of the valley of Sohagpur 
in Baghelcund. See Sehestra; Arjuna; Ha-Haya. 

HIJILI, a small marshy district on the western 
side of the mouth of the Hoogly river. It is the 
sea-coast division of the Midnapur district of 
Bengal ; a considerable quantity of salt is now 
produced by private persons under Government 
supervision. — Imp. Gaz. 

HIJRAH. Aijab. A flight, but applied as relat- 
ing to the flights of the disciples of Mahomed, 
and of Mahomed's own flight, to escape persecu- 
tion. The first flight consisted of 15 disciples 
of Mahomed, who, at his recommendation, to avoid 
persecution, took refuge in Abyssinia. The Koresh 
wished them to be delivered up, but the Nagashy 
of Abyssinia refused. The second flight is that 
most generally known, and has given rise to the 
Mahomedan era of the Hijrah. It was the flight of 
Mahomed to Medina, which took place on the 
night of Thursday the 15th July, a.d. 622. In the 
khalifat of Omar, this was constituted the com- 
mencement of the Mahomedan era. 

The Mahomedan Hijrah year consists of twelve 
lunar months, each of 29 days 12 hours and 44 
minutes ; and the year, 354 days 8 hours and 48 
minutes. 

The months of the Mahomedan year, — 
Maharram, . . 30 days. Shaban, 



Safar, .... 29 

Rabi-ul-Awal, . 30 

Rabi-us-Sani, . 29 

Jamadi-ul-Awal, 30 

Jamadi-us-Sani, 29 

Kajab, ... 30 



Ramazan, . . 
Shawal, . . . 
Zilkada or Zul- 

kada, . . 
Zilhijja or Zul- 

hijja, . . . 



29 days. 

30 „ 

29 „ 

30 „ 

29 „ 



The corresponding years of the Christian and 
Hijrah eras may easily be calculated by the follow- 
ing formula, — it being remembered that the Chris- 
tian are solar and those of the Hijrah lunar years, 
and that 521 solar are equal to 537 lunar years : 

Ex. — What is the year of Christ 1734, according 
to the Hijrah ? 

From 1734 a.d. subtract 621, the difference of 
the two eras ; result, 1113 of the Hijrah in solar 
years. 

Then, 521: 537: : 1113: 1147 Hijrah.— Play- 
fair's Yemen. 

HILLAH, a town 54 miles from Baghdad, on 
the site of the ancient Babylon ; about two-thirds 
of it is on the right bank of the Euphrates and the 
remainder on the left bank, the two parts being 
connected by a bridge of 28 boats, and 450 feet 
in length. It is inhabited by Arabs, Persians, 
Turks, and Jews. It has numerous gardens. 
Basket boats ply at the ferry. 

Hillah lies in lat. 32° 31' 18" N. and W of 
Baghdad. According to Turkish authorities, it was 
built in the fifth century of the Hijira, in the 
district of the Euphrates which the Arabs call 
El-arad-Babel, lying on a spot of the west site of 
Babylon. The ruins near Hillah are still by the 
Arabs designated Babel, and all historical records 
as well as traditions agree in representing these 



as the remains of the first city of Nimrud, the 
Babylon of Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, and 
other historians. — Mac Gregor. 

HILL STATES is a term by which the British 
designate several independent and feudatory 
kingdoms in the Himalayas. Nepal is the largest 
of these ; it is independent, but has treaties with 
British India. 

Sirmur or Nahdn. — In recognition of the ser- 
vices rendered by raja Shamsher Purgass during 
the 1857 mutiny, he received a khillat of Rs. 5<>00, 
and a salute of 7 guns. The family is Rajput. 
Revenue of Sirmur, a lakh of rupees a year. The 
raja maintains a small force of drilled sepoys. 
numbering 250 men. Population, 75,595. The 
raja pays no tribute, but is bound to render feudal 
service. Gross revenue, Rs. 2,10,000. 

The Kahlur or Bilaspur raja had estates on 
both sides of the Sutlej, but the sunnud given 
to raja Mooher Chand in 1815 confirmed to him 
the eastern portion only. The family is Rajput. 
In acknowledgment of his services during the 
mutinies of 1857, the raja received a dress of 
honour of Rs. 5000 value, and a salute of 7 guns. 
Revenue, Rs. 1,00,000 ; population. 66,848. 

The Hindu? or Nalagarh chief belongs to a 
Rajput family. A sunnud was granted in 1815. 
Population, 60,000 ; revenue, Rs. 90,000. 

Bashahr, a tributary state, gave Rs. 3945 as 
tribute. Raivaun, on the left bank of the Pabur, 
was transferred to Keonthal. The thakuri of 
Kotgurh and Kumharsain were declared independ- 
ent of Bashahr. The raja is of a Rajput family. 
Population (1872), 90,000 ; revenue, Rs. 70,000. 

Keonthal. — After the Gurkha war, a portion of 
the territory of Keonthal was sold to the maharaja 
of Patiala. The chief claims a Rajput origin. He 
is bound to render feudal service. In 1858 the 
chief was created a raja, and received a dress of 
honour worth Rs. 1000 for his services during 
the mutinies. Revenue, Rs. 60,000, and popula- 
tion (1875), 50,000. 

The Baghal family is Rajput. Revenue, Rs. 
60,000 ; population, 22,305. 

Jubbul — Originally this Rajput state was tribu- 
tary to Sirmur, but after the Gurkha war it was 
made independent, and the rana received a sunnud 
from Lord Moira on 18th November 1815. Re- 
venue, Rs. 30,000 ; population, 40,000 souls. The 
rana pays Rs. 2520 tribute, and is bound to 
render feudal service. 

Bhajji pays tribute, Rs. 1440. Revenue, Rs. 
23,000 ; population, 19,000. 

Kumharsain state, formerly a feudatory of 
Bashahr, was declared independent at the Nepal 
war ; pays Rs. 2000 as tribute. Revenue, Rs. 
10,000; population, 10,000. The family is Raj- 
put, of not very high pretensions. 

The Kuthar sunnud bears date the 3d September 
1815, and confirms to rana Bhoop Singh and his 
heirs the hereditary possessions of his ancestors, 
subject to the performance of feudal service, and 
supplying a contingent of 40 begar, but subse- 
quently commuted to a tributary payment of 
Rs. 1080. Revenue, Rs. 5000 ; population, 3990. 
The family is Rajput. 

Dhami. — This old Rajput state became independ- 
ent of Kahlur after the Gurkha war. The state 
was bound to supply 40 begar, but this was com- 
muted to a tribute of Rs. 720. Revenue, Rs. 
8000 ; population (1875), 5500. 



46 






llll.l. TRACTS. 



HILL TROUT. 



Jim/hut, a lull slate, the chief of which acted 
unfriendly dmfalg the Nepal war. He died with- 
out issue on 11th duly IH.VJ. The state was 
treated as a lajwe, and pensions to the extent of 
ssigned to the family. Gazetteer 
says population, 10,000; revenue, Us. 8000. 

r.nlmin. — This state was originally a feudatory 
of Sinnur, but a separate sunnud was granted to 
it in September 181ft. Its tribute payment is 
Rs. 10KO. Its chief is of Rajput origin. Thakur 
.Jograj was created a nma in 1858 for services 
tendered daring the mutiny. Revenue, Rs. G000; 
population. 1898. 

Mmloq. — The sunnud of this Rajput state is 
dated 4th September 1815. The tribute is lis. 
II.'". Revenue, lis. 9000 ; population, 100<X 

llijn. — This petty state juysa tribute of Rs. 180. 
ue, Rs. L000; population, 9K1. 

'J'arur/,.— Revenue, Rg. G000 ; pop. 6000. It 
pays Rs. 880 in lieu of begat. 

Ktnthinr state pays Re. ISO in lieu of begar. 
iiue. Rs. 4000; population, 2500. 

Mmujnl was an ancient dependency of Kablur, 
but was declared independent on the expulsion of 
the (iurkha. Its tribute payment is Rs. 72. Re- 
venue. Rs. 700 ; population, 917. 

J)tt> -kuti. — This pretty chieftainship jwiys allegi- 
ance to the British Government, and is exempted 
from all pecuniary liability. Revenue, Rs. (500 ; 
population, 700. 

In 1847 transit duties were abolished through- 
out these states. A yearly sum of Rs. 13,735 is 
paid in compensation by British India. To all the 
hill chiefs the right of adoption has been granted. 
— Aitcheson, Treaties, etc. p. 328. 

BILL TRACTS of Arakan, or N.E. Arakan, 
are regarded as a revenue district, extendiug N.E. 
to Independent Burma and to Manipur, with an 
area of 4000 or 5000 square miles, and a popula- 
tion of 12,442 souls. The country, wild and beauti- 
ful, consists of parallel ridges of sandstone, clothed 
with dense forests ; its chief river the Kuladan 
(Koladyn) or Yam Pang. The tribes are the — 

Ra-Khaing or Khyoung - tha, or sons of the 
river ; profess Buddhism, and have paper books. 

Shandu are polygamic, and bury their dead. 

Kha-mi. meaning man, homo, or Khwe-myi, 
meaning dog's tail, their dress hanging down 
behind like a tail. They trade. 

Mro, 21 62, live on the Mi, Anu, or Khoung-tso, 
dwell on the banks of the Tsala river. 

Khyeng inhabit the Arakan Yoma Hills, E. 
of the Le-Mru ; they are shy, and tattoo their 
women's faces. 

Khyaw, in a village on the Tsala river, are a 
Kuki clan. They speak different dialects of the 
Arakanese and Kha-mi, but have many religious 
beliefs, domestic customs, and laws in common. 
Twice annually they worship the spirits of the 
thai I. Ka-nie-hpa-law. Chastity before marriage 
is not required, and crimes are punished by fines. 

HILL TRIBB3 is a general term by which the 
British designate collectively the numerous un- 
civilised tribes who inhabit the mountain ranges 
and higher hills in British India ami along its 
bonders. Most of them are wholly illiterate. 
Dr. W. \V. Hunter has mentioned that — 

In the North-Wcst Provinces there are wander- 
ing and wild tribes, named Bur. Damak, Kanjar. 
l'asi. kumbnh. Nat, Saussee, Gond, and theTharoo 
in the Tend ; the Pasi also occurring in Oudh. 



The Chinese Frontier and Tibet have the 
Gyami, Gyarung, Takj>a, Manyak. Thochu. Sokpa, 
Horpa. 

.Xtp/il ( Bint to West) has the Sen*, Sunwar. 
tinning. Murmi. Magar, Khaksya, Pakhva. \ 
l.imbu. 

/\'>>i)tti Group, Hast Nepal, have the Kiranti, 
Rodoag, Rungchcnbung. Chingtangya, Nach- 
hcreng. Waling. Yakha. Chourasya, Kulungya. 
Thuhiugya. Babingya, Lohorong, Limbichhong, 
I'.alali, Sang-pang, Huini. Khnling. Ihingmali. 

The Broktn Tribes of Nepal are the Darhi. 
I'cnuar. Paliri, Chepang. Bhnnnu. Vayu. Kuswar. 
Kusunda. Tharu. 

l-epcha of Sikkim. 

I ,h<> pa of Bhutan. 

In N. E. Bengal are the Bodo, Dhiinal. Kochh. 
Garo, Kachari. 

In the Eastern Frontier of Jl< m/ul are the 
Munipuri, Mithan Naga, Tabbing Naga, Khari 
Naga, Angami Xaga. Xainsang Naga. Xowgong 
Naga, Tengsa Naga, Abor Miri, Sibsagor Miri. 
Deoria Chutia, Singpho. 

Mishmi, Chulikata Alishmi. 

Abor group, viz. Padam and other Abor, Miri 
and Hill Miri, Dophla, Aka or Hrusso. 

Naga of Upper Assam, the lower Naga group. 

Naga west of the Doyang river. 

Kuki, Manipur, and their neighbours Kou}xmi. 

Mikir, Jaintia and Khassya. 

Arakan and Burma, Khyeng or Shou, Ka-mi. 
Ku-mi ; Mru or Toung, Sak. 

Siam and Tenasserim, Karen, Toung-thu, Ahom, 
Kham-ti, Laos. 

Central India, Ho (Kol) j Kol ; (Singbhum), 
Santal ; Bhumij Iiajmaliali, Gond, Khond, Saora, 
Chentsu, Bhil, Patooa. 

Broken Tribes, Cheroo, Kharwar, Parheya, Kisan 
or Nagesar, Bhuiher, Boyer, Nagbansi, Kaur or 
Kaurava, Mar. 

Southern India, Toda. Kota ; Badaga, Irular, 
Kurambar, Mali-Arasar, with many broken tribes 
in the plains, Yerkala, Pariah, Chakili, Mhar, 
Mhang, Okkalu, Holar. 

Ceylon, Veddah. 

HILL TROUT of Hindustan is no trout, but 
a large bony fish of a silver-grey spotted with 
black ; will eat everything he can swallow ; is 
often taken with an infant brother while spinning 
for his high-caste neighbours, with an artificial 
minnow of glass, with a piece of rag or news- 
paper, with bees, or dragon-flies caught off the 
bushes by the river, with a morsel of cabl>age 
leaves boiled, but in general with the orthodox- 
spinning, the minnow, or the artificial fly, made 
very large and showy. In Kashmir, five bags 
of these fish have been caught, some weighing 7 
lbs. each. One seen in the market was 19 lbs. 
The Walur Lake, the Dhul LakA, and the Jhelum 
all swarm with them about the mulberry trees, 
the fallen fruits of which seem to afford them in 
legions a sweet and pleasant diet, if one may 
judge by the mighty rush ensuing on a shaking 
of the boughs. Boatmen avail themaefc 
this, cover a bent pin with a plump mulberry, 
and drop it amid the shoal. This fish is wideiy 
distributed; abundant in the backwaters of the 
Ganges, in the great rapids of that river far above 
Hurdwar. and in Pehra Doon, in lat. 27° 28 N.. in 
the upper branches of the Brahmaputra, and in 
i the Mishmi and Abor backwaters, also in most 



47 



HILSHA. 



HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS. 



of the small rivers of the Panjab, in which latter 
locality it does not seem to grow very large, 
though plentifully, owing perhaps to its being the 
common food of numerous fish of prey. Is 
abundant, though small, in Central India, in 
Bundelkhand and Jhansi districts. That it is 
eatable, is all that can be said, but giving good 
sport in its way, and yielding subsistence to the 
monsters of the deep, and useful in diverting 
their attention from mischief to their own breed. 
The Europeans in Northern India apply the 
name of trout to three spotted carp, species of 
Barilius. B. bola, which takes a fly well, is said 
to attain 5 lbs. weight. It is found in Northern 
India, Assam, and Burma. B. tileo, smaller, is of 
Assam and Bengal ; and B. bendilisis is a third 
small species. See Chiliva ; Fish ; Fisheries. 

HILSHA or Ilisha, Clupea ilisha, shad, sable 
fish of Southern India. 

Nga-tha-louk, . Burm. I Palasa, .... Tam. 
Pulla, .... Sind. I Ulumoolum, . . . Tel. 

This is a migratory sea fish of the herring tribe, 
which enters the Ganges and Irawadi and Indus 
rivers to deposit its eggs. It is the shad of Bengal 
and the sable fish of Trichinopoly. In one of 
them 1,023,645 eggs were counted. The females 
are more numerous than the males. It is best 
preserved in tamarinds or vinegar. — Dr. F. Day. 

HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS comprise a system 
of stupendous ranges, with the loftiest peaks in the 
world. They extend continuously for a distance 
of 1500 miles along the northern frontier of 
British India, from the Indus to the gorge where 
the Dihong bursts through their main axis, thus 
embracing the meridians 75° to 95° E. On the 
west, the Himalaya, with the Kouen Lun, converge 
towards the Pamir table-land, whence the Tian 
Shan and the Hindu Kush radiate, and the Kouen 
Lun and the Himalaya form respectively the 
northern and southern escarpment of the lofty 
Tibetan plateau, which has an average level of 
15,000 feet. The average breadth of the Himalaya 
is computed at 150 miles, with a mean elevation 
of 18,000 to 20,000 feet ; but there are solitary 
mountains and peaks rising higher, — for instance, 
in the Western Himalaya, Jumnotri, 20,038 feet : 
Kedarnath, 22,790 feet ; Badrinath, 23,210 feet ; 
Nanda Devi, 25,661 feet ; — and in the Eastern 
Himalava, Dhawalgiri, 26,826 feet ; Daya bang, 
23,762 "feet ; Mount Everest, 29,002 feet ; Kan- 
chinjinga, 28,156 feet. 

The Himalayan system is composed of a northern, 
a central, and a southern range. 

The northern range is naturally divided into a 
western and an eastern section. Its western 
section is known as the Kara-korum or Mustagh, 
and it forms the water-parting between the basins 
of Lob-Nor and the Indus. The Kara-korum pass 
is on the real line of water-parting, and the 
streams north of it join the Tarim basin, while 
those on its southern slope discharge into the Indus. 

Several of the peaks along this western section 
of the Himalaya attain a height of 25,000 feet, 
and the chief one, ' K. 2,' 28,265 feet, is second in 
altitude to Mount Everest. This section of the 
range extends from its junction with the Hindu 
Kush near the Baroghil pass to Mount Kailas, 
near Lake Manasarowar in Tibet, and the best 
known passes across it are the Kara-korum and the 
Changchenmo, exceeding 18,000 and 19,000 feet 
respectively in height. But there are also the 



Karambar pass, the Mustagh pass, and a pass on 
the road between Kudok and Kiria. The southern 
slopes of the Mustagh range in its northern portion 
are covered with enormous glaciers, one of them 
35 miles long. These glaciers are the source of 
streams which flow southwards between bare 
craggy mountains and join the Indus or its 
tributary the Shayok. The collective name 
applied to the various districts which comprise 
the valleys of the Indus, Basha, Braldu, Shigar, 
Shayok, etc., is Baltistan. The inhabitants are 
Mahomedanized Tibetans of Turanian stock, and 
there is a small body of Aryans called Dards. 

To the E. of Lake Manasarowar, a saddle which 
is crossed by the Mariam-la pass, connects the 
northern and central ranges of the Himalaya. 
On its eastern side rises the Tsan-pu (To-chok- 
tsang-pu), of which the northern range forms 
the northern watershed as far as to the south of 
the Sky Lake (Tengri-nur in Mongolian, and 
Nam-cho in Tibetan). Hence it appears to 
curve round the lake in a north-easterly direction 
for 150 miles, after which its further course is 
unknown. 

The subsidiary chain between the northern and 
central ranges runs from Mount Kailas, near 
Lake Manasarowar, to the junction of the Indus 
and the Shayok. Major Cunningham called it 
the Kailas or Gangri range. It is 550 miles in 
length. Its peaks average between 16,000 and 
20,000 feet in height, and it is crossed in its 
northern portion by a number of passes, which 
lead from the valley of the Indus into that of the 
Shayok. About lat. 33° 12' N., the Indus deviates 
at right angles, and pierces right through this 
granite range to resume a north-westerly course 
beyond. The southern portion of this range lies 
in Tibetan territory, and has been crossed at 
four points by native explorers. 

The central range has its commencement in the 
Nanga Parbat, 26,629 feet high. It towers con- 
spicuously on the extre.ne verge of the Kashmir 
frontier above the Indus valley, and has been seen 
by General Cunningham from Pamnagar, in the 
Panjab, a distance of 205 miles. Proceeding 
from this point towards the south-east, we find 
that for the first 50 or 60 miles the central range 
forms the water-parting between the Indus and 
the Jhelum. Two roads, joining the Kishenganga 
and Astor rivers, go over passes of upwards of 
13,000 feet, and others lead into the Dras valley. 
At the point where the Dras pass (11,300 feet) 
affords access from the Kashmir valley to the 
high table-land of Ladakh, a minor range branches 
off and separates successively the Sind valley, the 
northern part of the vale of Kashmir, and the 
Jhelum valley, on the south, from the Kishenganga 
on the north. A little south of the same pass, 
another ridge branches off, and, running north 
and south, forms the eastern boundary of the 
vale, till, near Banihal, it joins itself to the Pir 
Panjal range, which again runs east and west for 
about 30 miles, then turns N.N.W., and continues 
for some 40 miles more till it dies off towards the 
valley of the Jhelum. This range completes the 
mountainous girdle which encircles the valley 
of Kashmir. About the vicinity of the Dras pass, 
the range increases in height, and the peaks are 
high enough to form glaciers, two of them, Nun 
and Kun, being each over 23,000 feet in height. 
The north-eastern slope of the range drains into 



HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS. 



HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS. 



the Indus, the Sum and Zanskar being the chief 
rivers. A little farther to tin- south, the Bara 
Lacha pass (16,200 feet) affords a route from 
IjiIiuI hikI Kangra to Ijeh. 

Farther to the south-east, the central range 

Mies broken by the precipitous gorge of the 

Sutlej (the classic I lesudrus), which, rising in the j 



korum, tadakh, Zanskar or Ikralacha, and Pir 
I'anjal, all of which have aN.W. to S.K. direction. 
The lktralacha separates the Indus river from its 
first affluents, as the Eastern Himalaya separatee 
the Tsan-pu from the Ganges. The average 
elevation of Kashmir valley is between 6000 and 
6000 feet ftbote the sea ; Huramuk Mount, 13,000 



saered lakes ot UakasTal and Manasarowara on the i feet ; Pir Panjal, 15,000 feet; average of the 



southern side of the Tibetan Kailas, takes a north 
westerly eourse for 280 miles, till, joined by the 
waters c >f the gpiti river, it turns and cleaveB through 
the two outer ranges, emerging on the plains of 
India at Ropar, after a course of 560 miles. The 
junction of the Sutlej and Spiti rivers is marked 
by the Lio I'orgyul peak, which rises sheer 22,183 
feet high from the edge of the two streams. 
18,000 feet below its summit Further to the 
S. E.. numerous passes lead from British territory 
over the central range into Hundes. The Niti 
pass (16,676 feet) leads across it to Khotan, 
1>\ waj <>f Totling, Gartokh, Rudokh, Noh, and 
Kiria, and is the best and easiest route between 
Beaten Turkestan and India. Eastward of this 
point, the central range is occupied by the 
Native gtateB of Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan. On 
its northern side the range has enormous glaciers, 
which drain into the Tsan-pu river; while its 
southern slopes give rise to many large rivers, 
which burst through the southern range, and 
eventually discharge their waters into the Ganges 
or Brahmaputra. The source of the Ganges 
lies a few miles beyond Gangotri ; and the Kali, 
Karnali, Narayani, Buri Gandak, Tirsuli Gandak, 
Bhutia Kosi. Arun. all flow through Nepal. To 
the east of the Mariam-la pass, only three Euro- 
peans have ever crossed the central range. An 
imposing view of the long line of glaciers and 
peaks of the central range was obtained by Dr. 
Hooker from the Donkia-la pass in Sikkim. Two 
of the most remarkable of the iidand lakes 
are the Palti and Chomtodong. The former 
(14,700 feet above the sea) is about twenty miles 
long and sixteen broad, without an outlet. This 
lake is situated north of the Arun basin, and, 
like the Palti lake, is encircled by spurs from the 
central range. The Palti or Yam-dok-cho lake 



valley of Indus (north of Kashmir valley), 6000 to 
7000 feet. 

Major Cunningham gave the following summary 
of the information he collected regarding the great 
mountain chains in the north of the Panjab : — 





1 

i 

a 


1. 

3? 


1 


Snow line. 


Name of Chain. 


■a $ 






1 J 

Ml 


§*" ! North 


South 




a 


5 


H 




Kara- korum or Tr. -Tibetan, 


450 


24,000 


20.000 1 18,000 


18,500 


Kailas or Gangri, or Mid- 












550 


20,700 


20,000 18,500 


19,000 


Tr.-Himalaya or Tsho-moriri, 


350 


21,000 


19,300 19,500 


20,000 


W. Himalaya or Bara Lacha, 


060 


25,749 


20,000 19,000 


18,000 


Mid-Himalaya or Pir Panjal, 


407 


21,786 


17,000 17,000 


16,000 


Outer Himalaya, or Daola 






Tin- snow dis- 


Dhar 


300 


16,174 


15,020 appeared 
' annually. 



Peaks. — Some of the peaks on the Kara-korum 
range, along which runs the boundary between 
Ladakh and Yarkand, are very high, the highest 
being 28,278 feet above the sea. This mountain is 
called K. 2, and towers above all the surrounding 
ranges, being probably the second highest in the 
world. The heights to the south of the Sutlej 
range from 20,103 feet to 25,749 feet, and the 
heights of the passes vary from 16,570 feet to 
18,331 feet. In the Western Himalaya the snow 
limit ranges are from 17,500 to 20,106 feet. The 
highest peaks of the Western Himalaya are, — 
Nanda Devi or Jawahir, 25,749 feet ; Gyu peak, 
24,764 feet ; Mono Mangli, 23,900 feet ; Porgyal, 
22,700 feet. 

The Giant's Peak and the Eastern Dal-la are 
occasionally called Gemini by residents of Assam 
who have seen the Himalaya panorama from 
Nanklau in the Khassya Hills. 



Eastern Dal-la, lat. 27° 52' 1" N., long. 92° 38' 
is also without an outlet, and is ring-shaped ; it 6" E., in Bhutan, in the immediate vicinity of the 



is supposed to be about 45 miles in circum 
ference. An island in its centre rises into 
rounded hills from 2000 to 3000 feet high. 

The southern range, at its north - western 
extremity, appears to spring from the southern- 
most point of the Pir Panjal range. At its outset 
it is pierced by the waters of the Chenab, the 
main stream of which rises in I,ahul far to the 
south-east, under the name of Chandra-bhaga, 
and for 180 miles drains the south-western and 
north-eastern slopes of the central and southern 
ranges respectively. The peaks of the southern 
raiiLT- gradually increase in height from 1300 to 
10,000 feet, and its outer slopes are washed 
by the Ravi and Beas, the feeders of which rise 
on the southern side of the culminating range. 
Passing the Sutlej, the road up the gorge of which 
is connected with Simla by the great Hindustan 
and Tibet road, we meet the Bhagirathi, Alak- 
nanda, and a variety of rivers, which rise in the 
space between the two southern ranges. 

The western terminal portion of the Himalaya 
chain comprises a number of great ranges, which 
are commonly known as the Mustagh or Kara- 

VOL. II. 



Giant's Peak top of the peak, is 21,435 feet accord- 
ing to Herm. Schl., and 21,476 feet, Pemberton. 

A line of high snow peaks can be traced 
running nearly parallel to the plains of India, 
and extending from the places of passage of the 
Indus on the west and Brahmaputra on the east. 
These snowy peaks are separated from each other 
by deep ravines, along which flow large and rapid 
rivers. Every pre-eminent elevation is not, how- 
ever, so much a peak as a cluster of peaks, 
springing from a huge sustaining and connected 
base. Between lat. 27° 16' 23" and 31° 6' 8" N., 
and long. 78° 32' 32" and 89° 18' 43" E., are 
seventy-nine peaks, ranging from 14,518 feet, to 
that of Mount Everest, 29,002 feet above the sea. 
The Pir Panjal, a great suow-clatl range, shuts in 
the valley of Kashmir on the south. With tliat 
exception, the ranges covered with perpetual 
snow are first met with on the southern slope of 
the great Indo-Tibetan table-land, along a line 
between 80 and 90 miles from the foot of the 
outer mountains, and 20 or 30 miles south of the 
Indian watershed ; and from this line north- 
ward snowy peaks abound everywhere over the 
49 D 



HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS. 



HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS. 



summit of the table -land. The average elevation 
of the crest of the Indian watershed, between the 
points where the Indus and Brahmaputra cross it 
(1500 miles), probably exceeds 18,000 feet. The 
heights of the following peaks are given by Mr. 
Trelawney Saunders in Geog. Mag., July 1877 : — 



Aku 

Barathor, .... 
Badrinath, . . . 
Bus or Srikaiita, 
Bandor Poonch, 
Black Rock Guaream, 
Choomalari, . . . 
Choomoonko orChola 
Chamlang, E., . . 

„ W., . 

Chaubisi, . . . 
Dayabang, . . . 
Dhoulagiri, . . . 
Everest, Mount, . . 
Jannoo, .... 
Jib-jibia, .... 
Jaonli, .... 
Jamnotri, .... 

K. 2, 

Kanchinjinga, . . 

Kabroo 

Kamet or Ibi Gamin 
Kedarnath, . . . 
Morshiadi, . . . 
Narsing, .... 
Narayani, .... 
Nandakut, . . . 
Nandd Devi or Latu, 
Nandakna, . . . 
Nila Kanta, . . . 
Powhoonri or Donkia, 
Pandim, . . 
Pancha-chuli, 
Sihsur, . . 
Sankosi, . . 
Sargoroen, 
Trisool, E., . 

„ W., . 
Tharlasgar, . 
Yassa, . . . 



Lat. | 




Long. | 


28° 23' 25" 


85* 


10' 12" 


28 32 


84 


9 32 


30 44 16 


78 


19 20 


30 57 25 


78 


50 50 


31 12 


78 


35 45 


27 34 7 


88 


48 39 


27 49 37 


89 


18 43 


27 27 28 


88 


49 38 


27 46 27 


87 


1 21 


27 45 16 


80 


51 56 


28 49 33 


82 


39 33 


28 15 17 


85 


33 35 


28 41 43 


88 


32 9 


27 59 12 


so 


58 6 


27 40 52 


88 


5 13 


28 21 3 


85 


49 21 


30 51 18 


78 


53 53 


31 25 


78 


34 6 


27 42 5 


88 


ii 26 


27 36 26 


88 


9 15 


30 55 13 


79 


38 4 


30 47 53 


79 


6 34 


28 35 38 


83 


51 46 


27 30 36 


88 


19 28 


28 45 39 


88 


25 52 


30 16 51 


80 


6 39 


30 22 31 


80 


50 


30 41 6 


79 


44 53 


30 43 52 


7(1 


26 56 


27 56 52 


88 


53 5 


27 34 34 


88 


15 35 


30 12 51 


80 


28 9 


27 53 18 


87 


7 54 


27 58 13 


sr, 


28 32 


31 6 8 


78 


32 32 


30 30 56 


79 


54 31 


30 18 43 179 


49 7 


30 51 40 |70 


2 14 


28 32 55 


|84 


36 9 1 



Ht., Ft 
24,313 
26,069 
23,210 
20,149 
20,758 
17,572 
23,944 
17,325 
24,020 
22,215 
19,415 
23,762 
26,826 
29,002 
25,304 
26,305 
21,672 
20,038 
28,278 
28,156 
24,015 
25,373 
22,790 
26,522 
19,146 
25,456 
22,536 
25,661 
22,093 
21,661 
23,186 
22,017 
22,673 
27,799 
23,570 
20.405 
23,092 
23,382 
22,582 
26,680 



Watershed. — The Himalayan watershed lies at a 
very considerable distance to the north of the 
great Himalayan peaks, which, from the side of 
Hindustan, seem to form the watershed. The 
greater part of the giant peaks, which rise to an 
elevation of 25,000 to 29,002 feet, are situated 
not on the central axis but to the south of it. 
Viewed from a distance of about 150 miles, these 
mountains present a long line of snow-white 
pinnacles, which on a nearer approach are seen 
towering above the dark line of lower but still 
lofty mountains. The steep face is toward the 
plain, and to the north the chain supports the 
lofty table-land of Tibet. Deep narrow valleys, 
separated by ranges running either parallel or at 
right angles with the main ridge, contain the 
numerous sources of the rivers flowing into the 
Ganges, the Indus, and the Brahmaputra. 

Rivers. — The great rivers issuing from the 
Himalaya from west to east in succession, are the 
Jhelum, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas, the Sutlej, 
the Jumna, the Ganges, the Gogra, the Gandak, 
the Kosi, the Tista, the Monas, and the Subansiri. 
The Indus, the Kabul river, the Jhelum, the 
Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas, and the Sutlej form 
seven large rivers, which flow through fertile 
valleys. The Jhelum runs in the valley of 
Kashmir. The course of the Ravi and Chenab is 
short, and their valleys small. The Beas in its 



upper portion is in the Kulu valley, but lower 
down it becomes entangled amongst the lower 
ranges west of Mundi, whence it opens on the 
plains of the Sutlej. The Sutlej has a tortuous 
entangled course in its upper parts, but enters 
the valley west of Simla, in Sukeyt and Balaspur. 
The Brahmaputra, Indus, Sutlej, and Kurnali or 
Gogra are called by the Tibetans, Tam-jan- 
khamba, or Horse's Mouth ; Shingh-gi-khamba, 
or Lion's Mouth ; Langchan-khamba, or Bull's 
Mouth ; and Mabja-khamba, or Peacock's Mouth. 
These four great rivers drain the Kailas group of 
mountains. They rise close to the great Kailas 
Purbut. Eastward of the meridian marked by the 
Sanpu falling into the plain of Assam, the rivers 
descending from the eastern part of the Tibetan 
highland cut up the plateau into a succession 
of lofty ranges and deep gorges running north to 
south. These rivers include the Dihong and 
other affluents of the Brahmaputra, also the great 
Yang-tze-kiang with its tributaries, which flows 
southwards to lat. 26° N., then turns eastward, to 
traverse the whole of China proper. 

Passes. — The Himalaya present almost insur- 
mountable obstacles to communication between the 
countries which they divide, thereby separating the 
Boti or people of Tibet from the Hindu family of 
India. The distinction of climate is not less posit- 
ively marked, the ranges forming the lines of 
demarcation between the cold and dry clhnate of 
Tibet, with its dearth of trees, and the warm and 
hmnid clhnate of India, with its luxuriance of vege- 
table productions. There are, however, many 
passes. In Kanawar there are fifteen, at elevations 
varying from 15,000 to 17,000feet. From the peak 
of Mono-mangh to the sources of the Gilghit and 
Kunar rivers, not less than 650 miles, the chain 
is pierced by the Sutlej and Para at the base of 
Porgyal, and by the Indus at the foot of Dyamur. 

Between Gilghit and Chittagong there are a 
hundred passes ; but of all these, the basins of 
the Ganges and its four great feeders, the Gogra, 
the Gandak, Kosi, and Tista, are the great moun- 
tain passes of the Himalaya. 

The following are the heights of passes over the 
Outer Himalaya range : — 





Lat. 


Long. 


lit, Ft. 


Barga, . . . 


31° 16' 


78° 19' 


15,000 


Ghusul, . . . 


31 21 


78 8 


15,851 


Gunas, . . . 


31 24 


78 8 


16,026 


Kirolia, . . . 


31 15 


78 25 


17,000 


Lumbia, . . 


31 16 


78 20 


16,000 


Marga, . . . 


31 16 


78 21 


16,000 


Nibrung, . . 


31 22 


78 10 


16,035 


Nulgun, . . 


31 19 


78 13 


14,891 


Bupin, . . . 


31 2 


78 10 


15,480 


Shatul, . . . 


31 25 


77 58 


15,555 


Siaga, . . . 


31 16 


78 20 


16,000 


Sugla. . . . 


31 13 


78 29 


16,000 


Sundru, . . . 


31 24 


78 2 


16,000 


Yusu, . . . 


31 24 


78 4 


15,877 



Sub-Himalayas or Siwalik. Along the southern 
base of the Himalaya, and parallel with the general 
direction of the mountains, a series of compara- 
tively low ridges extends, formed of tertiary 
rocks. In the Panjab, the transition from the 
plains to the outer hills is marked by a belt of dry, 
porous ground, seamed by numerous gullies or 
ravines, from 100 yards to a mile wide, partly 
covered with long, tufty jungle grass. To the 
east the Terai occupies the same position. This is a 
belt of waste, marshy ground, a malarious region 



50 



HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS. 



HIMALAYA MOUNTAIN* 



of varying bread th, lyine; In-low the level of the 
plains. Tin -ir.Ki a fiords pasture to innumerable 
herds of cows and buffaloes. Beyond lies a dry 
belt of ruing ground, called Bhavar, chiefly of a 
grarelbj and Bandy nature, with abundance of the 
sjiI tree (Vatica robusta). Next intervenes a 
range of fossiliferous sandstone, which ahnost 
uniformly edges the Himalaya from the Jheluiu 
to I'pper Assam. The space between these and 
the slope of the Himalayas themselves is occupied 
by the Duns, the Maris (in Nepal), and I) wars (in 
Hliu'an). longitudinal valleys of rising ground, 
chin ■[■ eultivated or yielding a plentiful forest 
LTiowih. Streams issuing from the Himalayan 
lose a great part or the whole of their 
water by percolation through the gravel in the 
Hhavar region. At the baM of the slope, mucli 
>f the water that h;is percolated the gravel re-issues 
n the farm of springs, the ground is marshy, and 
Rgn gran replaces the forest. This tract is the 
lVrai. i term not unfrequently applied to the 
whole forest -clad slope of the Himalayas, known 
1 1 so in Nepal as Morung. 

Sivalaya (Sivalik) is the local name of the range 
separating the Dehra Doon from the plains east of 
he Jumna, and this has given the term Siwalik. 
It was in the Siwalik Hills that Lieut. (General Sir 
Proby) Cautley, in the early part of the 19th cen- 
-,ury, discovered the presence of fossils ; and the 
Elections made by him and Dr. Falconer were 
lescribed by the latter in the Fauna Antiqua 
Sivalensis and Palseontological Memoirs. The 
,'ieat fossiliferous deposit of the Siwaliks is near 
he valley of Markanda, westward of the Jumna, 
ind below Nahun. By the joint labours of Lieut. 
Uautley and Dr. Falconer, and of Lieutenants 
Baker and Durand, a sub-tropical mammalian 
ossil fauna was brought to light, unexampled for 
•ichness and extent in any other region then 
mown. It included, amongst the Primates, 
tpecies of macacus (2), and semnopithecus (2) ; 
)f the Carnivora, species of felis, cams, ursus, 
lyaena, meles, mellivora, lutra, machaerodus, 
mhydriodon, etc. ; of the Proboscidea, elephas 
», euelephas loxodon (1), stegodon (5), mas- 
»don (4), tetralophodon (6), trilophodon (7) ; 
)f the Ungulata perissodactyla, rhinoceros, acero- 
berium, Ustridon, equus, hipparion ; of Ungulata 
irtiodactyla species, hippopotamus, bippopota- 
nidon, tetraconodon, sus, cervus, camelopardalis, 
uvatherium, bos, bison, bubalus, antilope, capra, 
>vis, camelus. Of the Rodents, species of mus 
^1), rhizomys and hystrix. Among the Reptilia, 
nonitors and crocodiles of living and extinct 
ipecies, the enormous tortoise, Colossochelys 
£tlas, with numerous species of emys and 
rionyx. And, along with fossil fish, Cyprinidae 
ind Siluridas, no less than 25 species of shells 
irere found, all of which but 4 are now extinct. 
Phe general facies of the extinct fauna exhibited a 
ongregation of forms participating of European, 
African, and Asiatic types. They are beautifully 
irranged in the London Natural History Museum. 

Himalaya, as a name, is from the Sanskrit words 
Eima, snow, and Alaya, an abode. The range is 
dso called Himadri, and Himavat ; also Himachala 
[snowy mountain), and also Himadaya, the place 
)f appearance of snow (Adaya, appearance), whence 
die classic name JSmodus. Himavat, the Western 
Himalaya, where it bifurcates and embraces the 
country occupied of old by the Sakse, was the 



Emails of ancient geographers, the Himin of the 

MCBSO-Gothie, the Hemel ( Himmel) of I h<- ( ',' i man, 
and the Hevcn el the An-lo -Saxon. Pliny was 
fully aware of the signilieatioii of the name. for 
he says (Hist Nat. vi. p. 117), ' Imaus in colarum 
lingua, nivorum ■gni'ftfflns ' Hindus call till the 
high snowy peaks of the Himalaya by the generic 
name Kailasa ; and, in the mythology of the Hin- 
du-. Mount Kailasa is the heaven of Siva and of 
Vishnu; another fabled Himalayan mountain, Merit 
or Su-meru, bflUg the site of Swarga, the heaven 
of Indra; and in Hindu mythology the sacred 
Ganges is fabled to spring from the feet of Vishnu. 
Races. — The habitable parte of the range are 
occupied by Mongoloid races, and to a small extent 
by tribes of Aryan descent; and many of the 
tribes are supposed to have occupied their present 
localities before the 4th or the 7th centuries a.d. 
A sparse Aryan population lies Nattered among 
tin- valleys. 

The Bhot area is bounded on the south by 
India and Kashmir, on the north by Chinese 
Tartary, and on the west by Little Bokhara 
and Kafiristan. Amongst them may be men- 
tioned the Mahomedan Bhot of Baltistan or 
Little Tibet, of Rongdo, Skardo, Parkuta, and 
Khartakshi, of Shigar, Chorbad, etc. ; (2) the 
Buddhist Bhot of Ladakh, Hungrung and Kana- 
war, the Bhot of the Chinese empire, the Tibetans 
of Rudok, Garo, Goga, etc., of Lhassa and Tishu- 
Lumbu, the Si-Fan, the Lhopa of Bhutan, the 
Tak, the Bhot of Garbwal, Kamaon, and Nepal ; 
the Chepang, and probably the Rhondur, the Clink, 
the Drok, the Hor, the Kolo ; and (3) in the 
further east are the Koch'h, the Diurnal, the 
western Bodo of Sikkim ; and (4) still farther are 
the Bhutan frontier, and still farther are the 
eastern Bodo or Boro of Assarn and Cachar, the 
Garo, the Khassya, and the Mikir. To the central 
region are similarly confined, each in their own 
province, from west to east, the Dunghar (west 
of Nepal), the Dardu, the Gakar, the Baniba, the 
Kakka, the Dogra, the Kanet, the Garhwali, the 
Kohli, the Kas or Khasia (in Nepal), the Magar, the 
Gurung, the Kusunda, the Chepang, the Sunwar, 
the Newar, the Murmi or Tamar, the Khombo or 
Kiranti, the Yakha, the Limbu or Yak-thumba, 
the Lepcha or Deunjongmaro (in Sikkim). the 
Lhopa (in Bhutan), the Dafla (east of Bhutan), 
the Abor and Bor, the Miri, and the Mishmi. 
The Cis - Himalayan Bhotia (called Palusen, 
Rongbo, Serpa, Kath - Bhotia, etc.), extend 
along the whole line of the ghats, and with the 
name have retained unchanged the lingual and 
physical characteristics, and even the manners, 
customs, and dress, of their transnivean brethren. 
The passes through the Snowy Range are occupied 
by the Bhoti, who have a monopoly of the trade 
across the Himalaya, are carriers, loading the goods 
on the backs of sheep. Most of the traders of 
the snow valleys have some members of their 
families residing at Daba or Gyani, on the Nuna 
k ha r lake. 

The men of all races in the hills are short 
and of poor physique ; they look worn, and get 
deep-lined on the face at a comparatively early 
age. The young women are often extremely 
pretty, those living in the higher and colder 
villages having, at 15 or 16, a complexion 
as fair as many Spaniards or Italians, anil with 
very regular features. But they grow darker as 



51 



HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS. 



HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS. 



they advance in years, and become very plain. 
As a general description of the Mongoloid tribes 
there, the head and face is very broad, usually 
widest between the cheek-bones, sometimes as 
wide between the angles of the jaws; forehead 
broad, but low and somewhat receding ; chin 
defective ; mouth large and salient, but the teeth 
vertical, and the lips not tumid ; gums thickened ; 
eyes wide apart and oblique ; nose long, pyra- 
midal ; hair of head copious and straight ; of 
the face and body deficient ; stature low, but 
muscular and strong ; character phlegmatic, good- 
humoured, cheerful, and tractable. Polyandry yet 
exists partially, but is disappearing. Female 
chastity is little heeded before marriage. Crime 
rare, and they are truthful. They sacrifice, and 
are little Hinduized. Their craftsmen are stranger 
helot races, located amongst them from time im- 
memorial, as smiths, carpenters, curriers, potters. 
The Newar alone have any literature, and that 
wholly exotic. 

To the lower range, again, and to similarly 
malarious sites of the middle region, are exclus- 
ively confined the Koch'h, Bodo, Dhimal (Sikkim 
and east of it), the Kichak, Pallas, Hayu, Tharu, 
Dhenwar, Kumba, Bhramu, Dahi or Dari, Kuswar, 
the Bhotia (in Nepal), the Boksa (in Kamaon,), 
the Khatir, the Awan, the Janjoh, the Chib, and 
the Bahoa (west of Kamaon to the Indus). 

The Khas, Magar, Gurung, Newar, Murmi, 
Lepcha, and Bodpa, etc., are dominant un- 
broken tribes. The broken tribes are all the 
Awalia, the Chepang, Kusunda, and Hayu, and 
there are tribes of helot craftsmen, blacksmiths, 
carpenters, curriers, etc., who are regarded as 
unclean. The unbroken tribes are the more 
recent immigrants from the north ; their languages 
are of the simpler Turanian type, whereas those 
of the broken tribes are of the complex or pro- 
nomenalized type, and the phenomena of ethno- 
logy in the Himalaya warrant the conclusions that 
they were peopled by successive swarms from the 
great Turanian hive, and that its tribes are still 
traceably akin alike to the Altaic branch of the 
north, and to the Dravidian of the south. The 
Khas, the Kanet, the Dogra, and several other 
tribes of the Western Himalaya, are clearly of 
mixed breed, descended from Tartar mothers and 
Aryan fathers. 

The Himalayan mountains thus form the meeting- 
ground of the Aryan and Turanian races. The 
two stocks are in some places curiously inter- 
mingled, though generally distinguishable. To 
the extreme north-west are found the Dard, an 
Ayran race of mountaineers, abutting on the 
Pathans or Afghans on the west, and the Balti, 
a race of mahomedanized Tibetans of the Turan- 
ian stock, on the east. To this latter stock also 
belong the Champa, a race of hardy nomades, 
wandering about the high-level valleys of Rupshu, 
and the Ladakhi, a settled race, cultivating the 
valleys of their country. The other Aryan races 
are the Pahari or ' mountaineers, ' the Kashmiri, 
the Dogra, and Chibhali, who inhabit the outer 
hills. In Garhwal and Kamaon we find the 
Kanawari (inhabitants of Bashahir), the Nilang 
people, who differ in no respect from those of 
Hundes, and the inhabitants of the Bhotia Mahals 
of Kamaon and Garhwal, who are of mixed Tartar 
and Indian origin. 

A number of the hill-men are Rajputs, and 



there are a few villages of Brahmans. The Dom a 
hereditary bondsmen to the Rajputs. Basgi men ai 
women are singers at the temples. From Kashm 
eastwards, all the easily accessible portions of tl 
Himalaya are occupied by Aryan Hindu as far 
the eastern border of Kamaon and the Kali rive 
separating Kamaon from Nepal, — the Tibetans beii 
here confined to the valleys about and beyond tl 
snow. People of Tibetan blood have migrated in 
Nepal throughout its whole length, and ha' 
formed mixed tribes, whose appearance and la: 
guage is more Tibetan than Indian, but who 
religion and manners are Hindu. East of Nepi 
in Sikkim and Bhutan, the Hindu element almc 
disappears, and the Tibetans are altogether don 
nant. Between the Kali and Dhansri, in Nepi 
Sikkim, and Bhutan, the ordinary population coi 
sists of the following : — 

1. Cis-Himalayan Bhotia or Tibetans, called Rongb 

Siena or Kath Bhotia ; Palu-Sen. 

2. Serpa. 3. Gurung. 4. Magar. 5. Murmi. 
6. Newar. 7. Kiranti. 8. Limbu or Yak-thuml 
9. Lepcha or Deunjong Maro. 

10. Bhutanese, or Lhopa, or Dukpa, or Brukpa. 

Gurkha, Gurung, Magar. — In Nepal, in the wc 
are the Gurung and Magar tribes, short, with fe 
tures of an extreme Mongolian type, full of mart 
ardour and energy. They are famed as the Gurk 
soldiers. They have considerable intellectual abilil 

The Newar of the valley of Nepal are the cidl 
vating peasantry, have Tibetan features, with 
fair and ruddy complexion. The language of tl 
Magar, Gurung, and Newar is chiefly Tibeta 
Farther east are the Keranti, Murmi, and othei 
Some mixed races are found to the south of eai 
chain, as the Lahuli and Kanawari in the wes 
and the Gurkha and Bhutani in the east. 

Highest Permanently Inhabited Villages. 
1. Bhutan, Sikkim, Nepal. 2. Kamaon and Garhwa 



Yangma Guola, 9,279 feet. 
Lamteng, . . 8,883 „ 
Bumdangtang, 8,668 ,, 
Lachung, . . 8,630 ,, 

3. Simla and Kulu. 
BambhoraGarh,9,844 feet 
Janglik, . . 9,257 „ 
Jatvar, . . 8,177 ,, 
Kot, . . . 7,678 „ 

5. Kishtwar and Kashmir. 



Ussilla, . . 8,940 fet 

Tsobta, . . 8,842 

Mukba, . . 8,600 

Kathi, . . . 7,410 

4. Lahol, Kanaur. 



Darcke, 
Rarik, . 
Kunu, . 



11,746 fe( 

11,685 

11,683 



Sukne, . . . 9,122 feet. Daver, . 
Bara Banghal, 8,535 „ Kullan, 
Pashmin, . . 8,351 ,, Shapion, 

II. Highest Summer Villages of Kamaon and Garhws 
They do not occur in the Himalaya west of Garhwal 



7,718 fe< 

7,175 

6,672 



Kedarnath, 
Goh, . . 
Loa, . . . 



11,794 feet. 
11,561 „ 
11,540 „ 



Niti, . 
Nelong, 
Milum, 



11,464 fee 

11,350 

11,265 



III. Western Tibet. 
A. Highest Permanently Inhabited Villages. 



Hanle, a Buddhist 

monastery, 15,117 feet. 

Chushul, a small 
village, . . 14,406 „ 

Pananuk, a shep- 
herds' settle- 

14,146 „ 



ment, 



Puling, in Gnari 

Khorsum, . 13,953 fee 

Towns with a considerab 

number of Stone House 



Muglab, 
Kibar, . 
Gya, . 



13,847 fee 
13,607 „ 
13,548 „ 



B. Highest Summer Villages. 



Norbu, . . 15,946 feet. 
Chabrang, . 15,588 „ 
Korzog, . . 15,349 „ 


Puga, . 
Gartok, 


. . 15,264 fee 
. . 15,090 „ 


C. Highest Pasture Grounds in 


Summer. 


Larsa, . . . 16,349 feet. 
Zinchin, . . 16,222 „ 
Kiangchu, . 15,781 ,, 


Rukcbin, 
Amlung, 
Jugta, . 


. . 15,064 fee 
. . 15,300 „ 
. . 15,058 „ 



52 



HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS. 



HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS. 



IV. Kou.n l.im. 



Highest pasture 
grounds, . 13,000 feet. 



• \ill.igo»,i>, 400 feet. 
Bmeit MiimiiuT 

villages. . 10,200 „ 

V. Andes. Highest TownH and Villager 

Authorities : Burkart ; Humboldt ; Pentland ; 

Wisli/.enus. 



I ile 

1 1,098 feet (H.) 

., (H.) 

. ii,3.so ,, (p.; 



Turche, . 10,041 feet (H.) 
Cebolullullo.8,890 „ J P. 
Zacatecas, 8,051 „ (B.J 
Mexioo, . 7,469 „ (H.) 



Sanatory stations and convalescent depots for 

British troops have been formed on Bpurs from 

fee Himalayas, as well as on other of the hill 

of British India, as on Mount Abu, Maha- 

•■ ar, Rainanmallay, the Neilgherries. In 1877 

rtality at the hill stations was only 6*49 per 

in Bengal proper, 9*11 ; in Meerut and 

lohilkhand, 10-16; in the Panjab, 10-68; Gan- 

getic provinces, 18-24 ; Agra and Central India, 

1 1 in Kamaon, .... 5300-5500 feet. 
. on the Sutlej, 150 miles from Simla, 9096 ,, 
i', "ii the Chamba Hills, . . 5700 ,, 

Darjiling, 7218 „ 

Dharmsala or Bhagsu, Kangra Hills, . 5000-6000 „ 

li, 16 miles S. of Simla, . . 5000-6000 „ 

Kussowlee, 45 miles from Ambala, . . 6400 ,, 

i adjoining Mussoori, . . 7300-7572 ,, 

in the Hazara Hills, . . . 8000 „ 

ri near Landour, . . . 6400-7200 ,, 

Tal, in Kamaon, 22 miles S.AV. 

of Almora, 6409-7400 „ 

Simla, 77 miles from Ambala, and 22 

miles N.E. of Subathu, . . 6500-8000 „ 
Subathu, 9 miles from Kussowlee, . . 4000 ,, 

Languages. — In the Himalaya, according to Mr. 
Ijltcheson, the various dialects are mixed together 
in L r n at confusion. On the northern Assam frontier 
in found, in the following order from E. to W., the 
Aka. Abor, Dafla, Miri, and Mishmi ; next to these 
is Bhutia, which carries us as far E. as the Tista ; 
Sikkini, or the country between the Tista and 
ii,r Singhaleela range, contains the Lepcha and 
Liinlm dialects. The Sikkim Terai gives us the 
Diurnal, Bodo or Mechi, and Koch'h, which latter 
also occupy the plains of Koch-Bahar, and the 
northern parts of Runipur, Dinajpur, and Pur- 
'niah. In Nepal, according to Mr. Hodgson and 
Dr. Campbell's researches, we find a perfect maze 
I of dialects. Beginning from the Singhaleela range, 
we find Limbu or Kiranta, which goes W. as far 
as the Dudkusi river, in long. 86 44'. Sher- 
will found the Gurung in the higher parts of 
Singhaleela, closely connected with whom are the 
Munni. Along the lower hills are the Magar, 
who extend to the W. as far as Palpa. Some- 
where about here we should apparently place the 
in-ahum, Chepang, Hayu or Vayu, and Kusunda. 
In Central Nepal are the Newar, Pahri, and 
Brahmo, a dialect of Magar, also the Darahi or 
Dorhi, Danwar, and Paksya. The Tharu Uve in 
ihe Terai between Chumparum and the Khat- 
mandu valley, as far W. as the river Gandak. 
These last four are classed among Indo-Germanic 
languages. The rest are Turanian, with more or 
less infusion of Hindi. The Parbatia or Paharia, 
a dialect of Hindi, is spoken all over Nepal, and 
jis the court language. West of this again comes 
the Palpa, then the Thaksya, Sunwar, and Sarpa, 
the dialects of Kajnaon and Garhwal, which carry 
us on to the Milchan of Kanawar, the Hundesi, 
mil Tilwirskad north of it. West of this come 
ra dialects of the Panjab hills. 



I 'n/lri/n. — The Dchra Doon is a winter valley. Its 
length is about 45 miles ami its breadth aliout half 
thai. It is shut on the north by the Siwalik range, 
rising 3000 feet high. On the E. are ItlliiiiiHWM 
mountains rising 7000 or 8000 feet, amongst them 
Mussoori and Landour ; the Asun and the Sooswa 
rivers drain it It is clear of jungle, and well 
cultivated. The tea-plant thrives, and the village 
of Dehra is large and thriving. 

In the Kangra valley, some places like Bhagsu 
(Dharmsala), and the road from Kangra town, 
HauralMigh and Fouta-Kal, are beautiful, as also 
are the views of the Snowy Range. Kot Kangra 
or Kangra town was the capital of a powerful hill 
state, which was conquered by the Sikhs. It is 
2500 feet above the level of the sea. Bhagsu, 
above Dharmsala, is 7000 feet above the sea. 
Haurabagh is 7000 feet, and Fouta-Kal 9000 feet 
above the sea. The Kangra people are sturdy, 
honest, and independent. 

The Sutlej valley commences a few miles above 
Mundi, and continues up for about 40 miles, 
almost to Simla and Subathu, and has the sana- 
toria of Simla, Kussowlee, Nagkunda, and Chor. 
Mundi is the chief town of the Mundi state. 
The Sutlej people are amiable and gentle, free of 
low cunning, having the appearance of a mixed 
race between the Tartar and the common hill- 
men. They are fair, well made, and strong, but 
are filthy and indigent. The women have a toga 
fastened round the waist. Nagkunda is esti- 
mated at 9000 feet above the level of the sea. 
Chor is 12,000 feet. 

The Beas valley exceeds in beauty that of 
Kashmir. It runs from the Bajaora mountain on 
the north, to the Snowy Range on the south, a 
length of about 60 miles, and its heights range 
from 4500 feet at the foot of the Bajaora pass, to 
9000 feet at Ralha at the foot of the Rotang pass. 
Sultanpur is 4584 feet. It is the only town in 
the valley, and trades with Ladakh, Central Asia, 
Mundi, and Kangra. Polyandry prevails in the 
Beas valley, but the general immorality is ascribed 
to the large numbers of Yarkandi traders. 

Kulu. — The poorer Kulu people wear only a 
blanket, wound around the waist, and one end 
flung across the shoulders and pinned across the 
chest ; men and women often dress alike, but the 
long hair of the women is plaited in one tress. 

Animal Life. — The partridge has been observed 
16,080 feet above the sea, and crows and ravens 
1 6, 500. The Khali j pheasants never descend below 
12,000 feet ; and high over the Kinchinghow 
(22,756 feet), flocks of wild geese are seen to wing 
their flight. The wild yak, the existence of which 
in the wild state has been doubted, and the kiang, 
five to six species of wild sheep and goats, hares, 
and mice, are found as high as 16,000 to 17,000 
feet The highest permanent village occupied by 
man is at 11,746 feet (Darcke), but in summer the 
herdsmen go higher up the mountains. On the 
southern slope the cultivation has not risen higher 
than 10,000 feet; but on the north side are the 
cultivated valleys of the Baspa river at 11,400 
feet, and advancing farther, the habitations of man 
are to be seen as high as 13,000 feet, and cultiva- 
tion 13,600 feet There are many shrines and 
sacred spots within the ranges to which Hindu 
pilgrims resort, and numbers of them perish 
amidst the perpetual snows. Amongst them is 
Badarinath, in Garhwal, a temple dedicated to an 



53 



HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS. 



HIMYAR. 



incarnation of Vishnu, 10,294 feet above the sea. 
Kedarnath is another Vaishnava temple within the 
Himalayas, 11,794 feet above the sea; Gangotri 
also, in Garhwal, at 10,319 feet of elevation, is 
another shrine, its vicinity being sacred to Hindu 
thought, as near it, at 13,800 feet, the Bhagirathi 
issues, no puny stream, from beneath a glacier. 

Flora. — If we commence with the bases of 
these mountains, and pass successively through the 
several belts, we first find a vegetation similar to 
that of the southern provinces of India : the agri- 
cultural products consist of rice, millet, amaranth, 
an esculent arum, ginger, turmeric, a little cotton, 
and sugar, at the season, succeeded by wheat, 
barley, and buckwheat, in the cold -weather 
months. Along with plantains, oleander, and 
some of the orange tribe, we meet also with some 
species which were long considered peculiar to 
China, as Marlea begonifolia and Houttuynia cor- 
data, with species of Chloranthus, Incarvillea, and 
others. On ascending higher, we pass through 
different gradations of vegetation until reaching 
the regions of the oaks and rhododendrons, which 
is immediately succeeded by that of pines. 

Trees grow very generally in the Himalaya up 
to heights of 11,800 feet, and in most parts there 
are extensive forests covering the sides of the 
mountains at but a little distance below this limit. 
In Western Tibet, however, there is nothing at 
all corresponding to a forest. Apricot trees, wil- 
lows, and poplars are frequently cultivated on a 
large scale ; poplars, indeed, are found at Mang- 
nang in Gnari Khorsum at a height of 13,457 feet, 
but they are the objects of the greatest care and 
attention to the lamas. On the northern side of 
the Kouen Lun are no trees at all, owing to the 
considerable height of the valleys. In the Andes 
they end at about 12,130 feet ; in the Alps, on an 
average, at 6400 feet, isolated specimens occurring 
above 7000 feet. The cultivation of grain coin- 
cides in most cases with the highest permanently 
inhabited villages ; but the extremes of cultivated 
grain remain below the limit of permanent habita- 
tion. In the Himalaya, cidtivation of grain does 
not exceed 11,800 feet, in Tibet 14,700 feet, and 
in the Kouen Lun 9700 feet. For the Andes 
the limit is 11,800 feet. In the Alps, some of 
the extremes are found near Findeler, at a 
height of 6630 feet, but the mean is about 5000 
feet. The upper mean limit of grass vegetation 
in the Himalaya is at 15,400 feet ; in Western 
Tibet, nearly the same level as for the highest 
pasture grounds, 16,500 feet, may be adopted, 
in the Kouen Lun grass is not found above 14,800 
feet. Shrubs grow in the Himalaya up to 15,200 
feet ; in Western Tibet as high as 17,000 feet ; 
and in one instance, at the Gunshankar, even to 
17,313 feet. On the plateaux to the north of the 
Kara-korum, shrubs are found at 16,900 feet, 
and, which is more remarkable, they occasionally 
grow there in considerable quantities on spots 
entirely destitute of grass. As an example may 
be mentioned, amongst several others, the Vohab- 
Chilgane plateau (16,419 feet), and A Bashmalgun 
(14,207 feet). In the Kouen Lun the upper 
limit of shrubs does not exceed 12,700 feet. 
Above this height grass is still plentiful, and 
shrubs being here, as generally everywhere else, 
confined to a limit below the vegetation of grass, 
the range presents an essential contrast in this 
respect to the characteristic aspect of the Kara- 



korum. The number of species of plants, as I 
well as the number of individuals, is exceedingly U 
limited in the higher parts of the Kouen Lun. >| 
Lichens are completely wanting in the dry angular I 
gravel covering the high plateau, and the slopes I 
of the mountains in their neighbourhood. 

Snow is a phenomenon which varies extremely 1 
with the latitude, longitude, humidity, and many g 
local circumstances. In Ceylon and the Madras I 
Peninsula, whose mountains attain 9000 feet, and fl 
where considerable tracts are elevated above 6000 | 
to 8000 feet, snow has never been known to fall. I 
On the Khassya mountains, which attain 7000 feet, I 
and where a great extent of surface is above 5000 1 
feet, snow seems to be unknown. In Sikkim j 
snow annually falls at about 6000 feet elevation, I 
in Nepal at 5000 feet, in Kamaon and Garhwal I 
at 4000 feet, and in the extreme West Himalaya H 
lower still. In the Sikkim Himalaya, the giant | 
peaks of Donkiah, Kinchinghow (22,756 feet), 
and Kanchinjinga, the third greatest mountain of 
the world (28,156 feet), only surpassed in altitude 
by the Kara-korum (28,278 feet), and Mount 
Everest (29,002 feet), form the culminating points 
in this magnificently wooded region. The truly 
temperate vegetation supersedes the sub-tropical 
above 4000 to 6000 feet; and the elevation at 
which this change takes place corresponds roughly 
with that at which the winter is marked by an 
annual fall of snow. — Outer Mountains of Kemaon, 
by Capt. Herbert, in Bl. As. Trans, xi. xii. ; Royle, 
III. Him. Bot. ; Herm. Schl. ; MacG. ; Campbell, 
pp.47, 147-8, 168; Thomson's Travels; Hooker 
f. et Thorn, pp. 189, 190 ; Hooker, Him. Jour. ; 
Universal Review, No. 3, p. 359 ; Major Cunning- 
ham • Captain Strachey, Report, Brit. Association, 
1847 ; Annals, Indian Administration ; Medlicott 
and BlanforoVs Geology of India ; Trelawney 
Saunders; Magnetic Survey of India, p. 9; 
Fraserh Himalaya Mountains; H. H. Wilson , s 
Hindoo Sects ; Imperial Gazetteer. 

HIMIS, a Buddhist monastery near Leh in 
Ladakh, 12,324 feet above the sea. 

HIMMARGUJERATI, one of the eighty-foui 
Gachchas of the Jaina sect. 

HIMMAT BAHADAR, the pupil of Rajendnl 
Gir, a Dasnami ascetic. 

HIMYAR was the fifth monarch from Kalitau. 
and gave his name to a dynasty which ruled 
over Yemen for many centuries, with varying 
fortune and different degrees of magnificence 
Himyar was the first of the descendants ol 
Kahtan who reigned over the whole of Yemen. 
This dynasty terminated on the conquest oi 
Yemen by the Abyssinians in a.d. 525 ; and Dthoc 
Nawaz, the last of them, was the tyrant who de- 
stroyed the Christians of Nejran by burning 20,00( 
in a pit, noticed in chapter 85 of the Koran ail 
the martyrs the brethren of the pit. The dynastjf 
had ruled in Yemen for 2000 years, and its down •[ 
fall was accelerated by the intolerance of thtf 
Jewish Tobbas. For a short time prior to A.Dj 
595, assisted by the Persian monarchs, Nushir-| 
wan and Khusru Parwez, the dynasty again rulec 
over Yemen, but was ultimately put aside bjs 
Persia declaring Yemen to be a satrapy. Thtf 
devotions of the Himyarites were addressed to s| 
multitude of deities, of which the principal wert^ 
the sun, the moon, and the planets. The mostj 
powerful of this dynasty was Abu Karib, com-, 
monly called Tobba. In a.d. 206 he covered thfl 



54 






HINAYANA. 



HINDU. 



Kaba with a tapestry of leather, and supplied its 
door with a lock of gold. The Beni Himyar of 
S. Alalia claim to be descendants of that dynasty. 
Himyaritic inscriptions were found by Lieutenant 
Cruttenden in the town of Senaa. They are 
Kkewise met with at Aden. The language appears 
to lean more to Hebrew than the Ethiopic, while 
ira language, called also Ekhili or Mahrali, 
is more akin to Ethiopic. — Play/air's Yemen; 
r's J'r. ii. 178; Wrii/ltt's Christ, in Arabia. 

II I.N A VAN A, a form of Buddhism which pre- 
vails I in India east of the Indus. It was put 
aside by Kanishka, who introduced the Mahayana 
lohism. The llinayana was the purer sect of the 
Buihlhists, followers of the lesser vehicle. 

HIND. The term India, by which this country, 
M far as it was known, is distinguished in the 
Murlh st Grecian histories, appears to be derived 
from Hind, the name given to it by the ancient 
ns; through whom, doubtless, the know- 
both of the country and its name were 
tnmsmitted to the Greeks. Mr. Wilkins says that 
no such word as Hindu or Hindustan are to be 
found in the Sanskrit dictionary. The people 
■Bong whom the Sanskrit language was vernacular, 
tfltyled their country Bharata. — RennelVs Memoir. 

HINDI is a term used all over Northern India, 
>te the vernacular tongue of the districts. 
speaking generally, the whole of Upper India, 
■eluding the Panjab, but exclusive of Bengal, 
nay be said to be possessed by one language, the 
Hindi. This range, therefore, would include all 
the Rajput states, Jeysulmir, Ajmir or Rajasthan, 
Mi' war, Marwar, Bikanir; and also the N. and E. 
in Lahore, Multan, Dehli, Agra, Malwa, Gujerat, 
Oudh. Allahabad, and Behar. Indeed, in the 
entire tracts lying between the Vindhya on the 
south, the Himalaya on the north, the Indus on 
the west, and Bengal and Assam on the east, are 
spoken what are called Hindi dialects, some of 
which contain Sanskrit words to the extent of 
line-tenths of their entire vocables. The lan- 
jwages spoken in the north-western border of 
India, between it and Afghanistan, and those 
of India adjoining Afghanistan, are dialects 
of Hindi, but sufficiently distinct to be called 
Sindi. Panjabi, and Kashmiri. Lieut. Leech, in- 
deed, has given vocabularies of seven languages 
-poken on the west of the Indus. Accord- 
ing to Colebrooke, Hindi owes nine-tenths of its 
voeatiles to Sanskrit roots ; but when it is spoken 
by Mahomedans, who added to it Arabic and 
Persian roots, it became converted into Hindus- 
tani or Urdu, literally the camp tongue. It is 
that which the Mahomedans generally, and the 
Indian army everywhere, speak, and has hitherto 
l>een the language employed in personal inter- 
course by the British in their communications with 
the people of the country, though only formed into 
a written tongue since the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century by Dr. John Borthwick Gilchrist of 
the Bengal Medical Service. The learned and 
the great retain Persian for epistolatory corre- 
spondence. When, however, Hindi is spoken by 
Hindus, who draw on Sanskrit for enrichment or 
embellishment, it appropriately retains the name 
of Hindi. Modified in these various ways, it is 
found not only on the plains of Hindustan, but 
also on the southern slope of the Himalayas, for 
Mr. Trail informs us that the language of Kamaon 
and Garhwal is pure Hindi. Indeed, generally, 



along the Sub-Himalayan range as far as the 
Gogia river, the impure Hindi dialect introduced 
by the Gurkhas from the plains appears to be 
extirpating the vernacular Tibetan tongues of the 
aboriginal mountaineers. Mr. Masson made him- 
self understood throughout the whole of Kohistan ; 
and it will thus be seen that the term is used to 
bring under one common designation the various 
dialects of a language essentially one, but which 
has received no great cultivation in any of its 
forms. According to the Brahman pandits of 
Benares, there are hundreds of dialects equally 
entitled to the name. The Brij Basha (or Bhaka, 
as it is pronounced on the Ganges) and the 
Panjabi are the two most cultivated varieties of 
it ; but the Panjabi passes into Multani, which a 
good philologist has shown to be a corrupted 
form of Panjabi ; whilst Jataki, again, farther to 
the south, is a corrupted form of Multani ; Sindi, 
according to Lieut. Burton, is a perfectly distinct 
dialect, though directly derived from Sanskrit. 
When the Mahrattas extended their conquests 
into Hindustan, they saw Hindi everywhere 
prevalent, from the limits of the desert to the 
frontiers of Bundelkhand, and, finding it different 
from their own tongue, they called it contemp- 
tuously Rangri Basha, quasi barbarous jargon. 
Sir John Malcolm extends the Rangri Bhaka as 
far west as the Indus, and east as far as the fron- 
tier of Bundelkhand, where, as in all the country 
to the Indus from the western frontier of Bengal, 
dialects of Hindi prevail. The Marwari and other 
dialects of Rajputana are evident varieties of Hindi 
introduced by the Rajput races. 

The great variety of the Hindi dialects is 
doubtless owing to the absence or non-use of any 
common book, as the Bible or New Testament ; 
and from the prolonged dominance of the Maho- 
medan rulers, and the encouragement given by 
them, by the ruling Hindu courts, and by the 
British, to the study of Persian, Hindi has been 
less studied than the Persian or modern Urdu. 
In 1872, in eight districts of the N.W. Provinces, 
the Urdu or Persian reading pupils in the Tahsili 
and Halkabandi schools largely exceeded the Hindi 
and Nagri reading scholars, ranging from fths to 
3ths. 

The people speaking these Hindi dialects are 
of different races. Amongst the races in this 
tract are the Mhairs of Ajmir, the Rajputs, the 
Hindus of the eastern counties, called Purbbiahs, 
and the descendants of the Aryan conquerors 
who have been residing there nigh two thousand 
years, men of large physical frame, proud, vain, 
self-reliant, and abstemious. 

H INDIAN, a small town in Khuzistan, on the 
J Tab river, 35 miles from its mouth, navigable 
I to this town for bagla and boats. — MacG. p. 176. 

HINDIKI, a name by which the Hindus are 
designated in Afghanistan and westwards to 
I Russia. In Astracan there are about five hun- 
dred families. Mr. Mitchell says that the repu- 
tation of these Hindu colonists stands very high, 
and that they bear a preference over all the 
merchants of other nations settled in this great 
commercial city. The Hindiki in Afghanistan 
are described by Bellew as descendants of Arab 
fathers with Hindu mothers. The Indian born 
Habvish, slaves of the Nawabs of the Karnatic, 
were styled Hindi. 

HINDU is the ordinary name by which the 

55 



HINDU. 



. HINDU. 



idol-worshipping people of British India are at 
present known, but the term is only of recent use. 
The races to whom it is applied are only now 
fusing, under the firm rule of the British, and 
never, hitherto, could have had one common 
designation. Bharata or Bharatavart'ha is an 
ancient Sanskrit name for part of the countries 
which Europeans include in the term India. Hindu 
for the people, and Hindustan for the country, 
now so generally applied by natives as well as 
foreigners, are possibly of Persian or W. Aryan 
origin, and may have relation to the seven rivers 
of the Panjab, the Sabp'ta-Sindhu, which the 
Aryans met with in their course to the south, 
the river Indus being still known as the Sindhu 
or Sind'h (Hitopadesa, p. 333). With the Persians, 
Ind or Hind and Hindu, as synonymous with 
black, has long been applied to the dark-coloured 
populations in the territories which are now com- 
prised in British India. The Arab, the Persian, 
the Afghan, and Sikh, when speaking of the people 
of India, only call them ' black men ; ' and even in 
India the Mahomedan descendants of the Arab, 
Persian, Moghul, and Afghan conquerors use the 
same designation. ' Kala Admi,' literally black 
man, is ever in their mouths ; and Hindus them- 
selves, in their various tongues, likewise so dis- 
tinguish themselves from all the fair foreigners 
amongst them. The African races, who were 
formerly brought to India as the household slaves 
or guards of native princes, invariably, when allud- 
ing to such of their own people as are born in the 
country, style them Hindi ; and the Hindu mer- 
chants trafficking throughout Afghanistan, Central 
Asia, and Russia, are known to the people as 
Hindiki. Therefore, though a large part of the 
idol-worshipping people now-a-days call them- 
selves Hindu, in this they are merely following the 
names given to them by their Arab, Persian, Afghan, 
Turk, Moghul, Tartar, and British rulers. Even 
Europeans have only of late habitually used this 
term, for at the beginning of the 19th century 
Gentoo was the everyday name employed, though it 
has since gradually fallen into disuse. It, also, was 
derived from a foreign people, the Portuguese, and 
was applied to the idol-worshippers, like the Gens 
of the Romans and Gentile of the Scriptures. It 
never, perhaps, reached much beyond the sea- 
port towns, and if the better educated amongst 
the natives ever employed it, their doing so was 
merely in imitation of Europeans. And now, too, 
similarly, Brahmans and others, when alluding to 
the Teling race of their own countrymen, likewise 
style them Hindus. 

Hindu is thus almost entirely a European con- 
ventional term, and does not represent a nation, 
a race, or a religion. The great bulk of the people 
known by this appellation are the descendants of 
Turanian, Scythian, and even Aryan immigrants, 
who in bygone ages are supposed to have left 
the cold north, some offshoots moving westward, 
and others to the south ; for remnants of Turan- 
ian languages are found in Baluchistan, and the 
seat of the great Sanskrit-speaking people was 
long in Kashmir, proving that one great highway 
to the south had been down the valley of the 
Indus, through Kashmir and the Panjab. But 
between the valley of the Indus and that of the 
Brahmaputra, there are 20 or 30 passes in the 
Himalaya through which the northern races could 
stream to the genial south. Amongst the first of 



these immigrants seemingly were Kolarian and 
Dravidian races, belonging to the Turanian family 
of mankind, bodies of whom seem to have spread 
themselves over the Peninsula. As to the date of 
their advent, however, history is silent, but there 
seems no doubt that great branches of the Scythic 
stock were occupants of India at the time that 
it was to a considerable extent conquered by the 
Sanskrit-speaking tribes of the Aryan family. In 
the north, the subjugation or ousting of the Turan- 
ians from all rank and power was so complete, 
that Sanskrit forms of speech became the lan- 
guages of the country ; and now, in the north, Kash- 
miri, Panjabi, Sindi, Gujerati, Mahrati, Hindu- 
stani, and the Bengali, all of them with a large 
admixture of Sanskrit, are sister tongues known 
as forms of Hindi. South of the Nerbadda, how- 
ever, it is otherwise. Throughout the Peninsula 
the languages in use differ from the Sanskrit in 
grammar, and only admit Sanskrit words in the 
same way that the Anglo-Saxon admitted terms 
of law and civilisation from the Norman-French. 
At the present day, the south of India more largely 
represents the Turanian, and the north the Aryan 
race. The fair, yellow-coloured Aryans are, how- 
ever, to be met with south even to Cape Comorin ; 
but though mixing with the various Dravidian 
nations, races, and tribes for at least 3000 years, 
in physical form, complexion, intellect, and manners, 
the Brahmanical and other Aryan families are 
as distinct as when their forefathers first came 
from the north, it may be three or four thousand 
years ago. The great Aryan migration seems to 
have received its first check at the Yindhyan range, 
between the 14th and 8th centuries before the 
Christian era. 

This powerful branch of the Aryans passed into 
Northern India between the 14th and 8th centuries 
before Christ. They brought with them the lan- 
guage of the Vedas ; and as all Brahmans profess 
alike to recognise the authority of these sacred 
books, we witness the modern worshippers of 
Siva, Vishnu, and the maintainers of the Sankhya 
or Nyaya or Vedanta doctrines, all considering 
themselves and each other to be orthodox mem- 
bers of the Hindu community. It is this common 
recognition of that one set of religious books 
which is the sole bond of union amongst the 
descendants of the various races and tribes pro- 
fessing Hinduism or Brahmanism, who now people 
India. The Aryans seem to have brought with 
them a servile race, or to have had amongst them 
a social distinction between the noble and the 
common people, which has ever continued. As 
they conquered southwards, amongst the Turanian 
races whom they found in the country, they re- 
duced the less civilised tribes to a state of predial 
slavery. They named them in fierce contempt, 
Dasa or slaves, and these formed the true servile 
race of Menu and other writers. Where the 
races who had preceded them retained their I 
independence, these proud immigrants styled 
them M'hlecha, a term which even to the present 
day is intended to comprise everything that is 
hateful or vile. But the immigrant Aryans found i 
along the coasts of India also other races, different ( 
alike from the Scythic tribes and from the Aryans 
of the Vedas, — earlier colonizers or immigrants, I 
probably from the west, — who had a civilisation of I 
their own, and with whom the Pharaohs, and Solo- 
mon and Hiram, and the Cushite Arabs of Yemen 



56 



trade 



HINDU. 

tlic people of K. Africa, carried on a lucrative 
• by sea. This people had extended down the 
• Cape Coinonn, had crossed over to 
Oeylon, and crept up the Coroinandel coast, till 
stopped by the Godavery and Mahanadi. AJ1 the 
Bengal Presidency and Central India was at that 
t im<- thinly inhabited by a Turanian, Sakyan, or 
Mongol race, coining down from Tibet and Nepal. 
Mut so Bparso was the population whom the Aryans 
encountered, that, in the Vedas, Aguiis represented 
M the general of Nahusha, the first settler, that is, 
tlu v cleared the ground by burning the forests, 
and Borne fine descriptions are given of the 
grandeur and terror of the sight. Up to the 

iinsrnt day the religions of the prior occupants 
law never been other than local cults, and many 
of them even yet continue very barbarous. The 
Mgher civilisation of the East Aryans has enabled 
thnn to propagate their changing views, but the 

Ehases of their religious beliefs have been marked 
y four great epochs : — 

I. The Vedic age, which was characterized by the wor- 
ship of the gods of the elements, Agni, India, Varuna, 
and appears to have been current in the Panjab prior 
to the disappearance of the Saras wati in the sand. 

II. The Brahmanic age, characterized by the worship 
of Brahma, and which seems to have prevailed between 
the disappearance of the Saraswati and the advent of 
Sakhya. 

in. The Buddhist age, which was characterized by 
the pursuit of Nirvana, and seemingly prevailed from 
about B.C. 600 to a.d. 800 or 1000. 

iv. The Brahmanical revival, which is characterized 
by the worship of incarnations of deities, and has pre- 
vailed from about A.D. 800 till now. 

I 'edic Age. — Among the gods whom the Vedic 
Aryans worshipped were Indra and Agni. Indra 
was the firmament, with all its phenomena. He 
alone held the thunderbolt, and was king over 
gods and men. Agni was the element of fire. 
All the other gods were but manifestations or other 
forms of these two. The relationship is evident 
between Agni and the sun, the Surya or Sura 
Savitri of the Vedas, and a female divinity. But 
Indra also is frequently identified with the sun : 
indeed, the twelve great deities, or Aditya, are but 
other names of the same god as presiding over the 
twelve months of the year. The Aditya most 
frequently invoked are Mitra, Varuna, Aryaman, 
and, in a lesser degree, Ansa, Daksha, Pushan, 
Bhaga, Vishnu, and Twashtri. Pushan watches 
over roads and travellers ; Twashtri is the Vulcan 
or smith of the gods. Slight mention is made of 
Vishnu ; but we have the germ of the legendary 
three steps, being apparently simply the rise, cul- 
mination, and setting of the sun. Among the 
inferior deities, the Marut or winds hold the first 
place ; and next to them the Aswini, apparently 
twins or brothers, and sons of the sea (Sindhu), 
so that the Vedic Aryans evidently had settlements 
near some water, which they called a sea. The 
Aswini are almost invariably represented as having 
a triangular car with three wheels, drawn by asses ; 
while their name appears to be derived from 
Aswa, a horse, which would seem to identify them 
with the two horses of the sun. The sakta or 
hymns addressed to them are richest of all in 
legend. Their connection with Indra (Jupiter), 
their patronage of mariners, their twin brother- 
hood, the two horses and stars found on their 
coins, identify them with the Grecian Dioscuri. In 
the Vedas, heaven, earth (Aditi and Pritivi), and 
ocean are rarely invoked, and the sun has com- 



HINDU. 

jmratively few saktas. Occasional laudations are 
given to rivers, especially to the Saraswati ; and 
this nature-worship extends to the cow, the wood 
used in the oblations, and even the vapa or sacri- 
ficial post. To Ushas, or the dawn, some of the 
most beautiful hymns in the Veda are addressed. 
All these deities are expressly declared to be ' the 
progeny of the heavens and the earth' (Wilson's 
Vedas, i. p. 276). No mention is made of the 

f)lanets, — for Brihaspati is not a planet, but ' the 
ord of prayer,' — and: the moon has not even a sakta. 

The worship of the Vedic race is briefly but 
comprehensively described by themselves (Asht. 
I. Adhy. I. Sakta 6), where it is said the standers 
around associate with (Indra) the mighty (sun), 
the indestructive (fire), the moving (wind), and 
the lights that shine in the sky. The blessings they 
implore, says Professor Wilson, ' are for the most 
part of a temporal and personal description, 
— wealth, food, life, posterity, cattle, cows, and 
horses ; protection against enemies, victory over 
them, and sometimes their destruction.' ' There 
are a few indications of a hope of immortality and 
of further happiness, but they are neither frequent, 
nor, in general, distinctly announced.' The only 
notice of an after life is found in the legend (for 
nothing is founded on it) of three brothers called 
Kibhus, who for their meritorious actions were 
made gods. Also, in one or two passages, Yama 
and his office of ruler of the dead are obscurely 
alluded to (Dr. Wilson, i. p. 25). Yama is usually 
connected with the Yamuna river. So monotonous 
and irreverent are the great bulk of their prayers 
(to Indra especially), that Professor Wilson could 
scarcely believe them to be in earnest. An in- 
stance of this is the hymn addressed to the goddess 
Anna (Anna devati, known in Bengal as Anna 
Purna), personified as Pitu, or material food, by 
the rishi Agastya (see Wilson's Veda, ii. p. 192 ; 
Calcutta Review, No. 64, p. 412); and in a similar 
strain the soma plant is addressed. This plant, the 
Sarcostemma brevistigma, is found all the way 
from the mountains of Mazenderan to the Coro- 
inandel coast, and Viswamitra is described as 
passing the Sutlej and Beas to gather it. Bruised 
between two stones, mixed with milk or barley 
juice, and fermented, it formed a strong inebriat- 
ing spirit. ' The purifying soma, like the sea roll- 
ing its waves, has poured forth songs, and hymns, 
and thoughts.' 

The ritual of these old Aryans, as described in 
Professor Wilson's epitome of the saktas, compre- 
hended offerings, prayer, and praise. The former 
are chiefly oblations and libations of clarified 
butter poured on the fire, and the expressed and 
fermented juice of this soma plant, presented in 
ladles to the deities invoked. It seems to have been 
sometimes sprinkled on the fire, sometimes on the 
ground, or rather on the kusa sacred grass strewed 
on the floor; and in all cases the residue was 
drunk by the assistants. There is no mention of 
any temple, or any reference to a public place of 
worship ; the sacrificial chamber was always in the 
house of the worshipper, and it is clear that the 
worship was entirely domestic. The worshipper 
himself does not appear to have taken any part 
personally in the ceremony ; and it was by priests 
— seven and sometimes sixteen — by whom the 
different ceremonial rites are performed, and by 
whom the mantras, or prayer and hymns, were 
recited (i. p. 24). The soma juice was the obla- 



57 



HINDU. 



HINDU. 



tion or libation of the Vedic worship (the homa 
of the Parsee), and allusions to it are met with in 
almost every page. 

The following tabular statement of the number 
of saktas in the 500 hymns translated by Professor 
Wilson, addressed to each deity, sets their actual 
and relative worship clearly before us : — 



Indra, 


. 178 


Brihaspati, . 


2 


Sarasvati, 


1 


Agni, . . 


. 147 


Mitra, . . 


17 


Vishnu (none 




Aswini, . 


. 28 


Varuna, . . 


20 


in the first 




Marut, . 


. 21 


Usha, . . . 


11 


Ashtaka), . 


2 


Vayu, 


. 6 


Surya or Savi- 








liudra, 


. 3 


tri, . . . 


5 







This leaves less than sixty hymns for all the 
other members of the Vedic pantheon. Some of the 
divinities worshipped in Vedic times are not un- 
known to later systems, but at first perform very 
subordinate parts ; whilst those deities who are the 
principal objects of worship of the present day 
are either wholly unnamed in the Veda, or are 
noticed in an inferior or different capacity. The 
names of Siva, of Durga, of Kali, of Kama, of Sita, 
of Krishna, of Radha, the present gods, so far as 
research has gone, do not occur in the Vedas. 
And the practice of the conquered races seems to 
have been to represent or regard local deities as 
identical with, or avatars or incarnations or other 
names of, the Vedic gods, who had already become 
objects of Aryan worship. The Vedas mention 
Rudra as the chief of the winds, collecting the clouds 
as a shepherd's dog does the sheep, and attending 
on his master Indra ; in the Vedas he is the father 
of the winds ; even in the Puranas he is of a very 
doubtful origin and identification; but in the 
present day everywhere amongst the Saiva Hindus 
he is identified with Siva. With the single excep- 
tion of an epithet Kapardi, ' with braided hair,' of 
doubtful significance, and applied also to another 
divinity, no other name applicable to Siva occurs, 
and there is not the slightest allusion to the 
lingam or phallus form in which, for the last 
ten centuries at least, he seems to have been 
almost exclusively worshipped in India ; neither is 
there the slightest hint of another important 
feature of later Hinduism, the trimurti, or triune 
combination of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, as 
typified by the mystical syllable O'm (a-u-m), 
although, according to Creuzer (i. p. 26), the 
trimurti was the first element in the faith of the 
Hindus, and the second was the lingam. In this 
view Creuzer must have intended the mixture of 
creeds now current in India, for the whole Vedic 
faith was essentially a sabaistic and nature worship. 

Religious Books. — Aryan Hindus have been re- 
markable amongst civilised races as abstaining 
from all historical writings ; and a knowledge of the 
changes that have occurred in their beliefs has been 
obtained from their books of religion, philosophy, 
and fiction. 

The Rig - Veda Sanhita is a collection of 
hymns of the ancient Aryans, addressed to the 
elements and powers of nature. Their age is 
various, prior and subsequent to the 15th century 
B.C. The Rig- Veda is of primary importance in 
the Hindu religion and mythology. The Yajur 
and Sama Vedas consist of hymns derived from 
the Rig, but re-arranged for religious purposes ; 
and the fourth Veda, the Atharva, is of later date. 
The Brahmana are ritualistic and liturgical com- 
positions, chiefly in prose, and attached to the 
different mantras. They are later than the Vedic 



hymns, and recognise one Great Being as the soul 
of the universe. Of a still later age are the 
Aranyakas and Upanishads, which form part of 
the collective Brahmanas, and are principally 
philosophical. The Brahmanas recognise one Great 
Being as the soul of the universe. A golden 
egg was produced in the universal waters, from 
which in course of time came forth Prajapati, 
the progenitor, or the quiescent Universal Soul. 
Brahma took a creative form, as Brahma the Pra- 
japati. From the Prajapati, or great progenitor, 
there was produced a daughter, and by her he 
was the father of the human race. The Upani- 
shads, of which above 150 are known, are later, 
the oldest being about the 6th century B.C. They 
contain an examination of the mystic sense of the 
Vedas, and are free from Brahmanical exclusive- 
ness. They have a monotheistic tendency. 

The age of Menu was after that of the Brah- 
manaB. Menu follows the golden egg theory, and 
he calls the active creator who was produced 
from it, Brahma, and Narayana. The latter name 
became subsequently exclusively applied to the 
Vishnu deity. The institutes of Menu show a 
great advancement of the Brahman caste. 

The Mahabharata and the Ramayana are epic 
poems, which deal with the actions of men. Indra 
is mentioned ; but Brahma, Siva, and Vishnu 
have become the gods, Brahma being but little 
mentioned ; while in some passages Siva, in others 
Vishnu, is supreme, and the incarnations of Vishnu 
assume a permanent place. The Ramayana, by 
Valmiki, is supposed to be of the 5th century B.C., 
and its hero the royal Rama and his faithful wife 
Sita have been deified as incarnations of Vishnu 
and his consort. It is the older epic. The age of 
the Mahabharata is supposed to be in some of the 
six centuries B.C. ; but it contains an interpolated 
episode, the Bhagavat Gita, which has been sup- 
posed to be of the 2d or 3d century a.d. In 
it Krishna is the Supreme, and bhakti or faith is 
enjoined. 

These books belong to the Brahmana age. But 
a great reformer arose in the 6th century B.C., 
and the religious sects formed after him were 
prominent in India for about 1500 years, and are 
still the faiths of Burma, Tibet, Mongolia, Man- 
churia, Siam, Annam, and largely of Ceylon, China, 
and Japan. The reformer was Sakya Sinha, son 
of king Suddhodana of Magadha, and is known 
to history as Buddha. 

Buddhism. — The valley of the Ganges was the 
cradle of Indian Buddhism, and Sakya Muni the 
founder of the new doctrines. As the champion 
of religious liberty and social equality, Sakya 
Muni attacked the Brahmans in their weakest and 
most vulnerable points, — in their impious assump- 
tion of all mediation between man and his Maker, 
and in their arrogant claims to hereditary priest- 
hood. His boldness was successful, and before 
the end of his long career he had seen his prin- 
ciples zealously and successfully promulgated by his 
Brahman disciples, Sariputra, Mangalyana, Ananda, 
and Kasyapa, as well as by the Vaisya Katyayana 
and the Sudra Upali. At his death in B.C. 543, 
his doctrines had been firmly established, and the 
holiness of his mission was fully recognised by the 
eager claims preferred by kings and rulers for 
relics of their divine teacher. His ashes were 
distributed amongst eight cities, and the charcoal 
from the funeral pile was given to a ninth. He 



58 



had 



HINDU. 



lived ;iinl preached from Champa and ltaja- 
griha in the east, to Sravasti and Kausambi in the 
I n the short space of 45 years, this wonder- 
ful man succeeded in establishing his own peculiar 
doctrines over the fairest districts of the Ganges, 
from the Delta to the neighbourhood of Agra and 
Cawnpur. This success was perhaps as much due 
to the early corrupt state of Brahmanism, as to the 
r purity and more practical wisdom of his 
own system. 

From his timo until the end of the long reign 
of A jatasatra, 619 B.C., the creed of Buddha ad- 
vanced slowly but surely. This success was partly 
due to the politic admission of women, who in the 
cast have always possessed much secret though 
not apparent influence over mankind. To most 
of them the words of Buddha preached comfort 
in this life, and hope in the next. To the young 
widow, the neglected wife, and the cast-off mis- 
be Buddhist teachers offered an honourable 
career as nuns. Instead of the daily indignities to 
which they were subjected by grasping relatives, 
treacherous husbands, and faithless lords, the most 
miserable of the sex could now share, although 
still in a humble way, with the general respect 
accorded to all who had taken the vows. The 
Bhikshuni were indebted to Ananda's intercession 
with Sakya for their admission into the ranks of 
the Buddha community ; and (see Csoma's Ana- 
lysis of the Dulva, Res. As. Soc. Bengal, xx. p. 90 ; 
also Fo-kue-ki, chap. xvi. p. 101) the Pi-khieu-ni, 
or Bhikshuni, at Mathura, in token of their grati- 
tude, paid their devotions chiefly to the stupa of 
Anan (Auanda), because he had besought Buddha 
that he would grant to women the liberty of em- 
bracing ascetic life. The observances required 
from the nuns are recorded in note 23, chap. xvi. 
of the Fo-kue-ki. The female ascetic even of a 
hundred years of age, however, was bound to 
respect a mouk even in the first year of his ordina- 
tion. It is related that Sakya's wife, after the 
first outburst of grief on seeing his return to her 

an ascetic, herself became a Bhikshuni. 

From its rise in the 6th century B.C., the doc- 
m of Buddha gradually spread over the whole 
of India. It was extended by Asoka to Kashmir 
ami Kabul shortly after Alexander's invasion, and 
it was introduced into China about the beginning 
of the Christian era by 500 Kashmirian mission- 
aries. In A.D. 400, when F"a Hian visited India, 
Buddhism was still the dominant religion, but the 
Yaishnava sect of modern Brahmanism, with a 
Mixture of the old Aryan creed and the Buddhist 
faith, were already rising into consequence. In 
the middle of the 7th century, although the pil- 
grim Hiwen Thsang found numerous temples of 
the Saiva, whose doctrines had been embraced 
by Skanda Gupta and the later princes of Patali- 

Imtra, yet Buddhism was Btill the prevailing re- 
igion of the people. But though the faith of 
Sakya lingered about the holy cities of Benares 
and Gaya for two or three centuries later, it was 
no longer the honoured religion of kings and 
princes, protected by the strong arm of power, 
but the persecuted heresy of a weaker party, who 
were forced to hide their images under ground, 
and were ultimately expelled from their monas- 
teries by fire. In 1835, Major Cunningham exca- 
vated numerous Buddhist images at Sarnath near 
Benares, all of which had evidently been purposely 
hidden under ground. He found quantities of 



2 



HINDU. 

ashes also, and there could be no doubt that tin 
buildings had been destroyed by fire ; and Major 
Kittoe, who subsequently made further excavations, 
was of the same opinion. The Buddhist religion 
has long been extinct in British India. Its last 
remnants were extinguished, in blood and violence, 
about the 14th century, dying out about Trichino- 
poly and along the coast-line from Vizianagram to 
Masulipatam. But it still flourishes in its Hinayana 
and Mahayana forms, in the countries on its north 
and north-east borders, in Nepal and Tibet, in 
Mongolia and Manchuria, in Ava, Ceylon, and 
China, and amongst the Indo-Chinese nations of 
Annam, Siam, and Japan ; and its followers far 
outnumber those of all other existing creeds except 
the Christian. 

The Buddhist faith was pre-eminently a religion 
of mercy and peace, of charity and benevolence. 
In the topes dedicated to the celestial Buddha, 
Adinath, the invisible being who pervaded all 
space, no'deposit was made ; but the divine Spirit, 
who is ' Light,' was supposed to occupy the in- 
terior, and was typified on the outside by a pair 
of eyes, placed on each of the four sides either of 
the base or of the crown of the edifice. But in 
ages of strife and violence, of deifying mortals 
and of arrogant assumptions of an ignorant priest- 
hood, a creed that taught gentleness and meek- 
ness and kindness to living creatures must have 
exercised a great influence over the community, — 
must early have gained many converts amongst 
the peaceable and good, and largely leavened the 
minds even of those who did not openly become 
converts ; and amongst this class must be in- 
cluded the entire populations from the primeval 
land east of the Oxus to China and Japan in the 
farthest east, to Singapore and Ceylon in the ex- 
treme south. For ten centuries it had been the 
prevailing religion of India ; but when the unwritten 
Tartar faith became corrupt and feeble, Brahman- 
ism was revived, mixed with the worship of new 
gods, a Siva and a Vishnu, and every form of 
absurd fetishism gathered from local idolatries 
and superstitions. It is this mixture of several 
creeds which Europeans now style Hinduism, andits 
followers Hindus. It is found amongst the people 
in every variety of belief, — from the mildest spirit 
and demon worship and recognition of numerous 
forms of gods and their idols, to a distinct theism ; 
from the grossest ignorance and superstition, to 
the most refined speculativeness ; performed and 
associated with bloody and most inhuman rites, 
and again followed with the greatest tenderness 
for animal life. 

Brahmanic Revival. — In the later hymns of the 
Vedas can be traced the origin of the Vishnu wor- 
ship, and the setting aside of Indra. But the 
foreign Siva and Bhavani had come in with the 
Sakse, and mingled in their worshippings, until 
the doctrines of Buddha, himself a Sakyan, were 
promulgated, and held their own for more than a 
thousand years, until, between the 5th and 12th 
centuries of the Christian era, a host of new divini- 
ties, Vishnu, Siva, Durga, Kali, Rama, Krishna, 
Ganesha, Kartikeya, prevailed over a better faith 
than their own, and up to the present day enslave 
and degrade the Hindu mind. 

The Puranas, eighteen in number, are more 
recent books. Their age has been supposed to be 
from the 2d to the 16th century a.d., though their 
name means old. These are all in verse ; give a 



59 



HINDU. 



HINDU. 



cosmogony, celebrate the powers and works of 
the gods, and give the history of the Solar and 
Lunar dynasties who ruled in Northern India ; and 
to them have been appended 18 Upa Puranas. 
Later than these are the Tantras, which are reli- 
gious and magical works, that give prominence to 
the female energy of the deity, his active nature 
being personified in the person of his sakti or wife, 
each of whom has a gentle and a fierce form, as 
Kadha, Devi, Uma, Gauri, Durga, and Kali, and 
these are worshipped both symbolically and in the 
actual woman. 

In the Puranas the Vedic deities are forgotten, 
and marvellous legends have gathered round the 
favourite divinities, full of wild imaginings, and 
evidencing a corrupt state of society and religion. 
Vishnu and Siva have obtained respective sects as 
followers. Krishna has become the object of a 
sensuous, joyous worship ; the worship of Devi, 
the consort of Siva, has become established, and 
the foundation has been laid of the obscene and 
bloody rites afterwards developed in the Tantras. 
The Puranas and the Tantras are the religious 
books of the Hinduism of the present day. The 
Veda is a mere name : its gods, and rites, and 
language are only known to the learned, and the 
modern system is quite at variance with the 
Vedic writings, — the Puranas and later writings 
being the great authorities of modern Hinduism. 
Their mythology and legends fill the popular mind, 
and mould its thoughts. The great epic poems, 
the Mahabharata and the Eamayana, with their 
heroes, the Pandava, the Kaurava, Kama and his 
wife Sita, Hanuman, and Havana, are listened to 
with delight ; and the stories about Krishna, from 
his infancy till his death, are the never-ending 
source of joy to the young. The mild and gentle 
Rama, ' the husband of one wife,' pure in thought 
and noble in action, and his faithful wife Sita, are, 
however, objects of the devotion of many, and 
theirs is the least degrading of the many forms of 
Hindu worship. 

Philosophies. — Concurrent with the ritualistic 
worship of the modern Hindu gods and goddesses, 
there are six schools of philosophy, — the Nyaya, 
the Vaiseshika, the Sankhya, the Yoga, the Purva 
mimansa, and Uttara mimansa. All of them have 
the same final object, — the emancipation of the soul 
from future birth and existence, and its absorption 
into the supreme soul of the universe. They are 
supposed to have had their origin between the 5th 
and 3d centuries B.C. The Nyaya and Vaiseshika 
recognise a Supreme Being ; the Yoga is theistical ; 
the Sankhya, atheistical ; the two Mimansas are 
the Vedanta. The object of these two Vedanta 
schools is to teach the art of reasoning, with a 
view to aid in the interpretation of the Vedas. 
The Purva mimansa is generally known as the 
Mimansa, and the Uttara mimansa as the Vedanta ; 
and the principal doctrines of the latter are that 
the Supreme Being is the omniscient and omni- 
potent cause of the existence, continuance, and 
dissolution of the universe. The Vedanta or 
Mimansa philosophy is treated as a scholastic 
philosophy, which, basing itself on the sacred 
books and the popular religion, seeks for unity of 
thought only as a means of introducing order 
amid the divine personages and legends, and has 
sought to give a spiritual import, a sort of new 
birth, to the gods of Brahmanism. In the Vedanta 
philosophy, Brahma is placed in the foreground as 



the soul of the universe, the primal being, which 
alone has true existence. To this school, not 
matter only was a semblance, even the soul was a 
transient phenomenon. The Sankhya philosophy 
is contrasted with it, as a purely pantheistic 
system. In this view this philosophy has broken 
completely with the popular creed, and with the 
doctrines of the Vedas and the Brahmanas. The 
Sankhya philosophy occupies itself more with life 
in manifestation, therefore especially with the life 
of the individual spirit connected by its body to 
the outward world. Both of these leave the 
Vedas unassailed, nay, the whole Brahmanic reli- 
gion, in so far as it concerns rites and customs. 

A census was taken of the people of British 
India in 1881, and the numbers following these 
creeds were found to be 187,957,450, out of a 
total population of 253,891,821 souls : — 

Hindu Population, census 1881. 





Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


British Territory — 








Ajmir, 


202,226 


173,803 


376,029 


Assam, 


1,580,458 


1,481,690 


3,062,148 


Bengal, 


22,578,544 


22,874,262 


45,452,806 


Berar, 


1,252,541 


1,173,113 


2,425,654 


Bombay, . 


6,291,598 


6,016,984 


12,30S,582 


British Burma, 


73,929 


14,248 


88,177 


Central Provinces, . 


3,700,467 


3,617,363 


7,317,830 


Coorg, 


90,705 


71,784 


162,489 


Madras, . 


14,104,951 


14,392,727 


28,497,678 


N. W. Provinces, 


19,813,098 


18,240,296 


38,053,394 


Panjab, 


3,883,915 


3,246,613 


7,130,528 


Tot. Brit. Territory, . 


73,572,432 


71,302,883 


144,875,315 


Feudatory States in — 








Bombay, . 


2,842,559 


2,683,844 


5,526,403 


Central Provinces, . 


705,612 


679,668 


1,385,280 


N. W. Provinces, 


261,726 


240,001 


501,727 


Panjab, 


1,160,125 


961,642 


2,121,767 


Tot. Feudatory States, 


4,970,022 


4,565,155 


9,535,177 


Tot. British Territory, 








incl. Feud. States, ' . 


78,542,454 


75,868,038 


154,410,492 


Native States — 








Baroda, 


969,948 


882,920 


1,852,868 


Central India, . 


4,130,018 


3,670,378 


7,800,396 


Cochin, 


215,637 


213,687 


429,324 


Hyderabad, 


4,517,812 


4,375,369 


8,893,181 


Mysore, 


1,967,814 


1,988,522 


3,956,336 


Rajputana, 


4,792,774 


4,046,469 


8,839,243 


Travancore, 


872,770 


882,840 


1,755,610 


Total Native States, . 


17,466,773 


16,060,185 


33,526,958 


Grand total, . 


96,009,227 


91,928,223 


187,937,450 


Total population, 


129,941,851 


123,949,970 


253,891,821 



Christianity and Mahomcdanism have modified 
the doctrines of the Aryan Hindus. Since 
Buddhism disappeared from India, its nations have 
been conquered by races professing creeds with 
followers nearly as numerous as Buddhism had ever 
acquired. Rapid as was the progress of Buddh- 
ism, the gentle but steady swell of its current 
shrinks into nothing before the sweeping flood of 
Mahomedanism, which in a few years spread over 
one-half of the civilised world, from the Atlantic 
Ocean to the swampy fens of the Oxus, to China, 
and to the Eastern Archipelago. From the 
11th century, when the inroads into India of 
Mahomedans began, up to the present time, 
when they too, as a ruling race in India, have 
in their turn almost disappeared, Semitic Arabs, 
Aryan Persians, Scythic Tartars, Turk and 
Mongols, and Anglo-Saxons, have successively 
swayed the destinies of the Hindu races, and 
each of the new-comers has to some extent 



60 



HINDU. 



modified the beliefs and social customs of the 
conquered Legislation by the Mahomedan rulers, 
Bad after them by the British, has effected many 
changes. Repulsive forms of fanatical penance are 
phenomena seldom seen ; the immolation of widows 
i criminal occurrence; ghat murder, or the 
exposure of the sick and dying upon the banks of 
sacred rivers, is matter of past history ; open in- 
fanticide has been in a great measure suppressed. 
Further changes have been retarded by the cir- 
cumstance that the Mahomedan and the Chris- 
tian came amongst them as soldiers, with all the 
licence to be found in camps, and the contempt 
ft >r st range things which youth engenders. Never- 
theless the great bulk of the 23 millions who 
follow Mahomedanism in Bengal and Assam, as 
also its followers who speak the Malay language, 
are descendants from idol - worshipping races ; 
while in N.W. India many Rajput and Jat tribes 
have also embraced the faith of Islam; and the 
Hindu Xanak, the founder of the Sikh faith, and 
Kabir and other reformers, drew their views pro- 
minently from the Mahomedans. Christianity 
has been preached in India since the early years 
of the era, and there has lately been a belief that 
parts of the ritual of the worship of Krishna had 
been taken from Christian texts, but the Christians 
throughout the E. Indies, China, and the Archi- 
_o may not as yet exceed three millions. 
Since the 15th century, Christian missionaries 
all sects have been labouring in their vocation, 
with some success. But this has been largely 
owing to the steady increase of schools for secular 
instruction, which have every year been on 
the increase, and, since the middle of the 19th 
century, are crowded with the youth of all 
races, sects, castes, and ranks. In this respect 
every teacher of English is a missionary, for it is 
impossible for the youth of India, if educated 
under Christian teachers by means of a Christian 
literature, to be otherwise than embued with the 
doctrines of Christians, whatever their professions 
may be. In the 19th century, the first reforming 
sect that arose was a theistic body in Calcutta, 
and many who have received the higher education 
have joined it, or have formed other sects with 
similar views. But even in the case of Hindus 
who have had no English education, and have 
never heard the voice of the missionary, such are 
receiving instruction from others of their own 
people who have been so taught ; and the mass 
has been so leavened, that the great tendency 
amongst youthful inquiring minds is to accept 
some form of monotheism, — either to acknowledge 
one of their own deities, whether Vishnu or Siva, 
as the Lord of all, or adopt an ideal Supreme Being 
of their own creation, whom they clothe with 
attributes, purer, more just, and more worthy of 
reverence than any god which their religious 
books possess. 

Hinduism as it is. — In approaching this part 
of the subject, it may be mentioned that the 
mythology of India has done much to explain that 
of Greece and Scandinavia, as will be seen by the 
following list of the more prominent Hindu deities 
of the present day and their principal analogues : — 



Agni, 
Swaha, 

Aswini-Kumara, 
Aruna, , 

Atadeva, , 
Kuvera, . 



Vulcan, fire, ignis. 

Vesta, his wife. 

Castor and Pollux. 

Aurora. 

Diana. 

Tlutus, the god of riches. 



In. Ira, . . 

Varan*. . . 

l'ritliivi, 
Viswakarma, 
Surya or Arka, . 
Heraoula, . 
Attwiciilapa, 
Vayu, . 
Vaitarini, . 
Durga, 
Narada, 
Krishna, 
Bhawani, 
Knli or Durga, 
Ganesha, . . 
Kartikeya or 

Skanda, . . 
Kama, . 
I I.-t 1111111:111, son of 

Pavana, . 
Rama, . 
Sri, Lakshmi, 
Anna Puma, 



HINDU. 

God of firmament,— Jupiter. 

God of water, — Neptune, Ouranos, 

Goddess of earth, - Cybele. 

Architect of gods, — Vulcan. 

The sun, — Sol. 

A Hindu deity, — Hercules. 

yKsculapius ? — Genii. 

Jkbu, 

The river Styx. 

Juno. 

God of music, — Mercury. 

Apollo. 

Venus or Minerva Musica. 

Proserpine. 

A male Minerva. 

God of war, — Mars. 
God of love, — Cupid. 

The monkey god, — Pan. 

The god of wine, — Bacchus. 

Ceres. 

Anna Perenna. 

Sects. — The changes in the religions of the Aryan 
Hindus during the past nineteen centuries have 
been continuous. Perhaps the earliest indications 
of coming changes were given in the third division 
of the Vedas, known as the Upanishads, which dis- 
cuss the nature of the deity, the nature of the soul, 
and the connection of mind and matter. They 
contain the beginnings of the metaphysical 
inquiry, which ended in the full development of 
Hindu philosophy. The oldest of these books is 
supposed to be about the 2d century B.C. 

The great Saiva reformer was Sankaracharya, 
who lived in the 8th or 9th century. He was the 
teacher of the Vedanta philosophy; he founded 
the sect of Smartha Brahmans, and has been re- 
garded as an incarnation of Siva. His follower, 
Anandagiri, wrote the Sankara Vijaya about the 
10th century. The worshippers of Siva regard that 
deity as the Supreme ; and his consort Parvati, in 
her numerous forms of Devi, Durga, Bhawani, 
etc., has many worshippers. These two are pre- 
eminently designated Mahadeo and Mahadevi 

Vishnu and his consort Lakshmi are equally 
regarded by their followers as Supreme, and 
might have the same designations, but neither 
under these names nor in any of their many incar- 
nations are they so honoured. A few of the gods 
of the times prior to the Christian era continue 
to be invoked, — amongst them, Indra the god of 
the firmament, Agni the god of fire, Kama the god 
of love, and Kuvera the analogue of Pluto ; but 
the Diti, Aditi, Aditya, Rakshasa, and others of the 
Vedas have become myths, and the chief deities 
of the modern Hindus are Siva and Vishnu with 
their consorts ; Rama and Rama-Chandra, and Bala 
Rama, Ganesh, Garuda, Hanuman, Jaganatha, Kan- 
doba, Krishna, Kartikeya, god of war, the phallic 
lingam, Nandi the bull, Virabadhra, and Vitoba. 

Ramanuja was a Vaishnava philosopher, who 
put forward the Viseshtadwaita system, and the 
sect who follow his teachings worship Rama and 
Sita. The Adwaita is a monad doctrine, which 
acknowledges the reality of spiritual existence 
only. Dwaita, or the doctrine of duality, dis- 
tinguishes two principles in creation, spirit and 
matter. 

Ramanand (a.d. 1350 ?), the follower of Raman- 
uja, was the first to admit low caste people as his 
disciples, one of whom was Rai Das, another 
was Kabir, and the Kabir Panthi sect gave rise to 
the Nanak Shahi about A.n. 1449. 



61 



HINDU. 



HINDU. 



Chaitanya, a Vaishnava reformer in Bengal in 
the 16th century, was deemed an incarnation of 
Krishna. He too admitted all classes as his dis- 
ciples. 

Charandas, a merchant of Dehli, lived in the 
time of the 2d Alamgir (a.d. 1757). His first dis- 
ciple was his sister, Sahaji Bai, who was a dis- 
tinguished writer. The sect worship Krishna and 
Radha. 

Mira Bai, wife of Lakha, rana of Udaipur in 
the reign of Akbar, was of the Vaishnava sect, 
and a distinguished writer. 

Jayadeva, of the 12th or 13th centuries, wrote 
the Gita Govinda, an erotic poem on the early life 
of Krishna. 

Five great sects exclusively worship a single 
deity, and one recognises the five divinities ; 
these are — 

1. Saiva, worshippers of Siva in his numerous forms, 

who, however, worship Siva and Farvati or Bha- 
wani conjointly. 

2. Vaishnava, who worship Vishnu. 

3. Surya, who worship Surya or the sun. 

4. Ganapatya, who worship Ganesba. 

5. Sakta, who exclusively worship Bhawani or Parvati, 

the sakti or female energy of Siva. 

6. Bhagavata, who recognise all divinities equally. 

The fourth and fifth are subdivisions or rami- 
fications of the first, or Saiva, of which may be 
traced these distinctions : — 1. Saiva proper, mean- 
ing the worshippers of Siva and Parvati conjointly. 
2. Lingi or Lingaet, the adorers of Siva or his 
phallic type separately, and these are a very strict 
and rigid sect. 3. Sacta, the adorers of the yoni 
of Bhawani or her symbol separately. 3. The 
Ganapatya, the exclusive worshippers of Ganesha, 
the first-born of Mahadeva and Parvati. 

The second grand sect, or Vaishnava, is variously 
divided and subdivided. First, or division of 
Gocalast'ha, or worshippers of Gocal or Krishna, 
is subdivided into three : — 

1. Exclusively worship Krishna as Vishnu himself : 

this is generally deemed the true and orthodox 
Vaishnava. 

2. Exclusively worship Radha, as the sakti of Krishna 

or Vishnu : this sect is called Radha Valabhi. 

3. Worship Krishna and Radha conjointly. 

Second, or division of Ramanuj, or worshippers 
of Raniachandra, is in like manner subdivided 
into three : — 

1. Worship Rama only. 

2. Worship Sita only as his sakti. 

3. Worship both Rama and Sita conjointly. 

The Vaishnava of the present day, though 
nominally worshippers of Vishnu, are thus in fact 
votaries of deified heroes. The Gocalast'ha (one 
branch of the sect) adore Krishna, while the 
followers of Eamanuja worship Eamachandra. 
Both have again branched into three sects ; one 
consists in the exclusive worshippers of Krishna, 
and those only are deemed true and orthodox 
Vaishnava; another joins Krishna's favourite, 
Radha, with the hero ; a third, called Radha- 
valabhi* adores Radha only, considering her as 
the sakti or active power of Vishnu. The fol- 
lowers of these last-mentioned sects are said to 
have adopted the singular practice of presenting 
to their own wives the oblations intended for the 
goddess ; and those among them who follow the 
left-handed path are said to require their wives to 
be naked when attending them at their devotions. 



Among the Ramanuj some worship Rama only, 
and others both Rama and Sita; none of them 
practise any indecent mode of worship. And 
they all, like the Gocalast'ha, as well as the fol- 
lowers of the Bhagavata, delineate on their fore- 
heads a double upright line with chalk, or with 
sandal-wood, and a red circlet with red sanders 
i wood, or with turmeric and lime ; but the 
j Ramanuj add an upright red line in the middle of 
I the double white one. 

The Saiva sect are all worshippers of Siva and 
Bhawani conjointly ; and they adore the linga 
or compound type of this god and goddess, as the 
Vaishnava do the image of Lakshmi - Narayana. 
The exclusive adorers of the goddess Bhawani are 
the Sakta sect. In this last-mentioned sect there 
is said to be a right-handed and decent path, and 
left-handed and indecent mode of worship ; and 
both Major Moor and Professor Wilson allude 
to the licentious character of the latter form, a 
feature certainly quite unknown in the Southern 
India of the present day. The left-handed form 
of worship of the several sects, especially that of 
the Sakta, is founded on the Tantras, which are 
for this reason held in disesteem. 

Sectarian Differences. — The great point of differ- 
ence amongst the sectaries is as to the claims of 
respective deities to be regarded as the first cause. 
Few Brahmans of learning, if they have any religion 
at all, will acknowledge themselves to belong to 
any of the popular divisions of the Hindu faith, 
although, as a matter of simple preference, they 
more especially worship some individual deity as 
their chosen or Ishta Devata. They refer also to 
the Vedas, the books of law, the Puranas, and 
Tantras, as containing the only ritual which they 
recognise, and regard all practices not derived 
from those sources as irregular and profane. 
These deities have their different avatars or incar- 
nations, in all of which, except that of the sakti 
themselves, they have their sakti (wives) or 
energies of their attributes. These have again 
ramified into numerous names and forms. The 
following is an enumeration of the several sectaries 
of each class, and to them we refer for separate 
notices of their origin and tenets : — 





Vaishnava Sects. 


1. 


Ramanuja, or Sri Sam- 


10. Mira Bai. 




pradayi, or Sri Vaish- 


11. Madhavachari or 




nava. 


Brahma Sampradayi. 


1; 


Ramanandi or Rama- 


12. Nimawat or Sanakadi 




wat. 


Sampradayi. 


3. 


Kabir Panthi. 


13. Vaishnava of Bengal. 


4. 


Khaki. 


14. Radha Valabhi. 


5. 


Maluk Dasi. 


15. Sak'hi Bhava. 


8. 


Dadhu Panthi. 


16. Charan Dasi. 


7. 


Raya Dasi or Rai Dasi. 


17. Harischandi. 


s. 


Senai or Sena Panthi. 


18. Sadhna Panthi. 


y. 


Valabhachari or Rudra 


19. Madhavi. 




Sampradayi. 


20. Sanyasi, Vairagi, Naga. 




Saiva 


Sects. 


l. 


Dandi and Dasnami. 


6. Gudara. 


2. 


Jogi or Yogi. 


7. Ruk'hara, Suk'hara, 


». 


Jungama or Sri Saiva. 


and Uk'hara. 


4. 


Paramahansa. 


8. Kara Lingi. 


r>. 


Urdhaba'hu, Akas 


9. Sanyasi, Brahmachari. 




Muk'hi and Nak'hi. 


Avadhuta Naga. 




Sakta 


Sects. 


l. 


Dakshini or Bhakta. 


3. Kanchuliya. 


2. 


Vami or Vamachari, 


4. Kaiari. ■ 



62 



HINDU. 



HINDI'. 



i nr Satna. 

k Sillllli, (if -.cVcH 

elaaaei, vie. : 
la.i. 
injbakahi, 

.-. Kammyi. 
-/. Sittlini Shahi. 
I . (lovind Sinlii. 
Nirmala. 



Mmtktmu 0Mfe 

I. .I.i ina. 



it. Digambara. 

6. Swetambara. 

r. Yati. 

d. Sravaka. 
5. Baba Lali. 
C. J'ran Nathi. 

7. Sad!.. 

8. Satnami. 
!•. Siva Narayani. 

10. Sunyavadi. 



9 

uf these comprise u number of sub- 
ins, and, besides acknowledged classifica- 
tions, many individual ascetics are to be found 
all over India, who can scarcely be included 
within the limits of any of them, exercising a sort 
of Independence both in thought and act, and 
attached very loosely if at all to any of the 
popular Bchismatical sects. Some of the popular 
WOKS of the Hindus adopt a different classifica- 
tion, and allude to 9li prashada or heresies, 
which are thus arranged, viz. : — Amongst the 
Rrahmans, 24; Sanyasi, 12; Viragi, 12; Saura, 
18; Jangama, 18; Jogi, 12. Also, new gods or 
objects of worship are in constant formation, and 
lieved in by great masses of the people, 
though only a bit of paper, a cart-wheel, and 
other oddities. There is a temple of the goddess 
Elamma about a mile distant from the town of 
Jat, in the Jat jaghir. An annual fair is held in 
honour of this idol, at which about 10,000 people 
assemble. About the year 18G0, a Mali or gar- 
dener set up the idol, stating that it had appeared 
then of its own accord. Both men and women 
visit the temple and worship the idol. The wor- 
shippers, before commencing the worship, strip 
naked, apply powdered sandal -wood to their 
whole bodies, put on the ornaments they may 
have, hold a small branch of the nim tree in 
their folded hands, and leave their places of re- 
sidence to visit the idol. After visiting the idol, 
they go round the temple for a certain number of 
times. They then leave the temple to bathe in a 
neighbouring tank. After bathing, they return to 
the temple, worship the idol, and return home. 
When Mr. Chapman was collector of Satara, he 
punished some of the naked worshippers. 

Sakti. — The Hindu goddesses are uniformly re- 
presented as the subordinate powers of their respect- 
ive lords. The term is from the Sanskrit, meaning 
power, strength ; thus Lakshmi, the consort of 
Vishnu, the preserver, is the goddess of abundance 
and prosperity ; Bhawani, the wife of Siva, is the 
■enteral power of fecundity; and Saraswati, whose 
husband was the creator, Brahma, possesses the 
powers of imagination and invention, which may 
justly be termed creative. She is therefore 
adored as the patroness of the fine arts, especially 
of music and rhetoric ; as the inventress of the 
8anskrit language, of the Devanagri writing 
characters, and of the sciences which writing per- 

St nates; so that her attributes correspond with 
oee of Minerva Musica of Greece or Italy, who 
invented the flute, and presided over literature. 

Mixings. — Saivaism and Vaiahnaism described 
above are the common everyday religions of the 
bulk of the Hindu populations. But the internal 
beliefs of the worshippers have no such com- 
munity, and their various tenets must be sought 
for under the history of their several sects. A 
Saiva sect, the Satnami, profess to adore the true 
name, the one God ; but they nevertheless recog* 



nise the whole Hindu pantheon, and pay reverence 
to what tiny coiwider ma infestations of his nature 
visible in the avatars, particularly Rama and 
Krishna. The Sadh, on the other hand, utterly 
reject all kinds of idolatry ; are pun- deists, 
with a simple worship. Between these unitarian 
sects and such as adore every deity, there is the 
utmost diversity of theory and practice ; and the 
fusing of their creeds, doctrines, and customs is 
continually going on. Major Moor tells of a 
Mahoincdaii butcher at Poona, who occasionally 
supplied the Residency with meat Being asked 
if he would kill a calf, he started back with horror 
at the proposal, ejaculating a prayer to be forgiven 
for having even heard it. Many Mahomcdans of 
India borrow from the Hindus ceremonies that 
are celebrated with festivity. They take an active 
part in the gambols of the Holi, and even solicit 
the favours of the Indian Plutus at the Diwali. 
Many Hindus, on the other hand, join in the 
festival of the Maharram. The bridal procession 
of the Mahomedans on the fourth day, with all 
the sport and gambols of the Chaut'hi, is evidently 
copied from the similar custom of the Hindus. 
The Mahomedans have adopted the premature 
marriage of infants, and Hindus largely imitate 
the Mahomedan seclusion of their wives (Cole- 
broke, As. Res. vii. p. 307). A Mahomedan is 
forbidden to eat meat which has not been killed 
by one of the faithful, who is directed to ' halal ' 
or sanctify the animal by turning its face toward 
Mecca, and, while the blood is ejected, to repeat 
a short prayer. Many Mahrattas and other H indus, 
pleased with the ceremony, bring their sheep, fowls, 
etc., to Mahomedans to be made 'halal,' and then 
eat them with increased satisfaction. 

Vahan or Vehicles. — Several animals are appro- 
priated as the vahan or vehicles to the mytho- 
logical personages of modern Hinduism. The 
swan, the eagle, and the bull appertain respect- 
ively to Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, and are 
severally denominated Hanasa, Garuda, and 
Nandi. Ganesha, eldest son of Siva and Parvati, 
the elephant-headed god of prudence and policy, 
rides a rat, supposed to be a very sagacious 
animal ; Kartika, their second son, generalissimo 
of the celestial armies, mounts on a peacock. 
Indra, the powerful regent of the firmament, the 
Jupiter Pluvius of the Hindus, rides the elephant 
Airavata, symbolical of might. Varuna, genius 
of the waters, bestrides a fish ; as doth also Ganga, 
the prime goddess of rivers. Kama Deva, the 
god of love, is carried by a lory or parrot ; Agni, 
god of fire, by an ardent ram. 

Village Deities. — Every hamlet has its own 
object of adoration, always supposed to be a 
goddess, and the idol is generally a black stone 
or piece of wood. Amongst names given to it 
in Southern India are — 

Ai. Osuramma. 

Ankal-Amma. Sellamma. 

I'lini Ainma, gold mother. Yellamrna. 

Kani-Amma. Padavettu-Amma. 

Yegatal. Tulukan-Amma. 

M u tialu nmia, pearl mother. Muttumari. 

Tripura-sundari, the beau- .Man-Amman. 

tiful of three cities. Potearamma 

Paleri-Amma, or Periya- Karikatta. 

Amma, or great godd ess. Tairthoniam ma. 

Dandumari, (Jhoundeswari. 

Mallamma. Vadivatta. 

Chiimaimna. Nagattamma. 
Ammannamma. 



63 



HINDU. 



HINDU. 



A pujali or pujari, a worshipping priest of the 
Sudra caste, is appointed for her daily worship. 
He anoints her daily, and puts ashes on her head, 
— really on the top of the stone, for it is not an 
image, being entirely without shape, a mere stone 
from the neighbouring brook or river. In a small 
pot he cooks rice, which he collects from the 
villagers in turn, presents it to the idol, and then 
takes it to his own home. He breaks a cocoanut 
in front of the idol, to which he offers it. But 
the one half he keeps for himself, and gives the 
other to the families from whom he collected the 
fruit. The villagers make vows to their goddess 
to offer up to her fowls and sheep in sacrifice, if 
she will fulfil their desires. Once a-year they 
collect money by subscription, and celebrate a 
feast in honour of their goddess, during which 
sheep and fowls are largely sacrificed. The Sudra 
Hindus and the entire servile and predial tribes in 
the south of India have the fullest faith in their 
respective village goddesses. When they or their 
children are overtaken by sickness, they seek the 
idol and consult the pujari, who sings hymns, 
affects to hear the Amman's voice, and then 
announces to the worshipper the offering that must 
be presented. If cholera break out, it is not un- 
usual for some neighbouring village deity suddenly 
to rise into great importance, and the sacrificial 
rite is then almost unceasingly performed. The 
Hindus, too, have even personified this pestilence 
into a goddess, whom they name Maha-Kali, and 
believe that if they neglect her worship she 
destroys them by the disease. Indeed, gods are 
everywhere in process of establishment, and small- 
pox as well as cholera have thus been personified. 
Maha-Kali of Ujjain is a cholera goddess, and 
Mari- Amman or Amur of the Tamils is a small- 
pox deity. When a person is attacked with small- 
pox, they believe that the goddess has taken 
possession of the sick man. While in the house, 
the sexes remain apart until the sick person has 
recovered, and been purified by ablution. They 
place the leaves of the margosa tree beside the 
sick person, because the goddess is supposed to 
delight in this tree. They give cooling food, but 
employ neither internal nor external remedies, in 
reverence for the divinity. The women of the 
household offer rice -flour mixed with jagari or 
coarse sugar and black gram (Pairu, Tam. ; Pesalu, 
Tel.) before the patient in honour of the goddess, 
and afterwards distribute offerings to Sudras and 
others. On the seventh day, i.e. what medical 
men call the fifteenth day, the invalid is bathed 
in cold water, and the whole body rubbed with a 
pasty mixture of leaves of the margosa (melia and 
azadirachta) mixed with turmeric, and on the 
same day rice mixed with curds are distributed to 
Sudras. If in the virulence of the disease an eye 
be lost, it is attributed to something having been 
done displeasing to the goddess. The goddess, 
indeed, is supposed to appear in three forms, — as 
Tatta amavaru or Chinnamavaru, i.e. small god- 
dess or measles ; Peddamavaru, or great goddess 
or smallpox; and Pairamavaru, or goddess of 
green gram (Phaseolus mungo), — the two first of 
which are most feared. 

Devil and Spirit Worship. — Every Hindu work 
containing allusions to native life, says Dr. Cald- 
well, and the dictionaries of all the Hindu tongues, 
prove the general prevalence of a belief in the 
existence of malicious or mischievous demons, in 



demoniacal inflictions and possessions, and in the 
power of exorcisms. Spirit houses of Mysore are 
little sheds erected over white-ant hills. In Berar, 
when the Gonds fell a wood on a hill-side, they leave 
a little clump to serve as a refuge for the elf or 
spirit whom they have dislodged. The Brahmanic 
worship of the spirit of the dead is shown by 
their bringing back to the house the dead person's 
soul, supposed to have lost its home by the body's 
death. A stone or some such object is picked 
up at the grave, and carried reverentially back to 
the house, where it is worshipped for a few days, 
and then decently disposed of. The demons wor- 
shipped are multitudinous. Chand Khan of the 
Dekhan is one of them. His tomb is worshipped 
on one bastion of every mud fort. The legend 
regarding him is to the effect that there was a 
difficulty encountered in the erection of a bastion, 
and he was sacrificed and buried to appease the 
obstructing demon. See Demon ; Devil ; Shanar. 

Unions of any sort, especially of waters, are 
held sacred by Hindus, and above all the union of 
the Ganga and Jumna near Allahabad, — the latter 
river having previously received the Saraswati below 
Dehli, so that in fact all three unite at this famed 
sangam or confluence. But the Hindu poet feigns a 
subterrane flow of the Saraswati, and a mystical 
union at the sacred point, where bathing is deemed 
peculiarly efficacious. Major Moor once saw (p. 429) 
at Poona a well-modelled group in clay, where 
Radha's locks, tripartite, were plaited into the 
mystical Triveni by the amorous Krishna, who sat 
rapturously admiring the work of his hands. The 
Triveni, or three-plaited locks, in Hindu mythology, 
is the mystical union of these three sacred rivers, 
the Ganges, Jumna, and Saraswati, severally the 
consorts or energies of the three great powers. 
Coleman also says (pp. 394, 398) that the Triveni, 
or three-plaited locks, is allegorical of the holy 
rivers Ganga (or Ganges), Yamuna (or Jumna), 
which join near Allahabad, the Saraswati being 
supposed to join the other two under ground. A 
Hindu dying near the imagined confluence of the 
three streams, or even of those of the Ganga and 
Yamuna, attains immediate beatitude ; consequently 
self or self - permitted immolation, sati, etc., 
were meritorious on this peculiarly holy spot, 
and multitudes of pilgrims annually resort there 
to bathe. Other rivers are held sacred by Hindus, 
viz. the Godavery, the Sindliu or Indus, the 
Krishna or Kistna, the Cauvery, and the Brahma- 
putra. It is, however, the Ganges that is most 
revered. The Hindu longs to perforin his ablu- 
tions in its streams ; its waters are carried to remote 
distances, to be sold to persons who wish to 
perform with it their sacred rites ; many men 
and women formerly drowned themselves in the 
sacred stream, hoping by that means to reach their 
heavenly abode ; the bodies of those dying far 
and near are sent to be committed to its bosom ; 
and from still greater distances Hindus send in- 
cremated bones of deceased relatives to be cast 
into the waters. 

The union of the palmyra and the Urostigma 
religiosa is deemed holy, and their orchard is 
married to its adjacent well before its fruit can be 
partaken of. 

The Hindus also reverence the impressions of 
feet. On the top of Adam's Peak in Ceylon is a 
natural hollow, artificially enlarged, said to be the 
impression of a foot of Buddha, as Buddhists 



64 






HINDU. 



. but called l>y the Hindus, Sripada or Sripad, 
meaning the divine footstep, Vishnu having, they 
say, alighted on that spot in hisavataraof Kama; 
although Mahomedans and Christians have also 
claimed that footmark as of their religious relics. 
Hindus make pilgrimages to the Sripad in Ceylon, 
and in other places where similar proofs of an 

Car or descent liave been discovered. 
ie Mahrattas make images in honour of de- 
ed ancestors, and of their guru or spiritual in- 
structors, as Lares, or Penates, or Leraures. Nat 
and Yira (Nat'ha, lord; Vira, brave) and Bharava 

iaiv epithets applied to such domestic images. 
Their leaf-platters, used as plates, are usually 
made of the leaves of the mango, the jamoon, 
Byrygium jambolanum, the banyan, and pipal 
trees. Part of the ceremony of a vow of friend- 
ship, amongst Hindus, consists in dividing a bel 
or larger wood-apple, half of which is kept by 
each party, and from this compact is called bel 
bandar, livery Hindu, whatever his avocation, on 
his new year's day worships the object or imple- 
ment by which he obtains his living, or, in western 
phrase, blesses and consecrates it. During the 
Durga puja, Durga is worshipped in the form of a 
water-pot. It is called Ghita-puja, also Ghatastha- 
pana. The water-pot being placed after certain 
invocations, Durga is supposed to enter it, and 
she is then worshipped. The bamboo is worshipped 
by the Tiperah people, the Cachari, and the Garo. 
They stick a bamboo in the ground during one of 
their religious festivals, and worship it. The Kol 
of Central India worship the sal tree (Vatica 
robusta). 

Many trees are held to be sacred, some to Siva, 
some to Vishnu, some to both. 
To both are the Artemisia austriaca, Calophyllum ino- 

Iphyllum, Chrysanthemum Indicum, Euonymus tin- 
gens, Gracillara spinosa, Guet tarda speciosa, Ixora 
bandhuca, Jasminum undulatum, Nerium odorum, 
Origanum marjorana, Sarcostemma brevistigma. 
Bacred to Vishnu, Azaderachta Indica, Ocimum sanc- 
tum. 
Sacred to Lakshmi, Nelumbium speciosum. 
.Sacred to Siva, Bauhinia parviflora, Azaderachta Indica, 
Csesalpinia pulcherrima, Crat&va religiosa, Jonesia 
asoca, Phyllanthus emblica. 
Kama Deva, god of love, tips his arrows with the flowers 
of the Mangifera Indica, Michelia champaca, 
Mesua ferrea, Pandanus odoratissimus, and Pa- 
vonia odorata. 

The JSgle marmelos leaf represents Brahma, 
Siva, and Vishnu. The Euphorbia ligularia is 
sacred to Manesha, the snake goddess, and is 
worshipped by an Assam tribe. 

The Cow. — Hindus regard the cow as sacred. 
Every morning the Hindu wife or maid-servant 
spreads the floor with cow-dung mixed with water, 
partly as a religious duty, partly for cleanliness. 
She sprinkles the urine of the cow over her head, 
and sprinkles it about the house in purification, 
when anything has occurred to make it, in their 
religion, unclean. Every morning, on rising from 
bed, every Hindu is enjoined to cast a glance on 
the objects mentioned in the following slokam: — 
A kapalam (brindled) cow, a mirror, the sun, a 
rich man, a king, a priest, a giver of rice (in 
charity), and a chaste woman. It is not, however, 
the cow's face, but its tail, on which they cast 
their look. Protecting the cow is meritorious. 
When a Hindu is dying, his relations give a cow 
to a Brahman, and repeat the gift on the 11th day 
after the demise. When a Brahman is married, 

VOL. II. 



HINDU. 

the lather of the bride always gives a cow, Sura- 
bhi, to his son-in-law, along with Other HI 

Every Friday the Hindu wife washes her cow. 
She smears its face with turmeric, and ornaments 
the animal's forehead with a round mark from 
the red powder prepared from lime and tur- 
meric. Some Hindus call the cow Kama-dub, or 
Kama-dhenu, the servant of Iudra; other Hindus 
believe that the cow is Lakshmi, the goddess of 
prosperity, whom they thus propitiate by their 
worship. Those who do not possess a cow will buy 
some grass and give it to that of their neighbour. 
Amongst the five deadly sins is that of killing a 
cow; the other four are killing a Brahman, a 
pregnant woman, a child, and killing one's mother. 

The Bull is not reverenced equal to the cow, but 
it is the vahan or vehicle of Siva. In all saiva 
temples may be seen the image of this animal, called 
Nandi, made of black stone, kneeling before the 
lingam and yoni, the symbols of Siva and Parvati. 
In pictures, Siva is invariably represented riding on 
his vahan or vehicle, a bull. A bull, both in the 
saiva and vaishnava temples, carries the kettle- 
drums which are sounded for worship three times 
daily. When a cow or bull falls sick, Hindus will 
vow that if the animal recover, it shall be left in 
the temple ; and every Friday the Brahmans 
employed in the services of the temple, when they 
lave Siva's symbol and the Nandi with milk, in 
the ceremony called Palu Abhishekam, the devoted 
bullocks are likewise thus washed. 

Daily Life of the Hindus. — Having briefly 
sketched some of the various rites now forming the 
religion called in Europe Hindu, and the differences 
in the forms of idol-worshipping which are to be 
found, it may be interesting to conduct one of 
this faith from the cradle to the grave. 

Childhood and Adolescence. — The ceremonials 
observed on the birth of children, at the com- 
mencement of their education, on investiture with 
the sacred thread, communication of a gayatri or 
initiatory sentence, in their marriage ceremonies, 
and those adhered to on the occurrence of a 
death in a family, have now a general resemblance 
among, or are more or less imitated by, all castes, 
classes, and ranks. On the birth of a Brahman 
child, the ceremony called Putrotsavam is per- 
formed, and on this occasion the father presents 
sugar and sugar- candy to relatives and friends. 
On the 1 lth day the mother is anointed with the 
oil of the oriental sesamum. On the same day 
(11th) the Punyahavachanam, or the purification 
rite for the mother and house, is performed. It 
is then that the child receives its name — that of 
some one of its grand or great-grand parents — by 
the father writing it three times with a golden 
ring, in unhusked rice, spread on a plate. This 
naming is called Namakaranam, and is followed by 
the guests bestowing blessings on the young one, 
as they scatter rice, coloured with turmeric, over 
it and the mother, who are seated in the midst of 
the assembly. The father then distributes money 
to the poor, and entertains relatives and friends. 
On this night, for the first tune, the child is put 
into the cradle by the female guests, some of 
whom sing religious songs, while others rock the 
little one, and at the close the assembly are dis- 
missed, after being presented with betel-nut, plan- 
tains, and boiled pigeon-pea (Cajanus Indicus). 
The birth of a girl is less a source of rejoicing, 
because of that part of the Hindu creed which 
65 E 



HINDU. 



HINDU. 



lays down that parents and other ancestors attain 
Swarga-locum or Indra's heaven through a son's 
efforts. Each new moon, as also on the occur- 
rence of an eclipse, either of the sun or moon, 
also at the summer and winter solstices, their Utray- 
anam and Datchanayanam, every caste Hindu, 
whether Brahman, Kshatriya,Vaisya, or Sudra, offers 
the Tharpanam, or water sacrifice, in the names of 
his deceased father, grandfathers, great-grand- 
fathers, and their wives, consisting of seeds of the 
oriental sesamum mixed with the water. It is as a 
means of continuing this ceremony that Hindus long 
to have a son born to them, as in their creed-books 
it is taught that the manes of ancestors are grati- 
fied by the Tharpanam. At five months of age, 
the Choulam ceremony occurs, and the lobes of 
the ears are pierced with a small, thin gold ring. 
When six months old, Anaprasanam, or giving the 
child rice for the first time, is a social and sacred 
rite, at which, as also at the Choulam, relatives and 
friends are entertained. On the first occurrence 
of the birthday, the child is anointed and decor- 
ated with jewels, relatives and friends are enter- 
tained ; and in the evening the child is carried to 
a temple, and presented to the deity of their sect. 
As the second anniversary draws near, or about 
that time, the boy's head is shaved on a propitious 
day, which affords another opportunity for feasting 
friends. 

Boyhood. — When five years old, the father 
ascertains an auspicious day, and entrusts his son 
to a teacher. The instructor engraves the alpha- 
bet with an iron style, sometimes set in silver or 
gold, on a leaf of the palmyra tree, which is then 
coloured with turmeric. The leaf is placed on 
unhusked rice spread over the floor, and the 
teacher, whatever the sect or caste of the pupil 
be, invokes the god Vigneswara to smooth the 
difficulties in the way of the child's studies. Then, 
holding the boy's forefinger, he thrice traces with 
it the forms of the vowels in the rice, teaching 
the boy their sounds. The pedagogue is presented 
with a new cloth and some money, and dismissed, 
after which relatives and friends are entertained. 
On the seventh or ninth year, the Upanayanam is 
performed, on which occasion the family priest — 
Upad'hay-ya, Sansk., Upa-dhialu, Tel.— causes 
the boy to offer a burnt-offering, Homan, to the 
entire pantheon of gods, by pouring ghi (clarified 
butter) over the fire. He then invests the youth 
with the zandiyam, the zonar or sacred cord, 
letting it fall from over the left shoulder to the right 
side. He subsequently teaches the gayatri to the 
boy, if he be of the Brahmanical order, as also the 
morning, noontide, and evening prayers, the due 
attention to which is considered sufficient to re- 
move all sins committed during the day and night. 
The gayatri or gayatri mantrum of the Brahman- 
ical or priestly order is never pronounced aloud, 
and it is exceedingly rare that any Brahman can 
be induced to divulge it. Its literal translation is : 
' O'm ! earth, air, heaven, O'm ! Let us meditate 
on the supreme splendour of the divine sun ; may 
he illuminate our minds.' It is considered the 
most sacred text of the Vedas ; and the common 
belief in and reverence for it is the bond of union 
amongst the entire Brahmanical order. With this 
ceremony the boy is considered to be born again, 
and he is of the Punar Janma, or twice born. This 
is the spiritual birth of the Hindu, or his regenera- 
tion, for until this time the uninitiated youth, 



though of the Brahmanical class, so far as his right 
to perform religious ceremonies is concerned, 
is only regarded in the fight of a Sudra. If the 
Vaishnava youth, who has now been initiated into 
the mysteries of the Brahmanical order, be set 
apart for the sacerdotal office of the priesthood, 
he is further marked, by being branded on the 
muscular part of both arms with the sanku or 
chank, and the chakram or disc of A T ishnu. This 
is called the Chakrankitam. From this time he is 
ranked as a Brahmachari, or of the order of bache- 
lors, for he has now entered on his religious life, — 
the whole of the days of a spiritual Brahman being 
apportioned into four religious stages, viz. that 
of the Brahmacharyam, or bachelorhood ; Grahas- 
tasramam, or the married state; Vanaprastam, the 
living in solitude with his family ; and Sanyasam, 
or the abandonment of all worldly matters. A 
bachelor's dress differs from that of a married 
man, in so far as he does not wear the dhoti, 
but only a wrapper round the lower part of the 
body ; lie is prohibited from eating betel, and 
continence is enjoined. Among other Hindu 
castes, the Brahmachari ceremony is performed at 
any time prior to the celebration of marriage, but 
their gayatri is from the Puranas, not the Vedas. 

Marriage. — There is no time fixed for the mar- 
riage of sons. It is performed at any time from 
infancy, as the parents may please. But amongst 
the priestly and mercantile orders, the Brahmaus 
and Vaisya, as also among the goldsmiths, girls 
must be married before they attain puberty. The 
Brahmans believe that they would be as if guilty 
of murder if they allowed a girl to grow up before 
being married. This is founded on correct physio- 
logical knowledge. And in Southern India, they, 
as also the goldsmith tribe or race or caste, regard 
such a possible occurrence with so great horror, 
that they say it would be incumbent on them if it 
happened, but which is invariably guarded against, 
for all the family to drown themselves. Chili ben 
have no voice in the matter of their marriage. 
When parents are desirous of having their sons 
married, they institute inquiries amongst their 
relatives or friends not of their own gotram or 
tribe. They visit the girl's parents in a propitious 
hour, and request their daughter in marriage for 
their son. The parents of the girl make inquiries as 
to the character of the boy, and if satisfied, they 
promise their daughter for him. It is not custom- 
ary for a girl's parents to go seeking for a husband 
for their daughter. When so far arranged, if the 
girl's parents be poor, they may perhaps stipulate 
that jewels and money shall be presented to their 
daughter at the marriage time. But this practice, 
which is a remnant of the ancient custom of pur- 
chasing a wife, is gradually dying out with all but 
the humbler people. Now-a-days, a rich Hindu 
would disdain to receive money from the parents 
of their son-in-law for giving their daughter to 
him, and many tribes — for India contains the de- 
scendants of numerous distinct races — repel with 
disdain any insinuation of their readiness to sell 
their daughters. Indeed, sons-in-law do now 
occasionally receive some dower of money or 
property with their brides. In a recent instance, 
so much as five lakhs of rupees (£50,000) are said 
to have been given to a son-in-law who had already 
four wives. But the former practice of disposal 
of their female children is clearly marked in their 
marriage law, in which a girl, who quits her father's 



66 



HINDU. 



in. use for her husband in another family, ceases to 
be an heir of her own parents, though she acquires 
rights In the property of her new home. 

'iage Ceremonies. — When all the preliminary 

uigements are settled, a day is fixed for the 
performance of the marriage; preparations are 
Bade by the father of the girl, who invites relat- 
and friends to be present on the occasion, 
flic invitations 1 xing usually communicated verb- 
ally, but sometimes by letter. On the day preceding 
that of the marriage, by the Snat'haka Varattam, 
the youth is relieved of his bachelorhood, the 

ninny on this occasion consisting in the homa 
Or fire-sacrifice, and giving of charity. On the 
marriage eve, the bridegroom, accompanied by his 
parents, relatives, and friends, goes in procession 
to the I nide's house, and presents her with a new 
cloth of some value, with any jewels that may 
iiavc been before agreed on; betel-nut is handed 
to the guests, and friends and relations are enter- 
tained. The poor Brahmans, too, are remembered 
on the occasion, the money-gifts to whom are 
called Datchana. The wedding-day at length 
arrives, but with emotions very different from 
those of the principal actors in ancient Hindu 
times, for now-a-days both bride and bridegroom 
are usually quite infants, — and if not both, the bride 
with most tribes certainly is so. Tribes of Sudras, 
however, and a fair, intellectual literary race called 
Kait or Kayasth, who claim their origin from a 
deified mortal called Chatr-goputr, also many of 
the Pariah tribes, allow their girls to grow up and 
remain in their father's house, without auy feeling 
of shame being associated with the practice. And 
the Vedas teach us that in their times virtuous 
maidens remained unmarried in their father's 
house long after they had grown up. On the 
wedding-day, the bride and bridegroom are an- 
ointed with oil (the Abhiangana-s'nanam), are 
dressed in their best, and decorated with jewels. 
The father of the bride has erected a tem- 
porary canopy in the court of his house, beneath 
which she is seated beside her groom, and the 
family priest commences the ceremony by causing 
them to make a burnt-offering, by the homa 

rifice of pouring ghi into the fire, whilst 
the priest utters a mantra. At the same instant, 
by the Navagraha Aratanam and Asht'ha dik 
palaka Aratanam, a series of incantations, they 
bring Indra, Vanma, Agni, Yama, etc., from 
Swarga-locum and locate them in any casual 
article, in some part of the house. 

When seated, the girl is formally given to the 
husband (Kania-danam, literally spinster-giving) ; 
a priest blesses some water in a small vessel, and 
the father of the girl, taking this and his daughter's 
right hand, places them together in the bridegroom's 
right hand, saying, ' I do this, that my father, grand- 
fathers, and great-grandfathers may attain Swarga ' 
(In a vcn). The bridegroom then rising, and standing 
before the bride, amidst the deafening din of tom- 
toms, ties round her neck the mangala sutram, a 
■tread coloured with turmeric, to which a golden 
jewel called Bottu or Tala is attached. Sandal- 
wood paste, perfume, and flowers are presented 
to the guests, betel-nut is offered to all relatives 
and friends, and money-presents are made. The 
married couple receive Asir-vadam (benedictions 
and congratulations) from the assembly, and as 
they prostrate themselves at their parents' feet 
their parents bless them. The prostrations are 



HINDU. 

also occasionally made at the feet of other i 
i ( I it ives, who likewise bestow a blessing. Amongst 
the HndiniaiiN. the ceremonials of the marriage 
are continued for five successive days, and for 
three days, or one day, or seven days, with oilier 
s. On the fifth or last day, the gods who 
were brought from Swarga into the bride's home, 
and have been daily worshipped there, are released. 
Four earthenware pots, placed beneath the panda] 
or canopy, are filled with rice highly coloured 
with turmeric, and a Hralunaii sitting near, by 
motions from his hands, affects to feed the located 
gorls (Navediam), and then to release them. This 
is the Naka balli, or offering of victims, to the 
gods of Swarga-locum. And now the parents of 
the newly-married couple, as also relatives and 
friends, interchange presents, and make gifts to 
the young people. In the evening of that day 
the bridegroom takes his wife home. This is done 
in a procession, in which parents and relations 
join, and is treated as a religious ceremony, called 
Grahapravesam, or house-entering, immediately 
after which the bride and bridegroom are seated 
in the middle of the floor, the father of the girl 
presents them with new clothes, and the relations 
and friends are feasted. After remaining three 
days in her husband's home, the girl-wife is taken 
back to the house of her parents, with whom 
she lives, making only occasional visits to her hus- 
band's residence, until puberty. On this event her 
father sends word to her husband, who presents 
gifts to the bearer of the happy tidings, fixes on 
an auspicious day to bring his wife home, and 
intimates the date to his father-in-law. The latter 
prepares a cot or bed, candlestick, cooking uten- 
sils, chairs, boxes, and other household fittings, 
also buys new clothes for his daughter, whom 
they convey to her husband's house for good, and 
an entertainment is given to all relatives and 
friends. Her parents remain in the house with 
their daughter and son-in-law for two or three 
days, and before taking leave of them they give 
them some advice for their guidance. 

Married Life. — From this time the young wife 
lives with her husband, in subservience to her 
mother-in-law or sister-in-law, whichever be the 
head woman in her new home. As a young thing 
she cannot have much to say ; but her little ways 
and tiny talk are at an end, and it is even, on 
many occasions, considered highly indecorous for 
her to speak at all. She cannot speak to her 
husband in the presence of his father or mother 
or other people, and partly from shamefacedness, 
partly from fear of them, her husband rarely 
speaks to his wife in their presence. This intense 
reserve goes off greatly as they grow older ; but 
in no instance, perhaps, does the Hindu wife ever 
attain to the same freedom of speech with her 
husband as marks the intercourse with the young 
wife in a Mahomedan family, where they are some- 
times married equally young, and where their 
innocent prattle is the very life of the household. 
At home, however long she be a wife, a Hindu 
woman never eats till her husband finishes his 
meal ; she rises and stands in a respectful attitude 
if her husband or his parents or brothers enter the 
house, and at all times addresses them in a low 
tone of voice, and speaks slowly. And so long as 
the husband's mother or his sister is the head of 
the house, the husband communicates his wishes 
as to what he wants his wife to do, not to her 



67 



HINDU. 



HINDU. 



directly, but through his mother or sister. Abroad 
from home, the Hindu husbands and wives may 
at all times be seen walking along the roads, but 
the wife never presumes to walk at the side of her 
partner. She is always a pace or so behind, and 
a little at the side. If they be out on matters of 
business, the wife continues, all along the road, to 
prompt her husband as to what he is to say or 
do, but the instant that the place of business is 
reached, she falls off to a distance, and never 
presumes to take any part in the discussion. In a 
poor family, the wife, as in all countries, has to 
perform the entire domestic duties of the house- 
hold, but with richer people who keep servants 
the wife's labours are restricted to superintend- 
ence, attention to her children, sewing, and other 
female occupations. They are in this social re- 
spect much in the position that Europe was a few 
hundred years ago ; but there is this difference, 
that scarcely a Hindu wife is able to read or write, 
or even permitted to learn. Since the middle of 
the 19th century, in the presidency towns, a few 
female schools have been established by the better- 
educated Hindus, who are desirous that the next 
generation shall receive educated partners in their 
homes. But in all India, out of a population of 
nearly 200,000,000 of Hindus, there are not, per- 
haps, in 1883, 3000 girls of the higher Hindu 
castes under tuition. The younger men are 
averse to the continuance of the intense restraint 
hitherto imposed on their homes, and are breaking 
through it, but these are almost solitary exceptions 
to the vast mass. Brahman girls are forbidden to 
be educated at all ; and those who urge education 
on them are opposed by the women themselves, 
who will exclaim, ' What ! would you make us as 
dancing-girls ! ' the educational efforts having only 
hitherto been directed to such unfortunate sisters, 
from the fear — and it is shared with many men of 
the Hindus and Mahomedans — that education may 
tempt, by giving facilities, to vice. In this they 
evidence a great ignorance of human nature, a 
more enlarged knowledge of which would con- 
vince them that only the training of the moral 
faculties can uproot vice, which, where the evil 
desire prevails, no restrictions can restrain. The 
utmost that a Brahman woman learns, are the songs 
and hymns sung by women in their own houses 
during marriages and other festivals. The Hindu 
wife — bred from her childhood in the strictest 
seclusion, consigned at an early age to the care 
of a husband of whom she can have previously 
known little or nothing, and who is often as de- 
pendent upon others as herself — leads a life of 
mysterious quietude, varied only by the rites of 
religion and the ordinary events of the family. 
Of the world around her she knows nothing. All 
her thoughts and feelings, joys and sorrows, 
desires and affections, are imprisoned within the 
little circle of her own household. Her mental 
faculties are either altogether undeveloped, or 
wasted upon toys, ornaments, idle tales, family 
gossip, or similar frivolities. Her moral powers, 
too, are overlaid by superstition and prejudice. 
Yet these ladies are the mothers of the rising 
generation, who are acquiring the language and the 
literature of Europe, and fondly imagining that its 
members are as capable of exercising the rights of 
self-government and self-control as those who 
have sprung from the free and independent women 
of the western world, whose mothers in the warlike 



ages took part in the counsels of their nations, and 
accompanied their warriors to the field. Hindu 
wives are only allowed to speak to their nearest 
relations, fathers, brothers, etc., and are never 
trusted from home alone. Married women, when 
at the daily bath, smear their bodies with turmeric, 
and place on their foreheads the round mark with 
the red colouring matter from the turmeric ? and, 
like many other orientals, paint their eyelashes 
with lamp-black. Married women also wear a 
bodice. Though their religious books (Shastras) 
permit the Hindu widow to re-marry, custom, 
which is more rigorous, forbids it ; and once widows, 
except with a few tribes, — the Jat, the Gujar, and 
others, — they ever after remain single. See Mar- 
riage Customs. 

Death and Future State. — When a Hindu dies 
there are the inevitable tokens of grief amongst re- 
latives ; but women evince their emotion with great 
demonstrations and noise, proclaiming aloud the 
good qualities of the deceased, as they beat their 
breasts and mouths. The death-wail is heard far 
distant, and once heard is never forgotten. ' Naked 
he came, and naked has gone ; this dwelling- 
place belongs neither to you nor to me.' Be- 
latives and friends, on learning the melancholy 
tidings, go to the house of mourning to condole 
with the bereaved family, and the women join in 
the death-wail, which rises loud above all the 
other sounds of the busy world around. As death 
is drawing near, however, the attendants, after 
purifying the house with cow-dung, perform the 
Jiva Praias-chittam, by laving the dying man's 
body with water, placing in his mouth or causing 
him to drink a little milk, buttermilk, honey, 
treacle, and plantains (panchakavia), and then 
releasing a cow. Such an ordeal few men in weak 
health could withstand, and it may not be doubted 
that it is never performed without hastening the 
fatal event, for the attendants force the five things 
into the dying man's mouth. After demise the 
corpse is washed and dressed. The family priest 
pronounces certain mantra of purification over 
it, for every household has its own Brahman 
teacher. It is borne on a bier to the burning 
ground by four men, and followed by relatives 
and friends, both men and women. A large heap 
of firewood and dried cow-dung cakes has been 
already gathered together there, which are stacked 
up over the remains, and the son sets the pile on 
fire. It is their belief that as death parts the soul 
from the body, the god of justice, Yama, sends 
two angels with an invisible form to receive into 
it the flitting spirit, and convey it to Yama-locum, 
his hall of justice, to be tried there, and awarded 
its sentence of future punishment or reward. The 
secretary, Chatr-goputr, records the decree, andthe 
disembodied spirit takes up its abode in Swarga, or 
inNarika, or revisits earth to be re-born, and afforded 
another opportunity of gaining release from mor- 
tality. The day following the demise and incre- 
mation, they revisit the spot. They pour milk or 
water, or milk and water, over the ashes, and make 
an offering of rice to the Preta, the departed soul. 
On the second, third, or fifth day, the son selects 
any small black stone, or three back stones, which 
he places against a pipal tree, Ficus religiosa, on 
the bank of a pond or tank. This represents the 
deceased, or rather his Preta is supposed to be 
located in the stone, and where three stones are 
used, those also of his grandfather or great-grand- 



68 






HINDI'. 



In!'; and each day, for ton days, the sou offers 
to the si.. He or stones a water-sacrifice to quench 
the thirst df the departed. He also cooks rice 
there, and offers it to a crow, to satisfy the hunger 
of the deceased ; he continues this every morning 
till the tenth day, because it is the Hindu belief 
th.it the soul of the departed hovers about the 
house for ten or twelve days, and then takes up 
that future habitation which, according to their 
view of the transnii^Tation of souls, may be its lot. 
(in the tenth day the stone is thrown into the 
water. The object of all this is their belief that 
the shade of the departed is occupying five separ- 
ate beings and places, — one descends upon his son, 
a second rests on the place of incremation, a third 
in the house he has left, a fourth in the stones that 
are raised to represent him, and the fifth in the 
crow to which the food is thrown. And if the 
crow refuse the food, the beholders deem it an 
augury of the ill life of the departed, or that some 
object of his life remained incomplete. 

Widowed State. — If the deceased was a married 
man. the mangala sutram, or sacred thread, which 
was tied round the neck of his bride on the wed- 
dinir day, is now broken by other widows of the 
luxury. She ceases to wear a bodice or jewels, 
or flowers in her hair. She discontinues the use 
of turmeric when at the bath ; the red mark is no 
longer placed on her forehead, and in many cases 
the long black tresses are removed, for some 
- of Brahman women have their head shaved. 
From this time their lives are one continued scene 
of misery, Bestricted to the meanest of the house- 
hold avocations, they are treated by their nearest 
relatives with contumely and neglect. Their very 
loneliness and bereavement, instead^of being occa- 
sion for sympathy and endearment, only calls forth 
harsh, often brutal, treatment. Their very condi- 
tion is a term of abuse ; and, denied it on earth, 
many a Hindu widow seeks peace in the grave, 
for there the wicked cease from troubling, and 
there the weary be at rest. 

After -Death Ceremonies. — On the 11th day, 
among Brahmans, the son of the deceased selects 
two or three relatives, or several Brahmans, to be 
in the place, or representatives, of his parent. 
They are anointed with the oil of the oriental sesa- 
muin. The son presents them with flowers, the 
sandal perfume, and new cloths, and then enter- 
tains them. Until they finish their meal, no 
member of the household is allowed to partake 
of food. So soon as they rise, however, a morsel 
of rice is thrown to the crows, and the representat- 
ives of the deceased are dismissed with betel-nut, 
new cloths, and presents of money, according to 
the son's means. All other relatives present are 
then entertained. For one year from this time 
this becomes a monthly ceremonial on the day of 
the deceased's demise. On the first anniversary 
of the deceased person's samvatsarikam, a Hindu, 
however poor, must, with much display, perform 
the ceremonies which are then required. This 
necessity is a great tax to all of them ; but where 
several deaths have occurred in a family, it is a 
ruinous burden, for the rules of their faith compel 
their performance, and if a person have not money 
of his own with which to perform this, he must 
beg for it or borrow it for the purpose. The 
religious importance to the deceased of the perform- 
ance of this anniversary rite is considered very 
great, and it is this which occasions the great 



HINDI 

di -.-ire to have | son. If the family be what in law 
is called a united Hindu family, lie- ceremonial is 
conducted by the eldest son, but where they have 
separated, each son muBt perform it separately. 
For those who have no sons, the widow can per- 
form it, and the widower husband can do the 
same for his wife. On the future anniversaries 
the sradha only is performed. 

Burial and Burning. — Before the body is taken 
to be burnt, it is anointed with ghi, or clarified 
butter. Arrived at the side of the water, the nearest 
relation sots fire to the pile, which is soon in a 
blaze. It takes three cwt. of wood to consume the 
body of an adult. At the present day, the general 
practice of the Vaishnava Hindus is to burn their 
dead, but they also launch the bodies into the stream 
of the Ganges, or expose them on the open plains. 
After the incremation, using a branch of sami, 
and another of palasa (Butea frondosa), instead of 
tongs, the son or nearest relative first draws out 
from the ashes the bones of the head, and after- 
wards the other bones successively, sprinkles them 
with perfumed liquids and with clarified butter 
(ghi) made of cow's milk, and puts them into a 
casket made of the leaves of the palasa (Butea 
frondosa). This he places in a new earthen vessel, 
covers it with a fid, and ties it up with a thread. 
Selecting some clear spot where encroachments of 
the river are not to be apprehended, he digs a 
very deep hole, and at the bottom spreads the 
cusa grass (poa), and over the grass a piece of 
yellow cloth. He places thereon the earthen 
vessel containing the bones of the deceased, 
covers it with a lump of mud, moss, and thorns, 
and plants a tree in the excavation, or raises a 
mound of masonry. Subsequently, the son or 
nearest relative repairs to the cemetery, carrying 
eight vessels filled with various flowers, roots, and 
similar things ; he walks round the enclosure con- 
taining the funeral pile, with his right hand towards 
it, successively depositing at its four gates or 
entrances, beginning at the north gate, two vessels 
containing eight different things, with this prayer : 
' May the adorable and eternal gods, who are 
present in the cemetery, accept from us this eight- 
fold imperishable oblation. May they convey the 
deceased to pleasing and eternal abodes, and grant 
to us life, health, and perfect ease. This eight-fold 
oblation is offered to Siva and other deities ; salu- 
tation to them.' 

In the south of India, the ascetic followers of 
both Siva and Vishnu bury their dead ; so do the 
Vaishnava, Vairagi, and Sanyasi in the north of 
India, and the Saiva Jogi. The class of Hindu 
weavers called Yogi have adopted a similar prac- 
tice, as also have all the castes in Southern India 
who wear the lingam. All infants and unmarried 
persons are interred, as also all the artisan tribes. 
At the Sanyasi devotee's interment no wailings 
or expressions of grief are allowed. The corpse, 
seated in a litter, is borne to the grave, preceded 
by musicians, and attended by persons who cast 
rose-coloured powder into the air, or demonstrate 
in other modes their joy. It is placed in the 
earth in a sitting posture, instead of being con- 
sumed on the pile. A small platform raised over 
the spot, and exhibiting the sculptured feet of the 
deceased, commemorates his sanctity. 

Ceremonials of Worship. — A Brahman who 
attends to his religious duties, bathes before sun- 
rise in cold water, and offers a water sacrifice 



69 



HINDU. 



HINDU. 



or 

wise 



libation from his hand. He prays in this 



He who meditates on Pundri kacha (he with 
the lotus eye), though a very great sinner, will be 
forgiven. 

' If he sprinkle over his head water which is 
pure and holy, he will be purified and strength- 
ened. 

' All sins committed during the night, by word, 
deed, mind, mouth, hands, feet, belly, organs, or 
in anger, will be forgiven by Surie jotishi ' (the 
light of the sun). 

The next part of the ritual is the ceremony 
called Arg'hiam, which is performed to free the 
sun from the Eakshasa, who is striving to hinder 
its appearance. This consists in offering, four 
times, a water sacrifice or libation, by taking water 
in the hands and pouring it on the ground, as he 
four times pronounces the Vedic Gaitri, viz. ' O'm! 
Bhurbhuva, ssuvaha, O'm ! Tatsa vit'hru varennyam, 
B'hargo devasya dhimahi dhiyo yonaha pracho 
dayath.' — ' O'm ! earth, ah, heaven, O'm ! Let us 
meditate on the supreme splendour of the divine 
sun. May he illuminate our minds.' After this 
he prays, at length or briefly at will, in the form of 
a commenting or expounding of the above Gaitra. 
He then prostrates himself (to Vasu deva or to 
Krishna, or to Vishnu if a Vaishnava) to Sarvan- 
tariaini, a god who pervades all creatures, and 
prays him to bless all the Brahmans and cows 
within the four seas, mentioning his own name, 
his got'hram or tribe rishis. At the close he 
offers to Narayana his deeds by body, mouth, 
heart, and senses. 

At noon, prayers are repeated, and he prays to 
Suria (the sun). 

In the evening, prayers recur, and he implores 
Varuna (the god of the sky and regent of the 
west) in sacred words. 

Hindu Society. — Hindus are classed as Yaidikam 
and Laokalam or Lao-kikam, clergy and laity. 
It is a common notion that the Brahmans of 
India are the priests of the Hindus, but this is 
not correct. Though of the priestly or sacred 
order, the vast bulk of this class are employed 
in lay pursuits, as soldiers, merchants, lawyers, 
clerks, perhaps in every avocation of daily life 
except such as involve manual labour, though 
they are even agriculturists in Northern India 
and Orissa. Various sects of Hindus have priests 
of the Sudra caste, and many aboriginal races 
employ members of their particular tribe or race. 
Speaking in a general way, it may be stated that 
where the people of India are followers of the 
Puranas and Vedas, their priests are invariably 
Brahmans ; but the extensive Lingaet sect, and 
the Jain, and all the sects or tribes who worship 
the village deities, or adhere to spirit or devil 
worship, select priests from their own classes. 
Also the Kansallar, or artificer tribes of Sudras, 
all of whom wear the sacred cord, select an 
ascetic member of their own caste as then priest, 
and have also family priests from their own circle. 
Indeed, they claim for themselves a superiority 
to the entire Brahmanical order, asserting their 
origin to be older ; and no one of the Kansallar 
would accept of water from a Brahman. But, in 
the usual discrepant character of the Hindu 
people, although the Kansallar claim that their 
caste possess this superiority, and though they 
possess the Brahmanical Vedas, yet their manner 



of conversing and dressing, and their women's 
clothes and ornaments, resemble those of non- 
Brahmanical castes. In paying respect to Brah- 
mans, they say and use the Dandam, and not, as 
from an inferior to a superior, the Namaskaram, 
as one Brahman will to another. Amongst the 
Saiva sect, who have Brahman priests, the guru 
is styled Sankarachari, and is invariably a Sanyasi 
or ascetic. He resides in a matham or monastery 
along with other Brahmans, to whom he imparts 
religious instruction or preaches. He is greatly 
reverenced by his disciples, who regard him as 
almost equal to a god. The monastery is sup- 
ported by the disciples' gifts. The members of 
these monasteries are charitable to all the poor, 
and erect temples out of surplus receipts. But 
the head of the establishment, the Mat'hadi-padi, 
when he travels to superintend his followers, 
does so with vast pomp and display, in a litter 
of a peculiar form, often richly ornamented, and 
accompanied by a great concourse of people, 
with elephants, horses, and conveyances for his 
property. Like all Sanyasi and Brahmans engaged 
in religious duties, the members of the matham 
bathe thrice daily. Twice daily the chief worships 
the Saligrama, a fossil ammonite from the Gogra 
or Gandak, or a gold, silver, or copper idol of 
Krishna or of Siva. After washing the idol with 
water, he decorates it with the sectarian mark, 
and worships it with offerings of flowers and 
tulsi leaves ; he sips a little of the water used in 
the worship, and the rest is carefully preserved in 
a silver cup along with tulsi leaves, and dropped 
from a small spoon, ' Voodharni,' into the hands 
of disciples, who esteem the gift as cleansing from 
all sin. The head monk only eats once a-day, 
and before taking his meal he invariably presents 
it to the deity. Disciples, when they approach 
the head monk, prostrate themselves before him. 
Their mode of caring for the idol is in all its 
forms identical Avith that of caring for a living 
human being, — bathing and anointing it, offering 
it food, offering it praise and reverence in song, 
in dancing, and in prayer, and periodical, in some 
cases daily, and seasonal airings and processions. 
In exploring the great theatre in Ephesus, Mr. 
Wood discovered an inscription containing infor- 
mation as to the endowments and worship of the 
temple of Diana, and laying down the route by 
which, on the birthday of the goddess, her silver 
shrines and other treasures were to be carried in 
procession from the temple to the great theatre 
through one city gate, and back to the temple 
through another city gate, which was called the 
Magnesian. And this is a perfect representation 
of the customs of the Hindus of the present day, 
and precisely as noticed in Isaiah xlvL 7 : ' They 
bear him upon the shoulder ; they carry him, and 
set him in his place.' 

Position and Religion of Hindu Women. — A great 
defect in their social system seems to be the un- 
equal conditions of the sexes. In European house- 
holds there is almost as little real mixing of 
different grades of society, as occurs amongst the 
different castes of India. But among the Hindus, 
although their creed permits the women to attain 
heaven on their demise, so long as they are here 
on earth, whatever secret influence a wife may 
have, it is not shown to the community. Specu- 
lative as are the entire Brahmanical populations, 
and to a large extent also all the races called Hindus, 
70 






HINDU. 



•i them diving into the mysteries of their 
theology, excepl a \ edantist occasionally make a 
remark to the women of his household as to the 
inutility of worshipping their ordinary images, the 
Hindu wife has little or no instruction in religion, 
ami takes no part in all that army of ceremonial 
which occupies so much of the daily time of a 
Hindu, particularly if religious. The Hindu prays 
Booming, noon, and night a somewhat long prayer. 
The wife's prayer, if she pray at all, is very short, 
I Saiva woman merely mentioning the name of 
her deitj in the three words — 'O'm! nama Saiva!' 
— • Hail! name of Siva!' Amongst the Smart'ha 
Brahmans and Mad'hava sect of Vaishnavas, each 
household keeps a tulsi plant in the middle of its 
little parterre or courtyard. A small pedestal is 
erected, in the hollowed centre of which the plant 
is placed. Dailj the women of the house resort to 
it. circle, 'pradatchanam,' and prostrate themselves 
six times before it, pour water over, and then, stand- 
ing before it, pray to Lakshmi. A similar worship 
to the pipal tree, with a sculptured cobra at its 
foot, is offered both by men and women to whom 
offspring have not been given. This pipal tree 
is always on the bank of a tank, in which the 
devotees bathe, dressed in a silk gannent used 
only when performing sacred rites. Places where 
cobra snakes have formed colonies are largely 
report id to by women longing for children, and 
they make to the cobras offerings of sugar and 
milk, for the cobra is deemed an ayu.8o; A^uos/, 
■Harding the symbol of the reproductive organ. 
The prayer of the Brahman of every caste and 
led includes the Gaitri invocation to the sun. 

Legal Rights of Husband and Wife. — A girl is 
accounted by law marriageable at the age of 
eight. Girls are, however, given in marriage at 
of two and upwards, till they attain their 
maturity. A Brahman girl attaining maturity 
without having contracted marriage, forfeits her 
caste. The girl, when married, remains with her 
own family until she reach maturity, when her 
husband can claim her and remove her to his 
house. The right of choosing a husband for the 
girl rests first with her father. Should he have 
demised, it devolves in succession upon her 
paternal grandfather, brother, paternal uncle, male 
paternal cousins, and lastly upon her mother. If 
these relatives should have neglected the duty of 
ahooaing a husband for the girl up to three years 
after she may have attained the age of eight, she 
is at liberty to choose for herself. The lads of the 
three superior classes, namely, the Brahman or 
the sacerdotal order, the Kshatriya or the military 
tribe, and the Vaisya or the mercantile body, may 
not contract marriage until they have completed 
the Btage of studentship (Menu, iii. 4), the open- 
ing of which period is marked by performance of 
the Upianayanam, or investiture with the sacred 
thread, and the close by a ceremony termed Sama- 
vasthana. For the Sudras or the servile class, 
who have no stage of studentship, there is no 
limitation as to the time for marriage. There are 
Bight recognised kinds of marriage, viz. Brahma, 
Haiva, Arsha, and Prajapatya, which are appro- 
priate for Brahmans, and are based upon dis- 
interested motives; the Gandharva and Rakshasa, 
which are appropriate for Kshatriyas, and are 
founded, the former on reciprocal desire, and the 
latter on conquest ; the Asura, which is practised 
liy Vaisya and Sudras, wherein the consent of 



HINDU. 

the party giving away the girl is obtained by a 
pecuniary consideration ; and the l';ii.diacha, 
where the marriage may have been r ff. 
through fraud or force practised upon the gii 1. and 
which is reprobated for all classes. Though each 
class has its characteristic description of marriage, 
there is nothing to bind them to the rites appro- 
priate to them. A Brahman, for example, may 
contract an Asnra marriage, and a Sudra a 
Brahma one. The Brahma and Asura are the 
most usual forms of marriage. The former is an 
approved one, and the latter, as a sordid pro- 
ceeding, is discouraged (i. 42, 43 ; Macnaughti n 
junr. i. 60). The binding circumstances essential 
to the completion of a marriage are gift and 
acceptance of the girl, and the ceremony termed 
Saptapathi, or the seven steps. This is performed 
by the bridegroom placing the bride's foot suc- 
cessively on seven lines drawn on rice in a platter. 
From this observance has followed the practice of 
any two persons pledging mutual friendship by 
taking seven steps together, so that the term 
Saptapathinam has come to be synonymous with 
friendship. The ceremonial in question accom- 
plishes the marriage. The other ceremonies 
observed, including sacrifice by fire (homam), are 
of minor significance. The tying the tali or 
nuptial token by the bridegroom round the neck 
of the bride, is a practice sanctioned by usage, but 
not prescribed in the Shastras. The above matri- 
monial contract in itself fixes the condition of 
the parties as married, irrespective of the con- 
summation of the marriage, when the girl, on 
reaching maturity, is taken home by the husband. 
It brings the girl, should her husband die, to the 
state of widowhood, with its attendant conse- 
quence, and gives her right of inheritance in her 
husband's family. When either party incurs for- 
feiture of caste, intercourse between them ceases ; 
and should the loss of caste be on the side of the 
woman, and she be sonless, she is accounted as 
dead, and funeral rites are performed for her 
(Smruti chandrika, on text of Vasista and Yajna 
vulkia). If she have a son, he is bound to main- 
tain her ; and in this way, under such circum- 
stances, her existence is recognised notwithstand- 
ing her loss of caste. Infidelity in the female, 
save in certain of the lowest classes, occasions 
forfeiture of caste, and puts an end to the marriage 
(Smruti chandrika). The husband, however, is 
not entitled to damages from the adulterer, — the 
Hindu law not providing for discretionary damages 
upon any account. Impotence in the man, and 
confirmed barrenness in the woman, as also loath- 
some or incurable disease in either, justify separa- 
tion (i. 47), but will not sever the marriage. 

Akbar, emperor of India, forbade marriages 
before puberty, and sanctioned the re-marriage of 
widows. The British Indian Government in 1856 
by an Act sanctioned this, but up to this time 
(1883) very few Aryan Hindus of the higher castes 
have dared the superstitious dread of the gods, 
and the anger of their caste-fellows, which hinder 
this act of justice towards their widows. 

Murli ; Basava. — Many young women all 
through India are married to their gods, and 
thenceforward are allowed to associate with the 
temple attendants or others. Girls of the Vira- 
saiva sect and of some of the aboriginal races 
are married to a knife or other object, and be- 
come common. With some of the Hindu sects a 



71 



HINDU. 



HINDU. 



widower cannot re-marry, but such a bridegroom 
with his bride arc each married to a tree with all 
the customary ceremonies of a wedding, each 
clasping their respective trees, and they then live 
together as husband and wife. The weaver castes 
near Madras devote their eldest daughter to the 
gods to serve in the temple ; and .instances occur 
of temple girls being educated in Christian mission 
schools. 

Hindu Inheritance. — Adoption is legal with the 
Hindus, and sons are often adopted. If a son be 
adopted, he succeeds to his adopted father; he 
loses all claim on the inheritance of his original 
father, and is entitled to a sixth of the property 
of his adoptive one, even if after his adoption 
sons of the body should be born. In Hindu 
law there are ten descriptions of sons, — one of 
them the son of a man's wife by an uncertain 
father, begotten when he himself has been long 
absent. When a Hindu dies, the sons may either 
continue to live together with the property 
united, or they may divide it according to 
certain rules. If they remain united, the eldest 
brother takes possession of the property, and 
the others live under him as they did under 
their father. In this case the acquisitions of all 
the sons (who have not formally withdrawn) go 
to augment the common stock. If they divide, 
the eldest takes l-20th ; the youngest, l-80th ; 
and the intermediate sons, 1-iOth. Unmarried 
sisters live with their brothers. 

Sectarian Marks. — Amongst the peculiarities 
which first attract the eye of a stranger on seeing 
the Hindu religionists, are the red and white 
marks on their foreheads. Their prominence is 
often so glaring as to be unseemly. When the 
theistical Sikh religionists hastened from the 
Pan jab in 1857 and 1858 to aid in quelling the 
mutiny and rebellion in India, in their wild 
enthusiasm they named all the Hindus con- 
temptuously ' Matha Din,' literally, carrying their 
faiths on their foreheads ; and a more expressive 
term could not perhaps have been coined, for all 
that ordinary Hindus know of their religion are the 
differences in these marks, which indicate differ- 
ences of religious sects, not of castes, and the 
sectaries have a superstitious regard for such dis- 
tinctions. It is held necessary, where convenient, 
or no especial objection or difficulty exists, for 
these marks to be daily renewed. A Brahman 
cannot perform any of his daily sacrifices, etc., 
without the completion or contemplation of this 
distinction ; and it is irreverent in one of an 
inferior tribe to approach a holy man, or to ask 
his blessing, or to partake in the benefit of any 
religious rite, without or in view to this sectarial 
decoration. The Saiva, worshippers of Siva, 
called Siva-bakht, and the Vaishnava, otherwise 
Vishnu-bakht, worshippers of Vishnu, are to be 
known, the former by the horizontal position of 
their forehead lines, and the latter by their per- 
pendicularity. One perpendicular mark, centrally 
between the eyes, is generally referable to one of 
Vishnu's sectaries^; it is not common. Two 
upright parallel lin^s, with a black or open circlet 
between or under them, are the commonest dis- 
tinction of Vaishnavas, whether seen on pictures 
of Vishnu himself, or on Rama and Krishna, or 
others of his avatars. In general, perpendicular 
lines appertain to Vaishnava sects, and horizontal 
lines appertain to Saiva sects. The marks on the 



forehead are ordinarily called namam ; the cus- 
tomary substances used are earths, tirumannu, or 
white ashes from a sacred fire, saffron, sanders 
wood, sandal-wood, white clay, etc. It is a very 
ancient mode of distinguishing religious sects, 
and is alluded to in Ezekiel ix. 4. The Sakta sect, 
when they avow themselves, mark either with 
saffron or with turmeric and borax. The Saura or 
Suria are true worshippers of the sun ; and some 
of them adore the dormant and active energies of 
the planet conjointly. This sect, which is not 
very numerous, is distinguished by the use of red 
sanders for the horizontal triple line, as well as 
for the circlet on their foreheads. 

Superstitions. — Hindus believe in omens, good 
and bad, and look for them as encouragements or 
warnings on most occasions, such as in journeying 
from one place to another, or when a marriage is 
on the tapis. It is considered a favourable omen, 
if, when proceeding on business, a crow fly from 
left to right ; or the traveller meet two Brahmans, 
or a married woman, or a Sudra with a stick in 
his hand, or a jackal be seen. If these good 
omens occur, they believe that they will certainly 
succeed in the object of their journey. It is a 
bad omen to meet a single Brahman, or a widow, 
or if a crow fly from right to left, or a cat cross 
their path. On seeing any of these evil omens, 
almost every Hindu will postpone his journey, 
however emergent ; though in this latter case he 
may return home for a little and start again. It 
is a good omen, if, when a marriage is under dis- 
cussion, the toll of a bell be heard or the neigh of 
a horse ; but a person sneezing or the sudden 
extinguishing of a light are bad omens. 

No Hindu ever takes any important step with- 
out first consulting the stars, by referring to a 
Brahman astrologer or to the astrological almanac. 
If business will not admit of delay, he will con- 
sult the Sivagyanmut or Advices of Siva, or the 
buchuns or sayings of Khona, wife of the great 
astronomer Varahamira, to ascertain whether the 
time be auspicious. With many Hindu and ab- 
original races, the snake is reverenced ; and if 
a cobra be killed, they inter it or burn it with all 
the ceremonies usual for a human being. 

When an epidemic disease seems to be approach- 
ing a village, the village tutelary divinity is carried 
in procession to meet the god of the pestilence, 
and with shouts, execrations, and defiant gestures 
they deter the advance. 

The names, both of men and women, and of 
their towns, are frequently those of their gods 
and their avatars, or of their deified heroes, — as 
Siva, Ananda, Eswara, Gopala, Narayana, Rama, 
Bhawani, for men ; Durga, Kali, Ganga, Lakshmi, 
Radha, Saraswati, for women ; and Bhima, 
Yudishtra, Draupadi, Kunti, their ancient heroes 
and heroines. 

Charity and Alms. — Almsgiving is expressly 
enjoined by the Brabmanical religion, as con- 
ferring merit and power over the unseen world, 
not for compassion or brotherly love, or for 
doing as we would be done by. Hindu charities 
consist in feeding Brahmans and pilgrims ; 
building choultries, and houses, and temples, 
and bridges ; in planting trees, and groves, and 
gardens ; making roads ; in supplying water to 
travellers ; in digging wells or tanks. It is, how- 
ever, an oriental idiosyncrasy for every man to 
desire, not to found a family or restore an old 



72 






HIN'DU. 



ral residence, but rather t<> leave some 
residence exclusively commemorative of himself, 
ami to repair nothing which his predecessors 
have left, lest they should have the credit of it 
with posterity. If they give alms, it is to persons 
of their own or of a higher caste. For a Hindu 
to bestow alms on a Pariah, however urgently in 
peed the latter may be, is almost an unknown act. 
Food, and Cook-in;/, and Hospitality. — Like that 
of the bulk of the human race, the food of the 
Hindu is obtained almost wholly from the vege- 
table kingdom. But with the Hindu the adher- 
ence to this kind of diet forms part of their 
religious belief. Unlike the Hebrews (Dent, xiv.; 
Leviticus xi.) or the Mahomedans, to whom only 
certain creatures were forbidden, several Brah- 
nianical tribes do not touch animal food at all, 
and no Hindu of the four great castes can partake 
of the flesh of the cow, much less avow that he 
had so done. They also require their food to be 
prepared by p< ople of their own or a higher caste, 
or. in their dread of pollution, even by their own 
hands. With some sects this dread is carried to 
such an extent, that they do not permit any un- 
converted eye to see them cooking, and if acci- 
dentally overlooked, will bury or give away the 
materials under preparation, however hungry 
they be. Many Hindus likewise cook within a 
sacred circle, and if any lower caste or no-caste 
person enter it, the cooking is suspended, and the 
article destroyed. Many Hindus eat their meals 
dressed in silk clothes used only for sacred rites, 
and waited on by their wives or female relations, 
who do not presume to eat until their husbands 
have finished. They eat off metal dishes, of gold, 
or silver, or brass ; but the ordinary platter is 
made of leaves of the plantain, banyan, lotus, or 
jialasa, pinned together with grass stalks in the 
form of a dish. These are sold in every bazar. 
They are employed to ensure safety from pollution, 
Being thrown away after the meal. The custom 
mentioned in John ii. 8, of appointing a governor 
of the feast, is one followed by Hindus at a 
large feast. There is a continued stream of their 
hospitality, such as it is, but castes will rarely eat 
with one another ; and at meals each Brahman 
sits with his own leafy platter apart from his 
neighbour, to prevent the possibility of even acci- 
dental pollution by his own food touching that of 
another, or vice versa. Where such stringency 
exists as regards people of their own faith, their 
associating at meals with people of other creeds 
is of course an impossibility. These remarks 
apply to the Brahmanical Hindus in general ; but 
the members of many of their reformed sects eat 
with each other, without regard to former caste 
distinctions. In like manner, as followers of one 
faith, all individuals are equally entitled to the 
prasad'ham, or food which has been previously 
presented to a deity ; and it is probably the dis- 
tribution of this in all temples, and, for instance, 
annually at Jaganath, that has given rise to the 
idea prevalent in Europe, that at this place all 
castes of Hindus eat together. A Hindu in 
general eats twice daily, in the forenoon and after 
sunset; but a Brahman widow eats only once 
daily, at noon. The food of the Hindus along the 
seaboard of India is rice, — when they can afford 
it, — partaken of with vegetable curries or pickles 
as condiments. In the higher lands of the interior, 
and in the more northern portions of India, the 



HINDU. 

pulses and millets, with wheat and maize, are tie 
articles in common use, in the form of cakes. 
The prior processes which in Europe fall to the 
miller and the baker, are got through in the 
Hindu household. The pestle and mortar is with 
Hindu families a very important domestic imple- 
ment, and few are without it. The mortar is 
generally of stone, but often a block of wood, 
the lower part shaped like an hourglass stand, 
and in the upper is a conical cavity of the contents 
of about two gallons. The pestle is of hard wood, 
about four feet long, and two inches in diameter, 
with the ends tipped or ferruled with iron, to 
prevent their splitting or wearing. It is usual for 
two women, to whose lot beating rice out of the 
husks and similar domestic operations generally 
fall, to work together. The pestle is raised perpen- 
dicularly by the right hand of one, and as it falls 
is caught by the right hand of the other, she who 
raised it quitting it in its fall; when tired with 
their right hands, they use the left, relieving them. 
A song is frequently chanted during the work. 
The stone mill, so often alluded to in the Old 
and New Testament, consisting of two flat stones 
worked by one or two women, is in use in every 
house. The religious restriction to vegetable 
diet is doubtless of Buddhist origin. Buddhism 
had the effect of inspiring a great respect for life ; 
and all orthodox Hindus regard the inviolability 
of animal life as the most sacred of laws. In 
whatever degree sanguinary rites may be practised 
by any portion of these people, such are directly 
opposed not only to the influence and example of 
almost all the Brahmans, but to the practice of 
the immense majority of the more cultivated and 
the higher castes. Myriads of Hindus have lived 
and died without ever partaking of animal food ; 
and amongst the Jains, every precaution is taken 
to prevent themselves involuntarily destroying or 
swallowing even insect life. Their priests never 
partake of stale food, lest living creatures should 
have been generated in it, keeping a cloth over 
their mouths lest an insect unconsciously enter ; 
and they walk with a small soft broom in hand, 
with which they gently sweep the ground on 
which they are to tread or sit. With all this, 
there is occasionally witnessed amongst some one 
or other of the races following Hinduism an 
apathy and indifference as to the preservation of 
the lives of their fellow-creatures which Euro- 
peans fail to understand. An instance of this 
occurred in 1820 at the fair at Hardwar, in which 
700 persons are stated to have lost their lives. 
It was calculated that not less than two millions of 
people had assembled on the occasion, when, at the 
opening of the fair, the rush was so great towards 
the steps of the bathing-place as to cause this 
melancholy catastrophe. Dreadful as it was, the 
exertions of the British officers only prevented its 
being infinitely greater. An eye-witness remarked 
that the Brahmans looked on not only with apathy, 
but with joy depicted in their countenances ; and 
women at a short distance were batlung in other 
parts of the sacred water, with as much indiffer- 
ence as if the utmost serenity prevailed around 
them. After the fair, the roads for miles round 
Hardwar were strewed with dead bodies of men, 
women, horses, camels, and dogs. 

Dress and Clothing. — The dress of Hindu men 
is of white muslin or cotton cloth, and their 
upper coat is now generally sewed. The under 



73 



HINDU. 



HINDU. 



garment for the lower part of the body, the 
dowati or dhoti, is a loose, unsewed wrapper. 
Women of all classes wear unsewed wrappers of 
green, red, or yellow coloured cotton, edged with 
silk or gold embroidery, and a bodice of cotton 
or silk. 

Scalp - Jock. — All Hindu men retain only 
the tuft of hair on the crown of their heads, 
which is familiar to Europeans from the pic- 
tures and descriptions of the Indians of North 
America as the scalp - tuft, the most glorious 
trophy, if not the sole reward, of their victor. 
The Hindu practice of wearing this scalping tuft 
(Shik'ha, Sansk. ; d'Zutu, Tel. ; Kudimai, Tam.) 
was doubtless brought with them from Central 
High Asia ; for, like the Indians of N. America, the 
Scythians cleaned the scalps they took, and hung 
them to their horses' bridles. The Decalvare of 
the ancient Germans was nothing other than the 
scalping mentioned in the laws of the Visigoths, 
capillos et cutem detrahere. According to the 
annals of Flude, the Franks still scalped about 
the year 879, and also the Anglo-Saxons ; and 
head-hunting is only now being suppressed among 
the Khassya and Garo races of the N.E. frontier, 
and amongst the Dyaks of Borneo. 

Titles. — One amongst the honorific social 
distinctions of the Hindus is that of Acharya, 
a religious teacher, properly a Brahman who 
instructs religious students of the Vedas, of the 
Brahman, Kshatriya, and Yaisya castes, but is in 
use as relating to any religious instructor. In the 
south of India the term is applied to the head of 
a religious society, equivalent to the Mahant of 
Hindustan, and the Panda or head priest of a 
temple. But it is assumed also by Brahmans en- 
gaged in secular pursuits, by carpenters and other 
artisans, and amongst the Mahrattas by cooks. 

Caste. — A great object with Hindus in general 
is to preserve their social position in caste. The 
divisions and subdivisions of their different castes 
are very numerous, — the Sudra are said to have 
nearly fifty ; but with all Hindus purity of caste 
is held of the highest consequence, and ite loss 
may occur from various causes. 

The division into castes or sects of the Aryan 
races whom we style Hindus, was known to the 
Greeks, and seems to have been early known to 
the Arabs. The Grecian authors, on the authority 
of Megasthencs, divided the tribes into seven, and 
Ibn Khurdadba (obiit a.d. 912), an officer of the 
khalifs, also arranges them into seven classes, 
but the occupations differ which these authors 
attributed to them : — 





Greek Authors. 




Arab. 


c 


. Strabo. 


Diodorus. 


Arrian. 


Ibn Khurdadba 


1. 


Philosophers. 


Philosophers. 


Sophists. 


Sab kufria. 


2. 


Husbandmen. 


Husbandmen. 


Husbandmen. 


Brahma. 


:.'.. 


Shepherds and 


Shepherds and. Shepherds and 


Kataria. 




Hunters. 


Cowherds. 


Cowherds. 




4. 


Artificers and 
Merchants. 


Artificers. 


Artificers,Mer- 
chants, and 
Boatmen. 


Sudaria. 


5. 


Warriors. 


Warriors. 


Warriors. 


Baisura. 


6. 


Inspectors. 


Inspectors. 


Inspectors. 


Sandalia. 


7. 


Counsellors & 
Assessors. 


Counsellors & 
Assessors. 


Assessors. 


Lahud. 



Ibn Khurdadba's first name is unknown. By 
the others he seems to indicate the Brahman, 
Kshatriya, Sudra, Vaisya, the Chandala, and 
jugglers. 

Dr. Caldwell tells us that in all ordinary cases 
where illegitimate children are born, if there 



be no great disparity in rank or caste betwee 
the parents, the child takes that of the two parcn 
which is the lower. Where considerable disparii 
exists, and particularly when the woman is of tl 
higher rank, — as, for instance, when a high casl 
woman, or even a woman belonging to tl 
middling castes, has formed an intimacy with 
Pariah man, — the mother either procures abortic 
or commits suicide. The child never sees the ligh 
Caste has its chief relations with race descen 
There are historical instances of sovereigns crea 
ing Brahmans in great numbers from among 
other races ; the Mahratta Brahmans are sai 
to have been so made from amongst fishermei 
and a great body of Kajputs were consecrated < 
the Kshatriya caste. 

To escape possible defilement, the servile raci 
— Pariah, Mhar, Mhang, Chamar — are compelk 
to dwell outside the village walls, and in tl 
larger towns Christians have their own quarters 
and the higher Aryan castes require the predi 
races not even to approach their dwellings, but 1 
stand at a distance and call aloud what they wish i 
communicate. A Hindu may lose or be expclle 
from his caste for many social acts, but no mer 
torious deed can raise a Hindu from one caste t 
another, nor does immorality or crime degrad 
him from his caste. Many castes eat and drin 
together, but intermarriages of persons of differei 
castes are almost prohibited in the higher caste 
and are rare even in the very lowest. It is 
hedge over which many persons desire to lea] 
Chaitanya and other reformers have founded seci 
which have abandoned caste distinctions ; and th 
lower tribes, as the Chamar or shoemaker, th 
Dhobi or washerman, have largely joined ant: 
Bralnnanical sects, as the Kabir panthi, Satnam 
etc. The aboriginal races, of Turanian descen 
as a rule, by origin and nature are averse to cast 
distinctions and Brahmanism. 

Avocations. — The races following Hinduism, an 
the converts from amongst them to Mahomedanisi 
and the Sikh faith, are, almost exclusively, th 
owners and tillers of the soil of India ; and u 
agriculturists in Northern India are in villag 
proprietory communities, those of Central Indi 
are village proprietors, and those of Wester 
and Southern India are joint holders undt 
Government. The entire banking interests i 
India, moneyed men and capitalist class, smalh 
merchants, traders, and carriers, are Hindus ; an 
Hindus are settled for merchandise in Arabia, i 
Afghanistan, all through Persia and Turkestan 
they are in Astracan, in the southern province 
of Russia, even as far as Moscow ; also in Furthe 
India, throughout Burma, Tenasserim, southward 
to Singapore ; and, from unknown antiquity, on 
Hindu tribe of the north-west of the Peninsul 
have been located on the east coast of Afric 
southwards to Mozambique, and have been th 
willing agents of slave-dealers. 

The more famous amongst their writers : — 



Agastya. 


Bhaskara. 


Anandagiri. 


Bhatti. 


Angirasa. 


Bhava Bhuti. 


Apastambha. 


Brakmagupta. 


Arya Bhatta. 


Ckaraka. 


Aswalayana. 


Ckarandas. 


Atri. 


Dandi. 


Bharata. 


Devi Makataniya 


Bharavi. 


Dhanwantri. 


Bkartrihari. 


Py.t Dwiveda. 



74 





HINDU. 


, 


Raghu N'alldandalia l;J»it t i 
Charya. 




( .1 ■'.• - ill 


i: i s.khara. 


HaUyinUm Wiatta 


nalid. 


1 'IllilH ll.l . 


Kamanuja. 


.lnVii i N v.i. 


Sama Kaia Dikahita. 
Sankaraoharyu. 


k. .';.n. 


in. 


Sayana. 




Sayani Chandra Sckhara. 




Kivavaykiar. 
Soma Deva Bhatta. 




Ipliia. 


Sri-Harsha. 




Sri Kri.-hna Tarkalankar.i. 


Ki;-ii [>waipa Yana. Xudraka. 




Sundaru Misra. 


k i Bhatta. 


Nusruta. 


rya. 


Vachispati Misra. 




Vaidya Natha Vachispati. 


aha. 


Valuiiki. 


Bbatta. 


Varaha-Mihira. 


■bum. 


Vararuclii. 


ndcya. 


Vikrainaditya. 


Mini 1 


Visakha Datta. 


ii .Misra. 


Vishuil Sai lniili. 




Visva Mitra. 


l'liiiini. 


Yisvanatha Kavi Raja. 


iira. 


Vopadeva. 
Vrihaspati Misra. 


njali. 




Yajnavalkya. 


A knowledge 


of reading and writing is very 


widely diffused, 


but those who cannot write use 



marks as their sign-manual, of which the 
following may be mentioned: — 

Mang, ... .A daffra. 

Dher, .... A staff. 

(.nter, . . . Chisel or kikra. 

ber, .... Looking-glass, 

shopkeeper or Bakal, . A balance. 

Dhangar, .... Scissors. 

rdener, . . . Kurpi. 

Banjara, . . . Spear. 

Koli, Ramusi, Bhil, . Bow and arrow. 

■ and Kangrez, . . Joli. 

Kassar (brazier), . . Tulai. 

Kunbi A plough. 

Qoldsmith, . . . A hammer. 

Blacksmith, . . . AnviL 

Ohamar, .... Leather knife or rapi. 

Tailor, .... Yard-measure. 

Soldier, .... Dagger. 

Teli, .... Subbal pur. 

Byragi, .... Forceps. 

Maniar, .... Churi or bracelets. 

Religious Liberty. — From the oldest times, suc- 

ling rulers of Travancore and Cochin, and 

uingly those of Gujerat, have ruled their 

dominions with the most entire religious liberty ; 

and Arab races, Jews, Parsees, Romans, Africans, 

ptians, Portuguese, Dutch, and British have 

led and settled there. At Patna, the little 

-tian church, or Mut'h, as it is inserted in the 

village dufturs, was endowed its portion of land 

exactly as any other religious establishment. 

In the changes between Buddhism and Hindu- 
ism, and with the occasional forcible proselytizing 
by die Mahomedans to their faith and by the 
Portuguese at Goa to their views, there has been 
much cruelty ; and, generally speaking, Hindu and 
llahomedan sovereigns favoured those of their 
who were of the rulers' faiths. But, by an 
Ail passed in 1840, a discontinuance was put to all 
interference on the part of British functionaries 
in the interior management of native temples; in 
the customs, habits, and religious proceedings 
Of their priests and attendants; in the arrange- 
ment of their ceremonies, rites, and festivals ; 
and generally in the conduct of their interior 
economy; the tax on pilgrims was abolished; 



HINDU. 

and in 1841, salutes ami tin- sttendaoM of troops 
or military buds wen forbidden at sucfa festivals. 

Hindu Morality.' Major Moor remarks that it 
is some comparative, though Mga4 ive, prtili 
the Hindus, that the emblem under which they 
«\.r\ where exhibit the elements and operations 
of nature are not externally indecorous. Unlike 

the ahominai.ie realities <>f Egypt and Greece, we 

see the phallic emblem in the Hindu pantheon 
without offence, and know not, until the infor- 
mation be furnished, that we are contemplating 
a symbol whose prototype is indelicate. The 
external decency of the Bymbols, and the diffi- 
culty with which their recondite allusions are dis- 
covered, both offer evidence favourable to the 
moral delicacy of the Hindu character. Temples 
are nevertheless commonly to be seen, on which 
are represented, in statues even of life si7.e, 
figures which only the mind of man in all its 
corruptness and wickedness could conceive. 
However recently erected, these are perhaps but 
remnants of the period succeeding the asceticism 
and austerities of Buddhism. Books then came 
to be written about heroes whom they deified, 
some of whose lives, as painted, are a continuous 
outrage of decency. But the people generally 
never followed such licence. To have done so, 
society must have ended. At the present day, 
undoubtedly, the morality of the Hindus is far 
above the stories in their books, the statues on 
their shrines, or the licence which prevails 
amongst the few who associate with the Deva- 
dasa at their temples ; and it is only their patience 
under such grossness, their not rising in wrath to 
reform it, their worship of fire and the elements, 
of the sun and moon, of the lingain and yoni, of 
the saligrama, the binlang, the tulsi, and the 
poa ; their reverence for, almost worship of, the 
cow, the kite, and the cobra ; their worship of 
Nandi, of idols with unnatural or liideous forms, 
of shapeless blocks of wood or stone, in which the 
educated have no faith, and which are often 
treated with irreverence by all ; their respect for 
books of the contents of which they are ignorant, 
and which are not worthy of their present civilisa- 
tion, — it is their adherence to all these confused 
amalgamations of the coarse Vedic creed, Scythic 
worship, fetishism, the austerities and sacredness 
of life of Buddhism, and the licence of Vishnu as 
Krishna, which excites the wonder and the con- 
tempt of all educated men. And their indifference 
is the more remarkable, because two thousand 
years ago they had a religion ' less disgraced by 
idolatrous worship than most of those which pre- 
vailed in early times. They had a copious and 
cultivated language, and an extensive and diversi- 
fied literature ; they had made great progress in 
the mathematical sciences, they speculated pro- 
foundly in the mysteries of man and nature, and 
they had acquired remarkable proficiency in many 
of the ornamental and useful arts of life. In 
short, whatever defects may be justly attributed 
to their religion, their government, their laws, 
their literature, their sciences, their arts, as con- 
trasted with the same proofs of civilisation in 
modern Europe, the Aryan Hindus were in all 
these respects quite as civilised as any of the most 
civilised nations of the ancient world, and in as 
early times as any of which records or tradition 
remain.' In the re-ascendency of Brahmanism 
after the overthrow of Buddhism, the prime defect 



75 



HINDU. 



HINDUSTAN. 



of which was a want of knowledge of the true 
God, and to which was subsequently added a relic 
worship, and an over-fondness for asceticism, the 
writers who are now regarded by the Hindus as 
authorities, introduced the outrageous matters 
which at the present day are the shame and 
degradation of the followers of this extraordinary 
faith. Major Moor observes that, with a little 
alteration, the first part of Juvenal's fifteenth 
satire, beginning ' Quis nescit,' might be applied 
to the teachers of Hinduism as now seen, as 
happily as to the Egyptians, the objects of 
Juvenal's severity. It is a picture of the 
Hinduism of the present day : — 

1 Who knows not that there's nothing vile nor odd, 

Which brain-sick Brahmans turn not to a god ? 

Some of those blockheads bulls and cows adore ; 

Fish, reptiles, birds, and snakes, as many more ; 

A long-tail'd ape some suppliants admire, 

Or man-like elephant, a god the sire ; 

One race a god, half-man half-fish, revere, 

Others to unsightly moieties adhere ; 

Hosts to a stone's high deity bend down, 

While others sticks with adoration crown ; 

Nay, vegetables here hold rank divine,— 

On leeks or mushrooms 'tis profane to dine. 

O holy nation, where the gardens bear 

A crop of gods throughout the tedious year ! ' 

It has been remarked that the characters of 
many of the Hindu deities are faintly indicated by 
the term immoral. Everything that is gross and 
sensual and wrong is to be found as ordinary acts 
of their deities ; and the followers of these faiths 
present the extraordinary spectacle of a people 
with purer lives than is to be found in the 
idolatrous or demonolatrous systems of religion 
which they follow. They have a proverb amongst 
themselves, — ' Yatha devas, Tatha bhaktah,' i.e. 
As is the god, so is the worshipper, — happily not 
applicable to their own conduct. For in their 
domestic lives they are gentle, not aggressive ; 
modest, reverent, respecters of authority, temporal 
and spiritual ; desirous of knowledge, seekers of 
the truth, patient under mental or bodily labour ; 
diligent in their callings, frugal, temperate, and 
chaste ; living with one wife, though Hindu law 
permits a plurality; amongst the entire Hindu 
races offences against the person are rare, and it 
is only amidst the licence of the temples that 
gross polygamy is common, and is even there 
confined to the habitues of the shrines. 

In all these remarks, however, it is necessary 
to bear in mind that the Hindus comprise many 
races, and dwell in many different climates. 
Amongst some of the races, and particularly 
amongst the non-Aryan tribes, there is much 
drinking of alcoholic fluids, which with other 
of their races is almost unknown. Mountstuart 
Elphinstone says their most prominent vice is 
want of veracity. They do not even resent the 
imputation of falsehood. The same man would 
calmly answer to a doubt by saying, ' Why should 
I tell a lie ? ' who woidd shed blood for what he 
regarded as the slightest infringement of his 
honour. Hindus are not ill fitted by nature for 
intrigue and cunning, when their situation calls 
forth those qualities. Patient, supple, and insinu- 
ating, they penetrate the views of the persons 
with whom they have to deal. like all that are 
slow to actual conflict, they are very litigious, 
and much addicted to verbal altercation. ' The 
manner in which often,' Dr. Chevers writes at 
p. 451, 'a crowd of Bengalis fall upon a victim of 



their displeasure, and beat and tear him into 
pieces with sticks, fists, feet, hands, and any 
weapon which may happen to have been brought 
or caught up, until the body lies in the midst 
of them a mere bloody, featureless, disjointed, 
broken mass, is scarcely characteristic of the 
reputed mildness of the national character.' — 
Abbe Domenech's Deserts of N. America; Bunseu's 
Egypt; Brown's Teloogoo Dictionary ; Caldwell's 
Comparative Grammar, also Tinnevelly Shanarsi 
Calcutta Review; Coleman's Mythology ; Cunning- 
ham's Bhilsa Topes ; Cunningham 's History of the 
Sikhs ; Elliot's History of India ; Elliot's Supple- 
mental Glossary ; Elphinstone 's Hist, of India j 
Hodgson in Bengal As. Soc. Transactions , 
Latham , s Descriptive Ethnology; Marsden's Marco 
Polo; Max Midler's Chips; Marshall's Stat. Rep.; 
Moor's Pantheon ; Mullen's Hindu Philosophy ; 
Sherring's Castes and Tribes ; Strange 1 s Hindoo 
Law; Pennant's Ceylon; Tod's Rajasthan ; Tod's 
Travels ; Vigne's Travels ; Ward's Hindoos ; 
Wilson's Glossary ; Wheeler's Mahabharata , 
Wheeler's Ramayana ; Wheeler's Travels of a 
Hindoo ; Wilson in Royal As. Soc. Transactions ; 
Williams' Story of Nala. 

HINDUSTAN is a term which the people of 
Europe apply to British India generally. To the 
people of India, however, and to Europeans resid- 
ing there, the name is restricted to that part of 
the country which lies between the Himalaya and 
the Vindhya mountains, and from the Panjab 
in the N.W. to Bengal in the S.E. This was 
the Aryavartha or Aryan country of the Sanskrit 
writers, who also called it Punya bhumi, or the 
Sacred Land. Jutting to the south of this 
portion is a triangular promontory or peninsula, 
known to the Hindus as the Dekhan (Deccan), 
meaning the south ; and these two portions form 
the region which is briefly to be noticed here. 

Rivers and Mountains. — The northern portion is 
watered by the Ganges and the Indus and their 
tributaries, and it is known as the Indo-Gangetic 
plain. It is an immense extent of flat country, 
stretching from sea to sea, is entirely composed of 
alluvial deposits of very late geological age, and it 
separates the hilly ground of the Peninsula from 
the mountain ranges of Sind, thePanjab,the Hima- 
laya, Assam, and Burma. Several of the southern 
rivers are large, — the Nerbadda, Tapti, Mahanadi, 
Godavery, Kistna, and Cauvery ; but none of them 
equals in importance the Ganges, or the Indus, 
or the Brahmaputra, which, with the Irawadi of 
Further India, are the only rivers navigated by 
steam flotillas, though the Godavery has boats 
trafficking on it. The marine lagoons, on the east 
and west coasts, connected by canals, are available 
for inland navigation, and most of the rivers and 
their affluents are utilized for irrigation. The east 
coast of the Peninsula is washed by the Bay of 
Bengal, and its west coast by the Arabian Sea ; 
but the great Indo-Gangetic plain is mountain 
girt. To the west are the Khirtari, the Suliman, 
and the maze of mountains separating India from 
Afghanistan ; to the south are the Vindhya ; and on 
all the north Hindustan proper is bounded by the 
stupendous Himalayas. 

The Aravalli hills are connected by lower 
ranges with the western extremity of the Vindhya 
mountains, on the borders of Gujerat, and stretch 
northwards to a considerable distance beyond 
Ajmir, in the direction of Dehli, forming the 



76 



HINDUSTAN. 



HINDUSTAN. 



the desert on the west and the 
MDtra] table-laud. It would be more correct to 
say the level of the desert, for the south-eastern 
portion, including Jodhpur, is a fertile country. 
Amarkantak, a great plateau, forms the water- 
the Mahanadi, Son, Tons, Johilla, and 
N, rbadda. These rivers, though large and full of 
wmter eveu half-way from their mouths, are very ] 
irregular in the slopes of their beds, and are 
disturbed l»y frequent rapids, so that, owing to 
impediments, increased still further by the 
haracter of the riverbeds or their banks, , 
tion is limited for the most part to the j 
portions of their course. 
( '< a trttl India is a table-land of unequal surface, 
from 1500 to 2500 feet above the sea, bounded by 
ivalli mountains on the west, and those of 
the Yindhya on the south, supported on the east 
by a lower range in Bundelkhand, and sloping 
gradually on the north-east into the basin of the 
Ganges. It is a diversified but fertile tract. The 
plateau is known as the Patar, and many parts 
are covered with jungle. The Aravalli hills have 
gfforded protection to the most ancient sovereign 
gaoe in the east or west, — the ancient stock of the 
Suryavansa, the Heliadae of India, or children of 
the sun, the princes of Mewar, who, when'pressed, 
were wont to retire to its fastnesses, only to issue 
again when occasion offered. 

The J "niilhya mountains north of the Nerbadda 
river, and the Satpura range south of that river, 
run east and west, and separate Hindustan proper 
from the Dekhan. 

In that peninsular Dekhan or southern portion 
are two mountain ranges, known as the Eastern and 
Western Ghats. These ghats run in wavy lines 
southwards towards Cape Comorin, approaching 
and receding from the coast, and leaving, be- 
tween them and the sea, low, alluvial, fertile tracts 
from 50 to 100 miles broad. The region enclosed 
within the ghats has several extensive plateaus, 
rising 1200 to 3000 feet above the sea, as in 
led Districts, Coimbatore, Hyderabad, and 
Mysore ; and in the more southern parts are spurs 
rising higher, with particular names. For in- 
. stance, to the north of Coimbatore the chain rises 
abruptly to 8000 feet, as the Neilgherry range, and 
continues northward as the mountains of Coorg. 
The rainfall, which is great on the western coast, 
is less on the Neilgherries, being 82 inches at 
Dodabetta, and 48 inches at Ootacamund. Farther 
north, in the Nagar district of Mysore, where are 
many rounded or table-topped hills 4500 feet 
high, often cultivated to that height, and rising 
in some places to upwards of 6000 feet, the climate 
of the western part is very humid, and particularly 
so at the town of Nagar or Bednur, 4000 feet 
high, on a spur of the western chain, where in- 
clement rain is said to last for months. 
The Travancore group presents a striking ana- 
i the island of Ceylon. The hills are loftiest 
at the extreme north of that district, where they 
■tretch east and west for GO or 70 miles, separat- 
ing the districts of Dindigul and Madura. 
The Putney mountains are west of the Dindigul, 
aimallay south of Coimbatore, and the Sheva- 
giri south-west of Madura. 

Climate and Seaso7is. — A country with such 
varied features, and extending through 28 degrees 
of latitude (8° 8' to 36° N.), has climates and pro- 
ducts commensurately varied. In Hindustan the 



people usually arrange the year into three period*, 
— the Choumasa or Burk'na, which is the rainy 
season of four months' duration ; after which is 
the Seeala, or Jhara, or Mohasa, the cold season ; 
followed by the Dhubkala or K'hursa, or hot 
season. This division indicates generally the 
course of the seasons in all Hindustan, though in 
one locality or another the rains or the hot or cold 
seasons may be somewhat more or less prolonged. 

Winds and ltdins. — The S.W. monsoon blows 
from the Southern Ocean, and is loaded with 
vapour. This is deposited largely along the sea-face 
of the Western Ghats, and between them and the 
sea, from 70 to 100 inches at the sea-level, and as 
much as 250 inches on the mountain face. At 
Mahabaleshwar it amounts to 2G0 inches annually. 
In the Southern Konkan, especially in the Sawant- 
wari district, the rains are as heavy as in Canara. 
At Bombay the rains last from June till the end 
of September, and the fall is only 71 inches, which 
is considerably less than at any point farther 
south on the west coast. At Tanna, however, the 
average fall is more than 100 inches. This mon- 
soon wind passes over the plains of Bengal, and 
strikes on the Khassya mountains and the whole 
length of the Himalaya, discharging itself in heavy 
rains. From April till August it blows from the 
east of south, in August S.S.E., and in September 
more easterly, lowering the temperature of Bengal 
and of the northern plains, though the plains of 
the Panjab continue excessively heated. 

From the vernal till the autumnal equinox, the 
heat of a great part of India continues great ; but 
after the autumnal equinox, the great mass of the 
Himalaya becomes intensely cold, and the plains 
of India generally become cool. Where the N.E. 
monsoon prevails, it is everywhere a land wind, 
except on the east coast of the Karnatic, the 
Malay Peninsula, and the Archipelago. In 
Malaya it blows over a great extent of sea, and 
is therefore very rainy; but in the Karnatic the 
width of sea is not great, so that the rainfall, 
though well marked, is less, and terminates long 
before the end of the monsoon, probably from the 
wind acquiring a more directly southerly direction, 
after the sun has reached the southern tropic. 
The amount of rain varies prodigiously in different 
parts of India, from almost none to 555 inches at 
Cherrapunji ; but the rainfall affords no direct 
criterion of the humidity of any climate, for the 
atmosphere may be saturated with moisture with- 
out any precipitation taking place. Thus, while 
in Sikkim 1° for 300 feet is the proportion for 
elevations below 7000 feet, on the Neilgherry 
Hills it is about 1° for 340 feet; in Khassya, 1° 
for 380 feet ; and the elevations of Nagpur and 
Ambala produce no perceptible diminution in 
their mean temperature, which is as great a3 
that which would normally be assigned to them 
were they at the level of the sea. The chief 
fall occurs during the S.W. monsoon, between 
May and October. On the more southerly part of 
the Coromandel coast, on the east of the Penin- 
sula, heavy rain falls in the months October to 
December, at the opening of the N.E. monsoon ; 
and in all the more northerly provinces, a well- 
marked season of winter rains occur, commencing 
about Christmas, and extending to February. At 
this season, in the south of India, showers occur, 
but they have little effect on agricultural opera- 
tions, — often, indeed, are injurious to cotton when 



77 



. HINDUSTAN. 



HINDUSTAN. 



grown as a cold-weather crop. Subject to these 
exceptions, it may be said generally that the por- 
tion of India east of the 80th meridian has a 
rainfall of more than 40 inches, while the portion 
west of the same meridian has less than 40 inches. 
The region in which the fall is less than 30 
inches includes almost the whole of the Panjab, 
a considerable part of the N.W. Provinces, a large 
part of Rajputana and Kattyawar, as well as almost 
the whole of the Dekhan and Mysore. In Sind, 
and in the southern portion of the Panjab, the 
rainfall is less than 15 inches, and is extremely 
irregular ; but in Sind the agriculture almost 
wholly depends on artificial irrigation from the 
Indus. The parts of the country most subject to 
droughts are — (1) the W. and S. parts of the N.W. 
Provinces, the Panjab E. of the Sutlej ; (2) the 
W. and N. States of Rujputana and of the Centi'al 
Plateau, which border on the N.W. Provinces; (3) 
the districts of Bombay and Madras above the 
ghats, together with the southern and western 
regions of Hyderabad and all Mysore, except the 
strip lying close along the Western Ghats; and 
(4) the Madras districts along the east coast, and 
at the southern extremity of the Peninsula. 

Dr. Royle gives the following arrangement of 
the countries of which the plants will grow in the 
different parts of India : — 

Tropical and East Indian 

islands, tropical Africa, 

Brazil, Guiana, West 

Indies, and Florida. 
East and west coast of 

Africa. 
S. States of N. America, 

Egypt, N. of Africa, Syria. 
Mexican highlands, lower 

mountains of Spain. 
S. of Africa, extra-tropical 

New Holland, S.America 

beyond 23^° S. lat. 
Mediterranean region. 



Travancore, Cochin, Mala- 
bar, Ceylon, Malay 
Peninsula, Chittagong, 
Bengal, Lower Assam. 

Coromandel coast, North- 
ern Circars, Konkan. 

Gujerat, Behar, Doab, 
Dehli, Malwa. 

Mysore, hilly ranges in 
Dekhan, Rnjputana. 

Saharunpur and Northern 
Doab. 

Dehra Doon, and Hima- 
layan valleys to moder- 
ate elevations. 

Neilgherries, Upper As- 
sam, Himalayan moun- 
tains. 

Himalayan mountains, re- 
gions of oaks and pines. 

Himalayas above region of 
forest. 



Chino - Japanese region, 

Middle Andes, Peru, and 

mountains of Brazil. 
North of Europe, north of 

Asia, & North America. 
Arctic regions, mountains 

of Europe, Elevated 

Andes. 

Crops.— Many parts, alike of the northern and 
southern districts, have two crops during the 
year, — one called the kharif or rain crop, sown in 
June, and reaped in October ; the other, sown in 
October, and reaped in March and April, called 
the rabi or spring or cold - weather crop. The 
latter, embracing the months which approximate 
in temperature to those of the season of cultivation 
in colder countries, corresponds with them also in 
the nature of the plants cultivated, as for instance 
wheat, barley, sorghum, oats, and millet, peas, 
beans, vetch, tares, chick-pea, pigeon-pea, and 
lentils ; tobacco, safflower, and chicory ; flax, 
and plants allied to mustard and rape, as oil- 
seeds ; carrot, coriander, and cummin, and other 
seeds of a similar kind, as ajwain, sonf, soya, and 
anison. In the rainy season, a totally different 
set of plants engages the agriculturist's attention, 
as rice, cotton, indigo, and maize, with sorghum, 
pulse, paspalum, most of the tropical legumes, 
as well as several of the cucumber and gourd 
tribes, together with the sesamum for oil, and the 



varieties of the egg plant as a vegetable. Th< 
sunn and sunni species of Corchorus and Crota 
laria cordage plants are also cultivated at this 
season. In the extreme N.W. countries, as, foi 
instance, throughout Afghanistan, the climate if 
excessive. The cold of the winter is intense, the 
spring is damp and raw, and the summer, during 
which hot west winds prevail, is intensely hot ai 
all elevations. The crops are chiefly wheat ant 
barley, even up to 10,000 feet elevation. Rice ii 
cultivated in great quantity at Jalalabad, 200( 
feet ; at Kabul, 6400 feet ; and to a considerable 
extent at Ghazni, 7730 feet. Poplars, willows 
and date-palm trees are extensively planted, at 
well as mulberry, walnut, apricot, apple, pear, 
and peach trees, and also the Elseagnus orientalis. 
which bears an eatable fruit. The vine abounds as 
in all warm and dry temperate climates. Th< 
majority of the Afghan and Tibetan plants are 
also, on the one side, natives respectively of the 
Caspian steppes and N. Persia, and of Siberia or 
the other. 

The date is cultivated in Baluchistan up to 450C 
feet ; and a dwarf palm, Chamserops Ritchieana 
Griffith, occurs abundantly in many places, bul 
with a somewhat local distribution. 

The area of the entire region under notice 
is 1,308,332 square miles, and its population 
253,891,821. Excluding Assam and BritisI 
Burma, both of which are beyond Hindustan in 
Further India, the British administer 876,972 sq, 
miles of territory, with a population of 193,270,70C 
souls ; and the states in alliance, feudatory anc 
mediated, have an area of 573,772 square miles 
with a population of 52,002,924. 

Races. — The British territory is chiefly in the 
plains, and its population at the census of 1871 
comprised 73£ per cent, of Hindus and Sikhs, 
21 £ per cent, of Mahomedans, and 5 per cent. 01 
all others, including under this title Buddhists 
Jains, Christians, Jews, Parsees, Bramhoes, anc 
Hillmen. As this page is passing through the 
press, portions only of the 1881 census have beer 
made public, and the figures are to some extent 
not up to date. Under the designation Hindu arc 
included almost all who profess, in some form, the 
Brahmanic religions, or who are worshippers ol 
local deities, of whom about 10^ millions arc 
Brahmans, 5| millions are Kshatriyas and Rajputs, 
105£ millions of other castes ; 8f millions do not 
recognise caste ; and 17f millions are aboriginal 
tribes or semi-Hinduized aboriginals. In 1881 
the numbers were as under : — 



Hindus, . . 


187,937,450 


Jains, . . 


1,221,89C 


Sikhs, . . . 


1,853,426 


Christians, 


. 1,862,684 


Mahomedans, 


50,121,585 


Aborigines, 


. 6,420,511 


Buddhists, . 


3,418,884 


Others,. 


. l,04y,43f 



The Buddhists are almost all inhabitants ol 
Burma, and not of Hindustan, but with the incom- 
plete census reports the residence respectively 
cannot be distinguished. 

The ancestors of the present inhabitants, dur- 
ing the bygone ages, either as immigrants or af 
conquerors, have been entering India from the 
north and west. How little these have amalga-j 
mated, may be judged of by mentioning that out olj 
1030 villages lying here and there between th<i 
Jumna and Sutlej, and which were under Britisl| 
management in 1844, there were found to be 41 
different tribes of agriculturists. And as i 
characteristic of the rebellion of 1857 and 1858 



78 






HINDUSTAN. 



HINDUSTAN. 



it was observed that certain classes of villagers I castes. In this way almost every family of a few 

1 and destroyed other classes ; — the power- hundred years' duration is now broken up. The 

ful hand I of a regular government being tempor- | cause of the origin of this exclusive propensity is 

arily removed, (lie ancient antipathies of race at j unknown, further than that the system of caste 

line into play. Dwelling amongst each and the forms of H rah manic worship commenced 



door to door, but yot never mixing, neither 
sating together nor intermarrying, most of the 
main as distinct as when, 10, 16, 20, flO, 
\<\ and 60 centuries ago, they came to the south. 
It is this separating system which has kept the 
>>f Aryan and Turanian races of India pure. 
On the slightest suspicion as to descent, all inter- 
ceases, and the descendants, in different 
iias from the same recognised ancestor, form new 



amongst the East Aryans after their passage of the 
Sutlej, and now every Aryan and most Turanian 
households are guided by its rules. The tribes 
and castes are everywhere numerous. It has 
been estimated that in Bengal alone, if their sub- 
divisions and septs and clans be taken into ac- 
count, they would amount to many thousands. 
The Bombay Census Report of 1881 enumerates 
1245. 



Population of India according to Census of 1881,- classified under Sexes and Religion, and distinguishing British Territory 

from Native States. 



Province or 



Total Population of all Religion* 



rritory. 



Males. Females. 



lUunia. 
Central Prov.,. 

. 
W.W.P.&Oudh, 

I Panjab, . . . 
.... 
<nj St. 

. . 
Prov., . 
N.W.i'.&Oudh, 
!». . . 

1, . ■ 

n. Brit. Terri, 
Feud. St.) 
•states. 

.... 

■ ntral India, . 

Cochin, . . . 

l>ad, 

.... 

Rajputana, . . 

iKvancorc, 

ve St., . 
II. Top., 



248,844 

2,503,703 

34,625,591 

1,380,492 

8,497,718 

1,991,005 

4,959,435 

100,439 

15,421,043 

22,912,550 

10,210,053 



102,850,879 



3,572,355 

867,687 

B84.6M 

2,112,303 

0,987,044 



109,787,923 



1,139,512 
4,882,823 
301,815 
5,002,13 
2,085,S42 
5,544,605 
1,197,1 34 
20,153,928 



211,878 
377,723 
911,270 
292,181 
956,690 
748,768 
879,866 
77,863 
749,588 
195,313 
640,384 



99,03S,018 



460 

4,881, 

69,686, 

2,672, 

16,454 

3,736 

9,888, 

178, 

31,170: 

44,107 

18,860 

801,888 



3,368,894 

842,033 

357,051 

_1 ,749,380 

6, 817,368 



1,045,493 
4,379,084 
298,463 
4,843,457 
2,100,346 
4,723,727 
1,204,024 



1S,594,594 



Total 



039 
146 

sot; 
684 
582 
177 
630 
488 
678 
394 
7,130,528 
144,875,315 



0,941,249 

1,709,720 

741,750 

3.861,683 



13, '254,402 
215,143,290 



2,185,005 
9,261,907 
600,278 
9,845,594 
4,186,188 
10,268,392 
2,401,15S 



Hindus. 



M. & F. 



876 
,062 

,452 
,425, 
,308. 
88! 
,317 
168 
■ •197 
,063, 

,130 



1,317, 

21,704i 

187, 

8,021, 

168: 

275 

12 

1,933 

6,922 

10,525 



45,127,033 



5,526,403 

1,385,280 

501,727 

2,121,767 



9,535,1 

154,410,492 



1,852,868 
7,800,396 
429,324 
8,893,181 
3,956,336 
8,839,243 
1,755,610 



Aborign, 



M. &F. 



488,251 

2,055,822 

87,838 

562,678 

1,683,599 



753,229 

9,914 

240,014 

1,137,284 

2,140,44 1 

47,267,474 



4,677,688 



369,216 
220,318 



589,534 



Buddh. 



M. 4 F. 



166 

3,251 



2 
3,418 



1,168,5891,253,115 



:',8' 
899 



174,980 
510,718 
33,344 
925,929 
200,484 
861,74' 
146,909 
2,854,111 



5,207, 222;3,41S,875 



101,522 
891,424 



166,343 



1,159,289; 



Christ. 



M. & F. 



Sikhs. 



M. * F. 



2,225 182 

7,093 14 

128,135, 549 

1,885! 525 

138.317J 127,100 
84,219 



11,949 

3,152' 

711,080 

47,664 



97 



3,644 



33,420 1,121,004 



6,837i 30 

24 2 

9 

27o 596,110 



7,149 595,142 



1,175,738 1,848,25' 



771 

7,065 

136, 361 j 

13,614! 

29,249 

1.294 1 

498,542] 



Jains. 



M.& V. 



24,308 

158 

1,609 

20,020 

216,224 

5 

45,718 

99 

24,973 

79,957 

35,826 

448,897 



Others. 



M. * F. 



169 

177 

37,407 

245 

80,382 

143,905 

668,806 

21 

1,804 

221 

1,645 



919,784 



282,219 .3,303 
193 93,989 

6,852 



289,204 



97,200 



38,101 1.017,080 



1,455 

3,664 
41 



686,896 5,169 



46,718 
49,824 

8,521 

378,672 



8,146 

1,025 

1,249 

685 

69 

21,084 



483,735, 32,35 



38,748,522 33,520,058 
129,941,8.51 123^0,070 ! 253,891, 8211187,037, 45(> 50,121,585 6742TiT5l1 3,418,8841,862,634 17853,42617221^961,049,435 



Many of the aboriginal tribes, now under the 
'•ritish or feudatory rulers, are broken national- 
ities, as the Gond, the Bhil, the Kathi, the Gujar, the 
Mair, the Meena, the Bhar, the Kurku, the Maria, 
the Khond, the Santal, the Kol. There are smaller 
tribes in Chutia Nagpur and the Tributary Mahals, 
\»ild mountain races in Julpiguri, with more com- 
pact clans of Mongoloid tribes in the Garo, Khassya, 
.laintia. and Naga Hills, and in Tiperah and the 
< 'hittagong Hill tracts. On the hills and in the 
plains in the extreme south of Peninsular India, 
the Nair, the Coorgs, the Beder, the Male 
Arasar, the Kadar, the Yanadi, the Irular, the 
Bndaga, the Toda, the Kotar and Kurumbar, and 
the Saura, the Ohenchwar of the Eastern Ghats. 

The Kallar, Maravar, Teer, and Shanar occupy 
the plains in the very south of the Peninsula. 
\ Some of the predial tribes, the Dom, Pariah, Mhar. 
Holiyar, Mhang, Dhor, Chamar, Veddar, Puller, 
Cherumar, are settled in the outskirts of the 
villages; but the Wadawar, Banjara, Lambari, 
Korawa, Bhaora, Bhatu, the Yerkala, some of 
the Kurumbar, and others, are homeless wanderers, 
moving amid the civilised settled dwellers of the 
plains, or secluded in the hills and forests, and are 
largely predatory, as are also the Sansi, Baori, 
Harni of the Panjab, and the Nat of Northern 
Hindustan. The Dravidiana are in several great 



nations, as the Tamilar, the Teling, and the Canar- 
ese. 

The more compact of the smaller nationalities 
of Dravidian aud Kolarian descent have found 
shelter in the mountain tracts on the south-west 
of Bengal proper, in the hills of Orissa, and in the 
valleys of the Satpura and Vindhya ranges, and 
in northern Gondwana, where they have formed 
many little states under chiefs claiming to be of 
ancient lineage, or cadets of Rajput houses. 

The next in numbers are the Mahomedans. They 
are chiefly in Bengal, the N.W. Provinces, and 
the Panjab, with smaller numbers in Oudh, parts 
of the Bombay and Madras Presidencies, or dis- 
persed among the Hindu communities. None of 
them have settled among the semi- civilised or 
wild aboriginal tribes. Many of them are of 
Arab, Afghan, Moghul, and Persian descent, but 
a considerable number are of converts from 
Hinduism ; and the ancestors of the great bulk of 
those in Bengal, in number 21,704,724 in 1881, 
are recognised to have been non-Aryan aborigines, 
though their history is not known. The Maho- 
medans are in two sects, the Sunni and the Shiah, 
the former greatly preponderating, with smaller 
offshoots known as Mahdavi. In 1881, the total 
of the Mahomedans of Hindustan was 50,121,585. 
Hindustan is partly under British, partly under 
79 



HINDUSTAN. 



HINDUSTAN. 



Rajput, Hindu, and Mahomedan rule. The prin- 
cipal of the allied states are those ruled over by 
Hindu sovereigns, and the Rajput families of Udai- 
pur or Mewar, of Jodhpur or Marwar, of Jeypore 
in Rajputana, by the Rao of Cutch, and the Hindu 
sovereigns of Mysore, Travancore, and Cochin. 
The Mahratta rulers are of Kolhapur, the Gaekwar, 
Sindia, and Holkar ; the Mahomedan states are 
Bhopal and Hyderabad. The French have pos- 
sessions in Hindustan, with an area of 178 square 
miles, and 271,460 souls ; and the area of the 
Portuguese possessions is 1086 square miles, with 
407,712 souls, chiefly in towns or suburban. 

The chieftains of Rajputana have about 93,000 
armed retainers, mostly undisciplined. 

The Hyderabad state is composed of portions of 
Telingana, Karnatica, Maharasthra, and Gond- 
wana. Its ruler, styled the Nizam, is a Mahomedan, 
and most of its territorial nobility and its soldiery 
are of the same sect. The area, including Berar, 
is about 98,000 square miles, and its population 
11,226,496. 

In the Hyderabad state there are three large 
armed forces, — one body, the subsidiary force, at 
Secunderabad, of about 5000 of all arms ; the 
other, the contingent, also of all arms, about 5000, 
at Ellichpur, Bolarum, Aurangabad, Hingoli, and 
Mominabad ; and the Nizam has a large body of 
disciplined and undisciplined troops, stated in 
1879 at 38,000 infantry, 8200 cavalry, and 725 
guus. 

The dominions of the Maharaja Sindia are 
33,119 square miles in extent, with a population 
of 2,500,000, and revenue, 1 million. 

The Maharaja Sindia can, under treaty agree- 
ments, maintain a regular force of 5000 men, and 
36 guns. The fortress overlooking the town of 
Gwalior is held by British troops, who occupy 
also the neighbouring cantonment of Morar. 

The Maharaja Holkar of Indore and Malwa 
rules over about 8400 square miles of straggling 
territory in Central India, with a population of 
about 750,000. 

Bhopal adjoins Holkar's dominions to the east- 
ward. Its ruler and the court are Mahomedans, of 
Path an descent, as are likewise a large number of 
the population of the chief town. The territory 
contains 6760 square miles, and nearly 700,000 
inhabitants. The number of armed retainers 
maintained is about 6000, with 39 guns of sorts. 
Bhopal has, from the earliest times, displayed an 
unswerving friendship for and loyalty to the 
British. In the most trying times of the Mutiny, 
when other states wavered, Bhopal stood true. 
The dynasty which rules it has never shown any 
love for aggression. A small colony of Maho- 
medans planted in the midst of a large Hindu 
community at the time of the break up of the 
Moghul empire, the descendants of that colony 
have been satisfied to maintain the dominion of 
their fathers. Pathans in Central India are as 
much foreigners to the Hindu population as are 
the British. The present and preceding ruler have 
been ladies, eminently just and devout. 

The Native States of India can dispose of 64,172 
cavalry, 241,063 foot soldiers, and 9390 trained 
artillerymen, working 5252 guns. 

The Mewar state, of 11,614 square miles, and a 
population of 1,161,400 souls, was founded about 
A.D. 144. It is also called Udaipur from its 
capital. It is ruled oyer by a family of Surya- 



vansa or Solar descent, Sissodia Rajputs, t 
Heliadae of India, the highest in social rank ai 
dignity of all the Rajput chiefs of India, descen 
ants from Rama, king of Ayodhya. 

The states of Doongurpur, Sirobi, and Parta 1 
gurh are offshoots from it ; and Sivaji, the found 
of the Mahratta power, was descended from tl 
Udaipur family. By treaty in 1818, the Britii 
Indian Government undertook to protect this stat 

The Jeypore state, of 15,000 square mih 
and a population of 1,900,000 souls, is ruled 1 
Cuchwaha Rajputs (Kachwaha), who also clai 
descent from Rama. It was founded amongst tl 
Meena race, a.d. 967. The family furnished to tl 
Moghul emperors some of their most illustrioi 
generals ; and Jey Singh n. (a.d. 1699) was 
distinguished mathematician and astronomer. 1 
1803 the state entered into a treaty of alliam 
with the British. 

The Marwar or Jodhpur state was found* 
about a.d. 1459 by Jodha, a descendant of tl 
Rahtor Rajput kings of Kanouj. Among tl 
Rajput states it ranks next to Mewar and Jeypor 
Its area is 35,672 square miles, and populatioi 
1,783,600. 

Bundi is ruled by a family of the Hara tril 
of Rajputs. Its area is 2291 square miles, ar 
population, 220,000 ; revenue, Rs. 5,00,000. Ra; 
Oineda, in 1804, gave efficient assistance to Colon 
Monson when retreating before Holkar ; and i 
1818, Maha Rao Bishen Singh concluded a treal 
with the British, acknowledging the Britis 
supremacy. 

The Kotah principality was formed in tl 
beginning of the 17th century by the chief < 
Bundi, who was forced by the Maharana < 
Udaipur to cede half his territory to his young* 
brother. Its treaty with the British is in 181' 
and this was the first of the Rajput states to cc 
operate with the British in suppressing the Pir 
daris. During the mutiny of 1 857, however, tt 
Maha Rao made no attempt to assist the Politics 
Agent, who with his two sons was murderec 
Area, 5000 square miles; population, 433,000 
revenue, Rs. 25,00,000 : tribute, Rs. 1,84,720. 

Jhallawar was formed in 1838, when the Kota 
principality was dismembered, and (8th April 
British supremacy was acknowledged by Ri 
Rana Mudun Singh undertaking to pay Rs. 80,00 
annually as tribute. Its area is 2500 sq. miles 
population, 220,000 ; and revenue, Rs. 14,50,00( 

Tank is ruled by a Mahomedan ruler with th 
title of Nawab, descendant of Amir Khan, 
famous predatory leader. Its area, 1800 squai 
miles; population, 182,000 ; revenue, Rs. 8,00,00( 

Kerrowlee is a Hindu state, with an area of 187 
square miles ; population, 188,600 ; revenue 
Rs. 3,00,000. Its maharaja, Muddun Pal, di 
good service during the mutinies. 

Kishenyarh is an offshoot of Marwar. Its aref 
720 square miles ; population, 70,000 souls ; an 
revenue, Rs. 6,00,000. 

Dholpur is ruled by a Jat family. Its chief i 
1803 co-operated with the British during th 
second Mahratta war, and its chief in 185 
aided the fugitives from Gwalior. Its area, 162 
square miles ; population, 500,000 ; and revenue 
Rs. 6,00,000. 

Bhurtpur is also a Jat principality. It wa 
founded by Birj, a freebooter, and was largel 
extended in 1763 by his grandson, Suraj Mull 



80 






IIIXIHsTAN. 



In 1808, Kanjit Singh was ruling when Holkar, 
iKti the battle of Deeg, pursued by Lord Lake, 
took refuge in the fort. Kanjit Singh refused 
to surrender llolkar, and witlistood four assaults 
eapitulatiug, and a new treaty was then 
formed. Chi the occurrence of a disputed suc- 
cession, the fort was stormed by the British, 18th 
January 1826, and the young maharaiah settled 
on the throne. Area, 1974 square miles ; popu- 
lation, «;:.i 1,000; revenue, Kg. 21,00,000. 

The Ultcar chief ship in Kajputana is under 
British protection, has an area of 3800 square 
miles; population, 1,000,000; and revenue, 16 
lakhs. The state in 1771-1770 was carved out 
amongst the Moo and Rajputs by Pratap Singh, a 
Naruka Rajput. 

Bikanir was founded about the close of the 
15th century amongst small tribes of Jat, Bhatti, 
and others, by Bika Singh, son of Kaja Jodh Singh 
of Jodhpur. He died A.D. 1505. In 1857, his 
successor greatly aided the British, and 41 villages 
were bestowed on him. Its area is 17,676 square 
miles : population, 539,000 ; revenue, 6 lakhs. 

Jeysulmir, a Rajput state, entered into alliance 
with the British in 1818. Its chiefs name was 
Moolraja. Area, 16,447 square miles ; population, 
73,700 ; revenue, Rs. 5,00,000. The people are 
chiefly Yadu Bhatti Rajputs, who claim a very 
ancient descent, and its ruler, the Maharawal, is 
head of the clan. Like the Rahtor Rajputs, they 
are supposed to be descended from one of the 
Indo-Scythic tribes who penetrated into India at 
very remote times. 

Dungurpur chiefship, formed by an offshoot 
from the Mewar family. Area, 1000 square miles ; 
population, 100,000 ; revenue, Rs. 75,000. 

Sirohi, a state in Rajputana, is ruled over by 
the Deora, a branch of the Chauhan clan. They 
claim direct descent from Deo Raj, a descendant 
of Prithivi Raj, the Chauhan king of Dehli. The 
earliest inhabitants were Bhils, succeeded by Raj- 
puts of the Gehlot Pramara, and the present 
Mora Chauhan. Area. 8000 square miles ; popu- 
lation. 153,000. Its ruler in 1845 transferred 
Mount Abu to the British as a sanatorium. During 
them utiny of 1857-58, its ruler, Rao Sheo Singh, 
did good service. 

Baroda is a Native State in alliance with British 
India. It includes all the territories of the Maha- 
raja the Gaekwar in different parts of Gujerat, 
lying between lat, 21° 51' and 22° 49' N., and 
long. 72° 53' and 73° 55' E., with an area of 
1899 Rquare miles, and population, 2,000,225. 
Its chief rivers are the Nerbadda, Mahi, Sabar- 
mati, and Saraswati. Its people are Hindus, 
Jains, Parsees, and Mohamedans. Revenue, 
Rs. 1,02,64,820. 

< 'utch is a Native State in political relation with 
the Bombay Presidency, ruled over by a Jhareja 
Rajput prince. Population, 512,084; but there 
ate many broken tribes amongst them. 

Kolhapur is ruled by the representatives of the 
younger branch of the family of Sivaji, as the 
rajas of Satara were of the elder. The Kolhapur 
family long struggled to head the Mahratta power, 
until, in 1731, Sahoji by treaty recognised Kol- 
hapur as an independent principality. In 1760, 
the descendants of Sambaji became extinct, and 
one of the Bhonsla family was adopted. In the 
mutiny of 1857 the raja remained faithful, but his 
younger brother, Chimma Sahib, joined the rebels. ' 
VOL. II. 81 



.HINDUSTAN. 

1184 square miles; )>opulation, .'.4«'.,i;.<; : 
revenue, 10 lakhs. 

Mysore is a Hindu state in the southern part of 
the Peninsula, with an area of 27,078 square 
miles, and, iii 1881, a population of 4,180,188. 
Its Mulnad or hill country adjoius the Western 
Ghats; its plain country is well cultivated, but 
the rainfall is not abundant and is irregular, and 
in 1876-77 it failed, and above a million of the 
inhabitants wore lost. Its aboriginal tribes are 
Bedar, Kurubar or Kurumba, I^ambaui, Koracha, 
and Pariahs. The languages are three dialects of 
Canarese. 

The Cochin Rajas claim descent from an ancient 
dynasty who once ruled from N. Canara to Cape 
Comorin. The state was conquered by Hydor 
Ali, and retained by Tipu, until, in 17!»2, it was 
released by the British. In 1809, the family 
rebelled against the British, and, by a treaty then 
made, a subsidy of Rs. 2,76,037 per annum was 
exacted. Area, 1131 square miles; population, 
399,060 ; revenue, Rs. 10,57,497. 

The Travancore rulers are of the Kshatriyarace, 
and of the Hindu religion, but, with many of their 
subjects, Nairs and others, they follow the descent 
by the female line. At the commencement of the 
18th century, the territory now known as Tra- 
vancore had a number of chiefs, who were con- 
stantly at war, but they were gradually brought 
under the authority of the Raja of Travancore, 
Wauji Baula Perumal, 1758 to 1799. He was 
a stedfast ally of the British, who aided him in 
return ; and in 1789, being attacked by Tipu, the 
British declared war, and, on the conclusion of 
peace in 1792, Tipu restored all the territory 
he had wrested from Travancore. A treaty was 
agreed to in 1795. Any failure in the direct 
female descent requires the selection and adoption 
of two or more females from the immediate relat- 
ives of the family, who reside at certain places in 
Travancore. The maidens adopted for this pur- 
pose become Tumbruttis, and are styled Ranis 
of Attingah on certain ceremonies performed 
publicly at Attingah, and in the chief temple of 
Trevandrum. Area, 6653 square miles ; popu- 
lation, 1,262,647 ; reuenue, Rs. 42,85,000. 

The family of the Zamorin of Calicut and the 
Bibi of Cananore also follow uterine descent. 

The Puducottali chieftain is styled the Raja 
Tondaman Bahadur. At the siege of Trichinopoly 
in 1753, the British army greatly depended on 
the Tondamaus' fidelity and exertions for provi- 
sions. They and most of their subjects are of the 
Kollarrace. Area, 1037 square miles; population, 
268,750; and revenue, Rs. 3,24,136. 

The Smu/nr Raja is a Mahratta of the Ghor- 
para family. The territory is small, in a valley 
between two hills, 35 miles west of Bellary. In 
1817, the chief Shevo Rao submitted to Brigadicr- 
Genl. Munro, but his state was restored to him in 
June 1818, and a formal sunnud issued in 1826. 

Banayanapilly is a jaghir held by a Syud family 
with the title of Nawab. Its area, 500 square 
miles; population, 35,200; revenue, Rs. 1,66,175. 
It has been in the family under successive grants 
from Mysore and Hyderabad, and formed part of 
the territories ceded to the British by the Nizam 
under the treaty of 1708, and it was confirmed 
by sunnuds in 1849 and 1862 in perpetuity for all 
legitimate successors. 

Benynl is an administrative division of British 



HINDUSTAN. 



HINDUSTAN. 



India, comprising Bengal proper, Behar, Orissa, 
including the Tributary Mahals, Assam, Chutia 
Nagpur, and the Native States of Hill Tiperah and 
Koch-Bahar. It extends from the meridian 82° 
to 97° E. long., and lies within the parallels of 19° 
40' and 28° 10' N. lat. On its N.W. is the Native 
State of Rewa in Central India, also the districts 
of Mirzapur, Ghazipur, and Gorakhpur, belonging 
to the N.W. Provinces. On the north of Bengal, 
from the Chumparuu district as far east as 
the Bhutan Doars, the Himalaya range, running 
through the Independent States of Nepal, Sikkim, 
Tibet, and Bhutan, forms its northern boundary. 
Farther east, along the northern frontier boundary 
of Assam, lies a tract inhabited by the Akka, 
Dofla, Miri, Mishmi, Naga, and other wild tribes. 
Along its eastern frontier lies a part of Independent 
Burma ; below that is the Munipur state ; still 
farther south are various hill tribes, — the Naga, 
Lushai, Khyen, Mikir, etc. ; and at the extreme 
south-east (south of Chittagong, which is the 
south-eastern district of the Bengal Province) 
is the Akyab district of Arakan. 

On the south-west of Orissa is Ganjam in the 
Madras Presidency ; on its west are the Tribu- 
tary Mahal estates, and also the Sumbulpur and 
Balaspur districts of the Central Provinces. 

In 1881, the populationof Bengal was 69,536,861. 
About two-thirds of its population profess Hin- 
duism in various forms, and about one-third are 
Mahomedans, with a small number of Christians. 
It is ruled by a Lieutenant-Governor. Many of 
the higher caste Hindus are recognised as former 
immigrants, but the origin of the vast bulk of the 
Mahomedans is obscure. 

Assam is a province of British India, with an 
area of 41,798 square miles, and a population, 
in 1881, of 4,881,420. It is the valley of the 
Brahmaputra, but is east of the Ganges, and 
beyond the bounds of Hindustan. 

Madras city is built on the western shore of 
the Bay of Bengal. It is the chief town of a 
British province of same name, with an area of 
138,318 square miles, and a population, in 1881, of 
31,170,631, comprising several distinct ethnic divi- 
sions of races speaking Canarese, Tamil, Telugu, 
Uria, and Tulu, with several uncultivated tongues 
of scarcely civilised aboriginal tribes. 

The Bombay Presidency embraces an area of 
197,875 square miles, and a population, inclusive 
of Feudatory States, of 23,395,663. The Feu- 
datory States of this presidency have an area of 
73,753 square miles, and, in 1881, a population 
of 6,941,249. Their names are Khairpur, Cutch, 
Cambay, Mahikanta, Narukot, Palanpur, Katty- 
awar, Rewakanta, and Surat. In the Konkan 
are Janjira, Jauhar, and Sawantwari ; and in 
the Dekhan, Akalkote, the Dangs, Satara Jag- 
liirs, Kolhapur, S. Mahratta Jaghirs, and Savanur. 
The languages spoken are Canarese, Mahrati, 
Gujerati, Konkani, and Sindi, and denoting dis- 
ti net races. The more prominent of the aborigines 
are the Bhil, Koli, Ramusi, Mhar, and Mang. 

Central Provinces, a British district lying be- 
tween lat. 17° 50' and 24° 27' N., and long. 76° 
and 85° 15', with an area of 112,912 square miles, 
and 11,548,511 inhabitants. The British districts 
comprise Ch'hattisgarh, Jubbulpur, Nagpore, and 
Nerbadda ; and there are thirty native principal- 
ities, viz. fifteen in Chutia Nagpur, with Bamra, 
Bastar, Kankar, Karond, Kawarda, Khairagarh, 



Khondka, Makrai, Nandgaon, Patna, Raigarh Bar- 
garh, Rairakhol, Sakti, Sarangarh, and Sonpur. 
It lies south of the Vindhya mountains, and the 
Nerbadda river flows through it. Its aboriginal 
peoples are chiefly Gond, Bhil, and Kol tribes. 

Coorg, a British province, in lat. 11° 56' to 12° 
50' N., was conquered in 1833. Its dominant 
race are brave mountaineers, 27,033 in number, 
the total population, in 1881, being 178,302. 
They are demon-worshippers. Canarese, Kodaga, 
Malealam, and Tulu are spoken. 

Ajmir and Mairwara form a British province in 
Rajputana, of 2,710,680 square miles, and a popu- 
lation of 460,722. The chief aboriginal races are 
Mair and Gujar, the languages Hindi and Urdu. 
Mairwara is inhabited by Mair, Gujar, and other 
aborigines. 

The North- West Provinces and Oudh are in the 
centre of Hindustan, in the valleys of the Ganges 
and the Jumna, and their affluents. They are 
ruled over by an officer, who is Lieutenant- 
Governor of the N.W. Provinces and Commis- 
sioner of Oudh. The combined territory has an 
area of 105,395 square miles, and a population 
of 44,849,619. The N.W. Provinces part is the 
Hindustan proper of the Mahomedan classification, 
and three-fourths of its inhabitants are Hindus. 

The Panjab province, in the extreme N.W., is 
ruled over by a Lieutenant-Governor. Its popula- 
tion, including the feudatories, number 22,712,120 
souls, in an area of 219,714 square miles. The 
Hindus, Mahomedans, and Sikhs form the bulk 
of the population. 

Central India is a political division, under 
the superintendence of a Political Agent. It has 
an area of 81,140 square miles, with a population 
of 7,699,502. In this political division there are 
71 feudatory or mediated rulers, of whom 4 are 
Mahratta, 7 are Mahomedans, 17 are Bundela, 33 
are Rajput, 6 are Brahman, and 4 belong to other 
races. The 6 feudatory states are Gwalior, Indore, 
Bhopal, Dhar, Dewas, and Jowrah. 

The Native States under the political agencies 
for Central India, Bhopal, Baghelcund, and 
Western Malwa, are given in detail at page 458, 
British India. 

This Feudatory Territory has three grand divi- 
sions. The N.E. division comprises the Native 
States of Bundelkhand and Rewa. The northern 
division consists of the northern and central dis- 
tricts of the Gwalior States. The S.W. division 
comprises the table-land known in modern times 
as Malwa, though far within the ancient limits of 
the province of that name, and the submontane 
territory between it and the Nerbadda, as also a 
considerable tract south of that river, extending 
to the Kandesh frontier. The 1st or N.E. divi- 
sion, extending from the Bengal Presidency in 
the E. to the Gwalior State in the W., includes 
Rewa and 35 other states and petty chiefships. 
Its area is about 22,400 square miles, its popu- 
lation about 3,170,000 souls, and its public 
revenues aggregate about Rs. 63,58,000. The 2d 
or N. division extends from Bundelkhand and 
the Saugor district, and has an area of about 
19,505 square miles ; its population is about 
1,180,000 souls, and its public revenue about 
Rs. 67,65,000. The 3d or S.W. division goes 
on westward to the Bombay Presidency, and 
contains the remainder of Gwalior, Holkar's 
States, Bhopal, Dhar, Dewas, and other small 



82 






HINDUSTAN. 



-um.'s. The area of this division is about 41,700 
■quare miles, its i>opulation about 3,320,000 souls, 
mid its public revenues about Ha. 1,30,00,000. 

Jihil. — The desolate wilds and jungles of the 

in Satpura range, and parts of the country 

which extend from them to the Vindhya Hills, 

in- ooeupied by Bhil tribes, who abhor field 

labour or manual labour of any kind. 

Malwa. — Adjoining this are the richly-cultivated 
plains of Malwa, with occasionally intervening 
tracts of hill and jungle, from the Myhee on the 
west to Bhilsaon the east, — a stretch of nearly 200 
miles, and from the crest of the line of the Vindhya 
to Mundissore and Oomutwarra, a distance of 100 
to 120 miles, and occupied by a thrifty agricultural 
people. 

Hilly Tract. — This is succeeded by the more hilly 
and jungly tracts of Oomutwarra, Seronje, and 
Keechiwarra, with a scanty population. 

Oxtalior. — Northwards towards Gwalior the 
country becomes more open, except on the wild 
border tracts of Kotah and of Bundelkhand, till we 
come to the carefully-cultivated plain of Gwalior, 
stretching for a distance of 140 miles between the 
( hambal, Pahuj, and Sind rivers. 

lUtudelkhaiid is ruled by the Bundela race. A 
vast portion of Bundelkhand is hilly and unpro- 
ductive, forming the northern slope of the table- 
land of the Yhidhya. 

Rewa is ruled by the Baghela race. The plains 
of Rewa are fertile, but the valley on the Sone 
to the south of the Kymore range is desolate. 
The people are indolent and untrustworthy. 
Though widely different in other respects, there 
is one characteristic common to the Baghel of 
Rewa, the Bundela of Bundelkhand, and the 
Rajput of Gwalior and Malwa, — a dislike to labour 
or service away from their homes. They generally 
leave tilling of the soil to the inferior and servile 
classes, and are regarded as the heads of the local 
society. Many of the Rajputs in the states of 
Central India give themselves up to sloth and 
the immoderate use of opium. 

Malwa and Gwalior are great centres of trade. 
In Malwa, the towns of Iudore, Bhopal, Ujjain, 
Mundipur, Rutlam, Dhar, Jowra, Augur, Nemuch, 
Shujawulpur, and Bhilsa are the principal marts. 
Indore is the capital of the Maharaja Holkar. 
(Jwalior is the capital of the Maharaja bindia. 

Rajputana Agency. — Rajputana stretches from 
lat. 28° 15' to 30° N., and from long. 69° 30' to 
78° 16' E., containing an area of 123,000 square 
miles, with a population estimated at 10,208,392. 
and includes twenty principalities, viz. : — 

15 Rajput, viz. — 
Mewar (Udaipur). 
•Teypore. 

Marwar(Jodhpur). 
Bundi, 

Shthpura. 

2 Jat, viz. Bhurtpur, Dholpur. 
1 Mahomedan, viz. Tonk. 

In 1881, there were in Rajputana 8,839,243 
Hindus, 861,747 Muhomedaus, and 378,672 Jains, 
the aboriginal races being Ahir, Balal, Bhil, 
Chamar, Dhakur, Gujar, Jat, Kanta, Mina, and 
Sondhia. The Bhils are — in Dungurpur, 66,952 ; 
Udaipur, 51,076 ; Banswara, 48,045 ; andPartab- 
j/urh, 270. 

Frontiers. — Around thebordersof Hindustan are 



Bikanir. 


Sirohi. 


Kotah. 


Dungurpur 


Kerrowlee. 


Banswara. 


Kishenghur. 


Partabgurh 


Jeysulmir, 


Jhallawar. 


Ulwar. 





HINDUSTAN. 

many independent states, republics, theocracies, 
and democracies, with most of which the British 
Government, as a paramount power, have treaties 
or agreements. Commencing in the 8.W. on the 
sliore8 of the Arabian Sea, and enumerating the 
states in succession northwards, aud again turning 
to the S.E., are — 

Lus Beila, Baluchistan, Sewistan. 

Near the Dehra Ghuzi Khan district are the 
Bugti, Murree, Gurchani, Lughari, Kosab, and 
Khutran. 

Near the Dehra Ismail Khan district are tho 
Bozdar, Kusrani, Oshterani, Sheorani, and Waziri, 

Near the Kohat district are Turi, Zymukht, 
Orakzai, Sepah, Buzoti, and Afridi. 

Near Peshawur are the Momund, Usraan-Khel, 
Ranizai, Swati, Bunurwal, and Judun. 

Near the Hazara district, the Husanzai. 

On the north are Ruka, Nari-Khorsam, Garh- 
wal, Hundes, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Towang. 
Beyond Hindustan, in Further India, many tribes 
on the Assam borders, Manipur, Tiperah, and 
numerous Shan, Karen, etc., tribes in native 
Burma, Chittagong, and Arakan, with Burmese 
and Taking in British Burma. 

People. — Several civilised nations are found 
within the above space, in the Indian plains, but dif- 
fering from each other, in manners and language, 
even more than those inhabiting any correspond- 
ing portion of Europe. The inhabitants of 
the dry countries in the north of Hindustan, 
which in winter are cold, are comparatively 
manly and active. The Mahratta, inhabiting 
a mountainous and fertile region, are hardy and 
laborious; while the Bengali, with their moist 
climate and their double crops of rice, where the 
cocoanut tree and the bamboo furnish all the 
materials for the construction of their houses 
unwrought, are more effeminate than any other 
people in India, and a love of repose, though not 
sufficient to extinguish industry or repress occa- 
sional exertions, may be taken as a characteristic 
of the whole people of the Bengal Province. 
Akin to their indolence is their timidity, which 
arises more from the dread of being involved in 
trouble and difficulties than from want of physical 
courage ; and from these two radical influences 
almost all their vices are derived. 

The men of Hindustan on the Ganges are the 
tallest, fairest, and most warlike aud manly of 
the natives of Hindustan proper ; they wear 
the turban, and a dress resembling that of the 
Mahomedans; their houses are tiled, and built 
in compact villages in open tracts ; their food is 
unleavened wheaten bread. 

Food. — Along the lowlands of the southern 
Peninsula, as in similar districts of Further India 
and China, rice is the favourite article of food 
with all whose means afford it; but the multi- 
tudes use it only as an occasional meal, and 
subsist on the pulses and millets and wheat. 
They are skilled cultivators of the soil, and by 
irrigation channels, canals, and tanks of every size, 
have supplemented the natural rains, producing 
largely for domestic use and for export, ciuchona, 
cotton, coffee, hemps, indigo, jute, lac, opium, 
salt, silk, saltpetre, tea, and wheat; and, since the 
arrival of the British, coal has been largely worked, 
and tea and coffee have become great industries. 
Their domestic animals are the oxen and buffalo 
horned cattle, with camels, horses, asses, mules, 



83 



HINDUSTAN. 



IIINGLAZ. 



goats, and sheep, and they have domesticated the 
elephant and the yak, and have trained the various 
hawks used in falconry ; they are brave and skilful 
fishers, and the sea could supply millions with 
food if the salt laws could be framed to permit 
its use for curing. Much loss of human life and 
domestic animals is caused by crocodiles, snakes, 
leopard, panther, bear, and tiger. Hindustan yields 
alum, gold, silver, iron, lead, precious stones, in 
which, as also in the copper and brass wares, they 
are skilled workers, and in much of their art they 
continue unrivalled. The raw materials for glass- 
making are abundant, and they produce beauti- 
fully-tinted bangles for the wrist. Their weavers 
supply the whole labouring community with the 
useful cotton and woollen cloths ; though Europe 
and America have been sending to Hindustan 
the cotton fabrics now used by the well-to-do 
classes, the strong cottons of the labouring classes 
are still holding their own. The British have 
introduced spinning mills, they are weaving by 
steam-power. In the finest muslins, they still sur- 
pass all other nations ; and in their silks, silk and 
cotton fabrics, carpets, mushru, kimkhab, and 
shawls are producing articles the admiration of 
the world. 

Languages. — There are two learned languages, 
Sanskrit and Pali, in which the religious books of 
the Hindus and the Buddhists are written. The 
Buddhist Scriptures of Tibet, Mongolia, Pegu, 
Ava, Siam, Kambogia, Cochin-China, and Ceylon, 
are all in the Pali, and the Yedas of the Hindus 
are in a fonn of the Sanskrit tongue. The Koran 
and the Hadis are religious books of the Mahomed- 
ans. Though the Koran has been translated into 
most languages, it is still retained in the Arabic by 
most of the people of that religion, but neither 
Arabic, Sanskrit, nor Pali are vernacular, and are 
understood only by the very learned. Throughout 
Northern Hindustan, the Hindi is the language 
of the people, but it has numerous dialects, 
designated by the names of the districts in which 
they are spoken, Panjabi, Multani, etc. One 
of these, the Brij-Basha or Brij-Bhaka, is the 
form spoken near Mathura, and takes its name 
from Brij, the tract about Mathura and Brinda- 
ban, where, in the Hindu mythologies, Krishna 
sported with the Gopin. The Rangari or Rangri 
dialect is bounded by the Indus on the west, 
Bundelkhand on the east, the Satpura Hills on 
the south, and Jeypore, Jodhpur, and Jeysulmir 
on the north. A language of mixed origin is in 
use amongst the Mahomedans of India, and em- 
ployed by all races as the ordinary lingua franca 
in their intercourse with the people of the country. 
It was first reduced to writing and grammar by 
Dr. John B. Gilchrist of the Bengal Medical De- 
partment. It is called Hindustani, also Urdu, 
and is essentially Hindi, with large admixtures of 
words of Sanskrit origin or of Persian and Arabic, 
according as the speakers or writers are Hindu or 
Mahometan. At present the Hindustani or Urdu, 
the Panjabi, and the Persian are written and 
printed in the same character ; but the Arabic, 
Bengali, Burmese, Canarese, Chinese, Gujerati, 
Hindi, Mahrati, Malealam, Malay, Siamese, 
Singhalese, Tamil, and Telugu are all distinct 
tongues, each written and printed in a separate 
character. In the south of India, the Arabic 
numerals as used in Europe have been generally 
introduced into Government accounts. This was 



on the recommendation of Sir Erskine Perry ; ar 
it has been supposed possible to use the Rom? 
and Italian character for the other tongues. 

Religion. — In Hindustan, amongst races ordii 
arily classed as Hindus, including 20 millions i 
non-Aryan aborigines, there is practised every for 
of idol-worship, nature-worship, spirit-worshi 
fetishism, and demon-worship ; but the great ma 
follow what Europeans designate as Brahmanisr 
which is a reverence for deities described in tl 
Vedas, Puranas, Tantras, religious books writtt 
by the Brahman teachers. The ancient history 
India shows that there were four great religio 
eras. The Vedic, in which Agni, Indra, and oth 
personifications of spiritual existences were pr 
pitiated with feasts and invoked in the hym: 
of the Rig Veda, and in which maidens selecti 
their husbands in the Swayamvara, and monarc 
sacrificed in the Aswa Medha. In the Brahmar 
period the Kshatriya feasts were converted in 
sacrifices for the atonement of sins against Bra 
raanical law, and divine worship was reduced tc 
system of austerities and meditations upon t 
Supreme Spirit as Brahma. It was in this e 
that the Brahmans assumed the character of 
great ecclesiastical hierarchy, and established tli 
priestly dominion which still extends over t 
minds and senses of the Hindus of India. Third! 
the Buddhist period, in which Sakya Muni a 
peared; and fourthly, the Brahmanical reviv 
during which Brahmans abandoned the worsli 
of their god Brahma, and, with books styled t 
Puranas, reverted to the old national gods a: 
heroes of the Vedic Aryans. In this era Vish 
came to be regarded as the Supreme Bein 
and Rama and Krishna as his incarnatioj 
Followers of this form of belief are known 
the Vaishnava, of whom there are numero 
sects. Another deity, Siva, of whose orig 
nothing definite is known, is now largely wc 
shipped by the Saiva religionists, of whom al 
there are many sects ; and there are besid 
these, many smaller, active monotheistic sec 
Mahomedans of Hindustan, 50,121,585 in numb< 
are mostly of the Sunni sect, the Shiah se 
tarians being few in number. Christians, of ; 
sects and denominations, do not number t\ 
millions ; Jains, fire-worshippers or Zoroastriar 
known as Parsees and Sikhs, are over thr 
millions, and aboriginal races, with local cults ai 
others, are 7,575,946 souls. — Treaties, Engag 
ments, Sitnnuds, etc. ; Annals of Indian Admim 
tration ; Census Reports for 1871 and 188: 
ElpJiinstone's History of India ; Hooker and Thon\ 
son^s Flora Indica; RoyWs Productive Resourc 
of India ; Wils. Gloss. 

HIND Y AN, a town in the province of Ears, 
the mouth of the Kheirabad river, the Ab-i-Sherei 
of Timur's expedition, and perhaps the Arosis 
Nearchus. It is navigable from the sea up 
Zeitun, which latter town is only a day's journ 
(five farsangs) to Behbehan. — De Bode. 

HINGINGHAT, a town in Wardha Distric 
Central Provinces of British India, 21 miles sout 
east of Wardha, in lat. 20° 33' 30" N., long. 7 
52' 30" E. ; population (1877), 9415. The cottx 
grown in the Wardha valley is esteemed one 
the best indigenous staples of India. — Imp. Gaz. 

HINGLAZ, a town in Makran, 12 miles inlai 
from the Arabian Sea, and about 80 miles "V 
from the mouth of the Indus. It is a place 



84 



IIINdoi.I. 



HMTOPOTAM 



1 1 i i if 1 1 1 pilgrimage, l>ut is little visited, from the 

pMBoultlea which attend tho journey when made 

most parts of Hindustan. It is at the end 

tin range of mountains dividing Lus from 

;ran. A small temple on the summit of a 

intain is dedicated to Nan! «>r Maha Mari, a 

n of Kali. Eiinglaj Devi or 1 1 insula Devi is 

red goddess. — Potions' Western India, 

1NGOLI, lat. 19° 43' N., long. 77° 1 1' E., in the 

.hnn, south-east of Aurangabad, and 185 miles 

west of Hyderabad; the mean height of 

village is 1 195 feet according to Scott, and 

et according to Wilson. It is a military 

station of the Hyderabad contingent. 

11 1 N \ T 0M. At the union of the vales of Hinnoni 
and Jehoshaphat, there is a basin of water where 
tin lire of the Hebrew temple was preserved: and 
peyond it. where a clear stream runs through a 
very narrow inlet between the Mount of Olives, 
and that when- Aceldama and the other sepulchres 
stand, are many olive trees. — Skinner's Overland 
Journey, i. p. 218. 

HIOCNG-NU, the Hun. De Guignes places 
Attila and the greater part of his army among the j 
Turk race. 

HIPPALUS, a Greek of Alexandria, the com- j 
mander of a trading vessel in the Red Sea, some 
time prior to or during the reign of the Emperor 
Claudius, or about a.d. 47. He took advantage of 
the steady blowing of the monsoon winds, and 
I direct to the coast of India, at which he 
Musiris or Barace, somewhere between 
Goa and Tellieherry. His name was given to the • 
8.W. monsoon. A few years before this, as a 
freedman of Annius Plocamus was collecting 
tribute on the coast of Sabaea, he was carried 
out to sea, and across the Arabian Sea to the 
jKjrt of Hipporos in the island of Ceylon, where he 
was kindly treated, was presented with a larger ( 
-hip. and on his return the king of the country | 
four ambassadors to the Roman emperor, ! 
and a raja or chief to be the captain to manage 
the ship. Mr. Roberts supposes the port of 
Hipporos to be the Greek words Hippos and Oros, 
or horse mountain, a Greek translation of Kuthri- 
Malei. a hill on the N.W. coast of Ceylon. — 
Roberts, p. 81; India in the loth Century. See 
liris. 
HH'POBOSCA EQUINA. Linn. Horse-fly. 
HIPPOCAMPUS, a genus of fishes of the family 
bngnathidse. II. mannulus and H. comes of the 
Indian Seas, when drying, assume the figure of a 
horse's head, and are known to all as the sea-horse, 
which the name Kuda in Malay implies. The 
body in tapering and curled near the tail. 

HIPPOCRATEA ARBOREA. Roxb. Katha- 
jwhariya, Hind. A tree of Assam, Chittagong, 
Tiperah, and Morung, also of the Kotah jungles. 
II. Indica, obtusifolia, Grahamii, and viminea are 
also known in India. 

HIPPOCRATES, B.c. 460-361, the Bu-krat of 

the Arabs, was a learned physician, born n.c. 460 

. an island in the ^Egean Sea, He was the 

MM of Heraclides and Phaenarete, of the Asclepiadae 

family. He travelled in Greece, Scythia, Colchis, 

ia Minor ; also, it is supposed, in Egypt and 

It is to him that Galen attributes the theory 

of the four elements in the body, air, earth, fire, 

and water. He wrote 'On the Nature of Man,' 

and to him is due the important doctrine of crises. 

Hippocrates, and afterhim Galen, held a knowledge 



of astronomy to be essential t<> physician*. He 
i'k supposed to be the ('liaraka of the Hindus. 

HIPPOGLOSSUS, ti genus of fiabea at th- 
family Pleuronectida). H. olivaccus is the Ja|»ane8€ 
halibut. 

HIPPOLYTE, a gentH of the crustacean of the 
tribe Palenioniens, «»t' Milne Edwards, as under : — 
II. vcntricoHUfi, Edw., Asiatic Sea*. 
H. quoyanus, Edw., New Guinea. 
H. Bpinifrons, Edw., New Zealand. 
It. apinicauduB, Edw., New Holland. 
H. gibbcroBus, Edw., New Holland. 
H. mannoratUH, Edw., Oceanicn. 

HIPPOLYTUS, a Christian bishop who resided 
in Arabia, and is supposed to have written tin- 
treatise concerning the Peregrinations of the 
Apostles. 

HIPPOPHAERHAMNOIDES. Linn. A spiny 
shrub of the Panjab and N.W. Himalaya, in Kangra, 
Lahore, and Ladakh, with many vernacular names. 
Its stem is sometimes 5 or 6 feet in girth, with 
dioecious flowers, small, round, orange-coloured, 
acid berries, and narrow leaves like those of 
rosemary. Its acid fruit makes a good jelly with 
half its weight of sugar. Its stem gives a good 
fuel and charcoal. — Stewart; Cleghorn. 

HIPPOPHAE SALICIFOLIA. 
Lhala, .... Bhot. I Buckthorn, . . . Eng. 
Tarwa, .... Chuk. | Tser-khar, Soorch, Panj. 

A willow-leaved shrub of the N.W. Himalaya. 
It is found in the Sutlej valley between Rampur, 
and at an elevation of 10,000 feet. Near the 
Chenab it is a stout shrub with spinous branches, 
and frequent in the valleys. The Bmall yellow 
berries are extremely acid, but when ripe and 
boiled with sugar form an agreeable and whole- 
some preserve. The people use the branches for 
dry hedges and fuel, and they are considered 
village property. A species of Prunus, Litsi, ripens 
here in September, with a tolerably sweet fruit, 
something like the cherry. A gooseberry, BUitsi, 
with small, woolly, sour berries, is common here 
also. A black-fruited Ribes, Rasta, resembling in 
taste the European red currant, is largely eaten 
by the people. — Clegh. Pan. Rep. pp. 67, 150 ; Dr. 
J. L. Steicart. 

HIPPOPOTAMUS, the Behemoth of the Old 
Testament, is found in Africa in great numbers, 
and the existence of two species is suspected. 
The natives kill it with spears after enticing it into 
a pitfall. The flesh is delicate and succulent ; the 
layer of fat next the skin makes excellent bacon, 
technically denominated hippopotamus speck at 
the Cape. The curbaj whip (hence the Spanish 
Corvacho and French Cravache) is made of the 
hide. The ivory of the great canine teeth is highly 
valued by dentists for making artificial teeth. No 
other ivory keeps its colour equally well ; and the 
canine teeth are imported into England for this pur- 
pose, and fetch about 30s. per pound. One of the 
specific distinctions pointed out by M. Desmoulins 
is the comparative abrasion of the canines in the 
supposed two species. 

The people of Rome several times had oppor- 
tunities of witnessing hippopotami, amongst other 
wild beasts, collected for the triumphal exhibitions 
of their emperors. But for 1500 years, until 25th 
May 1850, Europe had not seen one. The Zoolo- 
gical Society of Loudon then obtained a male, and 
afterwards a female, which bred. That received 
in 1850 was the first living seen in Great Britain 
siuce the Triassic age of the world. 



8:. 



- HIPPOSIDEROS. 



HIRUNDINID.E. 



The hippopotamus has been discovered in a 
fossil state in Ava and in the Sub-Himalaya, 
where there is an admixture of extinct and exist- 
ing forms, well preserved, — remains of hippopota- 
mus, rhinoceros, mastodon, peculiar forms of 
elephas, and very remarkable bovines, dissimilar 
from those now in India ; also, of animals still 
existing in India, are found the fossil Emys 
(Pangshura) tecta. The embedded shells are all 
of species still living in the valley, and indicate 
that the changes have been gradual from the time 
that the hippopotami wallowed in the muds, and 
rhinoceros roamed in the swampy forests, of 
the country where mastodons abounded, and where 
the strange forms of the sivatherium, dinotherium, 
and camelopardis existed. — Eng. Cyc. ; Hamilton's 
Sinai, p. 339. 

HIPPOSIDEROS, a genus of the mammalia of 
the order Cheiroptera. The following Indian 
species may be named : — 

II. apiculatus. H. fulvus. ' H. niurinus. 

H. armiger. i H. galeritis. H. nobilis. 

H. ater. H. insignis. H. speoris. 

H. bicolor. H. Lankadiva. H. penicillatus. 

H. diadema. H. larvatus. H. Templetoni. 

H. cineraceus, Blyth, the ashy horseshoe bat, 
has only been found in the Panjab Salt Range. 

H. niurinus, Jerdon. 
Rhinolopkus murinus, Ell. | Rhinolophus fulgens, Ell. 

The little horseshoe bat is of a mouse colour. 
It inhabits S. India, Ceylon, Nicobars, Burma, 
and Malayana. 

H. speoris, Jerdun. 



Uhinolophus speoris, Sch n . , 

Bli/th, Ell. 
It. Dukhanensis, $>/kcs. 



H. apiculatus, Gray. 
H. penicillatus, Gray, 



The Indian horseshoe bat has a variably coloured 
body. It inhabits all India, Ceylon, and the Archi- 
pelago east to Timor. 

Voulha is the Singhalese word applied to all 
bats. — Mr. Blyth\s Report. 

HIPTAGE MADABLOTA. Gtertn. 

Gaertnera racemosa, Roxb. 

Bcnkar, Khumb, . Beas. Ati muktamu, . . Tel. 

Endra, . . . Chenab. I Madhavitige, . . ,, 

Bokhi or Utimukta, Duk. I Potu-vadla, ... ,, 

Madmalti, . . . Panj. | Vadlaya rala, . . ., 
Chabuk, Churi, . ,, 

Delight of the woods, is a large climbing shrub, 
with very beautiful white and yellow flowers in 
terminal racemes ; petals fringed, four white, 
one yellow ; one of the stamens is much longer 
than the rest ; fruit unequally three-winged. The 
bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter. H. obtusifolia, 
D.C., is a plant of China. It grows over all India, 
and is cultivated at Lahore. — Riddell. 

HIRACLIUS, successor of Phocas, was taken 
prisoner by Khusru. 

HIRAM, king of Tyre, was contemporary with 
Solomon, whom he assisted in building the temple 
of Jerusalem. He received from Solomon 20 vil- 
lages of Galilee, and was a partner with Solomon 
in the Indian trade. He reigned R.c. 1025 to 992. 

HIRANYA. Sansk. Gold or golden ; hence — 

Hiranya or Svarna, supposed to be Ireland. 

Hiranya-Garbha, from Hiranya and Garbha, the 
womb. 

lliranyabaha. the river Sone. Its E. branch is 
also called Gujjhabate or Colli. 

Hiranya Kasipa, in Hindu mythology, Adaitya, 
an enemy of the Hindu gods, a king destroyed 



by Vishnu as Narasimha. He is the same wi 
Vijaga, son of Kasyapa and Diti. — An. Res. iii. p. o9 

Hiranyaksha, from Akshi, the eye. 

HIRLO. Mahr. Any warrior slain in battl 
Cairns are accumulated over their remains. 

HIRNEOLA AURICULA JUTLE. Fr. Jew" 
ear, a fungus of Britain, and widely distribute 
It is the Teria iore of Tahiti, and is known 
Singapore as an article of commerce used as foe 

HIRN PARDI, also Hirn-Shikari, a fowl 
race of the Peninsula of India, who call themselv 
Bhaora. 

HIRUDO, the leech, one of the class Annelid; 
many of which occur in the south and east 
Asia ; they were early employed therapeutically 1 
the Hindus, and the Arabs adopted their practi 
(Royle, Hindu Med. p. 38 ; and Wise, Him 
Medicine, p. 177). Herodotus alludes to o: 
kind, Bdella Nilotica. Dr. Pereira infers th 
Sanguisuga iEgyptiaca, the species from which t 
French soldiers in Egypt suffered, is that referr 
to in the Bible (Proverbs xxx. 15) by the nai 
of Olukch or Aluka. The latter, or Aluk, is al 
the Arabic name for leech. Six kinds of usef 
and six venomous leeches are mentioned 
Susruta, and by Avicenna. But Aristotle mak 
no mention of them, and they do not appear 
have been used in Greek medicine in the time 
Hippocrates. Pliny, however, describes tht 
very clearly, under the name of Hirudines a; 
Sanguisuga;, and distinguishes two species. Eig 
species of medicinal leeches have been enumerate 
the most common is the Sanguisuga medicinal 
Hirudo medicinalis, Linn., which is a nati 
of all the stagnant fresh waters. H. officina 
is distinguished by its unspotted olive - gre 
belly and by the dark-green back. H. medicina 
is the kind usually employed in Britain, 
belly is of a yellowish-green colour, but cover 
with black spots, which vary in number and si: 
forming almost the prevailing tint of the bel 
the intervening spaces appearing like yellow spo 
On the back are six longitudinal reddish 
yellowish - red bands, spotted with black, ai 
placed on an olive -green or greenish -broi 
ground. Other species, figured by Brandt, i 
H. provincialis, H. verbana, H. obscura, and 
interrupta. In the United States they use 
decora. In India, leeches are extremely abu 
dant, procurable in the tanks. Hirudo tagal 
also called H. Ceylonica, a land leech, lives 
the thickets and woods of Ceylon, the Philippi 
Islands, and at elevations of 11,000 in the Hin 
layas. — Enq. Cyc. p. 212. 

HIRUNDINIDJi, a family of birds of t 
order Insessores, tribe Fissirostres, comprising t 
sub-family Hirundininse, with the genera Hirum 
Cotyle, and Chelidon, and the sub-family Cypf 
linse, with the genera Cypselus, Acanthylis, Col 
calia, and Dendrochelidon. 

Hirundo rustica, the rustic swallow of Europe, As 
Africa ; is migratory, and common in the plains 
India during the cold season; chiefly seen oi 
water. 

H. domicola, Jerdon, is the Neilghcrry house swall 
of »S. India, Ceylon, Penang, Malacca, and Java. 

H. tilifera. This is a beautiful wire-tailed swallc 
with prolonged middle tail feathers, and is fou 
throughout India, N.W. Himalaya, and Kashmi 

H. daurica, mosque swallow or red-rump swallow, 
found in N. and Central Asia, over all India fn 
Nepal to Ceylon, and N. China. 



80 



flllSl.nl', R,v. STEPHEN. 
!la\i( -..11a, Myth, belongs to tho group «.f i« publican 
swallows (lVtroeh.lidon of the prince <>f < anino), 
and has similar habits to the If. fulva of N. 
r 



hyperythra, Layard. Oeykm. 



tyh- Sinenais, the ordinary Indian sand martin, occurs 

togethor with H. riparia. 
urbica, the martin of Europe, Africa, Asia, and 

•Siberia, is somewhat rare or local ? in India, and 

migratory. 
liparia, the sand martin of Europe, Asia, Africa, N. 

America, is migratory in India, and local, ami 

mostly replaced by H. Sinensis. 
('. rupestrisof S. Europe, is common in the high moun- 
tains of India, and there is a diminutive of it also 

in the H. concolor of Sykes. 
<'. <mlmoccata, Hodgt., the dusky martin of Kashmir, 

Ladakh, Nopal, and in the cold weather, Pan jab. 
( '. concolor, Sybct, the dusky crag martin of all India, 
t 'helidon urbica, Linn., the English house martin, has 

been found in the Neilgherries. 
(li. Oaihmiriaimfyffoufd, the house martin of Kashmir, 

where it is abundant. 
(li. Nipalensis, //<*/;/.«., the little Himalayan martin. 
Ch. dasypus, Bonap., of Borneo. 

Sub-Fam. Cypselinaj, Swifts. 
Acanthylis sylvatica, Tirkell, the white-rumped spine- 
tail of all India, inhabits the jungles. 
A. leucopygialis, Blyth, of Japan. 

coracinus, Mull,, of Borneo. 

gigantea, Temm., brown-necked spine- tail of Neil- 
gherries, Wynad, Malabar, and Ceylon. It is a 
magnificent swift. 

caudacuta, Lath., white-necked spine-tail, a splendid 
powerful swift of the Himalaya, Nepal, Sikkim 
and Bhutan, and China. 

aselus melba, Linn., the alpine swift of Southern 
India. 

r. apus,£(HH.,the European swift,ia found throughout 
W. Asia, N. Africa, and Europe ; is common in 
Afghanistan, Kashmir, and visits the Panjab in 
the rains. 

affinis, Graii, the common Indian swift of the Pan- 
jab, Sind, all India ; breeding in colonies, 
leuconyx, Blyth, the white-clawed swift of all India, 
but rare. 

vittatus, Jard. and Sebly, of all China, Malayan. 
Batassiensis, Gray, the palm swift, abounds in all 
the districts of India, Ceylon, Assam, Burma, 
wherever the palmyra and cocoanut palms grow ; 
nest very small, and always placed on the leaf of 
the palmyra. 
Sinensis, Bonaparte, of China. 

localia nidifica, Lath. 
Lath. 



ido nidifica, 
Blyth., Horsf. 
brevirostres, M'Clcll 



H. unicolor, Jerdun. 

Cypselus unicolor, Jerdon. 

C. concolor, Blyth. 
This, the Indian edible nest swiftlet, is found in 
the Neilgherries, Ceylon, "Western Ghats, Coorg, 
Wynad, Malabar, Sikkim, Himalaya, Assam, Java, 
Malay Peninsula, Andamans, Siam, Cochin-China, 
and other islands of the Archipelago. The nest, 
when pure and of the first make, is composed 
entirely of inspissated mucus from the large salivary 
glands of the birds. It is very small. "When these 
first make nests arc removed, the second make are 
inferior. 

linchi, Jerdon, C. fuciphaga, Hirundo fuciphaga, 
edible nest swift of the Nicobars, on the rocky 
coast of the Bay of Bengal from Arakan south to 
Java. Its nest is more valuable than that of the 
C. nidifica. 

Other species of Collocalia are found in the 
Eastern Archipelago as far as New Guinea, one 
pom the Mauritius, and one or more from the 
1 V.ilic islands. — Jerdon, pp. 155-185. 

HISLOP, Rev. STEPHEN, born 8th September 

1*17, at Dunse, Berwickshire. He joined the 

Church in 1814, and a munificent donation 

of Rs. 25,000 having been offered by Captain 

(General Sir William. K.C.B.) Hill, on condition 



1 i I - — 

■ • t founding a mission at Nagpur, Mr. BUou 
went to it. He devoted his spare time to examina- 
tion of the geology of Nagpur, and his writings 

appeared in the Journals of the Bombay A*. 
Society for July 18.0:;. the Rojal Geological 
Society for 1855, on the Connection <-t the Plant- 

bearing Sandstone <>f Nagpur with the Goal Beds 
of Central India and Western Bengal ; and the 
Bengal Asiatic Society's Journal, No. iv. 1 *.V>. 
contain another on the Age of the Carbonaceous 
Strata just referred to. In those papers Mr. 
Hislop described some of the numerous fossils 
which had been found in the tertiary deposit, 
and the sandstone, coal, and shells of the province 
of Nagpur. He employed his leisure in making 
a geological collection of the antiquities of the 
provinces around him ; they now form the nucleus 
of the collection in the museum at Nagpur. He 
was drowned crossing a river. 

HISSAR, municipal town and administrative 
headquarters of Hissar district, Panjab, lat. 29 Q 
9' 51* N., long. 75° 45' 55" E. ; population (1868), 
14,133. The district, lying between lat. 28° 86' 
and 29° 49' N., and long. 75° 16' and 27° 23? K. ; 
area, 363,973 square miles; population, 484,681. 
Hissar forms the western border district of the 
great Bikanir (Bickaneer) desert It consists 
for the most part of sandy plains dotted with 
scrub and brushwood, and broken by undulations 
towards the south, which rise into hills of 800 
feet, like islands out of a sea of sand. The soil is 
in places hard and clayey, difficult to till, but 
when sufficiently irrigated, highly productive. In 
these spots water is only reached at a depth of 
from 100 to 130 feet ; the cost of a masonry well 
is seldom below £150. The sandy tracts are not 
unfrequently swept by storms, which greatly alter 
the face of the country. The jhul (Salvadora 
oleoides), the kavi or leafless caper (Capparis 
aphylla), and the jharberi (Zizyphus napeca) 
abound ; their berries serve as food in times of 
scarcity. It has been much harried. After 
Nadir Shah ravaged the land, the Sikhs began 
their inroads ; the Bhatti of Bhattiana struggled 
for superiority ; and from 1795-1802, George 
Thomas, an Irishman, fought for dominion. 
Early in the mutiny of 1857, the local levies at 
Hansi and Hissar revolted, and all Europeans 
were either murdered or compelled to fly. The 
Bhatti rose under their hereditary chiefs, and the 
majority of the Mahomedan population followed 
their example, but were suppressed by a force of 
Panjab levies, aided by contingents from Patiala 
and Bikanir. under General Van Courtlandt. 

The Tuar Rajputs (13,921) possess five or six 
villages. The Bhatti, now Mahomedans (22,008), 
trace their descent from Jesal, of the Yadukinsi 
stock. Both Tuar and Bhatti were marauding 
desert tribes. The Pachada, or men of the west, 
now Mahomedans, are also of Rajput descent. 
A religious sect known as Bishno worship their 
founder, Jambhaji, as an incarnation of Vishnu, 
and bury their dead in a sitting posture, in the 
floors of their houses or cattle-sheds. They con- 
sider even the touch of tobacco polluting. At 
their marriages, passages from the Mahomedan 
Koran and the Hindu Shastras are indiscrimi- 
nately recited. They avoid destroying life, and 
inter any animal accidentally killed. The decayed 
town of Agroha is interesting, as being the original 
seat of the great mercantile class of Agarwala. 



87 



HISSAR. 



HITTITE. 



There are rock-cut inscriptions at Tosham. — Imp. 
Gaz. 

HISSAR, a hill state north of Badakhshan, 
whose chief claims a Grecian origin. It yields 
copper ore, micaceous sandstone, inferior marble. 

HISTA, a Malay measure of arbitrary length, 
the fourth of the dippa, about half a yard. — Sim- 
monds' Diet. 

HISTIOPHORUS, the sword-fish or fan-fish, 
is the Ikan-layer of Amboyna, the Dutch Zeyl-fish 
or Sail-fish, and the Sailor-fish of seamen. It is 
from 10 to 14 feet long, and is said to raise its 
dorsal fin and use it as a sail. — Bennett. 

HIT, in lat. 33° 43' N., and long. 42° 27' E., is 
on the right bank of the Euphrates, has 1500 
houses. It has bitumen springs on the left bank 
at Gasar Sadi. The people are boat-builders, pre- 
pare salt, bitumen, and naphtha, and burn lime. 
There is a bridge of boats here. It is the usual 
place where caravans cross the Euphrates between 
Baghdad and Damascus. With the smell of bitu- 
men and naphtha outside the town the whole 
water and air is infected. It is undoubtedly the 
place mentioned by Herodotus under the name 
of Is, as furnishing bitumen for the building of 
Babylon. Near this, on the Euphrates, and a 
little below Samara on the Tigris, the country is 
mere alluvium. The works of salt and bitumen 
around Hit give a singular appearance to the 
country. The Euphrates near Hit has an average 
width of 350 yards, with a depth of 16 feet, and 
a current of three knots per hour in the season 
of the floods, when there are fourteen islands, 
on some of which are small towns. See Iran ; 
Karej. 

HITOPADESA, Saxsk., from Hita, good, 
and Upadesha, teaching, — Good Advice, is the 
title of an ancient Sanskrit work, though it is but 
a rearrangement of an older one, called Pancha 
Tantra, or the Five Books, which itself has been 
translated several times and printed. But it has 
never attained the fame of its offspring, the Hito- 
padesa, and there are few, if any, of the vernacular 
languages of India into which the Hitopadesa 
has not been translated. It is classed by Hindu 
writers as a work on Niti, or polity, and it was 
designed for the instruction of princes, to prepare 
them for the duties of their future lives. The 
scene of the Hitopadesa is the ancient city of 
Pataliputra, situated at or near the present Patna. 
The king of that place, deploring aloud the wild 
and heedless lives of his sons, Avas overheard by 
a pandit named Yishnu-sanna, who undertook to 
make his sons versed in the principles of polity 
within the space of six months. To accomplish 
this he prepared the Hitopadesa, and accomplished 
3ns task of instructing and training the princes. 
The book consists of a series of fables, story 
within story, according to an oriental fashion. 
But the greater part of the work is occupied by 
verses cited from ancient writers in illustration 
and proof of the positions maintained by the 
interlocutors. 

The Hitopadesa is divided into four books, 
entitled Mitra-labha (Acquisition of Friends), 
Suhrid-bheda (Separation of Friends), Vigraha 
(War), and Sandhi (Peace). The first two have 
a general interest, and are applicable to all classes 
of people. The last two books apply especially 
to kings and ministers. The stories are mostly 
concerned with animals, but there arc a few in 



which human beings are concerned. These arc 1 1< >t 
edifying, and display a contempt for chastity, and 
a disposition to make merry over the misfortunes 
of easy-tempered husbands with intriguing wives. 
The nature of them may be inferred from such 
titles as The Old Man and his Young Wife, and 
The Fanner's Wife and her Two Gallants. 

In the 6th century of a.d. era it was translated 
into Old Persian, by order of the emperor Nu- 
shirwan. From the Persian it was translated into 
Arabic in the ninth century, under the title of 
Kalila o Damna, a work which obtained great 
celebrity, and is still popular, Kalila o Damna 
being the Arabic representations of the Sanskrit 
names Karataka and Damanaka, two wily jackals 
who appear in the work, and are proverbial 
throughout the east for their craft and cunning. 
It was afterwards translated into Hebrew, Syriac, 
and Greek. The Hebrew version was made by 
John of Capua, towards the end of the fifteenth 
century, and from his work translations were 
made into the chief modern languages of Europe, 
and it became familiar to British youth under the 
designation of Pilpay's Fables. Two versions of 
the work were made into modern Persian by 
authors whose names are known, but their transla- 
tions have been eclipsed, and their productions are 
obsolete. There is also a translation in Turkish. 
The most celebrated Persian translation is that of 
the renowned rhetorician, Husain Yaiz Kashifi, 
whose work, Anwar-i-Suhaili (Lights of Canopus), 
is famous throughout the Mahomedan world, ana 
is scarcely less famous among the orientalists of 
Europe. Elegant versions of it were printed by 
Messrs. Eastwick and Woollaston, and that of 
the latter is published in an ornamental style. 
The Anwar-i-Suhaili has borrowed some stories 
from the Hitopadesa, but has greatly added to 
their number. The identity of the borrowed 
stories is palpable enough when pointed out ; but 
nothing can well be more dissimilar than the two 
works, the one all plain and terse simplicity, the 
other florid, fanciful, ornate, and abounding with 
far-fetched hyperbole. The stately sententious 
roll of the verse of the Hitopadesa and the light 
and airy couplets of the Anwar-i-Suhaili are at 
the very opposite extremes of composition. Yet 
another distinguished Persian author bestowed 
his labours upon the Arabic edition of the work. 
Abul Fazl, the celebrated minister of the Emperor 
Akbar, made a new translation. Though a pro- 
fessed rhetorician himself, and the author of 
several important works in the high style, he 
considered Husain Yaiz's version too florid and 
difficult for such a work ; and he made a more 
simple translation in an easy narrative style, which 
became popular under the title of lyar-i-Danish, 
Touchstone of Wisdom. This has again been 
translated into Hindustani, under the title Khirad- 
afroz, Enlightenment of the Understanding. The 
Hindus have thus had brought back to them, 
first in a Persian, and then in a modern Urdu 
form, the stories told by their ancestors in ages 
long gone by. 

The text has been frequently printed in Europe, 
but the most esteemed edition is that of Professor 
Francis Johnson of Haileybury. 

HITTITE, a dominant race mentioned in 1 
Kings x. 29 and 2 Kings vii. 6. They held 
mastery in Syria in the era of the Hebrew 
judges and earlier kings. They were called Khcta 



88 



HI-UL. 



HO. 



by the Egyptians, awl Khatta by tin' Assyrians. 
In B.C. y:tf>, Shaluiaueser received tribute from 
all tin' kind's of the Hittite*. Their but monarch, 
Piraru (I'isiii). was defeated and slain ii.c. 717. 
ami Carcheniish was made the scat <>f an Assyrian 
governor. Hut at one time tin- Hittite empire 
■tretohed from the Euphrates to the Dardan- 
elles, and they disputed for several centuries the 
pray of Central Asia with Hamesside Pbaraobs 
on the one side, and with Assyria's mightiest 
monarchs on the other. The 1 1 it t it t-H were 
defeated, and their city Ketesh destroyed, by 
an Egyptian king (Barneses u. of Egypt?), 
about 1340 B.C. A great battle, figured in Sir 
Q. Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians, was fought 
between Rameses II. and the Hittites, near their 
snored city of Kadash, which is shown as a city 
with a double moat, crossed by bridges beside a 
broad stream running into a lake. The lake has 
been generally identified with the Baheiret Horns, 
through which the Orontes passes south of Horns. 
The site of the city, as important in Hittite records 
as the northern capital of Carcheniish, Lieutenant 



HIUNRA of tin Byaiiai, an avalanche. 

IIIWKN TH8ANG, ■ Chinese nav.-li.-r who 
|uiasfd 17 years (from a.d. CrJ'J to 645) in travelling 
through the countries lying to the YY. <>f China, 
and especially in India, through countries which 
few had visited before him, icribes Koine 

parti <>f them which no one has since explore,). 
His ehief object was to study the religion of 
Buddha, but his observations, geographical, sta- 
tistical, and historical, are characterized by great 
minuteness and precision. He started from Pekin. 
and made his way, amidst hardships and ditiicultics, 
through Chinese Tartary to tin- region where 
Buddha had laboured. Near Talas, on his way 
to India, he fell in with the Great Klian of the 
Turks, a successor of Dizabulus, whom the 
Chinese traveller calls Shehu. His account is 
very like that of Zamarchus. The Klian occu- 
pied a great tent adorned with gold flow 
dazzling richness. The officers of the court sat 
in two long rows on mats before the Khan, bril- 
liantly attired in embroidered silk, the Khan's 
guard standing behind them. Although he was 



Conder lias identified with the ruins known as ! but a barbarian prince under a tent of felt, one 
the Tell Neby Mendeh. They lie on the left bank 
of the Orontes, four English miles south of the 
lake. The modern name belongs to a sacred 
shrine on the highest part of the hill on which 
the ruins lie, and the name of Kadesh still sur- 
vives, an instance of the vitality of prior names 
lingering in the minds of the people long after 
they have forgotten the Roman, Greek, or Cru- 
laders 1 names. Lieut. Conder writes, — 'Looking 
down from the summit of the Tell, we appeared 
to see the very double moat of the Egyptian 
picture ; for wdiile the stream of the Orontes is 
lammed up so as to form a small lake 50 yards 
across on the S.E. of the site, a fresh brook flows 
in the W, andN. to join the river, and an outer line 
of moat is formed by earthen banks, which flank 
a sort of aqueduct parallel with the main stream.' 
He gives a full account of the ruins, the position 
of the place, and the disposition of the Egyptian 
forces before the battle. 

Their writing character was displaced by the 
Assyrian cuneiform. The Assyrian King Sargon 
(B.C. 722-705) is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. 
It was in the time of Sargon that Assyrian culture 
first gained a permanent footing in the W. ; while 
the overthrow of Carcheniish and the last relics 
of Hittite power in B.C. 717 naturally led to the 
disuse of the Hittite mode of writing, and the 
spread of the cuneiform characters employed by 
the Assyrian conquerors. The well-known pas- 
sage in Pliny (H. N. vii. 57), ' Literas 



vn. «)/), Lateras semper 
arbitror Assyrias fuisse ; sed alii apud ^Egyptios 

a Mercurio ut Gellius ; alii apud SyroB repertas I four woon-gye or chief ministers, 
volunt.' Mr. Sayce sees in this an allusion to the ] many woondouk. — Yules JCmhassy. 
Hittite graphic system. In this case, he remarked, 
the passage in Pliny would be a record of the 
three independent modes of writing which the east 
invented, and would contain a half-forgotten 
tradition of that strange system of hieroglyphics 
from which in all probability the syllabary of Asia 
Minor and Cyprus was derived. Hittite monu- 
ments have been found at Kiz Hissar, which is 
supposed to represent the Da'na' or Tyana of 
Xenophon, built, according to ^Strabo, on the 
tomb of Semiramis. 

HI-UL or Hi-el, the graud festival of the Ger- 
man triWs of the Baltic. 



could not look on him without respect and admir- 
ation. He appears to have regarded the Wakhsh 
branch as the main Postu or Oxus. — Stanislas 
Julieii, Wsloire de la vie de Iliivan Thwwj, pp. 
55, 56 ; Yule, Cathay, i. pp. 165 and 234. 

HLAINE, an elongated valley of Pegu. 

HLA-PET. Blum. Literally, wet-tea. To 
the eastward of Bamo and Koung-tuno, hills are 
visible, peopled by cateran Kakhyen, ami by 
breeches- wearing Paloung, employed peaceably 
in growing tea for pickling. This is the hla-pet, 
whicli is made up with a little oil, salt, garlic or 
asafcetida, etc., into a sort of pickle, and is es- 
sential to the comfort of every Burman, being 
partaken of on all ceremonial occasions. It is 
floated to Ava on bamboo rafts, so as to be retained 
always partially wet. It is eaten by the Burmese 
in small quantities after dinner, as Europeans eat 
cheese. They say it promotes digestion, and they 
cannot live in comfort without it. Colonel 
Burney mentions that the Burmese Resident, pro- 
ceeding to Calcutta in 1830, took a large supply 
of hla-pet with him, as a necessary of life, not to 
be had where he was going. Hla-pet is partaken 
of on many ceremonial occasions ; and on the 
conclusion of law -suits, the bill of costs is always 
rounded off with a charge for pickled tea. as 
European agents' accounts are stUl rounded off 
with a charge for postages. — Fytche, p. 270 ; 
Mason's Burma ; Yule's llmhassy, p. 101. 

H'LWOT-DAU. BtitM. The cabinet and high 
court of the realm of Burma, in whicli there are 

assisted by as 
many woonaouK. — j kmj amotutjf, p. 3. 

HXAU. Buit.M. A boat of Burma, 

HNAU-BEN. Blkm. A large tree, of pah- 
yellow wood, preferred for making combs. It 
beai-s a large fragrant fruit, but worthless. — 
Cratcfiird, i. p. l'.»2. 

HO, a Chinese measure of capacity, about 7j 
gallons. — Simmonds' Did. 

HO. Arab. He, He is ; the name of God. Ho 
ul Aziz, He is glorious. 

HO, Hore, Horo, in the Kol tongue, a man. In 
the mountains 8.W. of Calcutta are the Dhaugar, 
Onion, the Kol, the Larka Kol or Ho, and the 
Khoud. The Ho are a comparatively small tribe 



«9 



HOANG-HO. 



HOCOMLIA MONTANA. 



of the Kol race. Their country proper is the part 
of the Singbhum district called Kolehau, a series 
of fair and fertile plains studded with hills. It is 
about 64 miles from N. to S. and 124 from E. to 
W., and has to the S. and S.E. the tributary 
estates Mohurbhun, Keonjur, Bonai, and Gangpur, 
inhabited by Uriya-speaking Hindus ; to the east 
and north the Bengali pargana of Dhulbhum and 
district of Manbhum, and to the N. and N.E. the 
Hindi district of Lohardaggah. 

The Ho is the most compact, the purest, most 
powerful and interesting and best-looking division 
of the whole Munda nation. The more civilised 
Ho have an erect carriage, and dignified, fine 
manly bearing, with figures often models of beauty. 
The occupants of the less reclaimed parts are 
more savage -looking. Their tradition is that 
they came from Chutia Nagpur, and that they 
brought with them their system of confederate 
governments of Purha, which they call Pirhi or 
Pir. The Ho have a tradition that they once wore 
leaves only, as the Juanga women till 1871 did, 
and not long since threatened to revert to them 
unless cloth-sellers lowered their prices. The Ho 
of the border-land have probably much intermixed 
with the Uriya. They are agricultural, but change 
their localities. A Ho bridegroom buys his bride, 
or rather his father buys her for him, the price 
being so many head of cattle. The Kol and Larka 
Kol are cognate with the Khond. The Ho lan- 
guage differB so little in phonology and glossary 
From the Munda, Bhumij, and Santal, that 
Captain Tickell's account of its grammar may be 
taken as that of the Kol language generally. The 
Ho are addicted to suicide ; they have no endear- 
ing epithets. They erect menhir or slabs, and 
dolmen or tablets, over the graves of their dead. 
The dance of the Ho and Santal is not that of 
the Munda, though the last have something re- 
sembling it, and it can be made to assume a mourn- 
ful cadence, as the same step and drum-beat is 
used at their funeral ceremonies. Colonel Dalton 
says (p. 106) the youths and maidens of the Ho 
mourn as they revolve, and lock up, keeping 
admirable time both in the movements of the feet 
and undulations of the head to the monotonous 
beat of the drums. They believe that the souls of 
the dead become bhoots (spirits), but no thought 
of reward or punishment is connected with the 
change. — Captain Tickell, As. Soc. Jour. ix. pp. 
783, 997, 1063 ; Lubbock; Origin of Civil, p. 268 ; 
Dalton's Ethnology of Bengal, pp. 106, 184. 

HOANG-HO, a great river in China, 3040 miles 
long, in lat. 39° 40' N., and long. 98° E., un- 
doubtedly one of the finest rivers in the world. It 
takes its rise in the mountains of Tibet, and, after 
traversing the Koukou-Noor, enters China at the 
water province of Kan-su ; it leaves it again to 
the sandy plains at the foot of the Alechan 
mountains, surrounds the country of Ortous, and, 
after having watered China from south to north, 
and then from west to east, throws itself into the 
Yellow Sea. The waters only assume their yellow 
tint after passing the Alechan and the Ortous. 
The river rises almost always to the level of the 
country through which it flows ; and to this is to be 
attributed the disastrous inundations which it occa- 
sions, which are so fatal to China, but are of little 
consequence to the nomadic Tartars, who have 
only to strike their tents and move off elsewhere. 
In ancient times its mouth is said to have been in 



lat. 39° N. ; at present it is in 34°. The Chinese 
Government is obliged annually to expend enor- 
mous sums to keep the river within its bed. 
In the year 1799 it cost £1,682,000. — Hue's 
Journey. 

HOANG-TI is the first historical Chinese em- 
peror (b.c. 2698); and the Chinese historians allege 
that in his reign the inventors of sundry arts and 
sciences arrived from the western kingdoms in 
the neighbourhood of the Kouen Lun mountains. 
— Yule, Cathay, i. p. 35. 

HOCKEY. A game of Tibet resembling hockey, 
and called Chaughan, is played on horseback, on 
a plain about 60 yards broad and 350 long, with 
a stone pillar at each end as the goal. The ball 
is somewhat larger than a cricket ball, and in 
Tibetan is called Pulu. The stick or Byntu is of 
the strong and straight bough of the almond tree, 
about 4 feet long, and let in at the top and passed 
quite through to the other end of a curved piece 
of solid birch-wood, about the size and shape of 
a drenching horn. The game is mentioned by 
Baber. It is played in every valley in Little 
Tibet, Ladakh, Yessen, Chitral. The Persians, who 
wanted to play on horseback, were the first who 
found a long stick necessary. This stick they 
called Chugan, hence the Byzantine T^vKxvi^eiv, 
and the French Chicane, in which lawyers bandy 
about the unlucky clients. Prom the Chugan 
came the croquet-mallet, the golf-club, with all 
the family of spoons, drivers, cleeks, bunker-irons, 
putters, and niblicks ; came also the hockey-stick, 
and probably the bat, which was at first a thick 
club with a curved foot, a terrible weapon in the 
hands of a ' slogger.' The Chugan may have been 
the father of the racquet. In Byzantine descrip- 
tions of the game, a staff ending in a broad bend, 
filled in with a network of gut-strings, is men- 
tioned. The Munipuri call it Kaugo-jai. They 
select a turfy piece of ground 400 yards in 
length by 200 in breadth. The ponies used are 
small, swift for their size, and obedient mouths. 
The club consists of a rattan as thick as an 
ordinary-sized walking-stick, and 5 feet long, 
and its lower end has attached, at an angle of 45 
degrees, a cylindrical piece of hard oak-wood, 1 
foot in length, and 1 or 1£ inch in diameter. The 
whole weighs about 1 lb. 10 oz. The ball is a globe 
3 to 4 inches in diameter, cut out of the light 
bulbous root of the bamboo. The suppleness of 
the cane, the weight of the club, and the elasticity 
of the ball is such, that a well-delivered stroke will 
lift the latter about a hundred yards. Two sides 
are formed, 5 to 7 to a side. The ball is thrown 
up in the centre of the ground, and each party 
strives to drive it to the opposite goals. The club 
is held in the right hand and the reins in the left. 
All the skill of horsemanship and dexterity in the 
use of the club are called into full play. It is 
beautiful to see the game played by men expert in 
the exercise, and by ponies well trained, for the 
animals in the course of time acquire a perfect 
knowledge of the play, and enter into the excite- 
ment of it as well as the riders. 

HOCOMLIA MONTANA. Gibson. 
Sampga, .... Can. I Kudkee, .... Mahr. 
Tambut, . . . Mahr. | 

Grows in Canara and Sunda, on and close to 
the head of the ghats. Wood seldom runs large ; 
is white, hard, and tough ; used for agricultural 
implements. — Dr. G'ibsoti. 



[H) 



llnMADtN. 



HOE I KING. 



HODADIN, a jKiiceable shepherd tribe of 
Bedouins. 

HOD AIDA, on the east coast of the lied Sea, 
in lat. 11 17' N., and long. IS . r );i' K., a town of 
Yemen, with lofty building. It is on the N.E. 
Hide of a Randy hay, and sheltered by a point of 
land running S'.W. A.bonl \.i>. 1836 it was made 
the x.it of government <>f that part of Yemen. 

HODGSON, Captain- J. A., author of Journey 
to the Source of the Jumna, Hot Springs at 
.lumnotri, etc., in Ar. Res. xiv. p. 128; On a New 
Form of the Hog Kind in Sind, in Bl. As. Soc. 



p. 461 ; Oa the I aw of l/Cgal Practice and I '..lie* 
of Nepaul, Loud. As. Tram i. pi- It wiu 

his opinion that the Tamulian, Tibetan, lu<l«>- 
Chinose, Tangus, Chinese, Mongol, and Turk art- 
s' > many hranehcB of the Turanian family. — hr. 
Hnigft ( 'dialogue. 

HODOSONLA BBTEROCLITA. ttooktr. Tri- 
chosanthes het, Roxb., is the most magnificent 

Slant of the jungles in the valley of the Tista in 
ikkim. It is a gigantic climber, allied to the 
gourd, bearing immense yellowish- white pendulum 
blossoms, whose petals have a fringe of buff- 
Trans, xiv. p. 423 ; Journey to the Head of the ' coloured curling threads several inches long. The 
Ganges, in As. Res. xiv. p. 60; Survey to the fruit is of a rich brown, like a small melon in 
Heads of the Ganges and Jumna, ibid.; Latitudes form, and contains six large nuts, whose kernels 
of 1 'laces in Hindoostan, ibid. p. 163; Heights (called Katior-pot by the I^epcha) are eaten. Dm 
and Positions of the Himalaya Peaks, ibid. p. stem when cut discharges water profusely, from 
187 ; Route from Katmandu to the Chinese | whichever end is held downwards. It ia a new 
1 rentier, ibid., 1832, xiii. p. 513. Captain Hodgson cucurbitaceous genus, found in the Terai, clinging 
and Lieutenant Herbert published Astronomical in profusion to the trees, and also 5000 feet up the 



< >hservations in Hindustan, with a Journal of the 
Survey of the Sources of the Rivers Ganges and 
Jumna, and an Account of the Positions and 
Heights of the Principal Peaks of the Himalaya 
Mountains. — Dr. Bum's ( 'ataloaue. 

HODGSON, BRYAN H., of the Bengal civil 
service, widely known for his researches into the 
natural history of the Eastern Himalayas, and the 
ethnology of the races and tribes dwelling in 
British India and its bordering- countries. He 
was appointed Resident at the court of Nepal in 
1821. He wrote on the Sheep inhabiting the 
Himalayan Region, in Bl. As. Trans., 1841, x. p. 
820; On the Literature and Religion of the 
Buddhists, Serampore 1841 ; On the Buddha 
1 literature of Nepaul, As. Res. xvi. p. 409 ; Route 
from Katmundu to Tazedo, ibid. xvii. p. 513 ; On I 
a New Species of Buceros, ibid, xviii. p. 178 ; 
Description of the Aquila Nepalensis, ibid. }>art ii. ; 
j>. 18 ; Description of the Circaetus Nepalensis. 
ibid. p. 21 ; Migration of the Natatores and 
Grallatores in Nepaul, ibid. p. 122 ; On the Wild 
Goat and Wild Sheep in Nepaul, ibid. p. 127 ; 
Description of the Ratwa Deer, ibid. p. 170 ; Of 
the Buceros Homrai, ibid. p. 139 ; Of the Wild 
Dog of the Himalayas, ibid. p. 221 ; On the 
Antelope of the Himalayas, Gleanings in Science, \ 
iii. p. 152 ; On a Species of Felis, ibid. p. 177 ; j 
On Scolopacidae, ibid. p. 233 ; On the Musk Deer, i 
ibid. p. 329 ; On the Cervus Jaral, the Ratwa j 
Deer, and the Tharai Goat, ibid, p. 371 : On the 
Chiru, ibid. p. 387 ; On the Mammalia of Nepaul, I 
ibid. p. 442 ; On the Manufacture of Nepaul | 
Paper, Bl. As. Trans, i. p. 8; On the Nepaul 
Military Tribes, ibid. ii. p. 217 ; On the Aborigines 
of Nepaul Proper, ibid. iii. p. 215 ; On European 
Speculations on Buddhism, ibid. pp. 382, 425, j 
499 ; Synopsis of Mammalia of the Himalayas, ' 
ibid. v. p. 231 ; On Nepaul Ornithology, ibid. p. 
358 ; On the Language of Buddhist Scriptures, 
ibid. ii. p. 682 ; On the Cuckoo of the Himalayas, 
ibid. viii. p. 136 ; On the Thibetan Type of Man- 
kind, ibid. xvii. p. 222 ; On the Aborigines of 
Central India, ibid. p. 550 ; Relics of the Ca ih o K c 
Mission in Thibet, ibid. p. 225 ; Route from 
Katmandu to Darjceling, ibid. p. 634 ; Ou the 
Aborigines of Southern India, ibid, xviii. p. 350 ; 
On the Aborigines of North-Eastern India, ibid, 
p. 451 ; Note on Indian Ethnology, ibid. p. 288 ; 
On the Aborigines of the North-Eastern Frontier, 
ibid. xix. p. 309 ; Aborigines of the South, ibid. 

n 



mountains. It grows also in the forests east of 
Chittagong. The long stem, like almost all woody 
climbers, is full of large vessels ; the iuice does 
not, however, exude from these great tubes, which 
hold air, but from the close woody fibres. — HooL: 
11. ./. i. p. 395, ii. p. 350. 

HODHAD, king of Yemen, father of Balkees, 
queen of Sheba ; lived about the beginning of the 
Christian era. See Balkees. 

HOD'HU, an ancient name of India. 

HOE, a secret society of the Chinese, into which 
the members are initiated. The concluding cere- 
mony consists in pricking the middle finger of the 
right hand, dropping the blood into a bowl of 
arrack, from which each of the candidates drink, 
and are then saluted as brethren. 

HOE is the digging implement of the labourers 
of India ; its forms are called in Hindi, hat'hia. 
kalpi, kharpa, mamati, rambha, and ramp. 

HOEI-HOEI. The Chinese and Manchu call 
by the name of Hoei-hoei all the Mahomedan tribes 
who live under Chinese dominion. This word, 
therefore, has ceased to designate a nation. As 
the Uigur Hoei-hoei, called simply Hoei-hoei under 
the Mongol dynasty of Yuan, were Mahomedans, 
this name is applied by the Chinese to all those 
of the same religion, in the same manner as the 
Russians are often called Greeks, because they arc 
of the Greek Church. The inhabitants of the 
towns of Little Bokhara are in part descendants 
of the ancient Uigur or Hoei-hoei, and con- 
sequently Turk ; in part Sarti, or Bokharians, 
who are scattered as merchants all over Central 
Asia, and who are Iranians. There are many of 
them at Pekin, Hang-chu-fu, Canton, and other 
commercial cities of China. Their mother-tongue 
is Persian, but they also speak the oriental Turki, 
which is the general language of Turkestan, aud 
the most diffused in Little Bokhara. 

HOEI KING, a Chinese Buddhist traveller in 
India, Khotan (Yu-than), and Tibet, in a.i>. 
399-400, along with Fa Hian, the Fo-kue-ki of 
Remusat, Klaproth, and Landresse. Fa Hiau. 
with Hoei King and other Chiuese pilgrims, reached 
Yu-than or Khotan in a.d. 899-400. Fa Hian 
then travelled by Tsu-bo and Yu-hoei and over 
the Tsu-Ling mountains southwards to Kie-Chha, 
the modern Ladakh, where he rejoiued Hoei King. 
From Kie-Chha the pilgrims proceeded westward 
to Tho-ly, which they reached in one month. 
They came to Iudia overland by way of Tartaiy 



HOFFMEISTER 



HOISALA BELLALA. 



and Kabul, visited Ceylon, and sailed thence to 
Java. On his return, Fa Hian left behind him an 
account of his travels, called Fo-kue-ki, or an 
account of the Buddhist countries. At the time 
of his visit Buddhism was still the dominant 
religion, though Vaishnava doctrines were gaining 
ground. — Cunningham, Ladakh; Cal. Rev. 

HOFFMEISTER, author of Travels in Ceylon 
and Parts of the Himalayas to the Borders of 
Thibet. 

HOG, Indian wild boar, Sits Indicus. 
Khanzir, .... Akab. Porco, . . . It., Pokt. 



Lat. 
Malay. 



Sus, Porcus, 

Babi, Babi alas, 

Babi utan, . . ,, 

Dakar, . . . Mahr. 

Svinza, .... Bus. 

Puerco, Sp. 

Svin, Sw. 

Pandi, .... Tel. 
Hweh-liwch, . Welsh. 



Varaha, . Beng., Sansk. 
Handi, Mikka, . . Can. 
Jewadi, .... ,, 

Svun, Dan. 

Varken, Zwijn, . Dut. 
Cocbon, Pourceau, . Fk. 
Schwein, .... Gek. 

Paddi Gonu. 

Choiros, .... Gr. 
Jangli soor, Soor, . HiND. 

The wild hog abounds in many parts of India, 
and the males attain to a very large sizi.'. It is 
generally believed that there is no specific differ- 
ence between the wild hog of Europe and India. 
The adult males dwell apart from the herd. The 
wild boar is constantly hunted by Europeans on 
horseback, with the spear ; natives of India hunt 
the boar with dogs. Spearing the wild hog is one 
of the favourite sports of British officers in India. 

All the wild hogs in the Archipelago are small 
animals compared with the wild boar of Europe, 
or even with that of continental India. 

Sus verrucosus, so called from the fleshy excres- 
cence on the sides of the cheeks, has a grotesque 
and a formidable appearance, but is in reality a 
timid animal. Their number in Java is immense 
in particular districts. 

Sus Andamanensis, Blyth, a small race in the 
Andamans. 

Sus Zcijlanensis, Blyth. Mr. Blyth distinguished 
this from the hog common in India. The skull 
approaches in form that of a species from Borneo, 
the Sus barbatus of S. Muller. 

The genus Babirussa of F. Cuvier takes its name 
from two Malay words, Babi, hog, and Rusa, a 
deer. It is the Sus babyrussa of Linnaeus, and the 
B. alfurus of Lesson, and occurs in the island of 
Bum or Bourou, one of the Moluccas, also in 
Celebes and Ternate. 

Sus Papuensis is a New Guinea hog. 

Porcula sylvania, Hodg., the pigmy hog of the 
sal forests of N. India, is the Sano banei and 
Chota sur of the natives of India, and confines 
itself to the deep recesses of primeval forest. The 
adult males abide constantly with the herd, and 
are its habitual and resolute defenders. — Sykes 1 
Cat. Dec. Mam. p. 11 ; Crawfurd, Diet. p. 152 ; 
Termant's Ceylon, p. 59 ; Catalogue of Mammalia 
in the India House Museum. 

HOG-DEER. 



Hyelaphus porcinus, Staid. 
Cervus porcinus, Zxmiatrm. 
0. dodur, Royle. 
Axis porcinus, Jerd. 

Para, Hind. 

Khar, Laguna, . ,, 

The hog-deer inhabits Central India, Bengal, 
the Gangetic valley, Paujab, Sind, Assam, Sylhet, 
Botina. It frequents chiefly long grass and 
tamarisk jungles, grassy grounds and open glades 
in forest opeuings, rarely seeking the forest shade. 



Axis niger, B. Ham. 
Cervus niger, B. Ham. 
C. oryzeus, Kdaart. 

Sugoria, .... Hind. 
Nuthrin baian, . „ 



It is not gregarious, both sexes living solitary 
in general. The young are beautifully spotted. 
The buck drops his horns in April, and ruts in 
September. — Jerdon, p. 263. 

HOGENDORP. Le Compte C. S. W. do 
Hogendorp, author of Coup d'CEil sur Tile de 
Java et les autres possessions Neerlandaises dans 
l'Archipel des Indes, 1830. 

HOGG, Sir JAMES WEIR, Bart., took a 
prominent part in discussions relating to Indian 
affairs in Parliament. He was a Director of the 
East India Company, and twice was Chairman. 
He was born at Stoneyford, in the county Antrim, 
in 1790, and was called to the bar in Ireland. At 
Calcutta he held the office of Administrator- 
General. He returned to England in June 1833. 
At the abolition of the old Court of Directors he 
was named one of the Political Military Com- 
mittee. He was raised to the baronetcy in 1846. 

HOG-GUM, a resin abundantly afforded by 
Moronobaea coccinea, Aubl., a fine tree of Jamaica. 
Negroes dig it from among the roots of old trees. 
It is used in medicine, and is inflammable, burn- 
iug with an agreeable odour. This might be 
introduced into India. The false hog-gum of 
Jamaica is yielded by Rhus metopium, Linn. 

HOGLA. Beng. Typha angustifolia, Typha 
elephantina, Roxb., elephant grass, cat's-tail grass. 

HOG'S LARD. 
Sur-ki-charbi, . . Hind. | Adeps suillus, . . . Lat. 

This is the fat about the loins of the hog, Sus 
scrofa. It is purified by melting and straining. 
Its melting point is from 78 to 88 degrees Fahr. 
In Europe, hog's lard is much employed in oint- 
ments, but in India it is desirable to exclude it 
from all pharmaceutical preparations. — (TSh. 

HOISALA BELLALA, a dynasty who had 
supreme sway in Mysore from a.d. 1000 to 1300. 
They built three groups of temples, one at 
Somnathpur, S. of Mysore, by Vinaditya Bellala 
(1043), another at Baillur by Vishnu Verddhaua 
(1114), and the greatest at Dwara Samudra or 
Hullabid (1145) by Vijaya Narsinha, the building 
of which was stopped by the Mahomedan invasion 
in a.d. 1310-1311. 

Some of the Hoisala Bellala kings were Jains ; 
but their buildings at Somnathpur, Bellur, or 
Hullabid belong to the Vaishnava or Saiva faiths. 
The Basti temples of the southern Jains, like the 
Jain a temples of Northern India, always have a 
tirthankara as the object of worship. The Bettu 
temples of Southern India are open courtyards, 
containing images of Gomati, who possibly may 
be Gautama Buddha. There are two hills at the 
village of Sravana Belgola, 33 miles N. by W. 
from Seringapatam. On one of these, a mass of 
syenite 500 feet high, a Jaina image, 70 feet 3 
inches high, has been carved out of the solid rock. 
The expression of its features is pleasing, with 
curly hair ; and at Karkala, the image, 41 feet 5 
inches, and weight 80 tons, has been moved to its 
present site, and was erected a.d. 1432. The 
third, and supposed oldest, at Yannur, is 35 feet 
high. They belong to the Digambara sect of the 
Jains, being entirely naked, but with twigs of the 
Bo Tree twisted round their legs and arms, with 
serpents at their feet. In the Jaina cave at 
Badami, the figure has two snakes twisted around 
its legs and arms, and the Bo Tree is placed behind. 
On a shoulder of the other hill at Sravana Belgola, 
called Chandragiri, are the Basti temples, fifteen 



92 



HOLAR. 



HOUG \i:\A LOXGIFOUA. 



in number, all of the Dravidian style, rained into 
l loto ya The Jaloa temple at Ifoodbidri, an<l all 
others in Canara, resemble the temples of Nepal, 
lad many <>f them are built of wood. The interiors 
are richly and variedly carved, with massive pillars. 
A large number of the tombs of the priests, some 
of them five to seven storeys in height, each with 
a sloping roof, like the temples of Khatmaudu, 
Tibet, and China. The stambhas or free-stand- 
ing pillars of the Jainas in Canara, are very 
il. — Fergussoii, p. 393. See Architecture. 

HOLAR, also Holiar or Holaru, in the Canar- 
ese districts of the Peninsula, the Pariah or Dher 
race. Professor Wilson describes the Holar as a 
man of a low or out-caste tribe, by profession a 
musician, which answers to the Mhang race, but 
there is no doubt but that the Holar is the Dher. 
The Morassi Holiyar are the same as tho Halle 
Ifakkata, old adopted sons of the Morasi Wakaliga. 
They are labourers and weavers. See Holiyar. 

HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA. Wall. 
Eohites antid., Roxb. \ Chonemorphaantid., Don. 

Kogar of . . . Chenab. Keor (seed) . . . Panj. 
Kyur of . . . Kanora. Kawar of . Ravi, Bras. 



Panj. 



Istaraku pal a, 



Tei.. 



Km a (seed) of 
Indarjao ,, 

A large shrub or small tree of Malabar, Siwalik 
Hills, up to the Chenab in the N.W. Himalaya, 
Sylhet, and Chittagong. It bears a white flower. 
Its bark (Tellicherry bark) is used in medicine as 
an astringent. The leaves are used as fodder or 
as litter. The wood is white, light, and close- 
grained, and is used by carvers. 

HOLARRHENA CODAGA. W. I. Kooda palli 
maram, Tam. A small-sized white wood, very 
fine grained, employed in cabinet-making. Dr. 
Wight gives also H. Malaccensis in Icones, 1298. 

HOLARRHENA MITIS. 11. Br. Kirri-walla- 
gasB, Singh. A moderate-sized tree of Ceylon, 
not uncommon up to an elevation of 1500 feet. 

HOLARRHENA PUBESCENS. O'Sh. Reora, 
Hind. Wood light. This species and the H. 
antidysenterica yield the Indurjuo talkh of the 
bazar. — O'Sh.; Roxb.; Voigt; Thiv. Zeyl. p. 194. 

HOLDNA. Hind. In Kangra, the process of 
destroying weeds in a rice crop. 

HOLI, a popular Hindu festival, called in 
Sanskrit Holikha, or Phal gotsava, or Hutasham, 
or Hutasavi, also Dola or Dolavatra, or tho Swing- 
ing Festival. It is supposed to relate to the vernal 
equinox, and to be similar to the Persian New 
Year's day. It is held about the 19th March, or 
ten days before the full moon of Phalguu. It is 
in honour of Krishna, and is quite a saturnalia, 
red powders being thrown and red fluids squirted 
at passers-by, and licentious songs sung. At the 
close of the festival, a pile is lighted, and a wheaten 
cake or Poli offered on it. The analogy between 
the goddess of the spring, Saturnalia, Phalguni, 
and tho Phagesia of the Greeks, will be recognised. 
The word is not derived from eating, with the 
Rajput votaries of Holica as with those of the 
Dionysia of the Greeks, but from Phalguni, com- 
pounded of Guna, quality, virtue, or characteristic, 
and Phala, fruit, — in short, the fructifier. The 
Egyptian Phallica is the Holica of the Hindus. 
Phula and Phala, flower and fruit, are the roots of 
all Floralia and Phalaria,— the phallus of Osiris, 
the thyrsus of Bacchus, or lingam of Iswara, sym 



Ayodhia. It is much ol*ervcd by the cowherd 
i if < irissa. 
HOLIDAYS of the several race* dwelling in 
India chiefly occur at seasonal changes, but al*o 
at Mm anniversaries of certain occurrence* con- 
nected with their religions or historical • 
Tho dates of the public holidays vary with the lunar 
months, and those below are approximate : — 

Chrixtiitn. 
Now Year's day, Jan. 1. 
Good Friday, April. 
Christmas day, Deo. 25. 



Easter holidays, March. 
Ascension day, May. 
Pentecost holidays, June 
H imln. 
about 



Makar Sankrauti, 
January 11. 

Maha Snivaratri, about 
February 24. 

Huli, about March 10 11. 

Ram Naomi, about April 4. 

Shravani purnima, Cocoa- 
nut day, about August <>. 

Parsee—Rammi <„• ShahanshaJii 



Janm Ashtami, about Aug. 

II. 
Ganesh Chaturthi, about 

August 25. 
Dasara, about Septenilxr 

30. 
Diwali, about Oct. 1H-1'.I. 



Jamshidi navroz, about 

March 21. 
Aban feast, about end of 

April. 
Adar feast, about June 8. 
Farvardin Jasan, about 

June 8. 



Gatha Gabanbars, about 

September 19 21. 
Pateti or New Year's day, 

about September 23. 
Kurdad feast and valava, 

about September 28-29. 
Atishbehram Salgeri, about 

November 8. 



-Kadmi. 
Pateti or New Year's day, 

about September 24. 
Kurdad feast and valava, 

about August 29 30. 
Atishbehram Salgeri,about 

September 9. 

■8uni (lunar months). 
Ashura. 
Bari "\Vafat. 
Ghilan. 
Mira j -i-Mahomed . 



Parsee- 
Aban feast, about end of 

March. 
Farvardin Jasan, about 

May. 
Gatha Gabanbars, about 

August 20-22. 

Mahomedan- 
Sliab-i-Burat. 
Lailat-ul-Kadar. 
Ramadhan 'Id. 
Bakr 'Id, or 'Id Kurban. 

Mahonmhtn—fthiah (lunar month*). 
Katl-i-Imam Ali. 'Id Gadir. 

Shaha Kadir. Ashura. 

Ramadhan 'Id. Chahlam. 

Bakr 'Id. 'Id Maolud. 

Jeivi&h. 

Purim, or day of Queen Esther, March 13. 

Pesach or Passover, April 11-17. 

Shabuoth, or the Delivery of the Law, May 31. 

Tishabaiab, or the day of Lamentation, August 1. 

Rosh Hosana, or New Year's day, September 21-22. 

Kipnr, or the days of Atonement, September 29 •"*". 

Succoth, or the Feast of Tabernacles, October 5-13. 

Hindus have many other festivals. Their naim s 
differ in the several languages ; but there may be 
named here Bali-Pratipada, Basaut'h-Panchami, 
Nag-Panchami, Kartiki Ekadasi, and others. 

Mahomedans have also the Maharram, Akhiri- 
Char Shamba, Chiraghan - i - Banda Nawa2, and 
Zinda Shah Madar, Pir Dastagir, and I'rus-i- 
Kadar TVali. 

Parsees have in addition, the Amardad, Jam- 
shidi-Naoroz, Ardibehesbt- Jasan, Meher-Jasan, 
and others. 

HOLIGARNA LONGIFOLIA. Roxh. 
Kagira, Biba-biba, C.\y. I Katu-jeru, . . Mai.eai.. 
Holgori, . . . Mahi!. | 

One of the trees yielding the well-known black 
lacquer varnish. It grows in Travancore, in 
Malabar, in Canara, and Sunda, mostly above 
the ghate at Nilgund, in the Konkan, Assam. 



bolized by the Sriphala, or Ananas, the food of | Chittagong, and in tho forest* of Tenasserim. 
the gods, or the Sitaphala of Sita. the Helen of Wood good for houses and beams. Its danger 

93 



HOLIGARNA RACEMOSA. 



HOLKAR. 



ously acrid exudation is used by the natives to 
varnish shields and for other purposes. A fine 
black varnish from its fruit is brought from 
Manipur. This turns of a beautiful black colour 
when applied to a surface, owing, according to 
Sir D. Brewster, to the fresh varnish consisting 
of a congeries of minute organized particles, which 
disperse the rays of light in all directions ; the 
organic structure is destroyed when the varnish 
dries, and the rays of light are consequently 
transmitted. There is brought also from Manipur 
a varnish made from the Semecarpus anacardium 
(marking nut), and a remarkable black pigment 
resembling that from Melanorrhcea usitatissima, 
which is white when fresh, and requires to be 
kept under water. — Roxb. ; Voiyt ; Gibson ; 0\Sh. ; 
Mason; Hooker's H. J. ii. p. 331; Beddome. 

HOLIGARNA RACEMOSA. Roxb. A tree 
of Assam, Sylhet. Leaves alternate, linear-oblong. 
Flowers racemed, juice of the wood acrid. — Roxb. 

HOLIYA or Holayar, in the Cauarese-speaking 
country, in Mysore, and in Coorg, an agricultural 
labourer. In the Canarese -speaking country, like 
the Pariah or Dher ; in Coorg he is one of three 
principal classes of slaves, Holayaru, Yewaru, 
and Paleru. Their subdivisions are the Mari, 
Byr, Murtha, Bulgi, Baday, Rookh, and Kembatta 
Holayaru. The last is a native of Coorg. The Mari 
Holayaru follow the custom of descent through the 
female line, the descensus ab utero. The Holeya 
race of labourers in Coorg, ill-favoured, with 
coarse, stupid features, short in stature, but 
strong built, with dark and black skiu, and black, 
straight hair. They practise demonology, and are 
said to have no guru. — Wils. See Hokr. 

HOLKAR, the family name of the Mabratta 
rulers at Indore and its territories. The family 
name is taken from the village of Hull, on the 
Nira river in the Dekhan, where they were shep- 
herds and farmers. Mulhar Rao Holkar, son of 
Khundaji Holkar, was born about the year 1693, 
and his mother, in consequence of some dispute, 
took him to Kandesh to his uncle Narainji, 
where, as a lad, he herded his uncle's sheep. 
When grown up he took service, and distinguished 
himself under Kudum Bande, a Mahratta leader, 
but subsequently (1724) under Baji Rao Peshwa 
as a commander of 500 ; and in 1728 was sent to 
administer Malwa, where he died a.d. 1769. Mul- 
har Rao was present at the battle of Panipat, and 
shared in the common overthrow of the Mahratta 
armies. Sindia's forces were almost annihilated, 
and Madhaji Sindia was lamed for life ; but Hol- 
kar's division alone drew off with serried ranks 
and little loss, and Sindia thought that he had 
not been well supported by Holkar. He was 
succeeded by his grandson, Mali Rao, who died 
insane, nine months after his ascension. The pious 
Ahalya Bai, the mother of Mali Rao, then took 
the management of affairs, and appointed as the 
commander of the army, Tukaji Rao Holkar, a 
chief of the same tribe, but in no way related to 
Mulhar Rao. This chief for many years served 
Ahalya Bai with the most devoted fidelity. Ahalya 
Bai died in 1795, and was not long survived by 
Tukaji Rao Holkar, after whose death the power 



Rao, an illegitimate son of Tukaji Rao Holkar,' 
who in 1802 defeated the united forces of Sindia 
and the Peshwa near Poona. The conclusion of 
the treaty of Bassein, between the Peshwa and 
the British Government, defeated Jeswunt Rao's 
hopes of possessing himself of the person of the 
Peshwa. In the following year, when Sindia and 
the raja of Berar combined against the British, 
Jeswuut Rao Holkar promised to join the con- 
federacy, but on the actual outbreak of hostilities 
he kept aloof, and apparently intended to take 
advantage of the war to aggrandize himself at 
Sindia's expense. His schemes, however, were 
rendered hopeless by the treaty of Surji Anjen- 
gaum ; and Jeswunt Rao Holkar, after making a 
series of inadmissible proposals for an alliance, 
seems then to have hastily determined, unaided 
and alone, to provoke hostilities with the British. 
In the war which followed, Holkar was completely 
overthrown. He was pursued by Lord Lake 
across the Sutlej, whither he retired in the hopes 
of forming a combination with the Sikhs against 
the British Government ; and on 24th December 
1805 he signed a treaty on the banks of the Beas, 
by which he was stripped of a large portion of 
his territories. Soon after the conclusion of the 
treaty, Jeswunt Rao Holkar became in 1805 
insane. He died in 1811, leaving an illegitimate 
son, named Mulhar Rao Holkar, during whose 
minority the state was torn by the most violent 
dissensions. The lad's mother, Toolsi Bai, the 
favourite concubine of the late ruler, secured 
herself in the regency. She was, however, sub- 
sequently barbarously murdered, and Holkar's 
army having sustained a complete defeat at 
Mehidpore, on 6th January 1818 the treaty of 
Mundisore was concluded, by which the supremacy 
over the Rajput princes of Udaipur, Jeypore, 
etc., was transferred to the British Government, 
the engagement between the British Government 
and Amir Khan was confirmed, four districts 
rented by Zalim Singh of Kotah were ceded to 
him, Holkar lost all his possessions within and to 
the south of the Satpura Hills, and his remaining 
territories came under the protection of the British 
Government. Mulhar Rao Holkar died in October 
1833, at the age of 28. He left no issue, but his 
widow and his mother adopted Martand Rao 
Holkar, a child between three and four years of age, 
who was said to be of the same tribe and lineage 
as Mulhar Rao Holkar. The child was publicly 
installed on 17th January 1834, under the name of 
Martand Rao Holkar. The adoption of Martand 
Rao, however, proved to be a device of the 
mother of Mulhar Rao Holkar, for the purpose 
of keeping the power in her own hands during 
a long minority. It was not acceptable to the 
people, who were in favour of the succession of 
Hari Rao Holkar, a cousin of the late Maharaja. 
Hari Rao since 1819 had been kept in rigorous 
confinement, but he was released on the night 
of 2d February 1834, by a powerful body of his 
partisans, and received a ready welcome from the 
troops and people. The policy of non-interference 
prevented the Resident from giving active support 
to Martand Rao, although the installation of 



of the house of Holkar was nearly extinguished i Martand Rao had been formally acknowledged by 
by quarrels in the family and amid the dissensions i the British Government. Tin's indifference on 
which distracted the Mahratta confederacy at the i the part of the British Government as to who 
close of the eighteenth century. The fortunes j should rule, gave rise to most serious disturbances, 
of the family, however, were restored by Jeswunt ! The wealthy merchants fled from Indore, trade 

94 



HOLKAR 



HOLLAND. 



was suspended, an 'l '* m ' Wbei infested tho roads 
and destroyed many villages. Martand Rao was 
banished from t lie country, and granted ail allow- 
anoe of 5<H) rupees a-raonth, on condition of his 
resigning all claims to the succession. On 8th 
September L885, an attack was made on the palace 
for the purpose of assassinating the Maharaja 
ami his minister. The attempt was unsuccessful, 
ami resulted in the slaughter of the whole of the 
assailant*. Martand Rao Holkar died without 
issue at Poona, on 2d June 1849, and with hil 
death ended the intrigues which from time to 
time endangered the peace of the country, both 
during the rule of Hari Rao Holkar and his suc- 
cessor. When the attack was made on his person 
in 1835, Hari Rao applied to the British Govern- 
ment for aid, but it was refused, on the ground 
that the engagement to maintain the internal 
tranquillity of the country depended on the con- 
dition that the measures of its government were 
not directly or indirectly the cause of disturb- 
ance ; and because the grant of assistance would 
require a continual interference in the internal 
affairs of the state, inconsistent with the position 
of Holkar and the policy of the British Government. 

In 1841, Maharaja Hari Rao adopted as his 
heir and successor, Khundi Rao, a boy of 13 
years of age, son of an obscure zamindar, and 
very distantly related to the reigning family ; and 
Hari Rao died on the 24th October 1843, aged 
48. Warned by the evils which resulted from 
the vacillating policy pursued on the accession 
of Martand Rao, the British Government took 
immediate measures to proclaim Khundi Rao as 
the acknowledged successor, and to make it known 
that no other claims would be recognised. But 
Khundi Rao died on 17th February in the 
following year. He was never married. On this, 
Sir Robert Hamilton selected and installed the 
younger son of Bhao Holkar, who took the title 
of Tukaji Rao Holkar. In a letter to the young 
chief, the Governor-General laid down the condi- 
tions on which the state was conferred on him. 
This letter (No. lxxvii.) was declared to have the 
force of a sunnud, and the Maharaja was required 
to present a nuzzer of 101 gold mohurs on its 
delivery. 

The young chief, Tukaji Rao Holkar, attained 
his majority in 1852, and was entrusted with the 
entire management of the affairs of the state, and 
was granted a sunnud guaranteeing to him the 
right of adoption. 

An annual payment of 30,000 rupees is made 
to Holkar by tho British Government as compen- 
sation for his share of the district of Patan, which 
was made over to Bundi in 1818. The Maharaja 
also receives through the British Government a 
tribute of 72,700 Salim Sahi rupees, on account 
of Partabgurh, but he has no feudal supremacy 
over that state. He receives credit for this tribute 
as part of his contribution towards the Malwa 
contingent, and it is realized from Partabgurh one 
year in arrears. 

In the war with Jeswunt Rao Holkar, Lord 
Lake gave many lessons how to deal with the less 
coherent forces of Asiatic rulers. Jeswunt Rao 
Holkar, when he opposed the British in 1803, had 
■0,000 regular troops, amongst whom were 
60,000 light horse, and 130 guns, with tho for- 
tresses of Chandore and Galingurh. From the 

tics he adopted, this moveable force baffled the 



British commanders and all the military power of 
India, from April 1804 till the 16th February 
1805. Hut ou the 2d April 1806, Ix»rd Ijdco 
marched all night, and at daybreak entered 11 .1- 
kar'a camp, which he completely broke up; in 
this, in going and coming, I/ml Lake marched 
•')'» miles. Lord Lake subsequently, in December 
1805, marched in his pursuit 405 miles in 43 days, 
from Secundra to the Beas river at the Rajghat. 
Iu Jeswunt Rao Holkar's final overthrow, Txtrd 
I .akr marched 350 miles in a fortnight. Sir D. 
Ouchterlony was defending Dehli against the 
Mahrattas; but, on 'their abandonment of Dehli 
on the 14th or 15th October 1803, Lord Lake 
followed them, and at length, with a small body 
of 3000 British horse and artillery, amongst which 
were the 8th and 27th Dragoons, made a forced 
march of about 48 miles, defeated the forces of 
the Mahrattas, about 60,000, near Farrakhabad, 
followed 10 miles in pursuit, and returned to camp, 
making a journey of about 70 miles in 24 hours, 
with a loss of 22 dragoons killed, and 20 Europeans 
and natives wounded. 

At that time, Amir Khan, the Rohilla chieftain 
of Rohilkhand, forsook the Bhurtpur raja, but 
was followed by General Smith, whom Lord Lake 
sent in pursuit. After a march of 700 miles in 
43 days, Amir Khans army was overtaken, and 
defeated at Afzalghur, at the foot of the Hima- 
layas, on the 2d March 1804, and Amir Khan 
was conveyed across the Ganges and Jumna in 
March, but he rejoined Holkar's camp under 
Bhurtpur. At Laswari, in Central India, in 1803, 
Lord Lake aud General Fraser fought and won a 
battle against the battalions of Sindia and Perron. 

The Indore State maintains 3300 cavalry, 5250 
infantry, and 340 artillery, with 24 field guns. 

In 1832, the Maharaja (1883) Tukaji Rao Holkar 
was born, and in 1843 he was placed on the 
throne by the intervention of the British. He has 
displayed much capacity as a ruler. His estates are 
somewhat scattered, and he has wished to connect 
them. Area, 8075 square miles, aud population in 
1878 was 635,000. He has earnestly encouraged 
all commercial and trading transactions. The ab- 
original race is the Bhil. — Treaties and Situnudt. 

HOLLAND, a country in Europe with great 
possessions in the Eastern Archipelago, which 
are designated Netherland India, also the Dutch 
Possessions in India; and Holland formerly held 
parts of Ceylon, also parts of what is now 
British India, and likewise Malacca in the Malay 
Peninsula. Holland is situated along the south- 
eastern coast of the North Sea, and extends 
in its greatest length, from N.E. to S.W.. 
about 190 English miles. Its greatest breadth, 
from E. to W., is about 123 English miles. The 
superficial area is 7,614,252 English acres, or 
11,897 English square miles. Holland has had a 
severe contest with the ocean, which has ended in 
the country being brought into a high state of 
cultivation and comparative safety. The canals 
are very numerous, and of the greatest utility in 
draining off the waters, and in facilitating the 
internal trade. They are lined with trees, which 
tend greatly to improve the country, in itself so 
flat, that to those approaching it along the rivers 
aud some part of the coast the trees and spires 
seem to rise out of the water. Along the coast 
of the North Sea there is a line of broad sand- 
hills and downs, in some parts so very high as to 



95 



HOLLY. 



HOLWAN. 



shut out the view of the sea even from the tops 
of the spires. In some parts of Zealand and of 
North Holland the defensive war against the 
encroachments of the sea is kept up with great 
difficulty and at an immense expense. The pro- 
vince of Friesland, which has no sandhills, is 
protected against the sea by stupendous dykes 
and palisadoes, the repair of which costs upwards 
of half a million sterling yearly. The industry of 
the people has multiplied cattle and pasture- 
grounds. Laws passed in 1857 and 1863, and 
based on a system of religious equality, and a 
total separation of church and state, ensure for 
every child in the country an education in the 
simple branches of secular knowledge. The three 
universities of Leyden, Utrecht, and Groningen 
contain upwards of 1400 students. The population 
in 1865 was 3,529,108. Protestants, 1,942,387 ; 
Catholics, 1,234,486 ; the remainder are Jews. 
Several dialects are spoken in Holland. The 
Dutch, which is an offspring of the Low German 
or Nieder Deutsch, is the language of two-thirds 
of the inhabitants. Flemish is spoken on the 
Belgian frontier. See Dutch. 

HOLLY, Ilex aquifoliura, Linn., a favourite 
European evergreen. Its hard white wood is 
used in making Tunbridge ware, for the stringing 
or lines in cabinet work, calico-printers' blocks, 
etc. Birdlime is the juice of holly bark extracted 
by boiling, mixed with a third part of nut-oil. 
21 species are known as natives of the Himalayas, 
Nepal, Southern India, Khassia Hills, and Burma. 
Several species of holly — Kau-kuh and Tsz'-shu 
— grow in China ; Ilex cornutum, near Ningpo ; 
I. agnifolium, near Canton. The berried holly 
tree, called Miau rh-tsze and Luh koh-tsze, grows 
along the valley of the Yang-tse ; a tea, called 
Luh koh-ch'a, is made from the leaves, and the 
wax insect sometimes feeds on them. The wood 
is turned into small boxes, and the bark is 
boiled to produce birdlime. — Smith, M. M. See 
flex. 

HOLLYHOCK is a plant of the genus Althea, 
and its varieties well worth cultivating on the 
plains during the cold months of India. — Jaffrcv. 

HOLOCANTHUS INSPERATOR, C. and V., 
Kulloo koli min. Tam. , is a fish frequently taken 
at Madras. H. semicircularis, C. and V., also a 
Madras fish. 

HOLOCENTRUS ARGENTEUS is the Poo- 
koorowah, a very delicious fish of Ceylon and the 
Bay of Bengal. H. ruber, a beautiful red fish 
of the New Hebrides, is poisonous at certain 
seasons. — Bennett. 

HOLONG. Hind. ? A tree of Chutia Nagpur, 
furnishing a hard red timber. — Ced. Cat. 

HOLOSTEMMA RHEEDIANUM. Spr. 

Holostemma adakodien, R. et Sc. 
Asclepias annularia, Roxb. 
A. convolvulacea, Herb., Heijne. 
Sarcostemrna annulare, Roth. 

Apoong, .... Kol. Istara'kula palem, Tel. 
Ada modien, . Maleal. Vistara'kula pala, ,, 

Palla-gurgi, . . . Tel. Palagurugu, . . ,, 

This plant grows throughout India. It has 
large flowers of a red, green, and white colour; 
is very abundant in the hills about Purulea, 
and is also found in the neighbouring plains of 
Chutia Nagpur. The fibre is said to attain its 
best condition after the rains. — Boyle. Fib. PL p. 
306. 



Swala, . . . Japan. 
Holothurion, . . Lat. 
Trepang, Malay, Japan. 
Biche-da-mar, . . Sp. 



HOLOTHURIA. 

Hoy-shun, . . . CHIN. 

Sea cucumber, . . Eno. 

Sea slug, ... ,, 

Cornechu, . . . Fr. 

Beche-de-mer, . . ,, 

There are thirty-three species or varieties, and 
several of them are used as food. They are found 
in the Mediterranean, in the Eastern Archipelago, 
Australia, Mauritius, Ceylon, Zanzibar, etc., and 
are occasionally brought to Bombay from the 
latter place, and re-exported to China. The great 
sea cucumber of Europe is the largest of all the 
known species, and is probably a foot in diameter. 

H. Oceania, Lesson, is about 40 inches long, 
and secretes from the surface of its body a fluid 
which causes an intolerable itching. 

H. lutea, Quoy and Gaimard, is the Styehopns 
luteus, Brandt. 

H. tubulosa, Blainville, of the Mediterranean. 
The Fierasfer Fontanesii, a parasite fish, dwells 
within it. It is eaten at Naples. 

In the Ladrones, H. Guamensis, Quoy and 
Gaimard, is preferred as food. 

H. edulis, the trepang of the Malay, is black. 
It is found in all the islands from New Holland to 
Sumatra, and also on most of those in the Pacific ; 
but is produced in the greatest abundance on 
small coral islands, especially those to the south 
of the Sidu group. The Chinese at Canton call 
it Hoy-shun, which means sea ginseng. 

The holothuria of Raffles Bay is about 6 inches 
long and 2 inches thick. There are six sorts, 
the best lying about 12 feet deep. It is an 
unseemly - looking mollusc. Upwards of 8000 
cwt. are yearly sent to China from Macassar; 
about 9000 cwt. are exported from Java. It is 
fished for in April and May, and is relished in 
China and in Malay countries. They are boiled in 
water, then flattened by stones, dried on mats in 
the sun, and then smoked. It is for the most 
part caught by the hand, for it has little power 
of locomotion ; but in deep water, sometimes by 
diving or by harpoons. It sells at Singapore at 
8 to 115 dollars per pikul of 133^ lbs. Trepang, 
although an article of considerable importance in 
the trade of the Indian islands, is seldom dealt in 
by Europeans, which arises from nice or rather 
capricious distinctions in their quality, which no 
European is competent to appreciate. 

New Caledonia exports annually, to the value of 
£4000, the white bellied, red bellied, small black, 
large black, and brown, with teats, selling at 
£12, £15, £20, £25, and £30 the ton. In China 
the first quality sells at £90 to £200 the ton. In 
1871, 2742 pikuls were received at six Chinese 
ports. H. scabra, of the Philippine Islands, regu- 
larly lodges in its interior, species of fierasfer and 
of pinnotheres. 

Many of the Holothuridse have anchor-shaped 
spicules embedded in their skin, as the Synapta ; 
while others (Cuviera squamata) are covered with 
a hard calcareous pavement. Many of these are 
of a bright red or purple colour, and are very 
conspicuous ; while the trepang which is not 
armed with any such defensive weapons, is of a 
dull sand or mud colour, so as hardly to be dis- 
tinguished from the sea-bed on which it reposes. 

^PP plPTVi^TPi* 

HOLU. Can. Pollution. See Holar ; Holayar. 
HOLWAN. In a.ii. 16, when the Arabs had 



06 



HOLWELL 



lluNAWAi:. 



talc n this oity, 300 horsemen returning from 
this enterprise, undec Ike command of Fadhilah, 
towards toe eml of the <lay encamped between 
two mountain* in Syria. Fadhilah (Fazl Allali) 
poring intimated that it was time for evening 
r, began to repeat with a loud voice the 
usual form, ' God is great,' etc., when ho heard 
Ins words repeated by another voice, which con- 
tinual to follow him to the end of his prayer. — 
Ji'ic/i's Kurdistan, i. 51. 

HOLWELL, Ma., the chief of the settlement of 
Calcutta, when, on the 18th June 1756, it was 
taken by Suraj-ud-Dowla. Mr. Holwell and 140 
of his people were thrust into a guard-room 20 
feet square, from which in the morning only 23 
re- issued alive. This guard-room was known in 
Indian history as the Black Hole of Calcutta. It 
was in the corner of Tank Square, near where, 
i, was Messrs. Lyell, Mackintosh, & Co.'s 
otlice, but it was removed about the beginning of 
entury. See Black Hole ; Calcutta. 

HOLY FIG - TREE, Urostigma religiosum, 
Mi<j. Holy Grail or Sangreal, see Jataka. Holy 
Btar Anise, Illicium auisatutn. 

HOM, of the Zendavesta, is the Soma of the 
Vedas, and supposed to be the Sarcostemma 
(reviaagma; but possibly is the vine of Bacchus, 
the ampelos, and identical with the Gaogird tree, 
which enlightened the eyes. 

llt'M A, a sacrificial burnt - offering of the 
Hindus. It consists of clarified butter or ghi, pre- 
sented to the fire in sacrificial ladles. The word 
is Sanskrit from Hoo, to offer. The devout of all 
eastern races have offered to the deity articles of 
the foods by which life is sustained. The Horn or 
burnt-offering of Abel was of the first of the 
flock. The modern Rajput tenders the first 
portion of the repast to Anadeva, the nourisher, 
the goddess of food ; and all Hindus make similar 
oblations. The Homa burnt-offering can be made 
only by Brahmans. While prayers (mantra) are 
being said, five kinds of consecrated wood, 
together with the dhurba grass, rice, and butter, 
ire kindled and burnt, and the fire is fed so long 
is the ceremony lasts. 

HOMAGE is shown in Rajputana by offering 
>f water. The kallas is a household utensil of 
>rass. A female of each family, filling one of 
;hese with water, repairs to the house of the head 
)l the village, when, being all convened, they 
•roceed in a body to meet the person to whom 
hey render honour, singing the suhailea, or song 
if joy. The presenting of water as a token of 
loniage and regard is especially common in 
Eewar. — Tod's Rajasthan, ii. p. 98. 

HOMALIUM CEYLANICUM. Gardn. 
lilackwellia Ceylanica, Gardn. ; B. tetrandra, W. Ic. 

This large tree, the Lee-yang of the Singhalese, 
s not uncommon throughout the western forests 
I the Peninsula up to 4000 feet; is a'so found 
n the N. Arcot Hills, near Madras, also in 
talon. The timber is very strong, and in use 
.»r building and various other purposes. 
j Homalium tomentosum? Myouk-kyan of the 
iuiniese, a tree of Moulmein, with a strong wood. 
Travancoricum, Bedd., is a very handsome 
dddle-sized tree of Travancore and Tinnevelly. 
(Iritnthianum, minutifolium, Nepalense, pro- 
inquum. and Schliohii are also known, large 

ees.— ( 'al. < 'at. Ex., 1862 ; Beddome, Fl. Sglv. 



HOM Al. <>N KM A ABOMATICUM. s<kott. 

Calla aromatica, Itoxb. \ ZantcUeachla worn., fipr. 
Kucliu gundubi, Jit.sc. 

A perennial plant, native of (hittagong; tulx-ni 
eon i' I with the dried sheaths of the leaves, with 
long white fibres proceeding from every part. 
When cut they exhale an aromatic scent like 
ginger. As a stimulant it is highly esteemed in 
India. Ur. Wight figures also H. calyptratrum 
and H. albescens. — Roxb. iii. 513; W. Ic; O'S/i. 

HOMALOPSIDifi, a family of harmless fresh- 
water snakes, order Ophidia, sub-order Serpeute* 
colubrinaj nonvenenati, species as under : — 

Fordonia unicolor, Gray, Penang. 

( 'antoria elongata, Gthr., Singapore. 

Cerberus rhynchops, Sehneid., from Ceylon to Siam. 

Hypsirhina plumbea, Bwe, Eastern India. 

H. enhydris, Sekmeid., Bengal, Eastern India. 

H. Jagorii, Peters, Siani. 

H. Bennettii, Gray, China. 

H. Chinensis, Gray, China. 

Ferania Sieboldii, Schleg., Bengal, Province Wellesley. 

Homalopsis buccata, L., Malayan Peninsula, Ganiboja. 

Hipistes hydrinus, Cant., Penang. 

Herpeton tentaculatum, Lacep., Siam. 

HOMARARI, a Baluch tribe who occupy 
Tambu. See* Kalat. 

HOMERlTiE of Ptolemy; the Himyar of 

\ Till tL'i 

HOMONOYA SYMPHYLLLEFOLIA. Kurz. 
A timber tree of Darjiling Terai. 

HOMOPTERA, an order of insects. Amongst 
them, in the East Indies, sec. Trimera; family 
Fulgoridse : — 

Fulgora (Hotina) clavata, Westio., Assam. 

F. gemmata, Westio., Himalaya. 

F. guttulata, Westw., N. India. 

F. virescens, Westw., Sylhet. 

F. viridirostris, Westw., Assam. 

F. spinolae, Westw., Mysore, Assam. 

F. oculata, Westw., Malabar, Penang. 

Aphana scutellaris, White, Java. 

A. imperialis, White, Sylhet. 

Ancyra appendiculata, White, Moulmein. 

HONAIN-bin-ISHAQ, a Christian, a native of 
Hira, who lived in the 9th century. He was one of 
the most ancient of the Arabian medical writers. 
After travelling in Greece and Persia, he settled 
in Baghdad, where he translated into Arabic the 
elements of Euclid, the Almagest of Ptolemy, 
and the works of Hippocrates and Aristotle. He 
appears to have commented on the works of 
Galen. One of his treatises is on the eyes, and 
another on sleep and vision. 

HO-NAN is bounded on the N. by Peh-chi-li, 
on the S. by Hu-peh, on the E. by Ngan-hoei. 
and on the W. by Shen-si ; it is also called by 
the Chinese, Tong-hoa. The capital is situated ou 
the south bank of the Hoang-ho, which flows 
through the whole breadth of the province. I to 
population is turbulent, and generally found 
inimical to foreign travellers. Ho-nan means 
south of the river. — Sirrs Chinese, i. p. 431. 

11< >N AWAR, a seaport town in the N. Canara 
district of the Bombay Presidency ; situated in 
lat. 14° 16' 30" N., and long. 74° 29' E. On the 
decay of the Portuguese power in India, Honawar 
was acquired by the sovereigns of Bednor ; and. 
on the conquest of Bednor by Hyder Ali. this 
town also submitted to him. In 1783 it was 
taken by assault by a British force, despatched 
from Bombay , under the command of Qaoenl 
Matthews; and in 1784 successfully defended by 



VOL. II. 



97 



HONE. 



HONEYSUCKLE. 



Captain Torriano against Tipu Sultan, to whom, 
however, in the same year, it was ceded by the 
treaty of Mangalore. On the overthrow of that 
prince in 1799, it again came into the possession 
of the British. It is the Honor and Onor of Deb 
and Cesar Frederici ; Hinawar, Hannaur of Abul- 
fada; Hanor and Hunawur of Abd-ur-Razzaq ; 
and probably the Nandor of the Catatan map; 
Abul Fazl describes it as a fine place, with pleasant 
wardens and a Mahomedan population, with a 
great export trade of rice, and much frequented 
by shipping. It was long a nest of pirates. — 
Imp. Gaz. ; Cathay, ii. p. 451. 

HONE, a stone used for sharpening or setting 
cutlery. The best is of a greenish colour, inclin- 
ing to yellow, often marked with thin dendrical 
lines, and is moderately hard, having a fine close 
texture, resembling indurated clay. Hones of 
good quality are obtainable in the Cuddapah and 
Kurnool districts of India. — Waterston ; M. Ex. 

HONEY. 

Asal-ul-nahl, Injubin, Ar. Mel, Lat. 

Pya-ya, .... BURM. Madu, Ayer-maddu 
Fung-mih, . . . Chin. imanisan labah, Malay. 
Honig, Honing, . Dut. Shahad, . Pers., Hind. 

Dibs, Asal, . . . Egypt. Med, Bus. 

Miel, . . . . Fr., Sp. Madha, .... Sansk. 
Debash, .... Heb. ' Mipanny, . . . Singh. 

Madh Hind. Haniiig, .... Sw, 

Mele, Miele, . . . It. i Tayn, Teyna, Tam., Tel. 

Honey is obtained from the honeycomb of the 
Apis mellifica, Linn., and other species of honey- 
bee, of the order Hymenoptera, Linn. Honey 
is secreted by the nectaries of flowers, sucked 
by the bee into its crop, where it undergoes 
some slight changes, and is then stored up in the 
comb for the food of its community. The finest 
honey is that which is allowed to drain from the 
comb ; and if obtained from hives which have 
never swarmed, it is called virgin honey. In 
some localities it is poisonous, owing to the 
deleterious nature of the plants from which it is 
collected. Dr. Hooker has stated that in some 
parts of Sikkim the honey of rhododendron 
flowers is believed to be poisonous. Azalea pontica, 
the Anabasis informs us, poisoned the soldiers of 
Xenophon in the retreat of the ten thousand. 
Honey diluted with water undergoes the vinous 
fermentation, and hydromel or mead is produced. 
A wild shrub, jeneda, appears to intoxicate the 
bees. The aborigines take a piece in their hand, 
and, biting through the bark, they get the pun- 
gent white juice into their mouths ; this they spit 
out at the bees, which either fly away or become 
intoxicated. The honey of the Eastern Archi- 
pelago is a thin syrup, very inferior in flavour to 
that of temperate climates. The comb is chiefly 
sought on account of the wax, which forms a 
large article of exportation to Europe, India, and 
China. The honeys of the Aravalli and of Kashmir 
are praised, selling at tenpence the pound. There 
are wild bees in the woods of Kashmir, but the 
zamindars have also hives in the walls of their 
houses. The bees are quite domesticated. In the 
Shevaroy Hills honey is largely collected by the 
Mallaiali race, and is seemingly the product of 
three species of bees. Mr. Fischer had some 
hives of bees from Europe, but by day the bee- 
eater birds and king-crows largely destroyed them, 
and moths at night stole the honey. Once, on 
examining the hive, he found a moth had succeeded 
jn forcing its way into the hive. The bees had 



killed it there, but as they could not cast it out, 
they enclosed it in a wax tomb. 

The honey-yielding Apis dorsata, A. bicolor, 
A. Indica, A. nigripennis, and A. socialis, occur 
in the south of India and Ceylon. 

Sir Samuel Baker, in his book, Eight Years in 
Ceylon, refers to the Bambera (A. dorsata) as 
follows : — ' The largest and most extensive honey- 
maker is the Bambera. This is nearly as large as 
a hornet, and it forms its nest upon the bough of 
a tree, from which the comb hangs like a Cheshire 
cheese, being about the same thickness, but five 
or six inches greater in diameter. The honey 
from this bee is not so much esteemed as that 
from the smaller varieties, as the flavour partakes 
too strongly of the particular flower which the 
bee has frequented ; thus in different seasons the 
honey varies in flavour, and is sometimes so highly 
aperient that it must be used Avith much caution. 
The wax of the comb is the purest and whitest of 
any kind produced in Ceylon.' It is supposed to 
range the Archipelago, Siam. A. dorsata and 
A. Indica have been introduced into Europe, and 
the Cyprian bee into Ceylon. In Europe, the 
gold-banded Ligurian is prized. 

HONEY DEW, a secretion on plants, from 
species of Aphides. 

HONEY-EATERS of the South Sea Islands, 
are species of Melithreptes, in Australia and 
neighbouring islands, of the family Melliphagidse. 

HONEY-GUIDE, birds of the sub -family 
Indicatorinae, genus Indicator, of Sikkim and the 
Malayan a. 

HONEY OF RAISINS is the Sher of the 
Persians. It is the juice of the unripe grape, 
boiled to a syrup and formed into a solid mass, 
like congealed honey out of the comb. It is 
supposed to be this honey to which Ezekiel, 
writing of Tyre, alludes (xxvii. 17) : ' Judah and 
the land of Israel traded with thee ; corn of 
Minnith, honey of raisins, and (in some editions 
honey alone) oil, and balm gave they to thee 
for thy wares.' It is made in Syria, and is exported 
to Egypt.— De Bode's Tr. ii. p. 146. 

HONEY-SUCKERS, the name of a family of 
birds, the Nectarinidse or Cinnyridae, of which 
several species are common to India and the 
Archipelago. They are also called the sun-birds, 
and they take the place in the E. Indies of the 
humming-birds of S. America. Humming-birds 
have straight bills, while the bill of the sun-bird 
is curved. The species are all of small size, with 
some feathers of a bright metallic lustre. They 
hover over flowers, and extract the honey with 
their tongues. Dr. Jerdon notices the Arach- 
nothera magna and A. pusilla, the large and little 
spider-hunter, ^Ethopyga miles, M. Vigorsi, M. 
Gouldise, M. ignicauda, M. Nipalensis, M. 
Horsfieldii, and M. saturata ; Leptocoma Zey- 
lanica and L. minima; Arachnechthra Asiatica 
and A. lotenia. The sub-family Dicseinse, flower- 
peckers, has Dicseum coccineum, D. chrysorhseum, 
D. minimum, D. concolor, Piprisoma agile, Myz- 
anthe ignipectus, Pachyglossa melanoxantha. In 
the Moluccas, in Bouru and Ceram and Timor, and 
Australia, species occur of Tropidorhynchus and 
Mimita. — Jerdon ; Tennant. 

HONEYSUCKLE. Jin-tung and Kin-yin-hwa, 
Chinese, species of the genus Caprifolium, with 
few exceptions natives of cold countries ; require 
rich vegetable soil. — Jaffrey. 



98 



HOXG. 



KOOKEH. 



HONG, a word used in Malay invocations, un- 
hallowed, of gnat power, and so panas (hot), thai 
if any man use a Hong invocation throe time , 
nothing that In- undertakes for himself will succeed, 
mi* I In; will live powerful but miserable, able to 
afflict or assist others, but unable toassist bimielf. 
It is perhaps the Sanskrit Honi. It appears to be 
eonauleredas a recognition of an essence or first 
principle beyond God, and an appeal to it for 
power which God has not granted to man. It is 
Med in Javanese invocations; and a Javanese 
explains it to mean embryo of being, primeval 
essence ; so that Sir T. S. Raffles' conjecture, that 
it is the Buddhist and Hindu O'm (Aum), is pro- 
bably correct. — Jour. Intl. Arch. 

HONG. Chin. A united firm, a mercantile 
corporation. 

HONGAY. Can. 

Hippo, Can. I Moha, . Hind., Mahk. 

Kiiiiinj, . Hind., M.wik. | Nella kalavalu, . Tel. 

Under these names are known two different trees 
growing in the woods of Mysore. Oil is obtained 
from the seeds of both. Hip-pe trees are exten- 
sively planted in topes in front of villages, for 
tlie purpose of obtaining oil. They seem to be 
species of Bassia, or perhaps Pongamia glabra. — 
M. Ex. o/1857. 

HOXG-KONG, a large island at the entrance of 
the < 'an ton river, about 22 miles in circumference, 
but very mountainous and generally barren. The 
highest peak has 1825 feet of elevation. The 
island was ceded to the British in the beginning 
of 1841, and Victoria Town is on the north side of 
the island. The houses of the European residents 
are built terrace-like, on the face of the hill. 
Hong-Kong is the Heang-Keang of the Chinese, 
and the name signifies the valley of fragrant 
waters. It is one of the group of islands which lie 
north of the estuary leading to Canton, in lat. 
22° 17' N., and long. 114° 12' E., and is distant 
from Macao 42 miles, and from Canton 105 miles. 
Hong-Kong is about 10 miles in length, and 4£ 
in breadth ; the noble harbour is nearly 4 miles 
in length, and rather more than If in width. 
Hong-Kong is one of that cluster of islands called 
by the Portuguese the Ladrones, or piratical 
islands. — Lay's Chinese as they are, p. 280. 

IK >X HAR. Hind. Fate ; that which is to be. 

HOXIGBERGER, Dr., a German physician 
at the court of Ranjit Singh ; author of a work 
on the medicinal products of the Panjab. 

HON OVER, the most sacred prayer of the 
Parsees. It is very ancient, and has been trans- 
lated from the Zend into German by Professor F. 
Spiegel, and into French by J. Oppert. D. Framjee 
of Bombay sent its words to the editor in 1871. 
He cousiders it to be a theistic prayer to the Sup- 
reme Being. Its words are, — 

' Yatha ahfi vairyo 
At ha rat us asliat chit hacha 
Variheus dazila mananho shyaothenanam 
Aiiheus Mazdai, Khshathremch Ahurai 
Ayiin darigubyo dadhat Vactarem.' 

— Bunsens God in History. 

HOODED, in natural history, a term applied to 
describe several animals. The hooded chameleon is 
the Chamseleo cucullatus ; the Corvus cornix is the 
hooded crow of Europe, Asia Minor, Afghanistan, 
Japan, and Barbary ; and the hooded presbytes is 
one of the Simiadae. 

HOOKAH. Hind. The Indian pipe and appar- 



atus for smoking. In Bengal generally, and in 
•, pine tobacco is rarely smoked ; but various 
compounds are made and smoked in hookahs of 
various forms, the ghalyun of Arabia, nargy! 
Persia, hubble-bubble of British India generally, 
and tlio highly ornamental hookah. The nargyle in 
doubtless a word derived from Narel, a cocoanut. 
for the primitive form of hookah is the narel 
hollow cocoanut shell half-filled with water. On 
one side of the shell is inserted a pipe, which is 
connected with the fire-pan and tobacco-holder 
(chillam), and on the other side is inserted 
another tube, which goes into the mouth of the 
smoker. AVhen the smoker draws, the smoke 
from the first pipe (the end of wliich is under 
water), is drawn up with a bubbling noise through 
the water (hence the term hubble-bubble), and 
is thus cooled and purified. The flexible tube 
(necha) of the more elaborate hookah is made of 
a long coil of iron wire covered with cloth and 
ornamented. This was invented in Akbar's time. 
A hookah for smokiDg madhan (opium), with a 
peculiar shaped chillam, is called Madhaki. In 
Lower Bengal the lower orders frequently smoke 
in companies, with one hubble-bubble or narel 
or kalli, which are the most ordinary and cheap 
forms. All sitting round in a ring, the pipe 
passes from one to another, each taking a few 
whiffs as it passes. This is never done by the 
higher orders, nor is it done in Hindustan. The 
Sulfah form of hookah is the commonest in Kabul 
and Peshawur. The hookah has almost ceased to be 
used by Europeans in India, but natives continue 
to use it with gurako or prepared tobacco. Some 
hookah-snake tubes are very costly, the precious 
metals and precious gems being largely employed 
in their manufacture. The snake or pliable orna- 
mental tubing lengthens out into several coils, 
and the smoke passes through a water- vase, while 
the mouthpiece is of amber, silver, etc. — Sim- 
momls* Diet. ; Robinson's Travels, ii. p. 226. 

HOOKER, Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, K.C.S.I., 
M.D., F.R.S., D.C.L., LL.D., was born 30th June 
1817. In 1839 he entered the navy as Assistant- 
Surgeon, and up till 1843 he was Botanist of the 
antarctic voyage of exploration by the Erehus and 
Terror under Captain (Sir) James Clark Ross ; and 
between that year and 1860 he published the 
Flora Antarctica, Flora Novae Zelandia?, and the 
Flora Tasmauica, in six quarto volumes. Between 
1847 and 1853 he visited the N.E. of India, and 
published in two volumes a journal of his travels 
in the Nepal and Sikkim Himalayas. When on 
the frontier with Dr. Campbell, the raja of Sikkim 
seized and imprisoned both of them for some 
weeks. He published in a folio volume tin- 
Rhododendrons of the Sikkim Himalayas, and 
several communications in the journal of the 
Bengal Asiatic Society ; and he and Dr. Thomas 
Thomson commenced a Flora Indica, of which one 
volume appeared; but later on he renewed the 
I publication of the Flora of British India, and 
; up to 1883 three volumes were completed. He 
j also wrote On the Structure of the Bafanophon. a>. 
! On the Origin of the Pitchers of Nepenthes, On 
the Distribution of Arctic Plants, in 1860; 
j Essay on the Flora Tasmanica, A Memoir on the 
Welwit.-ehia Mirabilis ; also Students' Flora of the 
British Islands, and Primer of Botany for the 
of Beginners; and along with Mr. Bentham, Genera 
Plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in Herbarriis 



99 



HOOLOCK GIBBON. 



HOPEA PARVIFLORA. 



Kewensibus servata definita. On the death in 
1865 of his father,Sir William Hooker, he succeeded 
to the office of Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

HOOLOCK GIBBON, Hylobates hoolock, the 
white-handed gibbon (H. lar.). The long-armed 
apes or gibbons constitute a very distinct section 
of quadrumanous animals, confined to the Malay 
countries of Southern Asia and the adjacent 
islands. They do not usually bear captivity well. 

HOOLOOGOO, grandson of Chengiz Khan. 
See Hulaku. 

HOOLY, a Hindu festival in honour of Krishna, 
which takes place in the month Phalgun, Feb- 
ruary — March, at the commencement of the joyous 
spring. The amusements on this occasion consist 
in dancing, singing, and play. Their songs are 
called Kavir, or extempore stanzas, principally in 
allusion to the charms of Krishna and his amours 
with the Gopia, and are not marked by an excess 
of delicacy. One of the dances is the favourite 
Tipri dance, or Rasa mandala, in which 20, 30, or 
more form a ring, each having a short stick in 
the hand, with which the dancer strikes alternately 
those of the persons before and behind him, 
keeping time with it and his foot ; the circle moves 
round, keeps time to a drum and shepherd's pipe 
of three or four sweet and plaintive notes. In 
Major Moor's Hindu Pantheon is a beautiful plate 
on this subject, in which Krishna (with Radha) in 
the centre is described as the sun, and the circle 
of dancers as the heavenly bodies moving round 
him. In the hooly, the players throw a red 
powder, sometimes mixed with powdered talc to 
make it glitter, into the eyes, mouth, and nose, 
or over the persons of those who are objects of 
the sport, splashing them well at the same time 
with an orange-coloured water. The powder is 
sometimes thrown from a syringe, and sometimes 
put into small globules, which break as soon as 
they strike the object at which they are aimed. 
The Hindu women are expert in throwing these. 
The hooly among the Hindus reminds one strongly 
of the Saturnalia of the Romans : people of humble 
condition take liberties with their superiors in a 
manner not admissible on other occasions. The 
chief fun in public is throwing the coloured 
powders above alluded to on the clothes of persons 
passing in the streets,and squirting about the tinted 
waters. Dignified personages avoid as much as 
they can appearing abroad while these jocular- 
ities are passing, unless with the view of gaining 
popularity they condescend to partake in them ; 
in general they confine themselves to their houses, 
and amuse themselves with their families. In 
pictures, belonging to a series illustrating the 
domestic occupations of the Indians, the family 
diversions of the hooly appear like those more 
publicly exhibited, — scattering yellow and red 
powders, and squirting coloured water. Sending 
simpletons on idle errands contributes also to the 
delights of the hooly ; this is performed exactly 
similar to our ceremony of making April fools on 
the first of that month, and is common to all ranks 
of Hindus ; and Mahomedans, indeed, join in this, 
as well as in other items of hooly fun and humour. 
Another opportunity of merriment, similar to the 
May-day gambols of England, is afforded to the 
Hindus in a festival in honour of Bhawani, that 
always falls on or near that day.— Cole. Myth. 
Hind. p. 382 ; Moor's Hindu Pantheon. See Holi. 

HOOPOE, birds of the genus Upupa, of which 



in India are U. epops, Linn., U. nigripennis, Goidd. 
U. longirostris, Jerdon. U. epops is common ii 
Southern Asia during the cold season, and on th< 
table-lands at all seasons. It is to all appearand 
a bird of fluttering and feeble flight, but hai 
repeatedly been observed, during the seasons o 
migration, at altitudes considerably above thi 
limits of •vegetation. On the western side of tin 
Lanak pass, about 16,500 feet, Major Cunninghan 
saw a hoopoe ; also at Momay (14,000 to 16,00* 
feet elevation), under the lofty Donkia pass ii 
Northern Sikkim. 

HOORMUZ, the name of one of those Parthiai 
kings known to the Romans as Artabanus. Ther 
were five of the name Artabanus, the first in B.c 
216, and the last about a.d. 235, and with whon 
ended the Arsacidse, he having been slain by on 
of his officers, Ardeshir Babegan (Artaxerxes) wh 
became the first of the Sassanidse., It is suppose* 
by Malcolm that Artabanus ill. was the Shahpu 
of the Greeks. His son Vonones reigned, for 
short period. His name is sometimes writte 
Pollas. He was the Volageses of the' Greeks 
whose war with the emperor Nero and embass; 
to Vespasian are related in the Roman historj 
Hoormuz appears to have been Artabanus IV 
of the Romans. — Malcolm's Persia, i. p. 85. 

HOPEA, a genus of plants of the natural orde 
Dipterocarpacese. The Thin-ga-do of the Burmese 
a species of Hopea, is a large tree which abound 
in the same localities of British Burma as E 
odorata, but the wood is not equally valued, i 
cubic foot weighs 52 lbs. It sells at 12 annas pe 
cubic foot. H. decandra, Buch., called Ooroop 
in Malayala, is a tree which the natives of Canar 
prefer to teak for building ships, being mor 
durable and close grained. H. discolor, Thw., : 
a large tree of Ceylon, growing in the Saffragai 
and Ambagamowa districts at no great elevatioi 
The under sides of the leaves are of a rich brow 
colour. H. faginea, Wall., is a tree of Penan< 
H. floribunda? The-ah,also Tan-the-yaof the Bui 
mese, is a very large tree of Tavoy. — Thw. Zeyl. 

HOPEA ODORATA. Roxb. 
Then-gan, .... Burm. | Then-gan-pha-yung,BuRS 

This species grows in Chittagong and Burm? 
and is considered the most valuable indigenou 
timber tree in the southern provinces of Tenasserin 
and at Tavoy and Mergui is sawn up for buildin 
purposes. The then-gan trees grow to a height c 
250 feet ; they are found near Moulmein in laterit 
and sandstone chiefly. The best canoes are mad 
of it, and it is used extensively in native boat 
building. It is a light-brown wood, is used ex 
tensively by the Burmese in the construction c 
boats carrying 3 or 4 tons, formed from the trunk 
of these magnificent trees. The trunk is scoope 
or burnt out, and stretched in the centre, whils 
warm, by means of cross pieces of wood. Whe: 
the required breadth is obtained, the sides ar 
built up to obtain a greater capacity. These tree 
boats, if they may be so called, are from 7 to J 
feet beam. The breaking weight of H. odorati 
may be stated at 800 lbs., with a specific gravit; 
of 45 to 46 lbs.— Drs. Mason, M'Clelland, Roxb.' 

HOPEA PARVIFLORA. Bedd. 
Kiralboghi,GhatsofS.CAN. I Iru-bogum, . Malabab 
Tirpu, . Plains „ j 

A large, handsome tree, common both ix 
the moist and dry forests in Malabar and S 
Canara, up to an elevation of 3500 feet. Tlu 



100 



HOPEA M'AVA. 



]|<)l:l)KI'\f. 



ITOOd it hardly known commercially as yet, but 
it is much valued by the natives in S. Canara ; 
and ( 'ulonel Beddome believes it will be of great 
value for gun-carriage purposes, and will also 
answer well for sleepers. In S. Canara it is much 
valued for temple-building purposes. — Bedilome. 

HOPEASUAVA Wall. Engyfo, Burm. A 
valuable tree found in the Eng forests of British 
Btmna, but large trees are not common in Pegu. 
Wood tough and hard, but heavy, used in house- 
building, for boats, and a variety of other purposes, 
and said to bo as durable as teak. A cubic foot 
weighs 55 lbs. In a full-grown tree, on good 
soil, the average length of the trunk to the first 
branch is 60 feet, and average girth measured at 
6 feet from the ground is 7 feet. — Dr. Brandts. 

BOPEA WIGHTIANA. Wall. A variety of 
this tree is the 11. glabra, W. and A., very common 
in many of the western Madras forests. The 
timber is very valuable, and very similar to that 
of Hopea parviflora. One variety, the Kong of 
Tinnevelly, is par excellence the timber of that 
district. Another variety is abundant in the S. 
Canara district, where it is called. Kalbow and 
Hiral bogi ; it is a first-rate coppice firewood, and 
large tracts in this state are met with in the plains 
of that district, never apparently flowering, but 
abundantly covered with the abortive fruit-like 
echinate excrescence, much like the young fruit 
of a Spanish chesnut ; it is probably the formation 
of some insect in the bud of the panicle. A some- 
what similar formation occurs in Hopea parviflora. 
-Wall.; Beddome, Fl. Sylv. p. 96. 

HOPPER, the Appa of the Singhalese, and 
Apum of the Tamils. In Southern India, cakes 
made of wheaten flour and cocoanut milk. The 
Appas of the Bombay Presidency are made from 
the Sorghum vulgare, and areof rice-flourinCeylon. 

HOPS. 



Humle, . . . Da., Sw. 
Hoppe, .... Dut. 

Houblon, Fr. 

Hopfen, .... (!kh. 
Bruscandoli, .... It. 



Luppoli, It. 

Hamulus lupulus, , Lai. 
Chmel, . . . . Bus. 

Obion, Sp. 

Lupulo, . . Sp., 1'okt. 



an 
bi 

'k 



The hop plant has been introduced into India, 
grows well at Kaolagir in the Doon, but flowers 
bparingly. It has yielded enormously in Australian 
colonies, in Victoria, along the valleys of Gipps- 
land, and other localities, to the extent of 1500 lbs. 
an acre. The properties of hops, of giving the 
-bitter to beer ana preventing acetous fermen- 
tation, enable it to be kept much longer. To it, 
O doubt, is owing a portion of the stomachic 
roper ties of malt liquor, as we see exemplified 
n thejbitter, often called Indian, ales. Hops are 
to vypnotic, especially when stuffed into a pillow, 
P aut they should be first moistened with spirits, to 

* >revent the rustling noise. Fomentations also 
^ »ave been used. Hops are thought to be diuretic 

n 'as is also the root), and to be useful in correcting 

* ithic acid deposits. — Royle ; Von Mueller. 

HOR or Hor-pa. Tibetan. Kao-tsze, Chin. 
taa This race call themselves Ighur. They seem to be 
fl Shot. They dwell on the north-western frontier 
J )f Tibet, on the confines of the Turk districts of 
.little Bokhara. Some of them are Mahomedans, 
nd Mr. Hogdson considers them to be Turks. — 
Tsathani's Ethnology. 

HOR A. Sansk., Lat. The l-24th part of 
he natural day, answering to a European nour. 
The Vara or solar day in Hindu almanacs is 



reckoned from sunrise to sunrise, and is divided 
into _'l hora or hours, and each hora of the day is 
ruled by one of the planets in turns, the r 
being the Sun, Venus, Mercury, Moon, 8aturn, 
Jupiter, and Mars. — Kala SantaUta. dm TOM ; 
Vara. 

HORA, a goddess of Byblus, worshipped at 
Babylon as Hea, the equivalent of Juno. Her 
name in Tyre was Itea. — Bunsen. 

HORA-A1.IA. BOHflt A rogue or imiM 
elephant. 

HORA-BORA, a tank, now in ruins, in the 
Bintenne district of Ceylon. Its length is 8 or 
10 miles, and breadth 8 or 4. The embankment 
is from 50 to 70 feet high, and its base is 200 feet 
broad. — TennanCs Ceylon. 

HORANAWA, a shrill musical pipe in use with 
the Kandians. Its tones have some resemblance 
to those of the bagpipe. Its mouthpiece is made 
from the talipot leaf, and its other parts of jack- 
wood and brass. — Sirr's Ceylon. 

HORDE, an introduced English word from the 
Turkoman word Urdu, a camp. 

HORDEUM, a genus of plants of the natural 
order Panicacese, furnishing the barley so much 
used by the more northern nations of the world. 

H. distichon, Linn. , 2-rowecl barley. 

H. deficiens, Stendel, of Red Sea, 2-rowed barley. 

H. hexastichon, Linn., 6-rowed barley. 

H. vulgare, Linn., 4-rowed barley. 

H. zeocriton, Linn., 2-rowed barley. 

To this species belong the sprat, battledore, Ful- 
ham. Pultney rice, and Turkish barley, and the 
Dinkel. 

English barley is that with 2-rowed ears, and 
its botanical name is Hordeum vulyare distichon. 
The Scotch here or bigg is the Hordeum vulgare 
hexastichon. It has two rows of ears, but three 
corns come from the same point, so that it seems 
to be 6-eared. The grains of bigg are smaller 
than those of barley, and the husk thinner. The 
kinds of barley especially cultivated for making 
pearled barley or malt,- are Hordeum perlatum, 
II. distichon B., Zeocriton commune, Hordeum 
mundatum. These are technically known as 
Scotch and French pearl barley, battledore barley, 
German rice, sprat barley. Fero de ozzo is made 
from sprat barley. 

Professor Einhof analyzed 1000 parts of barley 
flour, aud found it to contain 720 of starch, 56 
sugar, 50 mucilage, 36 - 6 gluten, 12 - 3 vegetable 
albumen, 100 water, 25 phosphate of lime, and 
68"0 of fibrous or bgneous matter. 

The specific gravity of English barley varies 
from 1-25 to 1-38 ; of bigg, from 1*227 to 1*265. 
The weight of the husk of barley is 1/6, that of 
bigg 2/9. Professor Ure states ' specific gravity 
of barley is 1*285 by my trials.' 

H. asgiceras, Royle, MSS., has ears cylindrical ; 
florets arranged in a confused manner, not in 
rows ; awns soft, short, hooded, and bent down- 
wards ; grains loose in the husk. It is found in 
the northern parts of India, and probably in 
Tartary, as its grains have been sent to England 
under the name of ' Tartarian wheat.' Its appear- 
ance is more that of wheat than of barley, and 
its naked grains assist the resemblance. It is. 
however, a genuine species of Hordeum. It 
appears to be a productive plant, but little is as 
yet known of its quality in the climate of Englaud. 

H. gymnodistichum has the ear cylindrical ; 



101 



HORDEUM CCELESTE. 



HORN. 



awns almost parallel with the ear ; grains loose in j any husk at all, but only a fine skin. Barley is 
the husk. Naked barley, a species but little culti- ; one of the cheapest of the grains found in the 
vated now, is of unknown origin. It is said to bazars of Kaira, in Gujerat. — Powell; Cleg. Pant/. 
have been introduced into England in the year , Rep.; Steicart, p. 256; Bay. Cyc, quoting Loire's 
1768; but it is reported to have preserved its; Elements of Agriculture, p^ 238; Voigt. 



characters unaltered from time immemorial in 
some parts of Europe. 

H. gymno-hexastichon has the ear cylindrical ; 
awns very long, rough, and rigid, rather spreading 
away from the ear; grains loose in the husk. 
The original of this, the naked 6 -rowed barley, is 
unknown. It is extemely productive, and in some 
parts of Europe it is reckoned the most valuable 
of all. The French call it, on account of its good 
qualities, Orge celeste. 

HORDEUM C03LESTE. 
(Jhama, .... Bhot. I Elo, .... Chenab. 
Gliomas (husked), . ,, | Ua-jo, Ua, Khas, Sutlej. 

This is found in the Sutlej valley between Ram- 
pur and Sungnam up to 15,000 feet. The beard- 
less variety is most esteemed. Barley ripens in 
the end of May, several weeks before wheat. The 
dough made of it is called ' ampe ' in Ladakh. 

HORDEUM DISTICHON. Linn. 
Zeocritum distichon, Beauv. 

Shair, Arab. I Shoreh, .... Heb. 

Mu-yau, .... Bukm. Jao, . . Hind., Pers. 
Krithe of Dioscorides, Gr. | Barley arisi, . . . Tam. 

Barley of Exodus ix. 31, the summer barley of 
England. This is commonly stated to be a native 
of Tartary. Colonel Chesney found it wild in 
Mesopotamia, upon the banks of the Euphrates. 
It is much cultivated in Europe, and is the common 
summer barley of England, and that which cul- 
tivators seem to prefer. Its ears are not so large 
;is those of H. hexastichon, but the grains are 
heavier. Ear cylindrical ; awns almost parallel 
with the ear ; grains adhering to the husk. 

HORDEUM HEXASTICHON. Linn. 

Shair, Arab, i Yoa of . . Kangra, Jav. 

Juvo, Beng. j Soa, Jhotak, . . Ladakh. 

Mu-yau Bvrm. 



Chenab. 



Shiroka of 
To-sa of . 
Tro, Ne, of 
Situs-hooka, 
Chakof . 



Nepal. 

Pangra. 

. Bus. 

SlTLEJ, S\V 



Yava, Yava biy yamyuTEL. 
Pachcha yava, Yavalu, „ 



Thanzatt, Nai, 
Jaw, jawa, . . ,, 

Sa-too, . . . Dukh. 
Ijoeir, .... Egypt. 
Krithe of Dioscorides, Gu. 
Shoreh, .... Heb. 
Jao,. . . Hind., Pers. 

Common or winter barley is grown in N. India. 
It is frequently cultivated as a cold-weather crop in 
the plains of the Panjab, as it requires less labour 
and gives more produce than wheat even in 
inferior soils, and where the water is deep below 
the surface. Above 8000 feet of elevation it is 
much more common than wheat, while at lower 
heights it is less grown. In Lahoul and Ladakh 
it is abundantly cultivated with Fagopyrum up 
to 13,000 feet in Ladakh. Some kinds of barley 
may be seen up to 14,000 feet about Hanle, near 
the Tsomoriri lake, and this is found in the Sutlej 
valley between Rampur and Sungnam at an eleva- 
tion of highest limit 15,000 feet, and much culti- 
vated. Barley is cultivated much in the same way 
as wheat, but is ready for cutting somewhat sooner ; 
it is grown much on ' sailaba ' and ' barani ' 
lands. In the Panjab it is much less esteemed 
than wheat, and sells much cheaper, though it 
produces much more, and requires worse lands 
and less watering than wheat. The varieties are 
Jau-desi (common country barley) and Jau- 
paighambri. Ghoni jau is barley that has scarcely 



HOREB and Mount Sinai are part of the 
Jabl-ul-Tur range, with Hor or Seir, now called 
Jabl Harun, or Aaron's mountain. 

HOREHOUND, BLACK, Ballota nigra ; white, 
patch leaves. 

Horehound, white ; Marrubium vulgare, Linn. 
Pucha pat, . . . Beng. | Marrubium Indicum, Lat. 

This plant grows at elevations of 2000 to 7000 
feet in the N.W. Himalaya, in Kashmir, the Salt 
Range, on the Chenab and Trans-Indus. The 
leaves are of a whitish-grey colour, having a 
woolly appearance, and possessing a faint agree- 
able odour, and a sharp, bitter taste. That met 
with in Bombay is imported from Singapore, and 
is used in various ways by the natives, but chiefly 
as an ingredient in Guraku, and, when combined 
with other herbs, for scenting the hair of women. 
The essential oil is in great request among the 
superior classes of natives, for imparting the 
peculiar fragrance of the leaf to clothes. — Faulkner; 
J. L. Stewart. 

HORINGHATA, one of the mouths of the 
Ganges. 

HORMARA, a section of Baluchistan, adjoining 
the Arabian Sea. The Hormara tribe say they 
came originally from Sind. 

HORN. 

Hoorn, Dut. j Tanduck sungu, Malay. 

Corne, Fr. Rogg, Kus. 

Sing, Guj., Hind., Karn. Cuerno, Sr. 

Corno, . . . .It., Por. Kombu, .... Tam. 
Cornu, Lat. | Kommu, .... Tel. 

The horns of animals are largely utilized in the 
manufactures of the south and east of Asia ; and 
those of the bison, buffalo, elk, ibex, goat, ante- 
lope, deer, oxen, and rhinoceros are largely im- 
ported or re-exported. Horn of kinds is exten- 
sively used in the manufacture of handles for 
knives, walking-sticks, spoons, combs, lanterns, 
snuff-boxes, powder-flasks, buttons, hairpins, etc. 
In China, buffalo horns are worked into lanterns, 
some of which are highly elegant. Chessboards, 
work and knitting boxes, tea-chests and tea- 
caddies, inkstands, baskets, etc., which are lined 
with sandal-wood, are generally very neatly made 
at Vizagapatam. But they are far surpassed, 
both in cheapness and workmanship, by articles 
of a similar description, the produce of German 
industry, which are largely imported into England. 

In China, lanterns made of horn shavings are 
largely used. Horn is softened by very intense 
heat, and then extended into thin lamina) of any 
shape. The best sort of rhinoceros horns come 
from Cochin-China, and sell at times for 300 
dollars a-piece ; an inferior sort is imported into 
China from India, of which some probably are 
from Southern Africa, which are sold for 30 dollars 
and upwards a-piece. The Chinese work the 
finest of these horns into elegant cups and other 
articles, but the most of the importation is used 
as a medicine. It also forms an article of com- 
merce in the Chinese junks trading to Japan. 
The deer-horns and antlers exported from India 
are the dense antlers of the sambur (Cervus 
hippalephus), of the barking deer (Cervus munt- 
jac), of the axis (Cervus axis) , the nil-gai 



102 



HORNBEAM 



HORSE. 



(Pwnalif rasa), ;in<l other ipeoiet; also the horns 
..t" the il.ar, gural, and yak. Horns exported from 
India, — 

Cwt R». I Year. Cwt. Rs. 

>, 68,175 7,62,399 1877-78, 88,783 19,42,009 
1875-76, 55,755 8,06,652 1 1878-79, 67,828 13,78,667 
1876-77, 71,890 12,80,051 1 1879-80, 57,204 12,68,321 

H rn-bows are sometimes used in the arma- 
ment of some Chinese troops. 

IK UwNBKAM, Carpinus viminea. 
Shirash of . . . Beas. I Imar of . . . Sutlej. 
Charkre of . . . Ravi. | 

A moderate-sized tree growing in the N.W. 
Himalaya, at from 5500 to 6000 feet up to the 
IJavi. Its wood is esteemed by carpenters. — Dr. 
J. L. Star art. 

HORNBILL, birds of the family Buccrotidae, 
genera anorhinus, berenicornis, buceros, hom- 
raius. hydrocissa, meniceros, tockus, aceros, crano- 
rhinus, rhyticeros, and rhinoplax, the shapes of 
whose bills arrest attention. Their food consists 
of fruits, berries, flesh, and even carrion. 

B. ra vat us, body and wings black, greater coverts 
and quill-feathers tipped with white ; thighs, upper 
and under tail coverts, white. It is a native of 
India, the Himalaya mountains, Java, and most of 
the islands of the Archipelago. 

B. pica, Scopoli, is the B. coronata, Boddsert. 
The female is built up in the nest and fed by the 
male during incubation. This hornbill abounds 
in Cuttack, and bears there the name of Kuchila- 
khai, or Kuchila-eater, from its partiality for the 
fruit of the Strychnos nux vomica. 

B. rhinoceros, the rhinoceros hornbill. The bill 
about 10 inches long, and of a yellowish-white ; 
the upper mandible red at the base, the lower 
black ; the horn or casque varied with black 
and white ; the body black, of a dirty white 
below and posteriorly ; tail about 12 inches, the 
feathers white at the base and tip, black in the 
middle. It is a native of India and the Indian 
islands. — Ena. Cyc; Goold ; Tennanfs Ceylon. 
See Birds ; Buceros. 

HORNED HOG, the babirussa, inhabits the 
woods of Java, Celebes, and others of the larger 
Sunda isles. Its upper tusks are of great length 
and curved form, and grow upwards and back- 
wards like the bonis of the Ruminantia. It is 
probably the Sus tetraceros of .<Elian. — Eng. Cyc. 
p. 359. 

HORNET, Tsireah, Heb. ; Crabo, Lat. 

HORPA, Turkish tribes, so called by the 
Tibetans, and known to the Mongols as Bada Hor. 

HORRE. Singh. A hard, though coarse, 
open-grained, heavy Ceylon wood, Dipterocarpus 
laevis. 

HORSBURGH, JAMES, whose name is indis- 
solubly connected with the history of the Marine 
Surveys of India, was a native of Scotland. He 
began life as a cabin boy, but soon rose to the 
command of a vessel in the eastern seas, and 
gave rein to his innate love of surveying. After 
many years, he returned to England, and a set of 
his charts, engraved by Walker, placed him at once 
in the first rank of hydrographers. About 1804 
he published the first edition of his East Indian 
Directory, and on the 10th November 1810 he 
was appointed to examine the journals of the East 
India Company's ships, and became Hydrographer. 
From that time till his death in 1836, all charts 
passed under his scrutiny, and were published 

1 



under Ium superintendence. Fourteen chart* 

adually^compiled by himself, were published bv 
the East India Company, from the N. and 8. 
Atlantic to the Archipelago. His Directory went 
through six editions, in 1809, 1836, 1841. After 
the middle of the 19th century, Mr. Findlay 
printed one on that of Horsburgh, and in 1K71 
Captain Taylor printed another. 

In his honour a lighthouse was erected on 
Pulo Aor, near Pedra Branca. His nailing 
directions are reckoned indispensable in navi- 
gation. The island of Pedra Branca is called 
Batu Putih by the Malays, both these terms signi- 
fying white rock. Prior to the quarrying opera- 
tions on it, it was covered by the dung of the 
numerous sea-birds that frequented it as a resting- 
place. The rock is situated at the extremity of 
the Straits of Singapore, nearly in mid channel ; 
and as it advances beyond the mouth of the Straits 
considerably into the China Sea, it has for ages 
served as the principal leading mark to vessels 
passing out of, or into, the Straits. — Dr. BuitCs 
Catalogue; Jonrn. Ind. Archipelago, 1852; E. I 
Marine Surveys, P. P., 1871. 

HORSE. 



Hisfm, .... Arab. 
Son; H'nyet, . . Bukm. 

Hest, Dak. 

Paard Dut. 

Cheval, Fit. 

Pferd ; Gaul, . . Ger. 

'I*«r#f, Gr. 

Sus, Heb. 

Ghora Hind. 

Cavallo, . . . It., Port. 
Equus, Caballus, , Lat. 



Asp, Pers. 

Kon, Pol. 

Loschad, .... Rum. 
Asu; Hya; Aswa, Sansk. 

Caballo, Sp. 

Hast, Sw. 

Kudri, .... Tam. 
Guramu, .... Tel. 

Sukk, Turk. 

Cefl, .... WKLSH. 
Aspa, Zend. 



The king Sesonchosus of Egypt is supposed to 
have been the tamer of the horse. But, from 
time immemorial, the horse has been domesticated 
and subservient to man, and been largely used 
in war. An ancient eastern prince (Job xxxix. 
19-25) describes the horse as a creature which 

' Mocketh at fear, and is not affrighted ; 
He saith among the trumpets, Ha ! ha ! 
And he smelleth the battle afar off, 
The thunder of the captains and the shouting. ' 

Judging by its varied names, the horse seems 
to have been very generally diffused over the 
central parts of the old world, some of the terms 
being derived from its neigh. Amongst every 
nation of the old world its use and beauty have 
made it a favourite. Supernatural powers have 
even been attributed to it by some nations. It 
was sometimes considered the most acceptable 
sacrifice that could be offered to heathen deities ; 
and we read in 2 Kings xxiii. 11 that Josiah took 
away the horses that the kings of Judah had given 
to the sun. According to Herodotus, the horse 
was the most appropriate offering that could be 
made to the sun, on account of its great swift- 
ness. The Persians dedicated horses to the sun ; 
and Sextus Pompeius sacrificed to Neptune by 
throwing horses into the sea. 

During the Hindu rule in Hindustan, prior to 
the advent of the Mahomedans, the horse was 
offered in sacrifice by sovereigns claiming para- 
mount power. See Aswa Medina. 

The sacred horses of the Germans were white, 
and the device of the Saxons was a white horse. 
Marco Polo tells us that 100,000 white horses 
were presented to the Great Khan on New Year's 

03 



HORSE. 



HORSE. 



day ; and the Tartar chiefs continued at least to 
the time of Kan-ghi to present a tribute of white 
horses to the emperor. Native princes in all 
parts of India continue fond of white horses, and 
generally have one or more favourites of this 
colour in their stud. A favourite colour for state 
occasions is cream-colour. The royal carriage of 
Britain on state occasions is drawn by six cream- 
coloured horses. The horse represented on Greek 
and Roman bas-reliefs was a small, compact, and 
spirited-looking little animal, not lai'ger than what 
we would call a pony, but he must have been 
perfectly trained, for neither bridle nor bit nor 
saddle was used by his rider, who guided him 
by a small stick, tapping him on either side of the 
neck as he wished to turn. 

Naturalists generally believe that the varieties 
of all horses have descended from one species, but 
there are at present numerous varieties, presenting 
great differences in size, shape of ears, length of 
mane, proportions of the body, form of the 
withers and hind quarters, and especially of the 
head, and the pedigree of a racehorse is generally 
more to be relied on in judging of its probable 
success, than its appearance. 

The horse can bear both intense heat and 
intense cold. In Siberia are wild horses in lat. 
66° N., and he comes to the highest perfection in 
Africa and Arabia. Much humidity seems more 
unfavourable to the horse than heat or cold ; and 
this, perhaps, will explain why, to the eastAvard of 
the Bay of Bengal, over a humid area of enormous 
extent, in Burma, Siam, Malayan Archipelago, the 
Loo-Choo Islands, and a large part of China, full- 
sized horses do not occur. In Japan, farther 
east, they recur. The range of colour in horses 
is very great. The English racehorse is said 
never to be dappled ; cream-coloured, light and 
mouse-coloured duns are occasionally dappled. 
Horses of varied colours, of diverse breeds, and 
from various parts of the world, have a tendeucy 
to become streaked, and racehorses often have 
the spinal stripes, the stripe being generally 
darker than the other parts of the body ; they 
occur across the shoulder and on the legs. Dar- 
win considers the whole horse genus to have had 
for a progenitor an animal striped like a zebra 
(but perhaps otherwise very differently con- 
structed), the common parent of our domestic 
horse, whether or not it be descended from one 
or more wild stocks of the ass, the hemionus, 
quagga, and zebra. He says that the spinal 
stripe in the English racehorse is more common 
in the foal than in the grown animal. The ass 
not rarely has distinct transverse bands on its 
legs, like those on the legs of the zebra. The 
spinal stripe occurs on horses of all colours, but 
on the mouse duns and on duns the transverse 
bands occur on the legs, and sometimes also a 
faint shoulder stripe. In the Kattyawar breed, a 
horse without stripes is not considered purely 
bred. The spine is always striped and the legs 
barred, and a shoulder stripe is common, and 
sometimes is double or treble. The ass has 
almost always a dark stripe or band on the 
shoulder, which is sometimes even double, but is 
always variable in length and breadth. The 
koulan of Pallas has been seen with a double 
shoulder stripe. The hemionus has no shoulder 
stripe, but their foals' legs are generally striped. 
The prevailing belief amongst the Europeans in 



India, is that the native breeds of horses have 
decreased under British rule. Up to the begin- 
ning of the 19th century, there were several horse 
fairs in Rajputana, especially those of Bhalotra 
and Poshkur, to which the horses of Cutch and 
Kattyawar, the Lakhi jungle, and Multan, were 
brought in great numbers. Valuable horses were 
then bred on the western frontier, on the Looni, 
those of Rardurro being in high estimation. But 
after the successes of the British over the Mahrattas 
and the Pindara, the breeding studs of Rardurro. 
Cutch, and the jungle became almost extinct, and 
the horses from the west of the Indus were carried 
to the Sikhs. The destruction of the predatory 
system, which had created a constant demand, 
lessened the supply. The Lakhi jungle was well 
known in India for its once celebrated breed of 
horses, which became extinct in the early part of 
the 19th century. 

Colonel Henry Shakespeare thinks that the 
cause of the decline of the native horse in India, 
arises from the fact that Government has en- 
couraged the supply of a larger description of 
animal than the country naturally produced, and 
the hardy small breeds of native horses have thus 
been neglected. Perhaps, however, the chief 
causes of the decline in their numbers, is their 
nou -requirement for the predatory bands and 
Parthian-like cavalry, since the contentions of 
the princes of India have been suppressed ; also 
cultivation has been extending over grazing lands ; 
and as the former governments of India and their 
military servants were the largest buyers of horses, 
though the British continue to buy extensively, 
the soldiers and the guns of the British Indian 
army are larger than those in use by former native 
powers, and the British admit only horses into the 
ranks of their armies, and even in their equipage 
a mare is rarely seen. 

Panjab. — Under native rule, the Panjab main- 
tained an enormous cavalry force, mounted chiefly, 
if not entirely, on horses bred in the country, but 
that territory is now unable to meet the demands 
of its irregular force, which is numerically insigni- 
ficant compared with that kept up by the Sikh 
Government. The reasons assigned for this are 
three in number : — 1st. Large numbers of brood 
mares were withdrawn from the Panjab at the 
time of the annexation ; 2d. Extensive demands 
were made on the province for both horses and 
mares during the mutiny ; and 3d. A large propor- 
tion of the re-mounts of the Sikh army were mares, 
which were regularly bred from ; but under the 
British system, which requires re-mounts to be 
available for service at all times of the year, this 
cannot be done. It has therefore occurred that 
mares introduced into irregular cavalry corps, on 
account of their tractable nature, are not per- 
mitted to breed ; and the result is that every one 
bought up for military purposes, and even every 
one bought up by the European community, may 
be regarded as a brood mare lost to the country. 
It has also been ascertained that breeders are 
parting with their best mares. The Dlmnni caste, 
of the Rawal Pindi districts, the best in the 
province, is almost extinct from this cause. Yet 
many excellent brood mares were left, especially 
in the Rawal Pindi, Jhelum, Gujerat, Gugaira, 
and Lahore districts. There were also very good 
mares in the frontier districts, such as Bunnu, 
Kohat, Debra Ismail Khan, and Dehra Ghazi 



104 



IIORPE. 



nonsB. 



Khan. Although small, they possess good blood 
and great powers of endurance, which is every- 
thing in the horse. 

Palanpur has a really good breed, the mares 
of which ;ire justly and highly esteemed, and 
command considerable prices even among natives. 
In Rajpvtana, few of the princes have generally 
good horses in their territories. The Marwar 
horse contains apparently much Kattyawar blood, 
and, bred with great care in many places through- 
out the country by the thakurs and others, is a 
valuable animal in every respect. Good mares 
o scattered, but the generality of horses 
met with are inferior animals in every respect. 

The breed of horses in Jeypore is exceedingly 
poor, as little care has been taken to improve the 
country animal in any way. Some few of the 
thakurs possess and breed good animals. The 
horses of Shikawutti are said to be good. 

Bunni Singh, raja of Ulwar, founded a fine 
breeding stud, consisting of well-selected Arabs 
and Kattyawar horses, and in Ulwar the troopers 
were better mounted than native cavalry generally, 
and a better stamp of horses was met with than in 
any other Kajput state. The finest of his cavalry 
were, however, almost annihilated on meeting with 
the rebels in superior numbers in 1857. 

In Bhurtpur, also, some attention was given to 
the breed of horses, but they are inferior to those 
of the Ulwar district. 

The Dekhan breed of horses was highly improved 
about the beginning of the 19th century by crosses 
with the Arab horse. The small blood-horse of 
the Bhima valley or Terai are of this breed, and 
the mares are beautiful. The horse very rarely 
grows above 14 to 14 - 1 hands in height, but has 
t ho fine limbs, broad forehead, and much of the 
docility and all the enduring properties of the 
Arabs, and has been mistaken for them. He is 
not so fiery as the small and blood Arab, and 
more manageable in the ranks. Malligaum, about 
25 miles from Ganga Kheir, on the Godavery, is a 
great mart for the Dekhan horse, and purchasers 
from all parts of the Peninsula annually resort to 
the fair. Some of the horses are really very fine. 
In the Dekhan, the larger horses are bred about 
the Gor river and Aligaum, between Poona and 
Ahmadnaggur. 

The Hyderabad territory in the Dekhan can 
breed about 2000 horses a-year, and 500 good 
colts could be purchased at lower rates there than 
are paid for Arabs or Cape or Australian horses. 

The low-statured horses of the Bhima and 
Man rivers, the Bhima Terai and Man Terai, are 
good. The Bhima horse has all the best points of 
the high-bred Arab, without his very fine skin, 
irritable temper, and rather long pasterns, and 
has generally better feet. The marches of the 
Mahratta and Pindari horsemen during the early 
part of the present century are well known, and 
the Mahratta pony to this day, when of the 
proper breed, commands a high price in the 
Indian markets. The little ponies used in Madras 
in the Jatka carriages, are brought from Poona, 
Sholapur, Hubli, and Dharwar. A few are 
brought from Kangayam in the south of the 
Peninsula. A good pony costs 150 rupees. 

The Tattu, or pony of the Dekhan,is a wonderful 
animal, often with great speed, or great strength 
and much endurance. Their colours are generally 
bay, or brown, or chesnut; grey seldom, and dun 



still more so. They are generally taught to amble 
four or five miles an hour. 

The Kalhi or KattftMar horse is a largo and 

fiowerful blood animal. They have line )• 
leads, and make admirable cavalry chargers; com- 
monly of a dun colour, with black points and 
black manes and tails. All have the (shoulder 
stripe. It bas been said, but not seemingly with 
correctness, that few of the Kattyawar bones of 
the present day are of the real Kattyawar breed, 
being much crossed with Arabs and half-bred 
horses of sorts. The pure bred Kathi are fine 
powerful horses, with one great deficiency in 
shape, — a want of bone below the knee, and i 
fiery screaming temperament. This breed is 
specially preferred by native chiefs, who give very 
large sums for handsome Kattyawars. 

The Ghoont or Khund is a breed of the Himalaya 
mountains, generally small, strongly made, hard- 
mouthed, and sometimes almost unmanageable. 
In ascending hill faces, or passing along the 
declivities of mountains, it is best to let them have 
their own way, for in an intricate passage they 
often show more sagacity than the rider. Their 
common pace is a kind of amble, and they stop 
every now and then to breathe, when no applica- 
tion of the whip will move them. They are sure- 
footed, and sometimes halt at the edge of a pre- 
cipice, to the terror of the rider ; they are not so 
quick in ascending hills as the low-country horses, 
but they descend with double the speed, and endure 
great fatigue. The ghoont, though a useful animal, 
seldom carries any burden but a man. In Spiti 
they are bred chiefly for sale. They have two 
breeds, one a small ghoont, never above 12 hands 
high, peculiar to the country ; and the other, a 
large breed from 13 to 13^ hands high, is bought 
from the Chinese, and usually comes from Choo- 
moortee ; for a Chinese ghoont two years old tbey 
give a Spiti ghoont four years old. All are equally 
hardy, and are kept out the whole winter, except 
the yearlings, which are housed. During winter 
the ghoont Live on the roots of the stunted bushes, 
and are very expert at scraping the snow from 
off them with their fore feet The breed of 
ghoont might be unproved with a little care. 
Many are killed during winter by wolves and 
leopards. 

The Yarkand pony is a hardy little animal, and 
fetches a high price, being in request for the hill- 
stations in the North-Western Provinces of India. 
The variety called the Tangun piebald is common. 
They are shy and timid at first, and evince a 
strange dislike to Europeans, but soon get accus- 
tomed to their new masters ; and for their strength, 
endurance, and sure-footedness, are well adapted 
for alpine travelling. While crossing the Kara- 
korum mountains, whole caravans are sometimes 
overwhelmed by snowstorms; and Killah Shah, ■ 
chief merchant of Leh, mentioned that in many 
places the route to Yarkand was only traceable by 
the bones of horses. 

The Tanfjiiii of Tibet are wonderfully strong 
and enduring. They are never shod, and the 
hoof often cracks, and they become pigeon-toed. 
They are frequently blind of one eye, when they 
are called Zemik (blind ones), but this is thought 
no great defect They average £5 to £10 for a 
good animal in Tibet, and the best fetch £40 to 
^.">(i in the plains of India, where they become 
acclimated and thrive well. Giantchi (Jhansi- 



100 



HORSE. 



HORSE. 



feting of Turner) is the best mart for them in the 
eastern part of Tibet, where some breeds fetch 
very high prices. The Tibetans give the foals of 
value messes of pigs 1 blood and raw liver, which 
they devour greedily, and it is said to strengthen 
them wonderfully ; the custom, Dr. Hooker 
believes, is general in Central Asia. Humboldt 
(Per. Nar. iv. p. 320) described the horses of 
Caraccas as occasionally eating salt meat. In 
India, sheep's head is often given in mesalih. 
The Tibetan pony, though born and bred 10,000 
to 14,000 feet above the sea, is one of the most 
active and useful animals in the plains of Bengal, 
powerful and hardy, and when well trained early, 
docile, although by nature vicious and obstinate. 

In China, the horse commonly seen is not much 
larger than the Shetland pony. It is bony and 
strong, but is kept with little care, and presents a 
worse appearance than it would if its hair were 
trimmed, its fetlocks shorn, and its tail untied. 
This custom of knotting the tail is an ancient 
practice, and the sculptures at Persepolis show 
that the same fashion prevailed among the 
Persians. The Chinese language possesses a great 
variety of terms to designate the horse. The 
differences of age, sex, colour, and disposition 
are all denoted by particular characters. They are 
chiefly reared in the province of Kiang-si. 

In the north also, in the vast plains, the Mongol, 
Tartar, and Manchurians rear horses, a docile, 
handsome, and intelligent breed, but do not gene- 
rally exceed 10 or 12 hands; usually chesnut, 
bay, and grey. These are generally bred in a wild 
state, the stallions and mares being allowed to 
form herds in the plains at their will. Piebald or , 
skewbald horses marked with patches of white | 
and bay are to be seen. Horseflesh is eaten both I 
by the Chinese and Mongolians, as also the flesh 
of mules and asses in many parts of China. 
The horses of Japan average only 13 hands. 
In the Archipelago, the horse has been imme- | 
morially domesticated by most of the more ad- | 
vanced nations, wherever it could be made use of. 
The chief exceptions are the Malay Peninsula, 
the eastern seaboard of Sumatra, and nearly the 
whole of Borneo, — countries in which the people 
dwell on the marshy banks of rivers, in which 
there is not even a bridle-path, and fit, therefore, 
only for the boat and the buffalo. The native 
horse is always a mere pony, seldom reaching 13 
hands high, and more generally of about 12 hands. 
There are many different breeds, every island 
having at least one peculiar to itself, and the large 
islands several. 

Sumatra has at least two distinct races, — the 
Acheen and Batubara, both small and spirited, 
but better adapted to draught than the saddle. 
The small but excellent breed of horses reared in 
Acheen excel all those of the Archipelago, ex- 
cepting those of Bhima in Sumbawa. Those of 
Acheen have fine crests and good strong shoulders ; 
in which latter particular, as also in height of 
wither, they differ very much from the horses of 
Java and the islands to the eastward, which are 
generally deficient in these points. They are ex- 
ported to Penang and Singapore, and are driven 
in small carriages. They are occasionally sent to 
British India. 

Of all the countries of the Archipelago, Java is 
that in which the horse most abounds, and here 
we find several different breeds, as those of the 



hill countries, and those of the plains. Generally, 
the Java horse is larger than that of Sumatra, but, 
in the language of the turf, has less blood and 
bottom. The lowland horses, the great majority, 
are somewhat coarse and sluggish, but the upland 
are spirited, smaller, and handsomer. 

The horse, although of a very inferior breed, is 
found in the islands of Bali and Lombok ; but the 
next island to these eastward, Sumbawa, produces 
the handsomest breeds of the whole Archipelago. 
They are the Arab of the Archipelago ; yet the 
blood is not the same as the Arab, for the small 
horse of Sumbawa, although very handsome, wants 
the fine coat and the blood head of the Arabian. 
There are in this island and adjacent islets three 
different races, that of Tambora, of Bhima, and of 
Gunong Api, the last being most esteemed. 

Next to Java, horses are most abundant in 
Celebes. These are inferior in beauty to those of 
Sumbawa, but excel all others of the Malayan 
portion of the Archipelago, in combining the 
qualities of size, strength, speed, and bottom. 

A very good breed is produced in Sumba, called 
in the maps Sandal-wood Island. 

But perhaps the best breed of the whole Archi- 
pelago, although still but a pony, is that of the 
Philippines. It is superior in size to any of the 
breeds of the western islands, which it may owe 
to the superior pastures of the Philippines, and 
possibly to a small admixture of the Spanish horses 
of America, although this last is by no means an 
ascertained point. 

Generally, the horses of the Archipelago are hardy, 
sure-footed, and docile. The horses are all entire, 
and the mares used only to breed and as beasts of 
burden. By the natives of the Archipelago, the 
horse is only used for the saddle or to cany bur- 
dens, and never for draught, either for plough or 
wheel-carriage. To see horses drawing a native 
carriage, except in imitation of Europeans, we 
must go to the sculptures on ancient temples in 
Java, where they are thus represented. 

In two islands only of the Archipelago is the 
horse found in the wild state, Celebes and Luzon, 
the only ones that are known to have extensive 
grassy plains fit for its pasture, and in these it is 
caught by the lasso and broke in, as in the Llanos 
of America. In such situations it is certainly far 
more likely to have become wild from the domestic 
state than to be indigenous. In so far as Celebes 
is concerned, this view is rendered probable by 
the name being a corruption to the Javanese from 
one language of that island, the Wugi ; while in 
another, the Macassar, the horse is called the 
' buffalo ' of Java. In the Philippines it is not even 
alleged that the wild horses are anything else than 
domesticated ones become so. In Pigafetta's 
enumeration of the domestic animals of Cebu, he 
makes no mention of the horse. In the city of 
Manilla, a pair of good riding horses cost from 100 
to 120 dollars, and a pair of carriage horses from 
120 to 130. Of course they are much cheaper in 
the provinces where they are reared. The horses 
of Sumbawa, Celebes, and Sumba are largely 
exported to Java, to the British settlements in the 
Straits of Malacca, and even as far as the Mauritius. 
In Batavia, a good Bhima or Batak horse is worth 
from £10 to £15. 

The Barb, so famed in Europe, was never brought 
to India; reared by the Moors nf Barbary and 
Morocco, during their dominion in that country, 



106 



ttORSK. 



BOB8B. 



i!m- i.;irh was introduced Into Spain, where, how- 
ever, it lias been suffered to degenerate greatly 
since tin ir expulsion. The nobK' barbs arc of rare 
occurrence even in their own country. The common 
4 Berbery in i very inferior animal. In the 
beauty ami symmetry of their km, however, 
• veil the berbf are fax from excelling; their valu- 
able qualities — ami in tliese they are perhaps un- 
equalled by any other breed in existence — are 
unrivalled speed, surprising bottom, abstinence, 
pitieiiee, and endurance under fatigue, and gentle- 
ness of temper. 

Arabian horses are now-a-days comparatively 
little Men in India. A larger horse, with greater 

1 tower, lias lieeii needed, to meet the wants of the 
British Government for its heavier ordnance and 



The Arab people do not keep any long pedigrees 
of tliejr thoroughbred horses. The certificates 
which they furnish merely give the names of th. 
elans, under the assumption that the purity of 
blood is notorious throughout the tribe. Of all 
tin ir domestic animals, Arabs put the greatest 
value on their horses. 

The time to see the horses and horsemen of 
Damaxnts in their glory, is about sunset on the 
Merj and the neighbouring road, where they are 
regularly exercised. If the master does not .'ride. 
a groom is sent out, and the young foals gambol 
loose by their dam's side, till they are old enough 
to be ridden, which is at an early age. Their 
education begins often with learning the rahwan 
pace, which is much esteemed. It is generally 



heavier soldiers, and for the larger carriages now ' taught by tying the feet on the right and left side 



in use by Europeans and the wealthier natives. 
Also, the prices demanded for the Arab horses are 
beyond the means of ordinary purchasers, and the 
Arab never was in great request in India, except 
M a riding horse. The chief, Abd-el-Kadir, speak- 
ing of Arab horses, said, • A thoroughbred horse 
is one that has three things long, three things 
short, three things broad, and three things clean. 
The three things long are the ears, the neck, and 
the fore legs ; the three things short are the dock, 
the hind legs, and the back ; the three things 
broad are the forehead, the chest, and the croup ; 
the three things clean are the skin, the eyes, and 
the hoof. He ought to have the withers high and 
the flanks hollow, and without any superfluous 
flesh.' These are very nearly the words which 
•writers use in describing perfection in horses, and 
in these matters, therefore, they seem to have 
boirowed their ideas from Arabian writers. 

The best Arab horses are bred in the desert by 
the Anazah tribe, in whose territory, before the 
conquest of the Wahabees, the district of Nejd 
was included, where the richest pasture of Arabia 
is found. That name, in India, used to procure a 
high price at all times for a horse. The Anazah 
is one of the largest and most extensively sub- 
divided of the Bedouin tribes. They have the 
best horses. They visit Nejd as well as Syria. 
Some of the Anazah Arabs have a great promin- 
ence in the foreheads. The marks at the base of 
the ears of the Anazah and other horses, have their 
origin in the custom of the Bedouin, of stitching 
the new-born foal's ears together, to make them 
take what is thought the proper shape. Purveyors 
of the Indian market, knowing that the Indian 
purchasers look for such marks, frequently counter- 
feit them on the baser born breeds which they buy 
for India, by branding them in the right place 
with the firing-iron. 

In the Arab horse, says Colonel Shakespeare, 
the favourite colours in India are greys of kinds. 
The nila, i.e. a grey with a blue skin, is generally 
more hardy that the sabza, a grey with a light- 
coloured skin, and the feet of the nila are more 
generally black than the sabza. The other colours 
are bay and brown of different shades, and ches- 
nuts. Black is very rai*e. Arab roans are common. 
The high-caste Arab is phlegmatic and wearisome 



together, each to each, — the right front to the right 
hind, and so with the left. An animal who excels 
in this kind of amble is worth a large sum, be he 
ever so ill-bred or poor in appearance. The value 
of the accomplishment lies in its comfort to rider 
and ridden, for so smooth is the pace, that a brim- 
ming cup of water may be held at full speed 
without spilling ; and so easy is it for the horse, 
that a well-trained one is supposed to cover the 
distance between Damascus and Beyrout in eight 
or nine hours. When we consider that the actual 
length of road is 72 miles, twice ascending and 
descending several thousand feet in crossing the 
ranges of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, the j>er- 
formance is certainly creditable. 

The pedigree of one of their horses of the blue 
blood is as well known throughout the districts 
traversed by the tribe he belongs to, as that of any 
royal family of Europe. The Bedouins of Syria 
have five principal breeds, known as the Khamsa, 
or five, — (1) The Kehilan (fern. Kehileh or Kehilet) 
is the fastest, but not the hardiest. They are bred 
chiefly by the Bedouins settled between Basra, 
Merdin, and Syria. That of Dsjulfa seems to be 
the most numerous. They are highly esteemed, 
and consequently are veiy dear. (2) The Seglawi 
(fern. Seglawieh), of which the Seglawi Jedran is 
considered the best in all the desert. (3) Abeyau 
(fem. Abeyeh) is a small, but generally the hand- 
somest breed. (4) The Hamdani (fem. Hain- 
danieh), not a common breed. (5) The Had ban 
(fem. Hadbeh), not common. 

Mr. Robinson says these five principal races 
diverge into many ramifications. Every mare 
particularly swift and handsome, belonging to any 
one of the chief races, may give origin to a new 
breed, the descendants of which are called after 
her, so that the names of different Arab breeds 
in the desert are innumerable. The horses of the 
Bedouin of Syria are mostly small, seldom exceed- 
ing fourteen hands. They ride, almost exclusively, 
their mares, having the advantage over the horses 
in speed and good temper. The latter they sell 
to the town's people, or to the fellahs. Tbey object 
to them, not only because they are more vicious 
than the mares, but because they neigh, which in 
an expedition by night might be the means of 
betraying them. They are first mounted after the 



to ride when unexcited ; trips ui his walk, and does i second year, from which time the saddle is seldom 
not step out ; but when roused by emulation in taken off their backs. They are kept in the opeu 
the hunt or race, will go at full speed over rock ; air during the whole year, never entering the tent, 
and stone, when the soil is not visible, or up and ; even in the rainy season. In summer they stand 
down the sides of a precipice, and, if properly exposed to the mid-day sun. In winter a sack- 
handled, never make a mistake. cloth is thrown over the saddle. like his master. 

107 



Horse. 



horse. 



with very little attention to his health, he is seldom 
ill. Burning is the most general remedy, and as 
this is done with a hot iron, it has given rise to 
the erroneous notion that the Arabs mark all their 
horses. 

More than half of the Arab horses exported to 
Bombay are shipped from the seaport of Koweyt. 
Palgrave says they are generally brought from the 
north of Arabia or the Syrian desert. There are 
good horses of this kind at Hayel and Jabl Shomer. 
Those of Shomer or Anazah breed are high blooded, 
and often very perfect in all their points. The 
best of the Nejd horses are small, few reaching 
fifteen hands, and fourteen being about the aver- 
age, but their small stature is not observed in 
their excellent shape. The genuine Nejd breed is 
obtainable only in Nejd ; and the distinctive points 
of the Nejd horse are, the full rounded haunch, 
the slope of the shoulder, and the extreme clean- 
ness of the shank. In Nejd breeding, care is 
taken to select a good stallion and good mare. 
The total number is about 5000 ; and horses are 
kept only for war or parade, all travelling and 
other drudgery being performed on camels, or on 
asses. The Nejd horses are esteemed for their 
great speed and endurance ; and in the latter 
quality, indeed, they are unequalled, bearing up 
through abstinence and labour for 48 hours, under 
an Arab sky. They are often ridden without bit 
or bridle, saddle, rein, or stirrup, but they yield 
to the pressure of the knee or thigh, and to the 
voice ; can be wheeled and turned and brought to 
a dead stand in mid career of full gallop. Mares 
are never parted with, and good stallions rarely so. 
Those of Hayel and Jabl Shomer are a fine breed, 
and horses from them often find their way to 
Europe, where they are sold at high prices. These 
are generally the produce of a Jabl Shomer mare 
with Nejd stallion, or the reverse. Their height 
varies from 14 to over 16 hands ; but their shape 
is less elegant than the Nejd, and often indicates 
some defect, such as a heavy shoulder, small rump, 
shelly or contracted hoof, or small eye. 

To the east and south of Toweyk, the Arab 
horse loses in beauty and perfection, in size and 
strength ; and in Oman they resemble the tattu 
of India. 

In the south of Arabia, the horses are mere rats, 
short and stunted, ragged and fleshless, with rough 
coats and a slouching walk, but with fine snake- 
like head, ears like reeds, wide and projecting 
nostrils, large eyes, fiery and soft alternately, 
broad brow, deep base of skull, wide chest, crooked 
tail, limbs padded with muscle, and long elastic 
pasterns. It was told to Captain Burton (Pilgrim- 
age, iii. p. 269) that the Zu Mahomed and the Zu 
Husayan, sub-families of the Beni Yam, a large 
tribe living around and north of Sanaa in Yemen, 
have a fine large breed, called El Jaufi, and that 
the clan El Aulaki rear animals celebrated for 
swiftness and endurance. The other races are 
stunted ; and some Arabs declare that the air of 
Yemen causes degeneracy in the first generation. 
In Solomon's time the Egyptian horse cost 150 
silver shekels, which, if the greater shekel be 
meant, would still be about the average price, 
£18 ; and Wellsted tells us (i. p. 306) that several of 
the Imam's horses in his time were of the noblest 
breed in Nejd, some of his mares being valued at 
from 1500 to 2000 dollars. 

Persia, — The Bakhtiari have a hardy race of 



horses, of a middle stature, about the usual size of 
the Arab horse, and a good deal of the blood of the 
latter runs in their veins. They are exceedingly 
fleet, sure-footed, and soft-mouthed, very manage- 
able also, and capable of climbing up mountains 
with the agility and fearlessness of mountain goats. 
Among the richer Bakhtiari are many Chab-Arab 
horses, which are taller than the Nejd- Arab, and 
resemble more those of the island of Bahrein. The 
Chab-Arab horse is justly prized in Persia; and 
Baron de Bode never witnessed a greater display 
of beautiful Arab blood horses, than on the plains 
of Mai- Amir, at the camp of the Bakhtiari chief, 
Muhammad Taghi-Khan, for at the court of the 
Shah of Persia the Turkoman horses are preferred 
to the Arab ; and among the former, the Tekke 
breed is the most esteemed for its size, power, and 
faculties of endurance. 

Arabian horses are not very common in the 
north of Persia ; but the breed between them 
and a Persian mare is all elegance and elasticity, 
being of a rather stronger mould than the Arab 
of Nejd, the best race of the country. The Per- 
sian horses never exceed 14 or 14£ hands, yet 
certainly on the whole are taller than the Arabs, 
and have been much improved of late. Although 
neither so swift nor so beautiful as those of Arabia, 
they are larger, more powerful, and, all things con- 
sidered, better calculated for cavalry. Of the 
several breeds of horses in use in Persia, the most 
valuable is that called the Turkoman. In the eyes 
of an English jockey, however, these horses would 
hardly seem to possess a single good point. They 
are from 14^ to 16 hands high, have long legs and 
little bone under the knee, spare carcases, and 
large heads. But what renders the Turkoman 
horses so valuable to the natives, is their size and 
extraordinary powers of supporting fatigue ; for 
they have been known to travel 900 miles in 1 1 
successive days. The Arabian blood has also been 
introduced into Persia, and some horses bred in 
Dashtistan, in point of speed and symmetry, emu- 
late the most admired coursers of Nejd. Their 
usual food is chopped straw and barley ; the bed 
is made of dung, which is dried and beat into 
powder, and regularly every morning exposed to 
the sun. No people are fonder or take more care 
of their horses than the Persians. They are 
clothed with the greatest attention, according to 
the climate and season of the year, and in the 
warm weather are put into the stable during the 
day, but taken out at night. The horses in Persia 
are not so subject to internal disorders as in Eng- 
land, but their heels are invariably contracted, 
from badness of shoeing. 

Persian horses brought to Bombay from Basrah 
and Bushahr, and those bred on the shores of the 
Gulf, are in use with the British Government, and 
some are of great power, strong, and enduring. 
The Gulf horses are out of Persian mares by Arab 
horses. 

Turkoman horses, of excellent breed, are found 
amongst the Turkomans, who export the finest to 
Afghanistan, Persia, and India. The Akhal and 
Yomut horse is little inferior to the Arab in 
swiftness, endurance, and beauty of form. The 
Turkoman horse is a fine animal, between fifteen 
and sixteen hands high. He is bred from the 
Arabian, but the cross of the breed of the country, 
and the fine pasture, have given him great size 
and strength. There are probably no horses in 



108 



HORSE. 



BOB8E, 



the world that can endure so much fatigue. Sir 
.1. .M;ilc(ilm ascertained, after minute examination 
of the fact, tliat the small parties. of. Turkoman 
Who ventured several hundred miles into Persia, 
Died both to advance and retreat at the average of 
marly one hundred miles a-day. They train their 
horses for these expeditions as sportsmen train for 
a race ; and the expression they use to descrihe a 
horse in condition for a chapao or forage is, that 
4 his flesh is marhle. 1 The Turkoman horse stands 
liigh, and the reports as to his feats show him to be 
a very superior animal, but they are almost un- 
known in India. 

The Turkoman horse around the Hindu Kush is 
carefully reared. It is a large bony animal, more 
remarkable for strength and bottom than sym- 
metry and beauty. Its crest is nobly erect ; its 
head is not bo small, or its coat so sleek, as the 
brood of Arabia, and the length of its body is 
greater. They will perform six hundred miles in 
7 or even G days. Those that reach India are 
reared about Balkh, and Andkhu, and Maimana. 

The horses of the Turko-Tartar races are, — 

The Turkoman horse, or Argomak, chiefly in 
the western and southern parts of the khanate. 

The Uzbak horse, more especially in the north 
of Bokhara, and in Miankale ; and lastly, 

The Khokand horse, in the neighbourhood of 
Samarcand and the east of it. There are two 
more, which are, however, inferior to the former ; 
these breeds are the following, — the Kirghiz horse 
and the Karab Airi, the latter being a cross-breed 
from the Turkoman stallion and an Uzbak mare, 
and vice versa. All these breeds differ from each 
other by their coat, as well as by other qualities. 

The Argomak is usually tall, well-shaped, with 
slender legs and a swan-like neck, carrying its 
head proudly and with ease aloft. But its great 
beauty consists in the peculiar lustre of its coat, 
which is especially observable in the bay-coloured 
Argomak. Their defects are, a narrow chest, and 
a Bcanty tail and mane, in addition to which, some 
have the defect of being saddle-backed. These 
defects incapacitate the Argomak for undertaking 
long journeys ; and it would be above all things 
unadvisable to make use of them in travelling over 
the steppes of the Kirghiz, because they are so 
much spoiled by the excessive care which is taken 
of them, that they are almost incapable of finding 
food for themselves, not only in winter, but even 
in summer. 

The Uzbak horses, which are smaller than the 
Argomak, and inferior to them in point of external 
beauty, have nevertheless many redeeming quali- 
ties, of which the principal is their strength. Some 
of their defects arise in consequence of their being 
badly broken in by the Uzbaks. With these 
horses the pace is neither a walk nor a proper 
trot, but what the Cossacks term a grana or short 
trot. Baron de Bode here seems to mean the 
amble. The second defect is that the Uzbaks 
never geld their horses, which renders it impos- 
sible to picket them together, but each horse is 
obliged to be attached to a separate stake, — a cir- 
cumstance which, although trivial at first light, 
is one of the reasons why the Uzbak camps take 
so much room, and are therefore more exposed to 
sudden attacks. 

The strongest race of the Turko-Tartar horses 
is undoubtedly that of Khokand; hence they are 
usually employed by carriers for transporting goods 



from <>nc plnco to another. Five batman is the 
usual weight of n loaded cart, although they in- 
crease the weight sometimes to seven and eight 
batman from Bokhara to Samarcand. The jjowcr 
of these horses becomes still more apparent vheo 
they are used as pack horses. Baron de Bode 
had Been a horse loaded with two large tents, 
some kettles flung over the back, and a man sit- 
ting astride. It accompanied him in this fashion 
the whole way from Samarcand to Karshi, and 
from thence to Bokhara. 

The Karab-airi is a very handsome race of 
horses, in size equal to the Uzbak horse, but in 
the shape of the head and legs resembling the 
Argomak. They are reckoned good racing horses 
in Bokhara, but as they are trained for the game 
of kukbari, in which, after running a certain 
distance, the riders rest, these horses cannot hold 
out a protracted race, especially as they exhaust 
their strength from the very outset. 

The horses of the Kirghiz Kazak are trained to 
run races, in distances sometimes from twenty- 
five and thirty to forty and fifty versts. Every 
Kirghiz, in setting out on a journey, fastens to 
his saddle a bag of kurut or curd made from 
sour milk. He soaks some of it in water, and 
thus appeases his hunger and thirst together. 

Two wild horses are found in the Russian 
steppes, the Tarpon and the Musin. The latter 
is supposed to be a steppe horse run wild ; but the 
younger Gmelin, Pallas, and Middendorff think 
that the tarpan is a descendant of the pristine 
wild stock. Darwin and Wallace, however, are 
of opinion that the tarpan also is a steppe horse 
run wild. — Rolleston, p. 50. 

The Muss of the Kirghiz is the wild horse of 
the Asiatic plains. This animal is not like the 
wild horse of S. America, which undoubtedly 
sprang from those taken into the country by the 
Spaniards. He is of a distinct race from the 
Asiatic horse, very small (not so large as an ass), 
beautiful in form, having a small head and short 
ears, and varying in colour from black, bay, grey, 
and white, the latter being the most rare. His 
sense of smell is very acute, which renders him 
most difficult to approach. He is exceedingly 
fleet, and few horses can run him down. In 
hunting him, a great number of Kirghiz assemble, 
and when the scouts have found the herd, the 
horsemen form an extended line at a considerable 
distance towards the steppe. When so much has 
been accomplished, they gradually ride up, forcing 
the herd towards a pass in the mountains. Aj 
they approach near to the ravine, the hunters 
draw closer, forming a crescent, and proceed with 
extreme caution till the stallions enter the pas*. 
While this has been going on, another party of 
hunters have made their way into the pass, taking 
their stand in the narrowest part, and waiting till 
the herd appears. Having signalled to the hunters 
on the plain that the pass is secured, the whole 
body close up, and the wild animals'arl> in a trap. 
They are now driven onward till stopped by the 
hunters above, when the work of slaughter begins, 
and vast numbers of these beautiful, creatures are 
killed by their battle-axes. The Kirghiz consider 
their flesh the greatest delicacy the steppe affords. 

Dr. Jerdon, however, says wild horses of a truly 
feral type are at present unknown. The Gor Khar, 
Equus onager, Pallas, is the wild ass of Cuteh : 
the Kyang or Dzightai, or wild ass of Tibet, is 



109 



HORSE CHESNUT. 



HORUS. 



Equus homionus, Pallas; the E. hemippus, Is. 
Geoffroy, which inhabits Syria, Mesopotamia, 
N. Arabia, is the wild ass of Scripture ; and E. 
asinus is of N.E. Africa and S. Arabia. 

Since 1840, British India has received small 
batches from the Cape of Good Hope, of good 
figure and good temper, suitable for riding horses 
and for draught, but, like the Arab horse, higher 
priced than can easily be afforded. Australia has 
since taken a hold on the Madras and Calcutta 
markets, and its imports are termed Walers. What 
number of new horses of all sorts are needed for 
British India annually, is not known. The imports 
have been — 



1874-75, 
1875-76, 
1876-77, 
1877-78, 
1878-79, 
1879-80, 



Australia. Other Places. 



2072 
2075 
2355 
1938 
2079 
2133 



476 
175 
507 
487 
1271 
1473 



Australia. Other Places. 
Rs.5,29,270Rs.l,44,325 



7,06,850 37,025 

7,25,700 1,19,550 

5,99,000 2,32,820 

7,07,300 5,50,525 

6,89,600 4,78,350 

— Hue and Gabet, p. 229 ; Yule's Cathay, i. p. 
143; Darwin, Animals and Plants ; Tod's Rajas- 
than, ii. pp. 162, 227 ; Powell; Gerard's Koona- 
irur, p. 112 ; Adams, p. 269 ; Hooker, Him. Jour. 
i. p. 118, ii. p. 131; Williams 1 Middle Kingdom; 
Crawfurd, Eng. Cye. p. 383 ; Skinner's Journey, 
ii. p. 70 ; Niebuhr's Travels, ii. p. 301 ; Shake- 
speare's Wild Sports; Palgrave, i., ii. p. 97; 
Robinson's Tr. ii. pp. 167, 356 ; Wellsted's Tr. 
i. p. 306 ; Kinneir's Persian Empire, p. 38 ; Mal- 
colm's Persia, ii. p. 241 ; De Bode's Bokhara, p. 
198 ; Vigne's Personal Narrative, p. 455 ; Atkin- 
son, Amoors, p. 326 ; Porter, ii. p. 536 ; Gnu/. 

HORSE CHESNUT, ^sculus hippocastanum. 
An Asiatic tree, long planted for shade and orna- 
ment on the Continent and in Britain. The wood is 
soft, and not durable. The fruits are used in Swit- 
zerland and Turkey for feeding sheep, horses, etc. 

HORSE - FLY, Hippobosca equina, Linn., 
attacks horses and man. Its bite, like the scorpion 
sting, affects individuals variously. 

HORSE GRAM, Dolichos uniflorus. This pulse, 
Madras gram, is largely used in the Peninsula of 
India for feeding horses. In Northern India, 
Chenna, or Bengal gram, Cicer arietinum, is the 
pidse used. The composition of horse gram in 100 
parts is, — moisture, 11 "40 ; nitrogenous matter, 
23 "25 ; starchy matter, 61 - 43 ; fatty or oily matter, 
0-81 ; ash, 3'10. 

HORSE HIDE is tanned and curried for har- 
ness work, for collars, etc. It has of late years been 
substituted for seal-skin, but does not produce 
so good a leather. Enamelled horse hide, split or 
shaved thin, is used for ladies' shoes, in imitation 

of SGftl 

HORSE LEECH is the Shwui-chih and Mah- 
wang of the Chinese. Horse-mango, Mangifera 
foetida. Horse-almond, Sterculia fcetida. Horse- 
cassia, Cathartocarpus Javanicus. Horse-cat, civet. 

HORSE-RADISH, Lah-kan, Chin. 

Peberrod, . . . 
Rammenas, . . 
Rava, Raifort, 
Cran de Bretange, 
Meer-settij, . . 
Rafano, . . . 

The Cochlearia armoracia, Linn., a perennial 
plant, common in moist places of Europe, and 
grown in India. Its root is used as a condi- 
ment, and is, besides, an article of the materia 
medica. 



HORSE-RADISH TREE. 



Dan. 


Rapbanus rusticanus, Lat. 


Dut. 


Rabao de Cavallo, . Port. 


Fb. 


Khren, Ru.s. 


j? 


Rabano, Picante, . Sp. 


Ger. 


Pepparrot, . . . Sw. 


It. 





Hub-ul-ban (seeds), Arab. 

Sujna Beng. 

Sohunjana, . . Dukh. 
Munga-ke-jhar-ki-jar,HiN. 
Sagul-ke-jbar-ki-jur, . ,, 
Moringa pterygosperma, L. 



Hyperanthera moringa, L. 
Sagul, .... Mahr. 
Moriaben, . . . Perb. 
Sigrumalla sobanjana, Sa. 
Muranghai ver, . Tam. 
Munaga veru, . . Tel. 



This tree grows easily from seeds, in gardens, 
only requiring watering for the first few months. 
The scraped roots are very like horse-radish, and 
are served up as a substitute. The long pods are 
boiled and used as a vegetable, also made into 
curry. The flowers and leaves are used as a vege- 
table, and its gum is used medicinally. — Faulkner. 

HORSE TAIL. The tails of the horse and of 
the yak are used as standards. Tupha, Tugb, or 
Tau, according to Remusat, is the Turki name of 
the horse-tail standard, but is applied also by the 
Chinese to the yak tail, which, respectively with 
those nations, mark the supreme military command. 
— Rech. sur les langues Tartares, p. 303 ; D'Ohssmi. 
i. p. 40, in Yide, Cathay, i. p. clxxiv. 

HORSFIELD. Dr. Thomas Horsfield and Mr. 
Moore's Catalogue of Birds, in the India House 
Museum, appeared in 1856 and 1858. Dr. Hors- 
field was one of the earliest naturalists labouring 
in the East Indies, though the extent of his 
labours in Java and Sumatra is but little known. 
His researches in Java and the neighbouring 
islands began in 1802, and were continued till 
1819. During that time he collected upwards of 
two thousand species, the most copious and inter- 
esting of which have been published by Messrs. 
Brown and Bennett in the Plantee Javanie* 
Rariores, one of the most profound and accurate 
botanical works, and one most important for the 
Indian botanist to study with attention. He wrote 
Zoological Researches in Java and the Neighbour- 
ing Islands, 1824 ; Descriptive Catalogue of the 
Lepidopterous Insects in the Museum of the East 
India Company, 1828-9 ; with Bennett and Brown, 
Plant® Javanicae Rariores, descriptse Iconibusque 
illustratse, 1838-44; and an Essay on the Cultiva- 
tion and Manufacture of Tea in Java, 1841. 

HORTON PLAIN, a few miles from Newara 
Elia, in Ceylon, is the highest table-land in that 
island. The pitcher plant, Nepenthis distillatoria, 
grows in great luxuriance on it. 

HORTUS MALABARICUS, a botanical work 
undertaken at the suggestion of Henry van 
Rheede, a Dutch Governor of Malabar. The 
specimens were collected in 1674 and 1675 by 
Brahmans, and sent to Cochin, where drawings 
of them were executed by Mathaeus, a Carmelite 
missionary ; corresponding descriptions were at 
the same time made in the Malabar language, 
which were afterwards translated into Portuguese 
by Emanuel Carneiro, a Cochin interpreter, and 
from that into Latin by Hermann van Douep, 
the secretary to the city of Cochin ; the whole was 
under the superintendence of Casearius, a mission- 
ary there. The work was at length published at 
Amsterdam between 1686 and 1703, in 12 volumes 
folio, with 794 plates, and was edited by Com- 
melyn, who has occasionally added remarks on 
the plants. — Wight's Prod. i. p. 7. 

HORUS, a god of the Egyptians. One of the 
most remarkable fictions in the Egyptian and 
Syrian mythologies, is that of the annual disap- 
pearance and resurrection of Horus, or the solar 
Osiris, and the lamentations for Adonis and the 



110 



HOSHANO \B.\D. 



HOT SIM.'! 



{•>v at his restoration. These, as well as the 
)eot'han of India, hear evident reference to the 
Mm's animal motion. — Elliot, Siipp. (floss. 

Hi is 11 A\C \ BAD, a town in the Central Pro- 
vimvs of India, in the Sagur and Nerbadda terri- 
tories, lat. 20° 4.V 30" N., and long. 77° 46' E., 
its district forming a portion of the Nerbadda 
valley, lying entirely on the left bank of the 
rivt t, and including some large tracts in the 
Satpura Hills. The district is bounded on the 
north by the territories of Bhopal, Sindia, and 
llolkar, from which it is separated by the Ner- 
btdda, the Central Provinces lying between lat. 
21° 40' and 22° 59' N., and long. 70° 38' 30" and 
78° 45' 80" E. Population in 1872, 440,180 ; area 
( 1*77 ). l:;7G square miles. Four Gond rajas, in 
1*7(1, held the eastern portion of the district. 
The aboriginal tribes number 89,029; Hindus, 
:Hi4.676; Mahomedaus, 21,765; Buddhists and 
Jains, 1182. The most numerous of the aboriginal 
tribes are the Gond (57,946 in 1872), and Kurku 
(19,295) ; the remainder consisting of Bharia, 
Maria, etc. Among the Hindus, the Brahmans 
in 1872 numbered 25,393, and the Rajputs, 
28,689 ; the mass of the Hindu population consist- 
ing of Dhers or Mhars, 89,173 ; Kunbis, 17,215 ; 
Lodhis, 13,323 ; Gujars, 24,759 ; Chamars, 15,117, 
and others inferior castes. — Imp. Gaz. 

HOSHIARPUR, in lat. 31° 32' 13" N., long. 
75° 57' 17" E., a large civil and military station, 
in the Panjab, N. of Ludhiana, 1066 feet above 
the sea. It gives its name to a British revenue 
district, lying between lat. 30° 58' and 32° 5' N., 
and between long. 75° 81' and 76° 41' 15" E. 
Area, 2086 square miles, pop. (1868) 938,890. 
Brahmans numbered 76,821; Rajputs, 47,464; 
Kshatriyas, 21,784; Banya, 1493; Arora, 386; 
Jat, 112,789 ; Gujar, 21,543 : 3977 Sayyids, 843 
Moghuls, 8733 Pathans, 145 Baluch, 37,522 
Mahomedan Rajputs, 31,262 Jats, and 45,893 
Gujars. The Jats form the most numerous tribe 
in the district, composing 42 per cent, of the 
proprietary body, and paying 38 per cent, of the 
land revenue. — Imp. Gaz. 

HOSPITAL. There was an hospital at Rai and 
another at Baghdad, of which Rhazes, a.d. 923 or 
982, was the superintendent ; and about the same 
time, between a.d. 905 and 920, the first Euro- 
pean hospital was founded by the Saracens at 
fealerno in Italy. Hospitals existed in China 
during the Sung dynasty, between a.d. 960 and 
1278. The pinjrapol of Bombay and of Surat are 
hospitals for sick and lame animals, established by 
Hindus. The East India Company established 
many civil hospitals throughout India, and Hindu 
tod Native States have followed in this line. 

HOTA, Sansk., or Hotri, the priest who directs 
the Homa or burnt-offering, from Hu, Sansk. 
to offer. The Hota pours the clarified butter on 
the fire in the burnt-offering, repeating the proper 
formulas. Hutsava or fire-food is the name of the 
oblation. — Ward's Hindoos; Wilson, Glossary. 

HO-TSING, the artesian fire-springs of the 
Chinese, which are sunk to obtain a carburetted 
hydrogen gas for salt-boiling, far exceed the 
European artesian springs in depth. These fire- 
springs are very commonly more than 2000 feet 
deep ; and a spring of continued flow was found to 
be 3197 feet deep. This natural gas has been used 
in the Chinese province Sze-chuen for several 
thousand years; and portable gas, in bamboo 

1 



cane», has for ages been used in the city of 

Khiung-techeu. More recently, in the village of 
Fredonia, in the United States, such gas hasbeen 
used both for cooking and for illumination.— 
Curiosities of' Sri, ,,r> , p. 1 \H ; Iml„ ,t. 

HOT SPRINGS and sulphurous springs are 
numerous on the shores of the Dead Sea, and also 
in its basin, and in other parts of tin Jordan 
valley. The hot springs of Callirhoe wer<- th.- 
favourite resort of Herod. There are others at 
I in K.is (Gadara), where are the ruins of baths; 
and the hot Bprings of Tiberias have been famous 
ever since the time of Joshua (B.C. 1426), when 
they gave name to the place. Most of these are 
strongly mineral. The hot water of Elisha's 
Fountain is sweet. 

The hot springs of Bosher and Ghullas in Oman 
are inland from Muttra, situated at the foot of 
rocks. Their temperature ranges from 83° to 112°. 

Hot springs occur also at Maculla in Arabia, 
likewise 1£ miles inland from Muscat. 

In Shoa, hot springs occur at the village of 
Gossamee in Morabeitee ; at Kowut, in the pro- 
vince of Gidem ; at Korari, about 10 miles S.E. 
of Alioamba; at Makfood, in the bed of the 
Jowahah river; at Metak, about 3 miles S. of 
Ankober ; at Finfinni, in the Germama plain ; in 
the bed of the river Kassam, in the district of 
Aden, and in the neighbourhood of the extinct 
volcano of Fontali. 

Hot springs occur at Jumnotri, Gungootri, Ke- 
darnath, and Badrinath, in Garhwal ; also near 
Nutpa, Bukti, and Jauri, in the valley of Sutlej 
(Gerard), opposite Soni banks of Sutlej (Prinsep). 
Hot spring at Silol, Kangra (G. T. Survey). Kulat 
in Kullu (Gerard). Munnikarn, in Kullu, and a hot 
spring farther up the Parbati. Mr. Edgeworth 
informs us that the water where it issues from its 
source is of the temperature of 207° Fahr. It is 
therefore one of the hottest known springs. Some 
of the hottest of these are the Geysers 180°, 
Surajkund 190°, the Petersquelle in the Caucasus 
195°, spring on Paluk river 196°, and what Hum- 
boldt discovered and describes as the hottest 
spring in the world, Guanaxuata in Mexico, 207°. 
The boiling point of water at the elevation of 
Munnikarn is much below that point. Rice is 
cooked in the spring at Jumnotri 194°, at about 
1 1,000 feet above the sea, and in many others of 
inferior temperature. Munnikarn is on the right 
bank of the Parbati (or Parub) river. There is a 
large village here, and high mountains covered 
with snow environ the place. There are several 
hot springs, three or four of which boil furiously. 
The latter issue out of rocks near the edge of the 
river, and dense steam rises out of them in con- 
siderable volumes, heating the air all round, 
absolutely darkening the path for a few yartla, 
and the heat is very distressing. All the inhabit- 
ants of Munnikarn cook their food in these boiling 
springs, and wood is never used by them for 
culinary purposes. 

In Ladakh many hot springs occur, but the 
best known are those of Nubra, Puga.and Chushul • 
the two first have clear water, and a temperature 
of 167°, with beds of soda below the springs. 
Those at Puga occur in the bed of a rivulet, 
where they bubble out at temperatures from 80* 
to 140°. The hottest contain chloride of sodium 
and sulphuretted hydrogen in solution ; and those 
of low temperature chloride and borate of sodium. 
11 



HOT SPRINGS. 



HOT SPRINGS. 



The hot spring of Chushul has a temperature of 
96°, without taste or smell, but is said to have 
medicinal properties. 

A hot spring occurs at Behitsil in the Basha 
valley in Little Tibet, from which a deposit of 
sulphur occurs. Two hot springs, sulphureous 
and chalybeate, also occur near the village of 
Duchin, in Little Tibet. The temperature of one 
visited by Mr. Vigne was 154° Fahr, One occurs 
12 miles east of Rajawur, the temperature about 
140°. It is sulphureous, and deposits sulphur in 
its course. 

Between U and Tsang, in Tibet, are some hot 
springs, which are also numerous in the mountains 
lying east of the Ma-p'ham lake, and at one place 
hot water is thrown twelve feet high. Hot springs 
issue from the flats near a stream at Chung-leng, 
16,170 feet above the sea, the temperature 122° to 
130°. The hot springs of India are resorted to by 
the people for the cure of lingering ailments. 

The hot spring at Ab-i-Garm at Chitral, in 
Afghanistan, is also called Talab-i-Nil, also 
Chattiboi. Lower range of Suliman mountains. 

In Baluchistan a hot spring occurs at Basman, 
in the Kohistan of Baluchistan, 44 miles N.W. of 
Banpur. Lieutenant Pottinger halted at Basman, 
and found the hot well upwards of twelve yards iu 
circumference, and two or three feet in depth ; in 
the centre of it was a circular pipe built of red 
burnt brick, about eight inches in diameter, and 
within as many of being level with the water, 
which boiled out of it as thick as a man's thigh, 
with considerable violence, and at noon so heated 
that he could not venture to put his hand into the 
ebullition. One side of the well had been gradu- 
ally worn away by the incessant gushing of water 
over it, and thence a limpid brook flows past the 
village, and suffices the husbandmen for the 
irrigation of their grounds. He bathed in this 
stream about five yards from its source, and 
found the water pleasantly tepid, with a strong 
sulphureous smell and taste, which unfit it for 
culinary purposes ; but the Baluchi regard it as 
aperient in its effects, and an excellent specific in 
cutaneous disorders. 

Pir Muggen, Alligator Tank, is 13 miles from 
Kurachee (Carless). Juggen and Deyrah, N. 
Sind (Kirk). Springs at the base of the Halla 
mountains, Sind (A. Young). 

The following means of temperature of the hot 
springs at Pir Mangal, or Munga, or Mungear, 
were taken in September 1844 by Major Baker 
and Lieutenant Maclagan : — 

1st spring, 4th Sept., 11.30 a.m., Water, 119° Air, 89-25° 



' 


4.45 p.m., 


, 118-29,, 


86 


)» »i 


9.5 p.m., 


, 117 „ 


86 


,, 5th Sept. 


5.45 a.m., 


, 119 „ 


78 


5) 


9.5 a.m., 


, 119 „ 


83 


2d spring, 4th Sept., 


11.45 a.m., 


, 127-5 „ 


91 


5> )> 


4.55 p.m., 


, 126-25 „ 


86-5 


' )> 


9.25 p.m., 


, 126-05 „ 


80 


,) 


5.50 a.m., 


, 128-25 „ 


78 


5th Sept. 


, 9.15a.m., 


, 128 „ 


83 



oil and principal spring, which is the saint's shrine, 
and which feeds the Alligator Ponds. 



4th Sept., 5.30 P.M. 



"Water, 99° Air, 85-5° 



The water of these springs, where it first issues, 
has a slightly sulphureous smell and taste,but, after 
a short exposure to the air, becomes perfectly 
sweet and pure ; it leaves a slightly blackish 
deposit on the pebbles. The rocks in the vicinity 



consist of an upper cap of coarse limestone, over- 
laying coarse soft sandstone. 

The other hot springs of Sind are the Lukki 
and Gazi Pir springs. Of the latter, Lieutenant 
Maclagan gave the following account : — ' There is 
a hot spring on a considerable elevated plateau 
upon the hill called Bhil, above Gazi Pir, a 
saint's shrine, a few miles west of Shah Hasan, on 
the Meunchar Lake. I could not hold my hand 
in the spring for any length of time. The water 
fills a small reservoir under a clump of trees, then 
escapes in a narrow stream which flows along to 
the edge of the plateau, and throws itself over the 
rock in a white cascade.' The sulphur springs 
near the village of Lukki, like the springs at 
Mangal Pir, are three in number, but are much 
more highly impregnated with sulphur, though 
their temperature, as under, is not so great, — 
1st spring, at 12 A.M., water 102° Fahr. ; air in the 

shade, 82° Fahr. 
2d spring, at 12.12 A.M., water 103° Fahr. ; air in sun, 

86° Fahr. 
3d spring, at 2 P.M., water 105°, in shade 68° Fahr. 
Water boiled at third spring by thermometer at 21 2° 
75', and at Kurachee by same thermometer at 214° ; 
difference, 1° 25'. 

At Devakl Unei is 50 miles S.E. from Surat, at 
the foot of some hills, the temperature being 111° 
to 120°. 

One at Oonai or Oonari, in the jungle between 
Bansda and Boharee, in Gujerat, has a tempera- 
ture of 120° to 124° ; but it is said to vary at 
seasons (Dr. A. Gibson). Oonai is a small hamlet 
in the territory of the raja of Bansda, near the 
hills east of the Surat district. Also one at Tooee, 
near Ruttenpur, on the Mhye river, in Gujerat, 
between lat. 22° 49' N., aud long. 73° 30' E. There 
is a sulphurous hot spring at Tulsiram, in the 
centre of Geer, in Kattyawar. 

A line of thermal springs traverses the Southern 
Konkan ; and there are hot wells at Veijrabhoy, 
48 miles N. of Bombay. 

Hot springs occur between Dasgaon and Southern 
Rajapur, between the Ghats and the sea, generally 
from 16 to 24 miles inland from the sea. At Rajapur 
there is one spring ; near Mhar, on the Bancoot or 
Fort Victoria river, 75 miles S. of Bombay, there 
are several, their temperatures being 98°, 105°, 
and 109°. They are midway between Dasgaon 
and Mhar, and about 75 yards from the river. 

There are ten places with hot spring between 
Rajapur and Saksee, viz. in the Viziadnig taluk, 
village Oonglee (Oonale) near Rajpur, about 20 
miles from the Ghats and 12 miles from the sea. It 
is largely used. There are three in the taluk 
Ratnagherry and in the mahal Sangameshwar, at 
the villages Rajwari, Tooril, and Sungmairi, about 
14 to 16 miles from the Ghats and 26 miles from 
the sea. That at Tooril is exceedingly hot. One 
at the village Arowli, in the Konedewri mahal ; 
one said to increase the appetite, at the village of 
Mat in the Hatkumbe mahal. Three at Oonari 
village in the Severndrug taluk and the Natoe 
Pal wan mahal. One at the village Oonari, in the 
Jafferabad mahal. One at the village of Savi, in 
the Ryeghur taluk and Mhar pargana, between 
Mhar and Dasgaon ; and one at the village Oonari, 
taluk Sankse and Pali mahal. Oonali or Oonari 
is the Mahratta term for hot springs, which will 
explain why so many villages bear this name. 

Hot springs, about 150 in number, occur near 
Wujerabaee, in the Bhewnday taiuka of the Tanna 



112 



IloT SPRINGS. 



HOT SPRINGS. 



colleetorate. « The district in which they occur 
borders upon tin- river Tansa, on the Dugantl 
m,|,' of toe Bbewnday taluk, and is seemingly 
oonfined to the villages of Akulkolec, Ganeahpurl, 
JBomd, and Nimbawullee, in a tract about 3 
miles long and ;i mile broad. The Argurd Kund 
■pring, which is the hottest, has a temperature of 
Hot springs, having a temperature of 
§7 , rise through the limestone near the Pinch* 
hills, and globules of gas escape from round holes 
in the debris and mud covering the bottom of the 
ravine. About five miles north of the hot springs 
of Urjunah, and four miles south of those of Kair, 
sandstone caps a gently rising ground covered 
with basaltic soil. Near the last-mentioned town 
many hot springs rise in the argillaceous limestone, 
which has been remarkably broken up and altered 
1>\ the globular basalt protrudiug through it in 
different places. The principal springs issue at 
the foot of the rising ground, where the rock is 
most remarkably altered. Their temperature 
(87 ) was the same as that of Urjunah, on the 
other side of the Pindi Hills, and it did not vary 
during the hot and cold months of 1831 and 1833. 

Hot springs occur in the Satpura Hills, at 
Nizardeo, also at its sister spring at Unabdeo, about 
3 miles to the north of Adawad, right under the 
Satpura Hills. Here the hot water issues from an 
oblong aperture in what appears to be a solid 
block of masonry, forming the lower part of an 
old Hindu temple, and flows into a tank 25 feet 
square. Four miles west of the Unabdeo spring 
is auother hot spring, called Ram talao, or Sunab- 
deo. It is in a narrow gorge or glen formed by 
two low projecting spurs of the Satpura ; the 
temperature, 140°. It contains 8*4 per cent, of 
silica and iron. There is another hot spring at 
Nizardeo, at Wirwada. 

Near Bagin river in Pana district, Bundelkhand 
(Franklin). Two hot springs in Alwar country, 
one 15 miles W. by S. from Alwar, one 20 miles 
N.E of Jeypore (Capt. Bellew's Survey). Mineral 
springs at Machery? (Col. Tod). At Sitabari, 
in Harowtee ; also cold springs (Col. Tod). 

Birbhum. — Hot springs occur at Buklesur in 
Birbhum. There are about eight of these, each 
being enclosed by little walls of sandstone in the 
form of wells, and known by different names, 
taken from those of the Hindu gods. The spring 
that has the highest temperature is the Suraj- 
kund. in which, says a Hindu traveller, we could 
not dip our hand, and in which an egg may be 
boiled, but not rice, of which we threw in a hand- 
ful to try the experiment. A few paces from the 
Surajkund is a cold spring. There are springs 
in the bed of the Paphara,"the washer-of-sins. 
The water of the Satgunga has a milky whiteness, 
whence the origin of its name. 

Coufervse abound in the hot springs of Suraj- 
kund ; and two species, one ochreous brown and 
the other green, occur on the margin of the tanks 
hemselves, and in the hottest water ; the brown 
8 capable of bearuig the greatest heat, and forms 

belt in deeper water than the green. Both 
ippear in broad luxuriant strata, wherever the 
:emperature is cooled down to 168°, and as low 
u»90°. 

The water of one hot spring at Pachete near 
,he Dainuda is 190° Fahr. in the cold weather. 
The spring is chalybeate. Hot springs near 
Monghir, on the Ganges, are known as the Seeta 

V.,I.. „. 113 



Kund ; temperature, lG3 y . Hot springs at Kuhi 
Kondah and Bhimband, in the trap mountains 
of Raimahal. A thermal spring occurs in trap 
rock between hit. 28 and 24 N., and louir. 8<i 
and 87 I 

Kaljhunii,Maharu,Hatbulleah,N'ouhhil, between 
Raimahal and Suri (Sherwill). Lacarakunda, 21 
miles S. W. of Suri, in Birbhum (Sherwill). Tant- 
looee,16 miles N.W.of Suri, on Sidh nullah, (Sher- 
will). Springs at Katkamsandi, Old Benares 
road (Everest). Pinarkun, Ramgur (Breton). 
Paharpur, Kurruckpore Hills (Sherwill). Rajgir 
and Guriuk, N. by E. of Gyah (8herwill). Utteer, 
30 miles from Puri (Brander). 

There are two warm springs in the bed of the 
Godavery, one in the middle of the river near 
Badrachellum, about one hundred miles west from 
Rajaraundry. At Kair and Urjunah, Dekhan 
(Malcomson). At Byorah (Malcomson). 

Bum Buklesir is a pretty and curious spot, easily 
accessible, in a well-cultivated country, with a 
little jungle to its south. It is one mile from the 
large town of Tantipara, on the banks of the 
Buklesir, a small nullah. There are five or six 
hot springs, the whole group called Bum Buklesir. 
The hot wells have been surrounded with masonry 
walls, and are immediately on the north or 
right bank of the nullah. There are numerous 
hot springs in the bed of the nullah, only to be 
seen in the dry season, giving out sulphuretted 
hydrogen, with which the air is tainted. Near 
the hot springs are several cold ones, all flowing 
from a tough gneiss rock. The hot and cold 
springs are only separated by a few feet from 
each other. The body of water ejected from the 
hottest well is very considerable, being about 120 
cubic feet per minute ; it runs from innumerable 
small orifices in an accumulation of mud and 
dirt, the rock being nowhere visible within the 
masonry of the tank. In the hottest water, 162°, 
a green shining conferva thrives. Another spring 
is 128°, and the coolest 83°. Some 300 or 400 
feet from the bank of the river, among the 
dilapidated temples, there is a large built tank, 
which is supplied by two springs, one hot and the 
other cold, so that at one end the water is warm, 
at the other cold, and in the centre tepid. The 
stream of the nullah is about 50 yards across, 
with a brisk current, and it retains its heat below 
the springs for a considerable distance ; its tem- 
perature was 83° in the month of December, when 
the temperature of the air was in the shade 77°. 
The sand of the stream some little way from the 
spring, and at the depth of six inches, is intoler- 
ably hot to the hand. Extending for about 200 
yards along the right bank of the stream, are 320 
small brick and mortar vihara or temples, built 
by various pilgrims, each containing a lingam or 
emblem of Mahadeo. Only one temple has any 
pretension to architectural elegance. Numerous 
attendant Brahmans, most importunate beggars, 
loiter about the temples, engaged in bathing in 
the hot stream, or watching the cremation of 
dead bodies, which operation is constantly being 
carried on. Tantipara is a fine substantial village, 
with most of its inhabitants engaged in preparing 
silk for the Calcutta market. There is an indigo 
factory, besides a police choki and abkari station. 
A short way off is the large town of Dobrajpore, 
offering a good market for English piece-goods, 
and producing a largo supply of fish from its 



•HOT SPRINGS. 



HOT SPRINGS. 



numerous tanks. Between it and Bum Buklesir, 
and in the town of Dobrajpore, large naked and 
picturesque masses of granite and gneiss protrude 
through the soil, occupying altogether about a 
mile square. The scene is a very curious one. 
In the opposite direction, but farther away, is 
Nagpore, or Jye Nuggur, a large town ; the greater 
part of it has gone to decay, as is shown by 
its falling mosques, half -filled and weed-choked 
masonry tanks, and ruined buildings which almost 
approach to palaces in extent. The famous Nagore 
wall or entrenchment extends in an irregular and 
broken figure round the town of Nagore, at a 
distance of about 4 miles ; its length is about 32 
miles. At Lakarakunda, about 5 miles off, is a 
warm spring, temperature 85°. Near the feeble 
stream which carries away its waters is a curious 
cut stone Hindu temple. 

The hot springs of Momay (temp. 110°), at 
16,000 feet, produce a golden-brown Ccenocoleus, 
representing a small form of C. cirrhosus, and 
a very delicate Sphcerozyga, an Anabaina, and 
Tolypothrix ; and at 17,000 feet, a delicate green 
Conferva, with long even articulations. With the 
latter is an Odontidium, allied to or identical with 
O. turgidulum ; and with the former a fine species 
of Epithemia, resembling in form, but not in 
marking, E. faba (E. zebra) ; a fine Navicula, 
perhaps the same with N. major and Fragilaria 
virescens. In mud from one of the Momay 
springs there was Epithemia Broomeii, n. s., aud 
two small Naviculse ; and in the spring two other 
species of Epithemia. 

In the hot springs of Surajkund, and on their 
banks, at temperatures varying from 80° to 158°, 
at which point vegetation entirely ceases, a minute 
Leptothrix abounds everyAvhere, varying a little in 
the regularity of the threads in different specimens, 
but scarcely presenting two species. Between 
84° and 112° there is an imperfect Zygnema, with 
very long articulations ; and where the green 
scum passes into brown, there is sometimes an 
Oscillatoria, or a very minute stellate Scytonema, 
probably in an imperfect state. Epithemia 
ocellata also contributes often to produce the 
tint. An Anabaina occurs at a temperature of 
125°, but the same species was found also in the 
stream from the springs, where the water had 
become cold, as was also the case with the 
Zygnema. Mr. Thomas Brightwell found in a 
portion of the same specimen, Epithemia alpestris. 
The Diatomaceae consisted of — 
Epithemia Broomeii, n. sp. I E. insequalis, n. sp. 
E. thermalis, ft, sp. | Novicula Beharensis, n, sp. 

The vegetation in the three sets of springs was 
very different. As regards the Confervae, taking 
the word in its older sense, the species in the 
three are quite different, and even in respect of 
genera there is little identity ; but amongst the 
Diatomacese there is no striking difference, except 
in those of the Behar springs, where three out of 
the four did not occur elsewhere. In the Pugha 
and Momay springs, the species were either iden- 
tical with, or nearly allied to, those found in neigh- 
bouring localities, where the water did not exceed 
the ordinary temperature. 

In Ceylon, hot springs occur in two places in 
the Kandyan province, at Badulla, at Kitool 
near Bintenne, near Yaviutu in the Veddah 
country, and a fourth at Kannea, 7 miles beyond 
Trincomalee ; and there are two in the province 



of Uva, and one at Batticaloa. Their waters are 
considered efficacious in cutaneous ailments and 
rheumatism. A fifth is said to exist near the 
Patipal Aar, south of Batticaloa. The water in 
each is sufficiently pure to be used by the natives 
for domestic purpose?. 

In the hot springs of Kannea, the water flows 
at a temperature varying at different seasons from 
85° to 115°. In the stream formed by these 
wells, M. Reynaud found and forwarded to Cuvier 
two fishes, which he took from the water at a 
time when his thermometer indicated a tempera- 
ture of 37° Reaumur, equal to 115° of Fahrenheit. 
The one was an apogon, the other an ambassis ; 
and to each, from the heat of its habitat, he 
assigned the specific name of Thermalis. Also a 
loche, Cobitis thermalis, and a carp, Nuria ther- 
moicos, were found in the hot springs of Kannea 
at a heat of 40° cent., 114° Fahr. ; and a roach, 
Leuciscus thermalis, when the thermometer indi- 
cated 50° cent,, 122° Fahr. 

Fish have been taken from a hot spring at Puri 
when the thermometer stood at 112° Fahr., and as 
they belonged to a carnivorous genus, they must 
have found prey living in the same high tempera- 
ture. 

Fishes have been observed in a hot spring at 
Manilla, which raises the thermometer to 187°, and 
in another in Barbary, the usual temperature of 
which is 172° ; and Humboldt and Bonpland, 
when travelling in South America, saw fishes 
thrown up alive from a volcano, in water that 
raised the temperature to 210°, being two degrees 
below the boiling point. The springs of Kannea 
are situated in low ground abounding in quartz, 
surrounded by low jungle, in an unhealthy country, 
Of the two warm springs in the provinceof Ouva, 
one is at Badalla, in Upper Ouva, about 1861 feet 
above the level of the sea, where the mean annual 
heat is about 69° ; the other is about a mile and 
a half from Aliputa, in Lower Ouva, near the 
path on the way to Kotahowa, about 1061 feel 
above the level of the sea, where the meai: 
annual temperature is probably about 76°. 
Hot springs also occur as under : — 

On Ranjit river. — Darjeeling Guide. 

Between Meeaday and the Arakan Hills. — Phayre. 

Sitacund, near Chittagong. 

Springs at Numyan, near Prome. 

Hot-water fountain at Tavoy ; at LAinkyen, in Tavoy 

and at Sienli in Martaban. — Prinsep. 
Near Kaline Aurig, Martaban. — Low. 
Hot spring on Attaran river, Tenasserim. — PiddingtoiX 
Hot springs on the Palouk river and at Pee, betweei 

Mergni and Tavoy, some sulphuretted. — Major W 

M'Leod. 

There is a hot spring near Chirana Puteh, ant 
another at Salanama in Rambu. Tin has beet 
procured near Taba, and also near Chirana Puteh 

Ayarpanas (hot water) spring near Malacca ; ib 
water, 115°, is said to be useful in rheumatism. 

Hot springs, some of interest, exist at Yom- 
mack, in lat, 22° 24' N., long. 113° 28' E., about 
15 miles N.W. of Macao, with a temperature from 
132° to 190° Fahr. The springs are three in 
number, and are near a rivulet, 100 yards from 
the river. 

Hot springs occur in the Shan-tung province 
of China at Ai-shan, about 12 miles from Chefoo: 
also at Loong-chwcn, 60 li E. of Ning-hai ; at 
Wun-shih-ting, 70 li S. of Tung-chow ; near Yi- 
chow-foo, and at Chau-yuen, 60 li W. of Whang- 



114 



HOTTKNTOT. 



HOI S! 



hien. The water la sulphurous, and lwiths have 
itabhahed there.— FbHtet, Ceylon, ii. p, lit ; 
Bengal As. Soe. Journal, 1848 ; Mra Hertey's 
Tartary, \. p. 94; Patterson's Zoology^ part ii. p. 
•_'ll: )<\,r.il's British Fishes, i. part xvi. ; 7Vm- 
'\ii/i'ii. p. 69 ; Davy's Ceylon, pp. 42-46; 
Carttr'x western India, p. :il ■ rottinm/r't Belnch- 
istmi, \>. 17'.': Hooker, Him. Jour. ; Tr. of Hind.; 
Dr. M'. Hihbert, in Jam. Ed. Journ. xxiv., 1887; 
Dr. /.'. Kir*, in ./<>. /.'. W«fc Nor. No. vi. ; /'/r mfag ,• 
Dr. ,1. Ihmra,,. Bo. Medt. I'm., 1836; Brwsw; 
J>r. MatvJurnon, in Indian Annals of Med. >'•■., 
I •'•'' I : !/<•. Livingstone, in Jam. Ed. Jour. 

HoTTKNTOT, a race occupying a part of the 
mireiae south of Africa, near the Cape of Good 
Hope. 

HOUGH, Major W., author of A Narrative 

of the March and Operations of the Army of 

tin- Indus in the Expedition to Afghanistan in 

'. and History of the Dooranee Empire to 

the Present Time, London 1841. 

HOURI. In Mahomedan belief, a woman in 
paradise. It is translated in Sale's Koran, chap, 
iv., 'beauteous damsels, having fine black eyes. 

HOUSE. 



Bait Arab. 

Kaiaon, Fr. 

Bku, Ger. 

Khana, . Hind., 1'eiw. 



Casa, .... It., Sp. 

Oor, Tam. 

Illu, Tel. 

Ev, Konak, . . . Turk. 

In the granitic country of Telingana, the houses 
are usually built of adhesive earth or clay, of a 
square or rectangular form, smeared often with 
red earth, and picked out with perpendicular 
bands of slaked lime, with a pyramidal roof of 
palmyra leaves or grass. Houses in the Karnatic 
are of mad walls, with roofs thatched with grass 
or palm leaves. Houses on the banks of the 
Kistna, near its debouchure, have circular walls 
of adhesive earth. 

In the Tamil and Telugu country, the walls are 
usually of mud, with thatch or tiles for the roof, 
flie humbler races have circular houses ; their 
houses in Telingana arc detached from each other, 
outside the gharri or fort. In the Canarese tract 
about Hurryhur, the back of the house is formed 
by raising a very high wall, on which a long 
sloping roof rests. 

In Arabia and Mahomedan countries of Persia 
and India, houses have a common courtyard, with 
numerous rooms leading from it. 

The circular form of hut is the only style of 
architecture adopted among all the tribes of 
ventral Africa, and also among the Arabs of 
Upper Egypt : and although these differ more or 
less in the form of the roof, no tribe has ever yet 
sufficiently advanced to construct a window. Their 
houses are circular and conical, with only one 
opening for a doorway. 

The Yezdy, a Kurd race settled near Aleppo, 
build a stone wall, and erect over it a goat-hair roof. 

!n Persia, the cottages of the villagers and 
peasantry are of mud, or rough stones cemented 
with mud, and mostly consist of two rooms. The 
walls, which are usually about seven feet high, 
are very thick, and full of niches and recesses, 
which serve as cupboards for depositing all 
manner of miscellaneous articles. The roofs of 
the larger Persian houses are flat, and many have 
tall bad-gir or wind towers risiug high above. 
The bad-gir is a large square tower, covered on 
the top. but opening below into the apartment 



above which it is erected. The four sides are kid 
OMa in long perpendicular aperture* like narrow 
windows, and within these are partitions or walls 
intersecting each other, so as to form four 
Channel! in the tower. By thin contrivance, from 
Whatevet quarter the wind blows, it is caught in 
the tower and conveyed into the room below, bo 
that a constant current of air is kept up, except 
when it happens to be a dead calm. 

The cottage of Bengal, with its trim, curved, 
thatched roof, and cane or bamboo walls, i* tin- 
best looking in India. 

The houses of Hindustan are built of clay or 
unburnt bricks, and tiled. 

In the greenstone tract of the Dekhan, lWar. 
and the Mahratta country, where wood is scarce 
and of high price, the walla are mostly of mud, 
with flat roofs. The houses are huddled close 
together, surrounded by a wall, often with a 
(antral gharri or fort. 

Houses with a flat roof have a parapet (Deuter- 
onomy xxii. 8) to prevent any one falling into the 
street. 

Acts x. 9 tells us that 'Peter went upon the 
housetop to pray. 5 All the flat-roofed houses of 
India would admit of this ; but some of the rich 
Hindus have a room on the top of the house, in 
which they perform worship daily. 

2 Samuel xi. 2 says, ' And it came to pass in an 
evening-tide, that David arose from off his bed, 
and walked upon the roof of the king's house.' 
It is common in India with Mahomedans and 
Hindus to sleep in the afternoon. The roofs of 
houses are flat, and it is a pleasing recreation in 
an evening to walk on the fiat roofs. 

In Tibet, the peasant's house much resembles a 
brick kiln in shape and size. It is built of rough 
stones, without cement, and has two or three 
small apertures for ventilation. The roof is flat. 

Houses in Burma, Arakan, the Straits Settle- 
ments, and all through the Archipelago, are raised 
on piles ; some on the river side are built over 
the river on piles several feet high, with wooden 
or bamboo matting walls. The whole frontage on 
the left bank of the Moulmein river is built over, 
as also in Mergui. Some of the tribes of Further 
India live in great houses, communicating in their 
entire length. This is for defence. 

Houses in many eastern countries are built as a 
quadrangle, the four outer walls being dead, or 
pierced with loopholes ; in one of the halls is the 
entrance to an open unroofed courtyard, sur- 
rounded by chambers or open verandahs. This 
arrangement explains the circumstances of the 
letting down of the paralytic into the presence of 
our Lord, in order that he might heal him (Mark 
ii. 4, Luke v. 19). The paralytic was carried by 
some of his neighbours to the top of the house, 
either by forcing their way through the crowd by 
the gateway and passages up the stairs, or else by 
conveying him over some of the neighbouring 
terraces ; and there, after they had drawn away 
the awning, ' they let him down along the Bide of 
the roof, through the opening or impluvium, into 
the midst of the court before Jesus.' 

Matthew x. 12-14 says, 'And when ye come 

into an house, salute it. And whosoever shall 

not receive you,' etc. It is the custom amongst 

I Hindus of a stranger to go to a house, and as 

he enters it to say, ' Sir, I am a guest with you 

I to-night.' If the person cannot receive him, he 

15 



HOUSE-LEEKS. 



HUDDART. 



apologizes to the stranger. — Horn's Critical Study 
of the Scriptures, i. p. 385 ; Shaw's Travels, i. pp. 
374-376 ; Hartley's Researches in Greece, ii. p. 
240 ; Robinson's Tr. ii. p. 351 ; Ward's Hindoos. 

HOUSE -LEEKS, King-t'ien, Chin. The 
plants Umbilicus malacophyllus, Sedum acre, and 
Serapervivum tectorum, are grown on Chinese 
housetops, with the idea that they ward off fires. 
—Smith, M. M. C. 

HOUSHA, in Bengal, a village authority. 

HOUTMAN, CORNELIS, in a.d. 1595, as 
supercargo, was entrusted with the cargo of four 
ships to sail by the Cape of Good Hope to the 
East Indies, a company having been formed, 
entitled 'Het Maatschappy van verre Landen,' to 
carry out the Dutch enterprises in the east. He 
left the Texel 2d February 1595, crossed the 
line 14th June, doubled the Cape 2d August, 
landed at Sumatra 11th July 1596, and entered 
the harbour of Bantam 22d July. He purchased 
pepper and spices in the Sunda Islands and Java, 
and returned to the Texel in 1597. 

A second expedition, in which he was slain, 
went out in 1598, and returned in 1600-1601. 
This seems to have been commanded by Admiral 
Vauneck, who formed an establishment at Java 
and in the Molucca Islands ; and he was followed 
by Admiral Warwyk, who fortified the factory at 
Java, and formed alliances in Bengal. In 1624 
the Dutch settled on Formosa, which soon attained 
a high degree of prosperity, but was ultimately 
wrested from them by a Chinese patriot. They 
have had a factory in Japan since 1640, where 
they submitted to very degrading treatment. The 
Dutch subsequently expelled the Portuguese and 
Spaniards from Malacca and from the Moluccas, 
and afterwards formed settlements at Timur, 
Celebes, Macassar, and Sumatra. 

Spielbergen was the first Dutch navigator who 
touched at Batticaloa in Ceylon, in March 1602. 
He went to Kandy, where he was well received, 
entered into alliances with the king of Kandy in 
the year 1638, and for the next twenty years their 
ward with the Portuguese were incessant. The 
Portuguese finally departed on the 24th June 1658. 

HOVA. The tombs of the Hova race of 
Madagascar consist of stone vaults, made of 
immense slabs of stones, flat inside, forming a 
subterranean grotto. They also erect stone pillars 
similar to menhir. The supposed aborigines of 
Madagascar were the Vasimba, whose tombs are 
small tumuli or cairns, surmounted by an upright 
stone pillar. 



HOVENTA DULCIS. 

Chih-ku, Ki-ku-tsze, Chin. 
Coral, Honey, and 

White stone tree, Eng. 



Thunb. 

Sicka, Hind. 

Kempokonass, . Japan. 
Ken, Kimponass, 



This tree grows in India, Nepal, China, and 
Japan. Its fruit are small, dry, and pea-like, 
pendent upon the fleshy peduncles, like the 
cashew nut. They greatly increase in size at the 
time of their maturation. The fruit-like thick- 
ened branches are of a russet colour, and filled 
with a pleasant, yellowish, pear-like pulp. The 
fleshly peduncles are said to counteract the im- 
mediate and after effects of wine. — Smith, 
M. M. C. ; Roxb. i. p. 630 ; Von Mueller. 

HOWA. Arab. Eve, the mother of the human 
race. 

HOWDAH, a seat, pad, or open litter fixed on 
the back of an elephant. 



HOWLER, a name given to the Gulshaniyeh 
darvesh. See Darvesh. 

HOAVRAH or Haura, sub-district of Hoogly 
district, Bengal, with independent magisterial 
jurisdiction, lying between lat. 22° 13' 15" and 22° 
47' N., and between long. 87° 47' and 88° 24' 15" 
E. — Imp. Gaz. 

HOW-TSAO. Chin. A bezoar stone, used in 
China for the treatment of Cynanche tonsillaris. 

HOYA, a genus of plants of the natural order 
Asclepiacese. The species in Southern Asia are, 
— H. carnosa, fusca, lanceolata, linearis, ovalifolia, 
pallida, parasitica, Pottsii, pauciflora, pendula, and 
viridiflora. Several of the species, under the name 
of wax plants, are cultivated on account of their 
elegant flowers. H. imperialis, Lindl., of Borneo, 
is highly beautiful, its large and rich purple 
flowers being relieved by the white, ivory-like 
centre ; it is epiphytal. H. carnosa, R. Br., the 
flesh-coloured wax plant, is a native of China. — 
Voigt ; Wight ; Eng. Cyc. ; Low's Sarawak, p. 67. 

HOYA PENDULA. Wight and Arnott. 
Asclepias pendula, Roxb. I Hoya revoluta, Wight. 
A. Kheedii, W. and A. | Nasjera patsja, Maleal. 

This plant grows in the Circar mountains, 
Malabar, and Neilgherry Hills, and is used in 
medicine. Its flowers are middle sized, white, 
and fragrant. — Voigt. 

HOYA VIRIDIFLORA. R. Br. Asclepias 
viridiflora of Roxburgh. A native of Coromandel, 
Sylhet, and the Neilgherry Hills. The root and 
tender stalks produce nausea, and promote ex- 
pectoration. The leaves, peeled and dipped in 
oil, are used by the natives of India as a discutient 
in the early stages of boils, and in the more ad- 
vanced stages to promote suppuration. 

HSU SHEN, author of the Shuo Wen, a 
Chinese dictionary. It consisted of 10,000 separate 
characters, in the tablet and stylus form. Com- 
monly called the ' Lesser Seal.' He lived in the 
time of the Han dynasty. 

H'TEE, Burm., is the umbrella or canopy of 
gilt iron filigree which crowns every pagoda in 
Burma. Now-a-days, generally, a bottle is put on 
the H'tee, and a similar practice is said to be 
pursued in Ceylon, originating, as it is surmised, 
from the knowledge that glass is a non-conductor. 
The H'tee of the Shooay Dagon pagoda at Ran- 
goon was renewed by the king of Burma in 1871 
at a cost of £62,000, and about 50,000 people 
assembled to assist in putting it up. It was 47 
feet high and 13 in diameter. Kings of Burma in 
1755, and again in 1774, had asserted their 
sovereignty over Rangoon by thus crowning the 
great pagoda. — Yule's Embassy. 

HUAKI. Maori. A fabric of New Zealand 
used in clothing. 

HUC and GABET, two French missionaries, 
who, by a route till then quite unexplored by any 
European, passed among the mountains north of 
Bhutan and Ava, and so made their way due cast 
to the plains of China (Central Flowery Land). M. 
Hue wrote an account of his travels. 

HUD. At Hasek is the tomb of the prophet 
Hud, the fourth in descent from Shem. 

HUDDART. Captain Joseph Huddart, F.R.S., 
author of the Oriental Navigator, which first 
appeared in 1785, with an atlas of 108 charts. A 
second edition of it appeared in 1797, a third in 
1801, and a fourth in 1808, of 755 pages. Its plan 
was adhered to by Captain James Horsburgh 



116 



Ill DDKKAK'no. 



lll'OKI. 



(i.i>iii M;iy L836),under the titled India Directory, 
tli«' first part of which appeared in 1K<>9, the 
fccoiiI part in 1811, and it li as since gone through 
several editions, its place has now been largely 
taken by two similar works, one under the editor- 
ship of Mr. Findlay, and 'another by Captain 
Taylor of the Indian navy. 

Ill DDKKAK'OO. II ini). A kind of ring used 
omedan marriages. 

Ill DKiAK". Kai:n. A low caste in Mysore. 

HUE or Fue. Chik. A secret society. 

HUGEL. Haron Charles F. von Hugel, author 
liinir und das Reich der Siek, Stuttgart 
1M0, describing his visit to the Himalaya moun- 
tains and the valley of Kashmir. The Fische aus 
mir were described by MM. von Hugel 
an d von Heckel. Baron Hugel met other two 
travellers in Kashmir, and they agreed to carve 
the following inscription on a black marble tablet, 
and Bet it up in the little building on the Char 
Chunar island : — ' Three travellers in Kashmir on 
the 18th November 1885, the Baron Ch. Hugel 
from .Jamu, Th. G. Vigne from Iskardu, and Dr. 
.lohn Henderson from Ladakh, have caused the 
names of all the travellers who have preceded 
them in Kashmir to be engraven on this stone. 
Bernier 1668 ; Forster, 1786 ; Moorcroft, Guthrie, 
and Trebeck, 1823 ; Victor Jacquemont, 1831 ; 
Joseph "Wolff, 1832.' Two only of these, the first 
and the last, ever returned to their native country. 
In the list they did not include Catholic mission- 
aries. Forster did, 6trictly speaking, return home, 
but he came out again and died at Madras. When 
Char Chunar island was visited by Dr. Adams in 
1854, the tablet had been removed. — HugeVs Tr. 
p. 144 ; Blast's Cat.; Adams' Naturalist in India. 

Ill (JH LINDSAY was the name of the first 
steamer that conveyed an overland mail from 
Bombay to Suez. She was the first steamer that 
entered the Persian Gulf. She was lost coming 
out of the roads of Bassidore, a port on the island 
of Kishm, in the Persian Gulf. 

lH'CrLI or Hoogly, a town in Bengal, in lat. 
22° 54' 44" N., long. 88° 26' 28" E. It has the 
town of Chinsurah adjoining it on its south, and 
their joint population in 1872 was 34,761. A 
fort is said to have been built here by the 
Portuguese in 1537, and a population gathered 
around it. About the year 1629 it was taken by 
storm, under the order of the emperor Shah 
Jahan ; but in 1640 the English East India Com- 
pany, under a firman granted to Dr. Boughton, 
opened a factory here, and two years afterwards 
another at Balasor. Between 1685 and 1688, 
disputes arose between the Nawab of Bengal and 
the Company's servants ; but peace was restored, 
ind in the treaty permission was given to build a 
factory at Sutanati, the present site of Calcutta. 
Hoogly is the head station of a British revenue 
ilistrict, with an area of 1467 square miles, and a 
population in 1872 of 1,488,556 souls, the most 
lumerous Hindu castes being the Bagdi, Kaibartta. 
Brahmans, Rajputs; and Mahometans, 299,025. 
When Hoogly fort was taken by the troops of Shah 
Jahan byjassault, after a siege of 3£ months, more 
than 1000 Portuguese were slaughtered, and 4400 
men, women, and children were made prisoners of 
war. The best-looking young persons were sent to 
Agra, and circumcised and made Mahomedaus. The 
jirls were distributed among the harains of the 
inperor and his nobility, In Hoogly the first 



preM was let up in India in 177K, by Mckhth. 
llalhed and Wilkinson the occasion of the publica- 
tion of a Bengali grammar by Hulhed. The 
Handel church is the oldest Christian church in 
Bengal, built, according to the inscribed date, in 
1599. Prior to Hoogly, the royal port of Bengal 
was Satgaon. The Ganges formerly flowed by 
this place, and came out near Andool, and the 
remains of wrecked vessels have been turned out 
beneath the earth, which has overlaid the bed of 
the deserted channel. Satgaon is of great anti- 
quity, having been known to the Romans under 
the name of Ganges Regia. 

The Hoogly river is formed by the junction of 
the Bhagirathi and Jelinghi, two branches of the 
Ganges. It runs into the sea at Saugor roadstead, 
by an estuary 15 miles wide. Ita length is 160 
miles by winding of stream. It receives the 
Damodah, 350 miles ; Dalkissore, 170 miles ; 
Cossy, 240 miles; Mor, 130 miles; and about 
49,000 square miles are drained. The river has 
on its banks Calcutta, Serampur, Chanderouggur, 
Hoogly, and Murshidabad. The rivers forming 
it are offsets from the western branch of the 
Ganges delta. The eastern or Saugor channel is 
the principal entrance. From Middleton Point 
light to Fort William at Calcutta is 83£ miles in 
length, following the windings of the river. It is 
the most westerly, and, for commercial purposes, 
the most important channel by which the GangeB 
enters the Bay of Bengal. Proceeding south and 
a little east from Santipur, the Hoogly river 
divides Murshidabad from Hoogly district, until 
it touches the district of the Twenty - four 
Parganas in lat. 22° 57' 30" N., and long. 88° 27' 
15" E., close to the village of Bagherkhal. It 
then proceeds almost due south to Calcutta, next 
inclines to the south-west, and finally turns south, 
entering the Bay of Bengal in lat. 21° 41' N., and 
long. 88° E. 

The Saraswati, now a muddy channel, enters 
the Hoogly at Satgaon, about 30 miles above 
Calcutta, and the Adi Ganga, now little more 
than a series of pools, which diverges south-east 
from it just below Calcutta, are both rivers of 
great sanctity. They are supposed to represent 
the original Ganges, Holy Mother Ganga, who 
takes her divine source in the Himalayas, and 
pours her waters into the Bay of Bengal at Sagor 
(Saugor) island. In August 1856, neap tide rose 
15£ feet above the datum sill of the Kidderpore 
dock ; and upon the 18th August 1856, spring tide 
rose to 22| feet above the same datum, the 
greatest rise of the salt lakes being 12 feet. This 
is on the western side of the delta. On the 
eastern side the tides rise from 40 to 80 feet The 
silt held in solution, earthy matter, carbonate of 
lime, magnesia, sulphates of lime and iron, at 8 
feet of depth, varies at Calcutta and in the 
Gasper Channel from 7 84 to 18*92. 

The Hoogly is difficult to navigate. The tides 
run rapidly. The James and Mary Sands, 80 
miles below Calcutta, used to be reckoned so 
perilous, that until well into the nineteenth century 
East Indiamen lay at Diamond harbour, just 
below their dangerous currents. A minute super- 
vision of the channels, with steady dredging 
and a constant readjustment of the buoys, now 
renders the Hoogly a safo waterway to Calcutta 
for ships of the largest modern tonnage, drawing 
up to 26 feet. These sands are shallows formed 



117 



HUGONIA MYSTAX. 



HULUGU. 



at the entrance into the Hoogly, from its western 
bank, of the Damodar and Rupnarayan rivers, 
which bring down the drainage of South -Western 
Bengal. These rivers discharge at sharp angles 
into the Hoogly, at a distance of only a few miles 
apart, nearly opposite Falta, which lies 27 miles 
by water from Calcutta. Their waters check the 
flow of the Hoogly, and lead to the deposit of 
vast quantities of the silt with which the Hoogly, 
Damodar, and Rupnarayan are loaded. If a ship 
touch the bottom of the sands, she is immedi- 
ately pushed over by the current ; and cases 
are known in which only the yards of a great 
three-masted ship have remained above water 
within half-an-hour after the accident; vessels 
become covered over with the sand if not promptly 
blown up. The sands extend upwards from Hoogly 
Point, 33^ miles from Calcutta, opposite the mouth 
of the Rupnarayan, to about Falta, 27 miles from 
Calcutta, opposite the mouth of the Damodar. 

Fishermen, who have sea-going boats, inhabit 
villages near the entrance of the Hoogly. 

A bore is caused by the head-wave of the advan- 
cing tide becoming hemmed in where the estuary 
narrows suddenly into the river, and often exceeds 
7 feet in height. It is felt as high up as Calcutta, 
and frequently sinks small boats or dashes them 
to pieces on the bank. The tide itself runs as 
high up asHoogly town. — Tr. of Hind. i. pp. 13, 15. 

HUGONIA MYSTAX. Linn. Modera kanni, 
Maleal. ; Agur, Tam. A shrub growing in 
Malabar, the Coromandel coast, and Ceylon, with 
large blossoms of golden-yellow colour. It is em- 
ployed iu native medicine. — IF. 111.; Voigt. 

HUJERI. Arab. A term applied to one of 
the servile races of Arabia. Qu. Khijra ? 

HUJRA. Pkks. A place of assembly, a chamber. 
In Afghanistan, a house set apart for the accom- 
modation of travellers, and where, in the evenings, 
the old and the young assemble to converse and 
smoke the chillam. — Masson's Journeys, i. p. 119. 

HUJRA, a small town of 3000 inhabitants in 
the Montgomery district of the Panjab ; residence 
of a branch of the Bedi Sikhs, descendants of 
guru Baba Nauak. It was conquered by Bedi 
Sahib Singh during the reign of Ranjit Singh, 
and held by him in jaghir from the Maharaja. His 
descendants still hold extensive revenue grants in 
the neighbourhood, and exercise considerable local 
influence. — Imp. Gaz. 

HUJULOHA. Hind. An epithalamium. 

HUKKA. Hind. A pipe used in India, in 
which smoke is made to pass through water. 
Hukka bardar, a pipe-bearer. Hukko charsee 
Pattani, used by Pataus for smoking charras, 
resin of hemp, or Cannabis sativa. 

HUKMCHIS. Hind. A dark-coloured gum 
obtained from the date palm. 

HUKUM or Hukung, a valley in Assam, about 
1000 feet above the level of the sea. It is sur- 
rounded on the north and east by mountains 
elevated 5000 and 6000 feet, and is traversed by 
numerous ranges of low hills. 

HULAETA. Hind. In Hindustan, the first 
ploughing of the season, which is generally pre- 
ceded by the taking of omens, and other super- 
stitious ceremonies. The note of the koel bird, 
amongst other auguries, is considered very favour- 
able, and its utterance is of such authority as to 
enable the cultivator to dispense with a formal 
application to a Brahman.— Ell. See Hal ; Har. 



HULARI, a mountainous district near Shiraz, 
with fine vineyards, from which the choicest 
Persian wine is prepared, both red and white. This 
wine has much body ; it resembles the strong 
Cape wines, and is fit to be exported. 

HULAS WAR, a division of the Holeyar of the 
Canarese-speakinff race. 

HULDI or Haldi. Hind. Turmeric ; Curcuma 
longa, Roxb. It takes an important place in many 
of the customs of the people of India. Haldi 
mehndi is a Mahomedan betrothal ceremonial, as 
also are Haldi or Munja baithna, Haldi cbor, and 
Haldi saoo. The Hindu races use it largely for 
smearing their bodies, and to dye with it portions 
of their new clothes to avert the evil eye. 

HULKA-BUNDI or Halka-bandi. Hind. A 
system of schooling, embracing those of the circle 
of villages in which they were established. 

HULL. E. C. P. Hull, author of Coffee Planting 
iu Southern India and Ceylon, London 1877. 

HULL AH or Nimboli. Hind. A neck orna- 
ment worn by Mahomedans. 

HULLAR or Hulla, a district which forms the 
chief part of the southern shores of the Gulf of 
Cutch. The land near the sea is low, but all well 
watered. Nowanagar is the principal place of 
the district. The Roje temple is in lat. 22° 32 
50" N., and long. 70° 1' 30" E. 

HULLE MUKKALU, a caste in Mysore who 
live by begging, and by fees from goldsmiths' 
shops, blacksmiths' shops, and at marriage cere- 
monies. 

HULUGU, grandson of Chengiz Khan, founded 
the Mongol dynasty of Persia. On the 22d of 
January 1258, he appeared with his army before 
Baghdad. On the first of February he took the 
city by storm, and put an end to the power of the 
khalifs. He had made the khalif Mostassim 
believe that he was willing to give his daughter 
in marriage to the khalifs son. But when the 
principal people were thus all got together, the 
Tartars set on them, and put them all to death. 
Baghdad, the city of science, learning, and pleasure, 
was given up to pillage and slaughter, and more 
than 800,000 persons were mercilessly destroyed. 
Sanut declares that Hulugu killed the khalif by 
pouring molten gold down his throat. Whilst the 
Mongol were covering Poland with blood and 
ruins, Hulugu, in the east, was completing the 
conquest of Syria. After the capture of Baghdad, 
he entered Mesopotamia, seized on Murdiu and 
Harran, passed the Euphrates, and made himself 
master of Aleppo and Damascus. The Tartar- 
general had sent orders to Nasir, the sultan of 
Aleppo, to submit at once, and come in person to 
meet him. Not being complied with, Hulugu 
laid siege to Aleppo. Twenty catapults played 
for five days against the town, and it was taken 
by assault on the 18th January 12C0. An in- 
j credible amount of treasure was found in it, and 
the carnage was still more horrible than at 
Baghdad. The streets were choked up with 
corpses, and it is stated that 100,000 women and 
children were sold for slaves in Little Armenia or 
in the territories of Europeans. He was succeeded 
by his son Abaka, who married a daughter of 
Michael Palaeologus, the Greek emperor. His 
brother Nicolas, who succeeded him, became a 
Mahomedan ; but Arghun Khan, son of Nicolas, 
was hostile to the people of that creed. Arghun 
sent embassies, conducted by a Genoese named. 



118 



Ill MA. 



HUMl'I. 



relli, to the I 'ope, and to tlio kings of 
France ami England, proposing an alliance 

laceusand Turks; and in 12'JO Edward i. of 
England sent Qeoffrey de Langley on a return 
i to him. Arghun having lost his favourite 
wife in 1286, sent Kublai Khan to select another 
for him, ami the Polo relatives were commis- 
i y Kublai Kban to escort the new bride be 
bad ohosoii for his nephew, to the Persian court. 
— Hue's Christianity, i. p. 268, 

II I'M A. a fabulous bird, the phoenix of classical 
writers, also the hoopoe, Upupa epo. 

HUMAYUN, emperor of India, twice reigned 
in that country, \ i/.. from the death of his father 
Baber, 26th December L680, till he abdicated on 
the 9th July 1543, aud again from re-accession, 
a.m. i."i,')."i, till his death. Humayun was the eldest 
of four sons of Baber. Of these, Kamran was 
governor of Kabul and Kandahar at the time of 
their father's death, but Hindal and Mir/a Akbari 
were unemployed in India, llumayunon accession 
ceded the Panjab and the country on the Indus to 
Kami an, in addition to his former territories; gave 
tin government of Sainbal to .Hindal, and that of 
to Mirza Askari. Humayuu's first opera- 
tions were against Bahadur Shah, kmg of Gujerat, 
and he was one of three hundred chosen men 
who, at night, in August 1635, scaled the almost 
perpendicular rock on which the hill fort of 
Qhampaner is built. Sher Shah's revolt, how- 
ever, recalled him to Hindustan and the banks of 
the Ganges ; but, after gaining temporary advan- 
tages, in a general action in April 1840, mar 
Canouj, Hurnayun's forces were defeated and 
driven into the Ganges, Humayun himself escaping 
to the i >t her side with great difficulty. He sought 



i-iin kQQk lj"' tit 1*1, defeated the Afghans, and 
compelled Kaiuran t<> IK to India, wl 
refuflM with Sultan Sclim, ami afterwards with 
Jan of the Ghakkar, who in September 
1553 betrayed him to Humayun. He waa 
blinded, and allow, «1 i<> pffeeeed to Mecca, where 
be soon after died. Humayun passed a year at 
Kabul and Kandahar ; ami on the death of Selim 
Shah he set out from Kaiul with 15,000 horse 
in January 1665, 10 1 .ah.-i. ■, ov« rthrew Sikaoder 
Shah at Sirhind, ami took possession of Dehli and 
Agra. In less than six month* after his return 
to the capital, when descending the stairs from 
bis library, hearing the muazzan's call to prayers, 
he repeated the oj iwu on the steps 

till the azan was finished. As he rose with the 
help of his staff, it slipped on the polished 
marble step, and be fell over the parapet, and 
was stunned. On the fourth day of the accident 
be expired, a.d. 155C, a.m. 063, in the 49th year 
of his age and iOtb of his reign, including the 
HI years of his banishment from his capital. He 
was succeeded by his son Akbar, then thirteen 
years and four months old ; and in Akbar a reign 
India was formed into one empire. Humayun in 
all his military operations had shown no want 
of personal courage, but great deficiency in enter- 
prise, and he had gone through his subseiju« nt 
calamities with cheerfulness that approached to 
magnanimity. — Elphin. pp. 384-413. 

HUMBOLDTIA UNIJUGA. Bedd. 1c. A 
handsome middling-sized tree, growing abundantly 
on the Travancore Ghats, in the dense forests a 
little below the Attraymallay, 8000 to 4000 feet 
elevation ; timber very hard and durable. Wight 
gives also H. Brunonia, laurifolia, and Vahliana. 



etion from Kamran at Lahore, then, failing — W. Ic. ; Beddome, Fl. Sylr. 



m an invasion of Sind, he sought and found an 
asylum with Maldeo, raja of Marwar, but finding 
Maldeo likely to deliver him up to his enemies, 
be moved to Amerkot, a fort in the desert not 
far from the Indus. The journey through the 
was calamitous ; many of his companions 
•lied miserably from thirst; Humayun, with only 
seven mounted attendants, entered Amerkot, and 
was received kindly by the chief, liana Parshad. 
Here, on the 14th October 1542, was born bis 
1 mi Akliar. His fortunes still varied, and he sought 
protection with Shah Thamasp, king of Persia. 
; his confidential officer, Bahrain Khan, to 
meet the kin-, and followed afterwards on a visit, 
but found himself a prisoner, was compelled to 
accent the Shiah doctrines and forms, and pro- 
mised to introduce it into India, t<> wear the Kazzil- 
basli oap, and to v<-iU~ the kingdom of Kandahar. 
At length he was allowed to depart, and, arriving 
at Seistan, be found 14,000 horse awaiting his 
arrival, under the command of Morad Mirza, king 
Thainasp's son. 

He took Bast on the Hebuaml, l>esieged and 
took Kandanar, March 1545. Mirza Askari took 
Kabul, and recovered Akbar, but only again 
to sustain reverses in Balkh, during which be 
tied with only eleven attendants to Badakhshan. 
Recovering somewhat, be overthrew Kami an 
(1547). and all the brothers (1548) were recon- 
ciled, and took food together; only again for. 
Humayun to meet with further reverses, for 
Humayun marched against the Khalil, but in a 
night attack he was defeated by these moun- 
taineers, and his brother Hindal killed. Humavmi 



HUME, ALLEN OCTAYIUS, C.B., a civil ser- 
vant of the Bengal Presidency, and author of The 
Game Birds of India. While magistrate of Etawa, 
by force of will and mild obstinacy of purpose, 
be overcame much resistance from the natives, and 
for years continued toiling at schools and Chris- 
tianity, and all that elevates the human heart. He 
was an instance bow much can be done hi India by 
the influence of one man. It is in India where such 
influence attains its highest sway. A place more 
desert-looking and hopeless of growth for any 
European seed could hardly be selected ; yet this 
one pale Englishman, of slender frame and asoetio 
habits, developed upon that fiery soil a caste of 
natives unsurpassed in firm allegiance and educa« 
tional distinction. — T. J. Hovell-Thurlow, Tht 
Cow/in in/ and the ( town, p. 89. 

HUME A ELATA. Huxh. Masjot, Bkm* A 
tree of Chittagoug which attains a great aiie. 
Ilium a elegans is an ornamental plant of N. S. 
Wake, grows to the height of 5 or 6 feet ; colour 
of the tlower red, and well adapted for borders ; 
it requires a good BoiL — Raxhurgk, ii. p. 640; 
Hiddell. 

HUMEANA. Him'. A waist-belt to carry 
money. 

HUMPI, a ruined city in the Hillary district 
of the Madras Presidency, known formerly as 
Bijanagar, also written Vijayanagar and Yijia- 
nuggur, jirojHrlv Vidianuggur, or the town of 
learning. There is a tradition that there was 
a town here about a.d. 1100, but it first acquired 
a name from being occupied or founded by two 
fugitiv « from Telingana. or. according toPrmsep, 



U9 



HUMULUS LUPULUS. 



HUNDES. 



iu 1338 by Bilal Deo of Karnata, wlio resisted 
Muhammad Taghalaq, and founded Vijayanagar. 
In 1347, Krishna Rai ruled there; in 1425, Deva 
Rai ; in 1478, Siva Rai. Vijayanagar sovereigns 
claimed to be of the Yadu race. Towards the 
15th century, the city had become the capital of a 
great Hindu power, which ruled over the Hindu 
chiefs to the south of the territories of the Adal 
Shahi, Nizam Shahi, and Kutub Shahi, kings 
of the Dekhan. In the middle of the 16th 
century, these three Mahomedan kings, fearing 
the growing power of Ramaraja, the sovereign, 
made war against him. Rama was then in his 
70th year. He met the confederates at Talicottah, 
on the 25th January 1565, with a great army of 
70,000 horse, 90,000 foot, 2000 elephants, and 
1000 pieces of cannon ; but he was defeated 
with a loss of 100,000 men, and was taken 
prisoner. The authors Khan" Khan and Shahab- 
ud-Din state that the elephant on which he was 
mounted ran away with him into the confederates' 
camp. He was beheaded at Kala Chabutra, in the 
Raichore Doab, and his head remained for 200 
years at Bijapur as a trophy. Vijayanagar sank 
into an insignificant place, and is now known as 
the ruins of Humpi. The raja's brother, how- 
ever, took refuge in Peniconda, and subsequently 
at Chandragiri, whence the English merchants 
obtained the grant of the ground on which Madras 
was built, and engraved on a gold plate, which 
was lost in 1746, when Madras was captured by 
the French under Labourdonnais. The descendant 
of Ramaraja is the raja of Anagundi, whose 
title is Sri Mudrajadhi Raja, Raja Parameswara, 
Sri Virapratapa, Sri Vira Terumala, Sri Vira- 
venkata Ramarawya, Dava Maharawya Sumstan 
Vedaya Nagarum. — Wh. II. I. p. 459. 

HUMULUS LUPULUS. Linn. The hop plant; 
has been extensively distributed in the Himalayas. 
At 2500 feet, in the Dehra Doon, it grows well, 
and at an altitude of 6000 feet in the Government 
gardens, Mussoori, but in those regions the highest 
limit appears to be 4000 or 4500 feet. It has been 
successfully cultivated in Dehra Doon for many 
years, so far as mere growth is concerned ; but 
heavy rain at the flowering period prevents the 
flower from reaching perfection as to quantity and 
quality of the powder on which its value depends, 
and the results have, on the whole, been unsatis- 
factory.— Stewart, P. PI. p. 217. See Hops. 

HUN. Hind. A gold coin of S. India, worth 
31£ rupees, called pagoda by the British. It is 
about 50 grains weight. 

HUN, a race who have secured for themselves 
a niche with the 36 races of India. D'Anville, 
quoting Csoma de Koros, informs us that the White 
Hun occupied the north of India ; and it is on 
the eastern bank of the Chambal, at the ancient 
Barolli, that tradition assigns a residence to the 
Hun ; and one of the celebrated temples at that 
place, called the Sengar Chaori, is the marriage 
hall of the Hun prince, who is also declared to 
have been possessed of a lordship on the opposite 
bank, occupying the site of the present town of 
Bhynsror. In the 12th century the Hun must 
have possessed consequence, to occupy the place 
they hold in the chronicle of the princes of Gujerat. 
The race is not extinct. One of the bards pointed 
out to Colonel Tod the residence of some in a 
village on the estuary of the Myhie, though 
degraded and mixed with other classes. There 



are also two tribes in the Himalaya who have 
preserved this designation, — the one in Gnari 
Khorsum, who call themselves Hunia ; the other 
beiug the Limbu in Nepal and Sikkim, a large 
division of whom are called Hung. Arrian, 
Strabo, and Ptolemy state that a race known as 
the White Hun were established in the Panjab 
and along the Indus about the beginning of the 
Christian era. They are mentioned in the Maha- 
bharata and Markandea Purana ; Dr. Fergusson 
says (p. 39) the White Hun or Ephthalites are 
the Jat. 

The Hun are known in Chinese history as Heung- 
noo, meaning boisterous slaves. The Hiatilla or 
White Hun issued from the plains near the north 
wall of China, made themselves masters of the 
country of Transoxiana and Khorasan, and antici- 
pated the irruption of those Turkish tribes who 
afterwards expelled the Hiatilla from the lands 
that they had taken from the Sacae or Scythians. 
There is every ground to conclude that it was an 
army of the Hiatilla that invaded Persia in the 
reign of Bahram-Gor, a.d. 420, and that it was 
to one of their kings that Firoz fled, a.d. 475. 

The Hun who appeared in the west, dated their 
empire from one of the princes of the Hia (Hya) 
dynasty. Their country was of great extent, 
situated on the west of Shen-si, of which they 
possessed the western parts ; and their posterity 
still inhabit a part of that territory, the present 
Ele or Hi. They were one of those extensive 
tribes which the ancients comprised under the 
name of Scythians. 

It was from Hi valley and town in Central 
Asia that Lassen supposes the Szu Tartars were 
expelled by the Yue-tchi or White Huns, B.C. 150. 
The Szu Tartars he supposed to be the Sacse, and 
the Yue-tchi to be the Tochari. After occupying 
Tahia or Sogdiana for a time, they are stated by 
the Chinese to have been driven thence by the 
Yenger some years afterwards, and to have estab- 
lished themselves in Kipen, in which name Lassen 
recognises the Kophen valley in the Kohistan. 
The great Kirghiz horde is adjacent to Hi and 
Tarbagatai. It is under the dominion of China, 
and exchanges large quantities of cattle on the 
frontier for silk goods. 

HUNDE. Karn. A name of the Kuru-baru, 
Mysore shepherds. 

HUNDE S or Gnari Khorsum is a part of Chinese 
Tibet comprising the upper basin of the Sutlej 
and headwaters of the Kamali river. For the 
name, Professor Wilson gave Hiun, snow, and 
Des, country ; but Captain H. Strachey derives the 
name from the Sanskrit Hun, meaning the ab- 
origines of the country north of the Himalaya, who 
are mentioned in the Mahabharata and the Mark- 
andeya Purana. This latter explanation com- 
mended itself to the Hungarian scholar, Csoma 
de Koros, who thought that he might find in 
these parts the origin of his own people. Mr. 
Ryall's derivation is from a Sanskrit word mean- 
ing gold, Hun-des being the gold country. The 
Hunia people of Hundes are chiefly nomades, 
owning large flocks of sheep, and herds of cattle 
and goats. They are a good-natured race ; ugly, 
simple, and, like most dwellers in cold regions, 
extremely dirty. They practise polyandry, and 
in their customs are like the Bhot of Ladakh 
described by Cunningham. There are five prin- 
cipal passes leading into Hundes from British 



120 



HUNDI. 



lll'KDOll;. 



territory. The traffic is only open between the 
15th of Juno and 15th October, and not even 
then without the express permission of the Chinese 
authorities at Lhassa, who carefully satisfy them- 
selves that no epidemic prevails in the Ghats in 
British territory. The gold-fields of Hundes lie 
chiefly in tin- neighbourhood of Thok Jalang, 
100 miles N.E. of Gartok. Washing operations 
are carried on under the supervision of a gold 
commissioner, who is called Sarpan, and takes a 
royalty of Jths of an ounce yearly from each digger. 
At Gartok, fine gold-dust sells at Rs. 1^ in weight 
forRs. 16. The greatest demand for gold is at Lhassa. 
In the early part of the 19th century, the gold- 
fields round Lake Manasarowar were worked rather 
extensively; but an epidemic breaking out amongst 
the miners, the authorities at Lhassa interposed, 
and the operations were stopped. The Hunia all 
drink tea, and travel great distances, living on it 
and sattu, the flour of a parched grain. The 
Hunia only grow small patches of uwa, a kind 
of barley, and obtain their other grains from the 
hill territories of British India. They keep three 
years' supply of grain in store, to obviate the 
stoppage of the roads. Their villages are mere 
tents. — Tod's llojasthan ; Gutzlaft's Chinese His- 
tonj; Malcolm's Persia; Chatjiela"s Hindustan; 
Ritchie's British World. 

HUNDI, an Indian draft or bill of exchange, 
drawn by or upon a native banker or sirraf, 
commonly written shrof. — Simmonds' 1 Diet. 

HUNGARY, a kingdom of Europe, divided by 
the river Danube into Upper and Lower Hungary, 
and subdivided into 46 counties. The Hungarian, 
Lapponian, and Finish dialects are now classed as 
members of the great Turanian or Tartar family 
of tongues, which is spoken by all the tribes from 
the Himalaya to Okotsk and to Lapland, and 
includes the Hungarian, Crimean, and Turkish 
tongues. 

HUNG KIAO. Chin. The Red Church, also 
known as Brug-pa, the designations of the Sakya 
priesthood of Tibet. 

HUNGRUNG, a district adjoining Ladakh, 
belongs to the raja of Bisatun, its villages lying 
from 9500 to 12,000 feet above the sea. 

HUNG SING-WONG, with the Chinese, the 
god of the Southern Ocean, and a state deity of 
China. 

HUNSUR, a town in Mysore, on the right 
bank of the I-akshmantirtha, in lat. 12° 17' 40" N., 
long. 76° 19' 5" E. ; population (1871), 4293. It 
has the breeding establishment of the Amrita 
ma ha I. a select breed of draught cattle, said to 
have been formed by Hyder Ali for military pur- 
poses, and still kept up by the British Government. 

HUNTER, ALEXANDER, M.D., a medical 
officer of the Madras army, who about A.D. 1851 
founded the first school of industrial arts seen in 
India, and, with much devotion and self-sacrifice, 
by the year 1871 he had taught one or other 
branch of art — drawing, pottery, etc. — to upwards 
of two thousand young men, all of whom had 
found ready employment. His success led to the 
formation of several other schools of art in other 
parts of India. He devoted much of his attention 
to the manufacture of fibres from the plants of 
the south of India, and to the discovery of minerals 
useful in the arts. 

HUNTER, Dr. W. W., LL.D., CLE., a Bengal 
civil servant, author of Rural Life in Bengal, I rajas of Duttea. 

121 



C..iii].aiatiw Dictionary of the Non-Aryan lan- 
guages of India, London L86& He was Skit 
OfiOOT to the Covermiieiit of India, eompiled in 
18 volumes the Statistical Report of Bengal, and, 
after years of labour, issued the Imperial I 
teer of India, in 9 volumes. The work is one of 
administration, and is the necessary complement 
of the transfer of India from the Comj»any to the 
Crown. During the E. I. Company's rule it 
had several times been projected. Dr. Hunter in 
his preface names ten parsonH who were his 
assistants. He wrote also Orissa in 2 volumes, 
and also a life of Lord Mayo. His varied talent 
were utilized by being nominated a member of 
the Council of the Governor-General of India, 
and was employed in 1882 to ascertain the state of 
education amongst the people. 

HUNTERIA OORYMBOSA. Rorb. A tree of 
Penang. This and H. Zeylanica, Thw. (Maddeya, 
Singh., the Cameraria Zeylanica of Retz), are 
supposed by Colonel Beddome to be the same. 
The timber is very fine and close-grained, and 
very similar to boxwood; it answers well for 
engraving. — Beddome, Fl. Sylv. part xxiii. p. 265. 

HUNTING LEOPARD, or Hunting Cheeta, 
Felis jubata. These animals live mostly in the 
plains, where they hunt deer or antelope in parties 
of four or five together, in the same manner as 
the wolves do, secreting themselves in bushes at 
different points, while one of their number chases 
the buck. On its passing the ambuscade, they 
pounce out on the little gazelle, or take up the 
running in turns as it races past them. 

HUNZA-NAGER are two adjoining towns, and 
include a small tract of country on the upper 
course of a large feeder of the Gilghit river, having 
an area of 1672 square miles. 

HU-PEH is the northern division of the ancient 
province of Hu-kwang, and is bounded on the N.W. 
by Shen-si, on the S.E. by Ho-nan, on the E. by 
Ngan-hoei, and the W. by Sze-chuen. Its popu- 
lation is about 27 millions. Hu-nan is the southern 
division of Hu-kwang, and is larger than the 
northern portion just described, but it is not so 
thickly populated. 

HURA CREPITANS. Linn. The sand box- 
tree, a middle-sized tree of rapid growth, native 
of tropical America. The trunk is strongly 
armed, the wood light and useless. The sap of 
the leaves and trunk is so very poisonous, as to 
produce blindness in a few days after touching 
the eye. Seeds a violent, drastic, dangerous pur- 
gative.— M. fit ./. /.'. ; Voigt. 

HURALA. Can. Four sorts of Hurala, lamp- 
oil seed, are grown in Mysore. — M. E. o/1857. 

HURDAH. Hind. A parasitic fungus in the 
form of an orange-coloured rust. It is of the 
genus Trichobasis ; it attacks growing wheat and 
barley. 

HURDI-MURDI, in Persia, is a term employed 
to designate all the trifling but necessary articles 
which travellers fling in small bags, and carry 
across the saddle on a journey, in order to have 
them at hand. 

HURDOUR or Hardaur is the name given in 
Hindustan to the oblong mounds raised in villages, 
and studded with flags, for the purpose of avert- 
ing epidemic diseases, and especially the cholera 
morbus. It is called after Hurdoul Lala, the son 
of Bursing Deo, from whom are descended the 
The natives have a firm persua- 



HUEEE-HARA. 



HURRICANES. 



sion that the cholera broke out in Lord Hastings' 
camp, in consequence of beef having been killed 
for the European soldiers within the grove where 
repose the ashes of this Bundelkhand chief. His 
worship prevails throughout the Upper and 
Central Doab, a great part of Rohilkhand, and to 
the banks of the Sutlej. To the eastward the 
worship of Hoolka Devi (the goddess of vomiting) 
has been prevalent since the same period. — Elliot. 

HUREE-HARA. Sansk. Both words are 
derived from Rhree, to take away, possibly the 
source of the English word to harry. 

HURINGATTAH, an entrance to the Ganges, 
on the west of Rabnadab Island. 

HUR KI PAIRI, sacred steps leading down to 
the Ganges. 

HURMUL SEED, Lahuri hurmul, Hind. The 
Harmalje semina are seeds of Peganum harmala, 
grey, small, pyramidal, and triangular, and used 
as rue. — O'Sh. 

HUR-PUJA or Har-puja, amongst the agricul- 
tural races of India, the worship of the plough. 
This takes place on the day which closes the 
season of ploughing and sowing. It generally 
occurs in the month of Kartik, but in some places 
is held both after the kharif and rabi sowing, i.e. 
in the months of Sawun and Kartik. The plough 
is washed and decorated with garlands, and to 
use it or lend it after this day is deemed unlucky. 
The practice reminds of the Fool-plough in 
England, a ceremony observed on the Monday 
after Twelfth Day, which is therefore called Plough- 
Monday, on which occasion a plough adorned 
with ribbons is carried about, and the peasants 
meet together to feast themselves, as well as wish 
themselves a plentiful harvest from the great corn 
sown (as they call wheat and rye), as well as to 
wish a God-speed to the plough, as soon as they 
begin to break the ground to sow barley and 
other corn. — Br. Ap. ii. No. 92, Elliot's Sup. Gloss. 

HURRICANES. 



Tufan, . Arab., Hind. 
Mou being, . . . Bcrm. 
Typhoon, Tyfoon, . Eng. 
Orkun Germ. 



Tund-howa, . . . Hind. 
Gird-bad, . . . Pers. 
Huracan, .... Sp. 
Kyar, Turk. 

Hurricanes have been investigated by Colonel 
Capper, Quartermaster - General of the Madras 
army, Mr. W. C. Redfield of New York, Dr. Thorn 
of the British army, Colonel Reid, Mr. G. T. 
Taylor of Madras Observatory, and Captain Pid- 
dington of Calcutta. A hurricane means a turning 
storm of wind blowing with great violence, and 
shifting more or less suddenly, so as to blow half 
or entirely round the compass in a few hours. 
The present state of our knowledge seems to show 
that, for the West Indies, the Bay of Bengal, and 
the China Sea, the Avind in a hurricane has two 
motions, the one a turning or veering round upon 
a centre, and the other a straight or curved motion 
forward, so that it is both turning round and roll- 
ing forward at the same time. It appears also 
that, when it occurs on the north side of the 
equator, it turns from the east, or the right hand, 
by the north towards the west, or contrary to 
the hands of a watch ; and in the southern hemi- 
sphere, that its motion is the contrary way, or 
with the hands of a watch. Piddington's first 
memoir, with the charts and diagrams, showed that 
this rule held good for the storm of June 1839 off 
the Sandheads. and that the wind was really 
blowing in great circles in a direction as described, 



i.e. against that of the hands of a watch. He 
assumed, then, that the hurricanes in the Bay of 
Biscay always follow this law. 

The tyfoons and storms of the China Sea and 
eastern coast of Asia appear to be similar in 
character to the hurricane of the West Indies and 
the storms of the United States coast, when pre- 
vailing in the same latitudes. A tyfoon which 
occurred in the China Sea in 1831, affords pro- 
bable grounds for connecting the hurricane at 
Manilla, October 23-24, with that of October 31 
at Balasor, on the shores of the Bay of Bengal. 

Of 61 hurricanes that occurred north of the 
equator, from 1830 to 1854, their numbers were — 
in the month of October, 12; May and November, 
9 ; September, 8 ; April, August, and December, 
each 5; July, 4; June, 2; and March, 1. In the 
Bay of Bengal the hurricanes usually occur at the 
changes of the monsoons, in April and May, and 
in October, November, and December. 

The S.W. monsoon prevails north of the equator, 
and when it prevails, the S.E. trade-wind acquires 
additional strength from the demand made upon 
it to supply the S.W. monsoon, these two winds 
being apparently one system under the influence 
of the earth's rotation and the high temperature 
which prevails in the northern hemisphere. 

Gales and hurricanes occur in the Indian Ocean 
south of the equator. Trade-wind gales occur at 
all seasons, but chiefly in June, July, and August. 
In these the wind veers but little. In the extra- 
tropical gales, between lat. 30° and 45° S., the 
wind veers much, and in the tropical hurricanes 
the winds veer and shift. 

South of the equator, hurricanes occur in 
November and May, and travel to the W.S.W., 
and afterwards, but not always, to the S. and 
S.E., the wind invariably moving round a central 
space (which is usually characterized by a calm) 
horn left to right, or with the hands of a watch ; 
while the storm, which has a diameter of 1 to 1500 
miles, moves onwards at the rate of 1 to 20 miles, 
but more frequently 4 to 7 miles an hour, for a 
period varying from a few hours to ten days, 
attended with torrents of rain, and its northern 
half often with lightning. Dr. Thorn showed that 
south of the equator these rotatory storms are 
always generated between the N.W. monsoon and 
S.E. trade-wind. They occur only during the" 
S.AV. monsoon months, and their rise and progress 
are intimately connected with the S.E. trade-wind 
and N.W. monsoon, two opposing winds. With 
ships, the safest course is to lie to and watch the 
barometer and wind, till the bearing of the centre 
be known with some certainty. 

Of those who have resided at Mauritius, who 
have earnestly studied and discussed the laws 
which govern these storms, may be mentioned 
Dr. Thorn, Lieutenant Fryers, Royal Engineers, Mr. 
Sedgewick, who published a little work, which he 
called The True Principle, and Mr. Bosquett, of 
the Observatory at Mauritius, who translated into 
French Piddington's Hornbook, with annotations 
of his own, and who claimed to be able, by care- 
ful and constant meteorological observations, to 
foretell the occurrence of hurricanes in the Indian 
Ocean, and to describe the course they will take. 
The chart in Piddington's Hornbook shows that 
these cyclones never extend to the northward uf 
10° or 12° south latitude in the meridian of Maur- 
itius. Therefore vessels leaving the island in the 



122 



IIlTRIinWM - 



!II'|;K!< \' 



hurricane season for any part of India, should 
r to i In- northward, [Missing well to the west- 
i of the Cargadcs, a moat tlangerous ^mnp, 
t fms keeping a clear sea open to the westward, 
that there may bo nothing in the way should it 
desirable to run to tin- northward ami west- 
ward, which would be the true course to take in 
case of encountering the south-weMt in or north- 
ern quadrants of a cyclone (of which in the 
hurricane season a vessel from Mauritius is in 
danger), and this course she should keep until she 
is sufficiently far north to be beyond its influence. 

Of the more remarkable occurrences, that at 
tin- mouth of the Ganges, on the 7th October 1787, 
was attended by a violent earthquake, and extended 
60 miles up the river ; 20,000 craft of all descrip- 
tioiiH were destroyed, — amongst them, 8 English 
ships and all their crews, — and 300,000 souls are 
-aid to have perished in Lower Bengal, or in the 
bay. The river rose 40 feet above its usual 
level. An English church and steeple sank into 
the earth the next morning. 

On 1th October 1739, a cyclone occurred at 
- mouth, in which 30,000 lives were lost 

Madras has been subjected to severe hurricanes, 

generally in the early part of May or the end of 
•ctober. They seem to travel up from the E.S.E., 
and progress rapidly in a W.N.W. direction till 
they touch the land, and then they assume a 
westerly or sometimes W.S.W. course. Their 
centres generally come right on to the port of 
Madras. A hurricane has seldom been known to 
extend south of Porto Novo, 120 miles from 
Madras (out at sea they are met with as far south 
as Ceylon), or north of Nellore, 100 miles from 
Madras. Their diameters are about 150 miles, 
and they revolve in a direction contrary to the 
hands of a watch. When the hurricane's centre 
comes right on to Madras, and there takes a west 
course, the wind is first at N., increasing in violence 
for a few hours, and then a lull or perfect calm 
for half an hour or so, when the hurricane recom- 
mences furiously from the exactly opposite quarter, 
south. This is in accordance with the theory of 
cyclones. Usually the gale commences about 
N.N.W., showing that the vortex of the cyclone 
bears about E.N.E. Vessels, therefore, warned 
by the barometer, tho hollow breaking surf, the 
threatening sky, and the signals of tho master 
attendant, should at once put to sea (having pre- 
viously close-reefed and sent down top-hamper). 
The course to steer, and fortunately it is one 
which the wind assists, is S.S.E. to S.E. In a 
few hours the vessol will probably have the wind 
moderate at west, and may — in fact it has been 
do in — sail round the cyclone, the wind veering 
to south and then to east. Vessels at first steer- 
ing east to get away from the land have run 
right into the vortex of the hurricane. The only 
danger in a southerly course is from the storm- 
wave setting the ship on shore. If tho lead give 
notice of this, the ship must be hauled up more to 
the eastward. 

If the gale commence N.N.W. at Madras, and 
end at S.E., as has often happened, it shows that 
the centre has taken a W.S.W. course, and passed 
a little to the south of the town; but if it end at 
S.AV., it shows that the centre has taken a W.N.W. 
course, and the vortex passed to the north of 
Madras. 

In the earliest notices that we have of hurri- 

1 



coast, — at leant of those of 
which we have any record, — was tl 
October 17-1(1, twenty-three d 

render of Madia to M. de la Bourdonnais. I 

the 2d of October the weather u;u remarkably 
mild during the whole of tho day, hut al*nit 
midnight a most furious tempest arose, which 
continued with great viol, me till noon of tho 
following day. When it be-all t: «ix 

large French ship in tie- Madras roads, at 
smaller ones. The /hi- ,l't >rlnu<<, I'lumi.r. and 

/.//* put to sea and foundered, and in than 
upwards of twelve bundled men were lost. Tho 
Mermaid and .b/n'c, , prizes, shared the same fate. 
The Acftilli: (the flag-ship of M. de la Bourdon - 
nais) and two other vessels of war were dismasted ; 
and they had shipped so much water tliat the 
people on board expected them to go down every 
minute, aoth withstanding they had thrown over- 
board the lower tier of guns. Of twenty other 
vessels belonging to different nations in tho 
Madras roads when the storm began, not one 
escaped, being either wrecked or lost at sea. The 
ships which were at anchor in the road of Pondi- 
cherry felt nothing of this hurricane. 

Another hurricane occurred off Cuddalore on 
the 13th April 1749. (It is rare to meet with 
hurricanes before May.) The English army were 
then on their march to Tanjore, to set Sahoji on 
the musnud and depose Pretaub Singh. Admiral 
Boscawen had agreed to send some ships to escort 
the troops, cannon, and stores to the place at 
which they designed to disembark them, which 
was at Devicottah, south of the Colerun river. 
A dreadful hurricane at N.N.W. came on on the 
night of the 12th of April, and continued all the 
next day. Its greatest violence was between eight 
at night of the 13th, and at two the next morning, 
shifting round from the northward to the east, till 
it came to the south, where it ended. In this 
storm H.M. ship the Pembroke (one of those 
appointed for the above service) was driven 
ashore and wrecked on the Colerun shoal, a little 
off Porto Novo. The captain, all the officers 
(except the captain of marines and purser, who 
were ashore on leave), and 330 men were drowned, 
only 12 men being saved. In the same storm the 
74 gun ship Namur (Boscawen's flag-ship) foun- 
dered in shoal water, not far from Devicottah. The 
first, second, and fourth lieutenants, master, gunner, 
two lieutenants of marines, and 620 men m 
drowned; only two midshipmen and 24 men were 
saved. The admiral, captain, and some odier 
officers were on shore. The Lincoln and Winchel- 
sea, E.I.C. ships, were likewise wrecked off Fort 
St. David, but the crews were saved. Almost all 
the small vessels that were near Fort St. Davit I 
were lost. H.M. shijo Tartar and Deal Castle. 
together with the Swallow sloop, being at sea, and 
D>0rS to the southward, did not feel the tempest 
in that violent degree with which it raged near 
the coast, but they were all dismasted. The rest 
of the fleet were fortunately at Trincomalee. The 
English camp was at that time some niih ■ from 
Porto Novo, and was so devastated that the army 
were obliged to march to Porto Novo for equipage. 

Oriue mentions a hurricane on the 31st October 
1752, as the most violent that had been remembered 
on the coast 

The new year of 1761 was ushered in with a 
most violent hurricane at Pondicherry. At this 

23 



HURRICANES. 



HURRICANES. 



time the British were laying siege to that town, 
and the fleet were in the roads intercepting all 
succour by sea. When the storm began, Admiral 
Stevens had with him eight sail of the line, two 
frigates, a fire-ship, and a ship with stores. From 
8 P.M. of the 31st December, till 10 p.m., there was 
a constant succession of very heavy squalls. 
About 10 p.m., Admiral Stevens, in the Norfolk 
(having for his captain the gallant and unfortunate 
Kempenfelt), was forced to cut his cable, and 
made the signal for the squadron to do the same. 
But the noise and violence of the gale was such 
that no guns could be heard or signals observed. 
The other commanders accordingly obeyed previous 
orders, and continued at anchor, till at length 
their vessels parted, and then with the greatest 
difficulty they got their ships before the wind, 
with scarce any sail set. The gale continued to 
increase until midnight, by which time the wind 
had veered from N.N.W., where it began, to the 
N.E., and in an instant it was succeeded by a 
calm, attended by a thick haze. This was of 
short duration, for in the space of a few minutes 
the storm burst from the S.S.E., and raged with 
redoubled fury. Had the squadron got under 
sail and proceeded to sea early, they would have 
had an opportunity of gaining sufficient sea-room 
before the storm came from the S.E. The first 
gust of this fresh hurricane laid the Panther on 
her beam-ends, when, the sea breaking over her, 
Captain Affleck ordered the mizzen-mast to be cut 
away. This not relieving the ship, he ordered the 
main-mast to be cut away likewise ; it broke 
below the upper deck with such force that it tore 
it up, and the mast and rigging hanging over the 
side, continued to encumber the ship for a con- 
siderable time, until a heavy sea cleared them. 
The ship then righted, and, the reefed foresail 
having withstood the violence of the gale, by 
means of it they got back in fourteen fathoms 
water, and there let go the sheet anchor ; but not 
bringing up, they cut away the fore -mast, the fall 
of which carried away the bowsprit, when the 
ship came round, and in this manner rode out 
the storm. The America, Medway, and Falmouth 
were dismasted, and, after much distress, came to 
an anchor near the Panther. But it did not fare 
so well with the Newcastle, the Queenborough 
frigate, and the Protector fire-ship, who, scudding 
before the S.E. gale, mistook their soundings, and 
drove towards the shore without endeavouring to 
come to an anchor. The roaring of the wind pre- 
vented them from hearing the noise of the surf 
till it was too late. All three came ashore about 
two miles south of Pondicherry. Of their crews 
only seven perished, who were dashed overboard 
by the violence with which the ship struck when 
they took the ground. A more miserable fate 
attended the Due d'Acquitaine, the Sunderland, 
and the Duke store-ship. Their masts withstood 
both hurricanes, but they were driven back by 
the S.E. tempest, and were under the necessity 
of anchoring; when, bringing up with all their 
masts standing, they broached to, and either 
capsized or foundered. The crews, in number 
eleven hundred, perished, except seven Europeans 
and as many lascars, who were next day picked 
up floating on pieces of wreck. 

On 21st October 1763, a cyclone occurred at 
Madras, which lasted 11 hours; all the ships driven 
on shore were stranded. 



On the 21st October 1773, a violent hurricane 
visited Madras. It began at N.W., and ended 
with the wind easterly. (It must have travelled 
S.W., and the vortex passed south of Madras.) 
The men-of-war put to sea early, but all the 
vessels that remained at anchor were lost, with 
the crews. 

The next hurricane of which we have to notice, 
is that of 1782. The weather had been threaten- 
ing, and when it came on to blow, on the 20th 
October, the boats belonging to Sir E. Hughes' 
squadron (then in the roads) were on shore with 
their crews, on duty. The gale commenced at 
N.W., and every vessel that could bear canvas, 
put to sea. Most of the men-of-war boats put 
off to their ships, which were getting under 
weigh, and were reached with difficulty by the 
larger boats, and some of the smaller ; but some 
boats were unable to reach their vessels, and were 
lost. The Superb was dismasted, and the Exeter 
was almost rendered a wreck. Sir Edward 
Hughes was obliged to shift his flag to the Sultan. 
Both the Superb and the Exeter got to Bombay 
with jury-masts. The Neckar (a country vessel) 
lost her main -mast, and some vessels foundered 
at their anchors. The morning following the 
hurricane presented a sad spectacle, — upwards 
of a hundred small country vessels stranded on the 
beach, the whole remaining stock of rice in the 
warehouses washed away, famine raging, and 
pestilence threatening ! For the ravages of 
Hyder had driven thousands from the country 
to Madras, where already there had been great 
suffering for want of food. Upwards of 1000 
corpses were buried every week for several weeks, 
in large trenches outside the town. The Governor 
(Lord Macartney) used noble endeavours to 
mitigate the calamity, and set an example by 
sending away all his own horses and servants. 
Hyder was at Pondicherry, and the admiral's 
fleet gone ! Ships, however, came in laden with 
grain from Bengal ; Hyder Ali died in December, 
and the hopes of the British revived. 

The records of the Madras Observatory notice 
a heavy gale on the 27th October 1797. The 
barometer did not fall below 29 - 465. 

A hurricane occurred at Coringa and Masuli- 
patam on the 28th October 1800. 

On the 4th December 1803, H.M.S. Centurion (of 
50 guns, bearing the flag of Admiral Rainier), on 
her passage from Trincomalee to Madras, experi- 
enced a violent hurricane, which left her with 
nothing standing but the bowsprit, and had 
nearly proved her destruction. The gale com- 
menced about midnight; at 11 a.m. on the 5th, 
the wind flew round in a violent gust to the 
southward, and till 6 p.m. it was blowing a hurri- 
cane. H.M.S. was so severely strained, that she 
had 8 feet of water in her hold, and her upper- 
deck guns were obliged to be hove overboard. 
Jury-masts were rigged, and on the 11th the 
Centurion anchored in the Madras roads. H.M.S. 
Albatross was dismasted in the same storm, and 
put in at Negapatam to refit. 

Madras suffered from another hurricane on the 
10th December 1807. Fortunately there was only 
one vessel in the roads when the storm commenced, 
and she put to sea. To show the effect of the 
storm-waves, it may be mentioned, from the 
testimony of an eye-witness (Captain Biden) that 
the bottom of a ship of 800 tons, supposed to 



124 



HURRICANES. 



HUSAINI BULBUL. 



havo been burnt in the roads about ten years 
• in 1797), was washed high and dry on the 
bipnh near Parry's offico; the whole of her floor 
w;is perfect, with a large quantity of her ballast 
»f iron kentledge). The devastation along 
tlie beach and in the town and suburbs of Madras 
was very great. It was during this hurricane that 
there occurred an extraordinary rise of the tide, 
which inundated the whole of Black Town. 

Another very disastrous hurricane occurred on 
the 2d of May 1811. Providentially the fleet, 
with tin; troops for the attack of Java, had just 
•ailed. The Dover frigate and Chichester store- 
ship remained in the roads; they parted, and were 
lost. Ninety country vessels went down at their 
anchors. Only two vessels that were iu the roads 
when the hurricane set in, were saved, and these 
put to sea. During this hurricane the surf broke 
in 9 fathoms of water, four miles from shore ! 

On the 24th October 1818, Madras again suffered. 
The wind commenced at north, and, after increas- 
ing in violence, suddenly lulled, and as suddenly 
flew round furiously to south. This hurricane 
travelled west, and its vortex passed over the 
town. The barometer fell to 28 - 78. 

( h\ the 9th October 1820, there was a hurricane 
commencing at N.W., veering to W. and S.W. 
The barometer fell to 28*50. Here the cyclone 
travelled west, and passed to the north of 
Madras. 

On the 30th October 1836, a gale set in from 
north. At 4 p.m. it blew a regular hurricane from 
N.N.W. and N. After an ominous lull of half an 
hour, it flew round with redoubled violence from 
the south, at half-past seven P.M. At this time 
the barometer was 28"285. 

On the 29th October, at noon, it had been 30*050 

„ 30th October, at 6 A.M., .... 29940 

„ 30th October, at noon 29707 

„ 30th October, at 5 p.m., . . . . 28 "891 

„ 30th October, at 7.30 p. M 28 285 

At midnight, when the gale broke, . . . 29'415 

A storm causing great loss occurred at Bombay 
on the 15th June 1837. 

In November 1839, a hurricane occurred off 
Coringa, when a storm-wave laid the shore 8 
feet under water. 70 ships and 700 people were 
lost at sea, and 6000 perished on shore. 

In October 1842, there was a heavy gale at 
Madras, but hardly considered a hurricane. 

In May 1843, another hurricane occurred at 
Madras. On this occasion the brunt of it was felt 
out at sea, and several vessels were lost Those 
that remained at their anchors rode it out. 

The next hurricane at Madras took place on the 
25th November 1846 ; during it the pressure- 
plate of the Observatory anemometer broke, at a 
pressure of 40 lbs. registered ; and the force of 
one heavy gust was computed at 57 lbs. per square 
foot ! The large iron wind-vane of the Observa- 
tory was bent to a right-angle ; and one of the 
flat piers on the Elphinstone bridge blown over. 
These formed the data for computation. The 
previous month there had been an unprecedented 
fall of rain (20$ inches in 24 hours). Had the 
hurricane set in before the soil had dried, not a 
single building or tree in Madras would have 
remained upright. 

On 19th April 1847, a violent hurricane ex- 
tended from the equator to Sind. It was severe 
at Ratnagherry ; the Maldives were submerged, 

1 



followed by severe famine. Tin- 'Imj.utra was 
lost in this. 

A destructive storm occurred at Bombay on the 
2d November 1*54. 

In July 1780, during a tyfoon in the China 
Sea, about 100,000 people perished. 

A tremendous hurricane, with an inundation 
caused by a storm-wave, occurred at Cuttack and 
around Culcutta, on the 30th November 1831. 

On the 31st October 1831, 300 villages and 
11,000 people were swept away in Lower Bengal 
by inundations, followed by a famine; and the 
loss of life was estimated at 50,000 souls. 

On the 21st May 1832, 8000 to 10,000 people 
perished iu the delta of the Ganges. 

On the 8th October 1832, a furious storm and 
disastrous inundation occurred around Calcutta, 
followed by great sufferings at Balasore. — Mr. 
Mddrum in Pro. Brit. Assoc., 1867 ; PharoaVs 
Gazetteer of S. India ; Dr. Buist in Bo. Geo. Tr., 
1856 ; Piddington, Laic of Storms, j>. 524 ; American 
Expedition to Japan, p. 137. See Cyclone. 

HURTAL. Persulphuret of arsenic, orpiment. 
There are two kinds, viz. gobhari hurtal, in yellow 
flakes, used in oil-painting; one seer costs Ra. 14. 
Tabki hurtal, greenish, crystallized, given by 
fakirs in fumigation. One ruttee of it is wrapped 
up in a leaf of muggar-bel, and smoked in a hookah. 
It is evident that the smoker only escapes danger- 
ous consequences, owing to the heat volatilizing 
most of the arsenic ; as it is, the little inhaled 
often makes the person senseless. Salt is then 
given to restore the senses. Thus employed, tabki 
hurtal is considered a most powerful aphrodisiac. 
It is also used in ointment ; costs three rupees for 
one seer. — Genl. Med. Top. p. 137. 

HURUT or Harat, a Persian wheel for drawing 
water from a well ; a corruption of Ruhut or 
Arhut. — Elliot, Snpp. Gloss. 

HUSAIN ALI KHAN, KIRMANI, author of 
History of the Reign of Tipu Sultan, translated by 
Colonel W. Miles, London 1844. 

HUSAIN - bin - ALI - ul - VAIZ, surnamed 
Kashifi. He translated the fables of Bedpai from 
the Arabic of Ibn Makaffa, and named them 
Anwar-i-Sohaili, or Lights of Canopus. 

HUSAIN GORI, the first of the Gori dynasty, 
succeeded to the throne of India in a.d. 1157 
(other authorities say 1151 or 1155), by deposing 
Khusru Shah, the 13th and last of the Ghaznavi 
kings. Mahmud, the nephew and successor of 
Shahab-ud-Din, was the fifth and last of the 
Gori dynasty. He imparted little influence on 
India. He had attacked the king of Kharasm at 
Takash, and subdued the Ghikar tribe; but in a.d. 
1206, while returning to Ghazni, he was assassin- 
ated by two of his own tribe, — accordiug to ( time 
in 1212, and another authority gives 1214. 

HUSAINI. Hind. A kind of grape, the large 
sweet kind that are packed in boxes, and sent 
from Kabul in the cola season. 

HUSAINI BULBUL, also called the Shah- 
bulbul, is of the sub-family Myagriwe, and is 
known also as the paradise fly-catcher. It is of 
a chesnut colour for many months, but becomes 
white in the breeding season, in its plumage des 
noces. It is a very graceful bird, with very long 
tail feathers, and it is a pretty sight to see it 
flitting from tree to tree ; how the birds prevent 
the long tail feathers from becoming entangled 
in the thorny trees, is difficult to understand. 

25 



HUSAN YUSUF. 



HUSBANDRY. 



In Ceylon, the bird in its chesnut dress is 
called the fire-thief, and the white bird the 
cotton-thief ; it is also called the sultana bulbul. 
Its colouring is chaste. Mr. Layard has often 
watched them, when seeking their insect prey, 
turn suddenly on their perch and whisk their 
long tails with a jerk over the bough, as if to 
protect them from injury. It is common about 
Madras. It is the Tchitrea paradisi, Linn. ; and 
Europeans call it also the bird of paradise. — 
Tenitaitt's Ceylon, p. 249. 

HUSAN YUSUF of Lahore is the silicious 
frustule of one of the DiatomaceBe. It is of a 
pyramidal form with a convex base, and on each 
triangular face is a prominent rounded knot ; 
these markings are not affected by acids, and 
remain after heating to redness. When heated 
in a reduction tube, it gives off a peculiar smell 
and combustible gas, showing that it is quite in a 
fresh state, otherwise it appears somewhat similar 
to a fossil. Husan Yusuf is collected in lakes and 

fonds in the hills around Srinuggur in Kashmir, 
t floats on the surface, and is skimmed off and 
dried. — PowelVs Handbook, p. 320. 

HUSANZAI. Between the extreme northern 
frontier of the Hazara district and the Indus, there 
lies a somewhat narrow strip of rugged and 
mountainous territory ; this is inhabited by the 
Husanzai, who therefore dwell in Cis - Indus, 
that is, on the left bank of the river. They could 
number, perhaps, 2000 fighting men. The prin- 
cipal hill is known as the Black Mountain, from 
its dark and gloomy aspect. In the adjoining 
tract, within the Hazara border, lies Western 
Tournouli, the fief of a chief politically dependent 
on the British. 

HUSBANDRY, Agriculture, Tillage. 
Zaraat ; Fallahat, Arab. | Kheti bari, . . . Beng. 
Amongst the Chinese, and with several of the 
races in India, husbandry is considered an honour- 
able avocation ; but Rajputs, Brahmans, and Maho- 
medans in India deem manual labour derogatory. 
Husbandry and silk-weaving were the earliest of 
the art3 cultivated by the Chinese people. The 
former was introduced by Shin-nong, the imme- 
diate successor of Fo-hi, and the silk-weaving by 
an empress ; and to both of these benefactors the 
Chinese perform annual sacrifices on their festival 
days. With them, husbandry is still highly 
honoured ; and annually, at a grand festival in 
honour of the spring, the emperor ploughs and 
sows part of a field. The ancient Egyptians, 
Persians, and Greeks held games and festivals, 
mingled with religious ceremonies, at seed-sowing; 
■and in England, formerly, the festival of Plough 
Monday was held, during which the plough-light 
was set up before the image of the patron saint 
of the village. 

The Chinese annual ceremony at Pekin con- 
sists in ploughing a sacred field with a highly 
ornamental plough kept for the purpose, the 
emperor holding it while turning over three 
furrows, the princes five, and the high ministers 
nine. These furrows were, however, so short, 
that the monarchs of the present dynasty altered 
the ancient rule, ploughing four furrows, and re- 
turning again over the ground. The ceremony 
finished, the emperor and his ministers repair to 
the terrace, and remain till the whole field has 
been ploughed. The ground belongs to the 
temples of heaven and earth, on the south of the 



city, and the crop of wheat is used in religious 
services. The rank of the actors renders the 
ceremony more imposing at Pekin, and the 
people of the capital make more of it than they 
do in the provinces. A clay image of a cow is 
carried to the spot, containing or accompanied 
by hundreds of little similar images ; after the 
field is ploughed it is broken up, and the pieces 
and small images are carried off by the crowd, to 
scatter the powder on their own fields, in the 
hope of thereby ensuring a good crop. The heads 
of the provincial governments, the prefects and 
district magistrates, go through a similar ceremony 
on the same day. In Ningpo, the principal 
features of the ceremony consist in a solemn 
worship, by all the local officers, of a clay image 
of a buffalo, and image of a cowherd. The pre- 
fect then ploughs a small piece of ground, and 
he and his associates disperse on the morrow. 
They come together in another temple at dawn, 
where a series of prostrations and recitals of 
prayers are performed by the fathers of the people 
in their presence. So soon as this is over, the 
clay ox is brought out, and all the officers pass 
around it repeatedly in procession, striking the 
body at a given signal, and concluding the cere- 
mony by a heavy blow on the head. The crowd 
then rush in and tear the effigy to pieces, each 
one carrying off a portion to strew on his fields. 

In British India, until after the middle of the 
19th century, the Kandh race sacrificed human 
beings to the earth goddess, with ceremonies 
identical with those practised by the Chinese and 
their clay bullock. 

Most races have had some religious ceremonies 
at seed-time or harvest ; and to the present day, 
amongst most of the Hindu races of British 
India, at the close of the ploughing and sowing 
season, either in the spring or autumn, the plough 
is worshipped. It is their Har-puja. 

The Kuur-mundla of the Hindus in Northern 
India, meaning the closing of the furrows, is a 
name given to the day on which the sowing is 
completed, but also called Kuur-boji and Hariur, 
and in the north-west Dulia jhar or Pulia 
jhar, meaning the cleaning out of the sowing 
basket, — Kuur-boji meaning the filling of fur- 
rows. The day is a festival. The plough is 
decorated ; the residue of the seed-corn is made 
into a cake, which is partaken of in the open 
field, and part of it given to Brahmans and 
beggars. It is the seed-cake of the farmers of 
England, mentioned by Tusser : — 

' Wife, some time this weeke, if the wether hold cleare, 
An end of wheat sowing we make for this yeare : 
Remember you, therefore, though I do it not. 
The seed-cake, the pasties, the fermenty pot.' 

The plough, the hoe, and from time immemorial 
the drill, have been the chief agricultural imple- 
ments of the Hindus, of whom about 70 per cent, 
are engaged in husbandry. Their ploughs for 
breaking up new ground are very heavy, and are 
drawn by two to eight team of bullocks, as the 
nature of the soil demands; but one pair of 
bullocks, with a very light plough, suffices for 
cultivated land. In rice-fields buffaloes are used. 

The plough of the Hindus for their lighter soils 
is a naturally crooked branch of a tree, with an 
iron plate as a share or coulter. The cow is never 
put to labour by the agricultural Hindu, the only 
race who so employ it being the homeless wandering 



126 



HUSBANDRY. 



Ill >BANDRY. 



Brfojari In Malay count ries the plough in usually 
l>y one or two buffaloes, which are pecu- 
liarly adapted for the wet land culture of rice, to 
whieh tlic use of the plough is almost ercluaively 
confined, the ehunkal or large hoc being employed 
in turning up theeoil in plantation culture. When 
Hie light plough of the Hindu farmer is used, then; 
hi I B&ere scratching of the soil, but it is finely pul- 
verised by repeated cross traversing. This form 
<>f cultivation lias been denounced by most of the 
Europeans who have written on the subject; and 
toberteon, of the experimental farm near 
Madras, constructed a light plough of the shape 
in use in Britain, to be substituted for that of wood 
which is now in use. But in all such substitutions 
the i>oint which presents itself as difficult to meet, 
is the feebleness of the draught cattle. The plough 
of India is doubtless defective, but it is suited to 
the draught cattle at their command ; and by 
going over and over the ground and making 
repeated stirrings, they eventually get down to a 
depth of 4£ inches, or about half an inch less than 
an aterage lea ploughing in Britain. 

The Chinese have a machine which cuts up 
both the soil and the trefoil roots. It consists of 
a strong wooden frame with three cross bars, into 
which are fixed two rows of strong concave knives. 
A bullock is yoked to the machine, and, with the 
driver standing upon it, it is urged through the 
soil in all directions. 

The drill husbandry of Mysore cannot be ex- 
celled. Their drilling-machine sows thirteen rows 
at a time, with the greatest regularity; and their 



ments of India and the cultivating tiller* 
the Koil are to a great extent joint proprietors 
of the land, it is felt to be the duty of the Mate 
to instruct their partners, and within their M 
rights to prevent exhaustion of the soil. So fai 
cxi>erienee of a century teaches, there are, tal. 
the entire country, two bad years to every seven 
good ones ; the average population affected in each 
instance is about twenty millions ; and the result 
may accordingly be said to be equivalent t<- .1 
famine over the whole couutry nearly twice in a 
century. Each of the great provinces, except 
Bengal, is visited with drought at intervals averag- 
ing eleven or twelve years, and with famines of 
exceptional magnitude at intervals of about fifty 
years. Bengal enjoys far longer periods of immu- 
nity, and, except in one or two localities, is wholly 
exempt from this visitation. Judging from the 
past, the largest population ever likely to be 
simultaneously famine-stricken is about thirty 
millions ; and of these, 4£ millions will need assist- 
ance during the months of greatest distress, and 
an average of 2$ millions for an entire year. 

How to prevent the soils of India being 
exhausted, is becoming an increasing subject of 
thought. With the exception of irrigated lands, 
little manure is employed in India. The principal 
food- crops are neither manured nor irrigated, and 
so long as moderately good soils were being tilled, 
a rude system of husbandry sufficed to meet 
the wants of cultivators; but now that by the 
pressure of population inferior soils are being 
taken up, it is necessary that an improved system 



bullock hoe. with blades which pass between the ! of agriculture should be adopted. At present the 



drills, eradicates weeds when the plants are a few 
inches high, and freely and effectually stirs the soil. 

In British India, the arable land is held by three 
distinct tenures. Sir William Muir has described 
three broad distinctions in the title under which 
land was found by the British originally, to be 
Owned or managed throughout various parts of 
India, viz. ryot occupancy or proprietorship, 
official zamindarship, and village proprietorship. 

The first signifies that the ryot is the heredit- 
ary occupant or owner of his own individual 
holding. The last, village proprietorship, signifies 
that one or more persons, or a body of coparceners, 
possess proprietary rights over all the lands (in- 
cluding waste) contained within the boundaries 
of their village or estate ; village proprietors may 
be either talukdars, zamindars, pattidars, or mem- 
bers of a proprietary and cultivating brotherhood. 
At the time that the British assumed supremacy, 
ryot proprietorship prevailed in the south of 
India, official zamindarship in Bengal, and village 
proprietorship in the N.W. Provinces. 

It may be added, that on the N.W. Frontier are 
tribal tenures; and in llazara, Peshawur, and 
partly in Dehra Ismail Khan, there is a periodical 
redistribution of the holdings amongst tne tribes, 
known as Waish or Vaish. In Bannu, the island 
is held in tals, the area of the tribe ; in darra, 
the holding of a group of families; and lich'h, 
one family holding. In Dehra Ghazi Khan, each 
member of the tribe holds his own share. 

From the time of the census of 1871, hus- 
bandry of India has been attracting great atten- 
tion, because the population has been increasing 
more rapidly than the means of subsistence. Also, 
two-fifths of the revenue of British India are 
derived from the land ; and as the Govern- 



farm cattle not at work are rarely if ever fed ; 
the cows and calves are half-starved, and little 
milk is obtained. Draught bullocks are partially 
fed. But fodder grasses are never cultivated ; and 
the want of power in the draught cattle is a great 
cause of defective tilling. It is acknowledged 
that with care produce can be greatly iucreased. 
Messrs. Lawes and Gilbert at Eothamsted, for 24 
years grew wheat on unmanured and manured 
land. Unmanured land yielded only 12 "4 bushels 
per acre, weighing 57*4 lbs. the bushel ; land 
receiving yearly 14 tons of farm-yard manure 
yielded 84-1 bushels per acre, weighing 59 - 3 lbs. 
But the average produce per acre, on a series of 
observations extending over ten years, in several 
districts of the Bombay Presidency, was found to 
be as follows : — Wheat, 9 bushels, 585 lbs. ; juari, 
10 bushels, 650 lbs. ; bajri, 6 bushels, 390 lbs. 

In the Dehra Doon the produce from wheat 
cultivation was found to average 1260 lbs. per 
acre; and at the Sind experimental farm, bajri 
(Penicillaria spicata) has yielded as much as 1420 
lbs. per acre. 

In the Nile valley the yield of wheat is from 
8 to 20 fold ; barley, 4 to 18 fold ■ maize, 14 to 
20 fold ; Sorghum vulgare, 36 to 48 fold. 

The Famine Commissioners in their report 
(ii. p. 72) give the following as the produce of 
food-grains per acre in several parts of British 
India : — 

l\inj;il>, . . 11 bushels, or 029 of a ton per acre. 

N.W. Provinces ami 
Oudh, and Bengal, 13 , 



C.ntrnl Provinces, . 8 
Berar, . . .6 
r.oinbay, excl. Sind 

and N. C'auara, . 7 
M ad raa and Mysore. 1 1 



0-36 

0-.M 
010 

OM'.i 



127 



HUSBANDRY. 



HUSBANDRY. 



lbs. 


Wheat. 


lbs. 


Cotton. 


lbs. 


602 


Sagar, . . . 


324 


Raipur, 


. 52 


426 


Hoshangabad 


267 


Wardlia, 


. 40 


360 


Jubbulpur, . 


600 


Nagpur, 


. 21 


675 


Narsingpur, . 


400 






448 


Raipur, . . 


432 






654 











Mr. Morris, Chief Commissioner of the Central 
Provinces, in his report for 1872-73 (p. 6), gives 
the following as the average produce per acre : — 

Rice. 
Raipur, . 
Bilaspur, 
Balaghat, 
Chanda, 
Bhandara, 
Seoni, . 

The area under cultivated crops in India is 
equal to one acre per head of the population, 
which increases at the rate of 1 per cent, per 
annum, equal to two millions yearly. To provide 
for this increase of numbers, two methods of 
increasing the production present themselves, 
viz. progressively to increase the area of culti- 
vated land, and gradually to increase the pro- 
duce from the land at present cultivated. The 
equivalent of the two methods are an extension 
of cultivation by two millions of acres annually, 
or an increased produce by one-tenth of a bushel 
annually from the present acreage. In coming to 
a decision over these two methods, it is neces- 
sary to remark that in British India, the best and 
most available land has long been occupied. The 
cultivable area still untouched is great, but is in 
places remote from population, and requiring much 
beyond the ordinary capital of an Indian culti- 
vator to bring it into a state of production. The 
second method has therefore to be chiefly relied 
on. One bushel of increase per acre, obtained 
gradually in ten years from the present cultivated 
area, would meet the demand of a gradual increase 
in the same time of 20 millions of people. The 
produce would then have gradually risen from 
10 to 20 bushels an acre. 

The population in British India is at present, 
one part with another and one year with another, 
barely raising more than sufficient food for their 
requirement, and the Indian Government, in 1883, 
arranged with the railways to carry grain from 
one district to another at the lowest remunerat- 
ive rates ; because from certain districts it was 
being exported, while the population in some parts 
is even now pressing on the means of subsistence, 
and is increasing at a rate which is causing 
anxiety. The increase in Great Britain from 1851 
to 1861 was - 56 per cent. In India it has been 
stated at from 052 in the N.W. Provinces, 0'54 
in Bombay, and - 74 in Madras, and it has been 
supposed that the normal may be 0*5 and 0*6. — 
P. P. 1880, p. 29. 

The population per square mile has been given 
as under : — 



Berar, 129 

Ajmir 119 

Assam, 99 

Central Provinces, . 91 

Coorg, 84 

Burma, 31 



Oudh, 468 

Bengal 397 

N.W. Provinces, . . 378 

Madras, 226 

Mysore 187 

Panjab, 173 

Bombay 131 i 

On the average, in all British India, 211 to the 
square mile, — agricultural, 56 per cent. ; traders, 
18 per cent. ; labourers, 16 per cent. ; professional 
and service, 10 per cent., the labourers being 
mostly employed on the land. 

Between 1850 and 1880, 18 millions of acres of 
waste land had been brought under cultivation in 
the Madras and Bombay Presidencies, a quantity 
amounting to 80 per cent, of the area under culti- 
vation in 1850. In the N.W. Provinces, from 1840 



to 1880 there was an increase of 6 millions of 
acres, or 30 per cent, of the area under cultivation 
in 1840. In British India, the cultivated area for 
food-crops is a little more than one acre for each 
individual ; in the Panjab, 0*76 of an acre ; in the 
N.W. Provinces and Oudh, and in Bengal, 0"81 ; in 
Central Provinces, l - 8 ; in Berar, 1*75 ; in Bom- 
bay, 1-4 ; in Madras, - 93 ; in Mysore and Burma, 
each 1 acre. — F. Rep. p. 73. 

The Famine Commissioners, in their report of 
1880 (i. p. 50), assuming the population of British 
India at 181,350,000, estimated the area under 
food-crop at 166,250,000 acres, yielding an out- 
turn of 51,530,000 tons of food. The ordinary 
consumption is estimated at 47,165,000 tons, 
leaving a surplus of 5,165,000 tons. The esti- 
mated consumption includes food, 37,980,000 
tons ; seed, 3,450,000 tons ; cattle food, 309,000 
tons ; and wastage, 2,555,000 tons. 

The famine of 1876-77 affected a population of 
36 millions in the Peninsula of India, and in that 
year the crop in Bombay was short of the average 
by 1£ million tons, in Madras by 3^ millions, 
and in Mysore by 1 million tons. 

The subject of Indian husbandry is one of much 
difficulty. The climates, the rains, and the soils 
of British India widely differ, and demand from 
the husbandman the most varied treatment. The 
lands in the deltas of the Ganges and Indus are 
annually strewed over with the fine silt which the 
floods of these rivers bring down in their course 
from the Himalayas, and cereals and the great 
millets are grown with little labour ; and by varying 
the crops, the soil in those districts is made to yield 
three crops in the year. The great volcanic tract 
of the Dekhan, in provinces reached by the moist 
winds and rains of the south-west monsoon, and 
covered for ten and twenty feet deep with the 
regur or black cotton soil, from unknown times, 
has yielded once a-year, without manure, one 
luxuriant crop of wheat, sorghum, or cotton, 
grown in the open fields, without other care than 
the ploughing, sowing, and reaping. 

The earth nowhere else yields agricultural pro- 
duce in return for so little labour as in Lower 
Egypt, and gives back the seed so plentifully. In 
the lands which the Nile overflows, when the 
water is partially withdrawn, the fellah, without 
previous labour, throws the seed from his boat 
into the wet mud. Their present yield of wheat is 
from 8 to 20 fold ; of barley, from 4 to 18 ; of 
maize, from 14 to 20 ; of Sorghum vulgare (dar- 
rah), from 36 to 48 fold. A like fertility is 
repeated in the flats of the deltas of the Indus 
and the Ganges, where rice crops are grown defy- 
ing the inundations. 

In India, crops known as the kharif are sown from 
the latter part of May and beginning of June to 
the early part of August, and are reaped from the 
latter part of October to the early part of De- 
cember. And in districts watered by the N.E. 
monsoon and winter raius, rabi crops are sown 
from the latter part of August to the early part 
of November, and are gathered in the spring 
from the end of February — March to the beginning 
of April, being brought on by the heavy dews 
and cool nights and winter showers that prevail 
during the cold- weather months of India. 

The Rice varieties of the Peninsula of India are 
sown and ripen at different periods. Some of 
them are sown in July, but most in August. Some 



128 






EfUSBANDRY. 



ii|M-u in four months in November, some in five 
months in I >.-. ■■ -niln-r, and hoiho in six months in 
January or February. 

<>t the oilseed*, Sesamum oricntale is sown in 
Mayand gathered in August, and Arachis hypogca 
i in September and gathered in February. 

Of tin- Pulses, Ijiblab vulgaris, CajanuB Indicus, 
Phaseolus radiatus, and Dolichos catiangare gene- 
rally grown on lands depending on the natural 
niins, and their seeds are sown along with the 
millets. Phaseolus mungo and Ph. max. are sown 
in .Inly and gathered in January. Cicer arie- 
t i n u in is sown in October and gathered in March. 
DoBoboa cultratus, Phaseolus aconitifolius, and 
Pisum sativum arc sown in December and gathered 
in February. 

For Millets, the ground is ploughed up, and the 
seeds sown broadcast, in July or August, and 
reaped in November or December, — 

Panicum miliaceum, Willde., or varagoo, in six 
months ; 

Penicillaria spicata, or cumboo, in four months ; 

Panicum miliare, or shama, in three months ; 

Sorghum vulgare and its allies ripen in five 
months; 

Setaria Italica, or tennay, in four or five 
months. 

In Kandahar, the spring or rabi harvest pro- 
duces wheat, barley, pulses, beans, lentils, madder, 
etc. The autumn or kharif harvest crops are 
maize, pulse, rice, beans, carrots, turnips, egg- 
fruit, beetroot, love-apple, tobacco. 

In most parts of Afghanistan and in the extreme 
N.W. of India the crop sown in the end of autumn, 
and reaped in spring, consists of wheat, barley, 
Krviun lens (addus), Cicer arietinum (nukhud), 
with some peas and beans. The other crop is 
sown at the end of spring, and reaped in autumn, 
and consists of rice, Panicum Italicum, and P. 
miliaceum, Sorghum vulgare, Penicillaria spicata 
Zea mays, and Phaseolus mungo. 

The former, the spring harvest, is the most 
important in the countries west of the Suliman 
range. The latter, ,the autumn harvest, called by 
the Afghans Paniyeh or Tirmani, is on the whole 
the most considerable. But there are modifications, 
according to climate. In the Hazara country, and 
also in all the coldest parts of Afghanistan and the 
neighbouring states, they sow their only harvest 
in spring, and reap it in the end of autumn. 

In the Kharaoti (Karoti), the Kattiwaz, and some 
other elevated countries in that neighbourhood, 
they sow their only crops at the end of one autumn, 
and reap it the beginning of another. 

In Bajawar, Panjkora, in the country of the 
Upper Momunds and that of the Utman Khel, 
wheat is the principal grain sown, and their most 
important harvest is that which is reaped in 
summer. 

In Peshawur, the Bangash, Jaji, Daman, and 
Isa Khel countries, the harvests are nearly equal ; 
but in the eastern countries, that which is reaped 
in autumn is the more important. Wheat is the 
chief food of the people, though in several parts 
the millets, Panicum, Sorghum, and Penicillaria 
spicata are also made into bread. Indian corn 
heads are eaten roasted as a luxury. 

About towns the food -grains mentioned are 
largely supplemented by their palez harvest, of 
musk melons, water melons, various kinds of 



HUSBANDRY. 

in open fields like grain. And in the gardens are 
grown carrots, turnips, beetroot, lettuce, onions, 
garlic, egg-plant, spinage, and greens of all kind*, 
cabbage, cauliflower. Barley is given to horses, 
and turnips are sown for cattle. 

Bice is grown in most parts of Afghanistan, but 
in very different quantities. In Swat and Pesha- 
wur it is most abundant. 

Herar is a province in the centre of the Penin- 
sula, which receives the rains of the 8.W. monsoon 
from June to August, and the winter rains of 
December and January, and its seed times and 
harvest times are as under. The plants with an 
asterisk (•) are irrigated : — 





Bown. 


Harvested. 


Abrus precatorius,". , . 


.(iliic 


November 


Allium sativum,* . . . 


November 


March 


A. cepa,* 


11 


it 


Cajanus Indicus 


June 


Jan., Feb. 


Capsicum annuum,* , . 


June 


January 


(Jhavica betle,* .... 


May 


in a year 


Cicer arietinum, .... 


October 


February 


Convolvulus batatas,* . . 


September 


February 


Coriandrum sativum,* 


June 


January 


Crotalaria juncea, . . . 


June 


October 


Curcuma longa, .... 


July 


January 




October 


January 


Gossypium Indicum, . . 


June 


January 


Hibiscus cannabinus, . . 


June 


Nov., Dec 


Indigofera tinctoria,* . . 


June 


August 


Lathyrus sativus, . . . 


October 


January 


Linum usitatissimum, . . 


October 


February 


Morinda citrifolia, . . . 


June 


in 3 years 


Nicotiana tabacum, . . . 


July 


December 


Oryza sativa,* .... 


June 


Oct., Dec 


Panicum pilosum, . . . 


June 


October 


Papaver somniferum,* . . 


October 


Feb., March 


Penicillaria spicata, . . 


July 


October 


Phaseolus mungo, . . . 


June 


November 




October 


January 
November 


Ptychotis ajwain, . . . 


June 


Saccharum officinarum,* . 


Jan. or May 


in 12 months 


Sesamum Indicum, . . . 


August 


January 


Sinapis ramosa, .... 


November 


February 


Sorghum vulgare, . . . 


May, July 


July, Dec 


Triticuin jestivum, . . . 


November 


February 




June 


September. 



In India, diseases and wild beasts cause heavy 
losses to the agriculturists. On this form of loss 
the Mysore Administration Reports for 1873-74 
to 1875-76, have shown the losses in cattle sus- 
tained by their owners,— 





1874-1876. 


1875-1876. 




From 
Sickness. 


Hy Wild 
Beasts. 


From 
Sickness. 


By Wild 
Beasts. 


Cows, .... 
Bulls or bullocks, 
Male buffaloes, . 
Female ,, 
Sheep and goats, 
Horses, . . . 
Asses 


33,440 
24,555 

5,450 

12,575 

67,129 

898 

1,797 


1,522 

1,041 

279 

414 

1,681 

45 

43 


42,313 
33,089 

8.971 

1(1, 979 

55,181 

666 

1,396 


L9N 

92 1 

246 

381 

i.t;s.-, 

66 

31 


Total, . . . 


145,772 


5,025 


UMtttB 


urn 



In 1873-74, the cattle of all kinds numbered 
2,911,684, and the deaths 138,759. In 1874-75, 
the respective numbers were 2,921,962 and 
150,797, the increase of 12,038 deaths having been 
due to cattle disease in the Mysore and Hassan 
districts. 

Irrigation. — The crops are liable to great in- 
juries from insects and fungi, which will be found 
mentioned under In Beet*. liata, locusts, hyaenas, 



elephants, also cause losses; but that which is 
most dreaded is droughts, for the rainfall fluctuates 
cucumbers, pumpkins, gourds,' grown everywhere | from year to year sis much as 50 per cent on either 
vol. 11. 129 1 



HUSBANDRY. 



HUSBANDRY. 



side of the average, and failure of the rains results 
in scarcity and famine. The rains on the seaward 
sides of the Western Ghats and of the Arakan Hills 
never fail, the inundations and the canals of Sind 
and Lower Bengal protect the crops from all fear 
of drought; but in Mysore, the Ceded Districts, 
Ongole, Orissa, Hyderabad, Raj pu tana, Oudh, 
N.W. Provinces, and the Panjab, the rains have 
often failed, and millions of the inhabitants and 
their cattle have perished. The Tamil, Teling, 
and Gond races have evinced much ingenuity in 
constructing tanks wherever the slope of the 
ground admitted, and the races along both banks 
of the Lower Indus have laboriously formed 
inundation canals. With water, in tropical coun- 
tries, plants of some kind may be grown. But 
much injury results from profuse supply of canal 
water swamping the lands. Land is destroyed 
unless there be perfect drainage made before the 
irrigation is adopted. The water must be able 
to get out of the land as well as to get into it 
with equal facility. Of all the supplies, river 
water is the best, as it brings with it a large 
proportion of silt; after that comes water from 
tanks, then the natural rains ; and worst of all 
are the waters of wells and canals, for they con- 
tain much saline matter in solution, and chiefly 
soda. Salts in undue proportion render soils 
sterile. Mr. Robertson of the Sydapet farm says 
that soil which contains more than a half per 
cent, of salts, capable of being washed out by 
water, cannot possibly be productive. Mr. E. C. 
Schrottky says that the remedy for this is subsoil 
drainage. 

Manure. — Next to water in agricultural value 
comes manure. The Chinese, of all the eastern 
races, are the most successful appliers of manures, 
utilizing them from the animal, vegetable, and 
mineral kingdoms, and applying them in a skilful 
manner, growing green crops for manure, which 
they plough down into their fields, and using 
recent animal refuse in a greatly diluted state. 
Throughout British India, the husbandmen are 
thoroughly acquainted with the value of manures, 
both fresh and decomposed, but the quantity 
obtainable is barely sufficient for their garden 
cultivation. Even if all the cattle refuse could 
be had, it would still be insufficient; but in most 
parts, owing to the scarcity of firewood, dried 
cow-dung cakes are the chief fuel. Also, with 
every increase of irrigation, manure is necessarily 
more and more needed, the soluble parts of the 
soils being more easily taken up, and are more 
frequently so by the more frequent cropping. The 
soils of many parts of British India are thus in 
danger of becoming utterly barren. Learned men 
from ancient times have been warning agricultur- 
ists on this point. In the first century of the 
Christian era, L. Junius M. Columella, in a letter 
to Publius Silvinus, pointed out that the sterility 
of their fields is to be attributed to their own 
doings. Mr. H. C. Carey of Philadelphia has shown 
that in the States, in the beginning of the 19th 
century, 25 to 30 bushels of wheat per acre were 
to be got, but latterly only 12 bushels. In Virginia 
and Kentucky, tobacco was grown until the soil was 
completely exhausted, and had to be abandoned. 
In a late Settlement Report in the Hoshangabad 
district, it was stated that in the Nerbadda valley, 
fifty years before, the rate of produce had been 
tenfold, but only sixfold at the date of the report. 



Liebig, in his letters on Modern Agriculture 
(pp. 176-77), remarks that ' there are fields that 
may yield without manuring, for 6, 12, 50, or 
100 years successively, crops of cereals, potatoes, 
vetches, clover, or any other plants, and the 
whole produce can be carried away from the 
land, but the inevitable result is at last the same : 
the soil loses its fertility, the fields will ultimately 
be brought to a state of exhaustion, the corn will 
only yield an amount equal to the seed, the 
potatoes will no longer produce tubers, and the 
vetches or clover will die away after barely appear- 
ing above the ground.' 

These remarks are admonitory to the cultiva- 
tors, the State, and the people. If the land be only 
half tilled, and be starved as regards manure, the 
share of the produce falling to the State will 
appear large; but the more produce it can be 
made to yield, the more easily will the land-tax 
be paid. Throughout India the ground around 
the village site is always resorted to by the 
inhabitants, and tobacco is there the most frequent 
crop. It is almost the only open field that receives 
animal refuse, four-fifths of the cattle droppings 
being dried and used as fuel. The average daily 
weight of cows' droppings is 4 or 5 lbs. daily, 
equal to 15 cwt. per annum ; two-thirds are con- 
sumed as fuel, excepting during the rains. How 
little the fields receive, is known from the fact 
that there is one head of horned cattle to every 
two cultivated acres, — plough cattle, milch cattle, 
and buffaloes. Even the small portion retained 
for manure is wasted, no care being taken to 
prevent loss by drainage or evaporation. Mr. 
Buck mentions that at Farrakhabad night-soil 
has been utilized for ages past, as much as 
Rs. 15,000 to 20,000 being paid there by the 
cultivators to the sweepers. 

In the general non-use of manure, the prevail- 
ing practice has been to throw the exhausted 
fields out of cultivation for periods of years, after 
which it is again broken up into great masses by 
iron bars. Full crops are not immediately obtained. 
In the Chanda district, it has been observed that 
where fresh soil is broken up for rice cultivation, 
the ground can never be got into proper order 
during the first year, and the yield is less than in 
the old fields. In the second year the return 
rises to about an eighth above that of the old 
fields, and increases gradually year by year until 
the fifth, when it reaches 50 per cent, above the 
yield of the old fields. It then commences to 
decline, and in about another five years has sub- 
sided to the level of the old fields. Land yielding 
dry crops seems also to reach its highest point of 
fertility in the fifth year of cultivation, but it falls 
more slowly to the condition of old fields than is 
the case with rice lands, and in a field twenty 
years old will be more productive than one which 
has been twenty years under the plough. When 
a cultivator sees a field becoming sterile, he 
allows it to be fallow for from two to five years, 
in the meanwhile pasturing his cattle thereon ; 
and when the land is again sown, it is found to 
give a yield equal to its neighbours. 

Green manure, ploughed in, has several advan- 
tages. It saves transport, rapidly decomposes, 
saves all the constituents of the manure ; while 
decomposing, raises the temperature of the soil, 
protects the soil from the effect of solar heat, 
prevents evaporation, retains fertilizing prases, ;end 



130 






1 1 rsr. as DRY. 



pulverizes the noil. The jute and cassia loaves and 
exhausted indigo plants are largely utilizod in 
this way. Bone-dust is only employed in places 
superintended by Europeans. 

. S3. — The British have been very desirous 
of Improving the husbandry of the people, and 
have succeeded to a small extent. Millions sterling 
expended in experiments to improve the 
staple of cotton ; much encouragement was given 
to the silk and lac industries; unsparing and 
successful efforts have been made to establish 
tea, tobacco, cinchona, hop, and caoutchouc plants ; 
opium cultivation has been brought to the highest 
pitch of perfection ; the indigo manufacture has 
attracted many Europeans, though the manufac- 
ture of the last two product* has been left entirely 
to native skill ; tobacco varieties have been intro- 
duced ; an attempt was made to introduce the fine 
cochineal insect ; a little has been done to introduce 
improved breeds of cattle and sheep ; much has 
Wvn done for fibrous plants ; and by agricultural 
exhibitions, agri-horticultural societies, farms, fairs, 
and agricultural banks, forests have been pro- 
tected, planting of trees encouraged ; great canals 
constructed for irrigation ; loans have been made 
for well-digging; while railways, harbours, and 
improved ocean steamers have aided in the dis- 
tribution, and emigrants have been encouraged 
and protected. These have been regarded by the 
British rulers as their duties. 

Ninety per cent, of Indian exports are raw 
products, and steady efforts have been made to 
improve the means of transit and distribution on 
rivers, canals, ocean ships, roads, and railways. 
In scarcities and famines, perhaps, no efforts can 
stave off the destruction of the cattle needed for 
carriage, and a meteorological department has 
been formed to watch and give warning of climatic 
changes. The countries adjoining Further India, 
still sparsely inhabited, can be looked to for years 
to come as food granaries, but early effort should be 
made to encourage and develope the arts. Railway 
workshops, spinning and weaving companies, tea, 
cotton, coffee, and cinchona planters have done 
much, but the fishermen need to have facilities 
afforded for salting their fish captures, which is 
the sole animal food that almost all the races eat ; 
and the climates of the western coast of India 
and of Burma are inimical to cattle and sheep. 

Much is still capable of being accomplished in 
the way of improving existing and adding new 
varieties of fruit and timber trees, root plants, 
vegetables, cereals, pulses, and millets, condiment 
plants, truffles, mushrooms, with herbage and 
fodder plants for cattle. 

Trees should be planted in groves and lines, to 
afford shelter from drying hot winds. They are a 
powerful engine in the production of coolness and 
moisture, and their leaves furnish manure. Frizes 
and payments should be made to persons who suc- 
cessfully raise trees in exposed situations, for a tree 
cannot be raised by Government employes under 
three to five rupees. Sir George Campbell, when 
in the Panjab, issued an order that every man 
who cut down a tree should plant five in its place. 
The breed of stock, cattle, sheep, and goatB could 
be further improved, and better varieties imported ; 
ami they maybe persuaded to rear fowls of kinds. 
and to add to their stock by domesticating bees. 
The preservation of fodder crops by ensillage 
night be introduced, and greater care taken, in 



181 



HWA-KEA-TSZE. 

HtoriiiK manure, to arrange for the preservation of 
its fluid parts, under-draining being adoj 
bring fresh soil under tillage.- Sir Henry I 
Supplement; Mr. II. II. Elliut tatd m I . ' '. 
Danvtrt in Jo. Soc. of Art*; Cameyy's Karhnhri 
Technicalities; li. II. Boat* /WW/, /•;. 
Prod, of the Pent fab; Manual <,/ /he Laud /.' 
Systems of India ; ft O. Srhrottky, Rational 
Aprirulture; Mr. F. N. Wright, Agriculture in 
Cawnpore; Mysoreand f'mtrat Provmce* Admini- 
stration Reports; Hanoi mn Mueller's Sehct 
Plants; MacGregor, pp. 35, 3fi ; 1 17k. Gloss.; 
Williams' Middle Kingdom, ii. p. 109 ; Ward, p. 101 ; 
Peschel on Man, p. 492. 

HUSE, a transparent fabric of Manilla, of 
which the shirts of the coloured population are 
made. It is made from the fibre of the Muea 
textilis. — Oliphant. 

HUSKS, on which the prodigal son desired to 
appease his hunger, were the pods of the Cera- 
tonia siliqua. 

HUSN and HASN, pi. Hasnein, sons of AH, 
a cousin of Mahomed, by Fatima, Mahomed's 
daughter. Husni Syud, a descendant of Ilasnein. 

HUSN -ABDUL is a town between Rawal 
Pindi and Peshawur. It has a sacred tank, 
supplied by many rivulets, and crowded with fish. 
A stone there has a rude bas-relief, said to be an 
impression of a foot. 

HUT or Hoth, a small Baluch tribe in the 
Dehra Ghazi Khan district. 

HUT-GAR or Hat-gar, a weaver caste in the 
Canarese-speaking country about Belgaum. 

IIUT'HEELE or Hat'hile,one of the Panchpiri, 
or five noted saints of the lower orders of Hindu- 
stan. He is said to have been the sister's son of 
Ghazi Meean, and lies buried atBahraich, near the 
tomb of that celebrated martyr. 

HUT-HU, Sansk., in Hindu asceticism, signifies 
the external means used to fix the mind upon the 
One Spirit. These means are, sitting in a particular 
posture, keeping the eyes fixed on the end of the 
nose, repeating a particular name, and many other 
practices equally ridiculous. 

HUTTON, Majok, author of Note on the Cul- 
ture of Silk at Kandahar ; on the Wool and 
Woollen Manufactures of Afghanistan ; Zoology 
of Kandahar. 

HUTTON, Dr., a Bombay medical officer, author 
of a History of the Kooria Mooria Islands in the 
Royal and Bombay Geographical Society's Journal ; 
East Indian Marine Survey. — P. P. 

HUWANA, Can., the flower fish, occurs in a 
curious small lake of fresh water close to the sea, 
near Cundapur in N. Canara. They are con- 
sidered a delicacy, and used to be sent by runners 
to Tipu Sultan. They are caught by a number of 
boatmen moving from one end of the lake. 

HUZUR. Hum." A respectful form of address 
to persons of rank, equivalent to ' presence,' — the 
1 m ence, the royal presence. 

HUZURASH, name of the translation of the 
Zendavesta into Pehlavi, a mixture of Semitic 
and Iranian, made in the time of the Sassanidax 
Pehlavi was the language used by the Sassanian 
dynasty. — Bunseu : Ma i Mnller. See Honover. 

HWA-KEA-TSZE, the Chinese cycle of 60 
years. The Chineso year commences from the 
con junction of the sun and moon, or from the 
nearest new moon to the 15th degree of Aquarius. 
It has 12 lunar months, some of 29, some of 30 



HWANG. 



HYDERABAD. 



days. To adjust the lunations with the course 
of the sun, they insert, when necessary, an inter- 
calary month. Day and night are divided into 
12 periods, each of 2 hours. — Gutzlajfs Chinese 
History, p. 73. 

HWANG -te-wang, and Teeu-tsze, are titles 
which have been held by Chinese emperors. 
Wang is commonly translated king ; the other 
emperor. See China, 684. 

HWOH-FU, Chinese living Buddhas. 
' HWUI - HWUI KEAOU. Chin. The Maho- 
medan religion. 

HYACINTH, a mineral used as a precious 
stone, consisting of silica and zirconia, trans- 
parent, and of a red colour. 

HYJENINA, a sub-family of the Felidae, digiti- 
grade carnivorous mammalia, distinguished by 
having their fore legs longer than their hind legs, 
by their rough tongue, great and conical molar, 
or rather cutting-and-crushing, teeth, projecting 
eyes, large ears, and a deep and glandular pouch 
beneath the anus. In general form, hyaenas 
resemble dogs more than cats ; and Linnaeus 
classed them with the former, to which they 
appear united by the Lycaon pictus of S. Africa. 
There is one species in India, — 

Hyaena striata, Zimmer., II. vulgaris, Demarest. 

Naukra-bagh, . . Beng. Taras; Hundar, . Hind. 

Har-vagh, ... ,, Lakhar-baghar, . ,, 

Kirba ; Kat-kirba, Can. Lakar-bag'h, . . „ 

Korna-gandu, . . ,, Lakra-bag'h, . . ,, 

Hera of Central India. Jhirak of . Hurriana. 

The striped hyaena is of a pale, yellowish -grey 
colour, with transverse tawny stripes, neck and 
back maued, and ordinary length is 8 feet 6 inches 
to root of tail ; tail 17 inches. It prefers open 
country, and generally digs a hole for its den on 
the side of a hill or mountain, or lurks amongst 
ruins. It is quite a nocturnal animal, sallying 
forth after dark and hunting for carcases, the 
bones of which it gnaws, occasionally catching 
some prowling dog or stray sheep. It generally 
returns to its den before sunrise. Its call is very 
unpleasant, almost unearthly. The young are 
easily tamed, and show much attachment to their 
keepers or masters, uttering sounds not unlike 
human laughter. 

The spotted hyaena (H. crocuta) and the brown 
hyaena, which is a third species of the genus, are 
restricted to Africa. Their jaws are enormously 
strong, and when they bite they hold on obsti- 
nately, and can with difficulty be made to let go 
their hold. The voice of the spotted hyaena when 
excited resembles a laugh, whence it is commonly 
known as the laughing hyaena. The hyaena and 
lion are eaten by the Arabs. — Jerdon's Mammals. 

HYAL.EA TRIDENTATA, Lam., of the seas 
of the E. Archipelago, has the power of expaudiug 
its keel appendices into the form of large, oval, 
semi-transparent leaves of a light green colour. — 
Collhtgwood. 

HYALONEMA LUSITANICUM, the glass - 
rope ; a vitreous sponge of the Japanese seas. 
It is small and cup-shaped, pierced through the 
centre by a number of clear glass fibres, twisted 
together into a column 8 or 12 inches long. It 
roots itself in the mud by a twisted wisp of strong 
flint needles, somewhat on the principle of a 
screw pile. So long as there were only Japanese 
specimens to study, which was top and which 
bottom, which the thing itself and which para- 



sites growing on it, whether it was a sponge or 
a zoophyte, or something else, — could not be 
settled. But the discovery of the same or a 
closely - allied species in abundance, from the 
Butt of Lewis down to Setubal on the coast of 
Portugal, where the shark fishers call it sea- 
whip, has given savans specimens enough on 
which to make up their minds, and has added 
another form to the list of those common, 
strangely enough, to European seas and to those 
of Japan. — Capt. St. John, p. 77. 

HYAT. Arab. Life, said by Mahomedans 
to have been created on the 10 th day of Ma- 

HYAT QALANDAR, also Baba Booden, or 
Bawa Booden, a Mahomedan devotee, who settled 
on the Baba Booden Hills, on the Nuggur district 
of Mysore. On his arrival or return from Arabia 
he brought with him some coffee berries, since 
which time the plant has continued to be grown 
in that district. 

HYDASPES or Bedaspes, the ancient Greek 
names of a river of the Panjab, called in San- 
skrit the Vitasta ; it is the Jhelura or Behut of 
the present day. 

HYDERABAD, in lat. 17° 21' 45" N., and long. 
78° 30' 10" E., on the right bank of the river 
Musa, is the capital of an independeut inland 
kingdom of the same name, in the centre of the 
Peninsula of India. The territory lies between 
lat. 15° 10' and 21° 41' N., and long. 74° 40' to 
81° 31' E., and has an area of 98,000 square 
miles, with a population of 11,250,000 ; and since 
the 15th century, it has been under Mahomedan 
rulers of the Bahmani, Kutub Shahi, and Azof 
Jahi dynasties, the second of whom ruled from 
the adjacent fortress of Golconda, and was over- 
thrown by Aurangzeb, 1687. The Hyderabad 
country is in the table-land of the Dekhan, from 
1250 to 1800 feet above the sea, and is surrounded 
by British provinces. It has been formed by the 
preceding and present dynasties out of several 
nationalities, viz. part of Gondwaua on the 
N.E., Telingaua on the E. and S.E., Maharastra 
on the N.W., and the Canarese or Karnatica 
speaking country on the S.W. and S. ; and 
the four languages of these races are current 
in their respective limits, that of the dominant 
Mahomedan race being the Urdu or Hindu- 
stani, with Persian as the epistolary language of 
the court. 

It comprehends the seats of some of the greatest 
and most powerful ancient sovereignties of the 
Dekhan : — Kalyan, the capital of the western 
Chalukya and Bijala Raya dynasties ; Devagiri or 
Deoghur, the capital of the Yadava; Warangal, 
that of the Kakateya ; and the great Mahomedan 
principality of Kulburga, which subsequently split 
into the subordinate powers of Bijapur (the 
Adil Shahi), Ahmadnaggur (Nizam Shahi), Gol- 
conda (Kutub Shahi), Berar (Imad Shahi), and 
of Beder (Birud Shahi). In the tract lying 
between the Mysore, Hyderabad, and the Mah- 
ratta country, were several smaller chieftaincies, 
such as that of the Nawab of Banagauapilly, a 
Syud family in the east of the Ceded Districts ; 
the Pathan nawabs of Kurnool, on the right bank 
of the Tumbudra river ; farther west, the Reddi 
chief of Gadwal ; the Mahratta ruler of Sundur, 
one of the Ghorpara family ; the Kshatriya raja, 
Narapati of Anagunda, the representative descend - 



132 



HYDERABAD. 



HYDERABAD. 



ant of tho great king Rama of Viiayanagar, 
who was overthrown by tlio combination of the 
Mahomedan kings of Golconda, Kulburga, Bija- 

{.ur, and Ahmadnaggur ; the Pathan nawab of 
Hbabpor, the Ghorpara chieftains of Ganjander- 
girli and Akalkote ; and at Ghurguntah and 
eder Sholapnr are tho descendants of Pid Naik, 
a Beder soldier, to whom Aurangzeb granted a 
■nail territory in the Jiaichore Doab, for the aid 
n at the Biege of Bijapur. 
The mien of the reigning Asof Jahi dynasty 
hare been : — 

1. K:wnr-ud-Din, styled Asof Jah, Nizam- 1713-1748 

ul-Mulk, subahdar of the Dekhan. 

2. Nasir Jang, eldest son of Asof Jah, mur- ... 

(Kred by l'athaus. 

3. Muzafar Jang, grandson of Asof Jah, 

and nephew of Nasir Jang, killed during 
a mutiny of his troops. 
I. Salabat Jang, third son of Asof Jab, 1761 

deposed by his younger brother in 1761, 
and died in prison two years afterwards. 

5. Nizam AH. younger son of Asof Jah, . 1761-1803 

6. Secunder Jah, son of Nizam Ali, . . 1803-1820 

7. Nasir-ud-Dowla, son of Secunder Jah, . 1820-1857 

8. Afzal-ud-Dowla, son of Nasir-ud-Dowla, 1857-1860 

9. Mir Mahbub Ali Khan, Br., infant son 1869- 

(2J years) of Afzal-ud-Dowla. 

The founder of the present dynasty was a 
distinguished officer of Aurangzeb. He was a 
Turani noble, whose name was Chin Kilich Khan. 
He succeeded Daoud Khan in the government of 
the Dekhan. After various intrigues during the 
weak reigns of Ferokhsir and of the Syuds, Mir 
Hasan Ali and Mir Abdallah, after the assassination 
of Ferokhsir in 1718, in the reign of Muhammad 
Shah, Asof Jah, in 1720, when governor of 
Gujerat, revolted, overran Kandesh, and captured 
Asirgarh. He was subsequently appointed vizir, 
but, disgusted with the vicious courses of the 
emperor, he returned to the Dekhan, defeated 
Muharaz-ud-Dowla, and in 1724 re-established the 
Hyderabad kingdom near Golconda, where the 
Kutub Shahi family had ruled till overthrown by 
Aurangzeb. 

In 1748, Nizam-ul-Mulk died, aged 104 years. 
His second son, Nasir Jang, assumed the govern- 
ment; but Muzafar Jang, a grandson of Nizam-ul- 
Mulk, took the lead, declared himself subahdar of 
the Dekhan, and joined Chanda Sahib and Dup- 
leix, and in 1749 fought and won the battle of 
Ambur. Various intrigues occurred, in which 
Nasir Jang formed friendships with the three 
Pathan chiefs of Cuddapah, Kurnool, and Sava- 
nore ; but he was attacked by the French before 
Ginjie, where one of the Pathan chiefs shot him. 
On this Muzafar Jang was released from prison 
and declared Nizam. He joined Chanda Sahib 
and the French under Dupleix, but he was assassi- 
nated by the Nawab of Kurnool on his way to 
Hyderabad, in 1751, when M. Bussy declared 
Salabat Jang, the youngest uncle of the deceased, 
to be the Nawab of Arcot. 

Salabat Jang alternately combined with and 
opposed M. Bussy, was deposed in July 1761, and 
was shortly after assassinated by his brother, 
Nizam Ali. 

In 1763, Nizam Ali met the army of Madhava 
Rao, Peshwa, under Raghoba, on the banks of 
the Godavery, and was completely routed. From 
that time till the beginning of the 19th century 
the French and British influence alternated, until, 
under a treaty of date the 1st September 1798, 



ii I British surrounded and disbanded tin- Fn-iieh 
battalions. Since the tnat\ of the 111 Sept. imImt 
1798, uitih t ku.wkI treaties, the Hyderabad 
Government has subsidized a brigade of the British 
Indian army. It has consisted of all aims, and 
has varied in strength from above 4000 to over 
15,000. In 1798 they numbered 6801 ; in 1820, 
15,489; in 1867, 4494 ; and in 1882, 5683. To 
provide for their pay by the treaty of the I2tfa 
October 1800, the Nizam ceded all the territories 
he had acquired by tho Mysore hpcatfea of I 
and 1799, yielding about 17,58,000 pagodas. 
These Ceded Territories comprise the collectorates 
of Bellary, Cuddapah, and Kurnool; and from 
1800-1 to 1880-81, the receipts have been 
47,47,53,951, and charges Rs. 16,24,65,997, net 
lis. 31,22,87,954 in the 81 years, or annually 
Rs. 88,55,406. In addition to the subsidiary force, 
the Hyderabad Government has, since 1811, kept 
up another armed force, known as the Hyderabad 
Contingent. It had its origin in the inefficiency 
of the Nizam's troops, and lias been commanded 
by European officers, some of whom were lent 
from the Indian army; but, after the treaty of 
21st May 1853, the officers became entirely of the 
latter class, and until that change it was styled 
the Nizam's army. In 1811, the strength of its 
cavalry was 9000, and of the infantry and artillery 
8000, with 25 guns and 20 European officers. 
From 1815, there has been a gradual reduction 
of the Contingent. In 1853-54, when the change 
to the present system was made, the strength was 
9799, with 37 guns and 881 camp followers ; and 
in 1880-81 the artillery and infantry numbered 
5432, cavalry 2200, with 69 European officers, 
20 warrant and non-commissioned officers, 16 
guns, and 1040 camp followers. The total mili- 
tary force of the Nizam has been returned as 
consisting of 71 field and 654 other guns, 551 
artillerymen, 1400 cavalry, and 12,775 infantry, 
besides a large body of irregulars. The state is 
entirely enclosed within British territory, and, 
with its good police, a very small armed force 
is needed. After the third decade of the 19th 
century, from the want partly of financial skill on 
the part of Chandoo Lai, Peshkar-i-Dewan, and 
partly from his general extravagance and retention 
of large bodies of foreign mercenaries, the pay of 
the Nizam's Contingent fell into arrears, and the 
Nizam assigned the Raichore Doab and Berar 
valley to provide funds for the pay. Raichore 
was early restored, but during all the minority of 
Mir Mahbub Ali Khan, the Dewan Regent, Sir 
Salar Jung, Bahadur, strove to recover Berar. 
This province was administrated by Commissioners, 
under the Resident of Hyderabad. In 1871, it 
had 17,334 square miles, with a population of 
2,231,565. In 1881, the population of Berar was 
2,672,673 persons, and the population of the 
remainder of Hyderabad territory is estimated in 
the same table at 9,000,000. 

Berar is, in the main, a broad valley running 
east and west, lying between the Satpura range 
on the north and the Ajunta range on the south. 
The area of Berar may be reckoned at a little 
more than 17,711 square miles. The principal 
rivers are the Tapti, the Puma, the Wardha, and 
the Pain-Ganga or Pranhita. 

of the Berar towns, Ellichpur is the largest, 
Oomrawati, Akola, and Akote (in the Akola 
district) follow. 






133 



HYDERABAD. 



HYDERABAD. 



The principal divisions of the people of Berar 
as to creed and caste were : — 



Christians, 
Bralimans, 
Rajput, . 
Kunbi, . 
Wani, 



. 1,335 
. 65,754 
. 44,133 
. 834,174 
67,071 



Mahar 307,994 

Other Hindu castes, 871,457 
Aborigines, . . . 163,519 
Jains, .... 20,020 
Mahomedans, . . 187,555 



Mali, 195,981 

The chief numbers of the other Hindu castes 
in 1881 were as follows : — 



Teli 75,552 

Dhangar, . . . 74,559 

Banjara, .... 60,511 

Mang, .... 46,366 

Mahali (Hajam), . 33,517 

Koli 30,398 

Gaoli, .... 30,159 

Wanjari, . . . 27,495 

Ohumar, . . . 26,885 

Bari, 23,690 

Bhoi, 22,961 

Gosawi, .... 13,013 

Rangari, .... 12,471 

Vidur, .... 11,747 

Beldar, .... 11,494 

Gurao, .... 9,234 

Nath, .... 9,113 

Hatkar, .... 8,605 

Waddar, . . . 7,596 

Pardhi, .... 5,834 



Gopal, . 
Khatik, . 
Dhor, . 
Jakinkar, 
Manbhao, 
Kaikari, . 
Bhat, . 



4,904 
4,487 
4,477 
4,347 
4,111 
3,103 
2,520 



Lodhi, .... 1,773 



Bhamti, 

Madhaga, . 
Bedar, 

Burud, . . 

Berad, . . 

Gujar, . . 

Galak, . . 

Kapu, . . 

Pasi, . . . 

Kahar, . . 
Mang-garodi, 

Ramusi, . . 



1,693 

1,595 

1,273 

1,201 

330 

967 

356 

340 

256 

247 

218 

118 



The Aborigines are detailed as under : — 



Andh, .... 37,010 Koilabhute, ... 43 

Arakh, .... 371 Korku 28,450 

Balai, .... 803 Lajar, .... 1,825 

Bhil, 4,183 Moghe 344 

Gond, .... 64,817 Nihal, .... 2,483 

Kolam 12,163 Pardhan, . . . 11,023 

The Hindu religious mendicants are, — Byragi, 
Bharadi, Dangat, Gondhali, Gosain, Manbhao, 
Nath, Sanyasi, and Vasudi. The Mahomedan 
fakirs are of the tribes Kadari, Banawa, Madari, 
Chisti, Nakshbandi. 

All of the Bhil race who live along the skirts 
of the Satpura range appear to have embraced 
Mahomedanism, though they do not intermarry 
with the purer Mahomedans. 

The Kshatriya class contains mostly a set of 
very dubious pretenders to the honour of Rajput 
descent. Mahrattas of no particular family usu- 
ally call themselves Thakur ; even a Kunbi will 
occasionally try to elevate himself thereby ; while 
the Purbho, Kayasth, and other castes of mixed 
origin and good social status are constantly invad- 
ing the Kshatriya military order. The distinction 
is also claimed by the rajas of the Satpura Hills, 
who assert that they are Rajputs depressed by 
the necessities of mountain life, whereas they are 
Gond or Kurku elevated by generations of high- 
land chieftainship. 

The Sudra caste in Berar, as in Mysore, all eat 
together, although they do not intermarry. The 
Kunbi and Mali eat flesh, drink liquor moder- 
ately, and their widows may always re-marry if 
they choose, excepting the widows of Deshmukhs, 
who ape high caste prejudices. The Koshti is a 
weaving caste. The Banjara are comparatively 
numerous in Berar ; their occupation as carriers 
is gone, and during their transitional stage they 
gave a good deal of trouble to the police. The 
Dhangar are sheep farmers, and the Hatkar, 
one of their clans, still hold much land on the 
border of the Nizam's territory, and were until A.D. 
1853 notorious for pugnacity and rebellion. The 
Bhoi has recently been supposed to belong to a 



widely-spread primitive tribe ; the Garpagari live 
by the profession of conjuring away hailstorms. 
Any one who has watched the medicine man at 
work has witnessed a relic of pure fetishism, 
possibly handed down from the pre- Aryan races 
and their earliest liturgies. The Vidur and 
Krishnapakshi are the same ; they are descend- 
ants of Brahmans by women of inferior caste ; and 
Krishnapakshi is only an astronomical metaphor 
for describing a half-breed, the term meaning 
literally ' dark-fortnight,' and referring to the half- 
darkened orb of the moon. The Mhar have been 
taken to be the same with the Dher, a very useful 
and active tribe. The Mang appear to be the 
lowest of all in the social scale. The paucity of 
the Khakrob or Bhangi, who are so numerous in 
Northern India, is a serious sanitary difficulty. 
The Kaikari are a tribe formerly well known for 
their thieving habits. Of the aborigines, the 
Gond, Korku, and Bhil are the only completely 
preserved specimens of tribes. The two first 
retain their languages, while the Bhil tongue 
seems to have become extinct very recently in 
Berar, its disuse being probably expedited by 
their general conversion to Mahomedanism. The 
Ramosi, a predatory race, speak Telugu in their 
families, and are doubtless from Telingana. The 
original Pardhan among the Gond answered to the 
Bhat among the Hindus, but many seem to have 
settled in the plains as a separate class of Gond. 

The chief towns are Hyderabad, Secunderabad, 
Aurangabad, Beder, Mominabad or Amba Jogi, 
Ellichpur, "Warangal, Oomrawati, and Nandeir. 

Mahomedans, though of the dominant class, 
are not numerous in any district of the Hyder- 
abad dominions. They dwell in considerable 
numbers in Hyderabad, Beder, Kulburga, 
Aurangabad, Karinjah, and Ellichpur, — places 
where rulers formerly resided ; but in other 
places they are few, and everywhere they look to 
state employ. They have no lands, but several 
of them have the state revenues in jaghir. Out 
of 158,721 of these religionists in Berar, only 
1296 are professional. The Syuds of Kulburga 
and Gogi and Hyderabad seem impoverized ; the 
Pathan, Moghul, Arab, Persian, and Habshi Maho- 
medans are soldiers, and those of Berar are noted 
for their idleness and profligacy, seldom taking 
to the plough. 

The Godavery, rising on the eastern declivity of 
the Western Ghats, disembogues in the Bay of 
Bengal. The total length of this great river, 
along the Hyderabad border and through the 
territory, is about 600 miles, for about 200 of 
which it is navigable from June to February. 
The Wardha rises in the hills of Betul and 
Ch'hindwara. Near the junction of the Pain-Ganga 
with the Wardha, and in the valley of the latter 
river, there are coal-fields. Those which have 
been examined over a small area near Sasti and 
Paoni show an average of 40 feet in thickness. 

Except in the city of Hyderabad itself, no effort 
or attempt had been made to educate the people 
of the Hyderabad Territories, though education is 
making enormous strides in Berar and in British 
Maharastra. There was no proper school met 
with in all the Editor's journeys, in 1866-70, 
amounting to about 7000 miles, and only occa- 
sionally a few lads, children of foreigners, were to 
be seen learning in a verandah the elements of 
the Hindi or Mahrati. 



134 



HYDERABAD. 



HYDER AM. 









l)ewan,SirSalarJung,inl868,madechangcs 
in tin- administrative machinery, and five Sudder 
{Uakdan or I >i\ i.-.i< >nal Commissioners were ap- 
pointed, for Aurangabad, Bir, and Purbhani ; for 
Randeir, Naldrug, and Beder; for Nulgonda, 

uiinniim ; for LingSUgUT and Kairhore; and 
Indore, Meduck, Yelgundul, and Etartpur. 
hi tirst three commissioners on Rs. 1500 a 
month, and last two on Rs. 1000. 

Tl a- people in the first two divisions speak 
Mali rati, tho next two the Telugu, and tho last 
MM t he Canarc8e districts of the Nizam's Territories. 
Kaeh of the above fourteen districts is presided 
over by a talnkdar on from 400 to 600 rupeeR a 
in.. ntli, assisted by deputy talukdare, who control 
and superintend tho work of naibs or tahsildars 
of taluk as. The commissioners go on circuit 
within their respective jurisdictions during eight 
months of the year, spending the remaining four 
at some central locality. The commissioners com- 
municate with the Minister through the Malguzari 
or Civil Secretariat. There is a' separate depart- 
ment of police, with a Suddur Mohtamim or in- 
spector-general, immediately under his orders 
are placed five naib mohtamim or deputy inspector- 
generals, to whom the Zillah Mohtamim or the 
district superintendents are directly subordinate. 
Each district has its Zillah engineer. There is a 
Conservator of Forests, and chief inspector of the 
medical department. 

HYDERABAD, in Sind, in lat. 25° 23' 5" N., 
and long. 68° 24' 51" E., was built in 1768 on the 
site of the ancient Patala or Pataleue by Ghulam 
Shah, Kalhora. It was the chief town of the 
territories ruled by the Talpur dynasty, until 
Uth February 1843, when, after the battle of 
Miani (Meeanee), it surrendered to the British, 
and the capital was transferred to Karachi (Kura- 
chee). The Hyderabad country was conquered 
■HD the Talpur dynasty, Amirs of Sind, by a 
British Indian army under Sir Charles Napier. 
The ancient name of Hyderabad was Neroon or 
Niruu, and Abulfada described it as almost equi- 
distant between Dabul (Dewul or Tatta) and 
Mansura, Sehwan, or Minagara, the latitude of 
which is 26° 11'. Its territory is of great ethnic 
interest, having been a refuge of Aryan, Balucb, 
.lat, Moghul, Pathan, and Rajput races for cen- 
turies before the birth of Christ ; and Assyrians, 
Bactrians, Greeks, Arabs, and Rajputs have 
ruled up to and within its borders. The territory 
is now a British revenue district, under the Com- 
missioner of Sind, between lat. 24° 13' and 27° 15' 
N., and long. 67° 51' and 69° 22' E. The popu- 
lation consists of Mahomedans, 560,349 ; Hindus, 
118,652 ; with other creeds and tribes, 44,882 ; 
total, 728,883. Of the Mahomedans, more than 
three-fifths, or 373,705, are Sindi, chiefly Sunni 
of the Halpotra, Junijo, Dul, Powar, Thebo, 
Sumro, Sand, Katiyar, and other claus, descend- 
ants of the original population converted to Islam 
during the Ummayid dynasty of Khalifas. 

The Baluchi Mahomedans (128,785) are in a 
great number of tribes, the chief being the Rind, 
Bhugti, Chang, Talpur, Jatoi, Laghari, Chandio, 
Kaloi, Khaso, Jakrani, Lasbari. 

Pathans are found chiefly about Hyderabad and 
Upper Sind, along with Bokhari, M atari. Shirazi, 
and Lekhiraji Syuds. Together they number 
15,815 persons. 

The Sind Memons were formerly Kaohhi 



Hindus, who emigrated to Sindund. r tin- Kalhora 
role, and devoted themselves to agrimiltm 
cattle-breeding. The Khwaja are deaeen 
of fugitives from Persia when their creed (the 
Istnailych heresy) was persecuted byliuluku Khan. 
Tho Memons and Khwajas aggregate 1 
Sidi, natives of Maskat (Muscat), Zanzibar, 
and Abyssinia, who until the British 00OMM 
were bought and sold as slaves. The Shikaris 
or Daphers of Tanda number 1353. They are 
.Mahomedans, but they eat carrion, and are ex- 
cluded from the mosques. Among Hindus the 
most numerous caste is the Yaisya or Baniya, 
aggregating about 85,000, and of these nearly 
four-fifths belong to the Lohano tribe, and the 
majority of Hindu shopkeepers and traders also 
belong to the Lohano caste. In their complex 
subdivisions, they are mixed up with the Maho- 
medans. Although wearing the thread, they 
become the disciples of Mahomedan teachers, 
assume their dress, eat meat, drink Bpirits, and 
disregard all the customs of orthodox Hindus 
with regard to receiving food from inferiors, etc. 
Their marriage ceremonies are so expensive that 
many of them remain single till late in life. 

The canals begin to fill about May, in proportion 
to the annual rise of the Indus, and are again dry 
by October. None are perennial in the Tando 
deputy collectorate, and in Hala only one, — the 
Mahmuda. — Imp. Gaz. See India. 

HYDER ALI, an officer of the Mysore Hindu 
sovereigns, whom he set aside and then ruled over 
the country as an independent prince. His great- 
grandfather, Muhammad Bahlol, came from the 
Panjab, and settled in the district of Kulburga, 
about 110 miles S."W. of Hyderabad. He was 
accompanied by two sons, Muhammad Ali and 
Muhammad Wali, who both married in the Kul- 
burga district, but left it for Seera, in Mysore, 
where they were employed as revenue peons ; and 
here Fatteh Muhammad, son of Muhammad All 
and the father of Hyder Ali, was born, a.d. 1702. 
Fatteh Muhammad fell in battle, leaving two sons, 
Shahbaz and Hyder, at the age of nine and seven 
years respectively. Hyder grew up wholly illiter- 
ate, but was a brave soldier, and, after the fall of 
Devanahully, he was promoted to the command of 
50 horse and 200 foot. Hyder shared in all the 
wars in which Nun j Raj and Deo Raj were involved ; 
and when Muhammad Ali and Chanda Sahib were 
striving for the sovereignty of the Karnatic, he 
assumed the Mysore Government, a.d. 1761, the 
raja Nunj Raj taking a jaghir of three lakhs of 
pagodas. Hyder Ali's great success was the taking 
of Bednore. or Nuggur in 1768, in which he is said 
to have found twelve kror of rupees. Raja Nuni 
Raj died childless, and a distant relative named 
Cham Raj was selected by Hyder. Bartolomeo 
(p. 8) mentions that Hyder Ali in early life stood 
sentry at the west gate of Pondicherry. 

Hyder Ali was severely curbed by the Mah- 
rattas, and entered into an alliance with Nizam Ali 
to attack the British, but the allies were defeated at 
Changama in August 1767, and again at Trin- 
comalce. The war continued, however, and Hyder 
Ali, in March 1769, arrived within ten miles of 
Madras, but on the 4th April a treaty was con- 
cluded. Hyder Ali conquered Coorg in 1772, 
and in 1773 and 1774 he recovered all the terri- 
tories which tho Mahrattas had seized. In 1775 
he captured Bellary from Bassalut Jang. In 



lo5 



HYDER. MIRZA, DOGHLAT. 



HYDROCHARACEjE. 



1776 he extinguished the power of Morari Rao 
and the independence of Savanore ; and in 1779 
he annexed all the dominions of the Nawab of 
Cuddapah. On the 21st July 1780 he invaded 
the Karnatic, plundered Porto-Novo, laid siege to 
Arcot, and on the 10th September 1780 totally- 
destroyed the force of Colonel Baillie at Peram- 
baukum. Sir Eyre Coote arrived from Calcutta 
on the 5th November 1781. While Hyder was 
surrounding five forts, Coote captured Carungally 
and overthrew Hyder's forces in a general battle 
at Porto-Novo, on the 1st July 1781, on which 
Hyder's investment of Trichinopoly, and that of 
Wandiwash by his son Tipu, were abandoned. 
Coote met Hyder at Pollilore, but again, on the 
27th September 1781, at Sholingur, Coote com- 
pletely defeated Hyder, and compelled him to 
raise the siege of Vellore. Hyder Ali died, aged 
80, on the 7th December 1782. His death took 
place in camp at Chittore, near Arcot, but was 
concealed until his son Tipu could arrive. At his 
father's demise, at the close of a virtual reign of 
thirty years, the army consisted of a hundred 
thousand well-trained men, with about five millions 
sterling of money in the treasury. He left at his 
death a compact kingdom, and was succeeded 
by his son Tipu, known as Tipu Sultan. He was 
interred at Seringapatam, and a dome was erected 
over the tomb. 

HYDER MIRZA, DOGHLAT, author of the 
Tarikh-i-Rashidi, an active, bold, adventurous 
officer, who held high commands under the emperor 
Babar ; and his book, the Tarikh-i-Rashidi, a his- 
tory of Central Asia, shows that he was a learned 
and accomplished man. He was the son of 
Muhammad Husain Mirza, who was the eldest 
son of Hyder Mirza, Doghlat, Amir of Kashgar. 
Muhammad Husain Mirza married the younger 
sister of Baber's mother, and he was put to death 
at Herat, a.h. 914 (a.d. 1508), under the orders 
of Shaibani Khan. 

HYDNOCARPUS ALPINUS. W. Ic. tab. 942. 
One of the natural order Pangiacese, the Maratatti 
of the Neilgherries, a very handsome tree with a 
beautiful foliage, common on the Neilgherries up 
to nearly 6000 feet, and at 1500 feet on Calcad 
Hills, Tinnevelly, and in Ceylon. On the Neil- 
gherries the wood is much used as beams and 
rafters for native houses ; it answers as deal for 
general purposes, packing-cases, etc. ; it splits 
readily, and is a good firewood. The tree flowers 
in July and August.— Beddome, Fl. Sylv. p. 77. 

HYDNOCARPUS INEBRIANS. Vahl 
H. venenata, Gcertner. 
Kowtee, . . . Mahr. I Makulu, . . . Singh. 
Moratti, . . Maleal. | Marra vattay, . . Tam. 

A large tree, growing in Ceylon on the banks 
of rivers up to an elevation of 2000 feet, also in 
Malabar, in Tinnevelly, and Travancore. It is a 
common tree on the west coast, not so in the 
Coimbatore jungles. The tree is hardly found in 
the Bombay northern jungles on the coast ; more 
frequently in those south of the Savitri river. 
The wood is not used for any purpose. Flowers 
small, white. Fruit used for poisoning fish.- The 
seeds of the fruit afford the Thortay oil of Canara, 
called also Neeradimutu oil. It is a very valuable 
vegetable solid oil, of the consistence of ordinary 
hard salt butter, and is used as a remedy in scabies 
and ulcers of the feet, also internally. — Thwaites; 
Voigt ; Gibson ; Wight. 



HYDNUM CORALLOIDES. Scopolt. A 
mushroom, called the Koho khur in Kashmir. It 
grows in the hollow trunks of Pinus Webbiana. 
When cooked, its taste is excellent. There are 
many European species. — Von Mueller. 

HYDRANGEA, a genus of hardy shrubs. One 
species commonly cultivated for the sake of its 
beautiful flowers, is a native of China and Japan. 
Loureiro took it for a primrose, and called it 
Primula mutabilis ; and Commerson subsequently 
named it Hortensia, in compliment to Madame Hor- 
tense Lepleautc. H. hortensis is the Guelder rose. 
It is from 'Udor, water, and Aggion, a vessel, 
in allusion to some of the species growing in water, 
and the resemblance the capsule bears to a cup. 

H. paniculata is the Nori-nori of Japan ; a gummy 
matter is obtained from its bark, by decoction, 
used in sizing paper. 

H. Thunbergii, Siebold. Yan-siu-kiu, Chin. ; 
Amats-ja, Japan. A shrub of E. China, Japan, 
and Java, is used as tea, and called in Java tea 
of heaven. — Sir J. E. Reed, p. 43. 

HYDRAOTES, the ancient Greek name of a 
river in the Panjab, the modern Ravi ; known 
also as the Rhoas. Two separate words forming 
the Greek name are 'Udor and Raotes ; its Sanskrit 
name is Airavati. 

HYDRAULIC CEMENT, the finer kinds of 
lime and cement on the coast of the Peninsula of 
India are made from shells. A piece of ground 
about ten feet square is laid down even and 
floored over with clay ; an upright pole is placed 
at each end of this, and a sheet stretched out 
with back stays spread between the poles, which 
are steadied with strings. On the floor a bed of 
shells and rice-chaff alternately, about ten inches 
thick and eight feet by six, is spread neatly out. 
Some firewood is placed along the windward side 
of this, and when the sea-breeze sets in the wood 
is kindled. As the heat extends to leeward, and 
the shells become calcined, the lime-burners draw 
off the fore parts of them with a stick, and so 
soon as they have cooled on the floor sufficiently 
to allow them to be handled, they are placed in a 
scoop basket, and the dirt and epidermis winnowed 
from them. The shells, now white and pearly, 
are next thrown into a small-sized vat partially 
filled with water ; here they for some time boil 
from the effects of the heat and slaking. The 
whole in a short time settles down into a fine 
semi-fluid mass, which is taken out and slightly 
dried, and is now ready for use. A good hydraulic 
cement is formed of the blue clay of Madras and 
shell-lime. Bitumen or asphalte seems to have 
been employed in Babylon as a cement. 

HYDROCERA TRIFLORA. W. and A. Water 
oleander. This is the Domuti of Bengal, the 
Noli me tangere, one of the Balsaminacese. It 
expels its seed at a mere touch. The Turks 
regard it as a symbol of ardent love. 

HYDROCHARACEjE, a natural order of float- 
ing or water plants ; six genera with eleven 
species occur in the East Indies, viz. species of 
Ottelia, Vallisneria, Hydrilla, Blyxa, Enhalus, 
Boottia, and Hydrocharis. Hydrilla verticillata, 
along with similar plants, is employed by sugar 
refiners for covering the surface of their sugars, 
to permit the slow percolation of water. Enhalus 
acoroides has a sulphurous smell. Its fruit is 
eatable, raw, boiled, or roasted ; if boiled, the nuts 
acquire the taste of boiled chesnuts. The natives 



136 



HYDKOeOTYLE ASIATIC A. 



HYLOHATES AGILIS. 



of the lloluoeai make net* of the tougli threads 
wliirh remain after the put rifled leaves ; these nets 
aro said to be very durable in sea water. Blyxa 
ootsodra, Rich, grows all over India; Boottiacor- 
data, Watt., a plant of Promo and Taong-Dong. 
Knhalus acoroides, Linn. (Acorus marinus, Humph., 
Siiiitiotes acoroides, Linn.), grows in the Konkans 
and Moluccas. 

Ilyilrill.i \crticillata, Linn. 
S«<r]>iculaverticillata,X. /. I Udora vetticillata, Ekwtnff. 
Vallisneria verticillata, R. \ Hottonia serrata, Willde. 
Kurelee, . . . HlND. | Jhangh, .... Panj. 
Jal.i Panj. I Punachu Tel. 

This, with other aquatic plants, is used by the 
snirar- refiners of Saharunpur for covering the 
surface of sugar, in order to allow the slow 
percolation of water when refining it. It is com- 
mon in water in parts of the Panjab plains up to 
Peabawnr. It is used east of Sutlej for refining 
sugar, but at Multan, west of that river, it is not 
obtainable. — Stewart, Panj. Plants, p. 241. 

Hydrocharis cellulosa, //. B. 

( >ttelia alisraoides, Pers. 
Stratiotesalismoide8,//in?i. Damasonium Indicum, 
Hymenotheca laxifolia, Willde. 

Saii$. D. alisraoides, R. Br. 

It is the Panee-kula of Bengal, and grows in 
most parts of India. 

Vallisneria alternifolia, Roxb., the Rusnojhangi 
of Bengal, grows there and in the Konkans and 
Coromandel. V. physicura, Juss.,' is' & plant of 
Cochin-China. 

Vallisneria spiralis, Linn. 
V. spiraloides, Roxb. | V. Jacquiniana, Spreng. 

A plant of Europe, America, and India. 

HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA. L. Pennywort. 
Hydrocotyle rotundifolia, Wall, 



Thulkuri, . . 
Kodagam, . . 
Munduka purni, 
Heen-gotu kola, 
Vullari kire, . 



. Beng. 

Mai. k\i.. 
. Sansk. 
. Singh. 
. Tam. 



Munduka brummi, 
Bokkudu, . . . , 
Pinna yelaki chettu, , 
Babbasai elaka, . , 
Elika chavi kura, . 



Tel. 



A small herbaceous creeping plant with little 
purplish red flowers, a native of Africa and 
America, and in moist shady places all over 
Southern Asia. It has long been employed in 
medicine, its leaves applied to bruises, and its 
virtue in leprosy has been latterly again much 
lauded. An infusion of the toasted leaves is given 
to children in fever and bowel complaints. — Ainsl. 

HYDROCYANIC ACID, Prussic acid. Several 
species of the rose order of plants contain a con- 
siderable amount of Prussic (hydrocyanic) acid ; 
the oil of the common laurel and bitter almond is, 
owing to its presence, a virulent poison. 

HYDROLEA ZEYLANICA. Vahl. 
Nama Zeylanica, Linn. | Steris aquatica, Burm. . 

A herbaceous plant, grows in water and marshy 
Bound in the East Indies. The leaves beaten 
into a pulp and applied as a poultice are deemed 
useful in cleaning and healing ill-conditioned 
ulcers in which maggots have formed. — Voigt. 

HYDROPHIDJC, the family of sea-snakes. 
A principal habitat of Bea-snakes is the ocean 
between the southern shores of China and the 
northern coast of New Holland. They frequent 
the seas that separate the islands of the Pacific, 
but they have never yet been found in the Atlantic. 

They are found on all the coasts of the East 
Indies within soundings, and are supposed to live 
on sea-weed. Sir J. E. Tennaut says he has sailed 



through large shoals of them in the Gulf of 
.Mannar, close to the pearl batiks of Aripo. The 
fishermen of Calpentyn, on the west of Ceylon, 
live in perpetual dread of them, and believe th«ir 
bite to be fatal. In the course of an attempt to 
place a lighthouse on the great rocks of the south- 
east coast, known by seamen as the Basses or 
Baxos, the workmen who first landed found that 
portion of their surface liable to be covered by the 
tides, honeycombed and hollowed into deep holes 
filled with water, in which were abundance of 
fishes and some molluscs. Some of these cavitien 
also contained sea-snakes from four to five feet 
long, which were described as having the head 
hooded like the cobra di capello, and of a light 
grey colour, slightly speckled. They coiled them- 
selves, like serpents on land, and darted at poles 
thrust in among them. The Singhalese who accom- 
panied the party said that they not only bit 
venomously, but crushed in their coils the limb 
of any intruder. About the year 1834, a mid- 
shipman, the boatswain, and a seaman of one of 
H.M. war ships at Madras were all bitten by a 
sea-snake, and died. — TennanCs Ceylon. 

HYDROPHOBIA. Dr. A Gibson says the 
Notonia corymbosa, native name Wandur Rotee, 
is useful as a prophylactic in hydrophobia. It 
grows rather plentifully on the stony parts of the 
high hills near Jooner, and also in some parts of 
the Northern Dekhan, Kandesh, etc. 

HYDROPHYLAX MARITIMA. Linn. A 
straggling herbaceous plant, native of the shores 
of Coromandel and Malabar, where it shows its 
pale lilac blossoms a great part of the year. The 
branches run over the sand, sometimes under the 
surface, and strike root at the joints. It answers 
well as a sand-binding plant where the sand is 
moist. — Roxb. i. p. 373. 

HYDROSAURI, or water lizards, live on the 
margins of springs and on low river banks. Hydro- 
saurus salvator, Lour., occurs in Bengal, Assam, 
Ceylon, Malaeca. Tail compressed, fingers long, 
nostrils near the extremity of the snout. A black 
band on each temple, round yellow spots disposed 
in transverse series on the back ; teeth with the 
crown compressed and notched. H. marmoratus, 
a huge lizard of the Philippines. — Tennant. 

HYKSOS, or shepherd kings, were Semitic 
tribes from the N.E. of Egypt, that is Canaanites, 
associated with Bedouin tribes of Northern Arabia 
and the peninsula of Sinai. They held Memphis, 
but their stronghold was a fortified camp on the 
border of the Syrian desert. 

HYLOBATES AGILIS, the gibbon, one of 
the Simiadie, occurs in the Malay Peninsula, and 
several other species in the Archipelago. 

Hylobates Hoolook, the Simia Hoolook, Harlan; 
H. seyrites and H. coromandus, Ogilby ; H. Hou- 
loch, Lesson, a native of Assam, Sylhet, Cachar, 
and Khassya Hills. Its howlings are very extra- 
ordinary. 

Hylobates Lar, Homo lar, Linn.; Simia longi- 
mana, Schreb. ; S. albimana, Vigors and Hors. ; 
Le grand gibbon of Buffon. A native of Ten- 
asserim and Malacca, wbere it is known as the 
white-handed gibbon. The contrast which this 
animal offers with H. hoolook is very remarkable. 
The body is proportionally much shorter, and it is 
quite incapable of walking in the erect attitude 
commonly assumed by H. hoolook, always creeping 
forward when on the ground in a crouching position. 



137 



HYLOBII. 



HYPERICUM PERFORATUM. 



Hylobates Leuciscus, the silvery gibbon, the 
Wow-Wow or Wa-Wa, Simia leucisca, Schreb., 
Moloch, Audeb., native of Malacca. The Wa-Wa, 
or long-armed ape, is the most beautiful of all the 
monkey tribe. The fur of this gentle little animal 
is grey ; its face, hands, and feet are jet black ; 
in features it more resembles those of the human 
race than the orang-outang. — Low's Sarawak, 
p. 80 ; Jerdon. 

HYLOBII, a sect of ascetics mentioned by 
Megasthenes as living in the woods, clothed with 
the bark of trees, and living on fruits and leaves. 
Hylobios is a literal translation into Greek of 
Vanaprashtha, Sansk., dweller in the woods, 
which is the usual designation of a Brahman in 
the third stage of his life. 

HYMENjEA COURBARIL. Linn. The locust 
tree, gum-anime tree, or courbaril locust tree, 
is a fine colossal spreading tree, growing in the 
tropical parts of America, in Jamaica, and in 
Tenasserim, where it was introduced by Major 
Macfarquhar. The tree is easily propagated. 
The timber of the old trees is very hard and 
tough, and is in great request for wheel-work, 
particularly for cogs. The wood is so heavy that 
a cubic foot is said to weigh a hundred pounds ; it 
takes a fine polish, and is used by cabinet-makers. 
When in a sickly state, the resin called Western 
anime, also W. Indian copal, exudes from between 
the principal roots. It is fine and transparent, of 
a red or yellowish-red colour, and in large lumps. 
It resembles amber, is very hard, and sometimes 
contains leaves, insects, or other objects imbedded 
in it. It burns readily, emitting a very fragrant 
smell. Dissolved in rectified spirits of wine, it 
makes one of the finest kinds of varnish. — Eng. 
(.'ili\ ; O'Sh ; Mason's Ten.; Voigt; Von Mueller. 

HYMENODYCTION EXCELSUM. Wall. 

Cinchona excelsa, Roxb. Cedar wood. 

Kalabachnak,DUK.,HiND. Burja ; Burija, . Tel. 

Barthoa ; Thab, . Panj. Cbetippa, ... ,, 

Sagapu maram, . Tam. Bandaru, Pundaru? „ 

A very large tree belonging to the Cin- 
chonacea;, common all round the foot of the 
Neilgherries, and in the mountainous parts of the 
Circars, but chiefly in the valleys. The wood is 
firm, close-grained, of a pale mahogany colour, 
and very useful for many purposes ; much used 
and esteemed for inside work, such as drawers, 
etc. The bark, Dr. Roxburgh informs us, possesses 
both the bitterness and astringency of the Peruvian 
bark, and, when fresh, even in a stronger degree. 
The two inner leaves of the bark possess great 
bitterness and astringency ; the bark is used by 
the tanners, and also as a medicine among the 
Hindus, in eases requiring astringents. Dr. 
O'Shaughnessy analyzed the bark from the Botanic 
Garden of Calcutta, but could detect no alkaline 
ingredient. Nevertheless the trees of hilly regions 
may furnish the valuable desideratum. The 
stamina being contained within the tube, affords 
much ground for expecting the discovery of a feb- 
rifuge alkaline in this species. — Roxb. ; O'Sh. 

HYMENODYCTION OBOVATUM. Wall. 
Karwai ; Karwye, Mahr. I Malay tanah, . . Tam. 
Yellamala, . . . Tam. | 

This large, beautiful tree is not uncommon in 
the sub- Alpine forests from Canara down to South 
Travancore, up to elevations of 4000 feet. It is 
less common, however, than the H. utile, Wight. 
Dr. Gibson says this and H. utile grow on the 



Bombay side of India, but that the wood of 
neither is fit for anything but fuel. Colonel 
Beddome says the timber is used by the natives 
for a variety of purposes, and is probably equal 
to that of H. excelsum. — Wight; Gibson; Beddome. 

H. thyrsiflorum, Wall., grows at Rajmahal, 
Chittagong, and at Rangoon. — Drs.Wight, Gibson, 
and Voigt. 

HYMENODYCTION UTILE. W. Ic 1159. 
Kurwye, . . . Mahr. | Pirunjolay maram, Tam. 

This tree attains a large size, and the heart- 
wood is red: Dr. Wight was informed that it 
furnished the wood called bastard cedar, and he 
afterwards found two other trees similarly re- 
ported. Dr. Gibson says the wood of this tree is 
never used in Bombay except for firewood. The 
tree is common enough, in rocky slopes, mostly 
iu or near thick forests. It does not stretch 
inland beyond the limits of the ghat ravines. — 
Wight; Gibson. 

HYMENOPTERA, an order of insects charac- 
terized by the majority of them having stings. 
See Insects. 

HYOBANS. The raja of Huldee or Hurdee in 
Ghazipur is of this conspicuous clan, which once 
held large dominions on the banks of the Ner- 
badda. — Elliot, Supp. Gloss. ; Jour. Beng. A. S. 

HYOSCIAMUS NIGER. Linn. Henbane. 



Sapht, .... Egypt. 
Uoskuamos, .... Gr. 
Adas-pedas, . . Malay. 
Dentura of . . . Ravi. 
Kborasani omum, . Tam. 



Bunj, . . Arab., Pers. 
Siekran, ... ,, 
Dandura, . . Chenab. 

Bazr-bang , 

Yang-cbih-chuh, . Chin. 
Nau-yang-bwa, . ,, 

The Seed. 
Khurasani ajwain, Hind. I Tukhm-i-bunj-i-Rumi, 
Bazr-ul-Bunj, . . Pers. | Pers. 

The henbane plant is a native of Europe and 
of Asia Minor, and in the Panjab Himalaya is 
frequent in waste ground near houses from 5000 
to 10,000 feet. The seeds are officinal in India 
for their narcotic effects, and it is cultivated in 
several parts of India. In physiological action 
this plant and its preparations seem intermediate 
between belladonna and opium, combining great 
soothing and anodyne power with the property 
of dilating the pupil. An alkali has been obtained 
termed hyosciamia, which differs little, if at all, 
from atropia. A dry inspissated juice of the leaf 
was prepared by exposing the juice in thin layers 
on a shallow earthen vessel to the intense heat of 
the sun in April and May. Dr. O'Shaughnessy 
deemed this extract far superior to any imported 
from Europe or prepared in India by other pro- 
cesses. In three-grain doses its soporific and 
anodyne effects were most decisive, and its use 
rarely if ever followed by any headache or other 
unpleasant symptoms. — 0\Sh.; Stewart: Spry. 

HYPERICUM CHINENSE. Smith. Kin-sze- 
ts'au or Kin-sze-t'au, Chin. A beautiful flowering 
plant of China. 

HYPERICUM PERFORATUM. Linn. St. 
John's wort. Bassant of Ravi, Bassant dendlu 
of Beas. Common in the Kashmir mountains. 
In Arabian medicine it is recommended to expel 
intestinal worms and to cure piles, prolapsus uteri 
et ani. In European practice St. John's wort 
was regarded as a mild stimulant tonic, diuretic, 
emenagogue, etc. The dried herb boiled in alum 
water communicates a yellow or yellowish - red 
colour to wool, silk, etc. St. John's wort plants 



138 



IIVNUAi: 

.ill boar yellow flowers, with one exception from 
liina. — h'i-lilell; Stewart; llan'ujb. 

II Vl'll.KNE, a genus of dicotomous ]>alm8 of 

i. but growing in India. H. argun, Martins, 

in Nubia. II. coriacea, Gwrtn., the Doum 

palm of equatorial E. Africa and Upper Egypt, 

attains a height of 80 feet. It is common at 

Multan. H. crinita, Gmrtn., of Egypt and Abys- 

.Mnia. If. thebaica, Mart., tho Doum palm, or 

1 1 tread tree of Egypt, grows at Okamundel 

and on Diu Island. Exceptional in the palm order 

from its branching truuk. 

IIVrilANTIDIl'MSERICARIUM. Bennett. A 
lejiidopterous insect of Australia. Its larva? 
.0 a beautiful silken web. 

HVi'lIASIS, the ancient Greek name of the 
river of the Panjab, called in Sanskrit Vipasa. It 
is the modern Gharra. 

IIVTOLITE DESIDERI, a traveller who set 
out from Goa on the 27th November 1713, and 
reached Lahore in October the following year. 

HYKCAXIA, the hilly region south of the 
Caspian Sea, the country about Mazenderan, which 
has much forest. It is the Greek corruption of the 
word Korken or Gorghen, the name of a river 
which rises in the Kurdish mountains, traverses 
this region, and falls into the Caspian Sea. — 
Outeley's Trav. i. p. 188, ii. p. 59. 

HYSSOPUS OFFICINALIS. W. Hyssop. 

Zufaiy yeabua, . . Arab. I Hyssope, Fa. 

Zufye yabia, ... ,, | Isop, Ger. 

Ushnaz Daoud, . ,, 

Used, in infusion, for coughs and asthma ; also in 
toothache, uterine or vesicle affections, and in- 
durations of the liver or spleen. Hyssop that 
cometh out of the wall, alluded to in 1 Kings iv. 
33, was probably a lichen or moss, probably the 
Gymnostomum fasciculare, a moss common in the 
Holy Land.— Powell, i. p. 365. 

HYSTRICIDiE, a family of mammals of the 
order Rodentia. The sub-family Hystricinae em- 
braces the animals familiarly known as porcupines, 
of the genus hystrix of Linnaeus. They are 
rodents, whose covering consists for the most 
part of offensive and defensive armour, in the 
shape of spines or quills, instead of hairs. 

Hystrix Bengalensis, Blyth. 
H. Malabarica, Sclater. | Bengal porcupine, . Eng. 

This is smaller than H. leucurus, the head and 
body being about 28 inches, and tail 8 inches. It 
is found in South Malabar, Lower Bengal, Assam, 
and Arakan ; doubts, however, exist as to the 
identity of H. Bengalensis and H. Malabarica. Dr. 
Day states that he procured specimens of the 
orange porcupine from various parts of the ghats 
of Cochin and Travancore, ana that the flesh of 
this kind is more highly esteemed for food than 
the common variety. The native sportsmen 
declare that the aroma from these burrows is 
quite sufficient to distinguish the two species. 

Hystrix Leucura, SyJces. Indian porcupine 



H. birauti-roatria, Brandt. 
H. criatata Indica, Gray. 

Sajru Beng. 

Yed, Can. 

Hoigu, .... Gond. 
Saori, GUJ. 



II. Zeylanensia, Blyth. 
H. cauda-alba, Sykcs. 
Sahi, Sayal, Sarael, I Fin n. 
Salendra, .... Mahk. 
Dumsi, . . . Nepal. 
Yoddu pandi, . . TKL. 



HYUL. 

The white-tailed or Indian porcupine m found 
over a great part of India. It forms extensive 
l.urrowB, often in societies, in the sides of hills, 
banks of rivers, nullahs, and tanks, or old mud 
walls. Its length is about 90 inda-s, tail 7 inches. 
In some parts of the country they never issue 
forth till dark ; dogs take up the scent readily. 
Tin- porcupine charges backwards on its assailant*, 
with erected spines, and dogs frequently get severe 
wounds, the strong spines beiug driven deeply 
into them. The meat of the porcupine is white, 
tasting something between pork ana veal, and is 
not bad eating. 

Hystrix Longicauda, Marsden. 
H. alophus, Hodgson. I Acanthion Javanicum, 

H. Hodgaonii, Gray. F. Cuv. 

Creatleaa porcupine, Eng. O'e of Limbu. 

Sathung of . . Lepcha. | Achotia dumai, . Nepal. 

The crestless porcupine is found in Sikkim, in 
Nepal, at Darjiling, up to 4000 and 5000 feet. In 
the Eastern Himalaya it is about 24 inches long, 
tail 4 and quills 5A. inches. They are very numerous 
and very mischievous, committing great depreda- 
tions in the edible root crops. 

Atherura fasciculata is of the Tiperah Hills and 
southwards to the Malay Peninsula The tail is 
much longer than in the true porcupines, and ends 
in a tuft of long bristles, and the spines of the 
back are less elevated. — Jerdon ; Mason. 

HYSUDRUS, the name by which the Greeks 
designated the Sutlej river. 

HYTA-BASHI, a leader of the Hyta troops, 
Turkish irregular cavalry, called Hyta along the 
valley of the Tigris and at Mosul, and Bashi- 
bazouk in Roumelia and Anatolia. They are 
collected from all classes and provinces. A man 
known for his courage and daring is named Hyta- 
Bashi or chief of the Hyta, and is furnished with 
tazkara or orders for pay and provisions for so 
many horsemen, from four to five hundred to a 
thousand or more. He collects all the vagrants 
and freebooters he can find to make up his 
number. They find their own arms and horses, 
although sometimes they are furnished by the 
Hyta-Bashi, who deducts a part of their pay until 
he reimburses himself. The best Hyta are Alban- 
ians and Lazes, and they form a very effective body 
of irregular cavalry, their pay at Mosul is small, 
amounting to about eight shillings a month ; they 
are quartered on the villages, and are the terror 
of the inhabitants, whom they plunder and ill- 
treat as they think fit. When a Hyta-Bashi has 
established a reputation for himself, his followers 
are numerous and devoted. He wanders about 
the provinces, and, like a condottiere of the 
middle ages, sells his services and those of his 
troops. 

HYUGOR. Biiot. A mantle of sheep-akin or 
goat- akin. 

HYUL or Jiul, of the northern European 
nations, is the Hindu sacranta, and is supposed 
in Tod's Rajasthan (i. p. 24) to be derived from 
Hya, Sansk., a horse, El, sun, whence /xxo; and 
faio;. Ha appears to have been a term of Scythic 
origin for the sun ; and Heri, the Indian Apollo, 
is addressed as the sun. Hyul may be the Noel 
of France.— Tod's Raj. L p. 24. 



139 



IBN BATUTA. 



I 



I. This letter of the English alphabet has, in 
Englaud, four sounds. As an initial and medial 
letter, it has a long sound, as in iron, fine, isinglass ; 
a second is short and acute, as in sit, infant, indi- 
gent ; a third sound is that of the letter u, as in 
stir ; and the fourth sound is close and slender, 
though long, like ee, as in fatigue, intrigue. The 
three first sounds are peculiar to the English 
language, but the last long sound, as of ee, is 
represented in all the tongues of the south-east of 
Asia. 

IANTHINA, the violet snail, a genus of mol- 
luscs, of the family Haliotidaa. There are six 
recent species, ■widely distributed in the four 
quarters of the globe. They are seen floating on 
the ocean, but are often driven on the shores by 
tempests. The beach at Madras is strewn -with 
them after a gale. The Ianthina has occurred on 
the coasts of Britain. In warm climates it is very 
plentiful. — Eng. Cyc. 

IARVINI. Tam.? 
Crawn, . . Dut., Port. | Yarvaney, .... Tam. 

A Ceylon tree which grows tall and straight, 
from 20 to 45 feet high, and from 12 to 30 inches 
in diameter. It answers many purposes in ship 
and house work. — Edye, Timber of Ceylon. 

IBADIYAH, a Shiah sect of Mahomedans which 
was founded in Oman by Abdullah-ibn-Abad. 
They elect their own imam. 

IBERIA. This ancient kingdom is the modern 
province of Kartelania in Georgia. Ptolemy 
describes it as bordered on the north by the Sar- 
matian mountains, to the south by a part of 
Armenia, to the east by Albania, and to the 
west by Colchis, the present Immeretia. He 
mentions many of its towns and villages. Strabo, 
who travelled in these countries, speaks of this 
being a flourishing and even luxurious state. In 
western emigration, the Iberians and Cantabrians 
preceded the Celts, and their language is preserved 
in the Basque (Biscayan). — Porter's Tr. i. p. 110 ; 
Latham in Brit. Assoc. Journ., 1845, pp. 77, 78. 

IBEX. This name is given in India to several 
animals of the genus Capra or goat. C. Sibirica 
(I. Himalayana, Blytli) is the Himalayan Ibex, the 
Skeen, Skyn, Sakeen or Sikeen of the Himalaya, 
the Kyi of Kashmir, Jerdon. These are the 
names of the male ; that of the female, in Tibet, is 
L'danmo. It inhabits Ladakh and Kashmir east 
to Nepal. It is agile and graceful in its move- 
ments. They are hunted and shot in the winter 
for the sake of the soft under-fleece, which in 
Kashmir is called Asali tus, and is used for lining 
shawls, also for stockings, gloves, and is woven 
into a fine cloth called Tusi. No wool is so rich, 
so soft, and so full. The hair is manufactured 
into coarse blanketing for tents, and twisted into 
hair ropes. The sportsmen of Southern India 
give the name of Ibex to the Neilgherry wild goat, 
Hemitragus hylocrius. See Goat. 

IBI-GAMIN, a glacier in Eastern Tibet, in 
height 22,260 feet English = 20,886 French feet. 

IBIS, a familiar name applied to species of 
birds of the tribe Cultirostres ; the Pelican Ibis 
is Tantalus leucocephalus, extremely common 
throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma. The Shell 
Ibis is the Anastoma oscitans, Boddacrt, very 



abundant in the lake and river districts. The 
Ibisinae or true ibis, of which three species occur 
in India, and are there called curlews, from which, 
however, they differ in breeding on trees, and 
feeding their young till full grown. 

The White Ibis is the Threskiornis melano- 
cephalus, Linn., and is found throughout India ; 
the Warty Black Ibis, Geronticus papillosus, 
Temm., also of all India, feeds chiefly on dry land ; 
and the Glossy Ibis, the Falcinellus igneus, G'melin, 
occurs in vast numbers in India in the cold 
weather. It occurs throughout the whole world, 
and is very common in India. It is called in Tamil, 
Arroova mooken, literally sickle-nosed, from its 
long curved beak. The nest contains from three 
to five eggs, which resemble in size and shape a 
medium-sized hen's egg, but are of a dirty-white 
colour. The birds are white, with black head, 
feet, and neck, and have a long curved black bill. 
The head and neck are naked, and the tail-feathers 
of rather a rusty-brown colour ; the lower sides 
of the wings, from the axillae to the extremities, 
are naked, and the skin in the old birds is of a 
deep scarlet colour ; in the young this is absent, 
although the part is naked. The young are fully 
fledged in March, and take to the wing in April. 

The Sacred Ibis, Ibis religiosa, had great honours 
paid to it by the ancient Egyptians. It extends 
across the whole African continent in the same 
latitude, and is found on the west coast also. — Jerd. 

IBLIS. Arab. The devil, one who despairs 
of God's mercy. 

IBN ASIR, author of the Kamil-ut-Tuarikh, a 
general history of the Ghaznavites. 

IBN BATUTA, born a.d. 1304, died 1377-78, 
was one of the great travellers of the Arab race. 
He spent 24 years (from 1325-49) in travelling 
throughout the east, from Tangiers across Africa 
to Alexandria, and in Palestine, Syria, and 
Arabia ; down the east coast of Africa to Quiloa ; 
across the Indian Ocean to Muscat, Ormuz, Kish, 
Bahrein, and El Catif ; through Central Arabia to 
Mecca and Jiddah ; and again in Egypt and Asia 
Minor, and across the Black Sea to Caffa or 
Theodosia, and by Azov or Tanna, on past the hills 
of the Russians, to Bolgar on the Volga, — but not 
daring to penetrate farther northwards into the 
' Land of Darkness.' Returning south to Haj- 
Tarkhan (Astracan), he proceeded, in the suite 
of the wife of the Khan of Kipchak, the daughter 
of the Greek Emperor Andronicus, westward to 
Soldaia and Costantiniah (Constantinople ; he 
mentions Istambul as a part of the city) ; whence, 
returning to Bolgar, he travelled on eastward to 
Bokhara, and through Khorasan to Kabul, 
Multan, and Dehli, where he remained eight 
years, 1334-42. Being sent by the Sultan 
Muhammad Taghalaq on an embassy to China, 
he embarked from Kinbaiat (Cambay), and, after 
many adventures at Calicut (where he was honour- 
ably received by the Samari or Zamorin) and 
Hunawar (Onore), and in the Maldive Islands, and 
Ceylon and Bengal, he at last took his passage 
toward China in a junk bound for Java, as he 
calls it, but in fact Sumatra. 'Returning from 
China, he sailed direct from the coast of Malabar 
to Muscat and Ormuz ; and, travelling by Shiraz, 
Isfahan, Bussora, Baghdad, Tadmor, Damascus, 
Aleppo, Jerusalem, and (for the fourth time) 
Mecca, Egypt, and Tunis, at last reached Fez 
again, after an absence from Morocco of half his 



140 



IBX HAUKAL 



ICE. 



me. Subsequently ho Hpent six years in 
Spain anil Central Africa, where he was 

i guest nf the brother of a countryman of his 
in Ceuta, whoso guest ho had been in 
'liina. ' What an enormous distance lay between 
two!' he exclaims. He says that in his 
time Cairo was the. greatest city in the world out 
uf China, ami that the finest trading ports he had 
seen were Alexandria in Egypt, Soldaia or Sudak 
in the Crimea, Koulani (Quilon) and Calicut in 
India, and Zayton (Chinchau) in China. He 
escribes Aden as a place of great trade, to 
which merchant ships of largo burden resorted 
bom Carabay, Tanna, and all the ports of Gujerat 
and Malabar. Among the productions of the 
Indian Archipelago, he describes gum-benjamin, 
aloes-wood, cloves, camphor, and sandal-wood ; 
and enumerates also cocoanut palms, areca-nut 
palms, jock trees, orange trees, mangoes, and 
tamuns (Eugenia jambolana). Porcelain, he says, 
is made in China nowhere except in the cities 
of Zayton and Sinkalan (Canton). It was exported 
to India and elsewhere, passing from country to 
country until it reaches Morocco. The first de- 
tailed account of his travels was published in 
Europe in 1808. They were translated from the 
Arabic, with Notes by S. Lee, London 1829. 
He enumerates many large and populous towns, 
and gives a high opinion of the state of the 
country. He speaks of Madura as a city like 
Dehli, and that through the whole of Malabar, 
for two months' journey, there was not a span 
free from cultivation ; everybody had a garden, 
with his house placed in the middle of it, and all 
surrounded by a wooden fence. And the ports 
were frequented by ships from China, Persia, and 
Arabia, and other neighbouring countries. — Lee's 
Ibn Batata ; BirdieooiVs Report ; India in the lbth 
Century; Tr. of a Hindoo; Yule's Cathay. 

IBN HAUKAL, an Arab traveller who visited 
India a short time after Masudi. He wrote the 
Ashkal-ul-Balad, or Kitab-ul-Masalik-o-ul- 
Mamalik, or descriptions of countries, in which 
occur notices of most of the Mahomedan king- 
doms of his day. His real name was Muhammad 
Abu-1-Kasim, and he was a native of Baghdad. 
He left Baghdad a.d. 943 (A.H. 331), and he 
continued travelling till a.d. 9G8. He notices 
his obligations to Ibn Khurdadbah, and he 
copied likewise from Istakhri. He finished his 
book a.d. 970, and it was translated in 1800 by 
Sir William Ouseley. — Ind. in lbth Cent.; Elliot; 
Hist, of India. 

IHN HISHAM, a.d. 833 (a.h. 218), author of 
Sirat-ur-Kasul, translated by G. Weil, Stuttgard 
1864. It contains the earliest and most authentic 
history of Mahomed, and was founded on a book 
by Ibn Ishaq. 

IBN ISHAQ, died a.d. 7G8 (a.h. 151). He 
wrote traditions of Mahomed. 

IBN KHALLIKAN. This well-known work has 
formed the basis of almost all that has been written 
on the personal history of remarkable men of Islam. 

IBN KHURDADBAH, died a.d. 912 (a.h. 
300), wrote a work on roads and kingdoms. He 
attained high office under the khalifs. He was a 
Zoroastrian. He is the first who makes mention 
of galangal and kamala, and he also mentions 
porcelain, sugar-cane, pepper, aloes-wood, cassia, 
silk, and musk. — Elliot. 

IBN SAAD, a.d. 844 (a.h. 130), secretary of 



Waqidi (Katib-ul-Wakidi), died a.h. 130-114. 
He wrote a life of Mahomed. 

IBN-ZAIN-ul-TABARI, a physician of Bagh- 
dad of the early part of the 10th century. 

IBN ZOHAU, the name of two distinguished 
A ral> physicians, father and son, who flourished 
in Spain during the 11th and 12th centuries, and 
who are known to Western Europe by the name 
of Avanzoar. They were Jews by descent and 
profession. The father was born at Seville about 
a.d. 1072-73, and died there a.d. 1162. He was 
physician at the court of Cordova, and had charge 
of an hospital. His most celebrated book, the 
Tasir, is one of the most valuable in the possession 
of the Arabian physicians. It displays much 
origiuality and discrimination. It contains a 
compendium of medical practice, including many 
facts and observations not found in preceding 
writers. He also wrote on Calculus and on 
Regimen, and some of his books were translated 
into Hebrew and Latin. He was the teacher of 
Averhoes. The son, 1114-99, also wrote several 
medical works, one of them on Diseases of the 
Eye. He died at Morocco, a.d. 1199. 

IBRAHIM, founder of the Roushenai sect of 
Mahomedans ; died at Cairo, A.D. 1529. 

IBRAHIM KHAN of Gour had 7000 families 
of Taymuni under his rule ; but about the year 
1838 Yar Muhammad of Herat completely devas- 
tated the country which they occupied, and 
removed them to Herat, where he established 
some of them in the city, and some in the suburbs. 
In 1846, however, they took advantage of Yar 
Muhammad's absence on the Murghab, to decamp 
into the Persian territory. 

IBRAHIM LODI, king of Dehli, was defeated 
at Panipat by Baber. 

ICE. 

lis, Dan. I Glacies, Lat. 

Ijs, Dut. Gelo, Caramelo, . Port. 

Glace, Fe. Teodt, .... Rus. 

Hi- Geb. I Hielo Sp. 

Yakh, .... Hind. Is, Swed. 

Ghiaccio It. | 

In many countries, the command of a proper 
supply of ice or snow for cooling water or other 
liquids in summer, has long been regarded as one 
of the necessaries of life. There are even allusions 
to it in the Proverbs of Solomon : — 'As the cold of 
snow in the time of harvest, so is a faithful mes- 
senger to them that sent him ; for he refresheth 
the soul of his masters ' (xxv. 13). 

The Chinese in the north of their country form 
ice-houses, about Ningpo, 60 feet long, 42 feet 
broad, and 12 feet high. 

Ice is of great importance to the Chinese, who 
depend much for their food upon the fish which 
are caught in their waters. They are enabled by 
its means to keep their fish during the hottest 
weather for a considerable time, and transmit 
them in this way to different ports of the country. 
Ice has become an article of commerce. This traffic 
commenced in Wenham Lake, about 18 miles from 
Boston, in the United States of America, and 
subsequently some of the Norwegian lakes have 
furnished abundant supplies. 

Between 1874 and 1880, the imports into India 
ranged from 147,360 to 268,011 cwt, and value 
Rs. 2,11,675 to 12,51,902, from all quarters. The 
Rubattino Company tried to convey Alpine ice 
from Genoa to Bombay. 



141 



ICELAND MOSS. 



ICHTHYOPHIS GLUTINOSUS. 



Ice is now largely made in India by machines. 
The Peninsular and Oriental Ice Company at 
Bombay, in 1868 made five tons at a cost of five 
pie the lb. Private manufacturers sell it at two 
annas a lb. at a profit. The smaller machines 
turn it out in cylinders, the larger machines in 
slabs. On the recommendation of Colonel (Sir 
George) Balfour, C.B., the Indian Government 
sanctioned an ice machine, value Es. 7000, for 
each European regiment. — Tomlinson ; Fortune. 

ICELAND MOSS is the lichen (Cetraria Is- 
landica), Ach., common in the north of Europe 
and North America. It yields a nutritive starchy 
substance, sometimes employed to make bread 
and gruel. — Waterston; Faulkner. 

ICELAND SPAR, a variety of calcareous spar 
found in rocks near Kabul, and is extracted and 
broken into crystalline rhombohedral fragments, 
more or less opaque. It is employed by the 
natives as an astringent in ophthalmia, gonor- 
rhoea, and other fluxes, in doses, internally, of 7 
grains, and also externally as a iocal application. 
It is called Surma safed, or white antimony, from 
being thought to be similar to black antimony, 
the common tersulphide of that metal. Price 3d. 
per lb.— Cat. Ex., 1862. 

ICHNEUMON, a genus of insects which belong 
to the order Hymenoptera, section Terebrantia, 
and family Pupivora, in the classification of 
Latreille. 

The species are many. They have a slender 
shape. The female, by means of its ovipositor, 
deposits its eggs into the body of a caterpillar, 
previously stupefied, so that the larvse find food 
as soon as they are hatched, and devour the 
interior bit by bit. They are also often deposited 
into the larvas of coleoptera, hemiptera, aphides, 
and weevils. The ichneumon forms small nests of 
clay, into which they deposit the infected insect. 
— Eng., Cyc. 

ICHNEUMONS, a group of carnivora, spread 
over Africa and Southern and Eastern Asia. The 
Egyptian ' ichneumon very closely resembles the 
European species. It was one of the animals 
held sacred in ancient Egypt. It is of common 
occurrence throughout North Africa, and particu- 
larly abundant on the Nile, where it is said to 
attack the crocodiles, and where, without doubt, 
it destroys great numbers of eggs. The Ichneu- 
mons are all extremely fond of eggs, whether of 
reptiles or of birds. They break them very cleverly, 
by tapping one end on the ground ; and through 
the small aperture thus effected they suck out the 
whole of the contents. There are several species of 
Herpestes in India, called Mongoose or Mungus ; H. 
Javanicus of Java and Sumatra ; H. griseus, Geoff., 
of continental India and neighbouring countries ; H. 
Nipalensis, Gray, of Nepal; H. neyula, Hodgson, 
of the Terai ; H. Malaccensis, Jerd., of Bengal; 
H. monticolus, Jerd., hills of Eastern Ghats ; H. 
fuscus, Jerd., of Neilgherries ; H. vitticollis, Jerd., 
of Western Ghats; H. brachyurus and H. exitis 
of Malay Archipelago. The Egyptian species, 
Herpestes ichneumon, celebrated for destroying 
serpents and crocodiles, was called Ichneumon 
Pharaonis. See Mongoos. 

ICHNOCARPUS, a genus of plants belonging 
to the order Apocynaceae. I. fragrans, Watt., is 
grown in Nepal and Kamaon. It has large hand- 
some flowers ; I. Loureirii is a native of Zan- 
zibar. 



ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS. R. Br. 



Echites frutescens, Roxb. 

Shyama luta, . . Beng. 
Shama-lata, ... ,, 
Pal-vulli, . . . Maleal. 
Nalla tiga, . . . Tel. 

Grows all over India. 



Apocynum frutescens, L. 

Nalla tige, .... Tel. 
Illukatte, ....,, 
Munta gajjanamu, . ,, 

According to Royle, it 
is sometimes used in India as a substitute for 
sarsaparilla ; 12 annas per lb. — O'SIi. p. 442 ; Cal 
Cat. Ex., 1862; Don; Lindley. 

ICHTHYOCOLLA, a named derived from i X 8v;, 
a fish, and *oAX«, glue, is translated isinglass, a 
word derived from the German Hausenblase, from 
Hausen, the great sturgeon, and Blase, a bladder, 
being one of the coats of the swimming-bladder 
of fishes, chiefly of the genus Acipenser or 
sturgeon, and of which the best qualities are 
exported from the rivers of Russia, flowing into 
the Black and Caspian Seas, but also from the 
Sea of Ural and the Lake Baikal. — Royle. See 
Air-bladder ; Fish-maws ; Isinglass ; Sounds. 

ICHTHYOPHAGI, a fisher race of the ancients, 
on the coasts of Persia, the Sir Matsya or Ser- 
mahi. Fish to this day is the staple article of food 
of the inhabitants on the sea-coast of Baluchistan. 
In the Shatt-ul-Arab, fish are caught and cured, 
and sold at one shilling the cwt. ; for six months 
the people of Basra live on almost nothing else, and 
also from Basra to Hormuz, the sea-coast people 
principally five on fish ; and manuscript dictionaries 
describe the bread or food called Mahi-abah or 
Mahi-ashnah, used chiefly among the people of 
Lar, as prepared from fish (more particularly a 
small kind found near Hormuz), dried by exposing 
it to the sun. Strabo and Arrian relate that the 
ancient Ichthyophagi made into bread the fishes, 
which they had dried and roasted in a similar 
manner. The region of the Ichthyophagi com- 
menced at Malana, near Cape Arabah, and ended 
between the ancient Dagasira and the place now 
called Cape Jask, or more properly Jashk. Church- 
ill's Collection of Voyages mentions that 'the 
coastes of Persia as they sailed in this sea, seemed 
as a parched wildernesse, without tree or grass ; 
those few people that dwell there, and in the 
islands of Lar and Cailon, live on fish, being in 
manner themselves transformed into the nature of 
fishes. So excellent swimmers are they, that, 
seeing a /vessel in the seas, though stormie and 
tempestuous, they will swimme to it 5 or 6 miles 
to begge almes. They eate their fish with rice, 
having no bread ; their cats, hennes, dogges, and 
other creatures which they keepe have no other 
dyet.' Nieuhoff, who travelled in 1662, says that 
about Gambroon ' the common people make use 
of dates instead of bread or rice ; for it is observ- 
able that the ordinary food of the Indians all 
along the coast from Basora to Sind is dates and 
fish dried in the air ; the heads and guts of the 
fishes they mix with date-stones, and boil it all to- 
gether with a little salt water, which they give at 
night to the cows after they come out of the field, 
where they meet with very little herbage.' — As. 
Res. ix. p. 68; MacGregor; Taylor's Travels from 
England to India, i. p. 266 ; Churchill's Collection 
of Voyages, ii. p. 230 {first ed.) ; Ouseley's Tr. i. p. 
228 ; TownsencVs Outram and Havelock, p. 297. 

ICHTHYOPHIS GLUTINOSUS, an immense 
earth-worm, common in Sikkim. It is a native 
of the Khassya mountains, Singapore, Ceylon, and 
Java. — Hook. Jour. p. 25. See Reptiles. 



142 



ICIOA INDK A 



IDOLS. 



K'K A IN DIC A. W.andA. 

l!nr»«r»i«rr»tft, Wall. I Sohinus Mheria, H. H. 
Sohiiiua Hcngaleniia, H. B. | 8. Niara, „ 

The Nayortrec of Assam and Chittagong. grow- 
ing 7<i feet high ; timber close-grained and hard, 
It as oak, but heavier, and used for furniture 
l.y the natives. In South America are several 
of Icica, all of which yield a transparent 

lid. resembling turi>entine in many of ite pro- 

■riies, and tiny might be introduced into India. 
(iuvana, I. altissima, I. heptaphylla, I. hetero- 

ivlla, I. decandra ; and I. icecariba in Brazil. 
ID, Arab., written Eed, a religious holiday of 

le Mahomcdans. Of these, two Eidein are farz or 
absolute, being enjoined by texts in the Koran ; 
these are the 'ld-ul-Fitr and the 'Id-us-Zoha. The 
Id-ul-Fitr, called also the 'Id-us-Saghir and 
I lamazan-ki-'id, is held on the 1st day of the month 
Shawal, in commemoration of breaking the thirty 
days' fast of the Ramazan. It is held with prayers 
and rejoicings and distribution of alms to the poor. 
The 'Id-us-Zoha, or 'Id-ul-Kurban, or Bakr-eed, 
the meanings being the festival of the forenoon, 
of sacrifice, or the bull-festival, is observed in 
commemoration of Abraham's sacrifice of his son, 
whom the Jews and Christians say was Isaac, but 
Mahomedans say was Ishmael. It begins on the 
9th of the 12th month, Zulhijja, with prayers and 
offerings, and is continued on the morning of the 
10th with public prayers, after which a sheep, an 
ox, or a camel is sacrificed, and the meat of the 
sheep and oxen eaten by the offerers, or distributed 
to their friends and the poor. 

IDA, one of the daughters of Daksha, who was 
married to Kasyapa. 

IDAAN, called also Merut or. Murut r a race in 
Borneo who inhabit the more billy districts to- 
wards the north, in the vicinity of Kina Balou. 
They resemble the Kadyan, some of their tribes 
are near the capital ; they are said to have sacri- 
ficed human victims, like the Kyans. The Idaan 
of different places go under different denomina- 
tions and have different languages, but in their 
manners and customs they seem to be nearly alike. 
The name Idaan is in some measure peculiar to 
those of the north part of Borneo ; the inland 

Ejople of Passir are called Darat ; those of Benjar, 
iajoos ; the Subano of Magindanao appear to be 
the same people. The Idaan are reckoned fairer 
than the inhabitants of the coast; this has given 
rise to an opinion, seemingly wholly unfounded, 
that they are the descendants of the Chinese. The 
custom obtained of arranging human skulls about 
the houses of the Idaan as a mark of importance. — 
Journal Indian Archipelago, 1849, p. 557. 

IDA CHETTU. Tel. A very small variety 
of orange, growing in all the hilly country of the 
Ci rears, both cultivated and wild. Perhaps the 
original of the Citrus aurantium, Linn., C. variatro, 
lit i/ m', p. 57, musk orange, Chota kichili, Hind., 
Kiri kittali, Can.— Fl. Andh. 

IDAIN, Idankai or Iddakai, Tam., Idagai, 
K\i:x., the left side; the left-hand castes of the 
Hindus. 

IDAIYAN. Tam. Cowkeeper. The cowherd 
race in the southern districts of the Peninsula of 
India. They have as their tribal titles, Khone, 
Kone, or Konar, meaning king, also Karialan 
meaning landlord, and Servakaren meaning cap- 
tain ; but those in the northern districts adopt that 
of Pillai. The race are very numerous, but take 









lJild, Gotze, 


, , 


. Gen. 


KbenbiM, . 


, . 


• >! 


But, . . . 


Hind 


, l'KK-i. 


Imagine, , 


, . 


. Ir. 


Idolo, , . 


. . 


It., Bp. 



a lower place in social life than the agricultural 
Vellaler, who generally take the title of Mudali. 

IDIGA. Karn. A toddy-drawer; a caste who 
sell toddy, the fermented palm wine, etc., also 
employed as palanquin bearers. — Wilt. 

IDOLS. 

Imagen, . . , . Si\ 
Vigraham, Halai, . Tam. 
Vikramu, Vigram, . Tel. 
Prattima, ....,, 
Tut, Sumt, . . Turk. 
SP. 

The idols of the Hindus are made of gold, 
silver, and copper, or their alloys, — one alloy of 
frequent use being that called pauchalaka, of gold, 
silver, copper, tin, and lead; but iron, brass, 
crystal, stone, earth, cow-dung, and wood are also 
often employed, the red sanders wood and the 
woods of the Cupressus torulosa, Macrotomia 
euchroma, and Melia nzedarach. Many of the 
idols in India are monsters, many are mere shape- 
less masses of stone with a smearing of red lead, 
or a log of wood without shape or form, or a 
stone from the river-bed; others, like the bull 
Nandi or Basava, the vahan of Siva, are beautifully- 
formed models of that quadruped. The forms of 
Siva and of his wife Parvati and of the cobra 
serpent are usually well portrayed, as also of the 
peacock in the Saiva temples. The horse is formed 
of wood, plated with silver and gilded ; occasion- 
ally well-made figures of the elephant are to be seen. 

The images made of gold are generally those 
of Durga, Lakshmi, Radha, Krishna, and Saras- 
wati ; they are kept in private houses, and wor- 
shipped daily, and weigh from one to four tolas. 

The image of Sheetula, of 10 or 12 tolas, is 
often made of Bilver, kept in the house, and wor- 
shipped daily. Ward mentions that at Kidder- 
pur, adjoining to Calcutta, was a golden image of 
Puti-tupavuni, 2 cubits high. Near Sarampur 
was a golden image of Jagadhatri, about 1£ cubits 
high. Very small copper images of Surya, and of 
Siva riding on a bull, are preserved in private 
houses, and worshipped daily. 

The images of all the gods and goddesses may 
be made of stone, generally of a black, but some 
of a white colour ; the greater number are placed 
in temples ; a few small ones are found in private 
houses. All images of stone are worshipped daily ; 
the greater number areof the lingam, or the various 
forms of Vishnu. A few exist of the lingam, nine 
or twelve cubits high. Throughout I^ower Bengal 
and all the south of India, every village has its 
guardian idol, generally one or more rough stones 
smeared with red lead, and placed under an aged 
banyan or pipal tree. In one single street of Cal- 
cutta there are more images of Krishna and em- 
blems of Siva than perhaps in the whole length of 
the Doab. A lingam at Benares requires six men 
to encircle it. The clay and composition images 
made in the vicinity of Calcutta for the annual 
festivals (some of which have a very splendid 
appearance, and are of large dimensions), after the 
ceremonies are over are cast into the river. The 
modern manufacturers of the deities are artisans 
in gold, silver, and other metals, stone-cutters, 
and potters. Some of the modern oasts are hand- 
some, but the modern sculptures are commonly 
(Mntcniptible. Some of the ancient Hindu sculp- 
tures are magnificent, and in minute ornamental 
and floral decorations almost unrivalled. 



143 



IDOLS. 



IGUANA. 



In Burma the images of Gaudama are made of 
wood, marble, and the precious metals. In Siam, 
Japan, etc., images are made of the ornaments, 
precious metals, etc., collected from the ashes of 
the funeral pile of a deceased person ; and others 
again from the pulverized fragments of the bones 
kneaded with water into a paste, baked, and after- 
wards'gilded. 

Images of snakes are common. The idea of 
their curative virtues is very old in India : a 
Hindu attaoked by fever or other diseases, makes 
a serpent of brass or clay, and performs ' certain 
ceremonies to its honour, in furtherance of his 
recovery. Such ceremonies are particularly effica- 
cious when the moon is in the Nakshatra (mansion, 
sign, or asterism) called Sarpa or the serpent, 
called also Ashlesha. Dhanwantari is the Escu- 
lapius of the Hindus, but has not an attendant 
serpent like his brother of Greece ; the health- 
bestowing Dhanwantari arose from the sea when 
churned for the beverage of immortality. He is 
generally represented as a venerable man with a 
book in his hand. 

Every Hindu house has at least a picture ; 
many have idols ; apd every man of the Vira Saiva 
or Jangam sect, of whom there are many millions 
in India, always wears the liugam in a silver or 
gold casket, suspended from his neck or tied round 
his arm. The lingam inside is a small stone 
cylinder embedded in the yoni. The ordinary 
lingam, of which there are millions in India, is a 
stone cylinder rising from the yoni, a stone plat- 
form marked with circular markings ; usually in 
front of it is a figure of the bull Nandi in stone. 
Ganapati or Ganesa, with the head of an elephant 
and the body of a fat man, is an idol frequently to 
be seen. As the god of wisdom, he is worshipped 
at the beginning of every undertaking by almost 
all Hindus. When a Hindu boy or girl begins to read, 
they make a Ganesa in the form of a small cone 
of cow-dung, which they place on a purified spot, 
and ornament it with flowers and naragam and red 
kanganu, and offer a sacrifice by burning camphor 
and frankincense, also offering betel-nuts and 
plantains, cocoanuts and jagari, then bow rever- 
entially and pray for the god's aid. The pyramidal 
figure is then kept for a time or thrown into the 
water. Any person may see them. 

In a Hindu temple, the idol is kept in the 
centre of the temple, called Sanadi. Daily the 
Brahman servants anoint it with oil, cleanse it 
with sikaia, wash it with water, then with curds, 
milk, lime-juice and honey, and cocoanut water. 
Before it the dancing girls of the temple, the deva- 
dasa, dance and sing to music morning and evening. 
On certain festivals, the idol is taken from the 
temple in a palanquin or on a car, and made to 
perambulate the squares and the streets. 

Idols are frequently objects of litigation, and 
sacrifices of human beings are occasionally made 
to them. In a village called Kishnagur, some 30 
miles from Bikanir, there lived one Maya Ram, a 
Jat by birth, in whose house was an image of stone, 
which Maya Kam and his family used to worship. 
It was a tradition in the village that the idol had 
been kept formerly in several other houses, one 
after the other, but that all who worshipped it 
had come to a violent end ; and Maya Bam one 
day was seen behaving very strangely before the 
idol, dancing frantically, says the report. He 
then forbade the other villagers to enter the house. 



He seemed under the influence of some religious 
homicidal mania, attacking his kinsmen, and 
threatening to kill them unless they conformed 
to his worship of the stone image. He killed the 
child of his elder brother. Suddenly the contagion 
of madness seemed to seize the whole family : 
Maya Ram, with two male kinsmen and seven 
women, threw themselves into a well all together, 
and shouting ' Swarga chalo ! ' — Come to heaven ! 
— the whole ten were drowned. 

The Jain idols are usually naked figures of men 
and women, of gigantic proportions, often erect, 
but in every attitude. The Buddhist idol is usu- 
ally Buddha or Gaudama, recliniog, or sitting in 
the attitude of preaching. Some of the figures 
of Gaudama at the great Shooay dagon temple at 
Rangoon are of vast dimensions. — Moor; Ward's 
Hindus; Tr. of a Hind. ; Coleman. 

IDRISI or Al - Idrisi, the surname of Abu 
Abdullah Muhammad, author of the geographical 
work Nuzhat-ul-Mushtak-fi-Ikhtirak-ul-Afak. He 
was born at Ceuta, in Morocco, towards the latter 
part of the 11th century. He travelled in Europe, 
and eventually settled in Sicily at the court of 
Roger it. He describes the countries in the S. 
and E. of Asia. — Elliot. 

IFTAH. Arab. The evening meal of the 
Mahomedans during the Maharram. 

IGHIR. Arab. Acorus calamus. 

IGNATIA AMARA. Linn. The K'u-shih-pa-tau 
of the Chinese. Ignatius bean, syn. of Strychnos 
sancti ignoti. 

IGUANA. 

Zib, Abab. 

Iguana or Inguana, Eng. 

Lizard, ,, 

Ghorepore, Hind., Duk. 
Biyawak, Bewak, Malay. 

Iguana is the popular name for species of 
reptiles of the genus Varanus, family Varanidae, 
order Sauria, of the section of scaled reptiles. 
Baron Cuvier classed them under his Iguaniens ; 
others have arranged them under the Agamidse. 
Varanus flavescens, Gray, inhabits Bengal ; V. 
dracaena, Linn., Bengal and Agra, and also V. 
nebulosus, Dum. et Bib. 

Varanus Dumerilii attains a length of 7 feet ; 
it frequents the neighbourhood of houses, to rob 
hen roosts. 

The Basilisk of the Eastern Archipelago is 
the Basaliscus Amboiensis, Daudin, one of the 
Iguanidse. Messrs. Dumeril and Bibron, in their 
Erpetologie (1837), treat of these reptiles under 
the name of Lizards, Iguaniens, or Sauriens 
Eunotes. In the catalogue of the specimens of 
lizards in the British Museum, the Iguanidse with 
the Agamidse constitute the tribe Strobilosaura. 

The Iguana of India, generally found about old 
walls and ruinous buildings, is about two foet 
long ; tail long, round, and tapering ; back, tail, 
and throat are serrated ; and its whole surface is 
covered with shining scales. The flesh is eaten 
by the Mahomedans of India, and in the West 
Indies it is salted and barrelled for exportation. 
In India the body of the dried Iguana is made 
into an electuary, with a certain portion of ghi r 
and used as a strengthening medicine in consump- 
tive complaints. An animal oil is obtained from 
it. The Iguana of the Europeans of Ceylon, the 
Talla-goyaof the Singhalese, is the Monitor bracaana, 
Linn. It is 4 to 5 feet long. 1 he Singhalese and) 



Manawak, Manuwak.MAL. 
Ghoda-sala, . . Sansk. 
Talla-goya, . . . Singh. 
Udumu, . . . . Tam. 
Udumbu, . . Tel. 



144 



IIIKAM. 



ilah. 



Ttmiil racca of Ceylon believe the tongue of tho 
Iguana to lie a specific for consumption, if plucked 
from the living animal and swallowed whole. — 
'I'lJimiiit's ( 'i ijlint ; Faulkner; Knij. (';/<•. 

1IIKA M. Ai: vii. Tile 1 1 icss worn by Mahomedan 

pilgrims at Mecca. See Harm. Lane says (Mod. 

i. p. l.'il), during his performance of the 

required ceremonies in Mecca, and also during 

irney to Arafat, and until his completion 

the pilgrimage, the Muslim pilgrim wears a 

^nliar dress called Ehram (vulgarly Heram), 

insisting generally of two simple pieces of cotton 
linen or woollen cloth, without seam or orna- 

lent, one of which is wrapped round the loins, 

id the other thrown over the shoulders; the 

istcp and heel of each foot and the head must 
bare. After the recitation (a Khutbah on 
fount Arafat), the sacrifice, and other ceremonies 
on the return journey to Mecca, in the valley of 
Mcna, every one resumes his usual dress, or puts 
on a new one, if provided with such. 

I. U.S. This sacred monogram, arranged in 
cypher, is the Chinese Buddhist's sacred symbol 
of Buddha. 

IJARA. Hind. A contract. Ijaradar, a con- 
tractor. — W. 

IJMA. Arab. Lit. collecting or assembling, 
in Mahomedan theology, means the unanimous 
consent of the Mujtahadin or learned doctors. 
See Jama. 

IJTIHAD. Arab. Carrying on war against 
non-Mahomedans and infidels. See Jahad. 

IJU, also written Eju, the horsehair-like sub- 
stance which grows on the gomuto tree, the 
Arenga saccharifera, Labill. This substance is 
also called gomuto ; part of it is a stiff bristle, 
but the bulk more resembles horsehair, and it is 
largely made into cordage. See Arenga; Gomuto. 

IK AX. Malay. A fish; also a crab. The 
word is always prefixed or added to the specific 
name of the fish, as ikan-bawal, the pomfret ; 
tulor-ikan, fish-roe ; sirip-ikan, fish-fins ; sisek- 
ikan, fish scales. 

Ikan dori, a small dark-coloured fish, of about 
a pound weight. Great caution is necessary in 
handling it, because it is armed with poisonous 
spikes under the pectoral and dorsal fins, the 
wounds from which are extremely painful. It is 
not much esteemed. 

Ikan mi mi, the king-crab. 

Ikan saladu and Ikan surdudu, Arius Alius. 

Ikan sambilang, literally fish of nine, from the 
nine barbs on its head. It is found in the ponds 
of the Malay Peninsula, and is largely eaten. — 
Earl; Cantor; APNair, p. 83; Simmonds. 

1 1\ A UNA, a pargana in Bahraich district, Oudh. 
The Brahmans, 13,986, are the most numerous 
caste ; the Ahirs and Kurmis coming next, with 
9740 and 7615 respectively. The village of 
Tandwa is identified by General Cunningham 
•with the Tu-wei of Fa Hian and Hiwen Thsang, 
"where Kasyapa Buddha was born and lies buried; 
■while a statue of the mother of Sokya Buddha is 
now worshipped in the village as Sita. — Imp. Gaz. 

IKRAR. Arab. A promise, an agreement. 
Ikrar-nainah, a deed of settlement. 

IKSHWA'CU, one of the ten sons of Manu 
Vaivasvata, considered to have been tho first of 
the Solar dynasty, offspring of the sun. He reigned 
at Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala, in the second 
X)r Treta Yuga. As the offspring of the sun, his 



posterity was called the dynasty of tho Solar 
princes, in the same manner as Budha was 
reputed the head of the Lunar line, fcfodert 
commentators bring the time of his accession 
down to tho year 1320 before Christ. A passage 
in tho Agni I'urana indicates that the line of 
Surya, of which Ikshwa'cu was the head, was 
tho first colony which entered India from Central 
Asia. But the patriarch Budha was his con- 
temporary, he being stated to have come from a 
distant region, and to have been married to Ha 
(Ella), the sister of Ikshwa'cu. Max Midler says 
this name is mentioned only once in the Rig Veda, 
and he and others suppose it is the name not of 
a king, but of a race occupying the northern or 
north-western part of India. 

The lineal descent from Brahma Bharata was 
Bramha, Marichi, Vaviswat, Manu, Ikshwa'cu, 
Kukshi, Vikukshi, Vanu, Anaranya, Prithu, Tri- 
sanku, Dhundumar, Yuvaneswa, Mandhata, Sis- 
andhi, Uhruvasandi, Bharata. 

Nimi, one of Ikshwa'cu's hundred sons, founded 
the Mithila dynasty. — Dowson. 

IL pronounced also Ilhat or Iliat, a term ap- 
plied to the nomade tribes of Persia. It is also 
a Semitic for m of God. See Iliyat. 

ILA, sister of Ikshwa'cu, of the Solar race, was 
married to Budha of tho Lunar race, and these 
were the ancestors of the Lunar line of kings. In 
Hindu mythology, Budha, son of Atri, son of 
Brahma, was husband of Ha, the earth, daughter 
of Spatembas. Budha was Mercury, son of the 
moon. 

ILA or Ilita, mentioned in the Vedas as a 
goddess, may possibly be the same as the Baby- 
lonian goddess Hi or Bilat Hi, queen of gods. 

ILA, in the Rig Veda, is food personified as 
the goddess of speech. According to Sayana, she 
is the goddess presiding over the earth. The 
Satapatha Brahmana represents her as springing 
from a sacrifice which Manu performed to obtain 
offspring, and she had offspring to Manu. Ac- 
cording to the Puranas, she was the daughter of 
Manu Vaivaswata, wife of Budha (Mercury), and 
mother of Pururavas ; but, through the favour of 
the gods, her sex was changed to a man, but again 
became a woman, and she married Budha, to 
whom she bore Pururavas. — Dowson. 

ILACHI. Hind. A generic term for the fruits 
of several plants producing cardamom, viz. : 

Bari-ilachi or Ilachi-kalan, Amomum cardamomum, 

the large rough-shelled variety. 
Choti or Khurd-ilachi, Elettaria cardamomum, tho 

small cardamom. 
ILAH, the name of an old Arabian deity, and 
is more properly and more usually applied to a 
pagan god, than to Allah, God supreme over all, 
— composed of Al, the, and Ilah, God. Hence 
the Mahomedan profession of faith says, La Ilah 
il- Allah, etc., which in the ordinary translation 
of ' There is no god but God,' conveys no precise 
meaning, and involves an obvious truism, which 
Mahomed would never have enunciated. The true 
reading would be, 'There is no deity but God.' 
From some passages in the early Indian historians, 
it would appear that they supposed the famous 
Somnat to be the Arabian Ilah or Hat. Notices 
of it occur in the Rauzat - us - Safa, Habib-us- 
Sair, and Ferishta, the passage quoted from 
1 •'arid-ud-Din Attar ; Sale's Koran, i. p. 23, ii. p. 
390 ; Hyde, dc BeL Vet. Pere. p. 130 ; Pococke, 



VOL. II. 



145 



ILAHABAD. 



ILIYAT. 



Spec. Hist. Arab. pp. 4, 92, 110 ; Bird's Gujerat, 
p. 39 ; D'Herbelot, Yoce Lat. ; Al-Makkari, Ma- 
hometan Dynasties in Spain, i. p. 346 ; and 
Herod, iii. Alihat, the gods ; Ilahat, a goddess ; 
Ilahi, divine. — Elliot. 

ILAHABAD or Allahabad, a city of the N.W. 
Provinces of British India. Before Akbar's time, 
this place was known as Preag or Prayag ; by 
him it was denominated Allahabas, which subse- 
quently became Allahabad. The name is more 
correctly Ilhabad or Ilahabad, but the usual 
practice of writing it is Allahabad. The article 
' al ' coalesces with the substantive in Allah, and 
represents the Almighty. — Elliot. 

ILAHI. Arab. The title of an era, now ob- 
solete, invented by the emperor Akbar, commenc- 
ing with the first year of his reign, a.h. 963 or 
a.d. 1556. It was on his coins. The Ilahi gaz is 
the standard gaz, or yard, of forty-one fingers, 
instituted by Akbar. After much controversy 
respecting its length, it was authoritatively de- 
clared by the British Indian Government to be 
33 inches long ; and the declaration has been 
attended with considerable convenience to revenue 
officers, as a bigha measured by this yard consti- 
tutes exactly five-eighths of an acre. — Elliot. 

ILAKA. Arab. A dependency. Ilaka-dar, a 
person in possession. 

ILAKA-BAND. Hind. A silk fringe, silk 
girdle, and tassel maker. Ilaki, a square scarf of 
Multan. 

ILA KURA. Tel. Salsola Indica, Willd. 
This is occasionally used as a vegetable, and, being 
naturally salt, has given rise to the Teling saying, 
' The carping husband (finding fault without 
cause) says to his wife, There is no salt in the Ila 
kura.' 

ILAM, said by some authors to be the Tamil 
name of Ceylon, and to signify gold ; but gold in 
Tamil is Ponnu. 

ILAMBADI. Tam. Corruption of Lambady, 
the Banjara race, so called in the south of India. 

ILA-PANANKI JANGU MAVU. Tel. A 
farina is obtained from this root by treating it 
the same as in manufacturing manioc. It is very 
nourishing. 

ILAVRATA. In an ancient Hindu geography, 
one of the divisions of the known world ; its 
mountains are called Tien-chan, Kiloman, Tan- 
grah or Tangla. — As. Res. viii. p. 311. 

ILCHI, a town in High Asia, with 40,000 in- 
habitants. 

ILEX, the holly genus of plants. Dr. Wight 
mentions I. Gardneriana and I. Wightiana. Mr. 
Thwaites names, as growing in Ceylon, I. den- 
ticulata, a large, and I. Walkeri, a small tree. 
Mr. Hodgson, in his Nagasaki, mentions eight 
species in Japan, viz. crenata, Thbg., microphylla, 
Bl., integra, Thbg., latifolia, Thbg., rotunda, Thbg., 
serrata, Thbg., aquifolium, L., var. heterophylla. 

Ilex denticulata, Wall, is a very large timber 
tree, not uncommon on the higher ranges of 
the Neilgherries and Animallays at 6000 to 8000 
feet, and at similar elevations in Ceylon; its 
timber is much valued, and is said not to warp or 
crack ; it has serrated leaves. — Bedd. Fl. Sylv. 

Ilex dipyrena, Wall. Himalayan holly. 

Ravi. 



Dodru, Dinsa, . 


. Beas. 


Kanjru, Karelu, 


Krucho, . . . 


■ 


Drnnda, . . . 


Kimelu, . . . 


Chamba. 


Kalucho, . , 


Shangala. . . 


Chenab. 





SUTLEJ. 



This moderate-sized tree grows at Mussoori and 
everywhere in the Himalayas to 5000 or 9500 
feet. The wood is heavy, hard, and fine grained, 
much like common holly, and used for various 
purposes of carpentry. It bears a very close 
resemblance to the holly, especially in November 
and December, when it is covered with clusters of 
scarlet berries. — Steivart. 

Ilex Malabarica, Bedd., a large species growing 
in the Wynad.— Bedd. Fl. Sylv. 

Ilex serrata is a lofty species found in Mussoori, 
and I. excelsa in Nepal. — Boyle, 111. p. 167 ; 
VS. 

Ilex "Walkeri, Wight, Gardn., is a small tree in 
the Central Province of Ceylon, growing at an 
elevation of 5000 to 8000 feet. 

Ilex Wightiana, Wall, is a large umbrageous 
tree, with small white flowers and red berries, 
growing in the Neilgherries and in the southern 
and central parts of the island of Ceylon up to an 
elevation of 4000 feet.— Thw. Zeyl. p. 183. 

lid, a valley and town in Central Asia, from 
which Lassen supposes the Szu Tartars were 
expelled by the Yue-tchi or White Huns, B.C. 
150. He supposes the Szu Tartars to be the 
Sacse, and the Yue-tchi to be the Tochari. After 
occupying Tahia or Sogdiana for a time, they are 
stated by the Chinese to have been driven thence, 
also, by the Yengar, some years afterwards, and 
to have established themselves in Kipen, in which 
name Lassen recognises the Kophen valley in the 
Kohistan. The great Kirghiz horde is adjacent 
to Hi and Tarbagatai. It is under the dominion 
of China, and exchanges large quantities of cattle 
on the frontier for silk goods. The Tsiankiun 
has authority over the Eluth and Chahar of his 
own central province of Hi, who have also 
Chinese ministers ; also over the Eluth, Chahar, 
and Hassack, under the Tsantsan minister resi- 
dent at Tarbagatai, and over the Mahomedans of 
the eight cities in Hi, south of the Tien-shan, 
who are under resident ministers of different 
degrees. 

ILIYAT are tribes in Persia and Khiva, some of 
whom are nomade, dwelling in tents, and others 
reside in towns. The word Iliyat is derived from 
II, a Turki word signifying tribe, equivalent to the 
Arabic Kabilat, to which 'aut,' an Arabic ter- 
mination of the plural, was added, — a combination 
not uncommon. The Iliyat tribes in Persia are 
mostly of Arab, Kurd, and Turkoman descent ; 
along with tribes from the Bakhtiara mountains, 
who are of a race totally distinct from the 
northern hordes, and probably something more 
indigenous to the soil than any of the other 
wanderers, but all lead the same manner of life, 
and bear the common name of Iliyat, their 
pastoral habits little distinguishing them from 
the Bedouin Arab or the nomade Tartar. The 
subjects of the Persian empire therefore appear 
to consist of the stationary inhabitants of towns 
and cities, and the wandering dwellers in tents 
and temporary villages. The Iliyat comprise 
a very large portion of the population of the 
country, though their actual numbers are not well 
known. They are Mahomedans of the Sunni 
sect. Many of the best families in Persia are of 
Iliyat origin. The present royal family is of the 
Kajar tribe, a Turkish II, which came into Persia 
with Timur. The principal Iliyat tribes are said 
by Morier and MacGregor to be — 



146 



1 1. 1 VAT. 



ILLICIUM ANISATUM. 



llayat. Kurd BoobeL 

l'.ili. Lak. 

Arab. lliu.iir,i. Mama Seiiui. 

Kajar. Shah Sevan, 

tiari. Klnida liandi. | Shokagi. 

Baluoh. I Kurd. I 

Frazcr mentions that .in his time 195,000 
lliv.it families were tributary to Khiva, viz. : — 
Ynmiit, .... 15,000 Knzak, .... 40,000 

Ooklan, . . . . 20,000 Ikdar 15,000 

Chudar, . . . . 2,000 Sarokh 15,000 

Ealpak, .... 30,000 i Uzbak 40,000 

Tin- Chudar are said to have been brought 
r i ..in tin farther borders of the Oxus by Muham- 
mad Babim Khan. In the 10th century, they are 
wiid tn have comprised 500,000 families within 
tin' province of Fars alone. Although much 
inferior in numbers, many of the present Uiyat 
tribes are very considerable ; and since the 
destruction of Hai, and the decay of Isfahan, 
Shiraz, and all the other great cities throughout 
the empire, they constitute a principal source of 
population, and the best nursery of its soldiers. 
Bone of their chiefs are men so powerful that 
the king attaches them to his court by honourable 
and lucrative employments, or detains them about 
his person as hostages for the loyalty and good 
conduct of their respective clans. We find them, 

they were 800 years ago, unmixed with the 
'ersians who inhabit cities ; retaining their pas- 
aral and erratic habits, and using among them- 

lves a dialect different from the language of the 
juutry, which, however, most of them can speak 
id understand. They are an independent and 
hardy race, inclined to hospitality. Two or three 
families in little groups, preparing or enjoying 
leir simple meal by the roadside, or proceeding 

their journey, the wife carrying one child, two 
three others packed in baskets on an ass, 
rhich the husband drives before him, are usual 
pictures to be seen. 

Iliyat tribes have each their own history. They 
mnge their places of encampment with the 
>n and climate, going in the summer to the 
Ulak, or quarters where pasturage and water 
are to be found in abundance ; and when the 
cold of winter sets in, adjourning to the Kishlak 
or warmer region, in which their flocks and herds, 
as well as themselves, are better sheltered. The 
tribes adhere to their respective districts, but the 
distances that some of the tribes have to perform 
in their annual migrations are really wonderful. 
From the southern shores of Fars, the Kashgoi 
arrive in spring on the grazing grounds of Isfahan, 
where they are met by the wandering Bakhtiari 
from their warm pastures of Arabistan, near the 
head of the Persian Gulf. At the approach of 
winter both these tribes return to their respective 
Kishlak or Garm-sair. In each province of Persia 
there are two chiefs, elders, acknowledged by all 
the tribes who roam in that province. In their 
conduct and morals the Iliyat women are vastly 
superior to those of the towns and settlements. 
They are chaste and correct in their lives, and 
faithful to their husbands. They are Sunni 
Mahomedans, but are by no means particular in 
their religious observances, and are not ruled or 
influenced by the maula as townsmen are. They 
are all, in a greater or less degree, professional 
robbers, — some tribes living solely by rapine and 
plunder, and others resorting only occasionally to 
such means. They have large flocks and herds, 



which they often augment by taking possession 

j of their neighbours'. The oivilised population 

hold them in great dread on this account. The 

ll-khani of Fan is the chief of the K;ishgoi tarib* 

The nomades breed camels, caul.-, and I 
mules and asses. Their tents are made of goats' 
hair. Often on approaching an Iliyat encamp- 
ment, the stranger is met by the women of tin- 
tribe, who burn aromatic herbs in honour of the 
guest, and as a token that he is welcome to then- 
hearth. Mr. Bickmer observed a similar practice 
among the Kuldi in Kurdistan. This custom 
must be very ancient, for we find Fardusi allud- 
ing to it in his descriptions of the early heroic 
ages of Iran. 

The usual drink of the Luristan Iliyat consists 
of buttermilk weakened with water ; a little salt 
is added to it, and it is then called Ab-i-dhung. 
It is generally sour. There is nothing so effica- 
cious for the purpose of slaking thirst on a hot 
summer's day as this ab-i-dhung. — De Bode'* 
Travels; Ouseley's Travels; Rich's Kurdistan; 
Frazer's Travels; Morier; MacGregor. 

ILLAM. Maleal. A house, a dwelling, a 
household. 

ILLANUN, also Lanun, a maritime race of the 
Archipelago, formerly addicted to piracy. In the 
year 1837, the schooner Maria Frederica, Captain 
Gregory, was cut off in Ampanam roads ; and in 
1840, the English whaler Mary, Captain Blosse, 
while at anchor at the North Islands, near the 
N.W. point of Lombok, was surprised and taken 
by a fleet of Lanun prahus (See Moniteur des Indes 
for 1847-48, pp. 17-21) ; but the vessel and crew 
were soon afterwards ransomed for a large sum in 
Spanish dollars by Mr. King, who subsequently, 
finding that the pirates still remained there, fitted 
out an English merchant brig, that was then 
loading rice for England, with guns and men 
supplied by the king of Lombok, and succeeded 
in driving them away for a time. Traders visit- 
ing any of the ports east of Java should take 
every precaution to prevent surprise. Their 
course along the north-west coast of Borneo to 
the coasts of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula is 
now obstructed by the settlement of Labium. 
which they cannot pass without some intelligence 
being received of their motions, and this being 
conveyed speedily to Singapore, would inevitably 
lead to their being sought out and destroyed. 

ILLECEBRACEjE, the knot-grass tribe of 
plants, comprises thirty-nine genera. Of these, 
three species are found in Arabia, one in Persia, 
one in China and in continental India. Seventeen 
forms have been discovered in the E. Indies of 
Herniaria, Hapalosia, Illecebrum, Polycarpcea, 
Drymaria, Mollugo. 

ILLICIUM, a genus of plants belonging to 
the order Winteracese of Lindley. The order 
contains four genera and twelve species, shrubs 
or small trees; one of them, the Illicium anisatum, 
grows in Japan and China ; one on the Khassya 
mountains, and one in New Zealand. The 
general properties of the order are stimulant and 
aromatic. — Voiqt, p. 18. 

ILLICIUM ANISATUM. L. Star anise tree. 
Badian i-khatai, . Arab. | Chinese anise, . . Eng. 



Hwai-hiang, . . Chin. 
Tadiwui-hiang, . . „ 
Pah-koh-hwui-hiang, „ 
An«B phal, Dukh., HtND. 
Aniseed tree, . , Eng. 



skiiniui, . . . Japan. 
Sau-ki, . . Manilla. 

Anasi pu Tam. 

Marati mogga, . . Tel. 



147 



ILOCO. 



IMAM. 



The star anise tree is a native of the countries 
extending from lat. 23^° to 35° N., or from 
Canton to Japan. The designation star is applied 
to the fruit from the manner in which they grow, 
the pods being in small clusters, joined together 
at one end, and diverging in five rays. They are 
prized for the volatile oil obtained from them, 
and for their aromatic taste. The barks have a 
more aromatic flavour than the seeds, but they 
are not so sweet. In China, their most common 
use is to season sweet dishes. In Japan they are 
placed on the tombs of friends, and presented as 
offerings in the temples. They are chiefly ex- 
ported direct to India, England, and the north of 
Europe, at the average value of 8£ dollars per 
pikul. In India they are used in seasoning curries 
and flavouring native dishes; and large quantities 
are used in Europe in the preparation of liqueurs. 
The capsules constitute in India a rather im- 
portant article of commerce, and are sold in all 
the bazars. Both capsules and seeds evolve a 
powerful odour of anise ; the taste is similar, very 
mild, sweet, and somewhat acidulous. The cap- 
sules and seeds abound in an essential oil, easily 
procured by distillation with water ; this oil is 
rather brown, lighter than water, more difficultly 
congealed than the true aniseed oil, but in other 
respects exactly of the same properties. The 
powdered capsules are used by the Mahomedan 
practitioners as stimulant carminatives. For the 
colics of children, the essential oil is given with 
advantage. The tree might be introduced into 
India. — O'Shaagh. ; Thunbenjs Tr. iii. p. 227 ; 
Morrison's Comp. Sumrn. ; Simmonds ; Faulkner ; 
CTSh. Beng. Phar. p. 412 ; Roijle, H. B. p. 58. 

ILOCO, one of the languages spoken in the 
island of Lucon. In the Philippines are many 
separate nations or tribes, speaking distinct lan- 
guages, unintelligible to each other. The principal 
tongues of Lucon are the Tagala, the Pampanga, 
the Pangasinan, and the Iloco, spoken at present 
by a population of 2,250,000 people ; while the 
Bisaya has a wide currency among the southern 
islands of the group, Leyte, Zebu, Negros, and 
Panay, containing 1,200,000 people. Mr. Craw- 
furd says that it does not appear, from a com- 
parison of the phonetic character and grammatical 
structure of the Tagala with those of Malay and 
Javanese, that there is any ground for fancying 
them to be one and the same language, or lan- 
guages sprung from a common parent, and only 
diversified by the effects of time and distance, 
and that an examination of the Bisaya dictionary 
gives different results. See India. 

ILOL, a native state within the political agency 
of Mahikanta, in the provinoe of Gujerat, Bom- 
bay. Pop. (1872), 5511. 

IMAD SHAHI, a dynasty of Berar, founded 
by Fattah Ullah, a descendant of a Hindu con- 
vert. 



Fattah Ullah, 
Ala-ud-Din, 
Deria, 
Burhan, . 
Tufal, . 



. A.D. 1484 A.H. 890 

. „ 1504 „ 910 

(about) „ 1529 „ 936 

„ 1560 „ 968 



Merged into that of Ahmadnaggur, a.d. 1572, 
a.h. 980.— Elph. p. 676. 

IMAM. Arab. A leader ; the president of a 
mosque ; the person who leads the daily prayer 
and is in receipt of the revenues of the mosque ; 
also the title of the four great doctors of the four 



orthodox Sunni sects ; also the title of the twelve 
great leaders of the Shiah sects ; but it is also 
given to any great religious leader, head, or chief 
in religious matters, whether the head of all 
Mahomedans as the khalif, or the priest of a 
mosque, or the leader in the prayers of the con- 
gregation. Imam answers to the Latin Antistes. 
In the Koran (chap. ii. vers. 118-20), ' God said 
unto him, Abraham, I constitute thee Imam unto 
men,' that is, a model of religion. 

After the death of Mahomed, his successors, 
the khalifs, became his delegates or lieutenants, 
and were also termed Imam or leader. When Ma- 
homedans meet together for prayer, an Imam is 
chosen who leads the prayer, and the congrega- 
tion regulate their attitudes by his, prostrating 
themselves when he does so, and rising when he 
rises. In like manner the khalif is set up on 
high as the Imam or leader of the faithful in all 
the business of life. He must be a scrupulous 
observer of the law himself, and diligent in en- 
forcing it upon others. The election of an Imam 
is imperative (p. 229). The fourth Sura says, 
' Obey God and his prophet and those of your 
people who exercise government over you.' The 
qualities of an Imam are knowledge, integrity, 
mental and physical soundness. 

Imam is a sacred title with the Shiahs, and is 
given only to Ali and the immediate successors of 
the Prophet, who were twelve in number, their 
Bara-Imam. The last of these, the Imam Mahdi, 
is supposed by them to be concealed (not dead), 
and the title which belongs to him cannot, they 
conceive, be given to another. Among the Sunni 
Mahomedans, however, it is a dogma, that there 
must be always a visible Imam or father of the 
church. It was long maintained that the Imam 
must be descended from the Arabian tribe of 
Koresh ; but the emperors of Constantinople 
(who are of a Turk family) have assumed the 
sacred title, which they claim on the ground of 
the formal renunciation of it by Muhammad the 
twelfth, the last khalif of the race of Abbas, in 
favour of Selim the first. The acknowledgment 
of this title renders the emperor of Turkey the 
spiritual head of all orthodox Mahomedans. 

The sect of Mahomedans who believe that the 
Imam Mahdi has come and gone, are the Mahdavi, 
or, as others call them, Ghair Mahdavi, i.e. people 
without Mahdi. About the year 657 a.d., or some 
twenty-five years after the death of Mahomed, his 
son-in-law Ali met Muavia, and fought the battle 
of Siffin. Displeased at the conduct of Ali on 
that occasion, about twelve thousand men deserted 
him. Some years after, they were nearly all de- 
stroyed by Ali ; but a few survivors fled to various 
parts. Two men settled in Oman, and there 
preached their distinctive doctrine of the Imamat, 
that is, they taught that the office of ' Head of the 
Faithful ' was elective, and not hereditary. They 
thus differed from the ordinary Shiahs, who hold 
the doctrine of divine right in its entirety, and 
never can acknowledge any khalif or chief who is 
not descended from Ali. Some fifty years after 
this, one Abdullah-ibn-Abad vigorously preached 
the doctrine of the right of the people to elect 
the khalif, or, as they would call their head, the 
Imam. It is from him that the sect of the 
Ibadiyah, an offshoot of the Shiahs proper, takes 
its rise. They elected their own Imam, and thus 
arose the jurisdiction of the Imam of Oman. From 



148 



IMAM. 



IMMOLATION. 



lis potentate came the Sultan of Zanzibar. 'litis 

tows how entirely free they are from any 
c ho the Htiiini khnlif. No Ibadiyah ever 
mow lodged tin* khnlif of Baghdad as his spiritual 
chief, much less is ho likely to recognise one in 
stirli a doubtful successor to tho office as tho 
mi Sultan. It in not known that the ruler 
at Muscat has ever laid claim to the title of Imam, 
jjtaagh Europeans invariably confer it on him. 
Imam is, however, said to be now adopted as a 
royal or dignatory title by several Arab and 
African sovereigns. The successors of Mahomed 
continued to exercise their religious functions in 
proof that they enjoyed spiritual as well as 
temporal power, and took the title of khalif ; but 
various Arab princes, who dared not aspire to the 
title of khalif, took that of Imam, to which they 
frequently added that of Amir-ul-Mominin, or 
prince of the faithful, and, like the khalifa, 
observed the precaution of changing their name 
when they ascended the throne. The custom 
seemed to typify that their whole nature under- 
went a change, on being invested with an office to 
which a certain amount of sanctity was attached. 

Of the twelve Imams of the Shiah sect, one was 
Imam-Ali, cousin and son-in-law of Mahomed, 
who married Fatima, Mahomed's daughter ; the 
two sons of Ali, the Imam Husain and Imam Hasan, 
neither of whom were successful leaders, though 
since their deaths they have by some sects been 
deified and believed to be incarnate (Ali, Ilabi). 

In every Sunni mosque, at the appointed 
prayers, there is a leader of the devotions, who is 
called the Pesh-Imam, because he remains in front 
(Pesh) of the worshippers, leading them in the 
successive parts of their worship. 

The four learned doctors of the faith were 

lik ibn Anas, Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam U3 Shafi, 
Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal. 

Malik ibn Anas, a native of Medina, born a.d. 

13-14, A.H. 95, died a.d. 795, a.h. 179, in his 

tth year. He wrote the treatise called Muwatta, 
ie Beaten Path, classifying the oral traditions. It 
>rraed a system of jurisprudence which prevailed 
throughout Spain and Northern Africa, its exten- 
sion in Spain having been aided by Yahia ibn 
Yahia, a Berber, who had visited Medina to sit 
under the teaching of Malik ibn Anas. He re- 
turned to Spain, where he had much influence. 

Imam Abu Hanifa, a Noman of Persian origin, 
was born at Basra, in the Hijira year 80 (a.d. 
099-700). He was a learned and devout man, 
humble in spirit. He passed most of his life in 
Kufa, and was famous as a lawyer. He refused 
to be kadi of Kufa, on which Ibn Omar ibn 
Hobaira, governor of the two Iraks, ordered him 
to be daily flogged until he consented. Ten strokes 
of a whip were consequently inflicted daily for 
twelve days, and, being still a recusant, he was set 
at liberty. He died in prison a.h. 150, a.d. 767. 

Imam us Shafi, of the tribe of Koresh, was born 
a.h. 150, a.d. 767-68, and was brought up in 
Mecca, but at the age of 45 went to Baghdad, and 
afterwards to Old Cairo, where he remained till 
his death in a.h. 204, A.D. 820. He was au 
eclectic. His doctrines were taught in the schools 
of Cairo, Irak, Khorasau, and in the regions 
beyond the Oxus. Between the Hanifa and Shafi 
sects there were controversies and animosities, 
and when the Mongols of Chengiz Khan appeared 
before lihe, the Shafi sect offered to deliver up the 

1 



city on the condition that all the 1 lanifi were slain. 
This was acted on, but a few days afterwards tho 
Mongol slew also all the Shafi, and tho bodies of 
tho members of the two sects were thrown to- 
gether. 

Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal was the fourth and 
last of the great orthodox Imams. He was bom 
A.H. 164, a.d. 780, at Merou or Baghdad. His 
teachings differed from those of Shafi in that he 
did not allow the principle of deductions. His 
system never extended beyond Baghdad, and is 
now obsolete. — Osborn's Islam ; Putthnn ;•'* Travels, 
Burton's Scinde ; Malcolm's Persia, ii. p. 845. 

IMAM ALI, a town in the vicinity of the Shatt 
ul Arab, in Ur of the Chaldees. 

IMAM BARA. Hind. A building in which 
are conducted the ceremonies of the Maharram, in 
commemoration of the deaths of Ali and his sons 
Hasan and Husain. The Tazias or shrines are 
sometimes retained in it. 

Imam-bari, a building over an imam or Maho- 
medan saint, or other holy Mahomedan. The 
imam-bari at Lucknow is a magnificent palace. 
Its most remarkable part is an immense hall, con- 
taining the tomb of Asof-ud-Dowla, the great- 
grandfather of the last king of Oudh. 

IMAMI. Hind. A kind of Kabul silk. 

IMAM MASHUDI, the religious guide of Akbar. 
His tomb is to the west of the Masjid-i-Kutub- 
ul-Islam— Tr. Hind. ii. p. 201. 

IMAM RAZA is buried at Mashid. In his 
name whole bazars and streets have been bestowed 
in Mashid, and outside that town, as also in other 
parts of Khorasan, fields, vineyards, and caravan- 
saris. He is styled Hazrat, also Sultan-ul-Ghriba, 
king of the poor, and is always mentioned as if 
still living ; a poor person applying at his shrine 
receives three days' provisions. — Vambery, p. 286. 

IMAM-ul-MUWAKKAF. See Hasan ibn 
Sabbah. 

IMAMZADAH means the descendants of an 
imam ; but, it is said, generally applied in Persia 
to the mausoleums built over the bodies of such 
descendants, which are to be found scattered in 
great abundance all over the country. — Fraser's 
Khorasan, p. 303. 

IMAN. Arab. Faith. In Mahomedanism, the 
belief of tho heart and the confession of the mouth. 

IMAUS, a name by which part of the Himalaya 
was known to the Greeks and Romans. Pliny 
was fully aware of the signification of the name, 
for he says (Hist. Nat vi. p. 117), • Imaus in 
colarum lingua, nivorum significans.' A great 
part of the mountains N.W. from India was also 
called the Paropamisus or Hindu Kush ; and 
Imaus and Hindu Kush seem to have been 
identical. The true Imaus, however, is the ridge 
which separates Kashmir from Little Tibet. It 
appears to incline in its northern course towards 
the continuation of the Hindu Koh, and even to 
join it. The term Hindu Koh or Hindu Kush is 
not applied to this ridge in its whole extent, but 
seems confined to that part of it which forms the 
N.W. boundary of Kabul ; and this is the Indian 
Caucasus of Alexander. There is, however, much 
confusion from the Tibetan, Chinese, and Persian 
names of that great mountain mass. — As. Res. iii. 
p. 389. See Himalaya. 

IMMOLATION. Self-immolation is not un- 
common in India. It is generally performed by 
persons lingering under incurable disorders. It is 
49 



IMPATIENS. 



INAM. 



done by leaping into fire, by burying alive, by 
plunging into a river, or by wading into the river 
with earthen pots at the side, and filling them until 
they sink, dragging the victim down with them. 
—Elphin. p. 191. See Sati. 
IMPATIENS, Balsams. 



Fung-sien, . . 


. Chin. 


Tatura, . . . 


Kangra. 


Kih-sing-tsze, 


• js 


Pallu, Tilphar, 


. Ravi. 


Bantil, . . . 


Jhelum. 


Hulu, Juk, . . 


SUTLEJ. 



A genus of plants belonging to the East Indies. 
Single species extend into Europe, Siberia, and 
North America. Not less than 100 species are 
known, and almost entirely from the mountains of 
the Peninsula of India or the Himalaya, from 
Sylhet as far north as the Sutlej, and in lat. 30° 
N., at as great elevations as 7000 feet, but chiefly 
at elevations of 4000 and 4500 feet, where there is 
moisture combined with a moderate but equal tem- 
perature. They are abundant on the mountains of 
the Western Ghats, but absent from the plains of 
India, though some are found on the Malabar coast, 
little elevated above the sea, but only during the 
monsoon. They are largely cultivated in Indian 
gardens as handsome flowering plants ; colours — 
rose-pink, white, blue, and variegated. In the 
middle of the rains, the whole line of the Western 
Ghats is covered with them. The ripe capsules, 
on being touched, fly open and scatter their seeds, 
whence they get the name of Noli me tangere. 

albida. Goughii. ornata. sylvestris. 

bracteata. inconspicua. oppositifolia. trilobata. 

campanulata. insignis. Rheedii. tomentosa. 

cuspidata. Jerdonise. rivalis. tripetala. 

dasysperma. Kleinii. rosmarinifolia. triphylla. 

fasciculata. latifolia. rufescens. umbellata. 

filiformis. Leschenaultii. scabrida. uncinata. 

fomcntosia. modesta. scapifiora. verticillata. 

fruticosa. Munronii. setacea. viscida. 

Gardneriana. Mysorensis. 

IMPERATA ARUNDINACEA, Cyrillo, of S. 
and E. Asia, the lalong grass of India, almost a 
sugar-cane in miniature ; valuable for binding 
sand, especially in wet localities. — Mueller. 

IMPERATA CYLINDRICA. Beauv. 



Saccharum cylindricum, 
Lam. 



I. arundinacea, Cyril. 
Lagurus arundinaceus, L. 

The Ooloo plant of all India, Ceylon, Moluccas, 
and Australia. Much used as thatch. — Voigt. 

IMPERATA KCENIGII. Beauv. 
Sir, Sil, Bharwi, . Panj. | Alang-alang, . . Malay. 

A silky-headed small grass, abundant at low 
spots in many parts of the Panjab plains. 

IMPHI, the Chinese sugar-cane, Sorghum 
saccharatum, Pers., is said to have long been 
grown in India, but was re-introduced in 1860 
by Surgeon-Major Balfour, of the Madras medical 
department. With careful cultivation in a rich, 
well-watered cotton soil, it attains the height of 
eight feet, and it yields in three months a crop 
of plants very similar to sorghum, except in 
the appearance of the heads. The natives con- 
sider it a variety of sorghum, and are favourably 
impressed with the plant, as it yields a large 
quantity of sweet juice which produces good 
jagari, and the crushed stalk is excellent food 
for cattle. 

INAM. Arab. A gift, a grant, of which there 
are many kinds. Inamdar, a holder of a rent-free 
grant of land. A revenue term introduced by the 
Mahomedans. Hindus have no word to denote 
rent-free lands, or freehold property, except 
Suwusthan, one's own place ; but with them that 
is never found in less quantities than a whole 



village. Rent-free lands under the Hindus were 
merely designated by terms signifying the pur- 
poses to which devoted, as Dewasthan, the idols' 
place ; PaBodi, a shawl, the Patel's grant ; Choli, 
'a bodice' for the Patel's wife; Hadola, a row or 
collection of bones ; Hadki, a little bone ; Domni, 
a dish, — the last three being grants to the Mhar 
tribe. Deo Shet, a grant to a person who has 
been successful in a trial by ordeal, such as that 
of determining a village boundary. In Maho- 
medan countries, it is customary to call inam 
grants to religious orders grants of land, although 
they include only the rents thereof ; for there is 
no seising of the land itself, which is the proprietary 
right of the cultivator only. In the tamba-patra, 
copperplate patent (by which such grants are 
designated in Rajputana) of Yasovarma, the 
Pramara prince of Ujjain, about the 12th cen- 
tury, commanded the crown tenants of the two 
villages assigned to the temple to pay all dues as 
they arise, money-rent, first share of produce. 
In India, where the cultivating proprietor has 
always paid a feu-duty to the state, the grant of 
an inam is, like the grant of a jaghir, merely the 
transfer of the state dues. According to practice, 
a jaghir is a reward for past or a retaining fee 
for future services, or a means of support, and is 
resumable at pleasure. The inam for religious 
purposes has been a more permanent alienation ; 
but even the Madras Government about the middle 
of the nineteenth century re-examined all the 
inam grants, and up to a late date decisions had 
been given on 396,815 cases. 

Under the Mahomedan sway, inam became a 
revenue term, which the British adopted, but was 
inquired into when peace permitted the examina- 
tion of the inams. The religious merit attached 
among Hindus to the grant of land to the Brah- 
manical class, the facility afforded by the period 
of anarchy which followed the overthrow of the 
native dynasties for irregular alienations by inferior 
authorities, the acceptance by the Mahomedan 
rulers of the existing condition of things, the 
further opportunity for irregular grants whicli 
was given under the political confusion occasioned 
by the struggle between the British and French 
for Indian supremacy during the latter half of the 
18th century, and the system of rewarding meri- 
torious service by alienations of Government 
revenue, either in perpetuity or for a stated number 
of lives, which was in force during the earlier years 
of British rule in the Madras Presidency, from 
the enormous sacrifice of state revenue involved, 
attracted the attention of the administration at a 
very early period, and caused a recognition of the 
importance of a general inquiry into titles to rent- 
free lands. 

Inam tenures were found divisible into nine 
general classes. The first three classes are inams 
for religious and public service. They consist of 
grants for the support of pagodas, muttums, 
village headmen, mosques, and durgas, kazis, 
Christian churches, chuttrums, water pandals, 
topes, tanks, wells, anicuts, schools, and miscel- 
laneous works of utility. 

In the Madras Presidency the basis of Sir 
Charles Trevelyan's inquiry was that possession 
for fifty years was to give a good title, no matter 
what the origin of the possession might have been. 
This being established, religious service inams 
were all to be confirmed on existing tenures, and 



150 



IX< TASK-Wool). 



INDIA. 




to l» resumed only when the object for which 
they were held had censed to exist. Other service 
were to be continued on the same terms 
when such mi vices were still required; but when 
■ aid not be mado available for any useful 
public purpose, the value of the public claim upon 
the land was to be added toany existing quit-rent 
payable thereon, the owner being thus enfranchised 
lion iervice. All other mams held for personal 
benefit were either to be retained on existing 
tenure, subject to liability to lapse and without 
Mwer of alienation, or were, at the option of the 
holder, to be converted into an absolute property 
by the imposition of a quit-rent representing the 
annual value of the reversionary right of Govern- 
ment in the property. This reversionary right 
was estimated in terms particularly favourable to 
the inamdars, in order to induce them to take 
advantage of the privilege offered. — W. 

IM ENSE-WOOD, eagle-wood. Incense was 
burnt in ancient heathen temples to neutralize 
the offensive odour arising from animal sacrifice. 

INDERABIA, of some English navigators, is 
also written in different charts, Andervia,Anderipe, 
Indervea. Dr. Vincent (Nearch. p. S75) thinks it 
the Caicandrus of Arrian, but a corresponding 
e is not found in oriental manuscripts. — 
Travels, i. p. 174. 

INDERJAO. Hind. Wrightia antidysenterica. 
seeds are very largely used medicinally, being 

iled in milk, and given in haemorrhoids and 
ysentery, and in docoction in fever and gout ; 

so used as an anthelmintic. Dose, gr. v to 9j. 
Price 5 annas per lb. The bark of the root is 
astringent and febrifuge, and is used as a specific 
in dysentery and bowel complaints. Dose, 3j to 
5iij in decoction. 

Inderjao-i-Sherin is Wrightia antidysenterica. 
Inderjao-i-Talq is Holarrhena antidysenterica, also 
II. (Albescens. 

INDIA is supposed to have obtained its name 

'in the Indus, the Sin, Sinda, or Hinda, the 

bu-Sin of the Arabs, the first great river met in 

e routes from Western and Central Asia. It is 
true that so far back as the reign of Darius 
Hystaspes, B.C. 521, writers placed Indians on 
both sides of the Indus, and made India extend 
westward to Kandahar (Gandhara), embracing 
perhaps the fourteen Iranian provinces or nations 
enumerated on the Naksh-i-Rustum as lying be- 
tween Sogdiana and the Panjab, and subject to 
Darius. But eastward of the Indus, the country 
was always India. But this term seems to have 
b»cn chiefly used in the south of Asia, for it first 
occurs in the book of Esther (i. 1, viii. 9) as the 
limit of the territories of the king Ahasuerus in 
the east, as Ethiopia was on the west, and the 
Mines are similarly connected by Herodotus (vii. 
9). The term Hoddu, used by the Hebrews, is an 
abbreviation of Honadu, which is identical with 
the names of the river Indus, for to the present 
day all along the course of that river the letters 
s ami li are interchanged. In the Vendidad, the 
Panjab is described as the Hapta-Hindu, and the 
other native form, Sindus, is noticed by Pliny 
(vi. 28). The India of the book of Esther is not, 
however, the Peninsula of Hindustan, but the 
country surrounding the Indus, — the Panjab, and 
perhaps Sind, — the India which Herodotus de- 
scribes (iii. 98) as forming part of the Persian 
empire under Darius, and the India which at a 



later period was conquered by Alexander the 
(. The name occurs in the inscriptions of 
IVrsepolis and Naksh-i-Rustum, but not in those 
of Behihtnn. Mamidi mentions that at the time 
of tie Miihammailaii conquest, the country about 
Basrah was called Arz-ul-Hind, the Land of India. 

There were other three names by which India 
was known to the western Asiatics. One of them 
originated from most of the traffic with India 
having at one time been by way of the Persian 
Gulf and the Red Sea. The Tyrians established 
depots on the shores of the Persian Gulf, and the 
course of trade being through the land of the 
Cushdi, the races in India came to be included 
under the ethnological title of Cush (Genesis x. 
6) ; and hence the Persian, Chalckean, and Arabic 
versions of the Bible frequently render that term 
by India (Isaiah xi. 11). 

Another ancient but local term for India is 
stated to have been Kolaria, and numerous Kol 
tribes are scattered through the country to the 
present day. Bharata or Bharata-varsha is like- 
wise mentioned as an ancient local appellation. 

In recent times success in wars and diplomacy 
has placed under the dominion of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain, or in alliance, nearly 
all the territories lying between the Indus and the 
Himalaya on the N.W., to Cape Comorin and 
Singapore on the S.E., and that part of Southern 
Asia has come to be spoken of as British India, 
and the British Empire in India also as Her 
Majesty's Eastern Empire. But British India, 
Netherland India, the Spanish Indies, Portuguese 
and French India, are but portions of the region 
iu Eastern and Southern Asia known to Europe 
as the East Indies, and which include all the 
countries from Arabia and Persia eastwards 
through Baluchistan, Hindustan, the Malay Penin- 
sula, Siam, the Indian Archipelago to New Guinea, 
China, and Japan. With the Portuguese, the 
northern part of Hindustan held by the Moghul 
sovereigns was styled Mogor, and Goa and the 
western coast of the Peninsula was to them India. 
With the Dutch, India means Java, Sumatra, and 
other Netherland possessions in the Archipelago. 
French India is in the Western Peninsula, and 
in Annam and Tonquin in Ultra-India; and the 
Spanish Indies are in the Philippine Islands in the 
far east. 

The ancients termed the Ultra-Indian region 
India beyond the Ganges. Leyden included it and 
the Indian Archipelago under the name of the 
I lindu-Chinese countries. Malte Brun calls it Chin- 
India. Ritter, the greatest of geographers, prefers 
the German name Hinter-Indies. But inBtead of 
Further India, Trans-Gangetic India, the Eastern 
Peninsula of India, etc., the single words Ultra- 
India and Trans-India have been proposed by Mr. 
Logan, as they admit of the ethnic and adjective 
forms of Ultra-Indian or Trans-Indian ; and for 
the insidar region of the Eastern or Indian 
Archipelago, Mr. Logan proposed the term Indo- 
nesia. Mr. Logan's names are well chosen, be- 
cause several of the islands have been occupied 
by Indian races. Java was long under a race 
from Hindustan, and Bali still professes Hinduism. 
The whole of the East Indies, therefore, consist- 
ing of the continental portions bisected by the 
Bay of Bengal, and the eastern islands, may be 
comprised under the three names of India Proper, 
Ultra-India or Trans- India, and Indonesia 



151 



INDIA ; ITS IMMIGRANT RACES. 



Populations.— 1\\q regions thus defined are 
occupied by races of Negroid, Mongoloid, Aryan, 
Turanian, and Semitic descent, and this article is 
restricted to the ethnic relations of the populations. 
It is generally accepted that a great part of the 
inhabitants of Hindustan and the Peninsula are 
of Scythic, Mongoloid, or Turanian race, and were 
the earlier occupants of the country. This con- 
clusion has been come to from their linguistic 
and physical affinities. Some of them seem to 
have been pastoral tribes from the north and 
north-west, who were subsequently pushed aside 
or pressed farther on by races in possession of a 
higher civilisation and a knowledge of agriculture. 
The successive arrivals have been supposed by 
Dr. Caldwell to have been — first and earliest, the 
Kol, Santal, Bhil, etc., who, he supposes, may 
have entered British India from the north-east. 
After them, but from the north-west, came the 
Dravidian races, who now occupy the south of the 
Peninsula, into which they voluntarily migrated 
or were driven by the pressure of subsequent 
hordes. Then there came Scythian or non-Aryan 
immigrants, also from the north - west, whose 
language afterwards united with the Sanskrit to 
form the Prakrit dialect of Northern India ; and 
lastly came the Aryans. 

From time immemorial the region between the 
Euphrates and the Indus has been held by suc- 
cessive Turanian, Iranian, and Semitic conquerors. 
In historic times Scythic tribes have invaded 
India, — Getse, Takshak, Sakae, Su, Yu-chi, Naga, 
Ghakar, Jat, Asi, Kathi, Rajpali, Hun, and 
Kamari. They seem to have brought with them 
a worship, out of which ultimately was formed 
the Buddhist religion as promulgated by Sakya 
Muni. These Indo-Scythic tribes also brought 
with them their northern custom of using tribal 
designations, taken from the names of animals, — 
Varaha, the hog ; Numri or Lumri, the fox ; 
Takshak, the snake ; Langaha, the wolf ; Cutch- 
waha, the tortoise ; Aswa or Asi, the horse ; 
Sisodya, from Sisoo, the hare, etc., — and several of 
them still hold large possessions in the western 
parts of Central India, Sind, and Baluchistan. 
Some of them even carried their names into 
Europe. Asi was the term by which the Getae, 
Yeut, or Jat were known when they invaded 
Scandinavia and founded Yeutland or Jatland ; 
and the Asi and other nomades who took Bactria 
from the Greeks, Mr. Prinsep considers to have 
been Scythians of Azes, who overpowered the 
Greek dynasties in Sogdiana and Northern Bactria, 
between 140 and 130 B.C. And Asia seems to 
have been so called in ancient times from this 
great Asi race, whose name is said by Remusat 
to have been applied by the Chinese almost pro- 
miscuously to the nations between the Jaxartes 
and Oxus, as far south as Samarcand. In one of 
his quotations it is applied to the people of 
Khokand, and in another to the people of 
Bokhara. Kanishka, B.C. 40, formed a powerful 
Scythic dynasty in the N.W. But Vikramaditya, 
king of Ujjain, B.C. 57, stemmed oi, • Scythic inva- 
sion, and in a.d. 78 Salivahana choked another 
inroad ; yet during the next seven ^ ' 
Sah, the Gupta, and Valabhi establish^ 
in Northern and Western Indies. 

The Dravidian race preceded the UltL T ndian, 
Tibetan, and Aryan, and their language ]L T ailed 
everywhere to the southward of the Hia ^yas 



nturies the 
c dynasties 



Their route seems to have been from the north-west, 
where, Chevalier Bunsen says, the two great nations 
once centred, the one in the Altai and the pasture 
land towards the Himalaya, the other haviug its 
centre in the Ural mountains, and now appear in 
Asia as the subdued or primary element, as the sub- 
dued substratum of Iranian civilisation ; and the 
aboriginal languages of India which attained their 
full development in the Dekhan dialects belong to 
that stock. Also Dr. W. W. Hunter's philological 
investigations permit the conclusion that the 
fragmentary peoples still to be seen in India, who 
have preserved their ethnical identity in sequestered 
wilds, or have merged as helots or low castes into 
the lowland Hindus, form the debris of a widely 
spread primitive race ; and from the northern 
shores of the Indian Ocean and the China Sea, 
traces have been exhumed by him of ethnical 
evolutions, and the ebb and flow of human speech 
far more ancient, and on a grander scale, than the 
pre-historic migrationsof the Indo-Germanic stock. 
Successive Turanian and Irano-Semitic races 
have in turn influenced all the great outlying 
southern provinces in Africa, India, and Ultra- 
India ; but from the formation of the language, the 
older intrusive people, the Scythico-Semitic and 
pastoral, found India less Scythic and more African 
than it became under their influence. And the 
land routes from the north-east, north, and north- 
west were not the only highways to the East 
Indies. Mr. Logan is of opinion that several of 
the races now dwelling in the south and east of 
Asia, in British India, Ultra-India, and Indonesia, 
reached their present localities by sea. Certainly, 
amongst all the foreign influences acting on the 
south of India proper, of which the presence can 
be clearly traced, two are of the widest extent. 
The first is entirely African and Indo- African in 
its character. It embraced the whole Indian 
Archipelago, Australia, and Papuanesia, and the 
races to which it must be referred appear to have 
prevailed along the shores and islands of the 
Indian Ocean from Africa to Polynesia, their 
limits being those of the monsoons. 

There was prolonged commercial intercourse 
between the western and eastern parts of the 
Indian Ocean, from the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, 
Red Sea, and Africa, to the Mozambique channel on 
the west, to the Indo-Australian seas on the east. 
And when they were spreading over E. Africa, 
India, and the Indian Archipelago, there could 
have been no civilised Semitic, Iranian, Burmese, 
or Siamese races to hinder them. The strong 
Africanism observable in some of the lower South 
Indian castes is seemingly the remnant of an 
archaic formation of a more decided African 
character. India proper lies between two great 
Negro countries, that on the west being still 
mainly Negro, even in most of its improved races, 
and that on the east preserving the Negro basis 
so near India proper as the Andamans and Kidah. 
It is therefore highly probable that the African 
element in the population of the Western Penin- 
sula has been transmitted from an archaic period, 
before the Semitic, Turanian, and Iranian races 
entered India, and when the Indian Ocean had 
Negro tribes along its northern as well as its 
eastern and western shores. 

In the southern parts of the Western Peninsula, 
amongst the races speaking the Tamil language, 
are many who have African features in all their 






152 



iNhIA; ITS AFRICAN, SCYTHIC, AND AKYAN R.\< I ..-. 



The mixed Labbi and Moplah races of 

ctreme south of the Peninsula may be of 

African ami of Arabian descent. Hut the Siili of 

.laiijii-iili are recent arrivals; the Negroes of tlio 

>amlilli Hills of N. Canara arc of unknown 

>rigin ; the African slaves of the MuhammadanH 

ichistan, Sind, the Dekhan, and Kamatie 

classes regarding whose African and Arabian 

light there are no differences of opinion; also 

u Kader of the Animallay Hills file their teeth 

a point like some African tribes; the Mincopi 

the Andaman Islands, the Scmaug of the 

-tern Peninsula, the Negrito and Papuan races 

>f Indonesia and Papuanesia are recognised 

tranches of the Negro race ; while farther to the 

H.rtli, the Kisan or Nagesar, a broken tribe in the 

lasiij.ur highlands, have Negroid features; and 

the Bbuiher of Palamau and Jashpur reminded 

Colonel Dalton of the representations he had seen 

of the Andamanese. 

The vernacular of a people can only be taken 
as a test of descent along with their physical 
characteristics. The languages of conquered 
and of such conquering races as become 
associated with a higher civilisation, are liable 
to disappear. There cannot be any doubt that 
physically the Tamil Pariah, the Mhair of the 
Muhratta country, the Dher of the Dekhan, the 
Holiar of the Canarese, the Paravan of the 
Malealam territory, and the Malla of Teiingana, 
re of the same Dravidian stock, though they now 
■ak five different tongues. Some broken tribes 
Bengal speak a dialect of Hindi ; but their 
ihysical characteristics, some of their customs, 
ie remnants they have preserved of their primit- 
ive paganism, and in some cases their traditions, 
to the conclusion that they are the residue of 
people who, together with the Kolarian races, 
occupied India proper prior to the appearance of 
the hist Aryan invaders. It is now known that 
there are many Oraon villages in Chutia Nag- 
pur in which the Oraon language is quite lost, 
but the inhabitants nevertheless speak two tongues, 
Munda and Hindi. The languages of the Hin- 
duized aborigines of Chutia Nagpur appear to 
have followed their religion. All the tribes that 
have became Hindu in faith have lost their old 
language, and speak a rude dialect of Hindi. The 
Oraon in Chutia Nagpur follow the Munda pagan- 
ism, and adopt the Munda languages ; while the 
Munda, Ho, Santal, and other Kolarian tribes, 
who adhere to their ancient faith, have preserved 
their old language, or at all events a pre-Aryan 
tongue. Alaung Phra (Alompra) subdued the Mon 
or Talaiug race in 1757-58, from which time the 
Burmese Btrongly discouraged the Mon language ; 
and after the first war between the British and 
the Burmese in 1824-26, the Burmese forbade 
the Mon to be taught in the monasteries or else- 
where. The result has been that in little more 
than a century, the language of a million people 
has become extinct. In 1870, there were not 
one hundred families in Pegu in which it was 
used as their vernacular tongue, though still 
spoken in Martaban and in Mamlam-yang by the 
descendants of immigrants who reappeared there 
when the British became supreme. But it is not 
merely the language that is disappearing, — the 
Taking people themselves are being absorbed by 
the more powerful Burmese race. 

History. — No one of the races who were occupy- 



ing India and South-Eastern Asia prior to the 
Muhainmadan invasious, retain any strictly histor- 
ical record of the routes by which they reached 
their present localities, or of tho date of their 
respective advent. From tho geographical dis- 
tribution of the Kol and Dravidian languages, 
Mr. 1 1 isle, p formed the opinion that while the 
stream of Dravidian population, as evidenced by 
the Brahui in Baluchistan, entered India by the 
north-west, that of the Kol family seemed to have 
found admission by the north-east ; and as the one 
flowed south towards Cape Kumari (Comorin), 
and the other in the same direction towards Cape 
Koumania, a part of each appears to have met and 
crossed in Central India. The Karen of Ultra- 
India have a tradition of crossing a sea of sand, 
which is supposed to mean the desert of Gobi ; but 
they have no knowledge as to the date of their 
migration. That the Mongoloid races have made 
great efforts to reach more hospitable climates, is 
shown by the presence of many tribes wedged into 
the mountainous region on the frontiers of India. 
On both sides of the Indus, in Baluchistan, Lower 
Sind, in Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim, are many 
hundred tribes, some of almost similar origin, yet 
forming distinct nations and using dialects unin- 
telligible to each other, though of the same family 
of languages. 

The linguistic affinity of many of the non-Aryan 
peoples of India, is shown by the fact that they 
take their tribal designations from their word for 
man in their respective dialects, — thus Bala-li, 
Mola-li, Dhima-li, Santa-li, Banga-li, the people 
of Bala, Dhima, Banga, etc. ; and the very general 
term Mi (man) supplies the basis of the race 
name to not less than forty ascertained tribes, — 
thus the Du-mi, Ka-mi, Anga-mi, Mi-than. 

The prior immigrants from the north have been 
termed Scythic, Turanian, Mongolian, Kolarian, 
Tannilian, and Dravidian. All these designations 
distinguish them from that branch of the Aryan 
races (Iranian, Indo- Atlantic, Caucasian, Medi- 
terranean) now dispersed through India proper, 
called by Humboldt East Aryans or Brahuianic 
Indians. The West Aryans or Persians had 
separated and migrated into the northern country 
of the Zend, where they combined a belief in 
Ormuzd and Ahriman with a spiritualized venera- 
tion of nature. But the East Aryans came through 
the Panjab into India proper, and they have con- 
tinued up to the present time to exert a great 
influence on the people. It was an immigration 
on the borders of historic times. Much connected 
with this people remains in obscurity, for they 
have been a non-recording race. Chevalier Bun- 
sen supposes that they reached the land of the 
Five Rivers some time between 4000 and 8000 B.C.; 
but we have no standard whatever, from our 
present point of view, by which to estimate the 
length of the period from their immigration into 
the country of the Indus down to their farther 
advance to the laud of the Saraswati. All we can 
say regarding them is, that peculiar habits of lifo 
were contracted in the laud of the Five Rivera, and 
that, out of the elemental religion there instituted, 
allusions to which are found in the oldest Vedk 
hymus, the Brahmanical system, with a new 
mythology and the introduction of castes, gradu- 
ally grew up on the eastern Bide of the Sutlej. 
That author is, however, of opinion that the period 
of the passage of the Sutlej and immigration to- 



153 



INDIA ; ITS ARYAN, RAJPUT, AND JAT IMMIGRANTS. 



wards the Saraswati occurred from B.C. 3300 to 
B.C. 3000. Whilst they dwelt in the country of 
the Five Rivers, from B.C. 4000 to 3000,_ little 
change in their habits and belief seems, in his 
opinion, to have occurred. But about B.C. 3100 
or 3000 their power on the Indus appears to have 
been broken, in consequence of some war with 
one of the surrounding kingdoms, and from the 
latter date India east of the Sutlej up to the 
extent of the Aryan conquests adopted Brahman- 
ism. From that time the religious views, forms, 
and habits of Bactria were for ever abandoned by 
the East Aryan immigrants, and between B.C. 3000 
to B.C. 1900 they extended their Brahmanical 
religion from the Saraswati to the Doab. It was 
this race who called the portion which came under 
their own rule by the name of Aryavarta, the 
abode of the Aryans. In classical Sanskrit it was 
also known as Bharata and Bharata-varsha, and 
also Jambu-Dwipa. But by the western nations, 
India east of the Indus was always India, and 
was never called Arya by any writer. 

This Aryan or Sanskrit speaking colony of 
Brahmans, Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas found the 
greater part of Northern India peopled by rude 
tribes, whom they designated M'hlecha, Dasya, 
Nishada, etc., and it is the received opinion that 
many of those prior occupants were of Scythian, 
or at least of non-Aryan origin. But to a much 
later period, and when the Aryans were in full 
occuption of the country from the Indus to the 
Ganges and into Bengal, all to the south of the 
Vindhya mountains continued to be occupied by 
Turanian races. An immigration into Ceylon of 
a colony of Aryans from Magadha took place 
about B.C. 550 (B.C. 543) ; and Wajeya, the 
leader of the Ceylon expedition, is said in the 
Mahawanso to have married the daughter of the 
king of Pandu. But now, unless Travancore be 
an exception, there is no large Aryan colony in 
any part of the south of the Peninsula of India, 
individual members of that race alone appear- 
ing scattered amongst the nations occupying it. 
There is nothing in history to show, nor is there 
in the physical appearance of the races to the 
east of the Ganges and of the Bay of Bengal any- 
thing to warrant, the belief that these East Aryan 
immigrants ever advanced, in masses, beyond 
their present locality north of the Vindhya 
range. 

Brahnwnic Life. — They brought with them 
views as to the gradations of social rank, against 
which, up to the present day, all other races and even 
their own reformers have been repeatedly striving ; 
but they likewise brought larger intellect, letters, 
and a higher civilisation, not only enabling them 
to hold a position of superiority, but to inspire 
the prior races with the desire to be enrolled 
amongst the Aryan classes of Brahmans,Kshatriya, 
Vaisya, and Sudra. These East Aryan immigrants 
throughout all India proper possess the lands best 
suited for tillage, and in Travancore they are 
the sole landlords. When they first reached the 
Panjab, they depended on their horses. Arrived 
in India, they tamed the elephant, which finally 
rivalled the chariot. In the time of the Maha- 
bharata, B.C. 1400 ? Bhagadatta, Uttara, Duryodh- 
ana, Anvinda, and others fought on elephants. 
At the time of Alexander's invasion (b.c. 327) 
elephants had almost completely superseded cars. 
And in their wars they placed the infantry in the 



centre, and the horse and elephants on the flanks 
of their armies. 

The date of the Rajputs' appearance in India 
proper is even more obscure. The Lesser Sind 
river now marks the eastern boundary of Raj- 
putana, as does the river Indus that to the west, 
its limits being lat. 23° 15' to 30° N., and long. 
69° 30' to 78° 15' E., an area of 123,000 square 
miles, inhabited by a population of ten millions 
of souls. The north - eastern Panjab and Cis- 
Sutlej district seems to have first been a Brah- 
man before it became a Rajput country, and 
subsequently to have been advanced upon by 
the Jat. The great seat of Rajput population 
and ancient power and glory was, however, on 
the Ganges. AVhen vanquished there by the Mu- 
hammadans, after the 12th century, the principal 
Rajput families retired into the comparatively 
unfruitful country to which they give their name. 
But even in Rajputana proper, though it has 
Rajputs for the dominant race, the population is 
much more Jat than Rajput, the Jat extending 
continuously from the Indus to the Ganges. 
Before the Rajputs were driven back from Ayodhya 
and the Ganges, Northern Rajputana had been 
partitioned into small Jat republics, and the Jat 
still form the most numerous part of the popu- 
lation and possess the largest share in the culti- 
vation, though they share the more open parts 
with the Mina, the remains of the Saraswati 
Brahman population, and the dominant Rajput. 
The southern and more