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\^ iHD or ^^ 


(kmmM, %xMM anii ^dnttifo: 







VOL. I. 



" 1871 , 


WmLSr we find bookd of reference in most departments of Science and Lite- 
ratme in connection with European countries, daily becoming cheaper and more 
abmidant^ those who inyestigate or seek for information regarding the resources 
of British India^ or any of the scientific and economic subjects connected with 
Eastern countries, still meet with much difficulty and hindrance, owing to the 
necessity of consulting numerous authors whose works are scarce or costly. And 
as some inquirers are without the pecuniary means of procuring all the requisite 
books and journals, or find it impossible to procure them at any cost, whilst others 
want leisure or opportunity for such extensive research, it is evident that progress 
in these branches of knowledge would be greatly facilitated, by collecting and 
^ii/fon<n^g this widely dispersed information, thereby enabling future inquirers to 
gun some acquaintance with the results of the investigations made by the many 
diligent and laborious individuals, who have devoted a great portion of their time 
to collecting information over the vast area of Southern Asia. 

My avocations while employed in India^ more particularly in the padt seven 
yean, have rendered necessary for me a collection of books of reference relating to 
In£a and the East^ somewhat more numerous and varied in character than private 
individuals generally possess ; whilst my employment as Secretary to the Madras 
Coitral Committees for the Great Exhibition of 1851, the Madras Exhibition of 
1855, the Universal Exhibition held in Paris in 1866, and the Madras Exhibition of 
1857, combined with my duties (since 1 851), as Officer in charge of the Govern- 
ment Central Museum, have brought under my notice a rare variety of Eastern 
products and subjects of interest ; and thinking that, before quitting the countries 
in which I have dwelt for nearly a quarter of a century, I might with advantage 
leave to my successors in a portable fonn^ the notes made on the products of the 
East that have come under my notice, combined with an abstract of the useful infer* 


mation respecting them contained in my books, I have been led to show the results 
in the present shape. 

A work of this aim and character might doubtless fully occupy the life-time of 
several men of varied attainments ; and this CyclopoBdia of India and of Eastern 
mid Southern Asiai'ma.j therefore be regarded only as a first attempt towards the 
kind of book, the want of which has been long and generally felt. But although 
fiilly conscious of Its incompleteness qi niaaiy^ respects^ yet, I ipmat it may still be 
received with aU imperfections and omissions, as a useful and opportune addition 
to Ajsiatic Literature ; at least by those who recognize the justness of the saying of 

EmmersoHi that *' the thing done avails, and not what is said ^aboiittt's and i^t an 

- , .... . , 

*' origmal sentence^ or a step forward, is worth more than all the cei«ures^ wTi!mA 

may be made by such as are disposed to find feult, or who would demand^ In a wotic 

of this kind, a degree of perfection unattainable on a first trial. 

The book is merely a novelty in form, the matter it contains Seiog as oH A3 
pur .first possessions in India: it is simply a compilation of the .facts and soienjbific 
knowledge, which authors and inquirers have been amassing and communicating 
since then, to one another and the publia But, *' in our time, the higher, walks 
of literature have been so long and so often trodden, that whatever.any individual 
may undertake, it is scarcely possible to keep out of the foot-steps .of some of his 
precursors ;"f and this Cyclopsedia, I may therefore avow to be but an endeavour 
to make generally available, in a condensed form, the information acquired by 
those who have in any way investigated the natural or manufactured products of 
Southern Asia, or have at any time made its arts or natural history the subjects 
of inquiiy. Some of those whose writings I have made use of, hav^ long «ince 
gone to their account, but many a labourer 5ret alive may find the result of hie 
labours embodied here ; tod I have doiie this freely, because even tliose from whose 
writings I haVe most largely drawn, will acknowledge that the quaint old lines of 
CSMOiceri^ still apply with full force ; viz. that, 

<* Oat of the old fieMes as m«n fiayeth, 
Cometh'all this new com fro* yeecfi to year^ : 
So out of old books, in good faith, 
Cometh all this new Science that men lere.*^ 

Indeed, I have rather sought to collect and condense accurate and well 
ascertained facts, than to present novelties ; for originality is but too often un- 

• SngUah Tndts, p. 5. . f ^•M for ttia Sooial, page 9V' t Ibid, pagf d%h 

eoMGi0i99:^tm4«^eted1i«^^ Bywut y^m i«% }?esMffke<|iIiAi« til pretend 
#MP« Wii^ «9fi<llp«kwi ; ^id A 'Wiser, one ilias 9j^^ ^■■'^ ^^ ^ ^^t ^Ibes^^ Ifl 
noth^B^ J90V ittdvc tiud ainu^* IQirf if tirare be nothingiabsoiately new in th^ wbrk,> 
I hope it may yet be found to <:antaiAHiuclL which to mapgr waaujikiiown before ; 
and which want of books, leistcre, or opportunity, may have debarred them from 

The CyclopsBdia is not intended to comprise the whole "Science of Botany, nor 
that of Medicine, or Zoology ; nor to instruct in all the matters useful in 
Commeroe or the Arts ; but, whether examined for information or amusementy 
the botanist, the medical practitioner, the naturalist, and the merchant, may 
perbapa each find something in it^ which, from his engagements, he did not know 
before, or though once knowing he may have again forgotten. In both cases, the 
work may prove useful, since old thoughts are often like old clothes ; put away 
for a time, they become apparently new by brushing up. It would have been 
better perhaps, had a work of this kind been undertaken years ago, or even now 
were it made the joint effort of several persons : indeed, to render it in any way 
complete;, would call for the resources at the command of a Government rather 
than of individuals ; but we cannot have every thing at the time we wish, nor in 
the way we wish, and it is better to have some one undertake it and do it the best 
way be can, now, than to postpone it to some further indefinite period. 

Witiht a view therefore of laying a foundation as a starting point for future 
inquirers, I now make the commencement of a work, towards which I hope to 
receive from many quarters aid and support as I proceed : being thereby enabled 
either to produce future enlarged and improved editions of the work myself, — 
pladng it, as I hope, within'the reach of aU,— or seeing that task taken up here* 
^ft^/ by younger men, with more time and opportunity than are now before me. 
A dinner of fragments is often said to be the best dinner ; and in the same way, 
there are few minds but might furnish some instruction and entertainment, from 
their scraps, or odds and ends of knowledge. Those who cannot weave a uniform 
web, may at least produce a piece of patchwork ;* and any items of information 
sent to me wiU be very aoeeptable. 

There is another diflSculty which inquirers in this country have had to meet 
and struggle with ; I allude to the many languages and dialects in use in India 

« Qaesses at Truth. 


and Eatftem AsiaJ aixd ooiiseqtiently the Turiety of scientiflc/national; or even local 
Barnes^ by which the same thing is known. The only means of oveitMiming thia 
difficult J was to frame a copious index of contents ; ^for Pope has well said that 

^ Index Learniog turns no student pale. 
Yet holds tbe eel of Science by the tikil." 

This Indexing will add to the bulk of the book, but greatly also to its valua 
as a work of reference ; and will be carefully completed* 



The first edition with its two Supplements contained 29.870 names and the 
woA was fietYourably receired by the Fnblic Press. But my acquaintance with 
these conntries did not permit me to regard that nnmbef as other than a founda- 
tion for an enlarged and improved edition, and this second edition will contain 
about 100,000 names, imder which much connected with India and with Eastern 
and Southern Asia will be found* 

I have spared neither time nor labour to make the present edition as perfect 
as possible, but a Cyclopesdia must necessarily ever be progressive. 

* » 

r • 

r * • 

r " 

<-• • t 

t • ■• r • 


. c 

• . -J 

•> r- 

- X 

A, a« In the English language^ is the 
first letter in the alphabet, and the ordinary 
soondsy long or short, are as a in many ; a in all 
and as a in municipal. 

In Arabic Persian and Hindustani, the letter 

I and the Towel mark have almost similar 
sounds, as in that part of the &z&n or mahome- 

dsn caU to prayers^lAUj Allah9 akb&r» unto 

Bod Ihe Great, retaining the long sound invari- 
ably when in the middle or end of a word. 

hi l*amil, the English A and a, long and short, 
are represented by two initial letters jf ^ 
equal to & and i j and all the consonants have 
the inherent sound of short a, thus ekiezr ui. 

In Telugu, the short a, is represented by the 
letter ^^ initial, and by the mark •/ placed on 
the top of a consonant, thus 8^ ki. The long e9» 
initial, has the same sound as & in anger. 

AKGU or ATCHE. Tam. Morinda citrifolia. 

AAL. Tax. Moriuda citrifolia ; Morinda 
Btthiilorm. See Dyes. 

AAKAL. Abab. The fillet of the Arabs. 

AlALIN NAR. Malbal. cS^eS{n6cno(^ 

Fibre of Yicus Indica. Banyan tree. 

AARD APPELEN. Dut. Potatoes. 

AABDEGOED. Dut. Earthenware. 

AASON, his burial-plaoe is shown on Mount 
Okod : hia grave is also shown over the sum- 
mit of Mount Hor. 

AATALABI. Tam. Polygonum barbatum. 

AB. Psna. Himd. c^J Water. Hence, 

jt^ Pbbb. Uiko. ^] Watery ; also Ab-kari^ 
HiVD^ lit : ^^;; •' water making, i. e. the dis- 

tillation of alcoholic fluids, &c., and in use as a 
revenue term in British India for that branch 
which superintends the license to sell all kinds 
of intoxicating substances, as arrack^ toddy, 
opium, &c. Ikhoh. Pebs. Hind. udl3«3 literally, 

two waters, the fork or inverted delta caused by 
the junction of two rivers or the territory running 
between two rivers. Punj-ab, Pbbs. HiNl). 

i^Ik^ five waters or five rivers, that territory 
I on the North-West provinces of British India, 
' conquered from the bikhs, through which seven 

rivers flow, 

ABA SIN. ^sA^MPosht. The river Indttt* 

ABA, or Camaline as it is called in the Per- 
sian gulf, is worn in Oman by all classes. It is 
the camel's hair cloak of Arab Shaikhs, and 
is often striped white and brown. See Camo^- 
leen, Keifyet. 

ABA- BAKER, the father-in-law of Mahomed. 
See Khajah. Aboo-Bakr. Abu-Bakr. 

ABABIL. Hind. Jj^U) The Swallow* 

See Bird-Nests. 

ABACA BBAVA. The wild or mountain 
abaca of the Philippines, a variety of the Manilla 
hemp plant, Musa textilis, the fibres of which 
serve for making ropes, called Agoiag and 
Jmoquid in the Bicol language.— i?<;yfe'« Fib^ 
PlcmU^ p. 65. 

ABAD. Fbbb. Hind, cf^l Populous. A 
nuhoinedan territorial postfix to diatricta of 
country and towns, aa Amngabad, Dowlatabad, 
Allahabad, Farrakbabad, Hyderabad. 




the Greek Kings, succesBors to Alelander, wbo ^ 
reigned about A.D. 70 or 80 in Arian Abakha- 
faaa. Vologeses Professor Lassen supposes that 
this name is identical with Vologeses. Captain 
CunuinghaiR described the Arian legend on the 
Goius of Abalgasius A. D. 80, to be " of the 
Saviour Kina: Abagasus, younger son of Undo- 
pherres." Prinsep^ Hutorical ReaulU. See 
Greeks : KabuU 

ABAI (Borneo). A small port or harbour 
in Lat. 6^ 23' N. situated Jibout 40 miles 
S* S. W. from Tanjong Sampan-mangaio, the 
north extreme of Borneo, 

ABAK, Arab. s^JJi Mercury. 

ABAN. Pol. Iron. 
ABAR-MURDAH. Pebs. tdylf) Sponge. 
ABAS BANDAB^ BILnd&r Abbas or Gam- 
baroon, a town in Kirman. See Kirman. 
ABASSI. Pbbs. ^<A*Ufi A scymeter. 

ABBAS. See Kashan, 

ABBOTABAD, in Lat. S4o 10* N.; and 
Long 73^ 9' E. in Mtoi, a small military sani- 
tary station, N. N. E. of Ghimba, at a height 
above the sea of 4,055 feet. — Rob* Schl. See 

ABBOTT* James, a distinguished officer of 
the Bengal Artillery who rose to high military 
rank. He was employed in the political de- 
partment in Herat and the Punjab. He tra- 
velled from Khiva to St. Peteraburgh and 
published an account of the journey. He 
contributed many scientific articles to 'the 
Transactions of the Bengal Asiatic Society, — 
BuittU OcUalogue. 

ABDAGASSES. A Bactrian successor of 
Alexander who succeeded Gondophares in Ari- 
ana B. C. 26. See Magasius : Greeks of Asia. 
" ABDALL Hind. ^\^4 A powerlul 

Affgban tribe or sect, residing in every part of 
Afi^hauistany but principally in Herat and 
ICandahar. They are termed Douiani, since 
1747, when Ahmed Shah, Suddozye, on as- 
i^nding the throne, gave them that name. The 
Abdali and Ghilzi, but particularly the former, 
Airrpgate to themselves a superiority over the 
other Affghan tribes, and from their greater nu- 
merical strength have exercised a greater power. 
The Abdali are also called Sulimani, from the 
mountains whence they came, having then 
dwelt in the district termed Tobeh Idaioof. — 
Zatkam, See Barakzye. 

ABDAR. Pers. ^1 J^ Glancing as a gem 

or polished sword : In India a water cooler. 

ABDULLA-IBN-8A00D. The Wahabi 
chief captured by Ibrahim Pasha. ' See Wahabi* 

ABDUIr LATIP. The Amir Yahia, son of 
Abdul Latif-ul-Kasvini-ul-Shkiy died at Kasvin, 
bis naUve city, A. D. 1552 Hej. 960. His 
book is stykd the Lubbat-ul-Tuarikh and 
treats briefly of the history of ^ Asia. — Omihy. 

ABDUL MUZUFFER Sultan, one of the 
Kutub-Shahi dynasty, A. D. 1580. See Hy- 

1673-1688, a Kutub-Shahi king. See Hy- 


CURIA ISLAND. A*rugged island midway 
between Socotra and Ras Jar 'd Afoon. 

ABDULLAH, son of the Klialif Omar, who 
in A. D. 650 defeated Yesdejird. Yesdejird 
was then on liis return from Khorassan, and for 
the last time put himself at the head of his sub- 
jects, and was defeated. See Istakhr. 

ABD-UR-RAZZAQ. o^jj^^*^ Jemal ud- 

din Abd-ur Razzaq bin Jelal ud-din Ishaq-us 
Saroarkandi, was born at Herat in A-H. 816 
(A. D. 1413)^ where his father was Kazi in the 
time of Shah Rukh, Shah Rukh, in 1441, sent 
him on an important mission to India,to the king 
of Vizianuggur. Subsequently on an embassy to 
Ghilan ; and he again was ordered to proceed as 
ambassador to E^ypt. It was in January 1442, 
that Abd-ur-Razzaq, set out from Herat, and 
proceeding by way of the Kohistan and 'Kirman 
to Ormuz, thence sailed for India, arriving at 
Calicut after a long detention, wind-bound, at 
Muscat. He then proceeded via Mangalore and 
Bellour to Vizianuggur. Re-embarking from 
Calicut, he arrived in March 1444, at Kalahat 
in Arabia — India in the Fifteenth Century. 

ABDULAZEEZ. See Wahabi. 

AB DUL- H AKAL. See Wahabi. 

ABD-US-SHEMS or SABA, founder of 
Mariaba. Amongst his sous were Hamyar» 
Amru. Kablan and Ashaar. See Saba. 

ABDUL WAHAB. See Wahabi. 

AB-DUICH. Pers. A food in use in Persia, 
not always to be met with. Though a favourite 
dish with the Persians, and very refreshing, it 
is not at all suited to the stomach of a Euro- 
pean. — Terrier Joum. p. 49. 

AB-DUZD. PftBS. A subterraneous passage 
of water near the fort of Atak (Attock) The term 
means ** the stealing of the water.*' — Mohan 
LaVa Travels, p. ZS. 

ABELIA RUPESTRIS, a Chinese plant in- 
troduced into England by Mr. Fortune. 


Hibiscus longifolius, Roxb: 
„ esculentus, Linn. 

Ram Tiirai . ... Bsno. 

Dhenrus ... 





Eatable hibiBCUs, Okro : 

Esculent Okio ...Eitg. 

Bamia Eotft. I Gkx&baut. . 

Lalo^ Fa. ofMautitiua^ JQombeau. 

... „ 








Qenda mula. 

Bendakai alsoTendl Tam. 

Benda. ... ...Tjsl. 

Quingambo. West Indies. 

•• If 




A lierhaoeout annual, r native of tropical 
Afoeriety largely cultivated all over India and 
Boxmali, its capsules being held in much esteem 
■a a vegetable. It is easily raised from seed and 
piodaoes abundance of fruit, which is the only 
part of tlie plant that is eaten. The whole 
plant is mucilaginons, bnt the fruits or pods, the 
well known Bendi kai of the Tamils, are highly 
30. The fruits are boiled whole and served 
np as a vegetable : or the seeds are added like 
bariej to aonp, and are demulcent. The young 
pods are pickled like capers, its ripe seeds when 
aBowed to dry, and parehed, can with difficulty 
be distill gnished from genuine coffee. Its mu- 
dhge has been recommended as a demulcent, in 
eoughs, in the form of lozenges, but they are 
mat easily digested. The deep purple juice of 
the stifrmas can be communicated to paper^ 
Doctor Riddell strongly recommends this plant 
as furnishing an excellent fibre for the manufac- 
tsie of paper. The fibres are said to be exported 
to a small extent from India, as one of the 
iKinps of oonimerce,andbyT>r.Roxburgh's experi- 
mtaia, a handle of them bore a weight of lbs. 79 
when dry and lbs. 95 when wet. At the Madras 
Exhibition of 1855, samples were received from 
varioas dialricts, but nearly ail discoloured and 
their strength impaired by steeping. They retain 
their gloss even when very brown and rotten. — 
Amtrkan Cummiiiee of FatenU for 1854; 
O'Skaughnesay^ DUpensary, pp\%\^'%\l \ Phar- 
wuKopena, p. iSi % Boxb. Fhr. Jndica, III. p. 
910; RcfU, Fid. PlanU ; U^ful Planis ; Madras 
EMkiiiUifm Juries' Reports ; London ExMbition of 
1863 ; Mason. 


r. Ic. 

Hibiscus prostratus, Roxb. 

Pampn Bends. Tam. | Nella Benda. Tau, 

Flowers white. The bark contains a large 
pn^rtion of white reticulated fibre similar to 
that obtained from the mulberry, and useful 
far gunny bags and paper. It grows abundant- 
ly on the black cotton soils of India. At the 
Madias Exhibition of 1855, Mr. Jaffrey ex- 
hibited a very good clean sample of this fibre, 
of great IcDgth, but not very strong.— jlfae^rai 
£zit^iiom Juries' Reports ; Robert Brown. 

^. ^ A. ; JF. Ic, 

Hibiscus abelmoschus, Roxh, S Rheede. 

HvlMil-Mafihk^* ...An. 
Ba4ii-w«hi. ...Bitrm. 
K«pa Kiaaissa. ...Ctkqh. 
HoBk-kallow. ...Eiro. 


Iloshk-dftoa. . . . Bind. 

Kasturi. ... ...HiVD* 

Ostt-kasturi.. ...Maleal. 

Cubta-kastijiri. „ 

Kasiura Benda. ...Tax. 

YitiBlM-kasturi. ,..Tam. 
Karpora benda. ...Taii. 

k ffndy flowering annual with blood coloured 
eyes, on its large yellow blossoms, a native, 
of VBioat parts of India, flowering in the 

rainy and cold seasons. Its brown seeds are, 
the Hub-ul-Mashk of the Arabs, so called 
because of their smell and ta$te resembling a 
mixture of mask and amber, and, on burn* 
ing, a similar odour is evolved. They are 
kidney-shaped and of the size of hemp-seed, and 
are used to perfume powders and pomatums^ 
They are found in all the bazaars and are re^ 
puted to be useful in snake bites, when bruised 
and applied externally and internally, or bruised 
and steeped in rum or arrack. In Dr« Box« 
burgh's experiments, the fibre broke with a 
weight of 107 lbs. The plant, like A. eseuien'* 
tus, abounds in mucilage, and is said to be uaed 
in Northern India, to clariy sugar. Sir W. 
O'Shaughnessy did not find the seeds to have 
any emetic property as alleged by Dancer.—' 
Roxburgh, III. SOB ; 0'Shaughn€S»g,p, 217 ; 
Mason's Tenasserim ; Juries* Reports Madras 
Exhifntion ; Ustful Plants of India. 

the Madras Exhibition of 1857, Mr. JvSsef 
exhibited an excellent, white and strong fibre, 
obtained from this plant. Its flowers large, 
yellow, with a dark centre: abundant in 
Girganm woods, Bombay. Wight in his Iconea, 
951, figures, also, A angulosus. 

ABERMOORDAH. Pbbs. t^jAji} Sponge. 
ABGINAH. Arab. sXJiS\ Glass, 
ABGOON. PEBa. ^yCjJ Starch. 
ABHAL, Pers. Ji^| Berries of Juniperus 
communis : Juniper berriesi 
AB-I-DHANG. Pbbs. iJJub^ sJ\ This i^ 

the usual drink amongst the Ilyats in Norlhera 
Persia. It is butter milk weakened witk 
water, and to which a little salt is added* 

ABHAYA DEVA, a king of the Pala dynasty 
of Gaur, about A D. 1439. 

dus, a ceremonial, on the wedding day, whes 
the bride and bridegroom are anointed with oilk 
See Hindu. 

ABHIDHARMMA, the third diviaion of tht 
sacred writings of the Singhalese buddhists; 
addressed to the Dewas and BrahmaSr— ^^<f/a 
Eastern Monackism, p. 483. 

AB HIGN Y AW A . Amongst the Siaghaleto 
buddhists, five great powers attached to the 
Bahatsbip — Hyder'sEasiernMonachiem, p. 433* 

class of buddhist priestly misdemeanours*— *? 
Hyder*s Eastern Monachismtp. 438. 

ABHIMANIA. See Inscriptions. 

ABHIR. Hind. Cow-herd- 

ABHIRAy the shepherd country, an ancient 
name for the country between the Tapti and Dt** 





AB-I-BALAD, a mountain torrent in Su* 
aiana. See Khuziatan. 

ABIES, the Fir genua of coniferous plania, 
haa many speoiea which produce valuable 
timbers* Thej grow in the Himalayas, in 
Japan, the Philippinea and Ohina. Br. Hooker 
aaya, of the Sikkim Himalayas, that Abies 
Brunoniana, A. Smithiana, and A. Webbiana, 
with Larix Grifiithii are the only pines whose 
wooda are considered very useful ; and that in 
Sikkim, none produce any quantity of resin, tur- 
pentine, or pitch, which may perhaps be account- 
ed for by the humidity of the climate*— At 
Cboongtam, in Sikkim, the yew appears at 7000 
feet, whilst, on the outer ranges (as on Tonglo), 
it is only found at 9,500 to 10,000 feet; and 
whereaa on Tonglo it forms an immense tall tree 
with long sparse branches and slender droop- 
ing twigs, growing amongst gigantic magnolias 
and oaks, at Cboongtam it is small and rigid, 
and much resembling in appearance the English 
churchyard yew. At 8,000 feet, the Abiea Bru- 
noniana ia found, a tree quite unknown further 
south. But neither the larch nor the Abies Smith- 
iana (fihutrow) accompanied it. The yew, 
\» says, spreads east from Kashmir to the Assam 
Himalaya and the Khasia mountains ; and the 
Japan, Philippine Islands, Mexican, and other N. 
and S. American yews belong to the same widely 
diffuse^} species. In the Khasia, (its most soutliern 
district) it is found as low as 5,000 feet above the 
aea level. In descending from Nango in East 
Nepaul, Br. Hooker passes! at first through 
rhododendron and juniper, then through black 
ailver fir {Abies fFebbiana^SiXid below that, near 
the river, he came to the Himalayan larch, a 
tree quite unknown, except from a notice in the 
journals of Mr* Griffith, who found it in 
Bhutan. It is a small tre<^, twenty to forty 
feel high, perfectly similar in general characters 
to a European larch, but with larger cones, 
which are erect upon the very long, pensile, 
whip-like branches. He adds, its leaves, now 
ved, were falling, and covering the rocky ground 
on which it grew« acattered amongst other 
trees. It is called '' Saar" by the Lepchas and 
Cia-&imalayan Tibetans, and "Boargasella" by 
the Nepaulese, who say it is found as far west as 
tlie heada of the Cosi river : it does not inhabit 
Central or West Nepaul, nor the North- West 
Himalaya. The distribution of the Himalayan 

Jinea, he says, is very remarkable. The Beodar 
as not been seen east of Nepal^ nor the Pimw 
^erardhtna, Ouprestus tai^oia or Juniperm 
commmni. On the other hand, Podoearput is eon- 
fined to the cast of Katmandoo. Abies Bruno- 
mioMa does- not occur weat of the Gogra, nor 
the larch west cft the Gosi, nor funereal cypress 
(an introduced plant however) west of .the 
Tcesta, in Sikkim. Of the twelve Sikkim and 
Bhotan Conifira (including yew, juniper, and 
fodwarpus) eight are ootnmon to the North- 

west Himalaya (weat of Nepal) and four are 
not : of the thirteen natives of the North-wert 
provinces, again, only five are not found in. 
Sikkim, and, hie adds, I have given their 
names below, because they show how Suropean 
the absent ones are, eithei ^leciiically or 
in affinity. I hav^ stated, he continues, that the 
Beodar is possibly a variety of the Cedar of 
Lebanon. This is now a prevalent opinion* 
which is strengthened by the fact that ae many 
more Himalayan plants are now aac^ained to 
be European than had been supposed before they 
were compared with European spedmena ; such 
are the. yew, Juniperus eommttnis, Berberis tui» 
parist Quereus balhia^ Pvpulus alba and £uphra* 
ticn, 8co. The cones of the Beodar are iden- 
tical with thos^ of the Cedar of Lebanon : the 
Deodar has, generally, longer and more pale 
bluish leaves and weeping btMBches, but these 
characters seem to be unusually developed in 
English gardens ; for seveval persons, well 
acquainted with the Beodar at Simla when 
asked to point it out in the Kew gardens, have 
indicated the Cedar of Lebanon, and when 
shown the Beodar, declare that they never saw 
that plant in the Himalaya.— Zfoo^'a Him. 
Jour, vol. IL p. 41. Mr. Hodgson in his 
Nagasahi (pp. 842-3) gives nine species of 
Abies, as occurring in that island, vie., 

A. IViuga S and Z. A. Alooquiana, Lindlet. 

A. (Pioea) arma „ A. Bifida. S and Z. 

A. ( „ ) homolepiB „ A. Jezoensis 

A. Microsperma. Lind* and 

A. Veitcbli LiNDL^. I A^ Smithiana, Loudon. 

Some botanists bring some of the pines, 
into this genus, while others pitt spet^ies of 
Abies amongst the pines. A. Araragi of 
Siebold, is a Japan tree with a brown wood, 
used for various domestic piurpoaes, and the A. 
Momi, Sieb. also of Japan, ia valued foir the 
whiteness and fine grain of its wood. 

Notwithstanding the similarity between the 
Beodar and the cedar of Lebanon, the Pinua 
cedri^ of Linnssus, which grows in Lebanon 
and the Taufua Bange, the latter seems a 
distinct species. — Dr, Hooker's Him. Jouru, 
Vol. If, p. 41; Hodgson's Nagasaki 342-3; 
Punjab Report, 

ABIES BALSAMEA, the Balm o{ Oilead. 
See Evergreens, Gums and Resins, 


Pinna Brunoulana, Wall. 

„ dumoea, Lamb. 

Deddnooa Silver ^ir. Eira. j Semadoong. Txnu 

Grows in Nepaul, Bhutan and Goasain Than. 
This species is repeatedly noticed by Br. Hookr 
er ; who at one plaoe, says, that the wood of 
il^iat Brunoniuna <" Semadoong*') ia like the 
others in appearance but is not durable ; its 
bark is however very useful. Stacks of difr 



fetent aorta of pinewood were stored for export 

to Thibet, nil thatched with the bark of Mies 

Bnmaniama, In the dense anii gigantic forest 

of Akiet Brwumiana and silver fir, he measured 

ime of the farmer trees, and fonnd it twenty- 

dght feet in girth. — It grows occasionally in 

deDse forests, to a height of 70 to 80 feet, with 

• efcar trunk of from U to 20 fcf t, and a 

apreadingy very branching head. — Eng. Cyc. : 

Hookers Him. Journal 


Pinus Deodara, Lamheri, 
Cedrus, do. 

avrad Indian Fir, Bso. I Kolon of Kulhi and 
Deodars, n,, 1 Kangra. 

Diar, Hazara. | D^va dara, HIV;^ 

A magnificent tree with a trunk from 12 to 
SO £eet in girth, growing on the mountains of 
Kedar Kantba, Nepaul and Thibet, up to 
hdghU of 7,000 and 12,000 feet, as also in the 
wooda of Abnorah, at KuUu and Kangra and 
w4UghaQ Uasaiti. It lesembles the cedar of 
Lsfaanon, bnt, nnlike it, tiie resinous wood of 
the Deodar is very durable, lasting from 200 to 
400 years. It has succeeded well in iCngland. 
— Bofle^9 lUuttr, ^. 350 ; Enff. Cye. ; HooJ^er^s 
Em. Jtmr. ; Pu^ab Repari, p. 79 & 180. 

ABIES KHUTROW. Syn. of Abies Smith- 


Pinus Kssmpferi, Lamb, 

A native of Japan ; found wild upon the 
■hoiintuos of Fako. 

AB/fiS LARIX. See Evergreens. 

ABIES MORINDA. Syn. of Abies Smith- 

ABIES PIGEA. See Evergreens. 

ABIES RESmA. See Turpentine. 


Abies Khutrow ? 

„ morinda ? 
Pinua Smithiana, WcUlich. 

Rai. KuLLiT. 

., Kanoba. 

iUchfo. Kaghan. 

Ittdian Silver Fir» Esq. 
SfnceFir, „ 

8eh. LiFOH. 

Tfda tree attains an enormous size on the 
slopes of the Himalayas, growing with nearly 
opposite branches. Dr. Hooker, at one 
place, tells us, that the spruce, Miet SmilAiaHa, 
" Seh" has white wood, which is employed 
for poeta and beams. At another, when 
■entioiiiDg that the beautiful Deodar was seen 
towering above the other trees, and, although all 
the specimens were oomparatively young, they 
wcie yet atriking and graceful, he adds that, 
Bear it, was Abie$ Smiikiamm, It had a dark 
and sombre appearance, yet it was peculiarly 
gracefn], owing to its symmetrical form and 
iQSMwIiat pendulous habit. Again, he says, 
tte towwnb Lamteng, ia.Sikkim, the path left 

the river, and passed through a wood of Abies 
Smithiana, which is also called A, Khuirow^ A. 
Moriuda, Dr. Hooker had not before seen this 
tree in the Himalaya : it is a spruce fir, mucb 
resembling the Norway spruce in general ap« 
pearance, but with longer pendulous branches. 
The wood is white, and considered indifferent 
though readily cleft into planks. — Hookers 
Him. Jour* ; Punjab Repori^ 

Pinus Thunbergii, Lamb, 

A scarce plant in Japan* 

Pindrow, Hikd. | MoriodQ, Hind. 

A magnificent species, even to the limits of 
the forests, growing in Kemaon along with the 
Deodar. It comes near, and Hooker describes it 
as identical with A. Smithiana, A. Webbiana, 
— Royle'9 Itluitr, 


Pin\u spectabilis, Lamb, 
a Webbiana, Wallich, 

Webb's Fir. Eno. 

Purple ooned Fir. £no. 
Silver Fir. » 

Gobrea. Hind. ? 
Sallar. „ ; 

Oomim. n ? 

Obilrow ol Northern Hi- | DnuBbinOr „ ? 

malaya. | Tos, KulTu and Kangra. 

This fir tree grows at great elevations on the 
Himalayas, where it is one of the principal 
I ornaments of the forests. It attains a height of 
80 or 90 feet, with a diameter near the ground 
of thirty or forty feet. Dr. Hooker tells us that 
at Choongtam, this tree attains thirty-five feet 
in girth, with a trunk unbranched, for forty 
feet. As the subject of firewood is of every day 
interest to the traveller in these regions, he 
mentions that the rhododendron woods afford 
poor fires; juniper burns the brightest^ and 
with least smoke ; Abies Webbtana^ though 
emitting much smoke, gives a cheerful fire, far 
superior to larch,* spruce, or Abies Brunoniana, 
At Darjiling, oak is the common fuel ; alder 
is also good. Ghesnut is invariably used for 
blacksmiths* charcoal. Magnolia has a dis« 
agreeable odour, and laurel burns very badly. 
According to Hooker, the silver fir (Abies 
Webbiana^ Dunshing) also splits well ; it is 
white, soft, and highly prized for durability. 
Dr. Cieghom says it is not much 'valued and is 
used for shingles. The larch of Northern Asia 
(Larix JSuropcea) is said to produce a pungent 
smoke which Dr. Hooker never observed to be 
the case with the Sikkim sptcieB.-^Hooker*s 
Him. Jour ; Royle's Ilk Him. Boiany, p. 850 ; 
Timber Trees, 2nd Ed. /». 189 ; Punjab B^porii 
See Evergreens. 

AB-i-6VL. PxRS. Rose Water. 

ABIM. SiNQ. Opium. 

AB-i-MA* Pers. Literally mother of the 
waters, the Amoo or Oxus river« 



' : ABINATTA. SihoH. Poppy seed, 
.ABIR: Ah. Ambergris. 

ABIR. jkjui Arab. KANDA. Hind, a per- 
fumed powder, which is rubbed on the face or 
body, or sprinkled on clothes to scent them : 
There are many receipts, but one kind is com- 
posed of rice flour, or the powdered bark of the 
mango tree or deodar, camphor and aniseed. A 
superior kind is prepared from powdered sandal- 
wood or wood aloes, Curcuma zerumbet (Ku- 
choor), or Curcuma zedoaria (ambi huldee), rose 
flowers, camphor, and dvet cat perfume, pound- 
ed, sifted and mixed. In every case it is a mixed 
perfume, of which the principal ingredients 
are yellow sandal, violets, orange flowers, aloes- 
vood, musk, true spikenard and rose water. 
It is a term applied in India, to any perfum- 
ed powder, and is often given to Curcuma 
zerumbet and saflfron q, v. — HerkloU, See also 

AB-i-RAWAN. Pjers. Fine Muslin. 

AB-i-SHEftEEN. Pbes. The Hindyan River- 
ABISHEGAM. Sans. Makes a part of the 
Pancha^ Shegam, a hindu ceremony which 
consists in pouring milk on the lingam. 
This liquor is afterwards kept with great care, 
and some djrops are given iu the Pancha Shegam 
to dying people, that they may merit the de- 
lights of the Kalaisson. Traces of this Abishe- 
gam ceremony are found in the earliest antiquity. 
The primitive race of men had a kind of sacri- 
fices, called Libation, which was performed by 
pouriug some liquor, but especially oil, in honour 
of the divinity. The natives of India have 
preserved this custom, not only in respect to 
the lingam, but also in honour of their other 
deities. They usually offer them libations, 
wash them with cocoanut oil, melted butter, or 
water of the Ganges. They always rub them 
wiih oil or butter when they address prayers, 
or present offerings to them ; so that all their 
idols are black, smoked, plastered, and dirtied 
with a fetid grease. The Talopoins of Pegu, 
and Ava, and the priests of Siam, also wash 
their idols with milk, oil, and other liquids. 
It is well known also, that the Jews have had 
sacred stones, which they anoint jvith oil, and 
to whidi they gives the name of Betyle. — 
Bonner aCs Voyage, ^. 159 & 160. 
\ ABISTADA Lake, between Hamoon and the 
i^jabul river, is a receptacle for the waters of 
Aifghanistan. No two authorities, however, 
agree about its extent, which no doubt varies 
with the seasoas ; some describe it as being iu 
i^ppearance an inland sea, while others confine 
1^ diameter to a few miles. ^^rt^M World in 
the Eati, Ritchie, Vol II. p. \%. 

AB-i-ZAL^ A river in Khuzistan which 
unites with the Kherkha river. 
' ABKARRT. Revenue derived in India 
from duties levied on the manufactuie and sale of ) 

inebriating liquors, as toddy, paohwai, and 
arrack ; also on intoxicating drugs, whether in 
substance, infusion or extract, as opium, bhang, 
churrus : also on certain licensed distilleries, and 
on shops licensed to sell by retail. — JFihon* 

ABLAK. ^^1 Arab. Hind. Pbrs. Piebald. 

ABLOOS. Beno. Diospyros ebenum, Indian 
Ebony or Smooth date plum tree. 

ABLUTIONS amongst the Hebrews, Hinr 
dus and Mahomedans are very carefully attend- 
ed, and are included as part of their religious 
rituals. They are allotted to various periods of 
the day, and varied to meet particular forms of 
purification. Tiie Hebrew ceremonial, as still 
practised by their Jewish successors, is laid 
down in the books of Moses and is generally 
followed by mahomedans, both for men and 
women, mahomedans nsing dry sand of the 
desert when water is not obtainable for their 
Wazu, before prayers. The hindu ritual ia 
severe on this point, and along the banks of the 
sacred Ganges crowds of men and women may 
be daily deserved. Their Sthnanam, however, 
as also their ritual purification before eating 
may equally be performed in their own houses. 
The Buddhists of Asia are less strict. Though 
so frequently enjoined in the Bible, as parts of 
religious ceremonials they are even more strin- 
gently carried out by Hindus, though less stria^ 
gently so by Mahomedans. The Hebrews^ 
in Genesis xxxv. 2, were ordered to put 
away the strange gods ; be clean, and change 
your garments, and a Hindoo considers those 
cloths defiled in which he has been employed in 
business, and always changes them before eating 
and worship. Again, in Genesis xliii. 24, 
''The man brought the men into Joseph's house, 
and gave them water, and they washed their 
feet," and with Hindus, as soon as a guest enters, 
one of the first civilities is presenting water to 
wash his feet. So indispensable is this, that 
water to wash the feet makes a part of the offer- 
ings to an ijnage. Solomon's Song, v. 8, says, 
I have washed my feet ; how shall I defile 
them P A Hindu wipes or washea his feet be- 
fore he retires to rest. If called from his bed, 
he often excuses himself, as he shall daub his 
feet ; and as he does not wear shoes in the 
house, and the floor is of clay, the excuse 
seems very natural. In Leviticus xiv. 8, 9, 
and 52 ; relating to personal uncleauness, 
there are similar eiiatoms prevalent among the 
Hindus, but in the Mosaical institutions ther^ 
is no law like that of the Hindus, which rules 
that a Bramhan becomes unclean by the toiMsh 
of a Sudra, or a dog, or the food of other 
castes.— The Hindu food ritual is given in Mark 
vii. 3, where the Pharisees and all the Jews^ 
except they wash their handa oft, eat not, for 
bathing is an indispensable pre-requisit^ to the 
first meal of the day, and washing the band^ 



feet is equally so before the evening meal. 
Ifjihomedaiis use water or sand, before prayers, 
before meals, and after many ordinary occurren- 
. — Ward* 9 Hindus \ HerkloCsKanun-i-Ulam, 

ABNUS. i-iJijT Arab, Guz. Hind, and 

Teis. Diospyros ebenaster. See Ebony, Dies- 
pyros, Ebenus. 

ABOO or ABU in Lat. 24° 46' N. and Lonf?. 
72^ 46' E. in Hajwara, the highest peak in the 
Anvaili range, 50 miles N- E. of Deesa, the 
top of the peak, at the station, being 3,850 
feet above the sea. It is a large isolated 
mmiDtain, in the tenitory of the Bao of Serohi ; 
45 miles N. E. from the military cantonment of 
Deesa, and to the S. W. of the Aravalli range, 
froiB which it appears to be distinct. It is 
situated on the western border of the desert 
of Bajpootana, and one of the philanthropic 
Lawrence Asylums has been located on it. 
It is a magnificent mass of mountain in the 
western extremity of Ajmeer, with a iiue lake 
oo the top of the hill, of which drawings were 
taken by Captain Grindlay. Its summit is cover- 
ed with exquisite vegetation, iu which white and 
yeUow jaamin and wild roses predominate ; every 
glen and knoU has its tradition and romance, 
and the Jain temples of white marble offer ex- 
amplei of architectural decoration ^hich proba- 
bly are unequaBed in the world for elaboration 
and coaiiineaa' Its fame is of great antiquity, 
and pilgrims appear to have been attracted to 
ila sacred temples since A B. 1034, though no 
ootke was taken of it in the maps of India 
before tbe year 1806- Hindoo temples are 
said Co have existed here in remote ages, dedi- 
cated to Siva and Vishnu : but all traces of them 
have disappeared. On their traditional site at 
DOwarra, the famous Jain temples now stand, 
bttilt by Bimul Sah, a rich Jain merchant, and 
otken ; for, in Hindu-Jain estimation, Aboo is 
tke holiest spot on earth. The base of Mount 
Aboo is about 13 miles long, II broad, and 50 in 
dreomferenoe. It rises abruptly from the sandy 
l^ains, and the ascent is consequently steep and 
winfiag. Tbe slopes of the hill are generally 
speakiag, covered with trees and shrubs ; the in- 
terveaing herbage affording pasturage during 
aoit parts of the year to the adventurous village 
cattle. Tbe summit of the hill is very irregu- 
lar; consisting of peaks, ridges, and valleys, 
sbping plateaux, and extensive basins. The 
hif^eat point is caBed Guru Sicher, and is 5,700 
feet above the le%'el of the sea. The avrrage 
hdf^ iA the station is 4,000 feet. Colonel 
Tod describes the neighbourhood of Mount 
Abso. m the site in which, from tbe most 
aaeieiit times, the ascetics known as Aghorn or 
Marda-kbor, or man-eaters have resided. The 
abn^rioes of the hill appear to have been a 
tan of Bbeds. Xhey seem at some time or 
pUi9 to ^harfi beepme mixed with marauding'' 

Bajpoots from the plains, and with the workmen 
who were so long engaged in building the Dil- 
warra temples. This mixed race call themselves 
Loke, and are now in possession of almost all 
the land under cultivation. 


Taking a section of about sixty miles iu 
the Alpine Aravalli, from the ascent at the capi- 
tal of Oodipoor, passing through Oguna, Pa- 
nurna, and Meerpoor, to the western descent 
near Sirohi, the land is inhabited by communi- 
ties of the aboriginal races, living in a state of 
primeval and almost- savage independence, 
owning no paramount power, paying no tribute, 
but with all the simplicity of republics ; their 
leaders, with the title of Kawut, being heredi- 
tary. Thus the Hawut of the Oguna commune 
can assemble five thousand bows, and several 
others can on ocoasions muster considerable 
numbers. Their habitations are dispersed 
through the vaHies in small rude hamlets near 
their pastures or places of defence. Aboo 
is subject to frequent shocks of earthquakes. 
The Bao of Sirohi, at first with some difficulty, 
was induced to approve of the sacred ground 
being used as a station for European residents 
and soldiers. As a Sanitarium, the most 
beneficial season for a change to Aboo is the 
hot weather. The cool and mild monsooti 
se^^on, is also adapted to many cases that 
droop and sink in the hot monsoon weather of 
the plains. The winter months from December 
to March are very healthy to most men, but 
should be avoided by those suffering from any 
organic visceral disease, lung affections, syphili- 
tic or rheumatic weakness. 

' o a 



■ ED 




•3 "^ 



M 7t 



ual e. 

m (rf O 

■I 3^ 


oft o> 














112- 9 


Avertige Annnal 
Rain fall. 


Deesa ... 

55*0 InchoB. 



Averuge Anuuai 
lUiii ftiU 

Mahabaleshwar ...254-0 In. 
Poorundhur 72*2 „' 

Dr. Cooh^ in B. Medical Transactional No, VI, 
New Series, I860.;?. 1897-8; BuUCs Catalogue-, 
CunninghoM^s BhUsa Topes ; Tod^s Travels, p. 
84. See Aghora, Khatri. 

ABOO AREESH, a diatrict of Yemen* See 

ABOO BAKU, the fint Kalif after Maho- 
med. Mahomed married hie daughter* See 
All ; Masailma £l-A9wad,.Abu-bakr^ 



ABOO KA.RIB, the most powerful of the 
liimyaritio inonarchs. He was commonly 
balled Tobba. In A. D. 206, he covered the 
Kaaba with a tapestry of leather and supplied 
its door with a lock of gold* See Kaba. 

ABOOL-FAZL, or according to the Arabic 
pronunciation, AbouU-Feda, a mahonuedan his- 
torian! who lived in the time of the Emperor 
Akbar. He was the eminent minister of that 
great king, and his land settlements are still 
quoted in India, He was, also^ enable<], by 
the most assiduous researches, and the assist- 
ance of the Punditi, to publish a Compendium 
of Hindu Jurisprudence in the Ayeen Akbaree, 
which may be considered as the first gtinuine 
communication of its principles to persons of a 
different religion. — Okaifield't , UinduiUtn, p. 
31 6- See Kashmir. Samarcan^* 

ABOO MAHATMA. A valuable ancient 
book presented to the Koyal Asiatic Society, by 
Colonel Tod. — Rajasikan^ Vol. I. p. 6. 

ABOR* BOR and ABOR is an Assamese name 
for a people who call themselves Pa dam. Bor 
means tribute, hence Abor free from tribute, 
aud the Padams are so arranged, into the payers 
of, and non-payers of tribute. They occupy thh 
mountains to the north of the valley of the 
Brahmaputra river. They dwell in about lat. 
27^ north and long. 95 east to the south of 
the Bor- Abor, and on the west or left bank of the 
Dihong river, oil the southern face of the Himn- 
layas on the borders of Thibet and China. Their 
capital is Membu, and higher up are the Bor 
Abors, whose capital is Simonir. The cnpital 
of the Abors contained about 300 houses : the 
surrounding country contains palms, jack and 
India-rubber trees, and they practice artificial 
irrigation and use suspension bridging of rattan. 
It is not uncommon for one Abor woman to have 
two husbands, living under the same roof, they 
being brothers. They bring to the plains in 
the cold weather, musk, skins of the musk-deer, 
ivory^ copper pots and a poison called ** Bees" 
extensively used in Assam to poison arrows, 
and probably a product from one of the 
Aconites. When first known they made periodical 
descents on the plains. They do not eat beef, but 
eat the buffalo. They carry bows and arrows, 
some of which are poisoned* Their dress is made 
of the bark of the Udhal tree. Bor is also said to 
mean ** greaty* and the term Bor Khampti 
is employed. The Bor Abor is the more dis- 
tant, the more independent and stronger por- 
tion. Their unmarried men live in the Morang^ 
a large building in the centre of the village for 
the reception of strangers, and in this custom, 
they resemble the practice of some of the Archi- 
pelago races. They sacrifice to certain deities 
of the woods and hills. The Bor Abor lie on 
the higher hills, and the similarity, or otherwise 
of their language to the Abor is not known. 
Considerable numbers of these people are also 

found on the shores of the two great northera 
branches of the Bmhmaputra river. -<—7ii^tais 
Annals ; LaihanCa deicripiive Ethnology — See 
Bibor, Jubar, Kulta : India ; Semang ; Mishnni.. 

ABORIGINES of INDIA- There are large 
nations and innumerable smaller races scattered 
all over India, whose origiu or date of arrival in 
the country is wholly uukuown. The bulk of 
these immigrant-s seem however to have come 
from beyond the Himalayas on the north, at 
times ranging between 3,000 and 1,000 yeari 
before the Christian era. Small bodies, iti 
the N. W. corner of the Peninsula, appear tor 
be of Western origin, probably from ancient 
Babylonia. There are people in the Southern 
parts of the Peninsulas of India and Malacca, 
with marked Negro features, and such recur inl 
the Archipelago Islands, with traces also, in the 
valleys of Northern India, as if there had once 
been a great Neicro wave setting to the East* 
It is a subject of much value to Ethnologists,- 
and notices of many of the races will be found 
under India. The Aboriginal tribes of the 
Hiraalavas have been described in the Orient. 
Chris. Spec. 1842, Vol III. Second Series, 
1. — i. Those of India by General Briggs, iu 
Edin. Phil. Jl. 1851, 3^1, and the language 
of the Aboriginal Hindoos, Dr. Stevenson, in 
Bom. As, Trans. Vol. I. 168. Mr. H. B. 
Hodgson, however, has been the largest oontri- 
bulor, and has described the Aborigines of India, 
their languages, &o.j in Bl. Aa. Trans. 1847, 
Vol. XVI. Those of the Sub- Himalayas, Ibid, 
1848, Vol. Xyil. 73, and gave a Vocabulary 
of the languages of those of Southern India, 
N. Eastern, and Central India, Ibid. 1849, Vol. 
XVIII. and Vol. XVI. p. 561. Those of the 
Neilgherry Hills — Buddagars, Todawars, Cot- 
ters, and MulU-kurumbers, have been given by 
Col. Lambton, in Bom. Geo. Trans. Vol. IV. 23. 

The great bulk of the settlers in India, 
labourers, farmers, foresters, shepherds, milkmen, 
artificers and professional races, seem to have 
come from the North-west by way of Kabul and 
Candahar ; down the valleys of the Indus, of the 
Ganges and Brahmaputra, and to have streamed 
through the gaps in the Himalayas, and from 
the practice followed of living apart in castes, 
who neither eat together nor intermarry, each of 
the immigrant Hindu tribes and races are now 
as distinctly marked as on the day of their first 
appearance. The Mahomedans, ^ven, who 
have less of such caste habits, although they 
also to a considerable extent follow the ancienC 
custom of marrying amongst their own people, 
are still readily distinguishable from • one an- 
other ; tall, powerful, fair men of tlie Aflfjgbans, 
fair robust Moghuls from Tartary, fair slender 
nou-aits from Southern Persia, the darker men 
of Arab origin, and the powerful, large made 
traders, known in the south asLabbe. All 
thcee, amongst the Hindusi Brahnumti Chetris, 




Vesfm and 8udra«, and amongst the Maho- 
ineHaBB, Syeda, Shaikhs, Mo^^huU and Patbans, 
are in great nations. But, tbroughout all India, 
ia faamletay in foreata and the plain?, in tovrns, in 
iBooataiu valleys, and on the mountains, are inna- 
Bi^nbJe emaller bodies or tribes, with formsy and 
liabits^ and following pursuits, quite distinct from 
eack other. There is no doubt, however, that 
theit languages show two areat divisions, Arian 
and InraniHO. Mr. Hodgson mentions, that of 
aevca of the aoathern tongues, five belonsc to the 
colitfated d'laa, viz., Tamil, Malajalam, Telugu, 
Gamataea^ Tulava ; and two to the nocuUivated 
daai, vis^ Curgi and Todava. In regard to the 
ealiifaled tongues of the aouth, Mr. EUiot ob- 
sefRs that the aptitude of the people at preaent to 
sabititiite prakritic words for aborigiaal ones is 
mek a atambling block in the search for affinities, 
as lo ripqvure peina and knowledge to avoid ; and 
la instaaera ^among others) the common use of 
the borrowed word rakta for blood, in lieu of 
the native term Qethar> by which latter alone we 
ire enabled to trace the unquestionable ethnic 
iciatioDsliip of the Gooda (even those north of 
the Vindhya) with the remote southerns speak- 
ing Teluga, Canadi and Tulava, The Hima- 
byaa iaogoagea form an exception to this as- 
Htned gBoeml prevalenoe of the Tamulian type 
of speech. On the subject of the local limiu 
sad mutaal iofliienee at the present day of the 
ealtivatcd langaagea of the aouth upon each 
other, Mr. Elliot remarka that " all the south- 
ern dialects become considerably intermixed as 
they approach each other's limits. Thus, the 
three worda for egg used indifferently by the 
people apeakinsc Canarese, (matte, tetti^ gadda) 
are evidently obtained, the first from the Tamu- 
Kaa^ matla ; the last, from the Telugu, gadda. 
This intermixturp, which is of ordinary occur- 
reaee in all cognate tonguea, is here promoted 
speridly by extensive eolonization of different 
raao. aa of theTelugus into Southern India 
ladCT the B^nagar dynasty, where they still exist 
IS distinct comm unities— and of the followers of 
Haaiaattja Achaiy into Mysore, where they still 
axe to be aeen aa a separate class speaking 
Tamil ia their families, and Carnataea in pub- 
ficL The Reddis also, an enterprising race of 
Bgrieaitaiiata, have migrated from their original 
•eats near Bijahmnndry, over the whole of 
Southern India» and even into the Maharashtra 
eoaatiy, where they are considered the most 
thriving ryota, and are met with as far north as 
Pooaa.** TbecttUivated tongues of Southern In- 
dia»are noticed in £lHs' Dissertation and Wilson's 

unity of the Arian family, from Wales to Assanf, 
has been demonstrated. The Tamulian raoe, 
confined to India and never distinguished by 
mental culture, offers a humbler subject 
for inquiry than the Arian. But, aa the moral 
and physical condition of many of the scattered 
members of the Tamalian body is still nearly aa 
little known as is the (assumed) pristine entirety 
and unity of that body, this subject has two 
parts, each of which is of interest, to the philo«- 
sopher and the statesman. The Tamuliana are 
now, for the most part^ British subjects : they 
are counted by millions, extending from the 
anows to Gape Comorin ; andi tliey are as much 
superior to the Arian Hindus in freedom from 
disqualifying prejudices, aa they are inferior to 
them in knowledge. In every extenaive jungly 
ojr hilly tract throughout India there exist 
hundreds of thousands of human beings in a 
state not materially different from that of the 
Germans as described by Tacitus. These pri- 
mitive races are the ancient heritors of the 
whole soil, from all the rich and open parts of 
which they wore expelled by the hindus. It 
is a worthy object to ascertain when and under 
what circumstances this dispersion of the ancient 
owners of the soil took place, at least to de- 
monstrate the fact, and to bring again toge- 
ther the dissevered fragments of the body, by 
means of careful comparison of the languages^ 
physical attiibutes, creed and customs of the 
several (assumed) parts. It is another object, 
not less interesting, to exhibit the positive con- 
dition, moral apd material, of each of these 
societies, at onoe so improveable and so net^dful of 
improvement, and whose archaic statna, polity 
and ideas offer such instructive pictures of this 
course of human progression. The unity of the 
Arian race has been demonstrated chiefly through 
lingual means, and much has been done, of 
late years similarly to demonstrate the unity of 
the Tamulian race. But this is difficult, foe 
there is an immense number of spoken tonguea 
anK>ng the Tamulians, whereof have already 
been ascertained not less than 28 in the li- 
mited sphere of Mr. Hoditson's inquiries ; and 
all these, though now so different as to be mutu- 
ally unintelligible to the people who use them, 
require to be unitised. The long and perfect 
dispersion and insulation of the aeveral members 
of the Tamalian body have led to an extremity of 
lingual diverseness which, as contrasted with the 
similarity of their creed and customs, is the 
enigma of their race. In Hindi and Urdu, 
though the structure is the same, vocables make 

Mackensie Manuscripts. Of the uncultivated a difference which ia broad and clear, owing to 

toognes of Southern India^ he observes that 
the dialects of the Curumberaand Irulers and 
etb« mountain races of the south are well worth 
Ofiioiing. The pagan population of India ia 
dmlad into tvro great classes, viz., the Arian, or 
mmigmai, and w Tamulian or aboriginal. The 

the evidently foreign elements of the diversity. 
Not so, however, in the Tamulian tongues, in 
which there is very little of foreign element : all 
is homogeneousness in the vocables, and from its 
sameness of kind is less open to distinct separa- 
bility. A summary comparatiye vocabcdary waa 

I 2 



A^Ynefl some years back by the Bev. Mr. Brown, 
4ind it has been extensively filled np with the 
dialects of the moaiitaineers round Assam. With 
regard to the determination of the moral and 
physical status of eaoh aborif^ioRl people, none of 
the Tamulians hove any old authentic legends, 
and being sjl very uninformed, save in what 
respects their immediate wants and hnbitual 
ideas, it is exceedingly difficult to learn any 
ihing of this sort from them directly ; 
iheir creed especially is a subject of in- 
isuperable difficulty, through the sole medium 
of direct questioning : their customs, again, 
are apt to afford but negative evidence, 
because, being drawn from nature, they tend to 
•identity in all the several nations ; and lastly, 
their physical aspect is of that osculent and 
•Vague stamp, that, what it does prove is general, 
not particular. 

The great Scythic stem of the human race is 
divided into three primary branches, or the 
TunguSy the Mongol, and the Turk- The first 
investigators of this subject urgently insisted on 
the radical diversity of these three races : but 
the most recent inquirers more incline to unitise 
them. Certainly there is a strong and obvious 
character of physical (if not also of lingual) 
sameness throughout the Scythic race : and it is 
remarkable that this peculiar character belongs 
'also to all the aborigines of India, who may be 
at once known, from the Cavery and Vigaru to 
the Cos! and Bhagarati, alpine feeder of t)ie 
Ganges, not its Bengal defluent, by their quasi- 
scythic physiognomy, so decidedly opposed to 
the Caucasian countenance of the Arians of In- 
dia, or the hindus. Mr. Hodgson apprehends 
that there will be found among the aborigines 
of India a like lingual sameness, and that 
very extended and very accurate investiga- 
tion will consequently alone suffice to test 
the real natuie and import of the double 
sameness, physical and lingual. That all tiie 
aborigines of India are Northmen of the 
Scythic stem, seems decidedly and justly inferri- 
ble from their physical characteristics. But, 
inasmuch as that prodigious stem is everywhere 
found beyond the whole Northern and Eastern 
boundary of India, not merely from Attok to the 
Brahmaputra, where these rivers cut through the 
Himalaya, but from that point of the latter river 
all the way to the sea ; and inasmuch as there 
are familiar ghats or passes over the Himalaya 
throughout its course along the entire confines 
of India from Kashmir to the Brahmakund, it 
follows of necessity that very careful and ample 
investigation will alone enable us to decide upon 
the question of the unity or diversity of the 
abovijj;ines of India, in other words to decide 
upon the questions, whether they owe their con- 
fessed Scythic physiognomy to the Tungus, the 
Mongol or the Turk branch of the Tartars or 
Scyttiians, and whether they immigrated from 

beyond the Himalaya (•* the hive of all nations*') 
at one period and at one point, or at several 
periods and at as many points. Between Gil^ft 
and Chittagong there are 1 00 passes over the 
Himalaya and its south-eastern continuation to 
the Bengal Bay ; while for the time of passage, 
there are ages upon ages before the daivn of 
legend and of chronicle. Mr. Hodgson inclines 
to the opinion that the aborigines of the iuh-Hi- 
malayat, as far east as the Dhansri of Assam, 
l)elong to the Thjbetan stock, and east of that 
river to the Chinese stock «— except the Garos 
and other tribes occapying that portion of the 
Hills lyin? between Assam and Sylhet ; and 
that the aborigines of the tarai and foresi skirt* 
ing the entire sub -Himalayas, inclusive of the 
greater part of the marginal circuit of the Assam 
valley, belong, like those last mentioned, to the 
Tamulian stock of aborigines of the plains of 
India generally. But what is this Tamulian 
stock ? what the Thibetan stock P and what the 
Chinese ? and to which of the three grand and 
well known branches of the Scythic tree (Tun* 
gus, Mongol, Turk) do the Tamu)ians, the 
Thibetans and the Chinese belong? Of the abori- 
gines of Central India, of seven of whose langu- 
ages, the three first came from Chyebassa, where 
they were prepared by Colonel Ouseley's Assistant, 
Captain Houghton ; the 4th and 5th direct from 
Colonel Ouseley himself at Chota Nagpur ; the 
6th from' Bhaugalpur prepared by the Bev. Mr. 
Hurder, and the 7th from Jabbalpurwhere Col. 
Sleeman's principal Assistant drew it up, the 
affinities of the tongues are very striking : so 
much so that the five first may be safely deno- 
minated dialects of the great Kol language : and 
through the Uraon speech we trace without 
difficulty the further connection of the language 
of the Kols wifh that of the " hill men" of the 
Kajmahal and Bhagalpur ranges. Nor are there 
wanting obvious links between the several 
tongues above enumerated — all which may be 
classed under the head Kol — and that of the 
Gonds of the Vindhia whose speech again has 
been lately shown by Mr. Elliot to have much 
resemblance both in vocables and structure to 
the cultivated topgues of the Deccan. Mr. 
Hodgson's hypothesis, in his essay on the Koch. 
Bodo and Dhimal, is that all the Tamulians of 
India have a common fountain and origin, like 
all the Arians ; and that the innumerable diver- 
sities of spoken language characterisifig the 
former race are but the more or less superficial 
effects of their long and utter dispersion and 
segregation, owing to the savage tyranny of the 
latter race in days when the rights of conquest 
were synonymous with a license to destroy, spoil 
and enslave. That the Arian population of 
India descended into it about 3,000 years ago 
from the north-west, as conquerors, and that 
they completely subdued all the open and culti- 
vated parts of Hindostan, Bengal and the most 




wfyeeai ineis of tlie Dekfamn, as TeUngana> 

Qajenit and Maharaahtra or tbe Mahratta 

cMiatr;. bat failed to extend their effective away 

nd ccdonizatioQ further aoatb» are hiatorieal 

Mttctioaa, confirmed daily more and more 

bf the icaiilta of ethnological research. Brach- 

Bsaea nonen gentia diffasiasimse cii}as. maxima 

pus in moniibus (Ariana (Cabui) digit, reliqui 

dm Gangem. Cell. Geo«r- And we thus 

fiad an easy and natural explanation of the facts 

Uiit in the Dekhan, where the original tenants 

of tbe soil have been able to hold together in 

fOMssbn of it, the aborij^intJ languages exhibit 

t desl ef integrity and rcfiucmeut, whilst in the 

Bortk, vhere tbe pristine population has been 

kaled into jungly and malarious reoesses, the 

aborigiaal tongues are broken into innumerable 

nde and shapeless fragments, but which may 

jd be brought together by large and careful 

iKhieiion. - Afr. Eodgwn^ in Ben. As- Soe, 

J90rm* See India. 

ABRA, surnsmed Mooch wal, or whiskered, 
^le of the Bhooj family who came from Cutch 
i& the time of Rinna Sowah, into whose family 
k intermarried. His son had offspring by a 
voman of impure caste and , they assumed the 
ttne of Waghair with the distinctive appella- 
tkm of manik or gem. The last four chieftains 
of this race were Mahap, Sadul, Samiah and 
Mnla-maiiik, who with all his kin and company 
fli Waghairs, Badhails, Arabs; &c., after a 
■aie defence was slain in the storm or 
L— 2Wa H-aveU, p. 220, 440, 44 1 . See 
latijawar. ^ , 

ABRAHAM, ^4^1^^! the patriarch of three 

idi^ioiia, Jewish, Christian and Mahomedan, is 
tW earliest Hebrew personage, whose date can 
be toed ^ronokigicaliy : from the emigration of 
Ahffmhaui. and the institution by him of religious 
odiaaaeea, the eonseiouanesa of moral personality 
aady a« a natural oonsequeDoe, the oonseqaeuce 
ef penonal chronology, may be aaid to date. 
Ue was a aon of Terah, and brother of Nahor 
and Hanan born at Ur, and commonly called 

aU JaU. Jl TJl Rhalil UUah the friend of God. 
Uia eqgiaal language may haire been Ohaldaic, 
bat the posaibility of tbe language of Abraham 
icnainiiig in its orighial state, during the 216 
yean that he and his family resided in Canaan, 
aid the 4M yean that the Hebrews abode in 
Esrypt, and the 400 yean, from the Eiodus to 
t%e feigii of Darid, that they dwelt in sueh in- 
t» ifi i» eoeneetion with the people of Palestine, 
m untenable.— £r»ttA/y on ike origin of 
lnfm$t$^ p. 25. BmueUy pp. 373, Vol LSee 
batran- Luriatan. 

ABBAU, a Jet tribe settled in Cutch Gan- 
■ate* See Jet. 
ABEAIL 6uz. Hind. uJ(r?> Mica, 
AMAFA^t SAiv«r of Mica, Talc. 

Ulut kambal. ...Bbno. 
Smooth stalked Abro- 
uiA... Enq, 

AB-BAWANT. Pek». and HinD. J^^ u*T 

a cotton manufacture, 

ABBESHAM. Pbhs. (^^T Silk. 

ABBESHAM. Sated. Pees. '^^r^j^\ 

White silk, cut into very minute pieces -, is used 
in Ajmere to remedy impotence : four tolas cost 
one rupee. — Gtul' Med. Top* page 126. 

ABR-MUttDAH. Pbbs. ? Sponge. 


Perennial Indian 
hemp.... ...En<J. 

Do. da. flax....ENa. 

A small perennial tree or shrub with soft vel- 
vetty branches and drooping flowers of tbe 
family of Sterculiaceee, a native of various parts 
of the interior of India, and as far east as the 
Philippines, and grows so rapidly as to yield an- 
nually, two, three, or even four cuttings, fit for 
peeling. On this account, and on account of the 
beauty, strength, toughness and fineness of its 
fibres, it is deserving of more than common at* 
tention* The produce is said to be three times 
greater and one-tenth stronger than that of Sunn, 
it can be cultivated as an annual. If maceration 
be employed, its continuance must be guided by 
the beat of tbe wrather. To prepare the fibre, 
the bark is steeped in water for about a weeki 
beyond which they require no further cleanings 
and in this state, without any subsequent pre- 
paration they are not liable to become weakened 
through exposure to wet. A cord made from 
these fibres bore a weight of 74 lbs., while that 
of Sunn only 68 lbs.— iifoyte. RiddelU JHoxb. iiu 
156, Voigt. 108. Oychpadia of Natural Hielory. 
Uetful Flange, 


Abrus minor, Vest. 
Glycine abrus, Linn, 
Orobus Indicus, Burm, 
Abrus pauciflorus, DeivdUnes* 

Aio-nl-dik As. 

gweta KuBcb^ ...Beng. 

Kivlo „ ••• n 

Khyen rwae, ...Burm, 

Rwae-^ayi ..• a 

Rwa-goay, •"^" 

Gunch Rctti, ...Ca*h. 

Jungle bead tree.... Enq. 

Bead seed tree ... » 

Lisne a reglisse. ... Fa. 

Pater-DO^tererbze... Ger. 








... » 
... n 

... }) 

Kuni Maleai/* 

Kowni .«• 
Khak-shi? ... 
Chashm-i-khoras. . 



Kundamni ... 
Gundamanni. «.. 




The white variety a. 

Telia Gunzginja .. . ^ 
Tbe black variety fi. 


»» ■ 

. PlBS. 

• n 
. SlABT. 

. Tak. 

. Tel. 





Khoroo-gueai. ...TuBr« 

A uative of India, Bengal, Asaaro, Burmah 

and the Moluccas, but now introduced into 

Africa and America. There are three varieties 

I of this tr^e, designated from the colpuitof th9 




flowoYs and leedt^ erythrospermos, or red 
seeded with a black eye^ leucospermoa or white 
seeded also with a black eye 'and meianosper- 
ID08 or black seeded with a white eye, the 
colours of their flowers beings rfispectivt^ly rose, 
dark and white. Those of a bright scarlet colour, 
with a jet black spot at the top, are used by 
the jewellers and dra^^ists as weights, also for 
beads and rosaries, whence the specific name. 
From their extreme hardness and pretty appear- 
ance, people prize them for necklaces and other 
ornaments. They form an article of food in 
Egypt, though considered hard and indigestible. 
In fine powder goldsmiths use them to increase 
adhesion in the more delicate parts of manu- 
factured ornaments. 

The roots abound in sugar and muoilage» and 
are employed 4is a substitute for liquorice, for 
which 4hey are perfectly suited in every res- 
pect. Tiie leaves have a similnr taste, and, mixed 
with honey^ are applied externally in swellings of 
the body. Horsfield says that in Java the root 
is considnned demulcent, and the mucilage is 
there eombined with some bitter. It is a po- 
pular belief that they almost uniformly weigh 
exactly one grain, troy ; but they vary from one 
to two grHins. The Burmese use them within a 
fraction iof two grain weights. One hundred 
and twenty, by one mode of reckoning, and one 
hundred and twenty-ei^ht by another, make one 
tickal, which weighs, aocordmg to Captain Low, 
S53'76 grains troy. The wood is of no value — 
Wight in his Icones, 88, figures A. fruticulosus, 
and Voigt names A. pulchellus — Riddell, 
Us^/ul PlanU' Mason. O^ShaughneBf^, Aimlie. 
Bozb, Hi, 257. Foi^L 228 Mason. Faulkner^ 
Wight. Bombay Products. See also Liquorice 

ABSALOM. It is supposed he was interred 
near the spot where he was killed, for we read in 
2 Sam. xviii. 17: — **And they took Jbsalom, 
and cast him into a great pit in the wood, and 
laid a very great heap of stones upon him." 
'^Robinson's Travels, Palesiine and Syria^ Vol. 
J./?. 130-1. 


•of the family which reigned over Malaga after 
the fall of the Kalifat. 
. ABUBA. TxL. ^2jar>8) CapparisEoxburghii, 

D' C, 

ABU-BAKR. The father-in-law of Mahom- 
ed and his sucoessor in the Khalifat, in A.H. ii 
A.D. 93iS. See Kajar : Klialifs. 

ABUK, Ab. ^1 also ZIBAKH. Abab. 

jxjj Mercury. 

' ABU KUBATS hill bounds Meccah on 
the east. According to many Mahomedans, 
Adam, with his wife and his son Seth, lie buried 
in a cave here. Others place Adam's tomb at 
^Muna Y the majority at Najaf. The early 

christians had a tradition that our first parents 
were interred under Mount Calvary ; the Jew« 
place their grave near Hebron. Habil (Abel>» 
it is well known, is supposed to be entombed at 
Damascus ; and Kabil (Cain) is believed to rest 
under Jebel Shamsan, the highest wall of the Adesi 
crater, where he and his progeny, templed by 
Iblis, erected the first fire-temple. The worship 
however, was probably imported from Indiii» 
where according to the Vedas, Agni (the fire god) 
WHS the object of man's early adoration. — 
BurioH*s pilyrimaye io Meeoah, VoL 111. p^ 

ABUL FAEAGH, or Al-mufrian: Mar Gri- 
gorius Abul Faragh bin ul Hakim Haroun 
ul Mslati, author i*f the book of dynasties, 
which he finished m Arabic, in the reign of 
Arghoon Khan, the last of Genghis Khan's 
grand-sons. He was a Jacobite Ghristiaii of (he 
city of Malatia in Cappadocia. It wm arranged in 
ten Chapters. 1. On the Saintssince Adam* 2. Tha 
Judges of Israel* 3. The Kings of Israel. 4. The 
Chaldean Kings. 5* The Kings called the Magi. 
6. The ancient Greek Kint^s. 7. Latin Bomaa 
Kings. 8. (Christian Greek Emperors. 9. Mahome* 
dan Arabic Kings. 10. The Mogul Kings. He is 
the Abul Pharagius of history ; though an Ara- 
bian writer, he was a Christian by religion and 
Prideaux notices him. — Chaifield's Hindooslau^ 
p. 245. 

ABULFEDA. This author of the geo- 
graphical - book, Taqwim-ul-bildan was the 
aqverrign priuce of Ha ma Syria. His name and 
titles at length were, Sultan Almalic Almuayd 
Amadaddin Abulfeda Ismael, the son of Malic 
Alafdal Nouradden Aly, eon of Jumaladdin 
Mahmoud, son of Omar, son of Schahinschah, 
son of Ayonb, of the family of Aoubites. He 
died in the year 1331, A.H. 732,— ifM^Off o/ 

Qenghiteant p* 409. 
ABUL GHAZl. See Kathi : India. 809. Saba. 

ABU OSAIBI. An Arab of the tribe Kha- 


died 1038) spent forty years in India, and com- , 
posed his exoelient work, the Tarikh-i-Hind^ 
which gives a compile account of the literature 
and sciences of the Hindus at that time. Al 
Biruni had been appointed by the Sultan of 
Kharazm toacoompaoy an embassy which he sent 
to Mahmud of Ghasni and Masud of Lahore. — 
Jliul/er's Leclnrts, p- l^h See Tibet. 

ABUSI\E 'lEllM3»in Southern Asia, in cha- 
racter more resemble those occasionally used 
among the Hebrews than such as the people of 
Europe employ, the Eastern abuse being personal 
rather than spiritual. In Samuel xs\\. 43, are the 
words. *The PhiHatine curse4 David by bis gods/ 
and a hindoo sometimes, in a fit of apger,,^ 
says to his enemy, 'The goddess Kalee shall 
devour thee.' * May Doorga destroy thee.* But 
(1 Samuel xx, 30) says ' Thou sob of ths per- 





mm lebellioQS womtn/ and the Maliomedans 
nd UisdoM often east leproackes in some such 
fonit u Uioae ; * Thou son of a loose woman.' 
'Hkw son of a beggar wouMta.' — JTard'* 

ABUSHAHR, generally abridged into Bu- 
ihikr, or Bushire^ a town in the Persian 
GiJf which rose into notice during the last cen- 
tiry, aod is said to have been previously an 
iMBBiidaraUe village, the Arabic word A6n 
yl ngnifies a '* father" also *' possessing," or 

"odowed with'* fcc., and iSI«Ar ^^ a '*city 
Of town "— Ob«»/^'« TrmvOi, Vol. I. p. 192. 

^'ABU SHAM." A familiar address in £1 
HfJH to Syrians. They are called '* abusers of 
^ttlt,'' fron their treachery, and *' offspring 
rf Siiiiiir*' (the execrated murderer of the Imam 
HiMjii,) because he was a native of that country. 
•Birfoa'a filgrimaa0 to Meccah, Vol JIL 
;. 114. 


Sida ludica. Xinn, Boxb, 
Almtilon Asiaticum. W, ^ A, 
Kda popnlifolia. Boxb, Sr Hkeede, 

Pohri.-. ... Bbno. Perin-tuttl Tak 

Tfai-ma^Uni-ok. Burm. Hw^ henda. ... Taj 

Atda. Ctnoh. 

iBdiu Mallow 

(anntryM^Oow), Eno. 

|*W... ... HlWD. 

hrraktutkl ...If ALEAL. 

Toi{t mentions twdve species of Abutilon 
M grawiag in India ; * this species, a small 
phit2-9 feet, common in most parts of India, 
wi colli? ated in Burmah. It yields a rather 
itnig ibre fit for the manufacture of ropes. The 
jttrsi us used in the same manner, in India and 
^ttnaV, as the narsh mallows in Europe^ in 
focoetioo as au emoilieot fomentation, and an 
^•wa of the root as a cooling drink in fevers, 
"is^t remarks that there is no character of 
101 importance to separate this species from 
« A. aaiaticam. — ^I'o obtain the fibre, the 
paiU an gathered and freed of their leaves and 
^^ladate put ont to dry in the sun for a 
^ of days. They are then taken up, tied 
^ budles, and placed under water for about 
J« ^ after which they are taken out, and 
»• ttres are well washed to remove the bark 
JJ*JJJ^ foreign matter that may be adheritfg 
w tieii, tad are placed in the siin to dry. — 
^ 114. Moxb. III. 179. Dn. Wi^hi, 
*»«» Wort. Utrful Plau(9, 


Sidapolyandra. Bojeb. 
It Persioa. Bunn, 

^1 ai Kandalla on the Neilgherries and 
^^^Awi^ ; yields a long silky fibre, resembling 
^^ fit !or making ropes, samples of which, as 
Voiiigf tkit of the A. tomfinto^um, were shown 

Kiigu henda. 
Botia benda. 
Dudi cheiu. 
Tutti i, ... 
Tutturu beads. 

... „ 

... ,, 

... I, 

... „ 


by Mr. Jaffrey at the Madras Exhibition, though 
those of tlie latter were not considered of a sa* 
perior quality— jeoa?6. ///. 178. VuigL 114. 
Jur. hep. Mad. JE»., U9€ful PlamU. 

Sida tomentosa, Box6, 

Too-thi Tam, 

Some small indifferent specimens of fibre from 
this were exhibited from two or three districts 
at the Madras Exhibition of 1855.^i2oxd. Mad* 
ras EsMHtion JurieM' i^^r^«.Wight also figures 
68, A. crispum* 

ABUYVA e^o^sSb Trichosanthes palmata, R. 

ABU- ZAID-UL-H ASAN. A writer of A. D. 

915. See Tibet. 
ABWAB. cjlyl Heads or subjects of tax* 

ation : miscellaneous cesses, imposts and 
charges. — fFiUon. 

ABYSSINIA is at present divided into three 
great portions, that of Tigre comprehending the 
tract between the Bed Sea and the Takazze, that 
of Amhara, to the west of the Takazze and the 
provinces of the south. The Abyssinians of 
Tigre and Amhara are of Semitic orijgin and 
profess Christianity, bring acquainted with the 
chief truths of the Bible, but all much blended 
with merely human notions. The latest pol^* 
mical agit<i\ions have been as to the two or three 
births of Christ,— born of the father before all 
worlds ; made man ; and in the baptism at 
Jordan receiving the holy spirit. As regards 
the two natures of Christ, they are extreme 
monophysists* Monogamy is their church law, 
but concubinage is lAiversal : when the Arabs 
threw off the Abvssinian yoke, the remnants of 
the Abyssinians in remote parts of the country 
were reduced to servile avocations and form the 
Khadim of Yemen. See India, p. 310. Kirk« 
Somal. Beer-el- somal. Khadim. Yalentia. 

ACACIA, a very extensive genus of plants, 
numbering about three hundred species. Of 
these, several are well known in the South and 
East of Asia, the foliage of some being attrao* 
tive, while others fnmieh valuable timber, use- 
ful gums and products valuable to man : the 
specific names of a few are doubtful and some 
of those species described ' by Boxburgh have 
been removed to other genera. On the Neil- 
gherries near Wellington, flourishing plantationa 
have been formed of the Australian Eucalyptua 
and Acacias. They are intended to supply 
both fuel and building timber to these hills« 
and are of very large extent. One plant- 
ation near Coonoor, of ISO acres, and of 
about ten years' growth, eontains many trees of 
from 40 to 50 feet high, and 8 ffct girth. It 
would be difficult to find 9uch a nobl^ forest of 
planted trees of the same age in eny part of the 
world. The seed is sown iu nursery beds an4 




well watered till it springt up. When the seed* 
lings are from 6 to 18 incbes high, they are 
(aken out, and the roots- of each packed in moss, 
or, in pots formed of one joiut of ihe large Kut- 
tuug bamboo. They are then replaced in the 
nurseries and watered every day till they are 
from 2 to 3 feet high, when, during the rainy 
weather, they are planted oat in trenches 6 feel 
fipart and 1 8 inches square, filled with surface 
earth and any decayed vegetable matter : after 
planting out, the young trees are left to thero- 
,selves ; growing close together^ they keep each 
other straight and clear of . sid« branches. 
During the first two or three years, very rapid 

Progress is not observable, but after that period, 
aving obtained a good hold, their growth is 
extremely rapid, and at ten years old, they form 
9 noble and profitable plantation, from the neces- 
sary thinnings^ both for building purposes and 
for fire wood. Most of the species now des- 
cribed under the genus Acacia, were formerly, 
by Linnceus, Hoxburgh and other authors 
classed as Mimaiss, but Voi^t names as grow- 
ing in India the following 39 Acacias^ viz. ; 







































Several of this genus, still remain without 
Specific names. Of these, three occur in Bur- 
mah, the Kuk-ko, the Po«peeah, and the Nway 
khyo, A. arborea was introduced from Jamaica : 
A* Wightii is a tree of Malabar and Dindigul. 
A. Kalkora, a tree of Assam* A. Frondosa, of 
Patna. A. Glauca, a shrub of S. America, 
A. Horrida, a tree introduced from S. Africa or 
Arabia, A. Semioordata is a tree of Malabar, A. 
Cavalum, a tree of liengal, A. Procera, Willde, 
a tree of Coromandel, and the A. planifrons of 
W* and A. is the umbrella tree of the peninsula 
of India* There is still considerable confusion 
amongst the species of this genus, as shown 
by the many synonyms of different writers. 
See Guma and Keains ; Charcoal. 

ACACIA. Silk tree Acacia. Choukur, Hind. 
^ common low tree in many parts of Hajwnrra. 
The flowers are long, cylindrical, one-hdf yd- 
toWi the other half bright pink and not 

mutable ; the colored stamina exactly retembla 
tufts of floss silk : the wood ia put to no use« 
— Getil, Med. Top* of Jjmere* - 
ACACIA. Saokei> Aoaci^. P ^ 

Bewa, Hind. 

A large tree common in Rajwarra, aaered to 
the Malajee, around whose shrines groves of 
this tree are commonly found. The wood is 
hard, dark colored, and durable, but only the 
decayed trees are used. — GtnU Med^ Top, See 
Pilgrim tree. 

ACACIA. TftA.V£LLBR'8 Acacia. 

Rheoqj. Hivi>. 

A very common tree in particular parts of 
Kiijwarra, upon which traTeliers at certain parts 
of the roads suspend shreds of their cluths as 
in other parts of India. To the extremities 
of the young branches are suspended innumer- 
able masses of exuded sap of large size. — Otnl. ' 
Med. Top, p. 197. 

Manilla, the fibrous part of the bark is used by 
ladies for washing their hair. 

ACACIA APFINIS. See Evergreens, 

ACACIA ALBA. Willd, Syn. of Acacia, 

Mimosa amara, Roxh. 

Belkambi Can. I Wnnjah Maram. 

Lallye.. MaUB. | NalU-regn. ... 

... A A1C« 

...Tkl. * 

This tree grows in Coimbatore, and is com- 
mon in the more inland jungles of the Bombay 
presidency, but less so on their coasts : Dr*' 
Gibson says it grows above the ghats of (Janara 
and Suuda,' not inland and not north of the 
Gungawulli river. It is a tolerably large 
tree in Coimbatore, but of rather low stature« 
Its flower is very beautiful. In Coimbatore the 
wood is dark colored and hard. In the Bom« 
bay Presidency, the wood is always very crook- 
ed, otherwise, when ripe, it is strong and tough 
and might be applicable to domestic purposes. 
From its black colour, the natives of Canara 
and Sunda deem it (wrongly) a species of 
ebony. —ieoa-d. //. 5*8. Voigt 261. Br. 
Wight. Dr. Gibson. 

ACACIAARABICA: «^t7W; Linni W.^/i. 

Mimosa Arabica, Lamarck, 




Akakia... ..< 

Sumug Arabi .,* „ 

Gur sunder Bbmg. 

BabuL Benq. Hind 
Dek. Mahk. 

Babla Bbno. 

Nan-lang-kyen. ...BtTRM. 
Bab-bul. ... DUK. 

Kalikikar, Dskh.Hi^d. 
Babul tree. ... Kno. 
Gum Arabic tree. „ 
Indian gum Arabic 
tree,,! ii\ n 

Babnla... ... Hind. 

Kurru-vaylam. Maxkal. 

MughiUn Paas* 

SaiDgh-i arabi. ... „ 

Barbura... ... Sans.* 

Andere... l.Sinoh. 

Kari-velom. ... Taic. 

Nalla tumma. ... Tiu 

Tumma chettu. ... „ 

Barbaramu. ... ,, 

Its gum is the babul 

ka Gond HiKD*' 

The vallam pisin ; 

karavelam pisin, Tav^ 




T1it$ yellow flowering and rather omsmental 
ti«e u met with in varying abundance through- 
out Sonthem India. It is of rapid growth and 
icqnires no water, flourishing on dry arid^lains 
nd espeeiJilly in black cotton soil, where other 
trees are rarely met with. In the western 
Bckhan of the Bombay Presidency, it is most 
freqaent in the interior, less common on the sea 
eoftrt and hardly known in its southern jungles. 
We do not find mention of it as occurring in 
Bnrraah, Pegn or Tenasserim, nor do we re* 
seaber obaervinjK it there- In Ganjam and 
Gaaisar, it attains an extreme height of ^5 feet 
wish a ctrcamferenee of 2 feet : in Nagpoor, the 
maiDnm length of its timber is 1 4 feet, with 3^ 
kd of girth, hut 10 feet long and 3 feet in 
IKirtb is the average, and it sells there at 6 annas 
per cabic fool. The height from the ground to 
&t intersfeetion of the first branch is about 8 
heL It can never be had of large size, and is ' 
Snserally crooked, but it is a very hard tough 
wood and is extensively employed for tent pegs, 
pkngbshares, sugar cane rollers, for the spokes, 
asfes^ and felloea of wheels ; for the knees and 
lAs of Goontry ships, and generally for all pur- 
poses to which a hard bent wood is applicable ; 
it is not attacked by white ants. Although in 
peat demand for ship building, when so applied, 
it does not last above 16 years* Amongst its 
ether naefoi products^ may be named its gum, 
hA and seeds, the latter being extensively used 
a the Dekhan for feeding sheep. The bark is 
feiy laigely employed in the centre of the Pe- 
ahnida as a tanning material, and when proper- 
If flwaaged, makes a good leather, with a red- 
itk tinge, thongh in native hands, the leather 
is often porons, brittle, and ill coloured. Dr. 
Baehanan mentions that, in Mysore, the bark 
VIS employed in the process of distilling rum ; 
hot in this he probably mistook another Acacia. 
He ground bark mixed with the expressed seeds 
of the Seaamnm orientale has been used as food 
ia times of scarcity. A decoction of the bark 
mkcs a good substitute for soap and is used 
ia djcing various shades of brown. It yields 
sn sbnndanoe of transparent gum which flows 
oat bom incisions or fissures in the bark and 
krdiess in lumps of various sizes and figures. 
This » used in India as a substitute for the true 
fum arable, which is the product of A. vera. In 
ilie medicinal practice of the people, the bark 
is osed internally as a tonic and astringent ; in 
decoction aa a wash for ulcers, and finely pow* 
deied and mixed with gingelly oil ezlernally, in 
CBDcerona affectiona. Dr* Gibson, for years, 
advocated extensive planting of this useful tree, 
tttheBombav aide of India, and several fdrests 
tf it at Khangaum, Kasoordee and other places, 
have been preserved. He tells us that the 
Aescia Arabica, -Babool, is most common in the 
interior ; less so on the coast, and hardly known I 
B (be tfDttthem jangles. As the vernacular { 


term, Babool, is generic, and applied in the 
Mahratta, Ouzerati and Hindi to various species^ 
there are he adds, two if not three varieties or 
species of Babool, Bam Kanta and £ree Babool. 
The first is the most common species, the seeond 
less so, and distinguished from the first by its 
straight stem, and general appearance, resem- 
bling that of a gigai>tic broom. The wood is 
quite equal to that of the common Babool. The 
third species is distinguishable from the first by 
its more horizontal mode of branching; the 
smaller branches long and stretched out, the 
side branches from them going off at right 
angles nearly. The bark also is muc^ more 
reticulated, broken, and corky than that of the 
other, and as its wood is very inferior, as regards its 
use for agricultural implements, house, material; 
&c. the diftiinction between the two, should 
always be kept in view as practically important. 
The pod of this third species, also, is much 
broader margined ; very partially monili- 
form, and can be at once distinguished from 
that of the first two species which is so contract* 
ed between each seed as to be neariy severed* 
The pods and tender branches of all the three 
species form important articles of food for sheep, 
goats and cattle, from February to the beginning 
of the rains. The Hesh of lambs fed on the 
pods has a flavour equal to that of the beat 
Europe lamb. Captain Saukey. Drt. Wight^ 
Cleghom, Gib$on. Mr, Rohde. ReporU of the 
Juries of the Madras Exhibition. Dr. Riddelk 
Useful Planis. tyelopadia of India and Supple* 
ments. Captain Macdonald. Eoxb. //• ^18« 
Timber Trees, Foigt. 262. 

Mimosa ctesia, Linn. 
Acacia alliacea, Buck,. 

99 Arrar, „ 

„ intsioldes, D, C 

Telia Eorinda. Tel. | Konda Korinda. Tel. 

The climbing shrub grows in Coromandd, 
Olipnr, Monghyr and Saharnnpur. Voigi. 263. 

A. Polyacantha, WiUd. 
A. WaUichiana, /). C. 
Mimosa catecha, Xt'nn. 

Catechnoides. Walh 

Khaiar, ... 





Wodalior ... 


Podala Manu, 


Khair. ... ...Beno. 

Kbaira-ghach, ...bENO. 
Sha, ... ...BuRM, 

Sha-bin. ... ,, 

Catechu tree ... Evo. 
Medicinal Acacia. „ 

Khair Hind. 

Kodira, ... 

. . . Sni GH. 
... Sans. 

••• >> 
... Tav* 

• •• ,9 

... Teu 

This tree grows on the Malabar and Coro« 
mandel coasts, in the Dekhan, the Northern 
Circars, is one of the most common trees of the 
Bombay coast and its ghaut jungles, grows at 
Serampore, Monghyr^ Hajmahal, Delhi, Nepaul, 
on the Mooring Mountains and Assam ; it is 



eommon all over the pldnt and scattered over 
the bills of British Burmah, in great qaatitities 
in the foreste of the Prome and Tharatnraddy 
dietriots. Immense nombers of these trees are 
atinnally out down and made use of for the ex- 
tniotion of cat«cha. There are several varieties 
differing in shade, specific wetghti and yield of 
catechu. A cubic foot weighs from lbs. 66 
to lbs. 70. In a full grown tree on good soil 
the average length of the truuk to the first 
branch is 20 feet and average girth measured 
at 6 feet from the ground is 6 feet. The 
wood possesses great strength and is con- 
sidered more durable than teak. It resists 
the attacks of insects, and is employed for posts 
and uprights of houses, for spear and sword 
handles, bows, fee. The catechu, formerly known 
as Terra Japoniea, is extracted from the wood. 
The Burmese variety called "sha** is common all 
over the plains and scattered over the hills of 
British Bttrmah.—-il0i;3. //. 562. Fot^i.262, 
260 ;—/>/-. McCelland. Major Drury. Drt- 
-Gibson and BrandU, See Catechu. 

Dichrostachys cinerea. W, jr A* 

Jksh coloured mimosa, 

Werdil, ... 



VedaUl, ... 

... Tam. 

Vellatooroo, . . . Tel. 

Chinna Jami, 

*.. xaii. 

Kela Jami, ...Tar*. 

This tree is said to grow in the Circars. 

ACAUIA DALE A. Desv. Syn. of Dichro- 
stachys cinerea. IF. ^ A. 

ACACIA DEALBATA, a handsome tree, 
from fifteen to thirty feet high, abundant in 
Port Philip and Twofold Bay, forming luxuriant 
groves on the banks of streams, between the 
parallels of latitude 84 and 80 degrees. Its 
bark contains a greater per centage of tannin 
than any other, and pays to ship to England. — 
Simmonds, See Evergreens. 

* ACACIA EDULA, Ibvinb. Esculent 

Khejra Hikd. 

A vtsry common large tree in Rajwarra ; the 
long slender pods are very sweet and pleasant 
food, cooked : for this purpose, they are univer- 
sally gathered by the poor wherever procurable 
and eaten both fresh and dried. The wood is 
very hf(rd, but the tree is not cut down. Med. 

•Mimosa elata, Roscb ; WaiU. 


'Thaeet tha. 
u Seet. 


Chuknl'Mora, ...Can. 
TeUaSopara. ...Tbl. 

This large, tall, stately and excellent timber 
tree is pretty common in Canara and Sundah, 
both above and below the ghauts. It occurs in 
the Oodav^ forests, in Dehrah Doon, Assam, 
on tbe banks of the Irawaddy and Ataran^ and 

in Tavoy : plentiful in the Pegtty Tounghoo and 
Prome districts, and very abundant all aloni^ 
the sea shore from Amherst to Mergui. Its 
maximum length is 18 feet. When seasoned^ 
it floats in water. Its timber is straight, lengthy 
and of Jarge girth. The wood is red and i« 
hard and strong and very durable. It is much 
valued and useful for house building* It is 
used for posts for buildings. It is adapted for 
cabinet making and of sufficient girth to be 
advantageously employed in Oovernment build- 
ings, and for packing cases. — Voigt^ p* 26 1» 
Roxi^ ii. 546. (kptain Beddome. Dn, 0ib9om 
and McMland. CupiaU jDoHce. Mctdras 
A Hilkry, 


Acacia Indica. Des9. 
Mimosa Farnesiana Roxh, Linn. 
Vacheliia Farneaiana. W. S A. 
Mimosa Indica, toir. 

Qnya Babtths . . . Beno. 
Iri babool, ...Mahr. 
Urimeda^ .. Sanb. 
Yit Khira» ..Bans. 

Baytr, ... ...Sindh. 

Bableo.... ... ,y 

Vadayvulli Maram, Tax. 
Kaatari, Petama chettuTEL. 
Pictumi.... ..• ff 

Roxburgh says it is a native of every part of 
India, in Sind, Silhet Assam, Bengal and both 
peninsulas. It is a large shrub or small tree 
armed with thorns, but in waste places in the 
Western Dekban, where it occurs also in garden 
hedges, it is only a scrubby shrub. Dr. Gibson 
says its wood is only applicable for tent pegs 
and firewood, but Voigt mentions that the 
wood is hard> tough, and used for ship knees, 
and tent pegs. A delicious perfume is dis- 
tilled from the flowers, and the tree exudes a 
considerable quantity of useful frum. — Dr. 
Gibson. Major Drwry. Roxburgh ii. 657. Timber 

Mimosa Ferruginea, Roxb. ii. 661. 

Buaty Acaoia, ...Eno. 
Vel Velam, ...Tabi. 

Woani ...Tjm.. 

•• • 






This tree growe in the Madras Presidency, on 
the Coromandel Coast and NorthernCircars, find 
is found at Courtallum, in the Bombay Presi« 
dency . It attains a height of from 20 to 25 feet. 
The bark is Very astringent and forms an in- 
gredient in the manufacture of a kind of arrack. 
--Voigt . 260. Brury. Roxb. ii 66U Ainulie. 
ACACIA GUM. See Resins. 
ACACIA INDICA, Dewallines. 
Vacheliia Farnesiana, W. §r A, 
Mimosa „ Linn. Roxh. 

„ sepiariay Roxb. 
„ Indica, Poir. 
ACACIA JUREMA. See Jurema Bark. 
ACACIA LATRONUM, Willd. ; D. O. ; 

Mimosa latronum, JTods. 
„ ooringera, Linn, 
Buffalo thorn,,, „,EKa« 




Common in the barren Iwcts of the Dekhan 
mH found on the Madras side of India. — Voigi, 


Acftciaalba, Willd. 
Mimosa leucophlaea, Roxb» 
alba, Roxb, 


Fuicled Acacia ... £ko. 
Kikar ...Hutd. 

SafcdKikar ... » 

« (• A Ah. 


Vel Volam 
Vellai Tumma 
Telia Tomma 
Its gunif vel Tclam 
piuQ ...T^ji. 

It grows in the Dekhan^ in the woods and 
USkof peninsnlar India, in Coiinbatore, in some 
ptrts of tbe Southern Mahratta Country, and 
a tke Sholapore districts between the Bheema 
ad the Kisina rivers. Its specific name and its 
Hindi. Tamul and Telugu names are given 
from tlic whitish or pale yellow colour of iU 
brk, which, in Southern India, is one of the 
iagiediento need in distilling arrack. In 
Coimbatore the tree attains a medium size with 
a roand hfsad, but in the Dekhan it is never of 
a ne fit for anything beyond posts to small 
hovses. The wood it furnishes, however, is 
atrong.good and dark coloured, though generally 
iBiaU. It is easily distinguished by its pani- 
ekd globulnr inflorescence and stipulary thorns. 
k tough and strong fibre, in use for large 
fishing nets and coarse kinds of cordage, is 
mepaied from the bark by maoetatton, after 
fear or five days beating. Under the Hindi 
Bane of Bohnee, this is described as a tree of 
Jahbalpoor, abundant in the Deiiiwah valley and 
Hoosingabad, yielding an excellt-nt and tough 
wood, but which does not work smoothly.— 
Cal CtU> Sx. 1862. Dr. Wight, Br, Clegkorn, 
Mttfor Drury, Mr, Rohde, Voigi, 262. Roxb. 

£ S38. 



Mimosa mlcropbylla, Roxb^ 

Tetulia of Silhet. A tree growing in Silhet 
todboattwelfefeet in height and the people 
distil from its bark an intoxicating liquor, which 
Ihey drink as the English drink beer.— /2ox6. 
iL». 549, 350. 


Acacia leblek, W. 
Acacia lomatocarpa, D, C* 
Mimosa marginata, li*n. 
Mimosa odoratissima, Linn, 

Vel Venge... 
Karroo Vaga? 
Karoo Taogam 
Sala wunjab 
Sela Maraiu 

Fragrant Acacia Eno. 
^ ...GOMD^ 

... )( 

Bam Sanaa ...Dkkb. 

&rrii. Xahr Dekh. 

Karnitha Karra. Hal. 

T«la Veoga Maram. 


(••1 am. 
• •• >i 

• •• y$ 
... M 

••• 19 

t • • X KL. 


• •• 

This kfge handsome tree grows over all the 

peninsula of India, in any soil, on the coast or 
in ihe interior, and is found in Bengal, Assam, 
the eastern provinces of fiurmah, Pegu and 
Tenasserim. In the Madras Presidency, about 
Coimbatore, it is of rapid growth and in con- 
siderable abundance, attaining the height ol 
30 to 40 feet. It often attains a good size in 
the Bombay presidency, but in Nagpoor, ife is 
only in gardens that its dimensions are greats 
the timber it yields in other localities being as 
a general rule, of small scantling. It is, even 
there, however, obtainable in beams from 15 to 
18 feet long and three feet in girth, at 5 annaa 
per cubic feet. In Coimbatore, beams one foot 
square are procurable. The heart wood is dark 
coloured, turning almost black with age ; is 
strong- and heavy and takes a good polish ; the 
grain being ornamental, though rather open. 
In Nagpoor it is described as being distinguish* 
able from the timber of the Pentaptera tomeu« 
tosa, only by its much straighter grain and 
greater hghtness. It has an outer ring of white 
wood of from 2 to 3 inches, inNagpoor, but which 
Dr. Gibson says^ is, in the Western Dekhan, 
always 3-4th8 of the whole. This part alone 
is assailable by white ants ; but by being creo- 
soted, it could probably be made a useful railway 
timber. All accounts describe its heart wood 
as strong, hard and heavy ; in Nagpoor of suf- 
ficient size to form rafters,, and excellently suit- 
ed for naves and felloes of wheels, but there is 
an uncertainty as to its powers to bear moisture. 
A beam an inch and half square sustained a 
weight of 670 lbs. The oil manufacturera of 
Nagpoor use it for their mills and it is there 
generally employed to make carts. The wood 
is said to deserve being better known for the 
general purposes of carpentry. — Voigt. 261, 
Gapiaim Beddome. CaptaU Semkeg Dr. Mason. 
Dr. Wights and Dr. Ciegharn. Major Drury, hr. 
Gibson, Dr. McCUlleLttd, qvoM in Cgclopadia 
of India, 1st and 2nd Supplements. Jtokde^ 
Roicd. ii. 546. Sankty* Madras ExAibUion Juries 

ACACIA HAMKANTA, Under this name 
Drs. Gibson and Riddell describe an ornamen- 
tal species of Acacia or a variety of A. Arabioa, 
as oommon in tbe Dekhan, though less abundant 
than A. Arabics from which it ia distingnishable 
by its strai^rht, tall, erect stem and general cy- 
press-like appearance^ or resembling that of a 
gigantic broom, and the colour of its legumes. 
Its wood is quite equal to. that of the Acacia 
Arabica, being hard and used for cart-wheels, 
plou<{hs, &c., but the natives attach some super- 
stitious notions to the use of the tree. 

ACACIA ROBUSTA the large Australian or 
Cape Acacia, introduced from the Cape, is novr 
growing freely on the Neilgherry Hills. At the 
Madras Exhibition of 1867, Mr. Mclvor exhi- 
bited specimens of bast, from this tree, strong, 
very tough and durable, also pliable when wet 

17 3 



tecly and oonsUnily made use of, for all the pur- 
poses to which Russian bast is putrio gardens in 
Europe. This bast can be procured cheaply and 
iu large quantities^ as the trees when cut down 
throw up numerous young shoots, to the height 
of from six to twelve feet in one year. The bark 
of the tree is also a powerful tanning material. 
Mr. Mclvor. Madras BxkMlion 0/ IS^7 . 

AOACIA fiUGATA. £nck. 

Acacia concinna, D. C, 
Mimosa concinna, Roxb» WiUd, 
Mimosa rugata, Lam. 

saponaria, Boxb. 

abstergens, Spr. 


. . . Bbng. 


... Eno. 

Chi-kaia ,i. 
Sla-kai ... 
Chikal ... 
Sikaya „. 

... Tam. 




Sita... •.« 
Ken Bwon .•• 
8oap Acacia... 

Grows in the peninsula of India, Bengal, 
Nepal, Sylhet, Assam, Moulmein on the Atta- 
ran and Dr. Gibson says it grows in the Ghaut 
jungles generally of Canara and Sunda. The 
legumes are used for washing the hair, and by 
Hindus for marking the forehead. The leaves 
are acid and used iu cookery instead of tamarind 
and with turmeric they give a beautiful green. 
Pods and bark are exported from Canara, the 
former as a washing material, the latter for dyeing 
and tanning fishing nets. — yoigt* 263 Roxd^ii, 
565. Dr* Qihion. Mason. See A. abstergeus, A. 
concinna. Soap Acacia. 

ACACIA. A, gummifera. Mimosa gsmmi- 
fera*The oiro x«^«'a<'«' of the Grf'cks and Tallek(il 
the Arabs of the desert. A nativu of Africa near 
Mogadore, also of the Island of Bourbon ; the 
trunk is very large and lofty, and affords the gum 
ppocalpasum, the Abyssinian myrrh of Bruce. 
l>r. O'Shaughnessy states that it also produces 
the Buasorah gum of commerce, which may be 
substituted in medicine for QumTragacanth. — 
0'Shaugh»eiiy, page 30 1 • 

Entada purseetha, D, C. 
Climbing Mimosa ... £ng. | Gila, •., Hievo. 

A large creeper running over trees in the 
Kotah jungles, where the atoms of this plant 
often in size and form resemble ship cables. — 
Gtnl^ Med. Top. p. 197. 

ACACIA SPBCI08A, fFUid i fT. ^ A, 

Acacia siriss-a, Buck. 
Mimosa flexuosa, Ro(H. 

siriss-a, Rox6. 

speciosa, Jaeq. 

... Ba»o. 

... BURM. 

... Hind. 

Serlsha ... 
iBedi ••« 
Sirisa ... 
Sirisaa tree 


VelVangaiMaram. Tam. 

Diraaana Tbl. 

Dlrasana Chettu ... Txl. 
Sindu va Che ttu . . . Tbl; 

... Tam. I Sirissee Uria. 

This, the Mimosa sirrissa of Roxburgh, in 
ihe Madras Exhibition Juries' Beports, is stated 

to be the Acacia sirrissa which is extensively 
planted along the banks of the Ganges canal. 
Like the sect of the Burmese, described by Dr. 
Mason and Dr. McClelland, it is a tree of large 
size and rapid growtli, but the seed is described 
as giving a red wood or of a dark colour, and 
that of the speciosa as white or light coloured. 
This large tree is plentiful in Pegu, particularly 
in the Tounghoo district ; it is found on the 
Irrawaddy and may exist in the Tenasserim Pro* 
vincei. Iu Ganjam and Gumsur, it is very 
plentiful, and attains an extreme height of 30 
feet and oircumferenoe 4i feet, the height from 
the ground to the intersection of the first braoGh 
being 22 feet. It is used for sugar crushers, 
pestles, mortars, and ploughshares. It is com* 
mon in the forests of the Bombay presidency, 
grows in Travancore, on the Coromandel Coaat, 
and is a common tree in Coimbatore, where it is 
frequently seen growing by the road sides on 
account of the shade that its large head affords. 
The timber is eaaily prooured in Madras, and is 
said to be white or light coloured, durable 
and very hard and strong, for Dr. White found 
a l^ inch bar sustain 560 lbs* Dr. Gibson 
seems to refer A. •speciosa to A. odoratissima, 
and to think that their Sirris and Ban Sirris are 
not different* Others describe it as a large, red 
or dark coloured timber, very hard, adapted to 
cabinet making and ship buildiug,and Yoigt who 
identifies Roxburgh's mimosa sirissa with this 
tree also says that the timber is large, dark 
coloured, very hard, and close enough grained 
for furniture, and that large masses ot very 
pure gum are often found on it. Dr. MawM, 
Captain Maedonald. Dr. McCiellojid, 2>r. 
Cleykom in M. R J. R. Dr. Wight, in M. B. 
F. ; and Dr. GiUon in Bomb.Oto. Soc, Joumak 
FoigL 261. Eoxb. it. 544. 


Tseektluu Burm, 

A tree of Moulmein was sent to the London 
Exhibition of 18629 under these names. Wood 
reddish colored and used for furniture. — GuL 
Oat. Ex. 1862. 
ACACIA STIPUL ATA, D. (7. (Albizzia.) 
Mimosa stipulata, Roxb. 
Mimosa sttpulacea, Koxb. 


...Bkno. I Seet. 


... ••• 


This unarmed Acacia, with flowers of a piuk 
colour, is one of the largest trees of the genus, 
and is found in Dera Dhoon, in the mountains 
north of Bengal, in Travancore, Courtallum, in 
most parts of the peninsula, in Assam, in the 
forests from Rangoon to Toungoo, and on the 
bauks of the Atnran River. Dr. Gibson does 
not mention its existence in the Bombay forests^ 
nor is it known to be found in Tenasserim. It 
yields a large heavy timber, wood of a red colour^ 
close grained and strong, and adapted to cabinet* 
making, furniture and other purposes. «-f^c»iy^. 
Dr, McChllaud. Major Drury. 




(•• ••• 



Mimosa suma. Roxb. 
Mkd Kaoto ...Bixo. | Telia Chandra 
Grows in Bengal. — ^Uses not kuown. 

Acacia chundra, Willd, 
Mimosa aundra, Baxb, 

LallKhelr Btsd. Mabb. | Nalla Chandra ... Tel. 

Kanag^Uy Maram. Tax. rSandra n 

Ckandim Tbl. | 

This tree grows in the peninsula and the 
SanderbuDS, but Taries in size, in different 
iKsilties. Dr. Gibson mentions that it is eom- 
mon in the jangles of Bombay, there always 
scnibbj, small and crooked ; and though rather 
pieatifal in the forests under the ghats, he had 
not seen it of a size capable of affording planks. 
It is somewhat abundant in the jungles, and a 
nther large sized tree. At Guntoor, Mr. Rohde 
BOLtioiia he bad obtained planks one foot 
hroad ; that posts five feet long are procurable 
it 18 Bapeea per 100, well suited for fencing, 
and that the natives regard it as the most 
darable wood for posts in house building, 
though from its nonelasticmitureit is unfavor- 
able to the holding of nails driven into it. The 
wood it, however, not obtainable in the market 
generally in planks of any size. The wood is 
of a dark colour, very hard, heavy and very 
strong, a one-inch bar sustaining a weight of 
500 lbs. It is also used for rice pestles. A 
xcttB similar to that which excludes from the 
A. catechu, is procured from this tree. The 
two trees are nearly alike, the uncertainty of the 
prickles absent or present, being a distinguish- 
ine eharacteristic of this one. — Afr. Rokde. Dr. 
Wi^ki. Foiffi 960. Ctegkom'% Eeporii. Useful 


Mimosa tomentosSy Roxb* 
Mimosa Kleinii, Pair, 

Salaeia Pab*"^*- ...Bkno* I Jnngle Nail tree. ...Eho. 
Elep^nt Thorn. ... Bvo. | Ani MuUa. ...Tah. 

Grows on the Madras side of India, common 
Mar Sholapore, in the Khandeish jungles and 
the Bombay Dekhan, and la found ia Bengal.*- 


Acacia nilotica. 
Mimosa nilotica. Linn, 

.- Arab. | Gam Arabic tree ...Eno. 
The Acacia vera is a tree of the African 
and according to Wellsted, of Arabia, its 
jield the camel the sole forage it ean 
im Ihoee arid regions. Two products are 
from it, one natural, the other arttfi- 
cU, mmrlj, "the dried Acada juice and gum 
TheAcada juice (Akakiaof Diosco- 
casteni writers) is a solid, dark colored 
wbataBce^ soluble in water which it 
aolo«i»iad* ttispbtained by pounding the un- 

ripe fruit, and the juice is thickened before the 
sun, and then placed in bladders in which it 
gradually dries. The little bladders of Akakia 
found m Europe contain about 5 or 6 ounces 
eaol) ; it is sold in the bazars of Bengal 
in thin, very black cakes about the size of a 
rupee. It was much lauded by Hippocrates 
and Dioscorides. Wellsted found the Sumr 
trees of great size, and the gum exuding 
in consirterable quantities, but very little of 
it was collected by the Bedowins, who com- 
plained that the price it brings in Mas* 
katy does not repay them for their trou 
ble. The great and most important article of 
commerce as an export from the Soudan, is the 
gum arable. It is produced by several species 
of Mimosa, the finest quality being a product 
of Kordofan ; the other natural productions 
exported ^re senna, hides, and ivory. — WtlUled^ 
Vol. L p. 73 and 106. Baker's Jlbert Nyanza^ 
O'Skaughnessy, pp- 299,^00. Mendis. 

ACAFRAO. Port. Saffron. 

ACAJU. It. Cashew nut. 

AC A LI. SeeAkhali. 


Aoalypha spiciflorus. Lamb, 
Chnnni maram ...Tam. | Chinni Aku Tsl/ 

Wood to be obtained about 18 inches in 
diameter ; hard and heavy ; not of much value 
to carpenters. Leaves attenuant and alterative, 
and an agreeable stomachic in dyspepsia and 
other ailments. — Wiffhl. Hogg^ 

ACALYPHA. INDICA. Linn. Roxb. Wight. 
Acalypha cupamenl, Rheede. ? f 

Mnkto-jari ...Bbno. Eupameni ? Tam. 

Shwet busunda ... „ 
Morkantee ... ), 

Indian Aoalypha... ISno. 

Kuppi DuK. 

Eooppie Hind. 

A small annual, common everywhere in the 
Peninsula and Bengal. This plant is easily 
distinguished by the singular cup-shaped invo- 
lucre wliioli surrounds the flowers* la decoc- 
tion is cathartic, the leaves with garlic are 
anthelmeutio ; mixed with common salt, the 
leaves are applied externally in scabies, and 
the juice robbed up with oil exterually in rbeu« 
mBX\9,m^'-^Uogg* Ds^ul Planis, ffonigberger. 
0' SAoMgknessg. page ^61^ VoigU 160. Wight 
also figures A- mappa. 

ACANTHACfij; In Ceylon, " nelloo'* ia 
applied to the species of this natural family 
generally.— -2%tf. j^/inm. pi. Zeyl. p, 2123— 
See Acanthus. 

ACANTHOPTERYGII. See Cottus j Cory- 
pha&na ; Dactyloplerua ; Diaoope ; Cheetodoii ; 
Anabas ; Sword fish ; Pilot fish ; Mullet. 

a sharp round $pine on the side of the body* 
near the iailf 

Harita manjari ... Tkl. 
Kuppanti chettn ... ,» 
PuppADti, Mirutkttnda ^ \ 
Morapiiidi », 




Dilivaria ilicifolia. Jusi, 

Holly leaved Acanthus. Every muddy bank 
in the Tenasserim Provinces is relieved by 
6h>wd8 of this handsome, blue flowered plant, 
with leaves like a holly. The Burmans say, its 
roots are a cure for the bites of poisonous 
snakes. — Ma^on, 

ACARU3 PAKIN J!A, or meal mite, is never 
present in flour, unless when damaged, and in 
a state unfit for consumption. The domestic 
mite, A. domesticus, which does so much injury 
to stuffed insects and birds, can be somewhat 
guarded against with camphor and a solution of 
corrosive sublimate. The sugar mite, A saccha- 
rinum, so common in cane sugar, is unknown 
in tire palm sugars of India. — HobulI. 

AGASANAVI. Sansg. In Brahminism, 
an ethereal voice, heard from the sky ; an ema- 
nation of Brahm. When the sound proceeds 
from a meteor or a flame, it is called Agnipuri, 
or formed of fire : but an Avatara is a descent 
of the deity in the shape of a mortal ; and an 
Avantara, a word rarely used, is a similar in- 
carnation of an inferior kind, intended to answer 
some purpose of less moment. Acasanavi, 
therefore, is a manifestation of a deity, in which 
he is heard but not seen. 

AC AS E A. A name for the Sky, or Firmament. 

AGATSJA VAIIiI. Tam. ^miriF^&te^. 
Cassyta filiformis. 

ACAWERYA. Ctng. Ophioxylon serpenti- 

ACCAD. See Kesra. 

ACCIAJO. It. Steel. 

ACCIUGHE. It. Anchovy. 

aignation in India given to civil oflicers of 
the Government, who keep the public accounts. 



ACEITUNAS. 8p- Olives. 

ACER. Dr. Royle meniions, that immedi- 
ately we commence ascending the Himalayas, 
either in Nepanl or Sirmoor, we meet with 
species of the Acer or Maple family, seven 
new species have been discovered in these moun- 
tains, of which Acer oblongiim, is that which 
deaoenda to the lowest level, being found in 
Nepaul and further north in the Dehra Doon, 
between ft,000 and 8,000 feet of elevation. 
Acer cultratum is found at 6,500 feet on the 
Mnesooree range, and at similar heights in 
Sirmoor and Gurhwal ; while A. oaudatum 
(Wall. PI. As. Bar. t. 1 32. and A. acuminatum ? 
Don) sterculiaceum and viliosum, are otvly seen 
with pines and birches on the loftiest mountains, 
which are for many months covered with snow, 
A. stercaliaceum (Wall Pi. As. Rar. t 105) is 
closely allied to A, vellosum, which- differs but 

little from a pseudo-platanus, or sycamore ; 
and as this affords timber which, from being 
light and tough, is much used by turners, and 
for making saddle trees, so it is probable 
that both the Himalayan species would anawer 
equally well for the same purposes. The wood 
of A. cultratum is white, light and flne-grained, 
and might be turned to ihe same uses as that 
of the maple, which is esteemed by turners, and 
also occasionally for making gun-stocks. A« 
caudatum is also found in Kunawar, and A. 
sterculiaceum, extends to Cashmere. Though 
this family contains one other genus, 'Negundo, 
which has been separated from Acer, a new 
one, Dobinea, has been discovered in Nepaul 
by Dr. Hamilton, and is distinguished, accord 
ing to Mr. Don, by its monoecious flowers, 
companuiate 4-toothtid calyx, with the eight 
stamens united into a column round the sterile 
style. It is only a shrub of six feet in height, 
but judging from the dried specimens, it must, 
when in flower, have a very light and elegant 

Acer (Negundo) fraxinifoliumi is a native of 

North America, from which sugar is said to be 
made. Mr. Hodgson, in his Nagasaki, p. 342-3, 
gives the following as the species of the genus 
Acer, growing in Japan, viz : . 

A. carpinifolium S. dt Z. 
A. cratffigifolium „ 
A. distylum, „ 

A. dissectum, Thunb, 
A. Japonicum, „ 

A. paimatum, „ 

A. raicranthum. S. S Z. 
A. pictum, Thunh. 

A. polymorphum, „ 
A. rafinerve, fi^. ^ Z. 

A. seaailifolium, „ 

Besides two species undescribed. Hodg$onU 
NagMaki: — Boyle's III*, Him. Bol* 

ACER DOBINEA, the Maple of Norfolk 
Island,4s a very handsome tree, and its wood 
is used for cabinet work. — KeppeV% Ind, Arch. 
Vol. //, p. 282. 

ACER LEVIGATUM. Wall. A tree of the 
higher Nepaul mountains. — Voigt. p. 92. 

ACER OBLONGUM. Wail. A Nepaul tree 
with very small flowers, in May. — Vaigi.p. 90. 


Khftll ... ••• Ab. 
Poim-ya ...Burm. 

Pyroligneons acid Eno. 
Vinegar ... », 

Sirka, also RhaU Hind. 

The ordinary vinegar* of the Indian bazars 
is prepared from the Dolichos uniflorus. Dr. 
O'Shaughnessy discovered that much pyroligne* 
0U8 acid passes over along with other gases, in 
preparing the charcoal for the Eshapore powder 
works, and he recommends for India the pra<|» 
tice followed in Germany, where a stron|^ 
acetic acid isf obtained cheaply aiid rapidly by 

Acidum Aceticum Lat. 
Chuka ...Malay. 

Sirka ... pRRfi. 

Kadi ... Tah. 

Pttl'su ... Tki.. 




eauing a mixkore of one part of spirit, four 
filer, ami about 1000th part of honey or yeast 
to filter into a cask containing wo'»ci-8harings» 
vd prorided with holes to aeoure a free circu* 
htionofair. A rery large surface being thus 
opoied, the ateohol is rapidly eonyerted into 
ueiie aeid« The fluid drops from the cask 
■to the reoeiTer aud should be repassed orer 
the skirioss four times. The action is most 
dbdiTe when the temperature ranges from 75^ 
to 100^. In India, teak shavings well boiled 
ii water and subsequently steeped in good 
liaepr should be employed. The casks should 
be prorided with a perforated tray at top to 
neave the mixture, the perforations being 
ikoat the size of a quill, and furnished with 
flotton wicks to moderate the flow of the liquid. 
Hie tray should also have four air-holes an 
iidi ia diameter, with glass tubes to permit of 
tte emulation of air. — Bemg, Fkar. p. 238. 

iCH. Hind. Morinda citrifolia, Lmn. See 

iCHAAT. Ddt. Oomelian. 

iCHAor ATTI MABAM. Tam. Hardwidda 
biaats ; any ebony. 

AGHABMENLAN. See Westergaard. 

ACHAKSHU. Hind. P Spectacles. 

ACHAK-ZAI. PusHT. sSj^^ ^^ Afghan 

tnbe. See Afghan : Kakur ; Durani. 

ACHA MARAM. Tam. also Atti Maram, 
Tix. ^^eriDjnh, Diospyros ebeuaster; 
ebony tree. 

AGHAE. Hind. ^U.| Pickles. 

iCUAR. A Native race in Nepaul, from 
vboQ the Mewars select their priests. 

ACHAR. Malai. Antiaria. 

ACHARYA, the person who taught the 
Tolas used to be called Acharya ; and at pre- 
*at the Brahman, who reads a portion of 
tbea at the time of investiture with the poita, 
a ailed hy this name ; as well as the person who 
Rsds the formularies at a sacrifice. — fFard*$ 
iSTa^ Vf^ IL p. 16-17. Set Qatfotn. India, 
^ 940. FrieMU. 

ACHAT. Gbr. Cornelian. 

ACHATES. Lat. Cornelian. 

AGHAUa. See Greeks of Asia. 

ACHE Ok ACHIN. See Acheen : India. 

ACHEEN. (Sumatra) Athi of the Malays, 
Atjjia of the Dutch, Lat. 5^88' N. Long. 
IS^ 46' £. The capiUl of a kingdom of the 
ane name, situated near the N. W. exitreme 
of Samatnu and formerly one of theprindpal 
Ming ports of the Indian Archipelago, its 
|KmtioB, near the entrance of the Straits of 
Mabeea, enabling it to command the navigation 
^ vhat was then the only channel of eommuni* 
ttte hetweenthe Islands of the Indian Archi- 
P*^s and the countries of the West. Every 
^»mI entering the Straita was then obliged to 
^ at Acheen to obtain a pass, but the arrival 

of Europeans in these seas who were by no 
means inclined to acknowledge the authority 
of a sovereign who was looked upon as a bar- 
bariaii, set at defiance the assumed'authority 
of ihe kiiig^ of Acheen, and it has gradually 
decreased iu importance until tlie present time. 
This monarchy arose from the usurpation of 
Sultan Saleh-ood-din in A. D. 1581, previous 
to which time, Acheen had been a province of 
Pedir and governed by a viceroy from that 
kingdom.. The kingdom extended, in former 
times, from the north-west promontory of the 
island of Sumatra (called Acheen Head, a welU 
known and bold landfall for ships) to beyond 
Batu Bara river, on tlie north side of the isliind. 
But the territory in modern times, on the 
north coast, may be said to commence from 
Diamond Point, as it has ceased to exercise 
authority over Langhat, Delli, &c. The Achecn- 
ese differ much in their persons from the other 
Snmatrans, being in general rather shorter and 
of a darker complexion. They are by no means, 
in their present state, a genuine people, but are 
supposed to be a mixture of Battas and Malays, 
with Chnliahs, as they term the natives of the 
west of India. The town of Acheen is situattd 
on the banks of a river, which, after traversing 
a broad plain bounded on each side by ranges 
of hills, forms a delta and falls into the sea by 
eeveral mouths* The roads are tolerably secure, 
especially from April to November, when the 
south-west monsoon prevails and blows usually 
off the land. During the remainder of the year, 
north west gales are sometimes experienced, 
but the islands in the offing afford con« 
siderable shelter, and a ship well found in 
ground tackle, is not likely to incur any danger 
of being driven on shore. The usual anchorage 
is in from 9 to 15 fathoms, with the principal 
mouth of the river from S. to S. E., and about 
2^ or 3 miles off shore. They are an active 
and industrious people, and show much mecha- 
nical ingenuity, but are not scrupulous with 
regard to their commercial transactions. They 
are strict mahomedans, and great numbers 
resort in the Arab vessels to Mecca, with the 
view of becoming Uajis or pilgrims, which 
entitles them to high respect among their com- 
patriots on their return. The Arabs, from their 
supposed sanctity^ had formerly great influence 
among the Acheenese, but this has subsided 
of late years, owing to the turmoils which their 
selfish ehicanery produced in the State. The 
most influential individuals now are the "Padri," 
a species of religious fanatics, chidly Malays of 
the Menangkabao states of the interior, who 
have been for many years past occupied in op- 
posing the encroachments of the Dutch in the 
interior of Sumatra, but are now chiefly congre- 
gated in the kingdom of Acheen, as the last 
hope of their race. Acheen was not only one 
of the principal trading ports of the Archipebgo^ 




but also one of the most powerful kingdonoft, 
ou the first arrival of Europeans, and its naval 
expeditions continued to be a source of great 
annoyaiicft and alarm to tbe Portuguese as long 
as they continued in power. Its decline, how- 
eTcr, had already* commenced before tbe English 
and Dutch first visited tbe Indian seas towards 
the close of the I6lh oentury, chiefly owing to 
the efforts of tbe Portuguese to concentrate the 
trade of the Archipelago at Malacca- Acheen 
has since continued to decline until its capital 
has become a port of minor importance even 
within its own territories. The nominal boun- 
daries of the kingdom still continue to be much 
tbe same as formerly, namely, Baroos on the 
west coast, and Batu Bara on the east coast, but 
the encroachments of the Dutch on tbe one hand, 
and the spirit of independence displayed by the 
petty Rajahs on the other, have reduced the 
actual authority of the Acheenese kings to limits 
which scHrcely extend beyond the immediate 
neighbourhood of the capital. The natural 
productions of Acheen and its neighbourhood, 
include gold dust, which is ohieSy prociuced 
by washing the sands of the rivers ; camphor, 
which goes by the name of '' Baroos camphor," 
and is highly prized in China j sapan-wood, 
bees'-wax, dammer and rattans. Cattle are 
abundant, and also small horses of an excellent 
breed, (the best, indeed, in the Arcbipelago 
with the exception of those of Bimah in Sum- 
bawa) which are exported in considerable num- 
bers to the settlements in, the Straits of Malacca, 
eipecially Penang, where some very favourable 
specimens of the breed are to be met with. 
The better kind have fine crests, and good 
strong shoulders, in whicb latter particular, as 
well as in height of wither, they differ very 
much from the horses of Java and tbe islnnds 
to the eastward, which are generally deficient 
in these points. Sheep are almost unknown, 
the nature of the grasses being apparently un- 
fitted for them. The coasts abound in fish, 
which tbe Acheenese are very expert in taking. 
Bice, pepper, betel-nut are the chief agricul- 
tural products. All the principal fruits of the 
Arcbipelago, mangostein, duriau, mango, pine, 
and lansat ; orange, lime, and many smaller 
fruits are produced, and of a quality rarely 
equalled and never excelled in the east. The 
great beauty of the country in the neighbour- 
hood of Acheen, the green bills backed by the 
lofty Golden Mountain, and tbe sea studded 
with islands, must have made a very favourable 
impression upon the early navigators, to whom 
Acheen was generally the first spot that pre- 
sented itself; and their expectations concerning 
the richness of the Archipelago must doubtless 
have been extravagant, when they found so 
fertile and productive a country lying at its 
very threshold. The Auheenese manufacture 
^cotton cloths of very durable texture, and also 

small quantities of silk taffetas, which are hand- 
some, but so excessively dear, that they can 
only be purchased by the wealthier people, and 
are seldom exported except as curiosities or as 
presents. The material of the cotton cloths is 
of home growth, but the raw silk is imported 
from the continent of India. The Acheenese 
are also expert workers in gold, and were for* 
merly skilful in casting small brass cannon or 
" lelahs," but the manufacture of these articles 
is now confined almost exdnsively to Palem* 
bang, on the east coast of Sumatra, where it 
was introduced by settlers ^rom Java* Acheen 
port is rarely visited by European vessels for 
purposes of trade, although it is often resorted 
to by ships bound to Calcutta or Penang whicb 
have become short of water or provisions, from 
having met with baflling winds in the neigh- 
bouring seas, which are very likely to occur at 
certain seasons, especially towards tbe close of 
the year. — Joum. Imd, Arekip, Anier%ori'9 
Acheen. See Monsoon; Pulo Hondo; Suma- 
tra ; Malacca Fort ; Tanjong Bote. 

AOHfiNIYA PATA. B£N0« Pederia ter- 

Head Moth of Ceylon ; a richly colored noc- 
turnal moth, whicli utters a sharp and stridu- 
lous cry when seized. Tennant. 

ACHIT. See Sri Sampradaya. 

ACHHAR. Hind. Fruit of Buchanania 
latifolia. See Chaurapuppoo. 

ACHHAR TILAK, Sans. The ceremdny 
of putting a few grains of rice on the forehead 
of an image when addressed, or on that of a 
Brabman when invited to an entertainment. 

AOHIBUL. a large spring in Kashmir ; it is 
near the village of Achi-gam, probably, like 
Sondi Breri, a spring from tbe Berengi river. It 
possessed a colony of dancing girls, in former 

ACHIMEN^ES. Very ornamentnl flowering 
plants of various colours flowering in tbe rains, 
of easy culture ; the scaly tuberous roots, by 
which they are propagated, must be carerully 
preserved during the dry weather, by occasion- 
ally moistening the earth in wbich tbey ' are 
kept, and after the commencement of tbe rains, 
the imbricated buds, wbich they produce under 
ground, may be divided and planted out.-— 

AGHIN. See Acheen, also India. 

ACHINESE. See Acheen, also India. 

ACHIOTTI ROCOU. Sp. Arnatto: Annotto, 

ACHI-URU. Tam. Printing house. 

ACHOODA. Sans. Solanum trilobatan. 

ACHOTE. See Dyes. 

ACHRAS BALATA. Aubl. Himusops 

ACHRAS DISSECTA. Fobsk. Mimusops 
kauki. Linn* 




BiIU or Bully tree. Bxo. 
Cumoioii Sapota. «.. 9, 
SapoddilJa Plum ... »• 
Tbwooi-te-l»t. ...BuBM. 

ACHM3 8AP0TA. fFUld, Diospyros 


Koweet? o{ ...Bombay* 

Rateitii Singh. 

Siini Elupei maram. Tau. 
Sixna Ippa Ohettu.. Tel. 

A native of China, cultivated Id the west 
ladks and S. America. In India, only grown as 
ilraittree, haa been iniroduced into the Dekiian 
fma 60a, wood hard and close grained. The 
leeds are aperient and diuretic ; in over-doses 
tkjan dangerous. The bark is said to be a 
food substitute for Cinchona. The Tamil name 
sftUs tite is liable to be confounded with Mi- 
nsopa and Bassia. — Jafretf, Riddell Roxb^ 
r«y<.S39;SeeSapodilla. Diospyros sapota. 

AGSUA. Sans. An astronotoiical terra, 
icsha ansa, and Acsha Bhai;as, degT«es 
of terrestrial latitude, Acsha Carna, Hypo- 
tkaaie ; but in iU Astronomical sense, means 
ff]at Earopeans call the argument of the 
htitade, as well as Patana Chendra. 

ACllULIYAJA. Bbng. Long leaved Ilea 
nacropliylla. * 


ACHTOOT. Bbno. Morinda tinctoria. 

ACHYRANTHBS. A genus of plants of the 
iBhural Older, Amarantacese, some of the spe- 
eiei formerly placed with this, have now been 
Kmofed to other genera. Wight in his loones, 
iguTes A. alternifolia, aspera, bidentata, bra- 
tiaU, diandra, fcrruginea, fruticosa, lanata, 
Ji]^ptoea, Monsoniana, muricata, orbioulata, 
|Muirata,rQbrofn8ca,9Gandens, sericea, triandra. 


Achyranthes ludica, Roth. Rheede. 
obtusifolia, Lamb, 
spicatua, Burm, 

.. Bbnq. 
••• ff 


Cibtliiia... ... „ 

Apfflg. liUKM 

VRk DuT. 

8«lglB«, ...EOTPT. 

^^ chaff flower, Bng. 

« AdiynniUes. „ 
l^>*-<iirdiiii ^HWD. 

Kadelartf ...Kaleal. 
Pratyuk puahpi ...SAira. 

Apamarpa , 

Gas. ... ... Sp. 

Nai uruvi. ...Tam. 

Utareni... ... TiL. 

Antiaa^.., «•. n 

Apamargamu. ..• ^ 
Pratyuk pushpi... », 

A kerb growing all over India, in many places, 
H I troublesome weed : its seeds, flowering 
^likfid learea, and ashes, are used in native me- 
diae, and as greem,— Roxb. Voigt. Jaffrey. 
ftay6. TJuM Plants. See Vejjetables. 

Ackyianthes aspera. 


JSroa lanata. Roxh. 
Blecebrum lanatum. Roxb. 

pf^kajor. DtjK. I Apanga BsNO. 

A«*»»bayda Saks. | Pot-kudapala ...Sinoh. 

'^^ root b deemed to be demulcent, and is 

prescribed in strangury. It is quite oommon in 
Colombo. — O^SkauffAnesiy, page 354. AintlU 
ii. 393. 

Syn. of Achyranthes aspera* 

Sand Binding Plants. 


Tooilkeeray Tax. I Soonisbunna. Savs.— 

Chenchala koora. ...Tel. | AiMlW$Mat.iitd,'p,%6^ f 

ACHYRANTHBS V1LL08A. Forsk. ^rua 

ACID LIME. Eno. Citrus bergamia^ 
Ruso, See Citrus acida. 

riatic Acid. 


Acid, Muriatic ...Eno. 

Spirit of Salt „ 

flydroohloric Acid ; ^ 

Muriatic Add. •«. Mno* 
Namak-ka tezab. Hind 
AcidumMuriaticuxn LaT 

ACIDE NITRIQUE. Fa. Nitric Acid. 


Met with in India only in commerce. 

Tha-lau-ta-gar ...Bubm. 
Aquafortis ... 99 
Nitric Acid ... Eno. 
Acide nitriqne ... Fb* 
Salpeter saure ... Geb* 
Shore ka tezab. . . Hind- 
Acidum Nitrieum Lat* 

Aquafortis ... Lat. 
Ay erMenganchiir- 

mas ... ...Malay. 

Tez-ab-i PxBS. 

Po ttlu- iippa-drava- 

kam Tam, 


In India, an article of commerce. 

Acidum Nitro hy- 

Nitro-muriatio Acid, Eno. 
Eau regale... ... Fa. 

Konigs-waaser Obr. 

In India, an article of commerce. 

.La A 



Vitriol ... ^ 
Sulphuric Acid 
Gandak«ka-atr. . 

... Ar. I Arq-i-gao-gard ...Pbb«. 
...BuRM. I Qandhaka drava- 

kam Tak. 





In India, an article of commerce, but large- 
ly manufactured in the several mints. 

Tezab. Hind : Pbrs. I Acidum Lat. 

The most important acids, in a manufacturing 
point of view, are the Sulphuric, Nitrie^ 
Hydrochloric, Acetic, Carbonic^ Tartaric, Ci- 
tric, Oxalic, and Arseuious, other acids are 
also important objects of commerce. For 
making these, natives of India have pecu- 
liar formulee : their lemons and limes give them 
citric and the gram-plant (Cicer arietinum) the 
oxalic acid. — Royle'a Arts, §rc. 0/ India^page 
463. Faulkner, Tomlimon, 

ACIDUM ACETICUM. Lat. Acetic acid. 





though named from Benzoin, is Tound in other 
substances, which are on tliis account called 
Balsams, such as Storax, and the Balsams of 
Peru and of Tola. It is also produced by the 
action of re-agents on se?eral vegetable sub- 
stances. Indeed, it is supposed by Prof. John- 
ston to be produced in the balsams themselves 
by the action of heat or other re-agents.— JKoy/^. 

Salis. Lat. Muriatic Acid. 

ligneous Acid. 

phuric Acid. 

ACIER. Fb Steel. 
ACIETB. Sp. Oil. 

ACK.E RWOOD, a fancy wood of a cinnamon 
colour. — Faulkner, 


Tharbyn Bubm. | Kywat-tha-byw ••.Bubm, 


Tba-byee-pouk ...Burm. | MaraDg-ga«8 Snvo- 

Common in the hot, drier parts of Ceylon — 
Thw, En, pi, ZegL IL p. 118. 

ACONITINA or BIKYA, prepared from 
Aconitum ferox, is a formidable poison, 1-lOth 
of a grain killed a goat in one of Dr. 
O'Shaughnessy's experiments in 12 minutes. 
The animal evinced severe distress and died in 
convulsions. The pupils were widely dilated. It 
is used in an ointment, one grain being mixed 
with a drachm of lard and is an invaluable 
local application in many forms of neuralgia, 
especially in tic-doloreux. It almost imme- 
diately occasions a tingling sensation in the 
part, th«n numbness, and relief of the pain.— 
An Extract of Aconite, was also prepared 
from the A. ferox by Dr. O'&haughnessy. It 
is, however, a dangerous internal remedy^ 
Externally, it is used in ointment as a substitute 
for the preparations from the expresse<i juice of 
the leaves of the Acouitum napellus. — Beng* 
Fharm. pp, 265, 286. 

ACONITUM. Linn. This genus of the 
Banuncalaceee is almost entirely confined to 
Europe and Northern Asia, a few only being 
American. Tlirougbout the temperate part of the 
Himalayas, the species occur, but most fre- 
quently to the Eastward in the moist parts of 
Nepaul and Sikkim. Four of the Himalayan 
species are endemic, but three are also common 
to Europe. The roots of several, A* ferox, luri- 
duni, napellus and palmatum, are all extensive- 
ly used as the Bikh poison, and throughout 
the Himalayas are indiscriminately so called, 
nor can the dried roots be distinguished from 
each other,— JSfwfe/*, flU et Thompson. 


Aconitum virosum. Don. 


••• ,• 
... If 
... Que. 





Mitha Titia 

Mfthoor ... ... ff 

Wuchnak Mahb. 

Ati Singia-bish ... Nep. 
Bikh ... ... p 

Bijthnak ... ... ,f 

Ati-visha ..» ...Sams. 
Ati-va«a TsL. 

Batsnab Bish 

Mitha Titia 

99 f» 

Vifih ... 
Bish ... 

Mitha Zahr 
Bishoak ... 

This is the best known of those poisonous 
plants known as Bikhi. It was first indentified 
and described by Dr Wallich in his Plantse Aaia- 
ticse Rariores, It is a native of the Himalayan 
mountains, Sirmoor, Kumaon, and Nepaul, 
growing at 10-14,000 feet, and one of the most 
celebrated articles in Indian medicine and toxi- 
cology. It is found at high elevations, some- 
times at 10,000 feet above the sea, and Dr« 
Wight asserts, that wherever, within the tropics^ 
we meet herbaceous foroks of Hanunoulaceas, we 
may feel assured of having attained an eleva- 
tion sufficient to place us beyond the influeuoo 
of jungle fever. The root of this species of 
Aconite is highly poisonous, equally fatal taken 
internally or applied to wounds, but the eflfecta 
of the aconite are witnessed in a concentrated 
state when the extract is introduced into a 
wound. A preparation of the root is much 
used in all the hilly districts in Northern India 
to poison arrows for the destruction of wild 
beasts, and tigers are destroyed by the poisoned 
arrows being shot from bows fixed near the tracks 
leading to their watering places. It has been 
used on several occasions to poison wells and 
tanks, and doubtless might be made a formi- 
dable means of defence against the invasion of 
the territories in which it abounds. The Ooor- 
khas say that they could so infect all the waters 
with the dreadful root that no enemy oould 
advance into their mountain fastnesses.-— 
0' Shaughnewg B. Via. 166. Phar, 265-286. 
U$^ul FlanU. Honigherg. Hooker f. el. Th. 


Atis HniD. 

This plant occurs in abundance on the lofty 
mountains of Choor Shalma and Kedarnath 
but varies greatly in the size and form of its 
leaves, from which circumtsance it derives its 
specific name. It was first described and 
identified by Dr* Wallich in Plant : Asiat : Rari- 
ores, and has received additional notice from 
Prof. Hoyle. The root is composed of two 
oblong tubers, of a light ash colour externally, 
white internally, and of pure bitter taste and it" 
has been long known in Indian medicine as a 
tonic and aphrodisiac. Ilonigberger mentioua 
that the roots are given also in pectoral affec- 
tions, coughs, &o. The roots are said to be 
eaten by the Kunawsr hill men as a pleasant 




iMie OBder the same term Alees* But, two 
ntnUnces are met with in the bazar, one of 
ibem quite inert, up to two drame (120 isrs.) 
baring been given by Suri;eon Walter without 
M5 tieet^^Useful PlanU. Honigberffer, 
(fSktMffkaeuy,p. 16B-8. ind. Ann. Med. Set, 
i;.l856,p. 395. ffookerf. ^i. Tk. Beng. Ai. 
be Proceed. See Atees. 

ACONITUM LUttlDUM. H.f. et. T. 

This plant grows at Tankra and Chola in 
Sikkinatan elevation of 14,000 feet; the native 
voeiare supposed to be identical with those 
rfA.ferQx. S'/.eL Tk. 

pkit growing at from 7,000 to 10,000 feet in 
tie Himalayas.— i?./ eL TA. 


A diasectnm. Don. 
A. feroz. fTall. 
A de1phinif<^ium. Seieh* 
A mmtifidam. Rojfle, 

AfiontaBoot Eko. | Monkshood... ••.Ifivo. 

A plant of Eorope and America, and {(rowing 
in the Himalayas up to 10,000 »nd 16.000 feet. 
It has variable forms. H- / et T. 

d the Himalayas up to 10,000 feet. H.f. et. 


Aooiitom ferox. 

ACONTIAS, a genns of harmless serpents, 
ofvhidiBeveralin India, they move with their 
Ikesdserfet. See Serpente. 

ACORNS, the seed or fruit of the oak. 

Mil.. Ak. Ghiande It. 

Qltodi Fa. Glandes IjAT. 

fithafai Gbb. Balut Pans- 

Uai.„ .„ ... „ I Schedadii "Rv: 

Unt Hind. | Bellolas Sp. 

Common in the bazars of India, being used 
Biitire medicine. Their taste is astringent 
ttd bitter. In England they are used for 
tecdrng hogs and poultry. Several species of 
aik are indigenous in the Tenasserim Pro- 
viBfle^ snd on the hills of Northern India.— 
Mm». Fanikmer. McCmUocU, 


Acorns odoratus. Lam, Rheede, 




Aiu I Tembu Maleal. 


«.. ••• 




^^a^Wo,,. .1. I. 

iviatAag... M, EwOh 

RMk.M ••« Dun. 

Aaoraaodoisiit, Fa. 

AkM. Oa. of Dioe. 

^flh.M ... Hind. 

• M» 


Yuj ^ 








w ttOB tt k • • 


M> af 

• i. 




Sis on. 






This genns of the Aooraeeae is a native of 
Europe also of North America and cultivated 
in the moist and cool parts in India, Am- 
boyna, Ceylon, Nepnul, Khassia Hills, Mala- 
bar, Bourbon, and Burmah, for its mediciual 
properties. The whole plant is aromatic but 
the root alone preserves the flavour in drying. 
It is a favorite medicine among the hindoos 
as a stimulant ia flatulency. It occurs in the 
shops in longitudinal pieces, wrinkled and 
marked with projecting points, and might be 
easily substituted for more expensive spices ot 
aromatics. The root is an aromatic stimulant, 
useful in ague. The Calamus aromsticos of the 
ancients is referred by Royle to the Andropogon 
Calamus aromaticus. — O^SAaugkneesy, p. 626, 
Boyle, Pereiera. Roxh. Maaon. Uuful tlante. 

ACORUS ODOKANT. Fa. au>tei Flag. 

ACORUS ODORATUS. Zaai^. Mkeede. Syn. 
of Acorns calamus, i^aii. 

ACORUS VERUS differs much from A. 
calamus, and has been attributed erroneously to 
the Gentiatta chirayt«.--»0'<&^ilaff^A;rea«jf, p, 626. 

ACQUA-D1-RA3A. It. Turpentine oil. 


ACRE, or AKKA, the Ptolemais of the 
Greeks :.from the terrace on the top of the con- 
vent, there is a very fine panoramic view of the 
town. On the west, the walls are washed by 
the Mediterranean Sea, and, on the south, by a 
magnificent bay, extending from the city as far 
as Mount Carmel, being three leagues broad 
and two in depth. It was originally called 
Accho ; but being in after times improved and 
enlarged by Ptolemy the flrst^ it was called 
after him Ptolemais. Subsequently, falling 
into the possession of the Saracens, it re- 
covered some semblance of its Hebrew name. 
It was first Uiken by the Saracens in 636. 
The Christians first became masters of it iti 
1 104« Salah-ud-din got possession of it in 
1184, and held it till 1191, when it was re- 
taken l)y the Crusaders. The latter hehl it Tor 
exactly one century, when the Saracens finally 
wrested it from them and retained it until they, 
in their turn, were obliged to cede it to the 
Turks in 1517. Prom this time Acre remain- 
ed neglected till about the midtJle of the last 
century, when the Arab Sheikh, Daiier, took it 
by surprise. Under his wise administration, it 
recovered a part of its trade. He was succeed- 
ed by the famous, or rather infamous, tyrant 
Jazzar Pacha, who fortified and embellisbed 
the town. In 1799, it rose into importance 
and consideration by its gallant and successful 
resistance to the arms of Bonaparte, directed 
by Sir Sidney Smith, a British officer. — 
RoHnsan*i TrtxeeU^' PaUitine and Syria. VoU 
I. p. 198, 199. 



l£5 * 



ACK08 riCHON, a genus of ferns of the 
West and East Indies, and Australia. Dr. 
Hooker meotions that one of the f(enus clothes 
the betel palms on the Megna, with the most 
elegant drapery. It is the AcroHkhum scan- 
dens, and is a climbing fern with pendulous 
fronds ; at another place he found parasiiic 
orchids growing on the trees, which were 
covered with this climbing fern, so that he 
easily doubled his flora of the river banks be- 
fore arriving at Uhldah.— Hooker' 9 H'm Jour, 
Vol, ILf, 338 an/^ 351. 


ACTiEA, a genus of the Ranuncul*ice», of 
which two species occur in India and China. 

ACT.EA SPICATA. linn. The Banebeny. 
A native of the Caucasus and Siberia. Roots 
astringent; the whole plant acrid and poisonous. 
The Actea acuminata, (Wall,) is found on the 
Choor aud Acharanda mountains. — O'Skaugh- 
neuy, page 170. 

ACT^A ASTEBA is sometimes collected in 
China, as the scouring rush is. for cleaning 
pewter vessels, for which its hispid leaves well 
fit It. -^miliam's Middle Kifigdom, p. 286 


A, Javanioa. Miq, 
Savia actephila. Hassk. 
Anomospermum excelsum. Dal, 

A small tree not very uncommon in the central 
iind southern parts of Ceylon, up to an elevation 
of 2,000 htX.—lhwaitifa, 

ACTlNIADiE. See Zoantharia. 

ACTINODAPHNE, a genus of trees of 
which several species, elegaus, glaupa, Molo- 
tshiiia, Monii, speciosa aud stenopiiylla, all 
amall trees, arc described by Thwaites as oc- 
curring in Ceylon. — Thwaittt. 

ACUCAtt. Port. Sp. Sugar. 

AD, an Arab tribe of the Hadramaut. 

ADA. Beng. Zingiber officinale. Roscoe, 
Amomum zingiber. 

ADAB-UL-KABR. Arab, Literally the cus- 
toms of the tomb, where according to Mnhome- 
danism, shortly after interment, Nakir and 
Mankir, the examiners of the dead, question the 
deceased as to his life in this world. 

ADABIRA. Tel. etffe^f. Anisomeles 
ovata, R. Br, 
■ ADABUKKUDU. T«t. wff^ssj^efc. 

Ehrelia Iwvis, R. 

ADA-BURNEE. Beng. Thyme-leaved her- 
- pestis. H. Monniera. 

ADAl YOTTL Tam. A sand binding 
plant. ^ 

ADAKA or CATUGHU. Mal. (moss6)- 
^dS)Oj% Areca catechu. Setel-nut tree. 



dS6)2»lCQ;nr6 Spheeranthus hirtus. Burm. 

ADAK.I. Sans. Cajanus Indicus. 

ADALA VITALA. Tel. efioSAao. Le- 
pidium sativum, Z. Cress seed. 

ADALI, Tam. Jatroplia glandulifera. Roxb. 

AD ALLI. a Semitic race on the west of the 
Bed Sea. See Semitic races. 

ADAM. ^^] The Gnostics, in framing; 

their theological system, ranked Adam as Jen, 
*• the primal man," next to the Noos and Logos, 
and therefore the third emanation, from a 
deity. Mahomed styles Adam, Awal-ul-arabta 
the First of the Prophets, also Khalifa-ul Akbar^ 
I he first (of God's) vice-gerents, and in the 
tenth century, his grave in Ceylon became 
the established resort of mahomedan pii- 
grims. Adam's stature according to maho- 
medan legends, was about 36 feet. His burial- 
place is shown by the Arabs, at the hill Abu 
Kubays, and according to these legends Adam 
and Eve dwelt at Mount Arafat, where Adam's 
place of prayer is shown. According to Hip- 
polytus, the Chaldseans gave the name of 
Adam, to the man who was born of the earth, 
but who afterwards became a living soul. The 
Hebrew word Adam is equivalent to the Ara- 
maic Eiios : both being the ordinary terms for 
man. But, Adam seems to be applied as 
man from the reddish complexion of the 
men of Canaan and Phoenicin, and Enos from 
the possession of manly strength. Adam or 
Edom, tlius means the Red man of Canaan, 
and Phoenicia, or the fair complexioned, in dis- 
tinction to Ham, Uie Dark, the Black, the iii- 
habitant of Egypt, and Sem, the oldest patri- 
arch of Israel, the glorious, the renowned ; Ja- 
peth, the bright, the fair, the white mau 
ofNoVthern Asia — CA, Bunsen, Vol. iv. p. 

373, 385. & 998 Burton's FVgrwwae to 

Mtaa, Vol. HI. ;?. 398. Sir J, E, Ttnnani, 
Ceylon. See Menu ; Persian Kings. Prithivi. 

ADAM, Dr. J. A Bengal Medical Officer, 
who was Secretary to tlie Bengal Medical 
Board ; Founder of the Calcutta Medicnl Slj- 
ciety. He wrote on the Geology of BuivleU 
cund and Jubbulpore, in a Memorandum in the 
Bl. As. Trans. 1842, Vol. XL 392. Dr. Buisi'a 

ADAM. WILLIAM. He reported on the 
state of Education in Bengal and Behar, iu 
1836 aud 1888. He also wrote in the Cal- 
cutta Review in 1841. No. IV. ; aud in the Aa. 
Soc. Jl. 1838. Vol. XXVIL 

ADAMANT, the modem Corundum. Pro- 
fessor Tennant states that the adamant describ- 
ed by Pliny was a sapphire, as proved by its 
form, and by the fact that when struck on 
aji anvil by a hammer it would make an indent 
tation. itt the metal. A true diamoudj under 

adiksonh j)roiTATA, 





ndi circninstafices, would Hy into a thousand 
pkees. Adamant is the Shamir of the He- 
brews, spoken of in Ezek. iii. 9 : and Zech* vii' 
U.—Citrio»ti*es of Science, pnge 103. 

AHAMANTINE Spak. Conmdum. 

ADA MARM. Mal. cev^^SQrDb Termi- 

laltt catappA- lAnn, 

ADA>IAS. Lat. Diamond. 

ADA MAFA. See Kama ; Lakshmi. 

ADAMBEA GLABRA. Lam, and Rheede. 
Ijfrerttrsmia reginae. Roxh. 

APAMBO. Mal. (Q^r^snru Lagerstreemia 

Rgisc. Roxh. 
ADAMMARRT. S3e Kelat. 
ADAMODIEN. Mal. leirc^sOQOSCQ^ni 

Hoitstemnia Bheedii, Spr. 
ADA MORiHIKA. Tel. ^zi-soib^t. 

Maba Indica, Z. Stroemia tctraadra, R. 

ADAMS, an Englishman who visited Japan 
iboQi the year 1599, and resided at the Court 
of Jeddo for many years. By his influence, 
Capiaia Saris delivered a letter from James 
I. to ihc Empf ror and a treaty was signed in 
ft'pteatber 1613, granting privileges to the E 

ADAM'S BRIDGE, a narrow ridge of sand 
tad rocks, mostly dry» forming the head of 
tie gulf of Mauaar, and with the Islands of 
Biniseram near the mainland and Manaar near 
Cerloo, ahnost connecting this island with the 
wtinci.t ; a channel called the Paumbcn Pass, 
w«$ deepened to 13 feet, by the Government 
of Madras.— iSfir J- E/Tennanl*s Ceylon. 

ADAM'S NEEDLE. Eno. Yucca gloriosa. 
Set Liliaoeie. 

ADAM'S PEAK, ffi^ fS\ ^^^ summit of 

I loflf mountain in Ceylon. A boUow in the lofty 
mk that crowns the summit was said by the 
BnliiDani to be the footstep of Siva ; by the 
Buddhists, of Bnddha ; by the Chinese, of 
fc ; by the Gnostics of Jen ; by the Maho- 
■edsBf, of Adam ; and the Portuguese were 
dMcd between the conflicting claims of St. 
TkoQM and the Eunuch of Caudace, Queen 
of Sduopia. Mr. Duncan, in a paper in tiie 
^i^e Besearchep, comaining '' Historical 
i^arkson the Coast of Malnbar/' mentions 
iNitive Chronicle in which it is stated that 
iPiadyai), who was contemporary with Ma- 
keoied, was converted to Mahomedanism by a 
Pw^y of dervifhes on their pilgrimage to Adam's 
w.— r«jiaiU'a Ceylon. See MahaweUi-ganga, 

ADAM SHAH. The first of the Kalora 



AdaBsonia baobab. Omtn. ' 

Lclo Plant IbfO. 

Papara pnlif maraib.TAM. 

Anai puUa maram tt 

••. •••Jsaw. 
BiMidtrea . ,» 
SOvgotud n 

This plant has been naturalised in India, lind 
may be seen at Madras, Negapatam^ SamnU 
cottah, Bombay, and Giuserat. Its trunk is 
very shorli but, in girth, it attains the largest 
size of any knovvn tree. Roxburgh mentions 
one 50 feet in circumference, in Ceylon. As a 
timber tree, it is useless, the wood being spongy 
and soft, but ^fishermen use its fruit as floats 
for their nets. Its bark and leaves have been 
recommended as a febrifuge. — Useful Piavti^ 
Dr, Ridded. Foigi. Roxb. III. 164. Aind.. 
Ind, Ann. p* 372. 

ADAPU KARRI. Tam. Charcoal. 
ADARSA. Sans. Fine muslin. 
ADAS. Jav. Fennel ? or Henbane seed P 
ADASARA. Adhatoda vnsica. 
ADASPEDAS. Mal. Henbane seed. 

ADASYAMALL Tbl. eiJf^ciJoO. Helic 

teres Isora, L. 

ADATODEY. Tam. ^urr-Q/^aQu. Adha. 
toda vasica. 

ADAVI. Tel. Wild, not cultivated, hence, 

ADAVI AMUDAM. Tel. etfce«5»e5o. 

applied to several wild speoies of Croion and 
ADAVI AVISA. Tel. e5tfS)e»*'. Bau- 

hinia racemosa L. ? FL Andh. 
ADAVI BIKA. Tkl. t^tfi)&«r. laffa 

amarn, JR. ; Tl. Andk. 
ADAVI CHAMA. Tel. ^^h-^tb. Arum 

(Amorphophallus) sylvaticum, R ; FL Andh. 
ADAVI CHAMMA. Tel. ^&tiStS>. 

Canavalia virosa, W, ^ A. ; Ft. Andk- 
ADAVI CHERUKU. Tel. eas-ros*. 

Sacchanim proceruni, R* ; Fl. Andh.. 

4:)So> 2^-r^ciO. Lablah vulgare, Savi. 

lkr»2^«fe:w. Coix barbata- ? R. 

ADAVI GOKANTA. Tel. etffiR^^oto 

Brythroxylon monosynum, R. Cbt^ 
ADAVI JILAKAKRA. Tel. etfS>tfor(tf 

Vernonia auihelmintica. W^M^ 
ADAVI KAKAUA. Tel^ wtfo-y»rer^ 

Momordica mixta ? /?. 
ADAVI KANDA. Tel. »2to!roesArum* 

yratum. R. Draconti polyphyllum. Linn. 

%ti "^kS. Amphidonax bifaria. Lmd, 

ADAVI MALLE. Tel. etflDtf>'ir Jif^ 


minmn latifolium.^ R* W. Ic* 

ADAVI-MAMIDI. Tel. etfJ^^fiD^* 

Spondias mangifera|. Fem* - . < 




ADAYI MASiENA. Tel. eMa^^-SbiT. 


Boerhaavia erecta, Z. 

Jasminam auriculatura, Vaiil. 

ADAVI MUNAGA. Tel. tftfftAaj^K, 
Moringa pterygosperma, Qarln. Wild variety. 

ADAVI NABHl. Tel. e^dOTr*?. Glo- 

riosa superba ; Z. 

•^D ^tf. Premna tp. P 


Sclerostylia ntalantoidea, fF, ^ A. 

ptf?i6'9. Hibbcus hirioa, Z. 

ADAVI PALA TIGE. Tel. etf«-s^efe-Tt. 
Cryptolepis reticulata, Willd, 

ADAVI PIPPALI. Tel. etfD&tf^O. 
Chavica ayWatica, Miq, 

ADAVI PONNA. Tel. etfoA^^. 

Bhizopliora mucronata, Lam. 
ADAVI POTLA. Tel. ^a»^A,. Tri- 

cbosanthes eucnmerina, Z. 
ADAVI PRATTI. Tel. ^&t^h. Hibia- 

oos lampaa, Cav. H. tetralocularU, /?. 

'Cf&K;$«x>. Scilla Indica. Roxb. 

ADDA, Arab. A small lizard (Scimcut 
officinalU) celebrated by Arabian physicians 
a'a a remedy iu elephantiasis, leprosy, and other 
cutaneous di6ea8es.*-J^^. Vye. 

ADDA. Tel. etf . Bauhiuia vahlii, JF. ^ A. 


B. raceroosa. 

ADDALE. TAti. Jatropha glauca. See Oils. 

ADDAB JASAIi. The ninth day of the 
ninth month of the Partee year. Ou this day, 
money is distributed to the priests, and oifer- 
inj^s of sandalwood are made to the sacred 
flame in their fire temples, which are then 
much crowded. — The Paraeea, 

ADDASABAM. etf<j3(fo. Adhatoda 

rasica, Neet, 

ADDATINNAPALAY. Tam. 4)®jB<dbr<^ 
uif-'Bur. Aristolochia bracteata. 

AD DEB) a venemous serpent mentioned in 
Genesis, Psalms and Proverbs, gen us not known. 

ADDEB, DIAMOND, a reptile of Tasmania. 

ADDHAHU. Tel. A mirror. 

ADDIMVDBUM. Tam. ^fiiD^ffth. 
Idqaorioe Boot. 

. ADDINIQAUS, a Bactrian sovereign in 
Ariana B. 0. 26. See Grr eks of Asia. 


%> KtitXi. See Adava. ' 

ADEQA. S^ Jewellery. 


Bulkokra Bbno. 

A large timber tree of Silhet and Chlttaftongy 
wood very bard. A. iiereifolia B. of the Coro- 
manilel coast and A. Cordifolia R. of Moluccas. 
ADEN. A British settlement, on a part of 
Yemen, which is almost the most southerly 
point on the Arabian Coast : it is situated in 
lat. 12^ 47* N.» and long. 45'' 10' E. and is 
a peninsula of about 15 milea in circumference 
connected with the continent by a low narrow 
neck of land, 1,350 yards in breadth, nearly 
covered by the sea at high spring tides. It 
consists of a large crater, formed by lofty and 
precipitous hills, the highest peak of which has 
an altitude of 1J75 feet: the town and part 
of the military cantouments are within th» 
crater, and consequently surrounded on all 
sides by hills, save on the eastern face, where a 
gap exists, opposite the fortified islets of Seerah. 
The erater has also been cleft from north tot 
south and the rents thus produced are called 
the northern and southern passes ; the former 
better known as the Main pass^ being the only 
eutrauce into the town from the interior or 
harbour. The principal harbour, or Back Bay, 
is the space between the northern shore of the 
Peninsula and the south coast of the continent* 
it is about 3 miles wide at the entrance, and 
aflbrds an admirable shelter in all weathers for 
vessels which do not draw more than twenty 
feet of water. It is unsurpassed by any on 
the Arabian or adjacent African Coasts, being 
capacious, easily made, and free from rocks and 
shoals. Water of a good quality, but in limited 
quantities, is found at the head of the valleya 
within the crater and to the west of the town* 
As the wells approach the sea, they become 
more and more brackish, and those within the 
town are unfit for any purpose save ablution. 
These are in number about 150, of which pro* 
bably 50 are potable, and yield an aggregate 
quantity of about (15,000) thousand gallons per 
diem. They are sunk in the solid rock to a 
depth of from 120 to 185 feet, and, in the best 
one, the water stands at a depth of 70 feel 
below the sea level. The Banian well, the 
best in Aden, is 185 feet deep, the bottom ie 
70 feet below the level of the sea, and, before 
being drawn, it contains about 4,000 gallona. 
The wells within the town have an unlimited 
supply at from SO to 40 feet, but the water 
is unfit for drinking* An inexhaustible supply 
of water is procnrable on the northern 
coast of the harbour, but the difficulty of 
bringing it into Aden, and its liability to bei 
cut off by hostile Arabs, render it almost un- 
available. Many of the best welts have bee a 
excavated sinee the British oonquesty and the 
oldest does not date further back than A. U« 
I 906 (A. D. J500.) Previous to this period^ 
' the plioe WM supplied paitly by meaa% of. 




iMrroin tboit 50 ia DWDber, and partly hy | mora oonfideat of effeot!ng» aa tha .direct 
B fqaedaet which oonnuunicatad wiib a well io ! pasaage acrosa the Indian oeean had been dis- 
tk interior. There is no cerUin record of tha covered, some time previously, by Uippalus, a 
MitnietioD of these reservoirs, but it is . Greek of Alexandria. In the time of Con* 
probable that they were first commenced about stantine, Aden had recovered its former splen<- 
tkaeoood Persian invasion of Yemen, in A. D. dour, aiid^ as a conquest of the Roman empire, 
M, It ttoertain that they cannot be attributed it received the name of Romsnum Emporium. 
to tie Turks^ as the Venetian ofiicer who dea- I Under British rule, ever since its conquest in 
oribcd tbe expeditbn of the Bats Suleiman in 1889, its rise haa been rapidly progressive. 
US8,tiie first oecasion of Aden being conquered The port of Aden was declared free by Act X 
k^ tbi ostioo, says that "they (the inhabitants ! of 1850. Tbe result as follows :— during tha 
of Aden) have none but rain water, which is . seven yeara ending 1849, trade amounted to 
pmerred in ciatema and pits 100 fathoms ! Rs. 1,80,95,678. During the seven years after 
%" Greene, Vol. I. p. 91. Ibn Batuta, p. 55, | 1850 the trade aggregated Bs. 4,21,07,337, the 
ihoaentions this fact as being the case in his > last year exceeding the first by Rs. 59,07,448, 



itj. When Captain Hainea visited Aden in 

1835, Kvcnd of the reservoirs appear still to 

bie been in a tolerably perfect condition. The 

■isal bill of rain in Aden seldom exceeding 

eior Kven inches ; and the reservoirs were 

flDBstroeted to preserve this. To remedy tbis 

not supply the sovereign of Yemen, Melek- 

d-Mansar-Tak-ed-din Abdel-Wab&b-bin Tahir, 

toffirds the close of the fifteenth century, con- | Indian Bfahomedani S,567 

itncted an aqueduct to convey the water of Arabian ditto 4,812 

ik Bir Hamed into Aden, but it has long 

ixai raioed and disused. During the North- 

ent fflooBoons from October to April, the 

efiaste of Aden ia cool and agreeable ; during 

tk remuoder of the year, hot sandy winds 

oeev, known as the Sbamal. Aden was 

adcntlj one of the most celebrated cities of 

Anlbia, and owed its riches and importance to 

baog tlie general entrepot of the great carry- 

'^ tnde which extated between India, Persia, 

Anbii and Africa and the various nations of 

luope, Egypt and Phcsnicia. Ships from the 

CHteonrejed the treasures of their respective 

Milries thither, for transmission up the Red 

m>y Bieans of smaller craft, to the ports of 

%jft; rieh caravans brought to it the pro- 

Mofthe thuriferoua regions, and merchants 

i^Mk all parts of the east and west formed 

^ eommercial establishments, and imported 

Atgmis of their various lands, either for eon- 

"■ptioa in the country or to be forwarded to 

tklbtlier east. The author of the Periplus of the 

t7tl|nBan Sea informs us that, shortly before 

Ki tine, Arabia Felix or Aden, had been da* 

^n^Ml hj the Romans ; and Dean Vincent is 

tf opiaisn that the Cesar in whose reign this 

*<Qttook piace^ was Claudius. The object 

rfdntiaying so flourishing a port is not dif* 

M to determine *. — from the time that the 

'miss first visited Arabia under ^iius 

Usi, they had always maintained a footing 

^ the shores of the Red Sea ; and it is pro- 

^■^ that Glaudioa, being desirous of appro- 

V'ihgtha Indian trade to tbe Roman9, sought 

Mirii&t for quarrel with Aden, in order that 

*>4^bj its destruction, divert the Indian 

*^tv tta porta of ISgypt j this ha was the 

Owing to intestine disturbances and famine, but 
particularly to the entire cessation of the Hijas 
trade, in consequence of the Jedda massacre of 
18th June 1858 and disturbances in Yemen, 
the decrease in the exports of coffee amounted 
to Rs. 10,24,443, and of Ivory Rs. 3,97, 1S8» 
In 1857, the population consisted of*^ 

Paraeea Bl 

wowa>«>>.. • ..••••I if^xa 
Miaoellaneoua. ... 1,669 

Total... 20,738 

African ditto 8,627 

Other ditto 58 

Hindus 0,611 

Aden is mentioned by Stephanus Byaantiua 
and it is supposed to be the Eden of which 
Ezekiel makes mention as a great commercial 
place. The character of the inscriptions ia 
Himyaritic — Playfair't Aden, Mr. Burr in AT. 
/. Z. and S.—Outeley, Vol. J. 336. See Kha- 
dim. Jews. Somali. Arabia. Reservoirs. Mocha ; 
Perim. Shamal. Somal : Beer-el-somal. 

Prosopis aculeata, As. Rei, Konig. 
„ spicigera, Willde, 
Chani TxL. 

Grows to tbe size of a tree on ihe Coromandel 
side of India on low lands far from the sea, in 
some parts of Hindustan. Ita pod is an inch in 
girth and 6 to 18 inches long and contains, be- 
sides the seeds, a large quantity of a sweetish 
agreeable mealy 8ubstane« which the people eat. 
-^Foipl. 259. Boxb. II. 371. See Premna spici- 
gera, Linn, 


A tree, native of tbe Moluccas.— Foi^^ 249, 


Corrollaria parviflora, Rumph. 

.. ^no. 
... ff 
... Mal. 



Mansiadi SnrCB» 


Ani Gandamani^. 
Ani kundamani 
Bandi Gnrivend*. To. 
Mansent Kotta.... ,» 
Bandi Goruvindaa ^ 

This is a large and handsome tree, growing 

at timet 100 feat high and fanad in most of 


Rakto ohandftn ...BxMo. 
Redwood tree. 
ManjatL ..• 

Amy A ttUAd. 


the forests of India. It is not very plentiful 
in Burtnah, beinip widely dispersed ; but it is 
met with in sufficient quantity in the Rangoon, 
Pegu and Tounghpo districts It grows in 
both peninsulas of India, in S^lhet, Bengal, 
Assam, and the Moluccas. The inner wood of 
large, old trees, is deep red, hard, solid, and 
durable suitable for cabinet-maker's purposes, 
from which in Upper India, it gets its name of 
Baktochandan, or red Sandul wood ; but thetrue 
red Sandal or Bed Sandars wood of commerce, is 
the Pterocarpus santalinus. The wood is said 
to yield a red dye; ground to a paste with 
water, it is used by hind us to make the sectari- 
an marks on their foreheads. The seeds are of 

a highly polished scarlet colour, with a circular „. „ 

streak in their middle on each side, and are M^^^^^^ ^ut Eno. 

used as weights by jewellers, and as beads in ^^-^ ^"'^• 

bracelets, necklaces, &c. Books represent these 
as usually weighing four grains, and selected 
seeds are in use by the Burmese, for that weight. 
Many however do not weigh more than two or 
three grains each. A cement is made by beating 
them up with borax and water. The powdered 
seeds are said to be used as a farina, the pulp 
of the seeds mixed with honey is applied exter- 
nally to hasten suppuration in boils and ab- 
scesses.— iSToo^er'a Him. Jour. VoL ILp. 827. 
McClelland, MaBon. Useful Plants, Juries^ 
Reports, Madras Exhibition, Mendis, Cat, 
Bengal Esc. 1862. Dance. Voigt, 259. Hog. 
Eoxb. a, 370. 

Cioeudia hyasopifolia. (Adam,) 
Chota chirayita. Hind, 

Common in various parts of South India, as 
at the mouth of Adyar. Is very bitter, and 
much used by the natives as a stomachic, being 
also somewhat laxative. — Indi. Ann. Mtdl. 
Beien, page ^70, Gifghorn, 

Campanula lilifolia. 

Ruellia nliginosa. Linni 

One of the Acanthacesb. Thb juice of its 
leaves mixed with salt, is used on the Malabar 
Coast as a purifier. — Hog. Voigt, 482. 

ADEKOSMA BAI^AMEA has a strong 
odour of turpentine. 

ADEPS MYRISTICJI, a concrete oil 
obtained from nutmegs, by expression : some- 
times erroneously called Oil of Mace. — Sim- 

ADEPS SUILLUS. Latin. Hojj's lard, 

ADERJIBAN. A province of Persia. 

APESH. A name of Astarte. See Ken. 

ADEVA RAJAS of Tuluva. Andhra, or 
Telingana, capital WoragaUi or Warangal. 
Ont of these in authentic history was Pratapa 
Budra in A. D. 1162, prior to whom, 19 
Adeva Rnjas reigned 370 years (211 ?) and 

descent, and Sri Ranga, seems to have reigned 
in A D. 800.— .rilowa*' Brtnsep't Antiguuieu 
p. 278. ^ 

ADHA BIRNI. Hind. Herpestes mon- 
niera.— ^aw. Bueh. and Kunih. 


ADHAR. Sans. AHARA. Sans. Food. 

ADHATODA BETONICA,Nees, a perennial 
of the Monghyr hills, Prome, Coromandel and. 
Concans. A. ramosissima, Nees, is also named 
by Voigt, 488, and Wight figures A. Ned- 
gherrica and A. Wynaudensis. 

Justicia adhatoda. Linn, Uoxb, 

l^kug Bkno. AsgAnda. Hihd. 

Basoka... ... .. Urus or Utarosha.. Sans. 

Adadode TaM. 

Addasaram. ... „ 

This shrub grows in Ceylon, in both tbe 
Indian peninsulas, in Bengal, Nepal, Svlhet, 
and Java. The wood is soft and considered 
well suited for making charcoal for gunpowder. 
Its leaves are used in native medicine. — Ainslie 
O'Sk, p. 483. Voigt. 488. 

ADHELA. Hind. Sans. Half a paisa. 
Adheli, Half a rupee or Ashraffi, half of any 
piece of money. See Silver coins. 

ADHERMA. Injustice. See Brahmadicas. 
Jains. Properly Adharma. 

brahman girl's right to select her own hus- 
band. See Swayamvara. 

ADHIKANAN, a poet of the Dekhan.— - 
As. Trans., Vol. I. p. 141. 

ADH-PAO. Hind. Literally half a quar- 

ADHVANlDRUG(Adoni) inlat. 15^ 38* 
9 ; N. and long 77^ 15\ 8 E. S. of the Tunga- 
budra. The liill station is 2,103 ft. G. T. S. 
above the sea and (^doni) village is 1,395 fceU 

ADHWARYU, See Hindoo. 

ADL Sa.nsc. First. Old. 


... Eno. 



Veous hair 
Fairy's „ 

Is indigenous in the Himalayas, and like tbe 
European is given as" an expectorant. 
In Europe it is the basis of the celebrated 
Syrop of Capilaire- 0'/8fi5ai/^/*««jy, p, 677- 
See Ferns, Capilaire. 

been introduced into ludm^ Voigt. See Gapi* 


Hunsraj. ...Hint*. | Shuer-ul-jia. ...Akajs. 
Mobarkha Hind. | 

Occurs in many places in India and Burmah* 
It is probably this regarding which Dr. Mason 
says— that a small handsome fern is seen in th^ 

ai€ aopposed to be the IS priuoea of Andhra { crevicea of old ruiaa and walls everywhere^ or 




file Bine gorat and nearly reaemUiog the 
fagiisb maiden hair — '*the prettiett of all 
ferns."— JfMOii. Foigt. 

ADI-BUDBA. See Adi ; Buddha. Topes. 

Al)I-6KANTH, a sacred book of the Sikhs 
enpiled in 1561 by Aijun MuL See Sikhs. 

iDI or M Island, ia Nev Gainea, the Fulo. 
M of the Malays, Wessels Eylandt of the 
Dutcb, and in Lat. 4. 10' S. Lon^. HS^ 47' 
K (East Point), Modera, is about 25 miles in 
b|U Ijing to the N.N.E. of the great Keh, 
distaoi about 60 miles, and being the south* 
fcateiD— most of a group of high ulands which, 
W^ lately, were considered as forming a part 
of New Guinea. The inhabitants are Papuans 
ttOrieatal Negroes, and as they do not bear a 
k^l character among their neighbours, they 
verirely visited except by traders from Qoram 
lad Ceram Laut, who have found means to con* 
diiatethfm. The sea is unfathomable at a 
abrt (lislance from the island, but there are 
Krenl indifferent anchorages on the north side. 
No resael should attempt to visit the island for 
firpoiesof trade without previously obtaining 
I pilot at Goram, who will also act as inter- 
pieter, the natives not being acquainted with 
ife Malayan language. Wild nutmegs, trepang 
Hui tortoise-shell are to be obtained here, but 
lot in sufficient quantities to tempt a European 
Ksiel to visit the island, for purposes of trade, 
putieolarly as these articles can be obtained 
■ffe readily st some of the adjacent ports of 
KevGuioea. Bed calico, parangs or chopping 
bn>ei, eoarse cotton shawls and handkerchief?, 
viU iron, Java tobacco, muskets and gun- 
povder, are the principal articles in demand. 
Tk ebief traffic is in slaves which are distri- 
bated imong the neighbouring islands of the 
irdiipdago, and are sometimes carried as far 
tt Bally and Celebes. This probably accounts 
^tiie deficiency of other articles of export. 
^^ Adi is separated from the large island of 
»Wi Cape Katemoun forms the S. W. extre- 
Mji by a strait 8 miles wide, which seems to 
k Ml of dangers, and should only be ventured 
•pw with the greatest caution. — Jour* Ind, 

ADIMODUBAM. Tam. jifSS^^in^ Root 
■fflyeyrrhita glabra, also of A br us precatorius. 

AblNANAGUE. In Kohistan, 1,200 feet 
•^^e the sea. 

ADUNATH, the celestial Buddha. See 
". Jains. Topes. 

ADISESHA. Sans. Literally old serpent. A 
I'VAQsed in Hindu Mythology but its meaning 
•saknown.— rayfor** Mind, Myth, See Serpeut. 

ADIS1CAMI8. Jav. Aniseed. 

ABITES. See Saba. 

*tttri, daughter of Daksba, and one of the 
Jy ^nm of Casyapa. She was mother of 
[J*^**i» SwAdit^a, Agni, Casvapa, Deva, 
*!*; Sirya yanea. Vamaua, 

ADITWAB. Sunday, from Adit, tbefirsr, 
war, day. See Surya. 

ADITYA. The twelve Adityas, in hinda 
mythology, are snid to be the offspring of Aditi, 
and Casyapa who is called the mother of the 
gods. They are emblems of the Sun for each 
month of the year; and are* themselves called 
Suns : their names are Varuna, Surya, Yedanga, 
Bhanu, Indra, Ravi, Gabhasti, Yama, Swarn* 
areta, Divakara, Mitrn, and Vishnu. — (6ita, p. 
144.) Of these Vishnu seems to be considered 
as the first, for Krishna, describing his own 
pre-eminence, says, " among the Adityas, v I 
am Vishnu." — The verbal meaning of Aditya, 
is the attractor. The names of the twelve vary 
according to some authorities. — Goleman, p, 
85. mUiam% Nala, p, 122.— See Hindoo, 
Lakshmi, Mewar^ Surya. 

ADITYA BHAKTI. Tel. ^a^of J^*» 

Helianthus annuus, L, — 22, 

ADITYA VAKMA See Inscriptions. 

ADJUNTA, in Kandesh, is celebrated for 
its numerous caves, excavated out of the 
mountain. The period of this gigantic labour 
seems to have been towards the decline are bud- 
dhism in the peninsula of India, before or 
about the eighth century. The subjects are bud- 
dhist; one of the inscriptions commencing 
with the formula, *' Ye dharroa." The lan- 
guage is Pali, and the character used is inter- 
mediate between those of the Lat and Alla- 
habad. But, there is one resembling the Balibhi 
and one in the Seoni parallelogram headed 
character, which is of the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries. These inscriptions appear to be of 
different ages, from variations in the character. 
The figures of three Chinese are represented 
in some of the fresco paintings in the 
caves. The paintings are admirable for their 
spirit and variety of subjects. In some, the 
sculptures and paintings evidently represent 
royal personages and royal doings. One of the 
numerous inscriptions is of interest from the 
character resembling that of Wathen's Balibhi 
inscription, which with others show the grada- 
tions of the character upwards into antiquity. 
The caves are remarkable for their paintings as 
well as sculptures. They were first described 
by Lieut. Alexander in the Boyal Asiatic So- 
ciety's Transactions (UoLp. 558) and after- 
wards copied by Captain Gill. 

Some of the many fresco paintings in these 
caves, are still very perfect, having escaped the 
observation of the mahomedans when they 
invaded the Dekhan early in the fourteenth 
century and destroyed similar paintings in the 
Buddhist caves of Ellora. Though their date is 
uncertain, the series may extend from the first or 
second century before Christ to the fourth and 
sixth century of this era. One large picture re* 
presents the coronation of Siuhabi a Buddhiii 




Xtng. He h Mited on a ttool, crowned with 
a tiara with necklaces, armlets and bracelets of 
gold, and girls are pouring com over Ids 
shouiders. Naked to the waist, he wears a 
striped dhotee covering from the waist to the 
knee with one pnssed across his chest and 
over his left shoulder ; roost of the men as attend - 
lints are similarly clothed with dhotees reach- 
lug from the waist to the knee. The soldiers 
present, spearmen and foot and horse, and 
groups of soldiers with long oblong shields 
and curved swords^ have short waist cloths only, 
tied like a kilt. All the women are naked to 
the waist. Another picture of two mule 
iigures seemingly discussing something and 
wearing dhotees only, is skilfully drawn. In a 
picture of two holy meit, seemingly Greeks, 
one has a long robe reaching to his feet, with 
loose sleeves, the other with a nimbus round 
his liead. A large picture represents the in* 
troduction into Ceylon, of buddhism, and all 
the figures of men and women in it have only 
-short waistcloths or kilts. Another graceful 
picture represents a holy buddhist being carri- 
ed through the air by two naked women, and 
in a representation of Buddha teaching, his right 
arm is naked, and female figures stand, in 
different attitudes, around, all naked, but have 
necklaces, earrings snd bracelets, and one has 
a girdle of jewels round her loins. — JSd. Rev- 
June 1867, PP' 131-2. Taylor' 9 Mackenzie M. 
.8. 8. J9« Ji* 8oc. Joum, 

ADJUTANT BIRD. Eng. Leptoptilus ar- 

ADNAN, the lineal descendants of Ishmael 
who are called al Arab ul mostareba or mixed 
Arabs. They occupied the Hijaz, and amongst 
their descendants was the tribe of Koresh— - 
WrighCe Arahia. See Joktan. 

ADO-MODIEN. Holostemma Rheedianum. 
ADONDA. tiS^oti. Capparis horrida, L, 

leader who seems to have been the subduer of 
the Curumber or shepherd tribes. 

ADONIS, two species of this plant are met 
with in high Asia, vis. A. uSstivalis and A. 
Pyrenaica. A species is cultivated in gardens. 
Most of the species are blood red in colour. — 
H. f.etT. Riddell. 

ADRAK, also ADA. Bbno. and Hind. 
^j ^ I Zingiber officinale. A dark (green), 

Sont (dry), Guz. Hind. Ginger. 

ADRA MALECH, the male power of 
the sun : among the Samaiians, children were 
burned as to Molech. 

ADULE KAI. Tah. Cncnmis tuberosns. 

AD VAITAM, or non-duality, the name of a 

Hindu school established by Vyasa, and carried 

. out by Sankara Charya. The Advaitam denies 

:|)ie otttence of moral evil See Vyasa.— 2V^^. 

AGAO. Hindi, Psshoi. Hind. Fen* 
Acbftwaram ...Taw. | Ac3iagaram Ttu 

Advances. 1'he system of advHnees, as 
well as earnest money, is common in the esst. 
At Aden, CHptain Burton heard of two-thirds 
the price of a cargo of coffee being required 
from the purchHser before the seller would 
undertake to furnish a single bale.—- ^«rto'« 
Meceah, Vol JL p. 332. 

ADWAITANAND. See Ghaitanya. 

ADYAB. A small river which oommencfs 
principally from the leakage of tanks abont SO 
miles west of Madras, and enters the Bsy of 
Bengal, in the south environs of Madras, being 
spanned bv three bridges in its course. 

ADYIFILLU ARISI. Tam. ^l^^ lifei;^ 
^jfrfi Orysa sativa. 

iSAYTHYA MARAM. Q^rfiiu lajnh. 
Tam. Odina pumata. 

JSCCA. See Yavana. 

Saccoiabium rubrum; Aeridea ampullaceum. 
Red saccoiabium, with rosy flowers, is very 
handsome and quite abundant in the Tenas* 
serim Provinces. Lindley says it can aearcely 
be distinguished from S. ampullaceum of 
Wallich's catalogue. Wight gives a figure, 
1683, of JE. tenem.— ^f^A^. Maion. Roxh.-^ 
Voigi, 630. See CEceoclades. 


.^GAGRUS, a wild species of Ibex, of 
middle and North Asia, called Paseng by the 
Persians. Cat. Am, 8oe, • Beng. See Capreas. 


M, majus, OcerL Roxb» 
M. obovatum, BL 
M, floridum, Rom. 
Rbizophora cornioalata, Limu 

Hulsi Bexo. I Bu-ta-yat Bubil 

A large shrub io the Tenasserim Provinoea and 
both Peninsulas and Java ; when in bluom it is 
covered with small white flowers, which aeem to 
have great attractions for the fire-flies. In 
moving up the streams near the sea-bord on 
a dark niieht, these trees are often seen illumined 
with myriads of waving brightening wings, and 
making them look in the deep gloom,like superb 
candelabra bung with living lamps.— JfaiOJi. 
Foigt. 336. Roxb. iii. 180. 




A small tree of the Ganges. — Ro$s6, iii. 130. 

Tsjem cumuln. Haleal. 

A small annual rush like plant, singiiliir 
looking, with a flower like the bowl of a tobacco 
pipe, Krowa in the Oircars, at KhandalU, Salaetta 
and Konkans.— ^(Mr3. 130. Voigi. 496. 




£6LE MAailELOS, Corr. 
Ferouia p^lluGida, Both, 



Bala ghund. 
^ahura .. 
Sbree Phula. 

Vilva-maratti. .•• 
Maradu «hettn. . . . 
Bilvamu cUetia..« 
Vilva ohettii. .. 
Malu-iamu chettu 

. uAL> 



• •• »> 
... SlKOH. 

... X AH.. 



Be) Bbng. 

OiMbei BuBM. 

BtQgal qaioce ... 
TboTDj quince ... 
Bel fnut t<«e. ... *n 
i«){erirQod apple ,> 

U HiWD. 

IM MiiH&. 

T>«^ ? or TAiigul 
or Tuigalii . . . Mala T, 

Tfce Bel, Bengral quince) or larger wood ap- 
ple, is a large thorny tree which flowers dur- 
ng tbe hut aeaaon, and its large spheroidal 
InitripeDS after the rains. The tree is com- 
MB ou the Bombay aide, in waste places, in- 
bsd foreits, and old gardens. It is found in 
gvtiens in the aouth of India, and about 
toVDS and ? illagea throughout the Prope dis- 
tnct and also about Tonghoo, more especially 
OB the Shan side of tbe river, where the lar^e 
apberoidal fruit may be had in great quantity 
jnn the end of February to the end of July. 
Tie wood is light coloured, variegated wiih 
niai, eonpact and hard, but is not used, 
pntly perhaps from a religious feeling on the 
pot of the hindua, with whom the tree is 
wRd to Siva and partly from the valne of the 
tm from the great medicinal virtues of the 
iak It belongs to a family, the Aurantiaceae 
oronnge tnbe, renoarkable for the excellence of 
in wood, which is usually small- This wood is 
*oy Btrooj?, and, in the Godavery districts, the 
■tivc dhol or dram, is often made of it. In 
GiBJam and Gumsur, it attains an extreme 
^lllt of 30 feet and circumference of 3 feet. 
Ike height from tbe ground to the intersection 
rf the first branch, being 10 feet. The wo«»d 
ii fToood with water into a sort of oily paste 
«Mi is poured on tbe lingum in the temples 
UicBted to Siva. The leaves are offered to 
IhiBtidto the female divinities in the same 
n; that the leaves of the tooUee are offered to 
Taba. The fruit is delicious to the taste 
•drery fragrant. It is smooth, resembling 
• orange, with a yellow hard rind, which is 
■tnagent and used in dyeing yellow. The 
frut has been long in use, in diarrhssa, and its 
ificrieDt and detersive qualities and its efficacy 
itmnedying habitual costiveness, have been 
pved by eonstant experience. It has lately 
htts hroQght into repute when fresh and in 
Msemas aTemedy in aomekinds of dysentery. 
Vhea dried before it ia ripe, the fruit is used 
hdeesekioQ in diarrhssa and dysentery, and 
<iiHa ripe and mixed with juiee of tamarinds, 
^ SB agreeable drink- The muens which sur- 
>v»^ the seeds is, for aome purposes, a very 
|MA«aiiit ; Dr. Gibson thinks t^s beautiful 
KMfy aide ramish wbicb surrounds tbe seeds, 

may some day bo turned to use in the arts. Its 
dried fruits Belgar also Belgiri are used in medi« 
cine. The roots, bark and leaves are reckoned 
refrigerant in Malabar. The bark of the 
root, especially is given in decoction, in inter<» 
mittent fever, and the leaves are applied' as a 
poultice in ophthalmia. They abound in a 
volatile fragrant perfume known as marmala 
water, whicti is distilled from the flowers, and ia 
much used by the natives as a perfume for 
sprinkling on visitors. Lest the resemblance 
of the wood applies to the fruit of the Nux 
vomica might give rise to accidents, it should 
be remembered that their strong aromatic smell 
like that of all other fruits belonging to tbe 
orange family will distinguish them easily from 
the Nux vomica, which is devoid of aroma. — 
Drs. McCLelland. Wight. Gibson^ Brandu. 
O'ShaughneiBy, RiddelL Waring, Cleghorn* 
Major Drury*» Uitful Plants. Mr. Elliot CaL 
Cat Ex. 1862. Hog. p. IS8. Roxbi Ind. An. 
Med, Sc. of\%h^,p. 222. See Kussowlee; 
Zonar. Cratseva Besiu, 

iEGLK SEFIARA. The Hedge Quince is 
used in Japan for hedges, its thorny branches 
being useful* The fruit is never eaten raw 
but is roasted on hot ashes. It has a glutinous 
pulp, which is laxative.— j&ioy. Feg, King* 

iEGOCEEOSCAl^RA. One of the Capreae. 

^KNEEENCHI. Singh. Tribuhis terreeiiis. 

^LIA, the modern Jerusalem « 

iELlUS GALLUS. a Roman of the Eques- 
trian order, sent, B. C 24 to A. D. 1, with a 
force to explore Ethiopia and Arabia : the 
force was organized at Cleopairis, in the neigh** 
bourhood of the modern Suez, and consisted 
of 10,000 iSomans, with 15,000 mercenaries, 
together with a fleet of 80 vessels of war and 
130 transports. After two years' absence in 
Nejran, ^lius Gallus brought back with him 
but a small part of his army, hunger, fatijitue 
aud sickness having destroyed the remainder, for 
only seven fell by the iword.^ F lay/air* s jtden. 

ib)i>LUS, the Vayu of the Hmdu mytho' 
logy. %e Sciraswati. 


Pouk... ...BuBM. I Kya... ...Bdiim. 

Synonim of M. aspera. 

^lilDES, or air. plants, are numerous in all 
the humid parts of South Eastern Asia, and as 
they are worih much in England, they 
are often ixported. The closer they are 
confined, the better will be their condition 
on reaching the place of destination. They 
are not much cultivated by Europeans in 
their Indian gardens, the exotic flowers of 
their native land being most thought of, 
but Dr. Mason truly says they might be a 
rich acquisition to our tropical parterres. The 
fennasserim Provinces abound in air-plants or 
orchids, most of which grow on trees and are 





vpiphytet. B^t pttaiitM. Vine Uian fifty differ- 
rut tpeciea hare been described, and thete 
are probnbl J as many more unkuown to science. 
The flowers of some of the species are great 
favorites with the Burmese and are sought after 
to aitorn the hsir. Tlie Bumian books say 
that the trees aroaud King Wathandria's her* 
snitage were eovered with orchids, and that 
«ftt-r being plucked they would retitin their 
fraganoe seven d»ys. They are very numerous 
in the Andaman islands, where, in the course 
of a few hours, « vast number can be collected. 
The following are figured by Wight — A« cylin* 
dricuro, 1744 ; Lindleyanum, 1677 ; radi- 
cosum, 917 1 and Wightianum, 1669 and 
Eoxburgh and Voigt. notice eight species. 

^H1D£3 AFFINE. Wall. 

With large rose coloured flowers, of Assam, 
Nepal and the Khassia Hills.— T^^^. 631. 


Grows on trees and blossoms in May. — Roicb. 
tee ^ceoclades ampullacca. 


Ill Dmccs ffHd eastern Bengal. 


Perida Mnra, Tkl. byn. Saccolabiom reta- 
-sum. A lofty pamsitio species, growing on 
trres near Dacca,— 'i^/a?*. jp. 471. 

iEHll)E8 MULTllIiORUM, R. 

Alari^e and beautiful species of Silhet with 
Jari^e purple and white flower .—/?a»*. iii, 476. 

.£RIDBS ODOHA 1 UM, Lour, A swettly 
fragrant plant, with large white flowers, with a 
tinge of rose. It is met wiih at Dacca, the 
Khafsya Hills, C:hittagong ; in the Bombay 
Ghats, on the Mnhabaleshwar Hills, Ti^nas- 
srrim, Moulmcin, China and Cochin>China ; 
the flowers hang in long racemes of a light 
flesh colour and spotted, from six inches to a 
foot long. They grow from the axils of the 
leaves, appearing in April and May.^Foi^t. 
631. Mofton. 

iBRlDES PAUilDUM. J2. Found on tiees 
in Chill attong aiui Eastern Bengal. 

iBItlDES KADTAIUM. R. Found dn trees 
in the Gangetic delta. 

BRIDES R06TRATUM. Roxh. Blossoms 
in April Htid Mny in Silhet. 

JSftlDES SUAVE0LKN8, Roseh. Found 
on trees in Cliittagong, has very fragrant flowers 
all the year lonir. 

large flowers of a greenish yellow, f^rows in 
the Circars — VoigL See Cymbidium. Epioden- 
drum. ^ceoclades. Saccolabium. 


l>tvi-gola ... ••.HiKD. I Dew*gola. ••• Hiko. 

These are not uncommon in the possession 
of hindns, who worship them. The guardian 
of a temple showed Baron de Bode, a flat 

appeared to be an ssrolite, weighing several 
poands, and let him into the seoret of its 
wonderful properties^ namely, that of being 
propitious to mothers who wish to be blessed 
with a numerous family, and who, on pressing 
it to the heart, must recite some prayers. This 
peculiarity bears some resemblance to what is 
lohi of the temple of HalgaJiBaal^ at Emessa^ 
on the OroBteSp in Fhasnicia. JBroHtes have in 
general played a eonspicnous part in the early 
religions of the Semitic nations. There are two 
verities of a^rolittfs or meteorites, that have 
been seen to fall from spaoe. The one consists 
of stony massesy often containing partides of 
iron, and of these many have been observed in 
their fall : the other variety is composed, for 
the most part, of iron* The actual fall of iron 
aerolites has been but rarely witnessed, though 
noany masses of metaiUo iron have been found 
on the earth's surface, of the meteoric origin 
of whio|i there can be no doubt. Since 1852 
three meteors have been seen to fall, on the 
southern part of the peninsula of India. One 
in the Nellore CoUectorate, anotbtr in the 
extreme south, {Pieces of which have been 
lodged in the Madras Museum, and one on the 
21st September J 865, in the Muddoor taluk of 
the Mysore country, the pieces of which have 
been lodged in the Mysore Museum at Bainga- 
lore. The falling of the following meteors in 
India has been established. 

lbs. Ors. 

Deo. 18, 179S. Krakhai, Benares 8,362 

Sep. 1808. Moradabad, Bengal 

Feb. 18, 1815. Duralla, Territory of the 

Fatyala Kaja 89 

tfov. 80» 1822. a. Futtehpoor, Allahabad 68»880 
bf Bittoor aod Shahpore, 
76 mileA N, W. of 

AlUhabnd 2,112 

Feb. 16, 1827. Mhow, Ohaaeepore ^,869 

1882-3. UnibaDa.... 

April 1 8, 18S8. Akborporc^ Saharanpora 86,01 1 
June 6, 1838. Chandakupoor, Berar ... 11,040 

July 26, 1848. MaoegaoD, Kandeiah 

Found 1846. Assam, India 1 901 

Nov. 80, 1 850. Bhalka, West Bordwan 68,529 

Jan. 22^1852. Nellore, Madraa 80 

March 6, 1853. Segowlee -... - 

Feb. 28, 1857. Paroalee^ Madras 130 ... 

Dec. 27, 1857. PeKU (Quenggouk) 84,280 

March28, 1860. Khergur. Agra 

July 14, 1860. Dumaaala... 28 B,2M 

May 12, 1861. a. Pepraasee 5 

ft.Bullooah 2»400 

c. NimbhoAoh (40 milea 

from Ck>ruck pore.) .. 

Sept. 21, 1865. Muddoor, Mysore Coan- 


As those of 185i, 1857 and 1865, were sent 
to the Madras and Mysore Musenms, both of 
wbieh Dr« Balfonr bed fonned, and was then 
in charge of, the account he reoeiTcd of ono'of 
them may be given from the Ber. H. 8. 
Taylor's letter who thua wrote:— Near the 
village of Parnallee in this Tslook, two meteoric 

black stone In the recess of the window, which I stones had fallen. Both fell on Saturday, the 






Itth of Fabnuirj, 1867, at about nocm alitUa 
loofch eui of the village of Parnallee, Latitude 
Nctftb, aeeoriiiug to the QoTernment Map, 9^ 
U\ LDDgitade, 78"" 21' eaat. The larger one 
Ml 1 few seeonda before the amaller one, and 
Inim two to three miiea north of it. As was 
Bdufeat from the hole it made in the ground 
vWa it fell» it came from a direction some 
In ikirreet west of north, making an angle of 
aboat 15 or ^0 degreea with a line perpeodi- 
alar to the earth's surface, it struck the 
•vth (or St least lay in the botto» of the hole 
■ide bj it) flAtwisf?, on the side that is most 
iMfei. The most round or oonvex side of 
the msUer stone also was downward^ ihis 
\m% the position they would natorallty as- 
ttss u they passed with great Telocity 
thoQgh the resisting atmosphere. The larger 
itsns sank into the earth when it fell, two 
felt lad fire inches, in a perpendicular direo- 
lian. The smaller one two feet aodeii(ht 
hiliei. The smaller one feJl alao, about per- 
pndieohurly. The amaller does not appear in 
an retpeet like a fragment of the larger one. 
Tbs ipedfic grt^vitj of the sroHller one» when 
it fell VIS about S*3» water betni? the standard 
if snity. Ue observed that the specific gravity 
m increased after exposure to a shower, as 
liHitof the amaller one wat. He did not try 
tiat of the lanrer. The craek on the eonv<*x 
ade of the larger one he did not perceive at all 
tflii bad been wet, and then, at firsts it was 
Wtjott perceptible* Afterwards it gradually 
cpeasd, he ftoppoeea. owing to the oxidation of 
tbiatife iron it contains, perhaps, however to 
•tier csnses. The stones had not beeu wet till 
tlKyame into hie hands, April 2lst. They, 
adh of them, fell in euUivated fields, one of 
vUeb bad been harvested.The atock in the other 
vnitill standing. The noise seema to have 
Wa tenifie to the Nattvea, eausiiig those near 
toeroueh from fear. It came like two claps 
of (bunder, as they fell one after the other, and 
Matmaiiig for aome time^ hut gradually grow- 
H hn loud. As they fell throuich the whole 
^b of our atmosphere, this would naturally 
W the mss. The noise appears to have been 
M It Tutaoorin, forty roilea distant. At 
^v pUcB sixteen miles north, it excited eon-^ 
iMlenble interest among those abrosd at the 
liee. The noise must have been great, occa* 
liiMdby their great velocity. Taking their 
ipttiSegianty into the account, say 8*3, their 
>M heiag about that of large cannon balls, 
MM rik>wance also being made for their 
ttngvhr shape, from the depth they penetrated 
^ wl, whbh wna of about common hard*' 
M, those who hafe observed the power of 

Cttiles in such eases, will be able to calea« 
ippieximately, what that velocity waa^ 
Hemnklions that there waa nothing pe- 
^^ii the state of the atmo^bere. It waa 

a clear day. The noise made aa they oame 
through the air made a deep impression oa 
the mind of the people in that region, 
and waa heard, as was reported, along 
the sea shore up to Teruchooiy. They fell 
about three miles apart from each other. 
The smaller one weighs about 37 pounds and 
sunk in the earth,, when it fell, two feet and 
eis^ht inches^ Tlie larger one is from three to* 
four times as large, and sunk in ihe earth two 
feet and four inches^ It struck the earth flatwise.^ 
The smaller one fell about perpendicularly* 
The larger fell (coming from the North a little 
to the West,) makiug an angle, with a per^ 
pendicular line, of about fifteen degrees. Persona 
were standing near each place where they fell* 
Many worshipped them. The villagers gave them 
up to himv on condiiion that he should inform 
you,, and aave them from trouble (or rather 
which they feared soma officials might mike.) 
Dr. Buist mentiona that a remarkable srolite 
fell at the village of Manigaon, near Eiiiulaliad, 
in Khandesh. — Src Capt. J. Abbott, in Bl. As*. 
Traua. 1844, Vol. XUI, p. 880— See also 
account of one which fell at Kajahroundrv in 
Mad. Lit. Trans. Vol. XIII, p. 164, and Dr. 
Buist'a list of Bom Geo. Trans. 1830. Vol 
IX, and Professor Powell's fieport, Brit. Ass* 
1847 k 1853.— i>f*. JBuUi'i CaL Madra$^ 
Museum lUeordi. My%or$ Miu$nm B^oordt* 
VieMia Muteum Li$L 


AchyrantheaUnata. Linn, Roxh. 

,., villosa, For»k. 
lllecebnun lanatum, Linn, 

SIrpii pulai ... 
Pindi konda... 
Pindi doada . 



Chaya Bbng. 

KhnI DuK. 

Sheruhala. ... Kalxal. 
Kampule kiray Tut; 

This is a common weed growing everywhere; 
it haa woolly^ silvery looking leaves, and oval 
beads of white flowers. Its leaves mixed with 
othera are used as greens, and its roots as a 
demulcent in Native medioine — Jajfrey. V^tjvl 
BlanU, Voifft, Wight also figures^, bracbiata, 
I77& ; floribunda, 1776 ; Javanica, 870 ; 
Monsonim, 725 ; and scandens, 724. See 
Vegetables of Southern India.. 

^SGUINANTUUS, a leenus of epiphytiral 
plants. The name was given from Aischuno. 
to be ashamed, and Anthos a flo^ er. 


Don's Syst. 4. 656. 
Incarvillea parasitica. Rox, Fl. 3. f>. 112. 
Trichospermum grandifloram. Don. in 

Ed. Fhil. Journ, < 

A parasitic plant with crimson yellow flowers : 
in shape and aiae like those of Digitalis pur- 
purea. Stem succulent, smooth ; with swelled 
joints from which fibrous roots issue. Foiud 
on trees in S. Concai). 




^SCHYNANTHUS Species ? differs from 
the last, in the flowers beinsr solitary and much 
smaller. On trees in Southern Mahratta 
Country. Probably a new sptcies. Sec Incar- 
Tillea : Triohospermum. 

^SCHYNOMENK. Linn. A eenus of the 
natural order Legnminosse from which several 
plants have been separated to other genera and 
species also re-allotted. 

M* aquatica. Boxb. Syo. of M, aspera* 
M* coccinea. Linn^ Syn. of Agati grandiflora. 
M, grandiflora. Roxb, Syn. of Agati grandi- 
M, cannabina. See Sesbania aculeata. See 

also Dhanchi. 
M, indica. Burm. Syn. of Sesbania iEgypti. 

^ nca. Pers. * 
jE. iudioa. Wall, Syn. ofiE.aspera* 
M* lagennria. Lour, Syn. of M. aspera. 
^.suymiuta. Roxbr, E. I. M. Syn. of 

&3sbanifl iEgyptinca. Fer%. 
M, tri flora. Foir, Syn. of Desmodium 

M^ sesban. Linn, Syn.of ^esbaniaiEgyptiaca. 
^sonynomene paludosa. Roxb, 

Shola also Sola ...Hmu. 
Phool-sola ...BsNO. 





... MaL> 
... Tam. 

The pith, known as skola^ is used for light 
hats ; bottle covers, and ornaments ; many of the 
last sent to the Paris Exhibition of 1857, pre* 
sented the appearance, at a little distance, of 
ivory carvina;8. Mr. Jaffrey under the Tamil 
name of Sadday^keeray^ describes it as a her- 
baceous perennial, the leaflets of which are 
used as greens. It springs up spontaneously 
in the Burmah rice- fields, especially in the 
Tharawad<ly district, and affords an excellent 
\^tmp,--^Madrtti Exh. Jior, Report of 1855. 
O'Shauffhneasjftpage 295. Roxb, McCieliand. 
See Carving ; Vegetables. 

^FHER. See Osiris. Sati. 

ETHIOPIA, *'the country or land of the 
sun ;" from AH, contraction of Aditjfa* ^^.YP^ 
may have the same etymology, AUia, See 
Semitio races. Aditya. India. 

JDTILE3. Stones worshipped as sacred 
objects. See Salagrama. Aerolites. 

APA, also AFI. Arab. A poisonous 

AFGHAN. A name applied in Europe to 
tbe various peqples in Afghanistan. They are 
mabomadana, having been converted to this 
creed within half a century from the flrst pro- 
mulgation of that religion, but they are not one 
people and they have scarcfiy ever, for any 
lengthened period, rendered a common obedience 
to one ruler. In the territories known as Af- 
ghanistan are four principal tow^ns, Kabul, 
Ghizni, Kandahar and Herat, and the prevailing 
language is Pushtuor Pakhtu j but the routes of 

the great race migrations and of the large armies 
under Alexander and his successors, under 
Timour, Baber and Nadir Shah, were through 
these countries, and these races and conquer- 
ors all left remnants and colonies behind them, 
who have never up to the present day amnlgA- 
mated, and parts of whose languages remain 
distinct. Though no mention is made of 
Kabul, Alexander in his advance to the Indus 
must have passed close to the site of the pre- 
sent city. Even in bis time, the countries 
through which, after crossing the Indus at 
Attock, he passed southward to the delta of 
the Indus, were inhabited by numerous smalt 
nations and tribes. We read of the Mallt, the 
people of the Multan of to-day ; — the Oxy- 
draceee, the people of Outch ; the Cathei, the 
Katheri of Diodorus Siculns,— th« present 
Khetri tril)e. As soon as he had crossed over 
to Taxilas, on the east side, Ambisacies, king of 
the Indian mountaineers, whom Rennell sup- 
poses to be ancestors of the Ghickers, sent am- 
bassadors with presents to him. From the 
conflux of the Ascesines with the Indus, Alex- 
ander passed through the countries of tbe 
Sogdi, Musicani, Oxycani, Sindomanni and 
Patalnns, and seems to have encountered tbe 
nomade races in Baluchistan. This variety of 
tribes and nations has been a feature of those 
regions from the most ancient time. Several of 
their races are alluded to in the Mudra Rak* 
shasft, or Signet of the Minister, an ancient 
political drama in sancrit by Visakhadntta, 
perhaps of the I2ih century, in which tbe 
events relate to the history of Chandragupta^ 
the Sandracotius of the Greeks. In the tale, 
Rakshasa was the minister of Nanda and after^ 
wards of Ohandragupta. And in the soene^ 
where Viradha Gupta visits Rakshasa he is 

Rak. — What news from Paabpapur. 

Vir.— I have oot much to tell Sir : 

Where shall I cotnmeDce. 

Kak.— With Chondragupta's entry in the city. 

Whatever my ageote since have done, inform me. 

Vir. —Yon will remember. Sir, when in close league 

United by Cbanakya, Parvateswara 

And ChandraKupta iu alliance, led 

Their force against the city, — a wild multitude 

Of Sakasy Yavanas and mountaineers 

The fierce Kambojas, with the tribes who dwell 

Beyond the western streams and Persian hosts 

Poured on us like a deluge. 

These Bakas of the hindns cannot be other 
than the Sacse or Sakai of clastsical geography. 
They are frequently named in various works 
and seem to «have been, known on the borders 
of India or in its western districts in the first 
century preceding Christianity. Vikramaditya, 
King of Ougein, being known as tbe Bakari or 
enemy of the Bacse, his era dates B. C 56^ 
and it would appear that about this date^ some 
northern tribes had settled themselves aloa^ 




tiie Indus, constituting the Indo-Scythi of 
ArfttB. Their attempt to penetrate further to 
tbe east, by way of Kandesh and Mnlwa, was 
Bot improbably arrested by Vikramaditya, 
vbenec the epithet Sakari. The Bacse are sup- 
posed by Professor Lassen to be the Szu 
Tirtan who were expelled about 150 B. ('. 
from tbe Hi valley by the Yuetchi or White 
Hdu whom he supposes to be the Tochari. 
After occupying Tabia or Sogdiana for a time, 
tfaey ire further stated by the Chinese to have 
ben driren thence also by the Yengars some 
jean afterwards, and to haye established them- 
Kim in Kipen, in which name Lassen recog- 
Bisei tli6 Kophen valley in Kohistan. The 
tenDTaranas, in the same poem, is in modem 
tiaes applied by hindus of Northern India 
to mahomadans of every description, but in 
tk above quotation and in works prior to the 
■akomedan era, some other people must have 
been inti'nded. The interpretation of the word 
h Sir W. Jones, is lonians or Asiatic Greeks, 
ind there are some considerations in its favour, 
iltbottgh the chief argument in its behalf is the 
circuity of attuchiug it to any other people. 
Tbe mouiitaiueers, or Kiratas of the quotation 
naj hare come from any part of India. They 
ite known in clNasicHl geography as the Cir- 
tbidc or tbe Cirrodes, the latter in Sogdiana, 
HtrtbeOxus. t*he Kambojas are the people 
of tbe Arachosia, or north CHstern province of 
Ma, Tbe site of the Bahikaa, as they 
lit tenned in tbe text, is explained in the 
Mibibarat, and the Paraaikas speak for 


tbe aame Afi^han by which the tribes are at 
pmest known does not however give any aid in 
ttidflg their origin. Its meaning and deriva- 
tioD, are both quite undetermined. According 
to oee supposition it is the Arabic plural of the 
^nd/tgian, whicb is said to have been appli- 
ed to tbetn about the time of Sultan Abu Said 
of tbe race of Jengis Khan, because of their 
toutantly disunited state among themselves ; 
aid there is iu Hyderabad a great body of 
tbeie people's deaoendants, who usually recog* 
nisetbisasthe derivation of the word. Theprimi- 
tite tribe of the Afghans, was called a Taifah, a 
*Qrd which corresponds with that of nation, 
f^ first division of this primitive tribe are 
ttjkd Parqah, tribe ; ai>d the sub^divisions of 
tUi, tirah or branehea. — Some of the Afghans 
biieaiserted that they are remnantaof oneof the 
lUtrew tribes, and in this view, they do not 
^pct to the deaisnation of Ban-i-Israil, which 
^ cautse does not include the Yahndi or Jew, 
itiCoottt Bjomsterna (p. 233-234) states, that 
vy affirm that Nebuchadnezzar after the des- 
^J*aioB of the temple of Jerusalem, removed 
tHfttoBamean, and that their present name 
^■•taD their leader Afghans, who was son 
« tke wk of Awf (Solomon's wazir,) who 


was the son of Berkin. Mr. Mnsson, however, 
(Journeys, Vol. I. p. xii-xv.) explains that the 
introduction of the mahomedan faith, with the 
legends and traditions of that religion, has in- 
duced all the Afghans to pretend to a descent 
from the Jewish patriarehs and kings, — ^a pedi- 
gree, however, which Mr. Masson regards as 
only diie to their vanity, and which does not 
require to be too seriously examined. In 
another sense, they affirm that they are all Ban- 
i-Israel, or children of Israel, which merely 
means that they are not heathens ; for they 
affirm Christians, although not acknowledging 
their prophet, and Shias, whom they revile 
as heretics, to be, equally with themselves, Ban- 
i-israel, although they exclude Hindus, Chinese, 
and all idolaters. — Ue says at another place, 
that the term Afgkm is acknowledged by a 
multitude of tribes speaking the same dialect, 
— the Pushtoo or Afghani, but that the term it- 
self has no known signification, and il mant- 
festly borne by many people of very different 
origin, though the people are said to call them- 
selves Pushtoon. General Kennedy observes 
that all arguments on the claim of the Afghans 
to Hebrew descent may be dispensed with in 
consideration of their real history. Our most 
eminent modern oriental, Mountstuart Elphin- 
stone and the late Mr. T. M. Dickinson (Journal 
of the Asiatic Society, Vol. IV. p. 246.; rf jeet 
it ; and in Lieutenant Leech's valuable voca- 
bulary of the languages west of the Indus (Pro- 
ceedingsof the Bombay Geographical Society for 
1888), he states that the Afghans were *' original- 
ly a Turkish or Moghul nation, but that, at pre- 
sent, they are a mixed race, consisting of the in- 
habitants of Ghaur, the Turkish tribe of Khiiji, 
and thePerso-lndian tribes dwelling between the 
eastern branches of the Hindu Kush and the 
upper parts of the Indus." Hespecting the 
tribe of Joseph, the £u8ufzye, noticed among 
I hem, we are expressly informed that they 
have been settled only about 300 years on the 
upper parts of the Indus, having been origin- 
ally emigrants from the country of the Balu- 
clies, about Kelat-i-Nassir. (Kennedy's Ethno- 
logical Essays, p. 7.) In India, these people 
and their descendants have always been known 
as Pa than (Butan P) and they themselves in- 
variably assume the honorific designation of 
Khan. Some of them are known also in India, 
as Bohilla. Recent travellers, Bumes, Masaon; 
and Ferrier, met with tribea who claim a 
Grecian descent. According to Barnes, the 
Mir of Badakhshan, the chief of Darwas intke 
valley of the Oztis, and the chiefs eastward c^ 
Darwaz who occupy the provinces of Kulab, 
Shughnan, and Wakhan, north of the Oxus; 
also the hill states of Chitral, Qiigit and Is- 
kardo, are all held by chiefa who claim a 
Grecian descent. The whole of the princes 
who claim descent CrOm Alexander ftre Tajiks, 




who iahabited the country befbre it was over- 
ran by Turki or Tartar tribei. The Tajiks, 
now Mahom<%<lan8j regard Alexander as a pro- 
phet. The fiadakshan family are fair but pre- 
sent nothinic in form or feature resemblia}; the 
Greek. They are not unlike the modern Per- 
sian, and there is a deci(ied contrast between 
them and the Turk and Uzbek. 

On this point liowever General Ferrier(«7oi«r- 
ae^t p* p. 162-3} mentions that on reach- 
ing Gasergah he was much surprised to find 
there a small encampment of persons in the 
dress of Usbrks, but whose confif^uration of 
features clearly indicated quite another origin. 
In conversations with them they stated that they 
were the descendants of the Yunaues (Greeks) 
whom Alexander the Great, Iskander Eoomi, 
had left in theee countries ; and when he heard 
this he recollected that Marco Polo, and after 
him Bumes, as well as other writers on oriental 
history; mentioned the existence of Macedonian 
tribes which had settled on the north-west 
frontier of Chinese Tartary. Ue wished to 
Donvince myself that they had not been led into 
error on this subject ; and, from the replies he 
received to the numerous questions he put to 
these people, he was convinced of the existence 
of the real descendants of the ancient Greeks 
in thoee countries. These Yunanes are not 
isolated and dispersed here and there but are 
united in tribes, occupyiuK a considerable tract 
of country ; nothing, however, either in their 
language or their habits^ betrays their origin. 
They are mussulmans, and have tlie reputation 
of being somewhat fanatical, and are not held 
in much consideration by the Tartars, amongst 
whom they are settled, but they are respected, 
for, like their ancestors, th<»y are brave, and the 
eonsequences of their hatred are- terrible to 
those who are the object of it. Burnes, while 
admitting the existence of the descendants of 
these Greeks in Central Asia, appears to doubt 
whether some of their chiefs are, as they affirm, 
the desecndants of Alexander, for the historians 
of the son of Philip assure us that he left no 
heir to reap the fruiisof his immense conquests. 

Alexander built a city in his route eastwards 
towards the Indus to which ha gave his own 
name, but the name it now bears and its particu- 
lar site have been lost It was called Alex- 
andria near the Caneasas» and Rennel points 
to Bamian as the quarter in which he would 
place it. General Ferrier, however, mentions that 
Ihe fortified town of Herat, is supposed to have 
-been founded by Alexander the Great, but he 
does not quote his authority. This city, he 
iells us, is a quadrangle of Si miles lung on 
the north and south sides, and rather more 
on the east and west. Its extent would be 
immense if all the suburbs were included, 
particularly those stretching to the west of the 

t9wn beyond the Sanrwth-i-Iraki Afler the 

death of Alexander the Great, Persia as well as 
Syria, fell to the lot of Seleucus Nicator, wh(^ 
established the dynasty of the Seleiici(i8B. 
Ajitiochiis Soter succeeded Seleucus Nicator» 
and in the reiicn of his successor, A>itiochus 
Theos, Arsaoes, a Scythian, who came frt>m the 
north of the Sea of Azoff, induced the Persians 
to throw off the Greek yoke, founded the 
Parthian empire, snd made Rhages his capiiaL 
This was likewise the period of ttie foundation 
of the Bactrian king<iom by Tiieodotus, the 
governor of it, who finding himself out off 
from Syria by the Persian revolution, declared 
his independence. Arsaces is called Asteh by 
Eastern writers, and is said to have been a 
descendant of the ancient Persian kings. When 
he gaiucfl the kingdom, it is said he promised 
to exact no tribute and merely to consider 
himself as the head of a confederacy of princes* 
united for the double object of maintaining 
their independence and freeing Persia from a 
foreign yoke. This is the commencement of 
that era of Persian history called by Eastern 
wri(erS| Malook-ul-Tuaif, or common-weslth 
of tribes. In A. D. 906, Rhages was taken 
by Ismail, founder of the Samanee dynasty. It 
ceased now to be a seat of empire, and in A 
D. 967, became the capital of the house of 
Shemgur, a race of petty princes who maintain- 
fd a kind of indepeudence, i^hile the dynasties 
of Saman and Bilemee divided the empire of 
Persia. In A. D. 1027, Bhages was the last 
conquest of Mahmood of Qhuaui. [Smith* $ Die, 
Malcolm* » HUL of /'ema, quoted t« Ferrier$^ 
Joumeyn^p, 55,) The history of the lands adja-^ 
cent to K<ibul il urine the centuries immediately 
preceding and following the present era, is but 
little indicated in books, but has been, to a con* 
siderable extent, traoecl out by several learned 
men, Mr. James Prinsep. Mr. H. T. Prinsep^ 
Professors Wilson and Lassen from coins of 
Greek, Arian, Bactrian, Scythian, Partho-Scyth- 
ian, Ario- Parthian & In do -Scythian kings and 
riynasties, which the researches of Sir Alexander 
Burnes, Mr. Masson, Generals Court and Ven- 
tura had brouifht to light, as also from the en- 
gravings on rocks and on relics found in topes 
in all the regions around Kabul. The charao* 
ters in which these legends are engraved are 
Arian or Bactrian, Greek, and Sanscrit. On 
coins, thesa are sometimes single, but msny 
dynasties adopted bi-linffual legends, Arian 
and Greek, or Greek and Simscrit, the Greek 
becoming gradually more barbarous towards 
the present era, until at length, it became 
unintelligible. Mr. Prinsep considers it as 
established that the Arian or Bactrian lan- 
guage was long the vernacular of the Paro- 
pamisan range, of Kabnl, and perhaps of Uerst 
and Kandahar, up to the Indus, for it has been 
found in the topes of Manikhyala in the Paigsb 
and on the rook at Bamian. Unlike the Greek 




•a flttierit, it is written like tke Semitte 
ttK(Mi from right to left but the letters being 
ihiiyi mftniej they «onid at pleasure be 
wnttea from right to left, and the customs of 
amst racet, on this point, were various. The 
•riie»t Greek waa written 'altemately, as a 
fksgk ii dmwn, a«d tombe of Tuscan kings 
ipeMitiome years since, contain inscriptions in 
Gmk ebsnoters, written from right to left. 
Tht Montfiihtns who adopted the Byrian char- 
aefem vrite it in lines downwards like the 
CkioM. The Arian chamcter was adopted first 
oitk«HBsof theOreek kings from Eoeratittes 
doffitoUcrmens. It was then taken up by the 
ScytUuM, who crossed the FaropHmisus, Imaus 
a flindu Kiish, and also by Parthians who as- 
aiW their independence in Afghanistan. The 
irin ilpbabet character, in the course of years^ 
Mem to hare undergone a change, and the 
■Bi fonas sre not to be recognised in later 
OM, Qor the same epithets and titles, and the 
imriptioDs discovered in topes are all in the 
iaittipls thott^sh later character. Mr. Jamea 
him^ Mr. H. T. Prinaepand Profeasor Wii- 
as have eoasiitered this Arian language to have 
idoMsioity with Sanscrit, but Dr. Moore haa 
nently put forth that it is Hebrew. It seems 
to kire iQpeneded the ancient Sanscrit of the 
^|iof Asoks, which was adopted by Aga- 
MCI lad Pantaloon, the first of whom we 
boa, fnan the pure Greek atyle of hia other 
coin, u> hsve bean one of the earliest of the 
Owin kings. After them, however, Sanscrit 
tedert were entirely disused. Menander, the 
bon Isdian conqueror, never aeems to have 
coMdiith the lanisuage of A«oka, from which 
ensMtance Mr. H. T. Prinsep infers that the 
likmcten on the coins of Agathocles and Pan- 
tohos were not vernacidar, but had been in- 
|ndittd by the Indian sovereigns, who, foUow- 
hgtke Int Chandra Gupta, retained dominion 
<^tkeprovinoea ceded by the first Seleucus, 
tttH tbej were restored by Asoka to the Great 
M)ckQs. At Manikhysla, where there is 
t tepe lobdly built of quarried stones and 
bewment, — a great cupola, 80 feet high and 
S]0 to SSO feet in circumference was opened 
If fittenl Ventura, but there are fifteen other 
mi iBiaflcr eupolaa there, which were opened 
tyfissartl Court. Monuments of the name 
bid US met with at Rawal pindi (in thePanjab) 
>fti Hssara country west of Kabul, at Jela- 
hlsl, Ligaaa, Kabuli Bamean and in the 
Ufin Pass. Many of those west of Kabul 
VWs epeaed by Mr. fiaaaon. In one, N« 
!» & eif the village which was opened by Ge* 
Ooart, a sculptured stone was found, in 
ekmeters, along with Boman ooina and 
ef Kadphiaea and Kanerkea, a fact alone 
to indicate that the territoricB around 
Mksiaader the awny of mien of varied 
Qict. Among the earlieat of these were the 

successors of Alexander the Great. Alex- 
ander't death occurred in the spring of the 
year 8SIS B. C. His empire, though only of 
ten years growth, was not trantient. Hia 
colonies and their institutiouSy mannera and 
languH|;e had a lasting action in central Asia, 
the effects of which were felt for at least five 
hundred years after his decease. Though ha 
left his brother Aridaus and the posthumous 
child of Rashana or Aoxanai called Alexander, 
neither of theae succeeded him, for his military 
commandants assumed sovereign power, and in 
B. G. 815, Antigonua assumed the regal title 
of king of Asia. 

In B. C. 305, Seleocns gained a great vic- 
tory over Nioanor, a lit^utenant of Antigonus, 
and followed it up by seising and adding to hia 
own government, the whole of Media, Hyrcania, 
Parthia, Bactria, and Aria, and all the oountriea 
as far as the Indus. In SOS, he crossed that 
river to make war on Chandra Qupta, who/ 
during these contentions, had expelled the Gre- 
cian garrisons from the Panjab, and ao had re- 
covered that country for the native sovereigns 
of India. Seleucus being called to a final 
struggle with A ntigonus, made a hasty peace 
with Chandra Gupta, ceding the Panjab as far 
as the Indus. According to Strabo, Arachotia 
was also ceded, but this seems doubtful. 
Kuchchee to the Boian Pass with the valley of 
the Indus may have been the region ceded. Se- 
leucus drove Antigonua into Phrygia, where ha 
was defeated and slain in 301 H. C Seleucus 
Nicator was assassinated in 280 B. C* by 
Ptolemy Ceraiinus, from which date the whole 
of Asia to the Indus and Jaxartes was under 
the Syrian king Antiochus Soter, who from 
380 to 261 B.C. reigned undisturbed over the 
same territory, and left it to his son Antiochus 

In 256 or 865 B. C, Bactria declared for in- 
dependence under Theodotus or Dcodotua. 
Parthia followed about the year 250 B. G. 
under the rule of Arsaces, who is variously 
described as a native of Soghd, as a Bactrian, 
and by Moses of Chorene, aa of Balkh, this last 
author adding that the dynasty was known aa 
Balkhavenses or Pahlavian. He used Greek 
only on his coins and in his public letters and 
correspondence. His coinage is ordinarily with 
the head of the sovereign on one side and only 
one coin haa a lingual inaeription. Great king 
of kings waa a ti& first adopted by Idithrida- 
tea II. 

Arsaees I, B. C* 254-250. the first of the 
Arsacidan kings^ a native of Balkh, revolted 
under Antioehua Theos, is supposed to have 
beru killed in action with Ariarathra of 
Cappidoeia, but the date and circumstancea 
not known. 

Arsaces II, (Artabanua P) son of Arsaces I» 
about B. C. 220, at firat extended the Par- 



thian empire but was aftervrards driven into 
Hyrcania by Aiitiochus Magnus in B. C. 212 ; 
allying bimself wiih the Scythians be recovered 

Arsaces III, B. C 196, called Friapatius 
or Pbriadavius, son of Arsaces II reigned 15 
years, left three sons, Phrahates, Mithridates 
and Arta banns. 

Arsaces Mithridates I, B. C. 177, made 
Balkh his capital, subdued Media and Persia 
and captured Babylon, brought under his 
dominion Western Bactria, Aria, Seestan, and 
Arachosia and made a successful expedition 
into India. 

Arsaces Phrahates II, B. C. 139. In his 
reign Bactria seems to have been subjugated 
entirely by Scythians. He was defeated and 
slain in B. C. 130, when restraining the 
Parthians from ravagina: the country. 

Arsaces Artabanes, B. C. 126, uncle of 
Phrahates and youngest son of Priapatius, 
died of a wound received in action from the 
Tocbari Scythians. 

After many kings, the Greco-Parthian or 
Arsacian dynasty in Central Asia ended with 
Arsaces Artabanus in A. D. 215, who was 
involved in- a war with Rome, but ulti- 
mately slain in battle at Balkh by one of 
his Parthian officers, Ardeahir Babakan or 
Artaxerxes, who established his own, thst of 
the Sassanians, in A. D. 235. It lasted nearly 
500 years. The capital in the time of the 
Caesars was at Selucia on the Tigris. The 
system of Government was Asiatic, by Satraps, 
or rulers possessing full power over the persons 
and properties of all the subjects of the Slate. 

The history of the country of the Rophones 
river, t. 

Many of the coins have bilingual insciip* 
tions the one Greek, on the obverse, some of 
excellent workmanship oflen of very barbarous 
forms, the other, on the reverse, in that called 
Arian,Arianian,Bactrian and Kabulian. Accord- 
ing to the prevalent authority, of Lassen, 
James Prinsep, Professor Wilson and others, 
this language is said to be Sanscrit, but Doctor 
Moore asserts it as Hebrew. It is written from 
rigiii to left. 

The first Theodotus or Diodotus B. C. 256, 
reigned about the same time as Arsaces I. 

Theodotus II, B. C. 240, is said to have 
reigned in the Kabul valley. 

Euthydemus, B. C. 220, reigned in the time 
of the expedition of Antiochus the Great, and 
was defeated in battle near Merv by the 
united Syrian and Parthian armies. He then 
urged Antiochus to receive him in alliance and 
so extend the Greek influence to the Indus. A 
peace was concluded, and Euthydemus led the 
Syrian Army through Bactria, t. e. by the 



route N. of the mounUios to the Kabul Valley 
and across the Indus in B. C. 206. There, 
Antiochus made peace with Sophagasenus 
(Asoka), which that sovereign recorded by 
edicts on rocks and pillars in various parts of 
India, in characters exactly resembling those 
on the coins of Agathodes. In B. C, 205, 
Antiochus returned by way of Arachotia. 1 he 
translation of the edicts of Asoka, is in the 
Asiatic S>ciety's Journal for 1838, and that on 
the Girnar rock names Antiochus (Antiochia 
Yona Bsja). 

Eukratides. B. C 178; (Prinsep B. C. 181, 
Bayer, Wilson B. 0. 165, Visconli : B. G., 
Lassen 175). He seems to have made an ex- 
pedition to India in 165 B. C.and on his return 
from it, to have been murdered by his son. 
NumtTous of his coins have been found in 
Bactria and Afghanistan and Mr. H. T. 
Prinsep considers that he ruled orijjinally in 
Bactria, subseqaently made conquests in and 
south of Parapamisus in Kabul and, first of 
all the Greeks, coined in the bilingual Arian 
inscription. The first use of two languages 
however, is also ascribed to AgHthoeles, who 
used Greek and Sanscrit while Eukratides used 
Greek and Arian. Eukratides whs certainly, ' 
amongst the earliest of the Greek kinifs of 
Bactria, Kabul and Aria, who adopted bilingaal 
inscriptions on his coins, and his so doing is 
supposed consequent on his conquest of the 
Parapnmisus, after assumption of the title of 
Great King. On his death, his wide dominion 
is supposed to have been broken into several 
independent kingdoms. 

Heliocles, B. C. 155, thepsrricideof Eukra- 

« . tides, used bilingual inscriptions on coins in 

e, Bactria, Aria and Kabul, is dif- P"re Greek and Arian. His rule though 

short, exiended over Bactria and the Paropa- 

Antimachus, B. C. 150 coined with Greek 
and Arian, 

Atfathocles, B. C. 190, coined with Greek 
and Sanscrit, is supposed by Lassen to have 
ruled KabuliatHn to the Indus, and Mr. H. T. 
Prinsep supposes him to hav<^ been Che 
Governor left by Antiochus in Kabul, after 
his treaty with Asoka. 

Pantaleon, B. C. 195, coined in Greek and 

Professor Lassen supposes four Greek kiair- 
doms, viz.y that of Bactria. One eastern, under 
Menander and Apollodotus, comprehending the . 
Punjab and valley of*the Indus, with Kabul, 
and Arachotia or Kandahar addeid in timea of 
its prosperity. Another western, at Herat and 
in Seestan. A fourth central of the Paropami-*. 
sus, which latter region, Mr. Prinsep is inclin* 
ed to give to Bactria, btfeause of the bilingual 
as well as the pure Greek coins of Heliodlee and 
Antimachus, Kings of Bactria. 



Of att kiM kings who followed Eakratidos^ \ 
Menaadcrand ApoUodotus alone are meutioned 
^ daMifld autlioriues. 

Tiic Sflvihiao kings* followed the Greek 
Uip, in adopting their forma of money. They 
eoiiied timilar pieces with superscripiions 
MUiar, and in the same languages, but insoiib- 
d sa tbem ilieir own names and titles, and 
Hfiad (he emblems and deviees. 

Una, B. C. 135, is supposed to have been 
iSejtiiian, the head of one of the tribes that 
hnkeioto Bactris between 150 to 140 B. C, 
asik teems to have held communication with 
Am. Ou the obverse, his ooiti contains the 
Ingvith a trident, a Tartar war weapon, set- 
% bii foot on a prostrate enemy. 

Ales, B. C. 130. The greatest of Scythian 
liii|s, oa whose coins are bilingaal inscrip- 
tioM, with plain » distinct Greek characters 

Irian, Mabarajaaa Raja Bttjasa Madatasa 
Ajm. The figures on the ooins are various, 
hefettor Wilson thinks he was an Indian Bud- 
diust hn^, about 50 B. C. Professor Lassen 
nfHudM him as a Sacian Scythian, who oon« 
^und the Kabul valley in the time of the 
Mooad Hithridates, and finally destroyed the 
tis^imi of Menandar and HermsBus iu about 
}iO fi. C. He considers he was succeeded 
ki Aiilises. 

Azihaes, B. C 115, reij^ned with the same 
Hthi SI Azes. On one coin, the name of Azes 
iies the Greek obverse, and that of Azilises 
00 Dk Bactrian reverse. 

Voaooes* B. G. 100, called Balahara, eup- 
|Miedtohave been a Parlhiau Satrap who asr 
Mted independence, and created a kingdom for 
luaielf out of the dominions of Azilises. 

Spsiiristts, B. C. 85, sometimes read Ipa- 
laiciii, supposed a Parthian king. 

SpAl^pius, B. C. 75, had many coins in two 
h>guss[et, he was a vice rej^ent, son of Votio* 
M sad perhaps brother of Spalirisus. About 
tkii time, as indicated by bis coins, was a 
ider, whose name is not known,— 

&iUt M^as, B. C. 70, the nameless Great 
S^ king, had coins with an Arian legend 
vUi Jamas Prinasp and Professor Lassen 
■Kribsd to Azea. On all is a peculiar mono- 
P^ with three prongs. The same mono- 
P^ was coDtinoed iu coins of Kadphises and 
^tha Heroitlea type derived from IlermsBiis. 
Mr« IL T. Pri«aep eonsiders him to have been 
Mteoipdrary» but not ideatified, with Vikra* 
gjtfaand thai he asiumed the title of Soter 
WpSk^hich was continued down by the 
Ill^HMa kings. He considers thai ihe 
Mdbs kiflga, with those on whose coins are 
y y da |Lo<e»ofc Hfihodea, although mete 
Mchiefii such as now rulf at Kulni, Kaiulua, 
g g*>* V^mM (he aonqqeai of ihe Paiijab 

Yikramaditya. About thia great king, India 
affords nothing but fables, but a passage of 
the Periplufr mentions that his capital waa 
Ozene (Ujein) and it is known that heeatenddt 
his empire to Kabul about B. C. 56. Thia 
dominion in ihe Kabul valley must have been 
temporary ; his empire fell to pieces after hia 
death, and nearly a century elapsed before 
Chandra Sena restored the sovereignty of 
Hindustan in its unity. 

The Kadaphes or Kadphises dynaaty ooa* 
sisted of three rulers, who ruled in Kabul, fronsr 
the downfall of the kingdom of Yikramaditya* 
Kadphises' name is on tite Arian reverse of tha 
Hermmus coins of Hercules type. There is na 
indication of a settled worship. The Heroolea 
worship WBS readily borrowed from the Greeka 
by the wild Scythians, as a mere reverence oC 
physical strenj^tb. The Kohistan is supposed 
to be the district of the first rise of Kadphises^ 
while Kabul and its valley were subject to 
Indian rule ; and while there, ihe clnef seems to 
have retained his Scythian titte and rude 
worship of Hercules. Afterwards, overpowering 
the Indian governors who had followed Vikra* 
maditya into the Kabul valley and Panjab^ ha 
or his descendants seem to have adopted tha 
Hindu religion, coining with 6reek,and dropped 
their Scythian title. In a gold coinage by a 
Kadphises king, Siva occurs in the mixed mala 
and female character, and very generally 
accompanied by the bull Nandi. Professoc 
Lassen discovered in Chinese history, that Khi- 
out-chiu-hi Kui;lsi-kio, a Yuchi or Yeutchi 
or white Hun^ conquered the Sens or Azea 
Scythians in about 40 B. C. and dying at-iha 
advanced age of 84 years, his son Yen-kao* 
Ching proseeuted his career of victory and 
reduced the Indus valley and Panjab to sub*^ 
jection in aboat 20 B. C. The namea are 
scarcely recognisable, but ihe facts and period 
correspond to the career and supposed era of 
the Kadphises kings. 

Korosoko Kosoulo Kadphises, B. C. 50 ia 
Arian Dhama + 4 nia Knjula kasa Saba* 
shakha Kadaphasa. His coina are of ihe Heroulea 
and Hermsstts type. 

Zathos Kadaphes Khoranos, B. G. 20. On 
the reverie of the coins is a sitting figure^ with 
the arm extended, and wearing a loose flowing 
Indian dress. They have monograms ihe aama 
as ihe Azes coins. The Siva worship had noi 
yet been established as the State religion. 

Yohemo Kadphises, B. G. 5. His copper 
eoiua have the king standing in a Tartor dreas^ 
with coat, boota and oap, bis right hand 
pointing downwards to an altar or pile of loaves, 
and having a irideni separate on one side and 
a olah on the other. The reyarsa has. the 
SivB Nandi bell. 

The leadinga of the iArin insciipUons oa 
ooinaof the Kadphises Wv, Vy twaeo^ Jamea 





VxiiMep and Wilson, are «omew.lvai (lifTerent, 
lind it is suggested thnt the irords Koroso 
Kotoulo, KoranosAnd Zathos, were titles short 
of rojalty. Professors Lessen nnd Wilson 
carry the dynnsty of Kadpbises through the 
vboie of the firai century of the present ern, 
wid consider it to have been then overpowered 
1^ a fresh svarm of Seythians under the 
Kan^rki kin^s. Mr. H. T. Frinsep supposes 
that during tlie ascendency of the Kadphises 
Idxifs, the Grflsoo-PArtbian party still held 
out in cities nnd commnnities, abidint; their 
tin^e to re-aasert their independence nnd rose 
Again about the middle of the first century of 
our era ; Moongst these, coins show 

* Undopherres, A. I). 40, calling himself 
King of Kings in Greek, and in Anan, Maha- 
rajasa Jlnjn Kajasa^ Tradatasa^ Mahatasa 

• Gondophcrres or Gondopliares, B. C. r'JD, 
jvjhp took the same Arian name of Pharahitasa. 

,j Abapasus^ King of Kings, A. D. 70, in Arian 
Ahakhafaaa. Professor Lassen supposes this 
name to bfl identical with Vologese?. Mr. H. 
jT: Prinsep supposes these coins to be of Par- 
tbifius, who established for themselves a sepa- 
t'Me ai^d independent sovereignty in Kabul and 
J.he Parapamisus. 

< Abalgasin^, A. D. 80, Captain Cunningham 
*le?cribed fhc Arian legend on the coins to be 
*>f " the Saviour kinj: Abagasus, younger son of 

«- Kanerki dynasty. Ai the rlnyr of the first ren 

ft ft 

turv of our era, wben the above Ario-Par- , 
thian supposed dynasty ceased to reign in 
Kabul nnd the Paitjnb, a new race of Scythian 
kings nppearwl, irlin issued gold and copper 
jfnoney of quite a dillVrent device nnd style from 
iinything before current. These bear a title of 
Kanerk^Hi, pt ^cst with the til Ik of Basiieus 
Basileon, but afterwards with the Indian title 
ht Rbo Nano R«o. The nnmber and- variety 
of the Kanerki coins iiidieate a long dominion 
lor kinf*s oP the race. The only characters on 
their coins are Greek, but tJiese become at last 
p(y corwipt as to be quite illegible. On their 
#)byer8'- is the kin? standihg, or in bust t^ the 
waist, in a Tartnr^or Indian dress, with the 
iiame and titles in a Greek legend round : ivhile 
iu-the reverse are Mithraic representations of 
the sun or moon with BAI02. NANlIA, OKPO, 
JMOPO, MAO, ABPO, or. some other mystical 
name of these luminaries, also in Greek letters. 
And on all the Kanerki coins, is the same 
jnonogram us the Kadphises dynasty used, 
hnd wlitch was borrowed apparently from tlte 
iiaiijf^l^Js Sotct 'Megas. - This wouU seem, to 
indicatf that the Kanerki dynasty, . Uioagh 
{r?t^upted as Ml*. *Priift6ep supposes by the 
^tenrtc^ton of iiri^iUrtfaian^ was yet aoohtr. 

XHiaUon of the same fribe and DAtion as'its 
predecessors of the UMne of Kadphises. 

The state religion seeros to have bem 
Mithraic, whence derived, not known ; bnt on 
their coins, the Siya bull device is also fonnidt 
on the reverse, the bull's head being to the left*, 
— in the coins of the Kadphises being to the 
right, A list of their kings cannot beframedy 
but. their power seems to have lasted for mors 
than two centuries. The style and device, of 
the Greek, of the gold coins especially, of the 
coins both of Kadphises and the Kantrkis, wee 
carried on till it grew more arid more eorrupf , 
nnd was at last, entirely lost, through the de* 
terioration of art, under the princes of Hindis 
race, who succeederl to the more energetio 
Greeks- and Scythians. — fOn ike Jluiorical 
raults MwiihU ffom recmt fJi^cacerieg im 
Afghanistan by H, T. Prinsep, Jdq.) 

Of all tlicse conquerors, only the routes of 
Alexander, Timur and Nadir Bhah, have theik 
partieulors on record. 

After the death of Alexander, his Lientcwint^ 
Seleucus, succeeded to the a«vereignty of Af- 
ghanistan and the other Asiatic conquests. 
Under his ^rrandson; Afghanistsin was teken 
from the SeleuciHic, V)y the aboriginal chief*; 
and soon after, formed with Bactria an inde* 
pendent State which existed during 150 years. 
Subsequently, the Tartars made themselves 
masters of Afghanistan and appear to have held 
possession of it up to the death of Mansoor, 
when one of his officers, Saboqtagin, estab* 
lished an independent dominion over all the 
southern parts of Afghanistan, making Ghizni 
his capital. His son Mahmood, who died 
A. D. 1028. enriched Afghanistan, with the 
spoils of India. In the reign of the cruel 
Bahriim, one of the Tartar's descendants, the 
Sabaqtagin dynasty were deprived of all but 
the Punjab, and this too, iu A. D. 1160, they 

Timur in his route from Kabul towards 
HindoQstan, aecording to Sherif-ud-din, went 
by way of Irjal, Shenuz^n, NugliF, Banoii» 
(or Bnnnoo), nnd thence to the Indus, at the 
very plane where Jelalud-din, king of Kharam 
fought with Jengis Khen and so heroicell^ 
swam the river after his defeat in 1221. H 
must not be omitted, that Timur crossed ae 
extensive desert in his way to Batnir. In hit 
I'eturn from the banks of the Ganges, he t>i^ 
eeedfd to the north-west, along the foot of tlve 
Sewnlik mountains, by Meliapur, JalKndha^ 
aiid .Tnmmoo, to the Indus, which he crossed 
at the same piece as before, innd in the seme 
milnner ; and returned to Samarcand by W^ 
of Bunnoo, or Banoo, NughsOr Nturas, Kabuf, 
Bacalan, and Teniied.-^i2^ffe/iV JVm^t^. 
fapm 112 folQy) 

Afghanistan, at the death of Timoor ctm- 
prehended the principalities' .of Cashail^ 



'Uore, ?rahvttr, Kabul, Bnlklij Khulni, 
laadabtr, Midtan, and Herat i those of Kelat 
Mid Behcbisten as well B9 Persian Kiiovasflan, 
aeknowlfldged bfT as suzerain. Siud also, 
tiKMigh not baring paid for tive ) tars the tribuU 
H|Red upoQ'by Mir Futbah Kbau, chief of the 
Talpoora, was nevertheless eiassed as amoagst 
tks numher of her dependencies. 

Nitiir Shah'rf route into India was the ordi- AUo.k and^ Lahore, and be rturn- 
ed, IS appears by Abdul Kari>n luid M. Otter, 
bftteady the same' route ; suve that insieud 
*WanwtR;( the Indus at Attocic, he went higher 
i|>, lud passed the borders of 6evvad, in hid 
■ij to Jaialabad aud Kabul. 

"Tin: bouudaries of Afghanistan have 
loduated with thts vicissitudes of wur from 
the middle of the tenth century. At tiie dnte 
iftlwmieut invasion of the country by the 
Britisk, tlie kiii^^dum consisted of four sub- 
difiiioDS, Cabul, ihe Huzara country, Cuudu- 
W,«fld Herat. Tukeu in ihis extent, Af^^hauistan 
ii bordered ou the north by Bokliani, Kun<lQZ, 
lAil Ksferistan ; on the eMSt by the British 
pioriuoe of Feabitwur and the ^oliiuait raii^e 
i mouiitaiiiS ; on the south by Beioochisian ; 
and OB the west by Persia. Its greatest length 
Irho north to south is about six hundred uiii^ ; 
ill brtsdtb measures about the same distantt^. 
[T^tmnd's Oatr'jLui aa/d Haveiock's^ p. 85.) 
V Ikfe firitUb lA>ntier line commenceti from the 
Isp of the Kaglian glen (a dependency of 
Hipn)near Chelas ou the north- west corner 
sf tb MabaRijah of Jarumoo's territory, and 
tksjnases round the north-west boundary of 
Htttfi, on the east side the ludus to Tor- 
Mi; then crossing that river, it winds round 
tk Mftb and uortb-weat boundary of the 
Mivur Yiilley to the Khyber Fass^ then 
Miui the Afreedee Hills to Kohat; then round 
tiiiitern boundary of the Kohat District, 
All ibe Meeraiizye VdUey and touching the 
WliWi of the Cabul dominions ; then round 
^WioMeree Hilla to the Buniioo line iind to the 
W of the Suliouini range \ and tiien, lastly, 
^Vt down the base of the Suliniaui range 
teifstsmioate on the upper confiufs of Bind 
J^ff the Khelat kingdom. The extei.t of 
2[ (oalier is very vast, and its length is full 
|lt.inltt» It is ako as arduous in its nature 
* K kaatcosive- Along the outer side of thi^ 
Wisr line, and tbei^fore heyond British 
te lfc i ioB, tbel%dwell a series of independent 
vBiib On the iniier aide of tbi^ ti^9j*ii^0 Mj' 
Ijy^iybt bank of the Indus, there tddo dwell 
Wiili Inbea, in nuiny respects resembling the 
gf{ByJ ^^^t but who are British subjects; 
MflJii^^ will ^be adverted to> though with 
^l^raaac^ tihfttt the former. The topo- 
IMW each tribe, both without 

|R^|tttt Ihe froaiier, may be euuineruted in 
■*■« Wi« M followB :— 

Inuispbnoent TitiilBs.— *Dwelliiig'aki»j^ tlili 
outer face of the north-west Punjab frtniti^r >iifil 
inhabiting hilU,, a«>joining frontier of liuzurti 
District, — Hussui)Z>es. ^ 

A<ijoining Frontier of Hrshawar District.— »■ 
/udoons, Bunoorwalls, Swaiees, UiUi^e/.Vfj^ 
0«m«nklie3'lee?, Upper Alomuutis. • 

tVdjuining Frontier of Peshawur aud Kolmt 
Districts. — iMreedtes. 

Adjoiuiiiif Fronlierof Kolut District — Huio^ 
tees, ticpah.", Ofukzv«s, ZyiUQoslit Alffjhaihrfl 

A<!Jt>iMini^ Fr<iUtier of Koiuft and Dehra fslr-' 
nial Khan Dioiricts. — \Vu;wiereea. 

Adjoininj; Frontier of Dehra ishinael Ki»a«i 
District — 55heoraueea, Uahtirauec?, Ku;bninm.s^ 
Bozdars. . 

A'ljoininjf Frontier of Delira Gluizee Klum 
District.— Khutrans, Kosahs, Lughttfee«•>(ict)X- 
chaniees, Ainrrees. — Hoogtecs. 

Biiiibh tribes,— Tribes within; the frontier, 
and British gubjecta, inhabiting partl y hi ll s a i M 4> 
partly phiins. 

Hu^«ra • Disfrhst.—- Turnoulees, Gukkais, 
Doonds and Suttees, Kaghau Syudi ^au^ otliejj 
tribes of ffuzara; • 

PeshawuY District.-— Euaufzyes, Khulcels, 
Momunds of the' plains. • 

Peghawar and 'Kohat pistricts.— Khuttuks. 

Kohat District'.--- Bun^ushes. . .^ 

Dehralshniael Khau matrici.—BnBnooSTees/ 
Murwutee?, Butanees, Chiefs of Tank, Ohiufa 
of KoJachce, Cliiefs'of Dehru Ishmael Khan, 
Nootkaueesr, Loondv 

Dehra Ghazec Khan District.— Dreshukif, 
Muzarecs. . ,. 

General Fcrricr gives the following appi-oki- 
mately as the auiouut of the population in Af- 

In the ProiVDCcs of , .^ 

Hcrul aW»,UOO Afghani., 1 

., - tiUUttUO PtursivHua or £iui;tks« 

KAudhliur.. BOO.OOU .\tMikau8. 

3(iU,000 Humv^iia auU Ualucbi, 

Kabul 1,600,000 Afghali*. 

S00,(X)O Var^ivslUM aud KarziU 
" baoiieii. 

To»*l •i/.no.WW AfitkMiis and 1,700,000 g rtr iii v . m 8. f . ini i u a^ 

Baluchi aud Kai^ilbasli ^,_ . » . .. . 

making a (icucral Total of V20O,O0O lnhftbllaul»«r ., 

'I'hoNffh the population of the Atfjj;han States ^ 
is not numerous they are all above the English . 
standard iu heiglU, and are brave to recklcbs- '. 
ness, l heraces iu Ali^hauist^n, tlieAff^hans pru- -; 
perly so called, are at present the dominant race, - 
andiu Kandahar, Kabul and Herat, bold tba.; 
Tajiks in subjection, Th« Tajiks arc the descend^ , 
ants of the ^m ient conquerors of the country, , 
aud may be subdivided into the Parsivansjor in- . 
habitantfii of towns, apeakiujc Persian, aiid. ^® 2 
liiniaiis or Nomadett. the Uzbeks aiclu nuiur : 
hers ; ihtt Hi«^aiils, ofTartax, pejrh«|*:> a Turku- ; 
man oii;;in, and the P^imaks who giaic their 
flocks intht! ParapaiTiibUS, arc brave and relent- 
,jlys, and Atfg'haus wlicu iruvdlin^ whether pio- 


/foeeding from Balkh, Kabul, Kandahar or Herat, 
never eater into the mountain diatricta of these 
intrepid nomadic tribes. One of the Eimak 
tribes is known as the ^eros Kohi after the 
eity of that name about ^3 miles from Teheran. 
Timur exasperated at the depredationa which 
they committed, transported the whole of tliem 
into the mountains lying between Persia and 
India. The races occupying AffRhaniatan are 
distinguished by marked charaoteristies, moral 
aa wdl aa phyaical. Geoesal terrier 4eUa us 


» " . -^ 

tint the Afghans of Kabul oonaider thcmtelf^s 
as Indian Affghans, whereaa those of tko 
Herat say they are Khoraaemii; ona tribe 
repudiates auother, and denies its Affghati 
origin, and there is not. the least sympathy 
between them* The namea of Pntan, Bobilla» 
AfTghai), which seive at the present time to 
designate the AiTghan nation, are really those of 
80 many distinct racea now coufoimded in ooe« 
^General Ferrier, p. 6. 

Military strength of tUie States of Afghanistan. 



Total In- 


Frincipalitiea an^ 

Cavalry of 

Cavali;y of 

Infantry of 

fantry of 



each State. 


each Stute. 






f Herat 


8,000 \ 

( 1 0,000 ^ 

Afghan •• 

\ Kandahar ... 
1 Kabul 



12,000 / 
31,000 ( 


\ 6,000/ 
1 10,000 C 



C Laush- Jowaine 


600 ) 

(. 6,000 J 

^Khulm ^. 



r 3,0001 


• •a 

2,500 1 


< Akkchu 




V^bek .«• 


200 y 









Shibbergan ...• 

• a. 




• •* 

1,500 J 

L 1,300 J 



4,000 ( 

r ..• ^ 



• • . 



Hazatah •.. 

^ Yekenboling ... 

• • • 



^ 300 ^ 



Deh Zingey ... 

. ■ • 



• ». 


L 800J 

4 FiroB-kohi ... 



c 6,400) 


} Kipchak 


• • • y 

- 4,950 

I 400 f 



(Taymooni ... 



C 10,000 J 







The Balooches of Seist^n are not included in 
this statement, because they are not in Afgha* 
Distan. General Ferrier tells tis that an enter- 
prising and clever chief could in Afghanistan 
obtain from fifteen to eighteen thousand excel- 
lent Balooch infantry ; but it would be difficult 
to keep so large a force under the same flag for 
any length of time, so long as Seistan is in their 
possession. In General Ferrier's time the whole 
of the Af8;han^army consisted of the three divi- 
aions of Kabul, Kandahar, and Herat ; of theae, 
the troopa called Daftari; preaented the follow- 
ing effectire foroe i^ 

(ff.) Kabul 

'15,000 Afghan Horse. 
6,000 Parsivnn or Kuzit- 

bash Horse. 
6,000 Afghan Mountai* 

neera, Infantry. 
4,000 Paratvan, Hazarah 

or Usbek Infantry. 

there were ^ 3.000 Balooch Infantry. 

(e.) In Herat the C 8^000 Afghan Horse, 
army consisted < 4,000 Hazarah Horse; ' 
of....M.f» M nO.OOO Paraivaa Infantrj-, 




Titot offioar njB that the reasoa of their 
oeem againtt the other Asiatio hordea up to 
Mil day bu been their 61aa in the attack, 
tkir eoarage^ but not any clever disposition 
m a knowledge of miiitary operations. He 
MstioBs that for the theatre of eombat be* 
tffcea their armies the Afghans always select 
large plainsi in order that their numerous 
midhr, oq which they place a blind reliance, 
•If be able to deploy freely. Though they 
IK entirely ignorant of the art of attack and 
de&iee of toinis and fortresses, the Afghans 
in lemnrkaUe for the obstinacy of their re- 
fiitaiioe and i he correctness of their aim when 
tkj ire behind walls. The arms of the 
A'](hiOB are the firelock, the carbine, the 
ivivcl-gun, or a pair of lead pistols ; some- 
ttseia bow, or a lance with a bamboo handle. 

The IsDgusgea spoken in the western border 
(N ladia, between it and Afghanistan, of Indin 
aijoiniug Afghanistan, are dialects of Hindi, 
biiifficiently distinct to be called Sindi, Pan- 
^i lad Kashmiri. The late Lieut* Leech 
luteed has givMi vocabularies of seven Ian- 
fuges spoken on the west of the Indus. 
Ibe vestern border tribes are still mostly 
inder patriiirchal governments. In the south 
ve the rarious Baluch tribes in the terri- 
tories to which they give their name and whose 
liBgaage is said by Captain Raverty to be 
• nuititfeof Peraian» Sindi, Punjabi, Hindi 
lidStoicrit. The firahui tribes in Sahara wan 
>&iiJkQiairan, whose great chief is the Khan ol 
acht, ethoologists consider to be of the same 
Seythie stock as the Dravidian races in the 
^^K >nd infer from this that the passage of 
Dnvidian tribes from Turan was along tht 
"iky of the Indus- 

Fwtiier north, in the Derajat, are warlike 
Baioch and A fi< ban tribes, the most unyield 
*Sofvhom are the Waziri, who long con- 
tiued to resist the efforts made by the English 
to Rstraih their inroads on the plains. Still 
fcrthor north and wrest are the numerous tribes 
w Afghanistan, of whom may be mentioned the 
g*Qf»l Durani race and the T^jik tribes- 
% Mongols of ELabul, Persia and Herat, 
eib'U KaiiQbks in Herat and Afghanistan and 
^Mkand Cfaarmak in the Hazara, dwell north 
■Wmlsnd Herat. In the Buunu valley, 
waie nixed races, and ^e may notice the 
wdtt in Giljit and Chulas. 

Aseording to Captain Raverty, the people 
m dwell about Kabul and Kandahar, 
*«i»akandPiabin are designatedB'r-Pushtun 
I^Vpper Afghana ; aiid those occupying the 
j{Mflt of Boh, which is near India, are called 
f ^^y tttnn or Iiower Afghans. Persian is the 
^I'^S^ttga of Afghanistan, but colloquially 
y2^ U ia aUka the common tongue of the 
{•"Wed people, of the families of the Sadozye 
PTi n4 of the dwellings of the Amir. Tbere 

"■■" 15 

are however two divisiona of the Afghans, 
termed Push tun and Pukhtun, who apeak 
Pushto and Pukhto respectively. The Pushto 
being the western dialect with affinity to 
Persian, and the Pukhto the eastern with many 
Sanscrit and Hindi words. The Pushto ia 
spoken, with slight variation in orthography 
and pronunciation, from ibe valley of Pisbin, 
south of Kandahar, to Kafiristan on the north ; 
and from the banks of *the Helmand oik the 
west, to the Attok, Sindhu or ludus river, on 
the east ; — throughout the Sama or plain of 
the Yuzufzye's, — the mountainous districts of 
Bajawar, Banjhkora, Suwatt and Buner to 
Astor, on the boiders of Little Tibtt, — a tract 
of country equal in extent to the entire Spanish 
pieninsulA. Also, throughout the British districts 
of the Derajat, Banu lak, Kohat, Peshawar 
and the Samah or Plain of the Yuauftye's, 
with the exception of Dera Ghazikhan, uinc- 
lenths of the people speak the Afghan language. 
Since the invasions of Mahmud of Ghazni^ in 
the twelfth century, tbere has been a constant 
iuflux^iiito India of Afghaoa, as conquerors 
and settlers and this has been so great from 
particular districts that some tribes have 
altogether disappearpd from Afghanistan. In 
some localities in India, the Afghan settlers 
have preserved the Pushto, almost in its purity, 
up to the preseiit day, having from the outset 
married amongst themstlves. In some parts of 
Bandalknnd and in the territory of the Nawab 
of Ilaropur, whole towns and villages may be 
found in which . the Afghan language is still 
almost exclusively spoken and is the medium 
of general communication. Captain Baverty 
considers that although, on numerous points, 
the Pushto bears a great similarity to the 
Semitic and Iranian languages, it is totally 
different in consiructiou and idiom also from 
any of the Indu — Sanscrit dialects. —{OtpL H. 
6r. Raveriy*t Grammar and Dictionary to ike 
Pu^AiOy Pukhto^ or JJykan laiiguay$,) 

The Afghans, General Feriier tells U9, are 
tall, robust; active, and well formed ; their 
olive and sometimes sallow complexiona and 
strongly* marked bard features give their cotm- 
tenances a savage expression ; the lids of 
their black eyes, which are full of fire, are 
tinged with antimony, for this, in their 
opinion, gives force and adda beauty and a 
dazzling brilliancy to them ; their black beard 
is worn short, and their hair, of the same 
colour, is shaved off from the front to the 
top of the head, the remainder at the 
sides being allowed to fall in large curls over 
the shoulders. Their step is full of resolutiun^ 
their bearing proud, but rough* They tie 
brave even to rashness, excited by the amaUest 
trifle* enterprising without the least regard to 
prudence, energetic, and born for war. They 
are 8ober| abstemious, and apparent!/ of as 



'6f)6n (Ihpdsition, great gossips, and (nirious to 
«xce4s. Courage is with them the first of vir- 
tues, and usurps the place of all the others : 
*' Their principle is Give or I takfe." Porce 
is their only argument, and it justifies 
•-everything ; an individual who is merely 
'plundered considers himself extremely for- 
•tunate, as, generally speaking, life is also 
rtukeu. There is no nation ' in the world 
^ifiore turbulent and less under subjection, and 
the di^ulues in rendering theni submissive to 
a code of just laws would be almost insur- 
mountuble. Afghans are as incapable of a 
'Continuous course of action as of idens ; they 
do every thing on the spur of the moment. 
from a love of disorder or for no reason at all : 
it matters little to them who give them laws ; 
ihey obey the first comer directly they find it 
•is to their advantage to do so. Their cupidity 
and avarice is extreme: there is no tie they 
•would not desert, to gratify their avidity for 
wealth. This surpasses all that can be imagin- 
ed ; it is insatiable, and to satisfy it they are 
capable of committing the greatest ciimes. 
For it they will sacrifice all their native and in- 
dependent pride, even prostitute the honor of 
their wives and daughters whom they frequently 
put to death after they have received the price 
•of their dishonor. Gold in Afghanistan is, 
more than anywhere else, the god of the humHu 
laoe ; it stifiea the still small cry of every 
inan*8 conscience, if> hideed, it can be admitted 
that an Afghan has a conscience ;«t all \ it is 
impossible to rely on their promises, their 
friendship, or their fidelity. They enter into 
engagements, and bind, themselves by the most 
aoleuin oaths to respect them, only to depart 
trom them if they see advantage in so doing. 

Oapt. Burton, on this point, says that the 
Afghans and Persians are, probably, more for- 
midable liars than the Sindhis, both on account 
ofsnperior intellect, more stubborn obstinacy, 
and greater daring in supporting the false- 
hood.— (i«icA«r«? T. BurlofC% Bindh, p. 404. 

Excitement, 8a}'s General Ferrier the clash 
of arms, and the tumult of the combat are 
to the Afghan life; repose is for an A.U 
ghan only a transitory state of being, dur- 
ing which he leads a monotonous exist- 
ence ; the sweets of domestic lifi>, mental 
quietude, the endearments of his family, have 
na charms for him, ai^d a life without commo- 
-tion and agitation loses all its poetry. He is 
only really a man when he is fi(<hting and 
plundering; then his eye is full of fire. There 
IS na shade of difference between the character 
of the citizen or the nomade ; a town life does 
not soften their habits ; they live there as they 
live in a tent, always armed to the teeth, and 
ireadv for the onslaught, devoid of a right- 
ininaed- feelings and always animated by the 
W)9t fecociotts iifetincts. Though tbey are full 

ofduplirity, their greatest anxielyi i« to ascer* 
tain how they can get their daily bread witbofkt 
having to pay for it. 

t his habit of living at the expense of other 
people forces the Afghans to practise sobriety 
and frugality. TheV throw away the lean, ss 
they 3Hy it produces diarrhtes. The principnl 
food of the villagers au*i nomades is kooroot, 
a kind of pudding made of boiled Indian corn, 
bruised between two » tones : or simply bread, 
ort which they pour rancid grease, mixed with a 
substance which in the East is known under 
the name of keehk, the settlement in whey. 

They will not eat ment unless it is halnl 
(lawful), that is, the animal must have its face 
turned towards Mecca, and its thioat cut in a 
particular part of the neck, the following sacrt- 
ticlal words being pronounced during the oper- 
ation, in accordance with their law and rule of 
faith — Bistnilluh*ur-rahman-ar rahim (In the 
name of the most merciful God). In eatim^, 
they njix one dish with another, knead tliem 
together with their fingers, and then place the 
morsel into their mouths. They make twu 
meals, one at noon, the other at nitie o'clock at 
night ; they frequently smoke the chalam, a 
kind of water pipe, but very inferior to the 
narghilah of the Turks, or the kaliuii of the 

The Persian language is met with all over 
Afghniiistan ; the great families sptBak it, nud 
other correspondence is carried on in th^t 
tongue : the people are acquainted with it, but 
they prefer speaking the Pushtoo, the language 
of their nation, which is a mixture of ancient 
Persian, Arabic, and Hindostani. They huVe 
a hw works in this language, but they read 
Persian authors by preference, and have through 
them formed imperfect ideas of geography^ 
astronomy, medieine, and history; but thean 
works, full of fictions and tieficiencies, have 
not materially assisted in developing their 

Some young chiefs have their robes oif- 
namented with sfold lace or embroidered witti 
gold thread. This is done in the harems by 
the women, who excel ill this kind of work. 
particularly in Kandahar. The ordinary peo* 
pie never change their garments, not evefi 
the shirt, until the^ are completely worn out j 
and as ihey very rarely wash themselves, thsjf 
are constantly covered with yermin, great and 

The Afghans are Sunni mahomedans wiih 
the exception of the tribe of Beritohi, who m 
Shiahs. The Parsivans and Eimaks, who al)| 
subject to the Afghans, profess mahomedanifil^ 
Besides the two sects just mentioned some .4^ 
them are of the AU-illahi sect. ^ *\ 

The nomades are generally of a sidtlj[ 
complexion, this is to be attribnted to the 
crnicious quality of the water, which is almost 



ailillBibe. Ibe dianases to wiiiok they are 
Mit vt^td are feyers, cntaneoiie and ixervoui 
^tktff aad eapeeiallj bUndnete. 

Tkey hare a f^reat dread of the Evil Eye. 
b4 tbry rorer tberoaelvee aod tbeir domestic 
oioals with amulela. 

Tbemoniiiceaee of the ?fT8iiga, Tartar, and 
ykn monnrcha haa enriefaed AlghaBiatan 
vidroany fine botldinfrs and worka of public 
^, as mosquea, caravanaerais^ reaervoira of 

Bat a person may travel whole monlba in 
ttarennntry without finding any other abetter 
An the tent of tlie nomade.. 

Tk rich nae plaster ; and the Kandahar peo- 
jik e^inliy decorate their, rooms with ^reat 
Miad tiient Their houses are generally 
loff, ntdy cooaiating of more than one floor, 
adtbeytakcno precautiona againat the.eold, 
thiek is, however, never aevere at Herat or 
liMAAkr,—Femer**Iii$o/ the AJghan9^ p.p* 


^«k Manons Jonntejff in j4fghani»tan, 
hntif't Etkuolof/ioal Essay*. H. T* Brins€p*s 
httorkttl Hrstfiis am fhe JJiseaverm in 
/ffinittaw, Tatcnieitd^s Omtrnm and ffaveloch 
iimrit »fike Gotemmeni of Jndia, Captain 
£ G. Baterij^'s Grammar and Dictionary. 
kmti TranU, Burtons* Sdnde- Burnes* 
^l LaikanLS Ethnology. Banian's Egypt. 
iV>^«^'4 CfibuL Chesnty^s Euphrates Vnn- 
nt^vi't Bitfory of the Sikhs. Vignes Per 
ffnAHarrntiK. Par. Fap, East India Cabul 
^ Affjkamtan, 

feite words, Durani •. Ghar. Ooiir. Hindu t 

Itdii: Jn^riptions : Iran : tfews. Knhu1.K»iTir. 

\ Iihnk. Kandahar : Knrez : Kattywar : Kaz- 

; dusb 1 Relat : Khnlsa : Khnha : Khalil : 

toB: Khyber: Kirman : Koh. : 

hst: Mongol: Sikh: Somnath ; Tnjik : 

«^: Tuchi : 

-Aft. Sfe Afa : Serpf»nl. 

iflAT. PkbsiaK Health, fn salutation, 
ftlFenians t^\^*'yffyot bashad"— " may it be 
h*to you?"* or " Nosh i jan"— '• may it be 
f*ikof life." The Arabs say " Hania, may 
ilii|Ood to you'* the person addressed bows 
ft Wnms. ** May Allah be your preserver." 
rhrion's Schde, Vol ll. p.p. 20* and 31. 

A'^M, Hind. a^I Opium. 

■'»» Arab. .Vi^ Galls. 


JWDN. Arab. ^;^I Opfnm. 

KA. Ethnologiats are of opinion that 

lai had an important infinence in the 

i*ioB of India and the island* in timet 

to authentic history or tradition, and 

' aumfrona racea of an Africo-Tumni- 

fatond in Inrtia, the marked African 

^ Ar people in the eitrame aonth of 

^^imitk cf India, the negro and Hegrito 


racea of (he Andamana, Nicobar» the Jakune of 
the Malay Peninauli of India, and the Negrito 
and Negro racea of the islands of the iBdian 
Archipelago, Australia and Polynesia. Much 
of this needs further inquiry, but it is a anb- 
jeot which will reward inyestigators During 
the pest four thousand years, also, historical 
research has shown how frequent were emigre* 
tions and conquests between Media^ Arabia, 
Persia, Palestine and Africa. See. 
India. Inscriptions. Kush. Magar. Palma. Hain 
Bemitic races. Stdi. Somal : Beer-el- Somal, So* 

Hedelotia Africana. 

APLATUN. Arab. ^^t$\ BVcUium 
also Coromipitora Madascarenaia. 

AFRASIaB, See Persian Kings. 

AFEEDl. Of the Khybar tribes proper there 
arethree great divisions, theAfredi,tbe Shinwari^ 
and the Orak Zye. Of these, the Afiedi,in theia 
present locality, are the most nuroeroua ; the 
Shinwari, more disposed to the arts of traifie 
and the Orak Zye, the more orderly, if amongst 
such people any can be so pionounced. . The. 
Afredi occupy the eastern parts of the hills, 
nearest Peshawar ; and the Shinwari (he 
weatern parts, looking upon the valley of 
Jelalabad. The Orak Zye reside in firah, 
iniermiugled with the Afredi, and some of 
them are f^und in the hills soulh-west of Pesha* 
war. It was a malek or chief of this tribe who 
conducted Nadir Shah and a force of cavnlr}', 
by the route of Chura and Tirah, to Peshawar 
when the principal road through the bills was 
defended against him. The Bhinwari, besides 
their .portion of the hill.«, have the lands 
immediately west of them, an4 some of the 
valleys of the Safed Koh raiiae. More westerly 
still, under the same bill range, they are found 
south of Jelalabad, and are there neighbours of 
the Khogani, These are in the condition of 
iinnily subjects. There are also some of them 
in Ghor-band, and they dwell in great numbers 
bordering on Bajor to the north-west, where- 
they are independent, and engaged in constant 
hostilities with the tribes of Bajor and «»f 

Tirah and Chura are said to be fertile and 
well peopled valleys, enjoying e cool climate, 
in comparison wit h that of Peshawar ; and 
it waa not unusual for the sirdars, and oliiers, 
who had- an understanding with the inhabi- 
tants, to pass the warm weather in the former 
of these places ; which also frequently 
became a place of refuge to the distressed. At 
Chura resided Khan Bahadar Khan, Afredi, 
who attained eminenee amongst his tribe from 
the circumstance of hit attendance at Court 
during the away of the Sados Zye. Shah Sajah.: 
.ijaarried ope of his daughters to, an4 W: 



more than one occasion, found an asylum with 
him. The Kbjbari, like other rude Afghan 
tribes, have their malelca, or chiefs, but the 
Huihority of theae is very limited ; and as evRry 
individual has a voice on public affairs, it is 
impossible to describe the confusion that exists 
amongst them. Of course^ unanimity is out of 
the question, and it generally happens that a 
nauawati, or deliberation on any business, 
terminates i|ot by bringing it to a conclusion, 
but in strife amouirst tiiemselves. The portions 
nf ilm Afredi and Siiiuwari tribes who inhabit 
the defiles of Khybar, throu($h which the road 
leads from Pesliawar to the Jelalalwd valley, 
are but inconsiderable as to numbers, but they 
are ex^emely infamous on account of iheir 
ferocity, and their long-indulged habits of 
rapine. Under the Sadoz Zye princes, they 
received an annual allowance of twelve thou- 
sand rupees on condition of keeping the road 
through their country open, and abstaining 
from plunder. They cajled themselves, there- 
fore, the servants of the king. It would appear, 
from every statement, that thpy were in those 
days little scrupulous. Still, kafilas followed 
their road,~80 manifestly the better and 
nearer one, — submitting to their exactions and 
annoyances, and satisfied with being not wholly 
rifled. Their stipend being discontinued by the 
liarak Zye Sirdars, — to whom the attachment 
they evinced to Sliah Sujah had rendered 
them very suspicious, — they threw oflf all 
restraint, and the consequence was that 
ihe Khybar road was closed to the traders of 
Peshawar and Kabul. 

They are, in the mass, very numerous, and 
it it boasted that the Alredi tribe can muster 
forty thousand fighting-men, — of course an 
improbablts number, — or one which might be 
presbmed to include every man, woman, and 
chi^d amongst them. O.i various occasions, 
when their strength has been exhibited, from 
two to five thousand men have assembled. — 
(Maiion'tJournfyB^^ol, I. p. from, 162^ol65«) 

The Afredi tribe is, doubtless, the most im- 
portant of all on the Panjab frontier. Their terri* 
tory, commencing in the hills between the Kabul 
river and the Khyber pass, forms the western 
boundary of the Peshawar valley ; then it 
stretches round the south-western corner and 
skirts a portion of the southern boundary of 
the Peshawar District till it approaches the 
Kuttuk lands. It thus projects abruptly into 
the British frontier, separates the Peshawar 
district from that of Kohat, and forms the nor- 
thern boundary of the latter district. The 
Afredi hills, intervening between the Kohat 
and Peshawar districts, are crossed by two 
principal passes, communicating from one dis* 
trlot to the other, the best of which is the well- 
knowi^ Kohat pass or Oullee and the other 
the lewakes ptas. The frooUfo of the. 

Afredi hills towards British jurisdiction ex*. 
tends over a total length of 80 miies, and their 
territory stretches far back in a westerly direo- 
tion towards Cahul. Thus the Afredi hold 
^ ^'KO geographical area and have a long bor- 
der conterminous with the British. The Afredi 
are entirely independent. Their hills are 
lofty, steep and rugged, most ardnuus for milt- 
tary operations. The villages are strongljF 
posted and difficult of acoees. The Afredi 
are fierce by nature. They are not destittna^ 
of rude virtues, but they are notoriously faith* 
less to public engagements. They are split up 
into factions. The sub-divisions of this tribft 
are numerous. They can master li^,000 or 
20,000 fighting men. As soldiers, they are: 
among the best on the frontier. They are good 
shots. Their tactics resemble those of the other 
tribes. They retreat before tliefoe as he advances 
and press upon him as he retires. From Ihe eino 
of their eountry, and the strength of their nam* 
bers, the Afredi, if united, might prove for« 
midable opponents ; but they rarely or never 
combine. If their independence were threaten** 
ed, or if some peculiar opportunity offered, thcj 
might act together, otherwise they will usually 
be found at war with each other. And India 
would have to deal with one or two sections onlj 
at a time. If one be hostile, another will b« 
friendly and vire vend, consequently the tribe ie 
not so formidable as it might at first appear. 

The Afredi of the Khyber Fass, among faith- 
less tribes, are considered the most faithless, 
A section of these, named the Kookee-kheyl, 
manifested symptoms of a friendly spirit to» 
wards the British. The Afredi on the soutl^* 
western corner of the Teshawur border have 

not signalized themwives. 


The British Government was conoenied 
chiefly with the Afredi of the two passes (s* e^ 
the Kobat Pass or Gullee and the Jewakec 
Pass.) For the guardianship of these passes 
the Afredi received some kind of considcratioti 
from successive dynasties, Ghiznivide, Mogol! 
Dooranee, Barukzye, Sikh and British ; ani 
broke faith with each and all. Them 
mountaineers are great tradeis and cnrriet^ 
They convey salt from mines in the Kuhat dim 
trict to the Peshawar market. They also cu 
and sell the firewood of their hills. By tbea 
means they procure a comfortable subsi^teuoe 
which cultivation on their rugged hiiKeidc 
would not alone suffice to afi*ord. The "^ '-^ * 

authorities can, by blockading the mouthk e 
the passes^ stop the trade and reduce the ATrl 
di to sore straits. The Gullee or KbtlJj 
Pass is the direct and best route from KpIm 
to Peshawur. The government post betw^ 
these two importnnt stations runs osunll^ 1^ 
(his route. . j 




Th« Afireadees of the Jewakee Pass, even nmong 
the Afredee clans were considered particularly 
dtfiogand ferocious. Their mountains are 
lery strong. When the Afieedees of the Kohat 
Pttsmuhehared, the Jewakee Afreedees uifered 
to eug«g:e for that Pass, or to coutiuct the 
eoaununication through their own Pass. Tiie 
Jewikee Pass was actually used for a short 
tune, bat lite Jewakee Afreedees soon proved 
tlieiiuelfes to be worse even than their neigh- 
bour!. Tbey committed numerous raids and 
ttHnlers in the Peshawar and Kohat districts, 
vAtnu robbed boats on the Indus. They 
lis mnrdered a British officer, named Dr. 
Healy, who was travelling towards Kohat, for 
>Q other reason than that he whs a defenceless 
<ljriiti«n, with a little properly about him — 
^enrii of ike Qovemmeni o/ India. See 

APSANTIN. Arab. ^;|lilil Artemisia 

ladies. Wormwood. 

AF8HANI KAGHAZ. Paper sprinkled 
vitodded with gold leaf, used in India when 
■ritinsr to persona of distinction. 

APSllAR a Turki tribe who siippoiied Shah 
koiel. See Kazzilbash. KHJar. Khorasnn. 

AFTAB-GIRI. Pfias. ^^j^ i^\li'\ lit. 

SfBkolder,— a tan-shade and emblem of rank, 
ued in east<^rn countries ; it is held by a 
Krrutto protect his master from the rays of 

A?njN. Uai«at. Opium. 

AGAATA It. See Camelian. 

iGADAMA* See Inscriptions. 

AGA KARA Tbl. ejTr^r^. Mimor- 

diei dioies, Roxb. andWilld. 

AGA KHAN a Persian npble rcsirlin^ in 
htkj the Pir or religious head of the Kha- 
jib. See KhaJHh. 

AGALLAS. Sp. Galls. 








VNd aloes 


AopiU !•{ commerce 

Boiid'Aigle ... Pit. 
^tndeMilaeca... „ 
Uw ... Hind. 
Tiiwlnh... Jay. Mal. 


Kayu Qahru...JAV. Mal. 



Lignum aloes 






Aglay maram 





Thii wood is much prized througbout the 
^•1 a perfume. The beat specimens appear 
khiainassof resin in decayed wood, and 
Mray under heat giving forth a very fra* 
•door. The tree is said to be void of it, 
in a heahhy state, and only to exude this 
m labetanoe when in decay^ or even after 
*k«i disd. There appear to be at least three 
*w of A^allooha or wood aloes, the trees 

pToducmg which are not fully identified. Dr. 
Roxburgh, followed by Dr. Royle, admits 
doubtfully the existence of twoj viz., the Aquil- 
laria agallocha of Roxburgh, and Aquiliaria 
omta. Cor, the Garo de Malacca of Lamarck ; 
and an inferior sort is said to be derived from 
Exccecaria agallocha which nee-d not be taken, 
into account. But Loureiro maintains that the 
best Lign-aloes or Calambac, which appears to 
be the Ud-i-kamari of the Indian bazaars, is 
derived from a tree which he calls Aloexylon 
agNllochum. Roxburgh and Dr. Boyle consider 
tiie Malayan o^t/a, the Aquila and eagle wood 
of commerce, and the nd-i-hindi of the bazaars, 
to be the produce of Aquiliaria agallocha 
which growa plentifully to the N. E. of Bengal 
and that it is probably identical with A. ovata 
of Royle. The Aloexylon agallochum of Loureiro, 
yields a scented wood used by the Chinese in 
medicine and perfumery, and is said to bring 
£30 the cwt. in Sumatra. The lign aloes 
brought to Burmah is the produce of a tree 
that grows on the Mergui Islands, and import- 
ed into Mergui by the Selungs. Specimeus of 
Amboyna wood, of the odoriferous sandal-wood 
from Firaor, clove wood and other choice 
woods, from the Moluccas and Prince of Wales' 
Island, were sent to the Great Exhibition 
of 1851. The Hakims of India administer it in 
their electuaries in combination with spice?, 
ambergris, &c. — Uonigberger, Mason. Sim- 
moti'fi. 0*SkaHffkne.mty. MIHoVb FIgt, Jndhrica, 
Exhibition 0/1851. Balfour^ Madras Museum. 

AGALLOCHEE. Grbek. Eagle- Wood. 

AGALLOCHUM. Lat. Easle-Wood. 

Syn. of Aloexylum agallochum Lour. 


Syn. of Eagle- Wood. 

AGALMATOLITE. or figure stone of 
Jameson ; Phillips called it Pagodalite from 
its being imported from China in figures, pa- 
ifodas, &c. ; also Sammy or Swamy, t . e. deity 
stone : it is found in quantities near Chota 
Nagpoor. — CoL Ouselejf, in Bl. As. Trans. 
1843, j9. 923. Reports 63, quoted by Dr. Buisi. 
See Sami stone. 

AGAMA, a genus of reptiles of the Malay 
Peninsula and the Molucca Islands. Bee Rep- 

AGAMA VAGEESHA. Sans. From agSmiC; 
one of the Tantras ; vak, a word, and eesha, 
lord ; the god of speech, a name of Vrihaspati« 

AGAMA S ASTRA. A name of the Tantras.- 

kia mt-lanura. 

boong-pho. BuBM. 

AGAO, Hind : Agavu, Tbl : Peshai; 
Pers : j W 

49 7 





Tam. I Aoha waram. Tkl 

An advADce of money.— /P7^o», 

Reports and Catalogue. Simmonds, TomUetom. 
T. WiUiamLB Middle Kingdom. Sje Eucheroia 
Spinosa : Gigariina teuax. Gracillaria tenax 

beautiful blue lily, brought from the Cape, ^"^^us tenax. Plocaria Candida. Edible sea- 

propagated by dividing the roots, requires a 
light peat, sandy soil, mixed with old vegetable 
manure. -^Riddelh 

AGAR. Hind. Bans. J^ | Eagle- Wood. 

Wood Aloes. 

. AGAE-AGAR, the Malay name for the tena- 
cious jelly or glue, made from the Plocaria 
(Gigartina) tenax, a marine fucns. It is 
imported into China from the Eastern Ar- 
chipelago, though the Chinese likewise manu- 
facture it for themselves, and apply it as size 
to many uteful purposes and use it as food. 
The bamboo lattice work of lanterns is covered 
with paperaaturated with this gam, which, when 
dried, is semi-transparent : it is also used in 
paper and silk manufactares. It is incom- 
parable as a paste, and is not liable to be eaten 
by insects. Wlien boiled with sugar, it forms 
a sweet glutinous jelly, called, in Oafiton,Wong- 
leung-fan^ which is used as a sweetmeat, and 
sold on stalls in the streets. It is brought 
from New Holland and New Guinea and other 
adjacent islands: between 400 and 500 peculs 
are imported annually by the Chinese at a 
prime cost of from 1 to 2 dollars per pecul. 
Its cheapness and admirable qualities as a 
paste render it worthy the attention of other 
countries ; wheu cooked with sugar, it resembles 
caU*s foot jelly. Of the three kinds of Agar- 
As^ar, sent to the Exhibition of 1862, from 
Malacca, the first quality was from a sort of 
Tripe de Roche an •edible sea weed which grows 
on the rocks that are covered by the tide. 
It is much used for making a kind of jelly 
which is highly esteemed both by Euro- 
peans, and Natives for the delicacv of its 
flavour. Exported to China, at 19s. p"er 183^ 
lbs. The Agar- Agar of the 2nd quality from 
Macassar and the Celebes is an edible sea- 
weed collected on the submerged banks in the 
uei;^hbourhood <]f Macassar by the Baju Lnut 
or Sea Gypsies, for exportation toChina. 12s. 
6d» per 133 i lbs. The Ajfar-Agar of Sinj^a- 
pore is collected on the reefs and rocky sub- 
merged ledges in ihe neighbourhood of Sin- 
gapore, and constitutes the bulk of the car- 
goes of the Chinese Junks on their return voy- 
ages. It is much used as a size for stiflfening 
silks, and for making jellies. The quantity 
shipped from Singapore is about 10,000 peculs 
annually.— Thou<:h deserving cf being better 
known, it does not appear to be an article of 
Indian import, or, if so, it is brought in under 
some other name. The whole thallus of the 
Ceylon Moss is sometimes imported from Cey- 
lon, and used in Britain for dressing silk 

Agarikun Hind. 

Amadou Pren*. 

GermaD Tinder ... Eng. 


AGARAH. BtJK, U|f| Achyrantbea 


AGaEHU. Sams. Agallocha : Eagle- Wood. 
AGARIC. Hind. ^^jli| 

AgfEiicim Arab. 

irmoi BuRM. 

Fungus, Eyo. 

Mnshroom, „ 

This is found in all the bazaars of India, 
where it is still employed in native medicine. — 
Mason. Faulkner. Honigberger. Sae Fungus. 

AGARIGUS, the generic name for the mush- 
rooms, many of which grow in India durinic 
the rains but are little used by Europeans 
from the difficulty in distinguishing the poison- 
ous from the edible kinds. — Voigt. 745. 


AGARU CHETTU, t^jca^^. Tel, 


goaSit.-ynQn'ble A, Morrison. Exhib. Jur. \ bay. 


Aquilaria Agallocha, R. ii. 422. — Eagle- 

AGASA-TAMABH). Tam. ^atriF fiiru^sBur 
Pistia stratiotes. Linn. 

AG ASS I UM. Tel. Atmospheric ^ir. 

AGASTI. Sans, ^schy nomine grandiflora. 

AGASTYA, a native of Thibet, a Maha 
Muni, of great celebrity in tl^ legends and 
literature of Southern India, He methodized 
the Tamil language, and is the chief Tamil 
medical authority. He is estimated to have 
lived in •the sixth century B.C., but the 
Taroulians suppose him to have lived long 
anterior to this. According to Hindu le- 
gend, Agastya was the son of Mitra and Va- 
runa conjointly, and born in a water-jftr along 
withVasisht'ha.Having commanded theVindhya 
mountain to lie prostrate till his return, lie re- 
paired to the South of India, to Kolapur, where 
he continued to reside, and appears to have 
been mainly instrumental in introducing the 
Hindu religion into the Peninsula — Wilson's 
Hind, neat. Voll. p. 313. Rev. W. Taylor, 
Dr. Caldwell. As. 8oc. Trans. Fol. III. jp. 213. 
See Hindu. 

AGASTYA, Sansc. The Star Canopus. 

AGAT. Bus. Camelian. 

AGATE. Eno. and Fr. axarys Qr. 
One of the inferior gems, and classed amongst 
the earthy minerals by Phillips, is found in 
great variety and abundance in many parts of 
India. Some of the agates and other silicious 
minerals in the amygdaloid rocks on the banks 
of the Seena river, between Sholapoor and Ah«* 
mednuggur, are of great size and in profusion, 
but the most beautiful are brought from C«xa*> 


AGiTH^A BPATULITA. A blue flowsring 
^tcultifiteJ b; Europeaiiftin lodia- RiddeU. 

Damm&TB Aualralia. 

ne Kawrie orSew Zealand Pine, one of the 
Cmifna, in its native forests, atUins ■ consi- 
doible heigtil, with a alraight clean st«m, 
which, from its lighlneii and toaglinesa, ha* 
bceo fpund well calculated for the maBls of 
ib^ II was introduced into the Bombay 
Hwtiwllurel Society's Gdrdens. It jielria a 
tardbriitle resin, lilte mnstich, which i» chewed 
li tk nstlTet. Its soot ia used in tHtlooitig. 
-Or.RiddtU. E»g. Gyc. Bog. p. 711. 

DimmaTs lorantbifolia, Ltnn. 
FinuA dammara Xiiui. 
nut iPMi Bdsm. I Sunmar Tme ...Eko. 

A Urge tree, found on the very summils of 
Ibe DKHiDtaiDB of Amboyna, Ternnte, and in ma. 
motlhe Molueca Islands. Griffith mentions ^ 
tree uoder that name as a member of th^ 
TtDUKrim flora, and Dr. Msaou hns seen lli^ 
lOMg plants of the tree, to which Griffitji 
iriured, and which the Burmese call Thee[. 
■Ki or tree governor. The leaf is preciaqj 
Utt ef the damniar pine, but the Tensssen'm 
Uwis not known to yield any dammar. The 
laWof ihe A.rchipel«go tree ia reprt-seuted 
to W %ht and of inferior quality, wholly mi- 
tt far my situation exposed to wet, but an- 
*«rii|t tolerably well for io-door purposes, 
Tk lood of the Teiiasserini tree on the 
mtniy it white, rather light, and bears a 
nudenble resemblance to some kinds of 
)a"t It is used by Hurmcse carpeniers for 
nrioni parpos^, and the Burmese have a 
Hpmiition that the beams of balances of their 
kiIm, OD)(ht to be formed of this wood. Dri. 
GrifUi-^Maion and Hidden. Eng. Cyc- 

AQATHOCLES, one of the greek successors 
rfAlMinder who reigned in Bactria B. C. 247. 
Bk Afghan. Inscriptions. Kabul. 


Ophelia cbirajta. Orietbaek. 

Geutiaoa cheraita. Plem. Ai- 

Swertia cheyrste. Buck. 3t.S 

„ racemoBO. Wall 


™A«- DuK. Kin'jatha ITalb*!. 

WB^itOaBtiaii. Eso. [ Chirataka Bins 

'^raiu DuK. I Shftjrait..., ...Tau. 

Cbn»it«, ibo Bilaawttn... ...Tel. 

ff'ri*... —HlBD' ] 

'^ plant has smallish bright yellow itowers. 
It ^Rs in Nepaal, the north o( India, the 
"^runE Hilla. And ia a common and abun- 
dtiii pUnt in ibe bazaar, aupplied chiefly by 
L^e intt tugn of the Uimalayaa, All 


parts of the plant are extremely tiller and are 
ideotical ip composilion with the common 
Kentiaa. It is highly esteemed as a tonic and 
febrifuge all over India and is a perfect sub- 
stitute for gentian. The whole plant is pulled 
up at the time that the flowers begin to decay, 
and is dried for use. The root is considered 
the bitterest part, and it is best administered 
in the form of an infusion or tinclure ; Ihe 
nuta of Guilandina bonduc are sometimes 
pounded and given with it.— C/cjiorir. Voini. 
Cat. Ex. 62. 

AGATl, also Agisi, ^so Avisi. T*h. 111. 
wt5 Agati grandiflora. 

Agati grondiflonim, Datw. 

» i< var, albiSonim. i)e4v. 

.^lachynomene coccinea. Box. 

„ grandiflora. iinM. floa:. 331. 



Peri. Rhted. 




bIm) A*iu 


Bakepus... „. 



ot A 

riai „ 


var. Telia 


orAviai ... „ 

Psuk-Ban BUftM. 

Baka, also Bnko...BiNa. 

Augasta „ 

Apati tree Ehq. 

AugiiBte wood tree „ 

Agate Haxial. 

Baka, also Baka- 

pushpam Sana. ' 

Of this plant there are two varieties, the 
one f arieiy called A:, albiftora, and the other 
A. coccinea. It grows ail over India and 
Burmah is seen in every town and village 
of the Tenasserim Provinces, and io the betel 
gardens of peninsular India, where it is culti- 
vated for shade, and as a trellis for the 
support and shelter of the piper betel, and 
is easily recoanized by its large white and 
bright scarlet flowers. Its wood, is soft, only 
fitforfuel, and of no use in carpentry o- 
cabinet work, but the tree grows with greiA 
rapidity, and could be usefully planted 
to shelter joung trees of slowei growth- 
There, are varieties of the Agati,. ao me with 
variegated and some with red flowers, and the 
leaves and flowers of a white variety, known 
in Tamul as ihe Agati-lcire-pu, are used 
by the natirei in soupe, curries and as 
greens. On the Madraa Coaal, the legumes 
which are IS to 18 inches long are not fre- 
quently eaten, but thev are a favourjle vegeta- 
ble with the natives of Burmsb. Medicinally, 
the bark is a powerful bitter tonic ; and the 
leaves are used in infusion in catarrh, ss en 
aperient. There are few trees in euch common 
requeit.— Mr, Jafrey. Ustful i'lanli. Mr. 
Elliot, Dri. Jtiddtil, Maton, and O'Shaugh- 
neuy. Foigl. 216 Soxi. 331,- S. BrOK»: 

Rhode. M.a.a. 


Agave oautula. Itoxb. 11., 107, 
Am Aueu^aua. Sunijpk. 




Bilato Ananas ... Benq. Kalabantha ... Tajc. 
^aRiviii. ... ... ff iri'ta ... .... ••• y. 

American Aloe ... Eno. | Anai Eattaley ,, 

BakuB HiNU. Sagi Matta ... Tbl. 

K&l&Eantala ... Sanb. YenugaKalamanda j, 

Common all over India, useful as a hedge 
plant. Its leaves yield a useful iibre suit- 
able for cordage and the ** pita" thread is ob- 
tained from it* Its juice, obtained in Mexico, 
by incisions on the stem, when distilled yields 
a spirit called pulque. Its dried leaves, cut, 
serve as good razor and knife strops — Roxb. IL 
167. 8immond*$ Feg. Prod. Mad. Ex, Jui\ 
MeportB. Useful Plants. Hoyle. M, Flania. 
Dr. JFight 


Bastard Alue, ... Eno. I PithakaTabanda... Tam 
Kathalay Tam. ) K'iamauda „ 

Dr. Boyle considers the A. vivipera to be 
closely allied to this species, which he describes 
as common in the Bengal Presidency, and grow- 
ing freely in Malwa, yielding fibres from twen- 
ty to thirty inches in length, and on testing 
iheir strength Captain Thompson found them 
quite equal to the hest Russian hemp.— jRoy/^, 
p. 8. See Knthalay. 

AGAVE YUCCilFOLTA. A plant natu- 
ralised in India, capable of yielding fibres. — 
Aoyle, ;>. 43. 

AGHA, Arab. Pers. A title in use in 
Persia. The North Eastern tribes write it as 
Aka, but in familiar conversation the gh or k 
are dropped and the word sounded A*a, as a 
in almond — Archer, Ousele/s Trav, 11.59. 

AGHASTIA. Sans. . Aj^ati grandiflora. 
A?hati-kal Tam. ; phalli Hind, its pods; 
kire Tam. bhnji Hind, greens of Agati 

AGEL HOUT. Dut. Ertgle wood. 

AG ELLA. A wood of this name was ex- 
hibited at the Madras Exhibition of 1857, 
and was supposed by some to be the Indian 
Cedar wood *' Aquilaria agallocha.'' It was 
a light coloured wood with a fine even erain, 
appeared admirably adapted for furniture 
and many domestic purposes. It is said to be 
Abundant in Malabar and has been already used 
for a variety of purposes by the railway engi- 
neers^ — M. E. of 1857. 

canum, exotic flowering plants, cultivated 
for their pretty flowers in sandy soil ; must not 
1)6 too much shaded if cultivated in pots. 
A. conyzoides is a native of India.— Fof^^ 
Eiddell. Jojfrey. 

AGGANA SUTTAN. a discourse of Bud- 
aha. See Wijao. 

AGQUR, Hind. Probably from Agara, 
Bans. Eagle \Vof>d. 

religious Saiva sect, who originally made Devi 
^he object of their worship in some of her ter- 

rific forms, said to have required even human 
victims for its performance. The Aghora 
wand and waterpot were a s^tafi* set with bones 
and the upper half of a skull : the practices 
were of a similar nature, and flesh and spiritu- 
ous liquors constituted at will the diet of the 
adept. The sect had died ^ut, by the beginning 
of the nineteenth century, otily a few disgusting 
wretches, universally feared and detested, beinf; 
then met with, whose , odious habits and prac- 
tices rendered them objects of aversion. They 
are now unheard of. — TFiUon* Colonel Todd 
snys that he had heard that such wretches did 
exist, not only in the sacred Aboo, but aniidat 
the impenetrable recesses of the other mounts 
dedicated to the Jain faith, in the pcTiiiisula of 
the Sauras. He mentions that D'Anville 
speaks of them as " une eepece de monstre,** 
whose existence he doubted, though he quotes 
from Thevenot, who remarks '* Les habitans 
de ce bourg, (Debca), estoient autrefois de 
ceux qu*un nommoit Meidi'Couray on Antro- 
pofages, matigturs d'homraes ; et il n'y a pa3 
grand nombreed'annees qu'on y vendoil en- 
core de la chair humaine dans le marche." — 
{Voyages de M- de Thevenot \ Paris, 1684. 
D'Anville adds, that this ^* espece dthete^* 
this Merdi'Coury or properly Mardi khor, from 
the Persian mard man and khor eater, 
should have been noticeed by Pliny, Aristotle, 
and Ctesia?, under nearly the same name, 
Mariichoray showing that this brutalized sect 
is of ancient date ; secondly, that the Persians 
must ha\e hwd an intimate intercourse wiih 
these regions in early times ; and thirdly, that 
the western historians must have, had more 
recourse to Persian authorities than we at 
present are aware of. Colonel Tod adds that 
he passed the gopha or cave of the most cele- 
brated of these monsters of the present asre, 
who was long the object of terror and loathing 
to Aboo and its neighbourhood. One of the 
Deora chiefs told him that a very short time 
previously when conveying the body of his 
brother to be burnt, one of these monsters 
crossed the path of the funeral procession, 
and begged to have the corpse, saying that it 
'* would make excellent chatni,*' or condi- 
ment. He added, that they were not actually 
accused of killing people. The head quarters 
of the caste are at Burputra (Baroda), and in 
Colonel Tod's time, there still existed on the 
old site a temple dedicated to the patroness of 
the order, Aghor-eswar-Mata, represented as 
** Lean Famine," devouring all. Her votariea 
ere brought into the compendious class of 
ascetic*, of whom they are the roost degraded, 
beyond all controversy ; they eat whatever 
falls in their . way, raw or dressed, flesh or 
vegetables, and drink whatever is at hand, 
spirits, or their own urine. Marco Polo 
(Marsden Marco Folo, p. 262) speaks of u 




dm of imgicians who are akin to the ln<))an 
Afkori. '* The Astrologers, who practise 
tli8 diabolical art of magic, are natives of 
Cisbnere and Thil>et. They exhibit them- 
vNes io a filthy and indecent character ; they 
suffer thfir faces to remnin nncleaned by 
wukingr, their hair uncombed, being in a squa- 
lid BtT^. Iforeover, thev are addicted to this 
touiesBd beastly practice, wiien any culprit 
ii coDdrniDed te death, they cnrry off the 
My, dress it with fire and devour iu" 
Ik word Aghora, Panthi is 8aNs. from 
A^kon, a name of Sbiva, and pant' ha, a way. 
-'T^ttrtneU, pp. 84 and 85. fTilson's HU- 
dim. See Aghori. Hiudoo ; Kattyawar, 

A6HBIDA6H. A name of Mount Arnrat. 
AQHVAN or AV6HAN, a name of the 
A^ns. See Afghanistan* 

AGIAH or AU6IAH grass, described by 
Himflion, vol. 1, p. 2 as growing about the 
tkidnieti of the wrist and to a height of thirty 
feet ia the belt of low land running from Africa 
iio8|rthe whole Northern frontier. 

A61LA alto AGlLA-GAUitU, Malay. 

AJMIR, a Bajput state among mgged 
ftountains, and close Talleyss ; which long pre- 
ferred ind4>pendenoe, and in a great mea- 
im, down to the present time is in res- 
pect of Uindobstan, what the country of 
8Tilzeriand, is to Europe, but much more ex- 
tt-miTe,and populous. From Mahmud to Au- 
rangube,the Indian conquerors were contented 
vilk (be nominal subjection of the hardy Raj- 
poot tribes of Bajpootana among whom mili- 
jwyeiihuaiasm, grafted on religious principles, 
is added to atrength and agility of body ; and 
tUraee is disseminated over a tract equal to 
Wf the eitent of France* — RenutVi Memoir. 
h xlvi, ilfii. 
AGlSI, (r. Avm) Tbl e7.«-(eS^.) Agati 

inadilora. Destf. 

A giata. ^yall. 

Ats tree grows in the forest of Midnttpore .* 
•wd Bot known. — VoigU 


Gammuniam Sinenae, Rumph. 

^ Tkis grows in Cochin-China and China. It 
» » flowering allrub with ternate and pin- 
•KelesTes, and very small yellow flowers in 
■ofltty racemes with a very agreeable perfume. 
^^\^ Aglaia odoraia, and Murraya exotica 
■•ttiy sweet scented and much cultivated by 
fc Chinese.— i^oretijre't Tea Li^tricit, p. 7 
*ddril yoigi.lSf^. Hoy. 171. 

Kayan Kajo. Bunv. 

^ ItV tree mei with in Tenaaterim and 

along the banks of rivers in the Pegu and 
Tounghoo districts. It affords a light service- 
able timber som<-what stronger than the Ame- 
rican pine, and capable of beini; wrought with 
little labour. Wood, red coloured, strong and 
adapted for house building. — Mc* CUlland. Ma- 

AGLAIA ROHITOC. Mo. 'Chll. Khayan 
Kayop. BuKM. Of this no information. 
AGLEMARAM. Tam. Chickrasaia tabularis* 
AGNJ, (IGNIS) the hindoo god of fire. 
About a fifth of all the hymns in the Big Veda 
refer to this god, exclusively, and most of the 
ten books open with hymns addressed to him. 
In V^edic mythology, Agni is the personifieation 
of lire, and the regent of the south-east division 
of the earth. He is variously df scribed : some- 
times with two faces, three legs, and seven 
arms, of a red or flame colour, and riding on 
a ram, bis vahan or vehicle. Before him is a 
swallow-tailed banner, on which is also painted 
a rbm* He is by others, represented as a cor- 
pulent man of a red complexion, with eyes, 
eyebrows, head, and heir of a tawny colour, rid- 
ing on a goat. From his body issue seven 
streams of glory, and in his right hand he holds 
a spear. Agni is the son of Kasyapa and Aditi. 
His consort or 9acii ia Swaha, a daughter of 
ICnsyapa. Swaha, the aacti of Agni, resem- 
bles the younger Vesta, or goddess of fire, of 
the Romans, who had no images in their tem- 
ples to represent her. Thus Ovid has said. 

''No image Vesta's semblance can express, 
Fire is too subtle to admit of drees.*' 

Neither do we meet with an image of Swaha. 
Those of Agni are usually seen in pictures — 
Cole. Myth. Hind. p. 115 and 117.— See 
Vedas. Agnihotra Brahmaits. Brahminicide. 
Ittdra, Hindu : Vahan : Vedas. Tavana Zonar 
or Zennaar. 

AGNICULA. A general terra for four tribes 
of hindus, supposed of Parthian descent, the 
Chohana, the Purihars, the Solanki and Pra- 
mara, who are fabled have been produced by 
a convocation of the gods on Mount Abu — 
Tod. Vol. II. page 451, quoted in Prin%ep*i 
Antiquities by Thomas, p* 7,^1^ See Kfautri, 
Rajpoot. C boh an. 

AGNIDHRA. See Hindu. 

AGNIHOTEA BlUUMAKS. the remnant 
of the worshippers of Agni, who still preserve 
the family fire, but in other respects conform 
to some mode of popular Hindu devotion. 
According to prescribed rule, where a per- 
petual flume is maintained, it is used to light 
the fire round which the bride and bridegroom 
step at the marriage ceremony, and the fune- 
ral pile of either j but the household fire is 
preserved only by this particular sect, the 
Agnihotras, and the- great body of the people 
have nothing of the kind. In this case they 




distinguish between the^'sources whence they 
obtaiu the kiudliag fl.<me according to the 
purposes of its application, and the fire of the 
marriage rite is taken from the hearth of a res- 
pectable person, or from a fire lighted on 
some auspicious occasion, whilst for the fune- 
ral pile, '^ any unpolluted fire may be used. 
It is only necessary to avoid taking it from 
another pile, or from the abode of an out-cast, 
of a man belonging to the tribe of executioners 
of a woman who has lately borne a child, or of 
any person who is unclean." Notwithstanding 
these exceptions, it is at present the common 
practice of the hiiidus of ordinary rank in the 
western provinces to procure fire from an out- 
cast to light the funeral pile,— ^Wilson's Hindu 
Theatre^ The Toy Orrt. Art\\%. Colebrooke on 
the Beligioui Ceremonies of the Hindua. Jaiutic 
Ee». XX [. 2il, See India. Inscriptions. Tripan- 

AGNlHOTRf. Sans, from ag»»s> fire, 
and hotre, a sacrificial priest, always of the 
brahminical order. See Tripandra. 

AGNI MATA, Sans. (v. Chitra mulum, 
t^^t&«tf«rOi^;SbT»&o^ Plumbago Zeylanica, 


AQNIMUN'DA.— Sans. Physalis angulata 
formed of fire, — an ethereal voice heard from 
the sky proceeding from a meteor or fiarae. 

AGNIPURI. See Acasanavi. 

AGNI SIKHA, S. eV^«4j%, I. Gloriosa 

fiuperba, L. also Carthamus tinctorius. X. 
AGNI VENDBAPAKU tf>%^'io^ir^. 

Ammania vesicatoria, B. i. 426. — IT, h A, 

AGNYASTBA, the first shaft invented by 
Yiswakarma in the war between the gods and 
. the daityas or Titans. See Yiswakarma. 

AGOU, a Semitic nation iu Afrioa. See 
Semitic races. 

AGRA in 27^ 10' 2"; 78« T 7'\ is a 
large city on the right bank of the Jumna. It 
waa the seat of government from the time of Ak- 
bar the greatest of the Mogul emperors, whose 
sway extended far beyond the limits of British 
India. It remained the seat of government 
of part of Hindustan under the shorter lived 
dominion of the Mahrattas ; it was retained 
as the seat of government after the conquest by 
the British during sotne of the brightest pe- 
riods of British rule, and continued so till 
the removal of the seat of government to 
an unhealthy spot in the confluence of two 
rivers whose yearly deposits of alluvial soil 
keep up a perpetually renewed supply of fever 
and malarious disease. Its abandonment seems to 
be recognized as a grave political error, while, 
for strategical purposes a few more soldiers 
would have sufficed to ensure its supremacy. 
As one of the finest cities of upper India, 
from which in past times the edicfs of imperial 

dominion were issued to the furthest lirait of 
Hindustan — and which even in its changed and 
ruined state still retains throughout Bajputann 
and Central India the prestige of an imperial 
city, there can be but one feeling, that of un- 
feigned regret that the imperial city, which 
held the palace and the throne of the Indian 
Caesars, should have been deprived of its fame 
and title as the political if not the commercial 
capital of Upper India with the historical asao- 
ciatione of centuries. When the two viceroys. 
Lord Canning and Lord Elgin, met the assem- 
bled princes and chiefs of Upper India, it waste 
Agra they were summoned. And fifty years hence 
whatever changes may come over India, in spite 
of the influence of railways and metalled roads, 
when a future viceroy shall summon the future 
chiefs of India to his durbar, it will be either at 
Agra or Delhi that they will flock with all their 
retinue and barbaric pomp. Independent chiefs 
and prinees covet to possess land and houses at 
Agra and Scindia and Jeypore have eagerly 
availed themselves of the opportunity to par-* 
chase valuable estates, the one close to, and 
other actually within, the limits of a British^ 
cantonment. The Ram Bagli garden merits at-* 
tent ion and the magnificent tomb of Itimad* 
ud-Dowlah, the vizier of the emperor Jehangir, 
and father of the famous empress Nurjchan, who 
built the tomb. — Mundy'e Skttchea in Indw^ 
Vol- /. p. 53. TAurloio^s Company ana the 
Crown. Delhi Oazetie. Robert 8chlageutwei4^ 
See Inscriptions : India. Kama : Sakya moni. 
Oojein. Rama. Sand. 

abrahmin of an inferior order who conducts fa* 
neral obsequies or sraddhas for hire, called Nf a- 
hipitra andMfthibr^hmana ironically. — Wi'9oni. 

AGRAHAYANA, a hindu month fallinjc in 
Novetfiber and December. See Brahma, Hir- 

AGRAZ. Sp. Verjuice. 

AGREST, GBa. Verjuice. 

AGRESrO, It. Vequice. 


EhetKam Hindu I Zarayat PElUi. 

K heti Bari Hihd.| Pairoodagaradoo Tam« 

Agriculture, in all countriea the chief branch, 
of industry for the millions, is, in South Eas- 
tern Asia, almost the exclusive occupation of 
the people and the great soi^rce of revenue to 
the respective governments, who are usually 
regarded as the proprietors of the soil, and aul>'* 
let the lands to tenants or fewers in perpetuity 
so long as the holder pays the established 
ground rent or tax or few-duty. The holder 
can sell or otherwise dispose of his holding 
and cannot be dispossessed^ provided bis tax 
be duly paid, so long as the land is cultivated « 
In reality, in many parts of India, th^ 
sparse popnlation and rack renting are sucli 




nlae, the property in it consisting of the la- 
boor bestoved on it from year to year. Never - 
dieleas, the eraving of all eastern races for 
Ikir patrimonial inheritance is as intense as 
fiien Naboth said to Ahab, I. Kings xxi. 
3. 'The Lord forbid it me, that I should 
^Te the inheritanoe of roy fathers unto 
thee :' and the hindoos are as strongly at- 
taelied to their homesteads as ever the Jews 
vm; u Mr. Ward * observes, though the 
tattfa of the family may be employed in a 
doUat part of the country, and though the 
bmestewl may be almost in ruins, they 
(% still to the family inheritance, with a 
bluss bordering on superstition, and it is 
tie me lad wont in India, for governments 
to lUoir proprietora or their descendants to re* 
eonpy lands long left waste. Amongst the ear- 
fiett notices of agriculture^ore those in the Old 
Testiaent. How Adam lived is not mentioned, 
bit of his two sons, Abel was a shepherd 
ml Cm had become a tiller of the ground. 
bNoih's time the vine was cultivated and its 
jnoe fermented and Noah's descendants in the 
k of Shem appear to have followed the shep- 
bod life and to hare been nomades wandering 
Mcratensive countries, to winter and summer 
fiastoB, to the available grazing grounds. 
&K do not seem ever to have cultivated any 
iflk grasses for food to their cattle ; and to 
tte present day throughout South -Eastern 
Asii,tbe natural herbage is exclusively relied 
OB- The Qaoli races of the towns purchase 
<MK food materials, but the D ban gar who 
pvtsre homed cattle and the Kurambar who 
Rvsbfep roam over great tracts, living with 
(kvlierdi for months, apait from cities or 
^•»M,and even where they may have formed 
^A^ on which advancing civilization with its 
■pi^nre has encroached, their homesteads are 
^•"doned for less inhabited tracts. But in 
''lih'gtiffle agriculture seems to have made great 
pogRSi. There is no reason to doubt that the 
^JJtt tribes who moved southwards from 
*«^tbe Pamir steppe were both cattle-breeders 
^nhirBtors, and their Menu is considered by 
•Jy to be Noah. The remains of the races 
^m some unknown time came down the 
J% of ihe Indus through the valleys of 
•"^ttan attest the prevalence there in 
P^Ustorie timeff of water tillage in the 
form of the wet cultivation of India 
the grounds are carefully levelled and 
^ imdl plats or compartments into each 
^'bh the water courses are led in the manner 
in Proverbs xxi. 1. where it is said * The 
-^ l»fttrt is in the hand of the Lord : as 
*■» of water [rather, as a water-course] 
^httthit whithersoever he will' an al- 
7 ts^ the practice of the eastern farmer 

B to leave the lands of little marketable water in channels along the fields, turning if 
. .t .__._... '.Ai ^.i^_i_ with his foot or hand in all directions, so that 

every part of the field may be watered, and a 
good crop insured. Noah's descendants in the 
line of Ham, who took possession of Egypt, ap- 
plied themselves to the tilling of the ground, 
and with so much ingenuity, industry and suc- 
cess that, owing to the inundations of the 
Nile, and the consequent fertility of the soil, 
Egypt was enabled in the time of Abraham, and 
still more so in the time of Joseph, to supply 
its neighbours with corn during a period of 
famine. Nor were the inhabitants backward 
in assisting the liberality of nature : tfaey bu- 
sied themselves in embanking, irrigation, and 
draining, in order to derive all the benefits 
which the benignant river was capable of af- 
fording them. These works are said to have 
been carried on with particular spirit under 
the auspices of Sesostris, 1800 years before 
the Christian era. So sensible were the Egyp- 
tians of the blessings which agriculture afford- 
ed, that in the blindness of their zeal, they 
ascribed the invention of the art to their god 
Osiris, and the culture of barley and wheat to 
their goddess Isis. The Pelasgi who occupied 
Greece, were great agriculturists, and the 
Bomans had but two avocations, war and 

The Jews, whilst in Egypt, seem to have 
been shepherds. But after occupying Canaan, 
in their respective nllotroents, cattle-grnEin<?, 
agricultare and horticulture alike engaged 
their attention, of which the Scriptures contain 
many notices, and the modes of tillage still in 
operation in eastern countries illustrate various 
texts of the Bible. As in desciibing Canaan, 
it is mentioned that the land whither thou goest 
in to possess it, is not as the land of Egypt from 
whence you came out. (Deuteronomy xi- 
10.) Where thou sowedst thy seed, and water- 
edst it with thy foot as a garden of herbs, 
which is still everywhere eeen, as the mode of 
watering the lands in garden cultivation. 

After ploughing, the farmers of India in 
their wet cultivation, form the ground with 
a hoe into small squares with ledges on 
either side, along which the water is conduct- 
ed. Besides preventing its spreading, these 
embankments also serve to retain the moisture 
on the surface for a longer period. When one 
of the hollows is filled, the peasant stops the 
supply by turning up the earth with his foot, 
and thus opens a channel into another. An 
allusion to this custom, of the gardener chang- 
ing with his foot the channel of a stream of 
water, furnishes the king of Assyria, in his 
threatening message, with a very appropriate 
image. " With the iole of wyfooi^* says he, 
'^ I have dried up the rivers of besieged places." 
The practice of Arabia is also familiar to the 

'''"Ptiil his field^ when he conveys the | modern Portuguese husbandman.— (^«^/«^«^'s 




TrdtelSt Vol. I. p, 282) nnd Dcuteronamy, 
XXV. 4. *thou shall not muzzte the ox when 
hetreadeth out tke corn- is a method of separat- 
ing the cereal grains from the ear common 
throughout India though some farmers do 
muzzle the ox on thnt occasion, and others do 
not. The wild beasts are still as troublesome 
as in Psalm Ixxx. 13. where * the boar out 
of the wood dotli waste it, and the wild 
beast of the field doth devour it' for the wild 
bogs, elephants, buffaloes and the deer tribe 
make sad havock in fields and orchards. The 
buddhist races in fiurmah and China use ma- 
nure largely, not old manure as in Europe but 
fresh refuse of every kind, only vastly diluted* 
The farmer races in India, except such gardeners 
as are near towns rarely use manure of any kind, 
but trust exclusively to the water of tanks in wet 
cultivation, or to the natural rains in dry culti- 
vation. The latter is analogous to the tillage of 
Englaud, with this marked difference that in 
temperate England the farming operations can 
be carried on all through the year and the cropa 
are long on the ground, but in IndiR, the rain 
being periodical, may last for two, three or 
four months, and the whole work of the Indi* 
an farm must be carried on with grains and 
plants that come rapidly to maturity so as to 
be completed before the inclement dry hot sea- 
son re-coramence. In this respect, there is a 
similarity to the range of the cropping seasons 
of inclement northern countries, where every- 
thing has to be suited to the shortlived 
though hot summer and where the grains in 
use, are of a kind that rapidly mature — the 
two elements, inclement heat and inclement 
cold, compelling the same procedure. The 
instruments in use in India are of very 
simple manufacture, thouuh in their ob- 
jects of great value. The poverty of the people 
anil the necessity of simplicity in articles for 
countries with few artizans and the fact 
that old and youn^, man, woman and child 
of the households are all employed in the 
larm-work, necessitate the rrtention of im- 
plements of the simplest forms, and the 
ordinary agricultural implements, used in 
simple tillage, are often of the very rudest 
description. Eut the climate does not permit 
deep sowing, for the seeds must either soon 
sprout up or rot, and the influence of the abuu- 
dent rains aud vast electric forces, on the soils 
of India are of n very different character to 
those of England and do not requiro either the 
same amount or kind of mechanical treatment 
in order to produce the requibite effect. The 
implements used in Dharwar agriculture may 
be given to illustrate this part of the subject. 
A large plough is used on ground being 
brought into oultivation for the first time and 
ploughed with this, Ienj2[thway8 and crossways. 
If the land is heavy, eight, ten or twelve-bullocks 

are used, if light, four are sufficient, II ia 
used in cotton and also in grain cultivation. 

A small plough is used in black soil at 
intervals of from six to ten years, and worked 
with two or four bullocks according to the 
depth of ploughing and stiffness of the soil. 
It is need in cotton and also in grain cultiva- 
tion, and in red soils it is used every year- 

The * Kooloo' is a he^vy harrow, used with 
two bullocks after ploughing for further break*- 
ing up the soil, and also used without previooa 
ploughing in the years when the black cotton 
soil is not ploughed. Ailer the seed, whether 
cotton or grain, is sown with the drill, the iron 
and wooden supports are repioved from this im- 
plement, and the soil smoothed Qver the &ee4 
with the upper wood alone, drawn by two 
bullocks, and kept steady, by the foot of the 

The ^Tephun' o^ drill is used for sow- 
ing cotton, it is drawn by two bullocka. 
It has two seed tubes each fed by a womaA* 

* The Koolpce' is drawn by two bullocks 
between the rows of cotton, to eradicate weeds ; 
by this means, also, the soil about t he roots of 
the cotton plants is loosened aud piled up — a 
rough substitute for hoeing. 

The Koorie, or drill is used in sowing grain, 
worked with two bullocks, which one man dri- 
ves, and this man feeds the receptacle for the 
seed communicating to the four tubes, and 
a third man works the extra tubes at the 
side, with which another description of seed 
or oil seed is very commonly sowu iu every 
fifth row. 

The Kolpa ia drawn by two bullocks, 
and used for rooting up the weeds between 
the rows of grain ; the row of grain ia left un- 
touched in the interval in the middle ; the eartk 
is also by the same operation loosened around 
the roots of the grain. Two of these are fre- 
quently worked together with one pair of bul- 
locks and two men. 

* HulleeBandee' orcartis notseen much of large 
size in the Deccan, but is vt-ry common in the 
Southern Mahratta country drawn by eight bul- 
locks. The tires are commonly six inches deep. 
A pair of wheels costs up to 120 Rupees; they 
last 50 or even 100 years, aud are handed down 
as heir looms in families, 

^Nangur* or plough is used for rice cultiva- 
tion. Worked with two bullocks. Bice laud 
is ploughed with this two or three times every 

' The Don' or clod-crusher is drawn with two 
bullocks ; the driver stands on the implement 
when working it. 

The ' Kooloo' is used after the clod-orushfer 
for levelling the ground. With the scarifier 
removed, it is used for covering in the seed after 
it is drilled in. 

The ' Koree,' or drill used in rice cultivation , 


■ • 



is limilar to the drill used for the other 
g.-aio, except that there are six tubes, and no 
tiira tube for other grain is used, rice being 
mwn alone : worked by two bullocks. 

'Kborpee,' or weeder is for cleaning away 
inj weeds which may have escaped the kpolpa 
or weeder drawn by . bullocks. 

There are other implements in use in other 
prU of the couotry, or similar articles with 
iifeient names. Thus in Assam^ the plough 
ii ailed * Negalu.' The harrow, ' Hulaway.* 
Tfae SoiriDg-machine ' Koprigay.' Weeding- 
■ifihiae, ' Koontey,' Levellin^-macUine ' Ha- 
khey' Harrow Hegguntey 'Eumtee.' ^odali 

These will show that the people of India.are 
rO adfanced in agricultural skill : and that 
tleysre doing as nouch as tiieif humble circum^ 
staaoes ; the climate, the soil and the required 
oops will admit. Their aids, — the buffalo 
nd the bullock are chiefly employed for 
dnft and for pack carriage, arc sledges, 
arts with wooden or stone wheels, or wheels 
(H soUd blocks of wood as the nature of the 
nimtry and the state of the roads demand. 
Ifi India nearly all the cultivators are hindus 
lad each vLllage has a small number of here- 
£tuy oat-caste labourers. The following 
fteeipt for a bait for rats, so often trouble- 
vns to agrioultarisls, will be found useful, 
hwdered AssaToetida 2. grains. Essential oil 
of Ehodiam 3 drachms. Essential oil of La- 
Hider 1 scruple Essential oil of Anisead. 1 
dnekn. Mix. the assafoatida with the aniseed, 
theaiddthe oil af rhodiam».aDd still mix the 
>M^«tida in a mortar, after which. add the 
^BKuier, cork tbe mixture close, and put a. 
lUk ia a saucer into the middle of a large 
H tnp : taking eare that a rat once caught 
^ not escape. — JFartTs Hiadm, Tropical 
^fnaUlure. Exhibition o/ 1 8 6 2. 

fiotofNepaul, with small yellow flowers. It Lb 
*vj dosely allied to A. Eupatoria of Europe. 
'^^wglneujf^ p. 325 Honigberger. Voigl. 

A6R0 BE LIMONE. It. Lemon juice. 

AGROSTlSy a genus of grasses of the natural 
*fe Gmninacefleof Lindleyt. several species of 
Ackaremet with in pastures and barren-land. 

A6R03TIS LINEARIS. Betz. Sym of 
i^Mdon dactylon. ?£&«. 
AWAftfiAS. Sp. Turpentioe oil. 

AQUBA or ABUBA e)6»«-(ewr'.o) — 

^ptris RoxburKhii, D. C. 
AflUILA BBAVA. Willb. Eagle-wood. 
ifStlVUKL Beno. Bristly bryony. Uukia 


A6171. Tam. H))gonia mystax. Linn. 


AGURI. Beng. a low caste, mostly culti- 

H'ta h'men. Burm, H'soke gyee. Burm, 

The loota of this eurious flowered plant are 
used medicinally by the Karens. — Mason. 
Wight gives a figure of A- bacciformis, and 
Yoijct* names A. puber of the MoUuccas. 

AHALOTH. Hbb. Eagle-wood. 

AHAK. Arab. Quick Lime. 

AHALYA BAL A Mahratta princess, of 
the Uolkar family who ruled in the middle of 
the 18th eentury. See Benares. Holkar. 
India. Mahratta Governments of India. 

AblA^^ RUBA. P«a8. Loadstone, 

AHARWARRAH. A territory oii the north- 
east frontier of Matvra which contains many 
districts. The Ahar tribe or caste from whom 
the territory derives its . names of Aharwarah 
and the Abarat are spread through Kohiicund 
and' other districts in the N. W,. Provinces, 
following pastoral pursuits. They claim to be 
descended from the Yadu race of Rajputs,-^ 
Malcolm Centc. Ind. Vol. L p 325. See R*g- 
poot. These seem to be the Ahir^ q. v. 

AHEL? Eagle-wood. 

AHETA or NEGRITO, a Papuan race, the 
second name, meaning little Negro, being given 
to them, by the Spaniards ; but that of has or* 
AhetHS, written Ajetas, is their usual appella- 
tion among the planters and villagers of the 
plains. The woolly haired tribes are more nu- 
merpus in the Philippines than in any other 
group of the Indian Archipelago, they were 
estimated, by M. Mallat, in 1842 to amount 
to 2.5,000. The islands Samar, Leyle, and 
Zebu, have not any of them ; but they are 
found in Negios, Mindanao, Mindoro, and 
Luzon. In the early accounts of them by the 
Spaniards, they are described as being smaller^ 
more slightly built and less dark in colour, 
than the negros of Africa, and as having fea- 
tures less marked by the negro characteristics, 
but as having woolly instead of lank, hair ; and 
their sooial condition could not then have been 
much better than now, since they are described 
as living on roots and the produce of the chase ; 
and as sleeping in the branches of the trees, or 
among the ashes of the fires at which they had 
cooked their food. They arc all well form- 
ed and sprightly, hut very low in stature, as 
they rarely exceed four feet and a half itt 
height. The character of the Negrito is un- 
tameHble, and it is impossible to surmount 
their tendency to idleness. Prompted by an 
irresistible instinct to return to the place of 
their birthy they prefer a savi;,'e life to aU the 
charms of civilization. The Ajetas or Negri- 
tos are ebony-black like negroes of Africa. 
Their hair is woolly, and as they take no pnins in 
clearing it, and do not know how to arrange 




it, it forms a sort of crown round tlie head, 
which gives them an exceedingly fnntafitic as- 
pect, and when seen from a distQnce^ makes 
the head appear as if surrounded with a sort of 
aureole. — Earl's Papuan's,, p, 121 to 131. 

AHILEKA also AUILEKUM. Sans. Bry- 
onia scabra. 

AH ILL A. Singh. Cuthartocarpus fistula. 

AHIMATA BOG A, name of a mysterious 
disease. — Hifdtr's East .* Monacktsm, p. 433. 

AH INS A in buddhism, the non-injury of 
animfll life. 

AHIR. Pers. Connessi seed, Wrightia 

AHIB, a pastoral tribe numerous in the N.W. 
of India, but who are spread through the Central 
Boab, in the Upper Doab, on the west of ihe 
Jumna and in the Lower Doab and province of 
Benares. Some of them have been converted 
to mahomedanism, but the bulk are hindus. 
They have three rac«9, the Nand bansa, Jad- 
Yadu, and Gomala Bansa, who intermarry and 
marry the widow of an elder brother. — ffil son's 
Glossary- See Aharwarah ; India, Kol : Kutch. 

AHLADA MABA. Can. Ficus Indica. 

AHLIM 1 Eagle-wood. 

AHMEDI-JAMI. A celebrated poet and 
sage, native of Jam, known generally as 
Jami. He is the author of many works of 
high estimation. His romance of Yusuf and 
Zuleika, so much admired in the East, is taken 
from the story of Joseph and Potiphar's wife. 
He flourished in the fifteenth century, and died 
about the year 1486 ; he was contemporary 
with sultan Hussain Baicara a prince of the 
descendants of Timur, who reigned in Khorasan, 
and whose capital was the city of Herat. — 
Fraser's Journey into KJiorasan /?• 39. 

AHMED KHAN SADOZYB, on theassas- 
slnation of Nadir Shah in 1747, declared himself 
king of Kabul, and laid the foundation 
of the Durani kingdom. He greatly add- 
ed to the wealth and fame of his own family 
and his kingdom by six successive invasions of 
India, in all of which he was successful, but in 
one he obtained the highest renown among ma- 
homed an s by the memorable defeat that he 
gave to the Mahratta army at Panipnt^ a few 
miles to tbe northward of Delhi. The fa- 
mous action was fought in January A. D. 1761. 
It was a contest between the mahomedans and 
hindus for the sovereignty of India. The ma- 
komedan army amounted to sixty thousand men, 
of. whom not one half were Affghans : but his 
own troops were those upon which Alimed 
Shah most depended. The Mahrattas were 
computed between seventy and eighty thousand. 
They were defeated with great slaughter. In 
November 1763 he again appeared on the 
Indus, irritated against the Sikh sect for the 

bigoted zeal afrainst nil non religionists. He sfg- 
nalized Ids march through Amritsar by the de- 
moliiion of the Sikh temple of Harmandur and 
of the sacred talao, or lank. The first was 
blown up ^ith gunpowder, and the reservoir, 
besides being defaced and filled up, as far n 
materials and time permitted, was polluted 
with the blood and entrails of cows and bul- 
locks, a sacrilege even greater in the eyes of 
the schismatic disciple of guru Govind than of 
tl>e orthodox brMminical hindu. Pyramids 
wi're erected of the heads of slaughtered Sikhs, 
and Forster (Travels, Vol. I. p. 279) relates 
that Ahmed Shah caused the walls of those 
mosques, which had been polluted by the Sikhs, 
to be washed with their blood, to remove the 

contamination and expiate the insult Mai- 

colm'sHislory of Persia, Vol. I[,p, 235. History 
of the Punjab, Fol. Lp,%\ 9. Bumts Kabul : 
See India : Kandahar, Karez : Rtniput ; Khybcr;, 

AHMEDNUOGUR, a city and fortress in 
the province of Aurungabad, ceded to the Bri- 
tish in 18U8 : it is the princfpal artillery sta- 
tion of the ^mbay Army. It is on the right 
bank of the Seenah river. Its fortress, in the 
centre of a great plain, consists of a cnrtaia 
with bastions, and was surrendered to Colonel 
WeHesley, a few days after the storm and cap- 
ture of the Pettah, which also is sunounded by 
a curtain and bastions. The population in 
1828 was 21,208, and in 1835, 23,774. 

it is in lat. 19*» 5* N. and L. 74« 65' E. 
It was the capital of the territories of the 
Nizam Shahi dynasty, and their many exteil* 
sive palaces, the Farrah bagh and Eashkiirm 
are now in ruins. A pretty little mosque, the 
Damri Masjid is to the S. of the fort. Tl» 
Nizam Shahi dynasty and ita servants built 
several valuable Karez. 

AHMEDZYB, an A%han tribe. See Af- 
ghanistan. Kelat. Wazira. 

AHOM, al9o EHOM, a branch of the Ta£ 

AHOM in Burmah, the name of the people 
of Assam, their religion was the worship of a 
god called Chang. In 1665, the reigning Bajafa 
Chu Kum, adopted hinduisra. See India. ~ 

AHOO, a soft, though fine, but not 
close-grained light Ceylon wood. 

AHRIMAN, also known as Ahriraanes and 
Ingromaniyus. The ancient Persians held, tktk4 
modern Parsees hold, a dualistia bdief in Or* 
muzd the good iand Ahriman, the deadly prij[^« 
ciple from whom all evils spring. See Ar^anm 
India. Parsees.. 

AHSHTAR, a plain on the borders of Ass^ 
ria. See Luristan. 

AH VI. Tam. 4^sS Atmospheric Air. 

AHVI MARAM, Tamul; or "* steam-wood^" 
from its emitting steam when the root is cut- 

trouble they had given him, not less than from I is a Malabar tree, growing to about ten inck 




indttmetef, and fideen feet long : it 'is of Utile 
Taioe, and not very durable ; but at times ii is 
oed for inferior purposes in the frames of oa- 
ttTe vessels, in repairs, kc-^JEdye, Malabar (tnd 

AHWAZ, a town in ^huzistan or Arabistan. 
Tku once celebrated city is ninety-two miles 
Soitb-Eait of Bnssorah, on the banks of the 
merKaroon, ia the province of Khuzistan, 
lie ancient Susiana* It became extensively 
faiOTii after certain districts had been combin- 
ed Doder the name Al Ahwaz, and their capital 
fas designated Suq-ul-Ahwaz, the mart or em- 
porium of Al Aliwaz. — Miffnan^s Travels, 294. 

AIGAEEET MYIT. Malay P This root is 
ttid to deprive spirituous liquor of all its 
strength, and a decoction given to an intoxicat- 
ed person is said to render him immediately 
i(iber,-(7fl^&. 1862. 

AR6HA-NATHA. a title of Iswaira, the lord 
boat shaped vessel. See Tavana. 

il, an island of the Moluccas, the Pulo Ai 
a( tile Malays, Pulo Way of the British, situ- 
fkA about ten miles to the westward of Banda 
Lesihoror Great Banda. It is about 8 miles 
■ eircumference, and moderately elevated, its 
«^ sarface consisting of nutmeg plantations, 
t^ii spioe being its sole exportable product* — 
Ar. I»d. Arch. 

AIKAMENIL. ' Timob. Bandal-wood. 

AIL Fr. Garlic. 

AIDUMA, an island on the S. W. Coast of 
Nev Goiuea, near the entrance of Triton's Bay 
• ffaran^ariin Lat. 3. 53' S. Long. 134. 15' 
^Modera. It is 7 miles long and 2^ to 3 
■des vide, and is separated from the mainland 
^Sew Guinea by a narrow but unfathomable 
M^ through which the tides run with great 
^iiuj. The chief exportable products are 
v3ilmitnie](8^ several kinds of odoriferous bark, 
•«y, and kayu-buka ; which, with tortoise- 
ikUind small quantities of trepang, form the 
■MffB cargoes of the Geram and, sometimes, 
fcawar prahus, that visit the port annually 
bfvposes of trade. — Jour. Ind. Arch, 

u.H.m. Fvigt. 

Ailantua excelaus. 
Ailutas... Eng. Peru Maram ... Tam. 



Pedda Mauu ... 

Peyyapa Pedda- 




^w tree grows in Cororaandel, Surat, 
•■•Mh»Baroda, and the Dekhan. It re- 
^iWestlieash in its general appearance and 
J^ a large size, flowering in January and 
*Jpttfy. It is common about old buildings 
|*j» nviny ground of the Dekhan and of 
r"^! »boat Baroach and Baroda. It is 
jVHiibamI as a tree in the Bombay forests. 
f**JJ>»oii in the Northern Circars, and in 
F wfctt7 forests, and is met with 


Coimba^re. Doubts seem to exist as to the 
value 0^ the wood. Dr. Wight says it had 
beeu described as hard, close-grained and heavy, 
and fit for gun stocks, and he had been told 
that it is much used in Bombay, in cabinet- 
making, but he greatly doubted the correctness 
of the information, in which Dr. Gibson concurs. 
Dr. Gieghorn in the Madras Exhibition Jury 
Reports, describes the wood as light and white 
and he and Graham say it is used for mak- 
ing sword handles, t&c. It is also employed to 
make sheaths for spears, and catamarans, but is 
not durable. On the Godavery, the natives 
never use it.— -/?oa?6. //. 450. Drs. IVtffhi, 
Clepkoruy Jiiddell, Gibson, Vstfful Plants, Mr, 
Elliot, Mr. Jaffrey, M. E. Juries' Reports, 
Captain Beddome, Voigt, p* 186. 

Madde Doop . Can. I P^ru Mara ... Tasc. 

Perui Maram .. Maleal. | 

A large tree of the Anamallai forests, Travan- 
core, Malabar, and in Canara and Sunda, above 
the ghauts. Its rough, very thick bark i« 
studded with grains of a bright coloured resin, 
and it yields, on incision, the mattipal resin. The 
bark, resin and fruit are used in native medicine. 
— Ainslie. Wight, Gibson, Vsejul Plants, 

tree of China and the Moluccas. 

AIMAK, a Mongolian, Mantchu and Turki 
word meaning a tribe. Of these, there are in 
Kabul and Persia four tribes, the Char Aimak. 
They dwell to the north of Herat and Kabul 
in the range of the undulating country which 
in some places assumes a mountainotis in others 
a hilly character^ and in some parts is well 
watered, in others bleak and rough, forming a 
water-shed of two natural divisions from the 
western of which flows the Murghab, the Tejend 
and the Farrah-rud, and from the eastern, the 
Helmund, the south-eastern feeders of the 
Oxus and the N. Western feeders of the Kabul 
river. It is said that Timur, efasperated at the 
depredations committed by the people inhabit- 
ing Mazanderan, south of the Caspian, trans- 
ported the whole of them into the mountains 
situated between India and Persia. The des- 
cendants uf that people form a small tribe of 
Eimaks known under the appellation of Firoz 
Kohi, after the city of that name (situated 
about sixty-three miles from Teheran), whero 
they were defeated and taken capture by 
Timur. According to Latham, the Aimak are 
of the Sunni sect of mahoraedans, and are in 
number four, viz , the Timuni, the Huzara, 
the Zuri and the Timuri. The Timuriandthe 
Hazara lie beyond the boundaries of Kabul 
and are subject to Persia. Yambery says that 
the four tribes are the Timuri, Teimeni, Feroz, 
Kohi and Jamshidi, and that the whole are of 
Iranian origin and sp.eak Persian. The Ti- 
muri dwell about Qorian and Kah'san^ tho 




Teimeni from Karrukh to Sabz^irar : the Feroz 
Xobi near Kale No, and the Jamahidi have the 
shores of the Murghab. In their reverence for 
fire, their respect to the east to which their 
tent doers look, they retain many of the 
fire- worshipping views. The Aimak tents are 
Turk, those of the Timuri are Afghan, 
They live in well fortified castles but in tents 
rather than houses, prefer a despotic govern- 
ment, eat horse flesh, and mix tli« flour of a 
nut called Khundzik (chesnut ?) with that of 
their wheat. The Aimak settled in the 13th 
century and their number is estimated at 
400,000. — Laiham^i Descriptive Ethnology^ 
Terrier^B Hut, of Jfghann^ p. 3. Vambery*8. 
Sketches of Cr.ntral Asia, 

AIMANr. Fu. Loadstone. 

A'IN-I-AKBARI. Pers. From A*in, a 
iaw, and Akbar, tiie name of the Emperor 
who framed thia code of regulations. See 
Akbar. See Suhogum, 

AIN. Mar. also Arjun Mab. 'fiyn. of 
Pentaptera arjuna. P, tomentosa and P. glabra 
p. 18 9. 

AINDBA- JALIKA. Hikd. Conjurmg is so 
called from Indra * the Hindu deity ;' wid 
Jala 'a net.'— /fwi. Theat. Vol. IL p. a06. 

group is surrounded by a coral reef, nearly H 
degree in circumference, the south-western por- 
tion of which is separated from the main reef 
by a narrow but deep ehannel. Aion Baba. 
the largest of the group, and of chief resort lies 
on this detached portion of the reef, and is 
about 7 miles ronnd and 500 feet in elevation. 
The north- eastern or larger reef, contains the 
islands of Abdon and Kcnibar, with several 
coral islets, and is said to have an opening on 
the N. W. side which admits large vessels with- 
in the reef. The inhabitants are Papuans, few in 
number and occupied almost exclusively in 
fishing and in catching turtle, with which the 
lagoons within the reef abound. The chief ex- 
ports are tortoise — shell of good quality, which 
is obtaine(J here in large quantities, and tre- 
pang. These are purchased by Chinese and 
sometimes European traders fVom Ternate, in 
Moluccas, the king of which place assumes su- 
preme authority over all those parts of the 
coast of New G-utnea which his subjects have 
been in the habit of visiting for purposes of 
trade. The traders to Aiou all employ small 
vessels, which alone are adapted forgoing witlr- 
in the reef of Aiou-Baba, their chief resort. 
They bfinsr red and white calicoes, thick brass 

AINDRI, the Sacti of Indra. See S<4Cti. wire, old clothes, glass beads, and all sorts of 

AING. BuRM. Dipterocarpus al«tus. 

AINKUDI KUMMAliAR. Tlie five artizan 
castes of Malabar.. See Kummalar. 

AINO. The ftboTiginai races of Yezo^lvhose 
severe treatment by the Jnpanese, has led them 
lo other countries, and they also occupy the 
southern part of the island of Seghiiflin, which 
is in possession of the Japanese. Tliey are 
despised in Japan. Their number does not to- 
day exceed 80,000 ; they are strong and mus- 
cular, but they are despised as Jews are by 
the Arabs. The women are handsome, have a 
profusion of black flowing hair, but their ap- 
pearance is not^le&nly, their lips are tattooed 
beautifully blue. They do not epeak Japanese ; 
and servants from Hakodate cmmot converse 
*wiih them. — Hodgson^* Netgataki, p. 52. See 
AraooT, India; Kurilians. 

AmStlE, De. Sir Whilelaw, a Madras 
m'^dical officer, who wrote observations on 
Cholera Morbus. 1 Vol. 8vo. ; — On atmo- 
spherical influence. Lond. As. Trans. Vol. 
] . p. 378 ; — On the climate of Seringapatara, 
As. Jl. 1835, Vol. XIX. pp. 25— 34;— Ma- 
tei'ia Medica Indica, Madras, 1 Vol. 4to.^ 2nd 
Ed. L'^nd. 2 Vols. ; — Remarks on climate 
and diseases of Eastern Regions, Lon. As, 
Trans. Vols. II. p. 13 ; III. p. 56.— Z)/. 
jSiiisl'i Catalogue*- 

AIOU or YOWL, a group of 16 low cir- 
cular islands on the W. Coast of New Guinea, 
and 30 miles N. E. from the island of Waygiou 
in the Gillolo Passage. The largest lies in 
jiboul lat, 0^25; N. long. 131* p; E, The 

ornamental finery in which the negroes of New 
Guinea deHght, as much as jthose of Africa. 
The nativea, are tolerably friendly to strangers, 
hilt are inclined to be treacherous and reven^e^ 
fttl, which is the character indeed, of all the Pa- 
puan tribes. A vessel visiting these islands for 
purposes of trade should always be prorided 
with a native of Ternate or Tidore to act as pilot 
and interpreter. — Journal Ind. Arch, Harib^ 

AINO- JAP ANESIA. A name proposed by 
Mr. Logan to designate all the Japanese and 
Aiuo Islands from Formosa to Kamtoa-chatka« 
See India. 
AIR EnO' Air Aimospheriqne. . Fa, 

Uowa HDTD.PsRSk 

Lay ... BuBH. 

AlB. Amongst tl]e)mahomedan races of India 
the air and the water together, Ab-ohowa, aro 
reckoned to constitute climate. Amongst hin- 
dus, the water alone is regarded as the agent 
acting on the climate* 

AIRAPADAM, in hindu mythology, the 
nnme of one of the elephants who support the 
earth, his image is placed in the temples of 
Vishnu, of a white color, having four tusks, 
his body loaded with triukets and magnificent- 
ly dressed. — Sonnerat's Voyage, p, 189,. 

AIUAVATI, the elephant vahan of Indra. 

AIR BLADDlllR of certain fish is in much re« 
quest as an article of diet and in the arts. It is 
a white membrane close against the spine, knowu 
also as the sound or swim. Russian Isin^lasa 
is prepared from the sounds of the sturgeon^ 
Accipemer ^turio^ found iu the -Caspian and 




Bl«ck Seas and tfaetr tribatary rivers. In 
Anerica, from the Labrui sgneteaptey the in- 
ttatioes of the cod, Morrkua vulgaris : in Cal- 
tatta, from the aonnda of the Polynemus aela, 
tiie Stdea of Bengal and the sounds of tvo 
Madns fish, the Korwa, and Kaiali, Tav., are 
so employed, and they are largely exported to 
Ckm." (ySkauffhnessy p. 68. 

AIRUN, a temple in Bhopal built in the 
int year of the reign of raja Tarapain, by 
Djanji Vishnu, the coftifidential minister and 
bDdier of raja Main Vishnu. The inscription 
ii the first in honour of the boar incarnation of 
Tiika and the boar coins probably belonged 
to tbis family of princes, who worshipp3d 
Tidma aa the Boar. In the inscription, the 
adabter Dyanya or Dhanya obtained his office 
Ij public election, and through the grace 
of God ! Dhanya is called a Rishi amongst 
i\t Brahmans %nd the deroted worshipper 
af Bhagavan ; but there is not any pre- 
pntennis enlogy of Brahmans. The lan- 
goage of the inscriptions is Sanscrit but with 
toTiia written corrupily, and probably about 
tfae 8th oeatury of the Christian Ero. The 
ekaracter uaed in the inscriptions is that 
labsequent to Kanouj Nagari, or Allaha- 
bad, bttt before the Gaur or Harsha character. 
Aootber ioscription is on a pillar in front of the 
teople, the King mentioned is Budha Gupta, 
vbo gofemed the country between the Jumna 
ladthe Narmada. The pillar was raised, at 
Ibe expense of Dhanya Vishnu, before the 
tcaple of the preceding inscription, by Vnidala 
Tabna, who had been elected to the regency. 
Tke settee of a new Gupta, and a date of the 
(t^SMty, 165, is of great interest, as Buddha 
Cfupta necessarily followed those mentioned on 
tbe Allahabad and Bhitari columns, and up to 
Bttddha Gupta's time, if he belonged to the 
Kanoqj dynasty, its duration had been only 165 
jean. In the early part of the fifth century, 
A* D., FaUiaa found a bnddhist king at 
Kanouj ; and in the early part of the seventh 
cotoy Huian Thsang found a hindu king 
i^iag. The dynasties, therefore, had been 
cbaagfed between the fifth and seventh centuries, 
aod the Gupta family hnd sprung up in the in- 
tetfal— B«. M. Soc. Vol, VII. p, 634. 

AJAIB-UL-MAKHLUKAT, » book on na- 
taral biitory. 

AJAM, Arab. This word literally means 
^iRn ; but, in the southern part of Arabia, 
At Ajam is applied to the opposite part of the 
^Mt of Africa. A jam by the Turks means 
Tsriosh Arabia. Persia is B»ld-ul-Ajam, and 
fts north-eastern coast of Africa, is Bar-el- 
AJaai. The Arabs divide the world into two great 
^*iks, first themselves, and, secondly, " Ajami/' 
^ t-aU that ne not Arabs. Similar bi-partitions 
^ tts hindtts and mhleehas, the Jews and 
^ifca, flie Greeks and Barbarians, &c., kc. 

Play fairs Aden — Barton's FUgrimage io Mecca,' 
Vol. n. p,26. 

AJAMODA. Sans. Parsley. 

AJATA BATRA, king of Magadha who collec- 
ted the remains of SakyaMuni anddeposited them 
in one large stupa at Baja Griha. He reigned 
for 32 years and died B. C 526, His race were 
Bhattiya brahmans. See Buddha : Chinese. 

AJATASWABA. A king of Magadha, in 
the eighth year of whose reign Sakya became 
eminent. See Chinese. 

AJETA9. A Papuan or a Negrito race in 
the Phillippines, Negros, Mindanao, Mindoro 
and Luzon. See Ahetas. 

AJGARA. S.vNS. A. python. 

AJi A river of Iran. 

AJIPALA, one of the Chohan dynasty who 
founded Ajmir. A. D. 145. 

A JIT SLJ^OH- A celebrated king of Kanouj 
who was murdered, A. D. 1680. See Bahtor- 

AJMOD. ^y^] Sans. Apium iuvolucratum 

also Fetroselinum sativum, parsley. 

AJOOWAN. Bbng. Lovage, Ligusticum 

AJO SATIVO. Sp. Garlic. 
AJUGA DEALSINGHI (perhaps A : rep- 
tans; A. fruticosa, or A. chamoepytes) from 
the lower ranges of the Himalayas where it is 
given in quartain ague. — Honigbergtr. See 

Cashmere, where, from its manifold virtues, it 
is called J8n-i*adm, a. e, the life of man. Given 
in tormina and inflammation of the gums.— 

Auisomeles Malabarica. 

AJMA. Hind. Perhaps, Ptychotis ajwain. 

AJMlEy the capital town of a small terri* 
tory in Rajputanah ruled by Chouhan Baj- 
puts. AjipHla of this race founded it in A. I). 
145, and it was lost to the Itahomedans by 
Dola Hai in A. D. 102i to Mahrond of 
Ghazni. The territory is also styled Kajas- 
thaii. There is an artificinl lake near L. 74^. 
52' E. See Chohan; India; Inscriptions | 
Kattyawar : Khetri lakes ; Hajputs. 

AJUNTA in the province of Arungabad, is 
celebrated for its Buddhist and Jaina Vihsra 
or monastery and caves. The Chaitya cave is. 
supposed to be the oldest in India, One of the 
Chaitya caves there has the dagopa perfect, 
with the tee with the three umbrellas in stone.* 
1 he great structural dagopas are generally shorn 
of this appendage, which is the origin of the 
three and nine storied towers of China. One 
of the Viharas at Ajunta looks more like the 
brahmanical caves at EUora than a Buddhist 
Vihara. Its pillars have similar cushion 
capitals to those in Elephanta and at Eilora. 
The Ajunta, are the most complete series of 
Buddhist caves in India, without any mixture 




of Bramanism and oontaio types of all the rest, 
some are elaborately carved. 

The Ajunta caves are in the northern face 
of a ravine, which has a westerly direction 
parallel lo the face of tlie ghauts, as they over- 
look Kandesh. There are many ravines or 
koras near ; one of these commences at the town 
of AjuntH and winds to the south and west 
for about 3 miles opening there into Kandesh. 
Near its mouth is another ravine taking a wes- 
terly direction^ for two miles with 8e\eral wind- 
ings, at one of which^ on the northern face of 
the rock these caves have been excavated. This 
ravine, no where exceeds 400 yards from brink 
to brink, above five hundred yards at its 
bottom. Ajunta is the only town of any size 
near, bat it too is quite a small place, walled, 
with gates, and a bridge* 

Major E. Gill, of the Madras Army continued 
drawing and photographing these cnves for 
nearly 30 years, sometimes residing in a cave 
for days. He built a house at Fardapoor, now 
the travellers bungalow, but latterly he resides 
at Ajunta. The natives call the caves yerrula, 
the same name as they give to those which 
Europeans call Ellora. The hindus call them 
also Lena, and both terms mean drawings. 

The caves are about 25 in number, several 
of them have fallen in, many have been injured 
by the percolating water, and all have a noi- 
some damp smell, with the nauseous odour of 
bats, which in the^ larger caves are multitudi- 

The ordinary form is a central hall, with a 
walk around the wall, separated from the hall 
by pillars. A single door-way leads to the in- 
terior and opposite it is a recess, in which Bud: 
dha is seated preaching. In that are numerous 
figures seated in almost similar attitudes. The 
walls also have sculptured figures and arabes- 
ques, as have also the lintels of the doors, and 
the tops of the pillars. There are innumerable 
figures of men and women standing upright, 
and sitting, and those on the tops of the pillars 
seem to be soaring. In the ghat of the Taptee 
at Bang, on the north side of the valley of the 
Taptee, are three ancient Buddhist caves. 6ee 
Adjunta ; Cave Temples. 



I a . A R« 


. • . AH AH. 

A j wain 





In Hindustan, ajwain is the seed of Ligus- 
tioum ajowain, Ruxb. The Plychotis ajwan 
D* C. In the Dekhan it is used as the- name 
of Anethum sowa or Bishops* Weed. The 
Korassani ajwain is wholly different, being 
the seeds of the henbane and poisonous. The 
small fruit or seed possesses an aromatic 
smell and rather warm pungent taste. The 

plant is known everywhere in India, and P. 
sylvestris, Bo^le, is the Arab ajwain called by 
the Persians Nan-khoah, largely nsed as a car- 
minative and in flatulent colic, and, Honigber* 
ger states, in stoppage of urine. It is propagat- 
ed by seed and grown in square beds; in the Dek- 
han, the seed is sown in September audOctober, 
and sold at five pice the seer, the plant is grown 
by the Native gardeners for the seed only, 
which is used in curries. Care must be taken not 
to confound, under the native names, the seed 
of the Ptychotis ajwain with those of the poi- 
sonous Khorasanee Ajwain which are the seeds 
of the hyosciamus or henbane. The Ptychotis 
ajwain seeds are very small, stalked, conical, 
pointed, streaked with yellow stripes, and stalks 
of the seeds of a bright-yellow. Henbane seed 
is grey, not ribbed or streaked, shape obscure- 
ly triangular, and flattened, surface rough and 
dotted. Other seeds, especially of umbellife'^ 
reus plants, are sold under both these names. — 
CShaughntMif. Fleming. Faulkner, Honig- 
berger^ RiddeiL O'ShaughneMy. 

AK also AECH. ^\ also AL. J | DuK- 

Hind. Calotropia gigantea; also Morinda citri* 
folia, Linn* See Madar. 

AKA, tribes occupying the western extremity 
of the hills which furm the northern boundary 
of Assam. See India. 

AK.A. Turk, a chief, an Agha. 

AKABA, a gulf at the N. E. part of the Red 
Sea : also, the town there. 

AKAD, a city of Assyria. See Babel. 

AK.AJU-NUSSE. 6£a. also Westindiache 
• aoakarden. Geb. Cashew nut. 

AICAKALIS. Greek. Cassia absns, also 
an inspissated cold extract of the leaves of the 
Acacia vera. 

AKAKIYA. Hind. A red stone brought to 
Ajmire from Delhi containing iron; used aa 
a tonic, in the dose -of one tola : one seer iot 
two rupees.— 6V«^ Med, Top, p, 125. 

AKAKIAH. Arab. ajjIj) It is spoken of both 

by Hippocrates and Dioscorides. It is an er« 
tract from the fruit of the Acacia vera, or from 
its leaves, which are pounded and the juice in« 
spissated. The inspissated juice of the sloe, Pru« 
nus spinosa, is substituted for the ancient Aka-** 
kia. The Akakia is not now Used in n^edicine 
of Europe. 

AKAL^ Sansc. from '' a" privative and 
" kal," death, meaning immortal. 

A KALI, armed Sikhs ; religious devotees 
and fanatics, violent, and ignorant. They 
were first established by the guru Govinda, 
the founder of the Sikh faith, and they 
zealously supported him against the innova- 
tions of the ascetic Bands, the byragi. Their 
Boonga or temple, on the side of the holy 
reservoir at Amratsir, at Lahore, is a fine build* 
ing, but others are met with alloTer the Fiui;: 



jtli, though cbiefly in the Manja territory, be- 
iveen Lahore and the Gharra, where Tarantara 
is their chief town. A considerable number 
ire settled at Nandair on the banks of the 
Godarery but are quiet and peaceable. In 
mHtj wealthy, they affect poverty and beg ; 
Iwt, io the time of the Sikh rule, their beg- 
gbf was an insolent demanding, and as they 
lereabold united b. )dy who made commoiicause, 
ud did not scruple to expose their own lives 
or to make false accusations of crimes, these 
wild looking men enforced their demands with 
ID insolent independence, which those only 
coQld understand who have witnessed a band 

AKAR-CHTEIT-MURAI. Malay. A plant 
yielding an elastic gum. 

AKAR-KANTA. Hind. Alangium deca- 

AKARKARA. Hind. Pees. The roots of 
two species of Anacyclus, A. pyrethrum and A. 

AKaRKOUF, the ground around the ruin- 
ed pile called by the Arabs Tall Namnid, and 
by the Turks Namrud Tapassi. Both these 
terms meau the hit], not the tower, of Nimrod 
and the term Aknrkouff or Agargouf given by 
the Arabs, is intended to signify the ground, 
only, around it. It is about 9 miles from 

ofdronken Akali, almost in a state of nudity, Brtghdad. — Por/cr'* Travels, Vol. IT. p* 28 h 

bnmdishing their naked swords, and bawling 
cit abusive and obscene language : their 
power to enforce their demands therefore was 
TeiT great. They particularly showered their 
<o^ry words on Europeans ; but, until Eanjit 
Siogh mastered them, even his life was several 
tioies in danger. Under the British rule, and 
vilh power to enforce toleration, they are never 
Eeard of. They would extort alms from chiefs 
ffid others, by interdicting them from the per- 
iormanee of religious rights, and a chief unpo- 
polar with the Akalis, who made common cause 
with each other, risked his authority. Their 
^omcis derived from Akalipurusha^ • Worship- 
pen of tfie Eternal/ the word Akal being a 
coopound of kal, * death,* and the privative * a ' 

Mignan*8 Travels, p. 102. See Namrud. 

AKAS. Arab. ^^{Lc A hoop of n black co- 
lour,, worn by the Hodelyah Arabs, to retain the 
dark colored square of cloth on the head. The 
outer rim is inlaid with pieces of delicately en- 
graved mother-of-pearl, rather larger than a 
shilling. — Hamilton's Sanai. 

AKASA GARUDA GADDA, alsoMuru don- 
da ei-s^*'KatfX'i^. Bryonia epigoea. JiottL 


B. glabra, B, iii. 726. This name is more used 
in the S. Telu^u districts. 

AKASALINGA. Kab. Goldsmith. 

AKASAM. Bee Acasanavi ; Hindoo. 

the lowest of the incorporeal Brahma-lokas, — 

»«tning ' never-dying,' or 'immortal.' It ^^^fv-^f ? ^'\\^a^^^^^^ * % 

«oneof the epithers of the Deity, atid is given ^^^^A TMIAJIA also (Antara tamara.) 

to this class from their frequenily exclaiming e-r»<rB-«fe2f ,«lso (^o6tSW^^.) I'wtia stra- 

"Akal, Akal/' in their devotions. They wear tiotes, L,^R. m« 131. 

hloc chequered dresses, and bracelets of 

>teelroand their wrists, which all Sikhs do not 

var; though it is indispensable for a Sikh to 

JBre steel about the person, and it is generally 

tt the shape of a knife or dagger* They 

bn&triy inituited converts, and had almost the 

lole direction of the religious ceremonies at 

AvnttQr. The Akalis had a great interest in 

BUBtaining the religion and government of the 

^itti, as established by guru Qoviiid, upon 

^^ their influence depended. They often 

*ttl profusely armed, with half a dozen 

"voids; perhaps also a matchlock, and seve- 

'<! tteel discs on their turbans. — MassotiS 

^'nneyt, Vol. I. p. 451. Mohun Lais Journeys 

h^' HistMy of the Punjab, Vol. L p. 130^ 

J^l- auinbaehU Fanjab p, 8-9. Afalculm's 

*tt«,p.ll6. Ward's View of the Hindus, Vol 

^.^ 273-4. As. Res. Vol. XL McGregor's 

^^ of the Sikhs, Vol. L p. 81, p. 236- 

^< Sm Amratsur ; Banda \ Boonga ; Discs ; 

«ja ; Sikhi ; Tarantara. 

^AKA-PObWAL, a caste in Malabar and 

^^^irawho follow iherule of Marumakatayam, 

^^•wwt from mothers, the descensus ab utero 

» tfc« Loerians, who drove the Sicilians out of 

■Wofltlly. Sfee Polyandry. 


AKASH BULLI. Beng. Cassyta filiformis. 

AKAS KUKHl, See Hindoo. 

AKASMUKHl. Sans, from akas, the 
sky and mukha the face, religious, ascetic 
mendicants, among the Saiva hindoos, who 
hold up their faces to the sky^ till the muscles 
of the back of the neck become contracted and 
retain that position • ^ee Urdha bahu. 

AKATS-JA BULLI. Malbal. Cassyta fili- 
formis. — Linn. 

AKBAR, Jalal-ud-din Mahomed Akbar, 
reigned in India from A. D. 1556 to 1605. He 
was grandson of the emperor Baber and seventh 
in descent from Timur. He was the eldest 
son of the emperOr Hamayun and was born at 
Amirkot, in the valley of the Indus^ on the 14tiL 
October 1542, while his father was in exile. 
Hamayun re-gained the throne in 1555 and 
died a few months later. Akbar in the course 
of his reign extended his sway over R^Jputanah, 
and from Afghanistan to Ahmednuggur in the 
Dekhan and from the Snliman mountains on 
the west to Bengal and Assam in the east. 
He was an enlightened monarch who introduced 
religious tolerations, equal justice, encouraged 
literature, arts and science, and the Ain-i-Akbari 



or ioatitules of Akbar, a revenue work, was 
compiled under his orders. Akbar was succeeded 
by Jehaogeer, 6faah Jahau, and Aurungsib. Prior 
to this sovereign, of all the dynasties that had 
yet ruled in India, that of the house of 
Timur was the weakest and most insecure in its 
foundations. The houses of Ghazni and Gbor 
depended on their native kingdoms which were 
contiguous to their Indian conquest : and the 
slave dynasties were supported by the national 
influx of their countrymen : but though Baber 
had been in some measure naturalized in Cabul, 
the separation of that country under Kara- 
ran had broken its connection with India, 
and the rival of an AfTghan dynasty turned 
the most warlike part of its inhabitants as well 
as of the Indian mahomedans into enemies. 
Colonel Tod remarks (Bnjasthaii Vol. I. 
p. 522) that it affords an example of the 
bindu doctrine of the metempsychosis, as well 
as of the regard which Ak bar's toleration had 
obtained him, that they held his body to be 
animated by the soul of a celebrated hindu 
gymnosophist : in support of which they say, 
he (Akbar) went to his accustomed spot of 
penance {tapasya) at the confluence of the 
Yamuna and Gangea, and excavated the imple- 
ments, viz., the tonga, gourd, and deer-skin, of 
his anchorite existence. Assuredly says Elliot a 
more extraordinary man never sat on the throne 
of India. Brought up as a mahomedan,. he was a 
rationalist and deist, and never believed an}!- 
thing, as he himself declMred, that he could not 
understand. The religion which he founded, 
the so-called Ilahi religion, was pure deism 
mixed up with the worship of the sun as the 
purest and highest emblem of the deity. 
Though Akbar himself could neitlier read nor 
write, his court was the home of literary 
men of all persuasions. Whatever book, in 
any language, promised to throw light on the 

Problems nearest to the Emperor's heart, 
e ordered to be translated into Persian. 
Leedes, the adventurous English merchant, 
visited Akbar's court and one of his four 
companions entered the Emperor's service. 
Akbar abolished all arbitrary land taxes and 
fixed the revenues according to the vhIucs of 
the different lands, fallow, out of cultivation, 
in rotation : best, middling and bad lands and 
over-flooded lands. It was in hia reign 
that his physician, Budyn^ introduced the 
rhinoplastic operation for restojfing the nose, 
and he bestowed on Budyn, a jaghire at 
Xangra. The Easli or harvest era of Northern 
India has been traced to the year of Akbar's 
succession to the throne, the 2nd of Rabbi-us- 
aani, A. H. 963, A. D. 14th February 1556. 
^he first mention of thugs, occurs in his time, 
for 500 were executed at Etawah. In his 
invasion of Kashmir, he was opposed by the 
warrior pastoral race of Gulu-wan.^ — Jftfw/, 


EUlorians of India, p. 248. Tod. See Faali^ 
Guluban ; Kangra Khiraj ; Leedes ; Thugs* 

AKCFIEE. Pers. SeeAndkho. 

AKEEK.Guz. Hinp. ^^xaxPBRa-Cornelian; 


AKESINES, the Greek term for the river 
Cheiiab. See Chenab. 

AK H . K A - JH AR, M A DAE. Hin d. 
f-^^K^] Calotropis gigantea. 

AKHARWAl a division of the Kurmi tribe. 

A-KUABSA a region described by Ptol^iny, 
the snowv land of Ladak. See Kba-changul. 

AKHBAR.AR. PI. News Akhbar-kaghaz, 
newspaper. Khalassat-al-akhbar, the summary 
of new9,n work bvKhond Amir. BeeEhond Amir 

AKHIEI-CHAR 8HAMBAH, A feast held 
amongst mahomedans on the last Wednesday 
of their second month Saffur. 

AKHOOND, the high priest of the Swat 
tribe. See Khyber. 

AKHOZYE, an Afghan tribe in the valley of 
Kabul. See Afghan. 

AKIIEOT.Maleal. Sans, fruit of Aleurkes 
triloba also Hind, the walnut or Juglans regia. 

AKI, the Lignum vitae of Kew Zealand, it is 
the Metrosideros buxifolia, and is a rambling 
shrub climbing by means of its lateral roots to 
the highest trees. See Metrosideros. 

AKINCHANrAYATANA. inBuddhism, the 
third of the incorporeal Brahma-lokas. — 6yder*M 
Hosier Mouachism, p. ^^d. 

" AKINDO," the Japanese name for meiv 
chant. In Japan the '* akindo" are not per- 
mitted to ride on horseback, and with astonisU- 
ment the officials see British merchants gallop- 
ing about. — Hodgson s Nagasaki, p. 12. 

AKIT, it is a drink in use by the Ardbs but 
has different names in all parts of Arabia ; even 
in the Hejnz it is known by the name of Mazir, 
as well as *' Iqt,** (a corruption * of AkiQ- 
When very sour, it is called ** Saribah," aud 
when dried, without boiling, ** Jamidah.'* 
The Arabs make it by evaporating the serous 
part of the milk, the remainder is then formed 
into cakes or lumps with the hand, and spread 
upon hair cloth to dry. They eat it with clari- 
fied butter, and drink it dissolved in water. It 
is considered by the Arab a cooling and refresh* 
ing beverage^ but boasts few attractions to tho 
stranger. The Beluchi and wild Sindhian tribes 
call this preparation of milk ''knit'* or kurut and 
make it in the same way as the Bedouins. It 
is perhaps the source of the English word curds. 
Burton's Pilgrimage to Meceah, Vol. L p, 562. 

AKKAEAKAEA&f. Tam. ^esfrjrairjnh 
Pellitory. Anthemis pyrelhrura. 

AKKAEAPUTTA. Sinc. Pellitory ; An- 
themis pyrethrum. 

AKKIJSH. Beng. KotUera laccifera. 

AKKYE, or Eyot Laut, the subjects of tlie 
sea, a litoral race in Quedah who dwell ou 



tW sbons and UkU of tbe FeiiinsaUL £Ue 
Kedah or Quedab. 

AKO, a biH tribe in Aaaam. See ImUn. 
AKOLA. HiMP. Sans. 3[^| Alangium de- 

ctiietaltiro : also A. bexnpetatum. . 

aKOLA; L.24^ 42N. k L. 77^1'E. in Berar 
h hilt on an open plain near the Munia, the 
mm beiKht of the plain according to CuUeu 
bang 808 ft. The tower of Akolah is built on 
of green-stone amygdaloki overlooking 

ik Muma ri?er and presents the appearance of 
• dtadd, indeed there i« a small curtain at 
Ike top, and tbe whole town is aurrowided by 
lomtiiQ with bastions, which hare been re- 
comoeDded to be removed. Akolab has the 
nOny within two miles of it, and is now the 
e^jef Cifil station of West Berar, in tbe Hy- 
dwhad Assigned Territories.'-* JaZ/par. 

AEOMANOy a name of Athraman. See Ah- 
naas ; Zoroaster. 

AKOND. Sans. Calotropis gigantea. 

AKORA, a Hindu mcmastery. See Ast- 
H also Math.— &//bttr, 

AKBOT. Abab. ^^i t Guz. 4i,^ ^ I 

PiBs. HiK]>« Mal* and Bkvg. Walnut^ 

Julians regis ; also tlie seed of A leu rites triloba. 

AKSU, a river near Kijri i« Kurdaatan. 

See Kifn. 

AKU. Tel. a lenL Akuln. pi. leaves* 


Itatfk :'^Bi&d2&. Euphorbi&nivnUa. BucU, £. 

Micifoiis. L^^R. 11. 467. 

AKULKUftftA, Goz. Hivd. PeUitory ; 
AatW^mis pvreihmm. See Akarkara. 

AiLULUUET. HiNi>. Csesalpittia bondu- 

AKULU. Tel. Elle. Tam . The leaves used 
^ bimlus as platters. They are made of the 
pUaUin leaf, W^il&elle. Till. Ariti aku. Trl. 
tid lesrn of the Bnnyan tree, Mari aku^ Tbl. 
Ali*i)e.TA]f. alao of Biitea frondosa.— J/iZ/oair. 

UUND. BsKO. Calotropis gigantea, 
^I^^aa. Calotropis liliaoea. 

kW PATHIKAM. TftL. eSoS^^M'o, leaves 

sf CtnnsmomuiD encalyptoidea^ /Ve<rs^*-C' Ma- 
UaUinim. R. \u 297—0*Sk, 539. The leaves 
VI used ss a apiee and medicinally. 

AKTJSALAt in buddhism demeril» eonati- 
fmi^i **«*' privative and E,arma.—J7^(f<T'a 
tm^TB Mifi^ckitm^ p. 4218. 

ttUT CHUN I. Small mbtes or gamete, 
VtWKkt via P»Ii to Ajmere and used as an 

tiiliae : one tola for two rupees. — GfnU 
n»^. 185. See Yakut. 
^IKIAB. Tbe chief town in Arracao. on tbe 
v^lkink ef a rapid river. It ia tbe seat of a 

AK-TAU. Bunic. Wood aloes. 

AL OR AACli. Beko. J J Hind. Mar. 

Morinda citrifolia. — Linn, 

Ali, in Kabul, a fabulous, prseternatural be- 
ing, resembling a woman of twenty years of age, 
named tbe Ghoul in Persia and Turkey. The 
Persian women attribute tbe disasters of 
parturient women to bar malevolence. — Richard 
F. Burton' 9 Sindh, ;?. 399. 

kind of garnet, q. y. 

ALABASTER, the flX«^a«rr^oc of tbe Grwks, 
from Alabastron, a village in Egypt. It is a 
hydrous sulphate of lime in a peculiar crystalline 
state, sometimea quite pure, sometimes contain* 
ing small quantities of carbon or iron. It ;s 
very abundant in naturi^, and wbe^i pure is of 
spotless white and in texture and colour ia 
almost unrivalled amongst. minerals. Itis found 
to a large extent in lower Eaypt, and perhaps 
this is iiUuded to ia^ Ihid Kin^s xxi and 13. 
It is said to occur in the Boogtee Hills neac 
Xacobitbad. It is not known to occur in India 
proper,' the imnges of the Burmese being from a 
stalagtiitc earbonate or granular carbonate of 
lime, though commonly called alabaster. 

It is of two kindSy. a carbonate and a sul* 
pbate of.lime^ The finest alabasters are from 
tiear Volierra in Tuscany : between Cerina and 
Leghorn. An inferior kind occurs near Derby in 
England, at Mont ]\lartre near Paris and in tb6 
Tyrolese, Swisa ami Italian Alps. — Maioih 
Tomlin, Balfour. See Gvpsum. 

AL' ABBAS. This race reigned ss khalifa, 
in Baghdad from A. D. 749-50 to A. B. 1258-9^ 
when Baghdad was besieaed and taken by 
the Ali'Khan, grandson of Jengbis Khan and 
it9 reigning Khalif, Mustasem, put to death. 
AU Khan is the Hulagu of western autbora.'*«> 
T. Prinnp, p. 804. 

ALABU. Ben a. Sottle-goard, Lagenam 

ALABUYU, S. or Aoapa kaye. tstnw;^^ 
e5>c^s5ir»cxsS. Lagenaria vulgaris, Ser. 

ALACA, in hind a mythology, the splendid 
palace of Knvera, the god of wealth. 
ALACU ANDALU also Bobbarla, eeifgtfw^ 

.ta*«>%*. Dolicbos sinensis — L. W* ^A^ 11 1 ^ 

R. iii. 302, and D. catjang 303. 
ALaGHATA also Talantu tige, ee>tT*4j« 

l(eio4»6l|. Ipomsaadentata. WiUd.'-^R/u 477* 

L cibf]rsoides.^lP. /e. 157. 

ALACNUNDA, a atream vear Kedamath, 
wbieh joina the Bhagaratti near Buder-pragae* 

ALA01Li-GHIT8A. Tei.. et}XO.«i^; 
Cfotalaria veirucoi^a. . tinn^ 

Cfiwiiiiimicir, The European part ia beauti- 1 ALAKH, tbe cry or call of the Gudara beg 
^im^^'^Bnifimr' \ gars. Bee Gndara, Alakb nami. 

63 9 



Termiaalia clie- 
iiag-staff ; a staa- 

ALAKHKAMI, a class of Saiva mendi- 
cants ; Professor WiUoii says the Alakh^naroi 
mendicant is a worshipper of the Alakshya, the 
indefinable god, and Nama a name. See 


ALAM. Ar. a flag, a 
i^ard, a prop. 


ALAMO. Sp. Poplar. 

ALAMPRA, a Burmese monarch, who in 
3755 fonnded or rebuilt Rang:oon. 

ALAN' (liang) a Chinese weight, containing 
about 8f zolotnicks.' 

A LAN DAD! ? a class of slares in Tamil 

ALANGI. Tam. ^vot^S. Alangium 
decapetahim. Yahl. 


A. Lauiarckii. T/itP. 

Alangium hezapetaluoL Bofb. Ft. p, ii. 

Alangium tomentosnm. Lam. 2>. €. 

Anisaruli mar a.. 
Sage leaved alan- 

ginxn •• 
Akola .• ••• 


grows at an elevation of 2,000 to 4,000 feet.— 
Tkw, En. PL Zeyl. ii. p. 183. 


... oAHS* 











Ankolatn u 
...MAI.BAL. I Ankola 

HiMD. I Alangi maram... Tax. 
Kara Angolam.. Malsal. | 

This is a smnU tree found in rocky places in 
the hotter and dryer par«8 of Ceylon, in Coim- 
batore, in Cochin and Malabar, and throughout 
the Peninsula of Tndia, It grows in Guze- 
yat, is common, on the Bombay side, both in 
the open country and in some of the juiit/;les 
towards the coast, but, there, it is less a jungle 
tree than one found in hedges and vilUf^e 
lanes. It grows in th« Khassia hills, and in 
Assam up to the base of the Hinaalayn, and is 
found in the Malay Peninsula and in Cochin- 
China. The wood is said by Dr. Roxburgh 
to be beautiful, and in ]>r. Wijrlit*s etperi- 
Riehts, he found it sustain a weight of 3 10 lbs., 
|)Ut neither Dr. Wight nor Dr. Gibson had 
ever seen a ten inch plank, and Mr. Rohde 
nays it wants size ; Captain Bsddoroe,. however, 
cTccribes it as an ornamental, beautiful wood, 
attaining a fair size in the forests of the Ooda- 
Tery and Circars.' The. astringent fruit is 
^aten by tlie Natives^ its roots . aie aromttic 
und asfd in l^ative medicine in snake bites. 
—Mr, Ja/frey, . fioxb. ii; 502, Jfr»: UyfUand 

Akarkanta? ... Beno. 
Akola ... HxifD.' 

Aokttlo ... Mabr. 
Kara-Angolam Maleau 




This tree is said to grow in Bnnnah, Coro- 
mandel, Malabar, Gumsoor, Ganjam, Bengal 
and AUahabad. According to Captain Mae>- 
donald ii attains an extrenoe height of 89 
feet, wiih a circumference of 2^ feet, the 
height from the ground to the intersection of 
the first branch being 13 feet. In Ganjam 
and Gumsoor the leading bull in a herd of 
buffaloes, has a wooden bell called '' Lodoko" 
attached to. its neck which is heard at a 
great distance in the jungle, and it is always 
made of this peculiarly sonorous wood. — 
Rohde. Mss, Captain Mncdonald in M. JP. 
Proceedings. Useful PlanU, 

Svn. of Alangium decapetalum. 
' AIJ^NTWURZEL. Ger. Elecampane. 

A LAOS river, a tributary of the Ganges, 
and the ancient Palabroiha was buiit at the 
junction. The Akos was also called the 

AL.A PALA. ^f5)^e. Tel. Pergularia 

pallids, W,^. A. conir. 42; Tc. 686— Asclcp. 
pal. R* ii. 48. 

AL ARAB AL ARABA. pure Arabs, the 
descrndents of Kahtan or Joktan, the son of 

AL-AEAF. Arab. The Mahomedan purga- 

ALAHANJI. Tel. . e^e* {fodB. Convolvulus- 

psrviflnrus, Vahl, — jB. i* 47 1 . 

ALARANTU. Tel. esoJTotCi. Rostellaria 

diffusn, Ne?s^ 

ALASALE. (V. Koritl ohettu,.) eojd^"?!^ 

^ir*5*8t3&>3.) Piecospermum spinosum. Tric^ 

ALASKNDT. Mal. Dolichos catiany. 

ALAT-CHANDUL. Bbng. Methonica su- 
per ba. 

ALAUDA LRIOPUS. H.dgson. This 
absolutely resembles the British skylark (A. 
arvensis vel dulcivox* Hodgson), except ia 
being smaller. Ijcngth of wing 3^ to 3^ 
inch, and of fail 2^ in. This species w^ 
long ago sent to ' the Bengal Asiatic Sgcie* 
ty^s museum by Mr, Hodgsou from Nepal ^ 
A. gulyula is the common lark of the plains of 
India and of Bengal. From, the latter A. leio- 

6i6yon. Jfr.. EIUqL Voigt. p^.40*:<lf- B^.^* pus may be .distinguished, by its smaller bill 
Itep. Mr Rohde. UseM PlanU, Oapiain Btdr ' ' - "" . -.» i i • r,_^^ .. 

dome. Thwaiie*, En. Fl Zyl. ii. p. 133. ^ 

A small tree of the central province of Ceylon, 

and longer tail. The A. Malabarica, Scopoli, 
[A. dtfva, Sykes,} appears to be merely A. ittsN 
gula in much al^rnded pUimnge — As. S^c^ 
foftr. p. 216. No. 2 ofU%i. See Mirafr*. 




Skd[b Stub. The latter conquered Mnlnra ; 
kii 100, A4a-ud-dm was ihe leader of the first 
■ihomedaD invaders of the Dekhan, and took 
themH of the Vtudhya mountains soinewfaere 
Bear OinkHldHk, and in A. D> 1809 he an- 
oeud Gusefat to Delhi. See GuEerat« Malwa. 

ALAUN. 6ek. Alum. 

ALBA ARBOB. Cajaputi iree. 

AfrBAIDAWIy the obicf <roinineRtatoT of 
tte Koran, q. T^ 

ALBANIA, a country to the east of 
Lrtebnia, q. Y. The Albanians of Asia are 
upposed by M. Baffin to have formed the 
iasit of the present Afghans. He says that 
tkjwerea warlike people, known as A^^hvan 
QAr^ban, that Afghan is a Gretk word, but 
iieoDsequence of their numerous revolts, the^ 
fere transferred from one ext remity of Persia 
to another and driven into Khorasan, The 
Albanians, says Burton are at most half 
Aiiatic as regards manners. As iu the east^ 
firstly, the host drinks of tbe cup, and dips 
kli hand into ti<e dish before his g^uest, for tlie 
ame reason that the master of tbe house pre- 
eedes his -visitor over the threshold. Both 
Mtions denote tiiat no treachery is possible, 
nd to reverse them, hs amongst Europeans* 
vodd be a gioss breach of custom, likely to 
odte the liveliest auspioions. — Chev. Bnusen. 
Obify. Latham. ^Burton* 9 I^ilfffimaae to 
lkt$k,rol LfK 199. 

ALBAinr ISLANDS, in Torres Strait, are 
iitttateil a few miles to the south-east of Cape 
York, the N. £. extremity of Australia. They 
iiedoie tothe maiDland) are moderately elevat- 
«i, uid slijshtly wooded with gum trees, but 
tovered with grass. They have long been 
bovn, aud their eastern side was exH mined 
^ Captain Kinir, the celebrated Australian 
Hydrognj^her, iMii the strait which separates 
^ from the main-land was surveyed by the 
wwhle, tender to the sarveying ship '* Fly," 
tt^ found to be clear of danj^ers^ with an 
Msgs depth of 14 fathoms. It is suited for 
tharhoar of refuge, and a dep6t for earrj'ing 
•toidswiih New Guinea. An opinion had 
"•SWsB entertained that the natives of the 
■•ttk eastern parts of Australia are less friendly 
t^itnngers than the other tribes oi this conti- 
••*i »hieh was confirmed by the massacre of 
*, KennedY, and the greater portion of 
^yy> when exploring the conntry between 
MbghsnBayand Cape York.— /our. Ind, 

■•««ABIC0QUB. 8?; Armeniaea vulgaris. 

MjtoR085. Several birds with this name 
|J*»"w to all travellers in the southern seas 
r^ comiBon Albatross, llie Diomedca exnlans 

of Linntotts, being very /sorammi. D. faligiii- 
osa of Latham is also to be seen, and I), chloro- 
rynchns Lath, also met with. Mariners distiu- 
^uUh them by other names. Diomedeaexubins* 
Linn* is the wandering Albatross. Tlie D. 
spadicea, is the >jreen-bill or Nelly of sailors. D. 
chlorerynchus, their moH>maux or yellow-bill, 
and i). fuliginosa, the sooty albatross^ 

ALBICOBE, the Scomber thynnus, Linn* 
an inhabitHUt of the southern seas, the hack 
is brijilit purple with a golden tint ; eyes iarjse 
and silvery, belly silvtry, with a play of 
iridesc^t colours, is in length from 3 to 6 feet. 
— Bei9, p, tB2. 

ALBINO. This variation from natural 
colours is met with frequently in all Asiatic 
countries^ in Southern Asia, in Hindustan. 
Peninsular India, Siam, tlw Malay States and 
ICastern Aichipelago, and wken occurring iu 
man it is more noticed than amongst tlie fairer 
races of Europe, because of th« «ontrBst with 
those arouud them and because of th« scant 
apparel iu use. Albino men or womeii are 
not regHrded with any peculiar feelings, being 
familiar to all, aud it is not men and women 
only, but in Asia, elephants, buffaloes, monkeys 
and crows aro also met with. White crows 
with pink eyes, also white deer, occur in Tip- 
perah, albino crows are not uncommon in 
Malabar and albino monkeys in Ce)lon. but 
a kind of white monkey of Ceylon has been 
said not to be albino, thorfgh doubtless so, and 
one of the titles of the king of Bunnah is lord 
of the White Elephant. — i?«//©«^r. See Kvans; 
Yule's Embassy ; Madras Museum Becords. 

ALBIZZIA, a genus of plants into which 
some of the Acacias have been placed, (See 
Acacia elata. Ac. stipulata), an utidefiiied 
species of the genus may here be noticed. 

ALBIZZIA. 8p. Kokoh. Buem. A tree of 
the northern district pf Pegu, on and near the 
hills. The wood is valued by the natives as 
much as the Padouk, Pterocarpus dalbei:gioides, 
or even more so. ' It is used for cart-wheels, 
oil-presses, and canoes. In the Prome district 
a special tax was levied on the felling of ** Ko- 
koh" and '« Padouk," under the Burmese rule. 
Large trees are becoming very scarce in the 
lrrawa<ldy valley, but are not uncommon iu 
the Toungoo district.— C^/. Col. Ex. 1862. 

AL-B0RD8H, the Haro-berzeaiti of the 
ancients is supposed to be on the western slope 
of BelurTagh, on the high land of Pamir. 
See Arian. 

ALBUMEN occurs abundantly in nature, 
both amongst plants and animals, as in the 
white of egg, the saps and juices of vegetables, 
and is used largely as food, and in the arts 
its chief value in these being its facile solidifi; 
cation under a moderate lieat. 




ALBUQUERQUE. Don Klph^mzo Jb 
Albuqu«rqu6^ an officer in the sarvioe of the 
kma of Portugal, was sent to the liidies, iu 
1506 ; he took Muscat, snd the Curia Mnria 
islands nnd other important plaoes on both 
sides of the Arabiitu Gulph. Ob the ISth 
February 1513, he started from India on ^n 
expedition consisting of 20 ships^ manned by 
]y700 Portuguese and 800 Indians^ aud failed 
in an attempt to take Aden by eecalnde, he 
afterwarda wintered at the island of Kamaran, 
nnd returned from the Bed Sta. He lnn<ied on 
Perim island, in 1513, on his return from the 
Bed Sea, erected a high cross and called it Vera 
^ruz. De Barras, the historian was his com- 
panion,— P/flrj^/itir** Aden. See De Barras ; 

ALBYBOUNI, a cotemporary of Avieentia 
-who served under Mahmud of GhHzni in the 
11th century. He mentioned the disappcHrance 
from Ceylon, of the pearl oyster and their ap- 
pearance at S'>fala, in tne country of the Zends, 
— TennanVs Cf^lon. See Pearls. 

ALCANFOK. Port. Sp. Camphor. 

ALCAITABUIS. fip. Capers. 
. ALCEDO. A genus of kiug fishers, sevwfal 
of wliici» occur in India, 

AL-CEMERiCUM. Eagle-wood. 

ALCESrE 18LAND, is in the gulph of 
Pe-che-lee, near the Shan Tung oromojnory in 
lat. 87^ 25* N. Ion. 122*' 45* E.^Hon- 


XVIII, 815. 

AliCIPPE NIPALENSI3, (v. Siva Ni pa- 
lensis,) Hodgson, is common in the Hima- 
laya, but local, in hilly junglet up to 4>000 

A, verticillata. Ro^.\\,\l2. 

Malika jhanji... 


ed as but ill-adapted for thepurpoee of brswinjr* 
but the boiling expels the excess of carbonie 
aoid in the water, which kept the oftrbonates' 
of lime and magnesia in aolntion : and theae 
salts aifd preeipirated. Again, the alkaline' 
phosphates present in malt have the power of 
decomposing and precipitating anlpfaate of lime* 
phosohate of lime and a soluble aikalin# 
sulphate being formed, an<l tbe greater part of 
the phosphate' of lime so form^-d is redissolved 
in the acid formed during fermentation. The 
water, from bciiig ait first hard, thus becomes 
comparatively soft, and in this i^tate is welL 
suited for the extraction of ihe active proper* 
ties of the malt and hops used in the manufao 
ture of bitter beer. The water used is remark- 
able from Us complete freedom from organic 
matter. The Burton ales speeHily beconte bright 
and clear, never require iiuings to be employed • 
and are (it for use almost as soon as brewed. 
This is no doubt owing to the depuniting power 
of lime, to the pcesence of which in the Burton 
water and its precipitation during: the l>oilin^^ 
the transparency Ri)d bri^rhtness of the beer are 
attributable. An analysis shows tue following 
results as the contents of an imperial gallon :^~ 

Bitter Ex tracts..* 

TotelSoH^,. ^ 

Alcohol of sp« : gT : 794. 
Wuter.,. ^. 

Per centiure of Alcohol... 

AXfLSop ^ Sons, 

















Babb and OO. 








ft S.> 







A herbaceous plant of Europe and Benga' 
with small white flowers. — V^igt, 

ALE. The bitter ales mannfactured at 
Burton-upon-Trent, have for many years, 
been most extensively imported into India. 
Burton brewers have long been celebrated for 
their beer, and tbeir success is generally sup- 
posed to be dependent on the quality of the 
well water used : but it is mora probable that 
their fhme has been acquired by the use of the 
be^t materials and employing g;reat care in the 
prooest. On analysis^ the water is found to 
CQi^taia a laige quantity of sulphate of lime, a 
good deal of the sulphates of potash and ma^- 
nesi9^ and. a considerable amouut of carbonate 
ef liine ; the lime and magnesia in the state 
of carbonate, being held in solution by parbonic 
icid, the excess of which is so great as to 
redden litmus paper. The Burton wfll water, 
therefore, is a hard water^ and might be regard - 



The above general analysis shpws that the hitter 
beers of Messrs. AJIsop and Sons, and of 
Messrs. Bass and Co., contain only a moderate 
amount of alcohol, and an unusually large 
quantity of bitter extract^ consisting* of tlip 
extract of hops, The specifie gravity of th«ir 
beers of varioua ages, was found to rarv ^ 
the former from 1007 to 1020, and tW 
latter 1008 to 10£4 ; as a rule the solid con^ 
tents and extractive laatter of beer is greateofr 
in the newest and strongest beers, aad thestf 
are, to a considerably extent, indicated by thm 
specific gravity. Dr. Uassal reports* that, aft#» 
the moat scrutinizioir examination, microsoopi^ 
cal, chemical and phvnolQgical, the exasiin«vii 
failed to detect any other ingredients ihao tfaok^ 
product! o( malt aftd kaps,. and the oonatitamts 
of pure spring water. J'jrom the pure and 
wholesome nature of tbQ in^edients eqfip}oy«i^^ 
the modexfl^tQ proportion of jolcohol pre^ent^ 



ad Ae my ooniideraUe qoantiir of aromAtic ( ALfiUElXES TRILOBA. Vo«8T 

. . . / I • t * ^_ L !._: I i„ r\ z^ , cf^l:...^ /If. 

ttodyne bitter, derived from bops, oontained i» 
tktt been, they tend (o preserve the tone and 
fi^wtr of tbe stomadi, and oonduoe to tbe 
nib nikm of the health of that organ when ia 
tttite of weakness or debiiiiy. These bitter 
ben dJisr from ail other preparations of .roall^ 
iamUiuaft a smaller ainouttt of ex.trii«Uvtf^ 
utter, tbus being less viscid and saeehaniie^ 
iidoMiaqueiitly more eaej^of digestion ; tbej 
iMoble, mdeed, from thdr lightDeas, a wine 
ufatk rather than say ordinary fermented in-. 
fMoi, and they are strongly recommenfied by 
the aediofil profession, i'he yarious ftrms, 
loder viioie names bettrs appear in the mar- 
kit is India are merely agents for Messrs. 
Aiiiop and B«sa. In ihs year 1853, there was 
Qportrd from Great Britain^ to Aden, British 
Ittha,Cbiu«^ and Hongkone> 103,130 barrels 
of beer and ale, the deelared value of which 
ni 1295,481, and the four years 185d-53 
ti 1655'o6 iaclasive, Madms imported it to 
tbenliwofBtipere 16.i8,Qu9.— /Taaioi. 448. 
Tf$J'' Si^iiTitrnl, Balf. (hmmercial FiodueU. 

ALECIOKIA JUBATA, Kek Kieo, Kamree. 
Tb iieben is gelatinous and eaten by the 
uuvesvith rice. 

ALEKVKEEE. Ti.u. Liuseed : Beng. Oom« 
SOB en'ss. 

iLIi'I, a town on the coast of Malabar* in 
ill. 9^ 30' N. and il miles from Cochin, it is 
tttqnied io the territories of Travancore and 
ill depot for tbe timber from the territories 
tftknjahof Travaucore. — Uurtburgh- Buisi. 

iLEPPO, the ancient Berroea, is styled by^ 
tfe Bttives Haleb-ue-Shabha. It is 76 miles* 
ishKi, f(om Iskanderoon in L. 36. U. 215. 
N. I L. %h 9. £. and from Antioch by the 
fNd 90 miles. It probably first rose in to 
iai^rtance ou the destruction of Palmyra, 
1* thicb it succeeded and like Palmyra it was 

CamlritUD dordifolium. Gart», 
Jiiglans oaaiirium* liour* 

Tal Tui..< * r.. Am. 
Akrot ... Bbnq, 

Belgaum Walnut Bso- 
Gouutry WalDiit.. ^ 
Lambang-nut-tred n 
Melo^cB tree. ... », 


Hijli 3adam... 


Akrot. ... 


T«Ai)y „. 



The Oil. 
"Kekune ? Lainbang? 
Kekui ? Laiiibaug ? 
This prolific large siztfd tree is a native of the 
Society Islancis from which it was introduced 
inio India, and. a varieiy of it, the A Moluc- 
censis, known to the Javanese nnd^r the 
name of Kamira is well known in Australin. A* 
triloba is now indigenous in several parts of 
India, the Moluccas, Java, the Malay IslandSi 
Ceylon, plentiful near Hyderabad of the Dfk- 
han, in tlie Southern Mtihratta country about 
Belgaum, in Bengal and Assam. Almost alt 
parts of it, are Covered with a farinnceous 
substance, and a gummy substance exudes 
frotu the seeds (as also, it is said, from the 
tree itself], whicii is chewed bv the natives 
of Tahitio The qudity of its wood is unknown. 
It has been introduced from the Moluccas into 
Java, where it is grown as a shade to the nut- 
meg plantations. In Java the cultivated nut is 
eaten as a fruit, and the flavour closely re- 
sembles that of the almond. The fruit of the 
uncultivated variety of the Caniiri tree produces 
a nut remarkable for the quantity of clear oil 
it contains, which is collected in large qunntities 
by the inhabitants of the Moluccas, and is 
palatable and in general use for cooking and 
burning in lamps. In fact it there su- 
persedes cocoanut oil, which is scarce. In 
Tahiti, tissues are made from the b»rk but 
its most valuable product is its fruit, which 

^, . ,, . . - , - - 1 ! i* roundish, two celled, each comaining a nut 

•tairably situated for tbe purposes of trade, , resembling in flavour the filbert or English 
•IwgM tbe communicatioii with the east, by.j ^j^i^ut. The nuts, strung on n thin slip of 
tliiioert, was the only one known and the " ^^^^^^^ 3^^ burned as a candle. They are 

considered aphrodisiac in the Moluccas but 
this qnn only be from the oil they contain and 
like otiier similar fruits are apt to purge and 
produce colic, uidess roasted, or kept for a 
year. About 50 per cent, (or according to 
Simmonds 3 H Gallons of the nut yield 10 gal- 
Ions,) of a useful, fine, clear, lanjp oil.-r- 
^oxb, n. Ind, UL 6:^9. No(f. p, 657, f'aiffi. 169- 
Bxh'b. of 1862. Java Cat. Hadr. Ex. Jar. R^ 

IK^ioni of Persia and India Were 
hoBgki hither by caravans from. Bagdad and 
Imti. Aleppo stands in an open plain, en* 
^apaned at the distance of a few miles by low 
Ub and the eity ia about three miles and a 
U is eircumferenee surrounded by walls of 
W itose^ about thirty feet hiish, and twenty 
^^ The population is estimated at abi^ui 
lM>iO(10iTurksandArabs,7U,009; Christians 
jMl deDeminatious, 15,000; Jews, 10.000; 
w Ibb is probably three times the true census. 
WiViriiks Bhiods in Belaehistan am said 
l^^beea brought from Alep|io.-p>-2Vi^/or^s 
fffi<^ ^ 213* J{(^infOm*s Ttbv^ Vol. 
^J* SI9. gee Kelat, p. 498. 493 and 495 
*!?lW. Sap, p, II. 
J^Oeo BBNUiA. Sefi CaMia obevat 

porU. Joffny, RiddeU. Xheful Plotnt*, Sim- 

mond^ Cofmm^aal FrodmoU. JtprL M^rt. So^ 
of India, 9cl vOh P' ^SO. 

lero laccilern, Voiji^t. ft. v. 

ALEXANDBR UL, ?f Xaoedon styled tha. 
Greatr was the son Qf BUlipof Maeed^n^ After 
settling i^amat jkhao. A» A^w^^ bis mi» 
to the easti and in tbe course o| 9kT«a 




.years, made suck iiupressions on the counbies 
km overran or maroUed tb^pougb that to this 
day his name, dti«s that he built and dynas- 
ties to which he i^ave origin, continue.. He 
succeeded his murdered fHthor Philip, B. C. 
836, crossed ihe Hellespont in 384, fought 
the battle of Issiis, in 333 ; cbnquereii E^ypt 
in 331, and the same year defeated Darius at 
Gangamela, — the following >ear, 330, Darius 
was miirderedby Besdus at Bactria. AlezMnder 
crossed the Indus into In<lia in 327, reached 
Susa in 325, nnd Babylon the same year, and 
in 323 he died. The duration of his saccesses 
has doubtless sprung from various causes. 
His mode of settling the Egyptian Govern- 
ment is mentioned by Bbarpe as the earliest 
instance that history has recorded of a conquer- 
or governing a province according to its own 
laws, and allowing the religion of the conquer- 
ed to remain as the established r6ligion of the 
State ; and the length of time tltat the Gr^eco- 
Ei^yptian monarchy lasted, and the splendour 
with which it shone, prove ^he wisdom and 
humanity of the founder, "this example has 
been copied, with equal success, in British 
Colonial and Indian Governments { but we do 
not know whether Alexander had any example 
to t(uide his views, or whether his own good 
sense pointed out to him the folly of those 
who wished to make a people open not only 
their gates to the garrisons, but their minds 
to the religious opinions of the conquerors. 
At any rate the highest meed of praise is due 
to the statesman, w.hoever he may have been, 
who first taught the world this lesson of states- 
manlike wisdom and religious humanity. 
Except Alexander, all the great conquerors 
of Hindustan have sprung from the frontier 
provinces towards Tartary^ and the norihern 
parts of Persia, and their routes to the interior 
parts of the country have led through the 
PHUJab. They "have, therefore, generally pene- 
trated into India by the way of Cabul, Canda- 
har, and G\\\zui.—{ChaiJield^9 Hindooslan^ p. 
20, 21) a route still followed. 

Major Bennel apprehends that Alexander 
never greatly deviated from the direct line of 
march, from the foot of Caucasus, or the range 
of mountains called Hindoo Koh, to the Indus 
near Puckholi, or Peucelaotis. His route from 
the S. E. coast of the Caspian Bea, lay 
through Aria, Zaran^a, &c., to Arachosia, or 
the modern Herat, Zarang, and Arokha^e, to 
the S. of Candnhar ; thence he marched towards 
Cabul and Ghizni, crossinjif mountains covered 
with snow. In order to chastise Bessus, 
who hnd fled into Baotria he passed the moun- 
tains between Ghorbund and Bamian, at 
whose foot geographers have placed the Paro- 
pamisan Alexandria the first station, in his 
fotttre march towards the Copbenes, or the 
low river. 


Alexander set out from Arachotaiia (whick 
seems to be admitted to be Herat), and proceed- 
ed in pursuit of one of the murderers, of 
Darius to the royal city of the Zarani^mi, which 
is recognised in Zarang, au ancient name for 
the capital of Sistan. He tltence directed his 
march towards Baetria, and on his way receive 
ed the submission of the Drant^se, the Gedro* 
sians, and the Arachotians. He tlien came to, 
the Indians bordering on the Arachotians* 
Through fill these nations he suffered much 
from snow and want of provisions. He next 
proceeded to Caucasus, at the foot of which he 
fouuded Alexandria, and afterwards crossed 
the mountains into Baetria. 

The Drangae are probably the same as the 
ZarangsB : Arachotia is exp)aine<l by Strabo to 
extend to the Indus, andGedrosia certainly lay 
along the sea. There are two ways from Sistan 
to Bactria, one by Herat, and the other bj 
the pass of Hindu Cush, north of Cabul, the 
mountains between those points being impassa^ 
ble, especially iu winter, when this march took 
place. Alexander took the eastern road^ and if 
he had marched direct to Bactria, as nii^^ht be 
supposed from the proceeding passage, he could 
have met with no snow at any time of the yenr^ 
nntil he got a good deal to the east of Candfi« 
hnr, and he must have left Gedroala very far 
to his right. The murderer of whom he was 
in pursuit was made over to him by the 

The Cahnl river, therefore, must be the 
Coplienes, and the Indians are under the moun- 
tains between it, its upper branch (thePunjshir 
river) and the Indus. 

The city that Alexander built in his route 
eastwards towards the Indus he gave his own 
name to, but its name and its particular site 
have been lost. It was called Alexandria and 
was near the Caucasus, and Bennell points to 
Bamian as the quarter in which he would place 
it. General Ferrier mentions that the fortified 
town of Herat, is supposed to have been founded 
by Alexander the Great, btit he does not quote 
his authority. This city he tells us is a qua* 
dran^leofSi miles long on the north and south 
sides, find rather more on the east and west. 
Its extent would be immense if all the suburbs 
were incUided, particularly those stretching to 
the west of the town beyond the Darwazah-i<- 
Irak. General Ferrier thinks that Alexandria 
was probably at Bcuram, 25 miles N. 15 
£. from Cabul, the ruins of which are descril>« 
ed in a memoir by Mr. Masson, in the 
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta^- 
Vol. V. p. 1. 

Becent travellers, Burnes> Masson, and 
Ferrier, met with tribea "who claim a Grecian 
descent* According toBumes, the Hir of Ha* 
dakhshan, the chief of Darwaz ^ in the valley 
of the Oxus, and the chiefs eastward of Datwaa 


ffko oeenpj tbe protinces of Kalab, Shoglinan, 
»d Wd[h«n north of the Oxas ; also the* hill 
lUtes of Chitral, fk\\v\t and Iskardo, are all 
WM by chiefs who claim a Grecian df scent. 

The whole of the princes who claim descent 
from Alexander are Tnjiks who inhabited this 
flmnlry before it was overrun by Turki or Tar- 

were brought orerland, in the meanwhile amnr-^ 
ing Porus by marching and counter-marching 
his troops along tbe banks of the river, as if 
searcliin;^ for a ford. On the arrival of the 
boats, he passed the river at Jelalpore, 114 
miles from Attock, where it is, in the rainy 
season, upwards of a mile broad, and never 
Ur tribes. The Tajiks now mahomedans regard ! fordable* Mr. Eiphinstone crossed the river 
JUosBder as a prophet. The Badakshan I at this very pass, and its features were found 
hoily are fair but present nothing in form or i to tally exactly wiih the description given by 
fcatsre res^mblinv the Greek. They are not ; the Greek writers. In the battle which en- 
niikethe modern Persian, and there is a decid- ' sued, porus was defeated and taken prisoner, 
rd eoBtrast between them, the Turk ami Ueb^k. It was at this part of the Hydaspes, on its 
Brsnell takes it for granted that he crossed the right or western bank that the conqneror, iA 
Iniiss, It, or near tiiC site of Attock, be- ix>mm«moration of this event, built the cities 
GBBK it is the pass leading from the quarter of Nioea and *Bucephalia. He built a third 
of Cabal and Bijore, from whence Alexander ' city on the AcesinfS. After the defeat of Po^ 
enav. As Alexander entered India at the verv rus, AJt^xander marched across the Doab 
poinl where it is most easily assailed, he between the Hydaspes and the Acesines, des- 
passed the Indus in the district of Peucehiotis cribed as a flat and rich country, throus;h 
\^ Anian wr?te^ the nan»e> or Peucolaitis the territories of Porus, passed the latter 

(ueording to Sirabo), and Bennell supposes 
ibl he crossed the river at Attock where it 
m passed by subsequent conquerors. The 

river, and «dvancf*d to the Hydraotes (Ravi), 
where he captured Sangaln, represented to be a 
strong city of the Cathni (the modern Cathi), 

briijse of boats which had been prepared by ' the roost valiant and skilful in war of all tlie 

I Hephcslion and their ally Taxiles, as described Indians. A body of the CathsDi was encamped 

[ W Arrian, corresponds very nearly wiih before the city, which Alexander, having defeni- 

^ ued at the present day. Boats are fixed ed them in a pitched battle, took and razed, 

is tlie stream a short distance from each other, San^ala is supposed to have been situated to 

fcf Acleton frameworks of wood filled with the south-east of Lahore ; and Burnes statets 

KOMs, and the c'>mmunication is completed by that there are the remains of a city answering 

(Inks covered with mud. Having effected to Siingala in the vicinity south-east of that 

»|M!agein the months of May, B. C. 327 capital. From hence, the C3nqueror marched 

Skilled his army for thirty days, to refresh to the Hypliasis (Beas), whether above, or »e 

tlieiolHiers, who had undergone severe service more probable below, its junction with the 

niightiBg their way to the river throuj^h the Sutlej, is not quite clear. His historians do not 

vviike and ferocious tribes which inhabited mention the latter river, and they allude to a 

Ike oonmainous districts on the other side, desert beyond the Hypitasis, which exists 

™ portion of India w«s then partitioned below the confiux of the two rivers. Here 

•■*l»t a great number of petty princes, in- ; the soldiers received sueh appalling accounts 

•Padrnt of, and often in hostility with, each | of the des<'rt8 they would Ivave to pass, and 

w. At this critical period, two of the of the ct)unt less hosts assembfed to oppose their 

■•^ powerful of these llnjas, named Taxiles progress, that, struck with consternation, and 

*■ Poms, were at war, and the former, in exhausted by fatigue and suffering, they refused 

•■^ to crush his adversary, joined the invad- 
J» The territory of Taxiles appears to have 
J* the Doab between the Indus and the 
^fl^ipes (Jelam) ; that of Poms, who had 

to march farther, and Alexander was constrain- 
ed to s^ive orders for their return. 

Some traditions of Alexander exist in the 

^ ^, _ _ „, . Eajpoot state of Bikanir : a ruin near Dando- 

JNilied most of his nei}(hbour8, extended as sir is said to be the remains of the capital of a 
VM the Hyphasis. Alexander had an army ' prince of this region punished by the Mace- 
•• W5,000 men, 10,000 bcinjf cavalry, with a doninn conqueror. 

Jjt iumb^r of elephants. This force includ- This, therefore, was the extreme limit of 
Jji* large body of hardy mercenaries from the Alexander's prosrress eastward. He recrossied 
P* vtfi of the Indus and. north of the successively the HydraotfS, the Acesines, and the 

^HA| under a chief named Ambisares. At 
JM^ of this force he marched to the Hy- 
S^l^ which he reached in the month of 

Hydnspes, where a large fleet had been prepar- 
ed for a descent of that river. The boats, 800 
in number, were built of timber procured from 
On the other fiefr) side of the river, ' the mountains, and Burnes says that in none 
«t» posted with 30,000 infantry, 4»O0O of the other Punjab rivers are much treea 
too elephants, and 300 war charibts. (Deodar, a.Vi**^ of cedar) floated down, nor do 
^-7- ^$ fading the river much swollen by ! there e&iii.auch facilities for const meting 
*1lhf, wax for boats from \h& Indu«, which ! ves«5^<», as'in the Jelum. About the middle of 




November, 6. G. 827, Aleiander who bad been 
in the field stitee May, therefore all thtough 
ratiiy Matoii, embarked on board one of his 
▼easels, aiki whilst tht; fleet, which he oom- 
tOHDded in person, dropped down the stream 
two divisions of the army marched along the 
Hytlaspea, and a ttiird along the Aceaines, t<> tlie 
confluence of ihese ttreu me,. where nfter a voya^ 
of five <<ays the fleet anived much shatr 
tered. The Qrt;ek historiaiM, as well as those of 
Tiumr describe the confluenoe as accompanied 
by terriflo violence, whereas Burnes, who saw 
the waters at their height, says thai the junc- 
tion is effected " with a murmnrinfc noise" but 
the velocity of the current is inconsiderable. 
The army was now distributexl into four (ii?L- 
aions, three of which m»rched at some distance 
from each otiier in parallel columns, whilst 
the fonrth, nuder the kinir, advanced ii)i««ndy 
from the river, to drive the iMalli into the other 
divisions. On arriving at the junction of the 
Hvdraotes with the Acesines, the king had 
several combats with this tribe, whose capital 
he took pursuing th«m to the other side of ttte 
Hydraotes, In these conflicts Alexander ex- 
hibited much courage, exposing himself to 
great personal danger, and whs severely wound- 
ed with an arrow. Thence he marched into the 
.countries of kint; Musicaiius, king OxycNnus, 
qtt-Musa Khan the Sindomanni (the Sindians) 
and other districts on the L(»wer Indus. Sub- 
sequently, deputies from the Ma Hi and the Oxy- 
dracece came, with presents, to solicit peaof, 
alleging, by way of excuse for their obstinate 
'resistance to the Greeks, their strong love of 

Descending the Indus, Alexander arrived at 
Patala (Tatta) but Wood prefers the site of 
Jerk» ** where the river divides into two great 
branches/' According to Arrian, Patala, in the 
Indian tongue, signified the same as delta in 
the Greek- Alexander prorofded down one of 
the branches (probably the Piii) to the sea, and 
afterwards returned to Patala, wiienee, leaving 
his fleet wich Negrclms be marched with bis ar- 
ray to Persia by way of Gedrosia (Mekran) and 
Caraaiauia (Kerman), in September, H. C, 326. 

Alexander himself, on quitting Pattala (said 

<to be TattNh) pn the Indus, proceeded, with 

.bis ermy« through the dominions of the Arabitas, 

A part ot the present province of Lus, and in 

:it Porded the Arabia ( Poorally) river. To the 

westward of that diminutive stream, he travera- 

ed the territory of the Oreit», and thence, 

.^roaaiag over one range of mountains, he 

eo^red the province of Gedrosia (Mukran), 

in which his troops were thinned by the ac* 

•oun^ulated hardships of thirst, famine and 

iatigne. This march was inoqntestably to th^ 

joifthward of the Brahooik chain, and had vhf 

Greek, historians been eren less explicit, the 

Batoie of the eoimlry alone imist bave decided 

any ^uestioii that might have arisen on thi» 

Grateras, who was chsrged with the gnidnnea 
of the heavy baggage aud invalid soldiera by 
Araehosia and Drangiaoa, as certainly marched 
far to the north ward» 

The political state of the country at 
that period may be disoerned even in the loose 
uotices left us. Arrian states that there wa» 
then a family enjoying supreme dominion in 
India, which derived their pedigree froni 
Budssus, probably Buddha, whose oreed ex* 
ten<led widely over this and the neighbouring 
countries down to the fifth oentury of our era. 
The authority of this paramount Indian sorer^ 
eign, however, did not reach the Pui\jab, 
which was severed into separate kingdoms and 
principalities* That of Musicanus, we are told, 
WHS governed by Bramius, and Burnes conjec- 
tures that the powerful kingdom of Alore, or 
Arore, which extended from the ocean to 
Cashmere, and from Candahar to Kanouj, ruled 
by Bramins so late as the seventh centuryv 
was the kingdom of Musicanus. The Oxydracea^ 
(probably the Cutchi), and the Malli Ino 
doubt the people of Multan, which is still called 
Malli-thau, * the place of the Malli') — who- 
thouKh generally at variance, combined againai 
Alexander and brouisht against him an armj 
of 90,000 men,— seem to have possessed muc^ 
power in the south-western parts of the Punjab^ 
Besides those nations, the Greek writers roeftr 
tion seven independent states io the oonntry of 
the five rivers. 

Alexander had not time to establish anj 

system of goverument in the vast provin(*e9 

ho conquered in the east ; where his authority 

was actcnowledged, it was exercised throu^J^ 

military commanders, who^ after his deattt 

id23 B. C), became, in the natural course of 

things, and by the force of cireumstaucea^ 

supi^me. Seleucu?, governor of Babylon no^ 

only secured the country, but extended hte 

powrr, by the destruction of his competitora^ 

as far as the Indus, which he crossed, B. G« 

305, to attack Sandrocottus (itientifled wiik 

ihe Chandragupta of Indian History), who hai 

expelled the Grreek garrisons from the Punjab^ 

which was thus restored to native rule. Self ucu^ 

is said to bave passed the Uesudrus (Sutl^jjj^ 

and, after gaining several victories o^^itf 

Siindracottus, being suddenly recalled to do^ 

fend his own territories, to have o*'ncludoii ^ 

treaty of peaqe with that monarch, to whon^ hf 

ceded the Punjab and valk^ ol the Indua 9fr 

far as Peak>awar. . . 

^ After the death of Alexander the Orea^ 

Persia aa well as Syria, fell to the lot q|^ 

Seleucns Ninatori who established the d^nMl^^ 

of the 6elcucid9. The era known as the Alex^ 

audrian dates from the entry of Ssleaona lJic«» 

tor into Babylon, AutiochQsi9oter saooetd#4 




Eelencoi Nieator, and in the reign of his sue- 
cwor, Antiocbtts Tboes, Arenoes, a Scythian 
ifo came from the north of the 8ea of Azoff, 
iijveed the Persians to throw off the Greek 
jtb, founded the Parthian empire, and made 
h^ his eapiial. This vras likewise the 
peri id of the foundation of the Bactrian kin^- 
don by Tbeodotus the Governor of it, who 
lifldinf himself cut off from Syrin by the Per- 
m iSTotution, declared his independence. 
inuM is called Asteh by Easrern writers, and 
ii Slid to hare been a descendant of the ancient 
htm kioga* When he gainerl the kingdom 
it h »id he promised to exact no tribute and 
am); to consider himself hs the head of a 

Canopic or western branch of the N&e. It 
gradually became a place of so much import* " 
ance that, in the time of the Bomaii emperors* 
it was second only to Bome itself in extent 
and population. In A. D. 638 it was besieged 
and tnken by the caliph Omar, by whom the 
celebrated Alexandrian library is said to have 
been destroyed ; its decline dates from that 
time. In after ages the city suffered sbverely 
from its Saracen and Turkish conquerors. The 
French took possession of it in Jtily 1798, at 
whicii period the population was reduced to 
about 7,000. The modern city occupies but 
a small portion of the ancient site. The pre-' 
sent population of Alexandria is estimated at ' 

tMmcy of princes, united for the double 80.000, including the K;arrison, snilors of the 

oljert of maintaining their independence and 
fitttog Persia from a foreign voke. Tliis is 
tie commeiieement of that era of Persian his* 
torj ailed by Eastern vrriters, MalCik-u-Tuaif, 
oreonmonvealth of tribes. 

In A. D. 906, Rhages was taken by Ismail 
fouder of the Samanee dynasty. It ceased 
i9f to be a seat of empire, and in A. D. 967, 
beame the capital of the bouse of Shem^ur, a 
me of petty princes who maintained a kind of 
iidependence, while the dynasties of Saman 
DdDilenee divided the empire of Persia. In 
A. D. 1027, Bhages was the last conquest 
fllMibmud of Qhntnl" Smith's Bio, Die. 
ft«Wi Hyi. of Egypt, Vol. I. p. 22* 
OJu/t Tmvel$. Vol. IL p. 355. ChatfiekPs 
Sudmuin^pp, 30-21. Poitinger^s Traitda, BeU- 
diib\hc*idSijide,p. 263, 264. FerrUf* 9 Journal, 
h^BuUtff of ike Afgham, p. 227. Malcolm' t 
BU^ofPeriia. History of the Punjab j Vol, 
/.p.46A>55. RenneLVs Memoirt, Vol 7. p. 121, 
171.IW'# Koordutan, Vol. IL p. 75. Elphin- 
Ms EiUory of India, p. 445, 446. Burnei Vol. 
a^281 Annais of Rajasihan, Fcl.ii. p. \86. 

Ike folk>win<c works rony also be consulted ; 
•W. As. Trons. Vol I. p. 148-199. Court in 
t 4i. Trans. 1839, Vol, VIlL 304. As, Jl. 
^AYl.Yol. XVIIL Abboli. Ibid. Vols. XVII 
Ulll H. T. Prinsep, in As. Jl. 143, 628. Sir 
lBtsf»stinBl.A8. Trans. Vol. II. 307- See 
Uiit 309. Kabul, p. 434, 439. Kamran : 
tndahar. Kazzilbash. Kellek. Kohistan. 
Iiidiim, p. 545 and Persian Kings. 

ALEXANDKR, Capt. J. E., an officer who 
bietted to obtain iafonnaiiou relative to the 
^Mnof stesrn communication between £u- 
(^ tad India, in 1834, and published an ac- 
•*»^ in thelondon As. Trans. Vol. I. 161, 
j^ wparstcly in a book of Travels from 
^f^ U) England, through Persia.— >X0M(/- 
w». /. Fol. 

ALEXANDERS, a name p^iven to the 
^■Uliferous plant Bmyrnum olustratum, used 
«ArU to celi-ry.— ^0^. p. 383. 

tt«X\NDRlA in E^vpt. This city, in 
*• ll- 12 N., Ion. 29. 53 E , was founded 
f ilaindtt the Gr«at, B, C, 323; near tho 

fleet, and workmen employed in the arsennl 
and docks. 

ALEXANDRIA, near Herat. This city 
was built by Alexander in his route towards 
India, and Aennell points as its &ite to the 
quarter of Bamian ; but he considers tKat it is 
impossible to guess its particular si nation. 
At all events he says (p. 1 rO-71) that the prox- 
imity of Alexandria to the northern moun- 
tains, a fact which Arrian impresses veiy strong' 
ly, renders it an almost impossible c»Be, that 
Alexandria and Gandahar can be one and the 
same place. Vij^ne was much inclined to think 
that the pretensions of Bamian to be the Alex- 
andria ad Caucasum are far from being without 
foundation ; and in thnt case, Tigne adds that 
if Bamian be Alexandria ad Caucaeum, then he 
would identify Beghram with Nicsei, or per- 
haps Kabul is Nicaea ; both places lie in the 
route from Bamian on the high road to Indin,' 
and in the Caucasus. — Yignts. A Personal 
Narrative p. 1 98 and 1'99. RennelV^ Memoir^ 
p. 170. 

phyllum inophyllum. 

tif>>lia, Cassia plants. 

foiium Alexandrinnm. 

ALBXUS COMNENUS, Emperor of Con. 
staniinople. He received a letter from Prester 

AL-FATIHAH, literally " the preface," is 
the title of the first chapter of the Koian. 

ALFAZ-UL-ADWIAU, a Persian book of 
medicine, translated by Gladwin. 
ALPIN. UiND. Jii\ Pins. 

ALFOCTGOS. sp. Pistachio Nuts. 

ALFOEREN or ALFOERS, Moderas namQ 
of new Guinea. 

ALFOEREN, Alfours or Arafuras, Until 
within the last few years, it was considered by 
ethnographers that the Alfoeren, Alfcur, or 
Arafura, were a distinct race of people, inha- 




biting Ih^ luUrior joMIev Guiuea, Ceram^ and 
aU the larger islands in the south-eastern part 
of the Indian Archipelago ; but 'M.f, Earl's in- 
quiriea satisfied him thai it was a term gene- 
rally applied to the inland inhalMtants of 
these islands to distinguish them from the 
coast tribes. The term is of Portuguese origin : 
and '• Alfores," or " Alforiss/' was formerly 
applied iu the ssme sense by the Portuguese 
in India, precisely as the Spaniards called ihe 
aborigines of America ''^ Indies/' or Indians, 
and the Mahomedan inhabitants of Sulu and 
Mindano, '* Moros," or Moors. The Portu- 
guese term *' Alforias/' signifies " free-men/' 
or "manumitted slaves ;'* but the root ** fora*' 
iqeans ** out,'* or *' outside," and therefore the 
term " Alfoers" became naturally applied to 
the independent tribes who dwelt beyond the 
influence of their coast settlements. Among 
the Alfoera, the treatment of their dead be- 
tjrays in the greatest degree their uncivilized 
condition, and the uncertainty which exists 
among them as to their future state* When 
a man dies, his relations assemble, and destroy 
all the goods he may have collected during his 
life, even the gongs are broken to pieces, and 
thrown away. In their villages, Mr. Earl met 
with several heaps of porcelain plates and 
bnsins, the property of deceased individuals, 
the survivors entertaining ah idea that they 
have no rigbt to make use of them. After 
death. the body is laid out on a small mat, and 
supported against a ladder until the relatives of 
the deceased assemble, which seldom takes 
place until four days have elapsed ; and as 
decomposition will have commenced before 
tliis, the parts where moisture has appeared 
are covered with lime. Fruitless endeavours 
to stop the progress of decay ! In the mean 
time, damar or resin is continually burnt in 
the house, white the guests who have already 
assembled regale themselves with quantities 
of arrack, and of a spirit which they themselves 
prepare from the juice of a fruity amid violent 
raving, the discorii, being increased by the 
beating of gongs, and the howling and lamen- 
tation of the women. Food is offered to the 
deceased ; and when they find he does not 
partake of it, the mouth is filled with eatables, 
aici (betel-leaf) and arrack, until it runs dowu 
the body, and spreads over the floor. When 
the friends and relatives are all collected, the 
body is placed npon a bier, on which numer- 
ous pieces of cloth have been laid, the quantity 
being according to the ability of the deceased ; 
and under the bier are placed large dishes of 
China porcelain, to catch any moisture that 
may fall from the body. The dishes which 
bave been put to this purpose are afterwards 
much prized by the Alfoers. The body is then 
brought out before the house, and supported 
against a post, when attempts are made to 

induce it to eat. ' • Lighted cigars, arrack, rie«i 
fruity &Ck, are again stuffed into its moutb» 
and the bystanders, striking up a song, demand 
whether the sight of all bis friends and fellonr- 
villagers will not induce the deceased to awaken ? 
At length, when they find all these endeavours 
to l>e fruitless, they place the body on a bier, 
adorned with flags, and carry it out into the 
forest, where it is fixed upon the top of four 
posts. A tree, usually the Pavetta IndicM, 
is then planted near it ; and it ia remarkuble 
that at this last ceremony none but women* 
entirely naked, are present This is called by 
the Alfoers ' sudah buang,' by which they 
mean that the body is now cast away, and chu 
listen to them no longer. The entire ceremony 
proves that tlie Alfoers are deprived of tbat 
consolation afforded by other religions ; and that 
they only give expression to the grief they 
naturally feel at parting with one to whom 
they^have been attached." — Kofff, ** Voffoge of 
Ike '* Dourga' ;' p. 161, ^ae; Earf9 Fafmatu. 
pegu 108, 109. 

TAPETES. Sp. Carpets. 


ALF0RVA8. Fokt. Fenugredc seed. 

ALGJ), the sea-weed tribe, belongine to 
the natural order Fucaoeae. Of these leafless, 
flowerless water-plants, Wallich's Catalogue 
only enumerates two Indian species, borrowed 
from Buchanan's Herbarium. Boyle mentions 
none, but says that Rottler's Herb contains a 
few spei'ies of Conftrva Ci>llected from the 
neighbourhood of Tranquehar. — Dr. Hooker 
gives what the Bev« M. J. Berkeley, has written 
on the Indian Alxse which occur principally in 
diffeient parts of the Himalayan range, in the 
hot*springs of Soorujkoond in Bengal, Pughn 
in Tibet, and Momay in Sikkim ; and on the 
Fungi of the Himalayas. He adds that the 
AigsB from lower localities are but few in num* 
ber^ and some of them of very common forms. 
Almost all the plants of this order yield sode. 
and iodine on incineration. Until very recent* 
ly, they were collected in large quantities, and 
burned for the sake of the soda yielded by tlie 
ashes ; after separating the alkali, iodine was 
obtained from the mother liquors. Although' 
the trade in kelp (the local name in Britain for 
sea-weed soda) has been nearly annihilated by 
the plan for making soda from common salt. 
still sea- weed ashes constitute the sole souroa 
from which iodine is manufnctured. The greea 
Conferva which floats on the salt-water lalm 
near Calcutta readily yields iodine. It should 
be dried, burned, the ashes packed in cruciblea 
and heated to bright redness. The residue, 
I treated with water, on evaporation yields a 
I saline mass of muriate and sulphate of soda, 



of potasdam, and iodide of poiassiam 
nd lodittiD. Mr. Eoyle informe as that the 
■liftt of tbe diatricta at the base of ther Hima- 
Itptntn the treatment of goitre a dried leaf 
"brooght from a great distance/' and which 
tky oil pUttr ka piUia, or goitre teaf. It 
neii resembled fragments of a common fucas. 
A^ lie fbnad plentifully on the coast from 
Coigsna in Japan, at low water, when 
th^j ire gathered for victuals^ and they prepare 
tk J^ marina for the table in the following 
mer: there are chiefly two sorts of plants 
bold proving npon tbe shells they take up ; 
mil green and narrow^ the other rfddiih and 
Imider. They are both torn off and assorted, 
cHk mt is ftfterwards put into a tub of fresh 
tiler ind well washed- This done, the 
gra lort is hid upon a piece of wood, and 
till a large knife cat small like tobacco, then 
tpg^ wuhcd, and put into a large square 
VBoden skre, two feet long, where there is 
fmh vster poured upon it, to make the 
|BHei itid[ dose together : having lain there 
for tone time, they take it up with a sort of a 
eoab flttde of leed^ and press it with the hand 
ills I compact substance, squeeKing the water 
' Haad 10 hy it in the sun to dry. The red 
wt, which is found in much less quantity 
te the grees, is not cut small, otherwise 
they prepare it much after the same manner, 
ml form it into cakes which ate dried and 
M for use. Sea-weed is an article im- 
portal from abroad into Cfaitia by junks, aa 
^ M eollecied on the Chinese coast ; the 
Mpt lort is principally the leunp fan Uoi, 
froBvUeh agar-agar is made, but few parii- 
c^csa be ascertained regarding .the trade. 
I> C^iUy this aea-weed is eaten after merely 
*">»g and stewing it in fat or oil. — Morri- 
•». ^ayi. p. 745. Hooker's Him. Jour,, Vol. 
//*#.88S». (yakaugknenBif^p 671. Kamp- 
l^^m. qf Japan, Vol. IL p. 518. 

AL6AR0BA BEANS. Geratonia siliqua, 
vhoiopis pallida. The seed pods or bean 
^Ikeaiob tree, a tree common in the Levant 
IT iBttth of Europe. The pods ooutain a large 
P*pntion of sweet fecula, are used as food, 
^^^reqaently by singeri, being considered to 
■P'we the Toice« During the peninsular war, 
*|*wlnr horses were fed principally on these 
"^ oi^ which about 40,000 quintals are 
•■ttlly exported from Qfttt^—Simmondi. 

ilGIBRS : ita temperature, 

fanfcrtha I Spring 6104 

*h* year. 69-13<* \ Summer *.. 7509 

•••r.... ... 62-13«> I Autumn 78-26 

'P* mean temperature of Algiers for the 
Jjyear being 69^ 1 3', it most approaches 
JJ|WllalU ; but exceeds it by 2", Malaga 
9^> Madeira by 4**, Rome by 9^, Nice by 
•^1 "Hi Pau hj 13% Cairo is 3?, higher 


(mean), yet its winter is 4^ colder than that 
of Algiers. The people are partly of Mooriab, 
partly of Arab ori^^in. See Semitic races. 

ALGUADA REEF, called also Sunkea, also 
Drowned Island, is in lat. 15® 42^' N. and 
S. S. W. 3i leaguea, from Lyohime or Dia- 
mond Island off the Ava coast. It is a very 
dangerous reef of rooks, level with the sea, ex* 
tending N. and S. about 1^ miles, with de- 
tached rocks around it, at considerable dis- 
tances ; on some of which the sea breaks in 
bad weather. A light house has been erected 
by Captain Fraser of tbe Bengal Enigneers» 
after the labour of six years from 1859 to 
1865. To show the tremendous force, exert* 
ed by the sea at the reef during the south- 
west monsoon^ it may be mentioned that 
stones weighing a ton each had been washed 
sixty feet away^ from the place in which they 
were left and lifted at least five feet above 
their former level. Mr. Blanford supposes it 
to be a peak of the great Arraean or Yomai 
range of mountains, which separate Burmah 
proper from the province of Arraean. Accord- 
ing to the opinion of Mr. Blanford, tbe 
Alguada reef is composed of a ledge of sand*- 
stone. When struck violently by heavy 
waves of the sea, it is said to tremble, show- 
ing clearly that its base, reposing at the bot- 
tom of the ocean, cannot be very extensive. 
The workmen were chiefly Chinese, and the 
materials were obtained from Calagouk or 
Curlew island* The centre stone of tbe first, 
coufse weighed, ihnee tons and three quarters. 
The centre stone of the second course waa 
about three tons and nearly a half. The 
foundation consists of large blocks of gra- 
nite, which fit together with mathematical ac- 
curacy, and the work proceeds along lines of 
radii, from centre to circumferenoe- in a succes-^ 
sion of concentric rings. 

AL60SA. BKNG.Koundheaded dodder, Cus* 
cuta. capitate. 

ALCfUM-WOOD of scripture is supposed 
to be an Indian product, and assumed to bo 
Sandal-wood. The articles mentioned along 
with it ivory, gold, apes, and peacocks,, are indi-: 
genous in India. Tbe algum-tree, if interpreterf 
are right in taking algum or almug for sandal- 
wood, is found indigenous on the coast of Mala- 
bar; and one of its numerous names there, and ia 
Sanscrit, is vulguka. This vulgu (ka) is clearly 
the name which Jewish and Phoenician mer- 
chants corrupted into a]gum> and which ii% 
Hebrew waa still further changed into almug^t 
In this very locality Ptolemy (VII. 1) givea 
us the name of Abiria, *above Pattalene. Ia 
the same locality hindu geographers place the 
people called Abhira or Abbaira ; and in tbe 
same neighbourhood MacMurdo, in his account 
of the province of Cutch, still knows a race o( 
Ahirs, the descendants, in all probability, of 




the people who sold to Hiram and Solomon 
their gold and precious stones, their apes, 
peacocks, and saudal-wood.— ^»i^r'« Lecturer, 
p. 191. 

' ALHAGI MAURORUM, T^umei W. #• A. 

A. manuifera. Dw9. 
A, NepauleDfiium. D C. 
Ononis etpinoaa. Hauelq, 
Manna Hebraica, D. Don, 
Hedytiarum Alhagi, Linn. 

Al-gul Ab. JuwansA* Htnd' 

Shitiz Kiibi ...Brahui. 
Prickly etemiued 

Hedysarum ....Exro*. 
Gamerd Thorn ... ^ 

Khari J har . . .. Sindh* 
Giri karnika ... Sans* 
I Kandero Sindh. 

Giri karnika ... Tel. 
Tellarginiya chettu. 


This shrub grows in the deserts of Egypt, 
8yria, Mesopotamia, Beluchistan, Sind, in Gu- 
zerat, the Sjtithern Mahratta count rv, at Mon- 
ghir, Benares, Delhi. It sends forth leaves 
an<i flowers, in the hot season, when {tlmost all 
thtt smaller plants die, and affords a grateful 
food for the camel, in desert places. Hebrew 
manna theturunj^bin of the bazaars, exudes from 
its leaves and brHnches, but is secreted apparent- 
ly only on- Persia and Bokhara* Mr. Royle 
donsider? A nepaKnsis, identical with the 
Alhagi Maurorum, and states on strong grounds 
Ibat no manna is secreted by either in India, 
Arabia, or Egypt < Persia and Bokhara seem 
its proper districts, and hence the turunjabin 
is imported into India. In Calcutta it is diffi- 
enlt to procure it of good quality : when pure 
it sells in Bengal for 10 rupees the seer. This 
lowly plant affords a beautiful exempiifi- 
cation of the merciful care of providence 
for it abounds in the deserts of Arabia, India, 
Africa, Tartary, and Persia, and in most of 
these wilds it is the only food of the came), that 
▼aluable inhabitant of such unfriendly wastes. 
—f^oigU p. 224. Mignan't Travels, p, 240, 
241 : PoUwger'n TraneU^ p. 185. 

ALT.MIN. Au. Praise be to Allah, Oh Lord of 
the (three) worlds I" A pious ejaculation by Ma- 
homedans which leaves their lips on all occa- 
sions of concluding actions. — Burne*. 

AL HAMIR. This word appears to be 
derived from the Arabic root hamara, which 
fignides to be, or become, red. It is the trans 
lation of this word which gives the name of the 
Bed Sea. — Miffnan'i Traveli, p. 267. 

ALHAHBKA one of the four wards of 
the ancient «ity of Grenada. The term is de« 
dueible from the Arabic root*' hamar." It 
was so called by the Moors, from the red colour 
6t its materials, Al^nambra, signifying a red 
house. — Miffnan*8 TravtU, p, 267. 
' A LI, often styled, ul Ilahi^ the devine, 
the aon of Aba Talib, was the cousin 
and companion of Mahomed, also his son- 


inlaw, he havbg married Fatimah, Mahomed's 
only surviving child ; he was the first of iha 
family of the Koreish to adopt the new faith. 
Notwithstanding these claims, and his personal 
merits and valour, on the death of Mahomed in 
his 63rd year, in A. D. 632 and in the eie* 
venth year of the H^jira.Ali was not recognized 
as his successor, but Abu Bakr was so elected 
and after a reign of two years was succeeiled 
by Omar who was assassinated in the twelfth 
year of his reign. He was succeeded by Oth- 
man, and then in A. D. 636 by Ali. With 
Ali's rule severe political convulsions ensued* 
The earliest arose from the intrigurs of Aiesha 
and after these were settled, the governor of 
Syria, Moawiyah Ibn Abi Sofian, threw off his 
allegiHUce to Ali and had himself proclaimed 
Khalif of the western provinces. An appeal 
to arms resulted in the defeat of Ali, after a 
desultory war of 102 days, and Ali then retired 
to Kuffa in Chaldea, oa the banks of the 
Euphrates. The people of Karund in the 
south of Persia, believe Ali to have been a ^od, 
and they are staled the Ali lUahi. The Shiah 
sect of Maliomedans consider that Ali ou^ht to 
have been the first Khalif. In Khornssan, Ali 
is usually styled 8hah>i-mardau " Kingr of 
men." The Khajah race and the entire IsmaiiiT 
sects ali worship Ali as an incarnate deity and 
the present incarnation (1867) is Aga Maho- 
med, a pensioner of the British Government at 
Bombay.— JW-nVj Journey^ p, 210. See 
Kajar. Karund. Kazzilbash' Khajah. Khalif s. 

ALIA. Hind. Aloes. | Jb| See £lwa. 

ALIA. Malay. Ginger. 

ALl-AKU. Tel. Casaelle. Tau. Memo- 
cylon tinctorium. See Dyes. 

ALIRAGH, the capital of a small state. 
just south of Bora ba v.— Dr. BuisU* Caialogne. 

ALIE-VSRIE. Tam. ^eu^Q$u&^ Qar^ 
den-Cress, Lepidum sativum. 

AIilEVEBIE YENNAf. Tam. Oil of 
Garden- Cress, Lepidum sativum. See Oil. 

ALIF-ZYE, a branch of the Nosharwan 
tribe. This tribe occupy the Kharan provitioo 
of Afghanistan and is of Persian origin, there 
are two small towns. They cultivate a little 
wheat and barley. Bee Kelat. 

ALIGHUB, a large military station in Lf» 
27'' 53' 8" N. and L. TS"" 39' E- about U. miles 
S. E. from Delhi, and at the house of Mr* 
Charles Gubbin's, 750 feet above the sea — i?. 

ALIGHUR, a valley in the Kohistan of 
Kabul. Sto Kabul. 

ALI ILLAHI, a sect at the town of Karund, 
in the south of Persia, who worship Ali as a. 
god and believe in his incarnation. They eat 
pork, drink fermented liquors, never pray, nor 
feast at the Ramadan, and are cruel and 




MTafe in their babits. Tbe 8€ct has marks of 
Jtttaiftm, aingnUirly amalgamated wiih Sabsean, 
Cbristiaa ami Maliomedan legends. Potiin- 
{rr 8a?9 that their cLief tenet is that Aii is god. 
"Poiiri. Trav. Belueh. and Sinde, p. 234. 
Sa Kirnind. 

ALl^A CHRTTOO. Tel. eCr ^^ 

Meneevlon tinctorium. 

iLlKA JHAR. Hind. Morinda citrifolia. 

m KHAN, the Moghul Hulaku or Halagn 
orHola-khaii of £urope. He was grandson of 
Jengbu Khan. He was a fifrce conqueror, 
ta<tiBA.H. 656==A. D. 1258-9 hn took Bagh- 
(U/1 alter a aicge. See Khajab, Khalif* 

ALIKHEIL, a small Afghan tribe. See 

ALI Mo»jid, a town in India, in L. 71'' 29' 

ALINGAfi, a river of Afghanistan. After 
v&m^ with the Aii-shang it forms the Lugb- 
aaoriTer which joins tbe river of Kabul. 

ALINaiB-MAUUM. Tam. ^^^Sminh 
Aiinyiam deeapetalum. 

AL[-PANDU. Tkl. eO^oCfe Memecy- 
*1m eilnle. 

ALIPOBA, a town in India, in L. 79'' 20' 


ALIPUR, a town in India, in L- 75^ 1 9' E. 

ALIPUTA, a town in India, in L. 81^ 27', 
I'kUt. 6«56'N. 

ALI &JZA PASHA, took Mahamerah. Bee 


ALISA. TcL. Dilivaria ilicifolia, /m«. 
ALISHANG, a river of the Kohistan. Bee 
Alingar. JebiUbad. Kaffir. Kohistan. 

Airs POT, the KashguJ.i'AIi, a sacred 
RHqae, the water pot of FO or Buddha, 
hvas carried to Kandahar b^ the tribes who 
fed in the fourth century from Gandharra 
OS ike Indus, tu escape an Invasion of the 
Tuehi who made an eruption from Chinese 
Tirtaiy for the express purpose of obtaining 
it* It is now at tbe foot of the old town of 
Kadshar, and is one of the most celebrated 
»]iqiiei of antiquity belonging to the eastern 
Md, and still retains amongst the maho- 
■KdsDs of Kandahar, a sacred and miraculous 
<^eter. It is formed of stone and may 
ttsliin abont twenty gallons. See Kabul. 

ALIYEEIE. Garden cress, Haleem, seeds 
tf I^pidum sativum, used in medioine.— « 
^Abnyiaeiiy : also liinseed. 

^-VITULLOO. TBI.. C5&d^e» Byn. 

ALII A, a branch of the Turkia sub-divisioii 
of the travelling grain dealers called Binjara. 


ALIZY, a town in India, in, L. eft'' 40' E. 
& L. SO*' 46' N. 

ALIZYE. a small Afghan tribe, of tha 
Durani. See Afghan. Duraui*. 

AL-KAF, between Yemen and Oman, aaid 
to hHve bren a terrestrial paradise, until cover* 
e<l by a desert of sand for the impiety of iia 
inhabitants.-— ^rv^^'* CkrwtianUy in jiraHa. 

Khar Hikd. ] 8ajji Khar Hnin. 

Southern India is particularly rich in alkaline 
and earthy minerals, the origin of which 
seems to be the decaying granites of the coun- 
try. The most common form of alkali, is the 
Ditobee's Earth, a whitish grey, sandy efHores- 
cence, which often covers miles of country where 
decayed white granite forms the surface soil ; 
this earth contains from 13 to 25 percent, of 
crude carbonate of soda and begins to accumu- 
late in the dry whether ; immediately afler the 
rains, it can be scraped off the surface to the 
depth of two or three inches, and by repeated 
boiling and the addition of a little quick lime, 
the alkali is obtained of considerable strength. 
With a little care, very clean carbonate of soda 
can be obtained, At for the manufacture of toilet 
soap, white glass, and glazes for pottery. The 
crude earth in different states was exhibited at 
the Madras Exhibition of 1857, from almost 
every district, some in large quantities for manu- 
facturinfl^ purposes. The Nellore, Cuddapah, 
Masuiipatam and Chingleput District, yield this 
earth in great quantities. Repeated attempts have 
been made to prepare from it Barilla for expor- 
tation and very fair specimens have been ex- 
ported at diflferent times, but the moderate price 
of the carbonate of soda of England prepared 
from sea salt will always prevent this from be- 
ing a remunerative article of export. Colored 
frits for bangle glass, have lately however be- 
come an article of export from the Madraa 

Nitrate of Soda. — Samples of this salt were 
exhibited from Bdlary and Hyderabad where 
it seems to form a natural efflorescence. Ita 
chief use is as a substitute for saltpetre for the 
manufacture of nitric and other acids and 
chemical substances. It is too deliqueaeent 
for making gunpowder, though it answers well 
for some descriptions of fireworks. 

Muriate of Soda, mineral salt, of every fair 
quality was exhibited from Mysore, Bellary 
and Hyderabad, and is known to occur also in 
the Guntoor and Nellore Districts and to be 
almost invariably accompanied by some interest- 
ing minei'als ; viz., gypsum, magnesian lifne»* 
tone, sandstone, sulpnuri red and brown iron 
oresi and alum slate. The Bait Bangs in the 




PuDJaab, ruas from the Bwt«ni base of the BuU- 
mtn mountaine to the river Jbelum in the Pun- 
jaub,Lat, 32** SCK— 38* 20'. 

The rocks in this part of the range are, 
magnesian limestone, new red sandstone, 
fossiliferQUS Sandstone, red day and sand- 
stone containing coal and mineral salphnr, 
rock salt, (fypsaro, brown and red iron ore 
and alum slate. The lower beds contain no 
organic i^mains but the upper abound in them. 
The iron ore is a red or brown Hematite, so rich 
that in many places the needle of the compass 
becomes quite useless even at a considerable dis- 
tance from the rocks^ owing to their being 
highly magnetic, from the quantity of iron 
which they contain. The sandstone abounds 
with the exuviae of enormous animals, either 
B;iurians or Sauroid fishes. 

The hills at Knla Bagh contain great quan- 
tities of aluminous slate, from which alum is 
obtained at various manufactories in that town. 
The slate, well sprinkled with water, is laid in 
alternate strata with wood, until the pile 
reaches a height of 25 to 30 feet ; it is then 
lighted and the combustion continued for about 
twelve hours, in which time the color of the 
slate is converted from greyish black to dark 
red. This change of color indicating that the 
process has been carried to a sufficient extent, 
the mass is tlirown into a tank holding as 
much water as it is computed the alum is 
competent to saturate. After three days the 
water, which becomes of a dark red color, is 
drawn oflP, mixed with a due proportion of 
potash and boiled down. The residuum on 
cooling becoming a solid mass of alum- 

A series of salts, eonsisting ohiefly of the 
muriate and carbonate of soda from the Loonar 
Lake in the Hyderabad territories, was exhi* 
bited in 1857, by Dr. George Smith, Resi- 
dency Surgeon, Hyderabad. The following is 
a condensed report of their chemical com* 

No. 1. Dalla, a carbonate of soda with a 
faint trace of muriate of soda about 2 per cent. 
of impurities. 

No. 2. Nimmak Dalla, nearly pure muri- 
ate of soda. 

No. 3. Khappul, carbonate of soda, with 
water and about 2 per cent, of impurities. 

No. 4. Fappree, nearly pure carbonate of 

No. 5. Mad-khar, an impnre salt containing 
carbonate of soda 27 

Clay and sand 30 

. Water about 17 

Common Salt 25 

No. 6. Bbooskee, a crude impure sub* 
•iance containing neutral carb. of soda... 26 
> Insoluble matter chiefly sand and clay. 58 
^ vrateTi 0f^ ,fi •«, ,,, ,,, .,, ,,, i5 

Common Salt • • ••• 3 

No. 7. Travertin contains carb. of lime. 78 

Carbonate of Magnesia 4 

Insoluble matter with oxide of iron, &c. 9 

Chloride of Sodium 2 

f I oicr ••• ««. ... ... ,,, ««« ... ^ 

••• ••• 

The Natron lake of Loonar occurs in the 
Circar of Mehkur, Soubah of Berar, about 45 
miles N. W. of HinKolie, in Lat. 20 N. It 
is about 510 feet below the level of the sur- 
rounding ground, in a kind of crater of 5 
miles in circumference ; the lake being about 
3 miles in circumfermce and surrounded by 
luxuriant vegetation; springs of clear soft 
water occur close to the lake, which has evid- 
ently been extending its bounds lately, as 
numerous dead trees are standing within it a 
margin, and a well of sweet water, protected 
by a wall, is now completely surrounded by 
the water of the lake. An intolerable stench 
of sulphuretted hydrogen is emitted by the hike 
during the heat of the day, and its waters, prove 
destructive to animal and vegetable life, though 
flocks of duck and teal dot the surface of iia 
waters. There are two saline springs near tbe 
centre of the lake, and about i a mile aparr. 
These never become dry. It is supposed that 
the muriate of soda from this source, coming 
in contact with the carbonate of lime which 
abounds in the vicinity causes the deposition 
of the carbonate of soda or Natron salt in a 
irreater or less state of purity. The depth of 
the lake near the salt sprintrs variee from 6 feet 
during the hot monthef to 12 or 14 feet during 
the rains. The salt is raised by divers, who 
bring it up in their hands. It is much pri&ed 
and finds a ready sale in both Berars, Nagpore, 
Candeish, and Poonah, to which places it ia 
carried in bamboo baskets and retailed by dea- 
lers. The Lake has not be«*n regularly worked 
since 1836, in which year 2,136 candies of the 
different salts were raised, valued at Re. 
60,081. In 1853 Major Johnston raised 35 
candies, valued at Rs. 1,4614-0.— Af. E. J. IL 
of 1857. 

AlrKA-JHAR. Hikd. jl^f^KjT Mo- 

rinda citri folia. 

Anchusa tinctoria. 

Ossetong But. 

Dyer's Bngloss... Eno. 
Orcanotte Fa. 

Ancuaa .. 







The three plants, Anchusa panioulata, A. 
undulata and A. officinalis have been iatrodue* 
ed into India but no success recorded. -Tbe 
A. officinalis is a native of the PelopounesusL 
the island of Cyprus and the deserts about. 
Alexandria ; but is cultivated in Edgland, 
Spain and the south of France. The root 
yields a fine red color to oile, wax ; all unctuoaa 



iilnUDcn, and to spirits of wine. Its chief 
ONI are for colouring lip salves* ointments, 
tmiug wood and dyeing cotton, but ii is also 
ued for colouring many of the beverages sold 
uder the name of port-wine, and the corks 
wd for the bottles in which this fluid is 
akL— TWtKMff. FaulkneT' 

AL-KARf, a class of RHJput cultivators in 
Nigbm, from tiieir special cultivation of ,the 
il-iRS, the Morinda citrifoUtf. 

ALKASR. Bee Kasr. 

ALKHALIK. Ak. Pbbb. Aji overcoat. 

AlrKOKAN. The Koran. 

ALKUSUI. Bbno. Mucuna prurita, Hook. 

ALLA-BATSALA. Tel. e^o -»l$^^o Ba- 


ALLADANATTUM, a town in India, in 
L 78* 20' E. and L. ll** 10' N. 

Allsanthus ZeylauicoSy Tkw, I. e, t.9 3. c. 
f 1215. Singh. A tree, 30 to 40 feet 
%h, of the Central Province of Ceylon, at 
a deration of 1000 feet.— TAiff. JSn. PL 
kLp. 263. 

ALLAGACOOMBATE, a town in India, in 
L?6«39'E, aiidL. 16*^ 50' N. 
ALLA-GILI GICH-CHA, ^v%t%f^.Cr<y 

y»ia verrucosa, Z. — W. and A. 578.— j&. 
jOO-fi. iU. 273. C. angulosa, lb. 274, 
neeie^ig, 89. 

ALLAGUTTA, a town in India, in L. 76^ 
WE-andL. U* lb' N. 

ALLAHABAD, L. %fi^ 26', N.L. 8l^ 61'. 9, 
& ialadia, a large military station at the con* 
kesceof the Ganges with the Jumua, 316 
to ihore the level of the sea. Its ancient 
Base leema to have been Yaisali, from its 
foiider Yisala or Besa-birnja, one of the third 
•ohr Kae of Yeaala, of the Surya Vansa or 
MkrdynHty. The spot is considered sacred 
^ tke bind us. At this town is one of the 
^Bttd Lat, an obelisk or pillar, a monolith con- 
tHUBg a Gupta inscription written on' its 
Nrfwe. Anoiher inscription, not inpure sans- 
te, iiss seventy lines metrical, the rest 
pm, and ita date ia the seventh or 
ogiit eeotury. The character used in the in- 
oiptioDa is Allahabad, or Gaya. There are 
■K&tioDed on it Dhanada (Kuvera), Varuna, 
hha and Antaka (Yama) Vrihaapati, Turn- 
Ifva, Narada and the Ganges comini^ from the 
Ur of the lord of men (Siva) is noticed. 
I^ttdra Qupta ia aaid to put to shame Indra, 
Itttt, Kavcra, and Varuna. The kings or prin- 
^ rationed on it are Sri Gupta, son Sri Gha- 1 
^ Kaeha, son Chandra Gupta, son Samudra 
^pta, son Chandra Gupta, the aecond, then 
^g* This ia the last revised reading by Mr. 
'• niaiep. The column was probably raised 

the prototype of the modern genitive aign in 
Hindi. None of the numerous kings named 
are met with in the Puranas, and few of the 
countries even. No mention of Brahmans 
whatever. The poet Dhruva Bhuta calls 
himself the slave of the feet of the |;reat king, 
and hopes it will be acceptable to the dewaii 
Hari Sena. It is professed to be executed by 
the slave of the feet of the supreme sovereign, 
the criminal magistrate. Tela Bhatta, and usee 
the terms Shahanshahi, king cf kings, which 
applies to the Bassanian dynasty of PersiR, 
extinct in the seventh century. The Scythians 
and Huns are mentioned. By this inscription 
the power of Brahmanism waa plainly only 
incipient. In historic times, the Hajpoots ob- 
tained a footing in this district and now 
occupy several estates, but between them and 
the Brahmins there exists deadly enmity. The 
incursions of the Bajpoots seem to be the 
foundation of the present proprietary rights in 
the land ; each pergunnah has a separate and 
distinct tribe, although in |t few estates other 
denominations of Rajpoots are to be found. 
The Kajpoots seem to have had their parti- 
cular leaders, who, after locating themselves 
and their followers, displaced the original in- 
habitants by degrees, and extended themselves 
as far as they * could. Thus in pergunnah 
Jhoousee the Bais rajpoots trace their origin 
to two leadera, vie*, Bowanee and Jootan ; to 
the descendanta of the former the large estate 
of Mowaya was allotted, and to those of the 
latter the nine estates. Some entire mouzahs 
in each of these talooks were subsequently as* 
signed to different branches of the family, and 
the remainder held jointly by all, but as they 
are now divided into separate estates, the hold- 
ings are strangely intermixed, as in some of the 
villages nine talooks have shares, not however 
of any one distinct portion, but they are divi- 
ded field by field ; and as in process of time 
sales and mortgages took place and some of 
the fields became the property of other estates, 
the intermixture has greatly increased. —^o^ 
VL p. 970 to 980 of the BL J$. Sdc, Jour. 
See Supp. If. Cyd. of India, Buddha. India 
p. S21. Inscriptions pages 37', 872, 373; 
375, 383. Kola. 536. Lat. Suiya Vansa ; 

ALLAHBUND, a vast mound in Sinde, 
raised by the earthquake of .1819.— ^aia^'a 

ALLAHFUR, a town in India, in L. 77'' 
43' E. and L. 25 « 26' N. 

ALLAIG^M, a town in India, in L. 74^ 
80' E. and Lat. 18^ 36' N. 

ALLAINGLYGUY. a town in India, in 
L. 70^ 10' and L. W* 85' B. 

ALLAKAPPO, one of the eight places at 
^V t^^ dewan of Chandra Gupta, II. A I which relics of Buddha were deposited. See 
^noist^ in the iaacription ia the aie of ka, | Tope. 




of AllaiiM»D(ift catharlica. 


A. AubletHi, Pohl. 

A. verticellata, Desf* 

A. giandiflorai Lam. 

Orelia graudiflora» AuhL 

A. osnotheri folia, FoAL 

A. augu8tifoIia« 
P'hft yung-Vhan. Subw. I 
Willow-leaved | Arali 

Alkunanda..;... Evo. \ 

A native of Surinnro, the West Indies, Gui. 
ana» Brazil, introduced into India from Guia- 
na in 1803. The leaves a valuable cathartic, 



the N. W. ooaat of the island in a dne north 
direction, distant about 50 loiles ; or to Ata« 
poupa, a settlement of the Dutch, also on the 
N. VV. coast, and somewhat nearer than the 
former. Alias gives a name to one of the m'»uii- 
tains on Timor, said to be 12,000 feet high.-^ 
Journ. Ind, Arch, See Semang. 

ALLEKO'ZTE, a small Afghan tribe of the 
Durani section. See Afghan ; Durani. 

ALLEYERVH, a town in India, in Lon^. 
75*^ 39' E. and Lat- 26^ 17' N. 

ALLI Maleal. a raiher scarce tree 
about twenty feet high, and from twelve to 
fifteen inches in diameter • It produces a sort 
of fig:, which natives use medicinally. — Edye^ 

used especially in painter's colic. In too large -^^^- ^^^ ^^"* 
doses violently emetic and drastic. This shrub j ALLI CHETTU, e©^|3i Memecylon cap- 
has very large bright yellow fragrant flowers itellatum, £.— -M. edule. R ii. 260 ; Cor. 83 
and fruits throughout lh€ year. It might Br. 45 gives Nymphoea as the signification of 
take a place in the medicines of European this term but it is a Tamil use of the won! 
hospitals. — Uaejul PlanU. Riddell, Jaffrey. only employed by Telingas near Madras also 

(yShanghmsiy, p, 448. Voigt- p* 528. 

ALLAMAN. Tukk. A term applied by 
the Turkoman races to the robbers of the 
country. ' 

ALLAM BADDY, a town in India, in L. 
77* 39' K and L. 12<> 8' N. 

ALLAM POO. There are. two towns of 
this name 4n India, one in L. 77'' 39' E., 
Lat. 22<> r N., the other in 78^ 12' E., Lat. 
15* 54' N. 

ALLANHANGUDA, a town in India, in 
L. 78« 14' N. and L. 17** 26' N. 

GADDL "J EL ee)^rifea -SrtfotSXS . 

Andropogofl nardusP RoUL — Aina- 115— A • 
Iwaranciisa, Bl? The San?, syn. Guch-ch 
which signifies " tufts," a peculiarity of a* 
Jwaraitcu$a^ /2. «'• 275. 

ALL AS, a town on the east end of Sum- 
bawa, inlat. 8"* 42* 8. Long, about 116"' 46' 
E., gives its name to the strait that separates 
Sumbawa from Lombok. This is much fre- 
quenteil by ships outwHrds bound to China by 
way of Macassar Strait or thft Eastern Passages, 
chiefly on account of its having soundings at 
moderate depths on (he western side, where 
vessels can anchor either to await the turn of 
tide, or to obtain refreshments from the villages 
on Lombok. Alias is insignifloant being rarely, 
if ever, visited, /Tnlewang bay, a little to the 
south and Pijow and Labu Haidgi on the oppo- 
site coast engrossing all the foreign traffic. <- 
Journl Ind. Arch, 

ALLASv a village on the south coast of the 
island of Timor, in about Lat. 9^ 23' 8. Long. 
]2j3° E. The proHuoe of the neivhbourini; 
territory, consists chiefly of bees' wax and sandal 
wood and is carried overland to Dillt, the capital 
<rf the Poitugueso possosaiooei which lies on 

Memecylon tinctoriura, Koen, Willd. 

ALLIE KALUNGU. Tam. jfei^eQdQsga-A 
(^ N\niph8Ba lotus. 

ALLIGAI'OR. Dean French in his study 
of words (page 123) says *' when the alligator, 
this u^Iy crocodile of the new world, was first 
seen by the Sp;)ni8h discoverers, they called it, 
with a true insight into its species, '' el ella*- 
garto," or the lizard, as being tlie largest of 
the lizard species to which it belonged. The 
name is commonly but erroneously applied to 
the crocodiles of Asia, as the alliurators are 
wholly conflned to tropical and Sontbern 
America, where they are styled also Cayman, 
Jacare. The alligator closely resembles tbe 
crocodile but has characters sufliciently distinct 
to have constituted a new ticenus. See Crocodile. 

ALLIGATOU ISLAND, lies near Bam Is- 
land in the Straits of Singapore. —Horsfmrgh. 

ALLIKI, (or Gitti-Gadda.) e©| (%^Kfi J\ 

***** a»> o ^ 

Scirpus dnhius, K. i. 215 ; Isoetes, sp P RottL 

ALLIGAUM, a town in India, m Long. 
76** 52' E. and Lat. 20^ 29' N. 

ALLIGUNGA, a town in India, in Long. 
87** 51' E. and Lat. 26« 19' N. 

ALLIGUNGE or SEWAN, a town in lo- 
dia, in Long. W 24' E. and Lat. 26^ 11' K. 

ALLIPaYAUU, eOifSctf'^. Grewia Isavi- 

irata, Vahh—W, ^ A, 281. G. didyma, R. ii. 

ALLIPOOR, two (owns in India, one in 
Long. 90^ 2' B. and Lat. 23^ 85' N. the 
other in Long. 90"^ ll'E. and Lat. 23^ 52'N. 

ALLIUM, a genus of plants, largely culti- 
vated in Indian gardens and alike by. 
Europeans and Natives extensively used in 
food, both in soups and as vegetables : of 
this genuSi Yoigt. names twenty three species 





Kkrtt-thwOA-B«e.Bimif- 1 Shallot ^»<»« 

f«i.. .. HniD. I 

^mmM be 80wn, at the commencement of 
^ am, in b^s. with a light, rich »oil and 
pntpagatfid by dividing the dnatered roots, 
lad ii will give a crop in the cold weather.— 
fvifi, (68, Eiddell Ro^. ii. 142. 

ALLIUM CEPA. lAnn. Thp Opion. 
BmIiIm Buil... A«. I Paw«pgpi€(fA .M^Ay. 
PiUtf Bwo. Piaa P*Ba. 

fill xl ••• •■• ft 

Kr-ct4hffw-iij ... BURM . 

Knbifli Cav. 

Omb.m ... ... Eko. 

fiu Kin). 

flwof ICalat. 

fodbang m 


PaUaudvi ... • 
LatsDoka ... • 

Laoo Sj^OH. 

y engayam ... • . • T am , 

NiraUl Til. 

Erra-Uiti-gadda... „ 
Valli gadda ... » 

Conmonly caltivatcd all over India. The 
inknaa of India do not eat the onion, re- 
ladipg it u similar to mutton. 


Kogmi! Ahajb. I Korrat 

FfiM BDfo. 1 L«ek 

&kj«tth«on...BuBM. Qundiaa . 
Umtl ... o£Bt. I| 

Ciliirated in gardens in India. 
ALLIUM SATIVUM. Linn. Garlic- 


... Eva. 
... Pna. 

SniboSamT., Ar. 
t|et-thwoti pea... Boa. 


Wt^ .„ ... Eko. 

K|4k thwon 

A.- " 

KM. .«« 

• •• 



j9V ... ... 

dudulann ... 
Vidlai panda 
BU-ulU ... 
VeUuHi ... 
TalUgadda ... 


. HiVD- 






. Tel. 

•• If 

Ingelj cnltirated in India and in all A«ia- 
tis emimries, as a condiment for food. Garlic 
«d oil, called^ -^oXtf i^^ Telia gadda nana. 

Ill: QmvlBBu^osS'^^siebt^m, Wnlla poon- 
dMjfBaal, Tau : is only medicinal U is 
dw, eolourjess, limpid, and contains the full 
•far of the plant. It mi^ht !;» HvaifabJie in 
•okeiy for those w)io relish the flavour of 
ivSoiu their dishes, ]b,ut this will ^vidcruj^r hts 
HpiW^it extent of its application; t^ience it 
4iiiSirerly \^ coiM»(il)Bi:e^ fll W>3f .iw»porU.i\oe 

Chaminoa nodtflon iU»i, 
Celosia u ^^^* 

A^yrapthea ^ fd»^^ 

Cpmmivi ift Coromsndel and Ceyloo, and 4s 
mint— ffor^ 1. 678. 
WJ/) HERE6U, f^i^t^. <9' Pc«l«Ja 

•nlk) Enfeenia Jambolana, &. iL 485. k 
Mtfwithh^ediUe frail. 

ALLOOR, a town in India, in Long. 76* 
2S'B.andLat. 17<> N. 

ALLOTB, a town in India, in Long. 76^ 
48' E. and Lat. 23« 46' N. 

ALLOTLA, a town in India, in Long. 79'' 
14' B. and Lat. 16« 35' N. 

ALLOW A, a town in India, in Long. 04 
6V E. and Lat. 27.^ 3' N. 

ALLOYS. The natives of India are ac^ 
I quainted with a variety of alloys for making 
utensils, bells and ornaments, as with popper 
and zinc, lin and I^d, besides being great 
workers in copper M ^J*** for the various 
Qtensils employed for donjiestic purpo^, and flf 
which a large variety wais sent from di|!erent 
1 parU of India to the several exhibitions in Eu- 
rope. In the Trayanaore State, the works^^ 
have beeu yery succe^ aful in their fabrication of. 
alloys, but the i»gredient# they use ar^ not 
known. In tha di»trip,t of Coimbatore, the 
metals employed in ihe formation of alloys ar^ 
copp#r-^ sine— tin- i^od M, in the following 
I proportions. 

\ Copper 10 parU, smfl 6 1.— Alloy vslued 
at 4 annas per seer of 24 tolas weight and \$ 
liad for 9^1 purposes. 

Copper 10 parts, tine 5 — Alloy valuied at 
8j^ annas per «eer, somewhat darker than thp 
other^ but considered eq^ally userul. 

Copper lO^siaa IQ— Alloy valfted at 
3 annas the seer considered inferior to thji 
others, but is al^o in curreiKt juse- 

Copper lO^^ta 2i — ^A beautiful bell me« 
tal aHoy, valued at 6 annas the seer, b 
used for the same porposes as the others. 

Copper 10 — tin% — lead\ — ^An inferior look- 
in}{ alloy, but employed for similar purposes. 

The metals are all imported ana are pro- 
curable at the following prices in the bazar, 
copper per seer 5 annas—sinc 1 anna 4 
pie-»tin 4 annas, lead 1 anna 4 pie. A 
vessel of No. 4 waa bj far the finest of the 
series, and when gently struck, gave but a fiufe 
bell sound.— fioy^ ArU^ jrc. of India, gage 
it 1 ^—UrUt RoporU, M. E. 

ALLSPICE ; Allspice, Pim^tp, W Bay- 
berry tree, Sngenia'pimenia. This large tree 
isauppdt«4>obe wkMly'ofS. Ame^ >Biit 
Mr. Mason mentions thai on the aides of eom 
of the liigbest vountaiaa in the |ird.riiioi ef 
Tav^y t lie fspeatedkr sel urMi e iiei^ Vm 
never saw it sjither M ffiiic or Sower, whidi 
the Burmese eall ^*wild clofe tree." Tim 
young branches and tha leaves of this tasted 
very strongly of al|-apice, aod he eaassdersit 
a Kngeoia, possibly K. fimenta. Allsplea la 
rarely adulterated^ owing, foasiUy ti>italov 

ll^.-^^imiU* Mam. 
81 " 



ALLU, Hind, any pomaoeous fraitr See Aloo. 

ALLU, a mw hide used by the Baj pools, 
with which they cover themselves to assert 
their clnim to a disputed property. — Colcmfui, 

ALLU, (or Arikelu,)e^-(«aii».) Pas- 

palum scrobiculatura^ L. R. i. 278. 

ALLU BAUH-(;HAL[ (or Pedda bach- 
chali. e5e>5«i«\D ('^^«"Ba©.) Basella alba, L. 

ALLUGW AREE, a town in India, in Long. 
T5^ 0' K. and 16« 32' N. 

ALLUMBRE. Sp. Alum. 

ALLU ME. It. Alum. 
. ALLUMPAUDE, a town in India, in Long. 
77^ 40' E. and Lat. IT 6' N- 

ALLUMPOOR, the name of three towns in 
India, one in Long, 86^ W E. and Lat. 22^ 
12' N., one in Long. 88<* 12' E. and Lat. 23*^ 
20' N. and one in Long. 91^ 52' E. 
and Lat 22o 82' N. 

ALLUND, a town in India, in Long. 76** 
82'E. Hnd Lat 17<*«4'N. 

ALLUXGWASS, a town in India, in Long. 
74<> 29' E. and Lat. 26^ 20' N. 

ALLUE, a town in India, in Long. 78^ 
8' E. Lat. 17« 18 N. 

ALLY BUNDEtt. a town in India, in Long. 
69^ 85' E. and Lat. W 21' N. 

ALLYGUNGE, two towns in India, one in 
Long. 79« 19' E. «nd Lat. 28^ 21' N. the 
other in Lon^. 87^ 23' E. and Lat. 22«^ 27' N. 

ALMACBGU. PoKt. Mastic. 

ALMACUGA. 8p. Mastic. 

ALMAGESIUM, a work whose author 
mentioDtid the Lar Des, from the tribe of Lar, 
hence the Larica or Larice of the Greeks. See 
Indus, Kerk. Lar. Med. EUioU 

ALMAH KOTE, a town in Lidia, in Long. 
68^ 28' E. Lat. 24** 62' N. 

ALMANACK, Engl. Jantri. Hind. This 
word is supposed to be derived from the 
Arabic. . The natives of India have arrang- 
ed their almanacks on the same principles as 
those of Europe. — Sonnerai f^oyoge aux Indes 
rol. L iSec. Ill, CL XIIL CAatfield*s Hindu- 
ttan, p. loO.. 

ALMANDINE, Of: Precious Garnet is that 
variety commonly employed in jewellery. 

ALMARTAGA. Sp. Litharge. 

ALMAS. Arab. Pjsm. Buas, ^j^ U ) Dia- 
mond. ' i 
• AL MASUDl, a patronymic 'surname irii^n, 
iorA^U-Hastin Abi, tf n^]v« of Bagtiad- a great' 
traveller, acute' obiwvetiind wtiter.v He wan-| 
dered to Moroeco and 8))ain on the West and 
eastwards to Chinai through all the mahome* 
dau and liMint other countries, iind he wrote his 
travels which he styled Murdj-ul-Zahab or mea- 
jdaw4.o{gt|ld«-*^Zio<, pi> 19. ■ i 

ALMENDKA. Sp. Amygdidiie eennumi. 

ALMIDON. S?. Starch. 

ALMIHAH. An Anglo-Indian term from. 
Poet. Almarinho, a wardrobe, 
ALMISCAR. PottT. Musk. 
ALMlZELli). Sp. Musk. 

Laus .. ,,. Ab. 

Almond ...Enq. 

Maude! Dur i Dan. 

Oeb. Swan. 

Amanda... , 





This term is applied to the common almond, 
Amygdalus communis : to the Indian al« 
mondsy the fruits of the Tertninalia (»tappa 
and Canarium commune and the aimonda of 
Gen. xliii. v. ii. have been thought to^be Pie* 
tachio nuts.. - See Amygdalus. 


Badam-ka-tel ... Hind. 
Badain muiak ...Ma lat. 
Roughan-i-Badam Pjbrs. 
Ingudi-tailam ... Sans. 


Badama vittuiu 


This oil, from the fruit of the amygdalus com* 

munis, is not wholly an article of imnort, but 

chiefly so- The almond tree is a native of the Hi- 

malyas, and is abundant iu Cashmere. Tlie oil 

is colourless or very slighily yellow, and ie 

congealed with difficulty. It is obtained for 

iiHtive use in India, but does not as yet form a 

recognized article of export. Both varieties 

of almond, bitter and sweet, are imported into 

the northern parts of India from Ghoorbuud. an4 

into the southern parts from the Persian Gruif. 

Accordints to Simmonds, there are about 80 

ions of this oil annually imported into Britain, 

the price being about Is. per lb. Bat it is 

principally the produce of the Arzo tree, foreata 

of which grow to the south of the Emjpire of 

Morocco, which produce an exceedingly hiird 

species of almond. Its fruit consists of two 

almonds, rough and bitter In nianufacturing 

the oily they are well rubbed or ahnkeii io a 

coarse bag, to separate a bitter powder which 

covers the epidermis ; ihey are then poun<ied 

to a pnste in marble mortars, and the paste 

subjected to a press. The almond is supposed 

to contain 46 p. c. of oil, but from di IbiL 

only 1 lb, 6 oz. can be extracted by the cold 

process and above 2 lbs. if heated iron platafe 

be used. The oil of almonds is the basis of the 

great part of the liniments, ointments, and plai^ 

ters^ of the European pharmacists. It is hoa^ 

ever little used in Indian pharmacy, the oil tf 

the Sesamam orientale answering perfecUjf^- aa 

a substitttte.---(7a/. Hm:^ CaL 18($2 fCat. Ex^ 

Q2, Simmonds. 0"Sk'tughH§9^, ^ 

^ ALMOHA in lat. 89.35. % N and'L. 79-87. 
\ E, a hilt station and iianitariam in 'the 
north of India, and is built on the top of > ^ 
ridge which runs eftst and west' at eleva* 
tions of lk,4;d6^to 5,&07 faet above. the level %f 
the sea. It is the. capital o£ the British Itjivak* 
.llayan province of Kamaon. It ia 30 milee 




bom 9aini-thAl. GovenimeDt esiablUIied a 
Hsatirinm at Lohooghut in the Almorab hills, 
I position unsurpassed in India for salubrity of 
dimate and picturesque scenerjr and known to 
be highW beneficial to the European constitu- 
tioD. Major Dniramond has written on its 
Mlunl resources. A sulphur mine whs discover- 
dat I place called Aina, some 9 miles N. W. 
rfAlmora, and the soil of the neighbourhood 
iiyyield quantities of saltpetre. It produces 
piphile, copper, and iron.— &AZ. Hobt Eng- 
Uam. Dt, Buiif8 Caialoguf, See Kamaon ; 
Sfoitona : 6<)rex coeculinus ; Tea. 

ALMS and Almsgiving have ever taken an 
npoitast place in the religious, systems of the 
lorW. So early as the time of Moses, the he- 
bmRwere commanded to give freely, and to 
tbfQir iheir bread upon the waters with an as- 
nniHSRthit after many days it would retnm to 
tkmig:«in- In the buddhist, hindu and malio- 
Mdan religions, as also amongst the Bomish 
Gknstjan% it is not only good to give alms, but 
tfefimg brstows a merit on the individual 
ndgiiU are generally delivered with much open- 
MH in such case differing from the injunction 
iaMsttkcwTL 2. when thou doest thine alms, 
doBOt lonnd a trumpet before thee. Hindu and 
uliomedaa sovereigns bestow mach to the 
ibrioes of their respective faitha, and, annually, 
a the Kah&rram, the mahoroedan kings 
ectertain many Syeds on permanent pay. 
Sone mendicants, alike hindus and buddhist, 
ue not allowed to solicit or demand alms, but 
kiwtOKO with a quick step, and with or with- 
out i bell, through the streets,and without com- 
MBt accept whatever is thrown into their wal- 
irt- And to describe a child as of an unknown 
fiixVer, I speaker will say, who can say, who 
tbs the morsel into the beggar^s wallet, 
dkrsaolicit humbly as I Samuel xxv. 8. ' Give, 
Ipny ibee, whatsoever cometh to ihine hand, to 
Ikf servarits. and to thy son David,' a mode of 
idditas not unfrequent among the hindus 
vitkvhoiD a poor man often says to a rich man, 
**! father, fill the belly of thy son : he is in 
AiTKi' But the hindu pilgrims to sacred 
ihttfs are often exacting, even insolent, and, \ 
tloiq;li rarely so to Europeans, will sit down at 
iteand refuse to stir until their day's food 
huhren and the mahomedan fakirs of whom 
Am arc several sects, often continue to de- 
«u) till alms be given. The buddhist men* 
iemta are the least clamorous, but so com- 
jfctdy ii the act of offering td their shrines, the 
IbI individual merit, that costly gifts can be 
iuBediatdy removed; while outside the great 
te^at Rangoon andPrpme.sucb vast quan- 
iMi of food offerings are daily thrown^ as to 
Whfuating* All these classes have distinguish- 

IMomes, the buddhist with bis yellow 
; the Unda aanyasi or Viragi smeared in 


lushes, and with ochre dyed clothes, and the 
mahomedan fakir may have a loin cloth, and taj 
or crown-. Amongst them all, are many true 
ascetics, and recently in 1867, a hindu devotee 
was to be seen, who had, at that time sat for 
five years, in one of the Ellora caves ; but 
there are amongst them also many impostors. 
Ed.. See Buddhism. Fakir. Pinjtapole. Sany- 
asi. Viragi. 

ALMS-HOUSE, for animals. See Pinjrapole. 

ALMUG. The wood of Solomon's temple 
is called almug ; this wood is also mentioned 
in the annals of Guzzerat^ as that of which the 
temple to ' Adnath' was constructed. It has 
been supposed that the fleets of Tyre frequent- 
ed the Indian coast : Sandalwood has been sur« 
mised to be intended. — Tod*s Rajcmthan, Vol, /• 
p. 282. Harris' ^'nL Hut. 

ALNL'SNEPALENiJiS, the Himalayan Al- 
der, a tree of Kullu and Kangra, its bark is 
used in tanning, and its wood for gun-powder 
charcoal- The Hindi is Kunch, or Koish* 

ALNUS NITIDA. Hind. This is a plant 
of Kaghan. 

ALOE, The aloe belonars to a genus of 
plants belonging to the LiliacecB, 'of which 
there are many species spread through- 
out India, 104 species havine been introduced 
into the Calcutta Botanical Society's Garden, 
and Voigt enumerates 49. In Arabia says Bur- 
ton the aloe, as in Egypt, is hung, like tite dried 
crocodile, over houses as a talisman against evil 
•pirits. Borckhardt assigns, as a motive for its 
being planted in grave yards, that its Arabic 
name Saber (it is also called Siber), denotes the 
patience with which the believer awaits the 
last day. And Lane remarks, " the aloe thui| 
hunor over the door, without earth and water, 
will live for several years, and even blossom : 
hence it is called Saber, which signifies pa- 
tience." In India it is hung up to attract eye-, 
flies and mosquitos entering a room* Burton 
believes this practice to be a fragment of 
African fetishism and mentions that the Gallas, 
to the present day, plant aloes on graves, and 
suppose that when the plant sprouts the de- 
ceased has been admitted into the gardens of 
•*Wak" the Creator. — Burton* 9 tilgrimage to 
Mecca. VoL IlJp,Z50. 

ALOE PIBEB. Pit Fibre of Madras. 


„ Tam. 1 Nita 



Aloe Pibre; Pita Fibre or Pita,— are 
the commercial names given in Southern 
India to the fibres of the American Aloe, or 
Jgave Americana ; of the A viviptra or bast- 
ard aloe, the fibres of Fourcroya gigantea : 
those of the Adam's needUs, the Y ucca glonosa, 
or common leaved, and Y. aioefolia, or Aloe- 
leaved Yucca, and Dr; Hunter also mentions 
the Y, angustifolia, Y. tenaoissima ; filimen- 

JlLOs fibre. 

tbsa Hud T. wgia ae speeies yieWing fibresi to 
ali ef which perhaps the same commercial term 
applied. Two, specica of a^cave^ the A 


Americana, and A. vivipera, Have become so 
naturalised in many countries and in India as 
to seera indigeno\is. They are however not yet 
sufficiently abundant in Sout hern India to be 
employed to any very j^reat extent for the pro- 
duction Of fibre,' but as they take root and jtrow 
readily, there is iK)lhing to hinder their very 
eltensive application. Aloe fibre now forms 
an article of export from the Western Coast ; 
The exports from all the provinces of the Ma- 
dras Presidency of hemp, and aloes* hemp, 
during the three years 1832-53 to 1S64-55 
ware as follows : 


juiee^ which, if allowed to remain after deaoioflT* 
imparts a stiffness to the fibre. Several very fair 
samples were exhibited at the Madras Exhibi- 
tion of 1857, soft, paant and of good siren^^th 
with some serviceable door-mats manufactured 
in patterns from colored fibree.— J/.iP J. H» of 
i&56 and 1857. Dn. Ro^. RiddM, HnnUr. 
Balfour's Commercial FrodueU. Simtnond*, 
Faulkner, See Aloe perfoh'ata, Agave Americana. 
Agave vivipera, Fourcroya gigantea: Tucea 
Aloefolia Y. gloriosa. 


Aloe peifoliata. Eoxh ii. 167. 
Ghrito-knmari... Beko. Kadenaka kste- 

vala MalxaiL. 


1S52-53 Hemp 

Do. Aloes 
1858-54 Hemp 

Do. Aloes, 
1854-5g Hemp 

Do. Aloes 






Mok y. 

Indian A\o€ 






... BuRM. 
... Eno. 
... DUK. 
... HinD. 
... ff 
... JbIalat. 


Knmariks ... Si^g4k. 

Katule Tav. 

KAlahalnda Tkx«. 

IClamanda... •.• 
Chinni kalabanda . 
Yerra kalabanda var. 


Mus-ambar .. 

lictnian .. ••• 
Sibi* ... .p. 
Seaside A!oe 
Small Aloe ... 
Mnts-^ibbar ... 
^Siwa «•• ••. 


... I, 

... B^HO. 

Total Hemp 28,147 95.896 

Do. Aloes' Hemp... 6,676 50,»44 
The exports were chiefly to the Vnited King* 
dom, Bombay, Cutcfa^ Guserat, Sinde, Bengal 
and Indian French Ports. Aloe fibre was for 
several years employed in tlie Arsenal at Mad- 
ras, ab a substitute for English hemp, but its 
liability to rot led to its discontinuance, and 
the ease with which it is cut prevented its 
employment as a tow for packing shot, 
lu Mexico, however, a bi^hly prised thread 
ia manufactured from the leaf fibre and 
made into the ropea used m their mines 
and for nets and rigging of sliips. Also, 
the famous hammocks of Panama are made of 
Agave fibre, from the A. perfoliata (arhich Dr. 
]ELi>yle deemed identical with his A Indioa.) Dr, 
Hunter of Madras obtained a fibre two feet 
long, white and of fine qunlity, which readily 
took colours. He say s that the A . A roerirana, or 
great American aloe, has a short cylindrical 
woody stem, terminated by flashy, spiny, bluish 
grten leavea and fluwers once, on a tall flower 
stem, 20 to 40 feet. The roots as well as the 
leaves contain the ligneous fibres, *' styled Nita" 
thread, useful for various p^lrp6ses. The leaves 
aire sometimes eight feet l6ng, one foot broad, 
and five inched deep, afid abbuAd= in these 
fililreB of greMt length, and being toUgh and 
diftebl^, their aepraration-is effected by crashing 
or btui^in^, steeping in water, And afterwards 
be«tiug. In epplvinj^ them fot the manufve^ 
tQife of fibres, it is very essential to have the 
saji rentoved tts early as possible afleir fhe 
l^vea ait^ Ctit, and with this vieMir a tcrooVed 

f^tider priiss is fbmri very ef eetaa) #hile fi^- 

quent beating removes a thiok viscid milky also Musabbar. Hiirn. 


It has Targ^ reddish flowers, it is comtuon 
iit dry »ituatiohs in the North-west cif Itidta. Mnd 
is probably the source of some of the commdn 
sloee (niuSHbhir) of the bazars. This AIo«f » 
chiefly planted to form hedgerows, lind malted 
an excellent fence* It flowers rn tlie rains, «rn<^ 
the iitxii gfows to the height of ten or twelve 
feet. Th^ feAvei make a good coi^mon cor- 
dage, or rope, used for mats, &c.-^l'he fibre is 
two feet long, wMte and of fine quality, aind' 
readily takes colours. The pulp is eaten by 
the natives, after having been carefully andf 
repeatedly washed in cold water: they gen<i* 
rallv mix it with a little sugar and reckon it 
tooling. JifihlieU MaL Med, p. 260. O'Skaugh- 
ne99if, p. 66$. t>r. ffuktef. Madras JM. ./Wr. 
Rfiporii. P'oigt, 659. Roxb. ii. 167* 

aIoE LlTOltALIS, Kceniff, 


... .|ta 


Bol-a/ab ... 
Taif Socotr... 
...Eno. I Kariapolam 
Simx KattalSy 
CbiDDa ka1a-banda..lte«. 
BbUlam ... 


— n 





A r«?ddiih leaved species growing near tliei 
coH«l and plerHrifuUy at Cape Coroorin and itg 
neighbourhood. It yielda g^od aloes. Ink is 
prepared from its juice and its pulp mixed- 
wit h Ilium is krgely used in conjunctivitis. 
fFarwff. J>rurf. V^itful Fkmt9, Broadmood. 

Onbaru : Ahtt^tan : 

.aleo ^Uvab ^. Maiat. 
Katasha.., ....Mai«SaIi. 
SSbbar 4so Sol 
Sukli ,,, ., 

Ikiuaarina ^b 


Sibr abo 6mbr..i A,«. 
Musambar ... 


Mok ... ... 

Cocnariki ... 

Aloes ,4 



I • • 


Afia also Elfa 




TWk are many speeiet of tbe Aloe from 
tliick Aloes it knowii' to be obtai&ed, but the 

A. ab^niiuce. Lam. Abysnnia. 

Airiiiiiea^ Lam. S>n. of A. fariegata. 

L Bkrbadentia^ Peninauk nX la^a* 

A conmelina. 

A indica, HosA. N. W. India. Byu. ? of 
A perfoliata, Boxh. 

K* lingueforuiia. 

A aoeotnoa, Lam* Soootora. 

A ipicata, Tkua* Cape of Good H6pi^, ind 

Ake vulgaris. Lam. Aloes is ibe biittt^ 
RMROQS, ittspissated jaice of the leaved aild ia 
uported mtti England under tbe ti&ikieflrof 
Sanloriai^ East Indian or Hepatic; Barbilh 
tm, Cape and Caballine aloes • the average 
krpDrts being about &,539 tons iii 1841 aud 
1841 In the four years 1852-53 to ) 865-56, 
Madias exported 515 cwt. valued nlBs. 4,0^7, 
nd imported in the last year to the value of 
k 2,686. In the year 1853, Bi^tidn import- 
tA to the extent of 33,333 lbs. of atees and 
»etported 157,506 lbs. to the various coun- 
tm of Europe. The quality of the product is 
ippareutly more dependent on soil, climate, 
ui preparation, than on any specific ditference 
JB the plant. The best kind is obtained by 
Man transverse iueisions through the leaves, 
flMi liloving the juice to drop out. This is 
mporated to dryness by a g^entle heat. Pip- 
piiettie leaves in hot trater facilitNtes the flow 
oftbe]oioe.— 0'dPAaif^^fi«ifif , 6^5. Commtreiat 
fnlaeU. (fShauffhneumf^ Beiig, PkarmaC' 

ALOE 80C0TOBINA. Soeotorine aloe. 
Anthvof the island of Socotra, leaves mi- 
BUtdy serrated ; fowers scarlet at the bifse, 
pdKfii (He middle, green at the point. Yields 
ioeotoriae aloes, also the true kepafie and M^* 
^^^.-^(ySkAUffkfieaiif, page 664. 

HOE 8P1CATA. A native of the inteHor 
i tiie Cape of Good Hope, leaves distantly 
IMU, with a few «rhite spote^ the ftowers 
flU vith purptiah honey. -^(/okaUgkaeMsy^pd^^ 

ALOES WOOD. Aloe : the Ugn Alees. 

M^M^CvXaXat... Gs. JGaro MacaT.? 

MM(th«tr6e)...SiAif. I Habutai Egypt. I 

J^wrood .,. ,..B»o, 
■•»«iki ^, ..JfAPAN. 


^;HaQia] "...Ab. 
"h4aiato Pa. 

A;KM1 .<4 


•••Malat. ? 



Chin. Ealsr^gani.. ... ^^. ,. ? 

AiiaUoehona ., 


Ki netutal product is repeatedly mentioli- 
•^the OU Testament^ in Nuni. xxt^. 6: 
^* vil 17 : Ps. xlv. 8 : Cant hr. 14 t as a 
^ihll peHbmei It is possible that the sub- 
^iVi aiet with ju commerce is obtained from 
^tba one plant. 8e« Agaljochuin ; Agui- 
■■lieaylon ; Cahmbeg, Eagle wood ; Jjigo 
Aloei^ BxcoBcana. 

AiLOEXlTLOW AGALLOCilU^. a native 
of the Moluccas, Cochin-Chin^'. i!he wood is 
rather hard-, in fraements' of about one cubil 
in leiigtb, obtuse, furrowed, heavy, marbleid 
ashy and brown, shinine, brittle, very' resinous ; 
odour weal but agreeable, inereased on friction^ 
and very strong on burning the wood ; flavour 
agreenble, balsamic aiid slightly bitter, and 
irritating to the throat. No analvsis is on 
record of this sui)stanoe; it is only known as ai 
curiosity in Europe, but in the East it m 
deemed an invaluable tonic and stimulant 
remedy, a delicious perfume, and becoming 
ofi'erin^ for religious ceremonies. — O'Sk. p. 314 
Hog. p. 286. See Aloes wood : CaJambeg, 
Eagle-wood. Lign-aloes. 

AL6N80A GRANDlPLOBA, called fho 
'' maskJower,'* an ornamental plant, scarlet, 
easily cultivated in rich moufid and multiplied 
by cuttings or seed. — Mid Jell. 


y b y I Cerasus caproniana* 

ALOOBOA. A rather soft, coArse, dpen« 
gndned, but not verv light Oeylou wood« 

ALOO BOKHARA. Gvz. Hind. ttaa. 
]j lar? y J Prunella, 

ALOR. The former capital of Sinde, near 
the site of which the Iddue haw flows. The 
ruins are said to be near Bort. — i/r* £ui$i''P 


Idppia oitriodonu Kik. 
Verbena triphy 1 la. L' Her. 

Muekf esteemed for the de]i|;kiirul fVajnufrew 
of ita leaves, and is much diHtivHted in §Aif^ 
dens, gem-rally thiiving weW.^^^Voigi. 471. 

AtPANi. Mal^al. Bragantia Wallichii: 
— Btown. 

ALPHABET, at presf^nt the Hindustani ot 
tTrdu, the Pabjabi and the Persian are iVritten 
and printed in the same characirr, but the Ara- 
bic, Bengali, Burmese, tlanarese, Chinese, Gu- 
z^rati, Hindi, Mahratta, 2l(Ialayalain, Malay, 
SiHmtse, Singhalese, Tainiil^ aniiTelugu ai^all 
distinct tongues, eacl^ written* an<l printed in a 
separate character. In the South of India, tiie 
Ar»bic numerals have beeii general^ introduc- 
ed into Government ao^oUnttf. Tbr9 was the 
recommeniiatioQ of Sir Erakine Perry« aad ilr 
has been supposed positble to 6se the Bodma 
and Italian character for the other tongu^-s and 
doubtless, it is quite possit>le ,to, but 
another generation wili see the bulk of the 
people of India using English wiih very iiitle 
knowledge of their respective mother tongiiea. 

A LP AUSLAN, a hero fomed in Persian 
sliory^ He was a Seljidr Tertan Ha waa the 
son oTTogrul Beg, and what lUiomed was to 
his Samanid suzerain, Togrui Beg was to his 




ton. Togml Beg aobiev«d an independent f 
kingdom in Persia. His son, Alp Arslan, ex- 
tended it. He WAS a cotemporary of Baber. 
He ruled the Kirghis Kazzaks and could 
briii^ 300,000 men into the field. He ove^ 
threw the kalifat, and reigned from Bagdad. 
He followed the Euphrates into Georgia. •In 
the beginning of the 5th Century of the Hijra, 
the Suljuk Tartar appeared in Khorsssan, and in 
ten years, wrested it from the house of Qbazni. 
It was ceded to Alp Arselan and formed a pari 
of the Seljukide dominions nntil tiie extinction 
of that race about 150 years posterior to 
Togrul Best's having assumed the title of "Em" 
peroT.^C^c, of India, Supp. ![./>. 494. La- 
iharrikS Nalionalitiea of Europe II. 73. 

ALPHEUS^ a prawn common in the Indian 

ALPHONSEA LUTEA, H. / and T. Uva- 
ria luiea, Roxb. II. 666, Corr.^ ^. and A. 

Tkl. I Chiri dudduga ... Tel. 


Mavvi ... 

A fine tree of the monnfains of Orisaa, of 
Silhetand Ava. — Hooker f, et. Thorn. 

TTvafia ventricoga — Roxh^ ii 658. 

A beautiful tree of Chittagong. — Hooker/^. 
et. Thorn, 

6uatteria acutifolia, JKall Uvaria Intea. — ^. 
^ A, A branchy, leafy tree of Tranvancore 
and Courtaliura.— -^oo4er^. e/. Thorn. 

AlPlNlAy A genus of the Ziugiberacese, all 
of titeiti yielding aromatic fruits, and several 
of the plants beins; wholly aromatic. Yoigt 
enunierates 11 and Roxburgh 12 species, and 
Wight in Icones figures A. nlluirhas, calcarata, 
nutans and Rh^^edii, some of them have be«n re- 
moved to other species. A. angustifolium is 
said to be of Kadagascar and the Mauritius, 
and A. aromatica is named as a plant of the 
eastern valleys of Bengal, the fruit of which is 
often sold as cardamoms* Alpinia porrecta, 
If^all. from China, and A. spicate, Soxb, from 
Sumatra, may also be noticed. 

ALPINIA ALBA. St-e Galangal. 


Helleuia Allushas, Linn, 
Heretiera £), 9, 

Ceylon Alpinia Eno. [ Taruka. Bbno.Hind.Sansc. 
Tara Hind. Sanso. | Mali-inahi-kua.....MALEAL. 

This is found in GoromanHel, in the 9. Con- 
can, in the Kotah jungle marshes, in the estuary 
of thelrawaddi, at Serampore, in Silhet, Assam. 
It has large and beautifully rose colored in- 
odorous flowers, its roots are ^romtii'ic. — Roxb. 
1. />. 60, Fot^/. 570. Gen, Med. Top, p. 171. 

tiye of Singapore. 

A Roxburgfaii, Sweet. 

This is one of the smallest of the Indiv 
Alpinias. It is a native of the Eastern parts of 
Bengal, and is found at Gfaappedong in Ten- 
nasscrim. Its flowers are white, with a crim^ 
son yellow lip. Roxb, — 163. Foifft 571. 


Alpinia cernua, Sims. 
Reuealmia calcarata, Andh, 
,, erecta, Redouh. 

A native of China, has large white flowers, 
their lips coloured with dark purple veins oft a 
yellow ground,— i?ofl;d, i. 69. VoigU 571- 

of Elettaria cardamomum, Maton. See Carda- 
mom, also Elettaria. 



Maranta galanga, Linn, 
Galanga major, Rumph. 
Amomum galanga, Xour, 

Eulanjan ... Aa. Hind. ^ Mahabhara vaeba. S^KS. 

KulaQJan.;.BsNO. Dukh. 


Loose flowered 

Alpiuia ... Eng. 
Greater Oalaoga ,, 
Pan-ki-jar ... DuK. 
Cfaitta-ratta ...Maleal. 
Sugaodha-vachn. Sans. 

Tikshna mitla.., 
^Uganda yoga... 
P6rfe-arefcei ? ... 
Dnmba-stacara ? 



A native of Sumatra, caltivated in the Indian 
Archipelago, Moluccas, Cochin-China, Singa- 
pore, Penang, Cliiitagonfr, Travancore, the S. 
Concaii, Chittagong. ; It is a perennial plant, 
tubersslighttyaroiitatio and bitter, the root-stoek 
more so, pungent, acrid, and aromatic. They 
oonstitute the true galanga major roots of the 
draggists, and arensed for the same purposes at 
ginger. It has a faint aromatic smell and strong 
pungent taste, wiih some bitterness, pungency 
and acridity, on which account it has faliea 
into some disuse, though in 1850, 64 tons 
were exported from Canton, value 2,8S0 dollars* 
— Roxb. i. 59. Foigi 570. MnnUe\ Bog, p^ 
786. O'SA, 652. SimmowPs Useful Planis. 


Maranta Malacoenais, Rur, 
Galauga ,, Riimpk* 

Renealma Sumatrana, Donn. 

A native of the Moluccas and ChittagoD^ « 
a beautiful stately plant : with large pare wfafte 
flowers, their lios orange crimson. — Rj0x6. %.^ 
164. Foigt. hi I. 

ALPINIA MUTICA. lloxb. A native of 
l^enangp has large flowers, with lips crimsotv* 
yellow, and orange edged. — Roxb, 167. f'oto*.* 
571. f 






Renealmia nutans, Audr, 
Globba „ . Linn, 

„ sylvesbris, Humph, 

Zerumbet specio8um,«/a<;^. 

PoBig chinpau ....Bbno 

Ps^a-gyi BuBM. 

^ „ thdng 

'•• $» 

Coatufl »erumbet...PsB8« 

Alpinia .. Eno. 

Illachi HfND. 

Tbis very beautiful plant is a native of 
ibe Eiiatern Archipelago, is found on the 
baob of the Salwyn and at Siihet and Co- 
rooindel. Cultivated in gHrdens : was brought 
bv 1)t. Irvine from Tonk to Ajnieer : the 
floven are beautiful, and the whole plant 
» fluent likd the cardamom : the seeds do not 
hpoL Ita leaves &o. when bruised, have a 
linug ameli of cardamoms, and thus are some* 
Unes named liachee or Funag champa. — 
^nb, p, 63. Vuigi* 571. Genl. MedL Top, 

ALPINIA KOSCOENA, Rom, and 8vh. 
A. bracteata, QkMCoe) not, Roxb, 

A native of China. 

ALPINIA 6ESSILIS. Kob.n. Byn, of 
Kemp^eria ^alanga. Lifin. 

AISANDa. Tkl. ^90^02^ Dolichos Sin- 

eaiis, Linn. 

ALSATlA, for many years Okhsmandel, 
Beyt, Dwarka, L'mreyli, Korinar were quite Hn 
Akaiiji, in India, hut they have recently been 
pat iu order. -See India 835 and Kattyawar 
in Cyc of Ind. Supp. IL 

ALSL Hind. Linum usitatissimum. 

ALSOPHILA, a genus of ferns, species of 

ALTAMGHA. Turkish, literally red stamp. 
A grant under tbe seal of the former princes of" 
Hindustan rec6gnised by the British as confer- 
rinj5 a title to rent free Und in perpetuity, here- 
ditary and transferable from KeneTation to gene- 
ration. In reality, such were never so treated 
but invHriHi)ly resumed as occasion demanded. 
— JFilson. Ed, 

ALSTONIA, a genus of plants belonging to 
the Apocynarese, of A. macrophylla and A, 
spectabilis, Penang trees, of the former with 
lartce white flowers, nothing is known, and 
equally little of A. neriifolia, a Nepaul shrub 
and A. venenata of the Indian Peninsula, -the 
last beine: Boxburj^h's Echites venenata. 

Alstonia scholHris. 


A. Oleandrifolia, Lodd. 
Ecbitea scholaris, linn. 

Ohatin ... 
Sat win ... 
Shaitan .. 



... Bom. 
... 91 
...BuaM I 

Ayugma chadda....SANS. 
Septa-pi ma... .., ,» 

Ir-iUay-palai Tam. 

Book Attene ...Anolo- 


Hori-kowan Mahb. | £da-kula-ari ti ...Tat. 

Stawin,.. ... .-. f, | ,> „ pala 

Pala Malbal. I „ „ pouna 

Mukambala ... „ 



Rukatanaa ga8s...SiM0B. | £da-kuta-Ba(a 
Ayugma parma Sams. | 

This considerable looking free grows in the 
Moluccas, Bengal, in tbe vale of Sawitri, As- 
sam, in the hilly parts of the SouthKoukan, and 
to a very large size in Ceylon, in Of y Ion it 
is common up to an elevation of 3,000 feet. In 
wliiA occur in IndTa and ihe ialands of the ' ^'a"«ra ««<* Sunda it is not very common ; but 

SottlVm Orean. 

found near the ghats above and below of great 

ALSOPHILA BXCELSA. The tree fern "ze. It is also found in the Travancore forests, 

oTNtt'folk Island, measures forty feet in height, 
aad haa a maguificient crest of frondes. The 
Ukk portion of the trunk is used for string- 
^hj cabinet-makers — KeppeV^ Ind. Areh,<, 
T^.J!.p. 184. 

Am of Ceylon occurs at Daijiiling, in Sikkim 
iMMdiately below 6,500 feet, it is a widely 
dlrtribttted plant, common to the Himalaya, 
fioas Nepal eastward to the Malayan peninsula, 
JavSy and GevlQD, and it ascends nearly to 
7jD00ieet in toe outer Himalayas, of this Dr. 
naw but one species though another 
.lioular or distinct species grows at the 
oL ike oater range. It is far more common 
A*, vpiiwloaa from the level of the plains 
|i 6JB60 iu elevation, and is found as far south 
mUf^— Hooker, Vol. 1. p, 1 10 and 143. 
9m UinalayA -, Tree Fern. 
; 4LBOFHILA SPINULOSA is the '' Pupjik'* 
lUhaljepobaa, who eat the soft watery pith : 
thilJliie fcTD grows in Sikkim, abundantly, 
b ShI Jl^gal and the Peninsula of India.— 
f JBjw. /our. fol II, >. 13. 


in Burmah P and in Assam. It seems to be 
known to the Malav race, the excellent boarda 
or thin planks it affords being used by their 
children and by children in Ceylon and in the 
Indian Peninsula to write their lessons on, 
hence its name. The whole plant abounds in 
a milky juice. Its wood is white and doao 
grained but rather coarse, and in Assam i« 
much prized for beams and light work each aa' 
boxes, trunks, scabbards, &c. It is valuable 
for the turning lathe and, in Ceylon, is used 
for coffins. It is as bitter as gentian, and ia 
possessed, it is said, of similar virtues. The 
bark is a powerful tonic and a fine medicine iu- 
bowel complaints : Dr. Gibson of Bombay haa 
found it useful as a febrifuge, he publiabed atf 
account of ita qualities about two' yfeara a^to in 
the Pharmaceutical Journal ; he gave it in. 
tincture. — Ind, Ann, Med, 8ci, /or A phi 
1866, p, 397. br, Moson^ Hogg*9 VegftabU 
Kingdom, Useful FlanU, Dr, Gibson, Voigi, p, 
526. Thw. Em. pi. Ztyl, p. \n,' ' ^- 

ALSTROMERIA, a genus of flowering 
plaota'of the Natuiai Qnler Afflaryll||cem» 



cuUiv^te^ in Indian gfkiidiSD»for,t]i0».^ 
foigi' 596. 

ALTAI, a great mou,ntain .chain on the 
west of Asia, between which and the Hima- 
laya is the vast tract of pasture lands on 
which from time immemoria! the nomades 
of High Asia have fed their flocks, and inulti- 
plied into those hordes CU'^^i Turki, catipp) 
which from time to tim^ have swept into 
Europe and into southern and eastern ^-^ia. 
The aoutberu mountains of the Altai chain 
are rich in gold and silver mines* Indeed 
altaiy in Mo^igol, signifies gold. And the 
same m^j be ^aid of the ch^in of the Khigan, 
which separates Mongolia from paouriii. — 
TtmkomkVB jQumejf io Felt'wg^ Vol. IL. p, 
284. See also Gyc. of Ind. Supp. 11. Arians. 
Indiap. p. 312.314, 315. Kalkas. 

ALTAB, a sacred place inside Jewish and 
christian churches, and probably kept formerly 
in the opeu air, aiid duly reverenced in the 
present eastern mode alluded to in Psalm 
xxvi. 6. V8o will I compass thine altar.' 
This is a mark of respect^ common among 
hiodoos, and buddhists, crowds of whom may 
be seen morning and evening circumambuUtiag 
their temples, from right to left, f^ith their right 
hands towards the temple. The hindtjis call 
thiji Pradachiui, and it is a reverential act, 
which they sometimes also perform to men. 
Mahomedans also circumambulate but only the 
K^ba at Meccn, which enclose the Hajar 
us Siah, or 3lack Btone that ia believed to 
kav& liallen with Adam from paradise (Pari- 
defftb, fairy land), but iji their religious poetry 
t^ey often alUic^e ^o ^, as in the words, from 
the PersiHU, K^icompnas thou, the kaaba of 
thy hcM^t, if thou hast a heart. 

A^TAMSH. This emperor succeeded to 
the Piiltau tbrooe, in 1 2 10. He com pleted the 
Q|iH^jue9t of the greatest part of Hindoostan 
pioper, aB4 ^pe^rs to have been th.e first 
^#ho^<4M that mnde a conquest of Bengal, 
^VB gi9jreraineiPLt of which was from tiiis tune 
bestowed on one of tlva reipiog emperor's 
aona. It ivas during his reign (1321) that 
Gbangis Khitn, among hia ^extensive conquests 
(perhaps the greatest, of any conqueror in 
history) aecompUahed yin^ .of the empire of 
GhwMi, patting aa en^ Xo th(B dynasty of 
Kharasm, which then oiocupieil tM throne and 
driving before him the ^foijta^j^^ Jalali, son 
of Abe ireignin$( emperor ; who swam the 
Indut io avoid J|is fury . Ql\aagia» hpii^eyer, left 
Himj^atan uQdisLMr)9ed.r^^ff^^'« M$mo%r, 
f, alviij. 

Aobyraatbw triaudra, Boi^^ iv. Bhfjttk.' 
„ seaailia 

Alternanthera tilaudra. 
p rojpeos. 

Illecebreum aessile. 

llAdfina*gauti<«MePoDna-gaiitikani«M TflU I 

In many parte of the country, a oommon 
annual but greatly prized as greens by iho 
natives, it ^Is at ^a high prioe.-r«^<^^* 
Foiffi, p, 318. A campestris 717, and A« 
sessilis, 727, are fitrured in Wight's loonet. 
See Vegetables of Southern India. 

ALTHJIA ALHUGA8. See Khabajt. 

Althna officinalis, Lmm 

Ouimauve Fr. | Qui kbytr* Hnn>. 

AlthaiaofDios Ga. | 

This is a native of Europe and of Cashmera, 
and used precisely as the marsh ttiailoir. 
0*Bhaughne99ffy p, 214. 

ALTUiJEiA fiOS£A. Cfv. 

Holly book JSvo. | Qui Uyra ^fl^h 

This plant, with very large rose ooloursKi 
flower^, has produced about 20 varieties of 
splendid border flowers. Its leaves are said 
to yield a colouring matter resembling ipdigo. 
— Foigt. 112. See Dyes, Holyhock, Khatni. 

ALTItfARA^ Tam. Hardwickia btnata. 

AL rOON SOO, the rivtr Oaprus of antiijuity 
is called the Lesser Zab by Abul Feal. it joins 
the Tigris below Diarbakr but it is wrong to 
call tbe river Alioon, which U an epithet 
only belonging to the bridge, from what it 
cost, AUoon meaning gold or money.— i?icA'« 
keiidettce in Kuordikaif, Vol* II. Z'* 1^* See 
Tigris, in Cyc. of India, bupp. 11. 


Araucaria eicelaa, ff, K^ 

The Norfolk Island Fine is Men IQO feet 
above the other forest trees, and resemble 
the Norway spruce, but its tiers are mor^ 
distant. Its timber soon rots when exposed 
to* the Wjeather, and the tiredo, or auger 
worm, makes fearful ravages in the fenoee 
made of ita timber, which seldom stand threa 
yearp* It is generall;^ used for building puaS 
poses, flooring, partitions, &c., and when k^p( 
dry aud not exposed to the weather, it H^ 
more djurable.— i>|^^eW*t Voyage c/ ike Mtam* 

ALTUMBADO, a t»wn in India in Lob(« 
W 30' E. and Lat. 22.0 5S' N. 

ALU. Affphan, Hind. P«/si«n, Tel* «i 
term with atfixes and suffiit^a, employed i>i Pei^ 
sian and Indian countries to designate eevefal 
shrubs, pomuceotts fruit a, edible fruits and roptaib 
The 4^lii, simple, of Iiidia generiiUy, is the ceatf^ 
n\on ](K)tato^ the Solatium tubfrostttM. The AU»4i» 
Bokhara is the prune ^ the Nathar Altu, BaUi«a 
edulis, the sweet potato. In Ti lugu, the AUm> 
bachchali, is the Basells alba, [t is, in Bombe^ 
a name of Vanguieria apinosa ; in Persia/ ait 
severs) Rosaceous planta and %\\ Persia also tt* 
Aiuo-baloo is the Cerasus capieniaaia- Alu-<ol£ 
is a variety of prune. See Al|oo ; Aloof, 




ALU. y T HiNi>. P«»«- Syn. of Potato. 

Piu. Prunesy Prunus domestica ; also dried 
plaDs and apricots. 

ALU'GADDALU. T«l. ««Ktfw Solanum 


tabemom, X. The Potato,— J^r. 74. 
ALU-GAKDAGAO. Pu^ht. ^ d J ^^ 


liegitrd Cymbidia, Oymbidium tessaloides. 

ALUIN. Dan. S^n. of Alum. 

ALU JA'H. PcsHT. y |. A plum, abuad. 

•Dt at Peshawar. 
ALUKA See Hirudo. 

AibbsIaoShabb. Ar 
If«ik Ky-en... Bobm 















phss alumina- 
ria ; Alumioia 


Sbab4-Yem6iu ., 




Cbinna karam 






... Lat. 
. Pebs. 

' ••• »t 

ihiM... . . 


AlmMB ; Argilla 
libialtta; Sal- 

The first alum works known to Europeans 
toe those of Edeasa (formerly called Roccha) 
isSyrb, and this salt has not hitherto been 
pndoeed to any very considerable extent in 
U&. At Vera Ismael Khan it is manufactur* 
€d fion a black sbale, principally at Kalabag 
aa the Indus, where some 430 tons are annu- 
djfjoUat the rate of 78 rupees per ton. The 
pwen of manufacture is almost identical wi4h 
Alt eaipk>yed in European alum works. Alum, 
Maaative in Nepaul and at Ghownsilla. 
Am are alum works at Kutch atid at Kotkee 
■thaPaajab. It is found in the Teuasserim 
wl>f, i^nt 40 miles below Matak in a red- 
Akilate clay. In the proceas of manufacture, 
fcihales are roasted, and after being reduced 
ll pawder the alum is obtained by waahing. 
JUalimiia brought to Aj mere from Lahore 
tti isedin medicine aa an astringent, but 
My employed in dyeing : one maund. sells 
i^in Rupees. Alum, is a common natural 
Mietion, of which the salajit of Bebar and 
«^ b an example : — but the ealajit of Nipal 
JtVaixUiie of aulphuret of aluminium, 
i.l^e of alumina and sulphate of iron ; its 
^ ntion ia very uncertain. The alum of 
howeTer is not a natural product, be- 
siurod from alum shale, alum rock, 
shalsi and alate clay s and though 
Mlt is found native in small quanti- 
is long been produced artificially. 
|M importation of alum is from China. 


I About eleven hundred tone of alum were ex- 
ported from China within a short period, 
chiefly to India. During the four years 
1862-53 to 1855-66, inclusive, Madras im- 
ported 4,859 cwt. valued at Rs. 26,10S. 
chiefly from Penang, Singapore, Malacca and 
Bombay. This mineral is largely employ- 
ed by the Chinese in dyeing, and to some 
extent in paper-making as in Europe. Sur- 
geons apply it variously after depriving it 
of its water of crystaliaation, and in domestic 
life it is used far precipitating vegetable sub- 
stances suspended in potable water. When 
Chinese fishermen take one of those huge 
Bhisostoma which abound on the coast 
they rub the animal with the pulverized stypl 
tic to give a degree of coherence to the gela- 
tinous mass. Architects employ it as a cement 
in those airy bridges which span the water- 
courseSk It is poured in a molten state into 
the interstices of stones, and in structures not 
exposed to constant moisture, the cohesion is 
perfect, but in damp situations it becomes a 
hydrate and crumbles, a fact of which the 
whole empire was officially informed by th^ 
Chinese government about A. D. 1810. It was 
discovered that water had percolated into the 
mausoleum of Kiaking, from having been built 
too near to the mountain side, the alum cement 
imbibed moisture, segregated and opened the 
way for water to enter the tomb. In those 
peaceful days such an event was of such impor- 
tance as to call forth edicts and rescripts^ 
memorials and reports in succession for several 
months. The son-in-law of the deceased mon- 
arch to whose care the construction of the 
edifioe had been entrusted was fined and 
degraded, and a statesman from Fohkien ac- 
quainted with the properties of alum waa 
appointed to remove it to a short distance 
from the mountain. Alum was first introdnced 
into China from the Weat, and until a wm* 
paratively recent period the best kted, called 
sometimes Persian, at others Itoman alum wai 
brought from Western Asia. An inferior arti- 
cle is manufactured at Shan-tHog, Shan-se 
Kiang-su,Hukwang, Sz'chuen^alsein theSouth' 
western frontier and in Tibet. That fjpom 
Sz'chuen is represented as having the property 
of coating iron with copper, by placing the for- 
mer metal in a solution of rice-liquor and alum. 
The most recent editions of works on Materia 
Medica contain no reference to the mines in this 
province, the product of which have surpassed 
in quality the foreign, and rendered its impor- 
tation unnecessary. Its manufacture there haa 
not been long in operation. These are in the 
Sungyan hills bordering on Fohkien in the dis- 
trict of Pingyang, Wapohan prefecture, and in 
dose proximity to Peh-kwan harbour (27^9* 10^^ 
N. 120'' 32* 6" B. Ten alum making establish- 
ments were in operation, which, with tke excep- 

89 12 


tion of one on a hill opposite, occupied about a 
mile of the side of a lofty hill. The works are 
adjacent to the quarries from which the alum 
stone seemed to crop out- of decomposed rock 
of the same lithological elMracter. The stones 
irere thrown into a fire of brushwood where 
Ihey burnt with a slight lambent flame and as 
they cracked, the fragments were raked out 
broken into small piQces, and macerated in 
vats. Subsequently the disintegrated mineral 
was thrown with water into a vessel having an 
iron bottom and sides of wood and boiled for a 
short time. The lixivium was then poured 
into large reservoirs where it crystallized into a 
solid mass. Blocks of alum weighini; about 
fifty catties each were hewn out of the reservoir 
and carried in this state in bamboo frames one 
on each end of a porter's pole to the place of 
shipment, where it is broken into fragments. 
When not designed for immediate exportation, 
the blocks are stored away for drying. On 
reaching the depot the alum is found charged 
with a double quautity of moisture, the porters 
being obliged to deliver a certain weight, they 
dip tlieir burdens in the mountain streams 
which they pass in the journey. Judging from 
the number of labourers engaged in trans- 
porting the mineral, ihe quantity brought from 
the works could not be less than eighteen tons. 
This was represented as less than an average 
day's work, as labour was in such demand just 
then for agricultural purposes that double pay 
was given ; — and aged men, and women, with 
boys and girls were pressed into the service. 
Assuming that day's product as a basis for cal- 
culation and making an allowance for rainy 
days, we may stifely estimate the annual supply 
as between Ave and six thousand tons. The 
quantity consumed by the dyers of Ningpo pre- 
fecture alone, being nearly twenty-two tons per 
ann^im is corroborative of this estimate. The 
supply is literally inexhaustible. Five dollars- 
and-a*quarter a ton at the landing would afford 
the man\ifacturer a fair proiit. It often fetches 
much inore, as there has been an increasing 
demand for the article owing to the ^rreater 
facilities afforded for exportation from Ningpo 
in foreign vessels. The Wanchan Alum is 
equal to the best Roman, a roseate tint in 
some specimens indicates the presence of mi- 
nute quantities of iron. ** We have no means 
of ascertaining the precise geological position 
of the rock from which this alum is procured ; 
some circumstances seem to indicate it to be 
a new mineral. It is stated that no potash 
nor any other material is employed in the 
works. Granitic and porphyntic rocks abound 
in the vicinity, and some parts of the district 
produce iron and silver. According to the 
Wan-chan Topography, the working of silver 
was discontinued in the reign of Wanlih 
{1615) in consequence of imperial prohibition. 


This part of the coast has recently become the 
seat of extensive poppy cultivation for the bane I 
of the Chinese race. As a cnntributioti to ! 
the physical description of the alum district, ^ 
we would add that the typhoon of September 
1865 was preceded by a rising of water in 
wells and ponds many miles inland. When 
the cyclone reached the coast it submerged 
about a hundred square miles, occasioning a 
vast destruction of life and property* Ihe 
waters of the sea were retaiued in the country 
by strong easterly winds for several days leav- 
ing a strip of land bordering on the sea quite 
dry. — The Wan-chan rock, is a grey felspar 
porphyry with minute brilliant white specks, 
which may be arsenical pyrites, silvery mica or 
sulphuret of nickel. When polished, it shews a 
very pretty surface and a small portion pulveris- 
ed and calcined and then boiled gave aalpfaurie 
acid and alumina to the usual tests, so that it 
is probably an alum porphyry, i. e. a porphyry 
containing AJunite. — H, Piddingion^ in Journal 
of ihe Anatie Society of Bengal^ p. 366. Oak. 
Cai. Exhib o/*1862. Honorable Mr. Morn- 
6on*8 Foreign Commerce with China, Irvin^t 
General Medical Topography of Afmir, p. 149. 
0* Shaughneuy. Bengal Pharmacopeia, p, 3h6. 
.Simmond*8 Commercial Products. Faulkner'i 
Commercial Dictionary • North China Herald^ 
2Zrd January 1856."— aiiffl Herald. See 
China. Punjab. Salt Range. 

ALUMCHUN, a town in India, in Long. 
81^ 30' E. and Lat. 25<^ 33' N. 

ALUMINUM, in its purest state, exists in 
the sapphire, and less pure in corundum and 
emery and in many minerals. 

ALUMNUGUR, a town in India in long. 
79° 68' E. and Lat 27° 46' N 
^ALUMUKADA. Tel. t5«5S»-r»e^. Ipo- 

rooea filiformis.— I. Filicaulis convolvulus me- 
dium. R. i. ^li.'-Rheede. 

ALUMZYE MOMUNDS, a branch of the 
Momund tribe, whose head quarters are at 
Gnndao. See Supp. ii. BaJjom^e Cyc. of India 
p. 510. 

ALUNDY, a place near Poonak whera 
Yishnu is believed by the hindus to have 
become incarnate about the 11th or sixili 
century. See Balfour's Cyc. of India, Sup. ii 
Art. Naneshwar. 

ALUNJ. Pbrs. a plum. 

ALUTE, Mahr. See Baluti. 

ALUTNEUBA, a town in India in Long 
80° 57' E. and Lat 6^ 85' N. 

ALUWIHARA, See Sripada. 

ALVA. A sea weed called Awa Nori, i 
gathered on the sea beadb of Japan when dri« 
and roasted and rubbed down to a v6vy fis 
powder, it is eaten with boiled rice, and sosm 
times put into Miso* soup. -^fAKw^ery** TVitvel 
Vol. IIL p. 115. 



ALVAR TINNEVELLY, a town iff* India 
ia Long. 78° 0' E. and Lat. S** 86' N. 

die imdyed shawi stuff. 

ALWAE. Tam. twelve ho)| hindus of whom 
laBUWJa was one, the authors of the Dravida 
Pabandfaa, or Tamil Veda. — WiUon* 

ALWUtt, atown in India in Long. 76^ 41' 
LiBrfLftt. 27^35' N. 

ALU 8ANTANA, or Nephew Inheii- 
t0ee,in Gaiiaras the law of descent to sisters 
ran, tbe descensus ab utero, and the manage- 
■cBi of property vesta ordinarily in the females. 
SeeC]re.of Ind. Supp. ii. p. 110, Polyandry* 

ILIGUNGE, two towns of this name in 
Iidiione in Long. 79"" 9' E. and Lat. 2V 30' 
X,tkeothfir in 81«^ 45' E. L. 26^ 20' N. 

ALYPOORKER A, a town in ladia in Long. 
I5« 17' B. and Lat. 27^ 22' N, 

ALISICARPUS, a genus of small trees or 
u^hrnhs of India and Biirmah of the natu- 
nl order Fabaoeffi formerly styled Hedysarum 
i bopleanfolius ; Heyneanus ; stytHcifolius ; 
■MiKfcr; and vaginalis are known. — Vmgt. 

. ALYSSUM SAXATILE ; a flowering plant, 

I oiliYited in India. 

ALTXIA a genusof the natural order of plants 
Apoqfiiaoifs. The bark of A. stellata of the Malay 
Arebipelago, Society and Friendly Islands, 
(ttUios benzoic acid, and is possessed of pro- 
potm analogous to those of canella and Win- 
tet't bark, now used in Germany in chronic 
MMBa and nerroua disorders. A. gyno- 
pogOB of Norfolk Island and A. Moonii of 
^Wa,in also known. — O^Shaughiiesw, paae 

AM. BftNG. HiNP. Sans. . T fruit of 

r ' 

■iBgifera Indica. — Linn, The Mango, 
AMADA, Beng. Mango ginger. Curcuma 

Witt. Curcuma amada- 
AMADA KADA {or Golagondi.) Tel. 

W^Ttf (X^oK^oS) Cyanotis axillaris, 

'W,— Tnidescantia ax-^^R. ii 118. 

AMADiTAH, a district in Kurdistan near 
fcVan and Taurus, for about 800. 5 ears the 
te quarters of the Kurdish family of Behdir, 
^ trace their descent from one of the early 
AUaiude bliphs. The Turks never interfered 
^ Amadia till after the overthrow of the 
Vf of Rowandis. when it passed without a 
^N^ ioto the hands of Kashid pacha. 


... Bno. I TofuSewod £110. 

_ ___ ^ KadfcT... „ I Agaric Aznadouyi^r, Fa. 
ySHoiAgiuie. „ I ^uDderschwamm... Geb. 

•Substance similar ta Agaric from. the Poly- 

a*«UU. KAMU, S. (t/,irihi,) Tel-. 
^rtf».^6%eis'.S Emblica officinale, Oaerin^ 


AMALAR.I, a division of the Brahui tribe 
Bizungi, on the same hills as the Mingbial. They 
are a violent people much addicted to rapine- 
— Balfour Cyc. of India, Sup. ii. p. 492. 

AMALE ABISI. Tam. a variety of rice 
Oryza sativa. 

AMALGAM, That used in dentistry con* 
sists of gold of purest kind and tin, each one 
part, silver two parts. Melt and when required 
for use, reduce to a fine powder and make an 
amalgam with mercury. See Metal. Alloy. 

AMAKARUM, Maleal. cSfQi^seyoo Phy- 

salis somnifera. 

AMANAKU ARISI. Maleal. cer§)Q6noi66) 

(ff^cS\(/S) Seeds of Bicinus communis. 

AMANDES. Fb. Amygdalus communis. Al^^ 

AMANOA, a genus of small trees, of Cey- 
lon, amongst which Thwaites enumerates A. 
collina which is Roxburgh's Cluytia coUina, also 
A. ferruginea growing up to 3,000 feet and A. 
patulfl, (Wights A. Indica,) in the hotter parts of 
the iBhnd, ^Thwaiies En, Ph Zeylan. p. 28. - 

AMANOUBANG, an independent territory 
situated towards the south-west end of Timor, 
immediately to the eastward of the Dutch 
territory of Coepang. Its limits are unknown, 
and probably vary as the power of the chief 
I becomes increased or diminished. It is the 
best organized and most powerful of all the 
petty states of Timor, and is the ooly one that 
can give uneasiness to the Europeans whose 
establishments are scattered along the north- 
west coasts of the island. A few years ago« 
the chief of this territory took offence at some 
act of aggression on the part of the Resident 
of Coepang, the principal settlement of the 
Dutch on Timor, and kept that town in a con- 
stant state of alarm by incursions of hoise-men 
armed with spears, and mounted on the small, 
but hardy horses of the country, cutting off the 
supplies, and killing or carrying away the 
inhabitants from the very skirts of the town, 
until means were found to appease his hosti- 
lity. The Bay of Amanoubang, the " Bay of 
the Pearl Bank'* of the charts, is a deep bight 
situated 45 milea to the eastward of Point 
Ousina, the S. W. extreme of Timor, It Is 
bounded by Butu Puteb, a steep white rocky 
head*land, 800 feet . high, on the west, and 
Point Oubelow on the east. The head of the 
bight consists of low-land^ covered with the 
^' tuak'* or Lontar Palm. The chief trading 
port of the territory is Outouke, about 16 miles 
to the east of Point Oubelou. — Jour. Ind* 

AMAR. Tel. Ciible. 

AMARA COSH A, by Amaca Sinha also 
called Amara Deva, is the moat esteemed of 



sll the sanierit yoeabalariae. The author uras 
one of the mne poets who adorned the court 
pf Yioramaditya. He aeema to have been a 
buddhist. He is supposed to have lived about 
A. D. 94,8.-- Balfour C^c. 0/ Ind. Supp, ii. p. 

AMARA DEVA, or AmaraBinha. Seeauthor of 
Ihe Amara Oosha. Cye, of Ind. 8upp, ii. p* 378. 

AMARANTUS, a genus of plants of the 
natural order Amarantaoese, several of which 
with their bright coloured leaves are orna- 
mental ; Wight, in Icones^ gives sixteen spe- 
cies and Voigt. 23 species, one of them A. 
oleraceas, fumishiug four varieties all used as 
l^reens. A. anardana, A. frumentaeeus and A. 
Lappica are named as producing seed in suffici- 
ent abundance to be gathered as grain crops. 
Their stems and leaves are used as greens, and 
spinach, and nearly all may be used in medicine^ 
as emollients, enemata, cataplasms, diluent 
.drinks, &c. A. BHUim, linn, of Hurope^ A. 
eampestris, Wilide : have minute greenish flow- 
ers as also has A* polystachys, Wilide- The 
Kupei-kir^ of the Tamuls — A>jr. m. 602-61 1. 
O'Skauffkniity, 528« Voi^L 815-6-7. Aimlie 
253. Jiifrej^'9 HinU to Amateur Gardener*, 
See Cyc of Ind. Vegetables of Southern India. 
iBeeds are gathered and used as food grains. 


Shegapu Than- 
da-Kirsy Tam. 

Terra totakama 
kura Tit. 

Baosptta-lal-nnti. Bnno. 
Lal-uQtiy«.,« ... 1, 

Lai NQti „ 

KonkaNnti ... „ 

Mr. Jaffrey thinks that this is probably a 
variety of A. oleraceus, an annual wiih beau- 
tiful red foliage and diminutive flowers. It 
gives a good spinach though seldom used by 
£uropeans.^/a^<y. O'Shwghnen^, Voigi. 
316. RoMb.IIL 608. 


Sirru kirai 
Sirru kura 




mon food with the peasants of the Himalsyu 
(Is this Honigbergers's. A. anardana.) 

TuQ-tani-nuti Beko. | B&n-nuti BiKO* 

Has minute greenish flowers. — Voigt. 816- 

Bathu Pavj. I PuDgh^dni... Tah. 

ikirai ... ••• .•• ...J.AM. I 

A large luxuriant species grows in the hilla : 
between filysoro and Goimbatore, also on the 
Neilgherries; seeds ground into flour. In the 
Calcutta Botanic Oarden 40 square yards, sown I 
in June, yielded 21*lbs. of clean st^ed in Sep* I 
tember ; the plant also grows from October to i 
February, inclus^e. Mr, Jaffrey says it is also 
cultivated by the hill people for the seeds, 
which are ground into flour, and form one of 
their principal articles of diet* Seeds used by 
the hindus as the kernel of comfits. The 
leaves are of a reddish brown colour, and this 
plant averages in height from 4 to 6 feeL — 
Jaffre^e HinU. O'Skaugk. 528. Voigt. SI. 
Cl^kor PanJ . Rep. p. 66. 


Ckuri-ki-l>ajL ... Duk. 

Ifekanada Bans. 

Oanna»«» ... j^ 

This has minute greenish flowers, Mr. Jaf* 
frey mentions that A. eampestris and polygo- 
noides P are prevalent weeds ; commonly cul- 
tivated by the native gardeners for spinach, 
during the hoi months : require to be used 
when 3 or 4 inches high ; are of rapid growth 
and should be sown every third or fourth 
mtek.—Jafreg. Voigi. See Vegetables of 
Southern India. 


This, the Loves bleeding of our gardens, 
is commonly cultivated for ornament. Voigt* 
.P' 817. 


Batusard .«.PaBa 

Braid eakes made from iti seed are a com* 

...Bbno. I Lal-^g... 




Raoga-Sbak... ... „ | 

Sown broad«cast and always procnraUe. 
The leaves are very generally used as' spinach. 
There are many varieties, with colours fh>lia 
green to bright red. * They cannot be oat. — 
ffShaugk. p. 528, Biddea. Voigt. 316, Rox^. 
ttt. 601. 

LtMH. Is the Prince's feather of our gardesa. 

pata. nuteeya, Beng. bamboo-leaved amarantlf, 
the leaves and tender tops are eaten by nativM 
iu their curries and useid as emollient poioiti- 
ee^.^CSkaugkneeeg, p- 628. 

var a. viridis I c. albus. 

b. ruber | d. giganteits. 

Shedakh-nindi ? ?....Ab. Tota k«ra 

The var. alba Telia 

iota kara.. »,. 
The var. fubra ? 

Yerra tota kura... j^ 
The Tar. gigantea 
Mokka also Peragu ,» 

White variety, Sada- 
niiti...« •• 

Dftnt-ki-bhaji Dan. 

DSt-ki-bhaji Duk. 

Country greens ...Eng. 
SadlUtam-paU .. Sinoh. 
Thandu-kire... ... Tam.i 

This amarantuB is more than all the otli^ii^ 
in use with Europeans in Ind ia, the peeled ataQ^ 
resemble asparagus and are pleasant to eat. Th 
variety A. viridia the common green sori I 
most cultivated : A. ruber, with its brlpl 
stems but rusty coloured leaves is showy asa^ 
garden. A. albns, with white shiniAg atenq 
is the sada null of Bengal and is nand 
cultivated there ; but Uie A. giganteuft froi 
five to eight feet high, is that whi^ BkuN 
peans mostly esteem.-^ JatfriyV Hkt9, jl^gr 
ia..e06. FiJ^t. 316. 




▼ar. P ruber. 
Ctaptniti ..•BBHO.fMulli kiroy... ••• Tam. 
Cbapft Kiitaja, DeU kiira» also Dog- 

(fii. kl.) ... „ gall knin, also Er- 

dudiaig ... HiHD. ra Doggali kura... Tu. 

Till IB cullirated all over Southern Asia, 
Tkre are three or foar varieties with vaTious 
eolomed Jearea. It is one of the best of the 
ybn ipinaehei ; it ii raised fioni seed during 
tiikot months ; and requires to be sown th>ck 
■id tttea when young ; generally used when 
wo feet high. The humblernatives are seldom 
ibleto fwrchase this ?egetablei it being too 
ta^.-'Eosi. iii. 603. Foijfi. 315. Jaffrey'$ 
SUt, See Chooiaee Hul^ Kire, Vegetables 
flfSoiitliero India in Cyc« of India. 


Bsiio. I Chira-kara... 



CUoBsttja ... f^ I 

Toysmslli and eommon garden weed, used 
■ a pot-herby and deemed by natives whole- 
lOBB for oonvaleao(;nta.^O'5iaar^AMiiy, page 
m. Boxb. fit. 302. Vai4fi. 315. 


iatkMd .. Bbng. 
AanrAaiaauith Eva. 
lUhkirC.. ... Tam. 

Mulu tota kura .. .TgL. 
Nalla doggali ... „ 
Rrra mulu goranta, « 

nb sanoal grows as a very troublesome 
seed aU orer southern India and Burroah. It 
Itti ikarp spines in tbe axles of its leaves 
lad it is troublesome to pick them, though 
hf Bake s good spinach and potherb. — Hoxb, 
■ii^. (r8kaMffkjteMy,b%9.JafreyiEinU. 
Mmm^ Voigt. 317- See Moolakarang Varay 
Aitaj, also Vegetables of Southern India in 
0^ of India. 

fciteiaiiegated laavesy the centre of it is red 
tid pale yellow ; propagated each by seed only. 


||WihijiD9K.Hin>. KuppikirCalaoAra 

'wka... ... ••• BiLsa kirtf Tam. 

Koya tota kura ... Til. 

lUaaaadal ie eultavaled apd held in great 
by tbe natives. It may be cut down 
iMBal times wilhoni deairoying the plants, 
vUarB.mueb used for food.— Fo^^. 816. 
Aik w. 60i. Bee Biat Ki Bhigi, also Vege- 
|iHn of Soathem India. 
ima peeoish flowers and its tender tops are 
flii^ baft less esteemed than others of this 
•M-Boaft. wL 615. VoigL 316. 
t AXASJL-PALA. An ancient hinda dynasty, 
«>.4IIARAPUBA. A former capital of Bur- 
il^fls same ia derived from the Pali and 
jyttti iflimortal city. It waa le-oocuf ied 
^■iiu was abandoned^ and Ava has been 
^avfldtmessforSOyearst Sach Burmese 

king founds a new capital, and Amarapura was 
abandoned after the recent embassy.«-»jra^a' 
Smibo9$y, p. 180, See Burma. Marble>i Ruby* 
mines. Shan. 

A.MARAS1NHA, a Sanskrit lexicon ao 
called.— i/j^ier'» BaOem Momaekitm, p, 433. 
See Amaraoosha. 

ASiARA VATI, the captial of Indra : a name 
given to several towns in peninsular India, 
usually speltOomraoti or Amraoti. Taghr.^^QcB 

AMABAVATI, Lat. 20« 65 ; N. and L. 
77^ 46* £. a large town in Berar, built on a 
plain with hilia to the west. It is now part of 
the Hyderabnd Assigned Districts under a 
British Commissioner. It is 928 ft. above 
the sea. 

AMAHAVATI: A ruined town on the 
banks of the river Kistnah containing numer* 
ous antiquities in the form of sculptures, the 
majority of which seem to belong to a magni- 
ficent dehgopa or Buddhist shrine, built on 
a mound of 150 feet diameter, now converted 
into a tank. It is called Bipaldinna (translat-* 
ed by Colonel Mackenzie the " Mound of 
Lights") which resembles the name of a similar 
place of Buddhist celebrity in Ceylon (Damba- 
dinna) It is in the vicinity of Maaulipatam 
from which place roanyof the sculptured marbles 
were bioagbt to Madras by Mr. WalterElHot and 
thence sent from the Madras Museum to Eng* 
land Their inscriptions were translated by the 
Reverend W. Taylor. They are somewhere of 
the period A, D. 600 to A. D, 1000, are in 
Sanscrit but neither pure nor of correct ortho- 
graphy. The eharacter used in the iuscriptions is 
Ceylon^ Seoni, and 4ndhra, passing to florid 
Southern Indian, and has much resemblance to 
that of some of the rock inscriptions at Maha- 
balipur. Buddhism is called the kingdom- 
preserving and the very excellent religion of 
the people which it is hoped will endure for 
ever. One of the inscriptions refers to the foun- 
dation and endowment of some Bilddhist institu- 
tion. It says, *' place is not to be given to the 
disputer of Buddhism ;'* nevertheless praises 
those who relieve tbe guest and the brahman, 
and considers injuries to the gods and brah- 
mans as great sins 1! At the date of the ins- 
cription, therefore, there was not any hostility 
between bnddhists and brahmans. — FoL Fl. 
p. 318. Jo. B. Ji$. 8oc, See Inscriptions 872. 

AMABDAD.SAL. A Parsee holiday, held 
on the daj following the Khnrdad'Sal, of which 
festival it is merely a continuation.— 2X» 

AMARI, a seat on an dephantj with ^ 

AMABKANTAK, L. 2i^ 38' ; L.8P46', in 
Malwa, a place celebrated in hindu mytimh^EJi 
abo«t 160 mika S. of JubbelpDre. 

The mean hdgbt aboye the sea of th a 




plateau VishnUpdri is 8,590 feet The Tank 
P^h Kund, the source of the N^rb^da is 3,504 
feet. The top of the hille skirtiDg the Vishnu- 
ptiri plateau to the north 3,700 feet, 1 feet 
above the VishnaptSri plateau, by aneroid. It 
was near this that the late Captain Jenkins of the 
Madras Army discovered coal. See Madras 
Museum B^cords. SchlMgeniweit. 

AMARPUR, a town in India in Long. 86o 
4V E. aMd Lat. 26^ 48' N. 

AMARYLLIS, from amarysso, resplendent, 
a genus of plants, of the natural order Ama- 
ryllacese, which are much cultivated in India 
a6 garden flowers. 'Ihey are known ad Sosan 
the Susan of christian names. 

AMARYLLIS AUREA, Goldfn Amaryl- 
lis, the ^^y^jj Zard or yellow sosan, 

Hind, is cultivated in Ajmece gardens and 
very ornamemal. A- Belladonna, has large 
veined greenish white and carmine coloured 
flowers- A. frittilarili, is the snakes head lily, 
and Voigt. and Riddell mention also A. Am- 
ericana, Asiatica florida ; capensis : equestris 
Grifflithiaua granidiflura ; Josaphinite ; Mexica- 
na : and substriata' — Vuigt 586. Riddell ; Hog» 
768.— (?M. Med. Tojy, p. 188. 

df Crinum latifolium, Herb. 

AMAS. Sansc. Tel. moonless period of the 
ijionth. See Amavasya. 

AMASSr\ once the capital, and one of the 
oldest and most opulent cities of Pontus or 
Oappadocia is celebrated as having been the 
birth-place of Strabo ; The city stands in the 
tiarrowesl part of the valley, and amid its 
boldest scenery ; Porter's Truvels, VoL II. p, 

.AMATlSTA. It. Amethyst. 

AMATUH. Tel. Spoudias mangifera, Fers. 
S. dulcis. 

AMAVASYA. Sansc. Tbl. Tam. The con- 
junction *of the sun and moon, the ides of the 
month, also called Arcendu Sangama (written 
Area Indu.) Ama, and Darsa Tkhi, are other 
names giveu to the Lunar day, on which the 
conjunction occurs ; which in the kalendar is 
always reckoned the 30th of the lunar month. 
Amavasya Tiihi, the lunar day of the moon's 
change. Captain Edwaid Warren 9 Kala Sanhita, 

AMAWATURA, a book of legends in Sing- 
. AMBA ijS I Pb&s. Sans. Mango fruit, also 


AMB, a towa with an old mahomedan gar- 
den, Containing gigAnftic specimens of toon, 
champa, artocarpus integrifolia, miroiisops 
efengi, cupressus sempervfrens; and platanus 

AMB-ADA. Bbno, Mango-ginger, Curcuma 

I AMBAGIAME, a town in India, in Ldng. 
80« sr E. and Lat. 6® 6' N. 

AMBA KURB. Mar. Gupania caneaoonv. 

AMBAL, a Dutch Residency division n^ar 
Karang bollong. 

AMBALLA, a large military station in the 
Panjab, in Lat. 30, 21-4 N and L. 76, 48„88 
and 1026 ft. above the sea.— See Umballah. . 

AMBALA CHETTU. eoTJ'f^&x. Spon- 

dias mangifera, jP^r*— R. ii, 461. 

AMBaLAKARBN, a titular appellation of 
the Rollar or KoUari tribes of the Tondamans 
country. See Cyc. Ind. Supp. ii p. 332. 

AMBALITA, a small tree of Ganjam, th© 
juice of the leaves is mixed with merouijr 
and taken internally for rheumatism and otlier 

AMBALU. Maleal. Lac. 

AMBAB. Malay Amber, 

AMBARA, TsL. Spondias dukis. 

AMBARBATTI, Hind ^^^^A per- 

fumed pastiUe, used in India. 

AMBA.MEPOOBAM, a town in India, in 
Long, 83^ 5^ B. and Lat. 17^ 45' N. 

AMBARI, Duk. Mahr. 

Pat . . India. 

Dekhani hemp. Bombay. 

,1 Brown ^ 
Brown hemp of Bombay, 
P&Uangu hemp of Madraa. 
Pule hi fibre ^ 

Puli uumaji of Coimba- 


Gong kura ... T&l. 
Maesta Pat ... Bbno. 
Ambaya pata in Pur. 

Sunniof Saharukpoks. 
Valaiti Sunn of MuTm^. 
Eudrum of ... Babar, 

This fibre is manufactured from the Hibisco^ 
canuabinus largely used in India and export- 
ed as one of the hemps : Riddell lloi/h. 

AMBATI MADU. eotti3ia^2^. Tria^ 

thema obcordatum, R, ii. 445. -' * 

AMBAITEBYO an outcaste race In Uvak 
in Ceylon, deemed so degraded that even tiiki 
Rodiya prevent their dogs from eating iM 
fragments of food cooked by th6m.--*re»fun»/« 
AMBAYAPATA in Purneya, Ambari. : 
AMBEITA, a town in India, in Long. 77^ 
18'E.andLat. »9« BO' N. 

AMELETIA, a genus of the Lylhraeese^ of 
which are known A. iodica, D. C. and A& 
rotundifolia W. and are the Aisaiania imii 
and rotundifolia of Hoxb. Voigi' * 

AMBER, or DUNDHWAR the early capital 
of Jeypore built by Jey Singh, and was a city 
of great architectural beauty. According 
to Tod, Amber gave its name to a Bajpodl 
dynasty, of the Soory a Yansa race; a scion iH 
Nirwar, (Ibrf) and according to Prinsep, ttii 
Ranas of Amber are of the Cuchwaha race oi 
Rajputs, who claim descent from Gush second rao0 
of Rama, king of Ayodhya, who migrated ttM 
built the fort of Rotas, on the Sone. AutbM^ 
tic history commences in A. D. 2^4;\^ith "Kt^ 
No!a, who founded Narwaz or Nishidr, Tlw 



poirer of this fiimily dates from | 
Himyun, tlie son of Bahcr *-^Tkoma$' Priri- 
wfi JiUiqaiUeStp. 259. Todi Majasihan, p. 




• • A K« 

Bernstoin- Ger 



fjXeKrpov... ... Or 



Chasbmal Hbb 

Xahrab... DOK. 


Electrum Lat. 


Succinum Lat. 

Lpotone .t* ... 


Lapis Lynci Lat. 

itkn „. „w ••• Fr. 

Amber also Anbar Malat. 

BrItoq ..t .«• 


Ambar Tah. 

Afflber does Dot appear to have early become 

knovn to the Hebrews, it is mentioned in 

Ezekiel i 4 and 27 and viii. and 2. Thales 

laticeditB. C. 600 and Theophr aslus B. G. 

390. It has always been held in estimation by 

entero nations and though less so latterly, it 

eoBtioiies to be 8o to a considerable extent as a 

aedidnal substance and for ornament. It is found 

OB (be shores of theBal tic and the Adriatic, on the 

futen coast of England, and that of Sicily and 

Bhoasia it was obtained by sinking shafts tothe 

ifpk of 100 feet« to a stratum of fossil wood, 

is which- the Amber is found in rounded pieces 

fiOD a few grains to five pounds in weight. It 

iiebtained along the coast of America, Africa 

mi tbe Archipelago. The Burmese, perhaps 

■OR than any other natives, use it. But in 

t'(tf bazar of India, the medicine venders retail 

silt they call Ambtr, though the bulk of this is 

tKoith^gum or ropal dried by artificial heat 

or fonil copal. Amber is of a yellow colour 

mj'mgfrom a bright golden yellow to yellowish 

*lutr, it is femi transparent, and shining with 

I Rsisoiu lustre. It is now generally believed 

to be tk gum of some coniferous plants, and 

^ kas ants, flies or other insects imbedded 

B It, iodicsting its once soAer condition It is 

^kbieirheo rubbed, hence its latin and greek 

■■Ms,and the Roman ladies highly prized it. 

^ispanese particularly valued the transpa- 

*t ydlow kinds. Dr. Hooker tells us{ Journ. ii. 

)M) that the lumps of Amber forming the neck- 

ikaof the women of Sikkim (called Poshea) are 

pMRd in East Tibet, but he surmises that 

%f are brought from Buraab, where Dr. 

^kid first and since his time Yvde tells us 

Wbassj, p. 147) that it is found in Burmah, 

jUa ralley of Hookhong (which takes its 

■^'■Ksc name of Phyendwen from the Amber 

■*•) near the sources of the Kyendwen in 

» 86^ 20', and close to the Assam border. 

^foDQd with small masses of lignite (which 

yfrh the indication in seeking for it) in a 

vaarhonaceous earth covered with red clay. 

yfttfaeted from square pits, reaching some- 

J*te a depth of forty feet, and so narrow 

r^^ vorkmen ascend and descend by plac- 

|VMr fcti in h<{les m^e on two sides of the 

I". ■• sheeting being/iBfc. • In 1837, only 


about a dosen people found employment at 
these mines. The Amber mines lie on . the 
south side of the valley of Hook-hong on tiie 
Puyendwen, which produces salt, gold and ivory 
in addition to Amber^ Yule*s account does not 
correspond with that of Mr. Walton who men - 
lions that Amber is found in the Hu-kpng 
valley occupied by the Singpho, in the Payen 
loung or Amber liills, a traot of small hillocks 
the highest not exceeding fifty feet : pits about 
three feet square are dug to a depth of six to 
fifteen feet, in a reddish and yellow clayey soil, 
which when first broken has a fine aromatic 
smell, but afterwards acquires that of coal 
tar,. The common mixed Amber is sold at 
Ava, at 2^ tikals a visa, or 4 rupees for 1 ^ 
seers, the price varies according to colour and 
transparency, but the best kind is expensive. 
Amber is frequently gathered in consider- 
able lumps in the vicinity of Samar and the Biss* 
ayas islands. Ainslie mentions that it has 
been found in the Dekhan, of a fine qualii^y, but 
very scarce ; also occasionally in Travanoore, 
but this is likely the copal of the VenkuUy Cli£Fia 
in Travanoore also found in lignite. It is found 
on several islands of the Indian Arehipelago and 
in small quantities on the coast of China and 
Tanking, but large quantities of the fossil copal 
of India are exported to China and sold as 
Amber. Transparent pieces are the best. Aiason. 
FaulJkner. Fules, EmbaMj^, p. 147. JiruUc't 
MaUrut Mediea. Hooker Him. Jonrn* ii. 194. 
WaU<m*ii Siat.p. 38 9. Bin^l^ i. 162. ThMH-- 
herg^sHUi, of Japan ii. 51. Balfour ^ in Madroi 
Museum Jtoecrds, 

AMBEKBOA, a genus of flowering plants 
of the Natural Order Matricariaceae, of which 
are known A. Indica, with largeish purplish 
rose colored flowers : A. odorata, wiih its 
variety ambracen, with bright scented sweet 
smelling flowers : and A. muschata the Shah- 
Pasand of India and Sweet Sultan of England. 
These species have also been allotted to the 
genera ISerratula; Athanasia : Centaurea and 
Chry seis. — Voigi^ p, 4 a4. 

Ambergris ... Enq. Fn. 

Anbar ... 
Payen anbbat 

Umber? ... 
Ambr ... . 





... Qbb 


... Hind 

S'ah-bni ... 


Shah-bu ... 

... Pbbs 

Min- Umber 

... Tam 

This opaque solid substance is of a bright 
gray coloar generally found in the intestines or 
stomRch of the Fhyseter macrocephalus, the 
blunt headed cacholot or spermaceti whale, 
though every species of cacholot is subject to 
yield it. It occurs in lumps from three to 
twelve inches thick mixed with vegetable and 
animal remains. It is softened by beat, has a 
powerful smell, which to some persons is very 



duagreeable. Incleecl when first taken from 
the intestines its fetid smell is disgusting. It 
is often found floating on the ocean south of 
Asia and the countries it surrounds export it 
largelj to China where, also, a spurious sub- 
stance is often sold. Some sorts met with in 
Japan resemble coarse bitumen, or asphalte, 
or black naphta dried, consequently more or 
less black and heavy, and all these differ in 
consistence. Other sorts are whiter in various 
degrees and some sorts are exceedingly light, 
and not unlike a mushroom, whibh induced 
Scaliger to concur with Serapion, that it might 
well be a sort of a Fungus marinus, or sea- 
mushroom. Ambergris, when fiesh from the 
sea, is soft^ and nearly resembles cow- dung 
and emits a burnt odour. Black shining shells, 
and fragments of other submarine substances, 
are often found in it. Garcias^ab-Orta tells (A^ 
H. L f . c. i.J of very large pieces, but when 
Tbunberg was in Japan, a very good piece of 
a fine greyish ambergris was found upon the 
coasts of Kijuokuni which weighed upwards of 
an hundred cattis, Japanese, that is, 130 lbs. 
Dutch weiglit, and being by much too large to 
be purchased by one person, it was divided 
into four parts, in form of a cross and one of 
the four parts was tendered to him. In 1693, 
after he had left Japan, a tortoise shaped piece 
weighing lbs. 185 Dutch, was -sold by the 
King of Tidori to the Dutch East India Com* 
pany, for eleven thousand rixdoUars, (or up- 
wards of 20001. Sterling.) It was sent to 
Amsterdam the year after, and was kept in the 
Company's Museum. It was of a greyish 
colour, and of a very good sort. It was 
bought on condition that if it should be dis- 
covered to have been in any ways adulterated, 
the money should be restored. The learned i)r. 
Valentine, Frofsesor at Qissen, figured it in 
his Museum Museorum, Lib. 8. c. 28 as did 
alsoEumph in his Amboinsche Raritertkammer, 
T. LI II and LIV from whom, it seems, Yalen* 
tine took it. The ssme author gave an 
accurate description of it, p. 267. Bingley, 
et seq. TAunberg'a Bisiorj^ of Japan, FoL IL 
p. 48. TemMMit* Hinduttan^ Vol. L p. 148. 
Low'i Sarawak^ p. 90. Ta9emier*$ Travels, 
p. 152. * 

AMBERGUBH, a town in India in Long. 
75*^ 58' E. and Lat. 27^ 0' N. 

AMBERWARRA, a town in India in Long. 
79« 10' E. and Lat. 22«> 20' N. 

AMBI JOGHI, a town in India in Long. 
76^ 80' E. and Lat. 18^ 6 1' N. It is generally 
called Hominabad, and is a military station of 
the Hyderabad Contingent. 

AMBOGUDDT, a town in India in Long. 
86^ 48' E. and Lat. 21o ir N. 

AMBOOA, a town in India in Long. 88^ 
26'E3aadLat, 23<'4rN. 


AMBOORA, a town in India in Long. 19^ 
88'E.andLat. 2l''6'N. 

AMEATIE, a town in India in Long. 81* 
45' E. and Lat. 26'' 8' N. 

AMEDGUR, a town in India in Long. 78<^ 
12' E. and Lat. 28<' 14' N. 

AMEEBAH, a town in India in Long. 8i^ . 
8'£. andLat. 21<' 80' N. 

AMERAVUTTY, a river that rises in Travw- 
core and falls into the Cavery near Caroor. 

AMEERGUNGE, a town in India in Long* 
81 «> 48' E. and Lat. Sfi'' 47' N. 

AMEERGUK, a town in India of this name 
in Long. 71^ 56' K. and Lat. 80*86. Another i 
in L. 76«^ 8' E. aud L. 80* 88' N. | 

AMERAH, a town in India in Long. 80^ 
do' £. and Lat. W 81' N. 

AMEBAPOOR, a town in India in Long, ^ 
76«> sr E. and LaL 80^ 28' N. 

AMEUGUR, a town in India in Long. 81^ | 
48' £. and Lat n"^ 44' N. 

AMERKOTE, a town on the border of ilie 
desert of the Ghnrra- See Baber. Hamayoo. 

AMERPOUR, a town in India in Long. 86* 
ir E. and Lat 26<^ 9' N. Another in L. 81* 
ll'E. andL. 84« 24' N. 

AMGOW, a town in India in Long. 81<' Sf 
E. and Lat 19^ 82' N. 

AMINAGUR, a town in India in Long. 87* 
0' E. and Lat 82* 45' N. 

AMIRDHOB, Hind. A name of the 
Cynodon dactylon. Amongst the Rajputs^ thi 
father binds the root around th< arm of 'a umtk 
bum son. 

AMIRPOOR, a town in India in Long. 80^ 
41' E and Lat 26* 41' N. 

AMIR labia, a native of Slasvin, henc^ 
his patronymic Kasvini, died there A D. 155^ 
He wrote the Lubbat-ul-tuarekh. See Kaavinv 

AM JAR, a river near Makndura in Kotah. 

AMLAS, a town in India in Long. 80® lOlT 
E. and Lat 23<> 50' N« 

AMMAPURAM, a town in India in Long* 
77*^ 50' B, and Lat 16« 67' N. 

AMMER8EE, a town in India in 
88'^ 0' E. and Lat. 22"^ 6' N. 

AMMROLY, a town in India in Long. 79^ 

8' E. and Lat. 12« 44' N. 


AMBER, LIQUID. Liquid Amber. 

Nan-tu-yok ... Bubm. | Liqnid-Ambar ... E o/ 
RasarMalay ... Malay. | Mia-Sailah 

A resinous fluid, obtained from trees tbtff 
grow in N, America, Mexico, the Levant^ i|| 
the Tenasaerim Provinces, and Java, and oecj 
to mix with Balsam of Peru. I'he bark ^ 
Liquidamber altingia is bitter, hot aisdj 
aromatic, and when wounded afforda th^ 
balsam : a similar substan^ is obtained from 




L orieotale of the Levant islands ; and L. 
itmeiflDa of Mexico. — Mas<m*9 Ttnasiesrim, 
(rBhngheafy p. 955-610-611. See Liquid- 
iBber ikiogia ; orieotale ; alyraciflaa. 

AMBHA, a goddess worshipped by tbe 
lathis. See Rajpoot in Cyc. of Ind. Supp. ii. 

AM6HASTA. Sans. A man born of a 
bnkmaa father and ? aisya mother, bjr pro- 
ieiMD a physician . — WiUon 

AMBATTAN. Tam. ^ihuilL^&st Barber. 

AUBICA, a deity of the Hindu mythology. 

AMBISAC£S, king of the Indian moun- 
tiioeen, who sent ambassadors with presents 
to Alexander, on his crossing over to Taxilas. 
Beooell supposes his tribe to have been the 
ttcestors of the Qhikars. — Cyc. of Ind. Sup. 
i Idui, p. 434 KAtirL 

AHBITTEYO tbe barber race of Uvah in 
Ge^, who are regarded as more vile than the 
li^t.^fainmiV9 Ceylon. 

AMBLAU. In the Moluccas, an island 
sear the S. E. extreme of Buro, from which it 
h separated by a strait 6 miles wide, which is 
*arofdanzer, but rarely used. Lat. 3** 52' 
8.Lo»g. 127*^ 10* E. There is a small govern- 
neot establishment on the north side 6f the 
iiiaad.— Jonm. Ind. Arch. Dumoni VUrvllh. 

lianl of the Galapagos from 3 to 4 feet long 

A fragrant and very beautiful wood of variova 
colours, used in cabinet work in England. 
The several varieties arc probably «I1 furnished by 
the sametree, which issupposed to he thePteros* 
permum IndicUtn, but this remains to be ascer- 
tained. It is beautifully mottled and curlecT, 
of various tints from light-red to dark-yelloiir, 
and is 'always in small lumps, evidently 
excrescences or burrs cut from trees. The 
several varieties of this wood are principally 
used for inlaying and by the makers of 
ornamental snuff boxes. It is brought from 
Coram and Amboyna, and at the great Exhibi- 
tion of 185 1, it was sent from Sin>{apore. See 
Lingoa wood ; Kyaboca : Plerospermum Indi- 
cum.— *^rc/*^^*, Fauihurr, Land. Sx. Juries' Re- 

AMB00RE8A. Tak. and Tel. Woman's 
coloured cotton cloths. See Cloths. 

AMBOYNA, a high island of the Moluccas 
in the Eastern Archipelago, 33 to 36 miles long 
and the iargestr of the group. In this island 
in the year 1622-3, the Dntch disgraced them-^ 
selves by the dark 6ee<\^ known in English 
history under the name of ** The Massacre of 
Amboyna " On that occasion they put eigh- 
teen Englishmen to the rack, and afterwards 
beheaded nine of them. One Portuguese and 
nine Japanese were put to death at the same 
time, as accomplices with the English. Amboyna 
was captured I6ih February 1706. The Am« 

wjl a ereat on its head, which is short and boynese tire middle sieed, well made and better 

aUuelv troncated, and broader than loni?. 

Ae Doath can be opened to a very small 

Qtettt. It is common on all the islands of that 

tfeli(Kiigo, on rocky sea beaches, and is never 

fowl ten jards ia s^iore. It is a hideous 

l*<kiB{ereaiareof a dirty black colour, stupid 

■iifaiggish in its moTementa. 

A3CB0LON, an island /ronting the Min- 
tao Stndt.— > irora6Kr^>i. 

AMBONG, in Borneo a town in Lat. 6^ 

»26"N. Long. 116» 15' 38" E. (Sit E, 

Ueiwr) has a snug harbour on the coast of 

kraeo, which was examined by Sir E. Belcher, 

'R. M. S. Samarang, a few years ago. The 

^eoAsists of a few huts inhabited by Malays, 

^^eots of the Saltan of Borneo or his 

^■femis. The famous mountain Kina Balu 

hiiu E. S. E. direction from the head of 

fcW»ur, distant 27 miles, and adds much 
IjMhs btaniy of the neighbouring scenery. 
I^Mt is ineonsiderabk, but is likely to 
I Jj^ie, The "Orang Dnsun" or aborigines at 
iSi^ ^ Borneo reside close to the coast. 
I jjjka of a good breed, and b^es wax are 
l>Nabl#, but water is scarce in the dry 
1^^^ September to November. -^/owwa/ of 
■rW^re*, Vol. IV, No, 5 and VL May, 
f 1850. 


suited for military duties than the other 
Moluccan races. They are good-tempered, 
(hough impetuous; quarrelsome but easily 
Hppeased, and generally very sober. Capital 
crimes are raru but occasional thefts occur. 
The island, like the other Spice Islands, is volcan- 
ic and with Bwnda, Ternate, Tidore, forms a 
sub-uovernment of J^va. ^ Hopeiidorpj Coup 
d'csUsur Java quoted in John's Indian Jrchi- 
pflago. Crav>Jurd*8 Malay Grammar and Die- 
iionary. Vol. /. p. 131,32,33. Horsburyh. 
UacFarlane, Geo. and His. of Jap^n, ;?. 44. 
See India p. 357. in Cyo. of Ind. Supp. ii- Java. 
Kaya Boka ; Melaleuca Cajaputi, Pulo Gasaea. 
Pulo pisang, 

AMBUJ. Hind. The lotus: Nelumlnuity 
speciosu m . — Wiltd. 

AMBUL-BEL. Beko. Pytbomium bul- 

AMBUPRASA-DANA. Singh. Water nut, 
for purifying water. 

AMBUR in Lat. l'2« 48, N. and Long. 
TS"* 43 £. A town in the Carnatic, on the right 
bank of the Palac river, elevated above the sea, 
1,053 ft. Schl. 

AMBUB BATTI. Hind, A perlum«d 
i pastille, used in India, made of frankincensev 

o*; 13 




Ambaai DCk. Hind. | Ambitsi Hind. 

Mahb. I Kucherian , 

Dried Mangoes .. Eng. | Manga- vattal ... Tam. 
Amurya Quz. | Mamidi varagu... Tbl. 

Green mangoes sliced lengthways, salted and 
sun-dried and used in curries. Made every- 
where, but that of Goa roost prized. — Faulkner, 

AMBUT. DuK. Embelia pectandra, abo 
Bpondias acuminata. 

AMBYA PATA. Hind. Beno. Hibiscus 

AMDHUKA. Beno. Hinb. Vitis Indica.— ■ 

AMD A. HiNj>. Spondias mangifera. 

AMDOAN. A Tibetan nomade race, who 
dwell iu tents of linen, hexagonal and without 
jframes* — Laikdm, 

AMENdO. Port. Aroygdalus communis. 

AMERI. Maleal. c^i^do). Indigofera 

tinctoria. — Linn* 

AMERICA, seems to have been peopled 
from Phcenicia, Asia, Africa and Iceland* 
There are physiological resemblances amongst 
the tribes, but differences in language, physi- 
ognomy, and modes of existence ; the Abbe 
Domenech supposes their origin to have been 
from Scythians, Hebrews^ Tartars, Scendina- 
nians and Welsh. M. de Guignes in Recherches 
aur les navigations des Chinois, du Cote de' 
I'Amerique states that under the name Fu- 
Sang, America is accurately described in a 
Chinese work of the 5th century as a land in 
the far East. Mr. Logan* in the Journal of 
the Indian Archipelago mentions that the pre- 
vailing types of physical structure amongst 
the Chinese, have relation to the Mongolian and 
Tibetan and American forms, and that the 
American heads in plates 30—- 1, 5, 6 and 7 of 
Prichard'a Natural History of Man are Chinese. 
—Jbbe Domenech ; Pfichard- SeeFusang, Jour. 
Ind. Arch. Dec. 1852, p. 663. 
AMERICAN ALOE. Eno. Agave Americana. 



FraseraCarolinensis and F. "W a Iteri, fraudulently 
substituted for Cocculus palmatus. 

AMERICAN SUMACH. Eng. Casalpinia 


AME-SA. BuRM, Anona squamosa. 
AMETASTINE. Vegetable Parchment. 

Martis... «•■ ••• An. 

Amethyst Eno. 

Amethyste Fr. 

Amethyst... »f ...Gbr: 
afisBvirog .. ••« ... Qa. 
Sang-i-Solimant ...Hind. 
Amatista... ... ••• It. 

Amethystus "Lat, 

Martas Malxy. 

Sang-l-Solimani . Pbbs. 
Ametisto*., ... Port. 

Skuandi Sinqh. 

Ametisto • Sp. 

Sugandi Kallu .. Tam. 

The Amethyst is mentioned in Ex. xxviii. 

!•, and xxxix, 13, but under this term two 

different minerals are knorni, viz. occidental or 


I the common amethyst, one of the inferior gem) 
a quartzoze mineral, found in amygdaloid trap 
rocks in all countries; but in vast quantities 
amongst the volcanic rocks of the Dekhan : some 
beautiful specimens of amethyst crystals occur 
in dykes of quartz near Bowenpiily at Secun- 
derabad. Its colour is of every shade of pur- 
ple violet ; some of these are valued, for it is 
almost the on^ stone that can be worn with 
mournings. When the colour of a specimen 
has to be equalized, it is placed iu a mixture 
of Sand and iron filings and exposed to a mo> 
derate heat. The Oriental Amethyst is also of h 
purple colour but is an extremely rare gem and 
belongs to the corUndums. Its colour can be 
destroyed by heat and its purity then resembles 
that of the diamond. 

AMPUK. A kind of Gloih.— 8 immonds. 

AMGOOLEE. Hind. Syn. ofElasagnua 

AM HA R A, one of the Semitic races, in 
AMca. Their language, the Amharic, as also 
the Hebrew and Syrisc, is derived from the 
Western Aramaic- See Iran : also Semitic races. 

AMHERST, a small town and pilot statioa 
in a peninsula on the left bank at (he mouth 
of the Moulmein river, in L. 16*4^ N« and 
L. 97 32 E. The inlmbitants are 5484, and 
the people of the district are the. Talieng or 
Mon. Amherst is built on tertiary strata, over- 
lying transition limestone. In the roads, the 
greatest rise and fall occurs in 2 days after full 
and change, is 21 to 23 feet. Tbe velocity of 
tide at springs is 6^ knots per hour. It w as 
proposed to be formed into a sanatarium for 
European soldiers of Burmah^ but the 
ailments there are of a kind needing a cool or 
a dry climate. A dangerous reef of rocks thus 
across the mouth of the Moulmein river, from 
Amherst light-house. See Mon. Talien. 


This is the finest indigenous flowering trc^e 
in Chin-India, Its very large scarlet flowers, 
are variegated with white and yellow. It is 
of low stature, with slender pendulous branch- 
es and large pea blossom shaped flowers of 
brilliant red and yellow, which hang down in 
tassels more than a yard long. It was dis- 
covered by Dr. Wallich on the Salwen near 
Trockla, and named by him afler Lady Am- 
herst, the Noble Amherstia. There is a fine 
tree at the door of the Judicial Commissioner's 
house on Moulmein Hill. It has been intro«- 
duc^d into England where every tree is aaid 
to be worth fifty pounds. 

'* Nor all the rich flowers 
Of Albion's bowers 
Can vie with its purpliog shade." 

It flowers in March. — MaiO», Foi^t, 
AMIANTHUS. Syn. of Aabeatus. 
A MID AM. Ger. Starch. 


AMIDON. Fb. and Sp. Siarcb. 

AMIR. Ar : Hind. Pbrs .- a noble -. also 
I title of nobility equivalent in some Asiatic 
ooaatiiea to King as in the case of Amir Dost 
Mahoned Khao, king of Kabul. Also, an oifi- 
oil designation as Amir-nl-Bahr Admiral or in 
Noe places, harbour master ; Amir-us-Sooq 
ebiefol the markets, equivalent to the Indian 
Kolwai. Amirzadeh literally " born of a chief> 
orinioee/' This word reappears abbreviated 
a " Miru," which is always sutiixed to the 
BtM in designating a prince of the blood 
B Abbu MirzA, who was the king of Persia's 
m, but is a prefix when honorific, like the 
Ea^b Mr. as Mirza Abdul Baki Khan. 

AMIRANTE ISLANDS, the aouth-western 
fnap of tbe Seychelles, consisting of several 
dctiebed smsll islands, coral reefs and banks. 

AMIRUL-MOMANIN. Literally Prince 
of the faithful, is a title assumed by several 
Anbiin princes, in addition to that of imam. 
Setlmim. Eraser's Journey in Kborusan. 

AMIR UZUN DELEMI, in the tenth 
eeitttrj constructed the Band-amir over the 
Aitxei, and from whence the river Kum Firoz, 
tiler iisjanction with the Murghab, derived its 
Hue. See Bendafneer. 

AMJUEAH. See Sanatoria. 

AMLOUKA. Bbno. Vitis Indica. 

AMKUDU eo§o2^\ >^'righteatinctoria, R. 

Br. Neiiam tinct. R. ii. 4. 

AM-KULANG. Tam. Phyaalis somnifera 
m. P. flexuosa, Nees. 

AML Ar. Per. Hind. An act, a reign : a 
»le: carrying into efiert, hence Amil and 
Anildar, a revenue officer, Amla. PL 

AMLA,alsoAMLAKI, Sans.Ahlbh.Peks. 
^ ANOLA, Bbno. Guz. Hind. Sans. 
l^l>nthoseroblica orEmblion officinalis. Oaert 
^ Enbtie or shrubby Myrobalan. 

AMLAJ. Abab. ^i^j Phyllanthus em- 
Wio. ^ 

AMU VETASAMU, S, wasb-SdfsJw. 

<^>kBiis fascicnlatus, R ? This Sans, com- 
P^diignifies " sour-cane"^ hence it is ap- 
ifaUe to any species ctf Calamus yielding an 
^ vegetable or fruit. C. fascularis, is the 
^Tileat of Sahasravedhi. — It might refer to 

is a Malay — not an 

Ben 6. a species of 

ttiew««B/M~ but this 
ladiia pUnt— Br. 68. 


AMLI OR IMLI. UiND. Tamarind. 

AHUKA TlNTlLI. Sans. Tamarindas 



AMLAH. Pbbs. aJU J Phyllanthus era- 

AMLTAS. Di}K. HiNi). 
sia fistula. 

(jn UJU I Cas- 

Emblica officinalis. 

Shrubby Myrobalan. 

AMLUKI. Beno. Acacia stipulata ? ? 

AMMANI-AMMA. The hindu term for the 
image of the virgin. See Hindu. 


Bfiu M&r&cb Beno. ] Dad Mari Hind. 

Blistering Ammannia ... ( Agni Vendrapaku. .Tel. 

£no. I 

An annual found in Bengal and the Indian 
peninsula in wet land during the rains, 6 
to 36 inches high. It has a strong smell like 
muriatic acid ; leaves exceedingly acrid, em- 
ployed by the natives as blisters in rheuma- 
tism ; Dr. O'Shaughnessy tried them in eight 
eases- The bruised leaves had been removed 
from all after half an hour ; blisters were not 
produced in less than 12 hours in any, and in 
three individuals not for 24 hours, and the pain 
occasioned was agonizing nntil the blister rose. 
These leaves cause more pain than cantimrides, 
and are far inferior to the plumbago (lal chitra) 
in celerity and certainty of action. The Te- 
lugu name indeed, means fire leaf. Wight 
also gives figures of A. pentandra and A. 
rotundi folia, and Voigt, A. Indica and A. mul- 
iifiora. ^0*Skauffkne99y, pa ffe S3l, Voigi, 180. 
Roxh.l. 427. 

AMMAN, in the peninsula of India, an 
idol, worshipped in every village, and identi- 
cal with Amma and Ammani Amma. It is one 
of the many village deities of which neither the 
Puranas nor Vedas make any mention. Every 
hamlet has its ownj always supposed to be a 
goddess, and it is usually a stone turned black 
by oil ofi'erings and time. The word is un- 
derstood by the villagers to mean mother and 
does not seem to have any connection with the 
Semitic word Am'n and Ammon or Ammon- 
fia of the Egyptians, their Sem-god and Ruler- 
god, who was represented in the human figure. 
The villagers style their deity by many affixed 
names, Ankal- Amman, Mang-Kali-Amma. Poni 
Amma or golden-mother ; Kani-Amma, MutiaU 
Amma or pearl mother, Paleri Amma or 
great goddess and other local affixed names, the 

j meanings of which are not apparent. The 
Mahratta villagers have the same female deity 
whom they name Ai, or mother. The villagers 
offer sacrifices and those of sheep, goats and 
fowls are made, also cocoannts and fruity 
frankincense, camphor and ghi are bumea, 

I palm-wine, dhal (cytiaus oajan.} There seems no 




doubt that it is the reimiant of a very anoi^nt 
worship, the origin of which is uow dnkaown. 
The villagers believe that these goddesses pro- 
tect them from sickaessea and from losses, or 
mitigate these. A pujali or pujari, a worship-* 
plug priest of the Sudra CAste is appointed for 
its daily worship. He anoints it with ashes 
on its head, or rather on the top of the atone, 
for it is no iinnge, but a mere shapeless stone. 
In a small pot he cooks the rice, which he 
collects from the hamlet people in rotation, 
presents it to the idol, and then takes it to his 
own house. He breaks a cocoanut in front of the 
idol, and oiera it also, but the one- half he 
keeps to himself and gives the other to the 
family from whom he- obtained the fruit. The 
village offerings are in fulfilment of vows, or 
offerings of fowls and sheep, if the goddess 
will grant their desires, and once n year the 
▼illagers collect money by subscriptions, and 
celebrate a festival in honour of their deilv, 
during which sheep and fowls are largely sacri- 
Heed. The Sudra hindus and the entire ser- 
vile tribes in the south of India, hare the fullest 
faith in their respective village goddesses. 
When they or theii* children are overtaken by 
aickness, they seek the idol and consult the 
pujari, who sings songs ^ affects to hear the 
Amman's voice, and then announces to the 
worshipper theotferinv that must be presented. 
If cholera break out it is not unusual for some 
neighbouriug village deity suddenly to rise into 
great importance and the sacrificial rite is then 
almost unceasingly performed. The hindus 
have even personified that pestilence into a 
goddess whom they have named Maha-Kali 
and believe that if they neglect her worship 
she destroys tliem by the disease. Indeed gods 
are still in process of establishment and small- 
jjox and cholera, have thus been personified, 
Maha-Kali of Ujjaiu being the goddess of 
cholera and Mari-Amman of the Tamils a small- 
pox deity. In South India, this deity is invariably 
-^Temale, Ai, Em, Amma, Ma, Mamma, being 
the natural term amonur&t all races, for mother, 
Ha in the 'Em of the Hebrews, the Ma of the 
Ei;yptians. The most high god, Eliun, or 
Hetyun, the creator of man, seems early to have 
been forgotten, and to have come to be wor- 
shipped under various names, ail meaning 
Lord, and then a wife whs given to him also 
known under various names, Baaltis is, i.e. 
mistress queen ;.Hastoreth, i. e. in the Greek 
form Astarte, who as Baltes was worshipped 
at Byblus with her husband Adonis. But the 
secret worship of the mother of God, also 
called Amma, was especially celebrated in the 
shrine of Aphaka at Byblus, near the river of 
Adonis. The Amman of the southern hindus 
may therefore be a oosmogonic term, indica- 
tive of the great Creator, the Most High God's 
Will. SeQ* C^c. of India, An^man ; Amma- 

varu : Hindoo : 9aGrifice.-r~^«»9eV« ^^, I. 
r, alio Sharpest Egjfpt, L 2i2. See Hindi*, 

AMMOX, The Egyptian deity originally 
worshipped in the hunsau figure, at Thebes in 
upper £gypt» and at Thebes, latterly with tbe 
head of a ram* He was displaced afterwards in 
favour of another idol, in the reign of Taih- 
mosia III. He is supposed to be the Zeus of 
the Greekd, and was styled Amn, or Ammon. 
Amn-ra or Ammonra. He origiiially corres-' 
ponded with the Sun-god, was the highest 
of the first order of gods, and was the raler 
deity. He was styled the sou of Isis and his 
son was Khunso, is the hidden god of' the 
Thebaid and the Zeus of the Greeks. The 
origin of this worship is supp^osed to have been 
Semitic. It may have been identical with tbe 
Amman of the raoes in peninsular India, and 
amongst northern people directed to the warm 
sun and to the earth, in the sunny south. Bun- 
sen, i, V. See Amman. Am ma varu ; Hindoo \ 
Sacrifice. — Sharpens Hut of Egypt, Vol, 7. p, 

AMMON, an oasis in Egypt on which stood 
the temple of Amun-Ra, whose figure was 
that of a roan having the head and horns of 
a ram. — Shafpe*9 HUiory of Egypt, FeL /. 
p. 222. 

AMMAVARU, a cruel sacrificial rite, prac- 
tised amongst the hindu Sudras and low-caate 
races of the southern part of Peninsular India, 
where on the occasions of a great cholera 
epidemic or other calamity, a bullock is impaled 
alive to appease the angry goddess Devi. See 
Hindoo : Sacrifice. 

AMMONIA. Eng. Lat. 

Liquid Ammonia... Eno. j Ammoniaque? 

Volatile Alkali 


I Ammoniak ? 

Spirits of Hartshora. „ | Sal-voUtilo... 



This ii a limpid colourless fluid, exceed- 
ingly volatile, has a pungent smell and a 
caustic taste, and in medicine is a useful stinou* 
lant. The name of this substance is derived firom 
the oasis of Ammon in Upper Egypt where the 
muriate was gathered as the product of iiuimnl 
remains. It is now obtained in Europe frona 
uoal in the process of gas- making and con- 
verted into several compounds by other pro- 
cesses. — Tomlineon, 


Smelling Suits ... £no. 1 Carbonate d*Ammo- 

I niaqae^. ... 

Tni% now wholly an imported article, 
known to the hindus who. obtained U by 
mixing one part of sal ammoniac with twQ> 
parts of chalk.' It is now obtained by a 
subsequent process after the manufaoture of 
coal gas.. 




AMMONJA, Uydrociilorate of. 

Arguaa .. 

• mm «&M» 

fis*-Wttt>tbm ... 


Mimat«uf A mmoDia.KKG. 

Si] Ammoniac . 


^ohiga alBu 


. DUK. 



• •• f R* 

Saltuiak ... 




AmmoiiisQ Murias. Lat. 

„ UydrochlMra& «, 

Sail&r MALA.r. 

Sohaga also Nosha- 

dar Armiuah... Pers. 
Sohaga and also 

Nuosadar. ... 8 Aire. 
Ufavasfttam. ... Taji. 


This is met with in ^rreai abuadaace in every 
bntai of ludia* U U a volcanic prod act, but 
Dr. Royle obtained it from brick kiiua in 
India. Its name is derived^ from the oi^sis 
of AmiBon where it was early known, for it \a 
tke NasbftJar of Avicenna and Serapioa. In- 
deed, it was first obtained in E<;ypt near the 
tflopke of Jupiter Ammon, whence its name, 
bj cublimatioQ from ti^ aoot of earners dun«, 
Ilie ^yptian process has been described both 
by Poeocke and Niebuhr. Pococke mentions 
that the dung of pigeons, cows, camels and 
other animals, is mixed with chopped straw 
aiid made into cakes as firewood ; it is now 
nanufaciared largely in Europe, by combiuing 
hydrochloric acid, eitiier directly, or indirectly, 
vith ammonia obtained from the decomposi- 
iNHi of animal matter. In France, by the dis* 
tillation of bones, in iron retorts, but in Britain, 
frooi the ammoniacal salts contained in the 
liquor resttltiog from ihe distillation of coal in 
toe gas works. During its solution in water, 
the temparatore falls several degrees; it is used 
by tinmen to clean the surface of their metals 
and to facilitate the soldering of iron and cop- 
per aad prevent the oxydation of the copper ; 
it is also sometimes employed by dyers, to 
bfi^hten their colours. Dissolved in nitric acid, 
it forms the agna reQia of commerce, used for 
dissolving gold, instead of nitro-hydrochloric 
acid. It is also used in small quantities in 
sieam boilers, to prevent the formation of cal- 
caiwaa deposits. It is used for adulterating 
tobacco. — Tomlinson. Aintlie. Beag, Piarma^ 
p. 239. Bingky I. 133. Ro^le. Niebuhr's Tra- 
9eUy FoL /. p, 90. Peacock's Description of 
OeEoit, Vol. Lp. 259. 


F«Jiiik ; Ushok ? 


Gom AniDioiiiac... Esq, 
G«naM AmiDoniaqae Fr, 

Annonik Qen. 

Asiy^ck Quss. 

Sftnagh.Hamamaf Htni>. 

The Dorcma ammoniAcum of Don (Linn 
TttBs. XVI. 601) yields this product 
fftn its stem and fruils. According to Liu'iley 
thi pisnt grows in Persia on the plains 
of Tttde Kaust, and Kumisha in the pro- 

Ab. I Astrak ? Hind. 

„ j Qomma Amiuouiaco. It. 

Ainmoniacam Lat. 

t<&magh bhia Shirin ? 

also Oshak ... Pans. 
Goma AmiD»nlaco...Sp. 

axpoaed to t1^ sun, and Uie gum reein is import** 
ed is^o India via Bombay from the Persian Gulf, 
and re-exported to different countries. It is 
oi^taifted by indsions in the plant, and occurs 
in volumiiioiJia masses of yellowish colour, en* 
dosing white almond -like tears* It is principally 
employed as an expectorant in the ehrunio 

^, catnrrhs and asthmas of uld persons. It is 

Tel. I aUo applied externally as a warm and stimulat- 
ing piaster. — O'Shaughneasy, ^6^.-^ Faulkuer, 
page 3 95. 

AMMONITE, a fossil genus of molluscs, 
wkicb seem. to have existed extensively in all 
parts of the world daring the period that the 
chalk fonuatioiis were being deposited, and the 
genera have been widely diffused. They occur 
in great abundance and of great size, some 
three feet across, in the supra cretaceous strata 
between Iricbinopoly and Pondicherry, and 
were described by Mr. Brooke Cunliffe, Cap- 
tain Newbold and Mr, Xayes. Dr. Gerard 
found in the Himalaya, at an elevation of 
16,000 feet, what he described ao A. Walcottii 
and A, Communis, which occur in the Lias 
at Lyme Esgii*, but in this he was mistaken. 
Most of those discovered have been named. 
Amongst them are Amm. Madrasianus : 
Kandi : Kalika iBmilianus : Bhima : Bhawnni 
Ptanulatus, Denisonianus. Beud'anti; Vaju; 
peramplus : Durga, very fine : Quia ; revelatus : 
garuda. The Hindu names so frequently 
occurring ;>are in consequence of the suiva hindus 
worshipping several species of ammoniies under 
the name of Saligrama. See Saligramma. 

AMMONITES, the children of Ben-Ammi, 
the son of Lot, by his younger daughter. 
They were disfiosaessed by the Hebrews, and 
afterwards for 18 years strove to reconquer their 
lands, greatly oppressing all the children of 
Israel who dwelt beyond the Jordan river. They 
were ultimately driven back by Jephthab, the 
Gileadite. See Judges x. S, 9 ; xi. i» 
4 & 27. 

AMNA. Beng. Spondias mangifera. 

AMODL It. Starch. 

AMOGHVERSHA, King of Tonda. Mun- 
dalam, in the South of India, in whose reign, 
in the 9th or 10th centuries, the Jain faith 
was introduced. 

AMOK, also AMUCK, Mala^ ; a furioua 
reckless onset, the muck or the ^' run-a-muck'* 
of the English. 

AMOMA MORINGA. Louu. Moringa ptery- 
gosperma. Gsertn. 

AMOHUM, a genus of phuits of the nitural 
order Zingiberacem, of which. Voigt enumerates, 
nine species as having been grown in the^ 
vicinity of Calcutta ; viz., aculeatum, angusti- 
folium,^ aromaticum, cardamomum, corno- 

Kluttl^ ia very dry plains, and gravelly soil 

^iwfc of Irak, and near the town of Jezud strachyum> dealbatum, maximum, sisriceum. 

and subulatum. The Paradise gr^ins^ on 



Malagnetfa pepper the A. graDa paradiai, is 
not of India> but of the Guinea Ooast, as is 
also the A. grRndiflora. 

native of Madagascar, cultivated in the 
Mauritius and India, the fruit is the greater 
cardamoms of the old writers. Its flowers 
are pretty Inrge, blood-red, yelioWy spicy and 
fragrant^ and every part of the plant when 
bruised or wounded diffuses a strong pleasant 
aromatic smell. — O'Shaughnessy, p. 650. 
Hoxb. L 89. Vaigt. 667. 

Malay Archipelago, with crimson spots on 
deep orange flowers. — Roxb. L 40. Voijit, 667. 

rung-ilachi. Hind, has middle sized flowers with 
lip tinged with red down the middle It 
is a native of Chittagong and the valleys of 
the Eastern frontiers of Bengal, the fruit has si- 
milar properties to those of the tme'carda* 
moms, for which they are often sold to the 
druggists of India. 0*Shaug, p, 650. Voigi. 


Cardamomum mumua. Rumph, , 

Ben BuBM. I Yelani Tam. 

Eapalaga ... Malay. I Yolakalu Tel. 

Elachi DcK. Hivd. I 

This beloitt^s to Sumatra, the Moluccas, and 

the Atteran forests, but is cuUivaled in India* 

It has middle sized pellucid flowers, with 

a yellow middle line on the Up. Its feeds 

are agreeably aromatic and are used by the 

Malays for the true Malabar cardamoms, viz. 

Elettaria cardamomum.-— //tii«/f> USat. Med, 

p' 270. Roxb. 1. 37. O^SAaughnetsy, 655. 

Foiffi, 567. 


A plant of the teak forests of Martaban, 

with large white flowers,— Foigt. 568. 

of Elettaria cardamomum. Mai, 

AMOMUM CURCUMA. Gmel. Syn. of 
Curcuma longa. 

elachi of Silhet according to O'Shaughnessy 
P' 650, but Roxburgh says that the seeds are 
insipid. It grows in Chittagong and Bilhet. 
—Roxb. I. 43. O'Sh. 660. Voigt. 567. 

AMOMUM GALANGA. Locb. Syn. of 
Alpinia galanga. 

AMOMUM HIR8UTUM. Lam. Syn. of 
Costus speoiosus. 

AMOMUM MAXIMUM, according to Pe- 
reira, yields the great winged cardamoms, re- 
ferred by Lindley to Elettaria. It is a plant 
of the lifahiy Islands. Its seeds are warm and 
pungent, with an aromatic taste, not unlike 
that of Cardamoms, but less grateful. — Roxb. 
L43. 0*«. 650, Foigt- 567. 

Syn. of Curca- 
KoEN. Syn. of 


AMOMUM NUTAR. Under this name. 
Dr. Riddell describes a flowering plans 
throwing out long branches with drooping ] 
panicles of wax-like flowers, a native of some 
of the Eastern Islands, which has never been 
known to give seed. The only flower approach- . 
ing near it in beauty, is one of the parasitea 
blossoming in May at Mahabuleshwar. — Rid- 

Elettaria cardamomum, Maton. 

AMOMUM REPENS. Roxb. Willde. Syo. 
of Elettaria csrdamomum, Maton. 

AMOMUM SERICEUM. Roxb. of the i 
Khassya mountains, has large white flowers, 
lip yellow with pink veins in its centre. Voigt. 

ilachi. Beng. a hirge flowered species of the 
Khassia Hills.— /?ox6. /. 44. 

ma eedoaria. — Roxb, 

Curcuma zedoaria.<-» i2ox6. 

AMOMUM ZINGIBER. Lin. Syn. of Zin- 
giber oflicinale, Roscoe. 

AMOOD, a town in India in Long, ll"* h^' 
E. andLnt. 24'' 89 N. 

AMOOKANAM [root) : Tam. jg^QP^m&u:^ 
root of Pbysalis somnifsra. 

AMOOR, River. See Amur, also Kalkaa. 

AMOQUID. BicoL. Musa textilis. 

AMORITES, a mountain race who joined 
with the Hittites to oppose the Hebrews, but 
were driven by Joshua from their positions 
near Hebron, and iheir kingdom and country 
to the South of Jabbok captured. 

AMOOS. Akab. (J»»j^ Ptychotis ajowain ; 

Ajwaiii seed. 

Andersonia cncullata. — Roxh, 
Amoorai. — Rtng. 

A tree of the Sunderbans with small yellovr 
flowers.— Fw^. 


Anderaonia-rohituka. Roaib. 
Meleacea Wightiaoa. Wall. 
Spbaeroaacme rohituka. Wall. 

Hiogul gasa. , 
Shem maram 





TikU-raj Bino. 

Cbayaa-«a-yo6. Rurm. 
Harrin-bara. ... HiisD. 
Harrin-hara ... ,« 
Chem-mara... Malbal. 

A native of the peninsula of India, Travan- 
core, the Central provinces of Ceylon up to 
8,000 feet, Bengal, Moulmain, and, though 
scarce, found in the forests of Tounghoo. 
The wood is white coloured and adapted to 
every purpose of house building. The seed^ 
yield an oil, which is used for various eeondmic 



ptfpo0ee.-ieoxd. //. S13. Voigi, 184. lie- 
CkOoBd. CaLCat. Bx. 1868. Usrful tUmU, 
fkxMkt Em. pi. Genl. L 60. 



Aglnia polystachia. Wall. 

A tree of the Khassya Hills, with pale, 
jeUowish fragrant flowers. Voigi. 

AMORPUOPHALLUS, a genus of plants 
bdoBgiog to the Aracese, of which Wight, in 
Imes, mentions balbifer, amorphophallus^ 
■u^ritifer and syWaticus. 


TU8, Bl. 


Arum campanulatum, Roxh. m. 500. 
A Ramphiif Gaudich. 
A. Zeylanicum, Conrnd. 
CaDdarum, Schott, Roxbnrghu. 

Wi BuBM, I Koruna... 

f«iiDgi P«Uto... Shg. 

(M Hind. 

toonm Mabb? 

Kftritt Malbal. 


Kanda SaxbI 

Karan^kalongu. Tav, 
Hanchi kanda 
gadda Tel. 

Much cultivated in India, Ceylon, Bunnah 
lad tke Moluccas. It needs a very rich soil, and 
ft|«itedly ploughed. Its roots are used like 

ru^ are nutritious, and wholesome and sell 
Beagtl for a rupee « niaund. The small 
fcberosities on the roots are set before the 
in very rioh soil, after repeated plough- 
asd are dug up after a year, when the 
veigh from lbs. 4 to 8, in Kaina Ziliah, 
bijili yielded 100 to 250 maunds. Jikffr^. 
oyL ft86. See VegeUbles of S. India, 
iiorpiupballua bulbifer ; macgaritifer. 

AMOUAH, a town in India in Long. 84'' 
ft' 8. and Lat. 

AXOUNAH, a town in India in Long. 82" 
i' I. and Lat. 27** 20' N. 

AMOT, called by the fisherman Haenun, is 
nJaod on the S. £. of China about 22 miles 
drcumferenoe* The town of Amoy is 
tnted on the S. W. part of the island, 
the small island of Ku4ttng-sU| which 
protection to the town, anchorage or 
karbour. On the western side of the 
is that of Woo-aeu-ehany also that of 
[jNHm. Amoy was taken 9th June 1842, and 
over to the British, after the first 
war of 1841*2, and forms one of the 
Bs there, Shanghai, and Hong-Kong 
(Aets. — HonbMrgk. 

41IPHIB1A, a term from the Greek, 
I to rapiales and quadruped aninuds 

Jbe either in the water or on land. 
wUIBON AX, a genua of planU belong- 

t6(|ft Panicaeeas, of which A. ampbidonax ; 


Bengaleasis ; and bifaria are known. The 
species have been brought from the genern, 
Aira, Arundo and Donax. 



Arundo karka. Betz. Roxh. Lind. 

„ Roiburgbii. Kunth 
Trichoon karka. Uoih. 
Calamagrostia karka. Omd. 

Kal, also Nul 
Darma .. 
Munia fibre. 




Eikkaaa gaddi. Til. 
Pavvu-gatti gaddi ... ,, 

This plant grows in Bengal and Siude, and 
from its split stalks are made the common 
Durma mats of Bengal, used there as ships 
dunnage : the fibres also are made into ropes. — 
Voigt 714. Rag^. 

Bignoniacese — a pretty climber with purple 
flowers, well adapted for trellis work in India. 

AMPHION REHNAUDir. a Phyllosoma 
crustacean of the Indian ocean. 

groups, in the northern part of the China 
Sea. — Hortburgh. 

AMPULLARIA. A genus of molluscs with 
globular formed shells, many of which are found 
iti the moist meadows, rirera and tanks of India. 
Their colours are usually tame. 

AM-PULLUM. Tam. Mango. 

AMPHILLA, the most miserable spot on the 
coast of Abyssinia. In regani to anchorage, 
facilities for landing, &c., it is not to be com- 
pared to MassowaH ; according to the admiral- 
ty charts it is very circnmscribed and intricate* 

AM<^UTASi a Greek Sovereign of the Pa- 
ropamisidsB, who succeeded to the kingdom of 
Lysias after Antialcidas. 

AMRA, a town in India in Long. 87^ 20' 
E. and Lat. 24<' 31 ' N. 

AMBAPOOB, a town in India in Long. 17^ 
2' E. and Lat. 14*> 9' N. 

AMRAWUD, a town in India in Long. 78* 
ir E. and Lat. 22** 59' N. 

AMROOAH, a town in India in Long. 78? 
26' E. and Ui. 28<> 26' N. 

AMROWNIA, a town in India in Long. 
79« 42' E. and Lat. 24? 89* N. 

AMRUN, a river near Nagond in Oonchera. 
AMRA. Beno. Hind. Sans. Txl. Spon- 
dias mangifera, the hog-plum. 

AM RAH SUN. Beno. Corchorus olitorius. 

AM-RAI. Hind. A mango grove. 

AHBAPUR. A town of India L. 30 "=" 25', 
L. 76^28', in the Hyderabad Assigned 


AMBU (also AMJilTA.) 


sue their roiuptuoas toil. Colematt, p. 39. See 

AMRUD. Bbno. The common Pear, Pyrns 

AMRUL. Beng. Procumbent oxalie, Oxalis 
corniculftta. Linn. 

AM RUT. Saks. Psidium pyriferum, the 


ed territories. S. W. of Akola is 1,674 feet f monnlatn tops, while the murmuring^ bees pw 
above the sea. 

AMRITA. Sansc. In Hindu mythologry, 
the beverage of immortality dmnk by the geds. 
It is fabled to have been produced by churn- 
ing the ocean, along with other precious gifts 
to man. Chitra-Rotba, describes, in song, how, 

** Wbilom from the troubled main, 

The 80v'r«iga elephaat- Akavan sprang : 

The breathing shell, that peals of conquest rang ; 

The patient cow ; whom none imploreii in vahi ; 

The milkwhitesteed; the bow with deaf ning clang; 

The RoddesBes of beautyv wealtbj and wine ; 

Flow'rs, that unfading shine ; 

Kar.^yan*8 gem ; the moonlight's tender langnisU ; 

Blue Tenom, source of aDgaiah ; 

The solemn leeobj slow, moving o*er the strandy 

A vase of long-sought Amritinhts hand. — 

To soften human Uls dread Siva drank . 

The pois'nous food that stain'd his azure neck ; 

The rest, thy manaiooa deck. 

High Swerga, stox^d in many a blazing rank. 

. The word Amvrita, means immortal, and ia 
derived from the initial privative and ro'rit 
• death.' The word has been carried into 
the Teutonic and the Imraurt'hal, or ' vale of 
immortality,' at Neufchatel, i» as good Sans- 
crit as German. According lo leucnd, the 
Amrita, was the occasion of the war between 
the Suras and Asuras, in which the gods 
took a part. This iiidii(;ateB ti>e occurrence 


AMKU BIN-LAIS, one of the Arab gover- 
nors of Khorasan after the last of the khalifsi 
whilst the capitals were Merv, Nashapur^ and.] 
Bokhara. In A. D. 900, A. H. 287, he was 
defeated by Ismaet Bin Ahmed the Samani. 

AMUUDDHA. Sanso. In the doctrlneaj 
taught by llamanuja Acharya, one of the formi 
of Indra's manifestations. See Sri Sampradaya. 

AMSHUN* ATr DINIAN. Div.a. Sans. 

AMTEE, a town in India in Long. 77« 19' 
EandLat. 19« sa' N. 

AMUiNDPORE, a town in India iu Long.] 
79^ 20' E. and Lat. 28° 35' N. *' 

AMU, the river Ozus. See Amoo. 

AMUDAPU CHETTU. «sS»tf g^4». Rt-| 
QinuA communis, Z. 

AMULLAR KHANA, 'to eat opium to-1 

gether,' is the most inviolable pledge, nroonjfstfj 

0f the first solar eclipse on iudian record, the Rajputs^ and an agreement rntifled bj tbi 

Modern European commentators conjecture ceremony is stronger than any adjuration. 1 

that it fell on the 25th October in the ^ Rajpoot psy a visit, the first question is 

year 945 before Christ Sir W. Jonei, Hymn to „^«/ Jy^ ? « have y6u had your opiate ? — umu 

Indra, Vol XIII, 278. Tod's liajaslhan, I. 71, 
Captain Edward War^en'sKala Sanhita, Cole- 
man's Hindu Mythology' See Kurma : Lak- 
shmi, in Balfour's Cyc. of India, Supp. ii. 

SURA : A Sikh town, founded by Ramdasu, 
near the Ravi, the name, in Pali, literally the 
•• Lake of Ambrosia," is from the piece of water 
in the midst of which stands the chief temple of 
the Sikhs. It is their principal place of 
worship and chief commercial emporium of nor- 
thern India. The town, ia strongly built and for- 
tified, but as the situation is not a commanding 
Que, it could not Ions: atand a siege with guns of 
a large calibre. — Thomas' Prinseps Anliqvities^ 

f. 180. McGregor' s History oj the Sikhs, Vol, 
. /. 19. See Panjab : Sikhs ; Shawl ; Goa. 

AMRU, Beno. Mango, Mangifera ihdica* 

AMRU, a son of Saba or Abid Shamsh, and 
a grandson of Joktan. He fiJ'st imposed the 
tax or khiraj on Egypt. See Joktan. 

AMRU (also AMRITA?) a tree alluded to 
in the mythic tales of Krishna and Radha, 
whose dalliance was in groves where " the 
Amrita tree, with blooming tresses is- embraced 
by the gay creeper atimuola :" again " dioUght- 
ful are the flowera of the Amru trees on tlie 

Ar/»o,* take your opiate ! On a birth-day, whei 
all the chiefs convene to congratulate theii 
brother on another * knot to his years/ tht 
large cup is brought forth, a lump of opiat< 
put thei'ein, upon which water is poured, am 
by the aid of a stick a aolution 'i^ nade^ t< 
which each helps his neighbour, not with a glati 
but with the hollow of his hand held Co hil 
mouth. — Tod's Rajasthan, Vol. i. p, 644. 

AMULETS are worn by almost all easter^ 
nations. They are' especially prized by mi 
homedHus, of whom both young and old W4 
them.They nre usually put on the young to war] 
off disease and to guard from the evil eye, anj 
consist of fii^ures with numbers on pit ces 
paper, or Arabic words engraved on potstone 
silver or gold and worn from the neck,- 
extracts from the Koran. They are also pi 
over the door porch or on the house wall 
Amongst the Malays of Java, Mustiha meai 
amulet, and is always some very scarce 
supernatural production, which being vro\ 
about the person they suppose acts as 
talisman, and wards off evil. The Mmi 
Kei^ or Buffalo Amulet, is qtiite white, ai 
round like niarble, nearly an inch in diameU 
and semi^-tMHtspafrent!; it'ls^rtated tobefonnd- 
Pimggnl. The MnHika W^artngin, a calc< 



I, found at Ngadi Rcjo, It is quite 

and a little smaller than the Mustika 

Waringin is the Dame of a tree, the 

BeDJamina, which always adorns the open 

in front of the houses of Javanese chiefs. 

'-html (^ ikt Indian Arekip^QOy No, vi. — 

ja JiH^IfecemSer J 853, p. 274. 

AMUL KUCHI, BsNG. CaesHlpinia dig- 


AMULTA8. Bbng. Buk, ^^UU| Ca- 
ttotocupas fistula. 
AMIXILLA. Singh. Berrya ammonilla. 

WK given bj the Russians to the liver in 
JbiUkBiia, which ibe Mantshures call the 
il^Gnalso Sagalinoula or Black Dragon River 
jrfUutdiu Tartars. The Russians in 1842 
Wk treaty, annexed great tracts of little 

Epkd country on the banks of this river and 
evranged them into provinces thus : — 

Sqr. Miles. Natives* 

Ik Aaor Pronnoe 164,000 5,200 

ian, Sofjevsk, and Niko- 

[ loyvcsk 179,000 9,800 

RttiuiSablin. 18,000 8,500 

361,000 23,500 

1^ liver rises in Lat. 50 N. and Long. 

10^ £. by two sources, one in a eharp bend 

[tkDiTurian Mountains near the small fort 

Dtmintk, the other lower down near 

H-nl-kboDsk. After a winding course to 

N. 1. it also receives a small feeder from 

^8. extremity, which has its rise near 

B«hi. The two streams uniting, run 

ttrt to Kerehinsk, where it has attained a 

of too yarda and is very deep. Passing 

if from Nerehinsk, it bends to the north, 

^^pan assumes an easterly direction, and 

from thesoutli meets the Argun, a large 

at Baklanova. The Argun, 900 

I IB length, itself a splendid stream, passes 

the rich paataie land of Mongolia. 

BOOT continuing its easterly course, and 

many tribataries, passes Yacca. It 

WH to the aouth-east, passing through 

wmntain valleys, and gains its most 

Kmit in Lat. 47 ® 48* N. k Long. 

& From this point it ascends in a 

rly direction, receiving from the 

the Songari, a river which drains a 

(wtof Manchuria : many smaller (ribu- 

tiHcreaae its volume, including the Usuri 

> Ae south. It also receives the river Zia, 

|kKen*ulay as it approaches the month 

^ whieh is situated in Lat. 53 N. and 

lis E. and is three* miles wide. Here, the 

Icfag obstructed by the opposite coast 

^fetand the many sand banks which 

^*ffdf, divides into two lesser streams of 


great force, one of which pursues a southerly dir 
rection to the sea of Okhotsk, the other towards 
the gulph of Taitary. The length of this river, 
including its many windings, is computed at 
2^800 miles. Its basin contains a surface of 
900,000 square miles. It is navigable for large 
vessels, as far as Nerchinsk, a distance of 1,600 
miles, but the mouth is obstructed by a great 
bar over which there is not more than two fa- 
thoms of water at high tide and by numerous 
sand banks, which are yearly increasing in ni.m- 
ber and extent. The bnnks are lined with for- 
ests : the land on its banks rich and fertile. 
The Tungusian races of the lower Amur are 
the Yeniseisk ; Nerchinsk ; Manyarg ; Manchu 
and Orochi, all small tribes, eitheir nomades 
or subsisting by fishing. In 1842, the ter- 
ritory between the J ablonnoi mountains and 
the northern bank of the Amoor was ceded 
to Russia by the Chinese. At its mouth 
members of the Aino family are settled : and 
due north of Pekin is a Mongol tract which 
nearly separates the true Tung us part of Maot- 
shuria : from this description it will be seen 
that the Amoor, is second only to the Missis- 
sippi. It flows from the centre of Northern 
Asia into the Pacific Ocean not far north of 
Japan, Much of the country along the Amoor 
is susceptible of farming and grazing.. Steamers 
can ascend from the sea to Ghetah, a distance 
of 2,600 miles, which opens up Siberia to the 
Pacific through the Amoor, presenting a new 
field for commerce, the ultimate limita of which 
can hardly be grasped by the most comprehen- 
sive mind. Mongolia, Manchuria, Noithern 
China, all the Tartari^s, Thibet, and Siberia, 
with a population of twenty to thirty millions, 
are approached by this river, and a new route 
to I he Indiea opened. Irkoutsk, the capital of 
Eastern Siberia, can be approached with only 
about three hundred miles of land carriage,. 
The country of the Amoor is divided into two 
provinces, the firat of which preserves its actual 
name of maritime province of Eastern Siberia^ 
and the other takes the name of Province of 
the Amoor. The Okhotsk district is detached 
from the province of Yakoutsk and united to 
the maritime province, which compriacs aix dis- 
tricts. The administration of the maritime 
province remains.on the same footing as before, 
with the exception of a few phapges prescribed 
by a special order of the Russian emperor. 
The province of the Amoor consists of all the 
territories situated on the left bank of the 
Amoor from the confluent of the rivers Schilka 
and Argun, or from the limits of . the Trans 
Baikalian provinces and of Yakoutsk, descend* 
iug the Amoor to the confluent of the rive^r 
Oussouri and to the new confine of the mari- 
time province. The town of Blsgovestchensk 
will be the capital of the province of the Amoor. 
— Shuniott's Narratwtj p. 15. Latham's 





Naiioi$alHk$ qf Eitrope I, »69. AtHMom*^ Tror 

vtU, Atkinion*9 Oriental and Wutern Siberia. 

AMURKALEB. Bbno. Ardisia oolorata. 

AMURYA. Guz. Dried mangoes. SeeAmbusi. 

AMWA, a town in India in Lon^r. 81'' 0' £. 
and Lat. 24^ 56' N. 

AMWARBEE, a town in India in Long. 
7r^ 40' B. and Lat. 23^ 30' N. 

AMtAH, a town in India in Long. 8l<> 12' 
E. and Lat. 26<> 19' N. 

AMTAYN, a town in India in Long. 94^ 
59' E. and Lat. 22® 15' N. 


The Fruit, 

in India, but doea not form in article of i 
Tbe fhiita are impoited inta Bngland at 
£210 i» M Ifae cwt. and of the utt about 
t(»iis ere impottod-^O* Skmu^knei^t paye$ 
20. 2t%. Bo^. 298. Voigt. 200. Fanlkmer 
0/ ComfMfee. Biat^. BiddtU. BiddeU'9 
of Gardening p. 97. (Jlegkom'e Funfak 


Persica vulgaris. MUL 

Amygdkil» dulces . Lat. 

Loaum Maeay. 


(Sweet) ... PEB8. 
ialq (bitter. 

Amen do... 
EfiTO. I Walu-luway 
Fr. I Almeodra .. 








L&tt2(Sweet) An. 

„ 111 nmer (bitter) ,» 
Katapt^g... Bali. Jav. 

Badamsi?. Bdrv^ 

Badam mitUa. t)nK. Guz. 


„ Ka^wa.MllAT. Peius. 
Amandftlin. ... Dut. 



Handoln ... ... Geb. I Parai Vadam 

Badam-wFtai... Hnn>. } Pan! badama 
Maadorli It. , 

The Almond tree is cnltivafed for iia 
fraits, the common edible and bitter 
almonds in daily use, and for tbe oil ex- 
pressed from it. Botanically, there is but 
one species though there are many varieties and 
sub-yarieties, the most important of which are 
the sweet and the bitter almonds of commerce — 
the latter the *' Karwa badam*' of India, The 
aweet almond contains 24 per cent of albumen 
and 54 per cent, of fixed oil| the Intter' forming 
the principal product of the tree. The bittnr 
ahnimd tree ixMii \% smaller than that of the 
sweet almond, but in every other respect the 
structure and appearance of tbe trees and fniits 
aeem to correspond. The taste, composition, 
and properties are however totally different. 
It has bora asserted, that the sweet and bitter 
fruits have been gatheied from fhe same tree, 
and that eulture will obange the bitter to the 
s#eet, as it has changed the sour crab to the 
sweet apple, and the bitter, half poisonous wild 
potato to its present state. Dr. O'Shaughnessy 
expresses his belief tb^t no prussic acid bns yet 
been traced in the sweet almond. The sweet 
and bitter kinda are imported into the northern 
pirts of India from Qhoorbund, and into the 
soatberu parts from the Persian gulf. 

The OU, 

Almond oil Eno. I Badam ka tel ... Hind, 

Bathama nuna ... Tjsl. \ Batham ycunai ... Tam, 

^ Is ooiourlesSi very slightly yellow, with 
difficiiltv congealed, taste aweet, smell light, 
agreeable and resembling that of the seeds. In 
all its properties and uses, it is nearly identical 
with olive oil. It is obtained for native use. 

Peach tree... 
Shaft-AlQ .. 




Kardi am... 

A native of the Himalayas, abundant in 
mir and tlie Hindu Kush, Persia, Tauru 
CaucasuB, also in Barbery whence it has api 
into all the countries of the south of Eur 
Several varietiea are extensively cuUiv 
in China and in several parte of India, 
Ahmednuggiir, and Puonak in the Dekban 
in Mysore at Bangalore and all their nei^h 
hoods, twelve dozen of nectarines selling at 
lore for a rupee. I)r. Riddell, who paid 
attention to its culture tells us tlvat t 
varieties of this fruit are met with in the Dei 
a large round white sort, of a delicious flavo' 
the flat China ; and a small thin-skinned d 
tion more resembling an apricot in ap 
ance and much harder than the others, 
peach is easily cultivated by seeds or latere, 
eeedling will throw out b&oasora in the 
year, and be ten or twelve feet in heigbl 
requires to be earefnlly pruned, winteied, 
watered. No branches should be allow 
grow on the stem closer than three feet 
the ground ; all spurious and misplaeed al 
should be rubbed off before gainilng stren 
exhaust unneeeasarily Uie juices of the tree ; 
ad distorted leaves, i\\o work of iRseoi% 
parasitic plants, mildew, Sso. should be pi 
off and destroyed. The kernels of tbe 
should be carefully removed from the shell, 
in no ways injured, if required for plan 
they should be sown in email beds at the 
menceraent of the rains^ about eighteen ii 
apart, and as soon as the trees are fit 
removal, a good sized ball of earth mus 
taken up with the roots, to preveat tbe 
fibres from reoeiving injury. All tbe 
around the stem had better be rubbed off 
hand, as far as requisite, and a proper aha 
isiven to tbe tree, by cutting out all the a 
fluous spurs and their branches. The ti 
opening the roots of the peach is afier the 
of the rains : then remove the earth with 
so as not to injure the roots, for the apa 
three feet round the stem ; pull off all the lo 
'and cease to water the tree until the bio 
buds appear ; then oovar up the roota with 
loam mixed with old rotten manure ; 
freely every third or fourth day» until tha 
I begins to ripeB, after which be guid 





ecs. It is Decenary sometimes to 
tk ttniij snd also to put the peaches in 
tt they begin to ripen, oiherwise the birds 
tbem. In the Dekhan, peaches first 
n iboDt' Febmary, And with care may be 
until the rains commenee, after wiiich 
of noisture received by the leaves and 
Gttscs the fntit to swell and burst. The 
lie piu^ative, but also narcotic. The 
auikeraeis on distillation yield abundance 
ieicid. Th|^ fermented fruit i^vea an 

ANACABDIAjOE^, a natural ofder of 
plants, trees or shrubs, which abauad' in a 
resinous acrid or even poisonous juiee. Mai^ 
of its genera are met with in 8. Eastern Aaia 
of whicb may be mentioned Anaottrdium : 
Buchanan ia ; Cambessedia : Coniofteton : Gluta ; 
Holigarna : Manieifera, Odina : MehiaorrhcBa 
Pe)da : Fistacda .* Phleboddton .• £iiu8 : Bum- 
phia : Semecarpus; Solenocsrpus.'rSiafrmaria : 
Syndesmis : Thysanus and Trioeros : Wailioh's 
list of this order gives 25 ; l^nme gives 2S 

bnady, chiefly manufactured in the genera for Java. ' The Anacardium latifoliun^ 

totei of America. The bark gives a 
t^usU^ of gum during the hot season* — 


FEBSIGA L(EVIS D. C. The nectarine, 

[^vDjr peach, is a variety of the peach tree, 

' ii B«eh cultivated. It is the.Shaft-Alu, 

^MooRdla Aroo of the Persians. Fo^i. 200. 

tlS, a genus of plants of the natural 

riajridaoen. Roxburgh described several 

bst his A. acuminata, commiphora, 

, heptaphylla, nana, pentaphyUa, 

simplicifolia, avffr&ticosa and Buma- j 

life heen removed to Baleamadendron 

genera, and of the Amyndaoese, only 

s^bia remains as an Indian pluut. 

iendron : Commiphota : Canarium. 

• * 

LT6UN0E, a town in India in Lang. 
E. and Tjat. 21^ 47' N 
.isMewar, the oath of alle^^iance. Three 

and A. offidnarum. Gaert. Voi(^. is a ^yn. of 
^meearpus anacardium.' — Linn. Voigi^ 269. 
A oajuba occidentalis, Qmrin. 
Caaauvium pomiferum. La^n, JBikeede* 

Bijaraabla Bajkb. 

is Meirar are rovalties 


"Kaju.Beiig. Djskh. Hnm. 


HijUbadam Bbng. 

The-ho-thayet . . ■ Bubm. 
Cashew-nut tree... Esq. 
Jambu-mouat... Malat. 
Pamnkimayah .. . Malbal 
Peiteira Mao jo. .Malkal. 

Wata-Kaju... ...... SiNo. 

Jambo^ring ? Su^iatba. 
„ cerong. „ 

Koli&mavah Tav. 

Mundiri manon... ,, 
Thab^aiahQ....... Tatot. 

Jidi ^i^medi Tvl. 

Muata DOiamidi chettu ,» 



Its Gum. 

Meddle with the An, or oath of al- 
r;tiie dau or transit dues un com- 
od the Kan, oti mines of the precious 
l-Toft Rajaiihan, Vol, L p. 112. 

Sins. Food. See Aoa-prasanam. 
Arab. ^ -«^ Grapes. 

^US 8ALlfiB. 



^ ^^ 



ls scandkns. 


Aathiaa testudineus. Block. 
Ferea scandens. Daldorf, 
FaloDym climber. Eng, 

. ... Hjim. I Telli... Tam. 

••• ... X AK. I 

fUhia very common in the marine 

Bear the mouths of rivers of the 

& Eastern India. It is about five 

iMgth, fflpttled brown and yellow. 

jtsseen hanging on to the mangrove 

[$9ieBy by u>inea arranged along the 

i tas gills, three and four feet abov«e 

' taa needing tide, from which 

MUoa ibqr drop into the water when 

"kjftboat or a steamer passing. Ami. 

Hijii badamka good... | Muadiri piain JTav. 

Hind. | 

Its fruit Caahew-Nut. 

Hijili Badam Bsno. i Cajew Guz. & flniD. 

CatsjoeDooteo Dur. I A«a|u... ». It. 

Koix d* acajou... .. Fk. I Nozes d'acaju.... Port. 

Akajnnuese, WesUndis- 1 Nueces d'acaju Sp. 

che AnaIcarden...QER. I Cashew-Nut Eiiro. 

The Oil. 

Caja apple oil... £i*g. 
Cajoo ka tel Hind. 

Moon tham amedy nunsj 

Moonthericotta yennai, 


This small tree, sixteen feet high, is very 
omamenta!, when in leaf, it was lotrodaoed 
from the West Indies, whens, as alao in M^ico 
and the two Americas, it grows : but it is ;iow 
cultivated in Ceylon, all over India, Burmab, 
Pegu, and the Tenasserim Provinces eastwards 
to the Moluccas. It sometimes grows 4o a 
large size in Pegn, where it is much cul- 
tivated about Phoungye houses, and in giovea 
near towns. The wood is dark brown, and is 
not, generally, deemed of value in carpentiy^^but, 
in Tavoy, Captain Dance says it is used in boat 
building, and il forms a charooal, which the 
iron-smiths there consider the best for their 
trade. It bears sweet amclling flowers^ succeeded 
by a pea-shaped fruit of a yellpw or of a red 
color, very acrid and with an astringent juiee. 
The Cashew-nut hangs at the ^nd of the 
fruit, outside, and is about an inch long, of a 
kidney shape, 'edible and wbolesome when 
roasted* It is found in every Indian bazaar in 
India, and is an article of trade and o^mmaroe. 
The nuts are used for imparting; a flaTCKir to 




Madeira wine. Also, groand up and mixed 
ivith ooeoa, they make a good chocolate and are 
said to yield a spirit by distillation, superior to 
rum or arrack, and described as possessiug power- 
ful diuretic properties. They are also said to yield 
by expression, an edible oil, equal lo olive or 
almond oil. The Cashew-nut springs from one 
end of the receptacle and has two sbelU between 
which there is a thick inflammable oil, called 
Gardole or Cashew apple oil. It is a powerful 
vesicating agent, and owing to its caustic pro- 
.perties is sometimes applied to ringworm, warts, 
coriis, cancerous ulcers, &c., and to floors or 
wooden rafters of houses to prevent the attacks 
of white ants* It is a very dangerous drug and 
ought never to be used. Exposure to the vapour 
of the oil, when under preparation, will produce 
violent swelling and inflammation. An astring- 
ent j^um is enuded from the trunk of the 
tree to the extent of 5 to 12 lbs. weight 
annually, which should be collected when the 
aap is rising. It makes a fair substitute for 
gum arable, forms a good varnish, and is par- 
ticularly useful where the depredations of in- 
sects require to be guarded against. In S. 
America, book-binders wash books with a solu- 
tion of it, in order to keep away moths and 
ants. The milky juice which flows from 
incisions in the trunk of the tree imparts an 
indelible stain to linen. The acrid nature of the 
plant should exclude its juices from medicine. 
Rheede, in his " Hortus Malabaricus'' says, the 
slightly toasted nuts excite venery, strengthen 
the stomach, and afford relief in cases of vomit- 
ing and nausea — Ainslie, ^.228. lioxb. ti. 312. 
— Foufi. 270. Mr. Jqffretf, Drs. McCltlland, 
Riddell* Mason, Useful Plants, Hog*9 Vegetable 
Kingdom, Jf. E, fur. ReporL Captain Dance* 
See Notices under Oil. Cashew Nut Oil ; 
Cashew Apple Oil ; Cashew Gum. Cardole. 
Casearia elliptica ; Dolichos biflorus and resins. 

ANA-CHUNIDA. Halbal oSiracOiyenrgl 
Tam. Solfenum ferox.— Zi»». 

Syn. of Anthemis Pyrethrum. 

ANAGALLI6. Linn. A genus of plants 
of the natural order Primulaceee, of which 
A. arvensis, with small scarlet and A. cosrulea 
with smsll blue flowers are of Europe, Middle 
A^ia and North America, and A. arvensis var. 
p coerulea, described by £oxb. as A. arvensis, 
with li^ht blue flowers, is a native of Kemaon, 
Nepaul and Khassya and is cultivated as a 
flowering plant, in India. RiddelL Voigt, 
335. Wight gives a fiwure also of A. latifolia. 

ANAGAMI PALI. In Buddhism the 
third of the four paths leading to uirw^na. — 
Hyder^ p. 433, 

ANAH> « town of Mesopotamia. 

ANAI. Malay. Termites. 

ANAl-KUTTALAY. ^^ssra^fitrlar Ta; 
Agsve Americana. 

ANAITIS an Assyrian deity introduo 
into Egypt. See Ken. 

ANAK. Abab. Oo ) Lead. 

ANAKONDA. of Ceylon is the Pjth 
reticulatus of Gray. It is occssionally of gn 
size, but perhaps rarely exceeding twenty fe 
though Mr. Sirr mentions that when full grow 
it is said to measure from 1 7 to 20 and ei 
25 feet long, with a circumference of two a 
a half feet. — Sirr*s Ceylon, 

ANAK ALA CRITA. Bansc. one of the ! 
teen kinds of slaves in Hindoo Law, a man « 
has become a slave voluntarily for food duii 

ANAKAN, Mal. A low person. 
ANAL. Beno. a reed, the Amphidoi 

ANAKUBU, Tau A tree of western In^ 
of little value about thirty feet long, \ 
eighteen inches in diameter ; the natives m 
small canoes of it, and use it in house-buildi 
^Edye, M, atid Van, 

ANAM. The Anamese or Anamitic grouf 

peoples inhabit Cochin-China and Tonkio, ( 

are a section of the division to which 

Chinese belong. The Chinese form of i 

nam is Ngannam. The language is ] 

nos^llabic. The Tonkinese call the Co< 

Chinese, Kuang and Kekuang, nAmes probi 

the same as Khyen and Kakbyen. The Cod 

Chinese, on the other hand, call the Tonkin 

Kepak. The Anamese are of 1 'W stature,. 

men with long arms and short stout legs, i 

are very light colored, well and warmly eld 

in silk and cotton. The men are hardy| 

active. The women still fairer, are well fo^ 

and graceful. The higher classes are sblj 

and decorous like the Chinese. The k 

lively and talkative. The dress of both • 

consists of loose trowsei-s and loose frock.) 

large sleeves In their persons, their dresa 

their food, they are very unclean. Th^ 

arrogant as to their national importXnoe. i 

religion is Buddhism but Shaman supcrstt) 

also prevail. A Cochin- Chinese marries \ 

he has the means, and among the poorer d< 

the age of the female is from 1 5 to 20. 

wife is purchased, polygamy is habitual, i 

tion is often had recourse to : unmarried iti 

are not all chaste. But adultery in the mi 

woman is punished with death. — LaU 

Descriptive Kthnology. Orawfutd's Dicik^ 

pp, 321 to 488. See Buddha. Chinese. C^ 

China. India, p. 319, 343 and 844. 

ANA-MALLAI, Tam., or the elep 
hills, a considerable group in the south I 
Indian Peninsula from which much valj 
timber hns been obtained, yielding an ai 
profit of about Rupees 50,000. Thereat 
few inhabitants — a forest race scarcely civi 







Chka Seas, consists of two large groups and 
BeveFal smaller ones with numerous detached 
isieU. The larger islands are inhabited and 
abouad with tropical fruits and vegetables. — 
HorAurgh. See Pulo Repon. 



Anamirta paniculafca* ColA' ' 
Menispermum cocoulus. Linn, 
M. heteroclitum. Roa^. Hi. 817. 
M. monadelphum. IRoxb, 
Gocculua auDerosua. W and A. 
„ lacunosua, 2). O. 
orbiculatua, D, C 



Bromelia auanas, Linn. Roxh- ii, 11 6. 
„ savita, Roxh. Fl. Ind, 

Ananas sa sativa, Lindley, 

AnanliB, An. Deku. Tel. 


Manas Bali. 

Nanas .. BvBM. Malay. 

Pandang Celeb. 

Pine-apple Ewa. 

Eamaa Lahp. 

Lanaa Madurese. 

Earda Cheeka ...Malay. 

Naaas... Malay of Java. 

Purlthi Maleal. 

Eoida chika ,, 

Pina PHiLLUPiins. 

Antissi Singh. 

Anaaa maram.^ ...Tak. 

Ananas Tel. 

Anaaa chettu ,» 

Anauaa PanduChetbu n 

Oaarla Phalla. Maleal. 
Polla, or Kakan- 

daka-conuveh ... ,> 
Pola kondakah 

connveh. ..• »> 
Kaka-mari. .. Sans 
Eaka^Ui maram? Tam 
Kaki-champA ... Tel 

Kakamari. ... n 

Khinak-ul Kalb? Ar. 
Bakain ka Phal ? Beno? 
Cteculufi ludicus. Eno; 

„ Levaniious. ,9 
Coqaee de Lerant. PR. 

J«iiii9 ..• ^^2. 

Kakmari..' *•■ Hmo. 
Bftooa Orientalis. Lat. 
Tubabidji ... Malay. 

This is a strong climbing shrub, with the 
bark corky, ash-ooloured, and deeply cracked 
into fissures ; leaves roundish, hard, leathery. 
It ia one of the Menisperraaceae. It grows 
in Oylon, in Malabar, the Concans, the 
Circar Mountains, Orissa, Assam, Burmah, 
the Moluccas and Timor. The seeda are 
about the size of a cherry, the kernel is 
ody. They are devoid of smell, of extremely 
bitter Utte, and poisonous in moderate doses. 
Tewlve grains of the seeds given to a dog killed 
it in five minutes. They are poisonous to all 
animals, and even to vegetables. A solution 
prepared from an extract made with the seeds 
killed a bean plant in twenty-four hours- 
Goeeolus indicus is largely employed in Austra- 
lii in destroying the parasitic animals which 
attack the skins of sheep. It is also used for 
stupifying fish ; mixed with crumbs of bread 
and thrown into ponds, the fish which eiat the 
tnimbs become intoxicated, float on the surface, 
and aie easily taken. Fish thus caught are 
exceedingly dangerous. It has been said that 
the seeds are often added to beer, to render 
it moie intoxicating, but the truth of this 
accusation has not been confirmed. The only 
IMC of the Cocculus . indicus in medicine is as 
an eitemal application, as a powder or oint^ 
mcnt, to destroy vermin in the hair, the 
treatment of some cutaneous diseases. Its 
importe into England have largely and rapidly 
increased, two hundred tons having been 
delivered in 1850, the price about 20 sh. the 
tv\,^Awilie Materia. Indka, Roxb.%%u 817. 

VoigL 329. O'Skanoh. 194 Dr. Meson. Hog. 

31. Ut^Ml Planlz. Jlool. et. T. 185. TooUs 

SioliUk9^ qf Commerce. Simmonds. 
ANAM-MELECH, the female power of the 

««n, to whom children were, burned as 10 Mo- 


The pine apple, is a West Indian plant which 
has been domesticated in all the warm parts of 
South Eastern Asia and in hot houses in the 
colder places of Europe, but in the moist warm 
localities of the Indian peninsula, of Bengal 
Ceylon, the Tenasserim Provinces, the Straits, 
Moluccas, Phillipine s, and China, it grows in 
great abnndauce, ia even wild, forming hedges, 
but tlie flavour of the fruit which is a general 
favourite, ia greatly improved by cultivation 
in rich soil. The leaves yield a very 
valuable fibre from which in the Straits 
and in Java, a much prized delicate fa- 
bric, the ''pina silk" of commerre, is manu- 
factured. The Juries Report in the Mad- 
ras Exhibition of 1856 describe its fibre as fine, 
white and strong, of considerable length, very 
silky and susceptible of being split into the 
finest threads and very fine specimens of it were 
exhibited by the Madras School of Arts as tow, 
hackled flax, and refuse for making string : also 
as thread, string, and line and clean specimens 
of the fibre were contributed from Cocanada, 
South Arcot, Tanjoie, Bolarum, and Tranque- 
bar. The leaves are gathered in the same way as 
the aloe, and are placed on a piece of board 
ai^ scraped with a blunt knife. The fibres 
that^^e loosened are drawn out, the leaves 
turned over, and from four to six inches of the 
stem end scraped as before, and as soon as the 
fibres are loosened by the removal of the pulp 
in that part of the leaf, the fibres are taken hold 
of by the fingers and drawn out. These fibres 
are again laifl on the board, and any remaining 
portion of the pulp gently scraped out with the 
aid of water, when they are gathered and dried 
in the sun. By another mode of treatment, the 
leaves are laid in the sun,80 as to dry up aportion 
of the sap, when^ on being taken up and bruised 
by the hand, the fibres become loosened and 
may be taken hold of, and drawn out. But a 
great loss of fibre results, so that this method 
cannot be recora mended. —^t»«M*, 2*1. ^otgC, 
461. Hoff, 764. Mad. Ex. Jur. BeporL 


is a very ornamenlftl variety ot the pine appU 




which baa been introdaoed fiom Malaoea, inio 
the Teofisserim Provitioes. — Mason. 

Ar<7ANAS BRACTEATUS Sghdlt. A spe- 
cies from Brazil, introduced iDto the Calcutta 
gardens. — yoigi, 615. 

ANANDA. The nephew or cousin and 
iavourite <iiseiple of Gautama : he was a iMtro 
(Presbyter) or Bkikshu (fliendieant)and did not 
attain the sanctity of 4he Rahat-kood^ or quali- 
fication for final emancipation without birth, 
JliU the Syn<Kl held at Bigagriha, in Magahda, 
soon after the deatli of Buddha. He was 
Sakya Kdni's personal attendant. At An* 
anda's intercession female devotees (Biks- 
bttnis) were admitted into the ranks of the 
Buddhist community and permitted to embrace 
•n ascetic life, and those at Mathra paid 
their devotiotia chiefty to the stnpa of Atmuda 
beeanse of this intercession.— Fff/<r'«^«6aajy, p. 
%t. ffydet's Eastern Mouaohism, p, 433. See 
Bttdvlha«-^Sakya Muni: Topes. 

ANANDA, in Saanserit means joy, and hf^nce 

ANANDA-NAT 'HA. Sans, the lord of joy, 
from ananda, joy, and nat 'ha, a lord. 

ANANDA, a herd, husband of Yasuda, the 
couple who fostered the infant Krishna. 

ANANDA GIRT. A hindu author of re- 
pute, who wrote the Sankara Digvi^ayay on tlie 
modifications of religion. 

ANANDRAVER, Malval. In N. Mala- 
b»r, amongst tl^ polyandric races who follow 
the descent of Marumaka tayam, or dtsceMSus 
ab ff/«ro— this is a term for the more distant re** 
latives of a Tarwada, or united family. See 

ANA-NERINGI. Tam. .a%8r-Q/5rfi(§ft. 
Pedulium murex. 

ANANl Sans. Earth ; amongst the Kola, 
under the designation Isani (Isa, goddess. 
Anani, earth) is the worship of tbe earth. See 
Kols. 587. Cy. of Ind. Sup. ii. 

ANANTA. Sans. Infinity ; Eternity; Time; 

ANANTA, A name of Sesha the king 
>fthe serpents. Sesha m(*ans duration and 
^nanta endless, in hindu theogony, the ser- 
lent on which the deity reposes in the intervals 
>f creation. See Gal pa. Hindoo. Inscriptions, 
9. 360, p. 383. Kalpa. Lakshmi. Sesha. 

Al^ANTA VABMA, a prince mentioned in 
;he inscription on the buddha-gaya yaulted 
^arem or Xfaga-juui cave of about the dth or 
LOtb centuries. Q^. of Ind. Supp. ii. See 
[naor^tions. p. 378., 382, 892. 


3H1TTU, eo*89to>.TsL Mim paradisiaea. L. 

ANANTA-lfUl!^ Beno. IndiaB Sarsapa- 
ilia, Hemidesmus Indieus. 

th'r*o:6. Tel. Lablab vulgaris/ Sst^'. 

ANAPA KAYA. s»^ti-7»os5. Til. Lage- 
naria vulgaris, Ser.-^fF, and A. 106 !• 

ANA-PBASAKAM, amongst the hiudus, is 
a social and sacred rite, of giving rice for the 
first tiipe tor an infant^ when six months old. 
Cyc of liid. Sup. ii. 

ANAB. BsNQ. Dekh. Hind. 6ns. Mahb. 
Pers. Punica granatum, tKe pomegranate. 

ANARA/« Anarajpoora, a Ceylon town, 
where are several Buddhist dehgopas or dagobas, 
tlie heighths t>f which vary. They were built at 
from B. C. 807 to A. D. a76. It has been iu 
ruins for about 600 years. The ruins are 
16 miles square, comprising a surface of 266 
square miles. Tliose of PoUanarua are much 
smaller, but Ihey are nevertheless of great ez« 
tent. — Baker's Rifle, p. 99. 

ANABADHAPUBA, an uncient city in 
Ceylon, now in ruiiis. It is the Anuro- 
grammum of Ptolemy.— iTyrfcr's Mtuterm 
Monackism, jd. 433. 

ANABAlAy the anceator of the Haras of 
Haraoti. He was the eon of Yisla-Heviiy or 
more properly of Hanakya Rai, who jn A. D. 
695 had founded Sambur, hence his title of 
Sambri liao. In A. D. 1024, Atiaraja took 
possession of Hansi or Asi in Hariaiiab. — 
Thomas' Pnnsep. 1249. 

paricidal Bhattiya family, reigned 8 years from 
B. C. 478. See Bhattiya. 

ANAS oa A NOME. Malay. Arenga 

ANASA, f^fn^p. Ananas sativua, SckuU^ — 

Bromelia ananas, L. B. ii. 116. 
ANASANDKA or CHANDRA, ejcf-jSojtf. 

iro(tf* Acacia ferruginea, D, Cr— Mimosa fer- 

raginea, R» ii. 561. 

ANAS OYGNUa Of ihia genm, one of tke 
geese division of the AnserimB, A. Cygnoides 
is domettioated in China. A. ciuerens oommon 
in India and A. Brachyrhynchna inhabita the 

ANASEEPOO. Tam. ^tsat^Si^ Star 
Anise : lUieinm anisatum. 

ANA SH0BI6BNAM. Malsal. (9%or) 

OXDOcSICCyenDo Syn. of fiirardinia Lesefaenanl- 

tiana : Urtica heterophylla. — Roxb, 

ANASHOVADI. Mal. and Tam. Ele- 
phautopus scaber. — Linn, 

ANASI. Singh. Tam. Ananas aativns. 
Fine Apple. 

ANAS PHOOL. Hind. J^ca^U) 

Illicium anisatum. Anise. Star anise. 

Rose of Jericho. 




ANATA, See AMiUs. 

Syo. of Andropogoii munefttttni. 

ANATmiB, a famflf of wi^r bif dt teveral 
gnen of wbich Ph»ni(»pter«s ; Cygnos ; 
(feidroeypia ; Anser ; Anns ; bernicla ; 
ttRidiomis ; nettnpirt ; Casarca, Twloma ; 
Mia; Chaulelasmas ; Mareea: Qnerquf-r- 
dftia; faligolii, Mergus, and podiceps, dwell 
JB Sooth Eastern Asia ; &ir J. D. TeniMiit^ 
Dodeing the Ceylon birds mentions that 
tfceis, are flrn^ting on the surfHce of the deeper 
water, fleeU of the Analida^ the Coromaiidel 
Uil, the Indian hooded gull^ the Caspian tern, 
tad a conntleas variety of ducks and smaller 
fowl, pintails, teal, red-erested pochards^ 
shueilers, and terns. Pelicans in great namhers 
RMit to the mouths of the rivers, taking up 
thdr posttion at sanrise on some projecting 
nA.— Bengal Am. Soc. Oat. TennenfM Sketcke$ 
^ a« fiaiural Hiaiory of Ceylon, p. »6». 

AXATINA SUBR03TRATA, one of the 
lytoridiA, a mduso found in Australia and the 
Indian OceaB.--^Jb^. Oyelop* 

ANAU A^ANDAT, a name of Lake Manasa- 

ANA-VINGA, Malbal. Casearia eausiala. 

ANAXA60RAS, a Grecian whose two 
repvted followers were Damon and Fythiaa, 
nppoaed by Major Cunniut^ham to be the words 
dhsnuna, Yirtoe or practical morality, and 
Mdha, Wisdom ; See Damon and Pythias. 

ANAlAI<f. Cowherd or Shepherd. 

ANAY VAL MYRB. Tam. ^asw w^ 
<mSa Elephant's Tail. 

ANAZi An Arab tribe of which in Skinner's 
tme tke estimated population was one million ; 
thef were riolier ana more powerful than any^ 
e«tt to the aborea of the Persian Gulf, the 
whole space between the Haman and the 
&M»krates nearly, belonged to them, and their 
bnadary on the side of Arabia is dose to 
^M^iL They commanded the route of tlie 
Bagdad earawan to and from Damascus, and the 
%run line of pilgrimage to Meoeai frooa each of 
winch th^ reeaiyed tribnte. This is the tribe 
flhnad 1^ Niebohr as hawing sprung from the 
Jews of Kheibar ; and in their name of Anaaie, 
or AaMssOy h« diseowers tba HebieWt Hanasai — 
^3«Msr'a Outrlaad Jmimug. Vol. 11. p. 84-6. 

ANBAB. Ababio. Malay. Ambergris. 

ANGHAB. Malay. Anttaris toxioaria. 

ANOHOId. Fft. Andhory. 


Uagar, An. Bkng. Hnro. 



Ky-oak-«a ... BuaH. 



Slew.,, .,» ira. 


... Malay. 

^ahw,.,. ,,, Oca. 


... ^, 

Aagkm ... Oekk. 

Anok ... 

f . • Sp. 

hnU. Qvz, 


... Tat. 

This article of ships furniture of which there 
are many kinds, sheets bower, stream, kedge and 
grapnel, lor tame weaseb, is wholly imported into 
India. Those for smaller v^sels are manuH 
factured in this country, of wrought iron bnl 
many are of rude form. In 1847 and 1848, 
about 4600 tons of anchors were exported from 
England, and this has now perhaps doubled, 
their value being aboni £20 the ton.-^Poo/e. 

ANCHOVIES, EssuNOE of: Dr. Hassall 
found the whole of ihe samples adulterated with 
the ferruKinousoiide, bole Armenian. -^JSwaJo//. 

ANCHOVY. £ng. Eograulis encrasichobis. 
Ancboii .. ... Fa. | Acoioghe It» 

The anchovies met with iu India are wholly 
imported. The true or common anchovy is tbe 
Engraulis encrasicholus of Cuvier, a small fish 
about four iiicKes long with bluish brown back 
and silvery white on the belly. It is very 
abundant in the Mediterranean, where though 
occurring in other seas, they are chiefly caught 
at nighty by nets, their heads immediately 
taken off, and their entraila removed. Another 
Mediterranean species K Meletta, is largely 
substituted for and mixed with the true anchovy 
but they are from four to seven inches long^ 
and other fish, Dutch and Sicilian, are also 
employed to adulterate anchovy paste and 
sauce. Of species of Engramis at Madras, 
three in number, the Netteli or Teran Gkionie, 
E. albus, is caught in grtot nets, in immense 
numbers and by Europeans is highly esteemed 
for the breakfast table ; and one about 6 inehes 
long is very delicate eating. The Tamil names 
of the others are Pola N'eiidi and Maper^- 
Nviieli, (See Engraulis.) Jerdoti. The^na- 
jA^tg'nai'Say,' of the Burmese coast and 
Tenasaerim provinces, is considered by Dr^ 
Mason to be the E, Meleita, or common 
sardine ; but Mr. Mason, has no doubt it is aii 
Bngraulfs. — Faulkner, Mason. Hassall, An^. 
Oye. Poole p, 9. Bingky iii. 221. 

ANCHUSA, a genus of plants belonging 
to the Boraginacese. Voigt names A. 
officinalis, paniculate and undulata, but 
none of the species are indigenous or domestic, 
cated. Dr. O'Shaughnessy, p. 495 notices that 
^nckusa UaUea is mentioned by Nicander 5. 
38, and ia called Bugloss, flt>m the supposed 
resemblance of its leaves to a cow's tongue. 
Bos glossa. In Iiidia the Greek synonyms 
buglootun and Jooghulus are assigned to 
(Jmama hracheatum (fijQJVd.) In the Bombay 
bazars the OaccUia Klemia is similarly termed 
Oao iubau, or cow'ia tongue. He also describes 
p. 496, J. Anehusa iinetoria. (Alkanet) a 
native of Europe, for which root those of the 
Onosma eehioides, and 0, iincioria have been 
substituted. The Onosma emodl (WaH.) of the 
Himalayas is closely allied to this, and is 
called Maharunga from the intensity of its 
colour. The alkanet of Constantinople is pro- 




duced by a different order of plants altogether, 
being the root of the Alcanna vera. It ia im- 
ported into England in very small qaantities as 
a dye.— <8f^. of Com. Poole, Foigt. O'Shaugh- 
neasyp. 495-6, Hog. 541. 

ANOISTROCLADUS. Wall. A genns of 
plants belonging to the Malphigiacese of which 
A. Vuhlii, and A. Heyneanus are known. The 
name of this plnnt is from ^nkisiron, a hook 
and Kladus, --a branch, in allusion to the hook- 
like tendrils on the branches. — Gr, Cat. p, 28 

Wei. Singh. Gona pattan Wei. Singh, grows 
in the central and southern parts of Ceylon 
up to 200 feet.— r//wflt/M;?. 188. 

Cat. Kurdal, Mahratta. Modira valli Mai. 
Rheede. Valli Modigam, Mai. Rheede. Grows 
at the Parr Ghaut : ravines at Khandalla, 
but not common. The Modira valli usually 
quoted for Artabotrys odorotissima, has a 
great resemblance to this plant. This is a very 
pretty shrub, but hardly known yet to Euro- 
pean botanists. — ^r. Cat, 

a climbing shrub of Amherst. 


Hypericum c&rneum, Wall. Cat. 
Zeen-ga-1ay- ... Tavot. I lae... Burm. 
Zin-ga-lae. ... „ \ Tonng-ga-la Martaban. 

This tree attains a maximum height of 30 
feet, it rarely exceeds 8 feet in girth and its 
maximum is 3 cubits. It is plentiful in the 
Pegu and Tounghoo forests, where the tiinber 
grows very tall, and it is found widely 
scattered, all over the Amherst, Tavoy and 
Mergui Provinces, but in none abundant. It 
is also a native of China. Its dark brown 
wood, when seasoned, floats in water. It has 
a long fibre, tenacity, durability, and sufficient 
lightness, and is very free from knots. It is 

Eastern side of the Bay of Bengal. It ooB'- 
sists of three principal islands^ which give the 
name to this group together with smaller islands 
and rocks lying in and near the meridian 
of 98^ E. and comprehended between the 
parallels of 10^ 25* and 15° 0', N. Pre- 
paris Island is the most northern of the group. 
The Great Coco, 6 miles long and 2 miles broad, 
id 45 miles distant from Preparis Island, 
extending from lat. H"" to W 8' N. and 
is in lung. 93'' 25f E. The Little Coco is 9 
miles to the S. W. of the Great Coco and is 
2i miles long, and about half a mile broad. 
The Great Andaman, is in reality composed of 
three islands, which extend from Cape Price 
in lat. 13° 84,* N., long. 93^* 9' E. to the 
S, E. point in lat. 11° 80' N. long. 92*=> 
56' E. in a S. i W. direction. The Islands are 
separated from each other by two narrow straits. 
There are great cor»l reefs on the western side 
of the group rendering the coast dangerona. 
The North Andaman is about 44 miles in 
length from north to south and 14 in breadth, 
and Port Cornwallis is on the east side, in lat. 
13° 18' N. It is an excellent bay or harbour, 
about 3 miles broad and extending about six 
miles into the land in a N. Westerly direc- 
tion. The middle Andatnan is about 50 
miles in length from north to south and 15 or 
16 in general width. While the south Anda- 
man is about 48 miles in length north to 
south and from 9 to 15 in width. — These islands 
were surveyed in 1789 and 1790 by Lieutenant 
'Archibald Blair R. N, who made a circuit of 
the entire archipelago, and embodied the result 
of his researches in general charts, plans* 
and a report containing useful information for 
mariners. The islands are indented by numeroos 
bays and inlets. Some places may be distin- 
guished afar off by white cliffs, which rise 

used by the Burmese for building, for ploughs, I abruptly from the sea. The Islands forrti 

and for utensils of all kinds, and is recommend- 
ed for handles of chiselsi hammers and tools 
generally. — Ctptain Dance, Dr. McClelland. 
Dr. Ma9on. Voigt. 89. 

Yin-bya Burm. 

This tree is described by Dr. McClelland 
along with A. Carneus, as plentiful in the 
Pegu and Tounghoo forests. The timber 
grows very tall, but seldom exceeds three feet 
iq girth. Wood dark brown. — cMClellaHd. 

ANCLA. Sp. Anchor. 

ANCORA. It. Anchor. 

ANCKE. Pe. Anchor. 

ANCUSA. It. Alkanet. 

ANDALUSIl E, is said to occur in the slate 
strata near the granite East of Tavoy. 

ANDA OOMESll. Juss. A tree intro- 
duced from Brazil' to the Calcutta gardens 
with small white sweet scented ilowers. — Foigt, 

part of a volcanic chain which extends from 
Sumatra to Cape Negrais on the coast of 
Burmah. The coasts, and probably the inland 
parts also, are covered with dense jungles 
of lofty trees, the forests being rendered 
impervious by tangled brushwood and inter- 
twining creepers and rattans, scarcely pervione, 
it would appear, even to the wild race by 
whom the islands are exclusively ocoopied. 
In the year 1791, a settlement -was former] by 
the British GoTemment at Port Chatham, near 
the southern extremity of the Great Island, 
which is about one hundred and forty miles 
long, and twenty miles broad. The chief ob- 
ject was the establishment of a naval station, 
at which ships of war on the Indian station 
might repair and refresh,, the luxuriant growth 
of the timber trees, and the favourable position 
of the islands for communication with all parts 
of India, having led to the selection of the 

112 -..,:_- 



AodaoiiAns for this purpose. The establish- ( their woolly heads with red ochre or cinnabar. 

aeot ooBsisted of a few companies of native 
inops from Bengal, and of a body of convicts 
iirom the same place. la 1795, the establish^- 
Bent was removed^ at the suggestion of Ad^ 
nifsl Comwallis, to the port at the opposite 
end of the ishind, which now bears hia name. 
Tke establishment was only maintained for a 
feir years longer — the settlement proving so 
pf^e]Binently insalubrious tJiat it had to be 
abandoned towards the close of 1796, but, in 
ibe interim^ it h«d been visited by .Colonel 
%ne8, when on his voyage to Burroah, on a 
•iipionaiic mission, and the interesting descrip- 
lioiofthe inhabitants, which is contained in 
tbe narrative of his embassy, is that by which 
(be natives of. these Islands were long best 
knowD. Tlie Andaman Islands are inhabited 
by a moe of men, the least civilised perhaps 
ill tbe world ; being nearer to a state of nature 
ihao any people we read of. Their colour is 
cf the darkest hue, their stature in general 
null, and their aspect uncouth. Their limbs 
ue ilUfonned and slender, their bellies pro- 
niieiit ; and like the Africans^ they have 
tooUy beads, thick lips, and flat noses. They 
(TO quite naked, the women wearing only at 
tioKs a kind of tassel, or fringe round the mid- 
die, which is intended merely as ornament, as 
thcjf do not betray any signs of bashful ness 
wben seen without it. The men ere little 
above 5 feet in height, 5 ft. 2 and 5 f t S inches, 
ire cunDJng, crafty » and revengeful ; and fre- 
quently express their aversion to strangers in 
t bid and threatening voice^ exhibiting various 
tigss of defiance, and expressing their contempt 
liy indecent gestures. At other times they 
appear quiet and docile. Latterly, they have 
iNeioie quite familiarised to £uropeans> but 
beiim tkat they would affect to enter into a 
friendly conference, and after receiving, with 
aftkaw of humility, articles presented to them, 
tbry set up a shout and discharged their 
wows at the donors. On the appearance of a 
*wel or boat, tbey would frequently lie in 
labvsh among the trees, ajjd send the oldest 
<M of their gang, to the water's edge, to 
«deavour by friendly signs to allure tbe stran- 
m on shore. If the crew ventured to land 
^j^ i arons, thi^* iastantly rushed out of their 
vkiBg.plaoes, and attacked them. In these 
i^ttiahes they displayed much resolution, and 
rtn^ into iLe water to seise the boat; and 
% have been known even to discharge their 
*»•»* while in the act of swimminir. Their 
•edeoflife is like the brujte, their whole time 
• »pest in search of food. 'I hey have yet 
J»fc no attempts to cultivate their lands, but 
«H entirely upon what they can pick up, or 

Thus attired ihey walk forth to their different 
occupations. The women bear the greatest 
part of the drudgery in collecting food, repair^ 
ing to the reef at the recess of t tie tide, to pick 
up shell-fish : while the men are hunting in the 
woods, or wading in the water to shoot fish 
with their bows and arrows. They are very 
dexterous at this extraordinary mode of fishing> 
which tliey practise also at night, by the lijfht 
of a torch, in their excursions through the 
woods, a wild hog sometimes rewards their toil» 
and affords them a more ample repast. They 
broil their meat or fish over a kind of girdle 
made of bamboos ; but use no salt or other 
seasoning. The Andainaners display much 
colloquial vivacity, and are fond of siiigiug 
and dancing, in which amusements the women 
also participate. Their language has been 
said to be rather smooth than guttural, and 
their melodies are in the nature (>f reoita^ 
^ tion and chorus, not unplea&ing. The Editor 
sat for several hours with two intelligent Anda- 
maners, one said to haVe been their chief who 
slew a European and the other his near relative, 
and was witness to their meeting with others of 
their tribe, from whom they had suffered a 
prolonged separation. There has no doubt 
remained on his mind that their langUHge is 
very limited as to the numbers of word^; 
during his stay an officer visited tliem, 
who was under the impression that he knew 
words of their tongue^ But, he was deceived 
by that marvellous power to imitate which 
these people possess, every vocal sound being 
repeated instantly, and with a wonderful 
precision. At the moment, this power to repeat 
accurately foreign words fromi a strange race, 
imparted the idea that they understood and 
could apply sUch words: But their enunciation 
of vocables could only be compared to the 
acts of the ape tribes where a new article 
is taken up and admired and allowed to 
drop and break, without the acquisition of 
any knowledge as to the result of so drop- 
ping a frangible material. The two chiefs 
alluded to had been for two months in 
the verandah of the guard room for Euro- 
pean sailors, but, they had not acquired a 
single word of the English tongue. This part 
of their character is noticed by an anonymous 
writer who says every one, who saw the spe^ei- 
mens of those people during their brief visit to 
Bangoon, found them the most determined 
imitators possible. Every sound uttered, no 
matter in what iHnguage, was repeated with 
a distinctness, and even an emphasis by the 
islanders, that quite sui7>rised the listener. Of 
course, they could understand nothing that whs 

^* in the morning they rub their skins. I said to them, but the momenta question was 
•*^ BHid. or wallow in it like buffaloes, to put to one of them, it was instantly repeated 
^fist the annoyance of insects', and daub 1 with a precision that no European could pod- 

113 15 



iibly imitate with f^speet to a language of the amall fry, and a kind of wicker-basket^ 
which he bad previously hea(rd nothing. There which they carry on their backs, serves t6 
Was no study Whatever in the case. The clear! deposit whatever articles of food they tan pick 
repetition of the words appeared td depeAd oVi ' up. A feW specimens of pottery ware have 

the keenness of hearing in the islander, and of 
the readings with which he could adopt his 
Vocal organs to bting out foreign words. Like 
all animals, they seem disposed to do mischief 
on the spur of a tfionretit, but they do not re- 
alize any fear of its after consequences* For 
instande, they will rob a plantation, or even 
knock over a convict, and half an hour after, 
they will took as innocent and indifferent of the 
crime they have dbmmitted, as if nothing had 
happened. In a oivilSeed person, whose con* 
' science is aWake to *' gooe^* and '^ eori,'' fear 
instantly seizes iht offender^ and until he sees 
what will be the result of his tush a6t he is 
naturally apprehensive of its penal consequences. 
Their numbers have been estimated attN>m 
t.lfOOto 10,000 but^ the editor estimated the 
entire tribe at about 1,000. As bivilieation ad- 
vances they must graduslly disappear or accom^ 
tnodate themselves to tfie new state of matte^sv 
The chances are that a few years henee but few 
t>f these poor creatures will remain in their 
aboriginal state. The Andamaners dance in 
)h rtttgv <eaeh alternately kicking and slappinp: the 
lower pnrt of his person ad libitum. Their 
salutation is performed by lifting up a leg, and 
smacking with their hand the lower part of 
the thigh* Their dwellings are the roost 
wretched hovels imaginable. Three or four 
sticks are pUnte.1 in the ground, and fastened 
together at the top in the form of a oonci over 
whieh a kind of Ihatnh is formed with the 
branches and leaves of trees. An opening is 
left on one side, just large enough to creep into^ 
and the ground beneath is strewed with dried 
leaves, upon which they lie. In these huts, are 
frequently found the skulls of wild hogs sus- 
pended to the ropfs. Their canoes are hollow* 
ed out of the trunke of trees by means of fire 
sad instruments of stosic^ having no iron in use 
among them, eaoept sach utensils as they may 
have procured horn Un Bnropeans and aailors 
who have lately visited these islands^ or from 
the wrecks of resstla formerly stranded on their 
coasts. They use also rafts made of bamboos 
to transport themselves across their harbours, 
or from one island to another. Their hows 
are remarkably long and of an uneommon 
form i their arrows are headed with fishb-ones, 
or the tusks of wild hogs ; sometimes merely 
with a sharp bit of wood hardened in the fire, 
but these are sufficiently destructive. They 
use also a kind of shield, and one or two other 
weapons have been seen amongst them. 
Colonel Byrnes adds, a spear of heavy wood 
sharply pointed. Of their implements for 
fishing and other purposes, little can be said. 
Ilandnets of different siaes ate used in catching 

been seen in these islands." The An- 
daraaner has the appearance of the small 
sifted Negro race about 5-2 inches high and 
would Seem to be the descendants of ihh same 
wave from the West that has left its features 
in the South of the Peninsulas of. India and 
Mlilateca, and theBemang and the l^egrittos of 
New Guinea. The Andamans have a climate 
milder thaU th^t of the Tenasserim and Pegu 
6oaSts and more resembling that of Colombo 
or of the low lands of Penang. The range of 
the thermometer', during the past three years) 
gives a maiimnm of 90^ ® and a mininhum of 
70^ in the shade. In the sun maxltttum 
115 ® minimum 7i ^ —at 4 p. m. — while the 
average annual fall of rain was 116 inches; 
This fall appears to have been distributed over 
165days.Like all insular positions the Andamans 
seem liable to be visited by hurricanes. The 
hills on the main land as seen from the clear- 
ings appear about 800 feet high, having rich 
valleys with Considerable area of level land, and 
thence sloping gradually to the sea. After the 
mutinies of 1867. parts of these islands. Boss 
Island, Viper Island, and patts of the isUind 
opposite ttoss, have been cleared and convict 
settlements formed for the mutineers at 
Port Blair, Haddo and Aberdeen, with a coast 
road from Haddo to Aberdeen and to Phoenit 
Bay, and another to Navy Bay. In these Bays 
and Ooastsi the mangroves aliound, and the 
smell around was malarious. The numbers of 
convicts have risen to abont 8,000 to 4,000 
but about 500 Arom them have endeavoured to 
escape to what the^ supposed a neighbouring 
mainland. These islands have been written 
up as suitable for colonists, but there is no 
outlet for produce. The immediate neighbour- 
hood of ** Aberdeen^' is the spot recommended 
for intending settlers. Sugar cane of three years 
growth flourishes vigorously up the aides of 
the hill. Cotton nlso thrives as well as 
" jowarry"— " bajra*' and "'hemp. ** Vege- 
tables in profusion are obtained all the year 
round^on the main land an extensive cleariBf 
has been made opposite Boss Island and 
dignified with the name of Aberdeen* It ife 
elevated about 60 feet above the sea in the form 
of a table<knd. A system of oultivi^ 
tion and nurseries is there oarried out though 
on a more extensive scale. The coooanut, 
areca palm, mango, mangosteen, dorian, nut- 
meg, orange, arrow*root, Sbc., all promise weli» 
notwithstanding the formidable difficnltiea 
they have had to encounter- The general 
contour of the islands is that of abm|^ 
elevations of 150 feet in height, with sides 
sloping to Ae sea beach. — EonHmrgk^ J<mm* 




Jk Soc. BiBff, SdeMmsfrom ike Rteorda of 
ik GoBenmeui of India. Jitmgoon rtinet.— 
iwrfjs RetHfcku. Voh to. f. 389, et se^. 
See India, p. 3i7. Marco Polo. Seroang. 

of Fteromrpiu dalbergioidea. *- Hoxb. 

ANDESE. Ctkoh. Acacia Sp- 

ANDBRSON The Beverend John,— an 
oiioent missionary and school founder at 
MaJns, in connection with the Scotch establish- 
ed and the Free Church* Bom 1805, died 

ANDEBSONIA, Roxb. A genus, of plants 
Bovtraneferred to Gonocarpus acuminata and 
Clitifoliaand A. Bohituka to Amoora. q. y. 
Bee Dindoga tree» Buhun Hind. Andersonia 

ANDfiRTHALB. Osb* Bodss sesquiear- 

AN-DES, of India are the alpinei cegiona of 
Tklbet, bordering on Chinese Tartary.— TtM?. 


ladTera... ... Habb. | Tern IAahb. 

The flower of this timber tree has not been 
Ks, and its generic name remaina undetermin- 
ed, but it is supposed to be a apecies of Sapin- 
du or Nephelium* It is found in the Canara 
lad Sonda forests, above the ghat, chiefly at 
KBeoood and in the southern jungles. The 
lood is serrioeable in house building.*— />r. 

ANDHEB, a little village lOi miles a W. 
ef Bhilaa and 6 miles W. of Bhojpur. It 
eoBtains remaina of Buddhist topes. 

AKDHRA. The Andhca or Vrispala dy- 
My of Andhra (Orissa?) or Telingana ia first 
Mtieed in the Vishnu Purana which predicts 
tbt tkirty Andhra Bhritya kings will reign 
4ff6 jears. Professor Wilson adds in a note 
till the Vayu and Bhagavata state also 80 
tings and 456 years and the Matsya has 29 
bus and 460 years. The actnal enumeration 
of tte texts gives but 24 names j that o£ the 
Kipnta, but S8 : that of the Vayu, but 17. 
Ae Matsya has the whole 29 names, thus 
iidiag several to the list of 21, and the aggre- 
pkt of the reigns amounts to 486 years and 
VKBenths. The first was Kpraka, B. C. 21,. 
tpoverfal servant of Suserman, and whom he 
Uledand then founded the Andhra B-hritya 
H^' The last was A. D. 428, Chandrasri 
pVqaya last Ifogadha king. 800 Jonea, 546 
mJ Kalomarchishy (Poulomien of Chinese^ 
V<^)died 648 A. D. Salomdhi, Tod, con- 
te|iuiai| of Boppo Bawil of liewar» A. D. 
QOI) Profesaof Wi)so|i arriyea at the condu- 
4i^ that the race of Andhra kinga should not 
— msaeo till abont 20 years B. 0. which 
^M agree with Pliny's notiee of them : but 
A b possible Ahat they existed earlier in the 
iMIher India, althoogh they estahliehed their 
*Airit| u Mapdha only in the first o^turies 

of the Christian em and ended in iu D. 486v 
Chieaoole and Bi^abmundiy were the capitals 
of the territory, whiah is now known aa 
Telingana*. and also the Northexn Ciroars. Pliny 
speaks of the Bex Andravum as a powerful 
Indian prince.. The Andhra Brahmana regard 
themselves as a distinct raee.<— I^^onsa^' i^rin- 
Hp'9 Indian A»Ug9ii(i0it p. 241. WiUou^^ 
Oios$arjf. See Ghalukya .: India. 

ANDI. A religious mendicant of tiie Saiva. 
sect in the Souih of Indi^. 

ANBI-PANDOO. «^a . s^oe^b. Tsl» 


ANDKHO. Aorosa the Moorghab, and 
towards Balk, which city is in the territory of 
the king of Bokhara, lie the small states of 
Andkbo, Maimuna, Sbibbergam, Siripool and 
Akchee i a connection subsiala between them 
and Herat, but since they are divided against 
each other,, their aid is of small avail. All of 
them, are engi^ed. in the slave trade, and 
independent, though they aend presents of 
horses both to Herat ftnd Bokhara. Maimwuu 
is the most important of the whole : the chief 
in 1840 was Mi^rah Khan,, an U^bek of the 
tribe Wun, and his country extended from 
Maimuna to the l(oorghab, and adjoins that of 
Sher Mahomed Khan Hu^ara. Maimuna itself 

an open town,, or rather village, of about 

IS ^ ,. 

50O. houses ; but' the strength of the chiaf 
consists in his ^' ils,'* or moving population^ 
who frequent ¥lmur, JankirSj^ Sorbagh, Kaffir 
KiUa,. Khyrabad, Kusar, Chuckaktoo, Tukht-i- 
Khatoon, and other sites, which can scarcely 
be called villages. He also numbers Arabs 
among his subjects, many of that tribe having- 
been long settled here.. 

Andkio, or Andkhoee, in 1.S30, was ruled by 
Shah Wale Khan,^an Afghan Toork, who settled 
here, wi^h others of hia tribe, in the time of 
Nc^dir. They were then shiahs, but are now 
soonees. The '* ile" of the chiefs, besides his 
own race, are Arabs, and he cau. furnish 500 
horse, and is on. good terms with. Maimuna. 
Andkho has a larger fixed population than. 
Maimuna, being in one of the high roads to. 
Bokhara,, but there is a scarcity of water in this 
canton. It is here that the wheat is a triennial 
plant Ai»dkh^ ia the plaoa where Moonnift 

SMb^rgam, bdpngi tp aa Uxbek ch|ef^ 

in ISaO iianed Booetvm Khan, who has ^ 
oharacter for moderation ; ^e aan muster 500 or 
600 horse, and is on goocl terms with both 
Maimuna and Koondaops. Oiibhergam is con- 
sidered to be a vecy ancient place* being given to 
the days of the Kaffirs (Qfeeka), and still tha 
strongest fori in theae parts. Tha ** aik" or 
dtadd is bnik of brick and mortar, and 
surrounded by other walls of mud. Kaliek AIL 
9eg» the tote chief of B^ besieged it for setea 




years witboat success, but it must ooiy be 
understood to be strong against Uzbeks, who 
are badly supplied with artillery. Water is 
conducted to it fpom the rivulet of Siripoo). 

SiripooL Zo<>lfkaf Sher, an Ussbek of the 
tribe of Achumuelee, governed Siripoo), in l'<843 
known ns a brare an<i determined man. His 
**■ iW are in Sungcharuk, Paogan, Goordewan, 
and Daghdrab- Siripool itself is as large as 

Akhchar is a depenjeney of Balk, and held 
by a sop of Eshan Khojai governor of that 
once vast city. 

All of these chiefships are' situated in the 
plain country, which in general is well watered 
by rill3 or canah, and has abundance of forage 
for camels and horses, which are numerous. 
The soil is dry, but theire are many gardens 
near the towns. The style of building, from a 
scarcity of wood, is that of the bee-hive shape. 
There is a good open caravan road from Meshid 
to.Balk, which is a journey of 16 days ; thus, 
from Meshid to Bhurukhs, four ; to the 
Monghul, three ; to Maimuna^ four ; and to 
Balkh in five days. This is much the nearest 
route to Cabool from the west. — Burners Papern. 
East India, Kabul and Affffhanutan^ p. 137. 
Papers East India Cabal and Jffghanistan, 
P' 136. 



** Stylodiscus trifoliatus. Bennefi. 
PsychodendroQ trifoKatum. Wa(L 

Uriam, Assamese. 

A tree of quick growth ; found in Java, Ava, 
Pisninsula of India, atHurdwar^ Chittagong, Ne- 
pal and Assam. Wood and hark red. Emploved 
for masts and spars of small vessels.— -rot^/. 
Cal. C^t, Ex. 1863. 

ANuROaitAPHIS. Wight, in bis Icores, 
gives figures of A. Ceylaniea/echioides, lobelio- 
uleSy Neesiana, paniculate, serpyllifolia ; visco- 
sula, Wightiana. The following may be noticed. 




Juaticia echioides. Roxb, 
Chavalapuri Kada. Tkl. | Oorre Ghimidi ... Tsl, 

This plant grows in Ceylon^ in the peninsulas 
of India and Malacca and in the Himalayas. 
It has two varieties, a Lamarckiana the Justicia 
of Lamarck, and 6. Linneeanay the J. echiodies 
of Roxburgh. — Voigt. 693. 


Justicia paniculata. Burm, Roxb. i. 117. 


Nela Veknbu 
Nela Yemu . 
Kari Vema... 


Ute? Ab. I 

Kalo megha ... Brno. 

Maha tita >, - 

Kriat. .Can. Duk-Htkd. 

Kiriatha ... . Malbal* 
Kara-Kauiram... „ 

Kairata Sai^s. 

Hin-bin-komba... Singh. 

Kalp».. ... SiNOB. 

Kriatha . . .. ,, 

Kriyat HwcD. 

Kalupnath : Maha- 
tita (great bitter.) „ 

This valuable plant grows in dry ground^ 
under the skade of trees, and it flowers in the 
cold season. It is found wild in Ceylon, the 
peninsula of India, in Bengal, and Java, but it 
is now cultivated in TinnevelTy. The roots have 
long been a popular febrifuge and stomachic. 
It is the basis of the *' DF)gue amere," or a 
compound of mastic, frankincense, lesin, myrrb^ 
aloes^ and creat root, steeped in brandy for a 
month, and the tincture strained and bottled. 
It is an annual and, according to Ainslie, was 
originally brought from the Isle of France. 
But^ it is cultivated iu Tinnevelly and other 
districts ; and is now found wild in Bengal and 
probably in the Peninsula. It is- the true 
Chiretta. but it is only one of the plants from 
which the Gliiretta of the bazars is obtained. See 
Chiretta.— Toiy/. 498: CyShaughnessy, p. 482 
and Beng. Phnrmacopona :210. Indian AnnaU, 
No. 6. 

alayan heather grows abundantly on Mon 
Lepcha, at 13,080 feet^ and affords a good fueL 
Another species A. ovatifolia is named as oc«- 
curring along with an llix. — Booker FoL 1, 
p. 343. 

ANDROPOGON, Eighteen species are 
given in Voigt* s Calcutta plants brought 
together under this from other genera, An- 
atherum ; Phalaris ; Anthisteria : Cymbopo- 
gon : Calamus .• Holcus and Saocharum. Of 
these 18 species, A. Arundinaceus : A. 
punctatus, Roxb. A. Bladnii, Retz. A. Tria- 
picatus, Roxb^ A. pertusus, fViUd. A. glaber, 
Roxb, A. Roxburghianus, Schult, A. conju*- 
gatus, Roxb, and A. binatus, Retz. are of Ben. 
gal. A. CymbariuSj, Linn, is of the Coromandel 
mountains, A. Prostratus, Linn, of the Indiai^ 
Peninsula. A. scaudeus^ Roas}, of the Indian 
Peninsula and Bengal and A. Miliformis 
Schult of Lucknow. Andropogon acicularis 
Retz. is BOW transferred to Chrysopogon. 
Much confusion however seems to prevail 
as to the clsssificatiou of these grasses^ 
which by some are arranged amongst thci 
GraminaeesB, and by others amongst tbe Pani* 
caoesB. The A. con tortus, as also A. acicula- 
tus has been indicated as spear grass. The 
following merit separate notice, 


Kala Joar, Hinb. 

Cultivate^ in some places near Ajmir. Genh 
Med, Top. p, 176. 

TlCUd. Ihyle. Its oil is the EooMa-ka^ 
ttl. Hind. Dr. Rpyle regards this anUrct- 




pofon as ibe plant which yielda the oil of 
Ncmaar, ko6wn in Sockihern India a» the 
Koo» Grass oil, which differs but little either 
n appearance or quality from the Ijeraon 
grass oil, is ased for the same purposes, forms 
I good substitute for the more expensive caja- 
rotoil, and is sold in England under the name 
Oil of Bose-soenled Geranium. This plant is 
uppoBed by Dr. Koyle to be the calamus aro- 
natieoa of the ancients ; yields a volatile oil, 
mooeottsly termed oil of spikenard ;. The true 
ipikeoard of the ancients is supposed to have 
been obtained from the Nardostachys Jatamansi, 
a plant of the Valerian family. O^Shaugknenff. 
Rojfie. Jur. Rep. M. B, 626. 

species of andropogoD, as the genus is described 
bf lioiburgh, are among the moat abundant of 
tbejcrasses of Bnrmab, one of these Dr. Mc- 
Ckiiand describes under the name of Andropo- 
jTOQ escolenturo, or Lemon grass, (Tsablain, 
Bormeae) cultivated in small quantity in every 
vHiage throughout the country, and to- be had 
ia ill the bazars. It is a valuable article, and 
10 1 dry state might be found profitable for 
export. Mr. Jaffrey mentions that A esculen- 
tiuB, (Narikuvk-pilloo^ Tamil) is used in 
Hadnts to perfume water which the people 
drink, and that a proportionate quantity im- 
pnts a pleasant flavour to tea. — McClelland, 
^'Jntf. Maun, See Vegetables of Southern 


Gondhagoorana, Bmg. \ Tambut D^* 

grows in the higher parts of Bengal. Roxb^ 

SjfB.AndropogonNardu8. Rottll Aintlie, 115. 
^^ I 275. 


hjrai-kuiha... Beko. | Gaccha Saw 

l^'ttn „ „ I AUapu Kommuvella 

K«aa „ ^ I Yantigaddi ... Tbl. 

Its oil. 

Booaa oil, Rooaa grass oil. 

A native of the low hills along the base of t he 
^Uttlajas, atUardwar and theKheeree pass and 
ihofoond atAsseergurh and in Malwah, gene- 
^. The roots of this fragrant grass are used 
^ the Natives in northern India in intermittent 
"v^ In habit and taste it comes remarka- 
%uar A. Scheenanthus. The oil is used as 
titinalaat internally and externally, much in 
vianie manner as oil of cajeput. — Roosa oil, 
m hmg been supposed to be the celebrated 
S'* oil of Nemaur, but Dr. Koyle, does not 
•*piiae the correctness of this opinion and 
^f"fttke Nemaur oil to the A. Calamus aroma- 
^ it is probable, however, that (he several 
■PWtt funtish oils of similar characters. lioxh. 

1. 276. (ya%aughm9g. 630. VoigL TOT. 
See Grass Oil of Nemaur. 



Andropogon oardoides, Ness f 

Andropogon calamuH aromuticus, Royle^ 

Gross oil of Nemaur I Kubell Hi^d^ 

Kottsa grana Oil... BHo*. | 

This plaat grows in the Balaghat, in Central 
India, and northwards to Lucknow and Delhi. 
It has a strong aromatic and pungent taste, so 
that the milk and butter and flesh of animals 
who feed on it are impregnated with it. Grass 
oil is never taken internally by natives, but 
they have a great faith in it as a stimulant to 
the functions of the several organs, when rub- 
bed ou externally. They also use it as a lini«^ 
ment in chronic rheumatism and neuralgio 
pains, and though they place great reliance on 
its. virtues, its expeuce prevents it being used 
generally. It has a fragrant aromatic smell, 
persistent, aud very agreeable at first, but aftee 
a time the pdour becomes unpleasant, aad givea 
many peoplfca feeling of sickness with headache. 
The natives use it for slight colds ; also, to excite 
perspiration, by rubbing in a couple of drachms, 
on the chest before the fire or in the heat of th& 
sun. The pure unadulterated oil has been used 
with effect in rheuznatfsm ;, A spurious article is 
prepared by diatiUing sesamum oil in which 
at Saugor twenty seers of oil, the grass, for 
which grows wild over the station and diatrict, 
are mixed with two seers of sesamum oil« 
and then slowly distilled. The oil thus becomes 
highly impregnated with the peculiar rooaa 
flavour, and is sold aa such at 4 Us, a seer. 
It is also known Jinder the names of grass 
oil and ginger grass oil. It has an odour 
distinct from that of lemon grass and citronelle. 
For the 1862 Exhibition, every endeavour to 
obtain unadulterated oil failed. The best is said 
to be pressed at A j mere. Voigt. 707. Roxh. %, 
277. Car, Oat. for Ex of 1862. Gen. Med. 
Topografthy- p. \76. 

Roxb. i. 865. 


Anatbemm murioatum. Beauv, 

Phalaris zinania. Linn. 

Ehor? Assam. 

Jalasayah f 


Kror T .M ... *•., „ 



Kaskas gfaaa ... . ^Bevo. 



Pan-yen,. Burx. 

Vimtarang ... 

» > 

Cuacus Eiro. 



Ehus-khua m 



Bina Hnrn. 



uBir ... ,«• ... ,y 

Avuru guddi ... 


Khaa-khaa ^ 



Bftta ... .V. f. 



Garrar? i, 

Nalla vatti vent. 

• > 

OaDdar? „ 

Telia H „ 


Akar-wangi ... Malat. 

Oaru „ „ 


Ramciham ... Malxal. 






Growt in many parts of India, in trery part of 
the ooast, in Bengal^in the south of the peninsula 
and in Burmah, is cultivated for its roots, which 
are used for makinii: the fragrant fans and tat- 
ties in general use. The grass is used for thatch. 
It seeks a low rich moist soil* especially on the 
banks of water-courses. It covers large tracts of 
waste land in the province of Guttack. Known 
generally by its aromatic perfume, it is also 
locally used as a medicine, for much the same 
purposes as sarsaparilla. Its roots and oil 
are used in native medicine for other purposes. 
Under the name of Khuskhus Attur an 
essential oil is extracted at Lucknow, from the 
roots and sells in the Bazaar at 2 Kupees per 
tola. It is probabiv merely a perfumed 
Sesamum oil. But the plant grows spon- 
taneously and plentifully in all the Jungles of 
Oudh — Roxb, i. 266. Foifi. 706, Vr. Mason, 
501. AinsL M. Bxh. 


Karing^ ke baa ka 
ghas ' . ... BuK. 

Gaud bet f Hnn. 


Guoboha « Sans. 

WaaBana-piDa... Tam. 
Allapu kommu-i 


gadda-..^* ... Tvu 

There seem to be grave doubts as to the right 
of this plant to be separated from A. iwar- 
ancusa, JBlane, and A. nardioides of Biddell 
aeems identical. Ainslie says that Wassanapilloo 
makes a very pleasant tasted tea and valuable 
diet drink. In infusion^ it is a stomachic and 
it vields an essential oil. — Aiiulie Mai. Ind. 
258. Voigt. 707. 

seeds said to be of this plant were distribut- 
ed throughout India* In 18&8, this plant was 
introduced into France from China, and it 
became the subject of much discussion among 
European botauists to determine to which genus 
it belonged. Kunth named it Andropogonniger. 
It produces an abundant crop of grain. The 
liusk or rind yields a superb dye of a violet red, 
a colour which, combined with acids and alkalies, 
gives a variety of tints, suck as deep red, 
orange red, brown red, &c. This dye has been 
recently applied to cotton wool and to silk. A 
rich saccharine juice in the atalk, yields 14 per 
cent, of sweet extract, of whid^ 10^ per c^nt. 
is fit for crystallis^ and i\ per cent, for 
uncrystalliaed sugar, and all can be made, if 
wanted, iuto altt^ol. Sogat can be extracted 
direct from U, in tlie Sufopean fashion ; and 

Slg^ can be made by the Natives, which can 
refined either in India or in Europa. 
The Andropogon niger which, in tem- 
perate regions takes 4 or {^ months to arrive at 
ita full perfection, will not, it is said, at the 
utmost take more than 2 or 3 months in the 
hot regions of India, and four erops a year can 
be gathered from it ; but the plant requires 

irrigation ; such as to be fouad in the delta ot 
the Godavery, where it is derived from the 
aniout. Hr. Walter Elliot meiitioned that thia 
was known to farmers of the peninsula as the 
Sugar Sorghum. Bal/our, Madras Museum. 

Deodhan Hdid. | Bhaloo .. ... l>mo% 

May be the A. Niger above noticed. Dr. Rox- 
burgh says it is much cultivated over various 
parts of India. See Holcus saeoharatus. 

Maewail, of the Dekhan. 


i. Citrsium. IkCand, 
Cymbopogonaohenanthua. Spring, 







Ta^-ba-len ? 
Sa-ba-len ... 
:^Xovoavdoc GjBB. of Eipp. 
Ghanda-bela ... Himd. 

Qand Bel ,, 

Juneufl odoratua ...Lat. 
S&reka ... Malbal. 




BhustriiiaDg .. 
Peogiri Mana... 
t\ra8aana pillu. . 
Kavatam piUa 
Kamaohi-kaaauvti. Txi^ 
Bha-atranam ... » 

Ohippa-g » 

Eamanoht gaddi... ,» 
Nimma gaddi ... y, 
Vaaana gaddi ... ^ 

Sir OH. 



The Oil. 

Lemon Grass Oil. | Oil of Verbena. ? 
This plant is a native of Arabia, but is 
cultivate ki the West Indies, Ceylon, on the 
North of India, all over Burmah and in the 
Moluccas, and used for domestic purposes and 
in tba medicine. It grows to a height of three 
or four feet, its stems infused as tea, or i^ 
decoction, are considered aromatic and stimulant 
and given in colic. Its oil is largely exported 
from Ceylon where it grows abundantly on tbo 
Ambulawe mountain, which overhangs Garopulsk 
on the road to Nawern £lia. Almost annuallj* 
in the dry season, the plant is burned down^ 
but the roots are uninjured and after a fioir 
days rain, jfoung shoots burst forth. — Sirr*M 
Ceylon. Roxb. i. 274. Voigt. 706 : 0'8ha%^h^ 
639. Bog. 832. Atnslie. Vr. Mason. Us^fm^ 
FlantB. Bombay Produtit, See Oil : Thatckkig^ 

Andropogon. Khura also Khurrar 
Jeemoota, Hind. Grows in moist placea in t&^ 
plains, is considered the best grass at Ajme^ 
to preserve for eskith.—ffenl, Med. Top. p. 16^ 

of Sorghum vulgare. Pebs. See Uolcil^ 

ANDUGATel. «9oi&K. Boswellia glabi«^ 

R. ii. 384. . 

ANDZIAN. A tenritory farming one of |^ 

bonndariea of the lands of the Kjurgj^ia ^ 

See Kirghis.. 


lifEtHUM 6ItATJEX>LE)}8. 


A.VEBSOON. ^ym^ ] Arab. PimpiBella 

teiram, Aniseed. 

ANBllEKA. 8CAPIFL0BA. Voosli-siah. 
iUm^La* HiND^k Common in the Kheeree 

pnBhat ; its roots are much prized by native 
pnditionen.-~Voigt. names A. herbaceum, 
ubud: nudiflonim and vaginatum brought 
£r» the genera, Commelina and Tradesoantia 
of lion and Boib. Voigt. p. 677. 

AN£'KArHAL£, Tam. Agave Amen 
mt [mm, 

AHEM. e9o. TsL. BrideUa. mUd. 

ANEKONANTUBA. d. c A genus of the 
ItiaocttlaeesB of which A. Falconeri and A. 
Gfiffitki occur in the Himalayas, Sikhim and 
BotiD.-iy. /. and Tk. 

ANEMONE, or the wind-flower, one of the 
tuaaeolacMe, contains acrid properties. Some 
apceies are cultivated in India as garden flow- 
cfii IB rich loamy deep aoil with much decayed 
MouTe. Anemone cemua, according to Siebold, 
kin lu|[h repute among the Chinese as a tonio 
bitter, aader the name of Hak-too-woo — Kr. 
FoituDS says that many species which he im- 
ported from China have found their way 
to the principal gardens in Europe, and when 
vnliBg m 1846, he mentions that the Ane* 
BOM Jnponiea was in fnli bloom in the garden 
of tk oodeiy at Chiawick, as luxuriant and 
kntifal u it ever grew on the graves of the 
GUiae,near the ramparts of Shanghae. Hooker 
ttd ThempsoD, name A Albana of Central 
A»:A biflora, of Baluchistan, Kashmir and 
AigUiutan A. rubicoU of the inner Himma- 
itfu, tnd Sikhim and A. vitifolia of the 
mansUjas generally, — Forlune't Wanderingn^ 
fife405. ashaughnmy.p. 160. RiddM. Hog. 
^9fMk Kiagdam, p. li Hook. /. and Thorn. 

ANBM0NO8PBRMOS. b. o. m genns of 
tts Sanuncniaoese of which several species 
tnr in Ceylon and the Himalayas, if./, and T. 


A* Sowa. ifMr6. 





Qb. of DioM), 



Jemuju?... . 
AdiuMnaois K 

I9adakuppe^. ... Tak. 

^0 plant grows in the aonth of Europe, in 
end Astracan* In India, dill water 
eonroonly used carminative for the 
of flatulence, -flatulent colic^ and the 
fh of infants; and may be advan- 
-ly combined with a few grains of 
or aromatic confection. In Pegu, 
art coiiatantly for sale hi the basars, 
'^ttvese do not diatinffuish it firom earn- 

way. — ^The Hakeems of Northern India be« 
lieve the use of dill seed promotes the secretion 
of mWk.--^ ffoniffbergir. O'Skaughnessy. Mason, 
•ANETHUM PANMOHI, Byn. Foeniculum 

SonI : Patimhori, Hiirn. 

A n/itive of various parts of India, root 
white, nearly fusiform, and nlmost simple. 
Used in India as an aromatic in food and in 
medicine. — (TSkaughnetty, page SCO. 

ANETHUM 80WA. Roxb. 


Anethum graveolena. WcdL 

Shabit... ... ... Alt. 

Sulphai SowA ••• BlBiia. 

TsaMyeik Bubm. 

SowaDiU Ejfo. 

Bishop's weed .». Baa. 
BuvB*.' t». -f •••Gus. 

Soya HiMn. 

Dowa>.. ••• .I. „ 
Shuta pusha... -• „ 

SyOie.** ••• ••• ••• „ 

Shatapuspha ,> 

Shatta-kupha... iUttkU 
Sita Siva... ... .. San84 

Miftireya i, 

Shaleya ,., ... ■•■ „ 

Satta-kuppa SufOB* 

Hipendura... ... t, 

Satha- kappa TaIc. 

Saddapa Tak 

Sopu Sompa „ 

Bhatha^iuppa „ 

Pedda Sadapa Ghettn ,« 

This plant is cultivated in the cold ai*ason in 
Bengal, in the Peninsula, Burmah &c. Ita 
seeds are aromatic and carminative and used 
by the natives in their ourbi«^s and medici- 
nallv to relieve flatulence. Tlie best form for 
adults is probably that of a few drops of the 
essential oil on sugar, or dissolved in spirit. 
By distillation the fruits of this and the next 
species yield a pale yellow volatile oil, sp. gr, 
881, soluble in alcohol, ether, and in 144 parts 
of water.— 0'i8fAtfi(^Aae4i|y> pagi 366. Bombay 
Producti: VtgeUhU Kingdom, 377. Roxb, ii 96, 

FoBnieulum volgare. 

ANGARAVALLX--i8f. ^ottt^^s^^. liter* 

ally Fire climber : Pongamia ? Butea ? Glero- 

AN 6 ADA, the son of Bilr, a fierce monkey 
chief, one of Rama's confederates. 

Swgk. Tbe planet Mars : Tuesday. 

ANGAKARA GADDA. Tsl. Uomordica 

ANGAMAN. A name of the Andamans f 
See Marco Polo. 

ANGAME, a rude pagan tribe ea the range 
of hills in upper Assam, on the eastern frontier 
of tbe Mikir and Cachar, They speak one of 
the Naga dialects. Bee Moiome ; Kuki : India 
p. 339. 

ANGAM ox ANGAR ISLAND, adj<^in<ng 
the south side of Kishm about 5 milCB long, in 
lat, S6 o 37" N — Honburgk. 

ANGAN. DuKH. ^«^l Tbe open enolo^ 

sure of a mahomedan or hindoo house. A small 
court yard, 

ANGA, Sanbc. The Anga and Upanga, 
•'. e., the sciences and secondary sciencee aolm; 





dinate to ihe Yedast usually cuiled Vedanga >: 
six principal ones are eonmerated, viz. 


Description of religious ceremonies. « 



Paily calendar. 

Explanation of ilifiicult words, etymology » 
— fFilliam^s Siory- See Veda ; Vidya. 

AN^GDES) Ongdes or Ondes, adjoins Thibet. 
The inhabitants call themselves Hoongia, and 
appear to be the Hong-niu of the Chinese 
authors, the Hun (Hoon) of Europe and 
;[ndia, which prove this Tartar race to be Lunar, 
-nd c^Boodba. Tod'i Hojaslhan, Vol, p. 13^6. 

north of Europe is grown in ludin as a "ftower- 
ing plant. 

ANGELY, OR ANGILICA, according to 
Edye, the Malayalam and Tamil name of a 
tree which grows to two and a half and three 
feet in, diameter, and from fifty to sixty feet 
high. He describes it as lised for large canoes 
and 8nake>bo8rt9, and, if kept oiled, as very 
durable. Also, as used for planks, for native 
vessels, in consequence of its being very tough, 
and well fitted to hold the yarns where the 
()lank8 are sewed together, which is the case 
with all the flat bottomed boats on the coast, 
where there is a surf on the bench, as at Mad- 
ras, for the massula boat ; at Mangalore and 
Calicut, for the manchee boats, &c. ; and many 
of the pattamahs are fastened by paddings of 
coir on the joints of the planks &c. Its Tamil 
synonim seems to be Assnnpela maram. Dr. 
Wallich names the Angelly wood, the Arto- 
carpus hirfuta. and it is described in Useful 
Plants as A. hirsutus. lism. £yde, Malabar and 

ANGHEIPARNIK A- 8. f^o\^'^A^}^ 

Uvaria lagopodioides. D. C, 

ANGIACHINEN81S. a tree of China and 
8iam, produces a varnish. 

ANGILIGA. See Angely. 

ANGIRA, t. e. Charity, in hinduism, one of 
the ten men created by the united powers of 
Brahma, Vishnu and Hudra, the ten were 

Puluha or Pride 






Nareda or Reason 
Daksha .,. Ingenuity 
Yasishta... Emulation 
Bhrigu ... Humility 
Critu ... Piety 

See Brahmadica* 

ANGIRASA. A gotra or family of brah- 
mins derived from the Rishi or sage Angiraisa. 

ANGLO-SAXON, a branch of the Ariaii 
race, who settled in Britain. Amongst the 
Arians who went to the north west, the Saxons 
not uncommonly immolated captives in honour 
x>i their gods, but they seem to have ceased to 

do so after their settlement in great Britain. 
See Arvan. Sacrifice. 

ANGOLA WEED. Ramalina farfuraoea. 
See Dyes. 

ANGOLAU. MaL. Alangium decapetalum : 
A. hexpetalum. 

ANGOORER-GACH, Bek©. Vitis vinifera : 

ANGU. Malay. Asafcstida. 

ANGUILLID^. See MursenidsB. 


BARK, is obtained from a south Amerioan 
plant, the Galipea cusparca. It is imported 
into India, as a tonic medicine.— O'^Aai/^*. 

ANGUZA. Perb, i^jt I Asafotida. 

ANL TaK. ,ft8s8r Elephant. 

ANGRIA, about the middle of the I7tk 
century, Kanojee Anuria, who bad been a If ah* 
ratta soldier, was made governor of Severn- 
droog. He soon assumed independence, -ob- 
tained possession of nearly all the Mahratta 
fleet, and conquered territory on the mainland. 
He even took vessels of war, belongiusr to tke 
Bnttlish, Trench and Dutch. Against his sue- 
cessors Tulji Angria, in 1754, the Bombay 
Government failed in an expedition, which 
they sent out, but Sevemdroog was suhae* 
queutly reduced by com rood orre James* Though 
up to his timC) they had swept the Indian aeaa 
with impunity. 

shipper of Siva. 

ANOLA. Hind. Myrobalan. 

ANHILWARRA, the dynastic name of three 
races that ruled in Guzerat from A. D. 696 lift 
A. D. 1 309, when Guzerat was annexed U^ 
Delhi by Ala-ud-din Mahomed Shah. The namft 
of these dynasties was taken from the town 
Anhilpoor, which rose to great distinction as u 
commercial site and with Cambay as ita aea* 
port, was the Tyre of India. At its heisht^ 
Anhulpoor was twelve cose (or fifteen mOes) in 
circuit, within which were many temples and 
colleges ; eighty-four chaokB, or squares; eighth- 
four bazaars, or market-places, with a mint torn 
gold and silver coin. Col. Tod thinks it no^ 
unlikely that the Ckaora, the tribe of the 
dynasty of Anhulwarra, is a mere corruption 
Saara ; as the ch and s are perpetually inti 
changing. The Mahrattas cannot pronounce iIm 
ck ; with them Cke4!to is Seeio, &c. The Sauin 
princes of Deo and Somnath, he thinks, in ^ 
likelihood, gave their name to the peninsula «| 
Guzzerat. — Tod's Traveh^ p. 147,158. 15^ 
Tod*% Rajasikan, Vol. 1, p, 3l. See Guzerat. 
Kalmuk ; Kattywar : 

ANIMAL fcHARCOAL prepared 
bones, is used to a considerable extent in Im 
as a filtering material, for clarifying oils , 



it the processes of sugar refinia^f. When pure, 
itsiKHilil not effervesce on the eildition of 
mumtic scid. 

ANIMAL FOOD. Its use is not absolutely 
fcrbiddeD to the priests of Buddha and the 
follovers of this faith use enormous quantities 
offish, reptiles and Crustacea. Even the more 
itriei of ihem, though they may refuse to take 
life for food, eagerly use meat, when (hey can get 
aiioaU killed for them or find tlKfm dead from 
Nciiieiit or di^ease, and the cow, buffalo^ tiger 
iKJ borie, are all used in fiurmab, tiger flesh 
At for fife annas a pound. The hindu 
bnbmin, rajput and Tesya, as a rule, will not 
eit uimal food, and no hindu can eat the cow 
without ceasing to be of Ibe four hindu castes 
bitiii sadra hindus eat goals, fowls, muttoi>, 
ad the lervile pariah races eat nearly ail 
^■dnipcd& — Hyder. Ed. 

ANIMAL OILS are in frequent use, as 
■ididDil substaneea, amongat tlie people of 
ladia, ibr ritemal aj>plication • duch as that 
fnnlhepea fowls fat, irom the ueutsfQ>t, the 
eraepdile and the igunna« 

ANIME, a gum resin, imported to some 
ateot into India and China. It is the pro- 
dKt of the Hymenea oourbaril, the Oonrbaril 
laeait tree, of South America, which has 
iitoi introdueed from South America, into the 
Twnmm Provinees aud is easily propagated. 
Thii gam resia is of a pala browDish colon r^ 
inlisiBi't with in eommeree partly in traneln- 
enl ind somewhat unetuous grains or tears, 
nd partly iu large brittle masses. Bui the 
ttBBcrasl srticle is doubtless the product also 
of IheYstTiaindioa or Gum copal tree, and 
1^ Y. Koxburghii, whieh yield almost a 
pnoKljr aoiibr reaiB* For ordinary purposes, 
Aim mm be used indiflfereotly ; but where 
p% is demanded, oopal is almost insoluble, 
•hie toime is wholly soluble in alcohol — 
Asi(r. Ur»Uorriaom\ CompendioM Detcrifh- 
4fc, hi. ^99en : OSkaugh»€i^^ Faulkner, 
^^fMle JCuigidoM 287. Fook. :See Yateria, 
6m anil Resins. 

AKIMtSHA. Sansc. The hindu gods are 

"Rnsed by the hindus to be exempt from 

*• seoeisity of winking their eyes. Hence a 

Vl| ia called Animiiha, one whose eyes do not 

MiUe. There arcr other marks which distin- 

^irise from mortal bodies. They cast no 

~^* they are exempt from perspiration, 

If Knaia unsoiled by dust, th^ float on the 

y vithont toudii ng it, and the garlands 

19 vctr stand ereet, the flowers remaining 

^*lwcl— -ITiaiaw's Shrp of Nalo, p. 248. 

ANUCUS, Latin, the breath of life bmathed. 

ftsa's nostrilsy is tha Raucb of the Hel)rews, 

F.^* ^ ^ Atabia« and among the Greeke, 

B|*|^4 Anima and Spiritus beinjc the terms 

^|*P^ the Vomans* In their designation of' 

■■tTarioua prophets, mahomedans style Mojp* 



thfc Kalam-AUtih, the word of God. Abrahim 
the Kalil-al-Allah, friend of (iod, and Jesus 
Christ is the Bub- Allah, the Spirit of God. In 
this view, it ]driiti6es the eVerlasting souU 
with the Holy Spirit and the breath of life^ 
The New Testament indioMtes three, soul, 
spirit, and life, but in English there is no settled 
mode of speaking of these three, for a roan ia 
said to die ; in a shipwreck, every soul is said 
to perish, and a person ceasiug to live is de- 
scribed as departing, the mahomedan passing 
awav and departure. — Ed, 

reli^iosa. —*n, 


AN-IRAN, the non Arian people. See Cye. 

ANIS. HiNl>. Adhatoda vnsiica, 

A^MSAKOOLY MARA. Can. Alangium 
decai cliilum. 

ANISAT. Tam. (qu. Avi&a\) Agati grandi- 


Tam. Adansonia 



Ancpsmm ... 
Kadis-Mania? ., 
Mahori .. 

Tsa-moun taabnh Bubm. 
Anys ... ... DuT. J 

Anise .. ..• 

Common Aaise ... 
Aniseed... ... 


Graines d* Anis ... 
Ania .•• . ' • 

Anison ... ... 

Aoiaa •• ••• 

Aoiai t? ... 

Sonf... ... HnvD. 

Anise ... ..• It. 

Andia-monis f ... Jay. 

MoDgfi . . . ... f, 

Piinpinella aniaum. Lat. 

Bno. I Aniaiim „ 

Jira-manii ... Malay, 

Haaian-i-rumi ... Psbs, 

Ania,... ... Port. 

(^ataphaspfaa ... Saits. 

Sombu ... ... Tax. 

Pedda Bada))a ... Tsi.. 

Sompu ... ... „ 








The plant producing these small, aiomatic^ 
pungent, fragrant, aweetish seeds, is the llropi* 
nella anisum of the Aplaoess of Lindley which 
is cultivated in the Levant, all over Europe and 
in Chins. They are an agreeable carminative 
and yield on distillation a volatile oil, and a 
fixed oil by pressure, England takes about 50 
tons at 300. to 60a. the cwt. T)>e Bali, and 
Javanese terms may possibly designate the Star 
Anise. — Vingi^ 21. Vegetabh Kingdom 376. 
O'Shangkntwg 358. Dn. jRiddell, Matuti^ 
Fat/IkneTf Poole. 

ANISKED-TREE. Eng. Illicium anisatom. 

ANISEED OIL. Oil of fruit of Pimpinella 

ANICUT. Tamil: literally dam-built, a 
name given in Southern India to a dam or 
weir thrown across a river to dam up the water. 
The grandest is that across the Godavery river, 
about seven miles long, but others dam up the 
waters of the Kistnab. the Palar, the Coleroon. 
the Toomboodra and the Pennar. 

enanthpra pavonina. Its seeds are the muni. 

ANIL. Port. Sp. Indigo. 

AiNlM. .*5eel)\c8. 



ANIMALLY, litei»Uy elephant hills, a moun- 
tain tract in tbe collectoraie of Goimbatore, in 
the southern part of the peninsula of Inctia. The 
mountains are covered by valuable forest trees, 
which at one time were worked with an annual 
profit of about Ks. 50,000, and there are msny 
beautiful woods -suited for turnery. The wild 
animala are the elephant, tiger, leopard, bear, 
hyena, wild Ao^, bison, sambur, spotted and 
barking and bog deer: also the wild goaU 
They are occupied by a race of hill-men ibe 
Karder, open, independent, atraight- forward 
men, simple and obeying their Mopens or 
Chiefs implicitly. They are strong built, active, 
with woolly hair and soroethinye of the African 
features, and file their front teeth to a point. 
The women wear enormous circles of pith in 
the lobes of their ears, which they distend down 
to their shoulders. A black monkey is 'their 
greatest dainty. — LL Col. HamiUon^ in I'UerU. 

ANISE, STAR. Illieium anisatum. 

Badian-i-khatai, An. Fers. 
Pa-co hu hnei 

*hiam •. ... Chtn 

Chinese Anise .. . Kno.. 
Star ft ... I, 

Anas phul ... Dvk. 

Badian Hikd. 

Skimmi Jap. 

Adas Manis. Maleal. 
Badian-i-khatai. Fers. 
Anasipu ...f AM. ?T£l. 

• 9 

The Star Anise is the fririt of the Illieium 
anisatum of Linnseus, a shrub or small tree, 
which grows in several places in the South 
Eastern parts, of Asia, in China, Japan, the 
Philippines, and the countries extending from 
China to Japan from ^^'' to 35 N. L. 
The name is given from the clustering star like 
form assumed by the capsules or pods, five to 
twelve in number, joined togetlit* r at one end 
and diverging in rays, generally Hve. These 
are used all ever the £ast« ae a condiment. 
They are prized for the volatile oil obtained 
from them, and for their aromatic taste. The 
barks have a more aromatic flavour than the 
seeds, but they are not so sweet. In China, 
their most common use ia to season sweet 
dishes : In Japan they are placed on tlte tombs 
of friends and presented as offerings in the 
temples. They are chiefly exported direct to 
India, England, and the north of Europe, at the 
average value of 8-^ dollars per picul. In 1850, 
695 pieuls were exported from Canton, valued 
at 8,200 Spanish dollars. In India they are 
much used in seasoning curries and flavouring 
native dishes^ and large quantities are used in 
Europe in the preparation of liqueurs. 3,000 
picnls of anise are exported annually from 
Cambodia, and, in 1848, 81 piculs of oil of 
Aniseed, valued at 11,900 dollars were exported 
from Canton. In preparing a spirit of nnise, 
the Star Anise, may be used instead of common 
anise; In England, it is from this fruit that , 
the oil of anise is prepared, nnd it imparts the i 
peculiar flavour of the Anie-ctic do Buurdcaux. — 


Morrison. Simmouds, FmiUcner. 0^ SkavghneMS^. 
Bwff' Phar, p. 421. Fegeiabie Kingdom 23. 



Lavendula camosa. Linn, 

Plectraothus camosus. Sm, 

P. dubius. Spr, 

P. Crassifolius. Bori. 

P. Strobiliferus. Roseb, Hi, 23. 

Coleus apicatns* Benth, W. J. Rh, 

Thick-leaved Laven- \ Kariuwalli ... Tei.. 
der... ... Kdg j Pindi banda 

Litaki-paageri... Duk. Pindi bonda 
Kat-karka... Maiheal. | Roga ohettn 
KarpurawalU ... Tam. | 

Of this genus of the Lamiacese, Voigt only 
gives this species, but Wight also figures A. 
albidum, A. dysophylloides, A. purpureum, and 
A suffruticosum. It is used in native medicine^ 
It has small 'bluish purple flowers and grows 
among the Circar mountains and at Taongp 
Bon^.—Norb. in. 23. Voigt, 4fi0. AinUie. 
Useful plants. 



Kepeta Midibarica. Linn, 
Stachya „ Sieb. 

Ajuga fruticosa. Roxb. Hi. 1. 

Gao-^aban of Bombat. | Madberi.. 

Bootan Koosham. Sanso. j Moga birakH ... », 

Pema-ratti Tah. | Chinna ranabhexi. Xkx.. 

Retti Pema-retti« «> | 

A plant with a very fetid odour, of the Wes^ 
Indies, Mauritius, the peuinsulHs of India and 
of Malacca and Java. In the W. Indies, the 
entire plant is deemed emenagogne and natives 
of India use the leaves internally in dyaenter^. 
— Voigt. 460. 0*8kaughnmy 482. VegtltabiS 
Kingdom. 57-8. Ainslie. Roa^i^iii, 1- 



Anisomeles disticba. Heyns. 




„ Amboinica. 

Marrubinm Indicum. 
Ballota Mauritiaua. 

Roxb. Hi, 2. 

L. Mixnt. 





A plant of Ceylon, peninsular India, Benf^arf^ 
and Nepauly with a strong camphoraceoua amelL- 
-^Roxb. iii^ 2. Voigl. 460. ' 


Welipiyanna. Singh. , 

A tree of the western and northern parts qjj|; 
Ceylon, its timber is used for common hou 
building purposes. - Mendis. 

mein tree with small whiUsh yellow fragras 
flowers. — Voigt. 91. 

of Ph^'llanthus multiBore, W'illd. 



iUB. HiKB. FsA8. ^^jJ| FiflDpiBella 

ausaiD. Aniseed. 

ANTANKA BHIMa, m prince celebrated 
1 Oriaia. He unfortunately killed a brahmin 
m) he niied numerong temples in expiation. 
Heibo endowed Jug^math (Jogha-natha). 
8m Inaeription. p. 880. Cy. of Sup. Jnd. 

ANIYATA-DHAMMA, a class of priestly 
■iidemetnoors, of the buddhists of Ceylon.— 
BjM Eattem Monaehimtu p. 433 

ANJALI Sans. One of the hindu forms of 
mpectfiil obei8anc«', it is the Bandawat of the 
South of India. The head is slightly bowed, 
the palms of tbe hands are brought together 
nd raised laterally to th^ middle of the 
forehead, so that the tips of the thumbs only 
Be ID contact with H.^ffind. TAeai. VoL u\ 
f, 108. 

ANIZSH, atribeof.Aalis,«bft ai»«l the 
loj asdent Khazt^rij or Khezerj Arab tribes. 

ANKAL-AMMA, one of the village gods of 
tk peninsular of India. 

AInJANA, grandfather of Gautama. See 


Anklets of gold, silver^ brass, copper^ deer 
horn, the metals bt-ing solfdly massive and 
as chains, are in use in all eastern coun* 
tries, amongst hind us and mahomedans. Oc- 
casionally a grown man of the hindus 
may be seen with a ^mall gold or silver 
ring but in general they are restricted Co 
women and children. The custom has doubt- 
less been through all ages, ai^() thfy ar^ alluded 
to in Josh, xiii, 16 : I^. ii(. IQ and 18.* In 
some cases those of some of thp hindu? a^e 
inconyeniefltly massive, and heavy rin^s, 
usually of silver set with a fringe of ^mall bells, 
are often worn by hindu laflies. Allusion is 
made to a tinkling with the feet. Hindoo 
women wear loose orpan^euts one above auother 
on their ankles, which, at every motion of the 
feet, produce a tinkling npise. Toy Cari^ 

ANRLONO, the mitsical bamboos of Java. 

ANtQBAB, f^escribed by Dr. Kirk in 
jottrjiey from Tajoura, Lon4. Geo. — Traaa* 
1842. Vol. X. See Kirk. 

ANKOLAMU— 8. tSgr^puSw. Alangium 

decapetaUuDy Lam.'^M, ii. 503.— A. hexape- 
ANKOpS. Pebs. Hiki>. ^j^ii] Ankasa, 

Sansc. Arpe. Greek : Cuspis, Latin : Hendoo, 
Singh. The goad and guiding rod of art 
ekphant driver, in shape resembling a small 
boat-hook. It is figured in the medals of 

TiM. Antjmony. 
ANJAB,apart.of Cutch. 
ANJASI KULISl. See Hindoo. 

ANJE-DEYA, or DEPA, an Island 2 mUes , o- — 

efftlie Csoara Coast, in lat. H^ 45* l|ir. about CaracoUa of the identical form in use at the 

I ANJ1&. Fer8. ^^I Figs. 

AHJELIE. Eno. Tam. Artocsrpus hirsute. 


MaUbsr Coast, in Iftt. 8^ M^ N. I^ng. 76'' 

i 4&' & The word b a eonruption of the two 

bul words uBJee taynkul or five eoooa 

^xtt- The i^aee was for many years an English 

^ctory Slid of tome note in former dajs. 

ItiiBow desolate and deserted. The ruins of 

tke Portuguese church and fort, still exist* 

Oraf, the Historian, was born at Anjengo^ 

-*1WW Oriemtal liemairs Abbe Bapwal*^ 

f«^r ^ iiB Indie$.^H. Dturw, Cochin. 

AN/OWN.? Hind. Bishops' Weed. 
ANJUN. Mas. Hardwickia binata. 
MIUHA also KUKFA. Mae. Mem^oylon 
wMtonam* * 

AKJUBU, ^oe^ife. Picas carica, K--iS. 
ANKABOBA. ^oir«rf *]$• ^^cc» siaphykA. j 

iHKlR. Gbb. Anchor, 
r iSKERBOTEN. Gbr. Buoys. 
■■.INKLBT8. English. 



present day in India. 

ANKO-RUTE. Taj*. ^dr.;DLl«L.. Tricho- 
santhes palmate. Rvxb^ 

ANMAIL. Tam. Favo cristatus. 

ANN Ay an East Indian coin, sixteen to a 
rupee and equal to about three half pence.^ 
Eng. See Vanam. Ganda. 

ANNA BUGDI. Tam. Green copperas. 
UARAM. Tam. Odina woodier.. 

ANN ANAS. Guz. and Hind. ^^UJJ 

Pine Apple.^ 

ANNA PURNA SEVI, a goddess in 
hindu mytliology. In the modern representa- 
tions of this beneficent form of Parvati, she is 
described as of a deep yellow colour, standing, 
or sitting on the lotu9^ or water-lily. She has 
two arms, and in one hand holds a spoon, in 
tlie other a dish. In her dress she is decorated 
like the other modem images of Durga. Anna 
Puma is a household goddess, and is extensively 
worshipped by the hindus. Her name implies 
the goddess who fills with food, iand they 
believe that a sincere worshipper of her will 
never want rice. She is possibly the Anna of 
Babylon and she has been considered as the 
prototype of the Anna Perenna of the Romania, 
whom Varro places in the same rank with 
PhUss and Ceres, and who was deified and 
held in hi^h esteem by the Roman peopUi in 




cotisfqiience of having supplied them with food 
when they retired into Mount Avenlinc 
Besides the great similarity of names, there is 
a sinpilar coincidence in the times of their 
worship, the festivals of Anna Puma taking 
place id the early part of the increase of the 
moon in the month Choitru (pnrtly in March,) 
and those of the Roman goddess on the Ides 
of March. In Indiaj she is known simply as 
Anna^ also as Anna Puma, or Anna Devati. 
In hia hymn addressed to her by the Rishi 
Agastya, she is personified as Pitii or material 
ood. ANNA PURNA is Sans, from &nn&, 
^ood, and poorna foil. Another word is ftuna, 
^ood, and prashana, feeding. See Cyc. of Ind. 
fSupp. ii. Art. Hindu, p. 2^63 : Inscriptions 
876. Colem. Mvth. 

ANNASO. It. PineApple. 
AM NEE, a Tibetan nun. 
ANNELIDA, of Cuvier, from annulus a 
rinj^, as an example of which the ringed form 
of ihe common earth worm may be indicated. 
Trie leeches, the Hirudinidse, are numerous 
throughout the hot moist parts of Asia. The 
3^1anarin aUo occurs, near Madras*-* .^lyy. C^c. 
Mad. Liti Journ, 

JcwoR Kasum. 

This plant is common in the lake of Kashmir. 
Its broad round leaf lies on the water like that 
of the lotus, its under surface being covered 
with numerous hard, sharp and hooked spicnlae. 
— Adventurei of a Lady in Tariary, Mr»* 
Harrey. Vol J, p. 238. 

Xurvale ferox. Salisb. 

ANNESLEY, Dr.^ afterwards Sir James, 
a medical officer of the Madras Army who 
rose to be the head of the Medical Board. 
Author of Remarks on the diseases of India, 
Lon. % vols* 8vo. — Description of Indian 
diseases, 1 vol* — I^r, Buint's Catalogue. 

ANODA, a grenus of the Malvacese of which 
A. acerifolia,' Dilleniana, hastataand triangu- 
laris are 
the genus Sidft* — Foigt. 115. 


This timber tree grows at Chitlanna, 
Islamabad, in the Kennery jungles, the valleys 
of the Concan rivers near their sburoes, tbe 
inland Dekhan Lills^ aud in the Dehra Dhoon. 
The timber, if kept dry, is g^ood and durable. 
Near the Oodavery, the wood » said to be one 
of the hardest iu tbe forests. It growa to an 
enormous size. Axles of carts are generally 
made of this wood. Bozb. ii. 442. Voigi. 38. 
Captain Beddome. 

ANOINTING, a form of installation, whieH 
is practised in England but seems to have been 
of Eastern ori^ein, derived perhaps from ihe 
Assyrians, it is the '* ma»ah*' ^^^ of the 

Arabs, hence the hebrew Messiah. In Bajpnt- 
anah '' anointing^* appears to have been, iu all 
a^es, the mode of installation. The nngnent 
on this occasion is of sandal- wood and air of 
roses made into a paste, or very thick ointment, 
of which a little is place«l upon the forehead with 
the middle finger of the right hand, and then 
the jewels, the aigrette and necklace are tied 
on. Amongst the earliest notices of this cere- 
monial is that in Genesis xxviii. when Jacob 
rose up early in the morning, and took Ihe 
stone that he had pnt for his pillow, and set 
it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top 
of it. The bramhnns anoint their stone images 
with oil before bathing, and some anoint them 
with sweet-scented oil. This practice probably 
arises out of the cuatoms of the hindoos, ana 
is not necessarily to be referred to their idolatry. 
Anointing pttWM^ as an act of homage^ has 
been transferred to their idols. There an 
resemblances betwixt the Jewish and hindoo 
methods of and times for anointing. Oil k 
applied to tbe crown of the head, till it rpachea 
all the limbs, it is calkd abhyanga, which it 
noticed in Psalm, c. xxx. iii. 2. ' It ie liha 
the precious ointment npoa the bead, that treal 
down to the skins of his garment.' Again* wt 
are told in Mark xiv. 3, that there came a 
woman, having an alabaster box of ointment of 

Couocarpus aeumioatus, Roscb. ii. 443. 

spikenard, very precious; and she brake 
Mia, jL/iiicimim, ii«8i«i« oiiu iiicnRu- y^ ^^^ poxtted it on his head ; and pourimt 
mentioned, formerly placed under ,^eet^„^ ^^ ^„ ^^^ head is i^mZ 

amongst hindus. At the close of tie feativil 
in honour of Doorga, the hindoos worah^ 
the unmarried dau$|bters of bramhana, nvA 
amongst other et-reBBOvies pour aweet-acentad 
Pachi waiui. ... TsL. j Paa^hi mauH Tai. i oil on their heads. Amongst thehindoa, the 

This tsee is met with in several parta of 
Indie. Its timber is good, durable, and fit for 
house buildiag purposes. That from the 
Oodavery is described as a very hard strong 
timber.— J2«x^. ii. 443. Voiji. Captain Bed^ 


OoQo6arpua IktI/oUus. RojrL. Ii. 44S.. 

Sherimanq.. ... ^ Te» 

ceremonial is attended to after sickaeaa, whieh 
PMolm xiv. 7, mentions thus: 'the God haiKh 
anointed thee with the oil of gladaeaa.' Anf^ 
hindus, fasting, in sickness, or sorrow , abatalM, 
from the daily anointing of the body with o^ 
and again anoint on recovery as t 8ammri ii8« 
20, where * David arose from the earth, ntA 
washed, aad anointed himeelf, and changed hia: 
apparel, and came into the house of tbe 1>N<^ 
and worshipped.' Bathing, anointing tha boll^ 
with oil, and changing the apparel, are, aroon^ 




Aie H^ooe, Om irst outward signs oT ooming 
s«t of s Btote of Aoomtng, or siokQe88,-^roirs 
AgteAM. Tot if, ^. 5GS. 
ANOLA, Hind. Sy^ Fruits of EmbKe» 

Offieoialk, the £mbli6 HyrotMJan or Phylhin- 
tkos embliea. It is roi^udisb^ (^ekisb^ grey, very 
vnnkled, obscurely six-sided ; nttt three-eelfecU 
eadi olidl ndth two sbinkig sosd^ — ^O'Siaugk- 

ANOXADASSA, aeoording to the Singha- 
lese baddliists, a Budha previous to Gotama. 
— EyderU Xatiem MonaehUm^ p, 433. 

ANOXAGBiB, a tropical order of plants, 
AkAj inhabiting Ameriea and tbe last ladies. 
TW order includes about 15 genera and )50 
i^morethan half of wbieh oeeur im India, 




Oiopkoea*^, «•• 

httania. « 












Hookfersnd Thomson dteseribe ItS species. 
fhey «n M trees <ek ehvubs^ with a powerful' 
taste and sacB, furuisbttg esteemed 
I, -of which tbe custaid apple, sour- 
•weel sop,, aad bollock heart may be nam- 
et Fhiffi, 13. M iutd T'. 

Mt Hn^ with a siieeuleiit fruit of a dark purple 
oonlaiiiing a soft sweet mueilage, and 
mteeBsed by the Pemmne. li was 
into India in l^iQ'.—Riddta. 

of the West Indies is cultivated in 
aad'ThMMsenmy. and has large yellowish 

a TiBOus nmell. The- 
iblea the eostard^appley ripens ity 
bears -onk onee a ye«r. Bb grow» 
the aaflM sbe as the huUock heart, 
i»a#W fic<« ish colour when ripe, and bas a 
thoBuf appcanmee r the ftivoor la very 
% diftHJing from the other species of the 
*thes«ent j^n^nbies'tbat of Uac^ 
^ theseeds are slmaat to these of the 
The wood is infei^.— JltMrfif. 
PL JMkT B^pori^. r^i, 14. Eook. /. W 


JUipaaita**, ... Sam. 
lAnoiia..., .«, 'i,.SiNQB* 
Bama Blta' marain.'TAK. 


••• ft , ** 

t^ • M ^hettv.. Tbl. 
»iiSKft^aMiu'l)Baauahiltii.j; <.*.,». 

ii«a.4aHv«a fta /fl^mlifiataBd Sag- 

the if pdatMse of itadaric 

fidikM^ Jliiaiko^be autwith in 

41 paiisof thftl«0|aaL aad.4^owaJo:i large 

siiee. It ripens in the autumn, but it is soft 
aweetish-and pulpy and is not much esteemed 
by Europeans.— ifinf^t^y 832. Dr9, Eiddell and 
Mason. £omlay Troinetn. M. E. /. Bep<frU. 
a. /. </ •«. 1 1 5. €rawfur^% Dictionttry. . 

ANONASi^UAMOBA ZJm. Ii<m6.ii tol. 

Shueifa Ar. 

Luna Bxiio. 

I(«ba^.. bb» ••- w 

Ata ? 

Ame-«a ... 
Au-sa , ... 
K*^tf ... 
SwMt Sop .. 
Custard apple .„ 
Ha&oa-papoa ,. MaXay. 
Ncma ... 

• »» 




Sri Kaya ... 


AW&amtnra , 



J«vw^a •■* «•■ 

Siri Kaya ... 
Sita paUam 
Sita ph^iilam 









. Sum. 



Tliis small tree with iJts 'delicious fruit, 
grows freely, even wild, in tropical parts 
of the south-east of Asia, tibough origin- 
ally ^om tropical America. It grows wild 
near Hyderabad in the Dekhan. The fruit 
i» wholesome ami pleasant,, and being per- 
fectly free from acid may be given to such 
-delicate people as dare not venture on others 
of a different nature. It is delicious tO' the 
tnste^ and on oecasions- of famine,, haa lite- 
raliy proved the staff of life to the natives. 
Itt wat cultivatsd in Pegu in the Burmese .time 
to a great extent, and with much success, op 
the slopes of the hills about Fronic on bot)i 
sides of tbe river. Since British occupation of 
the country,, these plantations have falleu into 
neglect,, and supplies of the fruit are furnisWd 
to- a much more limited extent, as the plautjs 
now xeeeive no care ;. the fniit will soon be- 
some scarce^ This and similar aub*acid ff uito 
form a considerable article of food to the Bur- 
mese, to whom they serve as a substitute f^r 
flesh-meaty being eaten with rice a^ an ordinary 
article of their daily provisions. The tree whe/i 
cultivated and pruned durii^ the hot sea- 
son, produces fruit afterwards of double the 
usual size. The ieavoi have a disagreeable 
odour,, and tke seeds contain an acidd prin- 
.oiple fatal to insects, on. which .account ihe 
natives. (tfjndia use them powdered and mix^ 
wi^h the flour of .gram (Gicer arietiiium) for 
washing the hair." A., few leaves and son^e 
seeds put iato a bed infested witk bugs ha^e 
.been said to dispel these pests immediately.-^ 
'Hoyle, Gih§on. ^. quoted in Uu/mI JRUttis. 
McOUlland. MiddelL Ct;aw/urd.'^Ju^Ue, f. 
232.— ifa/cobs's Tra^U in ^otUh EasternAiia, 
v.!. p. 180. ^oig^, \ i. Hook, /. et TAi^nsqft 
1\5. CaL Cat. Mx-. 1802. BonUmy FroAticU. 

BAUME^f. Heestablbked buddhism at Pa- 
gau in B^vrmlkb/ ft^d^ built all the {temples 
there.-*— faiaf. $. See*Pag«n. - 


IG a 



jUaja, Singh, king of the forest* A Ce^lou 

ANOU, SuMATBAN. Gociuio, 
ANS. HiNP. Terminalia tomentosa. W ami 

. ANS, « tribe of Arabia ip the time of 
Mahomed. Bee Aawad. 
ANSA^ Sanso. Portian. 
ANSANA, Sans. Portion of a portion of 
Krishnai as Paramatma^ or supreme spirit. 
6ee Chattanya. 

ooe of the Cyperaoeae, is fioxburteh's Oyperus 
iDonocephalus and th« Getlioobi of Bengnl. 

ANSEB^ the goose, the bans of India, of 
which species A. Cygnoides : A. Cinereus ,* and 
A. brachyrynchus are known in India and the 
Punjab. Dr. Hooker mentions that A. Indica 
occurs at Siligori. The domestic goose of 
India is a hybrid between A. Cygnoides and 
A, Cinerens. — Hookef^'s Him. Journ : Vol. i, 
page Z%9* Catal. -Oal, Museum, See Cygninse. 

ANSBR CTGN0IDE8, see Pdicanus infla- 

ANSTRUTHER. c b., Major General 
Philip, of nn old Scottish family, an oiR- 
cer of the Madras artillery from 1825 till his 
retirement from tlic service. His chief efforts 
in early life were directed to the introduction 
of iron gun carriairee, to the reduction of the 
weijiht (^ guns. He joined the army «en gaged 
in the China war of 1641 and at Chusan was 
taken prisoner by the ^Chinese and detamed for 
six months. Was at the taking of Amoy, re- 
capture of Chusan ; tlie battle of Ghin-haB; 
the attack on Woosun^i:, at Chapoo, Ningpn, 
Tsekee, Shangbse and Chinkiangfoo. He served 
as Lord Gough's aid*de-camp at the battles of 
Chillianwallah and Goozerat, and subsequently 
under Sir Harry Smith in Kaffirland. He 
subsequently served under Sir Sctidamore Steel, 
%. G. B., in the second Burmese war. 

ANSUS, an island in the Eastern Archi- 
pelago, inhabited by Papuans. Their houses, 
built on posts, are placed entirely in the water. 
At very low water only is the beach partially 
uncovered. This beaeh consists of mud, in 
which the mangrorea grow luxuriantly and 
completely obstruct a landing. The gardens 
from this cause, are situated on the surround- 
ing islands, principally on an island with a 
hi)(b beach lying opposite to the kampong. 
The Ansus Papuans wear their hair in tufts. 
- Their appearance is good natured, faces regular, 
eyes beautifully black, the mouth broad with 
beautiful regular teeth^ and the forehead high 
.'hut nuirow. Many have thin lipa and finely 
/^rved noaea, which give them a more Euro- 
pean physiognomy. The men are generally 
handsome and .well Jormed^ atout, wiUiout 

Cheouti HiKD. 


Formica ... ... Lat. 


liamut Malay. 



f •• 


being too thick, strong aad museiitar ;; th9 
wooden very good looking { and some ehildreis 
with very regulnr soft faces, and Ipng pendant 
Cttvling hm'^-^oi^aal ^f iM Ind. 4rch^ Jiune 
1852, p. 330-1-2 and 3. SeeAheia: rapuao. 
ANT. Eng. 



Ants have attracted attention from the 
earliest ages, on account of the singular econo*- 
my and eitraordiuary industry, manifested by 
the different species. This has been more 
particularly the case in the eolder countries of 
Europe, for of th« numerous races of the South 
East of Asia, not one takes any interest in the- 
field matters of natural history. It improbable 
that numerous ants will be discovered. Mr. 
Jerdon, a Mi^dras Medicnl Offio«r, in a aeries of 
papers ill the thirteenth volume of 'the Annala 
of Natural History described foiiy-seven apecies 
of ants in Southern India. But M. Nietner 
of Ceylon recently forwarded to the Berlta 
Museum ipwards of seventy speeiea taken by 
him in that island chiefly in the western j^fO* 
vince and the vicinity of Colombo* Mr» 
Jerdon in the Madras Lit. Soc Journal givee 
the following species found in South^n Iadia» 
he arranges them aceofding to St, Fargeaii^ 
who, in the lat volume on the HyjnenoptAres 
in the Suites a Bu^on, divides ante into fpaf 
tribes, vis: — 1st Tribe, Les My rmicitea, feouilea 
with a sting, ]st segmeut of abdoinen of % 
knots. This includes the following n^en^ny 
1st Gryptocerus. 2nd Atta. 3rd Ocod(»api^ 
differing from Atta in its larger head, aad the 
presence of spines. 4th Eciton. ^th Myrmaoi^ 
— Snd Tribe, Ponerites, fomalea with atiniCp 
lat segmeut of t lie abdomen of one knot only* I| 
includes the genera Odontomaohas and Po nig f ^ 
— 3rd Tribe, Les Formieitea, females wittKMi^# 
sting* lat segment of ibe^bdoflEieu of aiie kuol 
only, and it contains the genera Folfergmm vb^ 
Formica, — ^Many Indian ante cannot be w^ 
referred to any of these genera, but aa i4jf 
probable that aome new genera have beQ% 
lormed by recant writers, Dr. JerdoOy |i| 
general, contents himself with referring 
of his species to one or other of thoaa hi 
characterized, and remarkai that foUqving 
the arrangement of St. ITargeany we haTe 
first the tribe of Mi/rmUAdu and the first gduui 
mentioned by him. Oryptoeervis, being Aaafft 
rican exclosively, we come to the* genua f^^Um 
of Lattreille, firom whieh St. Fargeaii iaa fwipfp 
rated Ocodoma^ the cldef distiDCtkui beiBg ilm 
spines vhieh exist either on the iiead-.^M 
thorax of the latter, which moreover is aalii Hk 
hatb the head of TnSablo eiaa, wliiJaiin Alia it 
ia said to be uani^y not of a large aiie^ IWifc 
have tn India apeeies appamnti|y bekmgiiiK kl 
both gronpa wl^ ha dnqiibeat- •« 


Tint, Htkhicidn. Oen. AUa. Hd 
posMssed 6 species of ants^ all of small aizi*, 
vlsdi i^pear to belong to ibis genus, banng 
I ftmgi two boots io tbe first segment of the 
iMoiaeD, sntenine Bot oonoealed in a cleft, 
\kni wHhoQt spines, and sbort palpi. 

AU§ mmuia, ne«r spcoies. Worker barely 
Mitk of an incb long, bead oblong. Tbis 
mte species makes a temporary nest in 
nriiMsttUiatioos, in an empty box, between 
tk bsck of a book and its leaves even among 
tfekms pages of a book, in an empty sbell, 
lc.,fc^ Nothing is used in its conttmotion, a 
Ma frofo ibe ligbt merely being sought for. 
It ii lot perhaps very numerous in individuals, 
one via^eis female is generally found in tbe 
lot. it is very oommon in the Oamatic and 
Bait of India, but not seen in Malabar, It 
ippnn to prefer dead animal matter to sac- 
ibrise or instable products. 

itU detirudor^ new species. Worker about 
Moth of an incb long,bead obiong, not so long 
is proportion as in tbe last ; eyes small, colour 
niou, ihdomen glossy brown. They live in 
Ml in the ground, or in walls, &o., and are 
^ vsmerona in individuals. Tbey piofer 
■insi to vegetable substanoes, destroying dead 
meets, bird skins, &e., &o., but slso feed gree* 
*iy OB sugsr. Tbey are common in all parts 
Hindis, md often prove very troublesome and 
^ertnetivo to tbe Natoralist. 

ittt iemieoU, now species. fTorhtr about 
l^tk of m ineb long, bead oblong ; eyes mode* 
nil UK, bead, iborai, and Ioks, deep red 
W«, shdosMu blaokisb. Tbis species of ant 
<het Mt seem to be common, only bitkerto 
V^fwA It Nelioro in a bole in a bouse, and 
^ooekind of individual seen. 

in* r^, new species. Worker l-8tb to 
I'M sf « incb long, bead sbort, oblong ; 
(veiiittv tmall, medial ; of an omiarai giaasy 
^^tx Am, witb ifao end of the abdomen 
2**ht dsrker. Wcarrkrr vuriablci about 
rj^ long, hoad large, very square. Peawie 
■ivl 7-t4th of an inch long. It is voiy com* 
|>» IS Uahbar, also fouud in tbe Garnatic \ 
|*Mes ander gmund, about gnvei walks, 
y *!* > vtA often appears in booses, coming 
*^ s hole or crevice in tbe iloor, or walk 
■'•■ a colony of them, every now and tben, 
Wssmbevs of tbe winged females (and males) 
"^^fcrthjoat before sunsfet attended as far as 
g^Mdow by BWsiMs of tbe neuters of botk 
y * ^ ibvoritc food is dead faisaots and 
[* *J^yi« r> but it also carries off seeds like 

*2!J^**'» *'***• ^'» 'c* It stings very 
r*^i Iciving a bumii^ pain that 4ast8 for 
■51 ■mutes. 

L^AcMiM, new species. Abent MOth 
£^ iieh long, bead oblong, abdomen long, 
2|J> «k«r blaekiA Ifcroogkouft. Tbis AnI 
^«d ttiBdl MBbm on trees i& Jblabir. 


Alia Jhriedila, new species. Worker not 
1-I7tb inch long ; thorax and legs dark rufous^ 
bead and abdomen glossy dark brown. This 
very small ant, in small numbers on flowers 
and leaves at Teilicbery, end it appears to feed 
solely on vegetable secretions. 

Qem. Oeodama» Ants extremely numerous 
over all India, and comprising several species 
very nearly alike and probably confounded 
together by msny. Almost sll the species have 
two kinds of neuters, one of them of very large 
size compered with the ordinary Workers, and 
which are usually called Warriors* Some points 
in the history of tbe food economy of these 
ants have caused much interest among Natural^ 
ists at home. The chief distinction of Ocodoma 
from .^/te consists in the former having some 
small spines on the thorax, 

OeodowM Mala^riem, new species, Worker 
ith of an inch long, head « oval, eyes moderate, 
head, thorax and lege, rufous, abdomen black-* 
ish ; legs long. Warrior ^th of an inch long ; 
hesd enormous, rugose, striated, deeply notched 
behind ; eyes minute, antenno, legs, and 
abdominal pedides rufous, the rest of tbe body 
blackish. This species of Ant appears to form 
a link between the two Genera AiU snd Oeo^ 
doma, as shown by the rudimentary state of 
thoracic spines ; found chiefly about houses, 
it runs rapidly, lives also on insects and other 
animal matter, and on sufsar, brea'd, &c. 

Ocodoma providene. [Sykee) P Worker about 
|th of an inch long ; bead somewhat ovaie. 
hulgiug slightly at the sideSf and narrowed 
bf hind. Warrior with jaws pointed and finely 
toothed ; thorax very rough ; length \ inch, 
head large, otherwise similar. They live under 
ground, making, for their size, a large series of 
excavations. Their common food animal matter, 
dead insects, Slc., &c., which they take readily^ 
but they also carry off large quantities of seeds 
of various kinds, especially small grass seeds, 
and more especially cabbage, celery, raddish, 
carrot and tomato seeds, but are particularly 
partial to the light lettuce seeds, and in some 
gardena, unless the pots in which they are sown 
be suspended, or otherwise protected, the whole 
of the feeds sown will be removed in one night. 
Packets of seeds (especially lettuce) in a rooni 
will be completely emptied before aware that 
tbe ants have discovered them. They bring 
the seeds outside their holes, at the dose 
of the rainy season, but in some cases merelv 
tbe husks, quite in heaps. Their galleries ana 
anbterranean passages are often very extensive, 
and it is no easy nmtter to dig down to tbeilp 
nest to see what becomes of the seeds, 

Oeodma, difiua, new speciea. Worker 
abent -iCh of an ineb long ; heed somewhat 
oval> head, thorax and legs rufous ; abdomen 
brown. Weurrw ith inch bng^, jair strongly 
toothed. TUs species appears to be spread 



ortt mo9tbf India, and has iimila^ habits to 
the iMt. 

' Ocod&ma diifiria, new species. Wwf'luf about 
7*4Stli o# 8Q inch long;, head oblong» head, 
Ihorat' iMid lege dark marroon; abdbmeft 
blackish. Waithf aearlj \ inch loag^ Jiead 
Very IftVge, procured in the Wynaad srhers it is 
Hot uneomttMn. The differance between the 
korker and the Warrior is greater than in any 
Mher Indian species. 

Oeodoma cMmU, new aperies* TFerter ^tb 
of an inch iofifi^ ; head nearly equarsi almoet 
smooth, of head, legs aad thorax rufbns; 
abdomen dasky. Wwrrior nearly f •lOth of an 
inch long. This ant is very common in Mala* 
bar; is nearly alhed to, but differs from, 
i)todoim divtrm in the toothed jaws of the 
Warrior, &c., &c. ■ 

Oooiomo mwer, new apeeies. WoHeei^ length 
a^bollt &-48tlr of an inch, entirely rufeos, head 
oblong. Feaude 5-8th of an ineh long, head, 
neatly s^uttre* On one ooeasion, only, found 
It single tndividnnl presumed to be the femalei 
^ych had lost her winfta, under a stone in a 
garden aft Tollioheny, snrroimded by'nnmeroua 
trorkeflps, who ^Mi i>usy tending her, and 
rembving some eypgs or larvas. The feknide of 
this genns, is well charocteriMd by its largto 
eyes, and oerili. 

Ocodoifia quairUpifioBa^ new species. WoTk& 
nearly l-8lh of a^ inch long, head smooth ; 
ejes smaQ ; heac), legs, and thorax dark rufous* 
irbdomen blackish brown ; found during the 
monsoon fornlilig a small temporary mu^ abode 
]N)und the head of flowers abundant in Malabar. 
It appeared to be feeding on the vegetable 
accretions surrounding the seeds. Of these 
seven species of Ocodoma, the first and last are 
Very distinct from all the others, the first by 
haying only ^dimentary spines, and the last 
Iby having four spines instead of two. Ocodoma 
ininor is readily distinguished by its smaller 
feize ; and the other four are most readily 
ciistinguisfated int^r sb, by the jaws ot the 
Harriots, which in So. 10 is entire ; in 11, 
with two te^h it each angle« in $ with 
moderately strong teeth throughont its extent ; 
and in 8, t^ith the jaw very finely toothed. 

<r«^. JBcilon, The characters of this genus 
«re thus given b^ St. fai^eau. "Antenna^ 
>* entirely free, head elongated^ and the thorax 
'^ withoiit spines^ maxillary palpi long, of 6 
f' joints; jaws linear j wings unknown."' 

. \StAtm f, rmfmignm^ new epeeiet. Wmtlm^ 
1engthiaboa.ill*34ihtif nniDoh; hoadtsqln^e; 
thorax^ legs, abdolniud pedidea and nolemMi 
*l*uYonsy head w^ abdomen Uaek/ This ant 
4is 'renr 2c^malon in tUe. €anialio,ilUBs)aodn 
fliiMMlfi \ it toikea lU ■esU in ImUa iof ttes^ 
XJWrfiiMnfi,' bapiiH). raikrt and noeh like ; it 
ido»L xtel «iire:ior tHveetn. k <aie^r ieeiioo 

fldlrers, bht davttirs dead attimd^ miikt^* It 
stings very levemely. 

B&ion ntjjpriMiy new apeeiea* Wwk&r^ 
length 9-24lh of aabioh* head long* eyea large, 
Qolour . uniform UaeL. JPemalo, bn^^h ll*24tli 
of an inoh, differs fram the Worker only in 
hiving wings. This ant like the laat is rave in 
Halabar^ bat tolerably common in paru of ihe 
Garnatie ; it bos the name habita «a the laat^ 
livmg in . hoka of trees, &c., and feeds ia Ibo 
same manner. Oti ontting 4>pen a dead bnuid^ 
on whieh they hod foribed ;their neat» many 
winged femalea, and larrss imd pi^is were 
found in diffefdnt ttatee of developmeat. 

EtiUim nit^iei, new epeeiee« WMttr, leagth 
]l-48th of an inch; head oblong ; eyes wery 
large, alightly advatoed ; abdomen blaek, wit^ 
rufous 1^ rfoiind this speoies on one oecasioii 
under a stone in Ihe Salem dialriot, and know 
not if it has the dendropUkma habils of th# 
two last. 

Eeitou mwutmrn^ new speeiea. Wfirker, aiNMii 
i^6tli of aa inch long, Uaok throughout^ very 
slendir ; fodnd both ia she Camatic and ia 
ICalabar, almost alw«y sim tree% but not kaovii 
if it has its nest in helea of th^ wood or -otliefr 
wise^ Though soasee in individuala^ it ia 1^ 119 
nieans rare. 

ffea. . Mfffwma* Gea -: Char s Antanni 
teCoietttty incppsed 9 head uniagtilari, withtofiit 
spines ; maxillary, patpi lotin, of six jointa ; 
jawd intbgtllir ; -ihwe oabiU! oella in the up* 
^t Kings ;:thalhird iaegmplete, <fcck 

Mfftmicn d^ffhukf new apeoies^ Worier^ 
tathM' more tbaa l-9tk inch bag i head aii4 
tody tfufefiM ; abdaanen dsik glossy <bro«rii* 
ICeauder-lengdi M.itk of an inoh ; win^jpa not 
so long as abdomen. ](aie*^head very aanill, 
ajreb hig^ >i length l-7th of an iaeh. ▲ w^ 
knowii ajtid widely diffaaed species, btsiog 
found ihffoiigheut in^ia« It makes oU neat ia 
iholea in branehes ot tatfaa^ iraas with its abeUkf 
asen tumed upwaide dmoM over its besMl, 
aspeeially when excited, imd feeds on bopq^ 
and other vegetable seoretions^ Q q eani aoaM^ 
they appear lo lofem their ttest anMg the voota 
of moBs, orcliidem,«hkd .tarioiiaepip%tio ftoita 1 
at'Jeaet ikda ia ih^ ease ia Malabaa; it i^ 
terf pi^pMcliua, and bites n^vy aeiwidly> a«$ 
fipliftsatiag io ase lie aUag ^tteb. 

J^lMMd ^a. W^hr, length 9-4Stk oi 
an-dnoby . eai^rely a nafaiia eeleurp . Thia ia ^ 
jrefj^ dosal^ alUed: epeciea, aad\tf Wd jp th^ 
haaso^loealili|a.aft the hai JjtSvhKbihiar^uBiQiif. 

IfyriMSBa Xtr^ft 0^1? M^,4h(Hm auat 
le|:a dhzk fmMKHi:^ liMMen diurk bnp^a^ 
Length 7-48thof an inch ; found ijimlyjutlit 
lOatmtl^d'lBtflsts.ipf tiko %«iaad. It forma m 
poasfdeaaUe (first of 49n}e.p#pj«acpqoa mateiiy 
el4 uiliBHy oCaa m^fpr^i wi| : phas4i roasiMl 
a SOMA hj(lli0h;^Uc#..sifi^ft/| its . Jkk v^ia 




Bimerooa in individuals, coonlleas swavmft is- 
loing from it ou being disturbed and boldly at* 
taeking the assailant both with teeth and sting. 
It feeds on honey of flowers and other vegetable 

ifyrmiea fodieu$, new species. Worker, 
length 4.*l8thof anioeh; head, thorax, legs and 
Abdominal pedicles maroon colour, abdomen 
shining brown. Female, head rather smaller pro- 
|iortiomilly. This is one of the most common 
anU abundant ants in Malabar, not seen in the 
Camatic. It seldom enters houses, btit other- 
vise apprars to take the pl<uie of Fomioa inde- 
/nn which is not found in Malitbsr. It feetls 
ekicfly on honey and otlier ve^etahle seoretioiiy^ 
bat also will lake dead animal matter. It also 
Qccuionally feeds on the secretions of the...... 

•..and is iklao found in the train of caterpillars 
feeding on leaves. It mak^s large excavations 
aader ground, generally having the entrance 
roond the trunk of a tree, and it forms con- 
lidenibie heaps of fine earth round the mouth 
of the neat. It ruiia, unlike the last species, 
with tta abdomen turned downwards under the 
ahdomtBal pedicles* It appears to form the 
tvpe of a very distinct group from the last. 

Myrmioa ? Uuria^ new species. Worker, 
Irngth l-6th of an inch ; head, thorax, legs, 
abdominal pedicles, brick-red ; abdomen dusky, 
dark blue. This is a very curious looking ant. 
It is found both in the Carnatic and Malabar, 
lires in h^les in the ground in small societies, 
atid feeds on vegetable secretions. It moves 
vtiy slomly. 

Mf/rmica ? cceca, new species. Ocodoma ? 
^orl^fr, length l-5ih of an inch ; hea^jl, thorax, 
and kegs reddish brown; abdomen glossy brown; 
found once under a stone in the Wyna^d. 

24d Tribe. Poneritet. 

Odomi^maehus rufya, new species. Worker ^ 
length Mth of an inch ; head^ thorax and le^s 
nrfaus ; abdomen, dark brown. Obtained under 
stoBss in a jungle in the Salem district, also in 
the Vfynaad^ which may be the warrior of this 
ifisciei if the society consist of different indi- 
widuals. It is ll-24th of an inch long. 

Mafpejfmaiios, new geuu9. Gen : Char : 
hm^ SGjrthe shaped, pointed, and finely serrat* 
•d ; head oblong. 

H^rpe^Maikoi $aUalory new species. Worker, 
J-6ih of an inch long ; h^d long, bead and 
fhifimnt blaekish brown, thorax and legs ru- 

I. — Length 3-4th of an inch. Seei^ in Telli- 
vf and in other parts of Malabar. Also found 
in the Mysore conntry.the name Ballator from its 

Kcrof making most surprising jumps which 
wa when akrmed or disturbed. It is very 
■yamioos^ and bites, and stings very severely. 
knidkes ila neat onder ground^ generfdW about 
Wk lotfUi of some plant, tts society dpea not 
of jnanj inaividuals. It appHsars to feed 
faaccCa, which it often seizes alire. 

Oen. Ponera, Zai. Its generic charaeten 
have been given above* 

Ponerti geulpta* Workers^ length from 5-1 7th 
of an inch to nearly ^ an inch« The commont 
est ant in Malabar, from the level of the sea 
up to the top of the Neilgherries. It lives in 
the ground in small societies, oilben making it^ 
nest in a flower pot, oceasionaliy under a large 
stone. It does not work in concert, being 
generally seen solitary. It live^ on atimal 
substances, but apparently will also take vegc 
table matter, and iight for a ripe sefid of the 

■ ^ • » 

Ponera sUnocIieilos, x)&9f specie^. Worker ^ 
length 3 8th of ^n inch; l^s loflg ; oploui^ 
dingv greenish brown, very rare in Malabar. » 

Foitera processionalu, new species, l^orkettt 
length l-3rd of an inch ; cplour shining blsc^, 
met over most of India. It livep in the ground 
in very numerous spqieties, is most frequent in 
jun^^ly districts, bj^casionally a vast coluipn 
of them, 3 or 4 deep, may be seen crossing a 
road, and I have traced the column for 40 and! 
50 yards. It stings very severely. 

Ponera ajfiuis, new species* Worker, length 
I -3rd of an inch ; abdomen oval, colour dingy 
black, procured oi^ce in Malabar. 

Ponera ritfioes, new species. Worker, length 
9-1 6th of an mqh : antennse, legs, and end of 
abdomen dark rufous ; rest of the body duU 
black, procured on one occasion in Malabar. . 

Ponera pumila, new species. Worker, lengtli 
about 1.5th of an inch : dull black, with rufous^ 
legs and antennae, in Mahibar, where it is rare^ 

3rd Tribe Formicites, The last family con< 
taining those ants that have no sting, and the 
abdominal pedicle of ope knot only. It com- 
prises two genera, Polyergus and Formica. 

Ge4. Formica, This genns comprises two dis<; 
tinct forms, the one with spines on the thqrax> 
the other unarmed, which certainly Qughi to 
form two genera, inasmuch 9s this distinction 
is made to separate Atta from Ocodoma. 

1st, withojut spines on the thorax. 

Formica compressa^ Fabr. ? Syn. F. inder 
fessa, Sykes. Worker, length 4-10tl» to | an 
inch : legs rufous, the rest of the body black. 
ffarrior, 6 10th of an inch long : Male, lengtl^L 
4-IOth of an inch ; wings do not reach to ^nd 
of abdomen. Female, 5-8th 9f an inch long ; 
this species, well known in Jndia as the black 
ant, is found throughout every part of this 
country except the Western Coast. It is most' 
probably the species described by i*abricius. 
It lives in very numerous societies in thd 
ground, the entrance to the nest being of^enf 
round the trunk of a tree, or close to ' 8om9 
building. The Warriors are very nnmeirons; 
Their food is chiefly vegetable s^retions, sugar; 
8fcc., and Colonel Sykes has given nn interesting' 
account of the devastations coinmittedby them 
on preserves, sugar, fte, Thiey bite rather 





aeverely, but the pain is quite momentaiy. At 
certain times great nombers of the winged 
males and feoMles are seen at the mouth of the 
nesty and they remain there for several days- 
When they take wing, they do so in vast num- 
jbers, and always at night. 

Formica an^wticolUg, new species. Worier, 
i an inch long ; colour dull black, with antennas 
and legs rufous, ffarrior^ 8-I2th of an inch 
long ; only found^in forests in Malabar« and 
always singly* 

Fmnica swuiragdiM. Worker^ length about 
4- 1 0th of an inch; colour of a uniform pale 
rufous. VMe 7-24th of an inch long ; of a 
rufous colour. Rmale 7-8th of an inch long; 
entirely of a pale shining green colour. This 
ant is well known in Malabar, and the wooded 
parts of India, but is rare in the Garnatic, 
where only seen in one or two large man^o 
groves. It forms a nest of living leaves which 
it draws together without detaching from the 
branch, and unites with a fine white web} some- 
times this nest is above a foot in diameter but 
usually smaller. The society consists of a vast 
number of individuals, and in latge nests we 
find many females and males, both with and 
without their wings at all times of the year. 
They are very bold and pugnacious, and 
bite very severely. They live chiefly on 
vegetable secretions, and are very partial to 
the flowers and buds of some of the Loranthi, 
which abound on the Western Coast. They 
often form a temporary web round the flowers 
or sometimes round the fruit of various 
trees, viz. the Eugenia roaUccensis, Arta- 
botrys odorotissima, &c. apparently only for 
the purpose of feeding undisturb'eid, they will 
however also sometimes feed on decaying 
animal matter. It is said that the web ihey 
form is occasionally used for writing on in the 
N. W . Provinces of India, and that the Ants 
are made use of to destroy a nest of wasps that 
may have established themselves in a house. 
In this case they are said to destroy all the 
wasps but become so infuriated, that their own 
indiscriminate attacks are nearly as bad as 
those of their foes. In gardens they are most 
partial to mango trees, and also to the large 
leaves of the Jamei Maibie, (Eugenia malac- 
eensis), but in the jungles they select a vast 
number of trees, or rather make no selection 

. formica lon^pei, new species* Worker^ length 
1.5th of an inch ; in form exceedingly similar 
to the last; legs very long of a pale rufous 
eolour throughout, tinged with dusky on the 
abdomen. This Ant is found in^U the forests 
^ India Hying in holes in the ground, in 
tolerably numerous societiesy and ftfeding on 

meet with it. It is often found about bung««' 
k>wi and out-houses. 

Formioa tiwnday new speeies. Worker , length 
9*24th of an inch long ; colour dingy rufoue» 
darkest on the head, and tinged with dusky 
on the abdomen. All the body covered 
with long scattered hair8.]J| Warrior, \ an inch 
long ; FemaUi like Worker* but somewhat 
larger, with wings, and 3 ocelli. Ifale, 7 -24th 
of tin inch long ; only found on* the Malabar 
Coast where it is very common, living ehiefiy 
041 vegetable secretions. It has its nest under 
grounds It is very different in habit from tha 
other large red Ant (F. smaragdina) being most 
tiipid> aud if approached or touched, dropping 
to the ground at once and hiding itself. It 
does not always confine itself to vegetable 
matter. On one occasion pigeons squabs placed 
in a room on the floor, were killed by theee 
Ants, chiefly however the warriors. 

Formica striata, new species. Worker^ length 
7-20th of an inch ; antenuse rufous, head and 
thorax dull greenish black, sbagreened ; abdo- 
men shining glaucous green ; legs shining blacky 
found on flowers in Malabar ; its nest not seen, 
not very oommon« 

Formica eineraseent, Fahr. ? Worker, length 
8-8 th of an inch ; colour dull black, except the 
abdomen, which is glaucous green, and some- 
what pubescent. Female \ inch long nearly ; 
Male 8-1 2th inch long; ff'arrior, 5- 12th of an 
inch long ; head large i antennae short ; eyes 
minute. This species lives in the ground in 
small societies. Only seen in the Garnatic. It 
is described as having the bead fulvous, and a 
triangular spot on the abdomen, but as it is 
said by Fabricius to have been sent from Tran- 
quebar, in the vicinity of which Dr. Jerdon 
has seen the present species* he thinks they are 
probably identical, and that the difference of 
colour is accidental) especially as there are only 
two species common in the Carnatic with 
glaucous abdomen, this and F. rufoglauca. 

Formica velox^ new species. Worker^ length 
5-24ih inch to 6- 24th ; Icrs long, colour dall 
blackish, witli the abdomen greenish pubescent. 
Very common in Malabar and also found in the 
Garnatic. It frequents flowers, especially de- 
lighting in those that have great qnantitiea of 
pollen, such as the Cueurbitacse, Hibisci, &c. 
It runs very speedily, and is very easily -alarms 
ed, dropping to the ground on being tonchad* 
Its nest not seen. 

Formica rttfo-glauca, new species. Worker^ 
7-24th inch long ; abdomen fine silky glaucoaa 
green; head, thorax and legs bright rufoua^ 
Warrior^ 9-24th inch long, head large ; colour 
similar. Found only in the Garnatic in ai|i^ 
societies living in holes in the ground. I^ 19 
▼egetabio seeietions, not at any distance from I possibly Fabricius* species einerascem, 
Uie jungles* A little inland into the jungle you I Formica vagans^ new species, JForkcr^ 3-24:tli 

lao ' 



kieh long, eyes large; Tmale, 3-24tli inch 
Img; tliia little Ant is exceedingly oommon in 
IkeGanwtic, but not seen on the Malabar 
Coast. It takes op its quarters in any shelter- 
ed spot in a house, under a box, a stone, a 
Me in the wall, or such like places, and when 
disturbed flits with great speed to another 
sniUhfe spot. Its society is ?ery numerous in 
udifiduaJa and there are many females and 
■ilea, aoflietiaies with, st other times without, 
viags. It feeds both on vegetable and animal 
•obiaiiees preferring the former like all the 
trae Formicse, 

Fnmiea auimiiisy new species. Worker, 
aceediogly similar to the last ; length, 3-24th 
of an iocby its colour chiefly of a shining red- 
dirii bbck, covered all over with scattered 
wkiie hairs, found frequenting flowers in 
Malabar, but not abundant. 

I^rmiea piyUophUa, new species. JTorier, 
kigth 7-48th of an inch, eyes small; colour 
lUiiing brown black. This little Ant forms a 
teotporaiy nest between two leaves usually, or 
aometimes in a head of flowers ; it lives in 
small societies, and feeds entirely on vegetable 

Fanmiea nana, new species* JForker^ length 
aot I-13th inch; antennae, legs and abdomen 
palewhity brown. This very minute species 
is found in all parts of India and is very 
abundant in Mysore ; from its very small 
ioe it ia noticed with difficulty. It feeds on 
flowers and vegetable secretions. 

Sadly. With spines on the thorax. 

Formta indificaM, new species. Worker, 
&-24th of an inch Ion*; ; head and abdofnen 
mfoos, thorax dark glossy brown. Female^ 
l*3fd bch long, wingless. This Ant makes a 
eanB nert about | inch, or rather more, in 
dwDBter, of some papyraceous material, which 
it fiias on a leaf. Each contains one female 
and or 10 workers. It is very rare, and only 
fli Malabar. 

tflvicola, new species. JForJter, 
9VKk hatdtk long ; abdomen short, oval, colour 
tMVUk, abdomen shining glaucoua green. 
Mmtig, 9-84th inch long, wingless. This Ant 
til tike aanae habits as the last, but is not found 
llai|it io the jungles, tt appears very closely 
jAU to jr. kasiata of Latreille from India, and 
ilaeiwal oiher species said to be from South- 
; and as some of these maybe found in 
lliia, ft brief description of them is taken from 
:ll*.Yiq;e«i*a work on Hymenoptera, viz. 

MsuptMOM^ Latr. Body black, cover- 
ftae ailky yellowish down, especially on 
ifthdooien ; length 7 2-8rd lines (French) ; 
iftmtlicni Asia. 

MoiMa, Lair. Black, fln^y sha* 
md alightly hairy, length 4 lines. Hab. 

Formica rehtcenSf Latr. Exceedingly like the 
last (jP« hastaia.), diflTers in the following points 
— body covered with silky, golden, shining 
down, with a few larger hairs ; Jength 4 lines. 
From Southern Asia. 

Formica Amman, Latr. Very like the two 
last, body black, striated,' with a few hairs; 
thorax ashy; abdomen covered with a silky 
golden down— length 2 l-5th lines. From 
Southern Asia. 

Formiea earinala, Fabr. Head rounded, 
black ; thorax b]Aek,Mivided into three by two 
deep transverse lines ; length? of medium size. 
Southern Asia.— Z>f. Jerdon in Madras Lit. 
Soe. JouTH. Tennent'a SJteidies of the Nat. Hiit. 
of Ceylon, p. 420. 

ANTAKA, in the hindu religion, an attribute 
of Yama or Dharhfla-rajah, in the character of 
the destroyer. See Cyc. of Ind. Sup. ii. In- 
scriptions 353. Yama. 

ANTARA TAMARA. f^o^tiw^^is. Thia 

name is applied to any floating, large-leaved 
water-plant, as the Yillarsia Indica. Fenf. — 
Menyanthes Ind. Z.— J?, i. 4*0. — Rheede xi. 
28. Pictia stratiotes, L. 

<$ d ^T. Cassyta filifonnia, L. 

ANT EATER. English. 


Ant Eater... 


Scaly Ant £ator . 

PaDgolin ... 

. Eng. 



Mania ... ... Lat. 

Tanggilin Malat. 

Tarang-giluig ... „ 
Pang-giling ... „ 
Arialer Tel. 

The Pangolin of India belonging to the 
Edentata, gets its Indian name from its Malay 
designation. The genus is common to Africa 
and South Eastern Asia, and in India ia not 
rare, though from their habit of appearing 
abroad after sunset they are not often seen, 
Manie Javanica of Desmarest inhabita the 
Malayan Peninsula, Penang, Borneo, Java, 
M. crassicaudata of Tickell (the M. penta- 
dactyla of Linneeus, the M. Maeroura of 
Demarest) is found in several parta of India, but 
also in the lower part of the Himalayas. Thk 
species baa been knowu ever sinee the etpedi- 
tion of Alexander the Great and is mentioned 
by iBlian under the name farrapi — Tiekell. 
Elliot. OgiU>ie, Cantor in Indian Journals (/ 

ANTELOPE. This is alike a srientific and 
a popular term, the ordinary application of it, 
however, by the English in India, being to the 
Antelope cervicapra of Pallas. Mr. Blyth states 
that the little Antelopes from Abyssinia, are 
nearly allied to the Tragelaphi of Ham. Smith 
of Africa (or the Boichbok Quib or Harueased 




Antelope and their congeners) and the farmer 

bear exactly the same relation to the Nilghai 

of India which the latter do to the Kudus 

(Strepaiceros) of Africa. The ringed mfirkings 

of the feet occur throughout the whole series 

more or less distinctly, and the posterior horns 

' of Tetraceros resemble those of Portax or the 

Nilghai, and, as in the latter, frequently recline 

backward in captive-reared indivitiuals instead 

-of taking the normal curre upward. The 

females of all are hornless, and Mr. BIyth 

. doubts if there be any good gentric character 

. to distinguish the females of Tetraceros from 

.those of TragelaphuB, though the latter are 

somewhat heavier and more Hog-Deer-like in 

.form, espedally the Boschbok of the Cape. 

Both groups are monogamous, and they closely 

assimilate in habits, manners and gait. 

The Aptelopes belong to the Order Ujn^u- 
lata of Mammalia, Tribe Ruminantia, the fami- 
ly, Bovidae, which includes antelopes, goats 
and cattle, and the sub-family antilopiuse or 
•antelopes proper. 

These may be briefly noticed thus : — 

Famly BoYiDifi, Antelopes, goats and cattle. 

Sub-family AntiiopinaB, which has 7 genera 
and 1 species, viz : Fortaxpicius, the Nilghai. 
^This has received several generic and specific 
names from Naturalists, and each of the na- 
tions of India have a -different name for it, but 
to the British it is known all over India, as the 
Nylghau or blue-cow. It is met with through- 
.out India, though rare in the extreme north 
.and south. 

TetfMceroi quadncornis^ihe four-horued Ante- 
lope, the Chikkara or jnngli bahri^ is found in 
'many partsf of India, but does not extend to 
Ceylon, nor to the valley of the Ganges nor 

Antilope bhegoarlica^ the well-known Ham 
• of all India is the Antilope Cervicapra of Pallas. 
It is known to every person who has travelled 
rin India. Of these, in some parts of India, there 
were many thousands to be seen at times, on 
the open plains, but rail-roads and cultivation 
have given fadlities for their destruction, and 
they have be(K>me greatly fewer. OazellaBenetlii, 
the Bavine deer, or goat antelope of all India, 
is well known to sportsmen and naturalists ; 
the QauUa tub-^uHuroM is found in Baluchis- 
tan and to its west and north through the 
Panjab and Persia, but the GazeUa doreas, is 
unfitted to Arabia. 

The Ghiru of Thibet, the Kemas Hod^tonU is 
■the Kemas of iElolian and is known to many 
from the remarkable appearance which its horcs 
present both of them growing so close as often 
to unite and form but one horn. 

The Procaprapiciicandatus and F.guilurota, 
^are both of Central Asia, China and Thibet, as 
WsQ is the Saiga Antelope, the Sniga Tariarka, 

Mf,mjth'iB^BrUlM7. BeeAntilope.Bovid« 
Cervidee : Mot cbidse : Pantholops : Proeapra 
GazeUa : Tragops : Tetraceruft ; OapricOrni^ 
Nemorhedus : Alcephalue : and Portax. 

AN rENj a district in the island of Banka^ 
containing the richest of the tin mines: See 
Tin.— Cvc. of India, Supp.ii. 

ANTERVKD, the Do-ab, or Me^opotawiia 
of the Jumna and Ganges, The town vraa 
burned by Jessraj.— r^flf** RaJMthan, Vol, i. 

ANTHELIA. This phenomenon is com- 
mon in the Khasia Hills and in Ceylon. Sir J. 
E. Tennaiit mentions that at early morning* 
when the light is intense and the shadows pro- 
portionally dark— when the sun is near the 
horizon and the shadow of a person is throirn 
on the dewy grass— each particle furnishes a 
double reflection from its concave and convex 
surfaces, and the spectator sees the shadow of 
bis own head surrounded by a halo as viviii as 
if radiated from diamonds.— >8fw- ,/. E, Tennant's 
Ceylon. Ho.ktr. 

of Guizotia Oloifera. 


Atna mus Akab. Noble Chamomile. Eno 

Baboon uj 

the plant. 

• • • •& tt 
the flower. 






of Theophr, 
Xa/*a«A*9Xov Qr 

of Biosoor. 
Babune phal ... HuFt». 

Chamomelum ... Lat. 
Baboona-gao . . . Pkbs, 

*•• .•• 


EI-dak-1-mirza ., 
Chamomile ... . 
Camomile ... 
Common Chamomile. |, 

The flowers of this native of Europe and 
Persia are met with in all the Indian basara 
It is largely used in the infusions or khial 
sanda and is a simple bitter tonic— 0*^Aaii«j|. 
nei^f 413. JFaring. Bombay ProducU. Ho^le 


Anacyolns pyrethrum, />. 0. 
Akarakara. Bbng. HiKix Indian fever few... Kko 

Pebsun. Pyrethron ... 
Ak&rakaram ...Hind. of 

Pellitory Enq. Akarakara ... 

Indian PelUtory... „ Akarakaram __ 

This is a native of the South of Prance aa^ 
Barbary, but its roots are largely imported int6 
India where they are used in medicine and mm 
an ingredient in certain snuffs. As a masticaf o^ 
it is used largely in toothache and it effectually 
cured two cases of spontaneous salivation, biA 
it is nsed as an external as well as an intem^i 
stimulant and sialogogue. Dose one to tWa 
ounces in infusion. Price 12 annas per lb — . 
VegetabU Kingdom, 455. (yahanghnttsif, 413* 
415. CaL Ex. p. 8. ^ ^ 

ANTHERlCUAf, a genus of the Li!ia«Mai 
aome of which, as the A. annuum, are oultivnted 
as flowering plants, Yoigt enumeratea Ifl 
species. A. canaliculatum, exayiatom : filiMiaiA 



frtgrftna : graminifolium .• gtaucum : Lilifigo -. 
Kflpiienfle : NimmoDii ; physoides : ramoaum, 
refoiiitanii tuberosom ; vespertinum : as grovy- 
iog or eultivated, principally brought from the 
genns PhalaDgiam. 

Tosseh silk moth of Ceylon, feeds on the 
Terfflinalta catappa aad Palma Christi. 

ANTHISTIKIA, a genus of grasses of the 
ordrr Fanicacese. Voigt names four species, 
oliata, heleroelita : poTystachia and scnndens, 
A. dliata grows abnudantiy in the Concans, 
where it is largely converted into bay for 
horses. Mr. Mason noticed in the Karen jungles 
a iai^e grass of this genus, with lax panicles 
aad very long awns. — Mason, f^oiffi, 


Chooneiia, Hind, t Jyotiahmati, Huid. 

Its roots are lumiuous in the rains. — Hooker, 

of the Orchiaoese, growing in Nepal and the 
Khasya mountains, with largish blood coloured 

ANTHOZOA, a natural order of polype 
found within the tropics. The Corallium 
rubrum of Lamarck, the red ooral of commerce 
is obtained from. this order, and the coral is 
the axis of the polypodium. 

ANTU&ACITE COAL occurs at Dontinna- 
pflby. It IS also called blind coal because it 
bams without flame ; and glance coal, from its 
liairp. See Coal. 

8yn. of Pandanus odorotissimus. — Linn, 

A!«THROPOPHAGI, the existence of such 
was known to ancient writers but latterly dis- 
credited. They are mentioned in MandevilltU 
Tmdt, 2i8, and as living in Sumatra, can- 
nibals devouring human flesh, (Anderson, 
Misriem to Sumatra, 224.) and their existence 
is no longer doubted. Their prototypes, the 
luedooes of Serica or the Altai, {Herod, t. 
fie, Hi. 99. IV. 25.) and tU Indian Padei, 
MA not excel them in barbarity. The '^ Aghor- 
Jbniior Agbori are a class of people who fre* 

Cthe ghats at Benares, though they are occa- 
[y to be found in other parts of India, and 
kt0t been met with even in Assam. They are 
Oj^res (indeed, the similitude of the word to 
jMoree ia noticeable), and affect a practical 
iHknopby, which dfisbelieve^ in the existence 
il 0nj difference between things, and asserts 
Atl all distinctions depend on the imagination. 
A cuff or a kick is as immaterial to them as a 
Vbmng, They go about in puris naiuraliUm, 
fiitt a freah human skull in their hands (of 
lAoeh tbey had previously eaten the putrid 

and afterwards ftcraped out the brain and 
with tbeir fingera), into which is poured 

loerer U given them to drink, and to this , , , ^„ * . , i^- - 

fttj pitlcnd to be indifferent whether it be I P^^^ IlmtnmoM, w*i4' DescHptive Utter-prm 


ardent spirits or milk or fonl water. For food 
they take the first thing which offers, whether 
it be a putrid corpse, cooked food, or ordure. 
With matted hair, blood red eyes, and body 
covered with filth and vermin, the Aj;hori is ail 
object of terror and disgust. He looks like a 
wolf, ready to destroy and then devour his prey, 
rather th»n a human being. Hindoos, how- 
ever, look on these wretches with veneration, 
and none dare to drive them from their doors. 
They are among the worst of the many turbu- 
lent and troublesome inhabitants of Benares, 
and there is scarcelya crinie or enormity whifch 
has not, on apparently good grounds, been laid 
to their charge. One of the ancient Hindoo 
dramatists, Bhava Bhutt, who flourished in the 
eighth eentuiy, in bis drama of Mulaii uffd 
Madhava, has made powerful use of the Aghoii 
in a scene in the Temple of Ghamuuda, where 
the heroine of the play is decoyed in order to ba 
sacifificed to the dread goddess Chamunda or 
Kali. The disciple of ' AghoraGhanti,' the 
high priest who is to perform the horrible rite, 
by name ' Kalapa Kundala,' is interrupted iu 
his invocatiou to Chamunda by the hero Hah* 
dava, who thus describes the scene i-^Act V,^ 
scene lyB, B, Wilson* s Translatio7i. 

Now wake the terrors of the plaoe> betet 
With crowding and malignant fiendd. The flames 
From funeral pyres scarce lend their sullen light. 
Clogged witb their fleshly prey, to dissipate 
The fearful gloom that hems them round. 
Well, be it BO. I seek, aad mnat addrees tbem. 
* * • • m 

How the noiEO 

High, shrill, and indistinct, of chattering sprites, 
Communicative, fills the chamel ground : 
Strange forms like foies flit along the sky. 
From the red hair of their lank bodies darts 
The meteor blaze or froo^ their mouths that stretch 
From ear to ear, thickset with numeiYtus f augs 
Or eyeSy or beards, or brows, the radiance strums. 
And now I see the goblin host ; each stalks 
On legs like palm-trees : a gauat 8keletor.| 
Whose fleshless boneaare bound by starting sinewsyv 
And seantly cased in black and shrivelled skin, 
Like tall and withered trees by lightning scathed, 
They move, and as amidst their sapless trunks 
The mighty serpnt carls— so in each meuth 
Wide yawning, lolls the vast blood-drippiog tongue. 
They mark my coming, and the half-chewed morsel 
Falls to the howling wolf— and now they fly.- 

The belief in the horrible practices of the 
Aghori priesthood is thus proved to have exist-' 
ed at a very remote period, and doubtless I'ef^rs. 
to those more ancient and revolting rites which ' 
belonged to the aboriginal superstitions of In- 
dia antecedent to the Aryan-Hindoo invasion 
and ooni)ue8t of the coutitry. It might be 
supposed that any such indecent, flagrant, and . 
disgusting customs as are now practiced by the 
Agbori might be summarily suppressed under 
the provisions of the new Penal Code of India. 
The People of India : a Series' of Photoara^ 



of the Races and Tribei of Hindustan. Origia- 
ally prepared uncfer the Aulhority of the Go- 
vernment of India, and reproduced by Order of 
the Secretary of State in Council. Edited by 
J. Forbes Watson and John William Kaye. 
Vols. I. and 11. (Allen.) Quoted in Friend 
of India, 1868. {fjeyden^ Aeiatic Researches^ 
IX. 202) St, John's Indian Archipelago i, 20. 
See Aghora, Akhora. 

ANTLALC IDAS, one of the Greek succes- 
sors to a part of Alexander's kinj^dom. Antial* 
cidas succeeded Lysiaa in the Paramididee, about 
B. C. 150 also in Nysa. See Cyc. of India, 
Sup. ii y Greeks of Asia. 

ANTIABIS. Of this genus of trees, there 
are six or seven species recognized, (1) the 
A. toxicaria, Lesch., the genuine Upas tree of 
Java : (8) the A. iniioxia, Bl. : and A. macro- 
phylla, R. Br. A. fourth species to which 
no name has been applied (ramis foliis-qne 
iitrinqne velutinis) is cultivated in the Kew 
Gardens : the A. Saccidora, Dal«. of the 
Western Coast of Peninsular India is a fifth : 
the sixth is the A. Zcylanica, Thwaites, of 
Ceylon which like A. Saccidora, yields sacks ; 
but this author now refers it to A. innoxia, 
Blume, and a seventh is -A. Bcnnetti, See- 
man, the Ma-nui or Ma-vu-ni, Taga, of the 
Tonga Islands— all are trees of great height. 
The rice sack of the Cooroombar of the 
Wynaad forests is made from A. saccidora. He 
cuts a branch of the size needed ; beats the 
bark all round on the outside, until the reticu- 
lated fibres of the inner bark give way, and 
then the bark is drawii off entire, the outer bark 
rubbed away and if a piece of the wood have 
not been left the inner bark at the bottom is 
sewed with thread made of the Pimelia which 
completes the process. The tree is very com- 
mon and of gigantic size, the wood is said to 
be good and the fibre which is strong and 
could be procured in any quantity and at a 
cheap rate may prove of some commercial 
value.— /Vb. 53, Vol. 9, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hisi. 
--Hog's Vegetable Kingdom, ^S.-^O'Shaugh^ 
nessy, 882. Thwaite's Bnum. pi. Zeyl, p. 263. 

ANTIARIS INNOXIA, Blume, Itumpbius, 
i. p. 172, t. 5*. 

A. Saccidora, Dalz. Hook. Journ of Bot. iil 
(1861) p. 232 ; Wight, Ic. t. 1958. 

A. toxicaria, Hook. Comp. to Bot. Mag. i. p. 
311, t 17. 

Lepurandra 8ac<Hdora, N'unmo, Plants of 
Bombay, p. 193. 

A. <M?»earia, LeBch., varietas?— c p. 2,231. 

Jftgguri Cak. Karwftt Mahb' 

Ksrwat «*• »• ... tt 

Jfcktree % Eva. 

Chandal Hikb. 

Jaggari Mahr. 

A raya-angely . . . Maub al' 

Ritt-gawi SiwoH* 

Netavil maram ...TaM. 

drier porta of Ceylon^ indigdious on the west 
side of India, in the ravines at Kandalla and ia 
the jungles near Coorg, and very common 
and ttie most gigantic of all the trees in the 
Wynaad jungles. The wood is not much used, 
but the oooramboor bags or sacks are naade 
from the liber or inner bark by a very simple 
process. A branch is cut» conespondiog to 
the length and diameter of the sack wanted. 
It is soaked a little, and then beaten with 
clubs until the inner bark separates from the 
wood. Thia done, the sack, formed of the 
bark, is turned inside out and pulled dowa 
until the wood is sawn off, with the exception 
of a small piece left to form the bottom of the 
sack, and which is carefully left untouched. 
These sacks are in general use among the vil- 
lagers for carrying rice, and are sold for about 
6 Annas each. The Singhalese sew np one 
end of the bark for a sack. Royle^s, Fib. 
PI, page 843, Mr^ Melvor, in M. K J. R, 
Thwaite'» Mn, Pl. 2eylamc,p. 863. 


Ipo toxicaria^ Persoon. 

The nftm tree of Java.EifO. I Anchar. . . Malay, Jav. 
Bina ... ... ...Borneo. I AntiaF ,. 

A si^^i^V ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ uncommon in the 

A tree of Java often over 100 feet in 
height and its juice is one source of the faalf 
fabulous Upas poison. The poisonous sap 
flows freely from the bark when tapped. The 
Ujpat aniiar poison is prepared from it in an 
earthen vessel ; the juice is mixed with the seed 
of the Capsicum frutescens, and various aro- 
matics. The poison at first acts as a purgative 
and emetic, then as a nnrcotic, causing death 
by violent fits of tetsnic convulsions. But iis 
virulence is less than the poison of the cobra. 
The people however are much impressed with its . 
power. The tree has a fine appearance. A speci- 
men at Borneo was about sixty feet high, with a 
fine stem, and a bark of a very white colour : and 
the stem was supported at its base by buttress- 
es, so common to the trees of tropical jungles. 
With this tree before them, which waa sur- 
rounded by their graves, they nevertheless told. 
Mr; Low that it was impossible to go under it 
without dying. Horsjteld Satavian Iranw^ 
actions {Vol, viL) — Low^s Sarawak, p. 53, 
Vegetable Kingdom 680. O'Shaugknessy, p, 579. 
Crawfurd^s Dictionary, 442. 

ANTICHRIST. Th6 mabomedans believe 
in Antichrist whom they term Al-Dajnah 

ANTIDESMA, a genus of plants belonging 
to the natural order '^StiHaginaceas, into which 
several species of stUago of Linnaeus haive beeb 
brought. A,, lanceolaria, is a shrubby plant o( 
Chittagong, and Ceylon, up to 1,500 feet : A« 
Montanum a middle sized tree from 3,000 to 
6,000 feet in Ceylon.— JJoar5. Hi. 760. Thw. 
En. pi. Zeyt. p. 289. Wight^ in Icones, givesi 
figures of A. acuminata, 1991 ; BuAias, 819^ 




lavceobris, 7<(6 ; panienlata, 830 ; tomentosa, 

Poolchi pullum, Tah. 

Ttis add fruit is eaten by the common people* 
Ik tree grows in the woods. — Awslict p. 3 '21. 


Koli tali nuuram Tav. 

A small but very handsome tree, common 
cBough in the jungle at Coimbatore, in the 
Ibnats on the Bombay side of India ; it affects 
ntber the skirts of cultivated land, and never 
raches a size fit for purposes of carpentry. Its 
leares are used in decoction in snake bites. 

The Bark. 

Nodfaft talie puttay Tam. 

From the nar or tough stringy fibres of this 
bark, the iuhabitants of Travancore make ropes. 

The Fruit 
Kfl^TalipaUum ..TjM. \ Nnli TaU...HoBT. Mal. 

Is a pleasant tasted, reddish coloured fruit, 
aid to be prised, on the Malabar coast for 
itieootiiigquditiet.--^tMlf^, p. 183 ^ 229. 
Fegeiable KinffdojUj 683. J}r9. Oi&9on and 
right. Roxh. iii. 758. 

Byi. of Antidesma bunias. 

I p. 826; Wght, le. t.819. 

i. JJtxiUria, Linu (partim). 
J. eem^rvjn, Tul. i. c. p. 190. 
A,Jknb9tndum^ 'txxX. i. c. p. 189. 
Wtto Bunias, Liun. ; Koxb. Fl. Ind. iii. p. 
7tt;Bheed. Hurt. Mal. IV. t. 56.---o.p, 660. 

Kara-Willa gass... Singh. 
Kabilla... «, 


Anjtponyim ...Malat. 
K«»1Mi.. ...Maleal, 

i fuck growing middle sized branchy tree 
MBMB Id Ceylon up to 3,000 feet above the 
<e% dso on the Coromandel and Malabar sides 
^ the Beninsula of India, and found in Assam 
MJ in NepaL It attains rather a large size 


Kyet-tha-hen ... BaaM. t By-it-zin * Bithm. 

Rhoodi Jam ... Bbng. | Boo-ambilla-ga88..SiNaEr. 

This if a low famous tree common in Ceylon, 
up to 2,000 feet above the sea. It has a light 
ash coloured bark. It is common in Bengal 
jungles and is Found in the llangoon, Pegu, 
Tonghoo and Tbarawaddy forests. On the same 
plant are notched, round and pointed leaves and 
it flowers in April and in July and bears a red 
sour fruit, resembling the barberry. It fur- 
nishes a small crooked timber, of a close grain, 
with the wood of a red colour and adapted to 
cabinet making. •:—Z>r. Maion. Dr. McClelland. 




Jeriam Kottam.MALEAi«. PoUari 

JeramKottam.. „ Pollai 

Jaoa palaser a . . . Tel. 

This small tree is a native of the Northern 
Circars, its bark is used for making ropes* TiiC 
lierries are eaten by the natives. 


A. Alexiteria, Linn, (partim) ; BuBU. 
Heen Ambilla gass... Singh. 

Common in the hotter parts of Ceylon, 
celebrated for its alexipharmic properties,— 
TAw. En. pL Zeyl p, 2S9. Veg. Kingdom, 683. 

ANTIQONUS, B. C. 305 Seleucus Nica- 
tor gained a great victory ov^ Niconor a 
lieutenant of Aotigonus, Seleucus B. C. 808 
crossed the Indus to make war onChandragupta, 
but making a hasty peace he turned on Anti- 
goiius whom he drove into Phrygia, where he 
was defeated and slain B. C. 301. The name 
of Antigonus appears in the edicts of Asoka, 
on the rock temples- See Buddha. Inscrip* 
tions, p, 3S6. Kabul, p. 43^6. 

ANTILOPE, a genus of mammals all of 
them in a wild state, some species gregarious 

n AsMm with a ghrtli of twelve or fouMeen j sud polygamic others purely monojiramic, some 

of them live on great plains, and others in 
forests ; they are objects of the chase, their flesh 
is nsed ns food and their skius and horns are 
articles of trade and commerce and ornament. 
Their colours and the forms of their horns vary 
greatly with age and seasons of the year. 
Zoologists have referred the species to one genus 
or other of the Antilope family of ruminants, 
the Antilopese,— and Antelope is the popular 
name for many animals of a somewhat similar 
form, whom, however, zoologists class different- 
ly. The Japanese goat Antelope is the cervus. 
crispa. The Antilope bubalus and A. ruficollis 
of northern and eastern Africa, are the 
iUcephalus bubalus and the Gazella ruficollis : 

but the wood by immersion in water, 
les heavy and black as iron. The bark 
V Mcd for Buying ropes^ , Its leaves are acid 
,^ iKaphoretic, are used as decoction in snake 
Utai,«ad when yonng are boiled with pot 
Ma like sorrel, and employ^^^ in syphilitio 
^fAnh^Usefid Plants. VegetabU Kingdom, 
ttS. Boxb. iii. 758. Thw. Mn. pi. Zeyl. p. ^9. 


Siil^Eo diandra, WHlcU. 
PeHa-gomoodoo. ..SxnQh; 

Ail tree grows on the Northern Circar 
Mntttns and in TiaTancore : its wood serves 
hrTmoq«!i»cf.-Jfo;rJ. iii. 759. 




lite Anlilope dorcns is the Gasdla dorcas— the 
A. gutturosa, is the Procapra gatturosa ; the 
A. picta of Ph11«s is a PortHX ; The Suinatrafi 
Antelope is the Capneornis Samatrensia, anH 
the A. Subgntturosa is a Gazella. With such 
^hanj^es from one itenus to another, the con- 
fusion of popular wit4i scientific names is great, 
-bat the following are commonly recognised. 

A. Benoettii, S^kei. 

«•• ••• 


••• ••• ff 

Budari ... 


juuuai^ ••• ... ... I, 

Tho Indian Qazelle Encu 
The Arabian 



Chikara Dkkh. 

Poraia of the Raori 

is the Bnok. 
Chari ,1 f, the Doe 
Dabi of Yemen. 

'J'he Gazelle of Arabia abounds in the islands 
of the Ked Sea, particularly in Dhalak and op 
the western shore about Massowa and all 
along tl>e Abyssinian coast. It abounds in 
the Indian peninsula, in the valleys ff 
the sandstone formation and generally among 
the jungles of tlie red soil to the east- 
ward of the southern Mabratta country, in 
small herds of 8, 5. 6 or tyore, but commonly 
a buck with two does. The Gazelle of Haurnn 
and Syria are probably the snme. The Dabi 
is the same as the Hebrew word in 

Deuteronomy XIV, 6, translated the Roe, and 
is tlie Gazefle of the Arabian poets who say 

i^5*^ f J^ c^-*^ y>- 1 " The eyes of the Dabi 

are the most beautiful of all." The ordinary 
height is ab'>ut two feet and its horus 10 or 
1 1 inches.— Mtioi in Madras Journ. q/ Lil, 
and Science. 


Common antelope.. Enq. 
Phnndayet(back) A] AHa. 

M'riga Sansc. 

Alali of the Baora. 

Dkk. Hahr. 


19 ») 

Chigri .. 
Harn... , 
iKalwit , 

The common antilope frequents the plains 
>on the cotton soil of India. When they move 
off to avoid some object of which they have 
doubts, they often bound to surprising heights. 
Their swiftness is such that dogs have never 
it is believed captured a healthy one, but they 
are often run down by wolves who drive and 
surround them, and the cheetahs kill great 
pumbers of them, usually selecting the bucks. 
About 1838, herds of very many hundreds 
with many out-lying bucks were to be met 
with in the Dekhan, but the hunting leopard, 
the cheeta, and the sportsmen have so weeded 
put the bucks that only small patches of three 
to twelve are now to be seen and these all 
does, — who, without the males, easily fall a 
prey. The backs are of a dark black colour and 
the younger bucks are driven off by the buck of 
die herd, so soon as they begin to turn black. 

b.ut fierce combats ensue before the buck of tke 
herd is selected. The horns are from 19 to SS 
itirhes lonir with 4 or 5 flexures and up to 50 
rings or annuli. - Elliot, 

ANTILOPE GORAL. Hardwickb. Of the 
Himalayas and Nepal, the Ghoral of the 
middle and northern region of the hill ranges 
livrnj? in herds.— O^'My, 

Chiru, Pantholops Hod^sonii, is a beautiful and 
stately antelope confined to the Bhot country. 
Thibet and neighbouring territories and appears 
to be wholly unknown on the southern face of 
the mountains. — Ogilby, 


Pefcrac^rua quadricomis. * 
Chikara Hiia)i. 

This one of the .^our horned antelopes, oc- 
cupitts the lower bdls and forests of the Hima* 
lay as. It ii) of a uniform bright bay coloiur 
and is monogamous. — Ogilby, 

ANTILOPE, Sub-4-Comutus, Elliot. 

Brown Antelope, ^yhB». 
Antelope Gbikara, Hardmeks. 

Chikara ? 


Haa four horns, but the spurious liorni are 
so small, as rarely to be met with in adult 
individuals. Tiiey arise from bony swelliiiga 
immediately in front of the true horns. Tbey 
are about two feet high, and the cjlouiT is 
various shades of brown. It is monogHmous 
and always found in pairs. It occupies the 
Mulnad. Tiiis stems to be the A. quadrieor- . 
nus of Blainville, now transferred to the genns 
Tragops, and the goat antelope of Europeaos 

ANTILOPE THAR. Hodgson: ia the 
Thar or thaar of the Himalayas, where also, in 
the more western part» of the mountains, tlte 
names Surow, Berow and Imoo are applied up 
through Nepal to the Sutlej,. it is the Capri? 
cornis bubalina of authors. —Oyi2^. Bappori^ 
dn Jury mixte inftfmalional, p. 54. 

ANTIMACHUd. Of ihe Greek succeseore 
10 the conquests of Alexnnder the Great, ther« 
were two of this name, viz., Antimachus Theoa, 
B. C- 190 who (uled in Nysa, Gandhariiis 
Peukelaoiis and Taiila, the other, AntimachiMi . 
Nicaphorus B. C. 173 who ruled over tW 
same territories, and contemporarily with £tt* 
crati4e8, retaining the rest of his dominions. i 


Ismad, kohl, ... Ab. 
Tay-lak-yonk ...BunM. 

Spiea-glaa Dur. 

Ter Sulphide of 
Antimony ... Eko. 

I Tor ^ulphuret of 
Antimony ... ^' i, 

Anjan ... •«. .. Hnro. 

Surn:iay ^ 

Ungen ,9 

Sulfurod*Antimon«o. Iv. 

Stihinm 1 

Antimcoiium cm- 
i^dum (..■_ ... 









Antimoninm ... 
AutimoDii Sul- 

phuretum ... 
Antimouii ter-Sul- 

phuretam ... 


Surma ... ... 



Anjana Mai 

Kohliii Anjaucle, ? ,, 

Nilanjanam ... Tel. 

Anjanam ... 


... )} 







mineral in Province Amherst, and is often 
met with on the mountains that bound the 
valley of Thoun-gyeen. Mr. 0*Riley found it 
at the sources of the Ataran and large quanti- 
ties of the ore have been dug up in the neigh- 
bourhood of Moulmeio, but there was no 
demand for it in Calcutta whither it was sent^ 
and operations have been suspended. Anti- 
mony, iron, arsenic, and sulphur with bismuth, 
aod in one instance a trace of molybdena waa 
discovered in them. The metal was found for 
the first time in Borneo, in 1828, on the North 
Western coast of that island. It exists in 
several places there, but mines of it have been 
worked only in Sarawak. The or* is, as usual, 
a sulphuret in a mairix of quartz, and at pre-* 
sent furnishes the chief supply of Europe^ 
being exported from the emporium of Singapore, 
to the yearly amount of about 1,500 tons. — * 
Perhaps the most valuable of all the samples of 
this ore, received by the Madras Museum^ 
was that from the mines of Sir James 
Brooke in Sarawak^ Butter of antimonv, 
a substance sometimes used with sulphate 
of copper for bron zing gun barrels, the iron 
decomposing the chloride and depositing a thin 
film of antimony on its surface. The chief 
alloys of antimony are type metal, consisting of 
4 lead and 1 of antimony ; Stereotype metal, 
6 lead and 1 antimony, music-plates consisting 
of lead, tin and antimony ; Britannia metal, 
consisting of 100 parts of tin, 8 antimony, 2 
of copper, and 2 bismuth. Pewter is sometimes 
formed of 12 parts of tin and 1 part antimony. 
Antimony is also used in the preparation of 
some enamels and other vitreous articles and 
much employed in modern medicine as anti- 
monial powder and tartrate of antimony. 
James's powder is said to consist of 43 parts 
of phosphate of lime, and 57 of oxide of anli* 
mony. — Madras Museum. O^Shaughnessy. 
Dr, Masou*8 Tenaaseriv^. Faulkner* Totjdinson. 
Madras Exhihiiion of 1857. Jur, Reports 
of Bxhib. of 1851 & 1857. LoTvdon Bxhib. 
GaL for 1862. Crawfurd's Dictionary, p. 13. 
Major Boyd's Account of in Bom, Qeo. Trans. 
1889, p. 40, Vol. III. p. 2^^,- Sulphuret of 
in Moulmein.. Gapt, Foley, in Bl. As. Iran. 
1836, Vol. V. p. 273. 

ANTIOCH, an ancient town of celebrity, of 
which the modem village of Antaki is the 
humble representative. Previous to the Mace- 
donian conquest, its name was Biblath ; but 
being chosen by Seleucus Nicator, one of 
Alexander's generals, to be the seat of his 
future government, and being greatly embellish* 
ed by him, it recei#d the name of Antiocb» 
from respect to his • father, Antiochus. For 
several centuries it was the residence of the 
Syro-Maoedonian kings, and afterwards of the 
Roman governors of this province. Vespasian, 
qoantities. It is a very abundant I Titus, and other emperors, granted to it \Bxf 

187 18 

Mphorel of An- 


of Antimooy ... 
Grj Antimony... 

AotiDooy ti 

Sbtdu DUKH. 

Hi5D. Malay. Pass. 

Aotimoine Fa. 

Solfare d'antimoiue. „ 
istimaine Snlfure... ,, 

Spe^glftiiz Geb. 

Aitiffloa „ 

DrafKh in 

Schvefel Antimon. „ 
Sdnoii Or. 

Tke ter snlphide of antimony is the Stibium 

of the ancients. A substance surmah sold 

for it is to be found in every Eastern 

village, it being osed by the Native medical 

pnditioners, also the mahomedan men^ 

vlioipply it to their eyelids to give brilliancy 

to tk eye. ' But ores of iron, and manganese 

lad galena are sold in the Indian bazaars, 

SI Surmab, or Sulphuret of Antimony. Great 

Britain receives the larger portion of its 

npplj of antimony from Singapore, to which 

piift it is brought firom Borneo. It is import • 

ed in the shape of ore, and commonly as bal- 

htt. Its other chief localities are Saxony, 

Conwall, Spain, Mexico, Siberia, the Eastern 

hiaads, and Martaban ? in Pegu. It is brought 

toBoBibay from Siam and the Persian Gulf. 

Tfcis ere is generally of a lead-gray colour, 

pwoaing eonsiderable splendour, and is met 

' titleompact, and in rhombic prisms of consi- 

doabk size, and variously modified. The 

nbstaoeea sold as Surmah are to be got in 

iny qoantity in the bazar at two very different 

^neea—ionie being at one rupee per lb., and 

I eaHed Europe, and sometimes China Surmah— 

tadfAWttinplea at 1^ annas a lb. Samples of 

tUalastbifa been found free from either Lead 

tt^snic; and at the price might be advanta- 

PHf sported ; Tartar emetic has been 

Mb fion it. At the Madras Exhibition of 

IW, sdphuret of antimony of good quality 

•» ahibited from Vizianagrum, but the sub- 

^Ms sent as soorma from Kumool and 

jyfc'^d were galena or sulphuret of lead. 

y^ of the purest samples come from 

j^, from the miues of Sarawak, but 

'^ also imported from Moulmein, Pegu, 

Kabnl, and the Panjab or from 

^ - m Umritsnr. Ter sulphide of anti- 

*^it said to be found in the Salt range 

^ tie Xenra salt mine. Vast quantities of 

ly have been found by Major Hay in 

Himalayan range of Spiti and been 

Mw BeyU by Migor Boyd ; it occurs 

e in Baluchistan. The greater part of 

Mineral brought to India, however, 

frc^m the Eastern Islands, Burmah and 

Kaiaj Peninsnla, where it occurs in 


great privileges. There were AeveDal oitiea ia 
the e9ftt which bore the Bume name^ but only 
two of them flre mentioned in aoripture ; viz., 
Aatiochia PiQidi^,.a town of Asia Minor, and 
the one now under notiqe : the latter is fre- 
quently mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles, 
and here the disciples of Christ were, by divine 
appointment, first called by the name of their 
Master and Lord. In later time^, it was styl- 
ed the *' £ye of the Eastern Church." Bein^ 
repaired by the Emperor Justinian, A. J). 529, 
it waa called Theopolis, or *' the City of God," 
on account, it is said, of the inhabitanls being 
inostly christians, attracted hither, no doubt, 
by the peculiar liberty they eiijoyed in the ex- 
ercise of their religion. Thia liberty, it ap- 
pears, was a remnant of the jus civilmum, or 
''right of citizenship," which Seleucus had 
given to the Jews (of whom the former were 
considered as a sect), in common with the 
Greeks. Their church was long governed by 
illuatrioua prelates. Mobuuon'M JVaoeZtf, f^oV 
ii.p, S88. 

ANTINTALU, Tel. Dearoodium diffusum, 
JD. C. Other apeoiea are called by the same 
name as 2>. quingueangulatum IF. Icdongn- 
turn. Wall, und^ the name of J), diffrntum, Raxb- 
Hi. 355-7. 

ANTIOCHUS. The names of thirteen rulers 
over parts of Alexander the Great's conquests. 
Alexander bom B. C. 356, died 323, and the 
following are the ordinarily recognized dates of 
his successors, bearing the names of Antiochus. 
B. C. Surname. 

280 I Soter. 

i61 n Theos. 

223 III Magnus 


175 IV Epiphanes. 

164 V Eupator. 

144 VI Theos. 

137 VI r Stjdetes. 

125 VIII Grypus. 
112 IX Cyzioeaus. 

95 X Eusebes. 
XI Epiphenes. 

88 XII Dvonisius 

of Josephus 
69 XIII Asiaticus. 

iifter the last of whom Syria beqame a Roman 
Province. Moat of the Antiocbi merit separate 
notices, from the infl^ence which they exercised 
over N. W, India. Antiochus 1st surnamed. 
Ar.tiochus Soter, was a Syrian King. In B. 
C. 280, Seleucus Nicator was a88as8inate<i 
by Ptolemy Ceraunue, from which date, the 
whole of Asia, frpQi the Indus to the Ja:(artes 
was under Antiochus Soter, who from B. C. 
280 to 261 reigned undisturbed over the same 
territory and left it to bis aon, the second 
4.ntioc;hus surnamed Theos. In his reign 
Antiochus Theos^ a Scythian, named Arsaces, 
came from the north of thejlsea of Azoff induced 
the*Persians to throw off the Greek yoke and 
founded the Parthian empire, making Khagea 
bia capital. Antiochus iii^ was surnamed 
Magnua (Achseus] he was assassinated B. 
C. 2^3 , Antiochuf the gr^at, according to 


the Greek and Boman historians^ inwided In^ 
dia B. 0. 206, and formed an alliance with! 
Sophngasenes, the sovereign of that country**^ 
It is now ascertained, from the evidence befor^i 
referred to, that this aovereign was Asoka, ok. 
Piyadasi^ king of Magadha (grandson of Chaa-^ 
dragupta), who ascended the throne B. G. S47t 
He was a Jealous buddhist, and in one of his | 
edicts still extant, engraved on stone, he ex* \ 
pressly mentions by name Antiochus, the Gi?eek 
King (Autiyako Yona Riga), who, it aeems, 
had favoured, if not adopted, the buddhistie 
opinion. Antiochus the Great, in hia march 
towards India, defeated Euthydemus, .near 
Merv, in a battle in vhieh Aotiochus led the 
unite<l Syrianand Parthian armies* Eu thy drmua 
was then taken into alliance ^nd he le<l Antio-* 
chua and his Syiian army through Bactria, 
i. e„ by the rente north of tiie mountain^, to 
the Kabul valley and across the Indus in B. 0^ 
906. There Antiochus the Great made peaoa 
with Sophagaseufs the Asoka of India an4 
Asoka recorded this, by edicts engraved on rocks 
and piUars, in various parts of India in. oUaxac 
ters exactly resembling those on the coina o( 
AgaUK)eles. That on the Girnar rock namfis 
Autiochia-Tona Bajah. In B. C. 205 Antio? 
chus returned by way of Arachotia. 

The d^poovery of his name, ip two of the 
e<Lict6 of Aaoka, was made by James Prinsep.— * 
fH* M. Tran$. 1838, Vol. p. 156. ffUioqf 
of ihB Pat^ab, Vol* i. p. 57. 0ee Cyc. of Indi% 
Supp. ii. Gre^s of Asia. Kabul, p. 435-4$i, 


Snap Dragon... Enq. 

Several species of this genus are gromi i^ 
India as flowering plants. A* moUe, A. aiculunii 
A. oroutum* and A. majua. «A, orontum baa ^ 
variety known as A. Indieum, but the battfj^ 
known is small Majua, the Snap-dragon* cn^ 
tivated for its beauty, a native of England, bol 
in India, aucceeds well duiii^ the cold Bio|Uh% 
the seed should be spwn during the raina, i| 
grows best in soil, not ^oo tioh.^Jtjfrey. Voi^ 

ANT-LION, the larvse of this ^e wag 
known in India* Their form, at the lower pKita 
resembles that of a spider, but the head In 
armed with a sharp strong pair of davva. T^i] 
excavate, in fields, gardens and roadwi^a, aiBa|| 
cup shaped cavitiesy with exquisitely *nBooJtilj 
edgea and sides, at the bottom of which tb^ 
lurk so that any insect approM^cihing near, imimk 
diately falls below to the ambush and la seif^ 
and destroy>ed' Their eXipavi^iioiis are iiauiil^ 
carried on at night, but in the procf0s,.thoim| 
they throw up the 8a,nd and gravel tjoa oonaid$9|> 
able height, the soil around their cupa ia veq 
level. They often throw ^p a pfrtiole ^ aanc 
towards any adhering iniecti whkh by moyj^ 


ANTsft whitb: 





Urt mat9, brings doirn the insect with it. On 
ooe oeoBsion, a large black ant was seen to fall 
into one of th& cops, and was seized by the ant 
fin, bol its comrades adhered to the captiTc to 
vAmt it. In Geyion are four of tbe tribe 
FfltpaHosteiitrartus, Walker^ Myrmelon gravis, 
WkUar^ M. ditus, fFalker and M. barbatns. 
If^Mer. Sir J. B. T&nnanVs BMeUhei, Nat 
Bui^0e9hn,p.4,2d. Ed. 

Divik Hind. I Bayap ... Malay. 

fandtes Lat. Rayah 

i»Vam MalaT. Shellu 

AMi-anai f, I Ch^ddulu 

The term White-Ants, is applied by'the Eng- 
fiih in India to species of Tennites. They are 
BtaestiBg, from the great mounds of earth which 
they ereet. Thoee in Indra rarely exceed seven 
or eight feet, but some Ant^ hills in 8. Afriiea 
snef great byz^ On the banks of the Chobe, 
liiiagstOBe, oMOtions them 30 feet high 
ad<tf a base so broad ihM trees grow on 
ften. In the open fields, the ihjary to pro- 
dole which they can occasion, is tri- 
Sag, but in gsirdeivSy whWe, as with sugar" 
cane the crops are long in the gtotrnd, 
ttaeh loss is sustained from their at- 
tacks. They usniHy work ufider cover, aiid 
gatteries of earth cemented, as they pro- 
la towns, with substantial* houses of 
aiid beams of wood, the'losi' which 
69 occasion is often very great, for they pierce 
tfiavsUs and tnunel the beams in every diree- 
lioa. In St. Helena in 1860 to 1866, it was 
tiseorered that they had ruined m'any ptiblic 
baildiags. The chief remedy is to destroy 
deir eiUs and dig up their queen. Their 
are tunnelled in every direction and 
a large shapeless white mass lies 
U the" entre. By removing the whole the 
KMttlj i k effectual and permanent. A com- 
aMfta-of time, tar, and soap, in equal parts, 
MM tt»gether and smeated over places 

to their farther progress. To protect the 

, the ends are now usually laid on the 

, and the sides left unclosed, s6 that the 

IJM ■IHiiumb of these insects can' be'detect- 

AsimI this opening also prevents dry rot. 
it mkj be preserved by using a 86lu- 
pv^pared with 8 gallons of fresh water, 
of pomnded Croton tiglium, 1 lb. Mar- 
ne, and 1 lb- of blue vitriol ; when dis* 
lySOakhigtfae timber well^ and afterwards 
ia a htetu, but Cochin and Monlmein 
and Ebony are but seldom attacked 
^-ants; The wood oihtire thought useful, 
earth or mud oik, so abundantly pro- 
in Butmah are thought to be effeetnal 
i-to ' their encroaches ; eoxtkor mud 
^kmihMi used most eifcctnally lately oti pre-> 
rU' Bioigiilore ; thia oil is one' rupee a 

quart in the basar, is impervious to white ants, 
always' remains ^^ik?^ and they cannot work- in 
it P Ordinary coal tar is without the slightest' 
effect, as it hardens in a ^ ery short time. 

Sets ofsugar-cane' and other substances con 
be protected by steeping them for half an hour 
in a mixture of assafsetida 8 chittacks; mustard 
seed, 8 seers ; putrid- fish, 4 seers ; bruised 
butch root or maddar 2 seers, with suflicient 
to mix them into the thickness of curds, but 
the poisonous influence of the butch on vege- 
table life is known and' cannot be recom- 
mended where the product is to be eaten : 
small quantity of arsenic wiih a few ounces 
of bui-ned brCad, pulveriztfd flour or oatmeal, 
ntoistened with molasses, made into a dough 
and placed near their tumuli, is said to insure 
their destruction^ The w'ood oils, from the 
various species of Pipterocarpi,- applied to 
wood, prevents, it is said, the dry rot, as also 
the attacks of White Ants-; and the additiou 
of catechu to the oil greatly, increases its pre- 
servative powers — {SimmoHdh) Mendia, 

ANTIPATRI8, of the Greeks, is the modern 
Kafir Saba. 

ANTISA, eo^* Achyranthifs aspcra, X. 

AI^TI-TAURUS, from the southton slopes 
of this range, >ther6 spring* the two sources of 
the Trgris, in central Armrnia, both near those 
of the Araxes and Euphrates, and- not very 
distant ivoxtk that of t^e Halys.-^Co^o^l 
Ckemey*a JStlphratea and Tigm. 

ANTUMQRA. BfNC^. Isbra e6rylif6lia : 
Schou and End. 

ANU, in hind u legend, one of the son^ of 
Xagati, one of the old fathers of mankind. Anu 
was the founder of one of the five great Tura- 
nian tribes, the Yadu, Turvasa, Druhyu and 
Anu. See India p. 815. Cyc. of Ind. Sup. ii. 

ANUGA KAYA, e^i3cK"5^c» TeI,. Lageniiila* 

vulgaris, Ser* 

ANUGAMANAi in brahmanism, the per- 

the white atits appear, is a very effectual ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ by a woman alone, whose- 

husband Las died in a distant country : a san- 
dal, or any article of his clothes may then re- 
pr^ent him. 

ANUVAKA, a Sub-division of a mandda of 
the Rig Veda. See Veda. 
ANUMULU. e^85Mc». TisL. Lablab 

vulgaris, Savi. 

i ANUN IBARRA. Tjsl. Anun wood. 

i ANEVAL-GATTLHiND. Emblic Myrobolan. 
I ANZARUT. Abab. Prws. \s>yjy ] Sawo- 


I ANZART, a tribe in Lebanon, idolaters, in 
jnumber 20,000, one of their sections, called the 
•Shamsi are said to worship the sun (Shams) 
Pers. A spacious plain, open to the sea on 
'the west, extends north as far as Tortosa, and 



id bounded on ibe east by tbe Anzari moun- 
tains. This chain is a lower branch of the 
Libanus, but is less known than most parts of 
this celebrated mountain, being inhabited by 
this lawless tribe, who have never been 
brought into actual subjection by any of the 
Pashas. The origin of this people and their 
religion, if they have any, are still unknown. 
Like the Druses, they may possibly be a 
Mahomedan sect, Burokhardt mentions the 
Anzari sects, calling them Kelbye, Shamsye, 
and Mokladjye ; but adds, " nothing is known 
of them except the names". — Robinson* aTravelSf 
Vol. a. p. 68, 69. 
AOD. Ar- Hind. FiSBs. ^^c is used 

generally in India, to designate the frankin- 
cense of the Eoswellia, the Olibanum of the 
ancients : but throughout the east, with Arabic 
and Persian suffixes, it is employed to name 
varieties of £aglewood. 

ADOH, a district in Hindustan. See Oudh. 

AODT, HiN. A tribe of Jats in the Delhi 
divisions of Soneput and Paniput. — IFiUon's 

AODI-BAKHOOK. Ar. • ji , \, 


AOD-I-CHINI. Ar. ^ij^ ^^ Chinese 

Eagle- wood. 
' AOD-I-HINDI. Ar. ^ di^ ^ys Indian 

Eagle- wood. 
AOD-I-KAMARI. Ar. ^j^ ^y. Moun- 

tain Eagle- wood. 

AODIYA. Hind. A thief of a tribe of 
thieves inhabiting villages in the Cawnpore 
and Faltehpur districts. They make remote 
excursions at particular seasons, in different 
disguises.— ^Z«o»'« Glossary^ 

AONTAGUNJE, a town in India, in Long. 
79^ 13',E. andLat. 28« 17' N. 

AOONLA, or ANOLA. Duk. Hind. Mar. 
dJji^ is the Pbyllanthus emblica. 

AOO-PALU Tel. «q^c». Milk. 

AOOWLIA, a town in India, in Lonff. 82® 
14' E. and Lat. 26® 10' N. 

AORNIS, a place fixed on by the Greek 
djrnasties for a military ganison, There were 
military colonies of Macedonians established at 
Alexandria ad Caucasum, Arigajum, and Bazi- 
ra, and garrisons at Nysa, Ora, Massaga, 
Penceleotis and at Aornis, a mountiain range' 
supposed to be the mountains of Mahaban in 
the Pir Panjal or Mid Himalayan range.— See 
Cyc. of Ind. Supp. ii. Kafir. 

APAMARGAMU. ^^^:s^tf ^^ S. or 

UUareni, Achyranthes aspera, Z. 

APAMA SILIQUOSA. Syn. of Bragantia 
W^lUchii. — Brown, 

APAMEA, daughter of Artabazus,']thc Per- 
sian who married Seleucus. He gave her 
name to three towns. Kooruab, one of the 
three Apameas built by Seleucus in honour of 
his first wife, is situated at the point of a trian- 
gle, formed by the confluence of the rivers Eu- 
phrates and Tigris, and although now dwindled' 
into a petty town, it was formerly a place of 
consequence. Koornah is situated on a low 
flat, with apparently a rich soil, and along the 
river are low banks to prevent the country being 
flooded. At this spot some oriental traditions 
have fixed the Garden of Eden- — Malcolm's 
History of Persia, Vol, ii,p. 141.— SeeKoomah. 

APANA. See Hindoo. 

APANDA or A8TYAGES, son of Isfendiar, 
one of the Kaianian dynasty of Persian kings. 

A PANG, Beng. Achyranthes aspera. 

APARAJITA, Bbkg, Clitorea tcrnatea. 

A PARA JIT A, in hinduism, a form of the 
goddess Bhawani. The name is probably 
derived from the flower of the plant Oiitom. 
— See Sacti* Aphrodite. 

APAVARA, a king of Telingana, about A. 
D. 11 41. See Inscriptions, p. 386. 

APCHHARA. See Apsara. 

APE. Eng. 




Koph ... . 


... Qb. 

. Hind 

Eeibi ... 
Kaki ... 
Korangu . 
Kothi ... 


• . • M. A V • 

• • • X SXi « 

Apes, form the sub-family Simianae, of the 
family Semiadae orMonkeys, of the natural order 
Primates. Apes are represented in India by 
two species of Siraia, The ancient Egyptians 
are said to have worshipped monkeys, and some 
of them in India are still worshipped. 

The various kinds of ape seem to have been 
made known to the Hebrews, Greeks and Ro- 
mans, by specimens brought from Africa and 
India; iliose of the Hebrews probably from 
India, the Hebrew name Koph being almost 
the same as the Sanscrit Kapi. Harris. 
M APENDRA, an old name of Vishnu. 

is grown in India, but is a native of tbe We^t 
Indites, with orange . coloured flowers, easily 
propagated from cuttings. — Mr, Jafrey. 

APHIS, a tribe of insects, one of which of 
China is supposed to produce oak-galls. 

APH0D1U8, a genua of Coleoptera, found 
in Hong-Kong. 

APHORISMS or SUTRA, these were the 
usual mode of instruction followed in the hindu 
liturgical books — the Yedas,— whose sacred, 
character hindus still acknowledge. They were 
adopted in the fourth period of the hindu pro. 
gress, about B. C. 1000, and in the Sutra, 
the ceremonial prescriptions were reduced to 
a more compact form and to a more precise 
and scientific systei;n. The Aphorisms of the 



Nyaya Philosophy, of the Mimafwa and Yoga 
VCR K-priated in Sanscrit and English 
iboQt the middle of the nineieenlh century, 
bv Professor James Ballantyne of the Benares 
i^lkffi,^Max MuUer, 

APHBODITB of the Greeks supposed by 
Mr.Paierson, to be the Aparnjitaof the hindus. 
See Aparajita. 

APHU? Hind. Opium, 

APIACEJl Kyet-kh)'8e-ban, Burm. one 
of the Celery tribe, the Apiacese. 

tf the Cheiroptera. 

APIOS TUBE ROSA of Canada, one of the 
Legaminosse, might be introduced into India, 
(cf its edible pods. 

APIS. The sacred bull of Egypt, was 
chosen bj the priests of Memphis, for its black 
ifld white spots, and Mnevis, the sacred bull 
of Heliopolu, had nearly the same marks ; but 
the Jews, in preparing their water of purifica- 
tion, were ordered in Numbers, ch. xix. 2, to 
kill H red heifer without a spot. Amongst the 
Ejnrptiaos, the solemnities at the burial of 
Apb were entirely Bacchic. The priests did 
Bot wear the nebris or deer skin, but they 
vore the panther akin, and carried Thyrsus 
itifes. The sacred bull of the hindus, I^andi, 
the Tahao of Biva, is in black stone looking at 
the liojninL~^icx«tf», «. 432. See Sacrifice. 

APIS MELLIFIGA, the Honey bee. 

APIUII. Jay. Opium. 


bnfi... ^. ... Arab. I Common Celery... Eno. 

tafc EOYPT. I 

This temperate climate plant, acrid and 
poisonoQswhen wild» is much cultivated where- 
cter Europeans settle, and is grown in India, 
ia the eold weather. Its seeds are sold as 
Bedieioe in every bazaan Its essential oil, 
diasoived in strong spirit, gives an essence, a 
<^> af which suffices to flavour a tureen of 
»Bp.-*r(»^/, SO, 0*Shauffinessy, 357. 



••• ••• 

..Beno. I Ajmood... 
„ I Ajmud... 


fc Irvme {General Med, Top, of Jjmere, p- 
1^4,) describes Ajmod or Ajnaot, as very hot 
fA carminative, good in dyspepsia, much used 
^all mesalihs, and as brought to Ajmeer from 
^ivowtee and Mewar : and sold at four seers 
V OK rupee .• the same author mentions Kho- 

"^ Ajmot, aa very hot and carminative, 
whtigh had only seen it cultivated in gar- 
ter in ficngal, for the seed, which they uae in 
Jjaad m^idne.— J?04r. 1, 97, Dr. Irvine. 

APJOOLA, a mixed fabric of cotton and 
J^ Bade at Dacca. — See Cotton Manufac- 

iPlOME 6ARNBT.— A kind of garnet. 


A plant of Kaghan. 

APOCINACEiE, a natural order of trees 
or shrubs including nearly one hundred genera 
with about four hundred species, about half of 
which are found in the South and East of 
Asia, Arabia and Ceylon in the Peninsulas of 
India and Malacca, Bengal, Nepaul and Java. 
The genera abound in plants with a milky- 
juice and possessing acrid and other hurtful 
properties. One of the order furnishes the 
liance-Wood of Moulmein, a tree found all 
over the Provinces. The Karens make bows 
of it, but prefer Cassia falula, Mr. Mason 
had never met with the tree in flower, but 
thinks it a species of dalbergia, though it may 
possibly be a cassia. At another place he says, 
the tree which produces a timber possessing 
the properties qf lance-wood is not uncommon 
in the Provinces, but it belongs to the dog-^ 
bane tribe, and is not at all related to- Guaiie* 
ria virgatay the lance-wood of commerce.—^ 
Mason. VoigU See Cassia. Caoutchouc, Cer- 
bera, Chonemorpha macrophylla, Dog-banes,. 
Holarrhena codago, Plumieria acuminata^ 
Wrightia tinctoria. 

of Orthanthera viminea. Wight. 

of Psederia fetida. — Linn. 

of Ichnocarpus frutescens. — B. Brown, 

small forest tree of the Central Province *of 
Ceylon, found at an elevation of from 5,000 
to 7,000 feet; not uncommon. — Thw.^ Enum. 
PI ZeyL i. p, 42. 

APOLLO of the Greeks, is supposed to be 
the hindu Krishna, whose favourite place of 
resort ia described as a tract of country around 
Agra, and principally the plains of Mnttra, 
where Krishna and the nine Gopia, evidently 
the nine muses, usually spent the night in 
dancing. Krishna was ilo doubt the Shepherd 
Apollo of the Hindus, and the Apollo of the 
Greeks was snmamed Nomios or the pastoral, 
and Opifer in Italy, who fed the herds of Ad^ 
metus and slew the serpent Python. The 
Apollo of Edessa was called Monimos. He waa 
identical at Babylon, with the Pbaeicnian god 
Esmun — Coleman. See Cyc. of Ind. Sup. ii. 
p. 548. Kama Baraswati. 

APOLLODOTUS, one of the Greek suc- 
cessors to Eucratides. ApoUodotus and Menan<> 
der alone are mentioned by classical author- 
ities. ApoUodotu sruled in Patalene, Syraa- 
trene and Larice, about B. C 165. 

According to Colonel Tod, the Yavan, of 
Greek princes, who apparently continued to 
rule within the Indus, after the Christian era. 
were either the remains of the Bactrian dynasty^ 




ev the independent kingdom of Demistrius or 
ApoUodotus, who ruled in the Punjab, having 
as' their capital Sagaia, changed by Demetrius 
to Buthymedin. Bayer says, in his Hist; Reg. 
Bact. p. 84, that according; to Glatidius Ptolemy, 
there was a town within the Hydaspes, yet 
nearer the Indus, called Sagala, also Buthyme- 
dia ; but he scarcely doubts tbst Demetrius 
called it Eutbydemia, from his father, after his 
death and that of Menander. Demetrius was 
deprived of his patrimony. A. [J; C. 562. 
Sagala, is conjectured by Colonel Tod, to be 
the Satbhanpoora of the Yndns when driven 
from Zabulisthan, and that of the Yuchi or 
Yuti, who were fixed there from Central Asia in 
the fifth century, and, if so early as the 
seoond century, when Ptolemy wrote, may 
have originated the change to Yuti-media, the 
'Central Yutl.' Numerous medals chiefly found 
within the probable limits of the Greek king- 
dom of Sagala, either belong to these princes 
or the Parthian kings of Minagara on the 
Indus* The legends are in Greek on one side, 
and in the Sassatiian character- on the reverse. 
The names of Apolledotos and Menander 
have been deciphered, but the titles of ' Great 
King/ * Saviour,' and other epithets adopted 
by the Arsacirlee, are. perfectly legible. The. 
devices, however, resemble the Parthian. These 
Greeks and Parlhians must have gradually 
merged into the Hindu population.-^2b^*« 
Bojasihan, FU* i. p. 233. See Cyc. of Ind. 
Sup. ii. Greeks of Asia. Kabul, p. 438; 

of the Central Province of Ceylon growing 50 
t» 60 feet bi«{h at an elevation of 3,000 to 
4,000 feet— rAw. Eu, PL Zeylp 253. 


Nama ? Ketti-gad^ 

daltt Tbl« 


'•• w 

Qliechn .. ... ...HiN,. 

Par ua-kalang^ . . . M aleal. 

Kakangi Sans. 

Koti'kalangu Tam. 

A native of shallow, . standing sweet water, 
natives of India are fond of the roots. which are' 
nearly as good as potatoes»'^iit7ii4'«f, 248. 
Eoxb. it. 210. 

ATOROSA ACUMINATA, fusifdrmis ? 
latifolia ; lanceolnta, and Lindleyiina, . small 
trees of Ceylon. — Thtoaites; 288. 

APOSTLE is a term sonnetimes applied in 
European literature to Mahomed, but his fol- 
lowers only recognize the' appellation of Ras- 
sul Allah, the Messenger or Prophet of God. 

■ APPOCOVAY. Tam. Bryonia rostrata. 
APPAREL, artiolea of apparel form a con* 
siderable branch of trade in India ; and in the 
Madras Presidency alone the aggregate value 
of the Imports and Exports in the four years 
1852-53 to 186S-66| amounted to Rupees 
















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APPAS. BiNGU. Tam. €akes made of 
A« fbuT, called by the English, Hoppers, 

APPA SAHIB, oitee the rnler of the Mah- 
^^ Btete of Nsgpoie, who surrendered to 
% 'obi MdeobD, in 1«18. Ue luoeoeded 


M«lea .. 
Seb.,. .„ 
Seo... ., 






Uo^theoffioe of rFeaknw, by .etfBngliBg iBtirmju 
an idiot> His.resl name was not Appab Sahib, 
but Mudaji. He afierwArdSyOn the t^th of 
May 1618, fled from the place illlotted tohim, 
40 the Sikh tenitories ; but he ultimately died^ 
in 1840, almost forgotten, at Jndhpur.-:-Se6 
Bfaonsla fiajas of Nagpur ; Mahiaita Govarn- 
jiieiils in India. 

APPELu Maxbal. KSi^aDfij. Premna 

integrifolia. — Rozh, 
APPLE, the common apple. 

•• • > • • mt« 
„4HiNj>. .Pers. 

This is th« fruit of the Pyrus roalus, whieb 
is naturalized in several parts of India. The 
term apple, is applied in India to the fruits of 
eeveral plants, and we have the Cashew apple,; 
Custard apple ; Love apple ; Pine apple ; Bom 
apple ; .Greater wood apple and Lesser wood 
applq, and the apple proper, Pyrus malus of 
England, cultivated in the higher table lands 
of India. The apples of fiolomon's song are 
tbe qoinees or the Cydonia Tiilgaris. 

APPLE a^ED OIL, (HI of seed of Pymi 


APRLICARUM. Tam. Barilla. 

APPRETOTTE, a town in India, in Long. 
81» 55' E. «nH Laf. 6** 51' N, 

APPROVERS in India are Thugs or Da- 
coils who have been tried and convicted us 
having belonged to a band of Thug murderers 
or dacoits, but who^ having made a full confess 
sion of their orime« (in some individual cases 
atnounting to the murders of as many as 
eighty persons) and having denounced their 
associates, have received a conditional pardon. 

APPS. Tam. ilopper. See Appea. 

APRACUM. Tam. T^l. Mica. 

APRANG, also Ran^gbharat, Damlalcwaypi, 
Hira-dakhan. A gum resin, a beautiful kiud 
of kiiio^ brought to AjoaeFe from Bombay .; 
considered very astringent. It is given in inr 
teslinal hemorrhages and is also used in ena- 
melling on gold ; foar tolahb are sold for one 
rupee. — Irvine, <jmeral Hed. Top. qf jAjmere, 
p- 126. 

APRICOT, the common Apocot. 

Barkak Arab. I Zard-Alu... .. pEmr- 

Bakor.KoiliaDi..^BoKBAn. ] Badain Eoki..^ ... „ 

Misb-mish ,.. .J^Rfk | Cbinaru ^ ... „ 

This fruit of the Pruniis Armeniaea, u weli 
known in India, where ilie iaree has ibeen nak 
taralized. It is the Meiea ArmcniAke of IMos- 
corides and the Preooeia minora and M^lna 
Armeniaoa of Plinj« - In China an oil is ex- 
tracted froBi the stonee* Moorerof^ mentions 

Aqua forte. 


Iliat ten varieties are grown in Ladakh^ all of AQUAIL, a town in Indie, in Long. 93^ 

them raiaed from seed, except one which is 30' E. and Lat 24^ 43' N. 

budded. Dr. ItoyU, Birdwood, p. 154. i^oor-; AQUALPURA, a town in India, in Long. 

crojt, Darmn^ Charles, M. A. F. R^ S. Variation 91 © 49' j). and Lat 24® ST N 

of Animals and Plants under Doniettication, 2 AOITA MARTMR fiftinir T 

ToU, Lond. 1868 

APSARA, Sansc. in hindu mythology, 

AQUA MAIUNE. Seing. Bcjbm. Zamar- 
md. Pers. At the Madras Exhibition, a good 
specimen of aquamarine, or beryl, was contri- 

nymphs of Swerga, the celestial Court of Indra^ buted by Lieut. Puckle from Mysore : other 
celestial dancers, celebrated for their beauty. ' samples of long reed like crystals were forward- 
Amongst them is Rembha, the popular Venus of I ed by the Nellore Local Committee ; small piece* 

the hindns and some others are described to be 
of inconceivable loveliness. They answer to 
the Pari of the ancient Persians, and the 
damsels called in the Koran, Uur-ul-ayun, the 
Antelope^eyed-Huri. These hindu nymphs 
were produced at the Churning of the Ocean, 
as related in the Ramayana. Sir William Jones 
thus describes them in Swerga« 

Now while each ardent Cinnara persuades 

The soft ey*d Apsara to break the dance. 

And leads her loth, yet with loye-beaming glance, 

To banks' of marjoram and ohampac shades. 

Celestial genii towVd their kiog advance. 

So call'd by men, in heav'n Qandharva^s nam'd. 

According to hindu Kshatrya belief, Ksha- 
triya warriors slain in battle are transported 
to Indra's heaven by these Apsarasas or 
nymphs of Swerga. Thus in Manu vii. 89, 
it is said, 'Those rulers of the earth who, 
desirous of defending each other, exert their 
utmost strength in battle, without ev«r avert- 
ing their faces, ascend after death directly to 
heaven.' And in book ii. 19 of the Nala, 
Indra says, ' why are no warriors slain now-a- 
days, that I see none arriving in heaven to 
honour as my guests V— Coleman Hind, Myth. 
Sir Widiam Jones, Hymn to India, voL xiii, p. 
270 and 273. William's Story of Nahiy page 
140. See Indra. Kurma. Maba-deva ; Meru. 

APSERHA, a river of Pillibeet. 

APTHORPB, a general officer of the Ma- 
dras Army, who saw much war service, first 
with the British Auxiliary Legion in Spain, 
under General de Lacy Evans, for which he 
received the order of St. Eerdinand. Served 
in the first China war of 1841-42, and second 
Burmese war of 1854, for which he received 

APTA. Mab, Bauhinia parviflora. 

APTIMUN, also Amr-bel, the yellow colour- 
ed parasite creeper, so often seen on ba- 
bul trees, «U over India, and very common at 
Ajniere. The entire plant is used in native 
medicine, in *' munj," or muzil, a diluent 
form of medicine, employed preparatory to 
giving a purg^« The Aptimun Wilayti is an 
extract of the Aptimun plant from Bombay, 
and used in the same way as the plant : one 
tola is sold for eight annas. — Irvine^ General 
2fed» Top, of Ajmere, page 125. 

APYLLANTHE^. ' See LUiace®. 

AQUA FORTE.-Pprt. Nitrio Acid. 


of Amethyst, Tourmaline, Rock crystal, Agate 
and Cornelian were exhibited from Masulipa- 
tam. Perhaps the Aquamarine of the South 
of India may become more valued. Prismatic 
corundum or Gbrysoberyl, is found among 
the Tora Hills near Rajmahal on the Bunas in 
irregular rolled pieces, small and of a light 
green colour. These stones are sold as eme- 
ralds by the natives, usrier the name of '' pan- 
na," but the native dealers are aware that they 
are softer than the real emerald of India, 
which is generally green coloured sapphire. 
It is this green sapphire, the oriental emerald, 
which is so often seen in Burmah, but beryla 
(Seing, Burm) and emeralds are brought from 
the north of Ava, though the localities in which 
they are found are not known, 

AQUAR, a town in India, in Long, 86** 
41' E. and Lat. 26^ 11' N. 

AQUARZENTE, It. Brandy, 
AQUATIC BIRDS are largely brought to 
the markets of the principal towns of India, at 
certain seasons of the jear, ducks, teal, &c., 
and may be procured in abundance. — See Wa- 
ter Fowl. C. of I. 

AQUEDUCTS in South Eastern Asia, are 
known only as those underground tunnellingSy 
designated throughout Persia, Beluchistan and 
India, as the Karez. See Karez,* 


•• I Alt, 


... |, 





Ak-yau ... 

Ugoor or Ag'r . . . Beno. 

Aloes-wood tree ... Eno. 

Aloe-wood tree... i.. „ 

Black Agallocha ... „ 

Agallochum-wood. . . 

Eagle-wood tree ... 

Calamback... • 

Agila-wood tree ... „ 
Boia d' Aigle..r ..#- Fa. 


Agur JUnro. 

Ud-i Hindi ...Hind. Pkbs. 
Ud-i Kamari... „ ? ? ? I 

Ayal-urcbi Pkrs. 

Ud-i Saxnudri.Hizn> ^ ?l 

Agallochum Lat. 

Kalamba Mjlult« 

Gahru. ••• f, 

Kaya gahru „ 

Agaru SaN8.' 

Ag'ru oh'ka Txu 


Kjnahna agaru ... 


A. g r at. ...MiKO. 

This is described by Roxburgh as an im^ 
mense tree, a native of the mountainous tracts 
E. and S. E. from Sylhet, in Lat. W 85' N- 
It is supposed to be one of the trees that fur- 
nish the eagle-wood of commerce. Roxburgh 
says theie is no doub tthat the real Calambac 
or Agallochum' of the ancients ia furnished 
from this tree, and in his time small quantities 



of the fngnnt rrsinous wood were imporled | templet. Herat and DeLens inform ns it was 
ftoB the Eastward, but the imported articles used in Napoleon's imperial palaoea as inoenae. 

■m slwsys oontidered iafetior to that from 
SyllMt. He was then inelined to consider (he 
Cfauo de Malacca as this A^nilaria but A. 
onta Willde aa a distinct species. Agallo^ 
dum verom India mittii praestantiasimnm.*' 
Dr. Bttcfasnan Hamilton, in hia investigation 
of the Eastern Frontier of Bengal, met with 
tiiii phot St Goaipara, (v. Wsil. Cat. 7,250.^ 
■d eQDiidered it to be the Agallochum 
oidoaruin, as this name is affixed both to his 
ipcdmens and drawing. Dr. Waliich also ob- 
taiied specimens of the same tree from Sllhet, 
bf iR4B8of his plant collectors, (v. Cat. 7,850. 
vJitodDr. Boyle, was informed by Dr. Lindiey, 
tbt he also was decidedly of opinion, that it 
fiioduces the eagle or aloe-wood of commerce, 
asopiiuoD of the more value, as Dr. WalUch, 
hid opportunitiea of visiting the countries 
Aitward of Bengal. . (Royle. 111. Him. Bot. 
^ lit) Or. Royle, tlius coincides, and addu- 
«t Boeh valuable evidence in tupport of Box- 
baih'i opuuon : at the same time that he ad- 
nib that a wood of similar properties may be 
MMed by other trees, especially the Aloexy- 
In if^llochum of Louretro, referred by De- 
Codolle to the Leguminosas. A kind of aloe 
vood was moreover said to be produced by the 
Suoeearia agallochom, of the natural order of 
laphoibiaces, but this is not now concurred in. 
A third kifid is imported from Malacca and 
Sm* In Persian works* three kinds of aloe 
vsed ais described under the namea of Jood-i- 
<Ms^, Aood^i'Hindeti Aood^i-kimaree, pro- 
My the Al-eeraericum of Aboo Hanifa, 
(^c.) Dr. Boxburgh mentions his having 
i^BBfed plants frmn Malacca of the supposed 
**l^^ and that they were in a flourishing 
2**>MS: Dr. Boxburgh obtained it from 
^Ihet fir. Mason also is of opinion that the 
^ ^Srfoeha or Aloexylon agallochum produ- 
** A firsgrant substance called lign-aloes, or 
Vnd-sbes, which is offered for sale in all the 
on the Tenaaserim Coast, and is the 
of a tree that growa on the Mergui 
It ia imported into Mergui by the 
who, aa they profit from the trade, 
oar to keep all in ignorance of the tree 
wUek they obtain it. Gesenius says the 
and Greek names are " derived from 
hdiaa name of the tree, agil, Sanscrit 
•ad agnm/* Besides agaro, the Sanacrit 
ws have agalu and aggalo, which come 
As ** Indian name agil," and the Greek 
There is, however, another San- 
Pali word with which Geaenius does not 
to have met, lauhat, and this is manifest- 
of aloe, and by transposition, not 
in Hebrew, of the Hebrew name 
the chief' oonsnmption of aloe wood is 
Md OUaa» where it ia burned in the 

The w<>od is heavy, yellowish white, shaded 
with green ; fibrous, spongy, and resinous, its 
taste aromatic, its odour in combustion very 
agreeable.— O'lS^u^/ineMV, pages 274-7 6. 2>r, 
Mason's TeiMSserim.'-Malcoini^s Travrls in the 
East, vol. I. p. l9URoyl(^sIll Ind, BoL 172. 
Roxb. ii. 423. Voigi. 305. VeffetabU Kingdom, 
629-30. Mad, Em. Jur, Reports. 


A. ovata of Botanists. 
Bois-d'Aigle of Malacca* 

This tree has a whitish timber. It is a na- 
tive of Malacca, China ? and Ceylon ? Rox- 
burgh seems inclined to regard this as identi- 
cal with A. aggalochum of Sylhet, bnt Voigt 
and the Vegetable Kingdom recognise it as a 
separate species, Foigi 306, Peg, Kingdom, 
629. Rox6. ft. 422. 

AQUILARIA OVATA, Syn. of A. Malac- 
oensis ^ 


This tree has a white and inodorous timber, 
but, when diseased, it secretes a resinous matter 
said to be the true Eagle-wood 

named as a tree of China. — Foigi* p. 306. 

ties are cultivated in India, as ornamental 
flowering plants. The plant belongs to the 
Ranunculacem, and is very common in all the 
alpine and temperate parts of the Himalayas^ 
and all through Europe and Persia. It is a 
very variable plant and has about twenty 
synonims. A canadensis and A, parviflora 
being alone distinct. If. f. ei T. p. 44. Hog. 
Feg. King. 18. Foigt. 

AR. ^^. Tah. a river ; a common post- 
fix in Tamulian countries, as Pal-ar, Adyar, 
Peun^r, &c.. Milk river, Sec. 

AR. An ancient word entering very exr 
tensively into the language of ihe Indo Germa-* 
nic races. It seems to be connected with the 
original term for one of the first of avocations, 
namely, ploughing and the plough, « It is, 
therefore, an old root, and as, amongst that 
branch of the Aryan race, husbandry was held 
in high estimation, we find it, according to 
Piotet, connected with the words Erin, Elam, 
Arionistus, Armioius, Oriri. Up to the present 
day the Emperors of China mark the com- 
mencement of the annual cultivation, by 
personally ploughing a field, and. in the wes- 
tern hemisphere, the answer will be re- 
membered which was paid by the Delphic Ora- 
cle to My son, when .Anacharsis inquired who 
was the wisest man in Greece, *' He who is 
now ploughing his fields." Into the Indo 
Germanic languages, the word has been adopt- 

145 19 



ed, in various way a, connected with Ihe earib, 
the fields, ploughing and field impiemenU. 
Thus we hi^ve 

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Professor Max Muller, to whose learned re- 
searches so much is due, mentions all this 
when he tells us that this" root Att, means /o 
plough, to open the soil. From it we have the 
Laiin ar-are, the Greek ar-oun, the Irish ar, 
the Lithuanian ar-ti, the Russian oruU^ the 
Gothic arjan^ the Anglo-Saxon er-jan, the mo- 
dern English to ear, Shakespeare says (Ri- 
chard 11. III. 2), *« to ear the land that has 
some hope to grow^." From this we have the 
name of the plough, or the instrument of ear- 
ing : in Latin, ara-trnm ; in Greek, aro-tron ; 
in Bohemian, oradio in Lithuanian, arklas 
in Ck)rni8li, ttrcdar ; in Welsh, arad in Old 
Norse, ardhr. In Old Norse» however, ardhr^ 
meaning originally tlie plough, came to mean 
earoingft or wealth, the plough being, in early 
times, the most essential possession of the 
peasant. In the same manner the Latin name 
for money. The act of pious hing is called 
araiio in Latin ; aroM in Greek : and he be- 
lieves that ar&ma, in the sense of perfume, had 
the same origin, for what is sweeter or more 
aromatic than the smell of a ploughed field ? 
A more primitive formation of the root or 
seems to b^ the Greek era, earth, the Sanskrit 
ird, the Old High-German era, the Irish ite, 
irionn. It meant originally the ploughed laud. 
Besides, the simple ar in Old Norse means 

ploughing aud labonr, and the Old High-Ger** 
man att has likewise the sense of ploughing. 

A^aupa and arvuvHy a field, would certaiuly 
have to be referred to the root ar, to plough. 

The Elnglish word plough^ the Slavonto 
ploug, has been identified with the Sanskrit 
plava ship, and with the Greek ploion, ship. 
Midler's Lecture*^ p^. 242. Toglor'a IKordt 
and Places. Mulltn Chip$. 1864. 

AKA,Scythic, a mountain, occurs in Aravalli, 
Arabudha, Aravidha: it is not io be found iii 
any Sanscrit Dictionary with this signifLcation ; 
yet it appears to be a primitive root poasesainfe 
such meaning as we have Ar-boodha, ' hill of 
Boodha ' Aravalli, ' hill of strength. Ar is 
Hebrew for ' mountain,' (qu* Ararat ?) Oroa 
in Greek ? The common word for a mouQtaio 
in Sanscrit, gir, is equally Hebrew. 

ARAB. The people known by this nanoe-. 
are spread from Syria to the Indian Ocean; 
They are chiefly in tribes and those who ocou« 
py the country around Jerusalem, are iUe 
Anezi, Sbammar, Mowali and Sdlhan. But the 
country of Arabia, in which they chiefly dwelt 
is in the S. W. of the continent of Asia and is 
about 1,430 miles long and 1,200 miles broad* 
It is recognised iu Europe as having three 
divisions, A. petrea, A. deserta, and A. felix. 
{ts general aspect is that of an elevated land, 
with considerable ranges of hills. Its monn^ 
tains, Horcb and Sinai, are part of Jab*l-ul-Tur 
range, with Hor or Seir, now called Jabl 
Harun or Aaron's mountain. The populaiioBc 
vaguely estimated at ten millions, are ckiefly 
engaged in pastoral pursuits, and consist of 
many independent tribes. In this respect it is 
in the same state now as in ancient timeh, 
when the Cushite and Joktanite occupied Ai 
felix, when the Ammonite and Ishmaeltla 
dwelt in A. deserts, and the Moabite, Edomite^ 
Nabathoean, Midianite and Amalekite in Ai 
petrea. The population of Mecca, its «^ief 
town, is about 18,000. Arab.ul«Mostaraba, ov 
mixed Arabs, the lineal des^ndantsof Ishmadi 
occupied the Hijas and amongst their deacendf'; 
ants was the tribe of Koresh. From the iaapi ~ 
and unity given by Mahomed the world 
them issue from their naked deserts. At 
times impetuous, their energies were thea ooi 
centrated to enforce belief at the point of 
sword, and the prophecies of Daniel ch. vii 
24 and 26, were fulfilli'd, and within twenf 
years they mastered Syria, Palestine, ^S7] 
and Persia, the conquest of Persia being 
ly a prelude to further extension in the eai 
Abu Bakr was Khalif from A. D. 632 to 6lr< 
Umar from A. D. 6^4-643 (A. H. 13-23)^ 
Under the khalifat of Umar A. H. 15 or 1^ 
but without his knowledge a military ex.pedi^ 
tion set out from Oman (Umant) to pillage iliai 
ooasts of India. It appears to have proceedei^ 
f as far as Tana in Bombay. Bat Umar exprea^ 




ed great displeasure. About the same time, 
Hakam, brother of Uaman, sent an expediiioa 
■nainat Baroach and against Debal^ under his 
broiber wko failed disastrously. Umar disliked 
sad forbad naTal expeditions, a prohibition 
wkich was only relaxed in the time of Moawiya. 
Is A. U. d2 Abdullah, son of Amar, invaded 
Kerman and took Kuwaahiri the Cspital. 
Mshomfid Kasim by arms and poliey conquered 
the entire yalley of the Indus, he handed his 
eoaqaests to Tefnim» who governed for 36 years 
till the downfall of the Ummiade Khaiifs, on 
which erent the Arabs were expelled by the 
Suva race in A. D. 750 and all the Arab 
eoiqiieats in India were restored to the Hin- 
dus. Sind, from Bhakkar to the aea, was 
ruled by the Sumra Rajputs till the end of the 
Itth Century. At an early date after the Hejira 
they established a factory at Canton, and their 
Bomhers were so great by the middle of the 
fkk Century that in 758» they attacked and 
j^laged and fired the city and fled to their ships. 
Tley and their descendanta from mixed blood 
08B«|iy a very prominent position in the wes- 
Un paLfts of PeiiinsuUr India and numbers of 
them are apread throughout the Eastern Archi- 
peAago : but in their own country, the towns 
OB the sea coast have a Urge admixture of 
other Asiatic races, and as Arsb bedouin life is 
crer changeable, quarrels and wars have great- 
ly modified the tribes, dispersed some, and 
sjaslganated others, so that at the present da^ 
the Uos«-ina and Suleim alone maintain their 
mdindttality from the time of Mahomed. — 
JSliofs Imdm, See Arabia. Islam. Mahomed. 

ABABA, WAD I, a deep valley running be- 
twixt dM top of the gulph of Akaba, and the 
Bead Sea, 105 milea in length, and about 10 
m widths mmaiit level above the sea 495 feet. 
JTOioa'a Zm^s of the £ibU, Vol. i . lond. 

ARAB 1X)W. See Boat. 

ABABIA, This Peainiula, with the Indian 

mtm OB iCa South, the Persian Golf on its 

Inlaad the Bed Sea on its West, has numer- 

aasievtfle Yalleys amidst mountains^ and great 

leaert tracts* The ancient Greek and 

geographers divided Ambia into A. 

A* Fetrasa and A» deserts. The first 

corresponds to the modern Yemen, but 

ling Midira and Hadramaut : the second, 

n Hejas : — the third i^stending N. 

A. Felix as far as the Euphrates. 

OTicutal authors have included the. whole 

under Yemen and H«jaa toothers 

fTcnen^ Hejas, Nejd, the Tehama and 

Hadranviut, Maha^» Shehr and Oman 

atao been reckoned independent provinces 

while othei^ include them in the tvo 

diviflUOTa, Yenieii and Hej«», " The pre- 

^laHamj accoidmg -to their own bisto- 

ate apiuttg jCroin two stocks :, Kahtan, 


the same with Joktan or Yoktan, the soii of 
Eber, and Ad nan descended in a direct line 
from Ishmael, the son of Abraham and Hagar." 
— (Sale's Koran, Preliminory Discourse, p, ii.) 
But Yoktan, according to Ch. Bunsen, whs one 
of the two sons of Nimrod and was the chief 
of the first Arabian emigration thnt proceeded 
Southwards. Tradition, he says, points to the 
mountains of Armenia as the birth place of the 
Arab and Canaanitish races. It is supposed 
that ihey travelled along the banks of the 
Tigris into Mesopotamia, from which a portion 
of them commenced a great migration South- 
wards, the result of which was the foundation 
of the primeval kingdoms of Southern Arabia^ 
the kingdoms of the Adites in Yemen, who 
believe that they came from the sacred North, 
and once lived in a glorious garden of the 
earth vihich they are to restore. In the matter 
of their present location. Dr. Latham, in his 
Ethnology, mentions that Hejas, is peopled by 
the descendants of Ishmael, but the inhabitants 
of Mekkah and Jed da, consist of pilgrims and 
their descendants of African, Persian, and 
Turk-blood* In Southern Arabia, Yemen, Ha- 
drainaut and Oman, the people are more or 
less Himyarite in blood, history and civiliza- 
tion. Those of the towns of Mokah, Sanai 
Rodda and Loheia, are the more civilized and 
the desert and hill Arabs are rude and ignorant, 
one of them so rude in speech as to be named 
the Ben-i-Kalb, children of dogs— and the 
Berekede a branch of the A sir are said to 
prostitute their wives like the Jakuri Hazara. 
At Hasek is the tomb of the prophet Hud, the 
fourth in descent from Shera* At the entrance 
of the Persian Gulf, the pirate coast begins 
and extends 300 mUcs northwards. The south- 
em tribes of the Peninsula of Senai, are more 
or less fishermen. The early Arab religion was 
Sabseanism, a worship of the heavenly bodies, 
mixed with idolatry, but with Mahomed com* 
menced the Arab conquests, their creed, science* 
and literature. At present, the Arabic alpha- 
bet is in use amongst the Turks, Persians^ 
Malays, some of the people of India and 
Africa^ It was however of S>rian origin. 
The Arab family is mabomedan, except the 
christian Arabs of Malta. The Arabs of the 
south aie descendants of Kahtan the Yoktan of 
the Bible, and those of the North, of Adnan of 
the blood of Ishmael. Nejd or Central Arabia, 
is Svrian and arranged into diviaiops called 
" Suk8.''—{Lai7iam's Etiuiologp,'*) The people 
occupying that Peninsula, are however regard- 
ed by Captain Burton as of three distinct 
races : viz., the aborigines of the country, 
who have been driven, like the Bheels and 
other autochthonic Indians, into the easiern 
and south-eastern wilds bordering upon the 
ocean : second, a Syrian or Mesopotamian 
stock, typifit'd by Shem and Joklan, that drove 




the tndigenad frftm the eboioeat tracts of coun- 
try ; these invaders still enjoy their conquests, 
representing the great Arabian people. And 
thirdly, an impure Egypto Arab oian-well 
personified by lahmael, his son Nebajoth and 
Edom (Esau, the son of Isaac) — that populat- 
ed and still populates the Sinaitic Peninsula, 
(Bvr(ofi*8 Pilgrimage to Mecca^ 41-45.) 

The indigens or autochthones, he s^iys, are 
those sub-Caucasian tribes which may still 
be met with in the province of Mah- 
rah, and generally along the coast between 
Muscat and Hadramaut. The Mahrah, the 
Jenahnh, and the Gara especially show a low 
developement, for which hardship and priva- 
tion only will not satisfactorily account. These 
are " Arab el Aribah," for whose inferiority 
oriental fable accounts as usual by thaumatur- 
gy. Dr. Carter has remarked the similarity 
between the lowest type of Bedouin and the 
indigens of India, as represented by the Bheels 
and other Jungle races. — {Burfon*8 Pilgrimage 
to Mecca, Vol. Hi. p. 29.) The principal im- 
migrant race, he says, are the Noachians, a 
great Chaldsean or Mesopotamian clan which 
entered Arabii^ about B. C. 2,200, and by slow 
and gradual encroachments drove before them 
the ancient race and seized the happier lands 
of the Peninsula. This race would correspond 
with th6 Arab el Muta-Arrabah or Arabic- 
ised Arabs of the eastern historians. The 
third family, an ancient and a noble stock, 
dating from B. C. 1,900, and typified in his- 
tory by Ishmsel, still occupies the Sinai- 
tic Peninsula. These Arabs, however; do not, 
and never did, extend beyond the limits of the 
mountains, where they are still dwelling in the 
presence of their brethren. Captain Burton, 
(iii. 31) considers it his^hly probable that the 
Copts, or ancient Egyptians, were " half-caste 
Arabs ;" a mixed people like the Abyssinians, 
the Gallas, the Somali, and the Kafirs, an 
■Arab graft upon an African stock. Hence 
the old Nilitic race has been represented as 
woolly-headed and of negro fesLinre.^Burion^s 
Pilgrimage to Meecah^ VoUiii.p 31. 

The people of Arabia have been alternately 
aggressive conquerors and conquered, and 
Sharpe in his history of Egypt is of opinion 
that the troglodytic Arabs held a strip 
of country of about four hundred miles 
in length on the African coast of the Red 
Sea, separated from Ethiopia by mountains 
and deserts. They were a wandering unsettled 
race of people, described by their neighbours 
as savages, {DiodSie. lib, iii. 33,) whose wars 
arose for right of pasture rather than for am- 
bition or property. They fought with slings 
and darts, and out ran horses in their speed ; 
they lived in caves, and killed the aged, the 
lame and the sick. Other tribes, however, more 
civilised {Fling, lib, xii, 4*2) afterwards traded 

with the Sabaeans of the opposite coast and 
supplied the Egyptians with the myrrh, bal- 
sam, olives, topaz and metals which their 
country or their trade produced. Like their 
neighbours the Egyptians, the Troglodyise 
worshipped images and animals, particularly 
the turtles peenliar to their shores, while the 
more civilised tribes were worshippers of one 
God. During the earlier centuries, all these 
Arabs were easily conquered by the EjzyptiNns ; 
but some of them iuhabited Ethiopia, onder a 
settled form of government, and then conquer- 
ing Nubia and harrassing the Thebatd.— 
[Sharpest History (^ Egypt, Vol. %,p, 104-105.) 
In the time of Abraham there occurred a 
contest between five chiefs of South Canaair 
and Arabia Petrma and four princes of South* 
em Babylonia, but these five Canaanitish chiefs 
'Were merely a portion of peoples in revolt front 
Elam, to which, also, Arabia Petrtea, Petrs 
(Gen. xiv. 16-7) and the adjacent cities was 
subject. There seems no doubt that at another 
period the Pharoahs had Egyptian colonies 
in Arabia, for many centuries, Nubia and the 
Peninsula of Arabia were the hereditary domi- 
nions of the Pharoahs. It would thus seem 
that they have been alternately aggressive and 
conquered. An Arab dytmsty in Babylon 
seems to have lasted about 215 years, and to 
have been intermediate between the dynasties 
of the Chaldees and of the Assyrians and 
Ninyads, The Hyksos or Shepherd kings 
who ruled in Eirypt, are described by Manetho 
as united Arabian tribes and Palestinian tribes, 
and they appear to have reigned from B. C. 
2554 to about B. C. 1635. The kingdnm of 
YemCD, says Gibbon, has been successively sab- 
dued by the Abyssinians, the Persians, the Sal- 
tans of Egypt, and the Turks ; the holy cities of 
Mecca and Medina have repeatedly bowed 
under a Scythian tyrant ; and the Ro« 
man provinces of Arabia embraced the peculiar 
wilderness in which Ishmael and his sons nmst 
have pitched their lent in the faces of tbotr 
brethren. Yet these ezoeptions were tempora- 
ry or local ; the body of the people have escap- 
ed the yoke of the most powerful monarchies ; 
the arms of Sesostris and Cyrus, of Pompey 
and Trajan, could never achieve the conquest 
of Arabia ; the present sovereign of the Turks 
may exercise a shadow of juKsdicAion, but hit 
pride is reduced to solicit the friendship of a 
people, whom it is dangerous to provoke, an^ 
fruitless to attack. {0Abon*B Nonian Empire^ 
Vol. ix.p. 2291.) To Europe however, the 
races of Arabia seem to have been but little 
known beyond its boundary. They are snp^ 
posed to be the Hagarenes alluded to ia 
Scripture, the descendants of Ishmael, alsfl 
known as Ishmaelites orSarraoenes— the Arra^ 
ceni of Pliny, but the Ishmaelites never pene 
tratod beyond the northern ^arts of the Petiiii* 




sob* It was not antil after the Hijra of Ma- 
homerf, that the races in Arabia poured forth 
ihnr warriors. They began their later con- 
quests in A. D 622 and spreading into E}<ypl 
aad Sttsiana and Persia. In 706 the Arab con- 
qoerora lirat crossed the Oxus, under the cora- 
naad of Katiba, who introdaoed hiamism into 
the eoantriea of Bokhara, Samaroand, and 
FcTfrliana. {Markkam*» Bmdtus^^p, xti*)and 
thoii{(h their empire was so early broken up 
aad divided aa A. D. ^fSB, their arms and the 
arms of those who embraced mahoroedanism, 
have penetrated to China in the Bast and to 
Tftrtary, Pranoe and Morocco on the North 
aad West. The peoples who adopt this 
faiih have their natures changed and become 
m Tarioaa degrees fanatics, for the rcfolution 
eiused by Mahomed and his new faith was 
great. Many of the people of Arabia still conti- 
nae to praeiiae ancient rites, and Captain Bur- 
ton nMntiona that in most pliicet, even in 
the heart of Meccaht he met with debris of 
heathenry, preseribed by Mahomed, yet still 
popular,— (^KTtoa'tf Pilgrimage to Mexah, Vol 
i.p, 6.) Colonel Felly, in writing of the Arabs 
of the Chaab tribes, says that it is necessary, 
when eosaiclering the Arabs, to distinguish 
between a aeriea of grades towards civilization, 
IB which they may, at present, be found. The 
Bedouin, ia wandering?, pastoral, tent-loving, 
disdaining to trade, yet avaricious, and willing 
to sell bia ghee, bis mutton, or his horse, and 
alwaya found in wide and open wastes, unpres- 
aed upon by adequate exterior power. Yet, 
even the Bedouin bends to circumstances. He 
aoeepta the region allotted for his pasture 
gromnila. Plunder has its laws; and ven- 
geanee its chivalry. If he will not trade, he 
still haa wants ; and suffers the presence of a 
Jew or Saleebah as the Alfghan suffers that 
oflhehittdoo. A little higher in the scnle, 
aa with the Chaabs, is the original wandering 
jMSloral Arab, in a district where he is press- 
ed npoa from without, and where boundless 
pfamdcr and roaming are restrained by exterior 
Jbree. The Arab there partly turns to agri- 
ealtiire, and for this he must in some degree 
aelUe. Society harmonizes to this level. Trade 
k poaaible. Corn is sold. Abbas are woven 
nd exported. Dates are planted. The appe- 
tite for trade growa by what it feeds on. Hats 
of raeds replace tents ; and one sees in their 
fedrfe cflForts at reed ornamentation, and in 
their rough twisting of thick reed rope for 
their bnnda, the possible germ of some archi- 
teetaral efforta. Yet higher in the scale 
the Arab is flonrithing as an experienced and 
wealthy merchant in a town, or administering 
nwdl^crdered and comfortable rural district. 
ViManig ansong theae people, society is seen in 
ite tnmailional slate towards civilization." The 
Sakhr are a tribe of free Arabs. Ac- 

cording to Burekhardt, they rove in the plaina 
from the fourth to the fifth station of the 
Hadj, and thence westward towards the moun- 
tains of Belkaa. They were employed by the 
Pasha of DHmasous for the defence of the 
caravan against the other tribes. They live by the 
breeding of camels, for the use of the pilgrim 
caravan, of which they have a very oon- 
siderable number. Though smaller than the 
JnaJolian, Turkman, or Kurdy camels, they 
are better able to bear heat and thirst than 
the latter, are chiefly of a light or reddish 
gray colour, with very little wool about 
their necks. {Robinion's Travels, VoL it. p, 
169 and p. 183.) The Aenezi^ according 
to Burchhardt, are the moat powerful Arab 
nation in the vicinity of Syria, and if we 
add to them their brethren in Nedjd, they 
may be reckoned one of the most considerable 
bodies of Bedouins in the Arabian deserts. 
They are nomadea, in the strictest acceptation 
of the word, for they continue during the whole 
year in almost constant motion. In spring, 
they approach the fountains of Syria, and form 
a line of encampment extending from near 
Aleppo to eight da}s' journey to the south of 
Damascus* Their principal residence, however, 
during that time is the Haouran, and its 
neighbourhood, when they encamp near and 
among the villages, while in the more northern 
conntry, towards Horns and Hamah, they 
mostly keep at a certain distance from the in- 
habited grounds. In these parts, they spend 
the whole summer seeking pasture and water, 
purchase in autumn, their winter provbion of 
wheat and barley, and return after the first 
rains into the interior of the desert They are 
the only true Bedouin nation of Syria, the 
other tribes in the neighbourhood of this coun- 
try having more or less degenerated in man- 
ners, and several being reduced to subjection ; 
while the fre<'-born Aenezi is still governed by 
the same laws that spread over the desert at 
the beKinning of the mahommedan era. — (ito- 
binwn's Travels, VoL ii. p> 288.) The greatest 
part of the western Arabia shore is in the pos- 
session of the Joasmi Arabs, a licentious band 
of pirates, who until recently continued to ob- 
struct by their depredations the commerce of 
the Persian Gulf* fbeir principal rendezvoua 
was RaB-uUKhyma, a town about seven miles 
Soutb-West of R'ums, The Arabs of the sea- 
coast are doubtless becoming more alive to the 
power of the many European nations whose 
vessels now traverse their seas, but they are in 
their nature, the same as their brethren of the 
inland plains. The ooesn is their desert, and 
they fancy they have a similar privilege over it, 
unlike the tribes of the desert, however, they 
add cruelty to their love of plunder.— S^wntfr'* 
Overland Journey, VoL u. j>. 288. 
The Beui Khaled, in Niebuhr's time, were one 




of the mosi powerful tribes of Arabia : they 
conquered the cuuntry of Lachsa and advanced 
to the sea. 

The Kiab tribe of Susisfan in Persia rarely 
encamp, but ii| Susistan near the principality 
of Havisa were five different considerable tribes 
of the independent Bedouins Beni Lara were 
a great tribe between Korne and Baghdad, on 
the banks of the Tignris. The Montesidsi or 
Monfik tribe, north of the desert, occupied all 
the country from Korue to Ardje, on both 
sides of the Euphrates, and they migrate to 
summer and winter quarters. 

Beni Hakim, a tribe eastward from the Eu- 
phrateSy are given to husbandry. 

The Khas-aal, are a powerful tribe of hus- 
bandmen on the east of the Euphrates. 

In Oman, are the Beni Hasan, Beni Abu- 
All, Beni Geneba, bedouins, also ihe Beni 
Gafari ; the yemani and El-Arabi ; the moat 
powerful and illustrious of the tribes of Oman. 
Kobinson, writing of those on the north, says 
that the dress of the women is a wide cotton 
gown of a dark colour — blue, brown or black, 
fastened by a leathern girdle. Qver their 
heads they wear a kerchief^ called skauher or 
tnekroune, the young females having it of a 
red colour^ the old, black All the women 
puncture their lips and dye them blue ; this 
kind of tattooing they call bealoum. Round 
their wrists they wear glass bracelets of various 
colours ; and silver rings both in the ears and 
nose. Both in summer and winter they go bare- 
footed. The Bedouin men and women are very 
tawny ; their chil.lren? however, at their birth 
and for some time afterwards, are fair, but of a 
livid whiteness. {RoLinnon'a Travel* 8, Vol, iL p. 
184 J Lieutenant fFellattd, writing in Oman 
mentions that in their persons the females are tall 
and well made, with a roundness and fulness 
of figure, noty however, appraaching to corpu- 
lency. Their complexion is not darker than 
that of a Spanish brunette, and we may infer 
that this is their natural colour, since, except- 
ing in the morning and evening, those who 
reside in the oases rarely leave their date 
groves, and in the towns tiiey preserve their 
complexions with the same care. On the other 
hand, the Bedouin women, who are constantly 
exposed to the rays of the sun, arc very swar- 
thy ; and the same is observed of the men, 
although the children are equally fair at their 
hirth.—miUted'8 Ttaveh, Vol, i. p. 353. 

Therie is, indeisd, but little doubt that the 
mohammedan ladies in Oman enjoy more 
liberty, and at the same time are more respect- 
ed, than in any other eastern country. During 
civil commotions, Ithey often take a part in 
public affairs, and in some instances have dis- 
placed the utmost heroism. 

Amidst the.most striking features in the con- 
dition of this interesting and singular race 

stands their Sheikh government, which, in its 
constitution and operative effects, is a politi- 
cal phenomenon in the history of nations. — 
Wellsted's Travels, Vol. u p. 854. 

Burton tells us that Sherifs and other great 
men sometimes bind a white turban or a Cash- 
mere shawl round the kerchief, to keep it in its 
place. The Aakal varies in every part of the 
country. Here it is a twist of dyed wool, 
there a bit of common rope, three or four feet 
long. Soma of the Arab tribes use a circlet 
of wood, composed of little round pieces, the 
size of a shilling, joined side by side, and in- 
laid with mother-of-pearl. The Eastern Arabs 
wear a large circle of brown wool, almost a 
turban in itself. In Barbary, they twist 
bright-coloured cloth round a rope, and 
adorn it with thick golden thread. As 
a rule, the Sheikhs and their subjects, are 
born to the life of shepherds or soldiers. 
The greater tribes rear many camels, which 
they either sell to their neighbours, or employ 
them in the carriage of goods, or in military 
expeditions. The petty tribes keep flocks ojf 

It is the difference in their modes of life 
that constitutes the great distinction between 
the different tribes. The genuine Arabs dis- 
dain husbandry, as an employment by which 
they would be degraded. They maintain no 
domestic animals but sheep and camels, except 
perhaps horses. Those tribes which are of a 
pure Arab race live on the flesh of their buffa- 
loes, cows, and horses, and on the produce of 
some little ploughing. The former tribes, dis* 
tingnished as noble by their possession of 
camels, are denominated Aleu-el-AleasBr ; and 
the second Moeedan. The latter are esteemed 
a middle class, between genuine Arabs and 
peasants. Niebuhr heard some tribes men- 
tioned contemptuously, because they kept buf- 
faloes and cows. The Moeedan transport their 
dwellings from one country to another, accord- 
ing as pasturau^e fails them, so that a village 
often arises suddenly in a situation where, on 
the day before, not a hut was to be seen. — 
Niehuhr^a Travels, Vol. iu p, l59-i60. 

In all parts of the South of Europe, Wes- 
tern Africa, Western and Southern Asia, are 
descendants of the Arab conquerors. Their 
first, emigration from Arabia is supposed to 
have taken place about 700 years before the 
time of Solomon, and the Abyssiniaus appear to 
be of Arab descent, 'i hey v^ere converted to 
Christianity in the fourth century of. the 
christian era, and in the sixtn they re crossed 
over to Arabia, to avenge the persecution of, 
christians by a Jewish ruler, couc^uered Yemea, 
and marched to the gates of Mecca, where they 
were overthrowa two years before Mahomed 
was born, Such partial immigration^ oud con- 
quests havci left tribal bodies from oUier race^ ia 



Ike land. Amongst these may be named the Sa- 
lihafa (Salib, Ar. cross). Lieut. CoL Peily saw 
some men of this tribe at Koweit and else- 
wiiers. They norship the cross (Saleb) and 
perform many ceremonies, more nearly nllied 
to the corruptions of Asian Christianity than 
to Islamism« Men and women dance round 
a sort of maypole* They wear a carter's 
snoek, coming down to the feet, and which, 
like a boy's pinafore, ties behind. They possess 
a beautiful breed of donkies, whioh they ride, 
without girths, upon a saddle made like a cot- 
tage wooden chair bottom. They squat on 
this seat, and twist their legs over a pummel 
peak, crossing them over the douk«'y's neck. 
They seem to prise their saddles, as an Arab 
does his mare; and would not sell them* 
They seemed a merry quick witted, disreput* 
able lot, with retrouse noses, and Irish features. 
They stood, with eyes twinkling (legs and 
hands always ou the fidget) and pelted him 
with the peelings of their fun. He tells us, 
also that this strange people live on the fl(sh 
of tbe gazelle, which they shoot, and dress 
ihemselres in its skin. They wander about 
anoagst, and are friends with, all the Arab 
tribes, and yet remain entirely distinct. What 
their religion is, 'he cannot tell. They adopt 
some of the forms of the Mahomedan faith, 
bat at feasts and marriages they raise the cross 
ss a sigB of rejoicing. They are the best 
Ksides for the desert, knowing where water is 
to be found, anti the position of the various 
tribes. Those of them he saw seemed much 
BMne intelHgent than the Arabs, and they 
have Boie of a European than an Asiatic cast 
of coaittenance. They come mounted on large 
while donkeys^ hearing much the same things as 
the Bedouins for sale. The saddle is peculiar. 
There is first a pad in front and behind an 
upright piece of wood. To those two pieces 
of wood hollowed out are attached side by side 
to as to form a hollow sent. They sit in this 
hollow seat, cross their legs like tailors with an 
aaterior upright between their thighs, and 
tlieir feet on either side of the donkey's ueck. 
They use no bridle. 

The cities are none of them large. Accord- 
ing to Captain Burton, the population of 
ElMedinah is from 16,000 to 18,000, and 
the IHzam troops in garrison 400. Mecca 
eoBtaioB about 4S,000 inhabitants, Yanibu 
from 6,t)00 to 7,000, Jeddab about 2,500, and 
Taif 8.O00. 

Koweit is a compact town of about 1 5,000 
bhfthitsints, built on a promontory of loose 
fSMd-stone covered with sand, and to illustrate 
the oommerciai habits and treatment of the 
bedouins, it may be mentioned that vessels of 
SO or €0 tons b«Eir the produce of cjuntries at 
the northern end of the Persian Qulf from 
Bix«Sy DiUuOy Ghonawnh, Bunder Eeegh, aud 


the smaller seaport towns round to Koweit, for 
trans-shipment to bugalows, for conveyance to 
Bombay. In the same way goods from India 
are brought here in large bugalows and distri* 
buted amongst smaller ones for conveyance to 
the smaller ports. 

Teak is imported and used for ship buildingj^ 
and a large number of horses, the best export- 
ed from Arabia, are sent from there to Bombay. 
The inhabitants of th% desert are allowed to 
enter Koweit, on depositiug their arms at the 
gate ; and it has been the custom from the 
time of the present Sheik's grandfather to feed, 
not only all who enter, but the poor of the 
place besides. 

The Bedouins assemble daily in a place outside 
the gate, and with them there is a good sprink- 
ling of the Slubba. The Arabs come, gene- 
rally, mounted on camels, bringing ghee and 
truffles with donkeys bearing brushwood and 
camel's dung. Sometimes when hard up, the 
Arab will bring in his horse for sale, but good 
ones are seldom got in that way. The expe- 
dient of constructing reservoirs in which to 
store rain- water has prevailed in Arabia from a 
very early date. These are generally found 
in localities devoid of springs, and depend- 
ent on the winter rains for a supply of 
water during the summer months. The most 
remarkable instance on record is the great dam 
of Kareb, built about 1,700 >ears before the 
Christian era : this doubtless suggested similar 
reservoirs in other parts of Arabia, and the 
neighbouring coasts of Africa, which have usu- 
ally been subject to it- All the travellers who 
hctve penetrated Yemen describe many such in 
the mountainous districts, and others exist in 
the islands of Saad-ed-din, near Znilah, in 
Kutto, in the Bay of Amphila, and in Dhalak, 
near Massowah. 

It was this which made Yemen, many centu- 
ries before the time of Moses, for a long period 
the paradise of Arabia,' and which laid the 
foundation of that mighty and civilized empire, 
which like the glory of the Yayoom, disappear- 
ed from off the face of the earth when the 
dams were broken through. The Pharoahs 
had established Egyptian colonies in the coun- 
try, for many centuries but the reports of 
travellers, during the past 70 years establish 
the fact that a few thousand years of neglect 
and devastation have brought the country into 
its present state of desolntion. Thei^ is no 
want of either brooks or springs or cultivable 
soil, but the former are wasted in -morasses or 
lost in the sand, and the soil is washed away 
by the violence of the torrents. Southern 
Oman is but thinly peopled, for the whol^ 
number, including women and children, does 
not exceed fifty thousand ; but the northern 
districts are far more populous — JFelU(ed*» 
Travels, Vol. t, p. 383, 




The Bedouins, who occupy the Great Wes- 
tern desert of Omau have neither houses nor 
tents, but live under the shade of trees. — 
JTellsled's Travels, Ful. i. p, 865. 

Of precious stones, Arabia has the topaz, 
the ou)X, and a stone which seems to be 
cornelian, and is called Temani or akik. The 
asate is found near Mocha^ emeralds in the 
Hijaz, beryls and Cornelians near San V 
and Aden; malachite in the cavern of Beni 
Salem ; also JHSper, amethysts, and turquoises, 
in the environs of the village of Bnfwa about 
three days journey from Medina. Diamonds, 
the sardonyx, and the topaz, were obtain- 
ed from this country in former times. Of 
metals, silver^ iron, lead, and copper, are met 
with in different parts of Arabia, and the last, 
recently in Oman. Gold is mentioned by ihe 
ancient writers, and in all probability it will 
be found when the country is better explored, 
but it is not known to exist in Arabia at pre- 
sent. Bitumen is obtained in Arabia Petrsea, 
and in Arabia deserta, li^^nite coal. 

(Niehbuhr, Beschreibung des von Arabien, 
p. H2. . 

Niehbuhr, vol. i. p. 336. 


PlinV, XXXVII., XV. Ibid, VI. Chap. 

Niehbuhr, p. 142. 

Lieut. Welleted, Vol. i. p. p. Hf, 113.) 

It is understood that a gray coal is found 
a little way inwards from the river, in the line 
between Deir and Damascus. Colonel Chesney 
did not, however, actually find it ; but a letter 
was received on the subject from Ibrahim 
Pasha, and the Arabs described it particularly. 

(Euphrntes and Tigris, Col. Chesney, Vol. i. 
p. 667>) Stones of a kind, are laid on fires 
made of Cnmels dung, to increase the heat. 

Another particular kind of stone, called tafal 
by the Arabs, is found near Mount Sinai ; it is 
brittle, with the appearance of pipe clay, and 
it serves the pdor instead of soap, it is also 
useful in taking stains out of cloth, and in 
refreshing the skins of asses, being rubbcil over 
them for this purpose in summer time. — Burck* 
hardi's TravtU, in Syria, p. 894, 488. 

{Euphrates and Tigris, Colonel Chesney^ Vol, 
f. p. 2i68.) The Arabs are not so scrupu- 
lous as the Turks and Persians about their 
women ; and though they have the harem, or 
women's part of the tent, yet such as they are 
acquainted with come into it. — Mignan*s Tro" 
reU, ;?. 16. 

The dances of the Arabs^ the Debki, as it is 
called, resembles in some respects that of the 
Albanians, and such as perform in it are 
scarcely less vehement in their gestures, or 
less extravagant in their excjtfment, than 
those wild mountaineers. They form a circle, 

holding one anoiher by the hand, and moving 
slowly round at first, go through a shuffliog 
step with their feet, twisting their bodies iulo 
various altitudes. As the music quickens, their 
movements are more active ; they stamp with 
their feet, yell their war-cry, and jump as they 
hurry round the musicians. The motions of 
the women are not without grace ; but aa they 
insist on wrapping themselves in their ooane 
cloaks before they join in the dance, their 
forms, which the simple Arab . shirt so well 
displays, are entirely concealed. Laiyard Nime^ 
veh, p. 119, 120. Baron de B§des Travela in 
Lurisian,and ArahUtan, II, 198. &JcUmer*a 
Overland Journey, iu 283. BurtonU PUgrinsage 
to Meocak. Sharpes Hist, of EgypL Kennedy om 
the Origin of Languages. MarkikamU Mmhauy, 
p xii. Mignans Travels, p. 66, 67. Blnir^n 
Chronology TabUs, 33, 39. Calmet*s Diction^ 
ary, LietUenant Cblonel Felly's Memoir. So- 
binson's TraveU, u. 183, 238. Layard*9 Sine- 
vek, p. 1 1 9, 1 20. Niebukr's Travels, Vol. u 
283, iL 168, 177. WelUied^s TraveU, Vol. t. p. 
345, 388 .Col. Chesney's Euphrates and I'iffrh, 
Vol. t. 868. Bunsen's Egypt, Vol ii^ 215, 285, 
lit. 328-9, 350, 362, 569, 431. 440» m- 
413, 639. Play fair's Yemen. Sale's Korem. 
For further notices of Arabia, its history, peo* 
pie, and products. See Hindu or Indie, in- 
scriptions, p. 37. Joktan. Iran* Koei or 
Chara. Katch, Kutch or Catch. Kasi. Knt-^ 
tyawar. Kelat, p. 488. Eenisaat*ul-kiaiiiat. 
Kishm Island. Kopyunjik. Kurdistan. Laid* 
rone Islands. Lur Mesopotamia. Now-ros- 
Pearls. Perim. Saogor Island. Neibnhr. Rein. 
Rawlinson. Saba. Serpent. Squinanthum. 8a. 
mali. Valentia. Viswamitra. Wahabi. Kelat. 
p. 494. Semitic races. India, p. 835. In- 
dia. Inscriptions, p. 37 i. Iran. Jewa-Knt* 
tiyawar. Khiraj. Mahomed. Archipelago. 

ABABIAN GULF, is a term often applied 
to the Red Sea. — See Kulzum : Musiris. 

ARABIAN HOESES, are latterly but little 
seen in India. The demands of India have be- 
come greater, and a larger horse with grrater 
power has been more needed, to meet the wants 
of Government for its heavier ordnance and the 
requirements of the community for the convey* 
anccs which are now so commonly in use, hj 
all EuropeHus and the wealthier nativea : Also, 
the prices demanded for the'^rab horse ere 
beyond the means of the people, aud it never 
was in great request except as a riding horse. 

ARABIAN SEA, that part of the Indo- 
Afric ocean on the south of Arabia, Arabia K 
Sea, including Bed Sea, and Persian Gulf. 
has 6,000 miles of Sea Cosst. The evaporation 
averages } of an inch only or about 39 eubio 
inches of water annually raised. — Mamrf^ 

ARABIC LANGUAGE, as written io the 
koran, is the most developed and richest of 




tU WBmitie tMigoes. R is not ndw t}>akeii in 
M| part of Arabiii, m tbore writieB. Froba* 
bijf it never waa aQf-aaj more than tbe Latib, 
tko Baglishy the German or Italian iiare erer 
bam spoken as mitfla in tiieir ttspeod^e 
bsaads, and Buiion qnotes Otcdius, in his 
^ Afabie Grammar i as myiag that the dialaetos 
JUsham Tulgwis tantum dififert ab emditi, 
qpaalttai tocrates dictie ab hodiemA hnguA 
Gmca." Bnt it mnat he ramembered that the 
Aiahe divide their spoken and even wntteq 
lf9gaa^ into tvo ordm, tha " Kalam W«li/' 
m folfsr tongue, soroetioies employed in epis« 
toh^r eorreapoadenoi^ and the '^Nahwi," a 
pamamAioai awl ebssioal langoage. Every 
■aa of edmeation aaaa the former, and ean ose 
tkt latter. And the konn is bo more a model 
«f Arabic (aa U is often assumed than 
V hmdme Le«t" is of Bugliah. Inimitable, 
w» man imvat^ them. Bwi9H*€ Pilgrmage to 
Hmak, Vol. ULp. 330. 

Niebnhr^ alao, tells ns that the invention of 
the modem characters which are very different 
fcam the Kufic, is ascribed to a vizier. The 
Aiafaiaae, Persians and Turk?, write A rabie in 
arts of elianeters differing in several partienlars 
frem one another. They have also different 
mod<e ol writing for different forms of business^ 
tsdi ^ mlMk has its pnTtieular name. (iVte- 
faib^a TruveU, Vol: H. p. 261.) Neither the 
Anhie nor tbe Persian letters are sufficiently 
nmennta to compose the pronuneimlons of 
mimy faieign ionguea, end they are Mi anited to 
meovd proper names as ingeograpiy. Miiah 
af the vahie of Abnl Fazil's records is lost from 
tMacanec. B»iOM*0 l^ilgrimapt do Meceah, Ui, 
8Se.~NMnAr'« Travelt, ii. 261, Tbd'i Tra- 
weh, MO-1. — See iUshmir. Kirkook..Kudcat 
hslvaasU Knrdistan. Sanskrit. £oran. Se* 

ABABI MUTOHI. Dok. JffuUet Fish. 

Lat. H*" %* thA Tama range of mouAtiiina 
being the eastern boundary. 

Under British administration^ it inolucloi' 
fonr provinces and is now part of Briush. 
Burmah. AraeaM proper, in 20^ and 2r'10 
N. L, is the district of Akyab. It is csUed 
by the natives Ba khoing pyt^e, or Ba khojng 
OQontiy. Ihere are three pnncipal rivera, the 
Mayn, the Koladan and the LeUyo. The, 
inliabitants of Aracan proper ate the budhiat> 
Burmese known there aa Bakhoing^tba, the Kor* 
la mahbmedan from Bengal and the Dom also- 
from Bengal and empbyed aa pagoda alaves,^ 
in the plains; and in the hills, the Kbyoung 
tha, the Knme or Kwe-me the JDoiug-nuk, the 
Kroong. Its chief ports are Chitugpong and. 
Akyab, and it is niled by a Oommiasioner ander 
a Chief Commissioner. 

AH^CEiE, the Arnm tribe, about 100 
spfcie^ of which occur. in'S. B. jMia in the 
genera Aris-sma, AmorphophnHus ; coloeasia, 
Homalonema ; Scindapsas, Pothos. A oorua 
Piatia, Calla and Arumu Foigi 684-692. 

ABACHINOOR, a town io India in Long. 
79° 18' E. and lat. n*>38'N. 

ARACHIB Hy POGEA, Linn. W. and A . R'* 

A. Africina, Loureir. 
A. Asiatica, Loureir. 

Bui-MuDg Hurt). 



MtiDg-phalli ... „ 
KaehaDg-taoah . . • Mi* laiI 
Kacbang China.. • 
Kaahaog Japan.. 
B&chftiO^ka. .». 
Kachanff-goran g. 
Ver Kadale 
Vella Kadald ^. 
! y«ra Senagtllu.. 





ABABIN, tlie soloble parte of gnm tra- 
and gum Senegal. See Oume avd 

ARABIS, of the ancients, the modem Furali, 
a fivn* in Las the modem Bela the ancient 
Alma-beL MUioiL 

ABABIS, CHiNavats, cress, several species 
ise grown aa floweting plants. ItiddeU, V<ngt, 
•7. See'Hnleem. 

AR4S1SCHE GUICUI. Osa. Gnm Ambic. 

ABAB^SHAR, author of a life of Timor. 
He fived ai San^ocand in A. D. 1422. 

A9A.C. . Fb. Aracn. It. Port. Ajrrack. . 
*' JkKACA. Maleai.. c9r^sse) Betel-Kut. 

ABACA N, as defined by the Britiah^ inplud- 
'cd aD the highland and lowland territory, which 
from (be head of the Naf fstuary in 
9\^ 10 K. down to Cape Negrais in 

Mung-pbalU ... Bskq. 
Atke*kule ... ... „ 

MyiB-bai Bitbm. 

IfaDtUa Gram ... Ene. 
Ameri^MUi Earth-* 


Eai-tfa-nvit .., .. „ 
Man!ll»-nut ... „ 
Pea-out ... »| 

ValaUU-mung ..- Due 
Bui Sing u 

The Araehis genus of plants belong to the 

This species^ indigteoous to South America, 
is extensively cultivated in the Peninsula of 
India for the sske of the oil yielded by its 
seeds.. It is found in abundance in the bazara 
of the Tenasserim Proviaces, where it is conr 
sniped in large qiantitiee by the natives, and 
with the exeeption of the c^coa-palm, it ia, ol 
all th^ oil-yielding plants, the most extensively 
ott^tivated in the HaUy Arcbipirlago. It is 
aaid that th^jre are two varieties of this |>laat 
grown in Malacca, also in Java, oo^ with white, 
the other with brown seeds. It n there known 
at the Katjang oil. The Arachif hypogea is 
partirularly remarkable from tbe manner i^ 
which its fruit is produced. The young fruit, 
instead of being placed at the bottom of the 
calyx, as in other kinds of pulse, is found 9t 
the bottom and in the inside of a long slender 
tube, which looks like a flower stalk. When 
the flower has withered and the young trait is 
fertillsf d, nothing but the bottom of this tube 





With iU contents lemaitiB.' At tbis period a 
email point projecls from the sininiit of the 
youn|^ fruit, and f£radaallj eloAgaie», eurriDg 
downwards towards <the earth. At the same 
time the stalk of the fruit lengthens, until the 
point strikes the earth, into whidi the now 
half grown fruit is speedily forced, and where 
it finally ripens in what would seem a most 
mmatural position. When matnre, it is a 
pale-yeliow wrinkled oblong pod, often con- 
tracted in the middle, and containing two or 
three seeds the sise of a basel-nnt. The fruit 
is generally toasted before it is eaten, is ex* 
tremely palatable and is considered a valuable 
article of food in Africa and the tropical parts of 
Asia and Amertcai and sold in the sireets and 
bazars of every town in India. In flavour the 
nuts are as sweet as an almond. 

The Oil. 

Vayr-cuddala-yenDsi. I Willayetimung-phulll- 

Tam. I katel ITind. 

Hanilla noona . . . Tkl. | BfaoyBiog ka-4el „ 

It is, hlowever its'oil which is the most valu- 
able in commerce, and in the neighbourhood 
of Calcutta^ it is used for pharmaceu- 
lical purposes, and especially for lamps and 
machinery. A great quantity of the oil is an- 
nually exported from the Madras territories, as 
will appear from the following account of this 
valuable product extracted from the Juries' 
Beports :— *'ln the year 1846-49, 87,000 gal- 
Jona were shipped, bat in the two following 
years the exports exceeded 100,000 gallons. 
It had however fallen to 57,207 gallons in 
185^-5$. It is said to be used for adulterat* 
ing gingely oil in North Arcot, . where it costs 
from Rs. 1-9 to 2-12 per maund. In the 
Nellore District, the seeds are procured at Rs. 
1-8 per maund, and in Taitjore about 200 acres 
are cultivated, proHucing annually 75 candies 
of oil, at Rs. 2-6 per maund. Its value in 
London, in January 1855, was £47-10 per 
ton." Siromonds has remarked upon this nseful 
product : — *• This oil is good for every purpose 
for which olive or almond oil is used. The 
vnlue of ground-nut kernels in London is 
about £61. 1 Os. per ton and of the oil £42 to 
£43 per ton. For ordinary purposes it is qnite 
equal to olive oil.- Soxb. iii. 286. Eiddell 
Manual f»f Oardenn: Voifft, 243. ffo^. Vep. 
King. 276. Crawfkrd Vie. p. 13- O'Skavgk- 
P€8sy 304. Simmondi Veg. Prod, Broadwood'a 
Bombay Prod. Aindie, 234. JIf. B, Reporia 
Cai, Ar. 1862 Mason's Tmasserim.'-See 
Ground Nuts, Manilla Nut, Moong Phallee, 
Earth Nut, Ground Nut Oil ; Oil. 

AEAGHOSIA of the classics is the country 
of the Rachos, with whom the immigrant 
Ariaiis rame in conflict, and have been turned 
to the fearful Rakshiisas, of popular hindn be* 
' lief. According to General Perrier, Arachosia 
can be dis'inctly shown, by the Greek mea- 

surements, to have been at the rtiiiis tf 
ShahrnZohaak or Clan B«bat, betwem Kilat-. 
i-Ghil-jie and Mokoar.^— Jerrur, p. 32$. 
Aeeording to Gh. Bunsen, however,to the 8oulh 
of Kabaly is Haraqaaili^ denonmiated the forta- 
nate, the Uaramwatia of the eanaifora iascrip* 
tions, the Arachosia of the ehissics. It was 
the tenth people whom the Ariaiis oonqaered. 
It was here that tha Ariaas eommaDoedto 
inter their dead, which the Zend-ei^ta striet* 
ly prohibits as being the greatest desecratiov 
of the sacred earth. — Bmusen^ iU, p, 4&4« 
485. Bd. Ferriar^s Jomm. p. 323. See AriansL 
Greeks of Asia. Kabal, p. 434, 437. Sadra. 

ARACHOTIA, meotiooad on the coins of 
the Indo-Greek rulers, was Caodahar. Sea 
Kabul p. 486, 7 and 8. ' 

ARAD, Guz. Pbaaeolus nniago. 

AUADHYA, a clasa of brahmins who pro- 
fins the Jangam creed but adhere to their casta 
views. In other sects of hindus, the hrahmia 
uniformly takes precedence of othfr castrs. 
But am<>ng the Vira Saiva^ be is degraded be- 
neath all others. Hence there is a perprtual 
feud between the Aradhya brahmin and tbs 
J&ngara who (unless at funerals wbrne all am. 
bound to assist), treat these bramins with eoa- 
tempt — Brown on lie Creed and Cnafoms €uid 
Uteraiure oj Ike Jangam^ p, 8. See Jaagans. 
See also Wilson's Glossary. 

ARADOON.DA. Tax*. Capparis horrid^ 

AUAFAT, anciently called Jabel Hal, JM 

the Mount of Wrestling in Prayer, and n<w 
Jabal ur-Bnhmat the '' Mount of Mercy," il 
a low pointed hillock, of coarse granite splH 
into large blocka, with a thin ooat of withered 
thorns, about one mile in circumference and* 
rising abruptly from the low gravelly p1ain--« 
dwarf wall at the aoathem base foimingthi 
line of demarcation— to the height t>f ISOer 
200 feet. It is about a six hour's march, or 
twelve miles, on the Taif road, due eatiof 
Meccah. Near the summit, is a whtte-wa&h<4 
mosque with a minaret^ looking like a firosll 
obelisk : below this is the whitened platforof, 
from which the preacher, mounted on ^ droK 
medary, delivers the termon. to be present at 
which is an essential part of the mabomedall 
pilgrimage to Meccah.— JJaafiV/oa't 8tn^ 
Eejaz, and Soudan^ p. 131. Burlon'e rtlgri- 
mage to Meecak^ Vol. iii. j9. 252, 257. 

ARAFURAS See Alfoeren. 

AR AGOONDA, a town in India, ia Long. 
79^ a' £. and Lat- 18° 17' N. 

ARAH, a town in India, in Long. 75^9' 
KandLat. ai°24' N, 

4^jl»>*J wJjy. Mastic. 

" ARAHAfi. Beno. Pigeon pea. Hill DhalL 
Cajanus indicus 

ARAHOOLY, a town in India, in Long. 
74° 12' E. andLat. 16° O'N, 




ABAIL. ft town in India, in Long, tl'' 60' 
B. Md Lftt. ^h"" %V N. 
ARaK. 0j^* Abab Dvk. Hind. Ka- 

ur. Rakhui. Bus. Sp« Arrack. 

AHAIC also RAK. DuT. Arrack. 

AKAKA. See Hindu or Hiodoo. 

ARA-KADU. Tam. ZU. tbe jungle on 
\h» rirer ; tlie modern Arcot. Sea Kurum- 

ARAKL An. Tbe arrack of Egypt and 
Turkey. The word means any spirit ; |ij£. 

la Kgypt asking (or a " syrup of gum," one 
abUms a " ft diam" of Ajraki. Tbe favourite 
way of drinking it, is to swallow it neat, and 
to wash it down with a nioutbf|) of ocAd wtfter. 
Takia in thin wny it acts like the " petit verre 
4'abauilke." Egyptian women delight in it^ 
and Eastftrn topen of all dasaea ood sexes 
fnkt it to brnudy nnd cognac, the smell of 
wbich. beinfc strange, is offensive to them.-^ 
tm4m'4 PilpAwm§€ io Meiseuk, vol. t. p. 196. 

ARA KOOfiA Tii;. Maisilea qnadhlblia. 
AftAJL 8O0& P AftAB. ? Liqiiortea Jnioe. 
ARAK TRKR« acoordipg to Weliated, quot* 
kg Lsoa de I4 Boiide and Forsknl, two trees are 
kaown in Arabia by thia naine^ one, in the 
Bterioc otOftian, the Snlvadora Pereica, the 
CiMos arborea of Forskal, the other shorter and 
aqaUer i^ the Aviceunia nitida. —Deliile ; Voy, 
CB ArMe de Leon la torde. WeUsletTt tra- 
nUf Vol. up. 416. 

ARAL. Th« height of ih/t plateau, Above 
the sen ol Ami, nowhere exceeds six hundred 
ieet.*-F»^«*a Apenoicd Na^ralufe, p. 486. 
ARALl. Tam. Nerium odorum. Ait, 
ARAUACfiJC, the Ivy family, a natural 
of piatits, geaerally .treea or shrubs, 
aflv«al genera ol wbieb, Panax ; Bimorphan- 
Ihfts; Aralift aad Uedeia, eocur in India. 
Tiibiin» in Sikkim, oeeupiea a very warm shd- 
^mwd Art ftnd about it many tfopioal general 
oaiftr, aoeh na tali baiaboos of two kinds, grass- 
|ftft allied to the 8ttgftr*eane» scarlet Er^ikrmt, 
vnrioua ArMaoM^ amongst which was one 
whose pith was of so ctfiriotts a struo- 
thfti Dr. Uotfker had no hesitation in 
tag tbe then unknown Chinese tub- 
oftRed rice-paper to belong to ft eloaely 
._ plftat. The Obineae riee-peper, h^ 
ig been known to be cut from cylinders of 
ith whieh has ahraya a eenttal hollow 
iber, divided info oenlpartments by septa 
laivel^ thta plates^ li was only within 

few years tlfat this above supposition 

been eonfimed, by Sir William Hooker 

iviag fr6m China, apecinene of the rios* 

plant itself, which very dosely re- 

_iblB% in botanicel characters a» well as 

ontwaid appearance of aiee and habit, -the 

" Sikkim plant. The natives of Sikkim 

eollect the leaves of many Aralias as focftler 
for cattle, for which purpose they are of the 
greatest service in a country where grass for 
pasture is so scarce : this is the more remark- 
able since they belong to the natufal family of 
ivy, which is usually poisonous. The use of 
this food however gives a peculiar taste to the 
butter. In other parts of Sikkim, fig leaves 
are used for the same purpose, and branches 
of bird-cherry, a plant also of a poisonous 
family, abounding in prussic acid. The only 
Aralia occurring in S. E. Asia, is A. papyrifera. 
Others of this genus are well known in America : 
and the young shoots and roots of Dimor- 
phanthus eduHs are used as food in China and 
Japan.— ITooi-w Him. Jauf. Vol. u p. 359. 
Bo9'9 Vegetaile Kinodom, 890. 

ARALIA BDULIS, Syn. of Dimorpbinthus 

Rice Paper Plant...«..KNo.— TuDg-taau Chin, 

The Bouvoe of the Rice Paper of commerce 
continued longa matter of doubt, but it is now 
equally certain that it is produced from the 
Aralia. papyrifera and it has since been de<* 
scribed by several authors, amongst othfrs Dr, 
Bennet, and 81r John Bowring. The plant is 
eukivftted in China and Foirmosa, for the com* 
mercial product, known as the rice paper of 
commerce, which is largely consumed in the 
provinoes of Canton and Fokian, and it ia esti« 
mated that 80,000 dollars worth of itareannu^^ 
ally made use of in Fu*cha<fu alone, where every 
lady wears artifioial floii^rs made Out of it t 
one hundred sheets, each about 8 inches square 
can be bought for thrte half pence. The pith 
is sometimes li inch in diameter. It is not 
grown from seed, but from young shoots ; 
when these appear above ground early in 
spring and are a few inches high, they are 
cairefully separated fh>m the parent roots and 
transplanted iato pots in which they vedtaia 
until about a foot high, when they are removed 
to laiid prepared for them. They are said to 
atlain their fuU growth of 10 or 19 feet at 
their tenth month, th^ are cut down, the 
twigs and leaves removed, and the stems left 
to soak for some days in water, to loosen thfe 
bark and wood and facilttete the removal of 
the pith. This last after being cleaned aiid 
made into a cylindrical shape, is cut into con- 
venient lengths and is now ready for the band 
of the paper cutter, who, with a sharp broad 
bladed knife, makes a slight longitudinal inci- 
sion in the cylinder of pith, which is then 
turned round gently and regularly on the ed/^e 
of the knife until the whole available material 
is planed off' in thin even slices; Much care 
and dexterity are requisite to produce sheets 
of even thickness.— -^nrt/^^, p, p. Sirs to 
804: See Paper-Rice a^d Ricei Paper, C. pf }, 


- A11ALI£| Midayaly « in$ about (qi^ij foot 
in heigbl^ and two feet in diameter • aaed by 
unlive carpenteia of Malabar for planka in ves- 
•^ and aaid by tbem to be a valuable wood. 
-^Edjfe. Mttl, Cm. 

ARALI-VaYR. TaM. Boot of Nerium odo- 

ARALOO. CiNO. Ternainalia ebebula ;.Myro- 

.. ARAM, the original Highland, south weat of 
Armenia (Arininn) ; tb« country between the 
^ouroea of the Euphratea and Tigris* and 
Kesopotamia proper ia Aram Nahrain. The 
Ajrams9anS| were t^ Semitic race of highland- 
4ra who fifst settled on the upper part of the 
^uptirates and Tigris districts, and then passed 
through' Mesopotamia proper (Aram of the two 
firersX the \aw land (where ia Maab-Mons 
Masius) Which falls gradually towards Syria, 
afterwards called Aram* The same of XTe, 
iu Nejd, proves that its off-sets extended as 
far as North Arabia. The Aramaic tribes, 
according to Ofa. Sanson, ar« the historical 
nations of Syria ; Arami Mesopotamia and 
Babylonia, trpeaking Syrian in the weat and 
the to-caUed Ch^aic in the Baal. In <ha 
gradual diffusion of mai^iud, the Western 
Frovinees of Iran seam te Uive fallen to 
the share of the Aramceana and Elamites*-* 
and thd Aheroitic people and langaage dia^ 
placed the Ouahite. Prom thehr primitire 
iahguage two diatinct brandiaa sprang, the 
original Arabic, with the Miisnud, Eomsh 
and other dialeota of that tongue, being one, 
and the Aramaic, the other. The latter had 
two grand sub-divisions, from one of whieh, 
known as the Western Aramaic, were derived 
the Amharie, Syriae, Hebrew, &o. 8(o., and from 
the other or Eastern Ammaio, came the Syrian, 
Babylonian and' Chaldean tongues. From ita 
monpayllabio construction tiie Eastern seems 
to be more aneient than the Weatera Aramaic, 
and it apfieara likewise to be the root of the 
2end, Pehlevi, Sanscrit and other dialeetain 
use throughout a portion of the territory along 
which it had spread Eastwards. Aram ia the 
lateat name of SyrM.-^-J^Kiraeji, Vok. itt. tmd 
ffv. See India, p. 9U. Iran ; Babel, Mareb ; 
Siomitic Race. 

ARAM-NAHRAIN, ia the Syria between 
the rivers, of Gen. xxiv, 10 andDput. xxiii, 4. 
The gretter part of what was called Mesopota- 
mia, ilk latter times, constituted the territory 
of anctent Babel, and Was the Aram Nahrain. 
The aame territbry in Gen. xxviii, », ia called 
PodanoAraito, or Champagne Syria, both of 
fwhtch designations agreed with the description 
of the country given by Strabo. — Colonel CAog. 
n^'$ EuphraU9 and TigHt, p.\\^. BtiHMt^ 
Vok. iil. and iv» See Aramasans. Babel. 

ARAMANDA. tatf«j^jf. Till,. Eugenia 
bracteata, £• n. 409. 


ABAMBUfiE, M. d' A Fraqeh OBMs^ of 

note under Law, during the Oaroatio wait^ 

ARAjf fl A, in Kattywar, held bj the Badhail 
race, who, along with the Wagheri of Dwari- 
ca, were long the terror of the neighbouring 
seas. It is probably the Aiamraw of the maps 
in Long. 69^ 15' E. imd Lat. 82° 37' N. " ' 


ARAND. Saks. ABANDL %km. Ricinna 
communis. Castor oil. 

^^ANELLAH, a dark browir coloured wood 
of Trai^ahcore, specific gravity 0-(J45 nsed fot 
building common houses.— J^rt/A. 

ARANELLI. Tam. ^Q#Q^c6^. CHeiMl 

ARANG, Uku Chareoal. 

ARANGO. JGtnt. Chussaee. Hikd-, Ut^ 
r6ugh cornelian bends, of various aiae* and 
shapes, made in Oambayy and f6rmeriy axtena 
sively used in the African alavo irad^^A«tt4 

ARAMGOLE PASS, it leadvfrtim Tlmmtife 
to Travancore. - - 

ARANKOWAL, • the lotos of theHea^jrt/ 
from aranifa (Sanscrit), • a liaale,' and c^Oa 
(pronounced kdwl), ' a lotos s' aorrvetl/- it 
ahonki be Written anrnc^mnda j but-tht pro* 
nitticiation is as above. . 

ARANT, a town in India, in Long. 83* 1 S* 
B. and Lat. 18^29' N. • ^ 

AttARAH. 4 town in India, in Lomr. tV^ 
20' E. and Lat. 23° 58^ N. * 

ARARAT. Aghri Dagh or Mount Ararat is 
m height about l^OO f«et4 Is the kat v^i 
lume of his • Cosmos' Humboldt noorda IM 
height of Demav^eod at 9,716 feet, whioh ia 
above 1,785 feet under the height attributed to 
\*;, Scolding to Humboldt, Ararat is onlf 
17,1 li feet high* General Moateitb, f. n o. 14 
who passed three ^eara at the foot of Mount 
Ararat^ aied many ueana to asoertain ita ele^ 
vation, and made it 16,000 ^t above the level 
of the Awxcs— This ia the Ararat of modem 
Geographers, in the province of Bri«an. At a 
distauoe, it has a fesemUanoe to a ship. It «a 
called by the Armeniana Mountain of the Arfe 
saad by the Persians Mountain of Noah; 
Aghridagh being the name given to H b^ tte 
Turks ; and the Armeniana oail it NtaeU : httt 
all unite in revertng it as the haven of tha 
great ship which presenred the father af 
mankind from the watdra of the deluim.^ 
It is called by tb« Anbs also Jabl-al^ 
Judi ai^ by the Armehiana Massinaaar vr 
Monntam of the Arir. Berosna and Ahaaat 
der b6th dsdare that in their tima it was tm^ 
ported that aome piaaka of the AHc remainei 

?I.,^ ,^**'' •* *^® ^« ^^ *^« uccaaaioii of ttia 
Abbasside Caliphs^ A. B. U^.^Porter^o fhrw 
w*, s. 18$. Oenmil iftaN/MA'a AMort Sm 




AlUSy tta moiatn natoe lof the ncMnt 
ifviM, ike A*erma of the Furaii*. Thit 
ntkmi rifer U novr called Krnu Veros. It 
hfce the loot of the roek Istakbr. The 
novj Ardeken monnteint are the aame with 
Ikoee whieh f>reeen<ed so formidable a barrier 
te Aleiaofler's progress* aed by whose slopes 
hedesoeoded into Persia, ia his advance on 
Veiscpolis. Towarda the north of Aratenia, 
liBi the Ames, with ito iramereua tributaries. 
This rifor whieh at its . eommeTieemeat, owing 
to its many affluents, bears the Persian appel- 
klkm of Hasara, springs from the side of the 
Bia 6ol, or mountain of thousand Lnkes, 
about 30 miles south of Brzerum, and nearly 
is the oentre of the space between the eastern 
sad western branches of the Euphrates. lu 
esane, from its first sprinic near Jebel Seihan, 
isiJaMMtN. £. for about 145 miles through 
iimeaia; when it turns eastward, beini; 
tkea near the frontier of Kara : this proximity 
eoatiaiies ior 110 miles. The sources of the 
Aos aad those of the north turanch of the 
Enphrmtee are about 10 miles from one an- 
etkar. According to Pliny (lib. VI. c. 9) 
these sonfoea are in the aame mountain and 
MO paeea asunder. In modem times, the 
aoith-eaateni districts, along the banks of the 
ifnurt, intervening between Aderbyan and 
Geoqcia, have been in general subject to the 
serereigna of Persia.— if a/co/w's History of 
Fnim^ Vol. ii- p. il2. Journal of the Roval 
Gm. Societ^^ Fol. vi. Pari ii p. 200. See 
AiBS also Bend Amir. Fars. Iran. Tigris. 

AftA.SA-MAR'tf. Tah* Ficus religiose. 

AftASA-NAR. Tam. A iibra obtained from 
tibe fteaa religioaa. 

ABASHAM. See Hindoo. 

ABASHTBA. Sans, or the kingless, the 
fepJUkaa defenders of Saniirala or Saknla. 
1V| wm the AdraistsB of Arrian, who places 
Ikcaatt the Kavi. They were known by th(* 
MvatMunea of Bahika, Jartikka and I'akka, 
Ana wkieh last is the name of their old espi- 
al of Taxila or Takka-siln as known to the 
WMba. The people still exist in considerable 
in the Panjab Hills, and their alpha- 
efcaraetera under the name of Takri or 
li «re now used by all the hindns of KasH- 
wad the northern mountains from BTmta 
Skbethoo to Kabul and Bamian.— JR/^^. 
%m Otondra Gupta. 

AltASIKA^eURei. Oak. Gareinia ple- 
Ctriiu 0ee Gamboge Butter also Oil. 

ASATI. Tav. a hindn eeremdny fbrward- 
tUftolf the eril eye. See Curcnma longa. 

ARATNIt Savs. The short eU measure. 

AHATTAB. See Aras»». Chandrigupta. 

AKATT, a town io India, in Long. 7V* \V 

U&UQARJA EX0EL9A. B. Brown. 
Thmbeyn-ezeelia. Iamb. Colymbea exoelsa« 
The Norfdk Isfaittd Pine grows also 


in NewHdiand, New OaMonia, Botany Uand) 
and Isle ol Pines. It is a majestio tres attain-! 
ing to a height of from 60 to %%% feet, with 
a circumference of 80 feet. Its wood is useful 
for carpenters in-door work, but is too heavy. 
for naval purposes, as spars. Admiral Keppell 
says that this tree is not so lofty aa the Altin* 
gia exoelsa, but is of the same quality and ia 
used for the same porposes : the two trees are 
supposed however by botanists lo be identical. 
— VoigU KeppeU'3 Ind. Arch. Vol. li. ft.U%. 

shrub of M ew H olland . 

ARAVA. The Dravida people commonly 
called Tamil who speak the Aravn or Tamil 
language. See Dravida. India. TamuK 

ARAVALLI. A chain of hills connected 
by lower ranges with the western extremity of 
the ViifRya mountnine on the borders of Guse- 
rat, and stretching from S. W. to N. E up to 
a considerable distance beyond Ajmir, in the 
direction of Delhi. The range divides Raj- 
putanah into two nearly foual parts form* 
ing the division between the desert on the 
west and the central table land. It would be 
more correct to say the level of the desert, Sot 
the douth-eastern portion, including Jodpur, is 
a fertile country. Except this tract, all be- 
tween the Aravalli mountains and the Indus, 
from the Sutlej or Hysudrus on the north tp 
near the sea on the south, is a waste of snnd^ 
in which are oases of different size and fertili- 
^y^ ^^(^ greatest of which is « round Jessalmir. 
The narroar tract of Cutch intervenes between 
the desert and the sea, and makes a sort of 
bridge from Gnzerat to Bind. Centrnl India 
is the smallest of the four natural divisionsi 
It is a table land of uneven si^rfaoe, from 
1,500 to 3,300 feet above the sea, bounded by 
the Aravalli mountains on the west, and those 
of the Vindya on the south, supported on the 
east by a lower range in Bundelound, and sloping 
gradunlly on the north-east into the basin at 
the Ganges. It is a diveniiied but fertile tract- 
The Paiar^ or plateau of Central India, is dia^ 
tinct from the Vindhya to the south and the 
Aravalli to the west, and its underlying rock is 
tirap. Aravalli means the hill of strength, 
and these hills have afforded protection to the 
most ancient sovereign race in the east or 
west— the ancient stock of the Suryavansa, the 
Heliadm of India, or children of the sun, the 
Frinees of Hewar, who when pressed retired to 
its faitnessea, only to issue again when oeea^ 
sion oflfered. The people who oceupy the 
Amvalli, are the Meena, mountaineers, a 
robber predatory race. The hills are rich, also^ 
in mineml produets, and, enabled the Mawar 
^mily long to struggle agaiuat superior power 
and to raise those ms|;nifioient struotures which 
ornament their kingdom. The mines are royal- 
ties ; end a monopdy. '' An* Dan-Kan" ia m 



ibqprenkm, which compreheDds the emu of 
•overeigii rights in Uftjafatban, being alleinance, 
oomitiercial duties, mines. The tin- mines of 
Me war were once very prod active, and yielded, 
it is asserted, no ineotisiderable portion ot 
silver : but the caste of miners is extinct, and 
political reasons, during the Mogul domiuiition 
led to the concealment of such sources of 
weahh. Copper of a very fine description is 
likewise abundant, and supplies the curren- 
cy * Surma, or tho oxide of antimony,' is 
fdund on the western frontier. The garnet, 
amethystine quartz, rock crystal, the olirysoltte, 
and inferior kinds of the emerald family are all - 
to be found wiihiu Alewar. — Elphinsian^i 
BisL of ludifty Vol. t. p> %. Tod't HajaslkoMy 
Vol. t^j;. 10li*13« See Hindoo. Inscriptions, 

ARAXES. See Aras. 

* ARAYAANJELL Maleal. c®ro6>sc£y 

C^§SJI^'J9, Antiaris saccidora. 

A RAY KEBRAY. Tam. jyao/r Sgs>ir. 
fiyttnerta lierbacea. 

AEBA, a town of Ganjam where much sugar 
Xi made. 

^ AR-BAN^D. Hind. Sans. The waist- 
cloth or dhoti of the hiudus^ passed between 
the thij^hs* 

' ARBELLA, an ancient city, now called 
Erbil. — Mi^nan's Travels, p, 884. 
' ARBOL DE LEG HE. Pout. Cow.Tree. 

.' AEBO£ ALBA. The leaves of this tree, 

furnish a portion of the cnjeput oil of Ck>m- 

inerce. Arbor Alba, is m^ely a translation 

of the two Malay words, Kaya-putih. See 


. ARBOR EXCKEGANS. Rumpb. Sy«. of 

Exececaria agallooha. - Lina, 

' ARBOH RADULIFEKA. See Flindersia 


• AKBREA, a city of ancient Persia. See 

'. ARBUDA, Is supposed to be Mount A1k>o 
on the Aravlalli, the races occupying' it were 
ftttbdued by the conquering Arians. See Hin- 
doo^ p. 260. 

£fth son of Bir William Arbuthnot, who was 
t)fealed a baronet, whilst holding the Lord 
Aovostship of Edinburgh, on the occasion of 
fOeorge IV.'s visit to the city in 1821. Hie 
(Was bom in 1 807, went to MiCdras in the 
€tvil Service, from which he retired and lirent 
into business aa a merchant at ^Jadras. He 
tetnrned to England in 1 85S, and waa nomi- 
jiat«d a. member of the India Gouiicil. 
^ ARGA. Sanb. ope of the names of the sun. 
-« ABGA ANTiQU Al A. A shell of the In- < 
idian aeaa, of the tribe Polyodonta. 
- ARCABA HU PBALA. Sanscara. In some 
^83. ihia.ia wiitt^ Arcabhagabala, Area 

Bahoota and^Arecbaghabala. It is, m lin- 
da astronomy, the src which a planet do» 
smibea during that part of the equatiRNi 
of time, which arises frotn the inequsltly 
of the Sun's -motion in his orbit : being atf 
equation to i^hieh all the planets are snbjeeti 
but the motion of which it differaitly affectt« 
^Eiiward Warren* t Kula Sanhita^ 

ARCANETA. Sp. Alkahet. 

ARGARPUS W01>D. See GaKeo Printing; 

ARGA T0RIU08A. A shell of the trilM 

instant of true coitj unction of the Sun and 
Moon. — WarrrtC% Kula Sanhiia, 

ARGH. In India, flat arches of stotie and 
brick flfe not uncommon. In Burraah, Gaptaii^ 
Yule discerned two of brick, in windows In the 
Dhsmayangyee temple at Pagan, where nftt 
suggestion of European or Indian aid coulA 
Have helped. There is one flat stone ardh \li 
the northern gate of the fort and another irt U 
tomb, at Kurnool. Thete is one in the tn^ 
diseval building of Roslin Gastle, atid in the 
magnificent Saracen gateway of Cairo, called 
Bab-eUFitOor.— F«/e*« Smhas^y, p. 48. • 

ARGH of GH08ROES, is the modem Tak- 
i-Kesra, which marks the site of the aucieni 
Ctesiphon. See Tigris. 

ARGHA, in Hinduism, objects of #orship^ 
as images, &;c. See Sri Sampradaya. 

AKGHEBIUS, one of the successors ft 
Alexander, about B. G. 155, who sucoeedra 
Antialcidas in the kingdom of Lysias, in tlii^ 
Paropamisidffi. See Greeks of Asia. 

ARCUEOOLE, a town in India, in Long, 
76^0'E. and Lat. £7° 1*' N. ' 

ARCHER FISHES.. The Chdmon lostm* 
tus. Linn, (Gheetodon rostratos Shaw), is, ac- 
cording to Sir E. Tennant, the Archer flsh ol 
the fresh waters of India, on seeing a fly settfc 
over head, on a leaf, it propels a drop of warn 
and brings it down. See Ghsetodon toiot^s. 

ARCHERY, in Sanscrit, dhanuroid^a, if 
always put for Military Science in geuei^ 
Anrhery was the predominant branch of i|if 
Military art among the hlndus, as is evidenl 
from this use of the term* and from all ^ 
soriptive accounts of heroic education. Raai% 
his sons, the Pandavas, Ayus, and all oUuir 
princes, are represented in the Ramayaiif^ 
Mahabliaraty andalipoema and plays^ as ncuab 
ing archery a principal part of theic €Mlucatio% 
AirniatLiDg a remarkable analogy, in this ra« 
spect, to ihe practice qf the ancient Perai«i|| 
and Scythians. Throughout Soith Eaaiem 
Asia, the bow has almost disappeared, the 
only pipople uaipg it oopstantly in war find ftm 
the hunt, being ihe Andanmners— but at tli^ 
annual " langar" of the Nisao^ of Hyderal^Mi, 
.th^re are. still to be seen. a. few soldiori^;iii:the 
prbc^flsion; arQSfd with bpws« 


«• iw< 



ARCHIFELAOO, in South Edstern AfAn, 
aA ihne fjeni grtnrpn of Fslands to tirliicli this 
tmi is applied, the liferpriii ArchipclRgo, the 
Mors Arehipelago end the EasterB Archipelago. 

Tlie Buetern Archipelago extends over 
a spMB of more ihaD 80M) miles, and con- 
wto of an immense lahvrinth of Islands, among 
vhieh jare at least twenty countries of consider- 
able sizey and one which nearly equals Europe 
ia extent. The cluster of islands and islets, 
aeatlered in irregular profusion over the 
Boatbem OeeaD, commencifig at the further 
cxticmky of the Bay of Bengal, forming this 
•oaderfiil A^-chtpelago, stretches . eastward far 
into the Pacific, through 60 degrees of longitude, 
wllle In breadth it extends through 31 degrees 
of latitude. It comprises islands, and groups of 
i^Unda, inhabited by races differing widely in 
d>aracter. It is not exposed to the extremes 
if lest The air is cooled by constant currents ; 
aadthe monsoons, regularly recur, blowing over 
tbe ocean and oyer forests and swamps wliich 
mnin in a state of primitive nature. Abun- 
dant rarna fertilize the soils, and produce a 
nagnilioence of vegetation which no country but 
Brail can rival. Tt has been, and still to 
aoflie extent continues, tho theatre of prodigious 
voleanie action, to which it owes much of its 
aaequafled beauty and fertility ; for ashes and 
I, if they blast and destroy for a time the 

loxQTttnt tropical flora, are afterwards the bssis^ { 
and become the cause, of a most exuberant 
ngeiatlon. In Java there are forty-six volcanic 
ped^ twenty of which still occasionally emit 
vapour and flame. A great part of the archi- 
pelago, indeed, forms part of a vast volcanic 
am extending into the very centre of Asia. 
eruptive forces must have operated in 
ages with inconceivable violence, and 
IB modem times, the great eruption of 
Tonboro, in the bland ofSumbawa, about 
SWiaika firom the eastern extremity of Java, 
ia a coiable example. This volcano had been 
ftraome time in a state of smouldering activity 
kil in April 1815, it burst forth with tremen* 
violence and did not cease to eject lava 
July. The sound of the incessant explo- 
waa beard in Sumatra, distant 97X) geogra- 
flMal milet, in a -direct line ; and at Ternnte, 
li ike opposite direction, at a distance of 7S0 
Out of a population of 12,000 in the 
of Tomboro, only twenty- six indi- 
snrvived. On the side of Java, the 
carried to a distance of 300 mil^s, and 
Mtt towards Celebes ; and the floating cinders 
te the westward of Sumatra formed a mass two 
Ibiek, and several miles in extent, through 
fk abips with difficulty forced their way. 
Vie finest particles were transported to the 
'"^ ida of Amboyna and Bands, 800 miles 
from the site of the volcano ; and the area 
ovrr which the volcanic effects extended w<ns 

1000 Bnglish miles in eircOttfereneSi ittchidln|^ 
the whole of the Kolncoa Islands, Java, and tf 
considerable portion of CelebeSy Sumatra, and 
Borneo. But if the disruptive forcea inT 
these regions have been formerly piedominant^ 
the creative and constructive power is now thtf 
most active. The zoophyte is adding silently 
and incessantly to the number of these island^ 
groups ; coral-reefs are constantly emergingf 
from the waters ; seeds, deposited by birds^ oi* 
wafted by winds, quickly vegetate; venhtref 
speeds over the waste ; and pahn- trees rise iti 
tufted groves, as if by enchantment, from thtf 
ocean. The hidden but ever active energy of 
the coraUinsect makes the navigation of this 
Archipelago exceedingly diflflcult, for charts and 
soundings do not long form safe guides where 
an unseen power is always at w6rk, reducing 
the depth of seas, and convertint water into 
dryland.— ^»tfr/er?y Beview, No. 23S p. 486. 

The limits of the volcanic band which crosses 
the Archipelago are distinctly defined by \hj6 
active volcanoes with which it is studded; 
Tliere appears a great volcanic stream in thd 
neighbourhood of Kamtschatka from which it' 
can be traced in a south-west direction through 
the Kurile Islands, Japan, and Loo Choo, skirt- 
ing the Coast of Asia, to Fol^osa, where it 
meets another coming from the south and souths 
west through the Philippines and Mindanao tb 
the Moluecas, embracing the eastern extreme 
of Celebes and the western Peninsula of New 
Guinea, and then another curved from tlC 
westward along the Trans Javan Chain to the 
Straits of Sunda, when it meets one from a 
northwesterly direction though Sumatra and 
the Andamans to Cheduba island, in the nor- 
thern part of the Bay of Bengal. From the 
western extreme of New Guinea, however,' 
along the north coast of that island to New; 
Britain, although its volcanic character has been 
decided by recent French navigators, there re^ 
mains a tract including thirteen degrees of 
longitude in which no active volcano has been 
seen. Indeed it is by no means improbable that 
the band which takes a southerly direction from 
Japan through Fatzima, the Bourn and Manana 
Islands, may prove to be continued to New 
Ireland ; in which case the chain ^ active 
volcanoes which extends through the Solomon 
Islands and the NewHebriaes to New Zealand, 
and perhaps further to the south, may indicate 
the course of an independent stream. ^ 

With such violent subterranean forces in ope; 
ration, even at the present dav, it is easy to 
apprehend how numerous must have been the 
up-risings and subsidings of the solid matter 
of thie earth, during byegone ages. According 
to the views which have been adopted from 
Sir Charles Lvell's prolonged investigations, it 
is little probable that all these changes occur^ 
red at one time, but that tbcy have resulted 




tenor durmg bj9-gpn« ig«^ mcltniieal witk 
IhoKi atjil in opemtioii, tbroagh perhapt all in 
Ihe Un6« vhieh we ob«^rve in the dijrection of 
tlie ewting mountain r»n^i. One of theae, 
fn>lopge<l (hTOugb Arakan, halta at point 
S^egraia, to raiippeav througk the Ai^Ainana 
and Nicobara ; and thia Eaate^a Asiatic range, 
after extending nlopg the S. W, coaat of 
ftanaatrai termiaatea at ita S. £. point. Aa- 
othar mrvB along the Malaj Peninaula, ia loat 
for a i;iaie» but appeara again in the high peak 
9f LingiBy.and tetminatea in Banca a^ Billl- 
ton, and a branch from thia aeperates at Fulo 
Timoan, on the eaat coaat of the Feninaula, 
and enda at Cariinata, in the atrait between 
Billiton and Borneo* Two rangea traverse 
Cambodia and Oochin-China in the aame direc- 
tion, aod these will be found to extend to, and, 
perhaps to traferae, Borneo, Between the 
(Jambodian rangie and the mountaina at Sara- 
wak, on the north^weat, extremity of Borneo, 
tbe/Natnnaa islaiida and Pulo Condor form the 
connecting link ; and as the Sarawak hills run 
to the aottth-east^ the range is probably con- 
^inuedy either by a connected line, or by isola- 
ted mounta^ until it terminates in the Gunung 
Batos, near Cape Selatan. More recent data 
ehew that this range, after traversing the 
western part of Borneo, terminates on the 
aoulh coast, a little to the eastward of Kota- 
ringin. The Gunung Ritos w6uld therefore 
appear to have been formerly connected with 
the primary range which shews at Bintuln, on 
the north-west coast of Borneo, and which may 
be a continuation of one of the ludo Chinese 
ranji^es. The Anam or Cochin-Chinese Kan^e 
is that which can be traced most distinctly 
across the Archipelago to Australia at the pre. 
eent day. There seems no doul)t thnt the 
multitude of islands which are now to be 
seen are m erely plutonic masses upraised by 
subsequent volcanic action : or the tops of 
great volcanic outbursts whidi have appeared 

The chain whioh tt^tei^da . atpag ik^ Xaiaj 

Peninsula ia the moat conspicioua of these xaDgea^ 

and is continued at intenrals to Banee M¥t; 

Billiton, and perhaps may be traced aa br atf , 

the north coast of Java* It is this range t^at 

most abounds ia metals, ori^ at f 11 eventa^ iu: 

which mining opeiations are punuad wHki. 

greatest sucess, probably from the strata, owing- 

to its central position^ having been litt^ di»*. 

turbed by the convulsions which have abakeii, 

the countries on either hand. The productiio^ 

neaa of the gold mines of the Ualay. Pjsniosuia: 

and of the tin mines of Banca ia well kuowD*. 

This range may be considered as the back hQO% 

of the Great Asatic Bank which exteqds iai^ 

the Archipelago from the south-eastern extraaa^ 

of Asia to a distance of nearly 1000 milea. i|a, 

fact to within 50 miles of Celebes* perhaps taf 

the south-west extremity of that Island also ^, 

but there is a space of near^ 30 miles acroaai 

which no soundings have been carried. Sumatra* 

which lies on its western verge, has been aub^ 

jected to volcanic action^ but not to ao fgteat jol 

extent as to disturb the direction of ita inoua* 

tain Ttjiz^, which runs paralled. to that of tb^ 

Malay Peninsula.. The third and last rangf 

that can be traced into the Indian ArchipeUgq 

is the one that traverses Laps and Cambcja, at 

the southern extremity of which it disappeaia 

for a time, showing iUelf only at Puto UuivIqc 

and Natunas, until it emerges under the Bortii^ 

west extreme of Borneo, and is continued alQiu| 

the entire west coast of that isl^d. Here ^ 

again disappears, aud only shows itself agasa 

on the nortn coast of Java, where it ceases anl 

ttrely. : th^ remaining portion of this lalatii 

with perhaps, a part of the northwest extrfsmi^ 

bein? either of volcanic formation or of alluvia^ 

deposit, tt is rather singular that the.cet^ 

brated teak-tree, which abounds on the Oiiq^ 

bojnn part of this ran^c^ but ia not foiwp 

in Borneo, is a2:ain met with here, tba pr(^«qlr 

ing part of the north side of Java, betweei 

Samarang an d Surabaya, being a vast teak foi 

above the ocean* There are innumerable coral i from the timber of which the greater portion ] 

reefs and coral islands but Mr, Darwin's | 
essay on the '' Structure and Distribution of 
Co ral reefs," has satisfactorily shewn that 
^* AtoUs** or annular reefs were originally frin- 
ging reefs oonstructed around islands tihat have 
since subsided. The depth of water on 
these banks averages about 30 fathoms, deepen- 
ing rapidly as the edge is approached, and 
shoaling gradually towards tne land. And, 
where the earth has not risen above the waters 
surface, great aubmarine banks are to be traced 
from one island to another. One of thf se is 
termed the Great Asiatic Bank, and the countries 
lying on it, may be noticed first. The moun- 
tain ranges in the south-eastern part of Asia in- 
variably run in a direction nearly N". If ■ W. and 
B. S. £., and are all of the primary formation. 

the shipping employed in the Archipelago 
constructed. Java is the only Island in ^ 
eastern seas fn which the teak-tree is in'digm* 
ons, nor will it thrive in the volcanic partsof ij^i 
Island where its cultivation Ras been attemA 
ed. Tlus,which may be called the Camboj^ 
Range, is also rich in minerab, especially 
Bomean part, of it, where large quantitic 
gold and many diamonds a/e' obtained by 
miners. The volcanic Islands of the Arphi] 
lago also contain metals, gold-dust being foi 
at the bottoms nfmany of the mountain street 
but it does not exist in veins, as in the Mi 
yan Peninsirla aiid the west coast of 
these having apparently been broken up by 
violent convulsions to which these Islands ba) 
been suhjected. 'ihe metal is therefore on^ 




«MAfiied ffom ilie Ix^ttooi of the mountain 
it»us8y where it haft been deposited when the 
€itth in which tt had been contained was wash- 
ed an?. 

European enterprise has done roach to deve- 
)epe the reaouroea of Borneo^ Java and Suma- 
tra, ^nd their adjacent Islands^ 

In Sambawa^ the niahomedans take a high 
piaec^ and they are krgeiy proselytising the 
noaataioeerSf who, however, aecretly trust in their 
idols. In Grohagan at the centre on the lime* 
diHrict is a mud volcano, 16 feet in dia- 
The black mud every two to five aeoonds 
bahUea up and subsides^ it ris^ to a height of 
20 to 30 feet, then explodes with a dull noise 
scattering a shower of warm black mud in 
eroy direction ; round about are warm brine 
swings from whieh salt is extraeted. Its enip- 
tian are moat frequent in the rainy season* It 
is eitted Knwo, '" the place of abode/' and an 
old legend ia that it is the residence of a mon- 
alcr snake whose vrithings cause the eruptions. 
The Javanoaegive picturesque names to the vsri- 
ott ^aoea in the Island such as Prosperity ; 
Coontrj of ghosts ; Unlucky ; Heroic difficulty : 
lie Javanese are skilful workera in metals, ^Id, 
inm^ braaa eutlery, and oaipentry. Their kris has 
a knadied foma. Javanese and Sumatrans are 

They are ii^norant of any written cliaracter. Iii 
their wars they clotlie in prepared skius. Their 
arms are the sword and spear and blow pipe. 

In the Archipelago there seem to be five 
races of man, the Malays proper : the Bemang 
or dwarf negroes of the Malay penlusula ; the 
Negrito or Asta of the Philippines ; the larger 
Negro race or Papua of New Guinea, and a 
race whom Crawfurd styles the Negro Malay, 
intermediate between the Papuan and Halav. 
The Malays are superior to all the others in 
intelleol and civilization. They occupy the whole 
of the Hiday peninsula, balf of Sumatra, aud all 
the Sea Coast of Borneo. Their numbers are esti- 
mated at 1,500,000 in Borneo : 1,250,000 in 
the Malay peninsula; and 1^000^000 in Su- 
matra* The Malay is short, souat with round 
face, wide mouth, large higti cheek bones; 
short small nose ; black small deep seated 
eyes : Their hair is lank, black and harsh, and 
the men have little or ho beard* The Saman 
or Semang, are a small Negro race. 

The Negrito are short, but well made, active^ 
with soft frizzled hair, nose slightly flattened, 
features more regular and skin less dark than 
the African Negro. 

The Papua of New Guinea are true Negroes, 

and have made aome advances in civilizstion* 

of Malay race, but tlie amok is almost ■ The Negro Malay are fairer than the Negro, 

ankaovn in jara. Sumatra has the elephant darker than the Malay but intermediate be* 

and tapir and oorang outang and argus phea 
aaa^ dragoao blood ; all wanting in Java. The 
Svnda ox, peafowl, rhinocerous and sloth and 

tween Malay and Papua. 

The lines of volcanic action to which these 
Islands have been subjected can be traced with 

leak oeeur in Java, not in Sumatra { Dragons tolerable distinctness. One of these extends 
Uood, horn the Calamus draco, a forest plant of along the W. coast of Sumatra and the S. coast 
a granular matter adherent to the of Java ; whence it is continued by a chain of 
fraila, and obtained by beating or thresh* Islands, separated by narrow but deep chan- 
ihe fruit in little baskets. The chief place of nels,to New Guinea, aud can be traced through 
la Jambi on the N. E. side of Suma- that Island to the Louisiade ArchipelagOir 
JM. The principal collectors are the Kobn, a and is probably continued' by New Caledonia, 
.wild laOB wIk) sell it to the Malays at a shilling ! and Norfolk Island to New Zealand, thus form- 
ing a curved line resembling the letter S. 
The other line commences in Kamtschatk^ 
and extenda through the Kurile Islands, Japan 
and Loochoo, to the Philippines, where it 
separates into two branches, one traversing 
Palawan and the N. W. part of Borneo,, 
where it terminates near tlie limits of the Greai( 
Asiatic Bank, and the oiher continuing . in a 
southerly direction until it comes, in contact 
with the Snmatran line. It ia near this point 
of contact that the volcanic aetiun has been 
|4^ hollowed trnnk of a tree. The Balinese I strongest, throwing the isbnds into fantastic 

Ji fmmd^ ahont 48 tons are said to be collected 

ii JWb^ hat this seems on excessive estimate. 

JAo aCeaia of the male plant form walking sticka 

jii are supposed to he the Jambee so fashion- 

jUi ha the reign of Queen Anne.-^'vCrai^«/*<^'a 

.Ifahoaodaaism has made large progveas ia 

Archipelago, hut Bali is still hindu. Ha- 

m Jfab^-s inter without coffin or shroud. 

pen Dajafc ars idol. worshippers ; keep their 

fior aone days aud inter in a coffin made 

their dead, and the widows aud aome 
of rajahs bam with their husbands' 
hut other widows burn or are dispstched 
a fcris' Dayak ia the name given to all the 
of Sumatra and Celebes ; but is par^ 
applied to those of Borneo, where they 
Qiuneroua; BoiAe are wild forest resi- 
bal ,other» have fixed habitations, Isrge 
k-nke hiuls eontainiag many families. 

forms, of which Celebes and Gillolo furnish, 
striking examples. These islands all rise ab-, 
ruptly from an unfathomsble sea, a circum- 
stance unfavourable to their productiveness* 
since a large portion of the rich soil created 
by the decomposition of the volcanic rock is 
washed away into the ocean. Java, however,, 
is in e great measure exempt from this disHd- 
vantage, owing to the Great Asiatic Bank' 





extending to its northern coast, from whicli 
the soil is deposited in vast plains ly- 
ing betureen the mountain range and the sea. 
These- plains are so surpassingly rich that they 
not only yieid a sufficiency of grain for the 
consumption of a large portion of the popu- 
lation of the Archipelago, but at the same time 
afford such abundance of stigar and other 
"tropical produce as to furnish cargoes for 
naany thousand tons of shipping. The re- 
mark that has been made with regard to the 
ranges in the south-eastern part of Asia is 
equally applicable to Australia, since one of 
the most marked features in the geography of 
this continent is the uniformity that exists in 
the direction followed by all the continuous 
mountain ranges that hare yet been discovered. 
The Great Jusiralian $an^ which fronts the 
N. and N. W. coasts of Australia commences 
near the N. W. Cape, and extends in a N 
E. direction to New Guinea, where it termi- 
nates at the base of the high but narrow moun- 
tain range that unites the eastern and western 
parts of that Island, and separates the Banda 
6ea from the Great Pacific. It is at this point 
that the ecige of the bank is roost remote from 
Australia, the distance to the nearest point of 
the N. coast being 400 miles. It appears 
iigain on the S, coast of New Guinea, near 
Torres Straits, and extends along the N. E. 
coast of Australia, the Great Barrier Reefs 
being on its outer edge. The Arru Islands 
and New Guinea are thus united to the con- 
tinent of Australia, and the kangaroo, long 
supposed to be peculiar to Australia, is found 
both in the Arru Islands and on the southern 
part of New Guinea. 

New Gwt/iefl.— The northern part of this Is- 
land, lying to the N. W. of the mountain range, 
partakes of the rugged and broken character 
of the volcanic Islands of the Indian Archi- 
pelago, but the south-western part is^low and 
undulating, and w6 may conclude that it bears 
considerable resemblance to the northern coasts 
of Australia, since the several Dutch navigators 
who explored the Gulf of Carpentaria, and who 
are in the habit of coastinij; this part of New 
Guinea on their way to Australia, considered 
tliem aa being portions of the same continent, 
and they were so delineated in ronps un- 
til Cook passed through Torres Strait and de- 
cided the question as to their insularity. A very 
interesting account of the 8. W. coast of New 
Guinea, is given in Modera's " Narrative of the 
voyage of the Dutch Corvette 'Triton* ip the 
year 1828," when this coast was explored with 
ai view to forming a settlement. 

The Arru group of Islands -^mq sitoated 
on the northern verge of the Great Aus- 
tt^liau Bank^ and extends from N. to 8. 
about )00 miles; but as the eastern side 
of the group has not been explored, its limits I 


in that direction are nncertain. Some of the 
southern islands are of conaiderahle extent, 
but those to the N., lying close to the edg^ 
of the bank, are rarely more than 5 or 6 
miles in circumference. The land is low, 
being only a few feet above the level of the sea, 
except in spots where patches of rook rise to 
the height of 20 feet, but the lofty trees which 
cover the face of the country give to it the ap« 
pearance of being much more elevated. Coral 
reefs extend from the shores of all the islands, 
and in the eastern parts of the group thete are 
often of great extent. The islands are divided 
from each other by narrow channels some of 
which are of great depth, and in one of these 
there is said to be a i^hirlpool of so for* 
midable a description that ilie natives will 
not venture to approach it even in their 
larger vessels. This grcmp has not been 
left quite untouched by the convulsion whidi 
has shaken its neighbours, a circumstance that 
might naturally be expected from its pom- 
tiou on the very edge of the bank, and in the 
close vicintty of the volcanic chain, the Great 
Ed Island being duly 60 miles distant. 

The primary mountain ranges both in soutt* 
eastern Asia and in Australia, pursue a precisely 
similar direction, and the western mofttAsialie 
range, if continued, would dtrike about the N. 
W. Cape where the western Australian rangfe 
commences, while banks extending from boti 
these continents aetnally ' approach to withiil 
460 miles of each other. 

Five-sixths of the whole Archipelago m 
claimed by the Dutch as their own possession^ 
(Moniieur des Indes.) Sumatra, Babi, Nist, 
Mintao, the Pora Isles, Poggi, and the Enganos: 
Java, Madura, Baweean, the Kangeanir^ Banka, 
BHiton, Bintan^^ Liners, the Natunas, Anambat^j 
and Tambelan, the kingdom of Sambas in Bot* 
neo, with the great Pontianak and Banjanttsi(« 
sim residencies, and the Karimata isles ^Celebes 
Sumbawa, Bouton, Saleyer, Amboyna, Ceren^ 
Buru, Siam, Sangir, Talaut, the Xulla and Bail- 
gaai jjroups, Halmahera, Obie, Batchian^ Tcf- 
nate, Tidor, Waigin, Battanta, Silawatte, Mj^ 
sole, the Bandas, the Ki, Arru, and TenimbSy 
a part of Timor, Rotti, Savu, Sumba, End^ 
Adenaar, Sobr, Lorn bate, Pntare, Ornbt^ 
Bali and Lnmbofc — with the western part'^ 
^ew Guinea*— all these are claimed by till 
Netherlands^ and if her politiral suprentals^ 
were not in many of them a simple fiction, th^ 
would truly form a magnificent colonial einptriL 
The political geography of the fiiWh<»r "Ei^ 
however, is not yet accurately mapped out ; hrt> 
indeed, is the region in any respfct perfecOT 
known. The recent magnetic survey has adoh 
ed much to science : but still more rraniiiik 
to be determined. — {EUioCs Ma^eiic Survejf, 
PhiL Trans. 1851, crii, it87. John's Indkk 
Arcktp^affo, Vol, H. p. 1357.)' • i 


"Vhe opening; or this Archlpdago to Kurops 
»aa Kindual. Knteriog the uimost easteTn con- 
facti of the Archipetego, Ha^llun discovered tht 
lAdrones, or IsIm of Thieres, Tliey have since 
Wm n>a)«() i4ie Hannnss, but still ileserve 
their ori|riiiat ttppcDation, us tb« people of the 
MTTtMading giutipg aland in dread or their 
fndttory inhBbitanti. Ou one of the Uei 
e»«htm«h islca walls bave been raised and 
pieced with loopliote*, ni « derence aEminat 
theae rovitip banditti or the sea'. {Sir S. 
JMekr, t. 85). Tlie Udrotien lie ebdut fonr 
budmt leases e*st of ihe PhiUppiiies. Only 
Meoftbem is now tenanted, and that fo; a 
iBiU and aarage tribe. flsntstiODs ef caper 
met are in perpetual bloODi, 

Ota Ihe feetival of Si. LdEsrlis, Maj^llan 
dJHaTOTctl thit group bf more than forty i»- 
l*»to ; {tf^allen, Prtiiminoiy JHtooaru, 67), 
ttemnt Dortbern in the ArcliipeKgo, to which 
b»fa*« tlw name of the aatnt, but which were 
AarwanU nuned ia honour of kin^ fhilip, 
Tlnrtem only of them ftre reiantkable. They 
Mn^iy the odI; part of tbe Arebipelaf^ liablu 
la harrieaaM. and derive manj of their ohnrao- 
Imatin from this cireum stance, —a soil of sii- 
parinr fertility, and adapted for peculiar kinds of 
■Aintion, aa well as for wheat and rice, 
■ithuttt fragrant tpioes, or fniitt of very deli- 
nla RaTOtir. {Orav^nri, Indian Arokiptlogo, 
a. II.} Thotr appearance is sinitnlar. in 
mmj patta covered with basalt, IsTt-ashes, 
tnae* of rolranic emptions, find other mins of 
arivr, they posaefs a rioh altarial soil. Be- 
aaaik tbe ettrfaoe , the iiiteriul fires of the earth 
■■' IB wmtinnHl aotirlty. — Juk»'t Indian 
JnkifA^ Fol. I. p. 103. 
. The Arefctpelago eoiitaina tbi%e islands, New 
BiliMa^ BoTMo and Sumatra, nf the Rrst class, 
Mmria sise only to Australia ; Java tnkes 
• momi place : three of third siEe, CelebM, 
%mim, aed UiwlaDM, enchas larfs n th« 
mmi considenible of ilie West Imliaii proitp ; 
aarf cf ■ fourth size at least sisieen,— I'.ali, 
Lwiibok, SxmbawB, Chmidaiia, FIoi-p3 or Mar- 
(twai, Timor, Ceram, Bourn, Oilol", Piiliin-mi, 
N'csroa, S«niar, Mindoro, Panny, l^yte. .iiirj 
Zcba— inoat of them with spacious nlhivial 
Iraels, navigable rivers, and iii'j':b tiaturet 
nd»». The groups and chains in which they 
are distribulod are ilispersed over nnrrow sbhS 
■ith the Knealer islands intervening. Iniiume- 
nMe channels and pasanges, therefore, open 
'■•Very direction to the ninriner, — tortuous, 
r, full of rooks, reefs, and shonia, wliicli 
r Ifcfin In some parts dilR^Jult of nnvifra- 
. {Grwl, MonileuT, i. 53.) Tliev an 
uaa dangierOMS, however, bv tiie priiVHilio; 
» of Ihe Wnlers, tbe regularity of the rur- 
wd Uie steadiness of tiie winds. Tre< 
s storms, indeed, called typhoons, oixn- 
■lly vnit IboStraileotMHlaceflit&'cTnc^ai'/tr't 


Vofa{fe, I. 274.) over tha China Sea ; but they 
sre rare, and thfc islundi of the interior re<tion 
may be said to lie atuid perpetual calms. The 
groups known as the islands of the ArafHra 
sen eunsist of the Tenimbcr, the Ki,' and the 
Arm groups, with others of interior sijiuiR- 
canoe. They are scattered over a considerable 
space of sea, aad vary in siie from seventy 
milea in leni;th to mere tufta of verdure float- 
ing in the aea, like baakirU of grass and flow- 
ers, crowned by tall dumps of palm, and dis- 
persing through the atmOspbefe a fragrance 
like that of the oinnamon gaidens in Ceylon. 

The Tenimber group oanslst* of many islands, 
inhabileit by a curious race of people, half 
savage in manner, whose villages, built on limo' 
atone bills, near the shoi^> combine with the 
varying outlines of the surface, the fresh and 
green aspect of tbe interior slopes, and the blue 
water in the cbnnuels between, to preseut a 
graceful prospect to the navijtator's eve, rarely 
equalled. Eanal in hiimance.—John'i Indian 
Archipelago, Vol- ii. e. 87, 88. 

The contrast which the volcanio Islands of 
the Archipelago afford whencompnrrd with the 
continent of Australia is very strikingly pre- 
sented to the view of a voyager from Port 
Eaaiugton, crossing for tlie first time the sea 
that separates tbe continents of Alia And Aus- 
tralia. Even before he baa lost aouodlnga on 
the great bank which extends from tbe northetil 
shores of the latter continent, the lofty rooun* 
tainsof Timor rise up before him. As he neara 
the land the colour of the water luddenly 
changes from green tO tleep blue ; he has now 
paneil the steep edge of the baak, and ia float- 
ing on the uttfatbomable sras wbioh bouod tiM 
valeanio latande of the Archipelago. On closer 
Ktamiuation he fiuds that the land of Timor 
rises aiirupt^ from the depths of the ocean, ao 
much so, that from siany of the precipicea 
whioh overbang the sea, a line of great leniitU 
will not reach the boltoo), while, the very few 
spota on which anchorage is to befoabd areie 
dose to the sbore as to be available only when 
the wind Uaws from the land. And to com- 
plete the contrast, if the weather is olanr wa 
peroeive that one of the mouQtains near tha 
east end of Timor is an active volcano. Tbe 
chain of Islands which extends ffom Java to 
Timor is of the »ime character ; Lofty volcamc 
peaks, some in a state of activity ; while tha 
Islands ara separated from eaufa other by nar- 
row clisnuels of unfathomable depth, througli 
which the current from the Pacific, caused by 
the prevalenea of easterly winds, rushes with 
great force ; but on pasnag theso the voyager 
again perceives a chatige in the colour of tbs 
sea froDi deep blue to green, and, on aouadinx 
be finds a bottom of stiff clayey mud, resem- 
bling: exactly that of the bank, whteh franta the 
northern coaata of Australia. He ia now on tha 



ireiRi bank which exteodt ft'om 11^ ftOulh« 
eastern exiremiiy of Asia far into the sei^s of 
iba Indian Archipelago* The laUnda )nom 
losfi tbeir volcacio cbaraoter^ and on arriv* 
iog at Singapore^ near the extremity of the 
Malay Peninsula^ the general resemblance of 
tb^ country to that in the neigbbourhopd of 
Port Esaiogton is auffieient to strike the moat 
careks« observer. The land loir and undu« 
latiiig ; the sliore with red oliffs alternating 
«?ith aandy beaohes ; eren the rocks of the led 
iron-stone known to Indian geologists by the 
name of iat«ri(e, are perfectly in character with 
^hci country of the Cobni*g Peninsula, and even 
on closer examination little difference can be 
diaoovered except in the vegetation* 

Timor is a word which means the east, and 
was probably imposed on this island by the 
Malays, to whose language it belongs, because 
this was the extreme limit of their ordinary 
commercial voyages to the south-east. Timor 
is about three tiines the extent of Jamaica. Its 
|)rin€ipal inhabitants are of the Malayan race, 
but it contains also Papuans or Negroes, and 
tribes of the intermediate race. The two lan- 
guages of Timor are the Manatoto and the 
Timuri, the first spoken at the north-east end 
of the island, and the last used by many of the 
tribes as a common medium of intercourse. No 
l^lphabet has ever been Invented in Tirauf ; but 
judging by the specimens of its languaees, the 
vowels are the same ae those of the Malay and 

From Timor to Kcwl Guinea, there runs a 
long chain of islets, forming; aa it were, a wall 
or barrier to tho aoath^astein portion of the 
Archipelago* la these taleU the inhabitai^s 
«<re of tbe same race with the Malaya, and apedc 
many langoagea. By far the most ample 
and authentic aoeonnt of them has been given 
by Mr. Windsor Eari, who, after a longer ex« 
perienoa of the countries in whioh they are 
epokea tlian any other European, makes the 
foUowiiig observations : ** In tbe south-eastern 
parts of the Indian ArDhipela|i;o, where oppotf- 
tanities of social tnteroourse between the vari- 
ous petty ta-ibe^ are of rare ocevrrence, every 
island,, every detached group of villages, has its 
own peculiar dialeet whieh is often uninteili«i- 
bie even to the tribes in its immecriate neigh- 
bourhood. In some of the laiigei iaiands, Timor, 
for example, these tribes are so numeioas^ ami 
tbe country occupied by many ol them so ex« 
tensive, that it becomes impossible to form even 
an approximate estimate of their number." Of 
one ianguage^ the prevailing one, among several 
k&nguagee of the island of Kisa, one of the 
Sarawati groups in the chain of islets . already 
mentioned, Mr. Earl furnished a curious aid 
instructive vooabulary of 83iO words. The 
Kisa is aa unwritten tongue, but its vowels 

are the same as those of tbe Malay and la- 


The Spioe Islands, in the Holuoos and Banda 
seas, consist of many islands and numerous Ian- 
gauges. Next .to Java of which they form e 
sub-government^ the Moluccas are the most 
impoitant of the. Dutch possessions in India*. 
The islands to whioli this term is applied are 
Amboyna, Bands, Teriate, Tidore and smaller 
islands in their neighbourhood. Tbe islands 
am small, volcanic, unproductive in gram, but 
fertile in fine spiees. But the moustrous. 
policy of the Dutch nation in their greed to 
secuie a monopoly of this dasas of producitf 
led then^ for years, to root up and destory* at 
a great cost, often by force of arms, every 
nutmeg or clove tree not required for the pvo* 
duction of that quantity of spices which they 
calculated they could dispose of. Rosingsint, 
near Baadai was almost abandoned after ihmf 
extirpation of its spice trees, iis people emi* 
grating to the> neighbouring islands in searah 
of livelihood. TUe people sre of the U»la> an 
race, short, squat and darker ia complexiMit 
than the Malays or Javanese. The Amboinese* 
are of a middling beight and well formod* Theji 
sre gentlcb very sober, brave^ easily manage^ t 
and make good mounted and foot soldiers tm4\ 
a oonsi<>enible number of them have embraeedr- 
chriatianity. Bands is very unhe8Uhy«. aacb 
is subject to frightful eartiiq^akee. Wkeiif 
first diaoovered by Europeans, the inbabiiantAr 
had made considerable advance in civilisation ;.' 
although still inueb inferior to thst of the Uslaj«( 
and Javanese* Sir Stamford Baffles has fur^i 
nished specimens of three of tbe languages ^ 
this furthest east portion^ \\z ; tbose oif Ceram^ 
cortectiy Serang, of Temate, cofrectly Tarnate^ 
anil of Saparnwa, one of the BsiKia iales. OQ 
28 words of the language of Cemm^ nine oCi 
the words are Malay, two Javi^iese, and 17 ar^ 
noipmon to these two li\nguages. Ceram Lautt 
is the great place to which the Bogis oarry tkoti 
Papuan slsYca whom they steal from 

The great group of the Philippinea,e)tbou 
eonliguous to the proper Indian Archipel 
differa materially in olimate and the ma 
of its inhabitants. It eiitcHda over fifle^ 
degrees, from nesr latitude d** to %Q**. N., a 
consists of many islanda of which only 
snd Mindanao are of great sise. The bulk fttf. 
the people are of the same tawny com 
lank haired, short and squab raee» ea the pri 
cipal inhabitants of the weetem portion of t 
Indian Archipelago. The foeus of the ab 
ginal eivilization of the Fhilipptnes, as.miffb 
be expeeted, has been the main island of 
group, Lu€Qa» This is a oorruption of t 
Malay and Javanese word ** Issung," 
a rtee-mortav. The Spaaiardis are said to ha 
ari^ed the name of the iskttd« and tha nitfciy 







«1k> etrUinly bad none, tbiuklng tbej meant a 
liee^mortjiry wbicb was beibre tbe speakers at 
t^ tioMi answered accordingly. In the Pbi- 

mudi to resemble^ tbe brown oonplesidDed raeo 
of the Archipebigo, of wbem the Mqlays are 
the type. According to Latham, tbe western 

Are many separate nations or tribes I coast of Formosa is occupied to a great extenf 

ipeakiog dialiiict languages, nninUlligible to 
cscb odi0r. Tbe prinoipai languages of Lucon 
aie the Ta^^ala, tbe PampangSi the Paiigasinan, 
tmi the liooo, spoken at present by a popu. 
latioA of 2,250i000, while the Bisaya has a 
tfidoeiuTeiicy among the southern islands of 
Ue group. Leyte, Zebo» Ne^ros, and Panay, 
esaUsning l,X0O,aO0 people. Mr. Crawfvrd 
Utts as that it iioes not appear, from a com* 
pirisoo of tha phonetic character, and gram- 
■atieal atroetiire of the Tagala, with those of 
Ifsiay ami Javanese, that there is any ground 
i» Cncyiiig them to be one and tbe same Inn- 
gasge or languages sprung from a common 
psMai, and oa^ diversified by tbe effects of 
^km and diatanoe, and an examination of the 
Bisaya Dietioaary gives similar results. 

Tbeipcat: islands of Mindanao, Palawansr, 
Sid tbe Sulu gionp of islets, forming the 

limits of the Philippine Archipelago, 
many natious and tribes speaking many 
laagvagea of wbicb little has been published. 
Ml. Crawford, on the information from Kr. 
Miymple, informs us that even in the little 
of the Sulu islands, a great many dilfer- 
laaicttages are spoken, and he gives a shi^rt 

of 88 words of one of those most 

Saltt baa fmr many years been tbe market 
vbm ihe Lanna ami other pirates disposed 
if maeh of tbeir plunder, and in former times 
MmM was decidedly piratical. The mahomedan 
nude mueb progress in Mindanao 
iba Siloe ialands, aa baa the Malay Ian-* 
§nn the ueual cfaanoel through wbicb it baa 
Ktifi tisei been propagated over the islands 
«l|heUiaa Archipelago. Mr. Grawfurd re- 
mnAi iJbt whether the principal languages of 
Ifct fbilippittes be separate and distinct 
or mere dialects of a common languaire 
i-a^ofaiMMi not easy to determine. Certainly, 
m fkonetio character of tbe Tagala, the 
tbe Pampangan, and iloco are, sound 
or letter for letter, the same. Words 
Mafaiyan Unguages aie to be found in 
of the aboriginal inhabitants of 
or Taiwan , and as this large island, 
kalf aa big as Ireland, stretches as far 
aa tbe 85^ of latitude this is the e&tieme 
SB a aertherly direction to which they 
laaabed* Tbe aborigines: of iEormosa are 
lA ilatan^ of tawny complexion and 
Allboat b inhabiting a great and 
iaiMid, affording to all appearance a fair 
af det elopment, they never made 
ia civilintion, and at present 
Kt# ia a ilateof barbarism. They are 
iHf Mf' Crawfurd to beioi^ to, or 

by recent settlers from China s but tbe interion 
is occupied by several rude tribes whose }aB*i 
guage differs from tbe known Formosa. Tbe 
archipebigo of cral islands on the nonfat 
side of the Straits of Snnda is remarkable* 
A similar group of islands is fouitd between 
tbe Straits of Macassar and Bali. ^«/4r*aea« 
Mamry*$ Thyhioal Qtograpkif p. 80.) 

Tbe south-eastern extr<>me of Java, the south 
point of Bali, and the Banditti Irlands in the 
Straits of Lombok, are all upheaved table laQds> 
bounded by precipituous limestone cliffs, several 
hundred feet in elevation. Areas of simple up* 
heaval are found on tbe north side of the vol- 
canic band at Flat island, Eusa Badgi and 
Linuit, and at the Iron Cape of Flores, when 
on the south coast of Java. It is thua described 
in Dr. Uorsfield't " Mineralogical Sketch of 
the Island of Java" which is inserted in the 
i^entrnl map of that island by Sir Stamford 
Raffles, in his " History of Java." " Exten- 
sive district of secondary volcanoes mixed with 
hills of limestone, especially near the sesi 
where the limestone rocks are piled up to 
great heights — basis basalt and wacken, brec-^ 
cia in the beds of rivers ;•— alao porphyry, 
jasper, comelinn, agate, obsidian. In some 
places quarts appearing in the well known mi^ 
neral forms of rock-crystals, prase ov amerhyst: 
The intercourse between continental Asia and 
the islands of the archipelago dates from a 
veiy remote period. Their rare products weri 
in request in China and India long before they 
werd heard of in Europe. Camphor and apices, 
two of tbe most esteemed productions id i\ktkik 
islands, were used by the Chiaese two thousand 
years ago, the one for diffusing an aromatie 
fragrance through tbeir temples, the other as 
indispensable condiments in their feasts. A 
hindoo empire long fiourisbed in Java, where 
many megniiiGent ruins still atftst its duraitioa 
and greatness. The Arabs subsequently eained 
a footini; there, as well as in the other istamla 
of tlie arcbipelag'>, and gradually supplanted 
the religion and governmenta of India. The 
Malays are now tbe dominant raoe, and th^ 
have reduced, where it was possible, the aborts 
ginal population to slavery. Tlie Malay kinir^ 
dome have generally perished ; but tbe Mabiy 
people remain, and constitute the mast encrge* 
tic portion of the inbabitaats, pesaesaing virtuca 
which, developed by a firm and bbnticent 
government, naigbt raise them bigh in the scale 
of civilization. {QjMjrt^ly Rmem, N9. 228) 
p. 4A«.) 

Tbe islands of tbe Pacific extend from tbe fiSt 
of New Guiuea and tbe Khilippines, to w>ithin 
two thousand five hundred miles of the weatem 




eoASt of AmericA, and from about the £3^ of | 
norths to the 47'' of south latitude. The 
lanfTQAges spokeu oyer this vast area are, pro- 
bably, nearly as numerous as the islands them- 
selves. A language, with variations is spoken 
by the same race cif men from the Fiji group 
west to Easter Island eastward, and from the 
Sandwich islands north to the New Zealand 
island south. It has b^en* called the Polynesian. 
The whole number of Malayan words in tite 
Maori dialect of the Polynesian, as they are 
exhibited in William's Dictionary, only amount 
to 85. — [Orawfurd Malay ffram. and Die, Vol, 
I p,l to cxlu Mr. Lagnn in JourniLl Indian 
^rthtpelaffo Nos.from 1848 io 1858.) 

Notwithstanding the numerous languages in 
(he A'-chipelago, the written characters are 
only eight or at most nine in number. The 
Javanese alphabet like all others in the Archi- 
pelago is written from left to ri^ht, each 
letter is distiuct and unconnected, and the 
writing is perpendicular and not slanting. It 
is the character used for the Javanese proper, 
the Sunda, the Bali, and it is believed the Lorn- 
bok ; and including Palemban^ in Sumatra^ it 
IB current among twelve millions of population. 
But, in prior. times, other characters totheextent 
of twelve in number, have prevailed in Java* 

In Sumatra, beginning from the west, the 
first evidence of a native written character 
is among the Bataks, and it is singular that a 
nation of cannibals should possess the know- 
ledge of letters. There was assuredly nothing 
of the kind in Europe or continental Asia until 
|ong after men had ceased to eat each other. The 
|orm of the Batnk letter is horizontal. 

The Korinohi alphabet, among the people of 
this name in Bumatra, who border on Menimg- 
kabau, haa 29 characters and consists of hori- 
xootal or slightly raised scratching. 

The Kejang, is the alphabet of Lemba and 
Pasummah on ihe western side of Sumatra. It 
consists of 23 substantive characters, formed 
of upright scratches or strokes, and on the 
whole ii Is more complete than either the Batak 
or Korinohi. 

The Lampunii^ nation, which occupies that 
portion of the southwestern side of Sumatra 
which lies opposite to Java, divided from it 
only by the Straits of 8unda, has its own pe- 
culiar alphabet, which consists of substantive 
loiters with double or lueble consonants making 

In Celebes, are two distinct al|(»habets, one of 
thfm the Bugis, at present in U8( over the 
whole island which extends to Bouton and 
Sumbawa and wherever the Bugis nation have 
settled or colonized. The modern Bugis hss 
23 substantive characters consisting raostlv of 
small segments of circles, running horizontttlly. 
The Bugis letters have no resemblanee to those 
of Sumatra, or Java, or even to the obsolete 
alphabet of Sumbawa. The other alphabet of 
Celebes, is now obsolete. 

The ninth and last alphabet of i\» Arebk 
pelago is the Philippines, that of the Tag^k 
nation of the great island of Lucon or Luconit, 
aud consists of 1 3 characters. It is the only 
one existing in the whole of this group, and 
seems at one time to have been used among 
the civilized tribes of the neighbouring islandi 
having spread even to Magindanau and Sula« 
The forms of the letters are rather bold and 
more complex than that of Sumatran alphabets. 

In the Archipelngo, thus, are nine distinct 
alphabets, every one of which appears to be 
a separate and i( native invention. But (bey 
are not only distinct from each other ; tbqr 
differ equally from all foreign alphabets. 

These nine alphabets of the Archipelago an) 
the produce of five large islands only, out of ibo 
innumenible ones which compose it. The 
most fertile and civilized island, Java, bat 
produced the most perfect alphabet, and that 
which has acquired the widest diffusion. Th9 
entire great group of the Philippines has pro- 
duced, and that in its greatest and most fyc* 
tile island, only a single alphabet. 

The distribution -of the existing forms e( 
mammals throughout the Indian Archipelago 
may thus be indicated : commencing with 
the species common in Asia at the pit^ 
sent day, and excluding those which mtff 
have been introdnced in a domesticated stat«^ 
such as the horse, dog, kine, and deer, ib> 
common brown monkey has penetrated fartbari^ 
from the continent of Asia, as it extendif 
through Sumatra and the Trans- Javan chailf 
to the eastern extremity of Timor ; hvX All 
thirty miles of strait which separi^ies tbM 
island from Letti seems to have stopped iti 
further progress, for it is not f^und iii a m\t 
state in the Serwatty Group. To the Dortb; it 
extends through Borneo and Celebes, and il 
found in a single island of the Moluoea sfS^ 
Batchian. Tbil' atiima), from its habit of fi>n> 

them up to 44. It has a great deal of that quenting the banks of Hvers, is very liab}eU| 

angular linear and meagre form which charac 
terisses the other Sumatra alphabeta. 

The Achin and Malay of Sumatra are writ* 
ten in the Arabic character. 

The Bima alphabet, formerly in use amongst 
the Bima people in the island of Sumbawa, 
east of Sumatra and Java, has now given way 
to the alphabets of the Celebes* 

be carried out to sea in the masses of dtm 
which are sometimes detached from the bank! 
by the current, and its extensive distributM 
n^ay be attributed to this caoae. In Bornfi 
the elephant co-exists with the hUck bai9 
(Ursns Malayanus) ; the Felis macrocelis, 4i; 
Sumatra gigantic Tiger Cat,* and so mof 
varieties of the quadrumanes that Iheiiriatro' 




laeiioii can scarcely hive been AetndentaK In 
Java, the Rhiooceros^ tbe Boyal Tiger, the 
Wild Ox of the Malayan Peninsula and several 
virif ties of the smaller qnadniroanes, still exist 
ia tlie jungles. Sumatra and the Peninsula con- 
fain every form of mammal found in Jnva and 
Borneo, with the addition of the Tapir. These 
fsets woald go to prove that Jhvs, Borneo, and 
flumatra continued attached to the continent of 
Asia, at a comparatively recent epoch. The 
common brown monkey is the only member of 
tbe family of quadrumanes that has reached 
Cdebes und Bali, although the strait which 
«panitea tbe latter island from Java is only 
two miles wide. 

' The marsnptalia range from Australia to* 
wards the continent of Asia. A variety of the 
KanfTiToo fmacropns}, two varietes of the 
Opossum (didelphis), one of which closely re- 
spmblen tbe Sing Tailed Opossum of New 
Ssvlh Wales (Phalankista Cookii), one varie- 
ty of the Das>uru9, the Native Gat of the 
colonists of New South ^ales and Port 
Bsnugf on : and one variety of the small Flying 
OpeesBm, have been found in the southwest 
fait of New Guinea ; and singularly enough 
the Kangaroo has adapted himself to the half 
dtoned nature of the country by inhabiting 
Iht trees* A variety of the Knngaroo Btlli 
azisia at Arm Island, which seems to be iilenti- 
alvith tbeamall Grey or ''Brush" K.AngAToo, 

^B tbe thickets througiiout Australia. 

is the " Filander" of Valentyn. The 

bj which it is known in the Moluccas is 
Filandook." In Ceram, tbe Rin((-tailed Op- 

i,'llhe Native Cat,the Flying Opossum, and I 

Vittk Flying Squirrel, all marsupials, and 

^Btieal ia. appearance and habits with those 

attend throughout Australia, hold un- 

tf a pat a i possession of the forest treea. Tbe 

Ih^-taikd Opossum, which is the most iiume- 

nm, as in Kew South Wales, is a common pet 

Htoa^hont the Holucc<i8. The opossum, more 

^BlcisI]y the Ring-tailed variety which inhabits 

Im%Is the most hardy of marsupiHls, that is 

Hwij ha geographical tange is farther extend- 

StlsD that of any other pouched animal. The 
ir'Opoasnm and the native cat (Dasyurus 
i)are the only varieties of this ancient 
of mammals that have not retreated be* 
Eoropean quadrupeds that have been 

Shseed into the southern districts of Aus- 
; the mere presence of a flock of sheep, 
at their usual attendant, the dog, being 

It to drive tbe Kangaroos from the 

The tree Opossums are not liable to 

rbed by any animals less agile than the 

as they are never seen oti the ground 

when tbroivn out of the trees while 

and then they scramble up again as 

thigr eao* The consequence is that the 

rO^otMudsnow abound in the settled dis- 

tricts of Australia to an extent that oonld not 
have happened previous to the amval of £uro^ 
peans, when the aborigines kept down their 
numbers by draieging them out of their nests in 
the hollows of trees to serve as food. Even 
the presence of the monkey is not fatal to the 
Iree-Opossums, aa ia evident from their ^co* 
existing in Timor and in pan of South America. 
The Musang or Mungrjose of the Western parte 
of the Archipelaao, will prove fatal both to the 
tree-Oposium and to the Native cat, whenever it 
comes to be introduced to Australui, as it can 
enter the hollows of the trees and destroy thedft 
in their nest s. The tree-Opossums of Australia 
feed on the leaves and tender shoots of the 
Eucalyptus. In the Molnccas, where the Euoa* 
lyptus is rare, if found at ail, the tree opossums 
feed on the leaves of the Warringin and Lingoa 
trees, and on the outer bark of the Kanari. As 
the two first exist in the Malay Peninsula, the 
latter under the name of Angsannah, the ab» 
sence of the tree Opossum from this part of the 
Archipelago cannot be attributed to want of 
suitable food. An examination of the limestone 
caverns in the northern part of the Malay 
Peninsula, with a view to the discovery of fossil 
remains of mammals, might be attended with 
very interesting results, for although the rock 
has been of subaqueous formation, as evidenced 
by the existence of fosail shells, still the remains 
of mammnls mny be found there, as well as la 
the caverns of the same formation in Australia* 
Such an examination is not necessary to shew 
that mareupialr once existed on the continent 
of Asia, that point having been deci«led by theit 
af>pearance in the fecondary beds of Europe ; 
still it would be a matter of great interest to 
science were their remains discovered in the 
Southern parts of Asia. * 


The Malay nn name is ^' kusu'' which h^a 
been latiiiieed by the old Dutch naturalists into 
" Cuscas," and adopt* d by modern zoologists. 
In Timor the Ring- tailed Opossum is common 
in the Southern parts of the island. The only 
marsupial that has yet been traced in Celebes 
is the Flying Oposeum, but the zoology of this 
island still remains to he explored. The Zoo* 
logical connection of Java, Sumatra, and Borneo, 
with the eoDtinent of Asin, is as distinct as that 
of Timor, Ceram, and New <iuinea, with the 
continent of Australia. Probahly Celebes will 
be added to tlie Australian group. The infer* 
ences to be drawn from these facts must be 
eelf-evideut. The difstinct character of the 
mammalian forms exisiting in tbe countries 
lying on the Great Asiatic Bank, shew that 
Borneo, Java, and Sumatra, were attached to 
the continent of AMa by an unsubmericed range 
at a period long subsequent to the separation 
of Australia ; which would imply that the curved 
band that passes fVom Formosa through the 




Phinppines, tiia Mokoeat/ Java and Sumikihi, 
-is the most rooent line of rolcanie action* 
* Produciive CAorcc/tfr.—- The primary ranges 
10 South-eastern Atja and the Indian Arohipe- 
bgo are all more or less metalliferotts, but the 
labour of working under ground, an4l extract- 
ing the metals from the matrix, is so unsaited 
to the habits of the natives, that mining opera- 
tions are only carried on in those countries 
which are subjected to despotic governments. 
:L**ad mines are worked in that part of the Ma- 
foyan Range which traverses the kingdom of 
jAva ; and copper mines have been opened in 
Ihe Anara or Coohiti Chinese range, the produce 
<»f which is equal in quality to South American 
ojpper, but inferior to that of Japan. The pro- 
iduee of these mines has been imported into 
fiiugapore, that of Anam in considerable quan- 
iitiea, but the cessation of commercial inter- 
course has put a stop t6 the importation. Iron 
is also smelted from the native ores on the wes- 
tern side of the Auam range, and it is likewise 
said tliat silver mines are worked, but the cor- 
vectness of the report cannot be vouched for. 
£lsewbere, in this region, mining operations are 
bonfined to the eoUection of metals that havr 
been projected fiom the original site by subter- 
jranean heat, whieh can be traced distinctly to 
recent voleanic action. The tin of the Malay 
iP^niasula, Banka, and Billiton, and the gold of 
Ae Peninsula, Borneo and Celebes, are all col* 
Jedted from the detritus in which the projected 
metal has been deposited. Lead aud antimony 
ores are found in the Cambodian Range to the 
ttorth of Kampot, but no mines have been 

The excessive fertility of soil which cha- 
jraetecises the narrow band in which the vol- 
canic stream is still active, does not extend 
to the areas in which the circulation has 
ice^sed. Nevertheless the fertilizmg qualiues 
(Of decomftosed limestone have aided in form- 
ing a soil better adapted for the growth of 
|)roduce necessary for the sustenance of man 
ihaa the richy fat, soils of the volcanic bands. 
3Ciii£«^, upland rice, yams, and other esculent 
xoots here attain perfection, and the nourishing 
qualities of the produce are apparent in the 
.superior vigour of the inhabitants of areas of 
up-iieaval. The wheat grown in the uiilands of 
Timor is remarkably rich in gluten, although 
I be small size of the grain gives it an unfavour- 
able appearance in European eyes. The culti- 
'Vation of produce adapted for oommerce is still 
in its infancy, owing to the lands of this forma- 
,tion having hitherto been neglected in favour 
of volcanic tract*, but its propects are by no 
^eans disheartening. The coffee, cotton, cacao^ 
<and hemp ^Musa textilis), growing on the up- 
heaved arQat, are the best produced in the 
Ai<)hipelago ; although the soil is not calcu- 
Ifitfii to prpdttoe sugar, or spice equal to that 

of th6 volcanic band. The mineral wealth of 
these areas is, however, more calculated to at- 
tract European enterprise. Coal hss been 
found whenever it has been sought for with 
-diligence in spots favourable for.iis deposit : — 
iron ore of excellent quality is abundant where 
the line of upheaval has crossed primaiy 
ranges ; — and limestone, so necessary as a flux 
in smelting the metals, is found everywhere, se 
that the large areas possess those elements, that 
have mainly contributed to the prosperity of 
Great Britain. Fortunately, the gold deposits 
in the western parts of the Archipelago are now 
pretty well exhausted, and in the more remote 
regions, Timor, and possibly Samba, are the 
only spots hi which the steady course of indus^ 
try is likely to be interrupted by the search for 
precious metals. The native chiefs of the 
former island, terrified by the rapacity of thf 
early European navigators, are said to have 
combined in establishing a law whieh mad^ 
searching for gold a capital crime, except oil 
occasions in which it was thought proper to 
propitiate the deities by the dedicatioo of a 
Bulan Mas or golden moon, when a hnaaan be- 
ing was sacrificed to the spirits of the mines 
before the gold could be collected^ 

This ceremony is probably alluded to in tbs 
Account of Timor," published In Mr. Moors 
Notice of the Indian Archipelago, Appendix^ 
p. 6. The name of its author is not givan^ 
but after diligent enquiry, and firona the 
tenor of his remarks he must have rrtaABi 
some time at Conpang, and collected his kSmit' 
mstion concerning the more remote island from 
parties employed in the commerce of its d^ 
pendencies ; other wise he could not have desF 
cribeii Sumba as a low island, not much higher 
than Madura. Nevertheless the generii coi^ 
rectness of his observations, is atoertaiaed. 

The productive character of the volcanie 
area is totally distinct from that of the pck* 
mary formations. With ti>e exception fi| 
gold, which is found scattered in ainu|| 
particles in the beds of the mountain streamy , 
no single production of the primary areas w^; 
pays the labour of collection. This defieiencgf : 
is amply compensated by the surpassing ric& 
iiess of the soil produced from the volcanip 
rock, which dt composes rapidily before the inr 
fluenoe of the atmospheie. The natural pror 
duclions are unimportant, the nutmeg, wbidi 
is scattered over that portion of the band wks^ ^ 
approaches the continent of Australia, beifM[| 
almost the sole exception. But the docility. «r| 
the native inhabitants proved to be such tl^i 
they were easily coerced to labour, and \mt\ 
curved volcanic band which traverses the Arck^i 
pelago became studded with European settli^i 
ments throughout its length and breaclU(»: 
which now vield the great bulk of the prodaf|ft 



exported from'ilie Indian Archipelago. In the 
Borthem pari of the Philippines, the famed 
Manilla tobacco is the chief produotion ; sugar 
piaaUtionSy which supply the Australian colo- 
UB^ occupy the centre ; and the Musa teitilis 
which jfields the Manilla Hemp is the chief pro- 
duct d the south. Spices are almost the sole 
prodaction of the Dutch settlements of the 
Holaeessy inferior articles being neglected, as 
ii the case in countries which produce gold. 
Some islands east of Java are stilL independent 
of Earopean control, and these yield produc- 
tiooa tailed to the wants of the natives to such 
aaexteot as to give rise to an export trade with 
ill patta of the Archipelago. In Java, coffee, 
ssgar, rice, and tobacco, are the most import- 
ist arlicles, the two first being exported to 
EoflaDd ia immenae quantities. Coffee and 
pepper are the chief products of Sumatra, 
viiere the soil is less fertile than in some of 
the other islands of the band. The volcanic 
agniey here becomes comparatively weak, and 
is eoDfined to the outer coast of the island ; 
wisere, being backed by an area of upheaval, the 
greater portion of the alluvium descends into 
the tea and is lost. Sufficient data do not 
^sst to deiiDe the area of upheaval which 
ifiterfenes between the volcanic l>and and 
the north-eastern coast from the neighbour- 
hood of Palcmbang northward, but its exist- 
enec is distinctly shewn in the detritus brought 
own by the rivers. It is probably owing to 
wtt nrcumstance that the alluvial plains of 
wtri which abut on the Great Asiatic 
ware less fertile than those of Java, where 
MS aUBTinm almost exclusively consists of de- 
»»po%d Toicanic rock. 

An overland journey was made with a large 

^y to Filaranjc in the island of Coopang 

•M iboadaDce of copper was found, but the 

"wata iid been ao broken up, that mining 

y«**M coold not have been prosecuted with 

JJU"Ne (See Journal I. A.V0I. IV. p. 495.) 

*« ttpoted gold deposits, which lie on the 

*M||s aide of the island, were not examined. 

2F|»9iiver in a pure state is sometimes 

^'^ht to Coupang by natives from the inte- 

^i and as the collection from the hollows of 

2 2^^* in which it is deposited does not en- 

*"• wy labour, it might become an article of 

*J*«we were its value known. 

^*< edible nest which is constructed by the 

Wado esculenta in the caverns of the lime- 

^ difffl, is found throughout the areas of 

Wk oplttaval. but not elsewhere ; so that 

tviiDgaUr production, which from its value 


'furnished the principal arlicles of commerce 
supplied by the primary region. Agaraj^ar, a 
marine lichen extensively used in China, trepnng 
or sea slug, and mother of pearl shell, are com- 
mon to both ,bauks, but the Australian bank is 
by far the most productive, probably from its 
not having yet been so extensively worked as 
the Asiatic. — {JFalionU State^ ;?. 116.) 

There are five different seas recognised by Eu- 
ropean Geography within the limits of the Indi- 
au Archipelago; viz. : the wide expanse between 
Borneo and the Malay Penisnla ; anottier be- 
tween Borneo and Java, called the Java Sea ; 
another between Celebes and Timor ; the Sea of 
Celebes between that island, Sulu and Mindanao ; 
and the fifth, a basin of considerable extent be- 
tween the Philippines, Palawan and Borneo. 
Around all these flow, on the west, the Bay of 
Bengal and the Indian Ocean {8i. John* 8 Indian 
Archipelago, FoL 1. p. 4, 5.) Banks of sound- 
ings extend from the continents of Asia snd Aus- 
tralia, and form very remarkable features in the 
geography of this part of the world ; and, as 
such, are deserving of more attention than has 
hitherto been bestowed upon them, since it will 
be found that all the countries lying upon these 
banks partake of the character of the continents 
to which they are attached ; while those which 
are situated on the deep sea which separates 
them are all of comparatively recent volcanic 
formation with the exception of a few small 
coral Islands, which, in all probability, are 
constructed upon the summits of submerged 
volcanoes. Water spouts, in many parts are 
very frequent. But the wind often prevents 
their formation. In their stead the wind- 
spout shoots up like an arrow, and the sea 
seems to try in vain to keep it back. The 
sea, lashed into fury, msrks with foam the path 
along which the conflict rages, and roars 
with the noise of its water-spouis, and woe 
to the rash mariner who ventures therein. 
The height of the spouts is usually some- 
what less than 200 yards, and their diameter 
not more than 20 feet, but they are often taller 
and thicker ; when the opportunity of correctly 
measuriug them haa been favourable, however, 
as it generally was when they passed beiween 
the islands, so that the distance of their basis 
could be accurately determined, they have never 
been found higher than 700 yards nor thicker 
than 50 yards. In October, in the Archipelago 
of Uhio, they travel from south-west to north- 
east. They seldom last longer than five mi* 
nutes ; generally they are dissipated in less 
time. As they are going away, the bulbous 
tube, which is as palpable as that of a thermo- 
meter, becomes broader at the base, and little 
clouds, like steam from the pipe of a locomo- 
tive,'Bre continually thrown off from the circum- 
ference of the spout, and gradually the water is 

ildl iuown to those engaged in the commerce 
• tte ArehipeUgo, furnishes one of the best 
|Mi for deeidiog the character of the regions 
viliA it is found. 

J^toa very recent period the submerged ^ r — > — e — ^ — 

••fa which extend from Asia jind. Australia released. Jausen never saw more water-spouts 

I / 169 22 



than in tlie Archipelasfo of Bioun Singon, dur- | 
ing the changing. Almost dnily were seen one 
or more. In the north-east part of the Archi- 
pelago the east monsoon is the rainy monsoon. 
The phenomena in the north-east part are thus 
wholly different from those in the Java Sea. 
In the Archipelago there is generally high 
water but once a' day, and, with the equinoxes, 
tiie tides also turn. The places which have 
high water by day in one monsoon get it at 
night in the other.— (Ja/f*^. Maury's Phy- 
sical GeogropJiy, p, 247 to 250.) 

The transparency of the atmosphere is «o 
great that sometimes Venus can be discovered 
in the sky in the middle of the day. 

Especially in the rainy season the land 
looms very greatly ; then we see mountains 
which are from 5,000 to 6,000 feet high at a 
distance of 80 or 100 English mile8.-r-/ff»«f«. 
According to Dr. Latham, the islanders of both 
the Indian Ocean and the Pacific are Indians, 
Japanese or Malay. The Singhalese are In- 
dians ; the Luchu are Japanese ; and the na- 
tives of Sumatra and Borneo are Malay : 
Hainan, js Chinese. But in the Archipelago, we 
can never free our researches from continental 
elements. The history of the Natives along 
the southern borders of Asia, has in every era, 
exercised some influence on the Archipelago, 
and the importance of the international influ- 
ences of tlie Archipelago itself, may be sup- 
posed from the circumstance that while some 
writ€rs have derived Malayan civilization from 
an original- source in Menan^kabau, others 
have referred it to Java, and others to Celebes^ 
—whilst two of the ablest, — Mr. Marsden 
and Mr. Crawfurd have busied th^m8elves in 
endeavouring to exhume a great nation whose 
civilization preceded the Javanese, the Ma- 
layan and the Bugis, and impressed it- 
sdf more or less not only in the Archi- 
pelago but over all Polynesia. Mr. Craw- 
furd, in an essay " on the races and lan- 
guages of the Archipelago and Pacific Island," 
^hich was read to the British Association 
at its meeting at Oxford remarks that, *' The 
theory of Marsden adopted by Humboldt 
and others of one original language pre- 
vailing from Madagascar to Easter Island 
among all the nations not negro, and the iden- 
tity in race of the brown-complexioned men 
within the limits in question^ is wholly ground- 
less. In a dictionary of the Madagascar tongue, 
of 8,000 words, the number of Malay and Java- 
nese words is only 140; — in one of theNewZea- 
land, of 4,560 words, 103 ;— in a French one 
of the Marquesas and Omaii of 8,000 words, 
about 70 ; — ^and in a Spanish Dictionary of 
the Tagala of the Philippines of 900 words, 
about 300. These facts are of themselves al- 
most refutation sufficient to say nothing of 
tl'.o different phonetic and grammatical structure 


of all the lauinuages. Over the whold*va»t field 
under examination there are but two wide- 
spread latigaages that can be said to have 
dialects — the Malay and th^ Polynesian, the 
latter beini; essentially the same tongue in New 
Zealand, the Friendly, the Society, the Navi- 
gators and the Sandwich Islands, but in no 
others .^/otfnid^ of ike Indian ArcIUpelayo, 

P' 178.) 

Johore Jrehipdnyo. — An extensive Archi- 
pelago is formed by the prolongation of the 
plutonic zone of elevation of the Malay Penin- 
sula from Singapore to Billiton. It is so closely 
connected geographically with Johore as to ap- 
pear a continuation of it, partially submerged by 
the sea. These islands (with the exception of a 
few of the most southerly) formed the insular 
part of the kingdom of Johore from the thir- 
teenth centuty to the British occupation of 
Singapore in 1B18. 

The Johore Jrchipehyo embraces several 
hundreds of islets, besides the considerable is- 
lands of Battam, Bintang, Kriintin, Gampang, 
Gallat, Linga and Sinkep, and Banks and 
Billiton may also be considered as included itt 
it. They are geologically and ethnologicalljt 
although not geographically the same^ thinly in- 
habited by several interesting tribes. Some of 
these have already been slightly noticed by Datch 
writers, but the greater part still remain, 
undescribed. The more important tribes are 
those termed collectively Orang Persukuaiii 
literally the people divided into tribes. Tbey 
are all vassals of the King. Those of the higk^ 
est rank, to whom distinct services are appro- 
priated when the King goes to sea or engage 
in war, are the Oraing Bentan under an Ulnbai 
lang ; the Orang Singgera, under a Batin i the 
Orong Kopet under a Jinnang, the Orang Bulo 
and the Orang Linga « The other tribes, soma 
of the land and some of the creeks or sea. aie 
the Orang GiUm, Orang Bekak^, Orang Sng), 
Orang Kuro, Orang Tambus, Orang Mantaug^ 
Orang Kilong, Orang Trmiang, Orang Tambui; 
Orang Mantang, Orang Kilong, Orang Tinianf^ 
Orang Mnau, Orang Fulo Boya and Oi«a| 
SiUt. Besides these, there are some wild \vM 
in the interior of the larger islands. {9»/»pV. 
ment to No, 6 Journal ^ Indian Jrchipetaftp 
Dec, 1847, paye 836). 

The future intercourse of Anstralia widl 
the islands of the Eastern Archipelago «itt 
doubtless be very great, and a highly pitH 
fitable commerce cannot fail to spring tip 
between them. The rich produce of IW 
Guinea, of Ceram, and the islands to tl^ 

north and north-east of Timor, is now collected 
in the Arru Islands, and vessels belonging ti^ 
British and Chinese merchants annually rei0itf 

to them to obtain the commodities which thaf 

require in exchange for the manufactures of 

Europe ai^d oontineatal India, 


Tbe Jto^iri Archipelago is more or less 
Ma)i|. The number of the Silong or WAiider- 
iog fiibermen of the Malay Archipelago 
umnta to about 1»0C9 souls. 

The ArckipekigoM of the Ma1divei>y Chagos 
ud Laecadms are of Madrcporio origin. The 
Etstern Coast of Australia, between 9^ and 25^ 
S. L. has a coral reef or barrier. — HiiL of 
Jnij Tol. i. p. 62-3, (U. ed.) Ed, J. I. A. 
JTj. V, May 1848. Journal of the Indian 
ArSpdago, No. K, Mny W^%.—Latkonii 
Ihtfipthe El&Hology. - Farts ArcJdpelago. 
--Ad^eu to ike Anniversary Meeting of 
ikEoyttl Geographical Society^ 26lh Mag 
1845, hg Sir Roderick Impeg Mure^ison, 
II S.S. L 9. 8., ^<j. ^c, p. 76. Mr. Logan 
k Jmud of the Indian Archipelago f Sapp- to 
Kfj. 5, J>ee. 1847. do do do Nos. % ds ii, J^ang. 
U. 1854. p. 28-29.— Qttarttrlg Reoieto, No. 
Siij).484.'-/o^ji'« Mian Archipelago, Vol. 
t.^. 45-87-83. 108, Vol ii.p. 857. Crawfurd^s 
Utky Grammar and Dictionarg^ Vol i. pp,l 
to Ul* Mr. Logan in Journal Indian Archi" 
f^frm 1848 to 1858. Mauris Thgskal 
Qtpgnpkg, p. 80,2,44-248, George Windsor 
JW, w ho. vi. Jour, of the Indian Archipelago 
niladem Asia, Mag 1582, pages 244 to 
172. Crawfard's Indian Archipelago, Vol*^ 
WtUim*9 Slate. See India, Lumbok, Qaedab. 

AMHITECTURB, the recent advent of the 

BHtkk nition into India, the efforts needed to 

obUks standing place and the duty devolving 

u then of introducing public works, have all 

hitherto ]Nrevented them from engaging in works 

of onianental architecture. The Cupola of the 

Bfloteb Churcti at Madras, built by Colonel de 

Havilan) u good, and there are a few oruamen- 

UlbaiUjogs in Calcutta and Bombay. But, 

wefil public works, as the Ganges Canal, 

the SiBtherB Coast Canal, already extend- 

in; fiasni from the Brahmaputra and the 

Oops to the Western Coast, the great 

ItBi across the Oodayery, find the Kistnah, 

the taandiing of the Ganges and Indus, the 

Mdi, every where, from Cape Comorin to 

I^het, the rail roads, with their stupendous 

Ugei, and the irrigation canals, already in 

vvkoeas and in public usefulnessy surpass all 

^Ai]ftn Hindu, Buddhist, Moghul or Arab 

nddooe during their previous 3,000 years 

b( occapation. The Moghul dynasties of In- 

v» beyond palaces and tombs, porticos and 

toiples have left little Architecture wor- 

aj of emulation. There are a few useful 

MriiiDd bridges, but of these many were erect- 

•i by private persons. Canals are said to 

Jjw been excavated by Firoz Shah,. and by Ali 

Witt Khan, but the historians of Timur, do 

MfJneation them, and Baber states that in the 

Hnjlustan province there were none, --{Ef Hot's 



Captain Cunningham's in his Uisagon Aryan 
Arckiteelare menUons the Cashmerian sacred 
buildings as having a grace and beauty 
quite peculiar to themselves. Tliey are not, like 
theiJiindoo temples, " a sort of architectural 
pasty, a huge collection of ornamental fritters, 
huddled together with or without keeping." 
Nor are they, like the temples of the Jain religion 
—the intermediate eclectic system between Brah- 
minism and Buddism — " a vast forest of pillars, 
made to look as unlike one another as possible 
by some paltry differences in petty details." 
They are, ou the contrary, distinj2;ui8hed by 
great elegance of outline, massive boldness in 
the parts, and good taste in decoration. Lofiy 
pyramidal roofs, trefoiled doorways revered by 
pyramidal pediments, and gr^at width of inter- 
columniation, are among the principal features 
of the Cashmerian temple. The material ge- 
nerally found to have been used is a blue lime- 
stone, capable of taking the highest polish, to 
which circumstance Captain Cunningham re- 
fers the beautiful state of preservation in which 
some of the buildings exist. The great wonder 
of Cashmere is the temple of Marttaod, or 
Matan, about three miles from Islanuibad . Its 
exact age cannot be determined, but it is some- 
where between the years 370 and 500 a. d. 
and Captain Cunningham thus enthusiastically 
describes its majestic position ; lean almost fancy, 
he says, that the erection of this sun-temple wa? 
suggested by the magnificcut sunny piospect 
which its position commands. It overlooks the 
finest view in Kashmir, and perhaps in the 
known world. Beneath it lies the paradise of 
the East, with its sacred streams and cedar 
gleua, its brown orchards and green fields, sur- 
rounded on all sides by vast snowy mountains, 
whose lofty peaks seem to smile upon the 
beautiful vaUey below. The vast extent of the 
scene makes it sublime; for this magni- 
ficent view of Kashmir is no petty peep into a 
half-mile glen, but the full display of a valley 
sixty miles in breadth and upwards of a hundred 
miles in length, the whole of which lies be- 
neath *' the ken of the wonderful Mnrttand." 

The sculptures on every ancient Hindu tem- 
ple in India, however, throw some light on the 
subject of old costume. These temples are of no 
very great antiquity, are probably considerably 
within the christian era, but they furnish speci* 
mens of the local costumes of a thousand years 
ago ; and many temples in the south and west of 
India, as also in Guzerat and Orissa, &c., are 
known to belong to periods as early as a. d. 
500. But although groups of figures are 
numerous beyond description, their attire seems 
to be entirely conventional. Men, for the most 
part^ wear head-dresses in the form of conical 
crowns richly covered with ornaments ; their 
I bodies are naked, and their breasts and arms 
I show necklaces and armlets of very or.iate 




patierDS, From the loins to the knee, or roidiile 
of the thigh, they have in most instances kiits, 
as it were, also composed of ornaments ; and 
many are altogether naked^ both male and 
female, with a girdle of ornamental pattern 
round the loins. These figures abound among 
the sculptures of Ellora and to the thirteenth 
century ; also upon the ' Cholla' temples at 
Conjeveram, and elsewhere, probably of the 
same era. In the Jain sculpture the male 
and female figures are invariably naked ; 
but ornamented in general with necklaces, 
bracelets, armlets, and zones, of exceedingly 
intricate and beautiful patterns, in imitation, 
probably, of the chased goldwork of the period. 
The best representations of ancient costume 
in India were the celebrated fresco paintings in 
the caves of Ajunta, many of which continued 
until lately very perfect. In thebuddhist caves of 
Ellora some paintings in a similar style had been 
executed ; but they were destroyed by the maho- 
medans when they invaded the Deccan early in 
the fourteenth century, and it is extraordinary 
that those of Ajunta escaped their iconoclastic 
and fanatic zeaL They did escape however, 
and for many years Major Gill, of the Madras 
Army, was engaged by Government in copying 
them on their original scale.' The architecture 
and ornamentation of the temples of Southern 
India have lately been rendered accessable by 
the publication by Mr. James Ferguason and 
(lolonel Meadows Taylor of the magnifiosnt 
photographic representations of Beejapoor, 
Dbarwar, Ahmedabad, and other cities. They are 
by far the most interesting and complete memo- 
rials of the sacerdotal and regal grandeur of 
Southern India which are in existence ; and no 
work gives so striking an impression of the form- 
er splendour of those empires. For the study of 
native constume they afford materials of indis- 
putable correctness and authenticity. It is dif- 
iicult to decide the date of the Ajunta paint- 
ings, which represent scenes in buddhist his- 
tory ; and the series may extend from the first 
or second century before Christ, to the fourth 
and sixth century of our era. In either case 
they are upwards of a thousand years old. One 
very large picture, covered with figures, re- 
presents the coronation of Sinhala, a Buddhist 
king. He is seated on a stool or chair, 
crowned with a tiara of the usual conventional 
form ; corn, as an emblem of plenty and ferti- 
lity, is being poured over his shoulder by girls. 
He is naked from .the throat to the waist* All 
the women are naked to the waist ; some of 
them have the end of the cloth, or saree, thrown 
across the bosom, and passing over the left 
shoulder. Spearmen on foot and on horseback 
have short waist cloths only. In another large 
picture, full of figures, representing the intro- 
duction of buddhism into Ceylon and its esta- 
blishment there, all the figures, male and 

female, are naked to the waist. Some have 
waist-cloths or kilts only, others have scarft, 
or probably the ends of the dhotees thrown 
over their shoulders. Female figures in differ- 
ent attitudes around, are all naked ; but have 
necklaces, earrings, and bracelets : and ooe, a 
girdle of jewels round her loins. The older 
buddhist, hindoo-buddhist, and hindoo, ex- 
cavations near Prome, those at Ellora, at 
Ajunta, at Karli, and at Elephanta are works of 
great labour, and perbapa those of Ellon are 
the finest. But the more modem hindoo and 
Jain temples are disfigured by statues illustra- 
tive of the grossest parts of their belief. The 
buddhists of Burmah, at Prome and Rangoon 
have erected magnificent temples for their 
worship, with much detail, but with a grandeur 
of dimensions that prevents the thought of 
puerility. The great coUossal figures of the 
pagodas at Bangoon and Prome are huge stru^ 
tures. The pagoda at Bangoon, built on the 
most elevated part of agreat lateriteridge.towew 
majestically above all surrounding objects. 
The Chinese Joss Houses are simple structures, 
but ornamental from their pleasingly contrasted 
colouring. In the drjer parts of China, alum 
is employed as a cement in thos6 airy 
bridges which span thd wnter-courses. It is 
poured in a molten state into the interstices 
of stones, and in structures not exposed 
to constant moisture, the cohesion is per- 
fect, but in damp situations it becomes a 
hydrate and crumbles, a fact of which the 
whole empire was officially informed by the 
government in the early part of the nioe^ 
teenth Century. It was discovered that water 
had percolated to the mausoleum of Kiaking: 
from having been built too near to the moua* 
tain side, the alum cement imbibed moistor^ 
segregated and opened the way for water to 
enter the tomb. In those peaceful days saek 
an event was of sufficient importance to call forth 
edicts and rescripts, memorials and reports in 
succession for several months. The son-in-i«t 
of the deceased monarch to whose care the coa*. 
struction of the edifice had been entrusted was 
fined and degraded, and a statesman from Fok^ 
kien acquainted with the properties of alum was 
appointed to renew it. The mabomedans in In^ 
dia, have little architectural to show except h 
their mosques and tombs. Some of the mosqusii 
as the 5amma Masjid of Hyderabad, and M 
mosques at Bejapore are grand imposing stnis^ 
tures, but one of the prettiest to be met wit^ 
is the little Damri masjid at Ahmednuggur« 
built from the farthing or " damri" deductions 
made from the wages of those workmen who 
erected the fort at that place. Of the tombs of 
mabomedans, the usual shape is a vast cupola 
on a square pedestal. These, commonly called 
Ourabaz, are to be seen wherever mahome^lxns 
have ruled : but those at the fortress of Gob 




ARDASHIR, There were several Persian 
sovereigns of this name, viz., Ardashir Babe- 
gan bin dasan, ArUxerxes, the first of the Sa»- 
sanian Kings A. D. 226. 

Ardashir lArtaxerxes it. (the lOth) A* D. 8 1. 

And Ardashir iii, (the 25) Sassanian) in A. D. 
629 under whom anarchy prevailed. 

ArdaShir-daraz-dast, or of the long arm, 
was Kai Bahman, the Artaxerxes Longimanus 
of the Romans. See Fars. Persian Kings. 

ARDASHIH, one of the fire divisions of the 
Province of Fars. 

ARDAWA a mixture of gram and bar- 
ley, either in equal proportions^ or two to one, 
as the buyer prefers, used in Thibet for feed- 
ing hordes. Both grains are parched and ground 
before being mixed together. Ardawa is thought 
very fattening food for horses, but owing to the 
loss of weight and substance in the parching 
process, and the extra labour required, it is 
more expensive than plain gram. — ilfr«. Har- 
vep's Adventures of a Lady in Tarlary, Vol, 
'\,p. J8. 

ARDEA, a genus of birds of the family 
Ardendas and sub-family Apdeiose. Four of the 
Ardeae are known in Southei n Asia, A. Goliath, 
Sumatrana, cincrea and purpurea; four species 
of Herodias ; and one each of the genera Buto- 
rides, Ardeota, Nycticorax, Tigrosoma, Botau* 
nis and Ardetta, in all fourteen. 

ABDEA, a town in Fars near the mountain- 
ous regions of Ardekan, one of the chief towns 
of the ancient Persians- See Jrdi, 

ARDEKAN, a mountainous region N. of 
ancient Fars. The hills form a snowy range and 
proved a formidable barrier to Alexander's pro- 
gress. By their slopes, he descended into 
Persia in his advance on Persepolis. See 
Istakhr. Aras. 

ARDELAN, one of the four divisions of 
Kurdistan. Wooded mountains, separated by 
narrow valleys and occasional plains, producing 
excellent pasture, cover its northern portion 
which is a nominal dependency of Persia. 
The Wali of this district, who is also the 
principal Kurdish chieftain, maintains feu- 
dal state in the palace at Sehnab, which is con- 
sidered as the capital of Kurdistan. A serai 
occupies the summit of a hill, round which is 
the town, containing about 4,0€0 Sunni, 300 
Jewish, and 50 Nestorian (>atholic families. The 
in value, in the past 20 years and Kurdish districts of Ardelan and Kirmanshah, 
earriages ten fold.— RenncU Memoir, occupy the western lioiits of Persia, in the 
P* zxi, S65 p. 328. See India. Kurumbars.j space between *Azerjiban and Luristan and the 
AROOTE, COUPAM, in the sonth India/ space between the Ehvand and Zagros ranges. 

flondahy of the former dynasty of Hyderabad ) 
in ib« Deecan are only surpassed in magnifi- 
eeaoe by the tombs of the Adal Shahi fan^ily 
of BeJHpoor. Some of the Adal Sliahi kings 
of B^apore are buried at Gogi south of Knl- 
burgab, and there is a Langar Khanah near 
with arabesques surpassing anything to be 
sen in the South of India. The tombs of 
Kolbargah are of little merit. The tomb of 
Avranii^xeb's daughter at Aurungabad is said to 
kive been in imitation of that at Agra over his 
idative the Mumtazmahnl. — Local Netospapera 
£d. Rev. No. 257, July 1857. Pera. Observ. 
ARCOT,a small town about 65 miles W. from 
Madras, taking its name from two Tamil words 
Arakada the jungle on the river Palar. It is in 
LO. U-54 N. and Long. 79'' 19' E. and 
599 feet above the sea. It is the Arkatou 
Jksileon of the Greeks, and the capital of 
the nomade Sorai (^<»fpcu) the whole of the 
Beighbouring tenitory for several centuries 
aftiM' the christian era, having been occupied by 
vaadering Kurumbars, and then formed the 
ceatre of the Chola Kingdom, liennel says 
that in his time, Arcot was reckoned the 
capital of the Camatic, and must have been 
a place of great antiquity, by its being taken 
Botiee of by Ptolemy as the capital of the 
Sorae, or Sora-mandalum from whence corrupt- 
ly Choramandel. It was then a pretty large 
city, and its citadel was esteemed a place of 
strength, for an Indian fortress. The de- 
of its by Clive, in 1751, established the 
arititary fame of that illustrious nobleman. Its 
bkeafc dynasty (after repeated assassinations and 
petty wars in which the original disputants 
diaappeared) was the family of Mahomed Ali, 
who uxk the title of Wallajah, nabob of Arcot, 
and with whom the war lasted till the treaty 
of Paiii, in 1754, fixed Mahomed Ali, second 
sen of Anwar ud Din, in the Government of 
Anol;aiid Salabul Jung, son of the late Nizam- 
all'Mulky in the Soubahship of the Deocan. 
Ik town gives its name to two revenue dis> 
liicU of India, North and«South Aroot, both of 
fhm om the eastern side of the peninsula of 
Jadtty North Arcot has the towns of Arcot, and 
Tdkwe and the western railroad leads through 
JL Arcot, Sonth district has a population esti- 
ntoi at 1 ,060,000. It has the Goleroun and 
llM«ar rivers and Guddalore is its chief town. 
CUlembrom is also a large place; land has 

Long. 79° 48' E. and Lat.l3° 14' N. 

' ABCUIAIODE, a town in the south of In- 
dhb to Loog. 76'' V E. and Lat. W 46' N. 

ARDAB£KY, a town in lodia, in Long. 85"" 
W£.aad Lat. 23^3' N. 

— Ric7i*s Kurdistan Vol, ],p. 209. Euphrates 
and Tiffvis^ Col. CAesney, /?. 215. 

ARDENT SPIRITS, are Alcoholic liquids 
See Alcohol. Arrack. 

ARDHA. Sansc. The half ;—Dina ardha ; 
half the day : Batri ardha ; half the night. 




ARDI OR ARTJSI, the name wfaieh Hero- 
clotu9 gives to the Ancient PersiiinQ. Baron 
Be Bode supposed the town of Ajrdea in Fars 
near the mountainous region of Ardekan, to 
ha?e been one of the chief tovrns of the ancient 
Persians. See Ardea. 


AKBIBEHEST-JASAN. A festival of the 
Parsees or Zoroastrians maintained in honour 
of Ardibehest Arosaspund, the con trolling anael, 
according to their theology, over their sacred 
fire ; on this day the Parsees crowd their fire- 
temples to offer up prayers to the Supreme Be- 
ing,— The Parsees 61. 

ARBINGA, a town in India, in Long. 80° 
4'E. and Lat. 15° 40' N. 

ARDI SI Ay a genus of plants of the natural 
order Myrsinacese : many species of which occur 
in India, and several are cultivated as flower- 
ing plants. A. humilis is the Badulam of the 
Singhalese. Ardisia Aroherstiana, WallichU' 
Kyet-ma-oke* Burm Lffi-kho-mau-thoo. Burm, 
Lee-kho-mau-fshat. Bunm Lee-kho-mau wa. 
Burm. Lse-kho-mau-pbado. Burm^ are species 
of Ardisia. 

coasts of the Tenaeserim provinces. — Mason, 
JRiddelL Wight in Icones figures A. DoTna, 
humilis, Utoralis, oleracea^ panicuLatOy pauci* 
H'jra, pentagona^ rhomboidea, solunacea, and 

ARDISIA HUMILIS, is a common shrub 
at Tavoy, growing down to the plains ; but its 
habitat, in the Indian Peninsula, is '' the east- 
era slopes of the Neilgherries, in snb-alpme 

ARBRUK. Beng. Ginger, Zingiber offici- 

ARCCA, a genus of plants of the Natural 
Order Cocoacess, of which several species, A 
Catechu : A' Bicksonii : A gracilis and A. tri- 
andra, occur in Southern Asia. 

ARBCA CATECHU, Linn ; Roxb. 

A. Faupel, Owrt, 

.. <Ab f 
.. Bali. 
.. Beng. 
Bib ATA. 
,. BuoiB. 
,. Bkn. 
.. Burm. 

.. DUK. 



Fufil .. 
Gua ... 

Bapo , 

Knnthi ? ... ., 


Supeari ... 
ArecaPalni ... 
Betel-nat Palm 
Catechu Palm 










Kachn... ... 

Cavnghu ... 



Paku roaram 

Eamuga ? 

Poka ; Poka chettu; Oka. 
... „ Vakh^ ; Kanda-poka ; 

... ,f Rola-poka .Tkl. 

...HiVD. The variety Kola-poka 
... Jav. has long nats. 
rinang ... ... Malay. 

A slender graceful palm of remarkably erect 
growth attaining a height of 30 to CO feet, with 
a tuft of feathery leaves at the extreme top. Its 
cylindrical stem is only ^ few inches in diamt- 


ler. It is an object of extensive culture, ia 
many parts of tropical Asia, in Malabar, norlfai 
B^gal, Nepaal, and the S« W. Coast of C^lon^ 
with the Burmese and to a smaller extent hj 
the Karens and in all the islauds from Sumatra 
to the Philippines, in which it seems to have aa 
many distinct names as there ave languages. In 
appearance!, the Areca is perhaps the most ele-*. 
gant of aU the palms, and on the Burmese ooaat^ 
where it thrives luxuriantly, a grove of bet^ 
palms, with their slender cyUndrical stems peer* 
iog fifty or sixty feet upwards, waving their 
green plumes, and fragrant flowers, presents a 
scene of sylvan beauty rarely to be excelled 
under that tropical sky* In the arid elimale of 
the central Dekhan, it flowers at all seasons, but 
it requires to be protected from the diy wind% 
eitbet by matting or straw tied round it, to pre- 
vent it splitting, when this happens, it irnme* 
diately decays. In gardens, when mixed alter- 
nately with the cypress, it presents a very strik* 
ing appearance. The structure of the wood ia 
like that of palms generally* It is hard and 
peculiarly streaked and might be lised in tur- 
nery for small ornamental work. In Travanoore» 
it is employed for spear handles and bowe, 
for which it is well suited, being very elastic^ 
This palm yields the betel-nqt of commerce, 
which, mixed with lime and the leaf of the 
Piper betel, in all the countries of South -Eaa(« 
em Asia, is in frequent use as a masticatory^ 
The nut is hard and peculiarly streaked and in 
request in turnery for small ornamental workf 
A strong decoction of the nut is used in dye* 
ing. Boasted and powdered they make an ex- 
cellent dentifrice. Young nuts, are prescribed 
in decoction, in dyspepsia and costivettess;an4 
they are considered to possess astringent and 
tonic properties. Their use, with betel leaf &q4 
lime discolours the teeth, but the people ima^* 
giue that it fastens them and cleans the guma. , 

The mits yield two astringent preparations 
which are known as Catechu, but of a very in« 
ferior quality. These two preparations are rea»' 
pectively called, in fTamil, Katha Rambn and 
Kash Katfii, in Telugu Kansi, and in the Dek« 
han Khrab Katha and Acha Katha. The for- 
mer, Katha Kambti is chewed with the betd 
leaf, the latter, Kash Kathi is used medicinally; 

The tree will produce fruit at five years, an4 
continue to bear for twenty-five years. Unlikia 
the Cocoa Palm, it will thrive at high regioii% 
and at a distance from the sea. In the Easteni 
Islands, the produce of the tree varies from 
200 to 1,000 nuts annually. The nuts form n 
considerable article of commerce with the £a|i^ 
tern Islands and China, and are also one of 
tlte staple products of Travancore. They aro 
gathered in July and August, though not full^ 
ripe till October. In Travancore, " those 
that are used by fnroilica of rank are collected 




fWe the fruit is tender ; the husks or the 
(ntrrpod is renipTed ; the kerne), a round 
fcdiT mass is boiled in water : in the first boil* 
rufrof the nut, when properly done, the water 
b'eomps red, thick and stnrch-like, and this is 
ffterwanls evaporated into a substance like 
otecha ; the boiled nuts being now rerooved, 
iM and dried, tbe catechu-like substance is 
nibbed on them, and dried again in the sun, 
nhtn they become of a shining black, ready for 
ue. Whole nuts, without being sliced, are also 
pffpiitd in the same form for use amongst the 
liisUr classes, while ripe nuts, as well as young 
mis in a raw state. Are used by all classes of 
people frenerally, and ripe nuts preserved in 
witer with the pod are also used." Por ex- 
peitfo. other distribts the nuts are sliced and 
eolwrfd with red catechu, or sent whole 
it iba pods. The average amount of exports of 
Ae prepfired nuts from Travancore is from 2 to 
S,000 candies annually, exclusive of the nuts 
ii their ordinary state, great quantities of which 
are shipped to Bombay and other ports. Ac- 
eoTdiag to the Ust survey there were" upwards 
of a million trees ia Travancore. Heyne, in 
Ms Tracts gives the following as the mode of 
extnctiag the catechu from the nuts in 
Myiorc.— "The nuts are taken as they 
twefrom the tree, and boiled for some hours 
lain iron vessel. They are then taken out, 
nd the remaining water is inspissated by conti- 
loal boiling. This process furnishes Kassu, 
or moat astriDgent terra japonica, which is black 
aadnuxed with paddy husks and other impuri- 
tin. After the nuts are dried, they are put 
iito a freah quantity of water and boiled again ; 
tad this water being inspissated, like the for- 
mer, pelds the best or dearest kind of catechu 
oUOoony. It is yellowish-brown, has an 
cirtlj liMture, and is free from the admixture 
offeie^ bo<lies." The nuts are seldom im- 
ported into England. The catechu has of late 
imioperseded madtler in the calico worluof 
WRope for dyeing a golden coffee brown, 1 lb. 
if iUa being equal to 6 lbs. of madder. In 
1S5S, the Ttlne of Areca nuts exported from 
ftyho alone to British Colonies and Foreign 
ws, siBonnted to £2,230' The spathe which 
Mehes over the blossoms of this tree, and 
vhich ii eaUcd Paak-muttay, is a fibrous siib- 
teeewith which the hindoos make into vessels 
khdding arrack, water, &c. : also into cups, 
Mes and small umbrellas. It is so fine that 
ictt be written on with ink. The trunk is 
>ily a few incfaes in diameter and is used in 
t^yVn for pins and Pengo stricks,— in Travan- 
iin for spear handles and how.^-^jtburgh, 
••615. Low's (Sarawak [p. 41) mentions 
w this beautiful tree is much prized by the na- 
9*^ of Borneo on account of the delightful fra- 
I^Mtt of its flowers, which^ taken just before 
V^iiRg from the sheath or spathe, in whioh the 1 munis. — Lintf, 


inflorescence is enveloped, and called myang, 
is requisite in all their mediciiiea and conju- 
rations for the purpose of healing the sick : it 
is also used with other sweet-sceuted flowers 
at bridals and all accasions of festivity. The 
Malay name Pinang, gives that of tbe 
the island of Penang. There are various kinds 
in use, and the mode of preparation also differs. 
Tbe three ingredients of the betel nut, as com« 
monly used, are, the sliced nut, the leaf of the 
betel pepper in which the nut is rolled, and 
chunam or powdered lime, which is smeared 
over the leaf* 

Prof. Johnston calculated that they are chew 
ed by at least fifty millions of the human race, 
but like smoking or anutf-taking, all do not 
use it. The tree requires a low moist situa- 
tion with rather a sandy soil, either under the 
bund of a tank or in . a .position otherwise fa- 
vorable for irrigation. Tbe seeds are put into 
holes 6 feet apart. 

Areca nut or Betel nut, when in bulk as 
a eargo generates an excessive heat. — Roxb, 
m. Ind. iii, 615. Voigt. 637. Mr. MtmdU. 
Dr. Clegho^n. Major Drury^ Useful Planti^ 
Col. Drury'g Fucher*$ Cocki», M. M. Jur. 
Rep^ Elliot. Mason*s TeniMerim. Loto^a Sara- 
wok. Vegetable Kingdom ^1^1, Malcolm's Travels 
in South-Eastern Asia^ Vol, i,p. 178. Jinslie*s 
Mai. Indica. Simmonds. 

ARECA DICKSONII. Koxb. iii. 616. 

A tree of the Malabar mountains, the poorer 
people use its nuts as substitutes for tbe true 
betfl niit.--Rjx6. m, 616 Voigt. 637. 

ARECA GRACILIS, Boxb. is a tree of 
Sikkim, Sylbet, Ghittagong'and the S. Conoan 
the Bnn-gua or wild Areca of Bengal ; and A. 
triandra, the Bam gua of Bengal, grows as a 
tree in Chittagong. 


Euterpe Caidbaea, Spreng. 

Oreodoza oleracea, kndf. 

Is the English Cabbage Palm, a native of 
the West Indies, and the wood used the same 
as Areca catechu* 

ARECA VESTIARIA, is so called from 
clothing being made of ita fibres. 

ARECOTE, a town in India in Long. 76« 
'8' E. and Lat, 11« W N. 

AREE, a town in India in Long, 79** 43' 
E. and Ui. 21^ hV N. 

AREESH. Arab* Huts composed of reeds, 
mats and rushes* 

ABBGONG, a town in India intong. 79* 
27' B. and Lat. 20^ 14' N 

ABEN. Malay. The Gomuti. 

Neilgheniensis plants occur in India. 

ABEND, AEAND. Hi^u. Bicinus com- 




Borassus Gomutus, Lour, 
Saguerus Rumphii, lioxb. uV. 626. 
Oomutus, vei Saguerus, Bumph, 

The Tree. 

Nawa ... 







Maudar ... 

Sagwau ... 

Sag wire... 

Scho ... 


.. Macasa. 
.. Malay. 






The Sap, 


Barum or Baru ? 
The Oostamer. 

Karvel Jav. 

JEi^awai ... ... 

The Hair, 

Makse Amb. 

Diik or Dok ... Jav. 
Iju Ejee or Eju. ^ 

Gomuti „ 



A handsome tree of the Tiidian Archipelago, 
but erowinj^ now near Madras, in Bangalore, 
at Secunderabad and largely in the Nus^ger 
Division of Mysore. It occurs in abund- 
ance, in a wild state, throughout the islands of 
(he Indian Archipelago, and yields its horse- 
hair-like substance, Javanese Duk, Malay, ]^u 
or Eju or Gomuti^ the last of which has given 
the name to the tree. The Gomuti is the only 
oiieof this genus of any commercial importance. 
It attains a height of 30 or 40 feet. Its com- 
mercial products are its palm wine, Barum or 
Baru, and its horse-hair like Iju orEju or Go- 
muti. Five species of this genus inlmbit the 
islands of the Indian Archipelago. They are 
handsome trees, their favorite localities in the 
Archipelago, being dense shady forests and in 
the neighbourhood of rivers and rivulets ; it 
comes into bearing about the seventh year, 
and continues to flower from 3 to 5 years. 
In general appearance the gomuti-palm very 
much resembles the sago, but the pinnae of the 
leaves, which are erect iu the latter, droop in 

Dyaks in their house building on account of its 
durability. This substance is also plaited 
into ornaments for the arms^ legs, and necks, 
and its deep black and neat appearance renders 
ii to the eye of a European, a much more 
agreeable ornament than either the brass or 
beads with which they abundantly adorn their 
persons,— ^ZoM»'# Sarawak, p, 41). The tree 
was so highly thought of by Dr.Roxburjih that 
he introduced it largely into India, where the 
natives, took kindly to them. The fibre is 
almost imperishable, and is considered superior 
to all others yet made use of for the manufae* 
ture of artificial bristles for brushes, imitation 
horse-hair for stuffing, and such like purposes. 
A tree cut <lown in the Calcutta gardens yield- 
ed 160 lbs. of good sago meal. The black 
horse hair-like fibres surrounding the petioles of 
the leaves, form very good cordage and cables. 
In Java and Baleyn the sap is boiled down to 
syrup and allowed to concrete, but it always 
retains some degree of moisture. The beat is 
of a \ellowisb colour but the inferior kinds, chH? 
ed saccharum nigrum, are blackish colored and 
are commonly mix^d with the muscavadas of 
the cane. Its leaves, when very young, are eaten 
like the American Cabbage palm Oreodoxa 
oleracea, Endl. The fleshy outer covering of the 
fruit of the Gomuti, when macerated, affords a 
fiery liquor, appropriately denominated " hell- 
water," by the Dutch, and the seed, or rather 
the albumen when freed from its noxious cover- 
ing, is made into sweetmeat by the Chinese. It 
thereforeyitldsSitgo, Palm wine, Gomuti Sugar 
and Baru, — Koxb. Hi, 626. Cravf/urcrs. Dicliom* 
ary. Archipelago : Seeman on Palt>t8,J)r,IiojfWs 
Fiitrous Plants, Foigt. 637. Veg. King. 749. IFo/- 
toH'sSiaie.p.Mch. 1862,p^57,116-118..V^/»,tji 
literi$, Mareden*8 Hist, ofSumalra^p. hl^^Fmulk' 

the former like those of the nibong and many »^t9,Marsden sHist, ofbumatra.p. o7,^Fttu/k' 
other palms. The palm wine is extracted from | "*''• ^^"*- ^'<^- ^^^'* Sarawak, p, 40,41 — See 
the plant by cutting off the larae lateral fibres, Iju. Palm wine. Bara Cordege. Sago. 

bunches of fruit, "When these are about half- 
grown, they are severed close to the division of 
the peduftcle or stem, and bamboos are hung 
to them, a good tree with two incisions will 
produce about a gallon daily for two months ; 
a fresh surface being constantly kept on the 
severed part by a thin slice being daily cut off 
the stem or peduncle, so that at the end of the 
above-named period it has altogeiher disap- 
peared. The toddy is taken from the bamboo 
twice a day, and when fresh, has a very agree- 
able taste, and is a refreshing drink, with a 
very agreeable taste; however, the Dyaks always 
impart a flavour to it by placing a piece of 
a bitter kind of plant into the bamboos in 
which it is collected. In the Nuggur division 
of Mysore, a very sweet toddy is drawn from 
it* The cordage made from the hairy like 
filaments which are interwoven around the 

stem and about the axels of ihe leaves, is of , ,._ 

excellent quality and is of great service to the this name one in Long. 76° 6' E. and Lst. 2S' 

176 ' 

Sugar. Thatch. Gomuti Sugar. 
ARENQUES. Port. Sp. Herrings. 

ARENTFS ISLAND, in the Java Sea, in 
Lat. 5° 10' S. Long 114° 8«' E. 

throxylon areolatum. 

AEETIGBobTEGALU. (w-8&-7f.Ure». 

Dioscorea opposilifolia, U — R* iii. 
804.— %<?0 

AEEVALAMATHANA, a Kiog mentioned 
in a copper plate found at Kaira in Gu^erat of 
date A. D. 1059, his son was Udaia Ditya, and; 
his grandson Salivahana. Bee ' Inacriptions, 
p. 889. 

of the Goleoptera of Hong Kong. 

ARGAL also AEGOL, also ORGOL. Tar* 

ABGAUM, there are two towns in India of 




Faring! cUtura. HnrDw 
SaebUoM ? »» 

Fioo del Ii£arno ... It. 
Cardo Santo ,i 

Brahoii Saks. 

Brahmadandi .•• fg 

ihiecDo Sp« 

Hioo del Inferno i» 
Cardo Sauto n 

Bramha daoda ...Tam. 

45' N.; the otker in Loag. 75<» 16' £• and 
Lit. IS'' 56' N. 

AEGAUMy iberft are two iownt in India of 
tUs Moie one in Long. 74"" 2' £. and Lat. SI 
n, N ; the oiber in Long. 76'' 53' £. and Lat. 
tip 36' N. At the former of these, in Berar, 
ibiti)ewasfoughtonthe29th Nov. 1803, in 
vhich the Bhooalab Aajali of Nagpore was de- 
fcaied by General Welieaiey, afterwarda Duke 
«f Wellio);tott. 


fm shiil kanta...BK3ro. 

Bifo lakkav Gav. 

Bitori n 

lokaoAigemone. Eno. 

TeUow-thUiie ; Mexican- 
poppy Ena 

Oittboge thistle „ 

I f triap-dataia or Pita- 
, <U(ara Ddk. 

Bber Band Hi5d. 

Brai&ha ... j, 

Daada „ 

This plant grows wild in abundant luxuriance 
jis BMy parts of India, and its large yellow 
fthiilie shaped flowers appear in January, Feb- 
jniarj and March. Their seeds and milk-like sap 
iinaied in native medicine, but they uem use- 
kis. The plant was introduced from Mexico in 

the Oil cMed Cooraukto oii^ 

IBrvBidaiidoo yennai .. Tam. 
iBnooadandie Noona ...TxL. 
datun kft tel^HutD. 

lis, psle yellow, dear and lim;>id ahd may be ob- 

radaed in large qanntities from the round oorru- 

Med seeds. It is sometimes expressed by the na- 

tifes and used in lamps, but is doubtless adapted 

to ok)«r and mor^ itnportant uses. The seeds 

Ir^ilsrge quantity of oil, nearly as much as 

^^MoniBon mustard seed. The oil is mild.resem* 

hK^ttitof the poppy, and may be taken in 

Me-oince doses without producing purgative 

iCiBflU, It is readily procurable, and so cheap 

" I eonsiderable saving has been effected 

its introduction by Dr. Thompson into the 

(•Ida jail for burning in place of mustard oil. 

^Skanfhi€Wf> Bog. VtgeL King. 48. Hooker 

et. fkom. 251, Mairae £x. Jur. Report. 

J*. 1862. 

ARGENT, Fb. Silver. 


Oil of Prickly Poppy, 
or Jamaica yellow 
thistle %NG. 

AJGENrO. It. Silver. 
AftGEinrOVITO. It. Memry. 
ARGBNTUII, lAT- Silver. 
ARGtilA, <tr tlie Yoni, in hindu mytholo- 
', IS Parvati's especial emblem ; ptroperly, the 

is the cup oroinde from wbieh Hhe 
^ rises, its outer edge or rim being the 
M. Arghn Patra is a boat ahaped vesael used 
^ MBgioM eeremoniea of the hindoa to 

thr Alalia, or of ering inade of Tila 


or Sesamnm indicum, cuia-grius, perfumes, 
flowers, durva-grasa and water. These vessels 
called Argha, or Patra, as also Argha-patra : 
the first, meaning a boat, or vesael : the letter, 
a cup, or goblet ; remind us stroni^ly of the 
Patera of the Romans. Piitra is also a leaf, 
especially when formed into a cup or drinking 
vessel, as is very comfnonlf done in Itidia : the 
plantain leaf, of which it h'as been sttpposed the 
aprons of Adam and Eve were made, is easily 
formed into a convenient cup, and it is retaiu- 
cd in that shape by a skewer. The Argha of 
the hindttfl is supposed to be identical with the 
Argoof the Greeks, but the subject of the Argha 
has given rise amongst the hind us to so many 
wildly speculative theories that reference may 
be made to Lustral oeremouies : Narayana : 
Yavana. Much of the ceremonial of the hindu 
religion, as in this instance, has had a physio- 
logical origin^ and as many of their fasts, festival 
days and observances are also astronomical. 

AEGHANATUA, or lord of the boat shaped 
vessel, is a title of Iswara or Siva. Argbanatlia 
Iswara apjiears to have been literally translated 
by Plutarch, as Iris and Osiris, when he asserts 
that Osiris was commander of the Argo. This, 
as a name of Siva, is in allusion to the Argha's 
connexion with tlie Linga. — Citle, Myth. Hind. 

ABGUA, a town in India, ini Long. S^'^ 
46' E. and Let, 88** 16' N. - , 

ARGUAND-AB, a river near Candahar, in 
the hilk On. its left bank is the famous grot- 
to, the Ghar-i-Jamshid, sixteen miles S. W. 
of Candahar. The hills, the Panj Bai, over- 
look the river^ the whole of the roof of the 
Grotto has the appearance of having been 
beautifully carved. 

ARGHA PATRA. See Argfaa.: 

of the Anti-Taurus i about 80 miles to its West 
rises the Western branch of the Tigris. See 


ARGHAWAN. Hind. Pirs. Babcr men- 
tions, two Artehawans, quite different plants, 
the red and the yeMow. The yellow is com- 
mon on all the plarns of Central Asia, also 
on those of Beluchietan, and Persia. In the 
latter region it is named Mahak. It is a 
shrubby plant, bearing clusters of yellow pea- 
like flowers, with compound alternate leaves. 
It is one of the very numerous natural objects, 
whose beauty is not priced, beoauas it ia not 
rare. The red argha wan is a ^saaaR ti^ee.^— 
Masi9n*8 Joumrgy Voh iii. p.4G. " 

ARGHEL, EOTPT. The leaves ofSoTenos- 
temma argel, a native of Syrie^. They are 
purgative and are eroploycijn K^vpt to adul- 
terate senna. — flqjf. Ky mmg^ p- ii S. Sim* 
m&nde» See Cassia. 

ARG'HUM. See Hindoo. 




ARGBUN, a Sind dynasty vho held a brief 
sway from A. D. 1521 to 1554*5, a pi*riod of 
34> years, dnrinj^ which Sl«oja Be^s and his son 
HirZii Shah Uuessia reigned. Argiiun Khan 
Tsr Khan, was grandson of Hulaku, grandson 
of Ghan<(iz KUnw.-^ Elliot, p. 498. 

Khan's great nephew. His wife was ZibeiUna, 
theKhatun fiula<;an, a lady of great heauty and 
ability. She had been married to Abaka, but on 
his demise, according to the marriage customs 
of the Mongols, she passed to the Urda of her 
stepson, Arghan. On her death, Arghuu sent 
Marco Polo for another wife, out of the Mon- 
gol tribe of Bayaut, but Arghun died bofbre 
the lady Kuka-Chin was brought and she 
passed to Ghazan, the nephew of Ari^hun, for 
Arghun bad be<>n succeeded by Khi-Kafu, his 
brother —Qirdr/. Bee. July 1868. 

AROHYA, Bans* A present, or gift indi- 
cative of respect to a superior. It matters not 
of what it consists, and is often of flowers.— 
Hind, Th ToZ.f. p. 312. 

AR6ILA, alsoUARGILA. Hi»d. The 
Adjutant bird, Leptopiilus Ar^tla. 

ARGOL. PotasssB bi-tartras : Tartar. 

AKGON OR ARGOND. A mixed race re- 
sident at L^, half Kashmiri and half Boii. The 
same term, in Yarkand, also, is applied to half 

ABGOX. See Argha : Lustral Cefemonies. 
Narayana. Tavana. 

AKGONAUTA, the Jrgonaot or paper 
sailor, a genus of molluscs of the class cephalo- 
poda order dibranchiata« Sec Octopoda and 
family Argonautidse. Several species occur in 
the seas on the South and East of Asia, via., 
A. Argo; coriiu ; cymbium ; gondola ; hians : 
tnaustrum i tiiberculata : and vitrea. See Car- 
inaria : Mollusca, Octopoda. 

ARGOWLI, a town in India in Long. 8P 
15* E. and Lit. 24<^ ITN. 

ARGUS. Like the Argus of the Greeks, 
Tndra is dipicted with a thousand eyes, and is 
hence called the thousand eyed god, 

ARGUS COWRIE/ CyprsBa Argus, some 
liave been sold at four guineas a pair. 

ARGUS PHEASANT Lungi.Hind. SeeAves. 
AliGYLB of Damascus, is the commort 
V.ookah of India, and the word is a corruption 
of the Persian Nargyle. The common houkah 
consists of a oocoa-nut shell containing water, 
io which an upright reed, or wooden pipe orna- 
mented or otherwise and about eighteen inches 
long is fixedy to support the tobacco holder and 
lighted charcoal (chillam.) This perpendicular 
tube is grasped by the person who smokes; who 
draws the tobacco smoke through the water, by 
means of a similar reed, or pipe curved or 
straight reaching from the globe to the mouth. 

is the ordinary hookah of India, and termed by 
Europeans the hubble bubi>le from the noise 
created in the water. JCobimott's Travels. FoL 
ii./>. 226. 

ARGYREIA, a genus of plants, belonginjK to 
the Oonvolvulacen, of which Voigt and Wif^ht 
enumerate about seventy species as growing in 
India, viz, A. Acuta ; aggregata argen- 
tea : capitata : cuneata cymosa, ellipticn ; 
festiva ; fi*lgens : hirsuta : floribunda : Uuri- 
folia ; MaUbarica ; multiflora, pomacea ; seiosSp 
»pe4?iosa ; tilifolia ; splendens : Wallichii ; Zey- 
lanica.The8e have been principally brouahtfrom 
the genera Convolvulus, Iponisea and Lett aotniii. 
The flowers of many are showy iiml ornameot- 
al. The leaves of A. hracteata of Choisy, Saroo* 
drapatta, Sanscrit ? are mentioned in Useful 
Plants as used for fomenting and pouUieing 
scrophuloiis joints. The Nway-nee of the Bitrm. 
is (ht? A. capitata. 

EattH Kalangu, Mal. j Paymoostey, Tam. 

Grows in Mysore, Malabar, common on tbe 
ghauts. Root cathartic Considered hy farricra 
a good horse medicine. — Jintlie. 


Convolvulus speciosus. Linn. 
tj nervosus. Burm. 

lieltsomia neivosa Bospb. ; 488. 
Lett^omia Bpecii)£a. Bo^cb* 
Ipomcea speciosa. rers. 

Bieh-taruka ... Benq, | Saroadra-^heddi... Taw. 
Elephant creei^er... Eng.I Samudra-patra ... Tel. 
Samndra 8hoka Hind. | _ „ pala .,, ^, 
Guli fF ' ' 

Samodra-stogamMA LA T. 
Samndra palaces... Saks. 

Chaudr»-pbda ... ^ 

Kakkita, kokkita or kok- 

kiti, Pala-samodra Tki.. 

Grows all over India ; it has large deep 
rose coloured flowers. The leaves, applied with 
the green or upper side, are deemed discn* 
tient : The luwer or white side is a matttraot^ 
Voifft. 351. 

ARH. A river at Oodypoor. 
- ARUAR. 'Sak». Cajauus Indicus. Pigeon 
Pea or HilMhal Pea. 

ARHATA. religious Buddhist counsellors 
who assembled at Pataliputra with Asoka. 
After 9 months consultation they sent out nine 
teachers, viz., one to Cashmir and Peshawar, 
a second to the country of the Nerbadah : 
a third to Meiwar and Bundi. A fourth to 
Northern Stnd. A fifth»tothe Mahratta country. 
A sixth to the Grt-ek Province of Kabul, 
Arachosia. A seTcnth to the country of Hima- 
layas.and the eighth toAva or Sinm, thatis, "tbe 
golden land/' the aurea re^is or tbe aurea 
chersenesas and the ninth to Lanka or Ceyloa. 
Some circumstances of which we are uninform- 
ed must have prepared those regions for the re* 
caption of the ascetic doctrines of Sakya muni. 

Thesetubes are sometimes made of silver, as well which still prevail throughout Ceylon, Burinab, 
as ibe vase itself, and richly sculptured. This j^iam, Thibet, and China, amongst about oi^e- 




foartk of the bamaQ race. Sm i^oiMlia, 
Lana. Sakja MuiiL 

AKIA, lierai;^al8o call«*d Heri^ and the river 
wiich ii staiidft is called Htri-rud. 1 hia river 
tiHeri ia called by Ptoiemy •Apewp by other 
wrilefa Aritu ; and Aria ie the naioe given to 
ike cooDtry between Parthia (Parthuwa) iii the 
weal, Marfeiami (Marghuah) in the north, Bac- 
tris (Biikhtriah) and Anchosia (Harauwalish) 
IB tb« eaat. ll ia tuppoaed to be the aame as 
the Huria9a (HaHra) of the cuneiform inacrip* 
tinaa, thongh this is doabtrul. Fro/. Max 
Mwiltr^B Ltcture»,p. p. 334-238. 

ABLA, a country of Central Aaia, known 
to the Greeks. It fornied the sixth territory 
by the Arian mea in their migrations 

agrictilteral and therefore a pieasant race, they 
may have derived their name from their plougli, 
aad worda relating to aj^riculiure are found^ 
in several tougaea. In Latiji, it is uratruoi, 
fpoaaaro, 1 plough. In Egyptian (in Nefruan) 
Ar ia aaid to mean a plough. In Tamil it is 
£r fr/fy ill Telugu, Araka t^^jf in Sdaiiscril, 

alonif with Nangala or Nangara, it is also 
oalled Hals or Hara ^-i^ and possibly theAriau 

rsce may have obtained their name from this 
implement of husbandry. According to (-b. 
Bunsen, the Arian emigration from Sogd to 
Hactria, took place prior to B. CV 6000, conse- 
quently before the time of Menes ; their itn- 
migration into the Indus country^ about H. 

from the table Isnd of Pamir to the aoiith weat I C. 4000 and he thi^s the opening to the Vea- 

part of it. It was known to theArtans asHaroyo, f didnd describes the succession of the foundation 

vhidi Bunsen (iii. 463) ooaaidera to be Herat, 

tae Hmrw^fsT Hariva of the ouneifDrm insorip- 

(ioiia, from the river Heri, or Ueri-rud, bat 

the Qrtek district of Aria, eomprisedthe larger 

part of Sq^eatan and part of SouthernKhorasan. 

S)ce Ariao. 
ARIA BEPON. Maleal. c®t>r5lQa;6^iUr^ 

of the fourteen kingdoms, the last and most 
southern of which waa the land of the five 
rivers (the Punjab}. According to Chevalier 
Bunsen, in the same way that political tradi- 
tion represents ihat of the Western aborigines 
(the Uamit«s and Shemitea) so does the Arian 
one represent that of iheKastern tribe in tlie pri- 
meval land. The vast climatic change which 
look plaee in the northern countries is attribut- 
ed in the Bible to the action of water. lu the 
other, the audden freesing up of rivers is the 
eause assigntd. Both may have resulted from 
the same cause, the upheaving of the land by ] 
volcanic action, elevating portions and depress- 
ing into bssius* auoh as the Caspian sea Ttu 
months of winter is now the climate of West- 
em Thibet, Pamer and Belur, at the present 
day, and correaponds with that of the Altai 
country, and the district east of the Kuen Lung, 
the paradise of the Chinese. The country ai 
the sources of the Oxus and Jaxartes, therefore, 
is supposed to be the most eastf-rn and most . 
northern point whence the Arians . came. 
Wherever the Indians may have fixed the dwell- 
ini; placea of their northern ancestors, the 
Uttaru Kuru, we cannot he thinks, venture to 

Azadiracbta Indica. 
ARIA DKSA. See Hindoo, also SakyaMuni. 
ARIAHA. See Arian : Hindoo. 
Aiil-ALU. Malbal. (Q^rocQ'oej Syn. 

of Ficva religioaa. — Li/in. 

ARlAliU. See Arian : Hindoo. 
ARIAN, alao written Aryan ; this intel- 
leetaal race, originally argicaltural, have been 
aabitemjptedly maat^ra of the world aioce 
the date of the Persian dominion and been 
ihe mightiest engine of civilization. In re- 
cent years, the res«*arci)es of Chevalier Bun- 
sea, of Profeaaora Wilson and Max Muller 
and Mr. Wheeler seem to prove that much 
'of the earlier history of two branchea of 
this race are embodied in the Vendidad of the 
aacipnt Peraians and present Par«ees and in 
the Vfdaa of the Hindoos. According to Dr. 
Hang, the opening to the Vendidad or Code i pl«c« the primeval seats of the Arians anywhere 
of the'Fire-worihippers of Iran, dates from the hut on the slopes of thcBclur Tagh, in the high- ^ 
■M>st ancient times, and its contents are the land of Pamer,betweeuthe 40th and 37th degrees ' 
feminiscences of the passage of the old Arians of N. latitude, and 86° and 9 J° of lor.gitudt-. 
into India, on the south, and into Persia on On thia western slope of the Belur Tag and tiie , 
the sonth weat. Major Cunningham, also, in his MusUgh (the Tian-Slinngor Celestial Mountains 
learned work on the Bhilsa Topes (p. 15,) uses of the Chinese) the Haro berezoiti (Albordsli) 
the term Arian in allusion to the race of Ar>yn, »» likewise to be looked for, whiqli is invoked in 
whose emigrations are recorded in the Zemta ihe Zenda vista, as the principal moantaiii and , 
vrsu, who, atarting from Ericene Vijo, gradu- tke primevHl source of the waters. At the present 
ally spread to the south-east, over Aryya vart'ha day, the old indigenous iiihaWitants of that dis- 
or Aryya«iesa, the northern plains of India, triot, and itenerally those of Khusgar, Yarkand, . 
«ftd to the sonth- w^st, over Iran or Persia: Khoten, Turfan, and the adjaosnt highlands, 
keadda that the Modes are called Arioi by are Tajiks who apeak Persian, and who are all . 
llerodolns. The original meaning of their name agricuUiyrisU. The Turkomans either came 
is aaid U have been equivalent to upper noble. «fter theih and settled at a hiter period, or eUe 
It hits alao, however, been suggested that as they are aborijdines whom the Allans found 
the Allans were orijciually and e«senlially an | thete. On \h\» point, Ciie\alitr Bunseu Jikewi^, 




remarlcB that Ihe opening olT that samd oo<ie 
. i)f the Vefididad, as certainly oontaina a his- 
torical tradition of the Ariana, as does the 14th 
chapter of Genesis a historical account of the 
eldest recorded war between Mesopotamia and 
Canaan. Tiie Fargard is divided into two 
great parts; one cottiprising the imraiKiation 
frdm .(he eastern aod north eastern prtmeTal 
countries to Bactria, in consequence of a natural 
catastrophe and climatic changes, the other the 
subsequent extension of the Arian dominions 
through Eastf'm Central Asia, which terminated 
in ihe Punjab. The following passage contains 
a genuine description of the climate of the pri- 
meval land of the Arians, Iran' Proper. There 
Ingromaniyns (Ahriman),' the d^dW, created a 
mighty serpent, and snow, the work of Deva— • 
ten months df Winter are there, two of summer. 
The foUot^ing passage, which is omitted in th^ 
Huzuresh or Pehlevi translation — and which 
Lassen considers an interpolation; is irrecon- 
cileable with the above. The warm weather 
lasts seven months aiid winter five. The fathvrs 
d( the Anahs, therefore, originally inhabited 
Iran Proper, the land of Pleasantness and they 
left it only in consequence of a convulsion of 
nature, by which a great alteration in the 
climata was caused. When the climate was 
altered by some HA disturbance of nature, the 
Arians c^migrate^. They did not however follow 
the course of the Oxus, or they would have 
come in the first instance to Baotria, and not 
to Sogd. Their course, therefore was more 
nortlierly. Its present climate is precisely what 
the record describes it to have been when the 
changes produced by the above commotion took 
place. It has only two months of warm weather. 
In the course of the Arians after their expulsion 
from the primeval eountry, between Sogdiniia 
and the S'utlej,.they formed, by the conquest of 
fourteen countries, as many kingdoms, in the 
whole of the Enstern part of Central Asia and 
India Proper, in the country of the Indus and 
its confluents. In the intervening countries, 
they passed amongst the Turanians (Scythians 
and Turcomans) and there is evidence that the 
inhabitants whom they found in India, were 
likewise Turanians. The main direction of 
these travellers, was southerly, and on the 
southern bank of the Caspian is a group, the 
nndeusof the Arian Mediff. Professor Max- 
Muller gives, as foHowa, the tuooeasive Arian 
settlements : 

Sogdiana in Bamaretmd^ formed iki jini 
iettiement of the Brians : Sughda, afterwards 
spelled 8ugdia and oommooly Sugdiana, is 
p^-eminently the country ,<^a« ibring the home 
of the ' Fire- worshippers. It is in the 38tb 
dpoTi'ef of latitude, where Mara Kan<la (Saroar- 
cnnd) is situated, a paradisiacal land^ ffrtiiized 
by the river Sogd, so that Sogd and Paradise 
are used synonimously by the Jater writers.. 

The Vandidad (ii. verse 5) says it was siestsd 
as the second best of the regions and countiiei. 

TAe »e§md BMlewunt wa$ m Afoatif, (Merv, 
Margiana.) This is Margiana (from the river 
Marf^uSy) now Marghab (Margus- water,) Mar 
gush in the cuneiform inscriptions : a fruitful 
province of Khorasstin surrounded by deserti. 
In the Record, (iil. verse 6 ) it is described as 
" the third best land» the mighty and pious 
Monnii Marw,) .... Ahriuian crated there 
wara- and marauding expeditions." 

l%e third seWeautU wm in Bokkdi (Bao- 
tria,) it (iv. .V. 7,) is stated that the fourth 
best lind was the fortunate Bukhdi, with the 
lofty banner : here Ahriman created buzzing 
insects and poisonous plants/' Bokhdi is car* 
tainiy Bactria (thouah Bumpuf had doubts 
about it,) ihe land of the Bactriana. The '' uli 
plamea" indicate the imperial banner (oention- 
ed also by Firdousi,) and refer, consequenilr, 
to til e time when Bactria waa the seat o^empire. 
Up to this time nothing is said about Me** 
dia^ though she conquered Babylon B. U. 123i 

** H^eir fourth eettlemetU was m iVtiayi 
(Northern Parthis.) It (v. verse 8, says ** the 
fi/ih best land ia Nisaya ; there Ahriman created 
unbelief." This is the Nisaia of Ptolemy, famoui 
for its breed of horses, commonly called Nifs, 
the renoirued district of Kortbern Partbia, 
bordering on Hyrkania and Margiana. ' The city 
of Nis8B is situated on the Upper Oius. Tbi 
term " unbelief in the record, signifi^ the 
apoetacy from pure fire worship. Uere^ there* 
fore, the first schism takes place. 

*' The fifth eeUlmenl in ITaro^a (Aria.}Haroytt 
is Herat, of which frequent mention is mudtf 
subsequently, and the Hariva of the eandfonn 
inscriptions. Its name has n^ enfinexion with 
the Arians, but comes from the river do* 
called " Heri," abounding in water. The Grsck^ 
district Aria comprises 'the larger portion of 
Segestan, and forms part of Southern Kbons^ 
san. In the Record <vi. verse 9,) it is mentioned 
that the fifth best land was Haroyu, the pourei^ 
out of water, here Ahriman created hail and 

*' The sixth settlement in Fekereta (Segestan.) 
This country is the home of Kusturo. Dusbac 
is the capital of S^gestan. To the south east 
of it is the land of the Parikani known to 
the ancients as a part of the Saken country 
(Sakastene.) The greater part of it is now a 
<teserty but it was once cultivated. Here again 
ill the words of ihe Record, there may be allu- 
sion to a schism, which, in that case, would be 
the second historical one. The Record runs 
(vii. verse 10.) '* Vekerela, in which Duzhaka 
is situate ; there Ahriman created the Kairii ka 
Khnatbaiii." ^Herod, Hi. 94 Comp Bitter, nU. 
59.) Recent travellers hsve alao found nomadic 
tribes betWeen Media and Oedrosia, who aor- 


ikipped IIm Peri (Fairies,) but were fire^wor- 
ikippen aJio. 

** Tkta^BoUk seWemeni in Urva (Gabul.) The 
leoord alludes to (ia viii. verse 11.) Urva, 
piored by Haug to be Cabul, the ideuiity of 
fiiieh was previously unknovrn. 

'1h€ eighth uUlme'»i in Khnemta (Onnda- 
lttr|(ix. verse 12.) '' Khueuta, where Vehrkaua 
isMtuated." Accordingto Haug^by this country, 
Caadabar is to be understood ; Yehrkana can- 
sot be Hyrcsuiii, as is jsenerally supposed, but 
iitbecity now called Urghandab, situal^d iu 
CluMlikar. The curse of Ahrlman was pcedems- 
liio, a vice kuown historically to be uu-Arian 
i»i Turanian. 

" The niutA seillement U Haraquaita (Ara- 
ehosii,) (x* verse 13. (Haraquaita, denominate 
ol liie fortunate ; the Harauwatis of the cunei- 
£irninMriptions ; the Arachosia of the classical. 
The vork of Ahriman hrre was the buryiug of 
tliedesd. Another apostacy therefore froui the 
tme faith. 

"fie te^lk HiiUment in Hetumai (district of 
Bdoond.) (xi. verse 14.) *' Uetumat, the 


I. Indus* 

II. Hydaspes. 
III. Akesiues,. 


try of the Five Rivers is also eiilled the Land 
of the Seven rivers. The traditional Greek 
names aUo are seven. The Indus and the 
Sutlig are each formed by the junction of two 
arms, which, iu iheir earlier course were inde« 
pendent. According to this view it stands 
thus : 
L Kophen (Kubh^) 

2. Indus, Upper 

3. Hydaspes (Bidaspes) 

4. Akesines lAsikui) 

'• "vC&if ""'"' '*{ I^- "'«»"<"-. 

6. Hyphaais (Vipasa) i 

7. Saranges (Upper Satadru, > V. Hyphasis. 

Sutlej, Gbara) 3 

" But U is not, he says, only unnecessary to 
suppose, as Kilter does^ that the country extend* 
ed as far as the Saras vati, but such a suppqsition 
would be at variance with history. It is now 
iiscertHioed from the Vedas that the Ariana 
passed the Sutl*-j» at a very late period, and 
settled in what is now India. It was not till 
iheir fourteenth settlement after the emigration 

vciltby, the splendid/' is the valley of the pre* from the primitive country in the north, thai 
Kit llelinund, the Etymander of the classics. ' » ^ it.-.j.. ir.... __.i .i. t_ i _ 

Tbe mischief inflicted here by Ahriman was the 
■a of sorcery. 

** Tie eleventh aeUhsment in Ragha (Northern 
JWii.) (xii. verse 16) " Kagha with the 
tbreaneei is doubtless the Rkagce of Sirabo 
Md Ptolemy, the greatest city iu Media," south 
of Teberan. This north-eastern portion of 
Media indndes the passes of the Caspian. Tne 
FOueiaioB of theae passes was a protection to 
Ibeoliier Ariana, and iit the same time the key 
to tlw vhole of Bii-dia, and tiiert-f^re Persia, 
tk diitrict is called also Choana iQwan.) 
Ahiiaan established hr-re unbelief in the spiri- 
toil isptcoscy of ZaMthustrn — ^another schism, 
it all efests another poniou of aucieut Arian 

"fktbadflh ieftUmetU in KaUra (Khoras- 
P^ (xiii. verse 17.) Kakhra is held by 
Mvd sad Lassen to be the district of Kih- 
|*i Bestioiied in Firdousi. Haug identifies 
,4 viU tke eiiies of Karkh in Khorassan. The 
inbdoDeby Ahriman here was the burning 
^ Ike dead. This was therefore an illegal 
ise,Iike the ^in of the Arachoaians, who 
•0 profane as to bury their dead. All 
|dies the organisation of a hierarchical 
ia &)gd and Bactria, although not a 
' easte, 
fh iiirieemik uitlemeni in Vartna (Ghi- 
(w. veiae 18.) •' Varena with the four cor- 
** Hsiig has shown to be Ghiian. The 
of Ahrmaa was irregular .meustroiition. 
ns fomritenlk uUlememi iptfs im Haptn 
tPunjab). (vi» vene 19.) The Land of 
o^vea Uindos, that ia, the eountr\ between 
bios sad Stttlq. In the Yedas the coun- 


they passed the Uiiidu-Kusli and the Indus« 
Tiie previous resting places form an unbroken 
chain of the primitiie abodes of the Ariana 
(the Free or the Land owners). The last hnk 
in those earlier settlements is the laud of the 
Afghsns, on the western slope of the Hindu- 
Kush. Lower down to the westward there 
is but one settlement necessary to secure 
their previous possessions, namelv, the two 
districts of Ghiian and Masandaran, with 
the passes of ih« Caspian. Tiiis settlement 
more to the north-west (Ghiian and Masaa- 
daran) forms therefore also a connected group* 
Putting these two groups together, we shall 
find that there is no one single feriile district 
in the whole. of hlastern Central Asia of which 
the Arian races did not possess themselvesjt 
except Southern Media and all Farsistau or 
Pertfis. Now as history exhibits the Ariai^ 
race, spread throughout the whole of Mediae 
but as dominant only iu Persia, it follows that 
Ghiian and KasHndaran formeil the nucleus of 
these ancient possessions which afterwards be^ 
came so important and celebrated. There can* 
not therefoie be a more unfortunate theory 
than the one which makes Persia the original 
seat of Zoroaster and his doctrine. Uistoty sa 
well as personal observations at the present 
time, supply unequivocal evidence of the Ira-; 
nisn having been the popular language in all 
these districts. The names in the Vendidad 
moreover, when compared with Sanskrit, tura 
out to be regular ancient formations, although 
like the old Bactrian formations, aa pre- 
served iu India, they have been gradually 
weakened down. We know, lastly, from the 
inscriptions of the Ach»menid», several of 



Ihem^ whioli have become historical and geo- 
graphical designations at a later period. It is 
impossible un<ier these eircuinsianceSy to eoii- 
sider the VendidatI as a modern fiction, or as a 
fragment of some geographicul cumpendiuin. 
The fact of their having suddenly r^trHced their 
steps from tue south-west, and formed a con- 
nected . north-eastern group about the Caepiati 
Sea, would be inexplicable^ supposing it to be 
a fio\ion' (Bunsett 8 Egypt* b Place tM Unittrinl 
Hisler^ : /rom p. 462 to 467 ) 

In India the term Aria, as a national name, 
fell into oblivion in later limes, and was pre- 
served only in the term Aryavarta, the abode of 
the Aryans. But it was more fniihrully pre- 
served by the Zoro^strians who migrated from 
India to the north-west, and whose religion has 
b<'en preserved to us in the Zendavesta, though 
in fragments only. Now Airya in send means 
venerable, nnd is at the same time the name of 
the people. In the first chapter of the Vendi* 
dad, where Ahuramazda explains to Zarathustra 
the order in whicli he creaieJ the earthy sixteen 
countries are mentioned, each when created by 
Ahtiramazda, being pare and perfect ; but each 
being tainted in turn by Angro-mainyus or 
Ahn-man. Now the first of these countries is 
Called Airyantm viejo^ — Arianum hemen, the 
Aryan seed, and its position must have been as 
far east as the western slopes of the Belur Tag 
and Mustag, near the sources of the Oxus and 
Yaxartes the highest elevation of Central Asia. 
From this country, which is called their seed, 
the Arians advanced towards the south and 
west, and in the Zendavesta the whole ex- 
tent of country occupied by the Aryans ia like- 
wise called Airya. A line drawn from India 
along tlie Paropamisus and Caucasus Indicus 
in the east, following in the north the direction 
between the Oxus and Yaxartes, then running 
along the ("aspian Sea, so as to include Hyr- 
cania and Eagha, then turning south-east on 
the borders of Nisaea, Ana ^i e. Haria\ and 
the countries washed by the Etymandrus and 
Arachotus, would indioate the general horieon 
of the Zoroastrian world. It would be what is 
called in the fourth cards of the yasht of Mithra, 
*' the whole space of Aria,'* vitpem airy 6 • 
tayanem (totum Arise si turn.) Opposed to the 
Arian we find in the zenilavesta the non- 
Arian countries (anairyao dain-havo,) and trares 
of this name are found in the Ava^xai a people 
and towu on the frontiers of Hyrcania. 
Greek geographers use the name of Ariana in 
a wider sense even than the zendavesta. All 
the country between the Indian Ocean in the 
south and the Indus in the east, the Hitidu- 
kash and Paropamisus in the north, the Cas- 
pian gates; Karamania, and the mouth of the 
Jprrsinn gulf in the west, is included by Straho 
(XV. 2) under the name of Ariana, and Bactria 
is thus called by him ** the ornament of the 

whole of Ariana.'* As the Zoroastrian reli^ioa 
spread westward, Persia, Elymais, and Mc-dia 
all claifiied for themselves tlie Ariao tftie* 
Hcllanicus, who wrote hefore Herodotus, knosra 
of Aria as a name of Persia. Herodotus (VII. 63) 
attests thHt the Mectians called themselvt-sArii ; 
and even for Atropatene, the northemmoat 
part of Media, the name of Ariania (not A.ria) 
has been presmred by Stephanus Byaaiitinua. 
Manu speaking of the Palava tribe of Kahatrya, 
who had neglected to reverence brahmans, atylea 
them Dasya, whether they speak the iaiig^u&|s^ 
of the Mlech-cha or that of the Ana, and tfaa 
people to whom he there alludes seem to have 
been Medes occupy ipg the valley of the Indua. 
As to Klynais its name had been derived from 
Atlanta, a supposed corruption of A iryanur. 
The Persians, Medians, Bactrians, and Bogdiana 
all spoke, as lato as the lime of Strabo. nearly 
the same language,and we mav well undcarstand^ 
therefore, that they should have claimed for 
themselves one common nauie, in opposition to 
the hostile tribes of Turan. {MuUei*§, 
p. from 226 to 228.) And when, after > 
of foreign invasion and occupation, Persia 
again under the sceptre of the Sassaniana to be 
a national kingdom, we find the new national 
kings, the worshippers of Masdanes, callinf| 
themselves, in the inscriptions deciphered by 
De Saoy, '* Kin^^a of the Aryan and un-Aryaia 
raoes," in Pehlevi, Iran tfa Aniran : in Greek; 
Aptavwv Kat Avaptavwv — \Muller*4 Lectwret^ 
jp. 229.) ; i 

West of Armenia, on the b(ydera of ibi^ 
Caspian Sea, we find the ancient name of .jH^-. 
bania. The Armenians call the Albasiiaat^. 
Apkavan, and as^A in Armenian atanda for r, silr.j 
or 1, it has been conjectured by Bori, that lib i 
Aghovan also the name of Aria is contalna^^ 
This seems doubtful. But in the valleys of tbb) 
Caucasus we meet with an Arian race speakHij^ 
ail Aryan language, the 0«of OMtihl, and ihcjh! 
call themselves Iron, (MulUr'i Lecimw^tE 
p, 230) Briefly, to reoapituate, the ArisMJ 
according to Bunsen (iv. 487) eitii|E:< 
out of the country of the sources of the O3 
Oihoit) and Jaicaites, B G- 11,000 to 10,00] 
(and (iv, 491,) about B. 0. 7,250 to^ 5,< 
the Arians separated into Kelts, Armenii 
Ii-enians, Greeks, Slaves and Germana. 
cording to Bunsen (iii. 584) the separation' 
the Arians was prior to their leaving Sogd. 
emigration from Sjgd to Bactria, after 
separation, took place B C 5,000, conseqi 
ly before the time of Menes. The intuiKi 
tion into the Indus country about B.C. 4*,< 
and Zoroasters reform in Bactria about 
time of Menes or half a cenlurv later. "Hi 
sen iii, 584) and he is of opii.ion that 1). 
5,000 to 4,t)00 the Arians formed their kit 
doms iu Central Asia, as far as Nortlierj^ 



, Ncdu, Cabul and Gandtihar. 6. C. 4,000 
ibcT iDigrateci into the Indus count rv. 

Of tbfir history while reaidiDg in the Pun- 
jib, we mott 8«Hrch the Vedas which fur- 
ink much inforaiHtion regarding the origin 
ind early 8tate of the races who are now called 
Hiodos. The people among whom the Vedas 
were oompdsed, had evidently passed the iio- 
BMieitage. They had no* money, and their 
fnlth consisted of cattle, horses', sheep, goats 
ml imiFa1o«s, and the cow was the medium of 
birter. By the Big- Veda (vol. 1, p. 165 : 
vol 2, pp. 127 and 925 ; and vol, 8, pp. 
1(3,276, 416 and 453,) it is evident that the 
cot was then not reverenced and that the race 
vkeonpoacd these hyinnsi, were a cow-killing 
ttd Mealing, spirit -drinking people. Cow- 
Koling was a great crime. We find mention in 
tktr hymns of cities of commerce, merchants, 
ulon,ol weapons of wood und iron, of chariots, 
flfbcialiis, travellera and ions for their accom- 
mdntinn, and even of the vices of a primitive 
orilizadon. Thf-y had roads and ferries ; bullock 
evtuad waggons ; they had carriages andwHr 
chniota drawn by horses, and t,he carriage was 
Mieof wood with brass wheels and iron rims 
Md pillars. It bad seats and awnings, waa 

horse, the Aswamed'ba, seems to have been 
practised in their religious rites. There are two 
hvnuis in the Eig Veda, describing the rite, 
and which leave no doubt, that in the early 
religion of the race, this sacrifice, as a burnt 
offering to the ' gods, was had recourse to. 
It was even then, however, falling into disuse^ 
and was eitsting as a relic of an anteve^iic 
period, imported from some foreign region, 
possibly from Bcytliia, where animal viciimt, 
and especially horses, were commonly sacrifioed. 
Aud in still later tiroes, the Aswamed'ba con- 
sisted in certain oeremoniea ending in the 
liberation of the hor^, as throuishout Southern 
India is still practised wiih a bull or cow,, many 
of which are met with in every village, freed or 
let loose in the name of Siva or Vishnu. 
* At present, in India, the native Arian races 
hold to the three great religions, buddhism, bia- 
manjsm, and Koroastriiinism, and the followers 
of the Jain belief are all of this race, many of 
whom also, in Cashmere, Afghanistan and 
Enjptttana have become mahoroedans. Amongst 
the Arinn races who went to tie north- 
west, thete ar« no grounds for the belief that 
the Saxons continued to offer human sacri- 
fices after their settlement in Great Britain, 

•nygoiag and aoineliroes inlaid with gold, but in their own land the immolation of cap- 

9nkmt Muller, Vol 1, pages 94 and 175 : 
Yal $, pp. S7 and 856.) Iron and steel were 
k aae, for there is mention of iron armour, of 
moti lipped with steel, and Poms gave thirty 

Cadi of steel to Alexander. Ihey had a 
vledge of the fea ; had halls of justice and 
. lilsand chambers of sacrifi[ce, but apparent* 
; ^ BO teaples or images. Women held a high 
r aMal petition. The Rishi and his wife, con- 
amevB equal terms, go together to the sacri- 
fce^sad practice austerities together. Iiovely 
^ai^ p in a procession, and grown up 
4^|tcn remain without reproach in their 
; MM^ikote. But we read of drunkenness, 
, (Vol. 2, p, 12) cheating, gambling, 
ing orchihlren, thieves, courtezans and 
. Kiikahivat, an iUustrious Rishi mar- 
ijhitea niters at once ^Yol. 2, p, 17), and 
ry seems Xq have prevailed for in an 
Kakehivat says, " Aswins, your ad* 
(horses) bore the car, which you had 
), (first) to the goal, for the sake of 
and the damsel, who was the prize, 
through affection to }0u and acknow- 
jonr (b^isbandship) saving, you are my 
Vol. 1, p.322).— Co/cv/ta Egttew, 1859. 
WVaslcr says that the worship of. the 
in the times of their approaching the 
seems lo have been simplst patriarchal, 
by the fatfaerof the family : to have 
s wofship of fire, and subaequentiy Ihey 
'^ the earth, sky, food, wine, months, 
>,dsT, night, and dawn. — Hifit, of India, 

tives in honour of their gods was by no means 
uncommon. The great temple at XJpsal, in 
Sweden, appears to have been especially dedicate 
ed to Odin, Thor and Frea. Its periodical 
festivals were accompanied by different degrees 
of conviviality and licence, in which human 
sacrifices were rarely wanting, varied in their 
number and value by the supposed exigency. 
In some eases even roval blood was selected 


that the imagined an^^er of the gods might be 
appeased. In Scandinavia, the authority of 
the priest was much greater than it would 
appear to have been anion te the Anglo-Saxons, 
Jirwashis word oftttn, which df.termined where 
the needed victims should be found. It was 
his hand that inflicted the wound,' and his 
voice which said, '* I send thee to Odin,'' de- 
claring the object of the saorifioe to be that 
the gods might be propitiated, that there 
might be a fruitful se-^son or a suqoessful war. 
The tendency of the Arian rare is to form na- 
tional and political communities, marry one 
wile ; and worship one supreme and spiritutd 
deity. The Turanian tendency is to have little 
natural or political oohesion— marry one or 
more wives, without much sentiment, to wot« 
ship gods and heroes withbni much idea of a 
spiritual existence, beyond that implied in the 
iioiipn of ghosts and devils.— Wheeler's Hist- 
of India, pj, Bunien*i Egypt, Vol. Hi, pp. 
499 /o601 and Vok iv. pp. 40 to' 56 1, ftof. 
Max Muller*8 Lecittrn, pp^ 09 108 ; 201. Col- 
eulia Review 1859, Minburgh Review, See 

teosgst the Arum hindus, thesaprifice of a [ Aria, Andhra, Aborigines, Greeks of Asia 




MhlechiT, India, pp. 510, iU, 322 : Hindu, 
KRboI, pp. 436, 437, 435, 438 : Kuniva, Abori;- 
gin6»^f Southern India, Sanscrit, Inscriptions, 
pp. 872: 371, Fandava, Stidra, Sakya Muni, 
Mahabarita, Sarasvati, Turk, Yadu, Yavana. 

ARIA.NA, (Iran) the general name for the 
country east of Persia and Media, as far as the 
lndu9. See Aria. Greeks of Asia. Iran:~ 
Kabul, p. 433, 437. 

ABIANABAKUAFASA, supposed to be 
an Arian territory near Kabul and the Paro- 
pamisus. See Kabul, ^.439. 

ARIAN COOPANG, a town in ttie south of 
peninsular India, in long. 79^ 54' £. and iat. 

ARIAN HINDUS, See Hindoo. India, p. 
812. Sacrifice. Iran. 

ARIAN LAN GU AGKS, See Aria. India, 
p. 311, 

ARIAN MIGRATION, Sec India, p. 309. 

ARIAN PALI, the Arian language in a tran- 
sitive state from the old Arian tongue. 

AEIA PALUS, of the ancients, is a lake 
formed by the accuraulaiion of the waters of 
the Helround at the soutliern extremity of its 
course and called the UVt of Z>irrab by Euro- 
peans. This is a contraction of Zarrenj, the 
ancient capital, and this again represents < he 
Zarangi or Drangi of the Greeks. In old Persian 
books it is callfd '' Daria-Reza or little Sea," 
the present inhabitants of Seistan call it Me- 
shila-i-Rustum, also Meshila*i- Seistan. Meshila 
merely means, in Arabio, a muddy swamp. The 
ordinary name of the lake is Hamdn or the tx- 
pause.— jKrf. Ferr%er*6 Jourit. See Helmuud, p. 

posed to have killed Arsaces I, B« C. 254-250, 
the first of the Arsacidau kings. 

ARIARIUS, a satrap of Phrygia, whose son 
Sryihras was banisheil by Darius to Kishm 
Island. Nearchus was told that Erythras gave 
his name to the adjoining sea* 

ARIA VARTA, the land of the Arians in 
India. See Hindoo. India, pp. 308 9. 

ARIA VELA. Malsal. c?^r61cQ;ai)g>p 

Cleome viscosa : also Polanesia felina, D, C. 

ARIDiBUS, brother of Alexander the Great. 
He did not succeed to Aiexander's kingdom. 

Tam. r Arsenic* 

ARIETI PANDOO. T«l. Vella Kai. Tah. 
ARIK-I-GOWGIRD. ^ (^ . ^ Peks. 

Sulphnrie Add. See Ark. 

ARIKEoftAHlMSLU. e5'^.«a"le». Pas- 
palura scrobiculatum, £. 

ARlRELtJ. e91tx>. Tel. Paspalun 


ARIKOTA, edr^^. Tbl. Poivrea Bov- 

burghii, 2). (7.— Combretum decandrum, S, ti. 

ARIMEDAMU— S. eQ-Cotfii«>. Vacliellia 

farnesiana, JT, 66. 

ARIES. The Tauric and Hydra foea» witk 
which Jasun had to contend before be obtHined 
the fleece of Aries, are the ^mbols of the sun* 
god, both of the Ganges ai»d the Nile ; this 
fable has occupied almost every pen of anti- 
quity, but is clearly astronomical, as the namfet 
alone of the Argha-NaCht sous of ApoUo^ Ji^an^ 
Mercury, Sol^ Areut or Argw^ Jupiter, Baochn^^ 
dsc, sufficiently testify, whose voyage is entirdjf 
celestial. To<p^ Haja^lhan, Vol, I. p 601. 

ARIGiElTM, a town near the territory of tiM 
Siah Posh Kaffirs, at which the Greeks iu ibak 
advance on India established a military oolo^. 
Seo Kaffir* 

ARIL, or ASRE NUDDY, nmt near Sikii 
in BudaoD. 

ARIL RAMGANGA, a email river near 

AKIM, a town in India in long. Qi"" Si' 
E. and Lat. 20'' 39' N. 

ARIMATHEA: between Ramleh and Hi 
hill-con iitry, a distance of about eight mile^ li{ 
the roUiog plain of Arimathea. This and 
greater part of the plain of bharon, ia od0 
tiie richest districts in the world. Tbe wtM'^ 
a dark brown loam, and, without manure, 
duces annually superb crops of wheat and 
ley — Taylor* 9 Saracen, P^J^^' 

ARINEB) a river near Jey pore. 

ARINGHB. It. Herrings. 
ARirO, a town in Ceylon in long. 80^ p 
E. and lat. 8"" 30' N. Pearl o>8ters are MUk 
up on the banks near it. See Pearls. ^ 

ARISHTA NEMI was the uear kinama 
Krishna, they being the sons of Baadeo 
Sdmudra,the eldest audyoungest o( ten brol 
of the Yadu race. These were of Indu or Cbi 
origin^ and supposed to have been bud 
I polynndrists. 

ema.rginalus. Sosp nuts. 

ARISHTA ? Bkng P AzadirachU Indic«a^ 
ARlSi. Tam. j^m husked giain of OMi 
sativaw — -JLi^n* Rice* 

A.RISiBMA, a genua of tbo Araoess or 
tribe of plants, A. gracile is mentioned byj 
Honigberger (p. 834) as occurring abundi 
in th^ Himalayas, on the south side of tbai^ 
Pfinjal from the top to the bottom- Itajinoe 
acrid, the roots are considered by tbe Ual 
to bean ekcellent remedy against every di 
tion of animal poison. A. Draooi-tium aitJI 




triphjliom tre introduoed planU*— Zfa/i^. p. 
\U. Foigl, p. 688. 

AB[STIDASETACEA. Linn, Broom grm. 

A&iSrOLOCHIA, a genus of the birthwort 
tiibe, of which Bozburgh mentiona four ape- 
on. bit Voigt namea eleven aa growing in 
India. A. acuminata growing in many placea 
iiedtivated aa a flowering plant, for its large, 
dirk i^reeniiii purple flowers. A* Anguicida : 
oionlJiaiiDa : labioaa; cymbi^'era, clematttis : 
(ttteu : and brszilienaia are introduoed plants. 

Aristokchia Longa and A. Rotunda naiiivea 
of tke sotttb of Europe, end Kashmir are 
fovni in the mediciue bazars of India, under 
tb Danes of ZMrawund iuwed (Pars, ^ura^^long) 
iDd Zurawund wtooderuJ(? ers. ^iV</,rouiidy) with 
iMockia as the Greek name. The roots of 
1, Losga are given by the Hakeems, in diseases 
of the womb, ulcers and affections of the.guma : 
tb litirr in itch, leprosy, for drying up sores, 
4eitro¥iog lice and intestinal worms, also for 
fRNDotiog the lenal and menatrual secretions. 
— A.Loaga, Zarawand*tuweel,Ar. Pera. occura 
is whitish, twiated pieces, the size of a finger, 
nd nearly tasteless. — O' Shaugkneajff p. 568. 

iaiSTOliOCHIA 8AGCATA. In Sikkim, 
is (he taUey of the Teeata, are many fine planta, 
Wt Dr. Hooker especially noticed the Ariato- 
Mia laccata, which dimba the loftiest treea, 
Mag its curious pitoher-shaped flowera near 
tkegrooad only : ita leaves are said to be good 
bdUu ctitHt.'^ Hooker, Vol. II. p^ 7. 

M. iii 490. 








Addatinapsl^ .. 

Parugu pallay... Tsl. 
Gadide gadapara... „ 

Kadopara „ 

Gardt Gavapn ... Tdlu. 

Apini with a persistent nauseously bitter 
^ : ffmvs on ouliivated ground on the Co- 
naaedd coast ; two of the leaves bruised with 
Vitv are given ais a remedy in diarrhoea with 
A ; an infuaioii of the dried leaves is 

Siad aothelroiutic and given in snake bites. 
hvifkuuyy page 568. Boxb. m. 490. 
, 313. Oil. Ca^. Ex, 1862. 

iRISTOLOCfllA INDICA. Linn. Roxb. 

tojninattl^. ...Bsko. 
y^rttMiea. .Cocb.-Chtn. 
inder... ...Ctkok. 

ifcfiu Btrthwoit...&ro. 

•*, ... DVKB* 

.•• ...Hun). 

►• ... }, 




... Jav. 






Hari, Iswari.s 



iSakaacdar •«% 
Satasanda ... 
Talaahrnbe ... 
Dala, Go Vila... 

Isara vern, or Chcttu „ 
Telia & nails Iswara ., ,$ 

• 9f 

' if 
• l» 



• • «f 

A perennial titining plant, growing every 
where in the copaes and jungles of India and 
Ceylon, flowering in the wet season, the root is. 
like that of aaraapariUa, pereanial. The root, is 
nauseously bitter, and is given as en emena- 
gogue, and in paroxysms of gout. It is also 
considered by the native practitioners to be a 
valuable remedy in the diarrhoea of children 
proceeding from dentition. The dose given in 
India, to an adult, of the decoction of the root,' 
is an ounce to an ounce and a half twice daily. 
Also in native medical practice employed in 
luer, as an emenagogue, also to procure 
abortion and as an antidote to snake bites. — 
Roxb. Hi. 490-1. Foii/t, 313. Cal. Cat. Ex. 
1862. 0^ Shaughnt99ff, p. 568. 


2erawand'Ut-tawil..ARAB. I Birthwort : longeared. 

Aristolochia .• I Evq. 

Zerawand-daraz Paaa. 


Is used both in powder and mixture ; em* 
ployed as a tonie in diseases of the chest and 
brain, and especially in head-ache. Dose 90 
grains, price %8, per \h. — Cat, Ex. 1862. 

ARIS'IOTLE, the tutor of Alexander the 
Great ; his fame, in India, is wholly confined 
to the mahotoedana^ who st>le him Aristun. 
His pupils and followers were the historians 
of India after Ahsxander'a time. See ladia. 
Scylax. Veda. 

ARITA also RITHA. Mar. Syn of Sa- 
pindus emarginatus. Soap-nut : Sa]'indu8 


ARITI CHETTU, Mass paradisiaca, Z. M. 
sapientura, R. i, 663. Arfti pu, Tbl. eJTtf 

^^. the flower. Ariti pundu, e^^fiSSo^" 

the fruit. . 

ARIUS, a genue of fishes, of the Oan^res, 
and of the Malay and Javanese seas« from which 
isinglass is.obtatiied. 


Pimelodus arius, B. H. 
IkanSaladu, Malay. 
„ Burdndu. „ 

This fish inhabits the Gangetic estuaries ; 
nearPondicherry, and the estuaries near Penang, 
the Malay Peninsula and Singapore. It ia 
1ft. 10 in. long ; forms an article of food, and 
more than any other of the Siluridse contri- 
butes to the isinglass of commerce. — Cantor, 


Silurua militari:!, Linn* 
Osteo-geceiouB, BUeker* 

This is a fool and a half long, inhabits 
the Coromandel and Malabar coasts, the Gan- 
ges, Irawadi, and the seas and estuaries of the 
Malay Peninsula. Its air-vessel is preserve^ 
as isinislass. — Cantor. 

ARIUS TRUNOATUS, Cuv. and Val, This is 
under a ioot in lengths It occurs in the seaa of 

183 2^ 


Penang and the Malay FeuiiMttli^, but is to ^ re 
that it furnishes little of ttie isinglass of Com- 
flaeroe. — Canter, 

• AUiYITA, TsL.eO^to' 

AKIYAPORIYAN. MaL, Anlidesma buiiias. 

ARJA. Hind. A class of women mendi- 
^nts iu Central India respect e^l for their know- 
ledgC; not their conduct. Women, who have 
adopted the vagrant life which this class pursue 
are never allowed any intimate intercourse with 
families. — Malcolm* 9 Cunlral India, Vol. iL 
p. 193. 

ARJAKAM. ^^E-S'o Ocimum viscosum.*— 

Ji, iiu 3. 

ARJAN, Pera. as\ also Arzhan and Ar- 

zhauah : according to Ouseley, this tiree is a 
species of the Badam-i-Kohi the mountain 
almond^ or Badam-i-TalHt the bitter almond. 
Its fruit is used medicinally, the wood for walk- 
ing-sticks or bludgeons ; and the bark or skin 
is twisted or wrapped about bows.— OfMif7«y'« 
Travels, Vol. /, p. 806. 

ARJANNA. U. a tribe of kunbeesor culti- 
vators in W. India* — iViUon- 

AHJUK. BisN, Ocinaum sanctum. 

AHJUN. Bbn. Penfsfrtera aijuna. P. ter- 
fninalia. P. alata. T. glabra.— -/ford. 

• AIUUN MAL, the fifth Guru of the Sikhs, 
born A. D* 1553, died 1606. In 15^1, he 
compiled the Adi-Granth, the first sacred book 
of the Sikhi. 

AKJUNA, a hero of Central India, He was 
the son ol Pandu wl^ was tbe son of Vichitra* 
Viriai the second soa of Santana. "From him 
descended this hero Aijuna * as did hia -brave 
rival Duryo-dhana, from his elder brother 
J)hrita-ra8htra. Aijuna dieans white in distinc- 
tion ta Krishna, blacks Arjvna was the friead 
and favorite of Krishna. Arjuaa's mother was 
Konti, one of Pandu'a wiv^s^ and there were five 
sons bom to Pandu, of his two wives, of whom 
Aijuna was (he most distinguished. The des- 
cendants of Krishna and Arjuna carried down 
the Lunar line of Indian chieftains, as the 
'Cushites and Lavites, from Cush and Lava, 
aonsofBama^ carried down that of the Sun. He 
was expert in arms, and excelled in archery. He 
appeared at the exhibition of ai^ms held at Uasti- 
uapur and subsequently ,di8guised as a brahman, 
at the Swayamvara of Draupadi where he gain- 
ed the day, and won Draupadi, who then became 
the joint v^ife of himself and four brothers, 
Arjuna is' Currently said to have been 
Inarried to Subhudra, lister of Krishna, bat the 
story is not authentic* He fought bravely at 
Kurnkshetra, and killed Bhishma, Jayadratha 
ant) Kama. Much of his latter- history is mythi- 
cal, but he and his four brotliers seem to have 
"di^ on the Himalayas, and his grandsoa Parik- 
*shit succeeded to the kiiig(|om of Uastionpur. 


Afjuna on one oecasion followed the horser , 
let loose on the Aswamedha ceremony, into the 
country of the Amazons, and was there defeat- 
ed by their queen Paramita. — Btmun, p. 553. 
Wheeler^s Hudorjf 0/ India, Vol, i. See Incthra. ^ 

Inscriptions, pp. 376, 389 and 391. Kasam- 

bi. Krishna, pp. 545. Mahabarata: Malwa ; ! 

Pandn : Polyandry : Baraa : Sikhs. ; 

ARJUNO. Ben. Lagerslrsemia Beginas. i 

ARF, Tel. Bauhinia racemosa, Lam^ W, ^ ! 

A, 912; B. parviflora, R, it. 333. * \ 
ABK. See Cocoa-nut Palm. 

ARK. Sans. ARKA, aUo AKUND. Sans. 
Calotropis gigantea. 

ARK. Arab. Hind. Pers. A citadel, or" 
smaller inner castle constructed within a larger j 
fortress. It is an Arabic term and sometinae*- 
pronounced Arak, but more generally Ark. it 
Htemlly signifies the eftadel, and is never nsed^ 
to describe any other fortification. But, aa* 
princes iu the East generally lived in the ArM> 
the word from thence often eame to be applt^dl 
to a palace, as the Latin arx, comprising tfaff 
palace, {Dewan-Khanah) : and, that the ancieot' 
kings placed their habitation in the arx of* 
ettadel for safbtv, we learn from Bervina (in 
Virg. Mn. IV. 410.) *« Begium enim fuit*fa4>iJ 
tare in arcibns propter tutclam.** — Maicolm^^ 
History ofPertia. Ousele^s TraveU, Fol. f/jj 
2;. 18. Fraser's Jmimey into Kkortisan, p. BOJr 

ABKA. A town in Kanarah, where brab^^l 
mans say SriYeo the holy spirit is worshipped!' 

ARKA BANBHU, a name of Baddha^ 
meaning the kinsman of tbe sun. 

ARKALU. Tel. Harmkla rata. 

ARKANTA. Beng. Alangium hexa 

ARKaIBY, a (own in Iiulia, in Long. 7T 
5'E-andLat. 16^53'N. 

ARKATOU BASILEON, of the Greeks^ . is 
thepreseat Aroot—- S^e Arakadu. Aroot. Ka< 

AUKBA and Baitam, rivera in Gwalioi 
territory. The Arkea runs near Neemach.* 

AHKO OH URKOW. Ben a. Curl 
flowered Calotropis, Calotropis gigantea. 

ARKOLA. Kashm. A poisonous tree 
Kashmir which, when greed, Ulisters the ha 
that touches it. 

ARLAL-SAMUDEB, a town in India. 
Long.. 77° 22' E. and La*. 12^ 36' N. 

ARMAK. Hind- Paudanus odoratissimoi^ 

ARMEGON, or i>urgura£t>patnam, on 
Coromandel coast, was an early setilemenl 
the English from which they removed to i 
present site of the chief city, Madiras, in aboiil 
L728. in LaU 14° 1', N. Long. 80° tf 

B. It has a •shoal off it, of the same »aaM 
within which is a safe roadstead called Black] 
wood's harbour. — Borsburyk. 


iRUGNIA* The upper Euphrates is nearly 
Ih iM centre of thai great range of territory 
oiled by the aneienis Aniionia» which extend* 
edcaitwBid from that river to the Caapian Sea, 
ml igaia weatward over a part of Asia Miaor« 
The former portion was aloDoai uiiiyeraally 
kaflvn bj the name of the Gfeater» and the 
hiur by that of the Leaa Armenia ; bnt both 
nieMMBeliaaea subdivided into First, Second, 
ni Ihiid Armenia : a fouith division was add* 
ttl by Moses Choronensia and others. This 
kt divisioD, being os.the eastern side of the 
bphntei, ooosuiutes iaxeality part of Ar* 
Miii Major ; while Armenia Minor ia confined 
to tiw oountry weatward of the Enphraies and 
» HS^MMed only of the three aiib^visiona 
ibove sUoded to, Armenia Major in tlie time 
of its greatest proaperity, extended from S6^ 
M'U) 48^ N. Lat; and eastward, in one 
dmotiob, from 88^ to about 48^ 40' £. Long. 
wA t larfiice of nearly 84,756 equare miles 
tiiiHtu&ed eountry. Strabo makes it 200 
idronsioDg by 100 wide, which would give a 
aiieb greater aupcrfioiea. {Ia6. xL p. 530.) 
Ibogvaenl limita of this territory will proba- 
Uy be best understood by considering the Eu* 
pkaio to be its weustem bonndnry from Sumei* 
Mi oalil a few miles south of £r«ingan, where 
Ihc boaadsry qnita the river, and preserves the 
tetioo of TaraboetSn, till it meets the moun* 
las Mmthward of (lumish Khanab.— (<^ 
^W< FjufhiUMM Expedition, p. M.) The 
popnUiioBs to whom the term Armenian ia now 
•Mie^tCaU ibemaelves Haik. Their chief 
Mcaiiudes are the Turkish province of Erse- 
iw»tsdtbe Euaaiao district of Erivan, and 
M biran the patriarch resides. They ave now 
^ (be sway of Bussia, Persia and Turkey. 
vBt Ibsf ire found in all eaatern countries { 
37,67$ iroBi Ettropean Bassia alone, and one 
>>portiit lettleaoent of them ia in Venice, that 
of tkMeehitarbt monks, on the island of St. 
*^fuu» In figure^ the Armenians have been 
^^ to the Jew, the Turk and the Afghait. 
^ erince great commercial aptitude^ and 
M iisakers and merchant a. In Armf nia^ b ow* 
^ they caltirate the aoil. Before their con 



Prunus AiTOeniaca. Linn. 

Bin-kuk Ar. 

Taffa Armina... „ 
OotDBScm Aprioot... BKa 

Aprioot .'.. ^ 

Zard Ala ... BiHD, 
Chulu ... ' ... 











n - 


ft , 


A native of Kaghan, China and the West of 
Asia, but grown in gardens of India.. It is 
found also in the Sutli'j valley between Bampuif 
and Sungnam, at anelt^vationof 7,000 to 1 3,000^ 
but does not ripen above Slialker (/. 2). Cari' 
ningham). It is. there, a common article" of 
food, and source of wealth. The plantain is last 
seen be]ow Kotgurh, and the mango nciar Earn- 
pur. The apricot is a staple produce in KuUui 
and common article of food, they are small and 
firm-fleslied, so that they dry well. According 
to Dr. O'SkdughneBsy^ this is common about 
villages in the UimaiayHS, and oil of tlie fines( 
kind is made by expression from the kernels^ 
which are sold separately in the bazars under 
the name of Badam kohi, or hill almonds* 
The oil is clear, of a pale yellow colour, and 
smells strongly of hydrocyanic acid, of which 
it contains usually about 4 per cent. — 
O'ShaughHtMy, pages 222-23. Boxd. ii, 501. 
Foiffl, 200. Feg. King. 299. Clcghorn, Punj. 
££p. p. 65, 80. 

ABMBNO-CHALYBES, of Pliny, occupied 
the Cushdim territory of the ChaldeeS' See 

ARMLETS, are worn by hindus and maha' 
medaxis, by men and women ; of gold or silver, 
ivory, deer-horn and brass, some in the form of 
massive served rings, some as lockets ; the more 
expensive, worn by royalty are the bazu-band^ 
literally arm-binder. They have been worn aa 
ornamenta^ sinoe the most ancient times, like 
earrings. (Ofn. XXXV, iiJEx. XXXII, 3, 4; 
Eosea XI. 13: Judges, viiiy 24) the evtariaift 
aures often of gold, like those of the Ishmaelitea. 
But they are often cuskets containing, as with the 
mabomedan% charms, their taviz or like tho 
jaugam sect of hindu3, the phallic linganu 
*nioB they were fins Worshippers. Many of 1'^'^^^^ charms are often worn round the 

Abb aov are Nestorians, some are Bomaniats. 
r^ ^8>iHe of the present dav has affinities 
vith the Iron, and Pevetao, Axabic, Syrian 
i|Kl Turk. General traditioa and the forma- 
^ofjsflgttsge pomt alike to the mountains 
^^nmia as the bkth-plaoe of the Arab and 
* | g"><i » h raeea, and there is especial native 
*WMS to ibe. same effect aa regards £dom, 
^^•MSneitly, also, the VbosniciMa.— ia^si't 
^fi^ i H Mn^log^. Ck>l.Gke9i^'i Euphr^Ue 
fM. p. 94. Bmuen'e Eggpt, Ui. 431. See 
Mia. p. p. 809. 314 and 3^7. £oh. Sas- 
Jjtta kmga. Tigria. Afghanistan^ p. 312. 
^^' Kirmao. Sanakcit. Iran. 

neck like the golden bulla and leather torun;i 
of the Roman youth or as in Prov. vi, 2U 
and roost womep have frontlet ornaments such 
as are alhided to. in Deut. vi. 8. See Talsam. 
Taviz. Phyllactery. 

ARMOBE, a town in India, in Long, 72^ 
52' E. and Lat, 2r2rN". 

ARMORIAL BEARINGS belong to th^ 
east and were little known till the period o^f 
the Crusades. The twelve tribes of Israel were 
distinguished, by the animals on their banners, 
and the sacred writings frequently allude to 
the '' Lion of Judah.'' The peacock was .a 
favourite armori<4 e^nblem of the Kjilpo^ 




warrior^ it is the bird 8acr^ to their Mars | The long cdtftad-ibrost, Hker the AnMrem 

(Kumara^, as it was to Juno, his mother^ in the 
yfit^i. The feather of the peacock is used to 
decorate the turban of the Bajpoot and the 
warrior of the Grusade* adopted it from the 
liindu through the Saracens. '^ Le paon a 
toujours ete T embleme de la noblesse. Plusieurs 
chevaliers oriiaient Jeurs ehsques des plumes de 
cet oiseau ; un grand nombre de families nobles 
le portaient dans leur blazon ou sur leur 
dmier ; quelquesuns n'en portaient que la 
queue. — au Art. Armoirie, Diet, de V ancien 
Hegime. Tud'B Hajatthan, Vol, I. p, 1 37. 


Thitwajee Bubm . 

This tree is found here and there widely scat- 
tered in the 8 war and bther forests north of 
Tounghoo. The wood is red, and equivalent 
io maho^anjtf — McClelland. 

AfiMOUH. In South-eastern A^^ia samples 
of the armour and arms which have been in 
use, in alt ages and in ail countries, can every 
day be seen, and at the exhibition of 1851, 
there was a display of many actually worn in 
India at the present day ; such as chain and scale 
nrmour, both for man and horse, helmets and 
shields, spears, battle-axes, bows and arrows, 
with daggers in every variety. There was a 
sword formed of two blades, and another in 
which pearls were let into the centre of its 
blade. Among the daggers was one with 
daggers, cue within another all of hard steel, 
with the line of junction so beautifully 
welded as to be hardly perceptible even 
with a magnifier, also a dagger, most nicely 
brought into juxa-position, but which on 
striking separated into five blades. The twist- 
ing of gun barrels and the damatfks of tUeir 
blades of steel have be^n imitated in India and 
beautiful specimens were sent, chiefly by the 
native princes of the no^th-west of India, from 
l^utteala to Sind,* as well as from the central 
government of Hyderabad. Near Hyderal)ad 
in the t)ekkan, valuable sword blades are made 
nt Kona Samudram : and at the Langar festi- 
val of the Nabob, on which occasion all the 
troops file past, men with bows and arrows in 
quivers, with javelins, lances, pistols, muskets, 
ancient forms of weapons and new, may all be 
Been, with quilted doublets, chain and steel 
armour ou them, with steel and chain armour 
nnd gold and silver trappings on horse and 
oimel and efephant. No Indian prince or chief 
is without his iilleh Hanah or armoury, and 
a Kajput prince can pass hours in viewing 
and arranging his arms. £very favorite weapon, 
whether sword, matchlock, spear, dagger, or 
bow, has a distinctive epithet. I'he iirohi, or 
slightly-curved blade, is formed like that of ihe 
Damascus, and throughout Hejpootana, is the 
^eaiest fovorite of ail the variety of sabres. 

Ferrara, is not uncommon ; nor the Khand^i 
or double edged sword. The aiatdilocks botll 
of Lahore and Rajputfimih are often bi|^ly 
polished and inlaid with mother-of«pe«rl iind 
gold : those of Boondi are tha best. Foirilie 
shield, the rhinocerois hide offeri the beat 
resistance,, and ia often ormaroented irltk 
animals, beautifully painted, and enamelled im 
gold and silver. The bow is of buffalo-horn, and 
the arrows of reed, and barbed in a variety ef 
fashions, as the crescent, the trident, tii^ 
snake's tongue, and other fanciM forma. Tii« 
custom of engraving hieantationB or ▼erses of 
the koran on weapon is Baetem, (henee adopted 
by the mahomedan, aa well aa the use of phy* 
lactei'ies. The name of the goddess guardinK 
the Aajput tribe is often ]n8crit>ed, and at) efi-» 
tire copy of the Bhoftai Gila has been t«ik«a 
from the turban of a Bajpoot kiHed in action * 
in like manner the mahomedans place therein 
the koroH. The devotions of theEaJpeol are atill 
paid to his arms, as to his horse. He swears * by 
the steel,* and prostrates himself before his de^ 
fensive buckler, his lance, his sword « or hia dagw 
ger. The worship of the sword (asi) prevailed 
amongst the Scythie Gletse, and is deaoribed 
exactly by Herodotus* To Dacia and Tliraos 
it was carried by Getie colonies from th4 
Jaxartes, and fostered by these lovers of liber-* 
ty when their hordes overran Biirope TM 
worship of the sword in the Acropolis of Atbena 
by the Getic Atila, with all the accompani^ 
ments of pomp and place, forms an admimbfai 
episode in the history of the decline and fall of 
llome ; and had Gibbon witnessed the worafatp 
of the double-edged sword ikhanda) by tM 
price of Mewar and all his ehivalry, he foifji^t 
hare further embellishofl his animated aooouut of 
the adoration of the scyroitar, the symbol of 
Mars.— ^o^'« Rajaetkan, Vol. u p^ 616,tf. 63S» 
Hoi/!e. Arts of India, 469. £xk. of 1 851^ 

AHMY. The Army of India, up till Ihe yei« 
IS5S, when the queen of Great BrHain aasun* 
ed, from the East India Company, direet 
trol of thai country, was composed of Efuropi 
Cavalry principally from the Army of Britnin $ 
Native Cavalry recruited amongst (he pec^ 
pie of India, and officered and drilled Hko 
European Regiments by natives of Great Bri- 
tain, but with fewer officers ; and of other Re* 
gimenis of native Cavalry, also raised amonf^ 
the natives of India, but with still fewer £ia- 
ropean officers, generally only a Command^ 
ant and Adjutant. The last were usually atyledl 
Irregular Cavalry, they were oontractors, enp* 
plying their own horses, horse furniture and 
horse food, and w^re olasied aa sillahdara and 
bargirs, according as they were owners ^ 
horses or servants, for certain sillalidars had tbb 
privilege of Supplying two or more horses atiA 
horsemen, styled *' aiBailii/* The Art>lleryi 




bth hone ftnd foot, wei<^ wYioTl^ fef^vAtits 6i r ifi the Peshwah's times, to be lecrajtedin Kofth- 

tke Stst Imiia Company, the whole of the 
•fieenand the solders of the European ArtHlery 
lang natives of finj^liiiKl, but the imtive Artil^ 
kiy, hone and foot, ealled the Kali or black 
troDp, and GotandHZ, were recruited from 
awBgst the same claases of natives as sup- 
plied the native eavalry and native infantry. 
Xh« Infantiy, similarly to the cavalry, were in 
part the servants of the Company, and in part 
coapossd of British Begiments takiag a tour 
sf duty ia India : in pari, also^ they were na- 
tire regiments of foot, regular and irregular, 
thi h»i generaUy local eorpe^ sueh as the 
tekha battaliona, the Nair Brigade^ and 
■rrhig ia tlieir own Yoeality. Tliese troops 
nnsmuiged in the three commands of Ben- 
pi Madias and Bombay, and tlieir numbers 
ii tines of peace and War, varied between 
tiO,000 and 350,000 armed meif, ready 
kf ear. In the Bengal Native Army, there 
mt tnahomedatie, but the bulk of the 
loldieiy were hindue, many of them of the 
bnhttiaical and chetiya castes, brave, buoyant 
ad jaoBty, but proud, vain and conceited. 
Tk Madras Native Caralry were almost entire- 
ly Bihomedans with a few Mahrattas, frota 
MtrAroot; their Native Infantry was about 
t'dths mahomedms and S-6ths hindus^ chiefly 
Miss with a mere sprinkling of higher or 
Wcreistes, and Ohristiahs : While the Bombay 
Arnywas KcrnHed partly in Northern India 
te the ssme men as the Bengal Army, partly 
fcon the Mahrattaa of Maharashtra and had a 
ifdakliag of Jews, low eaate men and Ghris- 
lini. The duties of the Bengal and Bombay 
M«e Annies, were ehiefly amongst people 
ipcslosg their own tongues, but the Madras 
*QUitt,took the entire duties, of Borneo, Singa- 
PiRf Mahaea, Pesang, the Andamana ; Moul- 
>wk RaagooD, Prome^ Thearet Myo and Tong- 
^00, aad often held Aden, Khyouk Phyo, Can- 
^,ud Hongkong. TheEngineers were officer- 
ed hf natives of England, but had under them, 
fhigsbody of native sappers and miners who, 
tt Msdns, were Tamul Sudras, Christiana and 
^nshi. In 1867, however, the. regular Na- 
m Army of Bengal, composed of hindoos, 
nd mabomedans, recruited mostly in the 
Serth West Provinces, rebelled and revolted 
^ its allegiance to the British, and it took 
all 1858, 1859, knd much of i8ao to subdue 
^ matineers, and restore order, for many 
cUefii and races rose in succession and had. to 
^ pat down by arms. A few regiments of the 
««h»y Preaidmey also failed, but one of these, 
A« Slst B. N. Infantry had formed part of the 
'^nnient of the Peshwab» Baji Row, commaod- 
^^ Captain Pott, and had come over to the 
m|HiDy during the middle of the battle. Ihat 
**<ied on the attack on theResidency atPoonah, 
■dthe soldiery of that ^rpahad