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(CMineraal, Inkslrial mrir ^denlifit : 







VOL. n. 



1871 . 



of India found itself inyolved in hostilities 
with Barmahy where British traders had been 
insulted by the officers of the king of Ava. 
RamonstiBnces pioTing useless. Lord Dal- 
faoTifliBdeepatchedan expedition against Pegu, 
and in a few weeks the entire coast of Bar* 
mah was in his hands. Finding that the 
king of A va still refused their just demands, 
he ordered the British troops to occupy Pegu 
and inoorpotate it with their dominions. 
Tbk was effected at the close of 1852 ; from 
tiat time to the end of his administration the 
Indian empire enjoyed comparative peace. The 
rich districts of Nagpore, Sattara, Tanjore, 
the Camaticy Behar, and Oude were seyeral- 
Ij annexed to British possesions by Lord 
Dalhousie, either in consequence of fiulure of 
rightful heirs among the native dynasties, for 
the payment of Contingents, or else to put an 
end to the cruelty and oppression which 
those princes exercised towards their own sub- 
jects. It is almost needless to add that the 
social condition of each of the annexed pro- 
vinces baa proportionably improved. 

During this time, great changes were effect- 
ed by Lord Dalhousie in the government and 
civilization of India, and in the development 
of its vesources, A yearly defidenoy in the 
revenue was converted into a surplus until 
the years 1853-54 and 1 854-55, when, chiefly 
in consequence of the vast public improve- 
ments nndertakeui there was a deficiency of 
Dearly half a million. The shipping of India 
doubled its tonnage, a Legislative Council was 
organised, the civil service was thrown open 
to competition, the annual accounts were 
expedited,and prison-discipline was improved. 
A system of uniform and cheap postage 
was also introduced by Lord Dalhousio ; a 
portion of the peninsula intersected by 
railway, and all the large towns brought into 
immediate connection by means of the electric 
telegraph, laid down by Dr. O'Shaughneesy, 
4,000 miles having been oonstructed and 
placed in workiog order between November 
1853 and February 1855. The manufactiire 
of salty the production of cotton, tea, and 
flax, the breeding of sheep, and the improve- 
ment of agricultural implements all received 
Lord Dalhousie's attention. The develop- 
ment of the resources of the country in iron, 
coal, and other minerals was a matter on 
which he bestowed peculiar care ; and mea- 
siores were also taken for the preservation of 
the forests, and for making their produce 
available. At the same time a new and 
uniform survey of the districts was com- 
menced, and the limits of subject states 
toeurately defined. Lrigation on a large 
tcalc was attended to in Sind, Madras, and 
Bombay; tho navigation of the Qaages, InduS; 


Nerbudda and Burrumpooter was im- 
proved, grand trunk roads were carried to 
Delhi, through the Punjab, and to Patna, and 
others made in Pegu and Sind. A road was 
also constructed from Hindustan to the 
frontiers of Thibet commencing from the 
plains of the 6utlej and another put in pro- 
gress from Arracan over the Youmah ridge 
to Pegu. The most stupendous work however 
which signalized his government was the 
Ganges canal carried out by the skill and 
energy of Sir Proby T. Cantly. Uuder his 
vigilant authority also tho department of pub- 
lic works was reformed throughout and 
colleges founded to train young men specially 
in civil engineering. Schools and colleges 
were established and placed under gOTcrn- 
ment inspection. The most strenuous ef- 
forts were at the same time made for the 
eradication of the systems of suttee and 
thuggee, and the practice of infanticide. 
The condition of tho European soldiers was 
likewise greatly improved. Provision was 
also made for both Protestant and Roman 
Catholio worship, on equal terms and ex- 
tensive changes were made in matters of 
criminal and civil j ustice. Lord Dalhous i e also 
required the government of each Presidency, 
each Lieutenant-governor, and the chief otti- 
cer of every province to eeud in to tho go- 
vemor-genend an annual report of the chief 
events that occurred within their several 
jurisdictions, in order to test the progress 
made by tjie nation at large. For his success 
in the Punjab, Lord Dalhousie was raised to 
a marquieate in 1849 : and on his return to 
England in May 1856, with shattered health 
and a broken constitution, the East India 
Company settled on him a pension of 5,000/. 
a year. He had previously been appointed to 
the wardenship of the Cinqiio Ports on the 
death of the late Duke of Wellington. He 

died on the 19th 18G ? 

DALI Hind, basket of fruit or vegetables, 
DALIAH. lliND, a branch of a tree. 

DALIM OR DAPJM. Beng. Hiwd. 
Punica granatum. — Linn, pomegranate tree. 
DiVLlMBA, A hard granulated coarse 
stone, of Cuttack, very common, and worked 
into utensils of various kinds — Cat. Exhib. 

DALKIS80RE, a tributary to theHooghly 
running throuo:h the Paohete district, in L. 
28°30' N. L. 8G^34\ E. running S. E— S. S. 
E.^^into Hooghly at Diamond Harbour, 
after a course of ITOjn, it can be crospsd at 
Banco ora, 50 M. from source, and at Jah- 
anabsul by means of fords. 

DAL-LA, or Giant's Peak, in Bhutan, N. 
of Tanong in Lat. 27" 50, N. and L. 92^ 

J D 2 


oottliDg to the Mirai'i-Muddrea, a converted 
Jew. He 18 said to have been bom at Aleppo 
in 1050 A. D., and to have come to India in 
the reign of Sultan Ihraheem Shurkee ; and 
hATing taken up his abode between Caumpore 
and Furntckubady and expelled therefrom an 
evil genius, called Mukun Iho^ who infested 
the place^ he gave the name of Mukunpoor to 
his residence, and was buried there in 1433 
A. P. at the good old age of nearly four 
hundred years ! The tomb, which is a hand- 
same structure, was raised over him by SuU 
tan Ihraheem. He is believed still to be alive, 
and hence is frequently styled Zinda Shah 
Mudar. The prophet Mahomed gave him the 
power of hubi-i-dumf or retention of breath 
and hence arose his longevity, as the number 
of his respirations was diminiahed at plea- 
sure. There is a class of Fukeers called Mu- 
darea, after his name. They generally wear 
black cloth and are much addicted to the 
use of intoxicating drugs. EUiot. Supp. 
Glois, See Mudarea. 

DAMASCUS. This city is about two miles 
in length, is surrounded by a fortified in- 
closure in very bad repair, dating back to the 
time of Sellm I., and which was built on the 
site of the old wa?l8 raised by the Arabs in 
650. It has eighteen gates, the most curious 
of them being that called bab-i- Paulo as, or 
the gate of St. Paul . The streets are narrow 
and winding, but are provided with a foot- 
pavement on each side. The houses, built 
of earth and brick, are simple externally, 
but fitted up within with great magnificence. 
Damascus contains 60 places of worship ; 
the largest and finest is that dedicated to 
Bt. John the Baptist, and which is always 
closed in moments of danger or on a sign of 
alarm. It is one of the finest buildings 
erected by the christians, and its noble pro- 
portions, handsome dome, and elegant min- 
arets, are objects of general admiration. This 
religious monument was thoroughly repaired 
by the caliph Walid in the year 86 of the 
Hijira ; its doors, contrary to oriental cus- 
tom, are of bronze and beautifully wrought. 
A mahomedan tradition says that at the end 
of the world St. John the Baptist will descend 
into this building, while Jesus Christ will 
come to the temple of Omar at Jerusalem, 
and Mahomed, the prophet of God, to the 
temi>le at Mecca. The other monuments of 
the city are, the great bazaar destined to re- 
ceive the caravans, and in which from 1,200 
to 1,500 camels may assemble ; the sen^o, 
or palace of the pacha ; the khan in 1860 
possessed by Azad Pacha ; and that of Sula- 
man Pacha. The commerce of the city also 
possesses thirty-one khans and 'large entre- 
potflof xnerohA&difie. The eoffee-kousee of 


Damascus form one of it» curiosities j they 
are 150 in number, and are regarded as the 
finest in the east Damascus is the general 
rendezvous of from 40,000 to 50,000 pilgrims 
who assemble there from all pbints of Otto- 
man Europe and Asia, and even from Persia 
and Turkistan, in order to go with a caravan 
to Mecca. The sacred caravans encamp on a 
piece of ground to the east of the city, at 
about five hundred yards from the christian 
burial ground. Near the spot may be seen 
the remains of the sanctuary built in memory 
of the conversion of St. Paul. Independently 
of the great caravan which leaves at the end 
of the month Ramadan, there are three 
others ; one which goes three times a year 
to Bagdad, another every fortnight to 
Aleppo, and the third every three months 
to Cairo. Damascus was formerly cele- 
brated for its manufacture of sword 
blades ; but its industry now consists in mak- 
ing soaps, stufis of cotton, and silk, to- 
bacco, saddlery, and cabinet work. There 
are in tihe city 750 dealers in stuffs called 
damask ; 200 in handkerchiefs and fancy 
articles ; 98 fringe-makers ; 70 printers on 
stuffs ; 185 dyers j 72 saddlers' shops ; 78 to- 
bacco manufactories, and 48 for pipes. The 
population of Damascus amounts to 180,000, 
130,000 mahomedans, 30,000 Christians, 
Greeks or Latins, and 20,000 Jews. The 
schismatic Greeks have a church of their 
own, but the catholic Greeks havo not, and 
perform their religious duties in the three 
Latin monasteries, viz. the Holy Monastery, 
that of the Lazzarists, the successors of the 
Jesuit missionaries, and that of the Capuchins. 
The Armenians and the Syrians have each a 
particular sanctuary, and the Jews have three 
synagogues. Damascus is the chief town of 
a paohalio of that name, the residence of a 
first class mollah, and of the Ghreek patriarch 
of Antioch, who has 42 arch-bishops and bis- 
hops under him. The pacha of Damascus 
bears the title of Prince of the Pilgrimage, 
because he was formerly charged to accom- 
pany the caravan to Mecca. The plain of 
Damascus is covered with magnificent gar- 
dens, planted with orange and lemon trees, 
cedars, fig and apricot trees and shrubs of all 
kinds. The Baradi, a pure and limpid river, 
divides itself into seven branches, and 
waters the town and its fine gardens. The 
two points by which Damascus is placed in 
communication with the sea are the ports of 
Beyrout and Saida." — Ladies^ Journal. See 
Jews. Kalifa. Khhalif, Nicolo-di-Conti. Semi- 
tic races. 

DAMASCUS SWORDS present on their 
surface a variegated appearance of water- 
ing. The blade is formed by suztore in 



Dammer of the Wsitertt CoaA is the Black 
Danimer,CAnariuiii strictum, the carpoo ooon- 
ghiliam of Aioalie, the Dammara nigra legi- 
tizna of Bumphius and the Canari of the 
Makyala. This occurs in krge stdactitic- 
shaped masses, of a bright shining black 
color ^hea viewed from a distance, but 
translnoent and of a deep reddish brown 
when beld in thin laminsB between the 
eye tod the light. It is perfectly homo- 
genooSy and has a vitreous fracture. Its 
shape appears to be due to the fact of the 
btisam having exuded in a very fluid state 
and trickled down the trunk of the tree, 
where it gradually hardens by exposure to 
the sun^ the fresh resin continuing to flow 
OTer that already hardened, gives rise to the 
Btilactitic appearance of the huge lumps of 
resin, the outside of which much resembles 
the guttering of wax caused by plsudng a 
lighted candle in a draught It is insoluble 
in cold, but partially soluble in boiling 
alcohol on the addition of camphor : when 
powdered it is readily soluble in oil of tur- 
pentine. Powdered and burnt on the fire it 
emits a more resinous smell and burns with 
more smoke than white dammer. The size 
of the lumps of this resin, together with its 
color and the peculiarity of shape already 
mentioned, suffice to distinguish it from other 
Indian resins. 

White Dajnmer is the Piney resin of the 
Vateria indica and allied species of Linnaeus 
and Wight. Choloroxylon Daupada of Buch- 
anan and Ainslie, the Doopada resin of 
Mysore, and the Payanee or Piney of the 
Malabar people. 

Variety 1. Compact Piney resin or first 
sort white dammer. This occurs in large 
lumps of all shapes and varying in color on 
the outside from a bright orange to a dull 
yellow, beaziDg evident marks of having 
adhered to the bark of the tree. It has a 
shining vitreous, fracture, is very hard and 
bears a great resemblance to amber. Its 
oolor,(intemaUy), is of all shades from a light 
green to a light yellow, the green tint prie^o- 
niinating in the generality of specimens. It 
is more soluble in alcohol than black dam- 
mer and boms with less smoke and a 
more agreeable odour. It is easily dis- 
tinguishable from all other Indian resins by 
its superior hardness, its colour and amber- 
like appearance. 

Yanety No. 2 Cellular Piney resin, or 
second sort white dammer. This occurs 
either in small lamps or in large masses, 
generally of a shining appearance and 
bilsamic smelL Has a very cellular 
itractare, which is attributable purtly to 
the mode of ooUeetioii, and partly to 


the age of the tree. Notches being cut in 
the trunk of the tree sloping inwards and 
downwards the resin collects in the cavity 
and is either permitted to dry on the spot, or 
is collected and dried by the application of 
heat It is of all shades from light green to 
light yellow or white and is usuiUly translu- 
cent. Specimens are sometimes seen in which 
from the dessioation having been improperly 
conducted the resin is more opaque, of a dull 
green color and fall of air-bubbles, presenting 
the appearance of having undergone a partial 
fermentation. This resin may be recognised 
by its cellular appearance and balsamio 
smell — ^but the balsamio smell, which is 
due to the volatile oil it contains, is gradually 
lost by long keeping or constant exposure to 
the air. On splitting open old and decayed 
trees, portions of a dark-colored resin are 
often found having the solid consistence of 
first variety, but the inferior quality of the 

Dammtn of tke* northern and eastern 
DUtrictt, Variety No. 3. Saul tree dammer, 
Shorea robusta and other species. This 
occurs in sticks much resembling in shape 
the black dammer, but differing widely in 
colour and consistency. In colour it varies 
from a light yellow to a dark brown, the 
two colours being very frequently blended 
in the same lump and giving it the appear- 
ance of having a regular *' grain". It is 
friable and differs from the white dammer 
of the western coast in its inferior hardness 
its opacity and its peculiar form, and from 
the black dammer in its color. There are 
extensive tracts of Goc^ulam (Vatica) jun- 
gles in the Qoomsur and Cuttack provinces. 
The Khond and Uria races living in and near 
these jungles, wound trees in several places. 
The resin issues aud is collected when suffi- 
ciently solid. The dammer collected from the 
decayed parts of the tree is of a dark color, 
the tree is called ^' Guggilam" in Telugu and 
"tala gotso" in Urya. The Khoond and 
Urya races make the leaves into the plates 
from which they eat their food, and also roll 
up tobacco in them to smoke like a cheroot. 
In time of famine the above tribes live on a 
soup msde from the fruit of this tree. 

The Yatica tumbugaia grows also to a 
limited extent on the west coast, but yields 
little if any of the dammer collected there. 

As will have been seen from the above, 
dammar is a commercial term, and is the 
resins of various trees, in different localities. 
Shorea robusta ; Chorea tumbugaia of India, 
exudes an amber-colored resin. The Piney 
dammar of the Vateria Indica, is also am- 
ber-colored, and known as the white dam- 
mar of Malabar, and as Indian copal. The 



daughter, in the presence of one or more in- 
dindnals, is sufBident to constitute her claim 
to adoption. Dancing girls are respected by 
the several castes or sects of hindus, and are 
lUowed to sit in the assembly of Uie most 
respectable men, such honour not being ac- 
corded to their own wives and daughters. As 
s rule, it is seldom that these women have 
childiea of their own, unlescu perhaps, they 
bad iiredin continual concubinage with some 
BiBgie individualy consequently they are 
always anxious to adopt girls, not only to 
become their successors in the temple, but 
that they may inherit their property likewise. 
Formerly a large trade was carried on by 
kidnapping good*looking girls from larg^ 
towns and remote villages who were sold to 
these women. The practice of selling minor 
girls still obtains largely under suppression. 
The recent famine in Ganjam, Orissa and 
Bengal, was taken advantage of, not 
only by abandoned characters, but also by 
immoral native princes, for the basest pur- 
poses. During a recent Criminal Session in 
Calcutta two women were sentenced to seven 
jears' imprisonment eachi for having pur- 
chased a girl under sixteen years of age, for 
one rupee ten annas. In some stations there 
are said to exist two kinds of dancing girls — 
the dancing women di£fering from the pagoda 
dancers. The latter are said to live in con- 
cubinage as a rale ; they are a privileged 
dass under the Aylah Santanamf or descent by 
the daughter's children, or in the female line, 
and the law of Bhya applies to them, Dhya 
Bldya Baga^ or division by favour, Mercui 
heritage of right to official ; emoluments, 
operates as an inducement. These women are 
recognised as •* BasP^ and ** Deva Dasi." The 
Dan or dancing women belong for the most 
part to itinerant bands, and are frequently 
made up of women of low caste, who practise 
their professional accomplishmeats and prefer 
living in concubinage. The *' Siva'* temple 
of the Soouniamookie (Kalastry) a zemindary 
in the North Arcot district, maintains a large 
establishment of what is termed deva dan or 
pagoda dancers, forming a distinct community 
there — {Audapapalu) who exclusively live in 
eoncabinage. Their sons who know no father, 
pass by the appellation of Nagari Kumarada, 
or sons of the country and are slaves to the 
zemindar. Of the daughters, after supplying 
the vacancies in the pagoda staff, the re- 
mainder are brought in the list of drudges of 
the palace. The dancing master or teacher 
receives from fifty to five hundred rupees with 
other presents, for teaching a girl the usual 
dances. This generally forms a contract 
which is greatly dependent on the wealth and 
position of the parties. The dancing girls 


when about to perform are accompanied by 
two men singers, termed " Nuthuvan*' and 
^ Padowevf* who while singing, also play the 
cymbals — ^these instruments are of two kinds 
and sizes. While the cymbal is played with 
the right hand, the left hand open, is 
generally applied to the left ear while they 
sing, bowing their bodies forward as well as 
from side to side, contorting their faces in 
like manner and making grimaces. In sing- 
ing they scream as loud as their voice and 
lungs will admit ; one or more old women 
join in the song, and frequently clap their 
hands during the performance, and are ge- 
nerally dancing girls who have given up Uie 
profession from age or other causes. Some of 
these girls are very good looking, handsome, 
with open countenances, large sparkling eyes, 
regular features, and intelligent pleasing ap- 
pearance» They are perfectly self-possessed 
in manner, verging on assurance, staring at 
one with their large intelligent looking ejeB. 
Notwithstanding, they possess a vast deal of 
courtesy and polish, tempered with languid 
grace and serene self-possession, whilst their 
manners are courteous and their bearing 
unembarrassed, possessing all the teaching 
which experience of the worse side of human 
nature gives, and they know but one form of 
pleasure, vice, in which their lives are spent : 
— frequently their lives are truly vicious, 
when their countenances assume a sodden, 
pale, and unwholesome aspect. The majority 
possess some natural gifts. As to conversa- 
tional powers, they seldom possess any beyond 
the usual laugh and giggle, and fbonosyllabic 
replies given to common place questions. 
Some of the Telugu girls are very handsome \ 
of a light pale colour, somewhat yellowish 
in tinge, with softness of face and feature, a 
gentleness of manner, with a peculiar grace 
and ease, which one would little expect to 
find among them. A lady-like manner, 
modesty and gentleness, such beautiful small 
hands and little ^per fingers, the ankles so 
neatly turned, as to meet the admiration of 
the greatest connouHeur, They can generally 
read and write their own language pretty 
correctly, some two languages, one girl at 
Conjeveram wrote three : the third was 
English, in which she wrote her name in a 
fair round hand, and spoke the language 
with some fluency. Tamil and Telugu were 
the other two languages, which she wrote to- 
lerably well. She was said to have received 
her education in a Mission School at Madras ; 
notwithstanding all this she did not appear 
ashamed of the profession she bad adopted. 
The girls learn either Tamil or Telugu, 
one or more verses of some of their songs, 
they wrot^ on the spot with the greatest 

17 d3 

Tithia a nasonable time afiai it haa been 
vetted. The dried bark, nuy be substituted 
for D. Meserenm. The bazar mecereon ia 
almoet always inert from age. — In Chumba, 
the flowers appear to be hang up as of- 
ferings in temples. /. L. Sietcari M. It. ff 
^mt^h»M^,p.5Sl. BMg. Phar.-page 279. 
Bee Daphne. Daphne cannabina. Thymlee^ 
Daphne mnaremn. Nepal Paper Plant. 

DAPHNE GNIDIUU. Honigberger safB 
that the bark of ihe Spurge-Flax intirodnced 
into the ears prodocee a serous diaoharge; 
Buewated ( steeped ) in vinegar for about an 
hanr before naing it and afterwurds applied 
(ratewing it in winter onoe, in snmmar twice 
a day) is said to produce a local seroas exuda- 
tion without sxcesaiTe irritation or blistering 
and is reoommended chiefly io chronic 
rheumatism gouty affeotioua, paralysis, ftc 
In France and Rasiia it is used in opthal- 
mia. Uay not Sunnerkat from Cashmere 
have aintilar properties t 


MunHn, Aau- I HezcicoD, End, 

Adada, „ I Spurge, OliTe. ,. 

Iikbo. „ I MizriuD, Puts. 

KiBwla, Bn. | 

The berries are brisk but unsafe cathartics. 
Fresh bark is counter- irritant and external 
stimulant ; tJie dried baik is a stimulant 
alteratire in syphilitic, rheumatic, and 
Bcrofnlons maladies. It is frequently com- 
bined with saiBBparillB, as in the Idsbon diet 
drink. O'SiMahiteuf poff* 5dO. See Daphne 
eannalnna. lltymeleD. 

DAPHNE ODOBA. See Daphne eanna- 
lnna. Thymels. 

D. If ucnmata Boyle, 

Ftper ibnib. Eng. Katd Hind of Huua, Eighin. 

Qiowa in the Punjab and is used medici- 
nally and said to be need in paper in 
great abundance from a little above Kawai to 
X ag h a n The pretty' red berries are not uoire- 
quently eaten, but are said to be apt to oause 
atckaess. /. L. SUmart, M. D. Ckghorn. 


Paper Shmb, Bug. ) Jcku Pnnjabi. 

This is fonnd in the Batlej valley between 
Bampnr and Snngnam at an eleration of 5000 
to 8000 feet. Paper prepared from the bark. 
CUgkom Pwijab Stport p. 67. 

DAPOO- BBJto, Polypodium proliferam. 

DAB. Pan. Hisn. ia the Persian, from 
d aahta n , to hold, « possessor, a place of abode. 
Dsed as a prefix uid postfix to many com- 
pound nouns, as dar-ul-fana the perishable 
abode, L e. the world ; dar-ul-baka, the 
permanent abode, L e. eternity : Amildar, a 
taz-fsthergr :,Abdar, watery. A water-cooler. 


DAB Fbbs. a door, beoce in hindi, dnr- 
ran, a door-keeper, dar-waza a door, a gate- 
way. Most cities in India have their gates 
lamed from the chieftownto which they lead. 
Thus the Delhi gate : The Meccah gate. 

DABA, a king of Persia ecu of king 
Darab, overcome by Alexander the Great. 

DARAB, kingof Petsiasonof Eai Bahman 
^rdashir Daraz-Dast, Artoxerxea lougimanus. 

DARABJIBD, one of the five ancient divi- 
lioDB, oircles or departments of ancient Fare. 

DARAKH. Guz. also MOWAGE, Guz and 
EliNO. KaiaiDS. Grapes. 


DAKAKHT-I-AZAD. Febs. Azadirachta 

DARAKHT I'MUQUL. Frks, tree pro- 
ducing Bdellium. 

DABA MAZAB, Dara Nur and Dara Pech, 
towns occupied by the kafir race. See Kafir, 

DABA a town near the valley of Cabool 
with many eepulchral topes. 

DABAMA mHS. a scare crow, from darua 
HiRD- to fear. 

DABAQ. Ababio. Shields. 

DAEAUN HniD. buckwheat j Fagopyrum 

DARBHA Hind. Poa cynosuroides, Rdz. 
—R. i. 333. 

DARBAR, Hind. Pebs. ageneralreception 
by a ruler la British India, or by any ser- 

DARBOJI, Tel. Cucurbita citruUus.— 

DABCHIL HiHD. Gbamba, Finos excelsa ; 
lofty pine. 

DARCHIKNA Hieid. Corroaire sublimate. 

DAR-OHINI. Hind, barks of Cassia 
lignea. Cionamomum : iuets. Rein, and 
Lanrus cinnamomum : Cinnamomum albif- 

DARD. A race lying along the Indus, to 
the westward of Ladak, who speak three 
distinct dialects. They use the Persian cha- 
racter in writing Dardu, the three dialects of 
which are called tihina.Khajunah and Amlya. 
The Shina dialect is spoken by the people 
of Astor, Qilget, and lower down in Ohelas 
Darel, Bohli and Palaa on both banks of the 
Indus. The Khajuna, by the people of 
Hunza and Nager and the Arniya in Yasaa 
and Ohitral. Astor has au area of 1,600 
aquare miles, on the left bank of the Indue. 
Gilgit, in Thibetan Qyilgyid, has an area of 
2,500 square miles on the right bank of the 
Indus, TheDard or Durd- are supposed 
b; Vigne to be the Dadicae {i^aZtyiu) of Hero- 
dotus, and the people who now occupy the 
country called Dardu. The Kashmiri has 
decided affinities with the Dard tongue. Dr. 
Latham Vigne. 


of loss of liberty : thoasands were sold in one 
great famine. The predatory system of the 
Pindari and mountain tribes aided to keep it 
np. The mahomedan slave girl is called 
£kindi, Londi, bnt when associating with their 
master is one of the Harm. — To^Ts Raj as- 
than. See Haram ; Hareem. 

DASAGRIVA, or the " Ten-necked" a 
name of Ravana. See Ravana. 

DASAHABA or *' Ten Removing," a name 
of Ganga. See Cranga, Ganges, Dussera. 

The tenth of Jeth Shakhl Paksh, which is 
the birthday of Ganga : also described as 
the tenth of Asin Shukl Paksh, Asoj or 
Ashwin shud, on which, after the worship and 
religions ceremonies performed during nine 
nights, the hindns throw the images of Devi 
into the river. On this day, Rama marched 
against Bavana. The day is celebrated with 
great pomp by the mahrattas and hindns of 
northern and western India. The festival 
occurs about the first days of October. It is 
supposed to relate to the autumnal equinox or 
the breaking up of the S. W. monsoon. The 
nine days preceding the Dasara are the Nao- 
ntri, or ** nine-nights" during which a brah- 
man is engaged to read the praises of Durga, 
tod, on the tenth, perform the homa or fire- 
»erifice, in which rice and ghee are poured 
into the fire. Bania women keep up a dance 
called Garbha. See Dussera. 

DASALATHAN, the Pali pronunciation 
of the name of Dasaratha, who lived about 
the time of Agathocles in Bactria and of 
Maha Sewa Suratissa in Ceylon. See In- 

DAS ANA also Japa pushpam, Tel. 
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. — L. 

DAS- ANN A, a class of the Garo tribe. 

DASABAT'HA, according to Wilson, the 
son of Aja and father of Rama, a distin- 
guished prince of the solar dynasty. Buch- 
anan supposes him to have lived in the 
fifteenth century before the christian era. 
According to Wilson the sons of Dasaratha 
were Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata, and Sa- 
tnighna. At the time that Sita was married 
to Rama, Urmila, the other daughter of 
Janaka, was given to Lakshmana, and the 
two other brothers were married to Mandavi 
and Srutakirtti, the daughters of Kusadhwaja, 
the sovereign of Sankasya, or, according to 
the Agni Pnrana, of Kasi or Benares, and 
brother of Janaka, Hindoo Theatre, Vol. I, 
p. 288-289. See Avataram, Inscriptions, p. 
382. Polygamy. 

ticms, p.' 377. 

DASA, an order of Vaishnava devotees. 

DASAWBI, Hind. Barley. 

DASHRI of Paujub, FIcus gloraerata, 

Boxb^ made. 

DASHT-I-BE-DAULAT is an elevated 
valley or plain, situated to the N. £. of Moos- 
tung, at the head of the Bohm pass. Its 
diameter is from 16 to 20 miles, and of its 
boundaries some approach the Bolan pass. It 
has no towns or villages, but is occasionally 
dotted with the toman ^of the Kurd tribe. 
Some portions of it are cultivated in tlie 
spring and summer months ; but during the 
winter it is a bleak, howling wilderness, desti- 
tute of trees, or any shelter ; tlie snow lies 
deep on it and cold winds whistle over its 
frozen surface. It is subject to the depreda- 
tions of the Kaka tribe of Afighaus, and cara- 
vans are frequently plundered by them. In 
the summer it is clothed with the fragrant 
Terk plant, and its surface diversified by 
fields of waving grain. It has no streams, 
but one or two wells have been dug and water 
obtained with some difficulty ; the cultivators 
are dependent on rain and heavy dews, for the 
success of their labours. See Kabul, pp. 487, 
491 and 493. 

DASHT.I.GURAN,a plain soutli of Chap- 
par, inhabited by the Sunari, a branch of 
the Jehri tnbe of Jhalawan. It was once 
occupied by the Zigger Minghal, but their 
increasing numbers compelled them to mi- 
grate. See Kelat, p. 491. 

DASHT-I-KAPCHAK. Kapchak is a 
Turkish word, and Dasht means a wide un- 
cultivated plain. Markham Emhassvy p. 

DASI, Benq. Barleria coerulea. 

DAS-NAMAH. A hiudu sect, worship- 
pers of Siva, also called Dandi. Sankara 
Achayra was their founder. They take this 
name from the words " Das" ten, and " na- 
mah," a class, because there were ten orders 
amongst them. See Dandi, Hindoo, Sankara, 

and the Adi-Granth form the religious writ- 
ings of the Sikh sect. See Sikhs. 

DASRAT RAMA, a name of Rama Chan- 
dra. See Rama. 

DASRE, Tbl. Cucumis utilissimus. 

DASSERA, or Navaratri. See Dussera, 
Hindu, KalaSH. 

DASTA, Nep. Spelter. 

DA ST AH, a kalliyon, a small hand -hookah, 
from Dast, the hand. 

DASTANE, DASTE, Hind. Gloves. 

DASTUR, a high priest of the Zoroas- 

DASTUR, PsRs. Hind. Custom ; hence, 
dasturi, a customary fee, perquisites paid by 
a dealer to servants when their master makes 






from the Arabian Gulf. The districts of 
Multau, DiM-a Gbazi-Khau and Muzaffiii-garli, 
produce dates in lai-ge quantities from the P. 
sykestris, but of an interior kind to those of 
Arabia: tiiey are, however, preserved, either 

Pali : it is a very powerful purge, much used 
in prescriptions : one seer costs four rupees. 
— Gen. Med. Top.^ p. 133. 

DATURA, a genus of plants common in 
India, both wild and cultivated, the colours 

bj being dried or else by being boiled in oil and ; of the flowers are white, yellow, purple and 

water, and then dried : when about to ripen, a '' '"* ' " -^ « 

piece of matting ii$ put over tlie cluster to 

prevent the ravages of birds, &c. A gum is 

obtaiued from the P. sylvestris palm-tree, 

cilJed " liuckmchil." The date trees on the 

omst of Oman form a continuous grove to 

Khor&kan, a distance of one hundred and S<^ DhWtura, Hind. 

fifty mile^, and the Arabs have a saying that Humata,Humatu,MALEAL. Tell* umati. 

t Havener may proceed the whole distance ,J^' f^ («ada dhatura) and D. fastuosa 

without ever losing their shade. Dates form (^"l* <latura) similarly to D. stramonium, are 

the principal export from Oman, large quan- "^^f '^'T I "" V^^^'^'f^^^ robbery is 

titles being takVn to India, where a con- "1^°/^; . ^j\^^P^^^ *^"?, "^^^^^« ^>' 

siderable share is consumed in making arrack. P>-^ '"^'^iSfe ^^LS^^^^ 

The broad datura bares her breast 
Of fragrant scent and virgin white. 

blue. Wight figures D. fastuosa, D. metel 
and D. stramonium. 


D. metel, Roxh,, Rkeede. 
Jouz-maziU Arab. Dattur, Panjab. 

Dhatura, Beno., Eng. Tattur ,, 

Pa-Klaing-phoo, BuRM. Velle umate, TaM. 

Dutturam umxnetta, Tel. 

The middle classes of the mahomedan and 
hinda population ai*e very partial to them. 
The best are brought from Basrah and Bah- 
rein, those from Oman being classed next 
in excellence. There are several methods of 
preserving them ; some are simply dried and 
then Strang on lines : others, which is the 
Dsoal plan, arc packed in baskets. Notwith- 
standing their great number, every tree has 
its separate owner, and disputes between the 
reiations of those who die intestate, are, 
in consequence, very fi'equent. — PVelhted^s 
Travels^ Fo/. /., p. 188. Fraser's Jourtiet/, 
p. 74.Burion^s pilgrimage to Mecca^ Vol III., 
p. 405. PowelVs Band-book of the Punjab, 

DA-THA-LWON,BuEM. Moriuga ptery- 

DA TILES, Sp. Dates. 

DATIRA, Mahb. Ficus t'siela, Roxb. 


Ik'l-bir, Hind. 

Grows in Cashmere, Kanawur, Nepal and 
the Himalaya : its bark and the woody por- 
tions of the root are much esteemed in the 
Punjab for dyeing silk of a yellow colour. 
The bark also contains a bitter principle, 
like quassia. Root exported to Amritsir as 
a dye stuff. — Drs. J. L. Stewart, M,D. 
Cleghom, Punjab Report, Kullu and Kan- 
gra, p. 80. Cal. Cat. Ex. 1 862. See Dyes. 

DATOKE — ? Grislca tomentosa. 

D ATOO, a petty chief in Sumatra. 

I) ATT A, Tam. Dungaree. 

DATTA J AYANTI, a hindu festival held 
in honour of a deity named Datta. 

DATTELN, Ger. Datteri, It. Dattes, 
Fr, Dates. 

DATTUR, Hind. Datura stramonium. 

A pearl around the locks of night. '^ 


Datura metel, W. 

Rotikubung, Malay. 
Kachu-bong, „ 

Nella umata, Malbal. 
Umana nella umata, „ 
Gaoc-giah, Pers. 
Anhenta, Sikgh. 
Kara umate« Tam. 
Kalla uicmetia, Tel. 
Kalu uttana, • „ 

Jouz-mazil. Arab. 
Pad-daing-phu, BuRM. 
Kaladhatura, Bkng. 
Purple thorn apple. Eno. 
Metncl seed. „ 

Downy thorn apple, „ 
Lai dhatura, HjND. 
Kala „ „ 

Dhatura, ,, 

Krishna dhatura, ., 

This is very common over both of the 
peninsulas of India. The seeds are given 
with sweetmeats to stupify, and the effects 
have been known to continue for two days, 
and still recovery take place ; cold affusion 
and strong stimulant emetics constitute the 
most effectual treatment. The vision often 
continues obscured long after the general 
recovery takes place. This state is best 
remedied by blisters to the temples or nape of 
the neck, and by cold affusion. If given 
while the stomach is empty a much smaller 
dose may induce all the preceding symptoms 
and prove fatal. This is well known to the 
Indian poisoners, who suit the time of admi- 
nistration according to the purpose they mean 
to serve. Both the single and double-flowered 
varieties of this species may be often seen 
near Bui*man houses, and children not knowing 
its poisonous character, sometimes cat the 
fruit, with very serious eflects. Its largo 
tulip-shaped white flower is sacred to Maha- 
deva. — &Shaughnes$y, Oen. Med, Top., p. 
133. Cat. Exh. 1862. Mason, 

DATYA, in hindu mythology, brahmins 
who were slain by the gods. Braiiminicide, is 

DATUS, Malay. A governor under a thesinof killing a brahmin. The Datya, ac- 
!*ultan. cording to the hindu mythology, were brali- 

DATUNI. The root of the Croton tig- | mins, and were slain by the gods : but were 
lium, brought to Ajmcrc from Delhi and ' resuscitated by Sukra, their guru, and attack- 

27 D 27 

DAWA-I-MUBABAK, Hind. Cleroden- 
droD sipfaoiunthuB. 
DAWA-I-PECHISH, Hind. Ophelia ele- 

DAWALKARAKDA, Singh. C&ssiabark. 

DAWANITA, SiNQH. Grewia tUuefoluu 

DAWANXm, Tel. Sontheni wood. 

DA War, known in old times as the 
" Bilftd-ad-4awar," and by the modern in- 
habitants lu Zam in -i-da war. A large province, 
coatiguODB to Bukhkhaj, Bust and Ghor, snd 
the opening of the latter to Sijistan. Elphin- 
Btone »ij-s ou the right 1>atik of the river 
Ilelmnod lies the rich country of Zamiudawar, 
which has the Farapomisaa niounlaiiis on the 
north, aDdsomehillsconnected with that range 
are Found within its limits. This fine couutiy 
extends for forty or Rfly miles to the west of 
the Helmnnd. — Elpbiuslone'i Cabal, 4to^ p. 
122. Reinaud, Mem. tur Vlndt, p. 173. 

DAWAKICA. See Dwarka ; Kattyawar. 

DAWATA GAHA, Singq. Carallia lu- 
cida, Boxb. 

DAWI, Hind. Grislea tomentosa. 

DAW-KEE, BcRM. Eriolivna, Species. 

DAWODHAR.— See Porcupine. 

DAWOL KURtENDA, Singu. Cassia 

DAWL'DZYE, a tribe of Afghans. 

DAWU-GAS, Singh., Gouocarpus latifolia, 

DAWUL-KURUHDU, Sikgo., Litstea 
Kflaoica 7 Net$f 

DAWURA,MAiiR.Conocarpn8 latifolia.— 

DAWL'T, invitation ; also Exoi-cism, prac- 
tiiK^d by mahomedans in India to command the 
presence of genii and demons,' — for the protec- 
tion from evil, casting out of devils, to create 
enmities, friuudships or love between people, 
to destroy or injure enemies, detect criuics. 
These arc effected by philtei-s, pulcclahs or 
lamp-chnrms, smoke- charms, amulets. — Herkl. 

DAT, Mr., a sei-vant of the English East 
India Company, who founded Uadras in 

DAY, Dr. Francis, a Madras medical 
officer, who wrote on the Fifhca of India. In 
Iti65 he published his fishes of Malabar, the 
nineteen new species described in which were 
lodgeil in the Bntish Museum. 

1 Rue, Psm. 

Divoiu, Cas. 

Nal, Tas. 

Din. Htan. 

Tho names of the days of Uie week arc 


32— 3|S| 








1 iltli 




■ ! i : i : : 

■El SB 111 





From the remotest times, amongst the 
Chaldeans, Egyptians, Ai'abians, Hindus, 
Greeks and the nations of northern Europe, 
there has bcoii a helxinmaiiary division of the 
month. In general, the days arc commenced by 
tho day of the sun, followed liy the moon, ami 
tho five planets Mai's, Mercury, Jupiter, 
Venus and Saturn. 

e^t In every CKse six o'clock aiTivea ia the 


exACtlj at mid-day, which, 
" <lo pabar or the second watch, 
dans ia India, also, reckou pait 
(be wbole ; thus what they m( 
ilsTg, is the (lay ou which an 
pens and the two following, 
medans reckon the sidereal day, 

of the nncieot Jews. Someol' 
is called these log coffins are valuable, aiid it is usual for 
' Maliome- the itch Chinese to keep their coffins ready for 
}f a day for their own use. The Saiva hindu, the Jangam 
in by tliree or liingadari, the pariali oi- oiil(-ui>t i-uces and 
eveut bap- thefiveartizan clasnesut' India, all iut«r their 
The maho- dead with their faces to the north. The 
I tlieir time, nrtizan dead are m.-ate<l fating the north. The 
a sunset, differing thus from the vaishnava hindu who die of ordiuaiy diseusi-s 
European. civil day, midnight to mitluight, or, are burned ou a funeral pyre, and it was 
solar day, midday to midday. not unusual amongst the liuniing olusees of iho 

ThoughdieGothicaDdScandiuavianDations ElajputB and hiDduH of the Huh rat la country 
faSTe, in the cases of Tuesday, Wednesday, sud northern India, for their widows to )>laco 
nmreday and Friday, given the names of themselves alive aloiigsiile the boilies of their 
Scandinavian deities, Tuisco, Wodeit, Thor, deceased husbands. Amongst the Balinese, 
Priga, to foar days of the week, — most of the the widow and slaves of tlie deceased great are 
sorthem uadouB have preserved the Latin burned along with (he deceased. But with the 
I mil I II as in vaiehoava hindu, unniamed persons or such 

FreneA — Hardi, Mercredi, Jeudi, Vendredi. ns have died of small-pox or <:holera ore 
Spanisk — Hartea, Miercoles, Juenes,Viernes. burned, and their a^hes thrown into water. 
ttalioM — llartedi,Mercoledi,Giovedi,VenerJi, The mohomedau dead are all buried, and visits 
while for Saturday they have taken the Sab- ai'e paid to their gimves. Di-. Livingftone 
bUical word. — TotTt Rajasthan, Vol. I., pp. describes the practice of the Balonda of S. 
Africa to be, to abandon the spot whei* a 
favorite wife has died. — Limtigitone Travel*. 
See Burial. 

DEA D SK A,C8lled now Bahr-ul-I.ot, or the 
Sea of Lot,iK the largest loke inPate»<tiue, being 
40 miles long with an averoge breadth of 9 

__ ^ miles and at places 200 fathoms deep. It occu- 

chai^ier.""ln 1"^* '''^ valley of Siddim, in which were the 
cities of Sodom, GomoiTah, Admar, Zeboim 
and Zoar, which sunk by some convulsion of 
nature. The Dead Sea has been known by 
several names. It is called the Sea of 
the Plain, Deut., iii. 17 ; the Salt Sea, in 
17 ; Josh., XV. 5 ; from the ex- 
,lig tremely salt aud bitter taste of its waters, 
ibie ^''''-'^ hold two lbs. of salt in a gallon, and 
the East Sea in £zek., xlvii. 18 ; Joel, ii. 20, 
from its position with respect to the Judiean 
mouiilains. Josephus and the Roman writers 
call it the Lake Asphaltites, from the abund- 
ance of the bitumen found in it. The more 
familiar name, the Dead Sea, is in allusion to 
the ancient tradition, erroneously but gener- 
ally received, that no animal could exist in its 
salt and hydrosulphuric waters. It is 1,300 
feet below the general sea level, and 4,000 feet 
below Jerusalem, but the general slope of the 
the dead "to be '"Wvening district is so regnlsr that from the 
a distance ^P''"^^ °^ *''" ^'''y ^'' ^''^ Mount of Oliv 

232 amd 595. Sowrinff'a Siam. 

DAYAX is the name given to all the wild 
tribes of Sumatra and Celebes, but is parti- 
cularly applied to those of Borneo where they 
■re most numerous, some are wild savpges but 
others hare fixed habitations, large barrack- 
like hate, containing many families. They 
are 'ignorant of any 

dieir wars they clothe in prepared skins, their 
arms are the sword aud spear and blowpipe. 
The Kayan Dayak are idol worshippers, keep 
their dea<) for some days, and inter in a coffin 
made of the hollow truuk of a tree. See Dyak. "'^ * 

DAYAL BIRD. See Robin. "^"^■ 

DAYAMUR, a magoifiient peak 
Bara LAcLa or Western Himaluya, vismie 
from Bamnagur in the Punjab. 

DATG, a large, or Dnyg-ciia, a small 
copper caldron ; from the Arabic degh aud 

DAY-LILIES, the genus Hemerocallis. 

DEAD. The remains of the several races in 
Sonth Eastern Asia are variously disposed of 
One of the most ancient of the races, the 
Paneeor Guebre, the followers of Zertusht oi 
Zoroaster, expose their dead bodies on ironbar^ 
over a deep well enclosed in a circular tower. 
The buddbist Tilietans all> 

dragged in an unseemly mi\^^^. u^ _ ^.■.m^...,^ i i , - ,■ , 

■nd then exposed. The dead of the huddhist ™^ "',"'' '"''= '^"""^ directly upon its wf (e™-— 
Bannese, of rank, particularly of the religious £"*'"'■ ^f^^*^"". P- 63 ; MauT;,'! Physical 
pboongee, is laid in honey for a year, and then Oeoffrapbt/, p \S6 ; Robertson's Traveh, 
M)oveyed,5eemingIy with much the ^ cle'ttne and Syrta, Vol. 
burning place and burned amidst fire-works. nJler Dam 
The Chinese revere the dead and make pil- Deolen. Dut. 
grimages U> their ancestors' graves. Their Deal boacdi. 
tod arc placed in coffins made of great Imrs ol ™'™ ■™<'-, 
*i)od and lodged id chambers above ground Diei^n Qer 

m. 61, 68. 

Tavolo. It. 

Tarcicc. Poi 
Doski. Res. 
Tiljor. Sw. 






Un'y have never been fixeil authoritatively, 
but tlie countries in the Pfninsulu have been 
distinguished by tiiis name from the earliest 
times. The term signifies the south ; as 
Poonib does the east, when applied to Bengal 
lud its dependencies. But, at the present day, 
the term is generally applied to the Hyder- 
abad and Dowlurabad provinces lying t:etvvcen 
Berav and the Kistnah, and from tlie Syhadri 
or western ghauts, eastwards to Telinganah. 
The British in northern India, however, make 
the Deccao more extensive and regard it as 
iuciuding all the southern table-laud, sup- 
ported as it were by a ti*iangle formed by 
the Sautpoora or sub-Viudhyn on the N., 
the Syhadri or western ghauts on the west 
aud the eastern ghauts on the E. ; the Saut- 
poora range constituting the base of the 
triangle. The length, from the Sautpoora range 
to Salem, is about 700 miles ; breadth from 
Mahabaleshwar to Sirgoojah about 700 miles. 
But if Ciioota-Nagpore be cousidered as part 
of this great table-laud, it may be said to 
extend nearly 250 miles farther in a north- 
easterly direction, oi* about 950 miles in all. 
I(!f !!igliest parts are those nearest the W. 
gliauts, and in the centre of Mysore. Maha- 
itaieshwar in L. IS** N., anil L. 73** 45 east 
is 4,70O ft. The source of Kistnah, 4,500 
ft. Source of Gotlavery, 3,000 i't. Poona, 
1,823 ft. Source of Ma^je^^ 3,019 ft., 
aud tlie rivers ri.-iing in ravines between spurs 
uf the W. ghauts, wind their way through 
EL ghauts across the Deccaii, the slo|>e being 
in tliat direction. Phiins of Nagporc, 1,000 
ft, slope' to S. E. di-ained by Wein-Gunga, 
which falls into the Godai'ery. Hyderabad, 
is 1,300 fc Secunderabad, in L. 17* 26', 
N. L. 78' 33' ; E. is 1,837 ft. Beder, in L. 
17' 53', L. 77* 36' ; E. is 2,359 ft. From 
die Wein-Gunga the surface rises towards 
N. E., where Rypoor, 21* 12', 81* 40', is 
1,747 ft. Source of Mahanuddy, 2,1 1 1 ft. ; 
and Konkar, 20' 16', 81* 33', 1,953 ft. 
Nundydro<^. highest in Mysore, 4,856 ft. ; 
slope from hence on all sides, S. to Bangalore, 
3,000 ft. ; E. to plains of Carnatic-Chittoor, 
1,100 ft. : N. to pUins of Gooty, 1,182 ft. ; 
and those of Bellaiy plains, 1,600 ft. Gooty 
pbiioa 1,182 ft. ; Cuddapah town, 507 ft. ; 
and £. part of Cuddapah district 450 ft. 
Hypogene schists, penetrated and broken up 
by prodigious out-bursts of plutonic and trap- 
pean rocks, oc(!U[»y by far the greater portion 
of the superlicies of Southern India. The 
central part of the Deccan is composed of 
waving downs, which, at one time, present 
for miles a sheet of green harvests, but in the 
hot season, bear the appearance of a desert, 
without a tree or shrub to relieve its gloomy 
tameness. Colonel Sykes has described the 


great volcanic outburst of greeu-stoue rock 
which cover^^ all Berar from the Nerbuddah tu 
Bombay and southwards through JSirmul to 
Naldroog through many thousand square mile!<. 
Between Naldroog and Beder and for a 
hundred miles to it^i north aud south are great 
hills of iaterite. The ai*ea covered by Deccan 
trap, in the peninsula of India cannot be 
little less than 200,000 square miles. Ex- 
cept the hollow of the Loounr lake there 
is no trace of any crater in this volcanic 
region : twenty miles to the cast of Nirmul, 
and a few miles south of the mountains, 
hornblende slate occurs, resting on granite 
and quartz rock. The countries through 
which the Gutpurba aud the Malpurba run, 
and the lower course of the Kistnah, Blieema 
and Tumbudra and all about Kalladgee, 
Kurnool and Cuddapah are formed of strata 
of limestone and clay slate, tlio granitic 
platform of the Deccan, which intervenes 
between the Kistnah aud the Godaveiy, iu^r- 
sected by numerous green-stone dykes (some- 
times of green-stone porphyry), having fpr 
the greater part a direction f^'om S. by E. io 
N. by W., and not very difierent from that of 
several of the ranges uf basaltic mountains to 
the north. The seaward face of the table-land 
towards the W , though abrupt, is not preci- 
pitous, but consists of a succession of terraces 
or steps. On tlie Coromandel side the slope to 
j the sea is gentle, exhibiting tlie alluvial depo* 
! sits borne down from the higher portions of 
; the table-land. The inhabitants of this great 
I region are nations speaking Gondi, Mahratta, 
Telugu and Canarese, and for 120 miles north 
west from tlie to>vn of Sadasheepet running on 
through Beder and Dangapura these three 
languages join, and the villages are styled si- 
bhasha-basti, three-tongue-towns. The British 
rule over the Ceded Districts of Bellary, Cud- 
dapah, Kurnool, the southern Mahratta coun- 
try, and part of ancient Dowlatabad, they 
have assigned to them all Berar, and their 
officers rule over Mysore : the Nizam holds 
Hyderabad and a few small chiefs rule ncai* 
the Kistnali river. It was not till a. d. 1471, 
that the mahomedans of the Deccan extended 
their arms to the Northern Circars. At this 
time the Oria rnjah of what is now the Ganjam 
country, died without issue, and his adopted 
son Mungul Roy, and his cousin Humner(?) 
became competitors for the succession. During 
Mahmoud's time (in 1512), the Bahminee 
dynasty was dismembered, and five Deccance 
kingdoms set up. The country now known 
as "The Nortliem Circars," fell under the 
dominion of the Kutub Shahee state, whose 
capital was Golcondah near Hyderabad. That 
portion south of the Godavery became ti'ibu- 
tary without (Jifliculty. Wistuu Doe or G^Ji- 

D 33 



encroachment. The word is derived from 
^ Deep,** Uiod^ aii inland, and Dau., Hiud., a 

DEEP-DAN^y HiND^ derived from deepa, a 
lamp, is applied to a hind u ceremony observ- 
ed for ten days after the decease of a re- 
latiTe. It consists in suspending from a 
pipnl, or some other, tree, a lamp, for the 
purpose of lighting the departed spirit on the 
dark road to Jumpooi*ee or Yamapuri, the 
abode of Yama. This place is declared in the 
aaered books to be tlie genei-al rendezvous of 
tbt departed from all parts of the world from 
wiucb thej proceed in a body with a proper 
guard, composed of the servants of Yama 
(Plato) to Dbarmapuri. — As, Res., Vol, x, 
p, 145— EilioL 
DEEPIKA, Sans. A light. 
DEER, Eno. a general term used by the 
British iu India to designate several bovine 
iniBials, distinguishing them as the barking- 
deer, hog-deer, rib-faced-deer, sambur and 
spotted deer. There are, however, frequent 
minglings of names, as there are a variety of 
scientific and vernacular synonyms. These 
mimals are all eagerly pursued as game by 
Europeans who often refer to scientific men 
for their true names. 
Giana of Tibet, Nepaul and Saul forests, 

is the Cervus Wallichii of Cuvier. 
Barak^SinhOf or Buraiya of Bengal, Eastern 
and Northern skirts of India, is the Rucer- 
T1I8 Davaucelli of Cuvier. 
Sumg-nai or Sungraee, of Munipore and Malay 
Peninsula, is the Panolia acuticornis and 
P. Eldii of Gray ; the Cervus or Rusa 
frontalis of McClelland, and the Cervus 
Eldii of the Cal. Jour. Nat. Hist. 
Satmbur of the Mahrattas ; Sambara, Sanscrit, 
an inhabitant of the Deccan, Southern 
Mahratta country, of Sumatra, Borneo and 
Banka, is the Rusa equina, of Cuvier and 
Giay ; the Cervus equinus of Cuvier, the 
Cervus or Busa hippelaphus of Elliot, 
Rosa etam or Busa Kumbang of the inhabi- 
tants of Samatra. 
Bomber of Hodgson, a dweller in the forests 
of (northern) India, is the Rusa hippela- 
phus of Cuvier and Gray, the Cervus 
hippelaphus of Gray. 
Jarai or Jerraw of the great forests of India 
and of Ceylon is the Rusa aristotelis of 
CuTier and Gray, the Cervus aristotelis of 


The Sf>oUed deer Chitra, Sanscrit; and Chit- 
tal,Hindj, of Continental India and Southern 
Mahratta country and of the Malayan penin- 
sida, is the Axis maculata of Gray, the 
Cervus axis of Erxleben and Elliot. 

The Hog deer of Continental India and Assam 
which is called by the vernacular names 


" Para," " Khar," " Laghuna," and " Sugo- 
ria," is the Uyelaphus porciuus of Sundeval ; 
the Cervus porcinus Zimmerm and the Axis 
(Cervus) niger, Dr. Buch. Ham. 

The Muntjak of the Sundanese, Kidang of 
the Javanese and Kijang of the Malays of 
^Sumatra which is found in Banka, Borneo, 
Java and Sumatra, is tlie Cervulus vaginalis 
Bodd. and Gray, Cervus muntjak of 

The Barking deer of Europeans, which is the 
Rib-faced deer of Pennant, and which dwells 
in the plains of India, is the ^' Baiker" or 
*^ Bekra" of the Mahrattas according to 
Sykes and Elliot : the '' Ratwa" and 
" Kaker" of the Indian Continent of 
Hodgson, Cervus muntjak of Sykes, Stylo- 
cerus Ratwa of Hodgson. 

Faddy-Field deer of Ceylon is Axis oryzus 

Oi jvf^IflArt 

dica charantia. 

DEERGA VARTAKA, Sans. Brinjal. 

DEER-SKINS. See Leather. 

DEES and GOEY are rivers near Sindwah 
in Holkar*B territory. 

DEESA, a town and military station in 
Guzerat ; about 350 feet in height above the 
sea : its rainfall is 12 and 14 inches, and the 
thermometer ranges from 50* to 110*. It is 
surrounded by a desert of sand. 

DEE WABGIRI, Hind. Tapestry, or cloth 
for adorning a wall. 

DEEYAPARA, Singh. Wormia trique- 
tra, RottL 

DEG, Hind. A large copper cauldron or 
globular vessel, a cooking pot. Deg-cha, a 
small pot. 

DEGAR, Bind. Picas oppositifolia. 

DEGCHA, Hind. A pot, 

DEGOT : Smola : shitkaja. Bus. Tar. 

DEH, Per. A village : hence Dehgan, a 
villager, a cultivator. Dehi, pertaining to a 
village. — Wils. 

DEHA, Sans., from dih, to collect or 

DEHAR, a river near Tootagong in Gow* 

DeH A VILL A ND. Colonel Thomas Fiott 
deHavilland, eldest son of Sir Peter deHavil- 
land of Guernsey, was born in 1776 ; he 
received a commission as Lieutenant in the 
Madras Engineers at the age of 16 ; was 
present at the taking of Seringapatam and 
received 5,000 Rupees prize money ; was 
taken prisoner by the French at sea, but was 
soon released ; joined and remained with his 
corps till 1812 ; then retired to Guernsey and 
built Jerbourg barracks ; returned to Madras, 
where he planned and constructed the Mount 
Road, built St. George's Church now the 

D 35 



the same attachments to their chiefs, internal 
hereditary feuds, dislike to combination and 
predatory habits, which distingnish so many 
moantain races, but have withal a martial 
bearing and love of independence. The 
scarcity of water limits cultivation, and their 
wealth consists in their herds which find a 
scanty pasturage at the foot of tlie hills ; 
amongst the mountains occnr a few fertile 
patch^ : the country being traversed by 
fooTpaths known only to themselves, the hill 
tribes were accustomed to issue from it in 
itids on their wealthier neighbours in the 
plains, hurrying their cattle and i*etreating in 
stfety to their impracticable mountains. To 
stop this, in the beginning of 1857, after one 
of snch inroads, the Punjab Government sent 
m expedition to reduce the Bozdars, from 
■mongst the troops of the Punjab Irregular 
Force, and names known to fame, in the In- 
dian mutinies, ChamWrlain, Coke, Nicholson, 
Hodson, Probyn, Watson, Wild, and Green, 
were all trained in this school of warfare, in- 
Tolving severe marches, incessant fights and 
exposure to all the seasons of the year. 
The hills are inhabited by predatory Pathan 
and Belooch tribes, who cultivate little fertile 
patches, called kuehee, lying within the moun- 
tains. The tribes, from north to south, of 
the Derajat frontier come in the following 
order : — 

( Ahmediye, 
I Othmanie, 
(, Utteranah or OonteraBM. 

Belooekee Kuiseranee. 

Patkan Khetrao. 


Bel«»hTrib«... i }^^-^_ 

i Goorchanee. 
i, Muzaree. 

The Muhsood Waziri have three large divi- 
sions. A Belucli contingent was maintained 
for the defence of the Derajat frontier and the 
Belach chiefs were held responsible for its 
passes. (Medlet/s pearls Campaigning, pp. 
1 to 21.) The Bozdar are a border tribe 
with about 2,600 fighting men, west of the 
Derajat. They dwell in the hills opposite 
MoDgrota, about 50 miles north of Dehra 
Ghazi Ktian, and were given to make tron- 
bleflome inroads on the plains. After a series 
of such, a force was sent against them in 
March 1867 through the Mahvi and Mnn- 
grola passes, and, after seeing their green 
erofM destroyed, and seeing the Oostcrani, a 
small but warlike tribe, join the British, one 
meniiDg the Bandar chiefs rode into the Bii- 
ikAk camp and sued f«r peace. They were 
iVMiTed in dolemii Darbar, and ** for every 

37 D 

Pathaa Tribe! 



man they had slain in their forays 125 Rnpees 
were paid, and 50 Rupees for every wounded 
man, this being the regular price of blood in 
the hills." A few months aften^'ards, they 
furnished a contingent to protect the frontier, 
when the troops were sent to quell the 
mutiny. This Beluch tribe occupy the mouu- 
tains and the low country, and have the 
following sections, Seharni, Suwarni, Gula- 
manni, Jelalaui, Chandiah and Shahani. From 
the Kusranee limits the hills of the Bozdar 
tribe extend along the British Frontier fat 
about 15 or 20 miles. The range is inter- 
sected by some nine passes leading into the 
plains, the chief which is the Sungnrh Pass, 
through which there is considerable traffic 
with Candahar and the Punjab. Opposite 
these hills lies the Sungurh low-land (foim- 
ing the upper portion of the Dchra-Ghazee 
Khan district and cultivated by several 
peaceful tribes) and very much at the mercy 
of the Bozdar. Thei*e is only one Bozdar 
village in the plains, but there is much scat- 
tei*ed cultivation belonging to the tribe. 
Almost the whole tribe and their chiefs live 
in the hills. They can muster 3,000 or 4,000 
fighting men, some portion of whom are 
horsemen. They were probably the most 
formidable robbers in this part of the fron- 
tier. Under the Sikh regime they repeatedly 
eaiTied fire and sword into the Dehra-Ghazee 
Khan district. The Dehi-a Ismail Khan district 
foi-med one of the governments of the Doora- 
nee rulci-s. When Elphinstone passed through 
the town in 1803, within a hundred yards of 
the Indus, it was enclosed by a large wood of 
date trees. It had a ruinous wall of unbuni- 
ed bricks, about a mile and a half in circum- 
ference. The inhabitants were chiefly Be- 
loochee, with some Afghans and Hindoos : 
but the country people were Beloche and 
Jut, resembling those on the opposite bank 
of the Indus. The Dehra-Ismael district is 
divided into two halves by a range of hills 
running at nearly right angles from the Sulee- 
manee range to the Indus. The passage from 
one part of the district to the other is through 
the Peyzoo and Mulezye passes which in- 
tersect the range. Above the passes there 
is the valley of Bunnoo occupied by the 
Bunnoo Wuzeeree. The Bunnoochee them- 
selves were a vicious race. They cultivate 
with some industry ; and are well afli»cted 
to the government. Below the valley, and 
immediately above the range is Murwut. The 
Murwutee are afine race of striking appear- 
ance, loyal to the British, and both willing 
and able to check the depredations of their 
hill neighbours. In Murwut stands the fort 
of Lukkee. In the hills near the Peyzoo pa$s 
dwell the Bnttancc : they were, Once, a rob- 




Vol. ii, pp. 138, 352, 478 ; Wilson's Hindu 
Theatre^ Vol. i, p. 21, and Vol. ii, p. 64. 

DEIFIED WARRIORS, are largely wor- 
shipped iu the peoiDsula of India. Rama, 
one of these, was the leader of one invasiou 
of the southern part of the peninsula of India 
and of Ceylon. On that occasion he advanced 
into the forests of Danda Caranya, scattering 
the prior inhahitants, as he advanced, whom 
he described as Rakshasha and demons, driv- 
ing some of them into the forests and moun- 
tain retreats, where they still reside in a 
biriMUtHis freedom, and reducing others to 
the state of predial slavery, in which the 
Fuiah, the Pallar, Cherumar and other 
hambled races are now dwelling in the plains. 
To such invasions is owing the circumstance 
that each province in India has its own pecu- 
liar helot race ; and each range of moun- 
tains and each forest tract, its own tribes 
of wild savages either wholly indepcndeul 
or purtially subject to their more civilized 
neighboars in the open country. We may 
instance the Pahari of the Rajmahal hills on 
the banks of the Granges, and from their 
locality westwards through all the races in 
the Vindhya hills, the Meena, the Mhair, 
the Bheel, the Koli, southwards through 
the races in Bnstar and Gondwana. Amongst 
the Sonthal, the Grond, the Kond, Chench- 
war, Souriah, the Yanady, the Irular, the 
Kammbar, the Beder, Kallar, to the Malay- 
ali or mountaineers iu the south, an infi- 
nite SQCcession of races and tribes with cus- 
toms and speaking languages, differing gi*eatly 
from the inhabitants in the plains ; besides 
whom are numerous migratory races, as the 
Korava, Wadawar, Ycrkalwar and Pardi. 
The ancient Sanscrit writers give other names 
of ancient races with whom the Arians came 
in contact in their advance to the Ganges, some 
of which cannot now be traced. 

DEIG, a town and fortress iu Hiudostan. 
A battle was fought and won, here, by the £. I. 
Company's troops uuder Lord Lake, on the 
13th November 1804, and on tlie 23rd De- 
cember 1804, the forti'ess of Deig was taken. 
See Battles. 

DEIGWUR, a town in Hazareebagh. 

DEIR, a town of Mesopotamia, 

DEITY, see Deo ; Deva. Hindoo. 

DE KOROS, Alexander Csoma, a Hunga- 
rian, who travelled on foot from Hungary to 
Tibet. See Cspma. 

DEIN, Hind. Oryzasativa. 

Crotalaria jnncea. — Linn. 

DEL, Singh. Artocarpus hirsuta, also A. 
pabeecens. — Willde^ Lam, 

DELA, HiKD. Jasminum hirsutum. 

in the Malegawa temple at Kandy, is the most 
devoutly worshipped relic of their religion, 
which is possessed by the buddhist nations of 
the East. Long before the christian era it was 
adored by the buddhist sovereigns of Orissa, 
and was originally deposited in the great 
temple of Jagganath, then a buddhist founda- 
tion. Its first deposition in Ceylon was in 
the fourth centuiy of Christianity. The bud- 
dhists of Ceylon have a tradition, that who- 
ever can succeed in retaining it must of ne- 
cessity become the sovereign of the country. 
The Chinese traveller, Fa-Hyan, mentions 
amongst the precious relics worahipped in the 
fifth century by the buddhists of Ladak a 
vase in which Buddha had spat^ and one 
of his teeth ; another tooth was similarly 
cherished by the king of Nakia, in Aff- 
ghauistan, eastwai'd of Ghuzni. In an adjoin- 
ing monastery the monks preserved the cut- 
tings of his hair and nails. Fa-Hyan also 
describes a shadow of Buddha, which was 
shown to him at Nakia, but admits his inability 
to describe the process of its preservation. — 
Tennen^s Christianity in Ceylon^ p, 239. 
See Buddha. 

DELEMI, the Amir Azan, Deleroi, built 
the dam called Band-i-Arair, the Bend-Amir 
of Europeans. See Bendamir. 

DEL-GAHA, Singh, also Del-gass, Singh. 
Artocarpus nobilis. — Thw. 

DELA EURA, also Doggali kura, also 
Erra Doggali kura, Tel. Amarantus poly- 
gam us. — Linn, Roxb. 

DELAY-LAMA, dwells amongst the Ton- 
gut Tartar nation, to the south of the Mongol. 
See Ealkas. 

DELE, Hind., and Dela, the fruit of the 
Cap pari s plant. 


Goane porcelain ware, 

DELFS, Dot. 
DELFT, Eng. 

Delf 8 : poroelyn, DUT. 

Faience, Fa. 

Uniohtee Porzell&n, Gbr. 

Coarse porcelain. 

DEHLI. About 15 centuries before the 
christian era, the town of Indraprestha was 
in existence on the Jumna, in the vicinity 
of the site occupied by the modem Dehli. 
At present, the only remnants of Indra- 
prestha, are the Negumbodghaut and the 
Puranah Killa or Indrapat, but it was one 
of the five " pat" oi* " prastha," viz., Panipat, 
Sonpat, Indrapat, Tilpat and Baghpat, which 
Dhritorashtra gave to the Pandu. Now, how- 
ever, Purana Killa and the Negumbodghaut on 
the Jumna are the only places which can be 
pointed to as probably connected with the 
ancient Indraprestha, and the ghaut seems to 
have been a 8aci*ed place of pilgrimage, even 
DELADHA, the reputed tooth of Buddha, I before the Pandu family settled there. The 

39 D 39 



rupees and was erected by his widow Hamida The heavy biege guns arrived in September 

Bauu begum, who is also interred near. ! when five batteries were constructed and 

Bhooi Khana, In Pirthiraj's capital, were some fifty pieces of artillery opened their fire 

twenty-seven hindoo temples, of which several upon the doomed city. The 14th of Septem- 

haodreds of richly-carved pillars still remain 
to attest both the taste and the wealth of 
the lafit Lindoo nilers of Delhi. The Bhoot 
Kbana is a colonnaded court-yard, the mate- 
rials of which were obtained from the demoli- 
tion of the hindoo temples. 

n»e Alia Durwaza^ built by Ala-ud-Dln, 
A.H. 710, A.o. 1310, is a beautiful specimen 
of Fathan architecture. 

ber was the great day for the storming of the 
city of Delhi, and the attacking force was 
divided into four columns, with a reserve. 
The gallant party fixed upon to blow open 
the Cashmere gate consisted of Lieutenants 
Salkeld and Home, Serjeants Carmichael, 
Burgess and Smith, Bugler Hawthorne who 
accompanied the party to sound the advance 
when the gate was blown in, and eight native 

At the S. W. comer of Siri or Shahpur is sappers under Havildar Madhoo to carry the 

the Roashan Charagh built by Feroz Shah as 
& shrine to the memory of a famous saint 

bags of powder. 
The inscriptions on the pillars at Delhi and 

The fortifications of Toghalaqabad form a Allahabad, and on the Tirhut pillars at 
stupendoQS structure. Mathiya, Delhi and Radhiya, have long ago 

Inside Delhi is the Jumma Musjid close to | been deciphered and traiislated by the remark- 
the Chandni Chouk. 

The Shalimar gardens were made by the 
emperor Shah Jehan at a cost of a crore of 

The Zioat Masjid called also the Kumari 
Mosjid, was boilt by Zinat-un-Nissa, the 
spinster daughter of Aurungzeb. 

During the rebellion of 1857, the Delhi mas- 
sacre occurred on the 1 ith May 1 857. Delhi 
was assaulted on the 14th September 1857. 

From the 14th to the 17th of September, 
the Church, the Kutcherry, the College, the 
Kotwallee, the Magazine, and the Delhi Bank 
House were one after the other carried and 
recovered. On the 1 8th the line of communi- 
cation between the magazine and the Cabul 
gate was completed. On the 19th the Burn 
bastion, near the Lahore gate, was taken posses- 
sion of by a surprise. This bastion is so called 
from Colonel Bum, who with a handful of men 
made a noost memorable defence of Delhi in 
1804 against an overwhelming army of Holkar 
and the cannonade of a hundred and thirty 
guns. Sir D. Ochterlony, then ResidcMit, 
wrote of this defence that it cannot but reflect 
the greatest honour on the discipline, courage 
and fortitude of British troops in the eje8 of 
all Hindoostan to observe that with a small 
force they sustained a siege of nine days, 
repelled an, and defended a city ten 
miles in circumference, which had ever before 
been given up at the first appearance of an 
enemy at its gates.* The 20th of September 
was the day of the final capture of Delhi. On 
that day the imperial palace was entered and 
foand deserted. The main picket of the 
British forces was at Hindoo Rao, on the top 
of the ridge that is to the north-west of the 
city. The chief efforts of the rebels were 
directed against this post of the besiegers. 
From the 8th of June 1857, until the fall of 
Delhi, it had had to sustain twenty-six attacks. 

able ingenuity of Mr. James Prinsep. The 
inscriptions on the rocks at Junagiri in Gujrat, 
and at Dhauli in Kuttack, were also interpret- 
ed by him. A supposed third version of the 
rock inscriptions (but in the Ariano-Pali 
character), which was found at Kapur-digiri, 
near Peshawur, has been carefully collated 
with the otliers by Professor Wilson. Many 
short inscriptions from Gaya, Sauclii and 
Birat, as well as from the cave temples of 
Southern India, have also been published at 
different times, but, with the single exception 
of the edicts in the Bock Inscriptions, which 
contain the names of Antiochus, Ptolemy, 
Antigonus and Magas, the inscriptions in the 
able work of Major Cunningham are of 
greater interest, and of much higher import- 
ance, than all that had before been published. 
The highest population of Delhi was two 
millions in the time of Auruugzebe that of 
Kome having been three millions, and that of 
London being now somewhere between the two 
numbers. Three years before the mutiny tho 
number returned was upwards of 150,000. 
Delhi is a city of great antiquity, from 
which, from pre-historic times, much of India 
has continued to be ruled. One dynasty, the 
Pandava, ruled there from b. c. 1120 to 
B. c. 610. Delhi is in L. 28' 38' 9", N. L. 77* 
13' I'E.and 825 or 827 feet above tho sea. 
It is on the right bank of the Jumna, 120 miles 
above Agra, which is also on the right bank. 
The river washes the east face of the city, 
forming the chord of an arc of which the rest 
of the city wall is the perimeter. The length 
from north to south is about two miles, the 
extreme breadth from east to west, about 
three miles: tho area enclosed within tho 
walls probably four square miles. The walls 
are built of stone and lime, entirely surround 
the place, and consist of long curtains with 
bastion^ at different intervals, tho wholo 

D 41 


wards oyerran and conquered Ben^, and 
from this time for five centuries and a half, 
Bengal was under mahomedan rule. Delhi, 
WIS conquered by Shahab*ud-din a* d. 1 200. 
In ▲. D. 1219 tlie dominion was extended 
bj Kutuh-od-din Aibek, whose euccessors 
were Aram shah and Altamsh. Altamsh 
conquered Multan, and died A. D. 1 235. From 
this year, till a. d. 1246, there were five 
successors, tjz., Feroz Shah, Bukn-ud-din ; 
the princess Razziah-ud-din ; Bahram Shah ; 
Maiod Shah Ala-ud-din and Mahomed Shah 
Na»ir-nd»din ; the last made great conquests 
is India, and was succeeded by Ala-ud-din, 
who was alire in a. d. 1317. In a. d. 1398, 
soltan Mahamnd was reigning, and it was 
this emperor whom Timur conquered in that 
jear. From that time till the rcTolt of 1857, 
the Timur dynasty continued to be connected 
with India. But from Timur until Baber's 
time, the connection was not close. Baber 
in A. D. 1526 conquered sultan Ibrahim Lodi, 
and died four years afterwards a. d. 1530. 
Hamayun succeeded and died a. d. 1556. 
Akbar ruled till a. d. 1605, and of all the 
descendants of Timur he was the most illustri- 
•us. His three sucessors, Jehaughir, died 
1627, shall Jehan died 1658, and Aurung- 
zebe who died 1707, retaine<l ^reat power, but 
it was bought at the price of endless 
crimes, and from the death of Aurungzebe 
in 1707 the Great Moguls fell into insignifi- 
cance, escaping by submissiveness, the whirl- 
winds of Nadir Shah, of Ahmed Shah, and of 
the Mahrattas. Bahadoor Shah died at Lahore 
in February 1712, Jahandar Shah and Far- 
raksir ruled until a.d. 1719 ; Raffi-ud-Durjat, 
Raffi-ud-Dowlah and Mahomed Shah till 1739, 
when Tamas Kuli Khan took and sacked Dehli 
and retired to Persia. 

The defeat of the Delhi sovereigns and 
Nadir's entry into the capital, took place on 
the 13th February and early in March 1739 
respectively, but were not known in London 
until the 1st of October. The emperor shah 
Alam entered Delhi with the Mahrattas on 22nd 
December 1771. He continued a mere state 
prisoner in the hands of the Mahrattas till 
1803, when he was released by Lord Lake, 
and brought under the protection of the British 
Crovemment. All the territories and resources 
assigned for his support by the Mahrattas 
were continued to him, and a pecuniaiy pro- 
vision was granted in addition, fixed at Rupees 
6(>,000, but afterwards increased to Rupees 
1,00,000 a month. Shah Alam died on the 
19th November 1806, and was succeeded by 
Akbar Shah, who was succeeded in 1 837 by 
his eldest son Bahadoor Shah. He was 
restricted to the neighbourhood of Delhi, he 
was not allowed to confer titles or to issue a 



currency, but he had jhe control of Civil 
and Criminal Justice within the palace. 
When the mutiny of 1857 broke out, the 
mutineers in Delhi took possession of the town, 
fort and stores and applied to the king. Baha- 
door Shah put himself at the head of the move- 
ment. At first his conduct was most vacillating, 
but he subsequently identified himself with the 
rebel cause. After the fall of Delhi on the 
20th September 1857, he was captured and 
tried on the charges of, 1st, aiding and abet- 
ting the mutiny of British Troops ; 2nd, 
encouraging and assisting divers persons in 
waging war against the British Government ; 
3rd, assuming the sovereignty of India ; 4th, 
causing and being accessory to the murder of 
Christians. He was convicted on each 
charge on the 9th December 1858, and sent 
to Rangoon, where he died in 1 862, and this, 
after nearly ^vq centuries of sovereign power, 
the Timurides ceased to reign. Of all the 
countries over which the members of this 
family once ruled, India alone has made any 
advance in material prosperity, since the days 
of their power. Samarcand, the capital of 
Timur, is a desolate heap of ruins ; Andecan, 
the beloved home of Baber, is in the possession 
of Uzbek savages. The once rich and opulent 
Herat, the abode of learning, the brilliant 
capital of Shah Rokh and Hosein Mirza, the 
native land of poets and historians, is now the 
ruinous fortress of an Afifghan. Shiraz, the 
beautiful city, made immortal by the songs of 
Sadi and Hafiz, where Ali of Yezd wrote the 
life of the mighty Timur, is reduced to the 
condition of an impoverished provincial town, 
in the kingdom of the Kajar kings of Persia. 
Lahore and Delhi are noted for their gold, 
woven fabrics and light silk muslin fabrics 
interwoven with gold threads, as well as for 
all kinds of work in tinsel or kaldbatun. — 
Markam*s Embassy^ p. 1, VoL iv. Ctin- 
ningham's Sikhs, RennelVs Memoirs, p. 
1, Vol. vi. Elphinstone^s History of India, 
p. 37, VoL ii. Count Bjomsterna*s British 
Empire, p, 98. Aitchison*s Treatises, Vol. i, 
pp. 1 <o 4 and 285. J. A. S. B., Vol. iii, p. 
494. Vol. vi, pp. 576, 791 . Vol. vii, p. 629. 
Tr, of Hind., Vol. ii, p. 371. 
DEL HOSTE,Captain an officer of the Bom- 
bay nmiy, author of Memoirs on Scinde. On 
the Nerbudda river. Journal of a march from 
Ahmedabad to Sukkur, Upper Scinde. Notes 
on the meteorology of the Phoonda Ghaut. — 
Dr. BtiisCs Catalogue. Bom. Geo. Trans,, 
Vol. i, p. 22. 

tage madablota. 

DELIMA, Malay. Punica granatum. 

DELIMA HEBECARPA, a creeper of 
Penang and Java. — Voigt, p. 18. 

D 43 


sfaruLi wit]) nmM wEiile flowers in panicles, 
grows in tbe Bouthem parU of Ceylon up to 
nu elotHtioQ of 1,000 tceU—Thieaitet' En. 
FLZeyL, p. 2\. Hidden. 

DELPHI, a DBtural cave in llie earth at 
the town orDelphos iu Grfccc, where was an 
ancieot oracle ami place- of worxliip. Delphi i» 
ayuoujmouB with the hindoo Youi. 

DELPHINIDJE, a family of mammals of 
the orJei- Celaceic, or tlie wliale tribe, which 
live in the ocean. Amongst them are the 
whales, the largest of creatui'es now cxtBt< 
iiig ; also the dolphins, the porpoises, oud 
the ilugong. They have fin-like anterior 
extremities, the posterior exti-cmities being 
absent, or rather their place supplied by a 
lat^ horizontal caudal fin or tail. They bave 
DO hair on their skin, have no outer ear, and 
the bones of the neck are so compressed as to 
leave the animal without the appearance of a 
neek. Some of them eat plants, or are phyto- 
phagous ; some are zoophagous, or animal- 
eaters. Seven new species of cetaceans have 
been described firom the Kay of Bengal, 
six of the family Delpfainidte, the seventh 
belonging to the sperm whales, Phy- 
HCteridie, to be called Phyneter (Euphysetot) 
simus. The order of the Cetaccn! or whale 
tribe, consists of 2 Families, 8 genera iitid 
21 species. 

DtiphinapttTut Peronii. 
lUght whkle Porpoiw of wluJen- 

It is found on the Bnisil bank, off the Coasts 
of New Guinea and tlie higher southern lati- 
tudes. It lives in large shoals, and its fleak 
is esteemed a delicacy. It is black, but the 
beak, the pectoral fins and underpart of the 
body ni-e white. 

Uelphinui. Sea-faring people call the 
species of this genus, bottle-nose, bottie-head, 
flounder head, grampus, porpoise, porpesse, 
or porpus, sometimes even whale, and give 
the name of dolphin to the Cor^'pheua, a 
scomberoid fish which changes colour wh«i 
dying. There are several species of Deiphinus 

Deiphinat detphit. The Dolphin, attains 
a length of 9 to 10 feet. Greek legends make 
it the friend and com])anion of man. 

Delphinut phoecena. The porpoisH, attains 
a height of 5 or 6 feet. — Hartwig. 

Delphinut Orea. The Grampus, measures 
25 ftiet in length, and is 12 or 13 feet round. 
It is the most voracious of all the Dolphin tribe. 

Delphinut Heavindii. The Hastated 
Dolphin, inhabits the Mutli sea and Cape of 
Good Hope. 

Delphinut nhteurut. The Dusky Dolphin. 
InhabiiH lh<- southern ocean andCape of 
Good Hope. 

Delphiuut AhnnalnM. InhahiiK the Red 

Fam. DiLPHiNiiiJL 
D*l|ihinuB, 8 sp. 

'orpoinea, 5G«n,, 1 
PlatauuitB, S sp. 


Stinu, 1 Bp. 
Keomcris, I ip. 

Fam. niLXKlDf . ^Vll>l«, 4 Gen.. 


DelpAiunt Eulropia. Inhabits the Pacifie 
I Ocean ami Cbili. 

Delphinut Noca Ztalandia. The New 
' Zeulnnd Dolphin. Inhnbili' New /ealanj 

and Cajie Giible. 
I Delphinut Fortteri. ForntevV dol)>liiD, 
I inhabits the Pactlic Ocean licfiveeii New 
Oalnhiniii and Nni folk jKlaiid. 



luhabtts the Indian seas, the Ganges and 
Irawaddj. — Cat. Mam. Mus. E. I, C, Hart- 

DELPHINIUM, a genus of plants of the 
natural order Ranunculaceae, of which seve- 
ral species, D. ajacis, D. Brunouiauum, D. 
coiisolida, D. glaeialeaud D. oliverianum occur 
iu India and the south of Asia — CShaugh- 
nessy, Voigi. 


lAiiupur, Kng. I Na-funnan, Hind. 

is cultivated in gardens in India during the 
cold season. The properties of the seeds 
agree with those of the stavesacre kind. — 
Drs. O'Skaughnj p. 169. Roxb^Royle^ VoigL 

Mask plant. Sua. | Nepari, Punjabi. 

Grows in the Sutlej Taliey between Ram- 
por and Sungnam at an elevation of 14,000 
feet. Smells powerfully of musk. — Cleg- 
konCs Punjab Report^ p. 67. 

Nepanl, is one of the most alpine plants 
io the world, growing at an elevation of 
17,000 feet. It is abundant in the valley 
of the Chomiochoo near Tungu, in Thibet, 
and exhales a rank smell of musk ; it very 
closely resembles />. Brunonianum of the 
western Himalaya. The latter plant smells 
powerfully of musk, but not so disagreeably 
as this does. — Hooker's Him, Jour,, Vol. ii, 
pp. 95 and 269. 


Jadwar, Hind, of Bombay ? | Nirbisi, Hind, of Hima- 

A tuljerous root in Sirmoor, without poi- 
Moous properties. The best comes from La- 
hore. — O* Shaughnessy, pp. 167 and 168. 

Stavesacre or Louse-wort, a biennial plant, 
native of the Levant, Tenerifie and Asia 
Miuor. The powder taken internally a<!ts as a 
violent cathartic and emetic ; it is made into an 
oiofment used for destroying vermin in the 
hair. The ^eeds intoxicate Rsh. — O'Shaugh- 
ncssifjp. 168. 

apuii, Cttc, t<yn. of Steno-malayanus. 

DELPHINUS MELAS, Terns, syn., of 
Neomeris phocenoides. — Gray. 

ofPhocaena communis. See Dclphinidse. 

DELPHOS, a town in Greece where was 
an ancient oracle and place of worship in a 
cave of the earth called Delphi, the word 
Delphi }>eing synonymous with Yoni. See 
Delphi, Yavana ; Yoni. 

DELTA of the Ganges and of thelrawaddy. 
See Ganges, Irawaddy. 

DELUGE, tradition of the. See Avatar. 

DELUNGHIDI, Sing. Pomegranate. 


DEMATUR. See Yavana. 

DEMAVEND, a high road leads from 
Teheran by the town of Demavend to Ask, 
tlie capital of the district of Laurijan. The 
hot baths of Demavend, ai*o situated in this 
locality. They are two in number : one, the 
tepid bath, is situated within 100 yards of the 
town of Ask, on the right bank of the river. 
It rises in an oval basin, measuring about 30 
feet by 20, and about 3 feet in depth, formed 
by deposit from the spring, which gushes up 
with great force iu Uie centre of the basin, 
together with a considerable amouut of gas. 
The water is composed of sulphur, iron, soda, 
and magnesia. The other spring, which is 
situated about 2 miles further down the 
valley, and on the mountain of Demavend, is 
so intensely hot that the water has to be con- 
ducted through canals for some distance 
before it is collected in an artilicial basin, iu 
which the patients bathe. The water is also 
composed of magnesia, iron, and sulphur ; but 
the latter is in much larger proportions, and 
naphtha in great quiuititiett, also forms one of 
the ingredients. Near As^k there is also a 
spring of cohl water, strongly impregnated 
with iron. From Ask a road leads down to 
the town of Amil, but it is extremely danger- 
ous, lives being lo^^t annually from mules and 
their ridei*s falling over the precipice, along 
the face of which it runs. Demavend bears 
N. Q5* E. of Teheran, about 40 miles distant, 
and its pale lofty summit forms a magnificent 
pyramid as it shoots up from the high range 
of El-burz. The cone of Demavend is doubt- 
less of volcanic origin, and appears to have 
been fonned partially by having been forced 
up above the level of the mountain by some 
subterranean agency, but more by the debris 
and lava thrown out from the summit when 
the volcano was still in activity. From a 
distance it ap(>ears to be nearly smooth, and to 
slope evenly at an angle of about 45" from 
top to bottom. On a nearer approach, how- 
ever, it becomes evident that the cone consists 
of a number of ridges, which run from the 
summit to the base, leaving between them 
deep ravines filled in general with snow and 
ice, beneath which lies a mass of debris fallen 
from the upper part of the mountain. By 
observations of the height of the mountain it 
was ascertained to reach the enoimous height 
of 21,520 feet. The cone of Demavend 
terminates in a crater about 85 yards in 
diameter, which is nearly surrounded by 
jagged rocks. — Chesney, p. 15. See Ararat. 

DEMER-HINDI, Turk. Tamarind. 

DEMETRIUS, Grecian kings, successors 
of Alexander, rulers in Syria, there were three 
of this name : 

Demetrius I, sumamed Soter, b. c. 162. 

D 45 



Mr. Forbes in the Bas Mab ( p. 378) says the 
bhoot and pret reside, it is said, in the place 
where faneral piles are erected, in trees which 
are not used for sacrificial parposes, such as the 
tunarind and the acacia, in desert places, at the 
spot where a death has occurred, or at cross- 
roadSy — ^for which reason people set at these 
places food for the use of the bhoot. He is 
most at a horn for water to drink. The pipe 
of hia throat is, it is said, the size of the eye of 
a needle^ and he is continually thirsty enough 
to drink twelire gallons of water. The watch- 
meo of Wnroon Dev, however, are stationed 
wberever there is water, to prevent the bhoot 
from drinking, and the thirst is therefore as 
coQtiDnal as it is intense* The bhoot feed upon 
all kinds of refuse. The goblin of the best 
class, he, that is to say, whose funeral cere- 
monies have been duly performed, but who 
has been debarred from liberation by his own 
intense affection for earthly objects, is calle<l a 
**Poorwoj Dev," and resides in his own house 
or in a sacred fig-tree. The Poorwuj Dcv, 
like the Etruscan Lar, or the Grecian hero, 
is regarded as hovering about hin former 
abode, averting dangers from the inhabitants 
and bestowing blessings upon them. Ho 
frequently appears in tlie character of a serpent, 
and is then treated with gi*eat respect by the 
inmates of the house near which he resides. 
It is a common belief in Goozerat that serpents 
are always to be found wherever a hoai'd is 
baried, and that these are the bhoot of the 
deceased owners who have remaine<l upon 
earth fix>m afiectiou to tlicir wealth. The 
Arabian Jin also frequents cross-roads ; and 
the fairies of tlie Scottish low-lands can*y 
bows made of the ribs of a man buried where 
three laird*s lauds meet, as in A Midsummer 
Night's Dream, {Act iii, sc. 2 : — ) 

** dunoed ipirita all, 
" ThAt in oroM-w»ji and floodi have burial.'* 

** Desert places," in Goozerat, correspond 
exactly with the " dry places," {awcpav toTrav) 
assigned to the evil-spirits in Matthew,xii. 43 ; 
Lake, xi. 24. The custom of placing food 
for spirits is very general tliroughout the 
world. In the dialogue of Dives and Pau- 
per, printed by Richard Pynson, in 1493, 
among the superstitious then in use at tho 
lieginning of the year, the following is men- 
tioned : — *AUe that take hede to dysmal dayes, 
or use nyce observances in the newe raoone, or 
in the new yeere, at ieUiny of mete or drynke 
by nigkte on the benehe to fade alholde or 
gobelyn* The powers which the bhoot and 
pret exercise are the following : — They take 
possession of a corpse, and speak through 
its month ; they exhibit diemselves in the form 

they please ; sometimes tliey afflict him with 
fever, or various other diseases ; sometimes 
they assume the forms of animals, and frighten 
people by suddenly vanibhing in a flash of fire ; 
sometimes, remaining invisible, they speak in 
whispers. A bhoot has been known to come 
to fisticuffs with a man, and to carry a man off 
and set him down in a distant place. It is 
even said that women are sometimes found 
with child by bhoots. 

The Jain shastras teach a difiierent doctrine 
in regard to spirits from that which is taught 
by the Pooi*aua. They assert that tliere are 
eight kinds of Vyuntur Dev, and eight of 
Wan-Vyuntur Dev, who reside below the 
earth. Each of these has two Indra, or 
sovereigns, ruling respectively the northeiii 
and southern regions, and who are in colour 
black, white, or blue. The Vyuntur and 
Wan-Vyuntur Dev appear upon earth, 
where Uiey possess the bodies of men, exhibit 
tliemselves in various shapes, and perform 
many sii'ange feats, whence their common name 
of Kootohulee (or surprising) Dev. Below 
them reside tho Bhuwunputee Dev, who, 
also, sometimes appear on earth. Below them 
again are the Narkina or infernal spirits. 
Above this earth, in the atmosphere, ^wq 
kinds of " Devs of splendour" reside : — the 
sun, moon, stars and others. Above tlicm, 
in twelve Dev-Loka, the Dev who ride in 
chariots dwell ; these, sometimes drawn by 
tlicir own desire, or compi^led by charms, 
appear in the world ; but they do harm to no 
one. Above them are nine classes of Grivek, 
and five of Unootur Veemani. They are 
of great power and never visit the earth. 
Men who have lived a life of austerity and 
righteousness are born again in these classes 
of upper or lower Dev, but the sinner is not 
born in them. Of old, a man who had per- 
foimed the rite of " Utlium" by fasting for 
three days, acquired the power of calling 
the Dcv to him, but now, it is said, these Dev 
never visit the earth at any one's call. 

Trees. — It is customary in Guzerat^ where 
people wish to prevent the removal of a jungle 
tree, that they should paint a trident upon it 
with verpiillion, or, if that be incovenient, that 
they should collect a number of stones and 
throw them down at the root of the tree. 
Whoever, after this, passes by, is sure to add 
a stone or two to the heap, believing the 
place to be the residence of a Bhoot. Some^ 
however,throw without takingheed to whatthey 
are doing. If the place be one where stones 
are not easily procurable, a bit of old rag is 
thrown so as to adhere to the tree, and eveiy 
one who passes by follows the example once 

which they possessed when living ; they enter set. They call the spot the '* Rag-uncle's." 
into a living man, and cause him to speak as > In places where trees are scarce these uncles 

47 D 47 


Tli0 mean results of experiments haye been 

einuDoa paiis«ga and ferry-boat on the rlvei' 
Guges. It IS K comfortless ricketty-lookiug 
boftt and dangerons to travel Id. Csugbt hy the 
beneren inUie middle of the river, if crowded, 
the doigies are swamped. The " Punimi" is a 
light and fast boat, longer, brooder and 
diarper than the Calcutta Deugi and more 

rmtot IniduB. 

DENISON, Sir William, an officer of 
Engineers, of the British Army, Governor DEODAR or Shemanathu oil is an empy- 
ofMadias for five years and tempo™ lily Vice- r^umaiic mcdiciual oil from the Erythroxylwi 
roy of India, after Lord Elgin's sudden death ; arfeolatum.— Pioneer, Hf. E. J.R.—Cleghom's 
bii abort rule was mainly remarkable for Punjab Report, p. 137. See Cedar, Ced us 
Madied inaction, obt. Jan. 1871. — Thurloie'i ileoiJBra, Cupressua torulosa, Dinr ; Juuiperus 

wipany »nd the Crown, p. 9. 

DEKKENACOTTA, a foreat, the fiuest 
io the Salem collectorate of Ibe Madras presi- 
dency. It contains Caudal wood aud acha 
wood. — Com. 

DEXHABK, on the 22nd Feb. 1 8-15, for 
£125,000 sterling, ceded, by treaty, all its 
Lidian poseessiona, at Balasore, Tranquebar 
ud Frederick's Nagore, or Serampore. 

DENTELLE, Fa. Lace. 

DENTHAB, Hind. Callicarpa incana, R. 

DENTUBU, HiKD. Hyosujamus niger, 
Phytolacca decandra. 

DENWAB, a name given by Mr. Hodg- 
son to a border tribe between NepauL and the 
Bhot coontry. See Chepaag, Baiyu. 

DEO, Deva, Dewa, Sah s. A god, a deity : 
hence Dewalai or dewal, a house of idol?, a 
temple, a pagoda. Din, Dev, Deo, or Deu, are 
^Bonymoas with Deva. It is the leus of the 
Greeks and dens of the Romans, and is possibly 
the origin^ of the name of Biva, often called 
Seo or Sbeo or Shev, or Sheb ; Devi is a god- 
dsM, Deo, is also naed to designate a demon, an 
idol, genii giant, a spirit or shade or ghost and 
■ hobgoblin. See Deva. 

DEODAR, HiKD. Cedrus deodara, f.aud., 
also the CupreSHUS torulo^a ; Juuiperua ex- 
eelaa, and Chickrasxia tabularis. The viord if 
ilso spelled Dewdar, also Devidar, and i) 
most nraally applied to the Cedrus deodara. ; 
The CoiiBervstor of Forests, in his report 
of 1864 on the Deodar forests in the Jummoo 
and Kashmir teiritory, allowing 5,000 first 
class trees for the Liawa and Uj divisions, 
estimated the nmonnt on the Chennb with the 
Bbntna at 35,000, the Marru Wardniin at 
32,000, the Jhelum, below BaramuJa, at 5,000, 
and for the Kishen-gnnga nearly 40,000, an 
aggregate of 117,000 fine trees, almost us 
many as the whole unmber at present avail' 
able in the Punjab forests in British territory, 
or leased elsewiicre by the Punjab Govern^ 



DEODARA of Kuhi and the Beas, Cupres- 

8US tornlofa, twisted Cypress. Dlk. Sethia 

indiea, ZJC. HiVD., Erythroxylon areolatum. 

DEO-DHUNGA, a peak nortli-easl of 

Kathmandu, in L. 87" E., upwards of 29,000 

igh, and consequently the loftiest yet 

I peak of the Himalayn. Its name,Di^a- 

dhuuga, means holy hill. D^odhtjngi and 

MountEverest are both "about 100 miles N. 

E. of Kathmaudu ;" both are midway between 

Gosaiuth^Q and Kangchun, — Beng, At. 8oe. 

Jour., No. T, 0/1856. 

DEOGARH, was once ruled by a Gond 
dynasty,aud was described by Sir R. Jcnkini,iD 
iport on the Nagpur province, which con- 
tains an outline almost all that is known of the 
history of these obscure hill tracts before they 
were annexeil by the Mahrattas. 

DEOGHUR or Byjnatb, asmali town tn 
the zillah of Bheerbhoom. It is famous for 
its temples which are annually visited by 
thousands of pilgrims from the N. W. of 
India. Copper, lend and iron-ores are fonnd 
near. See Bheerbhoom. 

DEOGIRT, now called Dowlatabad Is about 
12 miles from Aurungabad, in the Dekban, 
is a scarped roek of considerable height with 
a ixrad-way leading up through the rock. Ita 
position is comniunding, and it has from the 
most ancient times been il stronghold of the 
rulers in that part of India. The name seems 
to have been sometimes written Deoghur. 
It was the capital of Ram Deo, a prince of 
so ^rent power that the mahomedans looked 
on iiim as king of the Dekban. Alla-ud-Din. 
nephew and general of Feroz, in a. d. 1294 
swept aci'oss the Kci'buddah ami captured 
Deogbnr, and besides money and jewels 
obtained the cession of Elliclipoor and its 
dependencies, mid the rnja was further to pay 
tribute annually. On his return, be was met 
by his uncle Feroz, whom ho assassinated, as 
- he patted him on the cheek, and then ascend- 
i cd the throne. Suhsetjuently ho invaded 
D 49 


BOQntein, tlie foot of the mooDtain and the 
lower town. The Dar of the words Derial 
and Derbenly means a gate, door, or narrow 
pMS. — Porief^s Travels, Vol. i, p. 72. Mai- 
€9lm^s HisUny of Persia, VoL ii, p, 5. 

DEREACHTE and Bakhtegan (also called 
Niriz) wife lakes in the neighbourhood of 
Skiimz. See Pars. 

DER£AH, Hind. Bhera, Mahu. A 
wood of the Nagpore forests : though of 
great strength, it cannot, from the small size 
the tree attains, rank as a building material : 
the average logs are from 6^ to 10^ feet long 
sad from 2 to 8 feet in girth. It has a wind* 
lag and, as it were, netted grain, from which, 
ss well as the extraordinary toughness of its 
flbrea, batchers invariably use it for chopping 
blocks ; the sharp edge of the knive apparent- 
Ij hsTing no eflfeot on it — Captain Sankey. 

DCRI, the modem Persian tongue. It is 
derived fVom the Parsi, which displaced the 
roogfawr Pehlevi, though Pehlevi is still used 
in die saered writings at Sherwan. See Iran. 

DERISANA, Tel. Acacia serissa. 

DERSANA, a hindoo school of philosophy. 

DERVISH, the darvesh of the Persians, 
Tnrks, and Egyptians, and fakir of India, 
rdigioQS mendicants, notorious for idleness 
sod vice. The Nakshbandi Dervish or paint- 
ers, illustrate their theology with pictures. 
See Darvesh. 

DES, HiKD., Pbrs., literally country, is a 
term applied in Rohilcund to cleared villages 
on the borders of the Taraee. In the Deccan 
it is used to signify a champaign country. Of 
the words derived fhmi it and its other appli- 
cations, "Des,** is a native country. Des- 
mnkh and Despande, are Mahratta revenue 
officers. Desai, a superintendent of a district ; 
Par-desi, a foreigner. 

DES (a Jouer). Fr. Dice. 

DES A, a name of Orissa. 

DESARATHA, king of Ayodhya, of the 
sdar race, a potent sovereign in ancient India, 
and father of Rama. See Dasaratha, Maha- 
Uunrala, Yishnu. 

DESATIR, or sacred writings of the anci- 
ent Persian prophets, published by muUa Feroz 
bin Kaus at Bombay in 1818, in 2 vols., 8vo. 
—Dr. Buiefi Catalogue. 

eorea purpurea. — Bcxb. 

DERMESTES, a genus of beetles in the 
E. Archipelago. 

Podwal. Anandraver. 

DESCHU ? Jnniperus recurve. 

finom Jane to September, is liable to destruc- 
trne hot winds in which man and beast perish, 
even tbe baidy camel perishing miserably. 


The Beluchi call it Julot or Julo, the flame, 
also Bad-i-Simoom, or the poison wind. There 
is great heat of skin quickly ending in death. 
The approach of the wind is ushered in by an 
oppressive calm in the air, and a degree of heat 
that afiects the eyes ; the pi'ecaution then 
adopted by travellers, is to cover themselves 
over, and lie prostrate on the earth. A cnrioos 
fact is established by this custom, that any 
cloth, however thin, will obviate the dele- 
tei-ious effects of the Bad-i-Simoom on the 
human body. — Foitinger^s Travels in BeloO' 
ehisian and Sinde, pp, 136-7. 

DESERT OP GOBI. The great highway 
between Pekin and Europe, from time imme- 
morial, has been the caravan tract ftom the 
western end of the great wall across this 
desert. The route issues fh)m the western 
end of the great wall, and moving through 
the Kiayu Pass, has to traverse N. W. 500 
miles, of a desolate sand tract to reach the 
city of Khamil. At this town the road 
bifurcates, the upper branch leading through 
Barkul, Urumchi and Kurkur-usu into Dzun- 
garia; the lower through Pijan, Turfan, 
Karashar, and Kuchu to Aksa in Eastern 
Turkistan. While Chinese rule prevailed, 
Dznngariaand Eastern Turkistan formed the 
province of Hi. The belief that wilder- 
nesses ai*e haunted places, is a very old and 
general one. Our blessed Lord himself in a 
very solemn passage (Luke xi. 24), adopts 
the Jewish phraseology as to this belief. 
Pliuy says (vii. 2), that in the deserts of 
Africa phantoms in human shape appear to 
travellers and immediately vanish again. But 
the belief is especially prevalent among the 
nations of Central Asia. By them '< deserts 

and the like, where nature shows herself 

in vast forms and in all the terrors of her in- 
fluences, are held to be the especial head- 
quarters and rendezvous of malignant spirits... 
hence the wildernesses of Turan, and parti- 
cularly the great sand-waste of Grobi have from 
hoar antiquity had an evil fame. The Turks 
have a saying that evil spirits play at ball in 
desert places ; both Fa Hian and Marco Polo 
allude to the evil genii of the deserts of Cen- 
tral Asia, and Bubruquis tells of a frightful 
deflle, where the demons were said to snatch 
travellers off their horses. The Affghans 
believe each of the numerous solitudes in the 
mountains and deserts of their country to be 
inhabited by a lonely demon, whom they call 
the Ghol-i-Biaban, or spirit of the waste, a 
gigantic and frightful spectre which de- 
vours passengers. — Schmidt, p. 362 ; Yule's 
Cathay., VoL i, p. 157. 

from the Atlantic to the Yellow Sea. A strip 
of rich vegetation occurs in its centre, where 





Main and iVo^, gardeuen aod barbers, are 
iBportMit members of every Kajpoot family, 
and to be found iu ail the villages, of which 
tkey are inTariably the cooks. 

Ckoora and Tkaori were, in Colonel Tod's 
time, actually castes of robbers : tlie former, 
from the Lakhi jangle, the latter, from 
M^war. Most of the chieftains had a few in 
their pay, entertained for the most desperate 
serrices. The Bahaderan chief had expelled 
all hia£i^poot8, and retained only Choora and 
ThaorL The Choora are highly esteemed for 
fidelity, and the barriers and portals through- 
oat this tract were in their custody. They 
sqjoy a Yerj singular perquisite, which would 
go ^ lo pfft>T6 their being the aborigines of 
the country ; namely, a fee of four copper 
coins on ereiy dead subject, when the funeral 
eeremooiea are over. 

The Mahiore of Bikaneer are unchanged 
ia their martial qualifications, bearing as high 
i repatAtion as any other class in India. The 
Bahtore of the desert have fewer prejudices 
than their more eastern brethren ; they will 
est food, without inquiring by whom it was 
dressed, and will drink either wine or water, 
without asking to whom the cup belonged. 
They would make the best soldiers in the 
world if they would submit to discipline, as 
they are brave, hardy, easily satisfied, and 
Tery patient ; but in the inordinate use of 
ofMum, and smoking intoxicating herbs, are 
flaid to exo.eed all the CAatees rajculOf the 
thirty-six royal tribes of India. The piald^ 
or 'cup,' is a favorite with every rajpoot 
who can afford it, and is, as well as opium, a 
panacea for ^nfitit, arising from the absence of 
til mental stimulants, in which they are more 
deficient, from the nature of the country, than 
roost of their warlike countrymen. — Tod's 
Rajastkan^ VoL ii, pp. 196, 202. 

Bhuinair^ which now forms an integral 
ptrt of Bikaneer, was anciently the chief abode 
of another Jit community, so powerful as at 
oue time to provoke the vengeance of kings, 
tod at othera to succour them when in distress. 
The Bhatti annals confirm what might have 
been assumed withoutsuspicion, that to a colony 
of this race, Bhotnair owes its name, though 
not its existence. The whole of the northern 
part is called Nair in the ancient geographical 
nomenclature of Maroost'bali ; and when some 
of the Bhatti clans became proselytes to 
mahomedans they changed the vowel a to u, 
to distinguish them from the parent stock, 
viz., Bhatti for Bhutti. In all probability the 
Yadu-Bhatti is the original Yuti colony 
fiom Central Asia ; and the Jit prince of 
Salpoor, was the predecessor of these very 
nces. Bhutnair has attained great historical 


of invasion from Central Asia to India. It is 
more than probable that the Jit race who 
resisted the advance of Mahmood of Ghizni in 
a naval wai*fai-o on tho Indus, had long before 
that period established themselves in the 
desert as well as in the Punjab ; and as we 
find them oci^upying a place amongst the 
thirty-six royal tribes, we may infer that they 
had political power many centuries before 
that conqueror. In a. d. 120o, only twelve 
years after the conquest of India by Shahab- 
ud-din, his successor, Kootub, was compelled 
to conduct the war in person against the Jit 
of the northern desert, to prevent their wrest- 
ing the important post of-Hansi fVom the 
empire ; and when the unfortunate and 
intrepid queen Razzia, the worthy heiress of 
the great Feroz, was compelled to abandon 
her throne to an usurper, she sought and 
found protection amongst the Jit, who, with 
their Scy thic brethren, the Ghiker, assembled 
all their foroes and marched, with their 
queen at their head, like Tomyris of old, to 
meet her foes. She was not destined to enjoy 
the same revenge, but gained a glorious death 
in the attempt to overturn the Salic law of 
India. Again, iuA.D. 1397, when llmoor 
invaded India, Bhutnair was attacked for 
" having distressed him exceedingly on his 
invasion of Mooltan," when he ^ in person 
scoured the country, and cutofiTa tribe of 
banditti called Jit. In short, the Bhutti 
and Jit were so intermingled, that distinc- 
tion was impossible. Shortly after Timoor*s 
invasion, a colony of Bhatti migrated from 
Marote and Fhoolra, under their leader B^f, 
and assaulted and captured Bhutnair from a 
mahomedan chief. 

The Desert of India is known on its 
borders as Maroost'bali, the region of death 
from mri, Sans., to die ; and st'hali, arid or 
di7 land, but is also known as the desert of 
Rajpootanah. Maroost*hali is Iwunded on the 
north by the flat skirting the Garah ; on the 
south by that grand salt-marsh, the Bin, and 
Koliwarra ; on the east by the Aravulli ; and 
on the west by the valley of Scinde. It covers 
an area of 70,000 square miles. But for the 
Aravulli, which run N. E. & S. W., dividing 
Rajpootanah into two equal parts, Central 
India would be submerged in sand ; nay, 
lofty and continuous as is this chain, extending 
almost from the sea to Dehli, wherever there 
are passages or depressions, there floating 
sand-clouds are wafted through or over, and 
form a little t'hul even in the bosom of 
fertility. Whoever has crossed the Bunas 
near Tonk, where the sand for some milee 
resembles waves of the sea, will comprehend 
this remark. Its western boundary is alike 

celebrity from its position, being in the route | defined, and will recall to the English traveller, 

5» D 53 




Soovtan 9iii{ 




Puddom Siag.. 
KubaDSing .. 

Soltui Sing .. 
LoktMr Sing .. 
Kamie Sing .. 
Bliom Sing 


IBlioaniSing .. 
S taJam Sing... 
S fiitlar Sbig .. 
iKadSing .. 

Cimwi 8h^ »•• 

Hntti Dan 





■rae Sing 
Faddnm Sng ... 
KoIUaa Smg ... 






Roopawut ... 
Bhi^ti ... 

Mundilah .. 

Place of 

Neembaje .. 





Nynawaas ... 

Hyadeair . 

Chuckuna ... 

Beetchnok ... 
QurriaUh ... 
Soorjerah ... 
Rundiair ... 
Nokho ... 

Jaminsir ... 
Saroondah ... 
Koodsoo ... 
Naineah ... 


> •, ••••• ••• 
































881,400 48,572 5,402 

















These two fiefs are held by foreign 
nobles of the house of Amber, and 
the ancient Pramara, (vu/^.Powar.) 

The fief of Poog^l was rested from 
the Bhattis of Jessulmeer. 

Twenty-seven villages dependent on 
this family from Jodpoor, and 
settled here 11 years. 

Twenty-seven villages. 

2%e Jhalore tract is ono of the most 
iMportaDt divisions of Mai*war. It is sepa- 
rated from Sewinchi bj the Sookri and 
Khiri, which, with many smaller streams, 
flow throagh them from the AravuUi and 
Aboo, aiding to fertilize its three hundred 
and sixty towns and villages, forming a part 
of the fiscal domain s of Marwai*. The im por- 
tant fortress of Jhalore, guarding tlie southern 
frontier of Marwar, stands on the extremity 
•f the range extending north to Sewauoh. 

Sewaneki is the tract between the 
LooDi and Sookri. Macholah and Mor- 
leeii are .the two principal dependencies of 
Jhalore. Beenmal and Sanchore are the two 
priocipai divimoDS to the south, each contain- 
ing 80 villages. Bhadrigoon, a fief of Jha- 
kvey has a Joda chief and Meena population. 
The Tlml of €rOga is very thinly inhabited 
with maoy sand-hills, t'hul-ka-tiba. The 
tlinl of Timroe lies between Groga deo and 
Jessalmeer. The t'hol of Khawar is between 
Jessulmeer and Barmair in the most i*emote 
angle of Blarwar. Barmair t'hu], also called 
the Malli-Dai'h-ka-t'hul, is occupied by cattle- 
breeders. The Kherdur or land of Kher, and 
Nnggnr Grooroh on the Looni are the chief 

55 D 

The Chohan rajpoot of the desert has, 
on the N. and E., the above tracts of 
Mai'war, to the south of Koliwarah and 
the Runn, to the west the desei't of Dhat. 
The sterile ridge which passes through Cho- 
tun to Jessulmeer passes west of Bankasir on 
to Nuggur Parkur. The wells are 65 to 130 
feet deep. The Sehrai, Khossa, KoU and 
Bliil inhabitants are predatory races. The 
Chohan rajpoot does not wear the zonar and 
does not much respect the brahmans. The 
Pit*hil and Bania are farmers and traders. 

The Runn or Rinn, is a remarkable feature 
of the desert. It is a salt marsh, 1 50 miles 
broad, into which the Loni or Looni or salt 
river enters and then runs on to the sea. 
The Looni rises in the Aravulli. In Mar- 
war it separates tlie fertile land from the 
desert, afterwards runs through the Chohan 
teri'itory, dividing it into the eastern part 
called Raj-Bah or Sooi-Bah, and the western 
part called Parkur or " beyond the Khar or 
Looni." The Caggar rises in the Siwalik 
Hills, flows under Bhutnair wails and once 
emptied itself between Jessulmeer and Rori 

DESERT OF SIND lies between the fron- 
tier of Rajpootanah and the valley of tho 



fri.?(, auii the extrenif»s of heat and coltl pre- t»very (lepartment of }Tov«*inmcut rontaiiis 
scuted by day and night on i<iich sandy w:t<ites . Koukanist bruhmins, :inJ thi'y huvr shown 
a*t Uie Sahara. The sand, which is for the themselves active, intelligt'nt, liherul-miuded 
most part silica, drinks in the noon -J ay heat, | men. 

and loses it by night just as speetiily. The The Deshasta from time out of mind 
iuduence of the hot winds from the Saliara have l>een in the posK^ssion of tlie rich table- 
has been observed in vessels travei*sing the land, and been zemindars, deshraukhs, desh- 
Atlsntic at a distance of upwards of 1,100 pandies, &c. They have never been dis- 
geographical miles from the African shores, tinguished for their knowledge of the Vedaa 
by the coatiDg of impalpable dust upon the ; or the Shastras. Once they were in sole 
•ails. — Toets Jiajasikafij VoL i, p. 19; Vol, possession of government offices, but they 
IL pp. 289 to 330 ; The British World iti have been greatly thrown into the background 
ike East ; Ritchie^ Vol. i, p. 7 ; Mignau's ! by the Konkanasth. All the lower class of 
TrwptU^ p. 32 ; Curiosities of Science, ■ oifices such as village^ uccountiints, &c., are* 
p, l6o. I however, still in their hands. 

DESU DARRANG, a district in Assam. DESI, indigenous, belonging to the country 
DESIDEBl. Pere Desideri, a missionary, Par-desi, a foreigner, a stranger, a native of 

started from Goa in November 1713, and 
patsiog through Delhi and Kashmero into 
BaldstmD, arrived at Leli, or Ladak, on the 

northern India. — Elliot; Wilson. 

DESI GOKRU, Hind. Tribulas alatus. 
DESIM A, the commercial site occupied by 

25th June 1714, and remained there for an ; the Dutch in Japan, it stands upon and wholly 

t*Dure yeAF. 

From thence, he continued his 
jotimey, iu the autumn of 1715, to Lassa, by 
ft route of extreme elevation and gi*eat cold, 
wliich occapieil from August 1715 to March 

covei-s a little artificial fan-shaped islet, about 
600 feet in length, by 240 m breadth. And 
is joined to the island and town of Nagasaki 
by a small stone-bridge, at the end of which 

1716. Desideri found the temporal sove- was a strong Japanese guard-house. — Mac- 

rpigutj of Lassa in the hands of a Tartar Farlane's Geo, and His, of Japan, p. 54. 
{trioee (a Sifan), who had recently conquered DESMANTHUS, a genus of plants of the 

the country. — Prinsep*s Tibet, Tartar^/ and natural order Fabacese, of which D. natans. 

MomgoliOj p. 15. 
DESHASTH, a term by which, the Mali- 

D. triquetra, and D punctatus are known as 
native or introduced into India. 

niita bi-ahrains of Mahrashti-aaie designated. DESMANTHUS CINEREUS, Willde, 
They are described as a class, of sedentary | syn. of Cailiea ciner^a., or Dichrostachys 
hal»iis, extremely fond of their native ; cinereju—^. anrf /I. 
place, very fond of display, and fond of rich i DESMANTHUS NATANS, Willde. 
aiid splendid cloUies. On occasions of mar- i Floating DeimanthuH. Eng. | Sunday kiray. Tam. 
riage and other festival ceremonies they are ; This sensitive plant floats in the tanks of 
iavi^h. i southern India, the leaflets and pods are eaten 

DESHASTH A, brahmins have acquired ! by the natives. — Jaffrey, Voigt, Thwaites. 
>ume literary celebrity and have l>een large- DP2SMER, Dan. Musk. 
ly employed under the several Goveniments j DESMODIUM, a genus of small trees and 
of India, chiefly in the revenue departments, i bushes of the natural order Fabaceae, of which 
The few prakrit poets that have made their I Voigt enumerates 28 species in India. Dr. 
appearance are Deshasth such as * Wamon,' ■ Wight in Icones gives figures of D. cephalotes, 
' Moropaut,' and 'Jagnath.' Deshasth bi*ah- I collinum, congestum, diflusum, Gangeticum, 

mins are better featured than the Konka- 
oasthSy and the Konkanasth brahmin is fairer. 

gyrans, latifolium, patens, polycarpum, 
qninqueangulatum, recurvatum, rufescens, 

Tlie social and political life of the Kon- I strangulatum and triflorum. 
kaoastLa brahmins has undergone a complete | The bark oftwoPanjab species, '^Kalanchi*' 
change daring the lastly centuries. Before ; and "Moorub," are stated by Dr. Cleghorn 
that they were solely an agricultural class to furnish a paper-stuff, and Dr. Stewart 
of people, visiting towns only on very j says, according to Dr. Cleghom, that the barks 
unavoidable occasions. They possessed a good i of D. argenteum and D. tiliaefolia of the 
knowledge of the Vedas and Shastrns, and Punjab are of similar use. 

were liberally rewarded on that account by the 
patrons of those branches of learning. They 
rarely held offices under government or in 
mercantile houses, on the advent of the British 
fh«y were compelled to look out for employ- 
ment, and tlvey at once spread all over the 
extensive table-land of Sahadri, called the desh. 


The leaves of D. gyrans have a singular 
oscillating movement. 

Dr. Stewart says that the bark of D. 
argenteum of the Panjab (" sambar," " pri," 
"muss,'* "chiti," "mort," "murtan") is 
steeped in water and made into ropes which, 
when as thick as the wrist, bore a heavy strain 

D 57 



DEVA RAJA, a Dame of Iiiilra. See They are bred to this life from their infaucy. 
luscriptioasy pp. 380, 393. They are taken from auy caste, and are not un* 

DEVA PAL DEVA. From a copper tablet | frequently of respectable birth. It is nothing 
discovered at Moughyr, raja Devu Pal Deva j uncommon to hear of preguant women, in 

appears to have i*eigned in the ninth century 
'd& far as the Carnatic and Thibet. 

the belief that it will tend to their happy 
delivery, making a vow, with the consent of 

DEYA-DAKA, Hind. Cedrus dcodara, , their husband, to devote the child then in the 

womb, if it should turn out a girl, to the 
service of the pagoda. And in doing so, they 
imagine they are performing a meritorious 
duty. The infamous life to which the 
daughter is destined brings no disgrace on 
the family. The eldest daughter of eveiy 
family of the weaver caste at the small town 
of Tiru-kalli-kundram in tlie Chingleput coU 
lectorute is devoted to the temple. Till lately, 
temple girls were the only hindoo females in 
To the temple of Venus in Asia, and in . ludia who might learn to read, to sing, and 
later times in Greece, large bodies of '* hiero- j to dance. Such accomplishments belong to 


D£VADARA,SANS.Erythroxylon areola- 
tam ? 

DEYADARAM, Tam. Sethia iudica, DC. 
Guaueria longifolia, WalL^ 


ivm. TCL. I Dancing Girls. Kng. 

» Temple „ ,, 
Bayadere. Fa. 

XaialL Mahb. 

of Babylon. 

Balladeiras. PuRT. 

dais** were attached, who were, at once, 
prostitutes and ministers to the goddess. The 
daoghters of the most illustrious families in 
Armenia passed from the service of the god- 
dess Ajudtis into mati*imony with those of 
equal rank, and no stain adhered to them from 
tbsir former mode of life. We find traces of 
the same usage in the distant settlements of 
the Phoenicians, on mount Eryx, aud at Sicca 
Venerea in the Carthagenian territory. In 
Babylon, no woman of whatever rank could 
^cape the obligation of once prostituting 
heraelf ia the temple of Mylitta. This debt 
once acquitted, as the necessary preliminary to 
marriage, they were ever afterwards faithful to 
its obligations, with whatever price they might 
be tempted. In hindoo mythology the deva- 
dasa, are the courtezans of swarga, the heaven 
of Siva. The earthly deva-dasa women or danc- 
ing girls, in attendance at the temples of the 
hindoo deities, by their name of deva-dasa, 
call themselves the servants or slaves of the 
god. Next to the sacrificers, the most impor- 
tant persons about the temple, says the Abb6 
Dubois, are the danciog girls. Their profes- 
sion, indeed, requires of them to receive all 

them exclusively ; and for that reason have 
been held by the rest of the sex in such ab^ 
horrence, that eveiy virtuous woman has 
considered the mention of them as an 
affront. These performers are supported out 
of the revenues of the temple ; of which they 
receive a considerable share. But their pro- 
fession is productive. There aie temples in 
some places, where the divinity requires to be 
honoured with the most unbounded licen* 
tiousness. The manufacturer commonly 
destines his youngest daughter for this pur- 
pose, and sends her to the pagoda before the 
age of puberty, where dancing and music- 
masters are provided. The morlidar girls 
of the Mahratta country correspond to the 
Basava of the Teling race. The Basava 
women are usually devoted to the god Siva, 
and become prostitutes. They are called Linga 
or Garudu Basava, according as they are de- 
voted to one or other. They are called also 
Jogin also Morli, and are married sometimes to 
a knife, sometimes to an idol. In making 
female children over to the service of a temple, 
a girl, genei^ally an infant, is taken and dedi- 
cated for life to the service of some idol by 

comers although originally they appear to < a ceremony called ''Shej." A khunjar or 
have been intended for the gratification of the dagger is ])ut on the ground, and the girl, who 

brahmans only. Eveiy temple, according to 
its size, entertains a band of them, to the num- 
ber of eight, twelve or more. The service they 
perform consists of dancing and singing. 
The first they execute with grace, though 
with lascivious attitudes and motions. Their 
chaantiDg is generally confined to the obscene 
songs which relate to some ch'cumstance or 
other of the licentious lives of their gods. 
They perform their religious duties at the 
temple to which they belong, twice a day — 
mpming and evening. They are also obliged 
to assist at all the public ceremonies, which 
they enliven with their dance and song. 

59 D 

is to undergo the ceremony, puts a garland on 
the knife. Her mother then puts rice on the 
girl's forehead. The officiating Bhutt then 
weds the girl to the knife, just as if he were 
uniting her to a boy in marriage, by reciting 
the ' mangalashlok,* or marriage stanzas, a 
curtain being held between the girl and the 
dagger. The girl thus becomes a Bhavin, dedi- 
cated to the service of the temple. She lives 
by prostitution. In many parts of the south 
of India, the non-Aryan races thus devote 
their young women, in order that they may 
follow prostitution openly, under the cloak 
of a religious rite. It is not easy to trace tbo 


origin of this custom, but ut tlu< Mylcttn 
feadvftis, wliicli were couue(:t»;J iviili tlie wor- 
ship of Bual or MolocL, ilie woiiieii, as slavts 
to the goJJtas, wore oLIigt-ii lu pitiviiasc I'x- 
emptiou from beiug snvnlm-il by prostitit- 
tion. Aloiostnll tlio Jcwiiih prophets down 
(o Jeremiah comtilain tliat this service was 
ritri'icil on in lliu Iiigh places, l>y tho Jevnr, 
In gtineral. tliruii^buut the Uotclinii, xoutii- 
wunid to Ca[M) Coiuoriii, devoiiug n female 
child to the ntuli is (k'eiiieil Ji^repuliiMc. — 
Kenrieh's Phantieia, pp. 307,314; Dubois' 
India, quoted in Cole's flind. Mijlh,, p. 378 ; 
Sonncral's Voi/aife, p. 29; Biinsen, Vol. iv, 
p. 'ilO. See Uuiicing girls, 

DEVAKAM, u tnuiimt nawa. pof-m, purl uf 
(he so ciille.1 Tumil V.'<1q. 

DEVASTIIANA.\r, (tip siipi-ritil.-ndt-mi- 
of hiniloo tem|>le>, ciHiiluficiiliy ini-'leeiTHlli'il 
IJharniu KarlH. 

DKVA'l'A, n divinity, a spirir, a dcmi-gud. 
Tho DcvatH nru Ix'iiign Rpirits, governed liy ; 
Imlra, properly ihn inhaliilants uf the Norih ; 
Pole i fur the nirviilu are Ktiid to havi; <liiy, 
when llie Dttity.-i li:ivc the iiighl, aiid vice 
versa. Vi<l»! S'iri.^.-H'uiieii's Knln Hunhila. 

torcis Hernitu, Tins. Aii<lr(i]iogon sernitum. ' 
— Roxh., \.p. •i^::. 

ghum sai'idinraiuni, Pkiim. Auilropogou ,~«[:<'1i. 
Also wild nrr.-notb. p. i. 271. 

DEVATA-MALLK or Nulla kaka.-i, TKt.. 
Kandia uligiiioj-a, DC, IK and A., 1230; 
fc. 397. (Sardeuia ulig,, /I. Cor. \:ir, ; 
roMoqueriu iilig.--/?ojrft. i, p. 712. 

DEVATHARAM, Tam. Kryth.i>xyl..ii 
nrcolaliini ' 

DEVAYANAI or Devascna, one of fSn- 


for lioalN ami VfAseli', for whidi )>urp(we it ii 
gdiei'ully iiM.'tt, an well a« for hou:)e-work. It 
^'i-ows to about two feet in diameter, auj fVon 
thirty (o thirty-five feet high : ito grain 
reseiiililori llic red ci'dur, but it ia closer gniaei 
and heuvii'r. — £dffe, Mai. and Can. 

DKVENDRA, the king of tlio Dera. See 

I)P:VER, the lionorilic or titular deaigMlwo 
of the Muruwa race in Katnnml and Tinoewllj, 
ItBccmn identical with the Tetugu Uewsn 
or Oevern, a I'eapei^lful mode of address tot 
iiiil>orior. See Indiu, p. 332, 

DEVI. Sans. The feminincofdeva,»god 
or 11 goildess. It ia one of the tiumct) of tbs 
hitidoo goddess Diirgu, al.'4o knowu as Kali. 
Se<- Chnndi-a i I>»^ahnl or Daahars ; Kali 
Keriiri ; I.ingn : LuKtrnl nt^rcmoiiiPH : Maba- 
divB ; Mahiidevi ; I'urvuii ; Saerifiee, Sala- 
rnjia ; Serpent, Vi»hnu : YHvnnu. 

DEVI MAllE.SIIASUKA. Sec I(i«:rii». 
tion., p. :i,Sl', 

DEVia/rrA, n-eiiuemly dianged Imcdx 
dnriiig Ihe coiite><ts between thii Itriti^h and 
Frfocli ill the ISih rcntury. 

UKVJI> IIIKI), Iho name of n hird uf 
Ceyliin, which Mr. Slitford supposes to lie a 
gO!i(-:^ui'ker,ai:uckoooru iiluek liird. Ilsordi- 
nary cry is like lliat of u lien just eanglit. lis 
sercmns like those ufayoulh in agouy. 

I>ICVr, H ■i(Mllk■^s, mom c.ipeeially ubcd for 

DEVIDIAB of ihu Clicnali and Ravi. 
<;u|.re.-=ii- (..riilosu, Dj„. : ..f Panjab, .Tuni- 
ix-riis .-x.vUn, Hif/>. 


Iili.,l;iij,lciiiinin. Hasm. I (Trdo,, ..blonai folium, K. 
TlliutnluKliairi. Tit,. | iil, liK'i. 

Thp Teliipi naiiK' Mgnilies '■ den imi-,1 river" 


lo tbeir belief if auy gootl raau die, his evince any affection for their votaries. They 
spirit may occupy a tree or stone or otlier j must be placated by sacriiice, because they are 
locality and be an evil spirit : muy even take ' so miachievous ; but there is no use supplicat- 
poflsesBion of one of his votaries, in which ' ing their favour. I fin any case the hope of 
event the screaming and gesticulating of the | obtaining a benefit seem to be tlieir votary's 

motive in worshipping them, further inquiry 
proves that it is under the supposition that 
the demon's malignity stands in the way of 
what would otlierwise be obtained as a matter 

po cwaooeJ person are attributed to tlie spirit 
iu poaseraioDy and in the Urdu tongue, the 
phrase would be *' saya uske ang bhara" the 
shade has filled his body, and the possessed 

person prophesies. In their belief every { of course. And it may be said to be the 
malady may be the infliction of an evil spirit. | object of tlio worship of all the uon-arian 
To dispossess the spirit, wild music and i races to avert from tliemselves the evils which 

dancfog are had recourse to, and the po8ses:»ed, 
pmnlly a woman, exhausted by her py thon- 
iaog falls down utterly exhausted or goes into 

the demons could inflict, for gratitude for good 
received, or ivsignation to the will of a 
Supreme, are not parts of the ammun or spirit- 

coBTDlsioDS. The non arian races are con* j worship. A similar snpei-stitiou respecting 
ftaatly recognising new spirits, from amongst j goblins and demons exists all over India. 
deceased natives of India or Europeans, i Kvery hindoo work containing allusions to 
puticularly from amongst those whom death * native life, and the dictionaries of all the 
or accident have suddenly cut oflT, and they ! hiuduo dialectt:, prove the general prevalence 
have intrcxluced the deities of the hindoosas j of a belief in tlie existence of malicious mis- 
demons : but the ^' ammun*' or earth-deity, is I chievous demons, in demoniacal inflictions and 
iuevery village throughout Southern India,and , possessions, and in the power of exorcisms. 
the worship of all these demon gods is by j The rhief peculiarity of the snf>erstition, as it 
Uood-sarrifices and ardent spirits. Amongst ' exists amongst the Shanars, consists in their 
the Shauar race in the South of the penin- systematic worship of the demons in which all 
>ala of India, the belief is that sometimes I believe. In every part of India, innumerable 

demons are content with frightening the 
timid witliout doing any real harm. Failures 
in trade or iu crops, are attributed t4) demons. 
People hear a htrange noise at night ; and im- 

■■t 1*1 1*1* *t 

legends respecting goblins and their malice 
are current ; but scarcely any trace of their 
worship in the proper sense of the term, much 
less of their exclusive w^orship, can be dis- 

niediately tliey seen devil making his escape in ' covered beyond the districts in which Shanars, 
the shape of a «hig as large as a hyena, or a cat | or other ])rimitive illiterate tribes, are found, 
with eves like two lam f)s. In the dusk of the ; In travelling down to Tinnevelly from the 
erenin^' devils have been observed in a burial i north, the Jirst village which is found to be 
or burning ground, a>snming various shapes j inliabifctl by Shanars, Virduputty, about 3U 
iKieat't^er another as often as the eye of the : miles south of Madura, is the first place where 
observer is luriKMl away ; and they have often Dr. Caldwell ob^'erved systematic devil-wor- 
Ijccn known at night to ride acn)ss the country 1 .^hi p. In like manner in Travancore, devil- 
i^iavi2»ible horses, or gli<le over marshy Imids j wor.-^hif) appears to commence with the first 
in the shape of a wjindt-ring, flickering light. | appearance of the Sliunar race in the neigh- 
In all their journeyini^s they move along with- hour hood of Trivandrnni ; from whence it 
out touching the ground : their elevation above j iMM'omes' more ami more pix^valent as you 
the 'Tonnd being proportioned to their rank approach Cape Comorin. Tlie demon worship 
and importance. Dr. Caldwell has known a of the Shanars and few other illiterate tribes is 
village deserted and the people afraid even to a dei;i*adation beneath which the human mind 
remove the materials of their houses, in con- \ cannot descend. The places in which the 
sequence of the teiTor caused by stones being ^ demons are worshipped are commonly termed 
thrown on their roofs at night by invisible " Pe-coil," or devil temples ; some of the 
hands. Demons more malicious still have ; temples, especially those erected to the sau- 
sometimes been known under cover of the '. gninary forms of kali, are small, mean, tomb- 
niff-ht to insert combustible materials under like buildings, with an image at the further 
the eaves of thatched roofs. Even in the day- end of the cloister. But the majority of the 
time about the close of the hot season, when i devil-temples are built neither with stone nor 
the winds fail,demons may often be seen career- 1 brick ; the roof is neither tciTaced nor tiled, 
in*' alon*' in the shape of a whirl-wind, catch- nor even thatched; a heap of earth raised 
ii^ up and whisking about in their fierce play into a pyramidical shape and adorned with 
every dry stick and leaf that happens to He streaks of white- wash, sometimes alternating 
in Aeir path. In short, writes Dr. Caldwell ! with red ochre, constitutes both the temple and 
lite demons do much evil, but no good. They ' thedemoirs image ; and a smaller heap in front 
iHftfcn cause terror bnt never lx?stow benetits, or ' of the temple with a flat surface forms the altar. 

ni I) ^)l 



frinsferred Dewala Devj to his own zenana, lion^ of n mahomedan whoro the master 
See CamalA Devi. . receives his visitors, and iu which the men 

DEWALI, properly Depawali, Saks. , serrants reside. — Rich's residence in Koor- 

distan, Vol, i, p. 83. 

DEWA POOJAH, or worship of the im- 
plements iu use as the means of subsistence, 
observed by all the Kait caste at the Dewallee 
and Hooly festivalt». — Maicoini's Central 
India, Vol, ii, p. 167. 

DEEWAR, Diwar, pf-rhaps more cor- 
rectly Deehwar or Dehwar, ih the god under 
whotie special care a village is placed : the 
genius loci, for whom a portion of grain is 
always set apart at each harvest. — Elliot. 
DEWAS, a chieftaincy in Malwa, held by a 
Mahratta, whose ancestors came to Malwa 
with the first Baji Rao. The revenue of the 
State is Rupees 4,25,000; the area 256 
square miles ; and the population 25,000 
souls. The chiefs have each received a sun- 
nud guaranteeing to them the right of adop- 
tion. The chiefs are equal in rank and have 
relatives offer an oblation by pouring oil I an equal share in all receipts. Eacli rec.eives 
into a terra cotta lamp^ which the sovereign a salute of fifteen guns. — Aitcheson^t Trea- 
Mds ; eTery votary of Lakshmi tries his ties. Engagements and Sunnuds, Vol, iv, 

from Dipa a lamp and Ali, a row, ; a hindoo 
religious festival held about the end of October, 
on the new moon of Kartik, in honor of the 
goddecB Kali and of Lakshmi and the destruc- 
tioiif by YiehDu, of the demon Taraki. The 
himlooa, after bathing in the Gauges, or 
other river, anoint with (n1, put on their best 
attire^ perform a sraddha, and at night worship 
LakakmL On this festival of lamps all 
biadoos propitiate Lakshmi, the goddess of 
wealth and fortune, by ofi*ering at her shrine. 
Ib BajaBthaD, on the Amavus, or ides of 
Kirtic, every city, village and encampment, 
ezhibitB a blaze of splendour from lamps. 
Stdhy pieces of gold and sweetmeats, are 
euried in trays and consecrated at the temple 
of Lakahmi, to whom the day is consecrated. 
The rana of Mewar dines with his 
priote minister, and this officer and his 

chance of the dice, and from their success 
in the Diwati, foretell the slate of their 
a&irv for the ensuing year. On the first 

day of the Dewali, the whole population j cida. — Roxb. 

pp, 834 and 835. 

DEWASIS. See Rajmahal. 
DEWATA GASS, Singh. Carallia Iu- 

of an Indian city bear branches of the Sami, 
Tolsi and other sacred trees, in procession ; 
and walk round all the temples in the neigh- 
hoarfaood, offer salutation and prayer to their 
country's gods, in their several incarnations. 
— PosiatCs Western India, Vol, ii, pp. 1 77 
and 178 ; Ji>rf'« Rajtuthan, Vol. i, p. 70. 
See Leviticus, xxiii. 40. 

DEWAN, Ar., Pers. In India, the chief 
officer of the second rate sovereigns. In Persia, 
a Coort of Justice or of other business. A 
reception room, is generally called the Dewan- 
i-Am, or public reception hall. The Dewan 
Khana, is the office room of the dewan, and 
the Dewani means pertaining to the dewan. 
T^Dpwani Adalat under the E. I. Company 
Court o^ Civil and Revenue jurisdicti6n. 

DEWAN, Pfrs. a collection into one 

Tolom^ of the entire odes of an author, whe- ized Burmans, however, it is more confined 

ther in the Persian or the Hindustani tongue. 
la bringing them together, they are arranged 
alphabetically according to the letters in 
wlKch the verses terminate. The Dewan-i- 
:^i and Dewan-i-Hafiz are generally known. 
ons mendicants in southern India, who accept 
diaritv only from one or other of the gold- 
aiith castes. See Poitu, Zonar. 

DEWANI is the civil department, in con- 
tiiar to the fonjdan or criminal. Dewan*i- 
«i, a privy council chamber. 
DEWAN KHANA. That part of the 

63 D 

DEW-GHUR, an ancient name of Dowla- 
tabad . See Deo-ghur, 

DEWUDAB, Hind. Sethia indica. 

DEWUL, SiNOH. Feronia elephantom. 

thodea rheedii, Sp. 

DEYAMIDDELLA, Singh Barringtonia 
racemosa. — Roxb. 

DEYNGAN, Hind. Cordia macleodii.— 
Hooker. Syn of Hemigymnia macleodii. — 

DEYRA DOON and Himalayan valleys, 
to moderate elevations, in climate correspond 
with the Mediterranean region. See Dehra. 

DHA, Burmese., the bill, in various 
forms, is the inseparable companion of 
every man among the hundred forest tribes 
of Trans-Gangetic India. Among the civil* 

to the lower orders, the peasant and boatman, 
except as a weapon of war. The Burman 
dha is a weapon about three feet long, with 
a slight uniform curve from end to end. 
About three-sevenths of this length is helve, 
the rest blade. The blade is generally about 
an inch and a quarter wide with an obtuse 
point. It serves every purpose that a cutting 
weapon can serve, from making a toothpick 
to felling a tree ; or killing a pig, or an enemy 
in battle. Very long and heavy dhas are 
worn by officials of the Burmese Court. — 
Yule's Embassy, p, 158. 




DHAMI, Hind. A follower of Prauaatli, a i wIh) ti-avelled to Coromandel^ Ceyloo, Java^ 

hindoo reformer who flourished in the 17th Both of them were imprisoned in Ceylon. 

oeotary in Bundelkhund.^ — Wilton. i DUANATTAR, Hind. Clitorea ternatea^ 

BHAMIN, Hind., Mah. Butea Gibsonii. DIIAN DHAUTA, Hind.? A tree of 

DHAMMA, PALi;Dharma, Sansc. Law, Chot^i Nagpore with hard, white timber* — 


DHAMMAN, Hind. Grewia elastic^ 
G. opfMwiiifolia. 

DHAMMA OR DHABMMA, the doctrines 
or sacred writings of the budd'hists. — Hardy ^ 
Easieru M^narchisp^ p. 435. 

Cal. Cat. Ex. 1862. 

DHANDOBA, Hind. Froclamatiou by heal 
of drum. 

DHANDUR DHANDOSU, a town twenty , 
five miles south of Bhutnair. 

DHANGA. Coriandrum sativum. 

DHAMMAN, Panj. Grewia olastica, ! DHANGAPHUL, Reng. Grislea tomen. 

B^j^» G. oppositifolia, Such, 

DHAMNA, Ubia ? Grewia tiliaefolia ? 
A Iree of Cutlaekyhas a reddish coloured wood, 
liard but pliable, strong, very plentiful in the 
Santhal jungles, fVom Baneebahal to Hasdiha 
or aboat forty miles. Used chiefly for cart 
wheels. — Calcutta Enyrf\Journa/,Jufy 1 860. 

DHAMNI, Hind. Porlulaca oleracea ? P. 

DHAMNOO, Hind. Grewia elastica, Rcyle, 
6. oppositifolia. Buck. G. tiliasfolia, VahL 

DHAMONI, a village in the Saugor dis- 
trict, situated about twenty-nine miles north 
^Sangor, in latitude 24* 1 1 ' 32*' and longitude 
78* 48' 34.- 

DHAMTABI, the largest and most im- 
portant town in the southern portion of the 
Rtipnr district. It is situated thirty-six miles 
to the aoath of Baipur, and is the head-quar- 
lera of a tahsil or 8ub*collectorate. 

DHAMUL A, Sans. Alpinia galanga. 9wz, 

DHAMUN, Hind. Green tea, in Ladakh, 
also brick tea, in Kashmere. Tea in cakes, both 
black and green, called ** dhamun,** goes to 
Kashmere onlv, also Khutan silk and some 
brocades. Velvet used to be imported from 
Bassia but is not so now ; the direct English 


DHANGAR, Hind. A people in India, 
who claim to be of the vesya caste, who ai'e 
daiiymen. The Dhangiar of the Maliratta and 
Telugu countries are theKuru-buru orCurum- 
bar of the Canarese districts. The Dhaugar, 
in Telingana, are in twelve tribes, who do not 
e^t together nor iutennany. In the centre 
of the peninsula, they are shepherds and 
wool-weavers, kitchen gardeners and labour-r 
ers. In the hill countiy of Ramgurb and 
Chota Nagpore, there is a tribe of this name, 
some of whom descend periodically into the 
plains for labour. The Dhangar, in Calcutta, 
are labourers. Mr. Hodgson describes the 
Dhangar as of Mongol origin. He bids us 
look steadfastly at any man of an aboriginal 
race, an ubiquitarian Dhangar for instance, 
and say if a Mongol origin is not palpably 
inscribed on his face ? There are 8,059 of 
these in Oomraoti. But it is not known 
whether, as in Ramgurh and Chota Nag* 
pore, they are a hill people ; in Telingana, 
they ai'e cultivators ; in the south of 
India, they are shepherds and weavers 
in wool. Many of the Dhangar are settled in 
the towns of the south of India, occupied 
as labourers, kitchen gardeners and dairymen ; 

impOTte having no d^^^ the Dhangar in the south of India 

DHAMUNGAOI^. hee Sanatoria. arrange themselves accordingly. The Tiling 

DHAN, Hind. Oryza sativa, uu husked 
rice or paddy, also growing rice. 

DHAN SAFAID, Grislea tomentosa. 

DHAN, Hind. Buchanania latlfolia, 

DHAN, Hind. Wealth ; Tan, Man, Dhan, 
body, mind and substance. 

DHAN MARBI, Tel, A rice field.— 

DHAN A. The Gond portion of a village 
which is always sepai'ate from the rest. Also 
applied generally in the north-west as Wuzra, 
Nagla or Poorwa. — Elliot a Suppt. Qtoss. 

DHAN A DA, See Inscriptions, p. 383. 

DHANANJAYA, Sans. From dhana, 

riches and jee, to conquer. See Inscriptions, 

p. 374. 
DHANAPATTI and Srimantoo, a roman- 

Dhangar are milkmen and weavers of coarse 
woollens ; the Mahratta Dhangar graze cattle 
and sheep and clarify their butter into ghee ; 
the Bangar Dhangar are purely shepherds, 
as is indicated by the terra " Ban-gar," wild 
man or forest man. The Dhangar sheep 
farmer race of the Peninsular Dekhan, are of 
two sections, the Kota Pullia Dhangar whg 
keep sheep, and the Barji Hatkar or "shep- 
herds witli the spears." The latter still hold 
much land on the borders of the Nizam's terrir 
tory and, until the British domination wer^» 
notorious for pugnacity and rebellion, and they 
still continue a quarrelsome and obstinate 
i-ace. They ai^e supposed to have come from 
Hindoostan in twelve tribes, and been imi- 
pelled by the Gonds towards HingoU and 

'r* • 1 • 1 1 1.. ... ^ _^ 

tie hisdoo tale of adventures of a father and Bassim, which locality got the name of Bnra 
soo, wealthy Bania merchants of the Granges Hatin, or the twelve tribes. They now oc* 

65 D 1)0 



rhich the knotted " koroo" is conspicuous. , British conquest of Malwa, the Dbar state 

The descent to this glen is over masses of 
rock ; and about half-way down a small plat- 
form, are two shrines ; one containing the 

statue of ** takshac,'* the snake-king ; the ! only by the talents and coi:r:ige ot Meena 

was subjected to a continued series of spolia- 
tions chiefly at the han«ls of Siudia and 
Holkar, and was preserved from dHstiuctiou 

other of ^ Dhuuwantia/' the physician, who 
was produced at the ' churning of the ocean.' 
The ^^ coond*^ or fountain is at the southern 
extremity of the abyss. Dhanwantra is the 
Eaculapins of the h in does, but has not an 
attendant serpent like his brother of Greece ; 
**• the health bestowing Dhanwantra, the celes- 
tial physician, arose from the sea when churn- 
ed for the beverage of immortality." He is 
geDerallj represented as a venerable man with 
a book in his hand. — Rajasikan, Vol, ii, p. 
718 ; Colem.'sHind. Myik^p. SSd; M^ore^ 
p. 342. See Images, Kurma, Serpent Vidiya. 

DHANYA BHEDAM, Tel. A variety 
of wheaU 

DHANTAKA, Sans. Coriander seed. 

DHANYALI, Hira. Adelia secrata. 

DANYALU, Tkl. Coriandrum sativum. 

DHANYA-ROOPA, Sans. From dhana, 
rice ; and rddpa, form. 

DHAO of Kangra. Conocarpus latifolia. — 

DHAO, Hind., or Dhon, rock containing 
magnetic oxide of iron in form of sand. 

DHAO KA GOND, Hind. Gum of 
Grislea tomentosa. 

DHAOLA DHAR, or outer Himalaya or 
IV^hite Mountain, from Dkavala, Sanscrit, 
white ; a precipitous range of hills between 
Che Byas and Ravi in the outer or sub- 
Himalayas to the north of Kangra. The 
whole length of the outer or sub-Himalaya, 
Dearly 300 miles from S. E. to N. W., 
ift pierced by the Ravi, the Chenab, the 
Pnnach, and the Jehlam rivers, which divide 
it into separate districts. The snow-line is 
about 16,000 feet in height. Dhaola Dhar, 
is called by several names in our maps, Mani 
Mahes ki Dhar, or the mountains of the holy 
lake of Mani Mahes, and Hugel calls it 
Palam Kidar and Chamba Kidar. The rocks 
•re clay and mica slate. — Cleghorn's Punjab 
Beportj p, 97. 

DHAK, a river near Kaisla in Baitool. 

DHAR, Hind. A hill. 

DHAR, 22- 35' ; 75" 21', in Milwa, 33 
miles W. of Mhow. The level of the railway, 
1,860 ft Dhar town, is about 30 miles S. W. 
of the Indus river. The Puar family was one 
of the most distinguished in the early Midi- 
ratta history and Anund Rao Puar is usually 
considered as the founder of the principality 
of Dhar, which with some adjoining districts 
and the tribute of some Rajpoot chiefs was 
tssigned to him by the first Bajee Rao, 
Peishwa. For twenty years before the 


Bai. Anund Rao Puar di(fd in ibOT luid was 
succeeded by his posthumous souRamchunder 
Rao Puar, on whose motlier, Meena Bai, the 
administration devolveti. Ramchuuder died 
early, but Meena Bai with the consent of the 
neighbouring chiefs, adopted her sister's son 
under the name of Ramchuud Puar. The 
Dhar state rebelled in 1857 and was con- 
fiscated, but it was subsequently restored to 
Anund liao Puar with exception of theBairsea 
pergunuah. The area of the state is esti- 
mated at 2,091 square miles, and the 
population at about 1,25,000 souls. The 
revenue is rupees 4,37,000. One company 
of the Bhopal levy is maintained at the 
expense of the state to garrison the fort. 
Dhar pays an annual contribution of Rupees 
19,656-0-4 for the maintenance of the Malwm 
Bheel coi^ps. The chief receives a salute of 
fifteen guns, and has been granted the right 
of adoption. — Buck,, Hamiliony Treaties^ 
Engagements and Sunnudsy Vol, iv, p. 325. 

DHAR A, Hind. Corchorus olitorius. 

DHARAPATTAH. See Inscriptions, pp. 

DHARA SENA. See Inscriptions, p. 375. 

DIIARI. Grislea tomentosa. 

DHARI, name of a waterfall near the 
Hirnphal, or Deer^s Leap, on the Nerbuddah. 

DHARICHA, Hind. Second husband of 
a widow. 

DHARINJO, Uria. A tree of Ganjam 
and Gumsoor, extreme height 60 feet, circnm- 
ferance 4 feet, and height from the ground 
to the intersection of the first branch 8 feet. 
Tolerai)ly common. No use seems to be 
made of the wood. The bark is used medi- 
cinally by women after child-birth ; the juice 
of the leaves is supposed to cure itch.— 
Captain Macdonald. 

DHAR KARELA, Hind. Momordica 

DHAR KI KABER, Hind. Csesalpinia 

Yudhishtira, the eldest of the five Pandava. 
See Hindoo, Inscriptions, pp. 374, 381, 386, 
390 ; Karli, Vedas. 

DHARMA, Hind., Sans. Charity, law, 
virtue, morality. Dharma-kari, a judge. 
Dharma-das, a temple servant. Dharma- 
karta, a temple manager. Dharma-swama, 
literally faith (dharma), to his lord (swama.) 

DHARMA DEVA.Scc Inscriptions, p. 389. 

dharma, religion ; and bhanoo, splendour; 

D 67 



ft-equciitly ai-e, the monks pui-chase cliildren ' makes the attempt without resolution to pev- 

Ibr the purpose of ioitiatiiig them. The 
mju*kiDgd which hindoo sects place on their 
foreheads, are alluded to hy Moses : *' Ye 
shall not make any cuttings in jour flesh for 
the dead, nor pnnt any marks upon you : 
I am the Lord."-^LeviticnS) xix. 28. Bishop 
Patrick uotes that this imprinting of marks ov 

severe, he rarely fails ; for if the party thus 
arrested were to suffer the brahman sitting 
in dharna to perish by hunger, the sin would 
for evev be upon his head. This practice has 
become almost utiiieaiil of in late years, but 
formerly even the interference ofBritish courts 
often proved insufficient to check it, as it had 

•ignatores was understood to be fixing a badge ' been deemed in genenil most prudent to avoid 

t>r chaneteristic of the pel-son's being devoted 
to some false deity. — rorbet^ Has Mdld or 
ffindeo Annals, VoL ii, pp.311 to 313; 
Hisimy of the Funjuby Vol. i, pp. 123 and 
124. SeeMafh. 

DHARMSALAy is a sanatorium with a 
soldiers' garden, containing many introduced 
Himakijan trees of great interest. Box, ash, 
ind Tarions conifei's as well as many European 
fruit trees are adapted to this hill station ; it 
lias perhaps the only collection of indigenous 
Alpine trees in the Punjab. 

DHABMA SASTRA, the hindoo law, 
the Code of Mann. — WUs. 

DHABMA SUTRA, a tei-m sometimes 
jgiven to the Samaya ch&rika rules. — Muiler, 

DHARMIKA SENI. See In.scriptions, 

DHABMMA, Sans. In budd*hism, both 
(kith and practice ; Pitictical virtue and 
ttorality. See Damon and Pythias. 

for this purpose tlie use of cx)erciou, from an 
apprehension that the first appearance of it 
might drive the sitter in dliarna to suicide* 
The discredit of the act would not only fall 
upon the officers of justice, but upon the 
Government itself. The practice of sitting 
in dharna was not confined to brahman men. 
It was had recourse to by Benu Bhai, the 
widow of a man of the brahminical tribe> 
who had a litigation with her btt>ther-in-laW) 
Bal Kishen, which was tried by arbitration, 
and the trial and sentence were revised by the 
court of justice at Benares, and again in ap^ 
peal. The suit of Benu Bhai involved a claim 
of property and a consideration of caste, which 
her antagonist declared she had forfeited. 
Originally it was practised by bralimans, 
but tv-Bs pvohibited by Res. 7 of 1820 of 
the Bengal Code. In the south of India 
it is done before idols for obtainiug the 
object of desire. It is an ancient practice : 

DHABMA SETOO, Sans. From dharma | Genesis xxiv says ' I will not eat until I have 

told mine errand,' and a brahman sometimes 
goes to a house, sits down, and refuses to 
eat till he has obtained the object he has 
in view. The Engiishntan newspaper rc^ 
lates that about 1850, a man named Chut<- 
terbhooj, son of a well known and respect- 
able Charan of Oodeypore, can-ied to the 
lute chief of that state certain grievances 
which he considered himself to be suffer- 
ing in connection with his village. Fail- 
ing to secure redress by ordinary measures, he 
took the unusual course of intruding on the 
chief without permission, for which breach of 
etiquette he was forbidden to enter the palace 
again. Accordingly, being under a sense of 
degradation, ill-feeling and annoyance, en- 
gendered by the prohibitory order, he in>- 
dulged in satires and phillipics against his 
chief, who thereupon confiscated his village^ 
Upon this, Chutterblrooj proceeded to Su- 
loombur, which at that time, was at enmity 
with the chief of Oodeypore, and this step 
only incensed the chief all the more against 
him. Here he appears to have been pro- 
vided for, but subsequently wandered about 
fVom place to place trying to obtain redress, 
but withont being able to secure either the 
forgiveness of his chief or the restitution of 
his village. In this state of filing he ap- 
pears to hiive giTen way to the superstitious 


teligion, and S^too a bridge, or dam. 

tiharma, religion ; and f hakooni, a lord. 

DHARNA or Dhurna, Hind. Dharna 
iiaithua, literally to sit *^ Dharna," was a 
practice put in force in several parts of India 
by creditors who sat down before the doors 
Df their debtors so as to close all exit unless 
over the sitter's bo<ly and thus compel a pay- 
ment of their claims. The practice was 
formerly familiar at Benares, and may be 
translated *' caption or aiTest." It was used 
by the brahm'ans to gain a point which could 
not be accomplished by any other means ; and 
the process was as follows: — The brahman 
who adopts tliis expedient for the purpose 
mentioned, proceeds to the dooi* or house 
t}f the person against whom it is directed, 
tMT wherever he may most conveniently inter- 
cept him. He there sits down in dharna, 
ivith poison or a poiguard, or some other 
instrument of suicide in his hand, and threaten- 
ing to use it if his adversary should attempt 
to molest or pass him, he thus completely ar- 
rests the debtor. In this situation the brahman 
fasts ; and by the rigor of the etiquette, which 
is rarely infringedy the unfortunate object of 
his arrest ought also to f«st and thus they 
both remain until the institutor of the dharna 
«btaiiiB satisfaction. In tiiis, as he seldom 

€9 D 



DHAURAy IIiNi>. Lagerstrocmia pnrvi- Dhiklee, aud io Goruckpoor into Dlicokul. 

flora. The word appears to be derived from Dhiil- 

DEIAURA, Grislea tomcntosa, the scar- kana to roll, to overturn. The posts which 

let flowers, dhau ka phool are considered sti- act as the fulcra are called T'hoonja ; the 

malatiDg and given to women in labour : rope, Burt ; and tlie bucket, Kui*wala. The 

are also used in dyeing. One seer costs four 
annas. The gum, dhaura or dhau ka gond, 
is white in colour, like the katira and 
tragacanth gums, swells in water : in dyeing 
cloth it Is applied to those parts that the 
dye is not wished to touch ; it is eaten in 
^* laddoo f* one maund costs ten rupees. — 
Gem. Med. Top., p. 1 33. 

DHAYALA or Dhavalha. See Inscrip- 
tions, p. 392. 

DHAVANTARI, the physician of the 
gods who rose from the i<ea of milk. 

DHAVES, Hind. Dhewus, Hind. 

DHAWAN PHUL, Hind. Flower of 
Grii^lea tomentosa. 

DHAWI KHURD, Hind. Grislea to- 
mentosa : Sufed dhawi. Hind. Buxus sem- 
per rircns. 

DHAWAR, Mar. A tribe who are smel- 
ters of iron. 

DHAYA, Hind. I>a«d on a river bank, 
fubject only to the occasional overflow of 
water : also ridges along the dry coui*se of 
a river, which has turned in another direc- 

DHE, Hind., in the N. W. Provinces, a 
sub-division of the Jut tribe. 

DHE, Hind., of the Ci>-Siitlej, old mounds 
yielding saltpetre earth. 

DHIMAR, a race, <thiefly employed in 
fi«hing. They are, properly speaking, a 
branch of the bearer, or Kalmr, caste ; 
though they are sometimes said to be 
o{&boots of mullah, <»r boatmen. 

DHEKENAL, Sec India, p. 330. 

DIIELA, Hind. A Lahore grass, Scirpns 

DHELA KATA, Hind. ? A tree of Chota 

*' dhenkli'' is seldom used in the Punjab pro- 
per, except for the iirigation of rice fields, 
and in river tracts for melons and tobacco. 
In the peninsula of India it is in use in all 
the finer garden or even in field cultivation. — 
Elliot's Sup, Gloss. PoioelVs Hand-book; 
Econ, Prod, Punjab, p, 208. 

DHENRUS, Beng. Abelmoschus escu- 

DHER, a non-Arian race, dwelling as pre- 
dial slaves, in many parts of India, in the 
Panjab, rare in the N. W. Provinces, many 
in the Saugor territory. In the INagpore 
ten'itory tliey have acquired some considera- 
tion from their employment as Dulal or writ 
servers. In the Deccan they are doubtless 
the same as the Holiar of the Canarese, the 
Mahr of the Mahrattas and the Pariah of the 
Tamil race. In the Western Provinces, though 
they ai'e not often found in any numbers, but 
they appear to have left the remembrance of 
their name, for it is common term of abuse to 
call a man a Bura Dher*h, or a low-caste 
fellow. They eat dead animals, clean skins 
and sell them to Chamars. In Rajpootana, 
the Dhei-'h will not eat hogs, either tame or 
wild : the latter they hold in great abomin- 
ation, notwithstanding their Rajpoot masters 
look upon them as a luxuiy. — Elliotts Sup, 
Gloss,; Journal /?. A. S., p. 224. See 
Chepang India, Pariah. 

DHERA, HcND, A station. A tent : a 

DHEBI, in Sind, a bit of stone or other such 
material, round which the raw wool thread is 
twisted. The Kambo is a long cloth thrown 
over the right shoulder, and so fastened round 
the waist as to leave a place for the lambs 

g to walk. — Richard 

Nagpore, with hard, yellow timber. — CaL Cat. \ and kids that are too youn 
Ex. 1862. E' Burton's Sindh, p. 410. 

DIIERWARAH, the locality outside the 

DHENA, Bkng. Vitis elongata. 

DHENGI, a boat on the Ganges river. 
See Boat, Bhonliva. 

DHENGUN, ' HiNi>. Cordia macleodii. 
— Hooker. 

DHENKA, Hind. A lever of any kind. — i 


DHENKLI, a 'water lever, a machine for 
raising water, the pakotta or yettam of the 
lamil countries. It consists of a horizontal 
lever with a weight at one end and a bucket 
of iron or an earthen pot at the other, 
ftlung from a bamboo, or pole ; this being 
lowered into the well and returned to its 
original place, brings up a bucket of water. The 
name is pi-ovincially corrupted into Dhooklee, 

liindoo towns where the Dher race reside. 

DHERWARA, part of the budd'hist ex- 
cavations at Karli. 

DHEWUS, Hind. Dalbergia oojeinensis. 

Dhaves, HiND. | Dbivus, Mahr. 

A timber of Nagpore, of a light colour. It 
is liable to be devoured by white ants, and is 
only procurable of a small scantling, from 12 
to 15 feet long and two feet in girth. Its 
strength, however, is considerable, and, if 
found of a proper size, would doubtless be 
valuable. The young trees are all cut down 
for bandy poles. It sells at 8 annas the cubic 
foot,^-^ Captain Sankey, Major Pearse. 

DHI, Hind., Sans. Sour milk. 






being termed kelp «Dd barilla, or by decom- 
posiog commoQ salt by sulphuric aciJ and 
tben roAstiug the resultiug sulphate with 
chalk, saw dust, aud fragments of iron. The 
mass when washed gives the carbonate of 
•oda. Southeni India is particularly rich in 
alkaline and earthy minerals, the origin of 
which seems to be the decaying granites of 
the country, but the most common form 
of alkali, is the Dhobee's Earth. — Mr, B. 
Reynoids in Pharmaceutical Journal^ 1 853, 
VoL xuy p. 517—3/. K of 1855 and 1857 ; 
Cf/. Ji. E. of 1857 ; Beng, Fhar., p, 360. 

DHOBOO, Ukia. Conocarpus latifolia.— 

DHOFAR OR ZHAFAR, one of the now 
decayed ports of Arabia, on the coast of 
Uadhramaut.—- iWe'x Cathay, VoL ii, />. 513. 

DUOGREE, Kangra hill men who work 
at iron smelting. 

DUOL OR DHAL, Hind. Cajanus indicus. 

DHOL. Hind. A drum. 

DHOL, Hind. Erydirina stricta. 

DHOLE, Hind. The wild dog. See Caiiis. 

DHOLEPORE, a town on the banks of 
the Chumbol river. Lukindar Singh, better 
known as the rana of Gohud, was the first 
of the chiefs of Dholepore with whom the 
British Government formed political rela- 
tions. The family belong to the Jat tribe, 
and first rose to notice under the peshwa 
Bajee Rao. After the overthrow of the 
Mihrattas at Paniput, the uncle of Lukindar 
Singh re1)elled and possessed himself of the 
fort of Gwalior. During the Mahratta war 
which ended in the peace of Salbye, the 
British in 1799 form^ a treaty with him. 
Much discussion however arose in 1 803, 1 804 
and 1805, but ultimately the river Cliumbul 
became Uie boundary between Sindhia's ter- 
ritories and Dholepore. Maharana Keerut 
dingh lived to a great age. He died in 1836, 


DHOLUK, a small drum. 

DHOLWA of the Wagri. Aquila fulve- 
scens. — Gray, 

DHONEE, a fire lighted by fuqeers, over 
which they sit, imbibing its smoke. 

DHONLA. See India, p. 337. 

DIIONPATTA, HixD. The leaf of lati- 
folia?, used in tanning. 

DHOOA. In Bikaneer the six items of 
the revenue are: — Khalisa, or fiscal revenue ; 
Dhooah ; AngjJi ; Town aud transit duties ; 
Pusaeti or plough-tax ; und Malbah.— TocT* 
Bajasthan, VoL ii, />. 20o, 

b'HOOBA GRASS. Cynodon dactylon, 
flourishes in all seasons, and most in the 
intense heats ; it is not only araara or ' immor- 
tal,' but a'khye, ' not to be eradicated ;' and 
its tenacity to the soil deserves the distinction. 
— Tods Rajasthan, VoL i, p. 494. 
. DHOOB'KALA. The Indian seasons 
according to the Shastra, are six in numl>er, 
each comprising two months. Those divisions 
are more fanciful than real, aud the common 
people are content to adopt the more definite 
division of three. Choumasa, or Burk'ha, 
constitutes the four months of the rainy sea- 
son. The rest of the year is comprised in 
Seeala, Jara or Moliasa, the cold season ; and 
Dhoobkala, or K'hursa, the hot season. — 

DHOOBia, a wood of Nepaul, called 
Bechiacori, Sulla and Surrendhool, or Dhoob- 
kee (on account of its i-esinous quality.) Its 
branches are used in Nepaul as torches : the 
fi'agrant turpentine which ityields is employed 
in sacrifices and in medicated salves, and its 
wood is converted into rafts for houses. — 
Smiths^ Five Years^ p, 67. 

DHOOLIA, a civil and military station in 
Khandesh. . 
DHOOLI-BANS, Bkkg. Dendrocala- 

and was succeeded by Bhugwunt Singh, ' mns balcooa. 

rho rendered assistance to the fugitives from 
Gwalior in 1857 ; but his minister Deo Huns 
incurred the displeasure of Government by 
plundering villages in the Agra district. 
Bhugwunt Singh i*eceived the right of adop- 
tion and was declared entitled to a salute of 
fifleea guns. His teiritory covers an area of 
1,626 square miles, contains a population of 
500,000, and yields a revenue of Rupees 
600,000. The military force of the state 
consists of shout 2,000 men. — Treaties, En- 
gagemenis and Sunnuds, VoL iv, p, lOH. 

DHOLI, a Gond tribe who dwell in jungly 
districts and are employed as goatherc's. 

DHOLKEE OR DHOLUK, a small drum. 

DHOOMAVATI, Sans. From dhoomra, 

dhoomra. smoke ; and lorhnnn, the eye. 

DIIOONA, Hind. Shorca rolmsta, i2c;x^. 

DIIOOND, a river of Jeypore. 

DIIOOND, Hind. A mound. Beesil-Deo, 
a cotemporary of Jeypal, the Tuar king of 
Delhi lived about a.d. 1 032-1 096. He seems 
to have become a convert to mahomedanism. 
There is the appearance of his subsequent 
expiation of this crime in the garb of a peni- 
tent ; and the mound (dhoond), whore he took 
up his abode, still exists at Kalik Jobnair, and 
is called after him, Beesil-ka-d'hoond. — Tod\s 

DHOL-KULMEE, Benq. Ipoma?n pran- Rajasfhan, VoL ii, p, 4.54. 
difionu DHOONDOOL, Hkk<;. LufTa pculandrn. 

73 D 



his mother Kuntiy to the jangle on the Granges, 
where the maharajah died. — Wh. H, of I. 

DHRITEE, Sans. From dhree, to sustain. 

DHRUVA, generally the pole of a great 
cirde of the sphere, particularly the celestial 
poles. Uttara Dhruva, the North Pole ; also 
the Polar Star. Dacshin& Dhruva, the South 
Pole. This term is also used to signify a 
eooatant arc, referring to the distance of a 
planet from the beginning of the sidereal 
zodiac. Dhruva means more commonly an 
epoch to which a computation is refeiTed. 
Lndjf it is the name of the Yoga Star of the 
12tfa Nacahatra, supposed to be the same as 
Leonia. — Captain Edward Warren^ s Kala 

DHRUVA BHUTA. See Inscriptions, 

DHRUVA SENA. See Inscriptions, pp. 
375, 376, 390. 

DHUB, Bbno. Grislea tomentosa. 

DHUB GHAS, Hind. Agrostis cynosu- 

DHUDI, Hnn>. Ficus caricoides. 

DHUDI of Kumaon. Holarrhena anti- 
dysentericaw — Wall. 

DHULBHUM, called also Ghatsillah, a 
krge pergunnah east of the Kolehan, attached 
to the Singbhoom district, first colonised by 
the Bhoomij, Dalion^ p. 156. 

DHCLI BANS, Bbng. Var. of Bambusa 

DHUMNAR, about 40 miles S. £. from 
Nonuch, but close to Chundivassa, con- 
tuns boddliist caves with a brahmanical rock 
temple behind. Those of Dhumnar, like the 
caves of Ellora, contain a strong admixture 
of brahmaaism. 

DHUMMUL KOODANA, a ceremony. 

DHUMRAPATRA, Sans. Tobacco. 

DHUN, Hind. A low valley at the foot 
of a mountain. The valley intervening be- 
tween the true Himalaya and the Sewalik or 
outer hills, as the Dehra Dhoon, Jaswundhun, 
&c The fixed gradations of true Himalaya, 
dhon or valleys, sandstone or Sewalik range, 
"bhaver" or forest tracts, and lowest of all 
theTarai, which consists of arid tracts or else 
iwamps at the foot of the mountains, which 
are so constant and marked in the central 
Himalaya, are not observable at all in the 

DHUNA, Hind. Shorea robusta. 

DHUNCHI, Hind. ? Tam. Sesbania acu- 
leata. Syn. of JEschynomene canabina. — 

DHUNDHUMARA, is the name of a king 
of Onde of the solar line, properlv called 
Kavmlay&Bwa, but termed Dhundumara from 
riaying a demon named Dhundhu, who an- 
Doyed the aaint UttaiJuu 


DHUNIA, Beno., Gcz. and Hind. Cori- 
ander seed. Coriandrum sativum. 

DHUNIA, the lowest caste in the Hima- 
laya, who employ themselves as gold-washers. 

DHUNICHA, Beng. Indian flax, Sesbania 

Parsee, of Bombay, author of a Zend and Eng- 
lish and Zend and Guzeratti dictionary. At 
the commencement of the work is a comparative 
table of the Zend Alphabet with those of the 
Persian, Pehlvi, Hebrew, Cunieform, Sans- 
krit, Guzeratti, Greek and Roman languages. 
Plate second contains a comparison of the 
Zend orthography according to the different 
systems of sixteen Asiatic and European 
orientalists. Preliminary discourse on the 
origin and authenticity of the Zend language 
and Zendavesta. Parts 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. The 
Pehlvi Alphabets published with observations 
on the Lapidary, cursive, and Numismatic, 
Pehlvi writings Tablets, Manuscripts and 

DHUNNES, Hind. Buceros Tickelli. 

DHUNSHA, Hind. Sesbania aculeata. 

DHUNU, Hind. Pangi. Picea pindrow, 
the silver fir. 

DHUNU, Hind. Taxus baccata. 

DHUNYA, Dra. This is written Dhu- 
neea also Dhunia, Coriandram sativum. — 

DHUP, also LUR, also SHUR, Hind. 
Juniperus excelsa. Incense. Dolomiaea ma- 
crocephala, Juniperus communis, Chalei ke 
dhup,HiND. Juniperus excelsa, jari dhup, 
dhupa. Hind. Dolomi«a macrocephala. The 
word is applied to many fragrant things, 
used for burning as incense o&red to idols, 
e, g.fto the root of Dolomissa macrocephala, 
to juniper or to benzoin, to Juniperus ex- 
celsa, J. arborea ; pencil cedar. 

DHUPRI, Hind, of Kamaon, &c., Junipe- 
rus excelsa, J. arborea : pencil cedar. 

DHURA, Hind. Ficus caricoides. 

DHURA, Hind. Zura Aa., Sorghum 

DHURGONTEE. In the time of Akbar 
the celebrated Dhurgontee, the queen of 
Gurha Mundala, whose reign extended over 
the Saugor and Nerbudda territories, and the 
greater part of Berar, was a daughter of the 
reigning Chundale prince of Mahoba. He 
condescended to give his daughter only on 
condition that the Gond prince who demand- 
ed her should, to save his character, come 
with an army of 60,000 men to take her. He 
did so, and *' nothing loth," Dhurgontee 
departed to reign over a country where her 
name is now more revered than that of any 
other sovereign it has ever had. She was 
killed about 250 years ago, about 12 miles 





rhite on the Iiollj, ami is ndorneil with four ; posed 60 yenrs after the time of Pliny, men- 

)uu(;ituiHiittl hluc stripes on each side of the 
bodj ; thes*e stripes are margined witii black. 
It is about JO inches in length. Some of the 
species ai*e known to have attained the length 
of 3 feet and upwards. — Eng. CyCj p. 323. 
See Fishes. 

tions the diamonds found on the l>anks of 
the Sumbuipoor river ; also speaks of Arcati, 
the capital of the Soi*ae or Sora-mandalum 
from whence corruptly Coromandel, Mesolia, 
the district which contains Masulipatam and 

the river Cauvery under the name of Chabaris. 
DIAGREDIUM. See Convolvulus scam- Renuell supposes Funnah to be the Panassa 

of Ptolemy. He mentions the Sumbuipoor 


DIAL BIRD of Ceylon, Copsychus saularis. 

DIALA on the Euphrates, the place of the 
oi^ennig of a canal running to the Tigris 
river. See Kasi^a-i-sliirin, Khalis, Kooffa. 

DIAMANT, Dan., Ddt., Fb. and Ger. 
Dnmante, It., Pokt. Diamond. 

DIAMACHUS, an ambassador from the 
Greeks of Babylon to Mitra Gupta, son of 
Chandra Gupta. Miti*a Gupta was known to 
the Greeks by tlie name of Alletro Chidas. 
Diamachus was the next Greek ambassador 
after Megasthenes. — CaL Rev., 1868. 

DIAMER PEAK, or Nanga Parbat,in Lat. 
35^ 14'-4- N. ; and Long. 74° 34' 5" E. in 
Uasora. Top of the peak is 26,629ft. above 
the sea. This peak, the highest in Hasora, 
is situated close to the remarkable bend made 
by the Indus. 

DIAMOND, Eng. Span. 

KamaU, knmalR, intan, 

Mau. Pers. 
Dyamant. POL. 
Demant. Sw. 
YirumVachira KuUq.Tam 

Afanaa. As., Pbrs., Rus. 
Diamant. Das. Dut. FtL 

Gkrm. Sw. 
Jakalam. Hebrew. 
Bira. Guz. Hind. 
Diamante. It. Sp. Port. 
Adamai. Lat. I 

The diamond is a crystallised mineral, 
which, on account of its lustre and hardness, 
is reckoned the most valuable of all gems. 
The form is cubical, frequently in twin crys- 
tals, cleavage highly perfect, rarely massive. 
The balk of the forms are those of the octo- 
hedron ; an octohedrou having six planes on 
the edges ; or a dodecahedron with rhombic 
faces. Lustre brilliant adamantine. Colour 
white or colourless, occasionally with tints 
of yellow, re<l, orange, green, brown or 
black. Transparent to translucent when dark- 
coloured. Fracture conchoidal, H. 10, S. G. 
3*5295 to 3*55. Exhibits vitreous electricity 
when nibl»ed. Index of refraction 2*439. 
Becomes phosphorescent on exposure to light, 
and the smaller diamonds become phosphores- 
cent by a much shorter exposure than required 
for those of a larger size. The diamond is car- 
bon in its purest form, and its combustibility 
was ascertained by the Tuscan philosophers. 
Aboat 30 per cent, of diamonds arc under 
half a carat, and one in a thousand may 
be above 24 carats. Diamonds have been 
obtained from India, from very ancient times. 

mines near the Boad couutiy and quotes the 
Ayeeu-i-Akbari as naming Biragur on the 
w^est of Boad near the Mahauuddy river, add- 
ing that there is indeed a mine of more 
modern date, in the vicinity of Sumbuipoor, 
but this whole quarter must from vei*y early 
times have been famous for producing dia- 
monds. Ptolemy's Adamas river answers 
perfectly to the Mahanuddy, and the district 
of Sabai*ae, on its banks, is said by him to 
abound in diamonds. Tavemier visited the 
Raolconda diamond mines at the confluence of 
the Kistnah and Bheemah rivers, which were 
also noticed by Caesar Frederick, and both 
Tavemier and Bennell notice the diamond 
mines of the Pennaar river and near Gandi- 
cotta, also those of Colore (Kulur ?) on the 
south bauk of the Kistnah, not far from 

The great sandstone formations of 
the south and north of India, contain the 
celebrated diamond mines of Parteal (Qol- 
condah), Banganapilly and Panna, and the 
limestones and schists associated with them, 
from the latitude of Madras to the banks of 
the Ganges, exhibit the same characters. 
According to Ainslie the diamonds which are 
offered for sale in India were genei-ally brought 
from Yisiapour, Gana Purtual (Giolconda), 
Bundlecund, the sland of Borneo, and Suui- 
bhulpoor in Orissa and were reckoned superior 
ill transparency and purity to those of Brazil. 
What is sometimes called the Maturese dia- 
mond of Ceylon, or yellow Tourmalin (Kaneiie 
Turmali), Thuuberg tells us is no other than 
a Topaz of a greenish yellow colour, no 
diamonds are found in Burmah, yet it forms 
one of the nine gems, which, worn together 
in a ring, are supposed by the Burmese 
to protect the wearer from evil. They 
are the diamond, emerald, coral, sapphire, 
topaz, pyrope, cat's-eye, pearl, ruby. The 
diamond is easily crushed in a steel mortar, 
and, from its lamellar texture, it is capable 
of being split and cleaved, by which means 
the jewellers are enabled to work it. The 
iirst grand experiment to prove its com- 
bustibility was before Cosmo III, Grand 
Duke of Tuscany, when a diamond, ex- 
posed in the focus of a great lens, was 
entirely volatilised. It has also been consumed 

Ptolenay's Geography, said to have been com- by Guyton in red-hot nitre, by Professor Ten- 

77 D 77 


Dake of Orleans for £136,000, and in the 
D^oliations £5,000 were expended. In 1 791 
a eommission of jewellers valued the stone at 
tirelTe millions of francs, or nearly £500,000 
sterling. Its original weight was 410 carats. 

The Persian Courts on high days and 
holidays, literally blazes with gems. The 
celebrated stones in its possession are the 
««Sem of Glory," and the ''Mountain of 
Light,"— the one valued at £145,000, and the 
other at £34,848. 

Hifderohad Diamond. A very large dia- 
mond belongs to the Nawab of Hyderabad. 
It Bcasures 2-)- inches in length by 1-| inches 
in breadth and {-ths of an inch in thickness, in 
the rough state. The gem was found in the 
mod wall of a native house aud was purchas- 
ed for His Highness the Nizam ; a small por- 
tion of the gem had been broken off one end 
before it was offered for sale. It weighs 
nearly 272 carats. 

Brazil Diamond, The largest diamond 
known to exist does not belong to any of the 
great kings of Europe, but to the house of 
Braganaa. Tl'hen Don John of Portugal, 
trrived at theBrazils in 1808,a negro conveyed 
t lett^ to him in which he professed an 
ardent desire to present, tn person^ a large 
diamond which he had found. The Regent 
granted him an esccnt, and the negro arrived 
and presented the stone, the largest ever found 
in the Brazils. It is like a darkish-yellow 
p^Ue^ kidney-shaped and oblong, about th<i 
size of a poUefs egg. Its weight is enormous 
— 1680 carats— nearly 11 ounces ! The Bra- 
zilian jewellers value it at three thousand 
millions of crusades, or three hundred million 
pounds sterling— £300,000,000 ! ! ! but it 
ia bdieved to be a white topaz. 

A. bine diamond was lost in the French 

Kok'i'yur f f The largest diamond of 
which we have any koowledge is mentioned 
by Tavemier as in the possession of the Great 
MoguL It weighed originally 900 carats, or 
27^3 grains, but was reduced by cutting to 
861 grains. It has the form and size of half 
a hen's egg. It was found in 1550, in the 
mine of Colone. This great diamond appears 
to be identical with that now known under 
the name of Koh-i-noor. Some doubt is 
thrown on Tavernier's statement of its 
being cut. This precious gem has seen a 
varied of fortunes. Its early hiRtory is 
mythical, but from the Great Mogul it passed 
into tlie possession of the reigning family of 
CaboL When Shah Sujah was driven from 
Cabnl he became the nominal guest and 
aetoal prisoner of Runjeet Sing, who spared 
DO rneana to obtain possession of the precious 
gan. In this he succeeded in 1813. After 


the death of Runjeet the diamond was pre- 
served for a while by his successors. It was 
occasionally worn by Kurruk Sing and Shore 
Sing. After the murder of the latter it 
remained in the Lahore treasury until the 
supercession of Dhuleep Siog and the annex- 
ation of tlie Paojab by the British govern- 
ment, when the civil autliorities took pos- 
sesbion of the Lahore treasury, under the 
stipulation previously made tliat all tlie pro- 
perty of the state should be confiscated to the 
East India Company, in part payment of the 
debt due by the Lahore government aod of the 
expenses of tlie war. It was at the same 
time stipulated that the Koh-i-noor should 
be surreudered to the Queen of Great Britain. 
It an*ived in London on the 30th June 1 850, 
and on the 3rd July was presented to Her 
Majesty. Since its public exhibition in 1851 
it has been submitted to the process of cutting, 
which has much enhanced its beauty and value. 

The Nassik Diamond was sold to the 
Marquis of Westminster for 7,200/. 

The Fiit, or Regent Diamond is of less 
size weighing but 236*5 carats, or 4 1 9;^ grains ; 
but ou account of its unblemished trans- 
parency and colour it is considered the most 
splendid of Indian diamonds. It was sold for 
130,000/. to the Puke of Orleans by Mr. Pitt, 
an English gentleman, who was Governor of 
Bencoolen, in Sumatra. It is cut to the 
form of a brilliant, and is estimated at 
125,000/. Napoleon placed it in the hilt 
of his sword of state. 

The Koh'i-noory or " Mountain of Light,** 
the largest known diamond in the world, ex- 
cepting the Brazilian stone among the crown 
jewels of Portugal, has lately been added to the 
trophies of the British sovereign. In the year 
1 550 this stone was discovered in the mines of 
Golconda. It passed in the train of conquest 
and as the emblem of dominion, but always 
carrying misfortune in its train, from Golconda 
to Delhi, from Delhi to Mushed, from Mushed 
to Cabul, from Cabul to Lahore, and from 
Lahore to London. When first given to Shah 
Jelian, it was still uncut, weighing, it is said, 
in the rough state, nearly 787-^ carats, which 
were reduced by the unskilfulness of the 
artist to 279. It was cut by Hortensio Borgio, 
a Venetian, who, instead of receiving any 
remuneration for his labour, was fined 10,000 
rupees by the enraged Mogul ; In the time of 
Tavern ier was reduced to 186 carats but cut 
by Coster of Amsterdam as a brilliant, weighs 
106 carat<^. Upon the annexation of the 
Panjah it was given over to the East India 
Company for the Queen of Great Britain an<l 
brought to London iu 1850. Large as the 
Koh-i-noor was before its recent cutting it 
is computed by the best judges to have 




Itcen oriifitially tlirec limes it!" prci^nt sire. 
Tavt;niier tfUtes that it origiunlly weif;he<l 
787^ carats ; itii eslimuteil value is not known. 
Tlie Koh-i'Dnor was plai'ed od the mill hv 
Ihe Duke of U'dliuf^ioii iiii July IGth, IH-vl, 
to b« cut and was completely fi[li^hed on 
September 7ih, haring taken thirty-eight 
days to tut. working fur twelve hintns (ht <iay 
without ressatiou ! 

T/tf Jirtmondt of A$ia arc fouix) in Bonieo, 
ill tlM! CuddH]Eihdi«Irii;l, in Banji;ana|iilly, in 
the trnrtuf eunutry helwt-en Oiikoiidii and 
Ma^'ulipatain, in ihp Kllore di^^trii't, on tht? 
MahHnu.l<li and at Pui>iiah in Bnndekund. 
The enrlit'st noilirc we have met with of llie 
Punnali n)iiie<« i-t in Diilryniple'ri Indian 
lii^pcrtury, Vol. ii, ]i 471, uiid there dcrcrilivd 
SHMia ranire of hill'' MtHal^.■d alioul 42 irosi^ 
S.S.W. of Kalpcc. The hilU are eiillnl l.y 
the uatives Band A<-hil : they extend aliiiut 
13 cofs in length aiid alioni 3 or f) in hreadth. 
and aredividL-<] into 21 (li:-triotiiof wljich only 
Ihe I'ulton-iug uineieen names are given : — 







Auwout I'uken- 



. nu. 




Raj pur. 






Diamondu are 

found iji all t 

ese (li^lriets 

but thofe of Maliarajpiir, Rajpur, Kimnicrah 
and Gadilatisiah, arc ihe larjjest and liest. 

Ceded Dittrictt.—Tb« mines of Cuddapali 
aud Bana|;aiiapilly alioul \-'>0 to 170 inilci> 
N. W. of Madras, have enirat'iHl tlie attention 


The secoud range ruiiiiiDg neu-l/ ilue mat, 
for ahout seventy mileii, and funuing thm 
southern boundary of the dfstricL To Iba 
westward, the couuliy ronlinues plain ud 
open to a great extent : to the northward we ' 
!:ee hilU and ranges connected with tlia 
eiistern mountains. The minca at Cuddapah 
have, it it said, been woi'ked for several hnndreil 
yeni'9 with variou-' snuce:)!!. A large diauoad 
wa.4 found, whii-h produced a law suit boI 
decided in Dr. Ileyiie's time. It was iwid to 
weigh 1 i pagoda — 70 grains, to l<e full of Sawi, 
and un that aceount nut to \<t: worth rnore tbu 
1,000 ]>ag(Hlas. The:>e mines are within half 
a mile «f the eastern range uf hill? and aboat 
ns lor east f'rum the river and Conilapetta, and 
on groundn belonging to a bmall villnge called 
Kannpcriy. Tiiey ure suriounded by culti- 
va1i-<l tielils, and have the appearance of heap* 
••fMone^an<l pii.s luilf lilled with rubbisli, in 
the inidtlle of whj.'h we lin.l a number of 
{>oui>le at work in a new mine. The minei 
arc pit!> of unet|ual extent and t<mall depili, 
and nt^iinlly have a four sided form. One in 
which iK'uple were at work and wh i.-h had beca 
0|>eni.'J only eight or ten days, waji sixteen feet 
Mjnaiv. The Uvalnmpilly mines are ou the 
west .side nf the Hver, about six milea fnm 
Cixldapidi, and tliiec niiles from the Kanapcrty 
mines. They ari' situated on a gentle aaceni, 
about half a nule from the I'eiinar, in a well 
cultivateil country, and within a very short 
dislancu of three 'villages. They aT« ehidy 
on ground belouging to Ovalumpilly. They 
ai'e of more recent discovery than the other 
mines and it in only fortv yi-ara sinc« (hey 

hnvn lii'Pii u-nilcnt I'L-v' I,b» r.rh«- (Im 


The fbllowing is a list of the prices iu Dr. 
Heyoes' time of the rough stones at the 
miDes : — 

If eight. Madras Paffodu. 
f BramhalSO 

Weight. Madras Pagodas 
1 Manjaly, f ^!^ ^^ 

fiv ^canmts 

2 Do. 





/Brmmha 24 

J Chetra ...20 

••"JVyaeft ...18 

I Sadra ...16 

/Bramha 40 

ol 1 Chetra ...37 

3Masial7, 1 VyseA ...34 

4 Do. 

5 Do. 

6 Manjaly, 

7 Do. 

8 Do. 

J Chetra 140 
iVysea 180 
C Sadra 120 
I Bramha250 
J Chetra 240 

-IVysea 220 
ISudra 200 
J Chetra 380 

-jVyaea 860 

ISadra 850 

Sadra ...30 
I'Bramha 80 Two diamonds, . 
j Cbetra ...76 o^,«i»*> "*"• \5f*?'^* 

rBramhalOO Sorthof ■"'Sadra 
J ^etra ...90 Threediamonds r^ 
*" j Vysea ...85 of moal sise, I Bramha 
V Sadra ...80| weighing alto- J Chetra 
get her oneAVyiea 
;^r. are (sadra 



The Madras pagoda was ten per cent. 
better than a star pagoda, which is equal to 
eight ahilliDgs. 

These were prices of stones free from speck, 
flaw or crack. The cut stones are valued in 
a different way. It is often the interest of 
the dealer to cut large stones into a number 
of smaller ones. 

At the time of Dr Heyne's visit many places 
in the neighbourhood were considered as very 
promising. They pointed out one place at 
Condapettah, close to the spot in which they 
were working, and another very extensive one 
near Carrapully. From this last spot they 
entertained great expectations, as the diamond 
bed in it is about six feet in thickness, the 
smaller pebbles in greatei abundance, and the 
soil of a redder colour than anywhere else in 
the neighbourhood. The land belonged to a 
pagoda or a brahmin ; and they say it is worth 
more than seventeen rupees a year. The pro- 
prietor ofiered to give it up for eighty pagodas 
ready money, but Colonel Munro had refused 
permission to work it. This circumstance 
will show that the country is by no means 
exhausted, and th&t abundance of diamonds 
might be procured should an increased demand 
for them arise. From the renter he under- 
stood that the usual profits on working a 
mine are reckoned at 6000 pagodas on an 
expenditure of 2000 ; and in his opinion, it 
cannot be leas, the undertaking being consider- 
ed as a lottery, in which there are blanks as 
well as prizes. He adds that the different 
places in which the diamond has been hitherto 
foand consist either in alluvial soil or in rocks 
of the latest formation, and containing such a 
great proportion of rounded pebbles as to 
have rather the appearance of a conglomerate 
than any other species of stone. The diamonds 


are not scattered through the whole of the beds 
from the surface iu tlie diamoud mines to tlie 
greatest depth hitherto dug ; but confined to h 
single bed, always harder than the rest of the 
accompanying beds, and usually not exceeding 
a foot or two in thickness. The structure of 
all the places in which diamonds occur are 
similar, and the following is an account of the 
beds found in the mines at Cuddapah. 

The uppermost, or superficial stratum, 
consists of sand or gravel, mixed with a small 
proportion of loam. Its thickness scarcely 
exceeds a foot and a half. Immediately 
under it is a bed of stiff bluish or black mud, 
similar to what is seen in places that have 
been inundated. It is about four feet thick, 
and contains no stones. The diamond bed 
comes next, and is easily distinguished from 
the incumbent bed, by the great number of 
large rounded stones which it contains. It is 
about two, or two and a half feet thick, and is 
composed of large round stones, pebbles, and 
gravel, cemented together by clay, in the dry 
seasons, it is as dry as the bed which lies 
immediately above. 

In the EUore district, the diamond stratum 
is covered by thick strata of calcareous tuff. 
There was pointed out to Dr. Heyue a variety 
of small stones in the heaps that were thrown 
away, which he was assured always indi- 
cated the presence of diamonds wherever 
they occur in beds, at some depth under 
ground. These stones were called the 
Telia bendu (in Telugu) pebbles of a white, 
earthy or chalk-like colour, rounded, the 
nucleus of which has a bluish brown or grey 
colour, while the outside is decomposed into 
a white pipe-clay. Sometimes they consist of 
jasper, coated in the same way : and sometimes 
they are species of felspar. The white decom- 
posed crust of pipe*clay seems to be the grand 
characteristic. It was pointed out to him 
before, in other diamond mines, though not 
so forcibly. 

In the northern diamond mines, particulai-ly 
those of Partel, he found in the diamond bed a 
great number of fine calcedony and cornelian 
pebbles and garnets. The larger stones foinn 
the greatest part of the diamond bed. 

The mode of working a diamond mine in 
the Cuddapah district was in Dr. Heyne's time 
as follows : After all the superincumbent beds, 
and the large'stones in the diamond bed, are re- 
moved out of the mine, the small gravel and 
the other constituents of the bed are earned 
to a small distance, and put into a cistern about 
eight feet square and three deep. In tliis situ- 
ation water is poured upon it, which separates 
the lighter loamy particles. The gravel and 
small stones, which sink to the bottom are 
then thrown into a heap close to the cistern, 






len to twenty feet in a very iniall extent of 

Id the search, the mass containing the 

sopposed diamonds is carefully cleared from 

the porrioDs of the roof and floor of the 

miiie that may be adhering to it, it is then 

carried to another spot of the ground, where 

it is broken in pieces and gradually reduced 

by means of iron instruments to the size of 

▼ery sssali grave]. It is evident that many 

diancNKls mast l^e broken by this mode of 

proceedipg ; indeed it is rather surprising that 

so nany are procared in this way in regular 

etyilals : the process followed for separating 

the diamonds from the rubbish is almost the 

sime aa tbat observed in other places. The 

portion wanted for immediate use is wetted, 

ipiead thinly upon a piece of ground about 

twenty fernt square, over which the workmen 

p> several times on their hands and knees, 

BOtlosinfi^ or neglecting a fragment of diamond 

worth a penny : the moistening of the gravel 

kieqnisite to render the diamond conspicuous. 

The moat common figures which Hcyne had 

leen the diamond assume were the double 

pyramid, the dodecahedron, and the lens. 

There are more places in this vicinity where 

diimonds are found either in a stony bed or 

in loose gravel. Some of these are worked 

tr have been worked in former times. The 

lativea do not scruple to assign periods of 

thousanda of years since the commencement 

of some of these workings. At present it is 

ensloo^ary with these miners to go to the 

Kbdina, in the hot season, when the waters 

m lowest, and to spend the rest of the year 

in these mountain mines. 

The diamonds of these places are bought 
op by merchants who carry them to Madras, 
or to other places, where they are chiefly used 
in eotting those of a larger size. The large 
eiystals would, he thought, answer the 
Emtipean market, and might be cut into 
brilliants. For a carat containing five or six 
diamonds of the finest water, they a^rked seven 
mpeea. He remarks that all the diamond 
minea which he had seen can be considered as 
in nothing else than alluvial soil. Nur is it 
amy to form an accurate notion of the kind of 
rock from which the pebbles const ituing that 
•oil originated. Among them are stones belong- 
ing to primitive rocks, and others which are 
paenliar to the newest floetz trap. The strong 
bed at Banaganapilly has some faint resem- 
blance to amygdaloid ; but the exact similarity 
of its constituents to the other loose beds in 
which diamonds occur,renders it impossible for 
■i to oonsider it as a true amygdaloid. And 
C^itun Newbold, writing twenty years after- 
wards, adds that the Banaganapilly diamond 
minei are ritnated in and near a low range of 


hills, about -^ a mile from the town. The 
mati'ix of the diamond agreeably to the state- 
ments of Di*s. Heyne and Voysey, regarding 
diamonds produced in the South of India, is the 
sandstone breccia of the clayslate formation. 
This Newbold found also to hold good with re- 
gard to the alluvium found at the base of the 
Cuddapah hills washed by the Pennar, on a 
visit to the diamond mines near Chinnoor 
and Condapettah, in the Cuddapah divi- 
sion. The process of mining is simply dig- 
ging out the gravel, breaking up the larger 
pieces of the breccia, washing and sifting the 
fragments, and spreading them out on the 
ground, where the diamonds are easily detect- 
ed by the practised eye of the native. He ob- 
served that many of the old heaps of rubbish 
had been recently sifted and re-examined ; 
not, he was told, from the opinion that the 
diamond is always growing, cor that the 
chips and small pieces rejected by former 
searchers, actually increase in size and in 
process of time become large diamonds, as 
has been 8up{>osed by some ; but from sheer 
laziness to dig fresh pits, and from its being 
found that stones of an inferior size and water 
have frequently eluded the search of former 
miners. He did not learn that any stones of 
a greater value than 3 or 400 rupees have ever 
been discovered here ; the specimens shown 
him by the diamond merchants on the spot 
were certainly extremely ]K)or, but from the 
shortness of his stay, and the duplicity and 
secrecy maintained hy natives in matters of 
this sort, he considered that it would be 
wrong perhaps to decide that better means 
employed in these diamond districts would 
not prr)tluce better results, than has hitherto 
been the ease. 

Besides Banaganapilly, the diamond is 
found, according to Hamilton, atLamdoorand 
Pinclu?tfrapndoor,Iii the tnliik next to Chinnoor. 
It is a If found at Moonimuddagoo, in the 
taluk of Punchapaulnm ; at Ovalumpilly and 
Condapettah in the Chinnoor taluk — at Bamul 
cottah in the Kurnool tcrntory, and formerly 
at Wudjrakaroor in the Ghooty division. The 
Ramulcottah mines are the most celebrated. 
These places partly furnished the diamonds, 
for which Golconda has been so greatly 

General Cullen says the sandstone of the 
Western and Southern chains, is of the more 
recent origin . Its character varies in different 
places from that of a coai'se conglomerate to 
a fine grained sandstone, cemented generally 
by an iron shot clay. It is in strata of this 
kind that the diamonds at Banaganapilly are 
found, and from the similarity of structure in 
all these Western ranges, it would seem natu- 
ral to look upon them as the source from 

D 83 



bj Lewis Berquen, a citizen of Bruges. The 
art is still retained in that neighbourhood, 
an extensive cutting and polishing establish- 
ment exiating in Amsterdam, said to be the 
only great workshop in Europe and the work- 
men in which, were mentioned to be all of 
Jewish descent. 

Hartkem Cirears. — Dr. Heyne, in his 
Tracts, remarks that, Mallavellj, a village 
nxteen miles west-south-west of Ellore, 
is one of seven villages near which dia- 
mond mines exist. The names of the other 
six villages in which diamonds are found, 
are Gani Partala or Partal, Atkur, Bur- 
thenjpada, Pertalla, Wustapillj, and Ko- 
davettj Kallu. Thej all belonged formerly 
to a powerful zemindar, called Appa Rao. 
But since the beginning of the 18th century, 
the Nizam has taken them under his own 
management. The histoiy, or rather the 
tradition as to their discovery, is that about a 
century ago, some mountaineers found at the 
foot of a hill, after a shower of rain, some 
large stones which proved to be diamonds of 
inestimable value. Appa Rao becoming ac- 
quainted with this discoveiy, immediately set 
people to work upon the hill, who found a 
prodigious number of very large diamonds. 
The news of this acquisition soon reached the 
Nizam, who despatched his peons and took 
possession of the villages. Since that time 
persons authorised by him are alone entitled 
to search here for diamonds. The tradition 
is that as soon as Appa Rao was obliged to 
give up his mines, large stones censed to be 
found, and that the size of the diamonds ex- 
tracted from the earth never exceeded that of 
a horse fcnm or chick pea, though before that 
period they were as large as common flints. 

Another titiditional account of the discovery 
of the diamond mine at Eodavetty Kallu, one 
of these seven villages, is as follows : A shep- 
herd one day found near a ravine in the 
neighbourhood, some stones which appeared 
to him serviceable flints. He picked up 
several, and used them accordingly. Some- 
time after, the poor fellow, while at the resi- 
dence of Appa Rao, took in an unlucky 
moment one of these stones out of his pocket, 
and employed it to strike a light to kindle his 
tobacco. The stone was observed by one of 
the rajah's lambadies, who knowing its value, 
made inquiry how it had come into the pos- 
session of the shepherd. The good man 
heedlessly related all that he knew. He was 
conducted to the rajah, who easily prevailed 
upon him to point out this unknown residence 
of Stri Latchmi, the goddess of riches. The 
rsjah was on this occasion so condescending 
IS to go himself to the spot, and was not a 
little surprised at the riches which the god- 


dess had reserved for him. Penetrated with 
grateful sentiments to the invisible harbinger 
of his good fortune, and to the genius of the 
place, he immediately ordered an offering to 
be brought, which for more than one reason, 
consisted of the head and blood of the poor 
shepherd. His wife and children being found, 
upon examination, entirely ignorant of the 
discovery, weie spared, and taken care of by 
the rajah as long as the mines belonged to 
him. Bullock loads of diamonds were found, 
it is said, near that nullah, uutil at length the 
Nizam, being apprized of the discovery, 
claimed the ground as his own, and deprived 
the zemindar of it for ever. But he had 
been so industrious, during the short time 
that the mines were in his possession, that all 
the large gems were removed, and the Nizam 
was able to obtain only small diamonds of 
comparatively inconsiderable value. These 
tales may be taken to indicate that the same 
site in that neighbourhood, did yield large 
diamonds and has probably not been exhausted 
but forgotten. Dr. Benza remarks that, in a 
forsaken working, one of the villages in the 
neighbourhood was built over a spot which he 
considered likely to yield a further supply. 

Mallavelly is a village 6 miles North of 
Appurapet, and North of the Kistnah at 
Bezwarah. At Mallavelly the hollow flat, 
where the diamond pits are excavated, was 
a low swampy plain. Being surrounded by 
a bank, or rising of the soil in a circular 
manner, it has the appearance of having 
been once a lake. The banks are foimed 
of the red ferrugineous sandy soil, prevail- 
ing all round this place ; through this plain 
no river or rivulet flows, and the pools 
in its lower part dry up about the month of 
March ; and it is then the time when the 
excavations may be commenced, and not 
before. The few hills he could see near this 
place were those to the north, not above two 
or three hundred feet above the plain, and 
covered with underwood, interspread with 
large trees. Some miles beyond these hil- 
locks runs another range of hills, loftier than 
the nearest ones, having, however, the same 
direction. The diamond pits are in general 
excavated at the north end of the bank that 
surrounds the hollow. Judging from some 
which were dry, the deepest could not be 
more than 1 2 feet ; and whatever their depth 
was, they never came to a hard mass of rock. 
The strata penetrated during the search are 
— first, a grey clayey vegetable mould, about 
a foot or two thick ; below this, an alluvium, 
composed of the following pebbles (not in- 
cluding the diamonds) which have evidently 
undergone attrition, their angles having been 
worn ofl" : sandstone similar to the one already 

D 85 


which he calls, Tuffkceous for want of a better 
name containing imbedded iu it, roqnded and 
angular massefl of all these rocks. All these 
varj so mach in their composition, and pass 
into each other by such insensible gradations, 
u well as abrupt transition, as to defy ar- 
rangement and render a particular <iescription 
Dselest. The only rock of this foimation in 
which the diamond is found is the sandstone 
breccia, bat he had then only visited the rock 
minei of Banaganapilly, a Tillage situated 
about twelve miles west of the town of 
Nandiala. The breccia is here found under 
a compact sandstone rock, differing in no 
reject from that which is found iu other 
parts of the main range. It is composed of a 
biaatifnl mixture of red and yellow jasper, 
quarts, chalcedony and homstone of vai-ious 
cobura^ cemented together by a quartz paste. 
It paroea into a pudding-stone composed of 
roonded pebbles of quartz homstone, &c. 
The miners were then content to sift and 
examine the old rubbish of the mines, and 
they are the more bent on doing this, from an 
0|Hnion which prevails among them, and which 
is also conunon to the searchers for diamonds 
in Hindooatan and to those on the banks of the 
Kistnah, at Parteala, Malavelly, &c., viz., that 
the diamond is always growing, and that the 
chips and small pieces rejected by former 
aeuchersy actually increase in size, and iu 
process of time become large diamonds. The 
Sandstone breccia is frequently seen in all 


dynasty took their title. They were once 
very numerous, about twenty in number ; and 
Gani Parteala situated about three miles from 
the left bank of the Kistnah, was the most 
famous. They were then, with the exception 
of two or three, quite deserted, and the names 
of several of those mentioned by Tavemier 
are forgotten. In none have fresh excavations 
been dug for many years ; although much 
ground remains unopened, and many spots 
might be pointed out for new and productive 

Godavery, — Diamonds are found in the bed 
of the Godavery near Budrachellum. The 
nullahs and small rivers which run into it 
near that place, have their origin in a rock 
formation exactly similar with those above 
described. Yoysey thought it very probable 
that the diamond mines of Sumbulpoor, men- 
tioned by Ptolemy, of Pannah, and even of 
Bijapur, other diamond sites of India, are 
situated near similar rocks. Thara and Tora 
are two diamond washing tribes possessing 
sixteen jaghire villages at Sumbulpoor. They 
are supposed to be of African origin. — Em" 
manuel, p. 4. 

The district of the diamond mines of 
Golcondah, was ceded to the ^izam by 
the British under a special treaty and is 
enclosed by British ten*itory. Purtial is about 
50 miles from Masulipatam, but the mines 
are almost exhausted, the diamonds of small 
size and the searchers do not earn four or 

paru of the Nalla Malla mountains at various five rupees a month. 

depths from the surface. In one instance he 
observed it at a depth of 60 feet, the upper 
itrala, being Sandstone, Clayslate and 8laty 
limestone. The stratification of the whole 
fiioe of the rock was there remarkably distinct, 
and traceable through a semi-circular area 
of 400 yards diameter. The stratum of 
breoeia is two feet in thicknesp, and imme- 
diately above it lies a stratum of Pudding- 
itooe composed of Quartz and llornstone 
pebbles, cemented by calcareous clay and 
grains of sand. He thought it likely that 
this stratum would be found productive in 
diamonds, and he had no doubt, that those 
found at present in the bed of the Kistnah, 
had been washed down from these their native 
beds during the rainy season. In the alluvial 
toil of the plains at the base of this range of 
mountains, and particularly on or near the 
banks of the rivers Kistnah, and Pennar, are 
situated the mines which have produced the 
largest diamonds in tibe world. Among them 
are the fiunous mines of Golcondah, so called 
from their being situated in the dominions of 
the flovereigns of Golcondah^ although they 
are far distant from the hill fori of that name, 
—from wliich Uie province and Kut'b Shahi 


Diamond formation, — From the vast ex- 
tent of the rock in which diamonds are found 
in India, it may, says Dr. Voysey, be assumed, 
that there are scarcely any limits to the search 
for them. Even at Gana Parteala, however, 
the search was confined to the rubbish of the 
old mines at Atcur, Chinlapalli, Barthenypad 
and at Oustapalli, all situated within two or 
three miles of each other. The plain in 
which these villages are situated is bounded 
on all sides by granitic rocks, which also 
form its basis. The average depth of the 
alluvial soil is about twenty feet. Its upper 
portion is composed of that peculiar black 
earth which is called by Europeans, regur 
or " black cotton soil," and is identical 
with that found on the banks of the Kist- 
nah in other parts of its course ; on the 
banks of the Godavery of the Maujera ; 
Paen-Gunga and in the plain of Nandiala, 
ai'ising from the decomposition of the basaltic- 
trap rocks, in which all these rivers or their 
tributary streams take their rise. Beneath 
this upper stratum, it is mixed with masses 
and rounded pebbles of sandstone, quartz 
rock, jasper, fiinty slate, granite and large 
amorphous masses of a calcareous conglo- 

D 87 





Number of 


higher strata. The diamonds of Borneo are from South Africa, durin*; the yoars 1869 

•mall, but of a brilliant water : they have ,and 1870 were as under : 

been hitherto chiefly found in districts 

oecapied bj the Chinese, but will probably be , 

discorered in other localities. The equitorial 

podiioQ of Borneo and the character of its 

allaTial detritus afford a strong presumption 

that it IB a country rich in gems. There is a 

tm^tion that a great diamond is in the 

poneauoa of a petty chief, and that it is worth 

by weight ^70,000. Mr. St John heard of 

this wonderful diamond and was gravely 

infonDed that the prince who owned it would 

gladJj bestow it on him if he would kill for 

him a riTal chief and assist in a projected war. 

Mr. Crawford says, tlie diamond in Malay 

and Javanese is called intan, and sometimes 

Inunala. The Diamond has been found in no 

part of the Aaiatic Archipelago except Borneo, 

and even in that island only in a comparatively 

mail part of it, a portion of its western coast. 

The principfd diamond mines aro in the dis- 
trict of Landak, in the territory of Pon- 

tiyuak, in the longitude of 109* east, about 

forty miles north of the equator, and they 

oeenr from thence as far as fianjarmasiu, 

in each latitude between three and four 

degrees and longitude between 1 14* and 115* 

ttmU The mines are worked by the wild 

Dayaks and the Malays, but with far supe- j range in Kirizalpota which rises in abrupt 

rior skill by the Chinese. The gems are precipices to 8,000 feet above the plains. 

To these must bo added the Star of South 
Africa, and some others sent by private 
means to Europe, valued at £15,000. 

A large number of the Ca()e diamonds in 
Loudon at the beginning of 1871, were of an 
inferior description, and none of tbem were 
deemed equal to the old Golconda gems. — 
{London Athemeum, 1 8th February 1871.) 

Ceylon. — Diamonds do not seem to be 
found in Ceylon, but in the southern part 
of the island is an extensive group of moun- 
tains rising to the height of 7,000 or 8,000 
feet, which successive falls diminish till they 
rest on the alluvial plains of tlie low country. 
The S. W. face of this group forms a bold 
range, crowned at its western extremity by 
Adam's Peak called by the people Sri-pada 
or Holy foot, and at the eastern end of the 

found in a yellow-coloured rubble or gravel, 
which occurs at various depths, the greatest 
to which a shaft has been known to be sunk 
being between fifty and sixty feet. When a 
shaft of such a depth is sunk, six different 
■Uavial strata occur before reaching the 
diamond-yielding one, which tlie Malays call 
the Areng. These strata are, a black mould, 
a yellow sandy clay, a red clay, a blue clay, a 
blaeelay intermixed with gravel, called by tlie 
Malays "ampir" or *'near at hand," and 
lastly^a stiff yellow clay, in which the dia- 
Doods are imbedded. The largest diamond 
fimad in the Bomeon mines of late years was 
only of thirty-two carats. The prince of 
Matan, however, has long had in his posses- 
sion a rough diamond of 367 carats, but its 
genuineness has been suspected. At present 
the Datch Government are the owners of the 
diamond mines, and make advances to the 
miners, who are bound to deliver all stones at 
20 per cent, below f heir market value, which 
is equivalent to a seignorage of twenty-five 
per cent. Under this management there were 
dehvered in 1824 no more than 1,900 carats, 
ud the quantity in the two subsequent yeai*8 
was still less. 

Soutk Africa. — According to the official 
return, in the '' Standard and Mail" of the 
4th January 1871, the diamond shipments 


Ratnapoora, or city of gems, is in part of this 
range. It is about 60 miles from Colombo, 
and about 200 feet above the level of the sea. 
It is the centre of the gem producing district, 
which extends about fifty miles along the 
base of this mountain range, and in this dis- 
ti'ict, comprising Safragam and the Three- 
Korles, the search for gems is a regular occu- 
pation of the people in the beds of streams 
and in the alluvial plains lying in the valleys, 
upon their banks. The gems found in that 
locality are the sapphire, the ruby and the 
topaz ; the cat*s eye, amethyst and beryl, and 
the spinel ruby is also found but is more rare. 
They ara found in a layer of gravel fifteen 
to twenty feet deep to which they sink a pit, 
and if they meet with a thin hard crust of 
feiTuginous stones or masses of milk quartz 
such are always favourable signs. The 
oriental ruby or red variety of corundum, is 
very rare : when pure in water and colour it 
is very valuable. The blue variety of corun- 
dum is the oriental sapphire, is in greater 
abundance but of inferior value, and its 
colours greatly vary, from the deepest velvet 
blue to the [Mdest and almost imperceptible 
tint even losing all that and becoming colour- 
less, and in that form are a very beautiful 
gem — remarkable for its whiteness and the 
absence of prismatic colours. 

D 89 

p«i:&«ta of cut diunoncls far aale in Mulraa. 
Articlea of such Hnall value we doubtlets 
•ftea exported and imported witltoul pusing 
Araogfa die Caatoins Office uitl the T&lues 
Atra racordetl cwmot forni auj data oa which 
Mietj, tiw more so as the ^Dtries of values 
in te export and import biauches are merelj' 
i BOt ascertained rates. The foUowiag 


ioformatioD, however, ma; be iuteresting to 
man/, as showing the declared values of the 
precious stones and gems passing through 
the Madras Custom House. Diamonds occa- 
sionally talie the place of bullion, ai remit- 
tances, but are not found a convenient sub- 
stitute for the precious melala. — Rqfflet, HU- 
tory of Java, Vol. i, p. 236. 

ExfvU ofPrtciotu Stonet/rotm the Madras Pretidenty, for 5 Official Yeart, 

Import* of Predou* Stoues into the Madrat Territories, for 5 Official Yeart. 


Jiuneter, called • sekiff or mill, which revolves 
from 200O to 3000 times per minute. The 
dinnoDd is fixed in a ball of pewter, at the end 
of mo arm, resting upon the table in which 
tlie plate revolves ; the other end, at which 
the ball containing the diamond is fixed, is 
praned upon the wheel by iron weights at 
the discretioa of the workman. The dia- 
mond 18 cut bj taking advantage of its cleav- 
age, aod also by abrasion with its own powder, 
and faj friction with another diamond. It is 
a process of great labour, and many hours are 
spent in producing a single facet. Diamonds 
are cut into Tarious forms, called the Brilli" 
M^ the Aofc, and the Table. The first form 
shows the gem to the best advantage and is 
always set with the table upwards. In the 


value rises as the square of the weight, thus 
if a one carat (3i grains) diamond cost £ 8, 
a two carat diamond will be (2 + 2 x 8) £32. 
But there is much of fancy pricing. The 
diamond is not acted on by any acid. Dia- 
monds are weighed by the carat, 4-grains «= 1 
carat, 151^ carats or 606 grains 1 oz. troy. Dia- 
monds fi*equentiy becomes phosphorescent on 
exposure to light. They are found crystalline 
and amorphous, and of all colours, white, 
yellow, orange, red, pink, brown, green, blue 
black and opalescent. Stones with naturally 
acute angles are used for cutting glass and 
sell at £10 the carat, for most gems will 
scratch but diamonds alone cut glass. 
The diamond is found in India, in tlie Dekkan, 
in the river Pennar, in the Cuddapah district 

rose the entire surface is covered with equi- and near Banganapilly, in the lower part of 

lateral triangles terminating in a sharp point 
u the summit. This form is used when the 
ipread of surface is too great for its depth, 
aiki it could not be cut into the brilliant fonn 
without gr<*at loss. The table is applied to 
mch diamonds as may be regarded as plates, 
hmios, or slabs of small depth compared to 
their superficial extent. The brilliant and 
die rose lose in cutting and polishing some- 
vliat less thau half the weight. In the forma- 
tion of eitlier a brilliant or rose-diamond so 
much is cut away that the weight of the 
polished gem isi not more thau half that of 
the rough crystal out of which it was formed. 
The weight and consequently the value of 
diamonds are estimated in carats, each of 
whidi is equal to 3'H>6 grains. The diamond 
» used for cutting glass. It is also employed 
for the lenses of microscopes. It has but 
little chromatic aberration, but the frequent 
irregalarity of its structure is a drawliack 
to its employment for this purpose. D la- 

the Kistoah, formerly near Ellore and at 
Golcondah. The diamond lately sold to the 
emperor Louis Napoleon, for x 5,000, was 
said to have been obtained in the Pennar or 
at Banganapilly. In Tavern ier's time the 
mines of Golcondah arc said to employ 6,000 
persons, but the chief places are Pannah and 
the river Sonar in Bundelcund, at Sumbnl- 
pore on the Idahanuddy. It is also found in 
Sumatra, Australia, tlie Ural mountains, South 
Africa, Brazil, North America, Malacca ?, 
Borneo and Celebes ? 

Diamonds of Brazil aro found in quartz con- 
glomenites, containing oxides of iron, also in 
alluvium,iu loose and imbedded crystals, almost 
always of small size, aod most frequent in 
company with grains of gold and platinum. 
Ordinary diamonds are mostly taken to Europe 
from the Brazils, but on an average, of 1 0,000 
stones, there will not be one of 18 carats found. 
The diamond was considered by the 
Romans a remedy against incubos and suc- 

moods are esteemed by native jewellers : cabos : the ruby against poison : the ja- 
as the first class of jewels. The diamonds of cinth procured sleep : the sapphire procur- 
lodia are clas^sed by them as white, yellow, ! ed favour with princes, the chrysolite as- 

red, green and black ; the colored ones are 
extremely rare, but they aro occiisionally 
found of a white color spotted with red, which 
are rejected as bad. They aro classed by the 
northern native jewellers into three kinds — 
*ilira-ba-rang-i-nausadir'* grayish or the color 
of sal-ammoniac ; *Miira makdnni,'* of paler 
color; and '^almas-i-hadidi.'* The diamonds 
Been in such abundance amongst the native 

suaged wrath. EUich of the twelve apostles 
was syml>olised with a precious stone, Peter 
by jasper, John by ememld, and so on. 
— favernier's Travels : pp. 135 to 149. Sir 
S. Raffles Hist, of Java. Low's Sarawak, 
RennelVs Memoir pp. 233-290. Pennanfs 
Hindustan^Vols. ii, iii. Heyne^ s Tracts. Ten- 
nnnt on the diamond in III. London News. 
Captain Cullen. Lt. Newhold. Balrymple^s 

gentry of India are almost all cut in England, Hepository. Dr. Voysey^s Private Journal. 

and the principal gems used in India are the 
lapis lazuli, rubies, emeralds, opals, garnets, 
and the whole family of siliceous gems. 

Diamonds, in Paris, during the revolution 
of the 18ih and 19th centuries, doubled their 
value and of lato years, small stones are 

Dana Manual of Mineralogy ; Catalogue 
of Great Exhibition of \ Sol, (Class, xxiii.)— 
JSng. Cyc, /I.323. Ainslie*s Materia Medica. 
Mason^s Tenasserim. PowelVs Hand-book. 
Chambers^ Journal, June. 1 868. Tomlinson, 
p. 309. Letter of Mr. Tennant in Illustrated 

much dearer, but the prices of the rarer and : London News, ZXst January 1852, Vol. xx, 
larger 'orts continue mxvAx the sarat. The No. o48. frairfurd's Die., p, 120 




aotl 1 under Schumaeheria. With a few 
exceptions, the properties of tlie order are 
unknown. — Vbigi.f p. 17. 

DILLENIAy a genas of plants, several 
epecies of which, yielding useful and valu- 
able timber?, grow in Ceylon, in the two 
peninsulas, and in the northern provinces, of 
Indiflu Some, of which the timbers are de- 
scribed, are not yet specifically determined. 
The yonng calyces of D, scabrella and Z>. 
tpeehsa have a pleasant taste and are used in 
cnm'es by the inhabitants of Chittagong and 
Bengal. The flowers of one of this genus, 
as It occurs in the Terai, are as largo as two 

Dilienia augusta, Zin byewn, Burm. also D, 
jeaftra, Bjew, Burm. and D. speciosa. 
Thab yew, Burm, occur in Bnrmah. The two 
fint are plentiful in the forests of the Pegu 
district, hut become scarce to the north of it, 
and the third species is scarce even there, but 


scarce to the north of it Wood of a light 
brown colour occasionally used in house 
building, but mostly for firewood. Bi'eaking 
weight lbs. 1 98. A cubic foot weighs 48 lbs. 
In a full grown tree on good soil the aveittgo 
length of the trunk, to' the first branch is 20 
feet, and average girth, measured at 6 feet 
from the gi'ound, is 9 feet. It sells at 12 
annas per cubic foot. — Dr. Brandts^ Cal. Cat. 

DILLENIA DENTATA ? ? Gode para. 
Singh. Grows in the western parts of Ceylon 
where its wood is used for roofs of houses. 
A cubic foot weighs 51 lbs. andit is said to 
last 40 years. — Mr. Mendis. 

D. Indica, Linn, are syni. of D. speciosa. 


Wormia integra, H. f. et. T., I. c. p. 68, cum syn. 

Said to grow in Ceylon, but Mr. Thwaites 
suspects some error as to four species of the 
large Dilleniaceous trees growing in that island 

generally growing in a laterite soil. They 

ill three have a light brown wood and afford 

Urge and goo<l timber for house buildings. — Thw. p. 5. 

The Dillenias are not only valuable as timber j DILLENIA ORNATA, JVall. 

trees, but for ornamental purposes. In | Sp bo n 

March and April, the forests are really daz-! /.i,/.i.t..T> 

tling from the bright yellow flowers which ' Grows plentiful and of largo girth m Pegu 

arecrowded on their leafless branches. These a°^ Moulmem, and furnisher* a strong good 

trees would be worth cultivation in England. 
A species of Dilienia always found on the 
borders of streams, hence called water Dilienia 
by the Karens, produces a large green fruit, 
which is brought to the bazaar and considered 
a favorite vegetable with the natives. 

Captain Benson, says D. "ornato,'' D. 
"scabrella" and D. "speciosa, of Moulmcin 
are very plentiful and of largo girth, have 
strong good timber, useful for general pur- 
poses^ as house and ship building. Captain 
It. Benson J Deputy Assistant Commissary 
GeneraL — Drs. Ilooker. Him. Jour., p. 395 ; 

DILLENIA, Species^ Zin Pyun Nigan 
Borm. A tree of Moulmein, with a strong 
wood for any ordinary purposes. Fruit I xyet^erb^^^^BcRM. 
edible. — Cal. Cat. Ex. 1862. i Byew. Burm. 

DILLENIA, Species. Zimboon. Burm. 
A timber of Tavoy, used in building. — Capt. 

byewn. Burm. Grows in the Garrow 
hills, and is plentiful in the forests of the 
Pegu district but becomes scarce to the 
north of it. Its wood is of a light brown 
colour, and it yields a large and good timber 
for house building. — Drs. McClelland, Voigt. 

DILLENIA AUREA, Sm. Zimbyoon. 
Barm. Abundant in the plains and hills and 
on the forests of British Burmah but more 


timber, useful for general purposes in house 
and ship building. It has large gaudy yellow 
flowers. — Dr. Mason, Captain Benson. 

DILLENIA PILOSA, Roxb. Grows in 
Assam 'near Goalpara, on the banks of the 
Megnn, and furnishes a hard tough wood, 
much used for canoes. — Roxb., Vol. ii, p. 652, 


Wormia retusa, H.f. et T. \ Goda para. SiWCH. 

A moderate sized tree, growing in Ceylon, 
to on elevation of 2,000 feet, but not abund- 
ant. — Thw. p. 5. 


D. scabra, Brandit. 
Zen-Bywon. Burm. 

Ktilgul. Can. 
Kurxnul. BIahb. 

Grows in Chittagong also in Canara and 
Sunda where it is most common below the 
ghaut. Grows large, long, and straight. Its 
acid calyx leaflets used in curries. Wood 
seems to be used for boat planks in Canara, 
but it is not reckoned a choice wood in the 
Bombay Presidency. It is plentiful iu the 
Pegu province, but becomes scarce to the 
north of it, and it is, there, of large girth, 
furnishes a large good timber and is useful 
for general purposes, as house and ship build- 
ing.— Z>r*. Roxb., Vol. ii, p. 653, Gibson 
and McClelland^ Captain Benson. 

I 97 


this name are fiuniliu* to all traTellen in the 


■OQthem seasy the common albatross, the 
Diomedea ezulans of Linneus, being very 
common. D. fuliginosa of Latham is also to 
be aeen, and D. chtororynchns Lath, also met 

furnish the tropical esculents called yams. 
It is the type of the natural oi*d6r DioMCore- 
cteea. The best accouut of the species is 
that of Dr. Roxburgh, who cultivated seveu^ 
teen sorts iu the botanic garden, Calcutta ; 
Mariners distinguish them by other j others are knowu to .botanists, but far from 

namea, for instance Diomedea exulans, Linn. I perfectly though the following Eastern species 

is the wandering alhati'oss. D. spadicea, is i are generally recoguized ; 

the green-bill or Nelly of sailors. D. chloro- ' aculeata, 

rrnehus, their molly-mauz or yellow-bill, and ' acuUngula, 

D. fbligmosa, the sooty albatross. D. cauta, ; ^^^^. 

Gouidj the cautious albatross ; D. brachyura, ^^rlT u^ 

Gouid^ the short-tailed albatross ; D. cnlmi- ^-^^^^^ 

nafa, Gouid, the culminated albatross ; D. ful- 
ginosa Lath, or sooty albatross; D. melano- 
phrys, Gould is the black-browed albatross, 
and other species, D. gibbosa ; D. nign'pes ; 
D. olivaceo-rhyncha and D. spadicea. 

Diomedea exulans. — Linn. Is abundant and 
equally numerous in all parts of the ocean 
kietween 30^ and 60° S. lat., but it ranges 
much farther south, even to witliiu the An- 
tarctic circle. 

Diomedea melanophrys* — Temm. Is the 
most abundant species of the southern seas ; 
equally numerous in every part between the 
^ih and 60th degrees. 

Diomedea cauta. — Gould. This species was 
procured by Mr. Gould off the south coast of 
Vin Diemen's Land. 

Diomedea chlororhynchus. — Lath. Occui'S 
between 30" and 60° S. lat., in both the 
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 

Diomedea eulminata. — Gould. Is rather 
abnndant botli in the Pacific aiid Atlantic 
Oceus, between 30" and 60" S. lat. 
Diomedea fuliginosa. — Gmel. Occurs in all 
fans of the ocean between 30° and 60" S. lat., 
equally common off Van Diemen's Land, Cape 
Horn and the Cape of Good Hope. 

Diomedea bravki/ura. — Temm. Found in 
tbe North Pacifiic Ocean. 

Diomedea gibbosa. — Gould. Aniuhabitaut 
of the Xorth Pacific Ocean. 
Diomedea olioaceorhyncha. — Gould. China 

Mr. Gray, in his * Genera of Birds,* also 
gives D- spadicea as a species. He also 
makes D. gibbosa (Gould) synonymous with 
D. mgripes^ Audubon, * Biog.,' vol. v, p. 327, 
and adopts the latter name as having the 
priority.— jFii^. Cjyc, p. 553. See Albai- 
UxxsB ; Birds, p. 526. 
DIOMEDES. See Greeka of Asia. 
DION CASSIU8. See Polyandry. 
DIONEDULE. See Cycadaceas. 
DIONYSIDS. See Greeks of Asia. 
DIONTSUS, a name of Bacchus, said to be 
Rama son of Cush who invaded India. See 
Baechas, Hindoo, Vishnu. 
DIOSCOREA, a genus of plants which 


( dicmona, 










iTlie dioscoreayam plant is universally culti- 
vated among u\\ the tribes in the Eastern 
Archipelago, and genci-ally mo&t so where rice 
is least abundant, but it no where forms the 
chief bread of the people,, as rice, inaize, or 
sago do. The batata, indeed, and Crawfurd 
thinks justly, is prefeiTeil to it, Its Malay 
and Javanese name, rnbi or uwi, extends not 
only to the languages of the 'Malay and 
Philippine Islands, but to those of the Pacific, 
and to IVfadagascar. In the Philippine lan- 
guages the name is identical with that in 
Malay ; in the Tonga it is nfi ; in the Tahiti 
eui ; iu the New Zealand ' the Fame as in 
Javanaso, namely, iiwi ; hi the language of 
New Ireland ii, and lii t!ie 'Madagascar vwi. 
With all these varieties of pronunciation there 
can be no doubt of the virtualidontity of the 
name. It is prol>able Uiat . sevet-al species of 
dioscorea are natives of the Malayan Archi- 
pelago, but that tlie culture op'ginuted with 
one people, and was directly or indirectly dis- 
seminated by. tliem, soeins likely from the 
universality of the name. It n^aybe remarkr 
cd, that In the lauguag-e of Madagascar, a 
wild yam is called uvi-ala, which is, witjiput 
doubt, the uwi-alas — tlio wild or forest yam 
of the Javanese, with the elision of tlie Hual 
consonant, conformably, to the genius of 
Malagasi pronunciation. . The word ubi, be- 
sides being applied specifically to the yam, is 
used as a generic for farinaceous roots. Thus 
the batata, or Convolvulus batatas, is called by 
the Malays nvi-jawa, or the Javanese yam, to 
distinguish it from, iiofi^ Dioscorea*. It. is no^ 
a little remarkable- that; while so many species 
ai^ nutritious in this genus, some should be 
highly dangerous ; but such is unquestionably 
the fact. D. dcemonum and D, ttiphyiloy 
both ternate-leaved species, have very nauae- 
ous and dangerous tubers. Eatable sorts arc 
numerous. In Otaheite the D. bulbifera^ 
which bears small fleshy angular tubers along 
die stem in the axils pf the leaves, is the 
favorite species. Tho Elephant-foot-yam, 

D 101 



Ban-gkb. Bestg. 
GovndLftn. Mabb. 
VncfcaainmTtm Tam. 

taiDSy and giFes a Tery bard useful wood, 

whereas it is generally a shrub about the 

GodaTery forests. The fruit is edible. — 

Voiffi, Captain Beddome. 


Dioapyros montana, Wight i f 

Xalla ulimera. Tel. 
Kaka ulimera. ,, 
Xalla orimida. ,i 

Grows in Ceylon near Jaifua, in the pen in- 
tola of India, in Coimbatore, in the Bombay 
forests, and in Bengal. It yields a hard, 
heavjy strong wood, of a dark brown colour 
and difficnlt to work. Not uncommon in 
liie Bombay side of India, but more in ravines 
and waste places than in forests. Dr. Gibson 
had nerer seen a tree that would turn out a 
log 4 inches square. The wood is strong and 
darable.^'Drt. Wight and Gibson^ Thwaitesy 

good sized tree, glabrous, leaves oblong to 
obovato-oblong. South Canara, plains, near the 

-sola India nigrum 

Fert ebenum. 
It was highly esteemed by the ancients. 
In Ceylon it is found not uncommon up to 
an elevation of 5,000 feet, in great abun- 
dance in the north of the island, and to 
some extent in the Kandyan country. The 
great weight of the timber renders its ti'aus- 
port very costly, unless where water convey- 
ance can be obtained, which is seldom the 
case but during the rainy months, and though 
immense forests of this wood still exist in the 
island, they are, to a great extent too far from a 
port of shipment to be available. The exports 
of ebony have varied much of late years from 
16,000 to 0,000 cwts. It is said to grow in 
the Denkencottnh forest, in the Salem collec- 
torate, and, writing in 1860, from the Coim- 
batore cellctorate, Dr. Wight says of the 
Acha maram, 7am. that this name was 
copied by him from Ainslie but ''that 
he was still uncertain whether this is the 

species that yields the ebony of the Pal- 
foot of the ghats, called Kara-mara, allied to I ghaut jungles, as there is reason to believe 

D. Amottiana. — Mig. in Bedd. Ic. Plant, 

Hqtd. This tree furnishes a valuable astrin- 
gent and styptic for fi-esh wounds, also occa- 
acmally ased in intermittent fever. The fruits 
faroish a kind of a glue, used to cover the 
bottom of boats. — PawelVs H, B.y Vol. i, 
p. 359. 

very large tree of the Central Province of 
Cejlon, branches glabrous, leaves glabrous, 
oblong, abruptly and obtusely acuminate ; 
growing at an elevation of 2,000 to 4,000 
^^i.^Tkwaite8' En. PL Zeyl, Vol. iii, p. 
179 ; Btdd, Ic. See D. qusesita, D. oocarpa. 

of Diosp3rro8 mabola, Roxb. 

of Diospyros ebenum, Linn. 

WAc.,y^. 188. 

DkMpjrosebenaaier, J2e^ | D. hebenaster, Jiumpk. 

AbMwa. Am. Pkrs. i EbenviB. Lat. 

£a1 oowara gaaa. Suf GU. 


Kute nutra. Can. 
Ebonr. EsuO' 
Slasholx. Geb. 
Efinot. Ob. 

Ihbsium. Heb. 
Abnoot, the Ebony. Hnro 
Teadv, Tendu* the white 
vood. HlJTD. 

Kal woora gasa. 
Kadu beriya? 
Tai maram. Tam. 
Tumbi maram „ 
Tuki. Til. 
Kendhoo. Ukia. 



This great tree, in Ceylon, yields the best 
kijDd of Ebony wood. In Ex. zxvii, 15, 
it is mentioned as brought with ivory by 
the men of Dedan and seems to have been 
then brought both from Ethiopia and India, 
though Virgil appears to have been unaware of 
this, for he says, (Greorg ii, 1 15), 


more than one species contributes wood black 
enough to pass current for ebony. The plant 
produced to him, under that Tamool name, 
was Bauhina tomentosa, a widely different 
tree but having a very dark or black-heart 
wood." Dr. Gibson says that D. ebenum, is 
found near Oopenputam in Canara ; also below 
the Wool wee Ghaut. Ebony, from this tree, of 
very superior quality is procurable in Madras 
districts as well as in the Northern Cir- 
cars, where Mr. Rohde received 16 inch 
planks of a fine uniform black. In Nag- 
pore, this tree, which yields a very fine ebony, 
has very little of the black wood, when young: 
as it advances in age the black wood in- 
creases, and eventually nothing but black wood 
is found. From the ease with which the 
white wood bends, natives employ it in the 
manufacture of buggies, carriages, &c., &c., 
but, as it soon loses its essential oil, the un- 
seasoned timber is preferred for such purposce. 
White ants attack the whitewood readily, and 
it is nearly always beetle bored. In strength 
it excels teak, yet from the above circum- 
stances, as well as from the fact that it is 
very seldom obtainable of more than 6 inches 
square, he rejected it as a building material. 
It grows in the Dekhan and in the Kotah 
jungles of Ajmeer. Ebony is much afiected 
by the weather, on which account European 
cabinet makers seldom use it except in veneer, 
and its use is restricted to delicate and costly 
cabinet work. The Atcha maram, which 
yields one of the ebonies of Madras, is the 
Bauhinia tomentosa, D. ebenum ; D. ex- 
sculpta, D. Wightiana, and D. embryopteris 
are valuable timber trees in Southern India, 

D 105 


of 2»000 feet, also in the denee forests of 
the AnamaiUj's ; young bi^anches slightly 
pUose.— Tkw. En. Pt. Zeyl., p. 180. 


D. Chineniia, BL | Embryopteroi kftki, G, Don. 

Tay, Tm, Burm. Keg fig of Japan. 

Tce-Tce ; Tay-tee. „ Chinese fig, 
fTiinew rletn. Ftn ,, pertimon. 

Date pUun of China. 

A tree of Nepal, Burmab, Cochin-China, 
mnd celebrated in China and Japan : specimens 
introduced into tlte Bonnie Garden ofCalcutta 
were fouad to be ideudcai witli others from 
l<bepa'jL The fruit is described by Dr. Box- 
burgh as being tolerably pleasant, is esteemed 
in Jmp«n and China, where it attains the size of 
anomuge, and is frequently sent to Europe in 
a dried state. The tree is occasionally culti- 
rated by the Burmese, but it bears fruit very 


Often called '* Mangosteen" under which 
name it is cultivated extensively in gardeus 
at Vizagapatam. It is a small tree, native of 
the Philippine Islands, wood black, very com- 
pact. The finiit, called Mabola^ is brown, 
with a pink-colored, flesliy rind, about the 
size of a quince ; its flavour is said to be 
agreeable.— G. Don's Mill. JJici., Vol. 4, 
p. 40 ; Madras Ex. Jar. Reports. 


Abnni, Abab. Ferii. 
Kendu, Kiu, Beko. 
Ouk*chin-ya, Burm. 
Balai? Can. 

CoromandelEbony tree,RNO. 
Ebony tree, 
Godavery ebony, 
Tendu, UlND. 

Lignum nigrum, non varie- 
gatum, Lat. 



Tumbai maram (ebony.) 

Tumbali maram, Tam. 
Tumtiia chettu, Tel. 
Tunki chettn, 
Tuniki chettu. 



t * 



D, nielanoxylon^ is described and figured by 
iparingiy, and is by uo means equal to a good , Rumph, iii, ' Corom. Planti*,' 1 to 46, by Dr. 
apple. — Mason, Eng. Cyc. \ Roxburgh, aud is the Ebony-Tree of the Coro- 

DIOSPYROS LAJsCEOLATA. See i mandel coast. It is fouud on the mountaius 
Diospyros ebenus. I of that coast as well as on those of Mulabai* and 

DIOSPYROS LOTUS. Amlok or Malok. Ceylon. It grows to be veiy large, particu- 
HiND^ is common in Kaghan and in the hills larly the male tree of which the wood is also 
and gardens of Mnrree and Hazara. In parts most esteemed. The leaves, which are sub- 
ofHazamthemaleplantiscalled ^'gwalidar," opposite, oval, oblong, obtuse, aud villous, 
and the female ''amlok." Timber good, but are deciduous in the cold season, the new 

the tree is only available in Haz^ra, where 

it is known and valued chiefly for its fruit, 

which is purple in color, and about the size 

of a pigeon's egg : it is eaten either fresh or 

dried. The tree is not uncommon in the 

western part of the Jhelum ba2>in from 2,500 

to 6,000 feet, and appeara to be common in 

Mine part of the northern Trans-Indus hills ; 

tad one or two specimens were grown at 

Ptthawar. It is a handsome little tree, grow- 

isg generally to 3 or 4 feet io girth, the 

largest seen being one of 6 feet girth and 85 

feet high at Jared in Kh^gan, and another 

aboat the same size on the Kishengauga. 

Tilers are three trees (probably introduced by 

fiikim) at Juggatsukh (6,000 feet) in Kullu, 

and there called Bissaliripala, the largest of 

which is a remarkably fine tree of 12 feet 

girth. Griffith remarks that the fruit is '' not 

ones appearing with the flowers in April and 
May; as in otlier bpecieti, it is only the centre 
of the large trees that is black and valu- 
able, and this varies in quantity according to 
the age of the tree. The outside wood, which 
is white aud soft, time aud insects soon des- 
troy, leaving the black untouched. Iho ripe 
fruit is eaten by the natives, though rather 
astringent, as is also the burk. 

It grows in Coimbatore, north Canara, in 
Malabar and Orissa, is the Toonkee of the 
Godavery aud the Tookee of the Circars, and 
in Pegu it is found very plentifully through- 
out the forests, seldom, however, of greater 
girth than three or four feet. Ii is a very large 
tree, in Coimbatore, the outer wood being 
white like that of other species of Diospyros, 
and the inner black, very hard, heavy, and 
susceptible of a high polish. It is seldom 

worthy of any notice,'* but when fresh or obtained of great pize. Its white wood is 
even carefully dried, it is sweet and pleasant | used ibr common purposes. Dr. Gibson 
enough, and the Affghane, &c., prize it, '■ says that ho has not seen the t^ee in any 
large quantities being brought to the Pebh- of the Bombay forests, but that it is found 
awar bazar from Sw&t, &c. Bel lew men- ; sparingly in those of North Canara, as 
tions that it is eaten plain or with rice, or is below the Woolwa Ghat, and near Meer- 
osed in sharbats. It has the appearance of a jan inland. It occurs plentifully, in the 
dried cherry, but darker in color. Irvine i Southern forests of Pegu, from fifteen to 
states that, in the Panjab, spirits are distilled eighteen inches in diameter and fifty to 
from the fiiiit. See Diospyros melauoxylon. seventy feet in length and might afford spars 
-^Drs. J. L. Stewart^ Cleghom. for naval purjKwes. The authority for the 

DIOSPYBOS MABOLA, Roxb. '• last point is Dr. McClellaud's Report, but 

Dio-pjni. d«color, WiUd. I Cavamillea Philip- I>r. Brand is does not montioi. this as a Pegu 
&3^pterifldiacilop,t?.2>em. | penais, Dfirouu. ' tree. The fruit is called loombec pullum, 

107 1> l^>7 



•SPYROS STRICTA, Eoxb. A j DIPAWALI, Dipali or Diwali, a hindoo 

Tipperah. — Voigt. festival in honour of the hindoo god Kai*- 

SPYROS SYLYATICA, Roxb., PI takeja, held on the new moon of the month 

p. 38 to 47. Kartik in September or October, when lamps 

are lighted by every one, after a little oil 
is put on the head to commemorate the kill- 
ing of Narakasura by Krishua. — fViUon. 

DIPA MALA, a Sikh festival means a 
garland of lights : a pillar in front of a 
temple, on which lights are put : Dipara 
dhaua or Dipdau is the lamp sacrifice to an 
idol. In the Dipdan a lighted lamp is sus- 
pended from a tree for ten days after the 
death of a relative to light the spint on its 
way to Yamapuri the city of Yama, the judge 
of the dead. Also a lighted lamp is sent 
floating on the Ganges and its duration is 
watched, as indication of a good or evil future. 
The Dipmal pedestal is an essential part of 
every large hindoo temple. It is often of 
great height and furnished with niches or 
brackets, each of which holds a lamp on 
festivals, especially on that of the Dewali, 
the feast of lamps celebrated in the autumn 
in honour of the hindoo goddess, Bahwani 
or Kali. — Wii$on 

DIPANGA, a district of Bawean whoee 
people employ the Javanese language. 

tree of Japan. 

DIPLOPELMA, a genus of reptiles of the 
Section Bufonia, and Fam. Bhinodermatide. 

Gen Diplopelma onmtum, D. 4s B. Goalpwa. 
„ „ pulchrum, Gunth. Aracan. 

„ Engysioma Berdmorei, Blyth, Pegu. 
Fam. Bufonidffi. 

Bufo melanostictus 8ehn. Ceylon, MerguL 
,, Kelaarti, Cfunth, Ceylon. 
„ asper, Sckl. MerguL 
Scutiger SikkimmeDBiB, Blyth, Sikkixn. 
DIPS OR DIBS, JSgf/pt. Honey of sugar : 

DIPSADID^ a family of reptiles, com- 
prising the genua Dipsas. 

Dipsas cynodon, C. A V. Thayetmyo, TenaaBerim. 
trigonata, Schn. Subathoo, JesMre. 
f orate niy D. d- B. Bengal 
nigro-marginata, Blyth. 
bubalina, Klein. 

Kadoombaireya- I Tella-goda Telugu. 

iddling-sized tree, common in the Pe- 
i in many of the Western Coast forests 
iboat 3,000 feet, also in the foi*ests of 
orthein Division and in Ceylon, in the 
Quests in the Hantani district and near 
loora, a p to an elevation of 4,000 feet. — 
^m. PI Zeyl., Vol. iii, p. 1 78. 

tg-sized tree, branchlets, young leaves 
florescence rufo-tomentose grows in 
, at no great elevation ; allied to, but 
iatinct from D. candolliana of Wight. 
I le. Plant. 

D. lotus, Linn, 

CiiL Bavo. Kendu. Pakjab. 

Hdtd. Kaka taoduka. Savs. 

mdn. „ Chitta tuxxuki Tel. 

tall elegant tree grows in the northern 

Bengal, in the Panjab, in Kullu and 

f and ia common in the Sewalik tract, 

rd near to the Ravi and extending to 

srre jungle. It attains full size in 60 

Length of trunk to first branch 8 or 

and girth 4 feet. The wood of young 

white, but that of old trees is black, 

ermed ** abnus f sap-wood soft : when 

irt-wood, becomes black, it is fine, 

dy hard and black, but somewhat 

ind is used by zemindars for ploughs, 

the wood- work of their houses. It 

well, and insects are said not to touch 

•nd near the Rohilkund Siwalik tract 

ae work-boxes, &c , are made from 

m1 ; combs are made from it in the 

district ; in Kangra, &c., it is used 

ighs, in house-building and for small 

The fruit, which is said to ripen in 

ith the mango, is eaten, being sweetish 

ingent, and not unpleasant. Raspings 

rood called Burad-i-abnus are officinal, 

ven as an alteiiiative. — Ta-CoI. Lake^ 

eg horn J Kullu and Kangra^ Dr. J. 



«mo«u Roxb. PL Ind. II. p, 536 ; U*. Ic. 
Embryopteris racemosa, O. Don. 

Ja. Singh. I Tovaray. Tam, 

ddling-sized tree of Ceylon, of the 
lly hills, and of Silhet, t^labrou-<, leaves 
us, not uncommon in damp forests, 
1 elevation of 4,000 feet.— J/*ir. /;/*. 
f.. Fa/., iii, p. 179. 
L, Sans, a lamp. 
















muHimaculata, Schl. Hongkong, 
multifasciata, Blyth. Subathoo. 
hexagonotua, Blyth. Andamans. 
boops, Gunth. Bengal, Borneo, 
dendrophila, Beinw. Penang. 
gokool. Gray. Bengal, Penang. 
Ceylonenais, Gunth. Ceylon. See Dipsan. 


DIPSACEjE. See Scabiosa elogans. 

DirSACUS FULLONUM, Teasle, or 
Fuller's Thistle, is, acrording to Royle, the 
Durisakoog of the Indian Materia Medica. — 
G* Shaft ghvessy, p. 404. 

D ' 109 



for it in Karope b€»rome8 Wfter known to 
them, thev will doubtleftH increase tlior mnnn- 
fineUire of it. In England it lia8 proved to 
he the l>e8t lubricating Kubstance for g'tcatn 
machinery, far 9urpai«in^ ev<Mi olive oil ; and 
it has been u^ed in Manilla in the niann- 
factare of candles, and found 10 answer nd- 
mirabW. As it becomes more common, it 
urill donbtlers be applied to many other pur- 
poK8. From the quickness of its growth, 
and the great profusion with which it bears 
its fmit, it will, should the demand for it 
coDtinue, become a profitable object for culti- 
TBtioo, by which the quality and quantity 
woold mo8t likely be improved and increased. 
It is also found io Java and Sumatra, and 
a aimilmr substance has been lately sent 
from China. In Borneo the oil is called by 
the natives indifferently ' miniak mencabang,' 
or * miniak tankawan.' — fVighty Voigt, p. 
124; Crawfurd Dictionary, p. 118; Lowers 
Sarawak^ London Ex. 1862. 

DIPTEROCARPUS, a genus of enormous 

trees with erect trunks, gi-owing in Ceylon, 

Aaaam, Tipperah, Burmah, Pegu and Tenas- 

aerim where D. turbinatus, Roxb, ; D. costa- 

tos, Gierin. ; D. incanus, Roxb ; D. alatus, 

Rutb, and D. trinervis, Blume, are known to 

oerar. They abound with resinous juices, 

edled wood oils, which dissolve caoutchouc, 

md hare medicinal properties similar to 

Copaiba. D. Ittvis, D. turbinatus and " han- 

yee-aee" D. alatas ? are all nearly identical 

and are useful for planking when not exposed 

to wet» extensively used in the Straits for 

this purpose in house-building. They are 

ugDificent forest trees growing straight to 

the height of 260 feet and more ; an incision 

in the form of a cup is cut into the lower part 

of the tmnk of the tree, which acting as a 

Bahtnl reservoir, collects the oil as it descends. 

-Voigt, McClelland. 

DIPTEROCARPUS, Species, Doon, 
Sni6H« Grows in the central province of 
Ceyloo, where its timber is used in honse- 
boUdiogs. A cubic foot weighs 29 fts., and 
it lasts 50 years.^ — Mr. Mend is, 

DIPTEROCARPUS, Species, Kaung- 
nhoo, BuRX. A tree of British Burmah, of 
to immense size used for canoes. In a full 
grown tree on good soil the average length of 
the trunk to the first branch is 100 feet and 
average girth measured at 6 feet from the 
ground is 12 feet. It sells at 8 annas pei 
cubic foot. — Dr, Brandis. 

DIPTEROCARPUS, Species, Kyau-thoo, 
BuBK. A large tree found in the hills of 
British Burmah, wood used for canoes and 
CM't wheels. A cubic foot weighs flbs 43. 
la a full grown tree on good soil the average 
length of the trunk to the first branch is 80 


fcpt and average girth measured at 6 feet 
from the ground is 20 feet. — Dr. Brandis. 

DIPTEROCARPUS, Species, Kanyoung, 
Bt7KM ? A tree of Akvab. Used in hou^e- 
building, and sometimes for posts. This tree 
^rows to a large pize. and is not very plentiful. 
—Col. Cat. Ex. 1862. 

DIPTEROCARPUS, Species. The sour 
; wood oil tree, a large tree, grows on the 
j Karen mountains, but it produces compara- 
I tivelv very little wood oil. — Dr. Mason. 

; Battee Sal. Bkko. | Aing? BuRM. 

I Eji-Nyin. Burm. j Wood oil tree. £110. 

A magnificent forest tree of Pegu and the 
Mascul islands, rining 250 feet in height It 
is found chiefly to grow ou laterite in the 
Tounghoo and Prome districts. Its wood is 
of a light brown colour. A cubic foot weighs 
lbs. 38. In a full grown tree on good soil 
the average length of the trunk to the first 
branch is 100 feet and average girth measured 
at 6 feet from the ground is 26 feet. It sells 
at 4 annas per cubic foot. This timber is 
excellent for eveiy purpose of house-building, 
especially for posts. It is useful for planking 
when not exposed to wet and is extensively 
used in the Straits, for house-building : when 
exposed to wet, however, it rapidly decays, 
and canoes made of it do not last over 3 or 4 
years.— Z>r5. Boxb., Vol. ii, p. 609, MeClel- 
land, Brandis, Voigt, Captain Benson. 

US, fV.^A. 

D. oostatuB, BotA. \ TiUa garjan, Rakh. 

A large tree of Chittagoug, furnishing a 
wood oil in the largest quantity. — Voigt, 
Roxb., Vol. ii, ;?. 613. 

Syn. of Dipterocarpua angustifolius, fV, ^ A, 

Thw. Dorana, Singh. A large Ceylon tree, 
growing in the Saffragam and Ambagamowa 
districts, at no great elevation. — Thro. 



Eng, En. Burm. Kunnean phiu. Burm. 

Ain ? , , Large flowered Dipterocar- 

Ain tha. ,, pus. Ekg. 

An immense tree of JBuimah, Pegu and 
Tavoy which grows on the sandy plains near 
the sea-shore, and on a similar soil in the 
interior. This tree, in company with a few 
other kinds, forms extensive forests which 
cover upwards of 2,000 square miles in the 
province of Pegu. The wood is somewhat 
more durable than that of " Kanyin" D. alatus, 
and is used for canoes, house poBts, planking, 
&c. A cubic foot weighs bb t>s. In a full 
grown tree on good soil the avei^ge length of 
the trunk to the firat branch 60 feet and 
- average girth measured at 6 feet from the 

D 111 



Biie Ami Strength. It is fit for an j purpose for , DISC, Aurrolo or Gloire encircling the 
which '^ 9aui" is employed, being of the same heads of gods niui saints signifies perfection. 
£ynilT. It is chiefly employed for canoe and ; It was originally intended, in the Sabasan 
boatbuilding. It is found in all the forest ; worship, to represent the solar orb, but in 
districts, except Prome, where it is scarce. ' the course of time, the symbol was multi- 
It is found throughout the southern as well ; plied ly added to and its meanings similarly 
as all the Sitang forests, disappearing curiously ! increased and, in its changes, it has repre- 
enough wherever the Acacia catechu appears. ' sented the sun, the mogn, and the whole 
Thus, where the latter is in perfection, in the ' planetary system ; it has been an emblem of 
northern part of the Tliarawaddy and Prome j monotheism, tritheism and polytheism, of par- 
districts, die wood-oil trees are rarely seen, and ; ticular local divinities as well as of those with 
where the latter is found in perfection, as in universal dominion. In Egypt the Delta A or 
Uie floathem forests and throughout the forests | triangle sign, was originally the type of Baal, 
of Toanghoo, west of the Sitang, therd is no | afterwards of Siva or Mahadeva and was 
Aemcia caUehu, The wood oil tree grows in pi-esently when placed with its apex upwards 
light sandy soil, near the banks of streams, A, used to denote fire, the element consecrated 
and in dense forests ; frequently attaining 18 | ^o the first named god. \Mien placed with 
feet in girth, with a proportionate height. ' its apex downwards v> it typified Vishnu or 
The oil 18 extracted by cutting a large notch : water, and thore were many other meanings 
in the tree, a few feet from the ground, and ; attached to it, some of them very gross. 
oeowionally stimulating the secretion by , DISCS of steel, from G to 9 inches in 
Bcorehing the surface of the scar, which is . diameter, and about an inch of breadth of 
gonermllj converted into charcoal and gives ■ rim were worn by all Sikh soldiers. The 
the <nl a dirty black appearance. — Roxburgh ' edges aie ground very sharp, and after having 
Flora Indica^ Vol. ii, p, 612. J? Ao(/e'i ; gained velocity by being rotated on the fore- 
Jf55. Hooker^ Him, Jour., Vol. ii, p. 348. 1 finger of the right hand they are projected to 
McClelland. a disitance of 50 or 80 yards, with consider- 

DIPTEROCARPUS ZEYLANICUS, ; able force, therefore, but with such want of 


Hora-gau. Singh. 

dexterity or impossibility of regulating their 
flight that the bystanders arc more in danger 

A great tree in Ceylon, abundant up to an . ^j^^^ ^j^^ ^^^j^^^ ^^ ^^^ ,,j^ The Chakra, the 
elevation of 3,000 feet. A cubic foot weighs i ^,.^^,,, ^f ^^^ j yj^j^^^^^ resembling a wheel 
451bB.,and its timber, which is used for the j ^^ quoit, is whirled round the middle fin- 
roofs of common buildings, lasts 1 5 years.— , g^,. ^he Chakra is my thologically described 

^^^^.*X ^^^^\*' , ^ ^ . as a circular mass of fire, darting flames 

DIPUC, a supposed reversed mode of writ-, i„ ^H directions, which, thrown by the 

Ing cnpid. See Kama. 

DIRASANA, Tkl. Acacia odoratissima, 
^BumA^ Willd, also A. speciosa, WiUd, 
W, €md A.y also Albizzia lebbek, Benth. 

DIfilSANA GUM. The Acacia sirissa 

gods, slays the wicked, and then returns to 
the hand from which it issued. The Sikh 
Akali usually have several of them on their 
conical caps. They are expensive and are 
almost useless weapons. See Akali, Chakra, 

jiek^ a large quantity of this clear gum.- : jji^^^^^^ gj^^^ Namam, Kasambi, Vishnu. 
M, £. «/• tI- 

DIRASANA, See Bhagavat.gita. 

DIRECTION ISLAND, called by the 
Malays PuloPaneekee Ketchell in lat. 0* 15' 
N., long. 108° 5' £. and 50 miles from St 


DIRGHADEVA, See Inscriptions. 

DIRGHA TAMAS, See Kakshivat. 

DIRHAM. Patariya Dirhams are men- 
ticmed by Idrisi as current at Mansura and 
in the Malay Archipelago about a. d. 900. 
Mr. Thomas supposes them to be coins of the 
Tahir dynasty then ruling in Khorasan. Vide 

DIRYA KA KEKRA. Hind., properly 
Daria. The Sea Crab. See Cancer. 

DIBYA-KA-KAF. Duk. Bone of cut- 

ile fish. 
DISA KALU. T«L. Setaria, sp. 


DISCOBOLI, a family of fishes. 
First Group. — Cyclopterina. 

Gen. 3 Cyclopterui. 

Second Group. — Liparidina. 

Gen. 8 Liparis. 

DISCOGLOSSID^ a family of reptiles, 

MegalophryB montana, Kuhl. Ceylon. 

ft gig^) Blyth. Sikkim. 

,, guttul&to, Blytk, Pegu. 

Xenophrys monticola, Gunth. Sikkim, Rhaflsya^ 
Cacopus systoma, Schn. C. globulosus Gunth. Rusael- 
conda, Camatic. 

Z. Carpinvs japonica, BL, D. laxiflora, i{?. ^ 
Z. Carpinus, BL, are Jafyan trees. 

DISTICHODONTINA, a group of fishes 
of the family Characinida*, "which may be 
thus shown ; 

D 113 


Fam. 2. — Cliarnciuidx. 

First Ukoup. — EiytLiioina. 

Gtit. i Micruaou, 5 Erjthriiim, 1 LcbiaHiiia, 1 
PyrrLuIiua. 4 Coryiiopoma. 

Skcoku Group. — CurimBtiiia. 
Ilea. 15 Curiuiatua, 12 ProchilcKlua, 2 Ccuatro|>ui, 
8 HemiuduH, I Saccodon, 1 I'arodoD. 

> Gboup. — CithariiiitiH. 

Gtn. : 


FoLRTii Group. — Anostomiitina. 

Gtn. 8 AnoitoinuB, 1 Kbytiudun, 14 Lepuriniis. 

Fifth Group. — Tetragonoptciiiia. 

Oca. 2 Piabucipa, 1 Aleiteii. 5 Biac!iyaleBt«B, 
33 Tetn^^nuptoruB, 1 Svisaor, I rueudoclulc^ua, 
2 Chiroiliiu, 1 ChalceuB, 10 Brycop, 4 Cfaalcioopsu, 
2 Brycouiipe. 1 Creagrutiis, 4 Chftlcinua. 3 Qaatro- 
piitecui, 2 Fiabuca, 1 Agouiitu. 

Sixth (j1ioi;p.— IlyJrocjoniiia. 

Otn. 7 Andcj-rtiis, 1 flyBtricodno, S f^ilminiis, 
S Hydrneynn, 1 yarcodacCH, 1 Oligourcun, 7 X.iphur- 
luin|ihu>, 5 Xii>tioBtiiina, 3 CyuodoD. 

Sevkrth (inoui-, — UUticboilontiua. 

Gen. 7 DiatrchadiiH. 

Eighth Grolt.— Iiliiliyboiii;n. 
Gt». 2 Icfatbyhurux. 

Ninth Groli'.— Citumliina. 
Qen. 1 Civnuchiii. 

Tenth Grolp.— Scnusaliiioiiiiin. 

Gtn. I UyluiDu*. 13 Scrruilmn, 18 MyleWB, 
1 CatoDriun. 


uiuler proof. The process ot* distilUtioo ji 
I ilesurilK'd is nearly a.t uuskiirul as can be,H 
' a third, if uot n hair, might be added lo ll 
I i-eluriis were a little more uare aud I 
ibestoweii on the matter. A Htroiig liqMi^| 
j called " Mahwah," in popular repute a 
I the natives, es|>ccially the Pai-iicea, Lu Weaim \ 
\ India, iH distilled from t]ie berries of t 
iMabn-aii tree, the Buss ia la ti folia. Tbs bw- \ 
i rii^s ui-c about tlie size and form of in 
j I[i Surat, thoy arc first steeped or i 
I ill caxkii. So soon as they get into ■ ■ 
!of ut^tivo fermcutatton, the fermenUd liqoor 1 
' is drawn off and carried to tlio atill, i 
moio water poured over the berries, lOO- 
ccssivo charge:! being added so long u thi 
I woi'ts are strung enough to ferment. A ivfi- 
i cieiit number uf ca^k^, or ma«h tuna as tli^ 
may be called, are employed iu Die ^*o^k io» 
! to permit a charge of tlie still to be snpplU 
[on ca;:li drawing uff from the fermenting tl 
' as it takes a couple of day.s to eomplela iht 
: process of fennenlation, but worta alnadj 
1 drnn-n off would i'oiH' n-cre this to be wuUd 
1 fur befoi-c the firxt run was run off. Tbe itiB 
coDsisLs of H wooden tub, with a copper b 
] built ov('r a surface of briekwork : — oTer the 
mouth uf this is placed a huge copper wacar, 
\ the centre of the bottom tciinioating in a 



give very excellent results. Iii Uie , were destroyed I >}' llie flood. — Taylor, See 
the first spirit tliat passes over is \ Garuda, Sacti, Serpent. 
* phul" and " ek-atisha" or once dis- , DI'FIIWUN. The Ekadashi, or 1 1 th, of 

This is collected in vessels and dis- 
gain in another still, when the spirit 


the bright half of the month Katiky is a day 
. also known by the name of Bodini, On this 
it is called ** do-atisha, or jyy u ceremony is observed in (celebration of 
e distilled." This is of two qualities, ; Visfnins return from his slumber of four 
ng to strength. The spices and flavor- | months, during which he is represented to 
r "masalah," used in distilling, are the ' },ave been with Raja Bui in Pntal or the 
og:— "Sak," or bark of the kikar, infernal regions. The Mudra Rakshasha, a 
is often eh'oneously supposed itself to \ Sanscrit play, says, 
( spirit on distillation, it is only added 
note and accelerate the fermentation of 

lasses, &c. Triphalla the three Myro- 
mixed together as an astringent. ! 
saves ; Lotus flowers (nilofar) ; Gao- 
(Cacalia kleinii) ; Violets ; Badyan, 
!ed ; Limes and lemon peel (sangtara) ; i 
; Sandalwood, red and white ; " Mundi i 
Sphaerantlius) ; Kashnuz (coriander) ; 
(ginger) ; Ilac:hi (cardamoms) ; Musli ; 

May Viihnu^B Bhriiiking glance 

Vield peace and joy — as waking from his trance 

His opening eyes arc dazzled by the rays 

From lamps divine that blaze : 

Those eyes that with long slumber red 

Ambrosial tear-drops shed, 

As pillowed on his snake-couch mid the deep 

He breaks reluctant from his fated sleep. 

No marriages and but few festive ceremonies 
have taken place in the meantime, and the 
Dit'hwun is the signal for their commence- 
ni (cassia or cinnamon) ; Gojar(caiTots) nient. Houses are cleaned, and smeared 
id fresh ; Motya (jessamine) ; Seb afresh with cow-dung, and the fruit of the 
) ; Naspati (peai*s) ; Shir (milk) ; Shig'hara, Ber and Chunaka-sag, and other 
nn, ghi ; Meat, (?) Misri (sugar); dainties of the season may be lawfully en- 
patr (aromatic leaves) ; Taj (aromatic joyed.— £//>o/'i SuppL Gloss, 
,g leaves) ; Bed-musk (willow flowers) ; j^jtreM A, a genus of fishes of the family 
I (musk); Ambar(an2l>ergris) ;Khawi E^i^j^^ocid*, in which there are 16 species 
leriam muricatum) ; Knas (root of tlic ct\'a i i r tt * 

%„ , ... /., ., ,. X o 1 ofDilremaand 1 of Hysterocarpus. 
; Chob-chini, (Smilax chuia) ; Salep '' ' 

Intoxicating' drug's. T)\\j on the south coast of Kattywar, is a 

illed waters'' contain a little of the ^a-^^l^* *own and district belonging to the 

rinciples of plants, and may be l^ortugue«e. The town has been repeatedly 

either off" the plants, or by distill- »>esieged by rulers of Guzerat and the Dek- 

khoah Pers. A me 


1 eii , . ^ 

essential oil with water.— The ^'^^ *^"^ j^ continues in the power of the 
ng waters may be obtained by using Portuguese. Diu Head or Diu Point is the 
of fresh or 4 lbs. dried leaves to two : ^outhern-mostpointof the province of Guzerat. 
i of water ; of the seeds, one pound. ! I^»u ^sla"^! >s in lat. 20" 42' N. and L. 71° O'E. 

/Ajouain Javane- ^*" Town Stands on the east end of the 
^^ jFrom need*, Pty- j Beucflind. Nan- ^ Island of Diu, the fort being in lat. 20° 43' N. 

and long. 70 .59 E. — PostarCs Western In- 
I rfia. Vol, '}, p. 112 ; Borshurgh, 

I DIURN^, a tribe of birds, of the order 
Raptores, which may be thus shown : 

Order II. — Raptores or Birds of Prey. 

Tribe I. — Diurnaj. 

Fam. Falconidfic. 

Sub'Fam. Falconidae, 2 gen. 2 sub-gen. 16 sp. 
• viz., 5 Falco, 2 Hypotriorcbis, 5 Tinnuculus, 3 Hierax. 
1 Sub-Pam. Perninse, 2 gen. 3 sp., vik., 2 Baza, 1 
Pern is. 

Sub'Fam. Rlaninse, 1 gen. 1 sp., viz., 1 Elaniis. 
i Sith-Fam. Circsetinse, 2 gen. 3 sp., viz., 1 Circae- 
tus, 2 Haematomis. 

Snb-Fam. Circinee, 2 gen. 6 sp., viz., 5 Circus, sp. 
1 Poliomis. 

Sub-Fam. Accipitrinse, 3 gen. 6 sp., viz., 3 Accipi- 
ter ; 1 Micronisus and 2 Astur. 

Sub- Fam. Thrasaetinic, 2 gen. 5 sp., viz., 1 Pseii- 
dastur ; 4 Spizaetus. 

Sub-Fam. Aquilinaf?, 4 gen. 8 sp., viz., 1 Eutolmae- 
tus ; 5 Aqnila ; 1 Ictinaetus ; 1 Hieratus. 

Sub-Fam. Buteonina;, 2 gen. 4 sp., viz., 1 Archi- 

( chwtis ajwain.. i 

I 008 Arab. 

Seed* Ronf. 

B Dried leavw Murva 

Freth leaves Kyapooti. 

S€«l8 Uuruffl. 

rr Seeds Duniya. 

lU if^eeds Soya. 

mma Roote, 2 lbs Unantamul. 

Berries Hoober. 

iUarai. Se«d8 Hab-ul-mask. 

Wood, braised l lb. Sufed sandal. 

idSSftKl"*'"- »"> 

Ute Preah leaves Suf«d tulsi. 

Cinna- ) 
m tamala, > Leaves 


veifs Hand'Bpok, Vol. i, pp. 311 to 

TA. A tree of Mindoro, its sap 

with an infusion of the Abyab or rind 

fill it of the Sago palm, (cabo negro) 
d by the wild tribes of Mindoro, to 

their arrows. 
n, the wife of Daksha. 
n one of the two wives of C'asyapa 
tch) mother of the Asura or Dnitya who ' butes, 3 Buteo. 

115 D 



SairFtM. H'lupiinx, 'Jgeu. 7 iii . viz.. I PuiJioq: 
i f-tttaaet-J! : 1 IJU^n^«, 1 Hati3:ti,.: I H:.!uitir, 1 

Finn. Vultiiriila' 

HtA-Pam. Vulturiox. 2 ^ea. 2 <p-> vii.. 1 Vuitur, 
1 Otogjia calTui. 

f!ab-Fam. GfpiDK, 1 gta. 3 sp., Tii., 3 Gjlu- 

>Vii6-^ii)ii. SarcorhampluDX, 3 geii. - ip-, riz.. : 
Suorbampbuii : I NcophruD pcrcDupc«rui. 

SuA-An. GrpMtina, 1 gen. ! »].., vU., I G.V|iib. 

Tribe IL— Noctunne- 

/'an. Strij^da:. 

Jiui-F^in. BubouiDK, Sg.^0. i:>p.,vii., 1 XycUa : 
t Bub.1 : 2 Aaki : 2 Soopi ; 3 Krtupa. 

Sy^Fan. Atimuiuv, i gc!ti, !f ap., rix., I Nidoi 
■euUtuB ; 8 Atheae. 

Sub-Fam. SjrnunjE, 1 ^en. 3 >p., via., 3 SjrDium, 
lodrani, Siueniie ami niviculum, 

Suh-Fan. Htrigiox, 3 geD. S *[>., vii., 1 PhodiluB 
badiui ; 2 GUui flammca and Juvauica. 

DIVAKARA, Sans. From diva, aay, 
and kara, IVom krco, tu ilo. 

DIVADATSI 01 DivaJrntta, Tau. VHia 

DIVE FARRE, Sixcn. A wocxl of the 
western province of Cejion, used in common 
bouse-buildiogs. A cubic foot weighs 44 Ibi. 
and tho timber lasts 20 yearn. — 3ir. Mendis. 

DIVIAX-DIVA, SAsa. Senno. 

DIVI-DIVJ, also dibi-dibi, al^ libi-libi. 
CsMlpiuia coriaria, a plant of South Ameri- 
can origin, belonging to the natural order 
" CKsalpinex," naturalized in India and now 
grown at several atations in the Madras and 
Bengal Presideucief, Baugaloie, Ilouosoor 
and Guntoor. The seed podd have been 
extensively ui«d for tanniug leather, and for 
thii* purpose are considered superior to all the 
Judiaa astringents. Leather tanned lu this 

bruwn color eztenially, when ripe, tr 
veraelj wrinkled and curled.from 1 to 2 ini 
long, and i of an inch wide. The o 
skin of the pods is ver^- thin, and peela ef I 
easily if the podn arc lipe. Uudeineath h, I 
aud separated from iLe »«cds by a layer ^ ] 
woody fibre, i>, a cou^idc^able thiekneaa rf ] 
astringent matter of a light yellow ct 
Each pod coulaias fivm 2 lo 4 lieeds in m 
i-aie compartments. Tbe astringent mi 
in the walld of the pod. is almost pure tao 
Au excelieui launiu, slightly darker in c 
than that mauuliictured from galls, may ba fr^ 
[tared by a Mparace piocess. About 60 or 65 
per cent, of the whole pod, (excludiag nnnik) 
consistsofimpui-e tauuiu. Tbo remainder b«B( 
made up of woody tibie, stai-cii, aud gum. Tht 
powder of the pod» 'm of a light yellow Gokri 
taste purely astringent, and strongly reaenb- 
ling tannin, as met with in commerce. At 
au interval of six feet apart, an acre of 
ground will contain 1,210 tree*, yielding la 
average of t510 cwts., and 30 pounds of divi- 
divi, or above 20^ tous of marketable matter, 
worth, at only £u ]jer ton, £200. SbooU 
tho interval between the trees be extended 
two feet more, we shall, still have 680 to tbe 
aire, the produce of which would not irapnK 
liubly be increased by the iacreased spttoa 
given for ihe extension of the blanches. Hw 
ground in which this tree admiit of being 
cultivated is that which is least adapted lo 
the staple products of tropical agriculture ; 
guinea grass may be profitably raised beoMlh 
ita shade, and as with the exception of tba 
three years which precede tho commeDcemest 
of itii bearing, there is hardly any deduction 
' to be made from its returns, it promises to be 
, among the most valuable objects of a planier'a 



DIVI LADNER, the forbidden fruit of ; gold out of a jar of hot oil or butter. In the 

the Cejlouese, is the produce of a species of 
Tftbemsmontana. — Eng. Cyc.^ Vol. ii, p. SGo. 
DIVINATION is a regulai* science 
among Malajs who resort to diviners on all 
occasions of importance — as for instance the 
ahnoat universal custom in all nations of fix- 
ing on a propitious day to commence a jour- 
ney or aoy undertaking. The commonest 
system isaiialo>(OU8 to the Roman '^ sortes" — a 
Koran is osed for this purpose : they have also 
books filled with sentences and words, the 
penoB cousultiug them cuts in with a kris 
and the sentence marked by the kris point is 
interpreted to suit the wants and wishes of 
all parties. In the Allu ordeal of the hiodoos 
of Gnzermt, a cloth or a raw hide is dedicat- 

JDhanuarcha or Dharm-adharma ordeal, 
drawings of dharma and adharma, virtue and 
vice, are covered with cowduug and put in a 
covered vessel, from which the accused draws 
one. In the tulasi^ the leaves of the tulsi 
and water are swallowed after an oath. The 
tulsi is sacred to Vishnu. In the KacKo, 
ghara^ or unbaked pot, such a pot I'i filled 
with water and carried to some distance with- 
out spilling £el-Bhaudra, is swearing by the 
leaves of the Bel which is sacred to Siva. 
Gangajala^ swearing on the Gauges water. 
Devaloy or Devalaya^ sweariug in a temple, 
before an image. Gao, a cow, swearing, 
while holding a cow's tail ; — Brahman^ 
swearing while touching the feet of a bi*ahman. 

ed to one of the forms of Durga, the claimant Sima or Simba, the ceremony, after religi- 

of a disputed boundary puts it over his shoul- 
ders and walks over the contested limits. In 
Sind'h the ** son" or ''sugum" is a kind of divi- 
nation by means of the position of birds and 
beasts, dkeir cry, the direction of their flight 
and other such particulars. The divination, 
by lots, auguries, and omens, by flights of 
birds, as practised by the Getic nations, 
and described by Herodotus, and amongst the 
Germans by Tacitus are to be found amongst 
the Rajpoots. Their books on the subject 
could supply the whole of the Augurs and 
Amspices, German or Roman. The maho- 
medans in India often cast lots, and in 
Sind is a practice similar to that of the 
mountaineers of Scotland, called Sleinanachd, 
or, ** reading the speal-bone," or the blade- 
bone of a shoulder of mutton. The poet 
Drayton alludes to the practice of this ** divi- 
uaticm strange" amongst the *' Dutch made 
English," settled about Pembrokeshire, in 
bis Polyalbion, Song 5. Camden notices 
the same superstition in Ireland. The ordeal 
of taking out a piece of gold out of a pot of 
hot oil, Karahi Una is common in ludia. If 
the accused do so without being scalded he 
is deemed innocent. The ordeal amongst the 
hindoos called Dibya or Divya is from a 
Sanscrit word meaning Divine. In the tola 
or weighing ordeal, the accused is weighed, 
then ceitain ceremonies are performed and he 
is again weighed and if found lighter he is 
guilty. In Agnij or fire ordeal, the accused 
touches fire or heated metal, and if burned he 
is guilty. In Jala, or water ordeal, the 
accused is dipped under water, whilst an 
arrow is shot and a person runs and brings it. 
If the accused be still alive, he is innocent. 
In the poison, or Visha ordeal, if the accused 
swallow it with impunity he is innocent. 
Others are the Kosha or drinking holy water ; 
the 2*a9u/»2a, or chewing grains of rice : the 
*' tapta-masha," or takmg a masha weight of 


ous rites, of pointing out a bouudai-y. In 
hindooism nine ordeals were recognised. ' In 
trivial cases, a few grains of rice that have 
been weighed with the Salagramma are put 
into the mouth of the suspected or accused 
person, who chews them and .spits them 
out on a pipul leaf. If the person be in- 
nocent, the grain appears as if stained with 
blood : if guilty the rice is dry. In the 
trial by Kosha or image water, the accused 
person drinks some of the water with which 
an idol has been washed, and if the accus- 
ed survive free from calamity through the 
next fortnight, he is innocent. The or- 
deal of the balance is applied to women, 
children, the aged, blind, lame and sick men, 
and to bralimans. After a fast of 24 hours 
both of the accused and the priest, the accused 
bathes in holy water, prayers are offered up 
and oblations are presented to fire. The 
beam of the balance is then adjusted, the 
cord fixed and the accuracy of the scales 
ascertained. The accused then sits in the 
scale and while being weighed, the priests 
prostrate themselves, repeat certain incanta- 
tions and after an interval of six minutes the 
accusation paper with the written accusation 
is bound around the head of the accused who 
invokes the balance thus ; Thou ! oh balance, 
art the mansion of truth ; thou wast anciently 
contrived by the deities : declare the 
truth therefore, oh ! giver of success, and 
clear me from all suspicion. If I am 
guilty, oh ! venerable as my own mother, 
then sink me down : but if innocent then 
raise me aloft." The accused is then re- 
weighed ; if he then weigh heavier, he is 
found guilty, but if lighter, he goes free. In 
the trial by fire, the accused in India walks 
barefoot into a mass of burning pipul leaves 
(Ficus religiosa) — in Siam, over a pit filled 
with burning charcoal. In the ordeal by 
boiling oil, the accused has to thrust the hand 

D 117 


womeu ; but the Kai-achi Jadies of Persia ' Dature was the blood Apriukled on the door- 
ire quite independeut of any such rigid : posts of Israel in Kgypt, u sign that the 
Tirtae and one and all earn money in other | destroying aogel was not to enter, the inmates 
ways than by telling fortunes. One very | being under the divine protection. A similar 
commoQ mode of divination in Persia, is i pix'serviug token is referi*ed to in Ezekiel ix, 
called tbe ilm-i-shoona or '* science of the | 4, where the man " clothed in linen/' having 
fhoulder blade*' and practised by cutting - a writing ink-horn by his side, is commanded 
oat tbe blade bone of a sheep newly killed by God to set a ''mark" upon the foreheads 
and examiaiug the lines and marks u[K)n of those who grieved for the abominations of 
it. This was common in England in old \ Jerusalem. '* Behold my sign !" says Jol> 
tlmeSy and iu Scotland in the last cen-' xxxi, 3vj, according to the marginal rending ; 
tury. PenDant mentions it iu tlie latter or, <* BehoKl, here is my Thau" (a mystic 
eoimtrT, where it was termed " reading ; mark),asCalmct rondel's it, evidently referring 
tbe f pale- bane, and he gives an account of a > to some distinctive badge which he wore ; and 
Hi^Iander in tbe Isle of Skye foretelling the i Paul, probably alluding to some acknowledged 
ereot of the battle of Culloden by this means. I sacred sign, observes " henceforth let no man 
The history of the life of Colonel Gardiner, I trouble me, for / bear in my body the marks 
ami of many others amongst christians prove ! of the Lord Jesus." Portions of St. John's 
tkat Tuiona ai*e not confined to half civilized . Go?{>el were worn by the early Christians, 
laces. Confucius gave rules for this species | and verses of scripture were even placed upon 
of sorcery. Tacitus informs us, that among | horses. Among the Anglo- Saxons, amulet 
the iDcteut Germans, who were originally ; gems were much esteemed. King John had a 
Sc^thiana, tlie prototype of Khabdomancy ! large collection, and, in the sixteen tii century, 
WIS engraven on roils. The Chinese had j amulets were warehoused in large ({unntities, 
i1m) rods with similar inscriptions. The land usually worn round the neck, as a pro- 
Arabs, before the birth of Mahomed, divined tcction from pestilence, as the following item 
bv bundles of arrows in the Caaba. Maho- shows : *' a hundiyth weight of nmietts for 
Bed destroyed this practice. The Romans the neke, xxx» iiij*" The celebrated Nos- 
hid peculiar niOiles of divinatiou : their dies i tradam us gives the following extract frum 
&i>ti, nefasti, their auguries, &c. ' a MS. fioeni on the virtu€»s of gems, writ- 

Sir J. E. Tt-Minent mentions that the prac- ten by Pierre do Boniface in the fourteenth 

tice of ai^trology at the present day in 
Cejlou, and tiie preparation of the ephemeres 
predicting tlie weather and other particu- 

century : *' The diamond renders a man 
invincible ; the agate of India or Crete, elo- 
quent and prudent ; the amethyst resists 

br* of tbe forthcoming year, ap{)ear to intoxicatiun ; the cornelian np|)ca?t's anger ; 
hive undergone little or no change since this the hyacinth provokes sleep." There are 
custom of the inhabitants of India was des- six description of charms^ or *' muntras" 
cribed by Arrian and Strabo. But in later known in Goozerat, which are described in 
tioies the brahinans and the buddhists have ; a stories of works forming the scriptures 
mpeni^ided to that occupation the cast- • on the subject, or " Muntra Slmstra." A 
io<^ of nativities and the conif>osition of. chann called ** Marun Muntra" has the 
Loro»cope« for individuals, from which the . power of taking away life ; " Mohun Muntra" 
•^ffAi#/» descril>ed by Arrinn abstained. It is | produces ocular or auricular illusions; 
pnctised alike by the highest and most hum- {'' Sthumbhun Muntra" slops what is in 
bie castes of Singhalese and Buddhists from motion; ** Akurshun Muntra" calls or makes 
the Vellala, or agricultural aristocracy, to procnt anything ; " Wusheekurun Muntra" 
the beaters of tom-toms, who have thus i has the power of enthralling ; and " Oochatun 
icqaired tbe title of " iVa^fl/iya" or astro- * Muntra" of causing bodily injury short of 
k>giTS. The attendance on particular cere- death. Many of the charms worn by hindoos 
monies, '»<>wever, called -Ba//i, which are con- and mahoniedans* are merely to distract or 
Dected with divination, belongs exclusively ' avert the evil-eye. A not unfrequent one 

to the latter class. Amongst the mahome- 
dans of British India, astrology is almost 

iu sickness, is a string formed of hair that has 
been combed out of the head, to which is 

cnheard of, though they keep their calendar, attache<l a piece of the Acorus calamus root, 
or Jautri and theJoshi calculates the ephmeris. , a cowrie shell, a marking nut, and the eye of 

Tlie hindus also have their Calendar or 
Panjangam, but they all practise divination 

a peacock's feather. All mahomedans have 
faith in charms. In the Illahi Namah 

from books, for which the Chintamini pa>ta- (Section 12), an old Persian work, it is men- 
Lain is in use in the South of India. Amu- tioned that women, during parturition, derive 
■K«, charms, signs, and marks are, however, considerable benefit from wearing a charm 
f^vr-rvwherc in "so in the East. O^ n similar composed of certain ingredients made into a 

lit) D IU) 



of the daj. When such foundation is uRrd, it well planned, with two miles of wall asa defence 
ahoold be about a yard in breadth, and slope , and eunouraged strangers of various caste!^. 
reiy geotlj from the outer edge towards the i particularly that of shopkeepers and buiineahs 

waU, for the greater convenience of reclining. 
CottOQ-fltufied pillows, covered with chintz 
for aammery and ailk for winter, are placed 
■gaiiiBt the wall, and can be moved to make a 
loxuriooff heap ; their covers are generally 
all of the tame colour, except those at the end. 
The Mat of honour is denoted by a small 
square eotton-ataffed silk coverlet, placed in 
one of die covers, which the position of 
the windows determines. Thus in Egypt 
a neatly^fomished room, can be had for 
5/. or 6/. — Burton's J*Ugrimage to Mecca, 
V0I, ii, page 44. 

to settle in it, capital and a readier means of 
buying and selling being two of the gi*eat 
wants of the young community. Up to a. d. 
1838, the district was wholly dependant on 
supplies brought in (chiefly by plunder) from 
a distance. But by 1 860 the population had 
much increased, and exported to surround- 
ing towns and villages considerable supplies 
of proiluce ; and the sounds of honorable 
industry were heard not only in the vicinity 
of Nya Nuggur, but in three or four hundred 
! villages erected in the midst of the jungle. 
Civilization dawned on the face of those long- 

Di W ANIYAH . See Mesopotamia; Glial- troubled hills in some of its most benign- 
ant formp. — Athenaum, No. \20\, dated 2nd 

DIXAN, in Tigre, is the first town that is ' November 1850. 
met with after surmounting the Taranta 1 DIYALAH, a tributary of the Tigris 
paaaea* Ferret and Galicier say it is a group | river on its eastern side. See Tigris. 
of wretched huts, scattered irregularly on i DIYAN, Malat. Candles. 
the top of a barren mountain, a miserable' DIYA-NA-GAHA, Singh., Mesua spe- 
▼iUage, containing about 1,500 souls, chris- j ciosa. — Chois. 
tims and mntnalmans. DITAR-BF^KR, a town on the banks of 

DIXON, Colonel Charles George, author ; the river Tigris. In its prosperity it con- 
of a aketch of Mhairwarah, an officer of the \ tained 40,000 houses with numerous cotton 
Bengal Artillery which he joined on the 14th | looms constantly at work and it enjoyed an 
Angust 1813. He served throughout the | active trade in gall-nuts, not only with Kur- 

Nepal war in 1814, 1815 and 1816. Was 
preaent at the siege and bombardment of 
Hatraa in 1817. Was appointed Brigade 
Qnarter Master to the Artillery and Pio- 

distan, but also with India on one side 
through Bagdad, and with Europe through 
Aleppo on the other. But about a. d. 1836, 
it had scarcely 8,000 houses, 6,300 Turks 

neen with the Right Division of the Grand ; and 1,500 Armenians. See Iran. Meso- 

Ariny daring the Pindaree Campaign ofjpotamia; Tigris. 

1817-1& In 1820-21 was present with the I DIYA-SIAMBALA, Singh. iEschyno- 

Foree which subjugated the Hill Tribe of mene aspera. — Linn, 

Nhnrwarah, In May 1835 he was appointed \ DIZABULUS, a Mongol ruler, is described 

tempoiaiily to the Civil charge of Mhairwarah. 
Jo January 1836, he was permanently con- 
iimied aa Superintendent of that District and 
18 Commandant of the Mhairwarah Local 
Battalion. In March 1839, the Mhair Corps, 
in coDJanction with the Joudhpore Legion, 
trader the command of Captain Dixon com- 
pletely rooted a large body of outlaws at Kot 
in Mhairwarah and killed their chiefs with 
one hundred followers. In February 1842, 
his civil duties were enlarged by the juris- 
diction of the province of Ajmeer being added 

as seated on a couch that was all of gold, and 
in the middle of the pavilion were drinking 
vessels and flagons and great jars, of the same 
metal. At the entrance of the tent there was a 
bench with cosmos (Kumis or fermented 
mare's milk) and great goblets of gold and 
silver set with precious stones. Shah Rukh's 
description of the constant drinking corres- 
ponds exactly to the account of the habits 
of the Mongol court in Piano Carpini and 
Rubruquis. Thus the former, on the occasion 
of Kuyuk Khan's formal in throning, says that 

to that of Mhairwarah, independently of his • after the homage had been done they began 
command of the Mhair Battalion, and was | to drink, and as their way is, continued drink- 

appointed C'Ommissioner of Ajmeer in March 
1853. The Mhair race, amongst whom the 
latter part of his career was passed are one 
of the bravest and were amongst the most 
predatory of the non-Arian races in India, 
and Colonel Dixon's efforts were directed to 
dTilixing them. Gradually the whole popu- 
lation became attached to industrial pursuits. 
Colonel Dixon built a new town, strong and 


ing till hour of vespers" (p. 758.) Rubru- 
quis's account of his residence at the court of 
Mangu Khan is quite redolent of drink, from 
which one sees how Sultan Baber came by his 
propensity to strong drink. — Shah Ruhh*s 
Embassy, Yule in Cathay, Vol. i, p. clxiv. 

DIZFUL, an important stream in Sliuzis- 
tan. The bed of an occasional torrent in 
ancient Susiana, called Ab-i-Bald, which falls 

D 121 



■any m spot is hallowed by tituiiiioD, and 
laanj a ruin is consecrated by history. In this 
Doab almost every inch of land is nnder the 
plough. From Allahabad to Sheeoabad there 
are four targe cities, and villages at frequent 
iatenrals. A similar distance in Bengal is no 
doubt dotted with the same number of vil- 
lagea bat has not one town eqnal toFuttehpore, 
Cawnpore, or Mynporee. Here the rural 
popnlatioD is more intelligent and spirited 
than the same class in B^gal. The hum- 
blest Doabee lives upon better food, and 
covers his body, with more abundant cloth- 
ing than the humblest Bengalee. The cat- 
tle here are various. Camels, buffaloes, hoit^es, 
donkeys and oxen are all made to assist 
man in his labours. The fondness of the 
Doabee women for coloured millinery evinces 
a more refind female taste, and to them may 
remotely be traced the impetus which is 
given to the various dye-manufactures of 
the eoantry. The agricultural women of the 
Doab use ornaments of brass and bell-metal. 
The same class in Bengal is in the habit of 
wearing shell-ornaments, and a pair of Dacca 
shell-bracelets may sometimes cost the sum of 
two hundred and fifty rupees. One parti- 
cular ornament in general use amongst the 
Doabee women, of both the upper and the 
lower classes, is the teeka, which is in the 
diape of a tiny crescent made of gold, silver, 
or tinsel, according as the wearer is circum- 
stanced. It is fixed with an adhesive sub 
stance on the forehead, just between the eye- 
brows. These teekns are not a little prized 
and coveted by the Hindoostani young men. 
They train bulbuls to execute little commis- 
sions of gallantry. On a given signal, the 
bird goes seizes and canies off the teeka from 
the forehead of a woman, as precious booty, 
to her pinini? lover. The Doab, like Bengal, 
is flat and alluvial. The vast plain is unin- 
terrupted by a single eminence ; but the soil 
and climate differ in the same degree as does 
a Hindoostani from a Bengalee. The tall and 
robust figure, the firm step, the stern eye, and 
the erect bearing of the manly Hindoostani. 
are everywhere to be seen. In Bengal the 
oxen alone form beasts of burden. A Hindoo- 
stani cooly takes the load over the waist, and 
not upon the head. In Calcutta the Baboos 
do not know what it is to ride. In Hindoostan 
rural women perform journeys on horse-back 
and princesses discuss the merits of horseman- 
ship. The people of the Doab have for the most 
part well-formed features. The rude Jaut has a 
coarse mean physiognomy — TotTs Rajasthan, 
Vol, i, History of the Panjab, Vol, i, p. 23 
to 28 ; Tr. of Hind., Vol i, o. 334 to 372 ; 
Vol. ii, p. 18; The Indian Administrationy 
h H. G. Kccney Tr. Hind, Vol. ii. 

123 D 

DOABA, a moist rich tract of land be- 
tween the Swat and Cabul rivers. See 
Khyber, p. olO. 

DOA-I-MASOORA, supplication for the 
remission of sins. 

DO A-I-QOONOOT, prayer of praise. 
DOB, Eng., Ethiop., Heb. A bear. 
DOBARA-AR'K, double distilled anack. 
DO-BHASHA, Hind., Two languages : 
Do-bash or Do-bhashi, one who speaks two 
languages. — Wilson. 

DOBE, Hind. A brahman who has studied 
or who teaches two of the four Vedas, hence 
the term do, two and vcda. A caste of brah- 
maus so teiined, generally ignorant and low 
persons, and by profession boxei's and wrest- 
lers. — Wilson, 
DOBINEA. See Acer. 
DOBLET, It. Dimity. 
DOBRA, a town in Manbhoom. 
DOBSOON-NOOR or the Salt Lake, is 
celebrated over all the west of Mongolia. It 
furnishes salt, not only to the neighbouring 
Tartars, but to several provinces of the 
Chinese empire. The Dobsoon-Noor is less 
a lake than a vast reservoir of mineral salt 
mixed with nitrous efflorescence. The latter 
are of a faint white and friablq between the 
fingers ; they are easily distinguishable from 
the salt, which is of a greyish tint, and with 
a shining and crystalline fracture. The lake 
is nearly ten miles in circumference, and here 
and there arc yourtes inhabited by tlie Mon- 
gols, who are occupied with the salt trade ; 
they have also Chinese partners, for Chinese 
take part in every kind of trade or industry. 
The manipulation to which the salt is sub- 
jected requires little labour or science. It 
consists of nothing more than picking up the 
pieces, laying them in heaps, and covering 
them with potter's clay, and the salt suffi- 
ciently purifies itself. — Hues Recollections 
of Journey, pp, 127-8. 

DOBUTEE-LUTA, Beng. Ipomcea pes- 

DOCHUTI, Hind. See Domala. 
DOCKET. This term has various mean- 
ings. In trade it is often applied to a short 
certificate, summary, or memorandum ; In 
Government correspondence it means the 
summai7 or prices on the back of a letter, 
in English Law it signifies a brief in writing. 
— Faulkner. 

DOCKS. Docking of vessels. Along the 
greater part of the Eastern coast of the Pe- 
ninsula of India, wherever the rivers can be 
entered by coasting craft, docks arc formed by 
digging a channel from the river sufficiently 
largo to allow the vessel to be floated into it 
at high water : a dam is thrown across the 
channel and the earth being thrown intr 



Four Mmrcbes, no less thau 180 pettj chiefs 
are said to hold authoritj in the Dofla Tillages. 
See Dopfala, India. — Latham. 


Canii, Lat. 
Sm?, Pbb. 
Stui, Sarb. 
Spa, i« 

Kalb, As. 
Hovnd, £kg. 
BHeh, lenudeEKG. 
dnen, Fb. 
\Mm^ Kmtp Ob. 

XlttA, HlHD. 

Serend aathon haye held the view that 
the dog is derived from the wolf» but the 
Tuious kinds of dogs are commonly believed 
lokave been derived from one extinct species. 
Ob the moQuments of Egypt of date b. c. 
^400 to B. c 2,100, several varieties of dogs 
m r cp ree cn ted, and on one Assyrian monu- 
■eol of date b. c 640, an enormous mastiff is 
%ared, evidence of the fact of the long exist- 
CMS of maoy varieties. A predilection for the 
tocietj of man seems almost inherent in the dog, 
aid when we trace back its history, as far as 
the refaae heaps of Denmark and the pile 
ibfts of the Swiss lakes or, what is still more 
Mggestive, the representations on the Egyp- 
tiia temples and tombs, the great fact is irre- 
ntible, that man and the dog have shared each 
«iheni company for possibly a longer period 
than any other creatures ; and whether the love 
at first was gradual or not, it has now, at least 
n fiir as the brute is concerned, become 
iastinctive. Moreover, when we think of the 
TSEt pericxls embraced by the Egyptian monu- 
oents of antiquity, and the time it must have 
taken to develope even one variety from the 
feral stock, and note the fox-hound or turn- 
spit of 4,000 to 5,000 years ago, it may well 
be conceded that the dog, of all four-footed 
beasts, has a claim to our kindness and pro- 
tecUoQ. The Himalayan wild dog, when 
taken young, is easily tamed, and this rule 
would i^eem to hold good with the wild races 
of other countries, iudeed although not gene- 
rally acknowledged, the wolf, jackal and hyena, 
get much attached to man, if carefully reared 
and treated with kindness. The semi-domes- 
ticated dogs in common with the wild species, 
have erect ears, and this would seem to become 
more * pronounced' the nearer they assimilate 
to the latter. This circumstance has bcfMi 
noted in i-e^pect to domesticated sheep, 
goats, &C., when left more or less to shift for 
themselves, as is apparent on the Himalayas 
and Alps. In natural history, Canis the dog 
takes the following position. 
Order Carnivorm. 

Tribe. PUntigrada. 

fam. UraidsB, Bears. 

2 Oen. UrauB, 4 sp. 
„ Ailura, 1 sp. 

Tribe. Semi-Plantigrada, 











Pam. Melididse. 

5 Otn. ArctoDyz, 1 sp. 
Melivora, 1 ap. 
Melea, 1 sp. 
Taxidia, 1 ap. 

Helictifi, 2 ap., H. moachata : 
and H. nepalenaia. 

Fam. Muatelida, Weasels, Martens. 

4 Otn, Hartea, 2 ap. 
ICuatela, 12 ap. 
Lutra, 7 ap. 
Barangia, 1 ap. 

Tribe, Digitigrada. 

Fam, FelidsB. 

1 Gen, Felia, 14 ap. 

Fam. ViYerrida. 

Sub-Fam. Hyenina, HysBoaa. 
1 Oen, Hyena, 1 ap. 

Sub-Fam, ViTerrinsB CiTets. 

7 Oen, 81 sp., viz. 

Yiverra, 5 sp. 
Prionodon, 1 sp. 
Parodozurus, 10 sp. 
Pagtima, 1 sp. 
Artiotia, 1 sp. 
Herpestes, 12 ap. 
Unra, 1 sp. 

Fam. Canidn, Dog-tribe. 
3 Oen. 14 ap., vis. 
Cania, 5 ap. 
CuoD, 1 ap. 
Vulpes, 8 sp. 

Amongst the hindoos of India and the In- 
dian mahomedans, the dog is regarded as an 
unclean animal. With the Cree, Ojebway, 
Swampy and Sioux, the dog is supposed to be 
the most acceptable sacrifice to the offended 
deities, five dogs being the common number for 
a propitiatory offering. The unclaimed dogs 
of Bombay, of Egypt, Mecca and Constanti- 
uople, are a sad nuisance, in Bombay being 
protected and fed, but not housed, by the 
Parsee inhabitants, as well as by Hindoos. An 
expiring Parsee requires the presence of a dog, 
in furtherance of his departing soul, and, 
after the Sug-did or dog-look, the exposed 
body is speedily consigned to a banquet of the 
vultures. In Rangoon hundreds of Pariah dogs 
infest the town, chasing and tearing to pieces 
goats, &c., by day, and howling to their hearts 
content the live long night ? the greatest num- 
ber of dogs are found near the Kyoungs. 
The greyhound of Bamian is fleet. It has 
long shaggy hair on the legs and body. The 
dog, which is known in Bengal by the name 
of the Nepaul dog, is, properly speaking, 
a native of the upper and lower Thibets, 
whence it is usually brought to Nepaul. 
It is a fierce and surly creature, about 
the size of an English Newfoundland, and 
covered with thick long hair. It is reckoned 
to be a good watch-dog, and never to sleep 
at night. Another animal to be found in 
the Nepaul hills worthy of description is 

D 125 



called Edudat It is an exteiuive perennial • DO-HARTHA. A well wiili two wheels. 

climber. Its bark contains a large quantity of 
SbrOf which the natives use for tlie same pur- 
poses as hemp. Dr. Roxbnrgh, in steeping some 
of the young shoots in a fish-pond, in order to 
facilitate the removal of tlie bark and to clean 
the fibres, found that many, if not all tlie 

See Do-mala. 

DOHEE, Hind.? A tree of Cliota 
Nagpoi*e, with a soft, white wood.— Ca/. Cat, 
Ex. 1862. 

DOING NUK. A hill race, in Aracan 
on the upper waters of the Mayu river. They 

fishes, were killed. Hence the specific name ; ai-e budd'hists, their language is a corrupt 
which he applied. Dr. Wight formed tlie | Bengalee and they call themselves Kheim 
pUmt into a new genus, Echaltum. — FL Ind., banago. 
VoL ii, p. 7. ^ I DOIPHORYA, Mar. The name of a class 

D06GALI KUBA, Tel. Amarantus ' of hindoo mendicants who knock tlieir heads 
pdygamoBii. — Linn. JRoxb. against stones to enforce compliance w i th tlicir 

DOGHAN. See Kaffir. demands ; hence any importunate petitioner. 

D06RA also written Dogur, a tribe scat- DOITY A, Sans. The sous of Ditee. 
tered over various tracts of the North-west DOIT YARI, Sans. From doitya, a giant, 
of Hmdoostan. There are a few in Hansi, ^^^ ^ree, an enemy. 

Sooam and Ferozepoor, which ktter place, DOITYA-GOOROO, Sans. From doitya, 
together wi^ a considerable tract a^ong a giant, and gooroo, a teacher. 
the bank of the SuUej, they held for a long dOIVUGNU, Sans. From doivu, fate 
time dunog the last century m almost un- ^^j g^^ ^^ ^n^^^ 
dispated sovereignty. Their occupation is dOJORA. A river of Bareilly. 
divided between pasture and plunder. They dqk. Jay. Gomuto, Malay. Ai-onga 
are mahomedans, and state that they were gaccharifera. 

orisiiiallT Chouhans ; but the Caim Khanee T\r\v a tj.„^ o a ^ £> r^^ ^ -kt 
andother converted Chouhans of those parts ^^^.^ ^'^^; ^ , ^ *'^ ^S>S "J^ ^^' 
wiU not acknowledge the fraternity, asserting P^'T^k^^*'|?^;;V^^°'^'•p ^'- ^"^ ^^• 
that Dogurs weiT nothing but"^ Jats and I>OKE-KA-DET, Bubm. Connarus mono- 

Gocnors. This appeai-s to be the case, ^^^f^iTo^A xj t-i .* • i 

i^ithstanding all their emphatic negations. ^OKESWA. Hind. Elettoria cardamo- 
Dogurs are held in no consideration by their """^ medium.- Wh. and Maton. 
neighboors, but in former times they were DOKHMA, or Tower of Silence, the place 
much dreaded on account of their pre- ^^ sepulture for the dead of the Pai-sees, also 
datory habits, which a civilized neighbour- ^^^ ^ ^^ *^© name applied to the fire temples 
hood and a strong Government compel them ^^ ^'»<^ ancient fire worshippers overhanging 
now unwillingly to relinquish. Their personal ^^^ Caspian sea. 
appearance is in theu- fiivor. They are a tall DOKHN. Arab. Setaria Italica. 
and muscular race, and are generally remark- DOKHTAR, Pbrs. A daughter : it is pro- 
able for having large aquiline noses. — Elliotts nounced much the same as tliat word is in 
Suf^. Gloss, Scotland. It is fmm the Sanscrit Duhitri, 

DOGS MUSTARD, Esq. Cleome viscosa. . one who milks the cow, a milk maid. 

DOG-SKIN. See Leather. 

DOGS TONGUE FISH, is shaped like 
the sole ; it attaches itself to the bottoms of 
boats, and makes a sonorous noise, w^hich is 
more musical when several are stuck to the 
same plank and act in conceit. — Bowring*s 
Siam^f Vol. i, p. 11. 

DOG-WOOD, Eno. Comus macrophylla, 

DOH, a name in Java for the horsehair 
like fibre of the Ejoo or Gomuti palm. 
the Arenga saccharifera, Labill. — Simmond. 

DOH ADA, a term which usually signifies 
the desire or lomring of a pregnant woman, 
to which the hindoos attach equal importance 
as did the nations of Europe, p. 206. 

DOH AGUN. Amongst the hindoos Soha- 
gun, is a woman who becomes sati previous 
to her lord's death. Dohagun, one who fol- 
lows him aAer death. 

127 D 

DOKOA, a pigmy African race described by 
Dr. Krapf, 4 feet high. They pray with feet 
in the air and their head on the ground, 
and eat snakes, ants, mice. 

DOKRA, a low caste of Singhbum. 

DOKUN, Arab. Setaria Italica. 

DOL, in Bengal a social section of high 
caste hindoos, each presided over by DolapaUi, 
who summons the section together on marriage 
and death festivals. 

DOL in Persian, also Dol Dolab and Dolaba, 
a revolving wheel of buckets for drawing 
water, usually called a Persian wheel, and 
such as is used in dredging machines : in Oor- 
doo, Dol is written either with the Persian or 
Hiudec D.^Elliot 

DOLA in Yemen is a government officer 
much such another as a Pacha in Turkey, 
only acting upon a narrower stage. — 
Nieburh*s Travels^ VoL ii, p. 85. 




:^ICHOSSOJA. SeeDolichos. 


vulg:ari9. — Scm. 

haseolus triJobus. — Ait, 



fLftblab vulgaris. — Sari. 


D ainends var orthocarpus. 

ke ph&lU, DuK. | PyUngkai, Tabc 
iMhk, Sans. | PeMla kaia, Tel. 

is a long, slender, pleasant tasted Ic* 
not anlike our French bean both in 
ince and natural qualities. There is a 
rarietj of it called in Tamool, Perum- 
&i ; in Dukhaoi, Sufiaid Lobeh ka 

in Telugu, DaDtooPesala-kaia, and in 
[ty Sveta Rajamasha. — Ainslie, p. 244. 
r Phased us trilobus.— ^i7. 

D. bifloniii, Rosh. 

Knlthi, MaHB. 
Muthera ; Maediri, Mal. 
Barat : botang ; guar, Pan- 
Kolutha Calntu, Sans. 
Kult, Kolt, Ravi, Sutlej. 
Gagli, Sutlej. 
KoUu, Tam. 
Ulavallu, Ulava^ Tel. 

used in Southern India for cattle and 
common food for horses in the southern 
*the peninsula. I( is a very pleasant 
palse, and is used by the lower classes as 
cle of diet in curries. It is grown in 
ifter the rains. When given to horses it 
lint be boiled ; they soon become very 
f it, and keep in as good condition as 
ny other grain. — Ainslie, p. 238. 

Per cent. 
Fatty or oily 
matter 0*87 

; rawan, Beas. 
knlle ; Kolti, Ben. 

Kulat, CUENAB. 

gram ; Gram ; 
i gram, £no. 


Per cent. 

« 11-30 11-50 


JT 23-47 2303 Mineral con 

sr. 61-20 61-S5 (ash) 


,3-34 2-86 

Total. ..100-00 100-00 

raamonly cultivated for its pulse up to 
feet or more in the Himalaya and is 
r grown in the peninsula of India. 

Ita Oil 
& gram oil, Eko. I Varcadalai yennai, Tam. 
dugaloo nuna, Tel. | 

ile yellow clear oil. — Drs, Roxhurghy 
J, L. Stewart. 

LICHOS VIROSA, Roxb,, Rheede. 
i Canavalia virosa, fV. Sf A* 


DOLLAR, a coin cun*eut in the United 
States of America, parts of South America, 
China, and some of the Continental States of 
Europe. It is usually the largest silver coin 
of a country. The American dollai* is divided 
into 100 cents., and is valued at 4s, 2d, 
There are Sicilian, Austrian and Spanisli 
dollars, which are estimated according to 
their weights and fineness. — SiMmo?id!'s Diet. 

DOLLY, a river of Sylhet. 

DOLMEN, a table stone used by ancient 
races, as a monument for tlie dead. 

Cromlech, is a word applied by the British 
to widely different structures. Its true mean- 
ing is a circle of upright stones, like the 
" hurlers" and " nine maidens" in Cornwall. 
The cromlech of the British antiquarian is 
the isame as the Welsh and English " quoit," 
such as Arthur's quoit or cootan, near 
Criccieth, Lanyon quoit and Chun quoit and 
others in Cornwall, Stanton Drew quoit in 
Soraersetshre, the Kitts-Koty or quoit, near 
Maidstone and the Coit-y-enroc in Guernsey 
all of them circles of upright stones. Profes- 
sor Sven Nilsson (0;* the Stone Age, p, 159,) 
defines the English cromlech as synonymous 
to the French dolmen, the Scandinavian dos 
and the dyss of Denmark, consisting of one 
large block of stone supported by some three 
to hYQ stones arranged in a ring and intended 
to contain one corpse only, several of these 
dorsar being sometimes enclosed in circles of 
raised stones. Following, however, the 
nomenclatui*e given by the late Dr. Lukis, 
we cannot be far wrong in assigning the 
word cromlech to all elaborate megalithic 
structures of one or more chambers, in which 
category the passage graves may be included. 
The Dolmen (Dol a table, moen a stone), is, 
as its name implies, of different structure. The 
cromlechs of Jersey and the adjacent islands 
partake of the character of the French Grot- 
tos aux Fe^s, the fairy's grotto, as well as 
the Gangrifter, the gallery tombs of the 
Swedes, the jettestuer or chambered tumuli of 
the Danes and the German Hunenbetten. 
In China, the chambered tumuli associated 
with megalithic avenues have att&ined their 
greatest development. The great tomb (the 
Ling or resting place of Yung Lo of the Ming 
dynasty) thirty miles from Pekin, consists of 
an enormous mound or earth baiTow covered 
with trees, and surrounded by a wall a mile 
in circumference. In the centre of the mound 
is a stone chamber containing the scarco- 

phagus in which is the corpse. This chamber 

or vault is approached by an arched tunnel, 

the entrance to which is bricked up. This 

LL OR PIGEON PEA. Cajanus in- entrance is approached by a paved causeway 

passing through numerous arches, galleries, 

1 29 D 129 


DOMBA GASSy Singh. Calophyllum wlieu workiug it. Tlie ' Kooloo* is usc<l 
inophyliuio. — Linn, after the clod-cruslier for levelliDg the grouuit. 

DOMBAKEENA, Singh. Calophyllum | With the scarifier removed, it is used for 
ffloouii. — Wight. ! coveriug is the seed after it is drilled iii. 

DOMBA OIL, a fragrant fixed oil obtained ; The Koree, or drill used in rice cultivatiou. 
in India from the seeds of the Alexandrian I DONA, Sans. Wormwood. Artemisia 
laurel, CalyopbjUum iuophyllum. It is used I Indica. A. elegan<?, also Daphne oleoides. 
for burning and for medicinal purposes. — ! DONA, a leaf so folded up as to hold auy- 

Simmoiuts LHctionary. 

DOMBE, Singh. Calophyllum inophyllum, 
Linn. A soft, coarse, open-grained, light 
Ceyloo wood, bearing a strong resemblance 


DONABEW, a town in Pegu, taken 2nd 
April 182o. 

DONACIA, one of the Coleoptcra of Hong 

to inferior Honduitis mahogany, takes a good ; Kong. 

polish, luid presents a pretty, curled pattern ; ; DON AX ARUNDASTRUM, Lour. Syn. 

perhaps not a very durable wood, at all events , of Maranta dichotonia — IVall. 

in its native country. — £>. p. 1851. | DONDA. Tel., also Bimbika. Tel., 

DOMBERA. See Rhodia. | Coccinea indica.— JV, and A., also Momordi- 

Tx/^-««r»T>v A !• 1 ^ t 1 I ca monodelpha. — Roxb.. Rheede, 

DOMBEYA, a genus of plants belonging : * ' 

to the natural order Sterculiaceai, inhabiting I I>ONDA KURA, Tel. Biyouia grandis. 

the East Indies and the isles of France,! DON DRA HEAD, the most southern point 

Bourbon and Madagascar. The name Dom- i in Ceylon, is in lut. o"" •56' N., long 80"* 37' 

beya was also a|>plicd to the plant now called E. — Jlorsburgh. 

Araucaria excelsa. The bark of D. Spec- j DONDU, Hind. Tubes of the corolla of 

Ubilis IS made into ropes in Madagascar.— _ ^^^ Nyclanthes arbor-tristis. 

Eng. Cyc, p. 385, lioxh,, loigL 

DOMBEYA ANGULATA, Car. Syn.; ..nvr'.Tj ,.,,., \, ., , , ., 

D. ti]i«foUa, Roxh,, i. a shrub, native of Bour- : . /^P.^^f ,^->.^^^' ^^^'- ^ ^^^;!;^^f *'**'^^' 
bon, with rose coloured flowers like those of the \ »Ql»^biting.tlie hilly country. See Coolee. 

common oleander, leaves cordate, acuminate, DONGI-DONGI, of Maccassar. Euche- 
and serrate ; old ones three or five-angled ; i uma spinosa, Plocaria Candida, Necs ; the Agar 
flowers in corymbs, of a pretty rose colour. — Agar of commerce. 
Roxb.^ Riddell, Voigf. DONI. A vessel used in the coasting trade 

DOMBEYA EXCELSA, Lam. Syn. of of Coromandel, from which they often carry 
Araucaria excelsa, R. Br. 1 cargoes to Ceylon and tho Gulph of Manaar. 

DOMBEYA PALMATA, Cav. A shmb ; \ The Doni, of tho Coromandel coast is a huge 
leaves palmate, resembling the common castor ! vessel of tho ark-like form, about seventy 
oil plant ; flowers, in large terminal corymbs, ■ feet long, twenty feet broad, and twelve feet 
rose coloured, appear in September and Octo- i deep ; with a flat bottom or keel part, which 
ber. — RiddelL at the broadest place is seven feet ; and at 

DOMBEYA TOMENTOSA, a small tree ^^® ^^^'® '^"** ^^^^^ P»''^« ^^ ^'»o ^c'^^'el it breaks 
with rose coloured flowers.— iJirfc/e//. >"^^ ^" inches, which is the siding of the stem 

DOMEA. See Ton k inf. I and stern-post. The fore and afterbodies are 

DOMESTIC CAT, £nd. Felis catus. See ' s^^^^^ar in form midships. Their light draught 
y^]is, ^^ water is about four feet and when loaded, 

DOMETT, a thin kind of flannel, of which ' ^^^^"^ "»"^ ^^^^' '^'^^^^^ ^'"'^e unshapely vessels 
the weft is of wool, the warp of cotton.— j ^^^^^ ^'^m Madras and the coast to the Island 
JPaulkner, ^^ Ceylon ; and many of them to the Gulf 

DOMINOS, a group of several islands ^^ Manaar, as tho water is shoal between 
moderately elevated near Lingin in lat. 0* 2' Ceylon and the southern part of tho con- 
to 0* 1 (T H.'-Horsburgh. tinent. They have only one mast, with a long 

DOMNEEAN, Hind. Female musicians, i sail ; and are navigated from land to land, 

r^^^mr\Tr\ t T\r i ■ ^^^^, in the fine season only. 

DOMOLO, Jav. Wormwood. rw^v^'irv *i .i n r *i 

' DO^Khi, the ass, the gad ha of the 

DOMOOTEE, Bexg. Hydrocera triflora. | ^jj-^u speaking nicos of India, Gadlie-ka-hal. 

DOMTIKAB,' Hind. A division of Sar- \ Hini>. lircrally a " Donkey's.ploiigh." Before 
waria brahmaos. I the British domination in India, it was not 

DON. D., a botanist, author of the Pro- 1 uncommon to yoke donkeys in a plough and 
dromus Flora and Nepaulensis. > drive them over the ruins of a cnptured fort. 

DON or clod -crusher is drawn with two as a mode of showing supreme contempt for 
bullocks : the driver stands on the implement . the vanquished enemy. TIu* funows thiu 

131 I) VM 


- foot of the hilU. Buxa, about 1,700 feet UOUDH KA MAHAENA, HiNr>. Tlic 

^ abov« the plains, ia situated midvay ; it is teutb mouth, so termed, literally the milk 

i: (OTTDunded on three sides by hills and only month, 

; (^wo to the aoutb. A regiment of Native DOOKKON, Arab. S]>liiei'fiiilhus iiidicuH. 

i ia&Dtiy is stationed at Busa ; the right DuOLAGHONUI, Tel. Tiagia iuvolii- 

• picket oci:up7 the Umunea hill, 2,086 ieet crats. 

f high, and tfaa left picket, the Chereleeka hill DOOLAGOVILA ISARA, Tsl. Arls- 

8,457 feet high. LimesWiie is plentiful all tolochia iudica. 

' roond Buxa and coal has been found near the DOOLA KOODA, Mahb. Nerium auti- 

mureeaofthe Deemah Nuddee. The total Hyientencum.—Liun. 

nomber of inhabiiauiA is 12,564, exclusive of DOOLAL-CHA^lPA, Benu. Ilcdy- 

the troops and camp followers at Buxo, or chium coi'doaiium. 

thirteoi (o the square mile. They ara detail- DOOLA LA, Sans. From Uoorlabha, 

ed beknr : — obtaiued with pain. 

Mtaa^M or HiB- iToto 84 DOOLB, Akab. Platanus orientalis, — 

dm. 9,3S0|Bhatut ... ... ... 67 f.infl. 

"SSSg-Sw;:; i«S! T.w..;i:s; ,. uoolee. a p.i.„q.iu or p.iko,, . 

-A... Ind. M^.. Vol. ,ii, p. 87. '"■"■• "■;"■ '"°f'° l;»"'^»"!' "'" "•»'"• • 

' ' "^ a coai-sely m&Ue paianquiu, light und airv, 

DOODU-LUTA, Bkbo. Oaystelma generally used for carryiiiji the sick.— 

•"CTlenlum. Burton's Scinrle, Vol. ii, p 2G3. 

DOODH-PATRA, Hind. Sweetmeats. DOOLEE-CHAMPA, Bkki;. S|.heno- 

DOODH-PITDLEESHIH, BESa. Lab- carpu. gra.dilionis. 

y>r.latnii>,iiiaju.. UOOLING, a r.rer near Ooonteah in 

DOOUHYA, HmB. A prepatation ot "'"'"P""- „„„„ , „. , , 

Aeoniterool. DO"" «« DOUM, the GmBerbread 

DOODIA-PICTA, Barf. Svn. ofOraria Pf'n-lree exdu.ively ,|tiii|! Upper 

picta.— />asr. I'-gypt. especially the noighbonrhood of 

DOODIYA-KULMEE, B.m. Calonyc- il'."'!'"'' "I'«"™ it i» named Cw/rro 

lion Boibnr'hii. «eio.M. It« atem, instead of growing 

DOODYE. A riyer near Naadnair, in "itlioat brnuilies like oilier palms, forks two 

Garrawara. °'' '^^ tlmns thus assuming tJie appeaianco 

. ^^...nwT > 1 . -L r . 1. . 1 I . of a PanUanus. Clumps of it ooeiir near 

IK)OGDHA A tnbeof mfenor brahmin s -j.^^,,^^ .^.^^^ j.,.^;^ .^ '^^^^^^ ^,,^ ^i^„ „f ^„ 

on the borders of J-ulehpoor and Allalmbad. ^ ,^ ir,P«ulavly iorme.l, of ;i 

They date thc.r or.giu from ,!.e i,me of Jju ,.^jj?,, ^^,„^ „„,i ^a* a spoufry,, but 

Chu«d. who figures ii. so many fabulous ^yt^tious riud. ''■he nlbum.u of the seed ia 

legends of those pans. Those by ihc Pande ,,^^j ^,,^( .^^^.f „,.^„^ „„d i, turned into 

who were DooRdha brahmins, (,.e of mixed ^^^ ^^^^j ^,,^^^. y^^^^^ Giertuer 

bloodj recHved 48 villages, of the greater j^,,,,,,,,, ;, ^„j^, ^^e name of %pA«« 

part of whi«h they are m possession to this ^^^^^^^^^ ^ j^ ^nown in Egypt as the 

iay.—Ethoi * Supp. Ulou. Gingerbread-Tree, because of ihe resimblancc 

DOOB, HiKD., called Doobia in Bengal, a of Ua brown mealy rind to that cake.— i:nj. 

grass, Agrostis liuearifi Kan, Cynodou dacty- Qy^. p. 385. 

Ion, Royle. The nutritive qualities of Doob DOOM. In Affghanistan a class of servants 

have caused it to be a great favorite with the attatbed to families of rank whose wives 

natives of India, and frequent allusions are gerve in the women's apartments and are 

made to it by the poets. It is the Hariali of g^ betwcena in marriage negotiationB. 

the people of India. Its tenacity, whenever it DOGMA, Hino., sIbo written diiraa, is 

once fixes its roots has caused it to be used in ti^g Q^me of the leaiLer case iu which tea 

a common simile when the attachmeut of [g impoi'ted from Thibet into Ghurwal and 

lemindara to their native soil is spoken of. Kumaoo. It contains about three seers, and 

See Gramiuaceje. bears a price of six or ^eveu rupees. 

DOODAH, Gnz. Cordage-Rope. DOOMBA-STACUM, Tel. Alpinia 

DOODEA. and Sookeha. rivers near Nnr- ^^'^^'^^^^^^^ gee Jo,i 

HQggbur. - - 

DOODII, Hind. Milk. 
DOODHIA KI LAKRI, Hind. Wrightii 
DOODH-KULMI. Ipomaa turpethum. 

DOOMBUR, Hind. Fieus Kl'>™erat8, 

DOOMNAB. A place famed for its bmh- 

minical caves or rock-cut temples. The finest 

specimens are at EUora and Elophanla, 

though [lOJie good ones exist also on liir 

133 I> 133 



eommencod. The Bawul, Jeswunt Sing, 
was incompetent as a ruler, and addicted to 
the lowest and most degrading vices. For 
his incompetenry and the disturbances of the 
peace which he created he was deposed (No. 
UV) in 1826, and his adopted son, Dulput 
Sing, grandson of Sawunt Sing, Chief of Pcr- 
tahgurb, was made Regent. In 1844 the 
sacceasioa of Pertabgurh devolved on Dulput 
Sing. The Chief of Doongurpore has receiv- 
ed aSannnd (No. Ill) guaranteeing to him 
the right of adoption. He is entitled to a 
salute of fif^n guns. The area of his State 
isaboot 1,000 square miles, with a popula- 
doo of about 100,000. The revenue, after 
dadaeting the tribute and the stipends of feu- 
ditories, is about Rupees 75,000. No local 
corps or contingents are kept up at the ex- 
pense of the State. The Chiefs military 
force consists of about 125 cavalry and 200 
bfrntry. — Treaties, Engagements and Sun* 
nmds. Vol. iv, p. 168. 

DOON-GASS, Singh. Doona zeylanica. 
— 2%maites. 

DOON-KOLA, Singh. Tobacco. 

DOOP OR DUP-MARAM, also named 
Nadenara, a tree in the forests of the western 
coast of India from north to south. It grows 
from sixty to eighty feet high, and from 
two to three feet in diameter. It is a light 
•ort of wood, similar to the white Ameri- 
can fir of New England. This tree pro- 
dooesthe best description of Indian dammar, 
or resin ; but it is not so valuable as the 
dammar from the island of Sumatra. The 
naitives use the large trees as rafts, and as 
catamarans, and for house-building, and the 
small spars to make sheds and yards for 
the native vessels. So long as the moisture 
of the wood remains, it may be considered 
to answer these purposes, but when it 
becomes dry, it is very brittle and of no 
nse. At Cochin, Mr. Edye found the i-afters 
and nprights of the roofs over the ships of 
war at that port, of this wood, with the pur- 
lings of split bamboo over them, and c^djans 
(cocoannt leaves plated), all of which were 
lashed together by coir yams. The amount 
of expense for a roof with sheds was about 
350 rupees, or £44 sterling. One sort of the 
Dap-maram is named Nadenar, which means 
loog-stringed Dup-maram, not of much use or 
value, grows to about sixteen inches in diame- 
ter, and sixty feet in height. Another sort 
named Paini Dup-maram, which produces a 
sort of resinous gum, is found in the Cochin 
and Travancore forest*, but is rarely cut 
down, as the dammar taken from it is valuable, 
tnd when mixed with the wood-oil makes the 
Paini Varnish. This is an article export to 1 

grows from thirty to fihj feet high, and from 
two to four feet in diameter, and in greater 
abundance than on the coast of' Mala bar. — 
£dye, M, ^ C, 

DOOPADA NUN A, Tel. Piney tallow, 
Doopada oil. Oil of Vateiia iudica. Doopada 
ResiU) exudes from the Vateria Indica, and 
constitutes the piney varnish. The i^esin is 
used us a fragrant incense in temples, the 
quantity procurable is very considerable. — 
J/. E. J. R. 

DOOPATEE-LUTA, Beng. Ipomoea 

DOO-PAHARIYA, Beng. Pentapetes 

DOPUTTA, the dooputta scarf, an exqui- 
sitely beautiful article of Indian costume for 
men and women is worn more frequently by 
mahomedan women than hindoo, and by the 
latter only when they have adopted the maho- 
medan langa, or petticoat ; but invariably 
by men in dross costume. By women this 
is generally passed once round the waist over 
the petticoat or trousers, thence across the 
bosom and over the left shoulder and head ; 
by men across the chest only. Dooputtas, 
especially those of Benares, are perhaps the 
most exquisitely beautiful of all the ornamen- 
tal fabrics of India ; and it is quite impossible 
to describe the effects of gold and silver 
thread of the most delicate and ductile des- 
scription imaginable, woven in broad, rich 
borders and profusion of gold and silver 
flowers, or the elegance and intricacy of most 
of the arabesque patterns of the ribbon 
bordera or broad stripes. How such articles 
are woven with their exquisite finish and 
sti*ength, fine as their quality is, in the rude 
handlooms of the country, it is hard to under- 
stand. All these fabrics are of the most 
delicate and delightful colours ; the creamy 
white, and shades of pink, yellow, green, 
mauve, violet and blue, are clear yet subdued, 
and always accord wilh the thread used, and 
the style of ornamentation, whether in gold or 
silver, or both combined. Many are of more 
decided colours — black, scarlet and crimson, 
chocolate, dark green, and madder ; but, 
whatever the colour may be, the ornamenta- 
tion is chaste and suitable. For the most 
part, the fabrics of Benares are not intended 
for ordinaiy washing ; but the dyers and 
Seoul-el's of India have a process by which the 
former colour can be discharged from the 
fabric, and it can then be re-dyed. The gold 
or silver work is also carefully pressed and 
ironed, and the piece is restored, if not to its 
original beauty, at least to a very wearable 
condition. The dooputtas of Pytun, and 
indeed most others except Benares, are of a 
China from Sumatra, where this tree also ! stronger fabric. Many of them arc woven 

135 D 135 



DOOSTPAKISHA, Sans. Tragia invo- 

UlKy a female measeoger. aud Sambodu, a 

DOOWIN — ? Dario zibethinus. 

DOPAEE, Hind. A variety of magic four, Cliuwur. 

prietors of Aligarh ; and a remnant of them 
now exists in Dubhaee, Atrowlee, Coel, 
Shikarpoor and Burun. — Elliott, Tod, 
DOR, Hind. Land ploughed twice. When 
I ploughed three times, it is called Teoor; when 



DOPAHEYA, Hind. Pentapetes phoe- ; modern village Athebis the first place to- 
aieea. ' wards Jafia ; it is the Castel Pelegrino of the 

DOPATEE, Beno. Impatiens balsamina. ; Crusades, and the Dor of the Hebrews. Its 
DOPHLA. That portion of the southern columns and buttresses, are a confused mass, 
fi^a of the sub-Himalayas winch extends stretching into the waves, over which the 
finMB 32* 50' to about 34* north latitude, and surf breaks. Dor is the celebrated city of 
bmii the northern boundary of the valley Caesarea. — Skinner's Overland Journey^ Vol, 
li AssaiD, from the Kuriapara Dowar, to i, p- 96. 

whae the Sabanshiri debouches into the ! DOR, IIikd. Spiraea Lindleyaua, also 
thins, IB occupied by a tribe of mouutaineers, Arum curvatum. 

Hpaily known to the people of the valley, 
ader the appellation of the Dophla. This 
term, whrntever may be its origin, is not re- 
eogabed bj the people to whom it is applied, 
nceept in their intercourse with the inhabit- 
nti of the pUins. Bangui, the term in their 
aagnage to signify a man, is the only desig- 
latioc thej give themselves. During the 
btter days of the Ahom suzerainty when 
iatemal diaaenBioiis and the growing imbe- 
cility of the government furnished oppor- 
Inities for the bordering tribes to indulge in 
Ida of rapine and lawless aggressions on 
Ikcir low-land neighboui*8, the Dophla were 
lot flow in exacting their share of the general 
ipoiL Several attempts were made to check 
thiir atrocities : and on one occasion, rajah 
Gouinath Sing, is said to have marched an 
mny into their hills for the express purpose 
of chaatisiDg them, and several thousand 
DopUaa were taken prisoners and brought 
down to the plains. The rajah, obliged them 
to dig a canal with the view of draining off 
the large and unwholesome morasses that still 
exist in muhal Kollongpur. But, owing to 
the bad treatment to which the prisoners were 
nbjeeted, and the unhealthiness of the season, 
the greater portion of them are said to have 
perished, and the task assigned to them re- 
Buined unaccomplished. — Beng, As, Soc, 
/(Mir., 2io, 2051. 

Gbr. Corrosive sublimate. 

DOB^ a tribe of Bajpoots, some of whom, 
Doetiy converted to mahomedanism, are 
Rttled in the district of Aligarh, also about 
Baoda and Sagar. Time has destroyed all 
bowledge of the history of this race, but 
hej most have been of importance in the 
ime of the last hindoo sovereign of Delhi, 
Vithi»raj» as he commemorated a victory over 
ban by a tablet. Before the emigration of 
le Bit Goojur race, they were the chief pro- 


DORA, Tel. A respectable person, the 
equivaleut of Mr. or Master ; plural Dora- 
garu ; Dorawaulu. 

DORA DIN A. A group of trees of the 
family SiluridsB Steuobranchiae. 

DOBAK. See Khuzistan or Arabistau. 

DORANA, Singh. Dipterocarpus glandu- 
losus, Thw, 

DOBCUS, one of the Coleoptera of Hong 

of Norfolk Island, does not attain to more 
than a foot in diameter, and is principally used 
for veneering and in turning ornaments. — 
KeppeVs Ind, Arck.y Vol. ii, p. 282. 

DOREMA. A genus of plants belonging to 
the natural order Umbelliferse. 


Ferula orieutalis. | Ferula ammonifera Fee. 

Simugh terateea, Peks. 
„ b'ul-shiric, „ 

Fethuk, Arab. 

Eastern giant fennel Emo. 
Oflhakf Pbrs. 

A glaucous green plant with a perennial 
root, and large leaves 2 feet long. It is 
a native of Persia, in the plains of Yerdek- 
hast aTid Kumisha in the province of Irak ; 
and near the town of Jezud Khast in very 
dry plains and gravelly soil, exposed to an 
ardent sun. This is one of the plants which 
yield gum ammoniacum, but it is probable 
that several plants yield this as well as the 
other gum-resins of the order Umbelliferac. 
This gum resin is imported into Bombay 
from tlie Persian Gulf, and re-exported to 
different countries. It is obtained by incisions 
in the plant, and occurs in two fbims — first 
in voluminous masses of yellowish colour, 
enclosing white almond-like tears, the whole 
being of plastic consistence, and very im- 
pure ; — secondly, in tears of irregular form, 
white or yellowish, opaque, ratlter solid, 
agglutinated or distinct, compact, brittle, of 
glassy fracture, and free from impurities. Its 

D 137 


rambi is said to be about 1,000 cwt. 
:ind imported into Europe in reedfl, 
lated by the Chinese. The canes 
lie plant used in former times to 
ed to Batavia, and very probably 
B ** true Jarabees,*' commemorated 
pectator a? the most fashionable 
kicks ID the reign of Queen Anne. 
edoQ of the fruit constitutes the 
sr-nafi^, or Dragon's blood. A 
d rather inferior kind is produced by 
by bruising the fruit, from which 
d secretion has been removed : the 
most inferior, seems to be the refuse 
It process : it is perhaps doubtful 
t is ever procured from the plant by 
Large quantities of this drug are 
ent from Borneo to Singapore and 
md thence to China, where it is 
ed. In Europe, it is a constituent 
iooth*powders, and tinctures, and 
i chiefly, used for colouring spirit 
ttine Tamishes. This resinous gum 
tB present singular name from the 
reeks, who used it extensively. It 
1 the market either in oval drops, or 
ftnd impure masses composed of 
sars. That which is good is of 
crimson when powdered, and if 
> the light in masses, is semi-trans- 
Fhe tears are usually the firmest, 
most resinous and pure. If it is 
3n made fine, or very friable iu the 
8 inferior. It is often adulterated 
T gnms ; but that which is genuine 
iily and burns wholly away, scarcely 
I water, but fluent in alcohol ; while 
ated crackles instead of burning, and 
in water. Its uses are various in 
medicine, varnishing, and other arts. 
t 18 procured at Banjermassing in 
firom whence it is carried to Siiiga- 
1 thence to the Chinese market in 
$15 to $35 per pecul ; the importa- 
ineipally in native vessels. The price 
i raries from $80 to $100 a pecul 
lifying and refining. The Chinese 
gum iu much estimation, and are the 
I consumers of it in the East.^- 
!r, Morrisons Compendious Descrip- 
farsden^s Hist, of Sumatra, p. 1 59, 
rd DieHonary^ p. 123; Seeman on 
See Calamus. Crotou sanguifiuum, 
la monetaria, Dracaena draco, Eu- 
resinifera. Resins. 

30N TREE, Eng. Dracaena draco, 

CHYA, Beng. Vine, Vitis vinifera. 
I^GULI, Jav. Cassia fistula, Linn. 
CSHA CHETTU, Tel. Vitis vini- 




DRACHA PANDU, Tel. Grapes. 

DRANDU, Hind. Ilex dipyrena. 

DRANGDRA. See Kattyawar. 

DRANGE, Hind. Sageretia oppositifolia. 

DRANGIA. See Greeks of Asia. 

DRANGU, Hind. Berchemia sp. 

Jav. Cathartocarpus fistula. 

DRAPER, Colonel, a British officer, who 
entered into a literary contest with Junius. 
He conquered Manilla, and in 1758, joined 
Colonel Lawrence in the Carnatic and gave 
able assistance at the battle of Wandewash. 

DRAPORE. A hard, fine, rather close- 
grained, somewhat heavy, Ceylon wood. 

DRAS, A district of Ladak. 

DRASHTI dosha M, Sans. Evil eye. 

DRAUPADI, daughter of Drupada king 
of Pancbala. She was put forward by her 
father us the lady of the Swayamvara, or 
tourucment, and was won by Arjuna one of 
the Pandava, and became the polyandric wife 
of him and his four brothers : she was subse* 
quently staked by Yudhishtbira, at dice and 
won by Duryodhana of Hastinapur and un- 
derwent great hardships until the destruction 
of the Kaurava. Draupadi, as the polyandric 
wife of the Pandava princes, is the heroine of 
the Mahabarat. Duhasana, one of the Kau- 
rava princes dragged her by the hair into the 
public court, Bhima vowed to kill him for 
the insult and drink his blood and he fulfilled 
his vow. Yudhishtbira and Di*aupadi have 
been deified and their feast is named the 
procession of fire, because in hindoo legend 
she is fabled to have passed every year from 
one of her five husbands to another, after a 
solemn purification by that element. In the 
Bhdsha language, her name is written Dropti. 
In the "Enchanted Fruit" when Draupadi 
and her five husbands entered the garden, 
and Arjuna, with an arrow, brought down 
the fruit. 

Light — pinioned galeB to charm the sense. 

Their odorifrous breath dispense ; 

From B^la*8 pearPd or pointed bloom, 

And Malty rich, they steal perfume : 

There honey-ecented Singarhar, 

And Juhy like a rising star, 

Strong Chempa, darted by Camdeo 

And Mulseiy of paler hue, 

Cnyora which the Ranies wear 

In tangles of their silken hair, 

Hound Bdbul flow'rs, and Gul-achein 

Dyed like the shell of Beauty's Queen, 

Sweet Miudy pressed for crimson stain r, 

And sacred Tulsy, pride of plains^ 

Their odours mix, their tints disclose, 

And, as a gemmed bright. 

Paint the fresh branches with delight, 
— Wh. H. of I; Sir IV. Jones, Vol. xiii, 
p. 2 1 7 . See Droopdevi . 

DRAVEE. The Bombay group consists 
of fifteen or twenty islands in all ; the island 



Dnvidian aborigioes deal in demonology, ; per cent, of the whole populatiou, the people 

■ t 





ftcialiisDi, fraQtic dances, bloody and even 
fauBan sacrifices ; they are, however, superior 
to the Aryan hindoos in freedom from dis- 
qnalifying prejudices, bat iuferior to them iu 
kaowledge and all its train of appliances. 
Aboriginal tribes are most numerous, are, in- 
deed the mass of the inhabitants, in the hilly 
ooanlry from the western and southern bor- 
ders of Bengal, Behar and Benares to the fron- 
tiem of the Hyderabad and Madras territories, 
and fkom the Eastern ghats inland to the 
cmliwd portions of the Nagpore territory, 
batereoy in this tract, ai-e evident monuments 
of old hindoo civilization and of the saiva 
penaasion. The aborigines of India, 
iMiCh in i^jsique and in the structure of their 
kaguage, present a type analogous to the 
Negrito of the South seas, Papuans, Tas- 
manisns and others, as well as to the nearer 
Negrito of Malacca and the Andamans. 
The Tamil was formerly called by Europeans 
the Malabar language, and this term is even 
•Ctfliised amongst the illiterate of the English 
eommunity, but even the educated classes 
write it erroneously, as Tamul. It was the 
earliest developed of all the Dravidian idioms, 
ii the most copious and contains the largest 
portion of. indubitably ancient forms. It 
includes two dialects, the classical and col- 
loquial, the ancient and the modem, called 
Rspectively the Shen Tamil and the Kodun- 
Tamil, which so widely differ that they may 
ihaost be regarded as different languages. 
The Tamil race is the least scrupulous or 
ftuperstitioos, and the most enterprising and 
per w f e f i ng race of hindoos, and swarm where- 
ever money is to be made, or wherever a 
more apathetic or a more aristocratic people 
is waiting to be pushed aside. The majority 
of the hindoos found in Pegu, Penang, 
Singapore and other places in the east, where 
tbtj are known as Klings, ai*e Tamilians. All 
throoghont Ceylon, the coolies in the coffee 
plantations are Tamilians ; the majority of 
the money-making classes, even in Colombo, 
ire Tamilians, and ere long the Tamilians 
will have excluded the Singhalese from 
tlmoBt every office of profit and trust in their 
own island. The majoi*ity of the domestic 
Borvants and of the camp followers in the 
Ifadnis Presidency and along with its array, 
ire Tamilians, and the coolies who emigrate 
•0 largely to the Mauritius and the West 
lodia Islands, are mostly of the Tamil people. 
locIadiDg the Tamil people, who are residing 
in the military cantonments and distant 
eolooies, and those in South Travaucorc, 
Northern Ceylon, and excluding all Maliome- 
dta, Telingy and Brahmin residents of the 
Tanil country, who amount to at least ten 

' 147 D 

who speak the Tamil language ai'e estimated 
by Dr. Caldwell at about ten millions. 

The Telugu, called also Telingu, or 
Telungu, is the Andhra of Sanscrit writers, a 
name mentioned by the Greek geographers, as 
that of a nation dwelling on or near the 
Gauges. It is the same language which, until 
lately, Europeans termed the Gen too, from a 
Portuguese word signifying heathens or gen- 
files. In respect to antiquity of culture and 
glossuriul copiousness, it ranks next to the 
Tamil, in the list of Druvidian idioms, but it 
surpasses all of them iu euphonic sweetness. 
Telugu extends from Chanda, where it meets 
the Mahrattu, and from Gaujam and Chicacole 
where it intermixes with Urya, along the 
coast to Pulicat on the marine lagoon thirty 
miles north of Madras, known as the Pulicat 
Lake, where it meets the Tamil. At Vizaga- 
patam, which is 120 miles south of Ganjam, 
this is the sole language spoken. On this lino 
of coast, two monarchies formerly existed, the 
Andhra and Kalinga, both apparently enter- 
prising races and seafaring people, and it is 
doubtless from the name of the latter dynasty 
that the Burmese and Malays have derived 
the appellation of ** Kling," by which they 
distinguish all people from India. The Kalinga 
dynasty appear to have gained great posses- 
sions to the westward, as, at the time of the 
mahomedan conquest, Warangal, seventy 
miles from Hyderabad, was considered by 
them the capital of Telingaua, the eastern 
part of the nabob of Hyderabad's dominions, 
all the districts of Ganjam, Nellore and Cud- 
dapali and much of the lands north. The most 
westerly spot at which it is spoken is the 
small town of Murkundah about 30 miles 
west of Beder and it reaches this by a 
wavy line running westerly from north 
of Madras, as far as the eastern boundarj' 
of Mysore which it follows up to that of 
the Mahratta country, thus including, in 
its extent, the Ceded Districts, Kurnool the 
greater part of the Hyderabad dominions and 
a portion of the Napore country and Gond- 
wana. In ancient times, it seems to have 
been spoken as far north as the mouths of the 
Ganges. This appear both from the geo- 
graphical limits which the Greeks have assign- 
ed to the territory of the Andhra or northern 
Telugu dynasty, and from many of the names 
and places mentioned by Ptolemy up to that 
delta being found to be Telugu. The Telugu 
people are undoubtedly the most numerous 
branch of the Dravidian race, although the 
Tamil surpass them in restlessness and enter- 
prise and in that self reliance which supports 
them in their emigrations. Including the 
T^-'^ or Naidoo ("Nayaka"), Reddi and 




laeiMMea^ tLe Orgyia Ceylanica^ EuproeiU 
nrguneula^ the Trichia exigua^ the Na- 
MM eanspersOf the Limaeodes graciosa and 
A ipecies of JDrepana are found on the coffee 
trees but tbej do not cause much injury. 
iLnoCher caterpillar, however, though fortu- 
lately not abundant, the Zeuzera coffetty 
tetroys mauj trees, both young and old by 
eating out the heart It resembles the cater- 
piilar of the goat-moth of England and is as 
thick aa a goose quill. It generally enters 
the tree 6" or 12^ from the ground, ascending 
npwaids. The sickly di*ooping of the tree 
narks Irs presence. 

JiBDOM. An ant which moves by jumps of 
nveral inVbes at a spring. 

DRESIIDK. In front of the Goorchanee 
and Lisharee hilU^ and between Uurruud and 
Mithnnkote, are plains inhabited by the Dres- 
hnk. They are British subjects. See Khyber. 
DRESSES. The maliomedans of Madras 
are &aied for the excellence of the flowered 
work on the muslin dresses of ladies. They 
ire sold at from Rs. 7 to Rs. 70 each. 
DRINGO, Port. Sweet flag. 
DRINKUAKI, Hind. Dacisca cannabiua. 
DBO, properly gio, Tibetan, Triticum 
DROB, Hn^D. Cmaganii tragacanthoides. 
DROGUE AMEBE, Yk,, a compound of 
mastic, frankincense, inyrrli, aloes, and kreat. 
DROK or BKOG. Both occupants of 
the central part of northern Tibet. Mr. 
Hodgson supposes tliem n mixed i*ace joined 
togeUier for predatory purposes. See India. 
DROM AIUS. The Emu, a genus of birds 
belonging to the Cursored, or Runners, an 
order of which may l>e thus shown : — 
Obdcb VI — CurRores or Kunners. 
Am. CmMuaridie, Caeuarius galeatus ; 1 Dromaiud 
OOTC HoUandiae. 
Am. Struthionids, Struthio cameluB 
Caduarius Bennettii, Gouid, is the Cassow- 
ary of the island of New Britain, near to 
New Guinea, where it is called Moonick. 
The height of the bird is three feet to the top 
of the back, and five feet when standing 
erect. Its colour is rufous, mixed with bla<-k 
on the back and hinder portions of the body, 
aod raven blacrk about the neck and breast. 
The loose wavy skin of the neck is beau- 
tifully coloured with iridescent tints of 
bloish purple, pink, and an occasional shady 
greeu, quite different from the red and 
poq>le caruncles of the CasuaHux galeatus. 
The feet and legs, which are veiy large 
sod strong, are of a pale ash colour. This 
bird also diflfers from the C. galeatus in 
having a homy plate, instead of a helmet 
like protul»erancr '^n the top of the head : 



which callous plate has the character of and 
resembles mother of pearl darkened with 
black-lead. The form of the bill differs con- 
siderably from that of the £mu, Dromaius 
Novcs HollanduBj being narrower, larger and 
more curved, and in having a black or leathery 
case at the base. Behind the plate of the 
head is a small tuft of black hair like feathers, 
which are continued in greater or lesser abun- 
dance over most parts of the neck. The egg 
is about the same size as tliat of the £mu, 
and is of a dirty pale yellowish green colour. 
The bird appears to Dr. Bennett to approxi- 
mate more nearly^ to the Emu than to the 
Cassowary, and to form the link between 
these species. In its bearing and style of 
walking it resembles the former, throwing the 
head forward, and only becoming perfectly 
erect when running ; it also very much re- 
sembles the Apteryx in its body, in the style 
of its motion and in its attitudes. Its bill 
presents a great deal the character of that of 
a rail : it utters a peculiar, chirping, whistling 
sound, but also a loud one resembling that 
of the word ' Moork,' whence, no doubt, it 
derived its native name. Casuarius galeatus, 
the helmeted cassowary of Ceram, only, is so 
called from the horny helmet which surmounts 
the head. I ts rudimentary wings consist of five 
long bristles like blunt porcupine quills. It runs 
swiftly with a bounding motion. It feeds on 
fruits, birds' eggs, insects, Crustacea and 
tender herbage. It is a stout and strong bird, 
standing five or six feet high, and covered 
with long, coarse, black hair like feathers. 
The head has a large horny casque or helmet 
with bright blue and red colours on the bare 
skin of the neck. These birds wander 
about in the vast mountain forests that cover 
the island of Ceram. The female lays three 
to five large and beautifully shagreeued green 
etrgs, on a bed of leaves. The male and 
female sit alternately on the eggs, for about 
a month. 

rises to a height of seven feet. It lives on 
fruits, eggs and small animals. — Craw/Urdu's 
Dictionary^ f>. 84, London Alhenaum^ No, 
1,512, />cc. 12, 1857, p. 1551, Wallace ii ; 
Dr. Bctinett in a letter^ dated Sydney^ lOth 
Sept. 1857. 

DROMEDAIRE, Le. Fk. Camelus dro- 
medarius. See Camelus. 

DROMEDARY, Eng. Camelus drome- 
darius. — Linn. 

DROMIA RUMPHn, Edws., E. Indies. 

DROMIA FALL AX, Edws, Mauritius. 


of G. Hope. 


Indian Ocean. 




represents this iostitution of the drum. A aoil indifferent. They are bfAve, houei?t and 
dram was suspended at the gate of the hospitable. The mountains in the neigh- 
€Bperor of China, which supplicants sounded. | bourhood of Brahmana, are a lower range of 
Hie custom is a genuine Chinese one, and | Libanus, . are everywhere covered with a 
the summons seems to have been by a drum sufficient portion of soil to admit of cultiva- 
nther thao by a bell. Thus in the Komauce ' tiou even to their summits. They are not 
9i **The Fortunate Union," tlie hero Tei- less remarkable for the dense population 
ehun-gyu exclaims, '* My lord, you are mis- which inhabits them ; houses and hamlets 
taken. The emperor himself suspends the meet the eye in every direction. The number 
drum at his palace gate and admits all to state . of the Druses is estimated at seventy thousand. 
their hardships without reserve.'' — Vule, Of these one-third are capable of bearing 
Caika^f Vol. /, C vi., Davis* Chinese arms. It is not known at what period they 
MiseeilanieSf p. 109. first settled in these parts : min kadinij 

DRUMBI, Hind. Arundo douax. ** ab orgiue" is the general answer given to 

DBUH-FISH, a sea-fish near the Pearl ' all inquiries on the subject. The Druses 
river at Macao. Every evening, tliey as- are not confined to Mount Lebanon ; they are 
lemble around a ship and continue their likewise spread over the Haourau, a country 
■oiical humming till about mid-night. The > lyiug to the south-east of Damascus. Zalile, 
■one rises and falls or suddenly ceases at > seven hours from Balbec, belongs to tlie 
times as tbey quit the ship in search of food, i territory of the Druses. Half an hour from 
— Adams, p. 63. Zahle, on the south side of the village of 

DRUM HARMONICOX. See Musical Kerak, is the pretended tomb of Noah. 
iMtmnents of the Burmese. The religion of the Druses professes a secrecy, 

DBUMMOND, Lieut.-Col. An officer of which seems unnecessary, except for the sake 
the Bengal Army who wrote on the mines and of imposture. They believe in the transmi- 
■ineral resources of northern Affghauistan gration of souls, but more as a punishment 
oothecopper minesof Kemaon, on thenatui*al in this world than in the next, and that the 
moorces of Almoi*ah, in Extracts from Prophets recorded in the Old Testament, 
Ptablic Papers N. W. l^rovinces ; Bombay were only a succession of identical spirits. 
Telegraph and Courier, Oct. 24, and Nov. 19, The names of David, Abraham, Ishmael and 
1H49, and Mofussilite, Nov. 10, 1849. — Dr, ! Pytliagoras, occur in their sacred code, but 
Bmsts Catalogue. without any adherence to our own ascertained 

DRUN. also PUA. Tib. The Tibetan chronology. Harasa is the name of their God 
oame of the marmot of the western mid- ' and sovereign, whom they consider to have 
Himabiyas. See Marmot. ; been the true Christ, and Jesus, the son of 

DRUNKENNESS, is a frequent vice in Joseph, a travelling impostor, and therefore 
In^ amongst men and also amongst women. ! deservedly crucified. They seem equally 
The substances used are opium* the prepara- I averse to mahomedans and christians, and 
tioos of hemp, distilled spirits and the ferment- ; they use the Koran more as a blind than 
edjuioesofthe palm trees. In India, horseplay, i a belief, simply to deceive their Turkish 
aod gross facetiae, generally accompany tipsi- > masters. They consider the four Evangelists 
neu. In moderation, these substances are , to have been so many powers or parts of 
beneficial and all nations use them though the = religion, and Hamsa to have appeared about 
node of their action on the hnman frame is not | 400 years after mahommed, when he flourish- 
anderstood, but most of them must be regarded i ed eight years upon earth, and afterwards 
M nervine stimulants and as valuable in great I appeared seven times in all from the time 
nental or bodily exertions. Whatever be the ' of Adam, finally and formidably to appear 
process, they evidently supply some want in when the Christians shall be more powerful 
the system. In some individuals drunkenness , than the Turks ; he will then spread the 
is a hereditary disease equivalent to a mania ; ' religion of the Druses by divine authority, 
and these cases are genei-ally given up by the * Their creed requires implicit obedience, and 
faculty, in despair. See Food. j rejects fasting, prayers, tithes and killing of 

DRURY, Major Heber, an officer of auimal.s. The dress of the female Drust; 
the Madras Army, author of Useful Plants resemMes that of the Turkish women else- 
of India, Madras, 1668, a work of much where, exceptintr that they wear that singular 
TaJoe, also of Hand-book of the Indian Flora, ornament of the head, called the tauiour, 

DRUSE, an idolatrous race occupying the ; which is a conical tube, about eighteen inches 
nnge of hills which extend parallel to the long, of silver, or copper silvered slightly 
coast, from the neighbourhood of Bey rout to over, according to the wealth of the wearer, 
the heights above Sidon. They worship, it is ' and ornamented with a variety of patterns, 
iiid, the image of a calf but are tolerant It is fixed ui>ou a cushion fastened to the 

153 D 133 



Mj taken inwardly as a medicine. 
3e in China of the Borneo camphor 
> be higher than that of Japan, in the 
on of twenty to one : it has been 
1 that this disproportion is .caused 

no longer be remarked ; bnt a thick, tongh 
leathery white stratum is formed wherever 
there is room for its development, and from 
this a fresh supply of tlie destructive fila- 
mentous thallus is emitted with such con- 
Bome superstitions of the consumer, I stantly increasing rapidity and force, that the 
r real distinctions of properties. From • total ruin of timber speedily ensues where 
St and richest trees they rarely collect | circumstances are favourable for the growth 
an two ounces. After a long stay in of the fungi. Dry rot consists of the thallus 
mIs, frequently of three mouths, during j of Merulius IticrymanSy or Polyporus de 
diey may fell a hundred trees, a party • structor, two highly-organised fungi, but any 
T persons rarely bring away more than ! of the fungi that are commonly found upon 
J pounds of solid camphor, worth from < decaying trees in woods are capable of pro- 
250 dollars. The Borneo camphor, . ducing di*y rot, and the most rapid ly-spread- 

Dryobalanops camphora, is in white 
ae fragments. Sp. G. 1'009. Its 
B not of so diffusable a nature ; other- 

ing and dangerous kinds is caused by the 
ravages of different species of Sporotrichum, 
The latter throw up from their thallus whole 
closely resembles the camphor from the \ forests of microscopic branches loaded with 
vm officinarum. The wood of the | reproductive spores, of such excessive small- 
r tree is good timber suited for house ness that they may insinuate themselves into 
>p-building. The liquid camphor of ; the most minute crevices or flaws even in the 
16 tree appears of the nature of Cam- j sides of the tubes of which timber consists, 
Dr. A. T. Thompson, by passing a and they are infinitely more dangerous 
of oxygen gas through it, converted ! than Merulii or Folypori^ which seldom 

iniphor. The oil, both in a fluid and 
Ate, is found in the body of the tree 
Jie,^p should be, but not in all trees. 

fructify. The circumstances that are most 
favourable to the development of the dry rot 
fungi are damp, unventilated, situations, and 

uid oil is abundant, and little sppreci- I a sub-acid state of the wood. The latter cou- 

nt the concrete beat's a very high 
jrhich depends wholly on its scarcity, 
3 fancy of the Chinese and Japanese, 
»ibe high medecinal virtues to it, which 
ibly possesses in no higher degree than 
sap article which tliey themselves ob- 
' the distillation of the wood of the 
era oflicinalis, and which may be had 
same markets for about one-hundreth 
the price. — As. Researches^ vol, xii. 
i, Lows Sarawaky pp. 44-46; Mars- 
Hisiaiy of Sumatra^ p. 150 ; Royle^s 
M Medica, p. 536; Crawfutds Dic' 
ff p, 81 ; Simtnonds Commercial Pro^ 
O* Shaughnesst/, Bengal Dispensa- 
Mason* s Tenasserim ; Tomlinson, p. 

Y BOT, is a disease affecting timber. 
dry rot is produced by the attacks of 
the first sign of it consists in the ap- 
ce of small white points, from*which a 
itoos substance radiates parallel with 
irface of the timber. This is the first 
)f growth of the spores of the fungus, 
e filamentous matter is their thallus or 

dition, especially in oak, is easily produced by 
a slight fermentation of the sap which remains 
in the timber, especially if the latter has not 
been well-seasoned before being employed. 
It has been proved experimentally that fluids 
which, in their ordinaiy state, will not pro- 
duce fungi, generate them abundantly if ever 
so slightly acidulated. Dutrochet found that 
distilled water holding in solution a small 
quantity of the white of egg will not generate 
fungi in a twelvemonth, but upon the addi- 
tion of the minutest quantity of nitric, sul- 
phuric, muriatic, phosphoric, oxalic, or acetic 
acid, it generated them in eight days* time in 
abundance. Alkalescent infusions possess the 
same property. The only poisons which will 
prevent the appearance of fungi are the oxides 
or salts of mercury. A solution of fish-glue 
yields fungi rapidly and in great abundance ; 
but a small quantity of red precipitate or 
corrosive sublimate destroys this power 
entirely. It is moreover an important fact 
that no other mineral preparation has any 
such properties. Dutrochet ascertained that 

other metallic oxides acted differently. Oxides 
. As the thallus gathers strength it , of lead and tin hastened the development of 
ites its filaments into any crevice of the fungi ; those of iron, antimony, and zinc, 
and they, being of excessive fineness, were inert ; and oxides of copper, nickel, and 
' pass down and between the tubes from cobalt, although they retarded the appearance 

the wood is organised forcing them 
r, and completely destroying the cohe- 

of fungi, yet did not prevent their growth in 
the end. These facts are confirmed by the ex- 
' the tissue. When the thai I i of many I perience of the use of Kyan's process for pre- 
Dterlace, the radiating appearance can - paring timber, which consists in submitting 

155 D 155 


fMpte of lodUylfOndoD, 1 8 1 7,4to. An account 
«f Hindoo ordeals in Mad. Lit Trans., 1827. 

DUB RAY JOGI or Bal santa ka jogi. 

i)i Gnazama tomentosum, U, B, 

DUBTHA, Hind. A bundle of peeled 
BUpv canes ready for the press. 

DUCA, Tel. Couocarpus latifolla, Roxb. 

DUCHID PARAII, Kash. Flying 

DUCHIN. See Hot Springs. 

DUCK. The domesticated duck is a de- 
ceodant from the common wild duck, the 
Anas boschaa. Its domesticntion has been 
accomplished in comparatively recent times, 
Ibr it was unknown to the Egyptians, to the 
Jews of the Old Testament and to the Greeks 
of the Homeric period. About 18 centuries 
ago» Columella and Varro speak of the neces- 
sity ef keeping ducks in netted enclosures 
like other wild fowl, so, even then, there 
was danger of them flying away. The 
A. boBchas is met with in all the northern parts 
of Asia, Europe, America and Spain. The 
domestic duck is polygamous ; young ducks 
are iojared by being allowed to swim in 
water. The domestic breeds are the com- 
moQ duck, the Flat-billed, Call and Penguin 
dock, Aiiesbory, Tufted, Hook bill and Labra- 
dor dock, bnt though breeding in remote 
soathem latitudes where the mallard is un- 
known, the domestic breed always shows parts 
of the wild. Certain ducks breed on cliffs or 
trees, and they must carry their young to the 
water, though this has not been observed. 
A large red duck, is the emblem of fidelity 
with the Rajpoots. 

Tadoma vulpanstr^ the common Shield- 
rake of Europe, Asia, N. Africa is common 
in the Panjab ; not rare in Lower Bengal. 

Spatula elypeata or Anas elypeatOj the 
Shoveller, has the Circuit of northern regions, 
N. Africa and is tolerably common in India. 

Anas sieperaj the Gadwall,* and has the 
Circuit of the northern regions and Barbary, 
ud is tolerably common in India. 

Anas aeuia^ the * Pintail Duck,' has the 
Circuit of the northern regions and Barbary, 
and is very common in India. 

Anas boschaSj the ' Wild Duck,' has the 
Circuit of the northern regions and Barbary : 
in India, is confined to Sindh, Punjab, and 
the Himalaya and its vicinity ; repUced 
southward by A. psecilorhyncha. 

Anas querquerdula * Gargaiiy,' of Europe, 
Asia, N. Africa, is very common in India. 

Anas erecca^ * Teal,' of Europe, Asia, Bar- 
btry, is common in India. 

Anas penelape. ' Wigeon,' of Europe, 
Ant, N. Africa, is common in India. 



Fuligula ferina^ the 'Pochard,' of the 
Circuit of the northern regions and Barbary, 
and is common in India. 

Fuligula nyroca. * Ferruginous Duck,' of 
Europe, Asia, N. Africa, is common in India. 

Fuligula marila. « Scaup Duck,' of the 
Circuit of the northern regions, occurs in 
Panjab, Sindh, Nepal. 

^ Fuligula crislata, « Tufted Duck,' of 
Europe, Asia, Barbary, is common in India. 
— Darwin ; Hlyih ; Jerdon, 

DUCKINASORE, is on the Ganges, oppo- 
site to it stands the village of Balli, a very old 
and orthodox place mentioned in the Kobi- 
Kunkun. — Tr.Hind., vol. i, p. 3. 

DUDAGRU. Hind. Ficus reticulata. 

DUDAIJ. Guz. Cordage. 

DUDAIEN of Gen. xxx, 14, is the Man- 
dragora officinalis. 

DUDAL, Hind. Taraxacum officinale, 
also Euphorbia helioscopia, 

DUDDHI, HmD. Euphorbia thymifolia. 
— Linn,, Roxb. 

DUDDUGA, Tel. Guatteria cerasoidee, 

DUDE-KULAVADU, Tel. A cotton 

DUD-FRAS, Hind. Populus ciliata. 
DUDHA-PAR. Hind. Euouymus fim- 
briata. - Wall. 

DUDH-BATTIIAL, Hind. Taraxacum 

DUDHIII, Hind.? A tree of Chota Nag- 
pore witli a soft white timber. — CaL Cat, 
Ex. 1862. 

DUDHI, Hind. Wrightia mollissima. 
Wrightia antidysenterica. — R. Br, 

DUDHIA, Hind. Aconitum napellus. 
Wrightia mollissima. — Wall. 

DUDHIA-MAURA, Hind. Aconitum 

DUDHIKA, Hind. Nyctnuthcs arbor- 

DUDHKALMI, Beng. Ipomaea tuipe- 
thum. — R, Brown, 

DUDHLAK, Hind. Microiliyuclius nudi- 

DUDI CIIETTU, Tel. Abutilou indi- 
cum. — G, Don. 

glandulifera. — Jioxb. 

DUDIPA, Tel. Ilymenodyction exccl- 
sum. — Wall. 

DUDI PAL A, Tkl. Oxystelma esculents. 
R, Brown. Asclepias rosea. — Roxb. 

DUDIPPA, of Godavery forests, Tel. 
Ilymenodyction, Species. 

DUDLA, Hind. Prunus padus, also 
Syringa emodi. 

DUDLA JAMU, of Sutlej, Prunus padus 
— Linn. 

D 157 


f^-KHUITA, B'eno. Desmochoeta 

or DOK, Jav. The hair of the 
»cchariiera, Gomuti, Malay. — LabilL 
HAN. Part of the peninsula of In- 

, Ambari, DuK., Mahr. 
HN, Arab. Millet. 
SHIN-ACHARI, Sans. From duk- 
le right hand, and acbarin, acting. 
SHA, clever, Sans. From daksli, to 

U. The Malay and Javanese name 
I and fruit of the genus Lansium, and 
>rder Meliacede of botanists. To the 
nas belong the langseh, laogsat or 
for in all these forms the word is 
the rambeh and the ayar-ayar, pro- 
four but varieties of the same species, 
u is the most esteemed of them, and 
Buropean palate is the best of the 
hi its of the Archipelago, after the 
ID. The natives class it after the 
nd mangostiu. It is of the size of a 
egg, of globular form, and covered 
oriaceous skin of the colour of parch- 
riie species seems to be indigenous 
nresteru portion of the Archipelago, 
ave been introduced into the Philip. 
hero one variety of it, the langseh, is 
id. — CrawfurcTs Did., p. 125. 
Beng. Fanicum stagninum. 
kf Hind. Abelmoschus ficulneus. 
\, KUDA, Mar. Neriura antidysen- 

A.GONDI, Tel, also Pedda Dula- 

Trl. Mucuna prurita. — Hook, Syu. 

opogon pruriens. — Roxb. 

i-GOVELA, Tel. Aribtolochia in- 


A.-KANCHAN, Mar. Bauhiuia acu- 

A.-KANDA, Tel. Ai-um. Sp. It is 

es applied to A. capanu latum. 

IL KUDA, Mar. Nerium anti- 


CAMARA, contains an active nar- 

cali, solanine, narcotic and diuretic : 

3 to oz. 1, thrice daily. It is very 
J to ascertain whether the Indian 

Solanum nigrum, Arrub-us-saleb, 
} similar virtues. — Beyig. Difpensa- 
^62 ; Beng, Phar., p, 277. 
:E LIGNUM, Lat. Cinnamon. 
>HIRRAM, Tel. Acacia kalcora, 
louB tree on the Godavery. Wood, 

lA, Ar. a bridegroom. Dulhan, 




DULI, a litter or swing. 

DULIGONDI, Tel., also Revati Dula- 
gondi, Tel. Tragia caunabiua.^Zmit. 

DULI AY, Beng. A caste, who carry 
palanquins or other burthens. 

DULLA, Hind. Carbonate of Soda. A 
soda salt, or natron from the watera of the 
Lake of Loonar, it . is used in dyeing, in 
medicine and the arts. 

DULLAISEREE, a river near Roodpur in 

DULLEEA, rice and milk made of a very 
thin consistence. 

DULLUN KATHI, Dukh. See Cotton 

DUL-MARA, Can. Chikrassia tabularis. 

— jid. Juss, 

DULTURAMU, Tel. Datura alhu, Rumph. 

DUM, Hind. A tail, hence dumbah the 

tailed sheep of Afghanistan and the Cape : 

dumchimarchi the tailed pepper, cubebs. 

DUM-LGURG, or the wolf's tail, is the 
Pei*sian name for the first brushes of grey 
light which appeal* as forerunners of dawn. 

DUMAGUDIAM. Coal occurs about 15 
miles north of Dumugudiam, near the junction 
of the Tal-river near l^iiigala. The piesent 
limits of the coal measure fields in North 
India coincide approximately with the original 
limits of deposition and are not the result of 
faulting, or even mainly of denudation. All 
the successive beds (possibly with the ex- 
ception of the Talchir) representing an 
enormous lapse of lime, agree in one respect, 
that they seem to be purely fresh-water 
(fluviatile or fluvi-o-Iacustrine) or esturine 
deposits. The Ranigunj, th(» Jherria, the 
Bokaro, the Ramghur, and the Karuupura 
fields all belong to the drainage basin of the 
Damoodah river. 

DUMAGAS. See Mindanao, 

DUM ALEE A, a river of Sylhet. 

DUM AR, Tel. A rope-dancer, an athlete. 

DUMBA, Hind. A kind of flat tailed sheep 
of Peshawur. Kabul and the Salt Range. 

DUMBAKL See Kelat. 

DUM BAR, Hind. Ficus goolereea. 

DUMBA-STACAM, Tbl. Alpinia ga- 
langa. — Swz. 

DUMB-BELLS. See Magdar. 

DUMBKI. See Kelat. 

DUMKI MIRCHI, Duk. Piper cubebt. 

DUM MUDAR, lit, the breath of Mudar. 

DUMM U LA, Eng. Dammer. 

DUMMUR, Guz. and Hind. Dammer. 

DUMOALA. A river near Saharunpoor. 

DUMPA BACHALI, Tel. Spinacia 
tetran d ra. — Roxb. 

orixensis. The name is also applied to other 
ScitamineouB plants. — Roxb, 





( togetlier in the web and woof ; it is DUNK, a river of Purneah. 
J J used for sails of country ships, and DUNKANI, Beng. Canscora dccussata. 
30 doubt be adFaotageouslj employed DUN0RHUN6. A Penang wood, of a 
ooeasional light sails for larger ships, I brown colour, specific gravity l'23d. Used 
more easily handled than European by the Chinese for carving images. 

Superior descriptions are made witli DUN SHIN G, Hind. Abies webbiana. — 
» and woof, or web only, twisted either Hooker. 
dry, but this becomes as expensive as . DUNTI, Bkng. Syn. of Croton polyan- 

t English canvas : the prevailing price 
ifdinary dungarees, 30 cubits, that is 16 
DOg and 2 feet wide, is 1 rupee 1 2 annas 

drum. — Roxb. 

chos Tranquebaricus. 

ce at Masulipatam, being brought from DUN UK, Hind. Aralia cachemirica, 
gy, a village and Talook to the north- Dunuk-dopaharia, Hind. Pentapetes phsenicea. 
rhere a finer description, well adapted < DUOLA KANCHAN, Mar. Bauhiuia 
fiy is made at 7 Rupees the piece of 36 ' acuminata, also B. albida and B. Gibsoni. 
I yard wide. About Vizagapatam the ! DUPADA CHETTU, Tel., Dupada ma- 
f dungaree is usually sold by weight, j ra, Mal., Dupa mara. Can. Vateria indica. 

(t Bengal tents appear to be made of 
1 textured dungaree, the threads of 
tre fiuer than is usual in dungarees. 

— Linn, 

DUPHALA and Abor Hills, are the 
mountains N. of Assam, inhabited by Bhoo- 
other cotton goods, dungaree should | teans, Duphala, aud Abor tribes. They 
exposed to the weatlier in sails, tents, | are from 5,000 to 6,000 ft., above the 
the weavers dressing and filth has { surrounding level. The face of Assam 
loroughly removed by washing and presents an immense plain, studded with 
deaching. — Fatdkjier^ Rohde MSS. clumps of hills, rising abruptly from the 
"GING OF CLOTHS, is a process j general level. The mouutains on the N. are 
I to by dyers both in the Kast Indies * composed generally of primitive rocks. Those 
rope, the object i>eing t<» impregnate ' to the S., are tertiary and mctamorphic. See 
Joths with animal matter for which Dophla. 

yes have a stroug atfiiiity. — Rohde i DUPLEIX. An eminent French com- 

I mander, who served in the Peninsula of India 
^GTEN. A bone or relic receptacle, in the middle of the 18th century, and made 

great efforts to sustain French interests there, 
against the British. He opposed Anwar-ud- 
diu aud his sou Mahomed Ali, styled Walla- 
jah, in opposition to Major Stringer Lawrence 
who was contending with Chunda Sahib. 
Dupleix, failed in an attack on Fort St. 
David, on the 19th December 1747. His 
elForts were directed to expel the British from 
the Peninsula his chief British opponents 
being Lawrence and Ciive. In that time, 
Madras, Fort St. David, Cuddalore, Arcot, 
St. Thome, repeatedly changed hands. He 
was appointed Chief of Chandernagore and 
succeeded M. Dumas as Governor of Poudi- 
cherry. lie was of a bold, self-reliant but 
The Chodten or Chorten of Tibet haughty character and was much thwarted 
ilar to the Stupa. They consist of a i by M. de la Bourdonuais. It was in his time 

hudd'hist religionists. The Chaitva, 

ffa':red object worshipped by the 

5t, as a tree, an altar, a temple, as 

any monument raised on the site 

neral pile, as a mound or pillar, and 

kbiy applicable both to the buddUiist 

1, or otfering to the deity, and the 

•o, a bone or relic receptacle. The 

or Chaitya of Indian buddhism, are 

d to have been erected, subsequent 

Save temples and Yiharas or monas- 

The ancient Stupa were originally 

receptacles of either the Buddhas 

Bodhisattvas and the kings who 

iged the propagation of the budd'hist 

that Madras was taken and held by the French 
and again restored to the British. He twice 
failed to take Cuddalore. He negotiated 
largely and formed alliances with native 
chiefi*, with Anwar- u<l-din, Clianda Sahib, 
riAII, Beug., Can., Duk. and Hind, i Muznftnr Jung, an 1 Nuzir Jung. In 1752, 

cal va«e, and have a cupola over them. 
ddha. Topes. 

[GAL-KARNEWALA, literally, the 
er o£ a crowd, the master of cere- 

nim sativum. Coriander seed. 
I-ILA.DURU, Eng. Tabernaemon- 
kotcnaa. — Roxb. 

lYA, Bsko., Duk., Guz., Hind., 
., Sans. Coriandrum sativum. — 
i0xbf W> Ic. Coriander seed. 


he was appointed by Saiabut Jung, Subadar 
of the Dekkan, Nawab of the Carnatic. 
For his services he was created a marquis, 
but misfortunes overtook him and he was 
superseded by M. Godeheu and returned to 
France in September 1754. On his return to 

D IGl 




her right foot reats oa the back of a liooy 

which is lacerating his arm. On her head 

the has a crown richlj gemmed, and her dress 

18 asgnificently decorated with jewels. The 

giaot is issuing from the body of the buffalo, 

iato which he had transformed himself during 

his combat with the goddess. The plate given 

as the frontispiece of Moor's Pantheon, was 

ttkea from a cast by a then well-known 

Mtist, Chit Rai, and represents, with great 

pneisioQ the figures which are exhibited at 

the iDDaai celebration of the Durga Puja or 

DaasroA. At this festival the images of her 

aoasi £artikeya and Ganesha, are also, in 

Boiipl, usually placed on each side of her. 

Iliis is the most splendid and expensive, as 

vdl as the most popular of auy of the north- 

hindoo festivals and takes place in the 

ith Ashwinu or in the end of September or 

U||w^i"g of October. The preliminary cere- 

■onisB occupy several days previous to the 

three ^s of worship. During the whole 

of this period all business throughout many 

psrts of the country is suspended, and uni- 

vsnai pleasure and festivity prevail. Sir 

Jdia Malcolm, in the Transactions of the 

Bombay Literary Society, in allusion to 

tbe Durga Puja or Dusarah^ has stated 

Aat the hindoo soldiers have converted the 

aumals and instruments of modern warfare 

iolo emblems of tlieir Belloua. Thus the horse 

ii invoked to carry his master, fii-st to victoiy 

and then to repose. The flag-staff is the 

Oflign of ludra ; the sword is celebrated under 

several names ; the bow and arrow are also 

pnused ; and even fire-aims have their proper 

pre-eminence of adoration. The hiudoo artil- 

letynau, at all times, regards the gun to which 

hd vk attadied as an object of superstitious 

reference, and usually bestows on it the name 

of some deity. During the Durga festival, 

tbe cannon belongiug to the army are planted, 

piaised, invoked and propitiated by several 

ipeciss of oflTeriDg. Ou the morniug of the 

leath day, the Peishwa, with all his chiefs 

and soldiers, used to move out to the camp 

ia the vicinity of the city, each beiug raug- 

ed under liis pai-ticular bauuer, mounted on 

his best horse, dressed in his finest clothes, 

lad with his ai*ms highly polished. Horses, 

elephants and camels, were all arranged 

ia their gayest trappings, and every corps 

•pread its gaudiest flags and banners. The 

whole population of the capital, either as 

■etora or spectators, joined in this grand 

procession, which moved towards the sacred 

tree, the object of adoration. After the 

oierings and prayers, the Peishwa plucked 

tome leaves off the tree, on which all the 

oaoon and musketry commenced firing. The 

Ptiehwa then plucked from a field, purchased 


for the occasion, a stalk of jowari or bajri, 
on which the whole crowd fired off their ai*ms, 
or shot arrows, and rushed in an instant and 
tore up the whole. Each endeavoured to 
procure his share of the spoil. Some succeed- 
ed in carrying off a handful, whilst others 
contented themselves with a few stalks ; all, 
however, returned home with shouts of joy, 
and the remainder of the day and night was 
devoted to festivity and mirth. Many other 
usages prevail at this festival, which are 
peculiar to the Mahrattas, among others, that 
of sacrificing sheep and buffaloes, sprinkling 
the blood ou the horses with great ceremony, 
and distributing the flesh of the former to all 
ranks, brahmins excepted. The chiefs often 
give money to enable their soldiera to buy 
sheep to perform sacrifices, which, from fur- 
nishing them with a good dinner, are by many 
considered as the most essential ceremonies 
of the Dusarah. The deity thus honored is, 
however, still the same, and Durga, who 
destroyed more giants than all the rest of the 
hindoo divinities together, is, under all the 
numerous names and forms derived therefrom, 
no other than Pai-vati, Bhavani, or Devi, the 
sacii or peraonified energy of Siva. The Font, 
the symbol of female energy, is the emblem 
of this goddess, as the Lingam is that of her 
husband. This emblem is worshipped by the 
Sacta sect : and, in conjunction with the Linga 
by the Saiva sect. It forms the rim or edge of 
the Argha, or cup, which encircles the Linga. 
— In the Durga puja, the sacred jar is an 
essential article in the celebration of the 
mysteries and is marked with the combined 
triangles, denoting the union of the two 
deities, Siva and Durga. The Sacta sect, wor- 
shippers of the Sacti, or female principle, 
mark the jar with another triangle. The 
Vaishnava sect, in their puja,use also a mystical 
jar, which is also marked. These marks, Mr. 
Paterson says are called Tantra ; and are 
hieroglyphic characters, of which there are a 
vast number. He hence ingeniously deduces 
the identity of the hindoo puja with some 
Egyptiau rites of a corresponding nature. 
An explanation of his views is given in his 
Essay ou the origin of the hindoo religion, 
in the eighth volume of the Asiatic Researches, 
p. 401. In the different terrific forms of 
Siva and Durga, a necklace of skulls foims 
an invariable decoration, as does the crescent 
or half-moon on the forehead ; and the moon 
is considered to be the peculiar reservoir of 
Amrita or the beverage of immortality. — In 
Hind. Theatre, Vol. ii, p. 59, Aghoraghanta 
invoking Chamuuda, says of Durga, 

I The elephant hide that robei thee, to thy iteps 
Swings to and fro ; the whirling talons rend 
The crescent on thy brow ; from the torn orb 

D 1 03 




coneoane of people assemble. The second were all arranged in tlieir gayest trap- 
dor^oA is situated on the banks of the river at - pings, and every corps spread its gaudiest 
Maogalore, and consists of a large, long, tomb flags and banners. The whole population of 
withminaretsateachextremity. Z,otr Lit M^ar the capital, either as actom or «pcctatori$, 
SAakj a faqir, whose name it bears is buried joined in tliis grand proceseiuu, which moved 
here. Lamps are burned here every night, ; towards tlienacred tree, the object of adoration, 
and it is chiefly visited by the hindoo Tamil At't^rr the otferiugs and prayert*, the Peihhwa 
laoe, - but al»o by mohamedaus and other < plucked some leaves otf the tree, on which all 
hindoos. Most hindoos, however, frequent the cannon and nui^ketry commenced tiring. 
SkeiJkk FurretdM dargah. These dargaks The Fetich wa then plucked irom a field, pur- 
are resorted to when people are desirous of' chained for the occasion, a ^talk ot* jawarif or 
being fi'eed from any distemper, misfortune, j bqjreCy on which the whole crowd tired ofl* 
Ac. If (he individual who is enshrined in ' their arms, or i^llot arrows, aii<l rushed in an 
the dargah have been wealthy, large dinners i iustaut nml tore up the whole. Each 
are proTided, fdtiha offered, and the food | endeavoured to procure his share of the spoil. 
dirtribated to any who choose to (lartake of ; Some succeeded in currying otf a handful, 
it ; there being sometimes Kanehni ka taefa ' whilst others contented themselves with a few 
(fauidi of dancing girls) to entertain the stalks, all, however, returned home witli shouts 
AnaoDg the great this takes place ! of joy, and the remainder of tlie day and night 
every night of the year (and is never oh- | was devoted to festivity and mirth. Many 
in the day time) ; but among the poorer other usages prevail at this festival, which are 

peculiar to the Mahrattas, among others, that 
of sacrificing sheep and bufiklocs sprinkling 
the blood on the hors^cs with great ceremony, 
Bengal, in the month of Aswin, about Octo- • and distributing the flesh of tlie ibnner to ail 
bar. On this occasion the images of her sons, ^ ranks, Bi-alimins excepted. The chiefs often 
fiaitikeya and Gauesha, are also, in Bengal, | gave money to eualle tlieir soldiers to buy 
naaaliy placed on each side of her. This is I sheep to perform sacrifices, which, from fur- 
Am moat splendid and expensive, as well as | nishing them with a good dinner, were by 
d» Boat popular of any of the hindoo festi- j many considered as the most essential cere- 
Tala, and takes place in the month Ash wins, j monies of the Dasserah. In the Durf^a puja, 
the end of September or beginning of Octo- i a sacred jar, is un essential art i eh; in the cele- 
ber. The preliminary ceremonies occupy ■ bration of the mysteries and is mariced with 
Kveral dnys previous to the three days of; the combined triangles denoting the union of 
vorahip. During the whole of this period all . the two deities, Siva and Dur^a. The Sactn 
basiness throughout the countiy is (suspended, I sect, worshippers of the iSncti, or female 
udDuiversal pleasure and festivity prevail. ( principle, mark the jar with anotlier triangle. 
It ia known among the Mahrattas as the Das- The Vaishnava, in their wor.'^hip, use also n 
ferah and hindoo soldiers have converted the '■ mystical jar, which is also marked. Tlj(>se 
aoimals and instruments of modern warfare j marks, Mr. Patersou sayf), are called Tantia ; 
iato emblems of their Bellona. Thus the j and are hieroglyphic characters, of which 
korae is invoked to carry his master, first to ! there are a vast variety. He heii(?c deductrs 
riciory and then to repose. The flag-stafl' I the identity of the hindoo pnja with some 
IB the ensign of Indra ; the sword is celebrat- Egyptian rites of a corresponding nature. — 

of people, eveiy Monday and Thursday 
or OBoe a week or month. — Herklois, 
DCRGA PUJA, the festival of Durga in 

ed under several names ; the bow and arrows 
ire also praised ; and even fire-arms have 

Sir John Malcolm, in the Transactiotis of the 
Bombay Literary Society, Cole. Myth, llind. 

their proper pre-eminence of adoration. The j/?. 91 ; Paterson, E$s<ty on the origin of the 
kindoo artilleryman, at all times, regards the j Hindoo religion, Asiatic Researches^ vol. 
gonto which he is attached as an object of viii, p. 401. 
nperstitious reverence, and usually bestows DUKGARAZ PATNAM, in the Ncllore 

OD it the name of some deity. During the 
Durga festival, the cannon belonging to the 
imiT are planted, praised, invoked, and pro- 
pitiated by several species of offerings. On 
fhemaming o£ the tenth day, the Peishwa, 
wiih all his chiefs and soldiers, used to move 
oat to the camp in the vicinity of the city, 
Mfih being ranged under his pai'ticular ban- 
r, mounted on his best horse, dressed in 

District one of the earliest of the British 

DURGARI, of Panjab, Albizzia stipulata. 
— Boiv. 

DURGA VATI, pronounced Durgonti, 
was the daughter of the Chandail king of 
Mahoba, the ancient capital of Bundelcund. 
With her father's consent, the Gond king of 
Gurrah Mundla carried her off with an army 

)aafioeat dotibea, and with hia arma highly of 50,000 men. After her husband's death, 
ftfidied. Horses, elephants, and camela, Asof Khan, a general of Akbar, in 1564, ad- 

165 D 165 



tfaoTD or prickle, Id reference to Uie sharp ' DURKE. See Chepang, Haiju, Clietang. 
tobocles with which the nnd is covered. \ DURRIKHANA, is a hali of audience, 
riiis name, with trifling yariations, is that of < appropriated for ceremonies, carpets are 
tefttiit in every coontry in which it is found < spread. — TocTs Bajasthatij Vol, i. p, 185. 
hxn Jmva to Siam, and it has no other. | DURRUMPOOR. A revenue district in 
^rom this^ therefore, it may he inferred that Bengal, formed out of ancient Bahar. 
iie tree is a native of the country of the DURRUNG. A division of Lower Assam. 

tfalaja, viz., Sumatra, the Peninsula, and 
dieir adjacent islands, and that through the 
Malaya it was more widely disseminated. In 
the interior of the Malay Peninsula, in several 
plaees in the forest are found Durian trees, 
always in a body together, to the numher of 
aboat ten or twelve trees. Such places are 
Artha Jakuns an object of great attention, 
and matter of work. They cut with the 
peat axe all the other trees which surround 
ihe Dorians, that these, by receiving more air, 
mtsj grow up more easily, and give finer, and 
a greater quantity of fruit They build there 
a small house, and then return to their ordi- 
nary habitations, which are sometimes distant 
fram soeh places one or two days' journey. 
Darian, is seen to grow spontaneously in one 
of the small islands off the eastern coast of 
the Peninsula, and which is nearly one entire 
forest down to the margin of the sea. On 
Palo Tingi, the oi-ang-iunt, or sea-gypsies, 
sascmble, attracted from the coasts of the 
PcBiiwola, as well as from the islands of the 
J^ore Archipelago. On one occasion six 
boats from Moro, an inland of that group, 

DURSHUA, Tel. Acacia sirissa — Buck, 

DURAKHT-I-MUKUL, Pers. Commi- 
phora Madagascarenis. 

DURUNG, Malay, in Bawean, a hall of 
audience or of reception, before the houses. 

DURUNGA, Hind. Artemisia elegans. 

DURVA, Hind. Poa cynosurioides. 
Vishnu as Rama, in his seventh incarnation, 
assumed the colour of this grass, which is, 
therefore, held sacred to that god, and used 
by the hindoos in all religious ceremonies. 
See Graminaceae. 

DURYASA, in hindoo legend, a rishi of a 
choleric temper, whose curse was of dread- 
ful effect. See Lakshmi. 

DURWAN, Pers., Hind. A doorkeeper. 

DURWESH, OR FAQEER, a mohamedan 
religious mendicant or devotee, the Dervis of 
the Arabian Nights. 

DURYA KA KEKRA, Duk., Crab. 

DURYA-KA-NAREL, Duk. Guz. Hind. 
Sea-cocoa-nut of Seychelles. 

DURYAN, of Dryon : Lodoicea Strait, is 
above 120 miles long, from Pulo-Varela to 
the Curimons ; and is bounded on the west 
ifoand on their way to Pulo Tingi ; they | side by the coast of Sumatra, False Durian, 
bad travelled by sea a distance of 180 miles,] Sabon and the contiguous islands : on the 
to partake of the fascinating fruit. — Roxburgh,] FjRhI side by the islands off the South and 
ViLWljp. 398; Marsden's Hist, of Sumatra; : Westsides of Lingin, Great and Little Durian 
MmfmiMTentLSMerim ; McCleUand,Eng,Cyc.', \ and the adjacent islands. Throughout these 
Crawfurd Did., p. 126. i Straits the tides are veiy irregular. — Hon- 

Amphidonax karka. 

DUBIYA MADDI, Tel. Briedelia 
ipiiMMa, WiUde. 

DURMA, Beng. 
See Graminaceas. 

DURMUR, Hind. 

DUROOD, Hind., 
benediction. Durudi, 

Xanthozylon alatum. 

Pers. Blessing or 

a person who reads 

prayers or reads the koran at the tombs of 
deceased persons. 

DURPANA, Sans. From drip, to shine. 

DURRA also ZURRUT, Arab. Sor- 
ghom vulgrare. 

DURRA, a corruption of Dtoar, a barrier, 
pus, outlet or |>ortal, and Mokufid, one of 
the epithets of Krishna. Mokundurra and 
IhoaricanaCk are synonimous : — *' the pass 
nd portal of the Deity.'* — Tod^s Rajasthatiy 
r$l, u. p. 702 703. 

DUBBABUND. See Kliyber, p. 514. 

DURRAH. See Pindara. 

DURRA WAL, 18 coss, equally between 

burgh. See Durian. 

DURYODHANA, the head of the Kuru 
race, who made war with the Pandava race, 
as the elder branch, retained his title as 
head of the Kuru, while the junior, Yoodis- 
htra, on the separation of authority, adopt- 
ed his father's name, Pandu, as the patro- 
nymic of his new dynasty. The site of the 
great conflict known as the Mahabharat 
between these rival clans, is called Kuru 
Khetu, or * Field of the Kuni.' The rivalry 
between the races was continuous, but Dury- 
odhanu, who often failed in his schemes 
against the safety of his antagonists, deter- 
mined to make the virtue of Yoodishtra 
the instrument of his success. He availed 
himself of the national propensity for play, in 
which the Rajpoot continues to preserve his 
Scythic resemblance. Yoodishtra fell into the 
snare prepared for him. He lost his kingdom, 
his wife, and even his personal liberty and that 

Ikmedpoor and Bahawalpoor is the chief] of his brothers, for twelve years, and became 
ftrtress of the Bahawalpoor state. I an exile from the plains of the Tamuna« 

167 D 167 

DUTCH. i>i:t<;h. 

wind was laden with vast quantities of red- 
dish dost, no refreshing shower succeeded the 

given in India, lo the turban, worn on the 

charts, and drawings to Genoa by some 
Portuguese mercimnts wlio were trading 
to Memphis. On receipt of tliese, king 
Emanuel, in 1495, sent four ships under 
Vasco de (ramo, wlio visited Natal and Mo- 

heid by mohamedans of Turkey and India, ! ^^anihique : in 149S, he was at Calcutta, in 

and bv hindoos : the word turbun is unknown \ i***^^ *^"<^k nt Lishr>n. 

to mohameuans of India. ^" ^ '^^^'^ ^*»« Portuguese loader Se<iniera 

DUST BOSEE, lit. hand-kissing. 
DUSTH-BULLA. See Kurb-bulU. 

entered the Eustrrn Arc*hi|K;lago. In lolO, 

Alfonso Albuquenpie vi?:ited Sumatra, and in 

loll, took Malacra, which he fortified, nud 

DUSTOOR, properly written d.-istur, is ; u^nt out Antonio d' Abren to sean-li for the 

perhaps a mere abbreviation of tlastnr-iil-anial. , Spjoe On his way eastward, D'Abreu 

A body of instructions and tables for the use ! t^,„.|,^^.,i ^^ Agasai (dresik) in Java. In 

of revenue officers under the native Govern- ; 1511^ tjie I'ortugnese visU.-d nantani. Ludo- 

meot of India. vJcq IJurihenia w«s the first European who 

DUST PANXA. A pair of tongs carried descril»ed Javn fmni pers<nial o'uservntion, liut 

bj taqetTS. I some of his statemiMits a^^ lo the cannibal pro- 

'dUSTUGIR-WALAY. An apiKjllation " Ix*".Mfies of the- inhabitants are questionable. 

given bv the Gvr-raahdian mohamedans to all I" 15ii^ the Dutrh, under Houtmann" first 

other sects " arrived ott 1 San tarn, and foni»«i the uative 

rkT-c-r * o rrrr w a 4 1 1 1 *i *i ^'"^' ^^ ^^'''*** ^^''tl» the Portugu<'se. They lent 

Dl^TAR-KII AN. A tablecloth or rather i- ^ 1 , ^ r,- n. ^ 1 1 * 1 * 

... , , , hmi aul, on condition of iiavini: land at dacatra 

• floorcloth, one spread on the ground. n .. 1 r r * 'ii r * i*- 

, I o allotted for a factory. J he enrJiest expe<litiou 

DUSUN, or hill tribes of Aml)ong. p^iled from Holland in ir/)4, under Houtmann, 

DUTA. In hinduism, messengers of the who visite<l Bantam and then Madura, 
gods. where he had to pay 2,()(X) rix-dollars to 

DUTCH. The name in the Engii**h Ian- liberate some of his crew. On the 3p1 of 
gaige given to the people of Holland, in March lo99, he arrived off Hitu-Lama. War 
Evope, who call their own country Neider- then ensured between the Spanish, Portuguese, 
hud or Netherland. They have occupied and Dutch, which lasted till 1(>1(), when the 
pirts of the Cast Indies since the close of the I Dutch remained masters of tliepe seas and 
ucteenth century and designate their posses- ' monopolized the lucrative trade. The Hritish 
sioaB in the ArchiiKjIago Netherlands tried to enter on that trade but they too were 
bdia. Ceylon was occupied by the Por- finally driven off. In H)l(), the Dutch fortifi- 
togae^e in 1596, was taken possession of ed the vilhige of Jacatra which they nanicd 
bjthe Dutrh in I608, and by the iiiitish : Batavia. In !(> 19, this was destroyed, but it 
ia 1797. Ther had small possessions on the , was then rebuilt by Mr. Holt, the Dutch 
eoniinent of India chiefly near Cochin, but at governor-general, and this was the beginning 
present they occupy or hold under feudatories of the present town of Hatavia. In 1811, 

I great part of the Eastern Archipelago, and when Franco overran Hollmid, the flag of 
their terrilorieft arc styled the Dutch East France was hoisted at Datavia, but in the 
Indies also the Dutch Indies, also the Nether- same year the ]>ritish captured it, only to 
hod possessions in India. This nation first restore it, on the 19th August IHK). *Java, up 
eune to the Eastern Archipelago as the to the l.'lth century was partly hiudoo, partly 
terrants of the Portuguese. Pedro da Co- I budd'hist, ))artly niohamedan, but in the loth 
vilham and Alfonso de Payva, were sent century, mohamedanism took the lead, and in 

II merchants in 1494, via Genoa, Alexandria, I 147«^ a niohamedan prince took the throne 
Cairo and the Red Sea, to Aden, where they ! at tiio overthrow of the great kingdom of 
leparated to meet again at Cairo, in Abyssinia, ' Majapahit, which had <1ominion over the 
Piyva to search for Prester John, whom he I who](! of Jjiv?i and the eastern parts of 
Wird of as reigning there over a highly culti- Sumatra. In I < i9, the reigning.prince abdica- 
ted people, but he died before reacdiing ' ted in favour of the Dutch East India Corn- 
Abyssinia. Covilham went on to India where ' pany. Seven years i>rior to that event, the 
he made drawings of cities and harbours, ' sovereignty had been divided into a spiritual 
Mpeciailj, Goa and Calicut. Thence he ' heatl, the ** Susunan" or " object of adoration," 
vetaraed along the coast of Persia to Cape i whose 4lescondants now reside at Surakarta 
Gtrdafui, and continued south to Mozambique near Solo, and a second prince who war. styled 

■id Zofala where he ascertained that the land 
Viitted the Cape of Good Hope. From Zofala 

sultan, and whose descendants reside at 
Jokyokarta, both of them highly pensioned. 

h« returned to Abyssinia and sent his diary, by the Dutch rulers in the Archipelago. The 

160 i> n;9 



Population of the Netherlands India^ 1865, 


ocl Mauiura 

t oi)ast" of Sumatra, iucluditig the 

lauds frum Nias to the Pagia 

Dcy of Bencor^len 





> (the parts under the Dutch Govt.) . 

of Amboina. 
Ban da.... 

id Lombok.. 
























































































854 Amboina, Ternate, Banda and 
, were made free ports. — Bikmore, p. 
'aunt de Hogendrop, Coupid'ceil sur 
ie Java, Brussels, 1830; No. IV, 
r 1857, Journal of the Indian Archi- 
, TemmincKs General View of the 
iMMsessions in the Indian Archipelago. 
XJHNA. See Parvati. 
7RO, Port. Thorn apple. 
TATREYA, Sans. From Datta, a 
d atreja, from Atre, a sage. 
rrURAMU, Tel. Datura alba, 
L Datura metel. — Roxb^ Rheede. 
TALI, Hind. A bindoo festival ; a 
"feast of lamps" in September; rain 
at this season is good. See Dipawali. 
, Ostrich, Estridge. 
¥'ANLOO, the Kujur of Duwanloo 
leir Dame from Duwanloo, a village 
Irirao, in the vicinity of which they 
og encamped. — Malcohn's History of 

Vol. ii, p. 262. 
rONG, Malay. Halicore. Dugong. 
^ Hind. Asparagus Punjabensis. 
^HAEA. See Arian. 
LITA OR DAUHITY, a system of 
philosophy. See Dwaitya. 
LPARA-YUGA, in hinduism the 
Tfi of the world. 
LRA-PALAKA, a door-keeper. 
PA GUSTIA, Sans. Cassia alata. 
ADUSHATMA, Sans, From dwadu- 
elve, and atma, form. 
\ITA. Muttra boasts almost as high 
qnity as any city in India. It is the 
1 of Valmiki and Menu, the Methora 
bo and Arrian and the Mo-thow-lo of 
rhsang. Long before E[hansa reigned 
hDa was bom, Muttra was a jungly 
enpied by the abonginal Dwaita, who 
-obablj the ancestors of the Mair and 

Meena of our day. Their king contemporaiy 
with Rama was Lubbiu. — Tr. of Hind., Vol, 
ii, p. 21. 

DWAITYA, Adwaitya and Vasista dwai- 
tya, the three great schools of brahmanical 

DWAPARA, Sans., From dwa, the 
second, and para, after. See Suryavansa 

DWA-NEE, BuBM. Eriolaena, sp. 

DWARA, a portal, a door. Amongst all 
the nations of antiquity, the portal has had its 
peculiar veneration : to pass it was a privilege 
regarded as a mark of honour. The Jew 
Haman, in the true oriental style, took post at 
the king's gate as an inexpugnable position. 
The most pompous court in Europe takes its 
title from its porte, the " Bab" or door, where, 
as at Oodipoor, all alight. The tripolia, or 
triple portal, the entry to the magnificent 
terrace in front of the Rana*s palace, consists, 
like the Roman arcs of triumph, of three 
arches, still preserving the numeral sacred to 
the god of battle, one of whose titles is Tri- 
puri, which may be rendered Tripoli, or 
lord of the three places of abode, or cities, 
but applied in its extensive sense to the three 
worlds, heaven, earth and hell. From the 
Sanscrit " Pola," we have the Greek "polls," 
gate, or pass ; and in the guardian or 
" Polioh," the door-keeper or porter ; and the 
English language is indebted, not only for its 
portes and porters but its doors (dwara). 
Pylos signified also a pass ; so in Sanscrit 
these natural barriers are called Pala, and hence 
the poetical epithet applied to the aboriginal 
mountain tribes of Rajast'han, namely Palipati 
and Pala-indra, Mords of the pass,' Nat'h- 
dwara,' is the most celebrated of the fanes of 
Krishna the hindoo Apollo. Its etymology 
is *the portal (dwara) of the god' (nat'h), 
of the same import as his more ancient shrine 







Lindoos aiiii hv all the fivr Motions of tlic roinnfo wfslorii roj^ions born me * Mletchn,' rr 
artizan cla;^s, tlR* k:ul^ala ot' ilie hiiidnos, viz : liarlurians, to.*- li monies \v)ii<-li must he held 
tlie ^«>MMnitli, \»inz\vv, Ma'krimith, stniie-cut- coiiilusivc <tl' jMitivt iutrn-fmrse and reri- 
UT and c'jrpeiitei, ant! the niimher uf thne proriiy of seiiiiiiH-ni hefween th(f natioiis of 
tiireads. eadi measuring; niuet}'->Ix liand.T, ior Ceniral A>ia and India at priinds the most 
tilt: SIC riti rial >trih<j;, ni:»y ha\e s«imt' my.-ticjil renioii-. — ToiCs Rnjasthmi^ (W. ii, pp. 218 
allusion to the ninety-six lixed annual and "iWi ; 'I i'fn*sai'tions of the Ihntnl Asiatic 
sacritices- The nuinlier three i>mystiral with Soactf/, Vol. iii, I'idc papa- tntithd '• Cnm^ 
aiiiiList all iiatii>ns : an«I, with the liindoos, ' /;a/'i«r//< ot the Hindoo and 1 helmn Her- 
may rr-t'er to the same soune as the three cnlvs ;'" Mr. Cole.hrook on Indian classes ' 
a>:red tires, the tlire** lugs of Agni^ the triail Asiatic Bisearrhi.s^ Vol. v, p, o3. 
of dirine powers. &e., niucty-tix d«M.'s not; DWIPACjl.'STIA, Sans. Ca.<->ia alatn L, 
Lowerrr, arise from any <>nlinary j)ror«.«ss of: DWOIMATC KJHA, Sans. From dwo 
thrpe, ami seven, and two; the tlisiin;;ui^h- two, and matr, a inmher. 
iof DQmiM.^rs of Agni's le|;s, arms anti fairt-s. DVA. S<'*; Intlia. 

— JSfof#r, jK 375>, CWf, Myth. Hind., pp. ; DYAK. The people thuH denominated 
155, 24o. ! must not he eon founded with the Daya of the 

DWIJA RAJA, Sans. From dwija, west coast. Thry inhabit the hord«'rs of the 
tfrice-rkoriiy and raja a priuee. i river of Hanjrrma>.^in^ and some of the other 

DWIPA, Sans. An island, from dwi, two, southern rivers, and their proper de&ti^nation 
and ap, water: also au extensive region or is Nj:ajur or Biaju. Tiny are also ealled 
rootineut. The cosmography of the Agni . Kahayan from the great river of that name. 
Pooimni divides the world then kuowu to the | Tho notions of the i)yak reHpeelin<' the hipiri- 
hindoiiff, iuio »eveii dwijia, or continents : one tual worlil are in general mueh confused and 
of tbe«e lA " Suca-dwifui, whose inhabitants, j at variance with each other. Thev agree 
descended from Bup'ha, are termed Saecs- ' however, in the belief in good and evil spirits, 
win, (i. ^-, SaciR-lords)." II i» (Bup'ha's) The g<»od spirits are divided into two classes 
o&priug or descendants were Julud, Sook- viz., spirits of the world above or of the 
Bar, Manichuk, Kooruin, Ootures, Darbeeka, . liigher regions, who are comprised under tho 
DroomBy each of whom gave his uame to a collective deuominatiou of *' Lengiang,'* and 
KhiDd, or division (qu. Sookmar Khaml ?) | s])irits of the lower regions, or more properly 
Tbe chief ranges of mountains were Juldun, I such as have their dominion iu tlie waters in 
RaiTat, Siamah, Indue, Ainki, Bim and Kesari. great rivers, and those are called '*Jata." 
There were seven grand rivers, viz., Mug, 

The collective name of the evil spirits is 
"Talopapa," which word signifies in general 

Mugudy Arverua, &c. The inhabitants wor- 
ship Khe &un. Slight as this information is, all bad thing«>. It is to be observed here that 
we must believe that this Suca-dwipa or the Dyak describe the aspect of the regions 
Smui, is the Scythia of the ancients ; and above as similar to the terrestrial world 
the Stcefawara (the saca of Menu), the saca^ . mountains, valleys, streams, lakes, &c. &e. 
10 well known in wes-tern liistory, the progeni- arc found there as well as here beneath and 

*l... .1 :..: _r • ... , ' . . 

tors of the Parthians, whose first (ad) king 
vasArsaca. The sun-worship indicates the 
adorer o£ Mithras, the Mitra or Surya of the 

the domini<»nK of various sj)irits are bounded 
by the difierent streams and branehea of tlie 
rivers. The Snrebas Dyak live along 

hiodoo ; the Arverna re-calls the Araxes ap- 1 the Bnlaiig J.upar river of Borneo and on the 
^ed to the Jaxartes, while Julud, the proper ' Batang Lupar mountains. Soon after Sir 

•Tj""<'« Brooke vi>ited the Archipelago, com- 
mon fame brought to him accounts tliat the 
powerl'ul tribe of the Sarebas, wearing small 
ear-rings, were the most fierce and treacherous 
of all tho Dyak race. Excepting the Sakar- 
ran, they were the most savage, delighting in 
pillage and head-hunting, both by sea and 
land. TJie Dyak appear to be divided by 

of the son of the first king of Sdc^- 
dwipa, appears to 1)0 the JubJus of the Tatar 
historian Abulgazi, who uses the same term 
18 does tiie hindoo, to designate a range of 
BOQDtains. Wlience this identity between 
Pooranic and Tatar cosmography. The grand 
iaternatioaal conflicts amongst the *' fifty-six 
Tada trilies/' at Curu-khetaand subsequently 

It Dwarica, are sufllicieutly known to the I many customs and usages naturally into two 

reader of hindoo history. A chief of the classes, which have been called by Mr. Brooke 

tvice-born tribe («.f., brahmins) was brought ! land and sea Dyak; the latter appear to 

bj Viahriu's eagle from Saca-dwipa, and thus 
\nt Suca-dwipa brahmans become known in 
Jaznbu-dwipa. And Menu says that it was only 
Qt their ceasing to sanction brahmans residing 
voDgst them, that the inhabitants of these 

173 D 

have Ix'cn the more savage and powerful, the 
former the more quiet and easily managed. 
Amongst the sea Dyak the practice of pre- 
serving the heads of their enemies, anciently 
instituted that they might bo kept as mcmo- 




it was the adat niuik, or custom of their i with much ceremony and wrapped up in tho 
ancestors. The state of morality amongst the i curiously foideil and plaited leaves of tho 
Sakarmu aud Sambas Dyaks is strangely ; uipah palm, though frequently emitting the 
more h&x than iu any of the other tribes. | disgusiting odour [>eculiar to decaying mor- 
II is affirrneil, and they themselves have | tality. On shore and in tho village, the head, 
frequently told that it is the common ' for months after its arrival, is ti'eated with 
CDSlum lor tbe unmarried women to have : the greatest consideration. In action, the 
amonggt the &^imilarly situated of the other i>ex, | left hand of the Dyak supports a large wooden 
lovers to whuni they are liberal of their | shield, which covers the greater part of his 
favours : this proceeds with the knowledge • body. It is made of the light wood of the 
and cooseut of the parents for some time, but ; plye or jeiutong, about three feet long and 
if the girl should prove pregnant, the father i twenty inches broad, convex towards the 
of the child must take the mother i'or his centre, and of the same breadth throughout. 
wife ; but if the connexion should long The heads of their enemies are, amongst the 
COQliflue without the attainment of this desired I sea-tribes, preserved with the flesh and hair, 
molt, the acquaintance is discontinued and i »till adhering to the skull, and tlieso trophies 

tbey each bc^k new sharers of their loves. 
Sbouid they not be constant to each other 
danug this stage of their intimacy, the offence. 

are not, as amongst the land-tribes, the gene- 
ral property of the villatje, but the personal 
property of the individuals who capture them. 

though public, never becomes an occasion oi though the honour of the tribe is augmented 
scandal to either persou coin^erned, and i by their being iu the village. The skull 
DOthin^ is said of it except, perhaps, by the • being freed from the brain, which is extract- 
one who has been deceived. Though virtue ed by the occipital hole. This resembles tho 

before marriage is thus little resi>ected, 
fkiUiIessDese after the marriage feast has 
taken place, is a grave and serious offence in 

custom of those nations who sacrificed their 
slaves on the funeral pile of their deceased 
masters ; and it is said that in the countries of 

which the whole village is concerned, it is the Kyan, which bounds that of the Sarebas 
ponished by tine. The license granted to Dyaks on the south and east, this custom of 
the youDg womeu appears amongst these '. sacrificing slaves is still prevalent on tho 

people only to extend to their own nation, 
bat it is probable, and in fact certain, 
ia some tribes, that their favours are lil)erally 
extended to the Malays, should any happen 
to reside in their vicinity. This laxity of 
maonera has been carried so far, that should 
a chiefy or distinguished warrior of another 
tribe, travelllDg through the country, rest for 
a night at the village, it is a necessary part of 
their hospitality to provide a girl for his com- 

death of a chief. Tlie sea Dj^aks aro de- 
scribed by one of the best informed writers ou 
Borneo,as frequenting the neighbouring waters 
in their prahus. They inhabit chiefly the tracts 
about the rivers Sarebas and Sakarran, with 
their numerous and large branches, which form 
estuaries and deltas, with many avenues to 
the sea, very favourable to clandestine enter- 
prises, and the facility of retreat. The hill 
Dyaks, or as they call themselves, " Orang 

paniou ; but the information on this parti- | Gunong,** or men of the hills, differ in many 
caUr is derived from the Malays. It may be i peculiarities from the Dyaks of the sea tribes. 

correct, as a similar custom is always foU 
h>wed by the Kyan tribes. The chief of the 
huid Dyak, who is, or was named Ninik, 
is called Pa Jagueu, Jaguen l>eing the name 

The principal tribes of the Dyaks of the 
country of Sarawak aro of this division, 
and they are the people whoso miser- 
able and oppressed condition called forth 

of his eldest child. Nearly all the beasts of: so much of tlie attention and sympathy of 
the forest are eaten by these i)eople, even Great Britain. This division of the Dyak 
monkeys, alligators ( if small), snakes and other race occupies the most western portions 
reptiles are esteemed. They regard frogs I of the island. The tribes of the Malayan 
■B a delicate dish, and liestow considerable ; states of Fontianak, of Sarebas, of Sara- 
pains iu procuring them : their rice is | wak, and of Sadong, all belong to it, and 
cooked in brass or earthen pots, called ; the hilly interior of these countries is peopled 
priuk, which they purchase from the Malays. ' entirely by them. In pei'sonal appeai*ance. 
The whole of the sea tribes dispose of their I the Dyak of tho hills very much resemble 

dead by burial, they do not abstain from tho 
flesh of animals. On a head-hunting party 
approaching the village, they announce to its 
infaabiUnts their fortunes by a horrid cry 
which is soon imitated and prolonged by 
the women and children, who have stayed 
at home. The trophies are brought on shore 


those of tho other tribes already described, 
but they have a more grave and quiet expres- 
sion of countenance, which gives to their 
features a melancholy and thoughtful air. It 
is natural to them, being observable, in a less 
degree, in all tho tribes of both divisions. 
Their countenance is an index to the charac- 

D 175 

Ur of their ninii, for ther are of pwcliarlT 
qniet uiiJ ibilil •lirpv^iuva*, not «mfilT roou^ 
to anger, or the ezhibiiioD of adj oiher p&;- 
rion or eiD4liMi, ao<l nrelr f iciK*] lo r.-^i^y 
mirtli, urilt;*> (JuriiiK ilieir j>erio-Ii'^ iVrfivaU. 
Tbeir "Irei-", whtn tlwv have i>r<>p«-rt_T mffi- 
eirot lo obtain 'inc, i« ilie I'm-r rlnUi. or 
*• cfaawst," <lie matiuracturi.- of ll«> Sskarrai. 
Draki- ; I»ut |fovenv tn'*<r fr*fj'j*-till_T M.m- 
prlt itiem <o '^upi.iv it* },:«.* with a rf.i:._'h 
■alT^Mii''i> miiilf of tl]>- lAi'k of s«Tt;ral it<:---. 
parti<-ulnt I* tliat of the fc^iiu' ArVj •ar'.>n; 
wliick i^t^luc-i the brpu't- fruit. F'^r oruH- 
ineiiis tliej wt-ar hrnoplii- of the r<-i w.-^i 
of the iK-art »f the Tajiaii^ tree, whi'-h. afit-r 
expo-iiri: to thi; iiir, )>*':'<in';- bla-!; u< t-f.-'tij. 
aii<] lieiijg wiiii"'it it* l>rittle ([unliii^-, i« ni->re 
durahlc. AwiriL'st the triU-* 0!i the 
western i-nmi'li of the Sarawak rlTi-r, the 
dress of the W'ltin-ii i- in-rrm-'-l l.v the au- 
dition of on anii-h-, .-alle.l by thpin ''Sala-hii.:" 
it itmaile of a Iminlion, spill, flattt-neJ, [>arf>I 
thi», an.l dred l>U>'k : l»'i[i<; thui: pi-ejiare'l. i( 
ii filte<l to the Uflj. an<l s..-:ureil iii it-; fi.rm 
and position hr hraM wirw pa>-iii^ b'to's 
ilii breadth, whieh al«o rerve for the |>ui-j-n-<rg 
of omameiit : tlier are plaied at tlie -IiTitance 
of about one inch apart friicn ea<'h oiher. 
Girl* tiCJEin to wear it at ihe nge of Ave or 
six jear?, and ai it i.> too i-inall to h<- taken off 
and on, lieinn inmle oi, tlie l^-xly, it if only re- 
infl*e<l by dettrojion it, wtien the condition of 
tlie wearer rcndern a larger one neeessary. 
This curious article of dress ]•> ronfineit to 
the tribeft of Sarawak, called Sinuhie, Sow, 
Serambo, Boinbuck, and Pminjow, who in 
their dreiis further differ from the other 
tribes of the hill-'- The amiability of the 
Dyaks of the hill tribes is of a superior 
character to tliat of tho!>e before d''«crilM'd ; 

the wear to whieh iber are sutjer 
Dp iuio articles of faraimre 
Thi^ art was known at a tctt 
■laouS ma-JF f-:-r Joseph a eoai oft 
■Gen. xxxvii. S:i and io Ei-> 
m-'iition is made of the onaai as beio^ r«>aip''»»ei of 
s-ailei niid fine Itaea. Wr r«) 
Ciir>. ii. iljii SifTomon haviLj 
f..r^.i liteii... the kinc ■-■• 
an-n'-'red Lii re-ju<r-t ljy*ru-iiT; 

Eliihtk.- wlii>-h \\»< !«eii ■ 

1 F,li> on til.- werii sidr of tiie 
jjiiiii-— 'H. aii'l hi-i>i'f ii ha* ■■een 
th" Tviinn? in th- time of Ei.-k' 
Mipply uf >hvl!.ti-h u-^l f.T •! 
frvni ih" coa-t of Greets. Tiie ' 
wa- (;n*ailv priieti am'iii; the ni 
i^'jity. It li^ TiiijijioH'il to hare I 
fioin two dUTerent kind* ..f f 

ii'l hute 


inder the i 

oblaincd from ea^'h aiii 
r colour was "blained br 

■nb''-e of th.- bnccinV 
' the Jnioe baring been ' 
nsnildt.ii. and it was alio 
day<i : after this, it was 
n-'s its linik of water, kef 
at for f'm dav* more, anc 
ed. and wben thus cUrifie 



ceatmy by M. Reaumur, of France ; but by the Greeks of Smyrna, wliicb he inaile puliiio. 
this time finer colours had been discovered, The methods of imparting ti perm an en t col our 
and cheaper processes invented. The ancient to textile fabrics are almost as numerous as 
Greeks do uot seem to have attended much the colouring mutters employed. Most of the 
to the art of dyeing : the people of Atliens colonics used in dyeing are vegetable : a few 
wore woollen garments of the natural colour, ; are animal and mineral. 'J'hemost vivid ami 
•od although the more luxurious Romans brilliant vegetable colours, such as those of 
pammised those who cultivated the art, yet , flowers autl other parts of plants exposed to 
the pr«K*eases of a trade or manufactui*e were the light, are small in quantity, veiy fugitive, 
thought to be beneath the notice of any and diilicu It to separate. The colouring mat- 

writer capable of describing them. We learn 
inckleatallj from Pliny that the competitors 

ters of plants capable of being isolated, are 
mostly yellow, brown and red ; the only blue 

n the circus were clothed in dresses of green, < dyes furnished by plants are indigo and lit- 
orange, greVf and white. The art was lost | mus ; no black vegetable dye has been isolated. 
It Rome after tlie invasion of the uorlhern ! Most vegetable colours arc soluble in water ; 
in the fifth ceutuiT ; but it was i and those which are not so can be dissolved 

in alcohol, ether, or tlie fixed oils. Vegetable 
colours are pennuneut in dry air ; but they 
gradually fade in moist air, es[)ecially under 
the influence of light. The blue of most 
flowers is converted into red by an acid, and 
into green by an alkali. Nut only do the 
methods of <lyeing vary with the nature of 
the dye-stuff, but also with that of the material 
to be dyed ; different methods being adopted 

pmctised in the East and revived in Europe 
iboat the end of the twelfth ceotuiy. Flo- 
reoee became celebrated in the art, and in the 
eirijpart of the fourteenth century numbered 
not Veis than 200 dyeing establishments. The 
diwovny of America supplied Europe with n 
Ttrietj of new colouring-matters, such as 
lodigOf logwood, quercitron. Brazil-wood, co- 
chioemly arnotto, &c. Before the introduction 

of indigo, woad was used for dyeing blue, and ' for cotton, silk and wool. In Southern Asia, 
die cultivators of this plant in England and the art of dyeing is no douttt of very ancient 
on the Continent endeavoured to prevent the date, and one with which the people of India 
we of indigo, which, by a decree of the and Chinese have long been well acquainted. 
Gennan Diet in 1<577, was declared to be Their countries furnished all the raw materials 
**« pernicious, deceitful, eating, and corrosive for producing a great variety of colours; 
iye." The introduction of logwooil was op- • some of these are of so conspicuous a nature, 
poeed from similarly interested motives : its such as the large flowers of ])lants, that the 
Qse was prohibited by a statute of Elizabeth, desire must early have occurred to transfer 
Older heavy penalties, and all that which these colours to the person in savage nations, 
found in the country was ordered to be or to the clothes of so early civilized a ]>eoplo 

as the hindoos. This could easily have been 
done with the fugitive colours, but as they 
know how to make a colour like that of indigo, 
pn^ress of the art in Britain : but by which undergoes a considerable degree of 
degrees, valuable improvements were made, chemical change during its formation as well 
ami new processes introduced from abroad, as while applied to tlic dyeing of its blue 
foch as the met]io<l of dyeing Turkey- 
red, — one of the most durable of colours. 
It was discovered in India, and afterwards 
pncti^ed in other parts of Asia and in 
Cjfcece. About the middle of the eighteenth 
enturj 8orae Greek dyers astablished dye- 
works for diis colour in Fmnce ; and in 1 76o 
10 account of the method of producing it was 

debtroyed : it was not until the reign of 
Claries II, that its use was permitted. Such 
prejodices of course interfered with the 

colour, it is evident, even if we had no other 
information on the subject, that they must 
have pai<l attention to some chemical subjects. 
But we know that they have long possessed, 
and know how to manufacture, the several 
salts which have long be<rn employed as 
mordannts. That tint art of dyeing was early 
practised we have the proof in the fact meu- 
poblished, by order of the French Govern- tioned by Pliny, that flags of various colours 
aeot. About tlie end of the last century the were dis])laycd by the Indians. It has been 
aethod was practised in England, when a : supposed that the hindoos may have learned 
Tarkey-re^l dye-house was established in ; this art from the Egyptians, but the probability 
Manchester, by a Frenchman, who obtained a is as great that the latter learned the art 

gnat from Government for the disclosure of 

from the former, from whom also they pro- 

lus |xx>ce88, which however, was uot very bably obtained the alum which was cele- 

oeeessful. A better process was introduced 

iito Glasgow by a Frenchman named PapIIou ; 

W before this, Mr. Wilson of Ainsworth, 

UK Manchester, had obtained the secret from 

177 D 

brated by the name of Egyptian alum. Alum 
is still manufactured in Cutch ; the natives 
of India have long known the use of sulphate 
of iron and of acetate of iron. The latter 


v;.- r>YEs. 

■'•s'.'.:.Z '.nv. '.:. =r:- ;r fain;- .- 'IvelL?. iE:-?lj<lli]z ni<-ta[<, woods floi«n' 

:. Ti: ':, •'. ■_^ i,if ;**- rx:-, '^rk'. !eave-. fruiw. lichens in^ecbsAc*- 

i- : a!:- ■^\::. w;.-.!. a!' of wi.l.h r-iuirf t-'*<»niially differeDt tro* 

-■- -■.: ■■:-.: ;t-, Mar.v f f Tce*:.'' :- ; :^'.:!-e.i.— ao-J ihi- vsrietv isfortha- 

■■■ '-2 ; . '. ■•-— !r-. kr^ We.; ir.vr-i—- ; -iV tl.^ d-:^^rene nainre of ihe n 

"i-- •-.*:. :!.-^ 'ilr':.^; r;.-.> -.;' :!.;;■-: I !■• ilif <lre<, riz., sninwl lo^' 

■"■■."■■; I- FI ivr-e ';-:,: *:.i:.-'f-. wo-!. -!?k ai,-l It-aibrr : or rp^tahli 

T:.- Kih: -::■:- '■:" l^vl TaAl--i.a..~. a- •■■jifi.i:. Hai aii<I wood. I* 

I.-: :- :;.a-. th-^v can per:-;. •; <[,iw* (Im: ihc polouriug mi 

i o;' a "r-?--' Tai>.-;T ■..;* n-h'..'h lak'— ':i-'C bn!mal !'llb^blnce«, will Ml 1 

a •■■■■T.-._^.l ■aiiji] j.aiicr:.. '"iit ^'>::-ta'■le maiii-i. a j>i«-ce of wool i4 ( 

; Jir. i j.^. j.;r v. ^a;!i in oeara:; a.v I. wl.j.-h w...ii!.I t-niToilf aud dertnf ) 

:: '.: '.•':.':•:: f> a« vy u (■■:t'!i far.i;.: i,i..l ilie dvcinjr of miH^ J 

:- 'x':.'.-, T;. -is!. liii ralfri';*. win-re animal aixl vetrfiahle nmtUn i 

;:iv-%! ;;. Ir. ila :i!e aft; i.-naiMue':. aiiJ wliprc several britliaM ' 

•■'■■K.:. : ftv- J. t;.--^a:iT.-** ar* k-:;-}*.! tngeiliT, requires thi j 

i.-- ti:: ■t'r!-.'- _- •—»■;:> in«!iij;ai.*iur«r (■> jirai-iise at! tlie iiice^ tt ! 

--:;:-:-. .■:•.„ _• ■ N, Iii- art. IK.-ltj i- jiiJeci! :i purely eheminl • 

■ ii" :l:- : :-.v riii--::;i!i p|-.----'. a;;.i il I- f-winji !'■ the jirofncw <l [ 

y ■■: ':''.■ ..'. a:. J i!ie 'iiat '■■■i-ii-i- in K^n-itf, iliat jui-li pn«t im- 

■tu avj i:i::.-l w:;li tl,.-' j>r.ivfi'.-:ii da- l"^;i ina-lf of Inie yeai?, airf 

■•f ii'm. i-.. v!i;,-)i aiL* dial tiia; y ■■'■Ifl'irii.i; maMr-r'. whiili were ft^ 

Ir;:.:-, Uj; in a ir.;i:iity nl-lly -i lori-.l of )Tit lilll^ value, are Dov 

I'O :ri.iy '<■.• -a;i to i.'f ri-:!,^ i:: iiii!i.Tt;i!i'i-. Midi a* Miinject, Chat- 

y ia:.t.;t l'i..k f<-v anv of ro..t, [.>-.;; w.h.. I. ,\iin..iti(i, ami ni-e Ix-iag mm ' 

■*-", wlii'li in Kui-.*.;-, "Xifii^ifi-lr 1 i-i.u-lit luto ii>p, wilh a few 

ti;': ai>;il\'".t0.ii at time jc^n^e 

lilile kn.iw'n -.nL^taiP'-t-^ a* t'huck^, 

iy-:-..:: Tli« prnr-f:-- i^ a» rmlc 

RiitLi.;rn, Uviun. ami extraet of CuuariM^ 

T a-_'<i. aifl any inii>rovein«?iit in 

&-r. .Viiiniifr-i .-niDf f>f rhf!<e liille knowi 

i-j :t>ji. uf n n-.-«- ■■!.•-, lia' Keen 

>iye-. ili.ri' ar<- >cvcrBl well ile^prviitg a cars 

'>'.: ..f a t.a,.,,y a-..i,|.n.. or an 

fill It i- to he hoped, that Mm 

n— uk.'ii? frsjKTlmf.-Mi, tLun a 

nii-ihixl mav he d-vi-eil of lenileiin); ihm 

lali'.n ii[,<,n unJ'Ti-tonii piin. 

availahlo. a^ wr-tl a' uf npiilviii;; mare eeoa» 

liH fii'l'l i- i-inc ihnt ivi:]l nn.l'it'i 

m;<-al!r, tliu<e lon^ in u>e, and whieh ma^ ba 

(;4(aifli, f'T whau-vtr lie tlie 

jirofiiivrl in Inrjre inaiitit ics and at low pried. 

iif:r-lliiil <.|.i.-niIc-< in lliii^ i-onnliy. 

.\li-t of t1i< part of the colouring na- 

ii'ii'lu>-i-] ill ilyt.iDC ar^- iinqucs- 

tciial'.ifS'.mht-niA-ia is Riven funiieroo,at 

iiiir, an<l tli.;'lrf;-i'ti'st of lli'-lr 

].. 1 SL>. The U-antifnl >pi'eime»* of DiaUTtali 

ii..|.-i-ro«Hl III have i^.n airT.lf.i 

iinp<.ri('i finni China, India, New Zealand, tht 

D7ES. DYE8. 

Bprno^ Qp for various dye stuffs : and at the | Butea frondosa, the Dliak tree, aud of B, 
present time, man J of the dyeing materials of; fii/itfr^a, natives of the Indian junji^Ieg, 
ditftant countries are beginaiDg to excite the > yield a beautiful dye, and furnish a sp6cici« 
atteation of practical men ; for though they | of kino {Pulas kino), also ust;d for tan- 
have been acquainted with many of these < ning. Althea rosea, the parent uf the many 
sahatanceSy it is only recently that tlie pro- beautiful varieties of hollyhock, a native of 

{rress of the art has rendered their use desir- 
able or even practicable. It would be quite 

China, yields a blue colouring matter ccjutil to 
indigo. Indigo of an excellent quality has 

impossible, witbin due limits to make even a | been obtained in the East from a twining 
bare enumeration of the various plants and \ plant, Gym nema tingens ov Asc/epias tingens. 
trees from which colouring (substances and dye I The juice of the unripe fruit of Rhannins 
ttoffs can be obtained : we must, therefore, j infectorius, li. ccU/tarticus, and K, virtfatus, 
be content to specify only a few. The roots I known as Turkey or Frcnrli berries, is used 
of some species of Lithospermum afford a lac . for dyeing leather yellow. When mixed with 
fordjeing and paintmg. Dried pomegranates ' lime and cvaiioruted to dryness, it forms the 
iresaid to be used in Tunis for dyeing yellow ; ; colour called sap green. The roots of the aal 
the rind is also a tanning substance. In the . tree, Morinda citrifolin^ and of M, linvtoria, 
''Comptes Rendus," (xxxv., p. 008,) there is found abundantly in all the Asiatic islands, 
aa account by M. J.Pei'soz, of a green colour- are extensively used as a <lye stuft' for giving 
iogmatter from China, of great stability, from a red colour. Ii is u>uully gr(»wn as u prop 
wliifib it appears that the Chinese possess u and shade fur tin* (Mjpper vine and rofl'ce tree. 
oolooriDg substance having the appearance of The colouring matter resides priiK'i[>aliy in the 
iodigQ^ which communicates a beautiful and . bark of the rooth, which are long and blender, 
permaoent sea green colour to mordants of alu- • and the small pieces are thf In'st, fetching 8jr. 
ffliaaand iron, and which is not a preparation I to 10^. a mauud. It is exporte<l in large 
ofindigOyOr any derivative of this dyeing prin- : quantities from Malabar to Guzerat, iaid the 
cipie. It was in thin plates of a blue colour, \ northern parts of Ilindoosian, but seldom finds 
membling Japanese indigo, but of a finer ■ its way to Europe. The wood and roots of 
graia, differing also from indigo in its composi- | another species, M. f/mfjcllafa, known in the 
IMDand chemical properties. On infusing a j eastern islands as ** Mangkudn," are used ex- 
Terysmallquautity of it in water, this fluid soon I tensively for their red dye, in Celebes and 
acquired a deep blue colour with a greenish Java. Specimens of all these, and of the 
liage ; upon boiling and immersing a piece of Lopisip bark, bunchong bulu wood, and the 
«^ico on which the mordants of iron and ' gaju gum (from undescribed plants), have 
alomioa had been printed, it was dyed a sea ■ been introduced into England. They are said 
grbeu colour of greater or less in tensity accord- to furnish excellent dyes in the Asiatic islands, 
iag U> the strength of the mordant — the por- j Native dyes I'rom Arracan hav<.' also been ini- 
tioaeiiot coated remaining white. A beny ported, viz., thittel and tlie-dan yielding red 
called Makleua grows on a large forest tree . dyes,ting-ngctand reros, aflordingilark-purple 
atfiankok, which is used most exensively by '■ dyes ; and thit-nau-weng, a chocolate dye. 
the Siamese as a vegetable black dye. It is ! These would W worth encpiiry, and parti- 
merely bruised in water, when a fermentation | (Milars of the plants yielding them, the qnanti- 
takes place, and the article to be dyed is ' ties available, and the prices might be pro- 
steeped in the liquid and then spread out in , cured. Dyes and colors from the following 
the sun to dry. The berry, when fresh, is of | plants are obtained in India, viz., from several 
afiue green colour, but after being gathere«l ! species of Terminalia, Srwccnrpus (wnrcnr- 
for two or tliree days it becomes quite black 1 dium, Mt/ricn snpida, Nelumhiumspeciosum^ 
aod shrivelled like pepper. It must be used | Buleafrofidosfi, }\n<{ Nt/ctanthrs arbortrisiis. 
fresh, and whilst its mixture with water pro- i The bunkita barring, obtained from an nnde- 

daces fermentation. The bark of Dntisca 
ttumabina dyes yellow. It contains a bitter 
priociple, like quassia. A colouring matter 
ii prepared from the dried fruit of the Rot- 
Uera iincioria, to dye orange, which is a 
brilliant aud tolerably permanent dye. It is 
apparently of a resinous nature. Turmeric is 
aaed in dyeing. The bark and roots of the 
berberry dye yellow ; the colour is best when 
boiled in ley. Symploeos racemosa, known 
islodh, and S. iincioria, a native of Carolina, 

scribed plant in Borneo, produces a dark pur- 
ple or black dye. A sjHicies of Ruellia, under 
the name of " room," is employed in its raw 
state by the Khampti and Singpho to dye 
their clothes of a deep blue. It is «iescribed 
by the late Dr. ClriHiths as a valuable dye, 
aud highly worihy of attention. It might, 
perhaps, be usefully employed as the 
ground for a black dye. In Nepaul they 
use the bark of J^hotinia dubia or 
Mespilus bengalensis for dyeing scarlet. 

m used for dyeing. The scarlet flowers of 1 Though theractho^ls of dyeing in uj-o in Inlin 

179 D 179 



leet As it ctn be obtained in unlimited Madder is the prodact of the long slender 
ititf, it might be introduced into European roots of the Rubia iinctorum^ a plant of which 
1^ if the natives learn how to collect it in there are several varieties. The principal sup- 
te of parity, and make it up in homogen- plies of tliis important article of commerce are 
itBses in imitation of pipe gamboge, the obtained from Holland, Belgium, France, 
Siam variety. It seems to possess more | Turkey, Si>ain, and the Balearic Isles, the 
'ing matter, more resin and less gum [ Italian States, India, and Ceylon. The plant 
tbe ordinary gamboge of commerce, is generally raised from seed,and requires three 
flge owes its colour to the fatty acid, years to come to maturity. It is, however, 
wiu must be regarded as tlie chief | often pulled in eighteen months without in- 
oeot, and is most abundant in that juiy to the quality ;the quantity only is smaller. 
Ai from Ceylou, which contains about I A rich soil is necessaiy for its successful cul- 
ceat., and is therefore best adapted tivation, and when the soil is impregnated 
Dting. About 33 tons are annually ! with alkaline matter, the root acquires a red 
d into Great Britain where it sells at '■ colour ; in other eases it is yellow. The latter 
".10 a, ton. is preferred in England, from the long habit 

o yielding plants grow chiefly in the ofusingDutchmadder, which is of this colour, 
i We^t Indies, in the middle regions of but in France the red sells at two francs per 
I, in Africa and Europe, and are species : cwt. higher, being used for the Turkey-red 
senera Indigofera, IsatiSf Wrightia, dye. Muddor does not deterioiate by keep- 
«wm, and Nerium- Indigofera tine- ing, providinl it rnj kept dry. It contains 
: ettruleay furnishes the chief indigo three volatile colouring matters, madder pur- 
nerce, and atfords in Bengal, Mala- pie, orange, and red. The lart«;r is in the 
ulagascar, the Isle of France, and St. j form of ciystals, having a fine orange red 
o, an article of middling quality, i colour, and called Alizaine. This is the sub- 
in large quantity. The Indigofera stance which yields the Turkey-red dye. 
;€!, a plant cultivated in the East j Mudder is extensively grown on the cen- 
uid America grows higher than the ! tral table land of Affghanistan, forming one 

ig, is woody, and furnishes a supe- 
ystoC The Guatemala indi<|ro comes 
is species. Indigo/era anil grows 
same countries, and also in the 
ndies. The Indigofera argentea, 
lourishes in Africa, yields little indigo, 
s of an excellent quality. 7. pseudo- 
3 cultivated in the East Indies, fur- 
he best of all. /. glauca is the Egyp- 
i Arabian species. There are also the 

of the leading products of Beloo<diistan ; and, 
according to Lt. (Sir Henry Pottinger), it 
sells in the Kelat bazar at about 10 lbs. for 2s. 
Ohay-root, employed in the East Indies as a 
substitute for madder, is the root of Morinda 
citrifolia, under the name of Sooranjee. 
Turkey madder roots realise abont 33jf. per 
cwt. About 1,100 tons are annually shipped 
from Naples, worth about £30 per ton. Mad- 
der has become an article of great i*equest, on 
po, er«c/a (a native of Guinea), /itr^Mto, accouut of the fine scarlet colour produced 
with red flowers, species common to | from its roots, and is so essential to dyers and 
1» and several others. The ^rt ighti a : c.hWco printers that without it they cannot 
a of the East Indies, an evergreen, j carry on their manufactures. It is cultivat- 
bite blossoms, affords some indigo, as . ed extensively in Holland, from whence it is 
e Isaiis tinctoria^ or Woad, in Europe, , imported in lai*ge quantities into both Eng- 
e Polygonum tinctorium^ with red j laud and France, though it is cultivated to 
, a native of (-hina. Baplisla tincto- \ some extent in both countries. 
iiishes a blue dye, and is the wild indigo i Indian madder or Vnunjistha, is the Rubia 
United States. Indigo is at present i corrf//b/ia, a variety with white flowers,a native 
for commercial purposes in India, ; of Siberia, but is cultivated largely in the East, 

le 12th to tlie 30tli deg. of north Inti- 
n the provinces of the Madras Presi- 

10 Java, in the largest of the Pliilip- 
auds, in Guatemala, Caracoas, Central 
la and Brazil. Indigo grows wild in 
parts of Palestine, but attention seems 
have been given to its cultivation or 
>Q. On most parts of the eastern and 

coasts of Africa, it is indigenous ; at 
Leone, Natal, and other places it is 
ibundant. Bengal is however, the 
irt for indigo. 

181 I> 

f)articularly about Assam, Nepaul, Bombay, 
Siud, Quetta, China, &c., for its dye-stuff, 
and is known as Muujeet. A small quantity 
is exported from China and India ; about 338 
Indian mnunds were shipped from Calcutta in 
1840, and 2,328 in 1841. It fetches in the 
London and Liverpool markets from 20^. to 
2'}S. and 30*. per cwt, duty free ; 405 tons 
were imported into Liverpool from Bombay 
and Calcutta, in 1849, and o2«3 tons in 1850, 
but none was imported in 1 851 and 1852. 
The Jury in 1851, at the Great Exhibition, 



In these countries the manes and rius of botanists. The mordants used are 
e horses ai^e stained red in the same rice-bran, alkalies i'rom the combustion of 

some vegetable matters, as the fruit stalks 
se green dye-'piants^ are the tur- < and mid-ribs of the cocoanut palm and alum 
(1 the leaves of the soap-acacia, brought from China. 
\gaia^ which afford a beautiful green- | Chinese dyes. — In China, colouring matter 

j used for dyeing blue is derived from two 
l^dye plants, the rose-coloured fniit j species of plants, the Polygonum tinctorium 
isriud ^'yields a beautiful deep red ' in the South, and the iien tsing or Isatis 
Yproaehiiig purple;" the wood of j tv</i^o/tca, cultivated at Shanghai and Chusan. 
iMtAera pavonina dyes I'ed, aud the ' The Shanghai indigo (Isatis indigotica) is 
Lhe black varnish tree affords a red- > largely cultivated in the Ke-wang-meow dis- 

I trict, a few miles to the south. The ''Kong- 
liftV'di/e plants, the wood of the ; wlm," a variety of 8afflower( Carthamustincto- 
root of tlie pyschotria, the bark of rius,) was found for the first time in fields near 

Cading. This dye, is held in high esteem by 
the Chinese, and is used in dyeing the red and 
scarlet silks and crapes which are so common 
in the counliy, and so much and justly ad- 
mired by foreigners of every nation. Large 
lut are used by the Chinese to dye | quantities are annually produced in the Che- 
lack, the juice of the cashew tree ■ kiang province near Ningpo. The Chinese 
ack to liuen, and the fruit of the \ and Indian safflower have turned out to bo 

►ge trees, the flowers of the butea, 
f the Heugal quince, and the leaves 
mecylon and the touk-yat, all pro- 
it yellow-dyes. 
iye-plant, the blossoms of the shoe- 

X affords a black-dye. 

'kan black celebrated vegetable dye 

rom the fruit of a species of el»ony, 

alike, or nearly so. When Mr. Fortune pre- 
pared to take up his late residence in China, 
his attention was directed by the Calcutta 
s mollis, which is said to grow on ! Agricultural Society, to the Chinese varnish 
Ltains that separate the province of | tree, Rhuf species, the wax-insect tree, 
)ni the Siamese territories. Isolated ; Fraxinus species, and to the soap-bean ti*ee, 
ly be seeu in the gardens of Tavoy, CtBsalpinia species : to the various trees valu- 
Imain. — Mason. able for their fruit or timber and ornamental 

ese dyeing, the Javanese, of all plants ; but above all, to the gi*een indigo 
yan race, have made the highest pro- (so called), Rhamnus species, which yielded 
11 the useful arts. They have a a dye that was at that time attracting much 

attention in France. 

Ruellia indigotica, — In China, in one part 
of the Chekiang province, and also amongst 

erm for dyeing or tinting, — " madal ;" 
klalays express it only by the word for 
chiilup" Yet the only generic words 

ither of them possesses for " colour," j the Fung-hwa mountains to the westward of 
Sanscrit, warna ; and the Portuguese, j*Ningpo, there are large quantities of a blue 
Their eoloure are usually sombre, — | dye produced, which is in fact the indigo of 
ried, ]>ut generally fast. Blues are ; that part of the countiy. A valuable kind 
produceil from indigo, yielded for the of Indigo is made from a species of woad(Isatis 
irt by the Indigofei-a tinctoria, as in ■ indigotica) which is cultivated extensively in 
u-ts of India, but in Sumatra, occa- ; the level countiy a few miles to the westw^ard 
, fi-om the Marsdenia tinctoria, a plant ! of Shanghai. The kind in Chekiang equally 
latural order of the Asclepiadeae. Yel- ' valuable, if not more so, is made from a species 
'e produced from the woods of two I of Ruellia, which may be called Ruellia 
of Artocarpus, the jack and champa- j indigotica. The same plants apparently, 
d from turmeric ; and reds from the \ has lately been discovered in the Assam 
P the root of the " mangkndu" the country in N. E. India, where it is also culti- 
a nmbellata,— from the ''kusumba- ■ vated for the blue dye it affords. On 
»fflower or Carthamus tinctorius, from examining it in the garden of the Agricultural 
usumba-kling," which is the annotto, and Horticultural Society at Calcutta, along- 
i orellana, from the sapang, or sapan- | side of the Chinese kind, it certainly bears a 
^flssalpinia sapan, and from the nidus | most striking resemblance. — Fortune^s Res. 
BC insect. Black is produced from the i among the Chinese, p. 145 ; Wanderings in 
•f the mangostin fruit, and of the 1 China, 1846. 

lang," Terminalia catappa, with sul-l Rhamnus—** Green indigo," has been at- 

f iron. Sails and nets are dyed, and ! tracting much notice lately both in India and 

also tanned with a wood called in in Europe. A portion of cotton cloth ob- 

a " iitor," which is the Riciuus tana- taiued in China by the French mauufac- 

183 D 183 



To colour ailk with it, so much of the mate- The quantity required of clean lye being 
riftl miul be nied that it will not pay. All , poured off and sti-ained, sheep dung in the 

eottoo fiibricsy abo grass-cloths, take the colour 
mdilj. The d je does not fade with washing, 
which gives it a superiority over other greens. 
It is seat from Kea-hing as far as Shanting. 
It is also made in the province of Hoonan and 
at Ninffpo, but the dye at these places is said 

proportion of three ounces to a pint of lye is 
dissolved in one-half of it, and this solution is 
again strained. The other half of the lye is 
mixed with half its bulk of gingilie oil and 
half as much tsiky (the saponaceous watei- 
procured during and retained from former 
lo be of an inferior quality. It has long been j process being in fact a solution of soap in 
need bj painters in water-coloui's, but the i water) the two liquors are then mixed together ; 
ai^lication of it to dye cloth was first made ; and if things ai'e favourable, a milky scum 
only about twenty years ago. If some method arises. 

coaJd be discovered of applying it to silk The proportions required for, say half a 
Abrici it would become still more useful." pound of a yarn, would be gingilie oil half a 
Tlie chips brought from Kea-hing were iden- ■• pint by two pints, tsiky, (soapy liquor from 
ticai with the " Soh-loh," or " Loh-zah" | former process) a quarter of a pint, sheep 
(Bhamona, sp.) The mode of extracting the dung two or three ounces. 
dye from the bark or wood (for both seem to ' The yai-n having been thoroughly imbued 
he nfledX as practised by the Chinese, appears ; with this mordant is dried in the sun for 
to be alow end tedious, but with tlie European some hours, it is then again soaked and dried 
knowledge of chemistry this might possibly ' as before. The same night it is ti*eated with 
be impfOvecL From these investigations it; an additional portion of mordant ; is put into 
would appear that two colouring principles • covered vessels and allowed to remain till 
an DCceiiBry to the production of this dye. morning. If any mordant remain the same 
This however, will not affect the value of it as : process is again repeated, 
a rich end permanent green, a quality which has ! The yai*u is at night moistened with the lye 
been appreciated by the French manufacturers, J first prepared diluted with one-third of its 
and which ia also well known to the Chinese. — ; bulk of water and put into covered vessels. 
Foriuni^s Residence among the Chineie^ page The yai*n in drying, it should be remarked, 
167. I should have the position constantly changed 

dey-roo^.— Dr. Heyne's description of dye- i to prevent the mordants or lye from accumu- 
ioKCOtton yarn with chay-root, is. as follows : ' lating in the lower part. 

The yam being washed and untwisted that ■ Next day the yarn is spread out to dry on 
it nu^ not become entangled and being so | the bamboo, it is taken in at night and treated 

tepanted that every part may be equally 
penetrated bj the colouring matter, is divided 

with lye, this alternate soaking or thorough 
moistening with lye at night and exposure 

inlobandleaof thirty or forty threads, through during the day are continued without inter- 
each of which at the middle and extremities mission till the yarn appears saturated with 

a cotton thread is loosely sewed, but so as to 
allow of every thread being exposed to the 

lye, or in fact till the oil is converted into 
soap, this if the lye is sufficiently strong may 

inn's raya when hung up and the threads ! occupy five days. This is ascertained by 

spread out on a bamboo. 

The yarn is washed and cleansed in cold 
water aided by half an hour's manipulation, it 
ii then kept in water in covered vessels till it 
seqairea a patrid smell which takes place in 
frwn twenty-four to thirty-six hours, during 
which it is occasionally pressed and worked 
for a quarter of an hour together, it is then to 
be ws^ed as clean as possible, beaten on a 

washing a few inches from off the bundle 
in water holding some astringent in solution 
a whitish scum will arise, and it is from the 
feeling of this scum when worked between 
the hands, and the appearance of it afterwards 
that they determine the state, the workman 
being satisfied of the completion of this process, 
the yam is again moistened for one day, 
morning and evening, with much diluted lye 

■ #v«* *«1nm «IA#^«* '1^1%^ «r^«««« vmnw 1%^^ asx^—.. ^ J-_A_1 

•tone or earthen pot and then hung up i or plain water. The yarn may be immediately 

to dry 

While this process is going on a lye is pre- 
pared of the ashes of the plantain or other 
tree in cold water, it is an object to have this 
lye of sofiScient strength which is determined 
if adding to a small quantity about half as 

washed, but the process is much improved by 
retaining it for some weeks probably to allow 
the anamalizing matter to get fixed. 

Before wasting it thoroughly the yam ia 
washed in a smidl quantity of water which 
receiving the soapy particles in solution is 

much gingilie oil and giving to it a gentle retained by the dyer under the denomination 
notion: should it turn immediately white of tsiky, it gradually acquires some consistence 
baving no visible globules of oil swimming on | and a disagreeable smell. The yam is then 
the surface, it is good. • washed in a tank till nothing of the mordant 

185 D 185 



ress which at first sight seems unnecessarily 
tedkmSf the superiority in the result is, 
chiefly to be attributed to the solution of salts 
of tin used to brighten the colours. 

exposed, and Dr. Royle subsequently statc«l 
that there are three kinds of the green dye of 
China or green indigo. The first from China, 
the second from the Bunnan empire, and tho 
Mcrinda, — In many parts the roots of third from Assam. That from the valley of 
the Morinda umbellata are employed instead the Brahmaputra, in Assam, is called roum, 
of chay-root id dyeing cotton yarn red : the | and is extracted from a species of Ruellia. 
cokMir is neither so bright or so durable. This plant, the specific name of which is not 
Dr. Heyne thus describes the process. Take known, or a nearly allied species is culti- 
^ lbs. of white cotton yam and soak it in vated with tlie same object in Pegu and 
l|lb. of giogilie oil : asti'onglyemade ofthe Burmah. It is altogether different from tho 
ashes of the milk hedge, and the yam steeped ! lUa-roum, which is the product of the Wrigh- 
in it for four nights being dried in the sun I tia tinctoria of R. Brown, which by some is 

daring the day, it is then washed in brackish 
water and dried in the sun. 

supposed to be the JR. Comosa, JValLy the 
Ebermaiera axillares, De Cand. Others point 

Fire seers (kutcha 13^ lb. ?) of togara root ; to the R. Comosoj Roxb.^ which is the R. 
finely powdered are put into a pot of water i eucoma of Steudel, and the Buteroea ul mifolia 
together with the yam and kept all night over ! of De Cand, MM. Edan and Remi, in 1864, 
a fire of cowdung, in tlie morning it is taken repotted that they had procured a very 

out and dried in the sun, the same process is 
repeated for two successive days and nights 

fine green from the fruit of tlie lo-za, but 
were unsuccessful in regard to the bark. 

which completes the process. It is probabl#) { Mr. Fortune informed Mr. Edan that with- 
tbat a superior dye^might he obtained if the out doubt the bark of the lo-za was em- 
Mma nicitiea were observed as in dyeing ployed to furnish the stuff with which to 
with chaj-root. The gi-een dye, China, dye cloth green, and that the fruit was 
the " louk'ka" " lo-kao,'' or " king^ok^' used in the preparation of green paint for 
was first made known to Europe in 1846 paper. These points were repeated by M. 

tinee which time, scientific men have prose- 
cuted inquiries regarding it Its price in 
China has continued steady at 24 dollars the 
catty. In China, the green cloths dyed by 
this material, are called liou-sai^ but are 
known to the trade as so-lo-pou, green colour 
cloth, when dyed by the bark : nghiou-lo-se 
(green nympliiea colour) and nghiou-lo^pou 
(green nymphaea cloth,) that is, cloth dyed 

Remi in 1866. All tlie experiments hitherto 
made with the bark and the leaves of tho 
Rhamnus chlorophorus and Rhamnus utilis, 
have not been decisive. M. Persoz has 
succeeded in extracting a yellow dye from 
the bark of Rliamnns chlorophoms and the 
beri'ies of the Rhamnus utilis, but he could 
not discover a trace of the green dye in 
the extracts prepared from the berries of l>ot]i 

with the lo-kao of the colour of the leaves of kinds, which were sent to him by the Agri- 
the njmphca. Each piece of liou-sai, is feet : Horticultural Society of India. NcverthclesF, 
cAiif, long, and one foot or one foot one inch ! if we are to receive the united testimony of 

Uraad, and in 1 848, cost from 60 to 63 cents. 
In addition to the lo-kao^ the French Consul, 
M. Montigny, sent one green dye stuff called 
jak-ckoM-ellej ten catties of which cost 4,920 
npeques : and another called iong'loh, green 

Fathers Helot and Aymeri, MM. Araaudtizon, 
Edkinp, Fortune and Remi, we must believe 
that it is the bark of tlie branches, and perhaps 
alno of the roots of the Rhamnus chlorophorus 
and Rhamnus utilis, but especially of the 

paint said to be prepared from the nO'ine, fihj former, that gives to the green dye that 
catties of which cost 20,800 sapeques. Tong- brilliant colour which it assumes under the 
lok is the Chinese for verdigris, and no-mi is infiuencc of artificial light. The fruit, at 
the Chinese name of the glutinous ric(*. From ; least that of the Rhamnus chlorophorus, 
this plant, it is not probable that any green . probably yields a green colouring matter 

dye can be prepared, and tong-loh is proba- 
bly the green substance obtained from the 
berries of the loh-chou. Lo kao or lou kao, 
in Chinese signifies green glue or green lac, 
and all who have sent samples of the green 
dye itself, call it lo kao or lo kiao. In Can- 
ton it is louk-ko ; in Fokien liok-koa and lek- 
ko. The first considerable consignment of 
the green dye was received in Paris in 1 863, 

analogous to the bladder green, and differing 
from the true green dye both in colour and 
properties. The Chinese declare that other 
species of the same genus have dyeing 
properties. The Pe-piu lo-chou, is tho Rham- 
nus chlorophorus of DeCaisne ; and the 
hong-pi to-chou^ the Rhamnus utilis and the 
author remarks that, " Until some European 
chemist shall have discovered traces of tho 

smce which date, it has become an article of ' green dye in some of the parts of the plants 
trade. At the Universal Exhibition held at i I am about to treat of, the fiowers, tho 
Paris in 1856, samples of green dye were ! berries, the seeds, the leaves, the bark or the 

187 D 187 



preptred. The wild apeciea is a shrub and Ma-ly is the name of a tree growing wild in 
is cdAed hom-bi-lo-ia, firom the circumatance ' the province of Hit-cheou, the bark of which 
tfatt when its bark is boiled in water, a white j is used to dye common cloths, 
senn is formed, which subsequently passes to i Toxocarpus Wightianus, Hooker^ is the 
rose, hom-bi, meaning Red-scum bark. The ' Asclepias curossavica of Lour, It is called 

bark of the pa-bi-io-xa, or white skin, however 
kog it be boiled. The Pa-pi lo-chou, or 
Bhamnns chlorophorus, is cultivated between 
%f and 36* of N« L., but more especially, 
about the 30* and 31* of N. Lat. The hong- 
pi-lo-^dioa or Rliamnus chlorophorus, is men- 
tioned as high as N. L. 39* and down to 
N L. 30°. This seems the hardier buck-thorn 
and capable of withstanding the severe frosts 

in Chinese Ma-li-kiu. 

The Chinese have two modes of dyeing 
green, firsts with the flowers of the hoai-hoa 
and indigo ; secondy by indigo alone. 

Green-dyes, — Since the middle of the 18th 
century, various accounts have been published 
of stutifs which dye fibrous substances of a 
green colour. Amongst these, the Tsai of 
Cochin-Chiua was mentioned by Poivre about 

of Tchi-li, but it is evident that both species the year 1 760, and again by Father Horta in 

exist in abunilance in the northern parts 
ef the province of Tche-kiang, over a space 
of 45 sqoare miles. Lo sa, or Lo-xa or Lok 
ah is the term applied to the branches, of 
the plant when tied up in faggots for sale to 
the djer. But tliere are two kinds of such 
faggoC% one termed pa-hi-lo-sa, or white- 
ikinoed green vine branch, and the other 
hon-hi-lo-aay red skinned green vine branch. 
Father Helot states that the people of Can- 

1 766. Poivre's small work, printed at Ver- 
dun in 1768, mentions that ** Tsai," on being 
fermented like the indigo, furnishes an abun- 
dance of green flowers, which of themselves 
yield an emerald green and persistent dye. 
Father Horta, writing in 1766 seems to re- 
peat the above when he states that the Tong- 
kinese cultivate a plant named ** tsai" as he 
says, found only in Tongkin and Cochin- 
China, which, being steeped, furnishes a green 

Ion, on whose mountains the plant grows, , flower, that yields a very strong emerald 
call it iieu'lo-ehouy — willow green tree. | green dye. The word " tsai** is not Cochin- 
Fortune states tliat a farmer near Hong- | Chinese, but Chinese, and has two meanings, 
teheon-foa, who had some plantations of the I a plant or herb, and a pot-herb or vcgeta- 
cultiTated Rhamnus, named it loh sah, and | ble. Subsequently in the year vii. of the 

soh-loh-aha. Mr. Sinclair gives hwuy-chiang- 
chi or iee^^hi, as the name of a bark used in 
Fokiea for dyeing cotton green. The Hong- 
pi-lo-chou has all the characteristics of a wild 

French Revolution, a green dye plant of Co- 
chin-China, was brought to the notice of 
Europe by de Cossigny, under the name of 
Diuh-xanh, He de8cril>es the plant as very 

ihrah. The magnificent lustre, is only ob- like balm, and adds that a green fecula is 
tslned after immersion in the infusion of the obtained from it by trituration, and used to 
pe-pi-lo-chou. At Ay^, Father Helot was i dye every shade of green. 
assured that the lo-kao, was prepaied from j Chinese Green— "SU Rondot's book entitled 
the bark of the pe-pi,— and the dyei-s of Khiu- j js^otice du Vert de Chine, contains specimens 
cebcou-foii described a process for dyeing silks : of calico and silk dyed with the * green,* 
ind cottons with the pe-pi only. It would I and engravings of two plants, Rhamnus 
fleem that the pe-pi alone yields violet, blue ; ^tHis and Rhamnus chlorophorus, from 
•ud jrreen, according to circumstances, and a , ^hi^), \^ \^ derived. These plants are new 
peculiar kind of the lo-kao, or green dye on j to European cultivators ; they are, however, 
doth of a watery green tending to azure, allies of the Rhamnus iheezans, which 
with lime or alum ; that the hong-pi yields | has long been known as a tree from which 
lyellowtoimpnrt a grwn^to the ^colour, and. the poorest class of Chinese pluck the 

. . .^. * leaves to use as a substitute for tea. The 

colour of the dyed silk is remarkably bright, 
a blue green, one of that class of colours 
which increase in brilliance in the light. It 
contains, in fact, some immediate principle 
which can only be developed by light, and it 
is a nice task for chemists to discover what 
this is. Persoz says that light will have to be 
more and more regarded as an industrial 
agent ; and of the Chinese gi-een he remarks 
that it is sui generis, containing neither 
yellow nor blue. By experiments made at 
Lyon, it appears that six species of the 
European Rhamnus will yield a ^een d^t^ 

D 189 

that Uie lo-kao is impure if the admixture of 
this yellow he in too great a proportion. The 
ihrubs from which tlie green dye is obtained 
ire thorny. Rhamnus tinctorius of China 
difiers from R. chlorophorus only in the shape 
of tlie calyx. The Hhamni indigenous to 

China are— 

& creiuttos, Sieb. and Zueearini, Japan. 

R. globoaiu, BungCf North China. 

R. lineatua, Lour. Barchemia Loureiriana, De Cand, 
Qiina, Cocfain-China. 

Mr. De Caisue told M. Rondot that an 
Engh'sh horticulturist had reared a scrophu- 
linceous plant, which had been sent to him 
nn the Lo-za. 




^^cc^our," are the Sanscrit, warna ; and the ! mordant in the native process is unknown, and 
Portogiiese, tinta. Their colours are usually with the exception of weak ley made from 
icnbre, — little yaried, but generally fast, the ashes of some of the plants of the jungles 
Blues are always produced from indigo, no other application is made beyond the 
yielded for the most part by the ludigofera ; simple solution of the extract from the wood 
tinctoria, as in other parts of India but in ' itself. 

Sumatra, occasionally, from the Marsdenia 
tinciona, a plant of the natural order of the 
AscWpiadese. Yellows are produced from 

Catechu has been used in India to givu a 
brown dye to cotton ; and has lately been 
very extensively employed in the calico- 

the woods of two species of Artocarpus, the i printing works of En>;Iand. The salts uf 
jack and champadah, and from turmeric ; and - cop|>er with sal-ammoniac, cause catechu to 
reds from the bark of the root of the ^^mang- yield a bronze colour which is very perma- 
kmdu^ the Moriuda umbellata, — from the nent. Tlie proto-murinte of tin produces 
** ktummba-Jaiva" safflower or Carthamus with it a yellowish brown. A fine deep 
tiaclorius, from the ** kusumba-kling,*' which ! bronze hue is also produced from catechu by 
is the aDnotto, or Bixa orellana, from the ' the peruhloride of tin, with an addition uf 
■ipangy or sapen-wood, Caesalpiniu sappan, j nitrate of copper. Acetate of alumina gives 
sod from the nidus of the lac insect Black ' a brown, and nitrate of iron a dark-brown. 
is prodaced from the rinds of the mangostin For a golden coffee brown, catechu has 
fimiti and of the " Katapang,** Terminalia entirely superseded madder, one pound of it 
catappa, with sulphate of iron. Sails and ' being equivalent to six pounds of that root. 
nets sre djed, and perhaps also tanned with i Japan materials for dyeing are taken from 
a wood called in Sumatra '' ubar^* which is ' a s{)ecieci of Betula, from the Gardenia florida, 
tfae Ricinus tanarius of botanists. The mor- Polygonum Chinense, barbatum and aviculare, 
danti used are rice-bran, alkalis from the i all produce a beautiful blue colour, much like 
eombastion of some vegetable matters, as the ; that from Indigo. The leaves were first dried, 
frait stalks and mid-ribs of the cocoanut palm, then pounded, and made into small cakes. 

and alom brought from China. 

which were sold in the shops. 

VeiUna Dyes, — " Asbarg," produces a yel- ; In late years, in the latter half of the nine- 
low for silk. i teenth century, coal-tar colours have been 

" Akal-bir^ gives a yellow dye ; the wood ■ largely brought into use as dyes, and several of 
of the jack, the root of the pyschotria, the them have been em ployed by the dyers of India, 
bark of the gamboge trees, the flowers of the land are likely to become considerable imports. 
bates, the rind of the Bengal quince, and the i Mauve fii*st, about the year 1856, and next 
leaves of the memecylon and the touk-yat, j magenta about 1868, were made known, but 
all produce bright yellow dyes. { each year has seen additions to this remarkable 

A plant grows wild in the southern part of class of dyes, and when it is mentioned that of 
the Chittagong district. The Mug make yel- madder alone to the value of about 2, 160,000/. 
low and red dye, by grinding the plant and its i is annually imported into Great Britain, about 
roots into powder, and boiling the same in £1,000,000 worth of which is retained for con- 

water. The colours are dull but seem to last 
for a long time. 

sumption there, and that one of the coal-tur 
colours will take its place, their importance 

Fupli chikay, — The bark of the pupli i cannot be exaggerated. It is fi-om beuzol, dis- 
root is used in Mysore and elsewhere, as ! covered by Faraday in 1826, that all the ani- 

jieldiug an orange dye. It is treated with 
tlam, myrobolans, &c. This dye stuff is in 
▼ery common use in India, and deserves a 
&ir trial in Europe. The pupli is seldom 
used alone, but generally as an adjunct with 
chay-root, to produce a rich chocolate colour, 
or, if with galls, a black. 

The red dye obtained from the roots of the 

Morinda citrifolia is equal in every respect to 

that of the sapan wood ; it is in fact in gene- 

ni use with the natives for dyeing the yam 

of the native cloths, both silk and cotton ; 

and with the exception of some specimens 

of Java dyes obtained from the same tree, 

better single colours of the kind are rarely 

Ken ; it must be borne in mind in relation to 

such a comparison,' that the use of mineral 


line colours are prepared, and the latest dis- 
covered colours were from the hydrocarbon. 
Authracene, Alizarine, discovered in 1831, 
is the colouring principle of madder, but it is 
supposed that Authracene will take its place. 
In the year 1848, purpurine, a second colour- 
ing matter in madder, was discovered. It 
contributes to the full and fiery red colour in 
ordinary madder-dyeing, but dyes a bad 
purple, alizarine being essential to the latter. 
Many of the coal-tar colours are derivatives 
of aniline, one of the organic bases found in 
coal-tar. By the action of nitric acid, benzol 
is converted into a dense yellow oil, called 
nitro-benzol, and by the action of nascent 
hydrogen, this new compound is transformed 
into Aniline. Bunge's blue, is obtained from 

D 191 


DTTISCUS GRISEUS, one of the aquatic 
eoleoptera, is found in Europe and in Bengal. 
DTUPETI, also Dyupetir. A name of 
Jadrm^ seeminglj the origin of the name 
Japeter, perhaps from jiva, life, and pitin, 
Bitfaer. Djupetir may, nowever, be from 
vords deo, god, and pitra, father, or from div, 
die skr, and pitra, father. 

DYUTA, Sans. Gambling with dice, 
diasB, ftc, or betting on cocks, rams, &c. 
Djruta-pratipady also Dyuta-purnima, in hiu- 
dooicm, is the night of the last day of the light 
half, and eve of the first day of the dark half 
of tiie month Kartik, which is to be spent in 
gambling, iu honour of Lakshmi the goddess 
of ibrtouc^ — fVihon, 

DZAY KEIRA, a town in India, in L. 
74* 20' E^ and L. 20* 52' N. 

DZASSAK. In Hi, the tsiankiun has 
inthority over the Eiuth and Chahar of his own 
central province of Hi, who have also Chinese 
ministers ; over the Elutli, Chahar, and Has- 
ttck under the isantsan minister, resident at 
Tarbagatai, and over the mohemedaus of 
the eight cities in Hi, south of the Tien Shau, 
who are untler resident ministers of different 
degrees. In the Uiiasutai province, which 
re4!eives^ a small garrison from the 
t»iangkina of Shan si, tliere are Tan gnu 
Uhankai, some of them yumuh^ herds- 
men, some tasangy peltry-men, under the 
tuamgkium in observation at Kurun, who is 
farther supreme over the ministei*s at Kobdo, 
having charge of the Mingat, Eluth, Chak- 
sin, Altai Uriankai, and Altai-Nor Urian- 
kai of the far province. On the borders of 
Tibet, are Tumuh, or Dam Mongol under 
8 standards, amenable to the authority of the 
resident isantsan. Of the feudal constitu- 
tion of these tribes, it will be advisable 
to note the following particulars. The six 
»M^, ekalkan or leagues, into which these 
24 tribes are formed, are each under a 
head or elder, and a lieutenant, chosen from 
a list of Dzassak, presented to the emperor 
by the Colonial Office. Eveiy tribe is hound 
to assist any other in the same league 
which may be in danger. Once iu three 
jean, the leagues are mustered by four high 
eommissioners selected by the emperor from 
incumbents of high civil and military posts 
in the empire ; their visit is of a thoroughly 
inqmsitorial character. The Dzassak are in 
torn compelled to pay visits to Peking ; the 
jesT in which it is not the duty of this or 
that Dzassak to go, he sends a taihih ; on 
itated occasiona all assemble in court costume 
to do homage in token of fealty before the 
door consecrated to Majesty at the head- 
quarters of the tribe. The internal economy 
of the Outer, is much the same as that of 



the Inner Mongolians. Their Dzassak are 

ennobled by all the same titles except tapu- 

nang, of which there are none. Some of the 

Dzassak, whether otherwise ennobled or nor, 

have the title Khan, which is superior to 

any of the rest, and brings with it a 

higher allotment of pay and gifts. Their 

chaikan or leagues, have each a Captain* 

: general and a LieuteuaDt like the Inner 

I Mongols, and are, like them, mustered and 

I inspected triennially. Their military organiza- 

1 tion is, with a few exceptions, the same. 

I Fii-9t, in the I'egiou of outer Mongolia, we 

I find four leagues of Knlkas, each under a 

j Khan : 1st, the Tuchetu kh:innte, numbering 

' 20 stundanls under o8 tsoling ; 2(1, the Saiii- 

noin, 24, including 2 Eluth standards;, in 

I 38^ tsoling compauies ; 3d, the Tsetsen, 23 

'■• standards in 46^ companies ; 4th, the Dzus- 

; saktu, under 19 standards, including one of 

I Klioits, in 24^ companies. Now come the 

' Durbet, in two wingi$, each of which is a 

league under a lieutenant-general, appointed 

i as above : the left comprising 10 standards 

' of Durbet and one of Khoit, in 11 companies ; 

I the right three of Durbet and one of Khoit. 

in 17 companies. Their position is beyond 

the north-west frontier line of the Dzassaktu ; 

they extend across the province of Kobdo, 

north of the city of that name, and their 

troops, amounting in 1,812 to 1,400 niakia, 

were under the tsautsau of the Chinese 

government at Kobdo. The two wings are 

! subject to one Khan. Under the same oiHcer of 

I Kobdo, are the troops of the new Turguth of 

the Urungu River, iu the south-east of the same 

province, and Hoshoit of the Djabkan, farther 

north. The former under two standards iu 

three companies, which would give but loO 

makia, form a league, the single standard and 

company of the latter, furnishing 50 makia, 

belong to none. Under the Kurun general 

are 695 Tasang families of Uriankai Tanguu 

paying two skins of marten fur, and 412 

pay 80 gray mouse skins under the tsautsau 

of Kobdo, 412 of Altai Tanguu, paying 

gray mouse skins, 256 marten skins, and 

429 paying four fox skins each : also 61 of 

Altai Nor Tanguu paying gray mouse skin, 

and 147 paying marten fur. Of Yumuh there 

are, under the general, eight companies of 

Uriankai, and under the tsautsau, seven of 

Altai and two of Alti Nor. Of the leagues 

whose soldiery is under command of the 

tsiangkiun of Hi, there are four of old Turguth 

and one of Hoshoit distributed in five circuits. 

The north contains the old Turguth of Ilopok- 

siloh, three standards in 14 ; the east, those 

of Tsirholang, two in 7 ; the west, those of 

the River Tsing one, in 4 companies. These 

are north of the Tengkiri, stretching well 

D 193 


into TarbagaUi. Following the oudiue of 
moderu Kausuh, we fiad ia the north-east of 
the Taing Hai, or Koka Nor, territory, five 
tt'ibtB ia one league of 29 standarils ;it in 
peculiar in having no captaio or lieutenant 
■ike the rest. Their Btaudarila are 21 of 
Koshoit in SO companies ; one of Kboit in 
1 ; four of Turgutbs in 12 ; one of Kalku 
in 1 ; and two of Ghoros iu 6^ companies. 
Their fighting strength in 1»I2, would thus 
be 5,0:15 makia under the command of the 
Besident at Si-ning, on thebordei's of Kausuh. 
There are mohamedauB iu Kami and Turfan, 
aa well as iu the cities in Host Turkistan. 
— Wa^t Chine$e Army, pp. 68 to 70. 

D2A-WET-THA, Bdbm. Hjrdrochlorate 
of Ammonia 

DZAYTANA, a town in L. 74* 31' E., 
L. 21' 10' N. 

DZIALA, Pol. Cannon. 

DZUMGARIA,a territory in Central Asia, 
separated from Chineso Taitary by the Ttan- 
Shan range of mountaina. Late in the seven- 


t«enth century, Hnjab Appok, of Kn 

of the party of ibe White Mountain, boagl 

.d of Gaidan Khan, sovereign of the 1 

; Kolmuk of Dzuugaria. Taking adn 

of the occaaioD, GaldauKban, in 1678, in 

states south of the Tian Shan, cam 

the khan of Kaahgar and liis tomilj, 

itabliahcd Hojnh Appak over the ctt 

I authority subordinate to his own. I 

discord for many ycara followed, soiaa 

the party of the Whito Mountaiu, mom 

tho party of the Black Mouutaia being ■ 

must, but some supivraacy always coatd 

to be exercised by the kliaua of Diooi 

In 1767, however, the latter coantn 

couquered by tho Chinese, who, ia tbeH 

iiig year made a tool of the party d 

White MouiitBLii which was then in oppa 

and succeeded in bringing tho states of' 

istuD, also, under their rule. — YitU Ct 

Vol. ii, p. 547. 

D'ZUTU, Tel. Bee Hindoo. 


I Mlv <tf tlie Englkh langnage 
lutinot aoiindB, as in the woi^ 
T, andthers. 

Ttt^ the E is klwaya long ; aud the 
taAnbic £ am be better indicated 
lish letter "y " bot to imitate the 
lome d the letters of the langnages 
kstem Asia, the EDglisb E has to 
Kd,thns£te. To obtain, by means 
glisb E, its sound as in " there" 
insnalljaceentedasiii Veda, 
sletter in the Chinese tongne means 
B, and is applied hy them to all 
iBstbebindns apply Hh'lecha, the 
A Latlne, barbaroe and barbams. 
h artioleof the Britifih Treaty with 
«, it wag stipnUted that E ahonid 
d to desi^ate the people of Bri- 
ni is another Chinese term for 
the exact meaning of which baa 
Motioned, and the term " Hmig- 
" "red-bristled man" iras alio 
tke Britiah. 

', Cau.. 

I Nisr, HiB. 
I Sherza, Hi5&. 

^es, the aqnalince, are arranged by 
I as a anb-t'amily of the falconidas, 
a Baptores or Birds of Prey, the 

of Linn«na and the Bapacee and 
1 of other anthors. Dr. Jerdon 
•i^ the AqnalinsB into Ave gronpe, 
Eagles, Kite Eagles. Hawk Eagles, 
sgles, and Fishing Eagles. They 

powerful in flight and are often 
Siiriptare. Job xxxiz. 27 'says 

Uj Toioe that the eagle toars t 
■nfon maketh bia ii«>t on biRb ? 
A ia tiie place of his habitation. 
lea on the crag, the place of strength. 
he ponnoes npon hia pref . 
■ diaoem afar off. 

1(J.— True Eaglet. 

qoila chiysaetos, Linn. The Gol- 

Iden Eagle is fonnd over the greatei 
ortbem and Central Enrope, Asia, 
ica, it is however rare in India, and 
he Himalaya, for, in Ondh and the 
malaya, it is the Lammergeyer, to 
iropeans give the name of Golden 
t ia namsd Berkut and Bjvrkut by 
^Iflf and is the Beareoote which 
notices ia his travels. It is 3 feet 
long, and the Kii^bia and other 
nbet tarain it to kill antelopes, foxes 


md even wolres, it ia oavried oo a perch 
twtwixt two men, or on a horse. 

{b.) Aqnihi Imperiaiis, BeeA«f . The Im- 
perial Eagle. 
&qai]a moglnik, Okil. I AqmIaNIpabiMiB,HoDa«. 

„ farilB.Ca,8AT. „ ohTTSUtOSiJUIKUt 

„ bifuoiata, Orai I 
aud H*u>w. I 
Fmi, Bens. I Jambii, Hind. 

Jnmii, Hiud. | 

The Imperial Eagle is fonnd thronghont 
the Himalaya, ia not uncommon in Central 
India and on the Table Land, bat ia rare in 
the South of India. It oommenees to seek 
its prey abont an honr after sonrise, hunting 
alonly at no gnat elevation over bnsby 
valleys and ravines, and oocaaionally over 
oaltivatad gronnd,ponncing on hares, florikioi 
rats, lisards. Aw., bat will eat carrion. 

(e.) Aqnila Nevia, Gma. The Spotted 

A. melanaetns, Siv. I A. vittata, Hodgb. 
„ clanga, Pall. | 

Bnkajari Jijadha, Bina. I Nallagadha, Til. 
Ka^ianga, Hind. | 

The Spotted E^e is fonnd thronghont 
India, N. Africa, Western Asia and the 8. 
of Europe, and is tolerably common in the 
Camatio and in Matabur ; it prefers the 
vicinity of cnltivated places, it lives on small 
animals, rats, sqnirTels, lizards, and &og8. 

Qray. The 

(d.) Aqnila fnlrescens. 
Tawny Eagle. 

„ fluca „ „ j Jam. 

Wohab, HiKn. | Salwa, Tn. 

All, Tm. Dholwa of the Wagri. 

Alain, Tbl. | Bnnawnl of the TerkU. 

This resemble* the Imperial Eagle in 
miniatnre. It is fonnd in a great part of 
India, is very abundant in the Deocan, but 
is unknown in Kalabar, Bengal, and to the 
East of India. It prefers dry open plains. It 
quests slowly over fields, and feeds on bares, 
partridges, rats, lizards, and occasionally 
enters villages and towns and carries off 
chickens and ducklings. It pursues and 
rolM kites, falcons, and other birds of mey, 

(e.) Aqnila bastata. Lett. The Long 
Legged Es^le. Spisaetua punctatns, JerA. 
Jiyadha, Kixt). I Phari Tisa, Hbid. 
Gntimar, „ | 

This Eagle is not common. It robs bird's 

(/.) Aqnila pennata. Qmsl. The Dwarf 
Eagle, also Garden Eagle. 
Aqi|ila minnta, Buax. I Bataqnila ttrophlata, 
Spii»eta8milT0idea,JiBD. I Hodsi. 

Basati Jnmii, Hlliii. | Pnnja Pr»a3n, TiM. 

GiThrimar, „ | Oodatal Qedda, Tbl. 


he GieekSi ma the god imder 
ding wings Egypt had. seen its 
fs. Every Egyptian king had call- 
the son of Uie son ; those who 
; at Thebes boasted that* they 
1 by Amnn-Ba ; {Sharpens Egypt.) 
ui priests were the first to teach 

does not wholly die when life 
x>dy. They said that after death 
alt in the bodies of other animals, 
re imprisoned for its sins during a 
their short lives, and that after 
ig for three thousand years, 
e bodies of Inrds, beasts, and 
iS again allowed to take upon it- 
n ooyering. Hence they care- 

the dead body from decay, by 
it as a mnmmy, that it might be 
le soul to re-enter when the years 
ent had elapsed (Sharpe's Egypty 

Man and Hecateus were study- 
tgyptian customs, Pythagoras, 
irast to the slightest and most 
of traditions, was studying in 
er (Enuphis of Heliopolis. He is 
n hred twenty years in Egypt, 
conquest of the country by the 
obave been taken prisoner and 
to Babylon. {Sharpe'9 HUlory of 

ifittge was recorded in hyerogly- 
tewiMrds hitherto deciphered are 
m number and principally inde* 
Mis which can all be traced into 
I ^jptian to about 900 words 


manners and customs Hero- 
id tiie Egyptians unlike every 
id been used to in Greece. They 
t right to left. They ate their 
Sbe streets. The priests were 
le other men wore beards. Every 
eraarkable and new to him. 
B the time of the elder Pliny 
ite through Egypt to India first 
lly known to the Greeks and 
iarpe's History of Egypt, Vol. I p. 
i. vi. 26. 

Jews ; Kali ; Kama ; Kartakeya *, 
j ; Kiang ; EIrishna, Elalusa ; Sla- 
irana, Takya, Surya, Serpent, 
a, Yishnn, Yavana. 
IN BEAN, a name sometimes 
bean-fruits of Nelnmbinm spcci- 
I firom the notion that they were 
hich the disciples of Pythagoras 
len to eat 

AN HABE. Lepus ^gypticus. 
UN LOTUS. Nelumbium spc 


EGYPTIAN PRIVET. Lawsoniainenms: 

EHDAKL MIRZIC. Arab. Camomile. 

EHBA BADEA, a name of Yira badra. 

EHEEE or EHROO, a river of Boondee. 

EHRETIA, a genus of plants, trees or 
shrubs of the natural order Boraginacen. 
Yoigt names E. aspera and buzifolia small 
trees of the south of India. E. intemodia a 
tree of the Mauritius, E. Isvis and E. serrata 
trees all over India, E. arenaria, Oriff is one 
of the sand binding plants of the Indian 
coasts. The root of E. buxifolia (kuro- 
vingi vayr. Tam. Pale ke jar. Hind.) is given 
in decoction as an alterative in syphilitic 
cachexia and its fruit is eaten. Wight 
gives Ehretia aspera, cuneata, Issvis^ ova- 
lifolia, umbellatQ, viminea, Wightiana. 

EHRETIA ASPERA, Roxb. A small tree 
of the Panjab plains, Sivalik hills and Salt 
Rango : in times of dearth, its bark is 
ground mixed with flour and eaten. Its 
wood is valued for its hardness. 

EHRETIA LiEVIS. Boxh, Cor. W. Ic. 
Beurreria laevis, G. Bon* 

Pal-dantam, Godavery, Tsl. 1 Seregadas Til. 
Peda palimera, Circar j 

A pretty large tree, common in the drier 
parts of Ceylon, in the peninsula of India, is 
a native of the Circar mountains, gfrows in 
Hindostan, in the Dhera Dhoon, the Kheree 
pass and in BengaL It furnishes a hard 
valuable wood, though not of great size. 
which in the Circars is used by the hill peo- 
ple for many purposes. — Dr. Mnslie^ Voigt 
Thwaites^ Dr. Cleghcm, Captain Beddome^ 
Rohde M. 8. 

Ehretia pyrifolia, D. Don. 

Kalaaja. Bkho. 

I Nqlahima Kep. 

A tree growing in Bengal, Chittagong 
the Khassia mountains, Nepal, Bhootan, and 
the Dehra Dhoon. It furnishes a tough 
light wood easily worked and durable, made 
into sword handles. — Voigt. 

EHYNCHO-CINBTES. See Palemonid». 

EICHE. Gee. Oak, Quercus. 

EICHELN; ECKERN.- Geb. Acorns. 

EICHIA MARAM. Tam. Also Eichi 
Wood. Asolo-Tam. Ficus t'siela. 

EIDU, a mined town on the Karan river 
in Luristan. It was also called Mai Amir. 


ElK DuT. Oak. Quercus. 

EILAK. TuBKL The term given by the 
pastoral Durani, to their summer residence. 
Kishlak, also Turki, being that of theirwin- 
ter station. See Afghan. 
' EILAN. Hind. Also Ehiur, also Bllal, 
Andromeda ovalifolia. 



Sahmi* (moallAta of Bozb. or Hntchinia in- 
dioL Elakft Cheri Icnra. Til. Hjdrocotyle 
fofandifolia.— Jto gfe. 

ELaSI CHETTTJ. Trl. Elettaria car- 

d M D omm n. Wh. and Mates. 8jn. of 

Alptnia carda moimmi. — Baxh, 

ELA KXTLLI. Tax. Euphorbia neriifolla. 

ETiAM. HiKD. Mal. Tam. Tel. Anction. 

ELAM, or Snsiana was the conntrj on the 

art of the southern portion of the Tigris, 

mdi of thelmristan mountains and was the 

cndle of ancient sorereigniy. Berosns men- 

a legend to the effect that the first 

of civilization was there and that the 

of mankind came from the shores of 

Urn PttBian Onlf. Snsiana was known as 

and all the Babylonian and Assyrian 

arrow-headed inscriptions hitherto 

refer to Snsiana as the cradle of 

where the mine of great cities 

finorered by Sir H. Bawlinson. The 

were a powerfnl nation in the early 

dni of Alnraliam before either the Assyrian 

orBdiiyloniaii govcmmcnts rose into power. 

Xadnhomer, King of £lam, held Canaan 

ad Arabia petnsa in subjection. — Buruen 

m. 352. See Lran. Lud. 

ELAliAVI also Tiwja mamidi, Tel, Man- 
^iefa, indicate L. Its Sans, name is Sahdkara 
w. 913 ^ a fragrant kind of Mango," — hence 
As nam e from Ela, *' cardamom." 
ILAHITES. See Iran. Elam« 
ILAIin)EI PALLAM. Tam. Bhamnus 

ELAlirErr, ahawk,theFalcomelanoptems, 

Dtadin, inhabiting Africa, India and Ame- 

tioL— /erd. i. 112. 

ELANJI I^IABA. Can. Bhamnus jnjnba. 




ELAFTJB, the fortress of Krishna rajah. 
Atlhe date of Charlemagne, Hindustan and 
Ae Dekhan were divided into four kingdoms 
Ta,f Gujara (Gnjarat) on the west ^ Malwa, 
hfhe centre, the Gourha raj on the east 
isdnding Bengal and Behar, and the Lates- 
vsa kingdom to the south, but the Sowe- 

ror Sattarah sovereignty was also spoken 
Indra rajah who raled the Lateswara 
Uigdom conquered Gnjarat, and aided the 
Ung of Malwa against the Gourea sove- 
ttipity. See Inscriptions, p. 390. 

ELAEIAMIJ. Tel. A root employed in 
Aropsical affections, supposed to bo that of 
Ophioxylon serpentinum. 
EL ARAM is mentioned in the koran as the 
fi&l-nl-Arem, or flood of ul- Aram. It is the 
im of Marebi built by Queen BaJkis above 


the city of Saba. It burst A. D. 1 20. See 

Ficus elastica. — Eoxh. See Indian Bubber. 


ELATEBID^. See Colecptera. 

PhoBuix sylvestriSi Roash, 

Eajata, Can. 

Sondi kajhar. Duk. 

Wild date, Eiro. 

Itcham maram. Tam. 
Ita chettn. Tel. 

Itcham elle. Tax. 

Sandalay ka phal, Duk. 
Parnshaica, Sans. 

The Leaf. 

I Ito-akii, TsL. 

Its fruit. 

Itoham pallam, Tav. 
Ita panda, Tkl, 

Its timber has the general characteristics 
of the family, but is inferior to the palmyrah, 
cocoanut, &c. In India, the fmit, when 
ripe, is small, oval shaped, dark coloured, 
and sweetish; about the size of a ripe 
wild plnm, but, thongh it is now be- 
lieved that this tree is identical with the date 
palm of Arabia, the fmit is not esteemed^ 
being unimproved by cnltivation. The 
leaves and stalks are made into baskets, 
boxes and hats, twisted into rope, used for 
thatching and in the manufacture of light 
mats for building huts. The inner wood 
furnishes, by boiling, a kind of catechu, 
which contains much tannin. It is obtained 
by boiling the heart wood for a few hours, 
when it assumes ■ the appearance and con- 
sistency of tar. It hardens by cooling, and 
when formed into small squares and dried 
in the sun is fit for the market. The pro- 
duce of Bombay is of uniform texture and 
of a dark rod color. That of Concan and 
other parta of India, is of a chocolate color, 
and marked inside with red streaks. The 
analysis of Sir H. Davy gave the following 
result in 100 parts. 

Bombay. Concan. 

Insoluble matters, sand, 
lime, &o. ... 5*0 7*0 

Bombay. Concan. 

Tannin. 54*5 485 
Extractive340 86*5 
Mncilage . 6*5 80 

The fibres of the leaf stalk are used for 
cables in the Red Sea. The natives of the 
East chew the fruit in the same manner 
as the areca nut, with the leaf of the betel, 
pepper and quick lime. Simmond's Com^ 
mercial Prodiicis, page 579. Ainalief Madras 
Ex, Jur, Report See Date.' 

ELAVUM. The Tamil name of the wild 
cotton tree of Malabar, which grows to 
sixty or eighty feet high, and from four to 
six feet in diameter. It is a very soft, light 
wood, and used by the natives for catama- 



'^^>rf>'^ it looksd smoewhtA squallj conld work ont from them wLen tUe first 

iWL^-l'*"" "^ ^° Bhonld not fool bnrat of tlie monsoon, or when the Elc^ihantn 

^2"* if »» hid yet ihowers ofninto occnrs, or what are the charactcrii-tiGe of 

■ ****'f~ -Hii jetr seenu to have been still 0/ We*teni Iwlin, pciye 5. 

23?."" !»«»''»« ''. '""I" ehnmo- ELEPHiNTE. Sp. ELEPHAKTES, It. 

■^™"PWitioB which sepemtee our mon- Elephant. 

ibMni!!? "™ *'"'" °? '"' »?*"""■ ELEPHANTA. An i.Iand aorora Bombay 

■»liriS"!!.°f'S"«T;"'''"V^,.'°"*li I"''"" • "I" f"™ Batcher i.Und and 

"^Wtouj,!,,,, the 6th, and thn. » all ,,„„„ ,„ „!;„, „ n, i,|,„j „f Gharipnri. 

aWrfX I AoaTeiniliniteclf maybe called a com. 

hrijif r?"^"""" J«ar. here given piete Pantheon : tor among the hnndreda of 

~g^^«h™tm.,jT,tbont.regn. Sgnrc, that .enlpt»red%very principal 

~2°™-''»»"««I"ll '50m the east, hindn deity i. fonad. B.ddha i. .ridenlly 

_^m^ "andCT-occnrnng w.U. the f„„ t;, ,,„ „,j ,ii„,i„„ , principal per- 

^^KJ'" -?°'',.'^'"S t*" '? '."'^ "!">" 'I" '«"^Pl" »"<" P«enli-.rly dVdi- 

Z^^ I«i<.^tf^-, P"!"! j°"°^ oaled, which Major Moor apprehended to be 

ESil' J^.!"'' '*"■ '°^'^' ^°"?? "■« O"" Saprene Being, llat a. no renre- 

!r52lL C" *l'?»°=f""J'"» «!»«"• aentalions are ever made of that Being, to 

il«™i«ll^w.xt them the honor, of ^j, a„, principal powers or allrihiles, 

Sftrlj *>" •!»•?" '■PP™'' 5^ (via. accotdiag a. they he conlemplated- 

*.r"l™f-» l»»\Pj'«l«;'. "■"■„• 'i- mrlbologically, elhicnlly, motaphjsie.lly. or 

rf,,.»l«Ja«.j,h,chn„ ,;„ gic,,^') '' '• 

Md vooi ^^ liiire nothing bat the ub- veiIud Wixiom Pr»GiTiitioii 
hrt report t«> jnide na und ainnot ex- S'™ |J"«'" I """"rti" ! 
^j^ontirl-m^theElcphBntHoccnmd. In tlie Elephanta cave, Garuda is often 
., _-gM>t*rt* that for fire yean on end seen with an appendage; and on eereral 
^S ex^eoonced at Bombay no anch very old gold coins ho haa annkea or ele- 
'^1 tb>^ "v^soallj knomi ns the Ele- phants in his talons and beaks — for he is 
i_«id o^^^*« occnrrence of which for Bometimes ipread, and double- hcadod, like 
■""VijjQjete'^nyearsalmoat nninterrnpt- the Pmssian eagle, and one ifl ronnd his 
T'*^^«e T*»^Bte accomits. Elephanlaa neck: bnt he is not eo represented eitherJn 
■y^t.^^Vi^***^ prevailed a.1 regularlj be- pictnrea or castn. Destroyer of aerpents, 
•*.j^uvto^« depths oftimo aa betwixt Nag-anteka, ia one of his names. Some 1e- 
■• Vj^ JA& W57, but wanted a, historian, gends make Gamdn the offspring of Kanynpa 
Jj* ,^Abo'* ''^ *•"> electi-ic atorra which and Diti. Dili laid an egg, whioh it was pre- 
vf ;■ th« TtoM will be found, when wo dieted wonld proclnce her a deliverer from 
*?^to»*'*^7'**''^'*'^ord8, to have become some great affliction: after a lapse of five 
"JTp,^ B»itig»ted in violence as that with hnndred years, Gamda Bprung from the egg, 
^^ they *!*«■ It gives a melancholy flew to the abode of Indra, eitingnished the 
^vof our ignorance of the simplest and fire that anrroanded it, conquered its gnards, 
^^ iriereitiai; facts in Ifatanil History, ta the devata, and bore oE the amrita (ambro- 
^mk that we know nothing of the chnmc- sia), which enabled him to litjcrate his cap- 
' '"orthiastorm beyond thebonndaries tive mother. A few drops of this immortal 
' — ' ■ beverage falling on the species of grasa call- 

ed Knaa, (the poa cynnsnroidcs,) it becamo 
eternally consecrated i and the serpenta 
greedily licking it np, so lacerated 1heir 
tongues with the ahnrp grass, that tJiey have 
ever since remained forked ', bnt the boon of 
et«mity was ensured to them by their thofl 
p3,rtaking of the immortal fluid. This cause 
of snaken having forked tongues is still, po- 
pularly, in the tales of India, attributed to 
the above greedluess ; and their supposed 
immortality may have originated in some 
Buch atoriea as these, though, it is probable 
that the periodical renewal of their skin and 
assumed re-jaTenisccnce ia the true explana* 

^ BcmUj btrbonr. Wliera it begii 
lAm>t«>di^over what area it extenda, or 
WitBina JlHaamea elsewhere are things 
lUtvI; ubuiTQ to ns. The Governments 
ffl^Mud of the East India Company 
"^ ittin the past fifteen years, spent 
*^IWJ0Q in making and publishing 
■MMwogial observations ; these reports 
""•""oietmed that they are utt«rly use- 
ta. So meteorologist could, from one of 
ptStif Biigiii£cent quartos, one of which 
*]*• Ware os — form any idea whatever 
■Uwdimto meant to be indicated. The 
^™i? ikme of ten Tolnmes of Bombay 
'^* ««t a lakh of mpees, yet no one 



the Saxons ; the Greeks ; 

brew. She is sometimes described 
ghter, sometimes as the sister of 
and married to Buddha. In the 
tbology, according to Colonel Tod, 
it (Badha) ravished Ella, daughter 
GMsn, the son of Mann, whence the 
e epithet of his descendants in the 
nusj or men, the very tradition on 
it scnlptnred column in the south 
which eridently points to the pri- 
tjstery. He says that in Portici 
ingam entwined with a brazen ser- 
ought from the temple of Isis at 
, and many of the same kind, in mo- 
sorale the floors of the dwelling- 
od that there are wreaths of lingams 
eyoni over the door of the minor tern- 
is at Pompeii while on another front 
ed the rape of Venus by Mercury. 
NT race, according to the Pnrans, are 
B of the rape of Ella by Budha. 
lHNEEL. Tam. In Travahcore, 
tree, with a light red coloured wood, 
gravity 0*7 79, used for temples, 
and furniture. 
KERRI. Singh. Milk. 
KULLL Tam. Maleal. Euphor- 
ia. — Bach. 

.KUBA. Tel. Also Ilakura. Tel. 
trb, perhaps a species of Salsola. 
JTDE. The Malayala name of a 
tree which the natives use for gene- 
QM8. It produces a fruit from which 
tract a sweet scented oil, which is 
licinally ; and also for tho hair of the 
n days of ceremony. — Edije Forests 
bar and Canara, 

SEWANDERU. Singh. Presbytes 
^ a Ceylon monkey. 
fBOROUGH, Earl of, Governor Ge- 
British India in 1 841. He arrived in 
the time that the Indian Army was 
Cabool. He was recalled by the 
r Directors, but the reasons for his 
kl of their serrice, were never di- 


CHPORE, a town in East Berar 
onsiderable size, though greatly de- 
A military cantonment is near of 
e name. 

OT, Charles Morgan, Captain,Madras 
JTS, Ohiit i 853 ? brother of Sir Henry 
mployed from 1846 to 1849 in the 
ic Survey of the Indian Archipelago. 
duty he visited Moulmein, Madras, 
r, Sambnanga, Penang, Pulo Din- 
k)meo, Celebes, Pulo Penang, Singa- 
arimon, Pulo Buaya, Sumatra, Ba- 
nd the KokoB or Keeling islands. 
Magnetic Survey, 

ELLIOT, Sir Henry Mierg, k.o.b., one of 
fifteen children, of Mr. John Elliot, of 
Pimlico Lodge Westminster. He was bom 
in 1808, was educated at Winchester School, 
and Oxford from which he paf^sed into the 
Civil Service of the E. I. Company in Bengal 
and twice filled the post of Foreign Secretary, 
He died at the Cape in 1853, aged 45. He 
published in 1846 a Supplementaiy Glos- 
sary of Indian terms, an Index to the Ma- 
homedan historians of India, 4 vols., and coU 
looted M.S.S. materials for a history of India 
which Professor Dawson and Mr. E. Thomas 
commenced to edit. (Calcutta Review on 
No. xxiv.) He was possessed of a vast store 
of information which his early death pre- 
vented him giving to the public. The pos- 
thumous work is entitled History of India as 
told by its own historians, edited by Profes- 
sor John Dawson, M. R. A. S., Staff* College, 
Sandhurst, and the volumes that have al- 
ready appeared are of great value. 

ELLIOT, Sir Walter, k.c.s.l, a mem- 
ber of the Madras Civil Service, 2nd mem- 
ber of Council at Madra«« and President of 
the Revenue and Marine Boards. Employed 
as a Revenue Officer, first in the Southern 
Mahratta country ; subsequently as mem- 
ber of the Board of Revenue of Madras from 
which he was deputed as Revenue Commis- 
sioner, North Sircars, returning to Madras in 
1855, to the Council. He contributed the 
following papers to the scientific Journals. 
On Hindu Inscriptions, Lend. As. Trans, vol. 
iv. I ; — Catalogneof Mammaha in the Sou- 
thern Mahratta Country 5 Mad. Lit. Trans. 
1839, vol. X. 92, 207.— On the language of the 
Ghonds, with a Vocabulary, Bl. As. Trans. 
1848, vol. xvii. 1140.— Illustrations of the 
History of Southern India, Lend. As. Trans, 
vol. iv. 1 ; Mad. Lit. Trans, vol. vii. 193. — 
Notice of expedition into S. Africa, with des- 
criptions of new species of rhinoceros. Ibid, 
vol. xiv. 181.— Notice of the late Dr. Turn- 
bull Christie. Ibid. vo). XV. 160.— Descrip- 
tion of a new species of terrestrial planaria. 
Ibid. 1 82. Flora Andhrica, Madras, 1859.— 
Dr. BuisVs Oataloguc, 

ELLORAin L. 20° 2'N:, L75°, 11' Ein 
the Dekhan, N. W. of Aurangabad. The en- 
trance to the caves is 2,064 feet above the 
sea. It is called by the people Yerula 
and is near Roza in the Dowlatabad pro- 
vince of the Dekkan. The plateau of Roza, in 
the face that looks into the valley of the Go- 
davery is scarped and the porphyritic green- 
stone amygdaloid rock has been excavat- 
ed into great caves, and dwellings about 13 
in number. Those of Dhumnar and Ellora, 
contain a strong admixture of brahmanism, 
and those of Eiephanta are entirely brah- 



^ lifter jeKTB of foreign invaaion 
^^on, Persia rose again nnder the 
tbe SMsanians to be a national 
> ^e find the new national kings the 
^^of Masdanee, calling themselves, 
^^pliona deciphered by De Lacy, 
l^jj^ Aryan and Anarian races ; 
jJI^^ hdth 1MI Anirdn in Greek, 
L^T^Nhmt. Colonel Ghesney says 
•^"^ Of Soeirate was the capital of 
t^ from which the hardy Cosssei 
1^^ ^quests over Snsiaua and the 
2*|^*rd. The Elymseans inhabited 
y?^i which is on the sonthem 
'"'fidta and overhangs Babylon 
^ ift4/er'« Lecture8,pp. 226— 
^^<?. 3ee Lnristan. 

•^ S^ Yavana. 

A or 'vwnng isheaths of several of 
orio(L£«iftre highly Instrons and 
of trad e. See Beetle. 


milk. The Arait is also nsed for making ink 
and to obtain a black dye.— -Fo^, Oap- 
tain Beddome^ Mr. Rohde, Dr, Oleglunm, lb. 
Rept on KvUu and Kangrct, (yShaughneS" 
sey, VoigU Edye^ Dr. J, L. Stewart^ Honig^ 
herger^ 2/3. 

Ambat, Duk. 

A scandent shmb with alternate, polished 
leaves ; flowers in the cold season : fruit 
red, size of a currant. — Riddell. 
EMBELIA BIBES. Bukm. Roxb. Syn. 

E. glandulifera, Roxb. W. Ic. 

E. ribesoides Linn. 



an>. CJS Lenopodium album. 
Iki ft ^s^nus of plants of the na- 
|[jrdv«acefl9, of which M. basceal 
)(.Tilc>^^; M. robusta and M. vil- 
101111. The leaves and beiTies of 
cC the ^western coast of India are 
g^t^n^. The berries of M. ribes 
^^Anlterate black pepper. 

Babi rang, 


Kar-k anni, of Boxbat. 

Wni-warnDg, HiKD. 

Visha-al, Malkal. 



VtLju yelaDgam 
cbettn, Tbl. 


A scandent shmb growing in the Peninsula 
of India and at Sylhet. Its berries are pan- 
gent and used to adulterate black pepper. 
They are stated to be anthelmintic and cathar- 
tic. Riddell. Votgt. Birdwood. Ocd. Ex. 1862. 

of Embelia ribes. — Bwm. 

EMBROIDERY. The art of embroidery 
is one consonacnt with the habits of the 
people of India ; their patience and delicate 
handling render success certain, and there 
is, says Dr. Royle (Arts of India p. 606— 

,ii)}iQ»emblica, Linn. Roxb. W. Ic. 5U7), scarcely a town or city where credit- 

^i^^BB einblica, Bauhin. 















Amnsada nelli, Singh. 

Nellikai, Tah. 

Nelli maram, „ 

Usirika mana, Tel. 

Amla kamn. 




ooked tree, almost tho thickness of a 
!)ody. It grows in the south of the 
lis, in Canara, the southern Mahratta 
,tbe Eonkan, the Dekhan, in the 
>f the Grodavery and Circars, in Ben- 
iie banks of the Jumna, the Panjab 
irards in the Moluccas. The wood 
Old durable, is used for boxes, and 
tting: is good for well rings, does 
r under water, is well adapted for 
The strongly astringent bark is 
tanning material, and in dysentery 
bosa. The myrobalan fruit, can be 
r preserved in sugar : native women 
he powder of the seeds to possess 
t)perti68 and to be good for the 
use it mixed with either water or 

nble embroidery cannot be found. Delhi is 
a great place for embroidered fabrics both 
in silk and gold threads. In Lahore and Am- 
ritsar the manufacture of •* kalabatun," or 
gold thread, is extensively carried on. And 
Benares has long been famed, for gold and 
silver threads and also for its beautiful bro- 
cades. The art of embroidery was known 
and practised with great skill, in ancient 
times, in Egypt, Assyria, and Persia. The 
Israelites learnt the art before their exodus, 
the Babylonians were famed for their rich 
tapestries, and the Assyrian monuments 
display richly embroidered robes and trap- 
pings. Many parts of India are famous for 
this art ** ZardozV^ " From Dacca" says the 
Abbe de Guy on, writing in 1 744, as quoted by 
Dr. Taylor, " come the finest and best Indian 
embroideries in gold, silver or silk ; and those 
embroidered neckcloths and fine muslins 
which are seen in France." There has al- 
ways been a demand for such scarfs for the 
markets of Bnssora and Java. In the pre- 
sent day they have silks and woollens, mus« 
lins and nets. Cashmere shawls, European 
velvets embroidered with silk or tussur, that 
is, wild silk of either floss or common twist- 
ed silk thread: or with gold and silver 
thread and wire in great variety. The cloth 



side; and mil Bncb masses are 
nd possess polarity. Of the dif- 
ieties of emery used in the arts 
SOS is still preferred, as it is more 
its quality than that from Palah 
ch. That from Naxos is of a dark 
r with a mottled snr&oeand with 
ta of a mieaoeons mineral disse- 
. the mass. It frequently contains 
d» or streaks which are easily re- 
s being pnre comndnm. When 
I powder it varies in colour from 
' to black, but tiie colour of its 
(Mrds no indication of its commer- 
The powder of emery examined 
microscope shows the distinct ex- 
&e two minerals, comndam and 
•OIL The specific gravity of emery 
, bat its hardness is its most im- 
iroperty in its application to the 
le only difference in corondnm 
be the absence of oxide of iron. In 
rhere machinery is so available, 
!d be no difl&culty in preparing 
I powders of the requisite degrees 
I. The selling price of Corundum 
Q has been from £10 to £25 a 
re seems no reason why the pick- 
loms should sell for less than 
emeries, and Captain Newbold 
that the corundums near Gram, 
d into the three sorts known in 
viz., the red, the whites, and the 
these two are sold to the Arab 
at Mangalore and Tellicherry at 
n twelve to fifteen or thirty ru- 
ndy equal to £4, £6, and £12 a 
roB Museum "Report. See Corun- 

j NUT. Gardenia dumetorum. 
L PURPUREA. Cass. Syn. of 
cbifolia. D. C. 

Crassoccplialum son- 

chifoliurn, Less 

Mael Shcvi, Maleal 

irea, Cass. 
lifolia, LiXN. 

1 Southern Asia where it is used 
e. In China its leaves are used 

)UGU. Tel. also Emmenta. Tel. 
la. — Thunh, 

IS and Iraaus are sunnised by 
be different readings of the same 
he supposes Imaus or Himaus to 
from the Sanskrit word " Himh" 
snowy, a name still borne by the 
ntain range of the Himalaya. 

See Coleoptera. 
See Casuarius. Dromaius Nov» 




EMYDID^, a fanuly of reptaea of the 
Section Cataphracta or Shielded Reptiles, 
and order Chelonia, viz : 

Sec. ▲. Cataphrachta. Shielded Replalea. 
Obdes. Chelonia. 
Fav. TestndinidsB. 
Gen. Testudo IiKlica, Omel, Galap. 

radiata, 8havi. Kadag. 
stellata, 8havo. VizaflT- 
platynotufi. Blyth, Barm, 
elongata Blyih, Arak. Ten. 
Gen. Homopns Horsfieldii. Qray, Affgk. 

Fasi. Geoemydidae. 
Gen. Manouria Emys. Gray. Monlm. 
Gen. Geoemyda grandis. Oray, Tenas. 

„ tricarinata. Blyth, Chaiabassa. 
Gen. Gnora Amboinensis. DauA. Malao. Tea. 
Gen. Cyclemifl orbionlata. Bell. Bonn, 
Fam. Emydidsa. 
Of the Grenos Emys, there are known to occur in 
India, and the S. and E. of Asia. 
Gen. Emys nnohalis. Blyth, JaTa. 

„ Hamiltonii. Qray. Calcutta. 
„ trijoga. Schtoeigg. Arakan. Madras. 
„ nigra. BlyiK Tenas. 
n Sebse. 

Emys Punctata. E. oragsioollis, B. duvauoellii 
E. japonica, B. lineata, E. platyn, B. tectum, 
E. tentoria, also occur. 

Gen. Tetraonyx Lessonii. Dvm et. Bib, CaL Ifen; 

Gen. Batagor lineatua. Oray. S. E. India. 

Thnrgii. Qray. Calcutta. 
Dhongoka. Oray. Central. India. 
Berdmoreii. Bly. Pegu. 
Ocellata. Dum. Cal. 
Triyittata. Dum. MouL 




Gen. Pangshnra tectum. Bell. Cal. 

Tentori. Qray. Indus. 
Favivente. (himth. Beng. 
Smith. Qunth. Beng. 




Gen. Flatystemum megacephalum. Gray. Mar- 

Fam. Trionycidfl}. 
Gen. Emyda granosa. Oray. Calcutta. 

„ Ceylonensis Qray. Ceylon, 

The gonus Emyda are the Marsh tortoises, and E. 
ceyloncnsis is the kiri ibba of the Singhalese. 

Gon. Trionyx Gangeticus Cw. Beng. 
„ Guntherii, Qray. Arak. 

Gen. Chitra Indica. Qray. Hooghly. 

Fam. Chelonidad. 
Gon. Sphargiscoriacea. Linn. Tenass. coast. 
Gea. Caretta imbricata. Hchweigg. Bay of Beng. 
Gen. Caouana olivacea Esch. Bay of Beng. 
Gen. Chelonia yirgata. Schvoeigg. Bayof BcngaL 

EN AM. Hind. Pebs. Grants or gifts 
generally of land and commonly in per- 
petuity for charitable purposes. A jagbire is 
usually an assignment of lands for service ; 
or as a pension. Altumgba, is an estate in 
perpetuity for service, or free, as expressed 
in the deed. Malcolvi's Central Jnc^'a, Vol. 
ii. 62. 


of Cbronolo^oat Epochs at the birth of Christ, and Epooha of 
snbseqneiit events referred to A. D. 0. complete. 



^^^jI^^to been eafficieDtlj opened 

^it^^^^^^Qiii^ of sacrificing clank and 

^"^ ^^7 in the matter of sword scab- 

y^^ki^f ▼ood ia exactly ^rd the 

*^ ia p^j^.^^,aud of necesBity very weak. 

po^eB fo|. ^^|vly applicable to many pnr- 

teji a« .- ^'^^^ deal is employed at home, 

3%9 BaflV '^^^ing packing cases, dba, &c. 

99 nml c^^^^HP^^^ ^^^^ i^ exolnsively fur 

a^erfr i^ ^'^ eaten by white ante 

from 14 to u? *»™*Wt in Nagpore varies 

gi f^ . *^ /^et in length, and from 3 to 

' ^^ cinc5 iiinference« and sells at 3 

** coiio foot. This tree is employed 

/P'ffa <:» ^ India to snpport the black 

f^per nne,hei. "■^igof qnick growth from cnt- 

, permanent, smooth, bark, 

;ls off and gives firm hold 

le vine, and they are fall of 

shady daring the hottest 

ear which shelters the vine 

heat of the son and keeps 

t. As soon as the hottest 

the leaves drop and expose 

snn and weather daring the 

'9. Rnxb, iii 240, Ainslie^ 

'SkanrjhHesty^ Cleglwm and 

de, CapiM, Sankey and Mac- 


:e rs 


tiagft with 
^Uch BBwer 

Id tiM 10(48 of 

l^tes wtd ver 



*^^ftftl>« A OVALIFOLIA, ito«6. 

Yr»- ^ ^ ''O- I Yak erra baddoo gass. Siwo- 

^t^*^^"^^ hot drier parte of Cevlon, 

^^^iJi XBengal.— Koafft. iii 254, Toi^^, 

flgjtfiBl^ A SUBEROSA. Boxh. 

Tax. I Hani ? Tel. 

„ I Modaga. „ 

& ^liSl tree of Gnzerat^ Elhandesh, of the 

^fcal dti^^^ ea^t of the ghats, and a na- 

li«e flf the Circars, growing in every soil and 

: leaves decidnons daring the cold 

Floirere in February ?nd March, 

sfier which the leaves appear ; the 

_ is geoerally erect from eight to twelve 

^ti to the branches. It is less common than 

HbeE. Iodica,and the trunk is covered with 

Jisply cncked corky bark, decitluoas in the 

add iwswn.— il«r6. iii, 253, Voigt, 

mil. Erythrina maxima, Koxb in E, J. G. 
Km. i, m. 

MidBoui? Tam. I Badedam? Til. 

Iitti Biodiiga. TcL I 

. This tree is a native of the inland monn- 
Ims of the Circars, and is frequently of 
^it'iixey with bntuches spreading and nn- 
Mvu, and trunk without prickles. The 
Md, like that of all these species, is remai-k- 
*% fight, sofi and spongy, and is much em- 
l^ed hv the moochies who make trunks, 

1 ^ 





toys, and other things that are to ba Tarnish- 
ed, the wood retaining its priming or nnder 
coat of paint better almost than any other 
wood ; and it is not liable to warp, contract 
or split. The moochies at Condnpilly and 
Nursapore are famed for their art in forming 
and varnishing this wood for toys, ^. It 
is planted by the Tamil people about their 
temples. In Bengal, the leaves fall during 
the cold seanou in February, when destitute- 
of foliage, the blossoms appear and soon 
afterwards the leaves : the seed ripens in 
May, the trunk is perfectly straight in large 
trees, five or six feet in circumference, taper- 
ing regularly, and the seeds are enveloped 
in fine, soft, or silky wool, adhering sli^rhtly 
to them.— Jiozft. iii, 254, Mr. Rohdts MSS.^ 
Mr. JatTreif. 

ERYTHRINUS, a genus of Tropical 
Fibhes belonging to the family Glupeidae. 
Eng. Cyc. 

ERYTHROGENIS. See Ornithology. 


COIDES, Gard. A middle sized tree of the 
Ambagamowa and Ratnapoora districts in 
Ceylon ; growing up to an elevation .of 
l,5uOfeet.— r/tw. p. 18. 


Deo dliari, 

The flowers of this small tree are very 
little and of a yellowish green colour. The 
wood is so fragrant that the inhabitants of 
Mysore use it in lien of sandal wood. Ita 
leaves, Devadamm kirai, Tam., are used by 
the people as greens : and bruised and mixed 
with gingelli oil, are applied as a refreshing 
application to the head. — Ainslie, Jaffrey, 


of Sctliia Indica. 

Roxh, Syn. of Sethia Indica. — D. 0. 

ERZEROOM, the capital of the pashalio 
which bears the same name, is about ten 
days journey from the Persian frontier. It 
is built on an elevated plain about 6,000 feet 
above the level of the sea. The cold there 
is intense, and lasts usually from September 
till May. Lying on the h'gh road from Per- 
sia to I'Onstantiuople, it is tiie resort of many, 
merchants and caravans, but it has not re- 
covered the Russian occupation in 1829, 
when its fortifications were dismantled, and 
many of its most opulent and industrious in- 
habitants, theArmenians,were induced to emi- 
grate. One of the branches of the Euphra- 
tes 6ows at a short distance below the city. 











Fb. Alcobol. 

. See Cftnis : T3og. 


L Aram escalentmi), 

id ttmonffSt the He- 
; "'**' w^rj dkj nlntod tbe ruing 

2^?^3C- OILS, called also ToJatile 

tB^^*""**^ from various parte of odori- 

?~^ e'MiM.iefly by distillation, bat also 

'SSl'i^J laerfaming proceaa of onflow- 

™ OMt inown volatile oils are those 

bergamot,cajapatt,cam o- 

caraway, caasia, cinnanioii, 

LdiTeiider, lemoiiH, mint, not- 

'g iparmint, pimento, rhodinra, 

WfW"*^^ «tto), savin e, sassafras, mint. 

Kn**! ^^^''^dal wood, jasmine, uatmegs, 

ilefVT "^^ ^^ariferons plant, is by the per- 

pMtne \^~^ jield an essential oil. The 

ii-^"~*-» of Lncknow from Jiismi- 

Mtfwlo''^:a.jD, extracted from the petalii, 

%i Bnp^t.^ per tola. This phint is 

^pdy '*";*Tated in gardens in Luok- 

j j^tl,"»»^c:«of its flowers. Motiah or 

^te^^ ^^'^ Lacknow, Jaaminnm som- 

^diO e^^LXKted from the petals, and 

II^SftBp^^a per tola. It is cultivated 

^^nlj"* gardens ia Lacknow for the 

^rf ito9**'*»ers, and is coloored red by 

^Ji»8^«»'s blood. See Atr. Otto. 

fg[BS^- In the centre of HaraaJun, is 

^^(tMi Ben Sina, and not far from 

^^toH ^^ GBther and Uordeeai, which 

^(iBgF«at veneration by the Jews of 

^t)**!* Veptin a perfect state of re- 

^^ Or tbe dome orar tliese tombs is an in- 

^^1|Bwi to the effect that Elias and Samuel 

ggprfKichu Giiinhed building tluM temple 

^A« tombs af Murdecai and Esther on 

^ lithafllie month Adar41-;i. The tombs 

pi aide of hard black wood wtiicli has suf- 

IndHttls&Dai the effects of time during the 

UJ Mitartes they have eiisted. They are 

(wrf wilh Hebrew inncriptiona still very 

IfihH of which Sir John M&tcoim has given 

IffoUomng translation. "At that time 

nsin the palitce of Suza a certain 

*", of tbe name of Mordecai : he was the 

Mof Jurof Shimei, who was the son of 

U, a Benjamitv, for Uordecai the Jew 

I *H Ok second of that name under tho ki[ig 

vuaens, a man much distingniubed among 

• Jeiri, aiid enjuying great con>iiileratioii 

Mongst his own people, anxiouu for tbelr 

^iift, and seeking to promote the peace 

rfiU Asia." Tbe Iravcller, unless told. 

would aerer recogniM them as tomba. Tbe 
entry is bj a low door, and the tomba occupy 
tbe nboleofthointenial space to tbe ceiling, 
leaving only a very narrow passage foi- 
walking round the bnge stone-like oonstrac- 
tion in the middle. Literally, not aa inoli 
is left on tbe whitewashed walls on wbiob 
tbe Jewish pilgrims of « thousand yoani 
have nut inscribed their names.— Si. Fer- 
rier. Jouni. p. 27. 

ESTRfCH, Ebtrioob. Eko. 

Dovet d' aatmohe, ¥a. | StmtbioDOin plumD 

Amoa Mattn di Btrraio mollkifel, Lat. 

It Plomau da avei- 

i trox Sf. 

Fine soft down under the feathers of tbe 
ostrich. — FaHlkwr. MaeeuUoch. 

EStJPOOL, a prince of the island of 
Bander dera. His daughter was married to 
Bappa wbo conveyed her to Gheetore. See 

ESUPGUIi, also IspaghoL DoK. Guz. 
Hind. Spogel seed. 

ETAIH. Fk. Pewter. 

ESWABA, a title of Siva. See Argba, 
Eeswaia, Siva. 

BTAMU. T«t. Pikota Tam. a lover for 
raising water. 

ETAWA. A town of tho Agra district, 

revenue division. 

ETEEB, the air, tbe atmospbere. Id India 

noogst the Ariau bindus, adoration 
was offered to Etber, as Indra (Zeus), with 
the sacrifice of milk and tbe fermented 
jnice of plants. 

ETHER, medicinal substances obtained 
by distilling alcohol witli an acid. There 

e several ethers and tbey are very iu- 


ETHERIA. See Cbamacea cbamides. 

ETHIOPIA. A country mentioned iu 
tbe Soriptnres, corresponding to the present 
kingdoms of Nubia and AbyBsiuia. It waa 
also culled Seba, also Meroe. It was at onu 
time occupied by Arabs under a settled 
form of GovornmeDt wbo conquered Nubia 
and harra^Bed tbe Thebans. During tho 
earlier centuries all these Arabs were easily 
conquered by the Egyptians. Sharpe'a Bis- 
tory 0/ Egypt, Vol. i. pp, 104-105. Bee 
Egypt. Eiiadim. Vis warn itra. 

dansooia disitata. 

ETI CHILLA. Tel. Diliwaria ilicifolia. 
Jiui. Acanthus ilicifolia. — Rweb. 

ETI MALLE. Tel. Polygonum tomeu- 
toBiim. — lioxb. 

ETI MOHANA. Tkl. a large kind of 

ETI PALA. Tel. Malii tetrasperma.— 

S*' ■'■Icfcedia their nest. BecMue Uie 
riteqweiftllylieard at the aetaon 
i^ U eiUed the friend of loye. 

i,j ^ ** ^Hpl IIm god's eQTenomed sfaafU 
!"***"f ^prcMdert bevts Oh, hithar guide 
yyv ^itiveorleedmytepe 

»A«afl9f» p. 206. T3ie ir«ro aiwi 
F9I* ^ 247, Jen2(m Bmlt 1342. See 


Bartam, Malay. 
ioigroiriii^ on the hills abont Ching, 
mtad Peoaoiir. The leaves are nsed 
tag in malcixig mats for the sides of 

alio for tH&tch, and for all the par- 
9 winch 'tliose of the Nipa frnticans 
}aA—Chr(ffltK9 Pahns, 
BBIA. A^ ^['enns of plants named in 

sf Prixic^e £ngene of Savoy. It 
iMirlj 2O0 species, thongh nnm- 
gibeen x*exiaoyed to the genera Neli- 
gUft, Hyrcia, Sizjginm, Carjophy- 
[Jgaihoe^ixi which are now contained, 
ve-Tree, the Rose- Apple, and Jamoon 
y^ lormerly included in Eagenia. 
gfls is confined to the hot and tro- 
icti oC tUe ^orld, as Brazil, the West 
Mr*^*- '^nd Sierra Leone, and ex* 
1,001 the Molaccaa and Ceylon in the 
4i gilhet and the foot of the Hima- 
j^ ibe Aorth. Some of the species 
liibWtna Yolatile oil \j^ ikkevt herba- 
I |iHa t ^^und in tannin : yield good 
Y^ find ft few have fruits which are 
1^ 4lK0iigh ||o( y^j.^ Agreeable, from 
i^^pi^goated with the aroma of the 
jfeiffigW gives, in Icones, the following 

P) paaeiflora, 
* poljpetela, 

•f tttroifolia, 
(S) alteroirolia, 

n AmottlADA, 

m brttchiAta, 

(8) znontMiA, 
„ myrtaoUa, 
„ Neeriana, 
„ oblata, 





eAryopiiylUfoUa. », praeooi. 

»• cerasoideA, 
M eordifoUA. 
fi ooryiubOBAy 
„ oymusA. 
„ fermgineA^ 
„ fmticosA, 
,. gUuidalifera, 



JAmbolABA, TAT. 





\\ ntbicnodA, 
,, BAlicifoliA, 
,. ftvlveefcris, 
^ thnnura, 
„ toddaUoidM, 






^ llwftiies mentions as growing at no 
elevation in Ceylon, the Eagenia de- 
fkw^ a small tree near Galle. Eagonia 
ai» Thw.f a small tree at Beigam Corle ; 
ttfolra, Tkw.^ a small tree at Pas- 
Corie ; Eagenia rivnlomm,!^ TAtc;., a 
•ree on the banks, of streams in the i 


Singherajah fbreet, between Galle and Bat' 
napoora, and Eagenia terpnophylla, Thw.,, a 
middle sized tree of Ambagamowa and Bat« 
napoora districts, and Beigam Corle. En- 
genia mabeoides, (Wight ulust,) grows in 
the central province, at an eleyation of 4,000 
to 7,000 feet Eogenia Moouiana, Wtghi, lU, 
is abundant in the central proviuce, up to an 
elevation of 4,000 feet, and Eugenia Will* 
denovii, 1). 0. Tambaleya-g^ass, Singh., is 
common in the hotter part^ of the island. 
Dr. McClelland names seven species of 
Pegu, yiz. Eagenia nervosa, E. pnlchella, 
E. myrtifolia, Tha-bai-jeen, Burm^ E. jam- 
boss, of the Southern parts of Pegu, afford- 
ing dark strong wood. 

Eugenia pnlchella, Elhway-tha-byM, Burm. 
very plentiful in the Pegu and Tounghoo 

E. TuJgaris, Thabyai-tha-pban. Btirm. 

E. temifolia, Thab-yew-tha-byai, Btirm. 
and E. jambolana also occur, but less 
plentifully than E. pnlchella. These all 
afford excellent close grained stiiong timber, 
bat subject to the attacks of white ants. 
Wood red colour, strong and adapted for 
house-building. — Dn, Wight and McOleU 
landf Vnigt, Tkwaiieif Eng, Oye, 

EUGENIA, Speeiei. 

Thab-yeh-tha-pan. Burm. 

The different kinds of Thabyeh, of British 
Burmah, have a hard red coloured wood, 
close, but not straight gained, and supposi^ 
to be brittle. The wood is subject to the at- 
tacks of white ants. The stems are occa- 
sionally used for canoes. This is also used 
for house building. Breaking weight of the 
*' Thabyehg^" E. caryophyliifolia, 2M lbs. 
A cabic foot weighs 50 lbs. lu a full grown 
tree on good soil, the average length of the 
trunk to the first branch is dO feet and ave- 
rage girth measured at 6 feet from the ground 
is 9 feet. It sells at 8 annas per cubic foot 
(Note. — This seems to be Dr McClelland's 
E. volgaris-) — Drt. McOleUand andBranii. 

EUGENIA, Speciea. 

Tha-bya. Burm. 

A tree of Moulmein<— CoZ. Oat. Ex. 1862. 

EUGENIA. SfecieB. 

Tha-bya-gyin. Bobx. 

A tree of Moulmein. Wood soft, used in 
the ordinary purposes of a building material. 
— -Cal. Cat, Ex. 1862. 


Eugenia pimenta, P. C. txu*. ovalifolia. 
MjrtiiB pimenta, Ltnik tnr. latifolia. Botth. 

Mcris. Sw. 

oaryophyUata. Jaeq. 

aromatioa. IPoir. , 

Myrcia acris. P. 0. 
„ pimentoSdei, P. C. 




It, would Boon "walk thrnnerh" the 
irt, if it be not provided with flat pieces 
el inside. Ad invisible shield may be 
inside the left sleeve, on which tiiiex- 
■1 deGmce to receive a stroke and retnm 

are bronght into plaj in boxing, and only 
one in fencing; this is a anperiority which 
boxing has over fencing as a mnnly exercise. 
The principal thing to check among sparrera 
is loss of temper ; if a man cannot control his 

.^ ' VnK02 SHAH. 

^ w^ HaOa Mallai hiUs the wood 
"^■•^ttbiiie a large Bize, and the wood 
heftvy, light coloured, hard and 
In Goimhatore the tree attains a 
^"* ^ and its wood is white, hard and 
J**""^^ durable. A specimen which was 
i bore 360 lbs. In Yizagapatam, ifc 
b • bardf slarong, heavy wood, and is 
^ fltneh used in honse bnilding, bat said 
io be VBTj dnrable. In Gozerat, it is 
is huilding and conld possibly be creo- 
flD as to withstand exposnre. Its 
pdal fimit, when ripe contains a dark 
ip agreeaLl)Ie snb-acid palp. When an 
PI is made in the trnnk, a transparent 
^i enables which is nsed by painters 
th^eir coloars. Both leaves and 
liKva a strong odonr of anise, and 
VeckTes are given in the bowel 
rf children as a stomachic stima- 
1^'-%)*^^^ a large qaantity of a clear 
I^M|0^(Koit ka gond, Hind% mnch re- 
nUpgjpii Arabic in its sensible proper- 
Ig^^.Bv^eiy abandant, and forms the 
iit%0^ ''East India Gam Arabic;" 
gl^ftSB^^i^y soiability without residae 
'lebestmacil^e for making black 
tte nther acid palp contained within 
' ibdl of the Vallam pallam is eaten 
_?M', bnt is not mach prized. The 
km k more prized for its valuable gam. — 
»*j?.234. Rocb Mr. Bohde, M. B. J. R, 
fc ffiftiw # Repcni, Di'. O'Shaughncssy, Br, 
W j^* ^i^iport^ English Oi/clopcBdia. 
fSBOlfU. PELLUCID A. Roth. Syn. 
slBgie mannelos. — W, and A. 
MtoZ. PsR3. Victory, hence Feroza- 
■i fcrozpnr, Feroz-sbahr, as names of 
•■* Feroz, and Feroz-shah, names of 
KMb> and kings. 

BBOZ KOHI, a no made tribe of Eimak, 
^Hmky so called after the town of Feroz 
A 63 miles from Teheran. Timar, ex- 
Witedhy the depredations which they 
leommitted, removed the whole of them 
> the moantains lying between Persia and 
». See Aimak^ Kabul p. 440. 
SftOZ SHAH, in the neighboarhood 
^Bfozepar, in the Panjab. A battle was 
^ here on the 21st and 22nd December 
) between the British and the Sikh. 
HtOZPOOR See Kunawer. Sat-dhara. 
BBOZPUR,inLat.30^ 57' 1 N. Long. 
Sff 4,E in the Panjab, on the left bank of 
SsHej. The mean height of the station 
l^ feet. P.C. 

hflii in 1235. He was grand-father of 
■i Mahmad, whom Timar conquered. 
m this king (A. H. 752 to 790) who 
ifti the lat or pillar, — according to one 


acconnt, from near Khizrabad, immediately 
west of the Jnmna at the foot of the SiwaliJc 
hills, to Delhi, and erected it in the centre 
of his palace. This colnmn, is alluded to by 
Chund, as " telling the fame of the Chohan,'^ 
but he says it was *' placed at Nigumbode," a 
place of pilgrimage on the Jumna, a few miles 
below Delhi, whence it must have been re- 
moved to its present singular position. The 
name of Beesildeo (Visaladeva) heads the 
inscription on the pillar. The pillar is now 
known as one of the Delhi lat, also the golden 
lat, so called from the gilt kalasa *^ pinnacle 
or ball" which Feroz shah placed on its sum- 
mit. This monolith like the kindred piUar 
at Allahabad was in the first instance exclu- 
sively devoted to the exhibition of a counter- 
part text of the edicts of Asoka, but succeed- 
ing generations have taken advantage of the 
ready prepared monument to supplement a 
record of their own prowess. The otJier 
stone pillar at Delhi was brought from Mirat. 
Tod* 8 Rajasthan vol. ii p. 452. Orme. See 

FEBQUEH, amongst the Afghans, means 
a tribe. Itis probably from the Arabic ** Farq," 
separation, — Farqah, a tribe or community. 

FERRABIA CROCEA. Salts, Rhbkdb. 
Syn. of Pardanthus Ohinensis. Ker. 

FERREOLA BUXIFOLIA. Eoxb. iii. 790. 
Haba bozifolia, Pers. 

Eroombala, Anglo- Tam. 
ninmbilli maram, Tam. 

Eroombala maram, Tam. 

This plantgrowsamong the Circar mountains 
to the size of a small tree, but, in the low 
conntrieSy it is only a shrub. The wood is 
dark colored, remarkably hard and durable ; 
when its size will admit, it is employed for 
such uses as require the most durable heavy 
wood. Its small red fruit, containing one 
seed when ripe, is pleasant to the taste and 
is well known over India. — Ainsliej p. 224, 
Mr. Rohde*8 MSS. Voigt. 346. Roxh. iii. 790. 

FERRI SULPHAS, also Ferri-vitrio- 
latum, Sal-Martis. Lat. Green copperas. 
Sulphate of Iron. 

FERRO. It. Rus. Iron. 

FERRUM. Lat. Iron. 

of Iron. 

FERRY. The ferries at rivers in India 
and the S. of Asia are crossed in very various 
ways, but on the Tigris, Euphrates, the 
upper Indus and its affluents, the practice 
of three thousand years still continues. 

Xenophon's ten thousand were ferried over 
on inflated skins, and three slabs in 
the British Museum show the repre- 
sentation of the king of Assyria, crossing 
the Euphrates in this mode which on the 
rivers named still continues. Canoes are of 



ads that reach to its very foot. 
is frightfal, and passes over rocks 
as 5 it is one of tfie most difficult 
la, and no place of rest can be 
ft. Hnc, Chlihese Empire. Vol. 

'US PLANTS, In India and Eastera 
lern Asia, the nnmber and variety 
re great, and amongst the most de- 
r attention may be enumerated, the 

I eacolentas,. 



saUiiimi, .. 

Vendee fibre. 

.... Toottoe. 



fOodj nar— ThiB tree ia common 
' near Cape Comoriu. The fi- 
bres from the bark are n^ed 
by the fishermen iu making 
nets. A coarse kind of cord- 
age is also made from it. 
Karoovalum nar. 

Pita or groat Aloe fibre. 




MA^i^ B j Poroomamm.— inner bark not 

* I much used. 

^tfTilguis. Knttally nar. 

^ Aloe lib re. 

■iit Pine Apple fibre. 


BfdKOianthas,... Camachy. 

i Bnriofttns. •».... . 

Ktariftrv Arengee. 



lb KnnI species,. 


jiNwal species, 

Mfffflll IIIJH, 

^Mnl species... 




Yepy tree bark. 
Vellay Aatee nar. 

Palmyra fibre. 


Doera , 




rThondy nar.—Inncr Bark. 
\ Not mach u»ed. 
Ak, Mudar, or Yercum. 










ffal species,... 

rate atrougth. 
. Cocoa. 

nar.— Mode- 






'Under the name of Caoamboo 
or Wiickoo, it is cultiva- 
ted extensively in the 
Southoru Travuncoro dis- 
tricta. FLshlng nets are made 
from them; the beat kinds 
are j?rown iu the Northern 
district. Sunn (wuckoo 

Mat-grass, or Coaray. 


Daphne cannabinns, 

Daphne Gardneri, 

Decaschistla crotonifolia, 

Deemodium ar^nteum 

Desmodinm tilifefoUum Ootrum ka bel. 

Dcemia extenia, , 

Eriocbl(jDna CaudoUii, 

Erioiloudron anfractuosum, . 
Eriopbonim cannabinum,.... 

Eriophorum comosum, 

Erythrinji Indica, 

Ficns religiosa, Arasa nar. 

Ficus racemoaa, Atti nar. 

Ficus lioxburgbii 

Ficus vonosa, 

Ficus Indica f Anlamammnar; Aallennar.— 

'" i Not much used. 
Ficus oppositifolia, Bodda nar . 

Fieas Mysorenais, {*^^^S^^"" nar.— Not much 

Fourcroya gigantea, Seemay Kathalay. 

Girardinia Leschenaultiana,. Neilgheny nettle. 

Guasypium Indicum, Indian Cotton.^ 

GoBs^iiium acuminatum, .... Brazil Cotton. > 
O osay pium herboceum, ...«.,.. J 

GrcvvL'i aaiatica, Bast. 

Grewia tilicefolia,— 

G rewia rotundifblia, Oonoo— Moderate strength. 

Grewia didyma, 

Growia oppositifolia, 

Guiizuma tomentoaa, 

Guazuraa ulmifolia, 

Hibiscus cannabinns, Poolychay fibre. 

Hibiscus fragrans, 

Hibiscus sabdarifQi Roscllo fibre. 

Hibiscus striatns, 

Hibi?icus veslcarins, „ Wild ambara. 

Hibi.scus rosa chinensis, Shoe plant fibre. 

Hibiscus vitifolia, 

Hibiscus lampas, 

Hibificup macrophyllus, 

Hibiscus mauilxot,» 

^alumbrikal, Kywen nar-Thi« 
is the most valuable fibre in 

laora corvUfolia.... < IJavancore. Theplantgrowa 

isora coryu^oua,... -j abundantly.atthebaseofthe 

liills. The natives produce 
fibre firom the stem. 


JnncuA, ••• 

Lodoicca SeycboUarum 

Linum usitatissimum, 

Maranta diohotoma 

Marsdonia Roylei, 

Marsdenia tenacissima, 

Slimoaa Intaia —»"■ 

Musa paradisiaca, 

Musa sapientum, . > . • 

Musa textilis. 

Mj'saicssya hjn^olcnca, 

Orthanthora vimluea, 


Pandanus odoratissimus, 

Papyrus, •• 


Paritium macrophyllum, 

Paritium tiliaceum, 

Philadelphus. sp., 

PhcDuix acatdis, 

Phccnii dactylifera, 

Pliu'nix aylvestris, 

Raphis Cochin-chinensis, 

Rii])his fiabelliformls, 

Raphls, sp 

Succharum sara, 

Saccharum raunja, 

Saccbarum oflicinamm, 

Sanseviera zeylanica, ........ 

Salmalia Malabarica, 

Sesbania aculeata, 

Suabania caunabina 

Sida a-siatica, 

Sida gnivcolons, 

Sida Indica •••• 

Sida rhomboidea,. ......: 

Sida rhombifolia, 

Sida tilia; folia .".... 

Sida periplocif olia, 

Sida populifolia, 

Strychnos potatorum, 

SmUax ovalifolia, / 

Sterculia gnttuto, 

Storculia omata, „ 

Sterculia yillosa, ,. 


Eex^jy nar. 
Plantain fibre. 

Fragrant Screw Pine. 


Moorgbee, MarooU 
Elavum parooty. 

Used for Cordage Ac. 
Katha ven nar* 
Krinkoddy nar.— Used ftr 
tying bundles &g, 



l^u^Xi, matb be aent into the muket Kotedwtm, Cbilkes, anil Snnneft, (lis 

titJr'**fanrjean,Uidiiiniffititentqn«i- aTengn of which ia £15-2 a ton. Captain 


SiLSi_„ — , — _ — — 

■rt^^L*'*»<nDt KDnnsIlj ioto the market, ton. 

jgrn^ ^ '^finir veara, wonld be sufficient ; . i ■ ^ r ii- i.> i. 

Sl?-^'^tthrSu'tity«hoddbe «ent In m^kmg advances for cnltiTahng hemp. 

r^.Vea, ij.^.-„ 41.„~:._„/t_j:. i. it w absolotely necesHiry to call the attention 

-■the ca'w of India, inch " '^absoh.t^ly ne«s«rr to «dl the attention 
1^ ' ««g «.nt from different districts f ^}^ ^'"'^' "?' ""'y ,^* ^^^ '=^'^"' *"|' 
[™*^>e ft different times and have ^ ^''^ p^p^^tion of the fibre. The cnl- 
J^^ effect. The Officiating Com- 
\ ofSovenue in Assam recommends 

tare seemg to be very well nnderstood j 
many parts of the Kills, as they oarefally 
f» tt. ■^lto"S«:rBh'™Tb"p;""i; P™par..,,d»SMllj™>n™iJ.gronnd,lhm 
»"U^ »oU mdmtood, '■ih.bc.lwy 'ko pl"l» ^ "■*.« three or fir. mote., «.d 

Qower^, but b&a no Reed, a itiontb or six 
XpHce.." Cptain Daltoo, Collector "eh bofor. the fcmle plaol, " goolmm OP»l.t., -that the bUt method Bt.»»ll>l""S» .Tf '='■>",=""?• 'S '*'^' 
ll.S»-Oo,<™o,„io„ ^mg enl abont the eod of Septembop. A. 
<_<■ " ton on all that i. predncKj ^^P"T uif ° "jf'^^l- ' .r^" 
foiur ,ea»." Both Peoommenda- ^^•^" "honld be required to do this in than- 

„ itfl extension wontd be 
B to to0 lyofs a snre market at remnii' 

■ ■*• •>«• 

nited ia one. 

best way, so as to procure a clean and nni- 

j. . , form article in long lengths, without raising 

t directions, aa well as in making or platting the ends up in any way and to 

^0m> K»«=at care shoold be taken that resemble the Petersbnrgh hemp, as nearly 

tt«f ?^** carefaUy and cleanly prepar- as posuble. 
^lil intended for rope-making and as a 

^bBtoWWhemp, theBonor Wild Rheea The hemp sent by D. F. Maoleod, Esq., 

24V«»»do to resemble as closely as pos- as the produce of Kote Kangra, was highly 

l^tiW ■P^citnens of PeterebnT^h hemp, approved of in England. The anbjeot so 

rW- C***«W» famished samples in illna- warmly taken np in 18fi4, continues to 

^^j^bfftfUismiseion to India. The im- interest all who are desirous of improving 

^I«d«PP**»*nceoftheKheea fibre sent by the fibres of these countries. 
^^Buonf xraa oiring to specimens sent 

^ittUm^ Mr. Sangster ; others cannot 
JsW*" "■'1 follow Major Hannay's exam- 

^•1 • "J*™ is every probability of cstab- 
i Iitf*i "' wst specimens of the Kheea 
y ••^•""Iwtitnte for China Grn^s, when 
t •P'*"?"''price8 wonld be realized than 
I ■» "Aititnte for hemp only. Rheea 
1 ^ Sy " ^^^ districtfi of Rnngpnre, and 

I f^Vf"*, whore it is cultivated under 
^ 'TiT *' ^ Kiinkhotyra, and where it 
P ^j" Wtj eagiiy bp collected 'and its 

J '■P'WiaTan districts of Kemaon,G3^h- 
■^'™ i>f Kote Kangm, abound in true 
I^Of the finest quality, cnUivated botli 
J*.iROBl(of its fibre and for the different 
Wtimaof Bhang. The fibre is sold 
(P themselves for 2 rnpees for 821b8, oi 
Lord Anckland, 

Fibrei tested at tlus MilUary Slorei. 


Petersburg Glean Hemp,... 

... 160 

Jnbbnlpore Hemp, 

... 190 

China Grass, 

... 250 

Bheea Fibre, 

... 830 

Wild Rheea, 

... 343 

Kote Kangra hemp, (no breakage at)400 

Wackoo-nar fibre, 

... 176 

Tercum or Ak or Mndar fibre .... 

,.. 190 


■lit tbe native mles it might be landed ir 
Kii"afor£7-16 a ton, and hemp-seed foi 

Clean samples of all the above fibres were 
taken of equal weiglits and firmly tied at 
their ends, so aa to be of equal lengths, at 
the India House, and their strength tried in 
the usual way by Mr. Hull, in the Military 

calculated ^^°^' ^^*^ ^^^^^^ »853. 

I Ifijiir Corbet gave three estimates of th< 
' IBK; including all expenses, at whicli 
■■pcoDld be delivered in Calcutta fron East India Uooae. 

Experiments at Messrs. Huddart and Co., 
Rope Manuractory,LimeHan8e,13thFel»a- 
ary 1854. Experiments on strength of ropo 
made from samples of Rheea and Bon 
Rheea fibre from Assam, reoeired iiom the 


^neral title, *' hemp," indadiog | tensive growth in parts contigaons to the 

J ate, from India, and thai known as 
exnp, the quantities received were 


All other 

Total im- 







. ... 33,229 









*al... 102,243 




I supplied considerably more than 
entire importation, realizing in 1853 
1,000 tons at peace prices averaging 
!r too, a market value of nearly 

IB ire years, 1830 to 1 834, prior to the 
knofthe excise duty on first class 
\bm 3d to its present equalized rate 
Lper lb., the average annual quantity 
im70,988,131 lbs.; and in the five 
J845to 1853, the average annual quan- 
adewas 151,234,175 lbs. The produc- 
fthejearl853 was 177,023,009 lbs., 
iboTe23,000,000 lbs. (more than 10,000 
orer that of the preceding year, and 
4in 36,000 tons over 1 834, such excess 
iig for its production not less than 
) tow of raw material in the former case, 
eriy 47,000 in the latter. The whole 
■tcfoftterial employed in the manufac- 
'f JMper only may be stated at between 
Wiad 120,000 tons per annum. 

Kirbes Royle, has proved the exist- 
iVlrioiLS parts of the British Indian 
i^Botouly of the identical plants which 
I flu and hemp, but of numerous other 
yielding fibres of great importance, 
fthem greatly superior in strength 
eral value to either of those articles, 
mibmitted a variety of fibres to be 
lie weight each broke with was ascer- 
) be as follows. 

I eqimX weights and eqiMl lengtlis tested at 
icUa Company's Military Stores. 


f hemp broko with •. 160 

5 hemp, from Mr. Williams , 190 

u* fibre, Travancore 175 

rercura fibre, common all over India.. 190 

3, Boehmeria nivea 250 

3, the same from Assam... 320 

, Boehmeria species, from Assam 313 

ra hemp (no breakage at) 400 

ne that some of these Indian plants 
a in places remote from the sea- 
.d from >Yliich there arc still very 
J, or no roads at all, for transport ; 
al of them, and amongst them pcr- 
most prolific of all, arc of xory ex- 

coast, and therefore capable of being bene- 
ficially and cheaply prepared for exportation. 

The most conspicuous of these is the 
plantain, which contains a valuable fibre, 
and is every where cultivated in the plains 
of India for its fruit, an article of nniversid 
consumptioH by the native population. It 
is a plant which bears fruit only once, and as 
soon as that is removed, it is, and has been 
from time immemorial, cut down and left 
to rot upon the ground. Persons who have 
paid close attention to the subject state that 
there will be no difficulty in obtaining from 
this plant alone any required quantity of 
fibre of admitted valuable Equality, and as 
fast as the mechanical appliances necessary 
for its preparation can be sent out. 

Applicable as this fibre is to the mannfisto- 
ture of every species of cloth or other arti- 
cles usually made from flax or hemp, and of 
equal quality, it can be used with no less 
facility and advantage in the manufacture of 
paper ; thus supplying both the one and the 
other of the important desiderata which the 
foregoing facts and figures establish. 

When preparing for the Great Exhibition 
of 1 859, Dr. James Taylor, who had long 
been Civil Surgeon at Dacca, furnished seve- 
ral interesting remarks on the fibres of that 
district. There are, he says, several plants in 
Bengal adapted for the manufacture of tex- 
tile fabrics. A species of IJrtica, of whose 
fibres the much admired grass-cloth of China 
is made, is cultivated in Bungpore ; and 
either it, or an allied species, the rhea, is 
grown in Assam and Caohar. The pine ap- 
ple plant too, from which a beautiful fabric 
is manufactured in Manilla, is indigenous in 
Sylhet and Assam, and is extensively cul- 
tivated about Dacca. The fibres of both 
plants are used by the natives for making 
fishing lines and nets ; but no attempt, had 
been made in Bengal, to weave them into 
fine cloths. The same remark, perhaps, 
applies to ** munga" (Sanseviera zeylanica) 
the fibres of which are commonly used to 
make bowstrings. The Calotropis gigantea 
possesses a fine silky fibre; and some 
varieties of the plantain tree, as the Musa 
textilis, yield fibres which, like the abaoa 
hemp of Manilla, are capable of being con- 
verted into strong thread or cord, such as 
the Dacca spinners sometimes use for the 
bows with which they tease cotton. The 
people of Rungpore make cloths of the 
fibres of pat ; and there can be little doubt, 
that if encouragement were given to them 
and other spinners and weavers in Bengal, 
they would, with the skill which they possess 
in these arts, also succeed in converting 

121 P 



5^-!'J^f,A'?!!!:*»^-,?SIH4~"<^.of valne. He also mentioned a 

ftread lUtliiie of WOd Rheea, do. ... 1120 

iBopeofWildRbeea 1850 

-balf.inch Rope of Wild Rheea tarred.. 1900 
i-half.inch Rope of Wild Rheea do. ... 19U0 

b Cord of Rnssia Hemp 1800 

li Rope of Rheea Fibre tarred 2800 

•ihread Rope of Plantain, made in India. 864 
i^bread do. of Pine-apple^ da ... 924 

idi Cord of Russia Hemp 1800 

ifibRope of Dhonchee fibre, made in India. 1850 
idiBope of Agaye, nsnally called Aloe, do. 1900 

t. Hunter ob.serves of the plantain that 
ikUaan excellent snbstitnte for hemp 
■mibead. The fine grass cloth, ships' 
iigeand ropes used in the Sonth Sea 
|b fisheries, are made from this snb- 
ifOb. The onter stalks of the stem leaves 
1 the thickest and strongest fibres." 
kkdeicribed by another writer " as the 
Ae(MpicQons amongst the Indian fibrons 
<■." ** It contains," he adds " a valua- 
iknnd 18 everywhere cultivated in the 
■I cf India for its fruit, an article of 
Wid eoDSumption by the Native popu- 
■• fi 18 a plant which bears fruit, only 

^ 18 8oon as that is removed it is 
'^•n and left to rot upon the ground 
*»w who have paid close attention 

subject sUte that there will be no 
^ in obtaining from this plant alone 

2'iii«d quantity of fibre of admitted 
^ qulity and as fast as the mecha- 
^Pjttanoes necessary for its prepara- 
^ beaent out." 

iH^iedble as this fibre is to the manu- 
* <tf every species of cloth or other 
^tntlly maide from flax or hemp, 
f?oal quality, it can be used with no 
fSstf and advantage in the manufac- 

[ JiDapa or sunn plant, yields fibres 
^ ifcreDgth to the ycrkum or jilladoo- 
«i8cnltivated, in Rajahmundry, as a 
' Oop on wet lands with profit to the 

fibres of the roselle (Hihi^cus caniia- 
tt excellent substitute for the tow now 
ed from Europe might be profitably 
d in abundance. Hemp, coir, and 
pe exported from Madras shewn by 
» Custom Returns, amounted to 

Coir and Coir 
Hemp. Rope, Total. 

Rs. Rs. Rs. 

19,819 27,937 47,750 

' 23 242 1,38,617 1,01,859 

'. 23,076 2,08,7"4 2,31,770 

10,577 4,46,852 2,57,429 

. 46,683 2,42,019 2,88,702 

meeting of the Society of Arts on 
I December 1855, Mr. Thomas Wat- 
Qght to notice three basts sent by 
Bipley from Ai'accan, one of which 

wild jungle tree, the *Noona,' growing 
around Calcutta, yielding a serviceable bast 
also, the fibres of a Hibiscus, of Burmab, of 
the Urena lobata, and of the "Pee-law.'* 
A fibre called " Bedolee-lath" sent by 
Major Hannay frOm Assam, was soft and 
delicate. He mentioned that small quanti« 
ties of the aloe fibre were being sold in Cal- 
cutta at Rs. 10 or 12 a maund, equal to 
£26 and £32 the ton. Ho also mentioned the 
Danche. Wlicn properly treated it possesses 
amazing tenacity, and withstands the action 
of water, and dilute acids well. It is largely 
grown, and seemingly little cared for beyond 
being made into mats for sheltering the betel 
vine from the sun ; afterwards the dried 
fibres are used for blazing tho bottoms of 
the natives* boats when they are desirous of 
burning off* tho old pitch. Rope is made of 
this fibre. It is easily cultivated, requires littlo 
trouble after once sown, and when cut before 
flowering, is, as usual with fibrous plants, 
much stronger than afterwards. 

Dr. Alexander Hunter, Reporter, for tho 
Jury for the Madras Exhibition of 1855, thus 
reported on the subject of the cultivation and 
cleaning of fibres. 

Few subjects he says present a wider or 
more interesting field for investigation, than 
the best modes of cultivating and cleaning 
fibrous plants. Hitherto, these branches of 
industry have not been carried on in India, 
with sufficient care or energy, to mako pro- 
fitable returns to the agriculturist or the 
merchant. Some very serious faults have 
been committed in the process of cleaning 
Indian fibres, which have tended in a great 
measure to deprive them of their value for 
manufacturing purposes. In order to save 
labour, the usual practice has been to steep 
the plants till the sap and vegetable juices 
are thoroughly decomposed, as the fibro 
can then in most instances, bo easily beaten 
or washed out, but this method, though 
applicable to a certain extent, in cold cli- 
mates, where decomposition takes place 
slowly, is found to be very injurious to tho 
fibre, and to be almost inapplicable in warm 
climates, where fermentation often passes into 
putrcfacation within three days, and tho 
decomposed sap acquires acid and other pro- 
perties which not only deprive the fibres of 
their strength but discolor them in such a 
way as to render them quite unfit for manu- 
factunng purposes. Most vegetable sub- 
stances contain, besides the fibrous tissue, 
sap, cellular tissue, and a little coloring mat- 
ter ; the sap consists usually of water, gum, 
iecula and alkali with occasionally tannin. 
When plants are dead or dried up, they pass 




All Hiat ia necessary for cleaning tbem is to 
beat or crush the pnlp with a common mal- 
let, a pair of cmshing cylinders, or a bmke, 
then scrape away the palp and wash the 
fhre. There are large ezporfcs of aloe fibre 
from the Western coast, and tbe cnltivation 
oC these plants might easily be extended on 
this coast, as it was on a former occasion. 
(See Report in Records of Military Board 
OB aloe ropes supplied to the Arsenal from 
the years 1 797 till 1805.) The aloe fibre 
ffln*ai^^ a thick, yiscid milky jaice which 
Tr»^i"» in the fibre after it has been cleaned 
and imparts a stiffness to it. This juice 
cm only be removed by hard beating or 
anhing. It is probable that this jnico 
gires the aloe fibre its tendency to rot when 
■oeh <!xposed to moistare. 

Flax — erows on the Shevaroy Hills, 
Mysore, Gaddapah, in the Nizam's Terri- 
I and the Northern Circars. 

In cdtirmting snnn, hemp or flax, the 
seeds diOBld be sown thickly together, 
in order that they may shoot np into 
long wand-like plants, which will yield mnch 
looger fibres, and be much less branched than 
if sown wide and freely exposed. The most 
fromising snbstitntes for flax appear to be 
tbe pine apple, yercnm, palay, ootrnm and 
hooringa. Several of these grow abandant- 
Iji&Sonthem India, but experiments are 
nqnred to test their prodactiveness and the 
of their cnltnre. 

pLAirrArs — is extensively cultivafed 
(hroiighoat India, but very little attention 
Ins been paid to the cleaning of its fibres. 
The plants being cut down and allowed to 
go to waste. The fibre is easily cleaned, but 
KRDe simple crushing machinery is requisite. 

Hemp, Jute and Sqnx — of all Indian 
fihns appear to hold out the best prospects 
of proving remunerative. They are easily 
eaitirated though not so strong as flax and 
its substitntes, they aro suited for cordage, 
nane cloth and other manufactures. The 
demand for them is steady. They could be 
desned economically by the machinery used 
far cleaning flax, but the machines would 
leqnire to be made, and their uses taught 
ts the Natives ; further experiments might 
ilso be tried on tbo barks of some other 
fromising plants as the species of Hibiscus, 
Ahatilon, Abelmoschus, Althaea, Ficus, 
Btnhinia, Grewia, and Wrightia. 

It still requires to be determined, whether 
inning or tarring is the better mode of 
jw mv ing cordage, and whether a substi- 
tiie for tar might not be discovered in some 
if the nnmerons resins and gum elastics of 
Bosthem India. 


Each district of India, has its own parti- 
cular fibres, uU largely utilized by the peo- 
ple. Of the very extensive and vniied fibrous 
substances in :ill parts of the ^ladnis Presi- 
dency only a few are cultivated as aiiicles of 
exjKJrt, thongli Soutlicrn India is abund- 
antly supplied with fibrous materials for 
every description of textile manufacture, 
from the coarsest packing cloth, to the 
finest cambric, lawn, or muslin. It would be 
impossible to say how far the cultivation 
of fibrous plants might be carried, and what 
would be the demand fur them at Madras, 
if properly prepared for the market ; but 
thero is no doubt, that the usual careless 
and slovenly mode of preparing these ma- 
terials, has hitherto tended prreatly to inter- 
fere with their sale in the European market. 
A large and interesting class of fibrous sub- 
stances, which have hitherto attracted but 
little attention, is the barks of trees, many 
of which yield a strong and ready substitute 
for rope, and from the quantity of tannin, 
which some of them contain, they resist 
moisture, and retain their strength for a long 
time. With a little care and the employ- 
ment of simple machinery, excellent ropes, 
mat« and baskets might be prepared from 
some of these substauces, and they would 
probably find a ready sale for agricultural 
and commercial purposes. One of the most 
common of these barks is the Bauhinia di- 
phylla, called an thee nar, ycpy, and apa. 
This is a strong, coarse brown bark of which 
the Natives make temporary ropes for secur- 
ing thatch, matting or fences. The barks 
of several other ]3auliinias aro used for tho 
same purposes. Tlie Ara nar is tlio bark of 
the Bauhinia parvifolia, of which matches 
for native guns are made. This class also 
includes the barks of the banian, Ficus in- 
dica or ala nar ; of the ])eepul, Ficus religiosa 
or arasa nar ; of the Ficus raceniosa, atti nar ; 
of the Ficus oppositifolia, bodda nar, Ficus (V) 
cnllethy nar ; of the bark of the Ficus tomen- 
tosa, also the barks of sevenil species of 
acacia, as the babool (Acacia Arahica.) or 
karoovaluni nfir, the white acacia, or oday 
nar, (Acicia Icucophlea,) vclvaila nar, 
Wrightia tinctoria, and a number of other 
plants not yet identified. The trailing roots, 
twigs, tendrils, and drops of a number of 
plants are used for the same purposes. Under 
the head of Endogenous plants yielding fibres 
may bo classed the 


AlfH? and A^avc, 
Yucca or Adaui'H Ncodlc, 
Saiiseviora or Marocl, 
Fourcroya or gigantic 

Ananaftsa or Pino Appio, 

Musa or Plantain, 

PandunuH or screw pino, 



SedgCB, &c. 



or clearness of a fibre, forms a good 
. of its streogtTi and vice versa, 
general mle, every days steeping 
e, takes from its strength, and im- 
lore or less color. Therefore, with 
laving bark and woody fibres, — the 
an be purest extracted, by beating 
U first, well with a wooden mallet in 
bo loosen and allow the removal of the 
rom the stalk, as it is geoerally on the 
lorCace of the bark that the fibres snit- 
b cordage usually occur. When the 
1m been brought into a pulpy state, it 
Id be well washed in clean water, to 
dBumnch of Hie sap as possible, as this 
ipirt, in which the putrifactive process 
kgios. The leaves, stalks, or barks of 
I ihoald be cut when in full vigour and 
IT bright greeil colour ; when old, dried 
ajed, they yield coarse and stiff fibre. 
10 much should be cut at a time as can 
tted within two days, and the plants 
nighonld not be exposed to the sun, 
^p dries up, and the process of clean- 
ais made more tedious. The sooner 
polpy and impurities can be removed 
) fibi*e, the cleaner and stronger will 
A plant be well crushed or beaten 
t ife is cut, it may be immersed in 
r & xight, and a good deal of the 
ipi^T-tof the sap will be removed. 
HSSLX-Ics are particularly applicable 
lir fibre. With the Agave, Yucca, 
Jiaa3:id Sansevicra beat or crush the 
tbai znallct, or crushing cylinder, or 
), fcrkd scrape away the pulp and 
be fibres. In cleaning the fibres 
ij plants, the plants should first be 
1 or cjTushed, and the juice which 
iinay he kept to be converted into a 
kind of vinegar required in another 
a For this part of the process the 
on sugar mill of India, with two per- 
jobur rollers and a channel to convey 
UC6 into some convenient vessel, an- 
^^y and the cost does not exceed ten 
*• Where this small sum cannot be 
Wj *iid labour is abundant, the plant 
wwell beaten with wooden mallets, on 
*i ^^til all the pnlp is loosened. When 
' **^med a pulpy consistence, the 
JhoiUd be seized at both ends and well 

^^ itself in various directions, to 
®?^t the sap. It should then be well 
2^ plenty of water, untwisted, and 

rt? * board, in small handfuls at a 
y^ a blunt straight knife, on a long 
^^ ^°» fastened into a wooden 
When all impurities are thus 


up in the shade to dry, the latter being a 
point of much importance as exposure to the 
sun at first, is apt to discolor them. By this 
simple process, fibres, of great length, of a 
silky appearance and of a good colour, can 
readily be prepared. The scrapings should 
be well washed and set aside in the shade to 
dry as tow, for packing, or as a material, for 
making paper. This process is applicable 
tb all fleshy or pulpy plants such as those 
known as Aloe plants, the Agave, and Yuc- 
ca, Sanseviera and plantain. Prices have 
been offered in England, of Rupees 250 to 
Rupees 700, (£25 to £75) for fibres cleaned 
in this manner, while only from £10 to £18 
per ton was ofiered for fibres sent to Eng- 
land at the same time, but which had been 
cleaned by the ordinary rotting process. — 

Fibrous Plants of Western India, the 
Western side of India is less richly pro- 
vided with those gigantic grasses, which 
in the valleys of the Ganges and Bra- 
hmapootra form such important parts of 
household economy. Still in the forests or 
dangs and on some of the internal rivers of 
Gnzerat there are supplies suflSciently ample 
for many purposes if we but had the industry 
to turn them generally to account. That 
they can be partially worked up into a shape 
at once useful, light, and elegant, may be seen 
in those tent-houses constructed of reeds 
which form the dwellings of our Indian 
gipsies, gopala and other wandering tribes. 
Some of these hut« can with ease be carried 
on a small donkey, and the material is so 
closely woven as to resist the heaviest rain. 
In Sind the manufacture is more extended- 
and the grass chairs of that province as well 
as the boat mats are models for lightness and 
comfort, Musa t^xtilis grows on the Ghats 
from CapeComorin Northward, and if hitherto 
it has not been turned to full account this 
may be ascribed partly to ignorance or apathy 
on the part of those whose mountains affbrd 
many other fibres ; and partly to the fact, 
that in the northern slopes of the Ghats, the 
plant does not reach a height fitted to afford 
a fibre or more than two feet in length. Its 
strength is well known to the Ghat 
people who employ it occasionally for domes- 
tic purposes in rope-making as well as use the 
stem for food. The stem is perhaps too short 
to allow of its being worked into exportable 

Cocoamit. In Malabar and Ceylon every 
available spot within the influence of the sea 
breeze is being devoted to the growth of the 

Cocoanut. Along the Western coast of the 
^ ^W TbreT'may ' bVsoa^^ Madras provinces the wavy downs naerthesea- 

* t^o in clean water and then hung borders which have hitherto produced only a 



e paper nude at Anningabad bearfl fibres of Sida to be the beet ; The bubi of the 

I as to finenesB and gloas, hence the Trans G&njetic coontries are very nnmerane. 

for it to engroas annnada, deeda and The bast is the liber or celtnlar tisane consiat- 

ch documents. For rojal nse, as inj^ of tongh elongated Tnasela, which ca9 

wen in the private acconnt books of often be separated and converted into fibrous 

' peehwa Bajee Rao, grains of gold material, asefnl for cordage and matting, 

) mixed with the pnlp and tbns be- That best known to Europe is a prodnct of 

■fKad over the surface of the paper, UnBsia and obtained from the Lime or Linden 

We that in all cases the pnlp is form- tree, the Tilia Eoropea, and converted into 

nold grain bags originally made from mats, and ehoea. In the Bast Indica, species 

Jntelaria hemp or Snnn. Althongh of Grewia, of Hibiscus, wid of Mnlberry, are 

nrtlj) Bombay from BenR*l of jute remarkable for this prodnct. The Thesg- 

Itigs for packing is considerable, we ban-sha; the Pa-tho-yon-sha, the aha-phyoo; 

mtr known themapplied to themann- theNgan-tsonng-sha; Sha-nee and Ge-gw-ot- 

*<f ptper. — BombayQuar.Eieaiiivi, pays sha are the better known basts of Arracan. 

fXo. 17. of 8855. The basts of Akyab and Bnrmah, are 

WiUnd, Bhangdporo, and Cnttack Heng-kyo sha. Dam sha, Tha-not aha, 

'a fibrona substances, and the Moor- Wa-prce-loo sha and Sha gonng, all used 

fiown m the latter, is considered of j^ preparing cordage for boats, nets, &a., 

wenor description. wholesale market price, 2 Rs, 8 As. per 

fiinmhes many fibrous substances, n,annd, and all are of the inner bark of 

» »nd Chittagong yield suponor i^rge trees. 

'**»- The Sim Nee, Sha Phm, and Tbcng-ban 

rot-aba, a bast of Arracan, strips gij^ of Akyab are most plentiful, and are 

* «ii feet m length, composed need in preparing cordage for boats, nets.&c., 
tayers, of which one side is smooth ^nd their wholesale market price is 1 R. 12 
efc, and the layers on the other side ^^_ g^. mannd. The Guandyonng sha or 
OcelUr : all having a considerable Akyab is used for cables and strong nets, 
lOTaghness. the wholesale market price being 3 Ha. 4 
a<5«wi fibres, known as Theng-ban ^ ^^ niaund, and all these fibres are 
*h»-yan Shaw, Shaw-phyoo, \gan. ^inch used by the inhabitants of tha 
*W,and Ee-gywot-Shaw attracted province. 

•« England, but the quantity was -ri,g ^^^^^ ^^^^ erl^nsively used in Bar- 

>Or trying experiments. m^h, for making ropes are called " That- 

»^eenm Provinces. Singapore and poot-net-shaw," " Shaw-Laib-way," and 

W»les Island yield abundant fibre, Shaw-neo. These three basts, appear to be 

'^ i« that of the Aloe or Agave the inner barks of various species of stcrculia 

*<wked into thread ; also, difierent 3^5 allied plants, which abound in the dis- 

Piae-apple fibre, from the coarse tricts from whence they are forwarded. 

, ttaed for cordi^ t« the finest They are strong and enduring in their nature, 

2^vmg cloth. and some of them have been tested with 

"■e«r sent, apparently from Arrakan satisfactory results, but those se«i are coarso 

^.totheBengalAgricuUuralSociety, ^rd ill-prepared. 

*oni three plants : two from the The Caehacodie arc the stems of a creeper 

■ 8h»T, one from Sida rhomboidea, „g^^ f^^ j-jj,- bundles and other purposes 

' W dhnnoha, and an experiment made instead of twine. 

*^»pang chsT was in two ways. In The Mandrong rashes of Province 

*0M« he stripped the bark, and Wellesley, grow spontaneously in the rice 

•« it in water, keeping the some g^ij^ ^^^^^ the crop has been gather- 

*n days ; and the other was to ^j overspreading them like a second 

• Urk and to allow the processor ^.^^^ Its fibre is strong, and is locally used 
■two to take place be|oro im- j^ ^j^^ manufacture of rice and augar bags, 
Elbe same in water, which took mats, Ac, experiment may prove it to bo 
I forty-eight boura, and remamed im- adapted for the mannf^ture of paper. 

m vater for seventeen days, then „, ,, , /n 3 ^ •- _™.i 

I ud tla ™f™ Mpustod from tb. The Mmg-kwuog {Piu^^M .p.) M <md 

htaA doe. set sUi lo sdmil of for mitt.og, m ProTmeo WeUedey. 

•»• of fetmentotioo, ne ttal which ia The Glam taw burk u from Uio MelaUinoa 

Has yielded R fioer description of viridiflora, MaljKoa. The Talee trap (Arto- 

be diimcha fibres aro extracted in tUo carpna ap-) iaaaedat Uassang for fishinff 

'?! of Uu whole, ho considered the nets. 

129 1 



tioiicf the tafciny pa- 
perof India. 

Baphae Gardneii, do. 

D^khne Bholua^ da 

Csonabis satiTa or Indi- 
es, hemp plant, inde- 
genciM in India. 

Uitica nivea or Boehmc- 
ra nirca, China gi-ass 
or chn-ma or rhea of 

Urticaor BoDhmeriatona- 
dasima, known under 
the cerm rhea. Plant 
fiOTB Epontaneously, 
the fibres are soft and 

Uvtica or Bcehmeria pn- 
js. da 

Fndmiu odoratisflimns 
Krew pine ; fibres em- 
pfc;ed in the mauufac- 
tnre of eanTass and pa- 

A^Bwe aoKricana ; fibres 
stra^ bn aro altered 

AgMwe TiTipara, do. 
Aloe perfbiiata. 
Taees sngnatifolia. 
Tueoa ^tnrinsa. 
Taoea aloifolia ; 6bro 

and in | 

length 60 to 160 centi- 

Sansevicra Zpylanica, 
moorva or bow-striug 

Musa paradifliaca, plan- 

Masa ropicntnm, plan- 
tain or banana. 

Mnsa tcxtilifl, Manilla 
hemp, famoua for its 
strength and particu- 
larly nsefal for ships 

Cyperus segetum. 

Papyrus pangorei. 

Eriophorum carinabinnm, 
bhabnr ; for cordage. 

Eriophorum commosum. 

Typlia clcphautina. 

Androjiogou muricatus, 
cttfcufl, vctiver, sold in 
Europe aa a porfumo. 

Bambu.<;a aruudinacoa, 
and other species. 

31amnta dichotoma. 

Boras^us flabelliformis. 

Cocos uucifcra, coir or 
cocoa nut. 

Caryota urens. Kitlul. 

AreuL^ saccharifera,ejoo; 
its black fibres mako ex- 
cellent ships cordage. 

Chanucrops Ritchiana,&c. 

{M^fporis da Jury rrUxte International, p. 54.) 

The reticulated £bre of tho Abolmoscbns 
fiflobfiiii ia made into paper and used in 
tbe ainnfacture of gliunny bags. 

The Abelmoschns escnlentns famishes an 
aoellnit fibre for the paper makers 
mdit ia exported to a small extent as a 
lope making material. It has a fine gloss, 
vhich it retains even when brown and rotten ; 
I bundle was found by Dr. Roxburgh to bear 
i weight of from lbs. 79 to lbs. 95. 

The fibre of the Abclmoschus moscbatus, 
bake with a weight of lbs. 1 07. 

An excellent white fibre from the Abelmos- 
ehos tetraphjlla, was exhibited by Mr. 
Jafirej at the Madi*as Exhibition of 1857. 

The fibres of tho Abroma augusta are 
ef great beauty, strength, tonghncss and 
fueness, and as it grows all over tho East 
ad as far as the Philippines, and so rapidly 
H to yield two, three and even four cuttings 
■anoally, all fit for peeling, it is deserving of 
aiore thau common attention. Tho bark is 
ifeeeped in water, for a week or more, accord. 
ng to the heat of the weather, and requires 
■o farther cleaning. The fibre is said to be 
three limes greater and one- tenth Btronger 
tisan that of sunn. A cord of the Abroma bore 
mweight of lbs. 74, while that of Sunn only 
&L 68. Ibe fibres do not become weakened 


by exposure to wet and the plant can be 
cultivated as an annual. {Roijle. Ridilell ; 
Roxb. til 156, Voigi 100, Cycl of Nat,, Hist. 
Useful Plants,) 

The Abutilon Indicum yields a rather 
strong fibre fit for the manufacture of ropes. 
The plants are gathered and freed of their 
leaves and twigs and dried for two days ia 
the sun. They are then tied in bundles and 
placed under water for about ten days ; the 
bark and other foreign matter is removed 
by repeated washing, and the fibres aro 
placed in tho sun to dry. 

Fibres of along silky character fit for 
making ropes are obtained from the Abutilon 
polyandrum, and a fibre is also yielded by 
tho A. tomontosnm. 

The leaves of Alestris nervosus, Roxh.^ 
are used for making cordage : they are steep- 
ed in water for fifteen days in order to rot 
useless parts and then beaten to separate 
the fibres. Aloe Indica, A. littoralis, A. 
perfoliata and A. vulgaris, and the American 
Aloe or Agave Americana, yield fibres of 
great value. 

The following is the result of experiments 
of the strength of fibres : — 


Poolcj Mangee (Hibiscas canuabinuB) 

Marool (Sansevicra zcylanica) 

Cotton (Gossypium hcrbacoam) ... . 

Cutthalay nar (Agavo amcricana) 

Janapa (Crotolaria juncca), Sann, hindco... 407 

Ycrcum (Calotropis gigautea) 552 

224 1b. 











Calotropus gigantea is a valuable plant and 
grows all over India. Tho charcoal of its 
roots is prized in iho^ manufacture of gun- 
powder. Its leaves, t>uds, bark and milky 
juice are employed in native medicine, for 
their emetic, diaphoretic and purgative pro- 
perties and the inspissated juice resembles 
caoutchouc, but is a conductor of electricity. 
It yields an ardent spirit. It is the " Bar*' 
spirit of the western Ghats of India and 
according to Barth, the " giya" of the 

Dtivcliaij the fibre obtained from the 
iEschynomeno canabina grows plentifully. 
From tho bamboo is made all tho paper of 
Cliina ; the consumption, for all purposes, of 
370 millions of a much- reading and much- 
printing population *, — even that imported for 
eugraviDgs into Britain, under tho namo 
of '* India paper/' is thus derived. The 



nut. This snbiance, known to 
aen as *' black rope," is mnch 
bles and mnning rigging, and 
er attention from our mann- 

. the Corchoms capsularis bas 
d from India into Great Britain 
3 complete opening of the Indian 
J 3, or for about i8 years. All 
)f India is made &om it and it 
xported from Bengal, to the 
Spanish possessions in Asia, to 
to Australia. The raw fibre of 
h a little wool, has been mann- 

good, nsefal, and substantial 
hich can be sold at the very 
ice of 8|d a yard. 

, Crotolaria juncea, has been for 

imported fi*om India, in quan- 


d Sea, cables are used formed 

ig of the branches of the date 

op&da, the same material is used 

1 a proportion of fibre of the 
\ the Pandanus odoratissmus. 

Babstitutes for hemp, probably 
iportant is that yielded by the 
Masa of botanists the stem of all 
swill produce a fibre of some uti- 
questionably, the only one that 
been effectually used for this 
18 Musa textilis, the well-known 
) Philippine Islands. The fruit 
tain is harsh, small, and u neat- 
lowed to ripen, but in practice 
is prevented, for the flower is 
ttd thftt increases the strength of 
thas been immemoriably culti- 
»ntributes largely to the cloth- 
Qr millions of inhabitants of the 
besides being largely exported 
ate. It is made into cordage in 
and takes the shape of cloth, 
atter of a very fine quality and 
ability. In the raw state alone, 
nnder the name of " Manilla 
rearly exportation from Manilla 
bout 6000 tons, the Americans 
ncipal exporters. The cost of 
t the port of Manilla is about 
it is the coarsest fibres only 
sported, all the finer being 
Jloth, which as yet has not been 
in the Philippines, 
aces true flax and true hemp, 
ime species of both as the Euro- 
9ed of the first, a valuable arti- 
d for its oil, and has of late 
exported to this country. Hemp 
from' the equator to the Hima- 
) fibrous matter of the stem is 


used as cordage. Jubbalpore hemp has been 
tested, and proved to be equal to Polish or 
Russian hemp, and is employed for ships ropes. 

Hurcaray Newspaperj Awjust 2l8t (1854) ; 
Indian Fields Newspaper ; Mr, P. Watson, in 
Proceedings of Society of Arts of 1 2t7t, Decern^ 
her 1854 ; Hon^bls Court of JDirectors^ Bes^ 
'patch, No. 6 of June 1854. Dr. John Forbes 

Rof/lcj M, D., in memo.y dated — 1854, 

sent luith Courts No, 6 of 1854. Rapports 
du Jury mixte International, p 54. Dr, Taylor^ 
late Civil Surgeon of Dacca, letter, dated 
18 . . 

Mr, Mclver, Mr, Jaffrey, London Exhibitiony 
q/'1862, Madras Ex.Jur,, Reports, Boyle Fib. 
Pi pp. 80 to 237. Calcuttu Catalogue of the 
Exhibition of 1862, Beng. Dispen. p, 457-4 
Beng, Phann. 405, Hoiugberger 457. Dr. 
A. Hunter in Mad. Ex. Jv/r. Rep. Dr* 
J. L, Stewart, Punjab Plants. 

FICI. It. Figs. 

Mexicana, Linn. 

FICUS, a genus of plants belonging to the 
natural order UrticacesB. The species are 
numerous, Voigt. numerates forty-two as 
having been grown in the Calcutta gardens, 
and Dr. Wight, in his Icones, gives the 
following fifty-two names of forty-two plants 
and ten synonyms ; 





















Re pens, 

















Lanceolata ; 















One of this genus, yields the fig, others of 
thera yield a useful caoutchouc, several of 
them yield fibrous materials used for cordage, 
forbalfstulfandpapermakingand the Banyan 
tree, and the pipul tree are highly ornamental 
plants. Several throw out aerial roots, from 
their branches which grow into tho 
ground and again throw out branches. 
Some are valuable as fruit trees, and yield 
viscid and useful juices, but few of them 
are of value for timber. Tho Ficus carica, 
the common fig tree, is cultivated in 
many parts of India. Ficus Benjaminoides, 
tho Teuasserim Banyan tree, which drops 
aerial roots like the Indian ^g tree, grows 
amidst mangroves and near tidal streams. 


^ nous KLASTICA. 
^ JW ^NGI^^IEBATA. EoxB. Syn. 

»«i i CORDIFOLIA — ? 

SX'OUijJ^^y BuuL I Heart leared fig tree, Ezi o. 

^f^fll^ of Monlmein and the Tenasserim 
fgjf^' I*^ Tenaaserim, this tree usDally 
*"" ffle place of the peepnl in the public 
^ ^^d in the neighbonrhood of religiona 
^'^^ It approaches nearest to F. reli- 
^T^ is easily distingaished from it by 
Mires being narower in proportion to the 
B» with much shorter points, and the 
heing perfectly ronnd and not, as in 
n» vei-ticstlly compressed. It yields a 
wood, fifc for any ordinary purpose. — 
Htm, Oal. Cat. Ex. 1862. 
US CTJNJk. Buck. 

F. cooglomerata, Roxh. 

\g^ of tlie Concans, Rajmahal, Oudh, 
^^CtODgr X^ong, and Moulmein. 
:CC8 1>-«3 AIONUM. Kon. Roxh. 

^oo-kha-oung, Burm. 

lyeeof Tasijore and Burmah. 
ICCS^^STICHA, B/t«»w. Common in 
(jiiilrf^'O'v^ince of Ceylon at an eleva- 
% ^^ *^ 5>^0 feet. Thw. En. pi. 


fiCOS DIV^ERSIFORMIS, Miq. I. c. p. 

P. itip^Uita, Moon's Cat. p. 74. 
Y«f comiaoxi in Ceylon up to an eleva- 
lioDOi2,000 feet. Thw. En. jpl. Zeyl. p. 266. 

toVi Bexo. I Caoatchonc tree, Enq. 

IWiciibee, £.vg. | Kaanir, Silhet. 

ThelaJtitn Caoutchouc tree inhabits the 

pnfottd the Juntipoor mountains, which 

Vinifte province of Silhet on the north, 

ik grows to the size of a European 

SR. It is cultivated in Malabar. It is 
foimd in the chasms of rocks and over 
r ■^•"'^of mountains among d ecomposed 
'adqr and vegetable matter. It produces 
^^''^"nded a great abundance of milk, 
jitefc yields about one-third of its weight 
{■ewitchouc. It grows with great rapidi- 
V^^ is described as being 25 feet high, 
^™»oe trunk a foot in diameter when only 
P^ old. Its juice is used by the 
■ „ ^ 0^ Sjlhet to smear the inside of split 
f"*8 hastejg^ which are thus rendered 

f- "M*. Old trees yield a richer juice 
7 joung ones. The milk is extracted by 
^xaade across the bark, down to the 
'■sat a distance of about a foot from each 
*f all round the trunk or branch, up to 
P''*^ of the tree, and the higher the more 
ff "Mmt ifl the fluid said to be. After one 


operation the tree requires a fortnight's rest, 
when it may be agpiin repeated. When the 
juice is exposed to the air it separates spon- 
taneously into a firm clastic substance, and 
a whey-like fetid coloured liquid. Fifty ounces 
of pure milky juice taken from the trees in 
August yielded exactly \h\ ounces of clean 
washed caoutchouc. This substance is of 
the finest quality, and may be obtained in 
large quantities. It is perfectly soluble in 
the essential oil of cajcput. This tree 
abounds in Assam, but the outer Himalaya 
at Punkabarrce, is its western limit. It 
penerates amongst the mountains, as far as 
the Teesta valley in Sikkim, but is of small 
size. It may be distinguished from a dis- 
tance of several miles by its immense, and 
dense lofty crown. Dr. Griffiths gives the 
dimensions of one of the largest as follows : 
— Circumference of main trunk seventy- 
four feet, ditto of main trunk and supports, 
one hundred and twenty feet, ditto of area 
covered by the branches six hundred and ten 
feet, estimated height one hundred feet. Tho 
geographical range of the tree, so far as has 
been hitherto ascertained, may be stated to be 
between 25 ** 10' and 27° 20' north latitude, 
and between OO*' 40' and 95° 30' east longi- 
tude. Throughout this space it is found in 
the densely wooded tracts, so prevalent 
along the bases of the hills, and perhaps on 
their faces, up to an average elevation of 
2,250 feet. Up till recent years there was but 
one European manufactory of caouchouc 
in Assam, the process of cleansing the gum 
was kept a secret. When Assam is more 
peopled by Europeans, and its forests 
become more known, caoutchouc will form 
an important article of export. — The Univer- 
sal Review, No. 3, p. 360. Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
III. 545, Hooker, Him. Jour. Vol. I. 2?. 102, 
and II. p. 13, Voigt. 


Ati mcrolu, Maleal. 

Grows in the Moluccas and in Southern 
India. Its root is given as a purgative, in 
decoction. Voigt 287 Useful Plants. 

FICUS GLOME RATA, Boxh. ; Willdc. 

FicoB onnia, Bitch. 

„ racomosaa, Willde. 

Jag^ya doomoer, Beng. 
YsB-tha-pan, Buum. 

Bulla? kithmara. Can. 
Knlla kith mara, „ 
Oombur, Duk. 

GlomerouB fig tree, £no. 
Gooler, Hind. 

Covollia glomerata, Miq. 

Atti maram, 
Medi chettii, 
Atti chcttu, 
Bodda chuttu, 
Paidi chettu. 






Percna tcrcgram, Mal. | 

A large tree thrives best near a water- 
course, or on tho banks of the rivers, fruit 
like the common fig, and grows in clusters 



was once mnch larger than 
ligh floods havo carried away 
le island on which it grows, 
ortion of the tree. Indian 
L that neighboarhood, have 
nd it, and at stated seasons 

are held there, to which 
otaries repair. This is the 
in Paradise Lost, when Adam 

' • both together went 
nrood : when soon they chooso 
: that kind for fmit renowned, 
is day, to Indians known 
Dccan, spreads her arms, 
id and lonpr, that, in the gronnd, 
take root, and daughters grow 
' tree, a pillared shado 
md echoing walls between, 
iian herdsman shunning heat, 
nd tends his pastnring herds 
hrough thickest shade : these loaves 
trad aa Amazonian targe, 
nil they had, together sewed, 

NQYer, is not, as Milton sanjy, 
r the broadness of its leaf 
ranches spread to a great 
og their roots here and 
as soon as they reacb the 
i\j increase in size till 
is largo as, and similar to, 
ink. As the Banyan tree 
breaks np into separate 
riginal trnnk decaying, and 
ning separate tmnks of the 
ns. The banyan hardly ever 
;he gronnd ; bnt its figs are 
and the seeds deposited in 
)alms, where they grow, send- 
that embrace and eventnally 
rhich decays away ; the drops 
field a heavy hard timber and, 
ared by water seasoning, oil- 
ned for tent poles, spars of 
fC, The timber of tlio trunk is 
1 India, but Mr. Rohde had 
awn from large drops after 
seasoned in water with ad- 
aife boards it is excellent. In 
sndis says, it is used for com- 
md house buildings. A white* 
is extracted by incision, from 
is prepared and it is applied 
) relieve tooth-ache ; it is also 
Jaable application to the soles 
n cracked and inflamed. The 
led by the hindoos to be a 

The leaves are pinned to- 

platters, oif which Irrahmins 

t. Much lac is often to be 

I this tree. — Drg. Eiddrll, 

Dr, Hooker $ Jlim, Jotmi, 

Fictjs jrrriDA. 

VoL IL ih 246, MarsdetCs Hut. of Sumatra, p. 
160, Mr, Memlisy Milton, BoohofTrees^ Voigt^ 
Thwaites, Mr. Rohde's AI8S., Eng. Oijc. 


Ficns renosa, Ait. 

Urostigma infectorinm, 


Bassari mara, Can. 

Wave leaved fig 

tree, Eng. 

Jovi, IIlND. 

Urostigma a)geiropbyI« 
Inm, Mio. 

„ T*jakcla, Mio. 

„ Ceylononse, „' 

Kirri palla gass, SiNon 
Kail alim, ? Tam. 

Jnwi, Tkl. 

Grows in Ceylon and tho peninsula of 
India. Its bark is used as a 8u1)stitate for 
betel nut, to chew with tho betel leaf. 

p. 545. 

Urostigma laccifcrum, Miq. i. c. p. 675 j 
Nooga-gass, Si no. 

Grows in the Central Province of Ceylon. 
The. En. Zeijl. p, 265. 


Tha-phon, Bubmese. 

Wood soft, useless. A cubic foot weighs 
11) 27. In a full grown, tree on good soil th« 
average length of the trunk to the first 
branch is 25 feet and average girth measured 
at 6 feet from the ground is 12 feet. 2>r. 




Wild fig, Ewo. 

Broad leaved fig. „ 
Timbul, PaxNJ. 

This is found in the Sutlej valley between 
Rampur and Sungnam at an elevation of 
5,000 feet. Fruit edible, flavor pleasant, sold 
in bazaar of Simla, Cleghom Funjab Report, 
pp. 9G5 and 82. 

FICUS NITIDA. TJiunh. W. Ic. Rli. 



Ficns l)onjaminea, Roxb. 
pallida, Wall. 

rctnsa, Linn 

Chinese banyan, Eng. 
Hi aln, Maleal. 

Kmmenta Tel. 



Urostigma retusnm^Miq. 
,, nitidnm, „ 
„ piErifemm, „ 

Billa jnwi, Tel« 

Erra jnwi 



Common in the Central province of Ceylon 
up to an elevation of 6,000 feet. It grows 
ill the Peninsula of India in Lower Nepaul, 
the Khassya hills, Penang, and China the 
bark of the root and leaves are used in 
medicine. It is a great favourite with the 
priests of China being valuable for orna- 
mental purposes and shade. Thw. p. 205. 
Fortune Tea Dlst. p. 6. Wandering p. 381. 

37 ^ 



iigjJ*^- ^cngtomexistain Persia of divid- FiyhUng men. 

locaBli^^ ^^^ *^^ villages, bufe, iu some Tnrnoulec (inclading Jehandad), ... 8,000 

; ii4^^]^^le disiricfcp, into six parts, Other Tribes of Huzara, 10,000 


^njj ^^^tliMr sub-divided into two nil- Easnfzye, 25,000 

**ardh^ ^e one containing foar parts, Khuttuck, 

ji. 1^ ^^» wd the other two parts, Uanpnsh, 

^. ?fleA. yjjg sairne rnlo is observed Derajat Tribes, 

rr^ V^f[ wafer for in-igating the fields, it 

an honourable man, they have for agon 
regarded the people of the plains as serfs 
born to till lor the benefit of the mountain 

12 000 


^^,^"®atelj connected with the division Total... 60,000 

JJ^n^^ property. Baron C. A, Be Bodes These men aro all, trained from boyhood 

S* '* ^''''<»/an aiid ArahUtan^ Vol.11, to the use of arms. All can use thetalwar, 

'• ***'" tho long assassin's knife, and the long and 

HEID CCT CUMBER. Ekg. Cucumis ^®*^^^ matclilock. All aro fanatic maho- 

tinBWnDS.^JKo«6. medans. All, too, are accustomed to con- 

wfPFFV r^ T?M i'ider i)lunder tho easiest source of income, 

J^U!Jifi.\ (jTEB, tile. and robbery the only profession worthy of 

jmO.ilv^ Hay. 

FIEBASFEE^, a species of this genus 

u^nt flx inch OS long dwells, as a parasite, ^^^ ^ y ^ , , ^ . i 

rijifla the gre j^ t sea cucumber. It enters andthesclowlanders can bcattacked through 

ijeitfnflhteara tho sides and quarters itself ^!\\*^f PT^^ of ranges which extend for 

^^ti» at.omach and the outer skin. ^^'^^^ li^nd^^l miles, and the task of tho 

"Z* ^ Ciovernment may from this be partially 

^''^'— «xTP r.r.,r,^-.^^r„^ ^« comDrchended. These tribes are, however, 

PfiB^o^r *^T?H^™r ^^ ^^^^ incapable of combination. They live in 

jgOSTlEa^i^ANSOt I^iDIA. Writers incessant bloodshedding feuds. Life for 

^tefeomti^^ to time described tho policy. ]-f„ -^ the universal law of the mountain, 

^|„^\)jiUoBnti8h Government towards and the feud once commenced can end only 

^^^d3B«,M>^a its success appears at last ^ith the destruction of one clan or tho 

^VBi&nofiledged. An immenso length other. They have but one common bond, 

rfteritory baa to be watched. The clans the hatred of tlie infidel, which from time to 

^ tarn oat a force greater than the time urges individuals to acts of homicidal 

vUe Anny of Bengal. They require frenzy. A union among tlicso tribes is con- 

» mny of observation greater than the | siaered in the Punjab an impossibility, 

toe which defended the Peninsula. Tl.o But feuds as deadly were pacified in Arabia, 

™° wvemment has in fact placed the when tribes equally wild and not more 

diWM^n tribes as wild and almost as fanatic united for the conquest of tho 

BBBWOMM those wlio havo for centuries 0,iental world.— ^ViV/uZ of India, 3 Ayril, 

Btiatimed the independence of Arabia. 

pTbe annibers stand as follows. Beyond 

Britiib temtoiy are 

,. ., Fijhtlng men. 

Mb onHuznra Frontier and near 

aeInda3--North of Peshawur, 
Swit and its dependencies, 


. 8,000 
. 20,000 


t^*Wdie ...20,000 

.re and other Tribes in Kohat 
*w»fe, 30,000 

^^'^e, 20,000 

loee and others iu Dehra Is- 
rael Khan District, 5,000 

Mxxk Tribes on Delira Ghazec 



























Rata Attika, 


Anjir, Grz. 

II IN I). Ma LAY. 










£baa border, . . . 



Total... 135,000 

fe warlike Tribes withiii British Tenitory 
im the fallowing numbers of 

The fruit of tho Ficus carica which p^ows 
allovcrSpain, theMediterranean, Italy,Franc0 
Greece and India. Dried figs are largely im- 
ported. — Faulkner. 

FIG FREE of Ficus carica. 
Tjin, Arab. | Tecnah, Heb. 

FIG TREE tho Indian fig-trco is the 
Ficus Indica, one of them has long been 
famed at Allahabad and which is still 
represented by a withered stem in tho 
underground cave at Patala puri. There 
was, no doubt, a very ancient and venera- 



Ac. and attar-dans and small boxes for 

uatiVesL A specimen on a lar^ scale could 

be made, sacb as a vase for flowers, a stand 

for writing materials. The design best 

adapted for displaying the delicate work of 

filligree is that of a leaf. It should be drawn 

on stent paper, and of the exact size of the 

article intended to be made. The apparatus 

ued in the art is exceedingly simple, con- 

■sting merelj of a few small crucibles, a 

piece of bamboo for a blow pipe, small ham- 

wen for flattening the wire, and sets of a 

fioreepB for inter-twisting it. The drawinp^ 

ofiiheraiid gold (t. e. silver covered with 

gold) wire, nsed as thread in embroidery, is 

ciia&Telj carried on in several places 

nd Benares is celebrated for this art. There 

are sereral varieties of silver and gold 

thittd (badla) made at Dacca, as *^ goola- 

bstooa" for the embroidery of muslins and 

aflki; •* goshoo" for caps and covering 

the haadkB of chowries; "sulmah*' for 

tarfaoH^ slippers, and hookah snakes; 

and iiOQlnQ for gold lace and brocades. Some 

of ^ u drawn almost as fine as a hair. In 

Ifce time of Aurangzebe a quantity of this 

article was made yearly for the Court at 

DdkL A hundred sticks covered with it, 

■id plain gold, and silver ^^badla" to the 

of j5*2,000 in value, appear, among 

composing the Mulboos Khas Nuzr, 

of royal clothing annually sent 

to the Emperor. The Trichinopoly filigree 

work is as light and elegant as that of 

Malta or Genoa. (Dr, Taylor.) 

FHiTY MAS. See Nephrodium fclix. 

FDTDUK. Arab. Peus. Hind. Corylus 

arellana also C. lacera, Hazelnuts. 


yiNJAN. Arab. A cup without handles. 
rN, a race occupying Finnland in the 


of shah Mah mud of Ghizini; but, disappoint- 
ed by the promised reward of 30,000 drach- 
mas, he returned to Toos his native city 
and there died. 

FIRE. Exb. 








8 P. 





Fire is frequently mentioned in the 
wi-itings of ancient and modern nations as 
an object to be worshipped or reverenced. 
Perhaps the chief culture enjoined in the 
Vedas is that of Agni or Fire and of the 
San, and with the ancient Persians as with 
the Paraees of the present day, the worship 
of these two objects formed the principal 
religious duty. Fire is preserved in hindu, in 
Pai*sec, and in Buddhist temples and seems 
to be the inextinguishable (ire alluded to in 
Lev. iv. and 13 as their lamps are kept per- 
petually burning, according to the injunction 
to the Hebrew Levites, **the tire shall 
ever bo burning upon the altar ; it shall 
never go out.'* An Agnihotra bramhin 
preserves the fire which was kindled at the 
time of his investiture with the poita, and 
never suffers it to go out, using the same 
fire at his wedding, and in all his burnt-offer- 
ings, till at length, after his death, his body 
is burnt with it. The sacred fire kindled by 
Montezuma was preserved at Pecos down to 
our own times. The Natches of N. America 
even now preserve a sacred fire and believe 
that frightful calamities would ensue if 
ever the fire5 were extingruished at both 

temples at once. Even among christians 
of the present day, according to Mr. Robert- 
son, on the eve of the Greek Easter-day, 
the ceremony of receiving the apcas-ws or 
Holy Fire is performed in the chapel at 
Bbrtb of Europe, supposed to be of the same I Jerusalem. The fire bursts from the sepul- 
■toek with the Turkoman, the Tshude, the [ chre and the pilgrims of the Greek com- 
I^pbiider and theMagyar of Hungary. Rask j munion light their torches at it believing 
vaaof opinion that the language of the Lap, , tliat they receive it from heaven. (Rohinsmi's 
ihe Finn and Basqne.of Europe and of the j TniveUj Palestine ami Syria Vol. 1, pp. 47-8. 
Cndmwari, Kohati, Toda. Gond, and Lar of The lamps and candles which some chris- 
ladia were of one stock. Also the Rrahui tian sects keep in their churches are rem- 
and the Japanese. See India 314,332. Kelat nantsof the ancient and modern culture of 
fL4d8. fire. The Athenians had a perpetual fire kept 

PIXOKI, Jap. A cypress tree, of Japan, by widows; amonff the Romans it was kept 
which yields a light whitish wood of a good , by virgins. The Greeks had one in the t«m- 
Jabttance, and does not absorb water.— pie of Apollo. The Parsi people, descendants 
'■■ tl^nh.. Hist, Jap. Vol. I. p. ] 18. of the ancient Persians, have a sacred fire, in 

FINUS FELLEUS. See Cocculus oris- ! each of their temples. The Chaldeans, 

adored fire, and when it went out, it was a 
presage of all sorts of misfortunes to the 
State. What kind of fire is meant by tho 
'* Strange Fire" of Lev. x, 1 ; Numb, iii, 4; 

zvi.j 12; ix, 


FIO. Port. Thread: Yarn. 
FIORE. It. Flour. 

FIRDUSI, author of the Shah Namah, 
aFersiaxi poem. He wrote it at the request \ vxvi and 61 (See also Lev. 




wbo, as above related^ was allocked at tlic ! a family mined and dispersed, the Persians 
bare idea of going near the sepulchral ligbti), .' say oojak-i-shan koor shood, "their firo- 
was one of three non-commissioned officers place is darkened." 

who afterwards led thirty-two firelocks to 
the attack, and defeat of l,.50O Pindarics. 
At present the Kasak or Kirf?hiR do not 
spit on a fire, and in Khiva, Khokand, in 
nany other parts ot Africa and Asia and Eu- 

jope, the cnstom continues of dancing round I Hymonodyction cxccl- 
tn. In the whole of Central and Southern 
to blow ont a light is considered very 

FIREWOOD is the chief fuel used in the 
Indies, and the less valuable trees of each 
locality are cut. On the east coast of the 
peninsula the woods chiefly used are : — 

Canthium pnrviflornm. 

Acacia speciosa. 

wrong. Everywhere in hiudoo India, there is ; peJunXa^*^ *^ 
W&md to be a fire which does not : Vatica laccifcra. 
Wn a person, attributed to Siva or i Grcwia rutuudifolia. 
Kahadeva, written also Seo, or Siu, and 
HBoaDy, in the Dekkan, the fire wor- 
ifaip of Habadeva is performed, in which, 
the devotees run or jump through great 
fim, attribntiDg their escape to the intcr- 
yf*^«* of that hiudu deity. 

Kre 11 obtained in New Zealand by friction 

of the woods of the Melicytus ramiflorus of 

the Aralia polygama, and of the Kaiko- 

naio trees. The wood used to provide fire 

B lUdii ia that of the Hibiscus tiliaceus. — 

WStom's Hindu Theatre, the Toy Cart. Art 

nS. Colehrooke on the Rellfflous Ceremonies 

tfiU Hindu, Asiatic Res. XXL 241. Sonne- 

rwk Vmfoge pp. 77 — 8. Story of Nala p. 102. 

IflKsftrnV Travels Palestine and Syria Vol. 

Ii |L 282. See Agni, Agnihotm ; India. 

liiaiptiaiis ; Tripandra. 

Bandia duxnetcnm. 
Auirioncma tnultiflora. 
Ciissia auriculata. 
Acacia loucophlsoa. 
Maba bnxi folia. 
Dichro8tach}*8 cincrea. 

The trees furnishing the supply at Simla, 
are chiefly : — 

Pinna excnisa. 
Ccdras deu<lara, 


Quercns incana. 
Rhododendron nrboronm. 
Andromeda ovalifolia. 

with other jungle trees and stout under- 
wood. At Kassowlcc and Kanawar, the con- 
tractors supply principally *'cliir" (Pinuslon- 
gifolia), which grows wild in the adjoininghiil 
sides, and splits easily. The only forbidden 
wood is "behur*(Grewia oppositifolia),which 
emits an ofibnsive smell in burning. The 
villagers use as fuel the withered stems of 
Euphorbia pentagona and thorny bushes. 
In the Punjab, the woods used are 

Hippopbae rliamnoidcs. 
Juniporns communis. 

Alsine, sp. 
Artemisia Bacrornm. 
Calligouum polygonoidca 

^^ Caragana pvf^mooa. 

FIB8 CLAY, Sang-i-dalara. Hind. A [ Crozophora'tinctoria. 
kiiidof clay* very common in many parts of Ephedra Gorordiana. 
India, from which bricks can be made that Eurotia ceratoidca. 
the action of great heat. 

Jnuipcrus excclsus. 
Periploca aphylla. 
Rbazya Btricta. 
Koaa Webbiana. 
Tanacetam tomcDtosnm. 

Near the Punjab railway lines, Phulai 

(Acacia modesta) furnishes a hard wood 

which is perhaps the best fuel given by 

any wild tree. It is only found in quantity 

near Umritsur and Jullundur. Dhak or 

Pulas (Butea frondosa) has a wood too 

soft and light to furnish, unmixed, a 

! ^\^-^^r!^ r„^""!' """\: 7" really effective fuel. Jhand or kandi 

in Its flight will next show Itself. (Prosopisspicigera) covers very largo areas 

sionally the hirht is continuous. See >^ the central tract near Lahore, and grows 

more parti^illy over many j)arts to the south. 
FIRE PLACES. These, in the Eastern Its wood is open-gniined and softish, and is 
»d Southern parts of Asia, are usually the very subject to the attacks of white ants, 
Inzths, alluded to in Jeremiah xxxvi. 22. but it furnishes a fair fuel, aud has hitherto 
■*Th€re was a fire on the hearth burning be- been perhaps the chief source of supply for 
im him/ Hindoo houses have neither the locomotives in the Punjab. Nexfc to it, 
Aimnies nor fire-places. In the cold wea- as t,o quantity of fuel furnished, come the ta- 
li wood in brass or eai-then marisks, furas, lei, pilchi, &c., (Tamaiix 

FIRE FLY, a little luminous beetle, a 
leeies of Lampyris. The lower part of its 
body has some apparatus for emitting a 
bri^t phosphorescent light. Usually it 
is emitted in flashes at intervals of a second, 
and it is interesting to guess where the 

Bat occasionally the light 


',ihe rich hum , . i r 

I, placed in any part of the room ; the orientalis and Tamarix ludica) which Irom 

■iigent bum sticks on the floor. The some miles south of Lahore southwards, 

bttth or fire-place is commonly taken to cover hundreds of square miles of the low 

mm the livelihood, or means of supporting land. A tree of Kikkar or Sissoo, under 

ifcmily. If the family be scattered into, tolerably favourable circumstances, attains 

' «f three parties, the expression would be, a girth of about 30 inches in ten years ; 

I lire three fire-places burning. Speaking of and gives about four maunds of dry fuel ; 



portaat branch of trade in China. The 
fisherman collects with care on the margin 

famed for its fish. Three thousand American 
vessels, it is i^aid, are ensraged in the New- 
sorfaoe of water, all the gelatinous ; loundlaud and New En^'land fisheries. If 
that contain spawn of fish, which is j to these be added the Dutch, French, and 
then placed in an egg shell, which has been | English, perhaps, not less than six or eight 
hveh^ emptied, through a small hole; the j thousand, of all sizes and flags, are engaged 
bole is then stopped, and the shell is placed j in this one pursuit. In the east and south 
under a setting fowl. In a few days, the ' of Asia the people by stake nets, bag-neta 
Chinese break the shell in warm water . and hooks, iu boats and in ships engaged 
(wanned hy the sun) ; the young fish are j in fishing are nevertheless very numerous, 
then kept in water until they are large enough j The pearl fisheries alone, in the Persian 
to be placed in a pond. This plan, in some ! Golf, employs a great collection of ships, 
netsore, counteracts the great destruction | and the pearl fisheries of China and Ceylon 
of^wn by troll-nets, which have caused ■ are also valuable. In Ceylon about 10 000 

canoes and boats are employed in fishing. 

the extinction of many fisheries. Recently, 

Br. Francis Dav, a Madras Medical Officer i /• i . 

Ih made great eflFoi-ts to introduce ova Shark fishing, fishing for the Holothuria 

cf exotic fish into India and made recom- ^^ sea-slug are extensively practised. In tho 

■endations for the protection of young fry. *'*^^^ J®*" 1857-8 to 18G0-1, shark fins, to the 

A few drops of a weak solution of perman- "^^^^^ ^^ £60,467 were exported from India to 

0Bttte of lime, addtd night and morning, ^^""* »"<! o^^^"' placej*. There are manj 

fwcetens water, and supplies oxvgen, and ^"^"5° ^**s w^*^ C'^^'s "^ twelve men each, 

ibit dimmisbcs the mortality iu fish hatch- i constantly employed iu the shark-fishery at 

if.— /«&ttccf«aZ O^^erper, Vol. viii. Z?owi/?i</tf j ^""^chee. Tho value of the fins sent to 

Jmerva^page 1 65. See Fisheries. I Bombay varies from Rs. 13,000 to Rs. 18,000 

[ a vtjar. Of this a portion only passes direct- 
nSHERTES OP EASTERN AND ; ly"into the hands of the fi>hermen, each boat 

80DTHERN ASIA. Of all tho industrial 
of the sea, the whale fishery is the 
Tmlnable. The sperm whale is a warm 
fifth. The right whale delights in cold 
An immense number of log-books 
been discussed at the National 
Oteerrmtorj with the view of detecting the 
pvtB of the ocean on which the whales are 

earning perhaps Rs. 1,000 annually, or Rs, 
100 for each man. From this falls to bo de- 
ducted the cost of material and other charges. 
Shark-fins sell in China at about 832 per 
picul, or £6 per cwt. In tho market of 
Macassar tho ordinary price is from 815 to 
S16, or from £2-103. to £3 per cwt. This 
trade was noticed by Dr. Royle (o/i ih*i 

remarks that it seemj to bo a physi- 
cal law, that cold-water fish are more edible 
those of warm- water. The places which 
favoured with good fish-markets, are 

loba fbtind at the different seasons of the :/'>'^tZ«^^4<>>i ^/ hinglass. — London, IS-ll',) 
jBtt. Charts showing the results havo been I ill 1S4'2. It affords on some occasions to 
poliBihed, and they form a part of the series Bombay alone — tiikingfish-maws and shark- 
of MaoTf'B Wind and Current Charts. The fins together, — as much as four lacs of ru- 
taktij of the Sperm whale is largely follow- pees — £ 10,000, and furnishes the chief means 
•dnthe South Sea, the Pacific and in all the < of support to at least three thousand fisher- 
SontiiSea ocean between Africa and America, , men or, including their families to probably 
fcrtwhollj by fishers from Europeand America. ; not less than fifteen thousand human 
^ * '**"" — «— i-a tino* ;«-co«,« , 4^,v u^ „ ^i— ,: beings. One boat will sometimes capture at 

a draught as many as a hundred sharks of 
different sizes : but sometimes they will be a 

Q , week, sometimes a month, without securing 

fte shores of North America, the east coast i a single fish. The fishermen are very averse 
sf China, with the west coasts of Europe to revealing tho amount of their captures : 
and South America, and all of these are , inquiries of this sort are supposed by them 
midied by cold waters, and therefore it may j to be made exclusively for the purpose of 
k infemid that their nmrkets abound with ! taxation. The great basking shark, or 
Aa most excellent fish. The fisheries of i mhor, is always harpooned : it is found float- 
Kvwfimndland and New England, over which ^ ing or asleep near the surface of the water, 
lakiona have wrangled for centuries, are in > and is then struck with a harpoon eight feet 
fc cold water from Davis's Strait. The ' long. The fish once struck is allowed to 
idienes of Japan and Eastern China, which run till tired, and is then pulled in and beat- 
en with clubs till stunned. A large hook 
is now hooked into its eyes or nostrils, or 
wherever it can bo got most easily attached, 
— and by this the shark is towed inshore : 

Uo s 

An in the cold water. Neither India, nor 
As east coast of Africa and South America, 
the warm waters are, have been 


3,00i>, pinplored in carrying cargo nntl I are made fast to boats anchoreil at a conRider- 

in gCTieral business. There were 110 i able distance off: other boats now proceed 

Jishinjr-boats, worth about Rs. 300 each, ' and haul up the upper end of the stake till 

and io canoes, worth from Rs. 40 to Rs. 60 ; the point is found to descend by its own 

each. At Sewree there were tive larj^e boats, I weight. When it has at once caught hold of 

worth about Ra. 1,000 each, employed in | the mud the rope is released from its lower 

carryinsjr bricks and tiles from Salsette to end, and the boats to which it was attached 

Bombay; one pattimar, worth about Rs. j employed in steadying the top in the dircc- 

3,0<-»0, emplojed in general trade ; 2o iishinpr- '. tion of the run of the tide. At Idgh water 

boats, wortb about Rs. :35<J each ; and 50 ' two Iwats are made fast, one on each side, 

CMoes. There were, besides, some 20 mid- | to the top of the stake, which is forced by 

dliiiG^.si'zed boats, used in the transport of | their weight ten or twelve feet into the mud. 

ehnnam and of black sand from Bellaporo for , Stakes are thus put in successively, often to 

bsilding and other purposes. At Maliiin and | the extent of some miles at intervals of 

in the creek on Sion there are 7 fishinsr- j twenty foot from each other. Betwixt each 

Wa. to 10 large chunam boats, 10 small, pair is extended a long purse-net, the cir- 

togfther with 25 canoes. The tishermon of cumference of the mouth of wliich is about 

Small Colaba own no more than 16 fishing- . .sixty feet, so that when attached to tho 

bolts and 8 canoes. A pattimar employs stakes it exhibits an aperture twenty feet 

franlSto 20 men, a fishing-f)oat from lO to across, and ten feet perpendicularly — tho 

upper edge being a little above high water. 
Tho purse is from 100 to 170 feet in length, 
terminating in a point. Tho meshes gradu- 

l5,acaDoe from 3 to 4 Canoes are chiefly 
cnpkved in the coast-fishing and attending 

on tho mudbanks, and in landini? 

~ I - - — 

mrgowhen there is no depth of water sulfiui- i ally diminish iu size from the mouth to tho 
CBt fbr larger vcsfcIs. They arc hollowed j further extremity, being about six inches at 
oil of k single log, and are very serviceable, the former, and three-fourths of an inch at 
landsome-looking, well-finished craft. They the latter. The fish are carried into this by 
mimpelled either by paddles or sails : when the tide, and entrapped — boats are always 
tiM k^ter are employed, an outrigger is in waiting at high and low water, to secure 
to : they will bear a surprising the capture and reverse tho nets. In the 
of canyas, and make their way rapid- creeks and shoals lines of stakes and netn, 
tkrongb the wat«r. often several miles in length, aro run along 

Hooks and lines are scarcely ever used on where the sludge is exposed at low water. 

Ae western shores, — nets of various forms 
andKizes being almost solely employed in 
etttehing fisb. The most important and ex- 
tewrely practised variety is the stake-net 
fidnng, — and stakes are often to be found 

Tho upper edge of these is considerably 
under high water, and mark tho fish are in 
conseqnencee entrapped by them on the ro- 
tircmcnt of the tide : breaks aro left at inter- 
vals to secure their admission. Close along 

thirty and forty miles out at sea — wherever, i shore, fi.shirg grounds, about half an acre in 

indeed, a bank within half a day's suil of area or so, and in a semi-circular form, are 

land presents itself: the fishermen are quite built. An aperture is lefc in the extremity 

esteiprisiDg enough to extend their opera- of each of these, into which a net is placed 

Imw to any distance, bat there is no use in as the tide begins to recede, and a consider- 

tKeir going farther off than they can return able capture of the lesser sized fish secured. 

vith their fish to tho market fresh. The Such are the fixed implements of the fisher- 

fidiing stakes vary from 50 to 150 feet in 

length : they arc built up in the following 

■amier of successive pieces of wood, — the 

lower being frequently the long straight 

tnnk of the cocoanut or palmyra tree. As 

■any as five or six pieces of wood, from 

eight to ten inches in diurneter, aro used in 

the construction of a siuglo stake. They 

•re scarfed across each other, the scarfing 

fcaag from three to five feet : tho pieces aro 

Ctftened together by strong rectangular fil- 

fcteof wood — Two or thrco boats are em- 

man. Of the moveable implements the most 
frequent is a conical net, of which the lower 
lip is loaded with pieces of lead and turned 
up inwards. The material of which it in 
made is fine twine and the meshes small. It 
is from eight to twelve feet in diameter, and 
is only used in-shore. The fisherman holds 
it by the top, while he gives it a quick twirl, 
something betwixt that given to tho Ameri- 
can lasso and common quoit. Throwing it 
to tho distance of some yards, it spreads 
fully out as it reaches the water — when pull- 

ploTed in towing tho stake out to sea. Its ed down and collapsing by means of tho 

pomt is made wedge-shaped — there is a hole 
Mur the point of tlio wedge, through which 
ftiope is passed. The two ends of the rope 

lead, it closes at the mouth as it approaches 
tho bottom. The fisherman now approaches 
and pulls it op by the apex, when the fu$h 

1 J "^ 


Block Atberina, Forskalii, 
id species of Ambassis, Polyne- 
umphas and Chaetodon are also 

an import trade of fish into 

the value of about £15,000. 
ired by smoking them as they 

in tiers, by damp rice straw, 
scent fish in some shape or 

characteristic article of diet 
the races from the mountains 
3 the islands of the Archipelago. 
Iras side where a boisterous surf 
rer on the shore, the fishers use 
iran and fishing lines, but nets 

Chinese are less nice in their selection, and 
reject but vety few kinds. 

Dried fish. — ^The daily snrpluB fish are 
cured by the fishmongers. The process 
commences with a partial abrasion of the 
scales, after which the larger fishes are 
opened lengthwise and the intestines re- 
moved. Water is repeatedly poured over 
the fishes till blood and impurities have dis- 
appeared, when they are placed in casks in 
fiat layers, between which is thrown a quan- 
tity of salt. In this state the fishes remain 
from 24 to 48 hours, when they are exposed 
to the sun, and frequently turned, till they 

^ are thoroughly dried. The smaller kinds are 
"^ a7d whe'n^sWs' visit the I "°*^ ^^P^^^^ "^^ ^^^ ^^^7 ^^^ salted before dry- 
b bag nets several hundred yards ' ^"^^^ *^^ s«°- The little care bestowed upon 

, the cunng appears, however, to be sufficient 
I for local consumption, and none of the 
settlements in the Straits export dried 
fish. The pikul of 133^ lbs. sells from 3 
to 7 Spanish Dollars valued at 4s. 6d. The 
katty being 1^ lb. of which 100 go to the 

IsinglasSj Fish mawSy Fish-sounds, or iltV- 
Bladders, (Palogpong ikan or ari ari ikan of 
the Malays, loo- pa of the Chinese) appear to 
have formed an article of exportation from 
the islands of the Indian Archipelago as 
early as they became visited by the Chinese. 
When these people commenced to settle in 
the Straits, they not only there collected 
what are called fishmaws but also from dis- 
tant localities. Bombay, Ceylon, Madras, 
Bengal, Tenasserim and most of the Mala- 
yan Islands contribute to the annual supply, 
which is bought up by Chinese dealers at 
Penang, Malacca and Singapore. By them 
the maws are exported to China. This fact 
was noted by Mr. Crawfurd, but that the fish 
maws are isinglass, appears to have been the 
discovery of an anonymous correspondent in 
Farhury's Oriental Herald for January 1839. 
The pei'sonal exertions of Mr. MoCelland 
have been mainly instrumental in adding 
isinglass to the articles of exportation from 
India to the European markets. Since 1 842, 
Mr. \y. T. Lewis, Assistant Resident Coun- 
sellor of Penangfhas made some very success- 
ful attempts to improve the production of 
isinglass in Prince of Wales Island. But 
European merchants there appear unwilling 
to engage in this novel branch of commerce, 
as the supply from want of proper care is 
uncertain, and procurable but in compara- 
tively small quantities. These, however, are 
not objections to the Chinese dealers, as they 
are sure of a profitable and quick return on 
their outlay. The fishes from which isinglass 
is obtained at Penang are, 

Lates heptadactylus, (Ikan siyakap.) 

iTOwu from masulah boats. 

ttlrawady river and the seas in 
Mergoi and Eastern Archipelagos 
Bdahound in fish, and the Malays 
r great stake nettings far into the 
le shallows between Penang and 
Wellesley are covered with such 
e wealth of these Eastern rivers 
is boundless, and we have seen a 
man in a small canoe, in an hour 
ning capture seventy fish, each bo- 
3 and two feet long. The fisher- 
lying the markets of Penang and 
are principally natives of China. 
J boats vary from one to three tons 
bey are of a slight make and cal- 
> ply at but short distances from 
They are pulled by oars and sel- 
f sails. The nets are made of 
ffied with mangrove bark. The 
lAing-stakes are clumsy contri- 
lafc they answer well enough in 
BT is more owing to the riches of 
i their sheltered position, than to 
ityof the contrivance or the du- 
the materials. In nadtical skill, 
> fishermen of the Straits settle- 
ar behind the Malays. The fish- 
e also natives of China, but they 
B far superior to the fishermen, 
comprizes the branches of 

h Haws), 


Shark's Fins, 


Fish Manure, and 


. — The fishermen dispose of their 
o the fishmongers who assort the 
nds in heaps, over which sea 
itinually poured, and from these 
stomers are supplied. Although 
ely few kinds of fishes appear on 
of Europeans, the Malays and 



Pt»ljnemus indicns, (Ikan knrow.) 
Otolithiis biaiiritus, (Ikan salarapae.) 
Otolithns ruber, ( Jarang gigi.) 
Otolithus argenteus, (Jarang gigi.) 
Otolithns maculatuR, (Jarang gigi.) 
Johnius diacant)iu5«, (Ikan tambarch.) 
Lobotes era to, (Ikan batn.) 
Arins truncatns, (Ikan salndn.) 
Arius arins, (Ikan salndn.) 
Arins militariH, (Ikan salndn.) 
Tho total quantitios and valno of fish 
maws imported into and from Prince of 
Wales Island, from 1832 to 1842, wero 



1832— 33:Quantity 
TO in Pikuls 
1S4I— 42 



in Dol- 



1832— 33,Qnantity 

TO inPiknls. 




in IX>I. 



Fish Rocsy Red Fish, and Sardines are con- 
diments and tho species of fish nsed in their 
? reparation, are Alansa toli, (Ikan tmboh,) 
Jngranlis Brownii, (BuDga ajer or badah,) 
Dussnmicria acuta (Tamban-bulat) and Cln- 
peonia perforata, (Tamban-nepes or batuh.) 

Shark's Fins. — The Chinese fishmongers 
of the Straits settlements obtain shark's fins 
from tho same localities which supply them 
with fish maws. These fins are not exclu- 
fiivoly selected from sharks (sqnali,) but 
equally from rays (raiie). Quantities exa- 
mined at Ponang were composed of fins of 
the following genera : Stegostoma, Carcha- 
riaa, Sphyrna, Pristis, Ilhinobatus, Trygon, 
and Alyliobatis. Of all fishes sharks and 
rays are tho most valuable to Chinese. The 
flesh and entrails of all, not even the electric 
rays (torpodinido)) excepted, are eaten 
cifchor fresh or dried, the skin is used for 
polishing or converted into shagreen ; gela- 
tine is obtained from the larger fins, glue 
from the smaller. All, except the caudal 
fins, are out at the root so as to leave as lit- 
tle flesh as possible. The root is dipped in 
wutt^xl lime (Chunam)in the erroneous belief 
of preventing attacks of insects, and then the 
fins are dried in tho sun. Those imported 
in tho Straits Settlements are packed pro- 
7niN(Mi()Usly in gunny bags, each containing 
from one half to one pikul. According to 
ihn value in the Chinese market, the fish- 
nionj^iTHUHHort tho fins in two kinds, " white" 
mid ** black." Tho white .consist exclusively 
of the dorsal fins, which arcon both sides of 
tt uniform light colour and reputed to yield 
tfiorii gnlatine than the other fins. In China 
IImi luvtfrs of geluliuouH soups pay from 30 


to 40 Spanish Dollars per Pikul oi 
fins. The pectoral , ventral and ai 
pass under the denomination of bla 
The colour, however, varies accordin| 
species from buff to grey or brown, ai 
of them are of two different colon 
upper surface being dark, the low< 
The black fins, for obvious reasons tl 
numerous, are supposed to yield a cc 
tively small quantity of gelatine and 
China from 15 to 20 Spanish Dolli 
pikul, Mr. W. T. Lewis oommu 
the aijnexed table, shewing the qua 
shark's fins imported into and e: 
during 10 years, from 1832 to 184 
Penang to China. 




18il— 42 



Qnantity| § .S | 1832—83 
iuPiknla.i'^ ^ ^ 




18U— 42 

19,216; Total... 



Bahichan, — is a condiment prepar 
small fishes, of all descriptions, and sb 
The ingredients are placed in a pit to i 
fermentation, and afterwards dricdj 
and preserved with spioes. Wi 
Malays, Siamese, Burmese and 
Chinese, Balachan has become a ne 
of life, as it serves to season the daily 
these nations. 

Fish Manure, — Tlio smallest fishes 
offal are employed in the spice pis 
by the Chinese gardeners and Bgri< 
of Penang, who consider the fluid 
fishes have been salted very nsef 
in cocoanut plantations. In addi 
preceding, there are two animal f 
of tho eastern sea«^, which also are 
fishes by tho Chinese. They ar 
Holothurioidea?, called Tripang 
Becho do mar, and the Cuttle fisl 
large quantities are annually c 
dried for the market in China. 
Cephalopods are not only eaten 
species, a Loligo, forms in its 
considerable article of trafllc. 
tion consists in removing the 
out laying open tho mantle, 
purities have been removed 
mollnsk is submitted to a sli^' 
ultimately exposed to th( 
bundles of one katty woi<: 
with slips of ratjin, and ei 
holding ten katties and 
Pikul sells at tho rate of 
Dollars. {Bcnrj, As. Soc. 
Along the Asiatic coast.' 


cUaxBfii for the Bnperior and well xnannfac- salt and dried in the sun, tlio liant pfoul 
tnreduanglass affords indacements not to be ¥rLich accompanies it being i^utlior n reoom- 
expected elsewhere, but all the parts of fish, ; mendatiou to the taste of the Chiuese. 
aitlie flesh, the roe, and the sonnds, can Indeed it is one uf their most favoritOy as well 
ktimed to account, mnch of the fish can ght as general articles of food, and they even 
■Mt be everywhere consumed for food, overcame their pivjudice or iu difference for 
\mi considerable quantities are dried, and whatever is foi-eign, on the occatiion of salted 
fam articles of commerce, as do shark-fins Cod being introduced for two or three ytmvs 

in English ships, the somewhat de(?ayed con- 
dition in which it reached China being said 
to have been anything but a drawback. This 
species of cargo, besides its di^igreeablo 
nature and the injurious eflect which it might 
have on some dehcate ai*ticles of shipment, 
was found during the voyage to breed a 
peculiar insect^ which fi*oni the readiiiesa 
with which it bored into the planks and 
timbers of a ship, was considered as danger- 
ous, and accordingly the import was greatly 

Sir A. 13umes represents **the mariner 
of Cutch in the present day as truly, 
adventurous, putting to sea for a trifling 
reward, and stretching boldly across* the 
ocean of Arabia, the Red Sea, and the Coasts 
of Zanzebar in Africa. The Sea vessels of 
Knrachee sail to Muscat, Bombay, and the 
Malabar Coasts and he describes the fish- 
ing-boats at the mouths of the Indus as 
good sea-boats, sailing very quickly, and 
as numerous, because the fisheries there 
are extensive, and form a source of 
commerce on the South-Eastern part of the 
Peninsula of India. In Ceylon as also in 
■•PWpttition oallcd Tamarind fish, is China, the Pearl fisheries arc of considcra- 
•n ttiifid Afl o. Yviii'cVi 4K« o«;/i ..f able value. Dr. Cantor stat-es that at tho 

mouths of the Ganges, the fishermen havo 
sea-going boats, which they build themselves, 
and that they are a superior description of 
Indian sailors, of much more industrious 
habits than tho nuijority of the natives of 
India. Still further to tho eastward, we seo 
the Burmese and Siamese almost living in 
boats, and tho Malays most formidable ns 
pirates in tho Indian Seas. Mr. Crawfurd 
icpreseuts the Eastern Islanders as expert 
fishermen, and tliat there is no art which 
tiicy carry to such perfection as fishing, 
which the nature of their climate allows 
them to practise, with hardly any interrup- 
tion, from one end of tho year to tho other •, 
tho fishing boats proceeding to sea with tho 
land-breeze af. an early hour of tho morning, 
and returning with the sea-breeze a little af>cr 
^^Je if it could be properly cured. In i noon. The fisheries afford a most valuable 
^■•i the consumption of salted provisions branch of their commerce, as a great vanety 
" ~ of their fish are dried in the sun, or salted 

and dried, and sent by the inhabitants of the 
coast in large quantities into the interior of 
(MIj putrescent nature of that species of ' the Islands, or transmitted to every part 
•fiaon a considerable ]X)rtionis cured with ' of the Archipelago. 

adfisb-mawB. The sonnds of many Indian 

: lib« might, Hke sturgeons, yield isinglass, 

[VUlefish-glneand fish-oil might be obtain- 

^ilfram others. The natives of Asia are not 

pVM 411 tinted irith the modes of preserving 

lA. The roe appears among their articles 

. tf Miteria Medica under the name of 

I Byrookh, sndMr.Crawfurd and Dr. Cantor 

\ ukm u, that the roe of enormous size of 

a kind of Shad which frequents the great 

Bitr of 8iak in Sumatra, constitutes an 

irt^tf commerce: while the Balachang of 

'^-'^^ I Seas, the Qua- pi of the Burmans, 

rf Binall fish with prawns and 

_ fcitfermented and then dried, gives 

■■biwaiderable traflSc, as no food is 

Mi&^ble without it, and its use 

tD erery country from China to 

Tliifc prepared at Mergui is ex- 

wJj inferior to anchovy paste, by 

•wrpowerful. In Java and Sumatra 

luon of small fish with red rice, 

"ctppearance of anchovies, and the 

<" led cabbage, is esteemed as a 

^- It ifl the famed " red-fish" condi- 

rf those regions. So in India, 

iion oallcd Tamarind fish, is 

pn»ed as a relish, the acid of 

■*> ti nnd being made use of for pre- 

'" fish cut in transverse slices : the 

!«' dried fish exists in every part of 

•ndinnglass is in request both in Eu- 

•■^ China. It might perhaps become 

•■Me of consumption even in India, as it 

*J*«»ied iu their systems of Materia 

J5** I7 the name of ghurree-al-snmak 

■Djshnm mahce, that is fish-glue, and 

as a good diet for patients in a 

The Sole combines the advantages 

J*8tt of flavour, with wholesomeness ss 

f »hile considerable in size, it is migra- 

O habit and enters the Bengal rivers in 

Attls in the cold weather. Its swim- 

Wadder is of value as an article of com- 

and its flesh, in a frosh state, is es- 

Mfood; this would become still more 

r^"^ uic consumption 01 saitea provisions 
■Wiy general. There also, in consequence 
jtte immense quantities of both sea and 
"* fish which are daily caught, and the 


0. 9- r, Jara. 
Cf Ar., tifttjftn. 
'. ^ K, Mftui-itinfl, Java. 

Bltek., Archipelago. 

ns, Bleek., Archipelago. 

lleek., Amboyna. 

ina hesatieiua, Bleeh,, Amboynei 

iidiator, FaU., Indian Oceao, 


ernleo-panctatns, Riipp., Red 

C. 4" K., Manrttina, Ambojna. 
Bleek., Amboyua. 
ek,, Ambojiia. 
is, Bleek., Ambojna. 
1, Rvi'p., Red Sea, Maaritina. 
f- v., llanritina. 
us, C. ^ K, AmbojDa. 
)mna, Bleeh, Amboyna, 

f&sciatoa, TAunft., Maaritios 

S liu>ip,. Red Sea. 
nS, Bi , Singapore, Archipelago, 
lleek., Biliton. 
itrigi»enter, Benn., Africa to 

9ehn., Arcbipel^o. 

Bounal., Madagascar, ArcM- 
'indwich Island. 
;ek.. Archipelago. 
Bleek., Archipelago. 

^ O , Archipelago, Madagas- 
Iwicb iGlacd, 
Veek., Arehipelago. 
nra, Bleek., Archijielngo. 
diusDmieri, 0. ^ V., Cbina, 

«, Bl., Java, Baiikn, Celebes. 
Bleek., Karangbollong, Java, 

i- ^ 0., Sandwich Island, Ce- 

»., Java, Singapore, Knang. 
Bena., Africa to Archipelago. 
Lacep., Africa to Polyaesia. 
■F., Eafifc Indies, 
Othr., Feejeo. Amboyna. 
IS, C.'§- v.. Vanicolo. 
Bleelc, Archipelago. 
5lceit., Arcliipclago. 
It«ejt., Pinang, Jara, Nias, 

k.r ArcbipelBgo. 
r. A V. H., Archipelago, Ats- 

atus, Eleek., Archtpelaga. 
0. ^ V.-, Bed Sea. India. 
i^ri^.i Archipelago, 
^efe., -CoiebeB, Timor. 

trimaoalatns, Q. ^ (?., 'VaoiwJlo, AxtMpa. 

binotopBis, Bleek., Archtpehgo, 

boevunii, Bleek., Archipelago. 

cbrysotienia, Bleek., Java, Samstra. 

timoreoBis, Bleek., Timor. 

notopsis, E. If V. S., Java. Samatra, 



gnttatne, i 





hartzfeldii, B/.,Ce!ebeB,Tern»to,AmtK)yna, 

ceylonicoB, Benn., Ceylon. 

pardaleooephalns, Bleek., Sumatra, BaH. 

kallachroma, Bleek., Snmatra, IJlas. 

vrolikii, Bleek., Batn, Nias, Bank*. 

podostigma, Bt.PloriB, Booroo, Ambc^na. 

margioatna, JWpp., Bed 8«a, Ifaupifiit^ 
Ceylon, Archipelago. 

notophtbalmaH, Bleek., Java, OdetMs, 
Goram, Timor, GniueML 

tenoiGpinia, Othr., China. 

pyrrhogTamma, Sehleg., Japan. 

poecilopterns, Sehleg., Japan, ChilUI. 
Leptojnlis oyanoplenra, BUek., Bafarla. 

pyrrhogrammatoides, BZfcr, Batatda. 
Pseudojuiis girardi, Bleeh., BoleliOg. 
Novacala argon timacii lata, St., Cape, Bi^. 

JavanioB. Bleek.. Jar*. 

pelago, Gainea, WaigioD. 
bimacniata, Rum}., Massana. 
pavo, 0. ^ v., Itonrbon, Uanritiiu, Coeoit 

Temate, Sandwich lelds. 
dea, Schley., Japan. 
tetrazoiia, Bleek., Bali, 
kallo^oma, Bleek., Amboyna, Sali. 
peiitadactyla, L, Archipelago, Obiaa. 
pnncinlata, 0. ^ T, China. 
twistii, Bleek.t Temate. ... 
ttlie lunaiiH, 
cnp^do, Se] 
aniblyeeph J,^ 

aneilensis, tlllctah 

Norfolk ^^ 

geD-ivittata (n^ . 


TISBOB 0F BASTEBir AinD;80I]^IHEKir AfflOL^pL BP Hoa iowia , 

pocfci, a 4r V^ Indies, 
abbrera^t-iis, BUsr., Archipelago, 
philippinns, Oikr,j Philippines, 
kapafi, Blkr.^ Archipelago, 
limbains, C. ^. V., Coromandel, Pinang, 
jpanctatas, O. ^ 7„ Pondichenry, China. 
japonicns, Blkr ^ Japan, China, 
filaxnentosns, C, ^ F., India, Austrah'a. 
macracanthns, Blkr,^ Java, Nias, Banka. 
oyena, Forsk.^ Red Sea, Indian Ocean, 

aeinaces, Blkr.j Java, Kokos. 
argfrens, TorsL, Red Sea, Waigion, 

Strong, Tanna, Jackson, 
maerosoma, Blkr.^ Archipelago. 
oblongns, C. 4r F., Cejlon. 

Fam. 5. CflaoMiDSS. 

Etioplvs snratensis^ Bl-^ Malabar, Coroman- 
del, Ceylon. 
maoalaioR^ Bl, Malabar. 

Chronismossambicas, Pet.^ Mozambique. 

Order III, Ahacanthini. 
, A. Aaacanthini GhidoideL 

Fam, 3. GADioiB. 

phjcis, Schleg.^ Japan, 
pacifica, Schleg,, Japan. 

macclellandii, Thomps.f China, 
Philippines, the Ganges. 

Fam* 4. Ophidiid-e. 

First Group. Brotulina. 

^roWa multibarbata, Schleg,, Japan, 
Celebes, Ambojna, Booroo, Archipelago. 
Imboiiensis, Kaup., Bourbon. 

^Soemboimberbis, SchUg.^ Japan. 

i Baalog, Schleg.y Japan. 

l^iiQgl^iig getifer, Swaina., Yizagapatam. 

l^WBKitichthjs iluocoeteoides, Blk,^ Batoe, 

Hard Group. Fiebasferina. 

l^nfiBrhomei, Bich., Australia, Archipela- 
go, Peejee. 
'>^?fectii8, Peters.^ Ibo, Mozambique. 
poKs, Bleeh., Banda^ Amboyna. 
fcobrfaoides, Bleeh., Coram. 

Iu)phi8, Mvll., Philippines. 
^mpimilarifl, MulL^ Philippines. 

Fourth Group. Ammodttina. 
kallolepis, Gihr.^ Madras. 

Fifth Group. ColffGROGADINA. 

Cbigrogadus subducens, Richards.i Aostra* 
fia, Banka, Laper. 
nebnlatns, Bieek., Singapore. 
ffalinphig (puitatus, ^JpP't Bed Sea. 

Fam. 5. MACRUXiOii, 
Macrurus japonicns, Schleg., Japan« 

Fam. 6. Atelkopodiojb, 

Ateleopus japonicus, Bleek., Oomura, Japan*. 
B. Anacanthini Pleuronectoidei. 

Fam. 7. Plsubonectida. 

Psettodes erumei, BL, China. 
Tephritis sinensis, LacSp., China. 
Arnoglossus aspilns* Blkr.,jAv&fiaMySamatTA 
Sumaris cristatns, Gray^ China. 
Hemirhombas guineensis, Bleek., N. Guinea. 
Pseudorhombas mssellii, Gray^ Africa to 
Australia, Ohina, India, Ajrchipelaga 

cinnamoiaens, Schleg., Nagasak. 

javanicus, Bleek., Java. 

triecellatus, BL, Indian Seas. 

pentophthalmus, Gthr.^ Cliina. 

olivaceus, Schleg. , Japan, China. 

oligolepis , Bleek. , Nagasaki. 
Bhomboidiohthys pavo, £^A;.,China, Kokoe^ 

pantherinus, Sdipp., Africa to Feejee« 

myciaster, SeUeg., Japan, Celebes. 

assimilis, Gthr.j China. 

grandisquama, Sch., China, Japan, N« W. 
Pleuronectes stellatus, PalLf Kamtschatka, 
Vancouver, CaHfomia. 

asperrimus, iScA^e^., Japan. 

yariegatus, Schleg.^ Japan. 
Solea japonica, Schleg.^ Japan. 

hartzCeldii, Blkr., Amboyna. 

humilis, Oanl, Pinang, Java, Bintang. 

ovata, Michards., China. 

tiichodactylus, L., Amboyna. 

indica, Gthr., Madras. 
Pardachims marmoratns, Lace^.^ Africa. 

pav^oninus, Lacep,. Indies^ Pinang, Singa* 
pore, Moluccas. 
Liachirus nitidas, Gthr.^ China. 
Synaptara savignyi, Kaup., Naples. 

pan, H. B., Gtmges, Bintang, Singapore, 

foliacea, Richards., China. 

marmorata, Blkr.^ Solor. 

cinerascens, Gthr., Ceylon. 

hetcrolepis, Blkr., Amboyna* 

aspilos, Blkr.f Singapore. 

albomaculata, Kaup., CoremandeL 

commersoniana. Cant, Indies. 

pectoralis, Kaup., Cape.^ 

orien talis, Schn., Indies. 

zebra, Bl., India, China. 

multifasciata, Kaup., India. 

japonica, Blkr., Nagasaki. 

quagga, Kaup., Ohina. 

panoides, Bleek.^ Bandjeimassing, Singa- 

maorolepis, Bleek.fSiagkAyTa;ngf Borneo. 



laia li e i a n ema , Bttr., Java, Samaiara, Bor- 

F5eadefairo[Hiis braelijpoptenis, BL, Pal- 

embang, Smnatra. 
atherinoideB, BL, Bengal 
niiehelliy Gthr,, Madras. 
Biegalope, Gthr.^ Central India, 
langimanns, Gthr,, India, 
goongwarec^ Sykes.^ Mota Mola Biver, 


ftngafiins bncbanani, (7. ^ F.» Ganges, 
d^mhal, Blkr.^ Java. 

mema, Blkr.j Borneo, Java. 
BUcT.^ Sonth Borneo, 
aueronema, Blkr.^ Java. 
Baaafcns, Blkr.j Borneo, 
jnaro, Blkr,, Sumatra, Borneo. 

Hdioopbagus tjpns, BZZr., Samatra. 
-vandersii, Blkr,, Sumatra. 

Sikofiagangetica, C. 9 V.^ Bengal, Dekkan. 

Fourth Sub-family. 

SiLUKiDJB Psoteboptebj:. 

8Mh Group. Bagrina. 

TbaooeA cavafnns, Kam. Buck., DakHun, 

Hjsore, Pondicberry, BengaJ. 
I fkngatiis, Othr., Singapore. , 

mgmpsj 0. S^ V.y Jara, Sumatra, Borneo. 
) laaeophasis, Blyth,, Barmese rivers. 
aoK, £Faji». Buck., East Indian Continent 
bBMmi, (7. ^ F., Ganges. 
goio, Ham, Buch,^ East Indies. 
lienma, (7. 9' V.^ Java, Sumatra, Banka, 

pbuoepe, K. 8^ v, H., Java, Sumatra, 
teagira. Ham. Buck.^ East Indies, 
wolfln, p/fcr., Bi>rneo, Sumatra, Siam. 
^Jtku, Blkr.^ River Tjitarum, Java. 
liiWo, Ham. Bueh,^ River Tista. 
tSnit, Blyih.y Tenasserim. 
togans, Ham. Bitch,, Brabmaputra. 
Uttiiu, ^ 7., Hooghly. 
^^^i^eeA> ^ykfs., Dukhnn. 

^B^sdobigms aurantiacus, Schleg., Japan, 
vsciieliii, Richards., China. 
Alri-draco, lUchards., China, 
^'ocanis longirostris, Gihr.^ Japan, 
oittilabris, Gihr., China. 
p<Bcilopreru9, K. 8f t?. H., Java. 
>iieropogoD, B/A;r., Sumatrai Banka, Bili- 

toDf Borneo. 
rteDomos, K. if v. H, Java, Sumatra. 
&groide8 melanoptems, BVcr.^ Sumatra, 
3—crop te rns, Blhr., Sumatra, Palembang, 

nacracaQthus, BUer., Sumatra. 
Btgnehtbys bypselopterus» Blkr., Samatra. 

Rita crucigera, Owen., Bengal 

pavimentata, FoZ.* BengaL 

bastata. Vol., Hindostan. 

kutumee, Sykes., BeemaRivePi Dukhnn. 

manillensis, 0. ^ V., Manilla. 
Acroehordonicbtbys platycepbalus, BUcr., 

melanogaster, Blkr.t Sumatra, Paiembang. 

rugosus, Blkr.f Java, Snmatra. 

pleurostigma, Blkr., Java. 

zonatus, Blkr., Java. 

iscbnosoma, Blkr., Java. 
Akysis variegatns, Blkr., Java. 

macronema, Blkr., Sumatra, Labat. 
Olyra longicaudata, M*Clell, Kbasya. 
Brancbiosteus laticeps* M*Clell., Kha^a. 
Amiurus cantonensis, 0. Sf V.. Cbina. 

Seventh Group. PncBLODiNA. 
Pimelodus javus, 0. §c F.* Java. 

Eighth Group. Abiina. 

Arius tbalassinus, Riipp.^ Red Seav East 

gagorideSf (7. ^ F., Calcntta. 
sagor, Hafn. Bueh., Bengal, Pinang, Arobi- 

doroides, C. Sr F., Bengal, Pondicberry. 
leptaspis, Blkr.9 New Guinea, 
arioides, 0. 4* ^; BengaL 
truncatnSf 0. ^ V., Siam. Pinangt E. I. 
C89iatu8, 0. §c F, East Indies, 
sinensis, 0. ^ F., Cbina. 
venosus, 0. fy V.f Arcbipelago. 
utik, Blkr., Java, 
leptonotacantbus, Blkr., Madura, 
melanocbir, Blkr., Sumatra, Borneo, 
stormii, Blkr., River Mussi, Sumatra, 
sumatranus, Benn., Samatra. 
dussumierii, 0. ^ F, Malabar, Ceylon, 
kirkii, Gthr., Zambesi, 
tonggol, Blkr.^ Java, Sumatra, Bintang, 

argyropleuron, K. 8r v. H., Java, Sumatra, 
macrocepbalufi, Blkr., Java, 
liocephalus, Blkr., Java, Singapore, Celebes, 
polystapbylodon, Blkr., Java* Sumatra, 
goniaspis, Blkr.^ Sumatra, 
maculatus, Thunb.^ East Indies, 
pidada, Blkr., Java, Samatra. 
macracantbus, Gthr., Siam. 
gagora. Ham. Buck., Ganges, 
falcarius, Richards., Cbina. 
macronotacantbus, Blkr., Java, Sumatra, 

cocbincbinensis, Gthr,, Cocbin-Cbina. 
microcepbalns, Blkr., Bandjermasing. 
venadcus, Richards., Australia, 
vertagus, Richards.f Australia. 
Hemipimelodus bomeensis, Blkr., Samatra, 




polydori, G, ?f V,, Bombay, 
platysoma^ Blkr,^ Java, 
fasciatus, Blhr,^ Sumatra, Banka, Borneo, 
maculatns, C ^ F., Archipelago, 
microps, Qthr., Archipelago, 
goniosoma, Blkr,^ Sumatra, 
tetrazona, Blhr.j Borneo, 
lateristriga, C if F., Archipelago. 
amblyrhynchuS) Bllcr.t Java, 
micropogon, C. ^ F., Mysore, 
conirostris, Gthr.^ Nilgherries. 
dubius, Pay, Bowany. 
chilinoides, M^ClelLy Himalayas, 
deauratus, C. ^ F., Cavery. 
spintllosns. M'Clell., Sikkim. 
gobioformis, Kner., Java, Asia. 
hezastichus> ATOlelLt Rivers of Himalaya. 
8oro> C. ^ v., Java, Sumatra, 
mosal, Ham, Buck., Himalayas, Hindoo- 

znacrocephalns, M' Clellt Assam, 
macrolepis, Huck., Kashmeer. 
tambra, C. Sf F., Java, 
donronensis, C. Sf F., Sumatra* Java, 

longispinis, Othr.t Ceylon, 
tambroides, Blkr.j iBrv2ky Sumatra. 
aruliuSy Jerdon., Travancore, Nilgherries. 
Bchlegelii, Gilir.y Japan, Formosa, 
oetopsis, Knr.y Shanghai, 
kolns, Sykes., Poona. 
homogenes, OtJir,, Japan, 
homozonus, Qthr.t Japan, 
aphya, Qthr,<, Java, 
siaja, Blkr., Sumatra, Borneo, 
deventeri, Blkr., Java, 
heteronema, Blkr., Borneo, 
hampali Blkr., Java, Borneo, Sumatra* 

ampalong, Blkr.t Borneo^ Sumatra, 
fksciolatus, Qthr.t China, 
snmatranus, Blkr.t Sumatra. 
Inteus, Keck., Orontes, Tigris, 
liacanthus, Blkr., Java, Madras, 
dorsalis, Jerdon., Madras, 
tetraspilus, Gthr., Ceylon, 
thermalip, 0. 3f F., Ceylon, Cachar. 
chola, Ham. Btich., Bengal, Assam, 
sophoroides, Gihr.y Assam, Bengal, 
amphibius, C. 8f V., Bombay, 
layardi, Gthr., Ceylon, 
brevis, Blkr., Curabaya, Gombong, (Java.) 
filamentosus, C7. Sf F., Ceylon, Cochin, 
denisonii, Day, Malabar. 
hamiltonii, I)aij$ India. 
^ bimaculatus, Blkr., Ceylon. 
oligolepis, Blkr., Sumati*a. 
afer, Peters. y Cape. 
buhl, Blkr.y Borneo., Slam, Sumatra. 
iraandersii, Blkr., Java. 
lawaki Blkr.j Java. 

melanopteniB,B2., Sumatra* Siain, Borneo. 

apogon, 0. #* F.« Sumatra, Java* Bomeo» 

janthochir, Blhr., Borneo. 

proctozysron, Nkr„ Siam. 

duvaucelii, 0. ^ F., Bengal 

sophore, Ham. Bttch.^ Bengal, Himalaya. 

chrysopterus, IPOlell., Bramapntra, Pesh- 

iicto, H. B.J Bengal, Assam, Himalaya. 

conchonis, Ham. Buck., Ganges. 

terio, Ham. Buck., Bengal. 

puntio. Ham. Buch.y Bengal: 

titins* Ham. Buch.y Bengal, Bramapntrai 

phntuniOy Ham, Buch.^ Bengal. 

gelius, Ham. Buch^ Bengal, Hooghly, 

cumingii^ Gihr.,^ Ceylon. 

nigro-fasciatus, Gthr.y Ceylon. 

yittatus, Batfy Malabar. 

modestus, Kenr.^ Madras. 

cosuatis, Ham. Buck., Bengal. 

pyrrhopterus, M'Clell.^ Assam. 

Thynnichthys ihynnoides, BJJcr.^ Borneo, 
polylepis, Blkr.., Borneo, Sumatra. 

Barbichtys, Iflsvis, 0. ^ F., Java^ Sumatra, 

Amblyrhynchichthys tmncatus, BQ^.^ Bor- 
neo, Sumatra. 

Albulichthys albuloides^ Blkr.^ Sumatra^ 

Oreinus plagiostomus, HecA;., Cashmere, 

sinuatus, Heck.^ Cashmere, Punjab. 

richardsonii, Qray^ Nepal. 
Schizothorax planifrons, Hech.y Cashmere. 

micropogon, Heck.y Cashmere* 

hugelii, Heck.y Cashmere. 

curyifrons, Hech.y Cashmere. 

niger, Heck., Cashmere. 

intermedins, M^Olelh, Afghanistan. 

nasus, Heck.y Cashmere. 

longipinnis. Heck., Cashmere. 

esocinus, Heck., Cashmere, Afghanistan. 

hodgsonii, Gthr., Nepal. 

ritchianus, M'Clell.y Afghanistan* 

barbatus, WClelL, Cabul. 

microlepis, Kerserl, Anardareh. 
Ptychobarbus comirostris^ Steindachner.y 

Hanle, (Tibet.) 
Schizopygopfsis stolickse, Steindachn., TiheL 
Diptychus maculatns, Steindachn., Hima- 
layas, Tibet. 
Pseudogobio brevirostris, Gthr.y Formosa. 

esocinus, Schleg., Japan. 

sinensis, JTrzer., Shanghai. 

variegatus, ScKLeg., Japan. 
Bungia nigrescens, Keyserl., Herat. 
i Pseudorasbora parva^ Schleg., Japan, China. 

193 TO 


Alburnns candimacnla, Heck.,, Kner, Kara, 
capito, Heck,, Kurdistan, 
iblis, iSeck.j Persia, 
scheitan, Heck., Araxes. 
xnegacepbaius, Heck. , Araxes. 
xnossnlensis, Heclc-, Tigris. 

Rasboriclithjs belfrichii, Blkr.y Borneo, 
Elopicbtbjs bambasa, RichardSy Cbina. 
Acantbobrama arrbada, Hecka., Tigris, 
centisquama, Heck., Damascns. 

Osteobrama cotio, H. B.y Bengal, Dekkan, 

rapax, Gthr.y India, 
alfrediana, C. ^ V,, Nepal, Bengal, Assam, 

agilbii, Sykes.y India, 
microlepis, Blyth., Manlmein. 

Cbanodicbtbys niongolicns, B(mU, Mongolia^ 

macro ps, Qihr,, Formosa. 

terminalis, Btch., China, 

bramnla, C. 8f V., China. 

p>ekinen&is, Basil., Peking. 
. lenciscnlns, Basil., China. 
Smiliogaster belangerii, G. ^ F., Bengal. 
Cnlter recnrviceps, Richards., China. 

brevicanda, Gthr., Formosa. 
Sustira cejlonensis, Gthr., Oejlon. 
Cbela gora, H. B., Bengal, Assam. 

bacaila, H. B., Bengal, Soan, Cossja, 
Cacbar, Assam, Manlmein. 

dnpeoides, Bloch., Tranquebar, Mysore. 

pbnlo, H. B., Bengal. 

novae ala, Val., India. 

diffasa, Jerdon, Cavery. 

argeutea, Bay, Nilgberries; 

lanbnca, H. B., Bengal, Hoogbly. 

acinaces, C. 8^ V,, Mysore. 

anomalnms, V. H., Java, Sumatra, Borneo. 

bypopbtbalmus, Blkr., Samatra. 

siamensis, Gthr., Siam. 
• megalolepis, Gthr., Java, Sumatra, Borneo. 

paralaubuea, (7/7/r., Bankok. 

sardinella, G. Sf V., Irawaddi. 

macrochir, C. ^ F., Sumatra, Borneo, Java. 
Pseudolaubuca sinensis, Blkr., China. 
Cacbius atpar, H. B., Bengal, India. 

Thirteenth Group, HoMALOPTEBlNA. 

Homaloptcra maculata, Gaij, Boutan» Kas- 
sayab, Assam. 

brucei, Gray, India. 

pavonina, C. ^ F., Java, Sumatra. 

gymnogaster, Blkr., Sumatra. 

zolliijgcri, Blkr., Java, Sumatra. 

opbiolepis, Blkr., Java, Sumatra. 

wassinkii, Blkr., Java, Snraatra. 

lineolata, G. ^ V., Coliin- China. 
Psilorbynchns sucatio, H. B., Bengal. 

balitora» H. B.^ Bengal, Assam. 

Fourteenth Group. CoBiriDmi. 

Misgnrnus anguillicaudatus, Cantor, Cbinft^ 
Japan, Cbasan, Formosa, 
dicbacbrous, Blkr., Jeddo. 
polynema. Blkr., Jeddo. 
lateralis, Gthr., Bengal. 
Nemacbilos pavonaoenSf Fan. Boss., Assam, 
semizonatus, Blyth., Tennassirim. 
rabid ipinnis, Blyth., Tennasserim. 
nrophthalmus, Gthr., Ceylon, 
botia, H. B.y Bengal, 
fasciatus, Ket. F. ff., Java Su-matra^ 

montanns, ATClell., Simla, 
beavani, Gthr., Bengal* 
rnpecola, M'Clell., HimalayaSv 
Bubfuscus, M*Clell.y Assam, 
nndns, BUcr.^ Mongolia, 
denisonii, Bay, Nilgberries. 
notostigma, Blkr., Ceylon, 
triangularis. Bay, Travancora 
semiarmatus. Bay, Nilgberries. 
striatus. Bay, Wynaad. 
«avona, H. IB., Bengal, 
pantbera. Beck., Damascus, 
marmoratus, Heck., Casbmere. 
ladacensis, Gthr.^ Tibet, 
microps, SteindahJm., Tibet, 
tenuicaudii, Steind., Tibet, Ladak 
spiloptenu, 0. ^ F., China, Assam^ 
butanensis, M^Olell., Bntan. 
monoceroB, M^OlelL, Assam, 
frenatus, Heck., Tigris. 
stolickaB. Steind., Tsumureri. 
griffitbii, Othr., Assam, 
turio, H. B., Hindostan. 
corica, If. B., Bengal, Assam, 
guentberi, Bay.^ Nilgberries. 
Cobitis guttata, If CZeW., Vicinity of JoDi> 
pboxocbila, M'Olell., Misbmee. 
taania, L., Europe, Japan, 
guntea^ H. B.^ Assam, Bengal, 
gongota, H. B., Assam, Bengal. 
Lepidocepbalicbtbys basseltii, 0.^ V-, Java, 
tbermalis, 0. ^ F., Ceylofi, India, 
balgara, H. JB., Kosi, Assam. 
I Acanthopsis eboerorbyncbus, Blkr., Suma* 
tra, Tennasserim. 
dialyzona. Van. Hass.^ Java, Borneo, 
Botia dario, H. B., Bengal, Assam, 
almorhoe, Chray, India, 
rostrata, Ctihr., Assam, Bengal, 
macracantbus, Blkr.y Sumatra, Borneo* 
modes ta, Blkr., Siam. 
curta, Schleg., Japan, 
bymenopbysa, Scldeg., Java, Sumatra, 
Borneo, Siam. 
Oreonectes platycepbalus, Gthr., Cbina. 
Acantbopthtbalmns pangia, M. B^ Bengal, 
Java, Sumatnu 



Fourth Ch'aup. DussuMiERiiNA. 

Spratelloides delicAtnlns, Indian Ocean, 
Archipelago, Ansti*alia. 

gracilis, Schleg., Japan, Celebes, Temate. 
Dossamieria acuta^ C. 8f F., India. 

elopsoides, Blhr.^ India, China. 
Etrnmens micropns, Schleg., Japan. 

Fifth Oro2ip. Albulina. 

Albula conorhynchns, BL, ^ Schn. Archi- 
pelago, Pinang, Singapore, Cejlon, Na- 
tal, Zanzibar, Bed Sea. 

Sixth Grmip, Elopina. 

Elops sanrus, L., Tropical, Subtropical, Zan- 
zibar, Africa, Djedda, Pinang, China. 

Megalops cyprinoides, Brouss.^ Zanzibar, 
Madras, Bengal, Pinang, Sumatra, Ja- 
va, Amboyna, Archipelago. 

Seventh Group, Chanina. 

Chanos salmoncus, Foret.^ Indian Ocean, 
Pacific Ocean, Red Sea, Zanzibar, 
Seychelles, Ceylon. 

Fam, 22. CumocENTRiDiE. 

Chirocentrus dorab, ForsJc, Indian Ocean, 
Archipelago, China, Japan. 

Fam. 24. Notopterid^. 

Notopterus chitala, If. 2?., India, Archipe- 
borneensis, Blh\, Borneo, Sumatra, 
kapirat, Lcccep., India, 
afer, Gtkr., Afnca. 


Anguilla johannse, Gihr., 
labiata. Pet,, 
amblodon, Gthr., 
virescens, Pet,, Mozambique, 
macrophtbalma, Pet., Mozambique, 
mossambica. Pet., Mozambique, 
marmorata, Q. ^* G., Reunion, 
japonica, Sleh, Japan. 

Fam. CoNGRiD/i:. 

Conger altipinnis, Kp, 
talabon Cuv., Archipelago 
bagio, Cant., Mozambique, 
cincreus, Rilpp., Mozamb. 
vulgaris, Sieh., Japan, 
anago, Sicb., Japan, 
urolophus, Sieh., Japan, 
uropterus, Sieh., Japan. 
Lamo, Sieh., Japan. 

Fam. MuR/ENiDiE. 

Muraena chlorostigma, Kj). 

thyrsoidsea, Richards, Pinang, China 
tessel lata, Rich ards . 
sathete, B. H., Pinang, Ganges, 
isingieeua, liii:hards. 

isinglecnoides, Kp. 
picta, Ahl, 
nubila, Bdehards,^ 
flavimarginata, Riipp, 
nndivomer, Gthr, 
variegata, Forst, Mozamb. 
zebra, SliaWi Mozambique, 
diplodon. Pet,, Mozambique, 
fascigula, Pet,y Mozambique, 
helena, L,^ Madagascar, 
cancellata, Kp,, Madagascar, 
tile, Biich, Ham,, Reunion, 
grisea, Commers, Reunion, 
bullata, Richards, Reunion, 
mauritiana, Kp., Reunion, 
guttata, Kp,^ Reunion, 
moringua, Kp., Reunion, 
unicolor, Riipp,, Reunion, 
kidako, Sieh,, Japan, 
albimarginata, Sieh., Japan, 
pardalis, Sieh., Japan, 
minor, Sieh,, Japan. 

Fam. Ophidrid^. 

Ophiums maminatus. Pet. 

baccidens, Canton, Straits. 

maculosus, Gnv,, Madag. 

boro, B. H., Bay of Bengal. 

grandoculis, Canton, Pinang. 

cancnyomer, Biehardsy Maur. 

breviceps, Canton, Pinang. 
Ophisurus serpens, Sieh., Japan. 

porphyrons, Sifh., Japan. 
Sphagebranchus brevirostris,Pc<., Mozamb. 

Fam. Leptocephalidje. 

Leptocephalus marginatus, Q. 8f Q. 
dentex. Cant, 
capensis, Lai. 



Ostracion turritus, Fm'sh. 

cornutus, Linne,, Straits, China, Archip. 

arcus, Schn, 

tesscrula. Canton., Pen an g. 

immaculatus, Sieb.^ Japan. 

stictonosus, Sieh., Japan. 

brevicornis, Sieh., Japan. 

fornasini, Blance, 

nasus. Block., Malaya. 

tetragonufl, L. 

punctatus, Lacep, 

bombifrons, Hollard. 

quadricornis, L., Reunion. 

triqueter, L., Reunion. 

coucatcnatus, Schn,, Reunion. 

Fam, GniNODONTiDiE. 
Diodon retiQulaios, Will. 




ZygaBDB, malleus, Shaw, 
tndea, Cuv. 
blochii, Valen.y Bengal Bay, Archipelago. 

Alopias vulpes, Bonap.y Maaritiiis. 

Hexanchus griseDS, Raf„ Bennion. 

Acanthias volgaris, B.i88. Reunion. 

Scymnns brasiliensis, Ct^., Mauritins. 

Lemurgas labordii, Q. 8f (?., Maaritins. 

Pristis antiqnomm, Lath. 

seniisagittatns, Shaw,,, Bengal Bay, Straita. 
peroteti, G. 8f H, 

Bhinobatns schlegelii, M, Sf H, 
loevis, Sieh.^ Japan, 
ligonifer, Cantor., Sixaita. 

Baja asierias, Rond., Maori tins, 
kenojei, Sieb., Japan. 

Urogymnus asperrimns, M, Sf H., Seych, 

Fam. ToBPEDmiD^ 

Torpedo marmorata, Rudol,<f Manr. 
fnscomaculata, Pet. 
japonica, Sieb.^ Japan* 

SOTTTHEBir ASIA.— Mtuomlixdidje. 

Fam. Tbioonisidx. 

Bacliinotiia Africanns, Bloch,^ Penang. 

Trygon namak, Forsk. 
knhliiy Sieh,^ Japan, 
akajei, Sieb,, Japan, 
zngei, Sieb. J JapajL 
pasiinaca^ L. 

Tsaninra lyinna^ Forak,^ E. A&Ioa to Poly* 
xney eni, If. # H., Bennion. 


Myliobatis aqnila, (7., Dum,, BennioiL 

^tobatis nannari, 0. ^ H., Beiaxiion« 

Cephaloptera knblii, If. ^ S. 
japonica, Sieb,^ Japan; 

Drs. Ouniher's Catalogue of the Fiahea in the 
British Musewn, Cantor, Fishes of the Siraita 
Setdements inBetigalf Aaiaiio 8oc. Jowm. and 
Plaf/fair and Dr. Ounther ftahea of Zanzibar, 
Biebcid Fishes of Ja^om. 







f '*\ 


ed. Ink tbe girth is never snch i 
it snfficieiit for general purpgae: 
tay or building. — Dr. Gilion. 


lovobee, of Sou BIT 

Swadoo kni 

li»bs DuK. 

1 Per<<lk khna 

tnke, HiKD. 

J'..Hiaa eaa^ 

Ua^gn, ofRivi. 

1 Xatka nei^ 

A small sised tree or large a 
ing to an elevation of 1,500 to S 
the central province of Ceylon, 
in Feninsulitr India, on tlie 
Ganjam and Gamanr, cxLremc 
Xeet, ciroQ inference 1 font, and 1 
gronnd to the intersection o 
Ivaflch, 5 feet, also in Bengal 
wards to Dehra Dboou. It yi 
hard close-grained wood nhic 
warp^ and is worthy of atten 
wood is barnt when libations an 
a person who has died on an i 
day. It is fonnd as a large shm 
lowar hills of the S. W. Hima 
times to 3,600 feet, in the Salt 
on the skirts of the Saliman 
The timber is there occasionally e 
planghs, bat is too sinaU for mo 
It ia straight and cloRe- grained, 
for cotnbj and in taming. 1 
eaten.— Aox&. iiL, 835, Voi^t 8i 
Sieuart, Thw. 17. 

A A. Rh. 

Jnths Eanuide, Dl-k. DhjIcsT also 
Kbntai, Dajkar, Hind. { 

of Tk I. I Caorew, 
SbsrBwuii, Yorgal, It. | Soltakia, 
ElamUoelli, M^LUX. , Sirabls, 

\ Ean&regD, 

This shrab grows in Ceylon t 
India, np to the Salt Rauge ai 
Bnnge. It has strong spines 
cattle brow zing the leave.t. 
smaU, bard and insipid.— I>r. L. 

Mjonb Kyeiiig, Bl'bh, 

Often seeninTcnftSBcrini.ise 
nized by the tcnr^rll it pats fortl 
of its leaves, — Mnnwi. 

FLALUS— ? Uiftnthns atrop 

cocci nea. — Linn. 

FLAMIXGO, the Phrenieopt 
of Pallas, a large and pplfndid b: 
most parts of India, belonging 
family Phceaicoptcriato. Tlie 
have been Ifd fr^m llieir color 
military order, to designate then 


WemajaddthefragrantsiQelliDgLawsonia mesogasier and others. The E. yolitans Is 

Bpiuosa ; the beaatit'ul purple aud fragrant usually J or J 2 inches long, but attains to 

Bigonia chelouoides, which is a pagoda I5or20 inchesatgreatest^ They are captured 

liawer ; the sweet smelling Milliugtonia by torch light in the West Indies. 

liortensis, the Cork tree ; aud the Jnsticia ^^ thelsland of St.Helena they are captured 

picta, a shrub admired for its beautiful, f^om fiaeen to twenty inches long, are used 

variegated, green and white leaves.— /(//r^ there, as in the West Indies, for food, being 

Auis. Mat. Med, p, 165. very sweet and of delicate flavour. The 

FLOWER BATTEN. A very hard, fine, Solitary Flying-fish (Ejcocetus solitarius) 

close- gmined, heavy, Ceylon- wood. Its is so named from not being seen in large flocks 

polished surface shows a pleasing mottled like the others ; and it appears to have 

pattern. other specific differences. When watching 

FLOWERY CASSIA, Cassia florida. ^^«8® ^^^^ closely, as they passed under 

VT nvciT>L-TKr T..I 1 • TD . J *"® ^^^ ^^'"^® ^'^^P' ^^ Bennett remarked 

ir rT^T,^. 4 ?^® lonkm.—Bustard. that the extension of both the pectoral and 

I-LUGGhA A genus of plants of the ventral fins was effected with an audible 

^at. Ord. Luphorbiaceae. I>. leucopyrus is a rustling noise, and only a vibratory motion 

small tree m many parts of India ; F. retusa, ^as perceptible afterwards ; nor was there 

grows on the banks of the Jumna; and any expansion and contraction of those or- 

l^.virosa grows on the Jumna and west- gang during flight, after the first effort. 

ward to the Siwalik hills and the Salt range. Had there been any percussion of the pec- 

FLUG GEA VIROSA. Ro.vh, toral fins, it would have been distinctlv visi- 

Phyllanthus virosua Roxh. iii. 657. ^^e owing to the proximity of the fish, in- 

^ deed, to produce percussion of the fins, it 

Vanuthi ^^ utlej. ^q^^^ be requisite to have an elaborate 

" muscular apparatus ; and as, on dissection. 

Occurs on the Jumna, on the Siwalik, Salt ^T^ '^^ °°* ^'''"'u ' *''® *!°'7 ^^ **»»* '^^"^ 

Muge aud Traus-Indus. The wood is close- f *'f f"^ "f^ ^ consideped unsupported 

gmfnedand strong. Its fruit is edible by l^^^' ? ^ *^° remarked that the 

man and beast : its bark is astringent aud is ^^^' ^'f ? ^^P'^'S in a direct line of flight, 

used to .intoxicate fish.-Cr. J L. Stewart, Fpceeded for a great diatence ; but when 

E«e6. iii, 659. Vo!yt. OShawjhnes,,!/, p. 65^i .tl"f was deviated trom, and it turned round 

FLUOR SPAR, Derbyshire Spar, kative (^liich action was apparently Mrformed by 

FlDoride of Calcium, is a mineral fonnd in *''* **"> J""*,,^^. *i* pectoral fins) it only 

great beauty and abundance in Derbyshire Proceeded about the length of a yard and 

and other places. A small specimen of bluish dropped into the water. The greatest length 

crystal of fluor spar, was foind in the north- f *'"'« '^«,'"" 'J^^^^f^.^J ^"f been thirty- 

orn part of Province Amherst. As the *1° f °°f,^' """^ *'^^'r^, ^°"f ?' ^^Jt from 

mineJ-al is often f.mud in connection with ^OO to 250 yards. The Flying-fish has a 

Girk, Hind. 

Perei pasta wane Trans. 


FLY-CATCHERS. A family of birds *^° '^^'^'aA \°T ** e^^^"!:^ f^j]^ of voh- 

with large gapes which snbsist on flies, and fo". its flight becomes humed, irregular, 

Bmall insecte. See Aves ; Birds ; Muscicapidee. ^^^ """^ /T^'^/*'^-* ^«°"* of scrMublmg 

FLYING-CATS. A imme given to the pace-and ,t frequently drops into the water 

flying mammals of tl>e genus Gdeopithecus. ^Jid agam renews its flight m the same un- 

FLYING-FJSH, ^^y ""'^f- , Y^^""" * '^fS^ f'^^K^^ 

them emerged at the same time from the 

Jei-ad al Bahr, Arab. ^^^^ i^ ^^ perceived that some of them 

^ The are species of the genus dropped immediately, others passed over a 

Exocetus, belonging to the Abdominal Ma- distance of twenty yards and fell, while the 

lacopterygii, forming part of the family rest continued a steady flight of 170 to 200 

Exocideae. Tlicir pectoral fins arc very long, yards and passed out of sight. Their long 

nearly equal to the length of the body, pectoral fins or wings have the rays united 

The fish to escape its enemies rises into the by a fine delicate membrane, flexible and 

air and the pectoral lius vibrate while wet, transparent *, the colour of this membrane 

and re-vibrate as often as tbey ]7ass through varies •, and some have the ventral fins so 

a crest wave, wetting the fins afresh. There large as to appear to have four wings. — OoU 

are many species. Exocetns voHtans. Linn.; lingivood; Gatherings of a Naturalist in Au8* 

E. solitarius J E. evolan.s ; E. (jxiliens; E. fralia,hij G. Bennett, M.D. 

214 -n 


The food of man is obtftiDed from 
the Tc<;etable and animal kingdoms, bnt t 
tj for the greatest proportion from plants. 

The hn man frame, of flesh and bone and 
blood, when chemically analysed, yields the 
following elementary Bubstances, 










Few or 

none of theflo ultimate elemei 

occni' in the human body in their pnre 
form, but are varionsly combined into com- 
poaniSs with very different physical proper- 
ties and cheniiciil relations. 

Carbon, hydronen, oxygen and nitrogen 
are called or};aulo elements, because no 
animal cell and no vegetable cell can grow 
unless the whole of these elements exist. 
The substances belonging to this gronp which 
enter into the food of man, are cellnlose, 
starch, sngar and oil. Cellnlose, forming the 
external membrane of the cells of all plants, 
19 found in all food derived from the animal 
kingdom. Thon$;h similar in compositi differs from starch in beinginsoluble 
tbongb, as they feed largely on it, it must be 
extensively taken np into the system of ber- 
bivorons and otJier of the lower animali 
and must be sinniarly adapted by the human 
utomacb, though with some difScnlty. 
carrots, to mips, radiitbes, uncooked vege- 
tables Ac., are not readily digested; cellulose 
can be converted into starch by Hulphnrio 
acid. Substances yielding starch, enter very 
liirgely intothedict of man and of the lower 
animals, and, with man, starch is generally 
partaken of in the form of flour, either of 
grains, of root«, and root-stocks, of the 
stems and in the seeds of ]>1ants. There 
are few or no vegetables that arc eaten 
tliat do not contain starch. It is found in 
tnrnipp, carrots, potatoes, cabbage a, par- 
snips, beans, peas, wheat, barley, oata and 
(he rest of the cerealia: in all seeds and 
fruits, bnt, as with the sapo, Portland sago, 
tapioca, cassava, the various arrowroots, 
potato-starch, sago-starch, &c , if. is first, 
before being nsed, separated from the other 
vegetable elements. Starch has the property 
of combining with water at a temperature of 
180° and forming a gelatinons mass, in 
wliicbslale it seems more digestible. The car- 
rot, turnip, parsnip, cabbiige, and Jemsalem 
artichoke, owe their dietetic value to the 
starch which tbey coutaiu, as also the roots 
of the Arum macnlaf um. Orchis mnscula, 
innliiie from the Iniilii hclenium. Lichen 
Ktarch, found in almost all kindsof Algtc 

Plocaria tenax or, Chinese moss, is known 
in all the eastern seas. 

Sugar is soluble in water, ia of a sweofe 
tute, and can be converted into alcohol, and 
it exists in plants dissolved in the water 
.which tbey naturally contain. Itia taken 
into the animal system to maintaiii ths 
animal heat and persons and animals get &t 
on it. Cane sugar eonaista of carbon 13 
atoms, hydrogen and oxygen each 9 and 
water 2 : and sngar is obtained also from 
beet, the maple, the birch the various palms, 
from the Caryota mrens, Phcenix eylves- 
tris and ooeoanut, but it exists in milk, the 
grape, in the fmits and otlier sweet parts of 
plants, and in the sterna of all grasses. 

The aloohol obtained from tiiese by feir- 
mentation, in the form of apirits, wines and 
beers is largely need as an article of diet. 
Although resembling sngar in composition, 
its effects ou the animal system are verj 
different. It acts on the narvoua system as a 
stimulant and narcotic, it is very valnahls 
medicine, andalso, of great value to pcopls 
health, exhausted by long continued men- 
l or bodily labour. Inexceas,alcoholic8nb> 
areinjuriouB ; bnt amongst the earli- 
est discoveries of every race has 
of producing intoxicating stin 
India, boasting of an ancient 
opium, hemp and the many prepai 
it, its chan-as resin, and bhang, 
palm-wines, the beers from n 
ardent spirits from cereals, and &om palm- 
wines and sugars, have been used from tim« 
immemorial. As Mr. Cornish observes, 
(page 15) the effect of those articles in mode- 
ration, is probably rather beneficial than 
othcrwiBC. Opium eating and ganjab smok- 
are both occasionally carried to excess, 
the consequences, in injury to the nervous 
les of the body, are very similar to those 
Iting from the excessive nse of ardent 
spirits. The moderate nse of all these agents, 
however, appears to prevent undue waste of 
3 in the body, and to render the frame 
lusccplible to the action of those impal- 
pable but pestiferous poisons which are so 
prevalent in the soil and atmosphere 
tropical countries. The craving for 
e use of these things uadonbtedly arises out 
some urgent necessity in man's nature, 
id the amount to which they are used in 
Southern andEaateruAsia, is, perhapB,greater 
any part of £aropo. With a rapidly 
ng population in all patts of the 
world, the production of food is obviously an 
objcctof the first importance to all cla.'iBes, 
id the vegetable substances, from which 
principal sustenance, i 

a the Eoa weeds. One of these sea weeds Ibe I sanly occupy the main attention of the colli.- 


portion being consnmed in the arte — as 
Btarch for etiflontng linens, &c., and for 
other parposes not coming nnder the term 
of food. Tbe kind of bread in common ase 
in a conntrj, depends partly on the taste 
of the inhabitants, bnt more on the sort of 
grain suitable for its soil. Thu Chinese ose 
little bread and that little is generallj of 
■wheat-flonr. Cakes of wheat-flonr, prepared 
on the girdle, are oorqinan article of diet 
amongst the races of northern and central 
India. Further sonth,on the t^blo lands of the 
Peiiinsnla, the natives of India use nnlearen- 
ed cakes mnde of the great millet, Sorghnm 
Tnlgare,thespiked millet, Pcncillariaspioata; 
and the very poor of the people iiBe the hard 
Raggy, Eleasine corocana, in the form of 
cnkes or porredge. Barley is occasionally 
used to the westvrard. Cekes made of the 
flonr of the Inrlian com, the Zea-mays are 
rather less nntritoas than those made from 
wheat, but more fattening, in conHeqnence oi 
the greater quHntity of oil contained ia it. 
Along the sea-board, however, of all the 
Eoath and east of Asia, ia the deltas and 
TalJeya of the great rivers, the Indue, the 
Ganges, the Bramapntra, in all Bengal, all 
Bnrmab, in the delta, and valley of the Ira- 
wadi, in all the sea board and near the great 
rivera of China, rice ia the great article ol 
diet, boiled and eaten alone, or with a little 
animal food, or with condiments made into 
cnrry, or chntni ; or made into the cakee 
which are sold throngh the bazaars nndei 
the familiar nameof "appa " or hoppers. It 
the interior of India.on the tablcJauda, othei 
grains and pnlses are nsedgsnchas wheat, thi 
variouB millets, and Indian corn, and ii 
jiorthem India, the pulses, chick-pea, thi 
lentil and dhiihi are all in extensive ose 
but the well-to-do people prefer rice, whicl 
is more and more used an increasing pros 
perity enables them to obtain it and thi 
people speak of using it onco or twice i 
^ day to indicate the dearness or cheap 
neaa of food. The facility with whic! 
it can be cooked, the little cost of cook 
ing it and its lightness indigestion are al 
great recommendations to nse ii; : — thi 
cleaning, grinding and cooking of thi 
harder grains costing much time and money 
Rice flonr is scarcely ever made into fer 
mented bread, although it is said to be oc 
casionally mixed with wheat tlonr, for tha 
pnrpose. Tho superiority of wheat to al 
other £iriiiaecoos plants, in the mannfactnri 
of bread, is very great. Iti; essential con 
stitnenta are starch, also called farina o 
fecnla, gluten, and a httle sngar and albu 
men. It is occasionally adulterated witl 
alnm, which is added to whiten the fionr, 

ind to enable it to retain a larger qnantitj 
)f water. Salt is also employed in the ndnU 
«ration of wheaten bread, to whiten the 
lonr and enable it to hold more water, and 
wrbonate of magnesia is improperly need to 
>btain the same result. In eastern and 
lonthem Asia, the ordinary wood bre»d, ths 
irelL known sago, is made from the starch 
pennies contained in tha pith of several 
ipeciea of palms. In the Archipelago, sago 
lonr and prepared sago are largely nsed 
IS an article of diet, alike for the rohnst 
ahonrer and for the invalid, and is ex- 
«nsively exported for the use of the sick, 
wd the nnrsery. Amongst tho Arahs 
iorgoni consists of wheat boiled with leaven, 
uid then dried in the snn. The dried wheat 
J) preserved forayear, and boiled with bnttor 
md oil. Leavened bread is called khnzb. 

The seeds of all the Graminese, those of the 

lamel alone excepted, are capable by cnltt- 

vation of becoming alimentary. The valna 

o{ grains, generally speaking, is directly as 

the size of the caryopais, and inversely as tha 

the pericarp. When the grain 

jerisperm ib is heavy, when the 

thick tho grain is, on Uto con> 

thns : — 

of wheat weighed . 450 grains. 

barley, 335 „ 

rye, 260 „ 

100 „ oats, . , 2o0 „ ,, 

The chemical composition of the grain io' 
flnenccs materially the quality of the result- 
ing bread. If the gluten be absent, no fe^ 
mentation takes place in the dongh ; if the 
glnten be in excess the bread is heavy and 
acid. Wheat flour may be considered the 
type of all that is suitable for alimentaiy 
purposes, and in the degree of deviation froai 
this standard consists the inferiority of the 
other grains. It is very largely used by the 
raees occupying Hindustan, Bajpntanah, 
the N. W, Provinces of India, in the Panjftb 
and in Afghanistan, but almost wholly in tJte 
form of unleavened cakes or ohnpatti, pre- 
pared on the girdle, for most of the hindu peo« 
pie of India, as a rule are prohibited by their 
religion from partaking of food prepared 
hy others.many of ihera even of food of which 
others have seen the preparation ; and as the 
stricter mahomedans object to nse leavened 
bread, from the use of the toddies or ferment- 
ed palm wines as a leaven, unfermented bread 
or porredge of flour, water, with perhaps the 
addition of salt, are alone employed. As a 
leaven for bread the substances employed are 
yenstin Europe, and the palm wines or tod- 
dies in Eastern and Southern Asia. And the 
substitutes for these are sesqni-carbonate of 
ammonia ; carbonate of soda and hydro- 

comprebensire principle on which Chinoee 
Hipt is re§rulated, is to eat ererythini; wliich 
citD possibly gire nonriahment. The luxuries 
conentned by the very rich consist of the edi- 
ble bird's next, thebech demer or scfttilng; 
Bhark fins, fish maws, cow sinews, points of 
stag antlers, bnfialo bides, which aBbrd the 
gelatinous food considered so -reatorative. 
AmoDgfit their delicacies also are dishes 
made of the larvoB of the spliinx moth, and 
ofagmb bred in the sugar cane. In Chins, 
the Tarions modes of cnMhinp and rearing 
fish exhibit the contrivance and skill of the 
Chinese, qnite as ranch as their agHtmltnral 
operations. According to the Repository, 
at least one-tenth of the popnlntion derive 
their food from the water, and necessity 
leads them ta invent and try many ingeni- 
ons ways of secnring the finny tribes. Qreat 
bag netB and stike nets are in nse, also 
hand nets with a diameter of 30 feet which 
they throw with a swing over head and tbey 
teach cormorantfl to fish and bring the prey to 
the boat. When Chinese tishermcn take one 
of those hnge Rliizoatoma, which abound on 
the coast, they rnb the animal with pul- 
verized alum to give a degree of coherence 
to the gelatinous mass. Many of the dher, 
pariah, mhar and chnckler or leather work- 
ers of India cat greedily of creatnres that 
have died of disease. It is said that, in S. 
Afn'ca, eating the fiesh of aniinalB that have 
died of peripneumonia, causes in the eater 
a malignant pnstnle and that tbe virus is 
neither destroyed by boiling nor roasting. 
But,' after minut* inqniricf* tliroughont In 
dia, no injnry seems to result from snch 
food. In a recent year, 1 ^63, when many 
homed cattle died throughout Eurmah, of 
what is supposed to ho tlie ricderpest nil. 
ment, there was a coDsiderable amount of 
sickness and death from a tjplioid fever, but 
whether eating diHea.<ied animals was tbe 
cause, was not ascertained. 

Of tte nutritious, proteinai^eons or nitro- 
genous articles of diet, it may he added that 
the substance called proteia is the basis. 
Protein is the first element lliat appears 
io the development of the vpgetable cell. 
It is consequently nnivrrs^lly present 
in plants. It also couslitiitos the chief 
material of the tissues of animals; In 
the vegetable and animal Jcitigdoms it 
assnraES vnrionH forrns and is called albu- 
men, fibrino and cascine according to its 
physical f.y.' onin^al pi-opcrfies. Herbivorous 
and g;T.niiii.fL'rons animal.' derive this con- 
stituent directly from the veiie table king- 
dom : the carnivora obtain it indirectly from; 
the plants, throogh the animals that they] 

eat Man obtuns his supply of protein rron 
both sources. 

The fat of animals, ghee or clarified bntter 
and the sesamnm oil are almost the sole olea- 
ginous or fatty substances used in the S. and 
E, Asia for food. Pure butter is rarely used. 
These consist of earbon 11, hydrogen 10, 
and oxygen I, and their value in the animal 
economy is as beat producers, for which th^ 
are superior to sngar or starch. The oleagi- 
nous piinciple, however, seems also to aid 
in the devdopement of the nroteinaceons 
tissnen, and to act as a hind of preparation 
for their growth. In disease, oils are t^ 
Dndonbted valne. 

Many tables have been published showing 
the chemical composition ef the various sub- 
stances used as food by man. Perhaps those 
by Dy. Inspector General Mayor, of tho 
Madras Army, Dr. I^on Playfair and Dr. 
Watson are the most v^nable, and tiie follow- 
ing may be found of nse. 

Table nfCompotifion nf Food in 100 paii$. 


■ Bntche 

, Barloj 

■ Itafwy 

I VTtlgE 





Bread ., 



Treaty of Paris in 1763, Mabomed Ally, soti I to Sonthem India from Madagascar, form 
of Anwar-nd-Din, was declared an independ- I the coast of Borneo, and also from Pedir on 







ant sovereign. They had able leaders bnt 
the officers nnder them were greatly infenor 
to Dnpleix and Bassy. 

The French possessions in India consist 
of five towns, Chandemagore, Karical, Pon- 
dicberry, YanaoH, and Mahe. The total 
square miles of these is 191^ with a 
popnlation of 203,887. 

Pondicherry was restored to France by 
the peace of 1763. Captared again in 1793, 
again restored by the peace of Amiens in 
1801, recaptured in 1803, and finally restor- 
ed in 1814 and 1815. 

During their greatest efforts, Admiral de 
la Bourdonnaix was employed by sea, and • 
Dnpleix and Bossy on laud. — Malleson. Ind. 

tiful flowering plant. 

See Aves : Birds : Perdicidee 



Maiian ; „ 

Of thi8,ihere are several kinds in commerce. 
The best are the Arabian or tear olibanum, 
the African, and the East Indian or stalacti- 
tic. Olibanum, a fragrant resin, from species 
of Boswellia, is obtained, in India from the 
Boswellia glabra : and the gum resin of the 
Canarium strictum, Roxb. is also fragrant. 
The oleo-resin of the Abies excelsa, or Nor- 
way spruce fir, is known as common frankin- 
cense; and, in India, the oleo-resin of Pinus 
]ongifolia, is also so called. Some of the 
irankinoenseof European markets is doubtless 
obtained firom the Juniperus lycia, and a tree 
of America is called the frankincense pine. 

The substance called Koondricum by the 
Tamil people is very common in the Indian 
bazaars, and is used as an incense in religi- 
ous ceremonies, equally by the hindus and 
Portuguese christians, being, though not 
quite of so grateful an odour, cheaper than 
benzoin. It is supposed by the mahome- 
dan medical men, to be a species of oliba- 
num and they give the name of Coondoor to 
both ; but it is very unlike olibanum in its ap- 
pearance ; being always seen in pretty large, 
agglutinated masses, composed of light 
brown and yellowish tears, and having a 
strange stony kind of hardness when press- 
ed betwixt the teeth ; whereas the olibanum 
is in separate small roundish balls, or large 
grains which do not give the same sensa- 
tion on being chewed, nay even stick to the 
teeth. The Koondricum is generally brought 


the Island of Sumatra. Ain*8 Mat, Med,, 2>. 16. 
Birdwood Veg, Prod. See Balsam; Bos- 
wellia: Gums and Resins. 

FRANKLYN, WILLIAM, Major of the 
Indian Army, author of A Tour in Persia : 
History of Shah Alam ; Memoirs of George 
Thomas; Tracts Political, Geographical 
and Commercial on the Dominions of Ava 
and N. W. Hindustan, 1811. 

ERASER, JAMES, Author of Life of Na- 
dir Shah, — Lend. Journal of a tour in the 
Him. and sources of the Jumna and Ganges. 
— Calcutta 1820. Sources of the Jumna and 
Bagiruthee river. — As. Res. vol. xiii. 172. 
Tour in the Himalaya mountains. — Lend. 
1820.— I>r. BuUt'e Oaialogue. 

ERASER, GENERAL, J. S. An officer 
of the Madras Army, who entered the ser- 
vice in 1 800, and during his long career of 
about fifty -four years, was employed in 
offices of trust and importance. He was 
Commandant of Coorg, Resident at Tra- 
vancore and Cochin, and his last office was 
that of Resident at Hyderabad. 

FRASH, of Kashmir, Populus alba, white 

FRASH BEAN. Anglo-Hind. Phase- 
olas nanus. 

FRAST, Hind. Populus nigra " jangli " 
*'frast," P. alba, *'ban frastu," P. ciJiata. 


FRAXINUS. The Ash tree. 

The Ash tree, Eno. I Oreo, IIeb. 

Aran, Arab. | Omus, Lat. 

Of the genus Fraxinus, two species grow in 
the western Himalaya ; the F. floribunda, or 
large ash and F. xanthylloides or crab ash. 

They grow in the Mehra forest, near Ab- 
hotabad, Hazara, and in the valley of the 
Sutlej, there is abundance of yew and olive, 
and a considerable quantity of box and ash, 
the ash and olive near the river, but the box 
and yew on the higher slopes, 2,000 feet or 
more above the Sutlej. The larger ash and 
yew are much esteemed for jampan poles, 
hefbs and tool handles, A;c., and the larger, in 
colour, grain and toughness, resembles the 
English ash, and makes good walking sticks. 
Some species of ash are remarkable, like the 
sugar maples, to which in some respects they 
are allied, for the sweetness of their sap, 
which on concreting by exposure to the sun, 
is known as manna. To the two species, F. 
rotundifolia and F. florifera and probably 
also to other species, we owe the manna of 
the European ' druggists. — Omt^s floru 
fertty the Floweiing ash tree, grows in the 



and his yassal chiefs when they chase, slay 
and eat the boar. Tod. See Basant. Gouri. 

Norfolk island " Grrass tree,** belongs to the 
tribe of Pandaneas or Screw pines. Its 
stem is marked by rings, like the cabbage 
tree, where the old leaves have fallen off, 
and it lies on the ground, or climbs like ivy 
ronnd the trees. The branches are crowned 
with crests of broad sedge-like leaves, from 
the centre of which the flowers arise, the 
petals of which are a bright scarlet, and the 
sepals green, and, when they fall off, clusters 
appear of three or four oblong pulpy fruit, 
four inches in length, and as much in cir- 
cumference. — KeppeVs hid. Arch., Vol. IL 
p, 284. 

FEIDBOL BUTI. Hind. Per. Meni- 
spermnm hirsutum. 

FBIBNBSHIP, part of the ceremony of 
a vow of friendship, amongst hindus, consists 
in dividing a bel or larger wood-apple, half 
of which is kept by each party, and, from 
this compact, is called bel bhaudar. — Elphin- 
eUm's History of India, p. 3G5. 

FRIGATE BIRD. The Tachy petes aquila, 
is also called the Sea Hawk, also Man of 
War bird and the Boatswain. It has short 
feet, and cannot swim or dive. It is interme- 
diate between the predaceous sea and land 
birds. It attacks the smallest birds and 
makes other fishing birds abandon their 
prey. It takes great flights and is of great 
endnrance, rising to great heights in the air. 
It ranges through all tropical seas and hov- 
ers over the tropical waters. It lias been 
seen 400 leagues from land, and yet is said 
to return to land every night. Its expanded 
pinions measure 1 4 feet from end to end. — 

TES, the most easterly of the Seychelles, io 
lat. 4* 32'S. long. 36^ 1' E. 


FRINGILLA. The sparrow genus of 
birds of the &mily Fringillidas. Fringilla 
montifinng^la, the mountain Finch of 
Europe, N. Asia, Japan, A&ia Minor, Af- 
ghanistan, EZashmir, W. Himalaya, is a win- 
ter visitant in Britain, and the European 
Montifringilla nivalis has been obtained at 

FRINGILLID^, A family of Birds. 

Snb-fam. Ploceinae, 1 gen. 4 sp. viz., 
4 Ploceus. 

Suh-fam- Estreldinae, 5 gen. 16 sp. viz., 
11 Munia; 1 Erythrina ; 2 Amadina; 2 Es- 
trelda; 1 Scissirostrum. 

Buh'fam. Passeriuop, 2 gen. 7 sp. viz., 
6 Passer ; 2 Petronia. 


Suh'fam. Fringillinas, 14 gen. 20 sp. viz. 
1 Montifringilla; 1 Fringilla ; 1 PyrrhospizJ^ 

1 Procarduelis ; 3 Carpodacus *, 1 Hsemotos* 
piza; 2 Pyrrhula; 1 Propyn*hula; 2Loxia ; 1 
Chrysomtris; 1 Carduelis; 1 Ligurinus ; 1 Se- 
rinus ; 3 Goccothraustes. 

Suh'fam, Emberizins, 2 gen. 10 sp. viz., 

2 Emberiza ; 8 Euspiza. 

Suh'ffim, Accentonnse, 1 gen. 4 sp. viz., 
4 Accentor. 

Sub-fam. AlaudinsD, 4 gen. 1 sub-gen. 
14 sp. viz., 3 Alauda, arvensis, gulgula^ Mala- 
barica ; 2 Calandrella ; 2 Galcrida ; 6 Mira- 
fra ; 1 Pyrrhulauda. See Birds. 

bous rooted plant with very showy flow- 
ers, growing well in any light garden soil, 
the colours are various. They are increased 
by off-sets. 

FROGS are very common in all the South 
and East of Asia. They belong to the rep- 
tile Sub-Class Batrachia and order Batrachia 
salienta. The Malabar bull-frog, Hylorana 
Malabarica, occurs in several parts of the 
peninsula of India. The Rana cutipora 
occurs in Ceylon, it was named by 
Mr. Blyth Rana robusta. The little tree 
frogs, Polypedates maculatus, Orayy shelter 
themselves beneath leaves^ from the 
heat of the sun, and ten speciesof Polypedates 
occur in this region. Several species of toads 
occur, but in Ceylon, the more common are 
Bufo melanostictus, kelaartii and asper. As 
in Europe, so inln(|ia, these harmless creatures 
have ever been counted poisonous. Frogs 
are eaten in India by the humblest of 
the races, by many of the Burmese and 
they are eaten in China, by all classes. They 
are caught in China, by tying a worm or a 
young frog, just emerged from tad- pole 
life by the waist to a fish-Hne, and 
lobbing him up and down in the grass and 
grain rice fields where the old croakers are 
wont to harbour. As soon as one sees the 
young frog,he makes aplunge at him and swal- 
lows him whole, whereupon he is immediately 
conveyed to the frog-fisher's basket, losing 
his life, liberty, and lunch together, for the 
bait is rescued from his maw, and used again 
as long as life lasts. Frogs, says Fortune, 
are in great demand in all the Chinese towns, 
both in the north and south, wherever he 
had been, and they were very abundant in 
Nantsin. They abound in shallow lakes and 
rice fields, and many of them are very beau- 
tifully coloured, and look as if they had been 
painted by the hand of a first rate artist. 
The vendors of theeeanimals skin them alive^ 
m the streets in the most unmerciful andapp a- 
rently cruel way. Frogs seemed much in 



And ihe pomegranate," darim"(Panica ^^na- 
tam),both oocnr.Tbe^^mitha tendn,"or frait of 
the Dio8pyrostoinento8a,mu8t not be omitted. 
Id the Satlej valley, Mjrica sapida, yields a 
frait nsefal for making sherbets. Among 
nnts, we find the findak, or nuts of Corylns 
lacera, sold at Simla ; and the seeds of the 
edible pine (P. gerardiana) are kept for food 
in Kanawar, where they sell at 2 annas a 
seer. Above Chini, this tree is the principal 
one in the forest. In the lower hills the frnit 
of the " amla" (Phyllanthnsemblifea), should 
perhaps be included : the well known plan- 
tain and mango do not occur ; the latter is 
last seen, says Dr. Cleghom, near Rampur, 
on the Satlej, and the former below Kotgurh. 
Eleagnus conferta " gehai," and Carissa 
ednlis, yield fruits that can be preserved, the 
latter making the well known karunda jelly. 
In Bnrmah the fruits are very numerous, 
bat nearly all of them very indifferent, though, 
to a Burmese who, while a child, eats a raw 
sweet potato with as must zest as a Euro- 
pean would an apple, they are no doubt con- 
sidered unsurpassable. The ancient Celts 
eat acorns, the modem Californians still 
ose aoom bread, and the Burmese and ICa- 
rens eat fruits which are bat little superior 
to an acorn : in general their fruits are much 
inferior to those of temperate climates. The 
better sort are as under : 

Orange, citma aarantinm. 
Sweet limes, citms limetta. 
Shaddock, citms decnmana. 
Costard-apple, anona sqaamosa. 
Sour-sop, acona mnricata. 
Bullock heart, anona reticulata. 
Citron, cntrus medica. 
Small lime^ citrus bergamia ; c. acida. 
Lai^ lime, citrus bergamia. 

Table Fruits. 

Hangosteen, garcinia mangostana. 
Dorian, Dnrio zibethinus. 
Mango, mangifcra indicu. 

„ „ sylvatica. 

Lichi, nephelium lichi. 
Pawpaw, carica papaya. 
Guava, peidinm pTriferum (white). 

„ „ pomiferum (red). 

Pine-apple, ananas sativus, bronielia auanas. 
Plantain, musa paradisiaca. 
Coooanut, cocos nucifera. 
Loquat, Eriobotrya japonica. 
Pear, pyrus. 

Jack, artocarpus integri folia. 
Breadnut, „ incisns. 
Breadfruit, „ communis. 
Mulberry, mcrus Indica. 
Raspberry, rubus sp. 
Whortle berry, thibaudia loranthifolia. 
Strawberry, fragaria sp. 
Roselle, hibiscuii sabdariffa. 
Water melon. 

Double leaved citron, citrus torosa. 
Pomegranate, punica granatum. 


Bambntan, nephelium lappaceam. 

Otaheite gooseberry, cioca disticha : phylianthns. 

Carambola, averrhoa carambola. 

Bilimbi, „ bilimbL 

BrAzil gooseberry, physalis peruyiana. 

Sapodilla plum, aohras sapota. 

Chocolate nut tree, Theobroma cacao. 

Bengal currants, carissa carandas. 

Granadilla ; passiflora quadrangularis. 

India grape, vitis indica. 

Grape Tine, yitis vinifera. 

Cherry, oerasns. 

Walnut, juglans regia 

„ Pegu, juglans trioocca, ta aoung-let«wah. 
Water melon, citrullus cucurbita. 
Musk melon, cucumis melo. 
Bose apple, eugenia jambos, jambosa yulgaris. 
Jambo fruit, eugenia. 
Pierardia fruit, pierardia sapota. 
Uyaria fruit, uvaria grandiflora. 
Wood apple, femnia elephantum. 
Three leaved triphasia, triphasia trifoliata. 
Horse mango, mangifera footida. 
Opposite leaved mango, cambessedea oppoaitifo- 
lia (mangifera.) 

Oleaster plum, eleagnus conferta. 
Malay apple, eugenia jambosa ; e. mallaooenBis. 
Chesnut, castanea martabanica. 
Foetid sterculia, stercuha foetida. 
Budhs coooanut, sterculia alata. 
Gronnd-nut, arachis hypogcea. 
Sandorioum, sandoricum indioum. 
Willoughbeia martabanica. 
Tamarind, Tamarindus indioos. 
Figtree, Ficus lanceolata. 
„ „ glomerata. 

), „ macrophylla. 

Hog plum, spondias mangifera. 

The only trees to the cultivation of which 
the Chinese pay any attention, are the frnit 
bearing kinds; and in some places, in China, 
there are very fair orchards containing th# 
mango, leechee, lougan, wangpee, orange, 
citron, and pumelo. Twoof the fruits culti- 
vated in Chusan are of considerable excel- 
lence, the one is called yang-mai : it is a 
scarlet fruit, not unlike an arbutus or straw- 
berry, but having a stone like a plum in the 
centre, the other is the Kum-quat, a small 
species of Citrus, about the size of an oval 
gooseberry, with a sweet rind and sharp acid 
pulp. This fruit is well known in a preser- 
ved state by those who have any inter- 
course with Canton, and a small quantity is 
annually sent to England as presents. 
Preserved in sugar^ according to the 
Chinese method, it is excellent. Groves of 
the Kum-quat are common on all the hill- 
sides of Chusan. The bush grows from 
three to six feet high, and when covered 
with its orange-coloured fruit,i8 a very pretty 
object. The shaddock, plantain, and persim- 
mon, are common, and several varieties are 
enumerated of each ; the plantain is eaten 
raw and cooked, and forms do inconsiderable 
item in the substance of the poor. The 



Bei^ mns in the Pstna distoioti neu- FUMARIA PAAVIFIiOBA.IF. et A. 

M omu ^iM. FanutOTT Ebq. I 

FDLICA ATRA. The common coot of Pit-papra, Hwd. Sbaturaj, P«m. 

Braope, Aim, N. Africa, where fonnd ad- B'klat-nl-nuJik, Abai. | Sh>trB, 
ditional to F. crisfata: it iscommonin lodia. Has ovate sepals as broad as the 

Amarioa and Javanese species distinct. See corolla and about two-thirds shorter. It 

BallidiB. greatly resembles F. officinalis, but is small- 

FULIGULIN.a:. Asnb-family of birds "r in all its parte. The flowers are of a 

of the family Anatidie or Gooses, it con- Pf'«-«a colour. It » Wd m Kent, and is 

tuns one species of the genus Bran ta, and also very common in the East Indies, where 

four species of Fnlignla, vij! :— ** »* °"^ " » mediome. The leavea have 

X. I' I J' - ffi. T> I. 1 • .iL ■! a hitter taste, mahommedans employ it 

Myui. /»•.,«. The Pochard, m the cmul diui^Uc, „d i. auUcl ^^ W. 

or|orlhem r.g,o™, Barbarj, common a ,.„«„„, i.l„„ddcred to bo identicl with 

° '^ the xonv' of the Greeks ; it is ranch nsed in 

FjdiguU njfroca ■ ' Fermginonfl Duck.' the Upper Provinces of India mixed with 

Europe, Asia, N. Afnca : common in India, black pepper, in the treatment of intemut- 

Fuljgula mania. (' Scanp Dnck.') Circuit tent fevers.— B«y. Cye. O'ShaughneMy. 
of northern regions : Panjab, Sindh, Nepal. rUMITORT 

Ftdupda erislala. (' Tafled Dnck.*) En- BaqUt-ul nuOik, A«. iFnmBterre, Wtt. 

rope, Asia, Barbary : common in India. Shohtra, Dlk. P■a^ | Pit-papra, Gut. Huri*. 

F^igula Rttjina, oiPalUu, is the crested See Fnmaria. 
Pochard. ■cittwi-'Ttq 

FULWAMES, Capt. He wrote an ac- FUNGUS, 

count of the island of Perim im the Bom. As. Sana knchn, Hihd. [ KDlat,Chaiidawai) Miur. 
Trans. Vol. I. 18. Visit to the Rajpeepla Under this name botanisfs comprehend 

liillfi, and acconnt of the Cornelian miues in ^ot only the varions races of mashrooms, 

Bom. Goo. Trans. Vol, I.^ 8. A report on the toadstools, and similar prodnotions, but a 

floods of the Taplceat Suratin 1837. — Ibid, large number of microscopic plants forming 

Vol. VIL 352. An acconnt of borings and the appearances called mouldiness, mildew, 

etrata passing through the Gogo in the BI. smut, rush brand, dry-rot, Ac They are 

As. Trans. 1837; Bom. As. Trans. 1841, cellular flowerless plants and are arranged 

Vol. L 25. An acconnt of a singular hollow into 
near Abmedabad, called the Boke, supposed 

volcanic, in the Bom. Geo. Trans. Vol. VII. l. Mushrooms. I 4. Mildews. 

164, and on the present and former 2. PuflTialls. 5. Tmffes, moreilea. 

st*teoftheRnnnofCntch. Ibid, Vol. VIII.— 3. Smuts. 6. Moulds. 

Dr. Buut's Catalogue. 

FULSA. HiSD. Tam. Grewia Asiatica all are numerons in India growing on or 

xiTTTTir. -.r nnTTTHTiui tt ' m damp vege table mould. The commoa 

'^1..°SSi'' Ti. I. ■. . u. , poi.onoo. fmgi no closely raomblo the 

FCMABIE^ The Fonnlory tabe of ^„^„ m„h5,„„. that tb. atmort caa- 

plant. of which there are about 70 .i«c.o, ji„„ ;,, ia thair a». No t«t 

lSmIadia,4mJap.i,,ai,dlmPer.,a. The „t,, whether botanical or chemical, 

Indian apeoie., ben.dea two that are common ^ ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^ dislingai.h the dangeron, 

to other connlnea, coo.«t of IC of Carjdali, ; f„„ tj„ whole.omekind. Special cnltiralicn 

lofDaclyl»apno.i aod 1 of Macrocapno,. ;, the only .nr. mode of proJnrine th. maab- 

The plant, of th» order have water, jarce, ^„ „f iJ^ariably good Jnjitj. Bae innga, 

are common m the Himalaya from Nepal to ,„embling a mn.hroom grow, at the fool of 

Cajhrnoi., aad contam a b.ttor pnnc.ple. jh, bambSo, and i. rej^ed by the Barm.»> 

''^S'- a. a valaahle specific in worm.. Dr. Hooker 

FUMARIA OFFICINALIS. eays of the Fungi of the HimaUya that 

Biqist ol maiek, Arab. I Pifc.papra, Hind, there i. marked differenca between thee 

Fnmitory, [ Sbaira, Pers. Duk parta of Tibet investigated by Dr. Thomw>n, 

Thia is nsed by Indian physicians who and the more Minthem regions. The fbngi 

consider it diuretic. Among European found by Dr. Thomson were but few in nnm- 

practitioner., it was long regarded a. a ber, and for tho moat part of very ordinary 

ralnablotonicandaltorative.— O'SftaayftncMy forms, differing but little ftnm the pro. 

p Ig4 dncc of a Earopean wood. Some, faow- 



camp faraitore, for wbich it is well adapted, Prom the eastern side flow tlie Helmund, ibe 

as it doe8 not split. S. E. feeders of tlie Oxus and the N. West- 

3. The Toon (Cedrela tnona) resembles its em feeders of the Kabul river, 
eoiij^encrs, cbittagong wood and mahogany, FURROHUR DIN JASAN. Farohur 
and is very much used for furniture all over amon^t the Parsee people, means " soul op 
the Peninsula. spirit," and this day is one set apart by the 

4. The Jackwood (Artocarpiis Iniegrifolla) people of this religion for the performance of 

is an excellent timber, at first yellow, but the ceremonies of the dead. — The Parsees. 

afterwards brown, when made into tables T^TTDx^TTnir a-d at^ -o i* xi. 

j 11 u i. -i. Il • r u TJ.A1 • c r UrCKUOKABAD. Before the cession 

brnsueSjiBc. ofOudh. A tribute of Rupees 450,000 was 

1. Black Ebony (Dco^yroB ^,^lanoxyU^. j^ ^ ^^^ jj^^^,, ^^ ofFurruokabad to 

This well known and much wood, ^^ y/.^^ ^j^ ^^^^^ ^^ 

hgTttum nigrum, non var.egatum ? .8 very g^^^j^ Government by the Treaty with the 

hard heavy, and susceptible of a high ^j^j^^ ^^ ^^^^ November 1801. The hurt 

^o*N.";Vr «?^"'i^ '!• • Nawab Baees of Furruckabad. Tufuzzool 

-^r /r l"""'^.^' f^ rr 1"? nossein, rebelled in 1867. ^surrendered 

an excellent heavy wood, suited for the best ^^ .^^^ j^^ 185^ ^^^^^ ^^^ prochimation 

fui-niture. It can be procured in large of^^„esty. He wai convicted and senten- 

qnantities, and of considerable size the wood ^ ^^ ^ J^,, ^^ ^,j j^j^ ^y was adjodg- 

contains much oil. In large panels it is lia- ^ ^^ ^ confiscated. Bat it oaie out on the 

o ^J* J'' 1 j-n ' I ' 7 7 7 \ • trial, that he had surrendered on promise of 

3 Satin m,o<l(Srnefema cMoroT,jhv)v, life, and he was banished British territories 

hard m its character and when pol.shed it is ^^^ ^^^^ j^ ^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

very beautiful and has a satiny lustre, it is ^^^^ ^j,^ ^^^^j^^ j^ t^^ direction of Mecca, 

much used for pictuie frames, nvnlling the ^^^ ^^^^ jj,^^ j^ ^^^^ ,^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ jj^^j^^ 

birds eye maple of America. It is occasion- Territory, the sentence of death which had 

ally used by cabinet makers for general 
furniture, but it is liable to split. 

4. Sandal wood (San talum album) is found 
in abundance in Mysore and Canara ; it is 
chiefly remarkable for its agreeable fragrance, 
which is a preservative against insects. 
It is much used in making work boxes, walk- 
ing sticks, penholders, and other small arti- 
cles of fine omaineut bat cannot be procured 
of a large size. 

5. Kiaboca imoJ (Pfrroppennmn Iitdlcnm.) 
Is imported from Sinirapore. It is boiuti- 
fiilly mottled, of diilen^iit tints, evidently 
produced by excrescences from llic tree. The 
wood is chiefly used for inlayins: or for mak- 
ing desks, snnif boxes, puzzlc?», A'o. D)\ 
Ch'ifhorn M. I)., in M. E. J. R. of 1805. Sec 
Blackwood Fnruitare. 

FURASH. Hind. Prrs. A class of menial 
servants employed for inferior offices, as pitch- 
ino^ tents, swecpinci: out houses, <fcc., and they 
are always in attendance to execute their 
mai^ter's pleasure. When a native prince 
wishes to punish a servant, it is generally 
performed by a Farash ; — properly Farnsh, 
from Farash, Pers. a carpet. — Frasc/s Jour- 
ney info Khorasan, p. 0(>. 

FURRAH-RUD. A river which, like the 
Murghab and the Tajend, flows from the 

been passed upon him will be carried out.— 
Aitcheson^s Treatises, pp. 36 37, Vol. I. 

FURRUD. Hind. Erythrina Indica.— 


FURS are the skins of different animals 
with the inner side being converted by a 
peculiar curing process, into a sort of leather, 
and the outer fine hair left. Previously to 
their undergoing this process. Furs are 
tenned Pdtnj. The fnr of the flying squirrel 
(Preromys petanrista) is of such a very fine 
description, that it would excite much inter- 
est in Europe. The beautiful furs, from 
Lassa and Dignrchee, in Thibet, are mostly 
obtainable in Khatmaudoo. These two large 
cities aro gi*eat iur depots ; they ai*e only 
forty marches from Khatmandoo. 

A very large portion of the Rnssian fur 
trade is derived from this part of Thibet, and 
certainly by far the most valuable furs aro 
obtained there. Some of the most beautiful 
dresses made of furs are brought by the native 
merchants from these cities ; and a fur cloak 
with thick silk lining was purchased from 
one of them for one hundred and fifty Moreo 
rupees, in English money little more than ten 
pounds. About the beginning of the 19th cen- 

^ ^ ^ -- - turv, the fur trade with China amounted to 

w^tera "sidrof the ^monnkinous and hilly upwards of a million of dollars annually ; but 
country to the north of Herat and Kabul. ! later no skins or furs wore brought to 

237 " 


C This letter ia used in most of the laTt- qntte nnezplored by any EoropeaD, passed 

gDBgea of Southern Asia, bnt nith the hard among the monntaina north of Bootan and 

eotmd as before B,e,i,o,Ti, in gardener, get, Ats, and bo made tJbeir way dne east to the 

pild, golph.gun. There is not apparently any plains of " the Central Flowery Land." M. 

Eastern tongne, in which it has the soft Hnc wrote an acconnt of his travels. — Frin- 

aonnd of the langnages of Europe, before e aep't Tibet, Tartary and Mongolia, jip. 32, 83- 
and i, aa in genSral, geometry, gin, giomo, GAB-NUI/, Behq. Bengal reed, Am-' 

Gernsalemme. In writing Elastem words, phidonaz Bengalenais. 
therefore, this letter, where it occurs, presents GABOORA. A river near Dinagepore. 
similar difficulties to the letter C, which GABRIEL or jibrael, according to 

Enropenns make interchangeable with mahomedan belief, the angel who Las ^large 

K. as in Cashmir, Kashmir, Cabul, Kabnl, of all createt' **"' 

" Gehoon" Hind, wheat, which has the, GAB'R, 

hard sound, might, by a native of Europe non-believer 

be pronounced, erroneously, Jehnn, and the mannscr 

"Gentoo" a word derived from the Por- Gab'r is nsE 

tugaese, and pronounced Jentoo, might si(:nifies a " 

be, erronennsly, pronounced hard. The i-Migli bish 

Arabic "Jab'l," a mountain, is pronounced ie sometime 

" Gabal" by the Northern Arabs. " Giuti," nounced Ga 

ili'nii.amnster, "Gird"^uriPej-j, nronndOT qnent in P 

circle, are alike hard. The English letters "Gavr," wf 

" gh" are generally to be pronounced sepa- Jehangiri, i 

rately in Easterntongues.asif written " g'h,' who observf 

but in the Arabic and taken from it into Per- Zoroaster),) 

sian and Hindustani there is a separate letler But Origen, 

which has a combined softened gnttnral Christianily 

sound of " gli" as Ghalam, a slave. who had alh 

GAARLA PHALLA. Maleal. Ana- "seaKaben 

mirta coccnias, W. and A Celsna know 

GAARTO. A town near the sonroe of the 'l'^^ ^^^ * 

Indns. See Yak. Persians or 

GAB. Fruits of Diospvtos embryopteris, ^'*- '^^- P 

tbesizeofaamallorange;deep green, witha wntoP. qnoted by Hyde, tUist. Itetig. Vel. 

msty dnst; strongly a.stringeutaud mncila- £''™- ^*P XXIX.) declares that the 

ginons. Irmii': Med. Tup. Persians call their priests (in the plural) 

GAB, also Gad, also Gondori. Hind. Chaberin, (or Khaherin) whiUt the 

Cordift serrata. singnlar Chaber or Khaber (occurring in 

GABA. Tel. Desmodinm collinnm, ">» Talmud), is explained by Hebrew 

Il'a^.— ff'.rc.'i7-2.— Desm.latifolinm, JF.and conimentatora, as signifying Parsai, or 

Jl.(i96.— Hedyaarum coll. R. iii. 349. Persians. On this snbject Hadnan Reland 

GABA-GABA, MAi,*y,themidribofpalm- '«" "^^'^'^ "^^^ remarks, in Dissert. IX, 

leaves, of the leaf of the sa-ro palm, much ne Persicis Talmndicis. (See his " Dissert. 

used thronghout the Molnc<-ftB for baildings MJ«cell- Part 11. p. 297. Traj ad Ehen. 

and Tencing. Atap is thatch made of the ''^06). Dr. Hyde, however, as above cited, 

fringe of palm leaves, doubled down and """^^ "'"' Chaber or Chaver, denoted both 

eewed on sticks or lathes of bamboo.-Voitrn. * P"«*'' »"•* » layman. Onaeley s Travels, 

of- ih« Ind. Areh. Vol VI. No. 6. Vol. I. p. 150. 

GABAR. H. properly " Ghab'r" Pers. GACCHA. Saks. Andropogon iwaran. 

A person not a miiliomedan, in ceneral, '^"sa. 

but commonly a Zomnsti-ian, a Parsi or GACHCHA CHETTU. Tel. Gnilati- 

£re worshipper. See Gab'r. rlina bondac, £. The hindns, from thehoa- 

GABASAN. Beno, a tanner. tile and unapproachable character of this 

GABBU NELLI. Tki.. Prcmna longifo- plant, compare it to a miser in the following 

lia, B. iii. 79 also given to other species of pad^am ; 

GABBI.LAL. Tki,. h Ikt. {Ti&jTV'iO ^0 ^r:}ia>[ 

CARET. M. M. Hoc and G«bel by ^ " i, j 'Au ' 

« ™nl«, hitbevlo, so f«c .s wo know, I Ci'jTi'^-o-a riIS3iii.ll 



also Nilnra pend&hini, Disooorea hiata, L. 

GAUAPATJ. The cbief of a body of reli- 
gious inei,.lic«nte. 

GADl SUGANDHI. Tf.t. or Sngandhi- 
prkla, HisriiideHmDS mdicns, R. Br. 

GADiNG. MAat, Eleplmnt's tnsk, ivorv. 

GADJANTEBGARH. A fortrees in the 
Bonthern ilahtar.ta country in L. 15« 41 
K. L. 75' SG,' E Tbe pluin at the foot of 
the fort is 1,996 feet above tbe sen. Schl, 

GADUS. Lat. Cod. See FiaheB. 

GAD VASSAL. HrsD. Allium rubellnra. 

GAEKWAR. TheGaekwar 
in I 720, from Daramaji Gaek 
Babadnr an officer nnddi* Kbaai 
and tbey ruled till tbe ti-caty vi 
G(ivernroentinl802. Inl8(»8,i 
Walker, then Resident at t 
court, wns able to arrange f< 
the Gaeknar, from teu liajpc 
certain fixed sum aa anzeriiinlj 
Peishwa was overtbrowu in 
tish Bucceedeil tbat power iu 
troL All aunnnl tribute in tilt 
-Jrda to the Britisb Governme 
tbe Gaekwiir. The tributari 
Talnkdara of whom there are 2 
wliom possesses exclnsiTO juri 
own district, nnd only the Or 
Grassia are allowed to litigate 
iug chiefs. Tiiese are eprun 
cadets of the ruling tribo or fr 
of lands which they seized ai 
with all the proverbial l.i^nacity 
who freely gives and takes lift 
The territories of the Gne 
area of 4,399 squire miloM, wit 
of liTlO,!^ and an annua 
£600,000. acres. Th^MM I'.-i 
tie», p. 230 Olid 1'87. See Ind 
Habratta Governments in \ni 
tree of the Central Proviu 
f; rowing at an elevation of i 
teei.-~Tha>. F„mm. fl. Ze'il. }' 
Maltilata, Hinti. I Vedala 

JIadholBta, Sans. 1 

This is a fine and fraprant 
cr, and Tery hardy. A fine 
ovur some trees in the Uo 
Ajmeer.— Ge,i/. JIM. lop. p. J 
leones, pivcs also G. Koiiigii. 
GAETRI. A bnef invoc 
hindns, as n pr.iyer. That t 
to, under this term, is the 
tram and is considered to bt 
crcd verso in tbe VcJaa. 1_ — — 


woTsbip of the Tedaa, the snn was won 
shipped nnder the designation Saritri. This 
prayer is supposed to be known to brahmana 
only.They are taught it when they receive 
the pacred string j and tbey are enjoined never 
to oommnuicate it to any other sect. Its 
Sanscrit words are O'm ! Bbnrbhuva win- 
vaha. O'm ! Tatea Vit'hrn varennyum. 
B'hargo dovasHya dhimahi dhiyo yonaba 
pmtciio duyaih. O'ml Eai-th, air, faenven. 
O'm ! let ns meditate on the impreme splen- 
dour of the divine sun. May be illuminate, 
our minds. Bee Gavatri, Hindu, Sorya. 

GAPFAT near Debra Tabor in Amhara, 
where the Enropean workmen of the em- 
peror residBd,>-Jam««. See Semitic races. 

GAGAH, Jat, a rice field " (nigab," 

" sawab," " tipar," are lice fields differing 

in the mode of cultivation adapted iu tbem, 

GAYGAKKAND. Hind. Astragalna 


GAGAT, also Gagata.. Gbr. also Los* 
trino. It. also GftKQ>' T^"^- Jet. 

■^ The Sans, 
lenika, which 


lirt w<»ii by 
ihoB uniflomSf 
vision of tb« ■ 


GAGT. In about lat. 0', 25' S. iu the 
Gillolo passage, is an island of considerable 
extent and moderately elevated. — Uoribitrgh. 

GAHAI. Hind. BeiTies of Eleagnoa 
conferta ; the Kaukol of Hazara and else- 

GAHALAYA. An outcast predatory race, 
near Matelle in Ceylon who acted as execu- 
tioners In the times of the Kaudyan kings. 

The people of the low lands on the coast 
of Ceylon are of a Tamnlian or Drttvidinn 
stock. Those of Kandy, with their habits 
of polyandry wonld seem to be allied to the 
people of Coorg The Gahalaya, Rhodia and 
Veddah are wild, ouUcast i-aces dwelling in 
the forests and onfreqnented parte.— Ten- 

GAHARBA. a resin used in Benares in 
making lacquer ware. 

GAHARU. M*iJiT also Alna-tan, also 
Alivah, Aloes. 

GAHARWAR. One of the 36 royal 
races of Rajputs settled atKauoj. Wilson. 

GAHLOT. a Rajput tribe in the N. W. 
of India. The Sisodya aie a branch of the 


OALAM-BUTTEK A retldisli white ooHd 
<ril obtaiued from Baaida butyracea. — Simm- 
oitd't Diet. 

GALANGA DuT. Eno. Fr. Lat. GdUngal. 

GALANGA ALBA. See GalaDgal. 

Eaampferia galaoga. 


Kost-talkh, An. 


Guz. H:*D, 




I^an-don, Chis. 


O&langB, DuT. Esq. Fa. 






GAlgant, G«a. 

A brown tnberose 

-oot, with 

a fault aro- 

AtpiniA nntADB is sometimes bronghi t9 
England, accordiug to Dr. Rozbargb, for 
Gatuig» major. Its leaves, when bruised, 
hare a strong snitill of cardamoms, aud tlie 
cardamomnm pbiot ia frequently placed ia 
this genus, bat has beait rearraaged noder 
Elettaria. According to Dr. Hoiiigberger 
(p. 278) the uatirea of Lahore are of opinion 
that the root of Piper betel fpan-lci-jar) ia 
what the Persians call Koulian, which ia ths 
Indian Galanga. Galanga root is a good 
deal used in China, and forms an article of 
commerce! fetcliing in the London market 
from 12a. to 16s. per cwt. in boud- Its 
taate is peppery and aromatic. Externally 
the color of the root-stocks ia reddiHli brown. 

matic smeii, ana pnn^ot taste, like a mix- - , „ . ^j- l i -» -• noc , i 

tn«of pepper and ginger. It" is supposed '"^"^7 P>le " wh.te 1.286 cwt. of 

to have teen infa-odnaed by the AmCbnt ^'^"»^' P"^ T^^f ' M.r. tr^- ■ 

it was previonBly mentioned by ^tiofi^ Tho ''^??lK-'°^ Ca..U.n in 186Q.-Wdluiv^ 

plant which yielded this root was long nn- ^^"'f'/"^'^'',X?> .- ^''^ T' ff^ 

known, and it has been supposed to bo that of f>'^-'^'f^^:io-P- ^l^. Sv,r.i7,ond .Comml. Pro- 

a pepper, of an Iria, of Acorns calamus, or to *****' P" ■*^2- 

be the Acorns of the ancients. Eiempferia GALANGA MAJOR. Ruxph. syn. of Al- 

galanga was so called from its aromatic pioia galanga. See Gulangal, 

roota being anppoacd to be the true Galan- GALANGA MALACCENSIS. Rumph. 

gal- The tabera of Cypema longus were ^J^- of Alpioia mslaccensis. — Roeeoe. 

sometimes snbstitnted, and called English GALAKGAJ^. Jav. An irrigation trench, 

Galangal. Two kinds, the large and the GALAPAGOS ISLANDS, almost every 

small galanga), are described ; these are indigenous living thing is pecniiar to them, 

nsnally considered to be derived from the Admiral Fitzroy mentions that while one 

same plant at different stages of its growth, side of them ia covered with verdure, ths 

but Dr. Ainalie, in his * Materia Indica,' in- other aspects are barren arid parched.— 

Bwts npon the greater value of the lesser, as Wallaee, p. 10, 

this is warmer and more fragrant, and there- GALAR-TORL Hind. Trichosantbes 

fore highly prized in India. The plant pro- anguina. 

ducing it ia a native of China, and the Reve- GALATIANS.from the Grcek.Gala, Milk, 

rend Mr. Williami says tliat the root is Goals, herdsman in Sanscrit. TiUbtikoi, Galsr 

sent from Chinato India; and that thereare tians, or Gania, and "Ati Celts allowed to 

two sorts the greater aud the smaller, obtain- be the same, wonid be the shepherd races, 

ed from different plants, ths best of which the pastoral invaders of Europe. See Gaola. 

is the smaller, procured from the Maranta GALBANUM, Esq. i'R, Lat, 

galanga. This is of a reddish color, ahont Barznd, Aa. Kiimeh.ka-Qond, Htm 

two mChes long, of a hrm textnre though Muttoihan, Gee, Galbaao, It, 

light, and possessing an acnd, peppery taste, x<^Bairt Gb. PiremJ, Pebsi 

and a slight aromatic smell. The larger is ^!";!'«°Bh, Hkb. Binud, „ 

from a different plant (Kiempferia galanga), '""'"' '^'*' 

and inferior in every respect. Both are nsed '^^^ P'*°* prodncing tfaisgnm resin rs still 

as gpicery, and to some degree in Earope as undetermined. It has been snpposed to b» 

well as India. The greater Galangal has ol»'«i»ed from the Ferula fernlago, also from 

long been known to be the produce of a '^^ Galbannm officinale Don, of the tribe 

Scitamineons plant, the Galanga major of Silerinre, also from the Opoidia galbamfert 

Rumphins (' Herb. Amb,' S. t. 63J, which «f the tribe Smyniew. It occnrs in com- 

ia the Alpinia galanga of Willdenow, a native '^^^^ "» agglutinated plastic masses. It is 

of China and the Malayan Archipehigo. ^°^- ^"^ ^"^ bitter and in properties re- 

:iis eenns have roots with eembles asafotida, bnt weaker.-' AfcOulloeh. 

Several epeciesof this genns have roots w.u.. , m r, i ■ > 

somewhat similar properties. Thns Alpinia *'^ ,/„\„„„ ^™^i;?:,,-™„ 'i?*^- 
alba and A. Cliinensis are much nsed by the 


beencalled Galangaalbaof Kcenig; andthe Kioneb, Pem. 

latter has an aromatic root with an acrid This plant has from the seeds, been snT' 
buning flavour. The fragrant root of misedby ProfeBsorDoD,tol>eoftbe tribeSile- 

mith torrents of rein ftod its nortbem lia 
oflan wltb lif^fatnin^. Dr. Thorn ebow< 
that South of the eqnfttor these mtatoi 
stonns are nlwajB ffenented betweea the I 
W. monuxKi and S. E. Trade wind, Tht 
oocor onlj daring the S.W. monsoon month 
and their riseand proip'ees are iDtimatelr coi 
neotod with the S. E. Trade wind and N.1 
moDHoon, tno opposing' winds. With sht] 
the safest course is to lie to and watch tl 
barometer and wind, tiJl the bearing oft! 
centee be known with some certain! 
ilr. Meldrum in Pro. BrU. Ai»oe. 1867. & 
CjchmO) Hnrricane, Winds. 

GALETENG. A locality in the island 
Flores, occnpied by a race so called. Accor 
in^ to the atatementa of Baffis traders, wj 
had settled in Flores, that island is inhabiti 
by six different races, speaking as many d 
fercnt Iangai4;es, the Ende, the Mangan 
the Kio, the Roka, the Konga and the Gal 
ten^, names derived from the principal phic 
oi their renidence. Orawfurd Did, 1 p. 9 
Bee India, p 357. 

GALGOJA. Hind, of Pangi, Finns gen 
diana, Gerard's pine. 

GALHAS. Port. Galls. 

tribe of plants; of these, there have bet 
17 species discovered in Sooth East«m Af 
viz., ] of Asperala arTensis.Linnll species 
Galinm, and 5 species of Rabia. Madder 
the only nsefnl prodoct of the order. Voii 

GALI CHAKKA. Tel. Smilai Chiil 

, GALIJERU. Tel. Triasthema deca 
drnm. — Ltnn. Roxb. also T. oboordata 
Kud its Turietics- 

GALIUU VERUM See Galiaceos. 

GALILEE, Chinnereth, also Geon 
sareth, also Tiberias, tAbO Bahr-nl-Tibi 
riah, is a sea or lake formed by tl 
river Jordan and has many fish. Its snrfat 
is npwards of 300 feet below the Ueditem 
nean, and it is enclosed by steep hills 300 I 
1000 feet high, it is 12 miles long an 

GALBL Ab. Cnrpets. 

GAL KADDU. Hind. Benincasa cei 
fera, S«rt, TT. and A. 

GALL, Bssh. Heb. See Bile. 

GALLA. A Semitic race, ocenpyii; 
Shoa in Abyssinia. They are one of tl 
finest races in Africa of a dark brown coloi 
with strong hair, and well limbed. They li' 
in a beantifal country, extending from L. 8 
N. to L. 3 ° S. with a climate not sorpassed 1 
that of Italy or Greece, and speaking a la 
nage as soft and musical as pnre Tnsca 
They are from six to eight millions in nni 
ben, amon^ them are scattered christif— 

flATiT.Tymm ATT- 

tribes, hnt the religion of the race in genent 
U Fetish and the seven tribes of the WoUo Gal- 
la are nuhomedans. The Fetishists worship 
the serpent as die mother of the hnman rac«, 
and hold their religions services under a 
tree. They keep every fonrth day as a day 
of rest. They acknowledge a snjnMne being 
whom they eall heaven (Unlnngu) and have 
a notion of a fatnre state. There seem to be 
three natures or attributes in their Bnprema 
being, viz., Wsk or Waka, Sapreme ; Ogli, 
a masonUne, and Ateli, a feminine power or 
embodiment. They have two holy days in the 
week, vix,, Saturday, which fltey call Saa- 
batta Kenna or little Sabbath and Sunday, 
which is their Saabatta gadda or greater 
Sabbath. See Semitic races, Somal. 

GALLA. HiKB. Capnesna tornlD8% 
Twisted cypress. 

GALLA. The native name of Point 
de Galle, the Cock'spcdnt of the Portngnese, 
supposed to be the Taishish f£ the Old Tea- 
tament. See Galle. 


GALL^. Li 



he the Tarshish 
mariners cesortec 
to be the present 
eonesos of the 
Galle fort was 
gnese, and aflem 
who had dieiman 

Galle, and wrestea it irom ineir nvais, in 
1640. Considerable additions have mnoe been 
made by the British to whom Galle was 
given np in 1796. The fort contains up- 
wards of 600 booses and a garrison. Ten- 
neni. See Galb. 

GALLI. HiKD. Phsniz dactylifeia. 

GALLIAN. Hind. Cnpressos torolos^ 
twisted cypress. 

QALLICBEX A genns of birds, belong- 
ing to the Family Ballide and Tribe Ma- 
crodactylie, as under : 

Tbibi. Macrodactyln. 

fom. Ballidx, 7 gen. 15 sp. vis., 1 Foi^ 
phyrio ; 1 Gallicrei ; S Porsana ; 1 Orlygo. 
metra , 2 Ballns ; I Gallinnla ; 1 Fnlica. 

GALLIKONDAH. A hill district in the 
territories of the rajah of Viiiutagmm. Like 
other hill stations, this place had been lying 
wBSt« for oonntlesB ages, populated here ana 
there by a few miserahle families of savage^ 
who shared with wild beasts the soil from 
which they wrung a miserable and |»«cari- 
ons existence. The climate of GallikondaL 
is temperate and fine all the year ronnd. 


OANt)ALU. IlrxD. Bergera Konigii. 

OAN^DALUK Hi»d. Dupline oteoides. 

GANDAM. Hind. PeR9. Wheat. 

GANDAMAK. A town occopied by the 
Koghani tribe of Afghans. It in on an ele- 
vated kite, is cooler thfin Jella'abad, and its 
people tend silk wormi, it stands in a rich 
spot., and hu a fine vieir or the SnTuid Koh. 
lb was the scene of a groat dinaHter to the 
BritiRh Indian Army. Uokan Lal'a Travels, 
p. 340. 

GAITDAMGnSDU. Hiso. Lycopaa 

Alliatn ascalouicam : the Shallot. See Gan- 

OANDAR. Hisd. Andropogon tnaricatm. 

GANDABA. Hind. Nerinm odornm. 

OANDAVA, in Sanscrit, Ghandarva, 
good spirits. See Ghandarva. 

OANDASULI. Marsden gives this as 
the Hedychinm coronariara of Liontens, and 
addti that its flowers are worn as oniaments 
in th« liair, and in the enigmatical laognage 
of flowers stand for inconstancy. Jour. Intl. 
Arch., Vol. v., ^0. 8, August laSl. 

GANDAVA. The chief town of Cntch- 
Gandava. See Belnch, Brahui, Kulat. 

GAUD BEL. RiSD. Andropogon nar- 
das. Rota. 

GAlfDEHRA. Hisn. of Knln. Neridm 

GA^IDBLt. HtSD. Vitis Indica. 

GABTOERA. Hwo. Sbazya stricta. 

GASDERE. HiSD. Neriam odornm. 
Trikk gandere. Hind. Rhododendron 

CANDHA-BAyiK. Beno. A druggist. 

GAHDHAK. Hisd, Sulphur. 

GANDHAKA. Sass. Sulphur. 

phnric acid. 

GATJDHA-MADAXA, in hindn cosmo- 
gony, ia ouB of tiie four houmi^irj moun- 
tains enclosiuir tiiu central region of the 
world, called llaviitta, in whil^h llcru, the 
^•flden mountain of tlio god.s, ia situated. 
The Parana^ are rather at variance as to its 
piiaition. According to the Vayu it lies on 
the nest, connecting Nila and Ninhada, the 
nurtb and south Taugcf^. The Yishnn Pn- 
rana places it on the south, tbe western 
mona^ia being there called VipnJa. It 
baa, however, a Oandba-madana to tho west 
amongst tbe projecting branches or fila- 
ments of Uem. Tbe Bliaguviit places it on 
the e:u<t of Mem. The Mahabarat agrees 
witb the Yayn Purana. Tlic Padma Purana 
isat variance with itseU, and places it iu 
one passage on the west, and in another 
describes it as on tbe eaat. According to 


tliifl Purana, Kuvem resides on it with the 
Apsarasa, Gandtinrba, and Kaksliasa. Ths 
Sita alighting on its top theuce descends to 
the Bhadrosva vernha, and flows to tba 
eastern sea. Sltidu Theatre, Vol. l,p. 24 1. 

OANDUANA. Alliam cepa ; tho onion, 
also, AHium sativum. Garlic. 

GAND'HA-FHALI. Tbl. Michelia cbam- 
paca. — L. Particularly the fionerbnds. 

GANDAUARA, according to Bnnstin, ia 
Candahar. It is named in tho inscription 
of Darius. So far bnck aa tbe reign of Darius 
HystuRpes, the early writers placed Indians 
on both sides of the Indus and made India 
extend wentward to Oandnhara. 

GANDHARASAMU. Til. Gendamssa 
vulgaris. Neee. 

GANDHABI. Daughter of rajah Gand- 
hara. She married Ubritarasbtra, Ler sons 
Dubsasana and Duryodbana were namad 
Kaurava, and fell in the eighteen days battle 
of Kornksbotra. Gandbari sfcer the battle of 
K or ukahetra retired with Dhrituroshtra and 
his mother Kunti, to the jungle on the Gan- 
ges, where the maharajah died. 

of Crinnm. Littn. 

GANDUARITIS. See Bactria, p. 284. 
Greeks of Asia. 

OANDHARVA. In hindu mythology, 
a shade, a spirit, or ghost. 

G ANDHARTA a celestial musician. These 
are demigods or sngels who inhabit Indra's 
heaveo, aud form the orchestra at the ban- 
quets of the gods. They are described as 
witnesses of the actions of men, and are sixty 
millious in number. WUtiam'i SU/ry of Nata, 
J), li'2. See Hindoo ; Uabadeva. 

GANDHARYA OoeofthefoarUpaveda, 
the oLher three ore tbe A jnsh, Uhannsfa, and 
SL'hnpatya. See Vidya. 

GANDHI, msD ? A tree of Chota Nag- 
pore. Soft whito wood. Cal.Oat. Ex.\S62. 

GANDHILA Hind. A low vagrant casta 
in the N. W. Province, who make mats, and 
exiiihit feats of activity, they are also thieves. 

GANDHINA- Brso. Allium ascaloni cum. 
R;xh. See Qandana. 

GaNDHDL. Hind. Ixora parviflora. 

OANDUCLI. Hind. Gynandropaii pen- 

GANOIAL. Hind. GonFTeia holoeteoidea. 

GANUI-BUTI. Hind. GUnna lotoides. 

GANDIVA. In hindn mythology, a bow 
bulonging to Varuna given by Agni to Ar- 
jniia, one of the Pandava, before burning the 
forest of Kbandapreslbs, to enable him to 
combat ludra. It was used by Arjuna, one 
of the Pandava, in the Swayamvara or ton^ 
nament iu which he won Dranpadi. 



Siva, when Gauosh tried to pt*evcnt Siva 
intrading on the privacy of Parvati when 
bathing. Glaj inures of Ganesh are made and 
worshipped for from one to nine days and 
are then thrown into water. The Oiinchor or 
Chinch wad who resides at a village of that 
name near Poona is believed to bo an in- 
carnation of Gancsh, who promised an as- 
cetic, named Moroba, who lived in Sivaja*8 
time, that he wonld be incarnate for seven 
generations in his family. The earth imagp 
of Ganesh is one of three formn iu which 
the earth deity Mrittika is worshipped by 
hindns. The first the Nagapanchami, in 
which feast a snake of clay is worshipped; 
the second is Goknl Ashtami, when a clay 
image of the infant Krishna is worshipped, 
and the third occasion is that on which 
Ganesh is worshipped, and this last day of 
the worship of Mrittika is observed with great 
pomp. The vahan or carriniro of Ganesh is 
a lut. The feast in honor of his birth is 
held on the^^ihof the month Bhadrapad, 
and &lla on the first days of September and 
seems to have some connection with the sea- 
sons of the year. Ganesh is brought to the 
honse with much pomp. 

GANGA. HiXD. Sans. A name, pro- 
perly, of the Ganges, bat applied by hindns to 
several other rivers of India, amongst others 
to the Eastna and Godavery and two of its 
affluents are called the Waen Ganga and 
Paen Gbuga. 

GANGA, in hitidn mythology, the personi- 
fied goddess of the river Ganges, the source 
of which the saivas place in Siva's hair ; 
whence, in graceful flow, she 

• • • * sprung radiant 
An d, descending, graced tho caverns of the west. 

The vaishnavas assert that it flowed out 
of Yaikoutha, from the foot of Vishnu : and, 
descending upon Kailasa, fell on tho head 
of Siva, who shook some drops (Bindii) from 
his hair, and tiicsc formed the great lake call- 
ed Bindu Sarovara, far to tho north of Hin- 
dustan. Sometimes, the Ganfjes is fabled to 
issue from a cow's month, and the cleft in 
the Himalaya is called Gungotri and Gao- 
muki. Others make it arise from water 
poured by Brahma on the foot of Siva ; others, 
from the feet of Brahma and others from the 
fingers of Pan-ati. The Ganga is also called 
Dasahara or ten removing, as bathing in her 
watears, on the tenth day of the month Jyai- 
sha, effaces ten sins, however heinous soever, 
committed in ten previous births. One of 
tile holiest spots of the Ganges, is whore it 
joins the Jamna, near Allahabad, though, 
with hindns, the sangam or confluence of 
any river, is a spot peculiarly revered. A 
person dying at the couflucnceof the Ganges 


and Jumna is supposed to be certain of imme- 
diate '' moksh*' or beatitnde without risk of 
farther transmigration. Professor Wilson in 
his translation of the Mudra Bokshasa des- 
cribes Ganga as 

'* by the autamn, led. 
Fondly impatient, to her ocean lord, 
Tossing her waves, as with ofibnded pride, 
And pining fretful at tho leng^thmied way." 

Though, as above related, the honor of 
having given birth to this goddess, the por« 
sonification of the sacred stream of the Ganges 
has been claimed for their deities, both 
by the saiva and vaishnava sects, all sects, 
and castes of hindns worship this god- 
dess of their sacred stream. Numerous 
temples are erected on the banks of the river 
in honor of her, in which clay images are set 
up and worshipped. The waters of the river 
are highly reverenced, and are carried in com- 
pressed vessels to the remotest parts of l^e 
conntry ; from whence also persons perform 
journies of several months* duration, to bathe 
in the river itself. By its waters the hindns 
swear in our courts of justice. Mr. Ward in- 
forms Hs that there are 3,500,000 places sacred 
to Ganga ; but that a person, either by bathing 
in or seeing the river, may be at once as 
mnch beneStted as if he visited the whole of 
them. For miles, near every part of the 
banks of the sacred stream, thousands of 
hindns of all ages and descriptions, pom 
down, every niglit and morning, to bathe in 
or look at it. Persons in their dying mo- 
ments are carried to its banks to breathe 
their last : by which the deaths of many are 
frequently accelerated; and instances have 
been known wherein such event has there- 
by been actually caused. The bodies are 
then left to be washed away by the tide, or 
numbei*B of them are to be seen floating up 
and down with every flood and ebb, or 
lying all along the banks with vultures, ad- 
jutant birds, cairion crows and kites about 
them feeding upon the remains. Several 
festivals are held during the year in honor 
of Ganga. She is described as a white woman 
with a crown on her head, holding a water 
lily in one of her hands, and a water vessel in 
another, riding upon a sea animal resembling 
a crocodile, or walking on the surface of the 
water with a lotus in each hand. — Gole, Myth. 
Hind. p. i\9. See Ganges, Inscriptions p. 
375, 382, 385, 390, Oi-issa, Siva, Triveni. 

GANGA. Singh. A great river; Oya, 
a small river ; Ella, a rivulet. 

GANGA-BUL. Tib. Literally, place of 
the Ganges. A sacred lake on the moun- 
tain of Haramuk in Kashmir. It lies under 
the wildest and most lofty peaks of the 
mountain; is 1^ mile long and 200 or 300 



GANQHI CHU. Hind. Tib. Euphorbia, sp. 

GANGHI SHO.HixD.TiB. CactuBlndicus. 

GANGOBI. A liindu festival sacred to 
the goddess Gonri- CoL Tod remarks that 
by the prefix of Ganga (the river) to Gouri^ 
the (?a9i^or^ festival is evidently one, essen- 
tially sacred to a river goddess, affording 
proof of the common origin of the rites of the 
Isis of Egypt and India. For Goari is the 
goddess of abundance, and is called Isa, 
also Isani or Parvati, also Lakshmi and 
corresponds to the Ceres of Greece. The 
festival relates to the Bassant or spring, the 
Tenial equinox. An image is made of earth, 
barley is sown and by watering and artificial 
heat is made to grow. In Hajpntanuh 
beautiful girls carry the idol and bathe it 
in the water, and return with it to t)ie 
palace. The festival resembles that of the 
Egyptian Diana, at Bnbastis, and of Isis at 
Busiris within the Delta of the Nile. During 
the festival, Iswara yields to his consort 
Gouri, and occupies an unimportant position 
near her at the waters edge, meanly clad, 
smoking intoxicating herbs, and» whether 
by accident or design, holding the stalk of 
an onion in full blossom as a mace or club, 
a plant regarded by some of the Egyptians 
with veneration, but held by the Hindus 
generally in detestation : but why the 
nindns should, on such an occasion, thus 
degrade Iswara is not apparent. Tod's Rajas- 
Aan, Vol. I. p. 675. Sec Gauri, Gouii 

GANGOTRI, 31 <5 0', 78 <^ 56', in Garh- 
wal. A celebi*ated hindu temple is on the right 
bank of the Bhagiratti in its upper course, 
10,319 feet above the sea. Near the temple 
the scenery is grand. Four peaks rise there, 
huge, lofty, covered with suow, and the 
river runs impetuously in it« shingly bed, 
the stifled sound of the stones which it rolls 
along, mixes with the r(»ar of its waters. 
Soorgarounee is the nearest of the 

peaks and forms the western point of the composed of about two-fifths of that pro- 
great snowy hollow. Roodroo Himala is the vince. 


pore and Patna groups have been recently 
put under tlie administration of the Super- 
intendent of the Cuttack Tributary Mehala 
See Kol. 

GANGRI or K^ilas mountain range ex-. 
tonds in one unbroken chain from the source of 
the Indus, to the junction of the Shay ok, 
and forms the natural boundary between 
Ladak, Balti and Bongdo on the south, and 
Ruthog, Nubra, Shigar and Hunnager on 
the north. It has six passes, at hcighths from 
15,000 to 18,105 feet. Gangri, in Tibetan, 
means ice-mountain. Kailas means crystalline 
or icy, and is derived from Kelas, crystal, 
which is itself a compound of Ke water and 
las to shine. Kailas or ice mountain, is the 
Indian Olympus, the abode of Siva and the 
celestials. The Tibetans look upon Ti-se or 
the Kailas Peak as the highest mountain in 
the world. See Indus. Kuen-lun. 

GANGRI. Tib. Ice mountain. 

GANGSALAN. Jav. Pomegranate. 

GANGTUNG. See Kunawcr. 

GANGUE is the mineral substance which 
encloses or accompanies any metallic ore in 
the vein. Quartz, lamellar carbonate of 
lime, sulphate of baryta, sulphate and fluate 
of lime, are common gangues ; bat many 
other substances become such when tbey 
predominate in a vein. The word is pro- 
nounced gang : it is from the German ganff^ 
a vein or channel Faulkner, 

GANGUN. A river near Moradabad can- 
tonment, and near Nageena in Bijnour. 

GANHAR. Hind. Amarantus anar- 
dan a ; also A. mangostanus. 

GANHILA. Hind. Premna mucronata. 

GANHIRA. Hind. Nerium odorum, 

GANHULA. Hind. Sambucus ebulus. 

GANHULI. Hind. Ph»nopus, sp. 

GAN-HWUY is the western division of 
the ancient province of Keaiig.nan, being 

eastern, and forms the other point ; but from 
that point runs down, a huge snowy shoulder 
that seems to give off or end in the moun- 
tains that surround and form a great 
unbroken, though unequal, snowy ridge, ' 
bounding and couBning the glen of the 
Bhsgirattce. The other three peaks form 
different points in the back of the immense 
hollow, and altogether compose one of the 
most magnificent and venerable mountains, 
perhaps, that the world can {Produce. — 
Fraser's Jlimala Moimfahis, p. 468, 473. 
HerberU Kodgsmi. 

GANGPUR. A tributary estate S.E. of the 
Colehan. With the exception of Grangpoor 
and Bunni, all the districts in the Sambul- 

GANI. Hind. Oxystelma esoulenta. 

GANIRA. Hind. Nerium odorum. 

of Elseocarpus prinoides. The nuts, cleared 
of the soft pulp or fiesh that covers them, 
are curiously sculptured, and being bony 
and taking a fine polish they are frequently 
set in gold and strung into necklaces. Chi* 
nitrus sphaericus, is a middle-sized tree, 
common in various parts of India, aa 
well as the Malay Archipelago, and those of 
Monocera tuberoulata, from the forests of 
Trayaocore, are what are principally naed 
for this purpose. 

GANJ. Hind. A wholesale graia mar* 
ket. WHa. 



GANJI GADDA. Tbl. Commelina 
Q. Urgenia sp ? 

GANJIKA. Sans. Ganjah. 

GANNA. Hind. Saccharam officinamm, 

GANNA, Sans. Amarantna oampestris. 

GANITERIT. Tel. Neriam odomm. 
Aiti. Oleander. 

GANNET. A sea-bird, the Sala alba. 
It measures about 6 feet across and 2^ feet 

GANONG, generally called Ayen Panas, 
hot springs in Nanning. All the hot springs 
of the Malayan Peninsula, and some of those 
in Sumatra, occur in swampy flats. That 
of Ganong occurs at or close to the line up 
to which plntonic action has converted the 
rocks of the district into granite. 

GANPATTY. The hindu god of wisdom. 
See Ganapati ; Gh^nesa. 

GANTHA. A bell : one used in the holy 
ceremonies of hindas, and which is rung at 
certain times to keep away evil spirits. These 
bells, as well as the Instral spoons, are 
usually snrmoanted by the figure of the deity 
in whose worship they are used. — Cole. Myth. 
Hhul, p. 380. 

GANTELU. Tkl. Pencillaria spicata. 

GANTH. Hind. Also ganthi, a knot, 
Mahomedans usually keep a string for their 
children on which they tie a knot, each 
birth day, hence baras-gauth a birth day 
knot, a birth day. 

GANTHIA. Hind. Allium cepa. 

GANTH lAN. HiNO. Ipomaea reptans. 

GANTU BHARANGI. Tel. A species 
of Clerodendron, a low herbaceous plant, 
common about Lamsingi in Vizagapatam, 
the roots of which are largely exported for 
medicinal purposes . 

chia corc'hori folia. 

GANYERI. HiNH. Zlzyphna vulgaris. 

GAO, written also Gniiw or Gaon. Hind. 
a village. Travellers in India reckon the 
day*8 distjinco of journies by the Grao or vil- 
lage. Das Gao wo aid mean ten days' journey. 

GAO. Hind. A Cow. In hinduism, 
the gao, or cow, is symbolic of Prit-hu, the 
earth. A Gao-kos is the distance that is 
measured by the audibleness of the bellow 

ing of a cow from one extremity to another, the viceroy at Goa, author of a work enti- 

Tr. ofHlmh Vol. II., page 40. 

GAO-CHARHAI. Hind. Grazing. 

GAOHATTY. A town in Assam the 
ancient Kasawati. See Gowhatty. 

GAOL A. The milkman race, they have 


GAO-LOCHAN. Gall stones, extracted 
from the gall bladders of dead cow8» much 
used in medicine, also in charms; and in 
painting. — Gen, Med, Top. page 136. 

GAON. Hind. A village pronounced 
gam also gang, supposed to be from the San- 
scrit grama, and to be represented in the 
Chinese heong and Singalese gama. 

GAON KORAWA. A section of the 
Korawa race. See Corawa Korawa. 

GAOON. Guz. Wheat 

GAO ZABAN. Pebs. Lit. cows tongue, 
of the bazaars of India, is obtained from 
Cacalia EUeinia, W, Anisomeles Malabarica ; 
Trichodesma indicum : HeUotropium erosum, 
H. ophioglossa, Trichodesma indicum, 
Onosma bracteatum, O. macrocephala, 
and Macrotomia euchroma. 

GAPTA. A part of the name of Chan*, 

GAPURJI. Hind. Bixa orellana- 

GAR. Tibetan, a fort. In Sanscrit a dis- 
trict, a region, as Kash-gar, Gnjar-gar, Cut- 
chwahagar. See Ghur. 

GARA. An i^ricultural tribe in Seha"* 
runpore. They are mahomedans and are 
supposed to be converted slaves, like th« 

GARA. A river of Rewah. 

GARA CHETTU. Tbl. Balanites -^gyp- 
tiaca DelUe. var. Indica. 

GARAGA, Tel. Gardenia g^nmmifera. 

GARAIN. Hind. The Himalayan net- 
tle, a species of Urtica. 

GARAKHPUR. Near Magor, the place 
where the hindu reformer Kabir died. See 
KAbir Pantlii. 

GARANDU. Hind, of Murree, Prinse- 
pia Qtilis. 

GARAN. A mole. See Kuwera. 

GARAPAGARI. Mahr. A person who 
pretends to have the power of diverting hail- 
stones oflP from fields. See Garpagari. 

GARAR. Hind. The Gurgura of the 
Salt Range, Reptonia buxifolia. 

GARBA GANDA. Hind. Saccharum 

GARCE. A grain measure equal to 
9256i lbs. 

GARCLAS AB HORTO. Physician to 

tied De Arom. et Simp. Historia. 1565. 

A tree of Moulmein. Used in common pur- 
poses of building. — OaL Oat. Ex. 1862. 

considerable herds of cattle. Greek, Gala, 1 GARCINIACE^. A natural order of 
milk. See Gala : Galatian,^Goala, India, p. 327. \ plants consisting of trees or shrubs, of which 

2C1 LL 


coarse kind. The garnets when collected 
are gentry pounded, and the bad ones broken : 
those which survive the blows are reckoned 
of good quality. In a river near the Mun- 
serabad ghat in Mysore, the natives search 
for garnets, which are sold at one rupee 
each. They occur there as deposits from a 
hill of Mica schist which occurs higher up 
the river, which Captain R. Roberts of the 
Engineers followed up. The garnet is classed 
amongst gems, but onlyone variety is of value, 
and inferior kindsare so plentiful that,in8ome 
parts of Grerinany, they are even employed as 
afluxinsmelting iron. InSouthern India they 
are almost universally employed by the cutler, 
the stone-mason, and others, as a substitute 
for emery, under which name the coarser 
garnets are sold in the bazaars. Unlike 
corundum, however, the hardness of which 
is only inferior to the diamond, and ranks 
ninth inthescale of hard ness,thegarnet is only 
6'5 to 7*5 in degree. Garaets are of various 
colors, a circumstance due to the varying 
proportions and combinations of the three 
or four silicates of alumina, lime, iron and 
magnesia, of which they are composed. The 
precious garnets are of a clear, deep red, 
and on account of their depth of color are 
cut by the jeweller quite thin. It is this 
thin stone which is now termed the carbun- 
cle and it is supposed to be identical with 
the hyacinth or essonite or hessonite. — 
Madras Mtiseum Report. King, Mcculloch's 
Commtrcml Dictionary ^ p. 595. See Corun- 
dum. Alabandic Carbuncles. 

GARNA. Hind. Carissa diffusa. Hiun- 
gama, Capparis borrida. 

GARNI-KURA. Sans. Hibiscus canna> 

GARO. Ta-yan. Blrm. A tree that 
grows in the Moluccas, called garo, which 
the Burmese cjill ta-yaii. Linnaeus has 
described it as Exccjocana agallocha. It 
is abundant near the sea, the juice is 
said to produce the most intense pain, and 
often blindness if it enter the eye. From 
this the Karen call it the " blind tree" ; and 
all are so much afraid of it, that Mr. 
Mason has sometimes found it difficult to 
induce his boatmen to pull up beneath its 
shade. — Mason. See Aloes-wood : Eagle- 
wood : Excoecaria agallocha. 

GARO, Garoo, Gartop, Sur, Yoogar, or 
Gurtf^kh, for it is known by all these 
names, is a collection of black tents inha- 
bited by pastoral tribes lor six months, 
in winter, the Tartars retire chiefly to 
Eegoong on the bank of the river, two 
stages down tl.e stream, and the Chinese 
governors reside at the fort of Tuzheegung, 


where they have houses. Garo is the most 
famous mart for wool in Chinese Tartary, 
and there is a fair of 10,000 or 22,000 peo* 
pie in July, well attended by merchants 
from Kumaon, Koonawur, and Ladak, and 
sometimes from Yarkund. Wool) borax 
and salt are the principal exports, and these 
articles are exchanged for the produce of 
the plains of India. The country about 
Graro must be very elevated, since the only 
productions are prickly plants and small 
tiifts of short brown grass. It is the great 
summer mart of Gnari Khorsum. The pass 
over the range between Garo and the Sutlej, 
is 19,200 feet above the sea. It is near 
the source of the Indus river. The Garo 
river, is the Singge-chu or Indus, also called 
there Garjung-chu, and there is no great 
eastern branch as some suppose. At Garo, 
according to Mborcroft, it is a very insigni- 
ficant stream. — Capt. Gerard* 8 Account of 
Koonawnr^p. 144. See Indus. 

GARO. Malay. Aloes wood. 

GARO. A race occupying the mountains 
to the south of the valley of Assam in Lat. 
25 ® 20' N. and Long. 90 ® 40^ to;91 ^ 20' 
E. They are about 40 miles south from 
Goalpara, and to the north of Mymensing. 
They are a race of hillmen inhabiting the 
mountainous country called the Garo or 
Garrow Hills, which bound the north-eastern 
parts of Bengal. They differ in many respects 
from other lull tribes. The Naga, Mikir, Ka- 
chari, Guro, and Khassya, are the five races in 
whose possession chiefly, are the broad lands 
of the Assam chain extending from the N. E. 
near Kynduajnand Namrupononeside,along 
the valley of the Brahmaputra to its south- 
ern bend round the western extremity of the 
chain ; and, on the other side, South-wes* 
terly along the valley of the Burak and 
Surmu : these highlands are thus embraced 
bv the valleys of the Bralimapntra and its 
affluents on all sides but the S. E. where 
they slope to the Kynduayn. The Garrow 
are called by the villagers and upper hill 
people, Coonch Garrow ; though they them- 
selves, if asked of what race they are, will 
answer, " Garrow," and not give themselves 
other tribal appello-tion, though there are 
many tribes of the Garrow. A Garrow is a 
stout, well-shaped man ; hardy, and able to 
do much work ; of a surly look ; flat, caflre- 
like nose; small eyes, generally blue or 
brown ; forehead wrinkled, and over-hanging 
eye-brow ; with large mouth, thick lips, and 
face round and short : t^eir colour is of a 
light or deep brown. The women are short 
and squat, with masculine expression of face; 
in the features they differ little from the 
men. The dress of these people corresponds 

269 MM 


lagea u part of the establishmeat to present emhltaa or vahfui of Yisbnu is Garads, or 

their injaring the craps. the ea^le, and the San-god both of tba 

GABP. Geb. Tarn. Egyptians and hindns is typified with this 

GABBA. A rirer rauuing near Shaliabad bird's head. Amna (the dawn), in hinds 

In Oudb. mythology, also the son of Kasyapa and 

GABBAB. HiEie. Andropogon mori- Vinata, is the brother of Gamda and is de»- 

catns. cribed as a handsome yonth nithoat thighs 

GABRAH, and Ubrassa, districts in the or legs. His two sons, Snm^ati and 

west of Cntofa, in whieh are the towns of Jatayoo, attempting in imitation of their 

Uhar, Nnrna and Lakpat Bandar. father to reach the sns, the wings of 

GABBUIilN^, A snb-tamily of birds the former were bomt and he f^l to 

of the tribe Insessores and family Corvidie. the earth : of this the Greeks ma; have 

lb comprises two sections: made their fable of Icams. Amna's im- 

a. Magpies, 4 gen. 9 sp. viz.; 3 Pica, perfect form has been snpposed to be alla- 

4 Oendracitta, 1 Crypeerma, 1 Temnoma. sive U) his partial appearance, his head and 

d. Jay-Magpies, 6 gen. 10 sp. viz : 2 body may be seen, bat his legs are yet in in- 

Cissa, 3 Psilorhinns, 2 Garrnlns, Perisorens, visible night, or lost in tbe blaze of Sarya'a 

I Lnpbocitta, 1 Tnmagra. brilliancy. The images of Oamda are set 
GABBAfi, often written Gbarra, a river np and worshipped with those of Vjshn^, 

of the Panjab, the modern name of tbe an- in tbe temples dedicated to that deity, 

cient Byphasls. See Gbarra, Scniptared images of him are also found in 

GABBI. EiKD. Amndinaria falcata. the magnificent cavern temples of Elephants* 

GABBTJLACIN.^. A snb-family of Ellora, &c., &c. In tbe last mentioned ex- 

birds, of the tribe Insessores and family cavation he is seen in several places accom- 

Corvidn. It comprises 5 gen. 27 sp. viz.: panyingParvati, the consort of Siva. Qarnda 

20 Garmlax, 2 AcUnodora, 2 Sibia, I Cnlia has many names. He is called Saperoa, 

and 2 Pternthins. from the beauty of his plamage, which in 

Qarrvlax cinereifroni of Kelaart, ia affined tbe pictures of him is of rich bine, red, 

to G. delesserti of tlie Nilgiriii, bnt difEaring and green, «olonrs embellished with the 

much in its oolonring. GeDcml hne a rich variety of gesis which asaally adorn the 

brown above, eanch paler below ; forehead bl&da deities. He is i^o iermed Nag- 

and cbeelcs pore ashy ; chin and borders of antaka, or the enemy of serpents, Vishnv 

tbe onter primaries, albeseent. Bill black- raf ha, or the rsban of Vislum, &c. to. Is 

iah. Legs dnsky corneona. Length 8^- in, ; many of tiie vaishnava temples, Oamda is 

of wing 4j in, ; and tail 4 in, ; its oatennost represented as a man witii wings, and is so 

feathers IJ in. less; bill to gape IJ in. lasse Bcnlptared on the pillars, or large plaster 

II in. figures are placed at each comer of tbe tem- 
GABTOP. See Garo, Indus. pie walls. In tbe Elepbanta cave, Gamda is 
GABTJ. Malay. Eagle wood. See Garo. often seen with an appendf^e, and on several 
GARO BANS. Hinb. Sambaaa, the very old coins, he has snakes or elephants 

Bamboo. Amndinaria falcata. in bis tail or beak ; for he is sometimes 

GARTOA or GUBUDA. This demi- ^P-^ doable headed, like the PpuBsian eagle 

god, of the hinduB, with the head and wings -J^^ ""^ snake ronnd h.s neck. Bnt he is 

rf a bird and the body, legs, and arms of a not Borepresent^e.^er m p.otnr^ orcasts. is of considerable importance in hindn l^"^ legends make G»l^da tbe off«pnng of 

mythology. He is the son of Kn«yapa and Kasyapa and Dit. This all-prol.fic dame 

Vinata,t6e brother of Amna and the vaban l^'d 'in egg, which it was predicted would 

rebicle of Vishnn 

produce her a deliverer from some great 

affliction : aft«r a lapse of five hundred 

"When Ligh oi; cagk-pluraoa he rides." ^^^^8, Gamda spmng from the egg, flew to 

As Arnna,thecbarioteerofSuiya'thesTin), tbe abode of Indra, extinguished the fire 

iit the dawn, the harbinger of day, so does that snrronnded it, conquered its guards, 

Garuda, the younger brother, follow as its the devata, and bore off tho amrita 

perfect light. He i-4 the emblem of strength (ambrosia), which enabled him to liberate 

and swiftness, and besides being tho bearer hb captive mother. A few drops of thia 

of the omnipotent Vishnu, ia greatly distin- immortal beverage falling on tbe species of 

gaiabed in hindn legends on many very grass called Ensa. (tbe Poa cynosnroides,) 

important occa-sions, Aruna in tbe Sa bean it became eternally consecrated; and the 

lystem of the Veda, as the charioteer of the serpents greedily licking it up, so lacerated 

Ban, dinving his six horsed car — corresponds their tongues with the sharp grass, that they 

vtth tbe Aurora of tho Greeks. The have ever since remaioed forked; bat the 



GARUNDA. HiXD. of Murree Hills, Ca- 
risBa diffbsa. 

GARVANTZOS. Sp. Ciccr arietinnm. 

GAS. Sp. Achyranthefl aspera. Linn, 

Bicarpaa styracifoHns. D, 0. 

GASAKA. Sans, poppy-seed. 

GAS-MADDOO. Sikoh. A snare : one 
kind is called gas maddoo, tree-snare, to 
distinguish it from the smaller, called at- 
maddoo hand-snares. — Forbes* Eleven years 
in Ceylon^ Vol. II, p.. 58. 

GAS-MIRIS. SiNQ. Cayenne pepper. 

GASP A R BALBI. A traveller in India 
from 1679 to 1688. See Balbi. 

in lat. 2^ 2b' S. long., 107*^ 6' E. and 14 
miles ea.«.t from Batavia, has on it a peaked 
hill, visible for 30 miles, and is a principal 
mark in sailing to or from the Gaspar 
Strait**. — Horsburgh, See St. Barbe. 

GASPAR STRAIT, is formed between 
the island of Banca on the west and BUliton 
on the east. It was named after a Spanish 
Captain who passed through it from Ma- 
nilla in 1724. Many navigators prefer this 
Strait to that of Banca. — Horsburgh, 

GASTEROPODA. The third class of 
mollasks, according to the system of Cavier, 
who remarks that it is very nnmerooH, and 
that an idea may be formed of it from the 
slogs and shell-snails. 

According to other classifications it is 
the second class. It comprises 4 orders 40 
&milies and many species, viz. : — 

Order i. Prosobranchiata. 

Sec. A. Siphonostomata, Camivorons gasteropoda 
Families Strombida) ; MaricidsB ; Baccinidffi ; 
Conidso; VolutidiB; CyprcBidao. 
Sec B. Holostomota ; Sea-snails. 
Families NaticidsB; PjramidellidsB ; Cerithia- 
dfl9 : Melaniada) ; Torritellida) ; Littorinidse; 
Palndinidao ; NeritidaB; TorbinidaB ; Halioti- 
dflD ; Fissnrellidaa ; Calyptreidio ; PatelUdffi ; 
DentalidsQ ; Cbitonids). 


Sec. A. In-operculatJU 

Families Hclicidas ; Limacidso ; Oncidiades ; 
Limnaeidae; Auriculida». 
Sec. B. Operculata. 
Families Cyclostomidas : Acicalidao. 

Order ilL Ofisxhodrancuiata. 

Sec. A. Tecti-braiichiata. 

Families Tornatellidio ; Bul'idaB; Aplysiadas | 
PlenrobranchitloLj ; Phyliidiada). 
Sec. B. Nudibranchiata. 
Families Doridae; Tritoniadae ; -<Eolidao ; Phyl- 
lirboidaD; Ely&iada). 

Order iv. Nucleobranchiata. 

Families Firolidac ; AtlantidaB. 

Eng. Cyc. vol. II, V- ^24. WoodwanVs 



A carions herbaceons species of orchis, na- 
tive of New Holland, is edible, and prefer- 
red by the aborigines to potatoes and other 
taberons roots: being a parasitic plant, it 
con Id scarcely be systematically cultivated. 
It flonrishes in its wild state on loamy soil in 
low or sloping grounds, and,in the spring, ap- 
pears as a whitish bulb above the sward, of a 
hemispherical shape, and about the size of a 
small egg. The dusky white covering re- 
sembles a fine white net, and within it is a 
pellacid gelatinous substance. Again with- 
in this is a firm kernel, about as large as a 
Spanish nut, and from this a fine fibrous 
root descends into the soil. It is known in 
Van Dieraen's Land and Australia, by the 
common name of native bread, also wild yam. 
— Slnwwnds, 

GASSIM. See Jakun. 


GATA. Hind. (1) a plot, or piece of 
land; (2) two bullocks in yoke, treading 
out the grain ; (3) a bi*ahmin or banya as- 
sociating with a strange woman. 

GATA. Tkl. Diospyrus sylvatica. — Hoxh. 

GAT HA. Sans. A song, the songs of 

GATHI. Hind. Bell. See Gantha. 

GATPARBAH. A river of the S. Maha- 
ratta country. 

GATRINTA. V. Tbl. Hugonia mystax, 
L.— >r. J- A, 

GATTARU. An outcast race in Ceylon. 

GATTA. Hind. Allium cepa. 

GATWA. Hind. A kind of grass in 

GAU. Hind. Carissa diflPnsa. — Boxb, 

GAU. Sans. Earth, land, the German 
Gran, Armenian Gawar, land, province. It 
was also a settlement of the Aryans near Sog- 

GAUDA. Kab. An agricultural tribe in 
Mysore, sometimes labourers, small farmers 
nnder a lease from the land-holders. — WiU 

GAUDAMA. A Bulldha of Burma, prior 
to Sakya Sin ha. 

GAUDAMA. An image of Buddha Gau« 
dama. They a^e largely manufactured in 
Burmah, in marble, wood, stone and metals. 

GAUDA.PALEN. A buddhist temple at 
Paghan ** Cauda Palen," signifies the 
Throne of Gaudania. Height 180 feet. It 
is cniciform in plan. It is very conspicuous 
in approaching Paghan from the southward, 
with namerons pinacles and taJl central 
spires, it is seen glistening with its white 
stucco like plaster, far down the Irrawaddy 
river rising like a dim vision of Milan Gathe- 


in the hills of the Vindhya range. Ifc waff 
taken by storm on the 1 5th December 1803. 
The Ghnwilfi^rh hills separate the Tapti and 
Pama. They rise in peaks to heights of 3,000 
feet Mean height of the Oawilghar village 
k 1,043 feet. Q. T. S. 

GAWN. Guz. Triticnm aastivnm. 
GAW-SHIR Pr». Opoponax. 
GAW-ZERAH also Padzahr-i-kaxn. 
Pers. Bezoar. 


GAYA. a town in Bahar province. It 
was the birth place of the Oautamai Sakya 

Gkya is Fa Hian's Kia Ye. It is famous 
for the hinda Vishnnpnd, which is a rival 
counterpart of the impression of Buddha's 
loot and Gaya and Bood'ha Gaya in each 
others proximity point out the alternate pre- 
dominance of the antagonistic hindoo and 
bnddhtst sects. The Vishnnpad had been set 
npjprior to Fa Hian*s visit. 

The Gayalese widowers are barred the 
privilege of wiving after the death of their 
first ¥nfe, as hindoo widows are barred the 
privilege of taking a husband after the death 
of their first husband. This savours of the 
celibacy of the Baddhaic priests. There are 
two places of the name of Gkiya, one of 
which is called 6ndd*ha Gaya, Bnddhisti- 
eal Ghiya, to distinguish it from the town 
of Gaya, which is situated six miles to the 
northward. In the town of Gaya itself 
there are no ancient buildings now existing; 
bat most of the present temples have been 
erected on former sites and with old mate- 
rials. Statues, both buddhistical and brah- 
manical, are found in all parts of the old 
city, and more especially about the temples, 
where they are fixed in the walls, or in 
small recesses forming separate shrines in 
the court-yards of the larger temples. 

Bndd'ha Gaya is famous as the locality of 
the holy pipal tree, under which Sakya 
Binha sat for six years in mental abstraction, 
until he obtained buddhahood. A long and 
detailed account of this sacred place is given 
by the Chinese pilgrim Hwen Thsang, be- 
tween the years A. D. 029 and 642. He 
describes minutely all the temples and 
statues which surrounded the celebrated 
pipal tree, known thronghout the buddhist 
world as the bodhi-drum, or *' tree of know- 
ledge." Several of the objects enumerated 
by the Chinese pilgrim can still be identified 
from their exact correspondence with his 
description. Tr. of Hind, Vol. I. p. 223. 
Arch. Sarv. Report Vol. XXXII. Beiig, As. Soc. 
Jouni. 1864. See Bakror ; Panawa ; Kur- 
kibar; Bajgir; Bhitari; Bihar; Burabur; 


Kesaryaf Baddhsr Inscriptions, p. 37?, 

GAY AC. Fr. Gimiaenm officinale. 

GAT A or Geddy— ? Jewellery. 

GAYAFU AKU. Tel. Sidahnmilis. WtUd. 
W, and A. also S. radicans. — Cuv. W* and A, 
From gayam '* a wound" akti ** a leaf." The 
leaves are used as a styptic. EUioi. 

GAYA&HAA* The tea-house girl of 
Japan. They are virtuous; it h part of 
their profession to assist at the orgies of the 
Pans and Nymphs, Hodg$on^8 NtMgasaki^ 
p. 240. 

GAYATBL From the Sanscrit Goi to 
sing, the most sacred verso of the Yedas. 
See Gnetri : GFatha. 

GAYER. Malay. A fruit of Singapore. 
Its seeds are used as marbles. 

GAYA KABMA. See Inscriptions, p. 

GAYSA GUSA. Can. Poppy seed. 

GAZ or Gazu, which is mu(^ nsed for 
making sweetmeats in Persia, is a glatinons 
substance, like honey, deposited by a small 
green insect npon the leaves of the oak 
tree. It is the manna of the chemist. See 
Died. Sic, Book XVII, Chap. VIII. Ferrier 
Jouni., p. 500. See GhuEanjabin. 

GAZA. An ancient town which has still 
1 5,000 inhabitants, is above 15 miles S. of 
Askelon, npon the edge of the desert, to 
which it stands in the same relation as a 
sea port to the sea. Eothen^s Tramd from 
(he Easf, p. 240. 

GAZA half a day's journey from Jafia, 
occupies the summit of a mount about 3 
miles from the sea, and contains about 3,000 
people ** The king shall perish from Ghizs." 
" BJEddness is come npon Gaza." See Zcch. 
IX, 5, and Ezek. XXV. 16. Rohlnson^a Travelg 
Palestine nvd Syria^ Vol. J, p. 23. 

GAZANJABIN. Pers. The manna pro- 
duced on branches of the Tamarix Indica, 
by the punctures of the Coccus maniparus. 
This is often called Arabian manna, to dis- 
tinguish it from Turanjabin, Persian manna, 
from the Shir-kist or Khorasaii manna and 
from Sicilian manns. See Graza. 

GAZEB PEER See Hot Springs. 

GAZELLE. The name given to several 
species of antelope. 

The Indian Gazelle is the Antelope Ara* 
bica, Kemprich, 

TheGazellaruficollis isabeautiful Antelope 
of Eastern Africa, known there as the Audra. 
It is gregarious and resides in herds in the 
desert between Nubia, Dongola and Kordo- 
fan. It is 5 feet 4 inches lone and 3 feet high 
at the shoulder. Its horns 12^ inches long. 

The Ahu or Jairou, is the Gazella sub- 
guttirosa and it inhabits all the central 


of nnbnmt brick with an area of a. Tort with 
toivers At the angles : it beard S S. W. bj S. 
from Gebel DakhnD. A large gateway in 
the centre opens npon the ralley. The en- 
closure contains a saki, anda ciatera of cement 
200 feet by 1 5. The old Roman station of Ge- 
bel Qir stftuds on a hill. There are atill the 
remains of a reservoir and a lake 300 feet in 
dinmeter and 20 feet deep, also of several 
cist«rns and three aqnedacts, attached to the 
BtAtion. In the valley are the traces of regn- 
Urly lud ont stables and lodgings bailt of 
limestone. The Eaateiii Desert of Egypt, 
from Gcbel Afril, by the ancient Porphyri/ 
qaarrie* of Oebel Diikkan, iiear to Hm old 
tlalton of Oebel Gir, with a brief account oj 
Ike raiitg at Gebel Bixkhan by Hekekyan Bey. 

GECARGINUS. A genua of land craba, 
called by the French Tonrtooroiiz, Crabes 
Peintfl, and Crubes Yioleta. G. camifiBX 
and G. hirtipes occnrs in India. 

GECHCHANQI. Tkl. CelaatrnB mon- 
tana, R. 

GKCHHI-SHIM. Baxa. Broad bean, 
Labi ah- macrot^rpnm. 

GECISrS^. A sQb-family of birds of 
the family Piciilffi, as nnder — 

Fam. Picidffl. 

Sub-fan. CampephileniB, 6 gen. 16 sp. 
viz.. I Cdrapepliilng ; 2 HemicercnB j 4 Hemi- 
lophns ; 3 Ohrysocolaptos ; 2 BrafibyptemB ; 

Sub-fam. GecininiB, 4 gen. 19 sp. viz., 
12 Gecinus ; 1 Gacincnlasi 3 Meigljptes ; 
3 Micropternns. 

Sub-fam. Picinte, 2 gen. 15 Bp. viz., 
1 Dryocophns ; 14 Picna. 

Sub-fam. Picnmnium, 2 gen. 3 sp- viz., 

1 gen. 1 sp. viz.. 


series of small spines ; femoral and frenal 
pores in a continuous line. Gray, Licardi, 
p. 155. The Geckoes, frequent the sitting 
rooms, and being famished with pads to 
each toe^ they are enabled to ascend perpen- 
dicnlor walla and adhere to glaaa and ceil- 

The Tokfti or Takke, Malay, I* Gecko de 
Siam of Cnvier, are nnmerons in Siam bat 
also occur in Java and other places of the Ar^ 
chipelago. It ia from 6 to 9 in. long and 
marked with red and green spots and frequent 
tmberclee. Oravifitrd' i Embatty, Tennenl'a 
Sketches qf the Natural History of Ceylon, 
p. 2S1, Oosae's Naiurai Sitiory, p. 31. 

GECKOTID.^. A family of Saurian 

Geu. Geoko venis Jfsrr. Bengal. AsBm. Anda- 

S>tb.fam. Yunciu£c, 
1 Yonx torquilla. 

Sab-fan. Indicatoi-inte, I gen. 1 sp. viz., 
1 Indicator santhonotiis. See Birds, p. 470, 

GtSCEO. A genus of Snurian reptiles, 
of the natUTiil family Geckotidie, the species 
ut' which are widely distributed throaghont 
the world. In the Mal.iy tongue, they are 
C-illed T.>kke or Tokai. In Bnrmah, the ordi- 
nary call of the honse Gecko is " Tooktay." 
Tht-y are harmless, but tlieiv sndden clear 
call, and their hideo oh forms alarm strangers. 
A French traveller, M, I'ouqact, hearing his 
name pronounced, repeatedly answered to it. 
"Ell! bien," until Juade atvare that it was the 
Gecko's call. There are in Ceylon Hemi- 
dfLCtylns macnlatus, Dam et Bib., H. Lea- 
chenaultii. Dam et Bib., H. frenatns, Schh- 
gal. Of these, the last is very common in 
the houses of Colombo. Colour grey ; sides 
with smTiU granules ; thumb short ; chin- 
shields fuur ; tail rounded with a transverse 

Gen. Beeresii, China. 

Qen. Chinensit, „ and Jftpan. 

Oan. Monarchicn*. Amboyna, Bornoo. 

Qen. Q. atentor. Cantor, Andamaiis. 
I3en. Ftychoioonohomakxnphalum. Dum. el BA., 
Geo. Hemidactylni coctie!, D. et B., Calcutta. 

H. Kelaartf, Thnb., Cejlon. 

H. Iiewhenaiilcii,i).e(£, Nilgiri, 

H. maeulatni, D, «t B., Ceylon. 
U. tablos'n»,Qmy, Uergni, Ceylon. 
H. fasdatn*, Qray. 
H. frenatoi, Ce;Ioii. 
H. Tittatns, „ 
Gen. Peripria Caotoria, D. et S., AndauuuiB. 
Gen. NycCeridinm plaCjariu, Bckneid. 
Gen. Dorjora Bardmorei, Sl'jth, XergnL 
Oeo. Phelauma oepediauoni, Ptr., Maorit. 

P. AndsmiuieDse, Bls/th, Andam. 
Gen, Gfrnnodact^loa Jerdooii, Th<ob. 

G. GeckoideB, Spii., Salt range. 
G. triedrus, Ounth., Ceylon. 
G. polcbellos.Gh-oy, Pimuig, SinifaporB 
G. fnenataa, Ount^, Ceyloo. 
G. Kandianaa. Xetaart, Cejlon. 
G. HjwrieiiBis, Jerdcn, Bangalore. 
G. IndicDB, Oray, Nilgiri, 
G. Idalaboricos, Jerdon, Ualabar. 
G. littoralis, Jardon, MsJabar. 
G. DjccancnBU, ^i/liej, Del^o. 
Gen. Naultiniu variegatiii, Bliith. Tensas. 
S. fasciolntus, Blylh, Sabathoo. 
Gen. Pacllnla rubida, itij,tfu.,An(iftni«ns. 
Gen. Eablepharia Hardnickti, Ctiiattaisa, Pinsng, 
E. macolaris, Blyth, Salt raDge. 
Gan. HomoDota Faiciata, Bigth, Central ludia. 
Gen. Platjnrua aahneideruuiaa, Java. ' 

Geo. Baltalia Bnblv;8, India. 
Gen. Peropos matiiatua, Manilla. 
Geo, Theconyi aejchellenslB, SOTohelles. 
Gen. Pent:idai^tTluBdiiTBnceUii, CatouttB, Indi^ 
Geo, Tarentoia bomoeiisis, Borneo. 
Geo. GaniodactjIiutimoreDBie, India, 
God. C;rtodact;laamarmorataa,Jara,PliilippinM- 
C palahellos, Singapore. 

Gen. Keteronota Eeodallii, Bonieo. 



Oeldote and Cotemporary Princes, 


Oehloto Princci. 



Caliphs of Bagdad 


Kings of Gazni. 

Bappa, bom . . * 
Bappa obtained 

Bappa governs 

Barma abandons 










Saaeii Komar. 

Umba Possao. 



,868 to 





Oaliplis of Bagdad. 
Omarll. (l3thdo.) 

Hnsbam (IJth do.) 


812 to 



A. D. 

86 to 96. 
99 to 102. 

104 io \2& 


709 to 715 Conquered India to tbe (Ganges. 

718 to72I.Sinde conquered. Tbe Mori 
prince of Cbeetore attacked by 
Mahomed (son of Kasim), the 
Greneral of Omar. 

.733 'to 742. Battle of Tours, A. D. 732, and 
defeat of the Calipb's army un- 
der Abdulrahman, by Charles 


^136 to 158|75I to 775. iFinal conquest of Sinde, and tbe 

name of its capital, Arore, 
changed to Mansoora. Bappa, 
founder of tbe Gehlote race in 
Mewar, retires to Iran. 

Haroon al Basbid, 
(24th do.) 


• • 

Al-^famoon (26th 


KifirfS of GcLzni. 

Mahmood. . 

170 to 193. 

198 to 218. 



786 to 809. Partition of the caUphat amongst 
Haroon*s sons. Tbe second, Al- 
Mamoon, obtains Zabulisthan. 
Sinde, and India, and rulea 
them till A. D. 813, when be 
became Calipb. 

818 to 833. Invasion and attack on Cbeetore 
from Zabulisthan. 


997 to 1027 

Inscription of Sancti-komar from 
ruins of Aitpoor. 

Invasion of India. 
Invasions of India, destruction of 
Aitpoor. ___«« 

From the Geklote have branched the two 
illtistrioas stems of the Seesodya and Aharya. 
They are spread over different parts of the 
N. W. ProTinees ; boh, thongh they some- 
times call themselves Seesodya, they are 
rarely known by any other name than that 
of Gehlote. The name Seesodva is said to 
be from Seesoo, a hare. Their neigh bonrp, 
who for some unexplained reason are fond of 
impatiog cowardice to them, say their name 
of Gehlote is derived from Gehla, a slave 
girl ; bat the real origin which is nniver- 
Bally believed in Mewar is the following. 
When the ancestors of the rana of Mewar 
were expelled from Guzei*at, one of the 
queens, by name Pooshpavnti, found refuge 

in the districts of India into Goon, Gohtuii 
&c., &c, 

GEKANTAKA. Sans. Asteracantha 
longi folia. Nees, 

GELA Hind. Mimosa scandens. 


GELASIMT, land crabs, most of these 
have a single large claw. They move about 
with that half erected and quickly retreat to 
their holes in the sand. There are several 
species known, G. annnli annnlipes; G, 
dnssumieri; G. tetragonum.— Co Win^ii?oo(2. 
See Crabs; Crustacesd. 

GELATINE is very abundantly diffused 
through the animal kingdom. Though not 
contained in any of the healthy animal 

among the brahmins of thoMaUia mountains, l g^^^g j^ is obtained in large proportion from 
SK« w^ cl,^n+w ofV..«,« A^};^^r,^A ^f ^ skins, from raostoftbe white and soft parts of 

She was shortly afterwards delivered of a 
son, whom she called, from the cave (Goha), 
in which he was born, by the name of Geh- 
lote, from him are descended the present 
raoas of Oodypoor. Their claim to bo de- 
scended from Noshirwan and a Grecian 
princess which has frequently been discussed, 
invests this clan with a peculiar interest. 
ElUot, Tod's Rajasthan, Vol. I. p. 84. 

GEHUN. Hi.ND. Triticum apstivum. 
Wheat. The word is variously corrupted 

animals as cartilage, tendon and membrane ; 
also from bone and horn. It is likewise' 
found in large proportion in cartilaginous 
fishes and forms the natural cement of many 
shells. From all these gelatine may be ex- 
tracted by simple boiling in water with dft 
ferent precautions in regard to cleaning. 
The preparation of gelatine in the form of 
glue from skins, d^c, is well known in In- 
dia, and described in the Persian works on 



The jirecions mineraiR, tboagVmostly tro- 
pical, occur in many conntrieB, and generally 
ill rocka or deposits diSering widely from 
them ill appearance bat generally in gra- 
nite or gneiss, or are washed into beds of 
rivers, they nre generally accompanied by 
the precious nietalB and oflea variona kinda 
of gpma are found togetlier. 

Jinny of those known to the ancients 
are not now recognLted. Akik, Arah is any 
gem of red hne, cornelian or rnby. T" 
sapphire of the Greeks and Somans 
deitcribed as intermixed with fcnid, bnt, 
aecoiding to Mr. Emannel, that of Scripture 
waaa transparent bine stone. 

Gems are often imitated and Mr. Emannel 
lays mnch stress on the hardness of a stone< 
a test for gems. Doahlets are partly tme gems 
aboTe, and partly false, being a portion of a 
trnejoioedartistically to glass or other gem 
below. lApidarics are sometimes deceived 
by fulse gems and Birmingham sends many 
blue cntglass false gems to Colombo for sale. 

Thediamond was considered by theBomans 
a remedy against incnbns and snccabos. The 
rnby against poison ; the jacinth proonred 
sleep : the sapphire procured favoar with 
princes. It was on tables of the sapphire, so 
often mentioned in holy writ, that the ten 
commandments were eiigrnTed : it was also 
supposed to preserve the sight; the chrysolite 
ossnaged wrath. Each of the twelve apostles 
was symbolised with a precions stone. Peter 
by jasper, John by emeraldand so on. A sar> valned at moi 
dina, was placed in the breast plate of the fonr-fiftha of 
Jewish high priest, and any precious stone of | io Aden and Snez. 

Table showing lite value of preeimu tionei exported from India to aUparti of the world 

a red bne was supposed by the Jews to bo, 
apreservatireagainst plague, and, amongst 
tha Arabs, to be nsefnl in stopping hnmor- 
rhnge. The topaz was so named from 
the island Topazion in the Red Sea. The 
carbnncle, in Hebi-ew, Barekat, signifying 
flashing stone, or lightning stone, waa 
supposed to fall fVom tbe clonds, amid 
flnshes of lightning. The Nopheb of the Old 
Testament, translated emerald,Beems to haTO 
been acorbancle. The car bnnclea of superior . 
brilliancy are called "males" and those of 
inferior colour females. 

The value of the ruby exceeds that of every 
other gem. Tbe precious opal is the most 
beantifal of all gems. Its price depends on' 
the play of colours displayed. Tbe hydro- 
pbane or Mexican opal loses its beanty when 
exposed to water. 
Since the 1 

sources of p 

covered neai 

at the Cape e 

alteration hai 

hare been se] 

higher than 

rare varietit 

eraersld and 

artificial gem 


its wealth i 

export them, 

to 1860-1; ■ 


qpialitj and in large masses. Amethyst also 
is pretty abundant, very beantiful specimens 
of this mineral are found in the alluvion, 
derived from the decomposition of gneiss 
and grnnitic rock, at Safiragam and the 
Seven Korles. A large crystal of it was 
found nearBaanwelle, containing apparently 
two distinct drops of water. Rose-quartz, 
which is pretty common, is often found in 
the same place as amethyst. Ceylon pro- 
duces the finest cat's eyes in the world, in- 
deed the only kind that are highly esteemed, 
and that bring a high price. The best spe- 
cimens have been found in the granitic allu- 
vion of Saffragam and Matura. Prase is of 
rare occurrence in the island, only amongst 
the pebbles on the shore of Trincomalee. 
Belongin«r to the schorl-family, are topaz and 
schorl. The topaz commonly passes under 
the name of the " white or water sapphire." 
It is generally white, or bluish or yellowish 
white, it is commonly much water- worn, and 
perfect crystals of ifc are very rare. It occurs 
in many places in the alluvion of granitic 

The Zircon family is richer in Ceylon than 
in any other pai't of the world. It is found 
in the districts of Matura and Safiragam ; 
and, is most abundant in the former, ^' Matu- 
ra-diamond" is the name applied to its finest 
varieties by the dealers in gems. Besides 
the two well-established species, common 
zircon and hyacinth, there is a third, mas- 
sive, opaque and uncrystallized, and of a 
dark brown colour. Specimens of it from 
Saffii'agam weigh two or three ounces. The 
natives are completely ignorant of ihe 
true nature of zircon. The yellow varieties 
are sold by them as a peculiar kind of topaz, 
the green as tourmalines, the hyacinth red, 
as inferor rubies, and the very light gray, as 
imperfect diamonds- All the varieties are 
found in the beds of rivers, or in alluvial 
ground, which, both in Saffragam and Ma- 
tura is of the same kind. 

For the ruby-family, Ceylon has been long 
celebrated. Four species of it, viz., spinell, 
sapphire, corundum and chrysol>eryl 0<icur. 
In gneiss or granitic rock, spinell is compa- 
ratively rare. Dr. Davy got small and very 
beautiful crystals of it, Avhich were said to 
have been broup^ht from the interior, and he 
found it in specimens of clay iron-ore, from a 
part of the Kandyan country where gneiss 
is the prevailing rock. Sapphire is much 
more common, it occurs in considerable 
abundance in the granitic alluvion of Matura 
and Saffragam, and in the neighbourhood 
of AvisaYelli,and on the Neura-Ellia-patam. 

The corundum 


qucntly found in large six-sided prisms, is 
commonly of a brown colour, whence it is 
called by the natives *' Curundu galle'* cin- 
namon stone i occasionally it is to be met 
with partially or entirely covered with a black 
crnst which is merely the stone with an 
unusual proportion of iron. 

Adularia is very abundant in some partft 
of the interior, particularly in the neigh- 
bourhood of Kandy, where it is occasionally 
the predominating ingredient of ihe 

Ava gem-aand, comes from the nefghbour* 
hood of Ava, and is sometimes one of the 
Shan articles of merchandise. It consists of 
small fragments of nearly all the precious 
stones found in the country, but garnet, 
beryl, and spinell are its principal constitu- 
ents, more especially the last, which seems 
to ccMistitute nearly three-fourths of the 
whole mass- A single handful will contain 
specimens of every shade, black, blue, violet, 
scarlet, rose, orange, amber yellow, wine 
yellow, and white. Mcbson, 

The berylf of which mineral many of the 
stones uted as emeralds in India consist, oc- 
curs in the Siberian Altai range ; a number 
of these gems also come from Khotan, Ilchi, 
and the Chinese provinces. Natives of India 
say they are found in gold mines, and take 
20 years to come to perfection. They are 
called " 2:amrad,'' or ** Zabrjad," and in 
Pmijabi ** Panna," the most esteemed colors 
are the ** Zababi," next the ** Saidi*' said to 
come from live city Saidi in Egypt. '* Rai- 
hani," new emeralds; **fastiki," old eme- 
ralds, that is, such as have completed their 
20 years; '* Salki," '' Zangari" color of ver- 
digris, '* Kirasi" and ** Sabuni.'' 

The finest beryl (aquamarine) says Mr- 
Tomlinson, come from Siberia, Hiudostan, 
Brazil. In the United States very large 
beryls have been obtained, but seldom trans- 
parent crystals : they occur in granite or 
gneiss. A reputed beryl of large size men- 
tioned in most books on mineralogy has re- 
cently been discovered to be a lump of 
quartz. Tomlliison. 

Aciiva-niarltiG includes clear beryls of a sea 
green, or pale bluish, or bluish green tint. 
Hindoos and mahomedans use them pierced 
as pendants and in armlets. They are the 
*'seign" of the Burmese and the Zamarud 
of the Persians. At the Madras Exhibition of 
1855,a good specimen oraquamarine,or beryl, 
was contributed by Lieut. Puckle from 
Mysore : other samples of long reed crys- 
tals were forwarded by the Nellore Local 
Committee ; small pieces of amethyst. 

of Battagammana is fre- tourmaline, rock crystal, agate and cor- 

• 283 


The following dinmondH nn mimt known; 

"B-g 3.2 g 






8 :S; :3S !&£ 

■Co .9 =.9 « C ? ■E:3 

DiamoDdn are n 
grains 7= t carat, 1< 
1 OB. troy. 


Ak. Frr» 

Hachi KnlO, 




Oi'tental etneralil, the green variety of 
comndtim is the rarest of all gems. Eme- 
tald is of a beaatiful gr«cn colour, hq- 
nrpncsed by any ^m. Tlie finest occur in 
a limt<fitonerocl(, at J[nzo,in New Grraniid'i 
■war S..nta Vi Je Bogot.i S = aS" ; at 
tlielong, in Siberia aud near Ava. ItiuosBU- 
ciated with spinel. 

When of a deep rich grass Rreen colnnr 
dear and free from flaws, ir.Hell!! at from £iO to 
£tO the carat Those of lighter shade from 
Si. to £15 the carat. The emerald pillars in 
Uw temple of Hercules at Tyre ; the eincrnlU 
Katfrom Babylon as a preaeut to a king of 

Egypt, fonr cnbita in length and three in 
br^dth, and the emerald obelisk described by 
Herodotns, were all donbtloss green jasper, 
fhe Ural and Altai monntaina have latterly 
famished the finest emeralds. (Emmanitel.) 

Momtslone occttra in Ceylon. It ia s variety 
of felspar, and of little valoe. (£tnmdntiel.} 

Fearlt in some InstAnoes, though foil of 
lastro nithont, are dead like a fish eye within* 
and vice versa. They occor of all colonra. 
those of Asia, from the sea pearl oyitter Mel- 
eagrina margaritifera, arc fanDdontheWesti 
Ooast of Ceylon, in the galf of Uanaar, in the 
Peraian gulf, in the Sooloo islands, near 
Fupna and in the Bed Sea. Ofi" the coast of 
Ceylon, the fishing season is iaangarated by 
nnmerons ceremonies, and the fieet, some- 
times of 1 1)0 boats, then pnt tosea Blach boat 
has a stage at its side and is manned by ten 
rowers, ten divers, a steersman and a shark 
charmer (pillal kHrrae). The men go down 
five at a time, each expediting his descent by 
means of a stone 20 to 'iA lbs. in weight, and 
holding their nostrils, gather abont 100 sheila 
in the one to two minutes which they remain 
nader water. Each man makes 4Q to dO d»< 
scents daily. The pearl oysters are thrown 
on the beach and lefb to pntrify. In the 
Peraian gnlf, so many as 30,000 persons are 
said to be employed in the pearl fishery. (Job 
xxviii. Prov. iil) According to European 
taete, a perfect pearl shoald be ronnd or 
drop-shaped ; of a pnre white, slightly tisna- 
parent) free from specks, spots or blemish, 
and poasesB the pecnliar Inatre characteriatio 
of the gem. Ia India and China, the bright 
yellow colour is preferred. Cleopatra in said 
to have dissolved in vinegar, a pearl of the 
valoe of 100,000 anreas or golden crowns 
in the presoiiceofAnthony and tohave drunk 
it nir, but it wonid have required a lat^r 
qnnntity and stronger acid than any one 
could liave taken with itnfmnity, to have 
done so, Ctesar is said to have paid a sum 
equal t<i £6U,0UO aterling, for a single pearl. 
The fellow-drop to the pendant destroyed by 
Cleopstra, is said to have been sawn in two 
by command of the emperor Augustus, and 
used londomtheststneofVen 0.4. (AiitniaMueJ.) 

Sitpphlres, in colour vary from white to 
the deepest bine and black, but stones nrs 
()f(«n of Varied hues. If held in water, with 
forceps, these cohmrcd and nncolonred atones 
will be seen. A very good blue sapphire 
of one cflmt weight would bring £20. The 
white sapphire is sometimes aold as a dia- 



Ruby Of ral gnpphire is the most vatuahle 
of all gems, when of large arze, good colonr, 
and free from flaws. They are found in 
Ava,Siatu, thcCapelam mountains, ten days 



longb from Fera to tbe Pbtlij^ine IstandB, 
wlivnoa they hne been IranspoHied into 
Kurupe ; bnt tlua is not enough to make 
them Oriental, tieaidea that, at tliis time 
they send them iuto Sptiiu thi-ongh the 
North S«e." (Tnvemier't Travels, p. 144.) 

That the lands in the Eiwt Imve gtmenilly 
been aoppoitad U> be the chief ^m produc- 
ing conntrina is alao 8howu by tbe Ikkit tbut 
£urupedesigafttea the mont valuable of tbem 
urienUil, oriental ametJiyttt, oriental emerald, 
orieubil tnjnz, orieutnl a^namarine. 

Ad'ificitJ. Gmn» are laif^ely mtide, and 
many of the precioas stuaea are w«ll ioii- 
tatad. Tbe colour of the emenld ia peca- 
liar, and called emeiftld green. The ^laas 
of bottle bottom!) is, Iiowdfuf, largely auld 
in Ceylon and other places aa eweralds. 
Emeralds Bferamlr without dereot^, called 
flaws, " Bavl," Hind, and, with the hope of 
deceiving, the mauufiictnren, aware of this, 
make the false emeralils with flaws. Of all 
procions stonee. the emerald is most liable 
to defects, and their absence should excite 
aaHpieionas they can be very easily imitated, 

Straas itt a technical term for tbe base 
of tbe artificial fgenis, of which the foL- 
iQwinft is tbe 'Composition :— 


-i;S|:i2! :^i 

i: li iR^S, , ,,: 


-^r-- =- 


SES-Miii M. 

1%. =p%p^i 

laferior fiemn. Difieriug from tlie ^muoni 
Btonea ia a large class of qnarlaose ininet^a 
called inferior gems : tLobe in coumion use 
are: — 

AmethjBt.common.UBspDr, Lapis laiali, 

Curbiuicle, jBlotMlktojia, or Rock i^aul, 

Huliotrupe, ~ 

Kuuil wuod. 

Conunun opal, 

Cbrytu prase. 
Uutlier of pearl, Jat. 

one of tbeset 



UalaoLitu, | 

Ayule, the "X'''^' 
fonni in great variety and abnud- 
ance in many parts of India. Soma 
of the agates and other silicious minerals iu 
tbe amygdaloid rucks on the banks of the 
£>eeua river, between Sholapoor and Abmed- 
unggar, an* of great size and iu profasion, 
but tbe most Deantifal are brongbt from 

Jmetki/sL Eira. Ger. 
Hortii, As. 1 AmetlifBtas, Lu. 

iiang-i -H ulimoni.Hi H D.t'sj 

UarUw. HaIAT. 

Ametiato, Four. Sr. 

bkuiuidi, S inOH.F 

Sugandi kalln, T am. 
Tbe amethyst is menUoneS in Ex. xxviii. 
Id, aud xxix. 12, but nuder tbis term two 
different minerals are known, viz., tbe occi- 
deqtal or the common ametbyst, one of tbe 
inferior gems, a quartzoije mineral, funud iu 
amygdaloid tcap rocks in all oonutriea, bnt 
in some quantity amuugrittho volcanic roiJis 
of tbe Dekkhan. Some Lea ntifnl specimens of 
amethyst crystals occur in dykes ofqnarta 
near Uoweupilly at Secnnderabad. Its co- 
looi'isol'cvei'y shade uf purple, violet : soma 
of these are valued, for it is almost the only 
stone that can be worn with mournings. 
When tbe colour of a specimen baa to be 
equalized, it ia placed in a mixtare of sand 
and iron lilinga aud exposed to a modetMe 
beat. '' 

Tlte orien'al Aiaetht/st is also of a purple 
colour but is an eitrtmely raie gum and be- 
longs to the conindums. Its colour can be 
destroyed by heat and its parity then re- 
sembles that of the diamond. 

Tile agate, onyx, cornelian, and blood- 
stone^ ot tho Kujpipla range, the Cam- 
bay atuitea as they are called from the 
place wbeiTB they are mostly cut^ and front 
whiuJi thuy are almost wholly brongbt to 
Bombay, are veiy abundant. 

The coi'uelian of the Rajpipla range ia 
fonnd in a bed of blue clay — the detritus, 
probably, of the adjoining rocka. Shafts 
are pieiued in tbis to tbe depth of from 
thirty to thirly-five feet, and borisontal gal- 
leries run in any direction that suits lbs 
fancy of the luiuer : the pebbles are distribut- 
ed promiscuously, aud do not appear to lie in 



Jet is imported into India, from Eorope 
0Dd is onlj worn by Europeans, large qnan- 
tities of lignite are found in the tertiary 
strata along the sea coast of India, bat none 
of it takes a gcod polish. 

Malachite also an imported mineml, is 
rarely worn as a gem and only by Baropeans. 
It ocenrs abundantly in the copper mines in 

Coral and mother-of-pearl are also seen in 
India; bat, amongst the people of India, 
these and all the inferior gems are held in 
but little esteem, who valne a gem for its 
intrinsic price, not for the workman's skill 
expended in shaping it, in which the chief 
▼aloe of all the inferior gems consists. 

Omeleya Travels I p. 211. Cluinibei's" Ed. 
Joum, June 18t$8. King, C, W. Preeiotis Stones, 
Genu and Precious Metals, London, 1865. 
^mannel on Gems. Dr. Af asanas TeiwsseHnu 
Do. Do. Burmah. Sir J. E. Tennenfs Ceyhn. 
Dr, Buist in Bombay Times, Tavemer's Tmvels 
p. 144. Niehbuhr, Btischreibmig von des Aralnen, 
pp, 142, 362. Davy's Travels in Ceylon, p. 20. 
Pliny t zxzyii., xv., xxiii. Forltes* 11 years in 
Ceylon, Fol.ii.p. 07, Lieut, WeUsted, Vol. i., 
pp, 112, 113. 

GEM SASD from the neighbourhood of 
Ava is sometimes one of the Shan articles of 
merohandize. It consists of small frsgments 
of nearly all the precious stones found in the 
country, but garnet, l)eryl, and spinelle are its 
principal constituents, more especially the last, 
which seems to constitute more than three- 
fourths of the whole mtiss. A single handful 
will contain specimens of every shade, black, 
blue, violet, scarlet, rose, orange, amber, 
vellow, wine yellow, brown and white, 
^any retain their original crystalline forms, 
8omf« haye the fandamcntal form of the 
species, a perfect octahedron : but many 
others haire some of the secondary forms, 
among which it is not uncommon to see 
twin crystals re-entering angles, formed by 
two segments of the tetrahedron truncated 
on the angles, and Joined together by their 
bases. — Mason. 

GEMEIN NIGEI/LE. Gee. Nigella seed. 

GEMM^ MORBID^. Lat. Galls, 

GEKDA. Bekg. Marygold. Tagetes 
patula. T. erecta. 

GENDAGAM. Tam. Sulphur. 

GENDA-MULA. Sans. Abelmoschus 
esculentus W. aiid A. 

Joflticia gcodarnsso, Roxh. Linx. 


Jugnt mndnn, Bexo, 
Ba.wa-nct, By mm. 

Kali shumbli, 

kali tbnmbali, BvK. 
Yada koUi, Malia^. 

Nila Dirganda, 8A«r 

Can nndiifi, Tam' 

Nalla-TSYali, Tel- 

GandharasamOy „ 

Nela Tavili, „ 

Supposed to be a native of the Malay islands, 
but grows in the Konkans, in Travaucore and 
Madura and is common in gardens in India, 
Flowers during the wet season, with dark 
purple or green smooth shoots. Leaves and 
stalks when rubbed have a strong, rather 
aromatic odour. AAer being roasted they 
are given in chronic rheumatism by the 
native practitioners. The plant is also said 
to be emetic. Wight gives Qendamssa Tran^^ 
quebarensis. — (fSliaughnessy, p.iSd. Mason, 
W. le. 

GEND BEL. Hind, syn., of Andropo. 
gon nardus : properly, Gandh-beL 

GENDI. HiMD. Chrysanthemum In* 

Viverridfie. See Civet, Mammalia, Viverra, 

GENGARIT. Hind. Cratoegus crenulata ; 

GENEVEB-BESSEN. Dm, Juniper ber, 


GENGHIS KHAN. A mode of writing 
the nsme of Changez Khan. BLis name was 
Temugpn, he lost his father when he was still 
very young. The father had reigned over 
thirteen Tartar hordes. GtUzlaff's Chinese 
Bistary, Vol. I. p, 354. See Changez Khan* 

GENGIVRE, Port, Ginger. 

GENII, Spirits. The word is derived 
from the Arabic " Jin," through the Persian, 
Mahomedans believe that the "Jin" reside m, 
the lower or first firmanent. See Jin, Saras* 


tonia ivennis. See Lawsonia, Pycs. 






The root of plants of Europe, of the genua 
Gentiana used in medicine and as ft 

GENTIANACE^. A natural order of 
plants, about 100 species of which grow m 
most parts of the world. 2 in Japan, 1 ia 
Arabia, and 68 in the East Indies, viz., 10 
of the genus Gentiana, 2 Pneumonantlie, 
5 Ericala, 3 Eurythalia, 2 Crawfurdia, 
9 Swertia, 3 Agnthotes, C Ophelia, I Halenia, 
1 Erythrcea, 8 Canscora, Exacnm, I Sle- 
vogtia, I Mitreola. 1 Metrasaceme, 4 Villarsia. 



ffom itear Ceylon northwards at intervalB i nfoncr amjgdnloid, and soafhwards hf 
tbronsrh the tablo-laudn of the interior ; ! Oajein and Saogor acrofts the Vindhya, as' 
throufifli Mysore, the Ceded Districts, Hy- ! gaming a columnar strnctnrfl in their steep 
dprabad' Berar and across the Nerbadda ■ descent to the Nerbndda. Tlie trap crosses 
into Central India, where the granite for a this river meeting with sRndstOiie and foa* 
time disappears. Volcanic trap is visible, sils in the Satpnra range, and spreads over 
however, in the bed of the Jnmna, near Alia* all western Berar and the Anmngabad pro* 
habad, in iHt.itndo 25^ north, and in tliejvinoe; it assnmes a colmmnar form at Ga-* 

wilg^rh and Chikaldah, occapies Candeisli 
and the Ouncan to Bombay, and ^lasse^ 
scmth wards to Mai wan in latitude 16^ 
north ; its soathem limits being observed 
south of Panderrponr, and the right bank 
of the Kistna towards Bejaftore. In the viiU 
leys near Homnabad, south and west of 
Beder^ it is seen betwc»en and beneath, but 
nerer penetrating the great plateau of 
laterite hills, and is uoii(*ed at Maharajnh-* 
pettah, 30 miles west of Hyderabad. The 
east-ern edge of this vast tract of volcanic 
the metamorphic schiHts which form the ; rockS| after cfosering the Nerbndda to the 
highest peaks of the snowy range. j sontli, skirts the town of Nagpore in Berar, 

Lower down on the sourhern slopes of | passes Nandeir, onwards ui the west of 
these mountains at an elevstion of from ! Hyderabad and to its southern limit, just 

ascent to Mussoorie by Knerkoolee^ the gra- 
nite re-app»»rs and ninkes a great eruption 
at the Chur Monnt^iin on the southern 
slopes of the Himalaya. But near Gun* 
gotreo, at the source of the Ganges, is des- 
rnl)ed as the gnind gi*anitie* axis of the 
Himalaya, one of tlie greatest and most 
magniticcnt outbursts of granite in the 
world. it traverses these mountains in 
numerous veins — westwards towards the 
Borenda pass, and eastwards towards Ka- 
met, Nandadevi and Nandskot, npraising 

8,000 to 1,500 feet, uphfted stratified rocks, 
consisting of hornblende rock and slate. 

mentioned* South of this, as well as to the 
eastward, the trap only appears as grest 

limestone, sandstone, great beds of quartz, ' dykes, from fifty to a hundred yards broad, 
clay, mica, chlorite, and talc slates, rest cm I which rnn east and west parallel with each 
the gneiss and granite ; and lower still at > other. These dykes can at plsces be tnu^ed 
altitudes of 8,0u0 to 2,00^) feet above the ! for a hnndred and fifty miles, bui-sting 

level of the sea, gravel, boulders, msrl with 
coal, reoent clays and saTid-stone form the 

tlironsrh the gi'anite and other roeks, tearing 
the hiirhest of the hills asunder and filling 

8ewalife, or stib- Himalayan mountjn'n. It i«* the chasms and crevices with their dark 
in these hills that extensive fossil remains , *^nd compact snbstance. In these pro vinces-, 
were discovered, and the low alluvial tf-act, ! the elements of the trap-nxjk assume in tha 
known as the Temi, is the valley formed by dykes a Variety of lithologic appearances^ 
the junction of the Sewalik with the Hima- greenstone, and porf)hyritic greenstone; 
layan inclined rorks. and, in the great Tolctmio district^ basaltio 

To the south of this, the liighest part-s of greenstone, hornblende rock, basalt, and 

Central liniia occur along the Aravalli 
nioun tains and the Vindhya range, and are 

amygdaloid, with comelisn, heliotrope^ 
prase, jasper, ngates and onyx. The 

from 2,000 to *^,0(j\) f«»et in altitude. There ■ dykes are particularly numerous near Hy- 
are, here, three inclinations, one declivity ' derabad, but they occur in the Balsghaut 
from the Ar;ivalli rnmintAins towards the Ceded Districts, in the Oarnatic and My- 
valley of the Inda?^, a second from the I «<>i^ almost t^i the southern Cape of the 
Vindhya raiige northwards to the Ganges, j Peninsula, and, with very rare exceptions, 
and the third ranning southwards to the they run due east and west. 
Nerbndda. Granite is here, also, the up- I The central outburst of granite pncks ia 
raising rock; it barsts out at Oudeypore, \ the Peninsula is traced from north of the Go* 
Kaunore, Banswarnih, and Rsjpore, through davery, in latitude 90® nc»rth, through 
the gneiss, and mica, and chlorite slates, Hyderabad, the Ceded Districts and My* 
limestone and sandstouc. It was to the sore to Ceylon. This rock and the green* 
east of this central tract that the first great stone form the prominent parts of the Dek- 

deposit of coal was fonnd lining both banks 
of the Damoodah, though it has, since then, 
been discovered in many other provinces 
of British India. It is in Central India, 
also, that the volcanic rocks to any extent 
are first observed as they spread east and 
west from Neemuch in the form of baisalt. 

kan, clay-slate, mica, chlorite and horn* 
blende schists, sandstones and limestones 
with fossils of a post oolite aire being the stra^* 
tified rocks through which they burst. The 
greenstone is supposed by some observers 
to decompose into a deep black earth, light 
when dry, and cracked and rent by the sua 

basaltic greenstone, greenstone and green- in the hot season, but forming a tottgb| 



many places concealed by volcanic rocks of 
the great Dekkau trap area, wbich have 
Hewed over them and all the drainage of 
these two districts is into the Ganges val- 

The fonr districts of Jabalpar, Narsingh- 
pnr, Hoshaiigabad and Nimar, immediately 
to the south of the Vindhyan escarpment 
along the marked depression of the Ner- 
budda valley, are in great part on allavial 
and tertiary deposits ; south of the Nerbudda 
valley rise the extensive highlands consti- 
tuting the Satpnra range, or its continua- 
tion, which are in groat part formed of the 
Deccan trap resting on crystalliue roqks or 
upon sand3tone %nd other rocks of later 
date. Of this region, Maudla occupies the 
extreme eastern end, bounded by the steep 
escarpment of the trappeau plateau, near to 
the edge of which the Nerbudda river has its 
sonrce at Ainerkantak. Along this same 
range to the west lie parts of Balagbat, 
8eoni, Chindwara, and Bctul south and east 
of the Satpnra ranges, the districts of Bi- 
laspur, Raipnr and Sumbulpur lie in the 
drainageuf thoMahanadi river ; Bclaspur and 
Raepur occupy the low plain country of 
Chateesghnr, formed principally on rocks. be- 
lieved to belong to the Vindhyan series, 
with a part of their area covered by coal 
bearing rocks. Sumbulpore is in a rugged 
jungly country composed of crystslline and 
metamorphic rooks. 

The great drainage basin of the Godavery 
on the other hand includes Nagpnr, Bhan- 
dara, Wardah, Chanda and Sironcha. These 
districts have no considerable elevation, 
Nagpnr and Bbandara are principally on 
gneissose rocks, with much trap in Nagpur. 
Warda is almost entirely on trap rocks ; 
Chanda and Sironcha have a very varied 
structure including more or loss of all the 
formations that have been named. 

The crystjiline and metamorphic rocks 
consist of gneiss of different varieties, often 
highly granitoid and form the substratum of 
the whole area, and are seen all around the 
border of the trappean rocks. The area 
covered by Decean trap, in the peninsula of 
India cannot be little less than 200,000 square 

Further south, the basins of the ^i-'^^^iJ^l^ 
riverand its affluents, the Gutpurbah and Mal- 
purbah and Beemah are occupied by quartzites, 
slates, limestones, &c. which cover the larger 
portion of the districts of Cuddapah and 
Kumool, westwards through the Rai chore 
Doabby Gogi, Gulburgah, to Kulladghee and 
Belgaum and appear to represent the older 
portion of the great Vindhyan series. Rocks 
of the same nuuci*al character appear under 


the great flows of the Dckhan trap, andj. ^, 
resting quite nnconformably on the gneiai^ 
ropks in parts of the Raichore Doab, and 
the vicinity of Belgaum, and und^r parts of 
the ghats on the western coast. That they 
belong to the same general series as the 
rocks in Cuddapah and Kurnool, there i^ 
no doi)bt. 

Still further to the south, several 
series of sedimentary rocks have been die? 
coyered, but there has not been traced any 
connection between the several series. 

Immediately west of Mndrns, at Rajahs* 
Choultry, are extensive beds of clay-slate in 
which the brothers Schlagentweit discovered 
tertiary fossiU. Underlying the sandsand clays 
of ^f adras and all along the sea coast, is a bed 
of dark blue tenacious clay, containing 
numerous fossils of existing species, and in the 
extreme south of the peninsula, iu I'innevelly 
and Madura, are valuable niarbles. But, in 
the district between the sedimentary rocks 
of the Kistnah and Tumbudra and these 
Tinnevelly marbles, at Ootatoor and Verda- 
chellum near Trichinopoly are limestone rooks 
containing numerous fossils, the limits of 
whicb are supposed to be near Trichinopoly 
on the South, and near Pondicherry on the 
North. From the examination of a very 
beautifully preserved, and numerous suite of 
fossils collected fromthese sitesby Messrs. Elaye 
and CunlifTe, of the Madras civil servicei 
Professor Forbes arrived at the conclusion, 
that all the beds from which the fossils had been 
obtained were parts or members of one and 
the same series, and that that series w^s equiva- 
lent to the cretaceous series of Europe ; the 
deposits at Trichinopoly and Verdachellum, 
being probably equivalent to the upper green- 
sand and gault divisions of that series ; the 
deposit near Pondicherry, being equivalent 
to the Neocomien, or lower greei^sand. 

But of the well marked section of 
the great genus Ammonites, among the 
large addition to the ki^ovrn catalogue of 
species, which Mr. Cunliffe's collection has 
given, there were none of the Fimbriati, an 
oolitic and cretaceous section ; none of the 
Flexuosi, also a lower cretaccofL^ section; 
none of the Den tati, also lo^yer cretaceous; 
none of the Armati, an upper oolitic sectiox^ ; 
and none of the Lcovigati; while on the other 
hand, of the Cristati, a section O'^sentially 
cretaceous, wo find one; of tho Clypeiformi 
also a cretaceous sectiop, one : of the Hete- 
rophylli five, and all of the cretaceous sub*- 
division of this section; of tho Ligati, a 
group essentially cretaceous, not less than 
ten. Of nautilus, a genus having a larger 
development iu the upper than in the lower 
beds of the crot^ceous, we )iavo tl^ree alli^ 



South of tills dislocation the greht grotip 
of sandstones, shales, Sdg. forming the Vin- 
dhja hills, is almosfc entirely absent, unless 
the highly metamorphoRed rocks there seen 
be the continnatiuu do v^n wards of the 
same series greatly altered. 

This great groiip is altogether of a different 
character and of a more ancient epoch than 
the beds associated with the coals of Bengal 
and of Central India,— ^tho latter resting 
quite nnconformably on the former. 

Mr. Oldham gave the name Vindhyan, 
to this great group ; being best seen in the 
well exposed scarps of the Vindhyan range ; 
and to the subdivisions, in ascending order, 
the names Kymore, Kewah and Bundair : 
but he applied these names only provision- 
ally, as he thought it possible, that the Rewah 
limestone and Bundair sandstone are only 
repetitions of the Soane valley limestone 
and sandstone produced by faulting. 

Ooal groups of Burdwciny HazareeBagh and 
CiUiack. Besting nnconformably upon the 
Vindhya formation^ there is a considerable 
thickness of sandstones, shales and coals, 
inContral India much disturbed, and travers- 
ed by trap dykes. The total thickness of 
this group in this district exceeds some 
thoosand feet. In these beds occur nu« 
meroos fossil plants, which thoroughly identi- 
fy these rocks with the coal-groups of Burd- 
wan, of Hazareebaugh and of attack. 
Taking it as proved that the strata at Ko- 
tah, from which the fish and Saurian re- 
mains had been obtained, are the same 
with those of Kamptee near Kagpore, the 
strong Permian analogies of the Saurians 
(Brachyops) ought not to be overlooked. 

Makadewa Group. Resting again quite nn- 
conformably upon these rocks is found another 
series of sandstones, often fcriiiginous, gene- 
rally speaking irregularly though strongly 
bedded, and of great thickness. These form 
the lofty and boldly scarped range of the 
Pachmnrry or Mahadewa hills. And to 
this group Mr. Oldham gave the name 
nf Madadewa. In one or two places 
thej seem to pass upwards conformably 
into sandstones holding remains of large 
mammalia, and probably of Sewalik date. 

This group is markedly separated from 
the ooal-bearing group below, and as com- 
pared with it is also characterized by the 
comparative absence of trap dykes or other 
exhibitions of igneous rocks. 

Upon these, in parts of the district, rest 
the great spreading sheets of trap rocks 
forming the continuation of the immense 
basaltic field of the Deccan. Four and five 
diBtixict flows could readily be traced in 


paces. And adverting to the occurrence of 
the beds containing shells (Physa, Paludin% 
IJnio, <&c.) which are found between these 
flows (the intertrapean lacustrine formation^ 
of Garter) the evidence derived from 
the li'erbudda district proves that this al- 
teration was entirely due to the subsequent 
overflowing of the heated mass of the trap 
above, and to the disturbances consequent 
on the exhibition of such powerful force as 
must have accompanied the production of 
these immense flows of lava. These shelly 
beds seem to have been formed by tran* 
quil deposition during the intervals between 
the successive flows of igneous rock, and to 
have been broken up indurated and baked 
by the succeeding outbreak. 

The following gives a summary view of 
these groups in descending order, omitting 
for the present all the more recent divisions i-^ 



Mineral character. 



a Bundair, 
j^ Rewah, 

j^ Kymore, 

Sandstones, with a 
few shaly beds, for 
the most part peb 
bly, often striped 
with ferraginoiis 

Shales, sandstones, 
ooal, for the most 
part thinly bed- 
ded and r^polar, 
often greatly cnt 
np by trap dykes. 
In Cattack, how 
ever, there are no 
trap rocks. 

Sandstones & shales. 

Limestones, shales 
and sandstones. 

Sandstones & lime- 


Orystaline limestone 
pseudo-gneiss (name 
proposed by H. B. 
Modlicott, Esq.,) 
micaceous schists, 
and quartzitos,red 
and greeo) and 

AgOy dbo* 


Geological age 
unknown, afeW 
vegetable fossil 
stems, 4o. 

Age not thorough* 
]y deoided, pro- 
bably JarassiOb 
fossils chiefly 
vegetable) name 
taken from the 
locality where 
series is most 
fully developed^ 

Age unknown, 
probably very 
ancient, seen all 
along Vindhya 
range, into Be- 
har and to the 
Ganges at 
llonghyr. Pro- 
bably also in the 
Khasia Hills 
possibly only 
two Bubdi vibionS 

Highly probable, 
though not yet 
tho roughly 
proved, that 
these are only 
the continua* 
tion downwards 
of tho Vindhya 
groups Bubse* 
quently altered* 

Granite, gneiss hornblendes-rock) green* 
stone, &c. 

Mandoo. The ancient town of Mandoo had 
been built on ooralline limestone. It had been 


kt these places respeotivelj-, 
hre known : 

I V II -VSS 'US5 Vii 

»jsi 'vos yoG uof 

ibsj shales of £ota. The Kota fishes th&t !«• 
warded the researches of Dm. Walker and 
Bell were prononnced by Sic P. Egerton to 
be true Oolitic forms, and probably of the 
age of tlieLias; boCweeuNagpure and Ghand^ . 
the nppcr hartdBtand has tlie nsnal iron 
^ bands^ and the lowor laminated beds thd 
CDinitloa vegetable remains, there is a dis- 
trict with Mangali as tlie centre (aizty miles 
S. of Nagpore) where the anperior sandstond 
is less ferruginoQs, and the inferior or lami» 
nated beds are colontHd by iron of a deep 
brick red. In the latter strata the remains 
of reptiles, fishes and entotaostraca predo' 
miuate, while the few vegetables that are 
found, are gene mHy very different from those 
occnrrinR in other parts of the Nftppnr tern* 
tory. The skull of a Labyrinthodont, named 
Brachyops laticeps by Owen, might snggest 
for it a Triasaic or even Carboniferons ag^ 
but the plentifnlnesB of soalofl of lepidotoid 
fishes forbids us to assi^ ft more ancient 
epoch than the Jnrassic ; and the conclnsioa 
is nnavoidable, not that our laminated sand^* 
stone is older than the age we have attri- 
bnted to it, bat that in India the Labyrintho* 
dont family bas Come down to a more recent 
petiod than in Enrope. 

The V^egetable remains are Tnniopteru, 
Eqnisetnm laterale, Teeniotlteris magnifoUai 
Pbylothecas, Knorria, Lepidodendron, Apb* 
yllnm, Aspidiaria, EotomoBtraca belonging 
to the genns Estheria. 

In the bituminous shales of the Hahadevaa 
we have the following Bengal fostiil plants : 
Tryzygia BUeciosa, Vertebniria indica, and a 
species of Fhyllotbeca, a fragment of which 
is figured by Dr. McCelland as Poacites 
minor. (Geol. Surv.Tab. XVI. f. 4.) In the 
carbonaceous shales of Umret, besides the 
Pfayllotheua now alluded to, another stem, 
bnt nnfurrowed, which seems to resemble 
McClelland'B Poacites muricata. Tab. XIV. 
f. 6. In the laminated sandstone of Eampt«S, 
in addition to Vertebraria and the two 
above, Tainiopteris, perhaps of 
species as at Bajmahal, and 

Immediately under the upper sandstone, 
laminated rocks are seen in all. In sec- 
tion 1st, the shales are bituminous and car- 

bonaoeons, while in section 2nd, they are of Poacites i 

KT^llaoeonB sand. But the^ are of the same the same 

»ge, OB many apecies of fossils being comtnon UcOlcllaud's Pecopteris affinis, Tab. XII. 

to both. Section 3rd, instead of having the f II. 6., which in Nagpnr is a well marked 

limeatone all collected in the lower part of species with a tripinnate frond. 

the section, as is the case at Nagpore and in In alt these localities the genus Glossop- 

many parts of the Nizam's country, has it teris abounds. Nagpore seems to have out 

interstratified with the shale ; but the bitu- stripped North Eastern India in Cyclopteris 

minous strata occupy the Rtvme position as and several other vegetable remains, bnt ia 

in section 1st. Choosing section 2nd as being decidedly behind in regard to the Gyca> 

hetter known for comparison with it, instead dacea). Tho only specimen, procured is ft 

of section 1st, gives ns in descending order small fragment from the sandstone of 

sandstone and clay, red shale and limestone. Eamptce, the leafiets of which are narrowet? 

Itfaaabeenaquestiouwhetlierthefem-bearing than a minute blade of grass, 

caalshales and laminated sandstones of Nag- Though amongst tho Cntch oolitic stratA 

fote tbesameaethefisb-prodaciogbitatouious sostQ aiQ oTideatl? muiae, yet from whit 


described, has been denoted the '* Damoo* 
dah " series. 

While the npper group, supposed to re- 
present the great series of rocks, so magni- 
ficently seen in the Mahadeva hills of Cen- 
tral India, has been called the ** Mahadeva " 
series. Thns three sei-ies oan be recognised 
in each of the extensive fields referred to, 
although with varying developments and 
thickness. At the base of the Talcheer se* 
ries there is a remarkable bed consisting of 
very large and only slightly rounded masses 
of granite and gneiss, imbedded in a fine 
silt, and occurring under such conditions as 
induce the opinion that the action of ground 
ice has been the cause of its formation. Jn 
the Bajmahal district there is a very limit- 
ed development of the lower beds, above 
which nnconformably comes the Damoodah 
series, here exhibiting a greater extension 
upward than in Cuttack ; but unfortunately 
the sequence of the rocks is interrupted by 
the intercalation of several successive floes of 


question was in connection with the discover 
ry, on the one side, of several species identical 
with those found in these Indian rocks, in 
the Australian coal-fields, associated with 
numerous animal remains distinctly refer- 
able to the lower carboniferous era, and, on 
the other hand, to the discovery in Cutch 
of other species also identical with some of 
these Indian forms, in beds associated with 
animal remains, undoubtedly referable to 
the oolitic epoch, But the latter forms, or 
those which the evidenoe of associated ani- 
mal remains would show to be oolitic, are 
only found in the upper beds of theDamoodah 
series, while those which are common to the 
Australian fields are those chiefly found in 
the lower beds, with these plants have been 
found in the districts examined, some anne« 
lide tracts useless as distinctive forms. 

To Mr, Oldham there seemed, at one time, 
good reason forseparating altogether from the 
several groups of rocks above referred to, the 
wholeof thegrcat th ickness of sandstoneswhich 

basaltic trap, the intervals between which I formed the great Vindhyan range, extend 
have been marked by the continued and ing almost entirely across India, from the 

tranquil deposition of the mechanical rocks 
going on. These floes have been repeated 
six or seyen times, and the phenomena of 
contact are in all cases marked ; the upper 
layers of the mechanical deposits in contact 
with the trap being in all cases greatly al- 
tered while the lower layers are in no cases 
changed, but rest unaltered on the degraded 
surface of the underlying trap. But while 
the actual physical sequence of the deposits 
cannot be here traced, the fact of their all 
belonging to the same great series is at- 
tested by the occurrence of some identical 
fossils throughout. A few species pass up- 
wards through the series, but there is a 
very marked change in the general (hcies of 
the flora in the upper as compared with the 
lower portion of the group ; the latter cha- 
racterized by the abundance of vertebrata, 
pecopteris, trizygia, Ac, the former by the 
abundance of zamia-like plants. The se- 
ries, therefore, has been divided into Upper 
and Lower Damoodah rocks. 

Nerbudda. In the Nerbudda district the series 
is less interrupted, and there also the same 
general results were obtained. The south- 
em boundary of this great field was for a 
large part of its course produced by a great 
fault, having quam proxinie, the same ge- 
neral direction as that of the faults bound- 
ing the Talcheer field. The age, geologi- 
cally considered, of tlic Damoodah rocks is 
ascertained from their fossil plants, and the 
fact of the general oolitic facies of this 
group, especially of those from the upper 
DedS| ascertained. The difficulty of this 

mouths of the Nerbudda to the Ghmges at 
Monghyr. These appeared to be of prior 
date, and there seemed to him a probabi-» 
lity that there was a great line, or a group 
of lines, of dislocation passing along the 
general line of the valley of the Nerbudda^i 
and the ejects of which might be traced 
over a very large area, extending towards 
the north-east, possibly even into the valley 
of Assam, 

Bajiiialial. Dr. Oldham shows, that the 
group ofrocks of the Bajmahal hills constitute 
a formation quite distinct from that of the 
coal-bearing beds of Burdwan and some 
other localities ; to which latter group he 
applies the name of the Damuda beds. He 
shows that the fossil vegetation of the two 
formations is entirely different, both speci-* 
fically and in general aspect ; that not one 
species is common to the two ; that the 
Bajmahal beds are characterized by a 
remarkable abundance and variety of 
cycadeae, by a comparative paucity of ferns, 
and by the absence, in particular, of the 
genus Glossopteris, as well as of Phyllathe^ 
ca and Vertebraria; while the Burdwan or 
Damoodah beds are characterized especially 
by Glossopteris, Phyllotheca, and Verte-? 
braria, with scarcely a trace of Cycads. 
It is evident that the Nagpur fossil flora 
agrees altog^ether in this respect with that 
of the Damudah, and not with that 
of the Bajmahal formation. Dr. Oldham 
is of opinion that the Bajmahal beds are 
mesozoic, and probably Jurassic, the Da- 
moodah beds paleozoic. But Mr. Bishop 



several fossils from the Lagari, Mazari and 
Lower Hills belonging to the Sulaiman 

The Delhi sf/sfem of Ullh include those 
of the Delhi, Gurgaon and Hissar districts 
also the Shekawati hills in Gunjaon which 


under the hill station of Darjiling, the 
great mass of the lofty hills is composed of 
schistoze rocks of various charactei*8 con- 
siderably disturbed and contorted. These 
are decidedly different from, and more recent 
than, the gneissoze rocks of the greatest 

ultimately become fused in the Aravalli portion of India. Near the base of the hills, 


Some of these hills are fossiliferous, 
others yield metals ; the copper ores of Hissar 
and of Singhana in Gurgaon district, be- 
longing to this series. In other portions 

and faulted against these rocks at high 
angles, there is a small extent of sandstone 
and black shales, which contain vertebrata, 
pecopteris, &c., similar to those occurring 

marbles and freestone are found ; and the | i^ the great coal-fields of Bengal. These 
Kalyana hills of Dadri now included in the I fossils are peculiarly interesting, from the 
Jhind territory, furnish elastic sandstone. i f^ct of their being changed into graphite. 
Fossils from Spiti and^ the Peen valley, at | ^nd occurring in beds which themselves 

have a very strongly marked graphitic cha- 
racter. They are of very limited extent; 
the greater portion of the sandstones, which 
in this section exhibit a thickness of some 
thousand feet, belonging to a series of a much 
more recent date, and which has been sub- 
jected to a much smaller amount of distur- 
bance and alteration. This upper group 
contains many large stems, in all observed 
cases prostrate, and in most cases giving 
evidenceof great wear and long exposure 
previously to being imbedded ; and in some 
of the finer and more earthy deposits an 
abundance of leaves occur, of the same 

elevations of from 15,000 to 17,000 feet. 


Ammonites Gcrardi, oolitic ? 

A. Nepaleusis (Gray). 

A. triplicaturi. 

A. Wallichii. 

A. biplox (Sowerby). 

A. torquatus (Sowerby). 

A. acucinctus (Stracboy). 

Ammonites un described. 

Spiriier striata, carboniferous. 

Prciuctus Sp. carboniferous. 

Pholadomya, oolitic. 

Nucula cuneiformis. 

Khynconella cyuocephala, carboniferous. 

Orthocei-as? carboniferous. 


The Balut range furnishes 

Astarte major, oohtic. i i . ^^ • • 

r . 1 11 T -Dili -vu I creneral character as those occurnner m 

The Laeari hil s, Imam Bakhsh Khan M^ , , „, . ^i • ^ i 

xuc ^"o^ ' • 1 1 i> 1 -^ Burmah and lenasserim. This group has 

and Dera Ghazi Khan, yield Jieiemmtes, ,, ^ , • • i, r i * xu 

**" . ^^r . J "^ 1 JJ therefore been provisionally referred to tho 

a species of Natl ca, and several species oi ! ,. xr * c\-l a 

rt Dpcv.100 Y^ ■ J. -y 1- I pliocene aofe. No traces of the great num- 

Echinus. The curious trilinear markings on I ^ ,.,. °. , , 1 j • xu- 

, " 1 1 ii IX mulitic series have been observed m this 

the latter, are compared by the people to ^jjj|.^j^^ 

the impression of a bird's foot: to which, j.j^^^ H///.. -Further south are the 

they attribute the origin of these fossils. Khassya Hills, which form a compara- 

** Sauercha, are nummulites from the ..• 1 • 1 1 i • • ^ ^ 1 V 

•a«.u^^", T3 1 1 1 xri 1 tively isolatm range, rising suddenly from 

Mazari lulls Imam Bakhsh Khan, and ^j^^ ' j^j,^^ ^^ ^ -^ .^ ^j^^ ^^^^^^ Bud.n Kills proUuco the ll'lepta* : ^^^ divided, on the north, by the yalley of 
pnmogenus, H.ppopotamos mvalens.s, and , ^^^^^ j._.^^^; ^^^ ^^^^^ Himalaya or Bhotan 

range. On the southern face this range 
rises almost perpendicularly from the plains 
which are continuous from tho Bay of Ben- 
gal, with scarcely a perceptible change of 
level to the very foot of the hills, and, with 
the exception of a comparatively small 
thickness of motamorphic rocks at the base, 
are composed of nearly horizontal beds of 
sandstones, a few shaly layers and limestone, 
long known for the abundance and beauty of 
the nummulites it contains. These beds dip 
in i slightly to the south, and die out towards 
I the north, when the motamorphic rocks come 
Cidansvcrnciulii. The natives of India em- i to the surface in tho hills. Tho ago of 
ploy fossil encrinites, Sang-i-yahuda, also a i the sandstones and limestones is unques- 
miiiutc fossil bivalve shell and Sang-i- I tionably fixed by their organic contents, 
Shadnaj as medicinal substances, which | and therefore, also, the epoch of the coal, 
are less fit for use than ordinary chalk. - which is associated with them, as belonging 

SfL'L'im ILhiialnya. — On the north and | to the great eocene period of geologists. No 
east, at the base of the Sikkim Himalaya, | newer group of rocks is detinitivcly seen in 

301 QQ 

Productus cost^tus. 
P. cura. 

Atbyris Roisayi. 
Athyris subtilita, 

Ortbis resupinatn. 
Rhjnconella, sp. ? 
11. poleurodoTu 
R, cynoccphiila, 
Spirifera, sp. 

Also Natica 
the Salt range.) 

S, striata ? 

Stroptorhynchus crcnis 
var. S. poctiniformis. 

Litliu.strotou irregiilarc. 

Coripora, sp. 

Anoinia T.Awrenciaiia. 

Lima gifjuntca. 


Venus suba-glaunr. 

fleminfri from Sakesar 



have been deposited when the physical con- j nan kyonng (** stream of foetid water **), 
formation of the country was very similar to ! and are traceable northwards to near Ama- 
that now existing. They appear to be the I rapnra. In the beds which appear to 
result of a series of fresh- water deposits, I form the uppermost part of this group, 
formed in small lake-like expansions along i but which may possibly belong to another 
the lines of the great drainage valleys of the I and distinct series, are found some of the 
country, and to mark a line of general and fossil bones of the larger animals which 
greater depression between the main ridge ' occur abundantly in this district. About 
of hills dividing Siam from the British do- ' forty miles north of Amarapura we again 
minions^ and the outer ridges which occur | meet with sandstones, shales, and coal, rest- 
between this and the sea. The direction of' ing unconformably on the metamorphic rocks, 
the main drainage of the country is deter- and characterized by remains of dicotyledo- 
mined by the direction of these ranges, nous trees similar to, if not identical with, 
and is discharged into the sea through those foand in the coal-yielding group of the 
narrow rocky gorges, which have a direc- Tenasserim provinces, and which are there- 
tion nearly east and west, and which are fore referred to the same age (pliocene), 
due to lines of breakage and dislocation. ! This series, so far as examined, has proved of 
To this is due the sudden alteration in the ! no great extent or thickness, 
direction of the courses , of the larger ' Qf fossils found in Burmah by Mr. Old- 
nvers, as may be seen on maps. ! y^^m, during his companionship with Captain 

Burmah.^Rocks similar to those situated j Yule's Embassy, he notes the following :— 
in the Tenasserim provinces extend north- 

wards up the course of the Sal ween River, ' Specimens. 

and into the adjoining districts of Burmah, | ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^'*- 

to the north east of Pegu. And, also, close ! Elephant, tusk and lower jaw, ... 3 
to the capital of Burmah, and stretching I Mastodon, lower jaw, and molar tooth, 3 

nearly north and south, as far as examined, , Rhinoceros tooth, 1 

high ridges of metamorphic rocks are again Tapir ? lower jaw, ... ... 1 

met with, consisting of gneiss, micaceous '^ 
schists, and highly crystaline limestone, 
occasionally of a fine white colour, and 
largely used by the Burmese for sculpture. 
But the great valley of the Irawady is, 
throughout a very large extent of its course, 
bounded on either side by thick series of ' Crocodrie 
rocks, chiefly sandstones but with massive Tortoise ' 
limestones also, which are locally rich in ' 

fossils, and which from their evidence, may 
be clearly referred to the Eocene period. 
These stretch on both sides of the river as 
far north as Pugahu, beyond which the 

Deer, i 

Sus? or Merycopotamus, portion of 

cranium, 1 

Gtivial fragments. 

Pachydermata, Bones 35 



„ large, 





ChUia.. — Baron Von Richthoven, wbo 
visited China some year^ ago, made a geolo- 
higher grounds recede from the river banks; gical tour through parts of Tai-hu. He 
but they are in all probability continued ' found certain outlying reefs of limestone, 

thence into Munipoor, and so united with 
the nummulitic rocks of the Khasi and 
Cachar Hills. These rocks have been con- 
siderably disturbed and broken, but have a 
general and prevailing strike nearly north 
and south, which strike, throughout many 
miles, has determined the general course of 
the river Irawady. Their thickness is 
considerable, certainly exceeding 5,000 feet. 
Above these Eocene rocks, and resting upon 
them with slight unconformity, is a series 
of beds of no very great thickness, charac- 
terized by an abundance of gypsum disse- 
minated in thin layers and veins, and in the 
lower beds of which occur the deposit of 
clays and of vegetable matter, from which 
are derived the large supplies of petro- 
leum. These rocks are well seen at Se- 

which hitherto had escaped observation 
from their similarity to the main lime- 
stone beds of the district, answering to 
the carboniferous limestone of Europe. 
I Certain fossils, especially nummulites, 
found in these seem to prove these rocks 
to be of Tertiary age. This in connec- 
tion with similar deposits in South Europe, 
in the Himalaya, in Japan and the 
Philippines and probably also in For- 
mosa, is of considerable interest. It is 
known that the Tertiary deposits of China 
cover a considerable area, but hitherto 
limestone had not been noticed of that age. 
Shanghai Coiisular Gazeile. Annals of Indian 
Administration. Dr. OldJiam in Yule's Em- 
bassij, J). 343. Report of the British Associa- 



Powell's Haiul Booh, Ecan. Prod. Panjah, 
p. 112 tr) 119. 

On the arfa of the Fossilferoics thin-hedden 
sandslone and conl of ilie Provinces of NwjpKr, 
India, Bij the Rev. Stephen Hislop. — Quar- 
ierly Journal <ff Geological Sociefi/, Vol. XVII, 
August i861,'p. 346 to 349 

See Coal: Colosso Chelna Atlas : Elepliant: 
Felis : Fossils : Lignite : Madras : Sinii(la\ 

GEOMYDA. A gemis of reptiles of the 
Sec. A. G>itaphractA or shielded reptiles, the 
Order Chelonia, and family Geiemydida) : 


GERAI RANG. Hind. Dark rod co* 
lour of Geri earth. 

GERANIACE^. The Geranium tribe 
of plants of which the East Indian species 
are 12 Geranium and I Erodium. The 
Geraniums are largely cnltiv'ated as flower- 
ing plants bat never very successfully. 
They are propagated by cuttings which 
ought to be kept somewhat dry till they I'oot. 
The root of G. nodosum* L. (G. Napaulense. 
Sw.) is called rowil and bhand, the chief 
of the genus are G. rotundifolia, columbi- 

several species are known, viz. : G. Bealii , "^™' dissectum, lucidum and robertianum 
grandis, mutica, nigricans, reevesii, spinosa, ^- P^^'iT*"!!';?"' Jlf ^ ^J'^^t ^""^^ ^" Australia, 
spengleri, and tricarinata. See Chelonia. OEllARD. Iwo brothers, one a medical, 
Reptiles = ^^ other a military omcer m thcBengal army. 


who both distinguished themselves by their 

researches into the phvsical geography of 

centipede. .^^^ Himalaya. Dr. Gerard wrote an ac 

GEOPHILUS NICOBARICUS theNico- \ count of Kanawar. He accompanied Lieut. 

bar pigeon. See Columbido). ' (afterwards Sir Alexander) Burnes for a 

GEOPHILIA. A irenus of birds of the S^*^^^ V^^^ of the road, in his travels in Gen- 

order Gemi tores. Family Col um bid a? and 
sub- family Columbinro. There are several 

tral Asia. 


species G. striata, a small ground dove,oocurs i ^^ harmless snakes of the Order Ophidi^ 
in Siam and Java. Wallace. See Birds. ' ^ub-order SerpentesColubrinaj non-veuenati, 


GEOPHIS. A genus of reptiles of the 
order Ophidia and family Calamaridoc : — 

Fam. Caljimaridiu. 
Calamaria cuteuata, lUyth, Assam. 
Geophis microcophalus, Oiinth., Nil£»herry. 

„ Pen>ttcti, i>. .S" li.. Nilghcrry. 

Aspidura brajorrhos, Bole. , Ceylon. 

„ Copii, Gunth. 

„ tnichyprocta., Cope. 

Haplocorcus CeyloiiePvsis, Oiinth. 
Falconena Hoiij^aloTisis, T/ico6., Parisnath. 
Blythia reticulata, lihjth. 
Grot<»a bicolor, Blt/th. 
Trachuschiam fuscum, Bhjth. 

GEORGIA. The ancient Iberia. Ptolemy 
describes it as bordered on the Tiorth bv the 
Sarmatian mountains, to the south by a part 
of Armenia, to the east by Albania, and to 
the west by Colchis, the present Immerctia. 
The beauty of the Georgian women cannot 
be disputed; having iine dark largo eyes, 
very regular features, and a pleasing mild 
expressi^m of countenance. The dress of ' 

and Family Homalopsida) as under : — 

Fam. Acrochordida;, 
Fani. Honialcpsidifi. 
<7crberus rhynchops, Schn , Bengal, Bloulmaiu, 

Homalopsis biwjcata, Linn.y KtihL, Martaban. 
llorpeton t^ntacnlatum, Laccp. 
Tytheria Hypairhinoides, Theob., Andamans. 
llypsirhiua cnhydris, Sehn., Calcuitav 
„ ])]iiiiil)ea. B'lie. 

,, Chinensi.s, Gray. 

\ For.lfmiannifolor, Gr'iij, Piuang. 
(Jantoria el()n<rata, GirarJ. 
Fcrania Sieboldii, Schl , Pegn. 
Hipistcs hydrinus. Cantor., Rangoon. 
Crcrarda bicolor, Gratj^ Bassein. 
, Afrocluirdus Javaiiiciis, HurtiH., Pinang. 
C'bcrsytlru3 graniilatua, Schneid. 


Done. A tree in tlie Central Province of 

I Ceylon. Grows at an elevation of 5,000 to 

; 0,0*00 feet. Thv\ 


Urticuhetci'opliyIla,RoxB. — Gass-kahambillYa,SiNGn. 
Not uncommon in the warmer parts ot' 

the higher ranks is splendid, and carefully ' Ccvlon. — Thw. En., Plant. Zeyhy p. 2o'.'. 

adjusted; but the humbler women, notwith- GERFTSIUS ok LATTA ISLANDS. A 

standing they sliare the same taste for the group of small isles in lat. 0^ 21' N. loii'^^. 

ceremonies of the bath, and regnlarly go 127® IV K. — Horshiirffh. 

throngh them all, seldom wash their clothes : GEKICHO. Tel. ? Cynodou dactylon. — 

and they appear often in rags, and always Pers. ? 

in dirt. The Georgian dance consists of GEK^LAN MILLET. Panicum Germani 

feats of activity, and strange and unelegant 
contortions of the limbs; sitting down on 
their heels, and hopping about in that posi- 
tion.— iW/r/^ 7Vaiv'/y/Vol. 1, pp. 123, 137. 
See Garirorftan • Xartelunia. 

cum. See Graminaceic. 

GERMAN. This race occupy Central 
and Nortliern Europe and form, with the 
Irish, Englisli, Scotch, Russians, Persians, 
and Arian hiudus, Greeks and Romans, 



pjirfc of the great Iranian family. Pliilo- 
Jogists admit a Germanic family of lan- 
jruay;es. Several of the philosophers of 
Germany have largely investigated the lan- 
guages of the South and East of Asia. See 
Hindo, India, Sanscrit, 311, 312, 314. 


GERSAPPA. A water fall on the river 
Gaugawatty in N. Canara the fall is nearly 
1,0(>0 feet. 

GERMS AIR, properly garm-sair. Pers. 
wintering pastures of nomade tribes. The 
entire southern region of Ears, bordering on 
the Persian Gulf, is called the Gurrasair or 
*' warm region.'* It extends from the sea to 
the latitude of Knzeroon, and runs parallel 
with the Persian Gulf, from the banks of 
the Tab to the confines of Laristan 5 fr«)ni 
Bushire, eastward, as far as Kangoon, the 
tract is named the Dushtistan or *Mand of 
plains." The Tungistan, commonly pro- 
nounced Tuugistoon, or " narrow land,** is a 
small tract of land east of Bushire. The 
greater portion of the people of the whole 
garmsair, are an independent lawless set. 


lar ; it contains clay, carbonate of lime, and 
sesqni-oxide of iron. 

" Gil-i-irmani** differs little from gera 
and geri. It is a rough, red, brittle earth, 
occurring in laminated masses, used as a 
colonr, and also medicinally. It is the re- 
presentative of the "bolus Armeniacus," 
once so celebrated as a European medicine. 

*' Harmuzi,** or *' harmuchi,** is much 
used for house painting, as an artist's colour, 
and as a medicine ; it is a fine deep choco- 
late red colour like that yielded by artiste 
" brown madder,*' only opaque. 

*^ Badochi." A red dye, is used to adul- 
terate the *^ kamela" red dye from the 
Rottlei*a tinctoria; it is also used as a 
glaze for pottery. — Hand Book of the Punjab, 
See Earth Gil. 


GESNERACP]^. An order of plants 
several genera of which, Achimenes, Gloxi- 
nia, Ramondia, Pyreuaica, and Gesneria, are 
grown as flowering plants in India. 

GET.^, are supposed by Professor Wil- 
son to be the Saco). If we examine the po- 
litical limits of the great Getic nation in 

m:iny of the tribes being robbers by profes- the time of Cyrus, six centuries before 
sion. A huge wall of mountains sepai'ates the Chiist, we shall find them little ciroumscrib- 
garmsair, or low region, from the Sardsair, ed in pow< 
or high table land of Persia. One of the 
most conspicuous of these, is an abrupt 
lofty hill, named Hormooj ; where, speci- 
mens of coal were found. Sardsair signi- 
fies** cold region.** It is also termed the 
sarliada, a word literally signifying ** bound- 
:iry or frontier,'* but generally applied t^ 

power on the rise of Timoor, though 
twenty centuries had elapsed. At this 
period (A. D. 1330), under the last 
ptince of G^tic race, Toghluc Timoor Khan, 
the kingdom of Chaghtai was bounded on 
the west by the Dhasht-i-kipchak, and on 
the south by the Jaxartes or Jilioon, on 
which river the Getic khan, like Tomyris, 

any high land whore the climate is cold. See , had his capital. Kogend, Ta.shkand, Ootrar, 

Garmsair, llivat, Sarhad. 

GERSHTASHP. A Persian hero of the 

Cyropolis, and the most northern of the 
Alexandria cities were within the bounds of 

lime of Feredun, reputed to be ancestor i Chaghtai. The Gete, Jut, Jit, and Tak- 
of Neriman, Sam, Zal and Rustum, jBa^wcu fchac races, which occupy places amongst 
(c|U. Gashsta.sp). the thii-ty-six royal races of India, are all 

GERSrEN-GRAUPKN". Ger. Barley. from the region of Sakatai or Chaghtai. 

(jERU. Hind. Red earth. Earths Regarding their earliest migrations, the 
and clays are met with in the Punjab '' Pooranas furnish certain points of informa- 
baziinrs known by the names of *' geru," tion and of their invasions in more modern 

*' gori ** 

**gil-i-irnmni," ** gil-i-khardya,** times, the histories of Mahmood of Ghiani 
** gil-i-abroi'shi ** or *' farsi,'* *' gil-i-makh- and of Timoor abundantly acquaint us. From 
turn '* and ** harmuchi." I the mountains of Joud to the shores of Mek- 

Geru is a hard,red, laminated, earth, some- 
times used in dyeing : school teachers grind 
it up with water and teach to write with it 

ran, and along the Ganges, the Jit is widely 
spread ; while the Taskshac name is now 
confined to inscriptions or old writings. 

on v\ ooden slates. It is used medicinally i Inquiries in their original haunts, and among 
in India. ; tribes now under different names, might 

Gil-i-kliardya is a variety of Geru. | doubtless bring to light their original de- 

Cil-i-abrorslii is a pink clay, hard but - signation, now best known within the Indus; 
lo.*?s brittle, and paler than **gil-i-irmani.** \ while the Takshac or Takiuk may probably 

*' Gil-i-abror.shi," *' gil-i-farsi,'* is proba- be discovered in the Tajik, still in his an- 
blv tlio same or verv nearlv so. i cient haunts, the Transoxiana and Choras- 

'* Gil-i-niakhtum." A variegated earth, ■ mia of classic authors, the Mawar-ool-nahr 
deep red, and pui'c white, soft and irrcgu- ' of the Persians, the Turan, Turkisthan, or 



GHA, also nr^as, Hind, grass, herbage. 
Malori gha, Hind. Ramez hastatns, Shili- 
gha Hind. Chrj8op<^on glancoptis. See 
Ghans, Ghas. 

GHADIR Ar. a practice followed by the 
shiah mahomedans of India. On the 18th of 
the roonth Zi-nl-haj, they form three images 
of dongh, to represent the kalifs Aba-bakar 
Omar and Osman, fill them with honey and, 
pricking them with pins, they suck the 
honey as if it were the blood of these kalifs. 

GHADSI9 Mahr. Vagrant musicians, said 
to be descendants of the race who formerly 
inhabited the great southern forest — the 

GHAFIZ, HiXD. Delphinium saniculas- 

GHAFRAN Hind. Saffron. 

GHAGRA. Hind, a petticoat. Rajput 
ladies have only three articles of parure ; the 
ghagra or petticoat the kanchi, or corset ; 
and dopati or scarf ; the fashion varies in 
each province and tribe, though the texture 
and materials are every where the same : 
cotton in summer, and quilted chintz or 
broad cloth in winter. — Tod*8 Bajasthan 
Vol. I, p. 651. 

GHA I KWAN, see Ewang-tung-chi. 

GHAIR, Ar. Without. 

GHAIR MULAZIM, Hind, as opposed 
to mulazim, persons in the villages of the 
Panjab who help the farmers, but are not 
regularly hired cultivators. 

GHAIRtMEHDI. a mahomedan sect 
who believe that the imam Mehdi has come 
to the world aud gone. The words mean, 
without, or deprived of, ^lehdi. See Elias ; 

GHALICHA. Hind. Pers. Woollen 
rugs. Woollen carpets. 

GHALLAH. Arab, grain. 

GHALME. Hind. Anabasis multifiora. 

GHANDA-BELA. Hind. Andropogon 
schaenanthus. Linn. 

GHANDARVA (Jaksha) the voiceful 
spirits in the air who sing the praises of 
Brahma. See Gandarva. 

GHANNA. DuKH. Sugarcane. 

GHANS. Guz. HiXP Grass. Hay: 
Herbage. See Ghansor-Kafur 

GHAN SENG. Can. Bignonia xylo- 
carpa. — Roxh. 

GHANTA. Hind. A clock: a gong: 
an hour : ghanta bajana, to strike the hour. 

GHANTARAVAMU. Sansc. A species 
of Crotalaria. This, like the Telugu name 
Gilaka chettu is a generic term, signifying 
*' rattle " from the sound of the seeds in the 
dry legume. 


GHANTHAWOOD. Anolo-Tel. Gan- 
tha karra. Tel. A wood of the Northern 

GHAO. Hind. A wound, an ulcer 
wounded. Hence, Ghaeja (?) Guz. The 
village barber, and barber surgeon. 

GUAR. Arab. Pers. Hind. White 
quartz. White cornelian. Ice, hail, also 
a cave. 

GHAR, Mongol. The hand : it is the same 
as the Sanscrit word Kar, the Hindi Ghir, 
and in Ghreek Kheir. 

GHAR. A river near Kilcheepoor. 

GHAR, Hind. The best kind of ginger. 

GHARA. Hind. A globular aud short 
necked earthen vessel. See Gharra. 

GHARAM. Mal. Salt. 

GHARASKAI. Hind.— ? P 

mantia Royleana. 

GHARGHASHTAI. Hind. Amygda- 
las Persica. 

GHARI. a water clock ; a clepsydra ; 
a brass gong, a division of time, about 24 
minutes, hence, Ghariali, a gong striker. 

GHARI. Mar. Ghadi. A Sudra at- 
tendant on a temple, corresponding with a 

GAVIAL, properly Ghana], is the Gavia- 
lis Gungeticus, the Narrow-beaked Croco- 
dile of the Ganges, (Edw., Phil. Trans. Na- 
tural Syst. Amph.) Gavialis Gangeticnfl, 
Gray, ( Synops Rept. ) the Gktvial of the 
Ganges, Griff., ' Anim. Kingd.' The Gavial 
of the Ganges is supposed to be the largest 
of the living Saurians. The measurement 
of the largest mentioned by Messrs. Dumeril 
and Bibron is given at 5 metres, 40 centi- 
metres (17 feet 8 inches.) — Engl. Cyc»^ 
p. 205. See Ghanal ; Reptilia. 

GHAR-I-JAMSID, See Kandahar. 

GHARIKUN. Ar. Hind. Pkrs. Agaric ; 
Boletus igniarinus also Agaricus igneus, 
also Polyporus, sp. A fungus used in me- 

GHARILPIT. A mine of precious gar- 
net occurs at Gharilpit, about eight miles 
south of Palunshah, in the Hyderabad 
country, in the detritus of a granitic rock, 
penetrated by trap-dykes, and composed of 
mica, garnets, kyanite, quartz, and felspar. 
Dr. Voysey, states that the precious garnets 
are found at the depth of eight or ten feet 
in the alluvium at the foot of the rock. The 
surface of the rock and soil were strewed 
with garnets in great profusion, but these 
were generally of a very inferior quality. 

GHARIPURA Also called Elephants, an 
island in the Bombay harbour, may be called a 
complete pantheon : for among the hun- 
dreds of figures there sculptured, every 



principal doity is found. Badba is, evi- 
dently, from his size and sitnation, a prin- 
cipal personage there ; yet not he to whom 
the temple seems peculiarly dedicated, which 
is apprehended to be the Que Supreme 
Being. But as no representations are ever 
made of that being, there are shown his 
three principal powers, or attributes, (viz., 
according as they be contemplated — mytho- 
logically, ethically, metaphysically, or philo- 
sophically,) are, 



















Moor*8 Hhidu Pantheon, 

GHAHKA PULLI— ? Qarcinia oambo- 

GHAROT. Hind. Oxystelma esculenta. 

GHARBA. Hind. An unglazed earthen 
water pot hence ** Ghar-nai" a raft support- 
ed on pots. See Ghara. 

GHARRA RIVER. The modem Punjabi 
name of the Hyphasis, the first of the five 
rivers of the Indus, reached by Alexander. 
The Gharra runs north of Bahawalpoor, 
distant two miles. See Punjab. Ind. in 
I5ih Cent 

GHAS. Hind. Adjantum yenustnra. 
See Gha; Ghans. 

GHASAL. Ar. Hind. Pers. The ma-' 
homedan legal washings of the body. 
The mahoraedans have two kinds of ablu- 
tion or lustration, the " Ghasal" or legal 
washings for all classes, after any kind of 
bodily uncleanncss such as the pollutio 
nocturna, menses, coitus, or child-birth, for 
until purified it is unlawful to eat, pray, touch 
the koran, or go to the mosque. If the legal 
Ghasal bo not needed, nevertheless, before 
prayer, the wazu or washing in a prescribed 
manner of the face, hands and foot is indis- 
pensable. It occupies two or three minutes. 
The wazu is only needed, when any minor 
cause of impniity as in performing the na- 
tural functions has occurred. Where water 
is not to be had, the Teyammum, or rubbing 
the face, logrt and hands with fine dust or 
dry sand suffices. 

GHAS-KUCHOO. Beno. Typhonium 

GKASVEL. Hind. Cnscuta reflexa. 

GHAT. Hind. A term employed in India 
to desiguat^e a ferry, or lauding place on a 
river; a range of hills or the scarped wall 


are clothed with dense forests, with few 
inhabitants. The coast line from the sea to 
their base is generally flat and low with 
occasional spurs or solitary hills, but the 
ghats rise abruptly, almost scarped, to an 
average height of 3,000 feet, Pnmndar is 
4,472, and Mahabaleshwar, 4,700, Matheran 
is a projecting spur. The eastern Ghats 
extend from Orissa to Coimbatore, along 
the eastern side of the peninsula of India, 
at distances of 50 to 150 miles from the Bay 
. of Bengal. They are steep and well clothed 
with forests. The country lying between 
them and the sea is low, scarcely rising 
above 100 feet above the sea. See Ghatiya. 

GHATICA. Sans. An Indian hour, 24 
minutes European time. See Danda. 
' GHATIYA. H. A brahman who attends 
at ghats whpre hindu pilgrims bathe, to 
take care of their clothes, and supply sandal, 
flowers, <fcc., he exacts certain fees, as a right, 
denouncing imprecations on any who resist 
his exactions, these people sometimes repair 
to a distance to escort pilgrims to their 
places of ablution. Wilson. 

GHAT-MANJHI. H. Beno. A ferry- 
man, applied also to a man who regulates 
the hire of boats, supplies, &c. &c. Wilson, 

GHATNA, Hind. ? A tree of Chota Nag- 
pore. Hard, yellow timber. — Cal. Cat Ex» 

GHATOT-KACHA, See Inscriptions, 
p. 378—8. 

GHAT PALM. Eno. Caryota. nrens. 

GHATTI GOND. Guz. Hind. Gum- 

GHATYARI. Hind. Andropogon iwar- 

GHAZ. Hind. Pers. Tamarix oricn- 
talis ; tamarisk. 

GHAZA, Ab. in mahomedanism, an ex- 
pedition against infidels : the term Ghazi is 
applied to those who fight for their religion 
to the death. M'cGregor^s Hisionj of the 
Sikhs, Vol. I, p. 103. 

GHAZAL. Ak. An ode, it should con- 
sist of not less than five, or more than 
eighteen, couplets ; the last line of each 
couplet terminating in the same letter of 
the alphabet. The two first lines of the 
ode rhyme together, after which every 
alternate line; and the last verso always 
contains the " takhallus,'* the assumed 
literary name of the poet. 

GHAZAN son of Kai-Kliatu and nephew 
of Kablai Khan, succeeded to his father's 
throne in A. D., 1295, He was a bravo 

of a table land ; or the defile or pass leading soldier and statesman. 

through such. The Western ghata extend 
from the valley of the Tapti, to the gap of 
Palghaut, a distance of 800 miles. They 

GHAZGI BRAHUI. See Kelat, p 492. 
GHAZI. Pers. Hind. A mahomcdan 
^ soldier fighting for his faith. A religious 



warrior. Ono who Las slain an iufidol. 

GHAZI MIYAN. A mahomcdan saint in 
hij?li repute with the agricultural and lower 
classes of the N. W. provinces, except in 
Dehli, and included among the Pauchpeeree. 
The Mirat-i-Miisaoodco says he had a dream 
the night before his death, in which his 
mother came and placed a bridal chaplet on 
his brow as being indicative of the crown 
of martyrdom with which he was to be 
honored on the following day. He is partly 
on this account called Gajna Doolha and 
Salar Chhinula. Who this Ghazce Meean 
was is a question on which even mahomedan 
authorities are not agreed. Elliot quoting 
M. Garcin de Tasay, in his memoire of the 
Moosulman religion in India. 

GHAZIPUR. L. 25 ^ 33' C". N. L. 83 <^ 
31" 8. E. a town in Hindostan, on the left 
side of the Ganges, 71 miles N. E. of Ben- 
ares in tlie Benares district of the N. W. 
Provinces. The Dak bungalow is 351 feet 
above the sea. Lord Cornwallia is buried 
there. He had been appointed Governor 
General a second time and was proceeding 
up the country when he fell sick and died 
here. Tr. of Ein. Vol. I. p. 121. 

GHAZLEI. Hind. Tamarix dioica. 

GHAZNAVI. Belonging to Ghazni. 

GHAZNI. a town in Afghanistan 7,726 
feet above the sea. On the north of the 
town, about half a mile from the gate, rises 
the first of sult-an Mahraud's minars, or 
towers, the other is about four hundred 
yards beyond it, in the same direction. They 
both rise alone, based upon rough stone- 
work. The most northerly is the hand- 
somest structure; but both are exquisite 
specimens of brick- work. They are about 
140 feet in height, and much damaged. 
Ghazni commands a most extensive 
plain, which is but indifferently furnished 
with villages,and castles,al though not absolu- 
tely without them,and the river of Nawar runs 
beneath the town walls on the northern side. 
The town is seated in the midst of a 
rich grain country, and in the adjacent plains 
of Nawar it has immense fields of pasture. 
Ghazni in its prosperity was frequently 
taken and sacked, memorably, by the great 
Hulaku and by Alla-ud-din, the Afghan 
prince of Glior. Ghazni has the repute of 
being a very ancient site. Wilford, following 
Sanscrit authorities, tells us, that the kinp^ 
of the Yavana and Deucalion resided at it. 
He further tells us, that its proper ancient 
name was Sabal, Zabal, or Saul, as written 
by Chrysococcas, whence he refers it to be 
the Ozola of Ptolemy. Ho also conjectures 
it to be the Oscanidati of the Pontingorian 
tables, noted as twenty-two fursangs from 


Asbann, which ho considers Kabal, and 
thirty-five fersangs from Rupha, which 
ho would identify with Sheher Safar. 
The annals of the Yadu of Jeysulmir 
state that long anterior toVicrama, they 
held dominion from Ghazni to Samarcand, 
they established themselves in those regions 
after the Mahabarat, but, on the rise of 
mahomedanism or the pressure of other 
races, they were again impelled towards the 
Indus river. They assert that Ghizni is pro- 
perly Gujni founded by the race of Yadu: 
and in a cnrions specimen of hindu geo- 
graphy presented by Col. Tod to the Royal 
Asiatic Society, all the tract about tho 
glaciers of the. Ganges is termed Gujlibun, 
or Gujlibu, the ' Elephant Forest.' elephant 
wilds. There is a * Gujingurh' mentioned 
by Abul Fazil in the region of Bijore, in- 
habited by the Sooltano, Jadoon, and Enso- 
fyze tribes. 

The empire of Ghizni 'was founded bv 
Abistagi, governor of Korasan A. D. QGO, 
who revolted from the king of Buchara: 
whoso ancestor, in his turn, had risen to 
power, on the ruins of the kaliphat empire, 
about 87 years before. Ghizni consisted 
chiefly of the tract which composed the 
kingdom of Bactria, after tho division of 
Alexander's empire: that is, the countries 
lying between Parfchia and tlie Indus ; and 
south of the Ox us. Emperors, who have 
reigned in Hindoostan since tho Ghiznian 
conquest. Tod' 8 Rajasthan, Vol. II, p. 455. 
BennelVa Memoirs, p. xlix. 

Ohiznian Emperors Began to reign. 

Blahmood I. 
Mahomed I. 
Musaood I. 
Musaood II. 

Feroch Zaad 

A. D. 

1 1028 


... J 

••• ] 1052 
Gkorlan, or Gaurian Emperor, 

Ibrahim I. 
Mcuaood III. 
Byram I. 
Chnsro I. 
Chasro II. 


A. D. 

Mahomod II. or Mahomed 
Fat an, or Afgh 

Altamsh or 

Feroze I. 
Snltana Rizia, 

Byram II. 
Musaood IV. 
Malimood II 

Ch izcr 
Mubarick II. 






un Emperors, 
Ferose II. 
Alia I. 
Mub&rik I. 

MsJiomed III. 
Feroz 111. 
Tnglik II. 
MeSiomed IV. 
fMahmood III. 

* . 

Seid Dynasty^ 

1414 I Mahomod V. 
. . 1421 I Alia II. 




.. 1295 

.. 1316 

.. 1317 

... 132J 

.. 1325 

... 1351 


• • 1 1889 

'!. 1393 





GHEZO HiXD. Manna. See Kudrat 

Kudrat. Halvassi. 

GUI. Guz. Hind. Clarified Batter. 
Ghruttham, grita, Saxs. | Neyi, Tam Tel 

Ghi is largely manufactured in all the 
south of Asia and generally sells at 25 per 
cent, above the cost of butter. Ghi is made 
in very large quantities in the jungle tracts 
of the " Bar." The finest ghi used on the 
Bombay side of India, comes from Karachee 
near the mouth of the Indus — Hindu Infan- 
ticide, p. 177. 

GHIANDE. It. Acorns ; the seed or fruit 
of the oak. 

GHIAOUR, originally Gabar or fire- 
worshipper, is now synonymous with Kafir, 
and is applied to the people who preceded 
the mahomedans, as well as to Europeans. 
Rich's residence in Koordistan, Vol. I. p. 30. 
See Gaour, Gabr Ghabr. 

DIN. His takhalus or literary name was 
Kondemir. His book is entitled Habib-us- 
sayar-fi afrad-ul-bashar, that is to say, 
the curious part of the lives of illustrious 
men. It is a history which he had extracted 
from that which his father Mircond had 
composed, and entitled, Rauzat-us-Safa, but 
to which he made augmentations. He de- 
dicated this book to the secretary of state 
belonging to the king of Persia, shah 
Ismael Sufavi, who gave him the name of 
Hahib-ullah, and for that reason the book 
bad the name of Hahib given it in the year 
J 508, Heg. 927, in the Reign of Lewis Xll. 
He was also author of another history, 
which is entitled Khalasat-ul-Akhbar *, or 
The Cream of Histories.— U/s^cw*// of Genghiz 
Khan, p. 422. 

GHI-TURAI. Hind. Luffa pentandra. 

GHILICHI, a branch of the Toch- 
tamish, the first of the tribes of Kapchak 
Malcolm's History if Persia, Vol. II, p, 231. 

GHIDAYU. Cax. Tree. 

GHI-GOWAR. Hind. Aloe India. Royle. 
In Southern India, plants of the ** Ghi-go- 
war " or " Kul-bunda," the Aloe perfoliata, 
are suspended with their roots upwards, 
with a longitudinal incision in each leaf, to 
permit the aroma of the juice to become 
apparent, and disperse musquitoes from the 

GHI KA GADDA. Duk. Isoetes Coro- 

GHI-KWAR. Hind. Aloe perfoliata. 

GHIKAR, a Scythic race inhabiting the 
banks of the Indus ; at an early period of his- 
tory they were given to infanticide. It was a 
custom, says Ferishta, '' as soon as a female 



child was born, to carry her to the market 
place and there proclaim aloud, holding the 
child in one hand, and a knife in the other, 
that any one wanting a wife might have 
her; otherwise she was immolated." By 
this means they had more men than women, 
which occasioned the custom of several hus- 
bands to one wife. When any one husband 
visited her, she set up a mark at the door, 
which being observed by the others, they 
withdrew till the signal was removed. The 
Ghikar are supposed to be the descendants of 
the mountaineers whose chief Am bisaces sent 
ambassadors with presents to Alexander. 
Baber writes the name Guker but it is also 
written Ghuka and KhaksL.— Tod's Rajas- 
than. Vol. I, p. 636. See Afghan, Kabul, 
Khetri, Jelam. 

GHI KOMAR. Hind. Aloe Indica.- 

GHIIiAN. A district known to the 
ancient Arians as Varena. It was their 
thirteenth settlement and formed the nucleus 
of their ancient possessions in India. Haug 
has shown Varena with the four comere 
to be a Ghilan. The curse of Ahriman was 
irregular menstruation. See Arians. Kizzel 

GHILANI. Abd ul Kader Ghilani, styled 
Sultan ul AuUa. 

GHIL GARANTA. Tel. Crotalaria 
verrucosa. — Linn. 

GHILIAK, a nomade race dwelling on the 
coast of Tartary and Siberia as far as Ayan 
on the north-western extremity of Seghalin. 
They are low in stature, stout, and rather 
broad in proportion to their height. Shape 
of the head round, cheek bones prominent^ 
eyes oblique, well defined eye brows, more 
arched than those of the Chinese, hair coarse 
black and bound into a tail, and occasionally 
wearing a coarse black beard, bands, small 
and delicate, with well shaped nails, com- 
plexion fair and ruddy. The women are 
small but prolific. 




































- Beagh. 

- I nok. 

. Nung-ye; 









Ma pa. 
Na mu. 

Wilm ak dha. 
Tig dhu 

Sauce pan • Hat chuo. 

/ Seven 

Jo lo. 

Ah Dhu pih. 

Dhu we. 

O mo ko. 





Nung o. 

Na dha. 


OHOOBA, a confluent of the river (Pan- 
gea. Fjzabad and Oudh are built on its 
banks. It rises N. of Knmaon, in lat., 
30 28,N.,lon. 80o40,B., probably at between 
17,000 and 18,000 feet. It runs S. E., 33 m., 
S. W., 70 m. ; S. B., 12 m. ; S., 30 m. ; S., 
23 m. farther ; S. £ , to Ganges, near Chn- 
pra, — Length, 606 m. It receives the rivers 
Kaptee, 134; Kamalli, 225; Bhyrvee, 70; 
Dhauli, 45 ; Goringanga, 60 m. About 
49,000 sq. m. are drained by it. Butler 
describes it as navigable for the larg^est 
class of boats in all seasons. 

GHOL. Hind. Coccinea Indica. 


GHOLAK. Ar. Euphorbium. 

GHOLAM. Ab. Hind.Pers, properly ghu- 
1am a youth, a page, a slave. Elliot consider- 
that in this word we have the origin of the 
English gallant, gallantry,gala, <Sbc., Ghulam 
being derived from the Arabic gh*rm libi- 
dinosus, and hence it signifies a comely 
youth, one chosen as an attendant, or page 
for his personal endowments. The Spaniards 
borrowed it from the Arabs, and called a 
handsome young man ''galana*' from which, 
are derived "galante," **galanteur," "ga- 
lanteria*' all subvS<^quently adopted into the 
European tongues through the influence of 
the amatory poetry of the troubadours. 
In Persia Gholam, is now applied to an 
inferior civil officer or policeman, 
answering to a *' cavass*' in Turkey. Seve- 
ral of these are attached to each European I 
embassy in Persia. The Shah has also a 
number attached to his person who are call- 
ed Golam-i-Shah : these form a kind of 
body-guard. The Russians use their gho- 
lam only for posting purposes, to accom- 
pany members of the embassy, and have a 
body of Cossacks for escort. The British 
embassy gholams are used for escort and also 
for posting purposes, as the regular native 
Indian cavalry who used to form the escort 
of the British ambassador was discontinued 
during the mission of Sir Gore Ouseley, 
which lasted from 1812 to 1818. • 

Fraser tells us that in Persia, the Koolera- 
gassee is the superior of the slaves. Each of 
the princes, as well as the king, has a certain 
number of confidential troops, who act as 
guards, or agents, on all important occasions, 
and who are called ** gholam," or slaves. 
Elliot, Fraser* 8 Journey into Khorasan^ p. 105. 
Ed, Ferrler*8 J&iim.^ p. 21. 

GHOL-MUHUNEE. Beng. Deeringia 

GHOND. See Gond, India, Kelat, Kond ; 

Ku p. 488. 

GHONDWANA. See Gondwanah, Koi, 
Koli, p. 536, 

GHONGU KURA. Tel. Hibiscus can- 

GHONI, wheat and barley grain, with- 
out husk. 

GHOONT, or Kund is a hill breed of hors- 
es, generally small, strongly made, hard- 
mouthed, and sometimes almost unmanage- 
able. In ascending hill faces, or passing 
along the declivities of mountains, it is best 
to let them have their own way, for in an 
intricate passage they often show more saga- 
city than the rider ; their common pace is 
a kind of amble, and they stop every now 
and then to breathe, when no application of 
the whip will move them ; they are sure 
footed) and sometimes halt at the edge of a 
precipice, to the terror of the rider ; they are 
not so quick in ascending hills as the low 
country horses, but they desciud with dou- 
ble the speed, and endure great fatigue. 
The ghoont, though a useful animal, 
seldom carries any burden but a man, the 
total number in Spiti is 2^5 ; they are bred 
chiefly for sale. They have two breeds, one 
a small ghoont, never above 12 hands high, 
peculiar to the country ; and the other a 
large breed, from 13 to 13| hands high, ib 
bought from the Chinese, and usually comes 
from Ghoomoortee, for a Chinese ghoont two 
years old, they give a Spiti ghoont four 
years old. All are equally hardy and are 
kept out the whole winter, except the year- 
lings, which are housed. 'During winter the 
ghoont live on the roots of the stunted 
bushes, and are very expert at scraping the 
snow from off them with their fore feet. 
The breed of ghoont might be improved 
with a little care. Many are killed during 
winter by wolves and leopards. — Powell 
Handbook, Capt.'jGerard, Account of Coon* 
aumr, p. 112. 

GHOOR, a lizard of Guzerat which the 
natives believe to be poisonous, there are 
two kinds of " Ghoor" according to native 
report, " Putlah Ghoor" and " Chundun 
Ghoor.'' So anomalous a creature as a veno- 
mous lizard will, however, be believed in by 
no naturalist, until he has ocular demonsira- 
tion of the existence of the poison-apparatus. 
Hardly a snake is caught in India, that is 
not,according to the snake-catcher, the worst 
snake in the country. 

albida. Linn. 

GHOOS, is literally a bribe; and no trea- 
ty or transaction was ever carried on in 
Rajputanah without this stipulation. So 
sacred was the ghoos held,from tyrant usage, 
that the Peshwa ministers, when they ruled 
the destinies of their nation, stipulated that 



pers on Western India," page 392, mentions 
that certain gorges in the hills had been 
artificially bnnded and there kadir is a ter- 
race cnltivating race on the Palney hills in 
the extreme sonth of the peninsnla. There 
are one or two points of slight resem- 
blance between the " Pelasgi " the bnilders 
of the Cyclopean walls of Greece, Italy, Ac, 
and the Ghorbasta bnilders, suggesting 
that they might bave been a kindred people 
with kindred habits. The Pelasgi came 
from Asia, not from Asia Minor, not from 
Syria, not from Assyria, not from Persia, 
but probably from that birth place of 
emigration the tract north and north-east of 
Persia. The Ghorbnsta bnilders probably oame 
from the same tract and were not Mekra- 
uees, nor Persians, nor Assyrians. The Pelas- 
gi, exibted only a few generations in Greece 
(about 250 years', befbre they were turn- 
ed out by the Hellenes ; they must therefore 
have brought with them when they entered 
the country their propensity for building 
massive walls, and commenced their work 
almost immediately on arrival. It was pro- 
bably the same with the wall builders of 
Beloochistan, they only remained in the 
country long enough to allow them to ex- 
tend northward as far as Kelat, when meet- 
ing with the Moolla pass, they debouched 
into the plains. Their art was a fully de- 
veloped one, before they arrived here to 
carry it out. The Pelasgi arrived in Greece 
about 1800 B. C. This date seems to accord 
roughly with the advent of the unknown 
people into Jhalawan. ( 

The Ghorbasta buildings difier considera- 
bly, however ; for when compared with the 
Cyclopean remains, they are slight, most 
roughly executed, and insignificant j yet 
they evince alike instinct and habit in two 
races which probably came originally from 
the same region. — Dr. Coolc in No. VI, Bom,' 
bmj Medical Transaefiaim. 

GHORBACH. Hind. Acorns calamus. 

GHOEl-BAND. A valley separated from 
Koh-i-daman, by a hill range stretching from 
the Hindoo-Kush , it contains many ancient 
remains. The Slnrwan tribe occupy it. See 
Ghorbista, Kclat, p. 489, 490. Khyber, 
p. 520. 

GHORCHURHA, also ghorcharha. A 
sub-division of the Coormee tribe. The 
literal meaning of the word, if rightly Spelt, 
is a horse-man, but Elliot is not sure that 
there may not he some connexion between 
tliem and the Koorchnrra whom Tod puts 
down in Chnnd Bardai's list of the royal 
races. — Ell lot. 

GHORESUNi^, Beng. also Majstapat. 
BcufT. Corcborus olitorius, Sunn hemp. 


GHORI. Hind. White cornelian. 

GHORIBUND. See Kohistan. 

GHORKA. A people inNepal said to bo of 
mixed origin, a brave and fierce race, by the 
Chinese called Ku-ru Ka-li. There can be no 
doubt of the warlike character of tbeGhorka. 
Not only are they brave and skilful soldiers, 
but, for a barbarous nation, they are won- 
derfully advanced in the art of fabricating 
the implements of war : they cast their own 
ordnance, manufacture their own muskets, 
short, powder, and cartridge-boxes ; in fact, 
every instrument or weapon used in civiliz- 
ed warfare is manufactured in Nepaul, often 
clumsily enough, but the mere fact of their 
being capable of being used, and used with 
effect, is highly creditable to the ingenuity 
of the Ghorka. The Ghorka are the con* 
qnerors of Nepaul, and now compose the 
army ; they have grants of land called jag- 
hires, on which they live when not actually 
on service. They are a handsome and in- 
dependent race, priding themselves upon not 
beink able to do anything but fight ; and 
have a free and sometimes noble carriage 
like the Tyrolese. The Ghnrka, and Bhutan i, 
on the East, and the Lahuli and Kanawari 
on the west, dwelling amongst the valleys 
of the AimaJaya, are, according to Gunning- 
bam, mixed races, between the Bhot family 
of Tibet and the hindn race of the south. 
Cunningham^ Olipkant. 

GHORLA. Hind. Gugaira, a wooden 
implement used in the process of making 
sajji or barilla. 

GHORA-PACHAR. See Sat-dhara. 

GHOR-PHAR. Duk. Iguana. See 

GHORPHARA. a powerful Mahratta 
family, who hold lands at Gnnjundurghnr, 
Sondur, Madhol, and Akulkote The 
derive their name from the Ghorphar, or 
Iguana, from a tradition that the founder 
of the family scaled and took a fortress by 
its means. 

GHORAPUCAR. a river of Bhopal. 

GHORUMBA. Hind. Cucumis colo- 

GHOS. Beng. Luffa pentandra and L. 

G'HOSEB, also g'hosi, herdsmen. They 
are said to be descended from the Ahir race. 
Most of them have now been converted to 
mahomcdanism ; indeed, the name is gene- 
rally considered, according to the diction- 
aries, to be exclusively applied to mahomedan 
milkmen. The name is derived from a 
Sanscrit word signifying a cattle-pen. The 
eastei*n G*hosi who have been converted 
are called Bandcc G*hosi. In many parts 
! of tho country, as in Delhi, the Ghosi are 



GIASHUK. HfND. JuuipcruB com- 

GIBBEL. Ar. a mountain. Sec Gab'l ; 

GIBBON. Sec Simiada3. 

GIBRALTAR, in laL 36 ' 7' N., long. 5' 
21' W., was captured from tlio Spaniards in 
the year 711 and it remained in pobsession of 
tlio Arabs till tbo early part of the four- 
teenth century, when the Spaniards retook 
it, but lost it again in 13o3; it was then 
held by the Arabs until its second recovery 
by the Spaniards in MG2. On the 24th 
July 1704, it was suddenly assailed and 
captured by tbe British under Sir Georgo 
liooko; the garrison being small and un- 
prepared for defence. The Spaniards, occa- 
sionally assisted by the French, have since 
made various attempts to recapture the 
place, but without success. Burton says 
Gibraltar is Jebal-ul-Tarikh ; and " Mt. 
Ethne that men clepen Mounte Gybelle*' is 
*• Monte Gibello,'* the mountain, pai* excel- 
lence. --Burton 8 Filgt'iihUfjo to Mcccah, Vol. 
I., p. 325. 

GIBSON, Alexander, M. D., born at Law- 
rencebirk, October 180U, was a Medical offi- 
cer of the H. E. I. Co.'s Mercantile Navy, 
from 1821 to 1824, duriug which ho visited 
Bombay, Calcutta, China, and many islands 
of the Archipelago. In 1825, through the 
influence of Joseph Hume, he was appointed 
to the Bombay Medical Establishment, and 
served througliout the Burmedo war as flag 
Surgeon, to Sir John Hayes. He was 
from 18o7 to 1800, Conservator of Forests. 
His contributions to science were 

On Indigenous Products which may be 
applied to use in India in supersession of 
the more costly supplies obtained from 
Europe. Lithographed 1837. 

On the Medical Topography of Guzemt ! 
in Vol. 1st of Bombay Medical Transactions. 

Description of the Method of Breeding 
and Rearing Leeches in Western India, do. 

liemarks on the Climate, Productions and 
Diseases of the Deckan, Vol. 2nd of do. 

Sundry Papers in the Transactions of ihe 
Horticultural Society of Western India for 
1838-39 and 40, among which is an account 
of a simple process for the manufacture of 
Raw or Mu.scovado Sugar. 

Suggestions for extending the cultivation 
of useful and ornamental plants in India. 
Published by order of Earl Aukland, 1841. 

Report of Trials on the powers of Bramas 
press as applied in the extraction of oils. 
Trans, of Calcutta Hort. Soc. June 1843. 

Practical Remarks on the cultivation of 
Senna, Calcutta Hor. Soc. Trans. Aug. 184:3. 



Forest and Garden Reports, 1840 to 1850, 
Transactions of the Agri. and Hor. Society 
of Western India 1852. This work has 
numerous misprints. 

Hand Book on Indian Forestry comprising 
descriptions and details of management of 
ti^ak forests together with an account 
(drawn up for the guidance of Departments) 
of the forest trees of western Indiae— their 
localities, qualities, <&c., with remarks on the 
planting of road trees. 

He ti*aced the Kino extract exported from 
Malabar to be the produce of Ptcrocarpus 
marsnpium of tho Western Ghats. 

Ho began the culture of Hyosciamus now 
extensively grown for the supply of the 
medical stores. 

The introduction of tho officinal senna as 
a growth in the Bombay Presidency was 
effected by him. 

He established at the district gardens in 
the Deckan, a manufactory for the supply 
of numerous oils and extracts for the medi- 
cal stores, the oils being extracted by means 
of the hydraulic press, the District Gar- 
dens nearly paid their expenses by means of 
the supplies made. 

Memoir on the forest preserves or shikar- 
gahs in Sind, printed along with the Parlia- 
mentary Papers on Sind, dated 1848. 

On the pn>duct8 of the Bassia and some 
other trees, printed in Sir W. J. Hooker's 
Journal for February and March 1 d52. 

On the medical properties of tho bark of 
Alstonia scholaris Pharmaceutical Journal 
of London^ March and April 1852. 

This officer had been much employed in 
forests where malaria is of a very deadly 
character and being asked what precautions 
he had generally taken, he replied — 

To sleep as much as possible with the 
head entirely covered. 

To be in motion either marching or mov- 
' ing about at work at those hours whea 
malaria is deemed to be most active, viz., 
from 3 to 7 A. M. 

When marching in such forests at early 
mom — to take care always to breathe 
through repeated folds of cloth extending 
over the mouth and above tho nostrils. 

To avoid afternoon marches as tbe system 
becomes thereby exhausted and open to the 
reception of malaria after nightfall. 

Ho is of opinion that with cai*e as to these 
several particulars, forests may be traversed 
with comparative safety even at the most 
deadly seasons. • . 

GHI-CHANGI. Tel. Celastrus monta- 
na, Roxb. W. A. & W. Ic. 

GIDAR. HiifD. Jackal. 



ject to the Persiau frovernmoni.-^Ousehi/s j GIL *HRI-MAR. Hind. Aquila penna- 
Tmvels, Vol. I, p. \7\. Nearchus, p. 375. ti, ameL literally squirrel killer 

GIL-T-ABRORSHI. A rough, hard, not 

Seo.ed. 1807. 

GILARPATR. Hind. Laminaria sac- 

GILAS. Hind. Cerasus commuQis. C. 
vulgaris, a kind of cherry. 

GILA TIGE. Tkl. Enteda pnscotlia.— 
B, C. Mimosa scandons. — Roxh, 

GIL-ARMINL Duk. Hin. Pers. Bolo 

miles distant from and on the ea^t coasb of 
Java, is in lat. 8^ 2' S. and lon^. 114° 31' 
15" E. It is small and steep. — HorsLurah. 

GILBAD BALSAM, Royle, in his Hima- 
layan Botany, mentions that the Balsamo- 
dendron (Amyris) Gilcadense or Terebin- 
theaB, or Balsam of Gilead-trce, known 
in the East by the name of Balessan, has 
lung been accounted one of the riches of 
Arabia, whence or from Abyssinia, its 
native country, according to Bruce, it was 
at an early period taken into Syria. It has 
also been introduced into the Botanic Gar- 
don at Calcutta as well as into the Peninsu- 
la of India. See Balsam, Balsamodcndron. 

GILEAD FIR, Abies bulsamea See 

GILERU. HrND. Crysthrina arbores- 

GILGIT. A territory in Central Asia, 
in lat. 35° N., and long. 74° E., Tiie Indus 
river runs through it from N. E. to S.W. It 
is on the southern declivity of the Hindu 
Kush, between Chitral on the west, and 
Baltistan (Little Tibet) on the east. In the 
Bunnu valley there are races intermixed, of 
whom may be noticed tha Durdu of 

brittle, pink earth, only used in native rncdi* 
cine. Properly speaking, a deposit from 
a miiieml spring containing sulphur, the 
sediment is collected and made into little 
cakes, but the*' Hassan dhup" ordinarily 
seen in the bazaar is a mere imitation, con- 
sisting of some earthy clay mixed with 
ground sulphur and formed into cakes, call- 
ed probably Moses' Stone, from its lamellar 
structure, as if the tables of the laws, given 
on Sinai, had been on slate tablets. 

annuals of easy cultivation, may be grown 
cither in the flower garden, or in pots 
during and after the rains, easily propagated 
by seed in any light soil. — RidcielL 
GIL-I-FARSI. Hind. A pink earth. 
GIL-I-IR»MANI, Armenian bolo, not 
now used in European medicine, but former- 
ly so employed, and still used by natives. 

GIL- 1 -KH ARDYA. A red earth. 
GIL-I-KIRIA. A sofl laminated, nearly 
white clay, resembling chalk in appearance, 
hence probably the name.— -Poti^eZJ. 

GIL-I-MAKHTUM. A soft^ rough, irre- 
gular, variegated marl, containing clay, deep- 
ly colored by peroxide of iron, mixed with 
nearly white carbonate of lime. — Powell. 

GIL-I-MULTANI. Fuller's earth. A soft 
laminated white or pale yellow earth ; used 
by the natives for cleaning their hair, and in 

GIL-I-SAFED. Pbbs. Chalk, Calcis 

GIL-I-ZARD. A pale yellow, tough, lami- 
nated earth, intermediate in color between 

Gilgit and Chulas. According to Bumes, geru and gil-i-multani, but resembling both 

the mir of Badakhshan, the chief of 

Darwaz in the valley of the Oxus, 

and the chiefs eastward of Darwaz who 

occupy the provinces of Kulub, Shughnan 

and Wakkan, north of the Oxus, also the hill 

states of Chitral, Giljit and Iskardo are all 

held by chiefs who claim a Grecian descent. 

The whole of the princes who claim descent 

from Alexander are Tajik who inhabited 

the country before it was overrun by Turki 

or Tartar tribes. To the west beyond Balti 

the people of Astor, Gilgit and Hunza- 

Nager speak different dialects of Dardu, 

while the Kashmir people have their own 

peculiar language. The Balti people of 

Little Tibet, say that Ladak, Iskardo, Kho- 

palu, Purik Nagyr, Gilgit and Astor are 

distinct Tibets, Bumes, Bokhara. See Kabul, 

Kush, Ladak, Sikh, Tibet. 

GILGITI Hind, A kind of wheat. 

in appearance. — > Powell. 

GILL, Major Robert, an officer of the 
IVIadras army, who devoted nearly twenty 
years of his life to copying and photograph- 
ing the pictures in the caves of Ellora and 
Adjunta. His devotion, in dwelling in such 
lonely spots as in the ravine of Adjunta is 
unparalleled in modern times. 

GILLAR. Hind. Goitre. 

GILLAR PATR, Hind, a sea- weed lami- 
naria, used as a drug, for goitre. It is obtain- 
ed solely via Yarkand,from the shores of the 
Caspian Sea. Five or six maunds are import- 
ed. The word " patr," is a leaf. Dr. Martin 
Honigberger refers gillur-ka-Puttar to Lami* 
naria saccbarina, and alludes to a belief that 
it is found in a salt lake in Thibet ; adding 
that some English physicians maintain it is 
brought from the Caspian Sea. He says it is 








GINGELLY SEED. Scsaiuum Seed. 

Siimsam, Ar. 

Ellu, Can. 

ill, Jingellv. Guz. Hind. 
Kunjcd, I'eks. | 

The scsamum is extensively cultivutcd 
in Soutbem Asia, for the oil expressed from 
the seed, which are sligliMy oval, small, 
tasteless and inodorous. There are two 
varieties distinguished, black, and white or 
yellow, which possess the same properties, 
uiid in commerce are met with both in a 
mixed and separate state. Gingelly seed is 
largely exported to England and France. 
This oil is perhaps consumed to a gi^eater 
extent than any other by the Natives of 
India, and is second only to cocoannt oil in 
its importance as an article of commerce. 
It is extensively cultivated throughout the 
whole of the Madras Presidency, and the 
seed and oil have been exported as follows : — 

Glngdhj SeciL 

Year 18i7-48. I Year 1848-49. 

Qr. 17.518 ...Rs 1,60,131 Qr. 8.594... Ra 1,02,726 

Year 1849.50. 
Cwt. l,44,125Rs.299,4l2 

Year 1851-52. 
Cwt. 1,09,4 l4Rs.3,02,559 

Year 1850-51 

Y*car 1852-53. 
Cwt. 2,51,613. Rb.5,31,664 

Gingelhj Oil, 

Year 1847-18. 
GM 9.520 Rs. U,7G6 

Year 1849-50 
Gl. 52.721 Rs. 36,294 

Year 1 85 1-52 
Gl. 46,190 Rs 26,722 


become perfectly white. Thoy are then 
dried in the sun, and the oil expressed as 
usual. This process yields 40 to 44 per 
cent, of a very pale straw-colored sweet- 
smelling oil, an excellent substitute for olive 
oil. In India, the oil is chiefly used in 
cookery, in anointing the person, for making 
soap, and for burning in lamps. In Eng- 
land, it is chiefly used for the mannfactnre 
of soap, and for burning in table-lamps, for 
which it is better suited than cocoanut oil, 
owing to the lower temperature at which it 
congeals. Its value inEngland (January 1855) 
£47- 1 per ton. In different parts of the Ma- 
dras Presidency the price of this oil varies 
from Rs. 1-5-0 to Rs. 6-0-0 per maund of 
25 lb.9. In S. Arcot it is procurable at Rs. 
27- 1 2-5 per candy. The prices per mnund of 
this oil, at the undermentioned stations, for 
the quarter ending 31st October 1854, were 
as follows : — 

B8. A. p • 
Madura, - - 5 8 ' 
Masgalore, -41 
Najrpore, - - 1 12 
Falamcottah, - 4 12 
Panlghaut, - 3 7 
SaDinlcotta, - 2 10 
Secnnderabad, 2 3 
Trichinopoly, - 4 1 
Vellore, - - 3 14 
I Visagapatam, - 8 2 

Second soti QingeUy Oil is erroneously 
called "Rape," (Kharasanee yelloo), is 
from the red seeded variety. In Tanjore, it 
is procurable at Rs. 3-0-0 per maund. 
In Rajahmundry the two varieties of sesa- 
mum are cultivated for the sake of the oil. 
The best gingelly seed plant, is sown in the 
month of March, after the rice crop, and is 
irrigated twice, once at sowing, and once 
afterwards. The seed which is blacky and 
is called 1st sort gingelly, from the fact 
of its yielding the largest percentage of oil, 
ripens in May, and nells at the rate of Rs. 
60 per candy of 500 lbs. The oil obtained 
from both varieties, sells at the same price, 
viz., Rs. 2-14-6 to 3 per maund of 26 lbs. 
according to quality. The 2nd sort of gingelly 
is sown in June, and produces a red seed. 
The plant although a little largei* resembles 
in most respects the former, it has, however, 
a somewhat longer leaf, and the flower dii^ 
fers a shade or two in color. A candy of 

R8. A. 


Arcot, . - - 


Bangalore,- - 

3 7 


Bellary, - - 

3 2 

Berhampore, - 

2 8 

Cannanoro, - 


Caddapab, - 

2 13 

Jaalnah, - - 

2 6 

Jubbalpore, - 

I 5 

Madras, - - 

3 14 






Year 1848-49. 
Gl. 14,686 Rs. 11,535 

Year 1850-51. 
Gl. 77,262 Rs. 48,605 

Year 1853-53. 
Gl. 72,607 Rs. 43,608 

Of the gingelly seed exported in 1852-53 
the United Kingdom received cwt. 12,713 — 
Ceylon, cwt. 590— France, cwt. 2,87,225— 
Pogue, cwt. 741— Bombay, cwt. 113 — 
Malacca, cwt. 33 and Ti-avaiicore, cwt. 148. 
Of the quantity of oil (72,607 gals.) export- 
ed in the same year — gals. 42,043 were ship- 
ped to the United Kingdom — gals. 2,963 to 
Ceylon — gals. 4,232 to Mauritius and Bour- 
bon — gals. 10,698 to Pegu — gals. 46 to 
Bengal — gals. 27 to the French (Indian) 
ports, and gals. 3,593 to Malacca. The great 
disparity of color observed in the specimens 
of this oil is attributed to the mode of 
preparation. The method sometimes adopt- 
ed is that of throwing the fresh seeds, 
without any cleansing process, into the 
common mill, and expressing in the nsnal 
way. The oil thus becomes mixed with 
a large portion of the coloring matter 500 lbs. of this seed sells at R8.57-8-0. The 

of the epidermis of the seed, and is nei- 
ther so pleasant to the eye, nor so 
agreeable to the taste, as that obtained by 
first repeatedly washing the seeds in cold 
water, or by boiling them, for a short time, 
nntil the whole of the reddish brown color- 
ing matter is removed, and the seeds have 

price of the oil is the same as that of gin- 
gelly. This seed has of late been exported 
to France, in consequence of which the pre- 
sent price is donble what it was three 
years ago. It will have been seen that of 
this small annual plant there are two or 
three varieties. — M. E. of 1 855. 



pose : the ref^ious where it grows are rcj^rd- 
ed as imperial preserves, and the medicine 
itself is held as a governmental monopoly. 
It is considered by the Chinese as a panacea, 
and no medicine or dose is regarded as 
complete without this forms an ingredient. 
All the ginseng growing in Tartary is- the 
property of the emperor, and he sells a 
quantity yearly to his subjects, who have 
the privilege to purchase it at its weight 
in gold. The co-hong were formerly com- 
pelled to purchase upwards of §140,000 
worth annually, for which sum a few 
catties were given them. The roots are 
about the size and length of a man's little 
finger, and when chewed have a mucilagin- 
ous sweetness ; and if good, will snap when 
broken. They should be sound, firm, and 
free from worm holes. The Chinese consider 
that which comes from Tartary to be the 
best, even when they can see no difference. 
When first brought from America, the pro- 
fits were 500 or 640 per cent. ; but afterwards 
the price declined so much as at times to be 
hardly worth bringing. \VIien the new 
tiiriif was first settled, the Chinese objected 
to a reduction of the imperial duties, but on 
a representation being made to H. E. Keying, 
the imperial commissioner, it was finally 
agreed by him, that without changing the 
tariff, the duty on every separate lot should 
be levied as if it was one fifth first quality, 
and four fifths second quality. This ari'ange- 
ment reduces the actual duty paid to lOfc. 
2m. or 814*17 per pecul. Ginseng is clari- 
fied by being boiled and skinned, which 
operation renders the root somewhat trans- 
parent. Clarified ginseng varies in price 
fi om §G0 to §100 a pecul ; the crude, from 
§35 to §70 a pecul ; five per cent., is allowed 
for loss in weight on this aiiicle, which is 
taken from the price agreed upon per pecul. 
In 1837, there were 2 12,898 lbs. imported, at 
the value of §108,548. In some years there 
is ranch more than this amount ; the avei'age 
importation in 1842 and 1843 was 3,000 peculs, 
at the avei'age price of §48 per pecul. The 
trade is fluctuating anduncertain, and entirely 
in the hands of the Americans upon the con- 
fines of Tai'tary and China, near the great 
wall. It is found wild, flourishing in moist 
situations, and attaining the height of from 
two to three feet. A variety of the plant 
was discovered, a few years ago, in the 
Himalaya mountains, and small quantities 
have been sent thence to Canton. The root 
Ls about three or four inches in length, and 
one inch in thickness. It resembles a small 
carrot, but not so taper at the end, and is 
sometimes single, sometimes divided into 
two branches. The stem is striated, without 


I branches, and of a red color near the root. 

; The officinal root dilTera in appearance, 
according to the country from which it 
is brought. In Korea and China it is white, 
corrugated when dry, and covered with a 
powder resembling starch. In Manchuria 
and Dauria it is yellow, smooth and 
transparent, and when cut resembles amber. 
The taste of the root is bitter. The stem of 
the plant, which is renewed every year, 
leaves, as it falls off*, an impression upon the 
neck of the root, so that the number 
of these rings or marks indicates the ago 
of the plant, and the value of the root 
inci*eases accordingly. The importation 
of the American root at Canton does not 
interfere to a very serious degree with tho 

I imperial sales at the north, as the Chinese 
are fully convinced that their own plant is far 
superior, and its high price prevents much of 
it coming south. — In Tenasscrim the Chinese 
shops have the famous ginseng always on 

i hand, but the plant is not. cultivated. — WilU' 
am* 8 Middle Kingdom p. 284 Slmmond^s Caiti' 
laercial irroducis p. 436-7. Honorable Mr. 
Morrison's Co7npeiidiou8 Description. 

GIPSHAN. Hind. Eurotia ceratoides. 
GIPSIES. In a recent German work, by 
Dr. Pott, concerning the gipsies in Europe 
and Asia, the author seeks for an identity 
between that tribe and tho Luri or Lur of 
Persia. His supposition rests on the autho- 
rity of Pottinger, who establishes a simi- 
larity between the Luri of Beluchistan and 
the gipsies in Europe. But on this subject. 
Baron de Bode observes that the Karachi, 
Kauli, and Susmani, under which appella- 
tions the gipsies are known in Persia, arc 
perfectly distinct from the Luri or Lur 
tribes. The gipsies in the northern parts of 
Persia lead a wandering life, but always 
aloof from the other erratic tribes, and they 
go by the name of Karachi, from the Turkish 
word kara, meaning black. They exercise tho 
trade of tinkers, and are consulted at times 
as horse doctors ; but they are in general' 
looked down upon by the inhabitants settled 
in towns and villages, and even by the other 
nomadic tribes. In Kermanshah and Kur- 
distan, where their number is very consider- 
able, they also lead a vagabond life, and are 
known by the denominations of Susmani, 
and Kauli. In Ardelan, which is the Per- 
sian Kurdistan, there is a large village, near 
Senneh, inhabited solely by the Susmani. 
Their morals are anything but strict ; the 
women are like the Indian Bayadere and 
dance at tho Persian majalis, or assemblies, 
to the music which their husbands per- 
form on somo stringed instruments. There 
are several Iliyat tribes in Persia, tho 




range of ifao Neilgherries : the bark yields 
a fine, strong, white flax-like fibre, which 
the hill people obtain by plnnging the plant 
into hot water ; to deprive ifc of its viralently 
stinging properties, and then peeling tlie 
stalks. The textile material so prepared is 
of great strength, and the Todawar nso it 
as thread. It is worth £200 a ton in Eng- 
land.— ilf. E, J. R. 

GIRASA. Hind. Cerasns commnnis. 

GIRBAR In Oman, the hides of the 
sheep or goats are made into leather vessels 
c:illc<l Girbar. Those of kids or lambs serve 
for milk, while the larger are used for either 
wine or water. They are tanned with the 
bark of the acacia, and the hairy part, which 
is left without, is generally, though not 
invariably, cleansed. The apertures through 
which the legs protruded are closed up, and 
the flaid within is discharged through the 
opening of the neck, which is gathered to- 
gether, and fastened by means of a leathern 
thong, its extremity being cnt in the form 
of a tongue or spout. They are slung 
alongside their camels, and a Bedowin when 
thirsty may frequently be observed drink- 
ing from them whilst in that position. They 
answer better than jars, because if the 
camel run against trees or its fellow beasts 
in the caravan, they are not liable to be 
broken, and from the evaporation constant- 
ly going on, the water is also kept perfectly 
cool, bnt whilst new, sufficient attention is 
not paid to cleansing them, and their con- 
tenis thus acquire a loathsome taste and 
smell. — WelUtetVs Traveh, Vol. I, p. 89. 

GlRCtJ. Hind. A kind of hill bamboo. 

GIR CHHATRA. Hind. Alorchella semi- 

GIRDAWUREB, also written Girdawari. 
Patroling, inspecting, going the rounds, 
from the Persian gird, circuit, circumfer- 
ence. — Elliot 

GIRDHANA. A sacred hill from which 
Krishna derives one of his principal epithets, 
Girdhun or Gordhun-nath, * God of the 
Mount of Wealth.* Here he first gave 
proofs of miraculous power, and a cave in 
this hill was the first shrine^ on his apotheo- 
sis, whence his miranles and oracles were 
made known to the Yadn race. From this 
cave (gopha) is derived another of his titles 
— Goph-nath, * Lord of the cave,' distinct 
from his epithet Gopi-nath, * Lord of the 
Gopi,* or pastoral nymplis. On the annual 
festival held at Girdhana, the sacred mount 
is purified with copious oblations of milk, 
for which all the cows of the district are in 
requisition. The worship of Krishna in 
ancient days, like that of Apollo amongst 
Greeks, was chiefly celebrated in caves, of 


which there were many scattered over 
India. The most remarkable were those of 
GKrdhana in Vrij ; Gaya in Bahar ; G^ph- 
nath on the shores of Sonrashtra ; and Ja- 
lindra on the Indus. — Tod, I, 545. 

GIRDLES are worn by mahomedans and 
hindus. They are alluded to in the Bible, 
Psalm cix, 19 — ' Let it be unto him as .a 
girdle wherewith he is girded continually/ 
Dan. X, 6 — * Whose loins were girded with 
the fine gold of Uphaz.' Many of the 
hindus both men and women wear a silver 
or gold chain round their loins, and all 
mahomedans wear a muslin girdle called a 
kamr-band or loin-girdle. Psalm xcii, 1 — 
* Strength wherewith he hath girded him- 
self.' When an Asiatic is about to set off 
on a journey, to lift a bnrden, or to do 
something which requires exertion, he binds 
firmly his loose upper garment round his 

GIRDNALLI. Hind, of Dera Ghazi 
Khan, Cassia fistula. 

GIRI, Pabnr, and Tonse rivers, are tri- 
butaries of the Jnmna and up tho 
valley of the Giri to Kotkai, there is a 
great consumption of wood and charcoal 
in connection with the iron smelting, 
for which that locality is famous.. — Olegh, 
Ptwj. Bep. 

GIRISHA. Sans, from Giri, a moun- 
tain, and Jishu, a lord. 
GIRICHATRA.Hmn.Morchella esculenta. 

GIRI KAHLA RAKA. See Inscrip- 
tions, p 373. 

GIRIKARNI. Hind. Dosmodinum, sp. 

GIRI KARNIK. Giri Kamika. Sans. 
Alhagi mauromm. — Toum. 

GIRI MALLIKA. Tel. Wrightia an- 
tidysenterica. — R. Brown. 

GIRNA, a tributary to Taptee. It rises 
on the E. slope of W. Ghauts, lat. 20° 37', 
long. 73 *" 25', B. 120 miles ; flows N. 50 
miles, into the Taptee. Length 160 miles. 

GIRK. Hind. Fluggea virosa. 

GIRNA. A river in Khandesh, a dam 
1 ,550 feet long has been thrown across it. 

GIRLS. Mrs. Sinnett was introduced 
to the wife of a Baboo, about twenty-five, 
and somewhat corpulent, also to one of his 
sisters-in-law only fifteen, and quite slen- 
der. The cause of this difierence was ex- 
plained to her. The girls, although mar- 
ried at an early age, are seldom mothers 
before fourteen or fifteen, and till then they 
retain the slendemess of their forms. But 
after the first lying in, they are shut up 
for seven or eight weeks in their rooms, 
fed with all the daintiest dishes that can 
be procured, and not allowed to take the 



Rajah Taranp^ni mentions king Mabavaha- 
na, a barlclhist sovereign of Kashmir of the 
third or fonrth century, issuing an edict 
against the slaughter of animals, similar to 
tliese of Asoko, Jonrn, Beng. Aa. Soc. vol. 
VII. p. 21 7 to 2G2. 

At some distance to the north of the Jaina 
temples of Girnar and above them on the 


6ITI NARAM. Tel. Desmodium gan- 
gcticum. B, 0. W. ami A, Hodjsarnm 
gangof.icum. — Roxb. 

GITTI GAD DA. Isoetes coromande- 
lina, L. Found in great abundance along 
the edges of tanks in the Camatic. The 
tender white shoots immediately above the 
spore-bearing involucres, are a favorite arti- 

verge of thehill,stands ahugeinsnlatedrock, cle of diet and are sold commonly in the 

the Bhairavajoop, or Leap of Death, other- 
wise styled the Rnja-mela-vana-pathnr — 
the * desire realizing rock', — whence hindns 
have often been tempted to throw them- 
selves in the hope of a happy fntnro. Lay- 
ing a cocoanut on the dizzy verge of this 
rock, the victim attempts to poise himself 
upon it and in another instant he is beyond 
humanity's reach, and his body a prey to 
the vultures that soar under the lofty cliflT. 

bazaars after the moiisoou. 


PatalH nrnram, 

Tax. I Telia ponnkn, 
„ I „ Poonkco, 



A very common tree in Southern India 
one of the Euphorbia coin. Hns a light soft 
wood, like mango wood ; useful for tem- 
porary pnrposes. It is found in Ceylon, the 

Such suicide has long been forbidden, but Circar hills, and is, there, a very light soft 
only about A. D. 1850 three Kunbl, keeping j wood Found also in a very few of the 
secret their intentions, ascended and made Bombay jungles, but in these only inland 
the fatal leap ; some Rabari had also deter- above the ghat^. Not seen in Guzerat. The 
mined to do the same, bnt were restrained. wood is light, and is used only for making 
Postans says the Girnar rock bears three ^^^ fignres and models manufactured at 
inscriptions. The most ancient, which oc- Gokak, in the Southern Mahratta Country, 
cupies the eastern side, are the edicts of ^'•*- ^j^t^it and Gibson, Captain Bcddonic, Thw. 
kingAsoka. The celebrated edicts are very ^n, pi Zr.yl. p. 27S. ^ 
c.^^ T5..i^«». ir.w...., r„.7.', Tr^i ti ^ GIUR. HrND. Salix Babylonica. 

GIWAIN. Hind. Elojagnus conferta. 

GJOOT. Diospyrus, sp. 

GLACIER. A French word received into* 
the Encrlish language, which must not bo- 
confounded with Glaciere, which has a dif- 
ferent signification. Glaciers, as defined 
by Saussure, are those masses of eternal ice 
whicii are formed and remain in the open 
air in the valleys and on the slopes of lofty 
mountains. In every part of the Himalaya, 
and of Western Tibet, wherever the moun- 
tains attain a snfiicient elevation to be cover- 
ed with porpotnal snow, glaciers are to bo 
found, and all the phenomena presented in 
Enropo have also been found there. In the 
lofty chain of the Cis-and Trans-Sutlej,Hima- 
laya, and of the Knenlun, whose peaks rise 
to a very g^at height^ and collect in winter 
enormous depths of snow, they are of great 
length. In the central parts of Tibet which 
are often lower, and even in their loftiest 
parts are less snowy than the bound ing^ 
chains, the glaciers are of inferior dimensions 
where the snow-bod is at once cut off abrupt- 
ly in an ice cliff, which can hardly be said to 
be in motion or rather whose motion must bo 
almost entirely from above downwards. Mo* 
raines, which, on the larger glaciers and 
among mountains of easily decaying rocks 
are of astonishing dimensions, form the mar 
gins of each glacier, and also occur longi 
tudinally on different parts of their surface 

perfect. — Posfan'a Western India, Vol. II. p. 
41— CrtZ. Jiev. 1848, J. B. As, Soc. vol. VII. 
p. 2)7-262. See Asoka, Bactra, Inscriptions. 
Junaghur. Kabnl. Lat. 

GIRNAR. Hind. Dilleniaspeciosa. 

GIRNAGARA. See Girnar. 

GIRUI. Hind. Panicum antidotalc. 

GIROFLES. Fr. Cloves. 

GIRTHAN. Hind. Fluggea leucopyrus, 
Sageretia oppositifolia. 

GIRTHI. Between the J war passes and 
upper Pinkanada a map was compiled from 
information got of the Jwari 13Iiotia race. 
The Girthi valley wns explored, by Manson 
nnd Irving in 18 — ? The accounts of the 
Hoti valley between Laptel and Niti are 
very obsonre and contradicfcory. 

GIRTIN. Hind. Sageretia oppositi- 

nix palndosa. — Rnxh. 


Mnnnll kiro, TA^f. I.'taka doaari knra, TeIi 

P^Hiikadanti kura, Tki.. 

The leaves of this weed are used bv the 
natives in the preparntlon of dholl. Wight 
in loones gives fil^^o Gisokia mollnginoides 
and G. rubella. See Vegetables of Southern 
In din. — Joffrai. 

GIT. DuT. also Zwarte-Barnsteen, 
Dut. Jet. 

GITA. Hind. Sans. A song. 

GITCHKI. Sec Kclat, p. 4i)». 



have been present ; and the heat was suffi- 
cient, Beckmann has observed, tliat the 
discovery of colonred glass most have fol- 
lowed very soon that of making glass itself. 
It is probable, however, that coloured glass 
was made previous to colourless glass. For 
it is difldcult to find materials pure enough 
to make good glass, and it would be some 
time before the original makers would find 
out the causes of disooloration. The natives 
of India seem to have been long acquainted 
with making difierent ornaments of glass : 
for instance, armlets and anklets, and rings 
of glass form a part of their warping reels. 
Small glass bottles are also made; but 
mostly of a more or less greenish colour. 
The green is called kanch, and the purer 
glass, sisi. It is probable that the extensive 
diffasion of oxide of iron in the Indian soil, 
which may have led to the discovery of iron, 
has prevented the making both of good glass 
and of good pottery. That this is not in- 
compatible with a knowledge of the method 
of making imitation gems, seems proved by 
the same having been the case in the time 
of Pliny ; who states that great value was 
set upon glass quite free from colour, which 
was called crystal. He also mentions arti« 
ficial hyacinths, sapphires, and all kinds of 
black glass; and we know that the glass- 
houses of Alexandria were celebrated among 
the ancients. One of the simplest processes 
for making glass is that practis^ in the 
district of Behar. The efflorescence of the 
soil, which is an impure carbonate of 
soda, is collected and thrown into a cistern 
lined with clay. This is then filled with 
water, which is afterwards allowed to eva- 
porate. When dry the bottom of the cistern 
is found covered with a thick saline crust, 
tlie earth which was intermixed having sub- 
sided before the salt began to crystalize. 
This soda makes glass without any addition, 
as it still contains a sufficient portion of 
siliceous matter. Thoy make blackish and 
greenish glass: a bright grass- green is obtain- 
ed by the addition of oxide of copper ; and a 
blue glass by the addition of rung. In 
Mysore the process is more elaborate. Pow- 
dered white quartz, one part, being mixed 
with prepared soda, six parts, is filled into a 
crucible capable of containing 5 J- Winches- 
ter gallons. About fifty of these crucibles 
are placed in a furnace, and the fire kept up 
for five days, when a frit is produced, with 
which they make a black, green, red, blue, 
and yellow glass, by means of additions of 
oxide of copper, of an ore called kemudu, 
and of a blue substance called runga. What 
these are, continues unascertained. 
Though the making of glass has made but | 


little advance in India, the natives work up 
broken English glass even into barometer 
and thermometer tubes, &c. Glass globes, 
silvered in the inside, are made and though 
the mode of effecting this silvering is not 
mentioned, an amalgam of quicksilver is 
probably employed, as, on the application of 
moderate heat, the silvering becomes dissi- 
pated. An art similar to this has of late 
years been discovered in Britain. — Royle 
Arts, ^., of India, p. 474. Ainslie tells us 
that glass of an inferior quality was made 
in several parts of the Peninsula of India, 
particularly in the Mysore country, at Chi- 
napatam and Muteodu, also at Vallatooroo 
in Tondiman's dominions, which are conti- 
guous to the Tanjore territory. The manu- 
facture however seems to be confined entirely 
to small phials and women's bracelets. 
Above the Ghauts, Dr. Buchanan tells us 
the frit employed for makiufi^ glass is com- 
posed of one ]mrt of fat quartz, and six parts 
of a kind of ill prepared soda (suja cara) 
To give glass a green tinge, to the frit just 
mention^ are added a fhrther quantity 
of prepared soda, an iron ore called Garin 
kulloo, another ore called Kemudu, and 
a proportion of calcined copper ; all which 
materials being fixed and put into the cruci- 
ble, and properly disposed in the furnace, 
the fire is kept up for nine days and nine 
nights. To give glass a red tingre, to the 
frit already mentioned are added an addi- 
tional proportion of prepared soda and a 
quantity of the ore called kemudu, after 
which the whole are fused together for fifteen 
days and fifteen nights. To make blue glass, 
to the same frit are added a further propor- 
tion of soda, calcined copper, a quantity of 
powdered Garin kulloo and a blue sulistimce 
called runga, which Dr. Buchanan supposes 
(but is not sure) may bo smalis. To g^ve 
glass a yellow colour. Dr. Buchanan tells us 
that it is enamelled with the melted calces 
of the metals — lead, tin and zinc. 

Buchanan in his travels in Mysore g^ves 
an account of the manufacture of glass 
for the bangles or armlets worn by the 
natives. The glass is very coarse and 
opaque and much more of it is made than is 
there wrought into ornaments. Great quan- 
tities of it were brought by the bangle ma- 
kers from the Westward. It was of five 
colours, black, green, red, blue, and yellow, 
the first was most in demand. All the ma- 
terials for making the glass are found in the 
neighbourhood. In the hot season, the Soulio 
munnoo or soda in the form of a white 
earthy powder is foimd in several places near 
this on the surface of sandy fields. For the 
exclusive privilege of collecting it the glass 



to Olio poiut of tlio mnss and is insufficiently 
ililTDBcd, wliiie tlio biwly of inefcil under fu- 
sion being Bmall, nni) tlio domo nnd niAcB 
fibnvo ground being tliin, (lio heat ia di< 

ibnuld cxcilo sufipicioa as it can bo very 
insHh- imitnted. 
Dr. JJookcr in Iiia traTcIs mcii- 
tliat ho dismoutited where some very 

[i[it«d from thpm, mid never ntttins body nicoceoax atrntifiod rock cropped out, pow- 
nnd elevation flolBcicDt to admit of tho mnm ' ' " " '" "" ' 

retting and purifying iUclf, or of itB being 
freed from air bubbles by the addition of tho 

lored with n enline ofHoi-escenoc. This i 
Lu impure carbonate of sodn. This earth 

proper proportion of fiilic 

into cinj vOBsola with water which, 
. What is required, ifter dissolving the sodu, is allowed to ova- 

I preparation of the glass in larger borate, when tlie remainder in collected and 

quantities at a time, and with this view larger ound to contain ro much eilica, as to bo 

and more carefully cons^^ucted fumaccK, on ^pahle of being fused into glu-tB. Dr. Boyle 

tho reverberating prtneiple, to be Jioatcd by mentions this curious fact (Essay ou the 

coal i ftilor thia, that tho process should be Arts and JlnnufKctnrcs of India, rmid before 

attended to moi-e Rcrujmlously, and the ma- tho Society of Arts, 18 February 1852), In 

torials mixed by weight, instend of being illustration of the probably early epoch at 

thrown together by measnro, as is too com- which tho natives of Britiali India were ao- 

monly the cose at present. Country gla-^ts qnainted with tho art of malting glass. Moro 

is usually made of Dhoby's oarth, a crude complicated proceases are employed, and 

carbonate of soda with a mixture of a little have been from a very early penod in other 

potash and lime GO to 70 parts, and yellowish parts of the continent. 

white sand 30 to 40 parts, composed of small Tbo art of glass making is yet in its ex- 

fragmontenf quartz, felspar, iron and a trace treme infancy in the Punjab. The glass 

of hme. In one hundred parts, for good sand occurs in tho form of a whitish sand 

bottle gloss of Europe, are needed mixed with an alkali, which cffloreaecs natu- 

per cent. per cent-, rally. It is called roh r that only of a good 


oal l| 


Sulphate of Soda 29 j Charcoal, -, 

Sulphate of sodaonlj confc,iufl45 i«r cent- ^J^^ i^TTt" 
of alkali, BO that 29 parts contain 13, while 
the eaibonato of soda obtained from dhoby's 
earth, contains between 30 and 40 per cent, 
of alkali, according to which the alkali used 
by the Natives would he to that employed 
' Europe in the proporrion of 23 to V.i. 

white color makes gloss. This substance is 
identical with the alkaline efflorescenoo 
ly parte, ond whose pro- 
destructive to cultivation. Whore- 
ever fac\i an cfHoresconce occurs over clean 
sandy soil, there ia naturally formed a mix- 
ture of sand and alkali which fuses into 
coarse lamps of bottle green glass. — Pow- 
cll'i Pittijab Prndnch. Hooker lUm. Joum. 
Vol. I, p. 13, Emmanuel on PrceioHs Stottet ; 

m. "^i , ' ' 1, J 1 lu M„ vol. i,p. la, Jiinmanuei on rrceiotis i3io)tet ; 

The Botolanccs generally used by the Na- b^;;^,,^^., j^ 371 Vol. III. Jlfurfrw 

lives in colounng glass are as f^'I""^ ■-" ,^ E'bib. Jur. Report. Ai«,lic»' itaUria Medico, 

which gives green,brown and black shade. „^^„„„,, rti.,:.. .f o,«„„,«.„ r, «fta_ 

■ 1 . 'j 1 1 1, McOiUloeh Dict'ioiianj of Commerce, p. 602. 

pink, purple, and black j^^^,^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ a J Manufacture, of India. 

1852, p. 474. 

G'LING-GANG. Malaia. 


Copper blue, green, auddeep red 

Arsenic, while. 

Chromatc of Iron a dull green, 

All these materials are used in a very crudf CaBsia alnta. 

? I Pako-g'linB.gang.Mii; 

statp, and the proporti 

most imperfect manner. — Madrt 

Jury' I Report. 

The Chinese manufactures of porcelain hence Dochter, Tochter, Daughter, 
glass and glazes, their carving and engrav Dug, the teat, 
ing of gema, Chinese agatfs,rock ciystids ant " " ""•""' 

GLOGOS. Gr. Milk, also Gala, Daah 
Sans, to milk, Dubitar Sans, a maiden 
daughter who milks (duh) the go (cow), 

GLOCHIDION. ThicaUeg. A genus of 

ivory, excito the admiration of Europe, oi gmall trees, in Ceylon, of which Thwaitei 
also docs their lacquer aud varnish work, mentions (J. coriceum ; G. Garduori \ G. 

Tho colour of tho emerald is peculiar, anc 
called emerald green. Tbo glass of bottli 
bottoms is largely sold in Ceylon and othei 
places as ciiicralds. Emeralds are rarelj 

without flaws, " Itag," Hind, and, with thi .. _ , , , . • 

hop© of deceiving, the manufaoturerB, awan trees, of which tho latter are valued for ttiew 

of this, mako false emeralds with flaws. 
all precious stones, the emerald is most lia 
bic to defects, calleri fliwt<. and thdr ahseno 

mentions O. coriceum ; G. Garduori \ G. 
jusBieuiannm ; G. moutannm { F. nemorals ; 
and G. Zeylanicum. 

GMELINA. A genus of plants named 
after Gmolin, author of ' Flora Sibirioa.' 
AH the species of Gmelina form sbmbs < 

timber. They are found in the islands of 
the Indian Ocean, extending thence into the 
Malayan and Indian peninsulas. O. Asia* 


GNANA. Sans. from gna to know. 

gnana, wisdom, ratna, a precious stoue, and 
avalee, a train. 

GNANI. Sans. From gna, wisdom. 

GNA-PI. BuKM. The Gna-pi of Barmah 
is the Balachang of the Eastern Seas, con- 
sisting of small fish with prawns and shrimps, 
first fermented and then dried. It gives rise to 
a considerable traffic, as no food is deemed 
palatable without it, and its nse extends to 
every country from China to Bengal. That 
prepared at Mergni is excellent, only inferior 
to anchovy paste, by being over poworfnl. 

flowers possess the quality of retaining their 
colour long after being gathered, the stalk is 
covered with a whitish down, they are very 
hardy both the annual and biennial, the 
colours are yellow, purple, crimson, yellow 
and white and grow in North America, 
Africa and Egypt, from two to three feet in 
height. — RiddeU. Wight gives G. hypoleu- 
cum, marcescens, Neilgherryanum. 

GNARI or Nari, a Chinese Tibetan pro- 
vince connected with British India, by the 
five Bhot passes in Garhwal and Kamaon. 
The Chinese viceroys are Tibetans with 200 
Mongol or Turk troops or perhaps Mantshu 
Tartars, as they are said to use horseflesh, 
which no Tibetan and no Chinese would do. 

GNAT, Culex, Lat. 

GNAYANPATOO. BuRM. Clerodendron 
nutans. Wall. 

GNA YOKE, BuRM. Capsicum mini- 

Wagu, Jav. I Bagu, Malay. 

This tree abounds on the southern coast of 
the island of Sumatra where its bark is 
beaten, like hemp, and the twine manufac- 
tured from it is employed in the construc- 
tion of large fishing nets. The coarse cor- 
dage from the hark is in extensive use 
throughout the Archipelago. The seeds are 
eaten in Amboyna, and are roasted, boiled, 
or fried. The green leaves are dressed as 
curries, cooked and eaten like spinach. — 
Crawfurd's Dictionary^ p. 26, Marsden^s Hist, 
of Snnmtra, p. 91. 

GNEVA. See Lightning conductors. 

GNIU. Hind. Clienopodium, sp. 

GNETUM. See Himalaya. 

GNIANA. See Gnyana, Vai8hnava,Vidya. 

also Daphne eriocepbala, is very com- 
mon on the ghauts of the West of India, 
and in the hilly parts of the Southern 
Mahratta country and of the Dckhan. 
It probably might be turned to the same 



use as the Nopal plant. See Daphne 
cannabina. Thymolasa. 

GNOMON, Ch'haya, HfND. Ch'haya is 
spelt in a variety of ways in European books 
which treat of hindu astronomy ; and though 
there are a variety of elements these are 
multiplied by mistakes in consequence of 
Europeans varying their manner of writing 
oriental words. The word Ch'haya means a 
shadow: in hindu astronomy, Vishuva 
ch'haya, the shadow of a Gnomon, when the 
sun is in the equinoctial points. Madhyama 
ch'haya, the midday shadow of the same at 
any other time of the year, Sama-mandala 
ch'haya, the midday shadow of the same 
when the sun is east or west of the Gnomon ; 
Ch'haya suta is one of the names of Saturn, 
meaning Bom from Darkness. 

Cathartocarpus fistula. PjsRS. 

GNU THEING. Burm. Cathartocar- 
pus nodosus. — Votgi. 
GNOSTIC. See Adam. 
GNU GYEE,Burm. Cathartocarpus fistula. 
GNU-THEI-NL Burm. Cathartocar- 
pus nodosns. 

GNYANA. Sansk, Elarma is the name of 
one of the Kanda or general heading of the 
Vedas. This chapter relates to " Works," 
the other two, '' Gnyana" and Upashana. 
relate to " Faith" and Worship. See Gnana 
Vidya, Vaishnava. 

psicum minimum. 

GO. Hind. A Cow : hence, 
Gaola, Gopa. Gopala, Gorakh, Gopiniy 
Gopi, cowherd, shepherd, shepherdess. 
Gobar, Cowdung. 
Gopi Chanduna, Cowherd's sandal. 
Gopi Matti, Cowherd's earth. 
Gao-Mukhi, cow's mouth, the ravine in 
the Himalayas where the Ganges issues. 

Gopura, also Gopurum, a gate, a gate- 
way of a town, the ornamental gateway of a 
hindu temple. 

Galatians, from gala, milk, Goala, 
Herdsman in Sanscrit. TaXariKot, Galatians, 
or Gauls, and fccAn CeUs allowed to be the 
same, would be the shepherd races, the pas- 
toral invaders of Europe. 

GO A, on an island, about 23 miles in cir- 
cumference was captured by Albuquerque 
on the 25th Novr. 1510. This admiral suc- 
ceeded Almeyda, in the command of the 
Portuguese in India. He was bold and en- 
terprising. He captured Goa, and the Port 
of Malacca, also the island of Ormnz, in the 
Persian Gulf, all of which he strongly forti- 
fied, and Ormuz speedily filled with 40,000 
inhabitants. His command lasted from 1607 
to 1 5 1 G and ho was superseded and died. 



GOBIUS, a ^nas of Acanthoptcrygi- 
ous osscns fishes belonging to tho family 
Gobiida3. All tlio species havo two 
dorsal fins, scaly bodies, and a disc beneath 
the throat formed by the united ventral fins. 
By means of this disc they havo the power 
of attaching themselves to rocks. There 
arc 152 species of Gobius known, many of 
which occnr in India, Ounther. Eng, Gyc, 

GOBREA. Hind.? Abies webbiana. 

GOBRI. Hind. A tribe in Rohilkund 
living just nnder the hills. Wilson. 

GOBUHA. Bkng. Hind. Anisomeles 

GOBURA-NUTI. Beno. Amarantus 
livid as. 

GOBUR. CHAMPA. Duk. Plumieria acu- 

GOCALAST'HA, a sect of Vaishnava 
hindus who worship Krishna alone. See 
Avataram, Hindoo ; Sects, Rama. 

GOHICHAMUL. Hixd. Balanophora. 

GOD, the Semitic name of the Deity was 
pronounced as I A O indicative of a god of 
the sun and of fire. Clement of Alexan- 
dria calls it I AU tho Samaritans pronounced 
lABE, i. c., lAHVEH. Lydus mentions 
lAO as a god of the Chaldeans. God is from 
Goadem corrupted into Goden and Woden. 
The mahomedans use the word Allah to in- 
dicate the Sapreme Being. Bunscn. 

GOD AM A, like God, a name of Sakya- 
Muni, which seems, to have been a nacLc 
applied to Sakya after his death. See 

GODANTI, Hind. Sulphate of lime. 

GODARA. H. A large sub-division of 
the Jat tribe, on the borders of Hariana. — 


GODARI. Tel. Grislea toracntosa. The 
red flowers and leaves are used for dying 
purposes. lu the Northern Ci rears, the 
leaves are emplo^-ed in dyeing leather; 
bheep-skins, steeped in an infusion of the 
dried leaves become a fine red, of which 
native slippers are mode. The dried flow- 
ers are employed in Northern India, under 
tho name of Dhauri, in dyeing with Morin- 
dA bark; but pcrhnps more for their astrin- 
gent than for their tintorial properties. Dr. 
Gibson states that in Kandesh tho flowers 
form a considerable article of commerce 
inland as a dye. It grows abundnntly in 
the hilly tracts of the Northern Circars. 

GODAVERY. This river rises in the Ah- 
aicduugiir district wiiliin fifty miles of the 
Arabian Sea in the basalt io rep^ion described 
by Colonel Sykes (Ueol. Trans., Vol. IV., 
pnrt 2, I83<'»). And, rrreatiy increased in size, 


it enters tho granitic table-land of tho Dec- 
can, and flows at the southern foot of tho 
Sichol mountains into a sandstone and 
argillaceous limestone country. This dis- 
trict is similar to that of Bundlecund and 
Malwa ; it also contains diamonds, and has 
been much broken up by erupted rocks. 
From the north, the Godavery derives large 
supplies of water from tho great rivers 
rising south of the Norbndda and the Taptoe, 
in basaltic tracts, tho soil of which being 
retentive of moisture, the water is every- 
where near the surface. Fi*om the south 
it receives only the Manjerah river, whioh, 
flowing through arid granitic plains, fur- 
nishes but a scanty addition of water, ex- 
cept during the rainy season. Through a 
pass in the gneiss mountain of Papcondah 
it enters the plains of tho Eastern Coast. 
In this district the sandstone roappears, 
at an elevation little above that of the sea, 
but basaltic hills, several hondrod feet in 
height, in which marine fossils havo recently 
been discovered, exist almost within the 
delta foimed by its sediment. The Godavery 
rises on the E. declivity of the W. Ghaute, 
near Nassik at 3,000 feet above the sea ; runs 
S E 200 miles ; E. 100 ; S. E. 85 miles ; E. 
1 70 miles ; S. E. 200 miles; and disembogues 
into the Bay of Bengal, by three mouths, 
length 898 miles. It receives tho Wein- 
Gunga 439 miles ; Manjera 330 miles ; Poor- 
na 160 miles; Paira 105 miles; Inderaoteo 
140 miles — 1 30,000 square miles are drained. 
It has the town of Gktnga-khair on its right 
bank and tho towns of BHJahmundry and 
Coringa at its embouchure. In ] 84JS, tho 
sanction of the Court of Directors of tho 
British East India Company was given 
to the construction, at an expeuRo of 
£47,500, of a dam of sufficient height to 
command the delta, and to supply the rich 
alluvial soil of which that tract is composed, 
with the means of constant irrigation. It 
has been completed and is seven miles long* 
The experiment of navigating tho Godavery 
by steam has been entertained by tho 
Madras Government. Three great bar- 
riers, have been drawn across tho river. 
The rivers embraced under the Godavery 
navigation project ore the Godavery, Wur- 
dah, Pranhita, Wyne Guuga, Indrawatty, 
Sebbcry, and Pyne Gunga. Tho three first, 
however, are the principal streams. 

The Wurdah takes its riso in the Baitool 
District west of Nagporc, and after flowing 
for some distance in a south-east direction 
is joined by tho Wuiina, which, passing un- 
der Hingiinghat, falls to the south, and 
forms its junction with the Wurdah, at a 
place called Sweet, eighteen miles south of 



G(£KTNERA.WALKEai. Wight, lUnst. 60-00 of Mftnilla. Acacia abster^ens. 

Sykesia Walteri, Am. GOGOT, A rivor of Bungpoor, rnaa Dear 

Grom in Ceylon, in the Central Pro- ""i^P"?'- „ ™ „ j ,. . 

vince, at an eleYalion of 3000 to 6000 GOQRA. HiKO. The cotton pod bnnt 

GOraONG GEDEH, or Ibe Bin. GOGEA. The pmeipal nver. which 
Monntaio., a liich moie in Java, abont l™»e™ the t«rr.lory an the Kale, and 
30 mile, inland From ILWyi.. gnrgoo, which, meeting at a place called 
ri.e. 9,954 feet: Salak 7,322 feet, and Ka- P"madec, form the Gogra and Gnndnok. 
rang 6,014 feet above the .ea-IJor.4»r3l. ™» Gnndnok i. .nppo«,d to rue in tho 
GOERA. Hind, of Pnnjab, mannied land ?'""'•)'*, "* '"' '°'°,'°" ™S<? »=« 
near village, .ame as " uyain " Patna. The npp.r part of the nver is call- 
GOEZ, Benedict Goei, a Portngne.e «'', Saligramee, from the fc.ail immoaitoB 
monk, »ent from Lahore by Kabool, to "".'J •«bgr?m« "b""' are fonnd in it, and 
Kaehghnr, and .oro.a tho sandy desert, into "hich the l.indoo, ho.d m veneration. Tha 
China, where he died in A. D. 1607 i bnt G?8~ mn. throngh the Ghornkpoor d»- 
his rente also was far north of Tibet. '"='. "ȣ Dhooreo Bnrhnl in OomokpoOP 
Another Jesnit, Anthony Andrada, passed passing Kawabgnngo. See Kamaon. 
throngh Knmaon to the Manasarawara .."^"H.,^'"'- "^ P"""- PmJ. also 
lake, and thene. went on Kodak, on the *'"'"!?'' „™- \f?'}:„„„, „ , 
westoo confine, of Tibet. His jonriey was GOHAFSIN, or JOHAFSIS. See Jo- 
made in 1624, and is discredited by com- "'"^1„ ^ . . „„ , „„ „ , 

menf.toi, and geographer, becanse of his .J^^J.^'"} '»'■ =" .« ? i."' '"«• 
mentioning this a. the sonrce of the " *' ,8 . A large station m Amn on 
Ganges and Indns, instead of the Sntlej. Si' Brahampnt™, 69 mile. E. of Goalpara. 
The™ i. no donht, however, that the voyage ^^ '»"> "' "'• Brahampnlra ii ?0 foot 
is gennine, thongh we have no detail, of it. '>^' ">o >»• Kanmba temple i. 825 feet 
Prauep's t;/).(, 7'onnrT, nn/i Monjoiio, p. 12. ""^ "■" highest point near Gohatty 1,002 
GOGAariverintheBhagalpoordUtrict. feet.— Herm. Sc*l. „ , , „ 
GOGA, a district of Thibet. See India. ^. GOHELWAE. One of the five lontliem 
GOGA, the namo of a tree, Encemada ^!^'f;°'^"^J!^-,n„ . 
Pbilipponei. ? fonnd in most of the Philip- GOHILA or GEHLOT. A race de- 
pine., the woody filaments of which yield a scendedfrtimBapna,wbomA.p 727 seiaod 
soapy matter mncli n.ed in washing linen, C'"''"' f'™ ">« ™n t"l». ""* fonnded the 
and in the process of gold washing for the Newer dynaety. 

pnrpoaiof precinititing tho metal from the ^'V were dnvcn into Kattywar from 

mnd. It is a shore or litloral pl.nt, formerly M"™" by the Ratnor rajpnta, m A. D. 1200. 

ranked by botanists as an Acacia.— Ornm- See Jhaieja, Sanrashtra. 

/iirJ. Dii. 0/ ijeja. Mond., p. 144. ' GOHINLA. Hl»o Hamiltonia anavoo- 

GOGAPUR A .aint held in mnch '^°,S- „,.„ - ^ t,- ■ 

veneration by the ogricnltnrat population of GOHUB. In tho Binjara tongne, any 

Delhi and the Upper Doab, who, in the ™*"' ^ Binjara roan. 

month of Badhar present offerings at his GOIA PGNDU. Tel. Psidinm pyrifernm. 

shrine, which is at Dudieia, 200 miles GOIL. See Rajpoot. 

.onthratofHisair.- IKilsoii. GOITRE. The disease known in Enropo 

GOGLBT. E™. m Hindi, Km», a by this namo ocenr. al.b, in A.ia, attaokijg 

water veeicl, with a bowl shaped bottom n, ,„ ;„ Kamaon, the Abor of tho 

and a long .talk like neck fhey are made „„aatains bordering the valley of the Brab- 

ofeartben-ware or metals or alloys, and are „,pair,^ ,„d other tribe.. The 

the nsnal vessel, in which Inropean. and „„i,„ „f Mi, ,„ploy f„r it, cure, a leaf- 

^atlve. hold their drinking water. Their ,„„ti ,ab,o,„oe called Galloor ka Pnttar 

name ■•from the gnrglmg ,onnd prodneed Hind: .apposed to be dried sea-weed. 

rnnl^i!TiT°% v i, , O"'"". » ■»«> '« "" "•"«? '•' Kaakniir. 

5^X2 ....e MS '^»'">'«n Mr. Yigne papehaeed at Ladak, a piece 

?Sm ain "„ Cliolor„,lon dnpada. „f„„„^„„,;, ,^ ,Meh had been no 

SSSJo,? „ "" „ ",'^" ""■ donbt bronght there by the merchant, trad- 

GOGIRD. Hii™. Pers. snlpbnr. ing betweeS China and Tnrkiitan. He «i« 

GOGO. A town on the coast of Kattia- few cretins. Goitre occnrs East of the Indna 

war, on the west side of the Gnlf of Cambay. at elevations of 4,000 feet, bnt Mr. Bramloy 

OrUbarinB. As. Tmw. 1842, Vol. I, 194. state, that it is more common on the crest of 

Dr. Bnift. a high monntaio than in tlie valley of Nepal. 


natives of the Sonth of Europe and Persia. 
The colours are red, orange, yellow and 
purple. — Riddell 

Jatropha ^lauca. 

GLAUCUS. A genus of sea lizard, an 
oceanic nudi branch, soft and fragile, occurs 
in the E. Seas near Formosa. Collingwood. 

or Sea Lizard. This mollusk occurs in the 
Indian and S. Pacific oceans. It is a fra- 
gile delicately coloured animal and is about 
an inch long. Its upper surface is a 
vivid purple, and its lower is pearly white. 
— Ben.^ p. 46. 

GLAUX FLAMMEA and G. javanica, 
birds of the sub family StriginiB, the posi- 
tion of which may be thus shown : — 

Tribe II. — Noctumae. Fam. Strioida. 

Svh'Fam, AthenlDSD, 2 gen. 9 sp. viz., 1 Ninox 
BCiitatus : 8 Athene. 

Sub'Fam, STrniinsB, 1 gen. 3 sp. viz., 3 Syminm 
Indrani, Sinense and nivicolam. 

Suh-Fam. Striginee, 3 gen. 3 sp. viz., 1 Fhodilos 
badioa ; 2 Glaux fljammea, and G. Javauioa. 

GLET. Rus. Litharge. 

G 'LING-GANG. Ma^lay. Cassia alata. 
— JAiva. 



Gandibuti of Beas. 
Porprang, Hind. I Zakhm-i-haiyat, Fbks. 

Kotok of SiND. I 

This plant is given in the Punjab as a 
purgative in diseases of the abdomen, under 
the naoie of Zakhm-i-haiyat, which name, 
however, is also generally ascribed to Spheo- 
ranthus hirtus and to Cissampelos pareira. 
Dr. J. L- Sk'wart, m. D. 


Shanznnay-keeray, Tam. 

A procumbent herb with fleshy leaves, of 
a brownish colour ; used as spinach ; a very 
abundant and troublesome weed. — Jaffrey.. 

ba. On shady banks in the Tenasserim 
Provinces where violets are seen in Eng- 
land, the pretty orange- flowered globba is 
not uncommon. Of this genus, Wight, in 
Icones, gives Globba bulbifera, careyana, 
marantinoides, ophio^lossa, and orixensis. 

GLOBBA EXPANSA. Wall. Pa-deing- 
guo. — "Burm. 

GLOBBA NUTANS.— i/in7i. Syn., of 
Alpinia nuta.ns. — Koscoc. 

of Alpinia nutans. — Roscoe, 

GLOBE. Eng. The globe or earth, which 
Europeans believe to be round, is supposed 
by mahomedans to be of a tabular form 


Hindus believe it to be round and supported 
on a tortoise. 

GLOBE AMARANTH. Gomphrenaglo- 

the Ca'ing whale, is closely affined to the 
European GL deductor, but difiers externally 
in being wholly of a black colour. Its inter- 
maxilliaries are shorter ; the teeth fewer 
and larger, numbering 6 or 7 above, 7 or 8 
below on each side ; the upper view of the 
maxillaries differs oonsiderably in contour^ 
being broader and less elongated in the 
Indian species ; and there arc other discre- 
pancies which are less marked. — Beng. At. 
Socy. Joum, No. 4, 1 8*52. 

low Sea nflbrds this species of Cowfish or 
round headed cachalot, which the Japanese 
capture, and other species of whales resort 
to the waters east of Manchuria. Seals 
have been observed on the coasts of Lian* 
tung, but nothing is known of their species 
or habits. — WUliam*a Middle KUigdamf 
page 258. 

GLOCHIDION, a genus of plants belong, 
ing to the natural order enphorbiacefe. The 
species consist of shrubs or small trees, 
















Phyllanthus veluti- 

niis. Mull. 

Koamil ; kalam of Beab. 
Pcndna of Sutlej. 

G. coriaceum, G. gardneri, G. jussieuia- 
num, G. montanum, G. nemoraie, and G. 
zeylanicum, are small trees of Ceylon. G. 
jussieuanum is Wight's Gynoon triandrum 
and jussieuanum. — Voigt W. Ic, Tliw, p. 285. 

Bradleia lanceolaria, a useful timber tree of 
Assam.— Eoaifc. Ill, 697, Voigt 


Golkamila sama, 

Bera, Chenab. 

Sama; amha of Ravi. 

A small tree not uncommon in the Pun- 
jab Siwalic tract up to near the Indus. The 
wood is only used as fuel, the bark is em- 
ployed for tanning. — Wight Ic, Dr. /. L, 
Stewart, M. D. 

GLOCHBNGUT. Ger. Bell metal. 

Ficus glomerata. 


Katijan also Kartichey 
pu, Tam. 

Adavi nabhi, Agni sikha, 
Fotti dumpa, Tel. 


This beautiful lily 





is a creeper, which 

grows wild in Ajmer, the peninsulas of 



date than the year 1478, that in which 
hindnism was finally subverted. The Olnga 
caltnre and paper manufacture, are chiefly 
carried on in the province of Eladiri, once 
an extensive seat of hindnism, and the 
parties conducting them are the mahomme- 
dan priests : in this matter very likely the 
successors of the brahmins. It is prepared 
by a process of maceration and beating. — 
C raw fur d Diet., p. 143. Joum. of tlie Indian 
Archipelago f'N 03, VI., XII. June — December, 
1853, p. 276. 

GLYCINE, Species. Butwause Hind. 
A very fine and prolific pulse, much cultivated 
in the Upper Provinces of India. — Ainslie, p. 

GLYCINE ABRUS. Linn. Syu. of Ab- 
rus precatorius. — W. and A, 

GLYCINE SINENSIS. Takes its name 
from glykys, sweet, the roots and leaves of 
most of the species being so. The flowers, 
which hang in racemes from the azila of the 
leaves, are violet, yellow, or purple. Fortune 
found it wild on the hills, where it climbs 
among the hedges and on trees, and its 
flowering branches hang in graceful festoons 
by the sides of the narrow roads which lead 
over the mountains. Prom the 20th of April 
to the beginning of May, most conspicuous 
amongst the shrubs and herbaceous plants 
of Cbina^ are the flowering Viburnum 
macrocephalum and dilatatnm, with their 
large heads of snow-white flowers ; Spiroea 
and the double variety, which is more beau- 
tiful than the original species ; Weigela 
rosea, now well known in Europe : Mou- 
tans of various hues of colour; azaleas, 
particularly the lovely little " AmaBua," 
Kerria japonica ; the lilac and white gly- 
cine : roses ; Dulytra spectabilis and Pri- 
mula cortusoides, and with such a host of 
Flora's beauties the Chinese gardeus are gay 
indeed. But perhaps the most beautiful sight 
of all is the Glycine sinensis ; climbing upon 
and hanging down from other trees, the effect 
produced by this climber is fine, attaching, 
itself to a tree, or a group of trees, it entwines 
itself round the stems, running up 
every branch and weighing down every 
branch let and, in the end of April or be- 
ginning of May, is covered with flowers. 
— Biddell, Fortune's Wanderings, p. 66. A 
Residence arrbonq the Chinese, p. 242. 

lichos uniflorus. 

Phaseolus trilobus. — Ait, 

GLYCYRRHIZA, a genus of plants be- 
longing to the natural order Fabaceee, or 
Leguminosas, consisting of herbaceous plants 
with pinnated leaves, small flowers in axillary 


spikes, and roots running very much in the 
soil in which they grow. Species of Gly- 
cyrrhiza also extend into Affgha- 
nistan, whence liquorice-root, jeteemadh, is 
imported into India. The Glycyrrhiza with 
both smooth and scabrous pericarps, the 
Arabs call soos : Jetthimud is the Glycyrrhiza 
glabra, and is imported from the Red Sea. 
There is a Taverniera with a sweet root 
which has the same name. Glycyrrhiza echi- 
nata, is a native of Apulia,onMountGardano, 
in Greece and Southern Russia, extending 
into Tartary and Northern China. The 
whole plant is glutinous to the touch. The 
roots are horizontal, in taste like the common 
liquorice. This is sometimes called Russian 
Liquorice. Bot. Mag .262, Migna/n*8 Travels 
p. S5.—Eng. Oifc. 8im*s Nees, 328. Royle. 























Ati madhrama 




A native of the South of E a rope, Crete, 
and Candia, also of Cochin China and China. 
The name liquorice, according t(f Du Theis, 
is a corruption of the French word * reglisse,' 
which is itself a corruption of Glycyrrhiza. 
The roots abound in a saccharine mucilagin- 
ous matter, which is slightly bitter, and 
readily soluble in water. A powder, and the 
well-known common extract, are prepared 
from it. The decoction in different forms is 
a common remedy for coughs. 

Migaan found the plant abundant through- 
out the country, burnt as fire- wood. 

Jetimad'h is only sold in the bazaars 
as a medicine — If imported it is the root of 
Glycyrrhiza glabra; — if indigenous, it is 
obtained from the root of Abrus precaterius. 
— Ains. Mat, Med, p, 24. 0' Shaughnessy^ 
page 293. Eng, Oyc. Mignan's Travel 
p. 35. 


Aff. I Jetimadh, 


Zaisi, of 

Inspissated juice, rab-us-sus. Several species* 
possibly including that of Europe, G. glabra, 
are common, wild in AfTghanistan, where 
they are mentioned by Griffith, and where 
Bellew collected two at 5,000 to 6,000 feet. 
Dr, J. L, Stewart, M. D. 

GOL. Hind. Round, globular, hence 
Gola a cannon ball ; Goli, a musket ball. 

GOLA. Hind. A caste employed as rice 
cleaners, or in salt manufacture. 

GOLAB-JAM. Beng. Rose apple, Euge- 
nia jambosa. 

GOLA-DAS. Hind. Slaves. 



Bnd in Sweden &t Edelfon. In the Ural 
monntains there are vftlnable mines. There 
are minee in Africa at Kordo&n, betvreen 
Dnr-fiir and Abysainia ', also Bonth of Sahara, 
in the western part of Africa from Bengal 
to Cape Palmar ', also along the coast oppo- 
site ifadagascar between 22" and 2li S. 
lat., supposed by some to bare been the 
Ophir of the time of Solomon. Other 
regions in which gold is found are the 
Cailles Monntains in Little Thibet, Central 
Asia, India, Malacca, China, Japan, Formosa, 
Ceylon, Java, Sumatra, and the Philippines. 

Until lately, nearly all the gold of com- 
merce came from Asiatic Brussia and Mexi- 
co, bnt recent discoTeries of gold in Cali- 
fornia and AoBtralia have opened new and 
vast Bonrces of snpply. 

The imports into India, of bnllion are 
continnons. The export of bnllion from Lon- 
don to the nndermentioned coantriea dnring 
the six months ending 31st December 1866, 


Boiaba;^. Bengal. Total. 

8SI.62...IU. 1.6S,;2.?68.. 9,49.«,l84... ^13,86,987 
BSS.93.,. „ 2,23,05,796... 8,49,66,191 ..5,78,72,017 
839-54... „ 1,67,82.200.. 2.12.90,787... S,80,7I,SB7 
8U-5C... „ 67,a7,840.. 64^8,606 .. 1,31,95,040 
853-56 3,71,67,761... 3,81,0a,44S.., 9,31,68,208 

Total Rs. 9,96,15350 14,57,29,278 84,53,45,193 
The drain tonards China is almost aa 
freat, and both, toother, canse a withdrawal 
if some seven millions a year from the cnr- 
■ency of Europe. In connection with the 
Lbove, it may be interesting to ahow the 
imonnt of gold. 

iDported Trom Calonita 
into Hadraa, fttim lit 
NoTcmber 1866 to Slit 
October 1866. 

Eiportod from Hsdrss to 

l(t No*ember 1B5S to 
Slat OotobsF 1866. 

3 ji ^i 




















Mr. Wood's 

statistics of the trade of Gal- 

cntta shows the followiDg 

imports of gold 





































Total £17,806,940, 
£14,221,610 in 185& 
ranean ports, daring the twelve 
£3,700 of gold and £2,025,640 direr 
and extraordinary amonnts despatched vii 
Folkestone and Dover to France, o 
which no accnrato records are obtainable 
In reporting on the state of the bnllioi 
market, they give the Bnliioined aa thi 
lateet prices. In a recent pnhlication i: 
vas stated that, within the last five years 
twenty-foar millions of specie has beei 
absorbed by CtJcntta and Bombay alone. 

10,976,066 87,367,041 

In 1848 the total amount of gold in nse in 
the world was estimated by the beat antho- 
rities at abont £600,000,000 sterling and 
the annnal sapply was believed to ne b^ 
tween eight millions and nine millions sterl- 
ing. From the in£ax consequent on the 
opening of the gold fields of California and 
Anatralia, the amonnt in hand, in I8G8, was 
computed at abont £820,000,000 sterling, 
<■ 'tu' 1^^ equivalent to abont 205,000,000 onnoes troy 

from the Meditei- ^ ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^ amount seema, 

it could be all contained in a cubic block of 
gold oaly 23 feet in diameter. The gold 
coinage in Great Britain, France and the 
United States amounted in 1843, to 
£4,200,000 and in 1853, it was £41,800,000 
or nearly ten-fold as lai^. H. D. R. p- 189. 
Jn Ihdia, scales of gold are found in HbB 
gravel of river-beds over a great exte&t t£ 
country. The probability is, therefore, that 
the gold quartz is ptaotically inexha mt i b le. 



The Malabar coasfc, in particniar, it is 
thought must be rich in gold, for the geolo- 
gical formation of the country ia very simi- 
liir to that which led Sir Roderick Murchi- 
son to foretell the existence of gold in Aus- 
tralia. Moreover, tradition indicated the 
mineral wealth of this part of India ; and 
some writers set forth the opinion — an 
opinion, by the way, which is strongly ad- 
vocated by Mr. Max Muller in his reccut 
lectures on the science of language — that 
Malabar is the Ophir of Scripture. Undoubt- 
edly Berenice, on the shores of the Red 
Sea, was one Ophir. Even while the 
gold of Ethiopia may have only been 
picked up by tlie unsettled tribes of the 
desert, it had yet been a source of great 
wealth to Ethiopia ; but when Ethiopia 
was conquered by the Egyptians and its 
mines were worked by Egyptian skill, 
the produce seemed boundless. The gold 
was found in quartz veins within a 
slaty rock, at various spots in the Nubian 
desert, between Derr on the Nile and Soua- 
kin on the coast. They were said to bring 
in, each year, the improbable sum of 
thirty-two millions of mince, seventy 
millions sterling, (Diod. Sic. lib. i. 49.) as 
was recorded in the hieroglyphics under the 
figure of the king in the Menmonium, who 
is there offering the produce to Amun-ra. 
To these mines criminals and prisoners 
taken in war were sent in chains, to work 
under a guard of soldiers ; and such was 
their unhappy stiite, banished from the light 
of heaven, and robbed of everything that 
makes life valuable, that the Egyptian 
priests represented this as the punishment 
of the wicked souls in the next world. No 
other known mines were so rich. From the 
word, Noub, gold, the country received the 
name of Nubia, or the land of gold, and gold 
was shipped from the port afterwards by 
the Ptolemies named the Golden Berenice. 
Gold was henceforth more abundant in 
Egypt than in any other country in the 
world ; and food and every natural pro- 
duct must have been dearer. Under 
these circumstances, while they may have 
imported iron and copper from Cyprus, oil 
and silver from Greece, with a few other 
articles from Arabia and Palestine, they could 
have exported very little beyond gold. The 
gold mines helped the people's industry in 
performing their great works in building 
and in war; but alter a time it undermined 
that industry, and made the country an 
easier and richer prey for its neighbours. 
{Shm-p»'s History of Eijui^i Vol. I. p. 89.) 

In Arabia, silver, iron, lead, and copper, 
are met with in difTercat parts, the last. 


recently in Oman. Gold is mentioned by 
the ancient writers, and in all probability 
it will be found when the country is better 
explored, but at present it is not known to 
exist in Arabia. 

Malabar. A Committee appointed by the 
Madi-as Government in 1832 to consider 
Lieut. Nicolson's proceedings, reporttd 
that nearly the whole of the pro\'ince of 
Malabar, except that part immediately along 
the coast consists of lofty mountains covered 
with dense forest or thick jungle. The chain 
more immediately connected with the gold 
washing is formed of the Koondah and 
Mokoorty Hills to the south-east of Calicut 
and Neilgherries to the east, and the Wy- 
naad mountains to the north-east. These 
send off numerous lateral ranges between 
which are chief valleys in most places close- 
ly covered with forest. The most extensive 
of these is that of Nelamboor including 
nearly the whole of the Ernaad talook, 
bounded on the east by the Neilgherries, on 
the north by Wynaad, on the north-west by 
a lat-eral range running sonth from the 
ghauts called the Wawoot Hills, and on the 
south by the Koondah and Mookoorty moan* 
tains. From these, on all sides, innumerable 
mountain streams descend, and uniting near 
Nelamboor, form the Beypoor river, of con- 
siderable magnitude, which falls into the 
sea about eight miles to the southward of 
Calicut. In the mountainous district of 
Wj^naad, streams in the same manner 
descend through every valley and unite into 
large rivers which fall into the Cauvery in 
the Mysore and Coimbatore countries. The 
committee reported the whole of the above* 
mentioned mountauis to be of primitive for^ 
mation. In the Nelamboor valley, so far as 
the observations of the Committee went, the 
prevailing rock is gneiss, a stratified granitio 
rock. Above this, in most places, is a species of 
clay-ironstone, which from its softness, ena- 
bling it to be cut into the form of bricks for 
building, received from Dr. Buchanan the name 
of laterite. It is the overlying rock of the 
whole country between the ghauts and the 
sea to the westward, and many of the smaller 
hills arc entirely formed of it. " When fresh 
dug it is perfectly sectile, but on exposure to 
the heat of the sun, and to the weather it 
becomes of considerable hardness. So far aa 
the gold mines are concerned, it may be con* 
sidered to be a deposit formed in the lapse 
of ages, from the gradual disintegration of 
the immense mountain masses in the neigh- 
bourhood ; in which process part of the pre- 
cious ore may be supposed to have been 
washed down along with the earthy particles. 

o in 


Nedingenaad Talook. 

Alliporam rivor in Nedingenaad. 

Poondaloor river in Nedingenaad. 
Nelamboor valley — the mines are here 
innnmcrable : the principal however, are in 
the thickest park of the jangle immediately 
nnder the Wynaad Hills and near the follow- 
ing villages belonging to the Teeroopaad of 
Nelamboor, viz. 

Coodrambafc, Katchapoora. 

Coorambal, see Neelamboor. 

Kutchapoora, see Nelamboor. 

^loondairy, see Neelamboor. 

Manneecote, see Neelamboor. 

Parparangaddy. The sands on the sea 
beacli betweou Parparangaddy, Caralondy 
and Bey poor. 

Poonapoya or Golden river, rises in the 
Paral Mallah N. E. of Mookoorty forming 
part of the main chain of the Neilgherries. 
The Poonapoya descends the raomi tains be- 
tween AUiam Pal lay and the Carcoor Cher- 
rum and long before its formation with the 
Carnimbve, it receives both the Kellaknm- 
poyaand Caracoopoya. 

Shernaad, viz. 
Caralondy or E^adaloondy on the sea beach. 

Parparangady in the Shemaad Talook to 
Caraloondy and thence to Beypoi'e — the sea 
beach between these places. 

Teeroowalay or Teermoulay a hill near 
Mambaat Angady, about 1 50 feet above the 
level of the Bej'pore river. Teeroowambady 
division of Pol wye, North of the Boy pore 
river is a mountain stream which, descending 
the Ghauts to the left of the road through 
the Tambercherry pass, raus through the 
Tambcrcherry and Pal wye districts and 
forms a junction with the great Beypore river 
between Paurooi* and Sherwaddu, and oppo- 
site to Mapooram, in the Ernaad Talook. 

Pooney Hill in Tiroowally Tal|pok. 

Poolyode „ „ „ 

Toodakul river a feeder of the Poonany. 
Wynaad, above the Ghauts, gold is found 
in Parkmeetii, a higher table land^ between 
Manan toddy aud Nambollacotta, at a place 
called Chollyode in Nonanaad aud Nillialum 
aud Pouany in Moopeyaiiaad, it is likewise 
found at De valla aud its immediate vicinity 
in Namballaeotta. 

Cholyodo in ^lonanaad in Wynaad. 

Devalla and its vicinity in Wyuaad. 

Monanaad, in Wynaad. 

Moopeyuaad, in Wynaad. 

Manan toddy, in Wynaad. 

N^mbalacutta, in Wynaad. 

Nillialum, in Mopeynaad, see Wynaad. 

Park Meetil in Wynaad. 

Poonany in Moopeyanaa, see Wynaad. 


SouihemMdhratta Couninj. About the year 
1830 the attention of the late Captain 
Newbold was drawn to the gold districts 
in the Dharwar and Belgaum colleo- 
torates, when travelling throagh Damn], and 
p. 44, Vol. zi. of the Madras Lit. Journal 
gives his report of the gold that he saw 
there, in the bed of a rivulet at Sattoor, a 
few miles from Dhoni, in the Kupputgode 
range of hills near Damul. Also in the 
sands of the Hurti rivulet, in the same range, 
a few miles to the south of Gudduk ; and 
he mentions that gold likewise exists in the 
Kir talook of the Dharwar collectorate, near 
Chik Mulgoond. The gold of the Kupput- 
gode range seems mixed with silver, for he 
obtained a small button of that metal fix>m 
the auriferous ore collected in the sands near 
Dhoni, and he subseqaently discovered a 
grey silver ore in a fragment of quartz that 
he picked up there. There has not been 
recorded any account of the products of the 
washings of Malabar, but in washing the 
sands of the Kupputgode range, there 
remains a black sand (menachanite) which 
Captain Newbold supposed to be probably 
derived from the decomposition of the dykea 
of basaltic rock, or the greenstone and horn- 
blende rocks in the vicinity. Native gold- 
washers are in the habit of going out after 
the monsoon and washing the heavy deposits 
of crushed quartz (detritus) which the rains 
bring down from the Kupputgode Hills. Dr. 
Clarke, of Australia, however, having written 
to the Bombay Government informing them 
that, having studied a geological map of 
India, he could point out to them, with 
certainty, where gold must exist, theGovem- 
ment appointed Captain Aytoun, of the 
Bombay Artillery, to survey the Kupput- 
gode Hills, and report whether they con- 
tained gold or iron. Captain Aytoun in 1852, 
found gold in the sand forming tlie beds of 
nullahs, which are mountain torrents in the 
rainy season and almost dry during the rest 
of the year. The particles of gold were, 
however, almost infinitesimal. An Austra- 
lian colonist, Mr. Le Souef, who had come 
to India on other business, having heard, 
mention of Capt. Ay toun's discovery examin- 
ed the locality and reported that he had, as 
he says. 

'Found gold in payable quantities in 
the bed of a saiall river, close to the vil- 
lage of Soortoor, and bearing about west 
from it. This river extends for many milesi 
and at every place — say every 500 yards, 
for about eight miles in the bed of the creek, 
where I washed the drift, I found gold. I 
also sunk two shafts to make sure that gold 
existed in the bod rock, and from a handfal 



cannot procure more gold than will pay him 
for his days labour. 

Central Provinces^ Farther north in the 
Central Provinces, Mr. Bnrr describes gold as 
occurring in many of the rivers in the Nag- 
pore district, and gold dust is now found in 
beds of rivers at Pumalia, Chota Nagpore. 
Gold dust is extracted from sand in the 
beds of rivers in Mauubhoom and Palamow, 
but not in large quantities. Gold dust is 
found in the Paiqdhur nullah, in the Seonee 
district. The little stream rises in the 
Konye range of hills, and falls into the 
river Wyne-Gungah. The gold is obtained 
by washing the sand, and the natives say 
they never get more than four annas worth 
by a days work, and would consider it un- 
lucky if they did, as the goddess who is 
supposed to make it would then leave their 

Gold is found in the Ealaghat, being wash- 
ed in the Deo and S(m rivers, in the Son- 
bera nulla near the Panchera ghat in the 
Dhansua pargannah, and in the Nara river 
of the Man tract ; but the quantity obtainable 
scarcely repays the labourers. 

Gold is also washed in the sands of the 
Banjar river, an affluent of tho Nerbuddah. 

Gold is washed in Bastar from the sands of 
the Kntri river, and towards Prattapur, and 
in the forks of the Kutri and Indravati rivers. 

Gold particles are found in some of the^ 
nallas of the Ghandah district, and diamonds 
and rubies were formerly obtained near 

Hyderabad, In the Hyderabad Territories, 
gold has been mentioned as occurring atGood- 
aloor, or Godalore, on the Godavery, where 
the late Dr. Walker, (p. 184 of Vol. XVI. of 
the Madras Lit. Society's Journal,) mentions 
its occurrence, where the Ramghere and 
Cumraumet Circars meet, and also in several 
nullahs that feed the Godavery from the 
south. It is washed for, also, in the bed of 
the river, nearly opposite Marrigudum, in the 
Nuggur taluk, also where the Kinarsani 
nalla falls into the Godavery a little below 

Dairy mple's Oriental Repository (Vol. II, 
p. 472) mentions that in the bed of the 
Godavery near its debouchure are found, 
amethyst, garnet, crystal, onyx, and jasper, 
and that gold dust, is found in many places so 
soon as the monsoon floods have subsided. 

Northern Circars. Gold washing is carried 
on at Sumbulpore and Cuttack and also in the 
beds of the Mahanuddy and its affluents. Ac- 
cording to the late Mr. Mason, the natives 
obtain a little gold by washing in the 
streams near Vizagapatam. As we turn 
southwards, however, we do not observe men- 


tion made of any gold in the Masniipatam 
or Guntoor collectoi*ates, nor do the speci- 
mens of rocks from these districts in the 
Central Museum indicate the presence of 
the ore there. In the Nelloro collectorate, 
however, Dr. Voysey mentions the occur* 
rence of copper in the veins of white 
quartz,— and at Callastry in tho North 
Arcot collectorate, he states that the quartz 
rock contains lead ore mixed with silver. 

Gold mines are mentioned by Hey ne (Tracts 
p. 342) as being worked at Suttergul a few 
miles from Pungumpilly. — (Cat. Ex., 1862.) 

Smith India. Gold , writes Mr. Bun', occurs 
in Coimbatore and the southern declivities of 
the Neilgherry Hills Capt. Newbold quotes 
Vol. I., p. 614 of Sir Whitelaw Ainslie's 
Materia Medica that gold was discovered 
by the late Mr. Mainwaring in the Madura 
district, where it occurs mineralized by means 
of zinCyConstitntiDg a blende which he thoughi 
resembled somewhat the schemnitz blende of 

The streams running through the Paul* 
ghaut valley, which unite about fifteen 
miles below Palghautcherry and form the 
great Ponany river, are repeatedly men- 
tioned as containing gold; and in June 
1832 Lieut. Nicolson visited Darampooray, 
at the foot of the Shevaroy Hills^ Sattia- 
mnngalnm, Donagancottah, Addivarum or 
Stremogoy and Metapollum, where gold, it 
is stated, is to be found and saw also the 
gold sands of Polygonuth, about 45 miles 
from Dindigul. Natives likewise wash for 
gold at the branch of tho Cauvery, which 
runs past Darampooram. 

NeilgJienries. When describing the gold of 
the Kuppotgode range, Capt. Newbold men- 
tions the existence of the ore around the base 
of the Neilglierry and Koondah mountains, 
in the Wynaad. Lieut. Nicolson, indeed, 
when working in Malabar stated that ho 
had fairly traced the strata that contain gold 
in the direction of the Koondah and Moo- 
koorty Hills, but his report was not subse- 
quently confirmed. Gold, however, occurs in 
the Carcoor Pass, and at Devalla: and 
specimens of the rocks, from the gold mines 
at the latter place, are now in the 
Madras Central Museum, and a specimen 
of the gold rocks at Goondaloor. Mr. Burr, 
(p. 72 Vol. XIL of M. L.S. J.) also mentions 
the southern declivities of the Neilglierry 
mountains as gold districts : Dr. Benza is 
however the only author who seems to state 
that gold has been found on the plateau of 
these hills, below Gradation Hall. It is a 
belief that owing to the similarity of the 
rocks of tho detritus to the quartz veins of 
the Malabar coast, gold may be found in 



ons parts of Central Russia and China, also 
contain gold. 

hulus and its neighhourhood. The Indns 
flood of 1842, strewed with gold the fields 
of Chnch, above Attock, and the sands of 
the Sutlej and other Himalayan rivers also 
contain gold. Dr. Thomson found a nam- 
bcr of people a little below Khapalu wash- 
ing the sand of the Indus for gold ; but the 
produce seemed to be very trifling, and the 
work is only carried on during winter, 
when labour is of no value for other pur- 
poses. He purchased for a rupee (paying, 
he believes, a good deal more than the 
value) the produce in gold-dust of one man's 
labour for three weeks. He supposed, how- 
over, he only worked occasionally. — (Dr, 
Thomson^ 8 Travels in Western Himalaya and 
Tibet, p. 212.) 

Kamaan Captain Hardwicke says, gold 
can be obtained from sand, in the Sirinagur 
district. The rivers of Kumaon abound in 
gold-dust, and this precious metal is some- 
times found in large pieces. There is a 
gold mine at Daugo Bookpa, twelve days 
journey S. E. of Mansarowar, and very 
lately they say one has been discovered 
between Goongeoo and Mansarowar, which 
was immediately shut up by orders from 
Lhassa. The people told Captain Gerard 
that aflter the sand of the river is washed 
so as to be free from all the lighter parti- 
cles, it is mixed with quicksilver, and the 
gold is detected by observing the pieces 
tinged by that metal, which is afterwards 
evaporated by heat. — (Capt. Qerard*s Ac- 
cmitit of Koonawur, p. 155.) 

Gold is obtained from the sands of the 
Indus and between Attock and Kalabah, 
about 300 persons are employed in washing 
the sand for gold, which occurs in small 
flattened grains. (Hist, of the Funj, Vol. I, 
p, 43—45.) 

Gold has been supposed to occur only 


In the tertiary formations of the Salt 
Range, gold is found in minute scales, 
and has doubtless been derived from 
plntonic and metamorphic rocks, the dis- 
integ^tion of which has furnished the ma* 
terial of which the strata of the series are 
composed and in the beds of numerous nul- 
lahs which flow through the " meioceue" 
formations, the sand is washed for gold. 
Gold seems to be obtained in the largest 
quantity towards the Indus, north of the 
Salt Range. The gold washings of the Salt 
Range are nearly all in the Jhilam district. 
In the year 1850, 158 cradles were at work, 
and they were taxed from Rs, 2 to 5 per 
'* troon ;" the total tax amounted to Rs. 525. 
In the streams where gold-sand is washed, 
gprains of platinum are occasionally found 
in small quantities ; the gold seekers call 
the metal "safed sona," and reject it as 
useless, platinum has also been found in the 
Tavi river of Jammu territory, and in the 
Kabul river at Naushera. 

At the Lahore Exhibition of 1864, there 
were specimens of gold from Karrar on the 
Markanda river in the Amballa district ; 
from Spiti ; from the Beyas near Haripur in 
Kangra district, from Lahanl, from the Jhi- 
lam river, from Elas Gabhir in the Jhilam 
district, from Attock and Hazara. 

Gt>ld has been found in large quantities 
between Umballa and Kalkah. In the 
neighbourhood of Pateealah is a sniall moun- 
tain stream, where gold is washed for by the 
Soonjbir or gold- washers. 

Hmdustan. Gold is obtained in the sands 
of the river Beyas : in those of the Gumti 
river : at Jompole : — in sand in the Morada- 
bad district. 

Assam. In Assam at Heerakhond, where 
diamonds also occur. Tavernier tells us (Tra- 
vels p. 1 56) that gold, " comes from the 
kingdom of Tipra, but it is coarse, almost 
as bad as that of China." Gold dust is 

in sand, washed down in greater or less washed in the Dikerie river in the Tezpore 
abundance by the rivers of the Punjab. A district, but all the rivers in the North of 

Murree correspondent of the Delhi Gazette 
however, said that while sinking an ex- 
perimental shaft in connexion with the 
proposed tunnel, on the banks of the 
Indus, a veritable gold mine was discovered. 
Under the stratum of slate a deposit of rich 
auriferous quartz was found. From the 
specimens, the mineral seemed to contain a 
largo proportion of gold. 

Dr. Cleghorn mentions that a little gold- 
dust is brought across the higher range 
through Chilas from the valley of the Indus 
where gold washing is carried on to a con- 
siderable extent. — \Cleghorn Punjab B^eport^ 
p. 178.) 

Assam probably contain the auriferous metal, 
and on approaching the, small strata 
that exist in the hills, the grains of metal 
found are of larger size. The value of the 
gold on the spot is rupees 16 for a quan- 
i tity of the weight of a rupee. The Assamese 
use no cradle. A spot is selected and after 
digging down 4 or 6 feet, the sand is taken 
out and washed by passing water over it in 
any long leaf fonnd at hand. The dust is 
then put into a small wooden or brass onp 
and a small quantity of quicksilver added, 
the mass is then gently moved together^ 
the mercury taking up the gold and leav- 
ing the sand. The water is then drained 



snsrsrested it as the source of Solomon's 
wealth, the Aurea Chersonesns of antiqnity. 
It occurs there disseminated, and in thin 
granular veins, in quartz, and in alluvial 
deposits, such as beds of streams. It has 
been found near beds of tin ore. — (Neto- 
hohVs British Scttlewents^ Vol. I., p. 431. 
John'' 8 Indian Archipelago, Vol. I., p. 76.) 

In all the larger specimens seen it is dis- 
seminated in small particles, and in streaks 
in quartz. Like the tin ore it has not been 
seen in the undisintegrated rock. (/. I. A., 
No. U,Fcbricary 1848.) 

Siam. Gold is found in Siam, at Bang 
Taphan in the province of Xamphoo, jft the 
foot of the Three hundred peak Mountains. 
CJrawfurd, had never heard of any attempt 
at estimating the amount obtained at Suma- 
tra, Celebes, or the two Philippine Islands. 
(Crawfard Did. page 14.) The gold deposits 
of the Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, Celebes, 
Timor, and New South Wales, are only 
found on the side of the range opposite to 
that against which the volcanic force has 
been directed. 

Archipelago, The gold of the Archipelago 
at one time was imported into Calcutta. Mr. 
Crawfurd (Vol. XLV., p. 483) gives a table 
showing ihe amount so received from 1801 to 
J 81 4, from the west coast of Sumatra, and 
from Borneo and the rest of the Archi- 
pelago, a total of 146,195 ounces valued 
at £621,328,, 15. 

Sumatra. In the Island of Achen or 
Sumatra, after the rainy season, when the 
torrents are wasted, Tavernier says they find 
veins of gold in the flints, (quartz ?) which 
the waters wash down from the mountains 
that lie toward the North-east. Upon the 
West- side of the Island, when the Hollanders 
come to lade their pepper, the Natives bring 
them great store of gold, but very coarse 
metal, if not worse than that of China. 
{Tavernier s Travels, p. 156.) 

B(^rneo. Gold occurs in lumps in the 
alluvium of a mountain in Sarawak, named 
Trian. Several of the lumps weighed from 
three to four buukal, and they were rarely 
less than one or two amass in weight. The 
produce of the Western side of Borneo, by 
far the largest, has been estimated as low 
as 52,000 ounces, and this, by parties, reck- 
oning the Chinese population of the same 
country, most of it engaged in gold wash- 
ing, as high as 25,000. On the other hand. 
Sir Stamford Raffles estimated the total 
annual produce of the Western part of Bor- 
neo as high as 225,335 ounces, which, at the 
value of SI 17 8» the ounce, would give a 
total value of 867,539/. 


Mr. Earl examined the gold mines in the 
nci<?hbourhood of Montradok. Those near- 
est were about four miles to the eastward, 
the gold being found in stiff soil. The soil 
whicJi contains the metal is found in small 
veins from eight to fifteen feet below the 
surface. If the depth of the vein be less 
than ten feet, a trench is dug, the whole of 
the upper stratum being removed, but if 
deeper, a shaft of three feet square is sunk 
perpendicularly into the vein, and the miner 
works into it about ten feet in both direc- 
tions, sending the ore up in baskets. When 
it is all removed, another shaft is sunk into 
the vein twenty feet bej'ond the first, and 
the miner works back into the old excava- 
tion, extending his labours ten feet in the 
opposite direction. The gold is found in very 
small particles, for the most part as fine as 
sand. Large specimens, however, are occa- 
sionally found, not in lumps, but in small 
irregular pieces joined together by integu- 
ments, much resembling lead that has been 
melted and afterwards thrown into wat«r. 
The gold dust is often adulterated with 
a glittering sand called passir BVni or 
Borneo sand, from the place whence it is pro- 
cured. (Mr. Earl, p. 286, 287.) 

In Borneo, the gold which is found in al- 
luvial soils is that of which the supply is 
most to bo depended on. This, in Sarawak, 
is found and worked in many places, prin- 
cipally by the Chinese, though the Malay 
also occasionally work it on a smaller scale. 
It is not found in veins in any part of 
Sarawak, but in small particles distributed 
through the soil, nor does it extend to any 
great depth. Sir Stamford Raffles calculated 
the number of Chinese employed in the gold 
mines at Mentrada and other places on the 
western side of Borneo at not less than 
32,000 working men. When a mine affords 
no more than four bunkal (weighing about 
two dollars each, or something less than a 
tahil) per man, in the year, it is reckoned a 
losing concern, and abandoned, accordingly. 
Valuing the bunkal at eighteen Spanish dol- 
lars, which is a low rate of estimation, and 
supposing only four bunkal produced in the 
year by the labour of each man, the total 
produce is 128,000 bunkal, worth 2,224,000 
Spanish dollars, equal to 556,000/., at the 
rate of five shillnigs the dollar. But it is 
asserted, that upon the general run of tho 
mines, seldom less than six bunkal per 
head has been obtained, and in very rainy 
seasons seven. Taking the medium at six 
and-a-half bunkal, the 32,000 Chinese 
will procure 208,000 bunkal, which, at 
eighteen Spanish dollars the bunkal, is 
3,744,000 Spanish dollars, equal to 936,000^ 

55 XX 


the earth committed to his tmRty thns 
rifled, raised this storm purposely to make 
them sensible how much he was displeased 
at this nndertaking. ISTor was there any 
further attempt made since, for fear of pro- 
voking his anger and wrath still more. 
Such another accident, and which had the 
same effect, happened at the opening of a 
gold-mine in the island of Amakusa, for it was 
so suddenly filled with water, which broke 
out of the mountain, and destroyed all the 
works, that the miners had scarce time to 
escape and to save their lives. {History of 
Japan, Vol. I, p. 107 and 108.) 

As for silver-mines, there are none in all 
Asia but only in Japan, but some years since 
at Delegora, Sangora, Bordelon and Bata, . 
have been discovered plentiful mines of tin, 
to the great damage of the English, there 
being now enough in Asia of their own 
besides. (Tavemier's Travels, p. 157.) 

Cochin China. Perhaps, in no part of the 
world, is gold found in such quantity or with 
less trouble than in Cochin China ; nay, it 
would appear, from the description of that 
kingdom which is given in the Asiatic 
Annual Register for 1801, that gold there is 
almost taken pure from the mines, which are 
near the surface of the earth. {Ainslie's Mat, 
Med. p. 54.) 

China. In China, gold is collected in the 
sands of the rivers in Yunnan and Sz'chuen, 
especially from the upper branch of the Yang 
Tsze-kiang called Kinsha-kiang or Golden 
Sanded River. The largest amount is said by 
Sir John Davis to come from Li-kiang-fn 
near that river and from Yung-chang-fa on 
the borders of Biirmah. It is wrought into 
personal ornaments and knobs for official 
caps, and beaten into leaf for gilding, but is 
not used as a coin, nor is much fonnd in 
market as bullion. Silver also is brought from 
Yennan, near the boarders of Cochin China 
and the mines in that region must be both 
extensive and easily worked to aifordsuch 
large quantities as have been exported dur- 
ing the last five years. {Williams^ Middle 
Kingdom, p. 144.) 

Tavernier also tells us there comes gold 
from China, which the Chinese exchange for 
the silver which is bronght them. For 
price they love silver better than gold, 
because they have no silver mines. Yet it is 
the coarsest metal of all the Asiatic gold. — 
Tavernier* s Travels, p. 1 56. Ainslie's Materia 
Medicay p. 64. Williams Middle Kingdom^ 
p. 144. Times of India. Calcntia Revieio. 
Journal India Archipelago. McCulloch Com- 
mercial Dictionanj. Sharpens History of 
ISgyjpt, vi. 107. Bihnore's Travels, in ths 
Archipelago, p. 403. Yules Cathay and 


the way thither^ i., p. 236. London ExhU 
hition of 1862. TJwmsons' Travels in the 
Western Himalaya and Tibet, p. 2 1 7. Oera/rd^s 
Account of Koonawur^ p. 155. Cunningham's 
History of the Panjab, vi , p. 43-44 . Cleghom's 
Panjab Report^ p. 1 78. PowelVs Panjab Pro- 
ducts, p. 1 2. Mr. Pelly in Uteris. Benza in 
Madras Lit. Soc. Journal. Heynes* 7}ract8. 
Thunberg^s History of Japan. Oldham in 
Yule^s Embassy in Ava. Logan in Journal 
India Archipelago. Earl in do. Low^s Sarawak^ 
p. 23. Quarterly Review, p. 501, No. 222. 
Raffles History of Java, Vol. I., p. 236. Mr. 
Burr, p. 30 Vol. XII. Madras Literary Society 
Journal. Chairman's Report, pp. 363 367 of 
No. 35. Lieut. General Cullen's letter to Chief 
Secretary to Madras Oovemment p. 4 printed 
1846. Sir W. Ainslie in Materia Mediea^ 
Vol. I. p. 155. Dr. Clark, at p. 120, Vol. IX 
of Madras Literarg Society Jownal. Mr. 
Sheffield, Lieut. Nicolson, Mr. Duncan, Oovet' 
nor of Bombay, Dr. Buchanan^ Sir Whitelaw 
Ainslie quoted in Oold Committee's report to 
Madras Oovemment at p. 154, Vol. XIV of 
Journal of MadfasLUerary Society. Dr. Turn- 
bull Christie Vol. XV p. 154 of Madras Liter^ 
ary Society Journal. Newbold p. 44, Vol. IX 
of the Madras Literary Society Journal ; Ouzo- 
teer. Central Provinces p. 186. 

GOLDAR. DuK. Stercnlia guttata. 

GOLDEN ISLAND or Chinsan, is in the 
middle of the Yang-tse Kiang, or great river 
of China, where the width is near three miles. 
It is the property of the emperor. It is in- 
terspersed with pleasure-houses and gardens, 
and contains a large monastery of priests, by 
which the island is almost entirely inhabited. 
A vast variety of vessels in form and size are 
constantly moving about on this large river. 
Macarhiey's Embassy, Vol. I p. 27. 

GOLDEN EAGLE, the Aquila chrysaetos, 
occurs in High Asia. Atkinson (p. 493) 
figures a young hart seized by a trained 
Golden Eagle ; and the species appears to be 
C. elaphus. Pennant remarks in his Asiatic 
Zoology, that — " the independent Tartars 
train the Aquila chrysaetos for purposes of 
falconry for the chace of hares, foxes, ante- 
lopes, and even wolves. The use,*' he adds, 
"is of considerable antiquity; for Marco 
Polo, the great traveller of 1269, observed 
and admired the diversion of the Great Khan 
of Tartary, who had several Eagles, which 
were applied to the same purposes that they 
are at present;*' and in the Naturalist for 
May 1837, (as quoted by the late Mr. 
Yarrell, in his History of British Birds,) we 
read that — " Captain Green, of Euckden, in 
Huntingdonshire, has now in his possession 
a splendid specimen of the Golden Eagle, 
which he has himself trained to take hares 



and rabbitp." Snch a bird would be decidedly 
prone to ponnco upon doj^?, calves, sbocp, 
<fec. ; and young cbildren would bo scarcely 
safe from it. The Lammergcyer (Gy- 
paetos), is the so called * Golden Etigle' of 
the Himalayan residents. Indian Field. See 

GOLDEN FOOT. A title of the king of 

GOLDEN STREA^r. The Chrysorrhica 
of the ancients, is the Barrada river of Dam- 

Coptis toeta. 

sarees, or women's cloths, made at Benares, 
Pytun, and Boorhanpoor, in Gu/erat; at 
Narrainpett, and Dhanwarnrj, in the torri- 
toiy of Ilis Highness the Nizam ; at Yeokla 
in Khandesh, and in other locnlities, have 
gold thread in broad and narrow stripes 
alternating with silk or muslin. Gold flowers, 
checks, or zigzag patterns are used, the 
colours of the grounds iKMug green, black, 
violet, crimson, purple, and grey ; and in 
silk, black .shot with crimson or yellow, 
crinwon with green, blue, or white, yellow 
with deep crimson and blue, all producing 
rich, harmonious, and even crorgeous effects ; 
but without the lea.«>t appearance of or ap- 
proach to jjl firing colour, or oilc nee to the 
most critical ta.<-te. They are colours and 
effects wLicli suit the (lark or f:iir com- 
plexions of the people of the E. Indies ; for 
an Indian lady who can afford to be choice 
in the selection of her wardrobe, is as par- 
ticular as to what will suit her especial 
colour — darker comparatively fair, as a lady 
of Britain or France. India in this manu- 
facture stands unrivjdled, and it makes some 
very gorgeous shamiMnahs and elephant sad- 
dle cloths. 

The gold and Mirer fancy fringes of Hy- 
derabad nro well known in India. Solid 
silver wire frinjjcs and or?uiments are made 
in Madura hut they are surpassed by the 
silver thread of Hyderabad. 

In the embroidered fabrics of India, it 
may be mentioned as a principle, that pat- 
terns and colours diversify plane surfaces 
without dc>troying i)v disturhinir the im- 
pression of flatness. They are rcmarkaUle 
for the rich diversion shown in the patterns, 
the be^iufv, distinctness and varietv of the 
forms, and the harmonious blendins*' of 
several olonrs. 

The cricntal rnces have ever been celebra- 
ted fr»r tlioir skill in this art of endnviderv 
which ap]H"";i*s ti> have Ix^en practised in 
Assyria and introduced from thence into 
*Xilia. Piii\v, however, mentions t'nat it was 


a Phrygian inyention, and in Rome enbro^ 
derers were called Pbryigionea. In Babylon, 
clothes were woven of different €X>lonrR and 
called Babylonica. During the early part of 
the middle ages, Europe obtained its most 
important embroideries from Greece and the 
East. — /. B. Waring, Master pieces of Indu*' 
trial Art. Exh. of 1862. William's MidiUe 
Kingdom Vol. II p. 1 23. Royle^ Arts ofhidia^ 
4r., p. 506-507. 

Burhanpur contains 8,000 masonry houses 
and a population of 34, 1 37, most of 'whom 
are dependent in one way or other on the 
wire-drawinpf and cloth weavinjjf industries of 
the place. The value of its fine fabrics depends 
mainly on the purity of the metals employ- 
ed in the composition of the wire, and to se- 
cure this the wire-drawing has always been 
kept under government inspection. A 
hereditary tester called the '* cbankasi" le- 
ceived and assayed all the silver and gold 
broupfht tx> the "tuksal," or mint, (where 
the Burhanpur rupee was also coined), and 
here the wire was drawn out to a certain 
degree of fineness before being allowed to pass 
ag'.iin into the hands of the manufacturers, 
an arrangement still continued by the Bri- 
tish. The drawing now takes place only at 
Burhanpur and Lodbipura, a suburb of the 
old city. The silver bars are covered with 
a thin gold leaf weighing from fonr to forty- 
two masha, (of fifteen grains troy each) ; to 
each pasa, that is, from about half to six per 
cent, on the amount of the silver. The num- 
ber of masha employed ia called the 
*' rang,** (colour) of the wire. The adhe- 
sion appears to be effected purely by me- 
chanical skill on the part of the workmen 
on lied '* Pasa Tania,** It is then passed by 
the same workmen throui^h a series of holes 
in steel ]dates of diminishing size by manual 
power ap])lied by means of a spoken wheel 
of the ru«lest construction. It is passed 
throujjh fortv of these holes before iti leaves 
the Taksal, and is then reduced to about the 
size of an ordinary sodawater wire. Thence 
it cfoes into the hands of another set of oper- 
atives called Tania, who still further reduce 
it through a gradation of forty more holes, 
the last of wliieh is as tine as a human hair. 

Their ap[>aratus is of somewhat more 
delicate construction, but the work requires 
neither the same skill nor hard work as the 
first operation. The wire is drawn by them 
down to various degrees of fineness, accord- 
inir ^^^ the work for which it is destined. The 
round wire is then given to the Chapria, 
who tlatten it into an almost impalpable 
tilm, by hammering between two polished 
steel surtacc-^, an opei-ation requiring, it is 
said, superior tikill. lu this state it is term- 


ed '' badla," and is used for some few sorts 
of work. The greater part of it has, how- 
ever, to be spnn into a thread along with 
silk before being woven np. This is done 
by persons called Bitai, who nse no sorfc 
of apparatus for the purpose, excepting a 
couple of wooden spindles twirled by the 
hand. Indeed the beauty of the result ob- 
tained by such primitive implenieuts must 
strike every one with amazement. The 
layer of gold on the finest wire must be of 
almost inconceivable thinness. The mixed 
thread is called "kalabatun," which is woven 
into the kimkhab and other brilliant fa- 
brics worn by rich natives on hijfh occasions. 
The wire- drawers were originally Pa- 
th ans introduced from Upper India by the 
emperor Akbar, hot now all castes work at 
the trade. The fabrics are of many different 
sorts many of them of great beauty. Kimkhab 
(vulgarly kincob) which is of mixed silk and 
gold thread, is now little made in Burham- 
pur, the Ahmedabad and Benares articles, 
from being produced both cheaper and near- 
er the great markets for snch staffs, having 
driven it ont of the field. The same may be 
said of mashrua, a fabric of silk warp with 
the woof of cotton thread wrought with a 
patt-em in Kalaba tun, though made to a small 
extent it is greatly inferior to the produce of 
Ahmedabad. The chief fabrics still made 
in the city are zari, a very rich licrht stuff in 
which the flattened wire is interwoven with 
silk in the warp, with a thread woof, chiefly 
made up into scarves and saris worn by fe- 
males on wedding and other high occasions. 
Sclari is half silk and half thread, with bril- 
liant edging and borders of silk and gold 
thread, mostly in tho form of saris and 
dopattas, Pitambar all silk with the same 
edging is a better sort of the same. Tur- 
bans, shashes, <fec. are made in all these fab- 
rics. The gold thread also is iriucii woven 
up with silks into rich borders and edgings, 
exported to bo attached to the cloth manu- 
factures of other places, silk for these cloths 
is all imported, it is mostly from China ; 
generally spun and dyed in fast colours at 
Puna, a little however is spun in the city 
from the material imported raw. The cotton- 
thread used is extremely fine, and is both 
English and made on the spot. The former 
costs inBurhanpur exactly one-fourth of the 
latter but it is greatly inferior both in 
strength and cleanness. The closely-twisted 
native thread breaks with a sharp crack, 
while the English article from its fluffy open 
character, parts without any noise. The 
English thread, from its greatly superior 
cheapness, has however, supplanted the na- 
tive for all but the finest stuffs. The city 


thread is span by the families of the weavers 
and others, the best being produced by the 
Balahi (Dher) caste. A coarser thread is 
generally spun throughout the country by 
the women of almost every caste. It is wo- 
ven into every description of common cloth 
by the Burhanpur weavers, even the best of 
them, when out of fine work, having to take 
to the commoner stuffs. The latter now 
greatly preponderate in quantity, and it is 
said 'that every day the demand is getting 
smaller for the finer qualities. It is not diffi- 
cult to account for this. The supersession 
by the rough and ready Marathas of the 
luxurious mahomadan princes and nobles 
was probably the first blow to the trade. 

The average earnings of tlie weavers 
range from about five to ten rupees a months 
besides what their families earn by spinning, 
dyeing and odd work connected with tha 
trade. — Dr. WalsMi. 

WORK. The native silversmiths of Cuttacfc 
have long been noted for the fineness, neat- 
ness, and lightness of their filigree work. 
This kind of work is executed, for the most 
part, under supervision, by mere boys, whose 
nimbler fingers and keener eyesight are sup- 
posed to enable them to bring out and put 
together the minute patterns with more dis- 
tinctness and accuracy than their elders can ; 
comparative cheapness is, perhaps, another 
reason for their employment. The rulings 
rates for this filigi*ee work are from two to 
two and a half rupees, that is to say, taking 
the first rate, two rupees or four shillings is 
charged for every rupee weight of finished 
silver work, namely, one rupee for workman- 
ship, and one rupee as the price of the silver. 
Thu filigree work in gold, of Delhi and other 
places, is famed. Next to muslins, and em- 
broidered fabrics, filigree work is that for 
which Dacca is most celebrated but the art 
is also practised in great perfection at Cut- 
tack, and in Sumatra, and China. The 
articles usually made at Dacca are Lady's 
ornaments, such as bracelets, ear-rings, 
brooches, chains, necklaces, tfec.and attardans 
and small boxes for natives. The design best 
adapted for displaying the delicate work of 
filigree is that of a leaf. It should be drawn 
on stout paper, and of the exact size of the 
article intended to be made. The apparatus 
used in the art is exceedingly simple, consist- 
ing merely of a few small crucibles, a piece 
of bamboo for a blow pipe, small hammers 
for flattening the wire, and sets of forceps for 
inter-twisting it. — Dr. Watson. 

ing of silver and gold (». e. silver covered 
with gold) wire, used as thread in embroidery 



of Ceylon, occasionally commits much da- 
mage, seemingly to get the bark, for they do 
not seem to eat the coffee berries. With their 
long sharp incisors they bite off with great 
smoothness the smaller and younger branches, 
generally an inch from the stem, and shonld 
the plants be quite young, just taken from 
the nursery, they bite them right off a few 
inches from the ground, and carry them to 
their nests in hollow trees. They appear 
irregularly, at intervals, from the jungles, 
and there is hardly an estate that does not 
now and then receive a visit from them. 
The Natives of Ceylon say that their food in 
the jungles is a species of Strobilauthus, 
called Nilu in Singalese, and that the rats 
only issue from their forest residence and 
attack the coffee estates when their forest 
food fails. The coffee-rat is an insular variety 
of the Mus hirsutus of Mr. W. Elliot, found 
in Southern India. They inhabit the 
forests, making their nests among the 
roots of the trees, and feeding, iii the sea- 
son, on the ripe seeds of the nilloo. When the 
seeds of the Nilloo, Singh. — Strobilanthes, 
on which they feed are exhausted, they in- 
vade the coffee plantations in swarms, gnaw 
off the young branches and divest the trees 
of buds and bloom. So many as a thousand 
have been killed in one day on a single 
estate. Like the lemmiog of Norway and 
Lapland, they migrate in vast numbers on 
the occurrence of a scarcity of their ordinary 
food. The Malabar coolies are so fond of 
their flesh, that they evince a preference for 
those districts iu which the coffee plantations 
are subject to their incursions, where they 
fry the i*ats iu cocoanut oil, or convert them 
into curry. — Nietner on the Enemies of the 
Coffee Plant. Tennetifs Sketches of the Natural 
History of Ceylon, p. 3-44-. 

GOMA. Sp. Gum. 


GOMALA BANSA. A branch of the 

GOMA-LACA. Sp. Lac. 

GOMANGASA. See Topes. 

GOMARAM. Port, Gamboge. 

GOMASHTAH. Hind. An Agent. 

GOMATI. An affluent of the Beas. 

GOMAYAM. Tel. Cow-dung cakes. 
Brattics, used as fuel. 

GOMBEAW. West Indies. Abelmoschus 
esculentus, W. & A. 

GOMBOGE. See Gamboge; Gamboge 
butter. Resin. 

GOME. Jav. also Ko. Jap. Rice. 

GOMEAH, a town in Hazareebagh. 


GO-MEDHA. Sans, from go, a cow, 
and medha, flesh. 

GOMEZ. ThePortugese,Lorenzo deGomez, 
was the first of the European navigators 
who approached the northern part of the 
island of Borneo, he arrived in i 518 in the 
ship St. Sebastian on his route to China. 
We presume that he gave to the country the 
name of Bume, but he says that the natives 
term it Brannai or Brunai. The travellers 
who have recently penetrated into different 

garts of the interior, the Dutch major 
[uller, Colonel Henrici, the members of a 
scientific commission, Diard, S. Muller and 
Korthals, as well as the rajah Brooke, as- 
sure US that the people have no general 
name for the island. 

GOM-LAC. Dot. Lac. 

GOMMA It. Gum. 

ammoniaque. Fr. Gum ammoniac. 

GOMMA ARABICA. It. Gum arabio. 

GOMMA GUTTA. It. Gamboge. 

GOMME. Pe. Gum. 

GOMME ARABIQUE. Fb. Gum arabic. 


GOMME GUTTB. Fb. Gamboge. 


GOMONA, is a small island in lat. 1 "^ 56* 
S. long. 127'' 38' E., 87 miles off Amboyna 
flag8t«^. — Horsburgh. 

W.&A.i Prod. 1. 152. 

6. zoylanica, 
G. malabarica, 



Walkera &erratta, Wild, 
Ochna zeylanica. Lam. 
Pua-jetti, Malial. 

Bokaara-gass, Sixgh. 

This tree grows to the height of thirty 
feet on the continent of India and in Ceylon 
it is common up to an elevation of 
3,000 feet. The wood is useful for build- 
ing purposes. The root and leaves are 
bitter, and employed in Malabar in decoc- 
tion, in milk, or water, as atonic, stomachic, 
and anti-emetic. — Thw, En. PL Zeyl. J., 
page 71. O'SJiaughnessy, p. 269. 

of Gomphia angustifolia. — FoAZ. 

of Gomphia angustifolia. — Vahl. 


Ma>lmyo-ban, Burm. 
Jafferi gandi, Duk. 
Globe amaranth, £nq. 

Everlasting flower, Emo. 
Gal mokhmol. Hind, 
Fedda goranta, Tel. 

This flowering plant has a red and white 
variety, and the red resembles red clover. 
It is cultivated in the gardens of Europeans 
and Natives in India and Burmah. — Mason^s 
Burmah; BiddelVs Gardening. Gen. Mei, 
Tojp., p. 187. 



male flowers. The tree is valuable for several 
very distinct, and all very useful, products. 
It is described by Marsden, in bis ' Sumatra,' 
under the name of Anou, as a palm of " much 
importance, as the natives procure from it 
■ago (but there is also another sago tree, 
more productive), toddy, or palm wine, of 
the first quality ; sugar, or jaggery ; and 
ejoo." Dr.Roxburgh, writing in the year 1799, 
strongly recommended its extensive intro- 
duction into India and the Arenga now grows 
in Bangalore and to some extent in the Nug- 
gur division of Mysore. The palm wine 
itself, and the sugar it yields, the black 
fibres for cables and cordage, and the pith 
for sago, independently of many other uses, 
are objects of great commercial importance. 
This palm is to be found in all parts, from the 
gulf of Bengal to all the Asiatic islands on its 
eastward, especially in low moist situations 
and along the banks of rivers. Dr. Roxburgh 
describes the trees (in 1810) which had been 
introduced into the Botanic Gardens at 
Calcutta about twenty-four years before, as 
from twenty to thirty feet in height, exclu- 
sive of foliage or fronds, which rise from 
fifteen to twenty feet higher. These fronds 
or leaves are pinnate, and from fifleen to 
twenty-five feet long. The trunk is straight, 
at first covered entirely with the sheaths of 
the fronds or leaves, and the black horse- 
bair-like fibres, called, by the Malays, Ejoo, 
which issue in great abundance from the 
margins of these sheaths. As the tree ad- 
vances in age or size, these drop off, leaving 
an elegant, columnar, naked trunk. He 
further states that he had observed that each 
of the well- grown thriving trees produced 
about six leaves annually, and that each 
leaf yields about three quarters of a pound 
weight of these fibres, and, therefore, 
each tree about four pounds and a half. But 
some luxuriant trees yield at least one 
pound of fibre from each leaf. As these 
black fibres issue from the sides of the 
sheaths, they necessarily surround the stem, 
and may be cut off without injury to the 
tree. Even in commercial specimens, some 
may be seen covered both on the upper and 
lower surface, with dense cellular mem- 
branes, having between them a mass of these 
black fibres. These are supported by thicker 
or whalebone-like fibres, which are attached 
to the thinner fibres by cellular tissue. 
These stiff fibres are employed in Sumatra 
as styles for writing with, on the leaves of 
other palms, &c., as mentioned both h}' Mars- 
den and Bennett. These fibres are further 
described as stronger, more durable, but less 
pliant and elastic than those of the coir ; but 
they resist decay, and are therefore more fit 


for cables and standing rigging, though less 
suitable for running rigging. ** The native 
shipping of all kinds are entirely equipped 
with the cordage of the Gomuto, and 
the largest European shipping in the Archi- 
pelago, find the advantage of using cables 
of it. It undergoes no preparation but that 
of spinning and twisting, — no material 
similar to tar or pitch, indispensable to the 
preservation of hempen cordage, bei ug ne- 
cessary with a substance that, in a remark- 
able degree, possesses the quality of resisting 
alternations of heat and moisture. The best 
Gomuto is the produce of the islands farthest 
east, as Amboyna and the other Spice Islands. 
That of Java has a coarse ligneous fibre ; the 
produce of Matura is better. Gomuto is 
generally sold in twisted shreds or yams, 
often as low as a Spanish dollar a picul, and 
seldom above two ; which last price is no 
more than one sixth part of the price of 
Russia hemp in the London market. Were 
European ingenuity applied to the improve- 
ment of this material, there can be little 
doubt but it might be rendered more ex- 
tensively useful. Milbum, also, in his 
• Oriental Commerce,' mentions the Ejoo is, 
of all vegetable substances the least subject 
to decay, and that it is manufactured into 
cables, and the small cordage of most of the 
Malay vessels are made of it : *' it is equally 
elastic with coir, but much more serviceable, 
and floats on the surface of the water." The 
fibres are employed, in making cordage for 
their nets and seines,for the rigging of vessels, 
and also for cables. These are described by all 
as remarkable for their tenacity and dura- 
bility, and as not undergoing any change by 
exposure to wet, not even when stowed away 
in a wet state. In some experiments made 
by Dr. Roxburgh, some thickish cord bore 
96 lb., and some smaller 79 lb. ; while coir 
of the same size bore only 87 lb. and 60 lb. 

Besides the above horse-hair-like fibres, 
there is at the base of the leaves a fine gossa- 
mer-like woolly material, baru, Malay ^ Kawal 
Jav, much employed in caulking ships, as 
stuffing for cushions, and as tinder. 

Ejoo was sent to the London Exhibition 
of 1861, via Singapore, from Malacca, se- 
parated from stiff fibres, and as prepar- 
ed for manufacture or export, and also pre- 
pared as sinnet or coarse line for making 
ropes or cables. TLo portion belonging to 
each leaf having apparently been cut off 
close to the sheath, and each measuring 
about three feet in breadth and two feet in 
length. The bundles of the coarse and fine 
fibres are about six feet in length, and about 
twelve inches in diameter, neatly tied up 



. Mayer. 


ship of the Kar and Sonthal, and their sepa* 
ration from the Dravidian may be illustrated 
by a few examples : — 

English. Kuri. Sonthal or Gond, Tamil. 

Kol. dialects 

Bog, ... Situ, chita.. Seta, ...Noi, 

Eftr, ...Lutur, a . Lutar, ...Kavi, 

Hair, ...Op. up, ..Up, ...Meir, 

Nose, ...Mu, ...Mu, ..Muku, ...Mukku. 

Belly. ...Lai, ...Lai, .-Pir, ...Walru. 

Fire, ...Singal, ..Sengel, ..Narpu, ..Nerappu. 

Water, ...Da, ...Da, ..Tauni, ...Tannir. 

House, . ..Ura, .. Ora, ..Ron, ...Vidu. 

Star, ...Epal, ...Ipil, . Sukum, ...Tarakai? 

Man, ..Koro ...MauwiU, ...Manidan. 

Two. ...Barku, ...Bara, ..Rand, ...Erandu. 

Three, ..Apkor, ..Apia, ..Mund, ...Mundru. 

Mr. Driberg compiled a very complete 
grammar and vocabulary of the Mahadeo 
dialect of the Gond language, and the dialect 
of the Saonee Gonds was noticed in a paper 
by Mr. Manger. 

From the geographical 'distribution of the 
Kol and Dravidian languages, Mr. Hislop 
concluded that while the stream of Dravidian 
population, as evidenced by the Braliui in 
Baluchistan, entered India by the north- 
west, that of the Kol family seems to have 
found admission by the North-east and, as 
the one flowed south towards cape Ku- 
mari, and the other in the same direction 
towards Cape Romania, a part of each ap- 
pears to have met and crossed in Central 
India. This hypothesis rests on the pre- 
sence of the Brahui where they are, a 
fact which is not inconsistant, however, with 
the supposition that the Dravidian tribes 
may also have entered India from the north- 
east or even across the Himalaya,a8the Kana- 
war, Newar, Chepang, and other tribes 
have done, while the Kol tribes were an off- 
shoot from a later horde, the main body of 
which entered the Eastern Peninsula. The 
Brahui may have been driven westward 
by the invading Arya from the upper Indus. 
To the early Arya the prior tribes 
were known as Dasi, and Dr. J. Wilson 
tells us they were not altogether barbarians, 
for they had distinctive .^ cities and other 
establishments of at least a partial civiliza- 
tion. Then, as now, they were darker than 
the Arya: and, according to Dr. Wilson, 
the more marked Turanians in Gujarat and 
other provinces are still 'denominated the 
" Kali Praja" (corrupted into Parej) or black 
population. The Gond of Berar, is a hill 
race, occupying the Mailghaut and the 
southern skirts along, with the Andh, the 
Kolamb and Koorkoo. All these have a 
physical resemblance, but each of them speaks 
a different tongue and in their features they 
are quite distinct from the people of the 
villages. There are 8000 of them in the 
Oomraoti district. In the Central India Pro- 
vinces the chief Gond tribes are : — 


Mari Gond, in Chandah. 

Mariah or Gottawar, Upper Godavery. 

Khutalnar, in Chanda. 

Durweh, of do. 

Agnriah, of Mundla. 

Hulba, of Upper Godavery. 

The Gondwana of the older maps is a 
wider extent of country than is now occupied 
by this race and is politically, rather than 
etymologically Gond. Whilst the Gond race 
were dominant, they were masters of all Gond- 
wana, including the open and cultivated 
tracts about Nagpore, Raepore, Jubbulpore 
and perhaps as far as Ellichpur and to the 
south of the Godavery, where some Gonds 
are found amongst the Tiling population. 
Deognrh in the Satpura range, was the chief 
seat of their power. They immediately pro- 
ceeded the Mahrattah, by whom they were 
ousted from the open and valuable tracts. 
The Gond do not now form any consider- 
able part of the population of the plain 
champagne country, but the chiefs and large 
zemindars of the Satpura ranges and most 
of the men of importance in parts of Sanger 
and other districts north of the Nerbuddah 
are supposed to be Gond, through some 
claim to be Rajputs and others have become 
mahomedans. The Gond predominate from 
Sargujah, westward along the line of the 
Satpura hills, through all the hilly country 
of the districts of Mandla, Jubbulpur, Seoni, 
Chandwara, Baitul and Hoshungabad and in 
some degree to the neighbourhood of Asseer- 
ghur. They had varied fortunes, from the 
beginning of the present era, sometimes 
attacking other powers, sometimes defending 
themselves, sometimes aiding mahomedans, 
sometimes attacked by them, but, since 
Akbar's time, they have been subject to 
other nations. The term Gond, seems iden- 
tical with Khond, supposed to be derived 
from the Hindi word Kond or Konda, 
a hill, indicative that they were regarded as 
a hill people. In the interior of the penin- 
sula are Gond tribes, and the Khond, 
Kund or Ku, also Dravidian, who are 
estimated at half a million of souls. 
The Gond race is physically below the 
average of Europeans, in stature, and, in 
complexion, the Gond race are decidedly 
darker than the generality of the hindu. 
They are well proportioned but somewhat 
thickset and muscular; their features are 
rather ugly ; they have roundish heads, wide 
mouths, with thickish lips and somewhat dis- 
tended nostrils. Their hair is straight and 
black and the beard and mustache scanty. 
Their hair and features, according to Mr. 
Hislop, are decidedly Mongolian. They have 
an average amoimt of intellect and remark- 



village, &nd thas he would correspond to for Bnngaram. Before these, the MoriaGond 

Nadzn Pen of the Kond, Bat Mr. Hislop r^nlarlj perform worship, previone to sow- 

eonjectnres he may be the god of crops, ing. A little B. W. ^m Bajar Kord, how- 

Kodo, the paEp&Ium frnmenlitceani, being ever, and North of Farsenni, is a formed idol 

the grain cliieQy cultivated bj the Qond. of Bbiw&sn, 8 feet high, with a dagger in 

In the wilder tillages, near the Mahadeva hand &iid » barchi (javelin) in the oUier. A 

hills, Kodo Pen ib worebipped by new Bhamnlc is the pnjari or officiating priest, 

oomers near a small heap of stones, throagb and the people worship on Taesdays and 

the oldest resident, witk fowls, eggs, grain Saturdays, making offering of hogs, he- 

and a few copper coins which become the goata, cocks, hens, cocoannta. At an an- 

profits of the officiating priest. nnal feast the potail gives two Bnpees and 

Mtilua or ^Intya Deva among the Enrkn, hinda coltivators rice ; the pnjari takes a 

is a heap of small stones inside the cow by force from the Gowar and offers it 

village, benmeared with sandur. He is to Bhim Sen in presence of abont twenty-fiva 

associated with the prosperity of the village Gonds. 

and is worshipped with a goat, cocoa-nuts, Saaarknnd is a pool in the Mabnr jangle 

limes, dates, and a ball of sandnr paste. where the Pain ganga is said to be engulfed. 

Phar^pen, or Pharsa pot, is represented "^^^ Naikado Gond repair there, in pilgrim- 

by a BmaJl iron spear-head. This name may f ^' *? *^^ ^^"'^ Cbaitra. to a huge stone 

possibly be connected with barchi (hindi) t^a* j;'aes m a gorge, and goes by the name 

a spear, and he may be identical with the °\ Bt»n> aen before which Naikade Gond 

Loba Pen of the Kond, the iron god or god '^i°gl'' "■*'■ H*) Go^d and Kolam m wor- 

of war. Pharsa, in Gondi, also, means a ^'"P- ^°^^^^ evening, the worshippem 

trident, which is an ancient Tartar weapon. •=°^'^ %"'!''■'« "<=«' w»d place it before the 

He is worshipped every third or foorth or «°^' ^'^'"B ^°S^- ^^ft '''^y™^" *f^ 

fifth year, at full of the moon Vaieakh, and ^^''^ '^'^^ vermiUion and bam resin a« in- 

on the occasion people assemble from great •?"««■ f^' "^^'"^^ '^} °^" i^^"" ^'^^imB, 

distances, and offering is made of a whit* ^^P- ^°S« "^^ ^P"^ '^*'^. *^« "*"*• ^>'^ 

cock, a white he-goat and a white yonng f'*"^ °/ '''^°\. 'J« P'^J'^ *PRfJf» *? *»? 

cow. The ceremonies are conducted with "^fT^ "^"f, ^ ^'^' '^^P" wildly about 

great secrecy, and no hindu or Gond woman T, ^"""y *^ '« ^°;^° in a trance, when ho 

even is allowed to be present. He is appa- declares whether the god haa accepted the 

rcntiy the same as Dula Dewa, the god of seijices or not. At mgbt drinking, dancing 

the battle ax«oftheGaiti Gonds, who repre- ^^ beatmg tomtoms goes on and in the 

sent Dula Dewa by a brittle aw fastensd to """-"ing they return home after an early 

^ l^^ ' meal. Those unable to leave home perform 

Uaria\, at Amarkantak. is worshipped aimjl" rites teneath a Mahwa tree 

a. the cholera f-od, but Mr. Hislop anppos- FaffAofta, the tiger god, is worshipped by 

ed this to be another n^me for Bndhal Pen. S'« ^^J'^f ?.°°t' T^ "'"'' ^^^ ■'*'^'' 

The Knrku style him LalaHardal. and he ^f;^'X'i*?"^°V J u *., ir 

pos.sibly is the same as tho Gohem of the S'*I'«'^Safc^a .s worshipped by the Knr^ 

Chaibassa Kol aaktd Deva, or Sakra Pen, the cham god 

B^n3cr«™ i; probably the god of fever, i" worshipped in Scone and eUewher*. 

aaamoDg tho Kol of Chaibassa, where he is ^ Sa>.yai J'en or Sanalk the sp-r.ts of the 

apsocifttcd with Dichali and Gohem, as also departed are worshipped or propitwted for 

with Choada the god of itch and Negra of * y""".*^,"* ^"'^''^^ 1'°* P*"^"? °'^ "°^> ^'^ 

indigestion ""^ °' villages or priests, are treated as goda 

BW^.a,«'or Bhim Pen is, in the Mahadeva ^"^ ^^^^^ ^TTI^^''^'^^ Bacrifices are 

Hills, the god uf rain where a festival ''«'>a'ly "ffowd at their Sthapana or shnnea 

lasting for four or five days is kept in his •>'«*"''■ 

honour at the end of the monsoon, when KoHor, %\i. 

two poles, abont 20 feet high and 6 feet R&j Qond. jKatolra. lOjhjal. |Koi-kopaI. 

apartjaresct up,and a rope attached to thetop, Baghairal. Padal. Thotyal. Eolam. 

by means of which they eltrab to the top of »a<Jn''- loiioli- |KoiU-bhutal.|Madj»l. 

Ihc pole down nhirih they then slide. Offer- Koitor are a section of the Gond, includ< 

ings of fowls, eggs and f; rain are present- ing the Baj Gond, the Kaghnwal, the Dadnvi 

cil to bim. All over Gondwana, he is and Katulya. The Koitor is the Gond par 

go'ierally woiwhippcd nnder the form of an excellence : and sonie suppose the term de- 

niishapely stone covered with vermillion, or rived from the Persian " Koh" a hill, 

of two pieces of wood standing from three Kfn is the name giren to the Meria Bacri- 

to fonr I'cet above ground, like those set up ficing tribes of Orissa. 

of Nagpore. In the second centnry of tlie 
christian era, the Hai-haja djn&sty raled. 
It is now the British district of the Central 
Provinces. — Makolm's Central India, Vol, I 
p. 31. 

GONDOPOLA. TJria ? A tree of Gan- 
jam and Gumsor, extreme height 45 feet, 
circamference 2| feet and height from the 
ground to the intersection of the first branch, 
8 feet. Bandy wheels and plonghsharea are et. T. Caloocaara. 
mally made of this wood, bnt it is the Central Pr 

GONGARA. Hibiscus cannabians. — L. 
GONI. HiXD. Gunny. 
GONI CLOTH. Gunny of Crotalaria, 



A middle sized tree of Ceylon at Hinidoon 

and R«igam Corles, at an elevation of about 

1,000 feet.— T/iw. En. PI. Zcyl, p. 6. 


SiSG, Not nncommon in 

if Ceylon at an eleva- 

chiefly burnt for firewood, being tolerably tion of 2,000 to 4,000 feet.— rAw. En. PI. 

common. — CaplainMaedonald. Zeyl.,-p. 7. 

GONG or Loo, a Chinese musical in- GONJI-PEAL. Due. Limonia penta- 

Btrnment, composed of a mixed metal, (said phylla. 

to be tin, copper, and bismuth), resembling GONJI PANDU. Tel. Glycosmis pen- 
bronze in appearance. It is in the form of a taphylla.— 1>. 0- 

large fiat basin, with & ridge; and, when GONODACTTLUS CHIBAGBA. See 

beaten with a stick or mallet, covered with Stomapoda. 

woollen cloth or twist, emits a strong rever- GONTEMA GOMARU CHETTU. Tel. 

berating or ringing bell-Iike sonnd. Its Ipomoea filicanlis, also Peederia fetida. 

valae is in proportion to the quantity of GO-NTEN, Bdbns, a vine producing pod 

metal it contains, la China gongs are sos- three or four feet long, containing ten or 

pended at the doors of courts of justice, twelve beans, ten inches in circumference. 

~^- - applicants for justice attend and These beans, well boiled, are somatimea 

sound,— OrQui/iini Bid. ' 

GONGA — ? Stcrcnlia acuminata. 

GONGALI. Tel. Cumbly. I 

GONG-KURA. Tel. Hibiscus oanna. 
binus. — Linn. Amhari. 

GONGHO. Hind. Brassica rapa. ' 

GONGOO or Gangaw. Bdkm. A tree of 
Amherst, Tavoy and Mergui, maxin 

girths cnbits, maximum length 32 feet, narnsya, Canongea and Ghoutaha. Itif _ 
very abundant from near Mergui, along nounced as Gwal. Elliot. See Ahir, Go, 
the coast as far as Amherst. When 6ea.son- Goala. 

ed, it floats in water. It isused for tables, GOOAL. Hind. A grain which in the 
chairs and miscellaucons articles by the North West Provinces is frequently sown 
Burmese ; it has a good, hard, tough wood, with cotton, and given as fodder to cattle. 
durable and recommended for shelves also It is also called Kowar. Elliot. 
for handles of all kinds of tools. (Vide GOOA-MOUREE. Beno. Fcenicnlnm 

used for food.— Ifo^coim, Vol. I, p. 182. 
GONTUCH. Hind. Lepidiom latifo- 

GONZANG. Hind. Avena fatua. 
GOOA. Bbho. Betel-nnt palm, Areoa 

GOOAL. Hrar. A cow-herd. In Behar 
there are several subdivisions as Bhota, Bu- 

Major (now General) Simpson's Report.)- 
Captain Danee. 

GONGOSHEOLEE. Ubia. ? Dondee- 
poholo. Uria ? A tree of Ganjam and 
Gumsnr, extreme height 25 foct, circumfer- 
ence 8 feet and hcigbt from ground to the 
intersection of the branch 7 feet. No 
nse seems to be made of the wood. The 
flower which has a poiverfnl perfnme is 
offered in all the pagodas to the presiding 
divinity. — Captain Macdonald. 

a genus of serpents of India, of the Family 
PythonidiB : as under :— 


Python raoluruB— /,mii, 
„ retiiMiIataa, Sc/m. Nicobar, Tennaeaerim 

GOOBAK, also Gooya. Beno. Betel- 
nut tree, Areca catechu, 

GOODA, Hind, also Goora. The 
name of a temporary place of refuge ; hence 
the designation of many towns in India. — 
Tod's Rajasthan, Vol. I, p. 298. 

gnminose, a genus of floweriug plants, all 
natives of New Holland, colour of the 
flowers yellow, they never attain any great 
height, they may be raised from seed or 
cuttings, in a, loamy soil. — Riddell. 

GOOGA or Goga. In the lower Hima- 
layas of the Punjab, there are many shrines 
to this mythological being. In one acconnt 
he wasachiefof Ghazni who wasslainin war 
against his brothers Urjan and Snrjun, but 
a roek opened, and Goga sprung forth armed 
and mounted; another acconnt makes him 


whose locks are embellished with sylvan 
. flowers; thou, from whom the day-star 
derived his effulgence, who slowest the 
veuom- breathing Cah'ya, who beamist like a 
sun on the tribe of Yadu, that florirished like 
a lotus ; thou, who sittest on the planiagc of 
Garuda, who sippest nectar from the radiant 
lips of Pedma as the fluttering cliacora 
drinks the moon- beams; be victorious, O 
Heri." — MoIgoIiyCs Central Indian Vol. II, 
p. 135. 

tions, p. 391. 

GOVJNDA RAJA. See Inscriptions, 
pp. 383, 390. 

GOVINDH SESTHI. See Hindoo. Sikhs. 

GOWDI, a name for the fish called the 
Sword Dragonet, a species of Callionymus. 

GOWGIRD. Pers. Sulphur. 

GOWHATTY, a town in ^s^am, 335 
miles from Calcutta, it is on the left bunk 
of the Brahmaputra nyer in long. 91 * 40* 
j:., andlat. 26 ^^ 20* N., and is 130 feet above 
the sea level. 

GOWLA Gdz. Hixd. Tam. A brown 
coloured seed, about the size of, and having 
mnch the same appearance as the coriander 
seed, but more oval. They have a pleasant, 
Bubaromatic and mucilaginous taste ; and 
are considered by native practitioners as cor- 
dial and stomachic. They are imported into 
Bombay from the Persian Gulf, and are dis- 
tinguished in the bazaars either with or 
without hnsks. — Faulkner. 

GOWMUTTEE, a river near Bageswur 
in Almorah. 

GOWRANDEE, a town in Manbhoom. 

GOWRIPHAL. DuK. Hind. Rubus lasio- 
carpus. Rubus Indicus. 

GO WR-GIA ? Pers. I^omon grass. 

GOWTUM. See Nvaya. 

GOW-ZABAN. Guz. Hind. Pers. 
Hart's ear, literally. Cow's tongue. 

GOYOSOO. Jap;.nese, a Cnstom-house 
or Town-hall : where all foreigners trans- 
act business and see Japanese oJQJcials. 

GRA See Bodo. 

GR ACEMOUNT, in Lat. 30 ^ 27' 6; N- 
indL.78<=> 3*0 E., in Garhwal, near the 
aanitarium of Massuri, at the cistern of Ge- 
neral Sir Audrew Waugh*s barometer is 
5,590 feet, above the sea, and at the cistern 
&f the barometer at Mary Villa, near Grace- 
mount is 6,715 feet Q, T. S. SchlagentweiL . 

larva of this mines the coffee leaves, it 
is very common but of no importance to the 




Facus Hohenoides, 

,♦ amylaceus O'Sfiauoh. 

Ocylon Moss, 
Ediblo Sea weed, 



Gigartina licheooir 
dcs, Lamouroui^, 

SphsDrococcQS liche- 
noides, Agardh. 

Plocaria Candida, Neks, 

Monsse de Ceylon, F^! 

A small and delicate fncus, well known 
for the amylaceous properties it possesses, 
3,nd the large proportion of true starch it 
famishes. The frrmds ^e filiform ; the 
5 laments much branched, and of a light 
purple color. It grows abundantly in the 
large lake or back- water which extends be- 
tween Putlam and Oalpentyr, Ceylon. It is 
collected by the natives principally dunng 
the south-west monsoon, when it becomes 
separated by the agitation of the wrfter. The 
moss is spread on mats and dried in the sun 
for two or three days. It is then washed 
several times in fresh water, and again ex- 
posed to the sun, which bleaches it, after 
which it is collected in heaps foi: exportation. 
100 grains weight yielded the following pro- 
portions : — 

- 5*-50 I Gum, . - 4*09 

15 00 I Salphate and pl^os- 

Vogetable jolly, 
True starch, - 

Liprneons fibre. 
Sulphate and mu- 
riate of soda, 

J 8 00 



phate of lime, 

Total... 9900 

— with a trace of wax and iron. For a der 
coction of Ceylon moss, take Ceylon mo89 
ground to fine powder two drachms, water 
one quart, boil for twenty minutes, strain 
through myslin. By increasing the propor- 
tion of the gi'onnd moss to half an ounce, the 
fi^ltercd solution on cooling becomes a flrm 
jelly, which when flavoured by cinnamon or 
lemon peel, sugar .and a little wine, is an ex- 
cellent article of light food for sick children, 
and convalescents. The whole thallus of 
this one of the Alga) is sometimes imported 
from Ceylon and the !^ast Indies and used 
in Britain for dressing silk goods. — Beng, 
Fhar. p. 276. See Plocaria, Ceylon Moss, 
FucuH, Edible Sea- Weed. 

Qigartina tenax. 
Gracillaria Bpiuosa. 

Bulung, Jav. 

Dongi ppngi, Macassar. 

Fncus spinosus, Linn. 
„ tonax. Turner. 
^ucheuma spinjosa, | 

Agar-Agar, Malay. 

Karang, „ 

Sajor-karang, „ 

Gracillaria tenax one of the Algaj, of the 
Order RhodymeniacesB seems to have as syno- 
nims, Gigartina spinosa also Gracillaria tenax 
also Fucps tenax of Turner. Mr. Wilf iams 
and the Honorable Mr. I^Jorrison say of the 
Gigartina tenax, that the Chinese people 
collect this sea- weed on the coast to a groai^ 
extent, using it for food^^ and also in the 
arts, affording an excellent material for 
glues and varnishes. It is boiled w4 




(3RAIKE, a kind of harpoon in use on 

fcoard of ships for striking the larger fish. 



GRAUS^PITS or trenches for storing 
grains are selected in elevated dry spots. 
Their size being according to the nature 
of the soil. All the preparation they 
undergo is the incinei*ation of certain vege- 
table substances, and lining the sides and 
bottom with wheat and barley stubble. 
The gi*ain is then deposited in the pit, 
covered over with straw, and a terrace of 
earth about eighteen inches in height, and 
projecting in front beyond the orifice of the 
pit, is raised over it. This is secured with a 
coating of clay and covv-dung, which re- 
sists the ordinary rains, but is renewed as 
the torrents iiyure it. Grain can be kept 
in these for years without injury. 

fruits produced by species of Amomum^ the 
Amomum Grana Paradisi LiniioBus, and 
Agrandiflorum, Smith, Eny, Cijc. 

GRALLATORES or Waders, an order of 
birds as under : 

a. Tribc> PressirostreSi 

Fam. Otitlao, Otis and 3 sub-pfcn, 4 sp. viz. 1 Hoa- 
bara ; 1 EupodotiH ; 2 Syphootidcs. 

b. Incerta? Bodcs. 

FaH. GLircolidip, 1 gen. 2 sp. viz. 2 Glareola 
orientalis, lactca. 

Fam. Charadfiadne. 

Sub-Jam. Carsoriina:', 2 pen. 2 sp. viz. 1 Cnrao- 
rius Coromandclicus, 1 Maci-otarsius bitorquatns. 

Suh-fam. Esacina?, 2 gen. 2 sp. viz. 1 Esacns ; 
1 (Edicncmus. 

Sub-fam. Vanelliua;, 4 gen. 6 sp. viz. 1 Hoplop- 
tcras ; 1 Sarcioplioros ; 3 Lobivanellasv 

Sub-fam. CliarafdriuiC, 2 gen. 2 sub-gen. 10 sp. 
1 Squatarola; 2 Charadrius ; 1 Eudromias, 6 Uiati- 

Fam. Chionidx', 1 gen. 1 sp. 1 Haematopas ostra- 

Fam. Recurvirostridte, 2 gen. 3 sp. 2 Himautopos; 

1 Rocurvirostra avocetta. 

Fam. Scolopacida). 16 gen. 32 sp. viz. Ibidorhyn- 
cLus J 4 Tetanus ; 3 Actitis; 6 Tringa ; 1 Terekia ; 

2 Limosa, 2 Numenius ; 1 Eurinorhynchus ; I Ca- 
lidris; I Philom-Achus ; 1 Strepsilas; 1 Phalaropus; 
1 Scolopax; 1 Mficrorhamphus J 6 Gallinago; 
1 Rh7nchH>a. 

Fam. Palamedeidff?. 

Sub-/aw. Parrina3, 2 gen. 2 sp. viz. ! Metopidius ; 
1 Hydrophasianus. 

Fam. Gruidas, 1 gen, 1 sub'-gen. 3 sp. viz. 2 Grua j 
1 Anthropoidcs. 

c. Cultirostres-. 
^aMv Ardcadod. 


Svth^fam. Tantalinaa ;6 gen. 7 sp. viz. 1 Falcinellns I 
1 Geronticus ; 1 Threskiornis ; 2 Tantalus ; 1 Pla- 
talea ; 1 Anastomus. 

d. Incertee SedoB. 

I Gen. Dromas ardeola. 


Si(b-fam, CiconinsQ ; 3 gen. 6 ep. viz., Mycteria; 
Ciconia ; 2 Leptoptilos. 

Su6./am. Ardcino), 1 gen. 7 snb gon. 19 sp. 4 Ar- 
dea ; 6 Herodia, I Butorides ; 1 Ardeola ; 1 Nyctib 
coraz ; 1 Tigrisoma ; 1 Botanrus $ 4 Ardetta. 

e. Tribe Macrodactylro. 

Fam. Rallidro, 7 gen. 15 sp. ^z. 1 Porphyrio; 
1 Gallicrex ; 8 Porzana ; 1 Ortygometra ; 3 Ballas; 
1 Qallinnla ; 1 Fulica 

Many of these are migratory and come 
annually into India across the Himalaya. 
Mr. Hodgson says the Grallatorial and Na- 
tatorial birds begin to arrive in Nepaul from 
the North, towards the close of August, and 
coni;inue arriving till the middle of Septem- 
ber. The first to appear are the common 
snipe, and jack snipe, and Rhynchcea ; next, 
the Scolopaceous waders (except the wood- 
cock ',) next, the great birds of the heron 
and stork, and crane families ; then, the 
Natatores ; and lastly, the wood-cocksy 
which do not reach Nepaul till November* 
The time of the re-appearance of these birds, 
from the South is the beginning of March ; 
and they go on arriving till the middle of 
May. The first which thus return to Nepaul 
are the snipes; then come the teal and ducks; 
then the large Natatores ; and lastly, the 
great cranes and storks. The Grallatores 
which visit Nepaul, or pass over it, are much 
more numerous than the Natatores ; the 
wild swan was only once seen in Nepaul 
in the mid winter of 3828, when the 
apparition suggested a new version of the 
well known hexameter. — 

* Bara avis in torris, alboque sittiillinm cygno.' 
None of the Natatores stay in Nepaul be* 
yond a week or two, in autumn, (when the 
rice fields tempt them) or beyond a few days, 
in spring, except the teal^ the widgeon, and 
the coot, which remain for the whole season, 
upon some few tanks whose sanctity pre* 
eludes all molestation of them. There are 
cormorants throughout the season upon the 
larger rivers within the mountains; but 
none ever halt in the valley, beyond a day 
or two : for so long, however, both they and 
pelicans may be seen, occasionally, on the 
banks just mentioned. 

The Larus and Sterna are birds which 
usually affect the high seas,— but Mr. Hodg- 
son had killed both the red-legged Gull, and 
a genuine pelagic Tem> in the valley of 
Nepaul. But so had he fishing Eagles ; and 
in truth he adds, who shall limit the wan* 
derings of these long-winged birds of the 
ethe^ial eaqxmse P See Migrati<^n gf birdflk 



bdrthcm parts of Norway and Sweden, of a 
part of Siberia and Scotland, th&ir chief 
Vegetable nourishment. Rye is the next 
which comes associated with these. This 
is the prevailing grain in a gredt part 
of the northern temperate 2onej name- 
ly in the south of Sweden and Nor- 
way, Denmarkj and in all the lands bor- 
dering on the Baltic, and Jhe north of 
• Germany. In the latter another very 
nutritiotis grain, buckwheat, is very fre- 
quently cultivated. In the zone where 
rye prevails wheat is generally to be 
found, barley being here chiefly cultivated 
for the manufacture of beer^ and oats sup- 
plying food for tbe horses. To these there 
follows a zone in Europe and Western Asia 
where rye disappears, and wheat almost ex- 
clusively furnishes bread. The middle and 
the south of France, England, part of Scot- 
land, a part of Germany, Hungary, the Cri- 
mea and Caucasus, also the lands bf mid- 
dle Asia, where agriculture is followed, be- 
long to this zone. Here the vine is also 
found, wine supplants the use of beerj and 
barley is consequently less raised. Next 
comes a district where wheat still abounds, 
but no longer exclusively furnishes bread, 
rice and maize becoming frequent. To this 
zone belong Portugal, Spain, part of France 
on the Mediterranean, Italy and Greece, 
further, the countries of the feast, Persia, 
Northern India, Arabia, Egypt, Nubia, Bar- 
bary, and the Canary Islands ; in these latter 
countries however the culture of maize or 
rice towards the south is always more con- 
siderable, and in some of them several kinds 
of Sorghum (Doura) and Poa abyssinica 
come to be added. In both these regions of 
heat, rye only occurs at a considerable ele- 
vation, oats however more seldom, and at 
last entirely disappear, barley affording food 
for horses and mules. Wheat is cultivated 
to great heights in the Himalaya, it being 
one of the chief crops up to 9,500 feet on the 
Chenab, and occurring to 1 ,500 feet on the 
Sutlej, good to 11,500 feet, and grown to 
1 3,000 feet in Ladak. Zeamays grows up 
to 7,600, and 8,000 feet on the Chenab 
and Ravi ; Eleusine corocana is frequent up 
to 6,000 aud 7,000 feet, Hordeum is culti- 
Vated on the Sutlej to 13,000 feet and 15,000 
feet, ond on the Chenab, and in Ladak and 
Lahoul at 8,000 and 14,500 feet. But even 
rice is abundantly grown throughout the 
Siwalak tract and up the valleys at an eleva- 
tion in places of 6,000 or even nearly 7,000 
feet. Paspalum at 6,000 feet ; ahd on the 
plains of India, many of these, wheat, sor- 
ghum, barley, are cold weather crops. In 
the eastern parts of the temperate zone 
of the old continent) in China and 


Japan, northern kinds of grain are tetf 
nnfreqilent, and rice is found to pre- 
dominate. The cause of this difference 
between the east and the west of the old con- 
tinent appears to be in the manners and pe-> 
culiarities of the people; In North America, 
wheat and rye grow as in Europe, but mor€l 
sparingly. Maize is more reared in the 
western than in the old continent, and rice 
predominates in the southern provinces of 
the United States. In the torrid zone, maize 
predominates in America, rice in Asia ; and 
both tliese grains in nearly equal quantity 
in Africa. The cause of this distribution is, 
without doubt, historical, for Asia is the na<* 
tive country of rice^ and America of maize. 
In some situations, especially in the neigh- 
bourhood of the tropics, wheat is also met 
with, but always subordinate to these other 
kinds of grain. Besides rice and maize 
there are in the torrid zone several kinds of 
grain as well as other plants which supply 
the inhabitants with food, either used along 
with them or entirely occupying their place. 
Such arC) in the new continent. Yams 
(Dioscorea alata), the Manihot (Jatrophd 
manihot), and the Batatas (Convolvulus ba- 
tatas), the root of which and the fruit of the 
Pisang (Banana musa, furnish universal 
articles of food $ in the same zone in Africa^ 
Doura Sorghum , Pisang, Manihot, TTamsj 
and Arachis hypogeea ; in the East Indies 
and on the Indian Islands, Eleusine coracana, 
E. stricta, Panicum frumentaoeum, several 
Palms, and Cycadaceaa which produce the 
Sago, Pisang, Yams, Batatas, and the Bread 
Fruit (Artocarpus incisa . In the islands 
of the South Sea, grain of every kind dis- 
appears, its place being supplied by the 
breadfruit tree» the Pisangj and Tacca pin- 
natifida. In the tropical part^ of Australia 
there is no agriculture, the inhabitants 
living on the produce of the sago, of various 
palms, and some species of Arum. In the 
high lauds of South America, there is a dis- 
tribution similar to that of the degrees of 
latitude. Maize indeed grows to the height 
of 7,200 feet above the level of the sea, but 
only predominates between 3,000 and 6,000 
feet of elevation. Below 3,000 feet it is 
associated with the pisang and the above 
mentioned vegetable, while from 6,000 to 
9,260 feet the European grains abound i 
wheat in the lower regions, rye and barley 
in the higher, along with which Chenopo* 
dium quino as a nutritious jplant must als« 
be enumerated. Potatoes alone are culti<» 
vated from 9,260 to 12,300 feet. To the 
south of the tropic of Capricorn, wherever 
agriculture is practised, considerable re- 
semblance with the northern temperate zone 
may be observedi In the southern parts 



It is not a wiry grass : the joints are some 
six or eight inches long ; with four or five 
blades of grass about the same length growing 
out from each joint. The joints near the 
ground are harder and brittle ; those near 
the top, soft and juicy — with a luxuriant ter- 
mination of soft blades, himilar to those from 
tiach joint, but softer and thicker. On 
my arrival in the country I found there were 
no cows, goats, or sheep. These I intro? 
dnced, and at the same time a quantity of 
gram, upon which sheep are fattened in 
East India. After the arrival of the cattle 
they declined the gram, and I found <m in- 
quiry that they had been browsing on this 
grass, and upon which they continued t^ 
feed. They all became as fat as if fed on 
the gram, (a kind of pulse,) which remair^ed 
on hand, there bein^ no use for it. — B(mifu(fe, 
An^erica^ p. 1 59. The principal of tlje Indian 
grasses, and perhaps the most generally dif- 
fu.sed, is the Doob-grass (Cynodon dactylon), 
a creeping plant possessing much nourishing 
property in its long stems, no less than in 
its leaves. This endui*es the greatest elcFa- 
tion of temperature, as its roots penetrate 
far below the surface, and although during 
the dry monsoon giving no sign of life, it 
puts forth its tender leaves on the Qrst ap- 
proach of the rains. 

A vejry nourishing grass, possessing a 
powerful aromatic odour, is met with on the 
elevated lands above the Ghauts of the south, 
as well as in the north-west provinces. So 
strong are its aroma and flavour, that the 
flesh, milk, and butter of the animals feeding 
upon it become in time sensibly affected both 
in taste and smell. 

Upon the many slopes of the Himala- 
ya there are found abundance of good 
nourishing pastures, admirably adapted to 
the requirements of cattle and sheep, and 
upon which many herds and flocks are reared 
when the dry season forces them from the 
plains below. Throuj^hout the flat countries, 
and spread over vast tracts of indifferent 
Boil, we meet with grasses, or rather herbage, 
in sufficient abundance, but generally either 
coarse and poor, or rank and distasteful to 
animals. In swampy or sterile plains these 
reedy grasses often fail to t<3mpt even the 
coarse- feeding buffalo and rhinoceros ; and 
it is a common practice amongst all the lu- 
dian villagei-s, at the end of the dry season 
to set fire to these tra(5ts, on which the long 
withered herbage readily ignites, and after 
the first monsoon showers furnishes a rapid 
^nd abundant supply of young sweet blades. 
In some parts of India, especially at the 
larger towns, it is customary to cutgra^s for 
Lay, as fodder for horses during the exces- 


sively dry months, but latterly artificial 
grasses have been introduced for this parpoeey 
The Guinea-grass and Mauritius-grass are 
both admirably adapteci for feeding cattle* 
Some grasses are twisted in|io bands ; otherq 
are employed for thatching, and some for 
platting, screen and mnt- making, in thp 
form of pulp and used for paper majting. 
Many grasses might be converted into half- 
stuff" for paper-makers and haye (ihe gfreat 
advantage of affording large quantities of a 
cheap material. The grasses abound in India ; 
in the plains are numerous species of genera 
little known in Europe; maize, joar, and 
many millets are cultivated in the rainy sea? 
son ; and in the cold weather, wheat, barley, 
oats, and millet; In the Himalaya many of 
the pasture-grasses are the same as in Europe, 
and the cereals are cultivated in f,he spring 
and summer, with some rice in the rains. 
Several indigenous grasses ^re pmployed fov 
making mats, baskets, rop>es, sacks, net» and 
sails, The Moon j a of the natives (Saccharu 091 
munja) is collect'cd after the rainy season and 
kept for use, as it is employed in tying up their 
cattle at night and for ropes fqr their per? 
sian wheels. It is said also (o be one of the 
grasses employed for making tow-ropes by 
the boatmen about Qei^ares. The Shur or sara 
of Bengal (Saccharnm sara), or the Pen rped 
grass, is employed by the boatmen about. 
Allahabad and Mirzapore, and esteemed 
as a tow-line for its strength and durabi* 
lity, even when exposed <o the action of 
lyater. It is said to be beaten into a rude 
Qbre and then twisted into a rope. The sacred 
grass of the hindoos, the dab or koosha of the 
brahmins (Poa cynpsuroides), is also made 
into rope in If West India. Other species 
of Saccharum are used for thatching and for 
screens, and some fqr making writing-pens 
and for arrows. The fibres of the Khuskhus 
or Veriveyr are morp remarkable f«)r agree- 
able odour than for their tenacity, while the 
Baniboo, the most gigantic of grasses, might 
be enumerated with timbers rather than witb 
fibres, though its split stems are often em- 
ployed for making mats in India, and the 
young slioots for paper m^ing by the 
Chinese. The Nul or Nar of Bengal is 
employed for making the mats known by 
the nanijB of Durma which are formpd of the 
stalks split open. In Sindh the grass called 
Sar, which perhaps is Arundo karl^a, has itQ 
culms, sur jo ^apee. made into chairs, and 
its fiower-stalks beaten, to form the fibres 
called moonyah, are madp into string 
or twine (moonyah jo nsree^, and into ropea 
(moonyah jo russa >. The boatmen of thp 
Indus universally employed the Moonja (pro- 
bably Saccharum moonja; as a towing rop§ 



ground take root, and by ihis lueanB, thotigli 
ftu annual planr, it increases and spreaiis 
very wide. It yields aba Ti dance of seed, of 
which sniaii birds are very fond. It has 
been fimnd a successful pliin toallunr tlie seed 
to ripen before the hay is out, as it then pro- 
pagates it.,seir by the ncedii, in addition to the 
runners. This grass is also found in Great 
Britnin, bnt in that country its produce and 
nutritive pniperties are com]m natively insig- 
nificant, while here it C'^n^tillltea | of the 
pnstare. Evspccting this ffrass Sir \V, 
Jones nliHPrves (As. Kos. Vol. 4 p. 2-12.) 
tiiat it is the svroeteNt aud most nutritious 
pasture for cattle ; and its UMefulne^l!', added 
to its beauty, induced the hindooy, in their 
earliest aees, to believe that it whs the man- 
Bion of % benevolentnyinph. Sven the Veda 
celebrates it, as in the Iblluivii'^ text of the 
A't'harvana : " My Dnrvn, which rose from 
the water of life, which has a hundred routs 
and a hundi-ed steruf, ellace a hundred of 
tny sins, aud proton^ my existence On earth 
a handred years." — Dr. Ole'jhorn, Grcusee. 

QRhM, or Gramma. Hind. A village. 

GRAM. Akglo-Isdus. The name given 
to two puUe.'t, in use in India as food for 
cattle, rarely eatcu by man ■■, one is the 
Dolichos nniflorua called horse gram, or 
Madras gram, or cnlty, which is boiled, the 
other is Clicer arietioum, the Hengal (tram 
or Cbeima, which is bruised and soaked 
and is deemed the more nourishing. Tlie 
term.Clocr, is derived through the Italian 
Cece, and from the French name Chickei-, 
comes the Eiii>lisli nnm^ " Chick-pea," The 
term, "arietinum" is derived from the res- 
emblance of the seed to a ram's head. The 
■word used by Eiu-Dpeana in India, is 
gram, of which the origin lias been much 
disputed, and it is believed, is quite unknown. 
The chenna has been tiied in England, bat 
not snocessfnlly. The analyses of grani show 
by under : — 




Oily or Fatty ... 


•J 2.', 


GO '30 

4 31 




Sir H. Elllol. Dr. F. WaUuH. 
GRANADAS. Sp. Garnet? Pomegra* 


GRANADILLA. PassiBora qnadrangn* 
laris. This luxuriant exotic from the 
Jamaica passion flowers, Qonrishes well on 
the Tenasserim Coast, and is very prolific. The 
smooth, oblong fruit grows nearly a.s largeas 
a encumber, aud contains a snccalont pulp, 
which makes a cooling delicious dish, an4 
when prepared in tiirts, can scarcely be dis- 
tinguished from green apple. The Rev. Mr. 
fiennett of Tavoy, introduced it among the 
Karens, by whom it is highly eateeraed, and 
much soaght for. It will no doubt soon bo 
generally diffused through the Provinces, aa 
it possesses all the attractive qualities of liao 
frait, handsome fragrant blossoms, and when 
ti-ailed over au arbor, a rich pleasing shade. 
— Marott. 

GR.\NAFINA. A fine kind of cochineal 
See Coccus. 

GRASA-KBRMES. Sp. Kcrmea. 

GRANA OBIENTIS. Syn. Coocalas in- 
die us. 


GRANA aYLVESTRA. Wild cochined 
See Coccns. 

GRANAT-APFEL. Ger. Pomegranate. 

GRAN ATE. > It. Granatenalso Granat- 
stein. Gek, Granati. Lat. Garnet. 

GRANATI. It. Pomegranat*. 

GRANA TILLI— ? Croton tiglinm. 

GRANATI RADIX h-vt. Panics gra- 
natum root. 


GRANCA. Port. Madder. 

Tahcrntemontftna coronaria. — it. Brotim. 

GRAND KUAN. A name applied to 
Kablai Khan. 

GRAND LAMA. A namaapplied to the 
chief lama, a priest of budd'ha, in Tibet, who 
is supposed to be a Bodhisatinv who abstaioa 
from aCceptiog Bndd'ha-hood and is re-born 
again and again for. the bonefit of mankindi 
See Baddhii, Lama, Sakya. 


Oratij:^a •wlanBOnia, Cast. 

ArtamiBiu MaderaepataYKt. WilUU. Linn. Roxb, 
Namnli, Beno. | MasbipuLn, Tav. 

Nelam pata, Haleal. | Mnataru, Tbl. 

Grows in Bengal aud peninsular India: 
its leaves are used in medicine. Wight's IconeB, 

of Grangea maderaapatana, Poir. 

GRANITE, a raetamorphic rock, occnr- 
ing in most part of tlio world. Granite 
and syenite seem the chief np-lifting rockB 
of India; they burst tbrongh upraised sand- 
stone?, clay-slate, mica-elate, chlorite-alato, 
and lime-stones. This feature of granita 
and syenite distorbiug stratified rooke otM 





Ubas ; 



Kodimandri pallam 

Dracha pallam. 


Dracha pandu, 




Anub, Ar. I 

Ani^r, DuK. Hind. Pers. 
Raisinfl, Fr. 

Trauhen, Ger. 

Darakh, Grz. 

Dak'h, Hind. 

Grappi ; Grappoli, It. 
Uva), Lat. 

Bawah-angar, Malay. 

GrapeSi thd fruit of the vine, are grown in 
Europe, America, Asia, most parfe of British 
India and in China. There arc 87 species of 
the cfenera Vitis, CLssus and Ampelopnis, but 
the Vitis vinifera is the only one known as the 
grape vine. The Vitis indica, the Amclonka 
of the Indian Peninsula, Bengal and Hima- 
laya, produces beautiful clusters of round 
purple berries and a large grape which is very 
fair eating : it is not the common vine of 
Europe which nevertheless is probably from 
this Himalayan plant, the Vitis indica. The 
origin of the common grape being unknown, it 
becomes a curious question to decide whe- 
ther the Himalayan Vitis Indica is the wild 
State of that plant : a hypothesis strength- 
ened by the fact of Bacchus, &c., having 
come from the East. The wild grapes of 
Isaiah v, 2. are a species of Solanum. In 
China, grapes are plenty and tolerably erood, 
but the Chinese do not make wine. (Hooker, 
Him. Vol. II p. 187.) Grapes dried before 
being ripe and pounded are used in Kabul as 
a pickle. Wherever the gi-ape is grown, many 
varieties occur ; about 1,000 varieties exist 
but many of them are worthless. In the 
Punjab several varieties of grapes are reCog- , 
nized. ** Kandahari," 


a fruit which is called angnr, bat is not A 
grape really, it is properly called ** Khaya 
ghulama." The common sort of grapes, are 
" rocha-i-surkh" and " rocha-i-safcd," also 
" toran.'* Green grapes are sold in the plains, 
in the winter time are the "hosaini," or 
** shaikh kalli " varieties ; they are of large 
size, pale green color, and of delicate flavor, 
they are picked before being quite ripe, and 
packed between layers of dotton t^ortl, iti 
round boxes, made of white poplar wood, 
and tied up with a string of goat's hair; 
those are exported in thousands and called 
" Angur khatti," There is y©t another, the 
** akta " grape, which produces bloom rai** 
sins. Called **dagh,'* or more properly 
** kishmish-i-daghi,** which are prepared 
by dipping the ripe bunches of fruit into 
a boiling solution of quick-lime and pot-ash 
(hence called abjosh, lit. infused in water) 
before drying in the shade. 

In the Indian Peninsula, there are several 
varieties but the common leek-green is the 
most esteemed, though many peraons lik^ the 
Habshi grape. In the and regions of 
Rajputanah, where they depend entirely on 
the heavens for water, and where they cal* 
culate on a famine every seventh year, 
nothing that can administer to the wants o( 
man is lost. The seeds of the wild grapes, 
as the bhoorut, buroo, herraro, sewon, are 
collected, andj mixed with bijrsr flour, enter 
much into the food of the poorer classes; 
l^hey also store up great quantities of the 
wild ber, khyr, and kharil berries ; ftnd the 
long pods of the karjra, astringent and bitter 
as they are ; are dried and formed into a 

a purple grape , ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ «t.^v^ ^xi.^ ^^^^^s,^ ^^M.^^ ^ 

I' kishmishi/' a small seedless grape, produc ' flourT^'^Nothi'ng'ls'* los't Tn ''thes^^^egions 
mg what are called m England " Sultana! which can be converted into foodj—^Tw. Jl/a/* 

raisins , these are of the varieties called Med. p. 10. PotOelVs Hand Booh, Punjab' 

" sahibi surkh'' and *» sahibi ablak ;'' the j^roducU^ Voi^X CaL Hort. Suburb, p. 27. 

Khatan grapes produce the large common Williams, MiddU Kingdom, VoL IV p. 45. 

raisins, called " munakka ;" " Gholab dan," Fortune's Wanderlnrjs, pp. 22, 63. Hooker's 

^ white grape; '* Husami" grapes come to Hhnalayan Journal. Vol. II p. J 8 7. Tod'3 

Lahore from Kabul, in round boxes packed m Rajasthan, Vol. II p. 200 

cott;on wool; *' Sahibi," a superior (white) ; ^^ 4TiTTri-i ax * mxi a i l ^^ . ic m 

grape " Fakhri," sometimes called " askari," ^^-^P^IC SLATE. A slate that " soib 

a black grape; -Munakka" and -Abjosh ?nd writes, as Dr. McClelland described it, 

munakka," are grapes dried in the sun ; to ^s^ou^d ea^t of Tavoy, and another and softer 

make « Abjosh" grapes they are plunged into 7^"f ^^ '^ ^T^^ ^^ Maulmain. They may be 

boiling water, and then dried in the shade; ^"^^Z regarded as varieties of graphic slate. 

" Rish baba ;" " Dida-i-gau," a white grape, -^^«"- 

with some spots on the skin, which are said GRAPHITE. 

to resemble a cow's eye ; hence its name *, 
pious hindus refuse to eat this grape on this 

Black lead, | PliLmbago, ENa. 
Occurs in Travancore, Ceylon, Vizian^- 
"Karghani^- (white), called from the 1?;°™' ** ^'''3°'««' Jf^^ at Almorah. SeO 
name of a place; " Angnr Jalalabadi," call- ^l^^klead, Carbon, Plumbago. 

ed also " Khatta Antrur," grown at Char- 
bagh, a few miles from Jalalabad ; ** Cha- 
rangur," groWn also at Jalalabad. There is 

GRAPPI. It. Grapes. 

CroBtace®. Sed Crabs^ CraBt«doa« 



JTim, Botany p. 421. Maeon*8 Tenasserlm, 1 
Willlavi* Middle Kingdom, p. 277. Hooker's \ 
Himalayan Journal^ Vol. II, p. 28^. See 
Food. GrarainaceaD : Rushes. 

GRASS CUTTER, in India, generally, 
two servants are att^iched to each horse, a 
groom and a grass-cutter. The latter gene 
rally brings in the roots of the hariali or 
d*hub grass. 

GRASS FERN. Pteris graminifolia. 
See Ferns. 

GRASS HOPPER. One of this tnbe, a 
species of Dccticns, is kept by the Chinese 
in cages for fisfhting. 

Stella ray a. 

GRASIA, Hind. Garasio* Gczerat. In 
western India, a military chief. The term 
is derived from Grass, a Sansci-it word, 
which signifies a mouthful, and has been 
metaphorically applied to designate the 
small share of the produce of a country, 
which these land-owners claim. Malcolm's 
Central India, Vol. I, p. 508. See Kattyawar. 

tel. Hind. . Tliis valuable oil was first 
brought to notice by Dr. Maxwell in 1824, 
and was further described by Dr. Forsyth 
in 1826. The oil is obtained from the 
Andropogon calamus aromatious by dis- 
tillation; 250 to 300 small bundles of 
the gi*as3 are placed in a boiler, covered 
with water, and distilled. About a seer 
of oil is obtained in the receiver. Dr. 
Forsyth describes it as volatile, extremely 
pungent, of a light straw colour, very trans^ 
parent, with a peculiar, rich and agreeable 
odour. Dr. Forsyth adds, that it is very 
highly esteemed by the wealthy natives for 
the cure of rheumatism, especially that of 
the chronic kind; two drachms of the di- 
luted oil are rubbed over the pained part in 
the heat of the sun or before a fire twice 
daily. It causes a strong sensation of heal 
or pricking, lasting for two hours or longer. 
The natives also regard it as an efficacious 
remedy in slight colds. They anoint the 
soles of the feet with the oil and it is stated 
that slight diaphoresis is thus produced. 
Other grasses furnished fragrant oils, as 
the lemon grass oil, or essence of verbena, 
ginger grass oil, oitronelle. Tra s. Med. 
and Phys. Soc. iii. p. 219. — O'Sh. p. 639. 

GRASU-GADA. Tel. Batatas eduUs. 

tulacea. Weinm. syns. of Herpestes 
monniera. — Uam. Bch : Kunth. 


J^Totched Hyssop, Exo. | Bhoomia-neom, Hixd. 

Grows wild during the rains, used as a 

bitter by the poor. Genl. Med. Top, p. 173. 


GRAUWERK. Ger. Calabar skins. 

GRAUCALIDJS. A family of birds com, 
prising 3 gen. 5 sp. viz. 1 Gmucalus j 
3 Campepliaga; 1 Lalage. 

GRAVET. A term in Ceylon applied to 
the space outside the principal fortsin Ceylon, 
The Singhalese word, Cadawetta, describes 
the enclosure or boundary of a temple or 
city, or a royal chase. It was adopted by 
the Portuguese, after the erection of these 
fortresses, to define the limits of the lands 
they had been permitted by the native princes 
to appropriate, and the word Garvetta is still 
used >n the patois of the Portuguese descen- 
dents. When the Dutch seized the forts the 
word passed into Gravette, which appears-on 
their records, and from the British, in turn, 
took the present term Gravets. Teimenfs 
Christianity in Ceylon, p. 291. 

ture used by the East Indian Rail way for axle- 
grease is this. 

Tallow, ... 50 lb. I Castor oil,.,, 30 lb. 
Country soap, 20 ,, /Water about 10 G«1s, 

Melt the tallow in a large vessel, cut the 
soap in slices and put into the water when 
the latter is warm. When the soap is fully 
dissolved pour the water containing it into 
the tallow after which add the castor oil ; 
immediately after the latter is added, take 
the mixture off the fire, and while it is cool- 
ing let it be stirred constantly till cool. The 
mixture may require a little more or less 
water according to the temperature of the 

of water on these banks averages about 30 
fathoms, deepening rapidly as the edge is 
approached, and shoaling gradually towards 
the land. And, where the earth has not 
risen above the waters surface, great sub- 
marine banks are to be traced from one 
island to another. 

GREAT BASSES. See Basses. 

p. 313. 


nia galanga Swz. 

WAY, was the first in India, was commenc- 
ed from Bombay, in 1851 ; twenty-one miles 
to Tannah, were opened on the 16th April 
1853. It was ultimately extended across the 
Western Ghauts to the cotton districts of the 

GREAT KING, also Saviour, Soter, the 
title assumed by the Arsacid^e. See Bac« 



latter region ^Ir. Prinscp is inclined to 

give U} Bactria, because of the bilingaal as 

well as the pui-e Greek coins of Heliocles 

and Antinmchus, kings of Bactria. Mr. 

Thomas, in Prinsep's Antiquities, gives Major 

Cunningham's Table. The countries over 

which the Greeks ruled were seeniingl}' 

Bactria, Sogdiaua; Mai^giana; Paropanii- 

.sada;; Nysa: Aria-Dranga; Ai-achosia; 

Gaiidharitis, Penkelaotis, Taxila, Patalene, 

♦Syrastrene and Larice, but their limits were 

incessantly varying, the dynasties in Asia, 

foun<led after the death of Alexander the 

Great, b}' his genei^als, &c,, were as under : 

I Si/ via., 


:>84 Alexander the Great ; born 356, died 323. 

3J2 Seleucns I, Nicator. 

280 Antioehus I, Soter. 

261 Antioehus II, Theos. 

246 Seleucus II, Callinicus. 

226 Seleucus III, Ceraunus. 

•-^23 Antioehus IH, Magnus (Achasus.) 

1^7 Seleucus IV, Philopator. 

176 Aiitiochus IV, Epiphanes. 

Itl4 Antioehus V, Kupator. 

1G2 Demetrius I, Soter. 

If/O Alexander I, Bala. 

147 Demetrius II, Nicator. 

144? Antioehus VI, Theos. 

142 Tryphon 

137 Antioehus VII, Sidetes. 

128 Alexander II, Zebina. 

125 Seleucus V, 

125 Antioehus VIII, Grypus. 

112 Antioehus IX, Cvzicenus. 
00 Seleucus VI, Epiphanes. 

9'> Antioehus X, Eus^bes. 

Antioehus XI, Epiphenes. 
Philip and 
04 Demetrius III, Eucierus. i 

88 Antioehus XII, Dionysius of Jose- i 

pi I us. ; 

83 Tigi'anes, of Armenia. j 

TiO Antioehus XIII, Asiaticus. 

65 Syria became a Roman Province. 
Antioehus Soter succeeded Seleucus Ni- 
cator, and in the reign of his successor, An- 
tioehus Theos, Arsnces, a Scythian, who 
Ciunc from the north of the Sea of Azoff, in- 
duced the Persians to throw off the' Greek 
yoke, founded the Parthian empire, and 
made Rhages his capital. Tiiis was likewise 
the period of the foundation of the Bactriau 
kingdom by Theodotus the governor of it, 
who, Ending himself cut off from Syria by the 
Persian revolution, declared bis indepen- 
dence. Arsaces is called Asteh by Eastern 
wi-iters, and is said to have been a descend- I 
aut of the ancient Persian kings. When he | 
gaiued the kingdom it is said he promised to i 


exact no tribute and merely to consider him* 
self as tlie head of a confederacy of princes 
united for the double object of maintaining 
their independence and freeing Persia from 
! a foreign yoke. This is the commencement 
I of that era of Persian histoiy called by Eas- 
j t«rn writers, Mulook-ut-Tuaif, or common* 
I wealth of tribes. 

I In A. D. 90G, Rhages was taken by Ismail, 

' founder of the Samani dynasty. It ceased 

I now to be a seat of empire, and in A. D. 967, 

became the capital of the lionse of Shemgur, 

a race of petty princes who maintained a 

kind of independence, while the dynasties of 

Samau and Dilemee divided the empire of 

' Persia. In A. D. 1027, Rhages was the last 

, conquest of Mahmood of Ghazui. 

I II Bactria. 

I The sole evidence of the long line of Bac« 
; trian kings, exists in the emanations from 
j their mints, exhumed from time to time in 
and around their ancient soata of govern- 
ment. In the a1 most total absence of annals, 
whether occidental or oriental, their coins 
! furnish nearly all the testimony at present 
' available with which to reconstruct the 
; stor}' of the survival, re-institution and ex- 
tinction of the dominant Hellenic element, 
i on the site of Alexanders farthest conquest 
i in the East, and of those potentates who 
j swayed the destinies of these lands for np« 
wards of two centuries. Professor Wilson 
gives a list of them from Theodotus L, B. G. 
256 to Pantaleon B. C. 1 20. Then of Barw 
baric kings Su Hermieus, Kadaphes and 
Kadphises; from B. C. 100 to B. C. 50. Of 
an ludo- Parthian dynasty : The Indo-Scy- 
thian princes of Kabul : and a classification 
of their cotemporaries. ^Ir. Thomas, in 
Prinsep's Antiquities, quotes Major Cunning- 
ham's table. 
B. C. 

255 Diodatus 1 1 Bactriana(includingSogdja- 
24:J „ II) na, Bactria and Margiana). 

22 7 P^^^n } P-psmiBid'B -^ Nysa. 

220Euthydemus — Bactiiaua, Ariana (in- 
cluding Aria, Drangia, Arachosiaand 
Paropamisidae), Nysa and subsequent- 
ly Gandharitis, Peukelaotis, and 

190 Demetrius* ditto, ditto, and later in his 
reign, Patalene, Syi*a8trene, Larice. 

190 Heliocles — Baotriana and Paropamisido. 

190 Antimachns Theos. — Nysa, Gandharitis ; 
Peukelaotis and Taxila. 

) 85 Eucratides — Bactriana, A.riana, besides 
Patalene, Syrastrene and Larice, as 
well as Nysa, Gandharitis ; Peukelaotis 
and Taxila. 




in the Pir Panjnl or Mid Himalayan raiip;e. '! exist in conHiderable numbers in the Pan* 
(See Kafir.) It would appear that, the Greek ; jab hills. The ancient extent of their power 
colonists in the PuDJab liad iirat been placed i is proved by the present prevalence of their 
under Philip, while the civil administration ' alphabetical chai-acters, which, under the 
of the country remained in the hands of its name of Takri, or Takni, are now used by 
native princes, Taxiles and Poms. After- , all the hindus of Kashmir :iud the northern 
wards,on the murder of Philip by the mer- I mount-uiuB, from Simla and Sabuthu to 
cenary soldiers, Alexander (Anabasis vi, 2, ; Kabul and Bamiyan. On these ^^rroundflr 
vii) direct^ Eudemos and Taxiles to govern | Major Cuitninghum identifies the banditti 
the country until he should send another '. of Justin, with the Takka, or original in- 
deputy. It is probable, however, that they I habitants of the Punjab, and assigns to 
continued to rct.ain the charge ; for after i them the honour of delivering their native 
Alexander's death in B. C. 323, Endemoja, . land from the thnvldom ot* a foreijm voke. 
contrived by liis general Kumenes to make This event occurred most probably about 
himself mast-er of the country by the treach- 316 B. C, or shortly after the march of 
erous assassination of king Porus. (l)io- i Eudemos to the assistance of Eumeres. 
dorus xix, 6). Some few years later, in ; It was f[»llowed immediately by the con- 
B. C. 317, he marched to the assistance of * quest of Gnnsretic India, Justin, xv. iv., 
Eumenes, with 3,000 infantry and 5,000 i and in 316 B. C, the rule of Chandra 
cavalry, and no less than 1*20 elephants. Gupta was a<;knowledged over the whole 
With this force he pei-formed good service ! northern peninsula, from the Indus to the 
at the battle of Gabiene. But his continued i mouths of the Ganges. Accoi*diiig to Col, 
absence gave the Indians an opportunity '• Tod, the Yavan, or Greek princes, who appa- 
not to be neglected ; and their liberty was * rently continued to rule within the Indus, 
fully asserted by the expulsion of the Greek after the Christian era, were either the 
troops and the slaughter of their chiefs, — remains of the Bactriau dynasty, or the in- 
Jnstiu XV, 4. — ** Praefactos ejus occiderat" t dependent kingdom of Demetrius or Apol- 
agaiu **Molienti deindebellnm advcrsusprce- I lodotus, who ruled in the Punjab, having, 
factos Alexandri." Chandra GuptA was ( as their capital, Sagala, changed by Deme- 
present when Porus was murdered, and he be- i trius to Euthvmedia. Beyer says, in his 
came the leader of the national movement, ' Hist. Reg. Bact, p. 84: that according to 
which ended in his own elevation to the I Claudius Ptolemy, there was a city within 
sovereignty of the Punjab. Justin attn- the Hydaspes yet nearer the Indus, called 
bntes his success to the assistance of ban- , Sagala, also Euthymedia; but he scarcely 
ditti ; Justin xv, 4. — *' Contractis lati'onibus ! doubts that Demetrius called it Euthyde- 
Indos ad novitatem rcgni solicitavit." But mia,from his father, after his death and that 
in this, Colonel Cunningham thinks ho kas , of Menander. Demetrius was deprived of 
been misled by a very natural mistake; for \ his patrimony A U. C. 562. Sagala is 
the Aratta, who were the dominant people [ conjectured by Col. Tod to be the Salbhan*- 
of the Eastern Punjab, are never mention- I poora of the Yadoo when driven from Za- 
ed in the Mahabharata without being call- j bulisthan, and that of the Yuchi or Yuti, 
ed robbers. (Lassen, Pentapot. ludica.) ,' who were fixed there from Central Asia in 
*• Aratti profecto latrones," and " Bahici i the fifth century, and, if so early as the 
latrones." The Sansciit name is Arashtra, ; second century, when Ptolemy wrote, may 
the *' kingless,'* which is preserved in the have originated the chanire to Yuti-media, 
Adraist^ of Arrian, who places them on the j the ' Central Yuti.* Numerous medals 
Ravi. They were the repnblican defenders j chiefly found within the pi'obable limits of 
of Sangala, or Sakala, a fact which points the Greek kingdom of Sagala, either belong 
, to their Sanskrit name of Ara.shtra, or to these princes or the Parthian kings of 
** kingless." But though their power was ! Minagara on the Indus. The legends are 

then confined to the eastern Punjab, the 
people themselves had once spread over the 
whole country. — *'Ubi fluvii illi quiui ♦ * * 
ibi sedes sunt Arattorum." (Liisscn, Penta- 
pot Indica, from the Mahabharat.) They 
were known by the several names of Bahika, 
Jarttika, and Takka ; of which the last 

in Greek on one side, and in the Sassanian 
chai-octcr on the revei*se. The names of 
Apollodotus and Menander have been de- 
cyphered, and the titles of ' Great King,' 
' Saviour,' and other epithets adopted by the 
Arsacidu?, arc perfectly legible. The de- 
vices, however, resemble the Parthian. 

would appear to have been their true appel- ! Tl^ese Greeks and Parthians must have gra- 
tion ; for their old capital of Taxila or \ dually merged into the hindu population. 
Takka-sita, was known to the Greeks of | Recent travellers, Bumes, Masson, and Fer- 
AlejLunder ; and the people themselves still ' ricr, met with tribes who claim a Grecian 

4 or, 

Gr«wia oppcmitirolia is employed i 

strength i 

^ Himalnya for mttlEing ropes, and 0. elasUca, 
IHmmiioo of the natives, is valued for the 
cliisticity of its wood. Cattle 
a the tearen of some species, 0. di- 
dyms, grows at moderate elevations in the 
Himalaya. The pleasant-tasted snb-acid 
fmit of several species is eaten by tlie natives 
of India, bob principally nsed for making 
sherbet. Asiatica, or pbalsa, is cnltivated in 

The species of Grewia are of freqoent oc- 
carreiicc in the peiiiiiBnIa of India, and per- 
haps there is no tree more generally diffused 
throoghiint the Tenasserim Provinces than 
tv fpccies of Grewia, whose terminal bunches 
of flowers may he seen on almost every knoll 
in the conntiy. At Tavoy, when vessels re* 
quire Hpars, tbey nre usually fnmiahed from 
ft small tree which grows on the aea-board, 
belonging to this genns. jummuu 

The Mai-ra of the Burmese in Tavoy and ^^^n^' 


the !]rewia asiatica and G. tiliiefolia both yield 
i nsefal bast. Wood,white colour and adapted 
'or every pnrpoee of house building. — Drt 
KcffleHKiMi. J. L. Sfcworf, Aiiutie, p. 225. 
^iTiiK. RiddeO. Cleghorn P.Myu& B^: KuUn 
md Kangra, p. 82. ^ 

tent{i, Tb. Ind. I Khirchk, Ti. Ihd. 

uaie, „ 1 Guuier Sctlw. 

A smull shrub growing North West from 
Delhi, on the hills beyond the Indus and up 
o 3000 feet as the Salt Range. Its small 
asteless fmit is eatcu by the natives. — Or. J. 
'j. SUnraH. 

)haTnnii, Hinn. | Farri, Punjab. 

A tree, fiPU.'en to twenty feet higb, 

'ootid ill the Sntlej valley between Rampnr 

ind Snngnam at an elevation of 4,000 feof, 

»}inmoa in the Himalaya at moderate eleviu 

in Kimmedy, Ganjam and 

rhich is highly 

«,es 01 the Madras rronn.^sn.a,KesgooQ „„^h ^^ for bow^, bogg/^hafS ^d 
Ikmg st.eks.-.V. E. 3. M. h^. Cyc. ^^ ^^^^^ j,^ fruitTnsed to make 
■so,i. \ oiift. Roxb. sherbet. In the N. W. Himalaya, the bnnchea 

ASIATICA, Linn. Roxb. are periodically cnt in winter time as pro- 
vender for the cattle. — OUghani Fwijab 
UepoH, p. 6f Roijhi HI. Him. Bot., p. 104. 

My«ty», BiSH. I Ta-ymn, Bout. 

A very common tree, thronghont the Ran- 

goon.Pegn and Tonngboo districts, bot scarce 

the Prome and Tharawnddy districts. It 

"all ordinary 

purposes of honse-baildintr. The bark affords 

jii. r ■• ■ 1. ■ J 1, a coarse strong hbre, not mnch employed, 

,t and the fi-u.t js mnch prized by i,^„ y, ^^ Burmese -Dr. Mckua„d 

.- wl,„ prescribe It to cool the Qai. Cat. Bz. 1662. 

^.^^.^. ,u ,j> ,,.u ^u. ......^ ...^„.«j tions, and (rrows tn Kimme 

the of the Burmese of Moulmem q^„;^^ ft affords timber 
aretwospcoesof Grew.a. The wood ofa ^^^^^ ^^ ■^^ ^^ j, ^^j elasticity "and of'ti.e Madras Pronnces makes good ^^^h nsed for bows. bo«rv shafts, and 
itimou. Vohgt. 

IT. .j- A. 

Fills., Bkso.Hinc.Tsw. I Dowftniya, Sinan. 

PhaTBho, Sink | Putiki, Tkl. 

Grows in thepeninsnia of India, in Bengal, 
northern India and the I*nnjab and is a 
largo tree of Pcgn. like G. floribnnda, but 
not so picntifnl. Commonly cultivated in 

Iho plain, of a. Ponjabfor i« pl».«n^ j,. g„„d „„i„,i,,, (;„,,„ f„ 
.nb-no.d,,m«llborrj-l,kerrB,l,e«tana»dnwd p.^,., „f i„„b„i| j, ti, 
for making sherbet. A spirit is said to be dis- '^ ' - '^ 

tilled ft ' • 


body in fevers. Cultivated at Ajmeer, both 
large tree and small bush varieties, the 
large tree in very beautiful when in new 
foliiige. The sbnib is generally cnltivted 
in most fruit giirdciiK ; it bears a dark pnrpic 
bony, when ripe, containing one or twc 
Bmall stones. The fruit is generally madt 
into sherbet by ponring boiling water on it 
and when cool, adiiing sugar to the taste 
The plante grown readily from the seed an 
generally cut down almost to the gronnt 
in November, and even the leaves are burnt 
round the stalks, after which the roots an 
opeaed and manured, and watered occa 
sionally, when new shoots spring out, ant 
the fruit is borne near the asilla of eacl 
leaf; when ofa dark purple, they are np< 
and fit for uhc. Tho appearance of it« leavei 
has caused J'iurupeiLUK to mistake it for thi 
bazcl. The leaves and buds are officinal. 

GREWIA HIRSUTA. Javelliki. Tax. 
A shrnbby plantj fruit bairy, common in 
tho jungles. — Jaffi-et/. 
Fhet WOOD. Bi-ui. 

Very plentiful in Pegu. It attains a girth 
of about 3 to 4 feet, and grows up tall and 
remarkably straight. It is found with teak 
in tho forests of Pegu and Tonngboo. Wood 
white colonred and adapted for every pur- 
pose of house- bnilding. — Dr. JHeUlelland. 

Giewift nlmifolia, j Uioroco* mala. Ham. 

Orawia kStuii, Lin'dl, j ana, G. Dom, 

Hicrocoa panicniBta, L. Arsia rugusa. Loira. 

Mys-ya Buaa. | 

A shmb in the Poninsula of India, and 
found as a sjpall tree on elevated gronnd of 



S?ccretary to Tbe Bank of Bengal ; Secreta- [ India. Hir early death is deeply deplored 

ry to the Bengal Government; Director 
General of Post Offices; Home Secretary ; 
Member of Council, and Lieat. Governor 
of Bengal. He possosf^cd a calm judgment, 
a critical form of mind, brief, almost Socratic 
in method, and a man of progress. Ho 
improved postal communication, telegi'aphs, 
railway, police, education and jails ; and 
he was a sound financier and economist. 
In 18<>5 ho urged on the [ndian Govern- 
ment the need for retrenchment. 

GREY ANTIMONY. Eno. Sulphuret 
of Anfimonv. 

GKBY or Annulafed Ipecacnana, also 
Grey also Red, Ipecachuaua. Cephaelis 

flowering anchovy pear of Jamaica. It 
might be introduced into India. 

GRIESWORZKL. Gkr. Pareira brava. 

GRIFFITH, William, a medical officer of 
the Madras Army, famed for his extensive 
knowledge of Indian Botany. Author of 
namerons works on this branch of science ; 
he accompanied the army which marched 
in 1838-39 from Sind, through Qnetta and 
K^biidahar to Ghazui and Kabul. From 

by numerous private friends ; and his loss 
to tho cause of science elicited a public and 
emphatic expression of regret from tho 
Governor General of India. This tablet is 
erected as an humble tribute to his memory, 
by a few of his medical brethern of the Mad- 
ras service. Hooker f, et Thomson, 

GRIHA SENA. See Inscriptions p. 376, 

GRIHA KUTUMBINE, literally, the head 
of the house or of the family. 

GRINDING of grain in India is still done 
bv the hand mill as in Isaiah xlvii 1 2. Matt, 
xxiv. 41. 

GRIHASTHA. A hindu married house- 
holder. Sans, from griha, a house, and st'ha, 
to reu.ain. 

glirihast'ha,8itnHted in a house, and dharma, 

GRIMUGRIM. Hind. Hordenm caeleste, 

GRINDSTONES. The Natives of India 
prepare a grindstone composed of shell lao 
as its basis, and corundum powder or other 
hard mineral as the grinding material. lu 
Coirabatoro persons of the barber caste are 
the manufacturers of these. The process is 

Kabul ho crossed tho chain of the Hindu sufficiently rude. The stone being pounded 
Kush to Bamian and Singhan, and spent i and reduced to the form of fine grained gnn« 
some time in the Kuner valley. His col lee- ' ' ' -• • i^^ mi., i.^ i- 

tions there, though formed under circum- 
stances of great difficulty, aro very good, 
amounting probably to about 1,000 species, 
many of which aro dei)ositod in the Royal 
Herbarium at Kew, his posthumous notes 

powder is heated in a chatty. The lac is 
then added and the two stirred together 
until the mass is of the consistence of dough 
when it is turned out and beat and kneaded 
into the required shape. There are only two 
articles used in its construction, but not 

and journals, were published in Calcutta , using a mould, the operation is tedious and 
edited by Dr. McClelland, under the aus- • the finished article when completed, and '^ot 
pices of the Indian Governmeut*, and his i by any means of first rate excellence. The