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Full text of "Cyclopædia of Biblical, theological, and ecclesiastical literature"

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•:) 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1873, ^Y 

HARPER & BROTHERS, 
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



I 



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■:r. 



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tr. 



7ff 



rita 



KELLERMAN 



31 



KELLY 



IVv>twtants ; most prominent among them b his public 
dispute with Jacob Heilbranner. The Jestiita claim that 
Kelkr silenced the Protestant, but evangelical vrriters 
ill deny the truth of this assertion, fie this as it may, 
Kdkr himself became a great favorite in his order, and 
wiA honored with a professorship of theology at Regens- 
burg, and later with the rectorate at Munich. He was 
i.1 f;ttMt favor also with the duke of Bavaria. Klose (in 
UtTzng, Rral'Encjfldop, vii, 508) accuses Keller of having 
omtributed^both by pen and by word of mouth, towards 
tb« feeling of hatreid which divided Protestanta and Ro- 
manists just before the Thirty Tears' War. Keller died 
Feb. 23, 1631. 

Kellerman, Georo, a celebrated Roman Catholic, 
WIS bom Oct. 11, 1776, near MUnster (Germany), and 
was educated at the University of MUnster and in the 
Rinnan Catholic seminary of that place. He was or- 
dainfHl priest Aug. 2, 1801, but did not hold any priestly 
office until 1811, filling up to this time the position of 
firirate tutor in the family of the celebrated count of 
Stnlbe^, and to Kellerman, no doubt, is due the strong 
Koman Catholic tendencies of the Stolberg family. In 
\^ Kellerman assumed, besides his priestly duties, 
thiise of the professorship of New-Testament exegesis in 
the Romin Catholic theological school at MUnster, which 
in 1836 he exchanged for those of pastoral theology. 
December 13, 1846 he was elect^l bishop of MUnster, 
bat be died shortly after, March 29, 1847. He published 
Pr&Ugtoi (MUnster, 1830, 8 vols. 8vo; 1831, and 1833) : 
—Cfftck. (L A,umi N, Tttt, (an abridgment of the large 
work of Overberg, and extrasively used as a text-book 
in Boman Catholic schools) ; and edited several works 
«f otbera. — Wetzer und Welte, Kircheri'Ijex, xii, 641. 

Kelley, Chas. H., a Methodist Episcopal minister, 
WIS bora in Logan Co., Ky., 1821 ; emigrated to Indiana 
in 1<^: was converted in 1836 ; entered the Indiana As- 
bury Tniversity in 1843, but his health soon failed, and 
he left; entered the Indiana Conference in 1846; was 
transferred to the Missouri Conference in 1849, and ap- 
(■>inted to St Joseph station ; in 1850 was stationed at St 
Loom ; b 1851 at Independence ; and in 1852 at Lagrange 
Miston. While on this work he was arrested, on Feb. 
I'i 1853, by a band of ruffians, on a [Aretended suspicion 
<4 hia identity with Chas. F. Kelley, who had recently 
ocaped fhwn the state-prison at Fort Madison. Thith- 
er be was forced on a stormy winter night, and though 
the state officers instantly set him at liberty, the out- 
r%?c9 and exposure of the eighteen hours he was in the 
tiinds of the mob threw his feeble system into sickness, 
and be died shortly after. Sept 17, 1853. He was. a good 
mn, an able and faithful preacher, and much lamented 
by hb brethren. —Minutes of Conf. v, 481. (G. L. T.) 

Kells (originally Kenlis) is the name of an ancient 
Iri^i town in which a very important synod was held 
A.D. 1 152. It was convoked by Papyrio (Paparo ?), car- 
<^nal priest, and the pope's (Eugenius III) legate, for the 
ffail reception of the Irish Church into the see of 
linns. The Church of Ireland, which had been found- 
♦^ A.D. 432, remained until the cloee of the 9th century, 
A't 1 even later, almost entirely isolated from the rest of 

* ^mtendom. Through these long years, bishop Usher 
'1^ Or, 325), *" All the affairs of the bishops and Church 
'* Inland were done at home . . . the people and the 
kta^ Bade their bishops.** All this while the Irish 
Uarch,in her isolation and poverty, grew from infancy 
1 1 maturity, following the plain scriptural teachings of 
'^ onlettered founder, without perhaps knowing any- 

I •*a;? of the refinements and innovations which were 
*'«aR on the Continent The irruption of the Danes 
«t A.D. 787 had brought the Irish, and with them the 

* tffch, into more general communication with a>nti- 
*nial Europe ; and when, towards the close of the 9th 
"atary, many tf the colonists in Ireland embraced 
'-"wtianity, their dergy applied to the English, whom 
^ claimed as their kindred, for ordination, and in 
•tD. 1085, Laufranc, archbishop of Canterbury, ordained 



for them Donatus as the bishop of Dublin. On his con- 
secration Donatus made the following declaration : " I, 
Donatus, bishop of the see of Dublin, in Ireland, do 
promise canonical obedience to you, O Lanfranc, arch- 
bishop of the holy Church of Canterbury, and to 3'our 
successors" (///«*/. Mm of Ireland, I, 236). This was 
the first promise of fealty on the part of any church in 
Ireland, and it was made by a foreigner (no native had 
ever made such a pledge), and gave rise to two Church 
organizations, the old one founded by St. Patrick, and 
the new Dano-Irish Church started by this action of the 
archbishop of Canterbury. The Synod of KeUs was called 
to bring about a union of the two branches, or, at least, 
to establish on a permanent basis the claims of Roman- 
ism. We cannot tell who composed this celebrated s}ni- 
od at KeUs, for from this time forward all the records 
were in the keeping of the new organization ; those of 
the old were either accidentally or intentionally lost 
It is not, however, very probable that the old Irish gov- 
ernment of nearly seven hundred years* standing would 
at once dissolve it«elf and merge into the new onr, 
whose purposes they had so long resisted. Besides, 
nearly twenty years afterwards, in A.D. 1170, we find 
the old S3mod of Armagh still in existence, deploring 
and protesting against the slaughterings and devasta- 
tions of the English under Henry II, whom the popes 
had then sent over to Ireland to bring their Chim^h " to 
canonical conformity." Papyrio clearly recognised it 
as his task to establish a hierarchy where none had 
ever existed before, and for this purpose he attempted 
to suppress most of the former Irbh bishops, and to cre- 
ate four great archiepiscopal sees — those of Armagh, 
Cashel, Dublin, and Tuam — by instituting a system of 
tithes, claiming Petcr*8 pence, and requiring conformity 
in all Church matters **to the one catholic and Boman 
office." He brought also with him the palliums or in- 
vestitures fVom the pope for the four newly-created ar- 
chiepiscopal sees ; the reception of these was regarded 
as so many pledges of fealty and obedience to the popes 
of Rome. The public presentation and reception of 
these badges had long been an object of great solicitude 
on the part both of Rome and of several of the promi- 
nent bishops in England and Ireland ; for, in their es- 
timation, until this was done, there seemed to have 
been something wanting in regard to a full and com- 
plete union. All of these measures, as we have seen, 
were, however, inaugurated and carried forward by the 
Dano-Irish and a small Romanizing party in Ireland. 
The native clergy, with few exceptions, would have ac- 
tively opposed them had they not looked upon the 
Danes as mere colonbts. To their sorrow, the Irish 
learned, when too late, that the Roman hierarchy had 
been successfully established in Ireland by the action of 
the Synod of Kells. See Mant, History of the Irish 
Churdi, p. 6. See Ireland. (D. D.) 

Kelly, John, a minister of the Reformed Presbyte- 
rian Church, was bom at Rocky Creek, Chester District, 
a. C, in 1772, and was educated abroad (at Glasgow Col- 
lege, Scotland), as was the custom and necessity in his 
day. His theological studies he pursued under the di- 
rection of the Rev. Dr. McMillan, of Stirling, Scotland. 
He returned to South Carolina in 1808, and in Juoe, 
1809, was licensed to preach. Two years later he was 
ordained and appointed missionary in the Western States 
and Territories, and settled finally at Beech Woods. But- 
ler Co., Ohio. He was released from active sernce in 
1837, but continued preaching up to the time nf his 
death, Nov. 6, 1842. "His life was one of most untiring 
activity, and under his faithful ministry many a spot in 
the wilderness was seen to bud and blossom as the rose." 
— Sprague, A rmah^ ix (Ref. Presb.), p. 63. 

Kelly. Thomas, was bom in Queens County, Irfri 
land, about 1769, and was the son of Judge Kelly, of 
Kellyx'ille. He graduated at the Dublin University 
with the highest honors, with a view of studying law. 
He enteretl at the Temple, London, and while there en- 



KENDAL 



39 



KENITE 



Samuel, a Congregational minister, was 
bora at Sherburne, Mass^ July 11, 1758, of humble par- 
entage. Young Kendal labored hard to secure fur him- 
irlf the advantages of a thorough education, %vitb a view 
to entering the ministry. When about ready to go to 
cnUege the Kevolution broke out, and he entered the 
■rmy. He finally went to Cambridge University when 
ti yesrs old, and graduated in 1782 ; studied theology 
noder the shadow of the same institution, and settl^ 
ov«r the Congr^atiuual Church at Weston, Mass., as 
an ordained pastor, Nov. 5, 1783. In 1806 Yale College 
cooferred the degree of D.D. on Mr. KendaL He died 
Feb. 15, 1814. He published many of bis Sermons (from 
l79iU1813). Dr. Kendal "stood high among the clergy 
of bis day, and was ... an acceptable preacher." Of 
his religious opinions. Dr. James Kendal says (in Sprague, 
A mtaU, viii, 180), ** ho was classed with those who are 
denominated * liberal,* and was probably an Arian, though 
I think he was little disposed either to converse or to 
pfcsch on oontroversial subjects.** 

KendaU, George (1), D.D., an English Calvinis- 
tic divine, who flourished about the middle of the 17th 
century, was prebend of Exeter and rector of Blisland, 
Cornwall, at the Restoration, wh^n, on account of non- 
conformity, he was ejected. He died in 1663. He is 
n^ed as the author of an able treatise on the Calvinistic 
fsith, entitled Vindication oftht Doctrine of PrtdesHna- 
tim (Umd. 1653, foL). Another noted work is his reply 
to J«»bn Goodwin, Drftnce of the Doctrine of the Per$e- 
Ttranct of the Saints (1654, foL). See Allibone, Diet, 
of A sier. and En^ A uthors, ii, a. v. 

Kendall, George (2), a Methodist minister, was 
bom about the year 1815, was converted at the age of 16, 
and joined the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 1845 he 
joined the Southern Church. He was licensed to preach 
sbout 1868, and upon the reorganization of the Method- 
ic Episcopal Church in Georgia after the war, he was 
imoog the first to return to the Northern Church. He 
was ordained deacon by bishop Clark at Murfreesbor- 
oofb, Tenn., and continued to labor as a missionary 
- aiDuf^ bis people until the organization of this Confer- 
ence, when he was received on trial and appointed to 
Qsyton Circuit. In 1868 he was appointed to Clark 
Chspel, Atlanta, and in 1869 and 1870 to White Water 
Cifcuii. He died there April 12, 1871. His dying words, 
** The gates are open and I must go," give assurance that 
be passed away as one of the fathers, after a useful and 
happy life, to the rest that remaineth to the people of 
God.— .Vmu^ of Conferences, 1871, p. 278. 

Kendall, John, a prominent Quaker, was bom in 
Colchester. England, in 1726 ; entered the ministry when 
31 years old, and in 1750 accompanied Daniel Stanton 
00 a religious visit through the northern parts of Eng- 
land. He was active in the work for over sixty years, 
and encouraged many ** to the exercise both of civil and 
nJigioitf duties."* He died Jan. 27, 1815. — Janney, Hist, 
oftkt Friends^ iv, 44 sq. 

Kendilok, Bennett, an early Methodist Episco- 
pal minister, was a native of Mecklenburg Co.,ya. ; en- 
tered the itinerancy in 1789; was stationed at Wilming- 
tm in 1802 ; at Charleston in 1808-^ ; at Columbia in 
l'^^; presiding elder on Camden District in 1807, and 
died April 5 of that year. The date of his birth is not 
eiren, but he died yotmg. He was a man of much 
irnivity, piety, and intelligence, and was a studious and 
ilulfnl preacher of the Word. His ministry was very 
Qicfal, and his early death was a loss to his Conference 
»d the Church.— j/wi. of Conferences, i, 1 56. ((;. L. T.) 

Kendrlck, Clark, a Baptist minister, was bom in 
Hanover, N. H., Oct. 6, 1775. After teaching school for 
a time, he finally turned his attention to preaching, and 
became pastor of the Baptist Church at Ponltney, Vt,, 
where he was ordained, May 20, 1802. He had in 1810 
been appointed a delegate to the Vermont Association, 
of which he remained a member all his life. He also 
made several miiBionary tours, aside from his regular 



pastoral duties. Mr. Kendrick had early interested him* 
self in the subject of foreign missions, and when, in 1818, 
the Baptist General Convention for the Promorion of 
Missions was established, he immediately advocated an 
auxiliary in his own state, and it was formed. He 
was elected first vice-president, and in 1817 became its 
corresponding secretary, which office he held until his 
death. In 1819 he received the honorary degree of 
M.A. from the Middlebury College. He was chiefly in- 
strumental in forming the Baptist Education Society of 
the State of Vermont, of which he was chosen presi- 
dent, and afterwards appointed agent. In this connec- 
tion he co-operated with the Baptists of Central and 
Western New York for the benefit of Madison Univers- 
ity, HamUton. He died Feb. 29, 1824. Mr. Kendrirk 
published a pamphlet entitled Plain Dealing with the Pe^ 
do-BaptistSy etc, and some occasional Sermons. — Sprague, 
^Rmxij»,vi,879. 

Kendrick, Nathaniel, D.D., a Bapt'ist minister 
of note, was bom in Hanover, N. H., April 22, 1777. 
His early education was limited, and he was at first en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits. Having joined the Bap- 
tist Church in 1798, he felt called to preach, and, af^er 
studying with that view, was licensed in the spring of 
1803. He supplied for about a year the Baptist society 
in Bellingham,Mass.; was ordained pastor of the church 
at Lansingburgh, N. Y., in Aug., 1805; and from thence 
removed in 1810 to Middlebury, Vu In 1817 he became 
pastor of the churches of Eaton, N. Y., and in 1822 he 
was elected professor of theology and moral philosophy 
in Madison University, N. Y., with which institution he 
remained connected until his death, Sept. 1 1. 1848. In 
1823 he was made D.D. by Brown Univemity, and in 
1825 one of the overseers of Hamilton College. Dr. 
Kendrick published two or three occasional Sermons, 
See Sprague, Annals, vi, 482; Appleton, American Cy' 
clopcB(Ma,x, 185. 

Ken'ezlte (Numb, xxxii, 12 ; Josh, xiv, 6, 14). See 
Kenizzitr. 

Ken'ite [some Ke'nite'\ (''p)?, Keyni\ prob. from 
'1p, to work in iron. Gen. xv, 19; Numb.<xxiv, 21 ; 
Judg. i, 16; iv, 11, 17; v, 24; 1 Sam. xv, 6; xxx, 29; 
written also ■'3)?, Keni', 1 Sam. xxvii, 10; and plural, 
S^PJ?, Kinim'y 1 Chron. ii, 55 ; Sept. Kf vaioi. Gen. xv, 
19; Ktvaioc, Numb, xxiv, 21; Judg. iv, 11, 17; Kii^oior, 
1 Chron. ii, 55 ; KivmoCf Judg. i, 16 ; v. 24 ; 1 Sam. xv, 6 ; 
Yitvi V. r. Yitvili, 1 Sam. xxvii, 10; xxx, 29; Vulg. Ci- 
nai, Gen. xv, 19 ; 1 Chron. ii, 55 ; Cineeus, Numb, xxiv, 
21; Judg. i, 16; iv,ll,17; v,24; lSam.xv,6; Cwi, 1 
Sam. xxvii, 10 ; xxx, 29 ; Auth. Vers. " Keniles," Gen. 
XV, 19; Numb, xxiv, 21 ; Judg. iv, 11 ; 1 Sam. xv, 6; 
xxvii, 10; xxx, 29; 1 Chron. ii, 55; "Kenite," Judg. i, 
16; iv,17; v,24; sometimes written "i7ir'^o'y*»» Numb. 
xxiv, 22, Septuag. votroia ?ravoi'pyi«c, Vulg. Cin, Auth. 
Vers. "Kenite; Judg. iv, 11, last clause, Sept. Kcva, 
Vulg. CwKTt, Auth.Vers. " Kenites"), a collective name for 
a tribe of people who originally inhabited the rocky and 
desert region lying between Southern Palestine and tjie 
mountains of Sinai adjoining— and even partly inter- 
mingling with — the Amalekites (Numb, xxiv, 21 ; 1 
Sam. XV, 6). In the time of Abraham they possessed a 
part of that country which the Lord promised to him 
(Gen. XV, 19), and which extended from Egj-pt to the 
Euphrates (verse 18). At the Exodus the Kenites pat- 
tured their flocks round Sinai and Horcb. Jethro, Mo- 
ses's father-in-law, was a Kenite (Judg. i, 16) ; ami it 
was when Moses kept his flocks on the heights of Ho- 
reb that the I»rd appeared to him in the burning bush 
(Exod. iii, 1, 2). Now Jethro is said to have been 
"priest of Midian"" (ver. 1), and a "Midianite" (Numb. 
X, 29) ; hence we conclude that the Midianites and Ke- 
nites were identical. It seems, however, that there 
were two distinct tribes of Midianites, one descended 
from Abraham's son by Keturah (Gen. xxv, 2), and the 
other an older Arabian tribe. See Midiamite. If this 



KENNADAY 



41 



KENNEDY 



M Jewuk Church, i, 260) holds the same view, and re- 
gmb Caleb aa of Jdumactn origin, and descended from 
Kenaz, Eaaa's gruidaon. But a careful study of sacred 
histofy proves that the Edomitea and Israelites had 
many names in common ; and the patrouTmic Kenizzite 
is derived from an ancestor called Kmaz, whose name is 
mentioned in Judg. i, 18, and who was perhapa Caleb^s 
graodluber.** See Caleb. 

Kennaday, John, D.D^ a noted minister of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, was bom in the city of 
New Tork Nov. 3, 1800. In early life he was a printer, 
derotinj? even then, however, his leisure, as far as prac- 
ttA!able, to literary pursuits^ Ue was converted, under 
the ministry of the Rev. Dr. Heman Bangs, in the John 
Street Methodist Episcopal Church ; was licensed to ex- 
hort the year following; joined the New York Confer- 
ence in 1823 ; was stationed on Kingston Circuit in 1823 ; 
MSio, Bloomtngburgh Circuit; 1826, transferred to Phil- 
atlelphsa Conference, and appointed that and the follow- 
ing y<«r at Patterson, N. J. ; 1828-29, Newark, N. J. ; 
1X30^1, Wilmington, DeL ; 1832, Morristown, N. J. ; in 
1(S33, retransferred to New York Conference, and sta- 
tioned in Brookl3m ; 1835-^, preacher in charge of New 
Tork East Circuit, embracing all the churches east of 
Broadway; 1837-38, Newburgh, N. Y.; 1839, retrans- 
ferred to Philadelphia Conference, and that and the fol- 
loving vear stationed at Union Church, Philadelphia ; 
lfm^< Trinity Church, Philadelphia; 1843-44, second 
time to Wilmington, Del. ; at the dose of his pastoral 
t«rm the Church was divided peacefuUy, and a new 
Chinch organized, called St. Paulas, and for the two fol- 
lowing years Dr. Kennaday was its pastor; 1847^48, 
a;;ain pastor of Union Church, Philadelphia ; 1849, Naz- 
areth Church, in that city; 185b, transferred to New 
York East Conference, and that and the following year 
was pastor of Pacidc Street Church, Brooklyn ; 1852-58, 
returned to Washington Street Church; 1854-55, First 
Church, New Haven, Conn.; 1856-57, second time to Pa- 
cific Street Church, Brooklyn ; 1858-59, third time to 
Washington Street Church, Brooklyn; 1860-61, reap- 
pointed to First Church, New Haven, Conn. ; 1862, Hart^ 
fonl,Conn.; and in 1863 he was appointed presiding 
elder of Long Island District, which office he was admin- 
istering at the time of his decease. The noticeable fact 
of this record is the number of times Dr. Kennaday was 
retamed as pastor to churches that he had previously 
wnred. Of the forty years of his ministerial life, twenty- 
tvo yean, or more than half, were spent in five church- 
es. No fact better attests his long-continued popularity 
sml his power of winning the affections of the people. 
**As a Christian pastor,** says bishop Janes, ^ Dr. Ken- 
Dsday was eminent in hb gifts, in his attainments, and 
in hk devotion to his sacred calling, and in the seals 
^tod gave to his ministry. In the pulpit he was clear; 
in the statement of hb subject, abundant and most felic- 
itous in bb illustrations, and pathetic and impressive in 
ha applications. Hb oratory was of a high order. . . . 
Out of the pulpit, the ease and elegance of hb manners, 
the vivacity and sprightliness of hb conversational pow- 
ers, the tenderness of hb sympathy, and the kindness of 
hi) oondnct towards the afflicted and needy . . . made 
liini a greatly beloved pastor." He died Nov. 18, 1863. 
-Cmferatce MimUes, 1864. p. 89. (J. H. W.) 

Slennedy, B. J., a Methodbt Episcopal minbter, 
WIS bom in Bolton,Vt., Aug. 16, 1808 ; was converted in 
l*4i; served the Church faithfully as a local preacher 
mitil I860, when he joined the Erie Annual Conference, | 
■nd mied with great success the pulpits at Bainbridge, 
MayfieW, Bed^ird, Twinsburgh, and Iludson successive- 
Ij. HediedatHudson.Ohio,Nov.30,1869. The chief 
elements of Keniiedy*s power with the people were puri- 
ty of life, cheofnlness, broad Christian sympathies for 
fsllcn homanity, and strong convictions of the saving 
«ficacyofJesQs and hb Gospel He sustained a high 
portion among the brethren of hb Conference.— CArw- 
tioM Aikoeau (N. Y.), 1870. 



Kennedy, Jamee, a Scotch prelate, grandson, by 
hb mother, of Robert III of Scotland, was bom in 1405 (?). 
After studying at home, he was sent to the Continent 
to finish hb education, entered the Church, and as early 
as in 1437 became bbhop of Dunkeld, and in 1440 ex- 
changed for the more important see of St Andrew. Ho 
next made a journey to Florence, to lay before pope Eu- 
genins IV the plan of the reforms he intended introduc- 
ing in the ndminbtration of hb diocese. On hb return 
(1444) he was made lord chancellor, and as such took 
an active part in the affairs of Scotland. Pained at wit- 
nessing the discords which marked the first years of the 
reign of James II, he again applied to the pope for ad- 
vice ; but the latter's intervention, which he thought 
would restore peace, did not have thb result. During 
the minority of James III he sat in the council of the 
regency, and, according to Buchanan, used hb influence 
there for the public good. He died at St. Andrew, May 
10, 1466. Kennedy founded and endowed the college 
of San Salvador, which afterwards became the Univer- 
sity of St. Andrew. He b reputed to have written a 
work entitled Momta Politica, and also a hbtory of hb 
times, both of which are probably lost. See Mackenzie, 
Live* ; Crawford, Live* o/Stutesmen ; Buchanan, Ui*tory 
of Scotland; Chambers, lUugfiiou* Scotsmen; Hoefer, 
Nouv, Biog, Ginerale, xxvii, 560. (J. N. P.) 

Kennedy. John, an English divine, who flourished 
about the middle of the 18th century (he died about 
1770). rector of Bradley, Derbyshire, b noted for hb 
works on Scripture chronology, of which the following 
are best known : Complete System of A *tronomical Chro' 
nology unfolding the Scripture* (London, 1762, 4to) : this 
work Kennedy dedicated to the king, and the dedica- 
tion was composed by Dr. Samuel Johnson : — Ejcplano' 
tion and Proof of ditto (1774, 8vo), addressed to James 
Ferguson. — AUibone, Dictionary ofEngUsh and Ameri- 
can A uthor*, voL ii, a. v. 

Kennedy, Samuel, M.D., a Presbyterian minis- 
ter, was bom in ScoUand in 1720, and educated in the 
University of Eklinburgh. On coming to America he 
was received by the Presbytery of New Brunswick, and 
licensed by them in 1750. The following year he was 
ordained, and installed over the congregations of Bask- 
ing Ridge, New Jersey, where he was principal of a clas- 
sical school which acquired considerable celebrity. In 
1760 he rendered hb name conspicuous in behalf of an 
Episcopal clergyman by his coimection with the ludi- 
crous proclamation, " Eighteen Presb. A finis, for a groat" 
He was not only a minbter and a teacher, but a physi- 
cian, and practiced medicine with no small reputation 
in hb own congregation. He died August 31, 1787. — 
Sprague, AnnaU^ iii, 175. 

Kennedy, 'William Megee, an early Methodist 
minister, was bom in 1783, in that part of North Caro- 
lina which was ceded to Tennessee in 1790. He lived 
some years in South Carolina, and afterwards settled in 
Bullock County, Ga. In 1803 he was brought into the 
Church under the ministry of Hope Hull ; joined the 
South Carolina Conference in 1805, and filled its mijst 
important appointments for more than thirty years, half 
of the time as presiding elder. In 1839 he was struck 
with apoplexy, and was consequently returned as super- 
annuate, but he still continued to labor until hb death 
in 1840. He was lamented as one of the noblest men 
of Southern Methodbm. Kennedy had a peculiarly 
well-balanced mind. Hb counsel was pmdent and sa- 
gacious ; he formed hb opinions deliberately, and such 
was his discretion that, in the various responsible rela- 
tions he sustained to the Church, it is questimiable 
whether a single instance of rashness could be justly 
charged upon hiiA. Hb piety unaffected, hb intercourse 
with the people affectionate, hb preaching faithful, ear- 
nest, and successful, he was a very popular preacher. 
He was successivelv at Charleston (in 1809, 1810, 1820, 
1821, 1834, and 1835), Camden (1818), Wilmington, N. 
a (1819), Augusta, Ga. (1826-27), Columbia, & C. (1828- 



KENOSIS 



45 



KENOSIS 



^emnt and a prince: in the same manner Jesus was 

tb« trae and eternal Gixl, and at the same time a true 

•ai real man ; and it can be said vrith propriety of him, 

the Sod of God is man, and the man Jesus Christ is 

God.'* To thia u added by the author of IHe biblische 

Ghnbmtlekre (published by the ^'Galwer Verein*"): 

"The tanae is the case with man^ who, notwithstanding 

tbs Tarioofl changes of his circumstances here, and the 

great changes which be shall undergo in the resurrec- 

tu^ b still the same persoiu We meet even in God 

with a change of conditions. He rested before and after 

be had created the world ; does not this imply a self- 

Kmitatton on the part of God? And what self-limita- 

uoos does not God impose upon himself with regard to 

haman liberty ! The omnipresence of God is no infinite 

diff-iAon, but has its definite starting-point; and if God 

u not as near to the wicked as he is to the pious, this is 

likewise an act of self-limitation on God's part over 

against the ungodly. Again, the personality of God, 

what ebe is it than a self-comprehension of the infinite ? 

Yet in all these self- limitations God remains God. 

Should, then, the Son not be able to remain in sub- 

itince what he isi, if, out of compassion for fallen hu- 

maaiir, he becomes a man, and, in order to become a 

mta, U^s aside his divine glory?" 

This leads us, then, to the main question, What heme we 
to mtderttoMd hg the ditine glory wkieh the Son laid aside 
itrimgki*$i>jiMrmonearthf To this question the Chris- 
tologians who adopt the kemma return different answers. 
We are met here again by the old difficulty to unite the di- 
vine and the human in one self-consciousness. The ques- 
tion b this. Whether the self-consciousness of the God- 
mtn b the divine self-consciousness of the eternal Son, 
or the self-consciousness of the assumed human nature? 
i'ltm (CnrM, d. DogmuMtik) takes the latter view, and says 
thit, in order to do justice to the true humanity of Jesus 
Christ, it b necessary to consistently carry out the self- 
empiving act of the Logos, so that the Son of God in 
the act of the incarnation laid aside the divine attributes 
of omnipotence and omniscience, together with hb di- 
▼ioe aelf-consciouaneaa, and regained the latter gradual- 
\y in the way of a really human development, in such a 
manacr as not to afifect the true and real divinity of 
Chmc Whether a temporary laying aside of the di- 
rine nelf^xmsciousneas b consistent with the immuta- 
bility of the divine Being we need not discuss here. The 
arfuiBentataon of i\tm b very acute, and may appear to 
the metaphysician the most oonsbtent and satbfactory 
analrib of the personal union of the divine and the hu- 
laao in the ^enSn of Christ; but exegeticaUy it seems 
to 09 untenable, nor b it fit for the practical ediflca- 
twm of the Christian people, and a theology that cannot 
be preached intelligibly from the pulpit b justly to be 
*t>pected. We conclude with Lielnier and other Chris- 
tologiaiM that by the glory which the Son of God laid 
iside daring hb sojourn on earth we must not under- 
<aad hb divine self-conadousness, not the fulness of the 
Deity, as far as it can manifest itself in a human nature. 
Oa the contrary, it b said of thb very glory, " The 
Word becante ^h and dwelt among nr, and we saw 
hij glory, a glory as of the only begotten of the Father, 
fuU of grace and truth. . . . And of hb fulness we all 
b*Te received grace for grace." Thb divine fulness the 
^ did not give up at hb incarnation, but it followed 
bim Si hb peculiar property from heaven, from out of 
t^c Father*! boeom, to legitimate him as the Logos, aa 
tot only begotten of the Father, yet so that he turned 
K into a divine-human glory, acquired in a human man- 
^' Only the form of God, the divine form of exbt- 
<^3ce, consequently the transcendent divine majesty and 
*>Tereign power over all things, united with nninter- 
1^^ glory, he exchanged, at hb incarnation and dur- 
*«f the time of hb sojourn on earth, fi»r hb human form 
•^ exbtence, for the form of the servant. Into thb hb 
tttemundane glory, however, he re-entered (John xvii, 
5i on hb going home to hb Father (John vi, 62), also 
tt the capacity of the exalted Son of man (PhiL ii, 9). 



But in every stage of hb divine-human development 
the Son's oneness of being and of will with the Father 
remained, and by thb very fact he was in hb human 
teaching and conduct the express image of the invisible 
God, the personal revealer of htm who had sent him, the 
Sou of God in the form of human exbtence. According 
to thb view, the immanent relation of the Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost did not suffer any change by the laying 
aside of the divine form of oxbtcnce on the part of the 
Son, nor during the time of hb exbtence in human 
form. Only according to thb view also have the words 
of the incarnate Son of God their full force : " Believe 
me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me ; if 
not, believe me for the very works' sake. The words 
that I speak unto you I speak not of myself, but the Fa- 
ther that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works" (John 
xiv, 10, 11). If it be objected that the really human 
development of Jesus b inconsbtent with or excluded 
by the continuance of the eternal self-consciousness of 
the Logos in the incarnation, we answer that this infer- 
ence does not necessarily follow. There b nothing self- 
contradictory in the assumption that the iiicamate Lo- 
gos had in hb one Ego a oonsdousneas of hb twofold 
nature. Even if we cannot explain how the Logos waa 
conscious of himself as the eternal Son of God, and yet 
had thb self-consciousness only in a himum form, yet 
the eonseiouMeu of his twofold nature was necessary for 
the mediatorial office of the incarnate Logos; he was to 
know himself according to hb absolute divinity and hb 
human development; and if we suppose that of hb di- 
vine self-consciousness only so much as was necessary /or 
his meditttorial office passed over into hb human self- 
consciousness, thb double self-oonsdousness b in perfect 
agreement with hb purely human life and with hb 
mediatorial office. As to the divine attributes or powers 
that are connected with the divine self-consdousness, 
there b nothing self-contradictory in the supposition 
that the divine Ego of the Logos acted in concert with 
the powers of human nature, with human self-consciotia- 
ness, and human Tolition, if we adopt the ahove-mentvmtd 
relative seffUimitation of the divine knowledge (mdwiU as 
necessary for the mediatorial office. But even if by thb 
view of the personal oneness of the divine and the human 
in Christ the metaphysical difficulty should not be fully 
removed, we would prefer confessing the unfathomable 
depth of thb mystery to any philosophical solution of 
the problem which we could not fnlly reconcile with the 
plain teachings of the Word of God. 

One of the latest and most striking presentations of 
thb self-abnegarion on the part of our Lord b that 
found in Henry Ward Beecher's Life of Jesnis (i, 60X 
which we here transcribe, omitting its monothelitism 
and anthropopathy : *' The divine Spirit came into the 
world in the person of Jesus, not bearing the attributes 
of Deity in their full disdoaure and power. He came 
into the world to subject hb spirit to that whole disci- 
pline and experience through which every mam must 
pass. He veiled hb royalty ; he folded back, as it were, 
%vithin himself those ineffable powers which belonged 
to him as a free spirit in heaven. He went into cap- 
tivity to himself, wrapping in weakness and forgetfnl- 
ness hb divine energies while he was a babe. * Being 
found in fashion as a man,' he was subject to that grad- 
ual unfolding of hb buried powers which belongs to in- 
fancy and childhood. * And the child grem and waxed 
strong in spirit.* He waa subject to the restrictions 
which hold and hinder common meiu He was to come 
back to himself little by litUe. Who shall say that 
God cannot put himself into finite conditions ? Though 
a free spirit God cannot grow, yet as fettered in the 
flesh he may. Breaking out at times with amazing 
power in single directions, yet at other times feeling the 
mist of humanity resting upon hb brows, he declares, 
' Of that day and that hour knoweth no roan, no, not 
the angeb which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the 
Father.' Thb b just the experience which we should 
expect in a being whose problem of life was, not the di»- 



KERR 



67 



KESITAH 



and was licenced Sept 2, 1829. Only two and a half 
months later his father died, and young Kerr was called 
to fill his place in the pastorate, and, accepting the prof- 
fered pbce, was ordained July 29, 1880. "* Thus called 
by Pruvideiice to fill the pulpit of such a man as his fa- 
ther, be succeeded, from the very first, in giving entire 
Bsii^isction to his people, and soon became one of the 
matt, if he was not altogether the most, popular of the 
preachers in the city, but it was at the expense of such 
exhausting toil as contributed slowly but surely to un- 
dermine a constitution at best but delicate. From being 
a student of divinity, and without any experience, he 
entered at once on the pastoral oversight of a lai^ con- 
in^^pttion, and all the duties connected with the ofiice of 
the Christian ministry'. In his preparation for the pul- 
pit be was a dose, unwearying student. He was 'ambi- 
tious of excellence in whatever he attempted connected 
with his office, and became a workman that needeth not 
to be ashamed** (Sprague, ArmaU [Associate Ref. Prcsb. 
Cliurch], ix, 162. His health, however, failed him, and 
in 1832 be was obliged to take an assistant, Moses Kerr 
(q. T.), a younger brother. His health, notwithstand- 
ing this timely precaution, continued to fail, and he died 
June 14, 1843. Kerr published an address, EesponsibU' 
iiy of Literaty Men (1836), and a sermon on Duelling 
(1838). (J.ILW.) 

Kerr, Moses, a minister of the Associate Reformed 
?r«b3rterian Church, third son of Dr. Joseph Kerr (q. 
r.), was bom in 8t. Clair, Pa., June 80, 18 1 1. Naturally 
of a serious and thoughtful cast of mind, and manifest- 
ing in very early life decided piety, his education was 
directed from the first with a view to qualifying him for 
the sacred ministry. Signs of failing health, however, 
induced him to devote himself to mercantile life, but it 
sooD proved as unfavorable to his health as his applica- 
tioa to study, and he engaged in farm- work. H is health 
becoming restored, be entered the Western University of 
Puuisylvania, and graduated in 1828. In the fall of the 
same year he began the study of theology iu the seminary 
then under the care of his father ; was licensed to preach 
on the 38tb of April, 1831, and shortly after was called as 
pastor to Alleghany. But when the Presbytery met to or- 
igin and install him, he returned the call on account of a 
bemorrhage of the lung& The Presbytery, however, pn>> 
cecded with his ordination to the office of the ministry. 
This was on the 9th of October, 1832. Shortly after he 
siiled for Europe, and on his return, with every appear- 
iDoe of reaiored and established health, resumed preaoh- 
iot& and finally accepted a call by the large and influen- 
tial congregation of Robinsou^s Rim, in Uie vicinity of 
Pittsburg, September 2, 1884. But a little more than six 
nnQths later he was again attacked with hemorrhage 
of the longs, and demitted his pastoral charge. During 

• vacancy be discharged for a time the duties of pro- 
fessor of languages in the Western University of Penn- 
sylvania; afterwards of Biblical literature and criticism 
in the theological seminary, Alleghany. But his tastes 
and talents were for the pulpit, and he again accepted 

• can as a preacher, this time from the Third Church, 
Pittsburg, 18th of October, 1837. With that congrega- 
iwn he dosed his life on the 26th of January, 1840. 
Moses Kerr ** was a student from the love of study, and 
» tareful reader of the beat writings not only in theolo- 
i?, but iu literature generally. With a becoming ap- 
pTteiation of the demands of his profession, he aimed to 
««« his mind not only with the matter of text-books 
of the(4ogy and the works of past ages, but the fi«sh 
^^*<^<^>ions of living divines, and at the same time keep 
>9*ith the general advance of literature and science in 
'^ world. As a preacher he had capabilities which, 
*ith ordinary health and an ordinary length of life, must 
^ rendered him eminent in his profession.'* — Sprague, 
^■iali,ix,l66. 

Kersey, Jease. a minister of the Society of Friends, 
nsbom at York,Pk, in 1768. In his early youth his 
■•■tt was given to God. In his seventeenth year he 



experienced a call to the GosptX ministry, but still re<^ 
mained an apprentice to the trade of a potter about four 
years, and afterwards taught school. In 1804 he em- 
barked for England on a Gospel mission. In 1805 he 
returned to America, and in 1814 went on a religious 
mission to the Southern States, afterwards returning to 
his home, and continuing to labor and preach. He died 
near Kennet, Pa., in 1845. As a minister, Mr. Kersey's 
affability of manners, bis grave and dignified deport- 
ment, the somidness of his principles, the beauty and 
simplicity of bb style of address, heightened in their ef- 
fect by the depth of his devotional feelings, gave an in- 
terest and a charm which gained him many admirers. 
See Janney, Hi$t, of the Friendsy iv, 1 16. (J. L. S.) 

Keryktilc (from lajpvaauf to preachy i. e. the art 
ofpreachmgj is a modem name for UomUeticSy first intro- 
duced by Stier (^KeryktUc, 1830, 1846). Sec Ho3iiLETica. 

Keseph. See Silx^er. 

Kesitah (TO^to)?, A. V. "piece cf money," "piece 
of silver"). The meaning and derivation of this word, 
which only occurs thrice in the O.T., has been a subject 
of much controversy. The places where it is found- 
Gen, xxxiii, 19, recording Jacob's purchase of a piece of 
groimd at Shechem ; Josh, xxiv, 32, a verbal repetition 
from Genesis; and Job xlii, 11, where the presents made 
to Job are specified, and it is joined with rings of gold — 
indicate either the name of a coin or of some article used 
in barter. The principal explanations of the word are : 

1. That of the Sept. and all ancient versions, which 
render it " a tom6," either the animal itself or a coin 
bearing its impress (Hottinger, Diu, de Numm, Oriettt,\ 
a view which has been revived in modem times by the 
Danish bishop Mtmter in a treatise published at Copen- 
hagen, 1824, and more recently still by Mr. James Yates, 
Proc.o/JV«»iim.5octffy, 1837, 1838, p. 141. The entire 
want of any etymological ground for this interpretation 
has led Bochart {/Jierozoic, i, L 2, c. 8) to imagine that 
there had been a confusion in the text of the Sept. be- 
tween harliv fivdv and Uarov dfiviuVy and that this 
error has passed into all the ancient versions, which 
may be supported by the singular fact that in Gen. xxxi, 
7,41, we find W^it n'^iC? (A. V. " ten times," n:i3, how- 
ever, more usually standing for a particular weight) 
translated by the Sept. BtKa afivtoVf which it b diffictdt 
to account for on any supposition save that of a mbtake 
of the copyist for ftvUv, See Sheep. 

2. Others, adopting the rendering "lamb," have imag- 
ined a reference to a weight formed in the shape of that 
animal, such as we know to have been in use among 
the Egyptians and Assyrians, imitating bulls, antelopes, 
geese, etc (see Wilkinson's A nc, Egypt, ii, 10 ; Layard, 
Nineveh and BabyUm, p. 600-602 ; Lepsius, DetUcmalt, iii, 
pUte 39, No. 3). 

3. Faber, in the German edition of Ilarmer^t Ob$, ii, 
16-19, quoted by Gesenius {Thesaur, p. 1241), connects 

it with the S}Tiac kegta^ Heb. TO]?, " a vessel," an ety- 
mology accepted by Grotefend (bee below), and consid- 
ers it to have been either a measure or a silver vessel 
used in barter (comp. i£lian, F. //. i, 22). 

4. The most probable view, however, is that support- 
ed by Gesenius, RosenmllUer, Jahn, Kalisch, and the 
majority of the soundest interpreters, that it was, in 
Grotefend's words {Xumisnu Chron, ii, 248), " merely a 
silver weight of undetermined size, just as the most ui- 
cient shekel was nothing more than a piece of rough 
silver without any image or device." The lost root was 
perhaps akin to the Arabic A»«a/,"he divided equally.** 
Bochart, however {ut 8up,\ is disposed to alter the punc- 
tuation of the Shiny and to coimect the word with IdlZ^p, 
" tmth," adding " potuit p id est vera did moneta qu»- 
cunque habuit justum pondus,aut etiam moneta sincera 
et dri73^iyXoc." 

According to Rabbi Akiba, quoted by Bochart, a cer- 
tain coin bore this name in comparatively modem times, 

so that he would render the word by *^p31, odvaKt^, — 



KHONDS 



73 



KHONDS 



. 's .** For the safety of a gaest life and honor are 
tjied. He is "before a child." A murderer even 
IN nut be hurt in the house of his enemy ; it b doubt- 
if he ni*y be even starvtd in it. The Khond phys- 
^i;tiiny is clearly Turanian. The color varies from 
.Kar of light bamboo to a deep copper; the forehead is 
'uii^ the cheek-bones high, the nose broad at the point, 
I \n \ip« full, but not thick, and the mouth large. The 
Nhonds are of great bodily stren]^h and symmetry, well 
tifnrmed on common subjects, of quick comprehension, 
jtnd otherwise show considerable intellectual capability. 
Tbeir mode of salutation is with the hand raised over 
the bead. Their natural moral qualities are of mixed 
character. They are personally courageous and reso- 
lute. They have so great a love of personal liberty that 
ii b affirmed they have been known to tear out their 
tongues by the roots that they might perish rather than 
endore confinement. They are not very intensely st- 
ucbed to their tribal instit^itions, but have great devo- 
tion to the persons of their patriarchal chiefs. They 
hare, however, a great spirit of revenge, and are given 
to seasons of periodical intoxication. They drink a 
liquor made of the Mow flower, this tree being found 
near every hut and in the jungles. They are a '* na- 
tion of drunkards," and will drink any intoxicating bev- 
ertge, the stronger the better. 

Lows.— They have no code by which they are gov- 
erned, but faXk}w custom and usage. The right of prop- 
erty is recognised. Murder is left to private revenge 
or retaliation. In case of matrimonial unfaithfulness, 
the seducer may be put to death if the husband choose, 
or he may accept the entire property of the criminal in 
liea of his right to put him to death. Property stolen 
mmt be returned, or its equivalent given. There are 
•even judicial tests ; common oaths are administered on 
the skin of a tiger or liiard. Ordeals of boiling water 
sod oil are likewise resorted to. 

Arts ami Manufactures, — The Khonds manufacture 
axes, bows and arrows, a species of plough, and other 
impleinents; they dbtil liquor, extract oil, work in clay 
•nd metab, and dye their simple garments. Their 
hooHt are formed of strong boards, plastered inside. 

irmt and AgriatUure. — They use the sling, bow and 
inow% and a broad battle-axe, and adorn themselves 
for battle as for a feast. They raise rice, oils, millet, 
poise, fruits, tobacco, turmeric, mustard, etc No money 
other than ** cowries" (shells) was until recently known, 
an property being estimated in "■ lives," as of bullocks, 
boSsloea, goats, fowls, etc. Women share in the work 
of harvest and sowing. 

Dimuei and Remedies,— ¥or external wounds they 
Raoct to a poultice of warm mud, made of the earth of 
the snt^tuJlaL Thev also cauterize with a hot sickle 
over t wet doth. For internal ailments they have no 
nedidnes. They consider aU diseases to be supematu- 
nl, sod the priest, being the physician, must discover 
the deity that is displeased. He divides rice into small 
hespa, which he dedicates to sundry gods; then he bal- 
tnecs t sickle with a thread, puts a few grains upon 
etdi end of it, and calls iqx>n the names of the gods, 
vho answer by agitating the sickle, whereupon the 
i;raini ate counted, and if the number of them be odd 
he is offended. The priest becomes ** full of the god," 
ihakcs his head frantically, utters wild and incoherent 
■oitences, etc Deceased ancestors are invoked in the 
«Bne way, when offerings of fowls, rice, and liquor are 
nade, which subsequently become the priest's portion. 

Magical ami Superstitious Usages, — Spells, charms, 
''X^sntaticms, etc, are substituted for medicines; wiz- 
wds, witches, ghosts, sorcerers, augurs, astrologers, con- 
jorors, and all like means are in'constant use. Death 
»• n«)t a oecesoty, not the appointed lot of man ; it is a 
•pedal penalty of the gods, who destroy through war, 
or aanime the shapes of wild beasts to destroy mankind. 
Magicians may take away life. 

Mythology — (i) The catalogue of gods worshipped 
•mong the Khonds b extensive. (1.) At the head of 

v.— »♦ 



the pantheon b the Earth^Ooddess, who, with the sun, 
receives the principal worship. The Earth-Goddess b 
the superior power, and presides over the productive 
energies of nature. She b malevolent, and b invoked 
in war. She controb the seasons, and sends the period- 
ical rains. To her human sacrifices were offered. There 
are, besides her, (2.) a God of Limits, who fixes bounda- 
ries, and whose altar b on the highways. (8.) The sun 
and moon ; ceremonially worshipped. (4.) The God of 
Arms, to whom a grove is devoted. (5.) The God of 
Hunting, worshipped by parties who hunt in companies 
of thirty or forty, and surround their game. (6.) The 
God of Births, worshipped in case of barrenness. (7.) 
The God of Small-pox, who " sows" that disease as men 
do the earth with seeds. (8.) The Hill -god, without 
formal worship. (9.) The Forest-god, to whom birds, 
hogs, and sheep are offered. (10.) The God of Rain. 
(11.) Of Fountains. (12.) Of Rivers. (13.) Of Tanks; 
and (14.) the village gods, who are the guardians of lo- 
calities, and of domestic and familiar worship. 

(n.) Besides the above principal gods there are infe- 
rior local or partially aclmowleidged gods, worshipped 
under symbob of rude stone smeared with turmeric, etc. 
The great conservative principle b worshipped. 

Pr»e«^Aood— The abbayas are the priestis, but thb of- 
fice may be assumed by others. Priests eat only with 
priests; take part in marriages, elections, political coun- 
cils, etc They are of about the same level of culture 
as those of other tribes among Turanian races. 

Religious Rites and Sacrifices, — Nothing was definite- 
ly known of the tribes of Giimsur until the British army 
was brought into collision vrith them in 1836, subse- 
quently to which the custom of human sacrifices was 
discovered to exist among them. The Britbh govern- 
ment, after a long series of efforts, succeeded in abolbh- 
ing it. Major Campbell says, *^ The Khonds generally 
propitiated their deity (the Earth-Goddess) with human 
offerings (p. 88, 39). Thb had been handed down 
through successive generations, and was regarded as a 
national duty. In Giimsur it b offered under the efiigy 
of a bird, in other localities as an elephant (p. 51). The 
victim, called Meriah^ must be purchased, may be of 
any age, sex, or caste, adults being best, and the more 
costly the more acceptable. These are purchased fVom 
relations in time of famine or poverty, or are stolen 
from other regions by professed kidnappers of the Panoo 
caste (p. 52). In some cases Meriah women were al- 
lowed to live until they had borne children to Khond 
fathers, the children being reared for sacrifice. . . . The 
sacrifice, to be efficacious, must be public (p. 53). In 
Giimsur it was offered annuaUy. The priest officiates. 
For a month previous there b much feasting, dancing, 
intoxication, etc One day before, the victim b stupe- 
fied with toddy, and bound, sitting, at the bottom of a 
post bearing an ^f^^. The crowd dance, and say, 'O 
god, we offer thb sacrifice to you ; give us good crops, 
seasons, and health.' To the victim they say, 'We 
bought you with a price, and did not seize you ; now 
we sacniSce you according to our custom, and no sin 
rests with us' (p. 55). Various other ceremonies are 
performed, after which they return to the post near the 
village idol, always represented by three stones, a hog 
b sacrificed, the blood flows into a pit, the human vic- 
tim, having been intoxicated, b thrown in and suffoca- 
ted in the bloody mire The priest cuts a piece of the 
flesh and buries it; others do likewise, carrying the 
flesh to their own villages. In some cases the flesh b 
cut while the victim is yet alive, and buried as a sacred 
and supernatural manure." 

Cognate Tribes, — These and other aboogiiuil races 
have received so much attention from ethnographers, 
philologers, and other scientific men that further detaib 
are not needed here The prominence given to these 
aboriginal races of late years might justify full articles 
on the kindred tribes, but, as they are of substantially 
of the same level, we have chosen to make a tolerably 
full sketch of the Khonds, as typical of the aboriginal 



KNEELING 



125 



KNEPH 



ft loud Toioe,'* praying for his murderers (Acts vii, 60) ; 
Peter likewise " kneeled down and prayed'' (Acts ix, 40) ; 
l*aal also (Acts xx, 36 ; xxi, 5). That the posture was 
a customar}' one may be inferred from the conduct of 
the man beieeching Christ to heal his son (Matt, xvii, 
14), and of the rich young man (Mark x, 17), as also of 
the lepeT (Mark i, 40) ; yea, we have even the example 
\3t Christ himself, who, according to Luke (xxii, 14), 
** kn««led down" when he prayed. That the practice 
was general among the early Christians is plain from 
the Skephfrd of Hennas, from Eusebius's History (ii, 33), 
and from numberless other authorities, and especially 
^m the solemn proclamation made by the deacon to 
the people in all the liturgies, ** Flectamus genua"* (Let 
m bend our knees), whereupon the people knelt till, at 
the cloee of the prayer, they received a corresponding 
rammons, *• Levate" (Arise), and from the fact that prayer 
itself was termed tXhiq yovarwv, bending the knees. 

In the days of Irensus, and for some time after, four 
postures were in use among Christians, namely, stand- 
ing (for which see reason below), prostration (as a sign 
of deep and extraordinary humiliation), bowing, and 
kiK^ling. The posture of sitting during the time of 
public prayer, of modem days, seems to have been un- 
known to the eariy Christians. Kneeling at public de- 
votions was the common practice during the six work- 
in;* days, and was understood by the early Church to 
d^iote humility of mind before God, and ** as a symbol 
of oar (an by sin.^ A standing posture in worship (ex- 
plained as being emblematic of Christ's resurrection from 
the dead, and the forgiveness of sins, and also as being a 
sign of the Christian's hope and expectation of heaven) 
was assumed by the early Christian worshippers (ex- 
cept penitents) on Sundays and during the fifty days 
between Easter and Whitsuntide, '^ as a symbol of the 
re«irrection, whereby, through the grace of Christ, we 
rise again from our falL" Cassian says of the Egyptian 
chorches that from Saturday night to Sunday night, 
snd all the days of Pentecost, they neither knelt nor fast- 
ed. The Apt>stolical Constitutions order that Christians 
should praj- three limes on the Lord's day, standing, in 
honor of him who rose the third day from the dead, and 
in the writings of Chrysostom we meet with frequent 
allnaiaiis to the same practice, especially in the ofl-re- 
pMted form by which the deacon called upon the people 
to pray, " Let us stand upright with reverence and de- 
cennr." Tertullian says, " We count it unlawful to fast, 
or to worship kneeling, on the Lord's day, and we enjoy 
the lanoe immunity from Easter to Pentecost." This 
pnwtice was confirmed by the Council of Nice, for the 
Mke of uniformity, and it is from this circumstance, 
probably, that the Ethiopic and Muscovitish churches 
ai4>pted the attitude of standing generally, a custom 
which they continue to this day. From Cyril's writ- 
ij?» it would appear that also at the celebration of the 
Kueharitt a standing attitude was assumed by the early 
Christians. He saj-s " it was with silence and downcast 
eyes, bowing themselves in the posture of worship and 
►iwration." The exact period when kneeling at the 
Lwl's Supper became general cannot be ascertained, but 
it has prevailed for many centuries, and it is now gener- 
tOy. though not altogether, practiced as the proper pos- 
ture for communicants. 

In ordination, also, a kneeling posture was early prac- 
lictiL Dionysius says, "The person to be ordained 
Itiki-led bcft»re the bishop at the altar, and he, laying his 
hami upon his head, did consecrate him with a holy 
I<Tayer, and then signed him with the sign of the cross, 
»ft*r which the bishop and the clergy present gave him 
the kiss of peace." It would appear, however, that bish- 
'«p« efcct did not relish much the humiliating posture of 
'oM^ling at their ordination, for Theodoret informs us 
^^« '•it was a customary rite to bring the person about 
^' be ordained bishop to the holy table, and make him 
'T^l upon his knees by force:' But this, no doubt, was 
* -4^ificaiit mmle of showing with what reluctance men 
•j-juld untkrtakc so imiwrtaut, so weighty a charge as 



that of bbhop in the Church of Jesus Christ. Indeed, 
so solenm a^d onerous were its responsibilities esteemed, 
that we read of several who absconded as soon as they 
understood that the popular voice had chosen them to 
fill this honorable post ; and many of them, when cap- 
tured, were brought by force to the holy altar, and there, 
against their will and inclination, were ordained by the 
imposition of hands, being held down on their knees by 
the oflScers of the church. See Election of Clkrgv. 

In the Roman Catholic Church the act of kneeling be- 
longs to the highest form of worship. It Ls especially 
practiced in the performance of monastic devotions and 
in acts of penance. It is also frequently employed dur- 
ing the mass, and in the presence of the consecrated ele- 
ments when reserved for subsequent communion. In 
acts of penance this Chiuxh has carried the practice to 
great excess, subjecting the penitent to sufferings which 
remind us of the legend told of St. James, that he con- 
tracted a hardness on his knees equal to that of camels 
because he was so generally on his knees. " Instances,'* 
says Eadie, *^are innumerable, and ever recurring in th'^ 
Romish Church, of delicate women being obliged to 
walk on rough pavements, for hours in succession, on 
their bare knees, until at length nature, worn out by the 
injurious and demoralizing exercise, compels them to 
desist. To encourage the penitent and devout in acts 
of this nature, the most wonderful tales are related of 
the good resulting from self- mortification and entire 
submission to the stem discipline of the Church." See 
the article Genuflexion. 

In the Anglican Church the rubric prescribes the 
kneeling posture in many parts of the service, and this, 
as well as the practice of bowing the head at the name of 
Jesus, was the subject of much controversy with the Pu- 
ritans. A like controversy was in 1888 provoked in Ba- 
varia by a ministerial decree obliging Protestants to join 
Romanists in this ceremony when required of them, and 
ended only with its repeal in 1844 (for details on this 
point, see the Roman Catholic version in Wetzer und 
Welte, Kirchen Lex, vi, 236 ; the Protestant side in Her- 
zog, fieal-Encyklopddief s. v. Baiem). See Eadie, Eccles, 
Lid. s. v.; Farrar, Eccles. Diet, s. v. ; Hook, Church IHct, 
s. v.; Riddle, Christian Antiquities^ 391 sq., 631 sq. ; Cole- 
man, Christian Antiquities (see Index). 

Kneph or Knuphis, also kno>\'n undrr the name 
of NuM ( r Nef, in Egyp- 
tian mythology b the old- 
est designation of deity, 
and signifies cither spirit or 
watery perhaps in allusion 
to the Spirit of God, who 
"in the beginning moved 
upon the face of the wa- 
ters." Greatly distorted by 
the priests, the legend is in 
brief that from his mouth 
came the egg which gave 
existence to all things tem- 
poral ; hence the egg is 
his svmbol ; likewise the 
snake, which assumes the 
shape of a ring, to indicate 
his eternal existence. His 
representation is frequent- 
ly found on Eg}'ptian monuments, sometimes with a 
snake holding an egg between its head and tail. The 
Egyptians of Thebes knew only this one god to be im- 
mortal; all others they supposed to be more or less sub- 
ject to temporal changes. 

In the later idolatry Kneph was the special god of 
Upper Egypt, where he was representcnl in human 
shape, with the head of a ram ; still regardtnl as tho 
creator of other gods, he was figured at Elephantine 
sitting at a potter's wheel fashioning the limbs of Osiris, 
while the god of the Nile is pouring water on the clay. 
"The idea," says Trevor (Anc. K;r;ivU p. 13n, "seems 
to be the same as in Job (x, 8, 9 ; Rom. ix, 23) : * Thine 




Figure uf Kneph. 




Andeot ^TptiMl Ptlul Knlim (trom 

In tmbalmlng. 

i. Id tbeir nmli ibe Jewa,Uke athei Orientib, made 
buie IK of knives, but they were cequtnd for ulaugliieT- 
ing uiinaU eilhetflirraodor wcriBce,uweU as for cut- 
ting ap tbe careaw (Lev. vLi, 33, S4 ; Tiii, 15,20,25; ix, 
13^Numb.xviii,I8; 1 Sam.ix, J4; £xek.utiv,4; Ezn 
1,9; Mut.xxvi,23; KuwU, . I ^Tftt, i, 173 ; WUIunwHi, 
1,169; Mi*luu,rin»i/,iv,»i. See Eatiko. 



tj KNIGHTHOOD 

earofSLSepulcbre'B, London. Nothing further is known 
to UB of hU peraoEul history. He wrote in Dt/ena of 
(ieDortrwKo/MeT'rviilj two (reMi8e«(171i-ia), which 
are highly cominended by Dr. WiC«rluid (Mnyer's Leo- 
turea). Knight also publiahed five aeparalc Strmoai 
(17I9-8S), and eight semons dcUvereJ at Udy Moyer'a 
Leclorein 1720-ai (i7ai,8vo).— Allibone,Z>ic(.q/'jyi^ 

Knlgbt, Jamaa (2},aCongre(;ali<>nal iDiniiIer,waa 
bora at Halifax, Yorkshire, England, J uly 19, 17G9, and 
HIS educated tor the miniBlry at Homettou College, 
where he is uid !« have made rapid attuiimenta in Kb- 
lical ecience. Upon hia graduation be was called to tbe 
Church in Collieiskeutu, Soul liwark, where he waa or- 
dained in 1791. In ISSfl he resigned hia pastorale there, 
after a Taithful and succeatful Nrrice. lie was one tit 
the Tuundere of the London Misaionary Society. Mr. 
Knight's sermons, some of which have been published, 
were celebrated for their sacred urn^iuo, and their tboi- 
uugb and searching appeals Co Che conscience. His em- 
inent piety was both the strength and orruunenC c^ his 
character. He knew how oat only xo discuss a subject 
with logical precision, hue also to infuse into ic cbe spir- 
it of vital evangelical piety. Se« Hoiison, Jf unmary 
Falien. 

Enlgbt, Jo«l AbrabMn, ■ Methodist minister, 
ir>sbomacHnll,Yorkshire,Eiigland,ApTil2S,lTM; was 
ordained at Spatields Chapel, London, March 9, 1788, 
where he was also appointed master of the chaticy 
Bcbnol and assisCant preacher. In 17SS he preached at 
Penconville Chapel, and in 1789 became pastor of (he 
Tabernacle and Tottenham Court chapela, London, a po- 
sition which he occapied until his death, April 22, IBOS. 
Mr. Knight was a zealous worker in the fotmation and 
proceedings of the London Misiuomuy Society in 1795. 
His sennons, some of which were published in London 
in 1788-9, were always richly imbued with the distin- 
guishing doctrintB of evangelical Christianity, but they 
espedally taught that "the cordial reception of the doc- 
trine of salvation by grace must necessarily produce 
obedience to the law of God." In speech he was inva- 
riably chaste, and in manner atfectionate and pathetic 
— Morison, Mimmary Fatheri. 

Knight, BkihudI, D.D., an English divine of note, 
was bom in London in IG76, and was educated at St. 
Paul's School and at Trinity College, Cambridge. He 
first became chaplain to Edward,earl of Oxford, and was 
by bim preMoled to the rectory of Boraogh-gieen, in 
Cambridgeshire, in 1707 ; waa made prebendary of Ely 
and i«ctor of Blunteabun (Huntingdonshire) in 1714; 
became chaplain Co George H in 1730, and waa promuted 
to the archdeaconry of Berks in 1736. He died Dec IG, 
1746. Between the years 1721 and 1708 he published 
several of his ^frwifu. He also wrote Li/c o/Z>r. Join 
Cola, Dean o/BUPauFi (London, 1724, Svo; new edit. 
Oxford, 1828, 8vo):—/.i/eo/fi'rn»miu(Cambridge,l726, 
iivtt).—GairTidBiog.DkL\-\u,KtH.; Allibone, Z>Kf. o/ 
Emjfi. and A tner. A ulSon, vol. ii, a. v. 

Enigbthood, the condition, honor, and ranic of ■ 
knight, al» the service due fWim a knight, and the ten. 
ure of land by such service. In a secondary sense, the 
word ia employed to denote the class of linighia— the 
aggregate body of any particuUr knightly association; 
the institution itself, and the siurit of the institution. 
In these remoter meanings it becomes identical with 
Ckiralry, and it is in this point of view that it will 
principally be considered here. The term is one of 
various signiAcance, and n, therefore, apt for ambign- 
ities; it is one whose applications were of gradual de- 
velopment, and which is, accordingly, of diverse histor- 
ical import. Its explanation is thus necessarily intri- 
cate anil multifarious, and care is requisite to avoid 
confounding different things, or dilTerent phases of the 
same thine, "t"!*' the siuKle common nsme. Neglect 
of this precaution has occaaioiiHl much of the eitrava- 



KNIGHTHOOD 



129 



KNIGHTHOOD 



ed, to eomfoit the wretched, to repieas or punish wrong, 
■od in all honor to uphold and to do the right. 

" He had abroad in arroes wonne machell fame, 
And flld fkr landes with glorie of his might ; 
PUdne, Caithfnl, tnie, and enlmy of shame, 
Aud erer lov'd to light for ladies right; 
Bat in vaine-gloriocM frayea he litle did delight** 

While these calamitous generations writhed through 
their long agony in France, the progress of the Holy 
Warfare in Spain against the Saracens invited and en- 
riched the princes, nobles, and adventurers who fought for 
the Cross against the Crescent. Religious fervor was thus 
intimately conjoined with martial prowess. But, both 
in Fiance and Spain, and, in less degree, in other coun- 
tries, similar necessities concurred in the production of 
Hkc phenomena. In all cases there was a relaxation 
of the direct connection of military achievement with 
landed estates and feudal subordination. High moral 
qualities and Chrisdan zeal were required of the land- 
less or lonely knight, or were annexed as requirements 
to complete the character of the accomplished feudal 
TiasaL Thus the true knight came to be distinguished 
from the knight by feudal tenure; though the feudal 
knight might possess, and was expected to possess, 
knightly characteristics in addition to his feudal do- 
main and ita attendant obligations. 

Doobtkas in France and Spain, and elsewhere, chiv- 
alrous emprise was enoouragCMl, if not originated by the 
Church, the sole moral authority of those days, which 
was snxioua for peace, earnest for order, vowed to the 
maintenance of right, and eager to subordinate to spir- 
itual rale and guidance the military ardor and the tem- 
poral power of the time. 

All th»e influences and all these tendencies, of va- 
rious age and origin, converged and commingled, with 
•ogmeoted energy in each, in the Crusades. These ro- 
mantic and persistent enterprises may have been under- 
taken and prolonged by the instigation and for the in- 
ternt of the Papacy, but they were none the less the 
outbunt of popular enthusiasm, and of a popular en- 
thtttiasm which gave form and active reality to an in- 
stinctive perception of urgent polic}\ Whole nations 
tre not impelled for centuries to arduous and perilous 
Bttdenakings by any extrinsic force ; the enduring im- 
pohe by which they are set and kept in motion must 
be a living power in their own boeoros, ^ bequeathed by 
Meeding sire to son." Looking back fh>m the safe van- 
Unge ground, which has been secured only within two 
hondred years, it is difficult to appreciate justly the 
alanning dangers to which ChrisUanity and Christian 
Qttioas were exposed from Moslem aggression at the 
<^)aHDenceroent of the second millennium of our sera. 
The apprehension was not dispelled entirely till the 
rictory of John Sobieski under the waUs of Vienna 
(1683). It is equally difficult to estimate now the effect 
of a wild, warlike fanaticism against Saracens and Pa- 
f^tns in implanting the recently acquired and imper- 
fnrtiy received creed in turbulent spirits, and perhaps 
Rill more difficult to recognise the service rendered by 
Uie Holy Wars in diffusing and deepening the sentiment 
uf a common faith, a common interest, a common civil- 
i^tion throughout Western Europe — a Christendom, or 
•ominion of Christ. 

AU of these feelings were quickened by the Crusades, 
■nd were both exalted and rendered, in some sort, self- 
•wious by them. It must be remembered that the 
'^Midei did not begin with Peter the Hermit and the 
Coandl of Oermout, but that the crusading spirit had 
^ previously manifested and cherished in Spxain, in 
Sdly, and in Northern Africa. This spirit onlv re- 
<^Ted Its full development and deAnite purpose by be- 
">g directed to the recovery of Jerusalem. Through 
'^^tant Asiatic expeditions the desultory' and unregu- 
'^ adventure for the maintenance of Christian belief 
*i>d Christian security was generalized, organized, dis- 
'^'Bned, and refined. The disorderiy violence of mar- 
tial barons was withdrawn from dom'estic discords, and 

v.— 6 



guided to a great European aim. War was in some 
degree sanctified ; it was ennobled, at least in the con- 
ception of the warrior, by being employed for the de- 
fence and maintenance of the faith. A strange but not 
unfruitful union was thus effected between devotion 
and military prowess. There is no question here of 
the use which was made of this combination for the 
extension of ecclesiastical domination. All that is con- 
templated is the consequence of this union in the pro- 
duction of chivalry and of the knightly character— a 
magnificent and previously unimagined ideal, however 
far human vices, and passions, and frailties may have 
prevented the perfect realization of that ideal. Is Chris- 
tianity to be condemned in these late ages because so 
few of those who profess its behests reach their per- 
formance, and because so many fail to add the Christian 
graces to the plainer merits of Christian belief and mor- 
als? The vision of the Holy Grail may visit this sor^ 
rowful earth, but it is not on earth that it can be won 
even by Sir Galahad. 

Another influence must be admitted to have exercised » 
a beneficial effect on the formation of knighthood. This 
is the contact and comparison with the intellectual and 
social culture of the degenerate Greeks, and with the 
elegance and courtesy of the Saracens. Thb influence 
must have commenced eariy, for Bohemond, and Tan- 
cred, and Raymond of Toulouse, and Crodfrey of Bouil- 
lon, and Robert of Normandy carried with them to the 
Holy Land in the First Crusade much of that courtly 
bearing and generous sentiment which did not become 
generally disseminated through the Christian West, or 
through the nobility at home, till the Second and Third 
Crusades. These qualities may have been directly and 
indirectly communicated by the Saracens in Spain, Sic- 
ily, and Southern France. 

Old institutions of the German forest life : the effects 
of feudal organization and of feudal society ; the neces- 
sities of a ravaged, mined, and distracted country ; the 
operation of religious zeal, and even of general religious 
fanaticism ; the action of the priesthood, and collision 
with cultivated Greeks and brilliant Saracens, all con- 
tributed to the formation of the type of a Christian 
soldier — a true knight, a preux chetaUer, $ans tAcke et 
gam reproche. The judgment is accordingly correct 
which regards the sra of the Crusadea, when the regu- 
lar and permanent Orders were instituted, as the true 
period of the formation of that Meal of knighthood 
which b one of the most precious bequests for which 
modem times are indebted to the Middle Ages. Un- 
doubtedly there was a previous growth of the same 
kind, but the growth did not proceed to mature and 
perfect fhiitage until all agencies were efficaciously 
combined on the sacred soil of Palestine. 

It is a cause of great embarrassment in endeavoring 
to ascertain the characteristics and origin of any insti- 
tution which has widely prevailed in obscure ages, that 
such institutions only gradually assume the complete 
form which is their familiar shape, that many concur- 
rent streams flow in at different periods and add their 
contributions, and that the darkness of the foregone 
time affords every opportunity and every temptation to 
throw back into the past those characteristics which 
only belong to the institution in its final development. 
The same confusion which presented Virgil as a necro- 
mancer to medieval fancy, and made Theseus a feudal 
duke of Athens in the imagination of Chaucer and 
Shakespeare, and exhibited E>an Hector and Sir Alex- 
ander to the admiring regards of baronial circles in thi 
thirteenth century, pushed back the distinctions of 
Icnighthood to periods in which the germs of chivalry 
existed only in a loose and disconnected form. ^ 
this glamour the Arthurian cycle and the Carlovingian 
myths were fashioned, and the inventions and ideas of 
the twelfth century were provided with a historical ex- 
istence in the sixth and eighth. After knighthood be- 
came an established institution, it prevailed so widely 
and so generally that it seemed to be a necessary part 



*^TTE 



1 55 KORNTHAL, SOCIETY OF 



uv 



-'^re \ow and a 
^/•v . - power had 

^~ .r of the lle- 

< A pilgrimage 

.•>i suffer him to 

' recognition as a 

.elves by a formal 

anally entered. In 

' »pend a three-days' 

a. The unfortunate 

iris Mohammed during 

I [iilxildened him to seek 

[ • achery, and at the head 

Ik- marched against Mec- 

h^<l time to prepare for the 

I'coame master of the place, 

Icdgment as chief and proph- 

> Tall prostrate at his feet were 

-h. " What mercy can you ex- 

M . u ra you have wronged ?** " We 

ro^ity of our kinsman.** "And you 

111 vain; begone! You are safe, you 

(he conquest of Mecca the victory of 

1 was secured in all Arabia, and for the 

.iti^ this event we must refer to Moham- 

> 1 xMMEDANiSM. For the detail of the three 

\. am, »ee references in Milman's Ciibbon, ii, 

' ux) Mecca; Mkdina. (J.H.W.) 

>: bite (^Exod. vi, 24; xxvi, 1; 1 Chron. xii, 6; 
. XX, 19). See Korah. 

Kormczai Kniga, the Russian '^ corpus juris ca- 

. .." or canomical lawy is supposed to have become 

l^v^^^ae^on of the Russians in the days of Vladimir 

■ dreau The oldest Codex of the Kormczai Kniga 

tt( 9 from 1380, and was found in the cathedral at Nov- 

•nxl; lis style of language has led to the suppo- 

•.ti«)D that it was translated by a southern Russian. 

TLe Greek original has never yet been found. The Co- 

titx was first printed Nov. 7, 1650, at Moscow; in a 

hifDewbat modified form, it was printed by the Ras-Kol- 

niki (q.v.), a Russian sect at Warsaw, in 1786. Since 

that date several editions have been published. 

The Codex, in its treatment of ecclesiastical law, is 
divided into seventy chapters, of which forty-one, mak- 
ing part i, contain the canons of the apostles, the coun- 
dk, Slid the canonical letters; the remaining chapters, 
making part ii, contain the laws of the Byzantine em- 
pcron^ and different treatises on ecclesiastical law. The 
wock also contains historical contributions on the Greek 
aod Rusdan Church, the Nomocanon of Photius, a notice 
uf the name and edition of the work, the edict and gift 
of C4»stantine to Sylvester (q. v.), and a polemical trea- 
tise against the Latins. See Schlosser, Morgenl, ortho- 
dot* Kirc^ Rus^tmtU (Heidelb. 1845) ; Strahl, Beitrdgt 
z, ntnscken KirckengeMch. (HaUe, 1827), p. 14; Asch- 
hach, JTircA^n-Lcxicon, iii, 918. Comp. Photius; Rus- 
«U5Chubch. (J.H.W.) 

Kdraer, Jouakn Gottfribd, a German theologian, 
was boro at Weimar Nov. 16, 1726, entered Leipzig Uni- 
renity in 1743, and in 1749 became catechet at St. Pe- 
ter'i Chofth in that city. In 1752 he was made sub- 
dean at Thomas Church, in 1756 at St. Nicholas Church, 
and in 1775 became archdeacon. Some time after this 
he was appointed regular professor of theology and su- 
perintendent of the churches of Leipzig. He died Jan- 
aary 4, 1785. Komer wrote considerably, but his com ri- 
boUoos to Church History are of especial value. His 
most important works are, Epitome controvtrnarum the- 
ologicarum (Lipsias, 1769, 8vo) : — Vom Colibat der Geigt- 
HAen (ibidem, 1784, 8vo) : — Erasmi sententia de symbolo 
Qfdttolioo ear Rufato d^fensa (ibid, 1749, 4to).— Doring, 
OdArle TheoL DeutsdUands, ii, 157 sq. 

Kommaiin, Rufrrt, a Roman Catholic priest, was 
bora at Ingolstadt in 1759 ; entered the cloister of Prif- 
Ibg in 1776 ; took the vow in 1777, and was made priest 
ia 1780i In order farther to prosecute his theological 



studies he went to the University of Salzburg, holding 
at the same time the chaplaincy at Nonnenbeig. In 
1790 he was made abbot of the cloister of Prifling. He 
retired from this monastery after its secularization, and 
died Sept. 23, 1817. Among his many writings we have 
Die SibyUe derZeitj aus der Vorteit,oder politisch^ Grund- 
sdtze durch die Geschichte beicdhrty n^t einer Abkemd" 
lung ub.diepolUi$che Divination (Frankf. and Leips. 1810, 
2 vols.8vo) iStbgile d^ Religion aus der WeU" md J/m- 
8chen-ge»chichte, nehst emer A bhandlmtg Ober di$ goldenen 
Zeitalter (Munich, 1813, 8vo) : — Nachtrdge tu den beiden 
Sibyllen (with a biography of the author, Regensburg, 
1818, 8 vo).— Wetzer und Welte, Kirchen-Lexikony voL vi, 

8. V. 

Komtha], Society ol^ a German religious com- 
munity, which bears its name from the place where it 
originated, Komthal, in Wurtimberg. Rationalistic in- 
fluences in the WUrtemberg Church had occasioned 
changes in the liturg}' (1809) obnoxious to many who 
adhered more strictly to the old Lutheraninn. The 
millenarian influence of Jung Stilling and Michael Hahn 
incited among this class an inclination to migrate, espe- 
cially to Russia, where, near Tiflis, in 1816-17, several 
WUrtemberg settlements were formed, while many hun- 
dred families were making ready to follow. The king 
sought means to restrain this movement, and in 1819 
accepted the suggestions of Gottlieb Wilholm Hoflinann, 
burgomaster of Leonburg. The latter, m consequence 
of deep religious impressions received in his youth, was 
in sympathy with the Pietists, and now proposed to re- 
tain for the state a valuable class of citizens by securing 
for them the establishment of a community similar to 
that authorized at Konigsberg under king Frederick, 
simply independent in its religious matters of the Lu- 
theran Consistory. The motive was Pietistic, and not 
schismatic Hoffmann's scheme sought to realize the 
spirit of the apostolic age; required as condition of mem- 
bership ^* a regenerate state of heart, manifested in a 
true life which springs from a sense of pardoned sin ;** 
and demanded careful education of children both men- 
tal and industrial, as well as charitable and missionary 
work. The community, as established, arose from the 
combination of three distinct elements, viz., the Old- 
Church Pietism represented by Hoffmann, the Moravian 
ideas appearing ui the constitution and Church service, 
and the partially millenarian \-iews of Hahn to which 
the majority adhered. 

Michael Hahn, known among the people as " Michel,** 
was at this time sixty-two years old. His spirit was 
that of Jacob Bohme. 0)nverted at the age of twenty, 
he passed at that period, and subsequently, through an 
experience of religious ecstasy. Persecuted by his fam- 
ily and neighbors, he lived ascetically, was much in 
prayer, addressed religious assemblies, and soon won 
thousands of adherents, who sought him in Sindlingen, 
where he settled in 1794. His writings were dissemi- 
nated in manuscript, and in 1817 his followers numbered 
18,000. Hahn's teaching, with it« acknowledged de- 
fects, brought a spirit of practical activity to the aid of 
a too subjective Pietism. The Komthal society was 
founded Jan. 12, 1819, and Hahn was chosen its presi- 
dent, but he died on the 20th of the same month. See 
Hahn, Michaei^ 

The Constitution of the community seeks to realize 
rather the union of the religious and civil orders than 
their separation. Truly patriarchal under the presi- 
dency of" Father" Hoffmann, who died in 1846, it is real- 
ly based on the idea of the universal priesthoo*! of Chris- 
tians. Not the clergy, but the community, is the final 
authority. The latter ("die Gliterkaufsgesellschafl") 
is the original possessor of the land, from whose author- 
ity it cannot be alienated. The lordship of Komthal, 
1000 acres, all its buildings, gardens, vineyards, woods, 
was purchased for 1 13,000 gulden, and given out by lot 
to each member. Money can be borrowed only from 
the common chest, and no debts can be contracted by 
members outside the commw^*" * *«^mon coundl 



sms 



KRECHLING 



161 



KRISHNA 



1 ^fffiBe> 



, °*' P'^Aitifc./^ %, 1870. " Brother Krebs was a perspicuous preacher, 
"^^lu^.jjd*^ tqpcilia method, earnest in manner, although not ve- 
** « /Sii* * . . koaent, and eminently diligent in preparation. He was 
''^ Ok Mi^ .^ 1^ a notably faithful pastor. Five years of hb minis- 
^'^^^i^;^ tnr vere spent in Washington, five in Baltimore, and 
^ ^/^ fi«ri.% <»* "» Chicago, and everywhere the Lord owned his la- 
* i*^i;-i;^ ■ bon.'-Con/er«« Miimtes, 1871, p. 19. 
f <VOs?* I, Krechling. See Anab^vptists. 
^ • ^«tfe« ^ KrelL Sec Crei.u 

'*'f%»«r sf V Krey, Joha^js Bernhard, a German theologian, 
^i^UL 1 WW boro at l^J6U)ck Dec. 6, 1771, and was educated at 
^^ ^^ncr, the imireraity in that city and at Jena. In 1806 he 
iedrid^ i G^. ^^ ippointe^ assistant pastor at St. Peter s Church in 
h J(Bt44K f ^""t^^ck, and in 1814 t>ecaroe the principal pastor. He 
died Oct, 6, 1826. He published Beitrdge zur Mecklen- 
Ur^uden Kirchm- u. gelehrten Geschichte (Rost. 1818- 
Wi^ 3 vols, royal 8vo). For a list of his works, see 1>'6- 
nB^,Grkkrfe Theol. JJeufschlandSj ii, 207 sq. 

Kiider, Barnabas Scott, a Presbyterian minister, 
was boro in 1825, in liowan County, North Carolina ; re- 
ceired his education in Davidson College, N. C, where 
be graduated in 1850; and completed his theological 
stodio in Columbia, S. C, and Princeton, N. J., semina- 
fiu in 1855. In 1856 he was ordained and installed as 
ptftor of Bethany and Tabor churches, and in 1858 took 
chirge of Unity and Franklin churches, N. C. The year 
succeeding he became pastor at Thyatira, where he died 
Oct. 19, 1865. Krider ** was popular in address, judicious 
and practical, and won the affection of bis people.** — 

^' ^ '" ' ' * WiJion, Prtsb, UUtorical Almanac, 1866. 

wbOT.ifai., Krinon. See Lily. 

Kripner, Samuel, a German divine of some note, 
born at Schwabelwald, in the duchy of Baireuth, 
March 31, 1695; entered Jena University in 1716, and 
in 1727 wai» appointed professor of Greek and the Ori> 
eotal languages at the gymnasium in Baireuth. He 
died Oct. 15, 1742. For a list of his writings, mainly 
dittenations, see Doring, Gekhrte TheoL Deutschlandiy ii, 
210 sq. 

Krighna was the eighth and most celebrated of the 
t«e chief incarnations of the god Vishnu, who, together 
with Brahma and Siva, constituted the divine triad of 
the Hindu mythology. See Trimurti. The term 
Krishna is a Sanscrit word signifying bladt, and was 
girra to the incarnation either because the body as- 
Auned was of a black comf^exion, or, more properly, be- 
cause of the relation of the avatar to a deity whose dis- 
tinguishing color was black, as that of Brahma was red, 
and Siva was white ; or for a reason implied in the ci- 
tation from Porphjrry (Eusebius, De Prrepar, Evcmg,')^ 
that the ancients represented the Deity by a black stone 
becnise his nature is obscure and impenetrable by man. 
See farther, Maurice, Indian AntiquiHes, ii, 364-868; 
rrichard*s Egtfpt, MythoL p. 285; Maurice, Hittory of 

Krishna is the moet renowned demigod of the Indian 
nytholo^, and most famous hero of Indian history. It 
ia probable that when the story of his life is stripped of 
its mythological accidents it will be found that he was 
a htatorical personage belonging to the Aryan race when 
thgy were making their gradual inroads south and east 
in the peninsula of India. It is presumable that the 
enemies whom he attacked and subdued were the Tura- 
nian races who constituted the aborigines of the coun- 
try [»ee Kho!«i>s], and who, fighting fiercely and mer- 
cikaBly in their primeval forests, were soon magnified 
into ffodB and demigods. See Mythology. 

L Thtory of the Jmximation, — Krishnaism, with all 
its imp'^rfections, may be accounted as a necessary and 
the extreme revolt of the human heart against the un- 
wtwfying vagaries of the godless philosophy into which 
Bnahmanism and Buddhism had alike degenerated. The 
^Kcialntions of the six schools of philosophy, as enumer- 
ated by native writers, sored only to bewUder the mind 
the word maya, " iUosion,** was evolved as the ex- 
of all that belongs to the present life, while the 

Y.— 6 



I 



"T* 



r- » 



t 

1 



awful mysteriousness of Nirvana overshadowed the life 
to come. Man's nature asks for light upon the per- 
plexed questions of mortal existence, but at the same 
time demands that which is of more moment, an an- 
chorage for the soul in the near and tangible. The 
ages had been preparing the Hindu mind for the dogma 
of Krishna — an upheaving of something more sul^tan- 
tial from the great deep of human hope and fear than 
the unstable elements of a life transitory and void. Con- 
sult Max MUller's Chips, i, 242; BihUoth, Sacra, xviii, 
643-568. 

The avatars preceding that of Krishna were mere 
emanations of the god Vishnu, but this embodied the 
deity in the entirety of his nature. In those he brought 
only an ansa, or portion of hb divinity, " a part of a 
part;*' in this he descended in all the fulness of the 
godhead, so much so that Vishnu is sometimes con- 
founded with Brahma, the latter becoming incarnate in 
Krishna as ^'the very supreme Brahma." See Hard- 
wick, Christ and other Masters, i, 280, 291, note ; also Sir 
Wm. Jones, in Maurice's Ilindostan, ii, 256. In the 
Bhagavat Gita, that wonderful episode of the Maha- 
bharata, Arjuna asks of Krishna that he may be favored 
with the view of the divine countenance. As, in re- 
sponse, the deity bestows upon him a heavenly eye that 
he may contemplate the divine glory, he indulges in a 
rhapsody which describes the incarnate god as compris- 
ing the entire godhead in all its functions. Again, 
Krishna says of himself, ** I am the cause of the produc- 
tion and dissolution of the whole universe," etc (Thom- 
son's edition, p. 51). 

One object of this incarnation was '* the destruction 
of Kansa, an oppressive monarch, and, in fact, an incar- 
nate Daitya or Titan, the natural enemy of the gods*' 
(H. H.Wilson, Relu/ion of the Hindus, ii, 66). A more 
Mtisfactory object is disclosed by Krishna in the Bha- 
ghavat Gita : ** Kven though I am unborn, of change- 
less essence, and the lord of all which exist, yet in pre- 
siding over nature (prakriti), which is mine, I am bom 
by my own mystic power (maya). For, whenever there 
is a relaxation of duty, O son of Bharata ! and an in- 
crease of impiety, I then reproduce myself for the pro- 
tection of the good and the destruction of evil-doers. I 
am produced in every age for the purpose of establish- 
ing duty" (Thomson's ed. p. 30). The incarnations of 
Vishnu, which were multiplied to infinitude, assuming 
diversified forms of man, fish, and beast, because physi- 
cal life has in it nothing real, nothing individual, noth- 
ing of lasting worth, we may believe contemplated even 
yet a more ennobling end, an antidote to the essential 
evil of nature as declared in one of the Puranas : " The 
uncreated being abandons the body that he used in or- 
der to disencumber the earth of the burden that over- 
whelmed it, as we use one thorn to draw out another" 
(Bumouf. quoted by Pressens^, Religions before Christ, 
p. 63). " Tlie thorn is material life, which Vishnu ap- 
parently takes on himself that he may the more effec- 
tuaUy destroy it" (Pressens^, ibidem), " Crude matter 
and the five elements are also made to issue from Krish- 
na, and then all the divine beings. Narayana or Vishnu 
proceeds from hb right side, Mahadeva from hb left, 
Brahma from hb hand, Dharma from hb breath, Saras- 
wati from his mouth, Lakshmi from his mind, Durga 
from hb understanding, Radha from hb left side. Three 
hundred millions of gopis, or female companions of Ra- 
dha, exude from the pores of her skin, and a like num- 
ber of gopas, or companions of Krbhna, from the pores 
of his skin ; the very cows and their calves, properly the 
tenants of Goloka, but destined to inhabit the groves of 
Brindavan, are produced from the same exalted source" 
(H. H. Wilson, Beliffion of the Hindus, i, 123). 

On the other hand, the Puranas disclose with regard 
to Krishna a human life, when considered from the most 
favorable stand-point, discreditable to the name and na- 
ture of man. It b a tissue of puerilities and licentious^ 
ness. The miraculous deeds of Krbhna were rarely for 
an object commensurate with the idea of a divine inter- 



163 



KRISHNA 



**ke care ' 



- I 
I 

;-* I 

i- 

th 

in- 

iu" 

.a — 

the 

t»ject 

abides 

in of 

I with 

•ion of 

•]>ose to 

N(»w and 

of relief 

. but they 

; I g, which 

la, ourdi- 

*over may 

>>r succor is 

ion feela it- 

ortal estate 

I ). Its 8ub- 

tlie necessity 

u> elaborate. 

\\ Krishnaism 

ill presses pain- 

^>me universal 

no sect of phi- 

tine, i>e Civitate 

. ON, vol iv, p. 630. 

- worship of this 

■ ishnu and Rama, 

', that it is difficult 

iii; on that of the 

•imidered under the 

hippers of Vishnu, 

t lour Sampraddyoiy 

I 'urana as Sri, Madh- 

M>n. Rdig, of Hmdui, 

una hare been sabdi- 

> him alone; 2. those 

a alone ; and, 8. those 

*^ VoUmer, WOrterh, d. 

> 11. H.Wilson, throngh- 

atrious among the men, 

ui of the women, attach 

Krishna and Radha either 

:>L;al the worshippers of 

' lifth to one third of the 

/ 1 the ffmdms, ii, 175, 448). 

nts devoC«d Co this dirinity 

la, particnlariy at Mathora 

' of which u said to contain 

• hem three of great opolence 

For the cootrorersy on the 

i[i, see Wtlsoa*s VtMhat Purdna^ 

tent ouradr e a with glancing at 

i 'ie sects or Sampndayas. The 

' \'a]labliacharis adore Krishna as 

n of worship is widely diffused 

. ndu society. In tbetr temples and 

. *i unfnqoenciy of ^old, in the form 

1 dark hue, and with a mischicroas 



£mc, in some cans holding butter in both hand^ by 
which is perpetuated one of his boyish pranks (I auUi- 
nus« Sjfttema Bnikmamcitm^ n. 146, and plate \h\ This 
mage eight times a day receives the homage of its vo- 
taries with most punctilious ceremony. At the firat 
ceremony, being washed and dressed, it is taken fhmi its 
couch, where it has slept for the night, and placed upon 
a seat, about half an hour after sunrise. Lamps are 
kept burning, while refreshments are presentetl, with 
betel and Pan (see Wilson, Rtiig, f^f Hwdmty i, 126-1^). 
The Sanakadi, who are scattered throughout the whole 
of Upper India, the Sakhi Bha\*as, the Raddha Valla- 
bhis, and the Charan Dasis differ in minor particulan 
of creed and ritualism, but all worship Radha in union 
with Krishna. The Chaitanyas are schismatics. They 
believe in the incarnation of Krishna in Chaitanya their 
teacher, who on this account is elevated to jouit adora- 
tion. With them the momentary repetition of the 
name of their divuiity is a guarantee of salvation. 

Festivals in commemoration of Krishna are annually 
obaerved throughout India, and still maintain a most 
powerful hold of the popular heart. The third day of 
the Uttarayana, a festival held about the middle of 
January, is sacred to Krishna as gopala or cowherd. 
In the afternoon the cows and bulls are washed ani fed 
with sacred food, then decorated with chaplets of flow- 
ers. Thereupon the Hindus, with Joined hands, walk 
around the herds as well as around the Brahmam, and 
prostrate themselves before them (Wilson, t6u/, ii, 171). 
The Holi festival is observed about the middle of 
March. It may be not improperly described as an older 
and more crazy sister of our April Fools* Day, and ia 
mostly devoted to Krishna. His image enjoys a swing 
several times during the day, is besmeared with red 
powder, and dashed with water colored red. In the 
mean time unbounded license reigns through the streets. 
** It would be impossible to describe the depths of wick- 
edness resorted to in celebration of the licentious in- 
trigues of this popular god" (Trevor's India^ p. 97). The 
festival of Jaggemaut (" Lord of the world"), in whose 
magnificent temple a bone of Krishna is most sacredly 
preserved, commemorates the departure of Krishna ftom 
his native land. See JAOGKRicAirr. This also takei 
place in the month of March. Those who are so highly 
favored as to assist in the drawing of his car are sure of 
going to the heaven of Krishna when they die (sec 
(vangooly, in Clark's Ten Great Beliffionst p. 184 ; Du- 
bois, Mannert and Customs oflndia^ p. 418). The na- 
tivity of Krishna is celebrated on the eighth day of Au- 
gust. This is the most popular of all the festivals at 
Benares. The Rasa Yatra falls on the full moon in Oc- 
tober, and perpetuates the dance of the fh>licsome deity 
with the 16,000 gopis. Though it is universall> ob- 
served in Hindostan, the details are such that it will 
not be seemly to treat either of the occasion or the ob- 
servance of this festival (see Holwell's Indian FestivalSf 
pL ii, p. 182; Maurice, Indian Antiquities^ v, 169). 

The Hindu sects are distinguished from each othei 
by various fantastical streaks, in different colors, upon 
their faces, breasts, and arma. The followers of Krishni 
bear upon their forehead two white marks perpendiculai 
to the eyebrows, between which a red spot is percepti- 
ble, in token, says Vollmer, that Krishna bore a sou 
I upon his brow (Wdrterb. d, Mythoi, p. 1098; also WU- 
son*s ReL ofHiid, i, 41 ; Dubois, Manners of India, ch 
I viii, and p. 214; Trevor's India, p. 101). 
I Unquestionably the influence of the worship of thii 
divinity upon the morals of the people u evil. On tiM 
' one hand, it embraces the hifleous barbarity of Jagger< 
naut ; and, on the other, excepting a festival of 8i va, il 
is responsible for the most licentious of all tlie annual 
feasts (comp. iMbistan, i, 183). Kntire d<'pendenee upon 
Krishna, or any other form of this heathen dfity, sayi 
H. H.WiWjn, not only obviates the nerMwqty of virtue 
bat sanctities rice. Conduct is wh<A\y immsteriaL II 
matters not h^^w atrocious a sinner a man may be if b4 
painu bis (see, bis breast, his arms with certain secta< 



TABANA 



177 



LABIS 




lancUtM did not return to that place after reaching 
Kideshy are neither of them relevant. He prefers the 
llattara of ancient notice {XotiL Digmt. i, 78 sq. ; Uau- 
arra of the Peutinger Table^ ix, e ; Avapa of Ptolemy, 
Vf 17,5), between Petra and ^la, as baring the signifi- 
«atioii wckite in Arabic (Steph. Byz. a. v.)* 

Lab'ana (Aa/iava), one of the chief Temple-ser- 
vanta whose **■ sons'* returned from the captivity (1 Esdr. 
T, 28) ; evidently the Lebana (q. v.) of the Hebrew Ust 
(Neh.vii,4«). 

Lablrum i^ the name given to the old standard 
rr flag of Chrbrian nations. Its derivation is uncer- 
tain, but it has variously been consider- 
ed as coming from Aa/icTv, Xai^fj, Ad- 
^t-pov, laboroj etc Some, with Priiden- 
tius, pronounced both a's shorty others 
(Alt helm, De laud, Virg,) considered the 
first as long. Sozoroen has it Xafiatpov ; 
Chrysostom, Xafiovpov. (Comp., on the 
etymologj', Gretser, De Cruix, lib. iii.) 
We find this name already applied to the 
Roman standard in coins of the republic 
and of the first emperors, especially on 
those connected with the wars against 
the Germans, Sarmatians, and Armeni- 
ans. The labarum obtained its Christian 
signification under the emperor Con- 
stantine the Great, who, after his conver- 
sion, placed the image of the cross on his 
standards, and caused it to be received 
at Kome as the ffutrfipiov rpovaiov. 
Henceforth it was considered as (njfieiov 
voXifUKuv Tutv dXXwv TtfivtJTtpov * it 
was carried in advance of the other stand- 
The iMtbarum, ^^^^ looked upon as an object of adora- 
tion by the C'lristian soldiery, and was surrounded 
by a guard of fifty picked men. Eusebius, who de- 
scribes it with great particularity (in Vita Constcmtin, 
U, cap. SO, 31 ; Baronius, Armaleg Ecdenast, A.D. 812, 
No. 26). relates that Constantine was induced to place 
the Christian symbol on the Roman standard by having 
in vision seen a shining cross in the heavens. (This 
vision may be denied or variously explained from sub- 
jective causes; compare the article Constamtine, and 
Schail^ CA. Hist, ii, § 2.) The Roman labarum consists 
ed of a long gilt spear, crossed at the upper end, and a 
crown towards the top, made either of gold or of pre- 
ctoos stones, and bearing the monogram of Christ (thus 

P P \ 

X or Y 1 , which the emperor afterwards wore also on 

hU helmet. From the spear was suspended a square 
piece of silken veil, on which the likeness of Constantine 

and of his sons was embroidered with gold. 

^^ According to Prudentius (in Symmachus, i, 

^ xK ^ '*^)» l^c image of Christ was embroidered on 

X it« During the reign of Julian the labarum 

Monoeram was made in its original shape, and bore the 

"'h' **i K^" image of the emperor, along with those of Ju- 

^ ram!**" pi'^r, Mars, and Mercury, but the standard 

of Constantine was restored under Valentine 
■nJ Gratian. The labarum remained the standard of 
Rome until the downfall of the Western Roman Empire, 
under the names of labarum, cruxy and vexillum ecclesi- 
(uticum. The standards at present in use in some cere- 
monies of the Roman Catholic Church still consist of a 
spear, with a cross-piece, to which b attached a cloth 
covered with embroidery or painting. The most re- 
nowned masterpiece of Christian art, Raphael's Madon- 
na del SittOj was originally made and used for this pur- 
pose. SeeHerzog,/2^a^£fi£yik^.voLviii,8.v.; Gibbon, 
Pfdine and Fall of the Roman Empire^ ii, 261 sq. ; Mar- 
tigny. Diet, de$ AntiquitfSt s. v.; Walcott, Sacred Ar- 
cAtologfft s. v.; Voiain, Diss, crit, sur la Vision de Con- 
Knjitin (Pari*, 1774). (.T. H. W.) 

Labat, Jkax Baptiste, a French Roman C!atholtc 
nii^donary, was bom at Paris in 1663. He joined the 
i>)mi3icans in April, 16H'>, went as professor of philoso- 



phy to Nancy in 1687, and afterwards devoted himself 
exclusively to preaching. He landed at La Martinique 
Jan. 29, 1694, and was immediately put in charge of the 
mission at Macouba. While attending to his ecclesi- 
astical duties, he made himself very useful in the colo- 
ny as engineer, agriculturist, and even as diplomatic 
agent, and rendered great service against the English 
when they attempted taking the island in 1703. Most 
of his colleagues having died of yellow fever and other 
diseases brought on by the climate, he returned to Eu- 
rope to seek for others, and arrived at Cadiz OcL 9, 1705. 
He intended returning soon to the West Indies, but was 
sent to Rome by his superiors, and was retained there 
until 1709; he afterwards remained at Civita Vecchia 
until 1716, and finally returned to Paris, where he died, 
Jan. 6, 1788. He wrote Xouveau Voyage aux lies de 
rAmerique (Paris, 1722, 6 vols. 12mo; La Haye, 1724, 6 
vols. 12mo; 1738, 2 vols. 4to; 2d ed. Paris, 17*42, 8 vols. 
12mo; transL into Dutch, Amsterd. 1725, 4 vols. 12mo; 
German, Nuremb. 1788-87, 6 vols. 8vo), and some other 
historical and miscellaneous works. See Journal des 
SavantSt Oct, Nov., and Dec 1730 ; Echard, Script, ord, 
8, Domm, ii, 806^ Hoefer, Nouv, Biog, GhUrak, xxviii, 
388. 

Labb6, Philippe, a celebrated French Jesuit, was 
bom at Bourges July 10, 1607. He joined the order in 
1628, and became professor of ethics, philosophy, and 
moral theology, first at the College of Bouiges, where he 
had been educated, and afterwards at Paris, where he 
settled in 1643 or 1644. After teaching theology for 
two years in that city, he turned himself exclusively to 
literary Ubors. He died at Paris Mar. 25, 1667. Labb^ 
was a man of extensive learning, uncommon memory, 
and great activity. Sotwel, Niceron, and Moreri con- 
sider him as the author of seventy-five diflferent works, 
some of them quite insignificant, however. His chief 
claim to renown rests on his Manual of Councils, which 
was completed by Gabriel 0)ssart, and published at Par- 
is in 1671 (16 vols, in 17, folio; to some copies an 18th 
voL is added, containing Jacobatius de ConcilUs), The 
most complete edition was published under the title SS, 
Concilia^ ad regiam editionem exada, qiice olim quarta 
parte prodiit auctior. Studio Philip, Labbei, et Gahr, 
CossardL Nunc verb integre, insertis Stephani Baluzii 
etJoanms Harduim additamentisy plurimis pr(rterea trn- 
cUcunque conquisiHs monumentis, notis insuper ac ohserva- 
tionibuSf firmiori fundamento conciUorum epochas pras" 
cipueJulcientibuSf longk locupletior et emendtitior exhibe^ 
tur, Curante Nieolao Coleti (Venet. 1728, 28 vols. fol.). 
Et supplementum J, D. Mansi (Luck, 1748-52, 6 vols. ; in 
an, 29 vols. foL). This is the most complete collection 
extant of the (Councils of the Church. It was reprinted, 
with the supplement incorporated, and edited by Mansi, 
at Florence (1757-98,31 vols, folio) — a much esteemed 
and accurate edition ; but it only reaches to the year 
1509, while the edition by Coletus brings the councils 
down to 1727. Among hb other works the most impor- 
tant are, SS. Patrum theologorum scriptorumque ecdesi- 
asticonim utriusque Testamenii Bibliotheca chronologica. 
Cum pinacotheca scriptorum Soc. Jesu (Par. 1659, 16mo) : 
— Uitgmologie deplusieurs mots FranfoiSy contre les abus 
de la secte des Hellinistes du Port-Royal (Paris, 1661, 
12mo) '.-^Bibliotheca bibliothecarum (3d edit. Roth. 1678, 
8vo) : — De Byzantma historim scriptoribtis (Byzantine 
Histories, i):— JVbra BibHotheca MSS. Librorum (1657, 
2 vols. foL) : — De Scriptoribus Eccles. Dissertatio (2 vols. 
8vo) ; etc. See Hoefer, Nouv. Biog. GhrUralCj xxviii, 888 ; 
Darling, Cyclopadia Bibliographical ii, 1751 ; Pierer, Uni- 
versal I^xikon, ix, 944. (J. N. P.) 

Labben. See Muth-labbeic. 

Labis (Xa/3(Ct or Xa/3i?io^, a spoon\ an implement 
used in the Greek Church for the purpose of administer- 
ing the elements in the Lord's Supper. DiflSculties in 
the administration of the wine were fancie<l to arise in 
the Middle Ages, in order to meet which the^fistulte eu- 
charisticcE were introduced; and subsequently the prac- 




179 



LA CHAISE 




i^ 



1771 

: m of 

.1 years 



were 

!licultie« 

i>M)k place, 

'•itedwith 

For the 

1 was found- 

MHi establish- 

ihi andHoffen- 

• r Labrador are 

- It) a few pagans 

« hom in 1871 the 

of NuUatorusek (a 

doii. Famine and 

iiuraber of the E»- 

thc station of Nain 

tlial 250, Hebron 219, 

I ' XT of missionaries and 

» aiioc of the natives with 

' missionaries to charge 

< 'ii of some of these arti- 

t was transferred to special 

. commercial interests have 

.i:\8 to settle on the coast of 

•t trading-posts to be estab- 

I ms the Society for the Prop- 

hc'gun missionary efforts on 

( )i«' Roman Catholic Church has 

liiHiience upon the Red Indians 

t V svcomhjCyciopadia of Missions ; 

'fl IS : Romer, Geschichte der Lab- 

m, IH71). (A.J.S.) 

oriLDE SlJZAN COURCRLLES DE, a 

' titisiast, was bom at Vauxain, Peri- 
While quite young she adopted 
-al notions, thought herself called to 
iimI was so anxious to leave this world 
- rtiat she made an attempt at suicide 
>f-ars old. Her ascetic practices were 
i iH^'came still more so as she grew up, 
• in to have any injurious effect on her 
- \n' age of nineteen she became a nun of 
< r of St. Francis, and soon after declared 
t received a mission to travel through the 
■ uert sinners, but was detained in the con- 
r superior. She then wrote a history of her 
.• <<he addressed to M. de Flamarens, bishop of 
. \, without effect. The MS., however, attract- 
«ttfntiun of Dom Gerle, prior of the Chartreuse 
. litre, who entered into correspondence with the 
M -^^ in 1769, and she afterwards declared, when he 
t Wtad a member of the National Assembly, that 
lul predicted it to hioL When the Revolution 
•• out, M. Pontard, constitutional bishop of Dor- 
^'U(N attracted her to Paris, where she prophesied 
jiiioiit the court of Rome, and in favor of the dvil con- 
iition of the clergy. She subsequently returned to 
■ '• rigord, and left there to go to Rome, thinking to con- 
• *n the pope, cardinals, etc, to her views, and to induce 
them to renounce temporal power. On her way she ad- 
'Iressed the people wherever an opportunity offered. In 
August, 1792, she arrived at Bologna, whence she was 
driren by the legate. At Viterbo she was arrested and 
taken to the castle of San Angela In 1796 the French 
Directory interfered to obtain her liberation, but she 
preferred remaining, as she had been very kindly treat- 
ed; bat when the French took Rome in 1798 she left the 
prison and returned to Paris, where she died in 1821. 
She pernsted to the last in believing herself inspired, 
md ictually succeeded in gathering a small circle of ad- 
herents. Labrousee wrote PropheUes concemani la Ri- 
rcbttiom Franeaise^ smties d'une Prediction qtii mmonce 
lajk du immde (for 1899) (Paris, 1790, 8vo) :—Lettre de 
MOe, de Labrousse (Paris, 1790, 8vo). Pontard pub- 



:i.' 



lished a ReateU des Ouvrages de la ciUhre MUe, Labrott^ 
se (Bordeaux, 1797, 8vo). See Mahul, Armuaire necro- 
log, 1822; Arnault, Jay, Jouy et Norvins, Biog, nouv, 
des CorUemp, ; Qu^rard, La France Littiraire^ — Hoefer, 
Nouv. Biog, Generaky xxviii, 418. 

La Bmne, Fran9oi8 de. See La Brune, Jba2< 

DE. 

La Bnuie, Jean de, a French Protestant minis- 
ter, flourished in the second half of the 17th and the 
early part of the 18th century. After the revocation 
of the edict of Nantes he went as pastor to Basle; later 
he became minister at Schoonoven, in Holland, lie is 
particularly celebrated as a writer, but many of the 
works which have generally been attributed to him are 
now believed to be the production of Fran^ob de la Brune, 
also a Protestant French pastor, who flourished about 
the same time ; went to Amsterdam in 1685, and, on ac- 
count of heterodox opinions, was suspended from the 
ministry in 1691. We have under the name of La 
Brune, among other works. Morale de Confucius (Amst. 
1688, 8vo) :— Calvin's Traiie de la Justification (ibid, 
1693, 8vo; 1705, 12mo): — Hist, du Vitux et du Nouveau 
Test, en vers (173 1, 8 vo).— Hoefer, Nouv, Biog, Generak, 
xxviii, 428. 

Laoarry, Giles, a French Jesuit, who was borp at 
Castres in 1605, and died in 1684, b noted as the author 
of several works on the history of his country. See 
General Biographical Dictionary ^ s. v. 

Lace (^^rOf pctthii'i from being twisted)^ the blue 
cord with which the high-priest's breastplate was at- 
tached to the ephod (Exod. xxviii, 28, 87; xxxix, 21, 
81 ; rendered "riband" Numb, xv, 38); spoken of gold 
" icire" (Exod. xxxix, 8), the chain for attaching a cover 
to its vessel (" bound," Numb, xix, 15) ; a strong " thread"* 
of tow (Judg. xvi, 9), or measuring-" line" of flax (Ezek. 
xl, 3); also of the string by which the signet-ring was 
suspended in the bosom (" bracelet," Oen. xxxviii, 18, 
35) ; finally (cXuMT/m, a spun thread, like pathil above, 
for which it stands in Numb, xv, 86), a cord (Ecdus. vi, 
80). 

LaoedsBzno'nian (AaKtBaifiovtog, 2 Mace v, 9f 
elsewhere ^iraprtdrftQ), an inhabitant of Lacedsmon or 
Sparta, in Greece, with whom the Jews at one time 
claimed kindred (1 Mace, xii, 2, 5, 6, 20, 21 ; xivy 20, 23 ; 
XV, 28). See Spabta. 

Lacey, William B., D.D., a clergyman of the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church, was bom about 1781. He en- 
tered the ministry in 1813 as missionary of Chenango 
County, N. Y. ; in 1818 he became rector of St. Peters 
Church, Albany. He labored there upwards of twenty 
years, his ministration being crowned with great suc- 
cess. Subsequently he beoune professor in the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, and president of a college at 
Laoe3rville, Pa. He died October 31, 1866. Dr. Laoey 
wrote a number of text-books for schools and colleges 
which were deservedly popular in their day, particulariy 
his Rhetoric and Moral Philosophy, During the last 
ten years of his life he employed his leisure hours in re- 
vising a History of the English Church prior to the Time 
of the Monk A ugustin, and some of his choicest sermons 
and other MSa See ^4 m. CA. Rev, 1867, p. 647. . 

La Chaise or La Chalze d'Aix, Francois dr, 
Pere, a celebrated French Jesuit and noted confessor of 
Louis XrV, was bom of a noble family at the castle of 
Aix Aug. 25, 1624. He was educated at the College of 
Roanne, became a Jesuit, and afterwards went to com- 
plete his studies at Lyons, where he subsequently taught 
philrisophy with great success. Having l>een appointed 
professor of theolog>', he was soon called away from Ly- 
ons to direct the establishment of his order at Grenoble, 
but almost immediately returned with the office of pro- 
vincial. Finally, on the death of father Ferrier, he suc- 
ceeded him as confessor of the king in 1675. Madame 
de Montespan was then at the height of her favor, and 
all the efforts of father Ferrier, Bourdaloue, Bossuet, and 



LACIIISH 

m rrom hii Egiiiiun cunpugn, or after he liail ptud 
viiit to Nineveh, cannut now be dif terra ined. See 
1 ^EKT^UT. It iji speeuiJIy mendoneil that he hiiJ siege 
.1 it"wilb«UbUpo*er"(2Chron.xxxii,S), aiiilhen) 
"the great king" himseir remained, whUo hU oDicFrs 
I inly were diBpatchcd ta Jerusakm (2 Chron. xxxii, 9; 
-i Kings xviii, 17), See SeNSackebib. Thii siege u 
conBiiiered by L^yard anJ Ilincki la be depicted on the 
idabBfaunil by the fonnerin one of the chamberB of the 
palace at Kouyunjik, which hear the inacriplion " Sen- 
nacherib, the migiily king, king uf the country of A»- 
■yria, ulting on the throne of judgment berure (or at 
tlieentnuiceoO thedty orLAchish(LBkhisha). I give 
permiauun fur iu blaughter" (Layard, jViit. and BtA, p. 
149-53, aiul 153, nutc). These daba contain a i-iew oT 
a city which, if the inacriplion ia correctly interpreted, 



'ict the cap- 1 The country around ia repfeaenled aa hilly and wooded, 
ouble walla, | producing the fig and the vine, tiomenae prepaialione 
il autwork& [ had evidently been made for the aieice, and in no oCbei 



S^ 



LACORDAIRE 



183 



LACORDAIKE 



~ - < liiCAted in the coUege at Tarbes, which he en- 

. > \~fS. In 1788 he became rector of a college at 

i< .UL\, but energetically embracing the principles of 

Im X olution in 1789, he solemnly declared in favor of 

« I trail ion of Church and State, and was elected in con- 

^ifju^ curate of St. Paul at Bordeaux. Sent to the 

\ - -•-aiUly, he look quite a prominent part in polidcs 

f ml the decretal prohibiting aU ecclesiastical dre^ was 

.•'iMi&hed (April 7, 1792), when he forthwith ceased his 

-<Ti ir« to the state, and returned to Bordeaux to assume 

the «luti<» of his ecclesiastical functions. In 1797 he 

was elected metropolitan of Bordeaux, and in 1802 was 

one of the twelve bishops nominated by the emperor 

Na^Kkleon, as whose zealous partisan Lacombe is known 

after his elevation to the episcopacy of Angouleme. He 

died April 7, 1823. See A imales de la Religion, xv, 134 ; 

Uoefer, iVo«r. Biog, Generaie, xxviii, 541. 

laaoordaire, Jkan Baptistb IIenri, a noted Ro- 
man Catholic theologian of this century, the reviver of 
the Dominican order, and a most distinguished pulpit 
<Hmtor of modem France, was bom at Recey-sur-Ource, 
in the department Cote-d*Or, March 12, 1802. He was 
educated for the legal profession, first at Dijon, where 
he obtained the highest honors, and afterwuds (1822) 
at Parii, and in 1824 he began practice as an advocate, 
and rose rapidly to distinction. Lacordaire was at this 
time, like most of the youth of France, a Deist of the 
Voltaire school, but Lamennais' E»6ai sur VindiJ'erence, 
which fell into his hands, decided the youthful lawyer to 
devote himself thereafter to the cause of the Christian 
rdigion, which he felt satisfied must form the basis of 
all social life. He immediately abandoned his profes- 
skxu and entered the College of St. Sulpice, and in 1827 
received holy orders. Montalembert, Lacordaire's bi- 
ographer, however, would have us believe that this sud- 
den change from atheism to orthodox Christianity *' was 
doe to no man and to no book, but solely to a sudden 
impabe of grace, which opened his eyes to the sin and 
foUy of irreligion.'* Shortly after his ordination he was 
offered the position of auditor of the rota at the court 
of Rome, an ofllce which at once confers the title of 
monstgnore, and is always a step to the episcopate, and 
often to a cardinal*s hat ; but he declined it peremptorily. 
His first appointment was that of almoner in the Col- 
lege of JuiUy, also known as the College of Henry IV. 
Here he beoune personally acquainted with the abb^ 
l^mennais, and speedily the youthful priest and the 
learned theologian formed a close and intimate alliance, 
which was intermpted only by the departure of Lamen- 
nais from the Church in 1833. One of the first, and 
perhaps most important, resiUts of the friendly alliance 
of these three men was the establishment, after the July 
revolution of 1830, of the Journal VAvenirj "an organ 
at once of the highest Church principles and of the 
most extrenoe radicalism.** See Lamrnnais. Connt 
HoQtalembert has famished us a life-like portrait of 
Lacordaire at this time; and, although much allowance 
must be made for the passionate exclamations of a 
friend, it deserves at least our notice. " It was in No- 
vember, 1830, that 1 saw him for the first time in the 
cabinet of the abb^ Lamennais, four months after a rev- 
olution which had appeared for a moment to confound 
in a common ruin the throne and the altar, and one 
month after the esUblishment of the Journal V A vemr. 
That journal had for its motto * God and Liberty /' It 
VH the intention of the founders that it should regen- 
oate Catholic opinion in France, and seal its union with 

Hbaral progress. He was twenty-eight years of 

•ge; he was dressed as a layman, the state of Paris not 
then permitting priests to wear their clerical costume. 
Hit slender figure, his delicate and regular features, his 
c^iaelled forehead, the sovereign carriage of his head, 
lufl black and sparkling eye, an indescribable union of 
high spirit, elegance, and modesty in his whole appear- 
ioce, were only the outward tokens of a soul which 
•ewned ready to overflow, not merely in the free con- 
flicts of pablic speaking, but in the effusions of intimate 



friendship. The brightness of his glance revealed at 
once treasures of indignation and of tenderness ; it 
sought not merely enemies to combat and overthrow, 
but also hearts to win over and subdue. His' voice, so 
vigorous and vibrating, took often accents of infinite 
sweetness. Bom to combat and to love, he already 
bore the stamp of the double royalty of soul and of tal- 
ent He appeared to me charming and terrible, as the 
type of enthusiasm for good, of virtue armed in defence 
of the trath. I saw in him one of the elect, predesti- 
nated to all that youth most desires and adores — ge- 
nius and glory." The articles published in the A venir 
speedily provoked the displeasure of the episcopate, and 
an early opportunity was sought to bring the trans- 
gressors to grief. This was found in an intemperate 
attack written by Laccrdaire against Louis Philippe. 
Both Lacordaire and Lamennais were cited before a jury 
for trial in January, 1831 ; the former, however, pleaded 
the cause of the journal with so much eloquence and 
ability that both the accused were acquitted. Thus 
encouraged, they adopted more vigorous measures to sc 
cure liberty of education, in the face of an energetic 
opposition from the university. They announced that 
they would open a free school in the French capital, 
and actually began teaching in May, 1831. The police, 
however, soon put an end to this bold movement, and, 
as one of their number was a count (Montaleml>ert), 
they were accused before a court of peers, and fined 100 
francs. A short time after the papal see openly de- 
clared its opposition to them by an enc^'clical censure 
which Gregory XVI issued Sept 18, 1832, Rejecting 
all their dogmas, it declared " the whole idea of the re- 
generation of the Church absurd, liberty of conscience a 
delirium, freedom of the press fatal, and inviolable sub- 
mission to the prince a maxim of faith." Even before 
this papal censure had been publicly proclaimed the 
three chief editors of L'A venir had gone to Rome, to 
prevent, if possible, any severe measures on the part of 
the pope. It was at this time that Lamennais first de- 
cided to tum from the corruptions of Rome — from the 
corpse which he saw clearly it was in vain to attempt 
to resuscitate. Not so, however, was Lacordaire affect- 
ed. His imagination had been vividly impressed by 
the imposing ceremonies and glorious traditions of the 
Romish Church, and he was prepared at once to sub- 
mit to it " sicut cadaver.'* " The miseries, the infirmi- 
ties," says Montalembert, in his biography of Lacordaire, 
" inseparable from the mingling of everything human 
with that which is divine, did not escape his notice, but 
they seemed to him as if lost in the mysterious splen- 
dor of tradition and authority. He the journalist, the 
citizen of 1830, he the democratic liberal, had compre- 
hended at the first glance not only the inviolable maj- 
esty of the supreme pontificate, but its difficulties, its 
long and patient draigns, its indispensable regard for 
men and things here below. The faith and the duty 
of the Catholic priest had at once elevated that noble 
heart above all the mists of pride, above all the seduc- 
tions, aU the temptadons of talent, above all the intoxi- 
cation of strife. With the penetration which faith and 
humility confer, he passed beforehand upon our preten- 
sions the judgment which has been ratified by time, 
that great auxiliary of the Church and of tmth. It 
was then, I venture to believe, that God marked him 
forever with the seal of his grace, and that he gave him 
the assurance of the reward due to the invincible fidel- 
ity of a traly priestly souL" Hereafter the man Lacor- 
daire is lost in the churchman, the active and inquiring 
intellect confined, if not extinguished, by the official re- 
ligion. His bondjide retractation of course drew upon 
him not only estrangement from his roaster, whose in- 
tellectual philosophy he had never really adopted, and 
whose retractation was never more than formaJ, but the 
reproach of worldliness. It was due in reality, how- 
ever, to a precisely opposite cause. His heart was iden- 
tified with the cause of the Church, and only his intel- 
lect with the Free-Church theorv. "Do not let us 



LACORDAIRE 



185 



LACTANTITJS 



be recumed hj preference to sach as ipared him least 
ID* thint for penances of thia description appears the 
more extraordinary from the fact that hb exceedingly 
tlrii4*ate and sensitive temperament rendered them in- 
mpportably painful to him." To Protestants this sounds 
like the reh^raal of an unreal moral tragedy, a rehearsal 
which most have done far more to bewilder the minds 
of thoese who were guilty of these artificial, cruel, and 
anowsiung insults to one they loved and revered than 
CO deepen bis own love for his Lord. Yet in scenes like 
these were fostered the roots of his life as a Dominican 
fiiar — the spirit less of a modem Catholic thinker than 
of m iiiedi»\'al monk. But if his change to a monastic 
■echuBon from the turmoils of Paris life must appear 
strange to a Protestant reader, greater still will ever be 
the taak to explain how this advocate of liberty of con- 
science and the impropriety of the interference of the 
civil power for the pumshment of heretics could find it 
in his heart to resuscitate an order which has more 
crimes and cruelties to answer for than even the infa- 
mom sect of the Assassins — an order whose founder was 
the very incarnation of persecution. Just here also it 
may not be out of place to allude to the uncritical man- 
ner in which Lacordaire composed a life of St. Dominic 
— the ibunder of the Inquisition — entirely ignoring all 
those historians who have detailed and proved the atro- 
cioos cmelties perpetrated by that saint and his follow- 
ers (^ Ku; <ie SahU Dommiquej Paris, 1840-4, 8vo). 

In 1840, after a three-years' novitiate in the convent 
of Qoercia, Lacordaire took the vows of the order of St. 
Dominic, and in 1841, with shaved head and clad in the 
white robe of his order, which had not been seen in 
France for half a century, he once more ascended the 
pulpit of Notre Dame. From this time his voice was 
frequently heard within the walls of that great cathe- 
dral of the capital of the French, as well as in many 
other parts of France. Thus, in 1847, he preached in 
the cathedral church of Nancy the funeral sermon of 
general Drouot, by many (e. g. Ste.-Beuve) pronounced 
a masterpiece of pulpit oratory. In the first election 
which succeeded the Revolution of 1818 he was chosen 
one of the representatives of Marseilles, and took part in 
some of the debates in the Assembly ; but he resigned 
in the following May, and withdrew entirely from polit- 
ical life. In 1849, and again in 1850 and 1851, he re- 
sumed his courses at Notre Dame. To immense au- 
diences, such as no orator in France had ever been able 
to call together before, he delivered in these eventful 
years a series of discourses on the communion of man 
with God, on the fall and the restoration of man, and on 
the providential economy of the restoration, which, to- 
gether with earlier discourses, have been collected in 
three volumes, under the tide of Conferencet dt Notre 
Dame de Paris (1835-50; a selection was published in 
English dress by Henry Langdon, N. York, 1871, 8vo). 
His last public discourse at Paris he delivered at St. 
Boch in February, 1853. To some of his remarks the 
imperial government took exception; and Lacordaire, 
finding himself restricted in that freedom of speech' of 
which he had been throughout life a steady and power- 
ful defender, never again preached in Paris; but at 
Touloose— the birthplace of St Dominic and the burial- 
place of St. Aquinas— he delivered in 1854 six discourses 
on lile— the life of the passions, the moral life, the super- 
natural life, and the influence of the supernatural life on 
the public and private life of man— which his biogra- 
pher (Montalembert) pronounces "the most eloquent, 
the most irreproachable of all." Offered the direction 
of the school and convent of Sor&ze, he withdrew to that 
noted retreat of the Dominicans, and there died, Nov. 
21, 1861. Besides the works alluded to— the Con/e- 
ratcet and Connderations pkHotophiques — Lacordaire 
wrote a Mhnoire pour k ritabUMemeni en France de 
fordre desfrereMpreckeun (1840). His correspondence 
with Madame Swetchine (by Falloux, 1864), with Mont- 
alembert (1863), and with a young friend (by I'abbi^ 
Pterreire, 1863), as well as all his other writings, were 



published as CEuvres completes in 1851, 1858, and 1861, 
in 6 vols. 8vo and Timo. He was elected a member of 
the Academy in 1860 as successor to ^!. de Tocqueville, 
upon whom he pronounced a euloj^y— the customary in- 
augural address — which was his last public address. 

Of the ability Lacordaire displayed in his works a 
writer in the Brit, and For, Evang. Her, (Oct. 1863), p. 
726 sq., thus comments: "As a writer, Lacordaire has 
not the slightest pretensions to compete with Lamen- 
nais, one of the greatest writers of French prose. His 
loose, declamatory, theatrical style is in every respect 
far inferior to the simple, grand, nervous eloquence of 
Lamennais. We also venture to alBrm that, in too 
many of his discourses, instead of explaining the Word 
of God simply and familiarly to the people, he goes out 
of his way to attack what he terms the prevailing doubt 
and scepticism of the age, and attempts to guide his 
hearers to a positive dixHne faith by the utter annihila- 
tion of the natural reason. In many of his discourses, 
too, he falsifies history for the purpose of making it co- 
incide with his Romanist prejudices. He absolutely 
refuses to recognise any gooil whatever in former sys- 
tems of religion and philosophy. Without the pole of 
the Romish Chureh all is evil, within it everything is 
good. As to hunum reason, he cannot endure it ' That 
which at present ruins ever>-thing,' he says, * that which 
causes the world to ride insecurely at anchor, is the 
reason.' *Our intelligence appears to me hke a ship 
without sails or masts on an unknown sea.' * Societies 
are tottering when the thinkers take them in hand, and 
the precise moment of their downfall is that wherein 
they announced to them that the intellect is emanci- 
pated.' And while human reason is thus summarily 
condemned, the infallibility of the Church is asserted 
and defended in the most absolute manner. * The Cath- 
olic doctrine,' he says, *■ resolves all questions, and takes 
from them even the quality of questions. We have no 
longer to reason, which is a great blessing, for we are 
not here to reason, but to act, and to biuld up in time a 
work for eternity."* 

See Montalembert, Le Pere Lacordaire (Paris, 1862, 
8vo); Lom^nie, />« Pere Lacordaire (1844); Lorrain, 
Bioffraphie historique de Lacordaire (1847) ; Chocame, 
Iimer Life of Pere Lacordaire (transl. by Father Ayl- 
ward ; Lond. and New York, 1867, 8vo) ; Villard, Corre- 
spondenceinedite et biographie (Par. 1870, 8vo) ; Kirwan, 
Modem France (1863) ; and the Revue des deux Mondts, 
TAby 1, 186t; Sainte-Beuve^ Causeries du Lundij i,208 sq.; 
Brit, and For, Ev, Rev. Oct. 1863, art. iii ; Contempora- 
ry Rev, May, 1868, art L M. Edmond Scherer, in the 
Litierature ContemporainCj also treated of p^re Lacor- 
daire, but with special regard to his ability as a writer. 
His estimate of the noted Dominican is rather unfavor- 
able, perhaps even unjust Of the discourses of Lacor- 
daire, he maintains that they are '' unreadable" (p. 166). 
See also Blackwood's Magazine, Feb. 1863 ; Land, Quart. 
Review, July, 1864. (J. H. W.) 

Laoroix, Cuiudius, a noted Roman Catholic theolo- 
gian and philosopher, was bom at the village of St An- 
dre, province of limburg, in 1652. He became master 
of philosophy in 1673, and immediately after joined the 
Order of Jesuits. He taught moral theology first at 
Cologne, then at MUnster; became doctor of theology in 
1698, and died June 1, 1714. He wrote a commentary 
on Busenbaum's Moral Theologie (0)logne, 1719, 2 vols, 
folio). See Busenbaum. 

Lacroze, Mathurin Vetssi^re de, a distinguish^ 
ed French Orientahst, was in turn a merchant, a medi- 
cal student, and a Benedictine monk. Finally, having 
abjured Romanism, he retired to Prussia, where, in 1697, 
he became librarian to the king. He died at Berlin in 
1739. His principal works are TTistoire du Christian' 
isme des Indes (La Haye, 1724, sm. 8vo) : — ffistoire du 
Christiamsme d'Ethiopie et d'A rminie (La Haye, 1739, 
sm. 8vo). See Darling, Cyclop, BibUog, s. v. 

Lactantiua. Lucius Oelius (or Cmctuvs) Fib- 



LACTANTIUS 



187 



LACTANTIUS 



'\M written, has been favorite reading, and is said to 
re aq>peared in more than a hundred editiona. His 
cire for writing this work he thus assigns himself: 
K» men, by their own fault bewildered, can no longer 
d the way back to truth, his object is to point it out 
them, and, at the same time, to confirm in it those 
lo luAve already reached it. He feels himself the 
3fe icnpellod to this because his predecessors in this 
U — and he names particularly Tertullian and Cyprian 
h*d not, in his opinion, satisfied the requirements of 
« case on all sides, and had performed their task nei- 
icr with the requisite learning and thoroughness, nor 
Ith the euitable adornment of art and scientific depth. 

thb unfortunate circumstance he ascribes it that the 
hristian religion was held in such contempt, and with 
» educated classes was as good as totally unknown. 
Then, with all the power of language and genius which 
e eminently possessed, Lactantius promises to make a 
efence of the faith, the precedence in this respect must 
y all means be conceded to him ; in beauty of form 
oA iplendor of diction he surpasses all; but Jerome 
asUy reuses to admit the same in respect to the weight 
f the oontenta and the solidity of the proofs. The work 
» dedicated to Constantine the Great — if the passage is 
tot an interpolation — whom he extols with the highest 
evrrence, and praises as the first Christian prince, and 
be restorer of righteousness. Consequently, it was 
mtben at the time when he, advanced in years, was al- 
«adv at court; but the Church was still sighing under 

1 seTere persecution, evidently that of Licinius, since the 
utthor refers to that of Diocletian as having long since 
iied out. This brings us to the year 820, although he 
had, as elsewhere appears from his own words, formed 
the purpose and the plan at a much eariier period. Some 
suppose that the work was commenced in Bithynia and 
completed in Gaul after a lapse of twenty years. 0th- 
en, from an allusion which it contains to the Diocletian 
persecution— ^'Spectatie sunt enim i^ectanturque adhuc 
per orbem poerae cultorum Dei," etc (v, 17, § 5), suppose 
it to hare been written before Lactantius went to GauL 

The seven books into which this work is divided 

funn seven separate treatises. The first book is in- 

Kribed De faUa religione. He designedly leaves un- 

tooched the principal question in regard to the existence 

of a supreme Providence, and takes his departure from 

the proposition that there is one God, and that, accord- 

mg to our idea of his essence, of hu relation to the 

work! under him, and of that to him, there c<m be but 

«nK. He proceeds then to confirm this dogma by the 

•nthority of the prophets (of which, however, he makes 

more use in his programme than in his performance ; 

ind which, indeed, would have been only a petitio prin- 

dpU), by the utterances of the poets, the philosophers, 

and the sibjls — all of whom consent in one and the 

nme truth ; and this, at least, is good as an argumentum 

ad kommemj though he seems to allege it as having a 

bij(her and proper force of proof. The last half of the 

book consists in the ludicrous exposure and sarcastic 

omfutstion of the mythological system of deities in 

general and in detail, as recognised by ita advocates. 

The second book, De origme erroriSf demonstrates the 
maiiif<^ absurdity with which mankind, while all na- 
ture impels them to the knowledge of the one God, and 
a law of necessity teaches every one instinctively to 
aeek him, are nevertheless so blinded as to wander 
awtj to the worship of idols. He confutes the spurious 
groonds by which particularly the educated class among 
the heathen sought to excuse or justify idolatry, and 
•bows how this whole pagan religion, more closely con- 
ndered, is only a reflex of their thoroughly materialized 
and tecuUrized habit of mind. But since the heathen 
used especially to appeal to the antiquity of their cultus 
and to venerable tradition, the author meets them in 
thU wiae: In matters of religion every one must see for 
hinielf ; error, though ever so full of years, has, by its 
old igf, sequired no right, and must give way to the 
tiiith 10 loon as she establishes against it her primitive 



and indefeasible claims. He proceeds, with constant 
reference to the diverging opinions of the philosophers, 
to develop from the holy Scriptures the history of the 
creation and of the origin of idolatry. According to 
him, this originated in its first germ from Ham, who lay 
under his father's curse. Among his posterity the loss 
of the knowledge of the true God first prevailed ; this 
passed over into Sabaism or Parseeism (worship of the 
heavenly bodies); spread itself in this form first in 
Egypt, and thence among the neighboring people. In 
its further progress it included the deification of men, an 
externally pompous worship, and finally developed it- 
self into idolatry proper, which, cherished and promoted 
by the influence of diemons, and strengthened by means 
of other arts, by oracles, magic, etc, leavened the whole 
life of the pagan nations. The truth of this intimate 
connection of the daemon realm with the heathen poly- 
theistic worship, and with the phenomena pertaining 
thereto, lies visibly before us, says Lactantius, in the 
Christian power of exorcism; and with this be con- 
cludes. 

The third book, De/alsa sapterUioj exposes the hea- 
then phik)eophy as nugatory and false The etymology 
of the word philosophy incUcates, says he, not the pos- 
session of wisdom, but a striving after it; and in its ul- 
timate result it leaves us nothing but mere opinions, 
upon whose grounds or groundlessness it can give us no 
trustworthy criterium, and consequently no certainty. 
The result of aU philosophy, therefore, when brought 
into relation to our highest end, is unsatisfying and use- 
less. Our heart thirsts after happiness, and this eager, 
fervent impidse no human wisdom can satiate. The 
reason why it cannot is this : because, torn away from 
its union with religion, the fundamental condidon of 
happiness, it must necessarily become external, one- 
sided, and abstract. He finally points out in detail this 
result of all philosophy in the history of the different 
schools, none of which has found the truth, or could find 
it, because their formal principle had already misplaced 
the way to the desired goaL Therefore — and this is the 
natural conclusion — to still his thirst for knowledge, man 
must not turn himself to these, but to God*s own revela- 
tion. 

The fourth book, De -vera iapientiaf proposes to pre- 
pare the way to this goaL Starting with the principle 
already enunciated, but here set forth more in detail, 
that (genuine) wisdom and religion are, in the last 
analysis, one, they may, only in our conception, be held 
asunder as distinct, abstract elements, but in reality and 
in life ought never to be separated. The heathen phi- 
losophy and religion, in which this unnatural antithesis 
and separation occurred, were therefore, for this simple 
reason, false. The true unity of the two is found only 
in Christianity. In order to exhibit this principle as a 
fact, he reviews the history of our religion. After hav- 
ing briefly, but as much as he deemed requisite for his 
purp<Me, spoken of the prophets, he proceeds to develop 
the doctrine, after his fashion, of the person of Jesus 
Christ, from the first, the eternal birth of the Logos from 
the Father, and from the second, his incarnation in time ; 
he establishes the truth of these, together with his De- 
ity and his Messianic office, from his life, his miracles, 
and the prophets, with reference almost always to the 
Jews only ; but finally he shows to the heathen how the 
very idea of true ethical wisdom in some sort includes 
in itself the incarnation of the lawgiver, that so a perfect 
example may be given of the possibility of keeping the 
law. The necessities of man required this in order to a 
mediation between God and man ; and the lowly life of 
Christ, his sufferings, and even his death on the cross, 
are in perfect harmony with this design. 

The fifth book, De jtutitiay unfolds first the author's 
motives and object. Then, entering upon the subject 
itself, he teaches how, anciently, in the times called by 
the heathen the Golden Age, the one God was honored, 
and with his worship justice bore sway ; and how, in the 
sequel, in connection with polytheism, all sorta of vice 



V 



LACTANTIUS 



189 



LACTANTIUS 



his philosophical writings, but never thoroughly inves- 
tigated. He first draws a general parallel between the 
organiKD of the beasts and that of man ; to the latter 
(knl, in connection with an apparently scantier outfit, has 
given, in his reason, a pre-eminenoe far outweighing all 
the superiority of the beasts in ph3r8ical force. When 
phikiflophy, particularly the Epicurean, reminds us of 
the helplesBuess of human infancy, of man's weakness 
and eariy dissolution, the author shows, on the other 
hand, that these objections rest upon a one-sided mode 
of reji^ardini^, partly the phenomena in question con- 
sidered absolutely, and partl}*^ the essence and the end 
of man md. of his nature (c 1-4). Having thus, in a 
preUmirary way, disposed of these possible objections 
against his subsequent exhibition of the subject, he pro- 
ceeds CO his proper business, the consideration of the 
human body as the habitation and organ of the souL 
He indulges in a detailed investigation and analysis of 
itA wonderful structure ; shows the beauty and symme- 
try of its several limbs, their adaptation to their corre- 
spooding functionfs and their admirable connection with 
the totality of the organism. Hence he establishes, 
what the Epicureans denied, that a divine creation, and 
an ordering and guiding providence, are active through- 
out the universe (c 5-17). In conclusion, he dilates 
upon the essence of our soul, upon its distinction from 
■pint (animus), and, finally, upon its propagation. He 
here reviews the opposing philosophical theories, and 
dedarea himself thoroughly opposed to generationism or 
traducianism (c 17-20). In this treatise he has caught 
the grand idea, and fumbhed the leading materials of 
Psley's famous teleological argument; and, what is more 
eorpriaing, has anticipated some of the most spiking 
and comprehensive ideas of modem scientific and zoolog- 
Vcai classification. 

6. De mortibus persecutorum (On Martyrdom). — Le 
Nourry was of opinion that this treatise does not belong 
to Lactantius. In the only codex which we have of it, 
it bears, not the inscription Firmiani Lactantii, but Lu- 
cii Oecilii, which is never given to our author by the 
<DKvn£ writers. We must confess that, without being 
aware of this judgment of le Nourry, we hod already, 
upon a careful reading of the treatise, come to the same 
conclusion from internal evidence. Mohler, on the other 
hand, maintains its genuineness; in confirmation of 
which be refers to the facts: (1) that Jerome refers to a 
work of Lactantius under the name Dt Persecutiom, 
which, says he, indicates a similar subject matter with 
the work in question ; (2) that it is dedicated to a cer- 
tain Donatus, like that De Ira Dei, and the writer shows 
bimself to have been an eyewitness of the transactions 
in Nicomedia under Diocletian. These reasons certainly 
sre not very strong; but, meanwhile, it is a curious 
question whether the Donatus addressed in this treatise 
as a professor may not have been the first Donatus of 
heretical notoriety. Mohler further adds that the style 
u the same as that of Lactantius*s other works. From 
this we must strongly dissent. The style is harsher, 
^oMt rugged, and broken and irregular — often obscure. 
It frequently reminds one of Tacitus; whereas the gen- 
uine Lactantius rarely departs from an imitation of the 
cWar, smooth, flowing, and copious style of Cicero, whom 
he had chosen for his special model of eloquence. 

In the early editions of Lactantius De mortibus perse- 
ottomm is altogether wanting. It was first printed by 
Stephen Balure in his Mi»oeUanea, vol ii (Paris, 1679), 
from a very ancient MS. in the Bibliotheca Colberti- 
^^ Its authenticity as the De PersecuUone Liber Unu$ 
of Lactantius, mentioned by Jerome, is maintained by 
Baluie, Heumann, and others. Among the Utest au- 
thorities in favor of accepting the production as a genu- 
ine work of Lactantius we count Mdhler (see below) and 
I>f. PhUip Schaff (CA. Hist, iii, 968, note 2). Against 
■ccwditing this treatise to Lactantius are prominent, 
berides Nourry (m the Append, to ii, 839 sq. of Migne's 
«<tition of Lactantius), Pfaff, Walch, Le Qerc, Lardner, 
^^^^Akxi, Burckhardt, and others. 



The object of this work is to show the truth of the 
Christian religion historically, from the tragical fate of 
all those who have persecuted the Church of Christ. It 
gives a very detailed description of several scenes in the 
persecutions of Nero, Domitian, and Valerian, but es- 
pecially dwells upon the later times, those of Diocletian 
and his imperial colleagues Galerius and Maximin, and 
shows how avenging justice overtook them all. This 
work, if genuine, furnishes highly important contribu- 
tions to ecclesiastical history. Among other things, its 
author, whoever he may be, declares that Peter and Paul 
preached the Gospel at Rome, and established a temple 
of God there, where they both suffered martyrdom. 

6. Lost Writings. — The Symposium of Lactantius has 
probably perished, though some have surmised that the 
ACnigmaia^ published under the name of Symposiusy is 
really the youthful composition of Lactantius. Jerome 
mentions besides an Jtinerarium in hexameters, two 
books to Asckpiadesy eight books of letters to Probus, 
Severus, and Domitian, all of which are lost. It ap- 
pears from his own words {/rutit. vii, 1, sub fin.) that he 
had formed the design of drawing up a work against 
the Jews, but we cannot tcU whether he ever accom- 
plished his purpose. 

Several other pieces still extant, but which have been 
erroneously ascribed to Lactantius, are, De Phoenicey in 
elegiacs, a compilation of tales and legends on the far- 
famed Arabian bird ; it is probably of a later date (see 
Wemsdorff, Poeta Jxtt. Minores, iii, 283) : — Symposiuniy 
a collection of one hundred riddles, more likely the work 
of a certain Caelius Firmianus : — De Pascha ad Felicem 
Kpiscopumy now generaUy considered as the work of 
Venantius Honorianus Clementianus Fortunatus, in the 
6th century : — De Passione Domini (printed in G. Fabri- 
cius's Poei, Vet, Eccles, Op, ChristianOy Basle, 1664 ; and 
in Bibl, Patr, Lugdun. 1677), in hexameters, worthy of 
Lactantius, but bearing in its language the impress of a 
much later age. 

The Editio Princeps of Lactantius was printed at the 
monastery of Subiaco, by Sweynheym and Pannartz, in 
1466, and is one of the earliest specimens of typograph- 
ical art; the same printers published two other editions 
(Rome, 1468, 1470), the latter under the direction of An- 
drew, bishop of Aleria. A number of editions have been 
published since; the roost important are by Gallieus 
(Lugd. Bat. 1660, in a series of Variorum Classics, 8vo), 
C. Cellarius (Lpz. 1698, 8vo), Walchius (Lpz. 1715, 8vo), 
Heumann (Gotting. 1736, 8vo), BUnemann (Lpzg. 1739, 
8vo), Le Brun and Lenglet du Fresnoy (Paris, 1748, 2 
vols. 4to), F. Ea St. Xaverio (Rome, 1754-9), and Migiie 
(Paris, 1844, 2 vols, royal 8vo). A convenient manual 
edition was prepared by 0. F. Fritzsche for Gersdorfs 
Bibliotheca Pairum eccles, selecta (Lips. 1842), vols, x, xi. 
See Jerome, De Viris lU, p. 79, 80; Chronic. Euseb. ad 
ann. occxviii, Comment, in Eccks, c 10; Comment, in 
Ephes, C.4, Ad Paulin, Epist. ; Lactant. Divin, Jnstit, i, 
1, § 8; V, 2, § 2; iii, 13, § 12; Schrockh, Kirchengesch. 
V, 282; Schonemann, BUM, Pair, Lot, vol i, § 2; Bahr, 
GescKd^mrmsch, Litterat, Suppl. Band, 1« Abtheil. § 9; 
2« AbtheiL § 88-46 ; Bahr, Die christiicb-rdm. Theologiey 
p. 72 sq. ; Franciscus Floridus, Subcesivarum, Led, liber 
ii, ch, iv ; Lenain de Tillemont, llistoive Eccles, voL vi ; 
Dupin, BiUioth, des A ttteurs eccles, i, 295 ; Brooke Moun- 
tain, A Summary of the Writings of Lactantius (Lond. 
1839); M<5hler, Pa/rofo!j7*f, 1,917-933; CeMery Hist, des 
A ut. sacrisy ii, 494 sq. ; Schaff, Ch, TJist, voL iii, § 173 ; 
Riddle, Christian AntiquitieSy p. 160-163; Christian Re- 
vieWy 1846, p. 415 sq.; Woodham, TetiuUiany p. liii; 
Leckey, Hist. Europ, Moralsy i, 493 sq. Excellent arti- 
cles may also be found, especially on the writings of 
Lactantius, in Smith, Diet, of Greek and Roman Biog, 
ii, 701 ; and Herzog, Real-Encyklop. viii, 158. On the 
Christology of Lactantius, consult Domer, Doctrine of 
the Person of Christy div. i, vol ii, p. 192 sq. ; Lamson, The 
Church in the first three CenturieSy p. 183 sq. ; Bull, On 
the Trinity (ii, Index) ; Neander, Chr, Dogmas ; Zeitschr, 
f. d. hist, TheoL 1871, vol iv, art. xiii. 



LADD 



-a bam u 



1B30. When only eigbt yeta ot age he 
aoma maivnl indicatiooa ot piety, but it wu nut until 
is UtacnUi year lb«l be joiaeil the Church, under Che 
liiinUy of the Kev. Dr. GB)rgE Sbiphinl, now pioteaaot 
n Bangor Th«ita^cal Seminary. With a view to pre- 
■ucfurthe minislry, he entered Bowduin College St the 
ige oi aevenieen, and graduated with honor in 1811 ; 
hen Btodicd theology at Bangor Seminary, and waa or- 
lained at Fanninglon in 1S4G. In NDV.,lS61,he re- 
fivetl and acffipifld a call from the Penn Preabylerian 
.Diurch, Philadelphia, Pa. During the war be labared 
nceaaanlly for the good oT the eoldien, but feU a prey 
o disease contracted in the camps, vhither he had gone 
•evenl times, and died July 7, I86S. See Wilson, /Vui. 
Hiitorical A Imanac, 1863, p. 1S4. 

Ziadd, ^IPllliam, an American philanthrDpiU, bora 
at Exeter, !<ew Hampshire, in 1778, waa one of the oiig- 
inaion of the American Peace Society, of which he be- 
canoe preaidenl. He died in 1841. Lsdd was editor of 
the Fntnd of Ptcxt and the llartm^ Cjf Peacr, and 
iTRjte several eaeaya en that aubjeet. 

(S^S, nllan', a Uaireiue, perh. from V^D, 
; Sepi. (M/inf ; tht Arab. ntUantm haa the 



I lame signification) occurs only once, in the aecooDt of 
Jacob's vision in bis dream at Bethel (Gen. ziviij, 13), 
where the " lidder set up on the earth, and the top of it 
reached to heaven ; and behold, the angela of God aa- 
cending and deecending on it," represented the Gospel 
dispensation, the blessings of which the patriarch's poe- 
terity were to inherit; the Kedeemer hicnBelf being this 
mystic channel of intercourse between heaven and earth 
(John 1,61). (See Lang, Vitia Scaia yaco6, Alt. 1699 ; 
Schramm, Ite Scala Jacobaa, I', ad 0. 17—.) Scaling- 
ladders for war ((Ai'/iaEii) are mentioned in the Apoc- 
rypha (1 Haec V, SO). That this was a contrivance 
liown from Ihe earliest times, we have abundant evi- 
deoce on the monuments of Thebes, where attacks on 
fortified places are represented as being made bv Boldieis 
provided with scaling-ladders (Wilkinson, 1,390). (Foe 
iUustration, see opposite page.) SimUsr scenes are fre- 
quently depicted on Ihe Assi-rian monuments (l^yanl, 
Xiatceh, ii, 284). See Fobtification. 

LADDEH OF TYRCS, thb (i, xX't^al Tipov ; Vulg. 
a ttrminii Tyri, poaobly reading aki/ia), one of the ex- 
tremities (the northern) of the district over which Si- 
mon Blaixabiena was made captain (or^Miniyuc) by An- 
liochus VI (or Theoe) very shortly after his coming to 
[he throne; the other being "Iba 
borders of Egypt" (t Mace xi. B9). 
The Lwider of Tyre (bm Kab-O 
-t'\S, see Reland./'o^ism!. p.843),ot 
of the Tyrians (i) gXifiaS tCv Tv- 
piiiiv), was the local name for a 
high mountain, the highest in that 
neighborhood, a hundred stadia 
noftb of Ptolemsis, the modem 
AWta or Acra (Joeephua, War, ii, 
ID, i). The rich plain of Ptole- 
msis is bounded on the north by 
a rugged mountain ridge which 
shoots out from Lebanon and dips 
perpendicularly into the sea, form- 
ing a bold promontory about SOO 
feet in height (Rusaegger, p.3, 143, 
262 ; Hitter, yoirsf. und ^yr. iii, 727, 
814 SI).). The waves beat agunst 
the base of the cliff, leaving no pas- 
sagebelov. luandenttimesaroad 
was carried, by a aeriea of zigzags 

connect the plain of Ptolemais with 
lyre— hence the origin of the name 
Scala Tyriorvm," ladder of Tyre." 
ras the souttaem pssB into Phai- 
i« proper, and formed the bound- 
■ between that eounUy and Pal- 
ine (Kenrick, P^anicia, p. 20 ; 
Reland,p.644). The rowl still re- 
us, and is the only one along 
coast. A short distance from 
a tittle villago called NakOmh, 
and [he pass is now called Rii m- 
fiaturoA ("the excavated prom- 

' which has been"hewninthe rock" 
(Porter, J7(a>iaooit,p.389; see also 
I'ococke, i, 79 ; Robinson, B&. Rei. 
iii, 89; Stanley, p. 360, 262). The 
Incalion of the Ras en-Nakhurah 
agrees very nearly wilh the above 
|io^lion defined by Josephns, as it 






It 120 SI 



>i AUTruos assiaiUDE s Uliy w 



from Akka, and is chsracteriied by 
trsvellen as very high and steep. 
Both the Rss en-Nakhurah and the 
R<u t^-Abyad, h e. the While Cape, 
sometimes called Cape Blanco, a 
headland MX miles still fanhi-r 
north, are surmounted by a path 



LAIDLIE 



195 



LAINEZ 



Af ffcfc V. r. Aoofii, Aaxfu, etc ; Valg. Bethlehendtei), a 
penoQ named (1 Chron. xx, 5) as being the brother of 
(iolUth, and alun by Elhanan, one of David's heroes; 
bat prob. a corrupt reading for Bbth-lbhbmitk, as in 
the psraUel passage (2 Sam. xxi, 19). See Elhanan. 
It would seem that both these passages should be re- 
sbond so as to read thus : '^ Elhanan, the son of Jair (or 
Dodo) of Bethlehem, slew the brother of Goliath of 
Gaih, whose spear-handle was like a weaver's beam." 
See Jair. 

laaidlie, Abchibau>, D.D., a noted minister of the 
Beformed (Dutch) Church, was bom at Kelso, Scotland, 
Dec. 4, 1727. After graduating at the University of 
Edinburgh he was ordained to the Gospel ministry 
in 1759, and became pastor of the Scotch H^urch in 
Flashing, Holland, where he officiated four years, and 
as a member of the ecclesiastical courts of that country 
was held in high repute. He there became acquaint- 
ed with the Dutch Church and language, and was prov- 
ideotiany prepared for bis ministry in America. The 
bitter controversy concerning the use of the Dutch lan- 
guage in preaching in the Reformed Church of this 
country was practically settled by the call and accept- 
ance of Dr. Laidlie as pastor of the Collegiate Church 
of New York. He was the tlrst minister called to preach 
in the English tongue in this denomination. His first 
«rmoa was delivered April 15, 1764, from 2 Cor. v, 11. 
Ii was two hours long, most carefully prepared, and de- 
hvned to an immense audience with great effect in the 
Middle Dutch Church, which was set apart for his use 
on a part of each Sabbath day. This event marks a 
new era in the history of the Reformed Dutch Church, 
and which Dr. Livingston declared '* should have begun 
a hundred years before.'' It would have saved the 
Cborch a civil lawsuit, a weary ecclesiastical strife, and 
a century of growth. Trained in the Scotch theology, 
sod warmly devoted to the Dutch Church, Dr. LAidlie's 
evangelical and powerful ministry resulted in great spir- 
itual blessings. He was a winner of souls. A great 
revival crowned his ministry. Crowds waited upon his 
preaching. His pastoral tact and suoc^s were remark- 
able. His brief ministry was interrupted during the 
Revolutionary War, when he retired to Red Hook, and 
lUed there in 1778, at the age of fifty-one, a victim of 
consumption. His memory is held in great esteem. 
He was prudent, wise, devout, a peacemaker, and a 
diontless herald of the truth. The circumstances of hb 
oill, the critical period of his advent, the learning, wi»- 
4om, grace, and success of his minbtry, have made hb 
name historical in hb Church. He left no printed books, 
but hb ** works do follow him." It is related that one 
of hb sged parishioners once said to him, soon after he 
came to New York, "Ah ! dominie, we offered up numy 
an earnest prayer in Dutch for your coming among us, 
and the Lord has heard us in Efiglish^ and has sent you 
to OS." But hb coming illustrated another phase of 
contradictory human nature in those who had most 
strenuously insbted upon the retention of the language 
of the mother country. Some of these very people, of- 
fended and baffled by their more sensible co-worship- 
pen, actually left the Dutch Church and joined the 
Episcopal, saying as they departed, " If we must have 
English, we will have all English." Among them were 
tbe Stuyvesants, Livingstons, and other eminent fami- 
Uw of the city, who have ever since been connected 
with the bitter denomination. — Dr. Thos. De Witt, His- 
torieal Discourse (1856) ; Dr. Gunn, Life of Dr. Liomff- 
lion; Sprague, Arauojfihe Amer. Pulpit^ vol ix. (W. 
J.R.T.) 

Lainez (or Laynes), Francisco, a Portuguese 
Roman Catholic minionary, was bom at Lbbon in 1656. 
His tme name was Francisco Troyano, He joined the 
•lesoits in 1672, and was sent to the coast of Malabar in 
1681. He landed at Goa, and settled at Catur, in Ma- 
don. It b claimed by his order that he baptized there 
13,600 inhabitanta. After a rendence of twenty-two 
yean in India he returned to Rome in 1703, and was 



appointed bbhop of Meliapnr. In 1708 he started again 
for India, and arrived at Goa September 25, 1709. Here 
he now had many difficulties with the civil authori- 
ties, and finally retired to the Jesuits* establishment at 
Chandemagore, where he die<l, June 11, 1715. He 
wrote, Defensio Indicarum Missionum Madurensis et 
CarnotensiSf etc. (Rome, 1707, 4to) : — Carf4i esorita de 
Madure aoa padres da conipanhia missionarios acerca 
do V, P, Jouo de BritOy transbted into French in the 
Lettres edijiantes et curieuses, ii, 1-56 ; and in the Mer- 
curCf under the title Lettre du P, Francois de Ixxynes^ 
jSsufte, etc. (March, 1695). See Barbosa Machado, Bib- 
liotheca Lusitana ; P. Prat, Vie de Jean de Brito (2 vols. 
8vo) ; Franco, Jmagem da virtude uro noviciado de Cotm- 
bra (2 vols. foL) ; Hoefer, Xouv, Biog. GSn, xxx, 41. 

Lainez, lago, a celebrated Spanbh Jesuit, was 
bom at Almancario, near Siguenca, in Castile, in 1512, 
and was educated at the high-school of Alcala. In hb 
nineteenth year he was attracted to Paris by the renown 
of Ignatius, and at once became one of hb most ardent 
followers. He accompanied Loyola on his journey to 
Rome, and there obtained from pope Paul III the ap- 
pointment to a professor's chair in the " Collegium deUa 
Sapienza." On the death of the great leader of the 
Jesuitical order (in 1556) Lainez was elected hb sue- 
ce»or, and became general of the order (June 19, 1557). 
A cardinal's hat and other high positions he refused, 
determined to devote all hb time and energy to the in- 
terests of the new order. In the Council of Trent, 
where, with Salmeron, he represented hb order, he took 
an active part, and opposed the doctrine of Seripando 
on justification. Lainez appeared on the field of con- 
t9)ver8y more with a work on the subject than with a 
speech. He had the greatest number of the divines on 
hb side. He also took a leading part in that council in 
the discussion concerning the divine right of bbhops 
and the infallibility of tbe pope. The hbtorians have 
preserved a very full report of hb speech on thb point. 
It contains the most extravagant assertions of pontifical 
power and authority. Lainez maintained that Jesus 
Chrbt b sole mler of his Church ; that when he left the 
world he constituted Peter and his successors hb vic- 
ars ; that, in consequence, the pope b absolute lord and 
master, supreme and infallible ; that bbhops derive from 
him their power and jurisdiction; and that, in fact, 
there is no power whatever in the Church excepting 
that which emanates from him, so that even general 
councib have no authority, are not infallible, do not en- 
joy the influence of the Holy Spirit, unless they are 
summoned and controlled by papal authority (compare 
Pallav. lib. xviii, s. 15 ; Sarpi, lib. \'ii, s. 20; Le Plat, v, 
524). Lainez also took an active part (in 1561) in the 
Conference of Poissy (q. v.), where he aimed to concili- 
ate the Huguenots (q. v., especblly p. 892). At Ven- 
ice he afterwards expounded the Gospel of St. John fbr 
the express edification of the nobility ; and, aided by 
Lippomano, he succeeded in laying the foundation of a 
college of Jesuits. He devoted great attention to the 
schools, and directed the thoughts of hb order towards 
education, well aware that man is most influenced dur- 
ing hb whole life by hb early impressions. In some 
parts of Germany — at Ingobtadt for instance — the Jes- 
uits soon acquired the reputation of most successful 
teachers. This new direction given to the order by 
Lainez came near, however, involving them in serious 
difllculties : the Jesuits had at first attached themselves 
to the doctrinal views of the Thoroists; but, desiring to 
be independent in doctrine as well as life, the Inqubition 
soon found reaMons to criticise the freedom with which 
they pursued their speculations on this point, and Lai- 
nez himself was suspected by the Spanish Inquisition 
(see Uorente, iii, 83). He died at Rome Jan. 19, 1565. 
It was under the guidance of Lainez that the spirit of 
intrigue entered freely into the society. He possessed 
a pecidiar craftiness and dexterity in managing affairs^ 
and was frequently led by it into low and unworthy 
tricks. Hb ruling passion was ambition, which he 



LAMENTATIONS, BOOK OF 215 LAMENTATIONS, BOOK OF 



A dillerenoe in the alphabetical structure (see above) of 
i and of ii-iv. These objections to Jeremiah's exclu- 
ttv-e authorship seem about as tenable as Hardt's Sha- 
drach, Mesbach, Abednego, and consorts. The first two 
pointa are not worth consideration; the third is an- 
swered by the simple proposition that they are poems, 
and not a historical narrative which we have befure us, 
and that therefore a certain license must be given to 
the poet in the use of broad similes in hb geueralizings, 
and in his putting himself sometimes iu'the place of the 
whole people as its spokesman and chief mourner. And 
if, finally, the structure differs in i from ii and iv, then it 
may as well be asked why iii, which is not supposed to 
be written by Jeremiah, is like ii and iv, which are al- 
lowed to be written by him ? If somebody has imitated 
the structure in iii, why has it not been also imitated in 
i and v? A further refutation of this attempt to take 
away two fifths of Jeremiah*s authorship — supported by 
DO investigator as we said— has been given by Ewald, 
and we have indeed only mentioned it for the sake of 
oompletMiesa. Bunsen, it is true {GoU in der Oesch, i, 
426), indicates Baruch as probably the author, in part at 
least, of Lamentations ; but this is evidently a mere con- 
jecture. 

V. Occanon, — The earliest statement on this point is 
that of Joseph us (/la/, x, 5, 1). He finds among the 
books which were extant in his own time the lamenta- 
tions on the death of Josiah, which are mentioned in 2 
Chron. xxxv, 25. As there are no traces of any other 
poem of this kind in the later Jewish literature, it has 
been inferred, naturally enough, that he speaks of this. 
This opinion was maintained also by Jerome, and has 
been defended by soAe modem writers (Usher, Dathe, 
Ifichaelis, Notes to Lowtk, PneL xxii [Michaells and 
Dathe, however, afterwards abandoned this hypothesis, 
and adopted that of the later date] ; Calovius, ProUgom, 
ad Thrm, ; De Wette, EinL in das A. Test,, Klagl). It 
does not appear, however, to rest on any better grounds 
than a hasty conjecture, arising from the reluctance of 
men to admit that any work by an inspired writer can 
have perished, or the arbitrary assumption (De Wette, 
Lc) that the same man could not, twice in his life, have 
beoi the spokesman of a great national sorrow. (The 
ai^gument that iii, 27 implies the youth of the writer 
hardly needs to be confuted.) Against it we have to 
set (1) the tradition on the other side embodied in the 
pre&ce of the Septuagint ; (2) the contents of the book 
itself. Admitting that some of the calamities described 
in it may have been common to the invasions of Necho 
and Nebuchadnezzar, we yet look in vain for a single 
word distinctive of a funeral dirge over a devout and 
xeilous reformer like Josiah, while we find, step by ste^, 
the closest pomible likeness between the pictures of mis- 
ery in Ihe Lamentations and the events of the closing 
yean of the reign of Zedekiah. The long siege had 
brought on the famine in which the young children 
fainted for hunger (Lam. ii, 11, 12, 20 ; iv, 4, 9 ; 2 Kings 
XXV, 3). The city was taken by storm (Lam. ii, 7 ; iv, 
12; 2 Chron. xxxvi, 17). The Temple itself was pol- 
luted with the massacre of the priests who defended it 
(Lam. ii, 20, 21 ; 2 Chron. xxxvi, 17), and then destroy- 
ed (Lam. ii, 6 ; 2 Chron. xxxvi, 19). The fortresses 
and strongholds of Judah were thrown down. The 
anointed of the Lord, imder whose shadow the remnant 
of the people might have hoped to live in safety, was 
taken prisoner (Lam. iv, 20 ; Jer. xxxix, 5). The chief 
of the people were carried into exile (Lam. i, 5; ii, 9 ; 2 
Rings XXV, 11). The bitterest grief was found in the 
malignant exultation of the Eklomites (Lam. iv, 21 ; Psa. 
cxxxvii, 7). Under the rule of the stranger the Sab- 
baths and solemn feasts were forgotten (Lam. i, 4 ; ii, 6), 
as they could hardly have been during the short period 
in which Jerusalem was in the hands of the Egyptians. 
UnleM we adopt the strained hypothesis that the whole 
poem is prophetic in the sense of being predictive, the 
writer seein^p the future as if it were actually present, 
or the still wilder conjecture of Jarchi that this was the 



roll which Jehoiachin destroyed, and which was re- 
written by Baruch or Jeremiah (Carpzov, IrUrod, ad lib. 
V, r. iii, c iv), we are compelled to come to the conclu- 
sion that the coincidence is not accidental, and to adopt 
the later, not the earlier of the dates. At what period 
after the capture of the city the prophet gave this ut- 
terance to his sorrow we can only conjecture, and the 
materials for doing so with any probability are but 
scanty. The local tradition which pointed out a cavern 
in the neighborhood of Jerusalem as the refuge to which 
Jeremiah withdrew that he might write this book (Del 
Rio, Proleg, in ThrerUf quoted by Carpzov, Jntrod, L c), 
is as trustworthy as most of the other legends of the 
time of Helena. He may have written it Immediately 
after the attack was over, or when he was with Geda- 
liah at Mizpeh, or when he was with his countrymen 
at Tahpanhes. Pareau refers ch. i to Jer. xxxWi, 5 sq. ; 
ch. iii to Jer. xxxviii, 2 sq.; ch. iv to Jer. xxxix, 1 sq., 
and 2 Kings xxv, 1 sq. ; ch. ii to the destruction of the 
city and Temple ; ch. v is admitted to be the latest in 
order, and to refer to the time after that event. £wa)d 
says that the situation is the same throughout, and only 
the time different. *' In chaps, i and ii we find sorrow 
mthout consolation ; in ch. iii consolation for the poet 
himself; in chapter iv the lamentation is renewed with 
greater violence ; but soon the whole people, as if urged 
by their own spontaneous impulse, fall to weeping and 
hoping" (Die Poetischen Bucher), De Wette describes 
the Lamentations somewhat curtly, as '* five songs re- 
lating to the destruction of the city of Jerusalem and its 
Temple (ch. i, ii, iv, v), and to the unhappy lot of the 
poet himself (chap. iii). The historical relation of the 
whole cannot be doubted ; but yet there seems a grad- 
ual ascent in describing the condition of the city'' {£in- 
leitung, § 273). 

There can hardly be any doubt, however, as to the 
time to which these threnodies refer. A brief glance at 
the corresponding portions in the books of Kings and 
Chronicles affords decisive evidence that they speak, 
one and all, of the whole period from the beginning of 
the last siege by Nebuchadnezzar to its terrible end. 
This has also, from the Sept, and the Midrash down- 
wards, been the almost unanimous opinion of investiga- 
tors (Carpzov, Eichhom, Jahn, Bcrtholdt, Bormelius, 
Horrer, Riegler, Pareau, etc). It would seem to be 
equally clear that these poems belong, broadly speaking, 
to no particular phase of the great epoch of terrors, but 
that, written probably within a very brief space of time 
(more especially does this appear to be the case with 
the first four), they portray indiscriminately some woe- 
ful scene that presented itself " at the head of every 
street," or give way to a wild, passionate outcry of ter- 
ror, misery, despair, hope, prayer, revenge, as these in 
vehement succession swept over the poet's soul. 

Yet it has been suggested (and the text has been 
strained to the utmost to prove it) that the successive 
elegies are the pictures of successive events portrayed in 
song ; that, in fact, the Lamentations are a desniptive 
threnody — a drama in which, scene after scene, the on- 
ward march of dread fate is described, intermixed with 
plaints, reflections, prayers, consolations, such as the 
chorus would utter in grave and measured rhythms, ac- 
companied by the sighs and tears to which the specta- 
tors would be moved by the irredeemably doomed he- 
roes and actors. Thus, for instance, it has been main- 
tained that the first chapter speaks of Jehoiachin's cap- 
lure and exile (Horrer, Jahn, Kiegler, etc), upon which 
there is thb to be observed, that a mere glance at 1 
Kings xxiv shows that such scenes as are described in 
this first elegy (famine, slaughter of youths, etc) do not 
in the least agree with the time and circumstances of 
Jehoiachin, while they do exactly correspond with the 
following chapter of Kings, in which the reign under 
Zedekiah, with all its accompanying horrors, to the 
downfall of the city and empire, are related with the se- 
vere calmness of the historian, or rather the dry minute- 
ness of the annalist Neither can we, for our own part. 



LAMP 2: 

where it Ia no Iod^ct onul to bring home the bride by 
Dighl. During tKO, or three, or mon nighu preceding 
Uk wedding, the street or quarter in which ihe bride- 
fronm lives ia illuminated with chandeliera uid iKiilenia, 
' or with lanteme and amall lamps Buapendnl fmiD rordi 
drawn ■rnm frc>m the bridegroumi and sd'eral other 
faouHS on each aide to the houses uppoMte; and several 
snail ailk Stgn, each of iwo ailoi^ gcnerallv red and 



Modern Orleuul Ufilihu,: Lanlern. 
green, are altAched to other cirrh (l^ne, Hod.Ei^pl. i. 
aOli Mra. Poole, KiigtitJi«vm.tn in Kgfpl, iii, 181). A 
modem lantern much used on ilieBeoccaeiana, with lamps 
liung about it and suspended from il, ia represented in 
the preceding cut. The lamps used separately on such 
■lecauona are represented in [he following cnl. Fi^ 1, 
8, and (• show vrri- distinctly ihe conical reoeplacle of 




Smsli Oriental hanging Lamps, 
wood which serres to protect the Name from the wind. 
Lamps of this kind ate sometimes 
■I doora. The shape in 



illass, having a anall tube at Ihe 
l>i>itom, in which is slueh a wick 
fiirmeil of cotton twisted round a 




mt, and then the oil 

nearly nfihiA shape 

he ERvptian monu- 

I. and they seem, also, to be 

iroP'toM, iii, 101 ; v, 376). 



If the Egyptians had lamps of glan, thei 

why the Jews also might not have had ti 

as this material is mora proper for lamps intended te bi 

hung up, and therefore to caat their liglit down turn 

The Jews used lamps in othet restivals bendes thme 
of marriage. The Boman ^satirist (Pemos, Sat. t, \li) 
expressly dncribes them as makint; ill uminal ions >t 
their festivals by lamps hung up and arranged in an or- 

tbey go, agree with this deacription. If this custom t«d 
not been so general in the ancient and modem East, it 
might have been supposed that the Jews adopted it freia 
the Egyptians, who, according la llerodotua (ii. 62), bad 
a " Feast of I^mps," wbich was celebrated at Sais, cod. 

the year. The description which the historun giree of 
the lamps employed on this occasion strictly applies fp 
those in modem use already described, and the coneur- 
lenee of both these sources of illustration atrengtbens 
the probable analogy of Jewish usage. He speaks of 
them as "small vases filled with salt and olive-«l. hi 
which the wick flnated, and burnt during the wboJe 
night." It does not, indeed, appear of what mataiaU 
these vases were made, but we may reasonalily suppoae 
them to have been of glass. The later Jews had era 
something like this feast among themselves A '■ Feax 
of Lamps' was held every year on Ihe twenty-fifth of 
the month Kisleu. See Dkhication. It was fnundnJ 
by Judas Maccahvus, in celebration of the restoration 
of Ihe Temple worship (Josephii»,^H/. xli,7,7), and hai 
ever since been observed by the lighting up of lamps or 
caudles on that dav in all the countries of their disper- 
sion (Maimonide«,*^o«*. ffaiAoi-oA, foL 8). Other Ori- 
entals have at this day a similar feast, of which thr 
"Feast of lanterns" among Ihe Chinese is perhaps the 
best known (Davis, Ciinrir, p. 138). See Lantehs. 

LAMP, n strange ceremony of Ihe Maionite CbonFli. 
A wafer of some size, having seven pieces of cotton 
stuck inlo il. is pul iiilo a (task or basin of oil , a relig- 

the sick person for whose recovery the rile is intended 

is anointed Kith the oil, and praj'er is repeated oret 
him. 

LAMPS(theiruseintheChristianChurch). Among 
the Jews huipi were freely used in the synagogue for 
various purposes. In fact, all the ancient Dalioiu had 
them in their temples; but how soon they were made 
iise of by Chrisiiaos, and what ugnificance they had in 
symbolism, ri^mains a matter of duipule between [be 
liomish and Protestant churches. The Protestan la gen- 
erally hold that there is no evidence that lamps were 
used in the early C'hureh for any other purpose than lu 
light up Ihe dark places where they were obliged to 
congregate fur wonihip, while Komanists claim that 
Ihey were used as symbolK (Compare, on the Roman 
Cjilhnlic view, Mattigny, Did. rfri Aniiqvilii Ckri- 
linmri, p. 151, s. v. Ciergea; see also the arL Lichts.) 
Several of the fathers, among them Chiysostom, con- 
demn in slmng terms Ihe custom of setting up lamps on 
days of festival— as the relic of some pagan rite. In 
Ihe days of Jerome, it is true, lights were freely used in 
churches, but Romish theologians forget to loll that the 
propriety ofthe cuslora was much questioned even then. 
In graves of the Catacombs " lamps were often placed,' 
says Walcolt (^urrnf Arrhaology, s. v.), "as a symbid 
of the eternal light wbich the departed, it is hoped, en- 
joy— as memorials of Iheir shining lights before mm, 
and their future glory' (Matt. xiii. 43). JtuI it is evi- 
dent that even this custom was early disapproved of,fo: 
the Cuimcil of Klibaris forbade the faithlhl, on pain of 
excommunication, lighting wax candles in Ihe day- 
time in cemeteries or other burial-places of Ihe martyrs 
(compare Eadie, Kirltt. Did. p. S£7). In our day it il 
Ihe custom in the Roman Catholic churches to keep a 
lamp (eternal light) constantlv burning before or by tht 
side of the t»'- ' W.) 



LAMPADART 



223 



LAMY 



18 the nmme of an officer in the East- 
em Church whom duty it is to carry before the patri- 
archs in all proceflsionB a lighted candelabram, called 
X.a/AiraSovx**v, as a badge of distinction among bishops. 
It is the business of the lampadary also to see that the 
LaznpA of the cborch are lighted, and to cany a taper on 
(lays of great processions. 

I«ainpe, Frikdrich Adolf, an eminent German 
lYotestant theologian, was bom at Detmold (Lippe- 
I>eniiold) Feb. 19, 1688. He entered the Uniyersity of 
Franeker. and later that of Utrecht, to study theology. 
He was successively pastor at Wees, Duisburg, and Bre- 
men. In 1720 he became professor of theology at 
Utrecht, and in 1727 removed to the University of Bre- 
oaen in the same capacity. He died December 8, 1729. 
Lamp? is one of the most prominent German theolo- 
gians of the Reformed Church, who introduced into the 
German Church the Coccejanian doctrines, and measu- 
rsbty also the principles of Labadism. Lampe's principal 
w^ffks are, Commmtarius cmalytico'-exegeticua Evangelii 
Kcnmdum JokaHnem{Am6tetA, 1724-25, 3 vols. 4to) ; this 
work Orme commends as "• both extensive and valua- 
ble.** Walch ranks it among the best expositions of 
the apostle's Gospel: — De Cymbalis veterum Libri tres 
(Utrecht, 1703, 12mo) : — ExerciicUionum sacrarium Do- 
deooc, quibu* P$almu8 xivperpetuo commenlario explanO' 
htr (Bremen, 1715, 4to): — Geheimniss des Gnadenbundes 
(Bremen, 1723, 12mo; tranalat into Dutch, Amst. 1727, 
Hvo) ; this work is nothing more nor less than his sys- 
tem of theok^y : — Delweatio Thelogiai actives (Utrecht, 
1727, 4to) : — RudimetUa Tkeologia elcnchtictB (Bremen, 
1729, 8vo). Lampe published also a large number of 
aermona'and devotional treatises in German, which were 
nearly all translated into Dutch ; he rearranged and ed- 
ited an edition of the Hittoria Ecdesia Rrformata in 
Hwtparia et Trcmsifhamaf attributed to Paul of De- 
brezin (Utrecht, 1728, 4to). Together with Hase, he 
published the first three volumes of the Bibliotheca Bt'e- 
mtmritf for which he wrote a number of theological arti- 
cles. Other treatises which he published in various pa- 
pers were collected and published by D. Gerdes, togeth- 
er with his discourses and programmes (AmstotL 1737, 
2 vols. 4to). See Schumacher, Memoria lAimpii, in Mis- 
cdUmea Duidmrgeiuiaj voL ii*. Acta Eruditorum, ann. 
1722; Klifker, BibL ErueUtor. Pracocium; Burmann, 
TraJ€€tum erudiium ; Jdcher, A Ugem, GeL Lexihon ; Hoe- 
fer, Aottr. Bioff, Geniraie, xxix, 284 ; Gobel (Maximil- 
ian), Getch, d ChristHckm Lthens, vol ii (see Index). 

lounpetians is the name of one of the heretical 
sects whicb« on pretence of promoting sanctity by an 
ascetic Ufe, made the Christian Sabbath a fast-day.' 

There was also another sect of this name in the 17th 
century, the followers of Lampetiufi, a Syrian monk, 
who pretended that, as a man is bom free, a Christian, 
in order to please God, ought to do nothing by necessi- 
ty; and that, therefore, it is unlawful to make vows, 
ev«i tboae of obedience. To this doctrine he added 
the views of the Arians, Carpocratians, and other sects. 
The Lampetians formed a branch of the Mkssalians 

(q. v.). 

Lampillas, Fbamcis Xaviur, a Spanish Jesuit, 
WIS bom in Catalonia in 1731. After the expulsion of 
the Jesuits from Spain in 1767 he went to Genoa, where 
be died in 1810. His principal work is a defence of 
Spuuah Uterature against Bettinelli and Tiraboschi, 
H'iggio ttorioh-apohgetico delta Leteratura Spagrmola, 
See Hoefer, JVawp. Biog. Generate^ xxix, 286. 

Lamplagh, Thomas, D.D., an English prelate of 
iKHe in the days of king James H, was bora in Tork- 
ahire in 1615. But little is known of his early personal 
history. He was dean of Rochester in 1676, when he 
was promoted to the episcopate as bishop of Exeter. In 
thb position he became one of the most conspicuous di- 
vines of the day, securing, in particular, the favor of the 
king by his partisanship, especially in 1688. In this year, 
jiiat before the exit of king James from the English 



throne, Lamplugh called on the king, was graciously 
received, praised for his loyalty, and awarded with the 
archbishopric of York, which had been vacant for more 
than two years and a half. William lU. whom Lamp- 
lugh, strangely enough, recognised as the rightful sover • 

the appointment^ hence some writers* statement that 
William of Grange appointed Lamplugh to the arch- 
bishopric The archbishop died in 1691. See Debary, 
Hiitory of the Church of England^ p. 167; Macaulay, 
History of England, ii, 882. (J. H. W.) 

Lampronti, Isaac, a Jewish Rabbi of some note 
as an author, flourished in Ferrara in the first half of 
the 18th century. He died about 1756. He commenced 
the preparation of a large encyclopsdia of Rabbinism, 
of which he himself completed twelve volumes, bringing 
the work, excellent in its character, down to the letter 
Mem, It was published at Venice between 1750 and 
1813. See Jost, Geach, d Judenth, u. ». Sektm, iii, 280. 

Lamson, Alvam, D.D., a Unitarian minister, was 
bom in 1792 at Weston, Mass. ; was educated first at 
Phillips Academy, Andover, and then at Harvard Col- 
lege, where he graduated in 1814. He was immediately 
appointed tutor in Bowdoin College, but left in 1816, 
and entered the Divinity School at Cambridge. In 1818 
he became pastor of the First Church in Dedham, Mass., 
where he officiated for over forty years. He died July 
18, 1864. He wrote much for the Christian Examiner, 
and in 1857 published a volume of sermons (Bost. 12mo). 
The Christum Roister says of him : *' Dr. Lamson has 
succeeded in uniting the acutest moral wisdom with the 
most unpretending and childlike modes of exliibiting it. 
His style is clear as crystal, sometimes almost quaint in 
its simplicity, and not without touches of poetic feeling 
as well as fancy, though a calm, shrewd judgment char- 
acterizes all his opinions.*' — Allibone, DicL of Authors, 
voL ii-, American Annual Cychptedia, 1864, p. 612. 

Lamy (or Lami), Bernard, an eminent priest of 
the French Oratory, was bom at Mans in June, 1640; 
studied under the Oratorians, joined their order in 1658, 
and completed his studies at Paris and at Saumur. He 
next taught beUes-lettres at Yenddme and Juilly, and 
philosophy at Saumur and at Angers. In 1676 he was 
deprived of his professorship for his zealous advocacy 
of the Cartesian philosophy. Hb enemies, the Thom- 
ists, even obtained a Uttre de cachet against him under 
the accusation that he opposed the principle of royal 
authority. He was banished to Grenoble, where canli- 
nal Le Camus, who had established a seminary for the 
education of ecclesiastics, and who held Lamy in high 
estimation, appointed him professor of divinity. In 
1686, his sentence having been revoked in its most es- 
sential charges, he was recalled to Paris, and remained 
for a while in the Seminary of St. Magloire , But, having 
^'ioIated the rules of the establishment by publishing 
without the knowledge of the superior a work (Lettre 
au P. Fourre, de FOratoire), which, besides, was consid- 
ered to contain objectionable teachings (viz. as that 
Christ did not celebrate the Jewish Passover with his 
disciples [a view adopted by some of the soundest schol- 
ars] ; that John the Baptist was imprisoned twice, by 
the Sanhedrim and by Herod , and that the three Marys 
mentioned in the Gospels are identical), he was again 
exiled, this time to Rouen. He died in the latter city 
Jan. 29, 1715. Lamy was a ver>' prolific writer, and 
his works are generally distinguished for clearness of 
thought and expression. The most important are, Ap" 
parahis Biblicus ad tntelligenda Sacra Biblia (orifi^nally 
[Grenoble, 1687J no more than tables of the chief facts 
of Scripture, with rules for its study, and compiled sim- 
ply for his pupib , he subsequently enlarged and pub- 
Ushed it at Lyons, 1696, sm. 8vo, and it was in its day con- 
sidered the best "introduction** to the Bible extant; an 
English edition was prepared by R. Bundy, Lond. 1723, 
4to) :—Entretiens sur les Sciences (1684), a work which 
was highly esteemed by J. J. Rousseau : — Introduction 



LAXXELLOTTI T, 

in thr edition of the Carpui jarii canon, published at 
Lyunft, and ctniiiuued tn be prinled in that mannpr, it 
hirinff Saally obuiiied the apgirDril at pope Paul V 
Iiai3-21) bv the interceanan nf caidinal Scijiio Cobcl- 
luiiiu and iithen. Still (he Imlihilioiiu were never 
niniidrred u «n ofiicUl wnrk. Their value cnnidala 
i:hi<^r in ihr insight it aOiircb into what wu coiuiilered 
■.• Law before the Council of Trent, and the comnion 
pnnic« of that time. Subsequent eilititins carefully 
iiulicsle the liilferencn between it anil tliG new laws. 
( >ee Cai>|>ai Ziei-ler, Sola a iptit laOigailatBin rceteti- 
•Mficimm /oHfi&ui drtlada, Witlemb 1G99, 4to; rcpro- 
Ouceitin Thomuiw.'!! eililioo, Hal>, 1716,1717, 4to; alao 
that of DoujaUVeneiiiis I7&0, 3 vob. Hyo). A French 
tnuulalinn,witha<Mmpiri8onorihe Komitb and Galilean 
prsnicr, wu published bv Durand de Maillane {Lyona, 
1710, 10 vols. l2nio).— HcraoK. RnU-EiKyldop. viii, 187. 

I>aiic«lIotti (or LA.tcEi.oTTO.Qlovaiuii PaoU 

ril. aa Italian aulbnr and priest, was bom at Perugia in 
l.>;^ and died in Paris In IMO. He is noted as [be au- 
itkijr of a Buccenfid work entitled To-day (" L'Hoggidi"), 
intended to prove thsi the world was not morally or 









ithei lear 

I>BilCelot,Dom.CLAui>E, a noted French Cbeoloffii 
and writer of the Komlsh Church, was bom a( Paris I 
161i III 1610 he wBsappniiitedpresidingofflcerortI 
niHed Khoul of Port Royal, and, after its " 
In I6$0, he became inslructor of prince Conti 
in the eouvent St.Cvran until iu dealricl 
tie dieii at Quimperl^ April lb. I69&. Hi 
■Balnly on tbe grammar of the elaaaical and 
EnafcesL He aLw published historical . 
Bilde of Vilie, and lefl In MS. fiirra memoir* of the life 
<rf Ouverser de Hauranne, uf the St. Cyran convent. See 
.Sainte-Beuve, Fori Jlayali Vigneul Marville, itflnngrt, 
i. 132 ; Nicemn, .Vim. pour wmV a rhulmn det llomta 
IILxxxw; lloefei,Xevt.Bing.<Jrn.X]iiit,Ziim. 

Lancet (l^'l, ro'Miiol, from its pifrciag, I King* 
iriii, M, elsewhere usually "spear"), the iron potnf or 
head of a lance. See Abhor. The incisive implements 
"I Ihe most ancient Hebrews, as nf other penptes, were 
«( none (Eiod. iv, 2&; Josh, t, 2; compare Abiehl. I>r 
nri/it Mirii, ljpBiit,1712; and (^nerally CrruMT, Com- 
■ntf. //riwf. i, ^2. The r«tfn fanin with which Ibe 
priou of Cybele emasculilcd Ihemselvee [PUny. xxxv, 
<*|. and the stone knives of the KgypUan embulmeis 
[Herud. ii, 86], are parallel cases). The Hebrews used 
D" kniv(« at table (although one term fur knife, r^^iK?, 
it so nuneil from nUing), since the tneat was brought on 
pieces, and the breail 

■ ■ " ■■lecEATis 

princely 




in Knivea and Lancets. Collected from varlaus 



5 LANDED ESTATE 

feasts. See JIeai. Knives were rejcidarlj employed 
hy mechanics (q. v.), and in slaughtering animals (Gen. 
xxii,6,I0; comp. Judg.xLx,39iseePhilo, O^ii,&70), 
and for preparing food (.loeephua, ll-'ar, i, 33, 7; Anl. 
ivii, 71, etc.). 'fhe sacrificial knife, in parlicnlar, wa* 
CBlIed rjVng (Ezra i, il), and a mom in the (second) Tem- 
ple was appropriated to such cutlery (riB'iintl r'3, 
Mi-ihna, Uiddnlh, vi, T). A penknife was caUed *i;n 
(.ler. xxvi, 23; Ezek. t, I), originally in Aramnui 
1D0C, which In the Talmud (CMim, xiii. 1) likewise 
denotes a razor. The pruning-knlfe was called n^riip 
(lBa.i'i,4( xviii, 5, elc.). See Rnifk. 

Lancet Style. See ENOLiaK Stile. 

LANCET-WINDOW is an architectural lerro for a 
oamiw window with acutely-pointed areb head. .This 
form was much used In England and Scotland during 
the early pointed period of <tethic archiiecture. Sev- 
eral lancet-windows are frequently gniaped to^lhet, so 
as lo pmdace a pleasing effect. In Scolland, Ihe lancel- 
window was, like many other features of Scotch (iotbic, 
retained to a much later period than ii 
Chambers, Cyciopadia, s. v. 






Ljncet-wludow. From UUUKuw CuthcdraL 
Land (repreaenled hy aeveral Ileb. and Gr. words: 
properly y7!t, f'reW, usually rendered "tarli," Gr. yfl; 
and riQ'^X, adamaA\ usually the "grovnd;" 
nlilj. tadrk', elsewhere a "ftid" Or. aypiJc 
pa. a traet of land j etc.). This word in the Old Testa- 
ment often denotes emphatically the country of the Is- 
laelites, at other times some |>articular country or dis- 
trict, as the land of Canaan, the land of Egypt, the land 
nf Ashiir, the land of Moab. In ' ' ' 

Authorized Ver^n Ihe phrase " a 
when the more restrict«d phrase " 
land," woidd be more proper. See AoKici;Lri;HB) 
Farm: Landed Estatk. 

Itandan, .Ibciiebkei, a (German Rabbi of note, was 
bom about 1720. tie flourished fint as Rahhi ofjam- 
pol, Poilulia, and later as chief Rabbi of Prague. He 
died in 1793. While yet a young man Landau gave 
promise of great ability as a polemic, and he displayed 
Ibis quality to great advantage in the Sabbatarian con- 
tioversv which laged between Eibeecbutz [see Jona- 
■znw ErBESi;iiiiTz] and Emden. .See nriiii, am^.dtr 
Jadtn, vol X, ch. li, especially p. «9, 416, 438; FUiK, 
HiUi>>ik.Jud.\\,2\itm. 

Iianded Estate. It has been ihe custom to re- 
garil the Hehrcwa as a pastoral people unlil they were 
setileil in Palestine. In a great degree they diiubllcsa 
were »o. and when (hey entereil aRriciiltural Egj-pt, the 
lanil nf Gn^ben was assigned lo Ihem cxprcvly because 
that locality was siiiied to Iheir pasloral habits (Gen. 
jdvii, 4-6). Ttiesc habits were sub*tantiolly maintain- 
edi but it t!< certain that they became acquiinted wilh 
the Egyptian proc^tues uf culture, and it is more than 



LANDELIN 



227 



LANE 



•1 they were constantly employed in agricnltare, attach- 
ed to domestic life, and enjoyed at home the society of 
the Qumefons relatives who peopled their neighborhood!, 
var must have l>een in a high degree alien to their tastes 
and habtta. ReUgion also took part in preventing them 
(rom beiD^: captivated by the splendor of military glor>'. 
(>n retiuTung from batUe, even if victorious, in order to 
bfing than back to more peaceful feelings after the rage 
uf war, the law required them to consider themselves as 
polloted by the slaughter, and unworthy of appearing 
in the camp of Jehovah until they had employed an en- 
tire day in the rites of purification (Numb. xix. 18-16; 
xxxi, 19). Besides, the force was entirely infantry; the 
L:w forbidding even the kings to multiply horses in 
their train (Deut. xvii, 16); and this, with the ordinance 
requiring the attendance of all the males three times 
every year at Jerusalem, proved the intention of the 
legislator to confine the natives within the limits of the 
Promised Land, and rendered long and distant wars and 
conqtieats impossible without the virtual renunciation 
of that religion which was incorporated with their whole 
civil polity, and which was, in fact, the charter by which 
they held their property and enjoyed all their rights 
(Graves, Ijedufn on the Pentateuch, lect. Iv; Lo^vraan, 
Ciril Got, of the lleb. ch. iii, iv^ Michaelis, Mos. Recht^ 
i,340sq.). 

Ifandelin and Landoald, two saints of the Ro- 
man Catholic Church, are said to have flourished as 
preachers of the Gospel in Belgium in the 7th century. 
We have no trustworthy information as to their lives and 
proceedings. Among the aids which St. Amandus pro- 
cared from Rome in 651 to help him in his missionary 
labors hi mentioned the presbyter Landoald, probably an 
Anglo-Saxon. According to the history of Landoald, 
written in the 10th centurj' by abbot Herigcr von 
Lutibes, Landoald was especially supported in his mis- 
sions by king Childeric II, who furnished him with all 
the n c c wsa rv means. He is also said to have had Lam- 
bert of Maestricht for a pupil, and to have been nine 
jtin bishop as successor of St. Amandus. This latter 
tHcrtion, however, is contradicted by the fact that Re- 
msdiis was the successor of Amandus ; and it appears 
aL«> a matter of doubt whether Lambert of Maestncht 
was indeed a pupU of Landoald. 

Concerning Landehn, the Bollandists g^ve, under date 
uf June 15, an old biography, according to which he had 
been a pupil of Andebert, bishop of Cambray and Arras, 
had fled from his tutor, and supported himself for a while 
by highway robbery. The sudden death of one of his 
band, and % dream, in which he saw his former compan- 
ion carried to hell by the devil, caused his conversion, 
and be subjected himself to strict penance in a convent, 
lod made a pilgrimage to Rome. Subsequently conse- 
mted deacon and presbyter, he made two more journeys 
to Rome, the last time accompanied by his pupils Ade- 
lentis and Domitiauus. He is said to have founded the 
tvo convents of Lobbes and Crepin. According to the 
ume account, Landelin died in 686, continuing his pen- 
aiKcs to the last — Ddrle, Landeliti, Apottel d Deutschen 
(Augsb. 1838) ; Wetzer und Welte, Kirchen-Lexikon, vi, 
m^ Hcrzog. Real-Etuyklojtadie, vUi, 187. (J. N. P.) 

Land-mark (^^39i, ffebul'j or f^h^Z^y ffebulah^ usu- 
illy rendered "border" or "coast**), a boundary-One as 
indicated by a stake, stone, or other monument (Deut. 
XIX, 14; xxvii, 17; Prov. xxii, 28 ; xxiii, 10 ^ Jobxxiv, 
i). It was the manifest intention of Jehovah, in bring- 
ing the Hebrews into Canaan, to make them a nation 
of igriculturista. For this purpose the land was divided 
by lot and mea«irement among the tribes, families, and 
individuals of the nation. Thus every citizen had al- 
lotted to him a piece of gronml, which he was to culti- 
^^3 and leave to his descendants. The importance of 
preserving accurately the boundaries of individual or 
C&mily possessions is very obvious ; and, to prevent mis- 
^kes and litigation, the fields were marked offby stones 
Kt up on the limits, which could not be removed witl^ 



out incurring the wrath of heaven. The custom had 
doubtless prevailed long before (Job xxiv, 2), it was thus 
confirmed by express statute (Deut. xix, 14 ^ xxvii, 17), 
and it appears to have been strictly perpetuated in later 
times (Prov. xxii, 28 ; xxiii. 10). Similar precautions 
were in use among the Romans, who had images or posts, 
called Uermce or termini, set up on the line between dif- 
ferent owners, which were under the patronage of a 
deity especially designated for that care (see Smith's 
Diet, of Greek and Roman Biog, s. v. Terminus). Land- 
marks were used in Greece even before the age of Ho- 
mer {Iliad, xxi, 405) ; and they arc still used in Persia, 
and in various parts of the East. Even to this day fields 
in the East have no fences or hedges, but a ridge, a 
stone, or a post occasionally marks the boundary -, con- 
sequently, it is not very difficult to encroach on the 
property of another (see Hackett, lUustra, of Script, p. 
167). See Hedge. 

Laiido or Landon, a Roman pontiff, was a native 
of Sabina, but the date of his birth is not known. In- 
deed, but little is accessible as to his personal history 
until he came to the pontifical chair in 913. He held 
the pontificate only about six months, for he died about 
April 27, 914. See Bower, History of the Popes^ v, 89 sq. 

Landoald. See Landelin. 

Landon, Whittinoton, D.D., a clergyman of the 
Church of England, was for some time provost of Worces- 
ter College, Oxford. In 1813 he was appointed dean of 
Exeter, and in 1821 prebendary of Salisbury. He died 
in 1839. Some of his sermons were published in Lon- 
don (1812, 8vo, and in 1836, 8vo) AUibone, Dictionary 

of English and American Authors, ii, 1053. 

Landaborongh, David, D.D., a Scotch Presbyte- 
rian minister, was bom at Dalvy, Galloway, Scotland, 
in 1782. He was pastor of the parish of Stevenson from 
181 1 to 1843, and of a Free-Church congregation at Salt- 
coats from 1843 until his death in 1854. Mr. Landsbor- 
ough was very eminent as a naturalist, and wrote sev- 
eral treatises on botany and zoology. He also contrib- 
uted frequently to Dr. Harvey's Psycholoffia Britcmnica, 
and published papers in the Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History, — Allibone, Dictionary of British cmd 
A merican A uthors, ii, 1056. 

Landsperger, Johann, a Carthusian monk, who 
obtained distinction by his voluminous ascetic writings, 
was bom in Landsperg, Bavaria, in the latter part of the 
15th century ; studied in Cologne, was made prior of his 
order near Julich, and died about 1584. On account of 
his marked and severe piety, he was called the Just. 
Among his works, which were published in many edi- 
tions at Cologne, are, Sermones capitulares in prcecipuis 
antd festivitatUfus : — Vita Servatoris N,l,X,: — Para- 
phrases in dominicales Epistolas ei Evangelia : — A llo- 
quia Jesu Christi adfdelem animam : — Enchiridion vita 
spiritualis ad perfectionem : — Pharetra divini amoris. 
Landsperger was the first to publish the Revelations of 
the Holy Gertrude, — Wetzer u. Welte, Kirchen-Lexikon, 
vi,342. 

Landulph. See Patarians. 

Lane (pOfAtf, so rendered in Luke xiv, 21 ; elsewhere 
"Street"), a narrow passage or alley in a city, in dis- 
tinction from a principal thoroughfare (TrXarcia). See 
Street. 

Lane, Qeorge, a Methodist minister of considera- 
ble note, was bom in the State of New York April 13, 
1784. He was admitted to the Philadelphia Conference 
in 1805, and located in 1810 •, was readmitted in 1819, 
and again located in 1825; but was readmitted once 
more in 1834. In 1836 he was elected assistant agent 
of the Methodist Book-Concern at New York. In this 
capacity first, and later in that of principal agent, he 
servetl until 1852, when he retired from aM active du- 
ties \n the Church. He died May 6, 1859. Under his 
pmdent management^ the publishing house, then at 200 
Mulberry Street, assumed almost gigantic proportions, 



r 



LANG 



229 



LANG 



and be was freqaently tempted to retrace his steps to 
the cloister, but was urged by pope Alexander II to con- 
tiooe his public labors. The violent disposition of Wil- 
liam Rufas, who ascended the throne in 1087, was a fur- 
ther annoyance. Notwithstanding all these difficulties, 
he labored perseveringly in the erection of churches and 
cknsters, in multiplying correct copies of the fathers 
and of the holy Scriptures, in the extension of learning 
and imprurement of manners in clergy and people, and 
in care for the sick and the poor. " Under his spiritual 
role,* Bays a noted Church historian, " the Church of 
England received as strong an infusion of the Norman 
elenaeat as was forced upon the political system of Eng- 
land by the iron hand of the Conqueror.** His active 
and prudent influence was also often employed in state 
aflaii&. 

Lanfranc*s relation, while archbishop of Canterbury, 
to the papal chair forms an important feature of his life. 
lie was on a friendly footing with Alexander II, his for- 
mer paptl, and went to receive at his hands the pallium 
of his office, though he had at first desired, in accord- 
ance with the king's wishes, that it should be sent to 
him to England. Gregory VII, greatly displeased with 
Miniam's independent conduct, and his inclination to 
restrain the bishops from visiting Rome, sharply com- 
^ilained to Lanfranc that he had also lost bis former 
i>pirit of obedience to papal authority. Lanfranc pro- 
tested his continued affection for the Church, and de- 
clared that he had sought to win the king to conformity 
in certain particulars (as specially in the matter of Pe- 
ter's pence), but said little concerning his general rela- 
tion to the king, or that of the latter to the po|>e. He 
•eema to have known that a certain degree of consider- 
ation, more than he liked definitely to express, must be 
allowed to the royal wishes. The pope's command to 
Lanfimnc to appear in Kome within four months under 
threat of su^tpcnsion he openly and without answer dis- 
obeyed. A letter of Lanfranc to an unknown corre- 
spondent (A)>. 59), who sought to gain his adhesion to 
the rival pope, Clement II, places him in a neutral po- 
sition as between the two popes, and as awaiting, with 
the government of England, further light on the subject. 
Something of Linfranc's coldness towards Gregory may 
perhaps be explained by the fact that he saw in this 
pope {as is apparent in a letter cited by Gieseler) a pro- 
tector of his enemy Berengar. Lanfranc died May 28, 
1089, two years after the death of William the Con- 
qoeror. 

Besides his work against Berengar may be mentioned 
his Decretd pro ordine Sancti Bmtdicti : — Epistolarum 
Liber, containing 60 letters, 44 written by him and 16 
address e d to him : — De cekmda confetsionej a fragment 
of an address in defence of his primatical authority; and 
CowtmaUariea on SU PauVs Epistles, His biography of 
William the Conqueror has been lost. The first com- 
plete edition of Lanfranc's writings was published by 
D'Achery, a Benedictine (Paris, 1648, foL) ; the earliest 
edition is entitled B, Lanfranci Opera (Paris, 1.568, fol) ; 
the Utcat edition is by Giles (Ox. 1844-45, 2 vols. 8vo). 
See Milo Crispuius, Vita B. Lan/ranci ; Cadmer, Vifa 
Anselmi; Chrtmieon Biccense; Malmesbury, (irsta Anfflo- 
run, book iii; Acfa Sanctorum^ Maii, torn, vi; Mohler, 
Gesamelte iSchriJUn, voU i; Hasse, Anselm, vol i; Su- 
dendorf, Berentjarius Turonensis (Hamburg and Gotha, 
1850) i Gieseler, Ch. llut. ii, 102 ^ Churton, Early English 
CkMrrk, p. 266, 291 sq., 302, Palmer, Ch, Hist, p. 106 sq. ; 
Mihnan, Latin Christianity, iii, 438-440; Hook, Lives of 
the ArdAishops of Canterbury, vol u (1861) ; Hill, Mo- 
nasticimn in England, p. 337 sq. ; Herzog, Real-Encyldop. 
s. V. I Wetzer u. Welte, Kirchm^Lexikon, s. v. 

Lang, Oeorg Heinriob, a distinguished German 
theologian, was bom Nov. 28, 1740, at Oettingen. He 
received a scientific education in hb native town, and 
panned theology at the University of Jena. In 1765 
he aammed a pastorate at Buhl, and in 1770 accepted a 
call to Hohen-und-Nieder-Althcim. From 1774 to 1779 
he filled tho positioa of superintendent and pastor at 



Trochtelsingen, and in the latter year returned to his 
late pastorate. In 1789 he became court preacher and 
ecclesiastical counsellor to the reigning princess at Rat- 
isbon. He died March 15, 1806. Lang exerted no little 
influence in the progress and culture of religious learn- 
ing. Hb Dictionary of the N. T. ( Worterbuch des neuen 
Testamenfes% which appeared in 1778, placed him in the 
front rank of writers on the theory and history of the 
Christian religion. His intense zeal for the practiu'al in 
later life directed his literary activity to the popular 
treatment of religious truth ; hence appeared Katechet- 
isches Magazin; Neues Magazin; Ascedsche Bibliothek, 
and numerous sermons and liturgical writings. In his 
homiletical writings he developed many new and happy 
ideas, peculiarly adapted to the exigencies of the times. 
Many estimable traits of character both adorned his pri- 
vate life and enhanced his merits as a teacher of relig- 
ious truth. For a list of his works, see Doring, Gdehrte 
TheoL Deutschlands, ii, 229. 

Lang, Joseph, a German Jesuit, was bom in 1746 
at BrUnn, in Bohemia, and was educated at his native 
city. The Jesuits then sent him to OlmUtz to pursue 
philosophy, and tinally to the University of Prague, 
where he completed a course of theology. He was or- 
dained in 1773. In 1780 he accepted a call to a Catho- 
lic Church in Leipzic, and in 1783 was chosen court 
preacher at Dresden. In 1802 he received the ofiice of 
superintendent of the Catholic infirmary at the latter 
place. He died Dec 28, 1806. Lang acquired the rep- 
utation of a popular and eloquent pulpit orator. Be- 
sides frequent contributions to journals, he published 
several sermons. See Doring, Gelekrte TheoL Deutsch- 
lands, ii, 233. 

Lang, Lorens Johann Jakob, a German theo- 
logian, bom in Selb, in the principality of Baireuth, on 
May 10, 1731, was the son of a stocking-maker, and be- 
ing destined by his father to follow the same trade, 
he contended in his desire for study, which he early 
manifested, with many difficulties. By the assistance 
of his pastor, however, he acquired a thorough knowl- 
edge of the Latin and (ireek, and entered in 1743 the 
lyceum at Culmbach. Indefatigable in his industry, 
he became thoroughly versed in philosophy and the- 
ology, as is evinced in the disputations I)e prcestan- 
tia philosophia Wolfiante, and Ite pontifice carlesti Novi 
Testamenti, after the defence of which he entered the 
University of Erlangen in 1751. After quitting Erlan- 
gen, he went to Baireuth in 1756 as tutor. A few 
months later he became subrector in Baireuth. In 1758 
he was appointed professor of the Oriental languages 
and of the fine arts at the Gymnasium of Baireuth. In 
1767 he was appointed court librarian, and in 1789 the 
first professor and inspector of the alumni, and in 1795 
the first counsellor. He died Sept. 18, 1801. Lang wrote 
exteiunvely, but most of his writings are in the form of 
dissertations. A complete list is given by Doring, Ge- 
lehYte TheoL Deutschlands, voL .i, s. v 

Lang (OF Wkllkn-buro), MatthUns, a noted Gei^ 
man prelate of the Roman Catholic Church, an acknowl- 
edged natural brother of the emperor Maximilian I, was 
bom in Augsburg in 1469, and educated at the Univer- 
sity of Ingolstadt. He was secretary first to Frederick 
HI and later to Maximilian I. At the same time he 
held positions in the Church. He was successively priest 
at Augsburg and Constance until 1505, when he was ap- 
pointed bishop of Gurk. Inclined towards the schis- 
matics of the Council of Pisa, and feared on account of 
hb influence over the emperor, who was foUowing the 
lead of Lang, the youthful bishop received the cardinal's 
hat from pope Julius II in 1511. Of course the conferred 
honor made the trusted adviser of Maximilian an obe- 
dient servant of the pontilT. Lang rested not until peace 
was restored between emperor and pope, so long at va- 
riance. See Latkras, Council of, 1513 ; Pisa, Coun- 
cil of; Julius II. In 1514 he was made coadjutor of 
the archbishop of Sahburg, and in 1519 sole incumbent 



LANGEAIS 



231 



LANGLE 



— DtctMM I duputatU tkeolog, exegeHearvm ctan pontivo 

pcttemifeoTum mtmtro $acro (Altd. 1703, 4to) \—De Alco- 

r^tmi pritna itUer Europoto$ editione A rabica per Pagani- 

nmm Brxjriauem, ttdjustu Pontif, Ronu aboHta (Altdorf, 

1 708) : — I)t A Icorano A rabico el rariis tpecimimbus at que 

noriati/nig smcctssibus dodorum quorumdam virorum in 

edendo A Icortmo A rabico ( Alidorf, 1704) • — De A Icorani 

rertiomUm* viiriiSf tarn orienfaL guam occidental^ impres- 

si* et dv*Kd6<rtig (Altdorf, 1706) : — Octo Dissertutiones de 

%'rr»ione -V. 7*. barbaro^G rosea (Altd. 1706) : — Instittttiones 

Puftarales (^Kuremb. 1707) : — PhUologia barbaro-Graca, 

eto, (Nurerab. 1707-8, 2 parta, 4to). See Zeltner, Vita 

TketUoff, (^Vltd.), p. 468-488; Will, Lexicon, ii, 394-406, 

Rot«rniund, SvppL 2. Jdcher; Hoefer, Sour, Bioff, Gene- 

raU^ xxix, 391. (J. N. P.) 

I«angeaiB, Raoul de, a French prelate, was bom in 
the beginning of the 1 1th century. He was brother of 
Fulchretlofli, abbot of Charroux. Raoul became succes- 
pirehr clean of the Church of Tours and bishop of that 
ditKwse in 1072. His election, however, caused great 
diMurbancea. His enemies having accused him of in- 
c«»t befure Alexander II, the latter deposed and excom- 
munic«te4 him. Raoul immediately set out for Rome, 
j unified himself, and was restored to his bishopric. 
\>rheQ Gregorj* VII succeeded Alexander II the accusa- 
tion ^ras taken up again, but with like result. Still the 
whole Church of France was at the time in a state of 
complete anarchy, and the bishop of Tour:) was treated 
with the utmost disrespect by his clergy, and especially 
by the monks, in spite of the eNHdent favor of the pope. 
In 1078 he was accused of simony before the Council of 
Poitiers, and unable^ it is said, to clear himself other- 
wise, he broke up the council by main force (compare 
Labbe, Condi, x, 866 ; Landon, Manual of Councils^ p. 
497). Still Gregory VII merely appointed a committee 
to inquire into the case. How this committee decided 
is not knoMm, but all trouble was at an end in 1079, for 
we then find Gregor}' writing to Raoul inviting him to 
reoc^^ise (tebuin, archbishop of Lyons, whom he had 
appointed primate of Gaul, and about the same time 
Iwaoul was invited to the Council of Badeaux bv the 
Icgite Amat, who calls him ** religionis ecclesiasticte ca- 
put honorabilius.'* Shortly aflen^-ards he excommuni- 
raied Fuulques Rechin, count of Anjou, and (iebuin ap- 
proved his proceedings; but king Philip, angered at 
Langeais for siding with Gregory VII on the question 
c'f investiture, took the part of the count. Langeais 
wa4 driven from his see, and excommunicated by the 
canons of St. Martin ; the pope, in return, excommuni- 
cated the count of Anjou and all his partisans, while 
Hugbcts and Amat, legates of the council of Poitiers, 
exci>mmumcated the canons of St. Martin. It is diffi- 
cult to form a correct judgment of these events. It is 
likely, however, that all the trouble resulte<l fn>m the 
fact that Langeais had entered zealously into the plans 
of reformation of Gregory VII, and therefore, while 
pnised by this pope and his adherents, became necessa- 
rily, as a leader of hw party In France, an object of ha- 
tred to the oppo!tite faction. Documents show that he 
was governing his diocese again in 1084 and 1086. The 
exact time of his death is not ascertained, but he must 
have died previous to the year 1093. See J. Maan, 
Sacr. H Mrtr. eccL Turon,; Gallia Christ, voL xlv, coL 
63; Hoefer, A'owr. Hiog. Gin. xxix, 394 sq. 

Langeland (Lanoland or Longland), John, a 
distinguished prelate of the Church of England, was 
horn at Henley, England, in 1473, and was fellow of Mag- 
dalen College, Oxfiird, and principal of Magdalen Hall 
in 1507. In 1520 he became bishop of Lincoln, and 
confessor to Henry VHI, whom he counseled to dit'orce 
queen (^atharine. He died in 1547. He published a 
number of sermons and theohtgical treatises from 1517 
to 1510, — Allibonc, Diet, of Brit, and Amer, A uthors, ii, 
1057; Thomas, Biographical Dictionary^ p. 1452. 

Langham, Simox ok, an English prelate, was bom 
aboot 1310, probably at Langham, in Rutlandshire. In 



1836 he entered the convent of St. Peter, Westmin- 
ster, of which he became abbot in 1349, and showed 
great zeal in the reformation of monastic abuses. As a 
reward for his talents Edward HI ap}x>inted him lord 
treasurer in 1360, and chancellor in 1364. In the mean 
time (1361) he had been appointed bishop of Ely. In 
1366 he was transferred to the see of Canterbur}'. The 
principal act of hb administration was the deposing of 
the celebrated Wycliffe (whom his predecessor had ap- 
pointed head of Canterbury Hall, Oxford) on the pica 
that a secular priest was not suitable for the position. 
This injustice perhaps first suggested to Wycliffe an in- 
quiry into papal abuses. His proceedings on that occa- 
sion gave great oflTence to Edward HI, and when the 
pope, as a reward, created Langham cardinal of St.Six- 
tus, the king seized on his temporalities, as, by the law, 
the sec of Canterbury had become vacant by the pro- 
motion. Langham now went to join the pope, who 
loaded him lanth favors. He continued to take a part 
in the political affairs of England, vainly trying to rec- 
oncile that country to France, During the last years 
of his life Gregory XI intrusted him with the care of 
the papal affairs at Avignon, where he died July 2*2, 
1376. His body was taken back to Englan<l, and buried 
at Westminster. See Wharton, A ngiia Sacra ,• Moscr, 
Life of Simon of Langham^ in the European Magazine^ 
1797; Th. Tanner, Biblioth, Briiannica; Baluze, Vitoe 
Pap, A ven. voL i ; Hoefer, Nour, Biog. Generate., xxix, 
409; Collier, Acci^e*. Hi»t, (see Index in vol. viii); Ncan- 
der. Church Hist, v, 136. 

Langhome, John, a mmistcr of the Church of 
England, was bom in Westmoreland, England, in 1736; 
obtained a curacy in London in 1764; in 17G7 he was ap- 
pointed to the living of Blagden, Somersetshire, hi 1777 
became prebendary of Wells, and died in 1779. Ijmg- 
home published several works both in prose and poetry ; 
also a volume of his Sermons^ preached before the honor- 
able Society of LincoMs Inn (3d ed. Lond. 1773, 2 vols, 
small 8vo). ** His sermons are short, florid, and super- 
ficial." His most famous work was his translation of 
PlutarcK* Lives, on which his brother assisted. See 
Darling, Cyclop. Bibliog, ii, 1765 ; Allibone, Dictionary 
of British and A merican A uihors, ii, 1057. 

Langhorne, William, M.A., an English divine, 
was bom in 1721. He was presented to the rectori- of 
Hakingc, and received the perpetual curacy of Folke- 
stone in 1754. He died in 1772. He assisted his broth- 
er, John Langhome, D.D., in the translation of a popu- 
lar version of PlutarcKs Lirts^ and wrote himself Ser- 
mons on practical Subjects, and the most useful Points of 
Divinity (2d edition, Lond. 1778, 2 vols, 12mo): — Job, a 
poem ; and a paraphrase in verse of a part of Isaiah, 
See Thomas, Biog, Diet. (Phila. 1871, 8vo), p. 1368. 

Lanigan, John, D.D., an eminent Irish Roman 
Catholic priest, was bom at Cashel, Ireland, In 1758. and 
received his scientific and theological education at the 
Irish College in Rome, where he also took his orders. 
Soon after he was appointed to the chair of Hebrew, 
divinity, and the Scriptures in the University of Pa\na. 
In 1796 he was elected to a similar position at May- 
nooth, Ireland, but declined it, and accepted an appoint- 
ment in Dublin Castle, in connection with which he as- 
sumed in 1799 the duties of editor, librarian, and trans- 
lator for the Dublin Society. In 1821, becoming insane, 
he was placed in an asylum at Finglas, near Dublin, 
where he died. July 7, 1828. Among his works are 
the following important ones: fnstitufionum Biblicamm 
pars prima (Paviie, 1794, 8vo) : — Protestant's Apology 
for the Roman Catholic Church (1809, 8vo) ; — Kcclesia$- 
tical History of Ireland to the \3th Century (Dublin, 1822, 
4 vols. 8vo; 1829, 4 vols. 8vo), a work much valued for 
Its extensive leaming, deep research, and critical acu- 
men. See New A mer. Cyclop, x, 304 ; Allibone, Did. 
of British and A merican A uthors, ii, 1058. 

Langle, Jean Maximilian i>e, a French Protes- 
tant writer, was bom at Evreux in 1590, and was made 



LAN ORES 



232 



LANGTON 



pastor At Rouen in 1615. He died there in 1674. Be- 
aidefl a dissertation in defence of Charlea I of England, 
he ¥rrote Lea joyt* inenarraUes et glorieuses de Vdmt 
fidkle, reprisaUeet en quime Sermons sur U huitume 
chap, de VEpitre de Saint Paul auz Romains (Saumur, 
1669, 8vo) ; and Sermons sur divers textes^de tecriture. 
— Hoefer, Nouv. Biog, Generate, xxix, 414. 

Itangrea, Synod op. From the acta of the Concil- 
ium Tullense of June, 859, it appears that another {Con- 
cilium Lingonense) had a short time before been held at 
Langres by the bishops of Charles the Young, king of 
Frovenoe, nephew of Charles the Bald, and son of Lo- 
thair I, to whom Langres belonged as part of Burgundy. 
We find sixteen canomes adopted at Langres still extant 
These were read again in the Synod of Toul (Savon- 
nidres), and incorporated in the acts of that synod's ses- 
sion held in the early part of June, 859. The canones 
refer partly to political and canonical points, partly to 
dogmas. The assembled clergy availed themselves of 
the opportunity afforded them by the synod to obtain 
from the princes Charles the Bald, Lothair II, and Charles 
the Young the convocation of yearly provincial synods, 
and two yearly general synods (can. 7). An attempt 
was also made to take the election of bishops out of 
the hands of the laity, wherever these still retained this 
right, and to leave it exclusively with the clergy, under 
the plea that the metropolitan and bishops of the dio- 
cese were alone able to judge of the qualifications of 
candidates (can. 8). Great oppomtion was also mani- 
fested against the independence of convents from the 
episcopacy, the interest of discipline requiring that such 
institutions should be visited by the bishops (can. 9). 
They only maintained the right of the convents to ap- 
point their superiors themselves (can. 9 and 12). Much 
was also done m regard to the building of churches, the 
adminbtration of Church property, etc. (can. 13) ; the 
establishing of schools (can. 10), and the restoration of 
hospifaliitjpereffrinorum videlicet jet aliorum pro remedio 
ammarum receptacula (can. 14). The intervention of 
the temporal power was invoked against raptoresj adul- 
teri vel rapaces, which latter were to be also piuiished by 
the Church with the full severity of her discipline. But 
the most important of the decrees adopted by this synod 
are those which refer to the dogma of pred^tination. 
It is in this Synod of Langres that the bishops of Prov- 
ence appear to have prepared the whole matter, so as 
to have it ready to be submitted to the Synod of Toul 
for the three Carolinian kingdoms (Neustria, Lorraine, 
and Provence). King Charles was himself present, with 
a view to prevent the proceedings becoming a basis 
for the decrees of the future Synod of TouL In the 
kingdom of Charles the Bald the semi-Pelagian views 
of Hincmar on that dogma were most generally held, 
whilst in the ancient provinces of Lothair I the Augus- 
tinian views were still officially retained. As the coming 
Synod of Toid was intended to settle all disputes between 
the two kingdoms in regard to political and religious 
questions, the preparatory Synod of Langres had either 
to recall the Augustinian resolutions of the Synod of 
Valence, or to alter them in such a manner tliat they 
might no longer give offence. They could not agree to 
do the former, and the six canones of A'alence were en- 
dorsed ; but I he expressions against the Synod of Klersy, 
which offended Hincmar and his followers (capitula 
quatuor qusc a concilio fratrura nostrorum minus pros- 
pect e suscepta sunt propter inutilitatem vcl etiam nox- 
ietatem et crrorem contrarium veritati [a pio audit u 
fidelium penitus explodimus]) were omitted fn>m the 
fourth canon. That this was but a half-way and inefii- 
cient measure had already been sufficiently established 
by Hincmar himself in his work on predestination, cap. 
80 : if the canons of Valence were retained, it should be 
done openly, and they should be courageously defended, 
and .then the protestation against the four principles of 
Kiersy could not be considered omitted^ but if these 
were omitted, then it would be consistent to drop the 
resolutions of the Council of Valence (comp. Uincmari 



Opp, ed. Sirm. i, 281). Its inefficiency was 
made evident in the proceedings of the CondHtt^s* TW- 
/wMe / apud Saponarias, See Biansi, xv, bS7 ; H«r^ 
douin, v, 481 ; Gieseler, Kirckengesch. 4th edit, ii, 1, 1^ : 
Gfrorer, K.-G, iii, 2, 881 , Herzog, Real- Enqficipg>, irm, 
196. (J.N. P.) 

Langtou, Stephen, one of the greatest prelaites ai 
the early English Church, celebrated alike in ecdesaa*- 
tical and secular history, was bom in the earlier Ytmkf of 
the 12th century, according to one account in Llnc^tdzb- 
shire, according to another in Devonshire, and wrm» edu- 
cated at the University of Paris, where he was tHe fel- 
low-student and associate of Innocent III. loimetliAte- 
ly after the completion of his studies he was appointed 
teacher in the university, and, by succesnve afdv^anceA^ 
finally rose to the office of its chancellor. On bis visit 
to Rome about the year 1206, pope Innocent III hon- 
ored him with the purple by the title of Cardinul t^fSi. 
Chrysogonus; and when, by tht rejection for the arch- 
bishopric of Canterbury of the claims both of Ke^inald, 
the subprior of Christchurch, whom his brother monks, 
without consultation of the king, had in the first in- 
stance appointed to succeed the last archbishop, Hubert, 
and of John de Gray, bishop of Norwich, whom t bey 
had afterwards substituted in deference to the com- 
mands of king John, another choice had to lie madcy 
Innocent III favored his old school-associate rather than 
the appointment of John de Gray, and Langton -mrmB 
consequently elected by the English monks who -were 
then at Home, and was consecrated by Innocent wtt Vi- 
terbo June 27, 1207. John's determined resistance to 
this nomuiation gave rise to the contest between him 
and the pontiff which had such important results. See 
Innocent III; John, king of England. The conse- 
quence, in so far as Langton was concerned, was, that he 
was kept out of his see for about six years; tiU at last^ 
after the negotiation concluded by the Ic^^te Pandulf^ 
John and the cardinal met at Winchester in July, 12 IB, 
and the latter was fully acknowledged as archbishop. 
In the close union, however, that now followed between 
John and Innocent, Langton, finding his own interests 
and those of the clergy in general, in so far as they ^rcre 
opposed to those of the king, disregarded by the pope. 
Joined the cause of the English barons, among whom 
the eminence of his station and the ascendencv of his 

m 

talents soon gave him a high influence, and in whcrae 
councils he at once took a prominent part. At the mec t- 
ing of the heads of the revolters and the king at Runnj- 
mede he was present, and it was through his efforts that 
the charter of Henr>' I was renewed. Among the sub- 
scribing witnesses to the Magna Charta his name stands 
first; and from henceforth we find him devoted to the 
cause of the national liberties, which he had just joined, 
without swerving throughout the rest of the contest, a 
course by which he greatly offended the pope. Indeed, 
so sincerely devoted to the interests of his imtivc coun- 
try was Stephen I.Angton that he hesitated not to act 
not only iu direct opposition to the wishes of his friend, 
the Koman pontiff, but he even refused to comply wiih 
his demand to publish the document containing the an- 
nouncement of excommunication of the barons who had 
rebelled against the king, a punishment which Innocent 
sought to inflict in order to plcEse John, whose M-arm 
partisan ho had become after 1213. Langton did not 
waver even when threatened with expulsion from the 
archiepisoopal see; he was BUi^in tided in 1215, but was 
restored in the year following (in lu bruary ), end was in 
his place in 1218 on the acce,-*sion of Henry III. From 
this time forward Langton busied himself chiefly with 
the affairs of the Church, inf^tituted many reforms, ccused 
the translation of Becket's relics into a magnificent 
shrine of gold, set with precious htones, and intnxluced 
into England the mendicant orders. He attended the 
Lateran Council convened at Home in 1215. He died 
July 9, 1228. 

Langton is generally considered one of th« most il- 
lustnous men of the age in which he lived. Both as 



LANIADO 



234 



LANTERN 



Jews: — A commentary on the Song of Songs, entitled 
qosn pnipa, Studt 0/ silver, which was edited by Mo- 
ses Laniado, with the Hebrew text, the Commentary of 
Kashi, the Chaldee Paraphrase, with a Spanish transla- 
tion by the editor, printed in Hebrew characters (Ven- 
ice, 1619). He also wrote a commentary on the Penta- 
teuch, and a commentary on Kuth, Lamentations, Ec- 
clesiastes, and Esther, which have not as yet been pub- 
lished. 

Laniado, Samuel den-Abk.vham, another Ital- 
ian rabbi of note, flourished at Aleppo about 1680. He 
wrote a commentary on the Pentateuch, entitled 'OD 
n*T?3n, Dtlightful Veuel, which was first published in 
Venice in 1504-1595. He explains the Pentateuch ac- 
cording to the Sabbatic Lessons [sec H apiitarah] in the 
Midrashic manner: — A commentary on Joshua, Judges, 
Samuel, and Kings, entitled "p^ "'bs. Precious 1>*^/, 
which was first published in Venice in 1603, and ex- 
cerpts of it are printed in Frankfurter's Rablmtic Bible 
(q. v.). It consists chiefly of extracts from the exposi- 
tions of Rashl, Aben-Elzra, Ralbag, etc, :— A commenUry 
on Isaiah, called TD "^^2, A Vessel of Pure Gold (Venice, 
1657). It is a very lengthy commentary, and, like the 
former, is chiefly made up from the expositions of Rashi, 
Aben-Ezra, Ralbag, etc See FUrst, Biblioth. Uebraicn, 
ii, 22*2; Steinschneider, Catalofjus Libr, Hebr, in Bibli- 
otheca Bodleiana, coL 2433 ; Kitto, BibL Cyclop, s. v. 

Lank^ the ancient name of the capital of Ceylon, is 
celebrated in Hindu mythology as the chief city of the 
giant Ravana (q. v.\ who, by carrying off Sita, the wife 
of Rama, caused the conquest of Ceylon by the hitter 
personage, who is considered as an incarnation of the 
god Vishnu. 

Iianneau, Bazile C, a Presbyterian minister, was 
bom at Charleston, South Carolina, March 22, 1830, and 
was educated at Charleston College, where he graduated 
in 1818. He completed a course of theology at Colum- 
bia Seminary, S. C, in '1851, and was immediately ap- 
pointed tutor of Hebrew in the same institution. In 
1854 he was ordained, and made pastor of a Church at 
Lake City, Florida; from 1856 to 1858 he was editor of 
the Southern Pre^terian, at Charleston, and then re- 
turned to Lake City. In October, 1859, he was elected 
to the chair of ancient languages iu Oakland College, 
Miss., which position he held until his death, July 12, 
1860. Lanneau's linguistic acquirements were very ex- 
tensive. ^ He was not only a scholar, but an accurate 
and well-read divine. His style as a writer was chaste 
and clear." — Wilson, Preab, Hist, A Inuviac, 1861, p. 96. 

Lanneau, John Francis, a Presbyterian minis- 
ter, was bom at Charleston, South Carolina, August 14, 
1809; was educated at Yale College, class of 1829, and 
studied theology at the theological seminaries of Prince^ 
ton, N. J., and Columbia, S. C. He was ordained in 1833, 
and labored three years for the cause of foreign mis- 
sions; then went as a missionary to Jerusalem. In 1846 
he retumed to America, and was called to Marietta, Ga. 
In 1855 he became pastor at Salem, Va., and in 1861 re- 
turned to Marietta, where he died, Oct. 7, 1867. Mr. 
Lanneau is represented as an able minbter, and always 
eminently influential and acceptable both as a preacher 
and a citizen. — Wilson, Presb, hist, A Imanac, 1868, p. 340. 

Lannis, Jacob W., a Presbyterian minister, was bom 
in Baltimore Co., Marj'land, July 8, 1826 ; received a col- 
legiate education at Muskingum College, Ohio, and at 
Jefferson College, Pa., where he graduated in 1852. He 
rtudied theology at Alleghany City Theological Semi- 
nary, and afterwards with Dr. Edwards, of Fort Wa}Tie, 
Ind. In 1856 he was ordained and installed as pastor 
of a Church at Waveland, Ind. In 1858 he removed to 
NashvlUe, Tennessee, and died there Aug. 9, 1859. Mr. 
Lannis was very successful in his brief ministry. — Wil- 
son, Presh, Hist, Almanac, 1861, p. 95. 

Lansing, Xiciiolas, a minister of the (Dutch) Re- 



formed C!hnrch, was bora at Albany in 1748. He stod- 
ied theology under Dr. Westerlo, of that city, and ww 
licensed to preach by a general meeting of minisUrs 
and elders in 1780. Among the Dutch cler^^ynien of 
the last two generations, this venerable man held a rep- 
utation for piety and individuality of character that re- 
minds us of Rowland Hill, Jam^ Patterson, of Philadel- 
phia, and a few others of similar mould. Many curious 
and interesting stories are told of his unique and ^odly 
life, and of hb holy ministry-. He was, while yotmg. 
captain of a small sailing vessel that ran bctweeu Al- 
bany and New York, and was converted to Christ while 
in this calling. Immediately he consecrated hixnaolf to 
the ministry, although his health was so feeble that bis 
physician said he would not live to enter the pulpit. 
But God spared him to serve in his sanctuary fifty -five 
years. He preached regularly until the second Sabbath 
before hb death, at the great age of eighty-sei'cn. ** He 
spent much time day and night in hb study, fasting 
much and being much in prayer. He usually Fpint 
much of the night, and sometimes the whole night, in 
praying. Hb clothing always gave way hrst upon the 
knees.** Hb preaching, which was in the Dutch lan- 
guage, was remarkable for its scriptural character, Ff lir- 
ituality, and utter fearlessness. Striking anecdotcrs are 
told, and many of hb peculiar expressions are yet cur- 
rent, illustrative of these features of hb ministry. On 
one occasion, in a meeting of classis, when called upon a 
second time by the president to make a brief statcmci^t 
of the condition of hb Church, the old man rose sud- 
denly and said, *^ Mr. President, Tappan ! Tappan ! all 
Tappan b dead, and Fm dead too." He sat down and 
said no more until he was asked to pray, and then pour- 
ed out hb soul in such strains of ^* power with God" that 
all who heard him felt that whatever might be the fetcte 
of hb people, he, at least, was not ^^deadT yet. He cl>- 
ser\-ed family worship three times daily during a part 
of hb life. A great revival of religion followed one of 
hb most bold and characteristic sermons in a nei|;b bor- 
ing place, where people were given up to worldliness 
and sin. During his last ser\-ice he sat in the pulpit, as 
hb feebleness obliged him to do frequently in his later 
years. Like Baxter, he could have said 



t« 



I preached as If I ne'er should preach a^lo. 
And as a dying mnn to dying meu." 



Referring to the strain of hb minbtry among them, he 
said to hb |)eople, " I have never preached to you *■ Do 
and live,' but * Live and do.' " That week he was seized 
with hb last illness, during which he was constantly en- 
gaged in prayer, and in speaking for Christ to those 
who were with him. Hb last end was peace. Mr. Lan- 
sing was settled first in the united churches of what are 
now Greenbush, Linlithgo, and Taghkanic, near Albany, 
during 1781-4, and afterwards at Tappan and Clarks- 
town, in Rockland County, N.Y., 1784-1830, and Tap- 
pan fdone 1830-35. His home and church in the latter 
place were near the spot on which major Andre was 
hung in the Revolutionary War. See Corivin, Manual 
of the Reformed Church, p. 134 sq. (W. J. R. T.) 

Lantern (0«i'''c» so called for its shtidng) occurs 
only in John xviii, 8, where the party of men which 
went out of Jerusalem to apprehend Jesus in the garden 
of (iethsemane is described as being provided "with lar- 
(ems and torches :" it there pn)bably denotes any kind 
of covered light, in distinction from a simi)le taper or 
common house-light, as well as from a flambeau (comp 
Athenaius, xv, 58; Philosen. Gloss.). I^antenis were 
much employed by the Romans in roiliurj^ operations; 
two of bronze have been found among the ruins of Her- 
culaneum and Pompeii. They are c\-lindrical, with 
translucent horn sides, the lamp within being furnished 
with an extinguisher (Smith, IHct. of Class. A nf. p. 668). 
In the article Lamp it has been sh<m n that the Jewish 
lantern, or, if we may so call it, lamp-frame, was similar 
to that now in use among the Orientals. As the streets* 
of Eastern towns are not lighted at night, and never 



LANTFREDUS 



236 



LAODICEA 



honor of Ceres, when her voUuriea ran up and down the 
streets with lighted torches in their hands, in imita- 
tion of the hurry and confusion of the goddess when in 
quest of her daughter Proserpine. Others ascribe the 
rise of thb Chinese festival to an extravagant project 
of one of their emperors, who shut himself up with his 
concubines in a magniHcent palace, which he illumi- 
nated with a great number of splendid lanterns. The 
Chinese, scandalized at his behavior, demolished his 
palace, and hung the lanterns all over the city. But, 
however uncertain its origin, it seems pretty definitely 
established that the lantern-festival was observed as 
early as A.D. 700 (comp. Williams, Middle Kingdom^ ii, 
82). 

One peculiar custom of this feast is the grant of 
greater license to married women, who on other even- 
ings, by Chinese custom, are obliged to confine them- 
selves to their homes. The goddess called Mother (q. 
V.) is worshipped by them at this time, particulariy by 
married but childless women, ^* expecting or desiring, as 
a consequence of such devotional acts to ' Mother,' to 
have male offspring.*^ See hToughUmfBibiiotheca Hist. 
Sacray ii,4; DooMuley Social Lije of the Chitiese (New 
York, 1867, 2 vols. 12mo), ii, 34 sq. (J. H. W.) 

Lantfredus or Lamfridna, a disciple of bishop 
Ethelnold of Winchester, flourished in the latter part of 
the 10th centurv. He is known onlv bv his life of St. 
Swithun, which is very interesting, as it affords fine fa- 
cilities for studying the manners and history of his time. 
"His style is very iufiated, and it is rendered obscure by 
the adoption of numerous words formed from the (ireek 
language." I'he editions of Lantfredus are those of Hen- 
ry Wharton, Am/lid Sacra, i (Lond. 1691, folio), 322:— 
Lanffredi epistola prasmissa Ilistorice de Miraculis Stri- 
thinijActa Sanctorum Juliiy i (Antwerp, 1719, fol.), 328- 
337 : — Steithuni Vita et Miracula, per J^m/ridum Mo- 
nachum Winton, See Darling, Cyclop. Bihlioffr. ii, 1767. 

Laodice'a [strictly Laodici'a] {Kaol'iKua, jus- 
tice of the people), the name of several cities in Syria 
and Asia Minor, but one of which, usually called Laodi- 
cea ad Lycum (from its proximity to the river Lycus), 
is named in Scripture. It lay on the confines of Phrj'gia 
and Lydia, about forty miles cast of Ephesus, and is that 
one of the " seven churches in Asia** to which John was 
commissioned to deliver the awful warning contained in 
Rev. iii, 14-19. The fulfilment of this warning is to be 
sought in the history of the Christian Church which 
existetl in that citv, and not in the stone and raortar of 
the city it.self ; for it is not the city, but " the Church of 
the Laodiceans," which is denounced. It is true, how- 
ever, that the eventual fate of that Church must have 
been involved in that of the city. (See an account of 
the s>Tiod at Laodicea, in PhrA'fjia, A.D. 350-389, in 
Von Drey's Theol QuartnUtchr. l'824, p. 3 sq.) 

Laodicea was the capital of (Jreater Phr>'p:ia (Strabo, 
xii, p. 576 ; Pliny, v, 29 ; or Phrygia Pacatiana, accord- 
ing to the subscription of 1 Tim.), and a verj' consider- 
able city (Strabo, p. 578) at the time it was named in 
the New Testament; but the violence of earthquakes, 
to which this district has always been liable, demolished, 
some ages after, a great part of the city, destroyed many 
of the inhabitants, and eventually obliged the remainder 
to abandon the spot altogether. The town was origin- 
ally called JJioApolig, and afterwards Rhoas (Pliny, v, 
29) ; but laodicea, the building of which is ascribed to 
Antiochtis Theos, in honor of his wife LatMlice, was 
probably founded on the old site. It was not far west 
from Colossfc, and only six miles to the west of Hierap- 
olis (Itin. Ant. p. 337; Tab. Pent.; Strabo, xiii, p. 629). 
At first laodicea Mas not a place of much Importance, 
but it soon acquired a high degree of prosperity. It 
suffered greatly during the Mithridatic war (Appian, 
Bell. Mith. 20 ; Strabo, xii, p. 678), but quickly recover- 
ed under the dominion of Rome ; and towards the end 
of the republic and under the first emperors, Laodicea 
became one of the most important and flourishing com- 
mercial cities of Asia Minor, in which large money 



transactions and an extensive trade in wood 
ried on (Cicero, ad Fam. ii, 17 ; iii, 5 ; Strabo, xii, p. 
577 ; compare Vitruv. viii, 3). The place often wiJfered 
from earthquakes, especially from the great shock in the 
reign of Tiberius, in which it was completely destxxiyed ; 
but the inhabitants restored it from their o\rzi meftiis 
(Tacit. A rm. xiv, 27). llie wealth of the citizens crea- 
ted among them a taste for the arts of the Greeks, b» is 
manifest from the ruins; and that it did not reroain be- 
hind-hand in science and literature is attested by the 
names of the sceptics Antiochus and Theiodas, tbe mc* 
cessors of iEnesidemus (Diog. LaSrt. ix, 11, § 106 ; IS, § 
116), as well as by the existence of a great naedical 
school (Strabo, xii, p. 580). During the Koman period 
Laodicea was the chief city of a Roman conventus (Cic- 
ero, ad Fam. \ii, 7 ; ix, 25; xiii, 54, 67 ; xv, 4 ; ad A ft. 
V, 15, 16, 20, 21 ; vi, 1, 2, 8, 7; in Verr. i, 80). Many 
of its inhabitants were Jews, and it was probably owinp 
to this circumstance that at a very early period it be- 
came one of the chief seats of Christianity [we bave 
good reason for believing that when, in i\Titing from 
Home to the Christians of Colo8«e, Paul sent a greeting; 
to those of Laodicea, he had not personally vbited either 
place. But the preaching of the Gospel at Epbemifi 
(Acts xvlii, 19-xix, 41) must inevitably have resulted 
in the formation of churches in the neighboring cities, 
especially where Jews were settled. See Laodiceaxs, 
Epibtljc to the], and the see of a bishop (Coloas, ii, 1 ; 
iv, 15 sq.; Rev. i, U ; iii, 14 sq. ; Josephus, j4n/. xiv, 10, 
20 ; Hierocl. p. 665). The Byzantine writers oAen men- 
tion it, especially in the time of the Comneoi; and it 
v/as fortified by the emperor Manuel (Nicet, Chon. Atm^ 
p. 9, 81). During the invasion of I be Turks and Mon- 
gols the city was much exposed to ravages, and fell into 
decay; but the existing remains still attest its fraroer 
greatness (see Smith's IHct. ofGr. and Rom. Geoff, a. v, 
I^odiceia). Smith, in his Journey to the Seren Churek- 
es (1671), was the first to describe the site of Laodicea. 
He was followed by Chandler, Cockerell, and Pococke: 
and the locality has, within the present century, been 
viMted by Mr. Hartley, Mr. Arundell, CoL Leake, and 
Mr. Hamilton. 

Laodicea is now a deserted place, called by the 
Turks Fski'hissar {" Old Castlfe"), a Turkish word equiv- 
alent to Paled-kastrOy which the Greeks so frequently 
apply to ancient sites. From its ruins, Laodicea seems 
to have been situated upon six or seven hills, taking up 
a large extent of ground. To the north and north-eatft 
runs the river Lye us, about a mile and a half distant ; 
but nearer it is watered by two small streams, the Aso- 
pus and Caprus, the one to the west, and the other to 
the south-east, both passing into the Lycus, which last 
flows into the Marauder (Smith, p. 85). Laodicea pre- 
ser^-e8 great remains of its importance as the residence 
of the Koman govenmrs of Asia under the cmpfrors, 
namely, a stadium, in uncommon preser\alion, three 
theatres, one of which is 450 feet in diameter, and the 
ruins of several other buildings {A ntiq. of Jonia, pt. ii, 
p. 32 ; Chandler's A sia Minor, c. 67). Col. I^ake says, 
"There are few ancient sites more likdv than Laodicea 
to preserve many curious remains of antiquity beneath 
the surface of the soil ; its opulence, and the earthquakes 
to which it was subject, rendering it probable that val- 
uable works of art were often there Luricd beneath the 
ruins of the public and private editiccs (Cicero, Kjmt.ad 
A mie. li, 17 ; iii, 5 ; v, 20 ; Tacitus, Avnal. xiv, 27). A 
similar remark, though in a lesser degree, perhaps, will 
apply to the other cities of the vale of the Mieander, as 
well as to some of those situated to the north of Mount 
Tmolus; for Strabo (p. 579, 628, 630) informs us that 
Philadelphia, Sardis, and iVIagnesia of Sipylus, were, 
not less than Latxlicea and the cities of the Msander ts 
far as Apamcia at the sources of that river, subject to 
the same dreadful calamity {Geof/raphy of Asia Minora 
p. 253)." " Nothing," says Mr. Hannlton (Resemvh' 
es in Asia 3finor, i, 515), "can exceed the desolation 
and melancholy appearance of the site of Laodicea; 



LAODICEA, COUNCIL OF 237 LAODICEA, COUNCIL OF 

~ the Uy peranni proent ahill fpve it 

li> each o[h«r; and (hit endtil, the 
adminialralion of tbe lioly eiicha- 
lul sball proceed. None except the 
prieMi ihill be penoitied to >p- 

IprcMch Ihe altar in order u cummu- 
Ihe presence uf a prieaC vrithuu*. pei^ 
mueionorihelallsr. The samu can- 
all iuleriur clergy wwRTds the dea- 
con. 21,22. The lubdcacan nut to 
underUke any of tha funclioni oT 
the deacon, nor touch the Mcreil Tea- 
sels, nor wear a alnle. iX. Forbidn 
Ihe ume to chantera and readen. 
CoppM Coin ("merinHlon"} of Lwidlceatn Phrjglii. with Head of Commodna, 21- No one of the clergy, or of the 
Trinmphil Fi|[in, and nania uf Aslarch. order afasoetics, to enter a tavern. 

25. Forbtda the aubdeacon to give 
no pirtUTeaqiK feature* in the nature of the urOQiid on [ (he consecrated bread anci to ble« Ihe cup. 62. Pro- 
vhicti it stantla relieve the dull uniformity of ili undu- , hihits perMna not appointeil thereto by a bishop from 
laiinK >nd barren hills; and, with few exceptions, its meddling with extircisniB. 27. Forbida the carrying 
icray Mill wiilely-scutered ruins poMeas no architectural away of any poition of the Bgap«. 28. Forbids the eel- 
tiKril (o attracl Ihe attention of the traveller. Yet it b ebration of the agapte, or ^o^■e-fe«alB. in churches. 39, 
impoanble to view them without interest when we con- I Forbtda Chrialiaiia observing the Jewish Sabbath. 80. 
n Jer what Laodicea one* was, and bow it is connected ' Forbida Christian men, espcdally Ihe clergy, from liatb- 
with the early history of Christianity." See also Fcl- j ing with women. SI. Forbids giving danxhlers in mar- 
lawa, Joarml Kriilrn in Aiia Minor, p. 251 aq. ; Arun- riige (o heretics. S2. J^'orbida receiving Ihe eulogia of 
iell, Srm CkurrJiri, p. 93 aq.; Schubert, Arwn, i, 282; I heretics. B3. Forbids all Catholics praying with bere- 
S. StoKh, Spilagma diiitrt. 7 de Mrpt, uriSniM Aiia in ' tics and schismatics. 84. Anathemaliie* those who gi 

^pnr.p. 165 Bq.; alsoin Van Hoven,(Wiuni /i(rrar. iii - - -• .. . _ 

ii; Mannen.VI,iii,I29 aq.i Schulleas, in Ihe N.lktii I 
Ait»iiL 1818, ii,l77 sq. See Asia. Skve-( Chl'hchkb or 
I.AODICE.V Coi;:icii. of (CuitrUiam Liiodictmim). 
an important council held at laodicea, in Phyrgia, in 
the 4th century. The year in which this council con- 
vened is dupuled. Baronius ami tUnius oaaign the yeai 
311; Pagi,3th)i Hardonin places it as late as S72, and 
•then eren in S99. Hefele thirka that it must have 
had ill sesdon between 84S (the Council of Antioch) 
half of 



after Ihe false martyrs of heretics. 85. Forbids Chris- ' 

' ig their church in order lo attend 
private conveniicies in which angels were invoked, and 
analhematiies those who are guiliy of this idulaliy. 
3I>. Forbids Ihe clergy dealing in magic, and directs that 
all who wear phylacteries be cast out of the Church. 
37. Forbids fasting with Jews or heretics, 38. Forbids 
receiving unleavened bread from Jews. S9. Fortnda 
feasting with heathen penons. 40. Oidera all bishops to 
attend the synods to which they are summoned, unless 
prevented by illness, 41,42. Forbida clergjioen leaving 
the 4th century. Beveridge adduces some probable rea- . Ihe diocese to travel abroad without the trishop'a per- 
•uuB lur si^tposing it lo hare been held in 3G5. Thirty- mission and tha canonical leltera. 48. Forbids the por- 
Iwo bishops were present, from different prorinces of , terof the church leaving tho gale for a moment, even 
Asia, and uxty canons were published, which were ac- in order lo pray. 44. Forbids women entering into the 
cepicd by the other churcheiL 1. Permits the adminii^ : altar. 45. Forbids receiving those who do not present 
irationofcommunion lopeisonswhafaavcmarTieilasec- . themselves for the toaster baptism before tbe second 
and time, after their remaininga while in TetTea^ fasting ' week in Lent. 46. Orders that all catechumens to be 
and praying. 2. Direcia holy communion to be given | baptized shall know the Creed by bean, and shall repeat 
to iboae who have completed their penance. 8. Forbids ' it before the bishop or priest on the (tfth day of tbe week, 
to raise neophytes lo the sacerdotal order. 4. FnrUds , 47. Those who have been baptiaed in sickness, if they 
usary among the clergy. 6. Ordination not to be ad- i reoirer, mun leom Ihe Creed. 48. Orders that Ihosa 
ministered in Ihe presence of those who are in the rank who have been baptized shall be anointed with the holy 
uf hearers. 6. No heretics to enter within the church, i chrism, and partake of the kingdom of GoA. 49. For- 
7. Any Novatians, Photinians, or Quartodecimsni who i bids celebrating the holy euchatist during Lent on any 
are to be receiveil inSo the Church must Otst abjure ev- { days but Saturdays and Sundaya. 60. Forbids eating 
err heresy, be instructed in (he true faith, and anointed anything on the Thursday in tbe last week of Lent, or 
with the holy chrism. 8. All CaUphrygions or Monta- j during the whole of Lent anything except dry tbod. 61. 
instructed and baptized before being received Fortnds celebrating tl 



I Ihe Church. 9. Excommnnicata the faithful whc 
ki the places of worship or burial-grounds of herO' 
. 10. Forbi.ls the faithful to give their children in 
naee lo hereti(& II. Forbiila Ihe ordination of 
afiintu) {see bekiw). 12. Bishops to 
ue appoinieu uy the metropoliian and his provincials. 
13. Priests nut lo be elected by Ihe people. 14. Conse- 
crated elements not lo be seni inin other parishes at 
Eaater bv way of euloiri«. 15. Onlv those chanters 
named in the Church roU shall asceiid Ihe pulpit anri 
ciaal, 16. The <Iospel< to be rtail, as well as the other 
books of f^cripturc, on Solanlay. 17. A lesson shall he 



Lent; orden remembrance of them on Saturdays and 
Sundays. 62. Forbids celebrating marriages and birth- 
day feosU during LenL 53. F.njuins proper behavior at 
marriage reativals, and forbids idl dancing. 51. Forbid* 
the clergy attending the shows and dancea given at wed- 
dings. 55. None of the clergy or laity to club together 
fijr drinking -parties. 56. Foriiids the priests taking 
their seats in the sanctuary before the bishop enters, 
except he be ill or absent. 57. Directs that bishops 
shall not be placed in small towns or villagen, but um- 
ply visitors, who shall act under the direction of Ihe 
bishop in the city. 58. Forbids both bi^ops and priests 
celebrating Ihe holy eocharist in private hinises. 59. 
After Iho bishop's | Forbids singing uninspired hymns, etc in church, and 
sermon the prayers for the catechumens shall lie said I reading the uncanonicsl booka. 60. Declares which are 
•epaiaiely,then'thnsef[ir thcpenitenu,and,lastly,thiise| tho canonical books of Scripture. In this list Ihe Apoc- 
nt tbe faithful ; after which the kiss of peace shall be rypha and Ihe book of Rerelaiion are omitted. See 
pvco, and aAer the prieata have given it lo Ihe bishop, I C.ikon of Scriftuke. Of particular Interest among 



LAODICEAN 



238 



LAOS 



the decifflODB of this council is canon ll, forbidding the 
employment of women as preachers. Hefele holds that 
the canon has hardly been properly translated, and that 
the desire of the council was simply to forbid superior 
(Uaconeases in the Church. But for a detailed discussion 
we must refer to Hefele, Conciliet^eschichte^ i, 731 sq. 
The difficulty as to the meaning arises from the fact 
that the canons were written in Greek, and the question 
hinges on the meaning intended for npi<yj5vTti(g and 
trpoKa^ftivat. 

Iiaodice'an (AaoSiKtvc\ an inhabitant of the city 
of Laodicea, in Phrygia (Coloss. iv, 16; Rev. iii, 14), 
from which passages it appears that a Chrbtian Church 
was established there bv the apostles. See below. 

LAODICE ANS, EPISTLE TO THE. " In the con- 
clusion of the Epbtle to the Colossians (Colos. iv, 16), 
the apostle, after sending to the Colossians the saluta- 
tions of himself and others who were with him, enjoins 
the Colossians to send this epistle to the Laodiceans, 
and that they likewise should read the one from Laofli- 
cea (r»)v U AaoSucfiag), It is disputed whether by 
ithese concluding words Paul intends an epistle from 
ihim to the Laodiceans or one from the Laodiceans to 
him. The use of the preposition U favors the latter 
conclusion, and this has been strongly urged by Theod- 
oret, Chrysostom, Jerome, Philastrius, (Ecumenius, Cal- 
vin, Beza, Storr, and a multitude of other interpreters. 
Winer, however, clearly shows that the preposition here 
may be under the law of attraction, and that the full 
force of the passage may be thus given : * that written 
to the Laodiceans, and to be brought Jrom Laodicea to 
you' (Grammatik d, NeutestametUL Sprackidiomgf p. 434, 
Lpz. 1830). It must be allowed that such an interpre- 
tation of the apostle's words is in itself more probable 
than the other; for, supposing him to refer to a letter 
from the Laodiceans to him, the questions arise. How 
were the Colossians to procure this unless he himself 
sent it to them ? And of what use would such a docu- 
ment be to them ? To this latter question it has been 
replied that probably the letter from the Laodiceans 
contained some statements which influenced the apostle 
in writing to the Colonsians, and which required to be 
known before his letter in reply could be perfectly un- 
derstood. But this is said without the slightest shadow 
of reason from the epistle before us ; and it is opposed 
by the fact that the Laodicean epistle was to be used by 
the Colossians after they had read that to themselves 
(orav dvayvuta^t «• r- ^O* I^ seems, upon the whole, 
most likely that the apostle in this passage refers to 
an epistle sent by him to the Church in Laodicea some 
time before that to the Chnrch at Colosss." The 
suggestion of Grotius (after Marcion) that it is identical 
with the canonical Epistle to the Ephcsians has sub- 
stantially been adopted by Mill and Wetstein, and many 
modem critics : see, especially, Holzhausen, iJer Brief 
an die Ephesen (Hannover, 1834) ; Baur, Patilut (2d ed. 
Lpz. 1866-7), ii, 47 sq.; Rftbiger, De Christologia Pauli- 
na (BresUu, 1862), p. 48; Bleek, Einteitung in das X, T. 
(2d ed. Berlin, 1866), p. 464 sq.; Hausrath, Der Apostel 
Paulus (Heidelb. 1866), p. 2 ; Volkmar, Commentar tur 
Ofenb, JoL (Zurich, 1862), p. 66 ; Kiene, in the Stud, «. 
Krit, 1869, p. 323 sq.; Klostermann, in the Jahrh.fur 
deutsche TheoL 1870, p. 160 sq. ; Hitzig, Zur Kritik Pau- 
liinischen Brief e (Lpz. 1870), p. 27. The only supposi- 
tion that seems to meet all the circumstances of the 
case is that the Epistle to the Ephesians, although not 
exactly encyclical, was designed (as indeed its character 
evinces) for general circulation ; and that Paul, after 
having dispatched this, addressed a special epistle to 
the Olossians on occasion of writing to Philemon, and 
recommends the perusal of that to the Ephesians, which 
would by that time reach them by way of Laodicea. 
This explains the doubtful reading iv 'B^^ff^i, and the 
absence of personal salutation in the Epistle to the 
Ephesians, and at the same time the allusion to a letter 
from Laodicea; while it obviates the objectionable hy- 
pothesis of the loss of an inspired epistle, to which par- 



ticular attention had thus been called, and irhicfa iK^st 
therefore the more likely to have been preeerved. See 
Ephesians, Epistuc xa Wieselcr's theory (^Apogt. 
ZeUaUer, p. 460) is that the Epistle to Pliilemoo is 
meant; and the tradition in the Apostolical CtmsHt*- 
tions that he was bishop of this see is adduced in confir- 
mation. But this is utteriy at variance with the evi- 
dently personal nature of the epistle. See PTnuDco?c. 
Epistle to. Others think that the apostle refen to 
an epistle now lost, as Jerome and Thc^oret seem to 
mention such a letter, and it was also referred to at the 
second general Cotmcil of Nicsea. But these aJlnsknn 
are too vague to warrant such a conclusion. The apoc- 
ryphal epistle, now extant, and claiming to be that re- 
ferred to by Paul, entitled Epistola ad ixiodicenserj is 
admitted on all hands to be a late and clumsy Ibi^ery. 
It exists only in Latin MSS., fh)m which a Greek tct- 
sion was made by Hutten (in Fabricius, Cod, Apocr, N. 
r. i, 873 sq.). It is evidently a cento from the Galatians 
and Ephesians. A full account of it may be fband in 
Jones (jOn the Cation^ ii, 81-49). The Latin text is given 
by Auger {ul inf.)y and an English version by £adie 
{Comment, on Colos,), We may remark in this connec- 
tion that the subscription at the end of the First £pistle 
to Timothy {iypd^i} iirb Aoo^ic€iac, fjug lari //jfrpc- 
TToXif ^pvyiaQ rrJQ Haicartav^f) is of no authority ; bnt 
it is worth mentioning, as showing the importance of 
Laodicea. On the general subject of the Laodicean 
epistle, see Michaelis, Introd, iv, 124; Hug, Infrod. ii, 
436', Steiger, CofoMerfcr. ad loc ; Hcinrichs, ad loc. ; Ra- 
phei ad loc ; and especially Credner, Getchichfe «/. JV. T. 
Kanon (ed. Volkmar, Berlin, 1860), p. 800, 318; Au^r, 
Ueb. d, Laodicenerbrief (Lpz. 1843) ; Sartori, Utb. d. La- 
odicenerbrief (Lubeck, 1863) ; Conybeare and Howson, 
Z,(/e and Epistles of St, Paul, ii, 396 sq.; Huth, JLp, ex 
fAiodicea in Encyclica ad Ephesios adservata (Rrlangen, 
1761) ; and other monographs cited by Volbeding, Index 
Programmatumj p. 86. See Pauu 

Laos, the name of the mountain tribes in Farther 
India who inhabit the country between China, Assam, 
Burmah, Siam, and Tonquin, and are dependent upon 
Siam. Like the Shaus of Burmah, they belong to the 
race of the Thai, which extends through the Ahom as 
far as Assam. The Laos and their descendants, scat- 
tered through the northern provinces of ^jam and their 
own country, are estimated at two to three millions. 
The Laos are divided into two subdivisions. The 
western tribes tattoo themselves like the Burmese and 
the Shaus, and are on that account called lAio-ptmg- 
damy or black-liellied Laos ; the eastern tribes, which do 
not tattoo themselves, are called lAtO-pufig-kkaOf or 
white-bellie<l Laos. The western Laos form the princi- 
paliries of La bong (founded in 674 after Christ), Lam- 
phun, Lagong,Myang Preh, Myang Nan, Chiengrai, and 
Chiengmai or Zimmay. The last-named was formerly 
an independent kingdom, which frequently carried on 
wars with Pegu. Of the principalities of the eastern or 
white LaoSjYtengkhan has been almost whoUy (1828), 
and Myang Phuen for the greater part, destroyed by 
the Siamese ; Myang Lomb pays a tribute to Siam, and 
Myang Luang Phrabang, which was formerly governed 
by three kings, is dependent not only upon Siam, but 
upon 0>chin China. As the Laos have no maritime 
coasts they have for a long time remained unknown to 
the Europeans. Chiengmai was for the first time vis- 
ited by the London merchant, Ralph Fitch, who arrived 
there in 1586 from Pegu. After the occupation of Maul- 
maln in 1826 by (Ireat Britain, new expeditions were 
sent out, and the meeting with Chinese caravans sug- 
gested the first idea of an overland road to Yunnan, 
The first European who vi^ito*! the eastern I-<aos was« 
Wusthof, an agent of a Dutch establishment in Cam- 
bodia, who in 1641, amid the greatest difliculties, saikd 
up the Mekhong. The Laos jxjssess several alphabets 
which are derived from the Cambodian form of the Pali 
The nnme of Free Laos is usually given to the moun- 
tain tribes of the Radeh. Between the language of the 



LAROS 



249 



LA SALLE 



micie (1828); Daunou, Notice tur la Vie ei les 
Merits de lAintmiguure (1839); Valette, Laromiffuiire 
t rjtdecttMme (1842); Saphary, A'A'coAs icLtHque et 
*KctUe F'rtm^aue (1844); Permrd, I^gique dtissique 
Taprks Us principes de Laromit/uiere (1844); C. Mallet, 
V^m. stir Laromiffuiire, in the Compte rendu de VAca' 
Uwtie drs Sciences tnoraies et politiques (1847), voL iti; 
riaaot. Appreciations des Lemons de Philosopkie de lAiro- 
mi<fuutr0 (^ISbb); Mignet, Notice historique sur la Vie et 
kr ^Urrits tie J/. Laromiffuiire (1856); Taine, Les Philo- 
topAem f^rtmfois du xix^ siecle (1857) ; Uoefer, Nouv. 
Biftff. GsfUrale^ xxix, 669. 

laStros, John Jacob, a mintster of the German Re- 
formed Church, of Huipienot descent, was bom in Le- 
hi^l^ Co., Pa., in Feb. 1755. He was three years a sol- 
dier in the Revolutionary War, and fought in the battle 
oC Trenton. Afterwards he went to North Carolina, 
where he taught scbooL He studied theology private- 
ly, aiid 'vras licensed to preach in 1795. He preached 
seven years in North Carolina, when he removed to 
Ohks and there continued the good work. He was not 
ordained, however, till 1820. He died Nov. 17, 1844, 
harin^ accomplished an important work in Ohio as a 
pioneer of the German Reformed Church. Mr. Laros 
wrote much. He left behind in M8. treatises on The 
Itecrees <j/* God and Reprobation^ and The Evidences of 
«arM^ FaUk, These are in German—ably conceived, 
well conducted, and written in a beautiful style. He left 
aho a number of poems of considerable merit. Without 
much learning, he was decidedly a genius, but, what is 
better, he left behuid him the record of a long, laborious, 
and uaeful life. 

Icarroque, Daniel, a French theologian and writer, 
wa» bom at Vitre near 1660. He studied theology, 
and was about to enter the ministry, when the revoca- 
tion of the Edict of Nantes drove him to London. After 
preaching in the capital of England for several months, 
he went to Copenhagen as minister to Huguenot refu- 
gees. In 1690 he returned to France, and became a Ro- 
man Catholic ; but he failed to meet with success among 
the Romanists, and he devoted himself mainly to study, 
and kept in close retirement from the world. He died 
at Paris Sept. 5, 1731. A list of his writings, which are 
not of particular interest, is given in Hoefer, A our. Biog. 

aemraUj xxix, 697-699. 

LatToque, Mattbien de, a distinguished French 
Protestant theologian, was bom at Lairac, near Agen, in 
1619. He studied theology at Montauban, and in 1648 
became pastor of the Church at Poujoh. The next year 
he went in the same capacity to Vitr^, where he re- 
mained twenty-six years. In 1669 he was proposed as 
minister to the Church of Charenton, but the govem- 
ment opposed his nomination ; similar reasons prevent- 
ed his accepting a call as pastor and professor to Sau- 
mur. He shortly after went to Rouen, where he died, 
Jan. 31, 1684. Lanoque was a man of eminent natural 
talents, extensive learning, and great activity. He wrote 
■ large number of works, mostly polemical, the principal 
of which are, Histoire de VEucharistie (Amst. 1669, 4to ; 
2d ed. 167 1 , 8vo) ; a very scholarly work, by far his best, 
and of itself enough to make his name immortal : — Dis' 
trrtatio duplex de. Pkotino haretico et de Liberio pontifice 
Rowuxno ((veneva, 1670, 8vo): — Observationes in Jgna- 
tianas Pearsonii rindicias et in annoiationes Bereregii in 
Vammes Apostohrum (Rouen, 1G74, 8vo) : a defence of 
DtiOe*s work on the epistles of Ignatius against Pear- 
ion and Beveridge ; Beponse au litre de M, Viveque de 
Mmuxy I)e la Communion sous les deux especes (Rotter- 
dam, 1683. 12roo) i—Noureau Trait e de la Regale (Rot- 
terdam, 1685, 12mo), in defence of the king^s right to ap- 
point ministers to the vacant churches in France : — A d- 
vrtariorum sacrorum IMtri Hi (Leyden, 1688, 8vo), be- 
ing part of an ecclesiastical history which he left in- 
oonpkte. See Noureiles de la HepubHque des I^ettres^ 
Harch, 1684, art. 5 ; Bayle, Dictionnaire Historique ; Ni- 
ccfOQ, MimoireSf vol. xxi ; Histoire des Ouvrages des So' 



route, April, 1688 ; Haag, Aa France Protestante; Hoe- 
fer, Nouv, Biog, Generale, xxix, 697. (J. N. P.) 

Lame, Charles DE,a French Jesuit and celebrated 
preacher, was bom at Paris in 1643 ; joined the order in 
1659, became soon after professor of rhetoric, and at 
once attracted the attention of Louis XI V bv his talents 
as a preacher and poet. He was for a while sent as a 
missionary among the Protestants of the Cevennes, but 
soon returned to Paris, where he was ap|)ointed professor 
of rhetoric in the college Louis-le-(irand. He was also 
chosen confessor of the dauphinesa, ajid of the duke of 
Berri. He died at Paris May 27, 1725. Lame wrote 
fdyllia (Rouen, 1669, 12mo), repriiite<l under the title 
Carntimtm Libri iv (6th ed. Paris, 1754), which contains, 
among a number of profane pieces, a Greek ode hi honor 
of the immaculate conception (1670) : — P,Virgilii Ma- 
ronis Opera, interpretaiione et notis^ ad usum Delphini 
(Paris, 1676, 4to, often reprinted) : — Sermons (in Migne, 
Collection des Orateurs Sacres) : these are celebrated as 
models of pathos, as well as for vehemence of style and 
grace of diction: — Paneggriques des Saints^ etc (Paris, 
1740,2 vols. 12mo); and a number of theatrical pieces, 
etc See Mercure de Francty June, 1726; Baillet, ./i/jrf- 
inents des Savants; Journal des SavanfSy 1695, 1706, 1712, 
1738, and 1740; Diet, des Predicateurs ; Le Long, EibL 
Historique; 'hiorejif Didiotmaire Ilist.ix; Biftl.des fcri- 
vains de la Compagnie de Jisus^ p. 668-665; Hoefer, 
Nouv. Biog, Generakj xxix, 700. 

Lasae'a (Aacram, derivation unknown), a place men- 
tioned only in Acts xxvii, 8, as a city lying near the 
Fair Havens, in the island of Crete. Other MSS. have 
Alassa ('AAa<r<ra), and some (with the Vulgate) Tha^ 
lassa {Ba\aeea)f which latter Beza adopted (see Kui- 
nol. Comment, ad loc), and Cramer mentions coins of a 
Cretan town by this latter name {Ancient Grrece^ iii, 
374) ; but neither of these readings is to be preferred. 
It is likely that during the stay at the adjoining port 
the passengers on Paul's ship vbited Lastea (Conybeare 
and Howson's Life and Epist. of St. Pauf^ ii, 320, n.). It 
is probably the same as the Lisia of the Peutinger Ta- 
bles, sixteen miles east of Gortyna (see Hock, KretOy i, 
412, 439). In the month of January, 1856, a yachting 
party made inquiries at Fair Havens, and were told that 
the name Lasaea was still given to some ruins in the 
neighborhood. It lies about the middle of the southem 
coast of Crete, some five miles east of Fair Havens, and 
close to Cape Leonda. Mr. Brown thus describes the 
ruins : ^ Inside the cape, to the eastward, the beach is 
lined with masses of masonrv. These were formed of 
small stones cemented together with mortar so firmly 
that even where the sea had undermined them huge 
fragments lay on the sand. This sea-wall extended a 
quarter of a mile along the beach from one rocky face 
to another, and was evidently intended for the defence 
of the city. Above we found the ruins of two temples. 
The steps which led up to one remain, though in a 
shattered state. Many shafts, and a few capitals of Gre- 
cian pillars, all of marble, lie scattered about, and a gully 
wom by a torrent lays bare the substmctions down to 
the rock. To the east a conical rocky hill is girdled by 
a wall, and on a platform between this bill and the sea 
the pillars of another edifice lie level with the ground" 
(Smith's Voyage and Shijnrreck ofSt.Paul^ Append, i, p. 
260, 3d ediU, where a plan is given). Captain Kpratt^ R. 
N., had previously olMcrved some remains which prob- 
ably represent the harbor of Lasssa (see p. 80, 82, 245). 
It ought to be noticed that in the Descrizione delT /sola 
di Cimdiay a Venetian MS. of the 16th century, as pub- 
lished by Mr. E. Falkener in the Museum of Classical 
.Antiquitiesy Sept, 1852 (p. 287), a pUce called Lapsea, 
with a '* temple in mins," and *' other vestiges near the 
harbor," is mentioned as being close to Fair Havens. 

La Salle, Jean Baptist de, a French priest, found- 
er of the Order of Brethren of the Christian Schools^ was 
bom at Rheims April 80, 1651. In 1670 he went to 
Paris to complete his education at the Seminary of St, 



JLJ^TERAN COUNCILS 



257 



LATERAN COUNCILS 



Philip, in Germany, Innocent aabseqoent- 
from the council the recognition of Frederick 
Tminly seeking in this his German policy to free It- 
' entiTCLly from the power of the emperor. The famous 
rentj constitutions of Innocent, if not discussed con- 
iaritrr by the bishops, ^or passed with every form of 
icciuent, were nevertheless regarded as the canons of 
e coancU, so recognised by the Council of Trent and 
Church authorities of the intervening age, and they 
ve ooaatitnted a fundamental law for many well- 
own practices of the Romish Church. The Jirsi of 
ese canons asserts the Catholic faith in the miity i^ 
Mi against all Manichiean sects. It also, for the first 
ne« makes the doctrine of transubstantiation, in the 
s of thia express term, an article of faith. ** The body 
id blood of Jesus Christ in the sacrament of the altar 
e truly contained under the species of bread and wine, 
ve bruMl being, by the divine onmipotence, trcauub- 
aiUiaUd into his body, and the wine into his blood/^ 
he meomd canon condemns the treatise of Joachim, the 
nopbefc of Calabria, which he wrote against Peter Lom- 
ird on the subject of the Trinity. The third canon is 
r greai importance, fumiehing the basis for the crusade 
gainst the Albigenses, and for all severities of a like 
haractcr <« the part of the Romish Church. It " anath- 
m a ti aes all heretics who hold anything in opposition 
the preceding exposition of faith, and enjoins that^ 
Iter condemnation, they shall be delivered over to the 
ecular arm ; also excommunicates all who receive, pro- 
cct, or maintain heretics, and threatens with deposition 
dl bishops who do not use their utmost endeavors to 
'iemx their dioceses of them'* (Landon, Manual ofCow^ 
^ p. 296). The fourth canon invites the Greeks to 
mite with and submit themselves to the Romish Church. 
rbe j^^ canon regulates the order of precedence of the 
patriarchs: 1. Rome; 2. Constantinople; 8. Alexandria; 
4. Antaoch ; 5. Jerusalem ; and permits these several pa- 
triarchs to give the pall to the archbishops of their de- 
pendencies, exacting from themselves a profession of 
faith, and of obedience to the Roman see, when they re- 
ceive Uie pall from the pope. The Hxth to the ttten" 
tietk, inclusive, are of minor importance (see I^Andon, 
Mammal of CouneiU, p. 296). The twenty-frst canon 
enjoins ** all the faithful of both sexes, having arrived 
at years of discretion, to confess all their sins at least 
ooce a year to their proper priest, and to communicate 
St Easter.*" This is the first canon known which orders 
ssciamental confession genemlly, and may have been 
occasioned by the teachings of the Waldenses, that nei- 
tha confession nor satisfaction was necessary in order 
to obtain remission of sin. From the words with which 
it commences, it is known as the canon " Omnis utrius- 
qne sexAs,** and was solemnly reaflkroed by the Council 
of Trent. The canons (given completely by Landon, 
MaiLofCounciUf p. 298 sq.) in general constitute a body 
of full and severe disciplinary enactments. This council 
resffirmed and extended the Truce of God on plenary 
indulgence which had been previously proclaimed in 
behalf of the Eastern Crusades, and fixed the time, June 
1, ind place, Sicily, as a rendezvous for another crusade. 
This council also confirmed Simon de Montfort in 
ponession of lands which the Crusaders had obtained 
by papsl confiscation from the Waldenses, and decreed 
the entire extirpation of the heresy. The Waldenses 
or Albigenses in the south of France were the followers 
of Peter Waldo, a wealthy citizen of Lyons, who, from 
religious principle, adopted a life of poverty. Hu) fol- 
lowers were also called Leonistie and " Poor men of Ly- 
onu** They were allied in their sentiments to the Yau- 
dois of the Piedmontese valleys, with whom they became 
onited for mutual defence. They protested against 
tbcss points in the doctrine of the Romish Church : 1. 
Tnnsttbstantiation. 2. The sacraments of confirmation, 
cuafmnoOf and marriage. 8. The invocation of saints. 
i The worship of images. 5. The temporal power of 
the deigy. A crusade had been instituted against them 
by the papal power in 1178. Innocent sought to win 

V.-9 



them over and make monks of them by establishing in 
1201 the order of ''Poor Catholics.** Unsuccessful in 
this, he confiscated their lands to the feudal lords, and 
established an inquisition among them under the direc- 
tion of Dominic, which was formaUy sanctioned by the 
present council. The warfare against them, incited and 
directed by the monks of Citeaux, was allowed by Philip 
Augustus. Count Raymond of Toulouse espoused the 
cause of his persecuted vassals. The papal legate, Peter 
of Castelnau, sent to convert the Waldenses, was mnr^ 
dered by Raymond, whose dominions were thereupon 
assaultcKi in 1209 by a fiercer crusade of so-called " Chris- 
tian Pilgrims," led on by Simon de Montfort and Arnold, 
the abbot of Citeaux. The count of Toulouse submit- 
ted, but a bloody warfare was prosecuted against Ray- 
mond Roger, viscount of Beziers and Albi, and subse- 
quently 200 towns and castles within the boundaries of 
the two counts were granted to the successful Simon de 
Montfort. A rebellion, however, against his power de- 
prived him of all ; but Raymond of Toulouse, who ap- 
peared at the council of 1215, obtained no favor, and his 
territory was declared to be idienated from him forever. 

VL The council of 1512-1517, under Julius II and 
Leo X, was convened for the reformation of abuses, for 
the condemnation of the Council of Pisa, and attained 
its most important result in the abolition of the Prag- 
matic Sanction. France, under Louis XII, had obtained 
great military successes in Italy by the League of Cam- 
bray, formed in 1509 against Venice. In the interests 
of France, and by the friendship of some of the cardi- 
nals, Louis XII summoned a Church council at Pisa, 
Nov. 1511, which in 1512 was moved to Milan, but was 
entirely fhiitless of results, being dissolved by the pres- 
ence of the pope's army. Julius II, though at first jeal- 
ous of Venice, had nevertheless, aroused by the successes 
of the French general, formed the Holy Alliance with 
Venice, Spain, England, and Switzerland, and now, at 
the head of his army, drove the French beyond the 
Alps, and himself summoned a council at the Lateran 
May 10, 1512. This council extended over twelve ses- 
sions, until March, 1517. The bishop of Guerk had ac* 
tively promoted the summoning of the council, and at- 
tended as representative of the German emperor. All 
the acts of the Council of Pisa were at once annulled. 
Julius having died in Feb. 1513, Leo X presided over 
the sixth session. At the eighth session, in Dec 1518, 
Louis XII, through his ambassador, declared his adhe- 
sion to this Council of the Lateran. At the eleventh 
session, in Dec 1516, the bull was read which, in place 
of the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438)^ wherein 
France accepted the decisions of the Basle council in so 
I far as they were consistent with the liberties of the Gal- 
ilean Church, substituted the Concordat agreed upon thu 
year, 1516, between Leo X and Francis I. Through 
hope of increasing his power in Italy, Francis largely 
sacrificed the liberties of the Church. Several of the 
articles of the Pragmatic were retained, but most of 
them were altered or abolished. The first article was 
entirely contrary to the Pragmatic, which had re-estab- 
lished the right of election, while the Concordat declares 
that the chapters of the cathedrals in France shall no 
longer proceed to elect the bishop in case of vacancy, 
but that the king shall name a proper person, whom the 
pope shall nominate to the vacant sec The Concor- 
dat, on account especially of this provision, met with 
great opposition in the Parliament, universities, and the 
Church at Paris. It was a great advance of the papacy 
against the liberties of France (compare Janus, Pope and 
Council^ § xxviii and xxix). Neither this council nor 
the other four, viz. those of 1123, 1139, 1179, and 1215, 
styled oecumenical by the Romish Church, can be prop- 
erly regarded as such. 

Some writers mention as the sixth I^ateran the coun- 
cil convened by pope Benedict XIII on the bull Ufd' 
gtniius [see Jamsknius], and for the purpose of general 
reform in the Church (compare Klemm, Cone* a Bened, 
Xllf, in Lat,habiti prahrtve eramen (1729) ; Walch,/>e 



LATIMER 



259 



LATIMER 



deaily marked out Hitherto he had been quite ortho- 
dox in points of theoretic belief. " His mind,** says 
Fnoode, ^ ^was practical rather than speculative, and he 
wma slow in arriving at conclnsifms which had no im- 
mediate bearing upon action.** Now he broke loose al- 
together frcym the position of the Cambridge authorities, 
■nd probably becaune defiant of them. But Wolsey 
(t 1590) fell from grace, and there was reason to fear 
that Latimer would now, at last, also fall a prey to the 
malice of bis formidable adversaries, greatly increased 
in numberB by his success in gaining followers, who were 
drawn towards him by his eloquence, his moral conduct, 
and his kindness of disposition, as well as by the mer- 
its of his cause. Unexpectedly, however, and quite to 
the chagrin of the Cambridge men, he found a firesh 
pfTotector in the king himself. He had preached before 
Henry in the Lent of 1530, having been introduced to 
his royal master by the king's physician, Dr. Butts; and 
be won the favor of Henry by his honest, straightfor- 
ic and his enthusiasm. In this new position he 
his duty as faithfuUy as ho had in preaching 
at Cambridge, and he dared to speak the truth in a place 
where the truth is generally forgotten. A special op- 
portmiity to speak in defense of the Protestant cause 
afforded him by the persecutions to which the truest 
in Henry's dominions were subjected at thb time 
on aoooont of their religious faith ; and, though he did 
not Bocceed in staying the hand of persecution by this 
address of almost unexampled grandeur, it yet remains 
^ to spc^ak fwever for the courage of Latimer, and to 
speak something, too, for a prince that could respect the 
noblaicaB of the poor yeoman's son, who dared in such a 
cause to write to him as a man to a man. To have 
writltxi at all in such a strain was as brave a step as 
was ever deliberately ventured. Like most brave acts, 
it did not go unrewarded; for Henry remained ever af- 
ter, however widely divided from him in opinion, yet 
his unshaken friend" (Froude, ii, 104). Perhaps it may 
not be out of place here to say that Henry YIH himself, 
however nobly he may have acted towards Latimer and 
the Beformers after 1530, was perhaps, in the main, in- 
cited to his friendly deeds towards Latimer by the posi- 
tion the latter had* taken in 1627. Froude and most of 
the En^ish historians forget, in their great endeavor to 
cleanse Henry YIH from all sin, that, however greatly 
the Church of England has been benefited by his work, 
his object was not reform in the Church, but the estab- 
lishmoit of a second papacy and his own enthronement 
SB pope, and that he was only led to take this step when 
he found so many pliant tools to carry out hb project of 
separation from his first wife, Catharine of Aragon. Of 
the commission appointed by the University of Cam- 
bridge to investigate the king's rights in this matter, 
Latmier had been a member, and had taken decided 
KiDund in favor of the king. This of itself was suflficient 
to secure the good offices of his royal master. Latimer's 
record of course, both before and ailer this event, clearly 
proves that he was not a pliant tool in the hands of the 
king, but actually believed Henry YHI justified in his 
separation from Catharine. 

Most prominent and influential at this rime among 
the king's favorites, or the Anne Boleyn party, as they 
■le sometimes termed, as the advocates of her cause and 
the justness of king Henry's marriage with her, was lord 
Thcnnas Cromwell (q. v.; corop. also Froude, History of 
KmgkmeL, ii, 109 sq.). By Cromwell's exertions, Latimer, 
in 1531, was presented with the benefice of West King- 
ston, in Wiltshire, where he preached the reformed doc- 
trines with such plainness and emphasis as to bring 
opon him a public accusation and citation before the 
hbhop of London, who had only been watching for an 
oppoitnnity to punish him as a heretic The citation 
WIS issued and served January 10, 1532. Articles were 
(Inwn up, mainly extracts from his sermons, in which 
he was charged with speaking lightly of the worship of 
the ssints, and with affirming that there was no mate- 
nsl fire of a purgatorial description, and that, for his 



owm part, he would rather be in purgatory than in the 
Lollard's tower ! He set out for London in the depth 
of winter, and under ^a severe fit of the stone, determined 
to defend the justness of his course. He was submitted 
by the different bishops to the closest cross-questionings, 
in the hope that he would commit himself. "They 
felt," sa3rs Froude (ii, 107), "that he was the most dan- 
gerous person to them in the kingdom, and they labored 
with unusiud patience to insure his conviction." Lati- 
mer, however, baffled Ms episcopal inquisitors with their 
own weapons^ and when they dared to excommunicate 
and to imprison him, he dared to appeal to the king in 
the face of their formidable opposition, and was permit- 
ted to escape with a simple submission to the archbish- 
op, instead of an obligation to subscribe to a certain list 
of articles. These latter were as follows : " That there is 
a purgatory to purge the souls of the dead after this life ; 
that the souls in purgatory are holpen with the masses, 
prayers, and alms of the living; that the saints do pray 
as mediators now for us in heaven ; that they are to bie 
honored ; that it is profitable for Christians to call upon 
the saints that they may pray for us unto God; that 
pilgrimages and oblations done to the sepulchres and 
relics of saints are meritorious; that they which have 
vowed perpetual chastity may not marry, nor break 
their vow, without the diq)ensation of the pq)e ; that 
the keys of binding and loosing delivered to Peter do 
still remain with the bishops of Rome, his successors, al- 
though they live wickedly, and are by no means, nor at 
any time, committed to laymen ; that mesk may merit 
at God's hand by fasting, prayer, and other works of 
piety ; that they which are forbidden of the bishop to 
preach, as suspected persons, ought to cease until they 
have purged themselves; that the fast which is used in 
Lent, and other fasts prescribed by the canons, are to be 
observed; that God, in every one of the seven sacra- 
ments, giveth grace to a man rightly receiving the 
same, that consecrations, sanctifyings, and blessings, 
by custom received into the Church, are profitable; that 
it is laudable and profitable that the venerable images 
of the crucifix and other saints should be had in the 
Church as a remembrance, and to the honor and wor- 
ship of Jesus Christ and his saints; that it is laudable 
and profitable to deck and clothe those images, and to 
set up burning lights before them to the honor of said 
saints." Historians disagree as to the attitude of Lati- 
mer towards the bishops, who demanded that he should 
sign at least two of the articles, viz. the one respecting 
the observance of Lent, and that concerning the crucifix 
and the lawfulness of images in churches. Fox doubts 
that Latimer signed any ; Gilpin, in his memoir of Lat- 
imer, denies it outright; Hook (Accfc*. jBio^. vi, 562) 
says that the fact of his signing " is put beyond all ques- 
tion by the minutes of the Convocation, where it is 
recorded that in the month of March, 1532, Latimer 
appeared, and, kneeling down, craved forgiveness, ac- 
knowledging that he had erred in preaching against the 
aforesaid two articles." Froude, however, holds that 
Latimer signed "all except two— one apparently on the 
power of the pope ; the other I am unable to conjecture.'* 
(Comp. Burnet, Hist, of the Ref, iii, 116, Latimer's Re- 
mains, p. 466.) 

Rescued from these perils by lord Cromwell, he was 
by the latter now introduced to Anne Boleyn, and by 
her appointed chaplain; and in 1535 he was honored 
with the bishopric of Worcester. In this new appoint- 
ment, which marks an important epoch in the ecclesias- 
tical history of the day, Latimer was remarkably zealous 
in the discharge of his office ; he was active, determined, 
and vigilant " In writing, frequent ; in ordaining, 
strict ; in preaching, indefatigable : in reproving, severe ; 
in exhorting, persuasive." In 1536, finally, he was 
brought from the somewhat secluded position he had 
hitherto occupied to a more public exhibition by a sum- 
mons to Parliament and Convocation, at the opening of 
which he preached two very powerful sermons, boldly 
urging the necessity of reform. Ever since 1534 es- 



LATIN VERSIONS 



264 



LATIN VERSIONS 



need to be carefully distingnUbed and critically ex- 
amined in order to abow their real value and bearing. 

I. Ante-HieronynUan Versiom, — The early and ex- 
tensive diffusion of Christianity among the Latin-speak- 
ing people renders it probable that means would be used 
to supply the Christians who used that language with 
versions of the Scriptures in their own tongue, especial- 
ly those resident in countries where the Greek language 
was less generally known. That from an early period 
such means were used cannot be doubted ; but the in- 
formation which has reached us b so' scanty, that we 
are not in circumstances to arrive at certainty on many 
points of interest connected with the subject. It is even 
matter of debate whether there were several transla- 
tions, or one translation variously corrupted or emended. 

1. The first writer by whom reference is supposed to 
be made to a Latin version is Tertullian, in the words 
" Sciamus plane non sic esse in Gneco authentico, quo- 
modo in usum exiit per duarum syllabarum aut caUidam 
aut simplicem eversionem," etc (i>« Monogamiaf c 11). 
It is possible that Tertullian has in view here a version 
in use among the African Christians; but it is by no 
means certain that such is his meaning, for he may re- 
fer merely to the manner in which the passage in ques- 
tion had come to be usually cited, without intending to 
intimate that it was so written in any formal version. 
The probability that such is really his meaning is great- 
ly heightened when we compare his language here with 
similar expressions in other parts of his writings. Thus, 
speaking of the Logos, he says, *^ Hanc Gneci Aoyov 
dicunt, quo vocabulo etiam semumem appellamus. Ide- 
oque in usu est nostrorum per simplicitatem interpreta- 
tion's, Sermonem, dicere, in primordio apud Deum esse" 
{Ach.Prax, c. 5), where he seems to have in view sim- 
ply the colloquial usage of his Christian compatriots 
(comp. also Adc, Marc, c 4 and c 9). The testimony 
of Augustine is more precise. He says (/>e Doct, Christ. 
ii, 11): "Qui Scripturas in Hebreea lingua in Gr»cam 
verterunt numerari possunt, Latini autem Interpretes 
nullo mode Ut enim cuiquam primis tidei temporibus 
in manus venit codex Grocus et aliquantulum facultatis 
sibi utriusque lingusB Latine videbatur, ausus est inter- 
pretari." A few sentences before he speaks of the "Lat- 
inorum interpretum infinita varietas;'* and he proceeds 
to give instances how one of these versions elucidates 
another, and to speak of the defects attaching to all of 
them. This testimony not only clearly establishes the 
fact of the exbtence of Latin versions in the beginning 
of the 4th century, but goes to prove that these were nu- 
merous ; for that Augustine has in view a number of in- 
terpreters, and not merely a variety of recensions, is ev- 
ident from his statement in this same connection, " In 
ipsis interpretationibus Itala caeteris pneferatur, nam est 
verborum tenacior cum perspicuitate senteutiss ;*' and 
from his speaking elsewhere (Coni. Faustum, ii, 2) of 
" codices aliarum regionum." On the other hand, the 
testimony of Hilary is in favor of only one Latin ver- 
sion: ^^Latina traiislatio dum virtutem dicti ignorat 
magnam intulit obscuritatem, non discemens ambigui 
sermonis proprietatem*' {in Paa. clvUi), On the same 
side is the d^aration of Jerome : " Si Latinis exerapla- 
ribus fides est adhibenda respondebunt Quibus ? tot sunt 
enim exemplaria pene quot codices." That by " exem- 
plaria" here Jerome refers to what would now be called 
editions or recensions^ b evident from the nature of hb 
statement, for it cannot be supposed that he intends to 
say that almost every codex presented a distinct trans- 
lation ; and this b rendered still more so by what follows : 
" Si autem Veritas est qusrenda de pluribus, cur non ad 
Gnecam originem revertentes eaquie vel a vitiosis inter- 
pretibus male reddita, vel a pnesumptoribus iroperitb 
emendata perversius, vel alibrarib dorraitantibus addita 
sunt aut mutata corrigamus" {Pratf. in Evnngg. A <L Da- 
fnas.), EUsewhere (^Prtpf. in Josuam) he says also: 
" Apud Latinos tot exemplaria quot codices et unusquis- 
que pro suo arbitrio vel addidit vel subtraxit quod ei vi- 
sum est;" where there can be no doubt as to his mean- 



ing. Jerome frequently uses the expreasioa 
or vulpata tdiiio^ but by thb he intends the Sept^ or the 
old Latin translation of the Sept. In reference to the 
Latin N. T. he uses the expressions LaHmis iaUrpru, 
Latim oodiceSf or simply in Latmo, 

The sutement of Augustine, that of these interpteia^ 
tions the Itala was preferred, has been supposed to imfi- 
cate decidedly the existence of several natickoal Latin 
versions known to him. For thb title can only iiMlici^ 
a translation prepared in Italy, or used by the Italian 
churches, and presupposes the existence of oiber ver- 
sions, which might be known as the Africtma^ the Bis- 
pamaif etc On the other hand, however, if there was 
a version known by thb name, it seems strange thai it 
should never be mentioned again by Augustine tft by 
any one else ; and further, it b remarkable, that to des- 
ignate an Italian version he should use the word ^Itala" 
and not ^' Italica" Thb has led to the suspicion that 
thb word b an error, and different conjectural emenda- 
tions have been proposed. Bentley suggested that for 
itala .... nam there should be rc^ iOa .... fute, a 
singularly infelicitous em^idation, as Hug has shown 
{Introd. £. T. p. 267). As Augustine elsewhere 8peak» 
of ^* oodicibus eoclesiasticb interpretationb usitats" (I>e 
consensu Evang. ii, 66), it has been suggested by Potter 
that for Itala should be read itsitata, the received read' 
ing having probably arisen from the omission, io the 
first instance, of the recurrent syllable us between inter- 
pretationibus and usitata (thus Interpret atiokibl'si- 
tata), and then the change of the unmeaning itata into 
itala. Of thb emendation many have approved, and If 
it be adopted, the testimony of Augustine in this pas- 
sage, as for a plurality of Latin versions, will be greatly 
enfeebled, for by the versio usitata he would doubtl(^s 
intend the version in common use as opposed to the un- 
authorized interpretation of private individuals. Aa 
tending to confirm this view of hb meaning, it has been 
observed that it b extremely improbable that if there 
was an acknowledged versio A/ricanOf the Christians 
in Africa would be found preferring to that a version 
made for the use of the Italians. A new suggestion re- 
lating to thb passage has been offered by Reuss (jG&ck. 
rf. Schr. d. N. T. p. 436), "Is it not possible," he asks, 
"that Augustine may refer, in this passage (written 
about the year 897), to a woric of Jerome, viz., his ver- 
sion of Origen*8 Hexapla, which Augustine, in <Hie of hb 
letters (^/). xxviii, tom. ii, p. 61) to Jerome prefers to hb 
making a new translation from the original? At any 
rate," he adds, "it b remarkable that Isidore of Spain 
{Etymol. ^'i, 5) characterizes the translation of Jerome 
(the last) as verborum tenaciorem ei perspicuitate sentm^ 
tics clariorem. May one venture to suggest that he 
has taken this phrase from Augustine, regarding him as 
using it of Jerome." To this, however, it may be re- 
plied, that whibt it b not improbable that Isidore took 
the passage from Augustine, he may have done so with- 
out regarding Augustine's words as referring to any 
work of Jerome. That they do so refer seons to us very 
improbable. 

An effort has been made to obtain a decision for thb 
question from a collation of the extant remains of the 
ancient Latin texts, but without success. Eichhom 
(Einleit. ins. X. T. iv, 337 sq.) has compared several pas- 
sages found in the writings of the early Latin fathers 
with certain extant codices of the early Latin text, and, 
from the resemblance which these bear to each other, 
he argues that they have all been taken from one com- 
mon translation. In this conclusion many schoUurs hare 
concurred both before and since the time of Eichhom 
( Wetstein, Hody, Semler, Lachmann, Tregelles, Tischen- 
dorf ), but others have, on the other side, pointed to se- 
rious differences of rendering, which, in their judgment, 
indicate the existence of distinct translations (Michaelis, 
Hug, De Wette, Bleek, etc.). 

As the evidence stands, it seems impossible eitha to 
hold to the existence of only one accredited Latin ver- 
sion before the time of Jerome, the corruption of which. 



LATIN VERSIONS 



265 



LATIN VERSIONS 



from Tarioot cftoses, is sofficient to account for ill the 
ditcrepancies to be found in the extant remains, or to 
mainfin with certainty that there were several inde- 
pendent versions, the work of persons in different parts 
of the Latin Church. There is, however, a third sup- 
poMtion which may be advanced: lliere may at an 
early period, and probably in Africa, have been made a 
transUtkm of the Bible from the Greek into Latin, and 
thia may have formed the groundwork of other transla- 
tiooa, intended to be amended versions of the original 
In this case a certain fundamental similarity would 
mark all these translations along Mrith considerable va- 
riety ; bat this variety would be traceable, not to unde- 
signed corruption, but to purposed attempts, more or 
k«a skilfully directed, to produce a more adequate ver- 
sion. This supposition meets all the facts of the case, 
and ao far has high probability in its favor. Proceed- 
ing upon it, we may further suppose that these different 
revised or amended translations might have their origin 
in different parts of the western world ; and in this case 
the meaning of Augustine's statement in the passage 
{Comi, Faustum^ ii, 2) where he speaks of " codices t^- 
arum regionum*^ becomes manifest. In this case, also, 
if the reading Itata be retained (and most critics incline 
to retain it) in the famous passage above cited, it will 
indicate the revision prepared in Italy and used by the 
Italian churches, of which it is natural to suppose that 
it would be both more exact and more polished than the 
oiheta, and with which Augustine would become fa- 
miliar during his residence in Kome and Milan. See 
Itauc Vkrsiox 

2. Of this ancient Latin version in ita various amend- 
ed forms, all of which it has become customary to in- 
dnde under the general designation Itakij we have re- 
maina partly in the citations of the Latin fathers, part- 
ly in the Gneco>Latin codices, and partly in special MS8. 
A copious collection from the first of these sources (which 
yet admits of being augmented) has been supplied by 
Sabatier, Bibliorum SS, Latina Ven, antiguce seu Vetua 
ItatOf ftc^ qtuecwtque rfperiri potuerunt (Kemis, 1743, 3 
vol8.foL,ed.2,1749). For the Apocalypse we depend 
entirely on this source, namely, the quotations made by 
Primasius. The Gneco-Latin codices are the Cania- 
bridffian or Codex BeuBf the /Mudian^ the ClaromoniatUj 
axkltheBoemerian, See Makvschipts. Of the known 
ipedal codices containing portions of the N.T., the fol- 
knring have been printed or collated : 

1. Cod, VereMtngin, written apparently by Easeblus the 
MartTT In the 4th century : it embraces the four Oospels, 
tboogh with fVeqaent larurur. It is mentioned by Mont' 
fsacon in his Diarium Jtalicum, p. 440 ; and it has been 
edited by Bianchlnos (Blanchlnl), in EvangHiarium quad- 
ntpUx Latina vert, antiq. »eu Vet. Italicof, etc (Rom. 1740, 
4 Tobi. foL> : previously, snd still more cnreftiliy, by J. A. 
Irld, 8S. Bvanffeliorwn Cod. 8. EumbH manu exaratUB, ex 
mutographo ad ungwm exhibiUt*^ etc. (Mcdiol. 1748, 2 parts, 
Ato). In this codex the Gospels are arranged In the order 
Matthew, John, Luke [Lacanos], Mark. As a specimen of 
the style of this codex, and the imperfect state In which 
some parts of it are, we give the following passage (John 
It, 48-08) from the edition of Irid : 

AfT KROO AD ILLV ET IBAT JAM 

iflS NISI StO IP«0 DESCEN 

VA ET PRODIO DENTE SERVI 

- VIDERinS OCCVRER- - 

KOW--- - ILLl ET NVNT-- 

TI8 DICTT ILU VERVNT EI - - 

REO---SDfiK CENTE8QV0 

L --E NIAM riLIVS 

- . . . TVVS VIVIT 

.... INTER ••OA 

• • - - BAT H • • - • 

AfT«-lffs>ADK - - -_ 

riLIVS TWS MELIVS HABVIT 

vnrrr et cre et dixervnt 

mnrr homo heri hora sep 

VERBO QVOD TIMA - - LIQVID 

DIXIT ILU ilis ILLVM FEBRIS. 

1 Cod. Veronenaia^ a MS. of the 4th or 0th century, in the 
library at Terona. containlne the Qospels, but with many 
lanifMB: printed by Biancbinl. 

8. Cod. BHxUmuMj of about the 6tb century, at Brizen, In 
the Tyrol, containing the Oonpels, with the exception of 
•om« purts of Mark ; printed by Bianchlnt 

4. CodCrtrbeiimaig^ a very ancient MS., from which Mar- 
tiansy edited Matthew*! Gospel, the Epiorle of Jamem err. 
(Psr. 1406). The goQtel appears also in Biuncbinrtj work, 

v.— 5>» 



snd in the appendix to Calmet*s commentary on the Apoc- 
nlypee. There is another MS. of the old Laon text at Cor* 
bey, from which various readings have been collected on 
Matthew, Mark, ond Lnke by Blanchinl, and on the four 
Oospels (partially) by Sabatier. 

fiw Cud. Colbertiwta, of the llth century, in the Parisian 
library ; edited eutlre by Sabatier. 

8. CW. PalcUinu$f uf the Oih ceutnry, in the library at Vi- 
enna, containing about the whole of Lnke and John, and 
the greater part of Matthew and Mark ; edited by Tlsch* 
eudorf (Leipa. 1847, 4to). 

7. Cod. Bohbienaitf of the 5th centnry, now at Turin, for- 
merly in the monastery of Bobbio, containing portions of 
Matthew and Mark; fragments of Acts xuii, xxvii,98: 
and of the Epistle of Jnmet>, 1, 1-0 ; ill, 18-18 ; iv, 1, 2 ; ^, 
19,20; 1 Pet 1, 1-12; edited by Fleck, in Aneedota Sacra 
(Lips. 1837), and mure f nlly by Tischendorf, in the Wiener 
Jaltrhucher, 1847. 

8. Cod. ClarmontanuM, of the 4th or 0th century, now In 
the Vatican library, containing the four Gospels, Ma tUiew 
In an ante>hieronymlan version (wanting 1, 1-lii, 10; xiv, 
88-xvitl, 12). the other three according to the Vulgate ; col- 
lated by Sabatier, edited by Ma\,Scnptorr. Vett.Nova Col- 
leetio a Vatican, codd. editOf lil, 267 sq. 

9. Fragments of Mark and Lnke, contained In a MS. of 
abont the 0th centnry, belonging to the imperial library 
at Vienna, have been printed by Alter, in Panins, Reperior, 
fur Bibl. tmd Morgenlund Litter. Hi, 110-170, and In Paulus, 
MeniorabUien^ vli, 08-96. 

10. A MS. of the 7th century, now at Breslan, contain- 
ing the synoptic Gospels, with lacuiuB and part of John's 
Gospel ; described bv Dr. D. Schulz, De Cod. 4 Btangg. Bib- 
lioth. RhedigeriancB (Bre»l. 1814). 

11. A fragment of Lnke (xvil-xxi) from a palimpsest of 
the 6th century, in CeritoiS.Motiwtienta Sac etPro/.pra^ 
eerHm BiU.Ambroeianm (Mil. 1861), 1, 1, 1-8. 

12. Cardinal Mai has given, in his Spicilegium Romor' 
nunu, Ix, 61-86, various readings from a very ancient co- 
dex of the Speculum Anguatinif and he haa «lnce edited 
the Speeulum entire in his PP. Sov. BibL ; comp. Tregelles, 
p. 239. 

15. 14, 10. In the monastery of St Gall are three codlcea, 
the flmt of the 4th or 0th century, containing (higments 
of Matthew: the second a Gallic MS. of thefth centnry, 
containing Mark xvi, 14-20 ; the third an Irish MS. of the 
7th or 8th. century, containing John xi, 14-44. 

16. Cod. Monacensitf of the 6th centurv, containing the 
four Gospels, vrith lacuna; transcribed by Tiscbenoorf. 

17. A fragment containing Matt xUi, 18-20, od purple 
vellnm. of the 0th centnry. in the library at Dnblin. print- 
ed in the Proceedings </ the Royal Irish Academy f ill, ffli, 
by Dr. Ti*dd. 

18. CixU Ouel/erhytanus, of the 6th century, containing 
some fragmeuts of Rom. xl, 10, published by Knittel (q. 
v.) in 1702, and more correctly by Tischendorf; Aneedot. 
Sac. et Prqf. p. 108. 

19. Fragments of the Pauline epistles discovered by 
Schmeller at Munich, and transcribed by Tischendorf, who 
has de!>crihed them in the Deutache Zeiteehrift fur ChristL 
WieeeMcha/t for 1807, No. S. 

Besides these, there are several MSS. known to exist 
chiefly in the British libraries. Some of these are no- 
ticed in Bentley's Critica Sacra, edited by EUis, 1862, 
and in Westwood's Paleeographia Sacra Pictoria. See 
also Betham, A ntiquarian Researches ; Petrie, On the Eo- 
cUsiastical Antiq, o/ Ireland i O^Connot, Rerum Ilibem, 
Scriptores, 

These codices paleographista and critics profess to 
be able to allot to different recensions or revisions. Nos. 
1,2,4,5,7,8, 9, H, 18, and 17 they pronounce to be Af- 
rican; 8, 6, 12, 16, Italian; and 14, 15, Irish; though 
Tischendorf expresses doubt as to the African character 
of No. 9, and the Italian of No. 6. 

Of the O. T. only a few fragments have been discov- 
ered in special codices. These have been printed by 
Sabatier {lib. cif.), by Vercellone ( Variae Lectiones Vulff, 
Lai, Bibliorum, 2 vols., Rom. 18(50-62), by MUnter {Mis- 
celL Hnfn. 1821), bv Mone {Libri Palimpsesfi, Carlsrube, 
1855), by Ranke (Fragmenta Hos, AnuMich.Xien. 1856. 
1858), by Fritzsche (Liber Judicum, Turici, 1867), and 
anonymously {Riblioth, A shhumham,, Lond. 1868). The 
MSS. of the Vulgate preserve the old Latin version of 
those books of the Apocrypha which were not retrans- 
lated by Jerome, and the Psalter. Our principal source 
of information, however, is in the citations made by the 
Latin fathers from the version in their hands. 

From these various sources we poasem, in the old Lat- 
in version of the O.T.. the Psalter, Esther, and some of 
the apocryphal books entire, the rest only in fragments ; 
whilst of the N.T. we poss ess nearly the whole. 

3. The value of these remains in regard to the criti- 



LAUD 



272 



LAUD 



At length, on the 4th of August, 1683, archbishop Ab- 
bot died ; on the 6th Land was promoted by the king to 
the primacy, and on the 19th of September was formally 
translated to this, the long-desired goal of his ambition. 
At the same time he was offered a cardinal^s hat by cer- 
tain emissaries of the pope, which, Mrithoot betraying 
either astonishment, or indignation, or disturbance of 
any kind, he respectfully declined " till Rome should be 
othemrise than it then was ;" and before his enthrone- 
ment he was elected chancellor of the University of 
Dublin. 

In his metropolitan chair his first act was to issae 
more stringent rules for candidates for ordination, so 
as more effectually to shut out Puritan preachers and 
lecturers. The next was to revive and extend the 
king*s declaration concerning lawful sports on Sundays. 
The archbbhop now proceeded upon his metropolitan 
visitations, and he made thorough work of it; for all 
Puritanism he was a perfect *^root and branch"* man. 
But one great business and burden with him was to see 
that the communion-tables were placed altar-wise, rail- 
ed in, and approached always with the prescribed bows 
and obeisances, it being assumed that thus, and thus only, 
could true devotion and godly reverence be preserved in 
the Church. His old patron, bishop Williams, he sus- 
pended for contumacy. He busied himself earnestly in 
improving the revenues of the poor clergy of London 
and the poorer clergy of Ireland. He procured a new 
charter and statutes for the University of Dublin, and 
the adoption of the Thirty-nine Articles, instead of those 
of Lambeth, by the Irish Church. Indeed, through his 
intimacy with Wentworth, the lord deputy, and his 
chancellorship of the Dublin University, he seems, as 
prime minister and archbishop of Canterbury', to have 
bad much more control of the affairs of the Irish Church 
than her own primate. Usher, or any or all of her bish- 
ops and archbishops. Civil appointments, also, were ac- 
cumulated upon Laud. He was not only prime minister, 
privy counsellor in England and in Scotland, member of 
the courts of Star Chamber and High Commission, but he 
was also appointed a member of the committee of trade, 
and a commissioner of the Treasury, and placed on the 
foreign committee. He procured the new Caroline Char- 
ter for Oxford, and continued his munificent gifts. He 
took especial care of the restoration of the cathedrals 
and of the Cathedral ser^nce, with all the old accustom- 
ed appointments and ceremonies. 

Laud, like Wolsey when in favor with Henry VIII, had 
reached the highest pinnacle of his greatness. All honor, 
power, and splendor seemed to converge towards him. 
All around was buoyant with success and glowing with 
promise. It was Laud here, it was Laud there, it was Laud 
everywhere. He had three kingdoms well in hand. 
Church and State lay submissive at his feet. But the 
scene was soon to change. He was disporting himself 
upon the bosom of a volcano, whose vent-holes he was 
hoping to keep stopped up with his puny engineering. 
The quakingsand rumblings of the approaching eruption 
were already increasing. In the year 1637,*' some fac- 
tious and refractory men had determined to establish 
their enthusiasm on the shores of America, amid the 
forests of New England.*' These disorderly emigra- 
tioiis without a royal license it was thought expedient 
to restrain," because of the many idle and obstinate hu- 
mors whose only or principal end was to live without 
the reach of authority." Eight ships in the Thames 
were stopped by an order of Council, and no clergyman 
was allowed to leave the country without the approba- 
tion of the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop 
of London. Among those intended emigranta Oliver 
Cromwell is said to have been thus stopped. The symp- 
toms of dissatisfaction and uneasiness were drawing to- 
wards a crisis, and some prosecutions of this same year 
accelerated the national calamities. The first case* was 
the trial of Pr}*nne, Bastwick, and Burton in the Star 
Chamber. Prynne was a graduate of Oxford, and a 
barrister of Lincoln's Inn ; Bastwick lefl Cambridge be- 



fore taking his degree, and, having trarelled ntne 
on the Continent, took the degree of MJ>. mt PwIha; 
Burton was AJi{. and B.D. at Oxford, and had been dak 
of the closet to the Prince of Wales, and rector of Sc 
Matthew's, Friday Street, London. Prjmne, for lu» /f«- 
trio-McutyXf had already been condenmed to p«y a fine 
of £5000, to be expelled from Oxford and from linrohi a 
Inn, to stand in the pillory at Weadninster and at Cheap- 
side, and at each place to have an ear cut off, to baw 
his book burnt before his face, and to remain a prMooer 
for life. In the execution of the sentence it ia p ai d that 
Prynne had neariy been suffocated with the amoke of 
jiisbook. From prison, however, the irrepressible Ptynne, 
as soon as he could procure wriHng materials, continDed 
audaciously, and with amazing induatiy, to aend forth 
his pamphlets against his peiaecutors; and now the 
doctor Bastwick and the rector Burton had joined the 
lawyer in the firay. These pamphlets were no doubt in- 
temperate and extravagant, coarse and violent in then- 
language; they were naturally branded as acnrriloos 
and seditious by the otho* side. But it is to be remeoB- 
bered their authors were persecuted fanatics; and it is a 
better excuse for them to say that the controversial lan- 
guage of the age was coarse, than it is for their enemioi 
to say that the punishments of the age were barbaYOua. 
The use of epithets is largely a matter of taste and liasb- 
ion; but humanity itself, wherever it exists, is shocked 
at the sight of torture, and cruelty, and blood. AU 
three of the accused were condemned ; Prynne to pay a 
fine of £5000, to lose the remainder of his ears in the 
pillory, to be branded on both cheeks with the initials 
of slandcmus libeler, and to be immured for life in Caer- 
narvon Castle. Bastwick and Burton were to pay the 
same fine, were to lose their ears in the pillory, and to 
be imprisoned for life in separate castles. On this occa- 
sion. Laud, who was a member of the court, made a long 
speech. As he had everything under his own controJt 
he had no temptation to use violent language. He as- 
sumed an air of studied coolness and dignity. Having 
descanted upon the merits of his own immaculate ad- 
ministration in Church and State, and set forth in strong 
colors the dangerous and abominable character of fac- 
tious and seditious libeling, he added, ^ But because the 
business hath some reflection upon myself, I tkall forbear 
to censure theniy and leave them to God's mercy and the 
king 8 justice.*^ That is to say, having fully given his 
views he would not cast his formal vote in the case, but, 
knowing full well what the decision, yea. the ^ unani- 
mous" decision of the judges would be, he concludes his 
speech thus . " I give all your lordships hearty thanks 
for your noble patience, and your just and honorable 
sentence upon these men, and your unanimous dialike 
of them and defence of the Church.** Who can doubt 
that Prynne was right in afterwards declaring that Laud 
was " the cause and contriver of the sentence before it 
was given, and that he approved and thanked the Ionia 
for it when it was given?" The three victims under- 
went their ** ptmishment*' (as Laud's friends delight to 
call it) with the mmtt astonishing heroism. Such '^ptio- 
ishment" of such men, however ignominious or degrad- 
ing it was meant to be. could never elevate the dignity 
or strengthen the position of the party that inflicted it. 
The sufferers were no doubt supported by the sympa- 
thies of an immense mass of the people, as well as by 
their own courage or obstinacy, their religious principle 
or fanaticism. No wonder that libels against the arch- 
bbhop were multiplied and intensifietl, and that his vic- 
tims were honored with abundant and galling deroonstn- 
tions of popular favor. It was found necessary, ill order 
to remove them out of the reach of their friends, to 
transfer them from the prisons to which they had bewi 
condemned to other castles in the Channel Islands. 

Having now seen the leaders of the ^* malignant fac- 
tion" visited with condipi *• punishment" and put out of 
the way. Laud had the pleasure of having his eariy pa> 
tron. bishop Williaro*i — against whom he seems to have 
nurHHl a rancorous grudge, as though fearing that one 



LAUD A SIGN SALVATOREM 275 



LAUDEMIUM 



, of those rare endowments which secure at once 
reverence and attachment, no human sagacity can 
kC this day he competent to pronounce ; tmt it certainly 
u» not altogether surpriaing that this unhappy defect 
■laoald, even in the minds of judicious and impartial 
nnen, have connected his administration with the ruin 
of the EstabUshroent. In such unquiet tiroes, more es- 
f>ecially, a man like Laud would not only be dreaded as 
M, firm and conscientious disciplinarian, but as the rigor- 
and overbearing priest; and the Church would be 
to suffer most grievously for the unpopularity of 
Iser igovemor." 

In England, the parties with which Laud's life was 
implicated have not yet passed away, so that it is al- 
moet impossible even now to get an impartial estimate 
of the man from his own countrymen ; but it can hardly 
Ix doabted that the ultimate verdict of history will be 
liis final condemnation, llie English monarchy has 
(gloriously survived the political principles which he de- 
fended ; his ecclesiastical principles will ultimately be 
found equally unnecessary, nay, hostile, to the true 
strength and glory of the English Church. (D. K. G.) 
Laud's writings are few. Wharton published bis Ui- 
ary in 1694, and Parker his Work$ (Oxford, 1847-60), 
containing, among other things, his letters and miscel- 
laneons papers, many of them then published for the 
first time, and, like his Diary, invaluable as contribu- 
tions to the personal history of this noted archbishop 
and his associates. See Hume, Hist, of EtigL chap, lii ; 
Uallam, ConttiL Hist, of EngL (Lond. 1864), ii, 88, 167 ; 
Macaulay, EsstufB (1854), i, 159 sq., 424 sq.; Short, Ch, 
Biat, (Lond. 1840), p. 486 sq., 563 sq. ; TuUoch, English 
Furitamsm, p. 45 sq. ; Fletcher, History of fndepfndency, 
volsL ii, iu, iv ; Collier, KccL Hist, (see Index) ; Po'nne, 
Heylin, Le Bas, Lawson, and Baines, on the Life of 
Laud; Westm. Rev. xvii, 478 sq.; 1870, p. 294 ; J^ondon 
J/oa/A.AfP.cxviii^Snsq.; Lond.Retrosp.Rev.vu(\927), 
49 sq.; Blackw. Mag. xxv, 619 sq.; xxvii, 179; xxix, 
523 ; 1, 806 ; Lond. Quart. Rev. x, 101 sq. ; North. Atntr. 
Review, 1864, 606 sq. 

Lauda Sion Salvat5iem is the beginning of 
the renowned sequence of Thomas Aquinas (1224- 1274) 
for Corpus -Christi day. It consists of twelve double 
verses, which are as follows : 

1. Lauda Sion salvatorero, 
Laoda dncem et pastorem 



Inbymnlsetcanticis: [de, 
Quantum potev, tantnm an- 
Qaia major omni lande. 

Nee laudare snfflcis. 

i. Laudis thema rpecialfs, 
Paois vivas et vitalis 

Hodie proponitnr, 
Quem in Mcite mensa cosnae 
Torbc fratrnm dnodense 

Datum non ambigitnr. 

S. Sit lans plena, sit eonora. 
Sit Jacnnda. sit decora, 

Mentis jubilatio: 
DiM enlm 9ol1emnis sgitnr 
In qmi meniie prima recoli- 

Hojos institutio. [tnr 

4. In bac menea novl reeis 
NaTum pascba novc legis 

PbAM vetus lerminat. 
Vetnttatem novitas, 
Umbram fn^t Veritas, 

Noctem lux elimioat. 

\ Qood Id cxsoaChrlstus ges- 
Faciendnm bocexpreseit [sit 

Id f>ni memoriam. 
Docti »acrls in^tltntls, 
Panem, rioom in salulis 

CoDsecramas hostiam. 

•. Dogma dntnr Chriptiani?, 
QnndlD camem transit pnn'w 

B( vloam in cflngitinem. 
Qcod non capif<, qnod oon vi- 
Animofa firmat flde§ [dei>, 

PrsBier renim ordincm. 

T. 8nb dlverfis specicbu^, 
Slfois t«ntnm et non icbni», 
Laient re? eximic 



Caro cibns, sanenis potns : 
Manet tamen Cnristas totos 
Sob Dtraqne specie. 

8. A snmente non conci^ns, 
Non confractns. non divisns, 

Integer accipltor. 
Sumit onus, sumunt mille, 
Quantum tsti, tantnm ille, 

Nee snmptns consnmiiar. 

9. Snmnnt boni,9nmant mali, 
Sorte tamen inaeqnnii 

Vitc vel interituo. 
Mora est malis, vita bonis : 
Vide, paris snmptionis 

Qnam sit dispar exitop. 

10. Fracto demom sacramen- 
Ne vaciUes, sed memento [to 
Tantnm es(« sub fragmento 

Qnantom toto tegitur : 
Nnila rei ft rciifieuni, 
SIgni tantnm fit fractnrn 
Qua nee statns nee statnra 

Signatiminiiiinr. 

tt. Ecce pnois angelomm, 
Factns cibna vintornm, 
Vere panie flliornro, 

Non rolttendus canibne. 
In fli^ris prKtignatnr, 
Qnnm Isaac immolatnr, 
Agpns PA9cli8e depntatur, 

l>atnr manna patribus^. 

12. Bone pastor, pani» ve:e, 
Jesn, nostri miserere. 
Tn nos paf>ce, nos tnere, 
Tn nos bona fac videre 

In terra vivcntinm. 
Tn qni cnncta scia et vale^, 
Oni nos pascis hie mortales ; 
'I nos Ibi commensales, 
Cohcredew et sodaies 

Fac sanctornm civlnm. 



z 



Lauda Sion, although full of the doctrine of transub- 
stantiation, as was to be expected from its author, yet 
contains no alluaion to the priestly power " dtitm confi" 
o^Tf," which is the chief characteristic of 0>rpus>Christi 
day, but ends with an inward prayer for adoption and 
participation in the eternal feast of grace. A German 
translation was made of it by the monk John of Sals- 
burg (1866-1896), beginning with the words Lob^OSyon, 
demen Schdpfer. We know of no Englbh translation. 
See Koch, Oeschichte des Kircherdiedes, i, 4h-66 ; Daniel, 
Thesaur, IJyninuhyicuSf ii, 97 sq. (lips. 1855, 5 vols. 8vo). 

Laudian Manu- 
script (Codex Laudia- 
NC8, so called because pre- 
sented by archbishop Laud 
in 1686 to the University 
of Oxford, now in the Bod- 
leian Library, where it is 
numbered 35), usually des- 
ignated as E of the Acts, 
is a very valuable MS. of 
f|" the Acts, with the Greek 
2 and Latin in uncial letters 
_^ in parallel columns, the 
Latin words (which are 
neither Jerome*s nor the 
Vulgate, but a closely lit- 
eral version) always ex- 
actly opposite the Greek. 
It is defective at Acts 
xxvi, 29-xxvii, 26. It is 
in size nine inches by sev- 
en and a half, and consists 
of 226 leaves of 23-26 lines. 
The vellum b rather poor, 
and the ink faint. There 
are no stops, and few 
breathings. It was prob- 
ablv written in the West 
during the sixth centurA\ 
Readings were taken from 
it by Fell (1675) and MUl 
(1707). Heame publish- 
ed the text in fuU: Acta 
Apostoiorvm GnecO'Lati' 
« lue. Uteris majusculis 
J. (Oxon. 1715, 8vo) ; now 
very scarce. See Davidson, 
Bib. Crit. ii, 293 : Tregellcs, 
in Home's Jntrod. iv, 187 
sq.; Scrivener, Introd. p. 
128. See Manuscripts. 



z 

c: 





r 



V 






to 
c 

s 

I- 



e 



< 



s 



^ 

^ 



aCC< Z 



Laudemium. a name 

i3 given to the sum which 

g heirs, on obtaining their 

J inheritance, are to pay to 

^ certain parties. It was to 

. 5 be paid for the recognition 

^\j ^% ^M o and establishment {lauda- 

^^ ' a /io)ofthe claim, and even, 

g occasionally, on coming 
1 into possession other than 
/Tj _ f ^^ £• an inheritance, as, for in- 
Sir ^^ _ stance, by gift, etc. It sub- 

sequently became obliga- 
tory only in cases of sale, 
of inheritance from collat- 
eral relations, or sometimes 
from descendants, etc. 
The Roman law states the 
amount to be paid in the 
case of a copyhold to be 
one fiftieth of the princi- 
pal (" quinquagesima pars pretii vel sestimationis loci, qui 
transfertur," cap. 3, Cod. Just, de jure emphyteutico, iv, 
66). It subsequently increased to one thirtieth, one 



0^0 P 

DO O 



LAURA 



277 



LAURENTIUS 



ntairimonium tUrimenUbus (Far. 
1674, 4co). This work was condemned at Rome, Dec 
lO, 1688, yet its principles were approved by a num- 
ber of the most distinguished theologians and jurists : — 
VeneramdiB Ronuma Ecduia circa timoniam TratHtio 
(Paria, 1676, 8vo) :—De Sahbatma buUm Prwil^ et de 
Scoqntlaris CarmelUarum SoUdUaU : — In PrivUegia or- 
J^rtBrnonstrcUensis: — In Chariam immunituiit qnam 
GermanuSf epUcopu* Parisiensisi tuburbano mon- 
fktUsse Jertur : — In privUegittm quod Grt^riu* 
/*« imfma»terio SanctirMedardi Suettonensit dediate cUci- 
tur^ In these works the author examinee a number of 
rights and privileges which he considers as unfounded 
or anjust : — ^A treatise on the conception of the Virgin, 
in which he asserts that if an attempt were made to de- 
fine ** the point of the conception of the Virgin by the 
Script4ires and tradition, it would be shown that she was 
coooeived in sin." The complete works of Launoi were 
published by abbot Granet (Geneva, 1731, 10 vols. ful.). 
See I>upin, BibL des Auteurs EccUsiastiqueSf voL xviii, 
34-62 ; Journal des SavaniSy anno 1664, 1665, 1667, 1668, 
1675, 1688, 1698, 1701, 1704, 1706, 1726, 1781 ; Bibl. sa- 
crie ; Mor^ Grand Diction, Historique; Guy-Patin, 
JCpist. ; Bayle, DicL Critique^ and Nouvelies de la Ripitb' 
yique de* Litres; Niceron, Mimoires^ voL xxxii^ Colo- 
mi^ Recueil de Particularitet, p. 829 ; Reiser, Elogiutn 
Joamtis Launoii (Lond. 1685) ; Hoefer, Nouv, Biog, Gene- 
rale^ xxix, 912 sq.j Herzog, i2ea/-£fK^iblc)p. viii, 230 sq. 

I»aiira (collection of anchorites^ c^\ a name given 
by Church hbtorians to collections of cells, the habita- 
tions of hermits or monastics of the early days of the 
Church, but incorrectly used as a Bynon3rme of monaste- 
riumy ftom which it greatly differs, inasmuch as the in- 
mates of the latter were coenobites, and held intercourse 
with each other, while those of the former lived apart, 
in seclusion. Tlie holy tenants of a laura passed in 
solitude and nlence five days in a week; their food 
was bread, water, and dates; on Saturday and Sunday 
they received the sacrament, and messed together on 
broth and a small allowance of wine. Bingham states 
that when many of the cells of anchorets were placed 
together in the same wilderness, at some distance from 
one another, they were all called by one common name, 
laura, which, as Evagrius informs us (i, 21), differed 
from a ccenobium in this, that a laura was many celb 
divided from each other, where every monk provided 
for himself; but a ccenobium was but one habitation, 
where the monks lived in society, and had every- 
thing in common. Epiphanius {Hares, 69, 1) says 
Laura, or Labra, was the name of a street or district 
where a church stood in Alexandria; and it is prob- 
able that from this the name was taken to signify a 
multitude of cells in the wilderness, united, as it 
were, in a certain district, yet so divided as to make 
up many separate habitations. The most celebrat- 
ed lauras were established in the East, especially in 
Palestine, as the laura of St. Euthymus, St. Saba, 
the laura of the towers, etc. See Mohachism ; 

MOXASTERT. 

Laureate (from the Latin verb laurtaius, crowned 
wUh the priz^ was used of a successful theological 
candidate, in ancient times^ at the Scotch universi- 
ties. 

Lanrenoe, Richard, D.C.L., a distinguished Eng- 
lish prelate, was bom at Bath in 1760; matriculated in 
the l^iiiversity of Oxford July 14, 1778, as an exhibi- 
tioner of Con>u8 Christi College ; took the degree of B.A. 
April 10, 1782; that of M.A. July 9, 1785, and those of 
B. and D.C.L. June 27, 1794. Upon the appointment in 
1796 of his brother, Dr. French Laurence, to the repius 
professorship of civil law, he was made deputy professor 
at Oxford. In 1804 he preached the Bamptoii Lectures, 
and the reputation thence acquired secured for him from 
the archbishop of Canterbury the rectory of Mersham, 
Kent. In 1814 he was appointed to the chair of regius 
prafe8K>r of Hebrew, and to the canoniy of Christ 



Church, Oxford, and in 1822 was elevated to the archl- 
episcopal see of CasheL He died in Dublin Dec 28, 
1838. His most important works are his translations 
of certain apocryphal books of the O. T. from the Ethi- 
opic, accompanied by critical investigations: Ascentio 
Isaioi Vatis, opusculum pseudep^aphum, muUis abhinc 
saculiSf ut videtWf deperditum, nunc autem apud ACthio" 
pas compertum et cum versione Latino Anglicanaque 
publici juris factum (Oxon. 1819, 8vo) : — Primi Ezra Li- 
brij qui apud Vulgatum appeUatur quartus versio jEthir 
opica, nunc primo in medium prolata et Laline Anglice^ 
que reddita (Oxon. 1820, 8vo). The translation is fol- 
lowed by general remarks upon the different versions of 
this book, its apocryphal character, the creed of its au- 
thor, and the probable period of its composition [see 
EsDRAs] :—The Book of Enoch the Prophet, an apocry- 
phal production, supposed to have been lost for ages, 
but discovered at the close of the last century in Abys- 
sinia, now first published from an Ethiopic MS. in the 
Bodleian Library (Oxford, 1821, 8vo; 3d ed. 1838) [see 
Enoch, Book op] : — also, Remarks on the systematical 
Classification of JUS S, adopted by Grie^Kich in his Edi- 
tion of the Greek Testament (Oxf. 1814, %yo)i — Disser- 
tation on the Logos of St, John (Oxf. 1808, 8vo) :— Criti- 
cal Refle<^ions upon some importcmt Misrepresentations 
contained in the Unitarian Version of the N. T, (Oxford, 
18il, 8vo) i^TheBook of Job in the Words of the A,V,y 
arranged and printed in conformity with the Masoretic 
text (Dublin, 1828, 8vo) t—On the'Existence of the Soul 
after Death (London, 18^, 8vo). This work, written in 
opposition to Priestley, Law, and their respective follow- 
ers, discusses the usage of the terms Koifiao^ai and 
Sheol, and enters into the critical examination of vari- 
ous scriptural narratives : — A n A ttempt to illustrate those 
Articles of the Church ofEngkawl which the Calvinists 
improperly consider €u Calvinistical (seven sermons 
preached as Bampton Lectures, Oxford, 1838, 8vo) ; and 
several sermons on the doctrine of A tonement (Oxford. 
1810, 8vo), Baptismal Regeneration (1815, 8vo), and on 
Baptism (1838, 8vo). See Kitto, BiU. Cyclop, vol. ii, s. 
V. ; Allibone, Diet, Brit, and Am, A uth, voL ii, s. v. ; Lond, 
Genii, Mag, 1839, pU i, p. 205 sq. ; Darling, Cyclop, BUtli- 
ograph, voL ii, s. v. 

LatirentiuB, anti-pope, lived about 460-520. He 
was archdeacon of a Church in Home, and was opposed 
to SymmachuS; who in 498 was elected successor of 
Anastasius II in the papal chair. This schism created 
much disturbance in the city, Festus and Probinus, two 
of the most influential senators, siding with Laurentius. 
Both parties finally agreed to submit their difficulty to 
the decision of Theodoric, king of the Goths, though an 
Arian. He decided in favor of Symmachus, and Lau- 
rentius, having withdrawn his claim, was made bishop 
of Nocera. But as he subsequently created new dis^ 
turbances, and was, whether justly or unjustly is not 
known, accused of Eutychianism, he was deposed by the 
Synodus Palmaris (501), and died an exile. See Anas- 
tasius, Vita Poniif.; Baronius, Annates; Plotina, Vita 
Pontif. If Oman, ; Hoefer, A'otir. Biog. Generale, xix, 927. 
(J. N. r.y 

Laurentius, a noted prelate of the early English 
Church (Anglo -Saxon period), flourished in the first 
half of the 7th centurj' (A.D. 605) as successor of St. 
Augustine — suggested for the archbishopric by Augus- 
tine himself. Under the reign of Eatlbald, the successor, 
of Ethelbert, when England was in danger of a return 
to heathenish practices by Eadbald's marriage of his 
own mother-in-law, Laurentius shrewdly managed af- 
fairs for the benefit of Christianity ; he induced the king 
to renounce his incestuous marriage, and to embrace the 
Christian faith. See Churton, Ilist, Early EngL Church, 
I p. 41 sq. ; Mosheim, Ecdes, Hist, bk m. cent, vii, pt. i, ch. 
i, § 2, and note (5). 

Ijaurentius, St., according to tradition, was a dis- 
ciple of pope Sixtus II (257-258), who received him 
among the seven Roman deacons, and afterwards made 



LAVER 



281 



LAVER 



tb«ret)7 ^fSitdf and so would htye had to be renewed 
for each ablutioiL The Orientala, in their washings, 
use of a veesel with a long spout, and wash at the 
which ivuee from thence, the waste water being 
iwed in a basin which is |:daoed underneath. See 
Am^urioN. It has therefore been suggested that they 
bekl their hands and feet under streams that flowed 
frook the laver, and that the "* foot" caught the water 
tliat feU. As no mention is made of a vessel whereat 
to 'vrash the parts of the victims offered in sacrifice, it 
is pveaumed that the laver served this purpose also. 
Tike Jewish commentators state (perhaps referring, how- 
ever, to the later vessels in the Temple) that any kind 
of crater might be used for the laver, but that the water 
must be changed every day. They also mention that 
aUotion before entering the tabernacle was in no case 
dispensed with. A man might be perfectly clean, might 
be quite free from any ceremonial impurit}*, and might 
even have washed bis hands and feet bdbre he left 
tkome, but still he could by no means enter the taberna- 
cle without previous ablution at the laver. **In the 
ttoooant of the offering by the woman suspected of adul- 
tery there is mention made of * holy water* mixed with 
daat from the floor of the tabernacle, which the woman 
w^sw to drink according to certain rites (Numb, v, 17). 
Moot probably this was water taken from the laver. 
Perhaps the same should he said of the * water of 
purifying' (Numb, viii, 7), which was sprinkled on 
tbc Levites on occasion of their consecration to the 
of the Lord in the tabernacle." Like the other 
belonging to the tabernacle, the laver was, to- 
gether with its " foot," consecrated with oil (Lev. viii, 
10, 11). No mention is found in the Hebrew text of 
tbe mode of transporting it, but in Numb, iv, 14 a pas- 
sage ii» added in the Sept., agreeing with the hamaiitan 
Pent, and the Samaritan version, which f rescribes the 
method of packing it, viz. in a purple cloth, protected 
by a skin covering. See Taberii aclb. 

2. In the Temple of Solomon, when the number of both 
priests and victims had greatly increased, ten lavers 
were used for the sacrifices, and the molten sea for the 
personal ablutions of the priests (2 Chron. iv, 6). These 
laTcrs are more minutely described than that of the 
tabernacle. These likewise were of copper {" brass"), 
raised on bases (nidb^a, from "i^lS, to ** sUnd upright,** 
Oesenius, Thesaur, p. 666, 670 , Sept. GrsBcizes fi(x*^vtv^, 
Vnlg. bases) (1 Kings vii, 27, 89), five on the north and 
south ades respectively of the court of the priests. They 
were used for washing the animals to be offered in burnt- 
offerings (2 Chron. iv, 6). Josephus {Ant, viii, 8, 6) 
gives DO distinct account of their form. Ahaz mutila- 
ted the laver, and removed it from its base (2 Kingn 
xvi, 17). Whether Hezekiah restored the parts cut off 
is ifot stated, but in the account of the articles taken by 
the Chaldieans from the Temple only the bases are 
mentioned (2 Kings xxv, 16; Jer. lii, 17; Josephus 
omits even these, A nt, x, 8, 5). 

** The dimensions of the bases, with the lavers, as 
given in the Hebrew text, are four cubits in length and 
fafeadth, and three in height. The Sept. gives 4 by 4, 
and 6 in height. Josephus, who appears to have fol- 
lowed a various reading of the Sept., makes them five in 
length, four in width, and six in height (1 Kings vii, 28 ; 
Thenius, ad loc. ; Josephus, A n/. viii, 8, 8). There were 
to each four wheels of one and a half cubit in diameter, 
with spokes, etc., aU cast in one piece. The principal 
parts requiring explanation may be thus enumerated: 
(a) * Borders' (PllJiOp, Sept. (rvyrXciVr/iara, Vulgate 
scMlphtnB)^ probably panels. Gesenins ( Thesaur, p. 938) 
supposes these to have been ornaments like square 
shields, with engraved work. (6) ' Ledges' (D*^jlb^, 
*{iXo/ura, junchtra, from 37123, * to cut in notches,' 
Gcsenius, p. 1411), joints in comers of bases or fillets 
covering joints, (c) * Additions' (r*)*^^, from Mjb, * to 
twine,* Gesenius, p. 746; x<*^<» ^^^t whence Thenius 



suggests Xwpoi or Xwpa as the troe reading), probably 
festoons; iJghtfoot translates 'margines oblique de^- 
scendentes.' (d) *PUUes' (Q'^d'^D, Tpoixoyra, axes^ Qe- 
senius, p. 972; Lightfoot, massa area tetragona)^ prob- 
ably axles, cast in the same piece as the wheels, (s) 
^Undersetters' (nions, a>/iiai, humerulij Gesen. p. 724), 
either the naves of the wheels, or a sort of handles for 
moving tbe whole machine-, Lightfoot renders * columns 
fuldentes lavacrum.' (/) * Naves* (O'^ll^n, modioli). 
(^) * Spokes' (O'^pwn, radUi the two words combined 
in the Sept. i) wpay/uircior, Gresen. p. 686 ; Schleusner, 
Lex, V, T, vpayn.), (h) »FeUoes' (D'^aSi, vwroi, canthi, 

Gesen. p. 256). (•) * Chapiter' (H'nns, M^oXtV, sumrni- 
tasy Gesen. p. 725), perhaps the rim of the circular open- 
ing (' mouth,' 1 Kings vii, 81) in the convex top. (k) 
A < round compass' (^''20 b:ir, Gesenius, p. 985, 989, 
(TrpoyyvXov rt'cX^ ; rotundifas)^ perhaps the convex 
roof of the base. To these parts Josephus adds chains, 
which may probably be the festoons above mentioned 
(.4n/.viii/3, G). 





^^ 




Conjectural Diagram of the Laver. (After Thenius.) 

a, bord«r» ; 6, l«dfM ; e, Miditlotu ; d, pUU* ■. «, ondvrMttcn ; f, ukTW , f , 
•pokMi A, f«lloM; i, chaptUr; «, rotitid eotnpaM. 

** Thenius, with whom Keil in the main agrees, both of 
them differing from Ewald, in a minute examination of 
the whole passage, but not without some transposition, 
chiefly of the greater part of ver. 81 to ver. 85, deduces a 
construction of the bases and lavers, which seems fairly 
to reconcile the very great difficulties of the subject. Fol- 
lowing chiefly hb description, we may suppose the base 
to have been a quadrangular hollow frame, connected 
at its comers by pilasters (ledges), and moved by four 
wheels or high castors, one at each comer, with handles 
(plates) for drawing the machine. The sides of this 
frame were divided into three vertical panels or com- 
partments (borders), ornamented with bass-reliefe of 
lions, oxen, and chembim. The top of the base was 
convex, with a circular opening of one and a half cubit 
diameter. The top itself was covered with engraved 
cherubim, lions, and palm-trees or branches. The 
I height of the convex top from the upper plane of the 
I base was one and a half cubit, and the space between 
I this top and the lower surface o^ t^^* Uvpr one and a 



LAVIPEDIUM 



283 



LAW 



(trance when we take into conrideration the attitude of j 
WTfritji on his last meeting with bishop Lavington : " I ' 
wmm -well pleased to partake of the Lord's Supper with 
my old opponent, bishop Lavington. Oh, may we sit 
Aomrt t<^ther in the kingdom of our Father!" record- 
ed hfy Wesley himself in his journal of 1762. Bishop 
LAvin^ton, indeed, seems to have been fond of polemical 
extimvagance^. for a few years after his attack on Meth- 
odum he wrote The Moravums compared and detected 
(17&5, 8vo). Besides these two attacks upon fellow- 
Cbrietians, he published some occasional Sermons. He 
difcd in 17C2. See, besides the references already made, 
Polwhele, ilistoiy of Devonshire, i, 818 ; Sterens, Hist, of 
i, 247, 806 ; l^rfA. QkoH. iferi<w, 1871, p. 806 
(J. H. W.) 
Xaavipedium. See Foot-washino. 
Tm9l'W is usually detined as a rule of action; it is 
more properly a precept or command coming from a su- 
perior authority, which an inferior is bound to obey. 
Soch laws emanate from the king or legislative body of 
a natiot). Such enactments of ** the powers that be*^ are 
reoogniaed in Scripture as resting upon the ultimate au- 
thoritj of the divine Lawgiver (Rom. xiii, 1). We 
propoee in this article to discuss only the various dis- 
tinctions or applications of the term, in an ethical sense, 
reacrving for a separate place the consideration of the 
Moaaic law, in its various aspects, ceremonial, moral, 
■ndciviL 

1. Classijication of Lavs as to their interior Nature. — 
1. *^ Petuil Law^' are such as have some penalty to en- 
force them. All the laws of God are and cannot but be 
penal, because every breach of his law is sin, and meri- 
torioos of punishment. 

2. ** Directing Jmws" are prescriptions or maxims with- 
oat any punishment annexed to them. 

8. ** Positive Laws^ are precepts which are not found- 
ed upon any reasons known to those to whom they are 
f^ven. Thus, in the state of innocence, God gave the 
law of the Sabbath ; of abstinence from the fruit of the 
tree of knowledge, etc In childhood most of the pa- 
rental commands are necessarily of this nature, owing 
to the incapacity of the child to imderstand the grounds 
of their inculcation. 

IL Certain Special Uses of the Term^l. " Law of Hon- 
or^ is a system of rules constructed by people of fashion, 
and calculated to facilitate their intercourse with one 
another, and for no other purpose. Consequently noth- 
ing is adverted to by the law of honor but what tends 
to incommode this intercourse. Hence this law only 
preMTibes and regulates the duties betwixt equals, omit- 
ting such as relate to the Supreme Being, as well as 
those which we owe to our inferiors, and in most in- 
stances is favorable to the licentious indulgence of the 
natural passions. Thus it allows of fornication, adul- 
tery, drunkenness, prodigality, duelling, and of revenge 
in the extreme, and lays no stress upon the virtues op- 
posite to these. 

2. ** Lencs of Nations^ are those rules which, by a tacit 
consent, are agreed upon among all communities, at least 
among those who are reckoned the polite and human- 
ized part of mankind. 

^**La%cs of Nature.^ — "The word law is sometimes 
also employed in order to express not only the moral 
connection between free agents of an inferior, and oth- 
ers of a superior power, but also in order to express the 
nemi cavsalisj the connection between cause and effect 
in inanimate nature. However, the expression law of 
nature J lex mttura, is improper and figurative. The term 
law implies, in its strict sense, spontaneity, or the power 
of deciding between right and wrong, and of choosing 
between good and evil, as well on the part of the law- 
giver as on the part of those who have to regulate their 
conduct according to his dictates'* (Kitto, s. v.). More- 
over, the powers of nature, which these laws are con- 
ceived as representing, are nothing in reality but the 
power of God exerted in these directions. Hence theflc 
laws may at any time be suspended by God when the 



higher interests of his spiritual kingdom require. View- 
ed in this light, miracles not only become possible, but 
even probable for the furtherance of the divine economy 
of salvation. (See Bushell, Nature and the SupematU' 
ral.) See Miracle. 

III. Forms of the Divine Imw, — The manner in which 
God governs rational creatures is by a law, as the rule 
of their obedience to him, and this is what we call 
God's moral government of the world. At their very 
creation he placed all intelligences under such a system. 
Thus he gave a law to angels, which some of them have 
kept, and have been confirmed in a state of obedience to 
it; but which others broke, and thereby plunged them- 
selves into destruction and misery. In like manner he 
also gave a law to i4</am, which was in the form of a 
covenant, and in which Adam stood as a covenant head 
to all his posterity (Rom. v). But our first parents soon 
violated that law, and fell from a state of innocence to a 
state of sin and misery (Hos. vi, 7). See Fall. 

1. The "Aatc of Nature" is the will of God relating 
to human actions, grounded in the moral difference of 
things, and, because discoverable by natural light, obli- 
gatory upon all mankind (Rom. i, 20 ; ii, 14, 15). This 
law is coeval with the human race, binding all over the 
globe, and at all times ; yet, through the corruption of 
reason, it b insufficient to lead us to happiness, and ut- 
terly unable to acquaint us how sin is to be forgiven, 
without the assistance of revelation. This law is that 
generaUy designated by the term conscience, which is in 
strictness a capacity of being affected by the moral re- 
lations of actions; in other words, merely a sense of right 
andwrong. It b the judgment which intellectuaUy de- 
termines the moral quality of an act, and this always 
by a comparison with some assumed standard. With 
those who have a revelation, this, of course, b the test ; 
with others, education, tradition, or caprice. Hence the 
importance of a trained conscience, not only for the pur- 
pose of cidtivating its susceptibility to a high degree of 
sensitiveness and authority, but also in order to correct 
the judgment and fumbh it a just basb of decbion. A 
perverted or mbled conscience b scarcely less disastrous 
than a hard or blind one. Historv b full of the miseries 
and mischiefs occasioned by a misguided moral sense. 

2. " Ceremonial Law** b that which prescribes the 
rites of worship under the Old Testament. These rites 
were typical of Christ, and were obligatory only till 
Christ had finbbed hb work, and began to erect hb Gos- 
pel Church (Heb. vii, 9, 1 1 ; x, 1 ; Eph. ii, 16 ; CoL ii, 14 ; 
Gal.v,2,8). 

8. ** Judicial Law** was that which directed the policy 
of the Jewbh nation, under the peculiar dominion of 
God as their supreme magbtrate, and never, except in 
things relating to moral equity, was binding on any but 
the Hebrew nation. 

4. *^ Moral Law** b that declaration of God's will which 
directs and binds all men, in every age and place, to their 
whole duty to him. It was most solemnly proclaimed 
by God himself at Sinai, to confirm the original law of 
natnre, and correct men's mistakes concerning the de- 
mands of it. It b denominated perfect (Psa. xix, 7), 
perpetual (Matt, v, 17, 18), holy (Rom. vii, 12), good 
(Rom. vii, 12), spiritual (Rom. vii, 14), exceeding broad 
(Psa. cxix, 96). Some deny that it is a rule of conduct 
to believers under the (xospel dispensation; but it is 
easy to see the futility of such an idea ; for, as a tran- 
script of the mind of God. it roust be the criterion of 
moral good and eviL It is abo given for that very pur- 
pose, that we may see our duty, and abstain from every- 
thing derogatory to the divine glory. It affords us 
grand ideas of the holiness and purity of God ; without 
attention to it, we can have no knowledge of sin. Chrbt 
himself came, not to destroy, but to fulfil it ; and though 
we cannot do as he did, yet we are commanded to follow 
his example. Love to God b tbe end of the moral law 
as well as the end of the GospeL By the law, abo, we 
are led to see the nature of holiness and our own de- 
pravity, and learn to be humbled under a sense of our 



LAW OF MOSES 



285 



LAW OF MOSES 



•n mtt^, law, amoonts only to 611. The first in or- 
' 1 T of these Iawb is found in Gen. i, 27, 13^1 11B, be 

'-uitjkl and multiply. The transgressor of this law is, 
■ -'cording to Babbi EUezer, as wicked as a murderer. 

le who is still unmarried at twenty years of age is a 

rmnagresBor; and the law is binding upon every man, 

• • -cording to Schamai, until he has two sons ; or, accord- 
Mg to HiDel, one son and one daughter (compare JurU 

/thrmontm Uffeg, ductu Rabbi Levi BarzelonitsB, auctore 
' Henrico Hottinger). See Cabaul. 

I. The Law with reference to the Past Hittory of the 

* 'eapie^ — 1. Here it is aU-important, for the proper un- 

i^raUmding of the law, to remember its entire dependence 

•n the Ahrahamic Covenant, 9s\^ its adaptation thereto 

£«e GaL iii, 17-24). That covenant had a twofold char- 

u:ter. It contained the ** spiritual promise" of the Mes- 
t Ab, which was given to the Jews as representatives of 
tie whole human race, and as guardians of a treasure in 
*, hkh ** all families of the earth should be blessed." This 
•^.ould prepare the Jewish nation to be the centre of the 
.ixiity of ail mankind. But it contained also the tem- 
« ioral promises subsidiary to the former, and requisite in 
irder to preserve intact the nation, through which the 
ace of man should be educated and prepared for the 
(Mning of the Redeemer. These promises were special, 
^ren distinctively to the Jews as a nation, and calcu- 
.Ated to separate them from other nations of the earth. 
it follows that there should be in the law a correspond- 
ing duality of nature. There would be much in it pe- 
xi&ax to the Jews, local, special, and transitory ; but the 
fundftmeiital principles on which it was based must be 
universal, because expressing the will of an unchanging 
Go^, and ^ringing from relations to him inherent in 
human nature, and therefore perpetual and universal in 
their application. 

% The nature of this relation of the law to the prom- 
ite is clearly pointed out. The belief in God as the Re- 
deemer of man, and the hope of his manifestation as such 
in the person of the Messiah, involved the belief that 
the spiritual power must be superior to all carnal ob- 
stmctions, and that there was in man a spiritual ele- 
ment which could rule his life by communion with a 
Spirit from above. But it involved also the idea of an 
antagonistic power of evil, from which man was to be 
redeemed, existing in each individual, and existing also 
in the world at large. The promise was the witness of 
th« one tmth, the law was the declaration of the other. 
It was ** added because of transgressions." In the indi- 
vidnal it stood between his better and his worse self, 
in the worid, between the Jewish nation as the witness 
of the spiritual promise, and the heathendom which 
groaned under the power of the flesh. It was intended, 
by the gift of guidance and the pressure of motives, to 
strengthen the weakness of good, while it curbed direct- 
ly the power of eviL It followed inevitably that, in the 
individual, it assumed somewhat of a coercive, and, as 
between Israel and the worid, somewhat of an antago- 
nistic and isolating character; and hence that, viewed 
without reference to the promise (as was the case with 
the later Jews), it might actually become a hinderance 
to the true revelation of God, and to the mission for 
which the nation had been made a " chosen people." 

8. Nor is it less essential to note the period of the his- 
tory at which it was given. It marked and determined 
the transirion of Israel from the condition of a tribe to 
that of a nation, and its definite assumption of a distinct 
position and office in the history of the world. It b on 
no unreal metaphor that we base the well-known analo- 
gy between the stages of individual life and those of na- 
tional or universal existence. In Israel the patriarchal 
time was that of childhood, ruled chiefly through the af- 
fections and the power of natural relationship, with rules 
few, simple, and luisystematic The national period was 
that of youth, in which this indirect teaching and influ- 
ence gives place to definite assertions of right and re- 
sponribility, and to a system of distinct commandments. 



needed to control its vigorous and impulsive action. The 
fifty days of their wandering alone with God in the si- 
lence of the wUdemess represent that awakening to the 
difficulty, the responsibility, and the nobleness of life, 
which marks the '^ putting away of childish things." 
The law is the sign and the seal of such an awaken- 
ing. 

4. Tet, though new in its general conception, it was 
probably not wholly new in its materials. Neither in his 
physical nor his spiritual providence does God proceed 
per saUum, There must necessarily have been, before 
the law, commandments and revelations of a fragment- 
ary character, under which Israel had hitherto grown up. 
Indications of such are easily found, both of a ceremoni- 
al and moral nature, as, for example, in the penalties 
against murder, adiUtery, and fornication (Gen. ix, C ; 
xxxviii, 24), in the existence of the Levirate law (Gen. 
xxxviii, 8), in the distinction of clean and unclean ani- 
mals (Gen. viii, 20), i^id probably in the observance of 
the Sabbath (£xod. xvi, 28, 27-29). But, even without 
such indications, our knowledge of the existence of Is- 
rael as a distinct community in Egypt would necessitate 
the conclusion that it must have been guided by some 
laws of its own, growing out of the old patriarchal cus- 
toms, which would be preserved with Oriental tenacity, 
and gradually becoming methodized by the progress of 
circtunstances. Nor would it be possible for the Israel- 
ites to be in contact with an elaborate system of ritual 
and law, such as that which existed in Egypt, without 
being influenced by its general principles, and, in less 
degree, by its minuter details. As they approached 
nearer to the condition of a nation they would be more 
and more likely to modify their patriarchal customs by 
the adoption from Egypt of laws which were fitted fot 
national existence. This being so, it is hardly conceiv" 
able that the Mosaic legislation should have embodied 
none of these earlier materials. It is clear, even to hu^ 
man wisdom, that the only consdtution which can be 
efficient and permanent is one which has grown up 
slowly, and so been assimilated to the character of a 
people. It is the peculiar mark of legislative genius to 
mould by fundamental principles, and animate by a 
higher inspiration, materials previously existing in a 
cruder state. The necessity for this lies in the nature, 
not of the legidator, but of the subjects, and the argu- 
ment, therefore, is but strengthened by the acknowledg- 
ment in the case of Moses of a divine and special inspira^ 
tion. So far, therefore, as they were consistent with the 
objects of the Jewish law, the customs of Palestine and 
the laws of Egypt would doubtless be traceable in the 
Mosaic system. 

5. In close connection with this, and almost in conse- 
quence of this reference to antiquity, we find an accom" 
modation of the law to the temper and circumstances 
of the Israelites, to which our Lord refers in the case of 
divorce (Matt, xix, 7, 8) as necessarily interfering with 
its absolute perfection. In many cases it rather should 
be said to guide and modify existing usages than actu- 
ally to sanction them ; and the ignorance of their exist- 
ence may lead to a conception of its ordinances not only 
erroneous, but actually the reverse of the truth. Thus 
the punishment of filial disobedience appears severe 
(Deut. xxi, 18-21) ; yet when we refer to the extent of 
parental authority in a patriarchal system, or (as at 
Rome) in the earlier periods of national existence, it ap- 
pears more like a limitation of absolute parental authori- 
ty by an appeal to the judgment of the community. The 
Levirate law, again, appears (see Mich. Mos, Recht, bk. 
iii, ch. vi, art. 98) to have existed in a far more general 
form in the early Asiatic peoples, and to have been rath- 
er limited than favored by Moses. The law of the aven- 
ger of blood is a similar instance of merciful limitation 
and distinction in the exercise of an immemorial usage, 
probably not without its value and meaning, and cer- 
tainly too deep-seated to admit of any but gradual ex- 
tinction. Nor is it less noticeable that the degree of 
prominence given to each part of the Mosaic ^rstem 



LAW OF MOSES 



287 



LAW OF MOSES 



(4) Inkeritanee: 



I 



0> 



r 



(«) 



Zfmm fU f n . 



(3) BrwUfr$. 

(4; UiuUa m tit FalAtrU »id«. 



(5) Jfnt Kimnunf gnmaiij. 



(b) Law$ qf D*bL 

0> A II i>0ft<« (to an Israelite) to be released at the seventh 
(eabbntical) year; a blessiiiK promlbed to obedience, aud 
a corse od reAisal to lend (Deut. xv, 1-11). 

(^> tntentt ((h)m Iitnielites) not to be taken (Bxod. xzli, 
»-<7: DeaLzxiU. 19.S0). 

(S) PUdge$ not to be Insolently or roinonsly exacted 
(DeaL ntv, 6, 10-13, 17, 18). 

(o) TaxatUm. 

(1) Centtts-moneut a poll-tax (of a half shekel), to be paid 
for tk* service qf the teibemaele (Exod. xxx, 12-18). 

All spoil in war to be hiilved : uf the corobaunt's half, 
ooe five haadredth, of the peopleV, cue fiftieth, to be paid 
for m ** heave-olTering** to Jehovah. 

(J) Tith^: 

(a) TitAe9 qf all produce to be g!ven for maintenance 
of the Leviies (Narob. xviii, ^24). 

(Of thi<s one tenth to be paid a» a heave-offering 
[for maintenance of the priests] [Namb. zvill, 84- 

S«l.) 

(b) iiecond THthe to be bestowed in religions feastine 
and charity, either at the Holy Place, or every third 
year at home (?) (Dent, xiv, 32-28). 

(e) Firtt'fruUa of com, wine, and uil (at least one six- 
tietb, generally one fortieth, for the priests) to be 
offered at Jerusalem, with a »olemu declaration of 
dependence ou Ood, the King of Israel (Dent, xxvi, 
1-1&: Numb, xviii, 12, 18). 

FtretUnae of clean beasts; the redemption-money 
(6 shekels) of man, and (i shekel, or 1 shekel) of un- 
clean beasts, to be given to the priests after sacrifice 
(Numb. xvUi, 15-18). 

(a) OUaninge (in field or vineyard) to be a l^al right 
of the poor (Lev. xix. 9, 10 ; Dent, xxlv, 19-88). 

{h) Slight TYeapasa (eating on the spot) to be allowed 
as legal (Dent, xxiil, 84, 25). 

(e) Seetmd Tithe (see 8, 6) to be given in charity. 

{a) IFapes to be paid day by day (Dent, xxiv, 15). 
(4) kaifUenaftee qf PrieHe (Nnmb. xviii, 8-38). 

(a) Tenth of LeKiiuf Tithe, (See 2, a. ) 

(6) The heace and wave ojferinge (breast and right shoul- 
der of all peace-offerings). 

(c) The meat and ein oferinge^ to be eaten solemnly, 
and only in the holy place. 

id) Ftrat-fruite aud redemption money. (8ee 8, e.) 
(e) Priee qf all devoted thtnggj unless specially given 
for a sacred service. A man's service, or that of his 
household, to be redeemed at 50 shekels for man, 30 
for wonum, 20 for boy, and 10 for girl. 

(H.) LAWS CRIMINAL. 

1. OrrsMOKs against Oop (of the natnre of treason). 

1st Command. Acknowledgment of false gods (Exod. 
xxii, 80), as e, g., Moloch (Lev. xx, 1-5), and generally all 
idolatry {IHiXiUjXW'. xvli, 8-5). 

8d Command. Witchcraft and /alee prophecy (Bxod. xxll, 
18 : Deut. xvlil, 9-88 ; Lev. xix. 31). 

8d Command. Btaevhrmp (Lev. xxlv, 10, 16). 

4th Command, tiabbath-breaking (Numb, xv, 88-36). 

Puniehment in all eosfs, dfoth by stoning. Idolatrous 
cities to be utterly destroyed. 

8. Orrwfcn against Mam. 

5th Command. Dimb^ience to or cursing or smiting of 
parente (Bxod. xxi, 15, 17; Lev. xx, 9; Deut. xxi, 18-21). 
ti» be punished by death by stoning, publicly adjudged and 
inflicted ; so also of disobedience to the priests (as Judges) 
or Supreme Judge. Comp. 1 Kings xxi, 10-14 (Naboth) ; 
2 Cbron. xxiv, 81 (Zechariah). 

6th Command. (1) Murder, to be punished by death 
without sanctnary or reprieve, or ratii^factlon (Bxod. xxi, 
12, 14 : Deut. xix, 11-18). Death of a flave, actually under 
the rod, to be punished (Bxod. xxi, 20, 81). 

(2) Death by negligenoe, to be punished by death (Bxod. 
xxi,2S-80). 

(3) Accidental Homicide; the avenger of blood to be es- 
caped by flight to the cities of refuge till the death of the 
biifb-priest (Numb, xxxv, 9-28 : Deut. iv, 41-48 ; xix, 4-10). 

(4) Uncertain Murder, to he expiated by formal disavow- 
al and sacrifice by the elders of the nearest city (Deut. xxi, 

1-9). 

(5) AeaauU to be punished by lex talionie, or damages 
(Ex«k1. xxi, 18, 19, 88-85; Lev. xxiv, 19, 20). 

Ttb Command. (1) Adultery to be punished by death of 
both offenders: the rape of a married or betn.thed wom- 
an, by death of the offender (Deut. xxii, 13-27). 

(2) Rape or SeductUm of an unl)etrothed virgin, to be 
compensated by marriage, with dowry (50 shekeln), and 
without power of divorce; or, if hhe be refused, by pay- 
nent of roll dowry (Bxod. xxii, 16, 17 : Deut. xxii, 28, 2(j). 



(8) Unla»fvi Marriaaee (incestuous, etc.) to be punished, 
some by death, some by childlessness (Lev. xx). 

8th Command. (1) Th^ to be punished by fourfold or 
double restitution ; a nocturnal robber might be slain as 
an outlaw (Bxod. xxii, 1-4). 

(8) Dreepam and injury of things lent to be compensated 
(Bxod. xxii, 5-15). 

(3) Perversion qf Justice (by bribes, threats, etc), and es- 
pecially oppression of strangers, strictly forbidden (Bxod. 
xxiil, 9, etc). 

(4) Kidnapping to be punished by death (Dent xxlv, 7). 
9th Command. FeUee Witness; to be punished by lea 

talionis (Bxod. xxili, 1-8; Deut. xix, 16-21). 

Slander of a wife's chastity, by fine and loss of power of 
divorce (Deut. xxii, 18, 19). 

A fhller consideration of the tables of the Ten Com- 
mandments is given elsewhere. See Ten Comu akdmknts. 

(IIL) LAWS JUDICIAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL. 

1. JCBISniOTION. 

(a) Local Judges (generally Levltes, ss more skilled In 
the law) appointed. Tor ordinary matters, probably by the 
people, with approbation of the snpreme authority (as of 
Moses in the wilderness) (Bxod. xvill, 25 ; DeuU i, 15-18), 
through all the land (Deut. xvi, 18). 

(b) Appeal to tfte Priests (at the holy place), or to the 
jitdge; their sentence final, and to be accepted under pain 
of death. See Deut. xvii, 8-18 (comp. appeal to Moses, 
Bxod. xviii, 86). 

(e) Tun witnesses (at least) required in capital matters 
(Numb, xxxv, 80 ; Deut. xvii, 6, 7). 

(d) Punishment (except by special command) to be per- 
sonal, and not to extend to the family (Deut. xxiv, 16). 

Stripes allowed and limited (Deut. xxv, 1-3), so as to 
avoid outrage on the human ft'ame. 

All this would be to a ffreat extent set aside— 

Ist. By the summary jurisdiction of the king. See 1 
Sam. xxii, 11-19 (Saul) ; 8 Sam. xxii, 1-5: iv, 4-11 ; 1 Kings 
ill, 16-88; which extended even t4) the deposition of the 
high-priest (1 Sam. xxll. 17, 18; 1 Kings ii, 26. 87). 

The practical difficulty of its t>eine carried out is seen 
in 8 Sam. xv, 8-6, aud would lead, ofcouMe, to a certain 
delegation of his power. 

8d. By the appointment of the Seventy (Numb. x1. 24- 
80) with a solemn religious sanction. In later times there 
was a local Sanhedrim of 28 in each cltT, and two such in 
Jerusalem, as well as the Great Sanhedrim, consisting of 
70 members, besides the president, who was to be the 
hieh-priwt if duly qualifiea, and controlling even the king 
ana ingh-priest. The members were priests, scribes (Le- 
vltes), ana elders (of other tribes). A court of exiictly 
this nature is noticed, as appointed to supreme power by 
Jehoshaphat. (See 8 Chion. xix, 8-11.) 

8. Royal Powxn. 

TJie King^s Power limited by the law, as written and 
formally accepted by the king, and directly forbidden to 
be despotic (Dent xvii, 14-80 ; comp. 1 Sanu x, 25). Yet 
he had power of taxation (to one tenth), and of compul- 
sory service (1 Sam. vlii, 10-18) : also the declaration of war 
(1 Sam. xi), etc There are distinct traces of a "mutual 
contract" (8 Sam. v, 8 (David) ; a •* league" (Joash), 8 Kings 
xi, 17) ; the remonstrance with Rehoboam being clearly 
not extraordinary (1 Kings xll, 1-6). 

The Princes of the Congregation. The bends of the tribes 
(see Josh, ix, 15) seem to have had authority under Joshua 
to act for the people (comp. 1 Chron. xxvii, 16-28) ; and in 
the later times "the princes of Judah" seem to have had 
power to control both the king aud the prieats (see Jer. 
xxvi, 10-84 ; xxxviii, 4, 5, etc). 

3. Royal Rktbndb. 

(1) Tenth qf produce. 

(2) Domain Icmd (1 Chron. xxvii, 86-89). Note confisca- 
tion of criminal's land (1 Kings xxi, 15). 

(8) Bond service (1 Kings v, 17. IH), chiefly on foreigners 
(1 Kings ix. 80-88 ; 8 Chron. li, 16, 17). 

(4) Flocks and herds (1 Chron. xxvii, 89-31). 

(5) Tributes (gifts) fhim foreign kings. 

(6) Commerce; especially in Solomon's time (1 Kings x, 
88, 89, etc.). 

(jy.) ECCLESIASTICAL AND CEREMONIAL LAW. 

1. Law or Saobifiok (considered as the sien and the ap- 
pointed means of the union with God, on which ine 
nollnMs of the people depended). 

(a\ Ordinary Saeriftces. 
(a) The whole Bumt'Ofering (Lev. 1) of the herd or the 

flock : to be offered continually (Bxod. xxix, 8S-42) ; 

and the fire on the altar never to be extinguiahcd 

(Lev. vl, 8-13). 
(6) The Meat-Offerimj (Lev. li ; vl, 14-88) of flour, oil, 

and frankincense, unleavened, and seasoned with 

salt. 

(c) The Peace-Offering (Lev. iii ; vil, 11-21) of the herd 
or the flock : either a thAnk-offerIng, or a vow, or 
ft«e-will offering. 

(d) The Sin^Offenng, or Trespass-Offering (Lev. Iv, v, 
vi). 

[1] For sins committed in ignorance (Lev. iv). 



LAW OF MOSES 



289 



LAW OF MOSES 



eferring^ directly to him, is necessarily absolute in its tu- 
rrrfiuic^ and ununited in its scope. 

It is supreme over -the governors, as being only the 
kJe^^mt^ of the Lord, and therefore it is incompatible 
rith any despotic authority in them. This is seen 
n its limitation of the power of the master over the 
iave, in the restrictions laid on the priesthood, and the 
»rdination of the " manner of the kingdom^ (Deut.xvii, 
14-20; comp. 1 Sam. x, 25). By its establishment of 
*be hereditary priesthood side 1^ side with the author- 
ity of the heads of tribes (" the princes*"), and the sub- 
lequent sovereignty of the king, it provides a balance 
[rf* powers, all of which are regarded as subordinate. The 
ibmlute sovereignty of Jehovah was asserted in the car- 
der times in the dictatorship of the judge, but much 
more clearly under the kingdom by the spiritual com- 
mtadon of the prophet. By his rebukes of priests, 
princes, and kings for abuse of their power, he was not 
(»nly defending religion and morality, but also maintain- 
ing^ the divinely-appointed constitution of IwaeL 

i hi the other hand, it is supreme over the governed, 
recof^sing no inherent rights in the individual as pre- 
vailiuf< against, or limiting the law. It is therefore un- 
Umited in its scope. There is in it no recognition, such 
as is familiar to us, that there is one class of actions di- 
rectly subject to the coercive power of law, while other 
classes of actions and the whole realm of thought are to 
be indirectly guided by moral and spiritual influence. 
Nor is there any distinction of the temporal authority 
which wields the former power from the spiritual au- 
thority to which belongs the other. In fact, these dis- 
tinctions would have been incompatible with the char- 
acter and objects of the law. They depend pardy on 
the want of foresight and power in the lawgiver ; they 
could have no place in a system traced directly to God : 
they dep^id also partly on the freedom which belongs 
to the manhood of our race ; they could not, therefore, 
be appropriate to the more imperfect period of its youth. 
Thus the law regulated the whole life of an Israelite. 
His hoose, h'ls dress, and his food, his domestic arrange- 
ments and the distribution of his property, all were de- 
termined. In the laws of the release of debts and the 
prohibition of usury, the dictates of self-interest and the 
natoral course of commercial transactions are 6t«mly 
checked. His actions were rewarded and punished with 
great minuteness and strictness, and that according to 
the standard, not of their consequences, but of their in- 
trinsic morality, so that, for example, fornication and 
adultery were as severely visited as theft or murder. 
His religious worship was defined and enforced in an 
elaborate and unceasing ceremonial In all things it is 
clear that, if men submitted to it merely as a law, im- 
posed under penalties by an irresistible authority, and 
did not regard it as a means to the knowledge and love 
of God, and a preparation for his redemption, it would 
well deserve from Israelites the description given of it 
by St. Peter (Acts xv, 10) as " a yoke which neither 
they Dor their fathers were able to bear.'* 

(3.) 7^ petiattiea and rewards by which the law is 
enforced are such as depend on the direct theocracy. 
With regard to individual actions, it may be noticed 
that, as generally some penalties are inflicted by the 
subordinate, and some only by the supreme authority, 
ao among the Israelites some penalties came from the 
hand of man, some directly from the providence of God. 
So much is this the case, that it often seems doubtful 
whether the threat that a ** soul shall be cut off from 
Israel*^ refers to outlawry and excommunication, or to 
such miraculous punbhments as those of Nadab and 
Abibu, or Korah, Dathan, and Abiram. In dealing with 
the nation at large, Moses, regulariy and as a matter of 
ooane, refers for punishments and rewards to the provi- 
dence of God. This is seen not only in the great bless- 
ing and curse which enforces the law as a whole, but 
^ in special instances, as, for example, in the promise 
of unusual fertility to compensate for the sabbatical 
year, and of safety of the country from attack when left 

V.-IO 



undefended at the three great festivals. Whether these 
were to come from natural causes, u e. laws of his prov- 
idence, which we can understand and foresee, or from 
causes supernatural, i. e. incomprehensible and inscruta- 
ble to us, is not in any case lidd down, nor indeed does 
it affect this principle of the law. 

(4.) The bearing of this principle on the inquiry as to 
the rerelation of a future life^ in the Pentateuch j is easiljr 
seen. So far as the law deals with the nation as a 
whole, it is obvious that its penalties and rewards could 
only refer to this life, in which alone the nation exists. 
So far as it relates to such individual acts as are gener- 
ally cognizable by human law, and capable of temporal 
punishments, no one would expect that its divine origin 
should necessitate any reference to the world to come. 
But the sphere of moral and religious action and thought 
to which it extends is beyond the cognizance of human 
laws and the scope of their ordinary penalties, and is 
therefore left by them to the retribution of God's inscru- 
table justice, which, being but imperfectly seen here, is 
contemplated especially as exercised in a future state. 
Hence arises the expectation of a direct revelation of 
this future state in the Mosaic law. Such a revelation 
is certainly not given. Warburton (in his Divine Le^ 
gation of Moses) even builds on its non-existence an ar- 
gument for the supernatural power and commission of 
the lawgiver, who could promise an<l threaten retribu- 
tion from the providence of God in this life, and submit 
his predictions to the test of actual experience. The 
truth seems to be that, in a law which appeals direcdy 
to God himself for its authority and its sanction, there 
cannot be that broad line of demarcation between this 
life and the next which is drawn for those whose power 
is limited by the grave. Our Lord has taught us (Matt. 
xxii,31,82) that in the very revelation of God, as the 
^ God of Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob,** the promise of 
immortality and future retribution was implicitly con- 
tained. We may apply this declaration even more 
strongly to a law in which God was revealed as enter- 
ing into covenant with Israel, and in them drawing 
mankind directly under his immediate government. 
His blessings and curses, by the very fact that they 
came from him, would be felt to be unlimited by time, 
and the plain and immediate fulfilment which they 
found in this life would be accepted as an earnest of a 
deeper, though more mysterious completion in the world 
to come. But the time for the clear revelation of this 
truth had not yet come, and therefore, while the future 
life and its retribution is implied, yet the rewards and 
penalties of the present life are those which are plainly 
held out and practically dwelt upon. 

(5.) But perhaps the most important consequence of 
the theocratic nature of the law was the pecuiiar char- 
acter of goodness which it sought to impress on the peo- 
ple. Goodness in its relation to man takes the forms of 
righteousness and love; in its independence of all rela- 
tion, the form of purity; and in its relation to God, that 
of pietA'. Laws which contemplate men chiefly in their 
mutual relations endeavor to enforce or protect in them 
the first two qualities; the Mosaic law, beginning with 
piety as its first object, enforces most emphatically the 
purity essential to those who, by their union with God, 
have recovered the hope of intrinsic goodness, while it 
views righteousness and love rather as deductions from 
these than as independent objects. Not that it neglects 
these qualities; on the contrary, it is full of precepts 
which show a high conception and tender care of our 
relative duties to man (see, for example, Exod. xxi, 7-1 1 , 
28-36; xxiii,l-9; Deut, xxii, 1-4; xxiv, 10-22, etc.) ; 
but these can hardly be called its distinguishing feat- 
ures. It is most instructive to refer to the religious 
preface of the law in Deut. vi-\i (especially to vi, 4-13), 
where aU is based on the first great commandment, and 
to observe the subordinate and dependent character of 
"the second that is like unto it" — ''^Thou shaltlove thy 
neighbor as thyself; / am the LorcT (Lev. xix. 18). On 
the contrary, the care for the purity of the people stands 



LAW OF MOSES 



291 



LAW OF MOSES 



Oaring to the rebellious spirit of the Israelites, the 
ilutmry injunctions of their law were so frequently 
rmuaigreflsed that it could not procure for them that de- 
ree of prosperity which it was calculated to produce 
mc»U|^ a nation of faithful observers ; but it is evident 
hAt the Mosaic le^slation, if truly observed, was more 
itted to promote universal happiness and tranquillity 
ban any other constitution, either ancient or modern. 

4. \%> dose this part of our discussion by a few mis- 
"eilaoeuus observations on minor peculiarities of the 
if OQsalc code. 

It lias been deemed a defect that there were no laws 
i^ainml infanticide; but it may well be obser>'ed, as a 
>t%M»f of national prosperity, that there are no historical 
cTftoea of this crime; and it would certainly have been 
»repo0terous to give laws against a crime which did not 
x^ur, eapeoially as the general law against murder, 
* Thou sihalt not kill," was applicable to this species ' 
aI«o. The words of Josephus {Contra Apianem, ii, 24) | 
can only mean that the crime was against the spirit of 
the Mosaic law. An express verbal prohibition of this 
kind is not extant. 

Ther« occur also no laws and regulations about wills 
axKt testamentary dispositions, although there are suf- 
ticient historical facts to prove that the next of kin 
was considered the lawful heir, that primogeniture was 
tlcc^ned of the highest importance, and that, if there 
were no male descendants, females inherited the freehold 
liTopcTty. We learn from the Epistle of Paul to the 
Hebrews (ix, 16, 17) that the Jews disposed of property 
by wills ; but it seems that in the time of Moses, and 
for some period after him, all Israelites died intestate. 
However, the word ^la^nnj, as used in Matthew, Mark, 
ActSb Romans, Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, and re- 
peatedly in the Hebrews, implies rather a disposition, 
arrangement, agreement between parties, than a will in 
the legal acceptation of the term. See Testament. 

There are no laws concerning guardians, and none 
agaiiMit luxurious living. The inefficiency of sumptu- 
ary laws is now generally recognised, although renowned 
legislators in ancient times and in the Middle Ages dis- 
played on this subject their wisdom, falsely so called. 

Neither are there any laws against suicide. Hence 
we infer that suicide was rare, as we may well suppose 
in a nati<in of small freeholders, and that the inefficiency 
of such laws was understood. 

The Mosaic legisUtion recognises the human dignity 
of women and of slaves, and particularly enjoins not to 
slander the deaf nor mislead the blind. 

Moses expressly enjoined not to reap the comers of 
fields, in consideration of the poor, of persons of broken 
fortunen, and even of the beasts of the field. 

The laws of Moses against crimes are severe, but not 
crueL The agony of the death of criminals was never 
artificially protracted, as in some instances was usual in 
various ciiuntries of Europe even in the present century ; 
nor was torture employed in order to compel criminals 
to confess their crimes, as was usual in ancient times, 
and till a comparatively recent period. Forty was the 
maximum number of stripes to be inflicted. This max- 
imiuD was adopted for the reason expressly stated that 
the appearance of the person punishe<l should not be- 
come horrible, or, as J. D. Michaelis renders it, bumty 
which expresses the appearance of a person unmerciful- 
ly bcAtau Punishments were inflicted in order special- 
ly to express the sacred indignation of the divine Law- 
iCiver against wilful transgression of his commandments, 
and not Tor any purposes of human vengeance, or for 
the sake of frightening other criroinaK In some in- 
stances the people at large were appealed to in order to 
inflict summary punishment by stoning the criminal to 
death. This was, in fact, the most usual mode of exe- 
cution. Other modes of execution also, such as burn- 
ing, were always public, and conducted with the co- 
operation of the people. Like every human proceeding, 
tlus was liable to abuse, but not to so much abuse as 
our present mode of conducting lawsuits*, which, on ac- 



count of their costliness, often afford but little protection 
to persons in narrow circumstances. In lawsuits Yeiy 
much was left to the discretion of the judges, his posi- 
tion greatly resembling that of a permanent jur3% who 
had not merely to decide whether a person was guilty, 
but who frequently had also to award the amount of 
punishment to be inflicted. 

In the Old Testament we do not hear of a learned 
profession of the law. Lawyers (vo^tvoi) are men- 
tioned only after the decline of the Mosaic institutions 
had considerably progressed. As, however, certain laws 
concerning contagion and purification were administered 
by the priests, these might be called lawyers. They, 
nevertheless, did not derive their maintenance from the 
administration of these laws, but were supported by 
glebe-lands, tithes, and portions of the sacrificial cfferings. 
It is, indeed, very remarkable that, in a nation so entirely 
governed by law, there were no lawyers forming a dis- 
tinct [)rofession, and that the vofUKoi of a later age were 
not so* much remarkable for enforcing the spirit of the 
law as rather for ingeniously evading its injunctions, by 
leading the attention of the people from its spirit to a 
most minute literal fulfilment of its letter. See Lawyer. 

IV. In considering the relation of the law to the future^ 
it is important to be guided by the general principle laid 
down in Heb. vii, 19, " The law made nothing perfect'* 
{ovdiv IriXtiwoev 6 vofiog). This principle will be ap- 
plied in different degrees to its bearing (a) on the after- 
histor}' of the Jewish commonwealth before the coming 
of Christ ; (h) on the coming of our Lord himself; and 
(c) on the dispensation of the GospeL 

1. To that after-history the law was, to a great ex- 
tent, the key ; for in ceremonial and criminal law it was 
complete and final; while, even in civil and constitu- 
tional law, it laid down clearly the general principles to 
be afterwards more fully developed. It was, indeed, 
often neglected, and even forgotten. Its fundamental 
amertion of the theocracy was violated by the constant 
lapses into idolatry, and its provisions for the good of 
man overwhelmed by the natural course of human self- 
ishness (Jer. xxxiv, 12-17); till at last, in the reign of 
Josiah, its very existence was unknovm, and its discov- 
ery was to the king and the people as a second publica- 
tion : yet it still formed the standard from which they 
knowingly departed, and to which they constantly re- 
turned, and to it, therefore, all which was peculiar in 
their national and individual character was due. Its 
direct influence was probably greatest in the periods be- 
fore the establbhment of the kingdom and after the 
Babylonian captivity. The last act of Joshua was to 
bind the Israelites to it as the charter of their occupa- 
tion of the conquered land (Josh, xxiv, 24-27) ; and, in 
the semi-anarchical period of the Judges, the law and 
the tabernacle were the only centres of anything like 
national unity. The establishment of the kingdom was 
due to an impatience of this position, and a desire for a 
visible and personal centre of authority, much the same 
in nature as that which plunged them so often into idol- 
atr}'. The people were warned (1 Sam. xii, 6-25) that 
it involved great danger of their forgetting and reject- 
ing the main principle of the law— that " Jehovah their 
Grod was their king." The truth of the prediction was 
soon shown. Even under Solomon, as soon as the mon- 
archy became one of great splendor and power, it as- 
sumed a heathenish and polytheistic character, breaking 
the law both by its dishonor towards God and its for- 
bidden tyranny over man. Indeed, if the law was 
looked upon as a collection of abstract rules, and not as 
a means of knowledge of a personal god, it was inevita- 
ble that it should be overborne by the presence of a vis- 
ible and personal authority. 

Therefore it was that from the t«me of the establish- 
ment of the kingdom the prophetic office began. Its 
object was to enforce and to perfect the law by bearing 
testimony to the great tniths on which it was built, viz. 
the truth of God's gcvemment over all, kings, priests, 
and people alike, and the consequent certainty of a 



LT 



W OF MOSES 



293 



LAW OF MOSES 



1^ 



** 



,o 



the law, and indirectly convicting it 

But there was need of **M« Prophet" 

' ily have the fulness of the Spirit dwell- 

it should have the power to give it to 

•en the new dispensation already fore- 

Itad come, and by the gift of the Spirit 

in a free internal power of action tend- 

M dtraints of the law, needful to train the 

> world, became unnecessary and even 

free development of its manhood. 

• >f the law to Christ, in its sacrilicial and 

vet, will be more fully considered else- 

-^ACRiKicB. It is here only necessary to 

evidently typical character of the whole 

ri&%s, upon which alone their virtue de- 

)n the imperfect embodiment, in any body 

uf the great truth which was represented 

hood. By the former declaring the need 

t, by the latter the possibility of mediation, 

it^lf doing nothing adequately to realize 

aw again led men to him who was at once 

tliator and the true sacrifice. 

law had trained and guided man to the ac- 

f the Messiah in hb threefold character of 

% and priest ; and then, its work being done, 

in the minds of those who trusted in it, not 

irumbrance, but a snare. To resist its claim 

ice was therefore a matter of life and death in 

of St.Paul, and, in a less degree, in after ages 

•urch. 

i*mains to consider how far if has any obligation 

tnce under the di^)ensation of the GospeL As 

« of justitication or salvation, it ought never to 

•«)en r^;arded, even before Christ: it needs no 

.» show that still less can this be so since he has 

But yet the question remains whether it is bind- 

I Chrisdans, even whai they do not depend on it 

.' vation. 

A-cms clear enough, that its formal coercive author- 
' a whole ended with the close of the Jewish dis- 
.lion. We may indeed distinguish its various ele- 
a; yet he who offended **in one point against it 
f^ilty of all" (James ii, 10). It referred throughout 
.le Jewish covenant, and in many points to the con- 
ition, the cttstomis and even the local circumstances 
be people. That covenant was preparatory to the 
rifldan, in which it is now absorbed ; those customs 
•1 observances have passed away. It follows, by the 
ry nature of the case, that the former obligation to 
e law as such roust have ceased with the basis on 
hich it is grounded. This conclusion is stamped most 
'nequi vocally with the authority of St. Paul through 
he whole argument of the Epistles to the Romans and 
*ja the Galatians. That we are " not under law" (Koro. 
vi, U, 16 ; GaL v, 18) ; " that we are dead to law" (Rom. 
\*ii, 4-6; GaL ii, 19), " redeemed from under law" (Gal. iv, 
5), etc, is not only stated without any limitation or ex- 
ception, but in many places is made the prominent feat- 
ure of the contrast between the earlier and later cove- 
nantSb It is impossible, therefore, to avoid the conclu- 
sion that the formal code, promulgated by Moses, and 
•eakd with the prediction of the blessing and the curse, 
cannot, om a law^ be binding on the Christian. 

But what, then, becomes of the declaration of our 
Lord, that he came ^ not to d^troy the law, but to per- 
fect it," and that '*not one jot or one tittle of it shall 
paaa away?" what of the fact, consequent upon it, that 
the law baa been reverenced in all Christian churches, 
and had an important influence on much Christian leg- 
islation ? The explanation of the apparent contradic- 
tion lies in several considerations. 

(1.) The pontive obligation of the law, as such, has 
poMed away ; but every revelation of God's will, and of 
the righteousness and love which are its elements, im- 
pose* a moral obligation, by the very fact of its being 
known, even on those to whom it is not primarily ad- 
drciflcd. So Lr OS the law of Moses is such a revela- 



tion of the will of (lod to mankind at large, occupying a 
certain place in the education of the world as a whole, 
so far its declarations remain for our guidance, though 
their coercion and their penalties may be no longer need- 
ed. It is in their general principle, of course, that they 
remain, not in their outward form \ and our Lord has 
taught us, in the Sermon on the Mount, that these prin- 
ciples should be accepted by us in a more extended and 
spiritual development than they could receive in tha 
time of Moses. 

To apply this principle practically there is need of 
study and discretion, in order to distinguish what is lo- 
cal and temporary from what is universal, and what is 
mere external form from what is the essence of an ordi- 
nance. The moral law undoubtedly must be most per- 
manent in its influence, because it b based on the nature 
of man generally, although at the same time it b modi- 
fled by the greater prominence of love in the Christian 
^'stem. Yet the political law, in the main principles 
which it lays down as to the sacredness and responsibil- 
ity of all authorities, and the rights which belong to 
each individual, and which neither slavery nor even guilt 
can quite eradicate, has its permanent value. £ven the 
cereuKMiial law, by its enforcement of the purity and per- 
fection needed in any service offered, and in its dbregard 
of mere costliness on such sert'ice, and limitation of it 
strictly to the prescribed will of God, b still in many 
respects our best guide. In special cases (as, for exam- 
ple, that of the sabbatic law and the prohibition of 
marriage within the degrees) the question of its author- 
ity must depend on the further inquiry whether the ba- 
sb of such laws b one common to all human nature, or 
one peculiar to the Jewish people. Thb inquiry may oc- 
casionally be difllcult, especially in the dbtinction of the 
essence from the form ^ but by it alone can the original 
question be thoroughly and satisfactorily answered. 

(2.) A plain distinction of thb kind seems to lie on the 
face of the subject, as to the main question at issue. The 
ceremonial or ritual department of the Mosaic laws, 
which stood in meats, and drinks, and carnal ordinances 
(Heb. ix, 10) ; which were of a typical character, and a 
mere shadow of good things to come, was abolished by 
the introduction of the Gospel ^ for then they ceased to 
have any pertinence, the reality having come of which 
they were the figures. But the kernel of the law, 
properly speaking, the moral law, which b a transcript 
of the divine mind, b eternal and unchangeable in its 
obligations and sanctions. It yr»s fulfilled rather than 
abrogated by the Gospel It was confirmed by Christ, 
and explained in its infinite comprehension and spiritu- 
ality by him and hb apostles throughout the New Tes- 
tament (Matt. V, 17, 18 ; Luke x, 26-28 ; Rom. v, 16-viii, 
89). Hence, when, in Rom. vi, 14 ; vii, 1-6 ; GaL ii, 19 ; 
V, 18, the moral law b spoken of as not being the mere 
rule of life for persons who rely on the grace of God, 
and who are authorized to expect a salvation not to be 
purchased by their works, it b so depreciated simply 
because in that aspect it b regarded as a law according 
to which rewards and punbhments should be adjudged 
in so rigid and inexorable a manner as to exclude all 
grace, and all reliance on grace (Rom. iv, 12-14 ; GaL ii, 
81 ; iii, 10-12). In short, it b abrogated as a justifying 
ground of salvation by good works, because none can 
keep it perfectly to that end. Yet it is not abolbhed as 
an external criterion of virtue and piety, and as the final 
test before the assembled univeree. See Antikomians. 

(3.) Another very important fact hi thb discussion b 
that all the moral precepts of the Decalogue have been 
re-enacted by our Lord and his apostles, not only in 
principle, but in explicit terms (Mark x, 19; Rom. xiii, 
9). It is true Jesus sums up the spirit of the M^ole 
ten commandments in the two of love to God and man 
(Bfatt. xxii, 37-40), and St. Paul (Rom. xiii, 10), as well 
as St. John (1 John iii, 11), substantially do the same. 
But thb b not done with a view to derogate from the 
precise form of the Mosaic commands, much less to abol- 
bh them ; but rather with a view to re-enforce them by 



LEBANA 



309 



LEBANON 



adopts it as Ulastrating the growth of the kingdom of 
beaven in the individual heart and in the -world at 
targe (Matt, xiii, 83). Leaven, or ferment, is therefore 
oaed tropically for corrupfnessy perversenesSf of life, doc- 
trine, bcaart, etc (Matt, xvi, 6, 11 ; Mark viii, Id ; Luke 
xii, 1 ; I Cor. v, 7, 8 ; comp. CoL iv, 6 ; Eph. iv, 29). The 
idea seems to have been familiar to the Jews ; compare 
Otho, A«r Rabbin, Tahu p. 227. They even employed 
leaven as a figure of the inherent corruption of man: 
** R. Alexander, when he had finished his prayers, said, 
Lord of the universe, it is clearly manifest before thee 
tkat it la our %vill to do thy will : what hinders that we 
do not thy will ? The leaven which is in the mass (G/., 
The evil desire which is in the heart)" (j&a6y/.J9<racAoM, 
xvii, 1 ; ap. Meuischen, X. T. ex Talmude HL). We find 
the same allusion in the Roman poet Persius {Saf. i, 24 ; 
compare C^asaubon's note, Comment, p. 74). See Wenis- 
dorf, De fermento Havdu (Alt 1724). See Unleav- 
ened Brkad. 

**■ The usual ieaven in the East is dough kept till it 
becomes sour, and which is kept from one day to an- 
other for the purpose of preserving leaven in readiness. 
Thus, if there should be no leaven in all the country for 
any length of time, as much as might be required could 
easily be produced in twenty-four hours. Sour dough, 
however, is not exclusively used for leaven in the East, 
the Itrt o/wine being in some parts employed as yeast"" 
(Kitio, Pictorial Bible, i, 161). In the Talmud mention 

is made, of leaven formed of the 0^"^B"'0 hl3 'j^^p, 
bookmaJxrs* paste (Pesack. iii, 1). As the process of 
producing the leaven itself, or even of leavening bread 
when the substance was at hand, required some time, 
unleavened cakes were more usually produced on sudden 
emergtiicies ((ien. xviii, 6; Judg. vi, 19). See Bake; 
BacAn, etc 

Leb'ana (Neh. vii, 48). See Lebanah. 

Leb'anall (Heb. Lebanah', MS^b, the moon as be- 
ijg white, as in Cant, vi, 10, etc; Sept. in Ezra ii, 45 
Aafiavut ; Chaldai^ticaUy written Lebana', KS^b, in 
most MSS. in Neh. vii, 48, Sept. AafSava, Auth. Vers. 
*' Lebana"* ; Vulg. in both passages /.ebana), one of the 
Nethinim whose posterity returned from Babylon with 
ZerubbabeL RC. ante 536. 

Leb^anon, the lofliest and most celebrated moun- 
tain range in Syria, forming the northern boundary of 
Palestine, and running thence along the coast of the 
Mediterranean to the great pass which opens into the 
plain of Hamath. The range of Anti-J^banon, usually 
included by geographers under the same general name, 
lies parallel to the other, commencing on the south at 
the fountains of the Jordan, and terminating in the 
plain uf Hamath. The two are in fact but a northern 
pan itiun of the great central ridge or back-bone of the 
entire country. See Palestine. 

I. The Sauie. — In the O. Test^ these mountain ranges 
fire always called "(133^' Lebandn', to which, in prase, 
the art. is constantly prefixed, "jisa^n ; in poetry the 
art. is sometimes prefixed and sometimes not, as in Isa. 
xiv, 8, and Psa. xxix, 5. The origin of the name has 
been variously accounted for. It is derived from the 
root -,5^, *♦ to be white,'' "iias^n "^f? » thus emphati- 
cally "The White Mountain" of Syria. It is a singular 
^i that almost uniformly the names of the highest 
nnmntains in all countries have a like meaning — Mont 
Blanc, Himalaya (in Sanscrit signifying " snowy"). 
Bm Xerit, Siwwdon, perhaps also Alps (from alb, 
**white,^ like the Latin aUms, and not, as commonly 
thoQgfat, from alp, " high"). Some suppose the name 
originated in the white snow by which the ridge is cov- 
«ed a great part of the year (Bochart, Opera, i, 678 ; 
Geaenius, Thesaurus, p. 741 ; Stanley, S, and P. p. 895). 
Others derive the name from the whitish color of the 
limestone rook of which the great body of the range is 
ooinpoaed (Schulz, Ijeiiungen des f/ochsten, v, 471 ; Rob- 
iuioii, Biblic. Res, ii, 493). The former seems the more 



natural explanation, and is confirmed by several circum- 
stances. Jeremiah mentions the "snow of Lebanon" 
(xviii, 14); in the Chald. paraphrase HSbin "iti:, "snow 
mountain," is the name given to it, and this is equiva- 
lent to a not micommon modem Arabic appellation, Je- 
beleih-Thelj (Gesenius, Thesaurus, L c; Abulfeda, Tab. 
Syr, p. 18). Others derive the name Lebanon from 
XiflaviitTOQ, " frankincense," the gimi of a tree called 
X(73avoc (Reland, Pa/oj^ p. 812; Herod, i, 183), which 
is mentioned among the gifts presented by the magi to 
the infant Saviour (MatL ii, 11). This, however, is in 
Hebrew •^J''3^, Lebonah (Exod. xxx, 84 ; Isa. Ix, 6). 
The Greek name of Lebanon, both in the Septuagint 
and classic authors, is uniformly Aifiavo^ (Strabo, xvi, 
755 ; Ptol. V, 15). The Septuagint has sometimes 'A vri- 
Xi/3avoc instead of AifiavoQ (Dent i, 7 ; iii, 26 ; Josh, i, 
4; ix, 1). The Latin name is Libanus (Pliny, v, 17), 
which is the reading of the Vulgate. It would appear 
that the Greek and Roman geographers regarded the 
name as derived from the snow. Tacitus speaks of it 
as a remarkable phenomenon that snow should lie where 
there is such intense heat (Hist, v, 6). Jerome writes, 
" Libanus Xivxaepoc — id est, camior intcrt>retatur" 
{Adversus Jovianum, in Opera, ii, 286, cd. Migne) ; he 
also notes the identity of the name of this mountain 
BXid fnmkincense {m Osee, in Opera, vi, ICO). Arab ge- 
ographers call the range Jebel Libnan (Abulfeda, 7*^6. 
Syr, p. 168 ; Edrisi, p. 336, ediu Jaubert). This name, 
however, is now seldom heard among the people of 
Syria, and when used it is confined to the western range. 
Different parts of this range have distinct names — the 
northern section is called Jtbel A kkdr, the central Sun- 
tun, and the southern J, ed-Druze, Other local names 
are also used. 

The eastern range, as well as the western, is fre- 
quently included mider the general name Lebanon in 
the Bible (Josh, i, 4 ; Judg. iii, 3) ; but in Josh, xiii, 5 
it is correctly dbtinguished as ^^ Lebanon toward the sun- 
rising" C^-OW H^iJP V''^?^^; Sept. Aifiavov avb 
dvaroXu/v yXiov , and translated in the Vulg. Libani 
quoque regio contra orientem). The southern section 
of this range was well known to the sacred writers as 
Hermon, and had in ancient times several descriptive 
titles given to it — Sirion, Shenir, Sion ; just as it has in 
modem days — Jebel e8h-Sheik,J. eth-Thelj, J, Antdr, 
(Jreek writers called the whole range 'AvriXi^aroi: 
(Strabo, xvi, p. 754; Ptolemy, v, 15), a word which is 
sometimes found in the Sept. as the rendering of the 
Hebrew Lebanon (ut supra). Latin authors also uni- 
formly distinguish the eastem range by the name Anii- 
libanus (Pliny, v, 20). The name is appropriate, de- 
scribing its position, lying " opposite" or " over against" 
Lebanon (Strabo, L c). Yet this distinction -does not 
seem to have been known to Josephus, who uniformly 
calls the eastem as well as the westem range Ai^avog ; 
thus he speaks of the founteins of the Jordan as being 
near to Libanus (Ant, v, 3, 1), and of Abila as situated 
in Libanus (xix. 5, 1). llie range of Anti-Lebanon is 
now called by all native geographers Jebel esh-Shurky, 
" East mountain,"" to distinguish it from Lebanon prop- 
er, which is sometimes termed Jebel el-Ghurby, •* West 
mountain"" (Robii|son, Biblical Res, ii, 437 ; Burckhardt, 
Travels in Syria, p. 4). 

To insure greater definiteness, and to prevent repeti- 
tion, the name Lebanon will be applied in this article to 
the western range, and A nti-Lebcmon to the eastern, 

II. Physical Geography, — 1. /..ebanon. — (1.) Limits, — 
The mountain-chain of Lebanon commences at the great ' 
valley which connects the Mediterranean with the plain 
of Hamath (anciently called " the entrance of Hamath," 
Numb, xxxiv, 8), in lat. 34° 40', and rons in a south- 
western direction along the coast, till it sinks into the 
plain of Acre and the low hills of (rslilee, in lat. 83^. 
Its extreme length is 110 geographical miles, and the 
average breadth of its base b about 20 miks. The 
highest peak, called Dakar tl-Kudib, is about l"d miles 



LEBANON 



313 



LEBANON 



the rock near the ancient Gebal (Reland, PalasL p. 321). 
These cretaceous deposits occur along the whole western 
flank of Lebanon, and the lower eastern ranges of Anti- 
Lebanon are wholly composed of them (D*Arvieux, Me- 
rninrtt^ ii, 898 ; EUiot, TraveU, U, 257 ; Vohiey, ii, 280). 
Extensive beds of soft, friable sandstone are met with 
both in Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon. According to An- 
dcnHMi, the sandstone is of a more recent period than the 
cretaceoua strata. This change in the geological struct- 
ure gives great variety to the scenery of Lebanon. The 
regular mnd graceful outlines of the sandstone ridges 
contrast well with the bolder and more abrupt limestone 
clifls wid peaks, while the ruddy hue and sombre pine 
forests of the former relieve the intense whiteness of the 
latter. 

Coal has been found in the dbtrict of Metn, east of 
Beyr^it, but it is impure, and the veins are too thin to 
repay mining. Iron is found in the central and south- 
^n portions of Lebanon, and there is an extensive salt 
marsh on one of the eastern steppes of Anti-Lebanon 
(Porter, Axmascus, i, 161 ; Handbook^ p. 363 ; Volney, i, 
281; Biirckhardt,p.27). 

2. The Boiany of Lebanon, like the geology, is to a 
great extent Unknown. It appears to be very rich in 
the abundance, the variety, and the beauty of the trees, 
sbrubfl, and flowers of these noble mountains. The 
great variety of climate, from the tropical heat of the 
Jordan valley at the base of Hermon, to the eternal 
snows on its summit, affords space and fitting home for 
the vegetable products of nearly every part of the globe. 
The forests of Lebanon were celebrated throughout the 
ancient world. Its cedars were used in the temples and 
palaces of Jerusalem (1 Kings vi; 2 Sam. v, 11 ; Ezra 
iii, 7 ; Isa. xiv, 8 ; Josephus, Wary v, 6, 2), Rome (Pliny, 
H. N. xiii, 11), and Assyria (Layard, A'm. and Bah, p. 
356, 644) ; and the pine and oak were extensively em- 
ployed in ship-building (£zek.xxvii,4-6). See Cedar. 
On these mountains we have still the cedar, pine, oak 
of several varieties, terebinth, juniper, walnut, plane, pop- 
lar, willow, arbutus, oUve, mulberry, carob, fig, pistachio, 
sycaokore, hawthorn, apricot, plum, pear, apple, quince, 
pomegranate, orange, lemon, palm, and banana. The 
vine abounds everywhere. Oleanders line the streams, 
and rhododendrons crown the peaks higher up, with the 
rock-iose, ivy, berberry, and honeysuckle. The loftiest 
summits are almost hue, owing to the cold and extreme 
dryness. There are even here, however, some varieties 
of low prickly shrubs, which Ue on the ground like cush- 
iona, and look almost as sapless as the gravel from which 
they spring. Many of the flowers are bright and beau- 
tiful — the anemone, tulip, pink, ranunculus, geranium, 
crocus, lily, star of Bethlehem, convolvulus, etc. This- 
tles abound in immense variety. The cereals and vtge- 
fabUs include wheat, barley, maize, lentils, beans, peas, 
caTTot8,*tumip6, potatoes, melons, pumpkins, cucumbers, 
tobacco, cotton, and numerous others. 

Irrigation is extensively practiced, and wherever wa- 
ter is abundant the crops are luxuriant Probably in no 
part of the world are there more striking examples of 
the triumph of industry over rugged and intractable 
nature thsin along the western slopes of Lebanon. The 
steepest banks are terraced ; every little shelf and cran- 
ny in the cliffs is occupied by the thrifty husbandman, 
and planted.with vine or mulberry (Robinson, iii, 14,21, 
616 ; Porter, Damasnuy ii, 288 ; Handbook, p. 410, 413). 
8. Zooiogy, — Considerable numbers of wild beasts still 
inhabit the retired glens and higher peaks of Lrbanon, 
induding jackals, hyenas, wolves, bears, and panthers (2 
Kings xiv, 9; Cant.iv,8; Hab.ii,17). See Palestine. 
Anti-Libanus is more thinly peopled than its sister 
range, and it is more abundantly stocked with wild 
beasts. Eagles, vultures, and other birds of prey may 
be seem day after day sweeping in circles round the 
beetling cliffs. Wild swine are numerous, and vast 
herds of gazelles roam over the bleak eastern steppes. 
See ZooijooY. 
IV, CUmate, — There are great varieties of climate 



and temperature in Lebanon. In the plain of Dan, at 
the fountain of the Jordan, the heat and vegetation are 
almost tropical, and the exhalations from the marshy 
plain render the whole region unhealthy. The semi- 
nomads who inhabit it are as dark in complexion as 
Egyptians. The thermometer often stands at 98^ Fabr. 
in the shade on the site of Dan, while it does not rise 
above 82^ on the top of Hermon. The coast along the 
western base of Lebanon, though v^ry sultry during the 
summer months, is not unhealthy. The fresh sea-breeze 
which sets in in the evening keeps the night compara- 
tively cool, and the air is dry and free from miasma. 
Snow never falls on the coast, and it is very rarely seen 
at a lower elevation than 2000 feet. Frost is miknown. 
In the plains of Coele-Syria (3000 feet) and Damascus 
(about 2300 feet), snow falls more or less every winter, 
sometimes eight inches deep on tbe streets and terraced 
roofs of Damascus, while the roads are too rough and 
hard with frost for travelling. The main ridges of 
Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon are generally covered with 
snow from December to March, sometimes so deeply 
that the roads are for weeks together impassable. Dur- 
ing the whole summer the higher parts of the moun- 
tains are cool and pleasant, the air is extrefhely dry, 
and malaria is unknown. From the l)eginning of June 
till about the 20th of September rain never faUs, and 
clouds are rarely seen. At the latter date the autumn 
rains begin, generally accompanied with storms of thun- 
der and vivid lightning. January and February are 
the coldest monthis. The barley harvest begins, on the 
plain of Phoenicia, about the end of April, but in the 
upper altitudes it is not gathered in till the beginning 
of August. During the summer, in the village of Shum- 
l&n, on the western declivity of Lebanon, at an elevation 
of 2000 feet, in the hottest part of the day the thermom- 
eter does not rise above 83^ Fahr., and in the night it 
usually goes down to 76^. From June 20th to August 
20th the barometer often does not vary a quarter of an 
inch ; there are few cloudy days, and scarcely even a 
slight shower. At Bludan, in Anti-Lebanon, with an 
elevation of 4800 feet, the air is extremely dry, and the 
thermometer never rises in summer above 82^ Fahr. in 
the shade. The nights are cool and pleasant. The si- 
rocco wind is severely felt along the coast and on the 
western slopes of Lebanon, but not so nmch in Anti- 
Lebanon. It blows occasionally during March and 
ApriL Dew is almost unknown along the mountain 
ridges, but in the low plains, and especially at the base 
of Hermon, it is very abundant (Psa. cxxxiii, 3). 

y. IJistorical Noiuxs, — Lebanon is first mentioned as 
a boundary of the country given by the Lord in cove- 
nant promise to Israel (Dcut. i, 7; xi, 24). To the 
dwellers in the parched and thirsty south, or on the sul- 
try banks of the Nile, the snows, and streams, and ver- 
dant forests of Lebanon must have seemed an earthly 
paradise. By such a contrast we can understand Mo- 
ses's touching petition, ** I pray thee let me go over and 
see the good land that is beyond Jordan, that goodly 
mountain, and Lebanon" (Dent, iii, 25). The mountains 
were originally inhabited by a number of warlike, inde- 
pendent tribes, some of whom Joshua conquered on the 
banks of Lake Merom (xi,2-18). They are said to have 
been of Phoenician stock (Pliny, v, 17 ; Eusebius, Onom, 
s. V. ; compare 1 Kings v). Further north were the Hi- 
vites (Judg. iii, 3), and the Giblites, and Arkites, whose 
names still cling to the ruins of their ancient strong- 
holds. See GiBLiTE^ Arkite. The Israelites never 
completely subdued them, but the enterprisuig Phoeni- 
cians appear to have had them under their power, or in 
their pay, for they got timber fur their fleets from the 
mountains, and they were able to supply Solomon from 
the same forests when building the Temple (1 Kings v, 
9-11 ; Blzek. xxvii, 9 sq.). At a later period we find the 
king of Assyria felling its timber for his military en- 
gines (laa. xiv, 8 ; xxxvii, 24 , Ezek. xxxi, 16), and it ia 
mentioned on the ctmeiform inscriptions (q. v.). Dio- 
dorus Siculus relates that in like manner AntigonuSi 




luving collecMd rrom all qnarteri | 
hewcn ofwoodTUid Bawyera^uid 
HhLp-Lujldere, brought down ad ' 
immpjise cjusntiiy of timber from i 
Libadub fu Ihc sea U build himneir 

[halthu miiunuin waa the funous 

chit^tural, luva], or niilitaiy par- 
poses, appean rrum cbe Kgypliin 



found in the corrupled fbnn of 
Lanaaon ( Wilkiiuun, EgsjMaat, \, 
403). It u there rcpnwented an a 
tnounlainoua cuuntrv, inacoeflsible 
to chariut^ and alwunding in 
lofly tiee«, whk-h the aflH^hted 
mauiitiineeiB, having itA thith- 
. iTiU?5 er for refuge, are enj^agel iu fell- 
iug, in order (o impede the ad- 
' * ' ivading EgypUau 



glyph reads l-m-fw 

From the Kgjptl. 

Monniaeula. ,p„y_ 

During the conqucal* of David and the commercial 
prMperity nf the nation under Solonvon, the Jews be- 
came fully aeiiuaiuivi] with the rit^hiiess, the gt«ideur, 



4 LEBAOTH 

During the rdgn of the Selencids sevonl large dtia 
were fouuded or rebnill in these mountwns, as IjvvU- 
eea at the northern end of Anti-I.ebuion, Chalda at it) 
eutem base, Abila in the wild glen nf the Abuia i,Luke 

Lebanon, with the rest of Syria, paned into the baniid 
of Kome, and under its fostering rule great citi» wrre 
Iwilt and beauliful temples erecloL The heightji on 
which Uaal-tirefl had burned in primeval time*, and the 
groves Kbere the rude mountain tribes wiinhiiqied their 
idolB, became the sites of noble buildings, whoiie ruiiut t-^ 
this day excite the admiratiiHi of every traveller, (ireeice 
itself cannot surpass iu grandeur the temples of ita'altwk 
and Cliali:i& There are more than thirty temples in 
Ltbanuu and Anti-Lebanon (Porter, llaitdhook, p. *34, 
4&7, bb-, 411; cump. Kubinsiin, iii, 43S, G26). 

During the wars of the Seleucidc, the Komana, an<L 
the .Saracens, the inhabitants of Lebanon probably re- 
oisined in comparative aecurily. When, under the 
Muslem rule, Christianity was almost extirpated Trom 
the rmt of Syria, it retained ita bold there; and the 
Manmilrt (q. v.), who still occupy the greater part i>f 
the range, are doubtless the lineal descendants of the old 
Syrians. The sect originated in the 7tli c«nlmy. when 
Ilic monk Maron taught tbem the Moiiothcliiic heresy. 
In tlic I'ilh century they submitted to the pope, and 
remained devoted Papists. They qucd- 



»,000. Thf 



«(q.v.>, 



is tellhig Treei In Lebaii< 



•od the luxuriant foliage of I^banon, and ever after 
that roonnuin was r^arded as the emblem of wealth 
and majesty. Thug the Psalmist savs of the Messiah'x 
kingdom, ■■ The fruit thereof shall shake like Lebanon" 



g the b 



(Ixxii, IB): 

Kidegroum, writc^ "Ilia countenance U as Lebanon, 
excellent as the cedars" (Cant, v, 131, Isaiah also pre- 
dicts uf the Church, "The glorv of l*b«non shall be 
([iren to it" (xxxv, t; compare Ix, IB; Uos. xiv, 5, 6). 
iDdeed, in Scripture, Ubinun is very generally men- 
Uoneil in connection with the cedar-trees with which it 
•bouniled \ but its wines are alsii noticed (Hos. xiv, M) ; 
and ill (.-ant. iv, II ; Hon. xiv, 7, it is celehrate.1 fur va- 
rimis ktnila of fragrant pisnis. Lebanon is groatlv cele- 
bnt«d buth in sacreil ami classical writers, and much nf 
the sublime imigery of the pro|>hels of the Old Test, is 

I6-I8i Cant,iv,H, IJ; Isa.ii, 13; Zeih. xi, 1,'2), 

Anti-Lebanon seems to have been early brought un- 
der tiiK away oT Damascus, though amid its aoolhem 
Btrongholda were some fierce tribes who preserved their 
independence down to a late period (I Chron. v, 19-'^; i 
J(«phua,4B(. liii, II, 3; Stiabo, xvi, p. 755, 766). | 



foes, dweU ii 

number about Wl.OOO. Tbe jealouues and feuds of the 
rival sects, faiuiod by a cruel and corrupt govrmmetii, 
often desolate "that goodly mountain" with fire and 
BwonL Anti-Lebanoo has a considerable Christian pu)>- 
ulation, but (hey are mixed with Uohammedans, and 
have no political status. The whole range is under the 
authority oT the pasha of Damascus. 

The American missionaries have established serenl 
schools among the people of Lebanon, and for some 
years past pleasing success lias attended their efforts in 
the muuntaiti, which, however, were aimosl wholly in- 
terruptcil by the violent outbreak among Ihc Druses in 
INGII, ending in ■ wholesale masiscre of the Chrintians. 
On the suppresuon of Ibis, a Uaionile governor was 
app(rint«d over the district by the Turkish govenuneni. 
under Ihc protectorate of tbe Hve great Eurojiean powers. 
V. /.ii'erorarr.— Robinson, AiUicoJAwcirctM, iii, Ml. 
846,4391 Va^ta, IHHorial lliilory of PaUitiitf, hiav>\. 
\i. xxxii-xxxv, ]v ; Heland, PaUrlim, i, SI 1 1 Koaen- 
mllller.AiUuni./IArrfAHm.ii,US6; Raumer, /WsuMmi, 
p. a9-3S ; D'Arvieux, Mfmoirr/^ ii, 350 ; Volney, I '••^f 
Ml Sgrir, i, S43 ; Seetzen, in Zach's Marnill. Vorrttpoml. 
June.lK06{ Durckhardt, rnirrii in ^yr. p. I sq. ; Kich- 
ter. WiiU/ahrln, p. 102, etc.; Irby and Huigleh TraPtU. 
p.VOC-:^iU; Buckingham, 'I roiTViiu, p. 4ti8sq.; Fisk. 
in Mittiaaary Herald, 1«M: Ellio^ Trareit, 'ii, 376: 
Hogg, Vint to AUra«dria,JrnimIem,Klc..\,H9an., ii. 
H1m|.; Addison, /'u/nyra onrf i>an)iurws, ii, 43-82 ; Hit- 
ter's KnOamtk, xvii,[liv. 1 ; Robinson's RrKarchrf.neyi 
edil„ iii, 5H4-625; BiUiotlum Snrra, 1843, p. aa5--J53i 
lN4«,p. 1-23, 243-2B2, 447-480, e6B-;0O; Schwatz, Piti- 
ril.fi.bb; Kelly's .Vyrin nmfWn/ff Z,o»rf, p. 7B-1B5; Por- 
ter, ytonmscu (Lond. 1855); Tiioaaoa, L<md aivi Biiot, 
voLi; VandeVelde,7raprZii,etc..vol.i;Chun;hil1,i.r^ 
aiuM (Lonilon, 1853,1862); alw Dnitn tml Mai-onir- 
n^nd. lH6i) ; Tristram, iMnd af hrml ( l/imlon. ine5) . 
Palmer, in the Qnarlerlg Sliilrmeal of the " Palestine 
Kxploration Knnd,"Aprit,lH71,p. 107 sq. See I'alks- 

Leb'a&tb (Ilcb. I^iOth; r-in^, lionrtfi; SepL 
^ni3aiu3). a ciiv in the southern part nf Judah, L e. 
Simnmi.losh. xv,321; elsewhere more fully BKnt-i.E- 



I tribe, pcwxibly at the ruined site msrkeil on A'aii de 
j Veldc's .l/ii;i as Shrlii. on wady Suuiyeh, not v«iy far 
I Jrom Elusa, towards Ciaza. 



LECLERC 3] 

pirfret himwlf in the study of Hebrew. He »ub«e- 
quenilj nlumeil lo fais native pUoe, and in 1618 wu 
spliuintnl pmfenor if Hebrew at the uQircrgitr. He 
vu ordained Tor the ministry in IS'JS, and died April 
21, ItiM. He wrote QualiiHia lacrtr, » quiliut mulla 
SfTTpliirei toca farinjlu lingua tacra idiomata eipli- 

hm SlrpH. Clrriri (AmM, 1685, 8vo):— OrtKtOBe* (liiO, 
fauptrt¥t tcclriiaii«U4 tl pOfmoia ! acrahiRt Slfph. Cl*- 
rici Dijtertiilimn philuhigica (Amilerd. Ifi87, 8vo) : — ■ 
Luiii iruulatioD of BuxtoK'H Synagogue (Bule, 1641, 
»ta and 4u)> i etr. See /^ Vit de Land Ltcltrr, in hii 
Qtmtriomn lacra ; Senebier, Uitl. Lillirairt de Geturr ; 
H««g, La Frove Pivlntatae; Hoefer, .\our. Biog. Gi- 
■imfr, xxs, 196. 

IiAoIetc, Jamea Tbeodoie, ■ Swiu Protestani 
ibeologUn and OrienuliM, was bom at tieneva Nof. 'ib, 
1692. He became paitor and profenor of Oiienlal Ian- 
guagn in that city m IT'2^, and died in 1768. He 
■rule, Praerraiif conire U t'analume, ou R^atalioii 
de* prglmdm Impiris de a SufU, trad^ du Latat de 

pmpbei^ of the Ceveniiei ; — SuppUmeiit uu Prittreal^f 
enmtrr U FmatiwnK (Geo. 1733, »vo) —Let Ptaumet tru- 
dmili en /VuRfau lUr torigimii Uebrea {Gen. 1740 and 
1761, 8vo). See SeueWer, llUt. Liltirairt de tienivt; 
Haag, La France Proietlanle ; Hoefer, A'duc. Biog, Ge- 
mirah, ul, 200. (J. N. P.) 

I>e Clare, Jobu (I), Sr^t martyr of the Rcfomii- 
tioo lo hrance, a mechanic by trade, was bam at Meanx 
Imranla the close of the l&th centnry. He was brought 
lo the knuwiedfte of divine truth by reading the M. T. 
tnnalaled into French by Lefevre d'£laplea, and in bia 
leal for the cause he dared to poet on the door of the 
cathednl a bill in whi<:h the pope was railed aatichrial. 
For this uffeiicc he was condemned (o be whipped in 
Pari* and at Heaux, woa branded 



LECTIONARIUM 



He 



y, then 



I lfi26, 



uutinued to work at hii trade, wool-caiding. 
Here he one day btoke the images which the Rotnanists 
iaiended to carry in proceaNOO. Instead of trying to 
hide hinuelf, he boldly confessed his deed, and was con- 

*Ba CM olT, bis noae lorn out, his arm and breast torn 
with red-hot pincers, and his head encircled with two 
ei three banda of red-hot iron ; amid all his lortnenta he 
mDg aloud the verse of Tsa. cxv, " Thdt idols are silver 
and gold, the work of men's hands." He was finally 
thrown into the lire, and thus died. His brother Peter,' 
also a wool-carder, was chosen by the Protestants of 
Heaux for their pastor, and fell a victim to persecution 
ialU6. Seel9asg./A»ai»F/Vnffi((n(e,voLvij Hoe- 
fer, A'oar. Atusf. OVnfrii^, xiui, 193; Browning. ^wCory 
of Ike Uugnemoti. i, 23. 

Ii« Clero. John (2). See Clbrc, Lb. 

Leolerc, Ziaurent Joad, a French priest, was bom 
in Palis Aug. 2-J, 1677, studied theolog}-, and was then 
admitled into the fommunity of the preachers nf St,3ul- 
Iiice, was licenniil by the Sorbotine in 17M, and taught 
ihnlogy at Tulle and at Orleans. In 1722 he became 
litindpa] of the theological seminary at Orleans, and 
died May 6,1736. He pubUshed, besidu other works, ^ 
CriikiilUner OB Bityle't Dictiimary. See Hoefer, Aour. 
Biog. (Jen/rale, ixx, 201. 

laacomte. Lours, a French Janiit, was bom at Bor- 
^ui about the middle of the 17th century. He was 
Hot as missionary to China in 1686, and, after a stay 
dT some yean in the misaion of Shensee (Chenai). 
relumed to France, and published in 1696 Mtmoiri 
n Ikt prrnr^ Slalt nf Oiim, a work which was 
cenwRd bv the faculty uf theolo^. He died iir 
ITS. 

Leotem. or Lottom (Lai. lectorium or learkium), 
a ttndi*ff-detk or stand, pmperiy movable, from which 
tlie Scripture "fcs(i>n'~I.Wi()»r)), which form a portion 



nf the various church- 
service.% are chanted or 
ri ad in many churches. 
The lectcm | also called 
fulpilum, ambo, luggtf 
I lui,psrgui,liiional,lec- 
Iriiium, or, riHist fre- 
quently, leclorium), of 

various forms and of 
different materials, and 

is found both in Roman 
Catholic fhurrhes and 
in the cathedrals and 
coUege-chapcIs of the 
Church of England. 
Originally they were 
made of wood, but later 



melal, and sometimes 

(the symbolof Sl John 
the Evangelist), the 
outspread wings of 
■ ■ ■ form the ft 



Lectern iu RnmssT Church, "■—■■.""■■•"" — ■"■ 
HnnllngdoBshira (abonl liHi). suppurtmg the volume. 
In Scotland, during the 
last century, the precentor's desk was commonly called 
by that name, and pronounced Irtlen. See Chambers, 
Cgchpirdia, voL vi, s. v. ; Wakolt, *Hc. A rdutol. p. 345, 
See EaoL£. 

LaotdCBtii, the same as the eopiata. They were 
called leclicarii from the tact (hat they carried Ikt nrpM 
or bier at funerals. 3ee C0PIAT.C 

LacUonarllun, or Lessons. Of the many real 
and supposed meanings of the expieteiun Iteliu (oray- 
VU1011-, di'dyvwo^ii), we have here only to consider (ha 
litorgicsL In Ihb sense it is used lo den ignate the read- 
ing, which, together with singing, prayrrs, preaching, 
and the admin istration of the sacramenta, constitutes 
public worship. 

This part of worship is adopted from the Jews, and, 
like (hat of the synagogues, was at first rea(ric(ed lo the 
reading of their aacred books (O.T.). 'I'hc Brst record 
we Snil of the reading of the N.-Test. .Scriptures in [he 
churches is in Jimin. ApoL i, cap. 67. But the fact of 
the reading nf (he Kbie in general from the earliest 
limes u clearly established hy passages of Terlullian 
(Apolog. cap.8S; t>e oniina, cap. 9), Crprian (Fp. 24, 88, 
edit.Ober<h.84),Origen (Contra C'b.'iii,46,ed.Obenh. 
60), etc It i* self-evident that (he canonical books 
■nd the homolagonmelia were those most generally read. 
But thai leamns were occasionally read also from the 
Apocrypha and Antilegomena is shown by the yet re- 
maining lists of Hbti ecdrriailin and avayiptuarrfiiva, 
i. e. of such books as, although not recognised ns an- 
thorilies in matters of faith, are still petmitted (a be . 
read in the churches. Other writings, especially aila 

guished father*, came afterwards to be also read to the 
people. The number of lueces (lerlioan) read at each 
service varied ^ (he author of the Aponolic Conililu- 
liatu (ii,c 67) mentions four; two was (he minimum- 
one from (heGospeKthe other from (he epistles or oth- 
er book^ including thoae oftheO.T. .See PEKicofA. 
At first the portions to be read, at least on every ordi- 

books (lertio nrnlimia), but alierwartls special portions 
were appointed tn be read on certain S^nday^ snd (he 
selection was made by the bishop, until at last a r^ular 









is the bi 



!0fth 



chnrches where (be strictly 
liturgical service is adhered to. For feast-dsya, at first, 
special leseons were ^pointed (for instance, the ac- 
count ofthe resurrection on Eastir: see Augustine, 5erm. 



LECTURES 



319 



LEE 



tUe volame on the evidences of Revelation, pablinhed | 
in 1927, is one of the frait« of these monthly ex- , 



laectnres, Morning, certain casuistical lectures, 
which -vrere preached by some of the most able divines 
ID Loodon. The occasion of these lectures seems to be 
this : Ouiing the troublesome times of Charles I., most 
of ih« citizens having some near relation or friend in the 
army of the earl of Essex, so many bills were sent up to 
cbe pulpit every Lord's day for their preservation that 
the minister had neither time to road them nor to rec* 
ommend their cases to God in prayer ; several London 
di\-in«s therefore agreed to set apart a morning hour for 
thi<» purpoee, one half to be spent in prayer, and the oth- 
er in a sfuitable exhortation to the people. When the 
heat of the war was over, it became a casuistical lecture, 
ami was carried on till the restoration of Charles II. 
The«e Bermons were afterwards published in several vol- 
umes quarto, under the title of the Morning Exercises. 
The authors were the most eminent preachers of the 
day ; among them was, e. g. archbishop Tillotson. It ap- 
pears that these lectures were held every morning for 
fKie month only, and, from the preface to the volume, 
dated 1689, the time was afterwards contracted to a 
fortnight. Most of these were delivered at Cripple- 
cate Church, some at St. Gileses, and a volume against 
)H>pery in Southwark. BIr. Neale observes that this 
lecture was afterwards revived in a different form, 
and conttnuetl in his day. It was kept up long after- 
wards at several places in the summer, a week at each 
place; but latterly the time was exchanged for the 
evening. 

I^ecttires, Moyer*8, a course of eight sermons, 
preached annually, founded by the beneficence of lady 
Bloj-er about 1720, who left by will a rich legacy as a 
foundation for the same. A great number of English 
writer* having endeavored in a variety of ways to in- 
validate the doctrine of the Trinity, this opulent and 
orthodox lady was influenced to think of an institution 
which abould provide for posterity an ample collection 
of productions in defence of this branch of the Christian 
faith. The first course of these lectures was preached 
by Dr. Waterland, on the divinity of CTirist. These lec- 
tures were discontinued about the middle of the last 
century. 

Lectnres, Religious, are discourses or sermons 
deUvered by ministers on any subject in theology. Be- j 
sides lectures on the Sabbath day, many think proper to 
preach on week-days ; sometimes at five in the morning, 
before people go to work, and at seven in the evening, 
after they hare done. In London there is preaching al- 
most every forenoon and evening in the week at some 
place or otbei; 

Lectures, 'Warburtonian, a lecture founded by 
bishop Warburtnn to prove the truth of revealed relig- 
ion in genera], and the Christian in particular, from the 
completion of the prophecies in the Old and New Testa- 
ment which relate to the Christian Church, especially 
to the apostasy of papal Rome. To this foundation we 
ove the admirable discourses of Hurd, Halifax, Bagot, 
Apthorp, and many others. 

Lectum. See Lkctkric. 

Ledge (only in the plural 0*^3^0^ $helahbm\ from 
-f IS, to mortice together ; Sept. i^ixofuvaj Yfjlg.junc- 
hirof), prop./t>t«/*, e. c. nt the comers of a base or pedes- 
tal ; hence perhaps an ornament overlaying these angles 
to hide the juncture (1 Kings vii, 28, 29). In verses 35, 
36, the term thus rendered is different, namely ^^, yad, 
Ut. a kamdf L e. a lateral projection, probably referring to 
tide^rders to the same pedestaK The description is 
loo brief and the terms tot) vague to aUow a more defi- 
nite idea of these appendages to the bases in question. 
^ Lavrr. 

Ledieu, FuAxi^ois, abbe, a French ecclesiastic, noted 



as a writer, was bora at P^ronne about the middle of 
the 17th century. In 1684 he became private secretary 
of the celebrated French pulpit orator Bossuet, bishop 
of Meaux, and was by this prelate made canon of the 
church at Meaux. He died at Paris Oct, 7, 1713. He 
wrote Memoires et Journal de PAbbe I^dieu sur la vie et 
les ouvragesde Bossuet (Paris, 1856-67,4 vols. 8vo\ upon 
which the late Sainte-Beuve thus comments: "L'abbe 
Ledieu u'a pas le dessein de diminuer Bossuet, mais il 
souvient son illustre maltre k une I'preuve k laquelle pas 
une grande figure ne r^sistcrait ; il note jour par jouf k 
I'epoque de la maladie derai^re et du declin tons les ac- 
tes et toutes les paroles de faiblesse qui lui t^chappent, 
jusqu'aux plaintes et dol^ances aux quelles on se laisse 
aller la nuit quand on se croit seul, et dans cette obser- 
vation il porte un esprit de petitesse qui se pronouce 
de plus en plus en avan^ant, un esprit has, qui n'est pas 
moins dangereux que ne le serait une malignitd sub- 
tUe" {MonUeur, Mar. 81, 1856). Ledieu also left m MS. 
Memoires sur VUistoire et Us Antiquites du diocese de 
Meaux, See Hoefer, Nour. Biog, Generale, xxx, 262. 

Ledru, Andr^ Pierre, a French priest and natu- 
ral'ist, was bom at Chantenay, Main, January 22, 1761. 
When quite young he entered the priesthood, and dur- 
ing the Revolution adopted its principles, and M'as ap- 
pointed curate at Pre-au-Mans. Later he was employed 
as botanist in Baudin*s expedition to the Canaries and 
the Antilles (in 17%). He died July 1 1, 1826. Ledm 
vrotc several works, for a list of which see Hoefer, Nouv, 
hiog, CeniraUy xxx, 267. 

Led'^cb, Edward, D.D., an Irish antiquary, fel- 
low of Trinity College, Dublin, subsequently vicar of 
Aghaboe, Queens County, Ireland, was bom in 1739, and 
died in 1823. He publbhed The Antiquities of Ireland 
(1794), a very valuable work. He offended many of 
his countrymen by denying the truth of the legend of 
St. Patrick. 

Lee, Andrew, D.D., a Congregational minister, 
was bom May 7, 1746 (O. 8.), at Lyme, Conn.; gradu- 
ated at Yale CoUege in 1766 ; entered the ministry iu 
1768 ; was ordained pastor at Lisbon, Conn., Oct. 26, 1 768 ; 
and died Aug. 26, 1882. He was made a member of 
Yale CoUege corporation in 1807. Dr. Lee published 
An Inquiry whether it be tfie Dttty of Man to be witting 
to suffer Danmation for the Divine Glory (1786) : — Ser- 
mons on various important Subjects (8vo, 1^)8) ; and sev- 
eral occasional sermons. — Sprague, A nnals, i, 668. 

Lee, Ann, the founder of the sect of Shakers, was 
bom in Manchester, EngUind, Feb. 29, 1786. She was 
the daughter of a poor mechanic, a blacksmith by trade, 
and a sister of general Charles Lee of Revolutionary 
fame. When yet a young girl she married Abraham 
Standley, of like trade as her father, and she became the 
mother of four children, who all died in infancv. When 
about twenty-two years of age Jane came under the in- 
fluence of James Wardle}% at this time the great expo- 
nent of the Millenarian doctrines of the Camisards and 
French Prophets, These religious fanatics, after endur- 
ing much persecution and great suffering in their na- 
tive coimrry, had sought a refuge in England in 1706. 
Gradually they spread their views — communicating in- 
spiration, as they thought — finding ready followers, par- 
ticulariy among the Quakers, and one of this number — 
James Wardley— in 1747 actually formed a separate 
society, consisting mainly of Quakers, claiming to be 
led by the Spirit of God, and indulging in all manner 
of religious excesses, similar to those of the Camisards 
(q. V.) and French Pi-ophets (q. v.). Wardley claimed 
to have supernatural vif<ions and revelations, and as 
both he and his adherents were noted for their bodily 
agitations, they came to be known as Shaking Quakers, 
Of this sect Ann Lee, now Mrs. Standley, became one 
of the leading spirits. From the lime of her admission 
she seems to have been particularly inspired for kn'.cr- 
ship and action. Naturally of an excitable temper, her 
experience in ihc performance of the peculiar religious 



LEE 



321 



LEE 



»r his alina maler. He was licensed by the Pre9b3rtery 
»f Miutison in 1855, tnd became pastor at Graham, Ind. 
He died May 27, 1863. '* With fair talento, and yet 
amkl many disoouragements both in himself and from 
without, he was still not only a faithful, but a successful 
pamutr of the churches committed to his care. God 
gmve him the vritness of approval in the conversion of 
own J under his mimstry.^^Wilson, Presb. HuL Alma' 
%1864,p.l6U. 

I, Chaunoey, D.D., a Congregational minister, 

bom at Salisbury, Conn., 1763; graduated at Yale 

CoU^i^ in 1784; entered the ministry June 3, 1789; and 

was ordained pastor in Sunderland, Vt., March 18, 1790, 

where be remained a few years, and in Jan., 1800, be« 

caroe pastor in Colebrook, Conn. This connection he 

dideol ved in 1 827, to become pastor at Marlborough,Conn.) 

Nov. 18, 1828, which pUce he held untU Jan. 11. 1837. 

He died in Hartwick, N. Y., Dec, 1842. Lee published 

the A wterictm Acoompicmi: an A rithmetic (1797) : — The 

Trial of Virtue: a metrical Version of the Book o/Job 

i 1807) : — Sermont eapeciaity designed for Revivals (12mo, 

l»£4y i—Letiers from Arisiarchus to Phiiemon (1833); 

and two or three occasional sermons. — Sprague, ^ mui/^, 

U.288. 



I, Edward, an English prelate, was bom in Kent 
in 1482 ; was educated at Oxford and Cambridge ; be> 
came chaplain of Henry VIII, and was finally employed 
by him in several diplomatic missions. In 1529 he was 
sent to Rome to negotiate for the divorce of the king, 
and in 1531 was appointed archbishop of York. He 
oppoaed the Reform doctrines of Luther, but favored 
the innovations which Henr}' VHI made in the Church. 
Lee died in 1544. He yrrotef Apologia adtersus quo- 
rumdam calummas (Louvain, 1520) : — Epistola nuncu- 
patoria ad Des, Erasmum (Louvain, 1520): — Armota- 
tioHStm Lwbri duo in annotationes A ort Testamenti Erasmi 
(BAle, 1520): — Epistola apologetica qua respondet D. 
Erasmi Epistolis. — Alliboue, Diet, of Brit, and Am. Au- 
thors^ voL ii, s. V. 

Icee, Jason, a Methodist Episcopal minister, pioneer 
missionary to Or^on, was bom at Stanstead, Lower Can- 
ada, in 1803 ; labored with the Wesleyan missionaries 
there until 1833; joined the New England Conference 
in that year, and was ordained missionary to Oregon. 
Here he labored nobly, buried two wives, and in 1844 
rHumcd to New York to raise funds for the Oregon In- 
stitute, for which he was made agent by the New Eng- 
land Conference, but he died at bis birthplace, March 
12, 1845. His loss was a blow to the mission, but it is 
his glorious monument for two worlds. — Minutes ofCon- 
feresscts, ui, 617. (G. L. T.) 

Iiee, Jesse, one of the most eminent preachers in 
the eariy history of the American Methodist Church, 
and reoc^nised as the founder of Methodism in New 
England, was bom in Prince George's County, Virginia, 
Uarch 12, 1758. He received a fair education, was dil- 
igently instructed in the Prayer-book and Catechism, 
and early acquired skill in vocal music, which served 
him in all his subsequent labors. His early life was 
moraL ^ I believe I never did an3rthing in my youth 
that the people generally call wicked,'* b the record in 
his joumaL His father was led to a more serious mode 
of life than prevailed generally in that community 
chiefly by the influence of Mr. Jarratt, an Episcopal 
clergyman. Jesse's parents, however, finally, in 1773, 
joined the Methodist Society then formed under Rob- 
ert Williams, one of Wesley's preachers, the promoter of 
Methodism in those parts. In this very year Jesse ex- 
periMiced in a marked manner the sense of pardoned sin, 
and continued to benefit by the powerful revival infiu- 
enccs which for some years prevailed in the neighbor- 
hood. In 1776 he experienced a state of grace which 
he called "perfect love." "At length I could say,*! 
have nothing but the love of Christ in my heart,'" is his 
record. In 1777 he removed from his home into the 
bounds of Roanoke Circuit, North Carolina, where the 

V.-ll 



next year he was appointed a daas-leader. He preach- 
ed his first sermon November 17, 1779, and for a time 
supplied the preacher's place. In the summer of 1780 
he was drafted into the militia to meet the approach of 
the British army in South Carolina. Excused from 
bearing arms on account of his religious scraples, he 
rendered various other services, especially by preach- 
ing. Soon obtaining a discharge, he was earo^y so- 
licited to enter the itinerant ministry, but shrank from 
the responsibility, " fearing lest he should injure the 
work of God." At the tenth Conference, held at Ellis 
Meeting-house, Sussex County, Virginia, April 17, 1782, 
Lee was deeply impressed with " the union and brother- 
ly love" prevalent among the preachers, notwithstand- 
ing the warm difference that had of late existed among 
the Methodist preachers on the subject of the adminis- 
tration of the sacraments, and at a quarterly meeting in 
November he was prevailed upon to take charge, togeth- 
er with Mr. Dromgoole, of a circuit near Edenton, North 
Carolina — the Amelia Circuit. At the Ellis Meeting- 
house Conference, May 6, 1783, he was received on triaJ. 
This year he preached with marked success. He writes, 
" I preached at Mr. Spain's with great liberty ... the 
Spirit of the Lord came upon us, and we were bathed in 
tears." " I preached at Howel's Chapel from Ezek. xxxiii, 

11 I saw so clearly that the Lord was willing to 

bless the people, even while I was speaking, that I be- 
gan to feel distressed for them. . . . After stopping and 
weeping for some time, I began again, but had spoken 
but a httle while before the cries of the people overcame 
me, and I wept with them so that I could not speak. | 
found that love had tears as well as grief." Under ap- 
pointment of the Conference, which hegan at Ellis Preach- 
ing-house, Virginia, April 30, 1784, and ended at Balti- 
more May 28 following (see minute for that year), he la- 
bored in different circuits with like success, and was now 
regarded as an important man in the connection. Decem- 
ber 12 he was invited to meet Coke,Whatcoat, and Vasey 
at the celebrated Christmas Conference of 1784 at Balti- 
more, where, with the aid of these persons, ordained and 
sent out for the purpose by BIr. Wesley, the Methodist 
Episcopal Church was organized. Lee could not attend 
the Conference from his distant circuit on so short a no- 
tice and at that season of the year, but was immediately 
atler requested by bishop AsburA' to travel with him in 
a Southem tour. This was an important event for Lee. 
He preached with the bishop at Georgetown and Charles- 
ton. At Cheraw he met with a merchant who gave 
him such information of New England as awakened in 
him an eager desire to transfer his field of labor to that 
region. At the Southem Conference, held in North 
Carolina April 20, 1785, Lee, in ardent controversy with 
Coke, who was still in the countr}*, sought the abroga- 
tion of certain stringent rules on slaver}' adopted in 1784, 
which required of each member of the society the gradual 
emancipation of his slaves. His Wews soon prevailed. 
He preached, 1786, in Rent Circuit, Maryland; 1787, in 
Baltimore ; 1788, in Flanders Circuit, embracing a por- 
tion of New Jersey and New York. Previously to the 
General Conference of 1796 there were no prescribed lim- 
its to the several conferences, but they were held at the 
discretion of the bishop as to time and place, the same 
preacher being sometimes appointed from different Con- 
ferences in the same year. At the Conference held in 
New York, May 28, 1789, Lee was appointed to Stam- 
ford Circuit, in Connecticut, and now began his career in 
New England, which continued for eleven years. New 
England, from the natural temperament of its inhabit- 
ants, and their previous theological education, was a 
hard field for the introduction of Methodism, into which 
— though spread into all the other Atlantic States, far 
into the West, to Canada and Nova Scotia— it had not 
hitherto ventured with a set purpose of permanent oc- 
cupancy'. The dearth of earnest religious interest which 
succeeded the revivals under Edwards, WhiU'field, and 
Tennant^ as well as the prevalent reactionary tendency 
to rationalism, furnished sufficient dent>' ^- 



LEE 



823 



LEEK 



bom tt Tweedmouth about 1796 ; was edn- 
eal«d at St, Andrew's University, and became a minis- 
xer of the Ooepel. After occupying two other charges, 
1» became, with Chalmers and others, minister of old 
Grmyfrian, Bdinburgh. He died in March, 1868, at Tor- 
qoay, ]>evonsbire. Dr. Robert Lee published a transla- 
tkm of the TketU ofErattui (1844) i— Prayers for Pub- 
lic Warwkip : — Handbook of Devotion : — Prayers for 
Famify Warship :^The Bible, with New Marginal Rtf- 
•rsme^M; m ^srork which brought upon him severe condem- 
natioQ for Rationalistic tendency. It is, however, by no 
CDcaBS to be inferred from this that Dr. Lee was not of 
ttie evanii^elical school; he fought the Socinians with 
the atmoat exertion, and, as a Scotchman expressed it, 
" Dr. Lee emptied the Unitarian chapel" at Edinburgh. 
Dr. Lee was the leader in innovations and changes in 
the Church E^ablishment of Scotland. His views were 
ultim-4iberal ; and from the year 1858, when the innova- 
tiovia were complained of bdbre the Low>Church courts, 
till the commencement of his last illness, he fought a 
great battle, as the Daily Review expresses it, for what 
be deemed a more liberal construction of the laws of the 
Church in the matter of public worship— in other words, 
puhliahing, using, defending written prayers— and by his 
own Ibrec of character, his ingenuity and power as a 
controversialist, and his influence over the younger min- 
isters of the Church, he probably did more to carry for- 
ward the movement with which his name is identitied 
I ban all the rest of his brethren who took part with 
him. See Scotland, Church or. (J.H.W.) 

Iiee. Robert P., D.D., a (Dutch) Reformed minis- 
ter, was bom in 1803, at York town, N. Y. ; graduated at 
Dickinson College in 1824, and at the theological semi- 
narv at New Brunswick in 1828. The flrst vear of his 
ministry, 1828-9, was spent as a missionary in New York 
City. He was pastor of the Reformed (Dutch) Chureh 
of Montgomery, in Orange Co.. N. Y., from 1829 to 1868, 
when he died, in the midst of his usefulness. Dr. Lee 
was a rare man, a close student, a diligent and accu- 
rate theologian, an impressive, but not showy preacher. 
His mind was remarkably clear, comprehensive, and 
•cute. His judgment was ripe and instinctively right. 
Decided in his theology, he loved its truths, and ex- 
pounded and defended them with tenacity and power. 
In the claasis and synods of his Chureh he was a repre- 
sentative man; among his brethren and neighboring 
congregations he was a trusted counsellor and a peace- 
maker. Without haste or prejudices, calm and wise, of 
positive character and noted piety, he was always influ- 
ential, and yet singularly modest and retiring. His per- 
sonal presence was commanding, his fine countenance 
beamed with intelligence and benevolence, and his whole 
demeanor was such as became the true minuter of Christ. 
His death was a great loss to the whole denomination, 
of which he was a noble representative. — Corwin, J/an- 
val €^ Personal Recolleclionsy p. 136. (W. J. R, T.) 

Iiee, Bamnel (1), D.D., a distinguished English 
OrientaJbt and Biblical scholar, was bom at Longnor, 
in Shropshire, May 14, 1783; was educated but moder- 
ately, and apprenticed to a carpenter. His aptitude for 
leaniing, however, led him to continue his studies pri- 
vately, and he thus acquired the Latin language. He 
next mastered the Greek, and from that he advanced 
to Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, and Samaritan, all of which 
he acquired by his own unaided efforts before he was 
twenty-five years of age. By this time he had mar- 
ried, and exchanged his former occupation for that of a 
schoolmaster. Attracting the notice of arehdeacon Cor- 
bett and Dr. Jon. Scott, be was, by their aid, enabled 
to add to his other acquisitions a knowledge of Arabic, 
Persic, and Hindustanee, as well as some European and 
other tongues. In 1815 he accepted an engsgement 
with the Chureh Missionary Society, and became a stu- 
dent of Queen's CoUege, Cambridge, where he took his 
degree of B.A. in 1817. At this time he edited portions 
of the Scriptures, and of the l^yer-book, in several Ori- 
ental languages. In 1818 he took orders, and preached 



at Shrewsbury, still carrying on his Oriental studies; at 
this time he is said to have had the mastery over eigh- 
teen languages. In 1819 he was honored, as his talents 
certainly deserved, with the professorship of Arabic, and 
in 1884 was made regius professor of Hebrew at Cam- 
bridge University, besides receiving some pieces of 
Church preferment, and the title of D.D., first from the 
University of Halle, and then from that of Cambridge. 
Shortly before his death, Dec. 16, 1852, he was made rec- 
tor of Barley, in Somersetshire, where he died. Beside* 
the editions of the Scriptures which he carried through 
the press, he published several valuable linguistical 
works, of which the most important are, Grammar of 
the Hebrew Language, compiled from the best authorities, 
chiefly Oriental, which has passed through several edi- 
tions •. — A Lexicon, Heb^ Chald., and EngU (Lond. 1840) : 
— The Book of the Patriarch Job transtaftd,with Intro- 
duction and Commentaty (Lond. 1887) : — A n Inquiry into 
the Nature, Progress, and End of Prophecy (Camb. 1 849) : 
— Prolegomena in Bib, PolygL Londinens, Minora (Lond. 
1828). He also published an edition of the controver- 
sial tracts of Mart>*n and his opponents; edited Sir Wil- 
liam Jones's Gramtnar of the Persian Language, with an 
addition of his own, containing a synopsis of Arabic 
grammar; and translated and annotated the travels of 
Ibn-Batuta from the Arabic. A minor work of his. 
Dissent Urtscripfural and Unreasonable, led to a contro- 
versy with Dr. J. l*>'e Smith (in 1834 ; the pamphlets 
were published in 1885). Dr. Lee has generally been 
recc^ised not only as a great scholar, but also as the 
greatest British Orientalist of his day, and his i^nritings 
bear evident traces of a vigorous, earnest, and independ- 
ent mind, loving tnith, and boldly pursuing it. See 
Lond. GentL Magazine, 1853, pt. i, 203 sq.; Blackwood's 
Magazine, xlix, 697 sq. ; Kit to, Bib/. Cyclop, vol. ii, s. v. ; 
Allibone, Diet. Brit, and A mer. A uthors, vol ii, s. v. 

Lee, Samuel (2), a minister of the United Pres- 
b>'terian Chureh, bom at Jericho, Vt., July 20, 1805, was 
converted at the age of nineteen, and educated at Ver- 
mont University. He studied theology at Auburn 
Seminary, and was licensed and ordained by Oneida 
Congregational Council Sept. 23, 1834. He spent one 
year of his ministry at Cazenovia, N. Y., and then went 
to Northern Ohio, and took charge of the Chureh in Me- 
dina, Ohio. Aftenvards his labors were divided between 
the churehes of Mantua and Streetsborough, Ohio. He 
died Jan. 28, 1866.— Wilson, Pre^b. Hist. A Im. 1867, p. 310. 

Lee, Wilaon, an early Methodist Episcopal minis- 
ter, was bom in Sussex Coiuity, Del., in 1761 ; entered 
the itinerancy in 1784 ; labored extensively in the West, 
mostly in Kentucky, until 1794, when he was appointed 
to New London, Conn.; to New York in 1796; to Phil- 
adelphia in 1796-7-8 ; to Baltimore District in 1801-2-3 ; 
superannuated in 1804, and died in Anmdel County, 
Md., Oct. 11 of the same year. Mr. Lee was "one of the 
most laborious and succeM^fiil Methodist preachers of his 
time." He was eminently fhrewd and cireumspect. and 
deeply pious. He was '* a witness of the perfect love of 
God for many years before he died. He was an excel- 
lent presiding elder, and an eloquent, argumentative, 
and often overpowering preacher. His labors in the 
West were verj' heroic, and contributed largely to the 
evangelization of Kentucky and Tennessee.** — Minutes 
of Conferences, i, 127; ^Xe\ev\», Memorials of Methodism, 
ch. xviii ; Bangs, Hist. Meth. Episc. Ch, vol I (G. L. T.) 

Leech. See Horse-leech. 

Leek CT^SJn, chatsir', from "^Sn, to enclose, also to 
grow green ; occurs in several places in the Old Testa- 
ment, where it is variously translated, as grass in 1 
Kings xviii, 5 ; 2 Kings xix. 26 ; Job xl, 1 5 ; Psa. xxxvii, 
2, etc; Isa. xv, 6, etc.; herb in Job viii, 12; hay in 
Prov. xxvii, 25, and Isa. xv, 6 ; and court in Isa. xxxiv, 
13; but in Numb, xi, 5 it is translated ^* leeks;" Sept. rri 
irpdoa^ Vulg. porriX Hebrew scholars state that the 
word signifies " greens'* or *' grass** in general ; and it is 
no doubt clear, from the context of most o' *' * 



LEES 



325 



LEGALISTS 



(oolj in the planl D*^*^QC3, shemarim\ firom 
^^^, to befp [ Jer. xlviii, 11 ; Zeph. i, 12 ; rendered 
^'wincs oo thelees*^ in Isa. xxv, 6; "dregs'" in PBa. Ixxv, 
ft] ; Sepu rpvyiai; VulgateyiECM). The Hebrew term 
^^'Q, tA^mer (the presamed singular form of the above), 
beins the radical sense of preservtiium^ and was applied 
to ** kea" from the custom of allowing the wine to stand 
on the lees in order that its color and body might be 
better |>reflerved; hence the expression "wine on the 
kea,** as meaning a generous, full-bodied liquor (Isa. 
XXV, 6 ; see Henderson, ad loc). The wine in this state 
mnained, of course, undisturbed in its cask, and became 
thick and sirupy ; hence the proverb " to settle upon 
oik's leea,** to express the sloth, indifference, and gross 
atnpadity of the ungodly (Jer. xlviii, 11 ; Zeph. i, 12). 
Before the wine was consumed it was necessary to strain 
off the leea ; such wine was then termed " well refined** 
(Isa. XXV, 6). To drink the lees or " dregs" was an ex- 
pceMon for the endurance of extreme punishment (Psa. 
Ixxv, 8). An ingenious writer in Ritto's Cifchpadia 
(s. V. Shemarim) thinks that some kind of preservtt 
from grapes are meant in Isa. xxv, 6, as the ety- 
molofcy of the word suggests; but this supposition, al- 
though it clean the passage from some difficulties, is 
opposed to the usage of the term in the other places. 
See Wncm. 

laeeser, Isaac, a noted Jewish theologian and re- 
Ugioua writer, was bom at Neukirch, in Westphalia, in 
1806. In 1825 he emigrated to America, and became in 
1829 rabbi of the principal synagogue of Philadelphia. 
This position he resigned in 1850, and died in that city 
in 1868. Leeser was a superior scholar and preacher, 
and amcmg his people hb memory will ever be respected 
and honored. His works, which are completely cited in 
AUibone, Diet, of British and A merican A uthors, voL ii, 
■.v., are mainly contributions to Jewish literature — prin- 
cipally Jewish histor}- and theology. In 1843 he as- 
sumed the editorship of Ike Jewish A dvocate (or Occi- 
dmt). Very valuable is hb edition of the O.-T. Scrip- 
tares in the original, based on the labors of V^an der 
Hoogklf and publbhed by Lippincott and Ca (PhiladeL 
1868, 8vo). 
lie Fdvre. See Faber Stapulensis. 
Left (prop. b*lK?3iZ9, semdl'f a primitive word ; Gr. 
ivwvfwcy lit. well-namedy i. e. lucky, by euphemism for 
apumpoff as opposed to V^*^» ^<(<oC* ^^^ right). The 
left hand, like the lAtin lavus, was esteemed of ill omen, 
hence the term sinister as equivalent to unfortunate. 
Thb was especially the case among the superstitious 
(xreeks and Romans (see Potter's Gr, Ant/i, 823. Adams, 
Rom, Ant^p, 801). Among the Hebrews the left like- 
wise indicated the north (Job xxiii, 9 ; Gen. xiv, 15), 
the person's face being supposed to be turned towards 
the east. In all these respects it was precisely the op- 
posite of the right (q. v.). 

LEFT-HANDED (irp^' n^ •)»«, shut mb to his 

right hand [Jndg.iii, 15; xx, 16] ; Sept. Afif^npoStliOQ^ 
Vulgate qui utraque mamt pro dextera vtebcUur^ and itu 
sinistra ut dextra prof lions), properly one that is unable 
•kiUuUy to use hb right hand, and hence employs the 
left ; bat also, as b usual, ambidexter, i, e. one who can 
Qse the left hand as well as the right, or, more literally, 
one whose hands are both right hands. It was long 
anppoeed that both hands are naturally equal, and that 
the preference of the right hand^ and comparative inca- 
pacity of the left, are the result of education and habit. 
But it b now known that the difference is really phys- 
ical (see Bell's Bridgetcaier Treatise on the Hand), anti 
that the ambidexterous condition of the hands \a not a, 
natural development. See Ambidexter. 

The capacity of equal action with both hands was 
highly prized io ancient times, especially in war. 
Among the Hebrews thb quality seems to have been 
most common in the tribe of Benjamin, for all the per- 
loiis noticed as being endued with it were of that tribe. 



By comparing Judg. iii, 15; xx, 16, with 1 Chron. xii, 
2, we may gather that the persons mentioned in the 
two former texts as "left-handed" ¥rere really ambidex- 
ters. In the latter text we learn that the Benjamitea 
who joined David at Ziklag were *' mighty men, helpers 
of the war. They were armed with bows, and could 
use both the right hand and the left in hurling [sling- 
ing] and shooting arrows out of a bow." There were 
thirty of them ; and as they appear to have been all of 
one family, it might almost seem as if the greater com- 
monness of this power among the Benjamitea arose fh>m 
its being a hereditary peculiarity of certain families in 
that tribe. It may also partly have been the result of 
cultivation ; for, although the left hand b not naturally 
an equally strong and ready instrument as the right 
hand, it may doubtless be often rendered such by early 
and suitable training. See HAia>. 

Leg b the rendering of several words in the A. V. 
Usually the Heb. term b 5^3, kara' (only in the dual 
D^^^S), the lower limb or shank of an animal (Exod. 
xii,'9;' xxix, 17; Lev. i, 9, 13; iv, 11 ; viii, 21 ; ix, 14; 
Amos iii, 12) or a locust (Lev. xi, 21) ; the atcilKot of a 
roan (John xix, 81, 82, 33). p^W, shdk (Chald. p«, 
shdk, of an image, Dan. ii, 83), b properly the shin or 
lower part of the leg, but used of the whole limb, e. g. 
of a person (Deuu xxviii, 13 ; Psa. cxlvii, 10 ; Prov. 
xxvi, 7 ; 'Hhigh," Isa. xlvii, 2; in the phrase ^hip [q. 
v.] and thigh," Judg. xv, 7 ; spoken also of the drawers 
or leggins. Cant, v, 15) ; also the " heave shoulder'^ (q. v.) 
of the sacrifice (Exod. xxix, 22, etc ; 1 Sam. ix, 24). 
Once by an extension of hp,*^, re'gel (1 Sam. xvii, 6), 
properly a /bot (as usually rendered). Elsewhere im- 
properly for ?3i0, sho'bel, the tram or trailing dress of 
a female (Isa. xlvii, 2) ; and fTlT^C, tseada^ a wtep^ain 
for the feet, or perh. bracelet for the wrist (** ornament 
of the leg," Isa. iii, 20). See Thigh. 

Goliath's greaves for his legs doubtless extended from 
the knee to the foot (1 Sam. xvii, 6). See Greaves. 
The bones of the legs of persons crucified were broken 
to hasten their death (John xix, 31). See Chucifixiok. 

Itegalists. Properly speaking, a Icgalbt is one 
who *^acta according to the law;** but in general the 
term b made use of to denote one who seeks salvation by 
works of law (not of the law, but of " law" generally, 
whether moral or ceremonial, i^ tpyutv vSpov, Rom. v, 
20) instead of by the merits of Christ. Many who are 
alive to the truth that it b impossible to do anything 
that can purchase salvation, and who desire that thb 
doctrine should be earnestly and constantly inculcated 
by Christian ministers in their teaching, conceive that 
there b a danger also on the opposite side; and that 
while plain Antinomian teaching would disgust most 
hearers, there b a kind of doctrine scarcely less mis- 
chievous in its consequences, that which only inciden- 
tally touches on good works. They think that what- 
ever leads or leaves men, without dbtinctly rejecting 
Christian virtue, to feel little anxiety and take little 
pains about it ; anything which, though perhaps not so 
meant, is liable to be so understood by tb<«e who have 
the wbh as to leave them without any feeling of real 
shame, or mortification, or alarm on account of their 
own faults and moral deficiencies, so as to make them 
anxiously watchful onlg against seeking salvation by 
good works, and not at all against seeking salvation 
without good works — all this (they consider) is likely to 
be much more acceptable to the corrupt disposition of 
the natural man than that which urges the necessity of 
being " careful to maintain good works." Those who 
take such a view of the danger of the case think that 
Christian teachers should not shrink, through fear of 
incurring the wrongful imputation of " legalism," from 
earnestly inculcating the pointa which the apoelies found 
it necessary to dwell on with such continual watchful- 
ness and frequent repetition. But in general the term 
is made use of to denote one who ex^*'*' ' — **'»a by 



LEGEND 



327 



LEGEND 



«Kiice Gregory VU, is taken by bishops at their 

%ixon, says: **Legatum apostolicse sedis . . . hoiio- 

- CTmetAbo et iii suis necessitatibus adjuvabo"* (c 4, 

'r jtr^^ircmdot ii, 24). This involves the duty of 

:>fM«niii^ the procurations, fiut the state is also en- 

\.v^X oQ account of its power. 

rtur iwuml envoys of the pope have now the titles of, 

. /.eptAfi matt, no longer invested with an inherent right 

-It the management of ecclesiastical afiairs. 2. Legati 

%utfiy tmitmiy which are divided into (1) Legati a latere 

• r lie liMtt-rey who, it is stated, are entitled to be canoni- 

t sily desii^ated as cardinals a latere or legates de la- 

tuT^, XHis is incorrect, for cardinals are now seldom 

scfnt on such missions, if ever, but, on the contrary, other 

membera of the clei^, cum potestate legati a latere, (2) 

Xmrncii tipostoliciy bearers of apostolic mandates. While 

the former are looked upon as ambassadors, it is a nice 

<\ueetiofn whether the latter occupy the second position, 

that <^ envoys. They are either ordinary permanent 

QviAciofl, as in Germany, or extraordinary, sent for some 

special purpose. (3) Ittiemuncii (residentea\ considered 

by aome as forming a third class, by others as belonging 

to the second. At the Congress of Vienna, 1815, it was 

decided by the first article of the JR^gUment sur le rang 

entre le* A gens d^)lomatiqties that the first class would 

b« formed of Ambassadeurs, Ugafs ou Nonces; and in 

article fourth, that no change would be made in regard 

to papal representatives. See Kltlber, Vdlkerrecht ; HefT- 

ter, I 'Olkerrecht ; Miruss, Das Europdische Gesandschafls- 

reekt ; Schulte, KatholiscK Kirchenreckt (Giessen, 1 856) ; 

Walter, Kirchmrecht (11th edit. Bonn, 1854); Herzog, 

Beal-ICwrfUop, viU. 269 sq. ; Wetzer und Welte, Kirchen- 

LerikoH, vi, 409 sq. 

Jsegend (LaU legenda^ " things to be read,'* lessons) 
was the name given in early times, in the Roman Cath- 
olic Church, to a book cont^ning the daily lessons which 
were wont to be read as part of divine service. This 
name, bowevra*, in process of time, was used to designate 
the livM of saints and martyrs, as well as the collection 
of such narratives, from the fact that these were read by 
• the monks at matins, and after dinner in the refectories. 
Among numerous theories as to the origin of the le- 
gends, the following is the most probable. Before col- 
leges were established in the monasteries where the 
schools were held, the professors in rhetoric frequently 
gave their pupils the life of some saint for a trial of their 
talent for amplication. The students, being constant- 
ly at a loss to fumbh out their pages, invented most of 
Uiese wonderful adventures. Jortin observes that the 
Christians used to collect, out of Ovid, Livy, and other 
pagan poets and historians, the miracles and portents to 
be found there, and accommodated them to their own 
monks and saints. The good fathers of that age, whose 
nmplicity was not inferior to their devotion, were so de- 
lighted with these flowers of rhetoric that they were in- 
duced to make a collection of these miraculous composi- 
tions, not imagining that at some distant period they 
would become matters of faith. Yet, when Jacob de Vo- 
ragine, Peter de Natalibus, and Peter Ribadeneira wrote 
the lives of the saints, they sought for their materials in 
the libraries of the monasteries ; and, awakening from 
the dust these manuscripts of amplification, imagined 
they made an invaluable present to the world by laying 
before them these voluminous absurdities. The people 
received these pious fictions with all imaginable sim- 
plicity, and, as few were able to read, the books con- 
taining them were amply illostmted with cuts which 
rendered the story intelligible. 

Many of these legends, the production of monastics, 
were invented, especially in the Middle Ages, with a 
view to serve the interests of monasticism, particularly 
to exalt the character of the monastic orders, and to 
represent their voluntary austerities as purchasing the 
peculiar favor of heaven. For this purpose they un- 
scrupulously ascribe to their patrons and founders the 
power of working ihirades on the most trifling occa- 
Bona. Many of these miracles are blasphemous paro- 



dies on those of our blessed Lord; not a few are bor- 
rowed from the pagan mythology ; but some are so ex- 
quisitely absurd that no one but a monk could have 
dreamed of imposing such nonsense on the most besotted 
of mankind. ** It would be easy to accumulate proofs 
of the ready belief which the lower orders of Irish Ro- 
manists give to tales of miracles worked by their priests; 
but it is remarkable that in the earlier legends we very 
rarely find supernatural powers attributed to the secular 
ecclesiastics; the heroes of most of the tales are monks 
and hermits, whose voluntary poverty seemed to bring 
them down to a level of sympathy with the lower or- 
ders. Indiscriminate alms, which have often been dem- 
onstrated to be the source of great evils, are always pop- 
ular with the uniustructed, and hence we find that many 
of the heroes of the legends are celebrated for the prod- 
igality of their benevolence. The miracles attributed 
to the Irish saints are even more extravagant than those 
in the Continental martyrologies. We find St. Patrick 
performing the miracle of raising the dead to life no less 
than seventeen times, and on one occasion he restores 
animation to thirty-four persons at once. Gerald, bish- 
op of Mayo, however, surpassed St. Patrick, for he not 
only resusciuted the dead daughter of the king of Con- 
naught, but miraculously changed her sex, that she 
might inherit the crown of the province, in which the 
Salic hiw was then established. We find, also, in the 
ecclesiastical writers, many miracles specially worked to 
support individual doctrines, particularly the mystery 
of transubstantiation. Indeed, a miracle appears to have 
been no unusual resource of a puzzled controversialist. 
On one occasion the sanctity of the wafer is stated to 
have been proved by a mule^s kneeling to worship it; 
at another time a pet lamb kneels down at the elevation 
of the host ; a spider, which St, Francis d^Ariano acci- 
dentally swallowed while receiving the sacrament, came 
out of his thigh ; and when St. Elmo was pining at be- 
ing too long excluded from a participation in the sacra- 
mental mysteries, the holy elements were brought to 
him by a pigeon. But the principal legends devised for 
the general exaltation of the Romish Church refer to 
the exercise of power over the devil. In the south of 
Ireland nothing is more common than to hear of Satan's 
appearance in proper person, his resistance to all the ef- 
forts of the Protestant minister, and bis prompt obedi- 
ence to the exorcisms of the parish priest. In general, 
the localities of the stories are laid at some neighboring 
\*illagc ; yet, easy as this renders refutation, it is won- 
derful to find how generally such a tale is credited. 
From the archives of the Silesian Church, we find that 
some German Protestants seem to believe in the exor- 
cising powers of the Rombh priests. Next to the le- 
gends of miracles rank those of extraordinary austeri- 
ties, such as that St. Polycronus always took up a huge 
tree on his shoulders when he went to pray ; that St. 
Bamadatus shut himself up in a narrow iron cage; that 
St. Adhelm exposed himself to the most stimulating 
temptations, and then defied the devil to make him 
yield; and that St.Macarius undertook a penance for 
sin six months, because he had so far yielded to passion 
as to' kill a flea. It is unnecessary to dwell upon these, 
because they are manifestly derived from the habits 
of the Oriental fanatics, and are evident exaggerations 
made without taste or judgment. See History ofPop^ 
erg (Lond. 1838, 8vo). 

The most celebrated of these popular mediaeval fic« 
tions is the Legendn A urea, or Golden Legend, origi- 
nally written in Latin, in the 13th century, by Jacob de 
Voragine (q. v.), a Dominican friar, who afterwards be- 
came archbishop of Genoa, and died in 1298. This work 
was the great text-book of legendary' lore of the Mid- 
dle Ages. It was translated into French in the 14th 
century by Jean de Vigny, and in the 15th into Eng^ 
lish by William Caxton. It has lately been made more 
accessible by a new French translation: La Ugende 
Dorie, traduite du Latin, par M. G. B. (Par. 1860). There 
is a copy of the original, with the Gesta Ltmoobardorum 



LEGEND 3: 

On the oti^n of then legend* cfaere ig a great diver- 
Kly of opiokoD Biuong tbe leanmL Some tnce iL lo the 
Durthem Skaldi, who, mcconipuiyiag the army of Uollo 
is ha wailike migreiiuna auuthwud, curied with them 
tbe lays of tbeii own mj'Ihotugy, but tepkccd ttaeit pi- 
gtn berocfl by Chriatijui kin^ and wriora. SahDUiiu 
■dopied tbe theory, which was iDdoised by WuIod, that 
the gemu of nimiiitic lictioa origiuated with the Sm- 
ceos and Anbiaiu, and aacribes il> intruduelioo into Eu- 
toft to tbe eflTecfa of the CrusadeB, or, according to War- 
loo Kiimjlfj u> the Arab conqueM in Spain ; that from 
thecioe they paiied into Fiance, and look deepeat root in 
BriuaDf. Others, again, have Ken in the talea ofchiT- 
alty ooJy a new develupmeut of the daaaic legends of 
Uteece and Italy. As Christianity uaqueMionably bor- 
rowed and modilied to ila own use many of the outward 
cereowDiea of paganiem, »o tbey held that the Cbristian 
Iraomir ocdy adopted and liaoamuted the heroea or 
rllMiral pueliy. The researchea of count Villemarque 
and Udy Charlotte Schreiber, however, to which the at- 
teotioD of tbe learned world bad been directed before by 
Leyden, Douce, and ^jbaron Turner, conclusively prove 
that the Inie theory as lo their origin is that they are 
Cymric or Annotican, or bath. The wealth of the uld 
Cymric literature in this particular respect was never 
even suspected until lady Chariotte Schreiber, with tbe 
aid of an eminent Welsh scbolar, the Kev. Thomas Price, 
tcougbt to light in their original farm, accompanied by 
an English version, the collection of early Cymric tales 
known as the Uabinogiim, M.de la Villemaniue, foi 
own side of the Channel, not ouly conHrms the evidi 
of lady Scbreiber, but brings forward additional item 
proof, from fragments of Breian songs and poems, i 
tbe roou of their renowned Action lie deep in their 
etume also. Tbeir very form — the eight - syllabled 
itayme, in which the French metrical version la written 
—be claiIn^ and apparently with justice, as Cymric. 
Sec Chamben, Cj/dop. s. v. ; Cydop. Eril. s. v. ; Uenog, 
!Uat'E»f3k.viu,ni »q.; Vogel, rerracA. dner CricA. u. 
Wir^gmg drr Ltgfnden, in ]%en-s Uiit. IhtoL A bhaidl. 
(l4B.I824),p.l41 sq.; tin.iatDtaan,Lfgo¥Ui>flhtMo- 
mutic OrilrTt. and her Ltt/mdi of lit JUadoma, See 
Htth. 

Ii«Kend, OoldoiL A renowned collection of le- 
gends written in the 13tb century by Jacob de Voragine 
(q.v.). See Lkobnd. 

UgeT, Antoine (1), a French Protestant divine, 
■as bom in Savoy in ] 694. He was pmfessor of ihwl- 
Dgy and Oriental languages at tieneva from 1&4& uniil 
his death in I66t. He edited tbe Greek text of tbe 
New Teetament (1638). 

Ugar, Antoine (2), son of the preceding, was 
bom at Geneva in 1652. He also became a Protestant 
nunister, and afterwards filled the chair of philoeophy 
tor twenty-foui yean at Geneva with eminent succe^v. 



He died in 1716. He publiabed aereiBl adentifle tiM- 
'ises and many sermons. 

liAgat, jBBn, a French Protestant minister, was 
Mm in Savoy in 1615, He waa pastor of a Church 
>f the Waldenses, but fortunately escaped from tbe mas- 
lacre of 16S5. He afterwards went to France, and so- 
licited the inlerventioQ of the court for lii^ countrymen. 

Walloon Church in Leyden. He died in 1070. I^gei 
HUlory of die Churchn ufihe VaUegt qfPiid- 
vuml (I669> See Walukkses. 

Legerdemain. See Magic. 

Iia'gloi) (\iyiui', (irscizcd frDm tbe Latin Ugio), a 
ain division of the Koman army, corresponding nearly 

tbe modem rrgiiaenl. It always comprised a large 
body of men, but tbe number varied so much at ditTer- 
ent times that there is coiiiiderablc diicrepancy in the 
statements with reference to it. The lepun appears to 
bave originally conuined about 3000 men, and lo liave 
risen gradually to twice Ihat number, or even more. In 
and about tbe lime of Christ it •eenu to bave coiuisleil 
of 6000 men, and this was exclusive of horsemen, who 
usually formed an additional body amounting lo one 
tenth of the infantry. As all the divisions of tbe Bo- 
man army are noticed in Scripture, we may add thst 
each legion was divided into ten eohorU m baualions, 
each cohort into three vuoi^tUt or liand!i. and each man- 
iple into two nMifrtri or companies of 100 each. This 
smaller division into centuries or hundreds, fVom the 
form in which it is exhibited as a constituent of the 
larger divisions, clearly shows that 6000 bad becoDie at 
least the formal number of a legion. See Smith's Did. 
of CUui. Ani.t.v. Army, Roman. 

The word kgim came to be used lo express a great 
number or multitude (e. g. of angebi, UatL xxri, 69). 
Thui the unclean spirit (Mark v, 9 ; compare lb), when 
asked his name, aoawers, " Uy name is Legion, for ih 
are many." Many illuatrations of this use of tbe word 
might b« cited from tbe Rabbinical writers, who even 
apply it CO"?!? Of T*""?^) '0 'nanimal* objects, as when 
Ihey speak of "a legion of olives," etc (see Lighifoot, 
Hor. Uibr. ft Tabu. ; Buxlorf, Uc. TiJm. a. v.>— Kilto. 
SeeAttMT. 

Legion, Theban, according to Eucherius, was a 
legion of 6600 men (the usual number) wbicb had come 
from the Kast to render assistance to Uaximian. The 
latter having isiued orders to his whole army lo perse- 
cute the Christians, this legion aknie refused to obey. 
Tbe emperor was in the neighborhood, at Oclodurum 
(Martinach, at tbe foot of Mount St, Bernard); irri- 
Uted when be heard of the refusal of the Theban le- 
gion, he had it decimated twice, and finally, as he fail- 
ed lo secure its members lo join in persecuting Ihcir 
iren, he ordered tbeir extermination by 



LEIBNITZ 



334 



LEIBNITZ 



treatises, his philosophical and ncientiftc labors were mul- 
titudinous and multifarious. He was indefatigable in 
labor, and his mind ranged with equal rapidity and 
Bplendor over the whole domain of knowletige. Noth- 
ing was too vast for his comprehension, too dark for his 
)>enetration, too hmnble for his notice. He corrp^pon<i- 
ed with Peliseon on the conciliation and union of the 
Protestant and Catholic communions, and w;u( thus 
brought into connection with Bossuet. With Burnet 
he discussed the project of uniting the Anglicans and 
the Continental iSrotestants. He expended much time 
over the invention of a universal language. He wrote 
extensively on etymology, and the improvement of the 
German liuiguage, which he so rarely employed. Med- 
icine, botany, and other branches of natural history at- 
tracted his earnest regards. He addressed a memoir to 
Louis XIV on the Conquest^ and Colonization of Egypt ^ 
with the view to establishing a Supremacy over Europe. 
The age of chivalry and the Crusades was not over with 
him. He certainly pointed out the road to Napoleon. 
He was deeply interested in the accounts of the Chi- 
nese, and in the Jesuit missions for their conversion. 
He wrote much upon the phUosophia Sinensis^ in accord- 
ance with the delusion of the age. He engaged in an 
active but courteous controversy with Samuel Clarke, 
In which the highest and most abstruse riddles of meta- 
physics were discussed. From his historical researches 
he drew the materials for an instructive essay, De Ori- 
gine Francorum (1715) ; and so various was the range of 
topics that engaged his attention, that he commented 
on the political position and rights of English freehold- 
ers. His mind, like the sun, surveyed all things, and 
brightened all that it shone upon. This enumeration of 
his inquiries gives a very imperfect view of either the 
number or the variety of his productions. The cata- 
logue of hb writings tills thirty- three pages in the 4to 
edition of his works by Dutiens. 

The literary fecundity of Leibnitz was equalled by his 
activity in promoting the practical interests of intelli- 
gence. His correspondence linked together the schol- 
ars of all countries, furnished a bond of connection be- 
tween all learning and science, and created for the first 
time a universal republic of letters. He thus communi- 
cated an impulse to the dissemination of knowledge not 
less potent than that given by Bacon's New AUaniis, 
and by the institution of the Royal Society of England. 
Of that society he was an adjunct member, as he was 
the chief of the foreign associates of the Academy of 
Sciences of France. He suggested to the first king of 
Prussia the foundation of the Koyal Academy of Berlin, 
aided in its establishment, and became its first president 
(1700). He proposed a like institution for Dreisden, but 
was frustrated by the wars in Poland, for his zeal for 
liberal studio was contemporaneous with the conquer- 
ing campaigns of Charles XII of Sweden. When the 
Berlin Academy was endangered by the death of its 
royal founder, Leibnitz sought to open a new home for 
learning by establishing a similar society at Vienna 
(1713). The design was not carried into effect. The 
exhaustion of the finances by the War of the Spanish 
Succession, which was scarcely closed, was im&vorable 
to the scheme. Leibnitz was warmly received, was en- 
couraged by prince Eugene, was created a baron of the 
empire, and was appointed aulic coimsellor, with a sal- 
ary of 2000 florins. Two years previously he had been 
ct>n8ulted at Torgau, in regard to the civilization of 
Russia, by Peter the Great, who had made him a coun- 
sellor of the Russian empire, and had conceded a hand- 
some pension to him. All the while he remained histo- 
riographer of Brunswick. It b reported that the elector 
of Brunswick was much dissatisfied with the slow prog- 
ress of the history of his house. When the elector became 
king of England (1714), Leibnitz hastened from Vienna 
to pay his court to the monarch, but his new majesty had 
departed for his new dominions. He met the sovereign, 
however, on his return to his paternal domain. The 
years of Leibnitz were now drawing to an end. He suf- 



fered from acute rheumatism and other painfol^ daor- 
ders. Having much acquaintance with medicme, ^ 
tried novel remedies upon himself, with no 



He prolonged bis studies almost to his la^t dAjrs, a^ 
died tranquilly, with scarcely a word, on Nov. 14, 171*5. 
having reached the age of " threescore and c^n y^mT 
His monument at the gates of Hanover, erected by kii^ 
George, bears the modest inscription Ossa Le^mitiL 

Leibnitz was of medium height, and slender. Ht 
had a large head, black hair, which soon left bim bakL 
and small eyes. He was very short-flighted, but hie 
vision was otherwise sound to the end of his dayau His 
constitution was remarkably good, for he reaelfted <^ 
age without serious malady, notwithstanding tbe snain 
to which it was subjected. He drank moderat^jr* bat 
ate much, especially at supper, and immediately alter 
this heavy meal retired to rest. He was wholly irregu- 
lar in eating. He took his food whenever he ^vas bun- 
gry, usually in his library, without abandoning his 
books. Frequently he took bis only repose in bis chair, 
and occasionally pursued his reflecdons or re»earcbe«. 
without change of place, for weeks — Fontenelle says lor 
months. He read everything t— good books and bad 
books, and books on all manner of subjects. He ex- 
tracted largely from the authors perused, and made co- 
pious annotations upon then). His memory was so te- 
nacious that he rarely recurred to these Adversaria. 
He sought intercourse with men of all occupations and 
of all grades of intelligence. Every work of God or 
man was an object of interest and regard to him. He 
stretched forth his hand to everything — the election cf 
a king of Poland, the revival of the Crusades, the ccm- 
version of the heathen, the reunion of the churches, the 
codification of laws, the history of a dynasty and people, 
the constitution of the universe, the creation of new 
sciences, the derivation of words, the invention of a cal- 
culating machine, the projection of a universal lan^^oage, 
the construction of windmills, or the improvemmit of 
pleasure carriages. The extent of his correspondence 
was amazing, and may be conjectured from the list of 
distinguished correspondenta culled by Brucker from 
the ampler catalogues of Feller and Ludovici. The 
courte^ of his epistles was as notable as their multitude. 
They were scattered over all civilized nations, and were 
on an endless diversity of topics, but they were uni- 
formly marked by deference for the persons and opin- 
ions of others. This gentleness sprung from an amiable 
and cheerful nature. It was cultivated and refineil by 
intercourse with princes, and statesmen, and philoso- 
phers, and scholar, and also with the humblest classes 
of society. It was confirmed by his belief that no hon- 
est conviction can be entirely wrong. His conversation 
was easy and abundant — as full of charm as of instruc- 
tion. It may be conceded to Gibbon that completeness 
was sacrificed by Leibnitz to universality of acquire- 
ment ; but, when all his gifts aiid accomi^hments are 
embraoed in one view, he may be justly deemed to merit 
the eulogy of his French editor, Jacques : " In point of 
speculative philosophy he is the greatest intellect of 
modem times ; and had but two equals, but no superiors, 
in antiquity." 

Leibnitz was never married. He contemplated the 
experiment once, when he was fifty years of age ("de 
quo semel tantum in vita, setate jam provectior, sed 
frustra cogitavit"). The lady asked time for reflection. 
The opportunity for reflection cooled the ardor of the 
philosopher — the match was not decreed by any pre- 
established harmony, and the suit was not pressed. 

The religious fervor of Leibnitz was undoubted, but 
he was negligent of the ofiSces of religion. In his efibrts 
to promote Christian unity, and to recognise only "one 
Lord, one faith, one bapt ism," he may have felt too keenly 
the defects of rival creeds, so as to accept from none the 
truth which seemed mutilated and imperfect in each. 

Philosophy. — The mathematical and scientific, the 
historical and juridical, the linguistic and miscellaneous 
speculations of Leibniu have been noticed very inade- 



LEIBNITZ 



885 



LEIBNITZ 



J, but 18 folly A8 comports with the design of this 
im. His philosophy awaits and merits more 
consideration. It must be premised that all his 
however remote in appearance from philosophical 
n, were inspired and animated by his own pe- 
acheroe of doctrine, and were really fragmentary 
ications of his distinctive principles. Hence pro- 
that pervading spirit of refdrm which is mani- 
in all the departments of knowledge bandied by 
and which was rewarded by nomerous great tri- 
phs in so many and such dissimilar directions. When 
are neglected, the whole body of his writings is 
to be connected by many lines of interdependence, 
to be harmonized into unity by a common relation 
She central thought around which his own reflections 
y revolved. God is one, and there must be 
c<oamstency and concord in the creation of God. It is 
easy task to discern this unity, and to detect the 
scheme of the Leibnitzian philosophy. Leibnitz 
here presents a symmetrical exposition of his whole 
doctrine. His MonwJblogie, or Principia PkUosopkia, 
«r«f The»e» m Gratiam Ptincipis EuffenU, furnishes a clew 
to his system, but it is only a slender clew. Even if the 
J^v^incipe* de la Nature etdela Grace be added as a sup- 
plement, the guiding thread is very frail. His views 
loast be painfully gathered from elaborate treatises, 
fz>um occasional essays, from scientific papers, from pass- 
ing hints, from explanations of controverted points, 
from elucidations of obscure or misapprehended state- 
ments, and from the series of his multifarious epistles. 
Here a principle is thrown out, there its applications 
Aie illustrated ; in one place an erroneous conclusion or 
tt mistaken inference is corrected, in another, or in many 
others, fresh limitations or further expansions of a hy- 
pothesis are proposed. These different members of the 
imperfect whole are separated by months or years in the 
Ule of the author, or by hundreds of pages, or whole 
volumes in his collected works. It required the patient 
diligence of Christian Wolf to combine, complete, and 
organize in cumbrous quartos leaves scattered like the 
oracles of the SibyL Leibnitz had, indeed, no system 
to propound ; he had no thought of promulgating a sys- 
ton or of establishing a sect. Yet his mind was thor- 
oughly systematic The system which resulted from 
perfect coherence of thought was latent in his own mind 
from the beginning, and was consistently evolved as the 
occasion furnished the opportunity of presenting its 
several parts. The highest intellect attaches itself in- 
stinctively to a principle, and allows accident to deter- 
mine how far and when its consequences shall be un- 
rolled. Leibnitz only desired to reconcile the opinions 
<^ his illustrious predecessors ; to correct the errors and 
to supply the deficiencies which he recognised in the 
theory of his chief leader. Des Cartes, and to redress 
the evils which had flowed logically from those errors. 
The main design of his profound investigations was to 
give precision, harmony, and veracity to the immense 
stock of his own acquisitions and meditations. Had be 
reached the years of Methuselah he might have pro- 
posed a ^stem, but it would have been simply the rec- 
tification of Cartesianism, or the conciliation of Plato 
and Aristotle, of Buonaventura and Aquinas. It must 
be remembered that, of his two systematic treatises, one 
was published towards the close of his life, the other 
not till half a century after his death. His natural dis- 
position apparently inclined him to accumulate knowl- 
edge for its own sake, and to reflect upon hb acquisi- 
tions for his own satbfaction. He seemed to be impelled 
to publication only by some accidental stimulus. His 
whole life was a discipline and preparation for what he 
never found time to execute — never, perhaps, seriously 
thought of executing — a vast encyclopaedia embracing 
sU that could be known bv man. The hints thrown 
out in his long career, apt as they are for the construc- 
tion of a consistent globe of speculation, only indicate 
an undeveloped system, which is revealed by glimpses 
at the need or provocation of the moment inspired. 



From such broken and dispersed lights his philosophy , 
roust be divined. 

Leibnitz was essentially a Cartesian. He was Carte- 
sian in his method, and Cartesian in his fundamental 
principles. He never revolted from his great teacher. 
He pursued the Cartesian mode of analysis and abstrac- 
tion, he employed the Cartesian procedure by mathe- 
matical demonstration, he reasoned, like Des Cartes^ 
from presumptive principles, be accepted the Cartesian 
kidicia of truth ; but he rendered them more precise, 
and was not wholly negligent of experience. He also 
rehabilitated the Scholastic or Aristotelian logic. He 
endeavored to combine with the dominant doctrine all 
that seemed valuable in elder systems, and he fotmd 
some truth in all the schemes that he rejected. His 
imaginarion was too bold and too active to permit him 
to be the servile follower of any master, and his perspi- 
cacity was too acute to overlook the fatal defects of the 
principles and conclusions of Des Cartes. The main 
errors to be corrected sprung from the distinction made 
by the French reformer between mind and matter. Ac- 
cording to his theory, the one could not act upon the 
other. The intelligent and the material universe were 
thus hopelessly divorced. Mind was pure thought; 
matter was simple extension ; the apparent concurrence 
of the two in the phenomena of existence was due to 
divine assist ancy. See Des Cartes. Beasts were ma- 
chines galvanized into the semblance of voluntary ac- 
tion by the inten'ention of divine power. Every move- 
ment was a nodus vindice dignui. If mind is pure 
thought, all mental action must be an effluence, an ef- 
fect, or a manifestation of the one sole Intelligence. 
The distinction of minds was an impossibility. To 
Leibnitz the want of any principium kuJividuationis — 
that old war-cry of the schoolmen — was apparent. He 
discussed this topic in a public thesis before he was sev- 
enteen (May 80, 1668, OperOf tom. ii, part i, p. 4C0, ed. 
Dutens). He ascribed eniitative activity to matter, and 
a distinct entity to each individual mind. He regarded 
the human mind as an assemblage of dormant capacities 
{tvT(\iXfi(*Ot ^ ^ called into action by the stimulation 
of sensations from without, and of promptings from 
within. He departed so far from the teachings of Des 
Cartes that he ascribed soul and reason to brutes, and 
in some sort to all matter also {Leihtiiianaf § c, Optra^ 
t. vi, part i, p. 815 ; comp. § clxxxi, p. 331 ; see BayH 
Diet, IJisL Crif, tit Borarius, Pereira). If matter is 
mere extension, it must be identical with space, and is 
"without form and void,** impalpable, inconceivable, 
unreaL To give shape to " that which shape had none,'* 
motion must be recognised as an essential quality of 
matter, because form is produced by movement in space. 
Leibnitz at times goes so far as to suspect that all space 
is matter. For the production of motion, force — deter- 
minate power in action — is necessary. Of the real ex- 
istence of force the human consciousness affords assu- 
rance. From these corrections of the Cartesian postu- 
lates proceeded the mathematical and philosophical spec- 
ulations of Leibnitz in regard to vis rtra, his Theory of 
Motion^ A hstract and Concrete^ his Dynamics^ and even 
his Calculus of Infinitesimals, All internal and external 
change, all properties and accidents of matter, are only 
" modes of motion." The latest science is returning to 
similar hypotheses, though the language of science is 
altered. Observed phenomena appeared to be contra- 
dicted by the definition of body, as the conjunction of ex- 
tension and motion. Bodies were often at rest, under- 
going no sensible change. Motion could not belong to 
them essentially as aggr^^tes, but only to the constitu- 
ents from whose conjoint operation the external or the 
internal movements of the mass proceeded. If a proper- 
ty was to inhere in such constituents, matter could not 
be infinitely divisible : the process of division must be 
ultimately arrested by reaching an irreducible atom : 

"Fateare neceJ!*e *st, 
Efse ea, qiiie nollls Jam prieditu partibns exstent, 
£t miuiiua cuustent nntura." 



LEIBNITZ 



337 



LEIDRADT 



tbe ingeDiotu •rgaments, the rarioos illns- 
tzmiiotia, the abundant analogies by which this thesis b 
BMunuuned and adorned, can receive here onlv their 
meritevl tribute of admiration. When God looked upon 
tbe work, of each of the six days of creation, ** He saw 
that it iras good." More than this it is not given man 
to kiK>w : ** that which is wanting cannot be numbered." 
Bat, if all events, if all changes, if all composite actions 
occur bv divine preadaptation, it must be presumed that 
this is tlie best of worlds. There is wonderful coherence 
in the iriews of Leibnitz, interrupted and fragmentary as 
is tlMsir exposition. This dialectical consistency is so 
perfect^ and in its evolution so splendid and imposing, 
that his scheme presents, both in the process of its con- 
■tnactioii and in its structure, the charm of a dream of 
the ima^nation. Nothing approaches it in magnifi- 
oenoe bat the ideal universe of Plato. 

Of course, if this is the best of possible worlds, and if 
its phenomena are determined by the divine preordina- 
tioti or preorganization, evil, too apparent everjrwhere, 
mittft. be merely contingent — a negative characteristic, a 
nonentity in itself. Leibnitz accordingly regards evil 
siinply ss imperfection— the privation of good. God is 
perfect : anything less than God must be imperfect. All 
limitation is imperfection ; all imperfection is defect of 
good — is eviL The evil increases in quality and in de- 
gree 'with each remove from the perfection of the Su- 
preme Existence. Hence, in this best of worlds, the 
taint of evil is over the whole creation : 

"The tmtl of the serpent Is over It all.** 

AH this may be admitted, but it affords only an inade- 
quate explanation. It does not justify the retribution 
which is merited by all evil At does not recognise the 
pontiTe character of evil as the violation of the divine 
law and order; it hardly permits the notion of such vio- 
lation. Leibnitz denies the existence of physical evil 
except as a consequence of moral evil; and moral evil 
consists in voluntary increase of imperfection, in wilful 
estrangement from the Supreme Monad. Even thus, no 
snffiaent reason can be assigned for ascribing sin, and 
for attaching a material or moral penalty to what is the 
result of a natural and inevitable imperfection. This 
defect in the system is clearly pointed out by Kant. 

The unfathomable immensity of the creation can be 
bnt dimly apprehended by the finite and fallible mind 
of man. The mighty plan and purpose of God cannot 
be compressed within the compass of human intelligence. 
"We see as through a glass darkly." Schemes of the 
universe framed from broken and darkling glimpses be- 
come more delusive as thev become more svstematic 
Leibnitz's intuitive principles, abstract analysis, and 
scholastic deduction were peculiarly apt to produce hal- 
hidnations. 

Analvsis for the discoverv of ultimate abstracts ; in- 
tuition for the acceptance of clear, distinct, and adeqtmte 
i(teas; the principle of contradiction as the test of ver- 
ity ; the principle of the sufficient reason as the canon 
of actuality — these are the metaphysical principles or 
postdates of Leibnitz. The resulting philosophy, both 
in ctmception and in construction, is exposed to ^ such 
tridu as hath strong imagination,** and wants firm and 
asBuied foundation. It is a complex fantasy, a mathe- 
matical romance, a universe of shadows. Still, it is 
marked by wonderful acnteness, logical coherence, and 
purity of spirit. It preludes, if it does not anticipate, 
the main doctrines of Kant, and is the fruitful parent of 
an the subsequent philosophy of Germany. 

This exposition presents the leading tenets, the idees 
meres of Leibnitz, but it affords no image of the splen- 
did comfdeteness of the entire theory, in which God is 
presented as the first beginning and the last end— the 
Alpha and Omega of the whole order of things in time 
ind out of time. Nor does it do justice to the vigorous 
thought, the profound reflection, the comprehensive in- 
telligence, the keen penetration, the exhaustless learn- 
ing, the wealth of knowledge, the variety of illustration. 



the fervent atid lofty morality, which give grace, and 
dignity, and grandeur to the whole and to all its parts. 
EdiiH qua potui, non ut rofoi, sed ut me spatU angtutim 
coigenmt. Fuller information must be sought from his 
own extensive works, and from the elucidations afforded 
by the numerous commentators on them. 

Literature* — Leibmtii Opera (ed. Dutens, Gen. 1768, 
6 TfAa, 4to). A complete edition of all his works is that 
by Pertz (Hamburg, 1845-47, 1st series ; 1847, 2d series ; 
1858-62. 8d series). The latest is by Onno Klopp, Ist 
series, 1864-66 (6 vols. 8vo). Other editions are : O'JU' 
vres (ed. Foucher de Careil, Paris, 1854 sq., 20 vols.); 
Deutsche. SchriJ}en (ed. Guhrauer, Berlin, 1838) ; Opera 
Phiiosophica (ed. Erdmann, fieri. 1889-40) ; Opera Math- 
emcUica (ed, Gerhardt, Berlin, 1849^^) ; OCnvres (ed. 
Jacques, Par. 1842, 2 vols. 12roo) ; O^uvres phUosophigves 
(ed. Janet, Par. 1866, 2 vols. 8vo) ; Rasp^, (Kuvres Phil- 
osophiques defeu M. Leibniz (Arosterd. et Leips. 1765, 
4to) ; Feder, Lettres Choisies de la Correspondance de M. 
Leibniz (Hanover, 1805) ; Leibnitz, Memoir recommend- 
ing the Conquest of Egypi to Louis XJV, etc. (London, 
1801) ; Eccard, Leben des Leibnitz (Berl 1740); Jancourt, 
Vie de Leibniz (Amsterdam, 1756); Guhrauer, Leben des 
Leibnitz (Bre8L]842; enkrged 1846); \oge\,I.eben des 
Leibnitz (Leipsic, 1846) ; Mackie,Lt/e o/LeibniU (Bos- 
ton, 1845). Leibnitz transmitted an Autobiography to 
his fnend Pelisson, but it has never seen the light. See 
also FonteneUe, Eloge de Leibniz (Paris, 1716) ; Bailly, 
Eloge de Leibniz (Paris, 1769); HMtatt, Lobschrift auf 
Leibnitz (Altenb. 1769) ; Hanscius, G. G, LeibnUii Prin- 
dpia Philosophia more Geometrico demonstrata (1728, 
4to) ; Ludo\'ici, Principia LeHmitiana (Lips. 1737, 2 vols. 
8vo) ; Bayle, Oist, Crit, Dict,^ may be consulted, especial- 
ly under the title Rorarius ; Emery, Esprit de Leibniz^ 
etc (Lyons, 1772, 2 vols. 8vo; reprinted, Paris, 1803) ; 
Emery, Exposition de la Doctrine de LeS/mz sur la Re- 
%um\Paris, 1819, 8vo) ; Brucker, IJist, Crit, Philosophia 
(LipSk 1767 ; still an indispensable authority for Leib- 
nitz) ; Dugald Stewart, SvppL Encydop, Britamtica ; Sir 
James Mackintosh, ibid, ; Morell, Hist. PhiL XJXth Cen- 
tury (New York, 1848, 8vo) ; Lewes, Hist, of Philosophy 
(new edition, 2 vola 8vo), vol. ii ; and the other histo- 
rians of modem philosophy; Biographie UuicerteUe^ s. 
v. Leibniz, by Biot, Duvau, Maine de Biran, and Stapfer ; 
Schelling, /.eibnitz als Denker; llelferich, Spinoza und 
Leibnitz ; Zimmermann, Leibnitz und Herbart (Wien, 
1849) ; Feuerbach, DarsteUungy Entwicktlung und Kritik 
der Leibnitzschen Philosophie (Anspach, 1837) ; Leckey, 
Nist, of Morals J i, 25 ; Baumgarten-Crusius, Dogmen- 
gesch,; Hunt, Pantheism^ p. 247 ; Gass, Dogmengesch, voL 
ii and iii ; Hurst, Hist, of Rationalism, p. 6, 108 ; Saintee, 
Rationalism, p. 66; Farrar, Crit, Hist, of Free Thought, 
p. 56 sq. ; Domer, Gesch, d, protest, Theol, p. 684 sq. ; Jour- 
nal of Spec, Philos, voL i. No. 3, art, i ; vol. iii, No. 1 , art. 
V ; Revue Chret, 1868, p. 9 ; Brewster, Life of Sir Isaac 
Newton; Edinb, Rev, \S46 (July); Atlantic Monthly jl^bS 
(June); CAm^ion ^j^om/nfr, xxviii, 418 sq. ; Cvntemp, 
Review, May, 1867, art, iii ; Meth. Qu, Rev, 1851 (AprU), 
p. 189, 211 ; 1862 (April), p. 335; Rerue des d, Mondes, 
1861 (Jan.), p. 15 ; also (Sept), p. 81. (G. F. H.) 

Leidradt, a noted Roman Catholic prelate, proba- 
bly a Bavarian, flourished in the 8th century. He was 
librarian to Charlemagne until 798, when he was made 
archbishop of Lyons. He was sent soon after by Char- 
lemagne, together with the bishop of Orleans and other 
prelates, into the southern provinces of France, to sup- 
press by moral means the spreading heresy of Adop- 
tianism, and they succeeded in bringing the chief teach- 
er of this doctrine, Felix, to acknowledge his error before 
the coimcU held at Aix in 799. In 800 Leidradt was 
successful with his co-laborers in restoring 20,000 Adop- 
tianists. The zeal which he everywhere displayed ap- 
pears in a letter written to Charlemagne not long before 
the latter's death. He writes : " 1 have done my best 
to increase as far as necessary the number of priests. 1 
have established the Psalm service after the model of 
that observed in your palace, and have erected singing- 



LEIGHTON 



339 



LEIPSIC 



CaUM>Ik»ain in North Britaiu, the paschal and many 
other questions were again so fiercely urged that Col- 
roan and most of the former clergy left and returned 
to Ireland. Agun, in 1070, when Malcolm Canmore 
bcoa^ht Margaret, his Saxon wife, to Scotland, she was 
shocked to find the faith and public worship of her new 
aub^ects bo dilTerent from the Catholic Church of £ng> 
land. ATter laboring long to induce her husband to 
adopt tbe ritea and order of the Saxon Catholics, she 
had a tlikree days' discussion with the existing clergy 
and the Culdees of lona, she speaking in Saxon and her 
hmband interpreting in Irish. See Todd, Irigh Churchy 
chap, vi ; Usher, BriL Ecdes, AnHq. cap. xvii (Workit 
vi, 492-610). 

Xaei^litoii, Alexander, a Scottish divine, was bom 
at Edinburgh in 1668. He was professor of moral phi- 
loaophy in that city for several years prior to 1618, when 
he removed to London, and obtained a lectureship. For 
iibeUous or offensive expressions against the king, queen, 
axul the bishops, in his book called Zion*s Plea (1629), 
he was punished by the Star Chamber with mutilation, 
the pillory, and long imprisonment. He was released 
in 1640. and died about 1646. Archbishop Laud was 
no doubt responsible for the cruel and inhuman treat- 
ment of Leighton. See Laud. 

Xieighton, Robert, a Scottish prelate, one of the 
moat distinguished preachers and theologians of the 17th 
century, was bom in Edinburgh, or, as others think, in 
Lrfxndou, in the year 1611. He was educated at the uni- 
▼ersity of the former city, and there took his degree of 
M.A. in 1681, when he went to the Continent to study, 
e^>ecially in France. Here he resided with some rela- 
tive at Douay, and formed the acquaintance of several 
Roman Catholic students, whose.Chnstian virtues made 
him a charitable Christian towards all who bore tbe 
name of his Master. "Gentle, tender, and pious from 
his earliest years, he shrunk from all violence and intol- 
erance; but his intercourse with men whose opinions 
were so different from hb own convinced his reason of 
the folly and sinfulness of * thinking too rigidly of doc- 
trine."* He returned to Scotland in 1641, and was im- 
mediately appointed to the parish of Newbattle, near 
Edinburgh ; but as Leighton identified himself with the 
cause of Charles I when the latter was confined, by the 
commissioners of the Parliament, in Holmby House, he 
brought upon his head the displeasure of the Presbyte- 
rians, and, according to bishop Burnet, "he soon came 
to dislike their Covenant, particularly their imposing it, 
and their fury against all who differed from them. He 
found they were not capable of large thoughts; theirs 
were narrow as their tempers were sour; so he grew 
weary of mixing with them," and became an Episco- 
palian. For this change, however, there were serious 
obstacles in Leighton's case, and it has therefore been a 
matter of general disapprobation. Certainly the facility 
with which he fraternized with the party that had in- 
flicted such horrid cruelties on his excellent father. Dr. 
Alexander Leighton, in 1680, for merely publishing a 
book in favor of Presbyterianism, cannot be altogether 
approved (comp. Proceedinga of the Society of Antiquu' 
ries ofSeotlandy iv, 463 sq.). In 1662 he resigned his 
charge, and in the following year was elected principal 
of the University of Edinburgh, a dignity which he re- 
tained for ten yean. Earnest^ spiritual, and utterly free 
from an selfish ambition, he labored without ceasing for 
the welfare of the students. He delivered lectures es- 
pecially to the students of theolog}', and occasionally 
supplied the place of divinity professor. His theolog- 
ical lectures are known to the learned world, and have 
been translated into English. For pure Latin, sublime 
thought, and warm diction, they have never been sur- 
passed, and seldom equalled. In that office Dr. Leigh- 
ton was truly the ornament and delight of the univer- 
sity, and a blessing to studious youth. After the resto- 
ration of Charies 11 and the re -establishment of the 
rpiuopacy in Scotland, Lrighton, after much reluctance, 



accepted the bishopric of Dunblane, a small and poor 
diocese, and was consecrated at Westminster Dec 15, 
1661. Unfortunately for his peace, the men with whom 
he was now allied were even more intolerant and un- 
scrupulous than the Presbyterians. The despotic meas- 
ures of Sharpe and Lauderdale sickened him. Twice he 
proceeded to London (in 1665 and 1669) to implore the 
king to adopt a milder course— on tbe former of these 
occasions declaring "that he could not concur in the 
planting of the Christian religion in such a manner, much 
less as a form of government." Nothing was really 
done, though much was promised, and Leighton had to 
endure the misery of seeing an ecclesiastical system 
which he believed to be intrinsically the best, perverted 
to the worst of purposes, and himself the accomplice of 
the worst of men. In 1670, on the resignation of Dr. 
Alexander Burnet^ he was made, quite against his per- 
sonal wishes, archbishop of Glasgow, and he finally ac* 
cepted this great disrinction only on the condition that 
he should be assisted in his attempts to carry out a lib- 
eral measure for " the comprehension of the Presbyteri- 
ans." But finding, after a time, that his efforts to unite 
the different parties were all in vain, and that he could 
not stay the hi^h-handed tyranny of his colleagues, he 
finally determined to resign the ecclesiastical dignity (in 
1673). After a short residence in Edinburgh, he went 
to live with his sister at Broadhurst, in Sussex, where 
he spent the rest of his days in a retired manner, devoted 
chiefly to works of religion. He died at London June 
25, 1684. Leighton published nothing during his life- 
time. His great work is his Practical Commentary vpon 
the First General Epistle qf St. Peter ; not a learned ex- 
position by any means, for the writer hardly notices 
questions of philology at all, but perhaps no more re- 
markable instance is extant of the power which sympa- 
thy with the writer gives in enabling an expositor to 
bring out and elucidate his meaning. Another able 
work of his is Pnelectiones Theologim^ of which an edi- 
tion was published a few years ago by the late profess- 
or Scholefield of Cambridge; also some sermons and 
charges. There is an edition of his work in 4 vols. Svo, 
Lond. 1819 ; but the best edition is that of Pearson (Lond. 
1828 ; N. Y. 1859, 8vo). Another good edition was pub- 
lished in 1871, in 6 vols. 8vo. All of Leighton's writ- 
ings have received the highest commendations because 
of the lofty and evangelical spirit that pervades them. 
They present the truths of Christianity in the spirit of 
Plato, and it was this that recommended them so much 
to Coleridge, whose A ids to Pefection are simply com- 
mentaries on the teachings of archbishop Leighton. 
" Few uninspired writings," says Dr. Doddridge, " are 
better adapted to mend the world: they continually 
o^rflow with love to God and man." See Hethering- 
ton, Ch. o/Scotlandy ii, 22 sq., 70 sq.; Bumefs History 
of his Own Times; Burnet's Pastoral Care; Doddridge's 
Preface to Leighton's Works ; The Remains of A rchHsh- 
op Leighton, by Jerment (1808); his Select Works, by 
Cheeyer (Boston, 1832) ; Pearson, Life of Robert Leighton 
(1882) ; Kitto, QfcL Bibl, Liter, vol ii, s. v. ; Chambers, 
Cyclop, voL vi, 8. V. ; Chambers, Biog, Diet, of Eminent 
Scotsmen, s. v. ; Allibone, Diet. Brit, and A met. A uthors, 
vol. ii, s. v. 

Leipsic, Colloquy of, in 1681. The disputes 
which occurred in the 16th^ntury, when the two evan- 
gelical churches framed their confession of faith, had 
produced great bitterness between the Lutherans and 
Calvinists. Attempts at reconciliation had already been 
made by pious individuals in the 16th century, and still 
others in the 17th, as, for instance, by the indefatigable 
Scotchman Dumus, and by Bnpertus Meldenius, but 
with little success. It was the trial which the evan- 
gelical churches of Germany tmderwent during the 
Thirty Years' War that really first made the two sister 
communions forsake their former hostility. They saw 
that they were both standing on the brink of a preci- 
pice, and the ties which bound them to each other were 
strengthened. Both the authorities and the people 



LEJAY 



341 



LELAND 



prt of the 14th and the early yean of the 15th century. 
He fint comes under our notice as one of the two prel- 
lle»— the archhishop of Prague being the other — before 
whom John Huss was to be cited for heresy. Hb posi- 
tion and influence in Bohemia were such that Stephen 
Faktz, writing against Huss, dedicated to him his IHa- 
hffus VoltMtUU. As the troubles at Prague increased, he 
was one of those to whom the archbishop of Prague ap- 
pbed for advice, and his response was in accordance with 
bis notoriously stem and unbending character. When 
the Council of Constance met in 1414, he was preset as 
a member, and took a leading part in its proceedings. 
He was the first to denounce the Caliztine practice, 
recently introduced by Jacobcl at Prague, and he was 
commiasioned bv the council to take measures for its 
snpprearion. His enmity to Huss was signalized by the 
language used by him in the council, and excited the 
deep indignation of the friends of the Reformer, who did 
not hesitate to reprehend his course publicly in severe 
terma. His persistent energy, however, merited the eu- 
logioms of the council, and by them he was appointed to 
b^ their threatening letter to Bohemia, in which they 
attempted to terrify the followers of Huss into submis- 
aon. The misdon, however, proved a failure. The 
poson of the bishop was no longer safe In his own coun- 
try, and he returned to the counciL The first reward 
of his diligence was his promotion, about A.D. 1416, to 
the bishopric of Olmutx, in Moravia. On the secession 
of Conrad, archbishop of Prague, to the Calixtines a 
short time afterwards, he was promoted to the vacant 
dignity. This, however, he was not destined to enjoy. 
The ascendency of the Calixtines must have excluded 
him from Prague, if not from Bohemia ; and perhaps 
among all the enemies of the Hussites, during the pe- 
riod of their religious wars, there was no one who could 
have been sooner made the victim of their vengeance 
than the obnoxious bishop. But aa no mention is made 
of him at a subsequent date, and as he does not appear 
to have faUen into the hands of the Hussite leaders, we 
may presume that his life must have closed soon after 
the dissolution of the Council of Constance. He was 
eminently a martial prelate, and was knovm by the 
sobriquet of ** John the Iron." Notices of him will be 
found in many histories of hb times. See Von der Hardt, 
AwtkoriiUa on the Council ofComtaiux ; Lenfant, Covm- 
cU of Cotutance ; Gillett, Life and Times of John HusSf 
vok i and ii ; F. Polacky, Mag, J, Hue Documenta. — Ne- 
•Oder, CA. Hist, v, 296 sq. (£. H. G.) 

Lejay, Gui-Micrbl, a noted French scholar in ex- 
egetiod theology, was bom at Paris in 1588. While at 
the high school he paid particular attention to the East- 
em languages, and in 1615 projected a polyglot of the 
Bible, known as the Paris Polygtot (Paris, 1629-45, 10 
vols, folio), and entitled Biblia Hebraica, Samaritana^ 
Ckaldaicaf Grasca, Syriaca, fxUina, A rabicOj quibus tex- 
tui origumles totius Scr^tura sacm, quarum pars in 
(ditione Complutensi^ deinde m Antwerpiensi rtgiis sump- 
tSms extatf nunc vtteffri ex mamtacriptis toto fere orbe 
fvasitig estemplaribus exhibentur. The first four vols, 
contain the Heb., Chald., Sept, and Yulg. texts of the 
O.T.; vols, vand vi the N. T. in Gr., Syr., Arab., and 
Ltt; voL vii, the Heb. Samar. Pent., the Sam. version, 
with translation by Morinus, the Arab, and Syr. Pent. ; 
Tob, riii-x, the rest of the books of the O. Test, in Syr. 
sod Arab. Lejay lost lately by this publication ; but, 
as a reward for his labor and cost, he was ennobled. 
The work was the best of its kind till the London Poly- 
glot appeared, by which it was soon superseded. See 
Lekmg, Discours kistorique sur les principales editions 
de$ Bibles poiyffiottes (Pari^ 1718, 12mo). [•. 104 sq., 879. 
399 aq., 545, 546 sq. ; Hoefer, A'biir. Bioff, Generale, xxx, 
512 iq. ; Ritto, Cyclop, Bibl, IM, voL ii, s. v. 

Lejbowicz. See Frakk. 

Lcjulve, Paul, a French Jesuit missionary, was 
bom in 1592, entered the Jesuitical order, and labored in 
Canada for seventeen years. He returned to France in 



1632, and died Aug. 7, 1664. He published a descriptive 
work on Canada and its native tribes (7 vols., 1640).— 
Hoefer, Xouv, Biog, Gen, xxx, 518. 

Leland, Aaron, a Baptist minister, sixth in de- 
scent from Henry LeUud, the Puritan ancestor of all the 
Lelands in America, but in a different line from hb more 
noted contemporary, Rev. John LeUnd, was bom in Hol- 
liston, Blass., May 28, 1761. Of a naturally vigorous and 
inquisitive mind, he grew up with a larger measure of 
intelligence than his limited means of early cultura 
would have indicated as probable. He united in 1786 
with the Baptist Church in Bellingham, by which 
Church he was licensed to preach, and subsequently or» 
dained. He soon after removed to Chester, Vt., where 
he gathered a small Church, which in thirteen years 
had become five— in Chester, Andover, Grafton, Weth- 
ersfield, and Cavendish. From Chester he visited Ja- 
maica, in the same county, guided through the wilder- 
ness by marked trees: these visits resulted in the for- 
mation of several churches in that vicinity. He was 
not only an active and successful minbter, but had im- 
portant civil trusts committed to Mm by the suffrages 
of hb fellow-citizens. He sat in the state Legislature 
several years; three years he was speaker of the House; 
four years a member of the council; five years succes- 
sively lieutenant governor; and nothing but hb own 
conviction of its incompatibility with the duties of hb 
higher calling prevented hb election to the govemor- 
ship of the state. He refused to permit any civil en- 
gagements to hinder hb usefulness and success as a 
Chrbtian minbter, and he continued to fulfil hb calling 
with great energ}', zeal, and success, until worn out with 
toil. He died August 25, 1888. He was a popular and 
effective preacher. Hb commanding form and counte- 
nance; his musical and sonorous voice; hb ready and 
fervid, often impassioned utterance ; hb vigorous intel- 
lect and great tendemess of spirit, gave him unusual 
power over congregations. He was often sought as an 
orator on public occasions, and called to give counsel in 
ecclesiastical questions. Hb zeal was enlbted in the 
temperance cause, insbting on total abstinence from in- 
toxicating beverages, and in promoting ministerial edu- 
cation and all liberal culture. He was in the board of 
fellows of Middlebury College from the year 1800 till hb 
death. (L.E.S.) 

LelancL John (1), a celebrated Englbh divine, 
was bom at Wigan, Lancashire, Oct, 18, 1691, and was 
educated at the University in Dublin. In 1716 he be- 
came pasfor of a Presbyterian Church in Dublin. He 
afterwards dbtingubhed himself in a series of works in 
which he defended with great eloquence the Christian 
religion against the attacks of Atheists and Debts. As 
an acknowledgment of hb services, the University of 
Aberdeen gave him the title of D.D. He died Jan. 16, 
1766. Hb important works are, Defence of Christianity 
(DubUn, 1788, 2 vols. 8vo, and often; intended as an an- 
swer V Tindal's Christianity as old as the Creation, Duh- 
lin, 1778, 2 vols. 8vo) :—The divine A uthority of the Old 
and New Testament asserted, with a particular Indication 
of the Characters of Moses and the Prophets^ and Jesus 
Christ and his Apostles^ against the unjust Aspersions 
and false Reasoning of a Book entitled " The Moral Phi' 
losopher*' (Lond. 1739, 8vo) :— View of the principal De- 
istical Writers m Englttnd in the last and present Century 
(ibid. 1754, 2 vols. 8vo), and two supplements. A new 
edition, with AppendLx, by W. L. Brown, D.D., was pub- 
lished in 1798 (2 vols. 8\ o). The best edition b the 
fifth, which has a valuable Introduction, comprising a 
succinct xiew of the subsequent hbtory of the contm- 
versy, by Cyrus R. Edmonds (London, 1887, 8vo). He 
who can read thb work and yet remain an unbeliever 
in Christianity must be hopelessly obtuse or perversely 
prejudiced .—A dvantage and Necessity of Christian Rev- 
eUition (London, 1764. 2 vob. 4to). After hb death, his 
Sermons were publbhed in 4 volumes 8vo by Dr. Isaac 
Weld, with the Life of Dr. Leland. See the last work, 



L£ MERCIER 



343 



LEND 



tioa of the CM. Testament. He had previouBly been 
M of the tranfllators of the New Testament of Mous 
1667), which was often reprinted. In consequence of 
ioewcd pensecution, he left Port Royal in 1679, seeking 
eaoe mod quiet at the country seat of a friend of his. 
Itere he died, Jan. 4, 1684. He published French ver- 
loiis of several damical works, and of valuable theolog- 
»1 treatises; also of Thomas k Kempis*s Imitation, Sec 
loefer, Xout, Biog, GeniraU, xxx, 568 ; Ste. Beuve, Port 
lojaL, ii, 1 , 2 ; Kitto, BibL Cyclop, s. v. Sacy, de. 

I«e lift eroier, Jacques, a French architect, bom at 
^Nltoi9e about 1600, is noted as the builder of the 
^urch of the Sorbonne at Paris, reared by order of car- 
linal Richelieu about 1635. Lc Mercier obtained the 
itle of chief architect to the king. Among other ad- 
oired works of his arc the Church of the Anncmciade at 
rooTSy and that of Saint Koch in Paris. He died in 
1660.— Thomas, Biog, Diet. p. 1401 ; Hoefer, Now, Biog, 
J^meraU, xxx, 583. 

laemoine, Fran90Is, a celebrated French painter of 
the 18th century, was bom at Paris in 1688. He was 
the pupil of Louis Galloche, early distinguished himself, 
and in 1718 was elected a member of the Royal Academy 
of Painting. His great reputation at this time is due 
mainly to his paintuig, in oil, of the Transfiguration of 
Christ on the ceiling of the choir of the Church des Jac- 
obins, Rue du Bacq. In 1724 Lemoine visited Italy, and 
in the year following, on his return to France, was made 
profewor of painting in the Academy. Louis XV ap- 
pointed him in 1736 his principal painter, with a salary 
of 4100 francs, in the place of Louis de Boullogne, de- 
ceased. The first of Lemoine's great works was the 
cupola of the chapel of the Virgin in St. Sulpice, in fres- 
co, which he commenced in 1729 — a work of three years' 
labor. His masterpiece, however, is the Apotheosis of 
Ucrcuks, painted in oil on canvas pasted on the ceiling 
of the Salon d'Hercule at Versailles, commenced in 1732, 
and finished in 1786. He committed suicide June 4, 
1737. See Hoefer, Nouv. Biog, Generalej xxx, 617 , Eng- 
Usk Cyciopixdia^ s. v. 

L'ZSmperetir, Constantine, a celebrated Dutch 
Orioitalist, was bom at Oppyck, in the Netherlands, 
about 1570. He was professor of Hebrew at Harder- 
wyk until 1627, when he was called to the XJniversity 
of Leyden as professor of Hebrew, and some time after 
was made professor of theology in that high school He 
died in 1648. L'Empereur edited the Commentary of 
Aben-Exra and Mos. Alschech on Isa. lii, 13-liii, 12, with 
notes (Leyd. 1633) | and the Paraphrase of Joseph ben- 
Jachja on Daniel, with translation and notes (Amsterd. 
1633 X also the Mishnic tracts Baba Kama and Afiddoth 
(Leyd. 1737, 4to). He wrote himself/^ IHgnitate et Util- 
itaie Lingua Hebraica (1627, 8vo) : — Ckwia TcUmudica, 
complecttnt formulas, loca diaUctica et logica pri»corum 
Judaorum (Leyden, 1634, 4to): — De legg, Hebr,foren», 
(Leyd. 1637, 4to); and Diaputatione* tiieologica (Leyd. 
1648, 8vo). See Kitto, Cyclop, BibL Lit, s. v. : Hoefer, 
Aoirr. Biog, Gin, xxx, 642 ; FUrst, BibL Jud, i, 245 sq. 

Ziempri^re, John, a distinguished English biogra- 
pher, was bora in Jersey about 1760. Ho was educated 
•t Winchester and at Pembroke College, Oxford, and 
sobsequently became first head master of Abingdon 
Grammar-school, and later of the school at Exeter. In 
1810 he resigned the latter, and the following year was 
(msented to the livings of Meeth and Newton Petrock, 
in Devonshire, which he retained until his death. Feb. 1, 
1824. Leropriere was a man of extensive leaming, and 
thoroughly acquainted with antiquity. His Bibliotheca 
CUunca ( 1788, 8vo { subsequently roprinted, with addi- 
tions by himself) is still in general use in the universi- 
ties. He wrote also a translation of Herodotus, with 
notes (1792), of which the first volume only was pub- 
Ushed, and a Universal Biography (1803, 4to and 8vo). 
This last work, compiled ¥rith great care, has ran through 
Kvend editions. The name of Lempri^re was once well 
kaofwn to every English-speaking classical student, but 



the rising generation is forgetting it, and it will soon 
become vox et prmterea nihiL A Classical Dictionary 
{Bibliotheca Classical 1788) of his was for many years 
the English standard work of reference on all matters 
of ancient mythology", biography, and geography. See 
Davenport, A rm, Biog, 1824 ; Hoefer, Nouv, Biog. Genir, 
XXX, 643 ; Chambers, Cyclopadia, s. v. ; Allibonc, Diet, 
of Brit, and A mer, A uthors, voL ii, s. v. 

Lem'uSl (Hebrew LemuiV, ^K^'ob, Prov. xxxi, 1 ; 
SepL i)vb ^<oD, Vulgate Lamml; also Lemoil, ^K^ab^ 

Prov. xxxi, 4; Sept, iravra iruai, Vulgate Lamuel), an 
unknown prince, to whom the admonitory apothegms 
of Prov. xxxi, 2-9 were originally addressed by his 
mother. Most interpreters understand Solomon to be 
meant either s^-mbolically (the name signifying to God, 
i. e. created by him) or by a pleasing epithet (see Ro- 
senmUller, Scholia ad Prov. p. 718). The Rabbinical 
commentators identify Lemuel with Solomon, and tell 
a strange talc that when he married the daughter of 
Pharaoh, on the day of the dedication of the Temple, 
he assembled musicians of all kinds, and passed the 
night awake. On the morrow he slept till the fourth 
hour, with the keys of the Temple beneath his pillow, 
when his mother entered, and upbraided him in the 
words of Prov. xxxi, 2-9. Others (e. g. (irotius) refer 
it to Hezekiah (by a precarious etymology), while still 
others (e. g. Gesenius) think that no Israelite is referred 
to, but some neighboring petty Arabian prince. On the 
other hand, according to Eichhom {Einleitung, v, 106), 
Lemuel is altogether an imaginary person (so Ewald; 
comp. Bertholdt, v, 2196 sq.). Prof. Stuart {CommenL 
on Prov, p. 403 sq.) renders the expression ** Lemuel, the 
king of Massa," and regards him as the brother of Agur, 
whom he makes to have been likewise a son of the 
queen of Massa, in the neighborhood of Dumah. See 
Aoub; Ithiel. In the reign of Hezekiah, a roving 
band of Simeonites drove out the Amalekites from 
Mount Seir and settled in their stead (1 Chron. iv, 38- 
43), and from these exiles of Israelitish origin Uitzig 
conjectures that Lemuel and Agur were descended, the 
former having been bora in the laud of Israel ; and that 
the name Lemuel is an older form of Nemuel, the first- 
bora of Simeon {Die Spruche Sahmo's^ p. 310-314). 
But this interpretation is far-fetched ; and none b more 
likely than that which tixes the epithet upon Solomon. 
»See Proverbs. 

Lemiirds, the general designation given by the Ro- 
mans to all spirits of departed persons, of whom the 
good were honored as Lares (q. v.), and the bad (Lar- 
vse) were leare<l, as ghosts or spectres still are by the 
superstitious. The common idea was that the Lemures 
and Lar>*se were the same, and were said to wander 
about during the night, seeking for an opportunity of 
intiicting injury on the living (Horat. Epist, ii, 2, 209 ; 
Pers. V, 185). The festival called Lemuria was held on 
the 9th, lltb, and 13th of May, and was accompanied 
with ceremonies of washing hands, throwing black beans 
over the head, etc., and the pronunciation nine times of 
these words: "Begone, you spectres of the house!" 
which deprived the Lemures of their power to harm. 
Ovid describes the Lemuria in the fifth book of his 
FastL See De Deo Sacr, p. 237, ed. Bip. ; Servius, ad 
^iCn, iii, 63 ; Varro, ap. Nor. p. 135 ; comp. Hartung, Die 
Religion der Romer. i, 56, etc \ Smith, Diet, of Greek and 
Rom. Biog. and Myth. voL ii, s. v. ; Chambers, Cyclcp, s. v. 

Itend (represented by several Heb. wonls which in 
other forms likewise siguify to borrow^ e. g. fT^?, lavah' ; 
TV^^ynashah'; l£Zy,abat'; Gr.cavdl^tMt^xP^**')' Among 
the Israelites, in the time of Moses, it must have been 
very common to lend on pledge, in the strict sense, ac- 
cording to the meaning of the word in natural law, which 
allows the creditor, in case of non-payment, to appropri- 
ate the pledge to his own behoof, without any authori- 
tative interference of a magistrate, and to keep it just 
as rightfully as if it had been bought with the sum 



LENG 



345 



LENT 



the most important of his other productions 
^cggiana, or the L\ft^ CharaeUr^ and AfaxvM of 
be aeMrraied flarentme Writer Poggio (Amsterdam, 
7^20^ z^A Pre ven tiv e agaimt Reunion with the See of 
2onu», tmd Heatons/or Separation from that See (Am- 
tt^erdam, 1723), a work which continues to enjoy great 
x>p«ilarity among Protestants : — Bistoire du Coru^ de 
FSi«ey et de ce qui s'ist passi de phu memorable depuis 
ae C€pmcile juaqu'a cebti de Coiutance, a learned and ac- 
work, written with sufficient impartiality (Am- 
1724, 2 vols. 4to) * — a volume containing sixteen 
on different Texts 0/ Scripture (1728) :— a small 
volume of Remarks on Gisbert*s Treatise on Puipit JClo^ 
tpt^mce, a work which has greatly added to his already 
lii^li reputation : — Histoire de la Guerre des Hussites et 
d^ 0<mcile de B6U (Amsterd. 1781, 2 vols. 4to), for which 
Ike bad been many years collecting materials, and in the 
fweparation of which, through the influence of the king 
<»f Prussia, he had access to the archives of the corpora- 
txoa of Basle. See English CydopeediOf s. v. ; Hoefer, 
Aowv. Biog. Giner(Ue, xxx, 667; BibUoth. Germamque, 
115 sq. 

, John, an English prelate, was bom in 1665, 
and, after having completed his studies at Cambridge, 
becaune chaplain to king George I. In 1723 his royal 
mwtfer made Leng bbhop of Norwich. He died in 1727. 
He published editions of the Plutus and Nubes of Aris- 
tophanes (1695):— an excellent edition of Terence (Cam- 
bridge, i701)^— iS«-woii» at Boyle's Lectures (1717-18), 
and twelve separate Sermons (1699-1727). See Nich- 
ols's Lit. A nee, Lyson's Environs, — Allibone, Dictionary 
of British and American Authors^ ii, 1084. 

I«eDgerke, Casar, a noted German theologian, was 
bora at Hamburg March 30, 1803. He was educated at 
the University of Kdnigsberg, and became a professor 
of tbeokgy and Oriental languages at that high school 
in 1829. He died Feb. 3, 1855. His most important 
works are, De Ephrami Syri arte hermeneutica Uber 
(1881) :— />a« Buch Daniel (1885) .—Kenaan, Volks und 
Reiigionsgesch, IsraeU, voL i (1814). 

Zienoir, John, a French Jansenist priest, was bom 
at Alen^on in 1622. He became theological canon of 
Seez in 1652, and acquired great reputation as a preach- 
er both in Normandy and at Paris. He was accused 
of Jansenism, and by his quarrelsome disposition was 
made the subject of many annoyances. Rooxel de Me- 
davy, bishop of Seez, who had issued a charge for the 
pubtication of the Formulary, accused him of various 
errors, namely, of having permitted the publication of 
a work entitled I^ Chritim Champitre by a layman, 
who said expressly that ^ there are four divine persons 
who are to be worshipped by the faithful, namely, Jesus 
Christy St, Joseph, St, Anna, and St. Joachim; and that 
our Lord is present in the sacrament of the altar like a 
chicken in an egg-shelL** Lenoir presented then a pe- 
tition to Loub XIY, together with an attack on some 
propositions which he considered as hereticaL His 
writings on these subjects were exceedingly violent : he 
attacked Rouxel de Medavy, who was then archbishop 
of Bouen, and even De Harlay, the archbishop of Paris. 
A commission was appointed to judge him, and he was 
condemned, April 24, 1684, to make a public apology in 
front of the cathedral at Paris, and to work for life on 
the galleys. The sentence was not fully carried out; 
but he remained a prisoner successively in the prisons 
of St. Malo, Brest, and Nantes until his death, April 22, 
1692. He wrote, A vantages incontestables de VEglise sur 
les Calvinistes (Paris and Sens, 1673, 12mo) -.—Nourelles 
Utmieres politiques^ ou VEvangik nouveau (1676 and 
1687, 12mo: this work arrested the publication of a 
French translation of the History of the Council of Trent 
by Pallavicini, and went through a third edition under 
the title of Politique et Intrigues de la cour de Rome 
[1696, ]2mo]): — Vereque de cour oppose a VivSque 
apostoUque (O>logne, 1682, 2 vols, 12mo) -.—L^tre a Af^ 
la duchesse de Guise sur la domination ipiscopale^ etc 



(1679, 12mo). See SuppUm, au N^erolog, de Port Royal, 
1735; Diet, hist, des auteurs eccles,; Feller, Diet, hist,; 
Hoefer, Nouv, Biog, Gin, xxxviii, 203. (J. N. P.) 

Lent, the forty days' fast, is the preparation for Eas- 
ter in the Western, Eastern, and Lutheran churches, 
and in the Church of England, and was instituted at a 
very early age of Christianity. In most languages the 
name given to this fast signifies the number of the days 
— Forty ; but our word Lent signifies the Spring Fastf 
for ^Lenten -Tide*" in the Anglo-Saxon language was 
the season of spring, in German Lenz, (For another 
etymology, see Lentile.) It is observed in commem- 
oration of our Lord's fast in the wilderness (Matt, iv) ; 
and although he did not impose it on the world by an 
express commandment, yet he showed plainly enough 
by his example that fasting, which God had so frequent- 
ly ordered in the old covenant, was also to be practised 
by the children of the new. The observance of Lent 
was doubtless strongly confirmed by those words of the 
Redeemer in answer to the disciples of John the Bap- 
tist : ** Can the children of the Bridegroom moum as 
long as the Bridegroom is with them? But the days 
will come when the Bridegroom shall be taken away 
from them, and then shall they fast" (Luke v, 34, 85). 
Hence we find, in the Acts of the Apostles, that the dis- 
ciples, after the foundation of the Church, applied them- 
selves to fasting. In their epistles, also, they recom- 
mended it to the faithful. The primitive Christians 
seem to have considered Christ, in the above-mentioned 
passage, as alluding to the institution of a particular 
season of fasting and prayer in his future (^urch, and 
it was therefore only natural that they should have 
made this period of penitence to consist of forty days^ see- 
ing that our diviae Master had consecrated that num- 
ber by hb own fast, and before him Moses and Elijah 
had done the same^ it was even deduced from the forty 
years* staying of the Israelites in the desert (Augustine, 
Serm, cdxiv, § 6). See Fasting, voL iii, p. 489 (II). 

I. Practice qfthe Early Church. — In the age immedi- 
ately succeeding that of the apostles, it does not appear 
that much value was attached to the practice of fasting. 
In the Shepherd of Hermaa it is spoken of in disparaging 
terms. Very little notice was taken of fasting by the 
vrriters of the first centuries, which may be accounted 
for from the discouraging influence of the doctrines of 
Montanus, the tenets of the new Platonic school, and 
the progress of Gnosticism. Hence it seems that the 
observance of fasts was introduced into the Church slow- 
ly and by degrees. We learn from Justin Martyr that 
fasting was joined with prayer at Ephesus in the ad- 
ministration of baptism, which is worthy of being noted 
as an early addition to the original institution. In the 
2d century, in the time of Victor and Irensus, it had 
become usual to fast before Easter, yet it consisted not 
in a single fast, but rather in a series of solemnities, 
which were deemed worthy of celebration. It was 
therefore the custom of several congregations to pre- 
pare themselves by mortification and fasting, inaugu- 
rated on the afternoon of the day on which they com- 
memorated the crucifixion, and it was continued until 
the morning of the anniversary of the resurrection. The 
whole interval would thus be only about forty hours 
(Chrysostom, Orat, adv. JudceoSj iii, § 4, vol. i, p. 611 : ol 
irarkpti irviruttrap, k.t.X. ; Bom, ii m Genesin, § 1, vol. 
iv, p. 8 ; Irenseus, Epist. ad Victorin, Papam ; Ensebius^ 
Hist. Ecd. Vf24; D\onyB,Aiex, Epist, Canon,; Beveridge, 
Synoduon), Clement of Alexandria, however, speaks of 
weekly fasts. Tertullian, in hb treatise De JejuniOf 
complains bitterly of the little attention paid l^ the 
Church to the practice of fasting ; by which we may see 
that even orthodox Christians exercised in thb matter 
that liberty of judgment which had been sanctioned by 
the apostles. Origen adverts to thb subject only once, 
in hb 10th Homily on Leviticus^ where he speaks in ac- 
cordance with the apostolical doctrine. It appears, how- 
ever, from hb observations, that at Alexandiria Wednes- 
day's and Fridays were then observed as fast-days, on 



LENT 



347 



LENTTLE 



T^C vrf9Ttiac, rFn; rtrpa^oQ cat rqc Tropa- 
"ww^f CXatn, Alex. Strom. 1. 7). These fwta were not 
»o •Crictly^obeerved as some others, and were altogether 
omitted between Easter and Whiteuntide. The obser- 
Yanoe was enjoined especially upon the clei^ and 
moaks i^Cowtit, Apost. v, 16; Can, Apost, 69). By the 
Coancil of Elvira, c. 26, at the beginning of the 4th cen- 
tury, Saturday was added to the weekly fasts, and this 
led to the gradual neglect of the Wednesday fast in the 
Western Church. The stations, or fasts on stationary 
days, terminated at three o'clock P.M. ("non ultra no- 
nain detinenduro," Tertullian, />e Jf/imto ; **Quando et 
ormtiooes fere nona hora condudat de Petri exeniplo 
qood Act. X refertur,** t6. c 2). Hence TertulUan calls 
them kalf'/asU (" semtjejunio stationum,*' De Jejun, c. 
13). When a fast was continued the whole day, it was 
entitled J^fjumumf or Jejumum perfectum ; and when it 
lasted until the morning of the following day, or for 
several days together, it was distinguished by the title 
iiaperjMsiiio (inrip^tiaiQ), The latter kind of fasU was 
cocnmonly obser\*ed during the ffreat xceek^ or week be- 
fore £aster; but it was not strictly peculiar to that sea- 
son. It exceeded the others not only in point of time, 
but by the observance of additional austerities, such as 
the Cifpofayia, or living on dry food^ namely, bread, 
salt, and water, taken only in the evening. 7. There 
were also occasional fatts^ appointed by ecclesiastical 
authority in times of great danger, emergency, or dis- 
tr««« (Cyprian, Epitt, 8, § 1 ; 67, § 3; Tertullian, ApoL 
c40; D€Jfjun,c.lZ\ 

III. Practice in Modem Times.—The Christians of 
the Greek Church observe ybur regular fasts. The first 
ccmniences on the 16th day of November, or forty days 
before Christmas. The secon<I is the one which imme- 
diately precedes Easter. The third begins the week af- 
ter WhitMinday, and continues till the festival of SL 
Peter and PauL The number of days, therefore, com- 
priaed m these seasons of fasting i^ not settled and de- 
termined, but they arc more or less long, according as 
Whitsunday falls sooner or later. The fourth fast com- 
mences the 1st of August, and lasts no longer than till 
the 16th. These fesU are observed with great strictness 
and austerity. The only days when they indulge them- 
selves in drinking wine ai^d using oil are Saturdays and 
Sondays. 

In the English Church Lent was first comnumded to 
be observed in England by Eroombert, seventh king of 
Kent, before the year 800. The Lenten fast does not 
embrace all the days included between Ash- Wednesday 
and Easter, for the Sundays are so many days above 
the number oi forty. They are excluded because the 
lord's day is always held as tk/esHval^ and never as a 
fatt. These six Sundajrs are therefore called Sundays 
in Lent, not Sundays o/LenU The principal days of 
Lent are the first day of Lent (Caput Jejumi, or Dies 
Cinerum\ Ash- Wednesday, and the Passitm-^ceek^ par- 
Ucularly Thursday and Friday in that week. There is 
also a solemn service appointed for Ash-Wednesday, un- 
der the title of a " Commination or denoimcing of God's 
anger and judgments against sinners.'* The last week 
of Lent, called Passion-week, has always been considered 
as its most solemn season. It is called the great tceek^ 
for the important transactions which are then commem- 
orated. 

The same rules, observations, services, etc, are ob- 
served in the Protestant Episcopal Church of America 
as in the Church of England during the solemn season 
of Lent. 

In nearly all the Protestant churches of Europe, par- 
ticularly in the Lutheran Churchy fasts and Lenten-sea- 
son remain up to this day pretty much the same as in \ 
the Koroan Catholic Church. 

See Bellarmme, Opera; Bergier, Dictionnaire de The- 
ologie, art. Car^me ; Pascal, /m Liturgie ca/holique, s. v. ; 
Gfrbrer's Church History; Hook, Ch, fHct. s. v. ; Riddle, 
Christian Antiquities, p. 660, 668; Hall, Harmony (sec 
hidex) ; BibU and Missal, p. 170 ; Walcott, Sac, A r- 



I chad. p. 848; Procter, On Book of Common Prayer, p. 
I 260, 276, 277 ; Wheatley, Book of Common Prayer, p. 217 
sq. See Fasting. 

Lentile (only in the plural O-'b^r, adashim', prob. 
from an obsolete root signifying to fodder ; Sept, 0ac6ct 
Vulg. lens) is probably a correct rendering of the plant 
thus designated (Gen. xxv,84; 2 Sam. xvii,28; xxiu, 
11; Ezek. iv, 9). In SjTia lentiles are still called in 
Arabic addas (Russel A'. H. of A Uppo, i, 74). They ap- 
pear to have been chiefly used for making a kind of pot- 
tage. The red pottage, for which Esau bartered his 
birthright, was of lentUes (Gen. xxv, 29-34). The term 
red was, as with us, extended to yellovish-broicn, which 
must have been the true color of the pottage if derived 
from lentiles, being that of the seeds rather than that of 
the pods, which were somerimes cooked entire (Mishna, 
Shabb, \ii, 4). The Greeks and Komans also called len- 
tUes red (see authorities in Celsius, Hierobotanic, i, 106). 
Lentiles were among the provisions brought to David 
when he fled from Absalom (2 Sam. xvii, 28), and a field 
of lentiles was the scene of an exploit of one of David's 
heroes (2 Sam. xxiii, 11). From Ezek. iv, 9, it would 
appear that lentUes were sometimes used as bread (comp. 
Athen. iv, 168). This was doubtless in times of scarci- 
ty, or by the poor (compare Aristoph. Plut. 1006). Son- 
nini (Travels, p. 608) assures us that in southernmost 
Egypt, where com is comparatively scarce, lentiles mix- 
ed with a little barley form almost the only bread in 
use among the poorer classes. It is called beltan, is of a 
golden yellow color, and is not bad, although rather 
heavy. In that countrj', indeed, probably even more 
than in Palestine, lentiles anciently, as now, formed a 
chief article of food among the laboring classes. This 
is repeatedly noticed by ancient authors ; and so much 
attention was paid to the culture of this useful pulse 
that certain varieties became remarkable for their ex- 
cellence (comp. Dioscor. ii, 129). The lentiles of Pelu- 
sium, in the part of Egypt nearest to Palestine, were 
esteemed both in Egypt and foreign countries (Virgil, 
Georg. i, 228), and this is probably the valued Egyptian 
variety which is mentioned m the Mishna (Kilaim, 
xviii, 8) as neither large nor small Large quantities 
of lentiles were exported from Alexandria (Augustine, 
Comm, in Psa, rlvi), Pliny, in mentioning two Egj'p- 
tian varieties, incidentally lets us know that one of them 
was red (compare Diog. Laertius, vii, 3), by remarking 
that they like a red soil, and by speculating whetncr the 
pulse may not have thence derived the reddish color 
which it imparted to the pottage made with it (Hislor, 
Xatur, xviii, 12). This illustrates Jacob's red pottage. 
Dr. Shaw (i, 257) also states that these lentiles easily 
dissolve in boiling, and form a red or chocoUte-colored 
pottage much esteemed in North Africa and Western 
Asia (see Thomson, Land and Book, i, 409). Dr. Kitto 
also says that he has often partaken of red pottage, pre- 
pared by seething the lentiles in water and then adding 
a little suet to give them a flavor, and that he found it 
better food than a stranger would imagine ; ** the mess,** 
he adds, " had the redness which gained for it the name 
of adorn" (Pict, Bible, Gen. xxv, 80, 84). Putting these 
facts together, it is likely that the reddish lentile, which 
is now so common in Egypt (Descript. de Vtgypte, xix, 
05), is the sort to which all these statements refer. The 
tomb -paintings actually exhibit the operation of pre- 
paring jwttage of lentiles, or, as Wilkinson (Anc, Egyp- 
tian.*, ii, 387) describes it, " a man engaged in cooking 




Ancient Egypuaua coukiug Lentiles. 



LEO 



355 



LEO I 



♦ Cedrenua, p. 591, etc ; Joel, p. 179, etc ; ManasA. p. 
lO», eto, ^ Gljcas. p. 296, etc ; Genesiiw, p. 61, etc ; Co- 
din, pL ea, etc. ; Fabricius, BiUiotJuca Grttca, vi•^ 693 sq.; 
ll*tialjeTj<er, \acMncAten von Gdehrten Mannem ; Cave, 
fiiMt^ I^itt, ; Hankiua, Script, Bytcmt, ; Oudin, Comment, 
<i^ *V-S?. ICcd. ij, 894 sq. — Smith, Did, of Greek and Roman 
■f^ioff^ ii, 739 sq. 

XaO^ or Saint-Jean, a French theologian and con- 
troversialist, was bom at Rennes July 9, 1600. He en- 
tered! tlie Ciimielite convent when quite young, and, be- 
ii>K jKT««tly e«teeme<i by the order, he successively filled 
nearly all th% positions in their gift. He died at the 
t-»mv€*tit " des Billettes," Dec 80, 1671. He wrote Car- 
t»r^us y-rj/tftt/iM (Par. 1634, 4to): — Encydop, Prmmismm^ 
9*ru. MtefAnttia; universalis dtlaieatxo, etc (1635, 4to) : — 
iiist. C'armeHt. provincial Turonensis (1640, 4to). His 
jp^-rmotis were published under the title La Soinme des 
^irrvuftu pareaetiqiies et pcmit/yriques (1671-75, 4 vols. 
it^Uy. See Hoefer, Aoor. Biog, Generale^ xxx, 738. 

X*eo Stvpiota, or Styppa, or Stvpa (2rv7n;i), 

patriarch of Constantinople in the 12th centur)' (A.D. 

1 1:M to 1143), flourished until about the time of the ac- 

t^esftion of the Byzantine emperor Manuel Comnenus. 

A decree of Leo Stypiota on the lawfulness of certain 

marrijiges is given in the Jus Orientate of Bonefidus 

<^<rlc(r/jcH ApxupariKoi, Sanction, Pontijic, p. 59), and in 

the ^iM Grceco-Romanum of Leunclavius (liber iii, voL 

i, p. 217). He b often cited by Nicolaus Comnenus Po- 

liatlopolL See Fabricius, Bibi, Grcec viii, 721 ; xi, 666. 

— Smith. Diet, Greek and Roman Biog, ii, 745. 

I«eo OF TiiessalonTca, an eminent B}-zantine phi- 
looopher and ecclesiastic of the 9th centurj', character- 
ized by bis devotion to learning, studied grammar and 
poetry at Constantinople, and rhetoric, philosophy, and 
arithmetic under Michael Psellus on the isbmd of An- 
droa, and at the monasteries on the adjacent part of 
continental Greece. He afterwards settled at Constan- 
tioople and became an instructor. Introduced to the 
Doiice of emperor Theophilus, he was appointed public 
teacher or professor, and the Church of the Forty Mar- 
tyrs was assigned him for a schooL Soon after the 
patriarch John, who appears hitherto to have neglect- 
ed his learned kinsman, promoted Leo to the archbish- 
opric of Theasalonica. Upon the death of Theophilus 
(A.D. 842), when the government came into the hands 
of Theodora, the iconoclastic party was overthrown, and 
Leo and John were deposed from their sees; but I.<eo, 
whoee worth seems to have secured respect, escaped the 
Mifr«ings which fell to his kinsman's lot; and when 
i>cflar Bardas, anxious for the revival of learning, es- 
tablished the mathematical school at the palace of Mag- 
naura, in Constantinople, I>eo was placed at the head. 
Leo was still living in A.D. 869: how much later is not 
known. Symeon {De Mich, et Theodora ^ c 46) has de- 
scribed a remarkable method of telegraphic communi- 
cation invented by Leo, and practiced in the reigns of 
Theophilus and his son Michael. Fires kindled at cer- 
tain hours of the day conveyed intelligence of hostile 
incursions, battles, conflagrations, and the other inci- 
dents of war, from the confines of Svria to Constantino- 
pie ; the hour of kindling indicating the nature of the 
accident, according to an arranged plan, marked on the 
dial-plate of a clock kept in the castle of Lusus, near 
Tarsus, and of a corresponding one kept in the palace at 
Constantinople. The Mi^o^oQ TrpoyvoariKfj, Methodus 
Protpiostica^ or instructions for divining by the Gospel 
«»r Psalter, by Leo Sapiens, in the Medicean library at 
Florence (Bandini, Catalog, Codd, Laur, Medic, iii, 339), 
is perhaps by another Leo. Combefis was disposed to 
claim for Leo of Thessalonica the authorship of the cel- 
ebrated Xp}7<T/ioi, Oracula, which are commonly as- 
cribed to the emperor I^eo VI, Sapiens, or the Wise, and 
have been repeatedly published. But Leo of Thessalo- 
ntca is generally designated in the Byzantine writers 
the philosopher (^tXc(ro0oc), not the wise (ffo^of) ; and 
if the published Oracula are a part of the series men- 



tioned by Zonaras (xv, 21), they must be older than 
either the emperor or Leo of Thessalonica. See Fabri- 
cius, Bihl, Graca, iv, 148, 158; vii, 697; xi, 665; Alla- 
tius, De Psellis, c, 3-6 ; Labbe, De ByzanL Uistor. Scrip- 
toribus UporpiTTTucov, pt. ii, p. 45.— Smith, Diet, ofGrk. 
and Rom, Biog, ii, 745 sq. 

Leo THE Thracian (also the Great\ or FLA>ni s 
Leo I, emperor of Constantinople, was bom in Thrace 
of obscure parents, entered the military service, and row> 
to high rank. At the death of the emperor Marcian in 
A.p. 457, he commanded a body of troops near Sclyra- 
bria, and was proclaimed emperor by the wjldierp, at the 
instigation of Aspar, a Gothic chief, who commanded 
the auxiliaries. The senate of Constantinople confirmed 
the choice, and the patriarch Anatolius crowned him. 
This is said to have been the first instance of an emper- 
or receiving the crown from the hands of a bishop, a 
ceremony which was afterwards adopted by all other 
Christian princes, and from which the clergy, as Gibbon 
justly observes, have deduced the most formidable 
consequences. See Investitiiie. Leo f<»]lowed the 
measures of Maroian against the Eutycliians, who had 
been condenmed as heretics, and who' had recently ex- 
cited a tumult at Alexandria, had killed the bishop, 
and placed one iElurus in his stead. Aspar for a time 
screened iElurus; but Leo at last had him exiled, and 
an orthodox bishop put in his place. The Huns, hav- 
ing entered the province of Dacia, were defeated by the 
imperial troops, and a son of Attila was killed in the 
battle. Soon after, Leo, in concert with Antheroius, 
emperor of the West, prepared a numerous fleet, with a 
large body of troops on board, for the recoven' of Afri- 
ca, which was occupied by the Vandals. Part of the 
expedition atUcked and took the island of Sardinia ; the 
rest landed in Libya, and took Tripolis and other towns ; 
but the delay and mismanagement of the commander, 
who was Leo's brother-in-law, gave time to Genseric to 
make his preparations. Coming out of the harbor of 
Carthago by night, with fire-ships impelled by a fair 
wind, he set fire to many of the imperial ships, dispersed 
the rest, and obliged the expedition to leave the coast 
of Africa. Leo died in January, 474. — English Cychpa' 
didf s. v.; Smith, Diet, of Greek and Roman Biography 
and Mythology f ii, 734. 

Leo I, saint and pope, sumamed the Great j noted as 
the real founder of the papacy, was bom about the year 
390, though the exact date is not ascertained. We 
have also no precise information as to his birthplace; for 
while the lU>er pontificalis describes him as a Tuscan, 
and names Quintianua as his father, Quesnel, on the au- 
thority of an expression in one of Leo's own letters 
(xxxi, 4), and an account of his election by a certain Pros- 
per, stated that he was bom at Home, and this opinion 
has been accepted without further inquiry by most sub- 
sequent ecclesiastical writers. While yet an acolyte, Leo 
was dispatched, in A.D. 418, to Carthage, for the purpose 
of conveying to Aurelius and the other African bishops 
the sentiments of Zosimus concerning the Pelagian doc- 
trines of Coelestius (q. v.). Under Celestine (q. v.) he 
discharged the duties of a deacon ; and the reputation 
even then (481) enjoyed by him is clearly indicated by 
the terms of the epistle prefixed to the seven books De 
Incamatione Christi of Cassianus, who at his request 
had undertaken this work against the Nestorian here- 
sy. About this time he was applied to by CjtU of Alex- 
andria to settle a difficulty between Juvenal, bishop of 
Jemsalem, and the primate of the ecclesiastical prov- 
ince of Jerusalem. Having obtained a great repntation 
for his knowledge, energy, and untiring activity, he fail- 
ed not to secure the full confidence of Sixtus III (432- 
440), to whom he rendered valuable service, in several 
important offices intrustetl to him. Attracting also the 
notice of Valentinian III, he undertook, by request of 
this emperor, a mission to (>aul, to soothe the formidable 
dissensions existing between the two generals A^tius 
and Albinus. While Leo was engaged in this delicate ne- 



LEO I 



356 



LEO I 



gotiation^ which was conducted with singular pradence 
and perfect success, Sixtus III died, Aug. 3, 440, and by 
the unanimous voice of the clergy and laity the absent 
deacon Leo was chosen to fill the vacant seat. Envoys 
were at once sent to Gaul to apprise him of his election, 
and having returned to Home he was duly installed, 
Sept. 29,440. Both the Sute and the Church were then 
in a critical position ; the former in consequence of the 
frequent invasions of barbarians ; the Church through 
its inner dissensions and quarrels. From the earliest 
ages until this epoch no man who combined lofty ambi- 
tion with commanding intellect and pt)litical dexterity 
had presided over the Roman see ; and although its in- 
fluence had gradually increased, an<l many of its bishops 
had sought to extend and confirm that influence, yet 
they had merely availed themselves of accidental cir- 
cumstances to augment their own perrwnal authority, 
without acting upon any distinct and well -devised 
scheme. But Leo, while he zealously watched over his 
own peculiar flock, concentrated all the powers of his 
energetic mind upon one great dcugn, which he seems 
to have formed at a very early perio.l, and which he 
kept steadfastly in view during a I.>ng and eventful 
life, following it out with consummate boldness, per- 
severance, an 1 talent. This was nothing less than the 
establbhmant of the '^apostolic chiir^ as a spiritual su- 
premacy over every branch of the (catholic Church, and 
the exclusive appropriation for its occupant of the title 
of Papa, or father of the whole Christian world. Leo 
may therefore be regarded as the precursor of Gregory 
the Great, and in this respect certainly deserved the sur- 
name of Great, which was given him. The evil days 
amid which his lot was cast were not unfavorable, as 
might at first sight be supposed, to such a project. The 
contending parties among the orthodox clergy, terrified 
by the rapid progress of Arianism, were well disposed to 
refer their minor disputes to arbitration. Leo, who well 
knew, from the example of his predecessor Innocent I, 
that the transition is easy from instruction to command, 
in the numerous and elaborate replies which he address- 
ed to inquiries proceeding from various quarters, studi- 
ously adopted a tone of absolute infallibility, and as- 
sumed the right of enforcing obedience to his decbions 
as an tmquestionable pren^ative of his office, deriving 
authority for such a position from the relation of Peter 
to Christ and to the other apostles. He represented Pe- 
ter as most intimately connected with Christ : ^ Petrum 
in consortium individtue unitatis assumtum, id quod ipse 
erat, voluit nominari dicendo : Tu es Petrus et super 
banc petram ledificabo ecclesiam meam, ut aetemi tem- 
pli ledificatio, mirabili munere gratia dei, in Petri solid- 
itate consbteret; hac ecclesiam suam firmitate corrobo- 
rans, ut ilUun nee humana temeritas posset appetere, nee 
port« contra illam inferi pravalerent** {lAiterSy x, 1). 
This community of person into which the Lord received 
Peter is then miade to extend into a community of pow- 
er : " Quia tu es Petrus, L e. cum ego sim lapis angularis, 
qui facio utraque unum, ego fundamentum, pneter quod 
nemo pot^t aliud ponere; tamen tu quoque petra es, 
quia mea virtute solidaris, ct qu» mihi potestate sunt 
propria, sint tibi mecum participatione communia*" {Let- 
ters, iv, 2). Peter had been received into the commu- 
nity of person with the Lord as a reward for his recog- 
nition and worship of Christ : true, he had denied his 
Master, but this the Lord had intentionally permitted to 
happen. But, in comparison with the other apostles, he 
possessed not only all that every one of them did, but 
also much that the others did not {JMter*, iv, 2), and 
was their original chief: "Transivit quidem etiam in 
alios apostolos jus potesUtis istius (ligandi et solvendi^ 
et ad omnes ecclesiie princi[)es decreti hujus constitutio 
commeavit, 8ed non ftrustra uni commcndatur, quod om- 
nibus intimetur. Petro enira ideo hoc singulariter cred- 
itur, qui cunctis ecclesiie roctoribus Petri forma pr»pnn- 
itur." It is only in hvn that the apostles were intrusted 
with their mission — in him they are all saved ; and it is 
for this reason that the Lord takes special care of him, 



and that his faith is prayed for specially, ^ tanquam afio- 
rum status certior sit futurus, si mens prindpia victa doo 
fuerit." Ader identifWng the Church %iritli tlte incar- 
nation of Christ, Leo identifies Peter with Clinac. This 
primacy of Peter continues, therefore, for while the faith 
of Peter is reuined, all the privileges attached to thb 
faith in Peter remain also. This primacy contixiue» 
among the followers of Peter, for they hold the same r&> 
Utioa towards Peter that Peter held towards ChriaC ; as 
Christ nras in Peter, so is Peter in his succeaaors; it is 
still Peter who, through them, fulfils the comaiand of 
Christ, " Fted my tkeep r — " Christus tantam pocosciaxn 
dedit ei, quem totius ecclrais principem fecit, ut si quid 
etiam nostris temporibus recte per uoe agitur recteque 
disponitur, ilUus operibus, illius sit gubernacuHs depu- 
tandum, cui dictum est : Et tu conversus coufimui fratres 
tuos** (.NVrwMwi. iv, 4). While affecting the utrooet hu- 
mility when speaking of himself personally as unwor- 
thy of his high office, he speaks of that office itaelf as 
the most exalted station. 

It was more difficult for Leo, however, to prove that 
the bishop of Rome is the successor of St. Peter. Komc, 
says Leo, has been glorified by the death of the two 
greatest aptjstles, Peter and Paul, who brought the Goe- 
pel to the Eternal City ; and Leo claims to discover a 
special Providence in this coming of Peter to Rome, so 
that that city should through him and in him become 
the centre of the Christian world. ^ Ut hujus enarra- 
bilis grati^e (incamationlH) per totum mundum diffim- 
deretur effcctus, Komanura regnum di\4iia pruvidentia 
prseparavit; cujus ad eos limites incremeuu pexducta 
sunt, quibus cunctarum undique gentium vicina et con- 
tigua esset univendtas. Disposito namque divinitus 
operi maxime congruebat, ut multa regna uno confoBde- 
rarentur imperio et cito pervios haberet populoe pnedi- 
cario generalis, quos unius teneret regimen civitatxs* 
(Serm, Ixxxii, 2). Here, finding dogmatical arguments 
unavailable for his purpose, Leo turns to history, which 
he arranges to suit himself. With regard now to the 
relation existing between the bishop of Kome and the 
other bishops, Leo says expressly, '* All the bishops have 
indeed the same office, but not the same |x>wer. For 
even among the apostles, although they were aU called 
apostles, there existed a remarkable distinction, for one 
only, Peter, held the first rank. From this rcsulta the 
difference among the bishops. It is a fundamental law 
of the Church that all have not the equal right to ex- 
press all things, but that in each province there is one 
(the bishop of the principal place in the province) who 
has the first voice among his brethren. Again, those 
who occupy more important sees (the metropolitans of 
dioceses) have still greater power. But the direction 
of the whole Church is the care of the chair of St. Peter, 
and no one can take anything away from him who is 
the head of alL" Potent but unconscious instruments in 
forwarding Leo's ambitious schemes were found in the 
barbarian chiefs whose power was not yet consolidated, 
and who were eager to propitiate one who possessed 
such weight with the priesthood, and through them 
could either calm into submission or excite to rebellion 
an ignorant and fanatic multitude. But, though the 
minds of men were in some degree prepared and dis- 
posed to yield to such domination, it was scarcely to be 
expected that the efibrt should not provoke jealousy and 
resistance. A atronj; opposiuon was speedily organized 
both in the West and in the East, and soon assumed the 
attitude of open defiance. In the West the contest was 
brought to an issue by the controversy with Hilary of 
Aries {9^ HiLAiufs Arelatensis) concerning the dep- 
osition of Chelidonius, bishop of Vesontio (Besan^on), 
who had married a widow, which was forbidden by the 
I canons. Chelidonius appealetl to Leo, who reinsuted 
' him in his soc. Hilary was summoned to Rome upon 
ae\Tral charges brought against him by other bishops 
of (taul. to whom his severity was obnoxious; and Leo 
! ohiainctt a rt»soript from the emperor Valentinian III 
*a<pending Hilary from his episcopal office. Thia sua* 



LEO m 



359 



LEO ni 



near orerthrowing the faith by hb treason" 
(, L*l>be, CoHc, y\j 1246). Leo sought to induce all the 
t-burclies to accept the decisions of that council, and for 
tkxmx. p4arpo9e translated them from Greek into Latin, 
Msiuiin^ a copy of them in the latter language to the 
Spamidtx bishops. He appears also to have given his 
ambttasadur four letters, somewhat similar as to their 
cuntetita (see Mausi, xi, 105(^-1058), addressed to the 
l>L&lH.»p9» of Ostrogothia, count Simplicius, king Erwig, 
aiKl x\\e metropolitan bishop Quiricus of Toledo, ex- 
pressing his wish that all the bisho[^ of Spain would 
iiulor^sae the act« of the Council of Constantinople. In 
tlk<?»e letters he says : *' Honorius has falsified the invi- 
olaUle rule of apostolic succession which he had received 
frona his predecessors." Baronius, wishing to rehabili- 
tate LxTO, denies the authenticity of these letters, while 
Pai^ attempts to uphold it; Gfrorer {Kirchengesch, vol. 
ilU pt« i, p. 397 sq.) also maintains their genuineness, and 
ailduocs in proof of it their corresponding precisely with 
tbe decisions of the fourteenth Council of Toledo. Leo 
also obtained from Constantine a promise that after the 
deatli of the titular archbishop of Ravenna his succes- 
sors should, according to an old custom fallen into dis- 
use, eume to Home to be consecrated. In exchange for 
this concession, Leo relieved the see of Kavenna from 
the obligation of paying the taxes formerly levied on 
the occasion of such consecration. Leo was a great 
friend of Church music, and did much towards improv- 
ing the Gregorian chant. He built a church to Ft. 
Paul, and is said to have originated the custom of sprink- 
ling the people with holy water. Ue died in July, 683 : 
the exact date is not ascertained, and the Komcn Cath- 
olic Church commemorates him on the '28th of June. 
I?ee Dublin, htUioth, des A utturs Eccles, v, 106 ; Platina, 
Huftoria dilU Vite dti Sommi PonUjici; Ciaconius, liVce 
*t Jits gestte Pontijicum Romanorum (Kom. 1677, 4 vols. 
ftilio), i, 478; Herzog, Real-Kncyllop. viii, 311 ; Hocfer, 
JVVwr. Biog, Getter aU, xxx, 708; Baxmann, Po/t/iiE: dtr 
Papste^ i, 185 ; Bower, IJistm-y.of the Popes, iii, 184 sq. ; 
Kiddle, HisL of the Papacy, i, 300. 

Xfeo HI, Pope, who brought about the elevation of 
the Franki5h king to the pofititin of emperor of the 
■\Ve»t, and thus relieved the K< man pontificate of fur- 
ther subjection to the Greek emperors, was a native of 
the Eternal City, and was elected after the death of 
Adrian I, Dec. 26, 796. Immediately after his election 
b« communicated the intelligence to Charlemagne, and, 
like his predece-ssor, acknowledged allegiance. Charle- 
magne replied by a letter of congratulation, which he 
intrusted to the abbot Angilbertus, whom he commis- 
noncd to confer with the new pontiff respecting the re- 
lations between the see of Home and the " Patrician of 
the Kexmans," for this was the title which Charlemagne 
had asfumed. In 796 Leo sent tc Charlemagne the 
keys of St. Peter and the standard of the city of Home, 
requesting the.king to send some of his nobles to admin- 
ister the oath of allegiance to the people of Home, and 
thus the dominion of Charlemagne was extended over 
the city and duchy of Rome. In the year 799, an atro- 
cious assault, the motive of which is not clearly ascer- 
tained, was committed on the person of the pope. While 
Leo was riding on horseback, followed by the clergy, and 
chanting the liturgj*, a canon by the name of Paschal 
and a sacristan called Campulus. accompanied by many 
armed ruffians, fell upon him, threw him from his horse, 
and dr^ged him into the convent of St. Sylvester, 
when they stabbed him in many places, endeavoring 
to put out his eyes and cut out his tongue. Leo, how- 
ever, was delivered by his friends from the hands of the 
assassins, and taken to Spoleti under the protection of the 
duke of Spoleti, where he soon after recovered; thence he 
travelled as far as Paderbom in Germany, where Charle- 
ma^e then was, by whom the pope was received with 
the greatest honors. Charlemagne sent him back to 
Eome with a numerous escort of bishops and counts, 
and also of armed men. The pope was met outside of 
tbe city gatea by the clergy, senatCi and people, and ac- 



companied in triumph to the Latcran palace. A court 
composed of the bii^hops and counts proceeded to the 
trial of the conspirators who had attempted the life of 
the pope, and the two chiefs, Paschal and Campulus, 
were exiled to France. From this very lenient sentence 
and other concomitant circumstances, it appears that 
Charlemagne had greatly at heart tbe conciliation of the 
Romans in general, in order to deter them from betaking 
themselves again to the protection of the Greek emper- 
ors. In 800 Charlemagne himself visited Italy, and wsa 
met at Nomcntum, outside of Rome, by the pope, and ' 
the next day he repaired to the Basilica of the Vatican, 
escorted by the soldiers and the people. After a few 
days Charlemagne convoked a numerous assembly of 
prelates, abbots, and other persons of distinction, Franks 
as well as Romans, to examine certain charges brought 
against the pope by the partis^ans of Paschal and Cam- 
pulus, but no proofs were elicited, and Leo himself, tak- 
ing the book of gospels in his hand, declared himself in- 
nocent. On Christmas-day of that year the ponlifi" of- 
ficiated in the Basilica of the Vatican, in presence of 
Charlemagne and his numerous retinue. As Charle- 
magne was preparing to leave the church, the pontiff 
stopped him, and placed a rich crown upon his head, 
while the clergy and the people, at the tame moment, 
cried out"Carolo piissimo,'' "Augusto magno impera- 
tori,** with other expressions and acclamations which 
were wont to be used in proclaiming Roman emperors. 
Three times the acclamations were repeated, after which 
the pope was the first to pay homage to the new emper- 
or. From that time Charlemagne left off the titles of 
king and patrician, and styled LimEclf Augustus and 
emperor of the Romans, and he addrcFsed the cmperol 
of Constantinople by the name of brother. Thus was 
the Western empire revived 325 years after Odoacer had 
deposed Romulus Augustulus, the last nominal successor 
of the Cffsars on the throne of the West. Frcm that 
time all claim of the Eastern emperors to the supreme 
dominion over the duchy of Rome was at an er.d, uid 
the popes from the same date assumed the tcmt oral au- 
thority over the city and duchy, in subordination, how- 
ever, to Charlemagne and his successors; they began, 
ali'o, to coin money, with the pontiff's name on one side 
and that of the emperor on the other. In 804 the r<^P<*» 
during Christmas, visited Charlemagne at his court at 
Aquisgrana (Aix-la-ChapcUe). In the divition which 
Charlemagne made by will of his dominions amorg his 
sons, the city of Rome was declared to belong to him 
who should bear the title if (m| eror. Louis le Debon- 
naire was afterwards invented with that title by Charle- 
magne himself, and we find him accordingly, after the 
death of his father, assuming the supreme jurisdiction 
over that city on the occation of a fresh conRj iracy 
which broke out against Leo, the heads of which were 
convicted by the ordinary courts of Rome, and put to 
death. Louis found fault with the rigor of the sentence 
and the haste of its execution, and he ordere d his ne ph- 
ew, Bernard, king of Italy, to proceed to Rome and in- 
vestigate the whole affair. Leo, wl.o seems to have 
been alarmed at this proceeding, sent messengers to the 
court of Louis to justify himself. Meanwhile he fell 
seriously ill, and the people of Rome broke out into in- 
surrection, and pidled down some buildings he had begun 
to construct on the confiscated property of the conspira- 
tors. The duke of Spoleti was Kent for with a body of 
troops to suppress the tumult, when Leo fcuddenly died 
in 816, and Stephen IV was elected in l.is place. Leo 
is praised by Anastasius, a biographer of the same cen- 
tury, for the many structures, especially churches, which 
he raised or repaired, and the valuable gifts with which 
he enriched them. In his temporal policy he appears 
to have been more moderate and prudent than his pre- 
decessor, Adrian I, who was perpetually soliciting Char- 
lemagne in his letters for fresh grants of territe»ry to his 
see. Thirteen letters of Leo are published in Labbel,- 
Concilia f vii,llll-1127. He is also considered the apit- 
thor of the Epistolce ad Carolum Magnum imp,, e*aa pri- 

other Gi- 



LEO X 



361 



LEO X 



monks and priests. Labbe and Cos8art*8 Cone oonCain 

nineteen letters of this pope (ix, 949-1001). See Baro- 

uiu^ AnnaL xvii, 19-107; Muratori, Reiitm Italicarum 

.SmpToyif «, iii, 277, 278 ; (ifrorer, Kirchengfachichte, iv, 1 ; 

ll(»tiery IjU deutschen Piibste, ii, 3-214; Baxmann, Po/»- 

tiJb tier fapiU, i, 859 eq. ; ii, 191 sq. ; Howcr, llisU of the 

l\yp^*^ V, 164 sq. ; Kiddle, HisL of the Papacy^ ii, 106 sq. ; 

Hunkler, Leo IX u, «. Zeii (aiayeuce, 1851); Milman, 

nUf. fpf LatiM ChrisHimity, iii, 240 sq.; Kanke, llitt. of 

tke I^ap<xcy ; Keichel, Roman See in the Middle Ayes^ p. 

189 s9q., 191 8q.,217, 244, 292; Uerzogj Real- EncyUop, 

■v-iil, 317 sq.; EngHah Cyclop, s. v.^ Hoefer, Nouv.Biog, 

iiinirnU^ xxx, 714. 

I*eo X {Giovanni d/i Medici) f pope from 1513 to 
1521 , ^v as burn at Florence Dec 11, 1475. He was the 
»ecoiMl son of the celebrated Lorenzo de* Medici (bom 
Jan. 31,1448; died April 8, 1492), sumamed " the Mag- 
iiiHceiit,'* and grandson of Cosmo de' Medici (bom in 
13Mt>, died in 144i4). From infancy Giovanni had been 
destined by his father to an ecclesiastical career, for to 
the lot of Pietro, the elder child, fell the succession in the 
Florentine govemment, and, as Giovanni early showed 
fisnvK of ability, the great aim of Lorenzo was to secure 
fur his house, by his second child, the intlucnce of the 
C^barch. At the tender age of seven Giovaimi was sub- 
jectetl to the tonsure, and at once presented by Louis 
X II of France with the rich living of the abbey of Font- 
douce, and by pope Sixtus IV himself with that of 
the wealthy convent of Passignano. Various other rich 
living were added to these successively, and in 1488, 
tinally, the youthful ecclesiastic, of but thirteen yean of 
«^, was by pope Innocent VIII (father-in-law of Gio- 
vaiini^s sister Maddalena) presented with the cardinal^s 
rank, limited by the condition only that the insignia of 
this distinction should not be assumed until his studies 
had been completed at Pisa. Hitherto his education 
had been intmsted to tutors mainly, and among them 
were the famous Greek historian Chalcondylas, and the 
learned Angelo Poliziano^ he now set out at once for 
1*188, and having there completed his theological stud- 
ies in 1492, was on March the 9th of this same vear in- 
stalled at Florence into the cardinal's position, and three 
days after set out for and took up his residence in the 
Eternal City. Scarce had a month passed his induction 
to the cardinal's dignity when intelligence reached Home 
that Lorenzo the Magniticcnt was no more, and hastily 
Ciiovanni retraced his steps to Florence, to afford succor 
and support to his weak but elder brother Pietro, upon 
whom now depended the continuance of the power of 
the Medici over Florence. In July of this year (1492) 
Imiooent VIII died, and as Giovanni had opposed the 
election ot hb successor, Alexander VI, the Medici cotdd 
no longer hope for support from the papacy. Blind- 
ly and madly, amid alt these disadvantages, Pietro, un- 
satiat)ed with alnolute power unless he could display 
the |)omp and exercise the cruelties of despotism, con- 
trived, in the short space of two years, to secure, in- 
stead of the love and good will, the hatred of the Flor- 
entines. Their enthusiastic devotion to the house of 
the Me<1ici hitherto alone prevented any attempt to 
subvert his authority. They remained quiet even in 
1494, when Charles VIII of France came into Itaiv to 
enforce his claim to the throne of Naples, and when Pi- 
etro joined the house of Aragon, instead of becoming a 
confederate of the French, as his ancestors had always 
been. But when Pietro, equally presumptuous in secu- 
rity and timid in danger, territied by tlie unexpected 
success of the French, tied to the camp of Charles, and, 
kneeling at his feet, abandoned himself and his country 
to his mercy, the indignation of the Florentines could 
no lunger be stayed, and, entering into a treaty with the 
French, they stipulated especially the exile of the Medi- 
ci (Nov. 1494). After his capitulation to king Charles, 
Pietro had returned to Florence, but the enraged popu- 
bce made hit stay impossible, and he quickly tied the 
city. Giovanni, bolder and more courageous than his 
ebier brother, assisted bv a few faithful friends, well- 

V.-12* 



armed, made a last attempt to assert the Medicean au- 
thority, and put down the insurrection by a bold exer- 
cise of force. It soon, however, became but too appa- 
rent to the young cardinal that his hope was all vanity. 
**The people multiplied themselves against Pietro," as 
Guicciardini {JStoria Fiorentina [Opere inedite],iii,110) 
phrases it, and Giovaimi, in the disguise of a friar, was 
glad enough to find himself outside the city gates, and 
on the open Bologna road, taking the same road ac 
Pietro, followed by their younger brother Giuliano, still 
a mere lad. They went tirst to John Bentivoglio in 
Bologna, but, as they were not received here, went to 
Castello, and found a refuge with VitellL In this and 
other places, the Medici, the cardinal included, lived for 
some time, having frequent endeavors made for their 
restoration. But when Giovanni was tinally persuaded 
that all such efforts were fruitless, he decided to quit his 
native country, now ravaged by foreign armies, and be- 
trayed by the wretched jiolicy of po|>e Alexander VI, 
and he set out on a journey to France, (iermany, and 
the Netherlands. For the assertion that the cardinal 
undertook this joumey for political ends there is not 
the slightest foundation. While abroad he sought lit- 
erar}' associations mainly. He courted the acquaint- 
ance of men of learning, and not unfrequcntly displayed 
his own taste fur literature and the liberal arts. In 
1503, upon the death of Alexander VI, against whom he 
cherished a bitter hatred, and on whose account only he 
had avoided Rome after the expulsion of his family Irum 
Florence, he returned to the banks of the Tiber. Fius 
III, who succeeded Alexander \1, lived only a few weeks, 
and, upon a further election, the pontifical chair was oc- 
cupied by Julius II, a fri<>nd and admirer of Giovanni 
de' Medici. Our cardinal's elder brother had died in 
the mean time (in the battle of Garigliano in 1503), and, 
no longer distracted by the imprudent conduct and the 
wild plans of an imbecile, he gave himself up wholly to 
the interests of his ecclesiastical position. By the fric nd- 
ship of a nephew of the pontiff, Galcolto della Kovtre, 
he was brought into closer relations with Julius II, and, 
after the latter had entered Pemgia in 1500 (Sept. 12), 
cardinal Giovanni was uitnistcd with the govemment 
of that town, and only a short time after was honored 
with the appointment of pupal field marshal, under the 
title of "legate of Bologtia," to the army against the 
French. The campaign, however, proved ratlier unsuc- 
cessful, and at the battle of Kavenna the cardinal was 
taken prisoner and sent to Milan, whence he made his 
escape while the French Kildiers were busy in prepara- 
tions for their removal to France. The cardmal's great 
aim, now that the French had quitted Lomlardy and the 
Florentine republic, was to re-establish his house in the 
govemment of Florence. During the first eight years 
of their exile the 3Iedici had made four unsuccessful at- 
tempts to regain their power; on the failiu'e of their 
last attempt, their successful opponent, I*ietro Soderini, 
had been chosen gonfaloniere for life : to dethrone So- 
derini, then, was the great object to be acc(tmplished by 
the cardinal The gonfaloniere^s reign thus far had been 
noted for its moelcration and benign influence on Flor- 
ence, and had secured to the country great prosperity; 
but Soderini's integrity was not unimpeachable to the 
mind of the Medici, and Giovanni appealed to the Jloly 
League f consisting of the pope, the emperor, the Vene- 
tians, and Ferdinand of Aragon, to undertake the rct>- 
toration of the Medici, on the ground that Soderini 
showed great partiality to foreigners, and that his gov- 
emment was extremely corrupt. To secure the services 
of the Holy Ijeagtie no charges against Sotlerini were 
really needed, but he brought them, and promptly they 
replieeL A body of 5000 Spaniards, brave to ferocity, 
were marched under Raymond de Cardona against Flor- 
ence in August, 1512. On their way they stormed the 
town of Prato, and massacred the citizens, which so in- 
timidated the Florentines that they immediately capit- 
ulated, and consented to the retum of the Medici as pri- 
vate citizens. Cardinal de* Medici and hia hrother Gi- 



<K 



LEO X 



363 



LEO X 



Medici, and the Florentines, and that both Lorenzo and 
Iviuliano should receive commissions in the French ser- 
vice, ^rith pay and pensions. If there had been danger 
to lUc Medici government in Florence, it threatened 
from the side of France, but that danger they escaped by 
this nevr alliance, brought about, in a great measure, by 
the svrnpathy which the two parties felt for each other. 
At a meeting which these new allies subsequently 
hei<l «t Bologna (December, 1515) a marriage was agreed 
upon between Lorenzo, the pope's nephew, and Made- 
Wine cle BoulogniB, niece of Francis de Bourbon, duke of 
Vendome, from which marriage Catharine de' Medici, 
•ftenwanls queen of France, was bom, and thus the un- 
ion of the French and Florentine interests became more 
closely cemented. But in ecclesiastical affairs also new 
measures were taken by a concordat, only abrogated by 
the French Revolution, which regulated the appoint- 
ment to the sees and livings in the French kingdom. 
Instead of capitular election, the king was to nominate, 
the pope to collate to episcopal sees. Annates were re- 
stored to the pope, who also received a small stipulated 
patronage in place of his indefinite prerogative of re- 
serving benefices. It is true the Parliament and Uni- 
irernty of Paris both opposed this concordat, but the 
kin§; and the pope each secured what they desired. To 
the king thus fell the real power and the essential pat- 
runage of the Church ; by the pope the recognition of 
his own authority was obtained. The two, as Reichel 
i^See of Rome in the MideBe A get, p. 538) has aptly said, 
by this new measure, *' shared between them the ancient 
liberties of the Gallican Church. The rising freedom 
of the laity was thereby crushed; the pope recovered 
most of his ancient power." Nothing could seem bright- 
er now than the Medicean prospects and the future of 
the papacy. There was only one more thing to be im- 
mediately accomplished — to make Lorenzo a sovereign 
prince ** by grace of God, or, at all events, clearly by 
l^race of (vod's vicegerent on earth." Upon the most 
Hagruit of pretences, the duke of Urbino, Francesco 
Maria della Revere, was deposed, and upon Lorenzo fell 
the mantle of the duchy's sovereigntA% and at last the 
raeaaore of Leo's ambition was nearly full. (In 1519, 
upon the death of Lorenzo, the duchy of Url)ino was add- 
ed to the territory of the Church.) This family ambi- 
tion, however, by no means found pleasure in the eyes of 
the Roman people, while the Florentines were flattered 
by the advance of their "first citizens" to the position of 
prince and pope. Prominent among the enemies of the 
Medici was the house of Petrucci, headed bv the cardi- 
nai of that name, who was led into a conspiracy to mur- 
der the pope by the latter's expatriation of his brother 
from Sienna. Not satisfied with the acquisition of the 
duchy of Urbino, Leo longed also for the possesion of 
the free state of Sienna, lying between the territories of 
the Church and those of the republic of Florence, and to 
this end sent Borghesi, its governor, into exile. At first 
Borghesi's brother, cardinal Petrucci, formed the mad 
design of stabbing Leo on their first meeting, but he 
finally abandoned this enterjirise as too daring, and a 
consfMracy was formed instead to cause the death of Leo 
X by poison. Fortunately for Leo, the plot to take his 
life was timely discovered, and the cardinal expiated the 
intendeil crime with his life by secret strangling, while 
many others of like social standing suffered abasement 
and other punLshment. To secure himself against a 
second attempt of the kind, Leo now (in 1517) created a 
whole host of able and experienced Florentines cardinals 
— no le«s than thirty-one of them altogether. 

It was al)out this time also that the Lateran Council ap- 
proached its close, and that the measures were inaugurated 
which resulted so unfavorably to the cause of the papacy 
and the Church of R<ime, and have ma<le the year 1517 
forever memorable in the ecclesiastical annals for the 
foundation and cnmrocncement it gave to the revolution 
in the Church, commonly known by the name of the 
R'fnrrmifion (q. v.). One of the greatest desires of Leo 
Xf as pope of Rome, was the continuation of the incom- 



plete structure commenced under Julius 11 — the building 
of St. Peter's church. Leo, who had made for himself a 
name as the protector and patron of art, and had wcll> 
nigh revived the Periclean age of the Greeks, could not 
brook the thought that, while he was pontiff within the 
walls of the Eternal City, this great enterprise, likely to 
immortalize the name of its patron in the annals of art, 
should be passed over, and, finding the coffers of the 
papacy drained by his predecessor, saw only one way in 
which to secure the necessary funds for so stupendous an 
undertaking — the sale of huitUgences (q. v.), securing to 
the contributor for this object forgiveness of sin in any 
form (comp. Mosheim, Ecd, Hist, ii, 66, note 6 ; Bower, 
Hist, of Papacy J vii, 409 sq. ; Robertson, //i>^ of Reign of 
Charles K, Harper's edit., p. 125 sq., especially the foot- 
notes on p. 126). Such utter disregard of the essence 
of religion resulted in one of the boldest assaults on the 
Romish Church that it had ever sustained. The very 
thought that forgiveness of sin was to be offered on sale 
for money " must have been mortally offensive to men 
whoee convictions on that head had been acquired from 
contemplating the eternal relation between God and 
man, and who, moreover, had learned what the doctrine 
of Scripture itself was on the subject" (Ranke,//i^. Pap, 
i, 66). In Saxony, especially, men of piety and thought 
generally commended the interpretation which Luther 
gave to this subject. They all regretted the delusion of 
the people, who, being tanght to rely for the pardon of 
their sins on the indulgences which they could secure by 
purchase, did not think it incumbent on themselves either 
to study the doctrines of genidne Christianity, or to prac- 
tice the duties which it enjoins. Even the most unthink- 
ing were shocked at the scandalous behavior of the Do- 
minicans — John Tetzel (q.v.) and his associates, who had 
the sale of indulgences intrusted to them — and at the 
manner in which they spent the funds accumulated from 
this traffic 'iliese sums, which had been piously be- 
stowed in hopes of obtaining eternal salvation and hap- 
piness, they saw squandered by the Dominican friars in 
drunkenness, gaming, and low debauchery, and *' all be- 
gan to wish that some check were given to this com- 
merce, no less detrimental to society than destructive to 
religion" (Robertson, p. 126). Indeed, even the princes 
and nobles objected to this traffic ; they were irritated at 
seeing their vassals drained of so much wealth in order 
to replenish the treasury of a profuse pontiff, and when 
Luther's warm and impetuous temper did not suffer him 
any longer to conceal his aversion to the unscriptural 
doctruie of the Thomists, or to continue a silent specta- 
tor of the delusion of his country, from the pulpit in 
the great church of Wittenberg he inveighed bitterly 
against the false opinions, as well as the wicked lives, 
of the preachers of indulgences (see Loscher's Peforma- 
tiofuakten^ i, 729). " Indignation against Roman impost- 
ure increased; universal attention and sympathy were 
directed towards the tx)Id champion of the truth" (Giese- 
ler, fCccUs, hist, [Harper's edit.] iv, 33). On Oct. 31, 
1517, finally, to gain also the suffrage of men of learn- 
ing, Luther published ninety-five theses against the 
traffic in indulgences, setting forth his objections to this 
abuse of ecclesiastical power. Not that he supposed 
these points fully established or of undoubted certainty, 
but he advanced them as the result of his own investi- 
gation, and as subjects of inquiry and disputation unto 
others, that he might be corrected if his position could be 
impugned. He sent them to the neighl)oring bishops 
with a petition for the abolition of the evil if his views 
were found to be well grounded, and appointed a day on 
which the learned churchmen might publicly dispute 
the point at issue, either in person or by writing ; sub- 
joining to them, however, solemn protestations of his 
high respect for the apostolic see, and of his implicit 
submission to its authority. Many zealous champions 
immediately arose to defend opinions on which the 
wealth and power of the Church were founded ; in es- 
pecial manner the opposition of the Dominicans (q. v.) 
was roused, for the spirit of this order had become pe- 



LEO X 



365 



LEODEGAR 



EDore clear ©f the French, and restored to the dominion 
of ^>f4>rxa. Paima and Placenza were a^oin occupied by 
t-be pApAl tru(ip8. At the same time Leo declared Al- 
roDBo d*£l«4e a rebel to the holy sec for having Hided 
with tlie French, while the duke, on his part, comphiin- 
od of tlie bad faith of the pope in keeping possesfi^n of 
Modeiua and Keggio. The news of the taking of Milan 
was celet>nt6d at Kome with public rejoicings, but in 
the midst of all this Leo fell ill on Nov. 26, and died 
T>ec 1, 15:21, not without reasonable susfiicion of poison, 
thoa^ti some have maintained that he die<l a natural 
deaclu (J:iee Trollope, Hist, of Fiorencf^ i v. 386 sq., who 
quotes strong proof in favor of the assertion that Leo X 
died of poison.) 

Personally Leo was generous, or rather prodigal ; he 
ivss fond of splendor, luxur>', and magnificence, and 
therefore often in want of money, which he was obliged 
to raise by means not often creditable. He had a dis- 
cominf^ taste, was a ready patron of real merit, was 
fitnit of wit and humor, not always refined, and at 
times degenerating into buffoonery: thb was, indeed, 
one of bis princiiial faults. His state policy was like 
that of bis contemporaries in general, and not so bad 
a» tKat of some of them. He contrivetl, however, to 
keep Kome and the papal territory', as well as Flor- 
«*nee, in profound peace during his reign — no trifling 
b(«on — while all the rest of Italy was ravaged by French, 
and <iermans, and Spaniards, who committed all kinds 
ijf atrocities. He was by no means neglectful of hb 
temporal duties, although he was fond of conviviality 
and ease, and many charges have been brought against 
his moraln. He did not, and perhaps could not, enforce 
a strict discipline among the clerg}' or the people of 
Kome, where profligacy and licentiousness had reigned 
almost uncontrolled ever since the pontificate of Alex- 
ander VL It is to \ie regretted, however, that any one 
should have been able to say of a pope so distinguished 
as a pAtron of learning as I..eo X that in his splendid 
and luxuriant palace Cliristianity had given place, both 
in its religious and moral influence, to the revived phi- 
losophy and the unregulated manners of (ireece; that 
the Vatican was visited less for the purpose of worship- 
ping the footsteps of the apostles than to admire the 
KTeat works of ancient art stored in the papal paUce 
(cnrofi. I^wJon Quart, Her, 1836, p. 294 sq. ; Taine, Jta!f/ 
[Home and Naples], p. 186). As a pontificate, that of 
Leo X^ though it Usted only nine years, " forms one of 
the nio«t memorable epochs in the history of modem 
Europe, whether we consider it in a political light as a 
period of transition for Italy, when the power of Charles 
V of Spain began to establish itself in that countrj-, or 
whcthtT we look upon it as that periotl in the history 
of the Western Church which was marked by the mo- 
mentous event of Luther's Reformation. But there is a 
third and a more favorable aspect under which the reign 
of Leo ought to be viewed, as a flourishing epoch for 
learning and the arts, which were encouraged by that 
pontiff, as they had been by his father, and, indeed, as 
they have been by his family in general, and for which 
the glorious appellation of the age of Leo X has been 
given to the first part of the 16th century" (KngL Cy- 
ctop,). The services which Leo rendered to literature 
are many. He encouraged the study of Greek, founded 
a (>reek college at Kome, established a Greek press, and 
gave the direction of it to John Lascaris; he restored 
the Roman University, and filled its numerous chairs 
with professors; he directed the collecting of MSS. of 
the classics, and also of Oriental writers, as well as the 
searching after antiquities; and by his example encour- 
aged others, and among them the wealthy merchant 
Chigi, to the same. He patronized men of talent, of 
whom a galaxy gathered round him at Rome. He cor- 
responded with Erasmus, Machiavelli, Ariosto, and other 
great men of his time. He restored the celebrated li- 
brary of his family, which, on the expulsion of the Med- 
ici, had been plundered and di^pcr^d, and which is 
known by the name of the Bibliotcca Laurenziana at 



noant 



Florence. In short, Leo X, if not the roost exemplary 
among popes, was certainly one of the most illustrious 
and meritorious of Italian princes. See Guicciardini, 
Storia d'Jtalia ; Koscoe, L\tf "«<^ Pontificate of Leo X 
(Lond. 1806, 4 vols. 4to) ; Farroni, Vita Leofiis X (1797) ^ 
Audin, I^ott X (1844); Giovio, Vita Leonis X (1661); 
Artaud de Montor, Histoire des Soureraing papeff vol. iv. 
For the bulls and speeches of pope Leo X, see Fabricius, 
Bibliothfca Latum Media et lnjimia AUatis ; Sifmondi, 
Hist, des Republiques Itaiiermes ; Kanke, I/ist, of the Pa- 
pucy, vol. i, ch. ii ; Schrockh, Kirchenyesch. xxxii, 491 
sq. ; xxxiv, 83, 91 ; and his Kirchengesch, s, d. Ref i, 76 
sq., 314 sq. ; iii, 207 sq., 21 1 sq. ; Raumer, Gesch. der Pa- 
dayogik, i, 54 sq. ; Bower, Hist, of the Popes, vii, 400 sq. ; 
Trollope, History of Florence (Lond. 1866, 4 vols. 8vo), 
especiallv vol. iv, book x ; Leo, Gesch. ItalitnSf vol. v, ch. 
iiL (J.il.W.) 

Leo XI, Pope (A lessandro de Medit^, a descendant 
of the house of the Medici, was bom at Florence in 
After representing Tuscany for some years at the 
of pope Pius V, he was made bishop of Pistoia in 
and archbishop of Florence in 1674. Made cardinal m y 
1683, he was sent by his predecessor, Ckmcnt VIII, leg- r 
ate a latere to France to receive Hcniy IV into the 
bosom of the Roman Catholic Church. He was very 
old when elected, on the Ist of April, 1606, by the ut- 
most exertions of the French, against the wishes of the 
Spanish. He died on the 27th of the same month, it is 
said, from the fatigue attending the ceremony of taking 
possession of the patriarchal church of St. John the Lat- 
eran. See Artaud de Montor, Histoire des Sourerains 
Pontiffs ; Bower, History of the Popes, xdi, 476 ; Hoefer, 
A our. £iog, Generale, xxx, 726 ; Engl. Cyclop, s. v. 

Leo XII, Pope (cardinal Anntbale ddla Genga), 
was bom in the district of Spoleto in 1760, of a noble 
family of the Romagna; was made archbishop of TjTe 
in 1793, and was later employed as nuncio to Germany 
and France by Pius VII, who made him a cardinal in 
1816. On the death of this pontiff he was clccteel pope, 
in September, 1823. He was well acquainted with di- 
plomacy and foreign politics, and in the exercise of his 
authority, and in asserting the claims of his see, he as- 
i Slimed a more imperious tone than his meek and bener- 
I olent predecessor. He re-established the right of a^- 
lum for criminals in the churches, and enforced the 
I strict obsenance of fast days. He was a declared en- 
I emy of the Carbonari and other secret societies. He 
I prcicUimed a jubilee for the year 1826; and in his cir- 
cular letter accompanying the bull, addressed to the 
patriarchs, primates, arehbishops, and bishops, he made 
a violent attack on the Bible Societies, as acting in op- 
position to the decree of the Council of Trent (session 
iv) conceming the publication and use of the sacred 
books. Leo also entered into negotiations with the new 
states of South America for the ?ake of filling up the 
vacant sees. He gave a new organization to the uni- 
versity of the Sapienza at Rome, which consists of five 
coDeges or faculties, viz., theology, hiw, medicine, phi- 
losophy, and philology ; and he increased the number of 
the professon*, and raised their emoluments. He pub- 
lished in October, 1824, a ^foto Proprio, or decree, re- 
forming the administration of the papal state, and also 
the administration of justice, or Procedura Civile, and 
he fixed the fees to be paid by the lirigant parties. He 
corrected several abuses, and studied to maintain order 
and a good police in his territories. He died February 
10, 1829, and was succeeded bv Pius VIII. See Engl, 
Cyclop, s. V.'; Rudoni, I.eone XJI e Pio VII J (1829) ; 
Schmid, Tranent de ouf Ijco XII (1829); Artaud de 
Montor, Histoire du pope IJon XII (1843, 2 vols. 8vo) ; 
Wiseman, Recollections of the last four Popes (see In- 
dex). 

Leodegar, a saint fm French St, Leger), was bom 
about 616. He was educated by his uncle (some say 
his grandfather), the bishop of Poitiers, who made him 
archdeacon. Leodegar was afterwards called to the 



LEONARD 



367 



LEONARDONI 



; bwt this sentence was reversed by the Inquisito- 
HaI high court of Madrid, and he was liberated with 
th« ad Woe of being more careful in future. In 1578 he 
r^tumeii to his convent and resumed his office. He 
il»*'reaft«r devoted himself exclusively to theologj' and 
to the duties of his order; but his health n^ver recov- 
cTv^l ciidrely from the shock it had undergone while in 
the pri!M>iis of ihe Inquisition. He became general and 
l>r«>viiieial vicar of his order in Salamanca, and died in 
lZ»m. II L8 principal writings are p(»ems in Latin and in 
S|»aiii^h ; the latter are distinguit«hed for beauty of lan- 
(Cua^e ajid purity cf style. His original pieces have 
been fuiblished, with a German translation, by C B. 
Schltlter and W. Storck (MUnster, 1853). His whole 
w^orki*, conisistLng of the above, together with transla- 
tions from the classics, the Psalms, and parts of the book 
of J oh, were collected and published (Madrid, 1804-16, 6 
vols*, u See Quevedo, Vita de UdeL. (Madrid, 1631) ; 
W^rxAi^y Rral-^ncyklopa^y 8. v. 

Xteonard, St., a French nobleman who flourished in 
lh« first half of the 6th century, was a convert and pu- 
pil of Kemigius. He retired at tirst into a convent near 
i >rlean«i, and afterwards into a hermitage in the neigh- 
borhood of Limoges. Here he applied himself to the 
conversion of the people. A few followers soon gath- 
erctl around him, and he founded the convent of No- 
blae. He took special interest in prisoners, and the le- 
g^ntl relates that centuries after his death prisoners 
were releaj»ed and captives brought back from distant 
countries through his intercesMon. His prayers arc said 
to have saved the life of the queen of France in a dan- 
l^rous confinement, and he became also the protector of 
iravellers. He died in 659, and is commemorated on 
the 6th of Noveml)er. He is especially recognised in 
France and in England. — Herzog, Real-Encyklop, viii, 
532 ; Migne, Sour. Encyc, TMohy. ii, 1 168. (J. N. P.) 
I«eonard, Abiel, S.T.D., an army chaplain and 
Omgregational minister, was born at Plymouth, Mass., 
Kov. 5, 1740; graduated at Harvard College in 1759; and 
was ordained pastor of the original Church in Woodstock, 
Conn., in 1763. In 1775 he was appointed chaplain in 
the Revolutionarv armv, and was in the service of his 
country until 1778, when he went home on a furlough 
to see his sick child. Having remained longer than 
the appointed time, he found, upon his return, that he 
was superseded, which news so affected him that he put 
an end to his life in the western part of Connecticut, 
Aug. 14, 1778. Dr. Leonard was an elegant speaker, and 
published two sermons. See Cong. Quar, 1861, p. 350. 

Ifeonard, Qeorge (1), a Congregational, and sub- 
sequently an Episcopal, minister, was bom in Middle- 
borough, Mass., April 6, 1783; graduated at Dartmouth 
College in 1805; studied with Dr. Perkins, of West 
Hartford ; and was ordained over the Church in Can- 
terbury, Conn., in 1808. After two years he was dis- 
missed, and preached in various places in Massachu- 
setts. In 1817 he was ordained a deacon in the Episco- 
pal Church by bishop Griswold; admitted to priest's 
orders the following year at Marblehead; and was rec- 
tor of Trinity Church, Cornish, N. H., and of St. PauFs, 
Windsor, Yt., until his death, which took place at the 
house of his sister in Salisbury, N. H., June 28, 1834. 
^ Disinterested and judicious counsellor, open-hearted 
and honest man, and a sincere Christian." Several of his 
sermons were published. See Cong. Quar, 1859, p. 854. 

Leonard, Otoorge (2), a Baptist minister, was bom 
in Kaynham, Bristol Co., Mass., Aug. 17, 1802; entered 
Bmwn University in September, 1820; graduated in 
1824: and after being for some time a subordinate in- 
fltnictor in the Columbia College at Washington, went 
to the Newton Theological Institntion to study theology. 
In August^ 1826, he was ordained pastor of the Second 
llaptist Church of Salem, Mass., and while there filled 
also the office of secretary of the Salem Bible Transla- 
tion and Foreign Mission Society; bat his health com- 
pelled him to resign that position in 1829. Having 



somewhat recovered, he became pastor of the Church 
in Portland, Me., in October, 1830. Here he labored 
faithfully and successfully until his death, Aug. 11, 1831. 
He wrote a Dissertation on the Duty of Churches in ref- 
erence to Tetnperntice (published in the Christian Watch' 
many 1829). The year after his death (1832), a small 
volume containing twelve of his Sermons^ together with 
the sermon delivered on the occasion of his death by tha 
Hev. Dr. Babcock, was published under the direction of 
his widow.— Sprague, A nnais of the A mer. Pulpit^ vi, 729. 

Leonard, Josiah, a Presbyterian minister, was 
bom in Kingsborough, N. Y., April 15, 1816. He grad- 
uated from Union Qillege in 1837, and finished his the- 
ological course in Union Seminary. He was ordained 
to the ministry in 1840, and was pastor of the following 
churches successively: Mexicoville, N. Y., 1840-4^; 
Oswego, 1842-45; Delhi, 1845-48 ; Fulton, 111., 1856-71. 
In 1872 he became stated supply at Clinton, la., where 
he died, Feb. 22, 1880. (W. P. S.) 

Leonard, Levi 'Washbnm, D.D., a Congrega^ 
tional minister, was bom at S. Bridgewater, Mass., June 
1, 1790, and was educated at Har\'ard University, where 
he graduated in 1805. He then studied theology at 
Cambridge, and Sept. 6, 1820, became pastor at Dublin, 
N. H., where he continued until 1854. He died at Ex- 
eter Dec 12, 1864. He published several school-books 
and other works of general interest only.— Drake, />k^. 
of A merican Biography, s. v. ; Appleton, A mer. A nnual 
CychpcBdia, 1864, p. 6-23. 

Leonard, Zenas Lock'wood, a Baptist preach- 
er, was bora at Bridgewater, Mass., January 16, 1773. 
In June, 1790, he M-as converted, and shortly after joined 
the church in Middleborough. In May, 1792, he entered 
the sophomore class of Brown University, and graduated 
with honor in 1794. On leaving college he commenced 
a course of theological study with Kev. W. Williams, of 
Wrentham, Mass. In 1796 he was ordained pastor of 
the Baptist church in Sturbridge, Mass. The next year 
he opened a grammar-school, which he continued for sev- 
eral years. Mr. Leonard was active in procuring a divi- 
sion of the Warren, R. I., Baptist Association, Nov. 3, 1801 , 
and the formation of the Sturbridge Association, Sept. 80, 
1802. He was particularly active in promoting promi- 
nent benevolent objects, especially the Sabbath-school, 
the temperance cause, African colonization, and missions. 
On Oct. 18, 1832, be was, by his own request, dismissed 
from the charge of his congregation. For six terms he 
represented his district in the councils of the state. Mr. 
Leonard manifested supreme deference to the authority, 
truth, and spirit of the Gospel ; stability of purpose ; un- 
compromising advocacy of the cause of freedom, right- 
eousness, and public virtue ; and unwearied activity in 
performing the various duties of his profession. His pie- 
ty was of steady progress, ripening continually until his 
death. He died June 24, 1841. The only printed pro- 
ductions of his pen, with the exception of contributions 
to various periodicals, are the Circular Letters to the 
Association for the years 1802, 1810, 1822, and 1825.— 
Sprague, A nnals of the A mer, PutjnL, ri, 847 sq. 

Leonardo da Porto Maurizio, a noted mission- 
ary priest and the founder of the Brotherhood of the 
Heart of Jesus, was bora in Liguria in 1676. While 
yet a youth he became a pupil of the Jesuits, and a 
member of the Order of the Reformed Franciscans. He 
was especially active in promoting the doctrine of tha 
immaculate conception. He died about the middle of 
the 18th centurv, and was sainted bv Pius VI in 1796. 

Leonardo pa Vinci. See Visci. 

Leonardoni, Francesco, an Italian painter, was 
bom at Venice in 1654; visited Spain and settled at 
Madrid; gained great eminence as a portrait-painter; 
executed several historical works for the churches, char- 
acterized by a grand style of design ; and died at Madrid 
in 1711. Among his principal works are a large altar- 
piece of the Incarnation, in the Chnrch of San Geronimo 
el Real, at Madrid :~and two subjects from the L\fe of 



LEONTIUS 



369 



LEOPARD 



Off of the discuMionfl between the "holy bishops" of the 
rtbodox party ami the " philosophen*" who embraced 
Ike opposite side, and the Leontius who took a part in it 
IBS a bishop of the Cappadocian C^esarea, and contcra- 
fOTwry of Athanasius. 9. According to Nicephorus Cal- 
t*tuft (//. A\ 3cviii, 43), our Leontius wrote also "an admi- 
able work," in thirty books, unfortunately lost, in which 
le overthrew the tritheistic heresy of John the Labori- 
ng, and firmly esublished the orthodox doctrine. Cave 
lIsu aacribea to our Leontius ratio in medium Ptmfe- 
n^rn» et tn Ctrrum a Xatintatej necnon in illud: Noliie 
mdUftre se<^umlum Jariem (published by Combefis, with 
t Latin version, in his Audanum NoruMj voL i [Paris, 
64H, foL ] ) . It is so given by the editors of the hiblioth. 
PfitrviH, voL ix (Lyons, 1671, folio), but Fabricius (Bibl, 
fMretcOy viii, 321) ascribes the homily to Leontius of Ne- 
Kpolts, while (lalland omits it altogether. A homily on 
the parable of the gooil Samaritan, printed among the 
rapposititious works of Chrysostom {Operas vii, 506, ed. 
Savill), seems also to be a production of our Leontius. 
Inhere are various homilies extant in MS. by " Leontius 
presbyter ConstantinopoUtanus." See Canisius, Vita Le- 
omfU in JBibliotk, PtUrum^ vol. ix (Lyons, 1677, fol.), and 
I^f^ionem A ntiquv^ i, 527, etc, ed. Basnage ; Cave, f/ist, 
I Alt, i, 543 ; Vossius, Dt Ilvttoricis GrtBcis Liber j iv, c 18 ; 
Fabricius, Biblfotheca Gnxca, viii, 809, etc, 818 ; xii, 648 ; 
Oudin, IM Scriptonbun et Scriptia Ecdes. i, coL 1462 ; 
MansL. Conril, vii, col. 797, etc ; Galland, BiJbl, Patrum, 
xii, Prolegom, c. 20. — Smith, Diet, of Greek and Roman 
Biog. ii, 756 sq. 

I«eozitiu8 OF Byzantium (2), the author of a part 
of the Xpovoypo^'a, lived in the reign of Constantine 
Porpbyrogenitus. A second portion, bringing the work 
down to the second year of Romanus, son and successor 
of Porpbyrogenitus, and probably only reaching or de- 
signed to reach a later period, is an addition by another 
band. In fact, the work which is entitled Xpovoypa- 
«>»«, Chronographia^ is composed of three parts, by three 
distinct writers: (1.) The history of the emperor Leo V, 
the Armenian, Michael II of Aurorium, Theophilus, the 
son of Michael, and Michael III and Theodora, the son 
and widow of Theophilus ; by the so-called Leontius, 
from the materials supplied by Constantine Porphyro- 
genitns. (2.) The life of Basil the Macedonian, by Con- 
stantine himself (though Labbe and Cave would assign 
this also to Leontius) ; and (8.) The lives of Leo VI and 
Alexander, the sons of Basil, and of Constantine Por- 
phyrogenitus, and the commenconent of the reign of 
Romanus II; by an unknown later hand. This third 
part is more succinct than the former parts, and is in a 
great degree borrowed, with little variation, from known 
and existing sources. The first edition of the Chrono- 
graphia prepared for publication with a Latin version 
was by (>mbefis, and was published in the Paris edition 
of the Byzantine historians, forming a part of the volume 
entitled Oc pird i^to^nvijv^ScriptoreM post Theophanan 
(1685, folio); again pubUshed in the Venetian reprint 
(1729, foUo), and again, edited by Bekker (Bonn, 1838, 
8vo). The life of Basil by Constantine Porpbyrogeni- 
tus was printed separately as early as 1653, in the Sv/u- 
fiiKrd of Allatius (Cologne, 8vo). See Fabricius, Bibi, 
(rVffco, vii, 681; viii, 318; Cave, //m/. />»W. ii, 90.— Smith, 
Diet, of Greek tmd Roman Biography ^ ii, 757 sq. 

Leontius of Neapoi.is (or of Hagiopolisj accord- 
ing to his own authority), in Cyprus, who was bishop 
of that city, which Le Quien {Oriens Chriatianus, ii, 
1061) identities with the Nova Lemissus, or Nemissus, 
or Nemosa, that rose out of the ruins of Amathus, 
tkMirished in the latter part of the 6th and the early 
part of the 7th centurj*. Baronius, Possevino, and oth- 
ers call Leontius bishop of .Salamis or Constantia, but in 
the records of the second Nicene or seventh (Jeneral 
CouaciL, held SAi. 787, Actio iv (Concilia, vii, col. 236, 
ed. Labbe ; iv, col. 193, ed. Hardouin ; viii, col. 884, ed. 
Coleti; and xiii, coL 44, ed. Mansi), he is expressly dc- 
BctibcJ as bbhop of NeapolU, in Cyprus. His death is 



said to have occurred between 620 and 630. Hb prin- 
cipal works are Auyoc viri{t rj}c Xpi(matfi!jv dtroXoyioQ 
tcard 'lovdaiujv xai tripi tUovutv tmv ayicuv, SermO' 
nes pro Defensione Christianorum contra Judaoa ac de 
imaginibus aanciia, A long extract from the fifth of 
these sermons was read at the second Nicene Council 
(Concilia f L c) to support the use of images in worship; 
and several passages, most of them identical with those 
cited in the council, arc given by John of Damascus in 
his third oration, and in De Jmagiftibus {OperOj i, 373, 
eto., ed. Le Quien). A Latin version of another portion 
of one of these discourses of Leontius is given in the 
Lectionta Antiqutt of Canisius, i, 793, edit. Basnage : — 
Bi'oc Tov dyiov 'lutdi'vov dpxtfK^itfKotrov 'A^ttarfpti- 
ttf row 'EXtTipoyo^y Vita Sancfi Joamiis A rchitpiscopi 
A lexandrice Cognomento Kleemotiit, a. Kleemofynarii, See 
John the Almsgiver. lliis life bv Leontius was men- 
tioned in the second Nicene Coiuicil (Concilia j vol. cit., 
coL 246 Labbe, 202 Hardouin, 8P6 Coleti, 63 Mansi), and 
is extant in No. 8 in the Imperial Library at Vienna. 
An ancient Latin version bv Anastasius Bibliothecarius 
is given by Rosi^-eid (De Vitis Pati-uWy pars i), Surius 
{De Probaiis Sanctorum Vitis), and Bollandus (^Ada 
Sanctorum, January, ii, 498, etc.). The accotmt of St. 
Vitalis or Vitalius, given in the A da Sandvrum of Bol- 
landus (January), i, 702, is a Latin version of a part of 
this life of John the Almsgiver *. — Biof tov uaiov Sv- 
pfutv rov oaXoi'f Vita Sanda Symeonis SimpliciSf or 
Bioc Kal TToXiTiia tov dfS^d ^vpiwv tov (id Xpiffrov 
iirovopaa^ipTOi XaXov, Vita et Conrersatio Abbatis 
Symeonis qui cognominatus est StuUus propter Christum, 
was also mentioned in the Nicene Council (/.c.),and pub^ 
lished in the A da Sand, of the Bollandists (July), i, 136, 
etc. The other published works of Leontius are homi- 
lies : Sermo in Sinteonem quando Dominum in Vlnas sus" 
cepit: — In Diemfestum media Penfecostes; both with a 
Latin version in the A'orutn A udarium of Combefis, voLi 
(Par. 1648, foL). As Leontius is recorded to have writ- 
ten many homilies in honor of saints (t^icfa'/im) and for 
the festivals of the Church {traiiiyvpiKoi Xoyoc), espe- 
cially on the transfiguration of our Saviour, it is not un- 
likely that some of those extant under the name of Le- 
ontius of Constantinople may be by him. He wrote 
also IlapaXXfiXutv Xoyoi /3', Parallelorum, s, Locorum 
communium Theologicorum Libri ii ; the first book con- 
sisted of Tiiv ^tiiov, and the other tHuv uvBpunriputv. 
Turrianus possessed the second book ; but whether that 
or the first is extant, we know not ; neither has been 
published. It has been thought that John of Damas- 
cus, in his Parallela, made use of those of Leontius. 
Fabricius also inserts among the works of our Leontius 
the homily Ei\ tu fiata, Jn Festum (s, Ramos) PabnO' 
rum, generally ascribed to Chrysostom, and printed 
among his doubtful or spurious works (vii, 834, ed. Sa- 
vill; X, 767, ed. Montfaucon, or x, 915, and xiii, 854, in 
the recent Parisian reprint of Montfaucon*s edition). 
Maldonatus {ad Joan, vii) mentions some MS. Commen- 
tarii in Joannem by Leontius, and an Orafio in laudem 
S, Epiphanii is mentioned by Theodore Studita in his 
A ntirrhdicus Secundus, apud Si8mondi,6l;p/7. v, 180. (See 
Fabricius, BibL Grasca, viii, 820, etc ; Ca\'e, Hist, Liit, i, 
550 ; Oudin, De Scriptor, L'cdesiasticis, i, coL 1575, etc ; 
Vossius, De ffistor, Grac. lib. ii, c 28 ; Le Quien, Oriens 
Christianus, ii, coL 1062; Ada Sandor,Ju[y, v, 181.)— 
Smith, Did, of Greek and Roman Biography, ii, 758. 

Leopard (Heb. *^p9, ndmir', so called as being 
spotted, Cant, iv, 8 ; Isa. xi, 6 ; Jer. v, 6 ; xiii, 28 ; Hos. 
xiii, 7 ; Hab. i, 8 ; Chald. H^3, nemar', Dan. vii, 6 ; Gr. 
irdp^aXiQ, Dan. vii, 6 ; Rev. xiii, 2 ; Ecclus. xxviii, 23). 
Though zoologists differ in opinion respecting the iden- 
tity of the leopard and the panther, and dispute, sup- 
posing them to be distinct, how these names shoidd be 
I respectively applied, and by what marks the animals 
i should be distinguished, nevertheless there can be no 
, doubt that the minier of the Bible is that great spott<d 
, feline which anciently ii.fcsted the Syrian mountdi.fs 



OLD rv 



371 



LEPROSY 







r fc 



H p I hU charge. (For further de- 
>er8y,8ee Potter, VU de Scipion 
voK8vo].) Leopold himself 
< >rence of the bishops of Tus- 
•Ki to them tiftv-seven articles 
ecclesiastical discipline. He 
, imibents, and forbade plurali- 
•>n vents, and distributed their 
r benefices — thus favoring the 
\: tending their jurisdiction, as 
xtended the jurisdiction of the 
le publication of the bulls and 
•at the approbation of the gov- 
>e ecclesiastical courts not to iu- 
tcraporal matters, and restrain- 
* • spiritual affairs only; and he 
the jurisdiction of the ordinary 
^ses. All these were considered 
tl innovations for a Roman Cath- 
'. See Ricci. 

rtrrave of Austria, son of Leopold 

, 1078. He was educated by the 

' the direction of Altmann, bishop 

. led bis father in 1096. His chief 

> lie reign was to promote the hap- 

He avoided war, and husbanded 

- I'ountry with great care. He was 

t be emperor, Henry IV, in a cru- 

«« .lien the insurrection of the emper- 

.•iii^ed him to change his plans. At 

< the emperor (in 1105), but some- 

iiitluenced by his brother-in-law, 

uf Bohemia, and the promises of 

• ■ latter, to whose sister Agnes, wid- 
- u.ibia, he was married in 1106. The 
' \^ passed in peace and prosperity. 
My (especially in 1118) he was sub- 
i ? by the inroads of the Hungarians, 
•loath of Henry V, he was spoken of 

• lined in favor of Lothaire, duke of 
' lied Nov. 16, 1136, and was canonized 
t Vin in 1485. He founded a large 
.T8, among which are those of Neuburg, 
nf the Holy Cross, and built a number 

■ A. Klein,* (Je-^cA. dfs Christenfhunu in 

'iria, 1840), vol i and ii; Leopold d, IJei- 

I L. Lang, D, hi, Leopold (Reutl'mgen, 

'/ soTicti Leopoldi ; same, Scripfores Re- 
'/TO, i, 575: Poltzmann, Compendium vi- 
Jaffe, Getch. des deutschen Reiches unter 

hjten (Berlin, 1843) ; and his GeschicJite d. 

* u, Konrad III (Han. 1845) ; Herzog, 

viii, 332; Hoefer, A our. Biog, Generale, 



<i\Q form of 5"^^, to smite with a providen- 
, Xt'jrpvg), See Leprosy. 

■a, a monastic who flourish^ in the second 

th and the early part of the 5th century, a 

'«ul, embraced asceticism under the auspices 

about the opening of the 5th century, at 

. here he enjoyed a high reputation for pu- 

tiue^s. Advancing the view that man did 

need of divine grace, and that Christ was 

1 htiman nature only, he was excommunica- 

<iuence of these heretical doctrines. He be- 

if to Airica, and there became familiar with 

>ul St. Augustine, by whose instructions he 

much that he not only became convinced of 

hut drew up a solemn recantation addressed 

'IN bishop of Marseilles, and Cyllinnius, the 

' \ix (see below as to the title and value of this 

VI hilc four African prelates bore witness to the 

'•> tti.s conversion, and made intercession on his 

\lt hough now reinstated in his ecclesiastical 

% I^porius does not seem to have returned to 

• cuuntr}', but, laying aside the profession of a 



monk, was ordained a presbyter by St. Augustine, A.D. 
425, and appears to be the same Leporius so wr.rmly 
praised in the discourse I)e Vita et Moiibus CUriconim, 
We know nothing further regarding his careir except 
that he was still alive in 430 (Caaeianus, iJe Jncani, i, 
4). The treatise above alluded to is still extant, under 
the title Libellus emendationis site tatisfactionia ad 
Episcopos Galliaf, sometimes with the addition ConfeS' 
sionem fidei Catholicte continens de Alysteno Ittcama" 
tionis Christi, cum Erroris pristini Detestafione, It wao 
held in very high estimation among ancient divines, 
and its author was regarded as one of the firmest bul- 
warks of orthodoxy against the attacks of the Nesto- 
rians. Some scholars in modem times, especially Qncs- 
nel, who has written an elaborate dissertation on the 
subject, have imagined that we ought to regard this as 
a tract composed and dictated by St. Augustine, fonnd- 
ing their opinion partly on the style, and partly on the 
terms in which it is quoted in the acts of the second 
Council of Chalcedon and early documents, and partly 
on certain expressions in an epistle of Leo the (J re at 
(clxv, edit. Quesnel) ; but their arguments are far from 
being conclusive, and the hypothesis is generally reject- 
ed. Fragments of the Libellus were first collected l>y 
Sismondi from Cassianus, oad inserted in his collection 
of Gaulish councils (i, 52). The entire work was soon 
discovered and published by the same editor in his 
Opuscula Dogmatica Vttervm quinque Scriptorum (Far. 
1630, 8vo), together with the letter of the African bish- 
ops in favor of Leporius. It will be found also in the 
collection of councils by Labbe (Paris, 1671, folio); ill 
Gamier's edition of Marius Mercator (Paris, 1673, foh), 
i, 224; in the Ribliofheca Patrum Mot. (Lugd. 1677), 
vii, 14 ; and in the Bibliofheca Patrum of Galland (Ven. 
1773), ix, 396. Consult the dissertation of Quesnel in 
his edition of the works of Leo, ii, 906 (ed. Paris) ; His' 
toire Litteraire de la France, ii, 167: the second disser- 
tation of Gamier, his edition of J/. Mercator ^ i, 230 ; the 
Prolegomena of Galland ; Schonemann, hiUioiheca Pair, 
Latt, ii, § 20. — Smith, />ic^. Greek and Roman Biography^ 
voL ii, 8. v. 

Leprosy (T^'S^^ytsara'athj a tmi/in^, because sup- 
posed to be a direct visitation of heaven ; Gr. Xf n-pa, so 
called irom its scalinessy hence English *' leper," etc.), a 
name that was given by the Greek physicians to a scaly 
disease of the skin. During the Dark Ages it was indis- 
criminately applied to all chronic diseases of the skin, 
and more particularly to elephantiasis, to which latter, 
however, it does not bear a complete resemblance. 
Hence prevailed the greatest discrepancy and confusion 
in the descriptions that authors gave of the disease, un- 
til Dr. Willan restored to the term lepra its original sig- 
nification. In the Scriptures it is applied to a foul cu- 
taneous disease, the description of which, as well as the 
regulations connected therewith, are given in Lev. xiii, 
^v (cotnp. also Exod. iv, 6,7 ; Numb, xii, 10-15 ; 2 Sam. 
iii, 29; 2 Kings v, 27; vii, 3; xv, 5; jMatt. viii, 2; x, 
8, etc.). In the discussion of this subject we base 
our article upon the moat recent scientific and ar- 
chsological distinctions, compared with the present 
Oriental usages. 

I. Scriptural and Talmudical Statements, — (I.) Lepro^ 
in Human Beings,^!, Cases and Symptoms of Biblical 
/..eprosy, — Lev. xiii, 2-44, which describes this distem- 
per as laying hold of man, gives six different circum- 
stances under which it may develop itself They are as 
follows ; 

(1.) The first circumstance mentioned in Lev. xiii, 
2-6 is that it may develop itself without any apparent 
cause. Hence it is enjoined that if any one should no- 
tice a rising or swelling (PXC), an emption or scab 
(P.nBD), or a glossy pimple (DlSna) in the skin of hb 
flesh, which may terminate in leprosy (r5^2J), he is at 
once to be taken to the priest, who is to examine it and 
pronounce it leprosy, and the man unclean, if it exhibits 
these two symptoms, viz, «, the hair of the affected spot 



LEPROSY 

' pTMCtibfd bounduiM ho wu to receive forty Utipei 

, {Faachim, G7, a). All Ihis only applies to those who 

, hod been pranouiiccd lepers by the prieel, but not to 

lOse who wcra on quarantine {Xrgaini, i, 7). Tho 

bbinir law also exempts women from thtt ubligatiou 

I rend their garments snd let the hsir of their head 

II down {Solu, iii, 8). It is IhereTure no wonder Ihst 
iG Jews regarded leprosy as ■ living deatb (eomp. Jo- 

', «cphua,/lBf, iii, 11,8, and Ihe well-known rabbinic lay- 
ing naa aicn S^IXi:), and as an awful puniahment 
from the Lord ("i Kings v, 7 ; 2 Chnai. xxvi, 20), which 
they wished oil their mortal enemies ('J Sam. iii, 39; i 
I Kings V, 27). 

The healed leper had to pass through two stages of 

purification before he could be received back into the 

' commtinity. As soon u tlie distemper diaappcared he 

It lot the prieM, who had to go ouislde the csmp or 

m to convince himself of the tart. There<i|ion the 

' prieat ordered two ciean and live birdp, a piece of cedar 

', crimson wool, and hyssop ; kdled one bird over a 

1 containing spring water, so that the Uoud might 

nio it, lied together the hywup and the cedar wood 

the crimson wool, put about tiiem the tops of the 

' Bings snd the tip of the (ail of the living bird, dipped 

he foul in Ihe blood snd water which were in the 

el, then sprinkled the hand ofthe healed leper seven 

«, iet the Mrd loose, and pronounced tho restored 

clean (Lev. xiv, 1 7; Krffuim, xii, 1). The healed 

leper was then to wash his garments, cut off all his hair, 



u outiHde his house seven days, which the ftlishua 
' (Xeffiiim, ziv, i), the Ctialdee Taraphrase, Uaimonides 
' (Cn /^jrassF, si, 1 ), etc, rightly regard as a cuphemiwn 
' for eitclusion from connutrial intercourse duiing that time 
' (ver. H), in order that he might not contract impurity 
' (eomp. Lev. iv, 18), With this ended (be firet stage 
' of purillcalion. According to llie Jewish canons, the 
' birds are to be "free, and not caged," or apatrows; lh« 
' I piece of cedar wood is to be "a cubit long, and a quar- 
" the foot of the bed thick ;" Ihe crimson wool ia to 
shekel's weight, Le. 320 grains of barley j Ihe hys- 
nuet at least be a handbreadth in iht, and is nei- 
to be the au-caUed Greek, nor ornamental, not Ro- 

' dead bird must l>e buried in a tiole dug bclure their 

eyes(AV^tm, xiv, [-€; Maimonides, On /.fproi^^, at, 1). 

The second stage of purification began on the seventh 

' day, when the leper had again lo cut oIT Ihe hair of his 

head, his beard, eyebrows, etc, wash hb garments, and 

' be immersed (Lev. xiv, S). On the eij;hth day he had 

io bring two he-lambs without blemish, one ewe-lamb 

ir old, Ilitee lenttis of an ejibali of line dour mixed 

Irespass-oBeiing, and the other, with tlie ewe-lamb, a 

burnt and a sin-otTering; but if the man wa« poor be 

to bring two turtle-doves, or two yomig pigeons, 

I sin-utTcring and a buml-ofTering, instead of a he- 

, and a cwe-lamb (ver. 10, 11, 21). »'ith tlieae of- 

1 fetings the priest conducted the healed leper before the 

' presence of the Lord. What Ihe olTerer hid to do, and 

I how the priest acted when gwng through these cere- 

. moniia, cainiot be better described than in the following 

1 graphic language of the Jewish tradition. "The priest 

: approaches the trespass-offering, lays both hi* handa on 

I, and kills it, wlien two priests caich ila blood, one 

nto a vessel, and the other in his hand; the one who 

I caught it into Ihe vessel sprihkles it against the wall of 

'le altar, the olhcr goes to the leper, who, having been 

nmened in the leper's chamber [which is in the wom- 

I's court], ia waiting [outside Ihe court of Israel, or the 

len's court, opposite the eastern doutj in the poicb of 

icanor [with his face to the west]. He tlien puU hii 

bead into [the court of larael], and the priest puis some 

I of [he blood upon the tip of his right ear; he next puts 

■ in hi« right hand, and the priest puts some blood upon 

the '■ the thumb thereof; and, lastly, puts in his right leg, 



LEPROSY 



375 



LEPROSY 



As to th€ curabienesa of the disease^ thiB is unques- 
vinably implied iii the minute regulations about the 
ttcrifice» and conduct of those who were restored to 
l3««lth. lletddes, in the case of Miriam, we lind that 
shutting^ ber up for seven days cured her of leprosy 
(Numb, xii, 11-13). 

IL Itientify of the Biblical Leproty vnth the modem 
iJtjiemper beasinff this Name, — It would be usdess to 
diiseiias Cbe different disorders which have been palmed 
upon tbe Mosaic description of leprosy. A careful clas- 
wtVcation and discrimination is necessary. 

1. like Greeks distinguished three species of leprot 
the specific names of which were dX^oCv XtvKq, and /i«- 
\<iQ, wbicb may be rendered the vitUigo, the white and 
Che blacks Now, on turning to the Mosaic account, we 
also find three species mentioned, which were all in- 
cluded under the generic terra of ni^rrs, bahirHh, or 
*• brii^ht spot" (Lev. xiu, 2-4, 18-28). The firet is called 
pn'si, bdhaky which signifies " brightness," but in a sub- 
ordinate degree (Lev. xiii, 89). This species did not 
render a person unclean. The second was called r^^ns 
n^^^, hahereth lebcmdhy or a bright white hahireth. The 

characteristic marks of the bahereth Ubandh mentioned 
by Mo«ea are a glos^ white and spreading scale upon 
an elevated base, the elevation depressed in the middle, 
the hair on the patches participating in the whiteness, 
and tbe patches themselves perpetually increasing. This 
was evidently the true leprosy, probably corresponding 
to the tthite of the Greeks and the vulgaris of modem 
science. The third was ntX2 P^ina, bahireth kihdh, 
or dusky bahireth, spreading in the skin. . It has been 
thouj^bt to correspond with the Hack leprosy of the 
Greeks and the nigricanM of Dr. Willan. These last two 
were also called T^nx, tsardath (i. e. proper leprosy), 
and rendered a person unclean. There are some other 
slif^ht affections menUoned by name in Leviticus (chap, 
xiii), which the priest was required to distinguish from 
leprosy, such as rKttJ, se&hf ^tVSj shaphdl; prS, n«- 
tket; "pH^, shechen, i. e. "elevation," " depressed," etcj 
and to each of these Dr. Good (Studg of Med. v, 590) has 
assigned a modem systematic name. But, as it is use- 
less to attempt to recognise a disease otherwise than by 
a description of its symptoms, we can have no object in 
discussing his interpretation of these terms. We there- 
fore recognise but two species of real leprosy. 

(!.) Proper Leprosy, — This is the kind specifically de- 
nominated rjiia,6aAnWA, whether white or black, but 
usually called white leprosy^ by the Arabs barras ; a dis- 
ease not unfrequent among the Hebrews (2 Kings v, 27; 
Exod. iv, 6; Numb, xii, 10), and oilen called lepra Mo- 
saica. It was regarded by them as a divine infliction 
(hence its Heb. name T^^^, tsardath, a stroke i. e. of 
God), and in several instances we find it such, as in the 
case of Miriam (Numb, xii, 10).Gehazi (2 Kings v, 27), 
and ITzziah (2 Chron.xxvi, 16-28), from which and oth- 
er indications it appears to have been considered hered- 
itary, and incurable by human means (comp. 2 Sam. iii, 
29: 2 Kings v. 7). From Deut. xxiv, 8, it appears to 
have been well-known in Egypt as a dreadful disease 
(corop. Description de CEffypte, xiii, 169 sq.). The dis- 
tinctive marks given by Moses to indicate thb disease 
(Lev. xiii) are, a depression of the surface and whiteness 
at yeWnmess of the hair in the spot (ver. 3, 20, 26, 80), or 
a spreading of the scaliness (ver. 8, 22, 27, 36), or raw 
fUsh in it (ver. 10, 14), or a white-reddish sore (ver. 43). 
The disease, as it is known at the present day, com- 
mences by an emption of small reddish spots slightly 
raised above the level of the skin, and grouped in a cir- 
cle. These spots are soon covered by a very thin, semi- 
transparent scale or epidermis, of a whitish color, and 
very smooth, which in a little time falls off, and leaves 
tbe skin beneath red and uneven. As the circles in- 
crease in diameter, the skin recovers its healthy appear- 
ance towards the centre ; fresh scales are formed, which 



are now thicker, and superimposed one above the othei; 
especially at the edges, so that the centre of the scale 
appears to be depressed. The scales are of a grayish- 
white color, and have something of a micaceous orpttarly 
lustre. The circles are generally of the size of a shil- 
ling or half crown, but they have been known to attain 
half a foot in diameter. The disease generally affects 
the knees and elbows, but sometimes it extends over the 
whole body, in which case the circles become confluent. 
It does not at all affect the general health, and the only 
inconvenience it causes the patient is a slight itching 
when the skin is heated; or, in inveterate cases, when 
the skin about the joints is much thickened, it may in 
some degree impede the free motion of the limbs. It is 
common to both sexes, to almost all ages, and all ranks 
of society. It is not in the least infectious, but it is al- 
ways difficult to be cured, and in old persons, when it is 
of long standing, may be pronounced incurable. It is 
commonly met with in all parts of Europe, and occasion- 
ally in America. Its systematic name is Lepra vulgaris, 

Moses prescribes no natural remedy for the cure of lep- 
rosy (Lev. xiii). He requires only that the diseased 
person should show himself to the priest, and that the 
priest should judge of hb leprosy ; if it appeared to be a 
real leprosy, he separated the leper from the company 
of mankind (Lev. xiii, 45, 46 ; comp. Numb, v, 2 ; xii, 10, 
14; 2 Kings \ni,8; xv, 5; Josephus, ^/mm, i, 81; Ant, 
iii, 11,3; irar*,v,6,6; see Wetstein,A'. r.i,l76i Light- 
foot, Hor. Heb, p. 861 ; Withob, Opusc, p. 169 h\.). Al- 
though the laws in the Mosaic code re8])cctiiig this dis- 
ease are exceedingly rigid (sec Michaelis, Ori^d. BibL 
xvii, 19 sq. ; Medic, hermeneut. Untersuch, p. 240 feq.), it 
is by no means clear that the leprosy was contagious. 
The fear or disgust which was felt towards such a pe- 
culiar disease might be a sufficient cause for such severe 
enactments. All intercourse with society, however, was 
not cut off (Matt, viii, 2 ; Luke v, 12; xvii, 12), and even 
contact with a leper did not necessarily impart uiiclean- 
ness (Luke xvii, 12). They were even admitted to the 
s>^agogue ( Light foot, Ilor, Ihb, p. 862). Similar liber- 
ties are still allowed them among the Arabians (Nie- 
buhr, Beschr, p. 186) ; so that we are probably to regard 
the statements of travellers respecting the utter exclu- 
sion of modem lepers in the East as relating to those 
affected with entirely a different disease, the elephanti- 
asis. In Lev. xiv are detailed particular ceremonies 
and offerings (compare Matt, viii, 4) to be officially ol> 
served by the priest on behalf of a leper restored to 
health and purity. See D. C. Lutz, De duab. arib. pur- 
gationi leprosi destinatis earundemque mysterio, Hal. 1787 ; 
Mhr, Symbol, ii, 612 sq.; Baumgarten, Comment, I, ii, 
170 sq. ; Talmud, tract Segaim, vi, 3 ; Otho, l^er, Rahb, 
p. 866 sq.; Rhenferd, in Meuschen, N, T, Talmud, p. 1057. 

(II.) Eltphantiasis, — This more severe form of cu- 
taneous, or, rather, scrofulous disease has been con- 
founded with leprosy, from which it is essentially differ- 
ent It is usually called tubercular leprosy {I^ra nodosa^ 
Olsus, Med, iii, 26), and has generally been thought to 
be the disease with which Job was afflicted (3?^ T^^P, 
Job ii, 7 ; comp. Deut. xxviii, 36). See Job's Disease. 
It has been thought to be alluded to by the term ''botch 
of Egypt" (C^'nxp -pn^. Deut. xxvui, 27), where it is 
said to have been endemic (Pliny, xxvi, 6 ; Lucret. vi, 
1112 sq. ; comp. Aretaeus, Cappnd. morb. diut. ii, 15 ; see 
Ainslie, in the Transactions of the Asiatic Society, i, 282 
sq.). The Greeks gave the name of elephantiasis to 
this disease because the skin of the person affected with 
it was thought to resemble that of an elephant, in dark 
color, mggedness, and insensibility, or, as some have 
thought, because the foot, after the loss of the toes, 
when the hollow of the sole is filled up and the ankle 
enlarged, resembles the foot of an elephant. The Arabs 
called it Judham, which means " mutilation," ^ amputa- 
tion," in reference to the loss of the smaller members. 
They have, however, also described another disease, and 
a very different one from elephantiasis, to which they 



LEPROSY 



377 



LEPROSY 



away ; the gums ore absorbed, and the teeth disappear; 
the nose, the eyes, the tongue, and the palate are slowly 
coQsoiDed ; and, Anally, the wretched victim shrinks 
into the earth and dinappeara, while medicine has no 
power to stay the ravages of this fell disease, or even to 
mitiipite sensibly itA tortures^ (Thomson, /xzrui and J^ool;, 
p. 658, etc) ; and again, ** Sauntering down the Jaffii 
Ti)*d, on my approach to the Holy City, in a kind of 
dreamy maze, ... I was startled out of my reverie by 
the sudden apparition of a crowd of beggars, * sans eyes, 
sans nose, sans hair, sons everything.' They held up 
towards me their handless arms, unearthly sounds gur- 
fd«d through throats without palates'* {ibid, p. 651). 
We noerely ask by what rules of interpretation can we 
deduce from the Biblical leprosy, which is described as 
ooDMsting iu a rising scab, or bright spot deeper than 
the general level of the skin, and spreading, sometimes 
exhibiting live flesh, and which is non-contagious and 
cnrable., that loathsome and appalling malady described 
by I>r. Thomson and others? 

3. As to the leprosy of garments, vessels, and houses, 
the ancient Jewish tradition is that ** leprosy of gar- 
ments and houses was not to be found in the world gen- 
erally, but was a sign and a miracle in Israel to guard 
theni against an evil tongue" (Maimonides, On f^roayj 
xvi, 10). Some have thought garments worn by lep- 
tons patients intended. The discharges of the diseased 
•kin absorbed into the apparel would, if infection were 
poAsible, probably convey disease, and it is known to be 
highly dangerous in some cases to allow clothes which 
have so imbibed the discharges of an ulcer to be worn 
a^ain. The words of Jude, ver. 23, may seem to counte- 
nance tbis^ " Hating even the gannent spotted by the 
flesh.** But, 1st, no mention of infection occurs ; 2d, no 
connection of the leprous garment with a leprous human 
wearer is hinted at ; 3d, this would not help us to ac- 
ooont for a leprosy of stone walls and plaster. Thus 
Dr. Mead (tit iup.) speaks at any rate plausibly of the 
leprosy of garments, but becomes unreasonable when he 
extends bis explanation to that of walls. There is more 
probability in the idea of 8ommer (^t^ Abhandlungen, 
i, 224) that what is meant are the fusting-etains occa- 
sioned by damp and want of air, and which, when con- 
firmed, cause the cloth to moulder and fall to pieces. 
Michaelis thought that wool from sheep which had died 
of a particular disease might fret into holes, and exhib- 
it an appearance like that described in Lev. xiii, 47, 59 
(Michaelis, art. ccxi, iii, 290, 291). But woollen cloth 
is far from being the only material mentioned; nay, 
there is even some reason to think that the words ren- 
dered in the A.V. ** warp" and ** woof are not those dis- 
tinct parts of the texture, but distinct materials. Linen, 
however, and leather are distinctly particularized, and 
the latter not only as regards garments, but " anything 
(lit. vessel) made of skin" — for instance, bottles. This 
classing of garments and house-walls with the human 
epidermis as leprous has moved the mirth of some and 
the wonder of others. Yet modem' science has estab- 
lished what goes far to vindicate the Mosaic classifica- 
tion as more philosophical than such cavils. It is now 
known that there are some skin-diseases which originate 
in an acarus, and others which proceed from a fungus. 
In these we may probably find the solution of the para- 
dox. The analogy between the insect which frets the 
human skin and that which frets the garment that cov- 
en it, between the fungous growth that lines the crev- 
ices of the epidermis and that which creeps in the inter- 
stices of masonry, is close enough for the purposes of a 
ceremonial law, to which it is essential that there should 
be an arbitrary element intermingled vrith provisions 
manifestly reasonable. Michaelis {ibid, art. ccxi, iii, 
293-9) has suggested a nitrous efilorescence on the sur- 
face of the stone, produced by saltpetre, or rather an acid 
containing it, and issuing in red spots, and cites the ex- 
ample of a house in Lubeck ; he mentions, also, exfolia- 
tion of the stone from other causes ; but probably these 
appearances would not be developed without a greater 



degree of damp than is common in Palesrine and Arabia. 
It is manifest, also, that a disease in the human subject 
caused by an acarus or a fungus would be certainly con- 
tagious, since the propagative cause could be transferred 
from person to person. Some physicians, indeed, assert 
that ofdy such skin-diseases are contagious. Hence, 
perhaps, arose a further reason for marking, even in their 
analogues among lifeless substances, the strictness with 
which forms of disease so arising were to be shumied. 

Whatever the nature of the disorder might be, there 
can be no doubt, as Baumgarten has remarked {Comnu 
ii, 175), that in the house respect was had to its pos- 
sessor, since when it came to be in a good condition a 
cleansing or purification quite analogous to the roan's 
was prescribed. He was thus taught to see in hb ex- 
ternal environments a sign of what was or might be in- 
temaL The later Jews appear to have had some idea 
of this, though others viewed it differently. Some ral> 
bins say that God sent this plague for the good of the 
Israelites into certain houses, that, they being pulled 
down, the treasure which the Amorites had hidden there 
might be discovered (Patrick on Lev. xiv, 34). But 
*' there is good reason," adds the learned prelate, ** from 
these words ['I put the plague of leprosy upon a house^], 
to think that this plague was a supernatural stroke. 
Thus Aberbanel understands it : * When he saith '' I put 
the plague," it shows that this thing was not natural, 
but proceeded from the special providence and pleasure 
of the blessed Crod.* So the author ofSepher Cosri (pt. 
ii, § 58) : God inflicted the plague of leprosy upon houses 
and garments as a punishment for lesser suis, and when 
men continued still to multiply transgressions, then it 
invaded their bodies. Mnimonides will have this to be 
the punishment of an evil tongue, i. e. detractions and 
calumny, which began in the walls of the offender's 
house, and went no farther, but vanished if he repented 
of his sin ; but if he persisted in his rebellious courses, 
it proceeded to his household stuff, and if he still went 
on, invaded his garments, and at last his body" {More 
Nebochintj pt, iii, cap. 47). 

Finally, as to the moral design of all these enactments. 
" Every leper was a living sermon, a loud admonition to 
keep unspotted from the world. The exclusion of lepers 
from the camp, from the holy city, conveyed figuratively 
the same lesson as is done in the New Testament pas- 
sages (Rev. xxi,27; Eph. v, 5). ... It is only when we 
take this view of the leprosy that we account for the 
fact that just this disease sq frequently occurs as the 
theocratic punishment of sin. The image of sin is best 
suited for reflecting it : he who b a sinner before God is 
represented as a sinner in the eyes of man also, by the 
circumstance that he must exhibit before men the image 
of sin. God took care that ordinarily the image and 
the thing itself were perfectly coincident, although, no 
doubt, there were exceptions" (Hengstenberg, ChristoL 
on Jer. xxxi, 39). See Uncleanness. 

Literature, — Besides the above notices and canons on 
leprosy given in the Mischna, tract Negaim ; also by Mai- 
monides, Yod Ha-Chezaka Hilcholh Mechotse Kapara, 
cap. iv, and Hilchoth Tamath Tsoraoth ; and by Rashi 
and Rashbam, Commentar, on Lev. xiii, xiv; see, among 
modem writers. Mead, Afedica SacrOj in his Medical 
Works (Edinb. 1765), iii, 160, etc.; Michaelis, Laws of 
Moses (Lond. 1814), iii, 257-305; Mason Good, The Study 
ofMedUcine (Lond. 1825 ), v, 585 sq. ; Schilling, I)e lepra 
Commentationes (Lugd. Bat. 1778); Hensler, Vom abend- 
Idndischen Aussatze im MUtelalter (Hamb. 1790) ; Jahn, 
Biblische A rchaoloffie (Vienna, 1818), I, ii, 355 sq.; Bahr, 
Symbolik des Mosaischen Cultus (Heidelb. 1830), ii, 459 
sq., 512 sq. ; Sommer, Biblische Abhcmdlungen^ voL i 
(Bonn, 1846) ; Pniner, IHe Kranlheiten des Orients {Er- 
lang. 1847), p. 163 sq. ; Trusen, Die Sitten, Gebrduche tmd 
Krankheiten der Alten Hebr. (BresL 1833) ; SaalschUtz, 
Das Momische Hecht (Berlin, 1853), i, 217 sq.; Keil, 
ffandbuch der Biblischen A rchdoloffie (Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, 1858), i, 270 sq., 288 sq.; Bonorden, Lepra squa- 
mosa (UaL 1795) ; Lutz, De avibus purgat, leprosi (HaL 



LESLIE 



379 



LESS(IUS) 



of RcKs. While in this position he took a prominent part 
in the civil as well as ecclesiastical affairs of his coun- 
try, atHi secured to the Scots what are commonly called 
**the black acts of Parliament*' (1566). During the 
fl^bt uf queen Mary to England he defended her cause 
a^aijist the Covenanters. In 1579 he was made sul&a- 
l^&n biBbop and \ncar general of Rouen, in Normandy, 
and, aft4^r persecution and imprisonment, died in 1596. 
II b4 ifrri tings are not of particidar interest to theological 
students. See Allibone, Diet, of British and A nterican 
A udkors, voL ii, a. v. ; Collier, Eccl, llitt, of England (see 
Indeic, voL viii). 

Zaoslie, Charles, a prominent vrriter in the politi- 
cal and theological controversies of the 17th century, 
'was the son of bishop John Leslie, of the Irish sees of 
Raphoe and Clogher, and was bom in Ireland about 
1650, aud educated at Trinity (Jollege, Dublin. His 
course in life was very eccentric In 1671 he went to 
Kn^land to study law, but in a few years turned him- 
self to divinity, was admitted into orders, and. bcttliug 
in Ireland, beoune chancellor of Connor. He was living 
in Ireland at the time of the Revolution, and distin- 
l^ished himself in some disputations with the Roman 
Catholics on the side of the Protestant Church. Though 
a aealous Protestant, he scrupled to renounce his alle- 
^ance to king James, and to acknowledge king William 
as hid rightful sovereign. There was thus an end to 
his pros|>ects in the Church, and, leaving Ireland, he 
went to England, and there employed himself in writing 
many of his controversial works, especially those on the 
political state of the country. \Vhen James II was 
dead, Leslie trausferred his allegiance to his son, the 
.Pretender ; and, as he made frequent visits to the courts 
of the exiled princes, he so far fell under suspicion at 
home that he thought proper to leave England, and 
join himself openly to the court of the Pretender, then 
at Bar-le-Duc He was still a zealous Protestant, and 
had in that court a private chapel, in which he was ac- 
customed to officiate as a minister of the Protestant 
Churvh of England. When the Pretender removed to 
Italy. Leslie accompanied him ; but, becoming at length 
aeniuble of the strangeness of his position, a Protestant 
clerg>*man in the court of a zealous Roman Catholic, 
and age coming on, and with it the natural desire of 
dying in the land which had given him birth, he sought 
and obtained from the government of king (xeorge I, in 
1721, permission to return. He died at Glaslough, in 
the county of Monaghan, in 1722. Leslie's writings in 
the political controversies of the time were all in sup- 
port of high monarchical principles. His theological 
writings were controversial ; they have been distributed 
into the six following classes: those against, 1, the 
Quakers; 2, the Presbyterians; 3, the Deists; 4, the 
Jews; 5, the Socinians; and, 6, the Papists. Some of 
them, especially the book entitled A short and east/ 
Method with the Deists, are still read and held in esteem. 
Towards the close of his life he collected his theological 
writings, and published them in two folio volumes (1721). 
They were reprinted at Oxford (1832, 7 vols. 8vo). His 
other numerous works have not been published uniform- 
ly. Among them we notice A Vieu? o/the Times, their 
Principles and Practices, etc (2d ed. Lond. 1750, 6 vols. 
12mo): — The Massacre o/Glencoe (Anon., Lond. 1703, 
4to). — The Axe laid to the Root o/ Christianity, etc 
(Lond. 1706, 4to) : — Qiterela temporum, or the Danger of 
the Church of England (Lond. 1695, 4to) :—A Letter, etc, 
againgt the sacramental Test (Lond. 1708, 4to) : — Answer 
to the Remarks on his first Dialogue against the Socin- 
ions. Bayle styles him a man of great merit and learn- 
ing, and adds that he was the first who wrote in (jreat 
Britain against the fanaticism of Madame Bourignon: 
his books, he further says, are much esteemed, and es- 
pecially his treatise The /^nake in the Grass, Salmon 
obterves that hli works must transmit him to posterity 
as a man thoroughly learned and truly pious. Dr. 
Hickes says that he made more converts to a sound 
laitb and holy life than any man of the age in which he 



lived ; that his consummate learning, attended by the 
lowest humility, the strictest piety without the least 
tincture of narrowness, a conversadon to the last degree 
lively and spirited, yet to the last degree innocent, 
made him the delight of mankind. See Biog, Brit ; 
Encyc, Brit, ; Jones, Christ, Biog, ; Engl, Cyclop, s. v. ; 
Darling, Cyclop, Bibliog, ii, 1825 ; Allibone, Dictionary 
of British and A merican A uthors^ vol. ii, s. v. 

Leslie, John, D.D., a noted prelate of the Irish 
CHiurch, father of the celebrate<l Charles Leslie, was de- 
scended from an ancient family, and bom in the north 
of Scotland about the beginning of the 17th century, 
and was educated at Aberdeen and at Oxford. Af- 
tem-ards he travelled in Spain, Italy, Germany, and 
France. He spoke French, Spanish, and Italian with 
the same propriety and Uucncy as the nahves; and was 
so great a master of the Latin that it was said of him 
when in Spain, " Solus Lesleius Latine loquitur." He 
continued twenty-two years abroad, and during that 
time was at the siege of Rochelle, and in the expedition 
to the isle of Khe with the duke of Buckingham. He 
was all along conversant in courts, and at home was 
happy in that of Charles I, who admitted him into his 
privy council both in Scotland and Ireland, in which 
stations he was continued by Charles II after the Resto- 
ration. His chief preferment in the Church of Scotland 
was the bishopric of the Orkneys, whence he was trans- 
lated to Baphoe, In Ireland, in 1633, and the same year 
sworn a privy councillor in that kingdom. During the 
Rebellion he opeidy and valiantly espoused the cause 
of his royal master, and after the Restoration was trans- 
lated to the see of Clogher. He died in 1671. See Cham- 
bers, Biog, of Eminent Scotsmen, s. v. 

Less, Gottfried, a noted German theologian of 
the Pietistic school, was bom in 1736 at Conitz, m West 
Prussia. He was a pupil of Baumgarten, professor of 
theology at Gbttingen. He studied at the universities 
of Halle and Jena, and in 1762 became court preacher at 
Hanover. He was rather a practical than scholastic 
theologian, and was inclined both to Mysticism and Pi- 
etism. Less was author of a work on the authenticity, 
uncormpted preservation, and credibility of the New 
Testament, which has been translated from German into 
English, and highly commended by Michaelis and 
Marsh. It is not so prolix as Lardner. The German 
title is Beweis der Wahrheit der christlichen Religion 
(1768). llenisowTQUiUi^rdie Religion {\im)',—Ver' 
such einer prcJaischen Dogmatik {{779) :— Christliche 
Moral (1777). 

Le88(iU8), Leoxhard, a Jesuit moralist, was bom 
at Brecht, in Brabant, Oct. 1, 15.>l, and was educated at 
the University of Leyden, to which, after a two years* 
stay at Rome, he was called as professor of philosophy 
and theology m 1585. The pope had just condemned 
seventy-six propositions of Bajus, whom the Jesuits, dis- 
ciples of Scotus, had attacked; but soon Less and Hamel 
falling into the opposite extreme of Pelagianisro, the 
faculty, after due remonstrance, solemnly condemned 
also tifty-four propositions contained in their lectures, 
StiD, as several universities of note were incUned to 
judge moderately of Less's heretical tendency, he re- 
tained bis position, and remained in high standing, es- 
pecially with his order. He died Jan. 5, 1623. His nu- 
merous and well- written essays on morals partake of 
the sophistry so often employed in his order. Among 
the most important, we notice his Libri ir dejustitia et 
jure, cettrisque rirtutibus cardinalibus, often reprinted 
since 1605 (la.**t edit. Lugd. 1653, folio), with an appen- 
dix by TheophUe Raynaud pro Leon, I^ss, de licit o usu 
(equivocuiionum et metUalium reservationum. Also the 
first volume of his 0pp. theol, (Paris, 1651, fol.; Antw. 
1720) ; and his essays De Ubero arbitrio, De provident 
fia^ De perfectionibus dicinis, etc. He followed the S5r8- 
tem of the scholastic moralists, of whom Schrockh (/Ttr- 
chengesch, seit d, Reform, iv, 104) says: "They, in fact, 
continued the old method of their predecessors since the 



LESSING 



381 



LESSING 



ton in liis personal history for his well-nigh despairing 
psrenta. 

Lessin^ was now twenty years of age. He had no 
money, no recommendations, no friends, scarcily any ac- 
qnaintanc^ — nothing but his cheerful courage, hia con- 
fidence in his own powers, and the discipline acquired 
thruu^b past privations. He was so poor that he was 
luuible to obtain even the decent clothing necessary to 
make a respectable appearance. He applied for aid to 
hia parents, but they neither felt able nor willing to grant 
hi^ request, and he had no other course open to him but 
to throvr himself upon the influence and resources of his 
old schoolmate, Mylius, who was now editing a paper in 
Berlin. By this friend^s exertions, oftentimes not stop- 
ping abort of real sacrifices, Lessing managed to exist. 
Mmster of English, French, Italian, and Spanish, he found 
work in tranaUting from these languages, while he also 
contributed largely to different literary journals of t he 
Prussian metrofiolis. Gradually he was introduced to 
the rkotice of the scholars of the city, among them Men- 
delaaobti, the Jewish philosopher, and Nicolai, the noted 
publisher and author of works of value in the depart- 
ment of secular German literature. Indeed, the associa- 
tion of Mendelssohn the Jew, and Lessing the Chris- 
tian« has perhaps had greater influence on the position 
which Lc^ssing assumed in after life than any he had 
with other persons. Both were yet young ipen. The 
former had come to Berlin from Dessau in indigent cir- 
cumstances, ignorant of the German language, but de- 
tmnined, nevertheless, to rise above his condition, and 
to master not only the German, Latin, and English, but 
also the intricate subject of philosophy ; and in this at- 
tempt he had so well succeetled that at the first meeting 
of heming and Mendelssohn, in 1754, the latter was al- 
ready acknowledged a man of superior ability and a 
scholar. I'hey recognised in each other qualities that 
couhi well be used unitedly for the good of humanity, 
and they soon were content only when in each other^s 
society. For two hours every day regularly they met 
and discussed together literary and philosophical sub- 
jectd^ Lessing came to comprehend the truth that vir- 
tue, honor, and nobility of character could be found in the 
Jew also, which the people of his day, led by a narrow- 
minded clergy, were prone to disbelieve : and this gave 
rise first to his important play entitled Die Judetiy and 
later to his chef-d'oeuvre, Nathan der Weise (transL by 
1-Ulen Fruthingham. N. V. 1 87 1 , 12mo,with which compare 
the essays by Kuno Fischer [Mannheim, 1865] and David 
^Strau8s [Berlin, 1866, 8vo, 2d ed.], and Gratz, Gfsch.der 
Juden, xi, 35 sq.; also the works on German literature at 
the end of this article). Near the close of 1751 Lessing 
decided to return once more to the university, and this 
time chose Wittenberg, to penetrate into *' the innermost 
sanctuary of book-worm erudition.** For nearly a year 
he here gave himself up to the study of philology and 
history, especially that of the Reformation and the Be- 
formers. His reputation as a critic grew daily, and in 
five years after his first entry at Berlin he was counted 
among the most eminent literati of the Prussian capital. 
Even at this early age Lessing had ventured into the 
whole circle of aasthetic and literary interests of the day, 
never failing to bring their essential points into notice, 
tnd subjecting them to an exhaustive treatment, not- 
withstanding the fragmentary form of the composition, 
while in point of style he had already attained an apt- 
ness and elegance of hinguage, a facile grace and sport- 
ive humor of treatment, such as few writers of that day 
had even dreamed of. ** His manner lent enchantment 
to the dryest subjects, and even the dullest books gained 
interest from his criticisms." It was during his sojourn 
at Berlin that, with his and Mendelssohn's assistance, 
Nicolai (q.v.) sUrted the Library of PoWe Liter at. (1757) 
and the Uniefrml German Library (1765). (See Hursfs 
Hagenbach. Ch. ffist, Wh and I9fh Cent, i, 278, 307.) 

In 1760 the Academy of Sciences of Berlin honored 
itself by conferring membership on Lessing, and shortly 
after a somewhat lucrative position fell to bis lot ir 



Breslan, whither he at once removed, and where he r^ 
mained five years. It is in this, the chief city of Silesia, 
that most ttf Lessing's valuable contributions to the de- 
partment of general literature were prepared. After a 
short visit to his parents, Lessing returned in 1765 to 
Berlin, then removed to Hamburg, and in 1770 finally 
started for WolfenbUttel, to assume the duties of libra- 
rian to the duke Frederick William Ferdinand of Bruns- 
wick, a position congenial to his taste, and here he re- 
mained until his death, Feb. 15, 1781. 

Theological PosiiiotK^We here consider Lessing as a 
writer and thinker of the 18th century, but in so far only 
as the works which he published, both his own produc- 
tions and those that were sent forth with bis approval, 
affected the theological world in hb day and smce, more 
especially in Germany. Originally intended for the 
pulpit, Lessing suddenly came to entertain the belief 
that morality, which to him was only a synonym of re- 
ligion, should be taught not only from the pulpit, but 
also on the stage. Germany, in his day, was altogeth- 
er Frenchified. " We are ever," said he himself, '* the 
•sworn imitators of everything foreign, and especially 
are we humble admirers of the never sufficiently ad- 
mired French. Everything that comes tp us from over 
the Rhine is fair, and charming, and beautiful, and di- 
vine. We rather doubt our senses than doubt this. 
Rather would we persuade ourselves that roughness was 
freedom; license, elegance; grimace, expression ; a jingle 
of rhymes, poetry ; and shrieking, music, than entertain 
the slightest misgiving as to the superiority which that 
amiable people, that first people in the world (as they 
modestly term themselves), have the good fortune to 
possess in everything which is becoming, and beautiful, 
and noble." Such had been the doctrines taught by the 
great ruler Frederick II himself, and no wonder the peo- 
ple soon fell into the frivolous ways of the French ; and, 
as the literature is said to be the index of a people, 
we need feel no surprise at Lessing's great onslaught 
on Gottsched and his followers while yet a student of 
the university in which this leader of the school of 
French taste held a professorship. Nor must it be for- 
gotten that the history of literature stands in nnmis- 
takable connection with the history of the thinking 
and struggling intellect generally, and consequently, 
also, with the histor}' of rehgion and philosophy. One 
is reflected in the other. The influence of the vapid 
spirit of French literature of the age of Voltaire was 
transferred to German ground, and soon the fruits be- 
came apparent in the general spread of French illumin' 
ism (q. V.) and a sort of humanism. See Rousseau. 
The great German philosopher Wolf, following closely 
in the footsteps of Leibnitz, had sought to check this 
rapid flow of the Germans towards infidelity by a sys- 
tem of philosophy that should lay securely the founda- 
tions for religion and morality, " fully persuaded that 
the so-called natural religion, which he . . . expected to 
be attained by the efforts of reason, and which related 
more to the belief in God and in immortality than to 
anything else, would become the very best stepphtg- 
stone to the temple of revealed religion" (Hagenbach, 
Ch. Hist, 18/A and 19/A Cent, i, 78). Indeed, the theolo- 
gians themselves sought to prove, by the mathematical, 
demonstrative method, the truth of the doctrines of rev- 
elation, and the falsity of infidelity, forgetting altogether 
the great fact that ** that sharp form of thought which 
bends itself to mathematical formulas is not for every 
man, least of all for the great mass ;" and had it not been 
for the influence which pietism was exerting in the 18th 
century upon orthodox Christianity, the latter must 
have suffered beyond even the most ardent expectations 
of the most devoted German Voltaireans. As it was, 
even, there gradually arose a shallow theology, destitute 
of ideas, and limited to a few moral commonplaces, known 
under the name of neology (q. v.), which, at the time of 
Losing's appearance, controlletl the German mind. See 
Semler. An active thinker like Lessing, who, when yet 
a youth, could write to his father that '' the Christian 



LESSING 



383 



LESSING 



ost as ridiculous ia it to fear any danger to Christianity 
rum an attack upon Scripture. In his Ihiplix Lessing 
Dauitained^ in reference to the hbtory of the resurrec- 
ioo, that it contains irreconcilable contradictions ; but 
te held aliK> that it does not follow from this circurostance 
LhAt the resurrection is unhistoricaL '* Who has ever 
rentured to draw the same inference in profane history? 
If Livy, Polybius, Dionysius, and Tacitus relate the very 
jAme event, it may be the very same battle, the very 
mine ste^e, each one differing so much in the details 
that those of the one completely give the lie to those of 
the other, has any one, for that reason, ever denied the 
evejit itfielf in which they agree?" 

Such are the thoughts which Lessing advanced in 
hU theoloi^cal polemical writings, particularly in the 
controversy with pastor Gotze after the publication of 
the so-called ** WolfenbUttel Fragment's" but to present 
fntm them a connected theological system strictly de- 
fiuiog Leasing's stand*point has not yet been made pos- 
mljle« Inde€»d, we would say with Hagenbach (Church 
HUt, of\%tk and I9th Cent, i, 288) that "he had none." 
But Just as much difficulty we would find in assigning 
Leasing a place anynrhere in any theological system of 
thought already in vogue. Really, we think all that 
can be done fnr Lessing is to consider in how far his 
writings justify the disposition that has been made of 
him aA a theological writer. There are at present three 
different classes of theologians who claim him as their 
ally and support.. By some he has been judged to have 
held the position of a rather posirive, though not exacts 
ly orthodox character. This judgment is based upon 
hii views on the doctrine of the Trinity in his Krziehung 
H^» MenscKengrschUchtfg. ( He there says : " What if this 
diK!trine [of the Trinity] should lead human reason to 
acknowMge that God cannot possibly be understood to 
be one, ui that sense in which all finite things are one f 
that his unity must be a transcendental unity, which 
does not exclude a kind of plurality," evidently explain- 
ing the Trinity as referring to the essence of the Deity.) 
By others, either in praise or condemnation, he has been 
adjudged a " freethinker;" while still others have pro- 
nounced him guilty not only of a change of opinion — of 
a change from the camp of orthodoxy to heterodoxy — 
but have also given him up in despair, as incapable of 
having cherished any positive opinion, because he was 
*o many-sided in his polemics ; indeed, he had himself 
explicitly declared that he preferred the search for the 
possesnon o( the truth. The first to break away from 
one and all of these classifications has been Dr. J. A. 
Domer (jGtMck, der protest, TheoL [Munich, 1867, 8vo], 
p. 722 aq.), who assigns Lessing a position similar to 
that generally credited to Jacobi, the so-called " phUos- 
opher of faith" (see Jacobi), and for this there is cer- 
tainly much in favor in Lessing's own declarations ; for, 
like Jacobi, he held that reason and faith have nothing 
in conflict with each other, but are one. He held fast, 
likewise, to a self-conscious personal God of providence, 
to a living relation of the divine spirit to the world, to 
whom a place belongs in the inner revelation, notwith- 
Manding that he assaib the outer revelation in its his- 
torical credibility, and assigns it simply a place in the 
Cuth of authority (Autoritiitsglauben). " It is true," 
says Doruer (p. 737),*' Lessing has particularly aimed 
to secure for the purely human and moral a place right 
by the side of that generally assigned only to Christi- 
anity. But he is far from asserting that the understand- 
ing (Vemunft) of humanity was from the beginning per- 
fect, or even in a normal development, but rather holds 
it to be developing in character, and in need of educa- 
tion by the divine Spirit, whom also he refuses to regard 
as a passive beholder of t he acting mii verse." (We have 
here a number of premises, which later writers, partic- 
ularly .Schleiermacher, have taken to secure for histor- 
ical religion a more worthy position.) Indeed, right 
berc, in the attempt to make humanity progre&sivo, and 
thin progress dependent upon revelation, centred the 
whole of Lessing's theological views, *• To the reason," 



he said, " it must be much rather a proof of the truth 
of revelation than an objection to it when it meets with 
things that surpass its own conceptions, for what is a 
revelation which reveals nothing V" (Comp. Hegel on 
thb point as viewed by Hagenbach, Ch, Hut. of 18/A 
caul 19/A Cent, ii, 364 sq.) Thus he acknowledged the 
truth of revelation, though he would not regard the idea 
of a revelation as settled for all time, but rather as God's 
gradual act of training ; and to elucidate this thought 
he wrote, in 1780, MV krziehung de» Afenschenffesrhlechtea 
(the authorship of which has sometimes been denied 
him : comp. Zeifschr.f. d. hist, theol. 1839, No. 3 ; (Juh- 
nn^T, Krziehung des Menschengeschkchtes krifisch vnd 
philosophisch erortert [Berlin, 1841 ]), a work in which, 
concentrated in a hundred short paragraphs, is a system 
of religion and philosophy — the germ of Herder's and 
all later works on the education of the human race. 
" Something there is of it," says a writer in the HV*^- 
minster Rev. (Oct, 1871, p. 222,* 223 )," that reminds the 
reader of Plato. It has his tender melancholy and his 
undertone of inspired conviction, and a grandeur which 
recalls that moving of great figures and shifting of vast 
scenes which we behold in the myth of Er. Thero 
speaks in it a voice of one crying words not bis own to 
times that are not yet come." 

The English Deists, as Bolingbroke and Hobbes, had 
regarded religion only from the stand-point of politics. 
*' Man," they held, " can know nothing except what his 
senses teach him, and to this the intelligent confine 
themselves ; a revelation, or, rather, what pretends to 
be one, might be a good thing for the populace." Sec 
Deism. Lessing came forward, and, while seeking to 
make morality synonymous with religion, aye, with 
Christianity, taught that in revelation only lies man's 
strength for development. " Revelation," says Lessing, 
" is to the whole human race what education is to the 
individual man. Education is revelation which is im- 
parted to the individual man, and revelation is educa- 
tion which has been and still is imparted to the human 
race. .... Education no more presents everything to 
man at once than revelation does, but makes its com- 
munications in gradual development." First Judaism, 
then Christianity; first unity, then trinity; first hap- 
piness for this life, then immortality and never-ending 
blisa. (See the detailed review on these points in 
Huwt's Hagenbach, Ch. Hist. o/lSth and \9th Cent, i, 
291 sq.) The elementary work of education was the 
O. T. The progress to a more adv^ced book is marked 
by the timely coming of Christ, ^* the reliable and prac^ 
tical teacher of immortality ; . . . . reliable through the 
prophecies which appeared to be fulfilled in him, through 
the miracles which he performed, and through his own 
return to life after the death by which he had sealed his 
doctrine;" whose disciples coUected and transmitted in 
vrriting bis doctrines, " the second and better elementary 
book for the human race," expecting (according to Bit- 
ter {_fjessing*s phiiosophische u. religiose Gruwk&tze, p. 
56 sq.]) the complete treatise itself in the fulfilment of 
the promises of Christianity. Some have interpreted 
Lessing, because Christianity is spoken of as the sec- 
ond ekmentary work, as anticipating another religion, 
to be universally enjoyed, to supersede Christianity, but 
for this we can see no reason, and side with Bitter. 

The position of Lessing has sometimes become equiv- 
ocal by the peculiar interpretation of his Nathan the 
Wise. In his Education of Humanity^ Christianity un- 
questionably Is the highest religion in the scale; in his 
*' Nathan" it is not so. Hence it has been asserted by 
many. Christian writers especially, that in his later 
years Lessing had become a most decided Rationalist, 
and Jacobi even asserted that he had died a Spinozist. 
(Compare the article Ja<x>bi, and the literature at the 
end of this article.) The former interpretation is due, 
however, to wrong premises. I^essing wrote Nathan the 
Wi^e simply for one object: not to aggrandize and en- 
noble his associate and friend ^lendelssohn the Jew, not 
to deprive Cluiatianity of the best of her beauty, but only 



LESSONS 



385 



LEUCOPETRIANS 



lA and \9ih CmL vol i, lect xiii ; For, Quart. Jteviem, 
cr, 2S8 8q.; WutKuuL RevA^l.OcLyKtUym^ llet' 
K, RealSmc^Uop, vUi, 886 sq. ; Kahnis, HitL qf Ger- 
M PrateManiigmy p. 145 sq. (J. U. W.) 

See Lectionabium. 



I«e«tiiiea. See Liptimes. 
Tietaali See Lizard. 

l*ettid (\i)^y oblivion)y in the Grecian mythology, 
tie etremm of forgetfiilnefls in the lower world, to which 
be departed spiriu go, before passing into the Ehrsian 
elds, to be cleansed from all recollection of earthly sor- 
owBL See Hades. 

lie'tbeoll i^rhyU'tkekySeptuMg, v«/9A), a Hebrew 
rord which occurs in the margin of Hoe. iii, 2 ; it signi- 
its a mecuure for grain, so called from emptying or pout' 
ng out. It is rendered "a half hornet^ in the A. V. (af- 
ter the Vulg.), which is probably correct. See Homer. 

Ijeti, Gregory, a historian, bom at Milan in 1630, 
who travelled in various countries, became Protestant 
at Lausanne, was for a time well received at the court 
of Charles H in England, and died at Amsterdam in 
1701. He wrote, among other things, Life of Sixtus 
V:—Life of Philip 11:— Monarchy of Louis XIV:— 
Life ofCromweUi—Life of Queen Elizabeth:— Life of 
Charles V\ 



stands in only two passages of the Bible 
IB its narrow sense of an alphabetical character iypafi- 
fta, in the plural, Luke xxiii, 88; and prob. GaL vi, 11, 
xifAiKocc ypofifiaoi ; A. V. ** bow large a letter," rather 
CM what a bold hand) ; elsewhere it is used (for ^fip, a 
book ; ypappoy either sing, or plur. ; but more definitely 
for the later Heb.n'iaK [Chald.X^aX],-,;Fld3 [Chald. 
id. also OSr^p J ; inMro\ii) in the sense of an epistle (q. 
tr.). See Alphabet : Writing. 

LETTER, THE, a term used especially by the apostle 
?ani la opposition to the spirit; a way of speaking very 
common in the ecclesiastical style (Rom. ii,27,2d; vii, 
6; 2 Cor. iii, 6, 7). In general, the word ktter (ypdfi- 
put) is used to denote the Mosaic law. The law, con- 
sidered as a simple collection of precepts, is but a dead 
form, which can indeed comnsand obedience, but cannot 
twaken love. This dbtinction is shown with gteat skill 
in Schleiermacher's Sermon: Christus^ d,Befreier r. d. 
Sinde V. dL Gesetz (in his SamnU, Werke, ii, 25 sq.). The 
Uw cannot but be something outward, which, as the 
expression of another's will, appeals more to our com- 
prehension than to our will or to our feelings. This is 
the reason why the law is the source of the knowledge 
of sin, and does not impart the life-giving power. But 
that the Mosaic law was called the letter (ypaftfia) re- 
wlts from the fact of its being the written law. So Rom. 
ii, 27, 29 : ** And shall not uncircumcision, which Is by 
nature, if it fulfil the law, judge thee, who by the letter 
and circumcision dost transgress the law? For he is 
not a Jew which is one outwardly, neither is thtt cir- 
cumcision which is outward in the fiesh ; but he is a 
iew which is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of 
the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter, whose 
praise is not of men, but of God." The meaning of 
Ibis passage is. When the heathen does by nature that 
which the law requires, he puts to shame the Jew who 
in Scripture and by circumcision transgresses the law. 
Fur be is not a true Israelite who is so outwardly only, 
tnd merely through physical circumcision (as the sign 
of the covenant) ; but he only who is inwardly a Jew, 
his heart also being circumcised, and consequently after 
the spirit, and not merely after the letter (or outward 
form). Such a one is not merely praised by men, but 
Wed by God. Again, Rom. vii, 6 : " But now we are 
delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we 
were held ; that we should serve in newness of spirit, 
«Bd not in the oldness of the letter.** Being now Chris- 
tiins, we ought to carry the law in our heart, and not 
merely fulfil it outwardly as a mere letter. 2 Cor. iii, 6, 



for the letter (L e. the Mosaic law) kiDeth (bringt about 
death inasmuch as it discovers sin, Rom. vii, 9; vi,23; 
1 Cor. XV, 66), but the Spirit (the holy Spirit imparted 
through faith) giveth life (L e. eternal life, Rom. viii, 10). 
Once more, 2 Cor. iii, 7 : ^ But if the ministration of 
death (of the letter), written and engraven in stones, 
was glorious . . . how shall not the muustration of the 
Spirit be rather glorious?** The law of Moses is inca- 
pable of giving life to the soul, and justifying before 
God those who are most servilely addicted to the literal 
observance of it. These things can be effected only by 
means of the Gospel of Christ, and of that Spirit of truth 
and holiness which attends it, and makes it effectual to 
the salvation of the souL— Krehl, Neu-Test, Handwdr- 
terbuch. See Law of Moses. 

Letters, EnoyolioaL See LiTERiS Ekctclica. 

Letters of Orders, a document usually of parch- 
ment, and signed by the bishop, with his seal appended, 
in which he certifies that at the specified time and place 
he ordained to the office of deacon or priest the clergy- 
man whose name is therein mentioned. 

Lettioe, John, D.D., an English clergyman and poet, 
was bom in Northamptonshire in 1737, and was edu- 
cated at Cambridge, where he took his first degree in 
1761. He soon obtained eminence as a pulpit orator. 
In 1785 he was presented to the living of Peasemarsh, 
and later with a prebend in the cathedral of Chichester. 
He died in 1832. Among his works are The Conversion 
ofSt.Pauly a poetical essay, which secured him a prize 
from his alma mater in 1764: — The Antiquities of Her- 
culaneum^ a translation from the Italian (1778) : — The 
Immortality of the Soul, translated from the French 
(1795). Sec Biog, Did. of Living A uthors (Lond. 1816) ; 
Allibone, Diet, of Authors^ vol ii, s. v.; Thomas, Biogr, 
Diet, s. V. 

Let'tns {XarrovQ v. r. 'Arrovf; Vulg. Acchus), a 
" son of Sechenias,** one of the Levites who returned 
from Babylon (1 Esd. viii, 29), evidently the Hattush 
(q. V.) of the Heb. text (Eizra viii, 2). 

Letn'shim (Heb. Letushin% ^'^"qvjh, hammered, 

plur. ; Sept. XaTowruip), the second named of the three 
sons of Dedan (grandson of Abraham by Keturah), and 
head of an Arabian tribe descended from him (Gen. 
XXX, 3 ; and Vulg. at 1 ChroiL i, 32). RC considera- 
bly post 2024. See Arabia. "Fresnel (Joum, Asiat^ 
iii* serie, vt, 217) identities it w^ith Tasm, one of the an- 
cient and extinct tribes of Arabia, just as be compares 
Leummim with Umeiyim. The names may perhaps be 
regarded as commencing with the article. Neverthe- 
less, the identification in each case seems to be quite un- 
tenable. It is noteworthy that the three sons of the 
Keturahite Dedan are named in the plural form, evi- 
dently as tribes descended from him** (Smith). *' Fors- 
ter supposes {Gcogr, of A rabia, i, 334) that the Letushim 
were absorbed in the generic appellation of Dedanim 
(Jer. XXV, 23 ; Ezek. xxv, 13 ; Isa. xxi, 13), and that 
they dwelt in the desert eastward of Edom.** See 
Leummim. 

Leucippus, the founder of the atomistic school of 
Grecian philosophy, and forerunner of Democritus (q. 
v.). Nothing is known concerning him, neither the 
time nor the place of his birth, nor the circumstances 
of his life. 

Leucopetrians, the name of a fanatical sect which 
sprung up in the Greek and Eastern churches towards 
the close of the 12th century; they professed to believe 
in a double trinity, rejected wedlock, abstained from 
fiesh, treated with the utmost contempt the sacraments 
of baptism and the Lord's Supper, and all the various 
branches of external worship ; placed the essence of re- 
ligion in internal prayer alone ; and maintained, as it is 
said, that an evil being or genius dwelt in the Iweast of 
every mortal, and could be expelled from thence by 
no other methml than by perpetual supplication to 
the Supreme Beiu^. The fuunder of this sect is said 



LEVER 



387 



LEVI 



ment ; 3, abeolate equality before the law ; and, 4, the 
arming of the people in order to enable all to secure the 
enforcement of the laws, and also to protect their liber- 
ilea. In religion they claimed, 1, absolute liberty of con- 
science, as true religion, with them, consisted in inward 
coDcnrrencc with revealed religion ; 2, freedom for every 
one to act according to the best of his knowledge, even 
if this knowl dge should be false — the government act- 
ing on the knowledge and conscience of the people 
throogh the ministers it appoints; 3, religion to be con- 
sidered under two aspects: one as the correct under- 
rtanding of revelation, and this is quite a private affair, 
in regard to which every one must stand or fall by him- 
self; the other is its dfects as manifested in actions, 
and these are subject to the judgment of others, and es- 
pecially of the authorities; 4, they condemned all strife 
on matters of faith and forms of worship, considering 
these as only outward signs of different degrees of spir- 
itual enlightening. This sect, like many others, disap- 
peared at the time of the Restoration. See Weingorten, 
BecolutioHM Kirchm Engkmdi (Lpz. 1868); Neale, HitU 
of the I^uritans (see Index, voL ii, Harper's edition). 



r, Thomas, an eminent English divine, was 
bom in Lancashire in the early part of the 16th century. 
He was ordained a Protestant minister in 1550. On 
the* accession of Mary (1553) he retired to the Conti- 
nent. He afterwards dissented from the Anglican 
Cborch from a partiality to Calvinism. He died in 
1577. No man was more vehement in his sermons 
against the waste of Church revenues, and other pre- 
Tailing corruptions of the court, which occasioned bisN 
op Ridley to rank him with Latimer and Knox. Be- 
■ulea a number of sermons, he published a Meditation on 
the Lorde's Prayer (1551) : — Certuyne Godly Exercises : 
— and a Treatise on the Danger from Synne^ etc. (1571- 
1 575) . See Alltbone, Diet, of Brit, and A mer, A uthorsy 
ToL ii, s. v.; Thomas, Biog, Dictionary^ s. v. 

Ite'vi (Heb. Zert', ■'lb, vrreathed [see below], being 
the same Heb. word also signifying " Levite ;** Sept, and 
N. T. \tvt or Aiuti), the name of several men. 

1. The third son of Jacob by his wife Leah. This, 
like most other names in the patriarchal history, was 
connected with the thoughts and feelings that gathered 
round the child's birth. As derived from Hlb, to txcine^ 
and hence to adhere^ it gave utterance to the hope of 
the mother that the affections of her husband, which 
had hitherto rested on the favored Rachel, would at 
last be drawn to her. ** This time will my husband be 
joined (M^^^) "°^o °>^ because I have borne him 1thff«e 
sons** (Geii.^xbc, 34). RC. 1917. The new-bom cUld 
was to be a Koivwviac ^(fiauitrfic (Josephus, A nt, i, 19, 
8), a new link binding the parents to each other more 
closely than before. The same etymology is recognised, 
though with a higher significance, in Numb, xviii, 2 
0^^?)' ^n® **ct only is recorded in which he appears 
prominent. The sons of Jacob had come from Padan- 
Aram to Canaan with theur father, and were with him 
**at Shalem, a city of Shechem." Their sister Dinah 
went out ^ to see the daughters of the land" (Gen. xxxiv, 
1), L e. as the words probably indicate, and as Josephus 
distinctly states {A nt, i, 21), to be present at one of their 
great ammal gatherings for some festival of nature-wor- 
ship, analogous to that which we meet with afterwards 
among the Midianites (Numb, xxv, 2). The license of 
the time or the absence of her natural guardians ex- 
posed her, though yet in earliest youth, to lust and out- 
rage. A stain was left, not only on her, but on the hon- 
or of her kindred, which, according to the rough justice 
of the time, nothing but blood could wash out. The 
duty of extorting that revenge fell, as in the case of Am- 
non and Tamar (2 Sam. xiii, 22), and in most other 
states of society in which polygamy has prevailed (com- 
pare, for the customs of modem Arabs, J. D. Michaelis, 
quoted by Kurtz, I/ist, of Old Covenant, i, § 82, p. 840), 
on the brothers rather than the father, just as, in the 



case of Bebekah, it belonged to the brother to conduct 
the negotiations for the marriage. We are left to con- 
jecture why Reuben, as the first-bom, was not foremost 
in the work, but the sin of which he was afterwards 
guilty makes it possible that his zeal for his sister's 
purity was not so sensitive as theirs. The same ex- 
planation may perhaps apply to the non-appearance of 
Judah in the history. Simeon and Levi, as the next in 
succession to the first-bom, take the task upon them- 
selves. Though not named in the Hebrew text of the 
O. T. till xxxiv, 25, there can be little doubt that they 
were *• the sons of Jacob" who heard from their father 
the wrong over which he had brooded in silence, and 
who planned their revenge accordingly. The Sept. does 
introduce their names in ver. 14. The hbtory that fol- 
lows is that of a cowardly and repulsive crime. The two 
brothers exhibit, in its broadest contrasts, that union of 
the noble and the base, of characteristics above and be- 
low the level of the heathen tribes around them, which 
marks much of the history of Israel. They have learned 
to loathe and scom the impurity in the midst of which 
they lived, to regard themselves as a peculiar people, to 
glory in the sign of the covenant. They have leamed 
only too well from Jacob and from Laban the lessons of 
treachery and falsehood. They lie to the men of She- 
chem as the Druses and the Maronites lie to each other 
in the prosecution of their blood-feuds. For the offence 
of one man they destroy and plunder a whole city. 
They cover their murderous schemes with fair words 
and professions of friendship. They make the very 
token of their religion the instroment of their perfidy 
and revenge. (Josephus {_Ant, 1. c] characteristically 
glosses over all that connects the attack with the cir- 
cumcision of the Shechemites, and represents it as made 
in a time of feasting and rejoicing.) Their father, timid 
and anxious as ever, utters a feeble lamentation (Blunt, 
Script, Coincidences^ pt. i, § 8), " Ye have made me a 
stench among the inhabitants of the land ... 1 being 
few in number, they shall gather themselves against 
me." With a zeal that, though mixed with baser ele- 
ments, foreshadows the zeal of Phinehas, they glory in 
their deed, and meet all remonstrance with the questioii, 
** Should he deal with our sister as with a harlot?" Of 
other facts in the life of Levi, there are none in which 
he takes, as in this, a prominent and distinct part. He 
shares in the hatred which his brothers bear to Joseph, 
and joins in the plots against him (Gen. xxxvii, 4). 
Reuben and Judah interfere severally to prevent the 
consummation of the crime (Gen. xxxvii, 21, 26). Sim- 
eon appears, as being made afterwards the subject of a 
sharper discipline than the others, to have been fore- 
most — as his position among the sons of Leah made it 
likely that he would be — in this attack on the favored 
son of Rachel; and it is at least probable that in this, as 
in their former guilt, Simeon and Levi were brethren. 
The rivalry of the mothers was perpetuated in the jeal- 
ousies of their children ; and the two who bad shown 
themselves so keenly sensitive when their sister had 
been wronged, make themselves the instruments and 
accomplices of the hatred which originated, we are told, 
with the baser-bom sons of the concubines (Gen.^ xxxvii, 
2). Then comes for him, as for the others, the disci- 
pline of suffering and danger, the special education by 
which the brother whom they had wronged leads them 
back to faithfulness and natural affection. The deten- 
tion of Simeon in Egypt may have been designed at 
once to be the punishment for the large share which he 
had taken ui the common crime, and to separate the 
two brothers who had hitherto been such dose compan- 
ions in evil. The discipline did its work. Those who 
had been relentless to Joseph became self-sacrificing for 
Benjamin. 

Alter this we trace Levi as joining in the migration 
of the tribe that owned Jacob as its patriarch. He, with 
his three sons, Gershon, Kohath, Herari, went down into 
Egypt (Gen. xlvi, 11). As one of the four eldest sons 
we may think of him as among the Asm (Gen. xlvii, 2) 



LEVTTE 



891 



LEVTTE 



ip pointed to aasisiMoees in admimsCering justice (xviii, 
£5), sre oonnected in any special manner with the tribe 
>f Levi. The first step towards a change was made in 
the institation of a hereditary priesthood in the family 
of Aaron during the first withdrawal of Moses to the 
•uUtttde of Sinai (xxviii, 1). This, however, was one 
thin|i( ; it was quite another to set apart a whole tribe 
of Israel as a priestly caste. The directions given for 
the construction of the tabernacle imply no pre-emi- 
nence of the Levites. The chief workers in it are from 
the tribes of Judah and Dan (Exod. xxxi, 2-6). The 
next extension of the idea of the priesthood grew out 
of the terrible crisb of Exod. xxxiL If the Levites had 
b«en sharers in the sin of the golden calf, they were, at 
any rate, the foremost to rally round their leader when 
he called on them to help him in stemming the progress 
of the eviL Then came that terrible consecration of 
themaelres, when every man was against his son and 
af^nat his brother, and the offering with which they 
filled their hands (DSn;^ nxbQ,£xod.xxxii,29; comp. 
Kxod. xxviii, 41) was the blood of their nearest of km. 
The tribe stood forth separate and apart, recognising 
even in this stem work the spiritual as higher than the 
natural, and therefore counted worthy to be the repre- 
sentative of the ideal life of the people, "an Israel with- 
in an Israel"* (£wald,yl^r/Atfin. p. 279), chosen in its 
higher representatives to offer incense and burnt-sacri- 
fice before the Lord (Deut. xxxiii, 9, 10), not without a 
ehare in the gIor>' of the Urim and Thummim that ware 
worn by the prince and chieftain of the tribe. From 
this time, accordingly, they occupied a distinct position. 
Experience had shown how easily the people might fall 
Iwck into idolatry — how necessary it was that there 
should be a Ixxly of men, an orderj numerically large, 
and, when the people were in their promised home, 
equally diffused throughout the country, as attestators 
and ^ardians of the truth. Without this the individ- 
omlism of the older worship would have been fruitful in 
an ever-multiplying idolatry. The tribe of Levi was 
therefore to take the place of that earlier priesthood of 
the first-born as representatives of the holiness of the 
people 

The tabernacle, with its extensive and regular sacri- 
ficial service, which required a special priestly order reg- 
ularly to perform the higher functions of the sanctuary, 
was the special occasion which also called into being the 
Levitical staff to aid the priests in their arduous task, 
inasmuch as the primitive and patriarchal mode of wor- 
alup which obtained till the erection of the tabernacle, 
and according to which the first-bom of all Israelites 
performed the priestly offices (comp. Exod. xxiv, 5 with 
xix, 24, and see First-bobn), could not be perpetuated 
under the newly-organized congregational service with- 
out interfering with the domestic relations of the people. 
It was for this reason, as well as to secure greater effi- 
ciency in the sacred offices, that the religious primogen- 
itore was conferred upon the tribe of Levi, which were 
henceforth to give their undivided attention to the re- 
quirements of the sanctuary (Numb, iii, 11-13). The 
tribe of Levi were selected because they had manifested 
a very extraordinary zeal for the glory of God (Exod. 
xxxii, 26, etc), had already obtained a part of this re- 
ligious primogeniture by the institution of the hered- 
itary priesthood in the family of Aaron (ExmL xxviii, 
1), and because, as the tribe to which Moses and Aaron 
belonged, they would most naturally support and pro- 
mote the institutions of the lawgiver. To effect thb 
transfer of office, the first-bom males of all the other 
tribes and all the Levites were ordered to be numbered, 
from the age of one month and upwards; and when it 
was found that the former were 22,273. and the latter 
22,000 (see below), it was arranged that 22,000 of the 
first-bora should be replaced by the 22,000 Levites, that 
the 278 first>bora who were in excess of the Levites 
should be redeemed at the rate of five shekels each, be- 
ing the legal sum for the redemption of the first-bom 
child (Numb, xviii, 16), and that the 1365 shekels be 



given to Aaron and his sons as a compensation for the 
odd persons who, as first-bom, belonged to Jehovah. As 
to the difficulty how to decide which of the first-bora 
should be redeemed by paying this money, and which 
should be exchanged for the Levites, since it was natu- 
ral for every one to wish to escape thb expense, the 
Midrash {On Xumb, iii, 17) and the Talmud relate that 
" Moees wrote on 22,000 tickets Lerite {'^^h 'p), and on 
273 Five Shekelt (O-^bpttJ ttJTSn), mixed them all up, 
put them into a vessel, and then bid every Israelite to 
draw one. He who took out one with Levite on it was 
redeemed by a Levite, and he who drew one with Five 
Shekels on it had to be redeemed by payment of this 
sum" {Sanhedriny 17, a). There is no reason to doubt 
this ancient tradition. It was further ordained that the 
cattle which the Levites then happened to possess should 
be considered as equivalent to all the first-bom cattle 
which all the Israelites had, without their beiag num- 
bered and exchanged one for one, as in the case of the 
hiunan beings (Numb, iii, 41-51), so that the firstlings 
should not now be given to the priest, or be redeemed, 
which the Israelites were hereafter required to do 
(Numb, xviii, 15). In this way the Levites obtained a 
sacrificial as well as a priestly character. They for the 
first-boni of men, and their cattle for the firstlings of 
beasts, fulfilled the idea that had been asserted at the 
time of the destraction of the first-bom of Eg\*pt (Exod. 
xiii,12,13). 

There is a discrepancy between the total number of 
the Levites, which is given in Numb, iii, 89 as 22,000, 
and the separate number of the three divisions which 
is given in verses 22, 28, and 84, as follows: Gershon- 
ites, 7500 + Kohathitea, 8600 + Merariies, 6200 = 22,800. 
Compare also verse 46, where it is said that the 22,278 
first-bom exceeded the total number of Levites by 278. 
The Talmud {Bechoroth, 5, a) and the Jewish commen* 
tators, who are followed by most Christian expositors, 
submit that the 800 surplus Levites were the first-bora 
of this tribe, who, as such, could not be substituted for 
the first-bom of the other tribes, and therefore were 
omitted from the total. To this, however, it is objected 
that if such an exemption of first-bom had been intend- 
ed, the text would have contained some intimation of it, 
whereas there is nothing whatever in the context to indi- 
cate it. Houbigant therefore suggests that a b has drop- 
ped out of the word vblD in verse 28, making it V?19, and 
that by retaining the former word we obtain 8800 instead 
of 8600, which removes all the difficulty. Philippson, 
Keil, and others adopt this explanation. The number of 
the first-bom appears disproportionately small as com- 
pared with the population. It must be remembered, 
however, that the conditions to be fulfilled were th^t 
they should be at once (1) the first child of the father, 
(2) the first child of the mother, and (8) males. (Com- 
pare on this question, and on that of the difference of 
numbers, Kurtz, Ui$tory of the Old Covenant^ iii, 201.) 

2. Division of the Tribe ofLevu^As different functiona 
were assigned to the separate houses of the Levitical 
branch of the tribe, to which frequent references are 
made, wc subjoin the following table from Exod. vi, 16- 
25, italicizing the Aaronic or priestly branch in order to 
facilitate these references. 



-<}.„no» {^{5n<.,_ 



LKVl-i 



f 



iEleaiar, 



Amram M«w» \lthamar. 



iMoees. 

CRorah. 
EouATH ^ Izbar ■{ Nepheg. 

(Zithri. 
Hebron. 

1 Mishael. 
Uzziel •(Elzaphan. 

(Zlthrt 

N.B.— Those meutloned In the above list are by no 
means the only descendants of Levi In their respective 
generauons, as is evident firom the fact that, thongh no 



LEVITE 



303 



LEVITE 



(2.> The Genbonites, who out of 7500 men yielded 
2630 for mcdve sen-ice, and who were under the leader- 
ship of £lia8aph, bad to occupy the west side of the tab- 
ernacle, and to Uke charge of the tapestry of the taber- 
nacle, all its curtaiiia, hangings, and coverings, the pil- 
lars of the tapestry hangings, the implements used in 
connection therewith, and to perform all the work con- 
nected with the taking down and putting up of the arti- 
cles over which they had the charge (Numb, iii, 21-26 ; 
iv, 22-28). 

(3.) The Heroritea, who out of 6200 yielded 3200 ac- 
tive men. and who were under the leadership of Zuriel, 
had to occupy the north side of the tabernacle, and take 
chai^o of the boards, bars, pillars, sockets, tent-pins, etc. 
CXua&b. iii, 83-87 ; iv, 89, 40). The two hitter compa- 
nies, however, were allowed to use the six covered wag- 
ons and the twelve oxen which were offered as an obla- 
tion to Jehovah ; the Gershonites, having the less heavy 
portion, got two of the wagons and four of the oxen ; 
whilst the Merarites, who had the heavier portions, got 
four of the wagons and eight of the oxen (Numb, vil, 
8-9). 

Thus the total number of active men which the three 
divisions of the Levites yielded was 8580. When en- 
camped around the tabernacle, they formed, as it were, 
a partition between the people and the sanctuary ; they 
had so to guard it that the children of Israel should not 
come near it, since those who ventured to do so incurred 
the penalty of death (Numb, i, 51 ; iii, 38 ; xviii, 22) ; 
nor were they themselves allowed to come near the ves- 
sels of the sanctuary and the altar, lest they die, as 
well as the priests (Numb, xviii, 8-6). Israelites of any 
other tribe were strictly forbidden to perform the Levit- 
ical office, in order " that there might be no plague when 
the children of Israel approach the sanctuary'" (Numb, 
iii, 10; viii, 19; xviii, 5) ; and, according to the ancient 
Hebrew canons, even a priest was not allowed to do the 
work assigned to the Levites, nor was one Levite per- 
mitted to perform the duties which were incumbent 
upon his fellow Levite under penalty of death (Maimon- 
ides, UUchoth KeU Ha-MikdoMh, iii, 10). 

The book of Deuteronomy is interesting as indicating 
more clearly than had been done before the other func- 
tions, over and above their ministrations in the taber- 
nacle, which were to be allotted to the tribe of Levi. 
Through the whole land they were to take the place of 
the old household priests (subject, of course, to the special 
rif^hts of the Aaronic priesthood), sharing in all festivals 
and rejoicings (DeuL xii, 19; xiv, 26, 27; xxvi, 11). 
Every third year they were to have an additional share 
in the produce of tiie land (Deut. xiv, 28; xxvi, 12). 
The people were charged never to forsake them. To 
** the priests the Levites" was to belong the office of pre- 
serving, transcribing, and inteq)reting the law (Dcut. 
xvii, 9-12; xxxi,26). They were solemnly to read it 
every seventh year at the Feast of Tabernacles (DeuL 
xxxi, 9-13). They were to pronounce the curses from 
Mount Ebal (Deut. xxvii, 14). 

Such, if one may so speak, was the ideal of the relig- 
ious organization which was present to the mind of the 
lawgiver. Details were left to be developed as the al- 
tered circumstances of the people might require. The 
great principle was, that the warrior- caste who had 
guarded the tent of the captain of the hosts of Israel 
should be throughout the land as witnesses that the 
people still owed allegiance to him. It deserves notice 
that, as yet, with the exception of the few passages that 
refer to the priests, no traces appear of their character 
as a learned caste, and of the work which afterwards be- 
longed to them as hymn-writers and musicians. The 
hymns of this period were pn)bably occasional, not re- 
curring (comp. Exod. XV ; Numb, xxi, 17 ; Deut. xxxii). 
Women bore a large share in singing; them (Exod. xv, 
20; Psa. Ixviii, 26). It is not unlikely that the wives 
and daughters of the Levitea, who rau^t have been with 
them in all their encampments, as afterwards in their 
dties, took the foremost part among the '* damsels play- 

V.— 18« 



ing with their timbrels,** or among the ** wise-hearted,** 
who wove hangings for the decoration of the tabeinacle. 
There are, at any rate, signs of their presence there in 
the mention of the ^' women that assembled*' at its door 
(Exod. xxxviii, 8, and comp. Ewald, A Uerthum, p. 297). 
5. Consecration of the I.,€vites, — The first act in the 
consecration of the Levites was to sprinkle them with 
the water of purifying (nxtsn "^C), which, according to 

tradition, was the same used for the purification of per^ 
sons who became defiled by dead- bodies, and in which 
were mingled cedar^wood, hyssop, scarlet, and ashes of 
the red heifer (Numb, xix, 6, 9, 13), and was designed to 
cleanse them from the same defilement (comp. Rashi, 
On Numb, viiij 7). They had, in the next place, as an 
emblem of further purification, to shave off all the hair 
from their body, " to teach thereby," as Ralbag says, 
**that they must renounce, as much as was in their 
power, all worldly things, and devote themselves to the 
service of the most high God," and then wash their gar- 
ments. After this triple form of purification, they were 
brought before the door of the tabernacle, along with 
two bullocks and fine fiour mingled with oil, when the 
whole congregation, through the elders who represented 
them, laid their hands upon the heads of the Levites, 
and set them apart for the service of the sanctuary, to 
occupy tho place of the first-bora of the whole congre- 
gation ; whereupon the priests waved them before the 
Lord (Numb, viii, 5-14), which in all probability was 
done, as Abrabanel says, by leading them forward and 
backward, up and down, as if saying. Behold, these are 
henceforth the servants of the Lord, instead of the first- 
bom of the children of Israel. The part which the 
whole congregarion took in this consecration is a very 
important feature in the Hebrew constitution, inasmuch 
as it most distinctly shows that the Levitical order pro- 
ceeded/rom the midst o/the people (Exod. xxviii, 1), was 
to be r^arded as essentially identical with it, and not 
as a sacred caste standing in proud eminence above the 
rest of the nation. This principle of equality, which, 
according to the Mosaic law, was not to be infringed by 
the introduction of a priesthood or monarchy (Deut. 
xvii, 14-20), was recognised throughout the existence 
of the Hebrew commonwealth, as is evident from the 
fact that the representatives of the people took part in 
the coronation of kings and the instsdment of high- 
priests (1 Kings ii, 35 ; vrith 1 Chron. xxix, 32), and even 
! in the days of the Maccabees we see that it is the people 
' who installed Simon as high-priest (1 Maccab. xiv, 35). 
I 6. Revenues of the Levites, — Thus consecrated to the 
I service of the Ix)rd, it was necessar}* that the tribe of 
I Levi should be relieved from the temporal pursuits of 
the rest of the people, to enable thcro to give themselves 
wholly to their spiritual functions, and to the cultivation 
of the arts and sciences, as well as to preserve them from 
contracting a desire to amass earthly possessions. For 
this reason they were to have no territorial possessions, 
but Jehovah was to be their inheritance (Numb, xviii, 
20; xxvi, 62; Deut. x, 9; xviii, 1, 2; Josh, xviii, 7), 
To reward their labor, which they had henceforth to 
perform insteail of the first-born of the whole people, as 
well as to compensate the loss of their share in the ma- 
terial wealth of the nation, it was ordained that they 
should receive from the other tribes the tithes of the 
produce of the land, from which the non-priestly portion 
of the Levites in their turn had to offer a tithe to the 
priests as a recognition of their higher consecration 
(Numb, xviu, 21-24, 26-32; Neh. x, 37). If they had 
bad, like other tribes, a distinct territory' assigned to 
them, their influence over the people at large would 
be diminished, and they themselves would be likely to 
forget, in labors common to them with others, their own 
peculiar calling (Neh. x, 37). As if to provide for tha 
contingency of failing crops or the like, and the conse- 
quent inadequacy of the tithes thus assigned to them, 
the Levite, not less than the widow and the orphan, 
was commended to the special kindness of the people 
(Deut. xii, 19; xiv, 27, 29). 



LEVITE 



394 



LEVITE 



But, though they were tu have no territorial ponea- 
nons, still they required a place of abode. To secure 
this, and at the same time to enable the Levites to dis- 
seminate a knowledge of the law and exercise a refined 
and intellectual influence among the people at lai^ 
upon whose conscientious payment of the tithes they 
were dependent for subsistence, forty-eight cities were 
assigned to them, six of which were to be cities of ref- 
uge for those who had inadvertently killed any one 
(Numb. XXXV, 1-8). From these forty-eight cities, 
which they obtained immediately after the conquest of 
Canaan, and which were made up by taking four cities 
from the district of every tribe, thirteen were allotted to 
the priestly portion of the Levitical tribe. Which cit- 
ies belonged to the priestly portion of the tribe, and 
which to the non-priestly portion, and how they were 
distributed among the other tribes, as recorded in Josh, 
xxi, will be seen from the following table : 

1. Kohatuitib: 

/> PriAAfa ( Judah and Simeon 

"^^^^ tBenjamin 4 

iBphraim 4 

b Not Priests.. . < Dan 4 

1 Half Manasseh (west) 2 

[Half Manasseh (east) 2 

ii.o.»Bo.,T«....]'j,x5":::::;:::::::::::::::::::J 

LNaphtall 3 

(Zebnlnn 4 

Hi. MBBAarrss -< Reuben 4 

(Gad J 

ToUl 48 

Each of these cities was required to have an outlying 
suburb (T2J'^5T3, irpodartia) of meadow land for the pas- 
ture of the flocks and herds belonging to the Le\ites, 
the dimensions of which are thus described in Numb. 
XXXV, 4, 6: "And the suburbs [or pasture-ground J of 
the cities which ye shall give unto the Levites are from 
the wall of the citv to the outside a thousand cubits 
round about; and ye shall measure from without the 
city the east comer two thousand cubits, and the south 
comer two thousand cubits, and the west comer two 
thousand cubits, and the north comer two thousand cu- 
bits, and the city in the centre." These dimensions 
have occasioned great difficulty, because of the apparent 
contradiction in the two verses, as specifying first 1000 
cubits and then 2000. The Sept., Josepbos {Ant, iv, 4. 
3), and Philo (/>e sacerd, honoribus) get over the difii- 
culty by reading 2000 in both vejrses, as exhibited in 
diagram I, a, while ancient and modem commentators. 




Levitical City.— Diagram I, a. 

who rightly adhere to the text, have endeavored to rec- 
oncile the two verses by advancing different theories, 
of which the following are the most noticeable : 1. Ac- 
cording to the Talmud {Eruhin^ 51, a), the space " meas- 
ured from the wall 1000 cubits round about" was used 
as a common or suburb, and the space measured " from 
without the city on the cast side," etc, was a further 
tract of land of 2000 cubits, used for fields and vine- 
yards, the former being ** the suburbs" properly so called, 
and tiie latter " the fields of the suburbs," as represented 
in diagram I, 6. Against this view, however, which is 
the most simple and rational, and which is adopted by 
Maimnnides {//ilchoth Skemita Ve^Jobcl, xiii, 2), bishop 
Patrick, and most English expositors, it ia urged that 




Levitical City.— Diagram I, ft. 

it is not said that the 2000 cobits are to be measured in 
all directions, but only in the east, south, etc., direction, 
or, as the Hebrew has it, east, south, cte., comer (TlXE). 
2. It means that a circle of 1000 cubits radios was to be 
measured from the centre of the city, and then a square 
circumscribed about that circle, each of whose sides w» 
2000 cubits long, as exhibited in diagram TI. Bat the 



tOOOnWa 




lOaOeaMte 



SOOOMMla 

Diagram II. 




Levitical City. 



Diagram HI. 



objection to this is that the 1000 cubita were to be 
measured " from the wall of the city," and not from the 
centre. 8. The 1000 cubits were measured perpendicu- 
larly to the wall of the cit>', and then perpendicular to 
these distances, i e. parallel to the walls of the city, the 
2000 cubits were measured on the north, south, east, and 
west sides, as shown in diagram III. This, however, is 
obviously incorrect, because the sides would not be 2()00 
cubits long if the city were of finite dimensions, but 
plainly longer. 4. It is assumed that the city was built 
in a circular form, with a radius of 1500 cubits, that a 
circle was then described with a radius of 2500 cubits 
from the centre of the city, L e. at a distance of 1000 
cubits from the walls of the city, and that the suburbs 
were inclosed between the circumferences of the two 
circles, and that the comer of the circumscribed square 
was 1000 cubits from the circumference of the outer cir- 
cle. Compare diagram IV. But the objection to this 




Levitical City.— Diagram IV. 

is that by Euclid, i, 47, the square of the diagonal eqnali 
the sum of the square of the sides, whereas in this fi^^ 
3500' does not equal 2500'H- 2500*. The assigned ki^ 



LEVITE 



396 



LEVITE 



Even in the lifetime of Phinehis, when the high-priest 
waa still cooBulted as an oracle, the very reverence which 
the people felt for the tribe of Levi becomes the occasion 
of a rival worship (Judg. xvii). The old household 
priesthood revives (see Kalisch, On Genesit xUxy 7), and 
there is the risk of the national worship breaking np into 
individoalism. Micah first consecrates one of his own 
sons, and then tempts a homeless Levite to dwell with 
him as " a father and a priest" for little more than his 
food and raiment. The Levite, though probably the 
grandson of Moses himself, repeats the sin of Korah. 
See Jonathan. First in the house of Micah, and then 
for the emigrants of Dan, he exercises the office of a 
priest with *' an ephod, and a teraphim, and a graven 
image." With thb exception the whole tribe appears 
to have fall^i into a condition analogous to that of the 
clerg}' in the darkest period and in the roost outlying 
districts of the mediieval Church, going through a ritual 
routine, but exercising no influence for good, at once 
corrupted and corrupting. The shameless license of the 
sons of Eli may be looked upon as the result of a long 
period of decay, affecting the whole order. When the 
priests were such as Hophni and Phinehas, we may fairly 
assume that the Le\'ites were not doing much to sustain 
the moral life of the people. 

The work of Samuel was the starting-point of a bet- 
ter time. Himself a Levite, and, though not a priest, 
belonging to that section of the Levites which was near- 
est to the priesthood (1 Chron. vi, 28), adopted, as it were, 
by a special dedication into the priestly line and trained 
for its offices (1 Sam. ii, 18), he appears as infusing a 
fresh life, the author of a new organization. There is 
no reason to think, indeed, that the companies or schoob 
of the sons of the prophets which appear in his time (1 
Sam. X, 5), and are traditionally said to have been found- 
ed by him, consisted exclusively of Levites; but there 
are many signs that the members of that tribe formed 
a large element in the new order, and received new 
strength f^m it. It exhibited, indeed, the ideal of the 
Levitical life as one of praise, devotion, teaching ; stand- 
ing in the same relation to the priests and Levites gener- 
ally as the monastic institutions of the 5th century, or 
the mendicant orders of the ISth did to the secular dei^ 
gy of Western Europe. The fact that the Levites were 
thus brought under the influence of a system which ad- 
dressed itself to the mind and heart in a greater degree 
than the sacrificial functions of the priesthood, may pos- 
sibly have led them on to apprehend the higher truths 
as to the nature of worship which begin to be asserted 
fVom this period, and which are nowhere proclaimed 
more clearly than in the great hymn that bears the 
name of Asaph (Psa. 1, 7-15). The man who raises the 
name of prophet to a new significance is himself a Levite 
(1 Sam. ix, 9). It is among the prophets that we find 
the first signs of the musical skill which is afterwards so 
conspicuous in the Levites (1 Sam. x, 5). The order in 
which the Temple services were arranged is ascribed to 
two of the prophets, Nathan and Gad (2 Chron. xxix, 
25), who must have grown up under Samuel's superin- 
tendence, and in part to Samuel himself (1 Chron. ix, 22). 
Asaph and Ueman, the psalmists, bear the same title as 
Samuel Ihe Seer (1 Chron. xxv, 6; 2 Chron. xxix, 80). 
The very word "prophesying" is applied not only to 
sudden bursts of song, but to the organized psalmody of 
the Temple (1 Chron. xxv, 2, 8). Even of those who 
bore the name of a prophet in a higher sense a lai^ 
number are traceably of this tribe. 

The capture of the ark by the Philistines did not en- 
tirely interrupt the worship of the Israelites, and the 
ministrations of the Levites went on, first at Shiloh (1 
Sam. xiv, 8), then for a time at Nob (1 Sam. xxii, 11), 
afterwards at Gibeon (1 Kings iii, 2 ; 1 Chion. xvi, 89). 
The history of the return of the ark to Bcth-sheroe^ 
after its capture by the Philistines, and its subsequent 
removal to Kirjath-jearim, points apparently to some 
strange complications rising out of the anomalies of this 
period, and affecting, in some measure, the position of 



the tribe of Levi. Beth-shemesh was, by tbe uri^iaal 
assignment of the conquered country, one of tl»e dtks 
of the priests (Josh, xxi, 16). They, howev^er, do »ai 
appear in the narrative, unless we assume, ai^ai^tt all 
probability, that the men of Beth-shemesh ^prbo v«9«f 
guilty of the act of profanation were themselvies o€ tb« 
priestly order. Levites, indeed, are mentioned am ^ftfua^ 
their appointed work (I Sam. vi, 15), but the sacxi&£& 
and burnt-offerings are offered by the men of tlae city. 
as though the special function of the priest liood bad 
been usurped by others, and on this suppontjcm it is 
easier to understand how those who had set jvicie tk» 
law of Moses by one offence should defy it also by mn- 
other. The singular reading of the Sept. in 1 S«m. vL 
19 (Kai ovK f^fAkvitrav ot vtoi 'lex^^^'ov iv role a»^p«<r 
haiOtrafiv^ on fUov Ki^tarbv ILvpiov) indicates, if we 
a^ume that it rests upon some corresponding Uebm 
text, a struggle between two opposed parties, on« guilty^ 
of the profanarion, the other — ^possibly the Levites wrfao 
I had been before mentioned— zealous in their T'exacna- 
\ strances against it. Then comes, either as the result 
of this collision, or by direct supernatural inflict zon, tktt 
great slaughter of the Beth-shemites, and they Afarznk 
from retaining the ark any longer among them. Xb« 
great Eben (stone) becomes, by a slight paronomsMCie 
change in its form, the '* great Abel" (lamentation^, and 
the name remains as a memorial of the sin and of its 
punishment. See Beth-shemesh. We are le/t en- 
tirely in the dark as to the reasons which led tlteni, 
aAer this, to send the ark of Jehovah, not to Hebron or 
some other priestly city, but to Kirjath-jearim, round 
which, so far as we know, there gathered legitimatelj 
no sacred associations, ft has been commonly asmtned, 
indeed, that Abinadab, under wb(^e gusrdianship it n^- 
mained for twenty years, must nec»»arily have been of 
the tribe of Levi. See Abinadab. Of this, however, 
there is not the slightest direct evidence, and against ft 
there is the language of David in 1 Chron. xv, 2, " None 
ought to carry the ark of God but the Levites, for them 
hath Jehovah chosen," which would lose half its force 
if it were not meant as a protest against a recent inno- 
vation, and the ground of a return to the more aiKrient 
order. So far as one can see one's way through these 
perplexities of a dark period, the most probable explaina- 
tion — already suggested under KiRjATn-jEARUt—seema 
to be the following : The old names of Baaleh (Josh, xv, 
9) and Kiijath-baal (Josh, xv, 60) suggest there had been 
of old some special sanctity attached to the place as the 
centre of a Canaanitisb local worship. The fact that the 
ark was taken to the house of Abinadab in the hill (1 
Sam. vii, 1), the Gibeah of 2 Sam. vi, 8, connects itself 
with that old Canaanitish reverence for high places 
which, through the whole history of the Israelites, con- 
tinued to have such strong attractions for them. These 
may have seemed to the panic-stricken inhabitants of 
that district, mingling old things and new, the worship 
of Jehovah with the lingering superstitions of the con- 
quered people, sufljcient grounds to determine 'their 
choice of a locality. The consecration (the word used 
is the special sacerdotal term) of Eleazar as the guar- 
dian of the ark is, on this hypothesis, analogous in its 
way to the other irregular assumptions which charac- 
terize this period, though here the offence was less fla- 
grant, and did not involve, apparently, the performance 
of any sacriflcial acts. While, however, this aspect of 
the religious condition of the people brings the Levit- 
ical an<i priestly orders before us as having lost the po- 
sition they had previously occupied, there were other 
influences at work tending to reinstate them. 

II. During the Monarchy, — The deplorably disorgan- 
ized condition of the Levitical order was not much 
improved in the reign of the first Hebrew monarch. 
The rule of Samuel and his sons, and the prophettcal 
character now connected with the tribe, tended to give 
them the position of a ruling caste. In the strong de- 
sire of the people for a king we may perhaps trace a 
jHrotest against the assumption by the Levites of a hifi^er 



LEVITE 



397 



LEVITE 



poatkNi than that originally anigned them. The reign 
of S«ul« in it« later period, was at any rate the assertion 
of a aell^w^illed power against the priestly order. The 
•asunipcion of the sacriticial office, the massacre of the 
^eatA At Xobjtbe slaughter of the Gibeonites who were 
ftitacbed to their bervice, were parts of the same policy, 
And the narrative of the condemnation of Saul for the 
two former sins, no less than of the expiation required 
for the lAttcr (2 Sam. xxi), shows by what strong meas- 
ures the truth, of which that policy was a subversion, 
hAd to be impressed on the minds of the Israelites. The 
reign of Oavid, however, brought the change from per- 
secation to honor. The Levites were ready to welcome 
a king who, though not of their tribe, had been brought 
up under their training, was skilled in their arts, pre- 
pared to share even in some of their ministrations, and 
to array himself in their apparel (2 Sam. vi, 14) ; and 
4600 of their number, with 3700 priests, waited upon Da- 
vid At Hebron — itself, it should be remembered, one of 
the priestly cities — to tender their allegiance (1 Chron. 
xii, 26) . 'M'lien his kingdom was established, there came 
a fuller organixation of the whole tnbe. Its position in 
relation to the priesthood was once again definitely rec- 
ogniaetL Wlicn the ark was carried up to its new rest- 
ing-place in Jerusalem, their claim to be the bearers of 
it was publicly acknowledged (1 Chron. xv, 2). When 
the sin of Uzza stopped the procession, it was placed 
for a time under the care of Obed-edom of Gath— prob- 
ablr Gath-rimmon — as one of the chiefs of the Kohath- 
ites (1 Chron. xiii, 13 ^ Josh, xxi, 24; 1 Chron. xv, 18). 
In the procession which attended the ultimate convey- 
ance of the ark to its new resting-place the Levites were 
conspicuous, wearing their linen epbods, and appearing 
in their new character as minstreis (1 Chron. xv, 27. 28). 
The Levites engaged m conveying the ark to Jerusalem 
were divided into six father's houses, headed by six 
chiefs, four belonging to Kohath, one to Gershon, and 
one to Merari (1 Chron. xv, 5, etc.). The most remark- 
able feature in the Levitical duties of this period is their 
being employed for the first time in choral service (1 
Chron. xv, 16-24; xvi, 4-36); others, again, were ap- 
pointed as door-keepers (xv, 23, 24). Still the thorough 
recM^^nization of the whole tribe was effected by the 
shepherd-king in the last days of his eventful life, that 
the Levites might be able at the erection of the Tem- 
ple ** to wait on the sons of Aaron for the service of the 
house of Jehovah, in the courts and the chambers, and 
the pnrif^'ing of all holy things, and the work of the 
service of the house of God" ( 1 Chron. xxiii, 28). Thb 
reorganization may be described as follows: 

1. Xumbrr o/I^rites and Age for Service, — The Le- 
vites from thirty years of age and upwards were first of 
all numbered, when it was found that they were 38,000 
(1 Chron. xxiU,2,3) ; this being about 29,600 more than 
at the first Mosaic census. It will be seen that, accord- 
ing to this statement, the Levites were to commence 
service at thirty years of age, in harmony with the Mo- 
saic institution (Numb, iv, 8, 28, 30) ; while in ver. 27 
of the same chapter (i. e. 1 Chron. xxiii, 27) it is said 
that they were to take their share of duty at twenty 
years of age. Kimchi, who is followed by bishop Pat- 
rick, Michaelis, and others, tries to reconcile this appar- 
ent contradiction l^ submitting that the former refers 
U> a census which David made at an earUer period, 
which was according to the Mosaic law (Numb, iv, 3) ^ 
while the latter speaks of a second census which he 
made at the close of his life, when he found that the du- 
ties of the fixed sanctuary were much bghter and more 
numerous, and could easily be performed at the age of 
twenty, but at the same time required a larger staff of 
men. Against this, however, Bertheau rightly urges 
that, 1. The 38,000 Levites of thirty years of age given 
in the census of ver. 3 are the only persons appointed 
for the different Levitical offices, and that it is nowhere 
Mated that this number was insufildent, or that the ar- 
nngements based thereupon, as recorded in vers. 4 and 
^weie not carried out; and, 2. The chronicler plainly 



indicates, in ver. 25, etc., that he is about to impart a 
different statement from that communicated in ver. 3 ; 
for he mentions therein the reason which induced David 
not to abide by the Mosaic institution, which prescribes 
the age of service to commence at thirty, and in ver. 27 
exprMsly points out the source iVom which he derived 
this deviating account. The two accounts are, there- 
fore, entirely different; the one records that the Le- 
vites, in David's time, were numbered from their thir- 
tieth year; while the other, which appears to the chron- 
icler more trustworthy, states that David introduced the 
practice which afterwards obtained (2 Chron. xxxi, 17 ; 
Ezra iii, 8) of appointing Levites to ofiice at the age of 
twenty. 

2. Division of the Levites according to the three great 
Families, — Having ascertained their number, David, fol- 
lowing the example of the Mosaic institution, divided 
the Levitical fathers' houses, according to their descent 
ttom the three sons of Levi, when it was ascertained 
that these three sons, Gershon, Kohath, and Merari, were 
represented by twenty-four heads of fathers' houses (X 
Chron. xxiii, 6-23 j xxiv, 20-31), as follows: 

Jehiel. 

Zetham. 

JoeU 

Shelomith or Sbelomoth. 

Haziel. 

^Haran. 
(Jfthath. 
Shimel -{ZinaorZiui. 

( Jeush and Beriah, counted as ooa. 
^ »««.«, jShnbael. 
Amram JRehabUh. 

labar Shelomith or Shelomotb. 

fJeriab. 
Jekameam. 
LUxxiel 



GSBBBOIV 



I 



Laadan 



EOHATB 



Mrvabi 



iMichah. 
Isshiah. 
Shoham. 
Zaccur. 
Ibri. 
1 Hahli .... Kish-JeremeeL 



S, Classification and Duties of the Levites, — The^t 
twenty-four fathers' honaes, numbering 38,000 men qual- 
ified for active service, were then divided into four class- 
es, to each of which different duties were assigned. 

(1.) The first class consisted of 24,000 Levites. These 
were appointed to assist the priests in the work of the 
sanctuary (Xtirovpyovvrto), They had the custody of 
the official garments and sacred vessels, had to deliver 
them when wanted, and collect and lock them up again 
after they had been used; to replenish the sacrificial 
storehouse with cattle, fiour, wine, oil, incense, and other 
articles used as sacrifices, and mete out each time the 
required quantity ; to provide the different spices from 
which the priests compounded the incense (1 Chron. 
ix, 30) ; to prepare the shewbread and the other baked 
things used at sacrifices; to assist the priests in slaugh- 
tering the victims, and to attend to the cleaning of the 
Temple, etc (1 Chron. xxiu, 28-82 ; ix, 29). They had 
most probably, also, the charge of the sacred treasury 
(1 Chron. xxvi, 20-28). Like the priests, they were 
subdivided into twenty-four courses or companies, ac- 
cording to the above-named twenty-four Levitical (a- 
then' houses, and were headed respectively by one of 
the twenty-four representatives of these houses. Each 
of these courses was a week on duty, and was relieved 
on the Sabbath (2 Rings xi) by the company whose 
turn it was to serve next, so that there were idways a 
thousand men of this class on duty, and each man had 
to serve two weeks during the year. The menial work 
was done by the Nethinim, who were appointed to assist 
the Levites In these matters. See Nbthikim. 

(2.) The second class consisted of 4000, who were the 
musicians (0''"»"nOT3, v/iv^oO- They too were sub- 
divided into twenty-fonr courses or choirs, each headed 
by a chief (1 Chron, xxv), and are to be traced back to 
the three great families of Levi, inasmuch as four of the 



enbon (1 

ChnjD. vi.i4-^H); six were bihib uf Jedulhun, abi> L-Rlled 
Ethan (1 Cliruii. xv, 17), ■ degcFodanE or Merari (1 
Chron, vi, 28) ; aud foufWen were aoni of Hsman, a de- 
n^nduit of Kolialb (1 Cbron. vi, IH). Each of Iheae 

and liroLhen, thus miking logrtbcr 'J8B (I Cbron. xxr, 
T). Hencr, wben thewt are deducted frum Ihe 4000, 1 
there remain for each band coniUtiai; of twelve cbief I 
niiuiciang, 154 or 155 tubordihtle miuicUni. Aa twelve 
muiiciaiu were required lo be preseni at the daily mom- | 
ing and eTeninf; wrvice, thui demaading 168 to be on 
duty every week, tbe twenty-four coursea which re- 
lieved each other in hebdomadal lOtatioa muM have 
coniisled of iW2, and 4000 given by the chronicler is 
aim|)ly to be rcganled as a round number. Of this clasa, 
therefore, as of the former, each individual bad lo serve 
two weeks during the year. 

(3.) Tbe third class alK)con«iated of 4000, They were 
tbe gale-keepera {B^ISIC, TuXiupoi, 1 Cbron. xxvi, I- 
19), and, as such, bore arms (ix, 19, 2 Chron. xxxi, S). 
They had to open and shut the gates, lo keep strangers 
and excommunicated or unclean persons from enieiing 
the courts, and to guard the BtoTEbouse, tbe Temple, and 

twenty-four coursca, and were beaded by twenty-four 
chiefs fram tbe three great families of Levi ; seven were 
sons of Meshelmiah, a descendant of Kohath t thirteen 
were from Obed-edom, a deecendant of Geishon i and 
four were sons of Hoaah, a desccndajil of Meratt These 
three families, including the twenty-four chiefs, consist- 
ed of ninety-three members, who, together with the 
three heads of the families, viz. Meshelmiah, Obed-edom, 
and Hoaah, made ninety-six, thus yielding four chiefs 
for each course. We thus obtain a waub-course every 
week of 162 or 163 persons, under tbe comtoand of four 
superior watches, one of whom was the commander- 
in-chief. As 24 sentinel posts ore assigned to the«e 
guarda, tbui making 168 a week, it appears tliat each 
person only served one day in the week (1 Chron. xxvi). 
(4.) The fourth class consisted of 6000, who were ap- 
pointed for milaard ajfairi (n5'IS*"nn nsBtVian), as 
scribes and judges (1 Cbron. XKvi. 29-3'2), m 






; of the 
subdivided 



sanctuary. It appears that thi 
inlothn« branches: Cbenanlah and bis son* were for (he 
outward business of Israel (I Chron. xxvi, 29)^ Ilasha- 
hiah of Hebron and his brethren, numbering 1700, were 
odlcers nest of .Ionian, "in all the buHness of the Lord 
and in the mrdtv of the king"(ver. BO); whilst .lerijah, 
also of Hebron, and his brethren, nnmberinfi 2700 active 
men, were rulers east of Jordan " for everv matter per- 
taining to God and atTairs of lbs king" (veni.31.32). It 

and Hebron. 

! greater part of the year in 
up at fixed periods lo lake 
I. XXV, xxvi). Thepredom- 
ve as the basis of daniflca- 
te monthly periods, and tbe 
rould naturally suggest such 
lalogoiis order in the civil 
a (1 Cbron. xxvii, I) would 
in. It appears, indeed, that 
1 kind ei-ery week (1 Chron. 
; but ihisis, ofcourse.rom- 



were such as to requin 

They would need, i 

e to hear their parts in 



8 LEVITE 

liturgy, and for this a special study would be reqnind. 
The education which the Levitca received for their pe- 
culiar duties, no lea than their connection, Tzmn: or lias 
intinute, with the schoob of tbe ptopbeta [■*« tirrtr). 
would tend to make them, to far as there was any edu- 
cation at all, Ihe teachers of the others (tlier? ta. how- 
ever, a curious Jewish tradition that tbe schcxdmutefi 
of Israel were of (he tribe of Simeon [Solom- Jurhi m 
tien. xltx, 7, in (iadwyn's Mom and A arm J >, the tran- 
ecribcrs and interpreters of the Uw, the chroniclcT* ■4' 
Ihe limes in which they lived. We have some striking 
instances uf their appearance in this new- cb«r«ct«. 
One of them, Etban the Kzrabite, lakes his pUce onxnu; 
the old Hebrew sages who were wortbv to be compared 
with Solomon, and (I!ia. liiiii, title) hia nune ap- 
pears as the writer of (he 39lh Psalm (1 Kings Iv, 31^ 
1 Chron. XV, 17). One uf the first to bear the titlr ol 
"scribe" is a Levite (1 Cbron. xxiv,6),and ihia ia mai- 
tioned as one of their special offices under Josiab (1 
Chron. xxxiv, 13). They are described as "officer* aoil 
judges" under David (1 Chron. xxvi, 29), arH], ma such, 
are employed "in all the business of Jehovah, and is 
the senile of the king." They are the agenta of Je- 
boshaphst and Hcxekiib in their work of reformation. 
and are sent forth to proclaim and enforce (he law [i 
Chron. xvii,H; xxx, 22). Under Josiah the functioD 
has passed into a title, and they are "Ihe Levitcs that 
taught all Israel" (2 Chron. xxxv, 3). The two books 
of Chronicles bear unmislaksble marks of hsvin^ bfen 
writ(en by men whose interests were all gathered nWDd 
tbe services of the Temple, and who were familiar vii h 
Its records. The materiala from which ihey ecnapHed 
their narratives, and lo which they refer as the works 
uf seers and pmpbcts, were written by men who weft 
probably Levitcs themselves, or, if not, were asaociatcd 
with them. 

This reorganization effected by David, we are told. 
was adopted by his son Solomon when the Temple waa 
completed <2 Cbron. viii, 14, ett). The revolt of ihe 
ten tribe^ aud the policy pursued by Jeroboam, led to a 
great change in the portion of the Levitea. They we/e 
Ihe witnesses of an appointed order and ofa centra] wor^ 
ship. Jeroboam wished to make Ihe priests I he creatum 
and instruments of Ihe king, and to establish a provin- 
cial and divided woiship. The natural result was Ihat 
tbey left Ihe cities assigned to them in tbe territory of 
Israel and gathered round tbe melropolis of Judab fi 
Chron. xi. 13, 14). Their influence over Ihe people at 
large was thus diminished, and the design of thellusaic 
. polity so fiir fnislrsled; but their power as a religious 
order was probably increased by this concentration with- 
in narrower limita. In the kingitom of Judab (bey were 
from this time forward a powerful body, politically as 
well as ecclenastieally. They brought with them tbe 
prophetic element of influence, in the wider as well as 
ill the btglier meaning of tbe word. We accordingly 
find them prominent in the war oTAbijah against Jero- 
boam (2 Chron. xiii. 10-12). They are, aa before no- 
licecl. sent out by Jehoahapbat to instruct and judge 
Ibr people (2 Cbron. xix, 8-10). Prophets of their or- 
der encouiagc the king in bis war agalDSt Hoab and 
Ammon, and go before bis atmy with their loud hsUa- 
liijahs (2 Chron. xx, 21), and join afterwards in Ibeiii- 
ampb of bis return. The apoalasy that followed on the 
marriage of Jehoram and Athaliab exposed them for s 
time to the dominance of aboatile system; but the serv- 
ices of the Temple ^ipear to have gone on. and the Lt- 
viles were again conspicuous in the coonler-revolndoi 
eflecled by Jehoiada (2 Chron. xxiii), and in rotoring 
the Temple to its former sUtelinese under Jehossh [i 
tliron. xxiv, 5>. They rtiared in tiie disasters of the 
reign of Anuziah (3 (ibrea. xxv, 24) and in tbe pros- 
perity of Uzziah, and were ready, we may believe, to 
support ibc priests, who, as representing their order, op- 
poseil the sacrilegious usurpation of (be latter king (! 
Chron. xxvi, 171. The closing of the Temple uokt 
Abax involved the eesaalioii at oace of Ibeir wotk ud 



r 



LEVITE 



399 



LEVITE 



of th««T Dririleges (2 Chron. xxviii, 24). Under Heze- 
kiah tbey again became prominent, as consecrating 
themaeivea to the special work of cleansing and repair- 
ing the Temple (2 Chron. xxix, 12-15) ; and the hymns 
of David and of Asaph were again renewed. In this 
instance it was thought worthy of special record that 
tboae who were simply Levites were more ** upright in 
heart** and zealous than the priests themselves (2 Chron. 
xxix^ d4) ; and thus, in that great Passover, they took 
the pbice of the unwilling or unprepared members of 
the priesthood. Their old privileges were restored, they 
were put forward as teachers (2 Chron. xxx, 22), and 
the payment of tithes, which had probably been discon- 
tinued under Ahaz, was renewed (2 Chron. xxxi, 4). 
The genealogies of the tribe were revised (ver. 17), and 
the old classification kept its ground. The reign of 
Manawaeh was for them, during the greater part of it, a 
period of depression. That of Josiah witnessed a fresh 
revival and reorganization (2 Chron. xxxiv, 8-13). In 
the great Passover of his eigliteenth year they took 
their place as teachers of the people, as well as leaders 
of their worship (2 Chron. xxxv, 3, 15). Then came 
the £gyptian and Chaldteon invasions, and the rule of 
cowardly and apostate kings. The sacred tribe likewise 
showed itself unfaithful The repeated protests of the 
priest Ezekiel indicate that tbey had shared in the idol- 
atry of the people. The prominence into which they 
had been brought in the reigns of the two reforming 
kin^ had apparently tempted them to think that they 
mij^ht encroach permanently on the special functions of 
the priesthood, and the sin of Korah was renewed (Ezek. 
xliv, 10-14; xlviii, 11). They had, as the penalty of 
their sin, to witness the destruction of the Temple and 
to taste the bitterness of exile. 

III. A/ier the Captivity, — The position taken by the 
Levites in the first movements of the return from Bab- 
ylon indicates that they had cherished the traditions 
and maintained the practices of their tribe. They, we 
may believe, were those who were specially called on to 
sing to their conquerors one of the songs of Zion (De 
Wette on Psa. cxxxvii). It is noticeable, however, that 
in the first body of returning exiles they were present 
in a disproportionately small number (Ezra ii, 36-42). 
Those who did come took their ul4 parts at the founda- 
tion and dedication of the second Temple (Ezra iii, 10 ; 
ri, 18). In the next movement under Ezra their re- 
luctance (whatever may have been its origin) was even 
more strongly marked. None of them presented them- 
selves at the firjt great gathering (Ezra viii, 15). The 
special efforts of Ezra did not succeed in bringing to- 
gether more than 38, and their place had to be filled by 
220 of the Nethinim (ib. 20). There is a Jewish tra- 
dition (Surenhusius, Mi»kna^ Sota^ ix, 10) to the effect 
that, as a punishment for this backwardness, Ezra de- 
prived them of their tithes, and transferred the right to 
the priests. Those who returned with him resumed 
their functions at the Feast of Tabernacles as teachers 
and interpreters (Neh. viii, 7), and those who were most 
active in that work were foremost also in chanting the 
hymn-like prayer which appears in Neh. Ix as the last 
great effort of Jewish psalmody. They were recognised 
in the great national covenant, and the offerings and 
tithes which were their due were once more solemnly 
secured to them (Neh. x, 37-39). They took their old 
places in the Temple and in the villages near Jerusalem 
(Neh. xii, 29), and arc present in full array at the great 
feast of the Dedication of the Wall. The' two prophets 
who were active at the time of the return, Haggai and 
Zechariah, if they did not belong to the tribe, helped 
it forward in the work of restoration. The strongest 
measures were adopted by Nehemiah, as before by Ezra, 
to guard the purity of their blood from the contamina- 
tion of mixed marriages (Ezra x, 23), and they were 
made the special guardians of the holiness of the Sab- 
bath (Neh. xiii, 22). The last prophet of the O. T. sees, 
m part of his vision of the latter davs, the time when 
the Lord ** shall purify the sons of Levi" (MaL iii, 8). 



The guidance of the O. T. fails us at this point, and 
the history of the Levites in relation to the national 
life becomes consequently a matter of inference and con- 
jecture. The synagogue worship, then originated, or 
receiving a new development, was organized irrrapect- 
ively of them [see Sykagoouk j, and thus throughout 
the whole of Palestine there were means of instruction 
in the law with which they were not connected. This 
would tend materiaUy to diminish their peculiar claim 
on the reverence of the people ; but where priests or Le- 
vites were present in the synagogue they were still en- 
ritled to some kind of precedence, and special sections 
In the lessons for the day were assigned to them (Lightr 
foot, Hor, Heb, on Matt, iv, 28). During the period 
that followed the captivity they contributed to the for* 
mation of the so-called Great Synagogue. The Levites, 
with the priests, theoretically constituted and practically 
formed the majority of the permanent Sanhedrim (Mai- 
monides in Lightfoot, f/or, ffeb, on Matt, xxvi, 3), and 
as such had a large share in the administration of jus- 
tice even in capital cases. In the characteristic feature 
of thb period, as an age of scribes succeeding to an age 
of prophets, they, too, were likely to be sharers. The 
training and previous history of the tribe would predis- 
pose them to attach themselves to the new system as 
they had done to the old. They accordingly may have 
been among the scribes and elder^ who accumulated 
traditions. They may have attached themselves to the 
sects of Pharisees and Sadduceea. But in proportion as 
they thus acquired fame and reputation individually, 
their functions as Levites became subordinate, and they 
were known simply as the inferior ministers of the Tem- 
ple. They take no prominent part in the Maccabiean 
struggles, though they must have been present at the 
great purification of the Temple. 

How strictly during this post-exilian period the Le- 
vitical duties were enforced, and how severely any neg- 
lect in performing them was punished, may be gathered 
from the following description in the Mishna: **The 
Levites had to guanl twenty-four places: five were sta- 
tioned at the five gates of the Mountain of the House 
(IT'an in "^"IJO), four at the four comers inside, five 

at the five gates of the outer court, four at its four cor- 
ners inside, one at the sacrificial storehouse, one at the 
curtain depository, and one behind the holy of holies. 
The inspector of the Mountain of the House went round 
through all the guards [every night] with burning 
torches before him. If the guard did not immediately 
stand up, the inspector of the Mountain of the House 
called out to him, * Peace be with thee !' and if he per- 
ceived that he was asleep, he struck him with his stick, 
and even had the liberty of setting his garments on fire; 
and when it was asked, *What is that noise in the 
court T they were told, ' It Is the noise of a Levite who is 
beaten, or whose clothes have been burnt, because he 
slept when on duty' " (Middoth, i, 1, 2). It is thought 
that allusion is made to the fact in the Apocalypse 
when it is said ^ Blessed is he that watcheth and keep- 
eth his garments" (Rev. xvi, 15). As for the Levites 
who were the singers, they were summoned by the blast 
of the trumpet after the incense was kindled upon the 
altar, when they assembled from all parts of the spacious 
Temple at the orchestra which was joined to the fifteen 
steps at the entrance from the women's outer court to 
the men's outer court. They sung psalms in antipho- 
nies, accompanied by three musical instruments — the 
harp, the cithern, and cymbals — while the priests were 
pouring out on the altar the libation of wine. On Sun- 
day they smig Psa. xxiv, on Monday Psa. xlviii, on 
Tuesday Psa. Ixxxii, on Wednesday Psa. xciv, on Thurs- 
day Psa. Ixxxi, on Friday Psa. xciii, and on the Sab- 
bath Psa. xcii. Each of these psalms was sung in nine 
sections, with eight pauses (D*^piB), and at each pause 
the priests blew trombones, when the whole congrega- 
tion fell down every time worshipping on their faces 
(raii»d,vii,8,4). 



1 



LEVTTE 



400 



LEvmcus 



1 



The Levites had no prescribed ctnonical dress like | 
the priests, as may be seen from the fact jirhich Jose- 
phos narrates, that the singers requested Agrippa ^* to 
assemble the Sanhedrim in order to obtain leave for 
them to wear linen garments like the priests . . . con- 
trary to the laws*' {A nt, xx, 9, 6). But, though they 
wore no official garments at the service, yet the Talmud 
says that they ordinarily wore a linen outer-garment 
with sleeves, and a head-dress; and on journeys were 
provided with a ftaffi a pocket, and a copy of the Pen- 
tateuch {Joma^ 122, a). Some modifications were at 
this period introduced in what was considered the nec- 
essary qualification for service. The Mosaic law, it will 
be remembered, regarded age as the only qualification, 
and freed the Levite from his duties when he was fifty 
years old ; now that singing constituted so essential a 
part of the Levitical duties, any Levite who had not a 
good voice was regarded as disqualified, and if it con- 
tinued good and melodious, he was retained in service 
all his lifetime, irrespective of age, but if it failed he 
was removed from that class which constituted the 
choristers to the gate-keepers (Maimonides, IJUchoik 
Kde Ha-Kodesk, iil, 8). During the period of mourn- 
ing a Levite was exempt from his duties in the Temple. 

The Levites appear but seldom in the history of the 
N. T. Where we meet with their names it is as the 
type of a formal, heartless worship, without sympathy 
and without love ^Luke x, 82). The same parable in- 
dicates Jericho as having become — what it had not been 
originally (see Josh, xxi 1 Chron. vi) — on<; of the great 
stations at which they and the priests resided (Light- 
foot, Cent, Chorograpk, c. 47). In John i, 19 they appear 
as delegates of the Jews — that is, of the Sanhedrim — 
coming to inquire into the credentials of the Baptist, and 
giving utterance to their own Messianic expectations. 
The mention of a Levite of Cyprus in Acts iv, 86, shows 
that the changes of the previous century had carried 
that tribe also into '^ the dispersed among the Gentiles." 
The conversion of Barnabas and Mark was probably no 
solitary instance of the reception by them of the new 
faith, which was the fulfilment of the old. If " a great 
company of the prints were obedient to the faith" (Acts 
vi, 7), it is not too bold to believe that their influence 
may have led Le\ntes to follow their example ; and thus 
the old psalms, and possibly also the old chants of the 
Temple ser\ice, might be transmitted through the agen- 
cy of those who had been speciaUy trained in them to 
be the inheritance of the Christian Church. Later on 
in the history of the first centurj', when the Temple had 
received its final completion under the younger Agrippa, 
we find one section of the tribe engaged in a new move- 
ment. With that strange unconsciousness of a coming 
doom which so often marks the last stage of a decaying 
system, the singers of the Temple thought it a fitting 
time to apply for the right of wearing the same linen 
garment as the priests, and persuaded the king that the 
concession of this privilege would be the glory of his 
reign (Joseph. i4n^. xx, 8, 6). The other Levites at the 
same time asked for and obtained the privilege of join- 
ing in the Temple choruses, from which hitherto they 
had been excluded. The destruction of the Temple so 
soon after they had attained the object of their desires 
came as with a grim irony to sweep away their occupa- 
tion, and so to deprive them of every vestige of that 
which bad distinguished them from other Israelites. 
They were merged in the crowd of captives that were 
scattered over the Roman world, and disappear from the 
stage of history. The rabbinic schools, that rose out of 
the ruins of the Jewish polity, fostered a studied and 
habitual depreciation of the Levitical order as compared 
with their own teachers (M'Caul, Old Paths,, p. 435). 
Indindual families, it may be, cherished the tradition 
that their fathers, as priests or Levites, had taken part 
in the ser^'ices of the Temple. If their claims were rec- 
ogniseil, they received the old marks of reverence in the 
worahip of the synagogue (cnmp. the Regulations of the 
Great Synagogue of London, in Margoliouth's UitU of 



the Jewi M Great Britain, iii, 270), took proeedesee ia 
reading the lessons of the day (Lightfoot^ Hot. Sth, ob 
Matt, iv, 23), and pronounced the blessing at ibe 
(Basnage, HiM, dea Jui/i, vi, 790). Their exifltemM 
acknowledged in some of the laws of the Oluristiaz 
peroDB (Basnage, L c). The tenacity witli ^frhieh tht 
exiled race clung to these recollections is sbcnm in Che 
prevalence of the names (Cohen, and Levita. or Lrry) 
which imply that those who bear them are of* the saa 
of Aaron or the tribe of Levi, and in the cti«toin which 
exempts the first-bom of priestly or Levitical familiet 
from the payments which are still offered, in the caae €4 
others, as the redemption of the first-born (I^eo of Mo- 
dena, in Picart*s Cerimonies ReiigieuK», i, 26 ; Alten » 
Modem Judatsntj p. 297). In the mean time, ibe oid 
name had acquired a new signification. The early writ- 
ers of the Christian Church applied to the later hierar- 
chy the language of the earlier, and gave to tlie bishop* 
and presbyters the title (npCiQ) that had belonged to 
the sons of Aaron, while the deacons were faadiituaUy 
spoken of as Levites (Suicer, The$, s. v. AfviriTc)- 

Though the destruction of the Temple and the dis- 
persion of the Jews have necessarily done a>ray with 
the Levitical duties which were strictly local, yet the 
Levites, like the priests, still exist, have to this day cer- 
tain functions to perform, and continue to enjoy certain 
privileges and immunities. On those festivals wbejeoo 
the priests pronounce the benediction on the congrega- 
tion of Israel during the morning service, as pref«cribcd 
in Numb, vi, 22-27, the Levites have " to wait on the 
priests," and wash their hands prior to the giving of the 
said blessing. At the reading of the law in the syna- 
gogue, the Levite is called to the second secttcMi, the 
first being assigned to the priest. See Hapiixarab. 
Moreover, like the priests, the Levites are exempt ftom 
redeeming their first-bom, and this exemption even ex- 
tends to women of the tribe of Levi who marry larad- 
ites, i. e. Jews of any other tribe. 

IV. Literature, — Mishna, Erachin, ii, ^-6 ; Tcmndf vii, 
8, 4 ; Succa, v, 4 ; Bikkurim^ iii, 4 ; Maimonides, Jod Bo' 
Chezaka, HUchoth Kele Ha-Mikdash, iii, 1-11 ; Hichael- 
is, Cotnmentariet on the Lavs of Moses, sec 62 (Engliab 
translation, i, 252 sq.) ; Biihr, Symbotik des Mosaischem 
Cuttus, u, 8, 89, 165, 842, 428 ; Herzfeld, Geschichte des 
Volkes Israel von der Ztrstorunff des ersten TempeU, p, 
12G, 204, 887-424 (Bruns. 1847) ; the same, Geschichte des 
Volkes Israel von der VoUendung des xweiten TempeU, i, 
55-58, 68-66, 141 (Nordhausen, 1855) ; SaalschUtz, Bat 
Mosaische Recht, i, 89-106 (Beri. 1853) ; the same, ^rr*- 
dologie der llebraer, vol ii, ch. Ixxviii, p. 342 (Konigsb. 
1856) ; Kcil, Handhuch der biblischen A rchSoloffie, i, 160 
(Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1858) ; Kalisch, J/m^oWco/ and 
Critical Commentary on Genesis, p. 785-744 (Lond. 1848); 
Brown, Antiquities, i, 301-847 ; Godwyn, Moses and Aa- 
ron, i, 5; Witsius, Dissert, 1 1, de fheocrat, Isrojditar,; 
Jennings, Antiquities, p. 184-206; Carpzov, ApparaL 
Crif. (see Index) ; Saubert, Comm, de SacerdoL ei sacrit 
Ilabr, personis, in Opp, p. 288 sq. ; Gramberg, Krit, Ge- 
schichte d, Religionsideen des A Iten Test, vol i, c iii ; Re- 
land, A ntiq, Sacr, ii, 6 ; Ugolino, Sacerdat, Bebr, ch. xa, 
in his Thesaur, vol xiii ; Schacht, Animadvers, adiken, 
p. 525 sq. ; Bauer, Gottesd, Verfassung, ii, 877 sq. ; Otho, 
Ler. Rab, p. 868 sq. ; Willisch, DeJUiis Leriiarum (Lips, 
1708). 

laevites, Military, a name given to such minis- 
ters in the time of the Commonwealth as filled the 
ofiice of chaplain in the regiments of the Pariiamentary 



arm v. 



Levit'icua, so called in the Vulgate from treating 

chiefly of the Levitical service ; in the Heb. K^J??^* ond 

he called, being the word with which it begins; in the 

Sept. AiviriKov; the third book of the Pentateuch, 

called also bv the later Jews Oi2n3 rH*.V\, "law of the 

" . . • -« - 

priests," and ^ISa^P H^in, "law of offerings." In 

our treatment of it we have especial regard to the 
various sacrifices enumerated. 



LEVITICUS 



403 



LEvmcus 



tot, on tbe samo principle, verses 4 and 5 might just as 
rcll form one enactment] ; (10) ver. 13-15. 

(A.) CI) Ver.16; (2) ver.l7; (3) ver. 18; (4) ver.l9; 
5) ver. 20 ; (6) ver. 21; (7) ver. 22; (8) ver. 23; (9) 
rcr. 24 ; (.^^) ^^^* 28-30. Ip order to complete this ai^ 
moi^eineiit, he considers ver. 25-27 as a kind of supple- 
neotary enactment provided for an irregular unclean- 
Mas, leaving it as quite uncertain, however, whether 
this was a later addition or nut. Verses 32 and 33 form 
merely the same general conclusion which we have had 
before in xiv, 64-57. 

7. The last decalogue of the second group of seven dec- 
aHogaeB is to be found in chap, xvi, which treats of the 
great day of atonement. The law itself is contained in 
verses 1-28. The remaining verses, 29-34, consist of an 
exhortation to its careful observance. In the act of 
atonement three persons are concerned : the high-priest, 
in this instance Aaron ; the man who leads away the goat 
fur Azazel into the wilderness; and he who bums the 
«kln, flesh, and dung of the bulk>ck and goat of the sin- 
offering without the camp. The last two have special 
puriBcations assigned them — the second because he has 
loxiched the goat laden with the guilt of Israel, the third 
bec&ase he has come in contact with the sin-offering. 
The ninth and tenth enactments prescribe what these 
purifications are, each of them concluding with the same 
formula, nsn^an bx xia"^ -p innxt, and hence dwtin- 

goished from each other. The duties of Aaron, conse- 
quently, ought, if the division into decades is correct, to 
be comprised in eight enactments. Now the name of 
Aaron is repeated eight times, and in six of these it is 
preceded by the perf. with 1 consecuL, as we observed 

was the case before when " the priest" was the prominent 
figure. According to this, then, the decalogue will stand 
thus : (I) Verse 2, Aaron not to enter the holy place al all 
times ; (2) verses 3-5, with what sacrifices and in wliat 
dresa Aaron is to enter the holy place ; (3) verses 6, 7, 
Aaron to offer the bullock for himself, and to set the two 
goats before Jehovah ; (4) Aaron to cast lots on the two 
goats ; (5) verses 9, 10, Aaron to offer the goat on which 
the lot faUs for Jehovah, and to send away the goat for 
Azazel into the wilderness; (6) verses 11-19, Aaron to 
sprinkle the blood both of the bullock and of the goat 
to make atonement for himself, for his house, and for the 
whole congregation, as also to purify the altar of incense 
with the blood ; (7) verses 20-22, Aaron to lay his hands 
on the living goat, and confess over it all the sins of the 
children of Israel ; (8) verses 23-25, Aaron after this to 
take off his linen garments, bathe himself, and put on 
his priestly garments, and then offer hb burnt-offering | 
and that of the congregation ; (9) verse 26, the man by 
whom the goat is sent into the wilderness to purify him- 
self; (10) verses 27-28, what is to be done by him who 
bums the sin-offering without the camp. 

(nr.) Laws chiefly itUavkd to mark the Separation be- 
tween Israel and the Heathen Nations (chap, xvii-xx). — 
We here reach the g^reat central point of the book. All 
going before was but a preparation for this. Two great 
tmths have been established : first, that God can only 
be approached by means of appointed sacrifices ; next, 
that man in nature and life is full of pollution, which 
most be cleansed. Now a third is taught, viz., that not 
by several cleansings for several sins and pollutions can 
guilt be put away. The several acts of sin are but so 
many manifestations of the sinful luiture. For this, 
therefore, also must atonement be made bv one solemn 
act, which shall cover all transgressions, and turn away 
God*s righteous displeasure from IsraeL Israel is now 
reminded that it is the holy nation. The great atone- 
ment offered, it is to enter upon a new life. It is a sep- 
aiate nation, sanctified and set apart for the service of 
God. It may not, therefore, do after the abominations 
of the heathen by whom it is surrounded. Here, conse- 
quently, we find those laws and ordinances which espe- 
daUy distinguish the nation of Israel from all other na- 
tions of the earth. 



Here again we may trace, as before, a group of seven 
decalogues ; but the several decalogues are not so clearly 
marked, nor are the characteristic phrases and the intro- 
ductions and conclusions so common. In ch. xviii there 
are twenty enactments, and in ch. xix thirty. In ch. 
xvii, on the other hand, there are only six, and in ch. xx 
there are fourteen. As it is quite manifest that the en- 
actments in ch. xviii are entirely separated by a fresh 
introduction from those in ch. xvii, fiertheau, in order 
to preserve the usual arrangement of the laws in deca- 
logues, would transpose this chapter, and place it after 
ch. xix. He obser\'es that the laws in ch. xvii, and those 
in chap, xx, 1-9, are akin to one another, and may very 
well constitute a single decalogue, and, what is of more 
importance, that the words in xviii, 1-5 form the natu- 
ral introduction to this whole group of laws: **And Je- 
hovah spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the chil- 
dren of Israel, and say unto them, I am Jehovah your 
God. After the doings of the land of Egj'pt, wherein 
ye dwelt, shall ye not do; and after the doings of the 
land of Canaan, whither 1 bring you, shall ye not do; 
neither shall ye walk in their ordinances," etc. There 
is, however, a point of connection between chapters xvii 
and xviii which must not be overlooked, and which 
seems to indicate that their position in our present text 
is the right one. All the six enactments in chap, xvii 
(ver. 3-6, ver. 6, 7, ver. 8, 9, ver. 10-12, ver. 13, 14, ver. 16) 
bear upon the nature and meaning of the sacrifice to Je- 
hovah as compared with the sacrifices offered to false 
gods. It would seem, too, that it was necessary to guard 
against any license to idolatrous practices which might 
possibly be drawn from the sending of the goat for Aza- 
zel into the wilderness [see Atonkment, Day op], es- 
pecially, perhaps, against the Egyptian custom of ap- 
peasing the evil spirit of the wilderness and averting 
his malice (Hengstenberg, Mase u,jEgypteny p. 179; Mo- 
vers, Phdmcier, i, 369). To this there may be an allu- 
sion in ver. 7. Perhaps, however, it is better and more 
simple to regard the enactments in these two chapters 
(with Bunsen, Bibelwerk, II, i, 246) as directed against 
two prevalent heathen practices, the eating of blooil and 
fornication. It is remarkable, as showing how inti- 
mately moral and ritual obser\'anc^ were blended to- 
gether in the Jewish mind, that abstinence '' from blood 
and things strangled, and fornication," was laid down by 
the apostles as the only condition of communion to be 
required of Gentile converts to Christianity. Before we 
quit this chapter one observation may be made. The 
rendering of the A.V. in ver. 11, " for it is the blood that 
maketh an atonement for the soul," should be, " for it is 
the blood that maketh an atonement by means of the 
life." This is important. It is not blood merely as 
such, but blood as having in it the principle of life that 
God accepts in sacrifice ; for, by thus giving vicariously 
the life of the dumb animal, the sinner confesses that his 
own life is forfeit. 

In ch. xviii, after the introduction to which we have 
already alluded, ver. 1-6 — and in which God claims obe- 
dience on the double ground that he is Israel's God, and 
that to keep his commandments is life (ver. 6) — there 
follow twenty enactments concerning unlawful mar- 
riages and unnatural lusts. The first ten are contained 
one in each verse (verses 6-15). The next ten range 
themselves in like manner with the verses, except that 
verses 17 and 23 contain each two. Of the twenty the 
first fourteen are alike in form, as well as in the repeated 

In chap, xix are three decalogues, introduced by the 
words, " Ye shall be holy, for I Jehovah your God am 
holy," and ending with, ** Ye shall observe all my statr 
utes, and all my judgments, and do them. I am Jeho- 
vah." The laws here are of a very mixed character, 
and many of them a repetition merely of previous laws. 
Of the three decalogues, the first is comprised in verses 
3-13, and may be thus distributed : (1) verse 3, to honor 
father and mother; (2) ver. 3, to keep the Sabbath; (3) 
ver. 4, not to turn to idols; (4) *•"- ^ ""'* *^ make mol- 



LEVITICUS 



404 



LEvmcus 



ten gods (these two enactments being separated on the 
same principle as the first and second commandments 
in the Great Decalogue or Two Tables) ; (5) verses 5-8, 
of thank-offerings; (6) vct. 9, 10, of gleaning; (7) verse 
1 1, not to steal or lie; (8) vene 12, not to swear falsely ; 
(9) verse 13, not to defraud one's neighbor; (10) verse 
13, the wages of him that is hired, etc. 

The next decalogue, verses 14-25, Bertheau arranges 
thus : ver. 14, ver. 15, ver. 16a, ver. 166, ver. 17, ver. 18, 
Vfer. 19a, ver. 196, ver. 20-22, ver. 28-26. We object, 
however, to making the words in 19a, " Ye shall keep 
my statutes," a separate enactment. There is no reason 
for this. A much better plan would be to consider ver. 
17 as consisting of two enactments, which is manifestly 
the case. 

The third decalogue may be thus distributed : verse 
26a, ver. 266, ver. 27, ver. 28, ver. 29, ver. 80, ver. 81, ver. 
82, ver. 38, 84, ver. 85, 36. 

We have thus found five decalogues in this group. 
Bertheau completes the number seven by transposing, 
as we have seen, chap, xvii, and placing it imm^iately 
before ch. xx. He also transfers ver. 27 of ch. xx to 
what he considers it3 proper place, viz., after ver. 6. It 
must be confessed that the enactment in ver. 27 stands 
very awkwardly at the end of the chapter, completely 
isolated as it b from all other enactments ; for ver. 22- 
26 are the natural conclusion to this whole section. But, 
admitting this, another difficulty remains, that, accord- 
ing to him, the seventh decalogue begins at ver. 10, and 
another transposition is necessary, so that ver. 7, 8 may 
stand after verse 9, and so conclude the preceding series 
of ten enactments. It is better, perhaps, to abandon 
the search for complete sjinmetry than to adopt a meth- 
od 90 violent in order to obtain it. 

It should be observed that ch. xviii, 6-28, and ch. xx, 
10-21, stand in such a relation to one another that the 
latter declares the penalties attached to the transgres- 
sion of many of the commandments given in the former. 
But, though we may not be able to trace in chap, xvii 
-XX seven decalogues, in accordance with the theory of 
which we have been speaking, there can be no doubt 
that they form a dbtinct section of themselves, of which 
XX, 22-26 is the proper conclusion. 

Like the other sections, it has some characteristic 
expressions : (a) ** Ve shall keep my judgments and my 
statutes" Crpn, ''aop^) occurs xviii, 4, 5, 26; xix, 
87 ; XX, 8, 22, but is not met with either in the preced- 
ing or the following chapters. (6) The constantly re- 
curring phrases, " I am Jehovah," " I am Jehovah your 
God,' '• Be ye holy, for I am holy," " I am Jehovah 
which hallow you." In the earlier sections this phrase- 
ology is only found in Lev. xi, 44, 45, and Exod. xxxi, 
13. In the section which follows (chap, xxi-xxv) it is 
much more common, this section being in a great meas- 
ure a continuation of the preceding. 

(V.) We come now lo the last group of decalogues — 
that contained in ch. xxi-xxvi, 2. The subjects com- 
prised in these enactments are — 1. The personal purity 
of the priests. They may not defile themselves for the 
dead; their wives and daughters must be pure, and 
they themselves must be free from all personal blemish 
(ch. xxi). 2. The eating of the holy things is permit^ 
ted only to priests who are free from all uncleanness : 
they and their household only may eat them (ch. xxii, 1- 
16). 3. The offerings of Israel are to be pure and with- 
out blemish (ch. xxii, 1 7-33). 4. The last series provides 
for the due celebration of the great festivals when priests 
and people were to be gathered together before Jehovah 
in holy convocation (ch. xxiii, xxv), with an episode 
(ch. xxiv). 

Up to this point we trace 83^tem and purpose in the 
order of the legislarion. Thus, for instance, ch. xi-xvi 
treats of external purity ; ch. xvii-xx of moral purity ; 
chap, xxi-xxiii of the holiness of the priests, and their 
duties with regard to holy things ; the whole concluding 
with provisions for the solemn feasts on which all Israel 
appeajred before Jehovah. We will again briefly indi- 



cate Bertheau's groups, and then append some geaai, 
obser\'ation8 on this whole section. 

a. Chapter xxi, ten laws, as follows : ( 1) ver, 1-3 ; (i 
ver. 4 ; (8) ver. 5, 6 ; (4) ver. 7, 8 ; (5) ver- 9 ; (6) vei. IC, 
11 , (7) ver. 12 ; (8) ver. 13, 14 ; (9) ver. 17-21 ; (10) twl 
22, 23. The first five laws concern all tbe priests : Use 
sixth to the eighth, the high-priest ; the ninth and tenth, 
the effects of bodily blemish in particular cases. 

6. Chap, xxii, 1-16. (1) ver. 2 ; (2) ver. 3 ; (3) ver, 4; 
(4) ver. 4-7 ; (5) ver. 8, 9 ; (6) ver. 10 ; (7) ver. 11 ; («i 
ver. 12; (9) ver. 13; (10) ver. 14-16. 

c Chap, xxii, 17-33. (1) ver. 18-20 ; (2) ver. 21 ; (3> 
ver. 22; (4) ver. 28; (5) ver. 24; (6) ver. 25; (7) v«. 
27; (8) ver. 28; (9) ver. 29; (10) ver. 80; azKi a gmni 
conclusion in verse 81-83. 

d. Chap. xxiu. (1) ver. 3 ; (2) ver. 5-7 ; C3) ver. 8; 
(4) ver. 9-14; (5) ver. 15-21 ; (6) ver. 22; (7) ver. 2i 
25 ; (8) ver. 27-32 ; (9) ver. 34, 85 ; (10) ver. 36 ; rerstt 
37, 38 contain the conclusion, or general samzxiing up of 
the Decalogue. On the remainder of the chapter, as 
well as chapter xxiv, see below. 

e. Chap, xxv, 1-22. (1) ver. 2 ; (2) ver. 3, 4 ; (S) vet 
5; (4) ver. 6; (5) ver. 8-10; (6) ver. 11, 12; (7) ver. 13; 
(8) ver. 14; (9) ver. 15; (10) ver. 16; with a concluding 
formula in verse 18-22. 

/. Chap, xxv, 23-88. (I ) ver. 23, 24 ; (2) ver. 25; (S) 
ver. '26, 27 ; (4) ver. 28 ; (5) ver. 29 ; (6) ver. SO ; (7) vo. 
31 ; (8) ver. 82, 83; (9) ver. 84; (10) ver. 35-37 ; the 
conclusion to the whole in verse 88. 

g. Chap, xxv, 89-xx vi, 2. ( 1 ) ver. 39 ; (2) ver. 40-42 ; 
(8) ver. 43; (4) ver. 44, 46 ; (5) ver. 46: (6) ver. 47-49; 
(7) ver. 50; (8) ver. 51, 62; (9) ver. 53; (10) ver. 51. 

It will be observed that the above arrangement is only 
completed by omitting the latter part of ch. xjdii and the 
whole of ch. xxiv. But it is clear that ch. xxiii, 39-^ 
is an addition, containing further instructions respect- 
ing the Feast of Tabernacles. Verse 39, as compared 
with verse 84, shows that the same feast is referred to; 
while ver. 87, 38 are no less manifestly the original con- 
clusion of the laws respecting the feasts which are enu- 
merated in the previous part of the chapter. Ch. xxiV, 
again, has a peculiar character of its own. First, we 
have a command concerning the oil to be used in the 
lamps belonging to the tabernacle, but this is only a 
repetition of an enactment already given in Exod. xxvii, 
20, 21, which seems to be its natural place. Then fol- 
low directions about the shew bread. These do not oo 
cur previously. In Exodus the shewbread is spoken 
of always as a matter of course, concerning which no 
regulations are necessari- (com p. Exod. xxv, 30; xxxv, 
13; xxxix, 36). Laf-tly come certain enactments aris- 
ing out of a historical occurrence. The son of an Egyp- 
tian father by an Israelitish woman blasphemes the 
name of Jehovah, and Moses is commanded to stone 
him in consequence ; and this circumstance is the occa- 
sion of the following laws being given : (1) That a blas- 
phemer, whether Israelite or stranger, is to be stoned 
(corap. Exod. xxii, 28) ; (2) That he that kills any man 
shall surely be put to death (comp. Exod. xxi, l'i-27); 
(3) That he that kills a beast shall make it good (not 
found where we might have expected it, in the series 
of kws Exod. xxi, 28-xxii, 16) ; (4) That if a man ciuae 
a blemish in his neighbor he shall be requited in like 
manner (comp. Exod. xxi, 22-25). (6) We have then 
a repetition in an inverse order of verses 17, 18; and (6) 
the injunction that there shall be one law for the stnun 
ger and the Israelite; (7) finally, a brief notice of the 
infliction of the punishment in the case of the soo of 
Shelomith, who blasphemed. Not another instance is 
to be found in the whole aillection in which any histor- 
ical circumstance is made the occasion of enacting a law. 
Then, again, the laws (2), (3), (4), (5), are mostly rep- 
etitions of existing laws, and seem here to have no con- 
nection with the event to which thev are refeired. 
Either, therefore, some other circumstances took place 
at the same time with which we arc not acquainted, or 
these isolated laws, detached from their proper oonne^ 



LEVITICUS 



405 



LEVITICUS 



ion, w^fre grouped together here, in obedience perhaps 
o some tradidonal asaociAtion. 

^VI.> Theee decalogues are now fitly closed by words 
•r prtMrnise and threat — promise of lai^est, richest bless- 
n^ to tliose that hearken unto and do these command- 
oentB ; threau of utter destruction to those that break 
he covenant of their God. Thus the second great di- 
riskm of the law closes like the first, except that the 
irst part, or Book of the Covenant, ends (Exod. xxiii, 
!l^-33> with promises of blessing only. There nothing 
A said of the judgments which are to follow transgres- 
sion, because as yet the covenant had not been made. 
But when once the nation had freely entered into that 
rov^iant, they bound themselves to accept its sanctions, 
its penalties, as well as its rewards. Nor can we won- 
tier if in these sanctions the punishment of transgression 
holds a larger place than the rewards of obedience ; for 
already was it but too plain that '^ Israel would not 
obey- J* From the first they were a stiff-necked and re- 
bellious race, and from the first the doom of disobedience 
huni? like a fiery sword above their heads. 

(VII.) On Vows, — The legislation is evidently com- 
pleted in the last words of the preceding chapter: 
*^ These are the statutes, and judgments, and laws which 
Jehovah made between him and the children of Israel 
in Mount Sinai by the hand of Moses.*' Chap, xxvii is 
an appendix^ again closed, however, by a similar formu- 
la, nrhich at least shows that the transcriber consiilered 
it to be an integral part of the original Mosaic legisla- 
ticra, though he might be at a loss to assign it its place. 
Bertheau classes it with the other less regularly grouped 
laws at the beginning of the book of Numbers. He 
the section Lev. xxvii-Numb. x, 10 as a series of 
ipplements to the Sinaitic legislation. 

II. Integrity. — This is very generally admitted. 
Those critics even who arc in favor of different docu- 
ments in the Pentatouch assign neariy the whole of this 
book to one writer, the Elohist, or author of the original 
d(»cimient. According to Knobel, the only portions 
which are not to be referred to the Elohbt are — Moses's 
rebuke of Aaron because the goat of the sin-offering 
had been burnt (x, 16-20); the group of laws in chap, 
xvii-xx; certain additional enactments respecting the 
Sabbath and the feasts of Weeks and of Tabernacles 
(xxiii, part of ver. 2, from njn^ ''?3?1?D, and ver. 3, ver. 
18, 19, 22, 39-44) \ the punishments ordained for blas- 
phemy, murder, etc (xxiv, 10-23), the directions re- 
specting the sabbatical year (xxv, 18-22), an^ the prom- 
ises and warnings contained in ch. xxvi. 

With regard to the section ch. xvii-xx, Knobel does 
.not consider the whole of it to have been borrowed from 
the same sources. Ch. xvii he believes was introduced 
here by the Jehovist from some ancient document, while 
he admits, nevertheless, that it contains certain Elohis- 
tic forms of expression, as "^ira bs, "all flesh," ver. 14; 
CS^a, **soul'* (in the sense of "peraou"), ver. 10-12, 16 
njn, **beast,'' ver. 13. "j^^^, "offering," ver. 4, m^ 
Hin^D, **a sweet savor," verse 6i "a statute forever," 
and "after your generations," ver. 7. But it cannot be 
from the Klohist, he argues, because (a) he would have 
placed it after ch. vii, or at least after ch. xv; {h) he 
would not have repeated the prohibition of blood, etc., 
which he had already given; (c) he would have taken 
a more favorable view of his nation than that implied 
in ver. 7 ; and, Ustly, {d) the phraseology has something 
of the coloring of ch, xviii-xx and xxvi, which are cer- 
tainly not Elobistic. Such reasons are too transparent- 
ly unsatisfactory to need serious discussion. He ob- 
ttrves further that the chapter is not altogether Mosaic. 
The first enactment (ver. 1-7) does indeed apply only to 
Israelites, and holds good, therefore, for the time of Mo- 
tes. But the remaining three contemplate the case of 
•tnuig<»Ts living among the people, and have a reference 
to all time. 
Ch. xviii-xx, though they have a Jehovistic coloring, 



cannot have been originally from the Jehovist The 
following peculiarities of language, which are worthy 
of notice, according to Knobel {Exod, und Leviticus er- 
klart, in the *'Kurtg, Exeg, Hdbuch." 1857), forbid such 
a supposition, the more so as they occur nowhere else in 
the O. T. : 53'^, « Ue down to" and " gender," x\'iii, 23 ; 
xix, 19, XX, 16, bar), "confusion," xviii, 23 i xx, 12 j 
:35b, "gather," xb^^ 9 j xxiii, 22; -J-JD, " grape," xix, 
10 ; h*1X^, " near kinswomen," xviii, 17 i r"iJ5a, 
"scourged," xix, 20; tnttn, "free," ibid,; y^rp 
nans, " print marks," xix,' 28"; ^^pn, " vomit," in the 
metaphorical sense, xviii, 25, 28; xx, 22-, nb'iy, "un- 
circumcised," as applied to fruit-trees, xix, 23; and 
n^bilS, " bom," xviii, 9, 11; as well as the Egj'ptian 
word (for such it probably is) 1313?^, " garment of di- 
vers sorts," which, however, does occur once beside in 
Deut. xxii, 11. 

According to Bunsen, chap, xix is a genuine part of 
the Mosaic legislation, given, however, in its original 
form, not on Sinai, but on the east side of the Jordan ; 
while the general arrangement of the Mosaic laws may 
perhaps be as late as the time of the judges. Ue re- 
gards it as a very ancient document, based on the Two 
Tables, of which, and especially of the first, it is, in fact, 
an extension, consisting of two decalogues and one pen- 
tad of laws. Certain expressions in it he considers as im- 
plying that the people were already settled in the land 
(ver. 9, 10, 13, 15), while, on the other hand, ver. 23 sup- 
poses & future occupation of the land. Uence he con- 
cludes that the revision of this document by the tran- 
scribers was incomplete , whereas all the passages may 
fairly be interpreted as looking forward to a future set- 
tlement in Canaan. The great simplicity and lofty 
moral character of this section compel us, says Bunsen, 
to refer it at least to the earlier time of the judges, if 
not to that of Joshua himself. 

III. .4 uthenticityf etc, — Some critics, however, such as 
De Wette, Gramberg, Vatke, and others, have strenu- 
ously endeavored to prove that the laws contained in 
Leviticus originated in a period much later than is usu- 
ally supposed; but the following observations sufficient^ 
ly support their Mosaical origin, and show that the 
whole of Leviticus is historically genuine. The laws in 
chap, i-vii contain manifest vestiges of the Mosaical pe- 
riod. Ilere, as well as in Exodus, when the priests are 
mentioned, Aaron and his sons are named; as, for in- 
stance, in chap, i, 4, 7, 8, 1 1, ete. The tabernacle is the 
sanctuary, and no other place of worship is mentioned 
anywhere (i, 3 ; iii, 8, 13, etc.). The Israelites are al- 
ways described as a congregation (iv, 13 sq.), under the 
command of the elders qjfthe congregation (iv, 16), or of 
a ruler (iv, 22). Everything has reference to life in 
a camp, and that camp commanded by Moses (iv, 12, 
21; vi, 11; xiv, 8 ; xvi, 26, 28). A kter writer could 
scarcely have placed himself so entirely in the times, 
and so completely adopted the modes of thinking of the 
age of Moses; especially if, as has been asserted, these 
laws gradually sprung from the usages of the people, 
and were written down at a later period with the object 
of sanctioning them by the authority of Moses. They 
so entirely befit the Mosaical age that, in order to adapt 
them to the requirements of any later period, they must 
have undergone some modification, accommodation, and 
a peculiar mode of interpretation. This inconvenience 
would have been avoided by a person who intended to 
forge laws in favor of the later modes of Levitical wor- 
ship. A forger would have endeavored to identify the 
past as much as possible with the present. 

The section in chap, viii-x is said to have a mythical 
coloring. This assertion is grounded on the mirade 
narrated in ch. ix, 24. But what could have been the 
inducement to forge this section ? It is said that the 
priests invented it in order to support the authority of 
the sacerdotal caste by the solemn ceremony of Aaron's 
consecration. But to such an intention the nanatioo 



LEW CHEW 



407 



LEYDECKER 



other terms (nb;j, 1 Kings ix, 21 ; Dn, Numb. 
xxi, 28) are employed in connection with this, to de- 
>te the eaeaction of tribute. See Tbibutb. 

I«e^r Che'W, See Loo Cnoa 

ItO'wd (ros^pocy body Acts xvii, 5), Lewdnesa 
ia^covpyiffM, miichitff Acts xviii, 14), are used else- 
rhere in their proper sense of licetOununet* (Hfit, etc., 
oilg. XX, 6 ; Ezek. often ; Jer. xi, 15 ; xiii, 27 ; Hos. vi, 9 ; 
mcc for ni^bap, the parts o/shatne^ Hos. ii, 10). 

IfO^^ln, HiRscHRL, a Jewish rabbi who was bom in 
721 in Poland, and died at Berlin iu 1800, is noted for 
lis attitude towards Moses Mendelssohn. Lewin was 
hief rabbi of Prussia in the days of the ^reat Jewish phi- 
oaopher, and severely censured Mendelssohn for ration- 
distic views expressed in his correspondence with La- 
rater [see Mkndrlssohm], and in his translation of the 
Pentateuch into German. To the credit of Lewin, how- 
ler, it naust be stated that he by no means condemned, 
V permitted the condemnation of Mendelssohn as a her- 
rtic, aa Landau and other Polish rabbis were inclined to 
do. See Grfttz. Gesch, der Judm, xi, 45 sq. 

Ite'VTiB. Isaac. D.D., a Congregational minister, was 
bom Jan. 21. 1746 (O. S.), in Stratford (now Huntington), 
Conn. ; graduated at Yale College in 1765 ; entered the 
ministry in March, 1768; and was ordained pastor at 
Wilton, Conn., Oct. 26, 1768. He resigned his charge in 
June, 1786, and was installed October 18, 1786, pastor in 
Greenwich, and there he labored until Dec. 1, 1818, when 
be gave up the work on account of the infirmities of age. 
He died Aug. 27, 1840. In 1816 he was made a member 
of Yale College Corporation, but resigned in 1818. He 
published a f^w occasional sermons. — Sprague, id nna/« 
of the A merican Pulpit, i, 662. 

Lewis, John Nitohie, a Presbyterian minister, 
was bom iu Westchester Co., N. Y., in 1808. He grad- 
uated at Yale College in 1828, and studied tbenlop^ both 
at Andover and Princeton, and was licenscil at Goshen, 
N. Y., in 1832. He preached for a number of years, 
principally in the State of New York, and was then 
cho«en secretary of the Central American Education So- 
ciety in New York. He was for some time editor of the 
Sfanumi's Magcuine^ and wrote a Manual for the Pres- 
byterian Church. He died in 1861.— Wilson, Presby- 
terian Historical Almanac, 1863. 

Le^^ia, Moses, a Methodist minister, was bom in 
Roxbury, Vt,, May 19, 1797, and early decided upon the 
ministry as hb work of life. He entered the travelling 
connection in 1831 in the New Hampshire Conference. 
After tive years of faithful and successful labors as an 
itinerant, failing health compelled him to retire from 
the effective ranks, with the hope of resuming his place 
as a pastor at no distant day with recuperated physical 
strength, which, however, he never realized. During 
thirty-four years he sustained either a supemumerary or 
superannuated relation to his Conference. In 1^41 the 
New Hampshire Conference was divided, and the Ver- 
mont Conference constituted, and of it Lewis, living 
within the limits of the new Conference, became a mem- 
ber. He died Sept, 26, 1869. " In the domestic circle 
brother Lewis was beloved and honored; in the com- 
munity, active and reliable \ and in the Church, a pillar 
of strength, a safe counsellor, and a liberal contributor to 
•n the interests of the Church of his choice." — Minutes 
ofConj: 1870 (see Ind<x). 

Le vris, Thoniaa, an Independent minister, was bom 
in 1777. He was pastor of an Independent congregation 
at Islington, England, from 1804 till 1852, the year of his 
death. His published works are, 1. Christian Duties in 
the various Relations of Life (1839) :— 2. Religious State 
of Islington for the last Forty Years (1842) :— 3. Chris- 
tian PHvileges (1847).— AlUbone, Dictionary of British 
indAmericcM Authors, voL ii, i. v. 

Lewis, Zechariah, a Presbyterian nunister, stud- 
iid theology at Philadelphia, and was licensed by the 



Fairfield West Association in 1796. In the autumn of 
that year he became tutor in Yale College, and held that 
office until 1799. He was elected a tmstee of Princeton 
Seminary in 18 12. For six years he acted as correspond- 
ing secretary of the Religious Tract Society, afterwards 
the American Tract Society. Having resigned that po- 
sition in 1820, he was elected one of the secretaries of the 
United Foreign Missionary Society. He died in 1862. — 
Wilson, Presb, I fist. Almanac, 1863, s. v. 

LeycBon Nobla is the name of a poem which was 
extensively circulated among the Waldeuses in the 15th 
century. It exhorts to repentance and to Christian life, 
and treats of the temptations to which the wicked sub- 
ject the pious and the good, and of the punishments for 
sin. Some, among them Dickhoff, contend that the 
poem originated with the Bohemian Brethren, but 
Ebrard and Herzog incline to the general opinion that the 
'* Leyczon" belongs to the Waldeusian literature. The 
name it bears is derived from the first words of the poem, 
which are *^Leyczon nobla" {lectio, sermon). See Zeit^ 
schr%/lf, hist, theoL 1864, 1865 ; Herzog, />te romatdschen 
Waidenser, etc (Halle, 1853). 

Leydeohar, Mbijciiior, a Calvimstic theologian, 
was bora at Middelburg in 1642. He became pastor in 
the province of Zealand in 1662, was appointed professor 
at Utrecht in 1678, and died iu 1721. He was an ardent 
exponent of the doctrines of the Reformed Church, and 
violently opposed the systems of Occeius and Descartes, 
the works of Drusius, Spencer's book De Legibus UebrtB- 
orum, and the Lutheran tendencies of Witsius. Very 
learned in theological, rabbudcal, and ecclesiastical lit- 
erature, he distinguished himself by wielding a strong 
pen in favor of the Reformed theological system. Among 
his apologetical works are De veritate Jidei Reformata 
ejusdemque sanctitate, s, Commentarius ad Catech, Pala- 
tin, (Ultrajecti, 1694, 4to): — De aconomia triumperso- 
narum in negotio salutis hum, libri tr, quibus unicersa 
R^brmatajides certis prtncipOs congruo nexu explicatur 
(Traj. ad Rhen. 1682, 12mo) : — Veritas evangelica trium^ 
phans de erroribus quorumvis seculorum — opti^, quo 
principia fdei Reformota demonstrantur (Traj. 1688, 
4to) : — also, Historia ecdesia Africana iUustrata pro 
ecdesiee Reformata veritate et libertate (Ultraj. 1690, 4to). 
His controversial works against Cocceius met with great 
success, because they discussed the question with great 
clearness. Among them we notice his Synopsis contro- 
versiarum defadere et testamento Dei, qua hodie in Bel" 
gio moventur (Traj. 1690, 8vo) : — Vis veritatis s, disqui- 
sitionum ad nonnuUas controversias, quce hodie in Bel- 
gio nuwentur de ceconomia faderum Dei, libri v (Traj. 
1679, 4to) : — Fax veritatis (Leidae, 1677, 4to). When 
yet a youthful student at the university Leydecker had 
paid special attention to Biblical studies, and, guided 
by a learned rabbi, made rapid strides in the explora- 
tion of Biblical lore. In after life, when, tired of polemi- 
cal and clerical pursuits, he looked about for a field on 
which he might profitably venture, this department of 
theological study alliued him anew. Attempting to fit 
the works of Godwin {Moses and Aaron) and Cuiueus 
{De RepuUica Hebraor,) to his academical purposes, he 
soon discovered their insufficiency, and set about to pre- 
pare himself a more copious treatise, which is every- 
where marked by a vigorous and independent judgment. 
While he conceals not his aversion to the ^ futilities** of 
the Talmud, he quotes the great rabbins with respect. 
He, moreover, keeps a sharp eye on the extravagancies 
of Christian writers, and his work censures with even- 
handed justice the well-known rabbinism of the Bux- 
torfs and the Egyptism of Spencer (De Legibus Hdn-,'), 
It is only characteristic of this unsparing criticism of the 
orthodox author that he adds an appendix of severe an- 
imadversion against the cosmogony of Thomas Bumet, 
to whose Theoria teUuris he prefixes the predicate pro- 
fana. The six dissertations of this appendix, what- 
ever may be thought of the author's views, are valuable 
for their leaming, and interesting as closely bearing on 
the questions now raised on the Mosaic cosmogony. 



LETDT 



409 



LIBATION 



kfa JTi*/. of JiatumaHam, p. 868 aq. ; Scholten, De Leer 
\er Hmrvortndt Kerk in kare ffrondbeginseUn vit de hron- 
kh voorffesteU en beordedd, (1848; 2d ed. 1850; 4th ed. 
1861) ; and his article on ^^ Modem Materialism and its 
Jauaeo" in J^rogreu of Religious Thought m the Protest, 
CIL of Frxxnce (Lond. 1861), p. 10 sq. See Refobmed 
CDcTCH) Chukch. (J.H.W.) 

Zaeyd^ Johannes, a prominent minister of the Re- 
EoTmed I>atch Church, was bom in Holland in 1718, and 
came eariy to America. He studied theology under the 
Rev. John Frelinghuysen and J. H. Goetschius, was li- 
censed in 1748, and became pastor of the united church- 
es of New Brunswick and Six-mile Run, New Jersey. 
In the great Coetns and Conferentic conflict he was ac- 
tively identified with the former, which insisted upon 
the education of ministers in this country, and upon an 
imli-pendent Church organization separate from the Re- 
formed Church of the mother country. In this "liberal 
and progressive" movement Mr. Leydt was a powerful 
leader. He published several pamphlets in its favor, 
and was one of the most prominent men in the estab- 
lishment of Queen's College (now Rutgers) in 1770. He 
was one of its iirst trustees. He was president of the 
General S3mod in 1778. An ardent patriot of the Rev- 
ohttioiiary War, he preached boldly on the great ques- 
tions of the time, arousing much enthusiasm among the 
people, "^and counselling the young men to join the 
army of freedom.'* His active and useful ministry closed 
oiily with his life in 1783. He is represented to have 
been an instmctive, laborious, and faithful minister, an 
imprectsive preacher, a favorite at installations of pastors, 
oixanization of churches, and other public services. He 
was a healer of the breaches of Zion, as well as an in- 
trepid leader in an important crisis of the Church and of 
the country. — Historical Sermon by R. H. Steele, D.D. ; 
CoTwin, Manual of the Reformed Churchy s. v. (W. J. 
K.T.) 

Iteyser. See Ltskr. 

L'Hopital. See Hopitau 

^iar. See Lie. 

Idbanius, a celebrated sophist of the 4th century, 
noted as a friend of the emperor Julian, was bom about 
A.D. 314 at Antioch, where he studied in early youth, 
devoting his attention to the purest classic models. Af- 
ter a stay of four years at Athens, where he attracted 
much attention, he pursued his studies at Constantino- 
ple, and here entered upon a brilliant career as teacher, 
which excited the envy of others, especially of the soph- 
ist Bemarchius, his former instmctor. The latter falsely 
charged him with the practice of sorcery and many 
vices, so that the prefect was persuaded to expel him 
from the city, A.D. 346. He went to Nice, and shortly 
ifier to Nicomedia, and there pleasantly passed five 
years with great success as an instmctor, and returned, 
by invitation of emperor Julian, who had frequently at- 
tended his lectures, to Constantinople, only to leave it, 
however, shortly after, on account of the opposition still 
exbting. He retired, by permission of Camar Gallus, to 
his native city. Here he continued to reside till hisdeath, 
which is supposed to have occurred after the accession of 
An^dios, A. D. 395. In the death of J ulian, Libanius lost 
much of his hope for the restoration of paganism. He 
complains to the gods that they had granted so long a 
life to Coustantius, and only so brief a career to Julian. 
U« interchanged many letters with Julian. Under Va- 
lens he defended himself successfully against a charge 
of treason, and seems to have obtained the emperor's 
ftvor. He besought from him a law, in which Libanius 
himself, on account of his own natural oflbpring by a 
mistress, was personally interested, granting to natural 
children a share in their father's property at his death, 
libanius was the preceptor of Basil and Chrysostom ; 
ind, although himself a pagan to the end, always main- 
tained friendly relations with these Christian fathers. 
He was a warm advocate for tolerance, and sought to 
defend the ManicbsDanf of the £ast from the violent 



measures directed against them. He addressed Theo- 
dodus in one of his Uiscourtet in defence of the heathen 
temples, which the monks were eager to despoil. He 
lived long enough to see Christianity everywhere tri- 
umphant, and his personal efforts no longer applauded. 
Separate works of libanius have from time to time been 
discovered and edited, but many yet lie in MS. only in 
different libraries. His style is rhetorically correct, but, 
in accordance with the spirit of his times, highly artifi- 
ciaL Gibbon's criticism may be considered too severe 
(Decline and Folly ch. xxiv). Among the writings of 
Libanius are his Progymmumata, or Examples of Rhe- 
torical Exercises, divideil into thirteen sections; and 
Discourses, many of which were never pronounced, nor 
designed for that purpose. Some of the latter are moral 
dissertations, after the fashion of the times, on such sub- 
jects as Friendship, Riches, Poverty. One is entitled 
Mof^^ia, a lament on the death of Julian. Another, 
the most interesting of all his writings, is his autobiog- 
raphy, which he first wrote at the age of sixty years, 
entitled Bi'oc h \6yoQ w«pi r^c iavrov n/x^f . A frag- 
ment of his Discourses, addressed to Theodosius in de- 
fense of the heathen temples, was discovered by Mai in 
1828 in the Vatican. The Dedamations, exceeding 
forty in number, are exercises on imaginary subjects. 
There are not less than 2000 Letters addressied to over 
500 persons, among whom are Athanasius, Basil, Greg- 
ory of Nyssa, and Chrysostom. He wrote also a L^e 
of Demosthenes, and A rguments to the Orations of />e- 
mosthenes. There is no complete edition of Libanius, 
His Discourses and Declamations were edited by Reiske 
(Lips. 1791-97, 4 vols. 8vo). The most copious edition 
of his Letters (1605 in the Greek, and 522 translated into 
Latin) is that by J. C. Wolf (Amsterd. 1738, fol.). See 
Herzog, Real-Encyklop. vol. viii, s. v.; Wetzer u.Welte, 
Kirchea-Lexikon, voL vi, s. v. ; Smith, Diet, of Or. and 
Rom, Biog, voL ii, s. v. ; Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the 
Roman Empire, ch. xxiii, xxiv ; Sievers, /.,^)en des Lin 
bamus (Berl. 1868). 

Lib'anoB (Ai/3avoc), the Gnedxed form of the 
name of Mount Lebanok (q. v.), used in the Apocrypha 
(1 Esdr. iv, 48; V, 55; 2 Esdr. xv, 20; Judith i, 7 ; Ec- 
clus. xxiv, 18 ; 1, 12) and by classical writers. See also 
Amtilibanus. 

Libation (Lat. libcUio, from Ubare, ** to pour out ;" lit- 
erally any thing ^urM/ouO is used, in the sacrificial lan- 
guage of the ancients, to express an affusion of liquors 
poured upon victims to be sacrificed to a deity. The 
quantity of wine for a libation among the Hebrews was 
the fourth part of a hin, rather more than two pints. Li- 
bations were poured <mi the victim after it was killed, and 
the several pieces of it were laid on the altar, ready to be 
consumed by the flames (Lev. vi, 20 ; viii, 25, 26 ; ix, 4 ; 
xvi, 12, 20). These libations usually consisted of un- 
mixed wine {ivotroviog, merum), but sometimes also of 
milk, honey, and other fluids, either pure or diluted with 
water. The libations offered to the Furies were alwajra 
without wine. The Greeks and Latins offered libations 
with the sacrifices, but they were poured on the %actim'8 
head while it was living. So Sinon, relating the man- 
ner in which he was to be sacrificed, says, he was in the 
priest's hands ready to be slain, was loaded with bands 
and garlands; that they were preparing to pour upon 
him the libations of grain and salted meal (^n. ii, 130, 
131). Likewise Dido, beginning to sacrifice, pours wine 
between the horns of the victim (yfc'a. iv). The wine 
was usually poured out in three separate streams. Li- 
bations always accompanied a sacrifice which was of- 
fered in concluding a treaty with a foreign nation, and 
that here they formed a prominent part of the solemni- 
ty is clear from the fact that the treaty itself was called 
oirovdal. But libations were also made independent 
of any other sacrifice, as in solemn prayers, and on many 
oth^ occasions of public and private life, as before drink- 
ing at meals, and the like. St. Paul describes himself, 
as it were, a victim about to be sacrificed, and that the 
accustomed libations of meal and wine were already, ia 



LIBERALITY 



411 



LIBER DIURNUS 



nd their organs of speech. The fancy of one is lively, 
r another dulL The judgment of one is elastic, of an- 
ther feeble, a damaged spring. The memory of one is 
etentive, that of another is treacherous as the wind. 
*he paamons of this man are lofty, vigorous, rapid ; 
hose of that man crawl, and hum, and huzz, and, when 

wing, sail only round the circumference of a tulip. 
• it conceivable that capability, so different in every- 
hing else, should be all alike in religion? The advaii- 
age» of mankind differ. How should he who has no 
tarents, no books, no tutor, no companions, equal him 
rhom Providence has gratified with them all; who, 
when he looks over the treasures of hb own knowledge, 
»n say, thia I had of a Greek, that 1 learned of a Ro» 
nan ; this information I acquired of my tutor, that was 

1 present of my father; a friend gave me this branch 
>f knowledge, an acquaintance bequeathed me that? 
rhe tasks of mankind differ; so 1 call the employments 
md exercises of life. In my opinion, circumstances 
make great men; and if we have not Ctesars in the 
State, and Pauls in the Church, it is because neither 
Church nor State are in the circumstances in which 
they were in the days of those great men. Push a dull 
man into a river, and endanger his life, and suddenly he 
wiU discover invention, and make efforts beyond him- 
self. The woiid ia a fine school of instruction. Pov- 
erty, sickness, pain, loss of children, treachery of friends, 
malice of enemies, and a thousand other things, drive 
the man of sentiment to his Bible, and, so to speak, 
bring him honie to a repast with his benefactor, God. 
It it conceivable that he whose young and tender heart 
is yet nnpracticed in trials of this kind can have ascer- 
tuiked and tasted so many religious truths as the suf- 
ferer has? 2. We should believe the Christian religion 
with liberality, because every part of the Christian re- 
ligion inculcates generosity. Christianity gives us a 
character of God ; but what a character does it give ! 
God is Love. Christianity teaches the doctrine of 
Providence; but what a providence! Upon whom 
doth not its light arise? Is there an animalcule so lit- 
tle, or a wretch so forlorn, as to be forsaken and forgotr 
tn\ of his God ? ChrbtianiQr teaches the doctrine of 
redemption; but the redemption of whom? — of all 
tongues, kindred, nations, and people ; of the infant of a 
span, and the sinner of a hundred years old : a redemp- 
tion generous in its principle, generous in its price, gen- 
erous in its effects ; fixed sentiments of divine munifi- 
oeoce, and revealed with a liberality for which we have 
no name. In a word, the illiberal Christian alwa3rs acts 
contrary to the spirit of his religion : the liberal man 
akme thoroughly understands it. 8. We should be lib- 
eral, because no other spirit is exemplified in the infalli- 
ble guides whom we profess to follow. I set one Paul 
ag^nst a whole army of uninspired men : ' Some preach 
Christ of good-will, and some of envy and strife. What 
then ? Christ is preached ; and I therein do rejoice, yea, 
and win rejoice. One eateth all things, another eateth 
herbs; but why dost thou judge thy brother? We 
•hall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ.' We 
often inquire, What was the doctrine of Christy and what 
was the practice of Christ? Suppose we were to insri- 
toie a third question, Of what tkmpbr was Christ ? 4. 
We should be liberal as well as orthodox, because truths, 
especially the truths of Christianity, do not want any 
support from our illiberality. Let the little bee guard 
iu little honey with its little sting ; perhaps its little life 
nuy depend a little while on that little nourishment, 
l^ the fierce bull shake his head, and nod his horn, 
•nd threaten his enemy, who seeks to eat his fiesh, and 
wear bis coat, and live by his death : poor fellow ! his 
life is in danger; I forgive his bellowing and his rage. 
But the Christian religion— is that in danger? And 
vhat human efforts can render that false which is true, 
that odious which is lovely? Christianity is in no 
^ger, and therefore it gives its professors life and 
b«ath, and all things except a power of injuring others. 
& liberality in the profession of religion is a wise and 



innocent policy. The bigot lives at home ; a reptUe he 
crawled into existence, and there in his hole he lurks a 
reptile still. A generous Christian goes out of his own 
party, associates with others, and gains improvement 
by all. It is a Persian proverb, 'A liberal hand is bet^ 
ter than a strong arm.' The dignity of Christianity is 
better supported by acts of liberality than by accuracy 
of reasoning; but when both go together, when a man 
of sentiment can cleariy state and ably defend his relig- 
ious principles, and when his heart is as generous as hb 
principles are inflexible, he possesses strength and beau- 
ty in an eminent degree." See TheoL MisceUanyj i, 89; 
Draper, On Bigotry ; Newton, Cecil, and Fuller's Works ,* 
Wayland, DUcovrsen. 

LlberStus, a deacon ot the Church of Carthage, 
flourished in the 6th century. He was in Rome A.D. 
533, when pope John II received the bishops sent by 
the emperor Jusrinian I to consult him on the heresies 
broached by the monks, designated Acoemetas (or, as 
Liberatus terms them, Acumici), who had imbibed Nea- 
torian opinions. He was again at Rome in 535, haiing 
been sent the previous year, together with the bishops 
Caius and Petrus, by the synod held at Carthage under 
Reparatus, bishop of that see, to consult pope John II 
on the reception into the Church of those Arians who 
recanted their heresies. John was dead before the ar- 
rival of the African delegates ; but they were received 
by pope Agapetus, his successor. When, in 552, Repara- 
tus was banished by Justinian to Euchaida, or Eucayda, 
Liberatus accompanied him, and probably remained with 
him tUl the bishop's death in 563. Nothing further is 
known of him. Liberatus is the author of a valuable 
contribution to ecclesiastical history, entitled Brevia- 
rium Ccauam Nestorianorum et Eutychicmorum (from 
the ordination of Nestorius, A.D. 428, to the time of the 
fifth oecumenical [or second Constantinopolitan] coun- 
cil, A.D. 553). In this work he is charged with par- 
tiality to the Nestorians, or with following the Nesto- 
rians too implicitly. It b contained in most editions 
of the Concilia (voL v, edit, Labbe ; voL vi, edit. Co- 
leri; voL ix, edit. Mansi). In those of Crabbe (voL 
ii, foL, Cologn., 1588 and 1551) are some subjoined pas- 
sages derived from various extant sources illustrative 
of the history, which are omitted by subsequent editors. 
Hardouin omitted the Breviariutn. It was separately 
published, with a revised text, and a learned preface 
and notes, and a dissertation, in the Bibliotheca Patrttm 
of GaUand, voL xii (Venice, 1778, foL).— Smith, Did, of 
Greek and Roman Biography^ ii, 777. 

Liber DiumuB Romanorum PontifTcum is the 
name given by the see of Rome to a collection of formu^ 
las used in its correspondence and other business trans- 
actions. These formulas are very like those written for 
secular affairs by the monk Marcnlph (about 660) and 
others, and received from the compiler the name of Li^ 
ber Diumus because they relate to negoHa diuma (see 
Marino Marini, Diphmatica ponHficia, ed. nov. Rom. 1852 
sq., p. 64). They are interesting as scientific and his- 
torical monuments as well as for their practical use; 
and this is specially the case with the Liber Diumus 
PontificaliSf which contains copies of the letters ad- 
dressed by the Roman bishops to the emperor, the em- 
press, consuls, kings, patriarchs, bishops, and other mem- 
bers of the clergy, and in general to idl who were in any 
way concerned in the nomination of the Roman bbh- 
ops ; the pro/essio pontificia, the exemptions granted on 
the occasion of nominating neighboring bishops, on be* 
stowing the pallium (q. v.), conferring privileges and 
immunities, etc On all these points, and the manner 
in which these things were practiced from the 6th to 
the 8th century, the Liiber Diumus contains more or less 
complece information, particularly on the relations ex- 
isting between the see of Rome and the emperor, ib*K 
mode of election of the Roman bishops, the ritual, etc. 
To judge from its contents, this collection was probably 
written before the year 752, for it speaks of the relation 
between the see of Borne and the eparchs, who wece 



LIBERIA 



413 



LIBERIA 



rented, some 20 yean ago, an alphabet for writing their 
wn Lan^oa^^ and, next to the Mandingoes, they are rc- 
larded a» the most intelligent of the aboriginal tribes. 
L» they bold constant interooiune with the Mandingues 
nd other Mohammedan tribes in the far interior, Mo- 
uunmedAniflm is making rapid progress among them. 
Pbe Anglican missionary, bishop Payne, has recently 
agKe«ted a plan of occupying the country of the Vcys 
iviib an extensive and vigorous mission, and the mission- 
tcbool opened by the Episcopalians at Totocorch, which 
« nearer to Cape Mount thim to Monrovia, is regarded 
IS the first outpost towards the vast interior. 2. The 
PteKeha, who are located about seventy miles from the 
:oM8t, mnd extend about one hundred miles from north 
U> sooth, are entirely pagan. They may be called the 
peasants of West Africa, and supply most of the domes- 
tic slaves for the Veys, Bassas, Mandingoes, and Kroos. 
A DUBsionary effort was attempted among them about 
fifteen years ago by the Presbyterian Board of Foreign 
Missions, but it was abandoned in consequence of the 
death of the first missionary, George L. Seymour. 3. 
The Uarline tribe, living about eight days' journey 
north-east from Monrovia, and next interim to the Pes- 
sehs, has recently been brought into treaty relations 
with Liberia. According to a report of 1858, half the 
population of their capital, Palaka, consisted of Moham- 
medans who had come from the Manni country, but the 
latest explorer, W. Spencer Anderson, states that there 
sre at present no Mohammedans in the Barliue country. 
4. The Bassas occupy .a coast^line of over sixty miles, 
and extend about the same distance inland. They are 
the great producers of palm-oil and canewood, which 
sre sold to foreigners by thousands of tons annually. In 
1836 a mission was begun among these people by the 
American Baptist Missionary Union, whose missionaries 
ttudied the language, organized three schools, embra- 
cing in all nearly a hundred pupils, maintained preach- 
ing statedly at three places, and occasionally at a great 
many more, and translated large portions of the New 
Testament into the Bassa language. Notwithstanding 
this promising commencement, the mission has been 
Di>w ( 1872) fur several years suspended. But the South- 
ern Baptist Convention has lately resumed missionary 
operations among the Bassas. Great results for the 
•(weading of Christianity are expected from the mis- 
iionary latxMrs of Mr. Jacob W.Vonbrunn, a son of a 
subordinate king of the Grand Bassa people. 5. The 
Kroo, who occupy the region south of the Bassa, extend 
about seventy miles along the coast, and only a few 
miles inland. They are the sailors of West Africa, and 
never enslave or sell each ether. About thirty years 
sgo a mission was established among them by the Pres- 
byterian Board of Foreign Missions at Settra Kroo, but 
it has long since ceased operations. 6. The Greboes, 
who border upon the south-eastern boundaries of the 
KruoA, extend from Grand Sesters to the Cavalla Kiver, 
a distance of about seventy miles. In 1834 a mission 
was established among them by the American Board of 
Comroiasioners for Foreign >Ussions, which continued 
in operation for seven years. A Church was organized, 
the language reduced to writing, and parts of the New 
Testament and other religious books translated into it; 
bat in 1842 the mission was transferred to Gabun. A 
■lisaion established by the Protestant Episcopal Church 
of the United States among the same tribe a few years 
previously still continues in operation, and has recently 
established at Bohleu a missionary station, about sev- 
enty miles from the coast 7. The Mandingoes, who are 
found on the whole eastern frontier of the republic, and 
extend back to the heart of Soodan, are the most intel- 
ligent tribe within the limits of Liberia. They have 
•cbools and mosques in every large town, and, by their 
great influence upon the neighboring tribes, they have 
contributed in no little degree to abate the ignorance 
>Bd soften the manners of the native population of Li- 
twri^ One of the greatest obstacles to the progress of 
Chriitiiin mJMinna among the aboriginal tribes is the 



climate, and the difficoltj of acclimatization. Thus the 
Basle Missionary Society, which in 1827 established a 
promising mission, was in 1831 compelled to abandon it 
when four of the eight missionaries had succumbed to 
the climate. 

At the close of the year 1871 the churches among the 
Americo-Liberians and the missions among the natives 
were all more or less connected with the Protestant 
churches of the United States. The Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, which sent her tirst missionary to Liberia 
in 1832, has subsequently organized the Liberia Mission 
into an Annual Conference, with a missionary bbhop 
(suice 1884 William Taylor) at its head. In 1888 the mis- 
sion had 24 missionaries, including supernumeraries, 60 
local preachers, 2842 Simday-school scholars, 88 churches, 
of an aggregate value of lisi ,044. There were 127 bap- 
tisms and 60 deaths. In 1889 the number of members was 
2765, probationers 244, local preachers 54. The intense 
interest which has been aroused among civilized nations 
by the explorations of Livingstone, and still later of Stan- 
ley, in the heart of Africa, has been heroically followed up 
by Bishop Taylor and the missionary band led by him, 
especially along the Congo River; and the native chiefs 
have granted lands and subsidies for the purpose of es- 
tablishing churches and building schools at very many of 
the prominent points. The impetus thus given to com- 
merce and improvements in Africa, has, to some degree, 
extended to Liberia likewise, and the country is gradu- 
ally advancing to an independent position, both politi- 
cally and ecclesiastically, especially as the evangelistic 
labors of Bishop Taylor and his coadjutors are conduct- 
ed on the phin of ** self support," by means of agricul- 
tural pursuits on the part of the missionaries, whose 
first expenses in outfit and travel only are met by di- 
rect contributions. A new asra may therefore be now 
said to have dawned upon the ** Dark Continent," in a 
religious, as well as secular point of view, and Liberia, 
which is the oldest of the modem mission fields there, 
will doubtless still continue to be the dentre of mission- 
ary action, at least for the immense and densely popu- 
lated middle region of that quarter of the globe. The 
Protestant Episcopal Church likewise has a bishop 
there, and iu mission in 1889 had 60 stations, 17 clergy, 
17 candidates for orders (8 Liberians), 6 postulants (3 li- 
berian and 3 native), confirmations 106, communicants 
612, marriages 12, burials 82, Sunday-school scholars 
908, boarding and day-scholars 877, total contributions, 
^ 1 ,4 1 6,56. There are 22 day-schools, 1 1 boarding-schools, 
and 29 Sunday-schools in all connected with the mission. 
The Baptist churches in Liberia have mostly been organ- 
ised by the Southern Board of American Baptists. Their 
work was suspended during the war, and the American 
Baptist Missionary Union commenced their work in 
Liberia with the understanding that the Southern Board 
would not resume the work ; but in 1870 the Southern 
Baptists sent an agent to Africa with a view of renew- 
ing their labors there. The Missionary Union contin- 
ued, however, to give a partial support to several pas- 
tors. In March, 1868, the Baptist churches of Liberia 
organized the "Liberian Baptist Missionary Union" for 
*'the evangelization of the heathen" within the borders 
of the Republic of Liberia, ^and contiguous thereto." 
At this first meeting of the union ten Baptist churches 
were represented, and twelve fields of missionary labor 
were designated and commended to the care of the 
nearest churches. The Baptist churches have a train- 
ing-school for preachers and teachers at Virginia. The 
Presbyterian Church of the United States has congre- 
gations at Monrovia, Kentucky, Harrisburg, Greenville 
or Sinou, Marshall, Bobertsport, and a few other places, 
with an aj^^gate membership of about 280. The li- 
berian churches in union with those of Gaboon and Co- 
risco form the presb3rtery of Western Africa. The 
Alexander High-school is intended to be an academy 
of high grade, conducted under the supervision of the 
Presbytery, and designed especially to aid young men 
preparing for the ministry. It is situated on a farm of 



LIBER PONTIFICALIS 



415 



LIBER PONTIFICALIS 



chapter of Verona, ending also with Conon, but to it was 
•ililed afterwards a list of the names of the popes down 
to Paul I (t 767). This MS. was published in the fourth 
Tolume of Bianchini's collection, but, unfortunately, we 
have no description of this codex ; it was to have been 
given in the lifth volume, which never appeared (see 
Roetell, Bt»dirtibung derStadt Rom, i, 209, 210), so that 
it is impomUe clearly to establish its relation to the 
Neapolitan MS. A continuation of this first work goes 
down to Gregory II (from 714), and is to be found in 
the Codex of the Vatican, No. 5269, which must be a 
copy of an older MS. (Schelstrate, ch.'v, § 8). Then 
there is another continuation from the second part of 
the 8th century, contained in a codex of the Arobrosian 
library of Milan (M. no. 77, 4to), which is of the same 
date. The biographies close with Stephen III (f 757), 
■nd at the end is simply remarked, "xcv Paulus sedit 
annis x, mensibus ii, diebus v" (Muratori, Herum ItaL 
Saiptores, iii, 7). The variations on this MS. are given 
by Muratori under the letter A. It belonged originally 
to the convent of Bobbio. According to a very plausi- 
ble supposition of Niebuhr, the above-mentioned Nea- 
politan Codex came also from that convent. It will 
probably be possible, when the subject shall have been 
more thoroughly studied, to trace a connection between 
the two, and the Liber PontificalU also. After the mid- 
dle of the 8th century there appeared several continua- 
tiona, as is shoMm by the numerous M^S. of them in 
existence (see, in Muratori, 6, C, D; and Pertz, who 
pves notices of several MSS. of the kind). Some of 
tbeae codices extend down to Nicolas I (f 867), others 
to Stephen VI (f 891), which is as far as the so-called 
Libn- P&nHfieali$ extends. 

If from what we have stated it is concluded that the 
work dates back as far as the 7th century, it is clearly im- 
possible that the librarian Anastasius shoidd have been 
its author. He could at best only have continued it. 
Schelstrate thinks that the biography of Nicolas I can 
alone be ascribed to him (c viii, § 10) ; while Ciampini 
is induced by some peculiarities of the style to consider 
him also as the author of the four preceding ones (JL c, 
sect. V, vi). In the present state of the question it is 
impossible to decide between the two opinions. But 
it is clearly a mistake to attribute the biographies of 
Adrian II and Stephen IV to a certain Bibliothecarvu 
GuUdmuM, as is generally done (Ciampini names the 
librarian Zachary, sect, iv, vii, viii). This error orig- 
inated in an inscription in the Vatican Codex (3762, foL 
90 b-96), which, however, states only that a certain Pe- 
ter Gttillermus of Genoa, librarian of the convent of 
S.i£gidius, wrote this Vatican Codex in the year 1142 
(see Giesebrecht, in the Kider AUgem, Monatuchrift^ 
etc, April, 1852, p. 266, 267; Monumenta Gtrmama, xi, 
318). 

The sources of the Liber PonHficalig^ besides those 
above mentioned, consist partly in traditions, partly in 
M8. docun>ents, and remaining monuments, such as 
buildings, inscriptions, etc The collection of canon 
Uw of the 7th or 8th century, published by Zachary 
from a codex of Modena, stands in close connection with 
the Uber PonHficalis (see Zaccaria, Diasertazioni varie 
Italiane a ttoria ecdenasHca appartenenH^ Rom. 1780, 
vol ii, diss, iv ; reproduced by Galland, De vetusHs ca- 
•MKffi coUeetionibus dtssertaiionum tylloge^ Mogunt. 1770, 
4to, ii, 679 sq.) ; yet it is not to be considered as one of 
its sources, but rather appears to have been based on 
the £,»6er Pantijicalig, The Liber Pontificalia has be- 
MBoe particularly valuable for the correctness of the in- 
formation since the latter part of the 7th century, when 
the Homan archives were r^ularly organized, and the 
continuation of the LSber PontificaUt could only be in- 
^^uated to the librarians or other members of the clergy 
hiring free access to the archives. The Z^tfier Poniiji- 
ccdit is especially useful for the history of particular 
cbarches, ecclesiastical institutions, the discipline, etc. 
^bdttrate names as its first edition Peter Crabbe's 
^oNci/wR (Cologne, 1538) ; but this is neither complete 



nor well connected. It only contains extracts on each 
pope, like Baronius*s ArmcUes and subsequent collec- 
tions of cancms, and as the ** editio princeps," the edi> 
tion of J. Bosftus (Mayence, 1602, 4to) is generally ac- 
cepted, which is based on a MS. of Marcus Welser, of 
Augsburg. It was followed by the edition of Hannibal 
Fabrotti (Par. 1649), for which several codices were con- 
sulted. Lucas Holstenius prepared another by collating 
BusMus's with a number of MSS., and, although never 
published, it was greatly used by Schelstrate and others 
(see Schelstrate, cap. v. No. 8 sq.). From the hands 
of Schelstrate the MS. of Holstenius passed into the li- 
brary of the Vatican in 1734 (see Dudik, Iter Romcamm, 
pt. i [Vienna, 1855, p. 169]). The next edition was 
published by Francis Bianchini (Rom. 1718, folio), and 
this served as a basis for Muratori's, contained in the 
3d volume of his Scripiores reivm JlcUicarum (1723) ; 
Bianchini's work was continued by his nephew, Joseph 
Bianchini (voK ii-iv, Rom. 1735 ; there was to have 
been a 5th volume, but it never appeared). There also 
appeared at Rome an edition by John and Peter Joseph 
VignoU (1724, 1752, 1755, 8 vols. 4to). Rostell recenUy 
undertook another for the MonumerUa Gemutm<Bf while 
Giesebrecht announced for the same work a continua- 
tion of the Liber PontificaUt (see Giesebrecht, Ueber die 
QueUen d,fruheren PapHgesch,, art. ii in the Kiekr A U- 
genu Monat$scAr\ft /. Wi»aeiuck({ft u, Literatur, April, 
1852, p. 257-274). 

The inrestigations made on this subject permit us to 
distinguish three continuations of the Liber Poniifica' 
lit. 1. From an unknown source have been composed 
three histories of the popes : (a) one is contained in the 
Vatican Codex, 3764, extending from Laudo (912) to 
Gregory VII, and belonging to the end of the 11th cen- 
tury. It is reproduced in the first volume of Vignoli's 
edition of the Liber PonUficaH$, (6) The second, in 
the codex of the library of Este, vi, 5, and extending 
as far down, was written during Gregory's lifetime, 
(c) The third, dating from the time of Paschal U, in the 
early part of the 12th century (in the library of Mq" 
ria topra Minerva at Rome). 2. Another continuation 
of the LUier PontificaUt, composed in the 12th century, 
extends from Gregory VII to Honorius II (1124-1129). 
Onuphrius Panvini and Baronius name as its author 
either the subdeacon Pandulph of Pisa or a Roman li- 
brarian named Peter Constant Gaetani published in 
1638 a biography of Gelasius II alone, and asserted that 
the continuation of the Liber PontificaUt down to Inno- 
cent III was due to cardinal Pandulph Masca of Pisa, 
and was written in the time of Innocent lU. But 
Papebroch brings forth very plausible arguments to 
prove that the subdeacon Peter of Pisa wrote only the 
biography of Paschal H, and that the subsequent ones 
are due to the subdeacon Peter of Alatri, still Muratori, 
in the 3d voL of the Scriptoret, gives this collection of 
biographies imder the name of Pandulph of Pisa, and 
the question of authorship has not been further inquired 
into since. Giesebrecht (p. 262 sq.) maintains that the 
Codex Vaticanus 3762, of the 12th century, b the orig- 
inal from which all the other MSS. were copied (also 
the codex No. 2017, of the 14th century, in the Btfbe- 
rini Library at Rome ; comp. Yignoli, Liber Pont\f, voL 
iii ; Pertz, A rckiv, p. 54), and also that the author of 
the life of Paschal I was the cardinal-deacon Peter. 
The life of Gelasius II and that of Calixtus II were writ- 
ten by Pandulph after 1130, as is shown by his own 
statement (Muratori, iii, 389, 419). The similarity of 
style shows that he wrote also the life of Honorius IL 
But it is highly probable that Pandulph is the same 
person afterwards designated as the cardinal-deacon of 
the church of SLCosmas and Damianus, a nephew of 
Hugo of Alatri, cardinal-priest and for a long time gov- 
ernor of Bene vento. Peter and Pandulph were partisans 
of Anaclctus II, and were afterwards declared schismatics 
by the adherents of Innocent II ; this put an end to 
their work. 3. Another continuation originated at the 
dose of the 12th centoiy. Baroo^ ^ * *t as 



LIBERTY 



419 



LIBERTY 



rty, tbat prodaceth the action. Hence it is that we 
re apt to think that one doth not choose this or that 
rho of necessity chooses it ; bat we might as well say 
ire dotkk not burn because it bums of necessity." I'he 
;«aeral question is thus stated by Hobbes in the begin- 
lo^ of his treatise : the point is not, he says, ** whether 
i man can be a free agent ; that is to say, whether he 
an write or forbear, Sfieak or be silent, according to his 
rilU but whether the will to write or the will to for- 
war come upon him according to his will, or according 
o anything else in his power. I acknowledge this lib- 
:rty, that I can do if I will ; but to say I can will if 1 
rtil, I take to be an absurd speech. In fine, that free- 
ioni which men commonly find in books, that which 
he poets chant in the theatres and the shepherds on 
the mountains, that which the pastors teach in the pul- 
[tits and the doctors in the universities, and that which 
ihe common people in the markets, and all mankind in 
the whole world, do assent unto, is the same that I as- 
sent unto, namely, that a roan hath freedom to do if he 
win ; but whether he hath freedom to will b a question 
neither the bishop nor they ever thought on." Thus it 
will readily be perceived that Hobbes entirely denies 
the main point at issue, namely, the freedom of the 
iciU itaelf, and confines the subject— as his defimtion — 
porely to liberty of actum. This latter is simply a phyi- 
ieal question, and applies to all agents, whether human, 
aninaal, or even material ; that liberty which concerns, 
an.i indeed constitutes, a being as a morcd agent, is quite 
a dlflferent thing. Hobbes as a materialist, and there- 
fore a necessitarian, of course finds no room for this 
kind of moral or self-determining power. 

It is unquestionable that the source of most of the 
oonfuaion on the subject is in the ambiguity lurking un- 
der the term necestUy, which includes both kinds of ne- 
cessity, moral and physical The double meaning of 
the word has been the chief reason why persons who 
were guided more by their own feelings and the custom- 
ary aasnciations of language than by formal definitions 
have altogether rejected the doctrine, while persons of a 
more logical turn, who could not deny the truth of the 
abstract principle, have yet, in their explanation of it 
and inference from it, fallen into the same error as their 
opponents. The partisans of necessity have given up 
their common sense, as they supposed, to their reason, 
while the advocates of liberty rejected a demonstrable 
truth from a dread of its consequences, and both have 
been the dupes of a word. The obnoxiousness of the 
name unquestionably has been the cause of nearly all 
the difficulty and repugnance which many who really 
hold the doctrine find in admitting it. It was to remove 
ibis prejudice that Dr. Jonathan Edwards was induced 
to write his celebrated treatise on the WilL In a letter 
written expressly to vindicate himself from the charge 
of having, in his great work, confounded moral with 
physical necessity, he says : " On the contrary, I have 
Uigely declared that the connection between antecedent 
things and consequent ones, which take place with re- 
gard to the acts of men's wills, which b called moral ne- 
cessity, is called by the name of necessity improperly, 
and that all such terms as must^ cannot^ impossible, un- 
able, irresistible, unavoidable, invincible, etc., when applied 
here, are not employed in their proper signification, and 
are either used nonsensically and with perfect insignifi- 
cance, or in a sense quite diverse from their original and 
proper meaning and their use in common speech, and 
that such a necessity as attends the acts of men's wills 
is more properly called certainty than necessity,^ The 
well-known definition of Edwards on this subject is in 
the following words; ^The plain and obvious meaning 
of the yfon\B freedom and liberty, in common speech, is 
power, opportunity, or adeantage thai any one has to do 
<u kt pleases, or, in other words, his being free from hin- 
jleraoce or impediment in the way of doing or conduct- 
ing in any respect as he wills. I say not only doing, but 
conducting, because a voluntary forbearing to do, sitting 
•till, keeping silence, etc, arc instances of persons' con- 



duct about which liberty is exercised, though they are 
not so properly called doing. And the contrary to lib- 
erty, whatever name we call that by, is a person's being 
I hindered or unable to conduct as he will, or being neces- 
sitated to do otherwise." The radical defect in this defi- 
nition as to the question in hand is that liberty, as thus 
defined, relates solely to action (or non-action, as the 
case may be), and not to the will at all. Thus, by a 
singular method of petitio principii, the very possibility 
of all freedom of will is excluded. The real point at is- 
sue is but casually named, and arbitrarily dismissed as 
a contradiction. That \>on\i is not whether a man may 
act as he wills (this, again, is mere physical liberty), but 
whether the will has a self-determining power; wheth- 
er, in other words, a man may tcill in opposition to ex- 
ternal infiuences, usually called motives. This question 
the universal experience of mankind has determined in 
the affirmative. On these two grounds, 1, the essential 
fallacy as to the point in dbpute, and, 2, the unanimous 
testimony of consciousness as to the spontaneity of voli- 
tion, the fundamental position of Edwards has been so 
successfully attacked, as, for instance (to name only Cal- 
vinbdc writers), by Tappan and Bledsoe, that it may 
now be regarded as failing to meet the present theolog- 
ical status of the question. See Wilu 

True liberty evidently consbu simply in freedom 
from extemcd constraint. That (rod b free in thb 
sense, at least in his acts, all must admit, inasmuch as 
there b no conceivable power that could coerce him. It 
is likewise obvious that he b equally free in hb voli- 
tions, unless we suppose a system of arbitrary laws or 
absolute line of policy which shuts him up to a certain 
line of conduct. So far as these may be the resultant 
or expression of hb own nature, they might perhaps be 
admitted without essentially impairing our notions of 
his freedom. So, again, of man; if the motives, by 
which alone, if at all, it b claimed that his volitions are 
governed, are self-originated, or derive their governing 
weight from the infiuence which hb own mind imparts 
to them, he may still be said to be free in at least the 
strict sense of the definition. If, however, these prepon- 
derating elements consbt in hb own desires, and if, fur- 
ther, these desires are beyond his own control (whether 
by reason of natural predisposition, inveterate habit, or 
the divine or satanic interposition), then it must still re- 
main dubious if his liberty amounts to the measure of a 
rational, moral, and accountable agent. In the human 
sphere thb b precisely the point of difficulty, but its de* 
termination as a matter of fact, if indeed possible, be- 
longs properly under another head. See Motivr. In 
the divine sphere, on the other hand, the difficulty arises 
firom the soMsalled system of fore-ordination. which b 
tenaciously held by C^nnistic divines, being either as- 
sumed as a metaphysical d<^^a, or inferred from certain 
scriptural statements, and as strenuously denied by oth- 
ers. See Predestination. 

The ground assumed on thb vexed question by Sir 
William Hamilton and Mansell b that liberty and ne- 
cessity are both incomprehensible, both being beyond 
the limits of legitimate thought ; that they are among 
those questions which admit of no certain answer, the 
very inability to answer them proving that dogmatic 
decisions on either side are the decbions of ignorance, 
not of knowledge. *^How the will can possibly be 
free," says Hamilton, ^ must remain to us, imder the 
present limitation of our faculties, wholly incomprehen- 
sible. We are unable to conceive an absolute com- 
mencement; we cannot, therefore, conceive a free voli- 
tion. A determination by motives cannot, to our under- 
standing, escape from necessitation — nay, were we even 
to admit as true what we cannot think as possible, still 
the doctrine of a moriveless volition would be only cas- 
ualbtic, and the free acts of an indifferent are morally 
and rationally as worthless as the fore-ordained passions 
of a determined will. How, therefore, I repeat, moral 
liberty is possible in man or God we are utterly unable 
speculatively to understand. But practically (he fad 



LIBNATH 



421 



LICE 



wmd P€iL p. 207, 258) ; bat this is probably Gath. Van 
k Velde soggests A rak d-Menshiyeh^ a hill about four 
niles west of Beit-jebrin {Memoir, p. 330), which seems 
o onvwer to the requirements of location. It stood 
H«r LAchish, west of Makkedah, and probably also west 
>f Hleutheropolis (Keil, Comment, on Josh, x, 29), and 
iras sitiMted in the dbtrict immediately west of the hill 
Tf^on, in the vicinity of Ether, Ashan, etc (Josh, xv, 

Ijibiiatb. See Shiiior-libnath. 

Ijil>i]elL See Poplar. 

lab'ni (Heb. Libni', "^anb, white; Sept. Ao^ivii, 
Ao/5evO, the first-named of the two sons of Gershon, 
Lhe Mon of Levi (Exod.vi,17; Numb.iii,18,21; 1 Chron. 
ri, 1 7 ; comp. Numb, xxvi, 58) ; elsewhere called Laa- 
DAJN (1 Chron. xxiii, 7 ; xxvi, 21). RC. post. 1856. His 
ion Is caUed Jahath (1 Chron. vi, 20, 43), and his de- 
5«!endants were named Libnites (Numb, iii, 21 ; xxvi, 
bfi). In 1 Chron. vi, 29, by some error he is called the 
sou of Mahli and the father of Shimei. 

I«il>'iiite (Heb. Libm% ^32^, being a patron3miic of 
tb«> name form from Libni; Sept. Aofitvi), a descendant 
of Libni the Levite (Numb, iii, 21 ; xxvi, 58). 

I«il>oritt8, St., fourth bishop of Mans, a disciple of 
St. Pmvacius, flourished from the middle to the close of 
the 4tb century. The existing documents on his life are 
quite untrustworthy, and relate only that he was a pious 
man, performed sundry miracles, and that he was a fast 
friend of St. Martin of Tours. See the BoUandists for 
July 23; Tillemont, MemoireSy x, 307 ; Mabillon, De Pan- 
tij, Cmomarmefmbus, His body was transferred in the 
9tb centurv from Mans to Paderbom bv order of Biso, 
bij4iop of the latter place. See Pertz, Script, iv (vi), 
149 sq. ; Herzog, Real-Encyidopadiey viii, 380. 

Ijil>ra {pound), the name sometimes given to the 
seventy suf!W^;ans of the bishop of Rome, from the cir- 
cumstance that there were seventy soUdi or parts in the 
Koman libra. 

laibraries. In the early Church, as soon as church- 
es began to be erected, it was customary to attach libra- 
ries to them. In these were included not only the litur- 
gical and other Church books, and MS. copies of the 
holy Scriptures in the original languages, but also hom- 
ilies and other theological works. That- they were of 
some importance is evident from the manner in which 
they are referred to by Ensebius and Jerome, who men- 
tion having made use of the libraries at Jerusalem and 
Oesarea. Eusebius says he found the principal part of 
the materials for his Ecclesiastical History in the library 
at Jerusalem. One of the most famous was that at- 
tached to the church of St, Sophia, which is supposed 
to have been commenced by Constantine, but was after- 
wards greatly augmented by Theodosius the Younger, 
in whose time there were not fewer than one hundred 
thousand books in it, and a hundred and twenty thou- 
sand in the time of Basillcus and Zeno. No doubt a 
particular reason for thus collecting books was their 
great expense and rarity before the art of printing en- 
abled men to possess themselves the works they needed 
for thorough research. In churches where the itinerant 
system prevailed libraries possessed by churches would 
even in our very day prove a source of pleasure, and 
timesaving as welL Indeed, in some of the larger cities 
here and there, congregations are already advocating 
this plaiv 
Libri Carolini. See Caroline Books. 

Lib'ya {Xij^va or Ai/3t''i/), a name which, in its 
largest acceptation, was used by the Greeks to denote 
the whole of Africa (Strabo, ii, 131) ; but Libya Proper, 
which is the Libya of the New Testament (Acts ii, 10), 
and the country of the Lubitn in the Old, was a large 
tract lying along the Mediterranean, to the west of 
Egypt (Strabo, xvii, 824). It is called Pentapolifami 
Reffio by Pliny {Uist. Xat,v, 5), from its five cities, Ber- 



enice, Arsino^, Ptolemais, Apollonia, and Cyrene ; and 
Libya Cyrenaica by Ptolemy {Geog, iv, 5), from Cy- 
rene, its capital See Smith's Diet, of Class. Geogr, s. v. 
The name of Libya occurs in Acts ii, 10, where " the 
dwellers in the parts of Libya about Cyrene" are men- 
tioned among the stranger Jews who came up to Jeru- 
salem at the feast of Pentecost. This obviously means 
the Cyrenaica. Similar expressions are used by Dion 
Cassius (Aifivfi ij vtpi Kt/piiVijv, liii, 12) and Josephus 
('/ ^P^C Kiip/;v»|v AtfivTj, Ant, xvi, 6, 1). See Cyrene. 
In the Old Test, it is the rendering sometimes adopted 
of I31B (Jer. xlvi, 9; Ezek. xxx, 5; xxxviii, 5), else- 
where rendered Phut (Gen. x, C , Ezek. xxvii, 10). 

Libya is supposed to have been first peopled by, and 
to have derived its name from, the Lehahim or Lubim 
(Gen. X, 13 ; Nuh. iii, 9 ; see Gesenius, Monum, Phcen, p. 
211 ; comp. Michaelis, SpiciL i, 262 sq. ; Vater, Comment, 
i, 132^. These, its earliest inhabitants, appear, in the 
time of the Old Testament, to have consisted of wan- 
dering tribes, who were sometimes in alliance with 
Egypt (compare Herod, iv, 159), and at others with the 
Ethiopians, as the}' are said to have assisted both Shi- 
shak, king of Egj'pt, and Zerah the Ethiopian in their 
expeditions agauist Judiea (2 Chron. xii, 4 ; xiv, 8 ; xvi, 
9). In the time of Cambyses they appear to have 
formed part of the Persian empire (Herod, iii, 13), and 
Libyans formed part of the immense army of Xerxes 
(Herod, vii, 71, 86). They are mentioned by Daniel 
(xi, 43) in connection with the Ethiopians and Cushit^. 
" They were eventually subdued by the Carthaginians ; 
and it was the policy of that people to bring the nomade 
tribes of Northern Africa which they mastered into the 
condition of cultivators, that by the produce of their in- 
dustry they might be able to raise and maintain the 
numerous armies with which they made their foreign 
conquests. But Herodotus assiuros us that none of the 
Libyans beyond the Carthaginian territory were tillers 
of the ground (Herod, iv, 186, 187 , compare Polybius, i, 
161, 167, 168, 177. ed. Schweighaeuser). Since the tmae 
of the Carthaginian supremacy, the country, with the 
rest of the East^ has successively passed into the hands 
of the Greeks, Komans, Saracens, and Turks." See 
Africa. 

Lib'yan (only in the plur.), the rendering adopted 
in the A. V. of two Heb. names, 3^2^ (Lubbim\ Sept 
Ai(3v(^)j Dan. xi,48 (elsewhere written C^Slb,"7:M5f»i," 
2 Chron. xii, 3; xvi, 8; Nah. iii, 9, prob. i. q. D'^lllb, 
"/^6aWm," Gen. x, 13, I Chron. i, 11) and ^SIB {Put, 
Jer. xlvi, 9; Sept, Ai/3t;«c; elsewhere rendered "Lib- 
ya," Ezek. xxx, 5 ; xxxviii, 5 ; « Phut," or " Put"). See 
Libya. 

Lice ("(?, ken, perh. from *j33, to nip , only once in the 
sing, used collectively, Isa. Ii. 6, and there doubtful, where 
the Sept.,Vulg., and Engl. Vers, confound with "3, so, 
and render ravra, hate, " m like manner ;" elsewhere 
plural, D-^SS, Exod. viii, 16, 17, 18; Psa. cv, 31 ^ Sept. 
oKvX^iq, ver. 17 oKvixj/, v. r. (xicviTrfc ; Vulg. sciniphes, in 
Psa. cini/es; also the cognate sing, collective D|!3, kin- 
nam^ Exod. viii, 17, 18, Sept, and Vulg. cmntfug, semi- 
phes\ the name of the creature employed in the third 
plague upon Egypt, miraciUously producetl from the dust 
of the land. Its exact nature has been much disputed. 
Dr. A. Clarke has inferred, from the words *' in man and 
in beast," that it was the aearus sanguisugus, or " tick* 
( Comment, on Krod. v i ii, 1 6) . M ichaelis remarks (Suppl, 
ad /v«r. 1 174) that if it be a Hebrew word for Hce it is 
strange that it should have disappeared from the cog- 
nate tongues, the Aramaic, Samaritan, and Ethiopic. 
The rendering of the Sept seems highly valuable when 
it is considered that it was given by learned Jews resi- 
dent in Egypt, that it occurs in the most ancient and 
best executed portion of that version, and that it can be 
elucidated by the writings of ancient Greek naturalists, 
etc Thus Aristotle, who was nearly contemporary with 



LICENSE 



423 



LIE 



Harenberg^, Obterv. Crit. de Insectit jEffypt. ififestemtibiUy 
in MUcflL Up*, Nov, ii, 4, 617-20 ; Geddes, Crit. Rem, on 
Exod. viii, 17 ; MonUnus, CriHc. Sac on Exod. viii, 12 ; 
Kitto. Daify Bible lUusi, ad loc. ; Bochart, fJieroz, ii, 572. 
See G!f AT. 

** The advocates of the other theor>% that lice are the 
^ninrt^ia meant by k it mim , and not gnatSy baae their ar- 
gumenta upon these facts : (1) because the kimtim sprang 
fh>ni the dust, whereas gnats come from the waters ; (2) 
because ffnats^ though they may greatly irritate men 
and beasts, cannot properly be said to be * in* them ; (3) 
because their name is derived from a root (^^S) which 
signifies to * establish,* or to 'fix,* which cannot be said 
of ffnafs ; (4) because, if gnats are intended, then the 
fourth plague of flies would be unduly anticipated; (5) 
because the Talmudists use the word kimuih in the sin- 
gular number to mean a lotue ; as it is said (Shab, xiv, 
107. b), * As is the man who 8la3rs a camel on the Sab- 
bath, so is he who slays a huae on the Sabbath**' 
(Smith). *^ The entomologists, Kirby and Spence, place 
these minute but disgusting insects in the very front 
rank of those which inflict direct injury upon man. A 
terrible list of examples they have collected of the rav- 
ages of this and closely allied parasitic pests. They 
remark that, * for the quelling of human pride, and to 
pull down the high conceits of mortal man, this most 
loathsome of all maladies, or one equally disgusting, has 
been the inheritance of the rich, the wise, the noble, and 
the mighty ; and in the list of those that have fallen 
' victims to it, you will find poets, philosophers, prelates, 
princes, kings, and emperors. It seems more particu- 
larly to have been a judgment of God upon oppression 
and tyranny, whether civil or religious. Thus the in- 
human Pheretima mentioned by Herodotus, Antiochus 
Epipbanes, the dictator Sylla, the two llerods, the em- 
peror Maximin, and, not to mention more, the persecu- 
tor of the Protestants, Philip the Second, were carried 
off by it* {IntroiL to ErUomoL voL iv). The £g>'ptian 
plague may have been somewhat like that dreadful dis- 
ease common in Poland, and known as plica PoUmica, 
in which the hair becomes matted together in the most 
disgusting manner, and is infested with swarms of ver- 
min. Each hair is highly sensitive, bleeds at the root 
on the least violence, and if but slightly pulled feels ex- 
quisite pain. Lafonfaine, whom Hermann calls a very 
exact describer, afllrms that millions of lice appear on 
the wretched patient on the third day of this disease 
{Mem, ApteroL p. 78). These insects form the order 
Anoplura of Leach, and Parasita of Latreille. Most 
mammalia, if not all, and probably all birds, are infested 
by them ; each beast and bird, as is stated, having its 
own proper species of louse, and sometimes two or more. 
Three distinct species make the human body their 
abode.** See Insect. 

License, the name given to the liberty and irar- 
rani to preach, 

(1.) In the Presbyterian Church it is regularly con- 
ferretl by the Presbytery on those who have passed sat- 
isfactorily through the prescribed curriculum of study. 
When a student has fully completed his course of study 
at the theological hall, he is taken on trials for license by 
the Presbytery to which he belongs. These trials consist 
of an examination on the different subjects taught in the 
theological hall, his personal religion, and his motives 
for seeking to enter the ministerial office. He also de- 
livers a lecture on a passage of Scripture, a homily, an 
exercise and additions, a popular sermon, and an exe- 
gesis; and, lastly, he is examined on Church History, 
Hebrew and Greek, and on divinity generally. It is 
the duty of the presbytery to criticise each of these by 
itself, and sustain or reject it separately, as a part of 
the series of trials, and then, when the trials are com- 
pleted, to pass a judgment on the whole by a regular 
vote. If the trials are sustained, the candidate is re- 
quired to answer the questions in the formula, and, 
after prayer, is licensed and authorized to preach the 
Qospei of Christ, and exerdse his gilts as a probationer 



for the holy ministry, of which license a regular cerdfi- 
cate is given if required. He is simply a layman or lay 
candidate for the clerical office, preaching, but not di»- 
penang the sacraments. See Ordination. 

(2.) In the Methodist churches it is conferred on lay- 
men who are believed to be competent for this oflSce, 
and it is from persons thus brought into the ministry 
[see Lay Preachimo] that the Chureh is supplied with 
ministers. See Local Preachers ; Licentiate. 

(3.) In the C*hurch of England and the Protestant 
Episcopal Church of the United States the word license 
is used to designate the grant given by the bishop to a 
candidate for orders, authorizing him to read 8er\'ice8 
and sermons in a church in the absence of a minister; 
also the liberty to preach, which the bishop may give 
to those who have been ordained deacons if he judge 
them to be qualified. See the Ordering of Deacons in 
the Prayer-book, where the bishop says to those he is 
ordaining, " Take thou the authority to read the (jospel 
in the Church of God, and to preach the same, if thou 
be thereto licensed by the bishop himself.*' 

See Staunton's EoclesiaMical Dictionary ^ s. v. ; Eadie, 
Ecclesiastical Dictionary^ s. v. See Preaching. 

Licentiate (from Lat. /tee/, it is lawful), one of the 
four ancient university degrees. It is no longer in use 
in England, except at Cambridge as a degree of medi- 
cine. In France and Germany, however, where it is 
more general, a licentiate is a person who, having un- 
dergone the prescribed examination, has received per- 
mission to deliver lectures in the university. When the 
degree is given as an honor, it is interm^liate between 
Bachelor of A rts and Doctor, 

LICENTIATE is a person authorized by the Church 
authorities to preach, and who thus becomes eligible to 
a pastoral charge. See License. 

Licinius. See Constantine the Great. 

Liohtenberg, Johann Conrad, a Ciennan theo- 
logian, was bom at Darmstadt Dec 9, 1689. In 1707 he 
entered the University of Giessen, and then attended 
successively those of Jena, Leipsic, and Halle ; in the 
latter he finished bb academical course in 1711. Soon 
after he accepted a call as vicar to Neun-Kirchen, in 
the grand-duchy of Hesse ; in 1710 he became pastor 
of the same place; in 1719, pastor of Upper Kamstadt; 
in 17dd, metropolitan of the diocese of the bailiwick 
Lichtenberg; in 1745, town pastor at Darmstadt, and 
examiner of teachers ; and in 1749, superintendent He 
died July 17, 1751. His knowledge was extensive, em- 
bracing not only theology, but also mathematics and 
physics. Astronomical studies, especially, had a lasting 
interest for him ; the latter he knew skilfully how to 
weave into his sermons in a simple and popular manner, 
thus captivating the attention of the audience. He 
contributed largely to Church music The various 
books which he composed are all of an ascetical charac- 
ter; we only mention Texte zur Kirchenmusik (Darmst. 
1719, 1720, 8vo) ; Ermuntentdt JStimmen aus Zion (ibid. 
1722, 8vo) ; GeistUche Bdrachtungen iiber gewisse in den 
Erangeliis enthaltene Materien (ibid. 1721, 8vo). — Dur- 
ing, Gelehrte Theol, Deutschlands, ii, 296 sq. 

Lidbir. See Lo-debar. 

Lie (prop. ITS, ^tHoQ\ an intentional violation of 

truth. In Scripture we find the word used to designate 
all the ways in which mankind denies or alters truth in 
word or deed, as also evil in generaL In general the 
good is in it designated as the tnith. e\nl as its opposite, 
or lie, and ciinsequently the devil (being the contrary 
to God) as the father of lies, and liars or impious per- 
sons as children of the devil. Hence the Scriptures 
most expressly condemn lies (John viii, 44; 1 Tim. i, 9, 
10 ; Kev. xxi, 27 ; xxii, 15). When, in Kom. iii, 4, it is 
said that all men are liars, it is synonymous with say<* 
ing that all are bad. The Bible nowhere admits of per- 
mitted, praiseworthy, or pious lies, yet it recommends 
not to proclaim the truth when its proclamation might 
prove injurious. Hence Christ commands (Matt vii, 6} 



LIGN-ALOE 



429 



LIGUORI 



grmnce appears to reside wholly in the resin deposited 
in the pores, and is developed by heat. Both plants 
belong to the Linn^pan class and order iJecandria mono' 
gynia, and the natural family of A quilarinett, 

** It b extremely interesting to find that the Malay 
naine of the substance in question, which is agiiat is so 
little different from the ahalxm of the Hebrew; not 
more^ indeed, than may be obser\'cd in many well-known 
wonlk, where the hard g of one language is tyimed into 
the aspirate in another. It is therefore probable that 
it was by the name agUa (aghil in RosenmUUer, Bibiic. 
Bot, p. 234) that this wood was first known in com- 
n>erce, being conveyed across the bay of Bengal to the 
island of Ceylon or the peninsula of India, which the 
Arab or Phoenician traders visited at very remote pe- 
riods, and where they obtained the early-known spices 
and precious stones of India. It is not a little curious 
that captain Hamilton {Account of the East JncUeSj i, 68) 
mentions it by the name of agahf an odoriferous wood 
at Muscat. We know that the Portuguese, when they 
reached the eastern coast from the peninsula, obtained 
it under this name, whence they called it pao (Taguild, 
or eagie-^coodj wl\jch is the origin of the generic name 
Aquitaricu 

^ It most be confessed, however, that, notwithstand- 
ing all that has been written to prove the identity of 
the ahcUim-trees with the aloes -wood of commerce, 
and notwithstanding the apparent connection of the 
Hebrew word with the Arabic aghlagun and the Greek 
agaOocAon, the opinion is not clear of difficulties. In 
the first place, the passage in Numb, xxiv, 6, ' as the 
akalim which Jehovah hath planted,* is an argument 
af^ainst the identification with the AquUaria agallo- 

chum. The Sept. seem to have read D'^blJR, ohaUm% 
leniB : and they are followed by the Vulg., the Syriac, the 
Arabic, and some other versions. If this is not the true 
reading — and the context b against it — then if ahalim 
be the A q, agaUochum, we must suppose that Balaam 
is speaking of trees concerning which, in their growing 
state, he could have known nothing at all. RosenmUl- 
ter {SckoL in V, T. ad Numb, xxiv, 6) allows that this 
tree is not found in Arabia, but thinks that Balaam 
might have become acquainted with it from the mcr- 
chanta. Perhaps the prophet might have seen the 
wood. But the passage in Numbers manifestly implies 
that he had seen the ahcUim growing^ and that in all 
probability they were some kind of trees sufficiently 
known to the Israelites to enable them to understand 
the allusion in its full force. But if the ahalim be the 
agallockumj then much of the illustration would have 
been lost to the people who were the subject of the 
prophecy ; for the A q, agaUochum is found neither on 
the banks of the Euphrates, where Balaam lived, nor in 
Moab, where the blessing was enunciated. Michaelis 
{Supp. p. 34, 35) believes the Sept. reading to be the 
correct one, though he sees no difficulty, but rather a 
beauty, in supposing that Balaam was drawing a simil- 
itude from a tree of foreign growth. He confesses that 
the parallelism of the verse is more in favor of the tret 
than the tent ; but he objects that the lign-aloes should 
be mentioned before the cedars, the parallelism requir- 
ing, he thinks, the inverse order. But this is hardly a 
valid objection, for what tree was held in grreater esti- 
mation than the cedar? And even if ahalim be the 
Aq, agaUochum^ yet the latter clause of the verse does 
no violence to the law of parallelism, for of the two trees 
the cedar 'is greater and more august' Again, the 
passi-ige in Psa. xlv, 8 would perhaps be more correctly 
truQ lated thus: *The m3rrrh, aloes, and cassia, per- 
fumi ig all thy garments, brought from the ivory palaces 
of thi Mimni, shall make thee glad.' The Minni, or 
Minci, were inhabitants of spicy Arabia, and carried on 
ft great trade in the exportation of spices and perfumes 
(Winy, xii, 14, 16 ; Bochart, PhaUg, ii, 22, 136). As the 
^^rrh and cassia are mentioned as coming from the 
^inni, and were doubtless natural protluctions of the 
country, the inference ia that aloes, being named with 



them, were also a production of the same region.** But 
see MtMNi. 

See generally Abulfeda, in BUsching's Magaztn, iv, 
277 ; Bokin, in Notices et Extraifs de la BibHoth, du Boi, 
ii, 397 ; Linnseus, PJlanzensygtem ttach Houtiyn (Nounb. 
1777), ii, 422 sq.; Michaeli3, Supplem, p. 32; Wahl, Os- 
tindien, ii, 772 ; the Fundgruben des Orients, v, 872 ; Bon- 
di, Or-Ksther, p. 13 ; Sylv. de Saez, ad Abdollatiphi De- 
scrip. ACg, p. 320. Compare Aloe. 

Iiiguorl, Alfosizo Maria dr, a Koman Catholic 
bishop, and founder of the Order of Kedemptorists, was 
bom Sept. 27, 1696, at Naples. He was descended from 
a noble family, and the son of a royal officer ; from his 
mother, who was a fervid Catholic, he imbibed in early 
childhood a glowing devotedness to the Church of Rome. 
Educated in an institution of the priests of the Oratory, 
he made such rapid progress that he obtained in the six- 
teenth year of his life the degree of LL.D. In accord- 
ance with the wish of his parents he became a lawyer, 
but the loss of an important lawsuit so mortified him 
that he resolved to enter the priesthood. He overcame 
the violent opposition of his fatheis and took orders in 
1725. Soon after he entered the Congregation of the 
Propaganda at Naples, and began to labor with great 
zeal for the religious awakening of the lowest classes in 
Naples and the neighboring provinces. In order to en- 
large the sphere of his labors he concluded to establish 
a new religious congregation. The first house of the 
new congregation was established with the assistance of 
twelve companions at Scala ; the chief task of the mem- 
bers was declared to be ** to devote themselves to the 
ser\'ioe of the poorest and most abandoned souls." lliree 
years later the second house was established at Cionani, 
in the diocese of Salerno. The rule of the new congre- 
gation, which Liguori had drawn up with the assist- 
ance of several prominent men, was confirmed by a brief 
of pope Benedict XIV, dated Feb. 22, 1749, and Ligu- 
ori was elected superior general for his lifetime. The 
archbishopric of Palermo, which king Charles III of 
Naples offered to him, Liguori declined, but in 1762 he 
had, at the request of pope Clement XIII, to accept the 
bish(^)ric of Sta. Agata de' Goti. A general chapter of 
the congregation unanimously declared that no new su- 
perior general should be elected in place of Liguori, 
but that the latter should appoint a vicar general to 
preside over the congregation in his place. The feeble 
state of his health repeatedly induced him to ask the 
pope to accept his resignation, but his wish was not 
granted until 1775. He retired to the house of his con- 
gregation at Nocera de' Pagani, where he spent the 
remainder of his life in composing theological and, in 
particular, ascetical works. In consequence of the in- 
trigues of several prominent members of his order, and 
the government of Naples, which, against his will, caused 
the rules of his order to be changed, he was compelled 
to resign its supreme management. He died August 1, 
1787. In 1796 he received from Pius VI the tide " Ven- 
erable," in 1816 he was beatified, and on May 26, 1839, 
was canonized by pope Gregorj' XVI. In 1871 Pius 
IX conferred upon him the title and rank of a " Doctor 
I EcclesiflB.'* Liguori was a very prolific writer, the best 
known among his works being the Theologia Moralis 
(Naples, 3 vols.) : — Homo Apostolints (I'enice, 1782, 8 
vols.) : — Instituiio Catechetica (Bassano, 1768) : — Praxis 
Conjessarii. Complete editions of his works have been 
published at Paris (1835 sq., in 16 vols.), at Monza (70 
vols.), and other places. His works have been trans- 
lated into French and German, and, in great part, into 
English, Spanish, Polish, and other European language«. 
The principles of casuistry explained by Liguori have 
been received with much favor by the Ultramontane 
school of the Roman Catholic theologians, and his moral 
theology, which is a modification of the so-called ** prob- 
abilistic system" of the age immediately before his own, 
is largely used in the direction of conscience*. Few 
writers in modem times have gone so far in the defence 
of the extremest ultra-papal theories and practices as 



LILY 

Lfifs the plmt in questitm with the Lili 
iiinoLu. It in prubilily the ume is that called id the 
llihnA ■ lung's lily' (Kilaim, v. 8). Hiiiy (xii, 6) de- 
nes cpi vov ta ' rubena Ulium ;' and DioKoriilts, in an- 
(hrt iiuuge, mcnlioiu the fact that there UB liliei 
riih p;ir|ile fluwen, but vhether by this he intended 
he LUium inarliigoii or t'hulctdonicum, K.Uhii leaves 
iwlecided. Kow iu the puaage of Athemeiu above 
|Ui>led it is aud, Savaoo yiip livai rf 'EXklivmv 0ii>v^ 
■a qx'fat. But ja the Eripnolvgiciim ilagnaia (a. t. 

i^trai. As the ihiuhaa is thua identified both with 
pivDv, the Ted or purple lily, and with Xii'piov, the 
rhite lily, it ia evidently impuBiible. from the word it- 
elf. to ascertain exactly the kind of lily which is refer- 
n1 ui. If the thuihan or ihoihamtah of the O. T. and 
ho ipiuav lit the Sermon on the Mount be identical, 
ihieb there seems no reason to doubl, Ibe plant desig- 
laieil by these terms miiat have been a conspicuaua ob- 
lect on the shorea of the Lake of Gennesoret (Mau. vl, 
!8: Lake xii, 37); it muat have flourished in the deep, 
RKid valleys at Palestine (Cant.ii, 1), amont; the thorny 
ihfubs (iA.ii,2) and pastures of the desert (iA.ii, 16; iv, 
>: ri, 3;, and must have been remarkable for ita rapid 
■nil luxuriant growth (Hoa. siv, 6 ; Ecclua. sxxLx, UJ. 
fhe purple Sowers of the Uiob, or wild artichoke, which 
ibounds in the plain north of Tabnr and in the valley 
)f Es traelon, have been thought by aoiiic to be the ' lil- 
ies of the AeUl' alluded lo in Matt. \-i,:28 (Wilsoii, Laadt 
rflkr BibU, ii, I10> A recent traveller menliona a 
plant, with liUc Howen like the hyacinth, and called by 
Ihe Arabs atwrii, which he considered to be of tbe spe- 
da denominated lily in Scripture (Bonar, Drtert ofSi- 
ui. p. Sisy TriBtiam strongly inclines to identify 
the acarlei anemone (^neMow coroaariii) with tha 
Scripture '■ lily " CA'T. lal. o/BAk, p. 4W). 

In the N. Teat, the word "lily" ocoura "in the well- 
kniwn and beautiful passage (MatL vi, iH), ■ Coiuidei 
the lilies of the field, how they grow ; they toil not, iiei- 
ihei do they spin, and yet I say unto yuu that even 

these;' su also in Luke xii, 27. Here it La evident that 
the plant alluded to most have been indigenous or 
grown wild in the vicinity of the Sea of (ialilee, must 
have been of an ornamental chancier, and, rrom the 
Iire«k lerm ipiivv being applied Uiit,oraliUaceDua na- 
ture. The name lofvov occars in all the old Grrek 
wfiteiB (see Dioscor.'iii, 116; compare ClaHdian,£)»fAoi 
iFrm.126; Mariiil, v,37,ti sq.; Calpucn. vi, 33 1 Athen. 
IT, 677, 680; Virgil, £** x, 25 ; PUny, xv,7; xii, 11), 
Thfophrastua first uses it, and is supposed by Sprcngcl 
to apply it to species of Narciiiut and lo IMium am- 
rftbin. Dioscoridea indicates two species, but very im- 
petfectly : one of them is supposed to be tbe l.iliam 
autdidum^ and the other, with a reddish flower, may be 
L vKarla^ai or L. CAaJcedunKWa, He alludca more 
particularly lo the lilies of S}-ria and of Pamphylia be- 
ing well suited for making the ointment of lily. Pliny 
muiDcrales three kinds, a while, a red, and a purple- 
cnkireil lily. Travellers in Palestine mention that ii 
ilie luduth of .January the fields and groves cvcrywher 
(bound in variom species of lily, tulip, and naiLiasui 
Beaard noticed, near Acre, on Jan. 18ih, and about Jaffa 
on the 23d, tulips, white, red, blue, etc. Gumpenberg 
■aw the meadows of <lalilee covered with the same dow- 
ns on the 31su Tulips figure conspicuously among the 
flowers of Palatine, varieties probably of Tutipa (Iri- 
teriiBUi (Kitto's Palttlmr, p. ccxv). So Porocke say^ 
' 1 saw many tulips growing wild in the fields (in March), 
and any tine who considers how beautiful those flowers 
oidcl he apt to conjecture 



which is a native of Penia and Cashmere. Most au- 
thors have uniled in considering the white lily, I.^iam 
the plant to which our Soviour referred; 



thel 



11 hia glorj 



impared.' This is much more likely 
intended than some others which hare beet 
aa, for instance, (he scarlet amaryUu, hav 
flowers with bright purple Hreaks, found by Salt at 
Adowa. Uthera have preferred the Cnwn imperial. 



lit it is doubtful whether it has ever been fooiid in ■ 
ill! stale in Palestine. Sotne, indeed, have thought it 
• b.- a native of the New World. Dr. Lindley, how 
ler, in the Gardeririy Chroaick (ii, 744), says, 'This 
ution cannot be sustained, because the white Uly occiin 

here about 1480 by Martin Scbongauer; and the flrsi 
n.^age of Columbus did not lake place till 1492. In 
lis very rare print the lily is represented as growing in 
nmamental rase, as if it were cultivated as a curious 
object.' This opinion is confirmed by a correspondent 
at Aleppo (tlardentr^ Ckromde, iii, 429), who has re- 
sided long in Syria, but is acqiuinted only with the bot- 
any of Aleppo and Antioch : ' I never saw the white lily 

It is cultivated here on the roofs of the houses in pota 
aa an exotic bulb, like the daffodiL' In consequence of 
this difficulty, the late Sir J. E. Smith was of opinion 
that the plant alluded to under the name of lily was the 
AmaryUit iHlfit (now Oporcmlhus (ui'fli*), ' whose golden 

liant and gorgeous objecta in nature, ns the fields of the 
Levant are overrun with tfaem ; tu ihcm the expieaiiion 
of Solomon, in all his glory, not being arrayed like otK 
of them, is peculiariy appropriate' Dr. Lindley con- 
ceives 'it to be much more probable that the plant in- 
tended by our Saviour was the Ixiotiritm rrtontanaffij a 
plant allied to the amaryUii, ofxery great beauty, with 
a slender stem, and clusters of the tnoat delicate violet 
flowcm, abounding in Palestine, where colonel Cheaney 
found it in the most brilliant profusion' ((.c.p.744). In 
reply to this, a correspondent furnishes an extract of a 
letter from Dr. Bowring, which throws a new light upon 
tbe subject; >I cannot describe lo you with botanical 
accuracy the lily of Palestine. 1 heard it called by tbe 
title of Lilia Sjfriaco, .-iid I imagine under this title ita 
botanical characterislica may be hunled oul. Its color 
is a brilliant red; its size about half that of the common 
tiger lily. The while lily I do not rerocmber lo have 
seen in any part of Syria. It was in April and May 
that I obaen'ed my Hower, and it was moat abundant in 
the district of Galilee, where it and the B/iadodendrm 
(which grew in rich abundance round the paths) moal 



LINEN 



441 



LINEN 



XifTcoc. but in 1 Chron. ^vottivoQ. It b well known 
that the officUl gannents of the Egyptian (as of the 
BrahmiD) priests were always of linen (RoseumUller; 
Bot. of the Bible J p. 175), and hence the custom among 
the Hebrews (compare Ezek. xliv, 17, where the sacred 
apparel is expressly described as the product of flax, 
S'*n'^D). Celsius, however, is of opinion (^ffierobot, ii, 
509) that bctd does not signify the common linen, as 
some have imagined, but the finest and best Egyptian 
linen ; and he quotes (p. 510) Aben-Ezra as asserting 
that bad is the same as butt^ namely, a species of linen 
in Egypt* With this view Gesenius concurs (Thesaur, 
U*-K p. 179). The Talmudists appear to have been of 
the same opinion, from their fanciful etymology of the 
term had as of a plant with a single stem springing up- 
right fron: the earth from one seed (Braun, Dt vetUjia" 
cerd, p. 101). This interpretation is finally confirmed 
by the Arabic versions, which have a term equivalent 
to bjfsnu. See No. 1 above. Perhaps, however, the 
requirement of the material in question for priestly gar- 
mmta may only signify that no wool should be employ- 
ed in them, and they may therefore have consisteid in- 
differently of either linen or cotton, provided it was 
entirely pure^ and thus be represented by the equivocal 
term t^ssut. See No. 2 above. 

4. SuESH (t;^, prob. from the Egyptian sheushy in 
ancient Egyptian cheuti, i. e. linen, Bunsen, ^f^g, i, 606, 
which the Hebrews appear to have imitated as if from 

0^t3, to be white; Sept. everywhere fivtrtroz) occurs 
Gen. xli, 42; Exod. xxv, 4; xxvi, 1, 31, 36; xx\di, 9, 
16,18; xxviii,5,6,8,15,39; xxxv, 6, 23, 25, 35 ; xxxvi, 
8, 35, 87 ; xxxviii, 9, 16, 18, 23 ; xxxix, 2, 3, 5, 8, 27, 28, 
29 ; Prov. xxxi, 22 ; Ezek. xvi, 10, 13 ; xxvii, 7 ; in all 
which passages it is rendered " fine linen" in the Auth. 
Vers, (except Prov. xxxi, 22, where it is rendered **silk;" 
in Esth. i, 6; Cant, v, 15, the same term occurs, but is 
rendered, as it there signifies, " marble'*) ; once shbsiii' 
{^"S'S, from the same), Ezek. xvi, 13, text, "fine linen.*' 
This word appears to designate Egyptian linen of pe- 
culiar whiteness and fineness, and as such it is stated 
to hare been imported from Egypt by way of Tyre 
(Ezek. xxvii, 7), in distinction from the Syrian linen or 

buts (V^Sf verse 16). In the Pentateuch it is several 
times applied to bysautj of which, both as material spon- 
taneously offered (Exod. xxv, 4; xxxv, 6, 23) and as 
woven fabrics (Exod. xxxv, 25, 35; xxxviii, 23), were 
made both the curtains and veils of the sacred taberna- 
cle (Exod. xxvi, 1, 31, 36 ; xxvii, 9, 16, 18 ; xxxvi, 8, 35, 
87; xxxviii, 9, 16, 18), and the priestly garments, espe- 
cially the high-priest*s ephod or shoulder-piece (Exod. 
xxviii, 5, 6, 8, 15, 39; xxix, 2, 5, 8, 27, 28, 29). Rai- 
ment of this description is stated to have been worn by 
noble peitens besides priests, e. g. by Joseph as prefect 
of Egypt (Gen. xli, 42), and women of eminence (Prov. 
xxxi, 22). But that thesh is also spoken of linen arti- 
cles is apparent from Exod. xxxix, 28, where the " linen 
breeches** Oa^ ^033^) are said to have been made 
"* of fine-twined linen** ("^td^ d*r), as well as from the 
fact that C^riljp, pishtim, linen garments, are some- 
times (e. g. Isa. xliii, 17 ; Ezek. xliv, 18) rendered by 
the Chaldee interpreter by j^^S, buts. It thus appears 
that shesh is equivalent in general to byuus. See No. 2 
above. See generally Celsius, Hierobot. ii, 269; J. R. 
Furster, Liber tingularia de bysso antiquorum (London, 
1776) ; J. E. Faber, Ob$ervat, ii, 282 sq.; Hartmann, He- 
brderiu, iii, 34 sq. ; RosenmUUer, BibL A Iterth, IV, i, 175 

5. CuCr ("'^n, from its whiteness) occurs Esth. i, 6; 
viii 15, where the Auth. Version renders "white," Sept. 
fiuiraoi, besides other passages where it signifies a 
** hole" (Isa. xi, 8 ; xlii, 22, etc) ; once nin, choi\ plural 
poet, "^nin, Isa. xix, 9 (Auth. Vers. " net-works,** Sept. 
^waocVulg. subtiUcLj Kimchi white garments). This 
term likewise appears to designate fine and white Imen, 



or in general bj/ssus, although Saadias and dther inters 
preters understand sUk (see Schroder, De Vest, MuL Heb. 
p. 40, 245). See No. 2 above. 

6. Etun' ("f1I3X, from an obsolete root perhaps signi- 
fying to bindj referring to the use of the material for 
ropes) occurs only in Prov. vii, 16, as a product of Egypt, 
" I have decked my bed with coverings of tapestry, with 
carved works, with^ii« Imen of Egypt.** As Egypt was 
from very early times celebrated for its cultivation of 
flax and manufoctures of linen, there can be little doubt 
that etun is correctly rendered, though some have thought 
that it may signify rope or string of Egypt, "funis 
^gyptius,** " funis salignus v. intubaceus ;** a sense that 
it bears in Chaldee, for the Targums employ *^I3K in 
the sense of rope for the Heb. ban and ■^H'^p (Josh, ii, 
15, Numb, iv, 32, 1 Kings xx, 82; Esth. i, 6, etc). 
But, following the suggestion of Alb. SchuUens, Celsius 
(fJierobot. ii, p. 89) observes that etun designates not a 
rope, but flax and linen, as even the Greek (^ovt; and 
c^ovioVf derived from it, sufficiently demonstrate. "So 
Mr. Yates, in his Textrinum Antiquorum^ p. 265, says of 
6^ovft that * it was in all probability an EgA'{)tiau word, 
adopted by the Greeks to denote the commodity to 
which the Egyptians themselves applied iu* For 'i^ISX^ 
put into Greek letters and with Greek terminations, be- 
comes d.^tii'17 and c^ovtov. Hesychius states, no doubt 
correctly, * that c^oiiy was applied by the Greeks to any 
fine and thin cloth, though not of linen.' Mr. Yates fur- 
ther adduces from ancient scholia that o^ovai were 
made both of flax and of wool, and also that the silks 
of India are called c^ovai etjpiKai by the author of the 
Periplus of the Krythrosan Sea, It also appears that 
the name o^ovtov was applied to cloths exported from 
Cutch, Ougein, and Baroach, and which must have been 
made of cotton. Mr. Yates moreover observes that, 
though b^ovt)^ like mv^wv, originally denoted linen, 
yet we find them both applied to cotton cloth. As the 
manufacture of linen extended itself into other coun- 
tries, and as the exix>rts of India became added to those 
of Egypt, all varieties, either of linen or cotton cloth, 
wherever woven, came to be designated by the origi- 
nally Egyptian names 'O^ovi) and £(i>^<uv.** For- 
ster {()e bysw antiquor, p. 75) endeavors to trace the 
Egyptian form of the word, and Ludolf {Comment, ad 
hist, /Ethiop, p. 204) renders it by the Ethiopic term for 
frankmcense. But these efforts, as Gesenius remarks 
( Thesau r, Ueb. p. 77 ), are wide of the mark. Among t he 

Hebrews the term " thread of Egj^pt'* (Q7^:c« '("^fi?) 
may properly have designated a linen or even cotton 
material, similar to stlk or byssus in fineness, such as we 
know was manufactured in Eg\'pt (Isa. xix, 9; Ezek. 
xxvii, 7 ; Barhebr. p. 218), q. d. Egyj^tian yaruy not less 
famous among the ancients than "Turkish yam** has 
been among modems. Kimchi, the Venetian Greek, 
and others understand yumcu/i/m, and apply it to cords 
hanging from the side of a bed, or something of that 
sort ; rabbi Parchon, a girdle woven in Egypt — evident- 
ly mere conjectures. 

" In the N. T. the word d^ovtov occurs in John xix, 
40 ; * Then took they the body of Jesus and wound it 
in linen clothes' (o^ovioit) ; in the parallel passage (Matt, 
xxvii, 59) the term used is mt'Coviy as also in Mark xv, 
46, and in Luke xxiii, 53. We meet with it again in 
John XX, 5, 'and he, stooping down, saw the litten clothes 
lying.* It is generally used in the plural to denote 
' linen bandages.* 'O^ovrj. its primitive, occurs in Acts 
X, 11, 'and (Peter) saw heaven opened, and a certain 
vessel descending unto him, as it had been a great sheet 
knit at the four comers, and let down to the earth.* and 
also in xi, 5, where this passage is repeated." In 
Homer it signifies either the matrise (Odys, vii, 107), 
or wrought veils and under-garnicnis for women (^IL iii, 
141 ; xviii, 195); in later writers linen cloths (Lucilius, 
Dud, Mort, iii, 2), especially for sails (Mel. 80 ; Anth. x, 
6 ; Luc Jup. Trag, 46). From the preceding observa- 
tions it is evident that it^oviov, whether answering to 



LINUS 



445 



LION 



pointed him his coadjutor; but, according to the Brev- 
iary, be was the one \f ho primus pott Petrum gubemavit 
eaiegiam. Ho is said to have enacted, on bis accession 
to the bbbopric, that, in accordance with 1 Cor. xi, 5, 
women should never enter the church with their heads 
uncovered. 

The duration of his episcopate is given by Eusebius 
(whose //. K. iii, 16, and Chromcon give inconsistent evi- 
dence) as A.D. C8-80; by Tilleraont, who, however, re- 
pm:&ches Pearson with departing from the chronology 
of Kosebius, as 66-78; by Baronius as 67-78; and by 
Pearson as 55-67. Pearson, in the treatise already 
quoted (i, 10), gives weighty reasons for distrusting the 
chronology of Eusebius as regards the years of the early 
bishops of Rome, and he derives his own opinion from 
certain very ancient (but interpolated) lists of those 
bishops (see i, 13, and ii, 6). This point has been sub- 
sequently considered by Baraterius {Dt Successions A nti- 
qaissima Episc, Rom, 1740), who gives A.D. 56-67 as the 
date of the episcopate of linus. 

^ The sUtement of Ruffinus, that Linus and C^etus 
were bishops in Rome while St. Peter was alive, has 
been quoted in support of a theory which sprang up in 
the 17th century, received the sanction even of Ham- 
mond in his controversy with Blondel ( Works^ ed. 1684, 
iv, 825 ; Episcopatus Jura, v. 1, § 1 1), was held vrith some 
alight modification by Baraterius, and has recently been 
revived. It is supposed that Linus was bishop in Rome 
only of the Christians of Gentile origin, while at the 
same time another bbhop exercised the same authority 
over the Jewish Christians there. Tertullian*s assertion 
(ZV Prascr, Hcsret, § 32) that Clement [the third bish- 
op] of Rome was consecrated by St. Peter has been 
quoted also as corroborating this theory, but it does not 
follow from the words of Tertullian that Clement's con- 
iecration took place immediately before he became bish- 
op of Rome ; and the statement of Ruffinus, so for as it 
lends any support to the above-named theory, is shown 
to be without foundation by Pearson (ii, 3, 4). Title- 
mont*s observations (p. 590) in reply to Pearson only 
show that the establbhmcnt of two contemporary bish- 
ops in one city was contemplated in ancient times as a 
possible provisional arrangement to meet certain tempo- 
rary difficulties. The actual limitation of the authority 
of Linus to a section of the Church in Rome remains to 
be proved. Ruffinus's statement ought, doubtless, to be 
interpreted in accordance with that of his contempo- 
rary Epiphanius {Adv. Hesr. xxvii, 6, p. 107), to the ef- 
fect that Linus and Cletus were bishops of Rome in suc- 
c^ion, not contemporaneously. The facts were, how- 
ever, differently viewed, (1) by an interpolator of the 
Gesta Pontijicum Damasi^ quoted by J. Voss in his sec- 
ond epistle to A. Rivet ( App. to Pearson's Vuidicia Igna- 
Hams) ; (2) by Bede ( Vita S. Benedicti, § 7, p. 146, edit, 
Stevoison), when he was seeking a precedent for two 
contemporaneous abbots presiding in one monastery, 
and (3) by Rabanus Maurus (/>e Chorepiscopis, in Opp» 
ed. Migne, iv, 1197), who ingeniously claims primitive 
authority for the institution of chorepiscopi on the sup- 
position that Linus and Cletos were never bishops with 
full powers, but were contemporaneous chorepiscopi em- 
ployed by St, Peter in his absence from Rome, and 
at his request, to ordain clergvmen for the Church at 
Rome." 

Linus is reckoned by Pseudo-Hippolytus, and in the 
Greek Afentea, among the seventy disciples. According 
to the Breviary, he cured the possessed, raised the dead, 
and was beheaded at the instigation of the consul Satur- 
ninus, although he had restored the tatter's daughter 
from a dangerous illness. He was buried in the Vatican, 
by the side of Sl Peter. Various days are stated by dif- 
ferent authorities in the Western Church, and by the 
Eastern Church, as the day of his death. According to 
the most generally received tradition, he died on Sept. 
23. A narrative of the martyrdom of St. Peter and St. 
Paul, printed in the BibHotheca Patrum (Paris, 1644, vol. 
viii), and certain pontifical decrees, are incorrectly as- 



cribed to Linus, but he is generaUy considered as the 
author of a history of Peter's dispute with Simon Magna. 
See Herxog, Beal-EncyUop, viii, 421 ; Lipsius, Die Papst 
KatcUoge des Eusebius (Kiel, 1868, 8vo). 

Linz or Lintz, Tub Peace ok, so named after the 
place where it was concluded, Dec. 13, 1645, between 
Rakoczy, prince of Transylvania, and the emperor Fer- 
dinand HI, as king of Hungary', was an event of great 
importance for the legal exbtence of the Evangelical 
Church in Huugary. Rakoczy, who aimed at the crown 
of that country, and relied on the Protestant party for 
support, had concluded in April, 1643, with Sweden and 
France, a defensive and offensive alliance against Fer- 
dinand. In an address to the Hungarians, in which he 
enumerated their various grievances, he laid great stress 
on the oppression of the evangelical party. He suc- 
ceeded in assembling an army, and in obtaining John 
Kemenyi, an experienced general, to command it. Swe- 
den sent him soldien under the renowned Dugloss, and 
France furnished him with large amounts of money. 
His troops obtained some unimportant advantages over 
those of Frederick, and the Swedish soldiers succeeded 
in driving the Imperialists out of several towns. This, 
however, did not coutiime, and in October, 1644, Rakoc- 
zy b^an negotiations for peace with Ferdinand. The 
advantages he asked, namely, the absolute religious lib- 
erty of Hungary, etc., were approved at Vienna August 
8, 1645, and the peace finally signed as above. The 
most important feature of the treaty is the grant of re- 
ligious liberty to the Hungarians. It gave permission 
to all to attend whatever Church they might choose; 
ministers and preachers of all the different confessions 
were to be left undisturbed, and such as had previously 
been persecuted and driven away on account of their 
religious principles were allowed to return, or to be re- 
called by their congregations. The churches and Church 
property taken from the evangelical party were restored 
to their previous owners. The eighth article of the sixth 
decree of king Wladislaus VI was re-enacted against 
those who infringed these regulations, and made them 
subject to a trial and punishment at the next session of 
the Diet. These regulations, however, so favorable to 
the Protestants, met with great opposition at the Diet 
of Presburg in 1647, and were most violently opposed by 
the Jesuits. The Roman Catholics refused to surrender 
to the Protestants the churches they had taken from 
them, and the evangeUcal party finally agreed to accept, 
instead of some 400 churches which bad been taken 
from it, the snudl number of 90, which had been assured 
to it by a royal edict, under date of Feb. 10, 1647. See 
Steph. Katona, /Jistoria critica regum Hungaricoruni, 
xxii, 332 sq. ; Dumont, Corps unirersel diplomatique du 
droit des genSy vi, 1 sq. ; J. A. Fessler, fJie Gesch, d, f/'n- 
gam, etc., ix, 25 sq. ; Johann Mailath, D. Religionswir- 
ren in Ungam (Regensb. 1845), pt, i, p. 30 sq. ; Gesch. d, 
Evangelischen Kirche in Ungam (Berlin, 1854), p. 199 
sq. ; History of the Protestant Church in Hungary^ transL 
by J. Craig (Boston and New York, 1856, 12mo). See 
Hungary. 

Lion (prop. "^"nX, ori\ or ?T^1X, aryeh' ; Sept and 
N. T. Aiwv), the most powerful, daring, and impressive 
of all carnivorous animals, the most magnificent in as- 
pect and awful in voice. Being very common in Syria 
in early times, the lion naturally supplied many forcible 
images to the poetical language of Scripture, and not a 
few historical incidents in its narratives. This is shown 
by the great number of passages where thb animal, in 
all the stages of existence — as the whelp, the young 
adult, the fully mature, the lioness — occurs under diflfer- 
ent names, exhibiting that multiplicity of denomina- 
tions which always results when some great image is 
constantly present to the popular mind. Thus we have, 
1. lift, gor, or l^ft, gur (a suckiing), a lion's " whelp," a 
very young lion (Gen. xlix, 9; Deut, xxxiii, 20; Jer. 
U, 38 ; Ezek. xix, 2, 3, 5 ; Nahum ii, 1 1, 12). 2. -i-^BS, 
kephir' (the shaggy), a " young Uon," when first leaving 



LIONESS 



449 



LIPPE 



descemUnt of that tribe, whose emblem was 
lioo. In the lion also reside fierceness and rapacity, 
this point of view it is used as a fit emblem of Satan : 
^Be 8ob«', be vigilant ; because your adversary the dev- 
^ as a Tearing lion, walketh about, seeking whom he 
Bay devour" (1 Peter v, 8). On the subject generally, 
IBe Docbart, Uieroz, ii, 1 sq.; RosenmUller, Alterth, IV, 
i^ 1 11 aq. ; Wemyss, Clatfu Symbolical s. v. ; Penny Cy- 
^typ€editLt SL V. ; VfooA^Bible Animals, p. 18 sq. ; Tristram, 
Hatured Bittory of the Bible, p. 115 sq. 

laioneos. See Liox. 

Isip (ns*;^, sapkah'y usoally in the dual ; Gr. xiXkoc), 
besides its literal sense (e. g. Isa. xxxvii, 29 ; Cant iv, 
ly 11 ; ▼, 13 ; Prov. zxiv, 28), and (in the original) met- 
iqkhoricmlly for an edge or border, as of a cup (1 Kings 
▼ii, 26), of a garment (Exod. xxvii, 32), of a curtain 
(ELxod. xxvi, 4 ; xxxvi, 11), of the sea (Gen. xxii, 17; 
Exod. ii, 3 ; Heb. xi, 12), of the Jordan (2 Kings ii, 13 ; 
Judg. vii, 22), is often put as an organ of speech, e. g. 
to ** open the lips,"* L e. to begin to s[)eak (Job xi, 5 ; 
xxxii, 20), also to ^ open the lips'* of another, i. e. cause 
him to speak (Psa. Ii, 17), and to ** refrain the lips," L e. 
to keep silence (Psa. xl, 10 ; Prov. x, 19). So speech 
or discourse is saiil to be " upon the lips" (Prov. xvi, 
10; Psa. xvi, 4), once ** under the lips" (Psa. cxl, 4; 
Rom. iii, 13 ; comp. Ezek. xxxvi, 3), and likewise " sin- 
ning with lips" (Job ii, 10 ; xii, 20 ; Psa. xlv, 3), and 
** uncircumcised of lips," i. e. not of ready speech (Exod. 
vi, 12), also " fruit of the lips," L e. praise (Heb. xiii, 
15 ; 1 Pet. iii, 5), and, by a bolder figure, '^ the calves of 
the lips," i. e. thank-offering (Hos. xiv, 2) ; finally, the 
motion of the lips in speaking (Matt, xv, 8 ; Mark vii, 
6; from Isa. xxix, 13). By metonomy, '^lip" stands in 
Scripture for a manner of speech, e. g. in nations, a dia- 
led (Gen. xi, 1, 6, 7, 9; Isa. xix, 18; Ezek. iii, 5, 6; 1 
Cor. xiv, 21, alluding to Isa. xxviii, 11), or, in individ- 
uals, the moral quality of language, as " lying lips," etc., 
i e^/aiteMood (Prov. x, 18; comp. xvii, 4, 7) or wicked- 
mu (Psa. cxx, 2), truth (Prov. xii, 19) ; " burning lips," 
L e. ardent professions (Prov. xxvi, 23) ; ** sweetness of 
lips," L e. pleasant discourse (Prov. xvi, 22 ; so Zeph. 
iii, 9 ; Isa. vi, 5 ; Psa. xii, 3, 4). To " shoot out the Up" 
at any one, i. q. to make mottihs, has always been an 
expression of the utmost scorn and defiance (Psa. xxii, 
8). In like manner, ^ unclean lips" are put as a repre- 
sentation of unfitness to impart or receive the divine 
communications (Isa. vi, 5, 7). Also the *' word of one's 
Upa," L e. communication* e. g. Jehovah's precepts (Psa. 
xvil, 4; comp. Prov. xxiii, 16: spoken of as something 
before unknown, Psa. Ixxxi, 6) ; elsewhere in a bad 
sense, L q. lip-talk, L e. vain and empty words (Isa. 
xxxri, 5; Prov. xiv. 23), and so of the person uttering 
them, e. g. a man of talk, i e. an idle talker (Job xi, 2), 
a prating fool (Prov. x, 8 ; eomp. Lev. v, 4 ; Psa. cvi, 83). 
See ToxnuE. 

The ** upper lip" (OBb, sapham\ a derivative of the 
above), which the leper was required to cover (Lev. 
xhi, 45), refers to the lip-beard or miutachios, as the 
Venet. Greek (jxvuTa^ there and the Sept. in 2 Sam. 
xix, 24, render it, being the beard (in the latter passage), 
which Mephibosheth neglected to trim during David's 
absence in token of grief. The same practice of " cov- 
ering the lip" with a comer of one's garment, as if pol- 
luted (comp. " unclean lips"), as a sign of mourning, is 
anuded to in Ezek. xxiv, 17, 22; Mic. iii, 7, where the 
Sept. has (rrofia, x**^*?* See Mouth. 

laipmann, Jomtob (of Muhlhausen), also called 
Tab-Jomi CTSraia = Sia Dl*^), a Jewish writer and 
rabbi of the Middle Ages, was bom, according to some. 
at Craoow, Poland, but most authorities are now agreed 
that be flourished at Prague about the middle of the 
14th century. While a resident of the Bohemian cap- 
ital be brought forward his NiUachon Oin:^^, Victory), 
an important polemical work. It consists of seven parts, 
divided, he tells us himself in his preface,** according 

V, — 15 



to the seven days of the week," and of 354 sectioni^ 
*' according to the number of days in the lunar year, 
which is the Jewish mode of calculation to indicate 
that every Israelite is bound to study his religion ev- 
ery day of his life, and to remove every obstmction 
from the boundaries of his faith." In his treatment of 
the subject, the denial of the authaiticity of the Chris- 
tian religion, Lipmann does not adopt any systematic 
plan, but discusses and explains every passage of the 
Hebrew Bible which is either adduced by Christkuis as 
a Messianic prophecy referring to Christ, or is used by 
sceptics and blasphemers to support their scepticism and 
contempt for revelations, or is appealed to by rational- 
istic Jews to corroborate their rejection of the doctrine 
of creation out of nothing, the resurrection of the body, 
etc., beginning with Genesis and ending with Chroni- 
cles, according to the order of the books in the Hebrew 
Bible, so that any passage in dispute might easily be 
found. The work, which, as we have seen from its di- 
visions, partook both of the character of a Jewish po- 
lemic and an O.-T. apologetic, was, until near the middle 
of the 16th century, entirely controlled by Jews. They 
largely transcribed and circulated it in MS. form among 
their people throughout the world; and in the numer- 
ous attacks which they had to sustain both from Chris- 
tians and rationalbts during the time of the Reforma- 
tion, this book constituted their chief arsenal, supplying 
them Mrith weapons to defend themselves. About 1642 
the learned Hascapan, then professor in the Bavarian 
University at Altdorf, was engaged in a controversy 
on the questions at issue between Judaism and Chris- 
tianity with a neighboring rabbi residing in Schnei- 
tacb, who in his di»ertations frequently referred to this 
NitsacAon (a MS. copy made in 1589), which Hasca- 
pan asked the privilege to examine. Refused again 
and again, he at last called with three of his students 
on the rabbi, when he pressed him in such a man- 
ner to produce the MS. that he could not refuse. He 
pretended to examine it, and when the students had 
fairly surrounded the rabbi, the professor made his way 
to the door, got into a conveyance which was waiting 
for him, had the MS. speedily transcribed, and only re- 
turned it to the rabbi after much earnest solicitation. 
The professor enriched it by valuable notes and an in- 
dex, and then presented the work procured in such a 
dastardly manner to the Christian world (Altdorf, 1644). 
It was rapidly reprinted, translated into Latin, correct^ 
ed and refuted by Blendinger, Lipmamd Nizzachon tn 
Christianos, etc, Latine concertum (Altdorf, 1645) ; Wa- 
genseil. Tela ignea Saiana (Altdorf, 1681) ; Soto, Liber 
Mischnicus de Uxore A duUern Siupeda (Altdorf. 1674), 
Appendix, and others (see Wolf, Bibl, Jud, i, 347 sq.). 
Lipmann's personal history is to our day very ob- 
scure. Jewish historians represent him as having been 
among the prisoners arrested at Prague (Aug. 3, 1399) 
for irreverent mention, etc., of the name of Jesus. What 
punishment he suffered b not known ; certain it is that 
he was not one of the seventy-seven Jews who were ex- 
ecuted on the day of the dethronement of king Wences- 
laus (Aug. 22, 1400), for he mentions the fact himself in 
the Nitsachon, See Grfttz, Getch, der Juden, viii, 76 sq. ; 
FUrst, BibHoth, Judaica, ii, 403 sq. ; Steinschneider, Cata- 
logus Libr. Hebr, in Biblioth, Bodleiana, coL 1410-1414; 
Geiger, Proben Jud» Vertheidigung gegen Christliche A n- 
grijTe im Mittelalter tn Liebermaan's DeuUcher Volkf 
Kalender (Brieg, 1854), p. 9 sq., 47 sq. ; Kitto, Cycl, Bibl. 
Lit. vol ii, s. V. 

Lippe, sometimes also (but less properly) Lippb- 
Dbtmold, a small principaUty of Northern Germany, 
surrounded on the W. and S. by Westphalia, and on the 
E. and N. by Hanover, Branswick, Waldeck, and a de- 
tached portion of Hesse-Cassel, extends over an area of 
438 square mile^ and has a population (1885) of 123,250, 
mainly belonging to the Reformed Church. The earli- 
est inhabitants were the Cherusci ; subsequently it was 
a part of the country of the Saxons. The first estab- 
lishment of Christianity in that province dates back to 



LIPSIUS 



451 



LITANY 



He was cooTerted probably in early life, and joined the 
Baltimore Conference in ]tJ22. Among his brethren in 
Conference aasembled he was pleasant, attentive to bus- 
inem, safe in counciL He was many years one of the 
■tewards of the Conference. He was also for a time 
treasurer of the Preachers' Fund Society. A number of 
the years of his ministry were given to the service of 
the American Colonization Society, and from that work 
he retired in 1803 to a place on the superannuated Ust. 
A miabter of this Conference, who knew him long and 
intimately, says, ^ His life was beautiful in its consist- 
ency." He died in January, 1870.— Con/. Mmutesy 1871. 

IsipsiUB, Justus, a Roman Catholic, renowned as a 
scholar in the 16th century, was bom near Brussels in 
1547. His talent was precocious, and he edited his Ka- 
ria lectiones at the age of 19. He was secretary to 
cardinal Granville about this time (1572-74). Later, 
as professor of hbtory at Jena, he became a Protestant, 
and remained such for 13 years while professor of an- 
cient languages at Leyden, but subsequently he returned 
to the Roman Catholic Church, and was made professor 
at Loavain (1602). He died March 23, 1606, holding at 
that time the appointment of historiographer to the king 
of Spain. His scholarship was honored by the pope and 
at sereral European courts. He distinguished himself 
especially by his commentary upon Tacitus, whose works 
be could repeat word for word, and by his enthusiastic 
regard for the stoical philosophy. He wrote De Con- 
Haniia manuductia ad philosophiam Stoicam: — Physi- 
ologia Stoicorum Ubri tres (new edit. Antv. 1605, fol.) : 
— also De una religione^ etc His works were collected 
nnder the title Opera Omnia (Antv. 1585 ; 2d edit. 1 637). 
SeeWetreru.Welte,ArtrcA«i-i>xtJto«,voLii,s.v.; ThcoL 
Umtf, Lex, (Elberf. 1869), voL i, s. v. 

IdptineB or Lesttnes, Synod op (Concilium Lip- 
tinente). This synod was held at Liptin^ or Lestines, 
near the convent of Laubes, in Hennegau, in 743, by 
order of Carloman, Bonifacius presiding. Four canons 
were published. The bishops, earls, and govera<MB prom- 
ised in this council to observe the decrees of the Coun- 
cil of Germany (A.D. 742). All the clergy, moreover, 
promised obedience to the ancient canons*, the abbots 
and monks received the order of Sl Benedict, and a 
part of the revenue of the Church was assigned for a 
time to the prince, to enable him to carry on the wars 
then raging. (J. N. P.) 

Liquor (^p^, de'tna, a /ear, fig. of the juice of olives 
and grapes, Exod. xxii, 29 ; ST'S, me'zeg^ mixed, i e. high- 
ly flavored wine. Cant, vii, 3 ; iTld^, mishrah', macera- 

tion, L e. drink prepared by steeping grapes, Numb, vi, 3). 
See Wink. 

lAismanini, Fbancis, a Socinian theologian, was 
bom at Corfu in the beginning of the 16th century. 
He studied in Italy, joined the Franciscans, and a few 
years after became doctor of theology ; removed to Po- 
land, and was appointed by queen Bona, wife of Sigis- 
mund I, her preacher and confessor. He became also 
superior of the Franciscans of Poland, director of all the 
convents of the nans of St. Clara, etc The society of 
Andrew Fricesio and the reading of Ochin*s works led 
him to question the authority of the Roman Church, 
yet he was not displaced on account of it., but continued 
in favor with the queen, and was sent by her to Rome, 
in 1549, to congratulate Julius III on his election as 
pope. On his return to I^oland in l551,Lismanini be- 
came acquainted with Socinius, and it is this association 
that no doubt gave rise to the mission with which he 
was intrusted by the king of Poland, ostensibly for the 
purpose of collecting works for the ro3ral library, but in 
reality to study the position of the Reformation, and to 
report concerning it. Lismanini accordingly visited 
Padua, Milan, and Switzerland, where he finally left his 
order, embraced the Helvetic confession, and married. 
The king, fearing to be compromised by this overt act, 
broke all connection with him, ceased to supply him 



with funds, and Calvin, Bullinger, and Gesner In vain 
sought to obtain for Lismanini leave to return to Po- 
land. It was not until 1556 that he was permitted to 
return, but the king's favor he never regaiiied, notwith- 
standing the efforts of a large number of the Polish 
nobility in his behalf. His Socinian views on the doc- 
trine of the I'rinity served still more to bring him into 
discredit. As he attempted to make converts he was 
exiled from Poland. He retired to Konigsberg, where 
he became counsellor of duke Albrecht. About 1568 
he became distracted on account of family difficulties, 
and committed suicide by drowning. His chief pro- 
duction is Brevis ExpUcatio doctrina de sanctisiima 
Trinitate, quam Stnncaro et aiiis quibusdam oppotuit 
(1565, 8vo). See BibL antitrimtariorum, p. 34 ; Bayle, 
Hist, Diet, ; Friese, Beitrdge t, Ref.'Gesch, in Polen, ii, 1, 
p. 247 sq.; Fock, Der Sodnitmitmust i, 145; Herzog, Real- 
Encjfkiopddie, x, 426 ; Hoefer, A'out;. Biog, Gen, xxxi, 356. 
(J.H.W.) 

List, Carl Benjamin, a German theologian, was 
bom at Mannheim, in the grand-duchy of Baden, Feb. 
5, 1725. He attended the universities of Jena and Stras- 
burg, and afterwards spent some time in Neufchatel to 
acquire French. About 1749 he was appointed court 
dean, in 1753 third pastor of his native city, and in 1756 
first pastor of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church, togeth- 
er with the dignity of counsellor of the Consistory. He 
died Jan. 16, 1801. He possessed a pure, liberal, and re- 
forming character, and to him is due the honor of hav- 
ing abrogated the custom of paying for confession in the 
Evangelical-Lutheran Church. His productions, mostly 
of a corrective character in liturgy and hymns, were of 
great service to the Church to which he belonged. We 
mention Die Oeschichte der Evangelisch - Lutheriachen 
Gemeinde zu Mannheim (Mannheim, 1767, 8vo) i—Neue 
Liturgie fur die Evangelisch- Lutherische Kirche in der 
Churpfalz (ibid. 1783, 8 vo). See Doring, Gelehrte TheoL 
DeutscMandSf vol ii, s. v. 

laitany (Xiravcia, entreafy\ a word tl.e specific 
meaning of which has varied considerably at different 
times, is used in the liturgical services of some churches 
to designate a solemn act of supplication addressed with 
the object of averting the divine anger, and especially on 
occasions of public calamity. Hooker, in his Ecdesias- 
tical Polity (book v, p. 265), has the following : " As 
things invented for one purpose are by use easily con- 
verted to more, it grew that supplications with this s<>- 
lemnity for the appeasing of (tod's wrath and the averts 
ing of public evils were of the Greek Church termed 
litanies ; n^ations, of the Latins."^ 

The term litany for a supplicatory form of worship 
among the pagans was early adopted by Christian vrrit- 
ers. In the fourth century we find such occasions as 
litanies connected with processions, the clergy and peo- 
ple in solemn procession using certain forms of sup- 
plication and making special entreaty for deliverance. 
Whether anything of this kind would have been ven- 
tured before Christianity became a **religio licita" (A.D, 
270) may be doubted. The predominance of a Chris- 
tian population, however, in certain localities, and the 
intervals of repose between persecutions, admit of their 
possibility at an earlier period. In these earliest de- 
velopments, moreover, of the processional litany, wheth- 
er before or during the fourth century, they rested, 
doubtleffl, upon an earlier Christian habit and custom 
—that of special seasons of prayer and supplication. 
These, in some cases, would be by the assembled body 
of believers in their bouses or places of assembling; in 
others, for purposes of safety from the fury of their en- 
emies, in Uieir indiWdual homes and places of abode. 
Certainly the Church was not wanting in such occa- 
sions during the first centuries of her existence, when 
the course pursued by the disciples at Jerusalem (Acts 
xii, 5), and for similar reasons, would need to be repeat- 
ed. Occasions of this particular kind would of course 
pass away with the passing away of persecutioo. But 



LITANY 



459 



LITEftiE FORMATS 



The three different forms now in use in the Romish 
churches are called the " litany of the saints'* (which is 
the nKMit ancient), the *^liuny of the name of Jesus," 
and the '' Utany of Our Lady of Loretto.** Of these the 
first alone has a place in the public service-books of the 
Chuich, on the rogation days, in the ordination service, 
the ftervice for the consecration of churches, the conse- 
cration of cemeteries, and many other offices. The one 
called by the name oi litany of the ictia/s bears its name 
from the prayers it contains to the saints for their help 
and intercession in behalf of the worshippers. Almost 
erery saint in the calendar of the Romish Church has his 
particular form in the litany. The people's response in 
the prayer is Ora pro nobi*, " Pray for us." The lUamf 
ofJtsuM consists of a number of addresses to Christ under 
his ▼arious relations to men, in connection with the sev- 
eral details of his passion, and of adjurations of him 
through the memory of what he has done and suffered 
lor the salvation of mankind. The date of this form of 
prayer is uncertain, but it is referred, with much proba- 
bility, to the time of St. Bernardino of Siena, in the 15th 
century. The Utany ofLoreUo [see Lobetto] resem- 
bles both the above-named litanies in its opening ad- 
dresses to the Holy Trinity and in its closing petitions 
to the ** Lamb of God, who taketh away the sins of the 
woiid ;** but the main body of the petitions are address- 
ed to the Virgin Mary under various titles, some taken 
from the Scriptures, some from the language of the 
fathers, some from the mystical writers of the medieval 
Church. Neither this litany nor that of Jesus has ever 
formed part of any of the ritual or liturgical offices of 
the Catholic Church, but there can be no doubt that 
both have in various ways received the sanction of the 
highest authorities of the Romish Church. Those of 
the Lutheran and English churches, which are very 
much alike, are derived from the same source, being 
shorter in that these invocations are expunged. 

In the Church of England it was originally a distinct 
service, and seems to have been used at a different time 
of day from the ordinary morning service, and only on 
certain occasions. In 1544 it was given to the people 
in a revised form by Henry VIIl. Upon its insertion 
in the Prayer-book publbhed by Edward VI, A.D. 1549, 
the litany was placed between the communion office 
and the sffice of baptism, under the title " The Litany 
and Suffrages," without any rubric for its use; but at 
the end of the a)mmunion office occurred the follow- 
ing rubric : *• Upon Wednesdays and Fridays the Eng- 
lish litany shaU be said or sung in all places, after 
such form as is appointed by his majesty's injunc- 
tions, or as it shall be otherwise appointed by his high- 
oesiL" In the revision of the Common Prayer in 1552, 
the litany was placed where it now stands, and the ru- 
bric was added to ** be used on Sundays, Wednesdays. 
and Fridays, and at other times when it shall be com- 
manded by the ordinary." So late as the last revision 
in 1661, the litany continued a distinct service by itself, 
used sometimes after the morning prayer (then read at 
a very early hour) was concluded, the people returning 
home between them. The rubric which inserts the lit- 
any after the third collect in morning prayer is formed 
from a similar rubric in the Scotch Common Prayer- 
hook, with this difference, that the English rubric en- 
joins the omission of certain of the ordinary interces- 
sional prayers; the Scotch rubric, on the other hand, 
states expressly, ^ without the omission of any part of 
the other daily service of the Church on those days." 

The litany of the (rerman and Danish Lutherans 
dosely resembles that of the Church of England and that 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States 
of America, and needs, therefore, no special mention here. 
The processional feature is still retained in the Greek 
and Roman litanies on special occasions, but is not their 
special accompaniment. Efforts towards its restoration 
in the English and American Episcopal Church have 
for the past ten years been in progress. Judging from 
the prevalent sentiment of the episcopate in both coun* 



tries, and the tone of the last General Convention in this, 
the prospects of success are not very favorable. See 
E*rocteT, Book of Common Prayer^ p. 246 sq. ; Painter, 
Origiitea LituryiccBy i, 264 sq.; Wheatly, Common Prayer, 
p. 163 sq.; Dean Stanley in Good Words for 1868 (June) ; 
Coleman, Manual of Prelacy and Ritualism, p. 892 sq. ; 
Christian Antiq,^,mU Blunt, IHct.Doct, and IJist,TheoL 
s. V. ; Eadie, Kccleaiustical Dictionary, s. v. ; Walcott, Sa- 
cred A rchaology, p. 853. See Liturgy. 

LitSrao EncyolIoaB, a term used in the Roman 
Catholic Church to denote letters addressed by the pope 
to the whole Church, but primarily to the clei^^y at 
large, as representatives of the Church. They are to 
be distinguished from apostolical briefs and bulls as 
never being applicable to local or individual cases only. 
They relate to some general need or tendency of a mor- 
al or doctrinal kind within the Church, or to any sup- 
posed dangers from without, and contain the pope's 
views on the matters alluded to, with exhortations to 
co-operation on the part of the clergy and the Church 
at large in the course of conduct advised. See Emcyo 

LICA. 

LitSrse Form&tde, or simply FoRMATiS, are the 
epbtles of bishops and churches to others of like char- 
acter, and are so called because they are framed after cer- 
tain prescribed canonical rules. There have been need- 
less discussions over the fitness of the expression for- 
maia, and some would have it to beformalis (Suetonius, 
Domitian, 18) ; others will derive it from formcL, tvitoc, 
seal (hence formata, Tirvtraifiivri, equivalent to sigil' 
lata), etc Originally they were termed icavovucai, ca^ 
nomoce, but afterwards formata. The adoption of a 
particular form was early necessary, in order to prevent 
the alteration of and tampering with letters, of which 
Dionysius, bishop of Corinth (f c. a. 167), complained, 
according to Eusebius {Hist, Eccl. lib. iv, cap. 23), as also 
Cyprian (Epist, 3). From the earliest tiroes the brother- 
ly union of the churches was cultivated by means of a 
regular correspondence, of which Optatus of Mile vc saya 
in the middle of the fourth centurv : " Totus orbis com- 
mercio formatarum in una communionis societate con- 
cordat." The holy Scriptures themselves, namely, the 
epistles of the apostles, served as the first models. Let- 
ters of introduction and recommendation of brethren to 
the different churches were in the infancy of the Church 
the chief subject of this correspondence; these were 
called by the apostles <w(TTartKai liritrroXai (2 Cor. iii, 
1), literoi commendafitia. They are mentioned by Ter- 
tullian {Adrersus hwreses, cap. 20), Gregory of Nazian- 
zum {OraHo, iii), and Sozomen {Uist, EccL lib. v, cap. 
16), etc The demand for such letters of recommenda- 
tion became so numerous that it was necessary to frame 
regulations determining who was and who was not en- 
titled to them, and in what form they should be writ- 
ten. The Council of Elvira, a. 305 (? 310), c 25, that 
of Aries, a. 314, c 9, etc, decided that, bishops alone 
should be authorized to write them. Every traveller, 
whether laic or clerical, was to provide himself with 
one It is said, cap. 82 (aL 84) : '* Nullus episcopus 
peregrinorum aut presbyterorum aut diaconorom sine 
commendatitiis recipiatur epistolis ; ct cum scripta de- 
tulerint, discutiantur attentius, et ita suscipiantur, si 
pnedicatores pietatis extiterint; sin minus, hiec qu« 
sunt neccssaria subministrantur eis, et ad communionem 
nuUatenus admittantur, quia per subreptionem multa 
proveniunt** (see Cone, Antioch, a. 341 [? 332], c 7, in c 
9, dist. Ixxi ; African, i, a. 506, c 2 [c 21, dist, Ij, c 
5). The defence of the right of these members of the 
clergy to officiate was often withdrawn, as by the Cone 
Chalcedon. a. 451, c 13, in c 7, dist. Ixxi, etc Tlie 
form of the writings was taken from the apostolic mod- 
els. Atticus, bishop of Constantinople, stated in the 
Council of Chalcedon, 451, that there was a formula 
established by the Council of Nicaa, 325 : " Nioese .... 
constitutum, ut epistoln format® banc calculationis sea 
supputationis habeant rationem, id est, ut assumantur 
in suppotationem prima Gnsca elemenu Patris et Filii 



LITURGY 



467 



LITURGY 



>r EccIeBiasticiis describes an exceptional seirioe, and is, 
oooreover, too indefinite in its language to justify any 
sooduflioo as to its liturgical character. During this 
period, liowever, between the captivity and the times 
of tike M'ew Testament, there comes to view another 
eoclestAatical development of Judaism which has its 
ocmnection with this subject — that of the worship of the 
■Smajco^ue. This, which in all probability originated 
daring the captivity, and in the effort to supply the 
wmnt occasioned by the loss of the worship of the Temple, 
would in many respects be like that Temple worship ; in 
ocbersy and from the necessity of the case, it would be 
▼^ry difXerent. The greatest of these diversities would 
be in tbe fact of the necessary presence of the sacrificial 
and pri^Miy element in the service of the Temple, their 
abeen<:e in that of the synagogue. In the Temple the 
L^vites sang psalms of praise before the altar, and the 
priesta blessed the people. In the synagogue there 
were prayers connected with the reading of certain spe- 
cific passages of Scripture, of which are distinctly dis- 
cernible two ^ chief groups, around which, as time wore 
on, an enormous mass of liturgical poetry clustered — 
the one, the Shema (' Hear, IsraeV etc), being a collec- 
tion of the three Biblical pieces (Deut vi, 4-9 ; xi, 18> 
21 : Numb, xv, 37-41), expressive of the unity of God 
and the memory of his government over Israel, strung 
together without any extraneous addition ; the second, 
the TephiUah^ or Prayer, by way of eminence (adopted 
in the Koran as Salavat, Sur. ii, 40; comp. v. 15), consbt'- 
ing of a certain number of supplications, with a hymnal 
introduction and conclusion, and followed by the priests 
ly blessing. The single portions of this prayer grad- 
ually increased to eighteen, and the prayer itself re- 
ceived the nasn^ Shenumah Esreh (eighteen; afterwards, 
however, increased to nineteen: the additional one is 
now twelfth in the prayer, and is against apostates [to 
Christianity] and heretics [all who refused the Talmud], 
inclading consequently the Karaites). The first addi- 
tion to the Shema formed the introductory thanksgiv- 
ing for the renewed day (in accordance Mrith the ordi- 
nance that every supplication must be preceded by a 
prayer of thanks) called Jozer (Creator of Light, etc), to 
which were joined the three Holies {Ophcm), and the sup- 
plication for spiritual enlightening in the divine law 
(A habak). Between the Shema and the Tephillah was 
inserted the Geulah (Liberation), or praise for the mirac- 
ulous deliverance from Egypt and the constant watch- 
inga of providence. A Kaddish (Sanctification or Ben- 
ediction) and certain psalms seem to have concluded 
the service of that period. This was the order of the 
Skaharkh^ or morning prayer, and very similar to this 
was the Afaarib, or evening prayer; while in the Mirtf 
ckah, or afternoon prayer, the Shema was omitted. On 
new moons. Sabbath and feast days, the general order 
was the same as on week da3rs ; but since the festive 
joy was to overrule all individual sorrow and snpplica- 
tum, the intermediate portion of the Tephillah was 
changed according to the special significance and the 
memories of the day of the solemnity, and additional 
prayers were introduced for these extraordinary occa- 
nons, corresponding to the additional sacrifice in the 
Temple, and varying according to the special solemnity 
of the day {Mussaphf Neilah, etc)" (Chambers). Com- 
pare Etheridge, Introduction to Hebrew IMeraturej p. 367 
sq. ; Prideaux, ii, 160-170. It is likewise to be noted 
that in the Temple worship there were occasions and 
opportunities in which the individual worshipper might 
confess the plague of his own heart, make individual 
supplication, or offer individual thanksgiving. Thus it 
was at the time of the coming of Christ. The Jewish 
liturgies since then, under the influence of Rabbinism, 
and in view of the fact that the synagogue, so far as 
possible, supplies the absence of the Temple, have been 
very much enlarged, and extend to numberless partic- 
itlsrities. It may, in fact, be said that the whole life 
of tho modem Jew is regulated by Rabbinic forms, that 
there is a rubric for every moment and movement of 1 



social as of individual existence. ** The first compila- 
tion of a liturgy is recorded of Amram Gaon (A.D. 870- 
880) ; the first that has survived is that of Saadja Gaon 
(d. A.D. 942). These early collections of prayers gen- 
erally contained also compositions from the hand of the 
compiler, and minor additions, such as ethical tracts, 
almanacs, etc, and were caUed Siddurim (Orders, Ritu- 
als), embracing the whole calendar year, week-days and 
new moons, fasts and festivals. Later, the term was 
restricted to the week-day ritual, that for the festivals 
being called Machzor (Cycle). Besides these, we find 
the SeUchothf or Penitential Prayers; KinotK, or Elegies; 
HoshanahSy or Hosannahs (for the seventh day of the 
Feast of Tabernacles) ; and Bakeuhoth, or Special Sup- 
plications, chiefly for private devotion. The Karaites 
(q. v.), being harshly treated in these liturgies, especial- 
ly by Saadja, have distinct compilations. The first of 
these was made by David ben-Hassan about A.D. 960 
(compare Rule, KaraiteSy p. 88, 104 sq., 118, 135 sq., 173 
note). The public prayers were for a long time only 
said by the public reader {Chasarij Sheliach Zibbur), the 
people joining in silent responses and amens. These 
readers by degrees — chiefly from the 10th century — in- 
troduced occasional prayers (Piutim) of their own, over 
and above those used of yore. The materials were 
taken from the Halachah as well as the Haggadah (q. 
v.); religious doctrine, history, saga, angelology, and 
mysticism, interspersed with Biblical verses, are thus 
found put together like a mosaic of the most original 
and fantastic, often grand and brilliant, and often ob- 
scure and feeble kind ; and the pure Hebrew in many 
cases made room for a corrupt Chaldee. We can only 
point out here the two chief groups of religious poetry 
— viz. the Arabic on the one hand, and the French- 
German school on the other. The most eminent repre- 
sentative of the Pajtanic age (ending c. 1100) is Eleazar 
Biribi Kalir. Among the most celebrated poets in his 
manner are Meshulam b.-Ralonymoe of Lucca, Solomon 
b.-Jehuda of Babylon, R Gerson, Elia b.-Menahem of 
Mans, Benjamin b.-Serach, Jacob Zom Elem, Eliezer 
b.-Samnel, Kalonymos b.-Mose8, Solomon IsaakL Of 
exclusively Spanish poets of this period, the most bril- 
liant are Jehuda Halevi, Solomon b.-Gabiro], Josef ibn- 
Abitur, Isaac ibn-Giat, Abraham Abn-Esra, Moses ben- 
Nachman, etc When, however, in the beginning of 
the 13th century, secret doctrine and philosophy, casu- 
istry and dialectics, became the paramount study, the 
cultivation of the Hut became neglected, and but few, 
and for the most part insignificant, are the writers of 
liturgical pieces from this time downwards** (Chambers). 
Comp. Zunz, Synagogale Poesie des MiUeUdters, p. 69 sq. 
These liturgies, adopted by the Jews in different coun- 
tries, were naturaUy subject to great variation, not only 
in their order, but also in their contents. Even in our 
day there exists the greatest variety imaginable in the 
S3magogue8 of even one and the same country, due, in a 
measure, also to the influence of the reformatory move- 
ments. See Judaism. Particularly worthy of note are 
the rituals of Germany (Poland), of France, Spain, and 
Portugal (Sefardim), Italy (Rome), the Levant (Ro- 
magna), and even of some special towns, like Aiagnon, 
Carpentras, Montpellier. The rituals of Barbary (Al- 
giers, Tripoli, Oran, Morocco, etc) are of Spanish origin. 
The Judffio-Chinese liturgy, it may be observed by the 
way, consists only of pieces from the Bible. Yet, in 
the main body of their principal prayers, all these lit- 
urgies agree As illustrative of these unessential di- 
versities, we give the prayer of the Shemonah Eareb, 
which has been added to the number since the destruc- 
tion of the second Temple, but which now stands as the 
twelfth, and shows its manifest reference to the follow- 
ers of the Nazarene : " Let there be no hope to those 
who apostatize from the true religion ,* and let heretics, 
how many soever they be, all perish as in a moment; 
and let the kingdom of pride be speedily rooted out and 
broken in our days. Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, 
who destroyest the wicked, and bringest down the 



LITURGY 



459 



Ll'iURGY 



as the author of it in its present shape. The 
Eort. has been made to separate in it the apostolic from 
tbe lAter elements, as is also attempted by Neale with 
Ilk A t. of St. James. As the object of this effort seems to be 
to pirove the sacerdotal character of apostolic Christiani- 
ty, ao all sacerdotal elements become proof of apostolic 
autl&orship. The conclusion is as false as the premise. 
"File special historical interest of this liturgy of St. 
AfairlK b its relation to those of the Coptic and Ethio- 
pic ohurches, of which it forms the main constituent. 
Xli^ remark of Palmer as to its claim to inspired author- 
•l&lp is well worthy of attention. " In my opinion," says 
lie, ^ this appellation of St. Mark's liturgy began about 
nk« end of the fourth or beginning of the fifth century, 
afber Basil had composed his liturgy, which was the first 
bore the name of any man. Other churches then 
their liturgies the names of their founders, and so 
tlie Alexandrians and Egyptians gave theirs the name of 
'BCmrk, while they of Jenisalem and Antioch called theirs 
St« «Imme9*s, and early in the fifth century it appears that 
0x^41, patriarch of Alexandria, perfected and improved 
t.Ke liturgy of St. Mark, from whence this improved lit- 
nvgy came to be called by the Monophysites St, Cyril's, 
an«l by the orthodox St. Mark's." The peculiarity of 
tbia last, in Neale's estimation, is the difference from 
otHer liturgies in the position of the great intercession 
for quick and dead. That such intercession found place 
in any of them is evidence of their post-apostolic origin. 
(3.) The third and last of these liturgies is that of 
Coesarea or B3rzantium, composed probably by Basil of 
Csesarca, and held to have been recast and enlarged by 
Clkiysostom ; but more properly, perhaps, both these are 
to be regarded as elaborations of that of St. James. They, 
ixkoreover, have historical and moral significance in the 
fact that, through the Byzantine Church, they have been 
received into that of Russia, and are used in its patriarch- 
ates, each for special occasions, at the present time. 
Sach addidons, of course, have been made as have been 
rendered necessary through peculiarities of Greek wor- 
•hip, and accumulation of ritualistic minutise coming into 
use since these liturgies in their original forms were in- 
trodticed. They now contain expressions not to be found 
in the writings of Chrysostom : e. g. the appellation of 
Mother of God, given to the Virgin Mary, which was 
not heard of until after the third General Council at 
Epbesus [A.D.431] — the body which condemned the 
doctrines of Nestorius — held 24 years after the death of 
Chrysostom. 

From these Oriental liturgies have sprung others, va- 
riously modified to meet doctrinal and other exigencies. 
The largest number is from that of Jerusalem, the next 
IVom that of Basil. The most important is that of the 
Armenians, Mouophysite, those of the Nestortans, and 
that of 3Ialabar. For discussion as to the special origin 
of these subordinate forms, and the principles of classi- 
fication, see Palmer's Oriffines Liturffica^ vol i ; Neale's 
Primitive Liturgies ; Riddle, Christian A niiquitieSy bk. iv, 
ch. i, sec. 6. 

(6.) Liturgies of the Western Church, — In the West 
liturgical development went on with less rapidity. (1.) 
That of the Roman Church, under the infiuence of the 
sort of feeling alluded to above in the quotation from 
Palmer, after it came into use, received the name of Pe- 
ter, and was traced to his authorship. In point of fact, 
it probably first assumed definite shape under Leo the 
Great during the first half of the fifth century, was add- 
ed to by Gelasius during the latter half of the same 
oeotory, elaborated again by Ciregory the Great not 
Tery long after, and through his infiuence secured its 
reputation and position. **His Ordo et Canon Missse, 
making allowance for the unavoidable changes taking 
place in it during the centuries mtervening, was settl^ 
under Pius V, 1570, as the Missale Romanorum. It was 
revised under Clement VII and Urban VIII, and forms 
at the present time the liturgical text of Romish wor- 
•hip" (Palmer, in Herzog). The Liturgy of Milan seems 
to have been very much the same as that of Rome prior 



to the alterations of the latter under Gregory. These 
differences, at the greatest, were not of an essential char- 
acter. The question of the independence of the Mi- 
lanese and the supremacy of the Romans was probably 
the great issue upon which these differences tum^ 
As nothing less than apostolicity could enable the lit- 
urgy of Milan to sustain itself in such a conflict, its ori- 
gin was traced to Barnabas^ and miracles, it was be- 
lieved, had been wrought for its preservation against 
the efforts of Gregory and Hadrian to bring it to the 
form of that of Rome. The severest point of this con- 
flict was doubtless when Charlemagne abolished the 
Ambrosian Chant throughout the West by the estab- 
lishment of singing-schools under Roman instructors to 
teach the Gregorian. The attachment of the people 
and clei^y of Milan, however, to their liturgy could not 
be overcome, and it is sriU in their possesbion. Alex- 
ander VI established it expressly as the '* Ritus Ambro- 
sian us." 

Of even greater interest than the Roman liturgy are 
the Galilean and the Mozarabic. 

(2.) The former of these, the Gallican, claims, and it 
would seem justly, an antiquity greater than that of 
Rome. The connection of Gaulish Christianity with 
that of Asia, whether through the person of Irensus or 
by earlier missionaries, would lead to a liturgical devel- 
opment of an independent character. It was d'lsplaced 
by the Roman litui^ during the Carolingian aera, and 
for a long time was almost lost sight of and forgotten. 
It does not seem to have been used or appealed to in 
the various conflicts of prerogative between the French 
monarchs and the pope, and no allusion to its existence 
is made in the Pragmatic Sanction. Public attention 
was again calle<l to it during the controversies of the 
16th century. Interest both of a literary and doctrinal 
character has been exhibited in connection with this 
liturgy. But there seems to be but little probability 
of its restoration to use. While unlike in certaui spe- 
cialities, its differences from the Roman liturgy are not 
essentia Like the others preceding, it has been traced 
to the hand of an apostle — to the Church at Lyons, 
through that of Ephesus, from the apostle John ! The 
apex upon which this inverted historical pyramid rests 
is the single fact, which has been questioned, that Chris- 
tianity was introduced into Gaul by missionaries from 
the Chim:b at Ephesus. 

(3.) The Mozarabic, that of the Spanish churches un- 
der Arabic dominion, has so many resemblances to the 
Gallic liturgy that it would seem probable they proceed- 
ed from the same source. It is described by Isidore His- 
palensis in the 6th century. During the Middle Ages, 
and in the time of the cardinal Ximenes, it received an 
addition of several rites. As Spanish territory was re- 
conquered from the Moors, and came more fully under 
the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the papacy in other re- 
spects, the effort was made, and eventually succeeded, 
although at times warmly resisted by the people, to 
displace the Mozarabic, and introduce the Roman lit- 
urgy. In the beginning of the 16th century cardi- 
nal Ximenes endowed a college and chapel at Toledo 
for the celebration of the ancient rites, and this is now, 
perhaps, the only place in Spain where the primitive 
liturgy of that country and of (Jaul is in some degree 
observed. The old British liturgy, which was displaced 
by the Gregorian after the decision of Oswy in 664, 
seems, like the Mozarabic, to have been essentially the 
same with the Gallican. 

(4.) One other liturgical composition of some interest, 
dating from the close of the 4th century, is that of the 
Cathari, published by £. Kunitz (Jena, 1852). It is of 
interest as giving a more favorable view of the com- 
munity for which it was composed than had been pre- 
viously entertained. It is to be remembered in connec- 
tion with all these liturgies of the West, as already re- 
marked of those of the East, that they are the namea 
of many subordinate offshoots in use and prevalence in 
different portions of the Church. The discretionaiy 



LITURGY 



460 



LrruRGY 



«!' iht bbhopa, both at this and at earlier periodSi 
aod adapt prevalent liturgies to pecnliar exi- 
of time and place, naturally produced after a time 
kiad of diversity. The ecclesiastical confusion of 



medieval times, and clerical ignorance and 

would of course increase it. The trac^ however, oC tl»e 

parent stock in any such case would not be difficult of 

recognition. 



TABLE SHOWING THB DESCENT OF THE PRINCIPAL UTUROIES NOW USED IN THE CHUBCH. 

OUR LORD'S WORDS OF INSTTTUTION. 

LOBD't 



Apostolic Noeloos of a Liturgy. [8m 



Pkatsb, tad LoBo't ScrrsB.] 



LMH17 ^ ^ JuBM, Aatkwh, 
•r Jeraaalom. 



Utargj of SU Muk, 
or Alojundria. 



J 



oISlBmU. 



SjrrUc Litorxj of 



1 



Utarfy of St. PotOT, 
or Room. 

I 



Lltafff7 of Su CVr}«]«tom. 

It Utarity of Orfaotal 
■id P— ian Cb«rdu 



tOTfJ of 

Enrpu 



Ambrotiaa LUugy. 



Saenuneotary 
ofSkLMi. 



Lltoiy of St.Joha,8t>FB^ 
or EpboMa. 



Liturgy of Lyoaa. 



[Moamthyiitc 
Utargias.] 



PrMont 



ofDlo- 



I 



Sa craiu aptary 
ofOolaala*. 

Sacramaatary 
of St. Ortgory. 

Praant Lltargy of 
Chorehof Rona. 



Moaarable, 

or Spanlah 

Lltorgy. 



Liturgy of s Litoiinr «f 



itak. 



Anguattaa'* rev 
Lltofgy of Brttaki. 

8alitb«ry,York,aad 
MiMalaof- - 



, Yon, aad wfKar 
rSa^Ckarek. 






UtorgyofSeottiah 



•^i 



barcb. 



1 

Litngy ti 

Aftwricma 
Ckorck. 



4. Stntdure of Liturgies, — The variations of detail 
which are found in the parent liturgies of the Christian 
workl are all ingrafted on a structural arrangement 
which they possess in common, much as four buildings 
might differ in the style and form of their decorations, 
and yet agree in their plans and elevation, in the posi- 
tion of their several chambers, and in the number of 
their principal columns. 

L There is invariably a division of the liturgy into 
three portions — the office of the Prothesis, the I^ro-An- 
aphora, and the Anaphora, the latter being the ** Canon'^ 
of the Western Church, and the office of the Prothesis 
being a preparatory part of the service corresponding to 
the " Pneparatio" of the Western Liturgy, and not used 
at the altar itself. In the Pro- Anaphora the central feat- 
ures are two, viz. : (1) the reading of holy Scripture, and 



(2) the recitation of the Creed. In the Anaphora they 
are four, viz. : (1) the Triumphal Hymn, or Trisagion ; 
(2) the formula of Consecration ; (8) the Lord's Prayer ; 
and (4) the Communion. These four great acta of 
praise, benediction, intercession, and communion gather 
around our Lord's words of institution and his pattern 
prayer, which form, in reality, the int^ral germ of th« 
Christian liturgies. They are also associated with other 
prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings, by which each 
is expanded and developed, the whole blending into a 
comprehensive service, by means of which the worship 
of the Church ascends on the wings of the eucharirtic 
service, and her strength descends in eucharistic grace 
The order in which these different portions of the lit- 
urgy are combined in the four ancient parent forma is 
shovm by the following table : 



COMPARATIVE TABLE, SHOWING THE STRUCTURE OP THE FOUR PARENT LITURGIES OF THE 

CHURCH. 



ST. JAMKS (PAiwmwa). 


ST. MARK (Alsxandua). 


ST. JOHN (Gallicak, Mozababic, 
AND EpnEaiAa). 




ST. PETER (Roma*). 




Prafatory Prayer. 
IntroiL 


• 


' Pre&tory prayer. 

Introlt. 




r Prefatory prayar. 
Introlt. 




'Prefatory prayw. 
Introlt. 


i 


Tb« lUtle •ntnuice. 


8 


Tbe little antraaee. 


i 


Gloria la axoalalt. 


• 

E 

a 

■c 


Gloria la axcelela. 


Tritafdoo. 

Ltttitma from Old amd Ntw Tu- 




Trieagion. 

EpUU* and Ootptt. 


1 


^ufh and 6otp«L 
Oblatloa of alaoMnta. 


JJptKfa amiOmptl. 


1 


tawktiU. 




Prayar after G<iapel. 


1 


S' 




Prayw. 


^ 

1 


Ezpnidon of Catacbomaaa. 




1 




Ezpultion of Catcehnmana. 


Tbe great entrance. 


i 






The great entrance. 
Nittnt Crttd, 


Kite of peace. 
Crtni. 


Nietmt 0*«d. 




Nieant Crttd, 




KIm of peace. 

Prayer ibr nil eonditloiM. 




' Sanmn corda. 




. Ezpnltion of Catocbamena. 


o 


.Oblatkw of elaoMBta. 






Prayer for Cbarcb mlUtaot. 




'Prayer for tbe Cbnrcb. 


3 


Saranta eorda. 




' Snreatn corda. 




Prayer for the departed. 










THumpkal Hfmm, 




Triumpkal Hfmn. 




Triumpltal Hfmm. 
Prayer for quick and dead. 


jyimmfiml Utmm, 
'Commemoration of Uvlng C'Ta 




Oblation. 




OMimeawraKeii tf InMitntiom, 
Oblation. 




KIm of peace. 

Comm*moratiim of Itutitntion. 
Elevation and fraction of boat 




ifitnr"> 
Worda </ luatihitiom. 
Oblation. 




iDTOcatlon. 


i 


InTooatioa. 




Into nine parte. 




ConunamoraUoB of dead. 


i 


Prayer for qoick and daad. 


Union of oooMcratad alamanta. 
Prayer. 


i 

o 


Inrocation. 




Union of conaecratad elamaote. 
EIoTatloB. 


Lard't Praftr. 
EmboIlMniw. 


r 


Embollamoe. 

Prayer of Intanaa adoration. 


1 


Emboiiamna. 


• 

1- 


Ltrd't Pt«ftr. 
Embollamae. 


^ 


Union oi cooeecratad alamanta. 




Fraction. 




Union of conaecratad alamanta. 






Elrvatlon. 




Confeeeion. 












Fraction. 
Commmuifm. 




Cbmm«a*0». 




CammMikicm, 




Carnmumiam. 




ThanktfrlvinK. 




ThankairiTinir. 




Prayer. 




Tbankeffivlnff. 
DtHDiand wUb UaMias. 




Diunlaaal witb pax. 




Diamlaaal witb blaHlng. 




DlunlMal by the deacon*' dec- 














laration, "Tba myatariaa ar« 








• 


I 


t complete." 


^ 1 



ii. There is also, in the second place, a substantial 
agreement among all the four great parent litiu^es as 
to the formula of consecration (see Consecration ; and 
comp. Blunt, Diet, of Doct, and Hist, Theol p. 425-426). 

iiu Another point in which the four parent liturgies 
of the Church uniformly agree is in the weU-defined 
sacerdotal character of their language. This is suffi- 
ciently illustrated by the preceding comparative view. 



iv. The intercessory character of the primitive litur- 
gies is also a very conspicuous feature common to them 
aU. The holy Eucharist is uniformly set forth and used 
in them as a sen'ice oflFered up to God for the benefit of 
all classes of Christians, living and departed. ** Then," 
says St. Cyril of Jenisalem, "after the spiritual sacri- 
fice is perfected, the bloodless service upon that altar of 
propitiation, we entreat God for the common peace of 



LITURGY 



461 



LITURGY 



Church ; for the tranquillity of the world ; for kings ; 
for soldiers and allies; for the sick; for the afflicted , 
and, in a word, for all who stand in need of succor we 
all supplicate and offer this sacritice. Then we com- 
memorate also those who have fallen asleep before us, 
&rs^ patriarchs, prophets, apostles, martyrs, that at their 
prayers and intervention God would receive our petition. 
Afterward also on behalf of the holy fathers and bishops 
'vrlto have fallen asleep before us j and, in a word, of all 
-vrho in past years have fallen asleep among us, believing 
that it will be a very great advantage to the souls for 
irhom the supplication is put up while that holy and 
most awful sacrifice is presented" {CcUech. Led, xxiii, 9, 
10>. Sl Cyril was speaking thus in Jerusalem, where 
th« liturgy used was that of St. James, and in that lit- 
vigy ^c ^d a noble intercession exactly answering to 
the description there given (Neale*s TransicUionj p. 52 ; 
Blunt's Atmot^Book of Com, Prajferj p. 156). A simi- 
lar intercession is to be found in the other liturgies, and 
it is evident that its use was one of the first principles 
of the Church of that day. 

I XL Modem Greek ctnd Eastern Liturgiet, — Three litur- 
^es are in use in the modem Greek or Constantinopolitan 
Church, viz., those of Basil and of Chrysostom, and the 
liturgy of the Presanctificd. The liturgy bearing the 
name of Basil is used by the Constantinopolitan Church 
ten times in the year, viz., on the eve of Christmas 
Day; on the festival of St. Basil; on the eve of the 
Feast of Lights, or the Epiphany ; on the several Sun- 
days in Lent, except the Sunday before Easter ; on the 
f<ntxTal of the Virgin Mary ; and on Good Friday, and 
the following day, which is sometimes termed the great 
Sabbath. The litui^y ascribed to Chrj'sostom is read on 
all those days in the year on which the litui^ies of Basil 
and of the Presanctified are not used. The liturgy of 
the Presanctificd is an office for the celebration of the 
Lord's Supper on Wednesdays and Fridays during Lent, 
with the elements which had been consecrated on the 
preceding Sunday. The date of this liturgy is not 
known, »)me authors ascribing it to Gregory Thauma- 
torgus in the third century, while others ascribe it to 
Germanus, patriarch of Constantinople, in the eighth 
century. These liturgies are used in aU those Greek 
chtuches which are subject to the patriarch of Constan- 
tinople, and in those countries which were originally 
converted by Greeks, as in Russia, Geoigia, Mingrelia, 
and by the Melchite patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch, 
and Jerusalem (Ring's Riies of the Greek Churchy p. 131- 
134; Kichard et Giraud*s Btbliothique Sacrh, xv, 222- 
224). The Coptic Jacobites, or Christians in Egypt, 
make use of the Liturgy of Alexandria^ which formerly 
was called indifferently the Liturgy of St, Mark, the re- 
puted founder of the Christian Church at Alexandria, or 
the Liturgy of St, Cyril, who caused it to be committed 
to writing. The Egyptians had twelve liturgies, which 
are still preserved among the Abyssinians; but the patri- 
archs commanded that the Egyptian churches should 
nse only three, viz., those of Basil, of Gregory the The- 
ologian, and of Cyril. The earliest liturgies of the 
Church of Alexandria were written in Greek, which was 
the vernacular language, until the fourth and fiflh cen- 
turies: since that time they have been transUted into 
the Coptic and Arabic languages. The Abyssinians or 
Ethiopians receive the twelve liturgies which were for- 
meriy in use among the Coptic Jacobites : they are com- 
monly found in the following order, viz., 1. The liturgy 
of St. John the Evangelist 2. That of the three hundred 
and eighteen fathers present at the Council of Nice. 8. 
That of Epiphanius. 4. That of St. James of Sarug or 
Syrug. 5. That of St John Chrj'sostom. 6. That of 
Jesus Christ. 7. That of the Apostles. 8. That of St 
Cyriic 9. That of St Gregory. 10. That of then- patri- 
arch Dioscurus. 11. That of St BasiL 12. That of St 
CyriL The Armenians who were converted to Christi- 
anhy by Gregory', sumamed the Illuminator, have only 
one liturgy, which is supposed to be that of the Church 
of Cseaarea in Cappadoda, in which city Gregoiy re- 



ceived his instruction. This liturgy is used on every 
occasion, even at funerals. The Syrian Catholics and 
Jacobites have numerous liturgies, bearing the names 
of St. James, St Peter, St John the Evangelist, StMaik, 
St, Dionysius, bishop of Athens, St Xystus, bishop of 
Home, of the Twelve Apostles, of St Ignatius, of St Ju- 
lius, bishop of Rome, of St Eustathius, of St Chrysostom, 
of St Maruthas, etc Of these, the liturgy of St James 
is most highly esteemed, and is the standard to which 
are referred aU the others, which are chiefly used on the 
festivals of the saints whose names they bear. The 
Maronites, who inhabit Mount Lebanon, make use of a 
missal printed at Rome in 1594 in the Chaldeo-Syriac 
language : it contains thirteen liturgies under the names 
of St Xystus, St John Chrysostom, St John the Evange- 
list, St Peter, St Dionysius, StC^ril, St Matthew, St 
John the Patriarch, St Eustathius, St Maruthas, St 
James the Apostle, St Mark the Evangelist, and a second 
liturgy of St Peter. The Nestorians have three litur- 
gies — that of the Twelve Apostles, that of Theodorus, 
sumamed the Interpreter, and a third under the name 
of Nestorius. The Indian Christians of St Thomas are 
said to make use of the Nestorian liturgies (Richard et 
Giraud, Bibliotheque Sacrie, xv, 221-227). 

IV. Liturgies of the Church of Borne, — There are va- 
rious liturgical books in use in the modem Church of 
Rome, the greater part of which are common and gen- 
eral to all the members in communion with that Church, 
while others are permitted to be used only in particular 
places or by particular monastic orders. 

1. The Breviary (Latin bretfiarium) is the book con- 
taining the daily service of the Church of Rome. It is 
frequently, but erroneously, confounded with Missal and 
BituaL The Breviary contains the matins, lauds, etc, 
with the several variations to be made therein, accord- 
ing to the several days, canonical hours, and the like 
It is general, and may be used in every place; but on 
the model of this have been formed various others, sp&> 
cially appropriated to different religious orders, such as 
those of the Benedictines, Carthusians, Dominicans, 
Franciscans, Jesuits, and other monastic orders. The 
difference between these books and that which is by 
way of eminence designated the Boman Breviary, con- 
sists chiefly in the number and order of the psalms, 
hymns, ave-marias, patcr-nosters, misereres, etc, etc. 
Originally the Breviary contained only the Lord's 
Prayer and the Psalms which were used in the divine 
offices. To these were subsequently added lessons out 
of the Scriptures, according to the institutes of the 
monks, in order to diversify the service of the Church. 
In the progress of time the legendary lives of the saints, 
replete with ill-attested facts, were uiserted, in compli- 
ance with the opinions and superstition of the times. 
This gave occasion to many revisions and reformations 
of the Roman Breviary by the councils, particularly of 
Trent and Cologne, and also by several popes, as Greg- 
ory IX, Nichohw III, Pius V, Clement VHI, and Urban 
YIII ; as likewise by some cardinals, especially cardinal 
Quignon, by whom various extravagances were removed, 
and the work was brought nearer to the simplicity of 
the primitive offices. In its present state the Breviary 
of the Church of Rome consists of the services of matins, 
lauds, prime, third, sixth, nones, vespers, complines, or 
the post-communionj that is of seven hours, on account 
of the saying of David, Septies in die laudem dixi — " Sev- 
en times a day do I praise thee"* (Psa. cxix, 164). The 
obligation of reading this service-book every day, which 
at first was universal, was by degrees reduced to the 
beneficiary clergy alone, who are bound to do it on pain 
of being guilty of mortal sin, and of refunding their rev- 
enues in proportion to their delinquencies in discharg- 
ing this duty. The Roman Breviary is recited in the 
Latin language throughout the Romish Church, ex- 
cept among the Maronites in Syria, the Armenians, and 
some other Oriental Christians in communion with that 
Church, who rehearse it in their vernacular dialects. 

2. The Missal, or volume employed in celebrating 



LITURGY 



462 



LITURGY 



mass. According to a tradition generally believed by 
members of the Rombh Cburcb, this liturgy owes its 
origin to St. Peter. The canon of the mass was com- 
mitted to writing about the middle of the fifth century. 
Various additions were subsequently made, especially by 
Gregory the Great, who reduced the whole into better 
order. This Missal is in general use throughout the 
Romish Church. See Mass. 

8. The Ceremoniale contains the various offices peculiar 
to the pope. It is divided into three books, the first of 
which treats of the election, consecration, benediction, 
and coronation of the pope, the canonization of saints, 
creation of cardinals, the form and manner of holding a 
council, and the funeral ceremonies on the death of a 
pope or of a cardinal, besides various public ceremonies 
to be performed by the pope as a sovereign prince. The 
second book prescribes what divine offices are to be cel- 
ebrated by the pope, and on what days; and the third 
discusses the reverence which is to be shown to popes, 
cardinals, bishops, and other persons performing sacred 
duties; the vestments and ornaments of the popes and 
cardinab when celebrating divine service ; the order in 
which they are severally to be seated in the papal chapel ; 
incensing the altar, etc. The compiler of this liturgi- 
cal work is not known. 

4. The PontifiedU describes the various functions 
which are peculiar to bishops in the Romish Church, 
such as the conferring of ecclesiastical orders ; the pro- 
nouncing of benedictions on abbots, abbesses, and nuns; 
the coronation of sovereigns; the form and manner of 
consecrating churches, burial-grounds, and the various 
vessels used in divine service ; the public expulsion of 
penitents from the Church, and reconciling them ; the 
mode of holding a synod ; suspending, reconciling, dis- 
pensing, deposing, and degrading priests, and of restor- 
ing them again to orders ; the manner of excommuni- 
cating and absolving, etc, etc. 

5. The Jiituale treats of all those functions which are 
to be performed by simple priests or the inferior clergy', 
both in the public service of the Church, and also in the 
exercise of their private pastoral duties. The Pastorale 
corresponds with the Rihtale, and seems to be only an- 
other name for the same book. 

V. Continental Reformed or Protestant Liturgies, — At 
the time of the Reformation there were, of necessity, 
great changes in the matter of public. worship. The 
liturgies in use at its commencement included the prev- 
alent doctrinal system, especially as connected with the 
Lord's Supper; and very soon changes were made hav- 
ing in view the repudiation of Romish error, and the 
aiUptation of reformed worship to the restored system of 
scriptural doctrine. The old forms, moreover, had there 
been no objection to them doctriniUly, were liable to the 
practical objection that they were locked up from popu- 
lar use in a dead language. The Reformation, to a very 
great degree, had opened the ears of the people to the 
intelligent hearing and reception of Christian doctrine. 
Its task now was to open their mouths to the intelligent 
utterance of supplication — in other words, to provide 
forms of worship in the vernacular. This was done 
ver}' largely by selection and translation from old forms, 
and, as was necessary, by the preparation of new ma- 
teriaL With the £nglish and Lutheran Reformers, the 
object seems to have been to make as few changes in 
existing forms as possible. Doubtful expressions, which 
admitted of a Protestant interpretation, but which, for 
their own merits, would never have been selected, were 
thus retained. It b to be said for the Reformers that 
they seem to have acted in view of the exbting circum- 
stances of the communities bv which thev were sur- 
rounded, and from one of them, the most eminent of all, 
Luther, we have the distinct disavowal of all wish and 
expectation that his work, in this respect, should be im- 
posed upon other churches or continued in hb own any 
longer than it was found for edification. 

a, Lutheran Liturgies, — As first among the Reform- 
en we notice these Uturgical woiiu of Luther. Differ- 



ent offices were prepared by him, as needed by the 
churches under hb influence, the earliest in 1523, the 
latest in 1534. These were afterwards collected in a 
volume, and became a model for others. In bis ^* Or- 
der of SerA'ice" provision is made for daily worship in a 
service for morning and evening, and a third might be 
held if desirable. These serxnces consist of readini; the 
Scriptures, preaching or expounding, with psalms and 
responsoria, with the addition, for Sundays, of mass or 
communion. He dwelb earnestly, however, opon the 
idea, already mentioned, that these forms are not to be 
considered binding otherwise than in their appropriate 
times and localities. These views and thb action of 
Luther were responded to by simibr action on the part 
of the churches which through him had received the 
doctrines of the Reformation. These drew np litury^iea 
for themselves, some of them bearing a close reson- 
blance to that of Wittemberg, others differing from it 
widely ; the differences, in one direction, being condi- 
tioned by the Zwinglian or Calvinbtic element, in the 
opposite by the Romish. These, in particular localities, 
have been changed at different times as circunostances 
seemed to require. No one Lutheran form has evo- 
been accepted as obligatory upon all Lutheran chiirt^h- 
es, as b the case with the liturgy of the Church of Eng- 
land in all ita dependencies ; although it b claimed that 
there b essential unity — an essential unity of life and 
spirit in all these unessential diversities as to outward 
form of particular states and churches. The tendency 
of the Rationalism of the last century was to neglect, to 
depreciate, and to mutilate the old liturgies, and then 
to procure changes which would substitute others in 
their stead. From this, and in connection with another 
movement, has followed a healthful reaction. Thb re* 
action may be seen in its effects upon the two great 
classes into which Lutheran Germany b now divided. 
It has controlled to a very great degree the efforts of 
the Unionists, has given form to the Union liturgi', and 
it b leading those who are opposed to thb movement 
to a more careful study and diligent use of the older 
liturgies. The object of thb new liturgy, that of the 
king of Prussia, first publbhed in 1822, revise<i once or 
twice since then, b to unite the worship of the mem- 
bers of the Lutheran and Reformed churches in the 
I'russian dominions. The excitement cocnectcd with 
thb movement, in the way of attack and defence, has 
given a deeper and wider interest to all liturgical ques- 
tions — an interest deeply felt by the Lutheran churches 
of this countrj*. Here, where the use of such forms b 
optional, the number of congregations returning to such 
use is on the increase. See Lltiibranism. 

In Sweden, which, although Lutheran, retains the 
episcopate, and may seem to demand a more special no- 
tice, there was publbhed in 1811 a new, revised edition 
of the Liturgy, prepared at the time of the Reformation. 
Thb is divided into chapters, and contains the usual 
parts of a Church scr\'ice, with forms for baptism, mar- 
riage, etc. In Denmark there is also a regularly con- 
stituted liturgy, of Bugenhagen's, which, besides room- 
ing and evening service fur Sundays, contains three 
services for each of the three great festivab of Christ- 
mas, Easter, and Pentecost. 

h, Moravian Liturgy, — The liturgy of the Moravi- 
ans, as recipients, through their great leader, of the 
Augsburg Confession, is not without its interest in thb 
connection. It was first published in 1632. That which 
has been adopted by the renewed Moravian Giurch b 
mainly the work of count Zinzendorf, who compiled it 
chiefly from the services of the Greek and Latin church- 
es, but who abo availed himself of the valuable labors 
of Luther and of the English Reformers. The United 
Brethren at present make use of a Church litany, intro- 
duced into the morning service of every Sunday; a lit- 
any for the morning of Easter-day, containing a short 
but comprehensive confession of faith ; two offices for 
the baptbro of adults, and two for the baptism of chil- 
dren: two litanies at boriab; and offices for coafirmt- 



LITURGY 



463 



LITURGY 




the holy communion, and for ordination ; the Te 
and dnxologies adapted to various occasions. All 
liturgical forms in use in Enghind are comprised 
t lie new and revised edition of the Liturgy and Uymn» 
ike Ute of ike Protestant Church of the United Breth- 
(London, 1849). Other services peculiar to this 
Oticxrch, which are called " liturgies/* consist mainly of a 
ctioral, with musical responsoria as a litany. This litany 
is» €ox Sundays. There is a short prayer of betrothal, 
a baptismal office, also a form on Easter, used in the 
otitarch-yards, of expressing their confidence in regard to 
tti« brethren departed of the year preceding. The daily 
service, which is in the evening, is a simple prayer- 
meeting. In this, as in the Sunday service, the prayers 
mud exhortations are extemporaneous. 

c. Caleinigtic Liturgies, — The liturgy of Calvin, 
^vrliich, like that of Luther, constitutes the type of a 
cljftsfl, differs from this latter in two important respects — 
tHfi absence of responsive portions, and the discretion 
conferred upon the officiator in the performance of pub- 
lic worship. This discretion seems to have been limit- 
ed, however, to the use of one form of prayer rather 
than another, given in the Directory. These prayers 
read by the pastor from the pulpit. The service 
n with a general confession, was followed by a 
psalm, prayer again, sermon, prayer, the Apostles' Creed, 
and benediction. Two additional prayers were pm- 
T-ided for occasions of communion, one coming before, 
the other after; also a very long one of deprecation in 
tim» of war, calamity, etc For the adminbtration of 
the Lord's Supper there is an exhortation as to its in- 
tent — "fencing the tables," as it is called in Scotland. 
This is followed by the distribution of the elements, 
with psalms and passages of Scripture appropriate to 
the occasion. The offices of baptism and marriage are 
simple, but not discretionary as to their form. In ac- 
cordance with what seems to be the peculiar Genevan 
characterbtic, they are not wanting in length. 

The present liturgy of Geneva is a development of 
that of Calnn, with certain modifications. It has no 
r^wnses. Several additional prayers have been added. 
A distinct service for each day in the week is provided, 
also for the principal festivals, and for certain special 
occasions. So also as to the churches in sympathy with 
the system of Calvin. They have liturgies similar to 
that of Geneva, although not identical. Such is the 
case with the churches of Holland and Neufchatel, and 
the Reformed churches of France. A new edition of 
the old French Liturgy of 1562 was published in 1826, 
with additional forms for special occasions. The liturgy 
of the Church of Scotland is in some respects different. 
It was drawn up at Frankfort by Knox and others, after 
the model of Calvin's, and was first used by Knox in a 
congr^ation of English exiles at Geneva. It was af- 
terwards introduced by him into Scotland ; its use en- 
joined in 1564, and such usage was continued until after 
his death. An edition of this liturgy was published in 
1841 by Dr.Cumming. It differs from that of Calvin 
in that it more clearly leaves to the minister officiating 
to decide whether he shall use any form of prayer given 
or one of his own compositions extemporaneously or 
otherwise. It b^^s with the confession, as in Calvin's, 
and with the same form. This is followed by a psalm, 
by prayer, the sermon, prayer, psalm, and benediction. 
The book contains various offices and alternate forms; 
among other things, an order of excommunication, and 
a treatise on fasting, with a form of prayer for private 
houses, and grace before and after meals. The new 
book of ScotUnd of 1644 may be regarded as a modifi- 
cation of those of Knox and Calvin. In the Directory 
of the Westminster Assembly the discretionary power 
is greatly enlai^ged. Scriptural lessons are to be read 
in regular coutm, the quantity at the discretion of the 
minister, with liberty, if he see fit, of expounding. 
Heads of prayer in that before the sermon are pre- 
scribed, and rules for the arrangement of the sermon. 
The Lord's Plrayer is recommended as the most perfect 



form of devotion. Private and lay baptism are forbid- 
den. The arrangement of the Lord's table b to be such 
that communicants may sit about it, and the dead are 
to be buried without prayer or religious ceremony. 

d. Intermediate between these two great families of 
liturgies, the Lutheran and Calvinbtic, are those of the 
other Reformed churches on the Continent. It may 
be said, in general, that the German-speaking portion 
of these churches approach and partake of the Lutheran 
spirit and forms, aiid the Swiss of the Calvinbtic, though 
there are individual exceptions. In 1523, the same year 
with Luther's work already mentioned, Zwingle and Leo 
Judah publbhed at Zurich offices for baptism, the Lord's 
Supper, marriage, common prayer, and burial. This 
was followed by a more complete work in 1525, and sub- 
sequently by others. Similsr works were publbhed at 
Berne, Schaffhausen, and Basle at a later period. The 
peculiarity of these, according to Ebrard, quoted in Her- 
zog, **b the liturgical character in the celebration of 
the Lord's Supper, in which they compare favorably 
with the Calx-inbtic liturgies; also the custom of an- 
nouncing the dead, and the special prayers for the fes- 
tivals." The liturgical issues which during thb cen- 
tury have agitated the Lutheran Church have extended 
to those of the Reformed, not, however, to the same ex- 
tent, nor with results of such decided character. 

VI. Liturgies vi the Ef^lish Language, — Pre\nous to 
the introduction of the Reformation on Anglican ground, 
the public service of the Englbh churches was, like 
that of other Western churches, performed in the Lat- 
in language. But, though the language was univer- 
sally Uitin, the liturgy itself varied greatly in the dif- 
ferent parts of the kingdom. The dioceses of Bangor, 
Hereford, Lincoln, Sarum, York, and other churches, 
used liturgies which were commonly designated by the 
"Uses," and of these the most (^ebrated were the 
Breviary and Missal, etc., secundum usum Sarum^ com- 
piled by Osmund, bbhop of Salisbury, about the year 
1080, and reputed to be executed with such exact- 
ness according to the rules of the Rombh Church that 
they were also employed in divine service in many 
churches on the Continent, They consbted of praj'ers 
and offices, some of which had been transmitted from 
very ancient times, and others were of later origin, ac- 
commodated to the Romish religion. Compare MaskeU, 
The Ancient Liturgy of the Church of England^ accotxt- 
ing to the Uses of Sarum, Bangor, York, Hereford, and 
the Modem Boman Liturgy (London, 1844, 8vo). Abo 
by the same, Afonumenta Bitualia Eccksia A nglicana ; 
or, Occasional Offices of the Church of England, ac- 
cording to the Ancient Use ofSalidmry; the Prymer in 
English, and other Prayers and Forms (London, 1846, 3 
vols. 8vo). 

The first attempt in England to introduce the ver- 
nacular was made in 1586, when, in pursuance of Henry 
VIII's injunctions, the Bible, Pater-noster, Creed, and 
Decalogue were set forth and placed in churches, to be 
read in Englbh. In 1545 the King's Primer was pub- 
lbhed, containing a form of rooming and evening prayer 
in Englbh, besides the Lord's Prayer, Creed, and Ten 
Commandments, the Seven Penitential Psalms, Litany, 
and other devotions, and in 1547, on the accession of Ed- 
ward VI, archbishop Cranmer, bbhop Ridley, and elev- 
en other eminent divines, martyrs, and confessors, were 
commissioned to draw up a liturgy in the Englbh lan- 
guage " free from those unfounded doctrines and super- 
stitious ceremonies which had disgraced the Latin litur- 
gies;" and this was ratified by act of Parliament in 1548, 
and published in 1549. Thb liturgy is commonly known 
and cited as the First Prayer-Book of Edward VL In 
the great body of their work Cranmer and hb associates 
derived their materiab from the earlier services which 
had been in use in England; " but in the occasional of- 
fices they were indebted to the labors of Melancthon 
and Bucer, and through them to the older liturgy of Nu- 
remberg, which those reformers were instructed to fol- 
low" (Dr.Cardwell's Tvo Books of Common Prayer, set 



lo tlie varioot vriteTK Among the nanics enameraWd 
■bOTfiBachait reTeni 3^, Itab (Lev. zi,39), lo one of tbe 
gtoBp of Honiton or Varaaaa, tbe Nilotic liurd, Imot- 
la yilmica, Varaau Nilolicu; or Warm of (he Aribs. 
like the oUifn of thiA form, it is po mc aii p d of a tail 
double the length of the body, but is not eo well known 
in PaleMilK, irhere there is only one leal river (Jordui), 
ml thjU not tenanted bj Ibij apeden. It ■ppeui tbnl 
the true emcodile freijuented the ■bores and marshc* of 
tbe coast Joim lo a cooiparalively Ute pcrind, uiO there- 
tan it may well have had a more ipecific name than 
leviathan — a word apparently best suiled lo the digni- 
fied and ludy diction of the prophets, and clearly of 

innaiion. Jerome was of this opinion; and it is thus 
likeh- that Itab was applied la both, as Waran is now 
FonnilcTed only a variety rf, or a young, crocodile. 

of Meirem {Varroan amturttu), Warm tl-hard, also 
reorhinfc 10 NX feet in length ; uid a tbird, not as yet 
rlearly described, which appeals to he lirgi^r than either. 
Browing to nine feet, and covered with bri|;ht cupieous 
scalca. This last preren rocky and stony situations. 
One of Ihe last mentioned punnea its prey on land with 
a rapid bounding action, feeds on the larfcer insects, and 
is said to attack game in a body, sometimes destroying 
even sfacep. The Arabs, in agreement with the an- 
denia, assert Ihat this species will do flerce and viclori- 
«n battle with serpents. ConsideTationa like tbcse in- 
duce us to assign the Hebrew name ns, koacA (a dcsig- 
ulion of strength) lo the species of Ihe desert; and if 
the Nilotic varan be the Uab, then the Arabian diab, 
as Bruce asserts, will be rurinuu armarius, or varan 
flSard of Ibe prcseDl familiar laagaage, and diardaun 
the larger copper-colored species above noticed. But it 
is evident from the Arabic Biilhorities quoted by Bo- 
chart, and from his own cnncluuons, that there is not 
only cupruaion among Ihe species of lizard, but tbal the 
ichneumon of Egypt {llorptiltt Pharaomt) is mixed up 
wiih tbe history of these saurians. 

" lizards more properly 



by Ihe name ol Sarabatidi. We i 
:S(cUiawi, whicl ' 



erery part of Palestine and tba 
a. There is one species paitio 
and small, well known in Araloa 



with tl 



called, T 



h Heb: 






nXB>, bUuih. 
sod ailbcsiTcnese. The word occurs only once (Lev.xi, 
30), where saurians alone appear to be' indicated. If 
tbe Heb. rout wen to goide tbe decision, Itlaah would 
be anolher name for the jrcto or unuiUiA, for there is but 
one ppeciea which can be deemed venomous; and with 
rcf^aid to the quality of adhesiveness, though the^ecfoi 
possess it most, numerous cummon liiards run up and 
dawD perpendicular walls with great fsdiily. We 
therefore take ^S^n, ehomrtj or the sand lizard of Bo- 
chart, to be the true lizard, several (pn)bably many) 
ipcda existing in myriads on tbe rocks in Biiidy place*, 



droraitdus, and thence have been a source of in- 
extricable trouble U> commenlalon. Thev sra 
best known by tbe bundles of starlike spines on 
the body. Among these Lacrrta ilillio, SlcUia 
Orinlalii, the upoho^hAdc of the Greeks, and 
■ iardm of the Arabs, is abundant in the East, and 
a great Irequenter of ruiiioua walls. The genua 
< Uramatta oOtrs SltOio tpinipti of Uaudin or Dr- 
ipiaipa, two or three feet long, of a fine green, 
\ andislhespecies which is believed to strike with 
the tail ; hence formeily denominated Cauda err- 
btra. It is frequent in the deserts aroutid Egypt, 
and is probably tbeCuariluflhe Arsbs. Another 
subgenus, named Trapelui by Cuvler, is eienjpli- 
fled in Ibe Tr, ^:gyptiacvt of Geoff, with a spi- 
nous swelled body, but remarkable for the faculty 
ofchangtng color more rapidly than the chameleon. Next 
we place tbe CtckoHant, among whicb comes !n^3H,{nMi- 
inA, in our veiBionsdenon]iDated,/()Tef, but which is with 
more propriety transferred lo Ibe n<nsy and venomoos 
dbu-AurjoflheAnba. lliereis no reason for admitting 
Ihe verb pJK, oimi, lo groan, to cry out, as radical for Ihe 
name of tbe ferret, an animal totally unconnrcled with 
the preceding and succeeding species in Lev, xi,29, SO, 
and originally found, so far as we know, only in West- 
eni Africa, and thence conveyed lo Spain, prewling 
noiselessly, and beaten to death without a groan, Ihough 
capable of a feeble, short scream when at play, or when 
suddenly wounded. Taking the interpretation " to cry 
out," so little applicable to ferrets, in coojunclion wirfi 



le grcio, 



e aU tl 



of this group of lizardh remuksble for the loud gnting 
noise wbich it is apt lo utter in tbe roof* and walls of 
houses all the night through ; one, indeed, is sufficient 
to dispel the sleep of a whole family. The particular 
species moat probably meant is Ibe Ijierria gtcko of 
Hsssrlquiil, the CTn-Jto loialut of Geoflroy, distinguished 
by having the soles of the feet dilaud and striated like 
open fans, from which a poisonous ichor is said to ex- 
ude, ii;flamtng the human skin, and infecting food Ihat 
may have been trod upon by Ihe animal. See Fkrret, 
Hence the Arabic name of aiii-ABr<,or"fatber of lepro- 
sy," at Cairo. The species extends northwards in Syria, 
but it may be doubted whether the (lectojaiciciilaru, or 
farentoto of Soutb-eastem Euinpe, be not also an inhabi- 
tant of Palestine; and in that case the r^&CiD, teaa- 
mirh of Bochart, would find an appmpriate location. To 
these we add the CAamrfaons proper; and then follows 

riut), among which Laetrta Kineat, Linn., or Stviaa 
offirinalU, is the £l-adda of tbe Arabs, figured by Bruce, 
and well known in the old pharmacy of Europe. S. 
Cjprioj, or Lacrrla CypritiM Mcincoidii, a larue greenish 
species, marked wiih a pale line on each llsnk, occurs 
also; and a third, A'cmeut varvgalus or ocillada, often 
lilt of its round black spots, each marked 



■ pale. 



imonly baring II 



ik, of a pale color. Of Ihe species of 
Sfpi, that is, viviparous serpenl-liianls, having the body 
of snakes, wilh four weak limbs, a species with onlj 
three loes on each fool, llie Laerrla ckatcidti of Lioo, 
appears lo exicinl ta Svria. See further details in the 
PtK-s Cyd.ipadia, a v. Varanidaa; Wood, BOiU An*- 
mall, p. bU s). 

From this examination, it appears probable tbat tbe 
generic name fur tbe lizard among the Hebrews (being 
the only one thus rendered in the Auth. Version) is tbe 
nSt^V, triaak, which, although an nndean animal, does 
not usually designate a poiaonoua apedelb Among the 



LLOYD 



471 



LLOYD 



of wliich were rare and costly manascripts, were sequel- 
iere<i« After stopping a short time in London, liorente 
settled in Paris, where he completed the work of which 
be luuS published a sketch in Spain : HUtoire critique 
de V Inquisition d^Etpagne (4 vols. 8vo). It was written 
in Spanish, but was immediately translated into French 
by Alexis Pellier, under Llorente^s own supervision (Par. 
1817—18). Translations into most of the languages of 
Europe were made shortly afterwards. One of the best 
English editions was published in London in 1826. (For 
a review, see British Critic^ i, 119.) Liorente was now 
the outspoken enemy of the Church, and he was forbid- 
den to officiate as priest in Paris, and thus deprived of 
hia regular means of support. He next attempted to 
earn a living by teaching Spanish, but the University 
of Paris forbade him teaching in public, and he became 
altof^etber dependent on his literary labors and the as- 
sistance of his masonic brethren for a support. To 
what straits he found himself reduced is seen in the 
fact that he translated Faublas into Spanish. In 1822 
be publbhed his Portraits polUiques des Popes, which 
still increased the animosity of the clergy against him, 
and in this instance it must be granted that he reck- 
lessly provoked this enmity by accepting as undoubted 
Cacts such legends as that of the popess Joanna, etc., 
wbile his friends were obliged to admit that the nature, 
tendencies, and even the tone of the work were not be- 
coming the character of a priest. In December of the 
same year (1822) he received orders to leave France 
within three days. Exiled from the land of his adop- 
tion, he returned to that of his birth, but died shortly 
after (Feb. 5, 1823) at Madrid, in consequence of the 
hardships he had undergone during his journey. 

Liorente's character and writings have been the object 
of as extravagant praise by some as of extravagant cen- 
sure by others. He lived in a time of great fermenta- 
tion, and in a country where the struggle between prog- 
ress and conservatism gave rise to innumerable par- 
ties: under these circumstances he remained true to 
progress, and if he did not remain true also to any of 
the divers political parties, it was because he could not 
maintain his fidelity to both. When writing the his- 
tory of the Inquisition, he was yet a fervent Roman 
Catholic ; and in attacking an institution which he con- 
sidered and proved to have been more political than re- 
ligious, he undeservedly received the censure ofa large 
proportion of the Soman Catholic world; he did not 
mean to attack the Romish Church, but, on the contrary, 
to vindicate it from the imputation of having been sol- 
idlv concerned in the transaction of that fell tribunal. 
If in his subsequent works he went further, and attack- 
ed the Roman Catholic Church itself, the reason is to be 
found in the persecutions he endured at the hands of 
that Church. Liorente is not to be considered as a his- 
torian; neither his literary talents, nor his historical 
knowledge, nor the gift of correctly combining and con- 
necting events, gave him any title to that appellation. 
His greatest production, the Critical history of the In- 
quisition^ such Protestant hbtorians as Prescott and 
Ranke judge to be of but little value, because of its par- 
tisan character, and the exaggerations in which it 
abounds, and, as the readers of this Cycloptedia must 
have noticed, in the article Inquisition (see especially 
p. 603, coL 1), he has rarely been quoted. His only 
credit in the work is that he brought together much 
material before inaccessible. We might say Liorente 
was a good and diligent compiler, but too ardent a par- 
tisan to be aught of a historian. See his autobiography 
entitled Sotitia biograjica o Memorias para la Historia 
de su Vida (1818) ; Mahul, iVo/tce hiographique sur Don 
J, H, Liorente (1823) ; Prescott, Hist, of Ferdinand and 
Isabella, i, pt. i ; Ranke, Hist, of the Papacy , i, 142, 272 ; 
ii, 293 ; Monthly Review, xci (1820), Append. ; Revue En- 
cydopedique (1823). (J. H.W.) 

Lloyd, Charles Hooker, a Presbyterian minis- 
ter, was bom in New Haven, Conn., Feb. 21, 1833. His 
early life was spent in mercantile pursuits in New York 



City. In 1856, however, purposing to become a mis- 
sionary to the heathen, he entered New York Universi- 
ty ; later he studied divinity in the theological semina- 
ry at Princeton, N. J., and graduated in 1862. He was 
licensed and ordained as an evangelist by the New York 
Presbytery April 29, 1862, and appointed (June 21, 1862) 
by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions to South Africa. He did not, however, do 
much effective mission work, as he died Feb. 10, 1865. 
Mr. Lloyd, as a preacher, was eminently wise to win souls. 
He was gifted with a strong passion for music, and wrote 
and arranged many chants and h3rmns for the African 
converts. See Wilson, Pretb, Hist, A Imanac, 1 867, p. 169. 

Lloyd, Thomas, a noted Quaker preacher, was 
bom in North Wales in 1649. While a student at Ox- 
ford University, he visited, during a vacation, his broth- 
er Charles, who had been imprisoned for Quakerism at 
Welch-Pool, and by the latter's influence became him- 
self a convert to the religion of the Friends. He imme- 
diately left Oxford, suffered with the Quakers in their 
persecutions, and became an "instructor** on their "First- 
days.** On account of persecution, reproach, and loss of 
property for his religion's sake, he emigrated to Penn- 
sylvania soon after the first settlement of that province. 
He died July 10, 1694. As president of the council, 
and subsequently as deputy governor of Pennsylvania, 
he exercised a most salutary influence upon the inter- 
ests and progress of the colony. See Janney's History 
of Friends f ii, ch. xvii ; iii, ch. ii. 

Lloyd, 'William, a noted English prelate, was 
bom in Berkshire in 1627, and was educated at Oriel 
College, Oxford. In 1640 he removed to Jesus College, 
where he became fellow in 1646. He took deacon's or- 
ders from Dr. Skinner at the time of Charles's execution. 
In 1656 he was ordained priest, and acted as tutor of 
John Backhouse, son of Sir Wm. Backhouse, at Wadham 
College, Oxford. In 1660 he became master of arts at 
Cambridge, and was also made a prebendary of Ripon, 
in Yorkshire. In 1666 he was appointed king's chap- 
lain, and in 1667 was collated to a prebend of Salisbury, 
and proceeded doctor of divinity at Oxford. In 1668 
he was presented to the vicarage of St. Mary's, in Read- 
ing, and also installed archdeacon of Merioneth, in the 
church of Bangor, of which he became deacon in 1672, 
besides being made prebend in St. Paul's Church, Lon- 
don. In 1674 he was made residentiary of Salisbury, 
and in 1676 promoted to the see of Exeter, the vicarage 
of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, Westminster. In 1680 he 
was appointed bishop of St. Asaph, was translated to 
Lichfield in 1692, and to Worcester in 1699-1700. He 
took an active part in the troubles between the Roman- 
ists and Protestants in 1678. He preached the funeral 
sermon of Sir Edmondbury Godfrey, believed to have 
been murdered in carrying out what is known as the 
popish plot for overthrowing Protestantism in England. 
In 1688, with six other bishops, he signed, and, as spokes- 
man, presented to the king, a memorial ngainst the pub- 
lication of his declaration of indulgence to Romanists 
and Dissenters. He was one of the six bishops who, 
together with archbishop Sancrofl, composing the illus- 
trious seven bishops, for their refusal to publish the 
king's declaration, were shortly after imprisoned by 
James II in the Tower, and, after trial, acquitted, to the 
great joy of all England. He became almoner to W^il- 
liam III, and later also to queen Anne. He died at 
Hartlebury Castle Aug. 30, 1717. Lloyd fumbhed val- 
uable materials to Burnet's History of his Ovm Timet, 
and wrote Considerations touching the true Way to sup^ 
press Popery in this Kingdom, etc (Lond. 1684, 8vo, 2d 
edit.) [a work which was attacked by MacKenzie (/>e- 
fence of the A ntiquity of the Royal Line of Scotland, etc), 
and was defended by bishop Stillingfleet {Origines Brit,), 
who reprinted it, with Notes by T. P. Panton (Oxford, 
1842, 2 vols, 8vo)J : — History of the Government of the 
Church of Great Britain: — A Dissertation on Daniel's 
Seventy Weeks: — A System of Chronology (1712) : — Har' 



LOAN 



473 



LOAN 



proflta aitwe chiefly from the exchange of money with 
those who came to pay their annual half shekel (Pol- 
lux, iii» 84 ; vii, 170 ; Schleusner, Lex, JV. T. 8. v. ; Light- 
foot, Uor, /^f6r. at Matt xxi, 12). The documents re- 
latinj; to loans of money appear to have been deposited 
in public offices in Jerusalem (Joseph us, WaXy ii, 17, 6). 
lo making loans no prohibition is pronounced in the 
law against taking a pledge of the borrower, but certain 
Uroitations are prescribed in favor of the poor. 1. The 
outer garment, which formed the poor man's principal 
covering by night as well as by day, if taken in pledge, 
was to be relumed before sunset. A bedstead, how- 
ever, might be taken (Exod. xxii, 26, 27 ^ Deut. xxiv, 
12, 13 : comp. Job icxii, 6 ; Prov. xxii, 27 \ Shaw, Trax. 
pw 224; Burckhardt, Nott» on Bed, i, 47, 281 ; Niebuhr, 
Descr, de FAr.p, b6; Lane, Mod, Eg, i, 57, 58; Gesen. 
Thetaur, p. 408 ; Michaelis, Laws ofAfoses, arts. 143 and 
150). 2. The prohibition was absolute in the case of 
(a) the widow*s garment (Deut, xxiv, 17), and (6) a 
millstone of either kind (Deut. xxiv, 6). Michaelis 
(art. 150, ii, 321) supposes also all indispensable animals 
and utensils of agriculture ; see also Mishna, Macuer 
Skfni, L 3. A creditor was forbidden to enter a house 
to reclaim a pledge, but was to stand outside till the 
borrower should come forth to return it (Deut. xxiv, 10, 
11), 4. The original Roman law of debt permitted the 
debtor to be enslaved by hb creditor until the debt was 
discharged (Livy, ii, 23 i Appian, ItaL p. 40) ; and he 
might even be put to death by him, though this ex- 
tremity does not appear to have been ever practiced 
(GelL XX, 1, 45, 52; Smith, Diet, of Class, Antiq, s, v. 
Bonorum Cessio, Nexum). In Athens also the creditor 
had a claim to the person of the debtor (Plutarch, Vit, 
JSoL 15). The Jewish law, as it did not forbid tem- 
porary bondage in the case of debtors, yet forbade a 
Hebrew debtor to be detained as a bondsman longer 
than the seventh year, or at furthest the year of jubilee 
(Exod. xxi, 2; Lev. xxv, 89, 42; Deut. xv, 9). If a 
Hebrew was sold in this way to a foreign sojourner, he 
might be redeemed at a valuation at any time previous 
to the jubilee year, and in that year was, under any cir- 
cumstances^ to be released. Foreign sojourners, how- 
ever, were not entitled to release at that time (Lev. 
xxv, 44, 46, 47, 54; 2 Kings iv, 2; Isa. 1, 1; Ui, 8). 
Land sold on account of debt was redeemable ciihcr by 
the seller himself, or by a kinsman in case of his inabil- 
ity to repurchase. Houses in walled towns, except 
soch as belonged to Levites, if not redeemed Mrithin one 
year after sale, were alienatoi forever. Michaelis doubts 
whether all debt was extinguished by the jubilee; but 
Jooephus's account is very precise (Ant, iii, 12, 3; comp. 
Lev. xxv, 23, 34 ; Ruth iv, 4, 10 ; see Michaelis, § 158, ii, 
860). In later times the sabbatical or jubilee release 
was superseded by a law, probably introduced by the 
Romans, by which the debtor was liable to be detained 
in prison until the full discharge of his debt (MatU v, 
26). Michaelis thinks this doubtful. The case imag- 
ined in the parable of the unmerciful servant belongs 
rather to despotic Oriental than Jewish manners (Matt, 
xviii, 34, Michaelis, Und. art. 149; Trench, ParabieSj p. 
141). Subsequent Jewish opinions on loans and usury 
may be seen in the Mbhna, Baba Meziah^ c iii, x. See 

JUBILIi:E. 

These laws relating to loans may wear a strange and 
somewhat unreasonable aspect to the mere modem read- 
er, and cannot be understood, either in their bearing or 
their sanctions, unless considered from the Biblical point 
of view. The land of Canaan (as the entire world) be- 
longed to its Creator, but was given of God to the de- 
scendants of Abraham under certain conditions, of which 
this liberality to the needy was one. The power of 
getting loans, therefore, was a part of the poor man's 
inheritance. It was a lien on the land (the source of 
all property with agricultural people), which was as valid 
as the tenure of any given portion by the tnbe or fam- 
fly to whose lot it had fallen. This is the light in 
which the Mosaic polity represents the matter, and in 



thu light, 80 long as that polity retained its force, would 
it, as a matter of coarse, be regarded by the owners of 
property. Thus the execution of this particular law 
was secured by the entire force with which the consti- 
tution itself was recommended and sustained. But as 
human selfishness might in time endanger this particu- 
lar set of laws, so Moses applied special support to the 
possibly weak part. Hence the emphasis with which 
he enjoins the duty of lending to the needy. Of this 
emphasis the real essence is the sanction supplied by 
that special providence which lay at the very basis of 
the Mosaic commonwealth, so that lending to the des- 
titute came to be enforced with all the power derivable 
from the express will of God. Nor are there wanting 
arguments sufficient to vindicate these enactments in 
the light of sound political economy, at least in the case 
of the Jewish peopje. Had the Hebrews enjoyed a free 
intercourse with other nations, the permission to take 
usury of foreigners might have had the effect of im- 
poverishing Pidestine by affording a strong inducement 
for employing capital abroad ; but, under the actual re- 
strictions of the Mosaic law, this evil was impossible. 
Some not inconsiderable advantnges must have ensued 
from the observance of these laws. The entire aliena- 
tion and loss of the lent property were prevented by 
that peculiar institution which restored to every man 
his property at the great year of release. In the in- 
terval between the jubilees the system under considera- 
tion woidd tend to prevent those inequalities of social 
condition which always arise rapidly, and which have 
not seldom brought disaster and ruin on states, llie 
affluent were required to part with a portion of their 
affluence to supply the wants of the needy, without ex- 
acting that recompense which would only make the rich 
more wealthy and the poor more needy, thus superin- 
ducing a state of things scarcely more injurious to the 
one than to the other of these two parties. There was 
also in this system a strongly conservative influence. 
Agriculture was the foundation of the constitution. 
Had money-lending been a trade, money-making Mould 
also have been eagerly pursued. Capitsl would be with- 
drawn from the land ; the agriculturist would pass into 
the usurer; huge inequalities would arise j commerce 
would assume predominance, and the entire common- 
wealth be overturned — changes and evils which were 
prevented, or, if not so, certainly retarded and abated 
by the code of laiv-s regarding loans. As it was, the 
gradually increasing wealth of the country was in the 
main laid out on the soil, so as to augment its produc- 
tiveness and distribute its bounties. The same regula- 
tions, moreover, prevented those undue expansions of 
credit and those sudden fluctuations in the relative value 
of money and staple commodities which have so often 
brought on financial collapses and prostration in mod- 
em communities. While, however, the benign tend- 
ency' of the laws in question is admitted, and special ob- 
jects may be adduced as attainable by them, may it not 
be questioned whether they were strictly just? Such 
a doubt could arise only in a mind which viewed the 
subject from the position of our actual society. A mod- 
em might plead that he had a right to do what he 
pleased with his own ; that his property of every kind 
—land, food, money — was his own ; and that he was 
justified to tum all and each part to account for his 
own benefit Apart from religious considerations, thb 
posidon is impregnable. But such a view of property 
rinds no support in the Mosaic institutions. In them 
property has a divine origin, and its use is intrusted to 
man on certain conditiims, which conditions are as valid 
as is the tenure of property itself. In one sense, in- 
deed, the entire land— all property — was a great loan, a 
loan lent of (iod to the people of Israel, who might well, 
therefore, acquiesce in any arrangement which required 
j a portion — a small portion — of this loan to be under cer- 
I tain circumstances accessible to the destitute. This 
view receives confirmation from the fact that interest 
I might be taken of persons who were not Hebrews, and 



LOAYSA 



474 



LOBETHAN 



therefore Uy beyond the fphere embraced by this spe- 
cial arraugement. It would open too wide a field did 
we proceed to consider how far the Mosaic system might 
be applicable in the world at large ^ but this is ver\' 
dear to our mind, that the theory of property on which 
it rests — that is, making property to be divine in its or> 
igiii, and therefore tenable only on the fultilment of such 
conditions as the great laws of religion and morality 
enforce — ta more true and more philosophical (except in 
a college of atheists) than the narrow and baneful ideas 
which ordinarily prevail 

These \new8 may prepare the reader for considering 
the doctrine of " the Great Teacher" on the subject of 
loans. It is found forcibly expressed in Luke's Gospel 
(vi, 84,35) : " If ye lend to them of whom ye hope to re- 
ceive, what thank have ye? for sinners also lend to sin- 
ners, to receive as much again ; but love ye your ene- 
mies, and do good, and lend, hoping for nothing again ; 
and }iour reward shall be great, and ye shall be the chil- 
dren of the Highest; for he is kind unto the unthank- 
ful and to the evil." The meaning of the passage is 
distinct and full, unmbtakable, and not to be evaded. 
He commands men to lend, not as Jews to Jews, but 
even to enemies, without asking or receiving any re- 
turn, after the manner of the Great Benefactor of the 
universe, who sends down his rains and bids his sun to 
shine on the fields of the unjust as well as of the just. 
To attempt to view this command in the light of reason 
and experience would require space which, cannot here 
be given ; but we must add, that any attempt to ex- 
plain the injunction away is most unworthy on the part 
of professed diisciples of Christ ; and that, not impossi- 
bly at least, fidelity to the behests of him whom we call 
Lord and Master would of itself answer all doubts 
and remove all misgivings by practically showing 
that this, AS every other doctrine that fell from his 
lips, is indeed of God (John vii, 17). Yet, while we 
must maintain the paramount obligation of our Sav- 
iour's precept, corroborative — and, indeed, expansive — 
as it is, of the essential principle of the Mosaic economy, 
namely, the inculcation of universal brotherly love, nev- 
ertheless common sense, no less than sound morality, 
dictates at least the following co-ordinate considera- 
tions, which should likewise be taken into the account 
in the exercise of Christian liberality, in loans as well as 
in gifts : 1. Due inquiry should be instituted, so as to 
satisfy the lender of the moral worthiness of the cred- 
itor, lest the loan, instead of being a benefaction, should 
really be but a stimulus to vice, or, at least, an encour- 
agement to idleness. 2. The wants of one's own family 
and nearer dependents must not be sacrificed by ill- 
judged and untimely generosity. 8. Funds held in 
trust should be carefully discriminated from one's own 
personal property, and a greater degree of caution exei^ 
cised in their administration. 4. We have no right to 
loan what is already due for our own debts — ** We must 
be just before we are generous." 5. In fine, the great 
fact that we are but stewards of God's bounty should be 
the ruling thought in all our benefactions, whether in 
the form of loans or gifts, and we should therefore dis- 
pense funds so as to contribute most to the divine glory 
and the highest good of the recipients. This principle 
alone b the true corrective of all selfishness, whether 
parsimony on the one hand, or prodigality on the other. 
See BoRUOw; Lend, etc. 

Loaysa, Ghacia dk, an eloquent Dominican preach- 
er and Spanish cardinal, was bom in 1479 at Talavera, 
Castile; entered the Dominican Order at St. Paul de 
Pennefid in 1495, and was made successively professor 
of philosophy, next of theology, director of studies, rec- 
tor at St. Gregory, prior of the convent of Avila and of 
Valladolid, provincial of Spain (1518), and finally gen- 
eral of his order. In 1532 he was chosen confessor to 
Charles V. of whom he had previously been a teacher. 
In the following year Charles V made him bishop of 
Osma. He admitted him into his private council, and 
▼ery soon made him president of the Royal Council of 



the Indies, and president of the Crosade. Loajaa 
strongly opposed the release, without ransom or condi- 
tion, of Francis I, king of France, made prisoner by 
Charles at Pavia. Succeeding events proveid his coun- 
sel good. In 1530 Charles V obtained a cardinalship 
for him from pope Clement VII, and also the title Sc 
Suzanne. In the same year he named him bishop of 
Siguenza, and also archbishop of Seville. Loaysa final- 
ly became grand inquisitor of Spain. He was frequent- 
ly ambassador for Charles V, and kept up a private cor- 
respondence with him, some of the letters of which 
(from 1530 to 1532), embracing Charles's suy in (Ger- 
many, the most important period in the history of the 
Reformation, are published by G. Heine from the ar- 
chives of Simancaa. These letters prove Loaysa very 
bitter against the '^ heretics." Loaysa died April 21, 
1546, at Madrid. See Antonio, BiblioUu Hitpana A oro, 
iii, 514 ; £chard, Scriptortt Ordinis Pradieatorum^ ii, 39 ; 
Le P.Touron, i/ommes iUustres de fOrdre de Sawt^Dom- 
imque, i v, 93 ; Table du Jounu des Savam^ voL vi ; Hoefer, 
Nouv, Biog, GininUe^ vol xxxi, a. v. ; Vebse, Memoir* of 
the Court of A ustria, i, 158 sq. ; Thomas, Dict^ of Biog. 
and Afythol. s. v. 

IiObbOB, a celebrated convent in Henn^ao, near 
Liege, in Belgium, founded by St. Laudelin, is noted par- 
ticularly because it educated, and at one time had as ita 
abbot, the celebrated monk Heriger, who flourished to- 
wards the close of the 10th century. His whole history 
is so thoroughly entangled in mythical narratives that 
it is well-nigh impossible to tell when Heriger first 
came to Lobbes. Vogel, in Herzog {RecU-£nc3^lclopdt^ 
V, 753), thinks it probable that Heriger entered Lobbes 
in 960, and that he could not, because of the low condi- 
tion of the inmates of that monastery previous to this 
! date, have been educated there. Heriger wrote Vita St, 
Uramari: — Gesta episcoporum TungrenMium et Leodia^' 
Hum (about A.D. 979) :— Vita St. Laudoaldi (about 960), 
etc He died Oct. 31, 1007. 

Ldber, Gottiiilf Friedbman^, a German theolo- 
gian, was bom at Bonneburg, in the duchy of Sachsen- 
Altenburg, Oct. 22, 1722. In 1738 he entered .the Uni- 
versity of Jena, where, in 1741, he lectured on linguis- 
tics of the Old and New Test, and later on philosophy. 
Notwithstanding his splendid prospects in this sphere, 
he gave up academical life in 1743, and removed to Al- 
tenburg as assistant court preacher (his aged father was 
then chief court preacher). In 1745 he became assessor 
of the Onsistory ; in 1747, archdeacon: in 1751, preach- 
er of a foundation and councillor of the Consistory ; in 
1768, superintendent general; in 1792, privy councillor 
of the (Consistory ; in the following year he celebrated 
his jubilee of fifty years of office. He died August 22, 
1799. By reason of his extensive learning, profound 
linguistic attainments, accurate knowledge of all the 
branches of theology, and great piety, he is considered 
one of the greatest Lutheran theologians of the 18th 
century. Of his productions, we mention ObservaHonet 
ad historiam vita} et mortis Jesu Christi in ipsa eetaHt 
flare obita spec/antes (Altenburg, 1767, 8vo). — Doring, 
Gelehrte TheoL DeutschUmdSf s. v. 

IiObethan, Johann Kokrad, a German theologian, 
was bom at Hebel, near Homburg, Sept, 29, 1688. In 
1705 he entered the University of Marbui^ ; later, he 
spent three years in Ossel, and in 1711 went to Brennen 
to continue his studies. In 1714 he accepted a call to 
Weimar as court preacher of the duchess dowager Char- 
lotte Dorothea Sophie ; in 1720, to Ciithen, as chief min- 
ister and superintendent, with the dignity of a council- 
lor of the Consistor}'. Subsequently he was, for sevenl 
years, the first minister and councillor of the Consistory 
of the German Reformed Church at Magdeburg. The 
latter portion of his life he spent at Cothen, where he 
died Nov. 29, 1735. Lobethan was noted as an eminent 
preacher ; the earnest and warm mode of Ms delivery 
always captivated the attention of his audience. Of 
his productions, mostly of an ascetical character, w« 



LOCK 



477 



LOCKE 



they were pablished in Gennan by SpaUttn (1521). af- 
terwards by J. Jonas (1536), and finally by Melancthon 
himaelf (1542), and designated by them as the chief ar- 
ticles and principal point of Scripture (Uauptartikel u. 
Jumekmste Punkte d, ffcmun hexL Schr{ft)y or of Chris- 
tian doctrine {Uauptartikel christUcher Lehre), Me- 
lancthon, however, in the third part of his Loci (1543- 
59), gradually withdrew from this position, and adopted 
a manner of treating the subject more akin to scholas- 
ticiam. This was subsequently the case with the Loci 
theviogid of Abdias Prstorius (Schulze) (Wittemberg, 
1569) and Strigel (ed. Pezel, Neust. 1581), who held the 
same views, as well as with those of Martin Chemnitz 
(ed. P. Lyser, Francf. a. M. 1591) and Hafenreffer (Tub. 
1600), who differed from him; also of Leonard flut- 
ter (Wittemb. 1619), who went on an entirely different 
principle, which Jolm Gerhard tried to soften down in 
his renowned Loci fheoL (Jena, 1610), while A. Calov, 
in bis Systema locor. theoL (Wittemb. 1655), carried it 
to its full extreme. After this time the expression Loci 
tkeologici ceased to be used in Lutheran dogmatics. In 
the Reformed Church it was used by Hyperius (Basle, 
1566), W. Musculus (Berne, 1561), Peter Martyr (Basle, 
1580), J. Maccov (Franeker, 1639), and D. Chamier (Ge- 
neva, 1653). See Gass, Getch, d, prof, Dogmatik (1854, 
ToL i) ; Heppe, Dogmatik dea deutich, ProtestaniiimuSj 
etc (1857, voL i) ; C. Schwarz, Studim u, Kritiben (1855, 
i, and 1857, ii). — Herzog, Real-Encyklupadief viii, 449. 
(J. N. P.) 

Lock (^?9» nadl'y to bar up a door, Judg. iii, 28, 24 ; 
rendered "bolt," 2 Sam. xiu, 17, 18, "inclose," "shut 
up," in Cant, iv, 12 ; hence b^]?3^, manul', the boU or 
ftsteoing of a door, Neh. iii, 8, 6| 18, 14, 15 , Cant v, 5). 
The doors of the ancient Hebrews were secured by bars 
of wood or iron, though the latter were almost entirely 
appropriated to the entrance of fortresses, prisons, and 
towns (comp. Isa. xlv, 2). Thus we find it mentioned 
in 1 Kings iv, 13 as something remarkable concerning 
Bashan that "there were threescore great cities, hav- 
ing walls and brazen bars.** These were almost the 
only locks known in early times, and they were fur- 
nished with a large and clumsy key, which was applied 
to the bar through an orifice on the outside, by means 
of which the bolt or bar was slipped forward as in mod- 
ern locks (Judg. iii, 24). There were smaller contri- 
vances for inner doors, and probably projecting pieces 
by which to shove the bolt with the hand (Cant v, 5). 
See Key. Lane thus describes a modem Eg^'ptian lock : 
'^ Every door is furnished with a wooden lock, called 
dabbekf the mechanism of which is shown by a sketch 
here inserted. No. 1 is a front view of the lock, with 
the bolt drawn back^ Noa. 2, 3, and 4 are back views of 
the separate parts and the key. A number of small 
iron pins (four, five, or more) drop into corresponding 
boles in the sliding bolt as soon as the latter is pushed 
into the holr or staple of the door-post The key also 





(=^^ 



f^ 



T 



Modern Sgyptlan wooden Lock. 



has small pina, made to correspond with the boles, into 
which they are introduced to open the lock, the former 
pins being thus pushed up, the bolt may be drawn back. 
The wooden lock of a street door commonly has a slid- 
ing bolt about fourteen inches long ; those of the doors 
of apartments, cupboards, etc, are about seven, eight, 
or nine inches. The locks of the gates of quarters, pul>> 
lie buildings, etc, are of the same kind, and mostly two 
feet in length, or more. It is not difiicult to pick this 
kind of lock" {Mod, Egyptiant^ i, 25). Hence they were 
sometimes, as an additional security, covered with clay 
(q. v.), and on this a seal (q. v.) impressed (comp. Job 
xxviii, 14). (See RanwoUff, Trav. in Ray, i?, 17; Rua- 
sell, A leppo, i, 22 ; Vohiey, Trav. ii, 438 ; Chardin, Voy. 
iv, 123; Wilkinson, Anc Eggpt^ abridgment, i, 15, 16.) 
See Door. 

The other terms rendered "lock^ in the Auth.YerB. 
refer to the hair of the head, etc ; they are the follow- 
ing : nifibn^, macklaphoth'f braid* or plaits, e. g. of 
the long hair of Samson (Judg. xvi, 13, 19); n'»S^X, 
t8itsith% the forelock of the head (Ezek. viii, 3; also a 
" fringe" or tattd. Numb, xv, 38, 39 ; comp. Matt xxiii, 
5); 3?^B, j>e'ra, the lockt of hair, as being shorn (Numb, 
vi, 5; EjEck. xliv, 20 ; and niXIIJ, kevuUt*oth% the/ore- 
locks or »idelock» of a man's or woman's hair (Cant v, 2, 
12 ; comp. Schultens, Op. mm. p. 246) ; but na2l, tsam- 
fn€th\ is a veil or female covering for the head and face, 
usual in the East (Cant iv, 1, 8 ; vi, 7 ; Isa. xlvii, 2). 
See Hair. 

Locke, George, a Methodist preacher, was bom 
in Cannonstown, Pa., June 8, 1797, and reared in Ken- 
tucky. His early educational advantages were few, 
but he improved all opportunities to secure knowledge. 
His parents were Presbyterians, but George was made 
a Methodist thh)ugh the preaching of Edward Talbot 
when a saddler's apprentice. In 1817 he was licensed to 
exhort, and soon began to preach. In 1819 he entered 
Tennessee Conference, and was successively appointed 
to Little River Circuit, to Powell's Valley, and to Bowl- 
ing Green Circuit, Ky. In 1822 he located in Shelby- 
ville, and engaged in secular business. His conscience 
forced him to re-enter the ministry, and he success- 
ively preached on Jefferson Circuit and Hartford Cir- 
cuit (Kentucky Conference). In 1826 he was trans- 
ferred to Corydon Circuit, Illinois Conference. In 1828 
he labored on Charleston Circuit, and was the means 
of one of the greatest revivals that Southern Indiana 
ever witnessed. The same year he was appointed pre- 
siding elder of Wabash District^ which embraced an 
area of territory in Indiana and lUinois of at least 100 
miles from east to west, by 200 miles from north to 
south, on either side of the Wabash River. While on 
this district he contracted the consumption, and was 
obliged to become supernumerary. He died in New 
Albany, Ind., in July, 1834. See Sprague, Armals of 
the American Pulpit^ vii, 608. 

Locke, John, the most notable of modem 
English philosophers, w^o has exercised the greats 
est influence on all subsequent speculation, in both 
psycholt^^ and politics, and whose doctrines, un- 
der various modifications or exaggerations, still 
contribute largely to mould the opinions of the 
civilized world. He has in great measure deter- 
mined the complexion of Bnti^h psychology. As 
the most strenuous antagonist of Cartesianism ; 
as the precursor and teacher alike of the French 
encyclopsMiists and of the Scotch school; as the 
oracle of the freethinkers, the target of Leib- 
niu, and the stimulator of Hartley, Berkeley, and 
Hume, Locke must always attract the earnest con- 
sideration of the student of metaphysics. For 
nearly two centuries his name has been a battle- 
cr>', and his dogmas have been fought over by the 
shadowy hosts of warring ideologues with the zeal 
and the fury with which the Greeks and the Tro- 



LOCKE 



478 



LOCKE 



jtns contended over the body of Patrodus. His labors 
in the department of mental philosophy constitate only 
a part of his claims to enduring regard. His inquiries 
have been scarcely less fruitful in political philosophy 
and political economy. In the former he is the avant- 
courier of Kousseau; in the latter science, of Adam 
Smith; and in each he has laid the foundations on 
which later theorists and later statesmen have been con- 
tent to build. 

Life, — John Locke was bom Aug. 29, 1632, at Wring- 
ton, Somersetshire, and was educated first at Westminster 
School, and later at Christ Church College,Oxford. Here 
he prosecuted the prescribed studies with diligence and 
success, but deviated from the beaten path by devoting 
himself to the discountenanced writings of Des Cartes, 
who had died a few years before. He obtained the bac- 
calaureate in 1655, and the master's degree in 1658, and 
then applied himself to the study of medicine, rather 
for the Mice of knowledge and of his sickly frame than 
with the purpose of practicing his profession. 

In 1664 Locke accompanied the embassy to the elec- 
tor of Brandenburg as secretary of legation, but^ he re- 
turned to Oxford within the year, and applied him- 
self to experimental philosophy, then rising into favor. 
An accident now decided his course of life, and occa- 
sioned hu acquaintance with lord Ashley—the celebra- 
ted earl of Shaftesbury — with whom he was persuaded 
to take up his abode the next year. By his skill and 
good luck he relieved his patron of an abscess which 
endangered his life, and was induced to confine his med- 
ical practice to a small circle of the lord's friends, and 
to give his chief attention to political speculation and 
questions of state. He thus became a man of the world 
before he became a philosopher. In 1668 Locke ac- 
companied the earl and countess of Northumberland to 
France. The earl proceeded towards Rome, and died 
on the way. Locke returned with the countess to Eng- 
land, and again found a home with Ashley — chancellor 
of the exchequer after Clarendon's folL The future 
sage was employed to superintend the education of Ash- 
ley's heir, a feeble boy of sixteen. He was aflerwarda 
commissioned to select a wife for him, and did so satis- 
factorily. In due course of time he took charge of the 
education of the eldest son of this marriage, the author 
of " the Characteristics." " To such strange uses may 
we come at last I" 

Though residing with lord Ashley, Locke retained his 
connection with Oxford, which he frequently visited. 
On one of these vbits, in 1670, the conversation of Dr, 
Thomas and other friends turned his thoughto to the 
difficult, still unsettled, and perhaps insoluble question 
of the nature and limits of human knowledge. This 
supplied the germ of the Essay on the Human Under- 
standing^ though nearly twenty years elapsed before the 
completion and publication of the work. In 1672, Ash- 
ley, the master-spirit in Charles U's " Cabal," was cre- 
ated earl of Shaftesbury, and soon after he was made 
lord high chancellor. Locke was appointed secretary 
of Plantations. Next summer Shaftesbury surrendered 
the great seal, and became president of the Board of 
Trade and Plantations. Locke was named secretary of 
the board. It was at this time that he produced for his 
noble friend and the other proprietors the Constitution 
of the Carolinas. In another year the Commission of 
Trade was dissolved, Locke lost his post, and he dreamt 
of making a livelihood by his profession. But his health 
was feeble, and he travelled in France, acquiring at 
Montpellier the intimacy of the earl of Pembroke, to 
whom he afterwards dedicated his " Essay^ 

On Shaftesbury's restoration to office as lord presi- 
dent of the council, 1679, he sent for Locke, but the 
minister was dismissed in October of the same year. 
In two years more he was brought to trial for treason, 
but the grand jury ignored the indictment. Shaftes- 
bury, however, was compelled to escape secretly to Hol- 
land, where he died, June 21, 1688. Locke had followed 
him» and wrote an afiectionate tribute to his memory. 



The hostile testimony of bishop Fell proves that 
Locke had held himself aloof from the intri^n^o in 
which Shaftesbury was involved. He did not avoid 
the malice which such an intimacy invited. He was 
deprived of his studentship at Christ Church, and vain- 
ly attempted to regain it at the Revolution. On the 
accession of James II his surrender was demanded fhnn 
the states* general on the charge of complicity in Mon- 
mouth's insurrection. He was concealed bv his Dutch 
friends. William Penn offered to procure his pardon, 
but the office was nobly declined. During this exile 
Locke composed his first Letter on Toleration^ and pro- 
duced his plan of "A Commonplace Book" — if it be his 
— a cumbrous and inadequate device, which admits of 
easy improvement Dui.^ng this period— towards the 
dose of 1687— he finished the Euay concerning the Hu- 
man Understanding. The mode of its composition has 
left painful traces on the completed woric, as was appre- 
hended and acknowledged by its author. 

The Revolution of 1688 restored Locke to bis nadve 
land. He signalized his return by the publication (rf" 
his great philosophical work. An attempt was made to 
prohibit its introduction into the University of Oxford. 
In 1690 he issued his two treatises On Government. They 
controverted the doctrine of the divine right of kings, 
and referred the origin of government to a social com- 
pact, which b equally disproved by theory and by his- 
tory. They render^ a greater service by recognising 
labor as the foundation of property, though the tenet 
was pressed too far. 

Locke continued to decline diplomatic honors, but ac- 
cepted the place of Commissioner of Appeals, with the 
modest salary of £200. He directed his regards in 
these years to the coinage of the realm, which was 
much debased ; and published in 1691 his Consideratums 
on the Lowering of Interest and Raising the Value of 
Moneys which was followed in 1695 by Further Consid- 
eratums on Raising the Value of Money. He was in fre- 
quent consultation with the earl of Pembroke on the 
subject of that restoration of the British coinage which 
was brought about by the concurrent action of lonl 
Somers and Sir Isaac Newton. 

In 1693 Locke withdrew from the dull, heavy atmos- 
phere of London, and accepted a pleasant retreat for his 
increasing asthma and advancing age at Oates, in Es- 
sex, the seat of Sir Francis Masham, who had married 
the accomplbhed daughter of Dr. Cudworth. It had 
been the fortune of Locke through life to live ^ qwadris 
alienis." His hist quarters were at Oates. This wts 
his home till he found a quieter home in the grave, 
where he waited in cold abstraction's apathy for a mir- 
acle to reanimate his spirit, according to the dogma of 
The Reasonableness of Christianity (produced in 1695> 
This work sought the union of all Christian believers 
by advancing the doctrine that the only necessary arti- 
cle of Christian belief is comprised in the acceptance of 
Jesus cu the Messiah, making all the requirements be- 
yond this to consbt of practical duties, of repentance for 
sin, and obedience to the moral precepts of the Gospel 
It will be remembered that king William III, of Eng- 
land, entertained the design of uniting Conformists and 
Dissenters on some common ground, and to farther this 
scheme Locke wrote The Reasonableness of Christianity 
(comp. Quarterly Review, Lond. 1864, July). About the 
time of hb retirement from the city Locke published his 
third Letter on Toleration, and in the first year of hb se- 
clusion wrote hb little tract on the Education of Chil- 
dren. The same year which brought out hb exceed- 
ingly heterodox essay on Christianity was marked by 
hb philosophical controversy with Dr. Stillingfleet, bish- 
op of Worcester. 

Locke's circumstances were now rendered perfectly 
easy by hb appointment as commissioner of Trade and 
Plantations, with emoluments amounting to jCIOOO per 
annum. Locke, however, had an aptitude for losing or 
dropping the gifts of the fairies. Increasing debility 
made him resign hb comfortable sinecure in 1700, aod« 



LOCUST 



484 



LOCUST 



ticut, under the scarabiei {Hist, Nat, xi, 8). The Jews 
interpret chaiySl to mean a species of ffrasshopper^ Ger- 
man hetuchrecke, which M. Lewysohn identities with 
Locusta viridusimOf adopting the etymology of fiocbart 
and Gesenius. The Jewish women used to carry the 
eggs of the charg6l in their ears to preserve them firora 
the earache (Buxtorf, Lex, ChaUL el Rabbin, a. v. Char- 
gol). See Beetle. 

(8.) Ye'lkk (p)?!?, P»a. cv, 84, fipovx^i^ bruchus, "cat- 
erpillars r Jer. li, 14, 27, arpi'c, bruchus, " caterpiUars ;** 
and in the latter passage the Vulgate reads bruchus acu- 
leatutf and some copies horripilitntes ; Joel i, 4 ; ii, 25, 
ppovxoQf bruchusy " canker - worm ^ Nah. iii, 16, 16, 
rfrpi'c and fipovxocy ** canker-worm"). Assuming that 
the Psalmist means to say that the yelek was really an- 
other species employed in the plague on Egypt, the 
English word caterpillar in the common acceptation can- 
not be correct, for we can hardly imagine that the larvs 
of the Papilionids tribe of insects could be carried by 
** winds." Canker-worm means any worm that preys on 
fruit Bpovxoi: could hardly be understood by the Sept 
translators of the minor prophets as an undedged locust, 
for in Nah. iii, 16 they give the /3poux"f ./^w* a^oy. As 
to the etymology, the Arabic p?^, fo be white, is oflfered ; 
hence the white locust or the chafer-worm, which is 
white (Michaelis, Recueil de Quest, p. 64 ; Supp, ad fjex, 
Utb, 1080). Others give P\^t to lick nj\ as Gescnius, 
who refers to Numb, xxii, 4, where this root is applied 
to the ox " licking'* up his pasturage, and which, as de- 
scriptive of celerity in eating, is supposed to apply to 
the ytlek. Others suggest the Arabic pp^, to hasten, al- 
luding to the quick motions of locusts. The passage in 
Jer. 11, 27 is the only instance where an epithet is ap- 
plied to the locust and there we find p^|^ "'?9' '* rough 
caterpillars." As the noun derived fVora this descriptive 
term ppo^) means "nails," "sharp-pointed spike^" 
Michaelis refers it to the rough, sharp-pointed feet of 
some species of chafer {ut iupra). Oedman takes it for 
the 6*. cristattts of Linn. Tychsen, with more proba- 
bility, refers it to some rough or bristly species of locust, 
as the G, hamatopus of Linn., whose thighs are ciliated 
with hairs. Many grylli are furnished with spines and 
bristles ; the whole species A cheta, also the /7itpa species 
of Linn., called by Degeer Locustapupa spinosOf which 
is thus described: Thorax ciliated with spines, abdo- 
men tuberculous and spinous, posterior thighs armed be- 
neath with four spines or teeth ; inhabits Ethiopia. The 
alluiflon in Jeremiah is to the ancient accoutrement of 
war-horses, bristling with sheaves of arrows. See Can- 

KBK-WORM. 

(9.) Salam' (Orio), only in Lev. xi, 22, tirroieiy, at- 
taaUf " the bald locust" A Chaldee quadriliteral root 
is given by Bochart 0?^0, to devour. Another has 
been proposed, 5?0, a rock or stonCf and n?5, to go up ; 

hence the locust, which climbs up stones or rocks ; but, 
as Bochart observes, no locust is known answering to 
this characteristic. Others give 7?D, a stone^ and Dp9, 
to hide under; equally futile. Tychsen, arguing from 
what is said of the salam in the Talmud (Tract, Cholin\ 
viz. that " this insect has a smooth head, and that the 
female is without the sword-shaped tail," conjectures 
that the species here intended is Gryllus eversor (Asso), 
a synonyme that it is difficult to identify with any re- 
corded species. From the text where it is mentioned it 
only appears that it was some species of locust winged 
and edible. 

(10.) TsEiJiTSAL' (^2l^^» as the name of an insect 
only in Deut xx viii, 42, Ipvai^rj, r«%o, " locust"). The 
root commonly assigned is 552J, to sound (whence its 
use for a whizzing of wings, Isa. xviii. 1 ; for cymbals^ 2 
Sam. vi, 6; Psa. cl, 5; or any ringing instrument, as a 
harpoon, Job xli, 7) ; hence, says Gesenius, a species of 
locust that makes a shrill noise. Dr. Lee says a tree- 



cridbet that does so. Tychsen suggests the G, stridaln 
of Linn. The song of the gryllo^alpa is sweet and loud. 
On similar principles we might conjecture although 
with perhaps somewhat less certainty, a derivation from 
the Chald. K?2l, to pray, and thence infer the Mantis rt- 
ligiosa, or Prier Dieu, so called from its singular Atti- 
tude, and which is found in Palestine (Kitto's Physical 
History f p. 419). The words in the Septuag. and Vulg. 
properiy mean the mildew on com, etc, and are there 
applied metaphorically to the ravages of locusts. This 
mildew was anciently believed by the heathens to be 
a divine chastisement : hence their religious ceremony 
called Rubigalia (Pliny, Hist, Nat, xviii, 29). The word 
is evidently onomatopoietic, and is here perhaps a syn- 
onyme for some one of the other names for locust. Mi- 
chaelis {Supplem, 2094) believes the word b identical 
with chasilf which he says denotes perhaps the mole- 
cricket, Gryllus talptformis^ from the stridulous sound 
it produces. Tychsen (p. 79, 80) identifies it with the 
Gryllus stridulus^ Linnieus {=(Edipoda striduUt, Aud. 
Serv.). The notion conveyed by the Hebrew word will, 
however, apply to almost any kind of locust ^i^d, in- 
deed, to many kinds of insects ; a similar ynyrdjsalsaha, 
was applied by the Ethiopians to a tly which the Arab» 
called si/n^, apparently identical with the tsetse fly of Dr. 
Livingstone and other African travellers. In the pas- 
sage in Deuteronomy, if an insect be meant at all, it 
may be assigned to some destructive species of grass- 
hopper or locust 

(11.) The Greek term for the locust is ajcpi'c, which 
occurs in Rev. ix, 8, 7, with undoubted allusion to the 
Oriental devastating insect, which is represented as as- 
cending from the smoke of the infernal pi t^ as a type of 
the judgments of God upon the enemies of Christianity. 
They are also mentioned as forming part of the food of 
John the Baptist (Matt iii, 4 ; Mark i. 6), where it is 
not, as some have supposed, any plant that is intended, 
but the insect which is still universally eaten by the 
poorer classes in the East, both in a cooked and raw 
state (Hackett's lUustra, of Script, p. 97). 

II. Locusts belong to that order of insects known by 
the term Orthoptera (or straight-winged). This order 
is divided into two large groups or di%n8ions, viz. fVir- 
soria and Saltatoria. The first ^ the name imports, 
includes only those families of Orthoptera which have 
legs formed for creeping^ and which are considered un- 
clean bv the Jewish law. Under the second are com- 
prised those whose two posterior legs, by their peculiar 
structure, enable them to move on the ground by leaps. 
This group contains, according to Serville's arrange- 
ment, three families, the Gryllides, Locustariarf and the 
A cridites, distinguished one from the other by some pe- 
culiar modifications of structure. The common house- 
cricket (Gryllus domesticus^ Oliv.) may be taken as an 
illustration of the Gryllides ; the green ^niushopper 
(fjocusta viridissimOf Fabr.), which the French call 
Sauterelle verte, will represent the family Locustaria ; 
and the .4 cridites may be typified by the common mi- 
gratory locust (CF^c^Mda migi-aioria^ Aud. Serv.), which 



:• ;*^> *^ 




(Edipoda Miffratoria, 

is an occasional visitor to Europe (see the Gentleman s 
Magazine July, 1748. p. 331, 414; also The Times, Oct 
4, 1845). Of the Gryllides^ G, cerisyi has been found 
in Egypt^ and G. domtsticus, on the authority of Dr. 
Kitto, in Palestine ; but doubtless other species also oc- 
cur in these countries. Of the fjocustariePy Phanerop- 
tera/alcatay Serv. {G.falc. Scopoli), has also, according 
to Kitto, been found in Palestine, Bradyporus dasypuf 
in Asia Minor, Turkey, etc, Saga Natolia near Smyr- 



LOCUST 



485 



QL Of the locuflU prnpeTf or Acridiia^ tour specdes of ' porlioD of 1 
(be Reniu Trttialii are recorded u having been wen in ' tached. '1 
Kgypt, Syru, or Arabia, viz. T. muMa, T. mriiJMa, I powciful l\ 
T. protxra, a»il T. miniala. The ruUowiiiK kindi also i 
ocoir : Opiowata puciformU, in Egypt, and the oaais spread Ih 
of Harrmt; I'akUoami kieroglj/phicai, P. bufomu 
puttdiefntrii, P, vulaauu, in Ihe cleBerta of Cairo ; Dt- 
ricoryt tMdalii in Egypt and Mount Ub«ion. Of the 
gCDiu ^ cridtiim, ^ . inmfuin, the moat formidable per- 
bajH of all the Acrvli>ri,A.taitola(^ — G.'£ggpL'U ' 



Aerldivm LInieta. 
which ia ■ ipeciea camniaiilT aold for food in (lie mar- 
keta of Bagdad {Serv. Ortiop. eii7), A . temi/aidaium, 
A . prrrgrinam, one of the mont (lestructive of the ape- 
ries, and A.niorbo$iitii,tKCut either in Egypt or Aratia. 
CaUiptaiKut Mtropii and Chroiogomu luguirii are found 
in K^ypt.andin the cuUiva1«d lands about Cairo; A'rr- 

cuTi, A^. puichriptimitt (Kdipodu octofutciata, and (Ed, 
miffraliniii {^G. mi/fral.lAnn.), complete the list of 
the Sallatorial Orthoplrra of the lUble Unds. Of one 
qiecie* H. Olivier (I'oyage dam FEmpire Olkontan, ii. 
421) thniwriles: "With [he burning south winds (of 
Syria) there come from the inlerioT of Arabia and from 
(outbem pana of Ferna cluuda of locuals 



iAcridiai 



tm), who 



ravages 



Aeridium I^regrinttm, 
tries are as grievous and nearly as sudden as those of 
the heaviest ball in Europe. We witnessed them tirit 
It is dilBcult to enpresB the effect produced on m by tl 
right of the whole aunoaphere filled on all aidea and 
a great height by an innuinerable quantity of these i 
Beets, whose llii^ht was.slow and uniform, and who 
noise resembled [hat of rain : the sVy was darkened, 
and ibe light of the aun eoniuderably weakened. In a 
moment the terraces of the houses, the streets, ai 

they had nearly devoured all the leaves of the plants. 

have migrated only to reproduce themselves and die ; 
in fact, nearly all those we saw the next day had paired, 
and the day following Ihe fields were covered with iheir 
dead boiltes." This species is foiind in Arabia, Kgypt, 
Heaopolamia, and Persia. The ordinary Syrian locust 
greatly resembles Ihe eommon graRstaopper, but is larger 
and more destructive. It is usually about two inches 
and a half in length, and is chiefly of a green color, with 
dark spots. It is provided with a pair of antennie or 
^'feeleri" about an inch in length, projecting from the 
bead. The mandibles or jaws are black, and the wing- 
coTetU are of a bright brown, apolted with black. It 
baa ta elevated ridge ot crest upon the tbotax, or Ibat 



LOCUST 

e body to which the legs aiHl wings are at- 
e lega and thighs of these insects are so 
it they can leap io a height of two hundred 
ngth of their bodiee^ when so rais«d they 
'" ) close together a» to appear 






ingmasa. 



LocusTs, like many ol 



upon the whole, they are an immense bcueflt to 
portions of the world which they inhabit; and a: 
" ■' ' ' ' 'being that we may safely b 






antoge u 



They clear the way for the renovation of vegetable 
ptoduetions which are in danger of being destroyeil by 
the exuberance of some particular species, and are ibos 
fullUling the law of the Creator, that of all which he has 
made sbuuld nothing be lost. A reckon which has been 
choked up by shrubs, and perennial plants, and hard, 
half-withercil, impalatable grasses, ttttj having been 
laid bare by these scourges, soon appears in a far more 
beautiful drcM, with new herbs, superb lilie.s fresh an- 
nual graBse^ and young ami juicy shrubs of perennial 
kinds, affording delicious herbaj^e for the wild cattle 
and game" (^parman's Voyo^, i, 3<S7). Meanwhile i heir 

Contrary to the order of nature wiib all other insecla, 
the males are for more numerous than the females. It 
is believed that if they were equal in number they 
would in ten years annihilate the vegetable system. 
Besides all the creatures that feed upon them, rains are 
verj- destructive to Ibeit eggs, to the lan-te, pupv, and 
perfect insect. When perfect they always fly with the 
winds, and are therefore constantly carried out to sea, 
and ollen igiiuraiilly descend upon it as if upon land. 
(See below, III.) Myriads are thus lost in the ocean 
every year, and become the fuod of Ashes. On land 
they aObrd in all their several sUMcs sustenance to count* 
less tribes of birds, beasts, reptiles, etc ; and if their of- 
fice as Ihe scavengers of nature, commissioned to remove 
all 9uperlliu)us productions from the face of the earth, 
sometimes incidnlaUy and as the operation of a general 
law, interferes with the labors of man, as do storms, 
leni|>eats, eir., they have, from all antiquity to the pres- 
ent hour, aflhnled him an excellent supiily till the land 
acquires the benefit of their visitations, by yielding him 
in the mean time an agreeable, wbulcsume, and nutri- 

There are different ways of preparing locusts for food : 
sometimes they are ground and pounded, and then mind 
with Hour and water and made into calies, or they are 
salted and then eaten; sometimes smoked; boiled or 
roasteil; stewed, or fried in butler. Dr. Kitto (PicL 
fltWf,iiotecmLev.xi,21), who tasted locusts, says they 
are more like shrimps than anything else ; and an Eng- 
lish clergyman, some years ago, cooked some of the 
green grasshoppers, I^acutta viridtMtima, boiling them 
in water half an hour, throwing away the head, wings, 
and legs, and [hen sprinkling them with pepper and 



Icvusu whicli fiinnej psrl 
lemnce of John Uic IWipti 
how Kpt even leonwd mer 
p\ex ■ pUin (|UCBtuiii fnii 
of Lbe cuMomi uf uclier 
They are even an exUniii 
« (Sparmai 



LOCUST 

I tbii conaUta Iheii utilit.v; tbey aie, in bet, omnivrt- 

"^^ ' moBt poiBonous plants aie LuliiTerent id 

1 then; they Kill prey even upon the crowfoot, whoBr 

icity bun» the very hidea of beaata. They- nimply 

> conaume rrtryliing nilhout ptedilectiun, vegeultle mmtr- 

ler, linen, woollen, tilk, leather, etc ; and Pliny tloes do 

eitaggerale when he saya, "Korea quoque tectomm," 

" and even (be duan of tiouan" <xi, £9), fur Ihey have 

iminately to ebrcds. 



tc). Dio. 



vuliw n 



•S"!^. I, 



' people of Klhiopii 

, uf eatinfc them that they were called 

^ cric/opiia^ "eaters of locuata"(xxiv. 

3). Whole amies have been relieved 

by Ihem when in danger uf periahiii); 

(Porphyriiu, Dr Aittinmlia Camu). 

We learn rrom Ariatophanea and Aria- 

lotlo that ihev were eaten by the in- 

hahitanls of c'reece f Aristoph. ^e^or- 

tvii.lllS,lll7, ediU Dind.; Ariatolle, 

Hitl. ^m'lK. V, SO.wliarebe apeaka of 

them as delicacies). (See below,1II.) 

Dried LocusU on That they were eaten in a preaerveil 

ruda boms In state by the ancient Assyrians is eri- 

FJlll^lJ.fJV™ dent from the monuments (Layard, 

now In the Bii I- Birda alao eagerly devour them 
iah Hoseum.) (Ruaaell, Xutaral Hillary of Alrppa, 
p. 127 ; Volney, Travel*, i. 237 ; Kitto's Fhfocat HiMory 
of Pal p. 410). The locust-bird referred to by travel- 
lers, and which the Arabs call imurmar, is no duubl, 
from Dr.Kilto'sdeacripIioii, the "rose-colored staling," 
Piutor nueui. The Rev. H. R Tiiilram saw one speci- 
men in theoiangc-gniveaatJaSitin the sprio); of 1!J58, 



The Smiir 



>r Locaat^atlog Ulrd. 



but makea no allusion to its devouring locust*. Dr. 
Kilto in one place (p. 410) aaya the locust-bird is about 
the size of a starling ; in another place (p. 420) he com- 
parea it in size to a swallow. The bird is about eight 
inches and a half in length. Varrell (Brilhh Binb, ii, 
61, Sd ed.) aays "it is held sacred at Aleppo liccauae it 
feeds on the locust:" and CoL Sykea bears test imonv to 
the immense Hocks in which thev flv. He aavs (Cm 
logut of Ike BirJi of Onkh-tn) "they darken the air 
their numbers . . . forty a, lilYy have been kilted at a 

bandman, as they are as destructive as locusts, and not 
much Icsn numerous." 

The (jreat tlights of lociisu occur nnlv evenr fourth 
or fifth season. Those locust* which ct«ne in the flrat 
instance only fix on trees, and do not destroy pim: it 
is the younB. before they are able (o fly, which are 
ehielly injurious to the cn.ps. Nor lio all the species 
feed upon vefTCtaliles ; one. coroprehendinf- many vari- 
etieav the truxalis, accnnling to some authoritiea, feeds 
upon inaecls. Latteille says the house-cricket will do 

to devour not sd much from a ravenous appetite aa fnim . 
a rage for de«troyin((.* Destmciion, iherefore, and not ' 
food, is the chief impulse of theii devaautiona, and iu \ 



They reduce everything indiscrii 

which become manure. It might serve to miii^^tr 

what would have been the consequence if Iocumb had 
been carnivorous like waspa. All terrestrial bein^:m in 

come th«r victims. There are, no doubt, many things 
rtqiecling them yet unknown to as which would Mill 
further justify the belief that this, like "every" other 
"work uf God, is good"— benevolent upon the whole 
(see DilliMi'a Trav. in Spain, p. !56, etc., London, 1780, 
4to). 

III. The general reference* to IncuKs in the Scrip- 
tures are well collected by Jahn {BiU-Arehirol. § 2S). 
while Wemyis gives many of the symbolical npplica- 
tionsafthiscrealUTe<CJuru5iisi(wJiai,a.v.). It in well 
known that locusts live in a republic like anta. A^ur, 
tlie son of Jakeb, correctly says, " The locusts have no 
kinR." But Mr. Home ^vea them one (Ivlrodaeiitm, 
etc., IS39, iii, 7G), and Dr. Hanis sfieaks of their having 
"a leader whose motions thev invariably obaene" (A at 
HUl. o/Ihe Biblt, London, 1H25). See this notion re- 
futed by Kirby and Speuce (ii, 16),and even by Mouflpi 
(rMi'./Rarcr. p. 122, Lond.1634). It is also wortby of 
remark that no Hebrew root ha* ever been offered fa- 
vorinft this idea. Our translation (Nah. iii, I7j repre- 
sents locusls, " great graashoppers," as " campinf- in the 
hedges in the cold day, but when the sun ariseth as 
fleeing away." Here the locust. jo4, is undoubtedly 
spoken of as a perfect insect, able tu Hy, and as it is <reU 
known that at rrrniag the locusts descend from th«r 
flights and rorm camps for the night, may not ibe cold 
day mean the cold portion of the day, i.e. the rii^ht, ao 
remarkable fur its coldness in the East, the word C^"* 
bdng used here, as it often is, in a comprehensive seoae, 
like the Gr. i)/iipa and iM.dinf Gtaeniua auggesta 
that rills, "hedges," should here be understood like 
the Gr. aifiaata, shrubs, bnwhwood, etc (See above, 
I, 2.) With regard to the description in Joel (chap, ii), 
it is considereil by many learned writers as a Hguralivc 
representation of the ravages of an invading " army" of 
htiman beiagt, as in Rev. ix, 2-12, rather than a literal 
account, since such a devastation woidd hanUy, Ihey 
think, have escaped notice in the books of Kinga and 
Chnniiclea. Some have sbandoneil all attempt at a lit- 
eral interpretation of Lev. xi, 22. and understand-by ibe 
foiu- species of tocuuls there mentioned, Shalmanewr, 
Nebuchadneizat,Auliochus,and ihe Komana. Theodo- 
ret explains them as the four Assyrian kingi Tiglaih- 

j pilrscr, Shalmaiieser. Sennacherib, and Nebuchsdneuar; 
and Abarbancl, of the four kingdoms inimical to the 
Jews, viz. the Babylonian^ Pers)an^ (ireeks. and Ko- 

I mans {Pococke's H'oriti, i,214,ctc.,Lond. 1740; KoseD- 

I mliller, A'rtojKi inJorLe.i). 

From the Scriptures it appears that Egypt, Paleatine, 
and the adjacent counlrii'S ucrc frequently laid w»W 
by vaal tiudira of migrating locusts, which are especial 
ly represented as a scourge in Ihe hand of divine Prov- 
idence for Ihe punishment uf national sins; and Ibe 
brief notices of the inspired writers aa to the habits of 
the insects, their numbers, and the devastation they 
cause, are amply borne out by the more labored details 
of modem iravelters. 1. Locusts occur in gnat nom- 
bcr>, and sometimes obscure the sim (Eiod. x. IS; Jer. 
xlri. 23: Jmlg. vi. S; vii. \t\ Jnel ii, 10; Nah. iii, IS; 
mmpare IJvv, xlii.2! -Jllian.-V. J.iii, 12; Plinv. .V ff. 
xl,la\ Shaw,]'rut'eZi,p.ltl7[roL2ded.J; ijaddiI.HUL 



LOD 



487 



LODGE 



^^SiHop, i« 13, and De LocustU^ i, 4 ; Volney, Travels in 
i^fria^ i, 226). 2. Their voracity is alluded to iu £xod. 
x, 12, 15 ; Joel i, 4, 7, 12, and ii,3 ; Dcut, xxviii,38; Psa. 
bcxviu, 46; ev,S4; Iml xxxiii,4 (comp. Shaw, TravtU^ 
pw 187, aod traveUen in the Eaat, passim). 3. They are 
oocDf)«rpd to hones (Joel ii, 4 ; Rev. ix, 7. The Italiaos 
can tlie locuKt <* CavaleCta ;" and Kay says, ^ Caput ob- 
loni^im, equi instar pruua spectans." Compare also the 
Arab^s <lescription to Niebuhr, Descr, de VA rahU), 4. 
Tbey make n fearful noise in their flight (Joel ii,5 ; Rev. 
ix, 9 ; com|>. Forskal, Deter, p. 81 : "Transeuntes gr\'lli 
super verticem nostrum soiio magnie cataracue ferve- 
bant ;" Volney, Truv. i, 235). 6. Their irresistible prog- 
ress is referred to in Joel ii, 8, 9 (comp. Shaw, Trav, p. 
Ii47^ 6. They enter dwellings, and devour even the 
wooct-^nrork of houses (Exod. x, 6; Joel ii, 9, 10; comp. 
Pliny, X, H. xi, 29). 7. They do not fly in the night 
(Natl, iii, 17 ; comp. Niebuhr, Descr, de VA rnbie^ p. 173). 
^. Tlie sea destroys the greater number (Exod. x, 19 ; 
Joel ii, 20 ; com])are Plinv, xi, 35 ; Hamelquist, Trav. p. 
445 [ Kngl transl. 1766] ;' also Iliad, xxi, 12). 9. Their 
dead bodies taint the air (Joel ii,20; comp. Hasselquist, 
Tr€xv» p. 445). 10. They are used as food (Lev. xi, 21, 
22 ; Matt, iii, 4 ; Mark i, 6 ; compare Pliny, N. //. vi, 35 ; 
xi, 35 ; Diod. Sic iii, 29 ; Aristoph. A char, 1116; Ludolf, 
H. ^^Ufnop. p. 67 [Gent's transL] ; Jackson, MaroccOy p. 
52 ; Niebuhr, Descr. de I'A rabie, p. 150 ; Sparman, Trav. 
i, d67, who says the Hottentots are glad when the lo- 
custa come, for they fatten upon them; Hasselquist, 
TravfU, p. 232,419; Kirby and Spence, Entom. i, 305). 
Tbere are people at this day who gravely assert that 
tbe locusts which formed part of the food of the Baptist 
irere not the insect of that name, but the long, sweet 
pods of the locust-tree {Ceratomu siliqua)^ Johimnis 
brodf, ** St John's bread," as the monks of Palestine call 
it. For other equally erroneous explanations, or unau- 
thorized alterations of iicpidii;, see Celsii Hieroh. i, 74. 

IV. The following are some of the works which treat 
of locusts : Ludolf, Distertatio de Locustis (Francof. ad 
Moen. 1694) [thb author believes that the quails which 
fed the Israelites in the wilderness were locusts (vid. his 
Diatriba qua sententia nova de Selavis sive Locustis de- 
fenditur, Francof. 1694), as do the Jewish Arabs to this 
dav. So does Patrick, in his Comment, on Numbers. A 
more abmird opinion was that held by Norrelius, who 
maintained that the four names of Lev. xi, 22 were birds 
(see his Schediasma de A vibus sacris, A rbeh, Chagab. 
Solam, et Chargol^ Upsal. 1746, and in the Bibl. Brem. 
iii, 36) ] ; Faber, De Locustis Biblicis, et sigHlatim de A vi- 
bus Quadrupedibus, ex Lev. xi, 20 (Wittenb. 1710-11); 
Asso, Abhandlung von den Heuschrecken (Rostock, 1787 ; 
usually containing also Tychscn's Comment.de /xHntstis) ; 
Oedroan, Vermischte Sammlungy voL ii, c. vii ; Kirby and 
Spence, Introduction to Entonwlogg, i, 305, etc ; Bochart, 
Bierozoicon^ iii, 251, etc, ed. RosenmUller ; Kitto, Phgs. 
History of Palestine, p. 419,420; Harris, Natural Hist, 
of the Bible, s. v. (1833); Harmer, Observations (Lond. 
1797 ) ; Fabricius, Kntomol. System, ii, 46 sq. ; Credner, 
Joel, p. 261 sq.; Thomson, Ixmd and Book, ii, 102 sq.; 
Tristram, Nat. Hist, of the Bible, p. 306 sq. ; Wood, Bible 
Animals, p. 596 sq.; Hackett lUustra. of Script, p. 97 ; 
Serville, Af anagraph in the Suites a BuJJhn; Fischer, (?r- 
thoptera Europaa; Suicer, Thesaurus, i, 169, 179; Gu- 
therr, De Victu Johannis (Franc. 1785); Rathleb, /4 ibn- 
dotkeologie (Hanover, 1748); Rawlinson, /'ire Ancient 
Monarchies, ii, 299, 493 ; iii, 144. 

Lod (1 Chron. viii, 12 ; Ezra ii, 32 ; Neh. vii, 37 ; xi, 
86). See Lydda. 

Lo-de'bar (Heb. Lo-Debar,^ ^yj vk, no pasture, 
2 Sam. xvii, 27, Sept. AwSajSap ; written ^ST ib in 2 
Sam. ix, 4, 6, Septuag. Au/Saf^ap), a town apparently in 
Gilead,not far from Slahanaim, the residence of Ammiel, 
whoee son Machir entertained Mephibosheth. and after- 
wards sent refreshments to David (2 Sam. ix, 4, 5 ; xvii, 
27). It is probably the same with the place (see He- 
land, PalaM, p. 875) called Debir (or rather Lidbir', 



"13*1^, Joeh. xiii,26; Sept A«/3ip, Vulg. Dabir,- for tha 
b is not a prefix, but a part of the name [see Keil's Com- 
ment, ad loc], which should probably be pointed ^31^, 
Lodebar'), on the (north-eastern) border of Gad, but in 
which direction from Mahanaim is uncertain, perhaps 
north-w£8t (in which general direction the associated 
names appear, to proceed), and not far from et-Tayibeh, 
Lodensteiu, Jodocus von, a noted Dutch thco> 
logian, was bom at Delft in 1620. He studied undei 
Voetius at Utrecht, and under Cocceius and Amesius at 
Franeker, and became preacher at Zoetemer in 1644; at 
Sluys, in Flanders, in 1650, and at Utrecht in 1652 — in 
all of which places he used every exertion to revive the 
spirit of practical piety among his countiymen, whom 
great prosperity had rendered worldly-minded and in- 
different When, in 1672, the country was threatened 
by the invasion of the French under Louis XIV, he pro- 
claimed it a judgment of the Lord, and called on theih 
to repent. He found many followers. In 1665 he ceased 
to administer the Lord's Supper, from conscientious scru- 
ples. Laying great stress on purity of life and of heart, 
he feared lest he might administer it to some unworthy 
to receive this sacred ordinance. The number of his 
adherents gradually increased, and they spread over the 
whole Netherlands, but they never separated from the 
Reformed Church like the Labadists. The effect of Lo- 
denstein's doctrines in Holland was like that following 
Spener's labors afterwards in Germany. He died pastor 
of Utrecht in 1677. He wrote VtrfaUenes Christenthum 
(published after his death by J. Hofmann), Brforma- 
tionsspiegel (to be found also in Aniold's Kirchen u. Kei- 
zerhistorie), and a number of hymns, etc. — Hcrzog,7?fa/- 
Encykhp, x, 450. (J. N. P.) 

Lodge (properly some form of the verb *{h, lun, or 
"p?, lin, to stay over night, av\it,opai, etc.). See Inn. 
In Isa. i, 8, the'* W;^f in a garden" (hJsi^TS, melunah', a 
lodging-place, rendered " cottage" in Isa. xxiv, 20) sig^ 
nifies a shed or lodge for the watchman in a garden ; it 
also refers to a sort of hanging bed or hammock, which 
traveUers in hot climates, or the watchmen of gardens 
or vineyards, hang on high trees to sleep in at night, 
probably from the fear of wild beasts (Isa. xxiv, 20). 
The lodge here referred to was a little temporar\' hut 
consisting of a low framework of poles, covered with 
boughs, straw, turf, or similar materials, for a shelter 
from the heat by day and the cold and dews by night, 
for the watchmen that kept the garden, or vineyard, 
during the short season while the fruit was ripening 
(Job xxvii, 18), and speedily removed when it had 
ser\'ed that purpose. It is usually erected on a slight 
artificial mound of earth, with just space sufficient for 
one person, who, in this confined solitude, remains con- 
stantly watching the ripening crop, as the jackals dur- 
ing the vintage often destroy whole vineyards, and 
likewise commit great ravages in the gardens of cucum- 
bers and melons. This protection is also necessary to 
prevent the depredations of thieves. To see one of these 
miserable sheds standing alone in the midst of a field or 
on the margin of it, occupied by its solitary watcher, 
often a decrepit or aged person, presents a striking im- 
age of drearincM and loneliness (Hackett's lUustra. of 
Scripture, p. 162). See Cottagk. 

Lodge, Nathan, a Methodist Episcopal minister, 
was bom in Loudon County. Va., August 20, 1788; was 
converted in 1804, entered the Conference at Baltimore 
in 1810, and died Nov. 27, 1815. He was a very zeal* 
ous and useful minister, and many souls were converted 
through his preaching. He was greatly lamented by 
his people, among whom he was suddenly cut down. — 
Minutes of Conferences, i, 278. 

Lodge, Robert, a member of the Society of 
Friends, was bom at Masham, Yorkshire, about 1636. 
He was a religious youth, and became a Friend about 
1660. He preached and suffered for the Quaker cause 
in Ireland. On July 15. 1690, he died, assuring his 



LOHESH 



493 



LOLLARDS 



Institute [see Deaconkss], which in our day is 
knuvni in nearly all the civilized world. Lohe labored 
here faithfully and succeasfully until his death, Jan. 28, 
1872. He wrute Dtr evangelische GeisUiche (2d edition, 
Scutti;. 1806,2 v6\a,Syo):—L€benslaufdt'r htiiiff, Magd 
Oottfs aus dtm P/arrstande (3d ed. Nuremb. 18(59, 8vo) : 
—OtisiHcher Titgeslauf (3d ed. Nuremb. 1870, 8vo):— 
A ut der (iesckithtt d, Diakom$8manttalt Neumdetteltctu 
(Nuremb. 1870, 8vo) ; etc. See Schem, Deutsch-Amer- 
ikon, CoMV, Lexikonf vi, 589. 



See Hal-lohesh. 

(usually in the dual, 0*|>^?n, chalatsa'yitn^ jba 
the seat of strength, spoken of as the place of the girdle, 
Job xxx\'iii, 3 ; xl,7; Isa. v, 27 ['*reins,**xi, 6] ; xxxii, 
11 ; or as a part of the body generally. Job xxxi, 20; 
Jcr. XXX, 6 [so the Chald. plur. "pSCnfl, Dan. v, 6] ; by 
euphetnisni ft>r the generative power, Gen. xxxv, 11 ; 1 
Kings viii, 19; 2 Chron. vi, 9; also O^SHO, motkna'yim, 
as the seat of strength, Gr. daiftvi'y which are the other 
terms properly so renderetl, and refer to that part of the 
body simply; but D'^^OS, ke»alim% Psa. xxxviii, 7, 
roeana the Jlanks^ as elsewhere rendered, prop, the in- 
ternal muscles of the loins, near the kidneys, to which 
the fat adheres; while Q"'**[)% put in Gen. xlvi, 26; 

Exud. i, 5; corop. Judg. viii, 30, by euphemism for the 
seat of generation, properly signifies the thighs as else- 
where rendered, beuig plainly distinguished from the 
true loin in Exoil. xxviii, 42), the part of the back and 
side between the hip and the ribs, which, as being, as it 
were, the pivot of the body, b most sensibly affected by 
pain or terror (Deut. xxxiii, 11 ; Job xl, 16 ; Psa. xxxviii, 
7; Ixix, 23; Isa. xxi, 3; Jer. xxx, 6; Ezek. xxi, 6; 
xxix. 7; Dan. V, 6; Nah. ii, 1, 10). This part of the 
body was especially girt with sackcloth, in token of 
mourning (Gen. xxxvii, 34; 1 Kings xx, 31, 32; Psa. 
Ixvi, 1 1 ; Isa. XX, 2 ; xxxii, 1 1 ; Jer. xlviii, 37 ; Amos 
viii, 10). The term is most frequently used with allu- 
sion to the girdle which encompassed this part of the 
budy, i. q. the tcaiat ,* especially in the phrase to *' gird 
op the loins," i. e. prepare for vigorous effort, either lit- 
erally (1 Kings xviii, 46; 2 Kings iv, 29; ix, 1; Prov. 
xxxi, 17), or oftener as a metaphor borrowed from the 
loose and flowing dress of Orientals, which requires to 
be gathered closely at the waist, or even to have the 
skirts tucked up into the belt before engaging in any 
exertion or enterprise (Job xxxviii, 3 ; xl, 7 ; Jer. i, 1 7 ; 
Luke xii, 35; 1 Pet. i, 13). See GiRDUt. 

Lo'iis (Ate/tc, perh. agretalle)^ the grandmother of 
Timothy, not by the side of his father, who was a Greek, 
but by that of his mother. Hence the Syriac has **thy 
mother's mother." She is commended by the apostle 
Paul for her faith (2 Tim. i, 5) ; for, although she might 
not have known that the Christ had come, and that Je- 
sus of Nazareth was he, she yet believed in the Messiah 
to come, and died in that faith. Ante A.D. 64. See 
Timothy. 

laoki or Loke, in Scandinavian mythology, is the 
principle of evil, an impious, mischievous wretch, au- 
thor of all intrigue, vice, and crime ; father of the most 
abominable monster^ of the wolf Fenris, the midgard 
snake, and Hela (blue Hel), the goddess of death ; the 
"spirit of evil," mb it were, mingling freely with, yet 
easentifllly opposed to the other inhabitsnts of the Norse 
heaven, very much like the Satan of the book of Job. 
He IS called the son of the giant Farbante, and is mar- 
ried to tho giantess Angerbode. Sometimes he is called 
Am'fx>ki, to distinguish him from Utgarda-Loki, a king 
of tl«e giants, whose kingdom lies on the uttermost 
bounds of the earth ; but these two are occasionally con- 
founded. It is quite natural, considering the character 
of Loki, that at a later period he should have become 
identified with the devil of Christianity, who is called 
in Norway to the present day Laake, See VoUmer, My- 
fitol, Worterh, s. v.; Chambers, Cyclop, s. v.; Weinhold, 



Die 8agm r. Tj}ki in Haupt, Zeitichr\fi fur deuUchet 
A UertK, voL vii ; Thorpe, North. MylhoL voL i (see In- 
dex) ; and the excellent article in Thomas, Biogr, and 
Mythol Diet, (Phila. 1872), s. v. 

Lokman is represented in the Koran and by later 
Arabian tradition as a cclebrateil philosopher, contem- 
porary with David and Solomon, with whom he is said 
to have frequently conversed. He was, we are told, an 
Arabian of the ancient tribe of Ad, or, according to an- 
other account, the king or chief of that tribe; and, when 
his tribe perished by the Sell el-Arim, he was preserved 
on account of his wisdom and piety. Other accounts, 
drawn mostly from Persian authorities, state that Lok- 
man was an Abyssinian slave, and noted for his personal 
deformity and ugliness, as for his wit and a peculiar tal- 
ent for composing moral fictions and short apologues. 
He was considered to be the author of the well-known 
collection of fables, in Arabic, which still exist under 
his name. There is some reason to suppose that Lok- 
m&n and i£sop were the same individual, and this view 
is of late gaining ground. See the excellent articles in 
the EnffUsh Cyclop, s. v. ; Chambers, Cyclop, s. v. ; and 
Hammer-Purgstall, Littralttrgesch. d^r Araber, i, 81 sq. 

Iiollarda or Lol(l)hard«, originally the name of 
a monastic society which arose at Antwerp about 1800, 
and the members of which devoted themselves to the 
care of the sick and dying with pestilential disorders 
(see Celutbs), was jdterwards applied to those who, 
during the closing part of the 14th and a lai^ part of 
the succeeding century, were credited with adhering to 
the religious views maintained by Wickliffe (q. v.). 

Origki of the Name. — Great diversity of opinion ex- 
ists among scholars on the origin of the name Lollard. 
Some have supposed that there existed a person of such 
a name in Germany, who, differing in many points from 
the Church of Rome, made converts to his peculiar doc- 
trines, and thus originated an independent sect about 
1315 (see Gen, Biog. Diet. art. Lollard, Walter), and for 
this heretical step was burned alive at Cologne in 1322. 
It is more than probable, however, that this leader re- 
ceived his name from the sect than gave a name to it, 
just as in the Prognotticatio of Johannes Lychtenberger 
(a work very popular in Germany towards the close of 
the 15th century) great weight is attached to the pre- 
dictions of one Reynard Lollard (Reynhardus Lolhardus), 
who was, no doubt, so called from the sect to which he 
belonged. Others believe that it was applied to the 
Cellitcs because of their practice of singing dirges at 
funerals — the Low-German word lolkn or luUen signi- 
fying to sing softly or slowly. Another derivation of 
the word is that which makes it an epithet of reproach. 
In papal bulls and other documents it is used as synon- 
ymous virtually with lollia, the tares commingled with 
the wheat of the Church. In this sense we meet with 
it (A.D.^1382) even before Wickliffe's death. StiU an- 
other suggestion comes from a correspondent of "Notes 
and Queries" (March 27, 1852), who, quoting from a pas- 
sage of Heda's history, cites a statement to the effect 
that bishop Florentius de Wevelichoven "caused the 
bones t>f a certain Matthew Lollaert to be burned, and 
his ashes to be dispersed,*' etc. The correspondent re- 
marks that from a note on this passage, where reference 
is made to Prateolus and Walsingham, it is evident that 
Heda is speaking of the founder of the sect of the Lol- 
lards. The name Lollaert would, of course, indicate that 
the name of the English sect was derived from a Dutch 
heretic, buried at Utrecht, and well known in the neigh- 
boring region. With much more reason the origin of 
the word Lollard has been traced of late to the Latin 
loflardwy by a comparison of the later English Lollard 
with the old English /b/2er, used by Chaucer and Lange- 
land. Says Whitaker (in his edition of Piers Plow^ 
nianf p. 154 sq.) : "Any reader of early English knows 
that Lollard is the late English spelling of the Latin 
lolUirdus. But what is loUnrdvs f It is a Latin spell- 
ing of the old English loiter, used by Chaucer and 



LOMBARD(US) 



497 



LOMENIE 



cntioTiB. In 1494, Robert Blacater, the first archbishop 
<yf OljtsK^ow, sought to disphiy his zeal for the Church 
by a vrliolesale attack on the pious followers of Lollard- 
ism. A^ccordingly, thirty suspected persons, both male 
anil female, were summoned before the king (James IV) 
and t he great counciL Among them were ^id of Bar- 
skins ming, Campbell of Cessnock, Campbell of Newmills, 
ShAwr of Polkemmet, Helen Chalmers, lady Polkillie, and 
Isabel Ohalmers, lady Stairs. According to Knox (His- 
fory i\ftkt ReformaiUmy p. 2), their indictment contained 
tliirty— four different articles, which he informs us are 
prt»ierved in the Register of Glasgow. Among the chief 
of tbes« were, that images, relics, and the Virgin are 
not proper objects of worsliip ; that the bread and wine 
in tUe sacrament are not transubstantiated into the 
biKly and blood of Christ; that no priest or pope can 
l^raut absolutions or indulgences; that masses cannot 
profit the dead; that miracles have ceased; and that 
prie«»ts may lawfully marry. Providentially for the 
IxklLnrds of Kyle, king James IV, " a monarch who, with 
aU Ills faults, had yet too much of manliness and can- 
dor tM permit his judgment to be greatly swayed by the 
niaii|;;uity of the prelates," declined to be a persecutor 
of any of his people for such moderate reason, and dis- 
missed the prisoners with an admonition to beware of 
neitr doctrines, and to content themselves with the faith 
of tbe Church. It is by many believed, however, that 
one particular reason why king James IV abstained from 
inflicting any punishment on these Lollards of Kyle was 
their intlueuce and the wide spread of the doctrines they 
adhered to, and that " divers of them were his great fa- 
miliars" (compare Lea, Hist. Sacerdotal Celibacy, p. 508 ; 
Uetherington, Hist. Ch. of Scotland, i, 84 sq.). 

Literature, — Much information concerning the Lol- 
lards may be derivetl from the lives of Wickliffe by 
Lewis, Le Bas, and especially Vaughan. Fox, in his 
Mttrtyrology, often presents very disconnected docu- 
ments exceedingly valuable. Walsingham {Chronica), 
Knighton, and Walden have contributed important evi- 
dence, although by no means favorable, which subse- 
quent writers have used. The fuller historic of Eng- 
land, as Rapin, for instance, present some leading facts 
concerning the Lollards in connection with contempo- 
rary political movements. The moat satisfactory ac- 
count of the later Lollards is found in articles by Lech- 
ler in the Histor. Zeitschrvft for 1853 and 1854. 'He has 
given citations from works hitherto unpublished, which 
he examined in the libraries of the English universities. 
See also Wilkins, Concilia MagncB Brifamticte (London, 
1737, iii) ; Turner, History of England during the Middle 
Ages ; Weber, Gesch. d, Kirchen Ref m Grossbritanmen 
(1836), voL i ; Neander, Ch. Histoty, v, 141 sq. ; Milman, 
Hist, of Lot. Christianity, vii, 404 sq. ; Mosheim, Eccles. 
Hist. 13th cenL p. 323; 14th cent. p. 381, 392, etc.; 16th 
cent. p. 488 sq. ; Shoberly, Persecutions of Popery, i, 136 
tq. ; Ullmann, Reform.before the Reformation, ii, 11, 14; 
Ebrard, Kirchen und Dogmengesch. ii, 800, 450, 462 sq. ; 
Gillett, Life and Times of John Huss, i, 370 sq., 628, In- 
dex for Wickliffe ; Punchard, Hist, of Congregationalism 
(N. Y. 1865, 2 vols. 12mo), i, 237 sq. ; Butler (C. M.), Ec- 
cles. Hist, second series (PhiladeL 1872, 8vo), p. 365 sq., 
378, 381 sq^ 388 ; Lea, Hist, of Sacerdotal Celibacy, p. 379 
aq. ; Reichel, Hist, of the Roman See in the Middle .Ages, 
p. 571 sq. ; Studien u. Kritiken, 1845, iii, 594 sq. ; 1848, i, 
169 sq. ; Chr. Rev. voL viii ; Christ. Remem. 1853 (Oct.), 
p. 415; lAidies* Repos. 1870 (Sept.), p. 189 sq. 

Lombard(U8), Petbr, a very noted scholastic the- 
ologian, derived his name from the proWnce in which he 
was bom, near Xovara, in Lombardy, about the opening 
of the 12th century. He studied at Bologna, Rheims, 
and afterwards at l*iiria Here he acquired a great rep- 
utation, was made first professor of theology in the uni- 
versity, and subsequently (in 1159) appointed bishop. 
He died in the French capital in 1 164. Lombardus was 
considered one of the best scholars of his day, and a zeal- 
ous priest. His principal work, Senteniiarum libri qua- 
^or, la a collection of passages from the fathers, of 



which he attempted to conciliate the apparent contra- 
dictions, somewhat in the manner in which Gratian at- 
tempted it in his Dicret. , He may be considered as tho 
first author who collected theological doctrines into a 
complete system, and, whatever the faults of his work, 
it is the foundation of scholastic theology, and shows 
much care and system. It became the text-book in the 
schools of philosophy, obtained for him the title of 
"Master of Sentences" (M agister Sententiarum), and 
placed him at the head of the scholastic divines, llie 
work was first published at Venice (1477, foL) in four 
parta, each divided into different headings. After his 
death, one of the propositions contained in it ('' Cbristus, 
secundum quod est homo, non est aliquid") was con- 
demned by pope Alexander III. Thomas Aquinas and 
others have written commentaries on the book. He 
also wrote Commentaire sur les Psaumes (Paris, 1541, 
foV) :—Commenfaire sur les Epitres de St. Paul (1537, 
foL). His complete works were published at Nurem- 
berg in 1478, and at Basle in 1486. An able editor was 
found in Aleaume, who published Peter the I^mbard's 
works at Louvain in 1546. The best edition of the Sen- 
tences is by Antoine Ghenart (Louvain, 1567, 4to). See 
Herzog, Real-Encyldop. s. v.; Neander, Hist, of Christian 
Dogmas (Bohn's edit), voL ii (see Index) ; Hefele, Con- 
ciliengesch. v, 645, 689, 785; Renter, Alexander III, voL 
iii ; Dupin, Nouv. Biblioth. des antiq. EccUsiastiques, xvi, 
45 sq. ; Wetzer und Welte, Kirchen-Lexikon, vi, 688 aq. 
(J. H.W.) 

Lombards. See Longodardi. 

Lombardy is the name given to that part of North- 
em Italy which formed the " nucleus" of the kingdom 
of the Longobardi (q. v.). Incorporated in 774 into 
the Carlovingian possessions, it became an independent 
kingdom again in 843, though it was not entirely sev- 
ered fVom the Prankish monarchy until 888. It now 
consisted of the whole of Italy north of the Peninsula, 
with the exception of Savoy and Venice. In 961 it was 
annexed to the German empire, and its territory there- 
after gradually lessened by the formation of several 
small but independent duchies and republics. Through- 
out the Middle Ages the Lombards were compelled to 
league t(^ther with their neighbors to retain their in- 
dependence from the German emperors. The assump- 
tions of Frederick Barbarossa they succerafully defeated 
in 1176, and so also those of Frederick II. But by in- 
ternal dissensions they were gradually weakened, and 
in 1540 Spain finally took possession of Lombardy, and 
held it until about 1706, when it fell to Austria, and 
was designated "Austrian Lombardy." In 1796 it be- 
came part of the Cisalpine republic, but in 1815 it 
was restored to Austria, and annexeil poUticaUy to 
the newly-acquiretl Venetian territory under the name 
of the Lombardo- Venetian kingdom. This union 
was dissolved in 1859 by the Italian War, Lombardy, 
with the exception of the Venetian territory (final- 
ly also given to Italy in 1866), falling to the new 
kingdom of luly. There is now no political divis- 
ion called Lombanly, the country having been par- 
celled out into the provinces of Bergamo, Brescia, 
Como, Cremona, Milan, Pavia, and Sondrio. Its total 
area was 9086 English square miles, with a population, 
in 1885, of 8,460,824 souls, mostly Roman Catholics. 
See Italy. 

Lombroso, Jacob, a noted Jewish writer and rab- 
bi of Spanish descent, fiourished in Venice, Italy, in the 
first half of the 17th century. He published in 1639 a 
beautiful edition of the Old Test, in Hebrew, with val- 
uable comments, and a Spanish translation of the most 
difficult passages, entiUed nOJ rs Kh'^'O (a Hanc^l 
of Quiet). He also wrote a polemic against Christianity. 
See .lost, Gesch. des Judenth. u. s. Sekten, iii, 227 ; FUrst, 
Biblioth. Judaica, ii, 254. 

Lom^nie de Brirnne, ^tie?cnr Charles de, a 
very celebrated French prelate, was bom at Paris in 



^5q^ 



LONGEVITY 



499 



LONGEVITY 



'T » 



-t 



"* onibs, of thirty days each, to the year. "Nor is 
lerc," olMt^rves St. Augustine {De Civ, Dei, xv, 12), 
mny car« to be given unto those who think that one 
t our ordinary years would make ten of the years of 
times, being so short ; and therefore, say they, 900 
irs of theirs are 90 of ours — their 10 is our 1, and their 
00 our 10. Thus think they that Adana was but 20 
K^ars old when he begat Seth, and he but 20^ when be 
Je^^at Rnos, whom the Scriptures call (the Sept. ver.) 
10.5 years. For, as these men hold, the Scripture di- 
rided one year into ten parts, calling each part a year ; 
and each part had a sixfold quadrate, because in six 
days Ood made the world. Now 6 times 6 is 36, 
whicb, multiplied by 10, makes 860— i. e. twelve lunar 
months."* Abarbanel, in bio Comment, on Gen, r, states 
tnat Bome, professing Christianity, had fallen into the 
same naistake, viz. that Moses meant lunar, and not so- 
tar years. Ecclesiastical history does not inform us of 
this fact, except it be to it that Lactantius refers (ii, 12) 
when he speaks of one Varro : "The life of man, though 
temporary, was yet extended to 1000 years ; of this Var- 
ro is so ignorant that, though known to all from the 
aacred writings, he would argue that the 1000 years of 
Moaes were, according to the Egyptian mode of calcu- 
lation, only 1000 months !** 

That the ancients computed time differently we leani 
from Pliny (Hist, Nat, vii), and also from Scaliger (Z>e 
£mend, Tem])orum, i) ; still this does not alter the case 
as above stated (see Heidegger, Z>« Ataio Patriarchal 
run*, in his //m/. Patr, Amst. 1688, ZUr. 1729). 

But it is asked, if Moses meant solar years, how came 

it to pass that the patriarchs did not begin to beget 

children at an earlier period than they are reported to 

have done? Seth was 105 years old, on the lowest cal- 

colatiim, when he begat Knos, and Methuselah 187 when 

Ljunech was bom ! St. Augustine (i, 15) explains this 

difficulty in a twofold manner by supposing, 1. Either 

that the age of puberty was later in proportion mb the 

lives of the antediluvians were longer than ours, or, 2. 

That Moses does not record the tirst-bom sons hut as the 

order of the genealogy required, his object being to trace 

the succession from Adam, through Seth, to Abraham. 

While the Jews have never questioned the longevity 
assigned by Moses to the patriarchs, they have yet dis- 
puted, in many instances, as to whether it was comm<m 
to all men who lived up to the period when human life 
was contracted. Mairoonides {Afore Nebochim, ii, 47) 
takes this view. With this opinion Abarbanel, on Gen. 
V, agrees ; Nachmanides, however, rejects it, and shows 
that the life of the descendants of Cain must have been 
quite as long as that of the Sethites, though not noticed 
bv Moses : for onlv seven individuals of the former filled 
up the space v/hich intervened between the death of 
Abel and the flood, whereas ten of the latter are enu- 
merated. We have reason, then, to conclude that lon- 
gevity was not confined to any peculiar tribe of the 
ante or post diluvian fathers, but was vouchsafed, in gen- 
eral, to aU. Irenteus (^4 dventu Hceret. v) informs us 
that some supposed that the fact of its being recorded 
that no one of the antediluvians named attained the 
age of 1000 years, was the fiUHlment of the declaration 
(Gen. iii), " in the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt 
surely die;*' grounding the opinion, or rather conceit, 
upon Psa. xc, 4, namely, that God's day is 1000 years. 

As to the probable reasons why God so prolonged the 
life of man in the earlier ages of the world, and as to 
the subordinate means by which this might have been 



terval.^ To this he adds the testimony of many cele^ 
brated profane historians, who affirm that the ancients 
lived 1000 years. In the above passage Josephus enu- 
meratesybur causes of the longevity of the earlier patri- 
archs. 1. As to the first, viz., their being dearer to God 
than other men, it is plain that it cannot be maintained ; 
for the profligate descendants of Caui were equally long- 
lived, as mentioned above, with others. 2. Neither can 
we agree in the second reason he assigns; because we 
find that Noah and others, though born so long subse- 
quently to the creation of Adam, yet lived to as great 
an age, some of them to a greater age than he did. 8. 
If, again, it were right to attribute longevity to the su- 
perior quality of the food of the antediluvians, then the 
seasons, on which this depends, must, about Moses's 
time — for it was then that the term of human existence 
was reduced to its present standard— have assumed a 
fixed character. But no change at that time took place 
in the revolution of the heavenly bodies, by which the 
seasons of heat, cold, etc., are regulated : hence we must 
not assume that it was the nature of the fruits they ate 
which caused longevity. 4. How far the antediluvians 
had advanced in scientific research generally, and in as- 
tronomical discovery particularly, we are not informed ; 
nor can we place any dependence upon what Josephus 
says about the two inscribed pillars which remained 
from the old world (see i4n/. i, 2, 9). We are not, there- 
fore, able to determine, with any confidence, that God 
permitted the earlier generations of man to live so long 
in order that they might arrive at a high degree of 
mental excellence. From the brief notices which the 
Scriptures afford of the character and habits of the ante- 
diluvians, we should rather infer that they had not ad- 
vanced very far in discoveries in natural and experi- 
mental philosophy. See ANTEDlI.u^^AN8. We must 
suppose that they did not reduce their language to al- 
phabetical order; nor was it necessary to do so at a 
time when human life was so prolonged that the tra- 
dition of the creation passed through only two hands to 
Noah. It would seem that the book ascribed to Enoch 
is a work of postdiluvian origin (see Jurieu, Crit, Hiat, 
i, 41). Possibly a want of mental employment, togeth- 
er with the labor they endured ere they were able to 
extract from the earth the necessaries of life, might 
have been some of the proximate causes of that degen- 
eracy which led God in judgment to destroy the old 
world. If the antediluvians began to bear children at 
the age on an average of 100, and if they ceased to do 
so at 600 years (see Shuckford's Connect, i, 36), the world 
might then have been far more densely populated than 
it is now. Supposing, moreover, that the earth was no 
more productive antecedently than it was subsequently 
to the flood, and that the antediluvian fathers were ig- 
norant of those mechanical arts which so much abridge 
human labor now, we can easily understand how diffi- 
cult they must have found it to secure for themselves 
the common necessaries of life, and this the more so if 
animal food was not allowed them. The prolonged life, 
then, of the generations before the flood would seem to 
have been rather an evU than a blessing, leading as it 
did to the too rapid peopling of the earth. We can 
readily conceive how this might conduce to that awful 
state of things expressed in the words, " And the whole 
earth was filled with violence." In the absence of any 
well-regulated system of government, we can imagine 
what evils must have arisen : the unprincipled would 
oppress the weak, the crafty would outwit the unsus- 



socoroplbhed, Josephus says (/In/ 1. c.) : "For those an- ' pecting, and, not having the fear of God before their 
cients were beloved of God, and lately made by God | eyes, destruction and miserj' would be in their ways, 
himself; and because their food was then fitter for the | Still we must admire the providence of God in the Ion- 
prolongation of life, they might well live so great a i gevity of man immediately after the creation and the 
number of years ; and because God afforded them a Ion- ' flood. After the creation, when the world was to be 
ger time of life on account of their virtue and the good I peopled by one man and one woman, the age of the 
use they made of it in astronomical and geometrical dis- | greatest part of those on record was 900 and upwards, 
coveries, which would not have afforded the time for ^ But after the flood, when there were three couples to re- 
foretelling the periods of the stars unless they had lived people the earth, none of the patriarchs except Shem 
600 years; for the great year is completed in that in- I reached the age of 500, and oniv *^^ ^^i three of hi 



LONGOBARDI 



601 



LONGOBARDI 



days before bis death as contaioing the faith in which 
he '^* iMrislied to die** — worda expressive of bis sense of 
guilt and bis faith in Christ's blood to cleanse him from 
that ffuilu See London Spectator^ 1868, Oct. 31, p. 1272 ; 
-V. K. Tribune, Oct. 29, 1868. (J. H. W.) 

I«oii£;obaLrdi (otherwise called Lombards), a Tea- 
tf kTiic people of the Suevic race, who maintained a do- 
minion in Italy from A.D. 568 to 774. 

The name Lombard* is derived from the Latin Ijmgo- 
bar^ or Langobardi, a form in use since the Tith centu- 
rv. and generally supposed to have been given in refer- 
ence to the long beards of this people; although some 
derive it rather from a yfordparta or barte, which sig- 
nities a battle-axe. 

The first historical notices present them as a people 
small in number^ havuig their original seat on the west 
side of the Lower Elbe, in a territory extending some 
sixty miles southward from Hamburg. They advanced 
into Moravia and Hungary, the abode of the Rugt, be- 
fore 5O0, and conquered the ileruli, and were invited 
by Justinian to the neighborhood of the Danube in 
the year 526. They afterwards crossed into Paiuio- 
nia, where, though at first in alliance with the Gepidie, 
they subsequently (A.D. 56G or 567) subdued the peo- 
ple, yielding in turn to the Avars, and in 569 crossed 
the ^\ip9 into Italy under Alboin, having been invited 
thither by Narses, as it is said, out of revenge against 
the province and the emperor. This was fourteen years 
after the overthrow of the Gothic kingdom, and the ex- 
hausted state of the country left Northern Italy an easy 
prey. The Goths were Arians, and religious differences 
with both the Koman and Greek churches went far to 
prevent the acceptance of their rule, and the establish- 
ment at that time of a united government in Italy, for 
the want of which the country has so many centuries 
tuflTered. The Lombards succeeded no better in secur- 
ing entire dominion. They, however, extended their 
power, establishing the duchies of Frioul, Spoleto, and 
Benevento, until only the districts of Rome and Naples, 
the southern extremity of the peninsula, Venice, and 
the east coast from the Po to Ancona, with Ravenna as 
the city of the exarchs, remained under the power of 
the Greek emperor. The conduct of the Lombards as 
conquerors has been severely characterized on the au- 
thority of early writers of the Romish Church. Gregory 
the Great, in his epistles and dialogues, draws a fright- 
fid picture of their oppressions, as does Paultis Diaco- 
n«8 of the unquestionably lawless sway of the thirty- 
five dukes, who were the only rulers in the interregnum 
after the death of Cleph, tUl, by the threatening ap- 
proach of the Franks, they were compelled to elect a 
king in the person of Autharis. Now for the first time 
(58i-590) an orderly constitution was established. Pau- 
lus Diaconus speaks with great praise of the new state 
of things. " Wonderful was the state of the Lombard 
kingdom : violence and treachery were alike uiijcnown ; 
no one was oppressed, no one plundered another; thefts 
and robberies were unheard of; the traveller went wher- 
ever he would in perfect security" (Paul. Diac. iii, 16). 

A general idea of their political constitution may be 
found in the edict (»f king Rothari (G36 G52), a kind of 
Bill of Rights, which was promulgated Nov. 22. 643, 
and is memorable as having become the foundation of 
constitutional law in the <>ermanic kingdoms of the 
Middle Ages. It was revised and extended by subse- 
quent Lombard kings, but subsisted in force for several 
centuries after the Lombard kingdom had passed away. 
The edict recognises, as among all German nations, 
three classes — the /trej the iemi-free, and stave or vas- 
9aL Among the ^ee were the nobiles. The army se- 
cured the national unity, civil officers being regarded 
as rendering military service. The king was elective, 
and among the dukes he represented the nation. H e was 
commander of the army, head of all police power, chief 
judge, and general ward. There were courtiers of va- 
rious ranks. The dukes were also called judges, or /u- 
dioei cicUcitii. Under each judex were many local, j udi- 



cial, police, and military authorities. The cities chosen 
by the dukes severally as their residences were centres 
of the Lombard government. There would seem to be 
but little room for the old Roman municipal constitu- 
rions. Concerning the relation of the Lombard rule to 
the continuance of the Roman law and the rights of the 
conquered people there are differences of opinion. Un- 
der the Goths the former laws and customs remained 
lai^ly unaffected; but it has been maintained (as by 
Leo) that under the Lombards the personal liberty, 
right of property, and municipal constitutions of the 
conquered people were abolished. The subject wae 
much discussed by the Italians in the last century ; and 
in this centur}* the historians 8a\'igny, I^eo, Bandi di 
Vesme. Fossati, Troya, Bethmann-Hollweg, etc., present 
conflicting or somewhat varied views. The Lombard 
laws themselves give but little precise information on this 
poinL The Romans at least lost all united nationality. 
Roman law seems to have been first distinctively brought 
into use under Luitprand. The feeling of enmity which, 
for a long time at least, existed between the people and 
their conquerors, was increased by religious differences, 
and on this account the new power was specially obnox- 
ious to the authorities of the Roman Church. A state 
of war generally prevailed between the two powers. 
The Church writers are constant and bitter in their 
complaints of Lombard impiety and oppressions — at least 
during the earlier period of their dominion— in the wast- 
ing of churches and monasteries, and the treatment of 
ecclesiastics. The Lombard clergy themselves, how- 
ever, do not seem to be charged as active participants 
in these deeds. Gregory the Great discerns in the 
times signs of the approaching judgment. *' What is 
happening in other parts of the world," he says, " we 
know not: but in this the end of all things not merely 
announces itself as approaching, but shows itself as act- 
ually begun" (HiaL iii). Such representations of the 
spirit and course of the conquerors must be taken with 
considerable qualification. Still more untrustworthy are 
the accounts given, especially by Gregory, of numerous 
miraculous interferences in behalf of tlie true faith. 

The Lombards were Arians. ITnlike the Franks, 
who became by religious sympathy the natural defend- 
ers of the pope, they, with the Goths, Vandals, Bur- 
gundians, and Suevians, had been converte<l to Chris- 
tianity, about the end of the 5th century, by Arian mis- 
sionaries. Such was the case with the German tribes 
generally on the lower Danube. But there were among 
them many, some of whom en