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The World's Progress. A Dictionary of Dates. Being a 
Chronological and Alphabetical Record of the essential facts in 
the Progress of Society. With Tabular views of Universal His- 
tory, Literary Chronology, Biographical Index, etc., etc. From 
the beginning of History to August, 1877. By GEORGE P. 
Putnam. Revised and continued by Frederick Beecher 
Perkins. Octavo, containing 1028 pages. Cloth extra, $4.50 ; 
half morocco, $7.00. 

*#* The most comprehensive book of its size and price in the language. 
"It has been planned so as to facilitate access to the largest amount of 
useful information in the smallest possible compass." — Buffalo Courier. 

"It is absolutely essential to the desk of every merchant, and the table of 
every student and professional man." — Christian Inquirer. 

" It is worth ten times its price. * * * It completely supplies my 
need." — S. W. Piegart, Principal 0/ High School, Lancaster, Pa. 

"A more convenient literary labor-saving machine than this excellent 
compilation can scarcely be found in any language." — N. Y. Tribune. 

"The best manual of the kind that has yet appeared in the English lan- 
guage." — N. Y. Tribune. 

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS, Publishers, New York. 










182 Fifth Avenue. 


Copyright, 1877, 






The first edition of this work, prepared by Mr. Parke Godwin, 
was published in 1851. In his prefatory remarks, Mr. Godwin justly 
claimed for it the compactness of Maunder's "Biographical Treas- 
ury.'" with greater comprehensiveness and more fidelity to the sym- 
pathies and principles of the American people. Presenting within 
5? small compass a great variety of information, little scope was afforded 
J^ for the expression of critical opinions. The volume commended itself 
ce to popular favor by the combination of accuracy and brevity, with a 

* fuller record of names and dates than could be found in any similar 
publication. In the present edition an attempt has been made to 
Supply the few notable names that had been omitted. A. copious 

Z Supplement is appended, embracing notices of persons who have died 
55 since the issue of the original edition. These supplementary pa«-es 
5 embrace more than an average proportion of distinguished men, 
5 American and European : and though some names which deserve to 
2 he remembered have doubtless been passed over, it is believed that 
it the volume, as now published, embodies nearly all that will be looked 
^ for in a manual which is intended to bring its information down to 

• the present time. To economize space, the arrangement of the same 
3S generic names under one head has been usually adhered to; and the 
* letters b. and d. are used respectively for " born " and " died." 

Rivekside, August 29, 1877. 




AA, Peter Van Der, an eminent 
bookseller of Leyden. D. 1730. 

AA, 'Henrt Vander, a Lu- 
theran minister, who was among the 

lers of the Academy 
tit Harlem, b. at Zwolle, 1718, d. 1795. 
A family of this name was distinguished 
in the annals of the Unite. 1 Provh 
for their resistance to the tyranny ot 
Philip II. of Spain. 

AAGARD, Christian, a Danish poet. 
B. 1618; d. 1664.— Nicholas, a brother 
of the above, 1.. 1612, d. 1657, was a 
philosophieal writer. 

AAI.'-T, Evxbabd, a Dutch painter 
of fruit pie* - -His 

nephew, William, also a painter, was b. 
. 1679. 

AAGESEN, Svend, a Danish 
rian of the 12th century. Sometimes 
called S . \ >iub. 

AAEON, St., a Briton, who suffered 
martyrdom under Diocletian in 808, and 
iriea later. 

AARON, a physician and priest at 
Alexandria in t lie 12th century; the 
first man who described measles and 
the small-pox, on their first appearance 
in Egypt. 

AARON, of Barcelona, a Spanish 
Jew, who wrote a book called " 1're- 
f M ." at Venice, in 

AARON BEN ASSER, a Jew, who 
is said to have invented the points in 
Llebrew writing, in the 5th century. 

AAUSKNS, Fbakoib Van, lord of 
Bomeldyck and Spyck, one of the 
neatest ministers t"r negotiation that 
the United Provinces of Holland have 
at any time possessed. He was the 
first person ever recognized as Dutch 
ambassador by the French court: the 
first of three extraordinary ambassadors 

sent to England in 1620 ; and the second 
in 1641, who were to treat about the 
marriage of Prince William, son of the 
prince of Orange. Aarsens died at an 
advanced age ; and left behind him very 
■ate and judicious memoirs of all 
embassies in which he was employed. 
B. 1572: d. 1679. 

ABACO, Avabbto Felice D'All, a 
musical composer and violinisl of Ve- 
rona. There was another of the same 
name, who flourished about the same 
time in 

All AHA, an emperor of the Moguls, 
who opposed the Crusaders with firm- 
ttd warlike skill, and d. in 1284. 

ABARIS, a celebrated character of 
antiquity, said to have possessed va-t 
abilities," and to have been end. 
with the power of performing miracu- 
lous cures. He was a Scythian by birth. 

ABAS, Sohah, Burnamed the Great, 
7th bang of Persia. 1». in 1629.— Abas, 
Schah, great grandson of the preceding, 
was a prince remarkable for mildness 
and humanity. I), in 1666. 

ABASCAL, Don Joss Fernando, 
viceroy of Peru daring several years of 
the South American war of indepen- 
dence. ,t Oviedo in 1713, and 
having entered the military service of 
red in the numerous cam- 

Eaigns of that country during the latter 
all of last century in all parts of the 
globe. Appointed viceroy of Peru in 
L804, he governed with a firm but gentle 
hand till 1816, when he was superseded 
by General Pezuela: and, on his retire- 
ment, he left behind him a character for 
ability and moderation which is still 
held in grateful remembrance. D. at 
Madrid, 1821. 
ABASSA, or ABBASSA, sister of the 


caliph Harcun al ISascl i'1. wlio gave her 
in marriage to his wzii i Ghsfat, on con- 
dition that their marriage should .never 
b^ c'.r. - 'i .. i "!;.'■- i . "■■' hat ':■ ■ bi 
the com r i's th« cal'r'i {fill Hi: Or to 
death, and banished his wife from the 
palace, giving orders that no one should 
afford her relief. 

ABATE, Axdrea, a Neapolitan artist, 
who was employed, together with Luca 
Giordio, in adorning the Escurial for 
Charles II. of Spain. D. 1732. 

ABAUZIT, Fmiiix, a French author 
of great merit and erudition. He was 
profoundly learned, and acquired the 
friendship of Voltaire, Rousseau, and 
Newton. B. at Uzes in 1679, and d. at 
Geneva in 1787. 

ABBADIE, James, an eminent Prot- 
estant divine, who accompanied Mar- 
shal Schomberg to England in 1688, and 
was present when that great commander 
fell at the battle of the Boyne. Tic wrote 
many works, chiefly theological and in 
the French language, the most esteem- 
ed of which is entitled "Traite de la 
Vcrite" de la Religion Chr&ienne." B. 
at Berne in 1658; d. in London, 1727. 

ABBAS, the uncle of Mah< 
whom, though opposed to him at first, 
he became, a disciple, and served in Ids 
army as a general. D. 653. — Ebn n 
Abdallaii, son of the foregoing; chief 
of the "Sahabab," or companions of 
the Prophet, and author ot a "Com 
mentary on the Koran." — Hai.i or 
Magus, a Persian physician of the 10th 
century; author 01 a pompous book on 
medicine, called "The Royal Work," 
which has been translated into Latin. 

ABBATI, Nieouo, an Italian painter 
in fresco: b. at Modena in 1512. 

ABBATISSA, Paul, a poet of Sicily, 
who flourished about the year 1570, and 
translated the Iliad and Odyssey into 
Latin verse. 

ABBE, Louise, a French poet of the 
17th century, surnamed " La Belle Cor- 

ABBIATI, Filippo, an historical 
painter, of considerable eminence. B. 
at Milan in 1640; d. in 1715. 

ABBOX, or ABBO, Cernuus. a Nor- 
man monk of the 9th century, who 
wrote, in Latin verse, an account of the 
siege of Paris by the Normans. 

ABBO, Floriacensis, a learned writer 
»f ecclesiastical biographies, who was 
killed in 1004. 

ABBOT, George, archbishop of Can- 
terbury in the reign of James I. and 
Charles I., and one of the most active 
political characters of that period. He 

was born, in 1562, -it Guildford, in Sur- 
rey, where his father was a weaver and 
clothworker. He raised himself gradu- 
ally till he became primate of all En- 
gland: was the autnor of several the- 
ological works ; and one of the eight 
divines, who. in 1604. by the order of 
•lames L. translated the edition of the 
Bible now in use. D. at Croydon in 
1633. — Robert, bishop of Salisbury, the 
elder brother of the above, was an emi- 
nent divine, and famous for his skill in 
conducting polemical discussions, and 
vindicating the supremacy "filings. B. 
1560; d. 1 ' '. 1 7 . Maubiok, youngest 
her of the above, was an eminent 
London merchant, knighted by Charles 
I. Maurice's son, George, was the au- 
thor of a Paraphrase on tin- P.ook of Job. 
P. 1600; d. l<;ts —Hull, a respectable 
minister of Charlestown, (Mass.) B. 
1696; d. 1774.- Samuel, one of the 
founders of the Andover Theological 
Seminary. B. 1732; d. 1812.— Abdiel, 
a preacher, and author of several pub- 
lished sermons. B. at Andover, 1770; 
d. at Staten Island, 1828. < !h mm i s, was 
e man, once speaker of 
the bouse of commons, and subsequent- 
ly raised to the peerage as Lord Col- 
r. B. at Abingdon, 1757: d. I 

Charles, a distinguished lawyer, who, 
18, was ma le lord chief justice of 
the King's Bench, and during the pre- 
miership r ,t' Mr. Canning, was crea ed a 
peer, by the title of Lord Tenterden. 
B. 17 ': d. I 

ABBT, Thomas, a German writer who 
wrote a clever work, called "Historia 
Vine Magistral] when be was only 13 
years of age. He was professor of phi- 
losophy at Frankfort, and of mathe- 
matics at Ritelin; wrote a treatise on 
"Merit,"' and on the "Duty of living 
for one's Country." B. at Ulm, in 
Suabia, 1738; d. 1766. 

ABDALLAH, a camel driver, the 
father of Mahomet. He was so much 
esteemed by his tribe, that the stories 
relate how one hundred girls broke their 
hearts on the night of his wedding. 

ABDAS, a bishop of Persia, who in- 
stigated the thirty years' persecution of 
the Christians, tinder Theodosius the 

ABDIAS, author of a legend called 
"Historia Ccrtaminis Apostilici," pub- 
lished at Basle in 1 57 1 . 

ABDOLLATIPH, a Persian, who 
wrote the hislorv of Egvpt, published 
in England in isho. B. at Bagdad 1161. 

ABDOLMAMEN, a potter's son, who 
became a ffeneral and conouered Mo- 



nceo, and made himself monarch. D. 

ABEEL, John- Nelson, an eloquent 
preacher, of Mew- York, who died in 
1812, aged 48. 

ABEILLE, Gaspar, a French dra- 
matic writer of extraordinary versatility 
and wit. B. 1648; d. 1718.— Scifio, a 
brother of the above, wrote a " History 
of the Bones,'' and the "Complete 
Army Surgeon." D. 1697. 

ABEL. Thomas, teacher of grammar 
and music to Queen Catharine, trat hav- 
ing opposed Henry VIII.'s separation 
from her, be was condemned and ex- 
ecuted, under a pretence of denying the 
kind's supremacy, in 1540. — Gaspab, a 
German historian. B. 1675; d. 1768. — 
Charles Frederick, a famous German 
composer, and player on tin- viol di 
samba, appointed musician to Queen 
Charlotte. 1>. 1787. 

ABELA..!oHN Fuw'ci*. a commander 
of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, 
who wrote " Malta lllustrata,*' which 
was published in Malta in 1647. 

ABELAKD, Peter, a native of Pa- 
lais, in Brittany, made immortal rather 
by his unfortunate love, than by his 
immense and varied attainments. He 
ducated 'it the University of Paris, 
*nd became one of the most learned 
:rien of his dav. He opened a school 
Df theology and rhetoric, which was so 
popular that it attracted more than three 
thousand pu] ils. But in the midday 
of his fame he tell in love with a young 
and beautiful scholar, called Heloise.the 
niece of the canon of Paris, Fulbert. 
He was then forty and she but fifteen, 
yet the attachment grew into a passion 
which for warmth and intensity has 
never been surpassed. Abelard forgot 
his lectures, his studies, and his fame 
in his abandonment to the raptures of 
delight. Yet the attachment was an 
unhappy one for both; Fulbert sepa- 
rated the lovers; when Abelard bi 
himself to the residence of his aunt in 
Brittanv, whither he was instantly fol- 
lowed by Ileloise, and where she gave 
birth to a son. Abelard would nave 
married her secretly, but she disdained 
the restraints of wedlock, preferring her 
free attachment to him to a relation 
sanctioned and enforced by law. After 
a while, however, she reluctantly con- 
sented to marry him, yet refused to con- 
fess the marriage in public. She even 
denied it under oath. Her uncle was 
eo incensed at this conduct, that he 
treated her with great severity, to re- 
lease hei from which Abelard carried 

her away and placed her in the convent 
of Argenteuil. Baffled by this ma- 
noeuvre, Fulbert was so enraged that he 
had Abelard ignominiously mutilated, 
and thereby caused him, through sor- 
row and shame, to become a monk of 
St. Denis. When his mortification had 
somewhat subsided, he began to lecture 
again, but his enemies changed him 
with heterodoxy, and had him :ondemn- 
ed. Be then erected an oratory, called 
the Paraclete, in the diocese of Troyes, 
but, being still pursued by bitter per- 
secutions, alter a \'v\v years of vicissi- 
tude and desertion, died at the priory 
of St. Marcel. Heloise, then abbess 
of the Paraclete, did not desert him in 
death, but had his ashes removed to a 
place "here, in a few years later, she 
was destined to sleep by his side. The 
remains of both were taken to Pere-la- 
Chaise, in 1-17, by order of the nation. 
Abelard was a poet, an orator, a philos- 
opher and a mathematician — in short, a 
man possessing the highest qualities of 
mind and heart — but, while his works 
have mostly perished, hi- name is rcs- 
CUed from oblivion by the story of his 
passion. The letters which passed be- 
tween him and Ileloise have been made 
the foundation of many poems and 

novels. The best of these is the cele- 
brated version of Pope. B. 1079; d. 

ABELL, John, a musician who flour- 
ished at the court of Charles II. 

ABELLI, Louis, bishop of Rhodes, 
and author of several theological works. 
P. 1604; d. 1691. 

ABEKCROMBIE, John, M. 1).. an 
eminent Scotch physician and author, 
was born at Aberdeen, Nov. 11, 1781. 
Having taken his degree at Edinburgh 
in 1808, he permanently fixed his resi- 
dence in the Scotch metropolis, where 
In- soon gained the first rank as a prac- 
tising and consulting physician. But 
the writings of Dr. Abercrombie con- 
tributed more to his fame than his skill 
as a physician. His purely professional 
works are meritorious, but the most per- 
manent monuments to his memory are 
his " Inquiries concerning the Intel- 
lectual Powers, &e.," published 1830, 
and the " Philosophy of the Moral Feel- 
ings.'' published 1833. In these works 
he has brought all the medical facts ac- 
cumulated in the course of his extensive 
experience and research to bear on va- 
rious moral and metaphysical systems. 
To his wide range of acquirements he 
added a piety as genuine as it. was un- 
assuming, and lie will long be rernem- 


[A BR 

bered for his large but unobtrusive be- 
nevolence. D. 1844. 

ABEBCBOMBY, Thomas, a Scotch 
author, who was physician to James II. 
D. 172(3.— Sm Ralph, a British general, 
who served in the American war, in 
Flanders, Holland, the West Indies, 
Ireland, and in Egypt, near Alexandria, 
where he was mortally wounded, after 
a desperate battle w'ith the French, 
whom he defeated. He was one of the 
bravest of Britons, but of great modera- 
tion and military skill, and high char- 
acter. B. at Tillibodie, 1738 ; d.1801.— 
John, a horticultural author, who pub- 
lished under the name of Mawe. B. 
1724; d. 1806. 

ABEELI, John, an eminent landscape 
painter, of Switzerland. B. at Winter- 
then, 1723: d. 1786. 

ABERNETHY, John, an Irish dis- 
senter and divine, of whose sermons 
there are two volumes, which arc held 
inconsiderable esteem. B. atColeraine, 
1680; d. at Dublin, 1740. — John, F.B.S., 
a surgeon of great repute and extensive 
practice. Hewasbroughl up under Sir 
Charles Blick, surgeon <>f St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital, and was acknowledged 
to possess very considerable talent and 
originality; though he doubtless owed 
much of ids fame to a blunt eccentricitj 
of manner, of which a thousand various 
anecdotes are still current. He was the 
author of "Surgical Observations," 
'■Physiological Essays," &c. B. 1764; 
d. 1831. 

ABGAEUS, a king of Edessa, in Mes- 
opotamia, cotemporary with our Sa- 
viour, to whom he is said to have writ- 
ten a letter and received ananswerto it. 
Both are supposed to be inventions. 

ABGILLUS, surnamed Prester John, 
son of a king of the Frisi. He accom- 
panied Charlemagne to the Holy Land ; 
and after his leader's return to Europe 
made vast conquests in Abyssinia, 
which was long called "Prester John's 
Dominion." He is reputed to have 
written an account of Charlemagne's 
deeds in the East. 

Al'.lLDGAAED, Philip Christian, a 
Danish physician; one of the ablest 
naturalists of the 18th century. — Nicho- 
las Abraham, brother of the above ; a 
clever historical painter, and author of 
some equally elegant and useful essays 
on taste in works of art. B. 1744 ; d. 

ABINGTON, Frances, a celebrated 
comic actress. B. in London, 1731 ; d. 
in Dublin, 1815. 

ABINGEE, Lord, (James Scarlett,) a 

liberal and distinguished statesman of 
England, who, both as a lawyer and a 
politician, exhibited a high order of 
ability. He was raised to the bench in 
1834 bv Sir Eobert Peel. B. in Jamaica, 
1769; d. 1844. 

ABISBAL, Henry O'Donnell, Count 
of, a celebrated Spanish general, born iu 
Andalusia, 1770. Having entered the 
royal guards at the aire of fifteen, he 
served in the war against the French 
republic; and on "Napoleon's invasion 
of Spain, the part he took in the relief 
of G r ina in 1 309, led to his promotion 

to tl mmand of Catalonia, whet 

displayed great energy, and reaped much 
--. Though defeated in the plains 
of \ iii bj General Sonham, lie a month 
afterwards forced Augereau to abandon 
Lower Catalonia; and. at the village of 
Abisb lied the surrender of 

a whole French column under General 
Schwartz. From this action he took his 
title Towards the close of the war, he 
commanded with brilliant success at the 
capture of Pancorvo. In 1819 he sup- 
pressed a mutiny of the troops in the 
isle of Leon; but he fell into disgrace 
uspicion of treachery, and it was 
not till 1828, on the invasion of Spain 
bv the French under the Duke d'Au- 

■niuleme. that he fee. .wred his position 

and his fame. After the restoration of 
Ferdinand he retire. 1 to France, where 
he resided, almost entirely forgotten, till 
his death in 1884. 

ABNEY, mi: Thomas, Lord Mayor 
of London, in 1700, and one of the 
founders or the Hank of England. D. 


ABEAHAM, Nicholas, a learned 
Jesuit, and professoT of theology in the 
universitj of Ponb-a-Mousson ; author 
of a Commentary on Virgil and some of 
Cicero's Orations. B. 1589; d. 1656;-- 

A. Sanota Clajba, a native of Suabia, 
whose real name was Ulrich Megerle. 
He was an Augustine friar, and ex- 
tremely affected and eccentric as a 
preacher. B. 1642; d. 1709.— A teacher 
of music at Paris, composer of airs for 
the clarionet, and author of a method 
for the bassoon. D. 1805. 

ABEASDATES, king of Susa, ren- 
dered memorable by the affection of his 

ABEESCH, Frederick Louts, a cele- 
brated Dutch critic and Greek scholar. 

B. at Hamburgh, 1699; d. in Switzer- 
land, 1782. 

ABRILOLA, an Arabian poet. B 
973 ; d. 1057. 

ABROSI, John, an Italian physician 



of the 16th century; author of a Dia- 
logue on Astrology. 

"ABRUZZO, Balthazar, a Sicilian 
philosopher and civilian. B. in 1601; 
d. 1665. 

ABSTEMTTJS, Laubbhttos, an Italian 
writer, born at Macerate, in La Marca 
di Ancona, who devoted himself early 
to the study of polite literature. He 
published under the pontificate of Alex- 
ander VI. a treatise, entitled " Heca 
tomythium," from its containing 100 
fables, which have been often printed 
with those of zEsop, Phsedrus, Gahrius, 
Avienus, &c. 

ABUBEKEE, father-in-law and suc- 
cessor of Mahomet. His original name 
was changed to that of Abubeker, or 

" Father of the Virgin," on the i asion 

of his daughter Ayesha becoming the 
bride of Mahomet. On succeeding his 
son-in-law he assumed the title of caliph, 
which signifies both successor and vicar, 
and which was first borne by him. He 
won vast territory from the Syrians, 
Persian-, an 1 Greeks. I). 684. 

ABULFABAGIUS, Gregory, son of 
Aaron a physician, horn in 1226, in the 
city of Malatia. lie wrote in Arabic a 
history which consists often parts, and 
is an epitome <<i' universal history from 
the creation of the world to his own 

ABULFEDA, Ismael, prince of Ha- 
mah, in Syria, but better known as au- 
thor of Tables of Geography of the 
Regions beyond the River Oxus. He 
began his reign in the 743d year of the 
Hegira, and ended it three years after- 
wards, aged 72. 

ABULGARI, Bay atm, Khan of the 
Tartars, and writer of a Tartar history, 
which lias been translated in German 
unl French. B. at Urgens, 1605; d. 

ABU, Moslem, a governor of Koras- 
san, put to deatli in 759. 

ABD-NOWAS, an Arabian poet. B. 
762; d. 310. 

ABU-OBIDA. a friend of Mahomet, 
who conquered Palestine and Syria, and 
died of pestilence in 639. 

ABD-TEMAN, an Arabian poet, 
whose works have been translate'! into 
English. D. 845. 

ACACITJS, bishop of Berea, an op- 
ponent of Chrysostom. D. 436. — There 
was another bishop of the same name, 
who flourished at Amida, on the Tigris, 
in the 5th century, and who is known 
for his benevolence, in having sold his 
church plate to ransom 7000 Persians 
token prisoners by Theodosius the 

Younger.— Another was t fie founder of 
the Acaciani sect, and d. about 365. 

ACADEMUS, the founder of the 
Academic sect at Athens, and of the 
Academic grove. 

ACAMPIXTLI, the first Mexican 
king, who ruled forty years, and intro- 
duced many good laws. 1). 1420. 

AOCA, St., an Anglo-Saxon, bishop 
at Hexham, who wrote "Sufferings of 
the Saints,' 1 and was a patron of arte 
and music. 1>. 740. — Laurentia, tho 
nurse of Romulus and Remus, to whom 
the Romans decreed a festival. 

ACCAIOL1 — the name of a distin- 
guished Florentine family — Donatus, 
was a translator of Plutarch, and a 
learned commentator on Aristotle; 
John, was an author and public lec- 
turer: ZENOBIO, a poet and critic, who 
translated Politian'a epigrams, d. L520. 
Magdalena, wrote "David Persecuted, 
and other poems, d. 1610; Benaths, was 
a general of the L4th century, who con 
quered Athens. Oorinth, an 1 Bosotia. 

A( '< 'P », Zucrio, a poet of Verona, in 
the 15th century. 

ACCIUS, LuoiDS, a Latin poet and 
dramatist. 1). about ISO, b. c. — Tul- 
i.if>, prince of the Yolsci, to whom 
Coriolanus resorted for aid against 

ACCOLTI, Benedict, an Italian law- 
yer, born at Florence in 1415, and au- 
thor of many works, among which was 
a narrative of the wars in Palestine, to 
which Tasso was indebted in the " Jeru- 
salem Delivered." D. 1466. Benedict, 
a relation of the preceding, horn in 
1497, was so perfect a master of the 
Latin tongue, that he was called the 
of the age. Clement VII. made 
him a cardinal. I). 1.". I'. 1 . Peter, son 
of the above, as cardinal of Ancona, 
composed the Papal hull against Luther. 
I>. 1532.- Bernard, brother of the last 

nai I. a poet of considerable powers; 

his works were published at Florence, 
in 1513. — Francis, uncle of the above; a 
lawyer and scholar of great ability, hut 
even more remarkable tor his parsimony 
than for his talents.— Benedict, a man 
of violent passions, who conspired with 
five others to murder Pius IV. He suf- 
fered death in 1564. 

ACCORSO, Mat.iaxgelo, a native of 
Aquila, in the 16th century; an emi- 
nent critic and scholar. Ho published 
remarks on Ansonius and Ovid, entitled 
"Diatribae," and an edition of Ammia- 
nus Marcellinus. 

ACCUM, Frederick, an operative 
chemist of eminence, who wrote several 




books of science. B. in Westphalia, 
1769 ; d. 1838. 

ACCUKS1US, Francis, an eminent 
Italian lawyer, born at Florence in 1182, 
and died in 1229. This individual ren- 
dered himself famous by his "Perpet- 
ual Commentary," or " Great Gloss," 
in illustration of the code, the institutes, 
and the digests. 

ACERB1, Joseph, an Italian ; author 
of " Voyage au Cape Nord, par la 
Suede," 'in 1798. 

ACERBO, Francis, an Italian Jesuit 
and poet at Naples, in 1666. 

ACH, Van, or ACHEN, John, an 
eminent historical and portrait painter. 
B. at Cologne, 1566; d. 1621. 

AC ILEUS, a Greek poet and satir- 
ist, cotemporary with JEschylus. Yet 
though he is said to have written forty 
tragedies, nothing but a few fragments 
Kt present exist. 

ACHARD, Anthony, a learned di- 
vine, B. at Geneva, 1966; d. 1772.— 
Francis Charles, a distinguished Prus- 
sian chemist; known as the first fabri- 
cator of beet-root sugar, in 1792; and 
author of several treatises on chemistry 
and agriculture. D. 1821. 

ACi-IARDS, Eleazkr, bishop of Avig- 
non, remarkable for the benevolent 
courage he displayed when the plague 
raged in his see. D. 1741. 

ACHENWALL, Godfrey, a lecturer 
on history and jurisprudence, in the 
university of Gottingen. D. 1772. 

ACHER, N., a French judge ; author 
of an "Abrege des Homines Illustres 
de Plutarque, ? ' 1807. 

ACHERI, Luc d', a Benedictine 
monk; author of" Lives of the Saints," 
&c. B. at St. Quintin, in Picardy, 
1609; d. at Paris, 1685. 

ACHILLES TATIUS, a native of 
Alexandria, who lived during the 3d 
century, and in his old age was con- 
verted to Christianity, and became a 
bishop. He originally taught rhetoric 
in his native city, and wrote a " Treatise 
on the Sphere;" a "History of Great 
Men ;" and a romance, entitled " The 
Loves of Clitophon and Leucippe." 

ACHILLINI, Alexander, a Bolog- 
nese physician, known by his publica- 
tions on anatomy and medicine, D. 
1512. — John Philotheus, brother of the 
above, and author of a eulogistic poem, 
entitled " Viridario." D. 1538.— Claude, 
n relation of the above, distinguished for 
his knowledge of medicine, theology, 
and jurisprudence. B. at Bologna, 
1574; d. 1640. 

ACHMET I., emperor of Turkey, son 

and successor of Mahor et III B. 1588 ; 
d. 1617. — AchmetII. succeeded his bro- 
ther Solyman on the throne of Con- 
stantinople. D. 1695. — Aciimet III., 
son of Mahomet IV., was placed on the 
throne by the heads of a faction which 
had deposed his brother, Mustapha II. 
He was afterwards deposed, and his 
nephew, Mahomet V., exalted to the 
throne. D. in prison, 1736. 

ACID ALIUS, Valens, a German au- 
thor and critic. D. 1595. 

ACKERMANN, Conrad, a German 
comedian, and founder of the German 
theatre. D. 1771.— John Christian Got- 
lieb, an eminent physician and author. 
B. 1756; d. 1801. — Rudolph, an enter- 
prising tradesman, who went to Eu- 
gland and became a print-seller, where 
he published the " Forget Me Not," 
the first of a peculiar class of annua' 
books. He improved the lithographic 
art, published several beautiful editions 
of histories, and was the first person 
who used gas-lights in London. B. at 
Schuceberg, in Saxony, 1764; d. 1834. 

ACKLAND, a British major in the 
American war. He was taken prisoner 
by Arnold, at Stillwater, Oct. 7, 1777. 
When released he returned to England, 
where he was shot in a duel by Lieut. 
Lloyd, to whom he had given the lie, 
when Lloyd charged the Americans 
with cowardice. Lady Harriett, his 
wife, lost her senses in consequence. 

ACKMAN, William, a Scotch por- 
trait painter, the first appreciator and 
friend of the poet Thomson. 

ACOLUTIIUS, Andrew, author of 
" De Acmis Amaris." 1). 1704. 

ACOSTA, Joseph, a Jesuit of Peru, 
who wrote a good history of the West 
Indies. 1>. 1600. 

ACQUAVIY A, Andrew Matthew, a 
learned Neapolitan, who published the 
first Encyclopaedia. B. 1456 ; d. 1528. 

ACRON, a Sicilian physician, who 
expelled the plague from Athens, by 
burning certain perfumes, about 473 

B. C. 

ACROPOLITA, George, a Byzantine 
historian, learned in mathematics and 
skilled in rhetoric. B. 1220; d. 1282.— 
Constantine, son of the above, was 
grand chancellor of the empire. 

ACTON, Joseph, a Frenchman, who 
entered the navy of the Grand Duke of 
Tuscany, and rescued 4000 Spaniards 
from the Barbary corsairs. B. 1737 ; d. 

ACTLTARIUS, a Greek physician, of 
the 13th century, who used water and 
mild cathartics as his principal remedies. 



ACITNA, Christopher, a Jesuit mis- 
sionary, who wrote an account of the 
«' Great River of the Amazons." B. 1597. 
— Fernando de, a Spanish poet. D. 
at Grenada, 1680. 

ADAIR, James, a recorder of Lon- 
don, member of parliament, and ehief- 
tastice at Chester. D. 1798. — Another 
James, was a trader among the North 
American Indians, in 1775, who wrote 
t book to prove them descended from 
the Jews. 

man divine and theological writer, the 
grandson of Charles Martel, and cousin- 
german of Charlemagne. He is most 
distinguished for the foundation of a 
distinct abbey, called New Corbie, as a 
seminary for the education of mission- 
aries, who were to be employed in the 
conversion of the northern nations. B. 
753 ; d. 827. 

ADALBERT, archbishop of Prague, 
in the 10th century. He was one of the 
first founders of the Christian religion 
in Hungary ; and also preached the gos- 

Eel in Prussia, and in Lithuania, where 
e was murdered by Sego, a pagan 

ADAM, Scotijs, a doctor of the Sor- 
bonne. hi the 12th century, and author 
of a life of David I. of Scotland. — Alex- 
ander, a learned Scotch schoolmaster, 
well known to the literary and scholastic 
world by his " Latin Lexicon," " Ro- 
man Antiquities," <fcc. B. 1741 ; d. 
1809. — Lambert Sigisbert. an eminent 
French sculptor, many of whose works 
were executed for the decoration of Ver- 
sailles and St. Cloud. B. 1700 ; d. 1759. 
— Nicholas Sebastlan, brother of the 
above, and eminent in the same profes- 
sion. He executed the admired statue 
of " Prometheus Chained." B. 1705 ; d. 
1778. — Albert, a distinguished painter 
of battle-scenes, bora at^Nordlingen, in 
1786, who went to Russia with Eugene 
Beauharnais in 1812, and afterwards 
produced many of the pictures in the 
gallery of the king of Bavaria. — Adol- 
phus Charles, a musical composer of 
eminence, author of the " Postillion of 
Lonjumeau," and other operas. B. at 
Paris, 1S04. — Willl^m, a lawyer and 
politician of Pitt's time, and one of the 
managers appointed by the commons to 
tonduct the impeachment of Warren 
Hastings. B. 1751 ; d. 1839.— Mrlchior, 
a German divine and biographical au- 
thor of the 17th century. — Nicholas, a 
French grammarian : author of " The 
True Mode of acquiring a Language 
whether Living or Dead, by means of 

the French," and other works of con- 
siderable ingenuity. B. 1716 ; d. 1792.— 
Robert, F.R.S., and F.S.A. ; a celebra- 
ted architect, much employed upon the 
public buildings and noblemen s man- 
sions of London. One of his works, ex- 
ecuted in conjunction with his brother, 
is the noble range of buildings called 
the " Adelphi," the name being the 
Greek word for " Brothers." He at one 
time represented the county of Kinross 
in parliament. B. at Kirkaldy, Fifeshire, 
1728 ; d. 1792. — James, brother of the 
above, and his coadjutor in most of his 
labors. D. 1794. — Thomas, an English 
divine, and for 5S years the rector of 
Wintringham, in Lincolnshire. B. at 
Leeds, 1701 : d. 1784. 

ADAMANTEO, a learned Italian 
mathematician and orientalist ; author 
of " Glossas et Interpretationes in Tal- 
mud Hehraorum." D. 1581. 

ADAMANTTUS, a Greek physician 
of the 5th century; author of a popular 
work on physiognomy. 

ADAMANTS, abbot of Icolmkil, in 
the 8th century ; author of a life of St. 

ADAMI, Leonardo, an Italian schol- 
ar, eminent for his skill in the Greek 
and Oriental languages, and librarian to 
Cardinal Imperiali. B. 1690, at Bolsema, 
in Tuscany; d. 1719. 

ADAMS, John, the second president 
of the United States, and one of the 
nv>st able men America has produced, 
was born at Braintree, Oct. 19, 1735. 
He was descended from Henry Adams, 
one of the original proprietors of the 
town of Braintree, who fled from En- 
gland with the Puritans, in the year 
Early in life he manifested great 
quickness of parts, and was educated 
in the best schools, and afterwards sent 
to Cambridge College. After he left 
college, he studied law with Col. James 
Putnam, at Worcester, instructing pu- 
pils in the Latin and Greek languages 
at the same time, to defray the expense- 
Subsequently he entered the office of 
Jeremiah Gridley. In 1761 he was 
admitted a harrister-at-law, and com- 
menced practice. The attempts of En- 
gland to coerce the colonies into obedi- 
ence, which had exasperated the colo- 
nials into most bitter indignation and 
hatred, were opposed by Mr. Adams 
from the outset, and on all the questions 
which arose between the two countries, 
he was on the side of the wronged and 
oppressed. Yet his was not a mere 
partisan zeal, but the just excitement 
of one who thought and felt earnestlj 




and deeply. "When, therefore, the re- 
sistance of the colonists hroke out into 
open war, Adams was prepared to take 
an intelligent and an active part in their 
defence. In 1764 he married Abigail 
Smith, second daughter of "William 
Smith, of Weymouth, and grand-daugh- 
ter of Col. Quincy, of Wollaston, a wo- 
man of fine personal appearance, good 
education, noble powers 'of mind, and 
the most patriotic devotion to the colo- 
nies. A year afterwards he published 
an Essay on Canon and Feudal Law, 
which was reprinted in England and 
much commended. In 1769 he was 
appointed chairman of the committee, 
appointed by the town of Boston, to 
draw up instructions to its represents 
atives to resist British encroachments, 
at the very time the town was invested 
by an armed force both by sea and by 
land. In 1770 he was sent to the legis- 
lature, where he took a prominent part 
in every important measure. In 1774 
I io was one of the committee who pre- 
pared the celebrated resolutions on the 
Boston Port Bill. The same year he 
was elected to the first continental con- 
gress, held in Philadelphia. From the 
outset he announced himself the friend 
of independence, and when, therefore, 
in 177"), the first blood was shed at Lex- 
ington and Concord, he was ready for 
war, and suggested the name of George 
Washington, as commander-in-chief. 
In 1776 he was appointed, with Jeffer- 
son, Franklin, Sherman, and Living- 
ston, on the committee which reported 
the immortal " Declaration of Inde- 
pendence." In Nov. 1777, Mr. Adams 
was sent as commissioner to the court 
of Versailles, but treaties of commerce 
and alliance with France had been sign- 
ed before he arrived. Three months 
after his return he was again sent 
abroad, to negotiate a peace and a com- 
mercial treaty with Great Britain. He 
did not succeed in the former object 
till Jan. 14th, 1783. In 1785 he was 
appointed the first minister to England, 
While in London, he wrote his " De- 
fence of the American Constitution.'' 
After his return he was elected first 
vice-president of the United States, and 
re-elected in 1793. He discharged the 
duties of the office till March 4th, 1797, 
when he was chosen president. His ad- 
ministration was a vigorous and im- 
portant one, but not without embarrass- 
ments and opposition. In 1801 he was 
defeated by Jefferson, and retired to his 
farm at Quincy. He was chosen to one 
or tw" iceo'isiderable. posts afterwards, 

and died on the 4th of July, 1826. His 
last words were, " It is the glorious 4th 
of July ! — God bless it — God bless you 
all !" He was a man of intrepid and 
honest character, great industry, a high 
order of talent, and the most elevated 
Christian sentiments. — Samuel, one of 
the foremost patriots of the American 
revolution, was born at Boston, Sept. 
27th, 1722. He was made a member of 
the legislature in 1766, where he con- 
tinued till 1774, when he was chosen to 
the first congress under the confedera- 
tion. He was a signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence. In 1794 he was 
elected governor of Massachusetts, and 
held the office three years. He died in 
1803, universally respected as a man of 
the most exalted patriotism, and the 
most inflexible integrity. — John Qufntt, 
son of John, and the sixth president of 
the United States, was born .Lily 11th, 
1767, at Quincy. The position * of his 
father gave him great advantages of 
education, which he diligently employ- 
ed. He was abroad with his rather 
before 1780. He studied law with The- 
ophilus Parsons, at Newburyport, and 
attracted attention by certain essays he 
published in the newspaper. Wash- 
ington appointed him minister to the 
Netherlands, in 1794, and afterwards 
minister to Portugal, when his father, 
who had become president, transferred 
him to Berlin. In 1802 he was elected 
to the senate of Massachusetts, and, in 
1803, to the senate of the United States. 
In 1806, he was appointed professor of 
rhetoric in Harvard, and delivered a 
course of lectures on "The Art of 
Speaking Well," which was, also, pub- 
lished in a book form. In June, 1809, 
Madison appointed him minister to 
Russia. He was employed as one of 
the commissioners who negotiated the 
peace between the United States and 
England, at Ghent, in 1814. Madison 
sent him as minister to Great Britain 
in 1815. President Monroe made him 
secretary of state in 1817. In 1825 he 
was chosen president by the house of 
representatives, no choice having been 
made by the people. In 1829 he re- 
tired to private life, but, in 1831, was 
chosen a representative to congress, 
where he remained till 1848, when he 
fell into a fit from which he died a few 
hours after. "This," he exclaimed as 
he fell, "is the last of earth." He 
was an eloquent and incorruptible man, 
of strong prejudices, but independent, 
earnest, ami true. — John, a poet and 
preacher, of Newport. B. L, who d. in 



1740. — Ma thew, a tradesman of Bos- 
ton, who acquired some distinction as 
a writer in the time of Dr. Franklin. — 
Andrew, a chief-justice of Connecticut. 
D. 1797. — Sir Thomas, an eminent citi- 
zen of London, of which he was lord 
mayor in 16-45. B. at Wem, in Shrop- 
shire, 1586; d. 1667. — William, an En- 
glish divine of the 18th century ; author 
of an answer to Hume on the Miracles. 
D. 1789. — Joseph, an able English phy- 
sician, author of a treatise on epilepsy, 
and numerous other medical works of 
great merit. B. 1758; d. 1818.— George, 
a celebrated maker of mathematical in- 
struments: author of " Micographiae 
Illustrata, and other scientific works. 
D. 1786. — George, son of the .above, and 
of the same profession; author of " An 
Essay on Vision," &c. B. 1750; d. 1795. 
ADAMSON, Patrick, a Scotch .arch- 
bishop of the time of Queen Elizabeth, 
noted for his violent disputes with the 
Presbyters. B. 1536 ; d. 1599. 

ADAMUS, Dorensus, an English ab- 
bot of the 13th century, who wrote on 

ADANSON, Michael, an eminent 
French naturalist, who suffered much 
during the French Revolution. B. at 
Aix, 1727 ; d. 1806. 

ADDISON, Launcelot, an English 
Divine, attached to the Stuart family, by 
which he was made dean of Lichfield. 
B. 1632; d. 1703. — Joseph, one of the 
brightest names of English literature, 
was b. May 1st, 1672, at^ Milston, Wilt- 
shire, at which place his father was a rec- 
tor of the church. He was graduated at 
Queen's College, Oxford, Feb. 14, 1693, 
where he had already achieved consid- 
erable reputation in criticism and poetry, 
and particularly in Latin composition. 
In 1695 he wrote a Latin poem to King 
William, and in 1697 another on the 
peace of Eyswick. Two years after- 
ward:! he obtained a pension of £300, 
that he might be enabled to travel. In 
Italy he wrote his "Dialogue on Med- 
als,'' and also the Letter to Lord Hal- 
ifax, which is among the most elegant 
of his poems. A description of his 
"Travels," written after his return, 
gained great popularity. Lord Godol- 
phin, in 1704, made liim under-secre- 
tary of state, and subsequently, when 
Wharton was made lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland, Addison accompanied him, and 
•was appointed keeper of the records 
in Bermingham's Tower, at a salary 
of £300 per annum. It was while he 
was in Ireland that Sir Richard Steele 
began the publication of the "Tatler." 

The first nrmber of this periodical was 
published April 12, 1769, and Addison's 
first contribution appeared May 26. To 
the Tatler, in about two months, suc- 
ceeded the " Spectator," a series of es- 
says of the same kind, but written with 
less levity, upon a more regular plan, 
and published daily. The year 1713, in 
which " Cato" came upon the stage> was 
the grand climacteric of Addison s rep- 
utation. The whole nation was, at that 
time, on fire with faction. The Whigs 
applauded every line in which liberty 
was mentioned, as a satire on the To- 
ries ; and the Tories echoed every clap, 
to show that the satire was unfelt. 
Another daily paper, called the " Guar- 
dian," was published about this time, 
by Steele, to which Addison gave great 
assistance. The papers of Addison aro 
marked in the Spectator by one of the 
letters in the name of Clio, and in the 
Guardian by a hand. It was not known 
that Addison had tried a comedy on the 
stage, till Steele, after his death, de- 
clared him the author of "The Drum- 
mer;" this play Steele carried to the 
theatre, and afterwards to the press, and 
sold the copy for fifty guineas. In the 
midst of these agreeable employments, 
Mr. Addison was not an indifferent 
spectator of public affairs. He wrote, 
as different exigencies required, in 1707, 
"The present State of the War, &c." 
" The Whig Examiner :" and the " Trial 
of Count Tariff," all which tracts, being 
on temporary topics, expired with the 
subjects which gave them birth. When 
the' house of Hanover took possession 
of the throne, it was reasonable to ex- 
pect that the zeal of Addison would be 
suitably rewarded. Before the arrival 
of King George he was made secretary 
to the regency, and was required by his 
office to send notice to Hanover that the 
queen was dead, and that the throne 
was vacant. To do this would not have 
been difficult to any man but Addi- 
son, who was so overwhelmed with 
the greatness of the event, and so dis- 
tracted by choice of expressions, that 
the lords, who could not wait for the 
niceties of criticism, called Mr. South- 
well, a clerk in the house, and ordered 
him to dispatch the mesjage. South- 
well readily told what was necessary, in 
the common style of business, and val- 
ued himself upon having done what was 
too hard for Addison. He was better 
qualified for the " Freeholder," a paper 
which he published twice a week, from 
Dec. 23, 1715, to the middle of the next 
year. This was undertaken in defence 




of the established government, some- 
times with argument, sometimes with 
mirth. In argument he had many equals, 
but his humor was singular and match- 
less. On the 2d of August, 1716, he mar- 
ried the countess dowager of Warwick, 
whom he is said to have first known by 
becoming tutor to her son. This mar- 
riage, however, made no addition to his 
happiness ; it neither found them nor 
made them equal. She always remem- 
bered her own rank, and thought herself 
entitled to treat with very little ceremo- 
ny, the tutor of her son. The year after, 
1717, he rose to his highest elevation, 
being made secretary of state ; but it is 
universally confessed that he was une- 
qual to the duties of his place. In the 
house of commons he could not speak, 
and therefore was useless to the defence 
of the government. In the office he could 
not issue an order without losing his 
time in quest of fine expressions. What 
he trained in rank he lost in credit ; and, 
finding himself unequal to the position, 
he solicited a dismission with a pension 
of £1500 a year. He subsequently wrote 
a Defence of the Christian Religion, and 
d. June 17th. 171?. 

ADELAIDE, Madame, mother of 
Louis XVI. of France; fled from Pai-is 
during the Revolution, and d. in Rus- 
sia, in 1799. 

ADELAIDE, queen dowager, wife of 
William IV. of England. D: 1850. 

ADELARD, a monk of Bath in the 
12th century; a man of considerable 
learning. He travelled into Egypt and 
Arabia, and translated Euclid's Ele- 
ments out of Arabic into Latin, before 
any Greek copies had been discovered. 
He" also wrote several treatises on math- 
ematical and medical subjects, which re- 
main in MS. at Oxford. 

ADELBOLD, bishop of Utrecht, the 
cathedral of which he founded. He 
wrote the life of his patron, the emperor 
Henry II. D. 1027. 

ADELER, Cuktius, named also Ser- 
visen, an eminent naval commander. B. 
in Norway, 1622. He went to Venice, 
where he was made admiral ; and, after 
performing many gallant exploits against 
the Turks, retired to Constantinople, 
where he ended his days in honor and 
tranquillity, being made admiral-in- 
chief of the Danish fleet, and created a 
noble. He d. in 1675. 

ADELHER, or ADELGER, a scho- 
lastic philosopher and theologian of the 
12th century, who is only remarkable 
for his mode of conciliating the divine 
prescierce with free will. See his " De 

Libero Arbitrio." He was a canon of 
Liege, and then monk of Cluny. 

ADELUNG, John Christopher, a 
German philologist of great merit; 
chiefly celebrated for his " Grammatical 
and Critical Dictionary," 5 vols. 4to. 
B. 1734 ; d. 1806.— Frederick, his neph- 
ew, an historian and linguist; president 
of the Asiatic Society at St. Petersburg. 
His writings were numerous and valu- 
able, relating chiefly to language and 
arts. B. 1768. 

ADEMAR, a monk of the 10th centu- 
ry, who wrote the chronicles of France, 
published by Labbe. 

ADER, William, a physician cf 
Toulouse, who wrote a book in 1621, 
entitled, " De .Egrotis et Morbis Evan- 
gelicis ;" in which he proves that the 
diseases healed by our Saviour were in- 
curable by medicine. 

ADET," P. A., envoy from France to 
the United States, in 1796 ; author of 
several chemical works, original and 
translated, and of a design for new 
chemical characters and nomenclature. 

ADHAD-EDDOULAT, emperor of 
Persia. B. about 935. In 977 he became 
master of Bagdad, which he adorned 
with hospitals, mosques, and other pub- 
lic works. He was also a great encour- 
ager of learning. D. 982. 

ADHELME, a learned prelate under 
the Saxon Heptarchy, and nephew to 
King Ina. He was the first Englishman 
who wrote in Latin, the first who 
brought poetry into Britain, and the 
first bishop of Sherborne. D. 769. 

ADLER, James George, a learned 
Danish orientalist, b. in 1756; author 
of " Museum Cuficum," some works on 
the Jewish language, laws, and rites, 
and several philological publications. — 
Philip, a German engraver of the 16th 
century, whose style of etching appears 
to have founded a school which gave 
rise to the Hopfers and Hollar. D. 1530. 

ADLERFELDT, Gustavos, a Swedish 
historian in the time of Charles XII., 
whom he accompanied throughout his 
campaigns, of which he wrote an ac- 
count, continued up to the day when a 
cannon-ball deprived him of life, at tho 
battle of Pultowa, in 1709. 

ADLZREITER, John, a German his- 
torian, and chancellor of Bavaria. D. 
about 1662. 

ADO, archbishop of Vienne, distin- 
guished bv his piety, and as an histo- 
rian. D. 875. 

ADOLFATI, an Italian composer and 
author of several operas. 

ADOLPHUS, emperor of Germany, 



was the count of Nassau, and elevated 
to the imperial throne in 1292. — Adol- 
phus, count of Cleves, celebrated by 
the institution of the Order of Fools, in 
1380, which :onsisted of the principal 
noblemen of Cleves.— Frederic II., kins 
of Sweden, b. in 1710, and succeeded 
his father, Frederick, in 1751. D. 1771. 
— Jjhn, a well-known barrister and his- 
torian of London, who wrote histories 
of George III., of England, of the 
French Revolution, end a memoir of 
Bannister, the comedian. 

ADRETS, Francis de Beacmont, Ba- 
ron des, an Hungarian leader, of a cruel, 
fiery, and enterprising spirit. Resent- 
ment to the Duke of "Guise led him to 
side with the Huguenot party in 1562 ; 
and he signalized himself by many able 
and daring exploits, the skill and bra- 
very of which were soiled with the most 
detestable cruelty. D. 1587. 

ADRI A, John James, a Sicilian writer, 
and physician-general to Charles V. 
D. 1560. 

ADRIAM, Marie, a female, who, at 
the age of 16, fought valiantly during 
the whole time that her native town, 
Lyons, was besieged, in 1793. After 
the engagement she was arrested, and 
being asked how she had dared to use 
arms, she replied, " I used them to 
serve rr.y country, and deliver it from 
its oppressors." She was instantly con- 
demned and executed. 

ADRIAN, or HADRIAN, Publius 
JSlius, the Roman emperor. B. a. d. 76. 
He married Sabina, the heiress of Tra- 
jan, whom he accompanied in his expe- 
ditions, and became successively prajtor, 
governor of Pannonia, and consul. On 
the death of Trajan, in 117, he assumed 
the government, made peace with the 
Persians, and remitted the debts of the 
Roman people. In 120 he visited Gaul, 
and thence passed over to Britain, where 
he built ji wall, 80 miles in length, from 
the mouth of the Tyne to Sol way Frith, 
to secure the Roman provinces from the 
incursions of the Caledonians. He next 
travelled into Africa and Asia, and, on 
Vn3 return, was initiated into the Eleu- 
sinian mysteries at Athens. In his 
reign the 'Christians suffered a dreadful 
persecution ; he built a temple to Jupi- 
ter on Mount Calvary, and d. at Baite, 
138. — There are several popes of that 
name. — Adrian I., a Roman, raised to 
he papal chair, and was a patron of arch- 
tecture ; embellished St. Peter's, rebuilt 
the walls of Rome, and restored the 
ancient aqueducts. D. 795. — Adrian 
'I. succeeded to the pontificate in 867, 


was designing and ambitious, and d 
872. — Adrian "III. was chosen in 884, 
and d. the next year. — Adrian IV. 
was an Englishman — the only one who 
ever became pope — named Breakspcar ; 
in his youth extremely poor, but in 1146 
made a cardinal by Eugenius III. He 
was then sent as legate into Denmark, 
and in 1154 chosen pope. He issued a 
celebrated bull in favor of Henry II. 
of England, sanctioning the conquest of 
Ireland, and in 1155 excommunicated 
the king of Sicily, for ravaging the ter- 
ritories'" of the church. When the ar- 
mies of Frederick entered Italy, Adrian 
compelled him to make peace, and after- 
wards crowned him king of the Romans. 
D. 1159. — Adrian V. was a Genoese, 
who held the pontificate only a month, 
in 1276. — Adrian VI. was a native of 
Utrecht, of mean parentage, but who 
gradually rose from one ecclesiastical 
office to 'another, till he was made pope 
in 1522. He attempted to reform the 
papal court, and opposed classical learn- 
ing, but his efforts were frustrated by 
the cardinals. His attempts to excite 
Zuinglius and Erasmus against Luther, 
were also without success. D. 1525. — 
Adrian de Costello, a Tuscan of great 
learning and ability, who received the 
bishoprics of Hereford, Bath, and Wells 
from Henry VII. He sold them to Car- 
dinal Wolsey, and retired to Italy, where 
he lived in great splendor out of the 
revenues. A prophecy that an Adrian 
should succeed Pope Leo X., betrayed 
him into a conspiracy, which being dis- 
covered, led to his banishment. What 
became of him was never known. 

ADRIANI, Marcel Virgil, a chan- 
cellor of Florence, who translated Dios- 
corides out of Greek into Latin. B. 1464 ; 
d. 1521. — John Baptlst, secretary of the 
republic of Florence, who wrote a his- 
tory of his own times. B. 1513 ; d. 1579. 
— Marcel, his son, was also the author 
of some works as professor in the Acad- 
emy at Florence. D. 1604. 

ADRIANO, a Carmelite friar, who 
was also a painter in Spain. D. 1650. 

ADRICHOMIUS, Christian, a Dutch 
geographer and historian. B. 1533 ; d. 

ADRY, J. F., a French professor of 
rhetoric, and author of several works, 
chieflv histories. B. 1749 ; d. 1818. 

JSDESIA, a female philosopher of the 
modern Platonic school, wife of Hermias, 
and mother of Ammonius. She was 
celebrated for her beauty and virtue, as 
well as her devotion to philosophy. 

iEGIDIUS, Colonna, a Roman monk, 




distinguished as the scholastic preceptor 
to Philip III. of France. He wrote sev- 
eral able metaphysical works, such as 
"Tractatu de Esse et Essentia," and 
" Quodlibeta." D. 1316.— Peter, a law- 
yer of Antwerp, educated by Erasmus, 
and the friend of Sir Thomas More. 
B. 1436; d. 1538. 

./EGINETA, Paulus, a medical author, 
who first noticed the cathartic virtues 
of rhubarb. D. 630. 

./EGINHARD, a German, secretary to 
Charlemagne, who wrote the annals of 
his reign from 741 to 889; famous, too, 
for a singular love adventure with the 
princess Iimna, daughter of Charle- 
magne; who, carrying him across a 
court-yard from her chamber, to pre- 
vent the traces of his footsteps in the 
Bnow, was observed by the emperor, 
who generously agreed to their union. 

./ELFIMC, son of an carl of Kent, and 
archbishop of < lanterbury in the middle 
of the 10th century, was a luminary for 
the age in which he lived. He became 
a monk of the Benedictine order at 
Abingdon, under the abbot Athelwold, 
who, on his promotion to the see of 
Winchester, took .El trie with him to in- 
struct youth in his cathedral. Here he 
drew up bis " Latin Saxon Vocabulary," 
which was published at Oxford in 1659. 
He also translated from the Latin into 
the Saxon language most of the histori- 
cal books of the ( >ld Testament, as wen 
as "Canons for the Regulation of the 
Clergy," which arc inserted in Spebnan's 
Councils. lie subsequently became ab- 
bot of St. Alban's, and composed a 
liturgy for the service of his abbey, 
which was used in I. eland's time. In 
989, he was created bishop of Wilton: 
and, in 994, was translated to the see or 
Canterbury. D. 1005. 

^ELIAN, Claudius, an historian and 
rhetorician, was Lorn in Italy, in 160. 
He was surnamed Honeytongue, on ac- 
count of the sweetness of his style. 

JSLIANUS, Meccjus, a Greek phy- 
sician of the second century, and the 
master of Galen, who mentions him in 
terms of high praise. He was the first 
who made use of the theriaca as a rem- 
edy and preservative against the plague. 

jELILS. Sextus Poetus Catus, a Ro- 
man lawyer who was made consul at the 
close of the second Punic war. He pub- 
lished a collection, entitled '' Novella," 
which were called, after him, the jElian 
aws ; and was author of " Tripartite," 
Uie oldest treatise on jurisprudence now 
wELST, Everhard van, a Dutch paint- 

er. B. at Delft in 1602; d. 1658. He 
was famous for his skill in painting 
fruit pieces and dead game. — William, 
his nephew, also distinguished himself 
as a painter. D. 1679. 

jEMILIANI, St. Jerome, a Venetian 
nobleman, who, being taken prisoner in 
his youth, made a vow that, on his re- 
lease, he would devote his life to the 
care of orphans. In pursuance of thiu 
pledge, he laid the foundation of a 
hospital and religious order, the object 
of which was to instruct young persons, 
and particularly orphan's, in religion. 
D. 1537. 

^EMILIUS, Paulus, an illustrious Ro- 
man general, the son of Paulus .Emilius, 
the consul, who fell at Cannse, was b. 
about 228 b. c. He greatly enriched lus 
country by the spoil taken in his war- 
fare with Perses, king of Macedon, 
whom he took prisoner to Rome, which 
was so great, that it freed the Romans 
from taxes for 125 years. — Paulus, an 
Historian of great celebritv, b. at Verona. 
D. 1529. 

.EX HAS. or /KNOTS, an Irish abbot 
or bishop of the 8th century, who com- 
piled a curious account of Irish saints 
m five books, and also wrote the history 
of the Old Testament in verse. D. 820.— 
Gazeus, a Platonic philosopher, who em- 
braced Christianity in the 5th century, 
and wrote a book on the Immortality of 
tin- Soul, ite. — Tacticcs, an ancient 
Greek writer, who flourished about 360 
b. c. He is one of the oldest authors on 
tin- mi of war. 

.El'INUS, John, a Franciscan friar, 
who became a zealous ami able follower 
of Luther, and pastor of the church of 
St. Peter, at Hamburgh. B. 1499; d. 

.EESENS, Peter, called by the Italians 
1 Metro Longo, from his tallness, a cele- 
brated painter, b. at Amsterdam in 1519. 
He excelled very particularly in paint* 
ing kitchens: but an altar-piece of his, 
being a crucifix representing an execu- 
tioner breaking with an iron bar the legs 
of the thieves, was prodigiously admired. 
This noble piece was destroyed by the 
rabble in the time of the insurrection, 
1566. He afterwards complained of this 
to the populace in terms of such sever- 
ity, that more than once they were going 
to murder him. D. 1585. 

AERTG EN, a painter of merit, B. at 
Leyden in 1498. It was a custom with 
this painter never to work on Mondays, 
but to devote that day with his disciples 
to the bottle. He used to stroll about 
the streets in the night, playing on tlm 




German flute : and in one of those frolics 
was drowned in 1564. 

JlSCHIXES, a philosopher of Athena. 
in the 4th century, b. c. He obtain- 
ed instruction from Socrates, by whom 
he was much esteemed. — jWhixes, a 
celebrated orator, b. at Athens 327 b. c, 
and d. at Samoa, aged 75. He was a co- 
temporary and rival of Demosthenes. 

jESCHYLUS, one of the most famous 
basic writers of Greece, was born at 
Athens about 500 years b. c. His mind 
very early received an impulse from the 
poetry of Homer; and, before his 25th 
year, he composed pieces for public rep- 
resentation. So great was his fertility, 
that he wrote 70 tragedies, of which 25 
gained the prize. He may be called the 
father of the Grecian stage, and has 
never been surpassed, unless by Shak- 
speare. Julian relates that when he was 
once charged by the Athenians with 
uttering blasphemies, and condemned 
to be stoned to death, they were just 
going to put the sentence in execution, 
when Ananias, with a happy presence 
of mind, throwing aside his cloak, 
showed his arm without a hand, which 
he had lost at the battle of Salamis in 
defence of his country. This Bight 
made such an impression on the judges. 
that, touched with the remembrance or 
his valor, and the friendship he showed 
for his brother, they pardoned JSschy- 
lus. After having lived some years at 
Gela, we are told that he died of a frac- 
ture of his skull, caused by an eagle's 
letting fall a tortoise on his head, in the 
69th year of his age. 

JSSOP, the Phrygian, lived in the 
time of Solon, about the 50th Olympiad, 
under the reign of Croesus, the fast king 
of Lydia. St. Jerome, speaking of him. 
says, he was unfortunate in his birth, 
condition, and death, hinting thereby 
at his deformity, servile state, and tra- 
gical end. His great genius, however, 
enabled him to support his misfortunes ; 
and, in order to alleviate the hardships 
of servitude, he composed those enter- 
taining and instructive fables which 
have acquired him so much reputation; 
and he is generally supposed to have 
been the inventor of that kind of wri- 
ting. Having had several masters, for 
he was born a slave, JSsop at length 
came under a philosopher named Xan- 
thus, and it was in his service that he 
first displayed his genius for fable. He 
was afterwards sold to Idmon, or Iad- 
mon, the philosopher, who enfranchised 
him. After he had recovered his lib- 
erty, he soon acquired a great reputa- 

tion among the Greeks ; so that, accord- 
ing to Meziriac, the rej ort of his wisdom 
haying reached Croesus, this king sent 
to inquire after him, and engaged him 
in his service. He travelled through 
Greece, according to the same author; 
but whether for his own pleasure, or 
upon the affairs of Croesus, Is uncertain. 
Passing by Athens soon after Pisistra- 
tus had usurped the sovereign power, 
and finding that the Athenians bore the 
yoke very impatiently, he told them the 
fable of the frogs who petitioned Jupiter 
for a king. Some relate, that in order 
to show that the life of man is full of 
miseries, .Esop used to Bay, that when 
Prometheus took the clay to form man 
he tempered it with tears. JSsop was 
put to death at Delphi. The inhabitants 
of Delphi contrived an accusation of 
sacrilege against him. and, pretending 
that they had convicted him, threw him 
headlong from a rock. They afterwards 
endeavored to make an atonement by 
raising a pyramid to his honor. — Clo- 
Dios, a celebrated actor, who flourished 
about the •'-7>uh year of Pome. He and 
Roscius were cotemporaries, and both 
friends of Cicero. lie left a fortune of 

J2TION, a Grecian painter of Alex- 
ander's time. 

jETIUS, a famous Roman general 
under Valentinian III. — Also, a phy- 
sician of Mesoj otamia, who was the first 
Christian physician whose writings have 
come down to us. 

AFER, Domitus, a great orator, con- 
sul under Caligula. 

AFFLITTO, Matthew, an Italian 
lawyer and writer on law, who died in 

AFFRY, Louis AuorsTrvE Piiilip, a 
Swiss statesman and commauder, who 
bore a prominent part from the com- 
mencement of the trench revolutkn till 
his death, in 1810. 

AFRANIA, of Ferrara, inventoi cf 
the bassoon, i n the 16th century. 

AFEAN1US, a Latin dramatist, who 
flourished 100 b. c. — A Roman senator, 
who wrote a satire on Nero, for which 
he was put to death. 

AFBICANUS, Jm-nrs, a Christian 
historian, of 221. 

AFRICANER, Christian, a Nama- 
qua chief of South Africa, who, after a 
long career of violence and bloodshed, 
was converted to Christianity, and con- 
tinued to aid the operations of the mis- 
sionaries at the Cape of Good Hope till 
his death in 1823. An interesting ac- 
count of his life and adventures will be 




found in Moffat's " Missionary Labors 
and Scenes in Southern Africa." 

AFZELIUS, Adam, the last pupil of 
Linnaeus, a linguist and botanist of the 
university of Upsal. B. 1750; d. 1836. 

AGAPETUS, I., pope in 535, who 
pawned the sacred vessels to enable 
him to travel to Constantinople. — The 
second of the name was chosen in 946. 

AGARD, Arthur, an English anti- 
quarian. B. 1540; d. 1615. 

AGA3IAS, a sculptor of Ephesus, 
celebrated for his admirable statue of 
the Fighting Gladiator, which was 
found, with the Apollo Belvedere, at 
Antium. in the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century. 

AGATHA, St., virgin and martyr, 
suffered at Catana, Siedy, 251, is com- 
memorated 5 Feb. 

AGATHARCUS, a Greek painter, 
mentioned by Vitruvius as the first 
painter of scenes for the theatre, flour- 
ished about B. c. 480. 

AGATHIAS, the Scholastic, was an 
advocate at Smyrna in the sixth cen- 
tury. He wrote a continuation of Pro- 
copius's History. 

AGATHO, St., a Benedictine, b. at 
Palermo, elected pope 679, d. 682. He 
is commemorated on Feb 14. 

AGATHOCLES, the Sicilian tyrant, 
was b. in Rhegium, in Italy, and became 
successively a soldier, centurion, gen- 
eral, and pirate. After defeating the 
Carthaginians, he proclaimed himself 
king of all Sicily. His soldiers, on ac- 
count of arrears, obliged him to fly from 
his camp, and murdered his sons, whom 
he bad left behind. Returning with a 
strong force, he put to death the muti- 
neers, with their wives and children. 
Unable to live in tranquillity and inac- 
tion, though now far advanced in years, 
he made an expedition into Italy, and 
thence to the Lipari Islands, which he 
laid under contribution, and plundered 
of all the treasures of the temples. Af- 
ter his return he is said to have been 
poisoned by means of an envenomed 
toothpick, aged 95. 

AGELADAS, an admired Greek 
sculptor, flourished about b. c. 500. 
Phidias was one of his pupils. 

AGELIUS, Anthony, a learned eccle- 
siastic of Naples in the 16th centurv. D, 

A GEL LI, Antonio, an Italian 
bishop, was distinguished as a com- 
mentator on the Psalms and other por- 
tions of the Scriptures. B. at Sorrento, 
1532; d. 1608. 

AGELLIO, Giuseppe, an Italian 

painter of landscapes, flourished in 
Rome in the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century. 

AGELNOTH, an Anglo-Saxon pre- 
late, promoted to the see of Canterbury 
in 1020. D. 1038. 

AGER, or AGKRIUS, Nicholas, a 
physician and botanist in the 17th cen- 
tury, and professor of medicine at Stras- 

AGESANDER, a sculptor of Rhodes, 
celebrated for having executed, in con- 
junction with Polydorus and Atheno- 
dorus, the remarkable group of Laoooon 
and his Sons, which was found in the 
baths of Titus in 1506, and is now in 
the Vatican. The time when he flour- 
ished is unknown. 

AGESILAUS, king of Sparta, suc- 
ceeded his brother Agis. He acquired 
great renown by his exploits against the 
Persians, and also against the Thebans 
and Athenians, but was defeated by 
Epaminondas. 1). 360 b. c. 

AGGAS, Ralph, a surveyor and en- 
graver of the 16th century, who first 
drew a plan of London, which, although 
referred to the time of Henry VIII. and 
Edward VI., appears not to have been 
made on wood until about 1560. It was 
republished in 1618, and re-engraved by 
Vertue in 1748. D. 1579. Two repro- 
ductions of his map of London appeared 
in 1865. 

AGIS III., king of Sparta, succeeded 
his father, Archidamus, 346 b. c. He 
was a prince of great magnanimity; and, 
though he detested the Macedonian 
domination, he would not expose his 
country to ruin by resisting it, until 
Alexander was deeply engaged in his 
Persian expedition; when he raised an 
army of 20,000 men, which was defeated 
by Antipater, governorof Macedon, and 
Agis himself slain, 337 b. c. — Agis IV., 
king of Sparta, was the son of Eudami- 
das, and celebrated by his virtues and 
death. His first attempt was to renew 
the original law for the equal division of 
landed property, which was opposed by 
a party, at the head of which was his 
colleague, Leonidas. The latter was 
deposed, and the joint sovereignty de- 
volved to his son Cleombrotus, who 
entered into the views of Agis. Pre- 
viously, however, to a partition of the 
lands, Agesilaus, uncle to Agis, who was 
deeply in debt, proposed the abolition 
of all debts, which would render the 
former measure more palatable. This 
deed accomplished, the influential and 
wily Spartan found means to postpone 
the other equalizing operation, until 

AG Pi] 



Agis was obliged to march on an expe- 
dition. During his absence, Agesilaus 
conducted himself so tyrannically, that 
a conspiracy was formed to restore the 
deposed king, Leonidas ; which suc- 
ceeding, Agis and his colleague, Cleom- 
brotus, took sanctuary in a temple. The 
tatter was immediately dragged forth 
and banished, but Agis remained a con- 
siderable time in safety, until his friends 
were bribed to betray him, and he was 
thrown into a prison. He suffered death 
with great magnanimity, 241 b. c. 

AGLIONBY, Edward, an old English 
poet, who wrote a genealogy of Queen 
Elizabeth, for which she granted him a 
pennon. — John, a learned divine, chap- 
lain to Queen Elizabeth ; was concerned 
in the present translation of the New 
Testament, and d. at Ialip, in 1610.— 
William, an English diplomatist and 
polite writer, of the 17th and 18th cen- 
turies ; author of a book entitled " Paint- 
ing Illustrated." 

AGNELLUS, Andrew, an abbot of 
Ravenna, in the 9th century, often 
confounded with a bishop of Ravenna 
of the same name in the 6th century. 
Agnellus wrote a history of the lives of 
the prelates of Ravenna, which is often 
quoted by Jerome Rubens, and is full 
of uninteresting mattei but deserved 
Barcasm upon the debauchery of the 

AGNEST, Maria Gaetana, a learned 
Italian lady. B. at Milan, in 1718. In 
her ninth year she spoke the Latin with 
correctness, and also delivered an oration 
in this language, in which she maintain- 
ed that the study of the ancient languages 
was proper for females. In her eleventh 
year, she is said to have spoken Greek 
as fluently as her mother tongue. She 
now proceeded to perfect herself in the 
oriental languages, so that she was usu- 
ally called a living polyglot. She next 
studied geometry and speculative phi- 
losophy. Shortly subsequent to her 
twentieth year she devoted herself to 
mathematics, and composed a treatise 
on conic sections ; besides which, in her 
thirtieth year, she published a work on 
the rudiments of analysis, which has 
been considered as the best introduction 
to Euler. This gained her so much rep- 
utation, that she was appointed, in her 
thirty-second year, professor of math- 
ematics at the university of Bologna. 
But her deep study of this abstruse 
science seems to have cast a gloom over 
her spirits ; and, secluding herself alto- 
gether from society, retired to the strict 
order of blue nuns, and d. 1799, in her 

eighty-first year. — Maria Teresa, sistet 
of the above, was a musician of much 
genius. B. at Milan, 1750. She com- 
posed three operas, <( Sophonisba,'' 
" Giro," and " Nitocri." 

AGNOLO, Baccio d', a Florentin* 
sculptor and architect of great reputa- 
tion. B. 1460; d. 1543. 

AGOBARD, archbishop of Lyons, 
was one of the most celebrated prelates 
of the 9th century. His works worn 
buried in obscurity, until the manuscript 
of them was accidentally found in k 
bookseller's shop at Lyons. D. 840. 

AGOP, John, a learned Armenian 
critic and grammarian of the 17th cen- 
tury. His works were printed at Rome, 

AGORACRITES, a Grecian statuary 
in the 5th century b.c. He was a pupil 
of Phidias, and one of the most skiltul 
artists of his time. 

AGOSTINI, Lionardo, an eminent 
antiquary of the 17th century, officially 
emploved by Pope Alexander VII. 

AGOSTINO, Paul, of Valerano, a 
celebrated musician. B. 1593 ; d. 1629. 

AGOULT, William d', a Provencal 
poet. D. 1181. 

AGREDA, Maria d', the writer of 
some wild legends, was b. at Agreda, in 
Spain, in 1602 ; took the veil, 1620, in a 
convent founded by her father and 
mother, dedicated to the " Immaculate 
Conception," of which she was chosen 
superior, 1627, and d. 1665. 

AGRICOLA, Cneius Julius, an em- 
inent Roman commander, b. a. d. 40, in 
the reign of Caligula. His first military 
service was under Suetonius Paulinus in 
Britain ; and, on his return to Rome, he 
was made quaestor in Asia, and became 
tribune of the people and prietor under 
Nero. By Vespasian, whose cause he 
espoused, he was made a patrician and 
governor of Aquitania; the dignity of 
consul followed; and, in the same yeai, 
77, he married his daughter to Tacitus, 
the historian, who has so admirably 
written his life. Next year he was ap- 
pointed governor of Britain ; extended 
his conquests into Scotland ; and built a 
chain of forts from the Clyde to the 
Frith of Forth, to prevent the incursions 
of the inhabitants of the North. He de- 
feated Galgaeus on the Grampian Hills, 
and then made peace with the Caledo- 
nians. On the accession of Doinitian, 
Agricola had a triumph decreed him, 
but he was recalled, and sent governor 
to Syria, where he d. a. d. 93 ; aged 54. 
— George, the most celebrated metallur- 
gist of his *lme. B. at Glauchen, Misnia, 




In 1494, and d. 1555. — George Andrew, 
a German physician, author of a curious 
work on the multiplication of trees and 
plants. B. at Ratisbon, 1672, and d. 
1738. — John, a polemical writer of ce- 
lebrity. B. at Esleben, Saxony, 1492, 
and d. at Berlin, 1566. From being the 
friend and scholar, he became the antag- 
onist of Martin Luther, against whom, 
as well as Melancthon, he maintained a 
spirited controversy, advocating the doc- 
trine of faith in opposition to the works 
of the law, whence the sect, of which he 
bcame leader, received the name of 
AiUinomians. — Rodolphus, one of the 
most learned men in the 15th century, 
epoken of both by Erasmus and Bayle 
with great respect. B. in Friesland, 1442, 
and d. 1484. He was the first who in- 
troduced the Greek language into Ger- 

AGEIPPA, Camille, a celebrated 
architect of Milan in the 16th century, 
who, under the pontificate of Gregory 
XIII., accomplished the removal of a 
vast obelisk to St. Peter's Square. — 
Henry Cornelius, was b. in 1486, at 
Cologne, of a noble family. He became 
secretary to the emperor Maximilian, by 
whom he was knighted for his bravery 
in the Italian wars. He next travelled 
through various parts of Europe, and, 
while in England, wrote a commentary 
on St. Paul's Epistles. In 1518 he set- 
tled at Metz, which place, however, he 
was obliged to quit, at the instigation of 
the monks, and went to Cologne, and 
thence to Geneva. He next travelled to 
Antwerp, in 1528, and was taken into 
the service of Margaret of Austria, gov- 
erness of the Low Countries. In 1500 
he published his treatise of the " Vanity 
of the Sciences," and soon afterwards 
his " Occult Philosophy." In 1535 he 
was at Lyons, where he was imprisoned 
for defaming the king's mother, but 
soon obtained his discharge, and d. the 
same year at Grenoble. AH his works 
were collected and printed at Lyons, 
1550, in 3 vols. — I., Herod, grandson of 
Herod the Great. He gave great offence 
to Tiberius, who threw him into prison ; 
but, on Caligula's succession, was not 
only released, but received from that 
emperor a golden chain equal in weight 
to the iron one he had worn in his con- 
finement, as also the kingdom of Judea. 
He commenced a persecution of the 
Christians, in which the apostle St. 
James perished ; and he is the person 
represented to have boen eaten by 
worms, on account of his impiety in ac- 
cepting the adoration of the people. — 

II., Herod, son and successor of the 
preceding, was the seventh and last of 
the Jewish monarchs of the family of 
Herod the Great. It was before this 
prince that St. Paul pleaded his causo 
with so much eloquence, that Agrippa 
acknowledged he had almost persuaded 
him to be a Christian. He d. at Rome 
about the year 94. — Marcus Vipsanius, 
the celebrated friend and general or 
Augustus Caesar. D. 12 b. c— Menenius, 
consul of Rome, 503 b. c. He is cele- 
brated for having appeased a commotion 
among the Romans, by the political fable 
of the belly and the members ; and d. at 
an advanced age, very poor, but uni- 
versally esteemed for his wisdom and 

AGRIPPINA, the elder, daughter of 
Marcus Agrippa, was married in the first 
instance to Tiberius, who divorced her, 
and she became the wife of Germanicus 
Caesar, whom she accompanied in his 
military expeditions. On the death of 
the latter at Antioch, a. d. 19, she return- 
ed to Rome. Tiberius, jealous of the 
affection of the people for Agrippina, 
banished her to a small island, where 
she d. of hunger, in 35. — Agrippina, the 
younger, daughter of the foregoing, and 
mother of Nero, was at once cruel and 
licentious. After losing two husbands, 
she married her uncle, the emperor 
Claudius, whom she poisoned in 54, to 
make way for her son Nero, who caused 
her to be assassinated, and exhibited to 
the senate a list of all the crimes of 
which she had been guilty. 

AGUESSEAU, Hknry Francis d', the 
descendant of a noble family of Saiu- 
tonge, was b. at Limoges, 1668, and after 
completing his education, which was 
begun iinder the direction of his father, 
he cultivated poetry with taste and ele- 
gance, and acquired the esteem and 
friendship of men of letters, particularly 
of Boileau and Racine. In the office of 
advocate-general of Paris, in 1691, and 
nine years after, of procurer-general, he 
displayed all the energies of his nature ; 
he gave vigor and support to the laws, 
banished corruption from the tribunals, 
and distributed justice with an impartial 
hand. His attention was particularly 
directed to the management of the hos- 

Eitals ; and in the enlarged views of a 
enevolent heart, he often resisted with 
boldness and success the intrigues of 
royal favorites, and even the prejudices 
of Louis XIV. After this monarch's 
death he was appointed by the Duke of 
Orleans, the regent, to succeed Voitdn 
as chancellor, and by his eloquence and 




firmness he opposed and rejected the 
schemes of Law, which were afterwards 
too fatally adopted, and hurled the whole 
kingdom into ruin and despondency. 
The machinations of his enemies were, 
however, too powerful against his integ- 
rity of conduct, and Aguesseau was 
twice obliged to resign the seals, and re- 
tire in disgrace, and twice again he was 
solicited by the regent to resume a situ- 
ation which he adorned and dignified. 
His moderation and equity were ever 
apparent, and in his retirement at 
Fresnes, where, as he says, he passed 
the fairest days of his life, the chancel- 
lor of France was emp'oyed in the edu- 
cation of his children, in literary pursuits, 
and often amused himself in digging the 
ground. Temperance and cheerfulness 
added to the pleasures of science, and 
contributed to the health of the body 
and vigor of the mind, and till his ROth 
year he enjoyed a robust constitution. 
At this advanced age infirmities came 
Upon him, he resigned the office of chan- 
cellor, and d. soon after, on the 9th of 
February, 1751. 

AGUILLON, Francis, an eminent 
mathematician, was a Jesuit of Brussels, 
and d. at Seville, 1617. 

AGUIRRA, Joseph Saens d', a Span- 
ish Benedictine, made cardinal by In- 
nocent XI. He wrote voluminously on 
theologv, philosophy, &c. D. 1699*. 

AGUJARI, Lucretia, a celebrated 
singer of Parma, who received a sal- 
arv of £100 a-night for two songs. D. 

AGYL^EUS, Henry, a lawyer and 
general scholar. B. 1533 ; d. 1595. 

AHLWART, Peter, a learned Ger- 
man, son of a shoemaker at Greifswald, 
where he was b. in 1710, and d. 1791. 
He was the founder of -the Society of 
Abelites, the object of which was to pro- 
mote sincerity. 

AHMED-BEN-FARES, surnamed El 
Kazi, an Arabian lexicographer and 
lawyer. "D. 999. 

ABOU AMROU, a Spanish Moor, who 
wrote poems in the Eastern style, and an 
histoiical work on the annals of Spain. 
D. in 970. 

historian, who was counsellor of the 
Divan, and chancellor to the Sultan 
Mustapha III. 

der of the kingdom of Candahar and 
Canlml. D. 1773. 

Frederic, an antiquary and palseograph- 

er, was a native of Holstein. He spent 
forty years in travelling on foot through 
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, France, 
Spain, Italy, and other parts of Europe, 
in search of Scandinavian antiquities and 
Runic monuments, and carried on an 
extensive correspondence with his learn- 
ed cotemporaries relative to the objects 
of his investigation. D. 1824. 

AIDAN, a monk, who converted a 
large portion of '.he northern part of 
Britain to Christianity. D. 651. 

AIGNAN, Stephen, a French writer, 
and a member of the Academy. He was 
a zealous republican, and at the early 
age of 19, in the fiercest time of the rev- 
olution, was appointed to an official sit- 
uation in the district of Orleans. He 
subsequently filled offices under Napo- 
leon ; and aiso distinguished himself as 
the author of several dramas and poems, 
as well as by the translation of part or 
the works of Goldsmith and Pope. B. 
1773 ; d. 1825. 

AIKIN, Edmund, an architect, and 
the author of an account of St. Paul's 
Cathedral. D. 1820.— John, M. D., b. 
1747, at Kibworth, Leicestershire, was 
the only son of Dr. T. Aikin, a dissent- 
ing minister and schoolmaster. He 
commenced his education at home ; from 
thence he went to the dissenters' acad- 
emy at Warrington, and in 1764 became 
a student in the university of Edin- 
burgh ; settled in Chester as a surgeon, 
but soon removed to Warrington, whero 
he remained until 1784, in which year 
he proceeded to Leyden, and graduated 
as a physician. On his return he went 
to Yarmouth, Norfolk, where, with little 
interruption, he continued till 1792, 
when ne removed to London. Dr. 
Aikin devoted himself chiefly to liter- 
ature, in which he was eminently suc- 
cessful. In 1796 he became the editor 
of the Monthly Magazine, which he 
superintended from its commencement 
till 1806. In 1799 he published, in con- 
junction with Dr. Enfield, the first 
volume of a General Biographical Dic- 
tionary, in 4to, which, however, was not 
completed till 1815. D. 1822. 

AIKMAN, William, son of an advo- 
cate of Scotland of the same name, was 
b. 1784, and brought up to the profes- 
sion of his father. A natural bias for 
the arts, however, prevailed upon the 
son to relinquish the honors of the 
Scotch bar for distinction in the cultiva- 
tion of painting ; and an absence of five 
years in visiting Italy and Constantino- 
ple and Smyrna, served to improve and 
adorn his mind, and enlarge and correct 




hi3 tnste. As his fortune was indepen- 
dent he did not court the patronage of 
the great by flattery, and to his merit 
alone he was indebted for the esteem of 
John duke of Argyle, and of the earl 
of Burlington, and for the affectionate 
friendship of Allan Ramsay, Thomson. 
Swift, Pope, Arbuthnot, Gay, Somer- 
ville, and the other wits of the age. His 
genius was exerted in portrait painting, 
and many ot' those who then shone in 
rank and fashion will receive more ce- 
lebrity from his pencil than from their 
own merit. A picture of the royal fam- 
ily of England, now in possession of the 
duke of Devonshire, and several por- 
traits of the earl of Buckingham's fam- 
ily, were among the last of his pieces. 
1). 1731. 

ATLBY, Peter d', a cardinal and 
legate, chancellor of the university of 
Paris, and president of the famous 
Council of Constance, which condemned 
John Huss. B. 1350; d. 1419. 

AINSWOETH, Henry, a biblical 
commentator of much learning and 
acuteness, who was among the most 
eminent of the English non-conformist 
divines of his time.' D. 1622. — Robert, 
a grammarian, whose Latin dictionary 
is well known. B. at Woodyale, Lanca- 
shire, 1686; d. 1743. 

AIRAULT, Peter, an advocate of 
Paris, b. at Angers, where he also d., 
1601, July 21st, in his 6oth year. As a 
magistrate he behaved with firmness 
and integrity, and was deservedly called 
the rock of the accused. He left ten 
children, the eldest of whom, Rene, was 
intrusted to the Jesuits for his educa- 
tion, and induced to enter into the order, 
from which he never could extricate 
himself, though his father procured the 
interest of the king of France and of the 
pope. Rene d. at la Fleehe, 1664, in his 
77th year. His father wrote some 
treatises, especially on the power of 
fathers, (fee. 

A1TON, William, a botanist of Lan- 
arkshire, and head-gardener to George 
III. at Kew. He formed the best col- 
lection of exotics then known, and pub- 
lished a catalogue of them. D. 1793. 

ATTKEN, Robert, a printer, who was 
imprisoned by the British during the 
American revolution, for his attachment 
to liberty. He published a magazine, an 
edition of the Bible, and the Am. Phil. 
Trans. T». 1802. 

AITZEMA, Leo, of Friesland, wrote 
a history of the United Provinces. B 
1600; d. 1669. 
AKALIA, Martin, physician to nenry 

TIL, and author of several medical books. 
B. 1479 ; d. 1588. 

AKBAH, a celebrated Saracen, who 
conquered the whole of Africa. 

AKBER. Mohammed, a descendant of 
Tamerlane, and sultan of the Moguls, 
who ascended the throne when he was 
only 14, and became distinguished as a 
great conqueror, but a wise and clement 

AKENSIDE, Mark, a physician of 
note, but more distinguished as a poet. 
He was b. at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in 
1721, and educated at Edinburgh and 
Leyden. When only 23 years of age ho 
wrote a poem on the " Pleasures of 
Imagination," which gave him a poetical 
fame which has lasted to the present day. 
lie also wrote several odes, a satire, and 
some medical books, all of more or less 
merit. D. 1770. 

AKERLAD, John David, a Swede, 
distinguished as an orientalist and anti- 
quary." D. 1819. 

AKIBA, a Jewish rabbi, of literary 
taste, who joined Barcochebas, a pre- 
tended Messiah, and was flayed alive, 
at the age of 120, by the emperor Ha- 

ALABASTER, William, an English 
divine, author of a Latin tragedy called 
Roxana, and a pentaglot dictionary. D. 

ALAIN, Chartier, author of the 
" Chronicles of Charles VII.," and other 
French works, in the 14th century. — 
De Lisle, surnamed the Universal Doc- 
tor, because of his learning. D. 1294. 

ALAMANNI, Louis, a Florentine 
poet and statesman, distinguished foi 
liis love of philosophy and Greek lite- 
rature. B. 1496; d. 1556. Two others 
of the same name are known in the lit- 
erary world. 

ALAN, William, sometimes called 
Alleyn, an eminent Catholic divine. B. 
in 1580. He was educated at Oxford, 
but changed his religion, and became 
archbishop of Mechlin and a cardinal. 
It was at his suggestion that Philip II. 
undertook the invasion of England. He 
was supposed to have been poisoned in 

ALAND, Sir John Fortescite, (Lord 
Fortescne,) a baron of the exchequer, 
and a puisne judge of the courts of 
King's Bench and Common Pleas, in the 
reigns of George T. and II., was descend- 
ed from the famous Sir John Fortescne : 
was b. in 1670 ; was an able lawyer, and 
well versed in Saxon literature; lived in 
habits of intimacy with Pope, and the 
ether wits of the day; and wrote the 




legal burlesque of "Straclling versus 

ALARD, Francis, a native of Brus- 
sels, was bred in the Koman church ; 
but, meeting with the works of Luther, 
he turned Protestant, and escaped to 
Wittemberg. After some time he re- 
turned to Brussels, and d. in 1578. — 
William, son of the above, became rec- 
tor of the college of Krempen. D. 1644. 
— Lambert, son of the last named, com- 
piled a Greek Lexicon, wrote some the- 
ological works and Latin poems, and 
was inspector of the pub ic schools of 
Brunswick. D. 1672. 

ALARIC L, king of the Visigoths, 
and conqueror of Rome, was descended 
from a noble family, and for some years 
served in the imperial armies ; but, be- 
ing refused preferment, he revolted 
against Arcadius, and desolated many 
of the provinces, sparing neither age nor 
sex. In the year 400, being then the 
acknowledged sovereign of the Visi- 
goths, he invaded Italy, and carried off 
immense plunder. In 402, he made a 
second irruption, but was defeated by 
Stilicho, ana compelled to sue for peace. 
After this, he was employed in the ser- 
vice of the emperor Ilonorius, but soon 
violated his engagements, and again 
entered the Roman territory, and laid 
siege to the capital. His terms were 
complied with, and he retired into Tus- 
cany ; but, being joined by his brother, 
Ataulphus, he returned again to Rome, 
which he sacked in 410. After ravaging 
Italy, he sailed for Sicily, where, after 
taking the city of Cosenza, he d. 410. — 
Alario II., king of the Visigoths, suc- 
ceeded his father Euric in 484, and 
reigned over all the country between the 
Rhone and the Garonne. He adapted 
to his states the Theodosian collection 
of laws, and published it as the law of 
the Visigoths, since known by the title 
of the code of Alaric. He was slain in 
a battle by Clovis, king of the Franks, 

ALASCO, John, uncle to Sigismund, 
king of Poland, was in great esteem with 
most of the learned men of his day, and 
enjoyed the friendship of many of them, 
particularly Erasmus and Zuinglius, 
through whom lie became a convert to 
the Protestant faith ; to which he was so 
zealoUri'iV devoted as to obtain the title 
of the Reformer of Poland. B. 1499 ; d. 
at Frankfort, 1560. 

ALBAN, St., celebrated as the first 
Christian martyr in Great Britain, was 
b. at Verulam, near St. Alban's, Hert- 
fordshire, in the 8d century. D. 303. 

ALBANEZE, an Italian musician of 
great repute. 1). 1800. 

ALBANI, Alexander, a cardinal and 
virtuoso. In 1762, his collection of 
drawings and engravings, consisting of 
300 volumes, was purchased by George 
III. for 14,000 crowns. B. 1692 ; d. 1779. 
— John Francis, nephew of the above, 
in 1747 was made a cardinal, which was 
followed by numerous preferments. He 
opposed the suppression of the Jesuits. 
lie imitated his uncle in his encourage- 
ment of letters ; but the French, when 
they entered Rome, confiscated his es- 
tates, and his valuable collection was 
sent off to Paris. B. 1720 ; d. 1802.— 
Louisa Maria Caroline, countess of, 
married Charles Stuart, " the Pretend- 
er." She was cousin of the last reigning 
prince of Stolberg-Gedern ; married in 
1772, when she took the title of countess 
of Albani ; but to escape from the bar- 
barity of her husband, who lived in a 
continual state of intoxication, she re- 
tired in 1780 to a cloister. B. 1752 ; d. 
1824. — -John Jerome, a civilian and the- 
ological writer, b. at Bergamo in 1504, 
arrived at the dignity of a cardinal in 
1570, and d. in 1591. 

ALBANO, Francisco, a celebrated 
painter. B. at Bologna, 1578, and d. 1660. 
Albano excelled in delineating feminine 
and infantine beauty ; and his pictures 
are exceedingly valuable. — Giovanni 
Baptlsta, younger brother of the above: 
was also a painter, and chiefly excelled 
in landscape. 

ALBATEGNI, an Arabian chieftain 
and astronomer. He lived in the 9th 
century, and wrote a work entitled "The 
Science of the Stars." 

ALBERGATI, Capacelli, a Bolog- 
nese marquis, dramatic writer and ac- 
tor, and called the Garrick of Italy. 
D. 1802. 

ALB ERIC, a monkish historian of the 
13th century, who compiled a Chronicb 
of Universal History up to 1241. 

ALBERONI, Giulio, a cardinal, and 
minister of the king of Spain, was the 
son of a gardener ; but being possessed 
of uncommon talents, and with a dispo- 
sition suited to the intriguing policy of 
the court, he obtained patronage, and 
rapidly reached the highest office in the 
state. By his ability and activity he 
created a naval force, reorganized the 
army, and rendered Spain more power- 
ful than it had been since the time of 
Philip II. ; but he was eventually foi' jd 
by the combined efforts of Englf - J and 
France, who made his dismissal from 
the councils of the Spanish monarch the 




chief condition of peace. B. 1664; d. 

ALBERT, Erasmus, a learned Ger- 
man divine of the 16th century, who 
composed a Latin work called " The 
Koran of the Cordeliers." D. 1551. — 
Albert of Aix, or Alburtus Aquensis, a 
canon of Aix-la-Chapelle in the 12th 
century. He wrote in Latin what is 
esteemed an accurate " History of the 
Expedition to Jerusalem, under Godfrey 
of Bulloyn, and other Leaders," re- 
printed in 1662. — Louis Joseph d', son 
of Louis Charles, duke de Luynes. B. 
in 1672, and d. 1758. He distinguished 
himself in several battles, for which 
he was appointed field-marshal by the 
emperor Charles VII , who sent him 
ambassador to France, and created him 
prince of Grimberghen. — Albert, of 
Stade, a monk of the 13th century, who 
wrote a " Chronicle from the Creation to 
1256." — Albert, of Strasburg, the com- 
piler of a " Chronicle from 1273 to 1378." 
— Henry Christl\n, a professor of the 
English language at the university of 
Hale, Germany. D. in 1800.— Albert I., 
emperor and duke of Austria, surnamed 
the Triumphant, was son of the emperor 
Eodolph of Hapsburg, and a competitor 
for the imperial crown with Adolphus 
of Nassau, whom he defeated and kihed 
in battle. B. 1248 ; d. by assassination, 
1308. — Albert II., emperor and duke 
of Austria, was son of Albert the fourth 
duke of Austria, and succeeded to the 
kingdom of Hungary and Bohemia on 
the death of Sigismund, whose daugh- 
ter he had married. D. 1429. — Albert, 
archduke of Austria, son of Maximilian 
II., was b. 1559. He was at first des- 
tined for the church, and, when very 
yountj, was created cardinal and arch- 
bishop of Toledo. In 1598, Philip II. 
of Spain contracted his daughter Isabel- 
la to Albert, who thereupon renounced 
his cardinalate and ecclesiastical charac- 
ter. The Netherlands, and the prov- 
inces of Burgundy and Charleroi, were 
her portion, and they were henceforth 
considered as joint sovereigns of those 
countries. D. 1621.— Jane d', daugh- 
ter of Margaret, queen of Navarre, and 
the mother" of Henry IV. of France. D. 
1572. — Albert, king of Sweden, was 
elected to the throne on the deposition 
of Maarnns II. in 1363. The latter, sup- 
ported by Denmark and Norway, en- 
deavored to recover his crown, but was 
defeated by Albert, and taken prisoner. 
The nobles, however, became dissatisfied 
with his rule, and applied for aid to 
Margaret, queen of Denmark and Nor- 

way, by whom he was defeated in a 
bloody battle, taken prisoner, and con- 
fined for seven years. He was at length 
liberated on condition of surrendering 
Stockholm to Margaret ; and he passed 
the remainder of his days at Mecklen- 
burg, where he d. in 1412. — Albert, 
marquis of Brandenburg-Culmbach, sur- 
named the German Alcibiades, b. in 
1522, was a principal actor in the trout les 
of Germany during the reign of Chailes 
V., against whom he made war. D. in 
indigence and exile, 1558. — Charles d', 
duke of Luynes. B. in 1578. Henry 
IV., of France, who was his god-father, 
placed him as a paa:e about his son, 
afterwards Louis XIII., over whom, by 
his artful manner, he gained such an 
ascendency that he obtained the highest 
honors in the state, and was made con- 
stable of France ; but his ambition and 
tyranny rendered him odious to the 
people. D. 1621. 

ALBERTET, a mathematician and 
poet of Provence in the 13th century. 

ALBERTI, Aristotile, a mechanic of 
Bologna in the 15th century. It is said 
he removed entire the tower of St. Mary 
del Tempis 35 paces, and, at Cento, set 
upright another which was five feet out 
ot its perpendicular. — Cherubino, a 
famous Florentine painter. B. 1552 ; d. 
1615. — Giovanni, brother of the above, 
was also an eminent painter at Rome, 
and greatly admired for the excellence 
of his perspective. — Dominico, a Ve- 
netian composer and harpsichord player 
of eminence in the last century. — George 
William, a learned German divine. B. 
1725 ; d. 1758. — John, a German lawyer, 
who abridged the Koran, with notes, 
and also published, in 1556, the New 
Testament inSyriac. D. 1559. — Leander, 
a Bolognese monk, author of a history 
of his native city, and one of Italy. D. 
1552. — Leoni Baptista, an eminent arch- 
itect, painter, sculptor, and scholar. B. 
at Venice in the beginning of the 15th 
century. At the age of 20 he composed 
a Latin comedy, entitled "Philodoxius," 
which many learned men believed at 
first was the work of the ancient poet, 
Lepidus ; and, as such, it was printed 
by the younger Aldus. The invention 
of the camera obscura has b/en attrib- 
uted to him. D. 1485. 

d', an eminent Italian lexicographer. B. 
1737; d. 1803. 

ALBERTINI, Francis, an ecclesiastic 
of Florence, and an able antiquary, in 
the beginning of the 16th century ; 
author of several valuable works. — Paul, 




a Venetian priest and author, who was 
intrusted with an embassy to Turkey. 
His preaching and his writing's, chierfy 
on theology, were so much valued, that 
at his death a medal was struck to his 
memory. B. 1430 ; d. 1475. 

ALBERTUS, Magnus, a Dominican, 
and one of the most celebrated school- 
men of the 13th century, was b. at 
Lauingen, Suabia. He was successively 
vicar-general and provincial of his or- 
der ; and his celebrity as a public pre- 
ceptor attracted the attention of Pope 
Alexander IV., who appointed him mas- 
ter of the holy palace. In 1260, he was 
elected bishop of Ratisbon, but after- 
wards resigned this dignity, and went to 
Cologne, where he d., in 1280. His 
works, which were voluminous, and on 
various subjects, were published at 
Lyons, 1051. 

ALBICUS, archbishop of Prague, 
whose encouragement of John Huss 
caused him to be much abused by the 
opponents of that reformer. 

ALBINOVANUS, C. Pedo, a Latin 
poet of the time of Augustus. He was 
the friend of Ovid, and author of several 
poems. &c. 

ALBINLTS, a Eoman, consul in the 
year 157 b. c. ; and author of a history 
of Rome, written in Greek, which is 
commended by Cicero. — Bernard Sieg- 
fred, one of the ablest anatomists of 
modern times, was b. at Frankfort in 
1696. He was a pupil of the celebrated 
Boerhaave, and became a professor of 
anatomy in the university of Leyden. 
D. 1770. — Christian Bernard, brother 
of the above, professor of anatomy at 
Utrecht, and author of two valuable 
works on that science. D. 1778. 

ALBO, Joseph, a learned Spanish 
rabbi, who assisted, in 141 '2, at a con- 
ference between the Christians and 
Jews, and wrote a book, called " Sepher 
Hikkarim," against the gospels. 

ALBO IX, king of the Lombards in 
the 6th century. He succeeded his father, 
Audoiu, in 1561 ; conquered and slew 
Cunimim 1, king of the Gepidae, whose 
daughter, Rosamond, he afterwards 
married. He subjugated great part of 
Italy ; but having incurred the just re- 
sentment of his wife, by sending her 
wine in a cup, wrought from the skull of 
her own father, and forcing her to drink 
from it, she had him assassinated, a. d. 

ALBON, Jaques d', Marquis de Fron- 
eac, and Marcsehal de St. Andre, a 
French general, who acquired great rep- 
utation about the middle of the 16th 

century. Quesnoy, St. Quentin, Renti, 
&c. were the chief scenes of his exploits. 
At the death of Henry II. he was chosen 
one of the regency ; and fell in the bat- 
tle of Dreux, 1562. 

musician, and one of the most learned of 
modern contrapuntists, was b. at Kloster 
Neubar, in 1736 ; became court organist 
and a member of the academy at Vienna, 
and was the instructor of Beethoven. D. 

ALBRET, Charlotte d', sister of John 
d'Albret, king of Navarre, and wife of 
Caesar Borgia. She was a poetess of no 
mean powers, and as remarkable for vir- 
tue as her husband was for vice. D. 
1514. — Charles d', constable of Franco 
in the reign of Charles VI., to whom he 
was related by blood. He commanded 
the French army at the famous battle of 
Aginconrt, in which he lost his life, 
1514. — Jeanne d', daughter of Margaret, 
queen of Navarre, and mother of Henry 
of Navarre, afterwards Henry IV., of 
France. D. in 1572. 

ALBUQUERQUE, Matthias d', a 
Portuguese general, who was sent to 
Brazil in 1628, and successfully defend- 
ed the province of Pernambuco against 
the Dutch. He was made commander 
of the army in 1643, when he gained the 
decisive victory of Campo Major, and 
was created a grandee of Portugal. — ■ 
Coelho, Edward d', a Portuguese noble- 
ni in, in the 17th century, who fought 
with great bravery against f ■ .e Dutch in 
the Brazilian war, of which he wrote a 
history. D. 1688. — Alfonso, a native 
of Lisbon, wnose great genius laid the 
foundation of the Portuguese power in 
India. He was sent by Emmanuel, king 
of Portugal, in 1503, with his brother 
Francis, to form an establishment in the 
East ; and by his spirited bravery, ho 
supported his allies, and maintained the 
superiority of his nation. He gained 
large possessions on the coast of Cochin, 
which was secured by strong and im- 
pregnable fortifications. His return to 
Europe was attended by the death of his 
brother, who perished in the voyage ; 
but private sorrow gave way before pub- 
lic concerns, and Albuquerque, in 1508, 
invested with new power by his sover- 
eign, sailed back to India. In his way 
he plundered the coast of Arabia ; with 
unparalleled boldness, having a corps of 
only 470 men, be undertook the siege of 
Ormuz, an island at the entrance of the 
Persian gulf, subject to a king of its own, 
and defended by numerous forces ; and 
after some months 1 obstinate resistance, 




the place submitted to the conqueror, 
and the king in despair became tributary 
to Portugal. His arms were now direct- 
ed against Goa, which he subdued ; and 
his power was extended over the whole 
coast of Malabar. Afterwards he sailed 
towards the cast, and made the islands 
of Sumatra, Malacca, and the neighbor- 
ing cities tributary to the Portuguese 
government. On his return to Goa he 
meditated fresh conquests, when he sud- 
denly fell sick, and d. 1515, in his 63d 

ALBUTIUS, Caius Silus, an eloquent 
orator in Kome, in the age of Augustus. 
He starved himself to death because of 
an insult which had been inflicted upon 

ALCAMENES, a disciple of Phidias, 
who afterwards became a rival. 

ALC^EUS, an ancient lyric poet of 
renown, who flourished at Mvtelene 
about 600 years before Christ. Horace 

fives him a high position. He lived at 
iesboe, and was a lover of Sappho. — 
There was also an Athenian poet of the 
flame name. 

ALCIATI, Andrew, a lawyer of emi- 
nence at Milan, who d. 1550. — Francis, 
nephew of Andrew, also an eminent 
lawyer, whom Pope Pius VI. made a 
cardinal. — Terence, a Jesuit, who aided 
Cardinal Pallavieino in writing the his- 
tory of the Council of Trent. 

ALCIBIADES, a famous Greek, sou 
of Clincas anil Diuomache, who lost his 
father in the battle of Chaeronea, and 
was educated by Pericles, his grand- 
father by the mother's side. He early 
excelled, both in mental and bodily ex- 
ercises, while his beauty, his birth, and 
the favor of Pericles, gained him position 
and popularity. He became a friend of 
Socrates, who' instructed him in knowl- 
edge and virtue. But so long as Cleon 
lived he was luxurious and prodigal, and 
it was only after the death of that dem- 
agogue that he began to take part in 
public affairs. He commanded the 
Athenian fleets which devastated the 
Peloponnesus, and was afterwards sent 
on the expedition against Sicily, but du- 
ring the preparations, all the statues of 
Hermes having been broken one night, 
he was accused of the impiety, recalled, 
and condemned to death. He did not 
return to Alliens, but went to Sparta, 
where he excited the Lacedemonians to 
ally themselves with the Persian kins; 
against his native country, then engaged 
frith Chios. He next passed into Asia 
Minor and roused all Ionia against 
A-thens. After being reconciled to his 

countrymen, he made war upon tho 
Lacedemonians and the Persians, and 
was successful both by sea and land. At 
the instance of Lysander, who was him- 
self instigated by the thirty tyrants, he 
was burnt to death in the house of his 
mistress Timandra, in Phrygia. He was 
a man of rare personal address, great 
eloquence and audacity, and command- 
ing talents, but dissolute in his life, and 
without elevation or dignity of sold. B. 
450 b. c. ; d. 404 b. c. 

ALCIDAMUS, a Greek orator, who 
lived about 400 B.C. 

ALC1NOUS, a commentator on Tlato, 
who flourished in the 2d century. 

ALC1PI1PON, an epistolary writer 
amonsr the Greeks, who has given some 
charming descriptions of the manners 
and customs of his times. 

ALCWLEON, the first anatomist, and 
a disciple of Pythagoras. He lived at 

ALCMAN, a Grecian lyric poet, who 
lived 67'J n. o. 

ALCOCK, John, a learned English 
bishop of the time of Edward IV., who 
raised him to great dignities. D. 1500.— 
John, author of some choral music. _ D. 
1806. — Nathan, a celebrated physician 
of the last century, who lectured at Ox- 
ford on anatomy. 

ALCU1NUS,Flaccus, an English pre- 
late, a pupil of Bede, and a teacher of 
Charlemagne. His writings, most of 
which are extant, are numerous • his 
style is elegant and sprightly, and his 
language sufficiently pure for the age ; 
and he may be considered as one of the 
learned few whose genius dissipated the 
gloom of the 8th century. Andrew du 
Chesne published his works in one vol- 
ume, folio, 1617. D. at Tours, 804. 

ALCYONIUS, Peter, an Italian, for 
some time corrector of the press for 
Aldus Manutius, and author of some 
learned publications. He translated 
some of Aristotle's treatises, and was 
severely censured by Sepulve la for in- 
accuracy. In his work on banishment 
he displayed such a mixture of elegant 
and barbarous words, that he was sus- 
pected oflargoly borrowing from Cicero's 
treatise de Gloria: and it is said that to 
avoid detection of this illiberal deed, he 
burnt the only extant manuscript of 
Cieero, which had been given by Ber- 
nard to the library of a nunnery, of 
which Alcyonius was physician. At 
Florence he was promoted to a profess- 
or's chair, but the ambition of rising to 
higher eminence drew him to Koine, 
where he lost all his property duriug the 



insurrection of the Colonnas. When 
the imperial troops took the city, 1527, 
he espoused the cause of the pope, and 
though wounded, joined hiin in the 
castle of St. Angelo, and afterwards in 
bold aud elegant language he arraigned, 
hi two oral ions, the injustice of Charles 
V. and the barbarity of his soldiers. 

ALDEGEAEF, a Westphalian paint- 
er and engraver. B. 1502. 

ALDEN, John, a magistrate of Plym- 
outh colony, one of the first company 
who settled in New England. D. 16S7. 
ALDEEETE, Diego Gratian de, a 
Spanish author, who translated the 
Greek classics. D. 1580.— Bernhard, a 
Spanish Jesuit, who was the first to be 
made a doctor by the university of Sal- 
amanca. D. 1657. 

ALDIIELM, St., an English prelate, 
b. at Malmesbury, where he founded a 
monastery. D. 709. 

ALDHUN, an English bishop of the 
10th ccnturv, the founder of the bishopric 
of Durham. D. 1018. 

ALD1S, Asa, an eminent lawyer of 
Vermont, and chief justice in 1816. B. 
1770; d. 184-7. 

ALDOBRANDINI, Sylvester, a Flo- 
rentine lawyer and writer, appointed ad- 
vocate of the treasury by Pope Paul III. 
D. 155S. — Clement, son - of the preced- 
ing, became pope under the name of 
Clement VIII. — Anthony, a Bologncse 
lawyer and statesman. B. 1756. — John, 
his 'brother, a professor of natural phi- 
losophy at Bologna. He invented a 
method of securing the human body 
against fire, now superseded by that of 
Paulin. B. 1762; d. 1834.— Tobias, a 
physician and botanist of Cesena, was 
superintendent of the Farnesian garden 
at Pome, on which account his name 
was prefixed to the description of it 
written bv Peter Cashell. 

ALDRED, the first English bishop 
who visited Jerusalem. On the death 
of Edward he crowned Harold, and 
performed the same ceremony for "Wil- 
liam. I). 1068. 

ALDKICII, Henry, b. in "Westmin- 
ster, 1647. From Westminster-school 
he went to Christ Church, Oxford, and 
was elected student, and afterwards 
canon and dean. He built an "legant 
chapel to Trinity college, and the beau- 
tiful church of All Saints. He had also 
great skill in music, and composed many 
services for the church. D. 1710. — 
Robert, a native of Buckinghamshire, 
who became master and provost of Eton. 
In 1537 ho was made bishop of Carlisle. 
D. 1555. 


ALDROVANDUS, Ulysses, a cele- 
brated natural historian. B. at Bologna, 
1522. He was a great traveller, and 
formed a most superb collection of min- 
erals, plants, animals, &c, by which ho 
ruined his fortune, and d. in an hospital, 

ALDRUDE countess of Bertinoro, is 
celebrated in Italy for her courage aud 
her eloquence. When Ancona was be- 
sieged by the arms of the Venetians, and 
of the emperor Frederic I. in 1172, she 
pitied the situation of the d. stressed in- 
habitants, and with heroic intrepidity 
flew to their relief, at the head of her de- 
pendants and friends, and supported by 
William Degli Adelardi, of Ferrara. Her 
troops were animated by her eloquence 
and her example, and the enemy fled at 
her approach ; and though on her return 
home she was attacked by some parties 
of the enraged besiegers, she routed 
them in every encounter, and added 
fresh laurels to her fame. The history 
of that memorable siege has been pub- 
lished by Buon-Campagnono of Flo- 

ALDUS, Manutius, a native of Bas- 
sano, illustrious as a correct printer, and 
as the restorer of the Greek and Latin 
languages to Europe. He is the inven- 
tor of the Italic letter, and was alone 
permitted by the pope the use of it. D. 
at Venice, 1516. 

ALEANDER, Jerome, a cardinal, b. 
in 14S0, distinguished himself in the 16th 
century as a violent opposer of Luther 
and the reformation. D. 1542. — His 
great nephew, of the same name, inher- 
ited the ability of his ancestor, and was 
eminent as a scholar and an antiquary. 

ALEMAN, a cardinal of the 13th 
century. He was degraded from the 
purple' for his opposition to Eugenius 
IV. The sentence was reversed by 
Nicholas V. ; and after the eard : nal's 
death, in 1400, he was canoniz;d.— 
Matthew, a Spaniard ; author of "Guz- 
man de Alfarache," or tha "Spanish 

ALEMANNI, Nicholas, a learned 
Greek antiquary, b. 1583, and became 
keeper of the Vatican library at Rome. 
D. 1626. 

ALEMBERT, Jean la Ronde d', one 
of the most famous philosophers and 
mathematicians that France has pro- 
duced. He was b. at Paris in 1717, but 
was exposed by his parents, Madame do 
Tencin, and the poet Destouches, at the 
church of le Ronde, from which he took 
part of his name. His talents were pre- 
cocious, and at 4 years of age was sent 




to school, the principal of which de- 
clared, when his pupil was only 10 years 
old, that he could teach him no more. 
He entered Mazarin College at the age of 
12. He wrote, in his earliest years, a 
commentary on the epistle of Paul to 
the Romans. He studied law, but did 
not cease to occupy himself with math- 
ematics. Some philosophical papers, 
which he wrote, made him a member of 
the academy in 1741. He soon after 
wrote a book on Dynamics, another on 
Fluids, and a Theory of the Mind, and 
assisted Euler and Newton in their sci- 
entific researches. His astronomical 
publications were also valuable. But in 
the latter part of his life he devoted 
himself to Belles Lettres, and became 
one of the writers of the "Encyclo- 
paedic" His literary works were dis- 
tinguished by purity of language, as well 
as vigor of thought. Though a man of 
moderate means, he was noted for his 
beneficence. He was a friend of Vol- 
taire, Madame L'Espinassc, to whom he 
was attached, Frederick II., and other 
distinguished persons, but lived in mod- 
est retirement. His opinions were de- 
istical. D. 1783. 

ALEN, John Van, an eminent Dutch 
landscape painter. D. 1698. 

ALENlO, Julius, a Jesuit of Brescia, 
who rendered himself distinguished by 
his zeal in propagating Christianity in 
China. D. 1G49. 

ALER, Paul, a learned French Jes- 
uit. D. 1727. His "Gradus ad Parnas- 
Biim" has been long in established use 
in all the public schools of Europe. 

ALES, Alexander, a native of Edin- 
burgh, who warmly opposed the tenets 
of Luther, which he afterwards as ea- 
gerly embraced, when he had suffered 
Eersecution for his religion, and seen the 
rmness with which his countryman, 
Patrick Hamilton, was burnt to death, 
by Beaton, archbishop of St. Andrews, 
for Protestantism. He came back to 
London from Germany, when Henry 
VIII. abolished the papal power in En- 
gland, and he there enjoyed the friend- 
ship of Cranmer, Cromwell, and Lati- 
mer. He afterwards retired to Germany, 
and was appointed to a professional chair 
at Frankfort upon Oder, but persecuted 
by the court ot Bradenburg, at Leipsic; 
he d. 1565, in his sixty-fifth year. He 
wrote a commentary on the writings of 
St. John, on the epistle to Timothy, and 
on the Psalms. 

ALESIO, Matthew Perez d', a paint- 
er and engraver at Rome, whose figure 
nf St. Christopher, in fresco, in the 

great church of Seville, is much admired. 
D. 1600. 

ALESSI, Galeas, an architect, b. at 
Perusia, whose works arc spread over 
Germany and the south of Europe; but 
his fame principally rests on the monas- 
tery and church of the Escurial. D. 1572. 

the son of Philip, king of Macedon, by 
Olympias, daughter of Neoptolemus, 
king of Epirus, and b. 356 b. c. ; the 
same year m which the temple of Diana 
at Ephesus was destroyed. Alexander 
received his education under Lysima- 
chus and Aristotle, and gave several 
proofs of manly -skill and courage while 
very young; one of which, the breaking 
in of his fiery steed, Bucephalus, is men- 
tioned by all his historians as an incident 
which convinced his father of his future 
unconquerable spirit. Alexander was 
much attached to his mother, and sided 
with her in the disputes which led to 
her divorce from Philip. While the lat- 
ter was making preparations for his 
grand expedition into Asia, he was as- 
sassinated by Pausanias ; and Alexander 
succeeded to the throne .n his 20th 
year. His youth at first excited an in- 
clination in several of the states of 
Greece to throw off the yoke of the 
Macedonian usurpation ; but he soon 
quelled the design, and was acknowl- 
edged genera] of Greece. He then 
mulched into Thrace, and gained sev- 
eral conquests. During his absence 
Thebes revolted; and when Alexander 
returned, he took that city by storm, 
made a dreadful carnage of the inhabi- 
tants, and destroyed all the buildings 
except the residence of Pindar the poet. 
This severe example had its effect on 
the other states ; and even Athens dis- 
tinguished itself by a servile submission 
to the conqueror. Alexander n3Xt turned 
his arms against Darius, king of Persia; 
and, at 22, crossed the Hellespont, at 
the head of 40,000 men. With this 
force he defeated the Persians at the 
Granicus, and made himself master of 
numerous places. At Gordium, where 
he assembled his army, he is said to 
have cut the famous knot on which the 
fate of Asia depended. Shortly after 
this, he again defeated the king of Per- 
sia near Issus, and took immense treas- 
ures and many prisoners ; among whom 
were the mother, wife, and children of 
Darius. This victory was followed by 
the conquest of Phoenicia, Damascus, 
and several other states. Alexander 
next besieged Tyre, which long resisted 
him, and," in revenge, he committed 




horrible cruelties on the inhabitants. 
He then went to Jerusalem^ passed into 
Egypt, subdued it, and tounded the 
city of Alexandria. Darius now collect- 
ed another army, and was defeated at 
Arbela, which decided the fate of West- 
ern Asia. This great battle was followed 
by the capture of Susa and Persepolis ; 
the last ot which Alexander destroyed at 
the instigation of his mistress. He now 
prepared for an expedition to India; 
and, after a perilous march, reached the 
Indus, 327 b. c, which he crossed at the 
part where the city of Attock now 
Btands. Alexander received the sub- 
mission of several of the petty princes 
of the country, but was opposed by 
Porus, who valiantly withstood the in- 
vader; and, although conquered and 
made prisoner, the victor, pleased with 
his spirit, restored him his dominions, 
and made him an ally. The conqueror 
next entered the fertile plains now called 
the Punjab, took the city of Sangala, 
and directed his course to the Ganges ; 
from which object, however, he was 
diverted by the rainy season, and the 
disaffection of his own troops. He ac- 
cordingly erected twelve altars of an ex- 
traordinary size to mark the limits of his 
progress, remnants of which are said to 
be still in existence. Alexander, there- 
fore, retraced his steps to the Hydaspes, 
on the banks of which he built two 
cities, Nicrea and Bucephala ; and em- 
barked, with his light troops, on board 
a fleet he had constructed, leaving the 
main army to march by land. After a 
severe contest with the Mallii, in which 
he was wounded and his whole army 
nearly lost, he proceeded down the river 
to Patala; and, having entered the In- 
dian Ocean, and performed some rites 
in honor of Neptune, he left his fleet ; 
giving orders to Nearchus, who had the 
command, to sail to the Persian Gulf, 
and thence up the Tigris to Mesopota- 
mia. Alexander then prepared to march 
to Babylon, towards which capital he 
proceeded in a triumphal progress. 
Reaching Susa, he began to give way to 
a passion for pleasure and joviality, and 
married Statira, the daughter of Darius. 
At length he reached Babylon, where he 
gave orders indicating future underta- 
kings of great magnitude; when he was 
Beized with an illness, in consequence 
of indulging in habits of intemperance, 
and d. of a fever, in the 13th year of his 
eventful reign, and the 33d of his life, 
823 b. c. When required to name his 
successor, he is said to have replied, 
"'To the most worthy." Pursuant to 

his own direction, his body was con- 
veyed to Alexandria in a golden cotiin, 
inclosed in a sumptuous sarcophagus, 
supposed to be now in the British Mu- 
seum. — Severus, emperor of Rome, was 
b. at Acre, in Phoenicia, in 205. The 
principal public event of his reign was 
the war with Artaxerxes, king of Persia, 
over whom he gained a great victory in 
person, and on nis return to Rome was 
honored with a triumph. He next 
marched against the Germans, who had 
invaded Gaul; and while there, a sedi- 
tion bioke out in his army, headed by 
Maximin, and the emperor and his 
mother were murdered, 235. — King of 
Poland, elected on the death of his bro- 
ther, John Albert, in 1501. D. 1506. — 
I., bishop of Rome, succeeded Evaristus 
in the tenth year of Trajan, and suffered 
martyrdom under Hadrian, in 119. This 
pontiff is said to be the first who intro- 
duced the use of holy water into the 
Catholic church. — II., elected to the 
papal throne in 1061. D. 1073.— HI. 
succeeded Adrian IV. in 1159. D. at 
Rome, 1181. — IV., ascended the papal 
throne in 1254. D. 1261. — V., originally 
a Greek monk from Candia, was raised 
to the papal throne in 1409 by the coun- 
cil of Pisa. His munificence, during 
his pontificate, was so unbounded, that 
he used to say, "When I became a 
bishop, I was rich; when a cardinal, 
poor; and when a pope, a beggar." D. 
1410. — VI., a native of Valencia, in 
Spain, was raised to the popedom in 
1492. As an ecclesiastic, Alexander was 
in the highest degree ambitious, bigoted, 
and intolerant; and formed alliance)* 
with all the princes of his time only to 
break them. This pontiff pursuod his 
profligate career, till 1503, when he was 
cut off by the same means he had used 
for the ruin of others. At a banquet 
which he and his son, the infamous 
Csesar Borgia, had prepared for some 
newly created cardinals, the poison in- 
tended for them was by some mistake 
administered to the contrivers of the 
plot ; and Alexander died the next day 
in great agony. — VII. This pontiff ex- 
pended vast sums in improving and 
embellishing the city of Rome, and was 
a great friend to the fine arts and lit- 
erature. B. at Sienna, in 1559, elected 
to the popedom in 1605, and d. in 16C7. 
— VIII., the last pope of that name, was 
elected, 1689, at the advanced age of 6D; 
and d. two years afterwards. 

ALEXANDER, I. king of Scotland, 
son of Malcolm III., ascended the throne 
in 1107 ; and merited by the vigor and 




Impetuosity of bis character, the appel-. 
lation of The Fierce. D. 1124.— II., son 
of William the Lion, was raised to the 
throne of Scotland, 1214, being then in 
his Kith year. In 1221, be married 
Joan, sister of Henn III. of England; 
bv which peace was restored to the two 
kingdoms. D. 1249.— III., son of the 
preceding, succeeded, 124'.', when only 
8 years of age. He married Margaret, 
daughter of Henry III. of England, and 
lived upon terms of close friend-hip 
with his father-in-law, whom, in bis 
wars with the barons, he assisted with 
5000 men; accidentally killed while 
hunting, in 1285. — A Sicilian abbot of 
the 12th century; author of a memoir 
of Roger, king bf Sicily. — An Alexan- 
dro, a Neapolitan jurisconsult of the 
12th century. He was much attached 
to the bclles'lettres, and is chiefly known 
by a work entitled " Dies Gcniales," an 
imitation of the Noetes Attieae of Gel- 
lius. — Tkalliants, a Greek physician 
of the Oth century. His works are con- 
sidered the best after those of Hippo- 
crates. — Bishop of Alexandria, who op- 
posed Arius, and condemned his errora 
at the council of Nice. D. 826. — Bishop 
of Hierapolis, in the 5th century, who 
espoused the doctrine that there were 
two different natures in Christ; for 
which be was banished by the council of 
Enhesus. — Of-JIkjea, the tutor of Ndro, 
whom he is said to have corrupted by 
his instructions. — De Medici, a licen- 
tious duke of Florence, assassinated by 
Lorenzo de Medici, a relation, at the in- 
stigation of Strozzi, a republican, 1587. — 
An English abbot, who supported the 
rights of his master, Henry 111., at the 
court of Rome, with such boldness, that 
Pandulphus, the pope's legate in En- 
gland, excommunicated and imprisoned 
him. D. 1217. — Noel, a Dominican, a 
laborious writer. B. at Rouen, 1689, and 
d. at Paris, 1724. His most celebrated 
work is a Latin Church History, in 26 
vols.— Of Paris, a Norman poet of the 
12th century, who wrote a metrical 
poem called ''Alexander the Great, 1 ' in 
verses of twelve syllables, which meas- 
ure has ever since been called " Alexan- 
drine." — Neuskoi, grand duke of Rus- 
sia. B. 1218. The most noted action of 
his life was a great victory he obtained 
over the more northern tribes on the 
banks of the Neva. D. 1263.— Sir Wil- 
liam, earl of Stirling, an eminent Scot- 
tish statesman and poet in the reigns 
Cf James I. and Charles I. D. 1640. — 
William, a major-general in the Amer- 
ican army of the revolution. He was b. 

in New York, 1726 ; received a classical 
education; and was distinguished for 
his knowledge of mathematics ar.d as- 
tronomy. His father was a native of 
Scotland, and he was the reputed right- 
ful heir to an earldom in that country : 
on which account he was usually called 
Lord Stirling ; but was unsuccessful in 
his efforts to obtain from the govern- 
ment the acknowledgment of his claim. 
At the commencement of the revolution 
he joined the American army, and ill 
the' battle on Long Island, August 27, 
1776, was taken prisoner, after having, 
by attacking Cornwallis, secured to a 
part of the detachment an opportunity 
to escape. He was always warmly at- 
tached to General Washington, and the 
cause which he had espoused. D. at 
Albany, 1783. — William, an able artist. 
B. at Maidstone, 1768. His father, who 
was a coachmaker, gave him a good 
education, and sent him at an early ago 
to study the fine arts in London, which 
he did with so much success, that he 
was selected to accompany the embassy 
of Lord .Macartney to China. On his 
return, besides his drawings in illustra- 
tion of the work of Sir George Staunton, 
he published a splendid one of his own, 
entitled, "The Costume of China," which 
obtained so much notice that he was in- 
duced to publish a second part. At the 
time of his death, in 1816, he was keeper 
of the antiquities at the British Museum. 
— J amis, a native of Scotland, who came 
to New York in 1715. He was bred to 
the law, and became eminent in his 
profession. By honest practice and un- 
wearied application to business, he ac- 
quired a great estate. For many years 
he was a member of the legislature, and 
of the council. In 1721, he was ap- 
pointed attorney-general ; and after- 
waids was secretary of the province. 
His death took place in the beginning 
of 1756. — Nathaniel, a governor of 
North Carolina. He received his col- 
legiate education at Princeton, N. J.. 
obtained his first degree in 1776, and 
afterwards studied medicine. Subse- 
quently he entered the army ; but at the 
close of the war pursued his profession 
in the state of which he became chief 
magistrate in 1806. In all his public 
stations he had the reputation ot con- 
ducting with ability and firmnes s. D. 
1808, aged 52 vear's. — Caleb, D.D., b. 
in Northfield, Mass., and graduated at 
Yule College in 1777. He was first set- 
tled, as a Congregational minister at 
New Marlborough; and, afterwards, at 
Mend % n, in his native state. His con- 



tinuanec in each of these situations was 
less than two years. The remaining 
part of his life was spent in teaching, 
and in other kindred pursuits. He 
published a Latin Grammar, an En- 
glish Grammar, and some other small 
works. D. 1828.— Thomas, earl of Sel- 
kirk, known as the founder of a colony in 
Canada, and for his writings on politics 
and statistics. D. in 1820.— I., emperor 
of Kussia and king of Poland, eldest son 
of Taid I., was b. Dec. 22, 1777 ; suc- 
ceeded, March, 1801: and was crowned 
at Moscow, September following. In 
1803, Alexander ottered his mediation 
to effect a reconciliation between En- 
gland and France ; and in 1805, a con- 
vention was entered into between Kus- 
sia, England, Austria, and Sweden, for 
the purpose of resisting the encroach- 
ments of the French on the territories 
of independent statos. On the 2d of 
December, the battle of Austerlitz took 
place, at which Alexander appeared at 
the head of 50,000 men, but was defeat- 
ed, and compelled to retreat to his do- 
minions. On November 2(3, 1806, was 
fought the battle of Pultusk ; and on 
the"7th and 8th February, 1807, that of 
Eylau ; on tbe 14th June the Russians 
were completely defeated at Friedland, 
by Napoleon. The result of this victory 
was an interview between the two em- 
perors, which led to the treaty of Tilsit. 
The seizure of the Danish fleet by the 
English occasioned a declaration of war 
from Kussia; but hostilities only ex- 
tended to the cessation of trade between 
the two nations. A second meeting of 
the French and Russian sovereigns took 
place at Erfurt, Sept. 27, 1808; Bona- 
parte being anxious to secure tbe friend- 
ship of Alexander previously to his 
meditated subjugation of Spain. The 
interruption of commerce with England 
now began to be severely felt by Russia ; 
and Alexander determined to throw off 
the French yoke. On the 23d March, 
1812, an imperial ukase was issued, or- 
dering a levy of two men out of every 
500 throughout the Russian empire, and 
all matters of dispute with Great Britain 
were pacifically arranged. On joining 
his army in Poland, February, 1813, 
Alexander published the famous mani- 
festo, which served as the basis of the 
coalition of the other European powers 
against the French emperor. Germany, 
and then France, became the scene of 
hostilities; and the capture of Paris, 
April 30, 1814, was followed by the ab- 
dication of Bonaparte, and the restora- 
tion of the Bourbons. After the con- 


elusion of peace, Alexander visited En- 

fland, in company with the king of 
'russia. His death took place at Tag 
anrock, in the Crimea, Dec. 1, 1S25; 
and he was succeeded by his second 
brother, Nicholas, agreeable to a docu- 
ment signed by his eldest brother, Con- 
stantino, resigning to him the right of 

ALEXANDRINI, Julius, a physician 
of Trent, in the 16th century. lie was 
the first who endeavored to pi\>ve the 
connection of bodily diseases with the 

ALEXIS, a Greek comic poet, uncle 
and instructor of Alexander. 

ALEXIS, MiciiAEi.oviTscu, czarofRus- 
sia. B. in 1630; succeeded his father 
Michael in 1646 ; d. 1677. He was the 
father of Peter the Great, and the first 
Russian monarch who acted on the 
policy of a more intimate connection 
with the other European states. — Petro- 
vitsch, only son of Peter the Great. B. 
1690. This unhappy prince opposed the 
new policy of his father, and expressed 
an unalterable attachment to the ancient 
barbarous usages and customs of his 
country ; for which the czar resolved to 
disinherit him. Alexis fled to his 
brother-in-law, the emperor of Ger- 
many, and lay concealed for some time 
at Vienna, until his retreat was discov- 
ered by his father, before whom he was 
conducted as a criminal, and compelled 
formally to renounce the succession ; 
after tliis he was tried by secret judges, 
and condemned to death, 1719. — Dei 
j Arco, a Spanish painter. B. at Madrid, 
in 1625. He was deaf and dumb; bn' 
his reputation as a portrait painter was« 
considerable. D. in 1700. 

ALEXIUS L, Comnenus, emperor ot 
the East. B. at Constantinople, 1048. Hf 
signalized himself in the wars with the 
Turks and Saracens, was bountiful to his 
friends and clement to his enen ies, a 
lover of letters, and equally versed in tho 
arts of government and of ;var. D. 1118. 
— II., Comnenus, succeeded his father 
Michael on the throne of Constantinople 
in 1180, when only 12 years of age ; and, 
with his mother, was murdered two 
years afterwards by Andronieus, who 
usurped the crown. — III., Angelus, 
emperor in 1195. gained that station by 
the basest perfidy towards his brother, 
Isaac Anirelus, whom he confined in 
prison, anil then caused his eyes to be put 
out. His effeminate reign reudercd him 
despicable, and his capital was besieged 
and taken, 1203, by an army of Venetian 
and French crusaders, headed by hia 




nephew, Alexins, sou of Isaac. The 
usurper received the same punishment 
he had inflicted on his brother, and d. a 
few years afterwards in a monastery at 
Nice ; and the conqueror placed his 
blind father on the throne, with whom 
he reigned as Alexius IV. ; but his ele- 
vation was succeeded by a rebellion, and 
he was deposed, imprisoned, and put to 
death, 1204. — V., Ducas, surnamed 
Murtzuffle, from his black shaggy eye- 
brows, was raised to the throne alter the 
murder of Alexius IV., but deposed by 
the crusaders, who attacked and took 
his capital, and he was put to an igno- 
minious death. 

ALEYN, Charles, an English histor- 
ical poet. D. 16-40. 

AL.FARABI, an eminent Arabian 
philosopher in the 10th century, who 
obtained much reputation in his day, 
both as a great traveller, and as a master 
of 70 languages. Among his works is 
an Encyclopaedia, the manuscript of 
which is in the Escurial. 

ALFAKO Y GAMON, Juan de, a 
distinguished Spanish painter. B. 1640. 
ALFENUS VARUS, Pubi.ius, a Ro- 
man civilian, who became consul, and is 
mentioned by Horace and Virgil with 

ALFIERI, Vittoria, count, was b. at 
Asti, in Piedmont, in 1749, of a rich and 
distinguished family. His early educa- 
tion was defective ;*for, though sent to 
the academy of Turin, he learned noth- 
ing. He afterwards travelled over Italy, 
France, England, Spain, Portugal, Ger- 
many, Russia, and Holland, returned, 
tried' to study history, and then became 
a wanderer again for three years. From 
pure listlessness he took to writing dra- 
matic poetry, at the age of 27, and de- 
voted the rest of life to becoming a tragic 
poet. He first studied Latin and Tus- 
can, for which purpose he went to 
Tuscany ; meeting on the journey the 
Countess of Albany, consort of the En- 
glish pretender, he became attached to 
her, and lived alternately, leading an 
irregular and roving life, in England, 
France, and Italy. He composed 21 tra- 
gedies and 6 comedies, and is regarded 
as the grest tragic poet of his native 
.knd. Above the degeneracy of his 
times, cherishing an ardent hatred of 
despotism, and possessing a free, proud, 
and passionate heart, his works are per- 
vaded by a decided political spirit. His 
style was stiff and unadorned, bat bold, 
lo'ftv and correct. D. 1803. 

ALFORD, MicHAEL,an English Jesuit. 
B. in London, 1587. He d. at St. Omer's, 

1652, leaving behind him two celebrated 
works, "Britannia Illustrate," and " An- 
nates Ecclesiastici Britnnnorum." 

GAN, an Arabian astronomer of the 
9th century ; author of au " Introduc- 
tion to Astronomy," and other scientific 

ALFRAGO, Andrew, an Italian phy- 
sician ; author of a history of Arabian 
physicians and philosophers, and other 
works connected with the East, where 
he resided for some years. D. at Padua, 

arch was the youngest son of Ethelwolf, 
king of the West Saxons, and was b. at 
Wantage, Berks, in 849. On the death 
of his" brother Ethelred, Alfred sue 
ceeded to the throne of England, 871, at 
a time when his kingdom was a prey to 
domestic dissensions, and to the inva- 
sions of the Danes, with whom, after a 
disastrous engagement, he was forced to 
conclude a treaty on disadvantageous 
terms. The Danes soon violated their 
engagement, and renewed their hostility 
with such success, that, in 877, the king 
was under the necessity of concealing 
himself in the cottage of one of his 
herdsmen. He afterwards retired to the 
island of Athelney, and there received 
information that one of his chiefs had 
obtained a great victory over the Danes. 
Alfred then disguised himself as a harp- 
er, entered the Danish camp, and gained 
a knowledge of the state of the enemy. 
After this,"he directed his nobles to meet 
him at Selwood, with their vassals, which 
was done so secretly, that the Danes 
were surprised at Eddington, and com- 
pletely routed. He now put his king- 
dom into a state of defence, increased 
his navy, and brought London into a 
flourishing state ; but, after a rest of 
some years, an immense number of 
Danish forces landed in Kent, and com- 
mitted great ravages ; they were, how- 
ever, soon defeated by Alfred, who 
caused several of the leaders to be ex- 
ecuted at Winchester. Thus he secured 
the peace of his dominions, and struck 
terror into his enemies, after 56 battles 
by sea and land, in all of which he was 
personally engaged. But the warlike 
exploits of Alfred formed, perhaps, the 
least of the services he rendered his 
country. He composed a body of stat- 
utes, instituted the trial by jury, and 
divided the kingdom into shires and 
♦hundreds ; was so exact in his govern- 
ment, that robbery was unheard of, and 
valuable goods might be left on the high 




roads. His great council, consisting of 
bishops, earls, aldermen, and thanes, 
was, by an express law, called together 
twice a-year in London, for the better 
government of the realm. The state of 
learning in his time was so low, that, 
from the Thames to the H umber, scarce- 
ly a man could be found who understood 
the service of the church, or could trans- 
late a single sentence of Latin into En- 
glish. To remedy this evil, he invited 
men of learning from all quarters, and 
placed them at the head of seminaries in 
various parts of his kingdom ; and, if he 
was not the founder of the university of 
Oxford, it is certain he raised it to a 
reputation which it had never before 
enjoyed. Alfred himself wrote several 
works, and translated others from the 
Latin, particularly " Orosius's History 
of the Pagans," and " Boethius's Con- 
solations of Philosophy." England is 
indebted to him for the foundation of her 
naval establishment, and he was the first 
who sent out ships to make the discov- 
ery of a northeast passage. To crown 
his great public character, Alfred is de- 
scribed as one of the most mild and ami- 
able men in private life ; of a temper 
serene and cheerful, and not averse to 
society, or to innocent recreation : he 
was also personally well-favored, pos- 
sessing a handsome and vigorous form, 
and a durnified and entraeintf aspect. D. 
900.—" the Philosophef," an English- 
man, was greatly esteemed at the court 
of Rome, and wrote five books on the 
"Consolations of Boethius." D. 1270.— 
An English bishop of the 10th century ; 
author of a " History of the Abbey of 
Malmshury," a treatise " De Naturis 
Remm," &c. 

ALGARDI, Alexander, a Bolognese 
sculptor of the 17th centnrv. 

ALGAROTTI, Francis,* an eminent 
Italian writer. B. at Venice, 1712 : d. 

ALHAZEN, an Arabian mathema- 
tician, who was the first that showed the 
importance of refractions in astronomy. 
D. at Cairo, in 103S. 

ALI, cousin, son-in-law, and vizier of 
Mahomet, and one of the main pillars of 
the new faith. He obtained the name 
of the Lion of God, always victorious ; 
but was opposed in his succession to the 
caliphate by Omar and Othman, and re- 
tired into Arabia, and made a collection 
of the sayings of the prophet. There he 
laid the foundation of a new sect, and, 
after the death of Othman, he was de- 
clared caliph, 655 ; but was murdered 
four yeers afterwards in the mosque. 

ALI BEG, a man of extrac rdinary 
learning aM attainments, b. in Poland 
of Christian parents, but who was kid- 
napped in his infancy by a horde of Ta- 
tars, and sold to the Turks, in whose 
language and religion he was educated. 
His skill in languages procured him the 
post of chief interpreter to the grand 
signior; while his leisure hours were 
employed in translating the Bible and 
the catechism of the Church of Eng a- .' 
into the Turkish language. D. 167ft. 

ALI BEY, a Greek, son of a Natolian 
priest. B. 172S. He fell, when a child, 
into the hands of robbers, who carried 
him to Cairo, and sold him to Ibrahim, 
lieutenant of the Janizaries, who adopt- 
ed him. Ali soon rose to the rank of 
sangiak, or member of the council ; and 
when his patron was assassinated by 
Ibrahim, the Circassian, he avenged his 
death, and slew the murderer with his 
own hand. This action raised him 
numerous enemies, and he was obliged 
to fly to Jerusalem, and thence to Acre ; 
but in time he was recalled by the peo- 
ple, and, beinsr placed at the head ot the 
government, E>rypt began to recover its 
former splendor. In a battle fought 
against the troops of a rebellious Mame- 
luke. Ali was cut down, after defending 
himself with a degree of desperate valor, 
and d. of his wounds eight davs after, 
in 1773. 

ALI PACHA, an Albanian, born at 
Zepelina, 1744, who, by fifty years of 
constant warfare, brought under his 
sway a large extent of territory, which 
the Porte sanctioned. He took the 
title of Pacha of Jannina, and received 
asrents from foreign powers. But the 
Porte was made jealous by his intrigues 
with England, Russia, and France, and 
finally had him shot. 

ALIAMET, Jajies, a French engraver 
of the last century. 

ALIPAC, J., a Frencn „ inor poet. 
B. 1796. 

ALISON, Archibald, a elergvinan 
of Edinburgh, educated at Oxford", and 
afterwards preferred to various livings 
in the church of England. In 1780 he 
published his famous " Essay on tfc" 
Nature and Principles of Taste." He 
subsequently published two sermons, 
and a memoir of Lord Woodhousie. 
B. 1757; d. 1839. — There is another 
of the same name, distinguished for his 
" Treatise on Population," and his 
" History of Europe," still living.— 
Richard, one of the ten composers who 
set the psalms to music, at the order of 
Queen Elizabeth. 




ALIX, Peter, a French abbot and 
author, of the 17th century. 

ALKEMADE, Cornelius Van, a 
Dutch antiquary and writer. D. 1070. 

ALKMAAR, Henry d', a German 
poet of the loth century, the reputed 
author of that exquisite satire called 
" Eeynard the Fox." 

ALLAINVAL, Leonor Soul as d', a 
French abbot and dramatic poet. D. at 
Paris, 1753. 

ALLA1NE, de la Courtiere, J., a 
French author. B. 1750. 

ALLA1S, Denus Vairasse, a French 
author of the 17th century. 

ALLAN, David, a Scotch painter, 
born at Edinburgh. B. 1744 ; d. 1796. 
He was called the Scottish Hogarth. — 
George, son of David, a literary man, 
who was elected to parliament for the 
city of Durham. B. 1768 ; d. 1828.— 
George, an attorney and antiquary. D. 
1800. — Sir William, an eminent histor- 
ical painter, was born at Edinburgh in 
1782. Of humble parentage, he at an 
early age evinced a decided predilection 
for art ; and, when still a young man. 
he pursued his favorite study with 
equal enterprise and ability, visiting 
Morocco, Greece, and Spain, and pene- 
trating the remote and semi-barbarous 
territories of Russia and Turkey, that 
he might familiarize himself with the 
rude and picturesque aspects there pre- 
sented. " The Polish Captives," " The 
Slave Market at Constantinople," and 
various kindred subjects, testify to his 
skill in this department of art ; but he 
did much also to illustrate the historic 
lore of his own land, as his vivid repre- 
sentation of Mary and of Rizzio, the 
murder of Archbishop Sharpe, and the 
Battle of Waterloo, amply testify. He 
was an old and attached friend of Sir 
Walter Scott ; and his amiable, unas- 
suming manners, and his vast fund of 
anecdote, procured him general love 
and esteem. In 1841 he succeeded Sir 
D. Wilkie as president of the Royal 
Scottish Academy, and was soon after- 
wards knighted. D. 1850. 

ALLARD, Guy, a French writer on 
geological history. D. at Dauphiny, 
1716. — Jean Francoise, a French gen- 
eral officer, distinguished during the 
emperorship of Napoleon, who after- 
wards entered the Egyptian and Per- 
sian service, and finally became an aid 
of Runjeet-Singh. B. 1785; d. 1839. 

ALLATIUS, Leo, a native of the 
island of Scio, who studied belles lettres 
and the languages at Rome. After 
visiting Naples and his native country, 

he returned to Rome, where ho applied 
himself to physic, in which he took a 
degree, but literature was his favorite 
pursuit, and as his erudition was great, 
he distinguished himself as a teacher in 
the Greek college at Rome. He was af- 
terwards employed by Pope Gregory 
XV. to remove the elector palatine's 
library from Germany to the Vatican, 
in reward for which service, though *™* 
a while neglected, he was appointed i>- 
brarian. Though bred and employed 
among ecclesiastics, he never entered 
into orders because, as he told the pope, 
he wished to retain the privilege of 
marrying if he pleased. His publica- 
tions were numerous but chiefly on di- 
vinity, and, though full of learning and 
good sense, remarkable for unnecessary 
digressions. In the controversy of the 
gentlemen of the Port Royal with 
Claude concerning the eucharist, he 
greatly assisted the former, for which 
he was severely abused by their bold 
antagonist. It is said by Joannes Pa- 
trieius that he wrote Greek for forty 
years with the same pen, and that when 
he lost it, he expressed his concern 
even to the shedding of tears. D. at 
Rome, in his 83d year, 1669. 

ALLEGR^EIN, Christopher Gabriel, 
a French sculptor. D. 1795. 

ALLEGRI, Alexander, an Italian 
satirical poet, who flourished at Flor- 
ence at the end of the 16th century. — 
Gregorio, an eminent composer, whose 
works are still used in the pope's chapel 
at Rome. His "Miserere" is always 
used on Good Friday, and is much ad- 
mired. Clement XIV. sent a copy of 
this beautiful composition to George III. 
in 1773. To his extraordinary merit as 
a composer of church music, he is said 
to have joined a devout and benevo- 
lent disposition, and an excellent moral 
character. His famous Miserere was at 
one time thought so sacred, that it was 
forbidden to be copied on pain of ex- 
communication. But Mozart disregard- 
ed the in i unction, and it has since been 
published. B. at Rome, 1590 ; d. 1652. 

ALLEIN, Joseph, a non-conformist 
minister, who wrote the celebrated 
" Alarm to Unconverted Sinners," 
which has been so frequently repub- 
lished. B. at Devizes, 1623 ; d. 1688. 

ALLEN, Ethan, one of the most dis- 
tinguished of the generals of the Amer- 
ican revolution. He was born at Salis- 
bury, Connecticut, and educated in 
Vermont. He early took a part with 
the " Green Mountain Boys, ' against 
the royal authorities. In 1775," soo? 




sfter the battle of Lexington, at the re- 
quest of the legislature of Connecticut, 
he raised a body of 230 men, and as- 
saulted and took the fortress of Ticon- 
deroga. As he approached J)e La Place, 
the commander, he demanded its sur- 
render "in the name of Jehovah and 
the continental congress." The same 
year, he was taken prisoner in an at- 
tempt to reduce Montreal. He was 
sent to England and, after being cruelly 
maltreated on the voyage, was confined 
in Pendennis castle, near Falmouth. 
He was next returned to Halifax and 
then imprisoned five months in New 
York. In 1778 he was exchanged for 
Col. Campbell and returned to Ver- 
mont, where he was welcomed with 
great joy. Allen was a man of strong 
mind, earnest and eccentric character, 
devoted patriotism, and audacious bra- 
very. He published, besides a narrative 
of his captivity, a " Vindication of the 
Colonics," and a work on theology. 
B. 1743; d. 1789.— Ira, a brother of 
Ethan, was the first secretary of Ver- 
mont. He took an active part in the 
war "on the lakes in 1775, was a com- 
missioner to congress, became agent of 
the state, in Europe, for the purchase 
of arms, was captured and imprisoned 
in England, and afterwards in France ; 
but after tedious litigation was released. 
B. 1752 ; d. 1814.— There were seven 
brothers of this family, all more or less 
distinguished in the colonial annals. — 
John, a chancellor of Ireland, who was 
basely assassinated by the earl of Kil- 
dare'in 1534. — John, first minister of 
Dedhain, Massachusetts. B. 1590. — 
Thomas, an eminent scholar and mathe- 
matician of Elizabeth's time. B. 1542 : 
d. 1632. — Thomas, an antiquarian and 
historical writer, who compiled the 
" History and Antiquities of London," 
etc. B. *1803 ; d. 1833.— Matthew, one 
of the first settlers of Connecticut, in 
1692. — William, chief-justice of Penn- 
pyhania, an early friend to Benjamin 
West, and an acquaintance of Frank- 
lin. D. 1780. — Solomon, a major in 
the revolationary war, who, after the 
seizure of Andre, conducted him to 
"West Point. He was also concerned in 
quelling Shay's insurrection, and after- 
wards became a successful preacher. — 
James, an eccentric poet of Boston. B. 
1739; d. 1808. — William Henry, a 
naval officer of the U. S. who was en- 

faged during the war of 1812, and was 
illed in an action between the Argus 
and the Pelican in the British Channel. 
B. 1784; d. 1813.— Paul, a poet and 

legislator of Rhode Island, who wrote 
for the Port Folio and United States 
Gazette. B. 1775 ; d. 1826. 

ALLERSTAIN, a German Jesuit and 
astronomer, who died as a missionary 
in China, in 1778. 

ALLERTOX, Isaac, one of the first 
settlers of Plymouth, who came over in 
the Mayflower. 

ALL*ESTRY, Richard, an English 
divine. B. 1619 ; d. 16S0. 

ALLEY, bishop of Exeter under 
Elizabeth. D. 1570. 

ALLEYN, Edward, an English actor 
in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I., 
but principally known as the founder 
of Dulwich college, was born at St. Bo- 
tolph, London, Sept. 1, 1566. He was 
one of the original actors in Shak- 
speare's plays, and his popularity pro- 
cured him not only friends, but opu- 
lence. He built at his own expense the 
Fortune playhouse, Moorfields, and still 
added to his income by being keeper of 
the king's wild beasts, with a salary of 
£500 per annum. His erection of Dul- 
wicl) college is attributed to a supersti- 
tious cause. Whilst with six others he 
was acting the part of a demon in one 
of Shakspeare's plays, he is said to 
have been terrified by the real appear- 
ance of the devil, and the power of the 
imagination was so great that lie made 
a solemn vow to build the college, 
which, in 1614, was begun under the 
direction of Inigo Jones, and in three 
years finished at the expense of £10.000. 
This noble edifice, destined to afford an 
asylum to indigence and infirmity, was 
solemnly appropriated on the 1 3th' Sept 
1619, to the humane purposes of the 
founder, who appointeu himself its first 
master. The original endowment was 
£800 per annum, for the maintenance 
of one master, one warden, always to 
be unmarried and of the name of Alleyn, 
four fellows, three of whom are in or- 
ders, and the fourth an organist, besides 
six poor men, and six women, and 
twelve boys to be educated till the ago 
of fourteen or sixteen, and then to be 
apprenticed. D. 1626, 

ALLIONI, Charles, a celebrated phy- 
sician, writer, and professor of botany in 
the university of Turin. B. 1725 ; d. 

ALLIX, Peter, a learned divine, b. 
at Alencon, in France, 1644, minister 
of the Reformed Church at Rouen and 
Charcnton, who went to England, was 
created D.D. at Oxford, and made treas- 
urer of the church at Salisbury. D. in 
London, 1717. 





ALLOISI, Balthazar, a Bolognese 
nistorical and portrait painter, who ob- 
tained the name of Galanino. D. 1638. 
ALLORI, Alexander, a Florentine 
lainter, who excelled in naked figures. 
). 1607. — CnRisTOPHANO, the aon of the 
above, was also an eminent painter. 
D. 1619. 

ALLSTON, "Washington, the greatest 
historical painter that America has pro- 
duced, was a native of Charleston, S. C, 
but at the age of 7 was sent, by the ad- 
vice of physicians, to Newport, R. I. He 
early discovered a taste for imitative art, 
a taste which was fostered by his ac- 
quaintance with Malbone, who became 
a distinguished miniature painter. In 
1706 he entered Harvard College, where 
he was noted for the elegance of his 
compositions ; but his leisure hours 
were chiefly devoted to the pencil. An 
old rich-toned Italian landscape, some 
pictures by Pine, and a copy of Van- 
dyke's head of Cardinal Bentivoglio, 
were his models. He went to London 
in 1801, and entered as a student in the 
Royal Academy. He there made the ac- 
quaintance of West and Fuseli, and ex- 
hibited some of his pictures at Somerset 
House in 1802. He next visited France, 
and afterwards Italy. He pursued the 
study of art at Rome for four years, 
where he distinguished himself by his 
coloring, which acquired for him the 
name of the American Titian, and also 
entered into relations of intimate friend- 
ship with Thorwaldsen, Coleridge, and 
other men of note. In 1809 he visited 
America, and married the sister of Dr. 
Channing. In 1811 he resumed his resi- 
dence in London, where his first histor- 
ical picture, the " Dead Man Revived," 
obtained for him the first prize of the 
British Institution. A small volume of 
poems, called the " Sylph of the Season, 
and other poems, 1 ' was published by 
him in 1813. His wife died in 1815, and 
three years after he came home, bring- 
ing with him the " Elijah in the Wil- 
derness," having disposed of several 
lanre and fine pictures before he quitted 
England, such as Uriel in the Sun, 
.1 ob'a Dream, and St. Peter liberated 
by the Angel. The Elijah was after- 
wards purchased and taken back to 
England. During the next 12 years, 
while he resided in Boston, he painted 
several of his finest works, amonn others 
his Jeremiah, Saul and the Witch of 
Endor, Miriam, singing the song of tri- 
umph, Dante's Beatrice, and the Valen- 
tino. In 1330 he was married a second 
tima to the daughter of the late Chief 

Justice Dana, of Cambridge, where he 
then took up his residence, and began 
the largest and most ambitious of his 
pictures, the Feast of Belshazzar. This 
work, owing to various hindrances, was 
never finished, but what was done of it 
will remain for ever a monument of his 
surpassing genius and skill. In 1836 
Mr. Allston was asked by congress to 
fill two of the four vacant panels in the 
Rotunda at Washington, but he declined 
the request, in order that he might de- 
vote his undivided energies to the com- 
pletion of his Belshazzar. His friends, 
in 1839, made a collection of more than 
fifty of his pictures, which were publicly 
exhibited in Boston, and gave to all who 
saw them the rarest delight. Never be- 
fore, we venture to say, on the continent 
of America, had there been such an ex- 
hibition. Two years afterwards Mr. 
Allston published a highly successful 
tale, called Monaldi, and thus, amidst 
days passed in the exercise of his beau- 
tiful art, and evenings of refined social 
enjoyment, he enjoyed a happy old age, 
rich' in the possession of the highest 
genius, and in the attachment of the 
most accomplished friends. His char- 
acter was without reproach, his feelings 
tender, his conduct dignified, and his 
attachments, as well as his opinions, pro- 
found and sincere. He d. suddenly, on 
9th of July, 1843. 

ALLY,Vizier, ex-nabob of Oude, was 
the adopted son of the former nabob of 
Oude, Yusuf ab Dowlah, who declared 
him successor. The English govern- 
ment, however, deposed him in favor of 
the brother of Yusuf, but settled on him 
a pension of £25,000. While engaged 
with the agents of the East India Com- 
pany, who had been sent to meet him at 
Benares for the purpose of making ar- 
rangements for his luture residence, he 
wave a signal, on which his armed fol- 
lowers rushed in and treacherously mur- 
dered the Company's officers. For a 
time he made his escape, but surrender- 
ed on condition that his life should be 
spared. D. in prison, 1817, aged only 36. 

ALMAGRO, Diego d\ a Spaniard of 
low origin, who accompanied Pizarro in 
the expedition against Peru, in which 
his valor, profligacy, and cruelty were 
equally displayed. In 1525 he took 
Cuzco, the capital of Chili, by storm, and 
put Atahualpa, the last of the Incas, to a 
most horrid death ; but quarrelling with 
the brothers of Pizarro about the divi- 
sion of their spoil, a schism ensued and 
Almagro was eventually taken prisoner 
and strangled, 1538. 




liph of Bagdad, son of Haroim al Ras- 
chid, who founded the academy of 
Bagdad, and was a patron of science. 
D. 838. 

ALMANASOR, Jacob, a caliph of 
the Saracens in Africa, who, after con- 
quering a large territory, became a ba- 
ker at Alexandria, where he died, 1205. 

ALMANZOR, surnamed the Victo- 
rious, the second caliph of the house of 
Abas, succeeded to the throne in 753. 

ALMARUS, abbot of the monastery 
of St. Austin, Canterbury, made bishop 
of Sherborne, 1022. 

ALMEIDA, Francisco, a Portuguese ? 
appointed, in 1505, the first viceroy ot 
India. Aftar a perilous voyage, he 
crossed the Cape of Good Hope, and 
proceeded aloDg the coast of Africa, 
spreading terror and desolation, but 
was killed on his return in a quarrel 
with the natives at the Cape, in 1509. — 
Lorenzo, son of Francisco, was also an 
enterprising commander and navigator, 
by whom Ceylon was made tributary to 
Portugal. He lost his life in an engage- 
ment with the Egyptian fleet in the bay 
of Cambaya. 

ALMELOVEEN, Theodore Jansen 
Van, a most learned physician, born near 
Utrecht, professor of history, the Greek 
language, and medicine, at Harderwick. 
D. 1742. 

ALMINARA, Marquis, Spanish en- 
voy to France from Charles IV. ; diplo- 
matist, and the author of an able "Re- 
ply to Cevallos," respecting the former's 
abdication, and of " A History of the 

ALMON, John, a political writer and 
publisher, and the friend of Wilkes. 
In 1774 he commenced the Parliament- 
ary Register ; he was also the author of 
a " Life of Lord Chatham," and various 
biographical, political, and literary anec- 
dotes. B. 1738 ; d. 1805. 

ALOADDIN, commonly called the 
Old Man of the Mountains. He was the 
sheik of a Syrian tribe professing the 
Mahometan religion, called the Arsa- 
cides. He lived in a castle between 
Damascus and Antioch, and was sur- 
rounded by a number of intrepid 
youths, whom he intoxicated with 
pleasures, and rendered subservient to 
bis views, by promising still greater 
•oluptuousness in the next world. As 
these were too successfully employed 
to stab his enemies, he was dreaded by 
the neighboring princes. From the 
name and character of his followers the 
«vord assassin is derived. 

ALOMPRA, the founder of the Bur- 
man empire, a man of obscure birth, 
but who established a new dynasty 
about the middle of the 18th century. 

liberal and writer. B. 1775. 

ALPAGO, Andrew, an Italian phy- 
sician, who visited the East, and some 
time resided at Damascus. On his re- 
turn he was made professor of medicine 
at Venice, where he translated Avieen- 
na, Averroes, and Serapion, and en- 
riched the work with notes, some of 
which now remain in manuscript. D. 

ALPHANUS, Benedict, archbishop 
of Palermo, better known as a physician 
and a poet. He was the author of the 
lives of some saints in verse. D. 10S6. 

ALPHERY, Mekepper or Nicepho- 
rus, a native of Russia, descended from 
the imperial family. During the civil 
dissensions of his country he removed 
to England and studied at Oxford. 
In 1618 he succeeded to the living 
of Wooley, in Huntingdonshire, and 
though he was twice invited to return 
to Russia with the certainty of being 
placed on the throne, he preferred the 
character of a parish priest in England 
to the splendor of the purple. He was 
ejected from his living during the civil 
wars, and ill treated by the republican 
soldiers, though his Presbyterian suc- 
cessor behaved towards him with hu- 
manity. He saw the restoration, and 
was replaced in his living, but retired 
to Hammersmith, where his son had 
settled, and there died, aged about 80. 
The last descendant of this family mar- 
ried a Johnson, a cutler, at Huntingdon, 
by whom she had eight children. She 
was living in 1764. 

RIQUEZ, first king of Portugal, son of 
Henry of Burgundy, count of Portugal. 
He fought successfully against the 
Moors, and raised his country to a pow- 
erful monarchy. D. 1185.— III., the 
Great, king of the Asturias, b. 847, suc- 
ceeded his" father Ordogeno, 865, and d. 
at Zamora, 912. He conquered many 
places from the Moors, was a patron of 
learned men, and distinguished himself 
for piety and justice. — IV., surnamed 
the Brave, sou of king Denis, whom 
he succeeded, 1324, was an able and 
impartial sovereign, and d. 1357. — V.. 
surnamed the Magnanimous, king of 
Arragon, b. 1384, succeeded his father, 
Ferdinand the Just, 1416, and d. at 
Naples, 1458, leaving his Neapolitan do- 
minions to his natural son Ferdinand, 




and those of Spain, Sardinia, and Sicily 
to his brother Juan, king of Navarre. 
This monarch was accounted the most 
accomplished prince of Ids time; he gave 
shelter to the Greek literati expelled 
from Constantinople, and was in other 
respects a great patron of learning. — X., 
called the Wise, king of Leon and Cas- 
tile, succeeded his father, Ferdinand 
III., 1251, and d. 1284, aged 81. As a 
ruler, Alphonso was misguided and un- 
fortunate ; but as a patron and an en- 
courager of the sciences, he obtained 
much reputation. He completed a code 
of laws, began by his father, still known 
under the title of " Las Partidas," and 
preceded the other nations of Europe in 
substituting the vernacular tongue for 
the Latin in law proceedings. His fa- 
vorite pursuit, however, was astronomy, 
and he employed the most famous as- 
tronomers to draw up the celebrated 
tables called after him the Alphoasine 
Tables, which were first published at 
Venice, 1483. 

ALPHONSUS, Tastaoijs, bishop of 
Avila, a voluminous Spanish writer, 
who flourished during the 15th century. 

ALPINI, Prospero, a Venetian phy- 
sician. B. 1553, and d. 1617. He was the 
greatest botanist of his day, the first who 
explained the impregnation and genera- 
tion of plants by the sexual system, and 
the author of many valuable works on 
his favorite pursuit. 

ALSOP, Anthony, an eminent En- 

flish divine and scholar, who d. 1726. 
[is principal work was a selection from 
^Esop, entitled " Fabularum iEsopica- 
rum Delectus," published in 1698. — 
Vincent, a nonconformist divine of the 
17th century, b. in Northamptonshire. 
D. 1703. — Richard, a native of Middle- 
town, in Connecticut ; a miscellaneous 
writer, and the translator of various 
works from the French and Italian ; 
among which was the " Natural and 
Civil History of Chili," from the Italian 
of Molina. 'B. 1759; d. 1815. 

ALSTEDIUS, John Henry, a Ger- 
man philosopher and Protestant divine. 
B. 1588: d. 1838. 

ALSTON, Charles, an eminent Scotch 
physician and botanist ; author of " Tiro- 
cinium Botanicum Edinburgense," &e. ; 
and public lecturer at Edinburgh. B. 
1683 ; d. 1760. — Joseph, governor of 
South Carolina, after havinr been for 
several years a distinguished member 
of the legislature of that state, was elect- 
ed chief magistrate in 1812. He married 
the daughter of Aaron Burr, and in con- 
sequence of that connection was unjust- 

ly suspected of being .oncemed in the 
reputed treasonable enterprises of that 
individual. Mrs. Alston was lost on hei 
passage from Charleston to New York 
in 1812. B. 1778; d. 1816.— William, 
a volunteer of the revolutionary war, 
who served as captain under Marion. 
He was for several years member of the 
senate of South Carolina. B. 1756 ; d. 

ALSTROEMER, Jonas, a distinguish- 
ed Swede, b. of poor parents at Alingas, 
West Gothland, in 1685. After strug- 
gling with poverty for a long time, he 
visited London, and paying particular 
attention to the commercial and manu- 
facturing sources of British prosperity, 
he returned to Sweden in 1723, resolv- 
ing to carry the plans he had formed 
into execution. Having obtained a li- 
cense to establish manufactures in the 
town in which he was born, it soon be- 
came the seat of industry and activity, 
which afforded an example to the whole 
kingdom. He established asugar-house 
at Gottenburgh, and traded to the Indies 
and th<3 Levant; improved rural econo- 
my ; cultivated plants proper for dyeing; 
and improved the wool trade, by import- 
Ing sheep from Spain and England, and 
the gout from Angora. For these im- 
portant benefits, Alhtroemer received a 
patent of nobility, was made Knight of 
the Polar Star, and honored with the 
title of Chancellor of Commerce ; the 
Academy of Sciences chose him a mem- 
ber, and' the national states decreed him 
a statue to be erected to his memory on 
the Exchange of Stockholm. D. 1761. 

ALTAEMPS, Mark, a nephew^ of 
Pope Pius IV., memorable as one of the 
cardinals in the council of Trent. 

ALTER, Franch Charles, a German 
Jesuit and laborious critic ; Greek teach- 
er in the school of St. Anne at Vienna, 
D. 1804. 

ALTHAMERUS, a divine of Nurem- 
berg ; author of various theological 
works, and a principal promoter of the 
Reformation in Berne, Switzerland. T>. 

a German civilian, was b. about the 
middle of the 16th century, and d. in the 
l?th. He was professor "of law at Her- 
born, and syndic of Bremen. In 1603 
he published his "Politiea Methodico 
Digesta," m which he boldly taught that 
kings are nothing more than magis- 
trates, that to the people belongs the 
sovereignty, and that, as a natural con- 
sequence, they may change and even 
punish their rulers" Althusen was the 




author of several other works, the prin- 
cipal of which is a Latin Treatise on 
Roman Jurisprudence. 

ALTICOZZI, Loreneo, a Jesuit au- 
thor and polemic, who wrote the "Sum 
of St. Augustine," B. at Cortona, 1689 ; 
d. 1777. 

ALTILIO, Gabriel, a Neapolitan ; 
author of some Latin poems of great 
beauty. D. 1501. 

ALTING, Henry, an eminent Ger- 
man divine, distinguished himself at the 
Sync d of Dort, as deputy from the Pal- 
atinate, and did much in advancement 
of the Protestant interest in Germany. 
B. 15S3; d. 1644. — James, son of the 
above, was educated at Groningeu, and 
went to England, where he was ordain- 
ed a priest of the church by the Bishop 
of Worcester. In 1643 he was chosen 
Hebrew professor at Groningen, and 
afterwards professor of divinity. B. 
1618 ; d. 1679. — Menson, a burgomaster 
of Groningen, author of the best descrip- 
tion of the Low Countries now extant. 
D. 1713. 

ALTISSIMO, the poetical surname of 
an Italian poet named Christopher. His 
surname and a poetic crown were given 
to him on account of his great popular- 
ity as an improvisatore. 

ALTMAN, John George, a Swiss 
historian and divine, curate of Inns in 
the same canton, and professor of mural 
philosophy and Greek at Berne. B. 1697 ; 
d. 1758. 

ALTORF, Albert, a Bavarian painter, 
architect, and engraver. He raised him- 
self by his merits to the rank of senator 
of Ratisbon, which city he adorned with 
many handsome edifices. B. 148S ; d. 

ALTON, Richard, count d', an Aus- 
trian general, who had the command of 
the Low Countries in 1787. Though 
a strict disciplinarian and a man of 
bravery, he betrayed weakness during 
the insurrections in Brabant, 1789, for 
wl deli he was sent for to Vienna, to clear 
his character. He d. on the journey. — 
His brother distinguished himself against 
the Turks, and also against the French 
at the siege of Valenciennes. He was 
killed near Dunkirk, 1793, much regret- 
ted as a good soldier and an amiable 

ALURED, an ancient English his- 
torian, who flourished in the beginning 
of the 12th century. His annals are 
very valuable, and comprise the history 
of the Britons, Saxons, and Normans, 
down to his own time, 1129. 

ALVA, Ferdinand Alvarez, duke of, 

the descendant of an illustrious family 
in Spain, was a famous general under 
the emperors Charles V. and Philip II. 
He made his first campaign at the battle 
of Pavia. At the siege of Metz he per- 
formed prodigies of valor ; and in the 
war with the pope he was completely 
successful ; but he was as cruel as he 
was brave. In 1567, Philip sent him to 
reduce the Low Countries, then in a 
state of revolt. Here he landed with 
10,000 men, and immediately comiuenced 
a series of cruelties almost unparalleled 
in the annals of history, annihilating 
every remaining privilege of the people. 
lie was subsequently employed against 
Don Antonio, who had assumed the 
crown of Portugal, and drove him from 
that kingdom, the whole of which he 
reduced to Philip's authority. B. 1515 ; 
d. 1589. 

ALVARADO, Don Pedro, one of the 
rapacious conquerors of Spanish Amer- 
ica, who accompanied Cortes to America, 
lie was appointed to the government of 
Gnatimala, and was slain in 1541. — Al- 
phoxso d', a Spanish adventurer, who 
accompanied Pizarro in his expedition to 
Peru ; and who was equally distinguish- 
ed for his bravery ana his cruelty. D. 

ALVAREZ, Emanuel, a distinguished 
Portuguese grammarian. B. at Madeira, 
1526; d. at" the college of Evora, of 
which he was rector, 158-2.— Francis, a 
Portuguese divine, b. at Coimbra, to- 
wards the end of the 15th century, and 
d. 1540, leaving behind hira in Portu- 
guese an account of his embassy to 
David, king of Abyssinia, and a de- 
scription of Ethiopian manners and cus- 
toms, which is deemed the first accurate 
account of Abyssinia. — Gomez, a Spanish 
poet. The chief of his works, which 
were written in Latin, is a poem on the 
Order of the Golden Fleece. B. 1488; 
d. 153S. — Don Jose, one of the most 
eminent sculptors of the 19th century, 
was b. near Cordova in Spain, 1768. 
Patronized by Charles IV., he proceeded 
to Paris in 1799, with a view of pros- 
ecuting hi« studies ; and he soon gained 
himself a name in the French metropo- 
lis. Napoleon presented him with a 
gold medal ; but the great captain's sub- 
sequent conduct towards Spain inspired 
the artist with such aversion for him, 
that he would never model his bust. He 
was afterwards imprisoned for refusing 
to take the oath of allegiance to Joseph 
Bonaparte, when proclaimed king of 
Spain. Many of his best works arc at 
Madrid. D.'l827. 




ALVAROTTO, James, a lawyer of 
Padua, distinguished for his attain- 
ments both in the civil and canon law ; 
author of " Commcntaria in Libros Feu- 
dorum." B. 1474 ; d. 1542. 

ALVENSLEBEN, Philip Charles, 
count of, son of a counsellor of war at 
Hanover, was a distinguished diplo- 
matist, and m 1791 was placed at the 
head of the department for foreign af- 
fairs at Hanover, in which he gave gen- 
eral satisfaction. The count wrote a 
" History of the War from the Peace of 
Minister to that of Hubertsbourg." B. 
1745 ; d. 1802. 

ALVIANO, Bartholomew, an emi- 
nent Venetian general, whose exertions 
against the Emperor Maximilian, in 
1508, caused the republic to decree him 
triumphal honors. In the siege of Pa- 
dua by the emperor, and at the battles 
of La Motte and Alariguano, Alviano 
displayed the most heroic qualities. 
His death was occasioned by excessive 
fatigue while laying siege to Brescia. 
B. 145-" ; d. 1 515. 

ALXINGEK, John Baptist d', a 
German poet, born at Vienna, in 1755, 
of a rich family, early acquired a 
thorough knowledge of the classics. 
Though he became a doctor of laws, 
and held the title of court advocate, he 
availed himself of his legal station only 
to make up disputes, or plead for the 
poor. Poetry was his favorite pursuit. 
Besides minor pieces, he wrote " Doolin 
of Mentz," and " Bliomberis," two 
chivalresque epics, in Wieland's style. 
AlxinL r er was liberal, and firmly attached 
to his friend?. D. 1797. 

ALYPIUS, an architect of Antioch, 
employed by Julian in his attempt to 
rebuild the temple of Jerusalem. He 
was subsequently banished, on a charge 
of practising the black art, and died in 
exile. Alypius wrote a " Geographical 
Description of the World," published 
in 1628 at Geneva. — Bishop ot Tagasta, 
Africa, the friend of St. Augustine, with 
whom he was baptized at Milan, in 388. 
He opposed the Donatists and Pelagians 
with great zeal ; and died in 430. 

AMADEDDULAT, first sultan of the 
Buiyan dynasty, was the son of a fisher- 
man of iiilem, on the Caspian Sea. He 
rose to distinction in the armies of 
Makan, sultan of Dilem, and subse- 
quently gained possession of Persia 
Prober, Persian Irak, and Kerman, of 
which he assumed the sovereignty, and 
fixed the seat of his government at Shi- 
raz, in 933. He died, 949, and left his 
crown to his nephew, Adadeddulat. 

AMADEUS V., count of Savoy, suc- 
ceeded to the sovereignty of that state, 
1285, and died at Avignon, 1323. Al- 
though a prince of such small domin- 
ions, he acquired the surname of Great, 
from his wisdom and success. — VIII., 
count of Savoy, elected 1391. He was 
one of the most singular men of his 
time, and acquired the name of Pacific. 
— IX., count of Savoy, who married 
Jolande of France, and distinguished 
himself by his good deeds, so that his 
subjects called him the Blessed. D. 

AMAIA, Francis, a Spanish lawyer 
of much reputation, and professor of 
leg'al science at Salamanca. D. 1640. 

HAR1, a Persian poet of the 5th cen- 
tury, entertained at the court of sultan 
Kbedar Khan, who instituted an acad- 
emy of poets, of which he made Amak 
president. His chief poem is the "His- 
tory of the Loves of Joseph and Zo- 

AMALARIUS, Fortunatus, arch- 
bishop of Treves in 810. He established 
Christianity in Saxony, consecrated a 
church at Hamburgh, and was sent am- 
bassador in 813 to Constantinople by 
Charlemagne. D. 814. 

AMALTHEUS, Attilius, archbishop 
of Athens. D. 1600. — Jerome, an Italian 
physician and poet of some repute. B. 
1507 ; d. 1574.— John Baptlst, brother 
of the above, was born, 1525 ; attended 
the Venetian ambassador to England, 
and, on his return, was made secretary 
to Pope Pius IV. His Latin poems 
were printed, 1550; and he died, 1573. 
— Cornelius, another brother of the 
above, was also eminent in physic and 

AMAND, Mark Anthony Gerard, 
Sieur de St., a French poet. B. at 
Rouen, 1594; d. 1661. He was one 
of the first members of the French 

AMAR DURIVIER, J. A., author of 
a great variety of literary works, trans- 
lations from Gay, Terence, Lucan, &c. 
B. 1765. 

AMARA-SINGHA, a Hindoo author 
of great antiquity, who compiled a dic- 
tionary of the Sanscrit language, part cf 
which' was published at Rome, 1798. 

AMARETTI, Abbe G, a Milanese 
mineralogist, born in 1743; author of 
" Viagsno di Trilaghi," " Memoirs of 
Leonardo di Vinci," &c, &c. He was 
a knight of Napoleon's order of tha 
Iron Crown. 
AMASEO, Romulus, an eminent 




teacher of the belles lettres at Padua. 
His celebrity caused him to be invited 
to Rome by Paul HI., by whom he was 
employed in various embassies ; and by 
Julius III. he was appointed secretary 
of the briefs. He translated Pausanias 
and the Cyrus of Xenophon into Latin ; 
and published a volume of his own 
Latin speeches. B. 1480 : d. 1552. 
. AMATI, a celebrated violin maker of 
Cremona, about the year 1600. 

AMATLIS, a Portuguese Jew, born 
1511, at Castel Bianco. He studied 
medicine with success at the university 
of Salamanca, and afterwards gave lec- 
tures on the science at Ferrara, Ancona, 
and other places. 

AMAURI, de Chartres, a French 
visionary of the 13th century, who 
maintained the eternity of matter, and 
that religion had three epochs, agree- 
able to the three persons of the Trinity. 
His opinions were condemned by the 
council of Paris, 1209, and some of his 
followers burnt. To avoid a similar 
fate, he renounced his errors, but died 
of vexation. 

AMBERGER, Christopher, a painter 
of Nuremberg, in the 16th century, was 
a disciple of Hans Holbein. He was 
likewise a good engraver on wood. D. 

AMBOTSE, Francis, a French writer, 
educated in the college of Navarre, and 
afterwards an advocate in the parlia- 
ment of Paris, and counsellor of state. 
He published several poetical pieces in 
French and Latin, but is chiefly known 
as the collector and editor of the works 
of the celebrated Abelard. D. 1612.— 
George d', a French cardinal and min- 
ister of state, born of a noble family, 
1460. He became successively bishop 
of Montauban, archbishop of Narbonne, 
and lastly of Rouen. Louis XII. made 
him prime minister, and he soon ac- 
quired great popularity by taking off 
the taxes which had been usually levied 
on the people at the accession of every 
new monarch. The king, by his ad- 
vice, undertook the conquest of the 
Milanese, which succeeded. Soon after 
this, ho was appointed the pope's legate 
in France, with the dignity of cardinal, 
and in that capacity effected a great re- 
form among the religious orders. He 
d. 1510. — Amery d', a famous French 
admiral, and brother of the above, who 
gained a splendid victory over the sul- 
tan of Egypt, in 1510. —Michael d', a 
natural son of Amboise, admiral of 
France, born at Naples. He was the 
author of numerous poems in the 

French language, which n« published 
under the name of the Signior do Cha- 
villon. D. 1547. 

AMBROGI, Antoine, a Roman Jesuit 
and poet. He translated Virgil and 
some of the works of Voltaire into Ital- 
ian. B. 1712; d. 1788. 

AMBROGIO, Tesco, one of the most 
celebrated among the early Italian ori- 
entalists. B. at Pavia, 1469; d. 1540. 

AMBROSE, St., bishop of Milan, was 
born, 340, at Aries, m Gallia Narbon- 
ensis, of which province his father was 
lieutenant. While yet a youth, he 
pleaded causes with so much eloquence, 
that Probus, prefect of Italy, chose him 
one of his council, and afterwards nom- 
inated him governor of Milan, which 
office he held 5 years. In 374, Auxen- 
tius, bishop of Milan, died ; and so 
fierce was the contest in the election of 
a successor to the vacant sec, that the 
governor was called upon to quell the 
tumult. This he attempted by per- 
suasion in the great church ; and at the 
conclusion of his address, a voice in the 
crowd exclaimed, " Ambrose is bishop." 
This circumstance was considered as of 
divine direction, and Ambrose was de- 
clared to be the object not only of the 
popular choice, but of divine selection. 
His first efforts were directed to the ex- 
termination of Arianism, which was 
then making great progress. He also 
successfully resisted the Pagans, who 
were attempting to restore their ancient 
worship. When Maximums invaded 
Italy, and actually entered Milan, Am- 
brose remained at his post, to assuage 
the calamities produced by the invading 
army. When, in consequence of a tu- 
mult at Thessalonica, Theodosius sent 
an order for a general massacre, Am- 
brose repaired to the emperor, remon- 
strated with him on his barbarity, and 
prevailed on him to promise that the 
command should be revoked. The 
mandate was, however, carried into ex- 
ecution, and 7000 persons were slaugh- 
tered in cold blood. Shortly afterwards, 
when Theodosius, in the anguish of 
self-reproach, was about to enter the 
great church of Milan, A tnbrose met 
him at the porch and sternly foibado 
him to appear in the holy place. The 
emperor pleaded the example of David: 
— " You have imitated David in his 
crime, imitate him in his repentance," 
was the reply; and Theodosius was 
compelled, not only to perform a pen- 
ance, but to sign an edict, which or- 
dained that an interval of thirty clays 
should pass before any sentence of 





death or of confiscation should be ex- 
ecuted. D. at Milan, in 397. 

AMBROSINI, Ambrozio, a Ferrarese ; 
author of several oratorios, canzoni, and 
sonnets. D. 1700. — Giulio, a Mantuan, 
author of a work on " Deuionology." 
B. 1580. 

AMEILHON, Hubert Pascal, a 
learned Frenchman, author of " His- 
toirc du Bas Empire," of a celebrated 
work on the " Commerce of the Egyp- 
tians,'' and of "Researches into the 
Mechanical Arts of the Ancients." B. 
1730: d. 1811. 

AMELIA, Anxe, princess of Prussia, 
sister of Frederic the Great. She was 
distinguished by her taste for the arts, 
and set to music "The Death of the 
Messiah," by Ramler. B. 1723; d. 1.787. 
— Duchess dowager of Saxe Weimar, 
duchess of Brunswick and Luneburg, 
who liberally patronized men of learn- 
ing and genius, among whom were 
Wieland, Goethe, Schiller, and Herder. 
B. 1739; d. 1807.— Youngest child of 
George III. and Queen Charlotte; a 
princess who in mind and manners was 
amiable and accomplished. B. 17S3 ; 
d. 1810. 

AM ELOT, Nicolas, a French minister 
of state in 1788, who was accused of per- 
secuting one Latude, as the agent ot M. 
Pompadour, during the ancient regime. 
For some offence to the republicans, he 
was imprisoned in the Luxemburg, 
where his life was saved and prolonged 
by a young female, who avowed a pas- 
sion for him ; but at length he died in 
the prison. His victim, Latude, on 
escaping from the Bastile, brought an 
action of damages, and recovered from 
Amelot's heirs. 

Nicholas, a French historian of the 17th 
century. He resided for some time at 
Venice, as secretary to the French em- 
bassy, and wrote a history of its gov- 
ernment. He also translated "The 
Prince," by Machiavel, and other Italian 
works into French. D. 1706. 

AMELUNGHI, Jerome, a Pisan 
poet, preceding Tasso in the mock- 
heroic style; author of "La Gigantca 
del Forabosco," in 1547. 

AMENTA, N., an admired Neapolitan 
poet. B. 1659. 

AMERBACH, John, a printer of 
Basil, in the 15th century; the first who 
used the Roman type instead of Gothic 
and Italian. D. 1515. — Boniface, son 
of the above, syndic of Basil ; and inti- 
mate friend of Erasmus. D. 1502. — 
Vrr^s, a learned professor at Wittein- 

burg, in the 16th century ; editor of the 
orations of Isocrates and Demosthenes; 
and translator of selections from Epi- 
phanius and Chrvsostom. 

properly, Amerigo Vespucci, an eminent 
navigator, was born at Florence, in 1451, 
After receiving a liberal education, he 
was sent by his father to Spain for thr 
purpose of conducting his commercial 
affairs ; and, being at Seville when Co- 
lumbus was making preparations fur his 
second voyage, he resolved to quit mcr 
cantile pursuits, and enter on the career 
of discovery. His first expedition to 
the new continent was in 1409, under 
the command of Ojeda, a year after the 
discovery and examination of that part 
of the coast by Columbus. After this 
he entered the service of King Emman- 
uel of Portugal, and made two voyages 
in Portuguese ships : the first in 1501; 
the second in 1508. The object of this 
last voyage was to find a westerly pas- 
sage to Malacca. He arrived at Brazil, 
and discovered the Bay of All Saints. 
In 1505 he again entered the service of 
the king of Spain, but made no more 
voyages, as appears from memoranda, 
showing that he was at Seville till 1503, 
at which time he was appointed prin- 
cipal pilot. His duties were to prepare 
charts, and prescribe routes for vessels 
in their voyages to the new world, 
which took bis name, though the honor 
clearly belonged to Columbus, whose 
priority of discovery is not to be ques- 
tioned'. D. 1516. 

AMES, William, a native of Norfolk, 
who, after being educated at Christ's col- 
lege, Cambridge, left his country, where 
his Calvinistieal tenets were becoming 
unpopular, and settled as professor iu 
the university of Franeker, in Holland. 
Here he enjoyed fame and independ- 
ence ; but as the air of the place was too 
sharp for his asthmatic constitution, he 
removed to Rotterdam, with the inten- 
tion of passing into New England. He, 
however, d. At Rotterdam, 1663, aged 57. 
He was a learned divine, and his wri- 
tings were voluminous, his principal 
work being " Medulla Theologica."— Jo- 
seph, a ship-chandler of Wapping, who, 
in an advanced period of lite, studied 
antiquities, and rose by his genius and 
application to consequence, and to the 
secretarvship of the Society of Antiqua- 
ries. He published an account of the 
earliest printers, with a register of the 
books which they printed, in quarto, 
1749, besides the list of English heads 
engraved in mezzotinto, &c, in 8vc 



Ho also compiled the "Parentalia," 
from Wren's papers. He d. Oct. 7th, 
1759, and the following year his curious 
collection of fossils, shells, medals, &c, 
was sold hy public auction. His 
daughter married Captain Dampier, in 
the East India sea-service. — Fisher, 
LL.D., one of the most eloquent of 
American statesmen and writers, was b. 
at Dec! ham, in Massachusetts, April 9, 
1758. He was educated at Harvard uni- 
versity, where he received his degree in 
1774. He studied law in Boston, and 
commenced the practice of it in his 
native village. But the affairs of the 
revolution soon drew his attention to 
politics, and he became conspicuous by 
his speeches, and by his animated and 
beautiful style as an essay writer. He 
distinguished himself as a member of the 
Massachusetts convention for ratifying 
the constitution, in 1788, and from this 
body passed to the house of representa- 
tives in the state legislature. Soon after 
he was elected the representative of the 
Suffolk district in the congress of the 
United States, where he remained witli 
the highest honor during the eight years 
of Washington's administration. On 
the retirement of Washington, Mr. A. 
returned to his residence at Dedham, 
where he occupied himself with the 
management of his farm and the prac- 
tice of the law. The latter he relin- 
quished, a few years afterwards, in con- 
sequence of his declining health ; but 
he felt too deep an interest in the wel- 
fare of his country to withdraw his 
mind and pen from politics. He wrote 
much in the public papers, relating to 
the contest between Great Britain and 
revolutionary France, as it might affect 
the liberty and prosperity of America. 
In 1804 he was chosen president of 
Harvard college — an honor which he 
declined. He'd. July 4th, 1808. His 
writings, in the following year, were 
published in one volume octavo, pre- 
faced by a memoir of his life, from the 
pen of the Rev. Dr. Kirkland. 

AMHERST, Jeffrey, Lord, an En- 
glish general of considerable celebrity, 
descended from an ancient family seated 
at Sevenoaks, in Kent. He was' b. 1727, 
and at the age of fourteen embraced the 
military profession. In 1741 he was 
aid-de-camp to General Ligonier, at the 
battles of Dettinsren, Fontenoy, and Ro- 
coux, and in 1756 obtained the colo- 
nelcy of the 15th regiment of foot. His 
abilities and experience were now called 
into action ; he was employed, 1758, at 
the siege of Louisbourg, and was made 

governor of Virginia, and commander- 
in-chief of the forces in America; and, 
in this part of the world, the fall of Ni- 
agara, Ticonderoga, Quebec, and Mon- 
treal, with the submission of all Canada, 
marked the progress of his judicious 
and successful measures. His great ser- 
vices were honorably rewarded by the 
court ; he was made a knight of the 
Bath, in 1771, appointed governor of 
Guernsey, the next year lieutenant-gen- 
eral of the ordnance, and in 1776, created 
baron Amherst of Holmsdale. In 1778 
he was made commander-in-chief, and 
though upon the change of ministry 
these offices were withdrawn, he was 
again reinstated in 1793, when, two years 
after, he resigned the command of the 
forces to the duke of York, and was 
raised to the rank of field-marshal. D. 

AMHURST, Nicholas, an English 
political and miscellaneous writer. B. 
at Marden, Kent, 1701, and d. 1742. ne 
was author of the " Teme Filius," a 
satirical work on the university of Ox- 
ford ; and published, with the assistance 
of Pultenev and Lord Bolingbroke, the 
work by which he is most known, en- M 
titled "'The Craftsman." 

AMICO, Antonio, a Sicilian priest, 
and canon of the cathedral of Palermo, 
distinguished by some considerable 
works in history, for which Philip IV. 
of Spain made him historiographer 
royal. D. 1641. — Vito Maria, a pro- 
fessor of theology in the 18th century ; 
principally known by his Sicilian an- 

AMICONI, Giacomo, a Venetian his- 
torical and portrait painter, who visited 
England in 1729. He afterwards went 
to Spain, and was appointed portrait 
painter to the king. D. 1752. 

AMILCAR, a Carthaginian general, 
of great valor, was descended from the 
ancient kings of Tyre ; and being early 
intrusted with military command, he 
distinguished himself in the wars cf 
Carthage, particularly^ against the Ro- 
mans, towards whom he bore an im- 
placable hatred. He was the father of 

AMIOT ; Father, one of the most 
learned of the French missionaries to 
China. B. at Toulon, 1718, and d. at 
Pekin, 1794. This zealous Jesuit, who 
arrived at Macao in 1750, was invited 
to Pekin, in 1751, by the emperor of 
China, and remained in that capital 43 
years. By continued application he be- 
came acquainted with the Chinese and 
Tartar languages ; and, from time to 




tiine ; remitted to France the result of 
ais labors, which afterwards appeared 
in several publications. 

AMINTA, T., author of the mock- 
heroic poem, " La Nanea," in 1566. 

AMMAN, John Conrad, a native of 
Schaffhausen. B. 1669 ; d. 1724, in the 
Netherlands. He was chiefly distin- 
guished by his success in teaching per- 
sons born deaf and dumb to speak. — ■ 
John, his son, was a fellow of the Royal 
Society in London, and a member of the 
Academy of Sciences at Petersburgh, 
where he lectured on botanv, and ac- 
quired great reputation, t). 1740. — 
Paul, was a native of Breslaw, who set- 
tled in 1674 at Leipsic, where he gave 
lectures on physiology, natural history, 
and botany. D. 1691. — Justus, a famous 
engraver and painter at Zurich, in the 
16th century. He painted with great 
brilliancy on glass, but excelled chiefly 
in engraving, both on wood and copper. 
D. 1591. 

AMMANATI, Bartolomeo, a Floren- 
tine architect and sculptor in the 16th 
century, whose chief performances are 
the colossal statue of Neptune at Venice 
and the statue of Hercules at Padua. 

AMMIANUS, Marcellinus, a Latin 
historian of the 4th century, b. at Anti- 
och. He wrote the Roman history from 
the reign of Nerva to the death of Valens, 
in 31 books, of which only 18 are extant. 
T>. about 390. 

AMMIRATO, Scipio, an esteemed 
Neapolitan poet, b. in 1531 ; author of 
a " History of Florence," which he wrote 
at the instance of the Grand-Duke 
Cosmo ; of the " Argomcnti" to " Or- 
lando Furioso :" and of numerous prose 
tracts, political and historical. D. 1601. 

AMMON, Andreas, a Latin poet, b. 
at Lucca, in Italy, of whose genius Eras- 
mus made frequent and honorable men- 
tion. He was sent to England in an 
official character. 

AMMONIUS, a surgeon of Alexandria, 
who invented a method of extracting the 
stone from the bladder, which procured 
him the surnsrac of the Lithotomist. — 
Levinus, a monk of Flanders, much 
esteemed by Erasmus for his learning 
and piety. D. 1556. — Saccas, a philos- 
opher of the 3d century, founder of 
the neo-platonic sect, who d. about 243. 
— Andrew, a learned native of Lucca, 
who settled in England. He lived some 
time in Sir Thomas More's house, and 
afterwards in St. Thomas's college ; for 
he was not in circumstances sufficient to 
hire or keep a house of his own. There 
iubsisted a strong friendship and close 

correspondence between him and Eras- 
mus. The advice which Erasmus gives 
him in regard to pushing his fortune, 
has a good deal of humor in it, and was 
certainly intended as a satire on the art- 
ful methods generally practised by the 
selfish and ambitious part of mankind. 
" In the first place (says he) throw off 
all sense of shame ; thrust yourself into 
every one's business, and elbow out 
whomsoever you can ; neither love nor 
hate any one ; measure every thing by 
your own advantage ; let this be the 
scope and drift of all your actions. Give 
nothing but what is to be returned with 
usury, and be complaisant to every body. 
Have always two strings to your bow. 
Feign that you are solicited by many 
from abroad, and get every thing ready 
for your departure. Show letters in- 
viting you elsewhere, with great prom- 
ises." Fortune, at length, began to 
smile upon Ammonius, for he was ap- 
pointed secretary to Henry VIII. , and 
honored by Pope Leo X. with a public 
character at the court of that prince ; 
and in all appearance he would have 
soon risen higher, had not death carried 
him off when he was but of a middle 
age. He d. of the sweating sickness in 
1517. Ammonius wrote several Latin 
poetical pieces. 

AMONTONS, William, was b. in 
Normandy, 1663. He was in the third 
form of the Latin school at Paris, when, 
after a dangerous illness, he contracted 
such a deafness as obliged him to re- 
nounce almost all conversation with 
mankind. In this situation he began to 
think of employing himself in the in- 
vention of machines; he applied, there- 
fore, to the study of geometry ; and, it 
is said, that lie would not try any reme- 
dy to cure his deafness, either because 
he thought it incurable, or because it in- 
creased his attention. He studied with 
great care the nature of barometers and 
thermometers; and, in 1687, presented 
a new hygroscope to the Royal Academy 
of Sciences, which was very much ap- 
proved. Amontons found out a method 
to acquaint people at a great distance, in 
a very little time, with whatever one 
pleased. This method was as follows : 
Let there be people placed in several 
stations, at such a distance from one 
another, that, by the help of a telescope, 
a man in one station may see a signal 
made by the next before him ; he must 
immediately make the same signal, that 
it may be seen by persons in the station 
next after him, who are to cominunicato 
it to those in the following static ns, and 




bo on. In tliis probably originated the 
modern telegraph. When the Royal 
Academy was newly regulated in 1699, 
Ainontons was admitted a member of it, 
and read there his " New Theory of 
Friction," in which he happily cleared 
up a very important part of mechanics. 
D. 1705. 

AMORE, S. D., a Sicilian poet, author 
of " L'Augusto," and "II Sesostri," 
tragedies. ~B. 1644. 

AMORETTI, Charles, a mineralogist. 
He became one of the keepers of the 
Ambrosian library, at Milan, and pub- 
lished, in Italian, " A Tour from Milan 
to the Three Lakes of Como, Lugano, 
and Major." B. 1740 ; d. 1816. 

AMORY, Thomas, D. D., was son of 
a grocer at Taunton in Somersetshire, 
and distinguished himself as a preacher 
among the dissenters. After passing 
the greatest part of his life near the place 
of his nativity, as public teacher, and as 
instructor of youth, he removed to Lon- 
don, where he formed an intimate ac- 
quaintance with the most respectable 
members of his persuasion. He was a 
bold asserter of toleration, and, there- 
fore, warmly espoused the cause of those 
who solicited the repeal of the test act. 
His discourses from the pulpit were ex- 
cellent, and his writings, which were 
mostly on theological subjects, have 
been enumerated by Dr. Kippis, Biogr. 
Brit. I. p. 178. B. 1700; d. 1774.— 
Thomas, an eccentric character, son of 
counsellor Amory, who went with king 
William to Ireland, and acquired con- 
siderable property in the county of Clare. 
Young Amory was not born in Ireland, 
though he resided there, and frequently 
accompanied Dean Swift in his walks 
and excursions round Dublin. He shun- 
ned all company, and only walked abroad 
during the night. The most remarkable 
of his publications are his " Memoirs on 
the lives of several ladies," and his life 
of John Buncle, Esq. In this last he is 
supposed to give a description of him- 
self. He is said, by a person who knew 
him, to have had a peculiar look, though 
not without the deportment of the gen- 
tleman. His application to his studies 
was intense, and his walks through the 
most crowded streets exhibited him 
wrapped in the deepest meditation, and 
inattentive to what surrounded him. B. 
1692; d. 1789. 

AMPERE, Andre Marie, whose name 
Is imperishably connected with the great 
discoveries in electro-magnetism, was b. 
at Lyons, 1775. In 1804 he was nomi- 
nated professor in the Polytechnic School 

of Paris, ; and here, in connection irith 
Oersted, Faraday, and other distinguish- 
ed men of science, with whom he was in 
constant correspondence, he paved the 
way for those brilliant discoveries that 
have already issued in the electric tele- 
graph, and promise an inimitable exten- 
sion of the boundaries of science. D. 

AMSDORF, Nicholas, a spirited fol- 
lower of Luther, and bishop of Nuren - 
burg. He d. at Magdeburg, 1541, and 
the sect who adhered to his tenets, and 
maintained, in opposition to Melancthon, 
that good works are not necessary to 
salvation, were called Amsdorflans. 

AMURATH I., an Ottoman emperor, 
who succeeded his father Orchan, and 
was known for his cruelties towards his 
son, and those who espoused his cause. 
He was a great warrior, and obtained 37 
Tietories, in the last of which he perish- 
ed, 1389, aged 71, by the hand of a sol- 
dier. He was the first who established 
the formidable force of the Janizaries.— 
IT., emperor of the Turks, was son of 
Mahomet I., whom he succeeded in 1421. 
He was an exceedingly warlike prince, 
and among his numerous victories was 
that of Varna, in 1444, when the Chris- 
tians were defeated, and numbered 
among their slain the king of Hungary. 
George Castriot, celebrated by the name 
of Scanderbeg, at length put a period to 
the career of Amurath, who d. of chagrin 
at his reverses, in 1451. — III. succeeded 
his father, Selim II., in 1575. On his 
accession, he caused his five brothers to 
be murdered. D. 1596. — IV. succeeded 
his uncle Mustapha in 1622. He recov- 
ered Bagdad from the Persians in 1637 ; 
after which he put 30,000 of his prison- 
ers to the sword. D. 1640. 

AMYN AHMED, a learned Persian 
of the 17th century, who wrote an elab- 
orate work, entitled, "The Seven Cli- 
mates, or a Geographical Description of 
the East." 

AMYOT, James, was b. at Milan, 1513, 
of an obscure family ; but though of a 
dull understanding, he improved him- 
self by indefatigable application, and 
after studying at Paris, he acquired in- 
dependence and reputation, as tutor to 
the children of persons of respectability. 
His merit recommended him to Margaret 
of Berri, sister to Francis I., and he was 
promoted to a public professorship in 
the university of Bourges. His time 
was here usefully devoted to literature, 
and he published translations of the 
loves of Theagenes and Cliariclea, be- 
sides Plutarch's lives and morals. He 




visited Venice and Rome, and on his re- 
turn to France he was, at the recom- 
mendation of cardinal de Tournon, 
intrusted with the care of the king.'stwo 
younger sons, and for his meritorious 
services was raised to the bishopric of 
Auxerre, the abbey of Cornelius de 
Compiegne. the high office of great al- 
moner and curator of the university of 
Paris, and commander of the order of 
the Holy Ghost. Among his various 
works, chieflj translations, the most 
celebrated is his version of Plutarch, 
which remains unsurpassed in the 
French language. B. 1514; d. 1593. 

AMYRA'UL'T, Moses, a French Prot- 
estant divine. B. at Bourgueil in Tou- 
raine, 1596. He at first studied the law, 
but afterwards entered the church and 
was divinity professor at Saumur, and 
distinguished himself by his zeal and 
activity so much, that he was deputed 
by the national council of Charenton to 
present an address to the French king-, 
concerning the inspection of edicts in 
favor of the Protestants, without, how- 
ever, paying homage upon his knees. 
Richelieu, who was present at this inter- 
view, saw and admired the bold char- 
acter of Amyrault, and wished to use 
his abilities to procure a reconciliation 
between the Roman church and the 
Protestants, but in vain. His life was 
passed in the midst of theological dis- 
putes, and his works, which are very 
numerous, are chiefly theological. 1). 

AMYRUTZES, a philosopher of Treb- 
izond, who was carried to Constantino- 
ple with David, emperor of Trehizond, 
when that city was reduced, 1461. lie 
renounced the Christian faith for Ma- 
hometanism, and assumed the name of 
Mahomet Beg. He translated several 
books into Arabic, at the desire of Ma- 
homet II., whose favor he enjoyed. 

AN ACH ARSIS, an illustrious Scythi- 
an philosopher. He travelled to Athens 
in the time of Solon, with whom he con- 
tracted an intimate friendship ; and Solon 
not only instructed him, but sought all 
opportunities of doing him honor. He 
had a quick and lively genius, a strong 
and masterly eloquence ; and there was 
something so determined and resolute 
in his manner, that those who imitated 
him were said to speak in the Scythian 
style. He was extremely fond of poetry, 
and wrote upon certain laws of the 
Scythians and Greeks. Crossus invited 
him to Sardis, and offered him money: 
but the philosopher answered, " that he 
was come to Greece to learn the laws 

and manners of that country ; that he 
had no occasion for gold or silver : and 
that it would suffice for him to return to 
Scythia a wiser and more intelligent man 
than he came from thence." After stay- 
ing long in Greece, he prepared to return 
home : and passing through Cyzieum, 
he found that city celebrating very 
solemnly the feast of Cybe.c, and vowed 
to do the same, if he should get home in 
safety. Upon his arrival in Scythia, Tie 
attempted to change the ancient customs 
of his country, and to establish those of 
Greece, which proved extremely dis- 
agreeable to the Scythians, and at length 
destructive to himself. For entering 
one day a thick wood, to perform his 
vow to"Cybele as secretly as might be, 
he was discovered in the midst of the 
solemnity, and shot dead with an arrow 
by the king himself. There are many 
beautiful apophthegms of this philoso- 
pher preserved by Laertius, Plutarch, 
and other writers. 

ANACLETUS, or CLETUS, reckoned 
by Roman Catholics the third pope, suc- 
ceeded Sinus, as bishop of the church 
of the Romans, in 79, and held that of- 
fice till his death in 92, when he was 
enrolled among the saints and martyrs. 
ANACREON, a Greek poet, b\ at 
Teos, a seaport of Ionia, flourished 
about the 62d Olympiad. This poet 
had a most delicious wit, and love and 
wine had the disposal of all his hours. 
The manner of his death, which hap- 
pened at Abdera, is said to have been 
very extraordinary ; for they tell us, he 
was' choked with a grape-stone, which 
he swallowed as he was regaling on 
some new wine. A small part only of 
Anacreon's works remains; and these 
consist chiefly of bacchanalian songs and 
love sonnets. "The odes of Anacreon 
(says Rapin) arc flowers, beauties, and 
perpetual graces." 

ANARIA, G. L., a noble Calabrian 
cosmographer. B. 1561; author of a 
celebrated work on demonology, pub- 
lished at Venice, "apud Aldum." D. 

ANASTASIUS I., emperor of the 
East. B. at Illyricum, 430, and d. 518. 
He was elevated to the throne in 491. — 
II., raised to the throne of Constantino- 
ple from the condition of secretary, 713, 
was a man of learning, and a zealous 
Catholic, yet he did not neglect the de- 
fence of the empire, then threatened by 
the Saracens. He was put to death by 
Leo, who had usurped the crown. 

ANASTASIUS I., pope, a Roman, 
succce 'ed Siricius in 328, and d. 402. 




His epistle to John, bishop of Jerusa- 
lem, who had written to luui in behalf 
of Ruftiuus, a presbyter of Aquileia, is 
extant, together with Kuffiuus'' apology. 
— II., son of a Roman citizen, succeeded 
Pope Gclasius in 496, and d. in 498. — 
III., a Roman by birth, was raised to 
the p;!^>al chair, after Sergius. 911, and 
d. two years afterwards. — IV., succeed- 
ed Eugcnius III., 1153, and d. the fol- 
lowing year. Ten letters of this pope 
are preserved in the Collections of Coun- 
cils by Labbe and Harduin, and in Du 
Chesne's History of France. — TuEoroLi- 
tanis, bishop of Antioch in the 6th 
century, banished by Justin the Young- 
er for holding the opinion that the body 
of Christ was incapable of suffering even 
before the resurrection. He was after- 
wards restored to his see by Mauritius. 
D. 599. — Bibliothecakics, a Roman ab- 
bot, of Greek origin, of the 9th century; 
author of " Liber Pontifical is." He was 
principal librarian in the Vatican. 

ANAXAGORAS, of Clazomena?, a cel- 
ebrated philosopher. B. 500 b. c. He 
inherited a considerable estate in his 
own country, which lie relinquished to 
indulge his thirst for knowledge at 
Athens, where he applied to the study 
of poetry and eloquence, and taught 
philosophy, having had among his pu- 
pils Euripides, the tragedian, and Peri- 
cles, the orator. His reputation, how- 
ever, created him enemies, and he was 
condemned to death on a charge of 
atheism, but the sentence was com- 
muted into banishment. Anaxagoras 
then withdrew to Lampsacus, where he 
taught philosophy undisturbed until his 
death, which happened in his 72d year, 
428 15. c. 

ANAXANDRIDES, a Greek comic 
poet, said to have been the first who in- 
troduced love adventures on the stage. 
He was a native of Rhodes, and starved 
to deatli at Athens, for libelling the gov- 
ernment. B. 400 b. c. 

ANAXARCHUS, a Grecian philoso- 
pher of the Eleatie sect of Leucippus. 
He was the friend and companion of 
Alexander the Great. 

ANAXIMANDER, the friend and 
dis?iplo of Thales, of Miletus. B. 610 
B.C. He had a considerable knowledge 
of astronomy and geography, and was 
the first who noticed the obliquity of 
the ecliptic: he also taught that the 
moon receives her light from the sun, 
and that the earth is globular; and to 
him is ascribed the invention of the 
sphere and geographical charts. 

ANAXIMENES, the pupil and suc- 

cessor of Anaximander. He maintained 
that air is the first principle of all tilings; 
and Pliny attributes to him the inven- 
tion of the sun-dial. — A Greek historian 
and philosopher of Lampsacus, son of 
Aristocles. He was one of the preceptors 
of Alexander the Great, whom he ac- 
companied in most of his campaigns, 
and afterwards wrote the history of his 
reign, and that of his father Philip. 

ANCIIIETA, Jos., a Portuguese Jes- 
uit, surnamed the Apostle of tie New 
World. B. at Teneritfo, 1538, and d. 
1597. At the age of 2S he went to Bra- 
zil, where he founded the first college 
for the conversion of the savage natives. 

ANCHW1TZ, N., the Cracovian nun- 
cio to the Poli'sh Diet ; a man as talented 
as base ; who sold Poland to Russia and 
her partitionary colleagues, in 1782, and 
was hanged the year after, in an insur- 
rection of the people. 

ANCILLON, David, a Protestant di- 
vine. B. at Metz, who in his youth 
refused to sacrifice his religion to the 
solicitations of the Jesuits. He studied 
divinity and philosophy at Geneva, un- 
der Du Pin, Spnnheim, the Dcodati, 
&c, and deserved to be recommended 
by the synod of Charenton to the church 
of Meaux. After the revocation of the 
edict of Nantes, he retired to Frankfort, 
and settled at Ilanau, where his dis- 
courses were heard and admired by the 
most crowded audiences. His colleagues 
in the ministry, however, were jealous 
of his popularity, and their little in- 
trigues forced him to abandon the place. 
He went to settle at Berlin, where ho 
was received with kindness by the court, 
and had the satisfaction to see his family 
promoted to places of honor and trust. 
As his learning was very extensive, he 
published several useful works, and 
from the affluence of his circumstances, 
he made so judicious a collection or 
books, that it was frequently visited as 
a curiosity by foreigners who travelled 
through Metz. The best known of his 
works are, "A relation of the contro- 
versy concerning traditions, 1657;" 
"An apologv for Luther, Zuinglius, 
and Beza, 1666;" "The Life of William 
Farel;" "Conversations;" two volumes, 
12mo, published by his son. D. 1692. — 
Charles, eldest son of the foregoing, 
was b. at Metz, July 29th, 1659, and was 
made inspector of the French courts of 
justice, in Berlin, and historiographer 
to the king. He wrote on the edict of 
Nantes, and the persecution of the 
Protestants. &c. D. at Berlin, 1751. 

ANCOURT, Flokekt Cakton d', a 




French actor and dramatic writer. B. at 
Fontainbleau, 1661. The Jesuits tried to 
gain him into their society, but he pre- 
ferred the study of philosophy and law to 
divinity, and at last turned his thoughts 
to the stage by marrying an actress. _ In 
this attempt he obtained credit to him- 
self and wealth to the actors. His con- 
versation was so agreeable that he was 
universally courted, and Louis XIV. be- 
stowed many marks of his favor upon 
him, as also Hie duke of Bavaria, whose 
arrival at Paris was celebrated by the 
poet, by a particular entertainment writ- 
ten on the occasion. Ancourt retired, in 
1713, to his estate at Courcelles le Roy, 
in Berry, that he might devote himself 
to religion. He there translated the 
Psalms into verse, and wrote a sacred 
tragedy, never printed. He d. 6th De- 
cember, 1726, in his sixty-fifth year. 
His plavs were fiftv-two in number. 

ANGUS MART'IUS, fourth king of 
Rome, elected on the death of Tullus 
Hostilius, 634 e. c. During his reign, 
Rome was enlarged by taking in the 
walls of the Aventine Hill, and occupy- 
ing the hill Janiculum, beyond the Ti- 
ber. He also built the bridge called 
Sublicius, erected a public prison in the 
forum, extended the territories of Rome 
quite to the sea, and built the town and 
port of Ostia, at the mouth of the Tiber. 
Ancus died after a prosperous reign of 
24 years. 

ANDERSON, Adam, a native of Scot- 
land, was for many years a managing 
clerk in the South-Sea House, a trustee 
for the settlements in Georgia, and in 
the court of the Scotch corporation in 
London. He wrote a work on the " His- 
torical and Chronological Deduction of 
Trade and Commerce." B. 1695; d. 
1765. — Alexander, an eminent scholar 
of the 17th century, born at Aberdeen, 
and afterwards professor of mathematics 
at Paris; author of various treatises 
principally connected with his favorite 
science.— Sir Edmund, lord chief-justice 
of the Common Pleas under Queen Eliz- 
abeth, to which situation he was pro- 
moted in 1582. He sat on the trials of 
the unfortunate Mary, queen of Scots, 
and of Davidson, the secretary, for 
issuing the warrant under which she 
was executed. " Anderson's Reports," 
folio, 1644, is still a book of authority. 
D. 1605. — George, a native ofTundern, 
Sleswick. During 1644, and the six fol- 
lowing years, he spent his time in trav- 
elling through the East, and visited the 
Arabias, Persia, India, China, the Ja- 
panese Islands, Tartary, and the Holy 

Land. The Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. 
on his return, having vainly endeavored 
to induce him to commit his adventures 
to writing, employed his librarian, Ole- 
arius, to take clown the account from bis 
own mouth as he related them to his 
highness, the scribe being concealed 
behind the tapestry of the apartment. 
This work was afterwards published in 
Sleswick, 1669. — George, a young man 
of extraordinary talents, born at Wes- 
ton, Buckinghamshire, in 1760. His 
parents were peasants, and he worked 
as a day-laborer in the fields ; his genius, 
however, overcame every difficulty, and 
he attained of himself so great a knowl- 
edge of the mathematics, as procured 
him a clerk's place at the Board of Con- 
trol, and afterward the situation of head- 
accomptant. Mr. Anderson published 
a " General View of the Affairs of the 
East India Company, since the conclu- 
sion of the War in 1784 ;" and translated 
from the Greek of Archimedes, " Are- 
narius, or a Treatise on numbering the 
Sand." D. 1796. — James, an advocate 
at the Scottish bar, eminent for his 
learning and antiquarian research. B. 
at Edinburgh, 1662. His first work, 
" An Essay, proving the Independence 
of the Crown of Scotland," published 
1705, procured him the thanks of the 
Seottisli parliament, under whose aus- 
pices he subsequently produced a series 
of the "Charters and Seals of the Scot- 
tish Monarchs from the earliest Anti- 
quity down to the Union with England." 
But the book which gained him the 
greatest reputation was, " Selectus Di- 
plomat urn et Numismatum Scotia? The- 
saurus." D. 1798. — James, a Scottish 
miscellaneous writer. B. at Hernnston, 
near Edinburgh, 1739. He published 
a series of "Essays on Planting," 
which procured him much reputation 
as an agriculturist; and, in 1/80, the 
university of Aberdeen conferred on 
him the degree of LL.D. In 1783 he 
removed to Edinburgh, and projected 
the establishment of the North British 
Fisheries ; for which purpose he was 
employed by government to survey the 
coast of Scotland, and received great 
commendation for his services. Dr. 
Anderson was the author of a numbor 
of publications chiefly on agricultural 
affairs ; he also wrote* for the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica, and was a monthly 
reviewer. D. 180o. — John, F.R.S., 
professor of natural philosophy in the 
university of Glasgow, and tounder of 
the useful institution in that city bear- 
ing his name, was born in 1726, at Rose- 




neath, in Dumbartonshire. His great 
characteristic was an ardent desire for 
the instruction of his fellow-men, and 
he was indefatigable in studying and 
exemplifying the application of science 
to mechanical practice ; for which pur- 
pose, in addition to his academical 
labors, he taught his anti-toga-class, as 
he called it, twice every week, during 
the session, to the end of his life. He 
died in 1706, directing by his will that 
the whole of his property should be de- 
voted to the establishment of an educa- 
tional institution in Glasgow, to be de- 
nominated Anderson's University, for 
the use of the unaeademical classes ; 
which may justly be considered as the 
parent of the various Mechanics' Insti 
tutions which have of late years arisen 
throughout the country. — John, son of 
a merchant at Hamburgh, of which city 
he himself became principal magistrate 
in 1725. He was employed in various 
negotiations to different European 
courts; and during his residence there. 
he cultivated an acquaintance with all 
whom he found distinguished for their 
literary attainments, and kept up a vo- 
luminous correspondence with them 
after his return. His principal work 
is, "The Natural History of Greenland, 
Davis's Straits, and the Countries situ- 
ated in the Arctic Circle." D. 1743. — 
Lawrence, one of the chief promoters 
of the reformation of religion in Sweden. 
He was chan ellor to Gustavus Vasa ; 
but having engaged in a conspiracy, he 
passed the years of life left to him by 
the kind's clemency, in retirement. D. 
1552. — Robert, M. D., a native of Carn- 
wath, in Lanarkshire ; author of nu- 
merous works, critical and biographical. 
Of those most highly value 1 are the fol- 
lowing : " Lives of the British Poets," 
in 14 vols., published in 1795 ; " Works 
and Life of Tobias Smollett ;" and the 
" Life of Samuel Johnson." He was 
the friend and patron of genius, where- 
ever it appeared. As it was chiefly 
owing to him that Campbell's "Pleas- 
ures of Hope" was brought out, the 
poem was dedicated to him. D. 1830. 

ANDRADA, Diego de Payva d', a 
learned Portuguese divine, distinguish- 
ed by his eloquence at the council of 
Trent. D. 1575. — Francis, his brother, 
wrote the history of John ITL, king of 
Portugal. — Thomas, another brother, 
was an Augustin friar, who wrote the 

'Sufferings of Jesus." 
ANDRAL, William, an eminent 
French physician, first brought into 

40tice by Murat. He was born at Es- 

pedaillac, in 1769. — Gabriel, his son, 
equally eminent in the same profession. 
He was the professor of Hygiene in the 
faculty at Paris. B. 1797. His " Cli- 
nique Medicale." and " Precis d' Anato- 
mic Pathologique," had a great influ- 
ence in undermining the system of 

ANDKE, C. C, a German writer on 
science, and editor of the "Compcn- 
dione Bibliothek." B. 1763. —There 
was a German composer of the name of 
Andre, whose son, J. A. Andre, first 
applied lithography to the printing of 
music. — John, an* adjutant-general in 
the British army during the American 
war. He was originally a merchant's 
clerk ; employed to negotiate the treason 
of General Arnold, who proposed to 
surrender the American works at West 
Point. He was seized in disguise and 
sent prisoner to the commander-in- 
chief, General Washington. His case 
was submitted to a board of general 
officers, by whom he was condemned to 
death, as a spy, and hung, Oct. 2, 1780. 
His youth, his accomplishments, and his 
character, created a great deal of sym- 
pathy in his behalf. A monument to 
his memory has been erected in West- 
minster Abbey. — Yves Mabi, a French 
Jesuit and mathematical writer. B. 
1675; d. 1764. 

ANDREA, Caval Canti, an Italian 
writer of novels and poetry, whose style 
was admired for its elegance. D. 1672. 
— Cecciiini, a Tuscan poet, who pub- 
lished a tragedy, called "Troja De- 
strutta," in 1063. — Salvadore, another 
Tuscan poet, who flourished at the be- 
ginning of the 17th century. B. 1600. 

ANDREA ADA, Ferdinand, a Por- 
tuguese admiral, who led the first Eu- 
ropean fleet that visited China. He 
reached the coast in 1518. 

ANDREAL, John Rein-hard, a Han- 
overian naturalist. B. 1724; d. 1793. 

ANDREAS, James, a reformer of 
Wirtembers, and chancellor of the uni- 
versity of Tubingen. B. 1528 ; d .1590. 
— John, a bishop of Aleria, in Corsica, 
and a great promoter of the art of print- 
ing. B. 1417 ; d. 1475. — John, a famous 
canonist of Florence. His austerity was 
such that he was said to have laid upon 
the bare ground for twenty years, with 
nothing to cover him but a bear-skin. 
He had a daughter, of great beauty and 
learning, who was accustomed to lecture 
to his students during his absence. Her 
name was Novella, and in her honor he 
called one of his commentaries " The 
Novellae." D. of the plague in 1348. — 




John was b. a Mahometan, at Xativa, 
In the kingdom of Valencia, and suc- 
ceeded his lather in the dignity of alfaqui 
of that city. He was enlightened with 
the knowledge of the Christian religion, 
by being present at a sermon in the great 
church ot Valencia on the day of the As- 
Bumption of the blessed Virgin, in 1417. 
Upon this he desired to be baptized; 
and in memory of the calling of St. John 
and St. Andrew, he took the names of 
John Andreas. At the desire of Martin 
Garcia, bishop of Barcelona, he under- 
took to translate from the Arabic, into 
the language of Arragon, the whole law 
of the Moors ; and after having finished 
this undertaking, he composed his fa- 
mous work of " The Confusion of the 
Sect of Mahomet:" it contains 12 chap- 
ters, wherein he has collected the fabu- 
lous stories, absurdities, impossibilities, 
lies, and contradictions, which Mahomet 
has dispersed in the Koran. This book, 
which was published at first in Spanish, 
has been translated into several lan- 
guages ; and all those who write against 
the Mahometans quote it very much. 

ANDREINI, Isabella, a native of 
Padua, an excellent poetess and most 
celebrated actress toward the beginning 
cf the 17th century. — Francis, a cel- 
ebrated comic writer of Pistoa. D. 1616. 
— John Baptiste, his son, a dramatic 
writer, whose "L'Adamo" is said to 
have suggested to Milton his " Paradise 

ANDRELINI, Publio Festo, an Ital- 
ian, who was poet-laurtate to Louis XII. 
D. 1518. 

ANDEEOSSI, Anthony Francis, a 
count of France, distinguished as a mil- 
itary officer and diplomatist, who served 
under Napoleon, both in Italy and Egypt. 
He was afterwards an ambassador to 
London, Vienna, and Constantinople, 
and author of several military memoirs. 
B. 1761 ; d. 1828.— Francis," a French 
engineer, who assisted in forming the 
canal of Laiuruedoc. D. 1688. 

ANDREOZZI, a celebrated Italian 
composer. B. 1767. 

ANDRES, Don Juan, a Spanish au- 
thor, who wrote on the " Origin of Let- 

ANDRE DES VOSGES, J. F., author 
of c ' Le Tartare ;"" Paris." B. 1744. 

ANDREW, John, a learned bishop of 
Aleria, in Corsica; and editor of the 
works of Herodotus, Livy, and other 
classics. D. 1493.— Bishop of Crete. B. 
at Damascus, and d. about 720. He 
wrote commentaries on the Scriptures, 
&c, published at Paris, 1644. — of Ratis- 

bon, an historian of the 15th ecn'ury. 
who wrote a chronicle of the dukes or 
Bavaria, and a history of Bohemia. — Of 
Pisa, a sculptor and architect. B. 1270; 
d. 1845. He built several grand struc- 
tures at Florence and Venice ; and also 
obtained great reputation as a painter, 
poet, and musician. — Of Cyrene, an im- 
postor who, in the reign of Trajan, had 
the art to deceive his fellow-countrymen, 
the Jews, into a belief that he was or- 
dained to be their liberator. They ac- 
cordingly revolted, and horrible cruelties 
were committed on both sides before 
thev were reduced to obedience. 

ANDREWS, Henry, a self-taught 
mathematician. B. of poor parents at 
Frieston, near Grantham, 1774, and d. 
Jan. 26, 1820. Having, while in a menial 
employment, occupied his leisure mo- 
ments in the study of astronomical sci- 
ence, he attained therein great proficien- 
cy, and for more than 40 years was a 
computer of the Nautical Ephemeris, 
and the calculator of Moore't Almanac. 
— James Pettit, an English miscellane- 
ous writer, youngest son of Joseph An- 
drews, Esq.", of Newburv, Berks, where 
he was b. 1737, and d. at Brompton,_17 f J7. 
— Lancelot, an eminent English divine, 
bishop of Winchester in the reigns of 
James I. and Charles I. B. in London, 
1565. There is a pleasant story related 
of him, in the life of Waller the poet, 
who, going to see the king at dinner, 
overheard a very extraordinary conver- 
sation between his majesty, the bishop 
of Winchester, and Neale, bishop of 
Durham. These two prelates standing 
behind the king's chair, his majesty 
asked them, " My lords," said he, "can- 
not I take my subjects' 1 money when I 
want it, without all this formality in par- 
liament ?" The bishop of Durham readi- 
ly answered, " God forbid, sir, but you 
should ; you are the breath of our nos- 
trils." Whereupon the king turned, 
and said to the bishop of Winchester, 
" Well, my lord, what say you ?" " Sir," 
replied the bishop, "I have no skill to 
judge of parliamentary eases." The 
king answered, " No put-off's, my lord : 
answer me presently." " Then, sir," 
said he, " I think it lawful for you to 
take my brother Neale's money, for he 
offers it." This prelate d. September 
27, 1626, having written many tracts, 
particularly " A Manual of Private De- 
votions and Meditations for every Day 
in the Week ;" "A Manual of Direc- 
tions for the Visitation of the Sick," and 
" Tortura Torti." — Loring, an editor of 
Boston. D. 1805. — John, provost of the 




university of Pennsylvania, distinguish- 
ed as a scholar. B.'l746 ; d. 1813. 

AXDE1EX, Bertraxd, of Bordeaux, 
the restorer of the art of engraving med- 
als, which had declined after the reign 
of Louis XIV. B. 1761 ; d. 1822. 

AXDRIEUX, Frederick William 
John Stanislaus, a fertile dramatic poet 
of France, whose works have great pop- 
ularity, lie was a deputy in 1798, and 
distinguished himself by his speeches 
in favor of primary schools and the 
liberty of the press. He opposed the 
measures of Napoleon when he was first 
consul, but the emperor gave him the 
legion of honor, ancl made "him a profes- 
sor in the college of France. His prin- 
cipal works are " Anaximander," " Les 
Etourdes," " Decade Philosophique," 
" Moliere avec ses Amis," "Brutus," 
and the " Examen Critique du Theatre 
des Grecs." B. 1759 ; d. 1S33. 

AXDEIOLI, M. A., a Veronese phy- 
sician; author of a work on "Platonic 
Love., 71 1676. 

ANDRISCUS, a man of mean extrac- 
tion, who, pretending to be the son of 
Perseus, the last king of Macedonia, 
took the name of Philip, and was called 
Pseudo Philippus. Having obtained a 
signal victory over Juvcntus, the Roman 

Eraetor, he assumed the kingly power ; 
ut in the end was conquered by Me- 
tellus, before whom he walked in chains. 
_ ANDROMACHUS, of Crete, physi- 
cian to Xero ; he wrote, in elegiac verse, 
a description of the Theriaca, a medi- 
cine which he invented.— Of Cyresthes, 
a Greek architect, who built the famous 
octagonal Temple of the Winds, at 
Athens, which, till lately, was used as 
a mosque by the Turks. He is also said. 
to be the inventor of the weathercock. 
— Livius, the oldest dramatic author in 
the Latin language, who flourished 
about 240 years "b. c— Of Rhodes, a fol- 
lower of Aristotle, and to whom we are 
indebted for restoring and publishing 
the. works of that philosopher, 63 b. c. — 
Of Thessalonica, a learned Greek of the 
15th century. D. 1478. — I., emperor of 
of the East, was the son of Isaac, and 
grandson of Alexis Comnenus. He was 
of an active martial mind, and eloquent: 
but had many vices. On the death of 
his cousin, the emperor Manuel, in 1163, 
he was chosen partner in the govern- 
ment with Alexis II., who, being a mere 
youth., soon fell a sacrifice to his coad- 
jutor's thirst for power ; but the people, 
exasperated at his various cruelties, pro- 
claimed Isaac Angelas emperor, put out 
the eyes c fAndronicus, led him' through 

the streets in derision, and at length 
stabbed him, aged 73. »a. n. 1185. 

snrnamed the Elder, succeeded Michael 
VIII., in 1283; but was glad to find 
refuge in a cloister, in 1325, his grand- 
son having driven him from the throne. 

an eminent French architect of the 16th 
century, who designed the Pont Xeuf, 
and commenced the building of it in 
1578. He was also employed, in 1596, 
to continue the gallery of the Louvre; 
but was obliged to quit France during 
the persecution of the Protestants. 

AXDROS. Edmund, a governor of the 
province of Xew York in 1674, and sub- 
sequently of Xew England. He was a 
tyrant and a bigot, who restrained the 
press, imposed taxes, prohibited mar- 
riage, according to his will. At length 
his capricious and arbitrary conduct 
roused the people into revolt. On the 
morning of April 18, 1689, the people 
of Boston took up arms against him, 
assisted by some from the country, 
seized both the council and the gov- 
ernor and had them confined. In the 
February following he was sent to En- 
gland for trial, but the case involved the 
government in such a dilemma that 
they dismissed it without coming to a 
final decision. In 1692 he was made 
governor of Virginia, where he eon- 
ducted himself with more discretion. 
He died in London, in 1714. Fort An- 
droscoggin was named after him. 

AXDRUS, Joseph Y., one of the first 
agents of the Colonization Society, who 
died at Sierra Leone, in 1821. 

AXDRY, Nicholas, a physician and 
medical author, of Lyons, in the 17th 
century ; afterwards doan of the faculty 
of medicine in the royal college of Paris 
where he also filled a professor's chair. 
D. 1742. 

ANEURIN, a British poet and chief- 
tain of the 6th century, supposed by 
some authors to be the" same with Gil- 
das, the historian ; he took part in the 
battle of Cattraeth, which he made the 
subject of a poem ; this, and " Odes of 
the Months, form the whole of his 
known works ; and are to be found in 
the Welsh Archaeology. D. 570. 
_ ANFOSSI, Pasquale, an Italian mu- 
sician, b. at Naples, who was compo- 
ser to the theatre at Rome, and after- 
wards travelled to Paris, where he per- 
formed his "Persecuted Unknown," 
but the delicate and beautiful music of 
the piece did not find the warmest re- 
ception. From France he went to Lon- 




don, where he was director of the Italian 
theatre in 178a. ' He returned to Eome 
in 1795, and brought out several nieces, 
whose success compensated him for his 
many disappointments. He frequently 
reminds us of Sacchini and Piccini, bis 
masters, after whom he formed his 
style; but bis taste, expression, and 
style of progression are extraordinary. 
His principal works are, " La Fruta 
Gardinieri," "II Geloso di Cimento," 
" Avaro," " II Carioso Indiscreto," 
'• Viaggiatori Felici," &c, which are 
mostly comic operas. He wrote, be- 
sides," several oratorios and psalms. B. 
1729; d. 1795. 

ANGE, Francis, a planter of Penn- 
sylvania, who lived till lie was 134 years 
old. He remembered the death of 
Charles I., and at 130 was in good 
health and sound mind. D. 1767. 

Carmelite of Toulouse, whose real name 
was la Brosse. He travelled into Per- 
sia as missionary, and translated the 
Persian pharmacopoeia into Latin, be- 
sides writing a treatise on the language 
of the country, a useful and very valua- 
ble performance. He d. at Perpignan, 

ANGELI, Bonaventura, a celebrated 
historian, of Parma. D. 1576.— Peter, 
a distinguished modern Latin poet. B. 
at Barga, Tuscany, 1517 ; d. 1596. 

ANGELICO, John, an Italian Domin- 
ican, who painted the chapel of Nicholas 
V. D. 1448. 

ANGELIS, Stephen he, an Italian 
mathematician of the 17th century ; he 
was for some time a Jesuit, but quitted 
the order, and became a teacher of 
mathematics at Padua. 

ANGELO, Fioriozzoli, a Florentine 
poet, honored by Clement Vllth's friend- 
ship, and much esteemed; author of 
"Discorso degli Animali," "I Lucidi," 
and "La Trinuzzia," comedies, and a 
great variety of other works. He is 
chiefly admired by his countrymen for 
the purity and beauty of his diction. 
X>. 1548.— Policiano, b. in 1454 ; author 
of numerous works, in prose and verse, 
translations from Greek and Latin : 
"Iviisticus," " Orfeo Favola," &c. — Mi- 
chael Buon'arotti, the greatest of Italian 
artists, alike eminent in painting, sculp- 
ture, and architecture, no bad poet, and 
a noble-hearted man. He was descend- 
ed from an ancient family of the counts 
of Canosa, and was b. at Caprese or 
Chiusi, in 1474. It is said that he was 
suckled by a woman of Settinianno, who 
was the wife of a distinguished sculp- 

tor, so that he drank in the influences 
of one of the great arts in which he was 
destined to excel with his milk. He 
gave evidence of genius at an early age. 
so much so as to excite the jealousy of 
his young rivals, one of whom, Forrigi- 
ano, gave him a blow, the marks of 
which he carried to his grave. Per- 
haps, however, the impetuous boldness 
of Michael was as much the cause of 
their encounter as bis genius. Ghirlan- 
daio was his first master in drawing, 
and Bertholdo in statuary. Before ho 
was 16 he copied the head of a satyr in 
marble with such skill as to excite uni- 
versal admiration. Attracting no less 
attention as a painter, he was commis- 
sioned, in connection with Leonardo da 
Vinci, to decorate the senate hall of Flo- 
rence. In the prosecution of this order, 
he sketched his famous cartoon of a 
scene from the Pisan war. Pope Julius 
II. then invited him to Rome, and in- 
trusted him with the erection of his se- 
pulchral monument. This work was 
twice interrupted, once by the artist 
himself, whose pride had been offended 
by the pope, and a second time by the 
petty envy of his cotemporary. Hra- 
maiite and Juliano da San Gcello per- 
suaded the pope to get Michael to paint 
the dome ot the Sistine chapel, in the 
hope that he would fail, and so abandon 
the favor of his patron. Angelo refused 
the task, but being ordered to undertake 
it, he executed the frescoes with such 
masterly genius that they excited gen- 
eral wonder and praise. The chapel is 
to this day one of the grandest monu- 
ments of art. Michael then returned to 
his labors for the sepulchre, when Julius 
died. But Adrian VI. commissioned 
him to complete the work, which he 
did, making many statues for it, and 
particularly the statues of Moses and 
Christ, which were afterwards placed in 
the church "della Minerva," at Rome. 
Under Clement VII. he finished the new 
Sacristy, and Laurentindan library at 
Florence. In the first the monuments 
of the Medici are by him, e. g., the fig- 
ures of Day and Night. Tumultuous 
times followed in Italy, which separated 
him from his public labor for a while, 
but when these had passed, he was en- 
gaged to paint the Last Judgment for 
the Sistine chapel. He was already sixty 
vears of age, and hesitated about under- 
taking a work which might hazard his 
fame." But the subject was one con- 
genial to his own profound and lofty 
tone of thought. How he accomplished 
it, the grand and gigantic picture which 




has ever since been alike the worship 
and the despair of succeeding artists, is 
the proof. His sublime and inexhausti- 
ble mind poured over the broad and 
high walls of the chapel the profoundest 
studies, the richest experience, and the 
holiest sentiments of the man. At a 
later day he painted a " Conversion of 
Sr. Paul," and a " Crucifixion of St. 
Petor," and he sculptured a ground of 
the. "Descent of Christ into Hell," and 
a Bacchus, which Raphael said was equal 
to the masterpieces of Phidias and 
Praxiteles. In 1546 he was compelled 
to continue the building of St. Peter's, 
the plans of which he recovered from 
their confusion, and corrected. The 
capitol of the Farnese palace and other 
edifices were the work of his hands. 
His style in architecture was grand and 
imposing, full of untamed imagination 
and native original strength. Indeed, 
all his works, his poetic;d and prose 
writing as well as has statues, partook 
of the character of the man, who was 
ardent, severe, firm, and haughty, but 
profound, original, and true. D. at 
Rome in 1564.— Michael, another of the 
name, but better known as Caravaggio, 
from the place of his birth, was at first 
no other than a day-laborer ; but having 
seen some painters at work upon a brick 
wall which he had helped to raise, he 
was so charmed with their art, that he 
immediately applied himself to the study 
of it, and in a t'(;v,- years made so con- 
siderable a progress, that in Venice, 
Rome, and other parts of Italy, he was 
cried up and admired as the author of a 
new style in painting. His pieces are 
to be mot with in most of the cabinets 
in Europe ; and one picture of his 
drawing is in the Dominican church at 
Antwerp, which Rubens used to call 
his master. B. 1569; d. 1609. 

ANGELONI, Francesco, an Italian 
historian, principally known by an elab- 
oi ate work on the history of Rome, 
which he illustrated by a reference to 
ancient medals. D. 1652. — Luigi, a dis- 
tinguished Italian writer, who lived at 

ANGELUCCI, Theodore, an Italian 
poe. and physician, who held a profes- 
sorship at Padua, was a member of the 
academy of Venice, and principal phy- 
sician at Montagnana, where he d. 1600. 

AXGELUS, Christopher, a Greek, 
who, being driven from his cwn country 
by the Turks, found an asy'um in En- 
gland in 1608; and, under ;he patron- 
age of the bishop of Norwich, he was 
placed in Trinity college, Cambridge, 

whence he removed to Baliol college, 
Oxford, where he was of great service 
to the junior students, and where he <L 
1633. He published many works in 
Greek, English, and Latin. 

AXGERSTEIN, John Julius, a dis- 
tinguished patron of the fine arts. B. at 
St.'Petersburg, 1735 ; d. at Blackheath, 
Jan. 22. 1822. lie removed to England 
under the patronage of the late Andrew 
Thompson, and was the first who pro- 
posed a reward of £2000 from the fund 
at Lloyd"s to the inventor of the life- 
boats. His celebrated collection of 
paintings, esteemed inferior to none of 
the same extent in Europe, was pur- 
chased by the English government for 
£60,000, and forms the nucleus of a 
national gallery. 

ANGHIERA, Peter Martyr d', an 
Italian scholar of a noble Milanese fam- 
ily. B. 1455 ; d. 1526, at Grenada, leav- 
ing several historical works, which are 
usually quoted under the name of Peter 

AXGILBERT, St., the son-in-law of 
Charlemagne, and afterwards abbot of 
St. Kiquier. He had a great taste for 
poetry, but nothing remains of him ex- 
cept a history of his monastery. D. 8 1 4 

AXGIOLELLO, John Mario, a Vene- 
tian historian of the 15th century, taken 
captive by the Turks, and made' slave to 
sultan Mustapha, whom he attended in 
an expedition to Persia, 1-173, and wrote 
the history of Mahomet II., in the Turk- 
ish and Italian languages ; also the his- 
tory of (Jsstin Cassan. 'He d. about 1530. 

ANGLES. Count Boissr d', one of the 
committee of Public Safety during tho 
French revolution. B. 1756; d. 1824. 

ANGIOLINI, Francesco, an eminent 
Italian Jesuit, professor at Modena and 
in Russia. He translated Josephus and 
the tragedies of Euripides and Sophocles, 
and wrote a historv of his order. B. 17-JS ; 
d. 1768. 

ANGLES, Thomas, an English priest," 
the friend of Sir Kenelm Digbv, known 
by the several names of Albius Candidas, 
Biauehi, Richworth, White, and Vitus, 
which he assumed in the different coun- 
tries of Europe, where he spent th6 
greatest part of his life. He distinguish- 
ed himself by his learning and genius, 
but his fondness for the Peripatetic phi- 
losophy, and his attempts to apply the 
principles of Aristotle to explain the 
mysteries of religion, created him many 
enemies, who procured the condemna- 
tion of his writings, both at Douay and 
at Rome. He d. after the restoration of 
Charles H., but the year is unknown. 




ANGOULEME, Charles de Valois. 
duke dj natural son of Charles IX. B. 
1575; d. 1650. Catherine de Medicis 
bequeathed to bim her estates, but the 
will was set aside in favor of Margaret 
de Valois. Charles, however, retained 
the title of count d'Aavergue, and in 
1619 was male duke d'Angouleme. He 
gained great reputation as a military 
commander, but was twice charged with 
treason, and the second time condemned 
to death, which sentence was changed 
into perpetual imprisonment. He was, 
however, once more pardoned, and em- 
ployed botli in a military capacity and in 
various embassies ; he also wrote his 
off" memoirs. — Loins Antoine de Bour- 
bon, duke d', nephew of Louis XVIII., 
who fought against Bonaparte, and after 
the downfall of thai leader, was president 
of the electoral college in the department 
of the Gironde. B. 1775. — Maria Teresa 
Charlotte, duchess d', daughter of 
Louis XVI., a princess of understanding 
■ and character. B. 1778; d. 1851. 

ANGUIER, Francis and Michael, 
two sculptors, natives of Eu, Normandy. 
Francis, the eldest, was keeper of tne 
royal cabinet of antiquities, and execute 1 
several great works, particularly the 
mausoleum of the duke of Montmorency. 
Michael's best piece was a crucifix over 
the altar of the church of the Sorbonne. 
The former d. 1669 ; the latter, L686. 

ANGUILLAKA, John Andrew Dell', 
one of the most celebrated Italian poets 
of the 16th century, was b. at Sutri, in 
Tuscany, about 1517. His principal 
work is his translation of Ovid s Meta- 
morphoses, which, though often un- 
faithful, and sinning against good taste, 
has great merit. For the representation 
of his tragedy of (Edipus, a theatre was 
built at vincenza by the celebrated Pal- 
ladio. Anguillara, however, lived and 
died in poverty. D. 1564. 

ANGUSCIOLA, Sopuonisba, a native 
of Almona in Italy, eminent for her his- 
torical and portrait paintings, and also a 
writor of some repute. She bestowed 
such attention to her profession that she 
became blind. Her sisters Lucia and 
Europa also excelled in the execution of 
the pencil. B. 1550 ; d. 1626. 

AN'ICH, Peter, son of a turner, was 
t. at Oberpersuf, near Inspruck, 1723, 
and after being employed as a laborer 
and a shepherd, his genius for mechan- 
ics burst forth, and was improved and 
corrected by the friendly assistance of 
Father Hill, a Jesuit. He was admired 
for his knowledge of astronomy, for the 
elegance and accuracy of the maps and 

charts which he drew : and for tin) supe- 
rior beauty of the pair of globes winch 
he male for the university of his [ruck. 
D. 1766. 

ANICHINI, Lewis, a Venetian en- 
graver, much celebrated for the delicacy 
and precision with which he engraved 
even the minutest objects. It was at 
tiie sight of his pieces that Michael An- 
gelo exclaimed, tiiat the art of engraving 
under his hand had reached the summit 
of perfection. His best pieces was a 
medal of Alexander the Great, pros- 
trating himself before the high-priest at 
Jerusalem, the head of Pope Paul III. 
and Henry 111. of France on the reverse. 

ANivEliSfiiOEM, John James, a 
Swedish officer, who, in the war carried 
on by Sweden against Russia, took part 
against his country because of an ani- 
mosity he cherished against the king. 
He was discovered and sentenced to 
death, but the pardon of the king, in- 
stead of producing gratitude and loyalty, 
rendered his hatred more inveterate. He 
conspired witli the counts Horn and 
Bibbing, barons Ba Ike and Pechlin, and 
Col. Liljehorn, and others, against Gus- 
tavns, and as the unsuspecting monarch 
entered a room where a masked ball 
was assembled, the assassin discharged 
at him a pistol containing two bills and 
some nails. The wound was mortal, 
and the king expired, 29th March, I7'a2. 
Tne 27th of April following tne mur- 
derer was led to execution, but instead 
of repenting he gloried in his deed. 
His right hand and his head were cut 
off. The others were banished. 

AXXA (JOMNENA, daughter of 
Alexis Comnenus, emperor of Constan- 
tinople, and celebrated for the Greek 
history which she has written, in which) 
with great elegance and spirit, though 
often with partiality, she records the 
events which distinguished her father's 
reign. D. 1148. 

ANNA [VANOVNA, daughter of 
Ivan Alexiovitch, emperor of Bussia, 
married in 1710 Frederic William, duke 
of Courland, and succeeded Peter II. on 
the throne, 1730. At the death of her 
husband, 1719, she took for her favorite, 
Biren, a person of low birth, but great 
duplicity ; and when raised to the throne 
her subjects were ruled by this capri- 
cious and cruel minion, wdio, it is said, 
banished no less than 20,000 persons to 
Siberia through pique, malice, and re- 
venge. Anna d. 1740, aged 47. 

ANNAND, William, A.M., a native 
of Edinburgh, who was chosen one of 
th ) ministers and became a popular 




preacher there. He behaved with greaO 
kindness towards the persecuted Pres- 
byterians, and opposed James when he 
wished to dispense with the penal laws. 
At the revolution he was made dean of 
Kaphoe, in Ireland, where he died, 1710, 
aged 64. He wrote a volume of valu- 
able sermons, little known. 

ANNAT, Francis, a native of Kou- 
ergue, of the order of the Jesuits, 
teacher of philosophy at Toulouse, and 
afterwards employed at Rome and in 
France, in the service of the pope. He 
was made confessor to the French king 
1C54, which office he held 16 years, and 
then solicited his dismission from in- 
creasing infirmities. He is known for 
his great zeal in opposing the Jansen- 
ists. D. 1670. 

ANNE, of Austria, queen of France, 
eldest daughter of Philip III. of Spain; 
married Louis XIII. of France, 1615, at 
whose death, 1643, she was declared sole 
legent during the minority of her son, 
Louis XIV., who assumed the reins of 
government, 1661. Anne then retired, 
passing the remainder of her life in 
pious exercises. B. 1604; d. 1666. — 
Anne, of Beaujeu, daughter of Louis 
XI. of France, and wife of Peter Beau- 
jeu, duke of Bourbon ; appointed by 
her father's will gouvernante during the 
minority of his son, Charles VIII. This 
preference excited a civil commotion, 
which was terminated by the defeat of 
the insurgent nobles, 1488. The prin- 
cess held the reins with much firmness, 
and in general acted prudently. D. 
1522. — Anne, of Brittany, queen of 
France, daughter and heiress of Francis 
II., duke of Brittany ; married to Charles 
VIII., of France, 1491; and, on his 
death, 1499, to Louis XII. This prin- 
cess first instituted the order of maids 
of honor to the queen ; first had the pre- 
rogative of guards and gentlemen other 
own, and was the first who gave audi- 
ence to foreign ambassadors. B. 1476 ] 
d. 1514. — Anne, of Cleves, daughter ot 
John, third duke of Cleves, and wife of 
Henry VIII. of England, who divorced 
her. D. 1557. — Anne, queen of Great 
Britain, second daughter of James II., 
by his first wife, Anne Hyde, was boni 
in 1664; married to Prince George of 
Denmark, 1683 ; succeeded to the crown 
on the death of William III., 1702; and 
died, 1714, aged 50. The contention of 
parties during the reign of Anne was 
extremely violent, in consequence of the 
topes entertained by the Jacobites that 
She would be induced by natural feel- 
ings to favor the succession of her 

brother, the Pretender. Her reign waa 
also much distinguished for learning; 
and the number of eminent writers who 
flourished under her, several of whom 
rose to high stations, has rendered it a 
sort of Augustan age of English litera- 
ture, though her own acquirements had 
no share in making it such. 

ANNESLEY, Arthur, earl of An- 
glesea, born at Dublin, 1614. At the 
commencement of the civil wars he 
joined the royal party, and sat in tho 
parliament at Oxford, 1643 ; but hav- 
ing made peace with the republicans, lie 
was sent commissioner to Ulster, 1645. 
He, however, took an active part in the 
restoration of the king, for which he 
was created earl of Anglesea, made 
treasurer of the navy, and, shortly after- 
wards, lord privy seal. D. 1686.— 
Samuel, an English divine, born in 
Warwickshire about 1620; d. 1696. At 
the time of the rebellion, he preached 
some violent sermons against the crown 
and church, for which he received the 
vicarage of St. Giles, Cripplegate ; but, 
in 1662, he was ejected from it for non- 

AN NET, Peter, a deistical writer of 
the 18th century; author of "The Free 
Enquirer," and other works of a skep- 
tical turn. He was a native of Liver- 
pool. D. 1778. 

ANN1US, of Viterbo, a Dominican 
monk, who wrote various books which 
he pretended were the remains of emi- 
nent ancient authors, particularly Ma- 
nctho, Arehilochus, and Xenophon. For 
a time the imposture succeeded, and 
they were printed in 1498. D. 1502. 

ANNO, archbishop of Cologne in the 
11th century. He was chancellor to the 
emperor Henry III., and regent during 
the minority of Henry IV.; and from 
the exemplary conduct he displayed in 
those situations, as well as from the 
sanctity of his life, he acquired the title 
of Saint. 

ANQUETIL. Louis Pierre, a cele- 
brated historian, writer of a "Universal 
History." B. at Paris, 1728; d. 1803. 
— Du Perron, Abraham Hyacinthe, 
brother of the preceding, was born at 
Paris, 1731. In order to gratify his 
taste for oriental literature, he joined 
the expedition fitting out for India, in 
1574, as a private soldier ; employed 
every moment of his leisure in the 
study of the Sanscrit; and made suf- 
ficient progress in that tongue to trans- 
late the ""Vendidade Sade," a diction- 
ary of the language. On the taking of 
Pondicherry by the English, he returned 




to Europe, visited London and Oxford, 
and conveyed the various MSS. he had 
obtained to Paris. lie was then ap- 

f)ointed oriental interpreter in the king's 
ibrary, with a pension, and devoted 
himself to the publication of his re- 
searches. D. 1805. 

ANSALDI, C. J., a celebrated man of 
learning, of Piacenza. B. in 1700. His 
best antiquarian treatises are in Latin. 

ANSART, Andrew Joseph, a French 
historian and ecclesiastical writer. He 
became a Benedictine, but, being ap- 
t ointed to a place of trust in his order, 
Be decamped with the funds, and joined 
the order of Malta. B. 17^9 ; d. 1790. 

ANSCARIUS, bishop of Hamburgh 
and Bremen. B. in France, 801 ; d. 864. 
He preached the gospel to the Danes 
and Swedes, and was very instrumental 
in converting the northern nations to 

ANSELM, archbishop of Canterbury 
in the reigns of William Rufus and 
Henry I., born at Aost, Piedmont, 1033 ; 
died at Canterbury, 1109, and canonized 
in the reign of Henry Vii. 

ANSELME, of Paris, an Augustine 
monk, the original compiler of the " His- 
torical Genealogies of the House of 
France. " B. 1625; d. 1691.— George. 
There were two of this name : the elder, 
a mathematician of some eminence in 
the earlv part of the loth century. 1). 
1440. The latter, his grandson, who 
assumed the name of Ni.i'os, was phy- 
sician at Parma, of which city he was a 
native. D. 152S. 

ANSON, George, Lord, a British 
commander, who managed the fleet of 
ships sent out during the Spanish war, 
to attack the enemy on the coast of 
South Carolina, where he landed and 
founded a town. But he did not ac- 
quire celebrity till he was placed at the 
head of an expedition to the South Sea, 
in 1740. After losing all his ships but 
one, and encountering many difficulties, 
but not without having severely har- 
assed the Spanish settlements, he was 
so fortunate as to capture a rich galleon, 
on her passage from Acapulco to Ma- 
nilla, and to reach England in safety, 
after an absence of nearly four years. 
He was successively made rear-admiral 
of the blue, a lord of the admiralty, rear- 
admiral of the white, and vice-admiral 
of the olue. In 1747 he defeated a 
French squadron, and captured six men 
of war and four East Indiamen. He 
was rewarded with a barony, and rose 
through all the intermediate ranks of 
tho navy till he became admiral, and 

commander-in-chief of the British fleet. 
D. 1762. — Peter Hubert, a miscellane- 
ous French writer. B. 1744: d. 1S10. 

ANSPACH, Elizabeth, Margravine 
of, was the youngest daughter of the 
earl of Berkeley. When little more than 
sixteen, she married Mr. (afterwards 
earl of; Craven, by whom she had 
seven children; but after living to- 
gether thirteen years, they separated 
from mutual feelings of dissatisfaction. 
Lady Craven made a tour, and took up 
her residence in the court of Anspach, 
where she established a theatre, wrote 
plays, directed the performance, and 
became a principal personage with the 

ANSTEY, Christopher, a poet, was 
born in 1724 ; studied at Eton and 
Cambridge : and on succeeding to some 
patrimonial property, resided principally 
at Bath. He blended the avocations of 
a country gentleman with literary pur- 
suits, and, among many other things, 
produced that humorous poem, ''The 
New Bath Guide," which obtained a 
rapid and deserved popularity. D. 1805. 

ANSTIS, John, an antiquary, and the 
author of various heraldic works, was 
born at St. Nets, Cornwall, in 1669, and 
educated at Oxford. He was member 
for St. Gcrmaius, and in 1713 appointed 
garter king at arms. D. 1744. 

ANTAR, an Arabian chief and dis- 
tinguished poet, who lived in the 6th 
century. His works, which form a por- 
tion of the famous Moallakah. are de- 
voted to the description of his warlike 
deeds, and his love for the fair Abla. 
The celebrated Arabian romance, en- 
titled "Antar," by Asmai, affords a 
perfect idea of the manners, opinions, 
and superstitions of the early Arabians* 
and of this there is an English version, 
entitled " Antar, a Bedoueen Romance, 
translated from the Arabic by Terrick 
Hamilton," in 4 vols. 12ino. 

ANTHEMIUS, Procopius, of the 
family of the tyrant Procopius, married 
Flavi'a Euphemia, daughter of Marcian. 
His alliance as well as his valor pro- 
cured him the title of Augustus, 467. 
He gave his daughter in marriage to 
Ricimer, a general, who soon after at- 
tacked Rome and imbrued his hands in 
the blood of his father-in-law, 472. — A 
Lydian, eminent as an architect, sculp- 
tor, and mathematician. He was em- 
ployed by the Emperor Justinian. D. 

ANTHING, Frederic, the com- 

E anion in arms and biographer of the 
imous Marshal Suwarrow, was boru 




&t Gotha, in Saxony, and died at St. 
Petersburg, in 1805. 

ANTHONY, Saint, the founder of 
monastic life, was born at Coma, in 
Egypt, 251. He sold his possessions, 
which he distributed to the poor, and 
retired into the desert, where, for 20 
years, his virtue was exposed to the 
greatest temptations from the wiles of 
Satan, till he prevailed, and saw himself 
at last surrounded by a crowd of fol- 
lowers, zealous to merit his blessings 
and to imitate his piety. He twice 
visited Alexandria to give assistance to 
the suffering Christians under the per- 
secution of Arius. He died 35G, in the 
105th year of his age. — Francis, was 
born in London, 1550, and studied at 
Cambridge, where he laid the founda- 
tion of that chemical knowledge which 
enabled him to impose upon the credu- 
lous and the unwary, by selling his 
panacea of potable gold, on which a 
treatise was printed at Hamburgh, 1598. 
His success as an empiric was great, but 
he was violently opposed by Drs. 
Gwinne and Cotta, and it was con- 
fidently asserted that his nostrum was 
poisonous, and many on their death 
bed attributed their "death to it. The 
inotfeiisivcncss of his manners, his 
learning and his private virtues, how- 
ever, stemmed the torrent of unpopu- 
larity, and though he was fined and 
imprisoned for practising without a 
license, his reputation and his fortune 
increased. D. 1623. — King of Navarre, 
was son of Charles of Bourbon, duke 
of Vendoine, and married Joan d'Al- 
bret, 1548, who brought him the prin- 
cipality of Beanie and the kingdom of 
Navarre. He was a weak and irresolute 
prince. He abandoned the Protestant 
tenets for the Catholic faith, and then 
formed, with the duke of Guise and the 
constable Montmorency, the famous 
league called triumvirate. During the 
civil wars, in 1502, he took the com- 
mand of the army, and Blois, Tours, 
and Rouen surrendered to his arms. 
He was wounded on the shoulder at the 
siege of this last place, and died 35 days 
after at Andeli, 17th Nov., 1562. His 
son was afterwards the celebrated 
Henry IV., of France.— A titular king of 
Portugal, was son of Lewis, the second 
soil of King Emanuel. Hi$ pretensions 
to the throne were opposed by Philip 
II. of Spain, who sent the duke of Alva 
against him, 1580, and obliged him to 
fly from his dominions. Anthony was 
a wretched fugitive in H< ''and, France, 
«nd England. D. at Pari;., 15 l J5. 

ANTIGNAC, a popular French song 
writer. B. 1770. 

ANTIGONUS, one of the generals of 
Alexander the Great, the most powerful 
who shared the Grecian empire, hlain at 
the battle of Ipsus, 301 u. c. 

ANTIMACHO, Makk Anthony, an 
Italian author, who translated much 
from the Greek. B. 1472 ; d. 1552. 

ANTINE, Maur Francois d 7 , a 
French Benedictine monk ; author of 
an " Essay on the Art of verifying 
Dates," &c. B. 168S ; d. 1748. 

of Syria and Asia. He conquered the 
greatest part of Greece, of wuieh some 
cities implored the aid of Rome ; and 
Hannibal, who had taken refuge at, his 
court, encouraged him to make war 
against Italy ; but his measures were 
not agreeable to the advice of Hannibal, 
and he was conquered and obliged to 
retire beyond Mount Taurus, and pay 
a yearly line of 2000 talents to the Ro- 
mans. His revenues being unable to 
pay the line, he attempted to plunder 
the temple of Belus in Susiana, which 
so incensed the inhabitants, that they 
killed him with his followers, 1S7 B.C. 
— Of Asealon, 'a philosopher, and dis- 
ciple of Philo, the Platonist. — A monk 
"iSrlia, Palestine, who wrote in the 7th 
century 190 homilies on the Scriptures, 
still extant. 

ANT1PATER, a native of Macedon, 
pupil of Aristotle, and the faithful min- 
ister of Philip and Alexander. While 
Alexander was abroad, he left Antipater 
in the government of Macedon ; and by 
his prudent management he kept all 
Greece in order. On the death of his 
master, in the distribution of his ter- 
ritories, Antipater obtained the Euro- 
pean provinces. Not long after the 
confederate states of Greece attacked 
him, but he subdued them, and sub- 
verted their democratic tonus of govern- 
ment, on which he was called the father 
of Greece. He died 318 B.C. — L^etius 
Cetius, a Roman historian, who lived 
in the time of Gracchus, and wrote an 
account of the Second Punic War. — Of 
Sidon, a Stoic philosopher and poet, 
much praised by Cicero and Seneca. 
He lived about 140 b. c. 

ANTIPANES, a Greek comic poet, 
in the time of Alexander, who gained 
three prizes at the Olympic games. 

ANTIPHILUS, a painter, rival of 
Apelles ; celebrated for a fine drawing 
representing a youth blowing a spark 
of fire. 

ANTIPHON, the Rhamnusian, an 




Athenian orator, who flourished 430 b.c. 
He was the first who laid down the rules 
of oratory, and assisted in establishing 
the tyranny of the four hundred ; for 
which he was put to death, 411 b. c. 

ANTIQUARIOUS, James, a learned 
Italian scholar of Campanus. D. 1512. 

ANTISTI1ENES, founder of the sect 
of the Cynics, by whose means Melitus 
■was put to death, and Anytus banished, 
for their persecution of Socrates. He 
was born at Athens, 423 b. c. 

ANTOINETTE, Marie, of Lorraine, 
archduchess of Austria and queen of 
France, born at Vienna, in 1755, was 
the daughter of the Emperor Francis I. 
and Maria Theresa. In 1770, when only 
15 years of age, she was married to 
Louis XVI. ; and when her husband 
ascended the throne she gained the af- 
fections of the people by repeated acts 
of generosity. It was, however, soon 
observed that her natural liveliness 
brought upon her the scandal of her 
enemies about the court, who attributed 
the undisguised frankness and cheer- 
fulness of her nature to levity and indis- 
cretion. An extraordinary occurrence 
added fuel to the flame of calumny, 
while it subjected the name of the 
queen to a disgraceful law-suit. Two 
jewellers demanded the payment of. an 
immense price for a necklace, which 
had been purchased in the name of the 
queen. In the examination which she 
demanded, it was proved that she had 
never ordered the purchase. A lady of 
her size and complexion had impudently 
passed herself off for the queen, and at 
midnight had a meeting with a cardinal 
in the park of Versailles. She was be- 
headed during the revolution of 1792. 
Her fate produced a profound impres- 
sion on the world. 

ANTON ELL E, Peter Antony, Mar- 
quis d' ; a conspicuous character in the 
French revolution. He voted for the 
death of the queen, and for the destruc- 
tion of the Girondists. He was himself 
near meeting the fate to which he con- 
signed others, as he was tried for com- 
plicity in the conspiracy of Babeuf ; but 
he was fortunate enough to be acquitted, 
and d. at an advanced age, in 1817. 

ANTONELLI, Nicholas Maria, count 
of Pergola, who rose through various 
ecclesiastical promotions to the cardinal- 
ship. B. 1 697 ; d. 1767. 

ANTONI, Sebastiano Degli, a Vicen- 

zan noble author. B. in 1665 ; author 

of "The Conspiracy of Brutus," a tra- 


ANTONI A NO. Sylvio, an Italian 

poet, made a cardinal by Clement YIII. 
B. 1540; d. 1603. 

John, a Dutch poet. B. in Zealand, 
1647. He is' principally known by his 
poem in honor of the river Y, which 
flows through Amsterdam ; in which 
city his works were collected and pub- 
lished, 1714. D. 1684. 

ANTONINE, de Forciglioni, a 
Roman prelate and saint. B. at Flo- 
rence, 1389; d. 1459, and canonized in 
1523. He highly distinguished himself 
at the council of Florence, where he dis- 
puted with the Greeks. 

ANTONINI, Annibal and Joseph, 
two brothers, natives of Italy, in the 
17th and 18th centuries: they wrote in 
conjunction the history of Lueania ; and 
Annibal was the compiler of an Italian 
grammar and dictionary. 

ANTONINUS PIUS, Titus Aurelius 
Fulvius, emperor of Rome, was b. at 
Lanuvium, Si!; succeeded Adrian, 138; 
and d. 161. His reign was distinguished 
by tranquillity, and by such excellent 
management, as procured him the title 
of Pius. — Marcos Annius Aurelius, 
surnamed the Philosopher. B. 121 ; 
adopted by Pius Antoninus, whom he 
succeeded, in conjunction with Lucius 
Verus, as emperor of Rome ; and d. 180. 
His deatli occasioned universal mourn- 
ing throughout the empire; the Roman 
senate and people voted him a god, and 
his image was long afterwards regarded 
with peculiar veneration. This emper- 
or's book of meditations in Greek and 
Latin has been often printed, and uni- 
versally admired for the excellence of its 
morality. — -A geographical author, the 
writer of a valuable Itinerarium, whose 
age is unknown. Burton published an 
excellent commentary on it, as far as re- 
lates to Britain. 

Messina, Sicily, 1426; d. 1475. He is 
said to have been the first artist who in- 
troduced oil painting into Italy. — -Nich- 
olas, a Spanish historian. B. at Seville, 
1617; d. 1684. 

ANTONIUS, Godeeroy, a lawyer, 
who became chancellor of the university 
of Gicssen. — Marcus, one of the greatest 
orators ever known at Rome. It was 
owing to him, according to Cicero, that 
Rome might, boast herself a rival even 
to Greece itself in the art of eloquence. 
He defended, among manv others, Mar- 
cus Aquilius; and moved the judges in 
so sensible a manner, by the tears he 
p.bed, and the scars he showed upon the 
breast of his client, that he carried hi* 



cauae. lie was unfortunately tilled, 
during the disturbances raised at Rome 
by Marina and Cinna, in the year of 
Rome, 667. — Marcus, the triumvir, was 
Bon of Antonh.s Creticus, by Julia, a 
noble lady of such merit, that Plutarch 
affirms her to have been " comparable 
to the niseat and most virtuous ladies 
of that age." Marc Antony, losing his 
father when young, launched out at 
once into all the excess of riot and de- 
bauchery, and wasted his whole patri- 
mony before he had put on the manly 
gown. He afterwards went abroad to 
learn the art of war under Gabinus, who 
gave him the command of his horse in 
Syria, where he signalized his courage 
in the restoration of Ptolemy king of 
Egypt. From Egypt he went to Csesar, 
in Gaul ; and after some stay there, be- 
ing furnished with money and credit by 
Caesar, returned to Rome to sue for the 
questorshir,. In this suit he succeeded, 
and afterwards obtained the tribunate, 
in which office he was amazingly active 
for Csesar, who, when he had made 
himself master of Rome, gave Antony 
the government of Italy, with the com- 
mand over the legions* there, in which 
post he gained the love of the soldiery. 
But what was more to his honor, he as- 
sisted Csesar so successfully on several 
occasions, that, twice particularly, when 
Cajsar's army had been put to flight, he 
rallied the scattered troops, and gained 
the victory. He was afterwards a col- 
league ofCajsarin the consulship, and 
on the death of the latter, strove to get 
possession of the sovereign power. But 
the patriots of the daybook part with 
Octavius, Ca?sar's son, against him, when 
he went with an army to Cisalpine Gaul, 
and laid siege to Mantua, which Deci- 
mus Brutus valiantly defended. It was 
during this absence that Cicero spoke 
those famous orations against Antony. 
The senate declared him a public enemy, 
and both consuls, Hirtius and Pausa, 
accompanied by Octavius, met him in 
the field. At first he vanquished Pausa, 
but was afterwards subdued by Hirtius. 
Both consuls fell, and Octavius took 
command of the republican army ; An- 
tony fled -Kith his troops over the Alps. 
But Octavius betrayed the senate, and 
joined with Antony and Lepidus to form 
a triumvirate. Their return to Rome 
•was marked by violence, bloodshed, and 
proscription. They were opposed by 
Brutus and Cassias, who were, however, 
defeated at Philippi. Owing chiefly to 
the military skill of the latter. Antony 
obtained the sovereign dominion, and 


went into Asia, where he had the most 
splendid court that ever was seen. The 
kings and princes of Asia came to his 
levee, and acknowledged no other sov- 
ereign in the East but him. Qneen3 
and "princesses, knowing him, doubtless, 
to be a man of amour and gallantry. 
strove who should win his heart ; and 
the famous Cleopatra of Egypt suc- 
ceeded. When that queen gave out a 
false report of her death, Antony threw 
himselt upon his sword and perished — 
a fit end to a life of dissolute violence 
and crime. — ^Elics Neerissensis, a 
Spanish writer, and an eminent profea 
sor at the university of Salamanca, who 
wrote the " Historv of New Spain," and 
other works. B. 1442 ; d. 1520. 

ANTONY, of Bourbon, son of Charles 
of Bourbon, duke of Vendome. B. 
1527; married Joan of Albret, queen 
of Navarre, 154S ; and d. from a wound 
received in the shoulder at the siege of 
Rouen, 1562. — St., of Padua, a learned 
Franciscan monk, was b. at Lisbon, 
1195 ; d. at Padua, 1231 ; and was can- 
onized. His works were printed at the 
Hague, 1641. 

ANVARI, a Persian poet. B. at Cho- 
rassan. He was well versed in astrol • 
ogy, and composed several books on 
that science; but having failed in a pre- 
diction, he retired from the court of the 
sultan Sangler, and d. at Balke in 1206. 
ANVLLTiE, John Baptist Bovjrignon 
d', a most famous French writer on ge- 
ography. B. at Paris, 1702 ; d. at Paris, 
1782. As much esteemed for the gentle- 
ness and simplicity of his manners as for 
his extensive knowledge. He labored 
at his maps 15 hours a day for 50 years. 
ANYSIUS, or ANISO, Giovanni, an 
Italian poet of some celebrity. B. at 
Naples, about 1472; d. 1540. 

ANYTA, an ancient Greek poetess, 
some of whose compositions are still 
preserve 1. 

ANYTUS, an Athenian rhetorician, 
who aided in procuring the condemna- 
tion of Socrates, and was himself after- 
wards banished. 

APEL, John, of Nuremberg, one of 
the earliest preachers of the Reforma- 
tion, and originally a lawyer. B. 1486 ; 
d. 1536. 

APELLES, one of the most celebrated 
painters of antiquity, was b. in the isle 
of Cos, and flourished in the time of 
Alexander the Great. He was in high 
favor with that prince, who made a law 
that no other person should draw hia 
picture bat Apelles, who accordingly 
drew him holding a thunderbolt in hia 




hand. The piece was finished with so 
much skill and dexterity, that it used to 
be said there were two Alexanders : one 
invincible, the son of Philip ; the other 
inimitable, the production of Apelles. 
Alexander gave him likewise another 
remarkable proof of his regard : for when 
he employed Apelles to draw Campaspe, 
one of his mistresses, having found that 
the painter had conceived an affection 
for her, he resigned her to him ; and it 
was from her that Apelles is said to have 
drawn his Venus Anadyomene. One of 
Apelles'' chief characteristics was, the 
making his pictui s so exactly resemble 
the persons represented, that the physi- 
ognomists were able to form a judgment 
as readily from his portraits as if they 
had seen the originals. His readiness 
and dexterity at taking a likeness was 
once of singular service in extricating 
him from a difficulty in which he was 
involved at the court of Egypt: he had 
not the good fortune to be in favor with 
Ptolemy: a storm forced him, however, 
to take shelter at Alexandria during the 
reign of that prince ; where a mischiev- 
ous fellow, in order to do him an mi- 
kindness, went to him, and in the kind's 
name invited him to dinner. Apelles 
went: and seeinsr the king in a prodigi- 
ous passion, told him, by way or excuse, 
that he should not have come to his 
table but by his order. He was com- 
manded to show the man who had in- 
vited him ; which was impossible, the 
person who had put the trick upon him 
not being present : Apelles, however, 
drew a sketch of his image upon the 
wall with a coal, the outlines of which 
discovered him immediately to Ptolemy. 
— There was a native of Syria of the 
same name, who was the founder of an 
heretical sect, some time during the 2d 

APELLICUS, a philosopher to whom 
the world is indebted for the works of 
Aristotle, which he collected, at great 
expense, r.bout 90 years b. c. 

APEKj Marcos, a Gaul, who was 
among the finest orators of his time. D. 

APIAN, Peter, a German mathema- 
tician and astronomer, who made several 
valuable observations on comets. B. 
1495 ; d. 1539. 

APICIUS. There were three noted 
Eoman epicures of this name : the first 
lived in the time of the republic, the 
second under Tiberius and Augustus, 
and the third in the time of Trajan. It 
was the second one, however, who was 
the most famous. He is said to have 

wasted £1,250,000 on the luxuries of the 
table, wrote a book on the pleasures and 
incitements of eating, ana finding his 
finances reduced, hung himself from fear 
of starvation. 

APION, a historian of Oasis in Egypt, 
who was a professor at Rome during the 
1st century. His " Antiquities of the 
Jews," in which he attacked that nation, 
was answered by Josephus. 

APOLLINARlUS, Claudius, a bishop 
of Hieropolis, who wrote a defence of the 
Christian religion about 177. It was 
addressed to Marcus Aurelius. — There 
was a presbyter of Alexandria of this 
name, in the 4th century, who wrote a 
history of the Hebrews in Greek heroics. 
— His son became bishop of Laodicea, 
and wrote a treatise, which he sent to 
Julian, against paganism. D. 382. 

APOLLODOKUS, a grammarian of 
Athens, flourished 104 b.c. — A famous 
painter at Athens, 408 b. c. Pliny men- 
tions two pictures by him, one of a priest 
of Apollo at the altar, and the other of 
the shipwreck of Ajax. — A celebrated 
architect. B. at Damascus, and lived 
under Trajan and Adrian. He was em- 
ployed by the former in building the 
great stone bridge over the Danube, and 
other structures ; but, falling into dis- 
grace with Adrian, he lost his life through 
that emperor's caprice. 

APOLLONIA, a female Christian 
martyr, who, .at a very advanced age, 
fell a* sacrifice to intolerance at Alexan- 
dria, 248. 

APOLLONIUS, Collatius, a monk 
and poet of Navarre in the 15th century, 
who published an epic on the siege of 
Jerusalem, and other pieces. — Dyscolus, 
a grammarian of Alexandria in the 2d 
century, who wrote a work on syntax ; 
a collection of historical curiosities is 
also ascribed to him. — There was another 
grammarian of this name, who lived in 
the reign of Augustus Cassar, and com- 
piled a Lexicon Homericum, printed at 
Paris, 1773. — A mathematician of Alex- 
andria, about 240 years b. c. He com- 
posed several curious geometrical works, 
of which his book on conic sections alone 
exists. — Rhodus, so called from the city 
of Rhodes, in which he presided over a 
school of rhetoric, was a native of Alex- 
andria, and afterwards became keeper 
of the celebrated library there, in which 
situation he remained until his death, 
240 b. c. He wrote a poem, in four 
books, on the expedition of the Argo- 
nauts. — Tvaneus, a philosophic empiric 
of Tyana, in Cappadocia. B. about the 
Christian era. He visited Rome, where 




Vespasian became his dupe ; but Domi- 
tian sent him to prison. — A Roman sen- 
ator and Christian martyr, who lived in 
the reign of Commodus, and probably 
Suffered death about 186. 

APONO, or ABANO, Peter of, an 
astrologer and physician, born at Abano, 
who made himself celebrated by a work 
entitled, " Conciliator Differentiorum 
Philosophorum et preeipue Medicorum." 
B. 1250 ; d. 1316. 

APOSTOLIUS, Michael, a learned 
Greek of the 15th century. 

APPIAN, an ancient historian. B. at 
Alexandria, whence he weut to Rome, in 
the reign of Trajan, and became an emi- 
nent pleader. He wrote the history of 
Borne in Greek. 

APPIANI, Andre, a celebrated Mi- 
lanese painter. B. 1750. His pieces are 
found in most of the palaces of Milan ; 
but his masterpiece, in fresco, adorns 
the cupola of Santa Maria de S. Celso. 
B. 1750; d. 1818. 

APPLETON, Nathaniel, Congrega- 
tional minister of Cambridge, Mass. He 
was b. Dec. 9, 1693, at Ipswich ; gradu- 
ated, in 1712, at Harvard university; 
and was ordained Oct. 9, 1717. He was 
much distinguished in his time, for 
learning and moral worth. In 1771 his 
alma mater conferred on him the degree 
of doctor of divinity, an honor which 
had been conferred upon but one per- 
son, Increase Mather, about 80 years be- 
fore. He d. Feb. 9, 1784, in the 91st 
year of his age. — Jesse, D.D., graduated 
at Dartmouth college, in 1792. He was 
ordained pastor of the Congregational 
church at Hampton, N. H. in~Feb. 1797. 
In 1807 he was chosen president of 
Bowdoin college, the duties o£ which 
station he faithfully performed for about 
10 years, when his health became im- 
paired. D. 1819. 

APREECE, or RHESE, John, a learn- 
ed antiquary. B. in Wales in the early 
part of the 16th century, and d. in the 
reign of queen Mary. One of his works, 
entitled " Fides Historian Britannia?," is 
preserved in manuscript in the Cottonian 

APROSIO, Anoelico, an Augustine 
monk, born at Genoa. He wrote a num- 
ber of books, but is best known by a 
work, entitled " Bibliotheca Aprosiana." 
B. 1607: d. 1681. 

APTHONIUS, a rhetorician of Anti- 
och, who wrote a book called " Progym- 
nasmatn Rhetorica," in the 3d century. 
APTHORP, East, a learned divine. 
B. in New England, 1732, and d. at 
Canterbury, 1816. The Society for the 

Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts sent him out as one of their mis- 
sionaries to Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
in which state he resided for a short 
time, and then returned to England, and 
obtained the living of Croydon, Surrey, 
about 1765. In 1778 he took the degree 
of D.D., and was appointed to the rec- 
tory of St. Mary-le-Bow, London ; but, 
in 1793, he resigned his living on obtain- 
ing the valuable stall of Finsbury, in St. 
Paul's cathedral. 

APULEIUS, Ltrcrtis, a Platonic phi- 
losopher in the 2d century, b. at Madaura, 
Africa. He composed several boqks, the 
chief of which is a romance, entiJed 
" The Golden Ass," Which has been 
translated into almost all the modern 
European languages. 

AQUA VIVA, Andrew Matthew, 
duke of Atri, Naples, was celebrated 
both as a scholar and a soldier. B. 1456 ; 
d. 1528.^Claode, b. at Naples, 1542, 
became general of the order of Jesuits, 
and d. 1615. — Octavio, a prelate of great 
reputed piety and learning. D. arch- 
bishop of Naples, 1612. 

AQUILA, of Sinope, Pontus, an ar- 
chitect and mathematician in the time of 
Adrian, by whom he was employed in 
the rebuilding of Jerusalem, where he 
embraced the Christian religion, but was 
afterwards excommunicated for prac- 
tising astrology, when he turned Jew. 

AQUILANO. Serafino, an admired 
Italian poet. B. at Aquila, Abruzzo, 
1466 ; d. 1500. 

AQUIL ANUS, Sebastianus, a Neapol- 
itan phvsician of Padua. D. 1543. 

AQUINAS, St. Thomas, called the 
ansrelical doctor, was of the noble family 
of Aquine, descended from the kings of 
Aragon and Sicily. He was educated 
by the monks ot Mount Cassino, and 
removed to Naples ; but the inclination 
which he had to embrace an ecclesiasti 
cal life was opposed by his mother, who, 
after great difficulties, obtained him from 
the power of the monks, and confined 
him in her castle for two years. He, 
however, escaped, and fled to Naples, 
and afterwards to Rome ; and when im- 
proved by study, and the famous lectures 
of Albertus Magnus at Cologne, he ap- 
peared at Paris, and read public lectures 
to an applauding audience. On his re- 
turn to Italy, he became divinity pro- 
fessor to several universities, and at last 
settled at Naples, where he led an ex- 
emplary life of chastity and devotion, 
and refused the archbishopric of the 
city, in the most disinterested manner, 
when offered by Clement IV. Gregory 




X. invited him to the council of Lyons, 
to read the book which he had written 
.against the Greeks ; and he d. on his 
way to join the pontiff at the monastery 
of Fossanova, near Terracina, 7th March, 
1274, in his 50th year. He was canon- 
ized, 1323. His writing's, which are nu- 
merous, and mostly upon theological 
subjects, prove him to have been a man 
of great learning, and extensive knowl- 
edge. They have been published, in 17 
vols, folio. It was in defence of Thomas 
Aquinas that Henry VIII. composed the 
book which procured him from the pope 
the title of Defender of the Faith. 

AQUINO, Charles d 1 , a Neapolitan 
Jesuit, and an eminent teacher of rhet- 
oric at Rome. B. 1654; d. 1740. — Louis 
Claude d', a distinguished musician. 
At the age of 6 he performed on the 
harpsichord before Louis XIV. ; at 8, 
the celebrated Bernier declared he could 
teach him no more ; and at 12 he became 
organist of a church at Paris. B. 1694; 
d. 1772. — Philip, a learned Jew of the 
17th century, b. at Avignon, converted 
to the Christian faith, and received bap- 
tism at Aquino, Naples, whence he de- 
rived his name. He was celebrated for 
his skill in the Hebrew language ; and 
was intrusted by Le Jay with the cure 
of printing and correcting the He- 
brew and Chaldee text of his Polvglot 

ARABSCHAH, a Mahometan histo- 
rian, who wrote a history of Tamerlane, 
and a treatise on the divine unity. He 
was a native of Damascus, where he d. 

called the Lady Arabella, was the only 
child of Charles Stuart, carl of Lennox, 
the brother of Henry Lord Darnley, 
father to James VI. of Scotland, by 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Cav- 
endish. This innocent victim of jeal- 
ousy and state policy, while an infant, 
lost* her father, and thus became heiress 
to a large estate. Several matches were 
projected for her at home and abroad ; 
and her cousin, King James, was inclined 
to marry her to Lord Esme Stuart, whom 
he had created duke of Lennox, and 
whom, before his marriage, he consider- 
ed as his heir; but this union was pre- 
vented by Queen Elizabeth, who held 
the Lady Arabella under restraint. She 
was finally married in secret to the earl 
of Hertford, but some Scottish noble- 
men conspiring to place her on the 
throne, the plot was discovered and she 
was \\ rongfolly arrested as an accom- 
plice of their design. She was com- 

mitted to the Tower, where she passed 
the rest of her life in close and melan- 
choly confinement. D. 1615, in her 
38th year. 

ARAGON, Tullia d', a poetess of tha 
16th century; descended from an ille- 
gitimate branch of the royal family of 
Spain ; and highly celebrated for her wit, 
beauty, and various accomplishments. 

ARA.JA, Francisco, a Neapolitan 
musician and composer in the 18th cen- 
tury, who entered the service of the 
Empress Catherine of Russia, and pro- 
duced at St. Petersburgh "Ccphalo et 
Proeris," the first opera written in the 
Russian language. 

ARAM, Eugene, was a native of 
Ramsgill, Yorkshire, and the son of a 
gardener. His genius displaved itself 
while he followed the humble occupa- 
tion of his father; mathematical cal- 
culations and geometrical knowledge 
were quieklv acquired by him. and, with 
the most indefatigable zeal, Lilly's gram- 
mar, though in unintelligible language, 
was learned by heart, and afterwards 
Camden's Creek. He then with rapid 
steps advanced to the comprehension 
of more difficult authors, till the whole 
store of Latin and Greek literature was 
open to his understanding. He also 
Btudied and made himself perfect^ in 
Hebrew, and with these great acquire- 
ments he gained his livelihood, by en- 
gaging in several schools in the south 
of England. In 1757 he came to the 
free school at Lynn, a perfect master of 
the most abstruse studies, and ac- 
quainted with heraldry and botany. 
He had begun to make collections for 
radical comparisons between the mod- 
ern languages and ancient tongues, and 
already more than 3000 words had been 
selected to establish their affinity in a 
comparative lexicon, when his _ labors 
were stopped by the hands of justice. 
He was arrested at Lynn, 1758, for the 
murder of Daniel Clarke, a shoemaker 
of Knaresborough, who had been mur- 
dered thirteen years before; and, after 
a trial, in which he defended himself 
with coolness and ability, he was found 
guilty of the crime, and failing in an 
attempt to commit suicide, he suffered 
death at York, August, 1759. He ac- 
knowledged the justice of his sentence, 
and attributed the crime to a suspicion 
of adultery between his wife and Clarke. 
Mr. Bulwer has made his story the sub- 
ject of a most romantic fiction, in 
which, however, he has taken great 
liberties with the facts of the case. 

ARATOR, a Latin poet of the 5th 




centurv. born in Liguria, who turned 
the Acts of the Apostles into verse. 

ARATUS, a Sicilian astronomer and 
poet, whose "Phenomena" was trans- 
lated by Cicero, and from which St. 
Paul quotes in his address at Athens. — 
The son of Clinias, who restored Sicyon, 
brought about the Achaean league, and 
rescued Corinth from the Macedonian 
Antisronus. Rewrote "Commentaries'" 
on his own life. D. 216 b. c. 

ARBOGAST, Loris Fr. Ar.. a French- 
man, professor of mathematics at Stras- 
burg, and eminent as a geometrician. 
D. 1808. 

AEBOGASTES, a French soldier of 
foitune, who went to Rome at the time 
of Valentinian the Younger, became a 
general of the army, and after the death 
of the emperor, caused the rhetorician 
Eugenius to assume the purple. He 
was defeated by Theodosius, lied to his 
native mountains and put an end to his 
life, about 395. 

AEBEISSEL, Robert of, founder of 
the abbey of Fontevraud, was born in 
the village of Arbrissel, Brittany, about • 
1047. 15. 1117. 

AEBUCKLE. James, a Scotch poet. 
born at Glasgow, and died in the north 
of Ireland, where he had settled as a 
schoolmaster, 17o4. 

ARBUTHXOT, Alexander, a Scot- 
tish divine and a zealous reformer, was 
born in 153S, and died in 1583. — John-, 
a celebrated writer and physician in the 
reign of Queen Anne, was born at Ar- 
buthnot, near Montrose, and educated 
at Aberdeen. He was appointed phy- 
sician in ordinary to the queen, and ad- 
mitted a fellow of the college. He en- 
gaged with Pope and Swift in many of 
their literary schemes, particularly in 
the satire under the title of " Martinus 
Seriblerus.'' In 1727, Dr. Arbuthnot 
published "Tables of Ancient Coins, 
Weights, and Measures,'" which valu- 
able^work was followed by an " Essay 
concernin<r Aliments," &c, and another 
on the " Effects of Air on Human 
Bodies.'' So excellent a character did 
he bear with his cotemporaries, that 
Swift thus pithily describes him: "He 
has more wit than all our race, and his 
humanity is equal to our wit." D. 

ARCEEE, Anthony, a very learned 
Frenchman, who applied to the study 
of the oriental languages, made a tour 
into the East, and'returned richly fur- 
nished with manuscripts. B. 1664; d. 
1609. — Louis Stephen, a French eccle- 
siastic, poet, and historian of the 18fh 

century ; chiefly known by his works 
on Rochelle and Amiens. 

ARCESILAUS, a Greek philosopher, 
the founder of the second or middle 
academy, was born at Pitane, in ^Eolia 
316 b. c! — A king of Macedon, natural 
son of Perdiccas II., whom he succeeded, 
after murdering his brother Alcetas. 
He liberally encouraged literature and 
the aits, entertained and patronized 
Euripides and Zeuxis, 398 b. c. — A 
Greek philosopher, the disciple and suc- 
cessor of Anaxagoras at Lampsacns, but 
removed afterwards to Athens, where 
he had Socrates for a pupil. — A geog- 
rapher; author of a treatise on all the 
countries conquered by Alexander, in 
whose time he lived.— A Christian di- 
vine, bishop of Mesopotamia, who flour- 
ished under Probus, about 27S, and was 
a zealous champion for the Catholic 
faith, aeainst the Manichaeans. 

AECHENHOLZ, John, a Swedish 
historian, bore tu Ilelsingfors, 1695 ; d. 
1777. — John William von. a very volu- 
minous German author. His two most 
important works are " Annals of British 
History, 1 ' 20 vols., and a "History of 
the Seven Years - War." B. 1742 ; d. 

ARCIIIAS. A ins Lienors, a native 
of Antioch, chiefly known from the elo- 
quent orations made by Cicero, to de- 
fend his right to the' citizenship of 

AECH1GENES, a Greek physician 
of the Pneumatic sect, who flourished 
in the times of Domitian and Trajan. 
His works are frequently referred to by 

ARCHILOCHUS, a Greek satirist, 
born in the isle of Paros, 660 b. c. The 
invention of the Iambic metre is at- 
tributed to him. 

ARCHIMEDES, the most celebrated 
mathematician among the ancients, was 
a native of Syracuse, and related to 
King Hiero. He was equally skilled in 
the sciences of astronomy, geometry, 
mechanics, hydrostatics, and optics ; 
his aptness in solving problems had be- 
come proverbial in Cicero's days, and 
his singular ingenuity in the invention 
and construction of warlike engines is 
much dwelt upon by Livy. The com- 
bination of pullevs for raising immense 
weights, the endless screw, &c, were 
invented by him ; but his genius for in- 
vention was never more signally dis- 
played than in the defence of Syracuse, 
when it was besieged by Marceilus ; for 
among other astonishing novelties, he 
produced a burning glass, composed of 




reflecting mirrors, by which he fired 
the enemy's fleet. At length, however, 
the city was taken by storm, and Ar- 
chimedes, then in his 74th year, was 
among the slain, 212 B.C. 

ARCHINTO, Charles, a learned Mi- 
lanese of noble family, who founded an 
academy for the sciences and mechanics 
in his native city, which he enriched 
with an extensive library, &c. B. 1669. 

ABCHON, Loris, an antiquary, chap- 
lain to Louis XIV. ^ author of a "His- 
tory of the Eoval Chapel of France." 
B. 1645; d. 1717. 

AECHYTAS, a Pythagorean philos- 
opher and mathematician of Tarentum, 
who was one of the first who applied 
the theory of mathematics to practical 
purposes, 400 B.C. 

AECO, Nicholas, Count, a Latin poet, 
born at Arco, in the Tvrol, 1479; d. 

ARCON, J. C. Eleonore Lemioeaud, 
a French officer, born at Pontarlier, 
1733; d, L8»0. 

ARCUDIUS, Peter, a Greek priest, 
born in the isle of Corfu, who wrote 
Beveral pieces in defence of the Roman 
church, and was sent by Clement VIII. 
to Russia, to settle some religious dif- 
ferences I >. 1685. 

ARCUD1, Alexander Thomas d', a 
Dominican of V T enice, who wrote sei 
eral works, chiefly biographical, of 
which the, " Oalatana Letterata" is the 
principal. I). 1720. 

ARCULPIIUS, a French divine of 
the 7th century, who visited the Holy 
Land, and wrote an account of his 

ARCY, Patrick, a military writer of 
the 18th centnrv, born at Galway. D. 

AEDENE, Esprit Jean de Rome d', 
a French author, born at Marseilles, 
1634; d. 174S.— John Paul, brother or 
the preceding, was a priest at Marseilles, 
and superior of a college; but more 
celebrated as a florist than as an eccle- 
siastic. T>. 1769. 

ARDERN, John, an English surgeon 
of Newark-upon-Trent, to whom the 
credit of being the reviver of surgery in 
England in the 14th century has been 

ARDERNE, James, an English di- 
vine, made dean of Chester by Charles 
II. D. 1691. 

ARDINGHELLT, Maria, a Neapol- 
itan author, of noble origin, born in 
1730. He was distinguished in algebra 
and the phvsical sciences. 

AREAGATHUS, a Greek physician, 

who lived 269 b. o., and practised with 
repute at Rome ; but having introduced 
the use of caustics and the knife, he 
was banished. 

AEEXA, Anthony de, a French 
writer of the 16th century, chiefly 
known by his poem on the war of Pro- 
vence, carried on by Charles V. D. 
1544. — James de, a learned civilian and 
writer in the 13th century. He was 
professor of law at Padua and Bologna, 
and wrote "Commentaries on the Di- 
gest and the Code." — Joseph de, an 
officer in the French service, born in 
Corsica: arrested at the opera, Aug. 10, 
1801, and executed Jan. 31 following, 
for an attempt on the life of Bonaparte, 
then first consul. 

ARENDT, Martin Frederic, a cele- 
brated traveller, was born at Altona, in 
1769. He commenced his travels in 
17'.'>, visiting the northern parts of Eu- 
rope, and making researches into the 
antiquities of the countries through 
which he passed. He afterwards trav- 
elled through Spain, Italy, and Hun- 
gary; and it was his practice to carry 
all his papers with him, live on tho 
charity of others, and sleep in the open 
air. I>. L824 

AEESI, Pail, bishop of Tortona, Mi- 
lan, who taught theology, philosophy, 
and rhetoric, at Rome and Naples, and 
wrote some philosophical and religious 
pieces. B, 1574 ; .1. Mil. 

ARET^EUS, a Greek physician in the 
time of Vespasian; his works arc held 

in great esteem. 

AEET1 X, A. and J. G., brothers. B. 
in L769 and 1771; authors of several 
German works on the fine arts, " Ma- 
gazin des Arts du Dessin." 1 — Christo- 
pher, Baron. B. in 1773; a laborious 
German bibliograph, curator of tho 
Royal library at Munich, and member 
of the most famous German academies. 
Among his works are, " Historical and 
Literary Memoirs:" a ''History of the 
Jews of Bavaria;'' "On the Effects of 
Printing;" and many curious treatises 
on Mnemonics, a Universal Language, 
tin' l>i\'minu r Rod, &c. He edited the 
"Aurora" in 1806, and published the 
"Nonvel Indicateur Litteraire," at Tu- 
bingen. 1808. D. 1824. 

AEETINO, Charles, b. in Tuscany, 
in the 15th century. He was secretary 
to the republic of Florence ; and emi- 
nent both as a Greek scholar and a Latin 
poet. D. 1470. — Francis, a learned ci- 
vilian of Italy in the loth century. — 
Guido, a Benedictine monk, who lived 
in the 11th centurv. He rendered him- 




self famous bj discovering a new method 
of learning music, or rather by restoring 
the true principle of the ancient Greek 
music ; and was said to have been the 
inventor of the six notes in music, Ut, 
Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La. They are thought 
to have been taken from a hymn of St. 
John, composed by Paul, in 770, and 
which runs as follows : 

Ut taxis Rt sonare fibris 
Mi ru peslimmi, Fa inuli htorum, 
S"l ve pollulis, la bias reatum. — 

Leonardo, was one of the ablest men in 
eloquence and science of the 15th cen- 
tury, am. left Beveral works, the cata- 
logue of which may be seen in Gesner's 
" Bibliotheca." He d. about 1440, being 
then 74 years of age, at Florence : where 
there is a marble monument erect. 1 to 
him in the church of the Holy I 
with an inscription to the following 
purport: — "Since the death of Leonar- 
do, history is in mourning; eloquence 
is become mute; the Greek and Latin 
muses cannot forbear shedding tears."— 
Francisco, a man of great reading, and 
well acquainted with the Greek lan- 
guage. He studied at Sienna, about the 
year 1410; and afterwards taught law 
there with such a vivacity of genius, 
that they called him the Prince of Sub- 
tleties, and his wit became a proverb. 
He taught also in the university of Lisa, 
and in that of Ferrara. — PiElBO, a na- 
tive of Arezzo. who lived in the 16th 
century. He was famous for his satir- 
ical writings, and was so bold in his in- 
vectives against sovereigns, that be got 
the title of the Scourge of Princes. He 
used to boast that bis lampoons did 
more service to the world than sermons : 
and it was said of him. that he had sub- 
jected more princes by his pen than 
the greatest warriors had ever done by 
their arms. Amino wrote also many 
irreligious and obscene pieces, and was 
the author of some come lie-;, which 
were esteemed prettv good of their kind. 
B. 1491 ; d. 1556. 

ARETIUS, Benedict, an ecclesiastic, 
distinguished for his botanical and the- 
ological attainments, who lived at Berne, 
Switzerland. D. 1574. 

AKGAIR. Gregort, a Spanish Ben- 
edictine, who wrote an ecclesiastical 
history of Spain, which he ascribed to 
St. Gregory. He lived at Madrid, du- 
ring the 17th century. 

ARG ALL, Richard, a poet, who flour- 
ished in England in the time of James I. 
— Samuel, a deputy-governor of Vir- 
ginia, who in 1612 carried off Pocahon- 

tas to Jamestown, whose attack on tho 
settlement in Acadie began the war be- 
tween the French and English, and who 
subdued the Dutch settlements on the 
Hudson. He was knighted by King 
James, in 1623. 

ARGELLATI, Philipo, a printer at 
Bologna, afterwards a magistrate. B. 
1685, -Francisco, his son, author of a 
" Decamarone," written in imitation of 
Boccacio. D. 1754. 

ARGEXS, John Baptiste de Boter, 
Marquis d', a French miscellaneous 
writer, who was invited by Frederic 
William, king of Prussia, to become one 
of his chamberlains. B. 1704; d. 1771. 

ARGENSOLA, Lupercio Leonardo 
d', a Spanish historian and poet. B. in 
Aragon, about 1565; d. 1618. — Bar- 
tholomew, his brother, was canon of 
Saragossa, and chaplain of the Empress 
Maria, of Austria. He was the author 
of a " History of the Conquest of the 
and of a continuation of 
" Zurita's History of Aragon." It was 
said of the two brothers, that the per- 
fect resemblance of their talents made 
their countrymen believe them to be 
twins of Apollo and a Muse. B. 1566; 
d. 1631. 

AEGENSON, Mw:k Rene lb Voter, 
Marquis d\ celebrated as the first who 
introduced lettrea de cachet, during his 
administration of the Police at Paris, 
1697, was b. at Venice, where his father 
was ambassador from the French court. 
He was highly respected for his abilities, 
and the firmness of his character. He 
succeeded d'Aguesseau in the office of 
chancellor, 1719, but was disgraced the 
following year, and d. of a broken heart 
in 1721. 

ARGEXTERO, a celebrated Pied- 
montese physician, who translated Ga- 
len. B. 1558. 

ABGENTIE, John, an eminent Ital- 
ian physician. B. I'd- ; d. 1">7l\ 

AJRGOLL John, the son of Andrew, 
a celebrated mathematician, was b. in 
1609, at Tagliacozzo, in the Neapolitan 
territory, and d. about the year 1660. 
Several philological and archaeological 
works proceeded from his pen, but he 
is best known as a poet. When only 
fifteen, he wrote his Idyl on the silk- 
worm, and two years subsequently, his 
Endymion, in twelve cantos, which ho 
completed in seven months, during 
which period he shut himself up, and 
suffered no one to enter his room, ex- 
cept to brin£ his food. 

ARGOXNE, Don Bonaventure d', a 
native of Paris, author of some useful 




works, especially miscellanies of history 
and literature, replete with entertaining 
anecdotes and valuable reflections, pub- 
hsned under the name of Vigneul de 
Marville. He d. a Carthusian monk at 
Gaillon, near Rouen, 1704, aged 64. He 
wrote also a method of reading the 
^hureh fathers. 

ARGUELLES, Augustus, a Spanish 
patriot during the revolution of 1812. 
B. 1775. 

ARGUSTIN, Antonio, a Spanish an- 
tiquarian, and author of "Dialogos de 
Los M-dallas." B. 1517. 

ARGYROPYLUS, Joannes, a learned 
man who fled from Constantinople when 
taken bv Mahomet II., and contributed 
to the revival of Greek literature in Eu- 
rope. He was received with kindness 
by Cosmo de Medicis, duke of Tuscany, 
placed in the professor's chair at Flo- 
rence, and made tutor in the prince's 
family. He retired from thence, during 
the plague, to Rome, where he lectured 
on Aristotle. He d. of a fever occasioned 
by eating melons, in his 70th year, about 
1478. He translated several of Aris- 
totle's works, in a manner which proved 
him to be an able Grecian, and a scholar 
of the most comprehensive erudition. 
He was an intemperate epicure, so that 
the whole of his fortune was squandered 
in supplying the delicacies of his table. 
He treated the character of Cicero witli 
contempt, because he had said of his 
favorite Greek, that it is a language ver- 
bonim inops. He left some sons equally 

ARIADNE, daughter of Leo I. mar- 
ried to Zeno, who succeeded as emperor, 
474. She was so disgusted with the in- 
temperance of her husband, and so 
eager to enjoy the company of her fa- 
vorite Anastasius, that she forgot her 
dignity and character in barbarity. Ze- 
no, when intoxicated, was shut up in a 
sepulchre, where he was buffered to 
die; and Anastasius, though of obscure 
origin, was placed on the throne. D. 

ARIAS MONTANUS, Benedict, a 
native of Seville, eminent for his knowl- 
edge of modern and ancient literature. 
He was engaged by Philip II. of Spain, 
to publish an edition of the polyglot 
Bible, which he completed, and pub- 
lished at Antwerp, 1569-72. The mon- 
arch liberally offered the author a bish- 
opric, but it was modestly refused, and 
only a pension of 2000 ducats accepted, 
with the honor of being chaplain to the 
king. _ Arias wrote some biblical and 
historical treatises, besides translating 

the Psalter into Latin verse. B. 1527; 
d. 1598. 

ARICI, Caesar, an Italian poet, who 
wrote an admired didactic poem, called 
" La Cultivatione d'egli Olivi." B. 1785. 

ARI FRODE, an Icelandic scholar of 
the 11th century, and the earliest of the 
northern historians. Of his numerous 
writings only the Schedte and Land- 
namabok remain. 

ARION, a Lesbian poet, the inventor 
of dythrambics, but his hymn to Nep- 
tune is all that remains of his works. 

ARIOSTO, Attilio, a Bolognese com- 
poser, who gave lessons to Handel, with 
whom and Bononcini, he composed his 
well-known opera of " Muzio Scevola." 
His masterly execution on the viol 
d'amore, a new instrument, gave him 
applause and opulence in England. D. 
17'J5. — Ludovico, an illustrious poet. 
B. at Reggio, 1474, of a family allied 
to the dukes of Ferrara. His early 
genius displayed itself in the composi- 
tion of the play of Pyramus and Thisbe, 
which he acted with his brothers and 
sisters ; but his father, like the father of 
Ovid, viewed his studies with a jealous 
eye, and bade him forsake the muses for 
the bar. This he did for a while; but 
after his father's decease he returned to 
his favorite pursuits, and, under the 
friendly patronage of Hippolito, cardinal 
d'Este, he began the plan of a poem, 
which was to immortalize the Italian 
muse. The cardinal seems to have 
valued him rather as a scholar and man 
of business than as a poet ; for when 
Ariosto presented a copy of his immortal 
Orlando, the cardinal inquired, "Where 
did you pick up this trumpery, master 
Ludovico ?" He was invited to write in 
Latin by Cardinal Bembo ; but with the 
ardor of a poet he replied, that he aspired 
to tlve first rank of Italian composition, 
while he could only stand as second as 
the votary of the Latin muse. He read 
with attention the works of Homer and 
Virgil, and, with a mind stored with all 
the learning of ancient times, he bor- 
rowed a subject from Bojardo's Orlando 
Inamorato, and produced his incompar- 
able poem of Orlando Furioso. Though 
devoted to poetry, Ariosto was at times 
employed in negotiations ; and when, 
on the death of Hippolito, Alphonso, 
duke of Ferrara succeeded as patron of 
the poet, he showed his regard for him 
by appointing him governor of Graffig- 
n'ana, a post which he discharged with 
honor and fidelity. For his retirement, 
he built a house at Ferrara; an 1 when 
questioned why he, who shone in the 




description of magnificent halls, and 
splendid palaces, bad made it so small, 
he replied, that words were cheaper than 
Btones. lie read his poems with so 
sweet a voice, that his friends were en- 
raptured to hear him ; and he possessed 
so delicate an car, with, at the same 
time, so sensitive and so choleric a tem- 
per, that he once entered into the shop 
of a potter, who had been repeating 
some of his verses with an improper ac- 
cent, and broke a great number of the 
pots exposed to sale. The man expos- 
tulated in vain at the violence of the 
Bti anger. I have no) sufficiently re- 
venged myself on thee, exclaimed Ari- 
osto ; I have broke only a I'qw pots, and 
you have spoiled the most beautiful of 
compositions to my face. He d. at Fer- 
rara, 8th July, 1533, in his 59th year. 
Ariosto possesses all the fire of genuine 
poetry ; lie passes with incredible rapid- 
ity and ease from the terrible to the ten- 
der, from the soft to the sublime; every 
character is interesting; his heroes are 
valiant without rashness ; his hero- 
ines are feminine without weakness ; 
and nature appears in all her native ma- 
jesty, adorned by all the graces of art, 
and recommended by the most enchant- 
ing language of poetry. Besides the 
Orlando, Ariosto wrcte satires, comedies, 
and miscellaneous poems. His principal 
works have been translated into the 
various languages of Europe, and he 
ranks among the classics of the world. — 
Gabriel, brother of the above, very in- 
ferior to him in genius, but a respectable 
Latin poet. His works were published 
at Ferrara in 15S2. — Horace, son of the 
last named ; author of a poem entitled 
Alphaeus, several comedies, and a de- 
fence of the Orlando against the criti- 
cism of Pellegrini. 

ARISI, Fran-cis, an eminent advocate 
of Cremona; author of various works, 
jf which the most valuable is his "Cre- 
nona Literati." B. 1657 ; d. 1743. 

ARIST.ENATUS, a Greek writer of 
the 4th century, praised by Ammianus 
Marcellinus, but only known now by 
two books of elegant Amatory Epistles. 
AEISTARCHUS, a critic and gram- 
marian, of Samothrace, who flourished 
about 150 b. c. Having settled at Alex- 
andria, he was made tutor to the son of 
Ptolemy Philomater. His criticisms 
were so severe that his name has be- 
come proverbial. — A Greek philosopher, 
supposed to have flourished about 4 
centuries b. c. He is said to be the first 
wV-0 knew of the earth's rotatory motion 
on its own axis ; and a work of his treats 

of the magnitude and distance of the sun 
and moon. 

AR1STEAS, a Jew, in the employ- 
ment of Ptolemy Philadelphia, who as- 
sisted in the Septuagint translation of 
the Bible. 

AR1STIDES, an Athenian, whoso 
equity and integrity gained for him tho 
glorious appellation of the Just, was tho 
son of Lysimachus. Being an admirer 
of the laws of Lycurgus, he preferred an 
oligarchy to a democracy, and was, con- 
sequently, the great opponent of The- 
mistocles, the head of the demoeratical 
party. The dissensions between these 
two eminent men were so prejudicial to 
the common weal, that Aristides himself 
once exclaimed, that "the Athenians 
would never prosper till he and The- 
mistoeles were consigned to the dungeon 
for condemned criminals." The self- 
denial and patriotism of Aristides were 
strongly manifested by his giving up his 
share of the command to Miltiades, be- 
fore the battle of Marathon ; and his con- 
duct after the battle, when intrusted to 
divide the spoils, was equally praise- 
worthy. In the year 491 b. c. he war 
archon, or chief magistrate; an officj 
which he filled with high reputation. 
Themistocles, however, succeeded in 
having him sentenced to banishment by 
ostracism. On this occasion, a voter 
who could not write, and did not know 
him, met him, and asked him to inscribe 
the name of Aristides on the shell for 
him. " Did Aristides ever injure you I" 
said the patriot. " No," replied the 
man, " but I am weary of hearing nim 
called the Just." Aristides wrote his 
own name, and returned the shell. Be- 
ing recalled from banishment, when 
Xerxes was preparing to invade Greece, 
he laid all private differences aside, and 
acted in perfect concert with Themisto- 
cles. At the battle of Plataaa he com- 
manded the Athenian forces, and fought 
bravely, and, subsequent to the battle, 
his wisdom put an end to a dangerous 
quarrel which arose between the con- 
federates. He d. of old age aoout 467 
years b. c, and did not leave sufficient 
property to defray the expense of his fu- 
neral. He was buried at the public cost, 
a pension and an estate were given to his 
son, and suitable portions to his daugh- 
ters. — ^Elil's, a native of Adriani, in 
Mysia ; an orator of great practice and 
ability during the reigns of Antoninus, 
Aurelius, and Commodus. — A Christian 
philosopher, of Athens, in the 2d cen- 
tury. Jerome praises his " Apologv f jr 
the Christian Faith," but none o* his 




writings are extaiu. — A painter of Thebes 
in the 3d century b. c, famous for his 
power of representing the passions. — 
QurNTiLiAN, a Greek musician, who, 
about the year 180, wrote a treatise on 
music. — An historian of Miletus, often 
mentioned by Plutarch. 

ARISTIPPUS, founder of the Cyre- 
naic sect of philosophers, was b. at Cy- 
rene about 4 centuries b. c. He became 
a pupil of Socrates, but his node of life 
was so effeminate as to indue j that great 
man to compose the lecture on pleasures, 
which is preserved in the Memorabilia 
of Xenophon. Excellent as that lecture 
is, it had little effect on Aristippus ; 
who, both hi lecturing and living, made 
pleasure the chief good. At Corinth he 
was the companion of the courtesan 
Lais ; and, at Syracuse, he was favored 
by the tyrant, Dionysius, to whom he 
paid his court. He established a school 
of philosophy at Cyrene, which con- 
tinued for about a century, when it was 
merged into the sect of Epicurus. 

ARISTO, of Chios, a Stoic philosopher, 
260 b. c. — An Aristotelian philosopher, 
of Ceos, 230 b. c. A work of his, en- 
titled " Amatory Similes," is cited by 

ARISTOGITON, a citizen of Athens, 
516 b. c, who was executed, after being 
horribly treated, for conspiring with his 
friend Harmodius to slay the tyrants 
Hippias and Hipparchus. Hipparchus 
they succeeded in slaying ; and Hippias, 
who put Aristogiton to death, was ex- 
pelled the state about three years after- 
wards, when the statues of Aristogiton 
and Harmodius were placed in the forum, 
and it was decreed that no slave should 
ever bear the name of either. 

ARISTOMENES, a Greek, son of 
Nicomedes, a descendant of the regal 
family of Messene, whose exertions 
caused the Messenians, in conjunction 
with the Arcadians and Argives, to com- 
mence the second Messenian war, 685 
B. c, in order to shake off the yoke of 
Sparta. The Messenians, however, were 
unsuccessful, and went over to Sicily, 
where they founded the city of Messina. 

ARISTOPHANES, a dramatic poet 
of Athens, cotemporary with Socrates, 
Plato, &c, in the 5th century b. c. His 
comedies were marked by a severity of 
satire which made him at once feared 
and popular ; and his description of 
Athenian manners was so exact, that 
when Dionysius, of Syracuse, wished to 
study the language and manners of 
Athens, Plato sent him the comedies of 
Aristophanes as the readiest means of 

doing so. Only 11 of his 50 et medies 
remain. These are Plutus, The Clouds, 
The Knights, The Acharnenses, Tho 
Wasps, Peace, The Birds, The Female 
Orators, the Priestesses of Ceres, and 
Lysistrata. " The Clouds," which he 
wrote in ridicule of Socrates, is the most 
celebrated of all his comedies : Madame 
Dacier tells us, she was so much charm- 
ed with this performance, that, after she 
had translated it, and read it over 200 
times, it did not become the least tedi- 
ous to her. Aristophanes, having con- 
ceived some aversion to the poet 
Euripides, satirizes him in several ot his 
plays, particularly in hi* " Frogs" and 
his " Thesmophoriazusoe." He wrote 
" The Lysistrata" when all Greece was 
involved in war ; in which comedy tho 
women are introduced debating upon 
the affairs of the commonwealth ; when 
they come to a resolution not to go to 
bed with their husbands till peace should 
be concluded. He invented a peculiar 
kind of verse, which was called by his 
name, and Suidas says, that he also was 
the inventor of the tetrameter and octa- 
meter verse. The time of his death is 

ARISTOTLE, the chief of the Peri 
patetic philosophers. B. at Stagyra, a 
small city in Macedon, in the 99th 
Olympiad, about 384 b. c, was the son 
of Michomachus, physician to Amyntas, 
the grandfather ot Alexander the Great. 
By the advice of the Delphic oracle ho 
went to Athens when about 18, and 
studied under Plato till he was 37. He 
followed his studies with most extraor- 
dinary diligence, so that he soon sur- 
passed all in Plato's school. He ate 
little, and slept less ; and that he might 
not oversleep himself, Diogenes Laertius 
tells us, that he laid always with one 
hand out of bed, having a ball of brass 
in it, which by its falling into a basin of 
the same metal, awaked him. When he 
had studied about 15 years under Plato, 
he began to form different tenets from 
those of his master, who became highly 
piqued at his behavior. Upon the death 
of Plato, he quitted Athens, and retired 
to Atarnya, a little city of Mysia, where 
his old friend Hermias reigned. Here 
he married Pythias, the sister of this 
prince, whom he is said to have loved 
so passionately, that he offered sacrifice 
to her. Some time after, Hermias hav- 
ing been taken prisoner by Maranon, the 
king of Persia's general, Aristotle went 
to Mitylene, the capital of Lesbos, where 
he remained till Philip, king of Macedon, 
having heard of his great reputation, 




Bent for him to be tutor to his son Alex- 
ander, then about 14 years of age. Aris- 
totle accepted the offer : and" in eight 
years taught him rhetoric, natural phi- 
losophy, ethics, politics, and a certain 
sort of philosophy, according to Plutarch, 
■which he taught nobody else. Philip 
erected statues in honor of Aristotle-} 
and for his sake rebuilt Stagyra, which 
had been almost ruined by the wars. 
Aristotle having lost the favor of Alex- 
ander by adhering to Calisthenes, his 
kinsman, who was accused of a conspir- 
acy against Alexander's life, removed to 
Athens, where he set up his new school. 
The magistrates received him very kind- 
ly and gave him the Lyca?um, so famous 
afterwards for the concourse of his dis- 
ciples ; and here it was, according to 
some authors, that he composed his 
principal works. When Aristotle was 
accused of impiety by one Eurymedon, 
a priest of Ceres, he wrote a large apol- 
ogy for himself, addressed to the magis- 
trates : but, knowing the Athenians to 
be extremely jealous about their religion, 
and remembering the fate of Socrates, he 
was so much alarmed that he retired to 
Chalcis, a city of Euboea, where he end- 
ed his days in the 63d year of his age, 
being the third of the 114th Olympiad, 
two years after Alexander. The Stagyr- 
ites carried away his body, and erected 
altars to his memory. 

ARIUS, a divine of the 4th century, 
and the head and founder of the Arian's, 
a sect which denied the eternal divinity 
and cousubstantiality of the Word. He 
was born in Libya, near Egypt. The 
Arian principles, according to Span- 
heirn, were, that Christ was" only called 
God by way of title ; that he was less 
than the Father, who only was eternal 
and without beginning ; that he was a 
creature, having a beginning of exist- 
ence, created out of things, having no 
being before the beginning of all things : 
hence he was made God, and the Son 
of God by adoption, not by nature ; and 
that the Word was also subject to 
change; that the Father created all 
things by him as an instrument; and 
that he was the most excellent of all 
creatures ; that the essence of the Father 
was different from the essence of the 
Son ; neither was he co-eternal, co- 
equal, nor consubstantial svith the Fa- 
ther ; that the Holy Ghost was not 
God, but the creature of the Son, begot 
and created by him, inferior in dignity 
to the Father and Son, and co-worker 
in the creation. His death happened in 
Uie vear 336. 


ARKWRIGHT, Sir Eichard, a man 
who was born in one of the lowest sta- 
tions of life, being literally a penny bar- 
ber at Manchester, but by uncommon 
genius and persevering "industry in- 
vented and perfected a system of ma- 
chinery for spinning cotton, that had 
in vain been attempted by many of the 
first mechanics ot the 17th and ISth 
centuries ; and which, by giving per- 
petual employment to many thousand 
families, increased the population, and 
was productive of great commercial ad- 
vantage to his country. The machine 
is called a " Spinning Jenny." Sir 
Eichard died Aug. 3, 1792, leaving prop- 
erty to the amount of near half a mil- 
lion sterling. 

ARLAXD, Jaites Axthont, a Gene- 
vese painter of great merit. His last 
work was the "Amour of Jupiter with 
Leda," which, from some whim unex- 
plained, he destroyed by cutting it to 
pieces. A copy of it was sold "in the 
artist's lifetime for 600 guineas. B. 
1668; d. 1743. 

ARLOTTO, Maixarho, a facetious 
Florentine of the 15th century, and of 
whose witticisms a collection has been 
frequently printed, was a parish min- 
ister in the bishopric of Fiesole ; who, 
though regarded as a religious buffoon 
bv some, was as benevolent as he was 
jocose. B. 1395; d. 1483. 

ARMELLINT, Makiaud, a learned 
Dominican, born at Ancona, was the 
author of " Bibliotheca Benedictino Ca- 
sinensis," and other works. D. 1737. 

ARMFELDT, Gustavus Maurice, 
Count, a Swedish statesman of some 
note. D. 1814. 

his intrepidity and success acquired the 
title of "the Deliverer of Germany,'' 
was the son of Segimer, a chief of the 
Catti. Having been sent to Rome as a 
hostage, he was there educated, served 
in the Roman army, and for his valor 
was raised to citizenship and knighted. 
But his attachment to his native country 
induced him to revolt, and he became 
one of the most powerfid leaders of 
the discontented German nations. He 
drew Varus, the Roman commander on 
the Rhine, into that ambuscade in 
which he and nearly all his troops were 
slain, and completely baffled German- 
icus; but after having for years with- 
stood the vast power of Rome, Armi- 
nius was assassinated by one of his own 
countrymen, in the 37th year of his age, 
a.d. 21. — James, a native of Oude-water. 
in Holland, 1560, founder of the sect or 




the Arminians. As he lost his father 
early, he was supported at the uni- 
versity of Utrecht, and of Marpurg, by 
the liberality of Ids friends ; but when 
he returned home, in the midst of the 
ravages caused by the Spanish arms, 
instead of being received by his mother, 
he found that she, as well as her daugh- 
ters, and all her family, had been sac- 
rificed to the wantonuos of the ferocious 
enemy. His distress was for a while in- 
consolable, but the thirst af er distinc- 
tion called him to the newly founded 
university of Leyden, where his in- 
dustry acquired him the protection of 
the magistrates of Amsterdam, at whose 
expense he travelled to Geneva ami 
Italy, to hear the lectures of Theodore 
Beza and .lames ZabareUa. On his re- 
turn to Holland, he was ordained min- 
ister of Amsterdam, loss. As professor 
of divinity at Leyden, t<> which <>rhee he 
was i Listanguished him- 

self by three valuable orations on the 
Object of theology — on the author and 
end of it — and on the certainty of it — ■ 
and he afterwards explained the prophet 
Jonah. In his public ami private life, 
Arininius has been admired for his 
moderation; and thongh many gross 
insinuations have been thrown against 
him, yet his memory has h-en fully 
vinlicat'd by the ablest pens, and he 
seemed entitled to the motto which he 
assumed, — a good conscience is a para- 
dise. A lite of perpetual Labor an 1 vex- 
ation <>f mind at last brought on a Biek- 
bess of which he died, I >ctober L9, 1619. 
His writings were all on controversial 
and theological subjects. 

AKMs CRONG, Dr. John, acelcbrated 
poet, b >ru at < lastleton, Edinburghshire, 
where his lather and brother were min- 
isters. He took his degree of M.D. in 
the university of Edinburgh, L782, hut 
he did no: meel with the success in his 

Erofcssion which his merits deserved, 
lis first exertions for the amusement 
of the public were some small medical 
tracts, which were followed by the 
" Economy of Love," a poem after the 
manner of Ovid, objectionable for its 
licentiousness, thougn admired tor the 
spirit of its lines, corrected and purged 
in the edition of 1768. In 174 1 the 
"Art of Preserving Health" was pub- 
lished, aiel on this great and highly 
finished performance, the fame of Arm- 
strong totally depends. By means of 
his friends, the poel was recommended 
to the notice of the great, lie was ap- 
pointed physician to the lame and sick 
soldiers, behind Buckingham house, 

1 and in 1760, he was made physician to 
j the army in Germany. It was at tins 
time tiiat he wrote his poem called 
' "Day," inscribed to John Wilkes ; and 
the freedom of remark which he used 
in one passage upon Churchill not oidy 
drew the vengeance of the satirist upon 
him, but dissolved the friendship which 
had before cordially existed with \Vilkes. 
He collected his scattered pieces which 
he published in 1770, and the following 
year he wrote a "Short Bamble through 
France and Italy," by Lancelot Temple 
He died in September, 177'.», leaving be- 
hind him about £8000, a sum which 
surprised his friends, as they knew that 
his income was small. — John, a phy- 
sician and medical writer, celebrated for 
his researches 011 the causes and phe- 
nomena of febrile diseases. B. 1 7 s-t ; 
d. 1829. — John, an American general, 
distinguishe I in the Indian wars. He 
defended Fort Moultrie, and was in the 
battle of Germantown. 1). 1795. — John, 
son of the prece Ling, was also a gen- 
eral, who at the age of I s joined tho 
revolutionary army, contrary to the 
wishes of his parents, was aid to Mer- 
cer at the battle of Princeton, receiving 
him into his arms when he fell, and 
afterwards served as major under Gates. 
J list before the close of the war, he 
wrote a series of anonymous addri 
which arc celebrated as the "Newburg 
Lett rs," and the effect of which was 
so great, that Washington felt called 
upon to issue an address to counter- 
mand their influence. lie was sub- 
sequently secretary of state t'or Penn- 
sylvania, a member of the old congress, 
a Unite 1 States senatoV from New York. 
minister to France under Jefferson, and 
secretary of war under Madison. Ho 
passed the 1 ttter part of his life in lite- 
rarv and agricultural pursuits. B. L758; 

AKMVNK. Lily Mart, daughter of 
Henry Talbot, the fourth son of George, 
earl of Shrewsbury, married Sir William 
Armyne, and rendered herself distin- 
guishe I l>v her piety and benevolence. 
as well as her knowledge of history, of 
divinity, and of the lang tages. She cn- 
dowed three hospitals. D. 1675. 

ARNALD, Richard, B.D., a nativo 
of London, educated at Benet : s and 
Emanuel college, and presented to the 
rectory of Thurcaston m Leicestershire. 
He published several sermons, but his 
best known performance is his "Com- 
mentary on the Apocrypha." T>. 1756. 

AKJ^ALL, William, an attorney's 
clerk, who became a political writer in 




the pay of Sir Robert YYalpole. It ap- 
pears from the report of a secret com- 
mittee, that, in four years, he received 
£10,997 Gs. Sd. for his pamphlets ; and 
though so liberally rewarded, he died 
of a" broken heart and in debt, 1741, 
aged 2 6. 

ARNAUD, Francis Thomas Bacc- 
lard n', a prolific French writer of the 
time of Voltaire. His principal works 
were " Epreuves des Sentiments/' 
•'Loisirs Ltiles,"' "Colignv,"' &c. B. 
1718: d. 1751. 

physician, who improved himself by 
travelling through Europe, and created 
himself enemies by having recourse to 
astrology. He enjoyed some repul 
at Paris! and afterwards retired to Sicily, 
to Frederic, king of Aragon. He was 
shipwrecked on the coast of Genoa as 
he was returning to attend Pope Clem- 
ent, who Lahore* under a severe ill— 
■ 1818. 

ABNATJLD, Hxnbt, a French eccle- 
Bvastic, the son of an eminent advocate, 
ma born in 1597, and. after having boen 
intrusted with important m 
Borne, and other Italian court-. 
made bishop of Angers, in 1649, an 1 
thenceforth devoted himself strictly to 
the performance of his episcopal . 
Hi> piety and charity were exemplary, 
and the only time .'luring nearly half a 
century, that he quitted I 
was to reconcile the prince of Tarento 
■with Ids father. Angers having 
volted. the queen mother threatened 
that city with severe vengeance, and 
was long inflexible. Amauld at l< 
saved it, by saying, when he adminis- 
tered to her the sacrament. ' 
madam, your God, who pardone I his 
enemies, even when he was dying on 
the cross."' To a friend win) toll him 
that he ought to take one day in the 
•week for recreation, he replied, "] will 
readily do so. if yon will point out any 
day on which I am not a bishop." 1'. 
1692. — Anthony, brother of Henry, was 
born at Paris, in I'll 2, studied in the 
colleges of Calvi and the Sorbonne, and 
took his doctor's decree in 1641. The 
publishing, in 1648, of his work on 
'• frequent Communion," which was 
virulently attacked by the Jesuits, was 
his first appearance on the arena of con- 
tro\ersy. where, during the remainder 
of his life, he made so conspicuous a 
figure. He next espoused the cause of 
Jansenius, for which he was expelled 
from the Sorbonne. The result of this 
was, that he was compelled to live in 

retirement till the year 166S, and, wlide 
thus secluded, he produced many trea- 
tises. The Calvinists were the next ob- 
jects of his attack ; after which he had 
a contest with Malebranche. The in- 
trigues of his enemies having rendered 
it necessary for him to quit France, he 
withdrew to the Netherlands, where he 
continued hostilities against the .lesuits 
and Protestants. He died at Brussels, 
in 1694. Amauld was a man of exten- 
sive erudition, and an indefatigable and 
excellent writer on a variety ofsubji 
literary and philosophical as well as the- 
ological. His works extend to no less 
than forty-five quarto volumes. Though 
in social life his manners were mild and 
simple, he was of an impetuous dis- 
position. Nicole, his fellow-laborer in 
of his controversies, having de- 
clared to him that lie was tired of this 
ceaseless warfare, and wished to rest, 
"Best !" exclaimed Amauld, ■' will you 
not have all eternity to rest in .'" 

ABNADLT, Antoine Vincent, an 
esteemed dramatic poet of France, who 
laid the foundation of his fame by the 
■ Mariusa Miiiturnes." which 
was first performed in 1791. He soon 
after published his " L 'then 

" Cincinnatus" and "Orcas," besides 
several operas. In 1797 Bonaparte com- 
mitted to him the organization of the 
anient of the Ionian isles. While 
there he wrote his •• Ycnctieus." Iu 
' lent of the Na- 
tional Institute. After the restoration 
he was banished, and resided in Bel- 
gium and Holland. His tragedy of 
when first performed 
in 1817, excited a furious contest be- 
tween ' te political parties. Two 
after lie return . and 
,'iently wrote "Les Quel - et les 
as," "Lycurge," and "Guilliam 
I..'" besides contributing to several peri- 
-. and editing a life of Napoleon. 
In 1888 he was appointed perpetual 
secretary of the academy. He took an 
active part in the literary controversy 
between the classic and romantic schools, 
in favor oft'ie torn. ir. D. 1834. 

ABNI>T. Uhbbtian, professor of logic 
at Bostoek, in Germany : author of 
" Observations on the RiL'ht Use of 
I. .oic in Divinity," <fec. B. 1623; d. 
1683. — Joshua, brother ot the above, 
and his successor in the chair at Bostoek ; 
author of a " Dictionary of Ecclesiasti- 
cal Antiquities," and other valuable' 
works. B. 1626; d. 1685.— Gottlieb 
Von, imperial Russian counsellor, assist- 
ant to the Empress Catherine II. in hei 




literary employment, and author of a 
learned work on " The Origin of Euro- 
pean Dialects," published in 1318. D. 
1829. — Charles, son of the last-named, 
Hebrew professor at Rostock ; author ot 
" Philological Discourses," " Bibliotheca 
Politico Heraldica," &c. B. 1673 ; d. 
1781.— John, a native of Anhalt; author 
of a treatise " On True Christianity." 
B. 1555; d. 1621. 

ARNE, Dr. Thomas Augustine, a cel- 
ebrated composer of music. At the early 
age of 18 he produced an opera, entitled 
""Rosamond," and shortly afterwards 
composed the music for a masque, en- 
titled " Alfred," written by Thompson 
and Mallet. On the masque of " Comus" 
being adapted to the stage, ArneV music 
for it obtained him so high a reputation, 
and such constant employment, that a 
mere catalogue of the various works he. 
was subsequently the author of, would 
demand a far larger space than we can 
aiford. His sister was the celebrated 
Mrs. Cibber. B. 1704; d. 1778.— Mi- 
chael, son of the preceding, and, like 
him, a musical composer ; author of the 
music of Alcineua and of Cymon. 

ARN1GIO, Bartholomew, an Italian 
poet, was originally a blacksmith, but at 
18 years of age devoted himself to litera- 
ture, aud distinguished himself so much, 
that the university of Padua gave him 
the degree of doctor. As a physician, 
which profession he followed, he was 
far less distinguished than as a poet. 
His works arenumerous. B. 1523 ; d. 

ARNIM, Ludwig Achin vox, a Ger- 
man poet, and writer of romances, was 
b. at Berlin, studied at Gottingen, and 
passed his life in literary leisure and 
independence, at Heidelberg, Berlin, 
and his country seat. His chief works 
are "Ariel's Offenbarungen," " Der 
Knabe Wunderhorn," " Der Winter- 
garteu," "Gratiu Dolores," "Die Kro- 
neu-Wachter," " Die Gleichan." D. 
1831. His wife, Bettina Brentano, is 
still more celebrated than himself, both 
from her own writings, and the interest- 
ing relation in which she stood as a 
shild to the illustrious Goethe, her cor- 
respondence with whom, so singularly 
fresh, impulsive, and full of sentiment, 
has been translated into several lan- 

ARNOLD, Christopher, a German 
peasant, whose energy and natural me- 
lius enabled him to become one of the 
most accomplished astronomers of his 
age, The only work he left was entitled 
''Signs of Di'dne Grace, exhibited in a 

Solar Miracle." B. 1646; d. 1695.— 
John, an English watchmaker, and au- 
thor of many inventions for the more 
accurate mensuration of time. B. 1744; 
d. 1799. — John, a miller, celebrated in 
consequence of the interference on his 
behalt of Frederic the Great of Prussia. 
Believing that Arnold had been wronged 
of territorial land, by the decision against 
him of a lawsuit, Frederic revised the 
sentence, and imprisoned the ju .Iges.— 
Dr. Samuel, a musical composer of em- 
inence. He edited the works of Handel, 
and composed the " Prodigal Son," and 
other excellent oratorios. His opera of 
the "Maid of the Mill" still keeps the 
stage. B. 1789; d. 1802.— Thomas, an 
English physician, eminent for his skill 
in the treatment of mental insanity. Ho 
was the author of " Observations on the 
Management of the Insane," " A Case 
of Hvdrophobia successfully treated," 
&c. B. 1742; d. 181*.— Rev. Thomas, 
D.D., head-master of Rugby school, and 
professor of modern history in the uni- 
versity of Oxford, was b. at Cowes, in 
the Isle of Wight, and educated at Win- 
chester and Corpus Christi college, 
Oxford. Dr. Arnold was a most accom- 
plished scholar, a successful instructor 
of youth, and an author of sterling value. 
In proof of the latter it is necessary only 
to mention his admirable History of 
Rome, his edition of Thucydides, his 
Lectures on Modern History, and his 
various pamphlets on political and eccle- 
siastical subjects. From the time of his 
appointment to the head-mastership of 
Rugby, in 1828, the school which had 
previously been declining, rose rapidly 
in public estimation, and at the time of 
his death contained 370 boy3, including 
those on the foundation. His singu- 
larly upright character, and his warm- 
hearted benevolence, joined to the ac- 
complishment 'A' the scholar and the 
gentleman, gave him great influence 
over all whom he approached. His me- 
moirs is one of the most interesting and 
instructive books of the day. — B. 1795 ; 
d. 1842. — Nicholas, a professor of the- 
ology at Franeker, in Friesland, whose 
sermons and polemical works are not 
without merit, B. 162S ; d. 1680.— Jef- 
frey, the writer of a History of Mystic 
Theology, and also a History of the 
Churchand of Heretics, — himself a zeal- 
ous pietist, who preached at Perleburg. 
D. 1714. — Benedict, the most notorious 
of the name, was h. in Connecticut, of 
obscure parentage, and was in early life, 
a dealer in horses, which may account 
for some parts of his subsequent con- 




duct. On the breaking out-of the revo- 
lutionary war, he espoused the cause of 
the colonists with enthusiasm. He was 
chosen to the command of a volunteer 
military company of New Haven, and 
immediately after the battle of Lexing- 
ton, joined the army of Washington, at 
Cambridge, 177"). The Massachusetts 
committee of safety appointed liim a 
a colonel, and authorized him to raise 
four hundred men for the purpose of 
taking Ticonderoga. which he took with 
the aid of Col. Allen, on the 10th of 
May. He commanded the expedition 
sent against Canada the same year. He 
commenced his march on the 16th of 
Sept., through the wilderness of Maine, 
with about one thousand men, and quit- 
ted Canada on the 18th of June follow- 
ing. After this he was appointed to 
the command of the American fleet on 
Lake Champlain. In the northern cam- 
paign of 1777. he acted a conspicuous 
part under Gen. Gates, and was present 
at the capture of Bnrgoyne's army. Be- 
ing rendered unfit for actual service by 
a severe wound in the leg after the re- 
covery of Philadelphia, he was appointed 
to the command of the American garri- 
son. All the while the thoughtless ex- 
travagance of his living, reduced him to 
the necessity ot' resorting to every and 
any means to support it. He was guilty 
of every species of artifice by which 
property both public and private might 
be obtained, and converted to his own 
use. More than half of the amount of 
his accounts were rejected, first by the 
commissioners, and afterwards by con- 
gress. He was soon obliged to abide the 
decision of a court-martial, upon charges 
preferred against him by the executive 
of the state of Pennsylvania, and he was 
subjected to the mortification of receiv- 
ing a reprimand from the commander- 
in-chief. His trial commenced in June, 
1778, and ended Jan. 2ti, 1779. The 
sentence of reprimand was approved by 
congress, and soon afterwards carried 
into execution. It is probable that this 
was the moment, when, smarting under 
the inflictions of supposed injuries, he 
resolved to obtain revenge by the sacri- 
fice of his country. Obtaining by arti- 
fice the command of the important post 
of West Point, he. in a letter addressed 
to Col. Beverly Pobinson. signified his 
change of principles and his wish to re- 
store himself to the favor of his prince 
by some signal proof of his repentance. 
This led the way to a correspondence 
between him and Sir Henry Clinton, the 
object of which was to concert the means 

of putting 'West Point into the hands of 
the British. The plan was well laid, and 
the execution certain, but a fortunato 
accident thwarted the design. The ar 
rangement was effected through the 
agency of major John Andre, "aid-de- 
camp to Sir Henry and adjutant-general 
of the British army. Andre who had 
effected all the arrangements with Ar- 
nold, had procured a pass from him, 
authorizing him, under the feigned 
name of John Anderson, to proceed on 
public service to White Plains, or lower, 
if he thought proper. He had passed 
all the guards and posts on the road 
without suspicion, and was nearing 
New York in perfect security, when 
the reins of his bridle were seized and 
his horse stopped. Andre, instead ol 
producing his pass, asked the man 
nastily, where he belonged, and being 
answered, " to lelow" replied immedi- 
ately, " and so do I." He then declared 
himself to be a British officer on urgent 
business, and begged that he might' not 
be detained. The man who slopped 
him was a militia man, and being in- 
stantly joined by two others, Andre 
discovered his mistake, but it was too 
late to repair it. The militia men could 
neither be coaxed nor bribed from doing 
their duty. Andre contrived to apprize 
Arnold of his danger, and he effected 
his escape. When the great sold of 
Washington learned the defection of 
his general, he was almost overwhelmed 
by his discovery. " I thought," he 
said, " that a man who had shed his 
blood in the cause of his country could 
be trusted, but I am convinced now, 
that those who are wanting in private 
probity are unworthy of public confi- 
dence." Arnold, with the hope of al- 
luring the discontented to his standard, 
published an address to the inhabitants 
of America, in which he endeavored to 
justify his conduct. This was followed 
in about a fortnight, by a proclamation, 
addressed " to the officers and soldiers 
of the continental army, who have the 
real interest of their country at heart, 
and who are determined to be no longer 
the tools of congress and of France." 
These proclamations did not produce 
the effect designed, and in all the hard- 
ships, sufferings, and irritations of the 
war, Arnold remains the solitary in- 
stance of an American officer who aban- 
doned the side first embraced in the 
contest, to turn his sword upon his 
former companions in arms. Ho was 
soon dispatched, by Sir Henry Clirton, 
to make a diversion in Virginia; and 




committed extensive ravages on the 
rivers, and along the unprotected coasts. 
It is said that, while on this expedition, 
Arnold inquired of an American cap- 
tain, whom he had taken prisoner, what 
the Americans would do with him, if 
he should fall into their hands. The 
officer replied, that they would cut off 
his lame leg, and bury it witli the honors 
of war, and hang the remainder of his 
body on a gibbet. After his recall from 
Virginia, he conducted an expedition 
against New London, in his native state 
of Connecticut. Burning the town and j 
the stores which were in it, Arnold re- | 
turned to New York in eight days. He 
survived the wai ':ut to drag out a dis- 
honorable lift, ai d transmit to his chil- 
dren a name of hateful celebrity. He 
obtained only a part of the debasing sti- 
pend of an abortive treason. He enjoy- 
ed the rank of brigadier-general; but 
the officers of the British army mani- 
fested a strong repugnance to serve with 
him. He resided principally in England 
after the conclusion of the war, was in 
Nova Scotia, and afterwards in the West 
Indies, where he was taken prisoner by 
the French, but making his escape, ana 
returning to England, he d. in Glouces- 
ter-place, London, June 14th, 1801. — 
Aknold, of Brescia, a bold and inde- 
pendent reformer of the 12th century, 
was originally one of the disciples of 
Abelard, in whose instructions he found, 
not only the profoundest theological 
learning', but the noblest spirit of free- 
dom. Returning to his native city in 
1136, he began to preach against the 
abuses of the church, when his accurate 
knowledge of Christian antiquities, his 
dauntless spirit, and his vehement elo- 
quence, gave force as well as authority 
to his harangues. Thus he instigated 
the people against the clergy; and, in 
France, where he was obliged to flee in 
113'J, he also found numerous adhe- 
rents; for the immorality and arrogance 
of the clergy had everywhere excited 
discontent. The tierce flame which he 
had kindled could not be extinguished 
by the excommunication pronounced 
against him and his adherents by Inno- 
cent II. Arnold preached his doctrine 
in safety at Zurich, in Switzerland, un- 
til 1144*, when he appeared at Rome, 
and by the powers of his eloquence, 
occasioned a violent excitement among 
the people against the clergy. The fu- 
rious multitude, which he could no lon- 
ger restrain, revered him as their father, 
and even the senate protected him, till 
Adrian IV., in 1155. laid an interdict 

upon the city. This disgrace, never 
before experienced, subdued the Ro- 
mans. They sued for mercy, and Ar 
nold was obliged to fly. He was taken 
in Campania, and burned at Rome, as a 
heretic and a rebel ; his ashes were 
thrown into the Tiber, and his party 
was suppressed. But the spirit of his 
doctrine descended upon the sects 
which arose during the same and the 
following centuries. 

ARNOLDE, Richard, a citizen of 
London in the 16th century, and author 
of a work entitled "Arnohle's Chroni- 
cle," containing much valuable infor- 

ARXOT, Hugo, an eminent Scottish 
writer. He was educated for the bar, 
but illness rendering him unfit for so 
laborious a profession, he devoted him- 
self to literature. His "History of 
Edinburgh," and collection of celebrated 
criminal trials, show him to have pos- 
sessed very considerable abilities. He 
only survived the publication of this 
work about a twelvemonth; the asthma 
male rapid advances on him, and long 
before his death reduced his person al- 
most to a shadow. Harry Erskine, 
meeting hiin one day eating a dried 
haddock or spelding, is said to have 
accosted him thus: •'Mr. Arnot, I am 
glad to see you looking like your meat." 
Mr. Arnot when at the bar was so little 
of a casuist, that he would nc er under- 
take a case, unless perfectly satisfied as 
to its justice. One being brought before 
him, of the merits of which he had a 
very bad opinion, he said to the intend- 
ing' litigant, in a serious manner, " Pray, 
what do you suppose me to be '" 
"Why," answered the client, J' I un- 
derstand you to be a lawyer." " I 
thought, sir," said Arnot sternly, "you 
took me for a scoundrel." B. 1749 ; d. 

A.RNOUL, an eminent French pre- 
late of the l'Jth century; author of vari- 
ous works in prose and verse, to be 
found in the Spicilegium of D'Acheri 
and the Bibliotheca Patrum. 

ARNOULT, Jean Baptiste, a French 
Jesuit and author. The most valuable 
of his works is " Lc Frecepteur," which 
was the model of Dodsley's Preceptor. 
B. 16S9. — Sophie, a Parisian actress, 
famous in the annals of gallantry and 
wit. She was on the stage from 1757 to 
1778. Her father kept a Hotel Garni 
and had given her a good education. 
The princess of Modena, having by 
chance heard her sing, during Passion 
week, while the former was at the con- 




fessional, brought her to the attention 
of Madame de Pompadour, who got her 
a place at the opera. Her beauty and 
her exquisite performance soon en- 
chanted the public. Persons of rank 
and the literati sought her acquaint- 
ance, among the restltotisseau, Duclos, 
Hehetius, Mably, and Diderot. She 
was compared to Ninon de l'Enclos and 
Aspasia. Her wit was so successful 
that her bo><, ■'riots were collected. It is 
related that when she saw the heads of 
Sully and Choiseul on a box, during the 
revolution, she exclaimed, Cest la recette 
et la dtpense. While the priest was giv- 
ing her extreme unction on her death- 
bed, she said to him suddenly, Je suis 
comme Maodeleine, leaucoi/p <les peches 
me seront remis, car fai beaucoup aime. 
B. 1740 ; d. 1802. 

of Rochester in the reign of Henry I. ; 
author of " Textua Rotfensis," an ac- 
count of the charters, &c, of his cathe- 
dral. D. 1124. 

AROMATRI, Joseph, an Italian phy- 
sician ; author of " Riposte alle consi- 
derazione di Alessandro Tassoni Sopra 
le rime del Petrarca." B. 1586 ; d. 1660. 

ARPINO, Josephino, an Italian paint- 
er, patronized by Pope Gregory XIII. 
B. 1560; d. 1640. 

ARRIA, a Roman lady, who, when 
her husband, Cajciua Partus, was order- 
ed to put himself to death, for rebellion 
against the Emperor Claudius, perceiv- 
ing him hesitate, plunged a dagger into 
her bosom, exclaiming, "Pectus! non 

ARRIAN, a Greek historian, who 
took up his residence at Rome in the 
2d century. He was patronized by the 
emperor Adrian; and the younger Pliny 
admired him so much as to address to 
him no fewer than seven of his epistles. 
The historical writings of Arrian were 
numerous, but two of them only remain 
entire, viz., seven books on the expedi- 
tion of Alexander, and a book on the 
oflairs of India: the latter being a se- 
quel to the former. There are some 
historical fragments of Arrian in Pho- 
tius. In addition to the above, we have 
of Arrian's writing^ "Enchiridion," a 
moral treatise, an epistle to Adrian, &c. 

Juan Baptista de, a distinguished poet 
of Madrid. His principal works were 
"Emilia," and "Pcesias Patrioticas," 
and are more remarkable for their ele- 
gance of diction than for vigor of imagi- 
nation or intensity of feeling. B. 1770 ; 
d. 1.137. 

ARRIBAVENE, John Francis, an 
Italian poet of the 16th century; author 
of "Maritime Eclogues," &c. 

ARRIGHETTI, Philip, an ecclesiastic 
of Florence ; author of a life of Pt, Fran- 
cis, and translator of the Rhetoric and 
Poetics of Aristotle into Italian. B. 
1582; d. 1662. 

a Florentine poet and ecclesiastic of the 
12th century. His poemsfare still pop- 
ular for their pathos and elegance of 

ARRIGIIITTI, a Jesuit of the loth 
century ; author of a work on the The- 
ory of Fire. 

ARROWSMITH, Aaron, an eminent 
geographer and hydrographer. His maps 
and charts are very numerous, and held 
in high estimation ; and his tract, enti- 
tled " A Companion to the Map of the 
World," contains much valuable infor- 
mation. D. 1750; d, 1823. 

ARSACES I., the founder of the Par- 
thian monarchy, and of the dynasty of 
the Arsacides, nourished in the 3d cen- 
tury b.c. In revenge for an ungrateful 
insult offered to his brother by the gov- 
ernor of a province, he raised the stand- 
ard of revolt in Parthia against Seleucus ; 
and, having succeeded in emancipating 
his countrymen, they elected him their 
king. He' reigned prosperously for 38 

ARSENIUS, a Roman deacon of the 
4th century, and tutor to Arcadius, son 
of Theodosius. The emperor coining 
into his study, and seeing the pupil sit- 
ting and the master standing, ordered 
his~son to rise, and receive his lessons 
in a becoming posture, which so irri- 
tated the prince, that he directed an 
officer to dispatch Arsenius; but tho. 
officer gave him information of the 
prince's baseness, on which he fled into 
Egypt, where be d. at the age of 95. 

ARSILLA, Francesco, an Italian phy- 
sician of the 16th century; author of a 
poem, "De Poetis Urbanis." D. 1540. 

ARTALIS, Joseph, a Sicilian gentle- 
man, who distinguished himself for 
courage at the memorable siege of Can- 
dia; author of "La Pasife," an opera, 
and numerous poems. B. 1628; d. 1679. 

ARTAXERXES I., surnamed Longi- 
manus, was the third son of Xerxes, 
king of Persia. He slew his brother 
Darius on suspicion of his being guilty 
of the murder of his father. Artaxerx- 
es then ascended the throne 465 b. c, 
and in his time peace was restored be- 
tween Persia and Athens, after a war of 
51 years. D. 424 b.c. — II., surnamed 




Mnemon, was the eldest son of Darius 
Nothus, and began his reign, 404 b. o. 
He d. at the age of 94, after reigning 62 
years. — III., succeeded his father, the 
preceding monarch, 859 b. c. He mur- 
dered two of his brothers, and after- 
wards put to death all the remaining 
branches of the family. In Egypt he 
slew the sacred bull Apis, and gave the 
flesh to his soldiers ; for which his 
eunuch, Bagoas, an Egyptian, caused 
him to be poisoned, and after giving 
the carcass to the cats, made knife han- 
dles of his bones. 

SIIIK, the first king of Persia, of the race 
of Saasanides, was the son of a shep- 
herd. < )n the death of his grandfather, 
fie solicited the government, but being 
refused, lie retired to Persia Proper, 
where he excited the people to revolt. 
He defeated and slew Ardavan and his 
son. He married the daughter of Ar- 
davan, who attempted to poison him, 
for which she was sentenced to death. 
The officer, however, to whom the exe- 
cution was committed, concealed the 
queen, who was in a state of pregnancy, 
and she was afterwards delivered of a 
son. The secret being discovered to 
the king, he applauded the conduct of 
the officer, and acknowledged the child 
as his heir. He d. a. d. 240. 

AKTEAGA, Stephen, a Spanish Jes- 
uit of the ISth century; author of a 
Treatise on Ideal Beauty ; a History of 
Italian Theatrical Music', &c. D. 1799. 

ARTEDI, Peter, a Swedish physician 
and naturalist. After his death, his 
"Bibliotheca Icthyologica," and "Phi- 
losophia Icthyologica," were edited by 
Linnajus. B. 1705 ; accidentally drown- 
ed, 1735. 

ARTEMIDORUS, Daldianus, an 
Ephesian ; author of a Treatise on 
Dreams. He lived in the. reign of An- 
toninus Pius. — Also an Ephesian Au- 
thor of a geographical work, of which 
only some fragments remain. He flour- 
ished in the 1st century b. c. 

ARTEMISIA, queen of Caira, and 
one of the allies of Xerxes at the famous 
battle of Salamis. — Another queen of 
Caira, whose splendid monument to her 
husband, Mausolus, was the origin of 
the word mausoleum. This monument 
was regarded as one of the seven won- 
ders of the world. The greatest artists 
of Greece labored upon it: Bryaxes, 
Seopas, Leochares, Timotheus, and some 
pay, Praxiteles. It was an oblong square, 
400 feet in circumference, and 130 feet 
high. The principal side was adorned 

with 36 columns, and 24 steps led to the 
entrance. D. 351 b. c. 

ARTEMON, the inventor of the bat- 
tering ram and the testudo, was a native 
of Clazomene, and cotemporary with 
Pericles. — Also a heretic of the 3d cen- 

ARTEVELDE, James von, a rich 
brewer, of Ghent, who by his wealth, 
eloquence, and talents, acquired un- 
bounded influence over his countrymen. 
Having compelled the count of Flanders 
to take refuge in France, he formed an 
alliance with Edward III. of England, 
and strove to transfer the Flemish sov- 
ereignty to the Black Prince. He was 
killed in a popular tumult, at Ghent, in 
1345. — Philip, his son, a man of restless 
but determined spirit, was chosen the 
leader of the Flemings in their revolt of 
1382. He made himself master of 
Bruges, but the same year was defeated 
and killed at the battle of Rosbee. The 
leading events of his life have been 
wrought into a beautiful drama, by Mr. 
Henry Taylor — a drama which is to be 
numbered among the most pleasing and 
noble specimens of English literature. 

ARTHUR, sometimes called Artus, 
an ancient British prince, whose story 
is so interwoven with the romantic fic- 
tion of a later age, that it is difficult to 
separate the genuine incidents of his 
life from those which are fictitious. He 
was born about 501, of an adulterous 
connection between the princess Igeina 
of Cornwall, and Uther a chief of the 
Britons. He married the celebrated 
Ginevra, of the family of the dukes of 
Cornwall, established the famous order 
of the Round Table, performed many 
heroic deeds against the Picts, Scots, 
and Saxons, and, as the poets relate, 
against the Danes, French, and Norse, 
killing the giants of Spain, crushing re- 
bellion at home, and performing a jour- 
ney to Rome. D. 542. 

ARTIGUS, Don John, was born at 
Monte Video, in 1760, and was originally 
in the Spanish service, but quitted it to 
fight for the independence of his coun- 
try. After having greatly contributed 
to establish the republic of Buenos 
Ayres, he became an object of suspicion 
to the government of that state, was 
declared a traitor, and compelled to 
take up arms. For some years he kept 
possession of the territory called the 
Banda Oriental. At length, however, 
he was defeated, and compelled to seek 
refuo-e in Paraguay, where he cl. in 1820. 

ARTIZENIUS,' Henry, professor of 
rhetoric and history at Niineugen; 


auttor of a treatise "De Nuptiis inter 
Fratem et Sororem," &c. B. 1702 ; d. 
1759. — John Henry, son of the above, 
professor of law at Utrecht ; author of 
a work " On the Jurisprudence of the 
Netherlands," and editor of the works 
of Arator, <fec. B. 1734; d. 1797.— 
Otho, uncle of the last named, professor 
of the belles lettres at Amsterdam, au- 
thor of a dissertation "De Milliario 
Aureo," &c. B. 1703 ; d. 1763. 

ABTTTSI, Giovanni Maria, an ecclesi- 
astic of Bologna ; author of " The Art of 
Counterpoint," and other musical works. 

ARUNDEL, Thomas, son of the earl 
of Arundel, was made bishop of Ely, 
though only 21 years old, under Ed- 
ward' III., and afterwards translated to 
York, and from thence to Canterbury. 
He also held with the primacy the office 
of lord chancellor. His quarrel with 
Richard II. obliged him to leave the 
kingdom, and to fly to Rome, and to 
his 'resentment may in some degree be 
attributed the succe'ss with which Henry 
IV. invaded England, and seized the 
crown. He was a zealous defender of 
the temporal power of the church, and 
he persecuted the followers of Wickliff 
witti great severity, and forbade the 
translation of the Bible into the vulgar 
tongue. D. 1414. — Thomas Howard, 
ear! of, is famous for the discovery of 
the Parian marbles which bear his 
name, and which he gave to the uni- 
versity of Oxford. Prideaux, Chandler, 
and Mattaire are in the number of 
those wno published an account of 
these valuable relics of antiquity. — 
Blanche, daughter of Lord Worcester, 
and wife of Lord Arundel, is celebrated 
for her brave defence of Wardour cas- 
tle against the parliamentary forces. 
Though assisted only by 25 men, she 
resisted the attack of 1300 men, and at 
last capitulated on honorable terms, 
which the conquerors basely violated. 
B. 1603; d. 1669. 

ARVIEUX, Laurent d', a native of 
Marseilles, who, during 12 years resi- 
dence in Palestine, acquired the oriental 
languages, and was employed as a use- 
ful "negotiator for the French court. 
His name deserves to be mentioned 
with every mark of respect, for his de- 
liverance of 380 captives from the dun- 
geon of Tunis, who, in mark of their 
gratitude, presented him with a nurse 
of 600 pistoles, which he generously re- 
fused. He also redeemed 240 slaves at 
Algiers, and served his country at Con- 
stantinople, Aleppo, and other places. 
B. 1635 ; d. 1702. 




ASAPH, Saint, a British monk of the 
5th century, who wrote a life of Vor- 
tigern. The Welsh See has taken ita 
name from this saint. 

ASBURY, Francis, senior bishop of 
the Methodist Episcopal church in the 
United States. He was born in En- 
gland, but passed the most of his life in 
the ardent service of the American 
Methodists. B. 1745; d. 1816. 

ASCHAM, Roger, an eminent En. 
glish writer, born at Kirkby Wiske 
near Northallerton, in Yorkshire, about 
the year 1515. He was entered at Cam' 
bridge in 1530, chosen fellow in 1534. 
and tutor in 1537. It was then a period 
of literary and religious revolution, and 
Ascham joined the party of those who 
were endeavoring to enlarge the bounds 
of knowledge and truth. He became a 
Protestant, and applied himself par- 
ticularly to the Greek language, in 
which he attained to an excellence pe- 
culiar to himself, and as there was no 
public lecturer in Greek read it publicly 
in the university with universal ap- 
plause. In order to relax his mind after 
severe studies, he thought some diver- 
sion necessary ; and shooting with the 
bow was his favorite amusement, as ap- 
pears by his "Treatise on Archery," 
which he dedicated to King Henry 
VIII. , who settled a pension upon him, 
at the recommendation of Sir William 
Paget. Mr. Ascham, being remarkable 
for writing a fine hand, was employed 
to teach this art to Prince Edward, the 
lady Elizabeth, and the two brothers, 
Henry and Charles, dukes of Suffolk. 
In Feb. 1548, he was sent for to court, 
to instruct the lady Elizabeth in the 
learned languages, and had the honor 
of assisting this lady in her studies for 
two years ; when he desired leave to 
return to Cambridge, where he resumed 
his office of public orator. He was 
afterwards Latin secretary to King Ed- 
ward, Queen Mary, and Queen Eliza- 
beth. Being one day in company with 
Eersons of the first distinction, there 
appened to be high disputes about the 
different methods of Education ; this 
gave rise to his treatise on that subject, 
entitled "The Schoolmaster," which 
he undertook at the particular request 
of Sir Richard Saekville. This work 
was in high esteem among the best 
judges, and is frequently quoted by 
Dr. Johnson in his Dictionary. His 
style, in his own age, was mellifluous 
and elegant, and is still valuable as a 
specimen of genuine English. D. 1568. 
— Anthony, an ambassador of Crom- 




well to Spain in the year 1640, where he 
and Ins interpreter were assassinated, 
it is supposed by some of the adherents 
to the cause of the royal family. A dis- 
course on the "Revolutions and Con- 
fusions of Government," was the work 
of his pen. 

ASCLE1TADES, a famous physician 
of Bithynia, who flourished at Rome 
during the time of Pompey, and founded 
a new medical sect, about 20 years b. c. 
The new order preserved their secrets 
as an hereditary possession, and gave 
themselves out, at the same time, as 
physicians, prophets, and priests. They 
lived in the temple of the god Escula- 
pius, and by exciting the imaginations 
of the sick prepared them to receive 
healing dreams and divine apparitions; 
observed carefully the course of dis- 
ease ; applied, besides their conjurations 
and charms, real magnetic reme lies, 
and noted down the results of their 
practice. They were, therefore, the 
founders of scientific medicine. In the 
course of time strangers were initiated 
into their mysteries! 

ASCOLI, Lecco di, a Bolognese math- 
ematician burned to death as a heretic, 
at Florence, in the year 135$. 

A.SDRUBAL, the brother-in-law of 
Hannibal, who succeeded Hamilear, in 
the command of the Carthaginian army 
in Spain. Carthagena, or as it was then 
called, New Carthage, was built by him, 
and he. extended the Carthaginian con- 
quests greatly by his courage ami ability. 
He was assassinated, 220 b. c. 

ASELLIUS, Caspar, a professor of 
anatomy at the university of Padua, 
who discovered the lactcals, a system 
of vessels whose office is to absorb the 
chyle formed in the intestines. They 
were observed as he was dissecting a 
dog, and published in 1627. 

ASGILL, Sir Charles, a military of- 
ficer, who was to have suffered death 
by order of Washington, in retaliation 
for the death of the American captain 
Hardy, but was spared at the interces- 
sion of the queen of France. D. 1823. — 
John, au English barrister, whose wit 
and whose misfortunes alike were re- 
markable. He was brought up at Lin- 
coln's inn under the patronage of Judge 
Eyre in King William's reign, and his 
abilities were such that he rose to con- 
sequence and employment. Two trea- 
tises replete with humor and sarcasm 
had already given him popularity, when 
he published another on the possibility 
of avoiding death, which drew down 
upon him the .>dium of the friends of 

the church, and particularly of Dr. 
Sacheverell ; so that, when he after- 
wards went to Ireland, and by success 
in the law purchased an estate, and pro- 
cured a seat in the house of commons, 
he was ignominiously expelled for the 
contents of his pamphlet. On his re- 
turn to England, he was returned for 
Bramber, in Sussex; and here the mo- 
rality of his writiugs was also called in 
question, and though he made an elo- 
quent defence in favor of his opinions, 
which he refused to retract, he was ex- 
pelled as a disgraced and unworthy 
member. This blow hastened the ruin 
of his fortunes, he became a prisoner of 
the King's Bench and afterwards of '.lie 
Fleet, where he continued to subsist 
by writing political pamphlets, and 
by transacting some professional busi- 
ness. After 30 years thus spent in 
confinement and poverty, he expired 
in November, 1738, aged upwards of 

ASH, John, a Baptist divine, pastor 
of a congregation at Pershore. He was 
author of a " Dictionary of the English 
Langiage," and he also wrote an "In- 
troduction to Lowth's Grammar," 
which has passed through a vast num- 
ber of editions. B. 1724; d. 1779. 

ASHBURTON. Alexander Baring, 
Lord, the second son of Sir Francis 
Baring, Bart., and for many years the 
head "of the 'great mercantile house, 
Baring Brothers & Co., was b. in 1774. 
After due initiation into business in 
London, he came to the United States, 
where he aided in swelling Uie fortunes 
of his firm. His political life com- 
menced in 1812 as member for Taunton, 
which he continued to represent till 
1820 ; after which he sat for Callington 
in successive parliaments till 1831, and 
in 1832 he was returned for North Es- 
sex. Lord Ashburton commenced life 
as a Whig. On the formation of the 
Peel ministry in iS34, he became presi- 
dent of the Board of Trade; and in 1835 
he was raised to the peerage. In 1842 
he was appointed by Sir Robert Peel as 
a special commissioner to settle the dis- 
putes about the Oregon territory, which 
then threatened to involve this country 
in a war with England. Lord Ashbur- 
ton continued to support the policy of 
Sir Robert Peel, until the final measure 
of free trade in corn was proposed in 
1846, when his position as a peer and a 
great land-owner probably overcome hia 
convictions as a man. Lord Ashbnrtua 
married, in 1798, the daughter of Wil- 
j Ham Bingham, Esq., of "PI iladelphia, 



and by that lady, who survived him, he 
left a numerous family. D. 1848. 

ASHE, Simeon, a nonconformist, 
chaplain to Lord Warwick during the 
civil wars. He was a man of property, 
and of great influence among his per- 
suasion. Pie was educated at Emmanuel 
college, and settled in Staffordshire, 
where he became acquainted with Dod, 
Ball, Hildersham, Langley, and others. 
His principles were offensive to Crom- 
well's party, and it is said, that he was 
greatly instrumental in the restoration 
of Charles II. He d. 1662. He pub- 
lished sermons, and also edited Ball's 

ASHLEY, Robert, a native of Nash- 
hill in Wilts, educated at Harthall, Ox- 
ford, and the Middle Temple, London. 
He was called to the bar, and distin- 
guished himself as an eminent writer, 
as a collector of books, in Holland, 
France, &c, and as a benefactor to the 
society to which he belonged. He pub- 
lished a " Relation of the Kingdom of 
Cochin China," and the " Life of Al- 
manzcr," &c., and d. October, 1641, in 
an advanced old age. 

ASHMUN, John Hooker, a distin- 
guished American scholar, was b. at 
Stanford, Mass., on the 3d July, 1800. 
He was graduated at Harvard university 
in 1818, and appointed professor of law 
in the same institution, in 1820. Al- 
though he did not reach the age of 33 
years he acquired an enviable reputa- 
tion. " The honors of the university," 
says Judge Story, in his funeral dis- 
course, "were never more worthily be- 
stowed, never more meekly worn, and 
never more steadily brightened. He 
gathered about him all the honors, 
which are usually the harvest of the 
ripest life." D. 1833. — Jeiiudi, an 
agent of the American Colonization So- 
ciety, was b. at Champlain, N. Y., edu- 
cated at Burlington college, and made 
a professor in the Bangor theological 
school. He afterwards joined the Epis- 
copal church, and edited the " Theolo- 
gical Repository." Being appointed to 
take charge of a reinforcement to the 
colony at Liberia, he embarked for Af- 
rica, June 19, 1822, and arrived at Cape 
Monserado, August 8th. About three 
months after his arrival, while his whole 
force was 35 men and boys, he was at- 
tacked by 800 armed savages, but by 
his energy and desperate valor the as- 
sailants were repulsed, ar d again, in a 
few days, when they returned with re- 
doubled numbers, were utterly defeated. 
When ill health compelled him to take 

a voyage to America, he was escorted to 
the place of embarkation by three com- 
panies of the militia : and the men, wo- 
men, and children of Monrovia parted 
with him with tears. He left a com- 
munity of 1200 freemen. He arrived at 
New Haven, August 10, 1828, a fort- 
night before his death. He was a per- 
son of great energy of character, and 
most devoted piety, and his services to 
the infant colony were invaluable. 

ASHMOLE, Elias, a celebrated En- 
glish philosopher and antiquary, and 
founder of the Ashmolean museum at 
Oxford, was born at Lichfield, in Staf- 
fordshire, the 23d of May, 1617. Be- 
sides filling several offices, civil and 
military, he was a diligent and curious 
collector of manuscripts. In 1650 he 
published a treatise written by Dr. 
Arthur Dee, relating to the philoso- 
pher's stone ; together with another 
tract on the same subject, by an un- 
known author. About the same time 
he was busied in preparing for the 
press a complete collection of the works 
of such English chemists as had till 
then remained in manuscript: this un- 
dertaking cost him great labor and ex- 
pense ; and at length appeared towards 
the close of the year 1652. The title of 
this work was, "Theatrum Chemicum 
Britannicuin," &c, &c. He then ap- 
plied himself to the study of antiquity 
and records. In 165S he began to col- 
lect materials for his "History of the 
Order of the Garter;" which he lived 
to finish, and thereby did no less honor 
to the order than to himself. In Sep- 
tember following he made a journey to 
Oxford ; where die set about a full and 
particular description of the coins given 
to the public library by Archbishop 
Laud. Upon the restoration of King 
Charles II., Mr. Ashmole was appointed 
to give a description of his medals, 
which were accordingly delivered into 
his possession ; and King Henry VIII. 's 
closet was assigned for his use. On the 
8th of Mav, 1672, he presented his " In- 
stitution, Laws, and Ceremonies, of the 
most noble Order of the Garter," to the 
king, who received it very graciously, 
and, as a mark of his approbation, 
granted him a privy seal for £400. In 
1679 a fire broke out in the Middle 
Temple, in the next chamber to Mr. 
Ashinole's, by which he lost a noble 
library, with a collection of 9000 coins 
ancient and modern, and a vast repos 
itory of seals, charters, and other an 
tiquities and curiosities; but his manu 
scripts, and his most valuable gold med- 




nls, were at his house at South Lam- 
beth. In 1633 the university of Oxford 
having finished a magnificent repository 
near the theatre, Mr. Ashmole sent 
thither his carious collection of rarities ; 
and this benefaction was considerably 
augmented by the addition of his man- 
uscripts and library at his death, in 
1692. ' 

ASHTON, Charles, a learned critic, 
was elected master of Jesus college, 
Cambridge, July 5, 1701, and installed 
in a prebend of Ely on the 14th of the 
same month. His great knowledge in 
ecclesiastical antiquities was excelled by 
none, and equalled by few. — Thomas, 
rector of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, a 
popular preacher and excellent divine. 
B. 1716; d. 1775. 

ASHWELL, George, an English di- 
vine of the 17th century : author of 
several religious works. B. 1612; d. 

ASHWORTH, Caleb, a native of 
Northamptonshire, who, from the hum- 
ble employment of carpenter, rose, by 
the instruction and patronage of Dr. 
Doddridge, to the respectability of min- 
ister of a dissenting congregation, and at 
last successor in the school of his able 
master. He wrote Paradigms of Hebrew 
verbs, and other works, and was respect- 
ed as a man and as a scholar. B. 1709 ; 
d. 1774. 

ASKEW, Anne, an accomplished lady, 
daughter of Sir William Askew, of Kel- 
say, in Lincolnshire. B. in 1529. She 
received a learned education, and in 
early life showed a predilection for the- 
jlogical studies. By these she was led 
to lavor the Reformation ; in conse- 
quence of which she was arrested, and, 
having confessed her religious prinei- 

Eles, committed to Newgate. She was 
rst racked with brutal cruelty in the 
Tower, and afterwards burned alive in 
Smithfield, July 16, 1546 ; a punishment 
which she endured with amazing courage 
and firmness. — Anthony, a physician 
and scholar of the 18th century ; author 
of an appendix to the Greek Lexicon of 
Scapula, &c. R at Kendal, 1722; d. 

ASPASIA, a celebrated female, native 
of Miletus, who went as an adventurer 
to Athens in the time of Pericles, and by 
the combined charms of her manners 
and conversation, completely won the 
iffections of that eminent man. Her 
Btation had freed her from the restraints 
which custom had laid upon the educa- 
tion of the Athenian matron, and she 
had enriched her mind with accomplish- 

ments rare even among men. After 
parting with his wife, by mutual eon- 
sent, Pericles attached himself to Aspa- 
sia, by the most intimate ties which the 
laws allowed him to contract with a 
foreign woman, and she acquired an as- 
cendency over him which soon became 
notorious, furnished themes for the 
comic satirist, and subjects for grayer 
strictures by his more serious enemies. 
But many of the rumors which were set 
afloat in regard to them were unques- 
tionably without foundation. They had 
their origin in the peculiar nature of 
Aspasia' s private circles ; which, with a 
bold neglect of established usage, were 
composed not only of the most intelligent 
men to be found at Athens, but also of 
matrons, whose husbands carried them 
thither to profit by her conversation. 
This must have been instructive as well 
as brilliant, indeed, since Plato did not 
hesitate to describe her as the precep- 
tress of Socrates, and to assert that she 
both formed the rhetoric of Plato, and 
composed one of his most admired 
harangues, the funeral oration. Her- 
mippus, the comic poet, brought a crim- 
inal prosecution against her, on the 
ground of offences against religion, and 
as a corrupter of the Athenian women; 
but the indictment was not sustained. 
After the death of Pericles, Aspasia at- 
tached herself to an obscure youth named 
Lysicles, whom she fitted for and raised 
to some of the highest employments in 
the republic. — There was another of the 
same name, a native of Phocoea, in Asia 
Minor, who seems to have been almost 
as extraordinary a person as the first. 
She was so remarkable for her beauty 
that a satrap of Persia carried her off and 
made her a present to Cyrus the Young- 
er. Her modesty and grace won his af- 
fections, and he lived with her as with a 
wife, so that their attachment was cele- 
brated throughout Greece. Her original 
name had been Milto, but Cyrus changed 
it to Aspasia. When he died she fell 
into the hands of Artaxerxes, whom she 
despised, and who relinquished her to 
his son Darius. She was afterwards 
made a priestess of Diana of Ecbatana, 
but Justin savs a priestess of the sun. 

ASPINWALL, William, a skilful 
and noted physician, was b. in 1743, at 
Brookline, in Massachusetts, and took 
his decree at Harvard college, during the 
revolution. He was appointed a surgeon 
in the army, and at the battle of Lexing- 
ton fought' as a volunteer. He was par- 
ticularly successful in the treatment of 
small-pox ; yet when vaccine inoculation 




was introduced, he warmly adopted the 
practice, and abandoned his hospital, 
although it greatly reduced his profes- 
sional emoluments. D. 1823. 

ASSALINI, Pletro, a physician of 
Modena, who was surgeon-major in the 
French army, and accompanied Napo- 
leon in his expedition to Egypt. He saw 
a great deal of the plague at Jaffa, and 
wrote intelligently of that pest. He also 
wrote on yellow fever, dysentery, dis- 
eases of the eyes, and improved several 
surgical instruments. 

ASSAEOTTI, OcTAvrus. B. at Genoa 
in 1753, and d. there in 1829. The 
Abbe Assarotti was one of those few 
noble spirits whose lives are devoted 
to the amelioration of the miseries of 
their fellow-creatures. He was the great 
rival of the Abbe l'Epee in the estab- 
lishment of institutions for the instruc- 
tion of the deaf and dumb : a model of 
piety, humanity, and charity. 

ASSELYN, John, a Dutch painter of 
the 17th century, was pupil to Isaiah 
Vandervelde. and afterwards went to 
Eome. Settling at Amsterdam, in 1645, 
he obtained great reputation by the pro- 
ductions of his pencil, which consisted 
principally of historical paintings, battle- 
pieces, and landscapes with ruins, and 
were distinguished for their adherence 
to nature, and a correct style of coloring. 
A set of his landscapes (24 in number) 
has been engraved by Perelle. D. 1650. 
ASSEMANI, Joseph Simon, an arch- 
bishop of Tyre, and librarian at the Vat- 
ican. He was profoundly skilled in the 
oriental languages, and published sev- 
eral learned works, such as the " Bibli- 
otheca Orientaliea," " Italicae Historic, 
&c," " Kalendica," " Ecclesiae Univer- 
sal" &e. B. 16S7; d. 1768.— Stephen 
Evonirs, his nephew, bishop of Apamca, 
succeeded him as keeper ot the Vatican 
library, and was also an oriental scholar. 
He published an Oriental Catalogue, and 
" Acta Sanctorum Martyrum." &c. 

ASSER, a Rabbi of the 5th century ; 
one of the compilers of the Babylonian 
Talmud. D. 4-_'7. 

ecclesiastic, the tutor, friend, and biog- 
rapher of Alfred the Great, by whom he 
was made bishop of Sherborne. His 
"Annals" contain, at once, the fullest 
ind most authentic account of the life 
of his august sovereign and friend. D. 

AST, George Anthony Frederick, a 

German philologist. B. at Gotha, who 

wrote an introduction to the study of 

the works of Plato, which is one of the 


best of the kind. He also put forth an 
admirable edition of those works, with 
a Latin translation, and able and ex- 
panded commentaries, to w r hich was 
added subsequently, a "Lexicon Pla- 
tonicum." He was professor at the 
university of Landschut, and afterwart's 
at that of Munich. B. 1778 ; d. 1841. 

ASTELL, Mary, b. at Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, about the year 16S8. Her 
uncle, a clergyman, observing marks of 
a promising genius, took her under his 
tuition, and taught her mathematics, 
logic, and philosophy. She left the 
place of her nativity when she was 
about 20 years' of age, and spent the re- 
maining "part of her life at London and 
Chelsea, in writing for the advancement 
of learning, religion, and virtue, and in 
the_ practice of those religious duties 
which she so zealously commended to 
others. D. 1731. 

ASTLE, Thomas, an eminant archreo- 
logical writer, and author of a Treatise 
"On the Origin and Progress of Wri- 
ting," &c., &e. D. 1803.— John, a por- 
trait painter, pupil of Hudson, who 
married Lady Daniel, and gained great 
wealth. D. 1787. 

ASTLEY, Philip, author of "Re- 
marks on the Profession and Duty of a 
Soldier," " A system of Equestrian Ed- 
ucation," &c. ; but better known as the 
founder, and for many years the man- 
ager of the Amphitheatre in London, 
which still goes by his name. B. 1742; 
d. 1814. 

ASTON, Sir Arthur, a brave com- 
mander of the royalist troops in the 
reign of Charles I., who greatly distin- 
guished himself at the battle of Edtre- 
hill, &e. He was governor of Drogheda 
in 1649, when it was taken by Cromwell, 
and is said to have had his brains beaten 
out with his own wooden leg. — Sir 
Thomas, also a royalist, who, in the civil 
wars, raised a troop of horse for the 
king's service: and was higrn sheriff of 
Cheshire, in 1635. He was killed while 
attempting to escape after being cap- 
tured by the republicans, in 1645, 

ASTOR, John Jacob, a New York 
merchant, noticeable for the enterprise 
and energy by which he accumulated oi e 
of the largest fortunes in Arneik-a, was 
b. at Waldorf, Germany, in 1763. He 
came to this country, in 1784, a poor 
orphan boy, landing at Baltimore ; sup- 
ported himself as he could for a while, 
but gradually got into the fur business, 
which rapidly enlarging by a profitable 
trade he carried on' with the Mohr /k 
Indians, when New York was a wil iT- 




ness, enabled liira to project that stu- 

Eendous expedition across the Rocky 
fountains, and around Cape Horn, by 
which the American fur trade was es- 
tablished on the coasts of the Pacific. 
Washington Irving, in his " Astoria," 
and " The Adventures of Captain Bon- 
neville," has written charming descrip- 
tions of the various incidents of these 
gigantic enterprises. He was subse- 
quently engaged in the Canton trade. 
By his will, Mr. Astor established a 
public library in the city of New York, 
which bids fair to become one of the 
most extensive and valuable institutions 
of the kind within the limits of the 
United States. D. 1848. 

ASTOKGA, a Spanish marquis and 
grandee, declared a traitor by Napoleon, 
in L808. 

ASTORGAS, Marchioness d', a wo- 
luau in the reign of Charles II. of Spain, 
who killed with her own hands a beau- 
tiful mistress to whom her husband was 
attached. She afterwards prepared the 
heart of her victim for her husband to 
eat, which, when he had done so, she 
rolled the bleeding head of his mistress 
before him on the table. This wretched 
woman escaped into a convent, where 
she became insane through rage and 

ASTORI, John Anthony, secretary to 
the academy of the Ancmosi, at Venice, 
and also to that of the academy at Rome, 
who wrote copiously on Greek and Ro- 
man literature and antiquities. B. 1672 ; 
d. 1743. 

ASTORINI, Elias, a professor of 
mathematics and natural philosophy, at 
Cosenza, who published a dissertation 
on the life of the Foetus, a translation 
of Euclid's Elements, and another of 
Apollonius Pergams on Conic Sections. 
D. 17o2. 

ASTRUC, John, a French physician, 
who wrote several medical dissertations, 
and a Natural History of Lauguedoc. 
B. 16S4; d. 17Gi>. 

the last of the Incas, succeeded his 
father, in 1529, on the throne of Quito, 
whilst his brother Huascar, obtained 
the kingdom of Peru. They soon made 
war against each other, and when the 
latter was defeated, his kingdom fell 
into the hands of Atahualpa. The 
Spaniards, under Pizarro, taking advan- 
tage of these internal disturbances, in- 
vaded Pern, where they were entertained 
with no little hospitality by the king and 
uis people; but, instead of returning 
Ihe kindness, they took Atahualpa cap- 

tive, and requested him to acknowledge 
the king of Spain as his master, and 
embrace the Christian religion. Upon 
his asking their authority for this re- 
quest, the friar Valverde gave him the 
breviary as authority. Atahualpa put- 
ting it to his ear, said, " It tells mo 
nothing ;" and then threw it away. This 
was made a pretext for a massacre of 
the people and the imprisonment of the 
Inca. He offered a large sum of gold as 
a ransom : this the Spaniards took, but 
still kept him prisoner. At last, he was 
burnt, in 1533. 

ATAIDE, Don Louis d 1 , a Portuguese 
noble and military officer, who was ap- 
pointed viceroy of India, in 156'J, at a 
period when all the native powers wero 
combined to expel the Portuguese. His 
efforts t"> quell the revolt were success- 
ful, and he returned ; but on being sent 
out a second time, he d: at Goa, l.">so. 

ATANAGI, Denis, an Italian authoi 
and editor, who lived at Urbino. Among 
his works are a "Treatise on the Excel- 
lence and Perfection of History ;" and an 
e lit ion of the "Rhetoric of Aristotle," 
a translation of the "Lives of Illustrious 
Men," ascribed to Pliny, but really writ- 
ten by Aurelius Vietro. He was per- 
sonally chastised for the publication of 
the latter, by a student who called the 
translation his own, and denounced 
Atanagi as a barefaced plagiarist. D. 
about 1570. 

ATH A, a famous Turkish impostor, 
who flourished during the 8th century at 
Meron. He was originally a fuller, but 
entered as a soldier in the army of Abu 
Moslem, who was a leader of a fanati- 
cal sect, to the command of which Ath-. 
succeeded. He pretended to divine in- 
spiration, and when he was attacked and 
besieged in the castle of Recli, by the 
troops of the reigning caliph, he set firo 
to the place and destroyed himself, his 
wives, and his followers in the flames. 
D'Herbelot says that he caused them to 
drink poisoned wine. Having been de- 
prived of one eye in battle, he wore a 
golden veil, and was therefore called 
Mokanna. Moore's beautiful poem of 
the Veiled Prophet of Khorassan is 
founded upon his storv. 

ATHANASIUS, St.", bishop of Alex- 
andria, a renowned father of the church. 
B. in that city about the year 296. Ho 
had a Christian education, and came into 
the family of Alexander, afterwards arch- 
bishop of Alexandria, whose private 
secretary lie became. He then went to 
St. Anthony, led an ascetic life with ",hat 
renowned anchorit;, bu* at length re- 




turned to Alexandria, where he became 
B deacon. Alexander took him to the 
council at Nice, where he gained the 
highest esteem of the fathers, by the 
talents which be displayed in the Arian 
controversy. He had a great share in 
the decrees passed here, and thereby 
drew on himself the hatred of the Ariaus. 
After six months he was appointed the 
successor of Alexander. The complaints 
and accusations of his enemies induced 
the Emperor Constantine to summon 
him, in 334, before the councils of Tyre 
and Jerusalem. Athanasius brought to 
light the iniquitous arts which had been 
practised against him, and threw his 
judges, who were, likewise his enemies, 
into such confusion, that the imperial 
deputies could with difficulty rescue him 
from their anger. They could do noth- 
ing, however, further than suspend him 
from his office. He still continued in 
the discharge of his duties, until the 
emperor, deceived by new falsehoods, 
banished him to Treves. At the end ot 
a year and some months, Constantius, 
having succeeded his tather as emperor 
of the East, recalled him from banish- 
ment. His return to Alexandria resem- 
bled a triumph. The Arians made new 
complaints against him, and he was con- 
demned by ninety bishops, assembled at 
Antioch. On the contrary, a hundred 
bishops, assembled at Alexandria, de- 
clared^ him innocent; and Pope Julius 
confirmed this sentence in conjunction 
with more than 300 bishops assembled 
at Sardis, from the East and West. In 
consequence of this, he returned a second 
time to his diocese. But when Con- 
stans, emperor of the West, died, and 
Constantius became master of the whole 
empire, the Arians ventured to rise up 
against Athanasius. They condemned 
him in the councils of Aries and Milan, 
and, as he refused to listen to any thing 
but an express command of the emperor, 
when he was one day preparing to cele- 
brate a festival in the church, 5000 sol- 
diers suddenly rushed in to make him 
prisoner. But the surrounding priests 
and rr.onks placed him in security. Dis- 
placed for a third time, he fled into the 
deserts of Egypt, and composed many 
writings, full of eloquence, to strengthen 
the faith of the believers, or expose the 
falsehood of his enemies. When Julian 
the apostate ascended the throne, he re- 
called the orthodox bishops fro their 
ehurches. Athanasius therefore return- 
sd, after an absence of six years. The 
jiildness which lie exercised towards 
bj.i enemies was imitated in Gaul, Spain, 

Italy, and Greece, and restored peace to 
the church. But this peace was inter- 
rupted by the complaints of the heathen, 
whose temples were kept empty by his 
zeal. They excited the emperor against 
him, and he fled to Thebais. He re- 
turned under Valens eight months after, 
but was again compelled to fly. He con- 
cealed himself in the tomb of his fatl er, 
where he remained four months, when 
Valens allowed him to return, and he 
remained undisturbed in his office till 
his death, in 373. He was a man of 
great mind, noble heart, invincible eour- 
age, unaffected humility, and lofty elo- 
quence. His writings were on polem- 
ical, moral, and historical subjects, tho 
latter especially of great importance in 
church history. His style was remark- 
able in that age for clearness and moder- 
ation, his Apology, addressed to Con- 
stantine, berno 1 a masterpiece. 

ATHELSTAN, an illegitimate son of 
Edward the Elder, king of England, 
who succeeded his father in 925, in pref- 
erence to the legitimate children, because 
of his maturer age and acknowledged 
capacity. He repressed the Danes at 
Northumberland, and defeated a com- 
bination of the Welsh and Scotch. Ho 
reigned 16 vears. 

ATHELI'NG, Edgar, grandson of 
Edmund Ironside, regarded as the fu- 
ture monarch, but defeated by the in- 
trigues of Harold. He was in the first 
crusade under Baldwin I., and behaved 
with great intrepidity. 

ATHENAGO'RAS, an Athenian phi- 
losopher of the 2d century. He became 
a convert to Christianity, and Clement 
of Alexandria was among his pupils. 
He wrote an " Apology for the Chris- 
tians," and a treatise " On the Resur- 
rection of the Dead," written about 178. 

ATHEN^EUS, a learned grammarian. 
B. at Naucratis, in Egypt, in the 3d cen- 
tury. The only work of his now extant 
is " The Deipnosophists, or the Table 
Talk of the Sophists. "—One of the same 
name, of Byzantium, was an engineer in 
the time ot the Emperor Gallienus, and 
an author of a treatise on the Machines 
of War. 

ATHENAIS, empress of the West, 
the daughter of an Athenian sophist, but 
whose learning and beauty induced The- 
odosius the Younger to marry her, and 
she took the name of Eudoxia. The 
emperor, however, became jealous of 
her, and she was banished to Jerusalem, 
where she died, in 460. Among her 
writings was a poetical translation of part 
of the Old Testament 




ATHEATON, Humphrey, a major- 
general who came to this country in 
1636, and was much employed in nego- 
tiations with the Indians. I). 1661. 

ATHOL, John Murkay, duke of, a 
governor-general of the Isle of Man. D. 

ATKINSON, Theodore, chief justice 
of New Hampshire, and a delegate to the 
C">n<7Tess at Albany in 1754. D. 1779. — - 
TwitAS, a miscellaneous writer of some 
note, was b. at Glasgow, 1801. Among 
other works, he published (in two senses, 
for he was a bookseller as well as an 
author) the Chameleon and the Ant, a 
weekly periodical, and was an extensive 
contributor to many of the local publica- 
tions. D. 1833. 

ATKYNS, Sir Robert, a distinguished 
lawyer and patriot, who aided in the de- 
fence of Lord William Russel, and con- 
ducted that of Sir W. Williams, speaker 
of the House of Commons, when pros- 
ecuted for signing the orders to print 
Dangerfield's narrative of the popish 
plot. He also distinguished himself by 
his opposition to the arbitrary measures 
of James II., and at the revolution was 
made chief baron of the exchequer. He 
subsequently was made speaker. B. 
1621 ; d. 1709. — -Sir Robert, son of the 
preceding, was the author of the " An- 
cient and Present State of Gloucester." 
B. 1646; d. 1711. — Richard, of the same 
familv, wrote the " Origin and Growth 
of Printing." D. 1677. 

ATLEE, Samuel John, a colonel in 
the old French war, who also acquired 
distinction at the battle of Long Island. 
In 1780 he was elected to Congress. D. 

ATRATUS, Hugo, an English cardi- 
nal, known as Hugh the Black ; a skilful 
mathematician and natural philosopher; 
author of " Canones Medicinales," &c. 

ATTAIGNANT, Gabriel Charles de 
t', a French ecclesiastic and poet ; author 
of " Pieces Derobees a un Ami," &c. 
B. 1697 ; d. 1779. 

ATTEEBUl'.Y, Francis, a celebrated 
English prelate, was born in 1662, and 
received his education at Westminster, 
where he was elected a student of 
Christ-church college, Oxford. He dis- 
tinguished himself at the university as 
a classical scholar, and gave proofs of 
an elegant taste for poetry. In 1687 he 
took his degree of M.A., and for the 
Srst time appeared ae a controversialist 
in a defence of the character of Luther, 
entitled " Considerations on the Spirit 
of Martin Luther," &c. He was also 
thought to have assisted his pupil, the 

Hon. Mr. Boyle, in his famous contro- 
versy with Bentley on the Epistles of 
Phalarius. Having taken orders in 
1691, he settled in London, where he 
became chaplain to William and Mary, 
preacher of Bridewell, and lecturer of 
St. Bride's, and soon distinguished him- 
self by the spirit and elegance of his 
pulpit compositions, but not without 
incurring opposition, on the score of 
their tendency and doctrine, from 
Hoadly and others. Controversy, how- 
ever, was altogether congenial to the 
disposition of Attcrbnry, who, in 1706, 
commenced one with Doctor Wake, 
which lasted 4 years, on the rights, 
privileges, and powers of convocations. 
For this service, he received the thanks 
of the lower house of convocation, and 
the degree of doctor of divinity from 
Oxford. Soon after the accession of 
<4ucen Anne, he was made dean of Car- 
lisle, and, besides his dispute with 
Hoadly on the subject of passive obe- 
dience, he aided in the defence of the 
famous Sacheverell, and wrote a "Rep- 
resentation of t lie present State of Re- 
ligion," which was deemed too violent 
to be presented to the queen, although 
privately circulated. In 1712 he was 
made dean of Christ-church, and, in 
1713, bishop of Rochester and dean of 
Westminster. The death of the queen, 
in 1714, put an end to his hopes of fur- 
ther advancement; for the new king 
treated him with great coolness, doubt- 
less aware of either the report or the 
fact of his offer, on the death of Anne, to 
proclaim the Pretender in full canon- 
icals, if allowed a sufficient guard. At- 
terbury not only refused to sign tho 
loyal declaration of the bishops in the 
rebellion of 1715, but suspended a cler- 
gyman for lending his church, for the 
performance of divine service, to the 
Dutch troops brought over to act against 
the rebels. Not content with a con- 
stitutional opposition, he entered into 
a correspondence with the Pretender's 
party, was apprehended in August, 
1722, and committed to the Tower; 
and, in the March following, a bill was 
brought into the house of commons for 
the infliction of pains and penalties. 
This measure met with considerable op- 
position in the house of lords, and was 
resisted with great firmness and elo- 
quence by the bishop, who maintained 
his innocence with his usual aenteness 
and dexterity. His guilt, however, has 
been tolerably well proved by docu- 
ments since published. He was de- 
prived of his dignities, and outlawed, 




an 1 went to Paris, where he chiefly oc- 
cupied himself in study, and in corre- 
spondence with men of letters. But. 
even here, in 1725, he was actively en- 
gaged in fomenting discontent in the 
Highlands of Scotland. D. 1731. As a 
composer of sermons, he still retains 
a great portion of his original reputa- 
tion. His letters, also, are extremely 
easy and elegant; hut, as a critic and a 
controversialist, he is deemed rather 
dexterous and popular, than accurate 
and profound. — -Lewis, an elder brother 
of the above, author of some " Ser- 
mons," "Tracts against Popery," &c. 
B. 1656; d. 1731. 

ATTICUS, son of Julius Atticus, and 
a descendant from the family of Mil- 
tiades, acquired so much reputation as 
a teacher of eloquence at Athens, that 
he was invited by Titus Antoninus to 
superintend the education of his adopted 
sons, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Ve- 
rus. He subsequently became consul, 
prefect of the free cities of Asia, &c. 
He employed his great wealth in public 
works ; but at the close of his life he 
retired to Marathon, his native place, 
where he d., a. d. 185. — Titus Pompo- 
nius, a Roman knight, whose vast 
wealth enabled him to aid men of all 
parties, while his prudence prevented 
him from siding with any of them in 
their public measures. He thus escaped 
injury amid the contentions of Cinna 
and Marias, Cajsar and Pompey, and in 
the horrible times of the Triumvirate. 
Of the ability and influence of Atticus, 
we may form some opinion from the 
correspondence between him and Cicero. 
He is said to have written " Annals" 
of great value; but it is for his pru- 
dence, his wealth, and, above all, his 
friendship with Cicero, that he is now 
remembered. D. 33 b. c. 

ATT1RET, John Francis, a French 
Jesuit and painter. Being appointed 
missionary to Pekin, he acquired by 
means of his pictures, great tavor with 
the Emperor Kien Long, of whose gar- 
dens he wrote a very amusing account. 
B. 1702; d. 1768. 

AT WOOD, George, an eminent 
mathematician, author of a " Disser- 
tation on the Construction and Prop- 
erties of Arches," and many other 
valuable works on mechanical and 
mathematical science. B. 1745 ; d. 1807. 
—Thomas, an eminent musician and 
compos.'.r, who commenced his musical 
cducatk n under Dr. Nares. In 1783 he 
set out for Naples, and after studying 
for a time with Filippo Cinque and La- 

tilla, he proceeded to Vienna, where he 
reaped great advantages from the cele- 
brated Mozart. In 1796 he was ap- 
pointed organist of St. Paul's cathedral, 
and composer to the chapel royal; he 
also held the situation of organist at the 
chapel of the Pavilion, Brighton. His 
compositions consist of several dramatic 
pieces, numerous services and anthems, 
songs, glees, sonatas, and other pieces 
for the pianoforte. B. 1767 ; d. 1838. 

AUBAIS, Charles de Baschi, Mar- 
quis of, an ingenious Frenchman, who 
published a work on "Historical Ge- 
ography," and furnished materials for 
Menard's "Pieces fugitives pour 1' His- 
toire de France." D. 1777. 

AUBAT, Abbe, censeur royal in 1784; 
a sarcastic French fabulist, whom Vol- 
taire pronounces first after La Fontaine. 

AUBIGNE, Theodore Agrippa d', a 
French Calvinist of good family, re- 
markable for his attachment to Henry 
IV., and for the honesty with which he 
spoke the truth to that king even when 
it was least agreeable. He spent the 
latter part of his life in retirement at 
Geneva. D. 1630.— Constant n', son of 
the above, and father of the notorious 
Madame de Maintenoh. His moral 
character was very inferior to that of 
his father; but as an author, his " Uni- 
versal History," and his satires, poems, 
memoirs, &c, do him considerable 

AUBLET, John Baptist Christopher 
Fuvee, an able French botanist, author 
of "Histoiresdcs Plantes de la Guienne 
Francoise." It was in honor of him 
that Linnaeus gave the name of Verbena 
Aubletia to a species of vervain. B. 
1720: d. 1778. 

AUBREY, John, an eminent English 
topographer and antiquary. He left a 
vast number of MSS., evincing great re- 
search, of which Wood has availed him- 
self in his Oxford biographies; but he 
only published one work, entitled " Mis- 
cellanies," a collection of popular super- 
stitions. Many of his MSS. are in the 
Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. B. 1626 ; 
d. 1700. 

AUBRIET, Claude, a French painter 
of natural history subjects. D. 1740. 

AUBRIOT, Hugh, a French merchant, 
mayor of Paris, and superintendent ot 
finance to Charles V. He was im- 
prisoned for heresy, but the populace, 
who had risen against the taxes termed 
Maillotins, released him, and he escaped 
to Burgundy. It was from him that the 
French reformers had the name of Hu- 




French knight of the time of Charles 
V., who, according to tradition, was 
baeely murdered, in 1371, by his com- 
panion in arms, Richard de Maeaire. 
The murder was discovered by means 
of a dog of the deceased, who showed 
the most hostile disposition to the mur- 
derer. The king compelled Maeaire to 
Sight with his accuser, the dog, in order 
1,0 decide the case ; and the murderer 
was conquered. From this story the 
drama of " The Dog of Montargis" has 
been taken. — John" Baptist, a French 
prior who wus deprived of his situation 
at the revolution, author of "Questions 
Philosophiques sur la Religion Natu- 
relle," &c. B. 1735 ; d. 1809.— Mlle., a 
figurante of the French opera, who, in 
17'.» : i, publicly personated the "God- 
dess of Reason" at Paris. — A Parisian 
librarian, and profound mathematician, 
author of a work addressed to the legis- 
lative body in 17'JK, " On Weights and 
Measures, and another, "On the 
Decimal System." B. 1740. — John 
Francis, a Pr nch physician of the 18th 
century, author ot "Les Oracles de 
Cos," a review of the practice of Hip- 
pocrates, and other ancient physicians. 
■ — Dubo.vchet N., a deputy of the 
Tiers Etats in 1789; and author of sev- 
eral works on political economy. — F., 
one of the French committee of public 
safety in 17.94, who aimed at counter- 
revolution. He deprived Bonaparte, 
after the siege of Toulon, of military 
employments, and reduced him to great 
distress; the latter revenged himself 
afterwards, by preventing his re-entry 
into France after his deportation to 
Cayenne, on the return of some of his 
fellow-victims; — De Gouges, Marie- 
Olymiue, a female republican, celebrated 
for her beauty and talents. She founded 
the popular female societies called Tri- 
coteuses, and was a perfect enthusiast 
in her political opinions. At length she 
was pit to death by Robespierre's party, 
n consequence of her having denounced 
them in a 'pamphlet called the "Trois 
Urnes." She died with heroic spirit. 
She is the author of the " Memoires de 
Madame do Valmont ;" of " L' Esclavage 
des Negres." a tnelodrame; "Le Mar- 
riage de Cherubim," a comedy; and 
"Molicre chez Ninon," an episodical 
piece, &c. B. 1755. 

AUBUSSON, Peter d', surnamed the 
Buckler of the Church, after having 
Berved with great distinction under the 
Emperor Sigismund against the Turks, 
entered the Order of St. John of Jeru- 

salem, became grand-master, and, in 
1430, compelled Mahomet II. to raise 
the siege of Rhodes. D. 1508. 

AUCHMUTY. Sir Samuel, a distin- 
guished English general. He served 
with great zeal and ability in North and 
South America, and when commanding 
in India, reduced to the dominion of 
Great Britain the rich settlements of 
Java and Batavia. On his return to 
Europe, he was appointed to the com- 
mand of Ireland, where he d. in 1322. 

AUCKLAND, William Eden, Lord, 
an able negotiator, who was the third 
son of Sir Robert Eden, Bart., of West 
Auckland, Durham. Be was appointed 
under-secretary of state in 177-'; went 
to Ireland in 1780 with Lord Carlisle, as 
chief secretary ; in 1788 was ambassa- 
dor to Spain ; and in the year following 
was ambassador to Holland. He wrote 
"The Principles of Penal Laws," "The 
History ofNew Holland," and numerous 
other valuable works. B. 1744; d. 1814 

AUDE, Joseph, knight cf Malta, sec- 
retary to the Neapolitan philosophical 
minister. Carraccioli, and subsequently 
to the French Pliny, Button, whose life 
he published in 1788. He is the author 
of several dramas; "Le Heline An- 
gloise," " Le Retour de Camille," " Le 
Nouveau Ricco," and some melodrames; 
"The Exiles of Siberia," &c. B. 1755. 

AUDEBERT, Germain, a French 
lawyer of the 16th century, author of 
"Roma," "Venetia," and other Latin 
poems. D. 1598 — John Baptist, a cele- 
brated French engraver of natural his- 
tory. The spirit of his engravings of 
monkeys, snakes, birds, &e., is inim- 
itable. B. 1759; d. 1800. 

AUDIFRE1 >I, John Baptist, a famous 
Italian astronomer, author of " Demon- 
stra/ione della Stazione della Comcta, 
1769," &e. B. 1714. 

ATJDIFFREDY, Therese, born in 
Guinea in L757. When returning thither, 
at 18, from Bordeaux, she was exposed, 
through the ett'ect of her youth ful beauty, 
to the rejected love of the captain of the 
vessel, but was relieved from his ottered 
violence by Sonnini and the Chevalier 
Audiffredy, the latter of whom she 
married; and becoming on.; of the 
richest proprietors in Cayenne, she 
saved Piehegru, and the numerous de- 
ported victims of the 18th Fructidor, 
from being starved to death. 

AUDINOT, founder of the Theatre 
Audinot, and the inventor of melo- 
drames. He was a favorite actor in, as 
well as author of, many of the latter. 
B. 1750 ; d. 1801. 




Al'D-LEY, Thomas, chancellor of En- 
gland, during tbe reign of Henry VIII., 
was b. iu 1488, of a noble family in tbe 
county of Essex, and in addition to con- 
siderable abilities and erudition, was 
possessed of an ample fortune. How- 
ever, notwithstanding all these advan- 
tages, he was, during the whole period 
of his public life, one of the most vile 
and fawning hirelings of the kin?. He 
was appointed to succeed Sir Thomas 
More, as chancellor, having long acted 
as a mere instrument as speaker of the 
parliament, so justly denominated the 
''Black Parliament," — and although 
Queen Ann Boleyn had been in many 
instances his patroness, yet be sat in 
judgment upon her, and also ou his pre- 
decessor Sir Thomas Mere, and Bishop 
Fisher. In the affairs of Ann of Cleves 
and Catharine Howard, lie was likewise 
made an active tool, and in short, re- 
fused no undertaking, however incon- 
sistent and miserable, imposed upon him 
by the wayward and haughty Henry. 
As a reward for these base services, the 
title of Lord Audley of Walden was 
conferred upon him ; he also received 
the order of the Garter. He d. in 1544, 
ha \iiii.' been a liberal patron to Magdalen 
college, Oxford. 

AUDOUIN. Jean Victor, one of the 
most diligent zoologists of his day. He 
was professor of the Museum of Natural 
History at Paris, and lectured as well as 
wrote extensively on entomology. B. 
1797 : d. 1841. 

AUDBAN, the name of a family of 
French artists, of whom the following 
are the most eminent — Charles, the 
elder, whose works are numerous and 
excellent. B. 1594; d. 1679.— Claude. 
a nephew of the preceding, was b. at 
Lyons, in 1639, and studied under his 
uncle. He was employed by Le Brim 
in painting part of the pictures of Alex- 
ander's battles at Versailles, and became 
professor of painting in the Royal Aca- 
demy of Paris, where he d. in 1684. — 
Girard, the brother of the last-men- 
ticned. and the most celebrated of the 
family, was b. at Lyons, in 1640 : studied 
under Le Brim at Paris : and engraved 
that artist's pictures in a masterly style. 
D. 1708. — Oladdk, a nephew of Girard, 
was b. at Lyons, in 16S">. He was cele- 
brated for ornamental designs ; appoint- 
ed hire's painter. D. 1704. — John, bro- 
ther ot Claude, was b. in 1667; studied 
engraving under his uncle, and d. at 
Paris, in 17o6. 

AUDBIEN, Yves M., a French ec- 
ilesiastic, who joined Robespierre, de- 

clared for the revolution, and proposed 
his " Plan d' Education," to withdraw 
the education of youth from the priest- 
hood. In 1800, while proceeding to his 
bishopric, he was dragged out of his 
carriage by the Chouans, and assassin- 

AUDI" BON, John James, an eminent 
American ornithologist, whose fame be- 
longe to the world, while it is the pecu- 
liar pride of America, was the son of an 
admiral in the French navy, living on a 
plantation in Louisiana, who took him 
to France, where he received a varied 
and accomplished education. At the 
age of 17 he returned from France — then 
in the midst of its revolution — to the 
woods of the new world, with fresh 
ardor, and began a collection of draw- 
ings, under the title of the "Birds of 
America. " This collection multiplied 
upon his hands, and after many years 
"i devoted toil, he was persuaded to 
undertake the publication of his great 
work, and with the view of obtaining 
subscribers he visited Europe in 1S24. 
Everywhere was he well received. On 
the Continent, Herschel, Cuvier, and 
Humboldt, whom lie had encountered in 
America, gave him a hearty reception. 
Iu Edinburgh he was warmly received 
by Brewster, Jeffrey, Wilson, and Sir 
Walter Scott. Professor Wilson gives a 
graphic description of Audubon in an 
article in " Blackwood's .Magazine,'' and 
he was everywhere hailed as the Amer- 
ican backwoodsman, who shared the 
highest elevations of science with Er~o- 
pean celebrities. He published, after 
his second return to America, a work on 
the Animal- similar to his work on Birds. 
He pursued the objects of his pursuit 
into their native haunts, sometimes 
Bpending years away from his family, 
and painted them from nature. The 
life-like fidelity and beauty of his delin- 
eations placed him in the first rank as an 
artist, whilst his minute accuracy in 
describing their habits proves him to 
have been the closest observer. He was 
a> stanch as a man as he was renowned 
as a naturalist. The childlike simplicity 
of his manners, and cheerfulness of 
temper, were worthy of all imitation, 
and made him beloved by all who knew 
him. At the aee of 60 years, when he 
was first personally known to the writer 
of this sketch, he had all the sprightli- 
ness and vigor of a young man. In 
person he was tall, and remarkably well 
made. His aspect sweet and animated. 
His whole head was remarkably striking. 
The forehead high, arched, and uncloud 




ing; the hairs of the brow prominent, 
particularly at the root of the nose, 
which was long and aquiline ; chin 
prominent, and mouth characterized by 
energy and determination. The eyes 
were dark gray, set deeply in the head, 
and as restless as the glance of the 
eagle. D. 1851. 

AUERBACH, Henry, the builder of 
the court and cellar at Leipsic, men- 
tioned in Goethe's Faust. His real name 
was Stpumer, but according to the fashion 
of the time, he took the name of the place 
where he was born. The building was 
erected in 1530, and tradition says that 
five years afterwards Doctor Faust was 
seen riding out of it in a barrel of wine. 

AUGEREAU, Pierre F. Charles, 
duke of (Jastiglione, marshal of France, 
was the son of a fruit merchant, served 
as a carbinier in the French army, went 
from thence into the Neapolitan service, 
established himself at Naples, in 1787, 
as a fencing master, and was banished 
thence, in 1792, with the rest of his 
countrymen. He served, afterwards, as 
a volunteer in the army of Italy, in which 
his talents and courage soon gained him 
promotion. He distinguished himself 
in 1794, as general of brigade in the army 
of the Pyrenees, and in 1796, as general 
of division in the army of Italy. He 
took the pass of Millesimo ; made him- 
Belf master of the intrenched ramp of 
the Piedmontese at Ceva, afterwards 
of that at Casale ; threw himself on the 
bridge of Lodi, and carried it with the 
enemy's intrenchments. June 16th, he 
passed the Po, and made prisoners the 
papal troops, together with the cardinal 
legate and the general's staff. Aug. 1st, 
he came to the assistance of Massena; 
maintained, during a whole day, a most 
obstinate struggle against a superior 
number of troops, and took the village 
of Castiglione, trom which he derived 
his ducal title. In the battle of Arcole, 
when the French columns wavered, he 
seized a standard, rushed upon the ene- 
my, and gained the victory. The direc- 
tory bestowed this standard on him, 
Jan. 27th, 1797. He was the instrument 
of the violent proceedings of the 18th of 
Fructidor, and was saluted, by the deci- 
mated legislative body, as the saviour of 
his country. In 1799 he was chosen a 
member of the council of five hundred, 
and, therefore, resigned his command. 
He then obtained from the consul, Bona- 
parte, the command of the army in Hol- 
land. He led the French and Bataviau 
army on the Lower Rhine to the support 
of Moreau, passed the river at Frank- 

fort, and fought with the imperial gen- 
eral, with various success, until the battle 
of Hohenlinden ended the campaign. 
In October, 1801, being superseded by 
General Victor, he remained without 
employment till 1803, when he was ap- 
pointed to lead the army, collected at 
Bayonne, against Portugal. When this 
enterprise tailed, he went back to Paris. 
and, May 19th, 1S04, was named marshal 
of the empire^ and grand officer of the 
legion of honor. ■ At the end of 1805, ho 
was at the head of a corps of the great 
army in Germany, formed of troops col- 
lected under his command at Brest. He 
contributed to the successes which gave 
birth to the peace of Presburg, and in 
March, 1806, had possession of Wetzler 
and the cou-utry around, until, in the 
autumn of this year, a new war called 
him to Prussia. 'The wounds which he 
received in the battle of Eylau compelled 
him to return to France. He was after- 
wards made a peer by Louis XVIII.; 
quarrelled with Napoleon, who proclaim- 
ed him a traitor in 1815. D. 1816. 

Alii ER, Athanasius, a learned abbe, 
and professor of rhetoric at the college 
of St. Rouen. He published several 
political works (among others "Cate- 
cbisme du Citoyen Francois," &c.) in 
favor of the revolution. His learned 
publications are numerous : " Constitu- 
tion des Remains;" " Dc la Tragedie 
Grecqne ;" the complete works of Iso- 
crates, Lysias, Xenophon, &c. B. 1734; 
.1. 17'.''-'. ' 

AUGURELLO, Giovanni an 
Italian poet and professor of the Belles 
Lettres ; author of " Chrysopaeia," and 
other poems, Latin and Italian. B. 1440 ; 
d. 1524. 

AUGUSTIN, St., bishop of Hippo, 
and one of the fathers of the Christian 
church, was b. at Tagaste, in Africa, 
a. d. 354. He was in his youth attached 
to the Manichean doctrines, and of very 
loose morals ; but his conversion from 
his errors was complete ami permanent ; 
and he wrote with great zeal, and very 
voluminously, against all the sects which 
the church held to be heretical. D. 430. 
— Saint Anthony, a Spanish prelate of 
the 16th century; author of some trea- 
tises on law and on medals. D. 1586.— 
One called the Apostle of the English, 
flourished at the close of the 6th century 
He was sent, with 40 monks, by Gregory, 
to introduce Christianity into the Saxon 
kingdoms. He was kindly received by 
Ethelbert, king of Kent, whom he soon 
converted: arid such was his success 
with his subjects, that he is said to have 




baptized 10,000 in one day. This suc- 
cess may be attributed to his reputation 
of miraculous power in the restoration 
of sight and life, more probably than 
any other cause. He has the merit of 
allowing no coercive measures to be 
used in the propagation of the gospel. 
Elated by the rapid progress he had 
made, Augustin became ambitious of 
possessing the supreme authority over 
the English churches as archbishop of 
Canterbury, and received the arehiepis- 
copal pall from the pope, with instruc- 
tions to establish 12 sees in his province. 
The British bishops in Wales, successors 
of the British converts of the 2d century, 
had never submitted to the jurisdiction 
of the church of Rome, and Augustin 
endeavored to persuade them to unite 
with the new English church. They 
asserted their independence, and 1200 
"Welsh monks were soon after put to the 
sword, as thought, at his instigation. 
D. 604. 

AUGUSTULUS, Romulus, the last 
emperor of the West, was raised to the 
throne by his father, the patrician 
Orestes, who deposed Julius Nepos, in 
476 ; but his reign was little more than 
nominal, and of very short duration ; 
being soon after conquered and de- 
throned by Odoacer, king of the Heruli, 
who spared his life, and "allowed him a 

AUGUSTUS, Caius Julius Cesar Oc- 
tavianus, a Roman emperor, was the son 
of Caius Octavius and Accia, niece of 
Julius Caesar, who, on the death of his 
father, which happened when he was 
only four years old, adopted him as his 
son. When Ca?sar was assassinated. 
Octavius (for by that name he was called 
before his accession to the throne) was 
in Epirus, whence he immediately re- 
turned to secure his inheritance," and 
entered into an alliance with Antony 
and Lepidus, though he at first was in- 
imical to the former. The triumvirate 
thus formed shed the best blood of 
Rome ; and Octavius was fully as guilty 
as either of his associates. At length 
Lepidus was deposed, Antony hurried 
to ruin and death, and Octavius, then 36 
years of age, became emperor, with the 
title of Augustus. As emperor, his 
course was wise and beneficent ; litera- 
ture and the arts flourished under his 
auspices ; good laws were enacted ; and 
he was in many respects deserving of 
the lavish praise heaped upon him by 
the writers of that time. B. 63 b. c. ; d. 
a. d. 14. 

AUL1SIO, Dominic, a Neapolitan pro- 

fessor of civil law, but more celebrated 
as a linguist, and for his great proficien- 
cy in general science and the belles 
lettres. He was author of " Commen- 
taries on Civil Law," a " History of the 
Rise* and Progress of Medicine," &c. 
B. 1639; d. 1717. 

AULNAGE, F. H. S. de, a Spanish 
writer. B. in 1739 ; author of a work on 
ancient pantomime, and of " Histoire 
Generate des Religions, " &c. 

AULUS GELLIUS, a grammarian in 
the reigns of Trajan and Marcus Aure- 
lius ; chiefly remembered for his " Noctes 

AUNGERVILLE, Richard, or Rich- 
ard df. Bury, was the tutor of Edward 
III., by whom he was made bishop of 
London, lord high chancellor, lord high 
treasurer, &c. He was a munificent 
patron of learning, and the author of a 
learned work, entitled " Philobiblion." 
B. 1281; d. 1345. 

AUNOY, countess of, a lively French 
authoress of the 17th century. D. 1705. 

AUREL1AN, Lucius Domitius, a Ro- 
man emperor, was the son of a peasant, 
and b. in Pannonia, about the year 220. 
Having throughout an active life greatly 
distinguished himself as a skilful, val- 
iant, and successful general, he was 
chosen emperor on the death of Claudius 
II. in 270. He drove the barbarians 
from Italy, conquered Tetricus, who had 
assumed the purple in Gaul, and van- 
quished the celebrated Zenobia, of Pal- 
myra, and carried her a prisoner to 
Rome ; but while on his march towards 
Persia, in 275, he was assassinated by 
his mutinous troops. 

AURELIO, Louis, an Italian monk of 
the 17th century; author of an account 
of the Bohemian rebellion. He also 
abridged the Universal History of Tur- 
sellinus, and other works. D. 1637. 

AURIA, Vin'centio, author of a his- 
torv of eminent Sicilians. B. 1625 ; d. 

AURIGNI, Giles, a French lawyer 
and poet of the 16th century; author 
of a poem, entitled "Tuteur d' Amour," 
and some other works of no great value. 

AURUNGZEBE, the great Mogul, or 
emperor of Hindostan, was the third 
son of Shah Jehan. His early life was 
marked by gravity and seeming devo- 
tion, but these were merely the disguise 
of an ambitious and crafty spirit. He 
deposed his father, put to death two of 
his brothers, and the son of the elder 
of them, and assumed the sovereign au- 
thority. Ill, however, as he obtained 
his power, he used it with skill and 




Courage. He subdued Golconda, the 
Carnatic, Pisapour, and Bengal, and 
routed the pirates who had infested the 
mouth of the Ganges. His achieve- 
ments obtained him the respect of Eu- 
ropean as well as Asiatic powers. But 
the close of his life was embittered by 
the rebellious conduct of his sons, who 
aimed at deposing him, as he had de- 
posed his father. After the death of 
Aurunjrzebe, the might and splendor of 
the Mogul empire rapidly declined. B. 
1618 ; d. 1707. 

AUSEGIUS, a French abbot of the 
9th century, who made a collection of 
the capitularies of Charlemagne and his 
sou Louis, which has been several times 
reprinted. D. 834. 

AUSONIUS, Decius Magnus, a Ro- 
man poet of the 4th century; son of 
Julius Ausonius, a physician of Bor- 
deaux. He early trave proof of genius, 
and was appointed tutor to Gratian, son 
of the emperor Valentinian ; and when 
his pupil came to the throne, he made 
him prsetorian prefect of Gaul, and sub- 
sequently raised him to the consulship. 
His poems are various both as to sub- 
ject and merit : but though they contain 
much that is beautiful, they arc but too 
frequently deformed by licentiousness. 

AUSTEN. .Jam:, the celebrated au- 
thoress of "Pride and Prejudice," 
"Sense and Sensibility," and other 
prose fictions, was the daughter of a cler- 
gyman in Hampshire. B. 1775; d. 1817. 
AUSTREA, D. Juan, a Spanish ad- 
miral. B. in 1545; remembered as the 
conqueror of the Turks at Lepanto. 

AUVERGNE, Anthony, a French 
musician and composer of the 18th cen- 
tury, who composed the first comic opera 
ever performed in France. D. 1797. 

AVALOS, Ferdinand, marquis of 
Peseara. a brave Neapolitan soldier, and 
the author of a " Dialogue on Love," 
•which he wrote while a prisoner of war, 
and dedicated to his wife, the beautiful 
Vittoria Colonna. B. 1489 ; d. 1525.— 
Alpiionso, marquis del Vasto, nephew 
of the preceding, was b. at Naples, in 
1502, and obtained the command of the 
imperial army at his uncle's death, for 
the brilliant 'valor he displayed at the 
siege of Pavia. D. 1548. 

AVAUX, Claude de Mesne, count of, 
a celebrated French diplomatist, and an 
accomplished scholar. D. 1650. 

AVELL AN ED A, Alphonsus Fernan- 
dez de, a Spanish writer, who, to the 
great annoyance of Cervantes, wrote a 
jontinuati >n of the first part of Don 

AVELLONE, F., an Italian dramatic 
writer, whose pieces are numerous, and 
many of them successful ; " Lanterne 
Magique," "Jules "Willenvel," &c. B. 

AVENTINE, John, a native of Bava- 
ria; author of the "Annals of Bavaria," 
and of a curious work, entitled " Nn- 
merandi per Digitos," &c. B. 1466 ; d. 

Arabian physician of the 12th century. 
B. at Seville; author of a medical com- 
pendium, entitled " Al Theiser." 

AVERANI, Benedict, a Florentine, 
was a learned and voluminous prose wri- 
ter and poet. B. 1645; d. 1707.— Joseph, 
brother of the above ; author of various 
scientific treatises, and of a defence of 

AVERDY, Clement Charles de l', 
comptroller-general of France in the 
18th century; author of "Code Penal," 
and other useful works. He was guil- 
lotined in 17i>4, on a charge of having 
cause 1 the scarcity of wheat which then 
afflicted France. 

Arabian philosopher and physician of 
the 12th century. His talents caused 
him to be made chief ruler of Morocco, 
by the caliph, Jacob Almanzor, but be- 
Lng accused of heresy by the Mahometan 
priests, he was imprisoned and other- 
wise persecuted. Again, however, he 
acquired both the royal favor and the 
popular confidence, and d. at Morocco, 
in 1198, in possession of the highest 
honors below the sovereignty. He was 
author of a paraphrase of Plato's Repub- 
lic, and several other works. 

AVIGNY, a national French poet. B. 
at Martinique, in 1760; author of 
" Jeanne d'Arc," " Le Depart de la Pe- 
rouse;" and some successful dramas, 
"Les Lettres," " Les Deux Jockeys," 
" Doria," &c. His best prose produc- 
tion is on the progress of the British 
power in India, inserted in Michard's 
" Histoire de Mysore." 

AVI LA, John n\ a Spanish priest, 
who for the space of 40 years journeyed 
through the Andalusian mountains and 
forests, enforcing by his precepts and 
example, the doctrine of the trospel ; on 
which account he acquired the appella- 
tion of the Apostle of Andalusia. D. 

A VILA Y ZUN1GA, Louis d', a dis- 
tinguished diplomatist, warrior, and his- 
torian, under Charles V. He wrote 
"Commentaries" on the wars of his 
sovereign, who si much admired them. 


that he deemed himself more fortunate 
than Alexander, in having such an his- 

AVIEON, James le Batiielier, a 
French lawyer of the 16th century ; 
author of ""Commentaries on the Pro- 
vincial Laws of Normandy." 

AVISON, Chakles, a composer and 
musician ; author of " Essays on Musi- 
cal Expression," &c. D. 1770. 

AV1TUS, Marcus M^cilius, raised to 
the empire of the West, on the death 
of Maxiinus, in 455, but deposed after a 
reign of only 14 months. 

AVOGADRO, Lucia, an Italian poet- 
ess, whose earlv talents won the praise 
of Tasso. D. 1568. 

AYALA, Peter Lopez d', a learned, 
brave, and eloquent Spanish statesman, 
was b. in Murcia, in 1332. After serv- 
ing under four Castilian monarehs, both 
in the council and the field, he distin- 
guishing himself also as a man of erudi- 
tion. D. 1407. 

AYESHA, daughter of Abubeker, and 
favorite wife of Mahomet. On the death 
of her husband she resorted to arms to 
oppose the succession of Ali; but though 
conquered by him, she was dismissed 
in safety, and d. in retirement, at Mecca, 
in 677. " The Mussulmans venerate her 
memory, and designate her the proph- 

AYLMER, John, bishop of London 
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. He 
was a ready, but not very rigidly prin- 
cipled writer ; and was more disposed 
to intolerance than is consistent with 
the character of a true Christian. B. 
1521 ; d. 1594. — The true name of Jack 

AYLOFFE, Sir Joseph, an able anti- 
quary of the 18th century. He was 
keeper of the state papers, and author 
of "The Universal Librarian," besides 
numerous other works. B. 1708 ; d. 1781. 

AYMON, John, a Piedmontese priest 
of the 17th century. He abjured Pa- 
pacy for the doctrines of Calvin, but re- 
turned to his original faith, and had a 
pension from the Cardinal de Noailles. 
Availing himself of his intimacy with 
Ihe librarian of the royal collection at 
Paris, he stole some MSS., one of which, 
an account of the synod of Jerusalem in 
1672, he published in Holland. He wrote 
a "Picture of the Court of Rome," and 
Borne other works. 

AYRAULT, Pierre, a French lawyer 
.»f the 16th century ; author of a treatise 
"De Patris Jure," occasioned by the 
seduction of his son by the Jesuits, and 
Dther works. B. 1526"; d. 1601. 



AYRTON, Edmund, a composer of 
cathedral music, and one of the directors 
of the Commemoration of Handel. B. 
1734; d. 1808. 

AYSCOUGH, George Edward, son 
of the dean of Bristol, by a sister of the 
first Lord Lyttleton. lie was the author 
of a volume of "Travels on the Conti- 
nent," " Index to Shakspeare," and the 
"Tragedy of Scmirainis." D. 1779. — ■ 
Samuel, an industrious literary charac- 
ter of the last century. He contributed 
largely to the British Critic and other 
rjeriodicals ; and compiled a variety of 
laborious indexes, of which his index to 
Shak^.eare is the principal. He was 
curate of St. Giles s, and lecturer at 
Shorcditch. B. 1745 ; d. 1804. 

AYSCUE, Sir George, a distinguished 
admiral in the time of Cromwell, and 
one of the coadjutors of Blake in his 
famous action with the Dutch admiral, 
Van Tromp. At the restoration he was 
made rear-admiral of the blue ; and be- 
ing captured in Albemarle's action off 
Dunkirk, remained many years a pris- 

AYTON, Sir Robert, a native of Fife- 
shire, in Scotland, a poet of considerable 
merit. He wrote in Greek, Latin, and 
French, as well as English. B. 1570; 
d. 1638. 

AZA1S, P. H., author of a " Systeme 
Universe]," and the editor of several lite- 
rary and political works, " Le Mercure," 
" Aristarque " <Kc. B. 1706. 

AZARA, Don Joseph Nicholas d', a 
Spanish grandee, born in Aragon, 1721 ; 
ambassador, first to Rome, and next to 
France ; a good writer in Spanish, Italian, 
and French ; a ripe antiquarian, and a 
great patron of the fine arts. His " Suite 
de Pierres Gravees," published in Spain, 
is much esteemed. He translated into 
Spanish " Middleton's Life of Cicero," 
" Bowles's Natural History of Spain," 
"Seneca," and "Bodoni's Horace," D. 
1804. — Felix d', a Spanish naturalist 
and traveller of the ISth century ; author 
of a " Natural History of Paraguay," and 
other valuable works. B. 1746. 

AZNAR, count of Gaseony, distin- 
guished for quelling an insurrection of 
the Navarrese Gascons in 824 ; but being 
discontented with Pepin, king of Aqui- 
taine, for whom he put down the insur- 
gents, he subsequently, in 831, seized on 
a part of Navarre, and became the foun- 
der of the kingdom of that name. D. 

AZUNI, Dominic Albert, a Sardinian, 
author of "Systeme Universel du Droit 
Maritime de l'Europe," &c, a work of 



the highest merit, written in the purest 
French Made president of the Genoese 
board of trade by Napoleon ; he fell with 
bis rjatron, and retired to private life. 
B. 1760 ; d. 1827. 


AZZO, Poktius, an Italian jurist of 
the 13th century; author of '• A Sum- 
mary of the Codes or Institutes." Tie ia 
said to have been executed for killing a 
man in a personal conflict. 


BAADER, Francis, one of the most 
eminent thinkers of Germany, who wrote 
on politics, theology, and the philosophi- 
cal sciences. He produced no formal 
system, in any department of thought, 
but is commonly classed with the mys- 
tics. He was appointed professor in the 
university of Munich when the king of 
Bavaria wished to oppose the pantheistic 
tendencies of Schclling, Hegel, and other 
German authorities. "His chief writings 
were the " Absolute Extravagance of 
the Practical Reason of Kant," 1797 ; a 
" Memoir upon Elementary Physiology," 
1797 ; a " Memoir on Physical Dynam- 
ics," 1809 ; " Demonstration of Morals 
by Physics," 1813 ; " Principles of a 
Theory destined to give Form and Foun- 
dation to Human Life," 1820; "Lectures 
upon Religious Philosophy in opposition 
to the Irreligion of both Ancient and 
Modern Times," 1727; "Christiau Idea 
of Immortality, as opposed to Unshris- 
tian Doctrhfes"," 1836. 

BAAHDIN, Mahomet Gebet Amali, 
a Persian author, who wrote a " Sum- 
mat; of the Canon and Civil Law," by 
the order of Abbas the Great. 

BAAN, John De, a portrait painter, 
born at Harlaem, in 1633. His celebrity 
got him employment under Charles II. 
of England, whose whole family were 
painted by him. He was subsequently 
patronized by the duke of Tuscany. D. 
1702. — James, a son of the preceding, 
was of the same profession, but not so 
distinguished. D. 1700. 

BAARSDAP, Cornelius, a physician 
under Charles V., who wrote the " Me- 
thodus Universal Artis Medical." D. 

BAART Peter, a Flemish author, 
who wrote chiefly in Latin. His works 
were, the " Flemish Georgics," and " Le 
Triton de Frise." He flourished during 
the 18th ccutury. 

BABA, a Turkish fanatic, who about 
the year 1260 proclaimed himself a mes- 
senger of God ; and collecting a con- 
siderable body of adherents, laid waste 

to Aretolia. He was finally routed, and 
his sect destroyed. 

BABBINGTON, Anthony, a Catholic 
of Derbyshire, who conspired with seve- 
ral other gentlemen to assassinate Queen 
Elizabeth of England, and rescue Mary, 
queen of Scots. He joined in the un- 
dertaking, it is said, in hope that the 
latter lady would in gratitude become 
his wife. The plot was discovered, and 
he was executed in 1586. A touching 
account of the affair is to be found in 
Leigh Hunt's " London Journal." — Ger- 
vase, an English bishop, who was a great 
benefactor to the cathedral library at 
Worcester, and wrote notes on the Pen- 
tateuch. D. 1610. — William, a noted 
physician and lecturer at Guy hospital, 
who wrote a new " System of Mineral- 
ogy," and other scientific works. B. 
1757; d. 1833. 

BABEK, a Persian fanatic, who gath- 
ered a multitude of followers, as the 
apostle of a new religion ; and for more 
than twenty years barrled all the efforts 
made to suppress his influence. When 
he was finally conquered by the caliph, 
who succeeded A'mamar, he was pub- 
licly executed. He began his career 
about 837, and was called " The Im- 

BABEAUF, Francis Noel, a French 
reformer and enthusiast, who was born 
at St. Quentin. He was of humble ex- 
traction, and for a time served in a menial 
capacity. But he parted with his em- 
ployer," and became an attorney. Im- 
prisoned at Arras for some trivial offence, 
he escaped to Paris, where, strongly 
sympathizing with the democrats of the 
revolution, he issued a paper called the 
Tribune, which had great acceptance 
among the people. His doctrines were 
those of the communistic revolutionists, 
and he vindicated a system of equal 
risrhts and common property. When 
Robespierre died, he was considered by 
his associates the next best man to gov- 
ern France; but he was betrayed by 
some of his friends, and guillotined in 



1797. His trial produced a prodigious 
sensation, and was published in three 

BABIN, Francis, a French divine of 
Angers, who edited the " Conferences" 
of that diocese. D. 1734. 

BABOUR, the founder of the great 
Mogul dynasty, a descendant of Timour, 
or Tamerlane, as he is called ; who un- 
dertook the conquest of Sarnarcand, and 
was deprived of his dominions by the 
Usbecks. He recovered his fortunes, 
however, and overthrew Ibrahim, the 
last Hindoo emperor, whose throne he 
usurped. After an active reign he died 
in 1530. He was an accomplished but 
voluptuous prince, and wrote a history 
of his own life. 

BABRIAS, a Greek poet, quoted by 

BABYLAS, a bishop of Antioeh, put 
to death during the persecution of De- 
cius, 251. 

BACAI, Ibrahim, a Mahometan au- 
thor. D. 835 of the Hegira. 

BACCAINI, Benedict, professor of 
ecclesiastical history at Modena. B. 
1657; d.1721. 

commander and statesman under Charles 
II. and Philip V. of Spain, and who also 
wrote the memoirs of Philip V. D. 1726. 
BACCHYLIDES, a Greek lyric poet, 
cotemporary with Pindar, and whom 
Horace is said to have imitated. He 
flourished about 450 b. c. 

BACCIO, Andrew, an Italian phy- 
sician and author of the 16th century. — 
Della Porta, more generally known 
as Fra Bartolomeo, was a celebrated 
painter, born at Sarignano, in Tuscanv, 
1469. His teacher was Ccsimo Roselti, 
of Florence, under whom, by the study 
of the works of Leonarda, he acquired 
great grandeur of style, and vigor of 
coloring and outline. The famous 
fresco in the hospital of Santa Maria 
Nuova, representing the last judgment, 
was begun by him and finished by 
Albertinelli. He enlisted in the cause 
of Savonarola, and was imprisoned in 
the monastery of San Marco, which was 
besieged ; when he made a vow, that 
if he escaped he would become a monk. 
In consequence of this, he assumed the 
Dominican habit in 1500, and went under 
the name of Brother Bartolomeo. For 
four years he did not paint at all, and 
afterwards only sacred subjects. Raphael 
visited him in 1504, and some years af- 
terwards he himself met Michael Angelo 
and Raphael at Rome, where he acknowl- 
edged their merits. His style of paint- 


ing was severe and elevated, but at the 
same time graceful ; in the use of color 
resembling Titian or Giorgone. 

BACELLAR, Anthony Barbosa, a 
Portuguese poet, historian, and civilian, 
who wrote a celebrated defence of the 
house of Braganza. 

BACH, John Sebastian, a musical 
author who occupies the highest rank 
among the composers of Germany. He 
was b. at Eisenach in 16S5, and studied 
at Luneburg, where he made himself 
familiar with the French style of music, 
by frequenting the chapel of the duke 
of Halle In 1707 he was appointed 
organist at Muhlhausen, the next year 
at" Weimar, in 1717 chapel-master at 
Cothen ; in 1723 chanter and director of 
music at Leipsic, and in 1736 composer 
at the electoral court of Saxony. As a 
performer on the harpsichord and organ 
he was without a rival in his time, while 
his compositions are marked by great 
originality, strength, and fervor. D. 
1750. — Charles Philip Emanuel, the 
second son of the above, known as Bach 
of Berlin, was chapel-master to the 
Princess Amelia of Prussia, and after- 
wards director of music at Hamburgh. 
He was b. in 1714, and as a composer 
attained a celebrity as wide as that of his 
father. Haydn seems to have regard- 
ed him as a master. — John Christian, 
another son of Sebastian, by a second 
wife, known as Bach of Milan, was a 
scholar of Emanuel, under whom he be- 
came a fine performer on keVed instru- 
ments. He afterwards went to Italy, 
where his success as a composer of vocal 
music got him the place of organist of 
the Duomo of Milan. In 1763 he was 
engaged by Matteuceo to compose for 
the opera in London, where he produced 
" Orione," which was extremely ap- 
plauded for the richness of its harmo- 
nies, the ingenious texture of its parts, 
and its new and skilful use of wind 
instruments. In connection with Abel, 
he opened weekly subscription concerts, 
which were kept up for more than 20 
vears with uninterrupted prosperity. 
He was the first composer who observed 
the law of contrast as a principle of har- 
mony. His symphonies are regarded 
generally as more original than his songs 
or piece's for the harpsichord. D. 1782. 
— John Christopher, another of the 
Bachs, was the greatest contrapuntist 
and most expert organist in Germany, 
where he was court and town organist 
at Eisenach. He w is also an uneomn.on 
master of full harmony, as is proved by 
his "Es erhab sich ein Streit," a piece 




of church music, having 20 obligate 
parts, yet perfectly pure in its harmo- 

BACH AUMONT, Francis le Coigeau 
de, was a counsellor of the parliament 
of Paris, of which his father was presi- 
dent. In the disturbance of 1648 he 
took part against the court, and a mot 
of his at that time originated the name 
of the Fronde. He said that the parlia- 
ment reminded him of the school-boys 
vrho played with slinks on the boule- 
vards, — they dispersed at the sight of a 
police officer, and collected again as soon 
as he was gone. The comparison struck 
the general mind, and the enemies of 
Mazarin, adopting a hat-band in the 
form of a sling (frande) were called 
Frondeurs. During the war of the 
Fronde, and afterwards, he was dis- 
tinguished as a poet and author. His 
book called " A Journey to Montpelier" 
is lively and spirited. B. 1624; d. 1702. 
— Loris Petit, the writer of a volumin- 
ous "Secret Memoirs towards a History 
of the French Republic of Letters." D. 

PACIIE, Richard, a postmaster-gen- 
eral of the United States from 1776 to 
1782. He was the son-in-law of Dr. 
Franklin. D. 1811. — Benjamin Frank- 
lin, the editor of a print called the 
" Aurora," which vehemently opposed 
the administrations of Washington and 
Adams. D. 1799. 

BACHELTER, Nicholas, a French 
sculptor, pupil of Michael Angelo. Sev- 
eral of his productions are in the cathe- 
dral of Toulouse, his native city. D. 
1554. — John James, a French painter. 
B. in 1724; was director of the royal 
porcelain manufactory of Sevres, and 
.the discoverer of an encaustic composi- 
tion for the preservation of marble sta- 
tues. He devoted a fortune of 60,000 
francs to the establishment of a school 
for gratuitously teaching the art of draw- 
jig." D. 1805. 

BACHER, George Frederic, a Ger- 
oian physician of the 18th century ; 
uithor of " Treatises on Dropsy," a dis- 
ease which he was very skilful in 
reating. — A son of the preceding, and 
f the same profession, was the author 
f a work on law, and a contributor to 
le "Journal de Medeeine." D. 1807. 

PACIIOVTUS. Rkinier, a German 
<ri\?lianof the 16th century; author of 
a catechism in vindication of Calvinism. 
— R."a\ter, son of the above ; professor 
of civil law at Heidelberg ; author of a 
treatba " De Actionibus," &c. 

BACHMEISTER, H. L. 0., a miscel- 

laneous writer. B. at Hernhorn, in tho 
principality of Nassau-Dillenbourg, in 
1736; author of " An Abridgment of 
the Geography of the Russian Empire ;" 
" A Collection of Memoirs relating to 
Peter I. ;" " The Russian Library," 11 
vols., &c. D. 1806. 

BACICI, John Baptist Gauli, an 
Italian painter, chiefly of scriptural sub- 
jects and portraits. B. 1639 ; d. 1709. 

BACKER, James, a Dutch historical 
painter of great ability. B. 1530; d. 
1560. — Jacob, a portrait and historical 
painter. B. at Harlingen, 160 J ; d. 1651. 

BACKHOUSE, William, an English 
astronomer and alchemist; author of 
"The Complaint of Nature," "The 
Golden Fleece," &c. D. 1662. 

BACKHUYSEN, Ludolf; a painter 
of the Dutch school, distinguished main- 
ly for his sea-pieces. He was b. in 1631 
at Embden, and was originally destined 
for mercantile pursuits. But' instead of 
poring over ledgers he made pen sketches 
of vessels and shipping scenes, which, 
attracting attention, he was induced to 
devote his life to art. He took regular 
instructions, and soon acquired extra- 
ordinary facility. It was his custom, 
when storms approached, to embark on 
the boats, to observe the commotion of 
the waters, the gathering of the clouds, 
and the breaking of the swell upon tho 
shore. He carried his enthusiasm to 
such a pitch that the terrified sailors 
were often forced to carry him to land in 
the face of his most earnest entreaties to 
remain. Full of what he had seen, he 
put upon canvas, while the impression 
was fresh, and with admirable fidelity, 
the varying features of those scenes. 
This courageous zeal procured his pic- 
tures an eminent rank in their class. 
Truth was their prevailing characteristic, 
though his coloring was excellent, and 
his touch free and effective. He also 
attempted poetry, but not with the same 
success. D. 1709. 

BACKLER, d'Albe, Baron Anbert 
Louis, a French geographer and en- 
gineer, who was the author of the 
"('hart of the Theatre of War in Na- 
poleon's first Italian Campaigns." B. 
1761; d. 1824. 

BACKUS, Azel, D.D., the first pres- 
ident of Hamilton college, and author 
of several published sermons. B. 1767; 
d. 1824. — Isaac, a distinguished Baptist 
preacher of Norwich, Ct. He wrote a 
history of that sect, in 3 vols., which 
was greatly indebted to his exertions 
for its prosperity. B. 1724; d. 1806. 

BACON, Anne, wife of Sir Nicholas, 




remarkable for her learning, translated 
the sermons of Ochinus from the Ita'ian, 
and "Bishop Jewel's Apology for the 
Church of England," from the Latin. 
B. 152S; d. 1600. — Anthony, an elder 
brother of the chancellor, a skilful poli- 
tician and learned man, was the friend 
of the earl of Essex, and a favorite of 
Henty IV. of France. He passed his 
time in the pursuit of knowledge. — 
John, an eminent sculptor who invented 
a method of making statues in artificial 
stone. His chief works were a bust of 
George III., a figure of Mars, Lord 
Chatham's monuments in Guildhall and 
Westminster, and those of Guy, the 
founder of the hospital, and of Dr. 
Johnson and Howard in St. Paul's. B. 
1740; d. 1799. — John, an English monk, 
called the Resolute Doctor, who wrote a 
"Compendium of the Law of Christ." 
D. 1346. — Francis, viscount of St. Al- 
bans, one of the most extraordinary 
men that any age can boast, — a scholar, 
a wit, a lawyer, a judge, a statesman, a 
politician and philosopher, whose wri- 
tings will endure as long as the lan- 
fuages in which they are written can 
e read. He was born at London, Jan. 
22, 1561, and from his earliest childhood 
evinced the greatest aptitude for learn- 
ing, and a remarkable capacity of 
thought. He entered Cambridge in his 
13th year, and was speedily distin- 
guished for his progress in the sciences. 
Before he was 16 he wrote a thesis 
against the Aristotelian philosophy 
then in vogue. His precocity led 
Queen Elizabeth, when he first made 
her acquaintance, to call him her 
" youns lord keeper." At the close of 
his collegiate studies, he went, as it 
was then the custom with young men, 
to the Continent for the purposes of 
travel. Ho was in the suite of Sir 
Amias Paulet, who sent him back to 
England on an important errand, which 
he managed so discreetly that he at- 
tracted the regard of the queen, and 
was at once established in court favor. 
Returning to France, he completed his 
travels, and then, though but 19 years 
of ago, wrote an essay on the state of 
Europe, which gave astonishing evi- 
dence of extensive observation and ma- 
ture judgment. The death of his father 
recalled him to England, where he en- 
gaged in the study of jurisprudence, 
and before he was 28 was made counsel 
extraordinary to the queen. His con- 
nection with Burleigh, the lord treasurer, 
ind Sir Robert Cecil, first secretary of 
state, would have led to his instant ad- 

vancement, but for the feud of the latter 
with Essex. In 1593 he was returned a 
member of parliament for Middlesex, 
where he at ni>t conducted himself with 
great dignity and discretion, voting with 
the popular party against the measures 
of the ministers, but towards the end 
of Elizabeth's reign, his poverty be- 
trayed him into acts of servility un- 
worthy of his character. Under James 
I., a prince ambitious of the title of a 
patron of letters, he was knighted in 
1703. Commissioned to make a report 
on the oppressions committed by the 
royal purveyors in the king's name, he 
executed the task with so much satis- 
faction both to the king and parliament, 
that the commons voted hint their 
thanks, and James made him king's 
counsel, with a pension of £100. He 
soon after contracted an advantageous 
marriage, was created lord keeper of the 
seals in 1617, and lord high chancellor 
and baron of Verulam in 1619, and, in 
1620, viscount of St. Albans. But his 
rapid preferment was only the precursor 
to a still more rapid fall. He was ac- 
cused before the house of lords of hav- 
ing received money for grants of office 
and privileges under the seal of state. 
He was unable to justify himself, and 
finally confessed the bulk of the charges., 
throwing himself on the mercy of the 
peers. He was sentenced to pay a fine 
of £40,000, to be imprisoned in the 
Tower, and to be declared incapable of 
holding office, or to appear within the 
verge of the court. Basil Montague, in 
his admirable life of Bacon, ingeniously 
attempts to excuse bis crimes, but his 
arguments are scattered like chaff iu 
Mr. Macaulay's essay on Bacon, to be 
found in his Miscellanies. The sen- 
tence was not rigorously executed; he 
was soon released from the Tower, and 
the rest of his penalty remitted. Yet 
he survived his disgrace only a few 
years, and died in 1726. During his 
active political life, and in his ti.ll, he 
had still been devoted to philosophy. 
His universal genius had made him 
master of all the scieuces, and his im- 
mortal writings, the "Advancement of 
Learning," and the " Novum Oiga- 
num," laid the foundations of truo 
scientific method, which changed the 
philosophy of the world. He treated 
also, in the "Sylva Sylvannin," of 
natural history, wrote several works on 
medicine, and suggested extensive and 
wise reforms of law. His moral " Es- 
says" are a treasure of profound thought, 
eloquently expressed. Indeed, in nearly 




all departments of human investigation, 
he displayed prodigious capacity, and 
was as copious and beautiful as a writer 
as he was original and comprehensive 
as a thinker. In mathematics and as- 
tronomy he was, perhaps, behind others 
of his day, but in every other respect, 
he soared to such a height, that his 
cotemporaries scarcely estimated the 
greatness of his views and the im- 
portance of his discoveries. — Roger, 
an English monk, whose genius would 
render' the name of Bacon illustrious 
even if it had not belonged to the great 
counsellor whose life is given above. 
He was born in 1214, at Ilchester, in 
Somerset, and educated first at Oxford 
and then at Paris, where he took a de- 
gree as doctor of theology. In 1240 he 
returned to Oxford, where he joined the 
order of Franciscans. His inquisitive 
spirit, however, directed his taste rather 
to learning than religion, and he was 
soon distinguished for the extent as well 
as variety of his attainments. His favor- 
ite pursuit was natural philosophy ; in 
the prosecution of which, having ex- 
hausted his own means, he relied upon 
the contributions of friends. He dis- 
covered many valuable facts in science; 
but such was the ignorance and super- 
stition of the day, that his labors were 
regarded as heretical and their results as 
sorcery or magic. He replied by de- 
nouncing the ignorance and corruption 
of the priests, who could not compre- 
hend his elevated aims, and they, in re- 
venge, denounced him at the court of 
Rome. The pope silenced his teachings 
at the university ; and not long after he 
was thrown into prison, where he was 
shut out from all human converse, and 
almost deprived of food. But the next 
pope, Clement IV., a more enlightened 
man, liberated him from confinement, 
and requested him to publish his works, 
which he did in the shape of what is now 
known as the " Opus Majus." Clement's 
successor, Nicholas III., was not so favor- 
able to him, and his writings were again 
condemned and his person imprisoned. 
He suffered during ten years, and was 
only released by the intercession of some 
learned Englishmen. He died in 1294. 
His opinions were many of them those 
of his age, but he was in most respects 
greatly in advance of it. His views on 
optics were new and ingenious ; he had 
investigated the refraction of light, knew 
the property of lenses, and was either 
th<; inventor or improver of the telescope. 
The camera obscura and the burning 
glass were not, unknown to him, and he 

made several discoveries in cher.iistry. 
He knew the secret of manufacturing 
gunpowder, was familiar with geography 
and astronomy ; wrote Hebrew, Latin, 
and Greek with elegance ; and has left 
behind admirable precepts in moral phi- 
losophy. Altogether he was perhaps the 
most wonderful man of his age.— Sir 
Nicholas^ keeper of the great seal under 
Elizabeth, was born 1510. He was em- 
ployed under Henry VIII., to whom he 
proposed a plan, which however was 
never adopted, for the erecting of a col- 
lege to instruct young statesmen in all 
the branches of political knowledge. He 
was knighted by Elizabeth, and made 
keeper of the seals in the room of Heath, 
archbishop of York ; but as he favored 
the Suffolk succession he was treated 
with coldness, and suspected of assisting 
Hales in writing a tract to favor the claims 
of the duchess of Suffolk against the 
rights of the queen of Scotland. He 
was, however, soon after reinstated in 
the queen's good opinion by the inter- 
ference of Sir William Cecil, and he died 
20th February, 1579. — Nathaniel, a Vir- 
ginia genera!, one of the earliest patriots 
of the New World, was educated at the 
Inns of Court in England, and after his 
arrival in this country was chosen a 
member of the council. The murder of 
six Indian chiefs induced the savages 
to take terrible vengeance, inhumanly 
slaughtering sixty for the six. Their 
incursions caused the frontier planta- 
tions to be abandoned. Governor Berke- 
ley built a few forts on the frontiers, but 
this wretched expedient produced no 
beneficial effect, for the savages quickly 
found out, as an old history has it, " where 
the mouse-traps were set." The people 
were for wiser and more active measures. 
They chose Bacon for their leader, who 
after sending to the governor for a com- 
mission, which was refused, marched 
without one at the head of 80 or 90 met 
and defeated the Indians. For this act 
he was proclaimed a rebel. He was taken, 
tried, and acquitted, restored to the coun- 
cil, and promised also in two days a com- 
mission as general for the Indian war, 
agreeably to the passionate wishes of the 
people. * As the governor refused to sign 
the promised commission, Bacon soon 
appeared at the head of 500 men and 
obtained it by force. The people had 
not misjudged his capacity to serve them : 
for by the wise and energetic measures 
he adopted, he restored his scattered 
friends to their plantations. While ho 
was thus honorably employed, the gov- 
ernor again proclaimed him a rebel. Tin's 




measure induced him to countermarch 
to Williamsburg, whence he issued his 
declaration against the governor, and 
Boon drove him across the bay to Aeco- 
mae. He also exacted of the people an 
oath to support him against the forces 
employed by the governor. He then 
prosecuted the Indian war. The gov- 
ernor was again routed, and Jamestown 
burned. To prevent an attack by the 
governor when besieged by him, he 
seized the wives of several of the gov- 
ernor's adherents, and brought them into 
camp; sending word to their husbands, 
that they would be placed in front of his 
men. Entirely successful on the western 
shore, Bacon was about to cross the bay 
to attack the governor at Accomac, when 
he was arrested by death, October 1st, 
1676. He appears to have been a man 
of noble impulses, great sagacity, and 
chivalric valor. His story has been 
wrought into a novel by Mr. Caruthers 
of Virginia ; and Mr. Parke Godwin, we 
are told,, has an unpublished drama, of 
which Bacon is the hero. — Phanuel, 
D. D., an Oxford divine, celebrated for 
his wit ana humor. In 1735 he became 
rector of Baldon, Oxfordshire, where he 
died, January 2, 1783. He wrote, be- 
sides five plays, published in 1757, anele 
gant poem called " The Artificial Ki» 
first printed in 1719, and inserted in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, 1753. — Thomas, 
an Episcopal minister at Frederietown, 
Maryland, died in 1768. He compiled 
"A Complete System of the Revenue of 
Ireland," published in 1737; also "a 
Complete Body of the Laws of Mary- 
land," fol., 1765. He also wrote other 
valuable pieces. 

BACONTHORPE, John, called the 
Resolute Doctor, nn English monk, au- 
thor of a "Compendium of the Law of 
Christ," etc. D. 1346. 

BACQUET, a French advocate, au- 
thor of various law treatises, of which 
an edition, in 2 vols., was published at 
Lvons, in 1744. D. 1597. 

'BACQDE, Leo, a bishop of Pamiers, 
who wrote a Latin poem on the educa- 
tion of princes. B. 1600; d. 1694. 

BACQUERRE, Benedict de, a phy- 
sician who wrote the "Stimma Medi- 

BADCOCK, Samuel, an English di- 
vine and author of no mean celebrity, 
but chieflv known by his critiques in 
the Monthly Re\iew. B. 1747 ; d. 1788. 

BADEN," James, professor of Latin 
and eloquence in the university of Co- 
penhagen, author of a " Danish and 
Oennan Dictionary," a translation of 

Tacitus, and honored as one of the 
founders of Danish letters. B. 1735 ; d. 
1805. — Richard de, chancellor of Cam- 
bridge in 1326, when he founded Uni- 
versity Hall. That building being burnt 
down, a new one was built by the daugh- 
ter of Gilbert de Clare, and called Clare- 

BADEXS, Francis, an historical and 
portrait painter of Antwerp. B. 1571 ; 
d. 1603. 

BADGER, Louis, a native of Lyons, 
has immortalized his memory by an 
heroic instance of fraternal affection. 
To save his brother, who had assisted 
in defending Lyons against the repub- 
licans, and who was consequently ox- 
posed to the penalty of death after the 
surrender, he assumed his name, and 
cheerfully suffered for him. 

BADIA Y ZEBLICH, Domingo, <* 
Spanish traveller, who became a Mus- 
sulman in order to travel through the 
East, where he was everywhere received 
with favor, as a true believer. It is now 
known that he was employed as a po- 
litical agent by the Prince of Peace, at 
the instigation of Bonaparte; and on 
his return to his native country he es- 
poused the French cause there. After 
the battle of Vittoria he took refuge in 
France. B. 1766; d. 1824. 

BADILE, Antonio, an Italian painter, 
celebrated for the accuracy and coloring 
of Ins portraits, but deriving still greater 
honor from having two such disciples 
as Paul Veronese and Baptista Zelotti. 
B. 1480; d. 1560. 

BADUEL, Claude, a French Prot- 
estant divine, author of some theologi- 
cal treatises, &c. D. 1561. 

a printer and mathematician of the 16th 
century. He resided at Louvain, and 
there published, in 1528, "Tables of 
the Latitudes and Longitudes of the 
Planets," &c. 

BAERSTRAT, a Dutch painter, 
chiefly of sea-pieces. D. 1 687. 

BAFFIN, William, an English navi- 
gator of the 17th century, famous for 
his discoveries in the Arctic regioiis, 
was born in 1584. He visited West 
Greenland in 1612, again in 1615, and 
made a voyage to Spitzbergen in 1614. 
In 1623 and 1624 he ascertained the 
limits of that vast inlet of the sea since 
distinguished by the appellation of Baf- 
fin's Bav. 

an Arabian commentator on Euclid. 

BAGDEDIN, Mahomet, an Arabian 
mathematician of the 19th century, an- 




thor of a treatise " On the Division of 
Superficies," of which there is a Latin 
version by John Dee. 

BAGE, Egbert, an English novelist, 
was born at Derby, in 1728, and died at 
Tamworth, in 1801. During the greater 
part cf his life he followed the occupa- 
tion of a paper-maker. "Mount Ken- 
neth," "Barhain Downs," "The Fair 
Syrian," &c., owe their existence to 
hi in. 

BAGFOED, John, a book collector 
and antiquary, whose letters are in the 
British Museum. B. 1651; d. 1716. 

BAGGEE, John, a learned Dane, 
bishop of Copenhagen, and author of 
several treatises in Latin and Danish. 
B. 1646; d. 1693. 

BAGGESEN, Emmanuel, a Danish 
poet. He usually wrote in the German 
language, and his chief productions are 
a pastoral epic, entitled, " Parthenaise, 
oder die Alpenriese," and a mock epic, 
entitled, " Adam and Eve," but his 
songs and short poems are very numer- 
ous and popular. B. 1764; d. 1826. 

BAGLIONE, Giovanni, an Italian 
painter of the 17th century, distin- 
guished for his works in fresco ; many 
of which adorn the walls and ceilings 
of the churches at Rome. D. 1644. 

BAGLIONI, John Pact,, an Italian 
soldier of fortune of the 16th century. 
He was put to death by Leo X., in 1520. 

BAGLIVI, George, an illustrious 
Italian physician, born at Apulia, and 
elected professor of anatomy at Kome ; 
was author of "The Praxis Medica, 
and several works connected with his 
profession, all of which were written in 
Latin. B. 1667: d. 1706. 

BAGNIOLI, Julius Caesar, an Italian 
poet, author of "The Judgment of 
Paris," a poem, &c. D. 1600. 

BAGOT, Lewis, an English prelate, 
and brother to the first Lord Bagot, was 
born in 1740. He was at first a canon 
of Christ-church, Oxford, then dean, 
and successively became the bishop of 
Bristol, Norwich, and St. Asaph. He 
was the author of "Sermons on the 
Prophecies," &c. D. 1802. 

BAGEATION, K. A., a Russian 
prince and counsellor, who especially 
distinguished himself in the campaigns 
in Italy under Suwarrow, and was mor- 
tallv wounded at the battle of Moscow 
in 1812. 

BAGSHAW, William, an English 
divine, ejected from his living for non- 
conformity, in 1662. He was the au- 
thor of some works on practical divinity. 
D. 1703. — Edward, an English civilian 

of the 17th century. In the commence- 
ment of the rebellion he sided with the 
parliament, but subsequently became a 
royalist. He wrote several works on 
law and politics. — Edward, son of the 
preceding, was a clergyman, and an op- 
ponent of Baxter. 

BAHIER, John, a French priest, and 
the author of some Latin poems which 
are in the collection of De Brienne. D. 

BAHRDT, Charles Frederic, a Gcr- 
man divine and author. He was born 
at Bischofswerda, and studied at Leip- 
sic, where a prosecution having been 
commenced against him at Vienna for 
the heterodoxy of his writings, he fled 
to Prussia; and at length he settled at 
Halle, took a farm and an inn, and 
openly avowed himself a deist. D. 1792. 

BAIAN, or BAION, Andrew, a na- 
tive of Goa, who was converted to 
Christianity, and ordained a priest at 
Rome about 1630. He translated the 
uEneid into Greek verse, and the Lusiad 
into Latin. 

BAIER, John William, a German 
divine, author of a "Compendium of 
Theology," &c. B. 1647; d. 1694.— 
John James, a German physician, and 
director of the botanical garden at Alt- 
dorf ; author of " De Hortis celebriori- 
bus Germanic, et Horti Medici Acade- 
miei Altdorflni Hist.," &c, &c. B. 
1677 ; d. 1735. 

BAIF„ Lazarus, a French abbot, and 
counsellor to the parliament of Paris, in 
the 16th century; author of treatises 
" De re Navali," " De re Vcstiaria." — ■ 
John Antony, son of the above, and 
author of some poems. D. 1592. 

BAIL, Louis, a French divine of the 
17th century, author of an " Account 
of Celebrated Preachers," a " Summarv 
of Councils," &e. 

BAILEY, Nathan, an English lexicog- 
rapher, was a schoolmaster at Stepney. 
Besides several school books, he was 
the author of " Dietionarium Domesti- 
cum ;" but fcis principal work was an 
"Etymological English Dictionary," 
which may fairly be regarded as the 
basis of Dr. Johnson's unrivalled work. 
D. 1742.— Peter, author of "Sketches 
from St. George's Fields," "The 
Queen's Appeal," &c. D. 1823. 

BAILLET, Adrian, a learned French- 
man, born of poor parents at Neuville, 
1649, in Pieardy, and educated by the 
humanity of the fathers of a neighbor- 
ing convent. He early distinguished 
himself by" his great application, and 
the extent of his learning. In 1680 he 




became library keeper to M. de La- 
moiguon, ami began to form an index 
of every subject which was treated in 
the books which he possessed ; and so 
voluminous were his labors, that they 
were contained in 35 folio volumes, ami 
all written with his own hand. His 
next work was "Jugemens des Sa- 
vans," which had a very rapid sale, and 
which he totally gave to the bookseller 
requesting only a few copies for his 
friends. As in this work he mentioned 
not only the praises but the censures 
passed on different authors, he met with 
violent opposition from those who suf- 
fered under the severity of his criticism. 
The Jesuits were particularly severe 
against him, because he had spoken 
disrespectfully of their society; and, on 
the other hand, expressed himself in 
handsome terms of the gentlemen of the 
Port Royal. Besides these, his inde- 
fatigable labors produced a prolix " Life 
of Descartes, 1 ' 2 vols. 4to., a "His- 
tory of Holland," the " Lives of Saints," 
4 vols, folio, and several theological 
works; and he formed the plan of "An 
Universal Ecclesiastical Dictionary," 
which was to contain a perfect system 
of divinity, supported by authorities 
from scripture and from the fathers of 
the church, but died 1706, before it was 

BAILLIE, Roche, surnamed La Ri- 
viere, physician to Henry IV. of France, 
and author of " A Summary of the 
Doctriucs of Paracelsus." He pretended 
to great skill in astrology. D. 1605. — 
Robert, a Scotch divine, born in Glas- 
gow, 1599. He was one of the deputa- 
tion sent to London to exhibit charges 
against Archbishop Laud ; and also one 
of the commissioners sent from the 

feneral assembly of Scotland to Charles 
I. at the Hague. His letters, and a 
journal of his transactions in England, 
were published in 1775,. D. 1662. — 
Matthew, M.D., a celebrated anatomist 
and physician, was born in 1671 at the 
mause of Shotts, in Lanarkshire, Scot- 
land. He succeeded Dr. Hunter as lec- 
turer on anatomy, in conjunction with 
Mr. Cruickshank, at St. George's Hos- 
pital ; he was also one of the physicians 
in ordinary to their majesties George 
III. and IV., and was ' held in high 
esteem among his professional brethren. 
His professional income at one time 
amounted to £10,000 per annum, and 
no physician since the days of Dr. Syd- 
enham had attained such a supremacy. 
He was the author of several highly 
«hteemed works, as well as of many im- 

portant papers in the Philosophical 
transactions, etc. ; and he presented to 
the College of Physicians a valuable mu 
seum of anatomical specimens. D. 1823.— 
Joanna, his sister, became distinguished 
as one of the greatest female writers of 
Great Britain. She was born at Both- 
well about the .year 1765, and at an early 
age, manifested a strong predilection for 
literary pursuits. Her first dramatic 
efforts were publishediD 1798, under the 
title, "A Series of Plays," in which it is 
attempted to delineate the stronger pas- 
sions of the mind, each passion being 
the subject of a tragedy and a comedy, 
A second volume was published in 1802, 
and a third in 1812. During the interval 
she gave the world a volume of miscel- 
laneous dramas, including the " Family 
Legend," a tragedy founded upon a story 
of one of the Macleans of Appin, and 
which, principally through Sir Walter's 
endeavors, was brought out at the Edin- 
burgh theatre. She Visited Scott in Ed- 
inburgh in 1S08. In the following year 
the drama in question was played with 
great temporary success, and Sir Walter 
Scott's enthusiasm in its favor communi- 
cating itself to Edinburgh society, tho 
drama ran fourteen nights. In 1814 it 
was played in London. The only " Play 
of the Passions" ever represented on a 
stage was " De Montfort," brought out 
by John Kemble, and played for elev- 
en nights. — In 1821 it was revived for 
Edmund Kean, but fruitlessly. Miss 
O'Neill played the heroine. In fact, 
like all Joanna's dramatic efforts, it was 
a poem — a poem full of genius and tho 
true spirit of poetry — but not a play. 
Scott, liowever, was strongly taken by 
it ; his lines are well known : 

"Till Avon's swans — while rang the grove 
With Montfort's hate, and BasiVs love ! — 
Awakening at the inspiring strain 
Deem'd their own Shakspeare lived again 1" 

In 1836 the authoress published threo 
more volumes of plays. Previous to this, 
in 1823, a long-promised collection of 
poetic miscellanies appeared, containing 
Scott's dramatic sketch of " Macduff's 
Cross," with, inter alia, some of Mrs. 
Heman's poetry and Miss Catharine Fan- 
shaw's jenx dSesprit. She always lived 
in retirement, and latterly in strict se- 
clusion, in her retreat at Hampstead. 
The literary fame which she had ac- 
quired by her own works, aided in no 
small degree by the long and loudly ex- 
pressed admiration of Walter Scott, who 
always visited her when in London, 
never succeeded in drawing her gener- 
ally into societv. D. 1850. During the 




greater part of her life she lived with a 
maiden sister, Agnes — also a poetess — 
to whom she addressed her beautiful 
Birthday poem. They were of a family 
in which talent and genius were he- 
reditary. Their father was a Scottish 
clergyman, and their mother a sister of 
the celebrated Dr. William Hunter. — 
John, an active and able officer of the 
East India Company, went out to India 
as a cadet, in 1791*, where at the com- 
mencement of the Mahratta war he ef- 
fected the peaceable transfer to the 
British dominions of a territory yielding 
an annual revenue of £225,000. On re- 
turning to England, Colonel Baillie was, 
in 1820, elected M. P. for Hendon ; and 
subsequently represented the burghs of 
Inverness, &c. D. 1833. 

BAILLON, William de, a French 
physician, and author of Conciliorum 
Me'dicinaiium. B. 1538; d. 1616. 

BAILLY, David, a painter, engraver, 
and author, of Ley den. B. 1630. — John 
Sylvain, a famous astronomer. B. at 
Paris, loth September, 1736. The acci- 
dental friendship of the abbe de laCaille 
directed him in the pursuit of science ; 
and in 1763 he introduced to the acad- 
emy his observations on the moon, and 
the next year his treatise on the zodiacal 
stars. In 1766 he published his essay 
on the satellites of Jupiter, and in other 
treatises enlarged further on the import- 
ant subiect. In 1775 the first volume 
of his history of ancient and modern 
astronomy appeared, and the third and 
last in 1779; and in 1787 that of Indian 
and oriental astronomy, in 3 vols. 4to. 
He was drawn from his literary retire- 
ment to public view as a deputy to the 
first national assembly ; and such was 
his popularity, that he was, on July 14th, 
1789, nominated mayor of Paris. In this 
dangerous office he conducted himself 
in a very becoming manner, which of- 
fended the terrorists, and at the same 
time showing sympathy with the royal 
family, he became unpopular. He re- 
signed his office, and in 1793 was guil- 
lotined by order of the sanguinary 
tribunal of Robespierre, showing in his 
death as in his life, resignation, firmness, 
and dignity. 

BAILY," Francis, famous in the annals 
of astronomical science, was the son of 
a banker at Newbury, and for many 
years well known on the Stock Ex- 
change, in which busy arena he realized 
an ample fortune. The Astronomical 
Society was organized by him, and 
throughout life he was the most consid- 
erable contributor to its memoirs. Sys- 

tematic order and steady perseverance 
were the secrets of his success. D. 1844, 
aged 70. 

BAINBRIDGE, Dr. John, an eminent 
physician and astronomer. B. in 1582. 
He* gained considerable reputation by his 
work entitled a "Description of the late 
Comet in 1628," and was appointed pro- 
fessor of astronomy at Oxford. D. 1643. 
— William, a commodore of the United 
States navy, was b. at Princeton, N. J., 
May 7th, 1774. He was apprenticed to 
the* sea-service at an early period ot his 
life, and at the age of 19 rose to the com- 
mand of a merchant vessel. In 1798 he 
entered the naval sendee with the rank 
of lieutenant. In 1S00 he sailed for Al- 
giers as commander of the frigate George 
Washington ; and in 1803 he sailed for 
Tripoli, as commander of the frigate 
Philadelphia, in consequence of the 
grounding of which he was captured. 
On the 29th of December, 1812, having 
the frigate Constitution under his com- 
mand, "he captured, after a severe action, 
the British Irigate Java; and his gener- 
osity to the prisoners gained for him a 
strong expression of their gratitude. 
Since the close of the war Commodore 
Bainbridge commanded, with great rep- 
utation and popularity, at several naval 
stations ; and for several years filled the 
office of a commissioner of the Navy 
Board. He d. at Philadelphia, July 
27th, 1833, in his 60th year. 

BAINE, Michael, a divine, deputy 
at Trent, whose writings were condemn- 
ed as Calvinistic. B. 1513 ; d. 1589. 

BAINES, a noted friend of civil and 
religious liberty in the British parlia- 
ment. He was originally a printer at 
Leeds, but in 1833 was electee! to parlia- 
ment, where he served 7 years. He wrote 
a " Historv of the reign of George III.," 
&c. B. 1774; d. 1848. 

BAIED, Sir David, a distinguished 
English general, who served in the East 
Indies, Egypt, Cape of Good Hope, 
Spain, &e. D. 1829. 

BAJAZET I., a warlike, but tyranni- 
cal sultan of Turkey, who succeeded 
Amurath, his father, in 1389, having 
strangled his rival brother, Jacob. The 
greatness and rapidity of his conquests 
got him the name of 11 Derim, or the 
Lightning. In three years he acquired 
Bulgaria, Macedonia, a part of Servia, 
Thessaly, and the states of Asia Minor. 
Constantinople was besieged by him for 
ten years, which at last yielded. He 
was "finally defeated by Tamerlane on 
the plains of Agora. He d. in Timour's 
camp in 1403.— There was a second sill- 




tan of this name, who was poisoned in 

BAKER, David, an English monk of 
the Benedictine order, originally a Pro- 
testant, but being converted to the 
Romish faith, he came to England as a 
missionary from Italy. He wrote an ex- 
position of Hyl ton's "Scale of Perfec- 
tion." D. in 1641. — Sir Richard, author 
of a " Chronicle of the Kings of En- 
gland," &c. B. 1568 ; d. 1645.— Thomas, 
a divine and antiquary ; author of " Re- 
flections on Learning," &c, &e. B. 
1656 ; d. 1740. — Henry, a diligent and 
ingenious naturalist. He was originally 
brought up as a bookseller, and married 
one of the daughters of the celebrated 
Daniel De Foe. He obtained the gold 
medal of the Royal Society, for his mi- 
croscopical experiments on saline par- 
ticles ; and wrote "The Universe, a 
poem, "The Microscope made Easy," 
&c. B. 1704 ; d. 1774.- — David Erski'ne, 
son of the above, was author of the 
" Companion to the Playhouse," subse- 
quently enlarged by Stephen Jones, and 
published under the title of " Biographia 
Dramatica." D. 1774. — Sir George, 
M.D., b. in 1722, was a physician of 
considerable reputation, and a fellow of 
the Royal and Antiquarian Societies. D. 

BAKEWELL, Robert, a country gen- 
tleman of small fortune, who acquired 
considerable notoriety as a grazier at 
Dishley, in Leicestershire. He greatly 
improved his breeds of cattle and sheep. 
B. 1726 ; d. 1795. 

BAKKER, Peter Huzinga, a Dutch 
poet ; author of a poem on the Inunda- 
tion of 1740, and ot numerous songs and 
satires on England. B. 1715 ; d. 1801. 

BALAMIO, Ferdinand, a Sicilian 
physician ; translator, into Latin, of sev- 
eral treatises by Galen. B. 1555. 

BALASSI, Mario, a Florentine paint- 
er. B. 1604 ; d. 1667. 

BALBI, Adrian, a geographer. B. at 
Venice, in 1784. He wrote a statistical 
Essay on the Kingdom of Portugal, an 
Ethnographic Atlas of the Globe, and 
an Abridgment of Geography, all works 
of profound and extensive research, 
which have made him an authority both 
in Europe and America. D. 1848. 

BALBINUS, Decimds Celius, chosen 
emperor of Rome, in conjunction with 
Maximus, in 237 ; and murdered by the 
soldiery in the following year. 

BALBOA, Vasco Nunez de, a Castil- 
ian, one of the first who visited the 
"vV>st Indies. He established a colony 
on the isthmus of Panama, where he 

built the first town on the continent of 
South America, penetrated into the in- 
terior, discovered the Pacific Ocean, and 
obtained information respecting the em- 
pire of Peru. Jealous ot his talents and 
success, rival adventurers accused him 
of disloyalty, and he was put to death in 
1517, by Pedrarias Davila, the Spanish 
governor of Darien. 

BALBUENA, Bernardo de, a Span- 
ish poet, and bishop of Porto Rico. D. 

BALBUS, Lucius Cornelius Theo- 
phanes, a native of Cadiz, whose military 
exploits caused Pompey to obtain for 
him the privileges of a Roman citizen; 
and he subsequently became consul, 
being the first toreigner on whom that 
dignity was conferred. 

BALCANQUAL, Walter, a Scotch 
divine, who accompanied James I. to 
England. He was made dean of Roches- 
ter and bishop of Durham, but in the 
civil wars he was a severe sufferer, being 
driven from place to place for shelter. 
He wrote the " Declaration of Charles i. 
concerning the late Tumults in Scot- 
land," &c. D. 1642. 

BALCHEN, Johx, an English admiral, 
who was lost, with all his crew, on board 
his ship the Victory, in a violent storm 
off Jersev, October 3, 1744. 

BALDERIC, bishop of Dol in Britan- 
ny, in the 12th century; author of a 
history of the Crusade to the year 1099. 

BALDI, Bernard, an Italian mathe- 
matician and poet; author of Italian 
poems, lives of mathematicians, &c. He 
was a man of almost universal genius, 
and abbot of Gnaitallo. B. at Urbino, 
1553; d. 1617. — De Ubaldis, an Italian 
lawyer and author. B. 1319; d. 1400.— 
James, a German Jesuit and poet. B 
1603; d. 1668. — Lazzaro, a Tuscan 
painter, employed by Alexander VII. to 
paint the gallery at Monte Cavallo. D. 

BALDTNGER, Ernest Godfrey, a 
German physician and author. B. 1738 ; 
d. 1804. 

BALDINUCCI, Philip, a Florentine 
artist and connoisseur ; author of " A 
General History of Painters," &e. B. 
1634; d. 1696. " 

BALDOCK, Ralph de, bishop of Lon- 
don, and lord high chancellor in the 
reign of Edward I. : author of a "His- 
tory of British Affairs," which was ex- 
tnnt in Leland's time, but is now lost. 
D. 1307. — Robert de, a divine, who was 
favored by Edward II. He shared his 
royal master's misfortunes, and died in 




BALDWIN, William, an English 
writer of the 16th century ; one of the 
chief authors of "The Mirror for Magis- 
trates." — Thomas, a Baptist minister of 
Boston, who was a while at the head of 
his denomination in New England. D. 
1828. — Francis, a learned civilian of the 
16th century, much employed by the po- 
tentates of his time, lie wrote " Leges 
de Re rustica Novella," &c., &c. — Abka- 
iiam, a president of the university of 
Georgia, member of the convention 
which passed the constitution of the 
IJ. S., and subsequently a member of 
congress. D. 1807. 

BALDWIN I., a distinguished leader 
in the 4th crusade. On the conquest of 
Constantinople by the Latins in 1204, he 
was elected emperor of the East; but 
being taken prisoner by the Greeks, he 
was never afterwards heard of. — II., 
succeeded his brother Robert, as empe- 
jor of the East, in 1228. On the taking 
of Constantinople, in 1261, by Michael 
Pala?ologus, Baldwin escaped to Italy, 
where lie d. 1273. 

BALDWIN, archbishop of Canter- 
bury. This prelate accompanied Rich- 
ard' I. to Palestine, and d. there, 1291. 
His writings were published by Tissier, 
in 1682. 

BALDWIN I., king of Jerusalem, 
succeeded to that dignity in 1100, took 
Antipatris, Ca?sarea, and Azo^us in 
1101, and Acre in 1104. D. 1118.— II., 
king of Jerusalem, succeeded the above 
in 1118; Eustace, brother of Baldwin I., 
having renounced his claim to the throne. 
Baldwin II. was taken prisoner by the 
Saracens in 1124, and gave them the 
city of Tyre as his ransom. D. 1131. — 
111. succeeded to the throne in 1143. 
He took Ascalon and other places from 
the infidels. D. 1163.— IV., the son of 
Amaury, succeeded his father on the 
throne of Jerusalem in 1174. He subse- 
quently resigned in favor of his nephew. 
J). 1185. — V., nephew and successor of 
the last named, was poisoned in 1186. 

BALE, John, an English ecclesiastic. 
B. at Cove, in 1495, who became bishop 
of Ossory, in Ireland. Educated a Ro- 
manist, he was converted to Protestant- 
ism. His clergy opposed and forsook 
him, and so furious was their opposition, 
that in one tumult five of his servants 
were murdered in his presence. He 
was obliged to fly, and after enduring 
many hardships, found shelter in Swit- 
zerland, where he remained till the death 
of Mary. On his return to England, he 
made no attempt to recover his Irish 
diocess, but settled as a prebend of 

Canterbury, in 1563. He wrote "An 
account of the Ancient Writers of Bri- 
tain," several Scripture plays, and nu- 
merous polemical tracts. — Robert, prior 
of the Carmelites of Norwich ; author 
of "Annales Ordinis Cannelitarum," 
&c. D. 150S. 

BALECHOU Nicholas, a French en- 
graver, whose works are held in high 
estimation. B. 1710; d. 1765. 

BALEN, Heindrich van, a Dutch 
painter, whose "Judgment of Paris" 
and " Drowning of Pharaoh" are much 
admired. John van Balen, his son, was 
a distinguished historical and landscape 
painter. B. 1560; d. 1632. 

BALES, Peter, a skilful penman, em- 
ployed by Secretary Walsingham to im- 
itate writings. He published a work 
called "The Writing Master." B. 1547; 
d. 1600. 

BALESTRA, Antony, a Veronese his- 
torical painter. B. 1666; d. 1720. 

BALFOUR, Alexander, a novelist 
and miscellaneous writer, was a native 
of Forfarshire, Scotland. He was the 
author of "Highland Man - ," besides 
other novels and poems, and for many 
vears a contributor to various Scottish 
periodicals. B. 1767; d. 1829.— Sir An- 
drew, an eminent botanist and physi- 
cian, and one to whom medical science 
in Scotland owes a lasting debt of grati- 
tude for a botanic garden, museum, &c. 
B. 1630; d. 1694. 

BALGUY, John, an eminent divine 
of the church of England, and a theo- 
logical writer, was b. at Sheffield, in 
1686, and in 1727 became a prebendary 
of Salisbury. He engaged deeply in the 
Bangorian controversy; and among his 
several works may be noticed "An Es- 
say on Redemption," a " Letter to a 
Deist on the Beauty and Excellence of 
Moral Virtue," &c* D. 1748.— Thomas, 
son of the above, prebend and archdea- 
con of Winchester; author of "Divine 
Benevolence, asserted and vindicated," 
a sermon on church government, &c. 
B. 1716; d< 1795. 

BALIOL, Sir John de, a native of 
Durham, who, on the marriage of the 
daughter of Henry III. to Alexander 
III. of Scotland, was made one of tho 
guardians of the royal pair. He found- 
ed Baliol college, Oxford; and having 
Bided with Henry III. against his re- 
volted barons, the latter seized upon 
his lands. D. 1269. — John de, son of 
the preceding, laid claim to the crown 
of Scotland on the death of Queen Mar- 
garet. His claim was disputed by sev- 
eral competitors, one of whom was the 




famous Robert Rruee. But Edward I., 
to whom the matter was referred, de- 
cided in favor of Baliol. He soon gave 
offence to Edward : and being defeated 
by him in a battle near Dunbar, he was 
sent, together with his son, to the Tow- 
er of London. The intercession of the 
pope having procured his release, he 
retired to France, where he d. in 1314. 

BALL, John, a puritan divine, who 
while he disapproved of the discipline 
of the church, wrote against separa- 
tion from it on that ground. B. 1585; 
d. 1640. 

BALL AXDEX, John, a Scotch divine 
of the 16th century ; author of various 
works, and translator of Hector B "e- 
thius's History of Scotland. D. 1550. 

BALLANTYNE, James, a printer of 
considerable note in Edinburgh, and at 
whose press the whole of the produc- 
tions of Sir Walter Scott were printed, 
was a native of Kelso, where he first 
opened an office for the " Kelso Mail," 
of which he was the editor. For many 
vears he also conducted the " Edin- 
burgh Weekly Journal." He survived 
his friend and patron but a few months, 
dying in January, 1833. — Tonx, his 
brother, was the confidant of Sir Walter, 
in keeping the secret of the authorship 
of " W averley." He was a man of fine 
humor, with' an inexhaustible fund of 
anecdotes. D. 1821. 

BALLARD, George, a native of 
Campden, in Gloucestershire, who, while 
the obscure apprentice of a habit-maker, 
employed the hours which his com- 
panions devoted to sleep to the acquisi- 
tion of the Saxon Language, and recom- 
mended to the patronage of Lord 
Chedworth, he went to Oxford, where, 
by the kindness of Dr. Jenner, he was 
made one of the eight clerks of Magdalen 
college, and afterwards one of the beadles 
of the university. His weakly constitu- 
tion was impaired by the severity of his 
studies, and he d. June, 1755, in the 
prime of life. His access to the Bodleian 
was the means of his increasing his val- 
uable collections ; but he published only 
" Memoirs of British Ladies celebrated 
for their Writings," in 4to., 175'2. — Vo- 
lant Vashon. a rear-admiral of the Brit- 
ish navy, was b. in 1774. On entering 
naval life he accompanied Vancouver on 
ais laborious voyage of discovery to the 
northwest coast of America, in which 
be was absent from England nearly five 
vears. In 1807, when captain of the 
Blonde frigate, he captured five French 
privateers. He afterwards distinguish- 
ed himself at the taking of Guadaloupe ; 

and eventually attained the rank of rear 
admiral, in 1825. D. 1882. 

BALLEEIXL Peter and Jerome, two 
priests and brothers, natives of Verona, 
who, in the ISth century, conjointly 
wrote some works, and edited several 
editions of ecclesiastical authors. 

BALLESTEROS, Francis, an eminent 
Spanish officer. B. 1770. 

BALLEXFERD, X., a citizen of Ge- 
neva, author of a treatise on the " Phys- 
ical Education of children," <fec. B. 
1726 ; d. 1774. 

BALLI. Joseph, a Sicilian divine ; au- 
thor of a treatise "De Morte Corportun 
Xaturalium." &c. D. 1640. 

BALLIAXI, John" Baptist, a senator 
of Genoa ; author of a treatise on the 
" Natural Motion of Heavy Bcdies." B. 
1586 ; d. 1666. 

BALLIN, Clatoe, a skilful artist of 
chased work in gold and silver. He was 
b. at Paris in 1615, and brought up tc 
the occupation of a goldsmith under his 
father, who exercised that art. He 
studied drawing, and improved his taste 
as a designer by copying the pictures of 
Poussin. When only 19 he made four 
silver basins, decorated with figures rep- 
resenting the four ages of the world. 
These were purchased 1 »y Cardinal Riche- 
lieu. He was subsequently employed 
in making plate services for Louis XIV., 
of which it is said the workmanship 
added ten times to the value of the ma- 
terial. D. 1678. 

BALMEZ, James Lucien, one of the 
most renowned of the late Spanish wri- 
ters, and an ecclesiastic, whose phi- 
losophical, theological, and political 
treatises have given him a European 
fame. He was b. at Vich, in Catalonia, 
in 1810. He was early distinguished for 
his acquirements, and in 1833 was ap 
pointed to the chair of mathematics in 
his native place. His writings were 
chiefly in defence of the Roman Catholic 
church, which he endeavored to restore 
to its ancient dignity and influence. His 
" Protestantism and Catholicism com- 
pared in their Effects on the Civilization 
of Europe," a very able book, has been 
translated into English, French, and 
German. D. 1S48. 

BALTHASAR, Christopher, a king's 
advocate at Auxerre, who abandoned 
the emoluments of his office, and the 
Catholic religion, to embrace the tenets 
of the Protestants, in whose favor he 
wrote several controversial treatises, 
especially against Barouius, which were 
received with great avidity. The synod 
of Loudun granted him, in 1659, a pen- 




sion of 750 livres, for his literary ser- 
vices. — J. A. Felix de, author of a 
''Defence of William Tell," and presi- 
dent of the council of Lucerne. D. 

BALTHAZARINI, surnamed Beau- 
joyeux, an Italian musician, recommend- 
ed" by Brissac, governor of Piedmont, to 
Henry III. of France, by whom he was 
liberally patronized, and for the enter- 
tainment of whose court he wrote several 
ballads and pieces of music. He com- 
posed a ballet called Ceres and her 
nymphs, for the nuptials of the Due de 
Joyeuse with the queen's sister, Made- 
moiselle de Vaudemont ; and this is re- 
garded as the origin of the heroical ballet 
of France. 

BALTUS, John Francis, a Jesuit of 
Metz, author of several works, especially 
of an answer to Fontenelle's history of 
oracles, printed at Strasburg, Svo. Baltus 
possessed considerable learning and tal- 
ents, which he wholly employed in de- 
fence of Roman Catholic orthodoxy. He 
d. librarian of Eheims, 1743, at the age 
of 76. 

BALDE, John, a cardinal, b. of mean 
parents, in Poitou. He raised himself 
to consequence by flattery and merit, 
and gradually became bishop of Evreux 
and of Arras. He was made a cardinal 
by Paul II., and when honored with the 
confidence of Louis XL, became his 
minister, and acted as general over his 
troops. Ungrateful to his duty and to 
his master, he formed intrigues with the 
dukes of Burgundy and Berri ; and when 
at last discovered by the king, he was 
imprisoned for eleven years, in an iron 
cage, after which he repaired to Rome, 
and rose to new preferments. He after- 
wards came to France as pope's legate, 
though he had so ill deserved of the con- 
fidence and honor of his country. He 
d. at Ancona, 1491. 

BALUZE, Stephen, a native of Tulles 
in Guienne, patronized by Peter de 
Marca, archbishop of Toulouse, by Tel- 
lier, afterwards chancellor of France, 
and by Colbert. He employed his lei- 
Mire hours in enriching the libraries of 
his patrons with valuable manuscripts, 
till in his 39th year he was appointed 
professor of canon law in the royal 
college with every mark of distinction. 
His lives of the '"Popes of Avignon" 

E roved so interesting to the king, that 
e granted the author a pension, but 
his attachment to the duke of Bouillon, 
the history of whose family he had un- 
dertaken to write, but in which he in- 
serted some offensive remarks, was soon 

after productive of trouble. When tha 
duke was banished he shared the dis- 
grace, and was confined by a lettre de 
cachet at Orleans ; he however was re- 
stored to favor, though he was not re- 
placed in his directorial chair of the 
royal college, which he before held. 
He died 2Sth of July, 1718, in his 87th 
year, and left behind him the character 
of an indefatigable collector of curious 
manuscripts and annotations. 

BALZAC, John Louis Guez de, a 
French writer of great reputation, which 
he chiefly owed to the elegance of his 
style, author of "Letters," "The 
Prince," "The Christian Socrates," 
&c. B. 1594 ; d. 1654.— Honore de, 
one of the most distinguished as well as 
prolific novel writers of modern times, 
was born at Tours, 1799. Having com- 
pleted his studies at Vendome, he pub- 
fished, between 1821 and 1829, twenty 
or thirty volumes under various pseudo- 
nvmes, with very equivocal success; 
but after this trying apprenticeship, he 
put forth all his' powers under his own 
name, with what result those who have 
read " La Peau de Chagrin," " Les 
Chouans," " La Physiologie de Ma- 
nage," "Le Pere Goriot," " La Femme 
de^Trente Ans," &c, can best testify. 
Since that period his productions suc- 
ceeded one another with wonderful ra- 
pidity ; and it may be truly said that 
his iiterary strength grew with hia 
years, for his " Medecinde Campagne," 
and his " Parens Pauvres," his last 
works, are his best. In addition to his 
romances, Balzac wrote some theatrical 
pieces, and for some time edited and 
contributed to the "Revue Parisienne;" 
but his romances exhibit the highest 
evidences of genius. Since the re ra- 
tion of 1848, Balzac was engaged in 
visiting the battle-fields of Germany 
and Russia, and in collecting materials 
for a series of volumes, to be entitled 
"Scenes de la Vie Militaire." Next to 
his celebrity as an author, the most re- 
markable feature in his career was the 
deep passion which he formed for a 
Russian princess, who finally compen- 
sated him for long years of untiring de- 
votion by the gift of her hand in 1848. 
D. 1850." 

BAMBRIDE, Christopher, arch- 
bishop of York, was sent ambassador 
from Henry VIII. to Pope Julius II., 
who made him a cardinal. Died of 
poison administered by his servant, 

BAMFIELD, Francis, a nonconfor- 
mist divine, author of a work on the 




" Obsei ranee of the Sabbath." He was 
committed to Newgate for holding a 
sonventicle, and died there, 1684. 

BAMPFYLDE, Sir Charles War- 
wick, Bart., a descendant of one of the 
oldest and most distinguished families 
in Devonshire, and during seven suc- 
cessive parliaments one of the members 
for Exeter, hi 1823, when he was 71 
years of age, he was assassinated close 
to his own house, in Montague square, 
by a man named Moorland, who blew 
his own brains out immediately after. 

BANGUI, Seraphin, a priest of the 
Dominican order at Florence, to whom 
a fanatic, named Barriere, disclosed his 
intention to assassinate Henry IV. Ban- 
chi's information saved the king, who 
rewarded him with the archbishopric 
of Angouieme. 

BANCK, Lawrence, a Swedish law- 
yer, author of several works against Pa- 
pal usurpation. D. 1662. 

BANCROFT, Richard, archbishop of 
Canterbury, a distinguished opponent 
of the Puritans and a supporter of the 
English church. B. 1544; d. 1610. — 
John, nephew of the above, bishop of 
Oxford, and builder of the palace of 
Cuddesden for the bishops ot that see. 
D. 1640. — Aaron, a distinguished Uni- 
tarian pastor of Massachusetts, and au- 
thor of a '-Life of Washington." B. 
1755 ; d. 1839. 

BANDELLO, Matthew, a Dominican 
monk of the Milanese. He wrote tales 
in the manner of Boccaeio, and proceed- 
ing to France obtained the bishopric of 
Airen. D. 1561. 

BANDINELLI, Baccio, a Florentine 
sculptor and painter. His group of the 
Laocoon is highly esteemed. B. 14S7 ; 
d. 1559. 

BANDINI, Angelo Maria, an Italian 
antiquary and bibliographer, author of 
" De Florentini Juntarum Tvpographia," 
&c. D. 1800. 

BANDURI, An'selm, a Benedictine, 
who wrote several valuable antiquarian 
works. D. 1743. 

BANGIUS, Peter, a Swedish pro- 
fessor of theology at Abo, who wrote 
an "Ecclesiastical History of Sweden." 
D. 16 l J6. — Thomas, a professor of di- 
vinity and Hebrew at Copenhagen, who 
compiled a "Hebrew Lexicon." B. 
1600; d. 1661. 

BANIER, Anthony, an industrious 
French author and compiler, who wrote 
some thirty different " Belles Lettres 
Essavs." and an "Historical Explana- 
tion of Fables," &c, &c. B. 1673; d. 


BANIM, John, an Irish novelist of 
distinction, was born near Kilkenny in 
1800. E.irl/ iv Si.-- he gave h; lijc&ftona 
of poeticvd ability. aiM at the &gk »f 17 
became editor of the " Leinsti r Jour- 
nal." The nest yeaM-e ptdiifce^ Ihi 
somewhat. f.tmous' in"cl<*dr;mi i $>1 ■ • ' >-,- 
mon and Pythias." At 20 he was editor 
of the " Literary Register," but his 
fame began with the success of the 
•• O'Hara Tales," in 1825. In these he 
was the first to depart from the path 
chosen by the Edgeworths and the 
Morgans, and to exhibit the crime, the 
passion, and the tragedy of the Irish 
cabin in all their dark "colors. They 
were followed in rapid succession by 
"Boyne Water," "The Croppy," "The 
Denounced," "The Smuggler,'' "The 
Mayor of Windarap," &c., <fcc. Bu*- 
popular as his tales were, they afforded 
him only a precarious subsistence. He 
was compelled in his latter days, though 
enjoying a small pension from govern- 
ment, to depend on the bounty of 
friends. D. 1842. 

BANISTER, Johx, a learned phy 
sician of the 16th century, who, after 
studying at Oxford and proceeding there 
to his first degree in physic in 1573, re- 
moved to Nottingham, where he ac- 
quired great reputation. He was author 
of several works on physic and surgery. 
— John, the first performer of celebrity 
on the violin, and the composer of tho 
music to Davenant's ojjera of Circe. D. 

BANKES. Sir John, chief justice of 
the Common Pleas in the reign of Charles 
I. His wife, with the family, being at 
their seat at Corfe Castle, were sum- 
moned to surrender it, but she success- 
fully defended it against the parliamen- 
tary troops, till relieved by the arrival 
of Lord Carnarvon, with a body of horse. 
Sir John d. in 1644. 

BANKS, John, a bookseller, and au- 
thor of a " Critical Review of the Life of 
Cromwell," &c. B. If09; d. 1751. — 
John, an English dramatist of the ISth 
century; author of the " Earl of Essex," 
a tragedy, <fec. — Sir Joseph, an eminent 
English naturalist, and for many years 
president of the Royal Society. Hi's en- 
thusiasm in the study of natural history 
may be judged of from the fact, that it 
led him to accompany Cook in his first 
circumnavigation of the world. He pub- 
lished only one small work, a treatise on 
the "Blight, Mildew, or Rust in Corn." 
B. 1743; d. 1820.— Thomas, an eminent 
English sculptor. Among the best of 
his works are "Caractacus taken Prison- 




er to Rome," and " Achilles mourning 
the Loss of Briseis." He also executed 
the, admirable mommusnt' hi Westmin- 
ster abbey, to the njemb^os Sir Eyre 
Coote. B. 1735; d. 1305. 

BANXAXK1V i:i:..jAMix,.a negro of 
Maryland./ wfeo bydi:'s own unaidyd ef- 
forts mastered the asiroiibmicai works 
and tables of Ferguson, and gained a 
complete knowledge of the mathematics, 
so that for years he was the calculator 
and publisher of the Maryland Epheme- 

BANNIER John, a Swedish general 
who served under Gustavus Adolphus, 
and at the death of that prince became 
commander-in-chief. B. 1601; d. 1641. 

BANNISTER, John, an admirable 
comic actor, the son of Charles Bannis- 
ter, well known as a singer and a wit, 
was born in London, in 1760. Having 
secured the favor of the great Garrick, 
he made his debut at Drnry lane thea- 
tre, as "Master J. Bannister," when 
twelve years of age ; he then quitted the 
boards for a time, but obtained a perma- 
nent engagement in 1779. At first he 
aspired to tragedy, and gave it a decided 
preference; but his talents so clearly lay 
in an opposite direction, that on the death 
of Edwin he at once supplied his place, 
giving proofs of first-rate powers, and 
establishing himself as a public favorite. 
The parts in which he excelled were 
mainly Sylvester Dagfferwood, Lingo, 
Trudge, the Three Singles, Bobadil. Dr. 
Pangloss, Job Thornberry, Colonel 
FeignwelL and Walter in "The Children 
in the Wood." Being much afflicted 
with the gout, he retired from the stage 
in 1815, having had the good fortune to 
earn a competence by his profession, and 
the prudence to keep it. He d. Novem- 
ber 8, 1836, respected and beloved by all 
who knew him. Nature had done much 
for Bannister, physically as well as men- 
tally : his face, figure, and voice were 
excellent ; his spirits exuberant ; and an 
open manly countenance was a faithful 
index to the heart of " Gentleman Jack." 

BANTI, Brioida Georgi, a celebrated 
female Italian singer, was the daughter 
of a Venetian gondolier, and in her youth 
nothing more or less than a street singer 
in Georgi, her native town ; where a no- 
bid amateur, having noticed the brilliancy 
of her voice, had her instructed in sing- 
ing at his expense. It was probable she 
was shortly after advised to try her for- 
tune in a foreign country, for she soon 
left Venice on her road to Paris ; not 
however, as it would seem, in prosperous 
circumstances, since she sang at coffee- 

houses and inns at Lyons, ai d other 
towns, for small sums collected from the 
guests. M. de Visnes, who was then 
manager of the opera at Paris, relates, 
that, in the year 1778, he stopped one 
evening at a coffee-house on the boule- 
vards, being struck by the sound of a 
very beautiful voice ; it was Band whom 
he heard, as she was singing in the cof- 
fee-room. He put a louis cl'or into her 
hand, desiring her to call on him the 
next morning. The result was, that 
Monsieur de Visnes engaged her imme- 
diately for the Opera Buffa, where she 
made her debut, by an air sung between 
the second and third acts of " Iphigenie 
en Aulide," and created a universal sen- 
sation of delight. After the departure 
of the celebrated Agujari from London, 
the managers of the Pantheon engaged 
Madame Banti for three seasons, upon 
condition that £100 a year should be de- 
ducted from her salary, for the payment 
of an able master to cultivate her voice. 
Sacchini was the first appointed to this 
office ; but he found her so idle and ob- 
stinate, that he soon quitted her as an 
incurable patient. She was next assigned 
to Piozzi, whose patience was likewise 
soon exhausted by her incorrigible in- 
attention. Her last master in England 
was Abel ; soon after which she left this 
country, and sang with enthusiastic ap- 
plause at several of the German courts, 
and subsequently at almost every princi- 
pal town in Italy. Her great success 
certainly exemplified most strongly the 
truth of the old adage, " That there are 
a hundred requisites necessary to con 
stitute a good singer, of which, whoever 
possesses a fine voice, is already in pos- 
session of ninety-nine." After several 
years absence, Banti returned to England 
in the spring of 1790, when her perform- 
ance and singing 1 in Gluck's opera of 
" Alceste." was thought to be most per- 
fect; every look, every action, every 
note, appearinsr to he strictly appropriate 
to the character she had assumed, end 
to no other. Soon after this, on the oc- 
casion of Lord Howe's victory, Banti 
introduced in one of her cantatas the 
national air of "God Rave the king," in 
a style which perfectly electrified the 
audience. In the year 1799 she enrap- 
tured every hearer by her performance 
in "Ines de Castro," composed by Bi- 
anchi, and then first produced. The 
celebrated prayer in it, " Gran Dio che 
regoli," was given in a style of tender- 
ness and appropriate devotion, which 
perhaps has never been exceeded on the 
stage. We b'lieve that the year 1802 




was the last season of Banti's singing in 
England. She died at Bologna, in 1806, 
aged about 50. It is said, that, on open- 
ing her body, the lungs were found to be 
of an unusually large size. 

BAPTIST, John, a native of Lisle, 
resident for some time in England, as a 
painter of flowers. He studied atAnt- 
werp, and assisted Le Brun in painting 
the palace of Versailles, in which the 
flowers were his execution. The duke 
of Montague, who was ambassador in 
France, employed him with La Fosse and 
Kousseau in the decoration of Montague 
house, now the British Museum. A 
Looking-glass which he adorned with a 
garland of flowers for Queen Mary is 
still preserved at Kensington palace. 
There is a print of him from a painting 
by Sir Godfrey Kneller, in VS alpole's 
Anecdotes. He died 1699. — His ' son 
Anthony distinguished himself also in 
flower painting. — Another of the same 
name, who was born at Antwerp, paid 
a visit to 'England during the civil wars, 
and was engaged in General Lambert's 
service, and after the restoration he 
painted the attitudes and draperies of 
Sir Peter Lely's portraits. He died in 

Spanish physician and poet, a native of 
Luceria, in Andalusia, continued, under 
the title of the Tears of Angelica, the 
romance of Ariosto, and executed his 
task in such a manner as to gain the 
applause of Cervantes. He is also the 
author of some eclogues, stanzas, and 

BAKANZANO, Redemptus, a Barna- 
bite monk, who corresponded with Lord 
Bacon, by whom he was highly esteem- 
ed for his proficiency in mathematics. 
He wrote " Uranosconia," " Campus 
Philosophorum," &c. B. 1590 ; d. 1622. 

BARATIER, John Philip, a person of 
prodigious memory. B. 1721, at Schwo- 
bach, in the margravate of Anspach. 
At the age of 4 he conversed with his 
mother in French, with his father in 
Latin, and with his servants in German. 
The rapidity of his improvements aug- 
mented with his years, so that he became 
perfectly acquainted with Greek at 6, 
with Hebrew at 8, and in his 11th year 
translated from the Hebrew into French 
the travels of the rabbi Benjamin of 
Tudela, which he enriched with valu- 
able annotations. His proficiency in 
mathematics was so great that he sub- 
mitted to the Royal Academy of Science, 
at Berlin, a plan for finding the longi- 
tude at sea, marked witt wonderful in- 

fenuity, so that he was elected a member, 
n 1735 he went with his father to Halle; 
at which university he was offered tha 
degree of master of arts, or (as they call 
it) doctor in philosophy. Baratier drew 
up that night 14 theses in philosophy 
and the mathematics ; these he sent im- 
mediately to the press, and defended 
the next day so very ably, that all who 
heard him were delighted and amazed : 
he was then admitted to his degree. But 
this great application injured his health, 
and he d. before he was 20 years old. 

BAEBARINO, Francesco, an early 
Italian poet, who wrote " Document 
d'Amore." B. 1264; d. 1343. 

BARBARO, Francis, a noble Vene- 
tian, distinguished by his learning as 
well as his political talents. He defend- 
ed Brescia, of which he was governor, 
against the Duke of Milan, and obliged 
the besiegers to retreat. He is princi- 
pally known by a partial translation of 
Plutarch's works, and a treatise "DeRo 
Uxoria." The latter was published in 
1515 at Paris. Some familiar epistles of 
his were also published as late as 1743. 
D. 1454. — Hermolao, the elder, nephew 
to Francis, was bishop of Trevisa, and 
afterwards of Verona, where he d. 1470. 
He translated some of ^Esop's fables into 
Latin, when only 12 years old. — Her- 
molaus, grandson of Francis, a learned 
Venetian, employed by his countrymen 
as ambassador to the Emperor Frederic, 
to his son, Maximilian, and to Pope In- 
nocent VIII. He was honored by the 
pope with the vacant patriarchate of 
Aquileia against the wishes of his coun- 
trymen, who had passed a law that their 
ambassadors should accept no favor from 
the Roman pontiff; and so inexorable 
were the Venetians, that Barbaro'M fa- 
ther, who was far advanced in years, and 
intrusted with the first offices of tho 
state, was unable to avert their resent- 
ment, and died, in consequence, of a 
broken heart. Barbaro wrote some ex- 
cellent treatises as well as poetry ; and 
in translations from Plutarch and Dios- 
corides he showed his abilities as a 
Greek scholar. D. 1493. — Daniel, co- 
adjutor of the patriarchate of Aquileia, 
with his uncle Hermolao, was sent as 
ambassador from Venice to England, 
where he continued till 1551. He d. 
1570, and left several learned works be- 
hind him, among which were a "Trea- 
tise on Eloquence," "Venice," — an 
Italian translation of Vitruvius, and the 
"Practice of Perspective," folio. 

BARBAROSSA, Aruch, a well-known 
pirate, who made himself master of Al- 




giers, and murdered the king Selim 
Entenii, whom he had come to assist 
and defend against his Spanish invaders. 
He afterwards made himself master of 
Tunis, and of Tremecen, whose sover- 
eign was assassinated by his own sub- 
jects. His success was stopped by the 
marquis of Gomares, governor of Oran, 
whom the heir of the Tremecen domin- 
ions had invited to his support; but 
when besieged in the citadel he made 
his escape by a subterraneous passage ; 
but being overtaken-he was cut to pieces 
with Ins followers. D. 1518. — Cheredin, 
a brother of the above, was an admiral 
under Selim II. He obtaineoVwssession 
of Tunis, but was checked by Charles 
V., after which he plundered several 
towns of Italy, and then advanced to 
Yemen in Arabia, which he conquered. 
He d. in 1547, aged 80, leaving his son 
Asan in possession of the kingdom. — 
Hayradin, or Khatr Eddin, younger 
brother of the preceding. He was left 
by Aruch to secure Algiers, when he 
marched against Tunis, and, on his 
death, was proclaimed king in his place. 
Finding his authority insecure, he made 
application to the Ottoman Sultan Soli- 
man, offering to recognize his superior- 
ity, and become tributary, provided a 
force was sent to him sufficient to main- 
tain him in his usurpation. Soliman 
agreed to his proposals, and, ordering 
him a reinforcement of janizaries, in- 
vested him with the dignity of viceroy 
or pacha over the kingdom of Algiers. 
Thus reinforced, Hayradin built a wall 
for the improvement of the harbor, 
strengthened it with fortifications, and 
may be deemed the founder of that mis- 
chievous seat of piracy, as it has ever 
since existed. Such was his reputation 
for naval and military talents, that Soli- 
man II. made him his capitan pacha. 
In this capacity he signalized himself by 
a long course of exploits against the 
Venetians and Genoese ; and, in 1543, 
when Francis I. made a league with 
Soliman, he left Constantinople, and, 
with a powerful fleet, having the French 
ambassador on board, took Reggio, and 
sacked the coast of Italy. In conjunction 
with the French, he also besieged and 
took Nice, and refitting during the win- 
ter at Toulon, again ravaged the coast 
and islands of Italy in the ensuing spring, 
and returned with many prisoners and 
much spoil to Constantinople. From 
this time he seems to have declined 
active service, and to have given him- 
self up to a voluptuous life among his 
female captives, until the age of 80, 

when he d., and his bq. lessor Hassan 
became possessed of his authority and 
riches. With the ferocity of a Turk 
and a corsair, he possessed some gener- 
ous sentiments, and obtained a character 
for honor and fidelity in his engage- 

BARBAULD, Ann Letitia, daughter 
of the Rev. John Aikin, was born at 
Kibworth, in Leicestershire, June 20. 
1743. She received from him a classical 
education, and early showed a disposi- 
tion for poetry. Her earliest produc- 
tion was a small volume of miscellaneous 
poems, printed in 1772, which, in the 
year following, was succeeded by a col- 
lection of pieces in prose, published in 
conjunction with her brother, Dr. John 
Aikin of Stoke Newington. In 1774 
she accepted the hand of the Rev. 
Rochemont Barbauld, with whom she 
took up her residence at Palgrave, in 
Suffolk, and there composed the works 
on which the durability of her reputa- 
tion is most securely founded, viz., 
" Early Lessons and Hymns for Chil- 
dren,'' pieces which are justly con- 
sidered as of standard merit. In 1785 
she accompanied her husband on a 
tour to the Continent, and on his re- 
turn, resided for several years at Hamp- 
steacl, but in 1802 again removed to 
Stoke Newington, in order the moro 
constantly to enjoy her brother's so- 
ciety. In 1812 appeared the last of her 
separate publications, entitled " Eigh- 
teen Hundred and Eleven," a poem of 
considerable merit ; previous to which 
she had edited a collection of English 
novels, and a similar collection of the 
best British essayists of the time of 
Anne, with Richardson's correspond- 
ence, and a memoir of his life and 
writings. D. 1824. 

BARBAZAN, Arnold William, was 
a brave and noble French general, 
whose valor, probity, and disinterested- 
ness during a long and successful career 
under the reigns of Charles VI. and 
VII. gained for him the glorious appel- 
lation of "the Irreproachable Knight." 
D. 1432. — Stephen, a French writer, au- 
thor of a " Father's Instructions to his 
Son," and editor of various old French 
tales and fables. B. 1696 ; d. 1770. 

BARBATELLI, Bernardino, an Ital- 
ian painter, particularly excellent in de- 
lineating flowers, fruits, and animals. 
B. 1542; d. 1612. 

Louis, son of a wood-monger at Paris, 
rose by the strength of his genius from 
the mean occupation of his father. He 




resided 10 or 15 years in Holland, and 
on his return he assisted for 23 years 
M. Bauche in the completion of his 
works. His first publication in 1759, 
was his map " De Monde Historique," 
an ingenious chart, in which was united 
all the information which geography, 
chronology, and history could produce. 
He published besides the " iablettes 
Chronologiqaes," of Lenglet, a transla- 
tion of Strahlemberg's Description of 
Russia, Le Croix's Modern Geography, 
besides large contributions to the works 
of his friends, and the two last volumes 
of the "Bibliotheque de France,'' byLe j 
Long. Barbeau had to struggle through 
life against poverty, but it dill not ruffle 
his temper, or render him unwilling 
freely to communicate to others from 
the vast store of his knowledge in geog- 
raphy and history. D. 1781. 

BARBERIXO, Francis, an Italian 
poet, author of "Precents of Love." 
B. 1264; d. 1343. 

BARBEYRAO, Charles, a French 
physician, whom Lock? compared to 
Sydenham, author of " Questions Me- 
dic* Duodecim," &c. B. 16'29; d. 1699. 
— John, nephew of the above, professor 
of law at Berne, and subsequently at 
Groningen. To the performance of his 
duty as a lecturer, he added most labo- 
rious exertions as an author. He trans- 
lated the most valuable portions of Gro- 
tius, Putfendorf, and other able civilians 
into French, and wrote a " History of 
Ancient Treatises," <fec. B. 1674; d. 

BARBIER, Antonie Alexandre, bib- 
liographer, was born at Coulomniers, in 
1765, and, at the beginning of the rev- 
olution, was a vicar. In the year 1794, 
he went to Faris, where he was chosen 
a member of the committee appointed 
to collect works of literature and art 
existing in the monasteries, which were 
then suppressed. This was the cause 
of his being appointed, in 179S, keeper 
of the library of the conseil d'etat, col- 
lected by himself, and, when it was 
transported to Fontainbleau, in 1807, 
Napoleon appointed him his librarian. 
At the return of the king, he had the 
care of his private library. He died in 
1825. His excellent "Catalogue de la 
Bibliotheque de Conseil d'Etat," Paris, 
1801-3, 2 vols., folio, is now very rare. 
His " Dictionnaire des Ouvrages Ano- 
nymes et Pseudonymes," is, on account 
of its plan, excellent. But he did not 
succeed so well with his "Examen Cri- 
tique et Complement des Dictionnaires 
Historiques," 1 vol., Paris, 1820, since 

the narrow circle of his studies and re- 
searches was not sufficient for such an 
extensive plan. 

BARBIERI, John Francis, also call- 
ed GUERCINI, an eminent historical 
painter. B. 1590; d. 1666. — Paul An- 
thony, brother of the above, an eminent 
painter of still-life subjects. D. 1640. 

BARBOSA, Arias, a learned Portu- 
guese professor of Greek at Salamanca, 
author of a treatise "On Prosody," and 
some Latin Poems. D. 1540. — Peter, 
chancellor of Portusral, author of trea- 
tises •• On the Digests." D. 1596.— Au- 
CiUstin, son of the last named bishop of 
Ugento, author of a treatise " De Officio 
Episcopi," &c. D. 1648. 

BARBOUR, John, a Scotch poet and 
divine, chaplain to David Bruce, of 
whose life and actions he wrote a his- 
tory. B. 1320; d. 137S. — Thomas, a 
whig of the American revolution, and 
in 1769 a member of the house of bur- 
gesses of Virginia, which made the first 
protest against the stamp act. He died 
in 1825, aged 90. — James, a Virginian 
statesman, who after serving in various 
offices in the state, was subsequently 
governor, senator of the United States, 
and minister of war under John Quincy 
Adams. In 1828 he was sent minister 
to St. James, but was recalled by Gen. 
Jackson. He then retired to private 
life, and devoted himself mainly to 
agricultural pursuits. D. 1824. — Philip 
Pendleton, a younger brother of the 
former, was also distinguished as a law- 
yer and statesman. In 1836 he was an 
associate justice of the Supreme Court 
of the United States. He was a man 
of acute, sound, and penetrating mind. 
D. 1841. 

BARCHAM, John, a learned divine 
and antiquary. B. at Exeter, about 
1572. He assisted Speed in his " His- 
tory of England;" and was author of a 
" Display of Heraldrie," folio, 1611 ; but 
having composed this in his youth, and 
thinking it too light a subject to ac- 
knowledge, he gave it to John Gwillin, 
a herald of his acquaintance, under 
whose name it has been repeatedly 
printed. D. 1642. 

BARCLAY, an English poet of some 
note, originally chaplain of St. Mary Ot- 
tcry, in Devonshire, and afterwards a 
Benedictine monk of Ely. His death 
took place in 1552, a short time after he 
had been presented to the living of All- 
Hallows, in Loudon. His principal work 
is a satire, entitled '' The Ship of Fools," 
a translation or imitation ot a German 
composition. He also wrote "Eclogue*," 




which, according to Wartoii, the histo- 
rian of English poetry, are the earliest 
compositions of the kind in our language. 
— John, was b. at Pont-a-Mousson, and 
educated in the Jesuits 1 college at that 
place. He accompanied his father to 
England, where he was much noticed 
by James I., to whom he dedicated one 
of his principal works, a political and 
satirical romance, entitled " Euphor- 
mio," in Latin, chiefly intended to ex- 
pose the Jesuits, agaiirst whom the 
author adduces some very serious accu- 
sations. He wrote, also", several other 
works, among which is a singular ro- 
mance, in elegant Latin, entitled " Ar- 
genis," a political allegory, of a character 
similar to that of '* Euphormio," and 
alluding to the political state of Europe, 
and especially France, during the league. 
— Robert, trie celebrated apologist of 
the Quakers, was b. during 1648, at 
Gordonstown, in the shire of Moray, of 
an ancient and honorable family. The 
troubles of the country induced his 
father to send him to Paris, to be edu- 
cated under the care of his uncle, who 
was principal of the Scots college in that- 
capital. Under his influence he was 
made a convert to the Roman Catholic 
religion, upon which his father sent for 
him to return home; and, soon after 
becoming a Quaker, the son soon fol- 
lowed his example. His first treatise in 
support of his adopted principles was 
published at Aberdeen, in 1670, under 
the title of "Truth cleared of Calum- 
nies," &c, being an answer to an attack 
on the Quakers by a Scottish minister 
of the name of Mitchell. It is written 
with great vigor, and with his subse- 
quent writings against the same oppo- 
nent, tended materially to rectify pub- 
lic sentiment in regard to the Quakers, 
hs also to procure them greater indul- 
gence from government. To propagate 
the doctrines, as well as to maintain the 
credit he had gained for the sect, he 
published, in 1675, a regular treatise, in 
order to explain and defend the system 
of the Quakers, which production was 
also very favorably received. These and 
similar labors involved him in contro- 
versies with the leading members of 
the university of Aberdeen, and others ; 
but, notwithstanding so much engross- 
ment, his mind was, at the same time, 
busy with his great work, in Latin, 
"An Apology for" the true Christian Di- 
vinity, as the same is preached and held 
forth by the People in scorn called Qua- 
Kers." It was soon reprinted at Am- 
sterdam, and quiekly translated into the 

German, Dutch, French, and Spanish 
languages, and, by the author himself, 
into English. It met, of course, with 
many answers; but his fame was now 
widely diffused, and in his travels vv : th 
the famous William Penn, through the 
greater part of England, Holland, and 
Germany, to spread the opinions of the 
Quakers, he was received everywhere 
with the highest, marks of respect. The 
last of his productions, in defence of the 
theory of the Quakers, was a long Latin 
letter, addressed, in 1676, to Adrian de 
Paets, "On the Possibility of an Inward 
and Immediate Revelation." It was not 
published in England until 1686; from 
which time Barclay, who had endured 
his share of persecution, and been nore 
than once imprisoned, spent the l main- 
ing part of his life, in the bosom of a 
large family, in quiet and peace, He d. 
after a short illness, at his own house, 
in TJry, in 1690, in the 42d year of his 
age. With few exceptions, both parti- 
san?; and opponents unite in the profes- 
sion of great respect for his character 
and tsients. Besides the works already 
mentioned or alluded to, he wrote a 
treatise "On Universal Love," and va- 
rious replies to the most able opponents 
of his " Apology." — William, a learned 
civilian, was b. in Aberdeenshire, about 
1541. He spent the early part of his 
life, and much of his fortune, at the 
court of Mary queen of Scots, from 
whose favor he expected preferment. In 
1573, he went over to France, and at 
Bruges commenced student of civil law 
under the famous Cujacius. Having 
continued some years in that seminary, 
he took a doctor's degree, and was soon 
after appointed professor of civil law in 
the university ot Pont-a-Mousson, then 
first founded' by the duke of Lorraine. 
Having parted with his patron, Barclay 
embarked for Britain, where King James 
I., who had now succeeded to the two 
crowns, offered him considerable prefer- 
ment, provided he would become a 
member of the church of England. Not 
choosing, however, to comply with this, 
he returned to France in 1604, and soon 
after his arrival was appointed professor 
of civil law in the university ot Angers, 
where he died the year following, and 
was buried in the Franciscan church. 
He was esteemed a learned civilian, and 
wrote elaborately in the defence of the 
divine right of kings, in answer to Bu- 
chanan and others. 

BARCOCHEBAS, a Jewish impostor, 
in the 2d century, who, during the 
reign of the emperor Adrian, caused 




nimself to be proclaimed the Messiah 
and king of the Jews. Under his stand- 
ard they rose in rebellion against the 
Romans. He fortified himself with his 
deluded followers, in various places, and 
committed great barbarities, particularly 
against the Christians, whom he massa- 
cred in vast numbers. Julius Severus, 
the greatest general of the time, took the 
conduct of the war against him, and 
adopted the policy of attacking and cut- 
ting Ins followers off separately. He fell 
at the sie^je of Bitten, atter fifty thousand 
Jews had perished in consequence of 
his acts. 

BARCOS, Martdj de, a learned Jan- 
senist, who wrote a work called " Petrus 
Aurelius," "La Grandeur de L'Egiise 
Komaine," a treatise on the " Authority 
of St. Peter and St. Paul," and many 
controversial tracts. D. 1678. 

BARD, John, a learned physician. 
He engaged in business in Philadelphia, 
and afterwards removed to New \ ork, 
where he remained till within a few 
mouths of his death. In the year 1795, 
when the yellow fever had put to flight 
a number of physicians, who were in 
the meridian of life, the veteran Dr. Bard 
remained at his post. He was the author 
of several papers on the yellow fever in 
the American Medical Register. In 1750 
he assisted Dr. Middleton in the first 
recorded dissection in America. D. 
1799. — Samuel, M.D., to obtain a thor- 
ough medical education, he spent five 
years in France, England, and Scotland. 
He received his degree at Edinburgh in 
1765. Dr. Bard formed the plan of the 
medical school of New York, which was 
established within a year after his return. 
He was appointed professor of the prac- 
tice of physic. Medical degrees were 
first conferred in 1769. By his exertions 
the hospital was founded. In 1774 he 
delivered a course of chemical lectures. 
In 1813 he was appointed president of 
the college of physicians and surgeons. 
His discourses on conferring degrees 
were very impressive. B. 1742; d. 1821. 

BARDE, John de la, an historian and 
diplomatist of the reign of Louis le Grand, 
who wrote a history of France from the 
time of Louis XIII. to 1652. B. 1602 ; 
d. 1692. 

BARDES ANES the Gnostic, a Syrian, 
who lived in the latter half of the second 
century, at Edessa, and was a favorite 
of the king Agbar Bar Maanu, is memor- 
able for the peculiarity of his doctrines. 
He considered the evil in the world only 
its an accidental reaction of matter, and 
all life as the offspring of male and fe- i 

male ^Eone. He considered Jesus to be 
the JSon destined for the salvation of 
souls, only a feigned man, and his death 
only a feigned death, but his doctrine 
the £ are means to fill the souls of men 
with ardent desires for their celestial 
home, and to lead them back to God, to 
whom they go immediately after death, 
and without a resurrection of the earthly 
body. He propagated this doctrine i.* 
Syrian hymns, and is the first writer of 
hymns in this language. His son Ilar- 
monius studied in Athens, and strove, 
also, by means of hymns., to procure the 
reception of his doctrine, l et the Bar- 
desanists did not formally separate them- 
selves from the orthodox Christian 
church. They maintained themselves 
until the 5th century. 

BARDIN, Pierre, a French writer 
author of " Le Grand Chambellan dc 
France," &e. He lost his life while 
attempting to rescue a drowning man, 

BARDNEY, Richard, an English 
monk; author of the "Life of Robert 
Grosthcad, bishop of Lincoln." D. 1504. 

BAREBONE, Praise-God, a notorious 
fanatic of the time of Cromwell, from 
whom the famous Barebone's Parlia- 
ment took its name. He was originally 
a leather-dealer, but a man of consider- 
able energy and influence. He was ar- 
rested in 1661 with Major Wildman and 
Harrington for a plot against the govern- 
ment, and committed to the Tower. 
What became of him on his release is 
not known. 

BARENT, Dietrich, a Dutch histori- 
cal and portrait painter. B. 1534; d. 

BARERE, Bertrand, one of the most 
conspicuous actors in the first French 
revolution, was born in 1755 at Tarbes, 
in Gascony, where his father possessed 
the small estate of Vieuzac. He was 
educated for the bar at Toulouse, prac- 
tised as an advocate with considerable 
success, and besides occupying himself 
with literary pursuits of a trivial charac- 
ter, wrote a dissertation which procured 
him a seat in the Toulouse Academy of 
Sciences. In 1785 he was elected one 
of the representatives of the Third Es- 
tate. When, in 1792, the legislative as- 
sembly invited the nation to elect an 
extraordinary convention, Barere was 
chosen one of its members by his own 
department. He voted for the death of 
the king, "sans appel et sans stirs!*," 
in words that have been oft repeated, 
" L'arbre de la libcrte ne croit qu'arrose' 
par le sang des tyrans." After the fall 




of the monarch, he acted with the Gi- 
rondists, to whom he made himself 
useful by the ease and fluency with 
which he could draw up reports. But 
he soon made common cause with the 
Mountain, whose designs he carried out ; 
and he bore a large share in the schemes 
subsequently planned during the " Reign 
of Terror," earning for the levity with 
which he discharged his office the nick- 
names of the Witling of Terror, and 
the Anacreon of the Guillotine. He 
fawned on Robespierre up to the 
8th of Thermidor, and on the 9th he 
moved that Robespierre should be be- 
headed without a trial. On the fall of 
the convention he was sent a prisoner 
to the isle of Oleron ; but he made his 
escape to Bordeaux, where he remained 
four years in obscurity ; and on the estab- 
lishment of Napoleon's government he 
enlisted in its service, and for some years 
officiated in the double capacity of a wri- 
ter and a spy. On the fall of Napoleon, 
in 1814, he again became a royalist. Du- 
ring the hundred days he was chosen by 
his native district a member of the cham- 
ber of representatives ; but on the final 
return of the Bourbons, in 1815, he was 
compelled to retire into Belgium, where 
he resided till 1830. The revolution 
which then called Louis Philippe to the 
throne, enabled him to return to France ; 
but he was reduced to extreme indi- 
gence, and a small pension from the 
king and the government alone saved 
him from the necessity of begging his 
bread. D. 1841. Those who wish to 
see an instance of the literary tomahawk 
skilfully applied, will find it in an arti- 
cle devoted to Barere's life and character 
in the Edinburgh Review, vol. lxxix., by 

BARETTI, Joseph, the son of an 
architect of Turin, b. in 1718, and who 
went to England in 1750, where he re- 
sided (with a short interval) the remain- 
der of his life. Baretti had the good 
fortune to be introduced to Dr. Samuel 
Johnson, and between them a very long 
intimacy had place. From the time of 
his arrival in England he subsisted by 
teaching the Italian language and by 
the sale of his writings. In 1760 he 
made a tour to Italy, through Portugal 
and Spain, and returned to England 
after an absence of six years. In 1769 
he was tried at the Old Bailey for having 
stabbed a man who violently assaulted 
him in the Haymarket. He made a 
most admirable defence ; which, added 
to the bad reputation of his prosecutors, 
impressed the court much in his favor. 

He was acquitted of the murder, and of 
the manslaughter: the verdict was self- 
defence. After this unfortunate trims- 
action he again sat down to his studies, 
and in 1770 published his "Travels," 
for which, it is said, he received £500. 
On the establishment of the Royal Acad- 
emy, he was appointed foreign secretary, 
a post of more honor than profit. He 
died May 5, 1789, without a struggle or 
sigh, the moment after taking a glass of 
wine, preserving his faculties to the last 

BARGRAVE, Isaac, dean of Canter- 
bury and chaplain to James I. D. 1642. 

BARHAM, Richard Harris, better 
known by his authorial name of Thomas 
Ingoklsby, was a native of Canterbury, 
and a graduate of Oxford, who adopted 
the clerical profession and discharged 
its duties, but who was far more of a 
wit than a sermonizer. He became a 
minor canon of St. Paul's, and the friend 
of Sydney Smith, whom in some respects 
he resembled. His contributions to the 
leading English periodicals were remark- 
able for fancy and humor, but his fame 
will rest upon the " Ingoklsby Iftgends," 
which are full of quaint wit and happy 
turns of thought and expression. A 
novel of his, called "My Cousin Nicho- 
las," was popular at the time of its pub- 
lication. B. 1789; d. 1845. 

BARKER, Edmund Henry, a classical 
scholar, who edited Stephens' Greek 
Thesaurus, Prolegomena to Homer, 
Lempriere, &c., and was a leading sup- 
porter of the classical journal, the British 
Critic and the Monthly Magazine, to 
which he contributed valuable disserta- 
tions on questions of philology and an- 
tiquities. B. 1788; d. 1839.— George, 
an eminent lawyer of Birmingham, who 
aided Watt and Boulton in their gigantic 
railroad and other schemes. B. 1776 ; d. 
1845. — Robert, inventor of the pano- 
rama, was b. at Kells, in Ireland, about 
1740 ; and, having failed in business, 
became a miniature and portrait painter. 
He settled at Edinburgh in that capacity ; 
and, while viewing the landscape from 
the Calton Hill, was first struck with the 
idea of representing similar scenes in a 
circular picture. Eminent artists treat- 
ed the project as chimerical ; but he 
persisted, and ultimately succeeded in 
accomplishing what may be considered 
as the triumph of pictorial illusion. It 
was in 1787 that his first attempt was 
exhibited; and his exhibition soon be- 
came so popular that he gained a con- 
siderable fortune. D. 1806.— Matthew 
Henry, a sea-captain, who i a the latter 




part ofliis life took to writing sea-novels, 
in which he attained great success, under 
the name of the Old Sailor. His " Tough 
Yarns," " Jim Bunt," " Land and Sea 
Tales," etc., have considerable merit. 
D. 1846. — George P., a distinguished 
lawyer and politician of Buffalo, attor- 
ney-general of the state of New York, 
who'd, in 1848, before he had fulfilled 
his promise. 

BAEEUAM, John, a native of Exeter, 
who, after studying at Oxford, and hold- 
ing several places of preferment, d. at 
Booking, in Essex, of which he was rec- 
tor and dean. He is mentioned by 
Speed, and others, as possessing " learn- 
ing, virtue, and courtesy." His valuable 
collection of coins and medals, which he 
gave to Laud, was presented to the uni- 
versity. Though lie never published 
any thing, yet his friends had reason to 
acknowledge his great erudition, so that 
Guillim's display of heraldry, and Speed's 
John and Henry II. are attributed to 

BARKSDALE, Clement, a native of 
Winchcomb, Gloucestershire, educated 
at Abingdon school and Oxford. He was 
elected master of Hereford school, but 
during the civil wars he left his situation, 
and took pupils at Hawling, in Glouces- 
tershire. On the restoration he was 
presented to the living of Taunton, 
where he d. 1687, aged 78. His works 
are, besides several sermons, and some 
tracts, " Monumenta Literaria," "Sive 
Obitus et Elogia," " Doctorum Yirorum 
ex Historiis Thuani," " Nymplia Libe- 
thris, or the Corswold Muse," 1651 ; 
" The Life of Grotius," 1652 ; " Memo- 
rials of Worthy Persons," 1661. 

BAR LA AM", a Greek monk, who, in 
1339, was sent into the West, by the 
younger Andronicus, the Greek' em- 
peror, to solicit assistance against the 
Turks, and to negotiate a union between 
the Latin and Greek churches. On 
his return he was censured, as hetero- 
dox, by a council ; upon which he went 
back to Italy, and obtained the bishopric 
of Hieracium, in Calabria. He d. about 
It 18. Barlaam introduced the study of 
Grecian literature into Italy ; and Pe- 
trarch and Boccacio wore his disciples. 

BARL^EUS, Gasparaus, a Latin poet 
of Antwerp, appointed subprincipal of 
the college of Leyden, but afterwards re- 
jected from his office for the zealous 
6hare which he took in the disputes of 
the Arminians. He now took his de- 
grees in physio at Caen, and in 1631 was 
invited by the magistrates of Amster- 
dam to fill the chair of professor of phi- 

losophy, which he held till his death in 
1648, in his 64th year, though his wri- 
tings in favor of Arminius raised him a 
number of enemies, who loudly called 
for his dismission. His orations are 
admired for their wit and purity, and 
his poems for their elegance and correct- 
ness. Two volumes of his letters were 
published after his death. He wrote 
also an account of Count Maurice's gov- 
ernment in Brazil. 

BARLETTA, Gabriel, a Dominican, 
b. at Barletta, in the kingdom of Naples, 
He acquired some celebrity as a writel 
and as a preacher, and it became pro- 
verbial to say, neicit pr<xdicare qui nescit 
Barletta re. It is reported that his ser 
moiis rapidly passed through 20 editions, 
but so incongruous was the composition, 
so full of serious reflections and ridicu- 
lous levities, of obsolete words, and of 
modern and ancie t Idioms, that more 
singular and extraordinary performances 
scarcely ever appeared. The best edition 
is that of Venice, 1577, two vols. 8vo. 
He was b. about 1040, but the time of 
his death is unknown. 

BARLOW, Thomas, an English pre- 
late, was b. in 1607, at Langhill, in 
Westmoreland, and educated at Oxford. 
He was raised to the bishopric of Lin- 
coln in 1675, and held it till his death, 
in 1691. His principles were any thing 
but inflexible. He wrote against popery 
during the reign of Charles II.; vindi- 
cated the regal power of dispensing with 
the laws, under James II. ; and finally 
gave his allegiance to William III. Noi 
did he properly fulfil his episcopal duties 
He was, however, a learned and a toler 
ant man. His works consist of some 
tracts ; a Collection of Cases of Consci- 
ence Resolved ; and Genuine Remains. 
— Joel, was b. at Reading, in Connect! 
cut, about 1755, and graduated at Yale 
college in 1778. After leaving college he 
engaged for a short time in the study of 
the law, but soon changed it for theolo- 
gv, and became a chaplain in the army, 
which station he retained until the return 
of peace. From 1783 to 1795 Mr. Bar- 
low was occupied with various private 
pursuits, in America and Europe ; and 
in the. latter year was appointed by Pres- 
ident Washington consul at Algiers, 
with powers to negotiate a treaty of 
peace with the Dey, and redeem the 
American captives on the coast of Bar- 
bary. He concluded a treaty with Al- 
giers, and also negotiated one with 
Tripoli, and rescued many American 
citizens from slavery. In 1797 he re- 
signed his consulship. In 1805 he re- 




turned to the United States. In 1811 lie 
was bent as minister plenipotentiary to 
the French government. He failed in 
the object of his mission, but in October, 
1812, he was invited to a conference with 
the emperor at Wilna. The fatigue and 
exposure to which he subjected himself, 
to comply with this invitation, caused 
his death at Zarowiteh, an obscure vil- 
lage near Cracow, in December, 1812. 
"While in college Mr. Barlow was a votary 
of the muses, and by that means ac- 
quired the friendship of Dr. Wright, 
who himself occasionally dabbled in 
vei>e. His "American Poems" were 
printed at Litchfield, shortly after he 
left college. The " Vision of Columbus"' 
appeared in 17S7. He prepared a new 
version of Watts' Psalms for the clergy 
of bis native state. While in France he 
became a warm friend of the leading 
Girondists. In England, about 1791, he 
printed his " Advice to the Privileged 
Orders," and afterwards the "Conspir- 
acy of Kings," and a " Letter to the 
National Convention." But his most 
popular poem was a mock heroic, in 
three cantos, called " Hasty Pudding," 
in which he celebrated a national New 
England dish. Returning to America, 
in 1808, he published a noticeable poem 
called the Columbiad, which is still ex- 
tant, and some people read. 

BAELOWE, William, a bishop of 
Bath and Wells under Queen Mary, 
and bishop of Winchester under Eliza- 
beth. D. 1653. — William, his son. arch- 
deacon of Sarum, skilled in natural phi- 
losophy, and the first English writer 
on the* properties of the loadstone. D. 

BARNARD, Theodore, a Dutch 

Eainter who settled in England, said to 
ave painted the kings and bishops in 
Chichester cathedral.— John, D.D., pre- 
bendary of Lincoln in the reign of 
Charles II., author of a " Life of Dr. 
Ileylyn," &e. D. 1683.— Sir John, lord 
mayor of London, and one of its repre- 
sentatives in parliament for forty years. 
He was an able speaker, and a remark- 
ably conscientious and religious man ; 
and so greatly was he respected by his 
fellow-citizens, that they erected a statue 
to his memorv in the Roval Exchange. 
B. at Reading, 1685 ; d. 1764. 

BARN AVE, Anthony Peter Joseph. 
an eloquent and popular member of the 
French national assembly. He was 
charged with the conveyance of the 
king from Varennes to Paris; on which 
occasion he conducted himself with 
great delicacy and respect. Though he 

had retired to private life, he was ar- 
rested by the faction then in power, and 
guillotined in 17'j4. 

BARNES, Juliana, prioress of St. 
Alban's in the 15th century, author of 
treatises on " Hunting, Hawking, and 
Heraldry." — Robert, D.D., chaplain to 
Henry VIII. ; burnt to death in Smith- 
field for Lutheranism, in 1540; authot 
of a treatise on " Justification," &c. — 
Joshua, a learned divine, educated at 
Christ's hospital, London, and Emman- 
uel college, Cambridge, author of the 
"Life of Edward 111.." and a poem 
" On the History of Esther," and editor 
of the works of Euripides, Anacreon, 
and Homer. B. 1654 ; d. 1712.— Thomas, 
a srentleman of famous literary ability, 
and principal editor of " The Times," 
which journal owes much of its celebrity 
and influence to the powerful political 
leaders that came from his pen, as well 
as to the rare skill and discrimination 
he evinced in the general control and 
adaptation of the articles furnished by 
his coadjutors, &c. Notwithstanding 
the share he necessarily took in the 
strife of politics, it is recorded to his 
honor that he retained the friendship 
of all who had once intimately known 
him, how much soever they mi<rht 
chance to differ on questions of public 
interest. Mr. Barnes was educated at 
Christ's hospital and Pembroke college, 
Cambridge, where he took his B.A. and 
M.A. degrees. D. 1841, aged 55. — 
Daniel II., a distinguished conchol- 
ogist, who, with Dr. Griscom, originated 
and conducted with great reputation 
the high school of New York. He was 
also a" Baptist preacher. On Sunday, 
the day before his death, he preached 
at New Lebanon from the text, "Ye 
know not what shall be on the mor- 
row ;" on the next day, the driver hav- 
ing been thrown from his seat, Mr. 
Barnes in his alarm jumped from the 
carriage, fractured his skull, and died 
soon after. His learned communications 
on conchology were published in Silli- 
man's journal, with explanatory plates. 
BARNEY, Joshua, a distinguished 
commander in the American navy. He 
was employed in the public service du- 
ring the war of the revolution, and was 
twice captured. In a vessel named the 
Ilyder Ali, carrying 4 nini and 12 si? 
pounders he captured, after an action, 
of 26 minutes, the Gen. Monk of 18 
guns, nine-pounders, with the loss of 4 
men killed, and 11 wounded. The Gen. 
Monk lost 30 killed, and 53 wounded, 
lie sailed in the Gen. Monk with dis- 




Eatches for Dr. Franklin at Paris, and 
rought back a valuable loan from the 
king of Franco. In 1790 he went to 
France with Mr. Munroe, deputed the 
bearer of the American flag to the Na- 
tional Convention. In 1813 he was ap- 
pointed to the command of the flotilla 
for the defence of the Chesapeake. He 

Eartieipated in the battle of Bladeus- 
urg, and was wounded by a ball in 
the thigh. In 1815 he was sent on a 
mission to Europe. He d. in 1819, aged 
59. lie had been 41 years in public 
service, and engaged in 26 battles. 

BARN E VELDT, John- d' Oldex, a 
Dutch statesman of great abilities, am- 
bassador to Elizabeth in England, and to 
Henry IV. of France. His attempts to 
limit ti c authority of Maurice the second 
stadtholder of Holland, raised him ene- 
mies, by whose virulence he was accused 
of designs to deliver the country to the 
Spaniards, and in consequence of this 
false charge, he was tried and beheaded 
in 1619. His sons. William and Rene, 
resented the cruelty exercised against 
their father, and though the elder es- 
caped, Rene felt the punishment due to 
a conspirator. The mother stepped in 
in defence of her son', and when Maurice 
expressed surprise to see her eager to 
save him when she had seen his father 
fall uulamented, she indignantly re- 
plied, '• I would not solicit a pardon for 
my husband, for he was innocent. I 
ask it for my son because he is guilty." 
BARO or BARONI, Peter, a native 
of Estampes, in France, who left his 
country on account of his attachment to 
Protestantism, and found a hospitable 
asylum in England, in the house of 
Lord Burleigh, and at Cambridge with 
Dr. Pierce, by whose influence he was 
chosen Margaret professor of divinity, 
1574. The tranquillity of his residence 
was however of short duration. He op- 
posed Whitaere, Tindal, and Chadder- 
ton, who violently supported the tenets 
of ?bsolute predestination, and whilst 
he gave a more moderate explanation to 
tho doctrine in his sermons and in his 
lectures, he found himself cited before 
the vice chancellor, and accused before 
Archbishop Whitgift ; and though Lord 
Burleigh, the chancellor, disapproved 
of the virulence of his prosecutors, he 
found himself obliged to leave Cam- 
bridge for Crutchedfriars, London, 
tvhere he died. His writings were on 
divinity subje--, and in Latin. 

BAROCCIO, Frederic, a painter of 
Urbino, who learnt sculpture of his fa- 
ther, and architecture, geometry, and 

perspective of his uncle, and drew the 
Inads of his Virgins after the features 
ot his sister, and those of his Jesuses 
after his nephew. Cardinal de la Ro- 
vere became early his patron, but the 
jealousy of his rivals proved nearly 
fatal. lie was maliciously poisoned, 
and though he recovered by the im- 
mediate application of medicine, his 
constitution grew weak and languid, 
and he lingered in an unhealthy state, 
till his S4th year, 1(512. His paintings 
are in good esteem, his historical pieces 
are deservedly admired, but he shines 
with superior lustre in the execution of 
his devotional portraits. His merits 
were universally admitted, and his in- 
firmities alone prevented him from ac- 
cepting the honors which were liberally 
ottered to him by the duke of Tuscany, 
the Emperor Rodolph II., and Philip 
II. of Spain. In correctness he is great; 
he understood well the effects of light 
and shade, and though the attitudes of 
some of his figures are out of propor- 
tion, he may be said to approach the 
softness and graces ofCorreggio: 

BARON, BonavbntOKE. a native of 
Clonniel, Ireland, educated by his undo 
Luke Wadding, and afterwards em- 
ployed as divinity professor at Rome, 
where he spent 60 years, and died blind 
in a good old age, March 18th, 1696. 
He was a learned and voluminous 
writer. His " Theologia," in 6 vols., 
is his best performance. See a list of 
his works in Sir James Ware's writers 
of Ireland, p. 253. — Michael, son of a 
merchant ot Issondun, became cele- 
brated as a player. His powers in ex- 
pressing the passions were unusually 
great, and he was deservedly called the 
Roseius of his time. He was not insen- 
sible to the popularity which he enjoyed, 
and with arrogance and vanity he ob- 
served, that once in a century a Csesar 
might arise, but that 2000 years were 
requisite to produce a Baron. His su- 
perior excellence was in a great degree 
owing to his own exertions, so that Ra 
cine in representing his Andromache to 
the actors, with the judgment and cor- 
rectness of a poet and of a man of feel- 
ing, paid him the highest compliment, 
assuring him that he could give him no 
instructions, " for," added he, " your 
own heart will tell you more than any 
lessons of mine can suggest." He died 
at Paris, 22d Dec. 1729, aged 77. Three 
volumes in 12mo. of theatrical pieces, 
appeared in 1760, under his name, or 
which, however, some suppose that he 
was not the authoi. His dialogue ia 




lively, and his scenes diversified ; but 
there is not very little of brilliancy 
of coloring which an acquaintance with 
the manners of the great could have 

BARONI, Adrians Basile, a native 
of Mantua, sister to the poet Basile. 
She was so admired for her beauty, her 
wit, and her accomplishments, that vol- 
umes were written in her praise. Her 
daughter Leonora possessed equal 
charms, and met equal admiration, and 
in 1639, a collection of pieces in Latin, 
Greek, Spanish, Italian, and French, 
was published, in which her beauty and 
her perfections were portrayed with all 
tiie graces of poetry. She also wrote 
some poetical trifles. The daughter had 
profound skill in music, a sweet voice, 
and the utmost delicacy of manner. Mr. 
Bayle styles her one of the finest singers 
in the world. 

BARONIUS, Cesar, confessor to Cle- 
ment VIII., who made him cardinal and 
librarian of the Vatican ; author of 
" Ecclesiastical Annals." B. at Sora, 
158S; d. 1607. 

BAROZZI, James, a celebrated archi- 
tect, successor to Michael Angclo as ar- 
chitect of St. Peter's ; author of " Rules 
for the Five Orders of Architecture," 
&c. B. 1507 ; d. 1577. 

BARRAL, Peter, a French abbe ; 
author of a " Dictionary of Roman An- 
tiquities," &c. D. 1772. — Louis Mat- 
thias de, bishop of Troyes, was a native 
of Grenoble. He emigrated at the rev- 
olution ; but returning to France in 1801, 
Bonaparte made him bishop of Meaux, 
and afterwards archbishop of Tours, and 
almoner to the Empress Josephine. D. 

BARR AS, Paul Francis John Nicho- 
las, Count de, was originally a sub- 
lieutenant in the regiment of Languedoc, 
and served for some time in India. 
Embracing revolutionary principles, he 
assisted at the attack on the Bastile, and 
voted in the National Convention for 
the death of the unfortunate Louis XVI. 
He subsequently became one of the 
chiefs of the government, but retired 
from public life when Bonaparte as- 
sumed the direction of affairs. For some 
yea^s he resided at Rome, but returned 
to France in 1814, and remained there 
till his death in 1829. 

BARRE, William Vincent, a native 
of France, who, after serving in the Rus- 
sian navy with credit in his youth, re- 
turned to his own country on the break- 
ing out of the French revolution, joined 
bis countrymen in arms, and was ovent- 

m Hy appointed interpreter to the French 
government; but having indulged his 
vein of sarcasm on the legitimacy of 
the First Consul, he was put under ar- 
rest. He escaped the vigilance of his 
enemies, and got to London, where he 
published a "History of the First Con- 
sulate." He translated into French Sir 
Sydney Smith's pamphlet on the expedi- 
tion into Egypt ; for which the English 
government rewarded him. While at 
Dublin, in 1829, he committed suicide. 

BARRELIER, James, a friar and bot- 
anist ; author of " T antie per Galliam, 
Hispaniam," &c. B. 16a6 ; d. 1763. 

BARRERE, Pierre, a French physi- 
cian ; author of a " Dissertation sur la 
couleur des Negres," &q. D. 1755. 

BARRET, George, a landscape paint- 
er, of considerable eminence. He was 
b. in Dublin, but passed most of his life 
in England, and was a chief founder of 
the Royal Academy. B. 1730; d. 1784. 

BARRETT, William, an English to- 
pographer; author of a "History of 
Bristol." D. 1789. 

BARRINGTON, John Shute, the first 
Viscount Barrington ; author of " An 
Essay on the several Dispensations of 
God to Mankind," the " Rights of Dis- 
senters," &c, &c. B. 1678'; D. 1734.— 
Daines, fourth son of Viscount Barring- 
ton, was bred to the law, and rose to the 
office of second justice of Chester. He 
was author of " Observations on the 
Statutes," &c. B. 1727 ; d. 1800.— Sam- 
uel, youngest brother of the last-named, 
entered early into the navy, ana became 
rear-admiral of the white.. He took St. 
Lucia, in the face of a superior force . 
and was conspicuous for his zeal and 
courage at the memorable relief of Gib- 
raltar, by Lord Howe. D. 1800. — Shute, 
bishop of Durham, was the sixth son of 
the first Viscount Barrington, and b. in 
1734. After obtaining a fellowship at 
Merton college, Oxford, and taking his 
degrees, he was appointed royal chaplain 
on the accession ot George III. In 1768 
lie was made a canon of St. Paul's, and 
in the following year was raised to the 
bishopric of Llandaff. In 1782 he was 
promoted to the see of Salisbury, whence 
in 1791 he was translated to that of Dur- 
ham. He engaged in some controversial 
disputes both with the Calvinists and 
Catholics ; but, though hostile to the 
doctrines of the latter, he was a liberal 
benefactor of the French "Wgy who took 
refuge in England dun .^, the revolu- 
tion ; and few men were more munifi- 
cent in their charitable support of be- 
nevolent institutions. D. 1826. — Tho 




Hon. George, M. P., was b. at Durham 
in 1794, and entered the naval service at 
the usual age. He obtained the rank of 
post-captain in 1826 ; and in the follow- 
ing year married Lady Caroline, third 
daughter of Earl Grey, who, on becom- 
ing prime minister, appointed him a lord 
of the Admiralty. He was returned one 
of the members for the newly-created 
borough of Sunderland in 1832, from 
which he afterwards retired in conse- 
quence of ill health, which continued 
until his death, in June, 1835. 

BARROS, John de, a learned Portu- 
guese, treasurer of the Indies, and 
author of a " History of Asia and the 
Indies." D. 1570. 

BARROW, Isaac, a learned mathema- 
tician and divine of an ancient family in 
Suffolk, was b. in London. He was ad- 
mitted pensioner of Peter-house, Cam- 
bridge, 1643; but two years after he 
became member of Trinity college, after 
being ejected from Peter-house for wri- 
ting against the covenant. He was after- 
wards chosen fellow of the college. His 
studies were directed to divinity ; but 
when he observed the connection which 
exists between chronology and astrono- 
my, he applied himself with indefatiga- 
ble zeal to those higher sciences, and 
made a rapid progress besides in anato- 
my, botany, and chemistry. Upon his 
disappointment in not being elected 
Greek professor, on the death of Dr. 
Duport, he resolved to travel, and to 
supply his expenses he parted with his 
books, and left the kingdom, 1655. He 
visited Paris, Leghorn, and Florence, 
and everywhere enriched his mind by 
observation and inquisitive researches. 
From Leghorn he passed to Smyrna, and 
in his voyage displayed his uncommon 
courage by assisting the crew of the ves- 
sel in beating off an Algerine corsair 
that threatened them with death or 
slavery. He passed from Smyrna to Con- 
stantinople, where he resided one year, 
and returned to England through Venice, 
Germany, and Holland, in 1659. He now 
took orders, agreeable to the statutes of 
his college, and in 1660 he was elected 
to the Greek professorship of the uni- 
versity, and two years after to that of 
geometry in Gresham college. The next 
year he was made Lucasian mathemati- 
cal lecturer at Cambridge, an office 
which, in 1669, he resigned to his great 
friend Isaac Newton, that lie might with 
■jloser application devote himself to di- 
vinity. He now received the preferment 
which was due to his merit from his 
uncle, bishop of St. Asaph, and from 

Ward, bishop of SaV^ury. and, m 1672, 
the king, whom he served oy his con- 
duct, and flattered by his poetry, raised 
him to the mastership of Trinity college, 
observing, that he gave it to the best 
scholar in England. He was vice chan- 
cellor in 1675; but his public services 
were of short duration. He died of a 
fever, 4th May, 1677, aged 47, and was 
buried in Westminster Abbey, where 
his friends, by contribution, erected a 
monument over him, of which the epi- 
taph was written by Dr. Mapletoft. The 
writings of Barrow are i..unerous and 
valuable, and chiefly on mathematical 
subjects. As a divine he was great as 
well as exemplary. His sermons are 
highly esteemed, and have been fre- 
quently edited. His works in English 
were published together by Dr. Tillot- 
son, in 3 vols, folio. — Sir John, Bart., 
for many years a secretary to the En- 
glish admiralty, an extensive traveller, 
and a voluminous writer of travels, bi* 
ographies, &c. B. 1764; d. 1848. 

BARRUEL, Augustin, a French eccle- 
siastic, and of some note as a man of 
letters during the French revolution, 
was born in 1741. He was for some 
years editor of " Le Journal Ecclesi- 
astique ;" but as the principles he there 
advocated were opposed to the revolu- 
tion, he was obliged to fly to England, 
where, in 1794, he published his "His- 
tory of the French Clergy, 1 ' &c. ; but his 
bes't known work is entitled " Memoirs 
for a History of Jacobinism, Impiety, 
and Anarchy," in 5 vols. Svo. ; a pro- 
duction in which fact and fiction are so 
closely interwoven as to destroy its an 
thenticity. He returned to France in 
1802, and died there in 1820. — De 
Beauvert, Anthony Joseph, Count de, 
was born at the castle of Beauvert, 
near Marseilles, in 1756. In 1790 he 
belonged to the national guard at Bag- 
nols ; and on the flight of the royal fam- 
ily to Varcnnes he offered himself as a 
hostage for Louis XVI. In 1795 he was 
editor of the journal entitled " Les Actes 
des Apitres ;" for which he was sen- 
tenced to deportation, but escaped. For 
a time during the consulate he was under 
the surveillance of the police ; but at 
length obtaining the protection of the 
Empress Josephine, he was appointed 
to an office in the department of Jura; 
where he died in 1817. He wrote the 
" Life of Rousseau," and various works 
relative to the Bourbons during their 

BARRY, Girald, better known as 
Giraldus Cambrensis ; author of " Topo- 




graphia Hiberniea," " Itinerarinm Cam- 
bria:," &c. He nourished in the 12th 
century. — Spranger, a celebrated actor, 
and, lor a time, the rival of Garrick, 
and, in the higher walks of the drama, 
is supposed t>v many to have greatly 
excelled him. B. 171y"; d. 1777.— "James, 
lord ot'Sautry, chief justice of the King's 
Bench in Ireland; author of "The I 'ase 
of Tenures upon the Commission of De- 
fective Titles." D. 1673. — Fames, an 
eminent painter, born at Cork, 1742; 
having early discovered great genius for 
the art, he was patronized by Mr. Burke, 
and brought to London, where he be- 
came a pupil to Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
When Mr. Burke came into administra- 
tion with the marquis of Rockingham, 
he sent Mr. Barry to Italy at Ins sole 
expense. After visiting all the celebrated 
schools of the continent, in which he 
occupied three years, he returned to 
London; and in 1V75 published "An 
Inquiry into the Real and Imaginary 
Obstructions to the Acquisition of the 
Arts in England.'' About two years 
after this he was elected a royal acade- 
mician, and in 1786 made professor of 
painting to the Boyal Academy; but in 
17'j;>, on an alleged addiction to demo- 
cratic principles, was removed from that 
office. He seems soon afterwards to 
have taken disgust at society; from 
which he retired into obscurity, living 
unattended, and half-starved, till some 
friends raised about E1000, with which 
they purchased an annuity for him; 
but before the first 'punter's payment 
of it became due he died. 1806. His 
greatest effort of art is a series of alle- 
gorical pictures, which he painted gra- 
tuitouslv for the great room of the Society 
of Arts in the Adelphi. — William T., an 
American statesman, postmaster-gener- 
al under Jackson, and afterwards minis- 
ter to Spain. B. 1785; d. 1835.— John, 
a distinguished naval officer in the 
service of the United States, horn at 
"Wexford, in Ireland, who was of great 
assistance to Washington during the 
revolutionary war. He took many prizes, 
and conquered the British ship of war 
Atalanta. B. 1745; d. 1803.— Makie 
Jeanne Gomart de Vaubernier, Coi % 
tess i)i'. a celebrated mistress of Louis 
XV. of France, was the daughter of a 
commissioner of the customs at Vau- 
couleurs, became a milliner at Paris, and, 
on being seen by the king, soon took 
the place of Madame de Pompadour. 
She was married to the Count du Parry, 
and acquired prodigious influence at the 
tourt. She caused the ruin of the 

haughty Duke de Choiseul, and pro- 
moted the Duke d'Aiguillon. When 
the king died she was" banished to an 
abbey near Meaux. During the revolu- 
tion she was condemned to death and 
executed. Her conduct in her last mo- 
ments betrayed the greatest weakness 
and fear. B'. 1744; d. 1793. 

BART AS, William de Saixtjst du, a 
French poet, warrior, and statesman; 
confidentially employed by Henry IV.; 
author of " the Week of the Creation," 
&C D. 1590. 

BARTH, John, a French naval officer, 
remarkable for his skill and daring as a 
privateer. B. at Dunkirk, 1551 ; d.1602. 
BARTHE, Nicholas Thomas, a 
French dramatic writer, and translator 
of "Ovid's Art of Love'' into French, 
&c. B. 1733 : d. 17 So. 

BARTIIELEMI, Nicholas, a monk 
of the 15th century; author of a treatise 
"< )n the Active and Contemplative Life, 

BARTHELEMY, John James, the 
learned author of "The Voyage of the 
Younger Anacharsis in Greece;" was 
1). at Cassis, in Provence, 1716; d. 1795. 
BARTHEZ, Pur Joseph, an eminent 
French physician, was horn at Montpe- 
(icr in 1784, where he founded a medical 
school, which acquired great reputation 
throughout Europe. For many years 
he practised in Paris, and was consulted 
apon the most important cases ; he also 
wrote in the "Journal des Savons," the 
" Encyclopedic,'' Arc, and was a mem- 
ber of almost e\er\ learned society. Du- 
ring the revolution he suffered greatly 
in his fortune ; but Napoleon, who knew 
his great merits, restored him, in his 
old age, to wealth and honors. D. 

BARTHOLDY, Jacob Solomon, a 
Prussian diplomatist, horn a Jew, but 
after travelling in Greece be abjured 
Judaism, and became a Protestant. Iu 
1807 he served against the French a* an 
officer in the land-wehr of Vienna, and 
wrote a tract called "The War of the 
Tyrol," which produced a great sensa- 
tion. D. 1S-26. 

BARTHOLEMON, Francis Hippo- 
lite, a musical composer and violinist, 
was horn at Bordeaux, in 1741, but 
resided chiefly in London, and was for 
many years leader at the opera-house. 
As a composer be was remarkable for 
rapidity; and as a performer for taste 
and execution. D. 1808. 

BARTLETT, Josiah, a governor of 
New Hampshire, who was originally a 
physician of merit, then commanded a 



regiment of militia in the revolution, 
was u member of the continental con- 
gress, ami was the first who voted for, 
and, after the president, I the Dec- 
laration of Independence. B. 1729 ; d. 

BAETOLI, or BARTOLUS, a learned 
civilian, who is said to have contributed 
more than any of his predecessors to 
the elucidation of U>gal science. B. 
1312; d. 1:3-36. —Daniel, a learned Jes- 
uit; author of a "History of the Jes- 
uits," &c. B. at Ferrara, 1608; d. 1685. 
— Cosmo, an Italian writer of the 16th 
century; author of a "Life of Frederic 
Barbarossa," &c. 

BART OLO, an Italian lawyer of the 
14th century; professor of law at Pisa, 
and author of numerous works on law 
and other subjects. 

BARTOLOZZI, Francis, an engraver 
of first-rate merit, was born at Florence 
in 1728; went to England in 1764; was 
admitted a member of the Royal Acad- 
emy in 1769, and went to Lisbon, at the 
invitation of the prince-regent of Portu- 
gal, in 1802. The productions of his 
graver are numerous, highly esteemed, 
and eagerly sought after. 1». 1815. 

BARTON, Bebnabd, the "Quaker 
poet," was born near Loudon, 17^4. In 
1810 he became a clerk in Alexander's 
bank, at Woodbridge, where he officiated 
almost to the day of his death. I lis first 
volume of poetry was published in 1811, 
and this was succeeded by numerous 
others, most of them devoted to homely 
subjects, but all of them animated by 
the purest feeling and the most glowing 
fancv. But it was not only for his merits 
as a poet, that Bernard Barton deserves 
to be held in remembrance. He was en- 
dowed witli every quality which endears 
a man to all that come within his influ- 
ence. His genial good-humor and vast 
stores of information made him a wel- 
come guest wherever he appeared; and 
the native sincerity of his character, 
which was set forth' in every act of his 
life, was enhanced by a benignity, lib- 
erality, and charity in entire accordance 
with the preeepts'of his faith. D. 1849. 
— Benjamin S., a noted physician and 
naturalist of Philadelphia, educated at 
Gottinijen, and a contributor to the 
transactions of the American Philosoph- 
ical Society. He was for many years 
professor of natural history and botany 
in the university of Pennsylvania, and 
succeeded Dr. Rush in the chair of med- 
icine. B. 1766; d. 1815.— Elizabeth, a 
country girl of Aldington, in Kent, 
^therefore called the "holy maid of 


Kent,") of whom English Protestants 
give this account. She was used as an 
instrument, by the Catholics and adhe- 
rents of Queen Catherine, to excite the 
English nation against the proposed di- 
vorce of Henry VIII. from his first wife, 
and the apprehended separation of the 
English church from Rome, witli which 
the king then threatened the pope. Her 
delirium, in a violent nervous illness, 
was made use of by the parson of Al- 
dington, and by a canon of Canterbury, 
to persuade her that she was a prophet- 
ess inspired by God, and destined to 
prevent this undertaking of the king. 
During her paroxysms, she cried out 
against this divorce, and against the pre- 
vailing sins and heresies. The arch- 
bishop of Canterbury and bishop of 
Rochester encouraged her to continue 
her revelations, which she pretended 
were communicated to her by a letter 
from heaven. By the prophecy, that 
Henry, if he persisted in his purpose 
of divorce and second marriage, would 
not be king for one month longer, and 
would die a shameful death, she excited 
many monks and nuns to violence 
against the king. Her revelations pro- 
duced such a fermentation among the 
people, that Henry ordered the appre- 
hension and examination of Elizabeth 
and her accomplices before the star- 
ehamber. After they had there con- 
fessed the imposture, they were con- 
demned to make a public confession 
and sailer imprisonment: and when it 
was found that the party of the queen 
were laboring to make them retract 
their confession, they were adjudged 
guilty of high treason, for a conspiracy 
against the king, and executed, April 
3oth, 1584. 

BARTR AM, John, an eminent. Amer- 
ican botanist, was b. in Chester county^ 
Pennsylvania, in 1701. He formed _ a 
botanic garden near Philadelphia, said 
to have been the first establishment of 
the kind in America : and so intimate 
an acquaintance had he with the vege- 
table kingdom, that Linnaeus pronounced 
him " the greatest natural botanist in the 
world." D. 1777.— William, a son of 
the preceding, was also a distinguished 
naturalist. At the request of Dr. Fother- 
gill, he travelled through the Floridas, 
Carolina, and Georgia, for the purposes 
of making: researches in natural history, 
and transmitted to his employer in Lou- 
don the valuable collections and draw- 
ings which he had made. His " Amer- 
ican Ornithology" may be considered 
the precursor of Wilson's invaluable 




work. His " Travels," also, is a rare 
and curious book. D. 1823. 

BARWICK, Johs, an English divine, 
who exerted himself with considerable 
zeal and ability on the royal side in the 
civil wars. B. 1612; d.' 1664.— Peter, 
brother of the above, an eminent physi- 
cian ; author of a " Defence of Harvey's 
Doctrines of the Circulation of the 
Blood." &c. D. 1705. 

BASEDOW, John Bernard, a Ger- 
man writer, and professor of moral phi- 
losophy and belles lettres. His novel 
plans of education excited great atten- 
tion in Germany : and in the seminary 
he established at Dessau, called "The 
Philanthropinum/'many excellent teach- 
ers were formed, and great good effected. 
An account of him is to be found in 
Goethe's Autobiography. B. 1723 ; d. 

BASEVI, George, a distinguished 
architect. Among the edifices built or 
.obtored by him are the churches in the 
early English style at Twickenham and 
Brompton, the Norman church at Hove, 
near Brighton, anil St. Mary'a Hall, at 
Brighton, in the Elizabethan style. Bel- 
grave square, in the metropolis, was 
erected from his designs; and he was 
joint architect with Mr. Smirke of the 
Conservative Club, iu St. James's-street. 
Having gone to inspect the west bell- 
tower of Ely cathedral, then under re- 
pair, he accidentally fell through an 
aperture, and was killed on the spot. 
B. 1795: d. 1845. 

BASIL, St., called the Great, to dis- 
tinguish him from other patriarchs of 
the same name, was b. in 829, and was 
made, in 37", bishop of Ctesarea. in Cap- 
padocia, where he d. in 379. He is the 
most distinguished ecclesiastic among 
the Grecian patriarchs. His efforts for 
the regulation of clerical discipline, of 
the divine service, and of the standing 
of the clergy ; the number of his ser- 
mons ; the success of his mild treatment 
of the Arians ; and, above all, his en- 
deavors for the promotion of monastic 
life, for which he prepared vows and 
rules, observed by himself, and still re- 
maimng in force, prove the merits of 
this holy man. The Greek church 
honors him as one of its most illustrious 
patron saints, and celebrates his festival 
January 1st. His followers are far 
spread ; there are even some of them in 
America. They lead an ascetic life. 
The vows of obedience, chastity, and 
poverty, framed by St. Basil, are the 
rules of all the orders of Christendom, 
although he is particularly the father of 

the eastern, as St. Benedict is the 
patriarch of the western orders. 

BASILIUS I., the Macedonian, em- 
peror of the East ; killed by a stag while 
hunting, in S36.— II., succeedecf John 
Zimisces, in 976. He was guilty of 
abominable cruelty in his war with the 
Bulgarians. D. 1025.— There was also, 
of tins name, an impostor, who excited 
a revolt in the eastern empire, in 934, and 
was burnt to death at Constantinople. 

BASILOWITZ, John, emperor of 
Russia; he added Astracan to his em- 
pire, and was the first who assumed the 
style and title of Czar. D. 1584. 

BAS IRE, Isaac, a learned divine, 
prebend of Durham. On the breaking 
out of the civil war he lost all his prefer- 
ments ; on which he made a journey to 
the Morea, where he preached with great 
success among t lie Greek Christians: 
and on his return wrote an account of 
his travels. B. 1607 ; d. 1676. 

BASKEKvTLLE. John, an English 
artist, deserving of notice for his im- 
provements in printing and type-found- 
ing. He was horn at Wofverly, in 
Worcestershire, in 1706, and, inheriting 
a small estate, was brought up to no 
profession. lie, however, acquired a 
particular skill in penmanship and 
carving letters on stone; and, at the 
age of 20, he settled at Birmingham an a 
writing master. He subsequently en- 
gaged in the manufacture of japanned 
works : and, in 1750, commenced his 
labors in the branch of art which ac- 
quired tor him so much celebrity. His 
first great performance, as a printer, was 
an edition of Virgil, in royal 4to., 1756, 
which was followed by many of the 
Latin classics, and some English ones, 
in 4to. and smaller sizes. The beauty 
of his typographical productions was 
superior to any thing which had previ- 
ously appeared from an English press; 
and when it is considered that the paper 
and ink, as well as the types and work- 
manship, were the fruits of one man's 
skill and ingenuity, it must be admitted 
that he possessed great merit. He d. 
in 177o : and his types and matrices 
were afterwards sold at Paris, for £3700, 
toBeaumarchais, who printed with them, 
at Kehl, a superb ectition of Voltaire. 
Baskerville was an enemy to all outward 
forms of divine service, which he de- 
clared to be mere superstition. He 
ordered, in his will, that bis body should 
not be buried in a burying-ground, — Sir 
Simon, an English physician of great 
eminence and wealth; knighted by 
Charles I. D. 1641. 




BASN AGE, Benjamin, a French Prot- 
estant divine ; author ot' " A Treatise 
on the Church." B. 1580 : d. 1652. — 
Anthonv, sou of the above ; imprisoned 
at Havre de Grace on account of his re- 
ligion. B. 1610; d. 1691. 

"BASS AX, (whose real name was 
Giacomo de Ponte,) a painter, born in 
1510. He was surnamed Bassau, from 
the place Bassano, where his father lived. 
His pictures are scattered all over Eu- 
rope. He painted historical pieces, land- 
scapes, flowers, ifcc. and al*o portraits ; 
among others the doge of Venice, Ari- 
oato, Tas&o, and other persons of emi- 
nence. He lived to the age of B2, dying 
in 1592. Several of his best works arc 
in the churches of Bassano, Venice, 
Vicenza, and other towns of Italy. He 
left four suns, who all became pai 
— Francisco was employe 1 by the Vene- 
tian republic, with Paul Veronese and 
Tintoret. to adorn the palace of St. Mark. 
He was of a melancholy turn, and once 
thought himself pursued by archers, so 
that iu a tit of self-created terror he 
threw himself out of a window, and d. 
16y4, age 1 44. — Leander, another bro- 
ther, obtained as a reward f>r his - 
the collar of St. Mark, from the doge of 
Venice, anl a gol 1 medal from the Empe- 
ror Rodolphns II. — John Baptete and 
Jerome were eminent as imitators of 
the style and manner of their father. 

BASSANO, Hughes Bi bnard Maret, 
Duke of, a celebrated French political 
writer and statesman, « lofan 

eminent physician at Dijon. On the 
first outburst of the French revolution 
he enthusiastically embrace I its ex- 
tremest principles, and published a 
paper under the title of the '"Bulletin 
de l'Assemblee," which he continued 
until a bookseller started the Moniteur, 
of which Maret was appointed editor, 
and which spec lily become the official 
organ of the government. He became 
acquainted with Bonaparte just as that 
.extraordinary man began to rise into 
celebrity and influence, an I was place! 
by him ill the important office of chef 
de division in the foreign office. In 
1811 he was made Due de Bassano and 
minister of foreign atfairs; and in 1812 
he con lucted a*>d signe 1 the well-known 
treaties between France. Austria, and 
Prussia, preparatory to the fatal ex- 
pediti on to Russia. When the emperor 
was sent to Elba, in lsl4, the Due de 
Bassano retired from public life ; but 
immediately after the return of the em- 
peror, he joined him. and was very 
nearly being taken prisoner at Waterloo. 

On the utter ruin of Napoleon, the duke 
was banished from France, but at the 
revolution of July, 1830, he was recalled, 
and restored to aill the honors of which 
he had been deprived. In 1838 he was 
made minister of the interior, and presi- 
dent of the council, but the ministry of 
which he formed a part, survived only 
three days. B. 175S; d. 

BASSANTIN, James, a Scotchman, 
who af er studying astronomy and the 
mathematics at Glasgow, travelled , 
through the Netherlands, Switzerland, 
Italy, and Germany, and at last settled 
at Paris, where he acquired both repu- 
tation and money, as a mathematical 
teacher. He returned in 1502 to his 
native country, and becoming early ac- 
quainted with Sir Robert Melvil, a 
strong partisan of Mary queen of Scots, 
he afterwards supported the pretensions 
and ambitious views of the earl of Mur- 
ray. In his religion he was a zealous 
Protestant, as a man of learning he was 
strongly tinctured with the failings and 
the superstition of the time. He placed 
great confidence in astrology, and with 
more zeal than good sense asserted the 
influence of the planets on the atfairs of 
the world. His works are all on math- 
ematical subjects, and though not free 
from pedantry, and improbable conclu- 
. they yet bear strong testimony to 
his merits as a philosopher. D. 156 

BASSET, Richard, governor of Dela- 
ware, was a member nf the old congress 
in 17 s 7. and was appointed a senator 
under the new constitution. In 1801 
he was placed on the bench of the fed- 
eral judiciary ; but the repeal of the act 
constituting the courts, deprived him 
of his "dice in 1802. I ». 1815. 

BASSI, Laura, wife of Joseph Verati, 
honored in 1782 with the decree of doe- 
tor of philosophy for her high mental 
accomplishments, which she displayed 
in her lectures on experimental philos- 
ophy. Her private lite was also deserv- 
ing of the highest encomiums, and ex- 
hibited her as the possessor of every 
amiable virtue. D. 1778. 

BASSOMPIERRE, Francois de, a 
marshal of France, of a family of dis- 
tinction in Lorraine, was confined in 
the B.istile by Richelieu, who dreaded 
the power of his satire. He remained 
in this confinement 10 years till the 
death of his persecutor, and employed 
his time in writing his memoirs, which 
are interesting, though occasionally 
trivial. On his release he received the 
otfer of 500,000 livres from the duchess 
of Aiguillou, niece of Richelieu, which 




he politely refused, adding, "Madam, 
your uncle has done me too great an 
injury, to allow me to receive so much 
good from you." He was employed in 
embassies by Louis XIII., and he pos- 
sessed all the. requisites of a courtier, 
with great presence of mind, affability, 
wit, and uncommon generosity. He 
spoke the languages of Europe with 
great fluency. Pie was found dead in 
Lis bed, in 1646, in his 67th vear. 

BASTIAT, Frederic, a French polit- 
ical economist, who achieved a wide 
reputation by his writings. Without 
being a discoverer of new truths, he 
possessed the rare faculty of expanding, 
with clearness, vivacity, and vigor, the 
grounds and the ctfects of complex 
natural laws already developed by the 
technical processes of philosophy. The 
whole, or nearly the whole, of the tracts 
written by M. Bastiat, under the generic 
title of ''Sophismes Eeonomiques," 
originally appeared in the Journal d-es 
Lcenomistes, a periodical of which, for 
the last six years, he has been a prin- 
cipal supporter. M. Bastiat was a mem- 
ber of the French national assen.My; 
and he bore the highest character as an 
able, upright, and zealous servant of his 
constituents and his country. D. 1850. 

BASTIHE, John Francis de la, an 
industrious French miscellaneous writer, 
was born at Marseilles in 1724. He 
settled in Paris, where he engaged in 
various literary enterprises ; of which 
the most voluminous were the "Bibli- 
otheque Universelle des Romains," in 
112 vols., and the "Chois des Aneiens 
Mercures," in 108 vols. 

BASTWICK, John, an English phy- 
sician, and a famous writer against the 
church in the time of Charles I. B. at 
Writtle, in Essex, 1593; d. 1650. 

BATE, George, physician to Charles 
I., Oliver Cromwell, and Charles II., 
and one of the first members of the 
Koyal Society. He was the author of a 
Latin historv of the civil wars, and some 
medical works. B. 1593; d. 1669.— 
Julius, an English divine, author of a 
" Hebrew Lexicon," &c. D. 1771. 

BATKCUMBF:, William, an English 
mathematician of the 15th century, au- 
thor of a treatise, "' De Sphasra Solida," 

BATEMAN, William, bishop of Nor- 
wich, a learned prelate, and the founder 
of Trinity Hall, Cambridge. D. 1354. 

BATES, William, a non- conformist 
divine, author of "Lives of Learned 
and Pious Men," &e. B. 1625 ; d. 1699. 
—John, an eminent musician, born at 

Halifax, Yorkshire, in 1740. He was 
unanimously chosen conductor of the 
commemoration of Handel at West- 
minster Abbey; and till the year 1793 
he conducted the choral performances 
of ancient music, when he retired, and 
was succeeded by Mr. Greatorcx. His 
wife was a first-rate singer. D. 1799. 

BATHALMUSI, an Arabian writer, 
author of a work on " Genealogies," 
&c. D. 421 of the Hegira. 

BATHE, William, an Irish Jesuit, 
governor of the Irish seminary at Sala- 
manca. D. 1641. 

BATHUKST, Rali R, dean of Wells, 
author _>f some elegant Latin poems, 
and o'.e of the founders of the Royal 
Society. B. 1620; d. 1704. —Allen, 
Ear' i zealous opposer of the measures 
of Sir Robert Walpole, and the intimate 
friend of Bolingbroke, Pope, Addison, 
and the other eminent writers of his 
time. B. 1634; d. 1775.— Henry, Earl, 
son .if the above, and lord chancellor of 
England, author of the " Theory of Evi- 
dence," &c. B. 1714 ; d. 1794.— Henry, 
bishop of Norwich, was born at Brack- 
ley, in Northamptonshire, in 1744; and 
'■durated at Winchester, and New col- 
lege, Oxford. He was presented to the 
rectory of Witching-ham, in Norfolk, in 
1770, subsequently became dean of Dur- 
ham, and, in 1305, was consecrated 
bishop of Norwich. In the house of 
lords, Dr. Bathurst was a strenuous 
supporter of the Catholic claims : in his 
diocese, an exemplary prelate. D. 1837. 
— Henry, archdeacon of Norwich, eldest 
son of the preceding, and rector of the 
valuable livings of North Creake, Nor- 
folk, and of Hollesley, Suffolk, was the 
author of " Memoirs" of his right rev- 
erend father ; a work overflowing with 
spleen and expressions of disappoint- 
ment, that one so faithful to his old 
friends, the Whigs, should have never 
been preferred to a richer diocese ! D. 

BATHYLLAS, the cotemporary of 
Pylades, and one of the most celebrated 
pantomimists of antiquity, was born at 
Alexandria, and became the slave of 
Maecenas, who enfranchised him. The 
art of these celebrated mimics consisted 
in expressing the passions by gesture, 
attitudes, <fcc, not by the modern fool- 
eries of harlequin, clown, and scenic 
changes. Bathyllus excelled in repre- 
senting comedy; Pylades in tragedy. 

BATONI, P'ompeo Girolamo,' an Ital- 
ian painter, who was the restorer of the 
modern Roman school and had no rival 
but Mengs. All his pieces are takm 




from nature. The manner in which he 
executed his } aintings was peculiar. He 
covered his sketch with a cloth, and 
began to paint the upper part on the 
left hand, and proceeded gradually to- 
wards the right, never uncovering a new 
place before the first was entirely fin- 
ished. Boni, who compares him with 
Metis's, calls the latter the " painter of 
philosophy;" the former, the "painter 
of nature." Batoni painted many altar- 
pieces, and numerous portraits ; for 
instance, that of the Emperor Joseph 
and the Empress Maria Theresa, in the 
imperial gallery. His " Magdalen," in 
Dresden, and his " Return of the Prodi- 
gal Son," in Vienna, are celebrated. 

BATOU, or BATU KHAN, grandson 
of Zeughis Khan, and his successor in 
the northern part of his vast empire. 
He died, after a long reign and very 
numerous conquests, in 1276. 

BATSCH, Augustus John George 
Charles, an eminent German naturalist ; 
author of " Elenehus Fungorum," &c. 
B. 1761 ; <1. 1801. 

BATTELY, John, archdeacon of Can- 
terbury, and chaplain to Archbishop 
Saneroft; author of " Antiquitates Ru- 
tupina?," etc. B. 1747 ; d. 1708. 

BATTEUX, Charles, a French phi- 
losopher, eminent for his erudition, as 
well as for his private virtues, and the 
humanity which was directed to the 
maintenance of a numerous and im- 
poverished family. His works are vari- 
ous, but chiefly on classical literature, 
in which he displays frequently more 
method and labor than eloquence or 
purity or depth of thought. It is said 
that his death was accelerated by grief 
in observing that the elementary book 
which he wrote for the military school 
of Paris, did not succeed so well as he 
wished. Among other works he pub- 
lished the four poetics of Aristotle, Hor- 
ace, Vida, and Boileau, with notes. D. 

BATTHYANI, Count, a noble Hun- 
garian who took an indirect part in the 
attempt to redress the wrongs of his 
country in 1848. He was one of the 
deputation who undertook the recon- 
ciliation of the authorities and the people. 
But the deputation failed in its object, 
and this was his last public act. On the 
8th of January, he was arrested in the 
drawing-room of his sister-in-law, at 
Pesth, transferred successively to Oeden- 
burg, Laybach, and Pesth, and, after 
nine months' imprisonment, was tried 
by court-martial, declared guilty of high- 
treason, and sentenced to die on the gal- 

lows, October 6, 1849. He heard the sen- 
tence with tranquillity and composure. 
Having taken leave of his wife, he en- 
deavored in the course of the night to 
open the veins of his neck by means of 
a blunt paper-knife, and thus to escape 
the last indignity of what the Austrian 
called the " law.'" But his attempt was 
discovered and his life preserved till he 
was formally executed, or rather mur- 
dered, lie was never in open rebellion, 
and his efforts mainly had been to reform 
and improve rather than revolutionize. 
But the detestable and cruel spirit of 
despotism makes no distinctions. 

BATTISIIALL, Jonathan, an emi- 
nent musical composer, who added to 
profound knowledge great taste and a 
fine imagination. His " Kate of Aber- 
deen" will be celebrated (among numer- 
ous other of his compositions') as long 
as pure melody shall be admired. B. 
1738: d. 1801. 

BATTIC, William, ft physician of 
eminence who was skilful in the treat- 
ment of diseases of the mind, and wrote 
a "Treatise on Mental Madness." B. 
170S; d. 1776. 

BAUDELONQUE, John Louis, a 
French surgeon of distinction, appoint- 
ed by Napoleon to be midwife to Maria 
Louisa. His works on midwifery are 
in repute. B. 1746 ; d. 1810. 

BAUDIEK, Michael, a native of Lan- 
guedoc, historiographer of France under 
Louis XIII. He wrote the " History of 
the Mahometan Religion," the " Life of 
Cardinal Amboise," of " Marechal de 
Toiras," 1644, of "Ximenes," " Suger," 
and others ; and though his style is 
heavy and inelegant, yet his works are 
curious and interesting, and valuable 
for their authenticity and the variety of 
his matter. 

BAUD1N, Nicholas, a well-known 
navigator, who contributed many speci- 
mens of natural history to the collections 
of Europe. B. 1750;" d. 1803. — Peter 
Charles, a member of the French na- 
tional assembly and convention, and 
author of anecdotes "Sur le Constitu- 
tion." B. 1751 ; d. 1799. 

BAUDIUS, Dominique, a native of 
Lisle, who studied at Aix la Chapelle, 
Leyden, and Geneva. He visited En- 
gland in the suite of the ambassador of 
the states of Holland, and formed an 
acquaintance; with Sir Philip Sidney, 
and afterwards he went to France, where 
he staid 10 years, and by means of 
Achilles de Harlai he was admitted ad- 
vocate of the parliament, of Paris. He 
next went to Leyden, where he waa 




raised to the professorial chair of elo- 
quence, and with Meursius named his- 
toriographer of the states of Holland in 
1611. lie was a man of genius as well 
as erudition, and in his Latin poems 
he displayed taste and elegance of com- 
position. D. 1613. 

BAUDOT DE JUILLI, Nicholas, a 
native of Vendome, son of a collector of 
excise, and author of several historical 
pieces', written with method and inge- 
nuity, though too much in the spirit of 
romance. His "History of the Conquest 
of Ensrland, by William of Normandy," 
of "Philip Augustus," and "Charles 
VII.." are his best pieces. He wrote 
besides the " History of Catherine of 
France, queen of England :" " Germaine 
de Foix ;" the "Secret History of the 
Constable of Bourbon;" "Spain Inva- 
ded by the Moors," four vols., &c. D. 
1759. ' 

BAUDRAND. Michael Antoine, an 
ecclesiastic, born at Paris. He visited 
Rome, Germany, and England, and dis- 
tinguished himself by his " Dictionnaire 
Geographique," two vols, fob, printed 
first in Latin, and afterwards in French. 
B. 1633 ; d. 1700. 

French physician and celebrated bota- 
nist; author of " Historia Plantarum," 
&c. B. 1541; d. 1613.— Gaspakd, brother 
of the above ; an excellent botanist, 
author of " Institntiones Anatomicse," 
" l'hvtop'max," " Pinax," ami numerous 
other wm-ks. B. 1560; d. 1W4. 

BAULDRI, Paul, professor of sacred 
history at Utrecht; author of "Chrono- 
logical Tables," &c. B. 1639 ; d. 1706. 
BAULOT, James, a French lithoto- 
mist, whose method was adopted and 
improved upon by the celebrated Ches- 
eldcn. B. 1651 ; d. 1720. 

BAUME, James Francis de la, a 
French divine; author of "The Chris- 
tiade," &c. &c. 1). 1757.— Anthony, a 
French chemist ; author of a " Treatise 
on Theoretical and Experimental Chem- 
istry," " A Manual of Pharmacy," &c. 
D. 1805. — Nicholas Augustus de la, 
marquis of Montrevel, and a marshal of 
France, was born 1636. It is related of 
him, that although from his earliest 
youth he had been distinguished by his 
daring valor, and had frequently braved 
death in the field of battle, yet such was 
his ridiculous superstition, that on the 
contents of a salt-cellar having been ac- 
cidentally thrown on him, he instant- 
ly exclaimed that he was a dead man, 
and expired from the terror with which 
it inspired him. D. 1716. 

BAUMER, John William, a German 
physician ; author of a "Natural Histo- 
ry of the Mineral Kingdom," &c. B 
1719; d. 1788. 

BAUMGARTEN, Alexander Got 
lieb, an acute and clear thinker of the 
school of Wolf, was born in 1714, at 
Berlin, studied at Halle, and was for a 
time professor extraordinary there. In 
1740 he was made professor of philoso- 
phy at Frankfort on the Oder, and died 
there in 1762. He is the founder of 
aesthetics as a science, and the inventor 
of this name. He derived the rules of 
art fsom the works of art and their ef- 
fects. His ideas of this science he first 
developed in his academical discussion, 
"De Nonnullis ad Poema pertinenti- 
bus." Meir's "Principles of all Liberal 
Sciences" originated from his sugges- 
tions. Eight years later, Baumgarten 
published his' " iEsthetica," a work 
which death prevented him from com- 
pleting. His theories of art are now 
superseded in Germany by the more 
profound and extensive works of Schil- 
ler, Schelling, Hegel, and their followers. 
BAUR, Frederic William Von, a na- 
tive of Hessian Hanau, who served in 
the Hessian troops in the pay of Britain 
1755. In 1757 he was made a general, 
and was ennobled by Frederic II. of 
Prussia, and in 1769 he entered into the 
service of the Russians, and was ap- 
pointed by Catherine inspector of the 
salt-works of Novogorod. His abilities 
as an engineer and mechanic were also 
employed in supplying Moscow with 
water, and in making deeper the canal 
of Petersburg, and in constructing a 
capacious harbor at its extremity. He 
was also author of " Mcmoires Histori- 
ques et Geographiques sur la Vala- 
chia," and of a "Chart of Moldavia," to 
illustrate the war between the Turks 
and Russians, in seven sheets. D. 1783. 
— John William, a painter of Stras- 
burgh ; chiefly noted for his architec- 
tural subjects. B. 1610; d. 1640. 

BAUSE, John Frederic, a distin- 
guished German engraver. B. 1738 ; 
d. 1813. 

BAUSSET, Cardinal Louis Francis 
de, an eminent French prelate, born at 
Pondicherry in 174S, was educated in 
France, and was made bishop of Alais 
before the revolution. Napoleon patro- 
nized him ; and Louis XVIII. made him 
a peer, and obtained for him the cardi- 
nal's hat. He is the author of a " His- 
tory of Fenelon," and of a " History of 
Bossuer," both works of merit. D. 1824. 
BAUTRU, William, a Frenchman, 




ferrous for his wit, which he displayed 
<vith great freedom and efficacy at the 
court and among the ministers. After 
seeing the Escurial in Spain attended by 
an ignorant librarian, he told the king 
.hat it would be advantageous for him 
to make his librarian his treasurer, be* 
cause, said he to the monarch who in- 
quired why, he never touches what he 
is intrusted with. B. 159S ; d. 1665. 

BAWDWEEN, William, an English 
divine and antiquary; editor of two 
volumes of Doomsday Book. He pro- 
posed tc complete the work in eight 
Other vo' .unes, but died before he could 
effect it, in 1616. 

BAXTER, Richabd, an eminent non- 
conformist divine, was born Nov. 12, 
1615, at Rowton, near High Ercal, in 
Shropshire, and died 1691. He was or- 
dained in 1633. It was not long after, 
however, that the oath of universal ap- 
probation of the doctrine and discipline 
of the church, called the " Et Cetera" 
oath, drove him and others from the 
establishment. In 1640 he was invited 
to be minister at Kidderminster, but the 
civil war, which broke out soon after, 
exposed him to persecution, as he es- 
poused the cause of the parliament. He 
retired to Coventry, and continued his 
ministerial labors till the success of the 
republicans recalled him to his favorite 
flock at Kidderminster. The ascenden- 
cy of Cromwell gave him great offence, 
and he even presumed to argue in pri- 
vate with him on the nature and illegal- 
ity of his power, but in the only sermon 
which he preached before him, he wisely 
confined his subject to the dissensions 
which existed in the kingdom on re- 
ligious matters. He was' in London 
after Cromwell's death, and preached 
before parliament the day before the 
king's return was voted, and likewise 
before the lord mayor for Monk's suc- 
cesses. Charles II. made him one of his 
chaplains, and Chancellor Clarendon 
offeicd him the bishopric of Hereford, 
which he declined. He was, however, 
soon involved in the general persecution 
of the non-conformists. His paraphrase 
on the New Testament drew upon him, 
in 16S5, the vengeance of Jeflries, and 
he was condemned to be imprisoned for 
two years, from which punishment, 
six months after, he was discharged by 
the interference of Lord Powis with 
Kin? James. He wrote a vast number 
of books ; Mr. Long, of Exeter, says 80 ; 
Dr. Calamy, 120 ; but the author of a 
note in the Biographia Britannica tells 
us that he had seen 145 distinct treatises 

of Mr. Baxter's : his practical works 
have been published in four vols, folio. 
Bishop Burnet, in the History of his Own 
Times, calls him " a man of great piety ;" 
and suys, " that if he had not meddled 
with too many things, he would have 
been esteemed one of the most learned 
men of the age ; that he had a moving 
and pathetieal way of writing; and was, 
his whole life long, a man of great zeal 
and much simplicity ; but was unhap- 
pily subtle and metaphysical in every 
thing. — William, an eminent critic and 
grammarian, nephew to the foregoing. 
B. at Lanlugany, in Shropshire, 1650 ; 
d. 1723. He published excellent editions 
of " Anacreon," and " Horace," was 
author of a " Latin Grammar," 1679, 
and of a " Glossary of the Roman An- 
tiquities," which, however, goes no far- 
ther than the latter A., and was printed 
1726. — Andrew, a writer in metaphysics 
and natural philosophy. Born in 1686. 
at Aberdeen, where he received his 
education at King's college. His prin- 
cipal employment was that of a private 
tutor. His celebrated work, " An In- 
quiry into the Nature of the Human 
Soul," was first published in 4to., and 
has been several times reprinted. Bishop 
Warburton calls it "the most finished 
book of the kind that the present times 
have produced." Baxter drew up, for 
the use of his pupils, a piece entitled 
" Matho ; sive Cosmotheoris, Puerilis, 
Dialogus," &c, which he afterwards 
greatlv enlarged, and published in En- 
glish.'^ D. 1750. 

BAYARD, James A., an American 
lawyer, a representative in congress from 
Delaware, and afterwards senator, who 
distinguished himself in the famous de- 
bate on the judiciary, and in 1814 was 
one of the commissioners who treated 
for peace between the United States and 
Great Britain at Ghent. B. at Philadel- 
phia in 1767 ; d. 1815. — Pierre dc Ter- 
rail, Chevalier de, called the knight 
without fear and without reproach. B. 
1476, in the castle of Bayard, near 
Grenoble, was one of the most spotless 
characters of the middle ages. He was 
simple and modest; a true friend and 
tender lover ; pious, humane, and mag- 
nanimous. At the age of 13 he was re- 
ceived among the pages of the duke of 
Savoy, the ally of France. Charles VIII., 
who saw him at Lyons, in the suite of 
this prince, was struck with the dexter- 
ity with which the youth managed his 
horse ; he begged him of the duke, and 
committed hira to the care of Paul of 
Luxemburgk, count de Ligny. The 




tournaments were his first field of glory. 
At the age of 18 Bayard accompanied 
Charles VIII. to Italy, and distinguished 
himself greatly in the battle at Verona, 
where he took a standard. At the be- 
ginning of the reign of Louis XII., in a 
battle near Milan, he pursued the fugi- 
tives with such eagerness, that he enter- 
ed the city with them, and was taken as 
a prisoner. Ludovico Sforza returned 
him his arms and his horse, and dis- 
missed him without ransom. While the 
French were in Apulia, he defeated a 
Spanish corps, and made their leader, 
Dan Alonzo de Sotomayor, prisoner, 
treating him with generosity. Soto- 
mayor, however, not only violated his 
parole by flight, but calumniated Bayard, 
who, according to the custom of that 
time, challenged him and killed him. 
Afterwards, like Iloratius Codes, he de- 
fended a bridge over the Garigliano 
singly against the Spaniards, and saved 
the French army by checking the ad- 
vance of the victorious enemy. For this 
exploit he received, as a coat of arms, a 
porcupine, with the motto, " Vires ag- 
m/iwiti units habeV He distinguished 
himself equally against the Genoese and 
the Venetians. When Julius II. de- 
clared himself against France, Bayard 
went to the assistance of the duke of 
Ferrara. He did not succeed in his plan 
of taking the pope prisoner; but he re- 
fused witli indignation an offer made to 
betray him. Being severely wounded 
at the assault of Brescia, he was carried 
into the house of a nobleman, who had 
fled, and left his wife and two daughters 
exposed to the insolence of the soldiers. 
Bayard protected the family, refused 
the reward of 2500 ducats, winch they 
offered to him, and returned, as soon as 
he was cured, into the camp of Gaston 
de Foix, before Kavcnna. In an engage- 
ment, which shortly after ensued, he 
took two standards from the Spaniards, 
and pursued the fugitives. Gaston, the 
hope of France, perished through his 
neglect of the advice of Bayard, who, in 
•he retreat from Pavia, was again wound- 
id, and carried to Grenoble, whore his 
ife was in danger. " I grieve not for 
death," he said, " but to die on my bed, 
like a woman." In the war commenced 
oy Ferdinand the Catholic, he displayed 
beyond the Pyrenees the same talents, 
the same heroism, which had distin- 
guished him beyond the Alps. The 
fatal reverses which imbittereei the last 
years of Louis XII., only added a bright- 
er splendor to the personal glory of 
Bayard. Henry VIII. of England, in al- 

liance with Ferdinand and Maximilian 
threatened Picardy in 1 £.15, and besieged 
Terouane. The French army disgrace- 
fully took to flight. Bayard, with his 
accustomed intrepidity, made an inef- 
fectual resistance to the enemy : over- 
powered by superior numbers, his troop 
was on the point of laying down their 
arms, when perceiving an English officer 
at some distance, he immediately gal- 
loped towards him, presented his sword 
to his breast, and cried, " Yield or die !" 
The Englishman surrendered his sword, 
when he immediately gave him his own, 
saying, "I am Bayard, and your cap- 
tive, as you are mine. The boldness 
and ingenuity of this action pleased the 
emperor and the king of England, who 
decided that Bayard needed no ransom, 
and that both captives were released 
from their parole. When Francis I. 
ascended the throne, he sent Bayard 
into Dauphine, to open for his army a 
passage over the Alps, and through 
Piedmont. Prosper Colonna lay in wait 
tor him on his march, expecting to sur- 
prise him, but Bayard made him prison- 
er. This brilliant exploit was the 
prelude to the battle of Marignano, in 
which Bayard, at the side of the king, 
performed wonders of bravery, and de- 
cided the victory. When king Charles 
V. invaded Champagne with a large 
army, and threatened to penetrate into 
the heart of France, Bayard defended 
the weakly fortified town of Mezieres 
against every assault, until the dissen- 
sions of the hostile leaders compelled 
them to retreat. Soon afterwards, Genoa 
revolted from France, when his presence 
reduced it to obedience; but, after the 
surrender of Lodi, fortune changed, and 
the French troops were expelled from 
their conquests. Bonnivet was obliged 
to retreat through the valley of Oasta ; 
his rear was beaten, and he himself 
severely wounded. The safety of the 
army was then committed to him, and 
it being necessary to pass the Sessia in 
presence of a superior enemy, he vigor- 
ously attacked the Spaniards, when a 
stone, from a blunderbuss, struck his 
right side, and shattered his backbone. 
The hero fell, exclaiming, " Jesus, my 
God, I am a dead man !" They hasten- 
ed towards him. "Place me under yon 
tree," he said, "that I may see the ene- 
my," and died, April the 80th, in the 
year 1524:, surrounded both by friends 
and enemies, who all shed tears of ad- 
miration and grief. 

BAYER, John, a German i stronome? 
of the 17th century ; author of " Uran> 




metria," a celestial atlas. — Theophilus 
Siegfred, a German philologist ; author 
of a very curious and able work, enti- 
tled " Musseum Sinicum," B. 1694; d. 

BAYLE, Pierre, author of the "His- 
torical and Critical Dictionary," was b. at 
Carlat, in the county of Foix, (Langue- 
doc,) in 1647, and received his first in- 
structions from his father, a Calvinistic 
preacher. He gave early proofs of an 
astonishing memory, and of singular 
vivacity of mind. At the age of 19 he 
entered the college of Puy-Laurenes, to 
finish his studies. The ardor with 
which he devoted himself to them 
weakened his constitution. All books 
were eagerly devoured by him ; his taste 
for. logic led him particularly to study 
religious controversies, but Amyot's 
Plutarch and Montaigne were his favor- 
ite works. In Toulouse, he studied phi- 
losophy with the Jesuits. The arguments 
of his professors, and, still more, his 
friendly discussions with a Catholic 
priest, who dwelt near him, confirmed 
his doubts of the orthodoxy of Protest- 
antism, so that he resolved to change 
his religion. His conversion was a 
triumph to the Catholics. His family, 
however, tried all means to regain him, 
an>l after 17 months he returned to his old 
faith. In order to escape from the pun- 
ishment of perpetual excommunication 
which the Catholic church then pro- 
nounced against apostates, he went to 
Geneva, and thence to Copet, where 
Count Dohna intrusted him with the 
education of his sons, and where he 
studied the philosophy of Des Cartes. 
But after some years he returned to 
France, and settled in Paris. In 1675 
he obtained the philosophical chair at 
Sedan, where he taught with distinction 
until the suppression of this academy in 

1681. The appearance of a comet, in 
16S0, which occasioned an almost uni- 
versal alarm, induced him to publish, in 

1682, his " Pensees diverses sur la 
Comete," a work full of learning, in 
which he discussed various subjects of 
metaphysics, morals, theology, history, 
and polities. It was followed by his 
" Critique generale de l'Histoire dii Cal- 
vinisme de Maimbourg." This work, 
received with equal approbation by the 
Catholics and Protestants, involved him 
in many disputes. He afterwards un- 
dertook a periodical work, " Nouvelles 
de la Kepublique des Lettres," in 1684. 
The death of his lather and of his two 
brothers, together with the religious 
persecution* in France, induced him to 

undertake his " Commentaire Philoso- 
phique sur ces Paroles cle TEvangile; 
Contrains-les d'Eutrer j" which, in re- 
gard to style and tone, is not worthy of 
him. He next devoted all his attention 
to the composition of his "Dietionnaire 
Historique et Critique,'" which he first 
published in 1096, 2 vols., fol. This was 
the first work which appeared under his 
name. He died, so to speak, with the 
pen in his hand, in 1706, at the age of 
59. "Bayle," says Voltaire, "is the 
first of logicians and skeptics. His great- 
est enemies must confess that there is 
not a line in his works which contains 
an open aspersion of Christianity ; but 
his warmest apologists must acknowl- 
edge that there is not a page in his con- 
troversial writings which does not lead 
the reader to doubt, and often to skepti- 
cism." Bayle compares himself to Ho- 
mer's cloud-compelling Jupiter. 

BAYLEY, Anselm, an English di- 
vine, author of " A Grammar of the 
Hebrew Language," &c, &c. D. 1791. 
— Sir John, a learned and upright judge, 
was called to the bar in 1792, and ap- 
pointed a serjeant-at-law in 1799. In 
1808 he was made one of the justices of 
the King's Bench, and received the 
honor of knighthood. He was a man 
of liberal education and enlarged no- 
tions. His work on " The Law of Bills 
of Exchange" has long been a standard 
book in the profession, and its value in 
the commercial world is universally ac- 
knowledged. B.1773; d.l841.-RiCHARD, 
an eminent American physician, was b. 
in Connecticut, in 1745. After study- 
ing at home, he completed his profes- 
sional education in London, and settled 
at New York. In 1792 he was appointed 
professor of anatomy in the college of 
Columbia, where he acquired great ce- 
lebrity. In 1799 he published his work 
on yellow fever, wherein he proved it 
to oe a local malady. D. 1801. — Mat- 
thias, remarkable for longevity, died 
about the year 1789 at Jones' creek, a 
branch of the Pedee, in North Carolina, 
aged 136 years. He was baptized at the 
age of 134. His eyesight remained 
good, and his strength was very re- 
markable till his death. 

BAYLY, Thomas Hatxes, a lyrical 
poet of some merit, and the author of 
several dramatic pieces, and one or two 
novels. Though very popular in his 
own day, the majority of nis writings 
are already rapidly passing into oblivion. 
B. 1797; d. 1839.— Lewis, bishop of 
Bansror, author of " Practice of Piety." 
X). 1632. — William, an astronomer, wh<l 




went out with Captain Cook in the last 
two voyages of that celebrated circum- 
navigator. D. 1810. 

BEACON, Thomas, prebendary of 
Canterbury in the reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth, author of numerous works against 

BEARD, John, known for his em- 
inence as an actor, first appeared at 
Drury-lane, as Sir John Loverule, in 
the ''Devnto Pay," 1737, but his suc- 
cess was interrupted, for a few years, by 
a marriage with Henrietta, daughter of 
the earl of Waldegrave. He afterwards 
exchanged Drury-lane for Covent-gar- 
den. His wife died in 1753, and six 3 ears 
after he married the daughter of Mr. 
Kieh, whom he succeeded in the man- 
agement of Covent-garden. In 1759 he 
appeared in the character of Macheath, 
and divided the applauses of the town 
for fifty-two successive nights, with 
Miss Brent, as Polly. In 1768 he re- 
tired from the stage, and died that year, 
aged 74, much respected for his private 

BEATON or BETHUNE, a cardinal, 
and archbishop of St. Andrews, in Scot- 
land, whose infamous persecutions of 
his Protestant countrymen caused him 
to be assassinated in his castle, in 1546. 
— James, nephew of the above, and 
bishop of Glasgow, author of " A His- 
tory of Scotland." B. 1530; d. 1603. 

BEATTIE, James, a pleasing poet 
and miscellaneous writer, was born at 
Lawreneekirk, county of Kincardine, in 
17:'>">. In 1765 he published a poem 
called the "Judgment of Paris," which 
proved to be a failure. In 1770 his 
" Essay on Truth," written in opposi- 
tion to the skepticism of Hume, gave 
him his first fame. Five large editions 
were sold in four years. A few months 
after, he published the first book of the 
" Minstrel," 4to., and, in 1774, the 
second, which pleasing poem is likely 
to be the bulwark of his fame. It was 
at first published anonymously, but its 
language spoke to the heart and feelings 
pf all classes ; the learned descanted 
upon the critical merits of its structure, 
and the unlearned traced in it the ef- 
fusions of a heart alive to the beauties 
of nature, and warmed with the kindly 
sympathies of humanity. To a splendid 
edition of his " Essay on Truth, pub- 
lished by subscription in 1776, he added 
some miscellaneous " Dissertations on 
Poetry and Music, Laughter and Lu- 
dicrous Composition, &e." In 1783 he 
published " Dissertations, Moral and 
Critical," 4to. ; and in 1786, appeared 

his "Evidences of the Christian Rcli- 
gion," 2 vols. 12mo. In 1790 he pub- 
lished the first volume of his " Elements 
of Moral Science," the second of which 
followed in 1793, and to the latter was 
appended a dissertation against the 
slave-trade. His last publication was 
an " Account of the Life, Character, and 
Writings of James Henry Beattie," his 
eldest son, an amiable and promising 
young man, who died at the age of 22, 
in 1790. This great affliction was fol- 
lowed, in 1796, by the equally premature 
death of his youngest and only survi- 
ving son, in his 18th year ; which losses, 
added to the melancholy loss of reason 
by his wife, wholly subdued his con- 
stitution; and, after two strokes of 
palsy, he died at Aberdeen, in August, 
1803. Beattie was a religious and amia- 
ble man, as well as a fascinating and 
respectable controversialist. 

BEATTY. Sir William, who was pre- 
sent during the last moments of the 
hero of Trafalgar, an " Authentic Nar- 
rative" of whose death he published in 
1831. D. 1842. 

BEAUCHAMP, Joseph, a French as- 
tronomer and Bernardine monk, horn 
at Vesoul, in 1752. During the revolu- 
tion he was employed on a secret mis- 
sion by Napoleon, but falling into the 
hands of the English, they delivered 
him up to the Turks, by whom he was 
imprisoned as a spy. He was subse- 
quently released, and d. at Nice, 1802. 
— Richard, an English prelate, admi- 
rably skilled in architecture. He was 
surveyor of the works at Windsor, and 
rebuilt the chapel there in the reign of 
Edward IV. The great hall in the epis- 
copal palace of Salisbury, and the se- 
pulchral chapel in the cathedral, are also 
monuments of his taste and science. 
D. 1481, 

BEAUCHATEAU, Francis Matthias 
Chatelet de, a French poet, remarkable 
for his precocious talents, author of " La 
Lyre dn jeune Apollon," published 
when he was only twelve years old. 
B. 1645. 

BEAUCLERK, Topham, a gentleman 
of great literary talents, and a friend of 
Dr^ Johnson, who said that " Beau- 
clerk's talents, were those which he had 
felt himself more inclined to envy 
than those of anv one else he had ever 
known." B. 1739; d. 1780. 

BEAUFORT, Henry, the half-brother 
of Henry IV. of England, was a cardinal, 
bishop of Winchester, and chancellor of 
the kingdom. He was proud, ambitious. 
and immensely rich; but the hospital 

BE a] 



of St. Cross, at Winchester, -which he 
founded, and numerous charitable be- 
quests, prove that his riches were ulti- 
mately well applied. D. 1447. — Marga- 
ret, countess of Richmond and Derby, 
mother of Henry VII. She founded 
St. John's college, and Christ's college, 
Cambridge, and distinguished herself 
likewise as an author. B. 1441 ; d. 1509. 
— Francis de Vendome, duke of, son 
of Caesar, duke of Vendome, was im- 
prisoned by Cardinal Mazarin. On his 
escape, he broke out into open violence, 
but soon succeeded in making his peace, 
and was appointed admiral of France. 
Killed at the siege of Candia, 1669. — 
Louis de, author of " Dissertations upon 
the Uncertainty of the First Five Ages 
of the Roman Republic," and other 
learned works. D. 1795. 

BFAUHARNOIS, Alexander de, a 
French nobleman who took part in the 
revolution, and after having been at one 
time president of the national assembly, 
and served in the armies of France with 
distinction, was put to death by the rev- 
olutionary tribunal just previous to the 
fall of Robespierre, in 1794. B. 1760.— 
Francis, marquis de, elder brother of 
Alexander, was born in 1756. He was 
appointed major-general in the army of 
the Prince ofConde, in 1792; protested 
against the unlawful treatment of the 
king, in a letter to the president of the 
national assembly; and when Bonaparte 
became first consul, he exhorted him to 
restore the sceptre to the house of Bour- 
bon. He was afterwards appointed am- 
bassador to the court of Spain, but fell 
into disgrace with Napoleon, and was 
banished. He returned to Paris after 
the restoration. D. 1819. — Eugene de, 
son of the above, was born in 1780; en- 
tered the army early, and became one 
of Napoleon's generals, and his viceroy 
in Italy, which office he filled with credit 
and distinction, from 1805 to 1814 ; when 
on his patron's reverses he retired to 
Bavaria, married the king's daughter, 
and was made duke of Leuchtenberg. 
D. 1824. — Hortense Eugenie, ex-queen 
of Holland, ami duchess of St. Leu, was 
born at Paris, in 1753, being the daughter 
of Viscount Beauharnois (who perished 
by the guillotine in 1794) by nis wife 
Josephine, afterwards the consort of 
Napoleon. Hortense was married to 
Louis Bonaparte in 1802, but it was an 
ill-starred union, and they separated in 
.807, after she had given birth to three 
bons ; the driest of whom (Napoleon 
Charles) died in childhood ; the second 
(Napoleon Louis) was killed in an hi- 

surrection at Romagi.a, in 1832; and 
the youngest (Louis Napoleon) is the 
first president of the French republic, 
established in 1848. D. 1837. 

BEAUL1EU, Sebastian de Pontault 
de, a celebrated French engineer and 
field-marshal under Louis XIV., author 
of " Views and Plans of the Battles and 
Sieges of Louis XIV." D. 1674. 

BEAUMARCHAIS, Pierre Augustin, 
baron of, was the son of a watchmaker 
of Paris, b. in 1732, whose father des- 
tined him to the same trade, but early 
giving indications of fine musical talent, 
he became teacher of the harp to iLe 
daughters of Louis XV., and was ad- 
mitted into their society. By a rich 
marriage he laid the foundation of his 
immense wealth. He now aspired to 
literary reputation. His "Eugenie" ap- 
peared in 1767, and " Les deux Amis" 
in 1770, the first still holding its place 
on the stage. He showed uncommon 
talents in his lawsuit against Goe*man 
and La Blanche, when he wrote against 
the former (who belonged to the parlia- 
ment Ma-upeou, which was engaged in 
a dispute with the ministry) his cele- 
brated " Memoires," which entertained 
all France. Had he remained more quiet 
he probably would have gained his pro- 
cess. The fame of his " Memoires" 
alarmed even Voltaire, who was jealous 
of every kind of glory. The "Barber 
of Seville" and the " Marriage of Figaro" 
have given him both permanent and uni- 
versal reputation. Shortly before the 
revolution he was involved in the pro- 
cess against the banker Kornmann. In 
1792 he wrote "La Mere coupable," but 
never regained his former fame. He 
was once more in his true element in 
his memoir " Mes six Epoques.'' Hi.-, 
contract to supply the Unite 1 States 
with military stores, during their revo- 
lutionary war, had increased his fortune, 
of which he always made a noble use; 
but he lost about a million livres by his 
famous edition of the works of Voltaire, 
the very imperfect execution of which 
was not answerable to the immense cost 
of it. He lost still more at the end of 
1791, by his attempt to provide the 
French army with 60,000 muskets. Dis- 
contented with the present, despairing 
of the future, wearied with struggling 
against the revolution and his creditors 
for the ruins of his wealth, he died at 
the age of 69 years, without any partic- 
ular disease, in May, 1799. His biog- 
raphy appeared in 1802; and in 1809 an 
edition of his works, in 7 vols. Beau- 
marchais was a singular instance of ver- 



[be A 

satility of talent, being at once an artist, 
politician, projector, merchant, and dra- 
matist. He was passionately attached 
to celebrity. His " Marriage of Figaro" 
excited one of those extraordinary sen- 
sations for which Paris has always been 
remarkable. The English modifications 
of this comedy convey but a slight no- 
tion of the mischievous subtlety and 
deep spirit of intrigue in the original. 
Pie left to his heirs a claim against the 
United States of a million of francs, for 
supplies furnished during the war, 
which has been repeatedly presented to 
congress, but always rejected on the 
ground that he acted only as the agent 
of the French government, and had 
been paid by it. 

BEAUMELLE, Laurence, a French 
writer and critic; author of "Letters to 
Voltaire," of whom he was a decided 
opponent; " Commentary on the Hen- 
riade," &c. B. 1727; d. 1773. 

BEAUMONT, Franxis, and FLET- 
CHER, John, two eminent English dra- 
matic writers. The former was b. in 15S5 
studied at Oxford, and d. in 101(3; the 
latter was b. at London in 1576, and d. 
there in 1625, of the plague. Animated 
by the same inclination, they both devo- 
ted themselves to poetry. Their plays, 
about fifty, appeared under their joint 
names, and it is impossible now to de- 
termine their respective shares in sever- 
al of these productions. According to 
the testimony of some of their cotem- 
poraries, Fletcher was the inventing 
genius, while Beaumont, though the 
younger of the two, was more distin- 
guished for maturity and correctness of 
judgment. Shakspeare was their model, 
and", like him, they intermix pathetic 
and low comic scenes ; but their attempts 
to surpass their model sometimes lead 
them into extravagances. Their desire, 
also, of pleasing the public at times, in- 
duces them to deviate from a correct 
standard of ta^te. They succeed best in 
their comic scenes. Their cotempora- 
rics preferred them even to Shakspeare, 
as much as posterity have reversed the 
judgment. — Elie de, a French advocate, 
distinguished for his memoir in favor 
of the unfortunate family of Calas. B. 
1732 ; d. 1785. — Madame le prince de, 
a French lady, who devoted her talents 
to the instruction of youth, and wrote 
many pleasing moral works ; among 
others, " Magazin des Adolescens," 
" Magazin des Jennes Dames," some 
; ovels, &c. B. 1711 ; d. 1780.— Sir 
George, a distinguished amateur ar- 
tist, was b. at Dunmow, Essex, in 1753 ; 

d. 1827. — John Thomas Barber, was b. 
in London, in 1774, his paternal name 
being Barber. In his youth he mani- 
fested a strong desire to obtain eminence 
as a painter. He afterwards became an 
author, and published a " Tour in 
Wales," besides several tracts upon the 
best mode of arming the population, so 
as most effectually to repel the threatened 
French invasion ; and he at length put 
in practice what he had so strenuously 
recommended to others, by organizing 
a matchless rifle corps, known by the 
name of the " Duke of Cumberland's 
Sharp-shooters," of which corps he was 
appointed, in 1803, captain commandant. 
In 1806 he established the Provident 
Institution, which gave rise to the vari- 
ous similar establishments, now better 
known as " saving banks," throughout 
the kingdom. He died in May, 1841, 
having bequeathed the bulk of his prop- 
erty to his children, except the sum of 
10,000Z. to establish a philosophical in- 
stitution in Beaumont square, Mile-end. 

doi'in, tutor to Louis XIII., and subse- 
quently archbishop of Paris ; author of 
a '• History of Henry IV." D. 1670. 

BEAUNE, Floriment de, a French 
mathematician ; discoverer of a method 
to determine the nature of curves by the 
properties of their triangles. D. 1652. 

BEAURAIN, John de, geographer to 
Louis XV.; author of a "Description 
of the Campaigns of Luxembourg, from 
1690 to 1694." B. 1697 ; d. 1771. 

BEAURIEU, Gaspard Guilliabd de, 
a French writer ; author of " L'Eleve 
de la Nature," &c. B. 1727 ; d. 1795. 

BEAUSOBRE, Isaac de, a French 
Protestant divine, who settled at Berlin, 
and became chaplain to the king of 
Prussia ; author of " Defense de la Doc- 
trine ties Reformes," &c. B. 1650; d. 
173^. — Louis, counsellor to the king of 
Prussia ; author of " Philosophical Dis- 
sertations on the nature of Fire," &c. 
B. 1709 ; d. 1783. 

BEAUVAIS, William, author of a 
work on the medals of the Roman em- 
pire. B. 1698; d. 1773.— Charles Nich- 
olas, a French physician, member of the 
Convention at the revolution ; author of 
"Essais Hist^riques sur Orleans," &c. 
B. 1745 ; d. 1794. 

BEAUVILLIERS, Francis de, duke 
de St. Aignan, a soldier, courtier, and 
poet, in the reign of Louis XIV. B. 
1607; d. 1687. — Paul de, eldest son of 
the preceding, was highly distinguished 
for talents and probity. He held high 
offices in the state, and shared with the 




virtuouti archbishop of Cambfay, in the 

education of the duke of Burgundy. 
P. 1714. 

BEAUZEE, Nicholas, an eminent 
French critic and grammarian; the au- 
thor of several works, and a contributor 
to the Encyclopedic B. 1717; d. 1789. 

BEAVER, John, a monk of West- 
minster in the 14th century ; author of 
a " Chronicle of the Affairs of Britain," 

BECCADELLI, Lours, an Italian ec- 
clesiastic ; preceptor to prince Ferdinand 
of Tuscany, and author of the Lives of 
Cardinals Pole and Bembo. D. 1572.— 
Antonio, of Palermo ; author of a 
" History of Alphonso, kinir of Aragon," 
&c. B. 1374; d. 1471. 

BECCARI, Augustine, the first Italian 
pastoral poet. D. 1520. 

BECCARI A, Cesare Bonesana, M ar- 
ch ese ni, author of the well-known 
"Treatise on Crimes and Punishments," 
was born at Milan, in 1735. He was 
early excited by Montesquieu's " Lettres 
Persanes," to the cultivation of his phi- 
losophical talents, and afterwards favor- 
ably know as a philosophical writer by 
his memorable work full of noble phi- 
lanthropy, " Die Delitti e delle Pene," 
(On Crimes and Punishments,) and 
several others. With the eloquence of 
true feeling, and a lively imagination, he 
opposes capital punishments and the 
torture. This work led to the establish- 
ment of more settled and more correct 
principles of penal law and contributed 
to excite a general horror against inhu- 
man punishments. Beecaria was a true 
friend, a good son, a tender husband, 
and a real philanthropist. He is also 
known ill Italy as the author of a philo- 
sophical grammar and theory of style, 
" Ricerche interno alia Natura d'ello 
Stilo," and of several good treatises on 
rhetorical ornament, &c, contained in 
the journal " II Caffe," edited by him, 
in conjunction with his friends Visconti, 
Verri, and others. A fit of apoplexy put 
nn end to his useful life in November, 
1793. — Giovanni Battista, an ingenious 
practical philosopher, was born in 1716 
at Mondovia. He went to Rome in 1732, 
where he studied and afterwards taught 
grammar and rhetoric; at the same time 
he applied himself with success to mathe- 
matics. He was appointed professor of 
philosophy at Palermo, and afterwards 
at Rome. Charles Emmanuel, king of 
Sardinia, invited him to Turin in 1748, 
to fill the professorship of natural phi- 
losophy at the university there. Electri- 
city had at that time, through the 

experiments of Franklin and others, 
become an object of universal interest. 
He therefore published his " Dell 1 Elet- 
tricismo nnturale ed artifieiale." The 
experiments which this work contains 
on atmospherical electricity are so nu- 
merous and various, that Priestley af- 
firmed in his History of Electricity," that 
Beccaria's labors far surpass all that had 
been done before and after him on this 
subject. The academies of London and 
Bologna elected him a member. He 
wrote many other valuable works on 
this subject. The most important "Dell' 
Elettricismo artifieiale" contains all tiiat 
was Mien known of electricity. Franklin, 
who esteemed his works", had them 
translated into English. In 1759 the 
king employed him to measure a degree 
of the meridian, in Piedmont. He began 
the task in 1760, together with the abbot 
Canonica, and published the result in 
1774. The doubts expressed by Cassini 
of the exactness of this measurement 
drew from him his "Lcttred'un Itali- 
anoad mi Parigino," in which he showed 
the influence of the proximity of the Alps 
on the deviation of the pendulum. As 
his thoughts were entirely absorbed by 
his studies, .e often neglected the nicer 
rules of good breeding, without losing 
however the general esteem. He died 
April the 27th, 1781. 

BECHER, John Joachim, authoi of 
the first theory of chemistry, was born 
at Spire, in 1635. He finished his rest- 
less life at London, in 1685, after having 
resided in many parts of Germany. Ho 
had many enemies, and has been accused, 
not entirely without justice, of charla- 
tanry; yet his influence on the science 
of chemistry gives him still a claim to 
remembrance. He brought it into a 
nearer connection with physics, and 
sought for the causes of all the phenom- 
ena of the inorganic universe in these 
two departments of science. This is the 
object of his principal work, "Physica 
Subterranea." At the same time he be- 
gan to form a theory of chemistry, and 
conceived the idea of a primitive acid, 
of which all the others were only modi- 
fications. He also made researches into 
the process of combustion. — Daniel, 
physician to the elector of Branden- 
burgh; author of " Coinmentarius de 
Theriaca," &e. D. 1670. 

BECKET, Thomas a, archbishop of 
Canterbury ; a man raised from a com- 
paratively low station to the very highest; 
offices by Henry IT., but proud, insolent., 
ami ungrateful. Having shown himselr 
the violent opponent of his royal patron, 




the latter gave utterance to some hasty 
expressions respecting him in the pres- 
ence of his courtiers, and he was at 
length assassinated at the altar of Can- 
terbury cathedral, in 1170. After his 
death he was canonized. 

BECKFOED, William, one of the 
mosi remarkable men of modern times, 
was the son of alderman Beckford, of 
London, who bequeathed him West In- 
dian and other property, said to amount 
to upwards of £100,000 per annum. He 
had a strong passion for building ; and 
in erecting Foiithill Abbey he spent 
in a very tew years the enormous sum 
of £273,000 ! One tower of immense 
costliness, employed 460 men both by 
night and by day through an entire win- 
ter, the torches used by the nocturnal 
workmen being visible to the astonished 
travellers at miles distant. As might be 
expected, the mortar and cement used 
had no time to set properly, ere a vio- 
lent gale of wind brought the vast struc- 
ture to the ground. Merely remarking 
that he should have been glad to witness 
the sublime fall of such a mass of mate- 
rials, he gave orders for the erection of 
another tower of 276 feet in height ; this 
also fell to the earth in the year 1825. 
Building, however, did not alone occupy 
Mr. Beckford. An excellent scholar, and 
possessed of a fine taste in almost every 
branch of art, he collected in the fantas- 
tic but costly " Abbey," one of the finest 
and most extensive libraries in England, 
and his pictures and curiosities were al- 
most unequalled. His vast expenses, 
and the loss in chancery of a large por- 
tion of his West Indian property, ren- 
dered it necessary for him to sell the 
abbey, and, with a few exceptions, all 
its rich and rare contents, in 1822. 
When the sale was announced, public 
curiosity was so generally excited, that 
the enormous number of 7200 catalogues 
were sold at one guinea each ! Though 
his eccentric and more than princely 
lavislmess of outlay caused Mr. Beck- 
ford to be much talked of, both in En- 
gland and in Portugal, where he built a 
residence, his true claim to any notice 
here rests upon his undoubted talents 
as an author in many walks of literature, 
and his genius as displayed in the wild 
and singular tale of " Vathek," which is 
bo splendid in description, so true to 
eastern costume, and so wild and vivid 
in imagination, that Lord Byron con- 
sidered it difficult to credit that it was 
written by a European, and said, " Even 
Rasselas must bow before it; the happy 
valley will not bear a comparison with 

the hall of Eblis." In addition to thi-j 
work, upon which his fame securely 
rests, Mr. Beckford wrote a satirical 
work, entitled "Memoirs of Extraordi- 
nary Painters;" "Italy, with Sketches 
of Portugal and Spain ;" and " Recol- 
lections of an Excursion to the Monas- 
teries of Alcobaca and Batalha." D. 1844. 
BECKINGHAM, Charles, an English 
dramatist; author of "Scipio Africa- 
nus," a tragedy, &c. D. 1730. 

BECKMANN, John Anthony, a na- 
tive of Hanover, and a professor at Got- 
tingen, where he lectured for many 
years on subjects connected with rural 
and political economy, &e. He was 
the author of several works, of which 
his "History of Discoveries and Inven- 
tions" is the best known. B. 173 l J ; d. 

BECLARD, Peter Augustus, an em- 
inent French anatomist, was born at 
Angers, in 1785 ; became professor of 
anatomy and physiology at Paris, where 
he attained the highest reputation as a 
lecturer and man of science. He wrote 
"Anatomical Memoirs," &c. D. 1825. 

BEDA, or BP^DE, an eminent eccle- 
siastic of the 8th century, usually called 
the Venerable Bede, was born in the year 
672 or 673, near Wearmouth, in the 
bishopric of Durham. From the age of 
7 to that of 19 he pursued his studies in 
the monastery of St. Peter, at Wear- 
mouth. Being then ordained deacon, 
he was employed in the task of edu- 
cating the youth who resorted to the 
monastery for instruction, and pursued 
his own studies with unremitting ardor 
In his 30th year he was ordained priest, 
and his fame for zeal and erudition 
reaching the ears of Pope Sergius, he 
was invited to Rome, but, in conse- 
quence of the death of that pontiff, 
never went there. It is not even certain 
that he ever left Northumberland, which, 
of course, reduces the incidents of his 
life to his literary pursuits and domestic 
occupations, as he accepted no benefice, 
and never seems to have interfered with 
civil transactions. His "Church His- 
tory" was published in 731. His last 
literary labor was a translation of the 
Gospel of St. John into Saxon, which he 
completed, with difficulty, on the very 
day and hour of his death. The wri- 
tings of Bede were numerous and im- 
portant, considering the time in which 
they were written, and the subjects of 
which they treat, which extended to 
ecclesiastical affairs, religion, and edu- 
cation only. His " English Ecclesiasti- 
cal History" is the greatest and most 




popular of Ms works, and has acquired 
additional celebrity by the translation 
of King Alfred. The collections which 
he made for it were the labor of many 
years. Besides his own personal inves- 
tigations, he kept up a correspondence 
with the monasteries throughout the 
heptarchy, to obtain archives and rec- 
ords for his purpose; and thus nearly 
all the knowledge possessed of the early 
state of Christianity in this country is 
due to Bede. There have been several 
editions of the original Latin, which is 
easy, although not elegant. While the 
number and variety of the writings of 
Bede show the extent of his erudition, 
his probity, moderation, and modesty 
insured him general respect ; and his 
disinterestedness is proved by the tact, 
that he was never any thing higher than 
an unbeneficed priest. A letter of ad- 
vice, which he wrote late in life, to Eg- 
bert, archbishop of York, proves at once 
the purity of his morals, the liberality 
of his sentiments, and the excellence of 
his discernment ; his wish being to cur- 
tail the number of monasteries, and to 
increase the efficacy and respectability 
of the secular clergy. Notwithstanding 
the veneration with which he was re- 
garded, not a single miracle is recorded 
of him ; and as monks were the great 
miracle-mongers, and his views of mo- 
nastic reform such as we have mention- 
ed, this is not surprising. The manner 
of the death of this virtuous ecclesiastic 
was striking and characteristic. He was 
dictating a translation of the Gospel of 
St. John to an amanuensis. The young 
man who wrote for him said, " There is 
now, master, but one sentence wanting ;" 
upon which he bade him write quickly ; 
and when the scribe said " It is now 
done," the dying sage ejaculated, " It is 
now done," and a few minutes after- 
wards expired, in the act of prayer, on 
the floor of his cell, in the 63d year of 
his a^re, in the year 735. 

BEDDOES, Thomas, a physician and 
author, b. 17(50, at Shitfnal, in Shrop- 
shire ; d. 1808. He made great pro- 
gress at school, in classical studies, and 
distinguished himself at Oxford by his 
knowledge of ancient and modern lan- 
guages and literature. The great dis- 
coveries in physic, chemistry, and 
physiologv irresistibly attracted him. 
He continued his studies with success 
in London and Edinburgh. In his 26th 
year he took his doctor's degree, after- 
wards visited Paris, and formed an 
acquaintance with Lavoisier. On his 
'et"rn he was appointed professor of 

chemistry at Oxford. There he publish- 
ed some excellent chemical treatises, and 
" Observations on the Calculus, Sea- 
Scurvy, Consumption, Catarrh, and Fe- 
ver. - ' But, by showing his sympathy 
with the people of France during the 
first French revolution, he offended some 
of his former admirers, and excited such 
a clamor of the dominant faction in this 
country against him, by the publication 
of his political opinions, that he resigned 
his professorship, and retired to the 
house of his friend Mr. Reynolds, in 
Shropshire. There he composed his 
" Observations ol. the Nature of Demon- 
strative Evidence," in which he endeav- 
ors to prove, that mathematical reason- 
ing proceeds on the evidence of the 
senses, and that geometry is founded 
on experiment. He also published the 
" History of Isaac Jenkins," which was 
intended to impress useful moral lessons 
on the laboring classes in an attractive 
manner. Above 40,000 copies of this 
popular work were sold in a short time. 
After he had married, .u 1794, he form- 
ed the plan of a pneumatic institution, 
for curing diseases, particularly con- 
sumption, by means of factitious airs or 
gases. He succeeded, with the assist- 
ance of the celebrated Wedgewood, in 
opening this institution, in 179S. He 
eiiLrau r ed, as a superintendent of the 
whole, a young man, Humphrey Davy, 
the foundation of whose future fame 
was laid here. The chief purpose of 
the institution, however, was never re- 
alized, and Beddoe's zeal gradually re- 
laxed, so that he relinquished it one 
year before his death, after having pub- 
lished a number of valuable works upon 
the application of factitious airs. In the 
last years of his life, he acquired the 
reputation of the best medical writer in 
Great Britain, particularly by his " Hy- 
geia," in three vols., a popular work, 
which contains passages ot extraordinary 
eloquence. His political pamphlets, from 
1795-97, are forgotten ; but will proba- 
bly be viewed with more interest by the 
spirit of the present day. 

BEDELL, William,' bishop of Kil 
more and Armagh ; greatly reverenced 
in Ireland for his learning, piety, and 
benevolence. B. 1570; d. 1641. — Greg- 
ory T., D.D., an eloquent and popular 
clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal 
church. He was born on Staten Island, 
October the 28th, 1793, and was gradu- 
ated at Columbia college, New York, in 
1811. His father was Israel Bedell, and 
his mother was a sister of the Rt. Rev, 
Richard Channing Moore, D.D,, bishoj. 




of Virginia. Soon after leaving college 
ho commenced preparation tor hoiy 

orders, and was ordained deacon by 
Bishop Hobart, on the 4th of November, 
1814, within one week after he had at- 
tained the canonical age. In the sum- 
mer of 1815 he accepted a rectorship in 
Hudson, on the North River. In the 
latter part of the year 1818 he left Hud- 
son, and removed to Fayetteville, N. C. 
He was after that rector of St. Andrews, 
in Philadelphia. D. 1834. 

BEDFORD, Hilkiah, an English di- 
vine, who was heavily fined as the au- 
thor of "The Hereditary Right of the 
Crown of England asserted," a Jacobite 
work, which was in reality written by 
George Harbin. D. 1724. — John", duke 
.of, third son of King Henry IV. of En- 
gland, and one of the most successful 
commanders ever opposed to the French. 
He was- appointed regent of France by 
the will of Henry V., and well sustained 
the glory of his country during the ar- 
duous struggle there. 1). 1435. — Iohn 
Rusaell, 6th duke of Bedford, K. G., an 
English nobleman, distinguished even 
among his own distinguished race for 
practical patriotism, and a princely pat- 
ronage of the fine arts, and every- branch 
of industry which tends to the improve- 
ment of the social condition. A mem- 
ber of several learned societies, and em- 
inently versed in science and fond of 
literature, he was no less attached to 
agriculture, to the improvement of which 
he devoted many years and large sums 
of money. Of his liberality, when any 
useful object was in view, some opinion 
may be formed from the fact, that he 
expended upwards of £40,000 in re- 
building Covent-Garden market, in such 
a style as to render it one of the great- 
est ornaments of that part of London. 
B. 17-66; d. 1839. 

BEDLOE, William, captain, an infa- 
mous informer, noted for his perjuries, 
and rewarded with £500 for pretended 
information respecting a popish plot, 
and the death of Sir Edmundbury God- 
frev. D. 1680. 

BEECHEY, Sir William, an eminent 
English portrait-painter, but he did not 
wholly confine himself to that branch 
of the art, having painted some histor- 
ical compositions of more than common 
merit, especially his " Iris bearing to 
Somnus the command of Juno to warn 
Alcyone by a dream of the fate of her 
husband Ceyx." His chief excellence, 
however, lay in portrait-painting, to 
which, indeed, he chiefly confined him- 
self and in which he greatly surpassed 

most of his cotemporary artists in 
number. Died aged 80 years, in 1839. 

BEER, Michael, a learned Jew of 
Paris. B. at Nancy in 1784, was the 
first of his religion who pursued the 
profession of an advocate in France. 
His success in this career was brilliant, 
but he soon gave himself up exclusively 
to literature, and received the honor 
never before conferred upon a Jew, of 
being admitted into the learned acade- 
mies of France. He was elected a mem- 
ber of the Royal Society of Antiquaries, 
of the Philotechnic Society, of the acad- 
emies of Nancy, Strasburg, Nantes, and 
Gottingen. Napoleon invited him, in 
1807, to the assembly of Jews, who were 
to advise concerning the amelioration of 
that people; and the general sanhedrim 
for France and Italy chose him their 
secretary. At the erection of the king- 
dom of Westphalia, on account of his 
knowledge of the language of the coun- 
try, he "received an appointment in the 
ministry of the interior, and, afterwards, 
was appointed to a corresponding of- 
fice in the French ministry ; he also 
delivered a course of lectures on Ger- 
man literature in the Athenaeum of 

BEERING, Vitus, a captain in the 
Russian navy, was born at Horsens, in 
Jutland. Being a skilful seaman, he 
was employed by Peter the Great in the 
navy established at Cronstadt. His tal- 
ents, and the undaunted courage dis- 
played by him in the naval wars against 
the Swedes, procured him the honor of 
being chosen to command a voyage of 
discovery in the sea of Kamtschatka. 
He set out from St. Petersburg, Feb. 
5th, 1725, for Siberia. In the year 1728 
he examined the northern coasts of 
Kamtschatka as far as hit. 67° 18' N., 
and proved that Asia is not united to 
America. It remained, however, to bo 
determined whether the land opposite 
to Kamtschatka, was, in reality, the 
coast of the American continent, or 
merely islands lying between Asia and 
America. June 4th, 1741, he sailed, 
with two ships, from Ochotsk, and 
touched on the northwestern coast of 
America, between lat. 35° and 39° N. 
Tempests and sickness prevented him 
from pursuing his discoveries; he was 
cast on a desolate island, covered with 
snow and ice, where he grew danger- 
ously sick, anil died Dec. 8th, 1741, 
The straits between Asia and America 
have received the name of Beering's 
Straits, and the island on which he died 
that of Beering's Island. 




BEETHOVEN, Louis vox, b. in 
Bonn, 1772, was the son of a man who 
had been a tenor singer there ; but ac- 
cording to another account, a natural 
son of Frederic William II., king of 
Prussia. His great talent for music was 
early cultivated. He astonished in his 
eighth year all who heard him, by his 
execution on the violin, on which he 
was in the habit of performing, with 
great diligence, in a little garret. In his 
eleventh year he played Bach's " Wohl 
Tempcrirtes clavier," and, in his thir- 
teenth, composed some sonatas. These 
promising appearances of great talent 
induced the then reigning elector of Co- 
logne, to send him, in 17»2, in the char- 
acter of his organist, and at his expense, 
to Vienna, that he might accomplish 
himself there in composition, under the 
instruction of Haydn. Under Haydn 
and Albrecbtsberger he made rapid pro- 
gress, and became, likewise, a great 
player on the pianoforte, astonishing 
every one by hi> extempore perform- 
ances. In 1809 he was invited to the 
new court of the king of Westphalia, at 
which several men of distinction per- 
suaded him to remain by the promise 
of a yearly salary. He composed his 
principal works after 1801. A few years 
before his death, a cold, which he had 
caught by composing in the open air, 
produced a deafness, which became, by 
degrees, very great. He lived, after- 
wards, very much retired, in the village 
of Modlingen, near Vienna. Instru- 
mental music has received from his 
compositions a new character. Beetho- 
ven united the humor of Haydn with 
the melancholy of Mozart, and the char- 
acter of his music most resembles Che- 
rubim's. His boldness is great; though 
the more powerful nature and richer 
imagination of Mozart embraced a wider 
field, and many of his compositions ex- 
press the whole height and depth of his 
character. Besides the great sympho- 
nies and overtures of Beethoven, his 
quintets, quartets, and trios for stringed 
instruments, his numerous sonatas, his 
variations, and other pieces for the pia- 
noforte, in which he shows the great 
richness of his imagination, he also 
composed vocal music, with scarcely 
less success. To this department be- 
longs his opera "Leonore," (in its alter- 
ed state, called " Fidelio,") some masses, 
tin oratorio, (the "Mount of Olives,") 
and songs for the piano-forte, among 
which the composition of Matthison's 
"Adelaide," called by us, "Rosalie," 
and some songs of Goethe are celebrated. 

He died March 26th, 1827, near Vienna, 
in great poverty. 

BEHAIM, Martin, b. at Nuremberg 
about 1480, is distinguished as one of 
the most learned mathematicians and 
astronomers of his age. He was engaged 
in commerce, and travelled for the pur- 
pose of carrying on his business from 
1455 to 1479 ; but he also devoted him- 
self to the study of the mathematical 
and nautical sciences, in which Rcgio- 
montanus is said to have been his mas- 
ter. He went from Antwerp to Lisbon 
in 14S0, where he was received with 
marks of distinction. He sailed in the 
fleet of Diego Can on a voyage of dis- 
covery, and explored the islands on the 
coast of Africa as far as the river Zaire. 
He is also said to have discovered, or at 
least to have colonized, the island of Fay- 
al, where he remained for several years, 
and assisted in the discovery of the other 
Azores. He was afterwards knighted, 
and returned to his native country where 
he constructed a terrestrial globe in 1492, 
which bears the marks of the imperfect 
acquaintance of that age with the true 
dimensions of the earth. Benhaim died, 
after several voyages, in Lisbon, in 1506. 
Sonic ancient Spanish historians assert 
that he made several discoveries, find 
that he gave to his friend Columbus the 
idea of another hemisphere. Robertson 
i in his History of America) and other 
historians contradict this statement. It 
is also rejected by Irving. 

BEHN, Apiiar'a, a lady of some celeb- 
rity as a writer of plays and novels, was 
descended from a good family in Canter- 
bury of the name of Johnson, and was 
born in the reign of Charles I. TUMc 
father, through the interest of his rela- 
tion Lord Willoughby, being appointed 
lieutenant-general of Surinam, embark- 
ed with his family for the West Indies, 
taking with him Aphara, who was then 
very young. The father died at sea; 
but' his family arrived safely at Surinam, 
and remained there for some years, du- 
ring which time Aphara gained the 
acquaintance of the American prince 
Oroonoko, whom she made the subject 
of a novel subsequently dramatized by 
Southern. On her return to England 
she married Mr. Behn, a London mer- 
chant, of Dutch extraction; but was 
probably a widow when selected by 
Charles' II. as a proper person to acquire 
intelligence on the continent during the 
Dutch" war. She accordingly took up 
her residence at Antwerp, where she 
engaged in gallantries for the good of 
her country; and it is said that, by 




means of one of her admirers she ob- 
tained advice of the intention of the 
Dutch to sail up the Thames, which she 
transmitted to England. This intelli- 
gence although true, being discredited, 
she gave up politics, returned to En- 
gland, and devoted herself to intrigue 
and writing for support; and, as she 
had a good person and much conversa- 
tional talent, she became fashionable 
among the men of wit and pleasure of 
the time. She published three volumes 
of poems by Rochester, Etherege, Crisp, 
and others, with some poetry of her 
own ; and wrote seventeen plays, the 
heartless licentiousness of which was 
disgraceful both to her sex and to the 
age which tolerated the performance of 
them. She was also the authoress of a 
couple of volumes of novels, and of the 
celebrated love-letters between a noble- 
man and his sister-in-law. Pope, in his 
character of women, alludes to Mrs. 
Behn, under her poetical name of " As- 

" TIip stage how loosely does Astrea trend, 
Who fairly puts her charwstera to bud." 

She died in 1689, between forty and fifty 
years of age, and was buried in the clois- 
ters of Westminster abbey. 

BEICII. Joachim Francis, a native of 
Suabia, eminent as a painter of cattle 
pieces and landscapes. 13.165"); d. 1-748. 

BE1NASCHI, John Baptist, a native 
of Piedmont, an eminent historical paint- 
er. B. 1634; d. 1688. 

BEK, or BEAK, Anthony de, bishop 
of Durham, a bold and spirited prelate, 
who united the skill and courage of a 
soldier to the austerity of a divine. He 
led the van of the English army under 
Edward I. in an expedition against the 
Scots ; built Barnard castle and other 
fortresses, and performed many gallant 
exploits : but at length broke his heart 
at being excommunicated by the arch- 
bishop of York, in 1310. — David, aDutch 
painter, pupil of Vandyke, and portrait 
painter to Christina, queen of Sweden. 
B. 1621 ; d. 1656. 

BEKKIIER, Balthasar, a divine of 
Amsterdam ; suspended from his func- 
tions for publishing "The World Be- 
witched," a refutation of the popular 
errors in witchcraft, &C. B. 1634 ; d. 

BEKKER, Elizabeth, an ornament of 
Dutch literature in the department of 
the belles lettres. Few female authors 
have united with so great talents so 
much dignity and purity of morals. The 
influence of her numerous works was 
much increased by her character, and 

several of them are considered classics 
in Dutch literature, particularly her ro- 
mances, " Willein Leevend," in 8 vols. ; 
"Letters of A. Blankart to C. Wild- 
schut," and the "History of Sara Burger- 
hart." She wrote her most i nportant 
works in conjunction witli her friend 
Agatha Deken, and the share of each in 
the composition of them is unknown. 
Elizabeth was born at Flushing, in 1738, 
and died at the Hague, in 1804. "er 
inseparable friend in life followed her 
nine, days later in death. 

BEL, John James, a counsellor of 
Bordeaux, compiler of the " Diction- 
naire Neologique," and author of "Let 
ters on Voltaire's Marianne," &c. D 
1738. — Matthias, an Hungarian divine, 
historiographer of the Emperor Charles 
VI., author of " Apparatus ad Historian) 
Hungaricc," &c. B. 1684; d. 1749.— 
Charles Andrew, son of the above, li- 
brarian and professor of poetry to the 
university of Leipsic. B. 1717 ; d. by 
his own hand, L782. 

BELCHER, Jonathan, governor of 
Massachusetts and New Jersey. He 
graduated at Harvard college in 1699. 
Not long after the termination of his 
collegiate life, he visited Europe, and 
after the lapse of several years, returned, 
and commenced business as a merchant 
in Boston. He was chosen a member 
of the council, and in 1729 was sent as 
an agent of the province to England. 
After the death of Governor Burnet, he 
was appointed to the government of 
Massachusetts and New Hampshire, in 
1730. In this station he continued 11 
years, when he was superseded. On 
repairing to England, he so far suc- 
ceeded in vindicating his character and 
conduct, as to obtain the appointment 
of governor of the province of New 
Jersey, where he arrived in 1747, and 
spent the remaining years of his lite. 
lie enlarged the charter of Princeton 
college, and was its chief patron and 
benefactor. He d. in 1757, aged 76. — ■ 
Jonathan, chief justice of Nova Scotia, 
was graduated at Harvard college, in 
1728. He studied law at the Temple, in 
London. He was among the first settlers 
of Chebucto, afterwards sailed Halifax, 
and being, in 1760, senior counsellor, on 
the death of Governor Lawrence he was 
appointed lieutenant-governor, in which 
office he was succeeded by Col. Wilmot, 
in 1763. In 1761 he received his ap- 
pointment of chief justice. B. 170S ; d. 

BELCIIIER, John, was born at King- 
ston, Surrey, and after an Eton educa- 




tion was put apprentice to Cheselden, 
the most celebrated surgeon of Ills age. 
Perseverance and assiduity soon ren- 
dered him eminent in his profession, 
and in 17i>6 he succeeded Craddock as 
surgeon in Guy's hospital. In this em- 
ployment he became respected and be- 
loved for his attention, and, unlike the 
mercenary practitioners of the times, he 
considered not the emoluments of his 
office, but the character of his station, 
and treated with unwearied patience 
and humanity those whom diseases or 
misfortunes had placed under his care. 
In his private life he was equally ami- 
able, his whole time was devoted cither 
to his friends or to the improvement of 
his profession, and many are the in- 
genious communications with which he 
favored the Philosophical Transactions 
and other publications. He respected 
the name of Guy almost to adoration, 
observing, that no other man would 
have sacrificed £150,000 for the relief 
of his fellow-creatures. B. 1700 ; d. 1785. 

BELDEN, Joshua, physician. After 
graduating at Yale college, in 1787, he 
studied physic with Dr. L. Hopkins. 
Besides his useful toils as a physician, 
he was employed in various offices of 
public trust. He was a zealous sup- 
porter of all charitable and religious in- 
stitutions. B. 1768; d. 1818. 

BELESIS, a Chaldean, who raised 
Arbaces to the throne of Media, and 
was rewarded with the government of 

BELGRADO, James, an Italian Jesuit, 
eminent as a poet, antiquary, and math- 
ematician, author of a treatise entitled 
'• The Existence of God demonstrated 
Geometrically," <fec. B. 1704; d. 1789. 
— Manuel, an active partisan and com- 
mander in the cause of South American 
independence, whose disinterested con- 
duct proved highly favorable to Buenos 
Avres and the neighboring states. D. 

BELIDOR, Bernard Forest de, an 
eminent French engineer and mathema- 
tician, author of " Dictionnaire portatif 
de ringenieur," &c. B. 1695 ; d. 1761. 

BELING, Richard, an Irish gentle- 
man, who took part in the rebellion of 
1641, but recovered his estate at the 
restoration; author of " Vindicias Cath- 
olicorum Hiberniae." B. 1613; d. 1677. 

BELISARIUS, a Roman general, one 
of the most celebrated of his age, first 
[served with ."L'inction in the guards of 
Justinian, s__ subsequently rose to 
military eminence under that emperor. 
He defeated Cabades, and subsequently 

Cosroes, king of Persia, dethroned Gel- 
imer, king of the Vandals, routed the 
Goths in Sicily and Italy, and performed 
other glorious actions. Justinian, how- 
ever, confiscated his estates, but at 
length restored them, and took him 
again into favor. The story of his blind- 
ness and beggary is a fiction added by 
the more modern writers. D. 5fi5. 

BELKNAP, Jeremy, an American 
historian and divine, was born at Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts, in 1744, and was 
graduated at Harvard college in 1762. 
He was first settled in the Christian 
ministry at Dover, New Hampshire, and 
afterwards in his native town. He was 
one of the founders of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, and devoted much 
of his time to the promotion of its ob- 
jects and interests. His published 
works are the " History of New Hamp- 
shire," "American Biography," and a 
number of political, literary, and reli- 
gious tracts. His writings are charac- 
terized by great research, clear arrange- 
ment, and perspicuity of style. D. 1798. 

BELL, Andrew, an English divine, 
the projector and founder of those ex- 
cellent establishments called National 
Schools, author of " An Experiment in 
Education at the Male Asylum, Madras," 
" Instructions for conducting Schools on 
the Madras System," &c, &c. Dr. 
Bell had acquired considerable property 
in the East Indies, and had some lucra- 
tive preferments in England, all of 
which he bequeathed to institutions 
connected with education and literature. 
B. at St. Andrews, Scotland, 1753; d. 
1832. — Benjamin-, an eminent surgeon, 
and writer on surgery ; author of a 
"Treatise on the Management of Ul- 
cers," &c, &c. B. at Dumfries, 1749; 
d. 1806. — Henry, the first successful 
applier of steam to the purposes of nav- 
igation in Europe, was born in Linlith- 
gowshire, in 1767. After serving an 
apprenticeship to his uncle, who was a 
millwright, he went to London, and was 
in the employ of Mr. Rennie, the cele- 
brated engineer; but it was not till the 
year 1812 that he produced a vessel cal- 
culated to establish the practicability 
and important uses of steam-navigation ; 
and though Mr. Fulton, an Amciicau 
engineer, had launched a boat upon the 
same principle five years before, which 
had performed lon^r voyages upon the 
Hudson river, yet Bell must be at least 
allowed the praise of having done, in 
his own country, what all other men, 
notwithstanding the superior advan- 
tages of skill and capital, had failed in 




doing. Died, at Helensburgh, 1830. — 
James, an eminent geographical writer, 
was born at Jedburgh, in 17G9. He was 
brought up as a weaver, and became a 
manufacturer of cotton goods at Glas- 
gow, but left business, and, being 
an indefatigable student, became a 
teacher of the classics to young men 
preparing for the university. He was 
the author of "A System of Popular 
and Scientific Geography," in 6 vols. : 
" A Gazetteer of England and Wales." 
D. 1833. — Charles, an eminent anato- 
mist and professor of surgery in the 
university of Edinburgh, of which city 
he was a native, being born there in 
1778. I.. 1806 he went to London, and 
was soon distinguished as a popular 
lecturer on anatomy and surgery, at the 
academy founded by the celebrated 
Hunter, in Windmill-street, where, as 
subsequently, when appointed a pro- 
fessor at the royal college of surgeons, 
the benches were crowded with atten- 
tive auditors. He was the author of 
many professional works of high repute, 
on anatomy, surgical operations, and 
the nervous system ; all admirably illus- 
trated from drawings made bv himself. 
On the accession ot William IV. he re- 
ceived the honor of knighthood. As in 
his professional career Sir Charles was 
respected for his great talents, so in 
private life was he admired for the 
bland simplicity of his manners. B. 
177s; d. 1842. — John, a distinguished 
citizen of New Hampshire, of great 
judgment, decision, and integrity, died 
at Londonderry, Nov. 80, 1828, aged 95 
years. His father, John, was an early- 
settler of that town. During the revolu- 
tionary war, he was a leading member 
of the. senate Two of his sons, Samuel 
and John, have been governors of New 
Hampshire. The former was twelve 
years a senator of the United States. 

BELLA, Steeano della, an eminent 
Florentine engraver, b. in 1610, was for 
a considerable time employed by Cardi- 
nal Richelieu, to engrave the conquests 
of Louis XIII.; and, after his return 
home, was liberally patronized by the 
house of Medici. The number of his 
plates is said to amount to one thousand 
four hundred. D. 1684. 

BELLAMY, Joseph, a distinguished 
Congregational minister of Woodbury., 
Conn. He was b. at New Cheshire in 
that state, 1719, and graduated at Yale 
college, in 1735. In 1750 lie published 
a work entitled "True Religion Delin- 
eated." Such was his reputation, that 
many young men, studying for the min- 

istry, placed themselves under his in- 
struction. He was reckoned one of the 
most learned divines of the country. 
His works were published in three vols. 
1811. B. 1729 ; d. 1790.— James, a Flem- 
ish poet, w r as b. at Flushing in the 
year 1757, and d. in 1790. He was twen- 
ty-five years old, and followed the trade 
of a baker, when, in 1772, the second 
secular festival, in commemoration of 
the foundation of the republic, xas cel- 
ebrated throughout Holland. Bis genius 
suddenly inflamed by the love of his 
native land, rendered him a poet, and 
his first productions met with success. 
He studied Latin, made himself better 
acquainted with his mother tongue, and 
composed several pieces of merit suffi- 
cient to induce the society of arts at the 
Hague to incorporate them in their col- 
lections. He published his patriotic 
songs under the title of " Vaderlandse- 
Gezengen," which secure him a place 
among the first poets of his nation. 
Bellamy sung, likewise, the praise of 
love. The later works of this poet be- 
tray a certain melancholy, which renders 
them still more interesting. A biograph- 
ical account of him has been written by 
Kniper. He may be placed by the side 
of Bilderdyk, Ilehners, Loots, K. Fcyth, 
&c., as one of the restorers of modern 
Dutch poetry; 

BELLEGABDE, John Baptist Mor- 
van he, a French Jesuit, expelled from 
the society for Cartesianism ; translator 
of St. Ch'rvsostom, Thomas a Kempis, 
&c. D. 1734. 

BELLEISLE, Charles Louis Augus- 
tus F"ouquet, Count de, a French mar- 
shal, whose talent and eminent successes 
were rewarded by his sovereign, Louis 
XV., with the highest dignities. B. 
1684; d. 1771. 

BELLEXDEN, William, a Scottish 
writer of the 17th century, distinguish- 
ed for the elegance of his Latin style. 
Be was educated at Paris, where he was 
professor of belles lettres in 1602, and 
though he was made master of requests 
by James L, he still continued to reside 
in the French metropolis. In 1608 ha 
published a work entitled " Cicero Prin- 
ceps," containing a selection from the 
works of Cicero, consisting of passages 
relating to the duties of a prince, &c. 
He afterwards republished this work, 
with some other treatises, in his " Bcllen- 
denus de Statu, libri tres." This work 
was published again in 17S7, by an 
anonymous editf r, since known to have 
been* Dr. Parr, who added a Latin pref- 
ace on the politics of that time. From 




Bellenden's work, Middleton's "Life of 
■Cicero," was almost entirely compiled 
without acknowledgment — a plagiarism 
denounced by Warton and Parr. 

BELLENGER, Francis, a doctor of 
theSorbonne ; author of a " Critical Es- 
say on the Works of Rollin," &c. D. 

BELLET, Charles, a French writer; 
author of "L' Adoration Chretienne dans 
la Devotion Rosoire," &c. D. 1771. — 
Isaac, a French physician; author of 
a " History of Cataiine's Conspiracy," 
&c. D. 1778. 

BELLIARD, Augustin Daniel, Count 
de, a distinguished French general and 
diplomatist, was b. in 1773, in La Ven- 
dee. He entered the military service 
early, and was soon made an officer of 
Dumouricz's staff: he afterwards served 
with Bonaparte in Italy and Egypt ; 
and, returning from the latter country, 
he participated in the victories of l.'lni 
aucl Austerlitz, and fought in all the 
great battles in the war with Prussia. 
He next went to Spain ; but in 1812 
joined the army destined for the invasion 
of Russia, and particularly distinguished 
himself in the battle of Moskwa. At 
Leipsic, a cannon-ball carried away his 
arm. After Napoleon's abdication, _ he 
was made a peer of France, and major- 
general of the army under the Duke de 
Berri. When the emperor returned 
from Elba, he dispatched Belliard to 
king Joachim at Naples, but the vessel 
was" intercepted by a British ship, and 
driven back to France. On the return 
of the Bourbons, he was for a short time 
imprisoned, but soon taken into favor 
again. When Louis Philippe ascended 
the throne, he sent Belliard to Berlin, to_ 
treat respecting the acknowledgment of 
the new dynasty ; and during his em- 
bassy to Brussels, he contributed more 
than' any other diplomatist to the forma- 
tion of the new Belgian government. 
D. 1822. 

BELLIEVRE, Pomponius de, a French 
statesman, chancellor to Henry IV. B. 
1529; d. 1607. 

BELLIN, James Nicholas, a French 

feographer; author of " Hydrographie 
rancoisc," &c. D. 1772. 
BELLINI, Laurence, an Italian phy- 
sician ; author of several anatomical and 
medical works in Latin. B. 1043 ; d. 
1702. — Vincenzo, a celebrated musical 
composer, was b. at Catania in Sicily, 
in 1806. He was educated at Naples 
under Zingarelli, and before he had 
completed his 20th year he had produced 
" Bianco e Fernando" at the theatre San 

Carlo. This was sue eeded by various 
others, of which u II Pirati," "LaSom- 
nambula," " Norma," and " I Puritani" 
are the best, and have gained for him an 
undying celebrity. His moral character 
stood high, and his manners and com- 
positions were in harmonious accord- 
ance ; — agreeable, tender, and elegant. 
D. near Paris, 1835. — James, and his two 
sons, Gentile and Giovanni, who sur- 
passed their father, celebrated painters, 
who made a new epoch in the Venetian 
school. Of James's works nothing has 
been left ; but several of Gentile's have 
reached our times. In the year 1479, 
Gentile went to Constantinople, Ma- 
homet II. having sent to Venice for a 
skilful painter. He is said to have there 
copied the bas-reliefs of the column of 
TheoJosius, and to have died at Venice 
in the year 1501. The most distinguish- 
ed of the family was Giovanni, born at 
Venice, about 1424, and who died about 
1516. He studied nature diligently, and 
his drawing was good. He contributed 
much to make oil painting popular, and 
has left many excellent pictures, of which 
one, the " Saviour pronouncing his Ben- 
ediction," is to be found in the gallery 
of Dresden. His own reputation was 
much increased by that of his celebrated 
disciples, namely, Titian and Giorgione. 
As their instructor, he is sometimes 
called the founder of the Venetian school. 

BELLMAN, Charles Michael, the 
most original among the Swedish poets, 
was born at Stockholm, in 1741, and 
grew up in the quietude of domestic life. 
The first proofs which he gave of his 
poetical talents were religious and pious 
effusions. The dissipated life of young 
men, at Stockholm, devoted to pleasure, 
was afterward the subject of his poems. 
By these his name was spread over all 
Sweden. Even the attention of Gus- 
tavus III. was attracted to him, and ho 
received from the king an appointment, 
which enabled him to devote himself 
almost entirely to poetical pursuits, in 
an easy independence, until his death, 
in 1795*. His songs are truly national, 
principally describing scenes of revelry. 

BELLOCQ, Pierre, valet-de-chambre 
to Louis XIV. ; author of a poem on the 
Hotel des Invalides, &c. D. 1704. 

BELLOI, Pierre Laurent Burette 
de, the first French dramatist who suc- 
cessfully introduced native heroes upon 
the French stage, instead of those of 
Greece and Rome, or the great men of 
other nations, was born at St. Flour, in 
Auvergne, during 1727. He went to 
Paris when a chUd, lost his father soon 




niter, and was supported by his unele, a 
distinguished advocate in the parliament 
of Paris, who designed him for the same 
profession. He applied himself to this 
profession with reluctance, while he 
showed much genius for the drama. 
His uncle opposed this taste, and the 
young man secretly left his house and 
retired to Russia, where he betook him- 
self to the stage. He now made his ap- 
pearance at several northern courts, as 
an actor, under the name of Dormont de 
Belloi. Everywhere his character gain- 
ed him love and esteem. He spent sev- 
eral years in Petersburgh, where the 
Empress Elizabeth showed him much 
kindness. In 1758 he returned_ to 
France, where he produced, from time 
to time, his uncle having died, his tra- 
gedies of Titus, Zelmaire, Siege de 
Calais, Gastu et Bayard, &e., &c. D. 

BELLOMONT, Richaud, earl of, gov- 
ernor of New York, Massachusetts, and 
New Hampshire, was appointed to these 
offices early in May, 1695, but did not 
arrive at New York until May, 1698. ^ He 
remained in the province of New York 
about a year. He reached Boston, May 
26, 1699"; he was received with the great- 
est respect, as it was a new thing to see 
a nobleman at the head of the govern- 
ment. Twenty companies of soldiers, 
and a vast concourse of people met " hit. 
lordship and countess" on his arrival. 
" There were all manner of expressions 
of joy, and to end all, fireworks and a 
gocjd' drink at night." He took every 
method to ingratiate himself with the 
people; his success may be justly ap- 
preciated, by the remark of one of his 
biographers, that by his wise conduct he 
obtained a larger stun as a salary, and as 
a gratuity, than any of his predecessors 
or successors. Though he remained but 
fourteen months, the grants made to 
him were £1875 sterling. His time was 
much taken up in securing the pirates, 
and their effects, to accomplish which, 
was a principal reason of his appoint- 
ment. During his administration Cap- 
tain Kidd was seized, and sent to 
England for trial. In 1700 he returned 
to New York, and died there in 1701. 

BELLONI, Jerome, a celebrated Ro- 
man banker, created a marquis by Pope 
Benedict XIV. : author of an "Essay on 
Commerce." D. 1760. 

BELLORI, John Peter, a celebrated 
Italian antiquary and connoisseur in the 
polite arts ; author of "Lives of Modern 
Painters, Architects, and Sculptors," &c. 
D. 1696. 

BELLOTI, Peter, an Italian painter, 
chiefly of portraits. B. 1625 ; d. 1700. 

BELOE, William, a divine and critic, 
was born at Norwich in 1756, and edu- 
cated at Cambridge. After having been 
assistant to Dr. Parr, who was then head 
master of Norwich school, he took or- 
ders, and obtained church preferment. 
He was finally rector of Allhallows, a 
prebendary of St. Paul's, and librarian 
of the British Museum. The latter situ- 
ation however he lost, in consequence 
of a visitor to the museum having pur- 
loined some valuable prints. In con- 
junction with Dr. Nares, he established 
the " British Critic." He is the author of 
" Anecdotes of Literature" and " Scarce 
Books ;" the " Sexagenarian ," and other 
works; and the translator of "Herod- 
otus and Aulus Gellius." He died in 

BELON, Peter, an eminent French 
naturalist and physician of the 16th cen- 
tury, was born in Maine, about 1518, 
travelled into Palestine, Greece, Arabia, 
and England; published in 155S a very 
interesting account of his travels ; and 
was assassinated in 1564. He is the 
author of several valuable works on 
natural history, particularly on fishes. 
Belon is considered as the inventor of 
comparative anatomy, and one of the 
founders of natural history. 

BELOS1ELSKY, Prince, a Russian 
noble; author of "Poesies Francoises 
d'un Prince Etranger," &c. D. 1S09. 

BELOT, John de Blols, advocate to 
the privy council of Louis XIV. ; author 
of " Apologie de la Langue Latine." 

BELSIlAM, Thomas, an eminent Uni- 
tarian divine ; author of a discourse "On 
the Importance of Faith, and the Duty 
of making Open Professions of it," &c. 
D. in his 80th year, 1829.— William, 
brother of the preceding, an eminent 
writer; author ot "Essays, Political and 
Literary," " History of Great Britain, 
from the Revolution to the Treaty or 
Amiens," in 12 vols. 8vo., &c. D. aged 
75, in 1827. 

Henry Francis Xavier de, a virtuous 
and humane French prelate, was b. 
in 1671, at the castle of La Force, in 
Perigord. In 1709 he was made bishop 
of Marseilles, and when that city was 
visited by the plague in 1720, instead of 
deserting his flock, he hourly hazarded 
his life to afford them succor and con- 
solation. As a reward, he was offered 
the rich bishopric of Laon, which con- 
ferred the title of duke; but he replied, 
that " he woald not quit a church to 




which he had devoted his life." A col- 
lege was founded by him in his episcopal 
city. This exemplary pastor wrote a 
" History of the JBishops of his Dio- 
cese:" "Pastoral Instructions;" and the 
"Life of Mademoiselle deFoix." D. 1755. 

BELUS, celebrated in profane history 
as the founder of the Babylonian empire. 
He was deified after his death, and a 
temple was erected to him at Babylon. 
He is probably the Baal of Phoenicia, 
and the Nimrod cf Scripture. Flour- 
ished 1322 b. c. 

BELYN, a British prince and com- 
mander under Caractacus. 

BELZOXI,Gi.vmbattlsta, that is, John 
Baptist, an enterprising traveller, was 
born at Padua, and educated at Rome. 
He was destined for the monastic life, 
but left the city when it was occupied 
by the French armies, and in 1803, went 
to London, where he exhibited as the 
Pdtagonian Samson, at various minor 
theatres. There he acquired, besides an 
acquaintance with the English language, 
much knowledge of the scienco of hy- 
draulics, the study of which had been 
his chief occupation in Rome, and which 
afterwards carried him to Egypt. He 
left this country, after a residence of 
nine years, accompanied by his wife, 
and took his way through Portugal, 
Spain, and Malta, to Egypt. There he 
lived from 1315 to 1819, at first as a dan- 
cer, till he won the favor of the pacha, 
who made use of his services. Belzoni, 
though often alone amidst the rude in- 
habitants of the country, kept them in 
awe by his extraordinary stature and 
strength. He succeeded in opening, not 
only the pyramid of Ghiza, which had 
been already opened in the 17th century 
by Pietro delta Valle, and to which the 
French, during their expedition to Egypt, 
could not find the entrance, but also a 
second, known by the name of Ceplirenes, 
and several catacombs near Thebes, es- 
pecially one in a fine state of preservation 
in the valley of Biban el Molook, which 
is considered to be the mausoleum of 
Psammis, in 400 b. c. The drawings 
which he has furnished of these antiqui- 
ties are the most exact which wc possess. 
In the year 1816 his perseverance and 
skill succeeded in transporting the bust 
of Jupiter Memnon, together with a sar- 
cophagus, of alabaster, found in the cata- 
combs, from Thebes to Alexandria, from 
whence they came to the British Mu- 
seum. On the 1st of August, 1817, he 
opened the temple of Ipsambul, near the 
»econd cataract of the Nile, which two 
Fren^Jimen, Cailliaud and Drovetti, (the 

French consul-general,) had discover ii 
the year before, but had not succeed id 
in opening. Belzoni found a subter- 
raneous temple in its ruins, which until 
that time had been unknown. He then 
visited the coasts of the Red Sea, sind 
the city of Berenice, and made an expe- 
dition into the oasis of Jupiter Ammom 
His journey to Berenice was rewarded 
by the discovery of the emerald mines 
of Zubara. Belzoni refuted Cailliaud's 
assertion, that he had found the far ions 
Berenice, the great emporium of Europe 
and India, by subsequent investigations 
on the spot, and by the actual discovery 
of the ruins of that great city, four days' 
journey from the place which Cailliaud 
bad taken for Berenice. His " Narrative 
of the Operations and recent Discoveries 
within the Pyramids, Temples, Tombs, 
and Excavations in Egypt and Nubia; 
and of a Journey to the Coast of the Red 
Sea in search of Berenice : also of an- 
other to the Oasis of Jupiter Ammon," 
(London, 1820,) accompanied by a folio 
vol. of forty-four copperplates, was re- 
ceived with general approbation. Padua, 
his native city, requited his present of 
two Egyptian statues from Thebes with 
an honorary medal. In the year 1823, 
this enterprising traveller had made 
preparations for passing from Benin to 
Houssa, and Timbuctoo, when he died 
at Gato, on his way to Benin, Dec. tho 
3d, 1823. He believed the Nile and 
Niger to be different streams, and that 
the Niger empties its waters into the 
Atlantic ocean ; opinions which have 
eventually been proved to be correct. 
The following inscription was placed 
over his grave : 

M Here lies the remains of 
G. Belzoni, 
Who was attacked with dvsenterv, at Benin, 
(On his way to Ho :ssa and Timbuctoo,) 
On the 26th of November, and died at this place, Decem- 
ber 3d. 1823. 
The gentleman who plftced this inscription over Ihp grave 
of this intrepid and enterprising traveller, hopes that 
every European visiting this spot will cause the ground 
to be cleared, and the fence round the grave to i»« re- 
paired, if necessary." 

BEMBO, Pietro, one of the most 
celebrated of the Italian scholars that 
adorned the 16th century, was born at 
Venice in 1470. He very early learned 
the Latin, and afterwards, at Messina, 
under the direction of Lascaris, the 
Greek language ; after which he return- 
ed to his native country, and there pub- 
lished a small treatise on mount Etna. 
In compliance with the will of his father, 
he entered upon the career of public 
business, but, soon conceiving a dislike 
for it he devoted himself to science and 




the theological profession. At Ferrara, 
where he completed his philosophical 
Studies, he entered into a connection 
With Ercole Strozzi, Tibaldeo, and par- 
ticularly with Sadoleto. From Ferrara 
he returned to Venice, where a literary 
society had been established, in the 
house" of the printer Aldus Manutius. 
Bembo became one of its principal mem- 
bers, and, for some time, took pleasure 
in correcting the beautiful editions which 
proceeded from this celebrated press. 
After visiting Home, he went, in 1506, 
to the court of Urbino, at that time one 
of those Italian courts where the sci- 
ences stood highest in esteem. He lived 
there about six years, and gained sev- 
eral powerful friends. In 1512 he went 
to Rome with Giulio de Medici, whose 
brother, pope Leo X., made him secre- 
tary, and gave him his friend Sadoleto 
for a colleague. About this time he be- 
came acquainted with the young and 
beautiful Morosina, with whom he lived, 
in the most tender union, during 22 
years. She presented him with two 
sons and a daughter, whom he educated 
with tlw greatest care. His many la- 
bore, arising from his office as well as 
his literary pursuits, and, perhaps, too 
great an indulgence in pleasure, having 
impaired his health, he was using the 
ba'hs of Pa:lua, when he was apprised 
of the death of Leo X. Being by this 
time possessed of several church bene- 
fices, he resolved on withdrawing en- 
tirely from business, and on passing his 
days at Padua, (the air of which he had 
found very beneficial,) occupied only 
with literature and science, and enjoy- 
ing the society of his friends. The 
learned members of the famous univer- 
sity of this city eagerly frequented his 
house, and strangers also Hocked thither. 
Bembo collected a considerable library; 
he had a cabinet of medals and antiqui- 
ties, which at that time passed for one 
of the richest in Italy, and a fine botan- 
ical garden. He spent the spring and 
a»Himn at a villa called Bozza, which 
had always belonged to his family. He 
devoted the leisure of a country life 
principally to his literary pursuits. In 
the year 1529, after the death of An- 
dreas Navagero, the office of histori- 
ographer of the republic of Venice was 
offered to him, winch lie accented after 
some hesitation, declining the salary 
connected with it. At the same time, 
he was nominated librarian of the library 
of St. Mark. Pope Paul III. having re- 
solved upon a new promotion of cardi- 
nals from the most distinguished men 

of his time, conferred on him, in 1539, 
the hat of a cardinal. From that time 
Bembo renounced the belles-lettres, and 
made the Fathers and the Holy Scrip- 
tures his chief study. Of his former 
labors he continued only the "History 
of Venice." Two years later, Paul III. 
bestowed the bishopric of Gnbbio on 
him, and soon after the rich bishopric 
of Bergamo. He died, loaded with 
honors, 1547, in the 77th year of his 
age. Bembo united in his person, his 
character, and conversation, all that is 
amiable. He was the restorer of a pure 
style, as well in Latin composition, in 
which Cicero, Virgil, and Julius Ciesar 
were his constant models, as in the Ital- 
ian, in which he chiefly imitated Pe- 
trarca. He was so rigorous witli regard 
to purity of style, that he is said to have 
had forty different partitions, through 
which his writings, as he polished them 
by degrees, successively passed ; nor did 
he publish them till they had sustained 
these forty examinations. A collection 
of all his works, which were frequently 
printed singly, appeared in 1729. at Ven- 
lce, in four 'folio volumes. The most 
important of them are, -'History of 
Venire," from 1-1^7 to l'l", in twelve 
books, which he wrote both in Latin 
and Italian; " Lc Prose," dialogues, in 
which the rules of the Italian language 
are laid down; "Gli Asolani," dialogues 
on the nature of love; " Le Rime," a 
collection of beautiful sonnets and can- 
zonets; his letters, both in Latin and 
Italian; " De Virgilii Culice ct Terentii 
Eabtilis Liber; Cannina," which are 
ingenious and elegant, but more free 
than the author's profession would lead 
us to expect, besides several others. 

BENAVIDES, an outlaw and pirate, 
who, for several years, proved the 
scourge of the southern parts of Chili." 
He was a native of Quirihue, in the 
province of Conception, and entered the 
patriot army as a common soldier at the 
commencement of the revolution. Hav- 
ing deserted to the Spaniards, and being 
made prisoner by the Chilians, at the 
battle of Membri'lla, in 1814, he was to 
have been tried for desertion, but effect- 
ed his escape. Being made prisoner 
again at the battle of Maypu, 1818, he 
was sentenced to be shot, and was sup- 
posed to have been killed ; but, al- 
though shockingly wounded, and left" 
for dead, he recovered, and having ob- 
tained a commission from the Spanish 
commander, Sanchez, he commenced a 
war upon the southern frontier of Chili, 
never surpassed in savage cruelty. Ha 




laid waste the country with fire and 
sword, murdered his prisoners, and per- 
petrated the most horrid cruelties upon 
the unarmed peasants, including women 
and children, who chanced to fall into 
his power. Notwithstanding repeated 
engagements with the Chilian forces of 
the province of Conception, lie sustained 
himself for a long time in this atrocious 
course. At length he undertook to es- 
tablish a navy, and, for this purpose, 
piratically seized upon several English 
and American vessels, which unsus- 
pectingly stopped for refreshment not 
tar from the town of Arauco, the centre 
of his operations. So intolerable had 
the grievance become, that in 1821 the 
Chilians fitted out an expedition against 
Arauco, and succeeded in breaking up 
the robber's stronghold. He attempted 
to escape to Peru in a launch, but being 
capture 1, was condemned to death, and 
executed Feb. 23d, 1822. 

BENBOW, John, an English naval 
character of distinguished merit, was 
b. in Shrewsbury, about 1650, and 
brought up to the sea in the merchant- 
service. He fought so desperately against 
a pirate from Bailee, in one of his trips 
to the Mediterranean, about the year 
1686, as to beat her otf, though greatly 
his superior in men and metal. For 
this gallant action, he was promoted at 
once by James II. to the command of 
a ship of war. William III. employed 
him m protecting the English trade in 
the Channel, which he did with great 
effect. His Valor and activity secured 
him the confidence of the nation, and 
he was soon promoted to the rank of 
rear-admiral, and charged with the 
blockade of Dunkirk. But the squad- 
ron in that port, under the command of 
Jean Baert, managed to slip out of port, 
nor could Benbow, though he sailed in- 
stantly in pursuit, overtake it. In 1701 
he sailed to the West Indies with a small 
fleet, having accepted a command pre- 
viously declined by several of his se- 
niors, from the supposed superiority of 
the enemy's force in that quarter. In 
August of the following year, he fell in 
with the French fleet under Du Casse, 
and for five days maintained a running 
fight with them, when he at length suc- 
ceeded in bringing the enemy's stern- 
most ship to close quarters. In the 
heat of the action a chain-shot carried 
away one of his legs, and he was taken 
below; but the moment the dressing 
had been applied to the wound, he 
caused himself to be brought again on 
deck, and continued the actioxi. At 

this critical instant, being most dis 
gracefully abandoned by several of the 
captains under his command, who sign- 
ed a paper expressing their opinion that 
" nothing more was to be done," the 
whole fleet effected its escape. Ou his 
return to Jamaica, he brought the de- 
linquents to a court-martial, by which 
two of them were convicted of coward- 
ice and disobedience of orders, and con- 
demned to be shot ; which sentence, on 
their arrival in England, was carried 
into execution at Plymouth. Benbow, 
who suti'ered equally in mind and body 
from this disgraceful business, gradually 
sank under his feelings, and expired at 
Jamaica, Nov. 4th, 1702. 

BENCIO, Francis, an Italian Jesuit; 
author of Latin poems, &c. D. 1594. 

BENEDETTO, Castiglione, an Italian 
painter, chiefly of pastoral scenes. B. 
1616; d. 1670. 

BENEDICT, St. founder of the first 
religious order in the west, was born at 
Noreia, in Spoletto, in48o. In the four- 
teenth year of his age he retired to a 
cavern situated in the desert of Subiaco, 
forty miles from Rome, and, in 515, drew 
up a rule for his monks, which was first 
intro luced into the monastery of Monte 
Cassino, in the neighborhood of Naples, 
founded by him (629) in a grove of 
Apollo, after the temple had been de- 
molished. This gradually became the 
rule of all the western monks. The 
abbots of Monte Cassino afterwards ac- 
quired episcopal jurisdiction, and a cer- 
tain patriarchal authority over the whole 
order. With the intention of banishing 
idleness, he prescribed in addition to 
the work of God, (as he called prayer and 
the reading of religious writings,) the 
instruction of youth in reading, writing, 
and ciphering, in the doctrines of < 'hris- 
tianity, in manual labors, (includingme- 
chanic arts of every kind,) and in the 
management of the monastery. With 
regard to dress and food, the rule was 
severe, but not extravagant. Be caused 
a library to be founded, for which the 
aged and infirm brethren were obliged 
to copy manuscripts. By this means he 
contributed to preserve the literary re- 
mains of antiquity from ruin; for, 
though he had in view only the copying 
of religious writings, yet the praetico 
was afterwards extended to classical 
works of every kind ; and the learned 
world is indebted, for the preservation 
of great literary treasures, to his order. 
He died about the age of sixty-seven. 

BENEZET, Anthony, a distinguish 
ed philanthropist, b. at St. Quentin, in 




France. January, 1713. His parents 
were opulent, and of noble descent. On 
the revocation of the edict of Nantes, 
the family associated themselves with 
the Huguenots ; and, on this account, his 
father's estate was confiscated, in 1715, 
who thereupon sought temporary refuge 
in Holland, and afterwards in England, 
where Anthony received his education. 
He became a member of the society of 
Friends about the 14th year of his age. 
In 1731 he arrived, along with his par- 
ents, in Philadelphia. His first employ- 
ment was that ot an instructor of youth 
at Germantown — a calling which led him 
to prepare and publish several elementa- 
ry books for the use of schools. About 
the year 1750 he was particularly struck 
with the iniquity of the slave-trade, and 
the cruelty which was exercised by too 
many of those who purchased and em- 
ployed the negroes. His voice and his 
pen were now employed in behalf of this 
oppressed portion of his fellow-beings, 
finding the blacks in Philadelphia nu- 
merous, and miserably ignorant, he es- 
tablished an evening school for them, 
and taught them himself gratuitously. 
His first attempts to rouse public feeling 
on the subject of slavery consisted in 
short essays in almanacs and newspa- 
pers, which he was indefatigable in circu- 
lating. He soon published a variety of 
more elaborate and extensive tracts. 
These were printed at his own expense, 
and distributed, without charge, wher- 
ever he thought they would make an im- 
pression. He addressed them directly, 
with suitable letters, to most of the 
crowned heads of Europe, and to many 
of the most illustrious divines and phi- 
losophers. The fervor of his style and 
the force of his facts obtained for his 
philanthropic efforts the notice which he 
sought for the benefit of his cause. 
Great personages, on both sides of the 
Atlantic, corresponded with him, and it 
is certain that he gave the original im- 
pulse to those dispositions and measures 
which led the way to the abolition of the 
slave-trade by Britain and the United 
States. Clarkson, the English philan- 
thropist, whose labors contributed so 
largely to the accomplishment of that 
object, acknowledges that his under- 
standing was enlightened and his zeal 
kindled by one of Benezet's books, when 
le was about to treat the question sub- 
rutted to the senior bachelors of arts in 
the university of Cambridge, Anne liceat 
invito in servitutem dare ? About the 
year 1763, the wrongs inflicted on the 
aboriginal race of North America excited 

his susceptible mind, and prompted him 
to publish a tract, entitled, "Some Ob- 
servations on the Situation, Disposition, 
and Character of the Indian Natives of 
America." He addressed the British 
government and military commanders, 
about the effect of hostilities against the 
natives, with characteristic boldness and 
pathos. His various philanthropical ef- 
forts and his excellent qualities obtain- 
ed for him peculiar consideration in the 
society of Friends. In 17S0 he wrote 
and published a " Short Account of the 
religious Society of Friends, commonly 
called Quakers ;" and, in 1782, a " Dis- 
sertation on the Plainness and innocent 
Simplicity of the Christian Religion." 
His private habits, morals, and pursuits 
were adapted to endear and dignify his 
public career. He died at Philadelphia, 
May the 5th, in 1784, aged seventy-one. 
When it was announced that he was se- 
riously ill, a multitude of his fellow-cit- 
izens presented themselves at his house 
with anxious inquiries ; and lie convers- 
ed lucidly with hundreds after his case 
was pronounced to be hopeless. There 
is extant a full and interesting memoir 
of his life, by Robert Vaux. 

BENGER, .Miss Elizabeth Ogilvt, 
b. in 1778, at Portsmouth, was the 
daughter of a purser in the navy, who 
died in 1796, and left his wife and 
daughter with a slender provision. In 
L802 she removed with her mother to 
London. She soon attracted attention 
by her verses, and Miss Sarah Wesley 
early became her patron. She composed 
some theatrical pieces, which did not 
meet with success. Mr. Bowyer, the 
engraver, employed her to write a poem 
on the '"Slave-Trade," which, with two 
others, was published in quarto, with 
engravings, in 1812. She successively 
published " Memoirs of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Hamilton," "Memoirs of John Tobin," 
the dramatist, and "Notices of Klop- 
stock and His Friends," prefixed to a 
translation of their letters from the G:r- 
man. These writings were followed by 
the "History of Anne Boleyn," which 
was translated into French," " Memoirs 
of Elizabeth, queer, of Bohemia," and 
" Memoirs of Mary, queen of Scots." 
D. 1827. 

BENI, Paul, an eminent Italian phi- 
lologer, author of " Remarks on Ariosto 
and Tasso," &c. D. 1627. 

the earliest travellers of the middle age9 
who visited the central regions of Asia; 
author of a Hebrew work of travels, 
which, though interesting and romantic, 




is remarkable chiefly for its misrepre- 
sentations. D. 1173. 

BEN1NI, Vincent, a learned Italian 
physician, author of " Notes on Celsus," 
&c. B. 1713; d. 1764. 

BENNET, Christopher, an English 
physician, author of " Tabidorum The- 
atrum, seu Phthisios," <fce. D. 1685. — 
Henry, earl of Arlington, born in 1618, 
was educated at Christ-church, Oxford, 
and espoused the royal cause during the 
civil wars. He was knighted at Bruges, 
by Charles II., who employed him as 
his minister at Madrid, and after the 
restoration as his secretary of state. 
Though lie was one of the rive minis- 
ters, Clifford, Ashley, Buckingham, Ar- 
lington,, and Lauderdale, denominated 
cabal, he did not enter into their views, 
nor support the schemes formed to 
render tne monarch absolute. When 
accused for the ill success of the Dutch 
war, he ably defended himself before 
the commons, and was acquitted by a 
small majority. After serving the king 
twelve years as secretary, lie retired 
upon the indolent office of chamberlain, 
and was afterwards employed as a nego- 
tiator with the prince of Orange; but 
was unsuccessful in his endeavors to 
procure a general peace. Arlington, 
who died in 1685, is described by Bur- 
net as a proud man, but his abilities 
■were so strong, and at the same time 
so versatile, that he was the only person 
who could manage with success the 
kind's temper. lie was a Catholic in 
religion, though in power he inveighed 
with bitterness against the Roman Cath- 

BENNINGSEN, Levin Augustus, 
baron of, Russian commander-in-chief, 
b. at Banteln, in Hanover, 1745, early 
entered into the Russian service, and 
distinguished himself by great gallantry 
in the war against Poland, under the 
Empress Catherine II. He acted a chief 
part in the conspiracy of the palace 
against the Emperor Paul I. In 1806 
he was appointed to command the Rus- 
sian army which hastened to the assist- 
ance of the Prussians ; but, before his 
arrival, the Prussians were defeated at 
Jena. He afterwards fought the mur- 
derous battle of Eylau, (next to that of 
Mojaisk, perhaps the most bloody in 
military history,) and the battle of Fried- 
land. After the peace of Tilsit, he re- 
tired to his estates. In 1813 he led a 
Russian army called " the army of Po- 
land,'' into Saxony, took part in the 
oattle of Leipsic, and blockaded Ham- 
hurgh. After commanding the army in 

the south of Russia, he finally settled in 
his native country, and died Oct. 3d, 
1826. He is the author of "Thoughts 
on certain Points requisite for an Officer 
of Light Cavalry to be acquainted with " 
Riga, 1794 ; W'ilna, 1805. 

BENNITSKI, Alexander Petro- 
vitsch, a Russian poet, author of " Ko- 
mala," a poem ; a translation of Ossian, 
&c. B. 1780; d. 1808. 

BENOIT, Elias, a learned Protestant 
divine, pastor of the church of Delft, 
author of a "History of the Edict of 
Nantes." B. 1640 : d. 1723. 

BENSERADE, Isaac de, a French 
poet, born near Rouen. Though poor, 
his wit and his poetical talents rendered 
him popular; he was noticed by Riche- 
lieu, to whom, according to some he was 
related, and a pension was settled upon 
him. After the death of Richelieu he 
attached himself to the duke de Breze, 
and he was named as envoy to Chris- 
tina, queen of Sweden, an employment 
which he did not undertake. As a poet 
his talents were such that for a time he 
divided the applauses of the town with 
Voiture. His rondeaus on Ovid are his 
worst performances. In the last part 
of his life he retired to Gentilly, where 
he employed himself in works of piety, 
and translated almost all the psalms. 
He was so afflicted with the stone, that 
he reluctantly submitted to the operation 
of cutting, but the surgeon punctured 
an artery, ran away instead of checking 
the effusion of blood, and the unfor- 
tunate patient expired iu the arms of 
his confessor, during the year ltjuo. 

BENTHA.M, Jeremy, the celebrated 
writer on politics and jurisprudence-, 
was b. in 1749. He st'udieet English 
law, but never appeared at the bar, be- 
ing enabled, by easy circumstances. *o 
devote himself entirely to literary com- 
positions. He did not, however, pub- 
lish his chief works himself. They were 
arranged and translated into French by 
his friend M. Dumont, and printed 
partly in Paris and partly in London. 
Among them are " Traites de Legisla- 
tion, Civile et Penale, &c.," and "The- 
orie des Peines et des Recompenses." 
He advocated a thorough correction of 
civil and criminal legislation. His 
" Fragments on Government," in op- 
position to Blackstone, appeared anony- 
mously in 1776, and with his name, at 
London, in 1823. In France, his liter- 
ary labors found a better reception than 
in England or Germany. A small 
pamphlet on the liberty of the press, 
was addressed by him to the Spanish 




Cortes, during their discussion of this 
subject; and, in another, "Three Tracts 
relative to the Spanish and Portuguese 
Affairs," London, 1821, he refuted the 
idea of the necessity of a house of peers 
in Spain, as well as Montesquieu's pro- 
position, that judicial forms are the de- 
fence of innocence. One of his latest 
works was the " Art of Packing," that 
is, of arranging juries so as to obtain 
any verdict desired. His previous work, 
" Essai sur la Tactique des Assemblies 
Legislatives," edited, from the author's 
papers, by Dumont, and translated into 
German, contains many useful observa- 
tions. His " Introduction to the Prin- 
ciples of Morals and Legislation," treats 
of the principal objects of government 
in a profound and comprehensive man- 
ner. Zanobelli has translated his "The- 
ory of Legal Evidence," into Italian. 
Among his earlier works was a " De- 
fence of Usury," showing the impolicy 
of the present legal restraints on the 
terms of pecuniary bargains: 1787. Mr. 
Bcntham died in London, June 6, 1832, 
leaving his body to be dissected for the 
benefit of science. He was a man of 
primitive manners, unblemished char- 
acter, and undoubted earnestness in 
the cause of the people at large. lie is 
considered as the father of the Utilita- 
rians, or those moral-political-econo- 
mists, who view every thing as it is af- 
fected by the principle of "the greatest 
happiness of the greatest number." 

BENTINCK, William, first earl of 
Portland, was descended from a noble 
family in Holland. When the prince 
cf Orange was seized with the small-pox, 
it was recommended that he should re- 
ceive the warmth of a young person in 
the same bed. Bentinck offered himself, 
and caught the same disease in a violent 
degree, but the danger to which he sub- 
mitted was amply repaid by the favor 
of the prince. 'William brought him 
with him to England, raised him to the 
peerage, and granted him valuable lands. 
The "earl, faithful to his principles, 
served the king in various offices, civil 
and military, and attended him in his 
last moments. D. 1709. — William 
Henry Cavendish, third duke of Port- 
land, was born in 1738, and educated at 
Christ-church, Oxford. He was called 
to the house of lords by the death of his 
father in 1762, having sat for some time 
n the house of commons as member for 
Weobley ; after his accession to the up- 
per house he voted with the marquis of 
Rockingham, under whose administra- 
tion he was lord chamberlain. During 

the American war he acted with the op- 
position, and was appointed lord lieu- 
tenant of Ireland in 1782, but in con 
sequence of the breaking up of the 
administration, by the death of the 
marquis of Rockingham, he only con- 
tinued in that office three months. The 
memorable coalition succeeded, which 
fell before the rising fortunes of Mr. 
Pitt, and from that time the duke voted 
with the whig opposition until he was 
elected chancellor of Oxford in 1792. 
He soon after joined with Mr. Burke in 
his alarm at the French revolution, 
agreeing with this orator and other 
seceders, on the score of French poli- 
tics, to support the administration. He 
was accordingly appointed secretary of 
state for the home department in 17'J4, 
and continued in that office until the 
resignation of Mr. Pitt in 1801, when he 
was made president of the council, which 
he held until 1805. He succeeded Lord 
Grenville as first lord of the treasury in 
1807, which office he resigned soon after, 
and was succeeded by Mr. Percival. D. 
1808. — Lord Geokge', a British states- 
man of considerable ability, the fourth 
son of the duke of Portland, who en- 
tered parliament in 1828, first as a mod- 
erate whig, but subsequently he became 
a tory, and opposed Sir Robert Peel's 
movements in favor of free-trade. D, 

BENTIVOGLIO, Cornelio, cardinal 
and poet, b. at Ferrara, 1668, -early dis- 
tinguished himself by his progress in 
the fine arts, literature, philosophy, the- 
ology, and j urisprudence. Pope Clement 
XL made him his domestic prelate, and 
secretary to the apostolic chamber, and 
sent him, in 1712, as nuncio to Paris, 
where, during the last years of the reign 
of Louis XIV. he acted an important 
part in the affairs of the bull Unigenitns. 
The pope, in 171'J, bestowed on him the 
hat of a cardinal. Poetry had rccupied 
the leisure hours of the learned cardinal. 
Some sonnets composed by him are to 
be found in Gobbi's collection, vol. 3, 
and in other collections of his time. 
Under the name of Selvaggio Porpora 
he translated the " Thebais" of Statins 
into Italian. He delivered several ad- 
dresses before societies for the promo- 
tion of the fine arts. His discourse in 
defence of the utility and moral influ- 
ence of painting, sculpture, and archi- 
tecture, delivered in the academy of 
design, at Rome, 1717, was reprinted by 
the academy of the Arcadians, in the 
second volume of the "Prose degli Ar- 
eadi." D. 1732. — Guido, celebrated as 




n cardinal and an historian, was b. at 
Ferrara, in 1570. He studied at Padua 
with great reputation, and afterwards, 
fixing his resilience at Eome, acquired 
general esteem by his prudence and in- 
tegrity. He was nuncio in Flanders 
from 1607 to 1616, and afterwards in 
France till 1621. His character stood so 
high that, on the death of Urban VIII., 
in 1644, he was generally thought to be 
the most likely person to succeed him ; 
but, on entering the conclave, in the 
hottest and most unhealthy season of 
the year, he was seized with a fever, of 
which he died, aged 65. He lived in a 
magnificent style, and was much em- 
barrassed at the time of his death — a 
circumstance attributed to his canvass 
for the papacy. He wrote a " History 
of the Civil Wars in Flanders," in Ital- 
ian; an ' ; Account of Flanders" during 
his legation, also translated by the earl 
of Monmouth ; his own " Memoirs ;" 
and a "Collection of Letters,'' which 
are reckoned among the best specimens 
of the Italian language. 

BENTLEY, Richard, a celebrated En- 
glish divine and classical scholar, dis- 
tinguished as a polemical writer, in the 
latter part of the 17th century, was born 
near Wakefield, in Yorkshire, in 1662. 
His father is said to have been a black- 
smith. In 16S4 he took the degree of 
A.M. at Cambridge, and, in 1689, obtain- 
ed the same honor at the sister univer- 
sity. His first published work was a 
Latin epistle to doctor John Mill, in an 
edition of the "Chronicle of John 
Malea," which appeared in 1691. Dr. 
Stillingfleet, having been raised to the 
bishopric of Worcester, made Bentley 
his chaplain, and, in 1602. collated him 
to a prebend in his cathedral. In 1693 
he was appointed keeper of the royal 
library at St. James's — a circumstance 
which incidentally led to his famous 
controversy with the honorable Charles 
Boyle, afterwards earl of Orrery, rela- 
tive to the genuineness of the Greek 
Epistles of Phalaris, an edition of which 
was published by the latter, then a stu- 
dent at Christ-church, Oxford. In this 
dispute, Bentley was victorious, though 
opposed by the greatest wits and critics 
of the age, including Pope, Swift, Garth, 
Atterbury, Aldrich, Dodwell, and Con- 
fers Middleton, who advocated the opin- 
ion of Boyle with a degree of warmth 
and illiberality that appears highly 
extraordinary. In 1699, having three 

J [ears before been made D.D., he pub- 
ished his " Dissertation on the Epistles 
»f Phalaris," in which he satisfactorily 

proved that they were not the composi- 
tions of tho tyrant of Agrigeutum, who 
lived more than five centuries before the 
Christian era, but were written by some 
sophist under the borrowed name of 
Phalaris, in the declining age of Greek 
literature. Soon after this publication, 
he was presented by the crown to the 
mastership of Trinity college, Cambridge, 
worth nearly £1000 a-year. He now re- 
signed the prebend of Worcester, and, 
in 1701, was collated to the archdeacon- 
ry of Ely. In 1711 he published an 
edition of Horace, at Cambridge, in 4to., 
which was reprinted at Amsterdam; 
ami in 1713 appeared his " Remarks on 
Collins's Discourse on Free-thinking," 
under the form of a Letter to F. H. 
[Francis Hare] D.D., by Phileleutherus 
Lipsiensis. He was appointed regius 
professor of divinity in 1716, and, in the 
same year, issued proposals for a new 
edition of the Greek Testament — an un- 
dertaking for which he was admirably 
qualified, but which he was prevented 
from executing, in consequence of the 
animadversions of his determined ad- 
versary, Middleton. In 1726 he pub- 
lished an edition of Terence and Phse- 
drus ; and his notes on the comedies o*" 
the former involved him in a dispmV 
with Bishop Hare, on the metres rf 
Terence, which provoked the sarcastic 
observation of Sir Isaac Newton, that 
" two dignified clergymen, instead of 
minding their duty, had fallen out about 
a play-book." His last work was an 
edition of Milton's Paradise Lost, with 
conjectural emendations, which appear- 
ed in 1732. This added nothing to his 
reputation, and may, in one word, be 
characterized as a failure. D. 1742. 

BENYOWSKY, Count Mauimtius 
Augustus de, magnate of Hungary and 
Poland, was b. 1741, in the Hungarian 
province of Nittria. He embraced early 
the profession of arms, and after serving 
in the imperial armies, joined the con- 
federation of the Polish nobility. He 
accepted a high command in the army, 
and distinguished himself against, the 
Russians in various skirmishes, till sev- 
eral wounds disabled him, and he fell 
into the hands of the enemy. The tri- 
umph of the Russians was great in pos- 
sessing the person of such an adversary ; 
but, instead of respecting his misfor- 
tunes, they insulted his fate, and load- 
ing him with irons, confined him in a 
prison, where the dead carcasses of his 
companions in misery threatened a 
pestilential contagion. He escaped, but 
again was taken, and hurried away 




'„hrongh the deserts of Siberia to Kam- 
Btchatka, where he found himself an in- 
sulted exile and degraded prisoner, 1770. 
In this distant retreat he formed the de- 
sign of escaping, and the daughter of M. 
Nilon, the governor of the place, con- 
sented to share his fortunes, and assist 
him in his flight. He succeeded in his 
attempt, made himself master of Kam- 
stchatka by force, and, accompanied by 
eight-six faithful followers and nine 
women, among whom was his fair pro- 
tector, he sailed on the 11th May, 1771, 
from the harbor, and passing by the 
island of Formosa and the coast of 
China, reached, Sept. 17th, the port of 
Macao, from whence he departed for 
Europe in a French vessel. He no 
sooner landed in France, than he was 
encouraged by the French court to form 
a settlement at Madagascar. He eagerly 
embraced the proposal, and after a res- 
idence of scarce seven months in Europe, 
set sail for Africa. On landing at Mad- 
agascar, the governor of the isle of France 
sent a small force to oppose him. He 
met the invaders with Ins usual bravery, 
but his adherents were few and timid, 
and the hero, abandoned by the thirty 
natives that were with him, and assisted 
only by two Europeans, found himself 
overpowered. A ball having struck him 
on the right breast decided the fortune 
of the day. He fell behind the parapet, 
but his inhuman enemies, dragging him 
by the hair, saw him expire in a few 
minutes after, May the 23d, 1786. ' 

BERCHTOLDT, Leopold, Count, was 
b. in 1758, and devoted his life to the 
relief of the wretched. He spent thir- 
teen years in travelling through Europe, 
and four in travelling through Asia and 
Africa, to assuage human misery. The 
results of his experience are contained 
in his "Essay to direct and extend the 
Inquiries of" Patriot Travellers." He 
wrote several pamphlets on " The Means 
of Reforming the Police," which he caus- 
ed to be printed in different European 
countries, at his own expense, and to be 
distributed giatis. His prize questions 
gave rise to many pamphlets and treati- 
ses on the means of saving the drowned 
and seemingly dead. He offered a prize 
of looo florins for the best treatise on 
beneficient institutions and was himself 
the founder of many. From 1795 till 
1797 he travelled through Asiatic and 
European Turkey, chiefly for the pur- 
pose of counteracting the ravages of the 
plague. At a later period he was en- 
gaged in making vaccination more exten- 
Bively known. During the famine that 

raged in the Eiesengebirge, from 1805 
to 1806, he procured corn and other pro- 
visions from distant regions. lie fitted 
up the palace Buchlowitz on his estate 
Buchlau, in Moravia, as an hospital for 
the sick and wounded Austrian soldiers. 
Here this patriot and philanthropist was 
carried oft' by a contagious nervous fever, 
July the 26th, 1809. 

Tours, a teacher in the philosophical 
school in that city, and in 1040 archdea- 
con of Angers, is renowned for his phi 
losophical acuteness as one of the scho- 
lastic writers, and also for the boldness 
with which, in 1050, he declared himself 
against the doctrine of transubstantia- 
tion, and for his consequent persecu- 
tions. He was several times compelled 
to recant, but always returned to the 
same opinion, that the bread in the 
Lord's supper is merely a symbol of the 
body of Christ, in which he agreed with 
the Scotsman, John Erigena. The Cath- 
olics ranked him among the most dan- 
gerous heretics. He was treated with 
forbearance by Gregory VII., but the 
scholastics belonging to the party of the 
great Lanfranc, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, were so irritated against him, that 
he retired to the isle of St. Gosmas, in 
the neighborhood of Tours, In the year 
1030, where he closed his life at a great 
a°;e in pious exercises in 10S8. This 
Berenger must not be confounded with 
Peter Eerenger, of Poitiers, who wrote 
a life of Abelard. 

BERENGER I., king of Italy, who 
assumed the sovereignty on the death 
of Charles I. in 888. He was defeated 
by Rodolph of Burgundy, in 922, and 
shortly afterwards assassinated. — II., 
became king of Italy in 9."0, but wa3 
subsequently deposed for his tyranny, 
and died in confinement in Germany. — 
James, a celebrated anatomist and phy- 
sician of the 16th century, born at Carpi, 
in Italy, and died at Ferrara, 1550. He 
made several important anatomical dis- 
coveries, and is said to be the first who 
used mercury in syphilitic diseases. — 
Laurence Peter, a native of Provence, 
professor of rhetoric at Orleans previous 
to the revolution ; and, after the restora- 
tion of the Bourbons, professor at the 
Lyceum of Lyons, and inspector of acad- 
emies ; author of " Les Soirees Pro- 
vencales," &c. D. 1822. 

BERENICE, daughter of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus, and wife of Antiochus, 
king of Syria. She was deserted by her 
husband in favor of his former wife 
Laodice, by whose orders she was stran 




gled m her retirement at Antioch, 148 
B. o. — A daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, 
king of Egypt. She usurped her father's 
throne, and put her first husband to 
death; but the Romans replaced Ptol- 
emy on his throne ; and he caused his 
rebellious daughter to be executed. — A 
daughter of Agrippa, king of Judea, and 
wile of her father's brother, Herod, who 
was made king of Chalcis by the Em- 
peror Claudius. Becoming a widow, 
she gave her hand to Polemon, king of 
Cilicia, out she soon deserted him, and 
became the mistress of Titus, who, it was 
thought, would have made her his wife 
but for the murmurs of the Romans. 

BERESFORD, James, rector of Kib- 
worth, Leicestershire, was born at Up- 
ham, in Hampshire, in 1764, and received 
his education at the Charter-house, and 
Morton college, Oxford. He was the 
author of a variety of separate works, 
besides several excellent papers in the 
" Looker-on," a periodical of consider- 
able interest, published in 1792-3; but 
the work which obtained for him the 
greatest celebrity, was the well-known 
humorous satire entitled "The Miseries 
of Human Life." D. 1840. 

BERETTINI, Peter, an Italian archi- 
tect and painter of great merit. B. 1596 ; 
d. 1669. 

BERG, Matthias van dek, a Flemish 
painter, pupil of Rubens. B. 1615; d. 

BERGEN, Dike van der, a celebra- 
ted landscape and portrait painter. D. 

BERGHEM, Nicholas, an eminent 
painter, b. at Haerlem in 1624, aud re- 
ceived nis first instruction in painting 
from his father, Peter of Haerlem, who 
was a very different artist. He then 
continued his studies under Van Goyen, 
and the elder Weenix. It is related, 
that once, when pursued by his father, 
he fled into the workshop of Van Goycn, 
who, to protect him, called to his pupils, 
" Berg hem" (conceal him) : this, it is 
said, occasioned his new name. Love 
of his art, and the great demand for 
paintings, as likewise the avarice of his 
wife, prompted him to labor with great 
assiduity. To buy engravings, of which 
he was very fond, he was often compel- 
led to borrow money from his students, 
which he could only refund by deceiving 
his wife in regard to the price of his 
paintings. In this manner he obtained 
a rich collection. Bersrhem 1 s landscapes 
and representations of animals adorn the 
met oe'eb'-ated galleries. The distin- 
guishing char acieri sties of his pictures 

are the breadth and just distribution of 
the lights, the grandeur of his masses of 
light and shadow, the natural ease and 
simplicity in the attitudes of his figures, 
the brilliancy and harmony, as well as 
transparency of his coloring, the correct- 
ness and true perspective of his design, 
and the elegance of his composition. 
Although he hardly ever left Ins woik- 
shop, yet he had closely observed nature, 
during a long resideuce in the palaco 
of Benthem. He died at Haerlem, in 

BERGMANN, Torbern Olof, a nat- 
ural philosopher and chemist, was b. 
at Catherineberg, in the Swedish prov 
ince of West Gothland, March the 9th, 
1735, and obtained, after many difficul- 
ties, the permission of his family to de- 
vote himself entirely to the sciences. At 
that time disciples flocked from all quar- 
ters to Linnaeus, at Upsal. They were 
joined by Bergmann, in 1752, who, by 
his acuteness and bis discoveries, which 
were facilitated by his attainments in 
geometry and physics, excited the notice 
of this great man. In 1758 he became 
doctor of philosophy and professor of 
physics at Upsal. Upon the resignation 
of the celebrated Wallerius he stood 
candidate for the professorship of chem- 
istry and mineralogy. His competitors 
charged him with ignorance of the sub- 
ject, because he had never written on it. 
To refute them, he shut himself up for 
some time in a laboratory, and prepared 
a treatise on the manufacture of alum, 
which is still considered as a standard 
work. In 1767 he became profe-ssor of 
chemistry, and devoted himself with 
ardor to this science. He invented the 
preparation of artificial mineral waters, 
and discovered the sulphureted hydro- 
gen gas of mineral springs. We are in- 
debted to him for a knowledge of tho 
characters which distinguish nickel from 
other metals. On a number of minerals 
he made chemical experiments, with an 
accuracy before uncommon. He pub- 
lished a classification of minerals, in 
which the chief divisions are based on 
their chemical character, and the sub- 
divisions on their external form. His 
theory of the chemical relations is still 
esteemed, and If it has received sorao 
new developments from the further re- 
searches of Berthollet, It has not been 
overthrown. The order of Gustavus 
Vasa was bestowed on Bergmann. He 
declined the invitation of Frederic the 
Great to remove to Berlin. D. 1784. 

BERKELEY, George, bishop of 
Cloyne, in Ireland, celebrated for bis 




ideal theory. He was b. at Kilerin, 
Ireland, in 16S4: became fellow of Trin- 
ity college, Dublin, in 1707 ; travelled in 
Italy as far as Leghorn, in 1713 and 1714, 
and, at a later period, in 17-21. he was 
made chaplain to the lord lieutenant of 
Ireland, the duke of Grafton. He, ap- 
peared with mnch applause as an author 
before he was twenty years old. His 
works on philosophy and mathematics. 
among which his " Theory of Vision," 
published in 1709, is the most brilliant 

Eroof of the author's acnteness, procured 
im a wide-spread fame. In 172-1 he 
was promoted to the deanery of Deny, 
and resigned his fellowship. He now 
published his " Proposals for the Con- 
version of the American Savages to 
Christianity." by the establishment of a 
college in the Bermuda islands. The 
project was very favorably receive band 
persons of the tirst rank raised consider- 
able sums by subscription to aid it : and 
Berkeley, having resigned bis prefer- 
ment, set sail for Rhode Island, with 
several other persons of similar views, 
to make arrangements for earning on 
his college, i ssist nee of parliament, 
which had been promised, not bein_r af- 
forded, his undertaking miscarried, after 
he had spent seven years and a consid- 
erable part of his fortune in his efforts to 
accomplish it. He afterwards wrote 
numerous philosophical, religions, and 
politico-economical works; among the 
rest two treatises on the utility of tar 
water. D. 1753. — George, earl of, one 
of the privy council of Charles II.; au- 
thor of " Historical Applications and 
Occasional Meditations." D. 1698. — -Sir 
William, of the same family as the 
above : vice-admiral of the white. He 
was killed in an action with the Dutch, 
1666. — Joux le Franc van. a Dutch 
physician, naturalist, and poet ; author 
of " Poems." " Natural Historv of Hol- 
land." &c B. 1729 ; d. 1*12.— Sir Wil- 
liam, governor of Virginia ; author of 
'■The Description and Laws of Vir- 
ginia." Arc. I). 1677. 

BERKENHoUT. John, an English 
physician and general writer. II 
1;. at Leeds, in Yorkshire, about 1730, 
end his father, who was a Dutch mer- 
chant, gave him an education suitable 
to the same calling ; but his turn beinir 
to a military life, he entered into the 
Prussian service, and rose to the rank 
of captain. In 1756 he quitted that ser- 
vice anu entered into that of England, 
where he obtained the same rank. At 
the peace, in 1760, he went to Edinburgh, 
»nd began the study of physic ; while 

there he published his " Clavis Anghca 
Linguse Botanica?," a book of great 
merit : in 1765 he went to Leyder., and 
took his degree of M.D. On "his return 
to England" he settled at Isle worth, in 

sex, and soon after published his 
" Pharmacopeia Medica." Iu 1773 he 
attended the British commissioners to 
America, and at Philadelphia he was 
committed to prison, but he soon af er- 
wards was set at liberty, and returned 
with the commissioners to England, 
where he obtained a pension. D. 1791. 
BERLiailXiiEX. Gtz, or Godfrey 
von, with the iron hand; born at Jax- 
thausen, in Suabia ; a bold, restless, 
warlike, and honorable German knight, 
of the middle ages. He placed himself 
a: the hea I of the rebellious peasants, in 
the war which they waged against their 
oppressors, but was soon made prisoner. 
Before that time he had lost his right 
hand, and therefore wore one made of 
iron. He died July the 23d, 1562. His 
biography, written by himself, was 
printed at Nuremberg iu 1731 and 1775, 
an i. for the third time, at Breslan, in 

This book coutains an excellent 
picture of the social life and customs of 
the middle aires, and has furnished 
Goethe with the subject for his beautiful 
drama. " Goetz von Berlichingen," 
which Sir Walter Scott translated. 

BEEN ADOTTE. Charles John XIV., 
king of Sweden and Norway, whose 
original name was John Baptists Jri.irs 
BLRXADoTTr:. was born of very humble 
parents at Pan. in Bearne. He received 
a good education, and it is said that he 
was designed for the bar, but he sud- 
denly abandoned his studies, and en- 
listed as a private in the marines. For 
nine years from his enlistment, that is, 
up to' the year 1739, the utmost rank 
that Bernadotte had attained was that 
of sergeant ; but in the opening made 
by the French revolution, by the sweep- 
ing away the arbitrary barrier which till 
then had rendered plebeian merit of little 
avail in the French service. Bernadotte 
saw his advantage, and improved it so 
well, that in 1792 he was a colonel iu 
the army of Custines. In 1793 he so 
distinguished himself under the com- 
mand of Kleber, as to be raised to the 
rank of general of brigade, and shortly 
afterwards, of division. On the Rhino 
an 1 in Italy he more and more extin- 
guished himself, and he showed that 
his talents were not those of a mere sol- 
dier, by his conduct in a somewhat dif- 
ficult embassy to Austria. Between him 
and Napoleon there seems to have been 




a constant distrust, if not actual hatred : 
nevertheless, Bernadotte had a mar- 
shal's staff on the establishment of the 
consulate, and was created prince of 
Ponte Corvo in 1S'1»*3. In all his cam- 
paigns, Bernadotte was distinguished 
from the great majority of the French 
commanders by the clemency and gen- 
erosity of his conduct from the moment 
that the battle was at an end; and it 
was this conduct, even more than his 
brilliant reputation as a soldier, that 
caused him to be put in nomination as 
a successor of Charles XIII. of Sweden. 
N Icon, then emperor, could but with 
difficulty be induced to consent to Ber- 
nadotte becoming crown-arince and heir 
to the throne. "Whatf" said Berna- 
dotte, '-will you make me greater than 
yourself by mating me refuse a crown '" 
the sarcasm told, "and Napoleon merely 
replied, " Go ! our fates must be accom- 

Elished !" From the instant that he 
ecame crown-prince of Sweden, the 
fortunate soldier showed a determina- 
tion to give all his energies to his adopt- 
ed country ; he formed a secret alliance 
with Russia in 1812, and. in 1813, he 
took command of the combined armies 
of Northern Germany against France. 
Never during half a century before bis 
— ion had Sweden known the peace 
or the prosperity in which he left her 
in the hands of liis son Oscar. B. I 
d. 1844. 

deacon of Aosta. was born in 923, near 
Annecy, in Savoy, and was celebrated 
among his cotemporaries for his learn- 
ing and piety ; but Ins claims to the 
notice of later aires rest on his having 
been the benevolent founder of the two 
admirable institutions on the Great and 
Little Saint Bernard, by means of which 
the lives of so many travellers have been 
Baved. D. 1008. — Of THrp.iNGiA, a fa- 
natical hermit of the 10th century, who 
threw almost all Europe into consterna- 
tion, by preaching that the end of the 
world was at hand. Multitudes relin- 
quished their occupations, and became 
pilgrims : and others were so frightened 
at 'an eclipse of the sun, which then 
occurred, that they hid themselves in 
caverns and holes in the rocks. The 
error spread by this man was not whol- 
ly removed till towards the end of the 
eleventh century. — Edward, an English 
philosopher and critic; author of " Ety- 
molocricum Brittanicum." a "Treatise 
>n Ancient Weights and Measures," 
&&, &e. B. 1638; . 1C ".— • James, a 
French Protestant divine ; author of an 

-Historical Accorjit of Europe," <fec. 
58 ; d. 171*. — John, an actor; au- 
thor of '-Retrosjection of the Stage." 
D. 1828. — Claude, snrnamed "the poor 
priest,*'' was a native of Dijon, whose 
active benevolence towards the poor and 
sick was unremitting during the whole 
course of his life, and for whose support 
he not only expended his whole inher- 
itance, £20,000, but was continually em- 
ployed in soliciting for thein the bene- 
factions of others. B. 15Si; d. 1641. — 
Peter Joseph, a French amatory poet, 
by Voltaire, le gentil Bernard, an 
epithet by which he is still distinguish- 
ed. B. at Grenoble, 1710; d. 177".— Sir 
Thomas, a gentleman and scholar, to 
whom the Society for bettering the Con- 
dition of the Poor owes its establishment, 
and who was also the active promoter 
of many charities, was born at Lincoln, 
1750; d. 1818. — Duke of 'Weimar, the 
fourth son of duke John of Saxe-Wei- 
mar, was a eeneral whose magnanim- 
ity, skill, and impetuous valor were fre- 
quently displayed while cominaudir^ 
the Swedish army after the death jt 
Gustavus ; and who afterwards, while 
in alliance with France, did great ser- 
vice to the Protestant cause. He died 
by poison, administered, as his cotem- 
porarii - . at the instigation of 

the duke of Richelieu, who had become 
jealous of his power : but of this there 
is no substantial proof. B. 1604>d. 1639. 
— Simon, general of engineers of France, 
was b. at Dole in 177^. The kindness 
of the parish priest supplied him with 
sufficient of the rudiments of learning 
to allow his entering the Polytechnio 
school at fifteen years of age. La Place, 
Haiiy. and other" great men were then at 
the head of the Polytechnic school, and 
so well did Bernard avail himself of their 
lessons, that he not only became one of 
the most distinguished engineer officers 
and aids-de-camp of Napoleon, but, 
subsequently to the emperor's fall, exe- 
cuted works in the United States, which 
are most undoubtedly unequalled else- 
where: the most distant places being 
united by canals, actual navigable rivers, 
and upwards of four thousand five hun- 
dred miles of frontier rendered secure 
against invasion by forts and works. 
Since July. 1830, he returned to France, 
and was for some time minister of war. 
D. 153','. — Saint, the abbot of Clairvaux, 
and one of the most influential ecclesi- 
astics of the middle ages. He was born 
of a noble family at Fontaines, in Bur- 
gundy, 1091. He beeame a monk of 
Citeaux in 1113, and two years later, 

J 48 



first abbot of Clairvaux. An austere 
maimer of living, solitary studies, bold 
language and eloquence, with the repu- 
tation of a prophet, made him soon the 
oracle of Christian Europe. He was 
called the honeyed teacher, and his wri- 
tings, a stream from Paradise. He prin- 
cipally promoted the crusade in 1146, 
and quieted the fermentation, caused at 
that time by a party of monks, against 
the Jews in Germany. He declined all 

Eromotion, and in the rank of abbot of 
is " beloved Jerusalem," as he used to 
call Clairvaux, he continued with all hu- 
mility, but with great boldness, his cen- 
sures of the clergy and his counsels to 
the popes. Innocent II. owed to him 
the succession of the right of investiture 
in Germany, and Eugenius III. his edu- 
cation. He was, at the same time, the 
umpire of princes and bishops, and his 
voice in the synods was regarded as di- 
vine. By his rigid orthodoxy and his 
mystical doctrines, which, though at- 
times enthusiastic, were always directed 
to the promotion of practical Christian- 
ity, he refuted the subtleties and dia- 
lectics of the scholastic philosophers, al- 
though his severity against Abelard and 
Gilbert of Poree can by no means be 
justified. Luther says of him, " If there 
has ever been a pious monk who feared 
God, it was St. Bernard ; whom alone I 
hold in much higher esteem than all 
ofher monks and priests throughout the 
globe." He died in 1153, and was can- 
onize 1 by Alexander III., in 1174. 

BERNARDEZ, Diego, called by his 
countrymen the Portuguese Theocritus, 
was not more eminent as a pastoral poet, 
than as a brave warrior ; and after nu- 
merous deeds of heroism, was taken 
prisoner by the Moors at the battle of 
Alcazarquiver. D. 1596. 

BERNARD [, Augustus Frederic, a 
German philologist, whose great aim was 
to invent a universal grammar common 
to all languages, and who, in his endeav- 
ors to etfect that object, displayed great 
ingenuity and learning. B. at Berlin, 
176S ; d. 1820. — John, a celebrated en- 
graver and architect. D. 1555. 

BERNARDINE, a Catholic saint; 
canonized for his zeal in causing more 
han 800 monasteries to be founded. B. 
At Massa, in Tuscany, 1380 ; d. 1445. 

James Henry, was b. at Havre, in 1787, 
and is said to have been a descend- 
ant of the celebrated Eustace cle St. 
Pierre, the patriotic mayor of Calais. 
&.t the ;\ge of twenty he entered into the 
engine er service ; and he successively 

served at Malta, in Russia, and in Po- 
land. On his revisiting his native coun- 
try, he obtained a captain's commission 
in the engineer corps, and was sent to 
the Isle of France, from whence, how- 
ever, after a residence of three years, he 
returned, with no other fortune than a 
collection of shells and insects, and a 
narrative of his voyage. The latter, 
which was his first literary effort, was 
published in 1773; and he, thenceforth, 
devoted himself to literature. His 
"Studies of Nature" appeared in 1784, 
and passed rapidly through several edi- 
tions. "Paul and Virginia" was pub- 
lished in 1788, and this delightful tale 
acquired an unprecedented popularity, 
and set the seal on his reputation. 
During the reign of terror, he narrowly 
escaped the scaffold. From Napoleon 
and his brother Joseph he received 
pensions, which gave comfort to his 
latter days. He d. in 1814. His " Har- 
monies of Nature" was given to the 
press after his death. The best edition 
of his works is in 12 octavo vols. The 
philosophy of St. Pierre is occasionally 
eccentric ; but the purity of his morality, 
and the beauty of his style, deserve tho 
highest praise. 

BERNES, or BARNES, Juliana, an 
English lady of the 15th century, of 
whom little more is known, than that 
she was prioress of the nunnery of Sope- 
well, near St. Alban"s, and has her name 
prefixed, as the writer or compiler, to 
one of the earliest and most curious pro- 
ductions of the English press. The title 
of the second edition, printed in the 
abbey of St. Alban's, in 1486, is, "The 
Boke of Ilawkyng and Huntyng, with 
other Pleasures dy verse, and also Coot- 
annuries." The first edition (1481) 
does not treat of coat-armor or her- 
aldry. This work, under the title of 
"The Book of St. Alban's," became a 
popular manual of sporting science, and 
was several times reprinted in the 16th 
century. As a typographical curiosity, 
a small impression of it was published, 
in 1811, by Mr. Halsewood. 

BERNI, Francis, one of the most 
eminent Italian poets of the 16th cen- 
tury, was b. at Lamporeechio, in Tus- 
cany, and d. of poison, in 1536. He 
remodelled Bojardo's " Orlando Inna- 
morato." His " Rime Burlesche," and 
his Latin " Poems," are to be found 
in various collections. — Count Francis, 
a civilian, orator, and poet, was b. at 
Ferrara, in 1610. He was greatly in 
favor with Pope Innocent X., Alexande. 
VII., and Clement IX., and with two 




successive dukes of Mantua. He ex- 
celled in dramatic pieces, of which he 
wrote eleven. A volume of his miscel- 
lanies was published with the title of 
"Academia." 1>. 167-3. 

BERXIER, Francis, a physician and 
traveller, was b. at Angers. In 1655. 
after having passed through Syria and 
Egypt, he visited India, where he re- 
sided for some years, as physician to 
Aurangzebe. On his return to France 
he published his "Travels," a work of 
great interest and authenticity. Ber- 
nier was universally admired for the 
graces of his mind and person. His 
principal work, besides his "Travels,'' 
is an "Abridgment of Gassendi's Phi- 
losophy," in 8 vols. D. 1688. 

BERNINI, John Laurence, who was 
at once a painter, a sculptor, and an 
architect, and whom his coteinporarics 
denominated the modern Michael An- 
gelo, was b. at Naples, in 1598. At 
the early age of eight years, he mani- 
fested his genius by sculpturing the 
head of a child in marble. Some of his 
finest works were produced before he 
was twenty. He was patronized by 
Popes Urban VIII. , Alexander VII., and 
Innocent X., and was invited to France 
by Louis XIV. His finest productions 
are at Rome. Bernini had a fine genius ; 
but he is accused of mannerism, and of 
having often violated the principles of 
true taste. D. 1680. 

BERX1S, Cardinal Francis Joachim 
de Pierres de, a French poet and 
statesman, was b. at St. Marcel de I'Ar- 
deehe, in 171*>. In early jfe, he pub- 
lished some ligH poetry, which gained 
him the patronage of Madame de Pom- 
padoui, through whose influence he 
was pensioned, and received into the 
academy ; he was subsequently em- 
ployed to negotiate in Italy, Spain, and 
Austria, promoted to be minister for 
foreign affairs, and gratified with the 
dignity of cardinal. In 1764 he was 
made archbishop of Alby, and in 1769 
was sent ambassador to Rome. The 
revolution deprived him of his rev- 
enues ; but he obtained a pension from 
Spain. He left behind him a poein, 
with the title of "Religion Avenged." 
D. 1794. 

BERXOUILLI, a family of eminent 
mathematicians, who emigrated from 
Antwerp to Bale, in consequence of the 
religious persecution of the duke of 
Alva. Eight distinguished men be- 
pnged to this family, whom we shall 
notice in the order of seniority. — James, 
vas b. at Bale, in 1654, and, in 1687, 

was elected professor of mathematics in 
that college. He greatly advanced the 
science of mathematics, by his applica- 
tion of the differential calculus to the 
solution of geometrical and mathemati- 
cal problems, his invention of the Ber- 
nouillian numbers, and his calculation 
of curves, spirals, and evolutes. He d. 
1705. — John, brother of the former, was 
b. at Bide in 1667, and became one of 
the greatest mathematicians of his time. 
He was destined for the profession of 
a merchant, but was predilected to the 
sciences, and, in 1685, he published, in 
conjunction with his brother, a very 
valuable work "On the Differential 
Calculus," and was the first who de- 
veloped the method of integration. 
Four years after this, he went to 
France, where he became the instructor 
ot the Marquis del'Hdpital, about which 
time he discovered the calculus of ex- 
ponents, and took the degree of M.D. 
In 1695 he became professor of math- 
ematics at Groningen. From Frederic 
I. of Prussia, he received a gold medal 
for the discovery of mercurial phospho- 
rus, and was likewise chosen member 
of the academies of Berlin and Paris. 
In 1705 he succeeded his brother as pro- 
fessor of mathematics at Berlin, and 
died in 1748. — Nicholas, nephew of the 
the former, was b. at Bate, in 1687, 
and although intended for the law, de- 
voted himself to the favorite study of 
his uncles. He studied under John B. 
Math, at Groningen and Bale, and hav- 
ing travelled through Switzerland, Hol- 
land, and England, in 1713, became 
member of the royal societies of London 
and Berlin. On being recommended by 
Leibnitz, he was chosen professor of 
mathematics at Padua, in 1716, but, in 
1722, he went to Bale, as professor of 
logic, and, in 1731, he was translated to 
the chair of Roman and feudal law. He 
died in 1790, and left the three fol- 
lowing sons. — X'icholas, b. at Bide, in 
1695, became, in 1723, professor of law 
there, and died in Petersburg, in 1726. 
— Daniel, b. at Groningen, in 1700, 
studied medicine, and took the degree 
of M.D. He became professor of anat- 
omy and botany at Bale, in 1733 and, 
in 1750, of natural philosophy, and died 
in 1782. He received ten different prizes 
from the academy of Paris, one of which 
he shared with his father, for investiga- 
tions in astronomy. He was one of the 
greatest natural philosophers and math- 
ematicians of his time, and was a mem- 
ber of the societies of Petersburg, Paris, 
and Berlin, to whose transactions h» 




contributed many of their most valuable 
papers. — John, d. at Bale, in 1710, be- 
came professor of rhetoric there, in 
1745, and three years afterwards was 
translated to the chair of mathematics. 
He died in 1790, and left the two fol- 
lowing sons. — John, the author of sev- 
eral excellent works, was b. at Bale, 
1744. became, at the age of nineteen, 
royal astronomer at Berlin, travelled 
through all Europe, and returned, in 
1770, when he became director of math- 
ematics of the academy, and died in 
1807. — James, b. also at Bale, in 1759, 
became professor of mathematics at Pe- 
tersburg, and married the daughter of 

BERNSTORFF, John Hartwig Er- 
nest, Count, a celebrated statesman in 
the employment of the king of Den- 
mark, and founder of the Danish So- 
ciety of Languages and the Fine Arts, 
and the Economical , and Agricultural 
Society. B. at Hanover, 1712; d. 1772. 
— Andrew Peter, Count, nephew of the 
above, a Danish minister of slate. Du- 
ring the American war he effected the 
armed neutrality of Russia, Prussia, 
Denmark, and Sweden, for the protec- 
tion of the trade of those powers against 
the belligerents ; and it was chiefly 
owing to his skilful policy that Den- 
mark was prevented from being drawn 
into collision with either Sweden or 
Russia, when the war broke out be- 
tween those powers in 178S. B. 1735 ; 
d. 1797. 

BEKO ALDUS, Philip, an Italian pro- 
fessor of eloquence. B. 1453; d. 1505. 
— Philip, nephew of the above, an Ital- 
ian poet, librarian of the Vatican under 
Pope Leo X. D. 1518. 

BEEOSUS, priest of the temple of 
Belus, at Babylon, in the time of Ptol- 
emy Philadelphia. He wrote a " His- 
tory of Chnldsea," some fragments of 
which are preserved by Josephus. 

BERQU1N Arnauld, an elegant 
French writer, author of " Idyls," 
"L'Amides Enfans," and other inter- 
esting works for youth. B. 1749 ; d. 

BERRETINI, Nicholas, an eminent 
historical painter, pupil of Carlo Muratti. 
B. 1617; d. 1632. 

BERRI, Charles Ferdinand de Bour- 
bon, duke de, second son of the Count 
d'Artois, afterwards Charles X. of 
France; assassinated by one Louvel, 
who attacked him just as he had left 
the opera-house, and was on the point 
of stepping into his carriage, Feb. I"., 
1820 lie shared hi common with the 

Bourbons all the reverses they were 
doomed to suft'er; and he deserved a 
better fate, if it were only for the be- 
nevolence of his character. Bis son 
Henri, born posthumously, commonly 
called the Due de Bordeaux, or the 
Comte de Chainbord, is the legitimate 
heir to the throne of France. 

BERR1MAN, William, an English 
divine, author of 5 vols, of sermons, &c. 
B. less; d. 1750. 

BEERUYER, Joseph Isaac, a French 
Jesuit, whose writings were condemned 
at Rome for their too great liberality, 
author of a " History ot the People of 
God," &c. D. 1658. 

BERRY, Sir John, an English naval 
commander, knighted for Ins distin- 
guished bravery at the battle of South- 
wold Bay. lie "died of poison, adminis- 
tered to him on board his ship, 1691. — ■ 
Sir Edward, a rear-admiral of England. 
This officer was the only one in the 
royal navy who had received three med- 
als for his services, having commanded 
a line-of-battle ship in the memorable 
battles of the Nile, Trafalgar, and St. 
Domingo. D. 1831. 

BERSMANN, George, a learned Ger- 
man, author of " Notes on some of the 
Classics," and a Latin version of the 
"Psalms of David." B. 1538 ; d. 1611. 

BERTAUT, John, a French prelate 
and poet, chaplain to Catherine de Me- 
dici, and secretary of the cabinet of 
Henry III. • B. 1562; d. 1611. 

BERTH IER, Alexander, prince of 
Neufchatel and Wagram, a marshal and 
vice-constable of France, was b. at 
Versailles, in 1753, and served with La- 
fayette in the war of American inde- 
pendence. At the commencement of 
the French revolution he was made a 
general officer, fought gallantly in La 
Venice, and was at the head of Bona- 
parte's staff in Italy, Egypt, and Ger- 
many. He was, in fact, the companion 
of Napoleon in all his expeditions, di- 
ning and travelling in the same carriage ; 
and his skill in drawing up dispatches, 
joined to his unwearied application and 
methodical habits, proved of incalcula- 
ble value to the emperor in the vast 
pressure of his affairs. On the restora- 
tion of Louis, however, in 1814, ho rec- 
ognized his authority, and was created 
a peer; but when his former master 
returned from Elba, ho- retired to his 
family at Bamberg, where, as soon as 
the music of the Russian troops, on 
their march to the French borders, was 
heard at the gates of the city, he put an 
end to his life in a fit of frenzy or ro 




morse, by throwing himself from a win- 
dow of his palace, June 1, 1815. — Joseph 
Stephen, a French philosopher of the 
Bocirty of the Oratory ; author of " Phy- 
sique des Cometes," &c. B. 1710; d. 
17b3. — William Francis, a learned Jes- 
uit, one of the editors of the •' Dietion- 
naire Trevou," and translator of the 
Psalms into French. B. 1704; d. 1782. 

BERTIIOLLET, Claude Louis, Count, 
one of the most eminent chemists of the 
day, was b. at Talloire, Savoy, in 1748, 
and studied medicine at Turin. He 
afterwards settled in Paris, where he 
became intimate with Lavoisier, was 
admitted a member of the Academy of 
Sciences, and made professor of the nor- 
mal school. He accompanied Bonaparte 
to Egypt, and returned with him ; and, 
daring the emperor's reign, was made 
a senator and an officer of the legion of 
honor; notwithstanding which he was 
one of the first to desert his patron when 
his fortunes were on the decline ; for 
which he received the title of count from 
Louis XVIII. His principal work is 
"Essai de Statique Chimique," but he 
wrote many other valuable essays, and 
had al.--o a large share in the reforma- 
tion of the chemical nomenclature. D. 
lb -J-.'. 

BERTHOLON, N. de St. Lazare, a 
French chemist and philosopher of the 
18th century, whose works <>n aerosta- 
tion, electricity, and other scientific sub- 
i'ects, evince much learning and ability. 
I. at Lyons, and d. in 1799. 

BERTIIOUD, Ferdinand, a skilful 
Swi:>» clock and chronometer maker ; 
author of " Traite des Horologes Ma- 
rine ;" " Histoire de la Mesure du Temps 
par les Horologes," &c. B. at Plancc- 
mont, Neufchatel, 1727 ; d. 1S07. His 
nephew Louis inherited his talents, and 
was not less celebrated than his uncle. 
The accuracy of their chronometers is 

BERTI, Alexander Pompey, a native 
cf Lucca; author of "La Caduta de' 
decemviri della Romana Republica," &c. 
B. 1686; d. 1752. — John Laurence, an 
Italian monk, and general of the order 
of the Augustines ; author of some Ital- 
ian poetry, a work ; 'De Diseiplinis The- 
ologicis." &c. B. 1696; d. 1766. 

BERTIN, Joseph, a French physician 
and anatomist; author of a "Treatise 
on Osteology," and other valuable works 
on anatomy. B. 1712; d. 17S1.— An- 
thony, a French military officer and an 
elegant poet ; author of a " Collection of 
Elegies," and other poems, which were 
greatly esteemed. B. in the isle of 

Bourbon, 1752 ; d. at St. Domingo, 
17i*0. — Louis Francois, the principal 
founder of the "Journal des Di-bats," 
was an influential editor. B. in Paris, 
1766; d. 1842. 

BERTINAZZI, Charles Anthony, a 
celebrated comediau, and an accom- 
plished wit, was b. at Turin, in 1713, 
and for more than forty years was one 
of the most distinguished comic actors 
at Paris. D. 1783. 

BERTIUS, Peter, professor of mathe- 
matics, and cosmographer to the king 
of France ; author of " Theatruin Ge- 
ographia Veteris," &c. B. 1565 ; d. 

SERTOLI, Giovanni Domenico, ob- 
tained the name of the patriarch of 
Aquilcia, from his having first directed 
attention to the antiquities of that place, 
and for his successful endeavors to pre- 
vent the inhabitants from mutilating or 
destroying them. B. 1676; d. 1758. 

BERTOX, Henri Montau, an eminent 
French composer, who formed his style 
under Gluck, Piceini, Pasiello, and Sac- 
chini. He first appears before the public 
as a composer when only 19, in his 
"Concert Spirituel." He afterwards 
wrote 20 operas. B. at Paris, 1767 ; d. 

BERTRAM, Cornelius Bonaventure, 
Hebrew professor at Geneva and Lau- 
sanne ; author of a " Dissertation on the 
Republic of the Hebrews," &c. B. 1531 ; 
d. 1594. 

BERTRAND, John Baptist, a French 
physician; author of an "Historical Ac- 
count of the Plague at Marseilles," &c. 
B. P570; d. 1752.— Henry Gratica, 
Count, a distinguished French general, 
who shared the exile of Napoleon, 
and whose military achievements were 
eclipsed by the fidelity of his devotion 
to the great captain. He was with his 
leader in all his campaigns, and acted a 
brilliant part at Spandau, Friedland, 
Lntzen, Bautzen. B. 1770; d. 1844 

BERTRANDI, John Ambrose Maria, 
an eminent surgeon and anatomist ot 
Turin; author of a "Treatise on Surgi- 
cal Operations," and various other pro- 
fessional works. B. 1723 : d. 176". 

BERULLE, Pierre de, Cardinal, foun- 
der of the congregation of the Oratory. 
He was employed in many affairs of state 
in France ; and accompanied Henrietta 
Maria, wife of Charles L, to England. 
D. H>29. 

BERWICK, James Fitzjames, dnko 
of, natural son of James II. and Arabella 
Churchill, sister of the duke of Marlbo- 
rough ; a distinguished and gallant sol 




dier, and author of a valuable volume ] 
of memoirs. Killed at the siege of Phil- 
ipsburgh, in 1734. 

BEKYLLUS, an Arabian bishop of 
the 3d century ; converted by Origen 
from his heterodox opinion, that Christ 
had no existence prior to his incarna- 

BERZELIUS, Baron, one of the great 
chemists of modem times, was b. id 
177.'. in Ostgothland, a province of Swe- 
den, where his father kept a village 
Bchool. After graduating at Upsala in 
1804, he repaired to Stockholm, where 
he became an assistant to Spawrnmann, 
who had accompanied Captain Cook in 
one of his voyages round the world ; 
and at his death, in 1806, he succeeded 
him in the chair of chemistry, which he 
continued to fill for forty-two years. It 
would be impossible within i ur limits 
to give even a summary of his labors 
during this period ; suffice it to say, that 
in a century which has produced a great- 
er number of distinguished chemists 
than perhaps of any other class of men 
of science, Berzelius stood out as a star 
of the first magnitude. His patient 
labors, and ingenious investigations, 
have done more to lay the foundation of 
organic chemistry than those of any 
other chemist, 'lb him pre-eminently 
belongs the honor of applying the great 
principles which had been established 
by Dalton, Davy, Gay-Lussac, and him- 
self, in inorganic chemistry, to unfolding 
the laws which regulate the combinations 
forming f he structures of the animal 
and vegetable kingdoms: and in thus 
opening the way for the discoveries of 
Mulder, Liebig, Dumas, and others. To 
him chemistry is indebted for the dis- 
covery of several new elementary bodies, 
more* especially selenium, morium, and 
' pei'ium ; and t'o his skill as a manipula- 
tor may be traced many of the analytical 
processes at present in use. Under 
these circumstances it is not surprising 
that all the scientific societies of the 
world contended for the honor of enroll- 
ing his name among their members ; 
and the various minor honors which he 
received from his own sovereign from 
time to time, were finally crowned by 
his being made a knight grand cross of 
the order of Vasa in 1829, and his eleva- 
tion to the rank of a baron in 1835. D. 

BESOLDE, Christopher, a counsellor 

of Vienna ; author of a " Synopsis of 

Politics," a "History of the Ottoman 

Empire," &c. B. 1577 ; d. 1638. 

BESSARIAN, John, a Greek priest, 

one of the most eminent revives of 
learning in the 15th century, and founder 
of the noble library of St. Mark, at 
Venice. He translated from Aristotle, 
Xenophon, &c: and zealously defended 
Plato against the attacks of George of 
Trebizond. He was made a cardinal by 
Pope Eugene, and had the title of patri- 
arch of Constantinople given him by 
Pins II. B. 1395; d. 1472. 

BESSEL, Dr. Frederick William, a 
distinguished Prussian astronomer, b. 
1784. He was professor of astronomy in 
the university of Berlin ; and such was 
the skill and assiduity with which he 
prosecuted his favorite study, that he 
was twice presented with a gold_ medal 
from the Royal Astronomical Society of 
London, for the number and accuracy of 
his observations. D. 1846. 

BESS1EPES, John Baptist, duke of 
Istria, and a French marshal, was b. 
at Poitou, in 1769. He distinguished 
himself in many memorable battles, and 
was highly esteemed by Napoleon for 
his honor, skill, and bravery. He fell 
in the combat that preceded the battle 
of Lutzen. 

BETHENCOURT, John de, a Norman 
baron, and a military adventurer, who 
conquered the Canary Islands, and after- 
wards held them as' a fief of the crown 
of Castile. D. 1425. 

BETHLEM-GABOR, the son of a 
poor Transyl vanian Cal vinist gentleman, 
was patronized by Gabriel Battori, then 
dethroned him, and, in 1613, proclaimed 
himself prince of Transylvania. In 1618 
he reduced Hungary, assumed the title 
of king, and invaded Austria aud Mo- 
ravia f whence, however, he was ex- 
pelled by Tilly. A treaty ensued, and 
he relinquished his Hungarian con- 
quests ; but remained sovereign of 
Transylvania till his death, in 1629. 

BETHUNE, Divie, an eminent phi- 
lanthropist and Christian, was b. at 
Dingwall, Rosshire, Scotland, in 1771. 
In early life he resided at Tobago, where 
his onlv brother was a physician. He 
removed to the United States in 1792, 
and settled as a merchant in New York. 
Before a tract society was formed in this 
country, Mr. Bethune printed 10,000 
tracts at his own expense, and himself 
distributed many of them. He also im- 
ported bibles for distribution. From 
1803 to 1816 he was at the sole expense 
of one or more Sunday schools. D. 1824. 
BETTERTON, Thomas, a celebrated 
actor, was b. in 1635, at Westminster, 
and began life as an apprentice to a 
bookbinder. At the age of twenty, 



however, lie went upon the stage, and 
ultimately acquired a high degree of 
reputation as a tragic actor ; especially 
in some of Shakspeare's principal char- 
acters. In 1695 he opened a new theatre 
in Lincoln's Inn Fields ; but this spec- 
ulation was unsuccessful. Several pieces 
were altered by him for the stage. D. 

BETTINELLI, Xaviee, an elegant 
Italian writer, was b. at Mantua, in 
1718, and became a member of the soci- 
ety of Jesuits. For some years he had 
the direction of the college of nobles at 
Parma, and afterwards was professor of 
eloquence at Modena. He continued his 
literary career till his death, which took 
place at Venice in 180S. His works oc- 
cupy 24 vols. 12mo., of which two are 
occupied by tragedies, and three by 
poems. Of his prose works, one of the 
most celebrated is " Letters of Virgil." 

BETTS, John, an English physician 
of the time of Charles 11. ; author of a 
treatise " l)e Ortu et Natura Sanguinis," 

BETUSSE, Joseph, an Italian poet of 
the 16th century ; he translated into 
Italian the Latin works of Boccaccio, 
and wrote a life of him. 

BEUCKELS, William, a fisherman, a 
native of Dutch Flanders, is one of 
those men who have a claim to be con- 
sidered as benefactors of their country. 
About the beginning of the 15th century 
ho discovered the art of curing and bar- 
relling herrings ; a discovery which 
proved in the highest degree beneficial 
to his native land. His countrymen 
erected a statue to his memory. D. 

BEUF, John le, a French antiquary ; 
author of " Memoirs of the History of 
Auxerre," &c. B. 1607 ; d. 1670. 

BEUKNON VILLE, PeterRiel, count 
of, a French marshal, was b. in Bur- 
gundy, in 1752, served in the East In- 
dies, and under Dumourier, and was 
made minister of war in 1793. He was 
one of the republican commissioners 
whom Dumourier gave up to the Aus- 
trians, and was imprisoned at Olmutz 
till 1795. On his return to France he 
was appointed to the command of the 
armies of the Sambre and the Meuse, 
and of Holland. During the consulate 
he was ambassador at Berlin and Ma- 
drid ; and, under the empire, was grand 
officer of the legion of honor, senator, 
and count. He voted for the deposition 
of Napoleon, followed Louis to Ghent, 
and was rewarded with the title of mar- 
shal. D 1821. 

BEVEE, Dr. Thomas, an English civil- 
ian; a judge of the Cinque Forts, and 
author of a treatise on " The Legal 
Polity of the Romans," &c. D. 1791. 

BEVEEIDGE, William, bishop of 
St. Asaph ; an eminent orientalist, critic, 
and theologian, and one of the most dis- 
tinguished scholars that ever adorned 
the prelacy, was b. at Barrow, Lin- 
colnshire, in 1688, and educated at St. 
John's college, Cambridge. He was the 
author of numerous works; among which 
are 12 volumes of " Sermons," "Private 
Thoughts on Religion," " Institutionum 
Chronologic-arum Libri duo," &c. He 
bequeathed the principal part of his 
property to charitable uses. D. 1707. 

BEVERLY, John of, tutor to the 
Venerable Bede, and subsequently arch- 
bishop of York. He was one of the 
most learned men of his time, and sev- 
eral of his devotional treatises are still 
extant. D. 721. 

BEVERNIKCK, Jerome van, a Dutch 
statesman ; greatly instrumental in pro- 
moting the treaty of Nimeguen, which 
produced a general peace. B. 1614 ; d. 

BEVEEW1CK, John db. a Dutch 
physician ; author of some valuable 
works on professional subjects. B. 
1594 ; d. 1647. 

BEWICK, Thomas, a celebrated en- 
graver on wood, which art he acquired 
under a Mr. Beilby, of Neweastle-on- 
Tync, with whom he went into partner- 
ship. He was considered, when lie died, 
at the head of his art. — John, brother of 
the preceding, who also attained great 
excellence in the art of engraving on 
wood. These ingenious nien carried 
their art to a state of perfection which 
will not easily be surpassed. The first 
work that attracted the notice of the 
public, and at once established their 
reputation, was a " History of Quadru- 
peds," published in 1790," with figures 
on wood. It was eagerly sought after 
by the curious, and has been followed 
by many other proofs of their abilities, 
the last of which is a " History of Brit- 
ish Birds," 8vo, published in 1797, two 
years after the death of John. 

BEZA, Theodore de, was b. in 
1519, at Vezelay, a small town of Bur- 
gundy, of a noble family. He was con- 
fided to the care of the celebrated 
professor Melchoir Wolmar, who taught 
him the Scriptures. But these pious in- 
structions seemed at first smothered un- 
der the passions of youth. Surrounded 
in Paris with all that could lead astray, 
amiable, rich, and full of spirit, he lived 




as a man of the world, published a vol- 
ume of light poetry, under the name of 
"Juvenilia," and contracted a secret 
marriage, because one of his uncles, who 
was in orders, had bequeathed to him the 
revenues of some ecclesiastical benefices. 
A severe sickness awakened his consci- 
ence. •• Hardly had I strength to rise," 
lie writes to Wolmar, " when, breaking 
all ties, and packing up my small effects, 
I left at once my country, parents, 
friends, to follow Christ. 1 exiled my- 
self voluntarily, and retired to Geneva 
with my wife." His marriage was pub- 
licly consecrated in the church, and he 
renounced all his youthful sins. This 
occurred in the month of November, 
1548. He made the acquaintance of 
Calvin, whose life he subsequently wrote, 
and became his intimate friend. He was 
appointed professor of the Greek lan- 
guage at Lausanne, and afterwards pro- 
fessor of theology, rector of the academy, 
an 1 a pastor in Geneva. He composed 
many writings, mostly of a polemical 
character; among the rest a defence of 
the right to punish heretics. His largest 
works are Commentaries on the New 
Testament, collections of Sermons, the 
translation into French verse of a part 
of the Psalms, and the History of the Re- 
formed Church of France, to the year 
1562. D. 1565. 

BEZOUT, Stephen, a celebrated math- 
ematician, and mathematical examiner 
of the naval and artillery schools, was 
b. at Nemours, in 1730, and d. in the 
Gatinois, in 178-3. He is the author of 
a " General Theory of Algebraic Equa- 
tions," and two "Courses of Math- 
ematics," the one in 4 vols., and the 
other in 6, for the use of the royal ma- 
rine and artillery schools. One anecdote 
proves the kindness and courage of Be- 
zout. Though he had never had the 
«mall-pox, he ventured to the bedside 
of two youths of the naval academy, who 
were laboring under it, and who would 
have been thrown back a year in their 
promotion, had he not examined them. 
BIANCHI, Antonio, a Venetian gon- 
dolier of.the 18th century, who obtained 
great note by his poetical talents, author 
of "II Tcmpli ovvero di Solomone," 
and " A Treatise on Italian Comedy." — 
John, known also by the Latin name of 
Janus Plancus, a celebrated Italian phy- 
sician, anatomist, and naturalist, and 
the reviver of the Academy of the Le- 
.ncei. B. at Rimini, 16.*3 ; d. 1775. — 
Francis, a musical composer, born at 
Cremona, author of " Disertor Fran- 
chise," " Semiramide," &c. He went 

to England, wrote "Castore e Polluce" 
for Madame Storaee, and "Inez de Cas- 
tro" for Mrs. Billington ; and died early 
in the present century. 

BIANCHINI, Francis, a philosopher 
and mathematician of Verona, author of 
" Istoria Universale provata con Monu- 
menti et Figurata eon symbol] degli 
Antichi," and a vast number of scien- 
tific and literary treatises. B. 1662; d. 

BIART, Pierre, a Jesuit missionary, 
who came to Acadia in 1611, and who 
wrote a relation of the events of his 
voyage and visit. The next year he as- 
cended the Kennebec, and in, 1613 ar- 
rived at St. Saveur on the Penobscot. 
He was taken prisoner and carried to 
England by Argall. 

BIAS, called oue of the wise men of 
Greece, b. at Priene, a small town of 
Oaria, about 570 b. c. Though born to 
great wealth, he lived without splendor, 
expending his fortune in relieving the 
needy. On one occasion, certain pirates 
brought several young women to sell as 
slaves at Priene. Bias purchased them, 
and maintained them until he had ah 
opportunity of returning them to their 
friends. This generous action made 
him be styled "The Prince of Wise 

BIBIENA, Bernardo da, a Roman 
cardinal, raised from a low origin by 
Leo X., author of a comedy entitled 
"La Calandria," greatly admired in 
Italy. B. 1470 ; d. by poison, as it is 
supposed, 1520. — Ferdinand Galli. an 
eminent painter and architect. B. at 
Bologna, 1657: d. 1743. 

BICIIAT, Maria Francois Xavier, a 
celebrated French physician, who, du- 
ring a short career, gave an impulse to 
the science which he cultivated that has 
not yet ceased to be felt, was b. at Tho- 
irett, in the department of the Aim 
Nov. 11, 1771. At Paris, he studied 
under the direction of Desault, who 
treated him as a son. On the death of 
that distinguished professor, Biehat su- 
perintended the publication of his surgi- 
cal works, and, in 17i'7, began to lecture 
upon anatomy, in connection with ex- 
perimental physiology and surgery. In 
1800 appeared his "Traitc des Mem- 
branes, which passed through numer- 
ous editions, and immediately after pub- 
lication, was translated into almost all 
the languages of Europe. In the same 
year was published his celebrated work 
"Recherches sur la Vie et la Mort," 
which was followed the next year by 
his "Anatomie Generale," a complete 




code of modern anatomy, physiology, 
and medicine. In the 28th year of his 
age, Bichat was appointed physician 
of the Hotel-Dieu, in Paris, and", with 
the energy characteristic of true genius, 
began bis labors in pathological anat- 
omy. In a single winter, he opened no 
less than 600 "bodies. Bichat is the 
founder of the medical theory at present 
received. He is the creator of general 
anatomy, or of the doctrine of the iden- 
tity of the texture of the different organs, 
which is the fundamental principle of 
modern medicine. D. 1302. 

BICKERSON, Sir Richard Husset, 
admiral of the red, and general of ma- 
rines, was b. Oct. 11, 1759, and entered 
the royal navy at an early period. D. 

BICKERSTAFF, Isaac, a dramatic 
writer of the 18th century, author of 
" Love in a Village," "Lionel and Cla- 
rissa," &e. 

B1DDERMAN, John Gottlieb, a 
German writer, and rector of the public 
Bcnool at Friedburg, author of treatises 
"De Latinitate Maccaronica," "Deln- 
Bolentia, Titolorum Librariorum," &c. 
D. 1772. 

BIDDLE, Jonx, a celebrated Socinian 
writer, was b. 1615, at Wotton-under- 
Edge. Being led to doubt of the. doc- 
trine of the Trinity, he drew up twelve 
arguments on the subject ; in conse- 
quence of which he was committed to 
jail by the parliamentary committee then 
sitting at Gloucester, but was liberated, 
on security being given for his appear- 
ance when called for. About six months 
afterwards, he was examined before a 
committee of the parliament, and his 
pamphlet ordered to be burned by the 
common hangman. He however per- 
sisted in his opinion, and, in 1648, pub- 
lished two tracts, containing his "Con- 
fession of Faith, concerning the Holy 
Trinity, and the Testimonies of Irenseus, 
Justin Martyr, and several other early 
writers on the same subject." These 
publications induced the assembly of 
divines to solicit parliament to decree 
the punishment of death against those 
who should oppugn the established 
opinions respecting the Trinity. He 
was, some time after, again remanded 
to prison, by the zeal of President Brad- 
shaw, and remained tor some years in 
confinement, subjected to the greatest 
privations. A general act of oblivion, 
m 1631, restored him to liberty, when 
he immediately disseminated his opin- 
ions. Cromwell banished him to St. 
Mary's castle, Scilly, where he remained 

three years, until the protector liberated 
him in 1658. He then became pastor 
of an Independent congregation, and 
continued to support his opinions until 
fear of the Presbyterian parliament of 
Richard Cromwell induced him to retire 
into the country. On the restoration, 
he was apprehended at one of the pri- 
vate assemblies, and upon process of 
law, fined £180 and ordered to lie in 
prison until it was paid. He fell a mar 
tyr to this sentence, by catching one of 
the distempers so common at that time 
in jails, and d. during September of this 
year, in the 47th year of his age, a mar- 
tyr to religious intolerance. Toulmin 
styles him the father of the modern Uni- 
tarians. — Nicholas, an American naval 
commander, b. 1750. He was regularly 
bred to the sea, and was a thorough 
seaman. In 1770 he went to London, 
and entered the British navy. After 
the commencement of the revolution, 
he returned to Philadelphia. Being ap- 
pointed commander of the Andrea Do- 
ria, a brig of 14 guns and 130 men, he 
sailed under Commodore Hopkins, in 
the successful expedition against New 
Providence. After refitting at New 
London, he was ordered to proceed otf 
the bank of Newfoundland. He cap- 
tured, in 1776, among other prizes, two 
ships from Scotland, with 400 Highland 
troops. Being appointed to the com- 
mand of the Randolph, a frigate of 32 
guns, he sailed from Philadelphia in 
Feb. 1777. He soon carried into Charles- 
ton, four valuable prizes bound from 
Jamaica to London, one of them, the 
True Briton, of 20 guns. A little fleet 
was now fitted out under his command, 
with which be cruised in the West In- 
dies. In an action with the British ship 
Yarmouth, of 64 guns, March 7, 1778, 
Capt. Biddle was wounded, and, in a 
few minutes afterwards, while he was 
under the hands of the surgeon, the 
Randolph, with a crew of 315, blew up, 
and he, and all his men but 4, perished. 
— Nicholas, a son of Charles Biddle 
who was distinguished in the revolu- 
tionary war, made himself known as a 
president of the bank of the United 
States. He was b. in Pennsylvania, 
educated at Princeton, studied law un- 
der Gen. Armstrong, edited the Port 
Folio with Deunie, was a member of 
the Pennsylvania legislature, and finally 
president of the bank at the time it was 
destroyed bv the policy of Gen. Jack- 
son. D. 1844. 

BIDLAKE, John, a divine and p >ct, 
was b. at Plymouth in 1755. lie was 




educated at the school of his native place, 
and after taking his first degree in arts 
at Christ-church, Oxford, he became 
master of the same seminary, which he 
conducted with reputation. He pro- 
ceeded to his doctor's degree, and in 
1811 was appointed to preacli the Hamp- 
ton Lectures ; but in the act of deliver- 
ing the third discourse, he was suddenly 
seized with an epileptic tit, which pro- 
duced total blindness. Besides some 
single sermons on different occasions, 
he published two volumes of discourses ; 
the "Bampton Lectures;" "Introduc- 
tion to the Study of Geography ;" Poems, 
"The Sea, a Poem;" "The Country 
Parson, a Poem ;" " Eugenio, or the 
Precepts of Prudentius, a Tale;" "The 
Summer Eve, a Poem;" "Virginia, a 
Tragedy ;" " Youth, a Poem ;" and "The 
Year, a Poem." D. 1814. 

BIDLOO, Godfrey, a native of Am- 
sterdam, eminent as a physician and an 
anatomical writer. He was professor at 
the Hague, and afterwards at Leyden, 
and physician to King William, whom 
he attended in England. Some of his 
poems in Low Dutch were published in 
1719. His great work is "Anatomia 
Corporis Humani," Amsterdam, 1685. 
D. 1713. 

BIEFIELD, James Frederick, baron 
de, a native of Hamburgh, employed by 
the king of Prussia as secretary of le- 
gation, "and afterwards as preceptor to 
his brother, Ferdinand, and in 1747 
made curator of the universities, and 
afterwards baron and privy councillor. 
He spent the last part of his life in lite- 
rary retirement. He is the author of 
several works not highly esteemed. D. 

BIEVKE, Marquis de, a marshal of 
France, who acquired a high reputation 
as a wit and punster. When he was 
introduced to Louis XV. the king de- 
sired that he should make a pun. " Give 
me a subject, sire," he replied. " Oh ! 
make one on me," rejoined the monarch. 
" Nay," said the marquis, as quick as 
thought, "the king is never a subject." 
He wrote two comedies, one called the 
" Seducer," which still keeps possession 
of the French stage ; the other " Repu- 
tations," which has not so much merit. 
He went to one of the Spas for his health, 
and while there, on his death-bed, could 
not resist the temptation to play upon 
words. As he was dying, he said. '' Je 
m'en vms de ce pas, (de Spa.)'* B. 
1747 ; d. 1789. 

BIGLAND, John, a voluminous 
writer, originally a village P ;hoohnaster, 

whose first publication did not appear 
till he was 50 years of age; author of 
" A System of Geography and History," 
" Histories of Spain and England,'' 
" Letters on English and French His- 
tory." B. 1750; "d. 1832. 

BIGNE, Marquerin de la, a doctor 
of the Sorbonne ; compiler of the first 
edition of the " Bibliotheca Patrum." 
B. 1546 ; and d. at Paris about the close 
of the 16th century. 

BIGNEY, Grace de la, a French 
ecclesiastic; author of a poem entitled 
" Le Roman des Oiseaux." D. 1374. 

BIGN1COURT, Simon de, a counsellor 
of Rheims ; author of "Pensecs et Re- 
flexions Philosophiques." B. 1709; d. 

BIGNON, Jerom», a learned French 
writer ; author of treatises " On Rome 
and its Antiquities," "On the Election 
of the Pope," &e. ; and editor of the 
"Formulaa" of Marculphus. B. 1589; 
d. 1656. — John Paul, grandson of the 
above, librarian to the king of France ; 
author of " Les Aventures d'Abdalla 
fils d'Hnniff," cVc. D. 1743. 

BIGOT, Americ, an eminent French 
scholar. He assisted in the publication 
of several works : and having discovered 
Palladius's Life of Chrysostom in the 
duke's library at Florence, he published 
both the Greek text and his own Latin 
translation of it. B. 1626; d. 1689. 

BILDIiRDYK, William, an eminent 
Dutch poet, was b. at Amsterdam, 1750. 
In 1776 he obtained from the society of 
Leyden the first prize for a poem on the 
influence of poetry upon government. 
In the following year he obtained from 
the same society two prizes for an ode 
and a didactic poem, " On True Patriot- 
ism." Since that period, he has ranked 
with Feith, and Madame de Launoy, 
among the first Dutch poets. In 1780 
he obtained a new prize for a poem " On 
the Connection of Poetry and Eloquence 
with Philosophy." He added to this 
poem, some time afterwards, an import- 
ant commentary, which showed him to 
be a man of learning and a philologer. 
Bilderdyk, besides devoted himself to 
law, at the Hague, with great success. 
On the invasion of the Netherlands by 
the French, he left his country on ac- 
count of his adherence to the hereditary 
stadtholder, and removed to Brunswick, 
and afterwards to London, where he 
delivered in the French language lec- 
tures on literature and poetry, which 
were numerously attended. After th« 
new order of things was firmly estab- 
lished in Holland, ho returned in 1799, 




and soon afterwards published some 
of his principal works. Among these 
are a didactic poem on astronomy, and 
the masterly imitations of Delille's 
"L'Homme des Champs," and "Pope's 
Essay on Man." Louis Bonaparte, on 
his accession to the throne, appointed 
him his teacher of Dutch, and one of the 
first members of the national institute 
founded by him. After the incorpora- 
tion of Holland into the French empire, 
his muse was silent; but she rose the 
more vigorously after the deliverance of 
his country. 1). 1831. 

BILF1NGER, George Bernard, a 
German writer and professor of philoso- 
phy and theology. He was a man of 
most extensive learning, and the author 
of " Dilucidationes Philosophic*," &c. 
B. 1688; d. 1750. 

BILGUER, John Elric, a Swiss sur- 
geon ; author of several professional 
treatises, in one of which he maintains 
the utility of amputation in cases of gun- 
shot wounds, 1). 1796. 

BILLAUD, Varennes de, the son of 
a French advocate at Rochclle, was edu- 
cated at the same college as Fouche, and 
proved himself one of the most violent 
and sanguinary characters of the French 
revolution. He bore a principal part in 
the murders and horrid massacres which 
followed the destruction of the Bastile ; 
voted immediate death to the unfortu- 
nate Louis XVI. ; and officiated as presi- 
dent of the convention on the 18th of 
Oct., 1793. He was afterwards deported 
to Cayenne, and subsisted on a small 
pension allowed him by Pethion. D. at 
St. Domingo, in 1819. 

BILLING, Sigismond, a French liber- 
al, b. at Calmar, in Alsace, in 1773. He 
entered the army at the very commence- 
ment of the revolution, and distinguished 
himself at the battle of Genappe and on 
other occasions ; was commissary of war 
to the armies of the North, the Rhine, 
&c, in 1792, and to the army of Ger- 
many at the time of General Moreau's 
retreat, and was present in many cele- 
brated battles and sieges. When the 
reverses of Napoleon had endangered 
the safety of France, Billing, as the com- 
mander of a legion of the national guard, 
surrounded and defended the chamber 
of representatives while it was in the 
act of pronouncing the emperor's for- 
feiture, and was otherwise active in 
bringing about his abdication. He was 
also, in concert with General Lafayette, 
preatly instrumental in effecting the 
revolution of 1S30, which seated Louis 
Philippe on the throne. D. in 1832. 

BILLINGTON, Elizabeth, one of the 
greatest female singers of her own, or 
perhaps any other time, was of German 
origin, but b. in England during 1770. 
At an early age she studied the piano- 
forte under Schroeter, and attained to 
an extraordinary proficiency. At four- 
teen, she made her first appearance as a 
singer at Oxford, and two years after- 
wards married Mr. Billington, a per- 
former on the double-bass. She appeared 
at Co vent- garden, for the first time, as 
Rosetta, in "Love in a Village," with 
such success as to secure her an imme- 
diate engagement at what was then con- 
sidered the enormous salary of £1000 for 
the rest of the season, besides a benefit ; 
the managers afterwards voluntarily 
giving her the profits of a second night. 
In 1785, she appeared at the concerts of 
ancient music with Madame .Mara, whose 
brilliant performance she, to say the least, 
fully equalled. From this p'eriod, till 
1793, no music meeting, opera, or eon- 
cert of reputation was considered com ■ 
plete without her. In the last-named 
year she visited Italy, and performed, 
accompanied by her brother C. Weichsel, 
at the theatre of San Carlos at Naples; 
Bianchi composing expressly for her his 
celebrated opera " Inez de Castro." In 
1801, her wonderful powers being then 
in their meridian, she returned to tho 
London stage, appearing alternately at 
either house. In 1817, she quitted 'En- 
gland for ever, and d. after a short ill- 
ness, at her villa of St. Artien, an estate 
she had purchased in the Venetian ter- 

BINGLEY, the Garriek of the Dutch 
stage, was b. at Rotterdam, in 1755, of 
English parents. In 1779, in his twenty- 
fourth year, he made his debut at Am- 
sterdam. The public odium was then 
excited against England, on account of 
its ships having captured vessels under 
the Dutch flag, without any previous 
declaration of war, and Bingley was 
unfavorably received. But he soon con- 
quered this prejudice, and continued to 
be the favorite of the public. In 1796 
he was di ector of a company of actors, 
who played principally at Rotterdam 
and the Hague, but also visited other 
cities of Holland. One of his last repre- 
sentations, in which he was assisted by 
the great actress Wattier Ziesenis, was 
the part of Farnese, in Lnlain's tragedy 
of "Maria," acted in 1818, before the 
royal family. In the same year, he d. at 
the Hague. 

BIOERNSTAEHL, James Jonas, a 
distinguished traveller, b. at Rotarbo. 



in the Swedish province of Sundennann- 
land, in 1731, studied at Upsal, after- 
wards entered the family of Baron Rud- 
beek as tutor, and travelled with his son 
to England and the continent of Europe. 
While residing in Paris he studied Ori- 
ental languages. On the return of his 
pupil to Sweden, he was appointed by 
Gustavus III. to make the tour of 
Greece, Syria, and Egypt, receiving at 
the same time, the title of professor at 
the university of Lund. He now went, 
at the king's expense, to Constantinople, 
in 1 7 7 'J , where he remained for some 
time, to learn the Turkish language. 
lie then proceeded on his travels as tar 
as Saloniki, where he d. of the plague, 
1779. He nad given an account of his 
travels, in the form of letters to his 
friend Gloerwell, who at first published 
them separately in a journal, which ap- 
peared in Stockholm; and afterwards 
in separate works. 

BION, b. in Smyrna or in its neighbor- 
hood ; a Grecian pastoral poet, of whose 
life no account is to be found. Among 
the few poems written by him, which 
have descended to our times, his elegy 
on Adonis is considered as the_ best. 
His poems together with those of Mos- 
chus are generally found as an appendix 
to the idyls of* Theocritus, and have 
been well translated by Fawkes.— Nich- 
olas, a French mathematician ; author 
of a "Treatise on the Use of the Globes," 
<fcc, D. 1733. 

BIRAGUE, Clement, an engraver on 
gems, said to have been the first discov- 
erer of the art of engraving on diamonds. 
He was b. at Milan, and flourished du- 
ring the middle of the 16th century.— 
Bene de, a Milanese of noble family, 
who sought shelter in France from the 
vengeance of Louis Sforza, and became 
a cardinal and chancellor of France. He 
is infamously memorable as one of the 
authors of the massacre of St. Bartholo- 
mew. B. 1509; d. 1583. 

BIRCH. Thomas, an industrious histo- 
rian and biographer, was b. at London, 
in 1705. He became usher in three 
different schools, and afterwards took 
orders in the church, and obtained 
in 1732, a living in Essex, under the 
patronage of the attorney-general, after- 
wards Lord Hardwicke. In 1734 he en- 
caged with some coadjutors in writing 
the "General Historical and Critical 
Dictionary," founded on that of Bayle, 
and completed in 10 vols, folio, 1741. 
H ■ subsequently obtained various pre- 
ferments in the church. In January, 
1765, he wan killed by a fall from his 

horse, on the road between London and 
Hampstead. Birch had formed verj 
extensive manuscript collections, which, 
together with his library of printed books, 
he bequeathed to the British Museum. 
He was one of the pioneers of literature. 
Dr. Johnson was repeatedly obliged to 
him for literary information, bestowed 
on him a Greek epigram, and for many 
years corresponded with him. The lit- 
erature of his country is much indebted 
to the activity and diligence of this per- 
severing writer. — Samuel, who for many 
years played a distinguished part as a 
member of the corporation of London, 
was b. in that city in 1757, and succeed- 
ed his father in his well-establisbed 
business of a pastry-cook, in Cornhill. 
He was the first to propose the measure 
of arming and training the inhabitants 
as volunteers; and he bad the honor, 
successively, to become lieutenant, ma- 
jor, and lieutenant-colonel commandant 
of the first regiment of Loyal London 
Volunteers. Yet, although never un- 
mindful of his position as a party man 
in politics, he found leisure to employ 
his pen in various walks of literature. 
He was also among the earliest and most 
active supporters of the Literary Fund 
Society, to which he continued attached 
till his decease, and had long been the 
senior member of its council. In 1S14 
he filled the civic chair. D. 1341.— 
Harvey, the assumed name of Enoch 
Crosby, a person employed as a spy for 
the American army, and whose adven- 
tures have given occasion to one of the 
creations of Cooper, the American nov- 

BIRD, William, an eminent musician 
in the reign of Elizabeth. He chiefly 
composed sacred music, and to him 
" Non nobis Domine" is attributed. B. 
1543 ; d. 1653. — John, an eminent math- 
ematical instrument maker; author of 
"The Method of constructing Mural 
Quadrants," &c. D. 1766.— Edward, a 
painter, chiefly of comic subjects, but 
who also executed many religions and 
historical pieces, and was made histori- 
cal painter to the Princess Charlotte of 
Wales. B. 1772 ; d. 1819. 

BIREN, John Ernest de, duke of 
Courland, the son of a peasant, whoso 
handsome person and address obtained 
him an unbounded influence over Anne, 
daughter of Peter I., and duchess of 
Courland, who, when she ascended the 
throne of Russia, committed the reins 
of government to his hands, made him 
duke of Courland, and at her death, in 
1740, left him regent of the empire. He 




was subsequently banished to Siberia; 
recalled by Peter III., and his duchy re- 
stored t( him by Catherine, in 1763, but 
which, ~.x years afterwards, he relin- 
quished In favor of his eldest son. B. 
16S7: d. 1772. 

BIRKBECK, George, M.D., president 
of the London Mechanics' Institute, was 
the son of a merchant and banker at 
Settle, in Yorkshire, where he was b in 
1776. In his boyhood he displayed a 
strong inclination for those mechanical 
pursuits to which he afterwards became 
so devoted ; but his friends having de- 
termined that ho should embrace the 
medical profession, he first studied for 
this object at Leeds, then removed to 
London to become a pupil of Dr. Baillie, 
and subsequently went to Edinburgh to 
complete his education. At the age of 
twenty-one he was appointed professor 
of natural history in the Andcrsonian 
Institution of Glasgow ; and having 
while there successfully established a 
mechanics 1 class, he was induced, in 
1822, to found the London Mechanics' 
Institute in Chancery Lane, to which so- 
ciety he generously lent £3000 for erect- 
ing a museum, lecture-room, &c. Of 
this institution Dr. Birkbeek was elect- 
ed president, and from it nearly all the 
various mechanics' institutes 
out Great Britain have been established 
D. 1841. — Morris, an English gentleman 
who emigrated to America, where he 
purchased so vast a tract of land as to 
acquire the title of " Emperor of the 
Prairies ;" author of " Letters from Illi- 
nois. "Notes of a "Journey in Amer- 
ica," &c. He was accidentally drowned 
in 1825. 

BIRKENHEAD, Sir John, a political 
writer of the 17th century ; several times 
imprisoned during the commonwealth 
for writing in favor of the exiled king. 
B. 1615 ; d. 1679. 

BIRKHEAD, Henry, a modern Latin 

Eoet, b. in 1617; author of " Otium 
literarium," &c. He d. at the latter 
end of the 17th century. 

BIRON, Armand de Gontaut, baron 
de, a celebrated French general, honor- 
ed with the friendship of Henry IV. 
He was slain at the siege of Epernay, in 
Champagne, in 1592. — Charles de Gon- 
taut, duke de, son of the above ; ad- 
miral and marshal of France, and a 
favorite of Kerry IV., who appointed 
him his ambassador to England, &c, 
and raised him to the dukedom. He 
was, however, seduced by the intrigues 
of the court of Spain to join in a conspir- 
acy against his royal and truly generous 

friend ; for which crime he was tried, 
condemned, and beheaded, in 1602. — 
Duke de Lauzun, b. about 1760 ; one of 
the most celebrated men of the French 
revolution, remarkable at once for his 
amours, his attachment to liberty, and 
his military exploits. He served with 
Lafayette in America, and attached him- 
self to the party of the duke of Orleans, 
on his return. In 1792 he was joined 
with Talleyrand in a mission to this 
country; on his return, served under 
Roehambean, in Flanders ; and perish- 
ed by the guillotine at the end of 1793, 
on a charare of counter-revolution. Ho 
d. stoically, ordering oysters, and drink- 
ing wine with the executioner. 

BISCHOP, John de, a Dutch histor- 
ical and landscape painter. B. 1646 ; d. 
16S6. — Samuel, an English divine and 
poet. B. 1731 ; d. 1795. 

BISCOE, Richard, an English divine : 
author of " The History of the Acts of 
the Apostles, confirmed by other Au- 
thors.'* D. 1748. 

BISI, Bonaventure, an esteemed Bo- 
loiciiese miniature and historical painter. 
D. 1662. 

BISSET, Charles, an able physician, 
and a writer on fortification, which art 
he studied while in the 42d regiment, 
and received promotion for his skill in 
it at the siejre of Bergen-op-Zoom, by the 
duke of Cumberland. B. 1716 ; d. 1791 
— James, an ingenious artist and amusing 
writer, was b. at Perth, in 1762, but set- 
tled early in life at Birmingham, where 
he established a museum and shop for 
curiosities, which he afterwards removed 
to Leamington. He had a remarkable 
facility in writing rhymes ; and being 
ever ready to make his muse subserve 
the cause of loyalty, or aid the progress 
of art, his various works present a mot- 
ley appearance, and are often singularly 
droll and epigrammatic. "Guides," 
" Directories, and " Poetic Surveys" 
of the towns in which he lived, look 
oddly enough when placed in juxta- 
position with " Patriotic Clarions," 
"Critical Essays," and "Comic Stric- 
tures on the Fine Arts ;" yet such were 
among his numerous productions, all of 
which are more or less indebted for their 
notoriety to the jingle of rhyme. D. 
1832. — Robert, a native of Scotland; 
author of a " Life of Burke ;" a " Sketch 
of Democracy," &c. D. 1805. 

BISSON. Pierre T. J. G., b. 1767 ; a 
French general, who fouirht in most of 
Napoleon's campaigns, till his death, at 
his return in 1811. He was of prodigi- 
ous size, strength, and appetite, and was 




always supplied with double rations of 
food, by order of Napoleon. 

B1TAUBE, Paul Jeremiah, the son 
of French refugee parents at Konigs- 
berg, where he was b. in 1732, but in 
after life settled in Paris. He was an 
author of considerable repute, and 
patronized by Frederick II. of Prussia, 
and by Napoleon. He translated Homer, 
and wrote " Joseph," and other poems. 
D. 1808. 

BIVAE, Don Eodrigo Dias de, or the 
Gid, a hero of Spain, whose astonishing 
valor in various encounters with the 
Moors, and his unjust banishment, af- 
forded rich materials both for history 
and romance. B. at Burgos, 1040 ; d. at 
Valencia, 1099. 

BIZOT, Pierre, a French writer ; au- 
thor of a curious work, entitled " His- 
toire Medailliqne de la R£publique de 
Hollande." B. 1686; d. 1696. 

BLACK, Joseph, a celebrated chemist, 
b. at Bordeaux, of Scottish parents, in 
172S, studied medicine at Glasgow. Dr. 
Cullen, Ins instructor, inspired him with 
a taste for chemical studies. In 1754 he 
.vas made doctor of medicine, at Edin- 
burgh, and delivered an inaugural dis- 
sertation, " De Humore acido a Cibis 
orto et Magnesia alba," which exhibits 
the outline of his discoveries relative to 
carbonic acid and the alkalies. In 1756 
he published his Experiments on White 
Magnesia, <4uicklimc, and several other 
Alkaline Substances, in the 2d volume 
of the Essays, Physical and Literary, of 
the Edinburgh Society. He demon- 
strates the existence of an aerial fluid in 
these substances, which he calls fixed 
air, the presence of which diminishes 
the corrosive power of the alkalies and 
the calcareous earths. This discovery 
formed the basis of all those winch have 
immortalized the names of Cavendish, 
Priestley, Lavoisier, &c, and gave a 
new form to chemistry. In 1751 he en- 
riched this science with his doctrine of 
latent heat, which has led to such im- 
portant results. In 1756 he was ap- 
pointed professor of medicine and 
lecturer on chemistry in the university 
at Glasgow, in the place of Dr. Cullen, 
and, in 1765, when Cullen left the pro- 
fessor's chair in Edinburgh, he was 
there also succeeded by Black. No 
teacher inspired his disciples with such 
a zeal for study; his lectures, therefore, 
contributed much to make the taste for 
chemical science general in England. 
Upon Lavoisier's proposal, the Academy 
of Sciences,in Paris, had appointed him 
one of its eight foreign members. His 

habits were simple, his character cold 
and reserved. Though of eminent abil- 
ity as a chemist, he injured himself by 
his long opposition to the reception of 
the new chemical theory. At length, 
however, he was convinced of its supe- 
rior accuracy, and did justice to its mer- 
its. D. 1799. 

BLACKADDER, John, a distinguish- 
ed preacher among the Scottish Cove- 

BLACKBURNE, Francis, an English 
divine, eminent as a theological writer, 
and remarkable for the publication or 
works favoring dissent from the church 
to which he belonged, was b. at Rich- 
mond, in Yorkshire, in 1705, and was 
educated at Cambridge. In 1750, he was 
made archdeacon of Cleveland. He was 
a friend to religious liberty, and hostile 
to confessions of faith. On this subject 
he was deeply involved in controversy. 
The most celebrated of his performances 
on it is the Confessional, which appeared 
in 1776. His works have been collected 
in six volumes octavo. He d. in 1787. 

BLACKBURN, William, eminent as 
an architect and surveyor, was b. Decem- 
ber 20th, 1750, in Soutlnvark. His na- 
tive genius overcame the disadvantages 
of a contracted education, and he ob- 
tained a medal from the Royal Academy, 
and the more flattering commendation 
of Sir Joshua Reynolds, for the best 
drawing of St. Stephen's church, Wal- 
brook. D. 1790. 

BLACKLOCK, Thomas, a divine and 
poet, was b. at Annan, in Dumfries, in 
1721, and lost his sight by the small-pox 
when he was only six months old. To 
amuse and instruct him, his father and 
friend used to read to him, and by this 
means he acquired a fund of information, 
and even some knowledge of Latin. At 
the age of 12 he began to versify, and his 
devotion to the Muses was continued 
through life. Considering his circum 
stances, his poems have great merit. He 
studied at the university of Edinburgh 
for ten years, and his progress in the 
sciences was very considerable. He was 
ordained minister of Kircudbright, but, 
being opposed by the parishioners, he 
retired on an annuity, and received stu- 
dents at Edinburgh as boarders, and as- 
sisted them in their studies. Besides 
his poems, he is the author of some the- 
ological works, and an article on the ed- 
ucation of the blind : the latter was 
printed in the Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
He d. in July, 1791, regretted by all his 
BLACKMORE, Sir Richard, a poet 




and physician, was b. in Wiltshire, ed- 
ucated at Oxford, took his degree at Pad- 
ua, and was knighted by William III., 
who also appointed him his physician. 
He was afterwards physician to Queen 
Anne. In 1696 he published his first 
poem, Prince Arthur, which was rapidly 
Buccee Jed by other works ; nor was he 
deterred from pursuing his career by the 
ridicule which was heaped upon him by 
Dryden, Pope, and nearly all the wits of 
the age, whose dislike of him was sharp- 
ened by his whig principles. He is the 
author of nearly thirty works, in verse 
and prose ; of the latter many are on 
medical subjects. His best poem is en- 
titled Creation. Blackmore was an in- 
different poet, but he was undoubtedly 
possessed of considerable talent, ami 
was a pious and worthy man. He d. in 

BLACKSTONE, Sir William, an em- 
inent lawyer, was the third son of a silk 
mercer, and was b. at Loudon, in 1723. 
After having been for several years at 
the Charter house, he completed his 
education at Pembroke college, Oxford, 
and at both seminaries displayed supe- 
rior talent. When he was only 29 he 
composed, for his own use, a Treatise on 
the Elements of Architecture. Having 
chosen the profession of the law, and 
entered the Middle Temple, in 1741 he 
wrote his eloquent valedictory poem, the 
Lawyer's Farewell to his Muse. In 1743 
he was elected a fellow of All Souls, and 
in 1746 he was called to the bar, and 
went the circuit, but obtained little prac- 
tice. He remained in comparative ob- 
scurity till 1753, when he began to de- 
liver, at Oxford, his beautiful lectures 
on the English laws ; which, in 1765 and 
the four following years, he published, 
with the title of " Commentaries on the 
Laws of England." In consequence of 
these lectures, he was elected Vinerian 
professor of law in the university, and 
obtained a great accession of business. 
In 1761 he sat in parliament as member 
for Ilindon, and was made king's coun- 
6el, and solicitor-general to the queen. 
In 1770 he was offered the place of so- 
licitor general, but declined it, and was 
made a judge of the King's Bench, 
whence he was soon after transferred to 
the Common Pleas. His Law Tracts 
were published in 1762, and his Reports, 
two volumes folio, after his death. 
Blackstone was the first who wrote on 
the dry and repulsive subject of English 
lav/ in such a manner as not to excite 
disgust in a reader of taste. Like al- 
most all lawyers, he leans to the side of 

prerogative ; nor is there much more of 
enlargement in his principles of reli- 
gious liberty. For this reason he waa 
exposed to attack from Priestley, Ben- 
tham, and Junius. D. 1780. 

BLACKW ALL, Anthony, an English 
divine, author of a " Latin Grammar," 
an " Introduction to the Classics," &c. 
D. 1730. 

BLACKWELL, Thomas, Greek pro- 
fessor of Aberdeen, author of " An In- 
quiry into the Life and Writings of 
Homer," "Memoirs of the Court of 
Augustus," &c. B. 1701 ; d. 1757. — 
Alexander and Elizabeth, husband and 
wife : the latter, a woman of talent, who 
in order to procure subsistence for her 
husband while in prison for debt, pub- 
lished a " Herbal" in 2 vols., folio, with 
500 plates, drawn, engraved, and colored 
by herself, all in the space of four years. 
The work succeeded, and her husband 
was liberated ; but he seemed doomed 
to be the sport of fortune ; for after hav- 
ing been invited to Stockholm, and pen- 
sioned by the king of Sweden, in eon- 
sequence of his being the author of a 
work on agriculture which attracted the 
notice of that monarch ; and having also 
had the merit of successfully prescribing 
for his majesty when he was danger- 
ously ill, he was charged with being 
concerned in a plot with Count Tessin 
for overturning the kingdom, tried, and 
beheaded, in 1747. 

BLACKWOOD, Sir Henry, a merito- 
rious British admiral, was the sixth son 
of Sir John Blackwood, Bart., and b. in 
1770. He was present at Dogger-Bank, 
and with Nelson at Aboukir, and at 
Trafalgar. D. 1832.— Adam, a Scotch 
writer, author of "The Martyrdom of 
Marv Stuart," written in French, &c. 
B. 1539 ; d. 1613. 

BLADEN, Maktin, a military officer 
under the duke of Marlborough, author 
of " Orpheus and Eurydice," a masque ; 
" A Translation of Caesar's Commen- 
taries," &c. D. 1746. 

BLAEU, or JEMSSEN, William, a 
celebrated geographer, and the disciple 
of Tycho Brahe. He was the author of 
a very magnificent atlas. D. 1638. 

BLAIR, John, a Scotch divine of the 
14th century, author of a Latin poem on 
the " Death of Wallace." — Patrick, an 
eminent Scotch physician and botanist, 
of the 18th century, author of "Botanio 
Essays," &c. — John, a prebend of West- 
minster, author of " Chronological Ta- 
bles," and " Lectures on the Canon of 
the Old Testament." D. 1782.— Robert, 
a Scotch divine, author of the well- 




known and admirable poem, " The 
Grave." B. 1700; d. 1746.— Hugh, a 
celebraled divine, b. at Edinburgh in 
1718. He was educated at the university 
of his native city, where he took his 
master's degree in 1736. He was soon 
invited to the second charge of the Can- 
nougate church of Edinburgh, and in 
1758 he was promoted to the High 
church, and honored with the degree 
of D.I), by the sister university of St. 
Andrew's. In 1759 he appeared before 
the public as lecturer in rhetoric and 
belles lettres, and with such effect, that 
the king in 1762 erected for his encour- 
agement, with a salary of £70 a year, a 
professorship on that branch of litera- 
ture in the university. His dissertation 
in support of the authenticity of Osian'a 
poems, appeared in 1763, and in 1777 he 
published the first volume of his "Ser- 
mons," which met with such applause 
that in 1779 he printed a second volume, 
and afterwards three volumes more ap- 
peared. These discourses became pop- 
ular, not only in Scotland and England, 
but were translated into foreign lan- 
guages, and claimed the admiration of 
the learned on the Continent. At the 
instance of the queen, to whom the ser- 
mons were dedicated, the worthy pro- 
fessor obtained a pension of£200n year, 
which was increased £10 I more in 178 '>, 
when his infirmities obliged him to re- 
sign his public offices. His " Lectures," 
in 3 vols., appeared in 1783, and obtained 
as rapid a sale and as wide a circulation 
as his sermons. D. at Edinburgh, 1800. 
— John, one of the associate judges of 
the supreme court of the United States, 
d. in 1800, aged 68. He was a judge of 
the court of appeals in Virginia in L787, 
and in the same year, lie was a member 
of the general convention which formed 
the constitution of the United States. 
To that instrument the names of Blair 
and Madison arc affixed as the deputies 
from Virginia. When the new govern- 
ment commenced its operation, he was 
appointed by Washington to the office, 
which he held till his death.— Samuel, 
a Presbyterian minister, was a nati\ e of 
Ireland, and came to America in early 
life. In 1743 he established an academy 
at Fos's Manor, Chester county, Penn- 
sylvania, and took the pastoral care of 
the church in that place. He occupied 
the first rank among his cotemporaries 
in talents, learning, piety, and useful- 
ness, both as a preacher and an academ- 
ical instructor. D. about 1751. 

BLAIZE. a bishop martyred by the 
Empeivi jJ.oclesian, but principally cel- 

ebrated as the inventor of wool-comb- 

BLAKE, Kobert, a famous English 
admiral, b. Aug. 15, 1599, at Bridge- 
water, in Somersetshire, where he was 
educated at the grammar-school. Hav 
ing served some years in the parliament 
army, he was in Feb. 1648-9 appointed 
to command the fleet, in eonjunct ; on 
with Col. Deane and Col. L'cpham. 
During nine years' active service in the 
navy lie performed exploits that, for the 
skill with which they were conducted, 
and the success that attended them, 
were never surpassed. His four vic- 
tories over the Dutch fleet under Van 
Tromp were his most brilliant exploits. 
He d. as the fleet was entering Fly- 
mouth, the 17th of Aug., 1657, aged 58. 
His body was conveyed to West minster 
abbey, and interred in Henry Vllth's 
chapel; but disgracefully disinterred 
from thence in 1661, by Charles II. and 
flung into a hole in St. Margaret's 
churchyard. — William, an engraver of 
great merit, but of eccentric taste; ho 
was a pupil of Basire. B. 1759; d. 1^27. 
■ — John Beadlky, b. in London, 1745, 
and educated at Westminster school. 
After acquiring a deep knowledge of 
chemistry and mathematics, in the pur- 
suit of his favorite study of botany, ho 
went to China as supercargo of the India 
company, and with laudable assiduity 
collected and sent to Europe the seeds 
of all the vegetables of that remote 
country used by the natives for pur- 
poses cither of medicine, food, or man- 
ufactures. He began likewise a valu- 
able collection of ores and fossils, but 
his great application weakened his con- 
stitution, he was afflicted with the stone, 
and the complaint when attended by a 
fever proved fatal. D. at Canton, 1773. 
—Joachim, a Spanish general, was b. at 
Velez Malaga, and served, first as cap- 
tain, and next as major, in the war, 
from 1793 to 1795, between France and 
Spain. When Napoleon seized the 
crown of Spain, Blake espoused the 
cause of his country; but with more 
valor and zeal than success. Though 
defeated at Rio Seco and Espinosa, ho 
still sustained his military character. 
In 1810 he was appointed one of tho 
regency, from which rank lie was trans- 
ferred to that of captain-general. Hav- 
ing been defeated at Murviedro, he shut 
himself up with his army in "Valencia, 
but was ?.*■ length compelled to surren- 
der. In ': o20, on the establishment of 
the constitution, lie was admitted into 
the council of state; and his attachment 




to that constitution subsequently ex- 
posed him to danger. D. 1827. — Joseph, 
governor of South Carolina, was a pro- 
prietary and a nephew of the famous 
Admiral Blake. He was governor but 
one year. During Blake's administra- 
tion "a pet of 41 articles, called "The 
last Fundamental Constitutions," was 
sent from England, by the earl of Bath, 
the palatine, "and other patentees ; but 
the change in the government was never 
confirmed by the Carolina assembly. D. 
1700. — William, a comedian of great 
accomplishments and talent, whose per- 
formances at Coveut-garden were long 
the delight of London. D. 1835. 

BLAKELY, Johnston, a captain in 
the United States' navy during the late- 
war, was b. in Ireland in 1781. Two 
years after his father emigrated to the 
United States, and settled in North Caro- 
lina. Young Blakely was placed, in 
1796, at the university oi' North Caro- 
lina, but circumstances having deprived 
him of the means of adequate support, 
he left college, and in 1800 obtained a 
midshipman s warrant. In 1813 he was 
appointed to the command of the Wasp, 
and in this vessel took his Britannic 
Majesty's ship Reindeer, after an action 
of nineteen minutes. The Wasp after- 
wards put into L'Orient; from which 
port she sailed August '27. On the eve- 
ning of the 1st of September, 1814, she 
fellin with four sail, at considerable dis- 
tances from each other. One of these 
was the brig-of- war Avon, which struck 
after a severe action ; but captain B. was 
prevented from taking possession by 
the approach of another vessel. The 
enemy reported that they had sunk the 
Wasp by the first broadside, but she 
was afterwards spoken by .a vessel off 
the Western Isles. After this we hear 
of her no more. Captain Blakely was 
considered a man of uncommon courage 
and intellect. In testimony of respect 
to his memory, the legislature of North 
Carolina educated his only child, a 
daughter, at the public expense. 

BLAMPINI, Thomas, a Benedic- 
tine monk, editor of a splendid edi- 
tiDii of the works of St. Augustan. D. 

BLANC, Antony de Guillet de, a 
French dramatist; author of " Manco 
Capac," a tragedv, and various other 
dramas. B. 1780; d. 1799.— John Ber- 
nard le, a French writer, author of 
"Letters on the English Nation," &c. 
P. 1707; d. 1781. 

BLANCHARD, James, an eminent 
tiainter, who bears the honorable de- 

nomination of the French Titian. He 
was an indefatigable artist, and left 
many pictures. His finest work is the 
" Descent of the Holy Ghost," which is 
considered as one of the best produc- 
tions of the French school. B. 1600 ; d. 
1638. — Francis, a celebrated French aero- 
naut, b. in 1738, was distinguished from 
his youth by his mechanical inventions. 
After making his first aerostatic voyage 
in 1784, he "crossed the Channel from 
Dover to Calais, 1785, for which exploit 
he was rewarded by the king of France 
with 12,000 francs, and a pension of 
1200 fr. He first made use of a para- 
chute in London, in 1785 ; went through 
various countries on the Continent, ex- 
hibiting his aeronautic skill; visited 
America with the same object ; and re- 
turning in 1798, ascended in Kouen with 
16 persons in a large balloon, and de- 
scended at a place 15 miles distant. D. 
ISi .19. —Madame Blanchard, his wife, 
continued to make aerial voyages, but 
in June, 1819, having ascended from 
Tivoli, in Paris, her balloon took fire, 
at a considerable height, owing to some 
fireworks which she carried with her, 
the ear fell, and the hapless aeronaut 
was dashed to pieces. — John Baptist, a 
French Jesuit, and professor of rhetoric, 
author of "The Temple of the Muses," 
&c B. 1731; d. 1797. — Laman, a grace- 
ful periodical writer, was b. at Great 
Yarmouth, in 1808. His father having 
removed to London when he was 5 
years of age, he received his education 
at St. Olave's school, Lambeth, and here 
was laid the groundwork of those lit- 
erary tastes and habits which distin- 
guished him through life. His first 
occupation was that of reader at Cox 
and Baylis' printing-office in Great 
Queen-street ; in 1827 he became secre- 
tary to the Zoological Society, and in 
1881, editor of the Monthly Magazine. 
He subsequently became connected with 
the True Sun," the Constitutional, the 
< ourier, the Court Journal, and the Ex- 
aminer, and was a constant contributor 
to the lighter periodicals of the day. D. 
by suicide, 1845. 

"BLANCHE, of Castile, queen of 
Louis VIII. of France. She died of 
grief, on account of the defeat and im- 
prisonment of her son, Louis IX., in 
Palestine, 1252. 

BLANCH ELANDE, Pierre, b. 1735, 
governor of St. Domingo when the de- 
cree of instant emancipation for the 
slaves caused a universal tumult. He 
urged the suspension of the decree, and, 
being arrested as a counter-revolutionist, 



was conducted to Paris, and perished by 
the guillotine in 1793. 

BLANCHET, Francis, the son of 
parents in humble life, was b. in 1707, 
at Angerville, and educated at the col- 
lege of Louis XIV. He was first a pro- 
fessor in two provincial colleges, next 
em ployed himself in private tuition, and 
lastly, obtained an office in the king's 
library and cabinet. Blanchet was one 
of the most amiable of men, and the 
most affectionately paternal of tutors. 
As an author he has great merit. His 
" Apologues and Tales" are told with 
spirit and grace. B. 1748. 

BLAND, Maria Theresa, an actress 
and vocalist, was b. at Caen, in Nor- 
mandy, in 1770, and went to England 
with "her parents, who were Italians, 
shortly after. When under 5 years ot 
age slie sang (as Miss Romanizi) at Sad- 
ler's Wells ; obtained an engagement at 
Drury-lane theatre in 1789; and sub- 
sequently appeared as the heroine in 
the musical dramas written by Colman 
for his theatre in the Haymarket. In 
1790 she was married to Mr. George 
Bland, brother of the celebrated Mrs. 
Jordan. She continued on the boards 
of Drury till that theatre was burnt, in 
1809 ; and for many years delighted the 
lovers of simple melody with her strains 
at Vauxhall Gardens. Her latter years 
were clouded by a degree of mental im- 
becility which prevented her appearing 
in public: but in 1834, by the proceeds 
of a benefit which was granted to her at 
Drury-lane, together with a sum liber- 
ally given by the late Lord Egremont, 
an annuity of £70 was secured to her 
for life. D. 1837.— Elizabeth, an En- 
glish lady, eminent for her knowledge 
of Hebrew. A phylacterv of her writ- 
ings is preserved by the Royal Society. 
T>. 172o. — Richard, a political writer of 
Virginia, was for some years a principal 
member of the house of burgesses. In 
1768 he was one of a committee to re- 
monstrate with parliament on the sub- 
ject of taxation ; in 1773 one of the com- 
mittee of correspondence ; in 1774 a 
delegate in congress. He was again 
chosen a deputy to congress in 1775. 
Though he declined the appointment 
from "old age, he declared, he should 
ever be animated, " to support the glo- 
rious cause, in which America was en- 
gaged." D. 1778. — Theodoric, a patriot 
and statesman, was a native of Virginia. 
He was bred to medicine, but at the 
commencement of the revolutionary 
war, he took an active part in the cause 
of his country. He soon rose to the 


rank of colonel, and had the command 
of a regiment of dragoons. In 1779 he 
was appointed to the command of the 
convention troops at Albemarle barracks 
in Virginia. He was chosen a repro 
sentative from Virginia, in the first con- 
gress under the present constitution of 
the United States. D. 1790. 

BLANDRATA, George, an Italian 
physician, who renewed all the tenets 
of Arms with respect to the Trinity. 
He fled from the persecution of the in- 
quisitors of Pavia to Geneva, and after- 
wards to Poland, where the king, Ste- 
phen Battori, made him a privy coun- 
cillor. He attempted to make the king 
a follower of his opinions, but failed. 
He was strangled by his nephew, a 
worthless character, to whom he had 
left his property, 1593. 

BLANKOF, "John Fennisz, a Dutch 
marine painter of considerable eminence. 
He was at the outset a scholar of Ever- 
dingen, but finished his studies at Rome. 
His best pictures represent storms on 
the coast of the Mediterranean, in which 
he combined Flemish fidelity with Ital- 
ian grandeur. B. 1628. 

BLASIUS, Gerard, a Flemish phys : - 
cian, who distinguished himself by his 
researches in anatomy and physioiogy. 
He was graduated at Leyden, and was 
afterwards a professor at Amsterdam. 
He was the earliest writer of importance 
on comparative anatomy. His chief 
works were "Observata Anatomiea," 
&c, and " Zootonical, sen Anatomse 
variorum Animaliuiu." D. 1682. 

BLAYNEY, Benjamin, a divine and 
biblical critic, wa9 educated at Oxford, 
where he became M.A. in 1753, and 
D.D. in 1787. He was professor of He- 
brew at that, university, canon of Christ- 
church, and rector of Polshot, Wilts. 
He translated Jeremiah, the Lamenta- 
tions, and Zechariah ; edited the Oxford 
Bible in 1769 ; and wrote a Dissertation 
on Daniel's Seventy Weeks. D. 1801. 

BLEDDIN, a British bard of the 13th 
century, many of whose pieces are in 
the AVt-lsh Archaeology. 

BLEDRI, bishop of Lkndraff in 1023 ; 
surnamed the wise on acc.unt of his great 

BLEECKER, Ann Eliza, a lady of 
some literary celebrity in New York, 
daughter of* Mr. Brandt Schuyler, and 
wife" of John J. Bleeckcr. She resided 
after her marriage at Tomhanic, a soli- 
dary and beautiful place 18 miles above 
Albany, but was driven from it in the 
night by the approach of Burgoync's 
army. Her writings, both in prose and 




poetry, were published in 1793, by her 
daughter, who likewise distinguished 
herself as a writer, Margaret V. Fau- 
geres. B. 1752; d. 1783. — Anthony, a 
poet of the city of New York, educated 
at Columbia college, and attained a re- 
spectable position as a lawyer. For 
nearly thirty years he was a leading con- 
tributor to the periodicals of New York 
and Philadelphia. B. 1778 ; d. 1827. 

BLEFKEN, Dithmar, a voyager of the 
16th century ; author of an exceedingly 
curious "Account of Iceland," &e. 

BLEISWICK, Peter van, b. in 1724; 
grand pensionary of the Dutch states- 
general at the revolution, by which he 
was divested of his office. He was the au- 
thor of a valuable work, "DeAggeribus." 

BLESSINGTON, Margaret Power, 
Countess of, celebrated for her beauty, 
accomplishments, and literary produc- 
tions, was b. in the county of \\ r aterford 
in 1789. At the early age of 15 she con- 
tracted an ill-fated marriage with Captain 
Farmer, and soon after his death the 
Earl of Blcssintrton sought and obtained 
her hand in 1818. After her marriage 
she passed several years abroad, but they 
are chiefly remarkable for having led to 
her acquaintance with Lord Byron, 
which soon ripened into intimacy, and 
enabled her subsequently to publish one 
of the most interesting works, her " Con- 
versations with Lord Byron." Soon af- 
ter her husband's death in 1829, she fixed 
her residence in London, where she gain- 
ed a distinguished place in literary and 
so-called fashionable society. Her house 
became the centre-point of every variety 
of talent ; and there were few literary 
celebrities, native or foreign, who did not 
share in the hospitalities of Gore House. 
Besides the "Conversations" above men- 
tioned, she published many novels, of 
which " Grace Cassady, or the Repeal- 
ers," " The Two Friends," "Meredith," 
" Stratherne," " The Lottery of Life," 
" The Victims of Society," etc., are the 
chief; and several works full of person- 
al anecdote, epigram, sentiment, and 
description, such as "The Idler in Ita- 
ly," " The Idler in France," " Memoirs 
of a Femme de Chambre," "The Belle 
of the Season," &c. For many years 
phe edited the far-famed annuals, " The 
Book of Beautv" and " The Keepsake." 
P. at Paris, 1849. 

BLETTER1E, John Philip Rene de 
.oA, b. at Rennes. He was professor of 
lloquence at the Royal College, and a 
member of the Academy of Belles 
Let.tres. He wrote Lives of Julian and 
Jovian ; and translated part of Tacitus. 

Gibbon highly praises the Lives, and his 
countrymen consider them as models of 
impartiality, precision, elegance, and 
judgment. B. 1696 ; D. 1772. 

BLIGH, George Miller, was the son 
of Admiral Sir R. R. Bligh. He entered 
the navy in 1794. He fought under Nel- 
son in the battle of Trafalgar, in which 
he was severely wounded. He was made 
a commander in 1806. D. 1835. 

chael Hyacinth, was b. at Paris, in 
1733. At the very outset of his career 
he lost all Ins fortune, but his literary 
talents procured him friends, and he 
successfully filled several honorable of- 
fices connected with literature, the last 
of which was that of conservator of the 
library of the arsenal. He is the author 
of Orpheus, a tragedy, and of many he- 
roic epistles and fugitive poems of no 
common merit. D. 1807. 

BLIZZARD, Sir William, a surgeon 
and anatomist of considerable eminence, 
was b. in 1742. During a long life of 
professional activity and experience he 
maintained a high reputation ; and was 
for many years professor of anatomy to 
the Royal College of Surgeons, and a 
fellow of the Royal and Antiquarian so- 
cieties. He was also the author of sev- 
eral valuable works, viz. " Suggestions 
for the Improvements of Hospitals," 
"Reflections on Police." "Lecture on 
the Large Blood-vessels." D. 1635. 

BLOCH, Marcus Eliezer, an ingeni- 
ous naturalist and physician, and a Jew 
by birth, was b. at Anspach, of mean 
parentage ; but entering into the service 
of a physician, he studied medicine, 
anatomy, and natural history with great 
success, and became particularly emi- 
nent in the last-named science. His 
" Ichthyology," produced at Berlin in 
1785, at the expense of the wealthiest 
princes of Germany, is a magnificent na- 
tional work. His treatise " On Intesti- 
nal Worms" is also in high estimation. 
B. 1723 ; d. 1799. — Joanna Koerten, a 
female of Amsterdam, who excelled in 
cutting landscapes, sea-picecs, flowers, 
and even portraits, out of paper, with 
the most perfect resemblance of nature. 
Her productions sold at enormous prices, 
and she was patronized by several sov- 
ereigns. B. 1650 ; d. 1715. — John Eras- 
mus, a gardener of Copenhagen, who 
published a " Horticultura Danica" in 
1647. — Benjamin, Jacob, and Daniel, of 
a family in Pomerania, distinguished as 
painters of architectural and historical 
pieces and portraits, Daniel excelling in 
the latter especially. — George Casto- 




rens. a native of Denmark, bishop of Ri- 
pp.u, who wrote a botanical work in- 
tended to illustrate the Old Testament, 
called " Testamen riioanieologices Sa- 
crse." D, 1773. 

BLOEMART, Abraham, a Dutch 
painter, b. at Gorcum, 1565, d. at Utrecht 
in 1647. His paintings are reproached 
with various faults, yet lie is distinguish- 
ed by the brilliancy of his colors, and 
the richness of his' invention. In the 
representation of the ch : aro-oscuro he 
may be called great. He painted all 
sorts of objects ; but his landscapes are 
the most esteemed. He had four sons, 
of whom the youngest Cornelius, is 
the most distinguished. He was b. at 
Utrecht, 1603, and d. at Rome, 1680. 
He was an engraver, and his engravings 
are distinguished for purity, elegance, 
and softness. He was the founder of a 
new school, from which proceeded Bau- 
dot, Poillv, Chasten, Speier, Koullat, &c. 

BLOMEF1ELD, Francis, an English 
topographer and divine ; author of " Col- 
lectanea < 'antahrigiensia, 1 ' <fcc. D. 1755. 

BLOMFIELD, Edward Valentine, 
a distinguished classical scholar, who 
receive! his e lucation at Caius college, 
Cambridge, where, besides other prizes, 
he gained, in 1809, a medal tor writing 
his beautiful ode, " In Desiderium Por- 
Boni." B. 1786; d. 1816. 

BLOND, James Christopher le, a 
miniature painter; and author of a trea- 
tise on a method of engraving in colors. 
B. 1670; d. 1741. 

BLONDEL, a minstrel, and favorite 
of Richard Coeur de Lion, whom he is 
6aid to have discovered in his German 
dungeon, by singing beneath its walls 
the first part of a song of their joint com- 
position. — David, a Protestant writer 
and minister, was b. in 1591, at Chalons 
sur Marne. In 1650 he was invited to 
Amsterdam, to succeed Vasorius, as pro- 
fessor of history, and he d. there in 1665, 
after having lost his sight in consequence 
of the humidity of the climate. Blonde! 
was a man of learning, had a minute ac- 
quaintance with history, and was a fluent 
speaker. Among his works, one of the 
most curious is his refutation of the silly 
6tory of Pope Joan. He has the merit 
of naving written in favor of liberty 
of conscience. — Francis, an eminent 
French architect and diplomatist, was b. 
in 1617, at Ribemont, in Picardy. Aft it 
having been sent as envoy to Constanti- 
nople, ho was appointed counsellor of 
state, one of the dauphin's preceptors, 
professor of the royal college, and mem- 
W of the Academy of Sciences. The 

noble triumphal arch of St. Denis was 
erected by him. He wrote various 
works on literary, architectural, and mil- 
itary subjects. D. 1686. — James Fran- 
cis, was b. at Rouen, in 1705, and, like 
his uncle, was an architect of great 
talent. The merit of a course of archi- 
tectural lectures, which he delivered at 
Paris, obtained him the appointment of 
professor at the academy. In his final 
illness, he had himself removed to his 
school at the Louvre, that he might 
yield up his last breath where he Lad 
taught his art. Blondel is the author 
of French Architecture, a Course of 
Civil Architecture, and other works of 
a similar kind. D. 1775. 

BLOOD, Thomas, a singular and des- 
perate character, who was originally an 
officer in Cromwell's army. His first re- 
markable enterprise was an attempt to 
surprise the castle of Dublin, which was 
frustrated by the duke of Ormond. He 
subsequently seized the duke in the 
streets of London, with the intention of 
hanging him at Tyburn, and was very 
near accomplishing his purpose. His 
last exploit was an attempt to carry away 
the crown and regalia from the Tower. 
For some inexplicable reason, Charles 
II. not only pardoned him, but gave him 
an estate of £500 per annum. D. 1630. 

BLOOMFIELI), Robert, a poet, b. at 
Honington, in Suffolk, in 17'i'j, was the 
son of a tailor, and was early left father- 
less. He was taught to read by his mo- 
ther, who kept a village school, and this 
was, in fact, his only education. At the 
aye of eleven he was employed in such 
husbandry labor as he could perform ; 
but, his constitution being delicate, he 
was subsequently apprenticed to the 
trade of shoemaking, at which he work- 
ed as a journeyman for many years. 
His leisure hours were spent in reading, 
and in the composition of verses. His 
poem of the Farmer's Boy was at length 
Drought before the public, by the benev- 
olent exertions of Capcl Loft, and it pro- 
cured the author both fame and profit. 
He subsequently published other poems, 
among which may be mentioned Wild 
Flowers, Hazlewood Hall, and the Banks 
of the AVye. Ill health and misfortune 
clouded the latter years of this modest 
and meritorious writer, and he d. in 
1823, when he was almost on the verge 
of insanity. — Joseph, governor of New 
Jersey. He was a soldier of the revolu- 
tion. In the war of 1*12 he was a 
brigadier-general. D. 1823. 

BLOUNT, Sir Henry, was b. at Tit- 
tenhangher, in Hertfordshire, in 1602; 




travelled in the East in 1634, 1635, and 
1636 ; fought under the banner of Charles 
at Edgehill ; was, nevertheless, employ- 
ed by Cromwell ; and d. in 16S2. He is 
the author of a Voyage to the Levant ; 
the Exchange Walk, a satire ; and other 
works.— Sir Thomas Pope, eldest son of 
Sir Henry, was b. in 1649, and d. in 1697. 
He produced Censura Celebriorum Auc- 
torum ; De Ec Poetica ; Essays on sev- 
eral subjects ; and Natural History. — ■ 
Chat.les, the youngest son of Sir Henry, 
was b. in 1654, and made himself con- 
spicuous by his deistical opinions, and 
by considerable talent. His "Anima 
Mundi" was suppressed, and publicly 
burnt. This work he followed up by 
throe of the same kind : The Life of 
Apollonius Tyaneus ; Great is Diana of 
the Ephesians ; and Eeligio Laici. Of 
the revolution of 16S8 he was a warm 
friend ; but he acted little in consonance 
witli its principles, when he published 
his "King William and Queen Alary 
Conquerors," to assert their right to 
the crown by conquest. The commons 
ordered this tract to be burnt by the 
hangman. He shot himself in 1693, in 
consequence of the sister of his deceased 
wife having refused to marry him. — 
Thomas, was b. at Bardesley, in Wor- 
cestershire, in 1618, and d. in 1679. He 
published Glossographia ; a Law Dic- 
tionary; and va-'ous other works; the 
most curious and valuable of which is, 
" Fragmcnta Antiquitatis, or Ancient 
Tenures of Land, and Jocular Customs 
of Manors." 

BLOW, John, a musician, was b. in 
1648, at North Callingham, in Notting- 
hamshire, received a doctor's degree 
from Archbishop Sancroft; and, on the 
death of Purcell, became organist of 
Westminster abbey. He d. in 1708. 
His secular compositions were collected, 
in 1700, under the title of " Amphion 
Anglicus." His church music receives 
qualified praise from Dr. Burney. 

BLUCIIER, Gebaral Lebrecht, 
Prince von, a Prussian field-marshal, b. 
at Kostock, Dec. 16, 1742. He served 
45 years in the army; and his celebrity 
in the field, though rarely victorious, 
obtained him the name of " Marshal 
Forwards." He aided Wellington in 
gaining tic battle of Waterloo, by his 
timely arrival at the most decisive mo- 
ment. In reward for his services the 
kin? of Prussia created a special order of 
Knighthood. D. at Kriblowizt, 1819. 

BLUM, Joachim Christian, a Ger- 
man; author of "Lyrical Poems," 
"The Promenades," "Dictionary of 

Proverbs," "The Deliverance of Ra- 
thenau," &c. B. 1739 ; d. 1790. — Robert, 
whose commanding eloquence during 
his brief political career gained for bird 
a high name, was b. at Cologne in 1807. 
Cradled in poverty, his education was 
completely neglected ; but from his 
earliest years he manifested a thirst for 
learning. At the age of fourteen he was 
apprenticed to a goldsmith; he after- 
wards worked as a journeyman in dif- 
ferent parts of Germany, especially at 
Berlin; but on his return to Cologne in 
1830, he was obliged to accept the hum- 
ble office of box-opener in the theatre of 
that city. Amid all the difficulties with 
which he had to struggle, he acquired a 
high degree of cultivation, and succeed- 
ed in the management of various liter- 
ary and political journals of Lcipsic. In 
1847 he became a bookseller. The 
events of March, 1S48, brought him out 
as a politician. He represented Leipsic 
in the parliament at Frankfort. On the 
breaking out of the second revolution at 
Vienna, in October, 1848, he repaired 
thither with some other members of his 
party, to offer a congratulatory address 
to the Viennese. Here he harangued 
the people with great power and effect ; 
but after the suppression of the rebel- 
lion he was arrested, tried by court- 
martial, and condemned to be shot, Nov. 
9, 1848. The news of his arrest and 
execution caused great consternation 
throughout Germany ; but it has not yet 
been resented, as it unquestionably will 
be, when the people rise once more to 
vindicate tluiv rights. 

BLUMAUER, Lewis, a German satir- 
ical poet ; author of a "Travesty of the 
^Eneid," <fce. B. 1755; d. 1798. 

BLUMENBACH, JohannFriederich, 
one of the greatest naturalists of modern 
times, was b. at Gotha in 1752. He 
early displayed a great aptitude for sci- 
entific pursuits, and before he had com- 
pleted his 24th year, his fame as an 
inquirer into nature had spread through- 
out the civilized world. In 1776, he was 
appointed professor of medicine hi the 
university of Gottingen, where he had 
been educated ; and here, for the long 
period of 61 years, he continued, by his 
lectures and his works, to extend the 
science of comparative anatomy, which 
has been so successfully cultivated in 
more recent times, and of which he may 
be truly said to have been the founder. 
D. 1837. 

BLUTEAU, Dom Raphael, a Ro- 
man Catholic priest, b. in Linden, of 
French parents ; author of a valuable 




Portuguese and Latin Dictionary. D. 

last Moorish king of Granada ; he was 
expelled for the last time from Granada 
by Ferdinand of Castile and Aragon, in 
1491 ; and afterwards resided in Africa, 
where he was killed in battle in the ser- 
vice of the king of Fez. 

BO ADEN, James, a dramatic author 
and critic. Educated for the law, he 
was, like many young men similarly 
situated, a great lover and frequenter of 
the theatre ; and, from loving the stage, 
he got to writing for it. His plays are 
numerous, but we believe there is nut 
one of them that now keeps possession 
of the stage. Far more important are his 
dramatic "memoirs, which are probably 
the best records we have of John Kein- 
ble, Mrs. Sichlons, Mrs. Jordan, and 
Mrs. Inchbald. His "Inquiry into the 
authenticity of the various Pictures and 
Prints of Shakspeare," and a tract on 
" The Sonnets of Shakspeare," are also 
very valuable works. B. 1762 ; d. 1839. 
of the Ieeni, in Britain, during the reign 
of Nero, having been treated in the most 
ignominious manner by the Romans, 
headed a general insurrection of the 
Britons, attacked the Roman settle- 
ments, reduced London to ashes, and 
put to the sword all strangers, to the 
number of 70,000. Suetonius, the Bo- 
man general, defeated her in a decisive 
battle, and rather than fall into the hands 
of her enemies, she put an end to her 
life by poison. This battle was fought 
a. r>. 61. Cowper's beautiful poem on 
her, is one of his most delightful pro- 

BOBROFF, Simon Sehgievitsch, a 
Russian poet, who enjoyed considerable 
reputation at St. Petei'sburgh. His best 
poem is said to be "The Chersonide, or 
a Summer's Day in the Crimea." His 
lyrical works have been collected in four 
volumes. D. 1810. 

BOCCACIO, Giovanni, one of the most 
enduring of the Italian prose writers, 
was born at Paris, of an illicit connec- 
tion, which his father formed in that 
city, in 1313. His family came original- 
ly from Certaldo, in Tuscany, whence 
he derives the appellation sometimes 
given him of Da Certaldo. He was ori- 
ginally intended by his father for a 
mercantile profession ; but after spend- 
ing six years with a merchant at Flor- 
ence and Paris, and turning his thoughts 
to the canon law, he abandoned the pur- 
suits which interest or authority dicta- 

ted, and devoted himself totally to liter- 
ature. He studied under his friend and 
patron Petrarch, by whose suggestions 
he retired from the" tumults and factions 
of Florence, and visited Naples, where 
he was received with kindness by king 
Robert, of whose natural daughter he 
became enamored, anel to whom he 
often pays his homage, in his various 
poetical pieces, as Fiammetta. Placed 
in fortunate circumstances, with a lively 
and cheerful disposition, of a soft and 
pleasing address, the favored lover of 
a king's daughter, he regarded with 
more aversion than ever the station for 
which he had been intended. The fond- 
ness of the princess for poetry ; his own 
intimacy with scientific and literary men ; 
the tomb of Virgil, near Naples, which 
he used to visit in his walks ; the pres- 
ence of Petrarch, who was received with 
the highest distinction at the court of 
Naples, and who went from that city to 
Rome, to be crowned with the poetic 
laurel ; the intimacy which had arisen 
between the two poets — all operated 
powerfully on Boccacio, to strengthen 
and fix his natural inclination for poetry 
and literature. After living two years 
at Florence with his father, he returned 
to Naples, where he was very graciously 
received by the queen Joanna. It is 
thought that it was no less to gratify the 
young queen, than his Fiammetta, that 
he wrote his " Decameron," which has 
raised him to the rank of the first Italian 
prose writer. On the death of his fa- 
ther, becoming master of his own incli- 
nations, he settled at Florence, where 
his first work was a description of the 
plague, which forms the opening of the 
" Decameron." He passed the remain- 
der of his life in his native village, 
where his constitution was weakened 
by his great application, and where he 
d., of a sickness in the stomach, 1375. 
His works are some in Latin and some 
in Italian. He possessed uncommon 
learning, and he may honorably be 
reckoned as one of those whose great 
exertions contributed most to the revi- 
val of learning in Europe. His best- 
known composition is the before-men- 
tioned " Decameron," a romance occa- 
sionally licentious, but abounding with 
wit, satire, and elegance of diction. Ilia 
" Life of Dante," his " Genealogy of tha 
Gods," his "History of Rome," and hig 
"Thesis," are much admired. Though 
his poetry does not possess the sweet- 
ness of Petrarch's lines, his prose is 
unequalled for its graceful simplicity 
and varied elegance. 




BOCCAGE, Marie Anne du, a cele- 
brated French poetess, was b. at Rouen, 
1710, became the wife of a receiver of 
taxes in Dieppe, who died soon after the 
marriage, leaving her a youthful widow. 
She concealed her talents, however, till 
the charms of youth were past, and first 
published her productions in 1746. The 
first was a poem on the mutual influence 
of the fine arts and sciences. This gained 
the prize from the academy of Rouen. 
She next attempted an imitation of 
"Paradise Lost," in six cantos; then, 
of the " Death of Abel ;" next a tragedy, 
the " Amazons ;" and a poem in ten 
cantos, called the " Columbiad." There 
in a great deal of entertaining matter in 
the letters which she wrote on her travels 
in England and Holland, and in which 
one may plainly see the impression she 
made upon her cotemporaries. Her 
works have been translated into En- 
glish, Spanish, German, and Italian. D. 

BOCCALINI, Trajan, an Italian sat- 
irist ; author of the " Political Touch- 
stone," a "Satire on the Spaniards," 
&c. His writings gave so much offence 
to the Spanish court, that it caused him 
to be murdered at Venice, 1613. 

BOCCHERINI, Luigi, a celebrated 
composer of instrumental music, pen- 
sioned for his merit by the king of 
Prussia, and warmly patronized by the 
king of Spain. B. 1740 ; d. 1805. 

BOCCHI, Achilles, a Bologncse, of a 
noble family, who distinguished himself 
in the 16th century by his attachment 
to literature ; author of " Apologia in 
Plautnm," and numerous other works. 

DEN, a fanatic of that city in the 16th 
century, who headed some revolters, 
and rnade themselves masters of Mun- 
ster, where he assumed the characters 
of king and prophet. The city was at 
length taken by the bishop, and Boccold 
was hanged. 

BOCCONE. Paul, an Italian natural- 
ist; author ot "Museadi Plante rare." 
B. 1633; d. 1704. 

BOCCUCI, Joseph, a Spanish author, 
b. in 1775. He served at first in the 
army, in the campaigns of 1793 and 1794, 
against republican France, but after- 
wards devoted himself to letters. He is 
the author of several comedies played at 
the Madrid theatre. 

BOCHART, Samuel, a French Prot- 
estant divine ; author of " Geographia 
Sacra," a treatise on the " Terrestrial 
Paradise," &c. B. 1599; d. 1667. 

BOCH. or BOCHIUS, John, a Flemish 

writer of the 16th century; author of 
various Latin works, and styled, from 
his skill in Latin poetry, the Belgic Vir- 
gil. B. 1555; d. 1609. 

BOCQUILLOT, Lazarus Andrew, a 
French divine ; author of a " Treatise on 
the Liturgy,' " Life of the Chjvalier 
Bayard," &c. D. 1728. 

in 1758; a French poet and diplomatist; 
ambassador to Naples for the republic 
in 1799 ; author of " Lc Ballon," a 
comedy; " Allonsko," a melodrame; 
" Minctte et Marine," an opera, &c. 

BODE, John Joachim Christopher, a 
German writer. He .was originally a 
musician in a Hanoverian regiment; he 
then became a bookseller, and finally rose 
to be privy councillor to the landgrave 
of Hesse Darmstadt. He translated 
some of the best French and English 
authors into German with considerable 
taste and judgment. D. 1793. — Chris- 
topher Augustus, a learned German 
linguist and critic j who edited the New 
Testament in Ethiopic, all the Evange- 
lists in Persian, St. Matthew in Arabic, 
&c. B. 1723 ; d. 1796.— John Elert, an 
astronomer, b. at Hamburg, 1747, early 
discovered an inclination for mathemati- 
cal science, in which his father, and 
afterwards the famous J. G. Busch, 
instructed him. He gave the first public 
proof of his knowledge by a short work 
on the solar eclipse of August 5th, 1766. 
The approbation which this received 
encouraged him to greater labors, and 
in 1768, appeared his "Introduction to 
the Knowledge of the Starry Heavens," 
a familiar treatise on astronomy, which 
has done much to extend correct views 
upon the subject, and continues to do 
so, as it has kept pace in its successive 
editions with the progress of the science, 
In 1772 the Berlin academy chose him 
their astronomer, and ten years after- 
wards he was made a member of that 
institution. His best works are his 
"Astronomical Almanac," (commencing 
1774,) a work indispensable to every 
astronomer ; and his large " Celestial 
Atlas" (Himmes atlas,) in twenty sheets, 
in which the industrious editor has 
given a catalogue of 17,240 stars, (12,000 
more than in any former charts.) In 
1825 he was released, at his own wish, 
from his duties in the academy of 
science, and the observatory in Berlin. 
D. 1827. 

BODIN, John, a native of Angers, 
who studied law at Toulouse, where he 
acquired reputation by his lectures. He 
came to Paris, but not succeeding at the 




bar, he devoted himself totally to wri- 
ting books. Ilia wit, as well as his 
merit, recommended him to public no- 
tice. Henry III. visited and admired 
him ; and iii the company of the duke 
of Alencon, he visited England, where 
he was flattered to see his book on " The 
Republic" approved and read in the uni- 
versity of Cambridge. Besides his " De 
UvRepublique," he" wrote a "Commen- 
tary on Appian," "Discourses on Coins," 
'• Methods of History," and " Demona- 
nia." I), of the plague, at Laon, 1596. 

BODLEY, Sir Thomas, from whom 
the Bodleian library at Oxford takes its 
name, was b. at Exeter, March 2, 
1544. In 1585 ho was made gentleman 
usher to Queen Elizabeth. From this 
time to 1~>97 he was honorably employed 
in embassies and negotiations with for- 
eign powers ; and on his revocation, he 
set about the work of restoring the pub- 
lic library at Oxford, which, in two years 
time, he brought to some degree of per- 
fection. He furnished it with a large 
collection of books, purchased in for- 
eign countries, at a great expense ; and 
this collection, in a short time, became 
so greatly enlarged, by the benefactions 
of several noblemen, bishops, and oth- 
ers, that neither the shelves nor the 
room could contain them. Whereupon 
Bodley offering to make considerable 
addition to the building, the motion was 
readily embraced. An annual speech in 
his praise is still made at Oxford. D. 

BOOMER, John Jacob, a celebrated 
German poet and scholar, b. at Grei- 
ensee, near Zurich, 1608. Although he 
produced nothing remarkable of bis 
own in poetry, he helped to open the 
way for the new German literature in 
this department. He was the antagonist 
of Gottsched, in Lcipsic, who aspired to 
be the literary dictator of the day, and 
had embraced the French theory of 
taste, while Bodmer inclined to the En- 
glish. He has the honor of having had 
Kbpstock and Wieland among his schol- 
ars, and was for a long time professor 
cf history in Switzerland. He was a 
copious and indefatigable writer, and 
though he entertained many incorrect 
views, he was of service to the literature 
of his native land, which was then in a 
low and barbarous state. D. at Zurich, 

BODONI, Ciambatieta, superintend- 
ent of the royal press at Parma, chief 
printer to the king of Spain, member of 
several academ'es of Italy, knight of 
several high ordjrs, was b., 1740, at Sa- 

luzzo, in Piedmont, where Lis father 
owned a printing establishment. He 
began, while yet a boy, to employ him- 
self in engraving on wood. His labors 
meeting with success, he went in 1758 
to Rome, and was made compositor for 
the press of the " Propaganda." He 
next established a printing-house at 
Parma, which he made the first of the 
kind in Europe, and gained the reputa- 
tion of having far surpassed all the 
splendid and beautiful productions of 
his predecessors in the art. The beauty 
of his type, ink, and paper, as well as 
the whole management of the technical 
part of the work, leaves nothing for us 
to wish, but the intrinsic value of his 
editions is seldom equal to their out- 
ward splendor. His Homer is a truly 
admirable and magnificent work ; in- 
deed, his Greek letters are. the most per- 
fect imitations that have been attempted, 
in modern times, of Greek manuscript. 
His splendid editions of Greek, Latin, 
Italian, and French classics are highly 
prized. 1). at Padua, 1613. 

BOECE, Hector, a Scottish historian, 
was b. at Dundee about the year 1465. 
He studied at Aberdeen, and afterwards 
at Paris, where, in 1497, he became pro- 
fessor of philosophy in the college of 
Montacute. In 1500 he was elected 
principal of the college of Aberdeen, 
which was just then founded by Bishop ' 
Elphinstone. On the death of the 
bishop, in 1514, he resolved to give to 
the world an account of his life, in com- 
posing which he was led to write the 
history of the lives of the whole of the 
bishops of Aberdeen. It was published 
in 1522. He next wrote a " History of 
Scotland," which was published at 
Paris, 1526. A second edition was 
printed at Lausanne in 1574. D. 1534. 

BOEIIM, Jacois, one of the most fa- 
mous mystics of modern times, was b. 
at Altseidcnbcrg, Germany, in 1575, and 
passed the first years of his life, with- 
out instruction, in the tending of cattle 
in the fields. The beautiful and sub- 
lime objects of nature kindled his ima- 
gination, and inspired him with a pro- 
found piety. Raised by contemplation 
above his circumstances, and undis- 
turbed by exterior influences, a strong 
sense of the spiritual, particularly of the 
mysterious, was awakened in him, and 
he saw in all the workings of nature 
upon his mind a revelation of God, and 
even imagined himself favored by di- 
vine inspirations. The education which 
he received at school, though very im- 
perfect, consisting only of writing, spell- 




Ing, and reading the Bill e, supplied 
new food for the excited imnd ot the 
hoy. He became afterwards a shoe- 
maker; and this sedentary life seems 
to have strengthened his contemplative 
habits. He was much interested in the 
disputes which prevailed on the subject 
of Cryptocalvinism in Saxony: though 
he never took a personal part in secta- 
rian controversies, and knew no higher 
delight than to elevate himself, undis- 
turbed, to the contemplation of the In- 
finite. His writings are very unequal, 
but always display a profound feeling. 
In l."»'j4 he became a master shoemaker 
in Gorlitz, married, and continued a 
shoemaker during his life. His first 
work appeared in 1616, and was call- 
ed " Aurora." It contains his revela- 
tions on God, man, and nature. This 
gave rise to a prosecution against him ; 
but he was acquitted, and called upon, 
from all sides, to continue writing. He 
did not, however, resume his pen until 
1610. One of his most important works 
is " Description of the Three Principles 
of the Divine Being." His works con- 
tain profound and lofty ideas, mingled 
with many absurd and confused notions. 
He died, after several prosecutions and 
acquittals, in 16-24. — William Anthony, 
a learned German divine, and chaplain 
to Prince George of Denmark. B. 1673 ; 
d. 1732. 

_ BOEIIMER, G. G., a professor at Got- 
tingen, b. in 1761. Always a liberal, 
aud attached to the French party, he 
edited an independent journal in 1791. 
He congratulated the French republic 
on its union with Belgium in 1796, and 
was complimented with a seat in the 
convention. He was subsequently per- 
secuted by the anti-French party, and 
imprisoned at Ehrenbreitstein and Er- 
furt. He was author of a " Memoir to 
demonstrate the Rhine as the Natural 
Boundary of France," &c., and many 
political German works. 

BOEEHAAVE, Herman, one of the 
most eminent physicians of modern 
times, b. at Woornout, near Leyden. 
His knowledge as an anatomist, chemist, 
and botanist, as well as in the causes, 
uature, and treatment of diseases, was 
unrivalled ; and his fame was spread 
over the world. Peter the Great visited 
him on his travels; and a Chinese man- 
darin wrote to him with this address, 
" To Boerhaave, the celebrated physi- 
cian of Europe." No professor was ever 
attended, in public as well as private 
lectures, by so great a numher of stu- 
dents, from such different and distant 

parts for so many years successively: 
none heard him without conceiving a 
veneration for his person, at the same 
time that they expressed their surprise 
at his prodigious attainments; and it 
may be justly affirmed, that none in so 
private a station ever attracted a more 
universal esteem. So unmoved was he 
by detraction, from which the best of 
men are not exempt, that he used to say, 
" The sparks of calumny will be present- 
ly extinct of themselves, unless you blow 
them." His writings are numerous, 
among the principal may be mentioned, 
'* Institutiones Medico;;" "Aphorismi 
de Cognoscendis et Curandis Morbis;" 
"Index Plantarum ;" and " Elementa 
Ghimiaj." B. 1668; d. 1738. 

BOETHIUS, Anigids Manlius Tor- 
quatus Slverinus, a Roman philosopher, 
whose virtues, services, honors, and 
tragical end all combine to render his 
name memorable, was b. 470 ; studied 
at Rome and Athens ; was profoundly 
learned ; and filled the highest offices 
under the government of Theodoric the 
Goth. He was long the oracle of his 
sovereign and the idol of the people ; 
but his strict integrity and inflexible 
justice raised up enemies in those who 
loved extortion and oppression, and he 
at last tell a victim to their machinations. 
He was accused of a treasonable corre- 
spondence with the court of Constanti- 
nople, and executed in 524. While he 
was at the helm of state, he found rec- 
reation from his toilsome occupations 
in the study of the sciences, and devoted 
a part of his leisure to the construction 
ot mathematical and musical muni- 
ments, some of which he sent to Clo- 
thaire, king of France. He was also 
much given to the study of the old 
Greek philosophers and mathematicians, 
and wrote Latin translations of several 
of them. His most celebrated work is 
that composed during his imprisonment, 
" On the Consolations of Philosophy," 
translated by two of the most illustrious 
English rulers, Alfred and Elizabeth. 
It is written in prose and verse inter- 
mixed. The elevation of thought, the 
nobleness of feelincr, the ease and dis- 
tinctness of style which it exhibits, make 
this composition, short as it is, far supe- 
rior to any other of the acre. 

BOETTCIIER, John 'Frederic, the 
inventor of the Dresden porcelain, b. 
February 5th, 1682, at Schleiz, in the 
Voigtland, in his 15th year went from 
Magdeburg, where he received his early 
education, to Berlin, as apprentice of 
an apothecary. There he devoted hia 




nights to the making of gold out of 
other metals. Oct. 1st, 1701, he changed, 
as it is said, in the presence of several 
witnesses, eighteen pieces of silver into 
fine gold. As this was much talked of, 
the king desired to see him, and 
Boettcher, believing he was to be arrest- 
ed as an adept, fled to Saxony. The 
king of Saxony gave him large sums of 
money, and became very impatient to 
see the gold. Boettcher, in 1704, at- 
tempted to escape, but was overtaken, 
and, with the assistance of one Tschirn- 
hausen, who had discovered a kind of 
porcelain, invented an improved com- 
position of it, with which he hoped to 
appease the king, who was in the habit 
of spending immense sums in China- 
ware. In 1705 Boettcher invented the 
Dresden porcelain, which has since be- 
come so famous. He made use of a 
clay found in the vicinity of Meissen. 
The king, upon this, made him a baron 
of the empire, and director of the new 
manufactory of porcelain in Meissen, 
though he was often treated as a prison- 
er, lest the secret should be betrayed. 
He was finally removed from his dignity 
on account of his immoral life. D.1719, 
in the greatest poverty. 

erowitsoh, the Russian Anacreon, was 
b. in 1743, at Perewolotshna, in White 
Russia. His father was a physician. 
He was designed for an engineer ; went, 
for the purpose of studying engineering, 
to Moscow, in 1754 ; but, having higher 
views, he applied himself to the study 
of the fine arts, and to learning foreign 
languages. He gained patrons and 
friends, and, in 1791, was made inspec- 
tor in the university of Moscow, and 
afterwards translator in the department 
of foreign affairs. In 1762 he travelled 
with Count Beloselsky, as secretary of 
legation, to Dresden, where he devoted 
his whole attention to the study of the 
fine arts and of poetry, till 1768. The 
beautiful pictures in the gallery of that 
place inspired him to write his "Psyche," 
(Duschenka,) which appeared in 1775, 
and fixed his fame on a lasting founda- 
tion. After this he devoted himself to 
music and poetry, in solitary study at 
Petersburg, till Catharine called him 
from his retirement. He then wrote, on 
different occasions, several dramatic and 
historical pieces. In 1788 he was made 
president of the imperial archives. In 
1792 he took leave of the court, and 
lived as a private man in Little Russia. 
Alexander recalled him to Petersburg, 
where he lived till 1803. 

BOGORIS, the first Christian king of 
Bulgaria ; converted by his sister, (vho 
had been taken prisoner by the troops 
of Theodosia, and was restored to him 
by that empress. 

' BOGUE, David, a dissenting minister 
of very considerable acquirements ; pas- 
tor of a congregation at Gosport, Hants, 
where he also kept an establishment for 
the education of young men destined for 
the Christian ministry, in connection 
with the Independents. He is consid- 
ered as the father of the London Mis- 
sionary Society, and he also contributed 
greatly to the formation of the British 
and Foreign Bible Society. He wrote 
an " Essay on the Divine Authority of 
the New Testament," a " History ot'tho 
Dissenters," &c. B. 1749 ; d. 1825. 

BOHEMOND, the first prince of An- 
tioch. He took Antioch in 1098, and 
subsequently took Laodicea. D. 1111. 

BOHN, John, a German physician; 
author of a " Treatise on the Duties of a 
Physician," &c. B. 1640; d. 1719. 

BOHUN, Edmund, a political writer 
of note in the reign of James II. and 
William III. ; author of a li Defence of 
King Charles II. 's Declaration," a " Ge- 
qgraphical Dictionary," " Life of Bishop 
Jewell," &c. He was living at the ac- 
cession of Queen Anne, but the exact 
date of his death is uncertain. 

BOIARDO, Matteo Maria, count of 
Scandiano, was b. at a seat belonging 
to his family near Fcrrara, in 1434. From 
1488 to 1494, the period of his death, he 
was commander of the city and castle 
of Regsrio, in the service of his protec- 
tor, Ercole d'Este, duke of Modena. 
This accomplished courtier, scholar, and 
knight was particularly distinguished 
as a poet. His " Orlando Innamorato" 
is continued to the seventy-ninth cantj, 
but not completed. He immortalized 
the names of his own peasants, and the 
charms of the scenery at Scandiano, in 
the persons of his heroes and his descrip- 
tions of the beauties of nature. In lan- 
guage and versification he has been sur- 
passed by Ariosto, whom he equalled in 
invention, grace, and skilful conduct of 
complicated episodes. Domenichi, Ber- 
Tii, and Agostini new modelled and con- 
tinued the work of Boiardo, without 
improving it. One continuation, only, 
will never be forgotten — the immortal 
" Orlando" of Ariosto. In some of his 
works, Boiardo was led, by the spirit of 
his times, to a close imitation of the an- 
cients, as in his " Capitt li," also in a 
comedy borrowed from Lucian's " Ti- 
mon," .and in his Lath eclogues and 




translations of Herodotus and Apu- 

BOICHOT, Jean, a distinguished 
French sculptor. The "Colossal Group 
of St. Michael," and the " Sitting Her- 
cules," are among his best works. The 
baa-reliefs of the rivers on the Trium- 
phal Arch of the Carousel arc his. B. 
1738 ; d. 1814. 

BOIELDIEU, Adbien, a i slebrated 
French musical composer, b. in 1775; 
author of numerous well-known operas : 
" Le Calife de Bagdad," "Jean de Pa- 
ris," &c. "Telemaque" is thought his 
chef-d'ixui-re. His style is characterized 
by a sweet and natural melody, much 
imaginative gayety, and simple but 
pleasing accompaniments. 

BOIGNE, Count, a French soldier of 
fortune, was b. at Chamberry, in 
"When 17years old he entered'the French 
army, which he quitted for the Russian 
service in about 5 years, and was taken 
prisoner at the siege of Tenedos. After 
being released he left Russia, and in 177S 
went into the service of the East India 
Company ; but fancying himself neglect- 
ed, he ottered himself to the notice of 
Mahajee Scindiah, the celebrated prince 
of the Mahrattas, to whom he was of the 
greatest use during his campaigns, and 
who loaded him with honors and riches. 
Having remitted his vast fortune to En- 
gland, and wishing to return to Europe 
for the sake of bis' health, he left India 
in 1795, and settled at Chamberry. He 
d. in 1830, possessed of about twenty 
millions of francs, the greater part of 
which he bequeathed to his son. 

BOILEAU, James, b. at Paris, in 

1635, was a doctor of the Sorbonnc, a 
eanon, and dean, and grand vicar of 
Sens. He is the author of several theo- 
logical and other works in the Latin 
language, the most celebrated of which 
is the " Ilistoria Flagellantium.*' James 
Boileau was caustic and witty. Being 
asked why he always wrote in Latin, he 
replied, " for fear the bishops should 
read me, in which case I should be per- 
secuted." The Jesuits he designated as 
men "who lengthened the creed, and 
abridged the decalogue." D. 1716. — 
Giles, a French writer ; author of a 
translation of Epictetus, &c. B. 1601 ; 
d. 1669. — John James, a French divine ; 
author of " Letters on Morality and De- 
votion," &c. D. 1735. — Nicholas, Sieur 
des Preux, a celebrated poet, b. at Paris, 

1636. His father, who left him an or- 
phan before he was 17, had not formed 
the most promising expectations of the 
d>owers ot his mind ; but the dulness 


of youth disappeared as he approached 
to maturity. He applied himself to the 
law ; he was admitted advocate in 1656, 
but he did not possess the patience and 
application requisite for the bar, and 
exchanging his pursuits for the study of 
divinity, he at last discovered that a de- 
gree at the Sorbonne was not calculated 
to promote the bent of his genius, or 
gain him reputation. In the field of 
literature he now acquired eminence 
and fame. The publication of his first 
satires, 1666, distinguished him above 
his poetical predecessors, and he. became 
the favorite of France and of Europe. 
His art of poetry added still to his repu- 
tation ; it is a monument of his genius 
and judgment. His " Lutrin" was writ- 
ten in 1674, at the request of Lamoignon, 
and the insignificant quarrels of the 
treasurer and ecclesiastics of a chapel 
are magnified by the art and power of 
the poet into matters of importance, 
and every line conveys, with the most 
delicate pleasantry, animated descrip- 
tion, refined ideas, and the most inter- 
esting scenes. Louis XIV. was not in- 
sensible of the merits of a man who 
reflected so much honor on the French 
name. Boileau became a favorite at 
court, a pension was settled on him, and 
the monarch, in the regular approbation 
from the press to the works of the au- 
thor, declared he wished his subjects to 
partake the same intellectual gratifica- 
tion which he himself had so repeatedly 
enjoyed. As a prose writer Boileau pos- 
sessed considerable merit, as is fully 
evinced by his elegant translation of 
Longinus. After enjoying the favors 
of his sovereign, Boileau retired from 
public life, and spent his time in literary 
privacy, in the society of a few select 
and valuable friends. D. 1711. 

BOILLY, N., an agreeable and pro- 
ductive French painter, b. in 1768. His 
most celebrated pieces are, "The Arri- 
val of the Diligence;" "The Departure 
of the Conscripts ;" and "Interior ot' M. 
Isabeau's Atelier." He has some affec- 
tation of Dutch coloring, but truth of 
execution is his great forte. 

BOINDON, Nicholas, a French dra- 
matist; author of several comedies. 
Having d. an avowed atheist, he was in- 
terred without any religious ceremonies. 
D. 1751. 

BOINVILLE, De, was b. of a noble 
family, at Strasburg, in 1770. He quit- 
ted a lucrative office, and joined the 
French republican party in 1791. He 
then went to England with La Fayette, 
as aid-de-camp. He married an English 




lady ^f great talent and beauty, accepted 
a coi inland under Napoleon, and per- 
ished in the retreat from Moscow. 

BOIS, John Du, a French monk, who 
served in tho army of Henry III. On 
the death of Henry IV. he accused the 
Jesuits of having caused the assassina- 
tion of that prince. For this accusation 
he was confined in the castle of St. An- 

felo, at Rome. D. 1626. — Philip du, a 
rench divine ; editor of an edition of 
Tibullus, Catullus, and Propertius, ad 
usuin Delphini. D. 1703. — Gerard du, 
a priest or the Oratory ; author of " An- 
nals of France," "History of the Church 
of Paris," &c. D. 1696. 

BOISMORAND, Abbe Chiron de, an 
unprincipled French satirist. Bred a 
Jesuit, he first satirized that order, and 
then refuted his own satire. D. 1740. 

BIOSROBERT, Francis le Metel de, 
a French abbot, celebrated for his wit, 
and patronized by Richelieu. His poems, 
plays, tales, &c, are extremely numer- 
ous. D. 1662. 

BOISSARD, John James, a French 
antiquary ; author of " Theatrum Vitas 
Humanae," &c. P. 1602. 

BOISSAT, Peter de, an eccentric 
Frenchman ; at first a priest, then a sol- 
dier, and at last a pilgrim; author of 
"L'Histoire Negropontique ; ou, lea 
Amours d' Alexandre Castriot." D. 1662. 

thonv, Count de, a distinguished 
French senator and literary character, 
and a man who throughout the revolu- 
tionary frenzy constantly displayed great 
firmness and a disinterested love of lib- 
erty. By Napoleon he was made a 
senator and commander of the legion of 
honor; and in 1814 Louis XVIII. cre- 
ated him a peer; but he was, /or a time 
only, deprived of his title, in conse- 
quence of his recognition of the emperor 
on his return from Elba. His writings 
are on various subjects: among them 
are " The Literary and Political Studies 
of an Old Man ;" an " Essav on the Life 
of Malesherbes," &c. B. 1756 ; d. 1826. 

BOISSY, Louis de, a French comic 
writer, who, although he had been the 
author of numerous successful come- 
dies, was reduced to such extreme dis- 
tress, that had he not been opportunely 
rescued by the marchioness de Pompa- 
dour, he and his wife would have per- 
ished through hunger. D. 1758. 

BOIVIN, Francis de, a French writer; 
author of a " History of the Wars of 
Piedmont." D. 1018. — Louis, a French 
advocate ; author of poems and some 
learned historical treatises. D. 1724.— 

John, brother of the above, professor 
of Greek in the Royal college of Paris, 
and keeper of the king';; library; authoi 
of a French version of the "Birds of 
Aristophanes," and the " CEdipus of 
Sophocles," &c, &c. D. 1726. — Dk 
Villeneuve, John, a Norman writer, 
chiefly on classical literature ; author of 
" An Apology for Homer," and tho 
"Shield of Achilles," &e. D. 1726. 

BOIZOT, Louis Simon, b. in 1743 ; a 
French painter and sculptor, but more 
distinguished as the latter. The "Vic- 
tory" of the Fountain of the Place du 
Chatclet, is his chef-d'aeuwe. Elegant, 
graceful, and delicate as are the various 
productions of his chisel, he is accused 
of too great monotony in the attitude 
and expression of his figures, as well as 
inaccuracy of outline. 

BOKHARI, a celebrated Mussulman 
doctor; he was a predestinarian, and 
the author of a collection of traditions, 
entitled " Tektirtch." D. 256 of the 

BOL, Ferdinand, a Dutch historical 
and portrait painter, pupil of Rembrandt. 
B. 1611; d. 1681. 

BOLANGER, John, an historical 
painter, pupil of Guido. D. 1660. 

BOLD, Samuel, an English divine 
and controversial writer; author of a 
"Plea for Moderation towards Dissent- 
ers," &c. D. 1737. 

BOLDONIC, C, an Italian writer, b. 
in 176s ; author of "La Constituzione 
Francese," (published in 1792,) which 
contributed to diffuse the renovated 
seeds of freedom over Italy at that epoch. 

BOLEYN, Anne, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Boleyn, is known in English 
history as the wife of Henry VIII., and 
as the occasion of the reformation. She 
went to France in the seventh vear of 
her age, and was one of the attendants of 
the English princess, wife to Louis XII., 
and afterwards to Claudia the queen 
of Francis I. and then of the duchess 
of Alenqon. About 1525 she returned 
to England, and when maid of honor to 
Queen Catherine, she drew upon herself 
the attention and affection of the king, 
and by her address in the management 
of the violence of his passion, she pre- 
vailed upon him to divorce his wife ; and 
as the pope refused to disannul his mar- 
riage, England was separated from the 
spiritual dominion of Rome. Henry was 
united to his favorite, 14th Nov. 1532, 
by whom he had a daughter, after- 
wards Queen Elizabeth, but his passion 
was of short duration, and Anne Bo- 
eyn so long admired, so long courted by 




the amorous monarch, was now despised 
for Jane Seymour, and cruelly beheaded 
May 19th, 1586. She bore her fate with 
resignation and spirit; but though 
branded with ignominy by Catholic wri- 
ters, she must appear innocent in the 
judgment of impartial men, and the dis- 
graceful accusation brought against her, 
of a criminal connection with her own 
brother and four other persons, must be 
attributed to the suggestions and malice 
of that tyrant, who, in every instance, 
preferred the gratification of his lust to 
every other consideration. Her story is 
a favorite one with the dramatists and 

BOLINGBROKE, Henry St. John, 
Lord Viscount, son r»f Sir Henry St. 
John, was b. at Battersoa, in 1672, and 
educated at Eton and Christ-church, 
Oxford. He obtained a cp at in parlia- 
ment in 1700, and in 1704 was appointed 
secretary of war and the marines, but 
resigned the secretaryship in 1707. In 
1710 he again formed part of the minis- 
try, as secretary of state, and had a prin- 
cipal share in the peace of Utrecht. In 
1712 he was created Viscount Boling- 
broke ; but, dissatisfied with not having 
obtained an earldom, and with other cir- 
cumstances, he became the enemy of his 
colleague Harley, of whom he had long 
been the friend. Chi the accession of 
George I. an impeachment of Boling- 
broke being meditated, he fled to France, 
and, at length, accepted the office of 
secretary to the pretender. He was soon, 
however, dismissed from this new ser- 
vice, and, in the mean while had been 
impeached and attainted in England. 
After a residence in France till 1723 he 
was pardoned, and his estates were re- 
stored, but he was not allowed to sit in 
the house of peers. More indignant at 
this exclusion than gratified by his par- 
don, he became one of the chief oppo- 
nents of Sir R. Walpole, and by the 
power of his pen contributed greatly to 
the overthrow of that minister. In 1735 
he again withdrew to France, and re- 
mained there till the death of his father, 
after which event he settled at Battersea, 
where he resided till 1751, when he d. 
of a cancer in the face. Bolingbroke 
was intimate with and beloved by Pope, 
Swift, and the most eminent men of his 
age ; his talents were of the first order ; 
he possessed great eloquence, and, in 
point of style, his writings rank among 
the best in the English language. 

_ BOLIVAR, Simon, the celebrated 
Liberator of South America, and the 
<nost distinguished military commander 

that has yet appeared there, was b. of 
noble parents in the city of Caraccas, 
1783. Having acquired the elements of 
a liberal education at home, he was sent 
to Madrid to complete his studies ; and 
afterwards visited Paris, where he form- 
ed an acquaintance with several d : stin- 
guished men. He then made the tour 
of Southern Europe, again visited the 
Spanish capital, and married the young 
and beautiful daughter of the Marquis 
de Ustariz del Cro ; but soon after his 
return to his native land, whither she ac- 
companied him, his youthful bride ."ell a 
victim to the yellow fever ; and he once 
more visited Europe as a relief to his sor- 
row for one so fervently beloved. On 
returning to South America, in 1810, he 
pledged himself to the cause of indepen- 
dence, and commenced his military career 
in Venezuela, as a colonel in the service of 
the newly founded republic. Soon after 
this he was associated with Don Louis 
Lopez Mendez, for the purpose of cotn- 
municating intelligence of the change of 
government to Great Britain. In 1811 
he served under Miranda, and had the 
command of Puerto Cabello ; but the 
Spanish prisoners having risen and seiz- 
ed the fort, he was obliged to quit the 
town and proceed to Caraccas. At length 
Miranda was compelled to submit" to 
Montcverde, the royalist general ; and 
Bolivar, entering the service of the pa- 
triots of New Grenada, soon had another 
opportunity of assisting his old friends 
the Venezuelans. For a while he was 
successful, but reverses followed ; and 
when, in 1S15, theSpanish forces under 
Morillo arrived, he threw himself into 
Carthagena, and subsequently retreated 
to St. Domingo. The spirit of resist- 
ance was, however, by no means extin- 
guished ; he found new means to lead 
his countrymen to victory; and after 
many desperate conflicts the indepen- 
dence of Columbia was sealed, and Bol- 
ivar was chosen president of the repub- 
lic in 1821. His renown was now at its 
height, and every act of his government 
showed how zealously alive he was to 
the improvement of the national institu- 
tions and the moral elevation of the 
people over whom he ruled. In 1823 he 
went to the assistance of the Pernvians, 
and having succeeded in settling their 
internal divisions, and establishing their 
independence, he was proclaimed Liber- 
ator of Peru, and invested with supreme 
authority. In 1825 he visited Upper 
Peru, which detached itself from the 
government of Buenos Ayres, and was 
formed into a new republic, named Bo~ 




livia, in honor of the liberator; but do- 
mestic factions sprung up, the purity of 
his motives' was called in question, and 
he was charged with aiming at a perpet- 
ual dictatorship ; he accordingly declar- 
ed his determination to resign his power 
as soon as his numerous enemies were 
overcome, and to repel the imputations 
of ambition cast upon him, by retiring 
to seclusion upon his patrimonial estate. 
The vice-president, Santander, urged 
him, in reply, to resume his station as 
constitutional president; and though he 
was beset by the jealousy and distrust of 
rival factions, he continued to exercise 
the chief authority in Columbia till May, 
1830, when, dissatisfied with the aspect 
of internal affairs, he resigned the pres- 
idency, and expressed a determination 
to leave the country. The people ere 
long became sensible of their injustice 
to his merit, and were soliciting him to 
resume the government, -when his death, 
which happened in December, 1830, pre- 
vented the accomplishment of their 
wishes. In person he was thin, and 
somewhat below the middle size, but ca- 
pable of great endurance; his eomplex- 
•on sallow, and his eyes dark and pene- 
trating. His intellect was of the highest 
order, and his general character of that 
ardent, lofty cast, which is so well calcu- 
lated to take the lead among a people 
emerging from the yoke of tyranny. 

BOLL AND, Sir William, an eminent 
lawyer and one of the barons of Exche- 
quer, was a member and one of the 
originators of the Roxburgh Chib, and 
is often mentioned by Dr. Dibdin among 
the most ardent admirers of the literature 
of the olden times. B. 1773 ; d. 1840. 

BOLLANDUS, John, a learned Flem- 
ish Jesuit ; one of the compilers of the 
" Acta Sanctorum." D. 1665. 

BOLOGNESE, Francisco, the as- 
sumed name of Francis Grimaldi, an ex- 
cellent landscape painter, pupil of Anni- 
bal Caracci. D. 16S0. 

BOLSEC, Jerome, a Carmelite friar of 
Paris. He became for a time a Protest- 
ant, but again returned to the Catholic 
faith, and marked his zeal against Prot- 
estantism in his lives of Calvin and 
Theodore Bcza. D. 1582. 

BOLSWEET, Scheldt, an engraver of 
the 17th century, a native of Friesland, 
but who passed most of his life in Ant- 
werp ; distinguished for the excellence 
of his engravings from Rubens and Van- 

'BOLTON, Edmund, an English anti- 
quary of the 17th century ; author of 
'' Elements of Armories," " Nero Cae- 

sar, or Monarchie Depraved," &c. — Ro- 
bert, a Puritan divine ; author of a 
" Treatise on Happiness," &c. B. 1571 ; 
d. 1631. — Robert, dean of Carlisle ; au- 
thor of an "Essay on the Emplovinent 
of Time," &c. D. 1763.— Sir William, 
a captain in the British navy, and a ne- 
phew of Lord Nelson, commenced his 
career in 1733, as a midshipman, on 
board the Agamemnon, commanded by 
his gallant uncle ; under whom he serv- 
ed with credit and ability on the most 
trying occasions, during a great part of 
tlie war. Although he did not obtaiu 
higher promotion, owing chiefly to his 
not being present in the ever-memora- 
ble battle of Trafalgar, (which Nelson 
emphatically regretted during the en- 
gagement.) his merits as a naval officer, 
his gentlemanly deportment, and above 
all, his humanity, deserve to be record- 
ed. B. 1777 ; d". 1S30. 

BOLTS, William, an English mer- 
chant, of Dutch extraction, b. in 1740. 
He was invested with high employ in 
the East India Company's service, and 
realized a large fortune in India; but 
being accused of a design to subvert the 
Indian government, he was arrested, 
sent to England, imprisoned, and sub- 
jected to a seven years' process, which 
dissipated his large fortune. He d. at 
last in a poor-house. He left a work 
" On Bengal," and " Considerations on 
the Affairs of India." 

BOLZANI, Urbano Valeriano, a 
learned monk ; teacher of Greek at 
Venice, and the first who wrote a gram- 
mar of that language in Latin. D. 1524. 
BOMBELLI, Sebastian, an eminent 
Boloamese historical and portrait painter. 
B. 1635 ; d. 1685.— Raphael, a celebrated 
algebraist of the 16th century, and the 
first who invented a uniform method of 
working equations. 

BOMBERG, Daniel, a Dutch printer; 
whose Bible and Talmud are highly 
valued. D. 1549. 

BOMPART, Jean Baptiste, a French 
republican vice-admiral, b. in 1757 ; 
brought into notice by his fighting a 
British frigate of 44 guns, with his ship, 
the Ambuscade, 36 guns, off New York. 
His ship was taken, and himself made 
prisoner, during the expedition to Ire- 
land in 1798. He always retained his 
steady republican feelings during Bona- 
parte's imperial ascendency, and even 
during the Hundred Davs. 

BON ST. HILARY, Francis Xavier, 
a learned French writer; author of "Me- 
moire sur les Marrones dTnde," && 
D. 1761. 




BONA, John-, Cardinal; author of 
Beveral devotional works. Raised to 
the cardinalate by Clement IX. D. 1674. 

BONAMY, Peter Nicholas, a French 
ecclesiastic ; historiographer of Paris, 
Librarian of St. Victor, and conductor of 
the journal of Verdun, a clever periodi- 
cal work. He also contributed largely 
to the Memoirs of the Academy of In- 
scriptions. B. 1694; d. 1770.— A gener- 
al ; one of the conquerors of Naples, in 
17S9. In charging the principal redoubt 
at Moskwa, he received twenty bayonet 
wounds, and was left in the hands of 
the Russians. He returned to France 
in 1814. B. 1764. 

BONANNI, Philip, a learned Jesuit 
of Rome; author of a ''History of the 
Church of the Vatican;" ''Collection of 
the Medals of the Popes," &c, &c. D. 

BONAPARTE. The name of a Corsi- 
can family which has been made for ever 
illustrious by the prodigious military 
genius of one of its members, the late 
emperor of the French. The most au- 
thentic genealogical documents ascribe 
a Florentine origin to the family, and 
trace them back to the year 1120," when 
one of them was exiled' from Florence 
as a Ghibelline ; and in 1332 we find that 
John Bonaparte was podesta of that city. 
In 1404, his descendant and namesake, 
who was plenipotentiary to Gabriel Vis- 
conti, duke of Milan, married the niece 
of Pope Nicholas V. His son, Nicho- 
las Bonaparte, ('written Buonaparte until 
after Napoleon s first Italian campaign, 
when the u was dropped,) was ambas- 
sador from the same pontiff to several 
courts, and vicegerent of the holy see at 
Aseoli. In 1567 Gabriel Bonaparte es- 
tablished himself at Ajaccio, and for 
several generations his descendants were 
successively heads of the elders of that 
city. But Napoleon Bonaparte ridiculed 
the pride of ancestry, and was eager on 
ail occasions to declare that the exalted 
station he had attained was due to his 
own merits alone. — Carlo, his father, 
was a respectable advocate at Ajaccio, 
in the island of Corsica. He had studied 
law at Rome, but resigning the gown 
for the sword, he fought under Paoli 
against the French, and when Corsica 
surrendered was relnctlantly induced to 
live under the French government. On 
this submission, beinir much noticed by 
the new governor, Count de Marboef, 
he was appointed j udge lateral of Ajaccio. 
D. in his 39th year, of cancer in the sto- 
mach. — Marie Letitie, whose maiden 
tome was Ramolini, the wife of Carlo, a 

lady of great beauty and accomplish- 
ments, bore him five sons and three 
daughters, and lived to see them eleva- 
ted to the highest positions. — Napoleon, 
was b. on the 15th August, 1769, ak 
Ajaccio. He was educated at the mili- 
tary school of Br;enne from 1779 to 1784. 
His conduct there was unexceptionable. 
He seems to have cultivated mathematics 
more than any other branch of study 
He was fond of the history of great men, 
and Plutarch seems to have been his 
favorite author, as he is with most young 
persons of an animated character. For 
languages he manifested little taste. He 
made himself well acquainted with the 
French classics. From the military 
school at Brienne, he went with nigh 
recommendations to that of Paris. In 
17S6 he commenced his military career, 
being appointed in that year second 
lieutenant iu the regiment of artillery La 
Fere, after a successful examination, one 
year after the death of his father. "While 
at the school in Paris, young Bonaparte 
expressed a decided dislike of the dis- 
cipline and mode of living there, which 
he thought by no means fitted to prepare 
the pupils for the privations of a military 
life. Napoleon, then 20, was at Paris at 
the epocn of the J 0th of August. In 
September he returned to Corsica. The 
celebrated Paoli, who had acted as lieu- 
tenant-general in the service of France, 
had, meanwhile, been proscribed, with 
twenty other generals, as a traitor, and 
a price set on his bead. In May, 1793, 
Paoli raised the standard of revolt to 
secure his own safety, and threw otf the 
yoke of the convention. He a>sembled 
a eonsulta of the Corsican malcontents. 
Bonaparte openly opposed the views of 
Paoli, and a war broke out between the 
adherents of that leader and those of 
France. Many excesses were committed, 
and Paoli went so far as to make attempts 
upon the persons of young Bonaparte 
and his family. But Bonaparte suc- 
ceeded in conducting them safely to 
France, where they retired to La Valette, 
near Toulon, and at a later period, to 
Marseilles. In the same vessel with ".he 
Bonapartes were the commissioners of 
the convention and the French trocps. 
^t was the persuasion of Joseph Bona- 
parte, one of the members of the depart- 
mental administration at the time of 
Paoli's revolution, that engaged his 
family in the French cause, and thus 
had an important influence on the fu- 
ture career of his brother. Bonaparte 
proceeded to Nice, to join the fourth 
regiment of artillery, in which he had 




been made captain. This was in tl i 
years 1798 and 1794, when the Mou: • 
tain party developed its energies wita 
an unexampled rapidity, by an equally 
unexampled system; and, finding r.o 
foundation for a rational liberty on the 
first emersion of the country from the 
corruption and tyranny of centuries, 
strove to save it' by terrorism* The 
evident talents of the young officer com- 
mended him to the leaders of the con- 
vention. He was present at the affair 
at Lyons, and soon after greatly distin- 
guished himself in expelling the English 
from Toulon. He was consequently 
made a general of briirade in 1794. The 
same year he defended the convention 
from an attack of the Parisians, defeat- 
ing and dispersing them. In 1796 he 
married Josephine Beauharnois, the 
widow of Count de Beauharnois, who 
bad been beheaded by Robespierre. He 
left his bride in three days for Nice, and 
taking the command of an army of 
60,000 men, half armed and in want of 
even' necessary, he outmanoeuvred the 
Anstrians, and won the battles of Monte- 
notte, Millesimo, Dego, Mandovi, and 
Lodi, conquering all Piedmont and the 
Milanese. His victories of Louado, Cas- 
tiglione, Roverado, Pnssano, Sanoiorw-o, 
and Areola closed 1798. The following 
year he won the fields of Rivoli, La Fa- 
vorite, Tagliamento, Lavis, took Mantua. 
Trieste, and Venice, and compelled Aus- 
tria to sign the treaty of Campo Formio. 
On the 19th May, of the same year, he 
sailed with an expedition to Egypt, of 
which he took possession after fitrhtinsr 
several battles. In 1799 he returned to 
France, finding that the conquests he 
had made from Austria, she was recov- 
ering ; he dissolved the national conven- 
tion, was declared first consul, restored 
peace in La Vendee, carried an army 
over the Alps, beat the Anstrians at 
Rom mo, Montebcllo, and Marengo, and 
made the emperor sign a second treaty 
of peace. In 1801 he signed the prelimi- 
naries of peace with England. In 18^2 
he was declared first consul for life. In 
1304 he was made emperor. In 1805 he 
was declared king of Italy. Hostilities 
igain breaking out with Austria, he wop. 
.be battles of Wertinghen, Gurtzhnnrh, 
Memrainghen, Elchinjren, enptured Ulm 
and an entire army, and taking Vienna 
and fiefhtiner the battles of Piernestein, 
and Austerlitz, he forced the Aus'rians 
to si<m the treaty of Presbunrh. The 
year 1806 may be regarded as the era of 
Lis king-making. New dynasties were 
«reated by him, and princes promoted 

or transferred according to hi? will ; the 
crown of Naples he bestowed on his 
brother Joseph, that of Holland on 
Louis, and of Westphalia on Jerome ; 
while the Confederation of the Rhine 
was called into existence to give stability 
to his extended dominion. Prussia again 
declared war: but the disastrous t>att* i 
of Jena annihilated her hopes, and both 
she and Russia were glad to make peace 
with the French emperor in 1Su7. Na- 
poleon now turned his eye on Spain. 
After taking measures to bring about 
the abdication of Charles IV. and the 
resignation of Ferdinand, he sent 80,000 
men into that country, seized all t he 
strong places, and obtained possession 
of the capital. In 1809, while his ar- 
mies were thus occupied in the Pen- 
insula, Austria again ventured to 
try her strength with France. Napo- 
leon thereupon left Paris, and at the 
head of his troops once more entered 
the Austrian capital, gained the decisive 
victory of Wagram, and soon concluded 
a peace ; one of the secret conditions of 
which, was, that he should have his 
marriage with Josephine dissolved, and 
unite himself to the daughter of the 
emperor, Francis II. His former mar- 
riage was accordingly annulled; Jose- 
phine, with the title of ex-empress, re- 
tired to Navarre, a seat about 30 miles 
from Paris ; and he espoused the arch- 
duchess Maria Louisa, in April, 1810. 
The fruit of this union was a son, who 
was styled king of Rome. Dissatisfied 
with the conduct of Russia, he now put 
himself at the head of an invading army, 
prodigious in number, and admirably 
appointed, and marched with his numer- 
ous allies towards the enemy's frontiers. 
This eventful campaign atrainst Russia 
may be said to have opened on the 22d 
June, on which day he issued a procla- 
mation, wherein, with his usual oracular 
brevity, he declared that his "destinies 
were about to be accomplished." On 
the 28th June he entered Wilna, where 
he established a provisional srovernment, 
while he assembled a general diet at "War- 
saw. In the mean time the French army 
continued its march, and passed the Nie- 
men on the 23d, 24th, and 25th June, 
arriving at Witepsk on the way to Smo- 
lensko, in the early part of July. In the 
march it obtained several victories, and 
the Russians finding their enemy too 
powerful in open contest, contented 
themselves for the most part in wasting 
the country, and adding to the severities 
and operation of the Russian climate 
upon a southern soldiery. The French 




army, however, undauntedly proceeded, 
until arriving near Moscow on the 10th 
September, the famous battle of Boro- 
dino was fought, so fatal to both parties, 
and in which 60,000 are supposed to 
have perished. Napoleon notwithstand- 
ing pressed on to Moscow, from which 
the Russians retreated, as also the 
greater part of the inhabitants, who 
abandoned it by order of the governor, 
Count Rostopehin. When, therefore, 
Napoleon entered the celebrated capital, 
four days after the battle, he found it 
for the most part deserted and in flames. 
This strong measure saved the Russian 
empire, by completely destroying the 
resources of Napoleon. After remain- 
ing thirty-five days in the ruins of this 
ancient metropolis, exposed to every 
species of privation, retreat became ne- 
cessary, amid one of the most striking 
scenes of human suffering ever experi- 
enced. Hunger, cold, and the sword 
attended the wretched fugitives all the 
way to Poland, and the narrative of 
Count Segur, who details all the events 
and their effect on Napoleon, possibly 
forms the most appalling picture in 
modern history. On the 18th Decem- 
ber, Napoleon entered Paris at night, 
and on the following day a bulletin, with 
no great concealment of their extent, 
disclosed his losses. Early the next 
month he presented to the senate a de- 
cree for levying 350,<000 men which was 
unanimously agreed to, and he forth- 
with began preparations to encounter 
the forces of Russia and Prussia, now 
once more in combination. On the 2d 
May, they met at Lutzen, and the allies 
retired, on which Austria undertook to 
mediate, but not succeeding, the battle 
of Bautzen followed, in which the 
French were victorious. On the 20th 
May, an armistice took place, and nego- 
tiations were opmed, which proved 
fruitless ; and Austria was at length in- 
duced to join the allies. On this im- 
portant event. Napoleon endeavored to 
reach Berlin, while the allies sought to 
occupy Dresden, which attempt induced 
him to return and repulse them in the 
battle of Dresden, on which occasion, 
Moreau, who had come from Paris to 
fight under the banner of the confeder- 
ates, was mortally wounded. At length 
these equivocal contests terminated in 
the famous battle of Leipsic, fought on 
the 16th, 18th, and 19th October, which 
was decisive of the war as to Germany. 
The French loss was immense: Prince 
Poniatowski of Poland was killed, fif- 
teen general officers were wounded, and 

twenty-three taken prisoners ; aud of 
184,000 men, opposed to 300,000, n?t 
more than 60,000 remained. On this 
great victory, the Saxons, Bavarians, 
Westphalians, in a word, all the con- 
tingent powers declared for the allies. 
Napoleon returned to Paris, and inter- 
rupted the compliment of address, by 
thus stating the disagreeable fact, that 
" within the last year all Europe marched 
with us, now all Europe is leagued 
against us." He followed up this avowal 
by another demand of 800,000 men. 
The levy was granted, and on the 26th 
January, he again headed his army, and 
the allies having passed the Rhine early 
in the same month, in the succeeding 
month of February were fought the bat- 
tles of Dizier, Brienne, Camp Aubcrt, 
and Montmirail, with various success ; 
but now the advanced guard of the Rus- 
sians entered into action, and Napoleon 
was called to another quarter. The san- 
guinary conflicts of Montereau and No- 
gent followed, in which the allied forces 
suffered very severely, and were obliged 
to retire upon Troves. Early in March 
the treaty of alliance was concluded be- 
tween Britain, Austria, Prussia, and 
Russia, by which each was bound not 
to make peace but upon certain condi- 
tions. This was signed at Chatillon, on 
the loth March, and made known to 
Napoleon, who refused the terms. His 
plan was now to get into the rear of the 
combined army, and by this manoeuvre 
to endeavor to draw them off from Paris ; 
but the allies gaining possession of his 
intentions by an intercepted letter, has- 
tened their progress, and on the 30th 
March attacked" the heights of Chau- 
mont, from which they were repulsed 
with great loss. At length, however, 
their extensive array bore on so many 
points, that on the French being driven 
back on the barriers of Paris, Marshal 
Marmont, who commanded there, sent 
a flag of truce, and proposed to deliver 
up the city. Napoleon hastened from 
Fontainbleau, but was apprised iive 
leagues from Paris of the result. He 
accordingly returned to Fontainbleau, 
where he commanded an army of 50,000 
men, and the negotiation ensued which 
terminated with his consignment to the 
island of Elba, with the title of ex-em- 
peror, and a pension of two millions of 
livres. He displayed becoming firmness 
on this occasion, and on the 20th April, 
after embracing the officer commanding 
the attendant grenadiers of his guard, 
and the imperial eagles, he departed to 
his destination. Not long after, secretly 




embarking in some hired feluccas, ac- 
companied with about 1200 men, he 
landed on the 1st March, 1S14, in the 
gulf of Juan, in Provence. He imme- 
diately issued a proclamation, announ- 
cing his intention to resume the crown, 
of which "treason had robbed him," 
and proceeding to Grenoble, was at once 
welcomed by the commanding officer, 
Labedoyere, and in two days after he 
entered Lyons, where he experienced a 
similar reception. In Lyons he pro- 
ceeded formally to resume all the func- 
tions of sovereignty by choosing coun- 
sellors, generals, and prefects, and pub- 
lishing various decrees, one of which 
was for abolishing t le noblesse, of whom 
the restored family had already made 
the French people apprehensive, and 
another proscribing the race of Bourbon. 
Thus received and favored, he reached 
Paris on the 20th March without draw- 
ing a sword. In the capital he was re- 
ceive! with the loud acclamations of 
" Vive l'Empereur !" and was joined by 
Marshal Ney, and the generals Drouet, 
Lallemand, and Lefebvre. On the fol- 
lowing day he reviewed his army, re- 
ceived general congratulations, and an- 
nounced the return of the empress. On 
opening the assembly of representati pes, 
on the 7th June following, he talked of 
establishing a constitutional monarchy. 
But by ibis time the allies were once more 
in motion, and having collected an im- 
mense supply of stores and ammunition, 
he quitted Paris on the 12th of the same 
month, to march and oppose their pro- 
gress. He arrived on the 13th at Aves- 
nes, and on the 1-ith and 16th fought 
the partially successful battles of Fleurus 
and Ligny. On the 18th occurred the 
signal and well-known victory of Water- 
loo, in which the British made so suc- 
cessful a stand under the duke of Wel- 
lington, until aided into decisive victory 
by the timely arrival of the Prussians 
under Bulow. In the battle, out of 
95,000 men, it is thought that the French 
lost nearly 50,0'10. Napoleon immedi- 
ately returned to Paris, but the charm 
was now utterly dissolved; and, soured 
by the result of the battle, and fearing 
another occupation of the capital, a 
strong party was openly formed against 
him, and even his friends urged him to 
abdicate. He was prevailed upon at 
length, with some difficulty, to take this 
step in favor of his son. For some time 
he entertained the idea of embarking for 
America; but fearful of British cruisers, 
;ie at length determined to throw him- 
self on the generosity of the only people 

who had never materially yielded to his 
influence. He accordingly resigned him- 
self, on the loth July, into the hands of 
Captain Maitlaud, of the Bellcrophon, 
then lying at Bochfort, and was exceed- 
ingly anxious to land in England. On 
giving himself up, he addressed the 
prince regent in a well-known letter, in 
which he compared himself to Themis- 
tocles. It is impossible to dwell on the 
minutiae of his condnct and reception, 
or on the circumstances attendant on 
his consignment for safe custody to St. 
Helena, by the joint determination of 
the allies. For this, his final destina- 
tion, he sailed on the 11th August, 1S15, 
and arrived at St. Helena on the loth of 
the following October. The rest of his 
life is little more than a detail of gradual 
bodily decay ; rendered, however, stri- 
king by the narrative of his remarks, 
conversation, and literary employment, 
among the t'aw faithful courtiers and 
officers allowed to accompany him. 
After a few years, he was taken with 
cancer in the stomach. He bore the 
excruciating torture of his disease for 
six weeks with great firmness, generally 
keeping his eyes fixed on a portrait of 
his son, which was placed near his bed. 
From the beginning he refused medicine 
as useless ; and his last words, uttered 
in a state of delirium on the morning of 
his death, were, " Mon tils !" soon after- 
wards, " tete d'armee !" and lastly, 
" France.'" This event took place on 
on the 5th May, 1821, in the 52d year 
of his age. He was interred, according 
to his own desire, near some willow 
trees and a spring of water, at a place 
called Hiinc's Valley, his funeral being 
attended by the highest military honors. 
Thus terminated the eventful and daz- 
zling career of Napoleon Bonaparte, one 
ofthose extraordinary gifted individuals, 
who, falling into a period and course of 
circumstances adapted to their peculiar 
genius, exhibit the capacity of human 
nature in the highest point of view. — 
Napoleon Francis Charles Joseph, 
duke of Ecichstadt, only son of the Em- 
peror Napoleon by his second wife, 
Maria Louisa of Austria. After his fa- 
ther's downfall, he was wholly ;;nder 
the care of his grandfather, the emperor 
of Austria. He was from infancy of a 
weakly constitution, ana a rapid decline 
terminated his life in 1832, at the early 
age of 21. It would appear, from a work 
by M. de Montbel, entitled " Le Due de 
Eeichstadt," that the young Napoleon 
possessed many amiable qualities, and 
was greatly beloved by those who knew 




him ; while he had all the enthusiasm 
and passion of youth in extreme force, 
alternating with a distrust, a caution, 
and a rapidity in fathoming the charac- 
ters of the persons with whom he was 
necessarily brought into contact, which 
are the usual qualities of age; and that 
he took the deepest interest in every 
thing connected with his father's former 
greatness, or relating to military affairs. 
• — Joseph, an elder brother of Napoleon, 
was b. in Corsica, in 170S. Educated 
for the law at the college of Autun in 
France, he became a member of the 
new administration of Corsica under 
PaDli; but soon afterwards emigrated 
to Majseilles, where he married the 
daughter of a banker name 1 Clari. In 
1796 he was appointed commissary to 
the army in Italy then commanded by 
his brother Napoleon ; and in 1797, hav- 
ing been elected deputy to the council 
of five hundred by his native depart- 
ment, he repaired to Paris, whence he 
was shortly afterwards sent by the ex- 
ecutive directory as ambassador to the 
Eope. During the revolution which 
roke out at Kome under Duphot, he 
displayed considerable energy ; and on 
his return to Paris lie was made coun- 
sellor of state, and was subsequently 
employed by Napoleon to negotiate the 
treaties of Luneville with the emperor 
of Germany, and of Amiens with En- 
gland. When Napoleon attained the 
imperial crown, Joseph was recognized 
as an imperial prince, and in this capa- 
city he headed the expedition against 
Naples in 1S06, which resulted in his 
being proclaimed kin? of Naples and 
Sicily. Here he reigned till 1808, effect- 
ing beneficial changes in the adminis- 
tration of the law and the institutions 
of the country. In 1808 he was ap- 
pointed king of Spain, Murat having 
succeeded him as king of Naples. But 
in Spain he encountered much greater 
difficulties than at Naples; and during 
the five years of his reign he was thrice 
obliged by the successes of the allied 
armies to quit his capital; the last time. 
in 1818, after the battle of Vittoria, to 
return no more. He now retired to 
France. In January of the following 
year, when Napoleon set out for the 
army, he was appointed lieutenant-gen- 
eral of the empire and head of the coun- 
cil of regency to assist the empress-re- 
gent; but in this capacity he displayed 
little firmness, and consented to the 
capitulation of Paris, which resulted in 
the ab lication of Napoleon and his ban- 
ishment to Elba. He then retired to 

Switzerland ; but he rejoined Napoleoi* 
on his return to Paris in March, 1815. 
and after the defeat at Waterloo he em- 
barked for the United States, where he 
purchased a large property, at Borden- 
town, N. J., and continued for many 
years to reside under the name of the 
Count de Survilliers. D. at Florence, 
1844. — Lucien, ' prince of Canino, the 
next brother after Napoleon in birth, 
and after him, too, the ablest of the 
family. He was b. at Ajaccio in 1775 ; 
and having quitted Corsica, with his 
family, in 1793, he became a commissary 
of the army in 17'.'"), and soon afterwards 
was elected a deputy from the depart- 
ment of Liamone to the council of Qve 
hundred. It was here that he first dis- 
tinguished himself by the energy of his 
manner, the fluency of his language, the 
soundness of his arguments, and his ap- 
parent devotion to the existing govern- 
ment. During Napoleon's absence in 
Egypt, he maintained a constant corre- 
spondence with him ; and, on his return, 
Lucien was the chief instrument of the 
revolution which followed. When the 
sentence of outlawry was about to be 
pronounced against his brother, he op- 
posed it with all the force of his elo- 
quence ; and when he perceived that 
remonstrances were of no avail, he threw 
down the ensigns of his dignity as pres- 
ident, mounted a horse, harangued the 
troops, and induced them to clear the 
hall of its members. By his subsequent 
energy, coolness, and decision, he led 
the way to Napoleon's election as first 
consul, and was himself made minister 
of the interior, in the room of Laplace. 
But great as were the services which 
Lucien had performed for his brother, 
the latter became jealous of his abilities, 
I and feared his popularity. A coolness 
between them soon took place ; and, 
I with that cunning which marked so 
many of his actions, he took care to re- 
move Lucien from the immediate sceno 
of action, by sending him ambassador 
to Madrid. In the spring of 1802 lie re- 
turned to Paris, was outwardly recon- 
ciled with the first consul, and entered 
a second time upon the tribuneship. He 
had married, at an early age, the daugh- 
ter of a wealthy innkeeper ; and, his 
wife having been now some time dead, 
he united himself to one Madame Jou- 
berthou, the widow of a stock-broker, a 
woman distinguished for her gallantrie* 
This gave great offence to Napoleon, ano 
was a severe blow to the system he ha. 
long contemplated of forming royal alli- 
ances for his relatives. He therefore 




used every means in his power to induce 
Lucien to consent to a dissolution of the 
marriage; but, to his honor be it re- 
corded, he constantly spurned all the 
proposals that were made to him to sac- 
rifice his wife. For several years he 
took up his residence at Eome, where 
he was a welcome visitor, having merit- 
ed the gratitude of the pope by the zeal- 
ous support he had given the concordat ; 
and when, in 1807, he found that the 
emr.ity of his brother rendered his stay 
in that city no longer safe, he retired to 
an estate which he had purchased at 
Canine, and which his holiness had 
raised into a principality. It was not 
long, however, before he found that the 
emissaries of Napoleon were hovering 
round his retreat, and he fled secretly 
to Civita Vecchia, from which place he 
embarked in August, 1S10, with the in- 
tention of proceeding to the United 
States. A storm threw him on the 
coast of Cagliari ; but the king of Sar- 
dinia refused him permission to land : 
he was accordingly forced to put out to 
sea; and being captured by two English 
frigates, he was conveyed first to Malta 
and at\er\vards (Dec. 18) to England. 
After a time lie was permitted to pur- 
chase a beautiful estate near Ludlow, in 
Shropshire, where lie spent three calm 
and peaceful years, completing during 
that period, a poem upon which he had 
long meditated, entitled " Charlemagne, 
or the Church Delivered." The peace 
of 1S14 having opened his way to the 
Continent, he returned to his old friend 
and protector, Pius VII. After the 
hattlc of Waterloo he urged the emperor 
to make a desperate stand for the throne ; 
but the cause was hopeless; and Lucien, 
having retired to Italy, devoted the re- 
mainder of his days to literature and the 
fine arts. D. at Viterbo, 1840. — Louis, 
a younger brother of Napoleon and ex- 
king of Holland, was b. at Ajaccio, in 
Corsica, September 2, 1778. He entered 
the army at an early age, accompanied 
his brother to Italy and Egypt, and on 
Napoleon's successive elevations to the 
consulship and the empire rose to be a 
counsellor of state and a general of divi- 
sion, and received the titles of constable 
of France and colonel-general of carbi- 
niers. After having been successively 
appointed governor of Piedmont, and 
governor ad interim of the capital, in 
place of Murat, he took the command of 
the army of the North in Holland ; and 
in 180(3 the Batavian republic having 
been changed into a kingdom by Napo- 
leon. Louis was nominated king at the 

request of the states of Holland. In this 
capacity he conducted himself with 
equal sk'll and humanity, and such was 
the affection with which his Dutch sub- 
jects had inspired him, that he refused 
without hesitation the crown of Spain 
which was ottered him by the emperor. 
In 1810, Louis, having long resisted the 
emperor's commands to enforce the con- 
tinental blockade, which would, as he 
believed, have proved detrimental to his 
people's interests, abdicated in favor of 
his son ; but the abdication was rejected 
by Napoleon, who thereupon united 
Holland to the French empire ; and the 
ex- king leaving Holland secretly, re- 
paired to Gratz in Styria, where he re- 
sided several years under the title of 
count de Saint" Leu. After the fall of 
Napoleon, he finally retired to the Papal 
States with some members of his family, 
where he devoted himself chiefly to lit- 
erary pursuits down to the period of his 
death. His only surviving son, Louis 
Napoleon Bonaparte, the offspring of 
his marriage with Hortense Eugenie de 
Beau harn 018, (which see,) daughter of 
the Empress Josephine, is the first pre- 
sident of tire French republic, estab- 
lished in 1S4S. D. at Leghorn, 25th 
June, 18 16. 

BON AKELLT, Guy Ubaldo, an Italian 
poet; author of " Filli di Scire," &c. 
B. 1558; d. 1(508. 

BONASONI, Guilio, a Bologneso 
painter and engraver of the 16th centu- 
ry. In the latter capacity he especially 
excelled ; and he engraved many of the 
chefs-d'oeuvre of Michael Angelo, Raf- 
faelle, &c., in a stvle of great beauty. 

BONAVENTURE, John Fiuanza. 
While only general of the order of 
Franciscans, his reputation for probity 
and wisdom caused the cardinals to 
leave to him the nomination of a suc- 
cessor to Clement IV. He named The- 
obald, archdeacon of Liege, who became 
pope, with the title of Gregory X., and 
made Bonaventure a cardinal. D. 1274, 
and was canonized, 14S2. — Of Padua, 
made cardinal by Urban VI. in 1378; a 
friend of Petrarch, and the author of 
several religions pieces. Assassinated, 

BONCIIAMP, Arthur de, a cele- 
brated general of the Vendean royalists, 
and who had served with distinction as 
an officer in the American war. Is him 
humanity was not less conspicuous than 
valor, as the last act of his life amply 
testified ; for it was to his interference 
that 5,000 prisoners, whom the exasper- 
ated royalists had taken, were savo4 




from instant death. He was mortally 
wounded in the battle of Chollet, 1793. 

BONCEKF, P. F., author of the fa- 
mous pamphlet, " Les Inconvenicns des 
Droits Feodaux," while secretary to 
Turgot. Condemned to be burned, it 
became the basis of the fundamental de- 
crees of the Constituent Assembly of 
1789. Having been in the service of 
D'Orleaus, he narrowly escaped the 
guillotine by one vote, on the fall of his 
patron, and d. from the shock he then 
sustained. 13. 1745. 

BOND, John, an English physician ; 
author of critical notes on Horace, Pcr- 
sius, and other classics. D. 1612. — 
Oliver, a famous Irish associate with 
Napper Tandy and Theodore Wolfe 
Tone, in the Irish rebellion of 1797-8. 
He was arrested in 179S ; terms were 
made with the government to send him 
to America ; but he was found dead 
(with apoplexy, as reported) in prison. 
B. 1720. 

BONDAM, Peter, a famous Dutch 
writer of voluminous and useless com- 
mentaries. B. 1727 ; d. 1800. 

BONDI, Clement, the poetical Dclille 
of the Italians; author of the "Conver- 
sazione," which resembles Cowper's 
Task ; " The JSneid," translated in versi 
sciolti, &c D. 1816. 

BONDY, Count dc, a French liberal, 
but keeping aloof from the revolution- 
ary tempest till he was called into emi- 
nent public service by Napoleon, who 
made him his chamberlain in 1805. 
From that time he always remained 
faithful to him, attending most of his 
campaigns. As prefect of the Bhone, 
during" the hundred Days, he urged 
constitutional and reforming measures 
on his patron. He always sat with the 
varU'e gauche, when elected deputy de 
LTndre, in 1818, and advocated liberal 
measures. B. 1766. 

BONE, Henry, a celebrated enamel 
oainter, who, by the force of his own 

fenius, raised himself and his art to a 
igh pitch of eminence. He was b. at 
Truro, in Cornwall, on the 6th of Feb- 
ruary, 1755, and was apprenticed to 
a china painter in Bristol, which place 
he subsequently left for London. Here 
he for a considerable time worked for 
the jewellers, but was daring the whole 
of this period devoting a very energetic 
and ingenious mind to his art, which he 
bo thoroughly mastered, that when, in 
1794, he exhibited an enamel after a pic- 
ture by Sir Joshua Reynolds, it attract- 
ed universal admiration. His pictures 
.henceforth were eagerly sought for by 

the royal family and the lovers of art, 
and he obtained very high prices, and 
was elected into the Royal Academy. 
Amongst a vast number of paintings, no 
produced one which must be considered 
a phenomenon by all who are acquainted 
with the technical processes of the art; 
this was the Bacchus and Ariadne, after 
Titian, the dimensions of which were 
eighteen inches by sixteen. Mr. Bowles 
of Wanstead purchased it for 2,200 
guineas. Mr. Bone's great celebrity was 
derived from his being the first to trans- 
fer to enamel the splendor of color, 
which the great flesh masters had de- 
picted in oil. This, surrounded as it 
was with the mechanical difficulties of 
enamelling, was only perfected by his 
making numerous technical discoveries, 
and possessing naturally great ability 
for painting. His genius for art, his 
mechanical invention, his undaunted 
perseverance, and unwearied industry, 
united as they were to a most benevo- 
lent and manly nature, combined to 
render him a great man. Besides the 
numerous enamels he annually pro- 
duced both for foreign and English pur- 
chasers, he transferred to his almost in- 
destructible material, all the authentic 
portraits of the Elizabethan period, form- 
mg a national series and a splendid por- 
trait gallery. This noble collection was 
unfortunately dispersed after his death, 
the purchase having been declined by 
the government. D. 1834. 

BONEFACIO, Venetiano, an Italian 
painter of eminence. D. 1630. 

BONER, Ulrich, the most ancient 
German fabulist, was a Dominican friar 
of Berne, in the 14th century. He pub- 
lished his fables under the title of "Der 
Edelstein," (The Gem.) 
• BONET, Theophllus, a celebrated 
German physician ; author of several 
learned works. D. 1689. 

BONHOMME, Dupin, P. J. B., b. in 
1737 ; a respectable conventionalist, and 
friend of modern liberty, who perished 
in 1IT98 by the revolutionary tribunal. 

BONIFACE, St., whose name was 
"Wilfrid, a saint of the Roman calen- 
dar, was a native of England, and made 
archbishop by Henry III. He travelled 
through many parts of Germany, of 
which country he was called the apostle ; 
and after reclaiming many from pagan- 
ism, he was slain by some peasants in 
Friesland, in 754. — The name assumed 
by nine popes ; but the lives of whom 
present nothing worthy of particular 
notice. — A count of the Romar empire 
in the 5th century, and an intimata 




friend of St. Augustin, at whose desire 
he devoted himself to public affairs. He 
was slain in a desperate contest with 
Aetius, in 4-32. 

BONIFACIO, Balthazar, a learned 
Venetian, bishop of Capo d'Istria; au- 
thor of " Historia Ludicia," Latin po- 
ems, &c. D. 1659. 

BON J OUR, William, a French monk, 
and missionary to China; author of 
"Dissertations on the Scripture," &c. 
\). 1714. 

BON NEFONS, John, a French writer 
of Latin poems, which are printed with 
those of Beza, in Barbau's edition of 
1757. B. 1554; d. 1014. 

BONNELL, James, accomptanfr-gen- 
cral of Ireland in the reign of James II.; 
remarkable for his firmness and integri- 
ty in the discharge of his public duty in 
a troublesome and perilous time. Some 
"Meditations" of his, printed with his 
"Life," written by Archdeacon Hamil- 
ton, show him to have been a man of 
considerable intellect. B. 1653; d. 1699. 

BONNER, Edmund, an English pre- 
late, notorious for his persecution of the 
Protestants during the reign of Queen 
Mary. On the accession of Queen Eliza- 
beth lie refused to take the oath of su- 
premacy, and was committed to the 
Marshalsea, where he remained nearly 
ten years. D. 1569. 

BONNET, Charles, a distinguished 
naturalist of Geneva; author of "In- 
sectology," "Essay on Physiology," 
"Considerations on Organized Bodies," 
&c. B. 1720; d. 1793. 

BONNEVAL, Claudius Alexander, 
count of, a French adventurer, son-in- 
law of Marshal Biron. After serving 
under Prince Eugene against the Turks, 
resentment at having been imprisoned 
for challenging the prince caused him 
to go over to the Turks, and become a 
Mussulman. His services were highly 
valued by the Graud Seignior, who gave 
him the title of Achmet Pacha, and 
raised him from rank to rank, till he be- 
cai.-.c master of the ordnance. D. 1747. 

BONN FATE, Abbe, a great preacher 
of funeral orations over the Bonaparte 
family and Bonapartists ; and equally 
zealous in preaching funeral orations for 
the Bourbons, after their fall. "Is the 
abba as virulent against the tyrant as 
ever?" asked Napoleon, in passing his 
cure, on returning from Elba. But the 
abbe had disappeared. B. 1704. 

BONNEVILLE, a poet of the French 
revolution, who was the friend of Con- 
dorcet, La Fayette, and Paine, and was 
With Kosciusko when he fell. Though 

accused by Marat, in the National Con- 
vention, as an aristocrat, he was so 
far from beinar an ultra in his views as 
to denounce Bonaparte (on his becom- 
ing emperor) as the Cromwell of France, 
when the latter suppressed his periodi- 
cal, the "Bien Informe." Among his 
works are "Theatre Allemand," " Poe- 
sies Republicanes," " Nouveau Code 
Conjugal," " Esprit des Religions," &c. 
B. 1760. 

BONNIER, a French republican, who 
was sent as a plenipotentiary to a " con- 
ference" with Prince Metternich, in 
1799, at Rastadt ; but the negotiation 
was broken off by Austria, and Bonnier 
was murdered between that town and 
Strasburg, and his papers taken away 
Bonnier's seat in the Council of Ancients 
was for two years after covered with 
crape, as a testimony of respect. B. 1750. 

BONNINGTON, Richard Parses, a 
British artist of great merit and of sin 
gular precocity. At 3 years old he could 
sketch most of the objects he saw, and 
at 15 was admitted to draw in the Lou- 
vre at Paris. After visiting Italy he 
brought back many able specimens of 
his works, and finished a successful, 
though brief career, at the age of 27, in 

BONNYCASTLE, John, professor of 
mathematics at the Royal Military Acad- 
emy, Woolwich ; author of" The Schol • 
lar's Guide to Arithmetic," "The Ele 
ments of Geometry," "A Treatise upon 
Astronomy," &c." D. 1821. — Charles, 
a son of the preceding, became an emi- 
nent professor of natural philosophy, at 
the university of Virginia, and wrote 
several excellent mathematical works. 
D. 1840. 

BONNSTETTEN, Charles Von, a 
learned and voluminous German writer, 
the friend of Matthison, Salis, and Fred- 
cricka Brim. B. 1745 ; d. 1832. 

BONo.Ml, Joseph, an Italian architect 
of considerable taste and genius, from 
whose desigu the Roman Catholic chapel 
near Manchester-square was erected. 
D. 1803. 

BONTEMPI, Giovanni Andrea An- 
gelina, an Italian musician of the 17th 
century; author of "Nova quatuor 
Vocibus componendi Methodus, &c. 

BOOKER, Luke, a clergyman of the 
church of England, distinguished for 
his literary acquirements, was b. at Not- 
tingham, in 1672; took holy orders in 
1785 ; and eventually became the vicar 
of Dudley. Dr. Booker was the author 
of many works, viz., "Poems" on vari- 
ous occasions ; " Christian Intrepidity," 



"Calista, or the Picture of Modern 
Life," " Euthanasia, the State of Man 
after Death," "Discourses and Disser- 
tations;" and a variety of others. D. 

BOONE, Daniel, one of the earliest 
settlers in Kentucky, was b. in Virginia, 
and was from infancy addicted to hunt- 
ing in the woods. He set out on an 
expedition to explore the region of Ken- 
tucky, in May, 1769, with five compan- 
ions. After meeting with a variety of 
adventures, Boone was left with his 
brother, the only white men in the wil- 
derness. They passed the winter in a 
cabin, and in the summer of 1770 trav- 
ersed the country to the Cumberland 
river. In September, 1773, Boone com- 
menced his removal to Kentucky with 
his own and five other families. He was 
joined by forty men, who put them- 
selves under liis direction ; but being 
attacked by the Indians, the whole party 
returned to the settlements on Clinch 
river. Boone was afterwards employed 
by a company of North Carolina to buy, 
from the Indians, lands on the south 
side of the Kentucky river. In April, 
1775, he built a fort at Saltspring, where 
Boonesborough is now situated. Here 
he sustained several sieges from the In- 
dians, and was once taken prisoner by 
them while hunting with a number of 
his men. In 1782 the depredations of 
the savages increased to an alarming ex- 
tent, and Boone, with other militia offi- 
cers, collected 176 men, and went in 
pursuit of a large body, who had march- 
ed beyond the Blue Licks, forty miles 
from Lexington. From that time till 
1798 he resided alternately in Kentucky 
and Virginia. In that year, having re- 
ceived a grant of 2000 acres of land from 
the Spanish authorities, he removed to 
Upper Louisiana, with his children and 
followers, who were presented with 800 
acres each. He settled with them at 
Charette, on the Missouri river, where 
he followed his usual course of life, — 
hunting and trapping bears — till Sep- 
tember, 1822, when he d. in the 85th 
vear of his age. He expired while on 
his knees, taking aim at some object, and 
was found in that position, with his gun 
resting on the trunk of a tree. 

BOOTH, Barton, a celebrated actor in 
the reigns of Anne and George I., was 
b. in 1681, in Lancashire, and was edu- 
cated at Westminster school, under Dr. 
Busby. At the age of seventeen, how- 
ever, he joined a" strolling company of 
players ; his talents, at length, gained 
aim a footing on the regular theatre ; 


his popularity continually increased; 
and his performance of Cato, in 1712, set 
the seal upon his histrionic reputation. 
In 1715 lie became one of the joint 
patentees and managers of Drury-lane 
theatre. Booth was the author of a 
masque called Dido and Eneas, and of 
some sougs and minor pieces. D. 1733 
— George, Baron Delamere, a zealou? 
partisan of Charles II. Being defeated 
by the parliamentary general, Lambert, 
he was confined in the Tower until the 
death of Cromwell. He then obtained 
his liberty, and was one of the twelve 
delegates 'sent to the new king. It was 
on this occasion that he obtained his 
title, and a present of £10,000. D. 1684. 
— Henry, earl of Warrington, son of the 
above. Having been among those who 
voted for the exclusion of the duke of 
York, when that personage baeame king, 
he was committed to the Tower, and was 
tried for high treason, but acquitted, in 
spite of the efforts of the infamous Jef- 
fries. On the accession of William III. 
he was made a privy councillor and 
chancellor of the exchequer. His efforts 
to limit the prerogative, however, caused 
him to fall into disgrace ; but he was al- 
lowed to retire from office with a pen- 
sion, and the title of earl of Warrington 
D. 1694. 

BORA, Catharine von, wife of Lmher 
was b. 1499. Her birthplace is not 
known, and of her parents we only know 
that her mother, Anna, was descended 
from one of the most ancient families of 
Germany, that of Hangewitz. The 
daughter took the veil very early, in the 
nunnery of Nimptsehen, near Grimma. 
Notwithstanding her devout disposition, 
she soon felt very unhappy in her situ- 
ation, and, as her relations would not 
listen to her, applied, with eight othei 
nuns, to Luther, whose fame had reach- 
ed them. Luther gained over a citizen 
of Torgau, by the name of Leonard 
Koppe, who, in union with some other 
citizens, undertook to deliver the nine 
nuns from their convent. This was 
done the night after Good Friday, April 
4th, 1523. He brought them to Torgau, 
and from thence to Wittenberg, where 
Luther provided for them a decent abode. 
At the same time, to anticipate the 
charges of his enemies, he published a 
letter to Koppe, in which he frankly 
confessed that he was the author of this 
enterprise, and had persuaded Koppe to 
its execution ; that he had done so in 
the confident hope that Jesus Christ, 
who had restored his gospel and de- 
stroyed the kingdom of Autichrist, 




would be their protector, though it 

might cost theiu even their live*. He 
also exhorted the parents aud relations 
of the nine virgins to admit them again 
into their houses. Some of them were 
received by citizens of Wittenberg; 
others, who were not yet too old, Luther 
advised to marry. Among the latter 
was Catharine, whom Philip Reicheu- 

bach, at that time mayor of the city, had 
taken into his house. Luther proposed 
to her, i by bis friend Nicholas von Ams- 
dorf. minister in Wittenberg,) doctor 
Kaspar Glaz and others, in marriage. 
She declined these proposals, but de- 
clared her willingness to bestow her 
hand on Nicholas von Amsdorf, or on 
Luther himself. Luther, who. in L524, 
had laid aside the cowl, was not averse 
to matrimony, yet appears to have been 
led to the resolution of marrying by 
reason rather than by passion. Besides, 
he was not then favorably inclined to- 
wards Catharine, because he suspected 
her of worldly vanity, lie says, how- 
ever, that he found in her a pious and 
faithful wife. There could be no want 
of disadvantageous rumors on this occa- 

'on, some of them as shameful as they 
were unfounded. The domestic peace 
of the pair was also drawn into question, 
and Catharine, in particular, was accused 
of being peevish and domineering, so 
that her husband was often obliged to 
correct her. Although this last story is 
without foundation, yet Luther seems 
not to have hern fully satisfied with her; 
for he speaks with great sincerity of the 
sufferings as well as of the happiness of 
his marriage. When, after Luther's 
death, in 1547, Charles V. entered Wit- 
tenberg in triumph, Catharine saw her- 
self obliged to leave this place, and to 
remove to Leipsic, where she was com- 
pelled to take boarders for her support. 
She afterwards returned to Wittenberg, 
and lived there till 1552, in want. When 
the plague broke out in this place, and 
the university was removed to Torgau, 
she went thither also, arrived there sick, 
and d. soon after, December 27th, 1552. 
In the church of Torgau her tombstone 
is still to be seen, on which is her image 
of the natural size. 

BOKDA, Jean Charles, an engineer, 
and afterwards a captain in the French 
marine, famous for his mathematical 
talents, was b. at Dax, in the depart- 
ment of Landes, in 1733. In 1 7 r> t> he 
ivas chosen a member of the Academy 
of Sciences, and occupied himself in 
making experiments on the resistance 
of fluids, the velocity of motion, and 

other topics relating to dynamical sci- 
ence. In 1767 he published a disserta- 
tion on hydraulic wheels, and afterwards 
one ou the construction of hydraulic 
machinery. In 1771, with Verdune and 
Pingre, he made a voyage to America, 
to determine the longitude and latitude 
of several coasts, isles, and shoals, and 
to try the utility of several astronomical 
instruments. In 1774 he visited the 
Azores, the Cape Verde islands, and the 
coast of Africa for the same purpose. 
In the American war he was very useful 
to the Count d*Estaing, by his knowl- 
edge of navigation. Borda was the 
founder of the schools of naval archi- 
tecture in France. He invented an in- 
strument, of a very small diameter, 
which measures angles with the great- 
est accuracy, and has been used in meas- 
uring the meridian; the reflecting cir- 
cle, which has made his name immortal; 
besides an instrument for measuring the 
inclination of the compass needle, aud 
many others. On the establishment of 
the National Institute, he became one 
of its members, and was ocoupie 1, with 
other men of science, in framing the 
new system of weights and measures 
adopter] in France under a republican 
government. Among the latest of his 
labors was a scries of experiments to 
discover the length of a pendulum which 
could vibrate seconds in the latitude of 

BORDE, Andrew, an English physi- 
cian ; author of "The Mcrrie Tales ofthe 
Madman of Gotham," and several other 
'plaint works. I). 1539. — John Benja- 
min de la, a French miscellaneous wri- 
ter; author of " Adela de Ponthieu;" 
" Essais sur la Musique, aneiennc et 
moderne ;" " Memoires de Courcy," <fec. 
He was guillotined in 1794. 

BORDEN, Tueopiiilus de, a French 
physician; author of " Reeherches sur 
quelqnes pointes de FHistoire de la 
Medecine,' &c. D. 1776. 

BORDELON, Laurence, a volumi- 
nous French writer; author of "Dia- 
logues for the Living;" "Curious Vari- 
eties ; -1 several dramatic pieces, &c. B. 
1653; d. 1730. 

BOKELLI, John Alphonso, an Ital- 
ian philosopher and mathematician; re- 
membered chiefly for being the first who 
applied mathematical calculation and 
mechanical principles to account for the 
action of the muscles. B. 1608; d. 1679 

BORGHESE. A Roman family, which 
derives its origin from Sienna. They 
have held the highest offices of this re- 
public, from the middle of the fifteenth 




century. Pope Paul V., who belonged 
to this family, and ascended the papal 
chair in 1(305, loaded his relations with 
honors and riches. In 1607 he appoint- 
ed his brother, Francesco Borghese, 
leader of the troops sent against Venice 
to maintain the papal claims ; bestowed 
the principality ot Solmone on Marco 
Antonio Borghese, the son of his bro- 
ther, Giovanni Battista; granted him a 
revenue of $150, 000, and obtained for 
him the title of a grandee of Spain. 
Another of his nephews, Scipione Caffa- 
relli, he created cardinal, and made him 
adopt the name of Borghese. From Mar- 
co Antonio Borghese, prince of Solmone, 
i* ieseended the rich family of Borghese, 
which is continued in the prince Ca- 
millo Borghese, and his brother, Fran- 
cesco prince B. Aldobrandini. — Maria 
Pauline, princess, the beautiful sister 
of Napoleon, was b. at Ajaccio, October 
20th, 1780. When the British occupied 
Corsica, in 1703, she went to Marseilles, 
where she was on the point of marrying 
Freron, a member of the convention, 
and son of that critic whom Voltaire 
made famous, when another lady laid 
claim to his hand. She afterwards mar- 
ried Gen. Leclerc, with whom she em- 
barked, 1801, for St. Domingo, and was 
called by the poets of the lieet, the G(tr- 
latea of the Greeks, the Venus marina. 
She was no less courageous than beau- 
tiful, for when the negroes, under Chris- 
tophe, stormed Cape Francois, where she 
resided, and Leclerc, who could no lon- 
ger resist the assailants, ordered his lady 
and child to be carried on shipboard, 
she yielded only to force. Atter his 
deatli she married, in 1803, the prince 
Camillo Borghese. Her son died at 
Rome soon after. With Napoleon, who 
loved her tenderly, she had many dis- 
putes, and as many reconciliations ; for 
she would not always follow the caprices 
of his policy. Yet even the proud style 
in which she demanded what her bro- 
thels begged, made her the more attract- 
ive, to her brother. Once, however, 
wl en she forgot herself towards the 
empress, whom she never liked, she 
was obliged to leave the court. She 
was yet in disgrace at Nice, when Na- 
poleon resigned his crown in 1S14; 
upon which occasion she immediately 
acted as a tender sister. Instead of re- 
maining at her oalace in Rome, she set 
out for Elba t' join her brother, and 
acte 1 the part of mediatrix between him 
and the other members of his family. 
Before 1 he battle of Waterloo, she placed 
all her diamonds, which were of great 

value, at the disposal of her brother. 
They were in his carriage!, which was 
taken in that battle, and were shown 
publicly at London. He intended to 
have returned them to her. She lived, 
afterwards, separated from her husband, 
at Rome, where she occupied part of 
the palace Borghese, and where she 
possessed, from 1816, the villa Sciarra. 
Her house, in which taste and love of 
the fine arts prevailed, was the centre 
of the most splendid societv at Rome. 
D. 1825. 

BORGTA, Cesar, a natural son of 
Pope Alexander VI. lie no sooner 
heard of his father's exaltation to the 
papal chair, than lie left Pisa, where he 
was fixed for his education; but the 
ambitious prospects which he had form- 
ed were cheeked by the coolness with 
which Alexander received him. He 
complained to his mother, Vanozza, who 
for a while quieted his impatience, but 
he was dissatisfied to see the dukedom 
of Gandia conferred upon his elder bro- 
ther, Francis, whilst the primacy of 
Valenza only was reserved for himself. 
Afterwards, by the influence of his 
mother, whose greatest favorite he was, 
over three other sons and a daughter 
called Lucretia, the dignity of cardinal 
was conferred upon him, and he became 
the friend and confidant of his father's 
councils. The elevation of Francis, how- 
ever, to secular power continued to ex- 
cite his jealousy, so that at once to gratify 
malice and revenge, he caused his un- 
happy brother to be murdered, and 
thrown into the Tiber, where his man- 
gled carcass was a few days after found. 
The pope bitterly lamented his fate, but 
all his inquiries after the murderer were 
silenced by Vanozza, wdio, justly sus- 
pected as an accomplice, terrified the 
astonished father, by declaring that if 
he did not desist, the same dagger was 
ready to stab him to the heart. Ccesar 
succeeded to his brother's honors and 
fortune, when he resigned the dignity of 
cardinal, that he might with greater lat- 
itude gratify his avarice, ambition, and 
cruelty. Bands of assassins were kept 
around him, who sacrificed to his pleas- 
ure both friends and foes ; but his mur- 
derous schemes once liked to have re- 
coiled upon himself. United with his 
father in the attempt to poison nine 
newly-created cardinals, whose posses- 
sions they coveted, the wine was by 
mistake brought to them, and, drinking 
of it, the pope died, and Cresar barely 
escaped. His crimes were now too pub- 
lic to be unnoticed. Though lately 




raised to the dukedom of Valentinois 
by Louis XII. lie was stripped of all his 
dignities, aud sent a prisoner to Spain, 
but he escaped to the court of his bro- 
ther-in-law, John, king of Navarre; and 
after trying in vain to restore his fallen 
fortunes, iie engaged in the civil war, 
by which his brother's kingdom was 
distracted, and was killed by the stroke 
of a spear, under the walls of Viana, 
March 12th, 1507. He appears to have 
been a skilful aud intrepid soldier, of 
moderation in his habits, and, what is 
still more strange, a lover of poetry aud 
art. — Stefani, a cardinal, was a native 
of Valletri. He had an enthusiastic love 
for art, and throughout life devoted 
great attention to the collection of relics. 
It was usual with him to change a valua- 
ble piece of plate for some rare article to 
adorn his museum; and on oue occasion, 
to purchase an Egyptian mammy, he 
even parted with the plate from his ta- 
ble, and the buckles from his shoes. 
Pius VI. created him cardinal in 1789 ; 
and the succeeding pope named Cardinal 
Boigia president of the council when 
the French garrison evacuated Rome. 
He was the author of some works in 
support of the papal temporalities. D. 

BORIE, Jean, one of the most vio- 
lent of the French revolutionists, and 
inventor of the " Farandoles." He 
was a lawyer. B. about 1770; d. 1805, 
in exile. 

BORIS, Gadenow, grand master of 
the horse to Theodore Ivanowitz, empe- 
ror of Russia. He is said to have put to 
death both the emperor's brother and 
the emperor himself; and it is certain 
that at the death of the latter Boris be- 
came emperor. He governed cruelly and 
tyrannically, but d. suddenly, just as 
Russia was invaded by a Polish army, 
which was headed by a young monk, 
who pretended to be Demetrius, the de- 
ceased brother of Theodore, in 1605. 

BOR J A, Francis de, a Spanish poet 
and statesman, a descendant from Pope 
Alexander VI., was appointed viceroy of 
Peru, in 1014, and governed that prov- 
ince in a manner which was honorable 
to him. He returned to Spain in 1621, 
and cultivated literature. As a poet, he 
is most esteemed for his lyrical compo- 
sitions. D. 1638. 

BORLACE, Edmund, the son of one 
of the lords-justices of Ireland, was edu- 
cated at Dublin, and settled as a physi- 
cian at Chester. His principal work is 
a " History of the Irish Rebellion." D. 

BORL ASE, William, an antiquary aDd 
topographer, was b. 1695, atPendeen, in 
Cornwall, was educated at Oxford, and, 
till the end of his days, rector of Ludg- 
van aud vicar of St. Just, in his native 
county. The first of these preferments 
he obtained in 1722. In 1749 he was 
made F.R.S., and, iu 1766, LL.D. His 
chief works are, the " Antiquities His- 
torical and Monumental of the County of 
Cornwall ;" " Observations on the Scihy 
Islands;" aud a "Natural Historv ot 
Cornwall. D. 1772. 

BORN, Ignatius, baron ; an eminent 
German mineralogist and writer ; au- 
thor of a treatise on "The Process of 
Amalgamation," &c, &c. B. 1742 ; d. 

BOROWLASKI, Count, the celebra- 
ted Polish dwarf, who, although less 
than three feet in height, was of perfect 
symmetry, and attained the age of VS. 
lie had been prevailed upon by some of 
the clergy of Durham, who had casually 
seen him when on his "travels," 40 
years before his death, to take up his 
abode near that city. He spoke several 
languages, was generally well informed 
and witty, and his company was ac- 

cordinglv much courted by the gen- 


try of 

1am and its vicinity. T). 

BORRI, Joseph Francis, a native of 
Milan, who distinguished himself by his 
extravagant pretensions as a chemist, a 
heretic, and a quack. After playing for 
some time the prophet at Rome, he re- 
turned to Milan, where he attached to 
himself great multitudes, from whose 
credulity he exacted a great deal of 
money, under oath of secresy, with the 
expectation that the kingdom of God 
was going to be established on earth. 
His sehemes were so well concerted that 
he nearly seized the sovereign power by 
means of his adherents, but was at last 
forced to fly. The Inquisition passed 
sentence of condemnation on his char- 
acter, and publicly burnt his effigy 
and his writings, in 1660. From Stras- 
burg, where he had retired, he went to 
Amsterdam, and there for some time 
figured as a character of superior dignity 
and uncommon virtues. He was respec- 
ted and courted as a universal physi- 
cian, till a revolution in his fortune drove 
him away from that country too, yet 
loaded with the borrowed jewels of the 
credulous Hollanders. At Hamburg he 
obtained the protection of Christina, 
queen of Sweden, by pretending to find 
the philosopher's stone ; and he gained 
the same confidence at Copenhagen, from 




the king of Denmark. Though his hy- 
pocrisy at last became known to his 
illustrious patrons, he gained his wishes 
in the liberality of their rewards, and 
attempted to retire to Hungary. Being 
however accidentally seized as a spy, his 
name was reported to the emperor of 
Germany in the presence of the papal 
nuncio, who claimed him as an excom- 
municated heretic. The emperor con- 
sented to deliver him up, provided his 
life was spared, and Born was conveyed 
to Koine, and condemned to perpetual 
imprisonment, which was however soft- 
ened by the interference of the duke of 
Estrees, whom he cured in a dangerous 
illness. D. at the castle of St. Angelo, 
in 1 695 aged 70. 

BOEEICHIUS, Olaus, a native of 
Denmark, educated at the university of 
Copenhagen, of which he became a 
learned professor in poetry, chemistry, 
and botany. After practising with great 
reputation as a physician, and refusing 
the rectorship of the famous school of 
Hesiow, he began to travel, and visited 
Holland, England, France. Italy, and 
Germany, and after an absence of six 
years returned to his native country, in 
1666. His genius procured him the 
friendship of the literati of Europe, and 
the rectitude of his principles the patron- 
age of his sovereign. He published 
several tracts in Latin, on subjects of 
ehemistrv, philosophy, and antiquities. 
D. 1694. 

BORROMEO. Charles, a saint of the 
Roman church, was b. 2d October, 1538, 
and early patronized by his maternal 
uncle, Pope Pius IV., who made him a 
cardinal anil archbishop of Milan, though 
only 22 years of age. These high dig- 
nities, and others which were lavished 
upon him, were due to his merit and his 
virtues. Borromeo was an example of 
meekness and piety : he reformed the 
abuses of his clergy, gave relief to the 
necessitous, and provided institutions 
for the reclaiming of profligate and de- 
bauched women. This zeal in the cause 
of humanity enraged the Humilies. an 
order which he attempted to reform: 
and one of the brethren, Farina, fired a 
gun at the worthy prelate while in 
prayer with his domestics. The shot 
was not fatal, and the assassin was de- 
pervedly punished. During a dreadful 
pestilence the attention of Borromeo to 
the distressed of every description were 
unusually exemplary ; yet ingratitude 
»nd persecution generally awaited his 
good and benevolent deeds. D. 1594, 
«ged 47, and his name was canonized by 

Paul V., 1710. He wrote several works 
on doctrinal and moral subjects. — Fred- 
erick, was cousin to the preceding, and, 
like him, a cardinal and archbishop of 
Milan, and also a copy of his excellent 
character. He founded the Ambrosian 
Library, and d. 1632. He wrote some 
theological tracts. 

BORRONI, Paul Michael Benedict, 
a painter, who imitated the style of Cor- 
reggio, and had much of the taste of 
Michael Angelo. Pius VI. made him a 
knight of the Golden Spur, and the 
king of Sardinia granted him a pension. 
D. at Voghera, in 1819. 

BOEROMINIj Francis, an architect 
of Bissone, pupil of Muderno, who ac- 
quired much reputation at Rome, though 
in his rivalship with Le Bernin he devi- 
ated from that simplicity, and those re- 
ceived rules, which taste and judgment 
have always pronounced the basis of the 
beautiful. His best work is the college 
of the Propaganda. D. in consequence 
of a wound which he had given himself 
in a fit of madness, 1667. 

BOS, Lambert, professor of Greek at 
Franeker ; author of the well-known and 
valuable work on the Greek ellipses, an 
excellent edition of the Septuagint, with 
prolegomena and various readings, &c. 
B. 1670: d. 1717. 

BOSC, Louis ArGrsTrs "William, a 
French naturalist, and the author of sev- 
eral agricultural and other works. He 
held a responsible situation in the French 
post-office ; but, in 1793, being driven 
from his place by the Jacobins, he 
sought a retreat in the forest of Mont- 
morenci, where he lived three years in 
solitude, devoting his time to tlie study 
of natural history. — Peter du, an emi- 
nent French Cal'vinist preacher of tlie 
17th century; author ot numerous ser- 
mons, epistles, poems. &c. < >n the 
revocation of the edict of Nantes, ho 
escaped to Holland, where he d. in 

BOSCAN, Almooaver Juan, a Span- 
ish poet, b. towards the close of the loth 
century, at Barcelona. His parents, who 
belonged to the most ancient nobility, 
gave him a careful education. He fol- 
lowed the court of Charles V., and, in 
1526, was attached to it for some time in 
Granada. His noble manners and char- 
acter gained for him the favor of the 
emperor. The education of the duke 
of Alva was committed to him, and his 
instructions developed the great quali- 
ties which the duke afterwards display- 
ed. After his marriage, Boscan lived at 
Barcelona, occupied in publishing his 




works, together with those of his de- 
ceased friend Garcilaso, in which he was 
employed at the time of his death. Bos- 
can was persuaded to attempt Italian 
measures in Spanish, by Antonio Nava- 
gero, an Italian scholar and ambassador 
of the republic of Venice at the court of 
the emperor. Thus he became the crea- 
tor of the Spanish sonnet, and, with 
Garcilaso first ised the ttrzine in his 
poetical t pistles and elegies. In general 
he distinguished himself by introducing 
Italian forms into Spanish poetry, which 
met with great opposition, and not less 
applause. The poems of Boscan are still 
esteemed. His other literary works, 
mostly translations, are forgotten, i). 

BOSCAWEN, Edward, a brave and 
highly distinguished English admiral. 
He served under Anson in the engage- 
ment of Cape Finisterre, and received 
the thanks of parliament and a pension 
for his exploits while serving in the At- 
lantic and in the Mediterranean. B. 
1711; d. L761. — William, nephew of 
the above ; author of an " Essay on the 
Progress of Satire ;" a translation of 
Horace, &e. B. 1752; d. 1811. 

BOSCH, Bernard, a Dutch poet, b. 
in 1746; author of "Egotism" and 
"Bosch's Poems," and co-editor of the 
Janus and Eclair Politique. — Jerome, a 
famous Dutch bibliomanist. His library 
catalogue was remarkable for the number 
of pnneeps editions it contained. B. 
1710 ; d. 1811. — Louis, A. G., one of the 
first French naturalists of the age; b. in 
1795 ; patronized by the minister Roland. 
He had the courage to accompany Ma- 
dame Roland to the foot of the scaffold. 
He wrote " Histoire Naturelle des Co- 
quilles," " Dietionnaire d 1 Agriculture," 
&c. His brother (Stephen Bosch) also 
published some well- written works on 
agriculture and the occupation of the 

BOSCOVICH, Roger Joseph, an as- 
tronomer and geometrician of distin- 
guished eminence iu the 18th century, 
was a native of Ragusa, in Dalmatia. 
He was educated among the Jesuits, 
and, entering into their order, was ap- 
pointed professor of mathematics in the 
Roman college, before he had entirely 
completed the course of his studies. He 
was employed by Pope Benedict XIV. 
in various undertakings, and, in 1750, 
began the measurement of a degree of 
the meridian in the Ecclesiastical States, 
which operation occupied him for two 
years, lie afterwards visited the Pon- 
tine marsh, to give advice respecting the 

draining of it. He w; < then intrusted 
by the republic of Lucca, with the de- 
fence of its interests, in a dispute about 
boundaries with the government of Tus- 
cany. This affair obliged him to go to 
Vienna, and having terminated it with 
success, he visited Paris and London. 
He was elected a fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety, and dedicated to this body a Latin 
poem on eclipses. Returning to Italy 
he was appointed mathematical profes- 
sor in the university of Pavia; whence, 
in 1770, he removed to Milan, and thero 
erected the celebrated observatory at the 
college of Brera. On the suppression of 
the order of Jesuits he accepted an in- 
vitation to France from Louis XV., who 
gave him a pension of 2,000 livres. D. 

BOSSCHA, a Dutch poet and miscel- 
laneous writer; b. in 1766; author of 
" Belgica Libertas," and a " History of 
the Kevolntiou of Holland." 

BOSSI, Baron de, an eminent modern 
Italian poet, b. at Piedmont ; u 175S. He 
favored the French interest on tne repub- 
lic's invasion of Italy, and was rewarded 
by posts in France by Napoleon. He is 
chiefly known by his exertions in this 
country in favor of the Protestant Vau- 

[>is. " Oromasia" is his chief work in 

I>( )SSU, Rene le, an eminent French 
critic; author of a "Treatise on Epic 
Poetry," " Parallel of the Philosophy of 
Descartes and of Aristotle," <fec. B. 
L681; d. 1680. 

B< »SS I" ET, Jacques Benione, the most 
eloquent of French preachers, and acute 
of controversialists; was b. iu 1627 at 
Dijon, and after having studied at the 
college of Navarre, he became canon of 
Met/. From Metz his reputation spread 
to the capital, and he was invited to 
Paris to preach before the queen-mother 
and the king. There his fame soon 
eclipsed that of all his predecessors and 
cotemporaries. In 1669 he was made 
bishop of Condom ; in 1670 preceptor to 
the dauphin; and, in 1681, bishop of 
Meaux. He d. in 1704. His Funeral 
Orations are masterpieces of eloquence ; 
and in his controversy with the Prot- 
estants he displays admirable learning 
and skill. Of Ins works, which form 20 
quarto volumes, the principal are his 
Sermons; " Discourse on Universal His- 
tory ;" " Exposition of the Catholio 
Faith ;" and " History of the Variations 
of the Protestant Churches." 

BOSSUT, Charles, an eminent math- 
ematician ; was b. in the Lyonese, in 
1730; studied in the Jesuit's college at 




Lyons, was taught mathematics by 
d'Alembert, and at the age of 22 was 
professor of the engineer's school at 
Metz. His chief works are, a "History 
of Mathematics," and a "Course of 
Mathematics;" the last of which is 
highly popular. D. 1814. 

BOSTON, Thomas, a Scotch divine, 
was b. at Dunse, in 1676, and d. minis- 
ter of Ettrich, in 1732. He is chiefly 
rcmembered by his "Human Nature in 
its Fourfold State," a work which has 
gone through numerous editions.— John, 
a monk of St. Edmondsbury, in the loth 
century; author of "Speculum Coenobi- 
tartim," &c. 

BOS WELL, James, the friend and 
biographer of Johnson, was the eldest 
son of one of the supreme judges of 
Scotland, styled Lord Auchinleck, from 
the name of his estate in Ayrshire. He 
was b. at Edinburgh, in 1 7-i« », and 
studied in his native city, in Glasgow, 
in the Dutch university of Utrecht. He 
afterwards resided several times in Lou- 
don, and cultivated the acquaintance of 
the most distinguished men of his day. 
Here he became acquainted with John- 
sou — a circumstance which lie himself 
calls the most important event of his life. 
He afterwards visited Voltaire at Fernev, 
Eousseau at Neufchatel, and Paoli in 
Corsica, with whom he became intimate. 
He then returned by the way of Paris to 
Scotland, and devoted himself to the 
bar. In 176S, when Corsica attracted so 
much attention, he published his valua- 
ble account of Corsica, with memoirs of 
Paoli. At a later period he settled at 
London, where he lived in the closest 
intimacy with Johnson. In 1773 he ac- 
companied him on a tour to the Scottish 
Highlands and Hebrides, and published 
an account of the excursion after their 
return. After the death of Johnson, he 
became his biographer. The minuteness 
and accuracy of his account, and the store 
of literary anecdote which it contains, 
render this work the best of the kind. 
It is, in short, the most complete, the^ 
most interesting, the most original, the 
most provoking, contemptible, and de- 
lightful in the English tongue. D. 1795. 
■ — Sir Alexander, eldest son of the pre- 
leding, was b. in 1775, and succeeded 
his father in the possession of the family 
estate. He was a literary autiquary of 
no inconsiderable erudition, and he pos- 
sessed a great fund of volatile talent, 
and, in particular, a pungent vein of 
satire. At an early period of his life, 
some of his poetical jeux cFesprit oeca- 
iionally made a slight turmoil in that 

circle of Scottish society in which he 
moved. In 1803 he published a stnaJ 
volume entitled " Songs, chiefly in the 
Scottish Dialect." Some of these songs 
had already acquired a wide acceptation 
in the public. We may instance "Auld 
Gudeman, ye're a Drunken Carle," "Jen- 
ny's Bawbee," " Jenny dang the Weav- 
er," &c. He inherited all the tory spirit 
of his father; and some attacks on tho 
character of James Stuart, Esq., having 
appeared in the "Beacon" and "Senti- 
nel" newspapers, which were traced to 
Sir Alexander, a duel took place between 
these gentlemen, when the latter fell, 
mortally wounded in the neck, March 
26, 1822. Mr. Stuart was tried for this of- 
fence, but honorably acquitted. — James, 
the second son of the biographer, was b. 
iu 1779, and educated at Westminster 
school. He possessed talents of a supe- 
rior order and the skill with which he 
edited the enlarged and amended edi- 
tion of Malone's Shakspeare, in 21 vols., 
affords ample evidence of his scholar- 
ship, judgment, and discrimination. In- 
deed, so satisfied was Mr. Malonc with 
his peculiar fitness for such a task, that 
he selected him as his literary executor. 
D. 1822. 

BOTELLO, Don Nuno Alvarez de, a 
celebrated viceroy of India, when the 
Portuguese held dominion there ; and 
whose gallantry and skill tended greatlj 
to augment their Hindostanic posses- 
sions. He gained several victories over 
the Dutch, and destroyed the fleet and 
army of the Achenese, which were be- 
sieging Malacca ; but lost his life, in 1629, 
by being crushed between his own ves- 
sel and one of the enemy's. 

BOTH, John and Andrew, two Flem- 
ish painters, were b. at Utrecht, about 
the year 1610. They were the sons of a 
glass painter, who instructed them in 
the rudiments of drawing. They after- 
wards made further progress >n tho 
school of Abraham Bolemaert, and went 
at an early age together to Italy. John, 
attracted by the works of Claude Lor- 
raine, chose him for his model. Andrew 
preferred the painting of the human 
figure, and imitated the style of Bam ■ 
boccio. But, although their inclinations 
led them in different directions, their 
mutual friendship often united their 
talents in the same works. Thus An- 
drew painted the figures in the land- 
scapes of his brother ; and their labors 
harmonized so well, that their pictures 
could not be suspected of coming from 
different hands The ease and fine color- 
ings in the beautiful f gures of John, 




cannot be overlooked, in spite of the 
excess of yellow sometimes found in 
them. His fame has been confirmed by 
time, and his merit, as well as his resi- 
dence in Italy, has procured for him the 
name of Both of Italy. Andrew was 
drowned at Venice, in 1650. John, in- 
consolable for his loss, abandoned Italy, 
and returned to Utrecht, where he d. 
shortly after. The plates whioh John 
Both has himself etched from his prin- 
cipal works are much valued. 

BOTHWELL, James Hepburn, earl 
of, who married Queen Mary. He was 
supposed to have been concerned in the 
murder of the unfortunate Darnley, 
Mary's husband, and that he was even 
supported by the deluded queen. He 
was charged with the crime, and tried, 
but acquitted. After the death of Darn- 
ley, he seized the queen at Edinburgh, 
and, carrying her a prisoner .to Dunbar 
castle, prevailed upon her to marry him 
after he had divorced his own wife. 
Though seemingly secure in the posses- 
sion of power, and though created earl 
of Orkney by the unfortunate queen, he 
soon found that his conduct had roused 
the indignation of the kingdom. Mary 
found not in him the fond husband she 
expected ; he became unkind and brutal. 
A confederacy was formed against him 
by the barons, the queen was liberated 
from his power, and he escaped to the 
Orkneys, and afterwards to Denmark, 
where he d. 1577. In Ins last moments, 
it is said, that with an agonizing con- 
science, he confessed his own guilt and 
the queen's innocence, of the murder of 

BOTT, Jofin de, a French architect. 
Being a Protestant, he had no chance of 
obtaining patronage in his own coun- 
try; and therefore entered into the ser- 
vice of William, prince of Orange, whom 
he accompanied to England. On the 
death of that prince, he went into the 
service of the elector of Brandenburgh, 
by whom he was made a major-general. 
The fortifications of Wesel and the ar- 
sonal of Berlin are among the numerous 
proofs of his talent. D. 1745. 

BOTT A, Carlo Giuseppa Gulielmo, 
a distinguished Italian historian. He 
was b. in 1768, at the small village of 
San Giorgio di Canavese, in Piedmont, 
and was educated as a physician, but the 
breaking out of the French revolution 
caused him to turn his attention to the 
study of politics and history. In 1794 
he entered into the medical service of 
the French army ; after Piedmont was 
incorporated with France, in 1803, he 

was sent to Paris as a member of the 
legislative body, and his residence con- 
tinued afterwards in France ; and ho 
lived many years previous to his death 
at Paris, in close retirement, on account 
of ill health. Having previously pub- 
lished several works, he established his 
reputation as an historian, by the pub- 
lication of his "History of the War of 
the Independence of the United States 
of America,'' in 1809. He afterwards 
published " The History of Italy, from 
1789 to 1S14," and the "Continuation 
of Guicciardini's History to 1789," 
esteemed works of high merit. In 1816 
he published an heroic poem, entitled 
" II Camillo." D. at Paris, 1837. 

BOUCHARDON , Edmund, the son of 
a sculptor and architect, was b. in 1698, 
at Chaumonten-Basigni, and applied 
himself early to drawing and painting. 
In order to devote himself to statuary, 
he went to Paris, and entered the school 
of the younger Couston. He soon gain- 
ed the highest prize, and was made royal 
pensioner at Rome. He studied his art 
partly in the works of antiquity, and 
partly in those of Raphael and Dome- 
nichino. He executed several busts, and 
was to have erected the tomb of Clement 
XL, but the orders of the king recalled 
him to Paris in 1732. Here, among 
other works, he made a large group in 
stone, representing an athlete over- 
coming a boar. This stood for a long 
time in the garden of Grosbois. After- 
wards he assisted in repairing the foun- 
tain of Neptune at Versailles. He 
executed ten statues, which adoru the 
church of St. Sulpice. A monument to 
the duchess of Lauranguais, made by 
him, is also in that church. The foun- 
tain in the rue de G/'eiielle, which the 
city of Paris ordered to be constructed 
in 1739, was made by him, and is con- 
sidered his masterpiece. A Cupid which 
he made for the king was unsuccessful. 
For the "Traite des Pierres gravecs," 
Bouchardon furnished designs, from 
.which the plates were copied. The exe- 
cution of the greatest monument of that 
period, the equestrian statue of Louis 
XV., which was erected by order of the 
city of Paris, was committed to him. He 
labored twelve years on this, with in- 
conceivable perseverance, and has left, 
in the horse, a model which may be 
ranked with any work of antiquity. D. 
1762. Among his scholars, Louis-* !laude 
Vasse, who d. in 1772, is distinguished. 
Cavlus has written his life. 

BOUCHER, Francis, artist, was b. at 
Paris in 1704. While a pupil of the eel- 




ebrated Lemoine, lie gained, at the age 
of nineteen, the first prize o. th Aacad- 
emy. After studying at Rome for a 
short time, he returned to Paris, and 
was styled the Painter of the Graces — a 
title which he did not merit. He would, 
perhaps, have risen to excellence, had 
lie not yielded to the corrupt taste of 
his age, and had devoted himself more 
completely to his studies. The ease 
with which he executed made him care- 
.ess. His drawing is faulty ; his color- 
ing does not harmonize, especially in his 
naked pieces, which are so glaring that 
they appear as if the light was reflected 
on them from a red curtain. In a word, 
he is looked upon as the corrupter of 
the French school. He was neither en- 
vious nor avaricious, but encouraged 
younger artists as much as it was in his 
power. The great number of his paint- 
ings and sketches shows with what 
rapidity he produced them. The Tatter 
alone amounted to more than 10,000. 
He has also etched some plates, and 
many of his paintings have been en- 
graved. D. 1770. — Luc, a Jacobin lead- 
er of the Faubourg St. Antoine, who, on 
the 20th May, 1795, forced himself into 
the National Convention, and seizing 
Ferrand, one of the members, beheaded 
him in the lobby with his own hand, 
and fixed his head on a pike, para- 
ding it through the "Salle." He was 
afterwards guillotined. — Jonathan, an 
English divine; author of "The Cum- 
berland Man," &c. D. 1804. 

BOUDINOT, Elias, was b. in Phila- 
delphia, May 2d, 1740. He was descend- 
er from one of the Huguenots, who 
t _ught refuge in America from religious 
/)er»ecution in France. He studied the 
law and became eminent in that profes- 
sion. At an early period of the revolu- 
tionary war, he was appointed, by 
congress, commissary-general of prison- 
ers. In the year 1777 he was chosen a 
member of congress, and, in 1782, was 
made president of that body. After the 
adoption of the constitution he entered 
the house of representatives, where he 
continued six years. He then succeeded 
Eittenhouse as director of the mint of 
tLo United States, an office which he re- 
signed in the course of a few years, and 
lived from that time at Burlington, New 
Jersey, He devoted himself earnestly 
to biblical literature, and, being possess- 
ed of an ample fortune, made munifi- 
cent donations to various charitable and 
theological institutions. The American 
Bible Society, of which he became pres- 
ident, was particularly an object of his 

bounty. He d. at the age of eighty-two, 
in October, 1821. 

BOUFFLERS, Marshal de, one of the 
most celebrated generals of his age, was 
b. 1644. He was an eleve of the great 
Conde, of Turenne, Crequi, Luxem- 
bourg, and Catinat. His defence of 
Namur, in 1695, and of Lille, in 1708, 
are famous. The siege of the former 
place was conducted by King William 
in person, and cost the allies more than 
20,000 men. The latter was conducted 
by Prince Eugene. An order was sent 
from Louis XIV., signed by his own 
hand, commanding Bouffiers to sur- 
render; but he kept it secret, until all 
means of defence were exhausted. The 
retreat of the French after their defeat 
at Malplaquet, under the direction of 
Bouffiers, was more like a triumph than 
a defeat. D. 1711. — Stanislaus, cheva- 
lier de, member of the French Academy, 
son of the marchioness of Bouffiers, 
mistress of Stanislaus, king of Poland, 
b. at Luneville, 1737, was considered 
one of the most ingenious men of his 
time, and was distinguished for the ele- 
gance of his manners and conversation. 
He was destined for the church, but de- 
clared that his love of pleasure would 
interfere with the duties of this profes- 
sion. He entered the military career, 
was soon appointed governor of Senegal, 
and while in this office, made many 
useful regulations. After his return, ho 
devoted himself to that light kind of 
literature which distinguished the age 
of Louis XV. He was much admired 
by the ladies, and in the higher circles 
of the capital, as well as in the foreign 
courts which he visited. His reputation 
gave him a seat in the states-general, 
where he was esteemed for his modera- 
tion and his good intentions. After 
August 10th 1792, he left France, and 
met with a friendly reception from 
Prince Henry of Prussia, at Reinsberg, 
and Frederic William II. A large grant 
was made to him in Poland for estab- 
lishing a colony of French emigrants. 
In 1800 he returned to Paris, where he 
devoted himself to literary pursuits, 
wdiich, in 1804, procured him a seat in 
the French Institute. D. January 18th, 

BOUGAINVILLE, Louis Antointe de, 
count of the empire, senator, and mem- 
ber of the Institute in 1796, was b. 1729, 
at Paris. At first a lawyer, afterwards 
a distinguished soldier, diplomatist, and 
scholar : he was always remarkable for 
his energy of character. He fought 
brave y in Canada, under the marquis 




of Montcalm, and it was principally 
owing to his exertions, in 1758, tliat a 
body of 5000 French withstood success- 
fully a British army of 16,000 men. 
Towards the conclusion of the battle he 
received a shot in the head. After the 
battle of September 13th, 1759, in which 
Montcalm was killed, and the fate of the 
enemy decided, Bougainville returned 
to France, and served with distinction 
under Choiseul Stainville, in the cam- 
paign of 1761, in Germany. Af er the 
peace, he entered the navy, and became 
one of the greatest naval officers in 
France. He persuaded the inhabitants 
of St. Malo to tit out an expedition for 
the purpose of establishing a colony in 
the Falkland Islands, and undertook the 
command of the expedition himself. 
The king appointed him captain, and 
Bougainville set sail with his little fleet 
in 1763. But, as the Spaniards had a 
prior claim to the islands, France was 
obliged to surrender them, ami Bou- 
gainville, having returned to France, 
was commissioned to carry the sur- 
render into execution, on receiving from 
Spain a remuneration for his expenses. 
For this purpose, lie set sail, with one 
frigate and a merchant ship, from St. 
Main, December loth, 1766. After the 
immediate object of his voyage was ac- 
complished, he circumnavigated the 
world, and returned to St. Malo, March 
16th, 1769. lie enriched thy science of 
geography by a number of new dis- 
coveries. In the American war, he 
commanded several ships of the line, 
with great honor; was, in 1779, ehef-d'es- 
ca Ire, and, in the following year, fleld- 
marshal in the land forces. After 1790 
he devoted himself to science. D. 1811. 
— Jean Pikrre de, a French writer, au- 
thor of " Philip of Macedon," a tragedy, 
&C and editor of Freret's great work 
on '-Chronology.'' B. 1722; d. 1763. 

BOUGEANT, Guillaume IIvacinthe, 
a French Jesuit, author of " Amuse- 
ment Philosophique but le Langatre des 
Betu*," <fcc. B. 16J0; d. 1743. 

BOUGUER, Pierre, a French math- 
ematician and hydrographer, author of 
treatises on " Navigation and Pilotage," 
and on the ''Construction of Ships," 
and numerous other valuable works of 
science. D. 1758. 

BOUHIER, John, an eminent French 
writer of the 17th century, author of 
"Letter? on the Therapentse," "Dis- 
sertations on Herodotus," &c. B. 1673; 
d. 1746. 

BOUHOURS, Dominic, a French Jes- 
uit and critic, author of " Les Entretiens 

d'Ariste et d'Eugcne," " Maniere de 
bien Penser sur les Ouvrages de l'Esprit," 
&c. B. 1628; d. 1702. 

BOUILLE, Francis Claude Amour, 
Marquis de, b. 1759, a distinguished 
French general, celebrated by his ex- 
ploits up to the era of the French revo- 
lution; from which, although he sat ou 
liberal principles in the first assembly 
of notables, lie detached himself, and, 
after making excellent preparations to 
assist the unfortunate JLouis XVI. iu 
escaping from Varennes, which his 
sovereign refused to avail himself of, 
he quitted France and served under the 
allies. His " Memoirs of the French 
Revolution" rank deservedly high. D. 

BOUILLON, Rose, h. 1770 ; a heroine 
of the French revolution, wdio entered 
the army as a volunteer, and fought as 
a private in the 6th battalion of the 
Haute Saon, at the battle of Limbach, 
where her husband was killed by her 
side. She had a pension from the Na- 
tional Convention. 

BOUILLY, J. N., an eminent French 
diplomatist, b. 1770. In his views of 
the revolution, he concurred with his 
friend Mirabeau. Author of "Pierre 
le Grand," " 1,'Abbe de l'Epee," " L6- 
onore," "Helena," "Agnes Sorcl," 
" La Vieillesse de Piron," &c. D. 1842. 

eomte de St. Saire, author of a " His- 
tory of Mahomet," a "History of the 
Arabians," a " History of the 'Peerage 
of France," <fcc. B. 1658; d. 1722. 

BOULANGER, Nicholas Antony, a 
French mathematician and engineer, au- 
thor of "Traite dn Despotisme Oricn- 
tale," &c. B. 1722; d. 1759. 

BOULARD, Antoine Marie Henri, 
a distinguished French savant, b. 1754, 
and member of the chamber of deputies 
in 1815. He is author of numerous 
translations from English standard wri- 
tings, and was honored by the friend- 
ship of La Harpe, &c. D. 1825. 

J. C, b. 1761 ; one of the most distin- 
guished orators in the French revolu- 
tion, and author of eminent works on 
political science. He was president of 
the civil tribunal at Nancy, in 1793, and 
had great share in confirming the ex- 
patriation of the emigrants in 1793, when 
a member of the five hundred. Ho 
was subsequently faithful to Bonaparte 
through all his changes of fortune ; and 
on that account was proscribed, and 
banished to Frankfort, by the Bour 
bons, on their last restoration in 1815. 




BOULTEE, Hugh, archbishop of Ar- 
magh, eminent for his benevolent ex- 
ertions to alleviate the distress of the 
Irish during the scarcity of 1740, and 
for the part he took in establishing 
schools for the instruction of the Irish 
children. D. 1742. 

BOULTON, Matthew, an eminent 
engineer, whose spirit and talent im- 
proved innumerable mechanical pro- 
cesses, and whose name, with that of 
his partner, Watt, is inseparably con- 
nected with that of the wonderful power 
of whfc l they made such skilful use, 
:he steam-engine, was b. at Birming- 
ham, in 1728. Among the many great 
undertakings in which Boulton and 
Watt were engaged, one of the most 
useful and important was the improve- 
ment of the coinage, the coins struck at 
the "Soho" manufactory being rarely 
surpassed in beauty or accuracy. His 
long life was uninterruptedly devoted to 
the advancement of the useful arts, and 
the promotion of the commercial inter- 
ests of his country. D. 1809. 

BOUQUET, Madame, b. about 1773 ; 
a victim of affection and hospitality, du- 
ring the revolution. She concealed Pe- 
thion Buzot and her uncle Guadet, 
during one of the search warrants of 
the terrorists, and their retreat being 
discovered, she was sent to the guillo- 
tine with them, and died with great for- 

BOURBON, Charles, duke de, con- 
stable of France, a powerful enemy of 
Francis I., and his opponent at Pavia 
when Francis was taken prisoner. His 
life was chiefly spent in warfare, and he 
was killed while heading the assault on 
Borne, in 1527. — Robert, the Strong, 
duke of Neustria, founder of the family 
which has so long governed France, 
Spain, Sicily. &c, lost his life in a battle 
with the Normans in 866. Historians 
differ as to his descent, some contend- 
ing that Pepin, of Heristel, was his an- 
cestor; others trace his genealogy to 
the kintrs of Lombardy : and some say 
he derived his origin from a natural son 
of Charlemagne. — Louis, cardinal and 
archbishop of Toledo; son of Louis, 
brother of Charles III. of Spain. After 
the imprisonment of Ferdinand at Va- 
•encay, he joined the eortes, and ulti- 
mately became president of the provi- 
sional junta before which the king 
swore, in 1820, to abide bv the consti- 
tution of the eortes of 1812. B. 1777; 
d. 1823. — Louis Hexry Joseph, duke 
de, and prince de Conde. He fought in 
die royalist army ; and after the cam- 

paign in 1899, accompanied his father 
to England, and was residing with him 
at Wansteaddlouse in 1804, when his 
son, the Duke d'Enghien, was mur- 
dered. The duke's death is attributed 
to the excitement of his mind respecting 
the revolution of July, 1830. His prop- 
erty he left by will to the Duke d'Au- 
male. third son of Louis Philippe, king 
of the French, with the exception of a 
large bequest to Sophia Dawes, baroness 
de Feueheres, an Englishwoman, with 
whom he lived. D. 1830. — Nicholas, 
a French poet, author of l> Nuga?,'' a col- 
lection of Latin epigrams; a didactic 
poem, called "Ferraria;" a treatise 
•' De puerorum moribus," &c. D. 1556. 
— Nicholas, nephew of the above, pro- 
fessor of Greek, author of "An Impre- 
cation against the Parricide of Henry 
IV.,'- &c. D. 1644. 

BOUKCHIEK, Thomas, cardinal, and 
archbishop of Canterbury. He crowned 
no fewer than three kings, viz., Edward 
IV., Richard III., and Henry VII. D. 
148 j. — John, Lord Berners, a military 
commander of great skill and repute in 
the reigns of Henry VII. and VIII., by 
the latter of whom he was made gov- 
ernor of Calais, author of a translation of 
" Froissart," " The Life of Marcus Aure- 
liu>." &c. 1>. 1532. 

BOURDALOUE, Louis, a Jesuit, and 
a French preacher of consummate elo- 
quence; was b. at Bourges, in 1632. The 
reputation which he acquired by preach- 
ing in the country, induced his superiors 
to send him to Paris, where he immedi- 
ately acquired popularity, and became 
the favorite preacher of Louis XIV., who 
sent him into Languedoc, to convert the 
Protestants. The latter part of his 
life was spent in visiting the sick, and 
the prisons, and in other works of 
charity. His sermons occupy 16 vol- 
umes," and have often been reprinted. 
D. 1704. 

BOURDON, Skbastian, a painter of 
merit in various styles, but particularly 
in landscape; was b. at Montpelier, in 
1616, and studied at Home, where he 
was the friend of Claude Lorraine. In 
1652, wishing to avoid the civil wars 
which threatened France, he visited 
Sweden, and was patronized by Chris- 
tina. She made him a present of somo 
pictures which Gustavus had brcughf 
from Dresden; but on examining them, 
Bourdon disinterestedhy told her that 
she ought not to part with so valuable 
a collection. Christina afterwards took 
them to Rome, and they at length formed 
a part of the famous Orleans gallery 




He was an engraver as well as a painter. 
D. 1671. 

BOURGEOIS, Sir Francis, whose pa- 
rents were Swiss, was born in London, 
in 1756, and was designed for the army, 
but displayed such an attachment to 
painting that he was placed under 
Loutherbourg. After having travelled 
for improvement, he became a royal 
academician. In 17 l Jl he was appointed 
painter to the king of Poland ; and, in 
171)4, landscape painter to George III. 
The splendid collection of pictures which 
Mr. Desenfans had bequeathed to him, 
Sir Francis left to Dulwich college, with 
ten thousand pounds to build a gallery 
for them. I). 1811. 

BOUKGOING, John Francis, Baron 
de, was b. at Ne vers, in 1743; served 
early in the army, and successively acted 
as secretary erf legation, and lastly as am- 
bassador at various courts. Of his wri- 
tings, the principal are, the "Picture of 
Modern Spain," 3 vols.: and " Histori- 
cal and Philosophical Memoirs of Pius 
VI. D. 1811. 

BOURIGNON, Antoinetta, a fanatic, 
b. at Lisle, in 1616. She came into the 
world so very deformed that a consulta- 
tion was held in the family some days 
about stifling her as a monstrous birth. 
But if she sunk almost beneath humanity 
in her exterior, her interior seems to 
have been raised as much above it ; for 
at 4 years of age she not only took notice 
that the people of Lisle did not live up 
to the principles of Christianity which 
they professed, but was thereby dis- 
turbed so much as to desire a removal 
into some more Christian country. Hav- 
ing an aversion to matrimony, she twice 
eloped from home to avoid it. The read- 
ing of mystical works inflamed her ima- 
gination,' and she believed that she had 
visions and ecstatic trances, in which 
she was commanded to restore the true 
evangelical spirit in the world. She 
wandered about incessantly, and was 
expelled from many countries ; but she 
made numerous proselytes, among 
whom were men of abilities. U. at 
Franeker, in Holland, 16S0. Her reve- 
ries till 22 volumes. 

BOUKL1E, Anthony de Guiscakd, 
Abbe de la, who is known in English 
history as the Marquis de Guiscard; was 
b. in Quercy, in 1658, and entered the 
church. For some crime, however, he 
was compelled to fly. Failing in an 
attempt to spread the revolt of the Ce- 
vennes, he took refuge in England, 
where he received a pension from Queen 
Anne's ministers ; but having betrayed 

them to his own government, he was 
summoned before the privy council. 
There he stabbed Mr. Harley, and in 
return, was so dangerously wounded by 
some of the counsellors that he d. in 
Newgate, in 1711. 

BOURNE, Benjamin, of Bristol, 
Rhode Island ; was b. about the year 
1755, and educated at Harvard college, 
where he was graduated in 1775. He 
was conspicuous for talents and learn- 
ing, and spent a largo part of his life in 
public and honorable employments. Ho 
was for some time a member of congress, 
and in 1801 was appointed judge of the 
circuit court of the United States. D. 
1S08. — Vincent, one of the most elegant 
of modern Latin poets ; was educated 
at Westminster and Trinity college, 
Cambridge, took his degree of M.A. in 
1721, and d. undermaster of Westmin- 
ster school in 1747. Cowper describes 
him as having been the neatest of all 
men in his versification, the most slov- 
enly in his person ; and, as a poet, he 
thinks him not at all inferior to Ovid. 

BOURRIENNE, Louis Antoine Fau- 
velet de, the secretary of Napoleon, who 
had formed a friendship with him when 
they were scholars at Brieune, was b 
1769, and studied law at Leipsie. When 
Napoleon was first consul he was made 
counsellor of state. Yet afterwards ho 
was accused of not being sincerely at- 
tached to the government of Napoleon 
as emperor. He was an inconsistent and 
treacherous politician, and even wrote 
against his old patron and friend. His 
" Memoirs of Napoleon" have been 
proved to be. in some respects, unworthy 
of entire confidence. D. ls;)4. 

BOURR1T, Mark Theodore, a native 
of Geneva, b. 1739, was a chanter in the 
cathedral of his native city. He is 
known to the public by his various jour- 
neys to the Alps, and particularly to the 
glaciers and Mont Blanc ; of which he 
published narratives in 1772 and 1785. 
The last of these works was reprinted 
in 1789, with a " Description of the Gla- 
ciers of the Pennine and Rhetian Alps." 
D. 1819. 

BOURSAULT, Edmund, a French 
writer, was b. at Muci l'Eveque, in Bur- 
gundy, 16 iS, and though his father, a 
dissipated officer, to prevent him from 
knowing more than himself, would give 
him no education, he acquired a con- 
summate knowledge of the French lan- 
guage. He wrote several comedies, par- 
ticularly " Esop in Town," and " Esop 
at Court," three romances, and other 
works of considerable merit, among 




which may be mentioned " Letters to 
Babct." Boursault was a man of modest 
mind and a forgiving spirit. D. 1701. 

BOUESIEK, Lawrence Francis, a 
doctor of the Sorbonne, who d. at Paris 
in 1749, aged 70. He was author of 
several controversial books in divinity, 
and of an able treatise called " Paction 
de Dicu sur lcs creatures," 2 vols. 4to. or 
C vols. 12mo., which was attacked by 
Malebranche. He wrote also an address 
to Peter the Great when he visited Paris, 
for the union of the Greek and Latin 
churches. — Philip, an ecclesiastic of Pa- 
ris, who was the first concerned in the 
"Nouvelles Ecclesiastiques" in 1727, in 
which he was assisted by Berger, d'Ete- 
niare, de Fcrnanville, and others. D. 

BOURVALAIS, Paul Poisson, a fa- 
mous French financier, who rose from 
obscurity to opulence and consequence, 
by industry, and afterwards by dishon- 
est means. He was accused of having 
amassed a princely fortune from the dis- 
tresses of the state during the Spanish 
succession war, and his vast wealth was 
forfeited. lie was some time indemni- 
fied ; but his disgrace had broken a heart 
naturally fierce and impatient. D. 1710. 

BOUTERWEK, Frederick, profes- 
sor of moral philosophy at Gottingeu, a 
man of much merit as an academical in- 
structor and a writer on literature, was 
b. April loth, 17t>H, at Oker, a village not 
far from Goslar, in North Germany. 
After applying himself to many depart- 
ments of learning, jurisprudence, poe- 
try, &c., he at last became entirely de- 
voted to philosophy and literary history. 
Bouterwek has gained a permanent 
reputation by his "History of Modern 
Poetry and Eloquence," published 1801 
-1S21, a work which, though unequal 
in some respects, and in parts, especial- 
ly in the first volume, partial and super- 
ficial, is an excellent collection of notices 
and observations, and may be considered 
one of the best works of the kind in 
German literature. D. 1S28. 

BOWDICIi, Thomas Edward, a wri- 
ter in the service of the English African 
Company, was a native of Bristol. He 
was selected to conduct a mission to 
the king of Ashantee, of which mission 
he published a very interesting account. 
He again set out to explore the interior 
of Africa, and had already reached the 
river Gambia, when a fever, produced 
chiefly by anxiety, terminated his life in 
1824. He was an excellent linguist and 
a pleasing writer ; and besides the work 
already mentioned, the public are in- 

debted to him for a translation of Mol- 
lah's " Travels to the Sources of the Sen- 
egal and Gambia," and other works. 
B. 1798. 

BOW DITCH, Nathaniel, president 
of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, was b. at Salem, Mass., March 
2(5, 1773. On account of the straitened 
circumstances of his parents, he had no 
advantages of education than those af- 
forded by the common town schools oi 
that period ; and he was taken from 
school at the early period of 10 years. At 
the age of 12 or 13, he \ as placed as an 
apprentice, or clerk, in a ship-chandler's 
shop, where he remained till he was 
21. In his 22d year he went to sea in 
the capacity of captain's clerk ; and he 
spent about nine years in a seafaring 
life, during which he made five voyages, 
four of them to the East Indies ; first as 
captain's clerk, afterwards as supercar- 
go, and finally as master. After relin- 
quishing his nautical life, he became, in 
1804, president of a marine insurance 
company, in Salem, which station he 
held till' 1823, when, on the establish- 
ment of the Massachusetts Hospital Life 
Insurance Company, in Boston, he was 
induced to leave nis native place, and 
take charge of the institution. Notwith- 
standing his limited advantages of edu- 
cation, and his engagements, through 
life, in laborious employments, by his 
extraordinary genius, and almost equally 
extraordinary economy of time, he gain- 
ed a knowledge of the Latin, Greek, Ital- 
ian, Spanish, French, Portuguese, and 
German languages, made himself the 
most eminent mathematician and astron- 
omer that America has produced, and 
did more for the reputation of his coun- 
try among men of science abroad, than 
has been done by any other man, 
except, perhaps, Audubon and Dr. 
Franklin. His first publication was his 
well-known " Practical Navigation," of 
which the first edition appeared in 1802, 
while the author was engaged in a sea- 
faring life, in the capacity of supercargo. 
From that period it has been the stand- 
ard work on the subject ; an 1 in point 
of practical utility, it is esteemed one of 
the most valuable works extant. Among 
his scientific labors were numerous and 
important communications to the Mem- 
oirs of the American Academy ; but the 
great work upon wlwch his fame, as a 
man of science will principally rest, is his 
copious and profound commentary upon 
the " Mechanique Celeste" of La Place, 
of which he made the first, entire trans- 
lation, and which he has elucidated in* 




manner that commands the admiration 
of men of science. D. 1838. 

BOWDLER, Thomas, an English phy- 
sician ; author of " Letters from Hol- 
land," and editor of the " Family Shak- 
speare," &c. B. 1754 ; d. 1825.— Hannah, 
was sister of the above; author of 
"Poems and Essays," and of some popu- 
lar "Sermons on the Doctrines and Du- 
ties of Christianity." D. 1830. 

BOWDOIN, James, a governor of 
Massachusetts, was born at Boston, in 
the year 1727, and was graduated at 
Harvard college, in 1745. He took an 
early stand against the encroachments 
of the British government upon the 
provincial rights, and in 1774 was elected 
a delegate to the first congress. The 
state of his health prevented his attend- 
ance, and his place was afterwards filled 
by Mr. Hancock. In 1778 he was chosen 
president of the convention which 
formed the constitution of Massachu- 
setts, and in 1785 was appointed gov- 
ernor of that state. He was a member 
of the Massachusetts convention assem- 
bled to deliberate on the adoption of the 
constitution of the United States, and 
exerted himself in its favor. He was 
the first president of the Academy of 
Arts and Sciences, established at Boston 
in 1780, and was admitted a member of 
several foreign societies of distinction. 
D. at Boston, L790. 

BOWER, Archibald, a native of Dun- 
dee, b. in 1686, was educated at St. Omer, 
entered the order of the Jesuits, and be- 
came a se ounllor of the Inquisition, at 
Macerata, in the Papal States. He, how- 
ever, fled to Englan 1, in 172(5, embraced 
the Protestant faith, and was patronized 
by persons of eminence. His sincerity 
was much doubted, and his conduct was 
attacked by many, particularly by Dr. 
Douglas, the detector of Lauder. Bower 
conducted the " Historia Literaria ;" 
wrote a very indifferent " History of the 
Popes," and contributed largely to the 
"Universal History." D. 17-66. 

BOWLES, Rev. William Lisle, whose 
sonnets exercised no unimportant influ- 
ence on English literature, was b. at 
King's Sutton, in Northamptonshire, a 
parish of which his father was vicar, in 
1762. He was educated at Winchester 
and at Trinity college, Oxford, where he 
look his degree in 1792. On leaving the 
university he entered into holy orders, 
and was appointed to a curacy in Wilt- 
shire; from which he was preferred to a 
living in Gloucestershire, and in 1803 to 
u canonry in Salisbury cathedral. His 
next step was to the rectory of Bremhill 

in Wiltshire, to which he was presented 
by Archbishop Mooro. His first ap- 
pearance as a poet was in a small collec- 
tion of sonnets, which were published 
in 1789, and may be reckoned among 
the first-fruits of a new era in poetry. 
In these sonnets there were observed 
grace of expression, a musical versifica- 
tion, and especially an air of melancholy 
tenderness, so congenial to the poetical 
temperament. The subsequent poems 
of Mr. Bowles did not belie the promise 
of his youth. The chief of these were 
his " Hope, an Allegorical Sketch," " St. 
Michael's Mount," "Cooinbe Ellen," 
and " Grave of Howard." His " Spirit 
of Discovery by Sea," the longest of his 
productions, was published in 1804. Mr. 
Bowles published also an edition of 
Pope, which involved him in the famous 
controversy with Lord Byron — as well 
as a great variety of small" tracts, litera- 
ry, antiquarian, and theological. He 
was, in fact, a very frequent, though he 
cannot be cidled a voluminous, contribu- 
tor to the literature of the present cen- 
tury. D. 1850. 

BOWYER, William, an eminent 
scholar and typographer, was b. in 
London, in 1699, and after having been 
for some time at St. John's college, 
Cambridge, became a partner with his 
father in the printing business. He was 
printer to various learned bodies, and 
to the house of lords. He published 
several philological tracts, and added 
notes to many erudite works from his 
press; but his principal production is 
an edition of the New Testament in 
Greek, with conjectural emendations. 
D. 1777. 

BOXHORN, Mark Zuerius, professor 
of rhetoric, politics, and history, in the 
university of Leyden ; author of a trea- 
tise on the Discovery of Printing, and 
of numerous Latin works, both prose 
and verse. B. 1612; d. 1653. 

BOYCE, William, doctor of music, 
and an eminent composer both of sacred 
and secular pieces. B. 1710; d. 1779. 

BOYD, Mark Alexander, an eminent 
Scotch writer; author of " Epistolae He- 
roidis," &c. B. 1562; d. 1601.— Huon 
Macauley, a Scotch political writer, to 
whom, without any sufficing reason, the 
celebrated Letters of Junius were at one 
time attributed. He accompanied Lord 
Macartney to Madras. D. 1791. — Rob- 
ert, an eminent Scotch divine, b. at 
Glasgow, in 1578; d. 1627. — Zaciiary, a 
Scotch divine of the 17th century, and 
twice rector of the university of Glas- 
gow. Among various other works which 




he published, is "The Last Buttle of 
the Soul in Death;" and among the nu- 
merous MSS. he left, is a collection of 
quaint poems, entitled, " Zion's Flow- 
ers," popularly called " Zacliary Boyd's 
Bible. U. 1653, leaving a considerable 
legacy to the Glasgow college. 

BOYDELL, John, a worthy alderman 
of London, and distinguished encour- 
ager of the arts of painting and engrav- 
ing, b. at Dorington, in Shropshire, 1719, 
and intended for a land-surveyor, which 
was the profession of his father; but 
chance having thrown in his way "Bad- 
deley's Views of different Country Seats," 
he determined on quitting the pen for 
the graver ; and at above 20 years of 
age put himself apprentice for seven 
years to Mr. Toms, whom he served six 
years, and bought up the seventh. He 
then applied closely till he had engraved 
152 prints, which he published in a 
book at the price of five guineas. With 
the profits of this he set about encour- 
aging other professors of the art ; he 
discovered the talents of Woollett, and 
employed him to engrave the two fa- 
mous pictures of "Niobe" and "Phae- 
ton." He soon commenced a great 
foreign trade in English prints, and 
realized by his spirit" of industry and 
enterprise a considerable fortune, form- 
ing too the well-known "Shaksj>eare 
Gallery." The long duration of the 
French war, however, having almost 
wholly stopped his export trade, in 
which lie had embarked large sums of 
money, he was, in the spring of 1804, 
induced to crave permission of parlia- 
ment to dispose of the "Shakspeare 
Gallerv" by lottery. D. 1804. 

BOYELDIEU, Adrian, one of the 
most celebrated opera composers of 
France. He was b. at Koucn, 1775, but 
went early to Paris, where he was ap- 
pointed professor of the piano at the 
Conservatoire. He wrote " Ma Tante 
Aurora," and the "Calife de Bagdad," 
when he was made chapel-master to 
Alexander of Russia, and repaired to St. 
Petersburg. In 1811 he returned to 
Paris, and wrote " Le Dot de Susette," 
" Jean de Paris," " LeChaperon Rouge," 
nnd bestof all, "La Dame Blanche." A 
sweet and natural melody, simple but 
agreeable accompaniments, an expres- 
sive gayety, and great variety, are the 
characteristic excellences of his style. 
D. 1834. 

BOYER, Able, a well-known glossog- 
rapher; b. at Castres, in France, 1664. 
The work he is chiefly known by, is a 
very excellent " French and English, and 

English and French Dictionary." Ho 
wrote* also " A French Grammar" in 
English, which still retains a high rank 
in our schools. D. 1729. — John Baptist 
Nicholas, a French physician, eminently 
skilful in the treatment of infectious dis- 
eases ; author of a " Pharmacopoeia," 
tracts on Contagious Disorders, &c. D. 
1763. — Jean Pierke, a celebrated mu- 
latto president of the island of Hayti ; 
who was b. at Port an Prince in 1780. 
His mother was a negress from Congo, 
and his father a shopkeeper and tailor 
of good repute. Attaching himself to 
Rigaud, he set out for France, but was 
captured by the Americans, but was 
released at the close of the war between 
France and the United States. He took 

Sirt in Leclerc's expedition against St. 
omingo, but afterwards joined Petion's 
party, and rapidly rose till he was named 
Petion's successor in the presidency 
Adroitly placing himself at the head of 
the various insurgents as they rose, lie 
reduced the whole island to one repub- 
lican government. He was subsequently 
obliged to seek safety from an insurrec- 
tion excited by his violence, in the island 
of Jamaica. 

BOYLE, Robert, a philosopher, who 
ranks with Bacon and with Newton ; 
was the seventh son of the celebrated 
earl of Cork, and was b. at Lismore, in 
Ireland, January the 26th, 1626, the 
year that Bacon died. Eton has the 
"honor of his early education, which was 
perfected by private tutors, and lastly 
at Geneva. After having travelled over 
various parts of the Continent, he settled 
in England, and devoted himself to sci- 
ence, especially to natural philosophy 
and to chemistry. Every year of his 
life was marked by new experiments. 
We are indebted to him for the first cer- 
tain knowledge of the absorption of air 
in calcination and combustion, and of 
the increase of weight which metals gain 
by oxidation. He first studied the chem- 
ical phenomena of the atmosphere, and 
was thus the predecessor of Mayow, 
Hales, Cavendish, and Priestley. In all 
philosophical inquiries, he displayed an 
accurate and methodical mind, relying 
wholly upon experiments. At the same 
time his imagination was warm and 
lively, and inclined to romantic notions, 
which were first produced in his child- 
hood, by the perusal of Amadis of Gaul, 
and always exercised a visible influence 
on his character. He was naturally in- 
clined to melancholy, and this temper 
of mind was increased by circumstances, 
The sight of the great Carthusian mon- 




asteiy at Grenoble, the wildness of the 
country, as well us the severe ascetic life 
of the monks, made a deep impression 
upon him. Tnc devil, as he said, taking 
advantage of his melancholy disposition, 
filled his sotd with terror, and with 
doubts concerning the fundamental doc- 
trines of religion. This condition was 
eo insufferable, that he was tempted to 
free himself from it by committing sui- 
cide, an J was only prevented by the 
fear of hell. While endeavoring to settle 
his faith, he found those defences of the 
Christian religion, which had been pub- 
lished before his time, unsatisfactory. 
In order therefore to read the original 
works which are considered the founda- 
tion of Christianity, he studied the Ori- 
ental languages, and formed connections 
with Poeocke, Thomas Hyde, Samuel 
Clarke, Thomas Barlow, &c. The result 
of Ins studies was a conviction of its 
truth, which was manifested not only 
by his theological writings, but by his 
benevolence and generous disinterested- 
ness, lie instituted public lectures for 
the defence of Christianity. D. 1691. — 
Richard, earl of Cork, an eminent states- 
man in the reign of James I. ; and foun- 
der of a family greatly distinguished in 
the arts, sciences, and literature. B. at 
Canterbury, 1566 ; d. 1643. — Roger, carl 
of Orrery, fifth son of the above. When 
only 7 years old he was created Baron 
Broghill ; and, from an early age, was 
conspicuous for his zeal in the king's 
service. But after the king was put to 
death, the baron transferred his services 
to Cromwell, by whom he was greatly 
trusted and employed. At the death of 
Cromwell he aided in bringing back 
Charles II., and was created earl_ of 
Orrery for his service on that occasion. 
B. 16til ; d. 1679.— Charles, Lord Boyle, 
second son of Roger, earl of Orrery, a 
statesman and scholar; editor of the 
''Epistles of Phalaris," and author of 
some slight but clever literary papers. 
B. 1676; d. 1731.— John, carl of Cork 
and Orrery, only son of the last named; 
author of a translation, with notes, of the 
"Epistles of Pliny the Younger," "Re- 
marks on the Life and Writings of 
Swift," papers in the Connoisseur and 
the World, &c. B. 1707; d. 1762.— 
Richard, third earl of Burlington, and 
fourth carl of Cork, another branch of 
the same distinguished family. He was 
an enthusiastic amateur of architecture, 
and a very generous fi iend to men of 
letters. In him, Bishop Berkeley found 
his earliest and most efficient patron ; 
»nd Pope did him the honor to address 

to him his fourth epistle. B. 1695; d. 

BOYLSTON, Zabdiel, wasb. at Brook- 
line, Massachusetts, in 1634. He studied 
medicine at Boston, and entered into the 
practice of his profession in that place. 
In 1721, when the small-pox broke out 
in Boston, and spread alarm through the 
whole country, the practice of inocula- 
tion was introduced by Dr. Boylston, 
notwithstanding i 1 ", was discouraged by 
the rest of the faculty, and a public or- 
dinance was passed to prohibit it. He 
persevered in his practice in spite of the 
most violent opposition, and had the 
satisfaction of seeing inoculation in gen- 
eral use in New England, fcr some time 
before it became common in Great Brit- 
ain. In 1725 he visited England, where 
he was received with much attention, 
and was fleeted a fellow of the Royal 
Society. Upon his return, he continued 
at the head of his profession for many 
years, and accumulated a large fortune'. 
Besides communications to the Royal 
Society, he published two treatises on 
the Small Pox. D. 1766. — Nicholas, a 
benefactor of Harvard college, who had 
been an eminent merchant, and was 
about to retire from business, to enjoy 
the fruit of his industry, when he d. 
He bequeathed to the university at Cam- 
bridge £1500, as the foundation of a 
lectureship on rhetoric and oratory. 
John Qnincy Adams, in 1806, was the 
first occupant of the chair thus created. 
D. 1771. — Ward Nicholas, also a dis- 
tinguished patron of Harvard college, 
having given to the medical school a 
collection of medical and anatomical 
books, and made provision for its en- 

BOYS, William, b. at Deal, in Kent, 
1735, was bred a surgeon, but devoted 
much of his time to antiquarian re- 
searches, and published, besides other 
works, an elaborate and valuable " His- 
tory of Sandwich, with Notices of the 
other Cinque Ports, and of Riehbor- 
ough." D. 1803. 

BOYSE, John, one of the translators 
of the Bible in the reign of James I., 
was b. at, Nettlestead, in Suffolk, 1560, 
and d. 1643. leaving a great many manu- 
scripts behind him, particularly a com- 
mentary on almost all the boolis of the 
New Testament. — Samdel, a very in- 
genious person, but as remarkable for 
imprudence as for ingenuity, b. in Dub- 
lin, 1709. In 1731 he published, at 
Edinburgh, a volume of poems addressed 
to the countess of Eglinton. He wrote 
also an elegy upon the death of Lady 




Stormont, entitled " The Tears of the 
Muses;" with which Lord Stormont 
was so much pleased that he ordered 
Boyse a handsome present. These pub- 
lications, and the honorable notice taken 
of them, were the means of recommend- 
ing him to very high persons, who were 
desirous of serving him ; but Boyse was 
not a man to be served. He made an 
improper use of these recommendations, 
and had often recourse to the meanest 
arts to procure benefactions. At some 
times he would raise subscriptions for 
poems which did not exist ; and at 
others, ordered his wife to inform peo- 
ple that he was just expiring, to move 
the compassion of his friends, who were 
frequently surprised to meet the man in 
the street to-day who was, yesterday, 
said to be at the point of death. In May, 
1749, however, he d., after a lingering 
illness, in obscure lodgings, near Shoe- 
lane, where he was buried at the ex- 
pense of the parish. 

BOZE, Claude Gros de, b. at Lyons, 
1680, distinguished for his knowledge 
of antiquities and medals, which gained 
the patronage of Chancellor Pontchar- 
train, and other illustrious characters, 
and the honor of a seat in the French 
Academy, and in the Academy of Belles- 
Lettres, of which he became perpetual 
secretary. He was respected for his 
private character, as well as his great 
learning. His worlds were on medallic 
subjects, besides historical panegyrics 
on the members of the Academy, the 
first 15 vols, of which he published — 
and a valuable catalogue of his own 
librarv. D. at Paris, 1753. 

an Italian poet of Pistoya, who, at the 
age of 40, became an ecclesiastic, and 
was patronized by Pope Urban VIII., 
and by Cardinal Anthony Barberini, 
with whom he had been secretary. He 
wrote several tragedies, comedies, and 
pastorals — besides " La Croce Eiacqui- 
stata," a poem which the Italians rank 
next to Tasso's " Jerusalem," and a poem 
in twenty-three cantos, on the pope's 
election, for which, at his patron s de- 
sire, he assumed the surname of Delia 
Api, and added to his arms three bees. 
D. at the age of 80, 1645. 

BEACHMANN, Louisa, b. 1777, a 
poetess styled the " Sappho of Ger- 
many ;" she was found drowned in 
1S22*: it was supposed that she threw 
herself into the water. 

BBACKENEIDGE, Hugh Henry, a 
judge of the supreme court of Pennsyl- 
vania. He was graduated at Princeton 

college in 1771. In 1781 he settled at 
Pittsburg, which was then almost a wil- 
derness, but he predicted that it would 
soon become a large town, and in its 
improvement he engaged with zeal. In 
1789 he was appointed judge. He pub- 
lished a poem on the "Rising Glory of 
America," 1774 j " Eulogium of the 
Brave Men who tell in the Contest with 
Great Britain," 1779 ; " Modern Chival- 
ry, the Adventures of Capt. Farrago," 
1*792 ; " Incidents of the Insurrection in 
1794 in Pennsylvania," 1795; " Law of 
Miscellanies, containing Instructions for 
the Stndy of the Law," 1814. D. 1816. 

BEAC'KETT, Joshua, a physician, 
graduated at Harvard college, 1752. He 
first became a teacher, but gave up that 
profession for the study of medicine. 
He established himself in Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire, and continued there 
during life. He took a deep interest in 
the promotion of natural history at Cam- 
bridge, and requested his wife to appro- 
priate $1500 towards the professorship 
of that science in Harvard college. She 
complied with his request, and added tt 
the amount. He was a benefactor of thf 
N. II. Medical Society, of which he was 
president from 1798 to 1799, presenting 
to it, at its establishment, 143 vols, of 
valuable medical books. 1). 1802. 

BEACTON, Henry de, a native of 
Devonshire, who studied at Oxford, and 
became eminent as a lawyer, and in 1244 
was made one of the judges itinerant by 
Henry III. He is chiefly known by his 
excellent work " De Legibus and Consu- 
etudinibus Anglise," a most finished and 
valuable performance, divided into five 
books, and containing, in good language, 
a curious and interesting detail of the 
legal learning, the la%vs and customs of 
our ancestors. Though blamed by 
Houard for mingling too much of the 
civil and canon law in his compositions, 
he has long been held as a writer of great 
authority, and deservedly esteemed by 
Lord Coke, and other great lawyers, as 
the first source of legal knowledge. 

BEADBUEY, Thomas, a native of 
London, educated at Clapham, in com- 
pany with Dr. Watts, and distinguished 
among the Nonconformists as a bold and 
eloquent preacher in defence of Calvin- 
istical doctrines and revolution princi- 
ples. He wrote some theological trea- 
tises, besides three volumes of sermons, 
and the "Mystery of Godliness." D. 1757. 

BBADDO* !K, Edward, major-genera" 
and commander of the British aimyh. 
the expedition against the French, on the 
river Ohio, in 1755, arrived in Virginia 




in February of that year, and, in the 
spring, marched against Fort da Quesnc, 
now Pittsburg, lie reached the Moiion- 
gahela, July 8th, at the head of 1200 
men, the baggage having been left be- 
hind, under the care of Colonel Dunbar, 
to advance by slower inarches. On the 
next day lie moved forward to invest the 
fort, and, by disregarding the caution of 
nis provincial officers, who warned him 
against the danger of a surprise in an 
Indian war, fell into an ambuscade, by 
which he lost nearly one half of his 
troops, and received himself a mortal 
wound. All his officers on horseback, 
except Colonel, afterwards General, 
Washington, who acted as aid, being 
killed, the army retreated precipitately 
near forty miles, to Dunbar's camp, 
where the general, who was conveyed 
there in a tumbril, expired. 

BRADFORD, William, the second 
governor of Plymouth Colony, was b. at 
Austerneld, England, in 1588. At the 
a^e of 18 be joined those dissenters who 
fled to Hollail 1, to enjoy religious free- 
dom. His leisure hours were passed in 
Learning the art of silk dyeing. After a 
residence of ten years he removed to 
America. His wife fell into the sea anil 
was drowned, just before the place for 
the colony was selected. In 1621 In- was 
appointed governor of the new settle- 
ment, when one of his first acts was to 
secure the friendship of the Indian 
M tssassoit, and all his subsequent ca- 
reer was one of devotion to his duties. 
The original government of Plymouth 
was founded entirely on mutual consent. 
The first patent was obtained in the 
name of John Pierce ; but another pat- 
ent of larger extent was obtained of the 
council for New England, in 1(530, in 
the name of William Bradford, his heirs, 
associates, and assigns. In the year 
1640 the general court requested Gov- 
ernor Bra If >rd to surrender the patent 
ints their hands. With this request he 
chtr.rfully complied, and after the sur- 
render the patent was immediately de- 
livered again into his custody. Mr. 
Bradford w.ts annually chosen governor 
as lorn* as he lived, excepting in the 
years IPC,?:. 1684, 1636, 1633, and 1614. 
At these times it was by his own request 
that the people did not elect him. D. 
1657. — -William, a lawyer of eminence, Philadelphia, 1755. In the spring 
of 1769 he entered the college at Prince- 
ton, then under the direction of the 
learned Dr. John Wotherspoon. In 1779 
he was admitted to the bar of the su- 
preme court of Pennsylvania, where his 

character soon introduced him to an un- 
usual share of business ; and, in August, 
1780, only one year after he was licensed 
to practice, he was appointed attorney- 
general of the state of Pennsylvania. 
August 22d, 1791, he was made a judge 
of the supreme court of Pennsylvania. 
His industry, integrity, and abilitv, en- 
abled hiin to give general satisfaction in 
this office. On the attorney-general of 
the United States being promoted to the 
office of the secretary ot state, Bradford 
was appointed to the vacant office, Janu- 
ary 28th, 1794 This office he held till 
his death. In 1793 he published an 
"Inquiry how far the Punishment of 
Death is necessary in Pennsylv. nia." 
This performance justly gained him 
great credit. D. 1795. — Samdkl, was b. 
in Blackfriars, 20th December, 1652, and 
after studying at St. Paul's school, the 
Charter house, and Benet's college, 
Cambridge, he went abroad on account 
of some scruples of conscience, and ap- 
plied himself to physic. He afterwards 
was reconciled to the doctrines of the 
church, and as the friend of Archbishop 
Sancrott, and the chaplain of King Wil- 
liam, he rose in ecclesiastical preferment 
to the rectory of St. Marv-le-bow, a pre- 
bend of Westminster, and the master- 
ship of his own college. In 1718 he 
became bishop of Carlisle, and in 1723 
of Rochester, which he held to the time 
of his death, 1731.« He edited "Tillot- 
son's Sermons." — John, an English mar- 
tyr, b. of a respectable family at Man- 
chester. He was for some time clerk to 
Sir John Harrington, the treasurer of 
the English forces at Calais, but after- 
wards turned his thoughts to the study 
of divinity, and took his master's degree 
at Cambridge. He was eloquent as a 
preacher, and his abilities exposed him 
to persecution in Mary's reign, so that, 
after a long imprisonment, he was burnt 
in Smithfield, 1st July, 1555. Some of 
his letters are extant. 

BRADLEY, James, a celebrated as- 
tronomer, was b. at Sherborne, in the 
year 16.12. He studied theology at Ox- 
ford, and took orders ; but his taste for 
astronomy soon led him to change the 
course of his life. His uncle instructed 
him in the elements of mathematics, his 
own industry did every thing else, and, 
in 1721, he was appointed professor of 
astronomy at Oxford. Six years after- 
wards, he made known his discovery of 
the aberration of light. But, although 
this discovery gave a greater degree of 
accuracy to astronomical observations, 
and although the discrepancies of differ- 




ent observations were much diminished, 
yet slight differences remained, and did 
not escape bis observation. lie studied 
them during IS years with the greatest 
perseverance, and finally discovered that 
they were fully explained by tbe supposi- 
tion of an oscillating motion of tbe earth's 
axis, completed during a revolution of 
the moon's nodes, in eighteen years. 
He called this phenomenon the nutation 
of the earth' 1 8 axis; and published, in 
1748, (Pbilosopb. Trans. No. 785,) his 
account of tbe apparent motion of tbe 
fixed stars, with its laws, arising from 
this phenomenon of nutation. D' Alein- 
bert afterwards explained tbe physical 
causes of this phenomenon, upon tbe 
principal of universal attraction. By 
these two discoveries, astronomers were 
for the first time enabled to make tables 
of the motions of the heavenly bodies 
with the necessary accuracy. Bradley 
had already, in 1726, explained the me- 
thod of obtaining the longitude by means 
of tbe eclipse of Jupiter's first satellite. 
In 1741, at the death of Doctor Bailey, he 
received tbe appointment of astronomer 
royal, and removed to the observatory at 
Greenwich. Here he spent the remain- 
der of his life, entirely devoted to bis 
astronomical studies, and left thirteen 
volumes folio of bis own observations, 
in manuscript. Of these, the first vol- 
ume was published by Horesby, 1798. 
Tbe whole appeared under tbe "title of 
"Astronomical Observations made at the 
Observatory at Greenwich," 1750-62 ; 
Oxford, 1805. D. 1762.— Richard, pro- 
fessor of botany at Cambridge, and au- 
thor of several works, chiefly compila- 
tions on botany and horticulture. Dr. 
Brewster's popular invention, the ka- 
leidoscope, was at one time said to be due 
to Bradley ; but it appears that the doc- 
tor's instrument and the one proposed 
by Bradley are quite different, and that 
the latter would be very inferior. D. 

BRADSHAW, John, celebrated as 
president of tbe tribunal by which 
Charles I. was tried, is said by some to 
have been b. in Derbyshire, and by 
others in Cheshire, in 1586. He studied 
tbe law in Gray's Inn. In the contest 
between Charles and tbe people, Brad- 
shaw espoused the cause of the latter. 
The parliament made him chief justice 
of Chester, and he -was also chosen to 
preside in tbe high court of justice 
which sat upon tbe kincf. Cromwell, 
to whose usurpation be was hostile, de- 
prived him of the chief justiceship. D. 
659 ; but, at tbe restoration, such was 

the vehemence of the roj Jist bigotry, 
his remains were disinterred, and hang- 
ed at Tyburn. 

BRADSTREET, Simon, governor of 
Massachusetts. He was in March, 1630, 
chosen an assistant of the colony about 
to be established there, and arrived at 
Salem, in tbe summer of the same year. 
He was at the first court which was held 
at Cbarlestown, August 23d. He was 
afterwards secretary and agent of Mas- 
sachusetts, and commissioner of the 
united colonies. He was sent with Mr. 
Norton, in 1662, to congratulate King 
Charles on his restoration, and as agent 
of the colony to promote its interests. 
From 1673 to 1679, he was deputy-gov- 
ernor. In this last year, he succeeded 
Mr. Leverett as governor, and remained 
in office till May, 1686, when the charter 
was dissolved, and Joseph Dudley com- 
menced his administration as president 
of New England. In May. 1689, after 
the imprisonment of Andros, he was 
replaced in the office of governor, which 
station he held, till the arrival of Sir 
William Phipps, in May, 1692, with a 
charter, which deprived the people of 
the right of electing their chief magis- 
trate. 1). 1697. — Anne, entitled to re- 
membrance as the author of the first 
volume of poetry published in America. 
Her volume was dedicated to her father, 
in a copy of verses, dated March 20, 
1642. The title is, "Several Poems, 
compiled with great variety of wit and 
learning, full of delight ; wherein espe- 
cially is contained a complete discourse 
and description of the four elements, 
constituting, ages of man, seasons of 
the year, together with an exact epitome 
of the three first monarchies, viz. : the 
Assyrian, Persian, Grecian, and Roman 
commonwealth, from the beginning to 
the end of their last king, with clivers 
other pleasant and serious poems. By 
a Gentlewoman of New England." A 
third edition was published in 1758. D. 
1672, aged 60. — John, a major-general 
in America, appointed by the king of 
Great Britain, was, in 1716, lieutenant- 
governor of St. John's, Newfoundland. 
He was afterwards distinguished for his 
military services. It was thought of 
tbe highest importance, in the year 1756, 
to keep open the communication with 
Fort Oswego, on lake Ontario. General 
Shirley accordingly enlisted forty com- 
panies of boatmen, and placed them 
under the command of Bradstreet. In 
the spring of this year, a small stock- 
aded post of 25 men had been cut off. 
It became necessary to pass through th« 




country with large squadrons of boats, 
as the enemy infested the passage 
through the Onondaga river. On his 
return from Oswego, July, 1756, Col. 
Bradstreet, who was apprehensive of 
being ambushed, ordered the several 
divisions to proceed as near each other 
as possible. He was at the head of 
about 300 boatmen in the first division, 
when at the distance of nine miles from 
the fort, the enemy rose from their am- 
buscade and attacked him. He in- 
stantly landed upon a small island, and 
with but six men maintained his posi- 
tion, till lie was reinforced. A general 
engagement ensued, in which Brad- 
street witii gallantry rushed upon a 
more numerous enemy, and entirely 
routed them, killing and wounding 
about 20U men. His own loss was about 
30. In the year 175S, lie was intrusted 
with the command of 3000 men on an 
expedition against Fort Frontenac, which 
was planned by himself. On the 27th 
of August it was surrendered to him. 
In 17(34 he compelled the Delawarcs, 
Shawnese, and other Indians, to terms 
of peace. He was appointed major- 
general in 1772. D. 1774. 

BRADWARDIN, Thomas, a native 
of Hatfield in Sussex, educate I at Ox- 
ford, where he was proctor and divinity 
professor. For his great merit as a 
mathematician, philosopher, and divine, 
he was made confessor to Edward III. 
during his wars in France, where as a 
preacher his eloquence had great in- 
fluence in restraining the violence and 
lawless conduct of the military. He 
became archbishop of Canterbury in 
1348, and from his learning was called 
the " Proftnmd Doctor." Among other 
things he published a tract" called 
" Causa Dei," besides " Geometria 
Speculativa," " Arithmetica Specula- 
tiva," "Traetatus Proportionum, Ven- 
ice, 1505. He was consecrated at 
Avignon. D. 1549. 

BRADY, Nicholas, an English di- 
vine ; translator of the iEneid, and, in 
conjunction with Tate, of the Psalms. 
B. at Bandon, Ireland, 1659 ; d. 1726.— 
Robert, an English physician and his- 
torical writer. D. 1700. 

BRAKE, Trcno, who has been called 
the restorer of astroncmy, was b. at 
Knudstorp, in Scania, 1546, of a noble 
family. His love of astronomy was ear- 
ly manifested, and his discovery in 1572, 
of a new star in the constellation Cassi- 
opeia, made him known to the scientific 
world. After many travels and adven- 
tures, he was patronized by his sov- 

ereign, Fredeiick II., who gave him a 
pension, and the island of Ilwen, in the 
Sound, on which Brahe built a splendid 
observatory, named Uraniburgh. There 
he resided nearly twenty years, assidu- 
ously laboring in his astronomical pur- 
suits. Soon after the death of Frederic, 
however, Brahe lost his pensions, be- 
came an object of persecution, and was 
compelled to quit his country. The 
Emperor Rodolph invited him to Prague, 
and the expatriated astronomer settled 
there, in 1598 ; but he did not long sur- 
vive this removal, for he d. in the Bo- 
hemian capital, 1601. Brahe discovered 
two new inequalities in the motion of 
of the moon, made other valuable ob- 
servations on that satellite, was, perhaps, 
the first who had correct ideas of the 
nature of comets, and, with less happi- 
ness, invented a new planetary system, 
which was vainly intended to supersede 
that of Copernicns. He is the author of 
a " Treatise on the New Phenomena of 
the Heavens ;" and other astronomical 
works written in Latin. His poems do 
not possess much merit, though, on the 
whole, he was one of the most remarka- 
ble men of his age. 

BRAIDWOOD, Thomas, a native of 
Edinburgh, the first person in Great 
Britain who, to any extent, undertook 
to afford instruction to the deaf and 
dumb. In 1763 he began to practise his 
valuable art; and, in 1723, he removed 
his establishment from Edinburgh to 
Hackney. D. 1806. His daughter, who 
d. in 1819, also conducted a seminary of 
the same kind. 

BRAIXARD, James G. C, a poet and 
man of letters, b. in Connecticut, was 
graduated at Yale college in 1815. He 
studied the profession of the law and 
entered into practice at Middletown, 
Conn. ; but not finding the degree of 
success that he expected, he returned in 
a short time to his native town, whence 
he removed to Hartford, to undertake 
the editorial charge of the '■Connecticut 
Mirror." His poems were chiefly short 
pieces, composed for the columns of this 
paper, and afterwards collected in a vol- 
ume. They display much pathos, bold- 
ness, and originality. D. of consump- 
tion, 1828. — David, the celebrated mis- 
sionary, was b. at Haddam, Connecticut, 
in 171S. From aii early period he was 
remarkable for a religious turn of mind, 
and in 1739 became a member of Yalo 
college, where he was distinguished for 
application and general correctness of 
conduct. He was expelled from this in- 
stitution in 1742, in consequence of 



having said, in the warmth of his reli- 
gions zeal, that one of the tutors was as 
devoid of grace as a chair. In the spring 
of 1743 he began the study of divinity, 
and at the end of July was licensed to 
preach. Having received from the So- 
ciety for propagating Christian Knowl- 
edge an appointment as missionary to 
the Indians, he commenced his labors at 
Kaunameek, a village of Massachusetts, 
situated between Stockbridge and Alba- 
ny. He remained there about twelve 
months, and on the removal of the 
Kaunameeks to Stockbridge, he turned 
his attention towards the Delaware In- 
dians. In 1744 he was ordained at 
Newark, New Jersey, and fixed his res- 
idence near the forks of the Delaware 
in Pennsylvania, where he remained 
about a year. From this place he re- 
moved to Crosweeksung, in New Jersey, 
where his etforts among the Indians 
were crowned with great success. In 
1747 he went to Northampton, Massa- 
chusetts, where he passed the remainder 
of his life in the family of the celebrated 
Jonathan Edwards. His publications 
are a narrative of his labors at Kauna- 
tieek, and his journal of a remarkable 
work of arrace among a number of In- 
dians in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, 
174(5. D. 1747. 

BKAITHWAITE, John, an ingenious 
mechanic, constructor of a diving ma- 
chine, with which he explored the Royal 
George, sunk off Spithead; the Hartwell 
East Indiaman, oft one of the Cape de 
Verde Islands; and the Abergavenny 
East Indiaman, off the Isle of Portland. 
From the first he only succeeded in 
raising some guns and an anchor; but 
from the second and third he brought 
up propertv to a very large amount. D. 

BRAMAH, Joseph, an English en- 
gineer, distinguished for the number, 
value, and ingenuity of his mechanical 
inventions. Among these were his in- 
valuable hydrostatic press, his safety 
.ocks, various improvements in the 
steam-einjine, in the process of making 
paper, in the construction of main-pipes, 
wheel-carriasres, the beer-machine, &c. 
.3. 1749; d. 1814. 

& celebrated Italian architect, much em- 
ployed by Pope Julius II., and who first 
designed and commenced the church of 
St. Peter at Rome. He was a skilful 
painter and musician as well as archi- 
tect, and a volume of poems from his 
pen was printed in 1756. D. 1514. 
BRANCAS, Lauraguais, duke de, 

a French nobleman, distinguished for 
his scientific attainments ; discoverer of 
the composition of the diamond, and a 
great improver of the manufacture of 
porcelain. B. 1785 ; d. 1824. 

BRAND, John, an able and volumi- 
nous writer on politics and political 
economy; author of numerous political 
pamphlets and some poems. He was 
rector of Wickham Market, in Suffolk, 
and of St. George, Southwark. D. 1809. 
— John, an English divine and antiqua- 
ry; author of the "History and An- 
tiquities of the Town of Newcastle," 
" Observations on Popular Antiquities," 
«&e. B. 174:5; d. 1806. 

BRANDER, Gustavds, an English an- 
tiquary and naturalist. He was of a 
Swedish family, but born in London, 
where he was an eminent merchant and 
a director of the bank. He contributed 
largely to the Transactions of the Anti- 
quarian Societ" &e. B. 1720; d. 1787. 

BRANDES, Zrnest, a Hanoverian 
author and statesman, b. 17">8. He was 
a friend of Burke ; and published a work 
on the French revolution, in refutation 
of Barruel. D. 1810. 

BRANDT, Sebastian, chancellor of 
Strasburir ; author of " Varia Carmina," 
" Navis Stultifera," &c. D. 1520.— Nich- 
olas, a German chemist, who is said to 
have discovered phosphorus in 1667, 
while attempting to find a solvent by 
which to convert silver into gold. — 
Ernevold, count de, a Danish states- 
man, convicted of being concerned in 
the conspiracy of Count Struensee, and 
executed in 1772. — George, an eminent 
Swedish natural philosopher; author of 
accounts of various valuable experi- 
ments made by him upon the metals. 
D. 1768. 

BRANTOME, or Pierre de BOUR- 
DEILLES, a celebrated French chron- 
icler. He was a favored attendant upon 
Charles IX., Henry III., and the duko 
d'Alencon ; and his memoirs, though 
somewhat too free in their details, are 
highly valuable as graphic and faithful 
illustrations of an interesting period of 
French history. 

BRATTLE, William, a man of ex- 
traordinary talents and character, grad- 
uated at Harvard college, 1722. He 
studied theology and preached with 
acceptance. His eminence as a lawyer 
drew around him an abundance of 
clients. As a physician liis practice was 
extensive and celebrated. He was also 
a military man, and obtained the ap- 
pointment of major-general of militia. 
While he secured the favor of the gov- 




ernor of the state, he aiso ingratiated 
himself with the people. At the com- 
mencement of the American revolution 
ar. unhappy sympathy in the plans of 
General Wage induced him to retire into 
Boston, from which place he accom- 
panied the troops to Halifax, where he 
d. 1775. 

BRA.UN, George, a German ecclesi- 
astic ; author of "Lives of Jesus Christ 
and the Virgin Mary ;" an oration 
against dissolute clerics, &c. D. 16'22. 

BRAY, Sir Reginald, an Eugli>h 
statesman, and favorite of Henry VII; 
He was a frank friend to that sovereign ; 
disdaining to withhold his disapproval 
when it was deserved. He is chiefly 
memorable for having superintended 
the erection of that beautiful structure, 
Henry VII. 's chapel at Westminster, 
and for having finished that of St. < rei >rge 
at Windsor. D. 1503.— Thomas, an En- 
glish divine, who labored with great zeal 
in propagating the gospel in foreign 
parts, and who came several times to 
America to promote that object. B. 
1656 ; d. rector of St, Botolph's, Aid- 
gate, 1730. — William, an industrious 
antiquary ; editor of Evelyn's Diary and 
Memo : rs", and a contributor to the 
Arch<eo ogia, &c. D. 1832, aged 97. 

BREBEUF, George de, "a French 
poet; author of " Lucan Travestie," 
"Poetical Eulogies," &c. D. 1001. 

BREDA, John van, a Dutch painter; 
a very close imitator of the style of 
Wouvermans. 1). 1750. 

BREENBERG, Bartholomew, a cel- 
ebrated painter, particularly skilful in 
small landscapes. B. at Utrecht, 1620; 
d. "000. 

CREESE, Mary, a singular character, 
b. at Lynn, in Norfolk, 1721. She reg- 
ularly "took out a shooting-license, kept 
as good greyhounds, and was as sure a 
shot as any man in the county. She 
never lived out of the parish in which she 
was born, and where she d. 1799. By 
her desire, her dogs and favorite mare 
were killed at her death, and buried in 
one grave with her. The Lady Gay- 
Spanker, of a modern comedy, must 
nave been suggested by this woman. 

BREGUET, Abraham Louis, an emi- 
nent watch and chronometer maker at 
Paris, by birth a Swiss. B. 1747 ; cl. 

BREISLAK, Scipio, b. at Rome, 1768, 
and destined for the church, for which 
reason he is mentioned as an abbate in 
the works of Spalanzani. Be was one 
of the most ingenious geologists of our 
times, and opposed to the Neptunian 

system, without, however, implicitly 
adopting the Vulcanian. He was pro- 
fessor of natural philosophy and math- 
ematics at Ragusa. He was afterwards 
professor in the collegio Nazareno, at 
Rome, made a scientific tour through 
Naples, and went to Paris, where he 
formed an intimacy with Fourcroy, 
Chaptal, Cuvier, &e. Napoleon ap- 
pointed him inspector of the saltpetie 
works and powder-mills in the kingdom 
of Italy. D. 1826. 

BRElTKOPF, John Gottlob Emanu- 
el, b. at Leipsie, in 1719, pursued at 
first a literary career. During his stud- 
ies the works of Albert Durer, in which 
the proportions of letters are mathemat- 
ically calculated, fell into his hands. Be 
was' pleased with this subject, and, 
during his whole life, labored with zeal 
to improve the German characters. An 
attempt was once made to introduce 
into Germany the Latin characters in- 
stead of those commonly used in that 
country. Breitkopf was one of the most 
zealous opposers of the plan. In 1755 
he essentially improved the art of print- 
ing music with movable characters. His 
invention of a method of printing maps, 
pictures, and even Chinese characters, 
by means of movable types, is ingeni- 
ous, though less useful than the other. 
Although the pope, as well as the Acad- 
emy in" Paris, testified their great ap- 
probation of this invention, yet no 
practical use has yet been made of it. 
He was engaged in writing a history of 
the art of printing, but d. in 1794, before 
this work was finished. Breitkopf was 
a man of great probitv. 

BREMMER, Sir James John Gordon, 
a distinguished rear-admiral of England, 
who figured in the Chinese war. B. 
1786; d. 1850. 

BRENNER, Henry, royal librarian 
of Stockholm, an eminent oriental schol- 
ar ; translator of the " History of Ar- 
menia'' from the language of that 
country; and author of " Observations 
on Czar Peter the Great against th. Per- 
sians," &c. D. 1733. 

BRENNUS, a general of the Gauls, 
who, after ravaging Thessaly and Greece, 
attempted to plunder the temple of 
Delphos. Being repulsed, he slew him- 
self, 278 b. c. — A memorable Gallic gen- 
eral. Having invested Rome, he was 
offered a thousand pounds weight of 
gold to spare the city. While the gold 
was being weighed, he threw his sword 
and helmet into the opposite scale, and 
when reproached for his injustice, re- 
plied with the scornful exclamation, 




" Voz wlis-P* — woe to the vanquished ! 

Enraged at this insolence, Camillas put 
nn end to the negotiation, gave battle to 
th.' (hiuls, ami put them to flight. This 
occurred about 888 b. c. 

BKENTANO, Clement, b. at Frank- 
fort on the Maine, 1777, has made him- 
self known by several literary works, 
especially by " Des Knaben Wunder- 
horn," a collection of German popular 
Bongs, which he edited and published in 
connection with his friend Achim von 
Aram. He also published, in 1838, 
" Gokei, Hinkel, and Gakeleia," which, 
under the guise of a fiction, conceals a 
most pungent satire on the spirit and 
tendencies of the age. D. 1842. 

BEENTON, Edward Pelham, an En- 
glish naval officer, who was one of the 
founders of the "Children's Friend So- 
ciety," and author of a " Naval History 
of Great Britain." D. 1839. 

BREREWOOD, Edward, a mathema- 
tician, was b. at Chester, ir. 1565, studied 
at Oxford, was appointed, in 1596, the 
first astronomical professor at Gresham 
3ollege,and d. in 1613. He is the author 
of "De Ponderibus et Pretiis Veterum 
Is ummorum," " Inquiries Touching the 
Diversity of Languages and Religions," 
and various other works. 

BRET, Anthony, a French writer; 
author of " Commentaries on Moliere," 
" Quatre Saisons," a poem, &e. D. 1792. 

BRETEUIL, Louis Augcste de Ton- 
nelier, an eminent French diplomatist, 
and at one time secretary of state ; but 
being a zealous partisan of monarchy, 
he was compelled to flee from France at 
the commencement of the revolution. 
In 1802 he was permitted to return. D. 

BRETON, Nicholas, an English pas- 
toral poet in the time of Queen Eliza- 
beth ; author of " An Old Man's Lesson 
and a Young Man's Love," " Phillida 
and Corvdon," &c. — Raymond, a French 
friar and missionary to the West Indies ; 
author of a "French and Caribbean 
Dictionarv," &c. D. 1679. 

von, an Hungarian, whose versatility of 
talent was only equalled by the perseve- 
rance with which he exercised it in satir- 
izing the follies and impostures of the 
ago. B. 1739 ; d. 1810. 

BREUGHEL. There were four emi- 
nent painters of this name. — Peter, 
commonly known as Old Breughel, from 
nis being the father of Peter the young- 
er, and the Droll, from his choice of 
subjects, was b. near Breda, in 1510, ex- 
seiled in landscape and ludicrous pic- 

tures, and d. in 1570. — John, his son, 
called, from his dress, Velvet Breughel, 
was b. at Brussels, in 1560, attained high 
reputation, and d. in 1625. He some- 
times painted in conjunction with Ru- 
bens. — Peter, the younger, another son 
of the elder, denominated Hellish 
Breughel, from his love of the horrible, 
d. in 1642. — Abraham, a native of Ant- 
werp surnamed the Neapolitan, was b. 
in 1672, excelled in fruit and flowers. 

BREWER, Anthony, a dramatic wri 
ter, of the reign of James I. Though 
he enjoyed great reputation, nothing" is 
known of his life. Six of his pieces^are 
extant. By acting at Cambridge in one 
of these, named "Lingua, or the Five 
Senses," the dormant ambition of Crom- 
well is said to have been first awakened. 
This story, however, is exceedingly 

BREWSTER, William, one of the 
first settlers of Plymouth Colony, was b. 
in England, 1650, and educated at the 
university of Cambridge. After com- 
pleting his education, he entered into 
the service of William Davison, ambas- 
sador of Queen Elizabeth in Holland ; 
but separated from hir i when he med- 
dled with the warrant ' 3r the execution 
of Mary. As he disc< ?ered much cor- 
ruption in the eonstitu ion, forms, cere- 
monies, and discipline )f the established 
church, he thought it lis duty to with- 
draw from its coram nion, and to es- 
tablish with others t. separate society. 
This new church, rider the pastoral 
care of the aged W ;. Clifton and Mr. 
Robinson, met at Mi . Brewster's house, 
where they were ent ertained at his ex- 
pense, as long as tl 2y could assemble 
without interruptic i. They were at 
length compelled t > seek refuge in a 
foreign country. I this attempt they 
were opposed by tl e government, and. 
he was seized with Mr. Bradford and 
others, just as they were going to Hol- 
land, in 16o7, and imprisoned at Boston, 
in Lincolnshire. He was the greatest 
sufferer of the company, because he 
had the most property." Having with 
much difficulty and expense obtained, 
his liberty, he first assisted the poor of 
the society in their embarkation, and 
then followed them to Holland. His 
estate being exhausted, he opened a 
school at Leyden for teaching the En- 
glish tongue, and being familiar with the 
Latin, he found no impediment from the 
want of a language common to both. 
By means of a grammar, which he 
formed himself, he soon assisted them 
to a correct knowledge of the English. 




By the help of some friends he also set 
up b printing-press, and published sev- 
eral books against the hierarchy, which 
could not obtain a license for publication 
in England. Such was his reputation 
in the church at Leyden, that he was 
chosen a ruling elder, and lie accompan- 
ied the members of it who came to New 
England in 1620, where he acted for 
several years as a preacher. D. 1644. 

BREYNIUS, James, a botanist of 
Dantzic ; author of "Fasciculus Planta- 
ruiu Kariorum," &c. D. 1697. — John 
Philip, a naturalist of the 13th century; 
author of a treatise on the kermes in- 
sect, &c. 

BRIDAINE, James, an eminent French 
ecclesiastic, whose indefatigable zeal, or 
itinerant propensities, induced him to 
undertake 256 journeys, so that his 
powers were displayed in almost every 
village throughout France. He was the 
author of "Spiritual Songs," which 
were extremely popular. B. 1701 ; d. 

BR1DGEWATER, Francis Egerton, 
duke of, a nobleman who devoted much 
Attention to, and expended large sums 
in the improvement and extension of 
canal navigation, seconded bv the skill 
of Brindlev. B. 1736 ; d. 180*3. 

BR1DP0RT, Alexander Hood, Ad- 
miral Lord, the youngest brother of 
Viscount Hood, like his relative, entered 
the navy early ; and, like him, distin- 
guished himself on many occasions, as 
an able and gallant seaman. He bore a 
part in the action of the 1st of June, 
1794, and in June, 1795, defeated a 
French squadron, and captured thre,e 
sail of the line. He was created an 
Irish peer in 1794, an English peer in 
1796. D. 1814. 

BRIENNE, Walter de, a native of 
Champagne, distinguished for his cour- 
age at the siege of Acre against the 
Saracens. He was afterwards king of 
Sicily, and duke of Apulia, and was 
killed in 1205, in defending the invaded 
rights of his wife, Maria Alberic, by 
whom he obtained his dukedom. His 
eon and successor, of the same name, 
Burnatncd the great, distinguished him- 
self also against the Saracens, by whom 
he was taken prisoner and cruelly put 
to death, 1251. 

BRIGHAM, Amariah, a distinguished 
physician and philanthropist, formerly 
principal of the Insane Retreat at Hart- 
ford, and from 1842 till his death, su- 
perintendant of the State Asylum for 
the Insane at Utica, N. Y. B.'l798; d. 

BRIGGS, Henry, a mathematician, 
b. near Halifax, in 1536, was educated 
at St. John's, Cambridge, and was first 
professor of geometry at Gresham col- 
lege, and afterwards at Oxford. He 
resided at Oxford till his decease, 1630. 
Briggs was a friend of Lord Napier, and 
mainly contributed to improve and dif- 
fuse the valuable invention of loga- 
rithms. To him also, in fact, belongs 
the discovery of the binominal theorem, 
the differential method, and other things 
which have been attr'tated to a later 
period. Among his w<^ks are " Arith- 
mctica Logarithmica," " Trigonometria 
Britannica," completed by Gellibrand. 
and "Tables for the Improvement ot 

BRIL, Matthew and Paul, natives 
of Antwerp, and good painters, b. in 
1550 and 1554, and eminent for per- 
formances in history and landscape. 
Matthew d. 1584; Paul 1626. 

was b. at Belley, on the Savoy frontier 
of France, in 1755, and at the time of 
his death, in 1826, filled a place in one 
of the highest French tribunals. He 
produced various works; but is best 
known by his " Physiology of Taste, or 
Meditations on Transcendental Gas- 
tronomy," which has passed through 
several editions. 

BRINDLEY, James, an uncommon 
genius for mechanical inventions, and 
particularly excellent in planning and 
conducting inland navigations, was b. 
1716, at Tunsted, in Derbyshire, and d. 
at Turnhurst, in Staffordshire, Sep. 27, 
1772, having shortened his days by too 
intense application ; for he never in- 
dulged or relaxed himself in the com- 
mon diversions of life, not having the 
least relish for them ; and though once 
prevailed on to see a play in London, 
yet he declared that he would on no 
account be present at another, because 
it so disturbed his ideas for several 
days after, as to render him unfit I'or 
business. When any extraordinary dif- 
ficulty occurred to him in the execution 
of his works, he generally retired to 
bed ; and has been known to lie there 
one, two, or three days, till he has sur- 
mounted it. He would then get up, 
and execute his design without any 
drawing or model; for he had a pro- 
digious memory, and carried every 
thing in his head. His first g