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Full text of "Cyclopedia of classified dates, with an exhaustive index; for the use of students of history, and for all persons who desire speedy access to the facts and events, which relate to the histories of the various countries of the world, from the earlist recorded dates"

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CYCLOPEDIA OF 
CLASSIFIED DATES 



f 



CYCLOPEDIA OF 
CLASSIFIED DATES 

WITH AN EXHAUSTIVE INDEX 






sP 



By CHARLES E. LITTLE 

COMPILER OF BIBLICAL LIGHTS, AND 
HISTORICAL LIGHTS AND SIDE-LIGHTS 



FOR THE USE OF STUDENTS OF HISTORY, AND 
FOR ALL PERSONS WHO DESIRE SPEEDY 
ACCESS TO THE FACTS AND EVENTS, WHICH 
RELATE TO THE HISTORIES OF THE VARI- 
OUS COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD, FROM THE 
EARLIEST RECORDED DATES 





FUNK & WAGNALL< 
NEW YORK AND 

1900 



LONDON, \\V^\\\ 








II 



Copyright 1899, by 
FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY 

[REGISTERED AT STATIONERS' HALL, LONDON] 
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 






'% 



INTRODUCTION. 

This book is designed for general use, as it possesses the essential features of a Universal 
History, a Biographical Dictionary, a Geographical Gazetteer, and, besides these specific uses, 
a general utility fitting it to become a companion to the Dictionary, both in the library of the 
scholar, and in the homes and schools where young people are pursuing their studies. 

It aims primarily to serve as a volume of historical annals for students and general readers, 
who may desire immediate access to historical facts relating to the persons or events referred to 
in any publication, or wish to obtain the historical setting of such facts, in the current of simul- 
taneous events. It also aims to serve as a digest of the history of every country; and yet further 
to show the trend of history almost at a glance, by noting the relative space allotted to each of 
the several topics, under which events are classified. 

The author has kept constantly in mind that accuracy of date and statement are of primary 
importance in a book of dated facts. No other excellence can atone for inaccuracy, because this is 
a fundamental feature. In pursuit of this purpose immense difficulties have been encountered, 
yet neither labor nor expense have been considered too great to make the information here given 
reliable. Many difficulties have been occasioned by the general terms so often used by authors in 
describing events, which by the plan of this book must be made specific, and by the frequent 
absence in one or several historical narratives of some of the essential facts which the plan of 
this work requires, hence much laborious research has often been required to obtain only a small 
part of a single item. 

More serious impediments have been found in the disagreeing statements of various authors. 
Some of these disagreements are quite surprising. Concerning such an important event as the 
landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock, historians are wide apart, respecting both the date, 
and the number of persons landing. The date celebrated in Plymouth, Mass., and that adopted by 
many historians, is the 22d of December; others, with satisfactory evidence, accept December 21st 
as the anniversary day. The error probably arises from an attempt made in the 18th century to 
fix the New Style date, by adding eleven days to December 11th, Old Style, whereas only ten should 
be added, as the landing occurred in the 17th century, when ten days were required to correct the 
calendar. Respecting the number of colonists who came over on the Mayflower, some historians 
give it as 100, others as 101, and yet others as 102 persons; the last being correct. 

Another familiar event illustrates the confusion in historical narratives. The famous Captain 
Wadsworth, who hid the charter of Connecticut in an ancient oak, is designated by some persons as 
William, by others, and more properly, as Joseph Wadsworth. If Ave could be misled by the Rev. 
Samuel Peters, the fabricator of the Blue Laws of Connecticut, we might conclude with him that 
Captain Wadsworth's Christian name was Samuel, and that the famous tree was an elm. 

Much confusion has been caused by the reluctance with which the Protestant countries accepted 
the reformation of the Calendar, made by Gregory XIII. in the year 1582, nearly one hundred and 
twenty years having elapsed before its adoption by the Protestant states of Germany, and one hun- 
dred and seventy years before it was adopted by Great Britain. Hence the same event would have 
a date ten or eleven days apart, according as it was given by a Catholic or a Protestant writer. 

Readers are aware that the dates of very ancient history have only an uncertain value. The 
fallibility of human testimony relating to simple events in modern times is well known ; but 
when its evidence consists entirely in a current tradition, its unreliability is evident. Here the 
commonly received chronology has been followed without indicating any suspicion of uncer- 
tainty ; but when a point is reached in the history of a country, after which dates may be accepted 
as authentic, the fact has been stated in the text. 

•In the dates given to the earlier Biblical events, the order of Usher's Chronology has been fol- 
lowed, for the lack of something better; but these dates are placed at the end instead of the begin- 
ning of the item, and are enclosed in parentheses with the chronologist's name, to indicate uncer- 
tainty. Differing authorities are often added in the same manner. When the chronology is com- 
monly accepted by modern scholarship the dates are placed in the style followed throughout the book. 

For the events of recent years which have not yet passed under the pen of the historian, the 
best digests of daily news have been consulted, and the books noted, are those which have been 
commended by the most scholarly reviews. 



vi CYCLOPEDIA OP CLASSIFIED DATES. 

Notable as well as important events have been included in this work. By notable is meant 
such events 'as excited widespread interest at the time of their occurence, and are often ignored by 
the historian; as the brief excitement respecting domestic silk-culture in some New England 
States, and the burning of Barnum's Museum in New York. By utilizing this class of events, it 
is hoped that these pages may in some sense reflect the current thought of each period. 

Special attention is directed to features of the book which are believed to be worthy of par- 
ticular mention. Besides the combination of the topical and chronological systems already men- 
tioned, the vast assemblage of historical facts may be noted; also, the locality of events which has 
been systematically indicated by a locality word; the simultaneous exhibit of concurrent events-; 
the names of contemporaries under the heading Births and Deaths; the exhaustive Index, with 
numerals referring to the column, as well as the page; and finally the free use of several kinds of 
type, making it easy for the eye to search the pages. 

Ancient Greece, Rome, and the Bible Lands have been treated with much care and fulness, in 
order to meet the needs of students of Classical and Biblical history. The aid of experts has been 
enlisted in the compiling of the Greek and Assyrian events. t 

Obviously the value of a work of this kind depends in great measure on its adaptation for 
practical use. It is believed that the arrangement and style of this book favors quick access to de- 
sired information; the grouping of items under a common subject, the use of bold face type, and the 
uniform use of a locality word, are all contributary to this end. But the most valuable feature is 
the unique combination of the two common methods of arranging events, so that both the chrono- 
logical and the topical orders may be seen at once, yet so that neither is impaired by the union. 
Throughout the book it will be found that the two opposite pages, that come under the 
eye, have dates relating to a common period; on these pages are all the events the book contains 
for that period, relating to the country there named, except as shown by cross-references in the 
Index, whenever events are common to two or more Countries; hence, there is no turning of pages 
after a period sought for is found. Seven classifications of items may also be seen; these are made 
by grouping them under comprehensive topics. Thus, without marring the important chronolog- 
ical order, the reader has the advantage of knowing where to look for a fact, under its proper topic. 
Thereby he avoids the loss of time involved* were one item to be selected from all the items on the 
page, instead of selected from only one group. If he chooses, he may now discard all the other 
classifications and read one topic continuously, from page to page, ^,nd thus obtain the record of a 
nation's activity in a single department from the beginning. Yet at any time, he may find the 
historical setting of an event amid the variety of concurrent events, all of which fall under his eye 
at the same time, as the item which engages his attention. The seven topical classifications are 
chiefly self-explanatory, yet additional explanation may aid the reader in all cases where subjects 
may seem to have relation to two or more topical classifications. 

Army and Navy includes the organization of military and naval expeditions; the equipment 
and movements of armies; sieges; and the great battles of history, whether on land or sea, with 
the strength of the forces engaged, the names of opposing commanders, and statistics of the 
casualties. Special attention has been given to important conflicts which have occurred in recent 
years, and an exceptionally full treatment is given to the Civil War in the United States. Here 
also are grouped items relating to the launching and testing of war- vessels with their subsequent 
movements, and the promotion of the higher officers of the army and navy. 

Art includes such events as relate to the fine and industrial arts, their progress, increase; 
fostering organizations; noted architecture; important engineering works; paintings; statuary; the 
drama; music; and the founding and meetings of societies for the promotion of art. Science 
includes discoveries; important inventions; the founding of scientific institutions; and organizations 
for the advancement of science. Nature includes such notable phenomena as the appearance of 
comets; eclipses; the occurrence of earthquakes; storms and various other meteorological events. 

Births and Deaths includes the names of many thousands of persons who have taken prominent 
part in the achievements of mankind; in addition, their vocation or official position is recorded. 

Church includes all items relating to religious and ecclesiastical affairs; these are treated 
without sectarian prejudice, partiality, or editorial comment. Facts are grouped which relate 
to the beginnings and progress of all religions; especially the origin and development of Christian 
bodies; the general councils of the Church; general assemblies; general conferences; yearly 
meetings; and national and international gatherings; various philanthropic, educational, and 
missionary organizations; young peoples' societies of many names; Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciations, and like organizations; reformations; revivals; heresies; disruptions; secessions; reunions; 
the founding of religious orders; the consecration of the higher clergy, and the changes in the 



CYCLOPEDIA OP CLASSIFIED DATES. Vll 

papacy. Biblical events and the history of Palestine may be found under Turkey; events 
relating to early Christianity are chiefly narrated under Italy ; here are also the names of all the 
popes, in the order given by the Roman Almanac Gerarchia Cattolica. 

Letters includes whatever relates to education and literature; such as the founding of institutions 
of learning and libraries; pioneer and important newspapers; appearance of magazines, together with 
popular and important books; the organization of educational societies; educational gatherings. 

Society includes events which have their chief value as exhibitions of humanity in the social 
relations, whether expressive of human brotherhood or of "man's inhumanity to man;" such as 
notable benefactions for human weal; congresses and conferences for the betterment of human con- 
ditions; the anti-slavery agitation; temperance reformation; organization of fraternal associations 
and brotherhoods; founding of asylums, hospitals, institutions of mercy and reform; also crimes; 
scandals; suicides; prize fights; lynchings; slavery; strikes, and all indications of social unrest. 

Under State are grouped the events relating to the government, whether administrative, legis- 
lative, or judicial; the founding and federation of states; political agitations; revolutions; arbitra- 
tions; alliances; conventions; treaties; ministries; ambassadorships; the opening and the closing of 
Parliament. In the United States it includes the organization of political parties and their national 
conventions; national elections, with both the popular and electoral votes for presidents; the sessions 
and acts of the Continental, Federal, and the United States Congresses; the speakers of the House 
Of Representatives; cabinet, judiciary and diplomatic appointments; the inauguration of govern- 
ors; and statistics of national currency, revenue, and expenditure. 

Miscellaneous comprises all items not related to the seven classifications already mentioned; 
such as affairs concerning commerce; railroads; steamship lines; races; accidents; wrecks; fires; 
epidemics; panics; census returns, and many other subjects. 

Two stars (**) preceding an item in the text indicate that the year-date has not been found; 
three stars { * * * ) indicate an indefinite period. 

The locality word, printed in italics at the beginning of an item, indicates the modern name of 
the country to which it relates; when given of ancient times these localities may be only approx- 
imately correct. 

The space given to the Index and the evidence of the labor applied to about 300 pages of con- 
densed references, indicate its estimated importance. A large volume for reference without 
direct reference guides is like a city without a directory, the larger the city the greater the 
confusion of the stranger. Here a stranger to the book may find an item sought by the use of 
the Index, as quickly as the author. It has not been deemed advisable to burden the Index with 
numerous cross-references to analogous subjects; the reader, however, may extend his information 
by turning to the names of such as are closely related. As the references are arranged chronolog- 
ically, the history of religious, reformatory, and other movements, as well as personal biographies 
may be traced; also the histories of important cities and federated states. For further explana- 
tions concerning the Index the reader is referred to page 1162, which immediately precedes it. 

The labor expended on this work can hardly be estimated by the average reader. The work 
was begun in 1890, and concluded in December, 1899 ; and from two to five persons have been 
continuously employed in collecting materials, verifying dates, spellings, and statements, or in 
critically revising copy and printer's proofs. 

It is a real pleasure to publicly acknowledge the valuable services of those persons who have 
shared the toil of the author. Sincere thanks are tendered to John D. Prince, Ph.D., Professor 
of Semitic Languages and Comparative Philology in the New York University, for assistance 
in revising "Babylon" and "Assyria;" to Horace C. Wait, B.A., late Principal of Hasbrouck 
Institute, of Jersey City, for revising "Greece;" to William Clarke, B.A., author of 
school-books, for assistance in the preparation of "Great Britain;" to Thomas Cambell- 
Copeland, editor and statistician, for revising "France" and "Great Britain;" to Charles 
E. Little, Jr., and William Clarke Jr., for assistance in research and compilation; to 
Louis E. Van Norman, A.M., for assistance in matters relating to general literary form, and 
in seeing the book through the press; and to Frank H. Vizetelly, editor and critic, for valued 
suggestions on the plate-proofs and Index, and for assistance in securing general typographical 
accuracy. Acknowledgments are due to several legations at Washington for courteous coopera- 
tion in the revision of the proof-sheets of those portions of this work which relate specifically to 
the countries that they represent. 

Jersey City, N. J., Dec. 7, 1899. C. E. L. 



^ 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS. 

These are Used Chiefly in Items under Births and Deaths and in the Index. 



Acad., 

A.D., 

adj., 

ad m., 

adv., 

Afg., 

Afr., 

agr., 

Arg. Rep., 

Ala., 

Alas., 

Alex., 

Alf., 

Alg., 

Am., 

antiq., 

Arab., 

arehbp., 

Ariz., 

Ark., 

asso., 

Assyr., 

Atty.-Gen., 

au. orauth. 

Aust., 

Austral., 

av. 

b., 

B., 

Bait., 

Bapt., 

Belg., 

Benj., 

bp., 

brig., 

Br. or Brit., 

Bulg., 

Cal., 

Can., 

capt., 

Card., 

Cath., 

eel., 

ch., 

chanc, 

Chas., 

ohron., 

el., 

Colo., 

Com., 

conf., 

Confed., 

Cong., 

Conn., 

•cons., 

<;onven., 

ct., 

-eye, 

D., 

d., 

B.C., 

Del., 

Dem., 

Den., 

Depart., 

dio., 

Dis., 

dis., 

Dom. Rep., 

dram., 

E., 

Eben., 

Ecua., 

ed., 

Egy., 

Eliz., 

emp., 

ency., 

Eng., 

eng., 

engra., 

Epis., 

ethnol., 

Eur., 

Evan., 

Ezek., 

Fla., 



Academy. 
Anno Domini, 
adjutant, 
admiral, 
advocate. 
Afgbanistan. 
Africa. 

( agriculture or 
\ agricultural. 
Argentine Republic. 
Alabama. 
Alaska. 
Alexander. 
Alfred. 
Algeria. 

America or American, 
antiquary. 
Arabia, 
archbishop. 
Arizona. 
Arkansas, 
association. 
Assyria. 

Attorney-General, 
author. 
Austria. 
Australia, 
avenue, 
born. 
Baron. 
Baltimore. 
Baptist. 
Before Christ. 
Belgium or Belgian. 
Benjamin, 
bishop, 
brigadier. 
Britisb. 

Bulgarian or Bulgaria. 
California. 
Canada, 
captain. 
Cardinal. 
Catholic. 
( celebration or 
( celebrates, 
church, 
chancellor. 
Charles, 
chronologist. 
clergy. 
Colorado. 
Commodore, 
conference. 
( Confederacy or 
( Confederate. 
Congress. 
Connecticut, 
consecrated, 
convention, 
court, 
cyclopedia. 
Duke, 
died. 

( District of Columbia 
| or Washington. 
Delaware. 
| Democrat or 
\ Democratic. 
Denmark. 
Department, 
diocese. 

(of Christ), Disciples, 
discoversor discoverer. 
Dominican Republic, 
dramatist. 
Earl. 
Ebenezer. 
Ecuador, 
editor. 
Egypt. 
Elizabeth, 
emperor, 
encyclopedia. 
England, 
engineer, 
engraver. 
Episcopal, 
ethnologist. 
Europe or European. 
Evangelical. 
Ezekiel. 
Florida. 



fnd., 


found or founded. 


obs., 


observatory. 


Fr., 


France or French. 


Okla., 


Oklahoma. 


ft., 


fort. 


opd., opnd., 


opened. 


Ga., 


Georgia. 


Ore., 


Oregon. 


G. A. R., 


( Grand Army 
1 of the Republic. 


ornith., 


ornithologist. 


O. T., 


Old Testament. 


G. B., 


Great Britain. 


Pa., 


Pennsylvania. 


Gen. Ass., 


General Assembly. 


paint., 
Pal., 


painter. 


genea., 
Geo., 


genealogist. 
George. 


Palestine. 


Pari., 


Parliament. 


geog., 
geol., 


geographer. 


path., 


pathologist. 


geologist. 


P. E. I., 


Prince Edward Island. 


geom., 
Ger., 


geometrician. 


Pers., 


Persia. 


German. 


phil., 


philosopher. 


Gr., 


Greek or Greece. 


Phila., 


Philadelphia. 


Guat., 


Guatemala. 


philan., 


philanthropist. 


H. C, 


House of Commons. 


philol., 


philologist. 


Heb., 


Hebrew. 


phys., 
P.M. G., 


physician. 


H. L., 


House of Lords. 


Post Master General. 


Hoi., 


Holland. 


Pol., 


Poland. 


hort., 


horticulturist. 


polit., 


politician. 


hosp., 


hospital. 


Port., 


Portugal. 


Hung., 


Hungary. 


PP-. 


pages. 


la., 


Iowa. 


Pr., . 


Prince. 


Ice., 


Iceland. 


Pres., 


President. 


Ida., 


Idaho. 


Pres., Presb 


,, Presbyterian. 


incorp., 


incorporated. 


print., 


printer. 


Ind., 


Indiana. 


Prof., 


Professor. 


inst., 


institute or instituted. 


Prot., 


Protestant. 


Int., 


Interior. 


Prus., 


Prussia. 


intro., 


introduced. 


Q., 


Queen. 


inv., 
Ire., 


inventor. 
Ireland. 


R. C. or 

Rom. Cath., 


| Roman Catholic. 


Is., 


Island or Islands. 


Kef., 


Reformed. 


I. Ter., 


Indian Territory. 


Kef. Epis., 


Reformed Episcopal. 


Jap., 


Japan. 


Ref. Presb., 


Reformed Presbyterian 


Jer., 


Jeremiah. 


Rep., 


Republican. 


jour., 


journalist. 


Rev., 


revenue or Reverend. 


Jos., 


Joseph. 


R. I., 


Rhode Island. 


Jr., 


Junior. 


Robt., 


Robert. 


Justice, 


1 Justice of the 


Rus., 


Russia. 


I Supreme Court. 


S., 


South. 


k., 


killed. 


Sam., 


Samuel. 


K., 


King. 


Sax., 


Saxons or Saxony. 


Kan., 


Kansas. 


S. C, 


South Carolina. 


Kath., 


Katharine. 


schol., 


scholar. 


Ky., 


Kentucky. 


Scot., 


Scotland or Scottish. 


L., 


Lord. 


sculp., 


sculptor. 


La., 


Louisiana. 


S. Dak., 


South Dakota. 


lexicog., 


lexicographer. 


Sem., 


Seminary. 


Lond., 


London. 


Sen., 


Senator. 


Luth., 


Lutheran. 


serg., 


sergeant. 


Maj., 


Major. 


Sp., 


Spain. 


Maj.-Gen., 


Major-General. 


Sr., 


Senior. 


Mar., 


Margaret. 


states., 


statesman. 


Mass., 


Massachusetts. 


supt., 


superintendent. 


math., 


mathematician. 


surg., 


surgeon. 


Matt., 


Matthew. 


Swe., 


Sweden. 


M. C, 


Member of Congress. 


Switz., 


Switzerland. 


Md., 


Maryland. 


Tenn., 


Tennessee. 


Me., 


Maine. 


Ter., 


Territory. 


met., 


metaphysician. 


Tex., 


Texas. 


Meth. Epis. 


Methodist Episcopal. 


theo. , 


theologian. 


Mex., 


Mexico, 
manufacturing. 


Thos., 


Thomas. 


mfg., 


♦Tim., 


Timothy. 


mfd., 


manufactured. 


Tur., 


Turkey. 


Mich., 


Michigan. 


Tur. A., 


Turkey in Asia. 


Minn., 


Minnesota. 


Tur. E., 


Turkey in Europe. 


Miss., 


Mississippi. 


U. S., 


United States. 


miss., 


missionary. 


U. S. A., 


United States Army. 


Mo., 


Missouri. 


U. S. N., 


United States Navy. 


Mont., 


Montana. 


u. s. v., 


1 United States 


M. P., 


Member of Parliament. 


1 Volunteers. 


N., 


North. 


Unit., 


Unitarian. 


nat., 


national. 


Univ., 


( University or 


Nath., 


Nathaniel. 


| Universalist. 


nav., 


navigator. 


Va., 


Virginia. 


N. B., 


New Brunswick. 


Venez., 


Venezuela. 


N. C, 


North Carolina. 


vol., 


volunteers. 


N. Dak., 


North Dakota. 


V. Pres., 


Vice-President. 


Neb., 


Nebraska. 


Vt., 


Vermont. 


Neth., 


Netherland. 


w., 


Wales. 


Nev., 


Nevada. 


Wash., 


Washington (State). 


N. F.. 
N. H., 


Newfoundland. 
New Hampshire. 


Wash. City, 
(often D. C.) 


| Washington City. 


N. J., 


New Jersey. 


W. C. T. U. 


( Woman's Christian 
( Temperance Union. 


nom., 


nominated. 


Nor.,Norw 


, Norway. 


Wes. Meth. 


Wesleyan Methodist. 


N. S'., 


Nova Scotia. 


Wis., 


Wisconsin. 


N.T., 


New Testament. 


Win., 


William.* 


N. Y., 


New York. 


W. Va., 


West Virginia. 


0., 


Ohio. 


Wyo., 


Wyoming. 


Obad., 


Obadiah. 


Zech., 


Zechariah. 



Cyclopedia of Classified Dates. 



ABYSSINIA. 



329-1842. 



c^ 



SIGNS AND SYMBOLS USED IN THE CYCLOPEDIA 
OF CLASSIFIED DATES 



* = day of month unknown. 

* * = month and day of month unknown. 

* * * = year, month, and day of month unknown. 

+ = the event recorded did not terminate on the date 
given. 

± - proximity to the date given, the precise date 
being unknown. 

— preceding an entry denotes that the date is the 

same as given in preceding entry. 

Geographical Location of an event is indicated by 
inserting immediately after the date the name 
(in full or abbreviated) of state, province, county, 
or city, in italic type. In recording events of 
ancient history, the modern name of the country 
is the one so indicated. 

In certain lists of events, such for instance as guberna- 
torial inaugurations, recorded under one date, 
the additional date at the beginning of each 
entry of the list indicates the termination of the 
period (term of office, for instance) to which the 
event relates. 



- 



liopia ; estimated area, 
religion is Coptic. The 
ncies. 
flourished. 

ITATE. 

leb, or Elesbaan, ex- 

dom into Arabia, and 

t prosperity begins. 

jssinians are driven out 

j the Persians. 

Jewish Princess Judith 

hrone and most of the king- 

'•* "Tig nearly all of the royal 

ngdom is restored to 
and Icon Irnlac reigns, 
i supposed to be ruled by 

peror sends Matthew, an 

he King of Portugal to 

tgainst the Turks. 

; Portuguese are odious 

nd driven out. 

nperor sends Bermudez 

again solicit aid against 

3-alla tribes enter Abys- 

South. [They gradually 

ale country]. 

-e is broken up. 

aperor dies, and his son 

seds him. 

h suspicion of foreign in- 

oreigners are expelled . 

ry is divided into four 

. Major Harris, envoy 
icludes a treaty of com- 
j King of Shoa. 



officers of the Portuguese navy, after 
sailing around the African continent. 

1520 * * Father Alvarez arrives from 
Portugal, with other Jesuits. 

1555 * * The Jesuits send out thirteen 
missionaries. 

1580 * * Bermudez, the Catholic pri- 
mate, quarrels with the Emperor, who 
refuses to publicly confess himself a 
convert. 

* * Bermudez is obliged to leave. 



snoa anu compile me iuuuiuii; im;- 
tionary, a geography, and prayer 
book. 

1840 * * The Amharic translation of the 
Bible is revised by the British and 
Foreign Bible Society. 

1841 * * The Abuna appointed by the 
government comes from the Church Mis- 
sion School at Cairo. 

1842 * * Missionary Krapf leaves Shoa 
because of intrigues against Protestants. 

1 



iXLANEOUS. 

de Covilham, with an 
lition, enters the country. 
;hes, palaces, and bridges 

1 under the direction of 

Father Paez. 
1768 * * James Bruce, the traveler, 

visits the country. 
1770 Feb. 16. Bruce enters Gondar, 

the capital, and visits the Emperor. 
1773 * * Bruce makes his second visit. 
1809 * * Henry Salt explores the country 
by the order of the British government. 
1818+ * * Lij Kassa (subsequently King 
Theodore) born in Kuara. 



ty 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



These are Used Chiefly in Items under Births and Deaths and in the Ixdex. 



Acad., 

A.D., 

adj., 

adm., 

adv., 

Afg., 

Afr., 

agr., 

Arg. Rep., 

Ala., 

Alas., 

Alex., 

Alf., 

Alg., 

Am., 

antiq., 

Arab., 

archbp., 

Ariz., 

Ark., 

asso., 

Assyr., 

Atty.-Gen., 

au. orauth. 

Aust., 

Austral., 

av. 

b., 

B., 

Bait., 

Bapt., 

B.C., 

Belg., 

Benj., 

bp., 

brig., 

Br. or Brit., 

Bulg., 

Cal., 

Can., 

capt., 

Card., 

Cath., 

eel., 

«h., 

chanc, 

Chas., 

•ohron., 

el., 

Colo., 

Com., 

conf., 

Confed., 

Cong., 

Conn., 

•cons., 

•conven., 

ct., 

Tr 

•d., 

D. C., 
Del., 
Dem., 

Den., 

Depart., 

■dio., 

Dis., 

dis., 

Dom. Rep., 

dram., 

E., 

Eben., 

Ecua., 

ed., 

Egy., 

Eliz., 

emp., 

ency., 

Eng., 

eng., 

engra., 

Epis., 

ethnol., 

Eur., 

Evan., 

Ezek., 

Fla., 



Academy. 
Anno Domini, 
adjutant, 
admiral. 

advocate. 
Afghanistan. 
Africa. 

( agriculture or 
( agricultural. 
Argentine Republic. 
Alabama. 
Alaska. 
Alexander. 
Alfred. 
Algeria. 

America or Ame 
antiquary. 
Arabia, 
archbishop. 
Arizona. 
Arkansas, 
association. 
Assyria. 

Attorney-Generi 
author. 
Austria. 
Australia, 
avenue, 
born. 
Baron. 
Baltimore. 
Baptist. 
Before Christ. 
Belgium or Belg 
Benjamin, 
bishop, 
brigadier. 
British. 

Bulgarian or Bui 
California. 
Canada, 
captain. 
Cardinal. 
Catholic. 
( celebration or 
( celebrates, 
church, 
chancellor. 
Charles, 
chronologist. 
clergy. 
Colorado. 
Commodore, 
conference. 
( Confederacy or 
( Confederate. 
Congress. 
Connecticut, 
consecrated, 
convention, 
court, 
cyclopedia. 
Duke, 
died. 

( District of Colu 
| or Washingtt 
Delaware. 
( Democrat or 
\ Democratic. 
Denmark. 
Department, 
diocese. 

(of Christ), Discipl 
discoversordiscov 
Dominican Repub 
dramatist. 
Earl. 
Ebenezer. 
Ecuador, 
editor. 
Egypt. 
Elizabeth, 
emperor, 
encyclopedia. 
England, 
engineer, 
engraver. 
Episcopal, 
ethnologist. 
Europe or European. 
Evangelical. 
Ezekiel. 
Florida. 



fnd., 


found or founded. 


Fr., 


France or French. 


ft., 


fort. 


Ga., 


Georgia. 


G. A. R., 


( Grand Army 
1 of the Republic. 


G. B., 


Great Britain. 


Gen. Ass., 


General Assembly 


genea., 


genealogist. 


Geo., 


George. 


geog., 
geol., 


geographer. 


geologist. 


geom., 
Ger.. 


geometrician. 


German 



obs., 


observatory. 


Okla., 


Oklahoma. 


opd., opnd., 


opened. 


Ore., 


Oregon. 


ornith., 


ornithologist. 


O. T., 


Old Testament. 


Pa., 


Pennsylvania. 


paint., 


painter. 


Pal., 


Palestine. 


Pari., 


Parliament. 


path., 
P. E. 1., 


pathologist. 

Prince Edward Island 


Pers., 


Persia. 



Neth., Wtherland. 

Nev., Nevada. 

N. F.. Newfoundland. 

N. H., New Hampshire. 

N. J., New Jersey, 

nom., nominated. 
Nor.,Norw., Norway. 

N. S'., Nova Scotia. 

N.T., New Testament. 

N. Y., New York. 

O., Ohio. 

Obad., Obadiah. 



W., 
Wash., 
Wash. City, 
(often D. C). 

W. C. T. U., 

Wes. Meth., 

Wis., 

Wm., 

W. Va., 

Wyo., 

Zech., 



Vermont. 
Wales. 
Washington (State). 

| Washington City. 

f Woman's Christian 
( Temperance Union. 

Wesleyan Methodist. 

Wisconsin^ 

William. 

West Virginia. 

Wyoming. 

Zechariah. 



Cyclopedia of Classified Dates. 



ABYSSINIA. 



329-1842. 



Abyssinia is an extensive country of Northeastern Africa, and comprises a part of ancient Ethiopia ; estimated area, 
190,000 square miles; estimated population, 5,000,000. The people are Indo-Caucasians ; the prevailing religion is Coptic. The 
empire comprises the kingdoms of Tigre\ Lasta, Amhara, Gogam, and Shoa, with many outlying dependencies. 

The early history is very uncertain. In the first and second centuries the kingdom of the Auxumitse flourished. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

562 * * Expedition of Chosroes, king 
of Persia, against the Christian kingdom 
in Arabia, founded by Abyssinians. 

1520 * * A Portuguese fleet enters the 
Bed Sea to aid the Abyssinians against 
the Turks. 

1528 * * Mohammed Gragn with armies 
of Mohammedans overruns the coun- 
try and drives the Emperor into the 
mountains. [The country disturbed for 
12 years.] 

1539 * * Another Portuguese fleet un- 
der Stephen de Gama arrives at Masso- 
wah to fight the Turks. 

1540 * * Christopher de Gama, brother 
of the admiral, is joined by the natives, 
and after some success is defeated and 
executed by the Turks. 

* * Mohammed Gragn is shot and his 
army routed. 

CHURCH. 
329 * * The Abyssinians are converted 

to Christianity by the Coptics. 
346 * * Frumentius, bishop of Auxuma 

(Axum), preaches in Abyssinia. 

350 * * The Bible is translated into 
Ethiopic, probably by Frumentius. 

* * Saints are excessively honored, re- 
ceiving almost divine reverence. 

470 * * Many monks enter the country 
and perpetuate monachism. 

520 * * Christians are persecuted by 
the king of the Homerites from the op- 
posite side of the Red Sea. 

1490 * * The Jesuits introduce Cathol- 
icism. 

* * * After being lost to the annals of the 
world for a thousand years, the Abys- 
sinian Christians are rediscovered by 
officers of the Portuguese navy, after 
sailing around the African continent. 

1520 * * Father Alvarez arrives from 
Portugal, with other Jesuits. 

1555 * * The Jesuits send out thirteen 
missionaries. 

1580 * * Bermudez, the Catholic pri- 
mate, quarrels with the Emperor, who 
refuses to publicly confess himself a 
convert. 

* * Bermudez is obliged to leave. 



1601 * * Father Paez arrives, and by 
his skill and tact soon wins the favor of 
the court. 

1603 * * Another Jesuit mission estab- 
lished, the former having been recalled 
by a papal bull. [Twenty years of in- 
trigue, civil war, and slaughter follow.] 

1621 * * An ineffectual attempt is made 
by the Jesuits to install a patriarch, and 
the result is disastrous. 

1624 Dec. * The Abyssinian church for- 
mally submits to the See of Borne. 

1625 * * Mendez succeeds Father Paez. 
1633 * * Disheartened by failure, Mendez 

abandons the country. 

* * The Jesuits are expeUed after labor- 
ing for a century and a half. 

1750* *-54* *The Jesuits reestablish 
themselves. 

1826* *The first Protestants arrive; 
Messrs. Gobat and Kugler, missionaries 
of the Church Missionary Society, are 
well received by the Ras of Tigre\ 

1828* *The Roman Catholic mission 
renewed. 

1830 * * Bishop Gobat is favorably re- 
ceived at Gondar. 

Missionary Isenberg succeeds Chris- 
tian Kugler, deceased. 

* * Missionaries Charles Henry Blum- 
hardt and John Ludwig Krapf arrive. 

1833 * * Bishop Gobat returns to Europe. 

1834 * * Bishop Gobat returns to Tigre. 
1836 * * 111 health compels Bishop Gobat 

to return to Europe. 
1838 * * The missionaries are expelled 
through the opposition of the native 
priests against all foreigners. 

* * Missionaries Krapf and Isenberg go to 
Shoa and compile the Amharic dic- 
tionary, a geography, and prayer 
book. 

1840 * * The Amharic translation of the 
Bible is revised by the British and 
Foreign Bible Society. 

1841 * * The Abuna appointed by the 
government comes from the Church Mis- 
sion School at Cairo. 

1842 * * Missionary Krapf leaves Shoa 
because of intrigues against Protestants. 

1 



STATE. 

522 * * King Caleb, or FJlesbaan, ex- 
tends his kingdom into Arabia, and 
a period of great prosperity begins. 

562 * * The Abyssinians are driven out 
of Arabia by the Persians. 

960 * * The Jewish Princess Judith 
secures the throne and most of the king- 
dom by murdering nearly all of the royal 
family. 

1268* *The kingdom is restored to 
the former line, and Icon Imlac reigns. 

* * * Abyssinia is supposed to be ruled by 
Prester John. 

1507 * * The Emperor sends Matthew, an 
Armenian, to the King of Portugal to 
request his aid against the Turks. 

* * The intruding Portuguese are odious 
to the people and driven out. 

1535 * * The Emperor sends Bermudez 
to Portugal to again solicit aid against 
the Turks. 

1550+ * * The Galla tribes enter Abys- 
sinia from the South. [They gradually 
overrun the whole country]. 

± * * The empire is broken up. 

1633 * * The Emperor dies, and his son 
Facilidas succeeds him. 

1838 * * Through suspicion of foreign in- 
terference, all foreigners are expelled. 

* * * The country is divided into four 
provinces. 

1841 Nov. 16. Major Harris, envoy 
from India, concludes a treaty of com- 
merce with the King of Shoa. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
1490 * * Pedro de Covilham, with an 

exploring expedition, enters the country. 
1605+ * * Churches, palaces, and bridges 

are constructed under the direction of 

Father Paez. 
1768 * * James Bruce, the traveler, 

visits the country. 
1770 Feb. 16. Bruce enters Gondar, 

the capital, and visits the Emperor. 
1773 * * Bruce makes his second visit. 
1809 * * Henry Salt explores the country 

by the order of the British government. 
1818+ * * Lij Kassa (subsequently King 

Theodore) born in Kuara. 






1849-1894. 



ABYSSINIA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 
1855 Feb. * King Theodore routs the 

governor of Tigre after defeating the 

chief of God jam. 
1860 * * Theodore's army numbers 

from 100,000 to 150,000 fighting men. 
* * Theodore terribly avenges the death 

of two Englishmen, Plowden and Bell, 

by the slaughter or mutilation of nearly 

2,000 rebels. 

1867 * * Theodore's army reduced to a 
skeleton by rebellions and desertions. 

Sept. 7, 8. -68 * * War with Eng- 
land. A pioneer force under Sir Rob- 
ert Napier sails from Bombay to rescue 
the British captives from Theodore. 

Oct. 21. A British force of more than 
32,000 men lands at Zoulla, and begins 
a journey of 400 miles into the moun- 
tainous interior. 

Oct. 26. Napier issues his proclamation 
to the Abyssinians. 

1868 Jan. 4. Arrives at Annesley Bay. 

Apr. 2. He arrives below Magdala. 

Apr. 10. Battle of Arogie ; 3,000 Abys- 
sinians suddenly attack Napier, are re- 
pulsed, and driven back in good order. 

Apr. 11. Theodore sues for peace. 

Honorable treatment is promised on 
the surrender of the captives and the 
promise of Theodore to submit to Queen 
Victoria. 

Lieutenant Prideaux conveys the let- 
ter, which Theodore receives with scorn; 
an insulting reply follows. 

Apr. 12. Theodore sends an apology. 
He surrenders the captives and makes 
a present of 1,000 cows and 500 sheep ; 
the released European artisans and fam- 
ilies enter the British camp. Present 
rejected ; Theodore in despair. 

Apr. 13. Theodore attempts to escape. 

Part of the Abyssinian army mutinies; 

the British bombard and storm Mag- 
dala ; Theodore is defeated and commits 
suicide. 

Apr. 17. Theodore being dead, his troops 
are sent away, and the fortifications of 
Magdala destroyed and the town burned. 

May 2. The British force retires, after 
rewarding Prince Kassai of Tigr6, their 
valuable ally. 

* * Report of animals used by the British 
In the expedition : 45 elephants, 7,417 
camels, 12,920 mules and ponies, 7,033 
bullocks, 827 donkeys. 

* * Report of British expense in the war, 
$44,887,500. 

1871 June 21. Civil War- between 
Gobazye, the king of Amhara, and Kas- 
sai, prince of Tigr£, who successfully 
seeks independence. 

1871 July 11. Gobazye defeated and 
captured. 

1875 * * -76 * * "War with Egypt. [Is- 
mail Pasha makes a disastrous attempt 
to conquer Abyssinian territory.] 

* * The Khedive's army enters Abyssinia; 
the natives retiring. 

* * The Abyssinians surprise, defeat, and 
massacre the Egyptians at Kherad Iska. 

Oct. 16. The Abyssinians again defeat 
the Egyptians in a desperate battle at 
G-onda Gouddi. 



1876 Feb. 19. After a three days' fight 
the Egyptians defeat the Abyssinians. 

1877 June 15±. Civil War. Mene- 
lek, King of Shoa, is totally defeated by 
King John. 

1885 Sep. 23. Conflict at Kufeit near 
Amadib between Arabs and Abyssinians. 

1887* * War with Italy. 

Jan. 18+. Abyssinians defeated in their 
attack upon Massowah and the Italian 
outposts. 

Jan. 25, 26. Abyssinians under Ras Alu- 
lu cut off about 500 Italians, proceeding 
with supplies to Sahati, at Dagoli, near 
Massowah. 

Mar. 27, 28. Italians have skirmishes 
with the Deber tribe. 

Nov. 10. Abyssinians besiege Masso- 
wah. 

1888 Aug. * By native treachery the 
Italians are defeated in a conflict at 
Sanganeiti on the border, and four offi- 
cers are killed. 

1889 Jan. 23. King John prepares for 
war with Menelek, King of Shoa. 

Mar. 7. King John besieges Kassala, 
Senoussis' army is marching on Khar- 
tum. 

Mar. 9. Civil War is declared against 
King John by King Menelek of Shoa. 

Mar. 10. King John attacks the der- 
vishes in their stronghold at Netemmeh, 
but is defeated and badly wounded. 

Mar. 12. The dervishes make a sortie, 
and rout King John's army, killing 
the king and his officer, Ras Area, besides 
many others. 

Mar. 14. Menelek, proclaiming himself 
Negus, marches upon Adowa. 

June 6. Announcement made that Ital- 
ian troops occupy the Keren district. 

June 12. Italians capture and occupy 
Senalfe. 

Aug. 2 1 . Ras Alulu is defeated at God- 
f elassi by the Italian General Baldessara. 

Nov. 8. General Baldessara resigns. 

Dervishes fight the Abyssinians. 

Nov. 9. General Orero succeeds General 
Baldessara in command of Italian troops. 

Dec* Menelek's forces wholly defeat 
the dervishes. 

1890 Feb. 3. The Italian troops leave 
Adowa and recross the Mareb. 

Feb. 13. King Menelek defeats Ras 
Alulu, severely wounding him. 

Mar. 8. Menelek reported to have joined 
forces with the Italians in preparation 
for an advance on Adowa. 

1891 Oct. 5. Ras Alulu and another 
officer rout the forces of Debeb, an 
aspirant to the Abyssinian throne. 

1893 Dec. 22. The Italian troops de- 
feat the dervishes near Massowah; sev- 
eral hundred dervishes are killed, the 
Italian loss being about one hundred. 

1894 Dec. 19. Italian (native) troops 
under Major Toselli defeat a party of 
Arabs near Halai. 

CHURCH. 
1849* *The Roman Catholic mission- 
aries are expelled. 



1855 * * Bishop Gobat sends Protestant 
missionaries Krapf and Fad to engage 
in secular as well as spiritual work. 

1858 * * The Society of Basle has six 
missionaries at work. 

1859 * * Negussie, King of Tigr6 and Si- 
men, sends an embassy to Rome, to an- 
nounce submission to the Roman Church. 

* * The king gladly receives the vernacu- 
lar Scriptures furnished by the London 
Bible Society, and distributes them. 

* * King Theodore again expels the 
Jesuits from his kingdom. 

1860 * * Dr. Stern is sent by the London 
Society as a missionary to the Jews of 
Abyssinia ; soon after, the Scotch So- 
ciety sends Mr. Staiger on a similar mis- 
sion. 

1863 * * Missionary Stern and Mr. and 
Mrs. Rosenthal arrive. 

Oct. * Missionary Stern is beaten and im- 
prisoned by King Theodore. 

1864 Jan. * All the missionaries are 
imprisoned for pretended insults. 

* * * Maricha, a Protestant, becomes 
chief minister of Prince Kassai of Tigr6, 
and the country enjoys peace. 

1869 * * The country is closed to mission- 
ary work. 

1871* * Catholic missionaries are pun- 
ished for interference in politics. 

1884 * * The Gospel of Mark in Ethi- 

opic characters is published. 
1887 * * Swedish missionaries, having 

been expelled, return with the Italian 

army. 
1889 May 8. A treaty is made with 

Italy permitting missionary work. 

* * The Swedish Evangelical Society re- 
ports mission stations at Arkibo, at 
McKullo, and also at Djimma. 

* * Balli in the Shoa district is occupied 
by a missionary of the St. Chrischona 
Pilgrim mission. 

* * * [The native church is ruled by the 
Abuna ; Christianity and Judaism are 
strangely mixed; its spirit is savage.] 

1891 Sept. 10. The new year begins. 

Sept. 26. The anniversary of the find- 
ing of the true cross is celebrated as 
usual, it being the greatest feast of the 
year. 

* * [Male and female babes are circum- 
cised when eight days old ; 260 regular 
fast days are appointed for each year, 
requiring abstinence from both eating 
and drinking.] 

* * Russia seeks a religious alliance 
with the Negus, whereby the church shall 
be brought under the jurisdiction of the 
Holy Synod of St. Petersburg. 

* * The clergy are reported as the only 
educated people, and they hold all power 
in their hands. 

* * * In recent times the church is di- 
vided respecting " the unction of Jesus 
Christ," and two parties have excommu- 
nicated each other. 

SOCIETY. 

* * * Blacksmiths are hereditary sor- 
cerers. 

* * * Matrimony is entered at the age of 
12 years, girls having, their dowry in oxen. 



ABYSSINIA. 



1849-1894. 



1868 Apr. 9. Theodore massacres 
about 300 native captives. 

* * Henry M. Stanley accompanies the 
British expedition to Abyssinia as cor- 
respondent of the New York Herald. 

June 5. It is reported that trie Mahdists 
in "Western Abyssinia have destroyed 
whole flocks and herds, sold into slavery 
thousands of Christians, while many 
others have been butchered without 
mercy, and hundreds of the noblest in- 
habitants have been taken to Mecca and 
sold for slaves, in violation of treaties. 

1889 Oct. 7. Abyssinia agrees to help 
suppress the slave-trade. 

Dec. 1. Greeting of explorer Henry M. 
Stanley at Massowah by newspaper cor- 
respondents. 

1890 Apr. 7. King Menelek asks Italy 
to represent him in the Brussels anti- 
slavery congress. 

STATE. 

1855 Feb. * Ras Ali is deposed by his 
son-in-law, Lij Kassa [Theodore III.], 
who takes the throne. 

1862 Feb. 9. British Consul Cam- 
eron arrives at Massowah. 

Oct. 7. Consul Cameron is received by 
Theodore, to whom he presents the 
Queen's gifts and letter. 

Oct. * He is dismissed with a letter to 
the Queen of England desiring alliance 
against the Turks. [No reply given.] 

1863 Aug. * Consul Cameron returns. 
Oct. * Missionary Stern beaten and 

imprisoned for alleged intrusion upon 
Theodore. 
Nov. * Despatches are received from Eng- 
land, but no reply to Theodore's letter. 

1864 Jan. * Consul Cameron, his 
suite, and missionaries Stern and Ro- 
senthal are imprisoned for pretended 
insults. 

July 24. A British messenger, Hormuzd 
Rassam, arrives at Massowah with a let- 
ter from the Queen. 

July * Rassam asks permission to present 
the Queen's letter, and receives no reply. 

1865 Aug. 12. Rassam is informed by 
note that Consul Cameron is released, 
and that he may come to the King. 

Nov. 21. Hormuzd Rassam, Lieut. Prid- 
eaux, and Dr. Blanc arrive at Metemeh. 

1866 Jan. 25. The party reaches the 
camp in Damot, and is well received. 

Mar. 12. The captives are all released 
and the mission progresses favorably. 

Apr. 13. ± After starting for the coast, 
the entire party is compelled to return, 
and is placed in gentle confinement. 

* * Theodore sends Mr. Flad to England 
with a second letter to the Queen, ask- 
ing for workmen and machinery. 

July* The prisoners are put in chains 
and severely treated. 

Oct. 29. Mr. Flad arrives at Massowah 
with the Queen's letter and workmen. 

Dec. 19. ± Theodore receives the Queen's 
letter, in which machinery and workmen 
are promised when the English prisoners 
are surrendered ; it has no effect. 



1867 + Jan. * Rebellions against the 
burdensome exactions of Theodore break 
out ; his power is waning. 

* * Shoa has shaken off the yoke of 
Theodore, and Godjam has become vir- 
tually independent. Tigre continues in 
the hands of his enemies. 

* * The peasantry leave the fertile 
plains and escape to the mountains to 
avoid the demands of Theodore's army. 

Apr. 16. Lord Stanley's ultimatum 
sent to Theodore, demanding the release 
of the captives in three months. [It was 
not received.] 

May * Mr. Flad is received by Theodore, 
and forced to join his family in prison. 

July * The British government decides 
to send an armed force into the coun- 
try under Sir Robert Napier. 

Sept. 9. A formal letter sent by the Brit- 
ish government to Theodore. [It was 
not received.] 

Sept. * ± Tigr6 revolts against the rule 
of the rebel chief "Wagsham Gobazye, 
and becomes independent under Dejach 
Kassai. 

Nov. 11. The captives reported well. 

Nov. 25. The Gallas reported to be in 
rebellion against Theodore. 

Nov. 26, 27. Eng. Parliament appro- 
priates $10,000,000 for the prosecu- 
tion of the war. 

1868 * * A third ultimatum sent by 
Napier; it was suppressed by Rassam as 
endangering the lives of the captives, 
he having received it through a rebel 
chief. 

Apr. 12. The captives and foreigners 
are released. Terunish, Theodore's 
queen, accompanies the British troops 
in returning to her own country. 

July 14. Eng. Theodore's son Alama- 
you (aged 7) arrives at Plymouth. 

1869 Jan. 26. Eng. Alamayou sails 
for India to be educated. 

July* Kassai punishes the Catholic 
missionaries for partisanship, and en- 
ters an alliance with Egypt. 

1872 Jan. 12. Kassai is crowned 
with much ceremony at Axum, as King 
John II. 

1879 Oct. * Colonel Charles George 
Gordon, of the Egyptian service, con- 
cludes a peace, granting a seaport to 
Abyssinia. 

1884 May 26. ± King John receives 
Admiral Hewett from Suakin, and en- 
ters a treaty respecting Massowah, etc. 

Aug. 19. Two envoys from Abyssinia ar- 
rive in England. 

1885 Feb. 6. The Italian flag hoisted 
by the side of the Egyptian at Massowah. 

Dec. 2. The government of Massowah 
assumed by the Italians. 

1887 May 2. Proclamation issued by 
Italy announcing war and blockade of 
ports of Massowah and its dependencies. 

Oct. 18. The Chief Kantibay submits to 
the authority of Italy. 

1888 May 8±. King John makes a 
treaty placing the country under an 
Italian protectorate. 



July 1. Italy notifies the powers that she 
has annexed Massowah. 

Aug. 3 . The Italian protectorate is pro- 
claimed at Zulla. 

1889 Feb. 14. The Cossack expedi- 
tion at Taljarah, on the Gulf of Aden, 
organizes a large caravan with the in- 
tention of proceeding to Ankolvar. 

Mar. 12. King John killed; Menelek, 
king of Shoa, proclaims himself Ne- 
gus, and marches on Adowa. 

Apr. 10. Dagiac Maugascia, the succes- 
sor of King John, is his nephew. 

± King Menelek ignores Maugas- 

cia's claim and assumes authority. 

± Many of the most important chiefs, 

including Ras Michael, have recognized 
Menelek as Negus. 

* * The king despatches a mission of 
twenty persons, including several im- 
portant chiefs, to the King of Italy. 

June 2. The Italians occupy and annex 
Keren without resistance. 

Aug. 5. Massaval and the whole of Abys- 
sinia, except the Province of Tigr6, have 
submitted to Menelek. 

Oct. 14. Italian Government declares a 
protectorate over Abyssinia. 

Nov. 3. Menelek II. and Queen Taitri 
are crowned at Aretoto. 

Dec. 9. Menelek orders a suspension of 
trade relations between his country and 
Italy. "War is imminent. 

Dec. * Menelek having overcome the reb- 
els in the province of Tigr6, establishes 
his reign over the whole of Abyssinia. 

1890 Mar. 5. Menelek agrees to ac- 
cept Italy's assistance in all negotia- 
tions with foreign powers, and to give it 
preference in all industrial and commer- 
cial concessions. 

Mar. 11. The Abyssinian territory ceded 
to Italy extends to Mareb. 

Apr. 7. Menelek asks a free passage 
through Italian territory for arms to be 
used in fighting the dervishes. 

1891 Apr. * Russia sends an expedi- 
tion of six or seven men to Abyssinia, 
which purports to be " scientific," but 
is, presumably, political. 

Oct. 5. Debeb, an aspirant for power, is 
routed by Ras Alulu. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1855 * * Theodore HI. is " the best shot, 
the best spearman, the best runner, and 
the best horseman in Abyssinia." 

1868 Apr. 13. King Theodore commits 
suicide. A48. 

May 10. Queen Terunish, who accom- 
panied the British, dies on the march to 
the interior. 

1879 Dec. 14. Eng. Prince Alamayou 
dies at Leeds. 

1890 Feb. 14. Reported death of Ras 
Alulu from wounds. [False report.] 

* * Population about 6,000,000, and much 
superior in every respect to their Afri- 
can neighbors. 



979-1878. 



AFGHANISTAN. 



Afghanistan is an inland country of Asia, lying east of India, and having ill-defined boundaries. It is ruled by an absolute 
sovereign called the Ameer. Kabul is the capital. The prevailing religion is Mohammedanism. Estimated area, 279,000 square 
miles ; estimated population, 4,000,000. 



ARMY. 

1213 * * Ghenghis Khan with three ar- 
mies overruns northern China. [1219. 
Conquests in Western Asia.] 

1358 * * Tamerlane begins his con- 
quests. [1398. Enters India.] (See India.) 

1504* *Baber takes Kabul. [1521. He 
invades India. 1525. Again conquers 
Kabul.] 

1715 * * Afghans conquer Herat. 

1731 * * Nadir Shah takes Herat. 

1737 * * -38 * * Nadir Shah takes Ka- 
bul and recovers Kandahar. He gains 
the good will of the Afghans, and enrolls 
many of them in his army. 

1747 * * Ahmed Shah resolves to throw 
off the Persian yoke; he seizes the 
booty taken from India by Nadir. 

1761 June 6. Ahmed Shah wins great 
victory over Mahrattas at Panipat. 

1823 * * The Afghans defeated by the 
Sikhs at Naoshera. 

1838* *The Persians, influenced by 
Russia, lay siege to Herat, the key of 
Afghanistan and India. 

Dec. * Shuja Shah, with an army led 
by British officers and paid by British 
money, marches toward Sind. 

1839 * * First war with the British. 
Feb. 20. A British army passes the 

Indus about 12,000 strong, and having 
40,000 camp-followers, besides the new 
levies of the Shah. 

Mar. * The Bolan Pass is traversed ; most 
of the baggage is lost. 

Apr. 7. The Kojuk Pass is traversed. 

Apr. 25. Kandahar, abandoned by 
the Afghan princes, is entered by the 
British under Sir John Keane. 

July 22. Ghunzee, a great stronghold, 
is taken by storm, and Dost Moham- 
med's army disbands. The war ends. 

1840 Nov. 3. Dost Mohammed sur- 
renders to British, and is sent to India. 

1841 Nov. * -42 Apr. * Famous de- 
fense of Jelalabad, by Sir Robert Sale, 
against the revolting Afghans. 

Nov. 2. The Afghans, led by Akbar 
Khan, revolt and expel the British 
from Kabul ; 24 British are killed. 

Nov. 3. The forts at Kabul close to the 
British camp are occupied. 

Nov. 5. General Elphinstone talks of 
buying a free passage out of the country. 

Nov. 9. The commissariat fort has its 
garrison of 80 men overpowered, and is 
taken by the Afghans. The British 
menaced with starvation. 

Nov. 15. The British force demor- 
alized by the incapacity of its com- 
mander, who negotiates for a cessation 
of hostilities. 

Dec. 23. Akbar Khan treacherously as- 
sassinates Sir William Macnaghten 
and others. 

Dec. (?) * Shuja Shah assassinated. 



1842 Jan. 1. The British capitulate. 
They agree to pay the Afghans $950,000 
in coin and sign bills for $700,000 more ; 
to leave nearly all their artillery and 
ammunition, and evacuate the country. 
The chiefs promise safe conduct, pro- 
visions, and baggage-cattle. 

Jan. 6. The British, with 4,500 combat- 
ants and 12,000 camp-followers, begin 
their march for India. 

* * Cold, snow, disease, and want, with 
utter disorder, reduce their number. 

Jan. 6-13. Annihilation of the Brit- 
ish army. 

Terrible massacre of about 3,849 sol- 
diers and 12,000 camp-followers at Kkai- 
bar Pass, by the Ghilzais. Dr. Brydone 
and a few natives escape. [Later ninety- 
five prisoners are recovered.] 

Mar. * General Pollock is reenforced at 
Peshawur and begins his march to re- 
lieve the troops in Afghanistan, via the 
Khaibar Pass. 

July * Lord Ellenborough, Governor-gen- 
eral of India, orders a general advance 
on Kabul from Kandahar by General 
Nott, and Jelalabad by General Pollock. 

Aug. 20. General Pollock arrives at 
Gundamuck. 

Aug. 23. He defeats a body of Afghans. 

Aug. 30. General Nott takes possession 
of Ghuznee. 

Sept. 6. General Nott defeats the Af- 
ghans at Alydan. 

Sept. 8. General Pollock carries the 
Jugduluk Pass. 

Sept. 13. He defeats the main body of 
the Afghans at Tezeen. 

Sept. 15. The British occupy Kabul, 
and release Lady Sale and others. 

Sept, 17. The two armies joined at 
Kabul. 

Sept. 29. General M'Caskill storms Is- 
talif and destroys the town in revenging 
the massacre of the garrison at Char- 
ikar, and the harboring of the murderers 
of Burnes. 

* * Captain Cragie and a Sepoy garrison 
brilliantly repulse the Afghans in an at- 
tack on the fortress of Kala't-i-Ghilzai. 

Dec. * British evacuate Afghanistan. 

1850 * * Balkh reconquered by Afghans. 

1856 Oct. 25. Persians take Herat. 

1858 * * Dost Mohammed forms a regu- 
lar army, containing 16 infantry regi- 
ments (nominally) of 800 men, 3 of cav- 
alry, of 300 men, and about 80 field 
pieces, and a few heavy guns. 

1863 May 26. Dost takes Herat from 
Ahmed. Ahmed is a vassal of the Per- 
sians, who are under the influence of 
Russia; Herat is regarded as the "Key 
of Didia." 

1864 June 6. Shere Ali, the Ameer, 
defeats his brother Azim and confeder- 
ates at Kujhbaz. 

June 14. Shere Ali enters Kandahar. 
1866 Mar. 2. Kabul is surrendered 
to A aim by Ibrahim, a son of the Ameer. 



May 10. Shere Ah defeated at Sheik- 
habad ; he flies for Kandahar. 

1867 Jan. 17. Shere Ali defeated by 
Azim and Abder-Rahman at Kujhbaz. 

Sept. 17. Shere Ali is again defeated 
and his general killed. 

1868 Apr. * Azim's army defeated 
and Yakoob, son of the Ameer, enters 
Kandahar. 

Sept. * Azim's army dissolved by deser- 
tion. 

Nov. * -Dec. * Shere Ali resists Abder- 
Rahman. 

1869 Jan. * Shere Ali routs Abder- 
Rahman and Azim. 

1870 May 6. Yakoob takes Herat 
from his father. 

1878 Sept. 22. A British mission with 
an armed escort are threatened at a fort 
in the Khaibar Pass, if they advance; 
they retire. 

* * -81 * * Second war with the 
British. 

Oct. * A religious war against the Brit- 
ish is proposed by Shere Ali. 

Nov. 21. The British army (34,730 na- 
tives and 12,740 Europeans) advances. 

Nov. 22. The British shell Ah Masjid, 
and take 21 guns, losing 2 officers and 35 
men. 

Nov. 23. Dakka and Pisheen occupied. 

Nov. 25. Kuram fort occupied. 

Dec. 2. The British, under General Rob- 
erts, defeat the Goorkhas at Peiwar 
Pass, losing 2 officers and 80 men killed 
and wounded. 

Dec. 20. Jellalabad occupied. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1162 * * Genghis Khan, emperor and con- 
queror, born. 

1227 * * Genghis Khan dies in Mongolia. 

1336 * * Tamerlane is born at Kesh. 

1405 Feb. 17. Tamerlane dies at Atrar. 

1483 Feb. 14. Baber, founder of dynasty 
and conqueror, born. 

1530 Dec. 26. Baber dies, A 48. 

1715 * * Mir Wais, sovereign of Kandahar, d. 

1724 * * Mahmud, son of Mir Wais, dies. 

1747 * * Nadir Shah, sovereign, assassinated. 

1773* * Ahmed Shah, Ameer, dies. 

1793* * Timur Shah, Ameer, dies. 

1798±* * Cost Mohammed, Ameer, born. 

1829 * * Mohammed Shah dies. 

1830 Abder-Rahman Khan, Ameer, born. 
1842 * * Kamran, Ameer at Herat, dies. 
1863 June 9. Dost Mohammed, Ameer, 

dies, A ± 65. 
1867 Oct. * Ufzel, rival Ameer, dies. 
1869± Jan. * Azim, rival Ameer, dies. 
1878 Aug. 17. Abdoola Jan, the Ameer's 

heir, dies. 

STATE. 

979 * * Mahud, Sultan of Ghazni, ex- 
tends his dominion^ by adding Trans- 
oxiania, also Kabul and a part of India. 

1350+ * * A native dynasty called Kurts 
springs up in Western Afghanistan. 



AFGHANISTAN. 



979-1878. 



1369 * * Tamerlane proclaimed sov- 
ereign at Balkh. 

1495 * * Baber enthroned at 12 years of 
age. 

1526 Apr. 21. By the victory of Pani- 
pat, Kabul and Kandahar become a part 
of the empire of Delhi, under the so- 
called Mogul dynasty which Baber 
founded. 

1530+ * * Afghanistan divided be- 
tween Persia and Hindustan. 

1715 * * Herat taken by conquest. 

1720* * The Afghans revolt. 

1731 * * Herat is taken by Nadir Shah. 

1737 * * Nadir Shah invades the coun- 
try, and subdues and rules the Afghans. 

1747 * * Nadir Shah assassinated. 

* * -73 * * Ahmed Shah, an Afghan, be- 
comes the successful ruler and warrior. 
He resolves to throw off the Persian 
yoke. Under his rule Afghanistan first 
takes a place among the kingdoms of 
the earth. 

1748 * * He expels the Mogul governor 
from Kabul and Peshawur, and overruns 
the Punjab. 

1749 * * Herat recovered by the Af- 



1773 * * -93 * * Timur Shah (son) en- 
throned; he becomes a tyrant. 

1774 * * The seat of government is re- 
moved from Kandahar to Kabul. 

1793 * * Timur dies; his 23 sons struggle 
for the crown, and Zaman gets it. 

He conceives the idea of consolidating 
the Mohammedan power of India. 

1800 * * Zaman is dethroned, and his son, 
Mahmoud Shah, succeeds as Ameer. 

1803 * * Mahmoud is dethroned, and 
Shuja Shah (his brother) succeeds him. 

1808 * * Afghans lose Sind. 

1809 * * Mahmoud is restored to be 
Ameer by Fatteh Khan. 

1816 * * The jealous Mahmoud brutally 
tortures and murders Fatteh Khan. 

1818 * * The Barakzai brothers drive 
Mahmoud from Kabul, and he gains 
Herat, where he becomes ruler. 

1819 * * Afghans lose Kashmir. 

1826 * * Dost Mohammed Khan, one 
of the Barakzais, becomes Ameer. 

1829* * Mohammed Shah dies, and Kam- 
ran, his son, rules at Herat. 

1837 * * Captain Alexander Burnes 
sent to Dost Mohammed at Kabul as am- 
bassador of the British government, to 
offset the intrigues of Russia. 

1838 * * Persians vainly attempt to wrest 
Herat from the Afghans. 

The British find the Ameer is not sub- 
servient to their interests, and they at- 
tempt to restore Shuja Shah, a pen- 
sioner of India,to the throne; war follows. 

1839 Aug. 6. Kabul opens its gates to 
the British. 

Aug. 7. Shuja Shah enthroned at the 
capital; Mohammed a fugitive; the real 
government in the hands of "William 
Macnaghten, the British envoy. 

Nov. * Akbar Khan attempts to re- 
store his father by expelling the British. 



1840 Nov. 3. Dost Mohammed, having 
surrendered to the British, is sent to 
India. 

* * Penjdeh is assured to Afghanistan by 
Lord Auckland. 

* * -41 * * Insurrections succeed each 
other. 

1841 * * British occupation costs the In- 
dian treasury $6,250,000 yearly. 

Nov. 2. An insurrection against the 

British breaks out in Kabul ; envoy 

Burnes and others slain. 
Dec. * Semi-anarchy follows the death 

of the Ameer, who falls at the hands of 

an assassin. 
Dec. 23. At a conference with Dost's 

son, Akbar Khan, this chief murders 

Sir W. Macnaghten, the chief British 

envoy, with his own hand. 

1842 * * British power broken. Akbar 
Khan rules in place of his father. 

Jan. * The British enter a convention to 

evacuate the country. 
Jan. * The convention disregarded by the 

Afghans and the army massacred. 

* * Dr. Brydone is the only European 
who reaches Jelalabad and he is wounded 
and nearly dead. 

Oct. 12. The British leave Kabul and 

march for India. 
Oct.+ * Dost Mohammed restored to 

the throne. 

1855 Jan. * Afghans and British make 
a treaty of peace. Dost Mohammed 
becomes an ally. 

1856 Oct. 25. Persians seize Herat. 

1857 July 27. Persians restore Herat. 

* * The revenues of Dost Mohammed are 
estimated at 4,000,000 rupees, or about 
$2,000,000, exclusive of the revenue from 
Herat, which .he does not hold. 

1863 May 26. After ten months' siege 
Dost Mohammed captures Herat from 
Ahmed. 

June 9. Shere AH (3d son) enthroned as 
Ameer ; his 15 rival brothers oppose him. 

1864 * * Unsuccessful insurrection of 
the Ameer's brothers, Ufzul and Azim. 

May 16. Azim a fugitive. 

June 2. Ufzul acquiesces in the de- 
mands of the British. 

Aug. * Insurrection of Abder-Rahman ; 
Ufzul in prison. 

* * Shere Ali enters Kabul. 

1866 * * Kabul has two rulers, the sen- 
sual Ufzul and the cruel Azim. 

1867 * * Azim rules alone, on the death 
of Ufzul. 

* * Shere Ali holds only Balkh and 
Herat. 

1868 Mar. * Azim quarrels with Ab- 
der-Rahman, who deserts him. 

July * Azim abandons Kabul. 
Sept. 8. Shere Ali again occupies Kabul. 
Nov. * -Dec. * The British help Shere 
Ali with arms and money. 

1869 Mar. 27. Shere Ali receives a 
subsidy from the British. 

1870 May 6. Yakoob, his son, rebels 
and takes Herat. 

1871 June* Feramoz Khan, Shere 
Ali's general, assassinated. 



July* Yakoob reconciled with his 
father through British influence, and 
made governor of Herat. 

Sept. * Yakoob again rebels. 

Oct. * Shere Ali makes new boundaries; 
British pay him another subsidy. 

1873 Dec. * Shere Ali names Abdoola 
Jan, his youngest son, as his successor, 
and thus angers Yakoob, his oldest son. 

1874 Dec. * Yakoob confined by his 
father. 

1878 Aug. * Stolietoff , a Russian 
envoy, signs a treaty ; Russia to be 
the guardian of the Ameer. 

Sept. * The Ameer dismisses the envoy 
from the viceroy of India with presents, 
and declines intercourse with the 
British. 

Sept. 22. A British mission with mili- 
tary escort is stopped at the Khaibar 
Pass ; they retire toward Peshawur. 

Oct. 20. The British send an ultima- 
tum to be answered before Nov. 20. 

Nov. 19. The Ameer sends an evasive 
reply. 

Nov. 23. The viceroy of India issues a 
proclamation to the Afghans. 

Dec. 13. Shere Ah flees from Kabul ; 
the Russian mission retires, and Ya- 
koob Khan assumes authority. 

Dec. 26. General Roberts annexes the 
Kuram district to India by proclama- 
tion. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

997 * * Mahmoud patronizes literature. 
1150+ * * Ghazni is one of the most 
splendid cities of Asia. 

1413* *-24* * History of the conquest 
of Swat by Shakh Mali, written by a 
chief of the Yusufzais and a leader in 
the conquest. 

nth Century * * Abdarrahman, the poet, 
flourishes. 

1750± * * Ahmed Shah writes poetry. 

* * In a single night Ahmed Shah's army 
loses 18,000 men from cold, near 
Herat, while retreating from Persia. 

1754 * * Modern Kandahar is founded. 

1809 * * First visit of an English envoy 
(Elphinstone). 

1832 * * Visit of Lieut. Alex. Burnes from 
England. 

1837 * * The remaining population of de- 
clining Farrah is carried off to Kandahar. 

1841 * * Massacre at Kabul. 

1842 * * Sir G. Pollock's expedition visits 
Jelalabad and destroys the town walls. 

1855 * * The Church Missionary Society 
starts a mission for the Afghans at 
Peshawur. 

1857 * * -58 * * Major Lumsden's party 
explores the Kurram Valley. 

1857 Jan. * Sir John Lawrence has 
an interview with Dost Mohammed at 
Peshawur in the Punjab. [A treaty fa- 
vorable to British influence is entered 
into, promising arms and a subsidy ; 
Maj. Lumsden enters Kandahar, and the 
Indian mutiny follows.] 



1879-1894. 



AFGHANISTAN. 



ARMY. 

1879 Jan 6. Afghans leave Kandahar. 
Jan 7. Roberts defeats the Mangals 

near Matoon ; occupies Kandahar. 
Feb. 16. The Alizais attack the British 

and retire. 
Apr. 2. Action near Futtehabad, 5,000 

Khugianis defeated by the British. 
June 8. The British retire. 
Sept. 5. Mutiny at Herat and many of- 
ficials killed. 
Sept. 6. The British commence a march 

toward Kabul. 
Sept. 19. Natives defeated at Shutar- 

gardan. 
Sept. 24. General Baker at Kushi. 
Sept. 28. Baker at Kabul. 
Sept. 29. Baker occupies Dakka. 
Oct. 2. The British repulse an attack at 

Shutargardan. 
Oct. 6. Battle of Char-asiab ; 70 killed 

or wounded on the British side. 
Oct. 8. The Afghans retire. 
Oct. 12. Gen. Roberts occupies Kabul. 
Oct. 14. Gen. Gough occupies Jelalabad. 
Oct. * -Nov. * Many Afghan mutineers 

tried, and 87 executed as murderers. 
Dec. 1 1-14. Frequent fighting and heavy 

losses. 
Dec. 14. The British army concentrated 

in the Sherpur cantonments. 
Dec. 23. Roberts and Gough defeat 

25,000 Afghans near the Sherpur 

cantonments. 
Dec. 24. The Afghans retire from Kabul. 
Dec. 26. The British reoccupy Kabul. 
Dec. 29. Colonel Norman repulses an at- 
tack at Jagdalak. 

1880 Jan. 10. Mohammed Jan seizes 
Ghazni and holds it for Musa Khan. 

Apr. 3. Mohammed Jan killed in battle. 

Apr. 16. Pathans attack a camp at Du- 
wai and kill the garrison. 

Apr. 19. The Ghilzais in force attack 
General Stewart at Ahmad Khel and 
are repulsed. 

Apr. 25. Col. Jenkins checks 4,000 Loga- 
ris, till reenforced by Gen. Macpherson 
at Char-asiab, then they are routed. 

May 2. Gen. Sir Donald Stewart as- 
sumes command at Kabul. 

July 14+ . Shere Ali's troops at Kan- 
dahar revolt and join Ayoob Khan, the 
governor of Herat. 

July 27. General J. Burrows attacks 
Ayoob Khan, who has an intrenched 
force of about 20,000 men at Mai wand, 
on the river Helmud, with about 12,000 
men, and is defeated with severe loss. 

July 28. The British, about 4,000 strong, 
hold the citadel at Kandahar. 

Aug. 9. Ayoob at Kokaran. 

General Sir F. Roberts starts from 
Kabul to relieve General Burrows at 
Kandahar. 

Aug. 11. The British troops withdraw 
from Kabul after an interview with 
Abder-Rahman, the Ameer. 

Aug. 16. Unsuccessful sortie by British 



from Kandahar, 180 men and several 
officers killed. 

Aug. 25. Ayoob reenforced by the 
Ghilzais, making an army of about 
20,000 men. 

Aug. 30. Ayoob retires from Kandahar. 

Aug. 31. Roberts, with about 10,000 men, 
arrives at Kandahar. 

Sept. 1. Roberts defeats Ayoob at 
Mazra and captures his camp. 

1881 July 26. Ayoob defeats the Am- 
eer's army at Karez-i-atta, Gholam 
Hyder commanding it. 

July 30. Ayoob occupies Kandahar. 

Aug. 21. GholamHyderatKhelat-i-Ghil- 
zai receives reenforcements from Kabul. 

Sept. 22. Ayoob defeated at Old Kan- 
dahar, chiefly by the desertion of his 
troops ; he flees to Herat. 

Sept. 30. The Ameer occupies Kanda- 
har. 

Oct. 2. Ayoob's adherents defeated. 

Oct. 4. The Ameer enters Herat; Ayoob 
flees to Persia. 

1883 Apr. 27. ± The Shinwarris de- 
feated by the Ameer. 

1887 Apr. 19. The Ghilzais reported to 
have defeated the Ameer's troops. 

Apr. 25 ±. Again defeated at Khelat-i- 
Ghilzai. 

June 9. A mutiny of Ghilzais at Herat 
is violently suppressed. 

June 13-16. Reported defeat of the 
Ghilzais by Gholam. 

July 15. Disastrous defeat of the reb- 
els at Mashakai reported. 

July 26. Conflicting reports of victory at 
Kotaldab by Gholam Khan. 

Aug. 31. Hot fighting with the insur- 
gents at Mashakai. 

Sept. * Ayoob, having entered Afghan- 
istan with a few followers, is driven out. 

Sept. 7. The Ameer's troops fight the in- 
surgents near Mukur ; their leader, Ja- 
lander Khan, taken prisoner. 

Sept. * -Oct. * Occasional fighting re- 
ported. 

Nov. 15. Another fight with the Insur- 
gents reported ; 60 killed. 

1888 May 9. The Afghans defeat the 
Turcomans in a fight. 

Sept. 29. Ishak Khan defeated by the 
Ameer's troops at Tash Kurgan. 

Sept. 30. Ishak again defeated at Mazari 
Sherif. 

1889 Jan. 19. Ishak Khan and follow- 
ers, and Sultan Murad Khan with 3,000 
families of Afghan Wynegs, cross the 
frontier and enter the Bokharan service. 

Feb. 3. The Shinwarris defeated by 
the Ameer's troops under Gholam Hy- 
der. 

Feb. 12. Russian troops on a hurried 
march to reenforce frontier posts. Gen- 
eral Komaroff and ^Russian staff arrive 
at Chardjin on the A\mu Darya. 

Feb. 14. Komaroff, with a strong force 
of Russians, arrives at Bokhara. 

Feb. 22. Russian troops are ordered to 
attack the Ameer if he approaches the 
Russian frontier. 



Feb. 27. The Ameer crosses the Rus- 
sian frontier, committing cruelties. 

Feb. 28. Reported that 18,000 Russian 
troops are massed on the frontier. 

Mar. 1. Afghans advancing from Herat, 
and the Emir of Bokhara preparing to 
attack them. 

1890 Mar. 20. Reported that Ishak 
Khan has a large force at Bokhara, and 
is preparing to invade Afghanistan. 

Aug. 7. Troops are sent to quell a revolt 
among the Alehayaras in Kandahar. 

1892 Apr. 29. Afghans rise against 
soldiery between Herat and Bamian. 

Aug. 4. The Afghans skirmish with both 
Russians and Chinese on the Alichur 
Pamir and take a number of Kirghiz 
prisoners. 

Aug. 11. More fighting reported between 
the Afghans and Russians at Pamir. 

Aug. 22. Afghan troops defeated by 
Hazara tribesmen. 

Aug. 30. The Ameer, Abder-Rahman 
Khan, is preparing to resist a Russian 
advance. 

Aug. 31. The Ameer's troops capture- 
Kamsan from the revolting Hazaras. 

Sept. 2. Punjab infantry and cavalry, 
with a mountain battery, to be sent to the 
Wana Comul Valley, unless the Ameer 
of Afghanistan recalls the agents dis- 
turbing the peace on the Indian frontier. 

Sept. 12. The Ameer is supporting the 
mountain tribes in their resistance to 
British authority. 

A British force is on its way to the 
Valley of the Indus to destroy the town 
of Balo, in which Haskim Ah has been 
harbored. 

1894 * * The Ameer has a regular army 
of 50,000 troops, and the tribal levies 
are incorporated with these as irregular 
auxiliaries, with the exception of the 
horsemen who follow feudal chiefs. 

* * An arsenal established at Kabul 
manufactures powder. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 
1879 Feb. 20. Shere Ali dies (announced). 

STATE. 
1879 May 26. Treaty of Peace 
signed with Yakoob Khan, son of the 
deceased Ameer, at Gandamak. 

The British to occupy certain territory, 
have a resident at Kabul, and pay an 
annual subsidy of $300,000 to the Ameer. 
Ayoob the governor of Herat for his 
brother. 

Sept. 3, 4. Revolt of Afghans, who mas- 
sacre British residents and their 
guards. 

Sept. 5. Mutiny in Herat; both mili- 
tary and civil governors killed. 

Oct. 14. Gen. Roberts proclaims martial 
law and Gen. Hills and Gholab Hussein 
Khan to be military governors. 

Oct. * Yakoob Khan abdicates. 

Oct. 30. Roberts announces the occupa- 
tion of Kabul, etc. 

Dec. * Mohammed Jan Wardak combines 
tribes against the British. 

Dec. 17. Musa Khan, son of Yakoob, 
reported to be Ameer. 



AFGHANISTAN. 



1879-1894. 



1880 Jan. 6. Gen. Roberts proclaims 
an almost universal amnesty. 

Mar. 21. The new Ameer, Musa Khan, 

and the chiefs at Ghazni submit to the 

British. 
* * The British make Shere Ali, cousin of 

the late Ameer, Governor of Kandahar. 
July 22. The British proclaim Abder- 

Rahman, Ameer at Kabul. 
Dec. * Shere Ali resigns ; retires to India. 

1881 Oct. * Abder-Rahman becomes 
soie ruler. 

1832 Feb. * Afzul Khan is chosen by 
the Ameer as British resident at Kabul. 

1883 June 21. Shinwarris accept peace. 
July 21. The Ameer accepts a subsidy 

from India. 

1884 Apr. 2. The Ameer meets Lord 
Dufferin, the viceroy, at Rawalpindi. 

Aug. * The Ameer accepts the proposal 
of the Afghan frontier commission. 

1885 July * England and Russia dif- 
fer respecting the Zulflkar Pass. 

July * Strong Russian force posted at 
Askabad. 

July * The Penjdeh surrendered to 
Russia. 

Aug. 22. It is announced that the Rus- 
sians give up their contention respecting 
the Zulfikar Pass. 

Sept. * The dispute between Russia and 
England is closed by signing a Protocol 
at London. 

Nov. 12. First boundary pillar set by the 
joint commission. 

1886 Feb. 13. Russia occupies Penjdeh. 
Sept. 6. Joint commission having con- 
cluded its work is dissolved. 

Oct. 30 ±. Revolt against taxation. 

1887 July 8. Proclamation of peace, 
amnesty, and remission of taxes for 
two years issued by the Ameer. 

July 13. Execution of Taimar Shah, 
chief of the Herat mutineers. 

July 20. The Afghan Frontier Com- 
mission meet at St. Petersburg and set- 
tle the boundary question. 

Aug. 14. Ayoob Khan escapes from 
Teheran ; he raises his standard against 
the Ameer. 

Aug. 29+. Rebellion reported at an end, 
and several tribes return home. 

Nov. 9. Reported that Ayoob Khan has 
surrendered to the viceroy of India. 

Nov. 13. Peace reported in Southern 
Afghanistan. 

Dec. 10. The Ameer issues an amnesty 
proclamation. 

1888 Sept. * Revolt of Ishak Khan, 
the governor of Afghan-Turkestan. 

1889 Feb. 13. The insurrectionary 
leader, Ishak Khan, is treated with great 
honor at Samarcand, Russia. 

Feb. 20. The Ameer has appointed Gho- 
lam Hyder Khan Governor of Afghan- 
Turkestan. 

Aug. 7. The Alehayaras in Kandahar re- 
volt ; troops sent to quell disturbance. 

1890 Aug. 6. The new Ameer sends an 
embassy to Russia to conclude a com- 
mercial treaty. 



Summer. Abder- Rahman, the Ameer, 
continues at Mezar, the chief place in 
Afghan-Turkestan, for the purpose of 
crushing hostilities and reorganizing 
the administration. 

* * The Ameer has given the Russians 
important trade concessions which are 
denied to the English. 

* * The Ameer seeks to replace pillage 
and violence with commerce and 
peaceful industries. 

Aug. 11. The Ameer arrives at Kabul 
and is given an enthusiastic reception. 

1891 Sept. 7. Reported arrest of Gen- 
eral Alikhanoff , charged with being a 
Russian spy. 

* * The Russians send out an expedi- 
tion for political purposes, which has a 
strong Cossack support, and starting 
from Osh, in the Russian province of 
Ferghana, it enters the Pamir region, 
and claims a great part of it. 

1892 Apr. 11. The Ameer issues a State 
paper to the "Noble Chiefs of Afghan- 
istan," advising their adherence to 
Great Britain rather than to Russia. 

Apr. 15. The Ameer gains possession of 
one of the two passes leading through 
the Pamir country to India, the British 
having possession of the other. 

July 8. Reported that the Russians are 
encroaching on Afghan territory on the 
Murghab River and in the Pamirs. 

[The Afghans make an effort to pro- 
tect their frontier against the advances 
of the Russians. (See Army.) 

Aug. 9. The revolt of the Hazara tribes 
grows more serious daily. 

Aug. 14. Owing to increased complica- 
tions the Ameer negotiates with the 
rebels. 

Aug. 23. Reported that the Ameer has 
asked the Government of India to in- 
tervene to prevent Russian aggression 
in the Pamir country. 

Sept. 12. The Ameer is said to be sup- 
porting the mountain tribes in their re- 
sistance to British authority. 

Dec. 16. Sher Afzul Khan, murderer and 
usurper, is driven from Chitral. 

Dec. 22. The Ameer is recognized as 
Suzerain of Chitral. 

1893 Feb. 4. Overtures made for a con- 
ference between Russia, England, and 
China to consider the frontiers of Russia, 
China, and Afghanistan. 

Mar. 13. The Ameer declines to meet 
Lord Roberts to confer concerning the 
trouble among Indian frontier tribes. 

Oct. 2. Arrival at Kabul of Sir Mortimer 
Durand's Mission. 

Nov. 15. The Ameer announces, at a 
military review, that the frontier ques- 
tion and other matters long pending be- 
tween Afghanistan and India have been 
satisfactorily adjusted. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1879 Sept. * Commencement of the 
Quetta Railway. 

Oct. 16. The British lose arms, ammuni- 
tion, and about 20 men by an explosion. 



* * The British use a portable heliograph 
in their campaign. 

* * The Ameer secures a regular sub- 
sidy of about $25,000 a month from the 
Indian treasury. 

1880 Jan. * The joint Anglo-Russian 
Boundary Commission complete the 
boundary delimitation. 

Oct. * The work on the Railway is stopped. 

1884 Apr. * Work on the Railway is re- 
sumed. 

1885 Oct. 28. Opening of the Lower 
Bolan Railway, connecting with India. 

1887 Mar. 14. The rails are joined of 
the Sibi and Quetta sections of the Sind- 
Pishin Railroad via the Harrai route. 

May* Russians, under General Ozan 
Tora, occupy the town of Kerki, on the 
left bank of the Oxus, between Bokhara 
and Herat. 

Aug. 14. Ayoob Khan, the cousin and 
rival of Abder-Rahman, escapes from 
Teheran, where he was kept interned 
by the British. 

1888 July * The opening of the rail- 
road through Bokhara to Samarcand 
is celebrated with festivities. General 
Annenkoff, who directed its construc- 
tion, is appointed its chief director for 
two years. 

Oct. * Ishak Khan a fugitive in Russian 
territory. 

Dec. 26. The Ameer barely escapes as- 
sassination. 

* * Railroad connection is completed to 
the Caspian Sea, a distance of 900 miles. 

1889 Feb. 16. Exportation of goods 
resumed ; no obstacle against the impor- 
tation of Russian goods. 

Apr. 9. Tranquillity prevails along the 

frontier. 
Dec. 26. The Ameer is fired at by a sepoy 

of the Herat Infantry, who is executed 

on the spot. 

* * The railroad is dependent upon the 
supply of naphtha, the only fuel 
available. 

1890 * * Kabul supposed to have 100,000 
inhabitants. 

* * The tomb of Shah Ahmed at Ka- 
bul is so sacred that the king may not 
remove a criminal who has taken refuge 
within its walls. 

* * The Ameer demands a tax of from 
10 to 30 per cent of the produce of the 
land, according to the amount of irriga- 
tion. 

1891 * * The Ameer is endeavoring to 
extend new manufactures. 

1893 * * Manufactures are chiefly silk, 
felts, carpets, and postins. 

* * Exports consist chiefly of fruits and 
nuts and large quantities of asafetida. 

* * The population exceeds 4,000,000. 

* * The Ghilzai, Durani, and other tribes 
inhabit the central parts of the coun- 
try ; the Tajiks cultivate the soil and 
ply peaceful trades ; the Aimaks, Haza- 
ras, and Uzbecks dwell in the northern 
part of the country. 

* * A large number of the Hazaras and 
the Kizilbashis are Shiite Mohamme- 
dans. 



111B.C.-1866A.D. 



ALGERIA. 



Algeria is a country of Northern Africa, organized as a colonial possession of France, and divided into three departments, 
Algiers, Oran, and Constantine ; capital, Algiers. The government is vested in a governor-general, appointed by France, and a 
Superior Council ; the prevailing religion is Mohammedanism. Area (Algeria proper), 122,876 square miles ; population in 1801, 
3,910,399. 



ARMY — NAVY. 
1 11 * * b. c. War between Rome and 

Numidia begins. (See Italy.) 
46 * * b. c. Juba, the last king of Nu- 
midia, is killed at the battle of Thapsus. 
42* * b. c. Suetonius suppresses a revolt 
in Mauritania. 

533 * * -35 * * A. D. Justinian's great 
general, Belisarius, conducts the Bo- 
mans successfully against the Yandals. 

637 * * -709 * * The Saracens subdue 
the country. 

1248 * * William, Prince of Achaia, con- 
quers the Moors. 

1492 * * The Moors are driven out of 
Spain into Algiers. 

1505* * Ferdinand, King of Spain, 
sends a powerful fleet under the Count 
of Navarre against the country ; he soon 
captures Oran, Bugia, and other towns. 

1509 * * Algiers is taken by the Span- 
iards. 

•1516 * * The Turks aid in expelling the 
Spaniards, under Horush Barbarossa. 

1516* *-20* * Algiers is retaken by 
Horush and Hadher-ed-Din Barbarossa, 
and made the capital of a Mohammedan 
state. 

1518 * * The Spaniards capture Horush 
Barbarossa and put him to death. 

1541 Oct. 28+. The Spanish Emperor 
Charles V. loses the greater part of a 
fleet of 370 vessels and an army of 30,000 
men, in an expedition against Algiers ; 
Charles himself escapes with difficulty. 
(See Miscellaneous.) 

* * The Spaniards are driven out. 

1616 * * The Algerine fleet consists of 
40 sail, of ships of between 200 and 400 
tons, and a flag-ship of 500 tons. 

1617 * * A French fleet is sent against 
the Algerines, and captures two ves- 
sels. 

1620 * * The English send out an un- 
successful fleet under Sir Robert Mansel . 

* * * The Venetians send out a fleet un- 
der Admiral Capello, which captures 16 
galleys. 

1655 * * Cromwell sends Admiral Blake 
with a fleet, which soon subdues the 
Algerines. 

1680 * * The French send out a fleet 
under Vice-Admiral Duquesne, which 
destroys 14 Algerine ships. 

1683 May * Duquesne appears before 
Algiers, and threatens to bombard the 
town. 

The pacific Bey is murdered, and also 
all the French in the town. The French 
Consul is fired at the French fleet from 
the mouth of a mortar. Duquesne de- 
stroys the fortifications, the shipping, 
and the chief part of the town. 

1792 * * The Spaniards surrender Oran. 
1815 * * Commodore Decatur of the 
United States navy encounters the 



Algerine squadron, captures a frigate 
and a brig, and forces the surrender of 
American prisoners. 

1816 Aug. 27. The city of Algiers is 
successfully bombarded by the Brit- 
ish fleet, under Lord Exmouth, who 
also burns its fleet. 

1817+ * * The Algerines more strongly 
fortify their city than ever before. 

1826 * * Algerine pirates openly seize 
Italian vessels in the Mediterranean and 
extend their incursions to the North Sea. 

1830 * * "War with France. Caused by 
insults given to ambassadors, and to 
great restlessness in France. 

May * The French prepare a fleet at 
Toulon, for war on a large scale. 

June 14. Rout of the Algerines after a 
fierce attack in strong force. 

July 4. The French begin the bombard- 
ment of Algiers, and subdue the town. 

July 5. Algiers surrendered to the 
French under General Bourmont and 
Admiral Duperre, after severe conflicts. 
The French force consists of 37,000 in- 
fantry, and 4,000 cavalry, and a good sup- 
ply oi artillery ; Hussan Bey's army 
numbers 60,000. The spoil consists of 
12 ships, 1,500 bronze cannon, and nearly 
§10,000,000 in specie. 

* * General Clausel succeeds General 
Bourmont. 

1831 Feb. * General Berthezene is ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief. 

* * He makes unsuccessful attempts to 
chastise the hostile tribes of the interior. 

* * Revolt of the natives against the 
tyranny of the French. 

Oct. * The Kabyles capture Bona. 
Nov. * General Savary, Due de Rovigo, 

reenforces the French with 16,000 men. 

He exasperates the natives by cruelty 

and treachery. 

1832 * * The Arab chief Abd-el-Ka- 
der preaches a holy war, and collects 
an army of 11,000 men. 

May * He attacks the French at Oran, 
and, after bravely fighting three days, 
is repulsed with considerable loss. 

1835 * * Jealousy inspires war with Abd- 
el-Kader. 

June 28. At the Makta River the French 
are defeated with great slaughter. 

The French under Marshal Clausel 

with 11,000 men invade Mascara. 

Dec. 5. The French take Mascara and 
fire the city. 

1836 Jan. * Marshal Clausel undertakes 
an expedition against Tlemcen; he 
captures and garrisons the town. 

* * Abd-el-Kader defeats 3,000 men un- 
der Count d'Arlanges on the Tafna. 

July 6. General Bugeaud completely de- 
feats the Arabs on the Sikak River. 

Nov. * Marshal Clausel conducts an un- 
successful expedition of 8,000 men 
against the Bey of Constantine. 



1837 May 30. Abd-el-Kader thor- 
oughly defeated. 

Oct. * A French army of 20,000 men 
marches against the Bey of Constantine. 

Oct. 12. The French storm and capture 
Constantine, losing General Danre- 
mont. General Valee succeeds him. 

1839 Oct. * Boundary disputes and 
intrusion lead to war. 

* * Reenforcements of 20,000 men are sent 
out from France. 

Dec. * Abd-el-Kader suddenly attacks 
the French in the plain of Metidja, and 
routs them with great slaughter. 

1840 * * The French garrison of 123 
men defends Fort Masagran against 
the attack of 12,000 to 15,000 Arabs, 
for three days. 

1841 * * General Bugeaud, with from 
80,000 to 100,000 men, subdues 
raiding Arabs by use of flying columns. 

1842 Jan. * Tlemcen is taken by the 
French. 

Fort of Tafna captured and destroyed. 

1843 * * Spring. The French under the 
Duke of Aumale surprise Abd-el- 
Kader ; they take several thousand 
prisoners and much booty. 

1844 Aug. 14. The Arabs from Mo- 
rocco, under Abd-el-Kader, are defeat- 
ed by General Bugeaud, on the river Isly. 

1845 June 18. General Pelissier suf- 
focates about 500 Arab men, women , 
and children in a cave after they re- 
fused to surrender. 

1847 Dec. 23. Abd-el-Kader finally 
surrenders to Lamoriciere. 

1849 * * General Pelissier marches 
against several of the rebellious tribes 
and subdues them. 

1850 * * Several revolts are subdued. 

1851 * * Kabyle insurrection subdued by 
the French under General St. Arnaud, 
after several sharp engagements. 

1852 * * General Macmahon is sent 
out against Kabylia. 

* * General Pelissier takes Laghouat by 
storm. 

1854 * * An expedition subdues the 
Arabs in the south. 

1857 Oct. * General Randon subdues 
the tribes of Great Kabylia, and the au- 
thority of France is undisputed. 

1859 Oct. 31. The Arab tribes rebel, 
attack the French, and are defeated. 

Nov. 6. They rebel again with like result. 

1864 Apr. * The Arabs of the south rise 
in formidable insurrection; rebellion 
provoked by an insult. 

June * After defeat the Arabs submit. 
Oct. 2. Fresh revolts ; insurgents de- 
feated by Jolivet. 

1865 Oct. * Fresh insurrection in Oran; 
subdued by Colonel de Colomb. 

1866 Mar. 16. Another insurrection in 
Oran is subdued by the same officer. 



ALGERIA. 



Ill B.C. -1866 AD. 



BIRTHS — DEATHS. 
850+ * * Amobius. Rhetorician of Numidia. 
354* * Augustine, Saint. (Numidian bishop 

of Hippo), born. 
4th Century. Donatus, Numidian schismatic. 
430 * * Augustine. Saint, Numidian bishop, 

A76. 
1053 * * Abdallah-Ibn-Yasin, founder of 

the empire of the Almoravides, dies. 
1543 * * Barbarossa, Hadber, (Jreek-Alge- 

rine pirate, dies. 
1718 * * Baba-Ali, Dey of Algiers, dies. 
1773 + * * Hussein or Houssein Pasha (Dey) 

born. 
1807 * * Abd-el-Kader (Emir) born. 
1825 * * Allemand-Ijavigerie (Fr. Cardi- 
nal) born in Bayonne. 
1838 * * Hussein or Houssein Pasha, last 

Dey of Algiers, dies, A ± 65. 

1864 May 22. Marshal Pelissier, governor- 
general, dies. 

CHURCH. 

1050+ * * Abdulla-ben Yazim forms the 
prosperous sect of Moabites. 

1540+ * * Pope Paul III. issues a buU 
offering the remission of sins and the 
crown of martyrdom to those lost in 
fighting the Algerians. 

1828 * * Abd-el-Kader makes his sec- 
ond pilgrimage to Mecca, and receives 
the title Hadji. 

1832 * * Abd-el-Kader preaches a holy- 
war. 

SOCIETY. 

1520± * * Thirty thousand Christian 
slaves are employed in constructing a 
mole in the harbor of Algiers. [Finished 
in three years.] 

* * The Algerine pirates are dreaded 
and subsidized by all the commercial 
nations. 

1816 Aug.* Under British pressure the 
Dey liberates 1,211 Christian slaves, and 
promises that piracy, and the enslave- 
ment of Christians shall cease forever. 

1832 * * A Holy "War excitement pre- 
vails. 

1860 Sept. * Algiers is visited by the 
French Emperor Napoleon TTT. 

1865 May 3-June * Napoleon is wel- 
comed with enthusiasm. 

STATE. 

46 * * B. c. A part of Mauritania (Alge- 
ria) is conquered by the Romans. 

45* * b. c. Mauritania becomes a Roman 
province, with Sallust for proconsul. 

42 * * b. C. Mauritania is divided into 
two parts. 

439 * * a. n. Mauritania is conquered 
in part by the Vandals. 

533 * * The Vandals are expeUed by 
the Romans, and the territory is reunited 
to the empire. 

690+ * * The Saracens subdue this prov- 
ince. [It becomes divided among many 
petty chiefs, and relapses into barbar- 
ism.] 

935 + * * The town of Algiers is founded 
by the Arabs near the site of ancient 
Icosium. 



1075± * * The sect called Moabites sub- 
due rival chiefs and lay the foundation 
of the dynasty of the Almoravides. 

1147 * * -1231 * * The dynasty of the 

Almohades follows. 
1273 * * Change of dynasty; the country 

is divided into small states. 

1509 * * Spain acquires dominion. 
1516 * * The Algerians revolt and seek 

aid of the famous Turkish pirate, Horush 

Barbarossa. 

* * The invaders being expelled, Barba- 
rossa murders the prince, Selim Cut- 
smi, and mounts the throne. 

* * He extends his dominions by force 
and treachery. 

* * Algiers becomes nominally a prov- 
ince of Turkey. 

1518 * * Hadher Barbarossa, as Pasha 
of Algiers, succeeds his brother, who is 
slain by the Spaniards. 

± * * He solicits aid from Selim I., and 
acknowledges his sovereignty. 

± * * The Moors establish the pirati- 
cal states of Algiers and Tunis. 

* * * Viceroys, or pashas, appointed 
by Turkey, continue to govern the coun- 
try till the 17th century. 

1600+ * * Turkey permits the janizaries 
to choose their own dey or governor. 

1609 * * Many Moors flock to Algiers 
after their expulsion from Spain, and as 
able sailors raise the power of the state. 

1686* *The English conclude a favor- 
able treaty with Algiers. [It is only par- 
tially enforced for a long time.] 

1705 * * The last Turkish pasha is ex- 
pelled by Dey Ibrahim. 

1710+ * * The office of pasha is united 
with that of dey. 

The janizaries control the appoint- 
ment of chiefs, and they declare inde- 
pendence of the Turks ; all regular 
tribute is withdrawn. 

1795 * * The Americans refuse any 
longer to subsidize the Dey of Algiers. 

1816 * * A new treaty with England is 
made, and Christian slavery is abolished. 

1818* * Hussein Bey succeeds to the 
government. 

1823 * * The French demand reparations 
for insults to their consul and for out- 
rages committed on French vessels, but 
without success, and an army follows. 

1830 July 5. The French depose the 
Dey, and overthrow the barbarian gov- 
ernment. The Dey retires to Naples. 

* * General Bourmont is superseded by 
General Clausel, who makes little effort 
to conciliate the natives. 

1833 * * The French ministry declares ils 
purpose to retain the government and to 
colonize the country, in opposition to its 
agreement with England. 

Mar. * General Avizard is appointed 
interim Governor on the retirement of 
Rovigo. [He dies soon after.] 

* * General Voirol is nominated Gov- 
ernor. 



1834 * * Abd-el-Kader enters a treaty 
acknowledging the supremacy of France, 
and is recognized as the Emir of the 
province of Mascara. 

May 20. The French ministry announces 
its intention to retain Algiers perma- 
nently. 

* * France is displeased with the treaty, 
and General Desmichels, Governor of 
Oran, is recalled. 

July* General Drouet d'Erlon be- 
comes Governor-general of the colony. 

1835 * * Marshal Clausel supersedes 
Count d'Erlon as Governor-general. 

1837 May 30. The French sign a 
treaty of peace with Abd-el-Kader on 
the banks of the Tafna ; he recognizes 
French supremacy. 

Dec.+ * General Val6e is appointed 
Governor-General of the colony. 

1841 Feb. 22. General Bugeaud suc- 
ceeds Vale"e. 

1842 Feb.* Algeria annexed to 
France, and the Emir declared a rebel. 

1848 * * General Cavaignac appointed 
Governor-general of the Colony. 

Jan. 29. Abd-el-Kader is taken a pris- 
oner to France, contrary to the agree- 
ment of the French. 

1852 * * Louis Napoleon releases him 
from prison on the condition that he 
retires to Asia Minor. 

1857 * * French authority undisputed. 

1858 * * The government entrusted to 
Prince Napoleon as special minister. 
[The special ministry is soon abolished.] 

1860 Nov. * Marshal Pelissier, Duke 
of Malakhoff, is appointed Governor- 
general, with a council of thirty mem- 
bers. 

1863 Feb. * The emperor promises a 
constitution, with a representative as- 
sembly, securing the rights of the Arabs, 
saying, " I am as much emperor of the 
Arabs as of the French." 

1864 May 22. Death of Marshal Pelis- 
sier. Marshal Macmahon, Duke of 
Magenta, succeeds him. 

1865 July * More rights and privileges 
are promised by the French to the na- 
tives. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1520 * * Under Barbarossa, Algeria be- 
comes famous for its pirates. [They 
infest the seas till 1830.] 

1541 Oct. 28. A fearful storm at- 
tended by an earthquake nearly destroys 
the fleet of the Spaniards in the port of 
Algiers. 

1670 * * The city of Tlemcen is destroyed 
by fire. 

1716 May* -June* Earthquakes de- 
stroy 20,000 people. 

1866 * * Population by census returns 
2,921,146. 

* * The crops are almost entirely de- 
stroyed by locusts. 



10 



1867-1894. 



ALGERIA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1867 Jan. * A new expedition subdues 
the refractory Arabs of the south. 

1868 Jan. * Si-Hamed leads a revolt 
and is killed by the French ; his follow- 
ers are routed. 

1869 Jan. * Several large bodies of in- 
surgents in the extreme south move 
northward and surprise Tagguin. 

Feb. 2. Colonel Sonis defeats about 4,000 

Arabs, and routs them. 
June * The insurrection is quelled. 

1870 Aug. 15. Algeria proclaimed 
in a state of siege. 

1871 * * "Widespread insurrection of 
the Arab and Kabyle tribes, prompted 
by the weakened condition of France. 

June 24. State of siege raised after the 
fall of the Commune at Paris ; [a contri- 
bution of $6,000,000 imposed upon the 
rebels]. 

1879 June * Another insurrection ; it 
is soon subdued. 

1881 Apr.* Dispute between the 
French government and Tunis respect- 
ing the sheltering of insurgents. The 
French land an army in Tunis. 

June * Arab insurrection headed by Bou 
Ameema. 

July 13. Bou Ameema is said to be de- 
feated by the French, and a fugitive. 

Aug. 1. Reported preparation for a fresh 
revolt ; a strong force marches against 
Bou Ameema. 

Aug. * Indecisive actions with the rebels. 

1882 Apr. * A topographical expedi- 
tion is attacked, and more than 40 per- 
sons are reported killed. 

1883 June * Announcement of the sub- 
mission of revolting tribes. 

1891 Dec. 23. The Amours tribe re- 
bels against French authority, and fight- 
ing begins. 

* * Each of the three military depart- 
ments in Algeria is under the direc- 
tion of the commandant of the 19th 
corps of the French army. 

1892 * * An insufficient military expedi- 
tion sent by the Sultan of Morocco to 
punish the people of the oases for de- 
claring their freedom from tribute and 
their sympathy with France, fails in its 
purpose. 

1894 Jan. 25. Timbuctu occupied 
by French Troops. 

Feb. 9. Colonel Bonnier, commanding 
the French force which took Timbuctu, 
is killed by the Tuaregs, together with 
seventy-eight officers and soldiers. 

Aug. 28. The Tuaregs, after three days' 
fighting, defeat the French troops at 
Timbuctu, and compel them to retire. 

DEATHS. 

1883 * * Abd-el-Kader, Algerian chieftain, 
A76. 

1892 * * Allemand-Lavigrerie, Fr. Cardi- 
nal, anti-slavery advocate, apb. Algiers, A67. 

CHURCH. 

1889 * * Algiers has synagogues, a hand- 
some cathedral, and three other Catholic 



churches, a Protestant chapel, six col- 
leges, an Episcopal seminary, and bish- 
op's palace. 

* * The London Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel among the Jews 
reports a mission station at Algiers. 

S0CD2TY. 

1870 * * Native Jews are admitted to 
French citizenship. 

1890 May 19. Arabs pillage a Jew's 
store at Quelma, and are dispersed by 
troops. 

1893 * * The French colonists and officials 
discourage any attempt to elevate the 
natives, and persistently oppose the 
proposition to establish schools. 

STATE. 

1871 * * A war contribution imposed on 
the rebels by the French. 

Oct. * The military rule abolished and a 
civil government established, [which 
brings peace and prosperity.] 

1873 * * General Chanzy is appointed 
governor. 

1878 July * General Chanzy accused of 
governing despotically ; his resignation 
not accepted by Marshal Macmahon. 

* * He is replaced by Albert Gr6vy. 

1879 June * An insurrection, which is 
soon quelled. 

1881 Apr. * Dispute between Algeria 
and Tunis respecting incursions of the 
Kroumirs into Algerian territory. 

May 12. The French force the Bey of 

Tunis to cede territory and become 

the vassal of France. 
Nov. 6. Resignation of the governor, A. 

Grevy, announced. 
Nov. 26. * Louis Tirman appointed 

governor. 

1882 Dec. * Announcement of the an- 
nexation of the province Mzab. 

1883 * * The French government has 
proposed to expropriate tribal lands of 
the nomadic Arabs and a part of those 
of the sheep-raising Kabyles of the 
mountains, in order to advance coloniz- 
ation by Europeans, whose presence will 
give security to the French dominion. 

1891 * * Governor-general Tirman re- 
tires from office. 

Apr. * Jules Camborn is appointed gov- 
ernor-general. 

(There are three departments, each of 
which elects one senator in Algeria and 
two deputies.) 

1892 Jan. 23. The sherif of Wazen is 
forcibly detained in Algeria by the 
French. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
1867 Jan. * Several villages destroyed 
by an earthquake ; a prolonged drought 
and famine follow. 

* * The cholera destroys 50,000 persons. 

1871 * * The French government grants 
land and means to start in agriculture 
to 10,500 refugees from Alsace-Lorraine. 

1872 * * Population 2,146,225. 



1875 * * Population 2,448,691. 

1876 * * The most prosperous year of the 
Colony. 

1880 Mar. * M. Mouchot, by a mirror, 
collects solar rays, and boils water, 
drives an engine, etc. 

1881 Oct. * Reported death of 61 per- 
sons killed by a waterspout. 

* * There are 2,328,636 persons engaged 
in agriculture. 

1883 * * A project for making the Sahara 
desert an inland sea is entertained. 

1884 * * Railroads completed, 993 miles. 

1886 * * Population 3,910,399. 

1887 * * Railroads completed, 1,290 miles. 

* * A plague of grasshoppers damages 
the growing crops. 

1888 July* Another plague of lo- 
custs. 

* * Swarms of crickets devastate vegeta- 
tion in many localities. 

* * The first section of the Trans-Sahara 
Railroad is opened. 

1889 Jan. 5. The Governor orders the 
expulsion from the country of two editors 
of a Spanish newspaper published at 
Oran. 

1890 Jan. 22. The authorities forbid 
pilgrimages to Mecca on account of the 
prevalence of cholera in Arabia. 

June 25. Cardinal Lavigerie favors a 

Trans-Saharan railway. 
Aug. 26. Fire rages in the Soukari's 

forest ; two villages destroyed. 
Sept. 26. Destructive storm and cyclone. 

1891 Jan. 15. Three violent shocks of 
earthquake occur. 

Aug. 19. A forest fire destroys 35,000 
acres of trees. 

* * Population by last census returns, 
3,636,967 in the civil departments, and in 
the interior military departments, 487,765. 

* * Locusts destroy the pastures. 

* * There are 3,262,478 persons engaged in 
agriculture, 187,000 of whom are Euro- 
peans. 

* * Value of imports, $52,609,645; ex- 
ports, $45,494,950. 

* * The Trans-Sahara Railroad, starting 
from El Guerrah, has been carried 
across the mountains up to the edge of 
the Tuareg country, and extends from 
oasis to oasis, to Biscara, 390 miles. It 
is projected to Lake Chad, 1,887 miles. 

1892 Aug. 2. A strong sirocco prevails. 

* * Roads to the interior, with wells sunk 
along them, have been established be- 
tween the military posts. 

* * Railroads completed cover 1,910 miles ; 
telegraphs, 7,000 miles. 

1893 * * The Trans - Sahara Railroad 
reaches within 80 miles of the oasis of 
Fignig. 

1894 * * Fr. The annihilation of the 
French advance column at Timbuctu 
causes deep feeling in France. 



AMERICA. 



955 p,c. -1121 a. 



11 



America is a name applied to the Western Continent, and includes both North and South America and the adjacent islands. 
Greatest length, 10,500i miles ; greatest breadth, 3,000± miles. Estimated area, 15,700,000 square miles ; estimated population in 
1891, 121,713,000. 

Explanatory Note. — The early history of each American country is given in fuller detail under its proper title, except that of the United 
States, which appears under the title of America only until the Declaration of Independence in 1776. 

Mexican, Central and South American dates are of uncertain value until the sixteenth century. All items relating to the Norsemen in 
America can hardly be considered well-established historical records. 



ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

4th Century b. c. The spherical shape 
of the earth is taught by the Greeks. 

4th Century a. d. The compass is used 
by mariners on the Indian Ocean. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 
945 ± Mtx. Nauhyotl, king, dies. 
1007 Mass. (?) Sonorri, son of Thorflnn, 

born in Vinland. 
1054 i Peru. Manco Capac, founder of the 

state, dies. 
1070i Mex. Huemac Ateopanecatl, last Tol- 

tec king, 'lies at Capultepec. 

CHURCH. 

999 * * Scan. Leif, son of Eric the Red, 
becomes. a convert to Christianity [and 
in the year 1000 takes Roman mission- 
ary priests to Iceland, by whom many 
are converted.] 

1000+ * * Peru. Manco Capac (from 
China?), accompanied by his wife, and 
sister Mama Ocello, appears. 

They announce themselves "children 
of the sun," sent by deity to civilize the 
people by teaching agriculture and the 
arts, publishing laws, and by introdu- 
cing religious rites. (Peruvian Annals.) 

1056 * * Iceland. A bishop's see is 
erected in the east and southwest. 

1106 * * Iceland. A bishop's see of 
175 parishes is erected in the north. 

1121 * * Eric Gnupsson is appointed 
«« bishop of Greenland and Vinland 
in partibus infidelium," by Paschal II. 

DISCOVERY — EXPLORATION. 

635** Mex. The Chichimecs leave 
Chicomoztoc in their progress toward 
Mexico. 

648 * * Mex. Toltecs invade Mexico. 

8th Century. Greenland is visited by 
Northmen. 

860* * Iceland is discovered: Nad- 
doddr, a Norse pirate, is driven to the 
coast by adverse winds. 

865 * * Iceland is visited by Floki, the 
viking. 

876 * * Greenland discovered : Gunn- 
bjorn, a Norwegian, driven by adverse 
winds beyond Iceland, views its coast. 

985 4- * * Greenland. Eric Raude, with 
a number of Icelanders, is said to have 
spent three years in exploring the coun- 
try. (Its name is suggested by its abun- 
dant verdure.) 

986* *America discovered: Her- 
julfson, a Norse navigator, sailing from 
Iceland, is caught in a storm and driven 
southwestward to the coasts of New- 
foundland and Labrador, but does not 
land. 

1000 * * New England is visited by 
Leif Ericsson with a crew of about 35 



Icelanders. He arrives at Labrador, 
and explores the coast as far as Massa- 
chusetts, where he remains more than a 
year at Vinland. 
1002* * Me. Thorwald, a brother of 
Leif Ericsson, accompanied by his wife 
and a crew of 30 men, visits Maine and 
Massachusetts. 

1003 Summer. Thorwald extends his 
explorations to the southward. 

1004 * * Mass. Leif explores the coast 
northward [reaching the present site of 
Boston], where he is slain by the na- 
tives. 

1005 * * New Eng. Thorstien, another 
brother of Leif Ericsson, explores the 
New England coast. 

1006 * * Mass. — U. I. Thorflnn Karl- 
sefne, with three ships, containing 1G0 
men, and a number of women and cattle, 
explores the coast of Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island, and possibly sails as far 
south as Virginia, but is driven away by 
the natives. 

1011 * * Mass. Freydis visits Vinland, 
accompanied by 30 men. 

* * Greenland. Helgi and Finnbogi, 
with 35 men, sail from Greenland to 
cut timber in Massachusetts. (?) 

1012 * * Mass. (?) The Northmen, under 
Thorwald, having murdered Helgi and 
Finnbogi, with their followers, sail for 
Greenland. 

11th, 12th Centuries. The Arabs explore 
the Atlantic, seeking to find its limits. 

1116 (?)* * Mex. The Aztecs' migra- 
tion from the north reaches Chico- 
moztoc. 

1120 (?) * * Mex. The Chichimecs, a 
half-savage tribe, invade Mexico. 

LETTERS. 

* * * Mexican annals of a remote pe- 
riod are recorded by picture-writing. 
[Their value is uncertain.] 

4th Century b. C. The story of the Island 
of Atlantis is mentioned by Plato. 

SOCIETY. 

686 (?) * * Mex. The Toltecs evince an 
advanced civilization in weaving, 
building, jeweling, and making orna- 
ments of feathers ; among them are as- 
trologers, poets, sorcerers, philosophers, 
and orators. 

1011 Winter. Mm. (?) The North- 
men's games cause dissension. 

Thorwald, the husband of Freydis, 
avenges an insult by the massacre of the 
35 men and five women of a neighboring 
expedition of the brothers Helgi and 
Finnbogi. 

* * Pern. Communism prevails in ag- 
ricultural labor and products. 



* * Mex. and Peru. The masses of the 
people are serfs or slaves. 

* * * Peru. Manco Capac, with his 
wife, and sister Mama Ocello, arrives 
from China (?), claiming to be sent by 
deity to reclaim the tribes from savage 
life; civilized society begins. [This 
account is received with some incredu- 
lity by scholars.] 

STATE — SETTLEMENT. 

955 * * b. c. Mexican history begins 
[according to Brasseur de Bourbourg], 

470± * * b. c. Peru. ThePiruadynasty 
begins [as some allege]. 

4th to 7th Century a. d. Mex. The 
Nahuas dwell in the Mexican plateau. 

503 * * Mex. With the appearance of the 
Toltecs on the tableland authentic his- 
tory begins [according to Ixtlilxochitl]. 
(Clavigero, 596, Vetia, 697.) 

686 ± * * Mex. The Toltec empire is 
finally established. The Toltecs are the 
true founders of civilization in this pert 
of North America. 

714 * * Antillia, or the Island of the 
Seven Cities, is settled from Spain. (?) 

830 * * Peru. Fall of the Pirua dy- 
nasty. (?) 

835 * * Greenland is inhabited. (?) 

875 ± * * Iceland. The Icelandic com- 
monwealth is founded by Norsemen, 
under Ingolf, the son of Orn. 

9th Century. The Irish visit Iceland. 

895 (?) * * Mex. Topiltzin C e a c a 1 1 
Quetzalcoatl, the most famous of the 
Toltec sovereigns, founds a new seat of 
government on the plain of Huitzilapan. 
[LaPuebla?] 

930 * * Iceland. First meeting of the 
Althing, a general assembly secured by 
the influence of TJlfljot, a leader among 
the Icelanders. 

983 * * -985 * * Greenland. Eric Raude 
returns, and founds two settlements 
on the west coast. 

* * * Peru. Manco Capac arrives and 
reforms the people. (13th Century, 
Winsor.) 

1007* * Can. Colonies are planted [in 
Newfoundland and Nova Scotia], which 
are soon abandoned. 

1041 * * -47 (?) * * Mex. Irruption of 
the Chichimecs-Teotenancas into the 
valley of Mexico. 

Uth Century. Mex. The fall of the 
Toltec power. 

Tho Toltecs, greatly reduced in num- 
bers, leave Mexico and enter Central 
America. 

11th Century. JHex. After the fall of the 
Toltec empire, a great migration cf 
Northern tribes southward begins. [It 
continues for three centuries.] 



12 1121-1492, Oct. 12. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 
13th Century. Mex. The ferocity of the 

Aztecs causes their neighbors to band 

together against them. Many forays and 

bloody wars follow. 
1415 * * Mex. The Tepanecs invade 

the territory of the Tezcucans and are 

invaded in turn. 
1425 ± * * Mex. The Tepanecs subdue 

the Tezcucans. 
1433 ** Peru. Peruvians invade 

Chile, conquering the southern part. 
1450± * * Mex. Montezuma I. subdues 

the country to the Gulf of Mexico. 

1469 * * Mex. A military expedition 
under Axayacatl moves down the Isth- 
mus of Mexico as far as Tehuantepec. 
He ravages the Totonac region, securing 
immense plunder and many captives. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

12th Century. The Catalans and Basques 

use the compass. 
1267* * Enr/. The Opus Major by Roger 

Bacon appears, teaching the sphericity 

of the globe. 
1306 * * It. Map of Marino Sanuto, the 

beginning of Atlantic cartography, ap- 
pears. 
1367 * * -73 * * Pizigana's map of the 

Atlantic appears. 
1439 * * Valsequa's chart of the Atlantic 

appears. 

1436 * * Variation of the needle shown 
on maps. 

1446* * Mex. Earthenware pipes used 
for conducting water to the capital from 
Chapul tepee. 

1470 * * Nicholas Donis's map appears — 
the earliest engraved map in which 
Greenland is shown. 

1472 * * Mex. Art and culture center 
in Tezcuco. 

1484 * * Regimontanus adapts the astro- 
labe for use on the sea. 

I486* * Sp. The Laon Globe appears. 
[Dated 1493.] 

1486* * Sp. The project of Colum- 
bus is referred by the king to Ferdinand 
de Talavera, who summons astronomers 
and cosmographers to confer with Co- 
lumbus before a jury of ecclesiastics, 
where his theories are overturned with 
biblical texts and extracts from the great 
divines. 

1491 * * Talavera denounces the pro- 
ject to the king as impracticable. 

1492 * * Somewhere 200 leagues west of 
the Canaries, lay on ancient maps the 
Lost Island of the Seven Cities. 

* * Columbus, after long study and 
much conference with the best authori- 
ties, concludes the globe to be only ten 
or twelve thousand miles in circumfer- 
ence ; he also overestimates the size of 
the Asiatic continent. 

Sept. 13. Columbus is startled to find 
the needle moving westward and no 
longer pointing to the pole. 

Sept. 15. A meteor falls five lengths 
from Columbus's ship. 



* * Cuba. Columbus concludes that he 
has reached Cipango. Afterward he 
changes his mind, and decides it to be 
the mainland of India. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1357 Mex. Techotl, ruler of the Chichl- 
mecs, dies. 

1435-56 It. Columbus, Christopher, 
born. [1445 + Harrisse: 1456 Payne.J 

1451 It. Vespucci. Amerigo, Mar. 9, b. 

1466 Mex. Montezuma II., emperor, b. 

1469 Mex. Montezuma I., emperor of the 
Aztecs, dies. 

1472 Mex. Nezahualcoytl, king of Tez- 
cuco, dies. 

1474 Sp. Casas, Bartolome de Las, 
" The Apostle of the Indies," born. 

1481 Mex. Axayacatl, emperor of the Az- 
tecs, dies. 

1486 (?) Mex. Tizoc, king of Tezcucans, d. 

CHURCH. 

1121 * * Greenland. Bishop Eric Gnups- 
son goes in search of Vinland. (Massa- 
chusetts and Rhode Island.) 

1124 * * Greenland. Bishop Arnold is 
consecrated. 

1325 * * Mex. Mexicans adopt the prac- 
tise of offering human sacrifices in 
worship. 

1450 * * Mex. Mexicans recognize a Su- 
preme Creator, and also worship a 
plurality of deities. 

* * Mex. Fully 5000 priests are at- 
tached to the principal temple of the 
city of Mexico. 

1487 * * Mex. Ahuizotl celebrates the 
dedication of the great temple of Huitz- 
ilopochtli by slaughtering 72,344 human 
victims. (Probably an exaggeration.) 

1489 Dec. * Sp. Columbus, learning 
that the Sultan of Egypt has threatened 
to raze the tomb of Christ, makes a vow 
to devote the proceeds of his discovery 
to the defense of the holy sepulcher. 
1492 * * Sp. Juan Perez, prior of the 
monastery of La Rabida, writes a letter 
to Isabella, Queen of Castile, which se- 
cures an interview for Columbus. 

Columbus asks powers which the arch- 
bishop declares " arrogant and presump- 
tuous ; " therefore his mission fails. 
Apr. 17. Through the influence of Perez 
and others, Columbus is recalled to the 
Spanish Court and receives his commis- 
sion. 

Columbus bears a letter to the grand 
Khan of Cipango, whom he hopes to con- 
vert to Christianity. 

Before sailing, Columbus, with most of 
his officers and crew, confesses to Juan 
Perez, and receives the holy sacrament. 
Oct. 12. W. I. The first procedure by 
Europeans in the New "World is an 
act of devotion to God, while over them 
is unfurled a flag bearing a green cross. 
The natives conclude that the gods have 
come from their celestial abode. 

DISCOVERY — EXPLORATION. 
1135 Apr. * Greenland visited by 
Scandinavians, who sail as far north 
as latitude 73*. 



* *The Northmen visit an island in 
Baffin's Bay, where they erect a mon- 
ument. [Discovered in 1824.] 

1153**Ger. Indians said to have been 
cast upon the German coast. 

1170 * * Welshmen under Madoc dis- 
cover America. (?) 

12th Century. Guatemala occupied by 
the Quiches and Cakchi. 

Peru supposed to have been visited by 

Kublai Khan. 

1347 * * The coasts of Labrador and New 
England visited by Norwegian sailors, 
who bring the last tidings concerning 
Vinland. 

1393(1394 ?) July * Greenland visited 
by three ships under Nieolo Zeno, a 
Venetian, who had sailed from the Faroe 
Islands. 

1396+ * * Greenland. Antonio, a broth- 
er of Nicolo Zeno, explores the coasts. (?) 

1424 * * Antillia first found on the maps. 

1444 * * America. Biscayans said to 
have discovered western land. 

1463* *-64* * Newfoundland. Cor- 
treal, a Portuguese navigator, said to 
have visited the coast. 

* * * Newfoundland visited by the 
Dutch. (?) 

1470+ * * Columbus concludes that 
much of the world is still undiscovered, 
and that Asia may be reached by sail- 
ing westward. 

1470* *-84* * Portugal visited by Co- 
lumbus. 

1474 * * Columbus explains his views to 
Faola Toscanelli, a Florentine navi- 
gator, from whom he receives hearty 
encouragement. 

1476 * * Skolno coasts along Labra- 
dor. (?) 

1477 Feb. * Iceland visited by Colum- 
bus. 

15th Century. Greenland ceases to com- 
municate with Europe. 

1480 * * -92 * * Sp. Columbus, impov- 
erished and disheartened by many rejec- 
tions, finds a sympathetic friend in 
Isabella, Queen of Castile. 

1484 * * Port. Columbus, having vain- 
ly appealed to John II. for three ships 
with provisions for one year, leaves the 
Portuguese service. 

Columbus, having been deceived by 
John II., goes to Spain. 

1485 * * It. Columbus lays his project 
before the Genoese, who reject it. 

± * * It. Columbus appeals to the Ve- 
netians for aid without success. 

* * ± Columbus sends proposals to 
Henry VLT. of England, offering to 
sail under the English flag. (1488?) 

* * Fr. Columbus in the French pirati- 
cal service. 

+ * * Sp. Fernando de Talavera, the 
confessor of Isabella, fearing hetero- 
doxy in the ideas of , Columbus, pre- 
vents his access to the king. 

* * * Cardinal Mendoza, " the third 
king of Spain," presents Columbus to 
Ferdinand. (1485 or 148G.) 



AMERICA. 



1121-1492, Oct. 12. 13 



I486 * * Sp. Columbus ente -s the Cas- 

tilian service. 
1488 * * -89 * * Cousin visits the South 

American coast. (?) 

1491 * * Sp. A clerical committee ap- 
pointed by the King to investigate the 
project of Columbus report adversely. 

" The project in question is vain and 
impossible, and not becoming great 
princes to engage in, on such slender 
grounds as had been adduced ; " a con- 
clusion reached chiefly by controverting 
Scripture texts. 

1492 * * Sp. Columbus states his lofty 
terms, and his proposal is declined by 
the King. 

He demands the office of admiral, with 
the vice-royalty of the lands he may dis- 
cover, and one-tenth of the gains to be 
received from them : the King declines 
the conditions. 

Apr. 17. Sp. Columbus is recalled, 
and articles of agreement are drawn and 
signed at Santa F6. 

Aug. 3. Friday. Sp. Columbus sails 
from the port of Palos, with 119 men in 
three ships. (90 men ?) 

The Santa Maria, of 90 feet keel, is 
decked over from stem to stern ; the 
Pinta and Nina are undecked caravels. 
Some of the crew are obtained by offer- 
ing advanced pay and two months' ex- 
emption from arrest after their return, 
while others are secured by impressment. 

Aug. 6. The Pinta loses her rudder. 

Aug. 9. Canary Islands. The expedi- 
tion puts in at Teneriff e to refit the Pinta. 

Sept. 6. Columbus resumes his voyage. 

Sept. 16. The expedition enters the 
region of the trade winds. 

" The air was so mild that it only 
wanted the song of the nightingales to 
make it like the month of April in An- 
dalusia." (Columbus.) 

Sept. * The vessels enter the Sargasso 
Sea ; immense quantities of floating sea- 
weed are observed. 

Sept. 17. Columbus calms his alarmed 
sailors with a fictitious explanation of 
the variation of the compass. 

Sept. 18. Many birds are seen, and they 
awaken expectations of land. 

Sept. 20. Two pelicans appear. 

All are sure of the nearness of land. 
The wind shifts to the southwest, and the 
crews are glad that they will not ever be 
urged forward by an east wind, against 
which it would be impossible to return. 

Sept. 23 . A storm prevails, and the crews 

insist that Providence should be tempted 

no further. 
Sept. 25. Alonzo Pinzo, deceived by a 

cloud, raises the false cry of " land ; " 

" Gloria in excelsis " is sung. 
Oct. 1. Columbus predicts his entrance 

into an Asiatic port within forty days. 
Oct. 7. Sailors on the Nina, under the 

illusion of land in view, raise a flag and 

fire a gun. 
Oct. * The crew approach a condition of 

mutiny, and despairingly threaten to 

throw Columbus overboard. 
Oct. 11. The Pinta fishes up a cane, a 

log of wood, and a stick with a piece of 

iron attached. The Nina sights a stake 

covered with dog-roses ; " all of them 

breathed and were glad." 



Oct. 11. At 10 o'clock at night Columbus 
perceives a distant light ; " no one sleeps 
this night." 

Oct. 12. W. I. Land discovered on 
Friday at two o'clock in the morning. 

Rodrigo de Triana, a sailor on board 
the Nina, is the first to see it ; all the 
vessels lay to, and the voyage of 36 days 
is ended, (it is Guanahani, or Watling 
Island, one of the Bahamas.) 

LETTERS. 

12th Century. Iceland has an intelligent 
people and nourishes learning by many 
schools, four of which have the character 
of universities. 

1195+ * * Mex. The Aztecs celebrate 
the festival of tying up the ■ ■ bundle of 
years," and begin a new cycle. 

1215+ * * Iceland. The Heimskringla, 
or Chronicle of Snorro Sturleson, [one 
of the greatest historical books in the 
world,] is written. 

1264 * * Iceland has well- developed 
literature, consisting of poems, his- 
tories, and legends. 

14th Century. ' Mex. The civil year of 
365 days is divided into 18 months of 20 
days, and 5 supplementary days, the 
month into 4 weeks of 5 days each. 

1442 * * Ger. Johann Paust opens the 
first printing place ; the art of print- 
ing facilitates the work of discovery 
and exploration in the New "World. 

SOCIETY. 

1241 Sept. 22. Iceland. Snorro Stur- 
leson, " the good," a warrior, states- 
man, and poet, is murdered. 

* * * Iceland. The people are remarkable 
for their moral qualities. 

1469 * * Mex. Axayacatl ascends the 
throne, and follows the usual custom of 
raiding the south country to get thou- 
sands of prisoners whose sacrifice should 
grace his coronation. 

1480+ * * Mex. TheKingofTezcucohas 
2,000 concubines in his palace. 

1486 * * Mex. King Tizoc is assassi- 
nated. 

STATE. 

12th Century. (?) Mex. The Aztecs mi- 
grate from place to place. 

1170 (?) * * Mex. The rude Chichimecs 
enter Anahuac (Mexico). 

1177± * * Mex. The Aztecs, or Mexi- 
cans, arrive in Anahuac, leading a mi- 
gratory and precarious life. 

1184 (?) * * or 1186 (?) * * Mex. The 
Aztecs establish themselves at Cha- 
pultepec. 

1240+ * * Peru. Rule of the Incas be- 
gins with Manco Capac. (Or 1021+.) 

1260+ * * Peru. Reign of Sinchi Rocca. 

1262 * * Iceland loses its republican in- 
dependence, and becomes subject to 
Hakon, King of Norway. 

1280+ * * Peru. Reign of Inca Lloque 
Yupanqui. 

1300+ * * Peru. Reign of Inca Mayta 
Capac. 



1325 * * Mex. The Aztecs, under the 
reign of Tenuch, found the city of Ten- 
ochtitlan (Mexico), probably at first only 
a cluster of huts, on a low island in a 
great lake. It is the earliest established 
date in Mexican history. 

1340± * * Peru. Reign of Inca Rocca. 

1349 * * Greenland. The Eskimos ap- 
pear. 

1350 * * New Eng. A great plague, 
which depopulates Iceland and Green- 
land, also destroys the Norsemen in Vin- 
land, thus cutting off communication 
with the New World. (?) 

* * Greenland. Hostile Eskimos dis- 
tress the settlers. 

* * * Mex. Toltecs convert the hunting 
Chichimecs into an agricultural people. 

* * * Peru. The Incas exercise a pater- 
nal authority in government, which is, 
in fact, a despotism. 

These unwarlike kings have domin- 
ion founded on policy, superstition, and 
the arts. 

1357 * * Mex. Techotl, a great Chichi- 
mec ruler, dies and is succeeded by 
Ixtlilxochitl. 

1360+ * * Peru. Reign of the Inca Ya- 
huar-Huaccac. 

1380+ * * The commerce of Iceland 
and Greenland being restricted by Den- 
mark, these islands begin to decline. 

* * Peru. Reign of Inca Uira-Cocha. 
1400+ * * Peru. Reign of Inca Pachacu- 

tec Yupanqui. 
1415 * * Mex. Invasion of the Tepanecs 

in Tezcuco. 
1418* * Greenland. Settlements of 

Norsemen are destroyed by natives, and 

the foreigners reduced to slavery. 
1430+ ** Mex. TheAcolhua, Aztec, and 

Tepanec Kings form a triple alliance. 

(The Aztecs soon become predominant.) 
1440* *-69* * Mex. Montezuma I., 

the soldier king, reigns. 

* * Peru. Reign of Inca Tupac Capac. 
1450 (?) * * Mex. The government be- 
comes an elective monarchy. 

1464 (?)* * Mex. Overthrow of the 
empire of the Tutul-Xius. [The new 
empire continues till the arrival of the 
Spaniards.] 

1469* * Mex. Axayacatl succeeds Mon- 
tezuma I. 

1472 (?)* * Mex. Nezahualcoyotl, 
King of Tezcuco, dies, and is succeeded 
by his son Nezahuapilli. 

1481 * * Mex. Axayacatl dies, and is 
succeeded by his brother Tizoc. 

1492 Oct. 12. W.I. Columbus, vice- 
roy of the New World, assumes authority 
as its first European ruler. 

A part of the expedition lands at sun- 
rise. 

Columbus, richly clad in official dress, 
leads, and all, kneeling down, kiss the 
ground and give thanks to God with tears 
of joy. Columbus rises, draws his sword, 
shakes out the royal banner, and takes 
possession of the land for his sovereigns, 
and names it San Salvador. 

1492+ * * Peru. Huayna Capac begins 
his reign. (Or 1483.) 



14 1492, Oct. 14-1500, Dec. * 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 
1494 * * Mex. Military force is first 
used in the New World to subdue the 
outraged natives to the rule of Spain. 

By a brilliant coup de main the cacique 
Caonabo is captured and his people sub- 
mit to the Spaniards ; not one of the 300 
soldiers is lost. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

* * * Peru. Many of the useful arts, 
as agriculture, architecture, pottery, 
spinning, and navigation, are developed. 
Peruvians know how to give hardness to 
copper, for making edge tools, by melt- 
ing it with tin. 

* * * Central America. The Spaniards 
find semi-civilized nations, wearing 
woven clothes, and constructing works 
of art, as temples, grottoes, and fortifi- 
cations. 

* * * Chileans practise weaving and 
agriculture. 

1493 Jan. * Haiti. Columbus completes 
the first European structure in the 
New World at San Domingo. It is a fort 
made out of the timbers of the Santa 
Maria, which has been wrecked by bad 
steering. 

* * * Peruvians far surpass the Mexi- 
cans in both the practical and elegant 
arts of life. They excel in masonry, 
using hard chisels, and they ornament 
their work with carvings. 

1496 * * Haiti. Columbus discovers 
gold mines, and concludes he is in the 
Land of Ophir. 

1497 * * Sebastian Cabot sails within 
twenty degrees of the North Pole, while 
seeking a northwest passage to the 
Pacific. 

CHURCH. 
1493 Feb. * Terrified by a storm the 

sailors, and probably Columbus also, 

vow to attend mass in their shirts at 

their first opportunity. 
Feb. 18±. Azores. The sailors keep 

the vow made in their distress, by going 

to the church at Santa Maria. 

* * Sp. Columbus presents nine Ameri- 
can Indians for baptism. 

May 3, 4. It. Pope Alexander VI. (a 
Spaniard) issues bulls " out of our pure 
liberality, certain knowledge, and pleni- 
tude of Apostolic power," " and by vir- 
tue of the authority of omnipotent God," 
granting to Spain all newly acquired 
lands west of an imaginary line running 
north and south 300 miles west of the 
Azores ; Portugal receives dominion 
east of this line. He divides the 
world between two men. 

Sept. * Sp. Columbus renews his vow to 
rescue the Holy Sepulcher, and prom- 
ises within the next seven years to equip 
at his own expense a crusading army of 
50,000 foot and 4,000 horse, and in five 
years thereafter to follow this with a 
second army of like dimensions. 

Sept. 25. Sp. Christianity is formally 
introduced. Twelve missionaries 
sail for the New World. 



* * Haiti. Religion consists of simple 
fetishism and ancestor worship. 

* * W. I. Bernardo Boyle is appointed 
by the Pope to the office of Apostolic 
Vicar for the Indies, probably the first 
clergyman sent to America. 

1498 * * Eng. Henry VTL, being a good 
Catholic, is deterred from claiming the 
benefits of Cabot's discoveries, because 
of the Pope's inconsiderate grant to the 
crowns of Castile and Leon in 1493. 

1500 Apr. 26. Easter. Brazil. Cabral 
takes possession for Portugal, and erects 
an altar and plants a stone cross, and 
calls the country the Land of the Holy 
Cross. 

DISCOVERY — EXPLORATION. 

1492 Oct. 14. Watling Island. Colum- 
bus coasts along the shore northward. 

Oct. 19. The Island Isabella is discov- 
ered. 

Oct. 28. Cuba is visited. 

Oct. * — Jan. * Columbus discovers Ex- 
uma, Bahia, and Santa Catalina. 

Dec. 6. Haiti. He discovers Hispan- 
iola [later called San Domingo and 
Haiti]. 

Dec. 25. Haiti. "Wreck of the Santa 
Maria. 

1493 Jan. * Haiti. Columbus erects a 
fort from the wreckage of the vessel, and 
calls it La Navidad. 

Jan. 4. Columbus sails for Spain in 
the Nina. 

Feb. 12. In a terrifying storm Columbus 
places a record of the voyage in a cask, 
and commits it to the deep. 

Feb. 18. Azores. Columbus arrives at 
Santa Maria. 

The Portuguese governor disallows his 
commission, and threatens to seize him. 

Feb. 24. Azores. Columbus renews his 
voyage. 

Mar. 4. Port. The Nina, under stress of 
weather, drops anchor near Lisbon. Ad- 
miral Columbus is received with highest 
honors by the King. 

Mar. 15. Friday. Sp. Columbus com- 
pletes his voyage amid great rejoi- 
cings. 

The gold, cotton, parrots, curious arms, 
mysterious plants, strange birds and 
beasts, and, above all, nine captured In- 
dians, greatly interest the Court and the 
people. 

Sept. 25. Sp. Columbus's second voy- 
age. 

He sails from Cadiz with a fleet of sev- 
enteen ships, carrying 1,500 people, with 
animals and implements for starting a 
colony. Many or his company are worth- 
less adventurers. 

Nov. 3-K Caribbee Islands. Discovery of 
Dominica and several others of the 
Windward Group ; also Porto Rico. 

Nov. 4. W. I. Guadaloupe is discov- 
ered. 

Nov. 10. W. I. Antigua is discovered. 

Nov. 22. Haiti. Columbus arrives at 
La Navidad, finds the fort burned, and 
learns that the colony has perished. 



Dec. * Haiti. The city of Isabella, the 
first settlement by Europeans in the 
New World, is founded. 

The fortune-seekers are disappointed 
and censure Columbus ; they are igno- 
rant, proud, contentious, and insubordi- 
nate. 

1494 May 3. W. I. Jamaica is dis- 
covered. 

June 12. Cuba. Columbus signs a doc- 
ument, drawn by a notary, attesting the 
discovery of continuous land — the coast 
of Cuba. 

June 13. W. I. Evangelista Island (Isle 
of Pines) is discovered. 

Sept. 29. Haiti. Columbus returns from 
his voyage of discovery to Isabella, and 
lies sick for five months. 

* * -1507 * * Alleged improbable voyage 
of Behaim to the South American coast. 

1496 Mar. 5. Eng. Henry VII. signs 
the commission of John Cabot, a Ve- 
netian, to make discoveries and take 
possession of lands for the English flag. 
" No day in the history of the New World 
was more important." (Ridpath.) 

Mar. 10. Haiti. Columbus leaves in the 

Nina for Spain to meet the malicious 

charges of his enemies. 
June 11. Sp. Columbus returns to 

Cadiz, lands in great dejection, wearing 

the costume of a Franciscan. 

1497 May* Eng. John Cabot sails 
from Bristol, on a voyage of discovery, 
accompanied by his son Sebastian. 

May 10. Sp. Amerigo Vespucci, an 
educated Italian, sails on his first voy- 
age, with Yanez Pinzon and Juan Diaz 
de Solis, who visit the north coast of 
Honduras, Gulf of Mexico, Florida, and 
the Bermudas. [Disputed.] 

June 24. Can. First discovery of the 
American continent, at Cape Breton 
(or Labrador), by John Cabot ; he calls 
it Prima Vista. 

He raises two banners, one the flag 
of the Kingdom of Great Britain, and 
the other the flag of the Republic of 
Venice. The private enterprise of John 
Cabot and Sebastian, his son, leads to the 
discovery of the American continent, and 
its annexation to the British realm, the 
prudent King not sharing the risk of the 
voyage. 

1498 Apr. * Sebastian Cabot sails on 
his second voyage to the Atlantic coast 
of North America. 

He has five or six ships, 300 men, and 
explores the coast line from the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence to the Chesapeake Bay, 
and probably as far as Cape Hatteras, 
claiming all' the territory for England. 
(Ridpath.) 

May 30. Sp. Columbits sails on his 
third voyage, from St. Lucar. 

He has a fleet of six ships ; three bound 
for San Domingo, and three others to 
continue his discoveries. 

July 31. W. I. Trinidad Island is dis- 
covered by Columbus. 

Aug. 1. Venez. Columbus beholds the 
continent for the fis6t time, and mis- 
takes it for an insignificant island; he 
enters the mouth of the Orinoco River. 

Aug. 30. Haiti. Columbus returns to 
Isabella. 



AMERICA. 



1492, Oct. 14-1500, Dec. * 15 



* * Eng. Thomas Bradley and Lance- 
lot Thirkill sail for discoveries in the 
" New Isle." 

1499 * * Brazil is discovered by Vincent 
I'inzon, a Spanish navigator, who fol- 
lows the coast from 30° northwestward. 

May 16. Sp. Vespucci sails on an 
important voyage in the expedition of 
Alonzo de Ojeda and Juan de La Cosa. 

They coast from some point in North- 
ern Brazil to Paria, and westward to 
Maricabo and to Cape de La Vela. On 
his return he gives an exciting report. 

June * Guiana— Colombia. Ojeda discov- 
ers Surinam, the Gulf of Venezuela, and 
New Granada. 

1500 Jan. * Brazil. Diego de Lepe ex- 
plores the coast to about 10° south. 

Feb. 28. Brazil. Discovery of the 
Amazon River by Pinzon. 

Apr. 24. Brazil. Pedro Alvarez Cabral, 
a Portuguese, bound for India, is driven 
by adverse winds from his track, and 
anchors in Port Seguro. [He follows the 
coast from about 12° to 16° 30' south.] 

May 3. Brazil. Cabral discovers the 
mouth of the Amazon, and names the 
country Terra Sanctse Crucis. 

* * Can. Labrador is visited by Gas- 
paro Cortereal, a Portuguese, who also 
explores the shores of Canada for 600 
or 700 miles, and discovers and names 
Conception Bay. 

Oct. * -02 Sept. * Venez. Voyage of Rod- 
rigo Bastidas and La Cosa, who trace the 
Pearl Coast westward to Point Manza- 
nilla. 

Nov. 25. Sp. Columbus returns from 
his third voyage. 

LETTERS. 
1493 Feb. * -Mar. * Columbus writes 
the narrative of his discoveries. 

* * * Mex. Books are made of long strips 
or webs of cotton cloth, leaves of aloe 
after preparation, and skins of animals ; 
they are neatly joined, with pages folded 
in a zigzag manner, and they are pro- 
tected by covers of wood. 

* * * The Aztec language is copious and 
polished ; some of its words have twelve 
or fifteen syllables. 

The written language is essentially 
picture-writing, with few symbols or 
real hieroglyphs. 

SOCIETY. 

1492 Oct. * Cuba. Columbus finds the 
natives enjoy the smoking of tobacco. 

± * * The aborigines of America differ. 
They speak from 400 to 500 different 
languages, vary in size from the semi- 
dwarf of the Arctic regions to the Pata- 
gonian giants of the South, and embrace 
a variety of shades of brown in their 
color ; they cultivate the soil and pro- 
duce maize, beans, pumpkins, and to- 
bacco. The universal vice is indolence. 

1493 Mar. * Sp. Columbus is made a 
grandee. 

May 4. Sp. Columbus receives a mag- 
nificent scutcheon, having the royal 
castle and lion of Castile and Leon 
.blazoned in combination with the four 
anchors of his old coat of arms. 



* * W. I. Discords and mutinies pre- 
vail among the fortune-seekers who 
come to the New World. 

1494 * * W. I. Columbus enslaves 500 
Indians, and sends them to Spain to be 
publicly sold. 

1495 June 24. W.I. Five ship-loads 
of Indians are embarked for Seville by 
Columbus, to be sold as slaves. 

1496 * * W. I. Bartholomew Columbus 
ships 300 natives to Spain to be sold as 
slaves. 

[A third of the gentle Indians are said 
to have perished within two or three 
years after the arrival of the Spaniards.] 
1499 June 20. Sp. Isabella, moved 
with indignation at the enslavement of 
Indians, procures the instant libera- 
tion and speedy return of the last gang 
brought into Spain. 

* * Haiti. Indians are assigned to labor, 
in support of certain Spaniards, by a 
kind of villenage. 

* * * North America. The Indians prac- 
tise polygamy, treat their wives with 
cruelty and their children with indiffer- 
ence. The women raise maize, beans, 
and pumpkins for the support of their 
families. 

* * * Chile. Chileans make a fermented 
drink of maize, and drunkenness is a 
common vice. 

* * * Civilized nations of the Toltecan 
family occupy Mexico, Peru, and Bogota. 

* * * Civilization is found to follow 
closely the chain of the Andes, and is 
specially developed in Mexico and Peru, 
the latter being the most highly civi- 
lized empire in America. 

* * * Mex. Beggars abound, and are 
decimated by frequent famines. 

Immutable custom regulates society, 
and chains the wheels of progress. 

Chicha, a fermented infusion of maize, 
and pulque, made from the sap of the 
great aloe plant, are intoxicants drunk 
by the people ; public festivals are pro- 
longed drinking bouts. To maintain the 
occupations, one part of the population 
abstains while the other part indulges. 

The masses, are attached to the soil, 
allotments of which are cultivated in 
common by the slaves of nobles for their 
own subsistence. 

" The excessive use of pulque appears 
to have occasioned the decay of the Tol- 
tecs." (Payne.) 
* * * Peru. An intoxicating beverage 
is made from the quinoa bean. 

The mass of the people are in a state of 
mild servitude, under a kind of nobil- 
ity, who are ruled by Incas. 
Harems are maintained by the Incas. 
" The excessive use of chicha appears 
to have been nearly connected with the 
ruin of the Peruvians." (Payne.) 
1500 May * Haiti. Columbus is im- 
prisoned and put in chains by Bobadilla, 
who has been sent out to investigate his 
conduct. 
* * While returning to Spain, Villejo, cap- 
tain of the caravel, proposes to remove 
the chains. Columbus replies, "I will 



wear them as a memento of the grati- 
tude of princes." 

STATE. 

1493 Jan. 16. Haiti. Columbus leaves 
43 men at the fort called Navidad (Isa- 
bella), and sails for Spain. 

May 3, 4. It. Bull of demarcation. 
Pope Alexander VI. draws a line from 
the North to the South Pole, 100 leagues 
west of the Azores, and gives to Spain 
the dominion of the lands westward, and 
to Portugal those lying eastward, includ- 
ing Western Africa. 

* * -1527 * * Sp. Bishop Fonseca is 
all-powerful in Indian affairs at the 
Spanish court. 

1494 Apr. 24. Haiti. Columbus leaves 
his colony in the care of a council of 
regency, under his brother Diego, with 
Pedro de Margarite for captain-general, 
while he pursues a voyage of discovery. 

June 4-7. Sp. Convention at Torde- 
sillas, which moves the meridian line, 
dividing Spanish from Portuguese pos- 
sessions, 370 leagues west of the Cape 
Verde Islands. 

1495 Oct. * W. I. Juan Aguado ar- 
rives at Isabella, commissioned to 
investigate the complaints against 
Columbus' rule. 

1496 * * Haiti. Columbus founds the 
city of San Domingo. 

May* Columbus again leaves Diego in 
charge of the colony, and sails for Spain. 
He fails as a planter of colonies and as a 
ruler of men. 

1497 June 24 4 . The discoveries of 
John Cabot along the Atlantic coast 
form the basis of English claims to the 
territory of North America. 

1498 Aug. 30. Haiti. Columbus is 
compelled to compromise with Roldan, 
who leads a revolt. 

* * Fr. Louis XII. is enthroned. 

1499 May 21. Haiti. Bobadilla, the 
enemy of Columbus, is made governor 
of the Spanish colony, and given charge 
of all fortresses and arms. 

1500 Aug. 23. Haiti. Bobadilla ar- 
rives, and confusion and disaster follow. 

[He entertains accusations agains Co- 
lumbus of injustice, severity, and venal- 
ity, and sends him and his two brothers 
to Spain, wearing chains.] 
Oct. * Haiti. Prosperity begins to favor 
the colonists in the opening of success- 
ful gold mines. 

Indians are settled in villages and 
Christianized ; Columbus estimates the 
royal revenues may average 60,000,000 
reals ($7,500,000) in three years. [The 
new governor reverses the prosperity.] 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

1492 Oct. * -Dec. * Haiti. Columbus 
concludes that San Salvador is the Land 
of Ophir, from whence Solomon ob- 
tained his gold. 

1495 * * W. I. Columbus still believes 
that he has discovered the Indies ; hence 
the islands are called the West Indies. 

1498 Aug. * Venez. Columbus enters 
the mouth of the Orinoco, and he ima- 
gines it to be the great river Gihon, 
having its rise in the Garden of Eden. 



16 1500, Dec. 17-15ia 



AMERICA. 



ARMY -NAVY. 
1503 * * Mex. Montezuma's expedi- 
tion against the Tlascalans, to get vic- 
tims for sacrifices, is disastrously de- 
feated. 

1509 * * Porto Rico is subjugated by 
Ponce de Leon. 

1511 * * Cuba is conquered by Diego 
Velasquez. 

CONQUEST OF MEXICO. 
1519 Feb. 10. Cuba. Hernando Cor- 
tez sails for the invasion of Mexico. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 
1508 * * -12 * * Sp. Amerigo Ves- 
pucci renders important service to sci- 
ence, in his position of royal pilot. 

* * * Mex. The Spaniards find the na- 
tives skilled in the arts. 

Pyramids, temples, grottoes, bas-re- 
liefs, and arabesques show their skill in 
the fine arts ; roads, aqueducts, fortifi- 
cations, and mining operations exhibit 
their practical arts. Buildings with 
vaulted roofs, obelisks covered with 
mythical figures, pictorial and hiero- 
graphical inscriptions, evince their intel- 
ligence and skill. 

* * * Mex. The calendar of the civil 
year is composed of 365 days divided into 
18 months of 20 days, and having five 
supplementary days. 

The Mexicans spin thread, weave 
cloth, build stone houses, cultivate 
maize, potatoes, plantains, and raise 
cotton. 

* * * Peruvians have admirable pub- 
lic roads, one extending 1,500 miles ; 
rivers are crossed by suspension bridges. 

They excel other nations in navigation, 
using sails on rafts, which they tack and 
veer ; other races having only the canoe 
and paddle. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1503 Mex. Ahuitzotl, Aztec king, dies. 

1504 Sp. Isabella of Castile, patron of 
Columbus, Nov. 12 dies. 

1506 .s'/>. Columbus, Christopher, May 
20, A61 + . 

1512 It. Vespucci, Amerigo, navigator, d. 

1515 Mex. Nezahualpilli, Aztec king, dies. 

1516 Sp. Ferdinand V., king, dies. 

Arg. Hep. Solis, Juan Diaz de, navigator, 
dies. 
1516 Peru. Manco Capac [2d], inca, born. 

CHURCH. 

1502 * * Sp. Bartolome" de Las Casas 
sails with Columbus. 

* * Haiti. Franciscans enter Hispan- 
iola. 

1503 * * It. Pius HI., later Julius II., 
is elected pope. 

1508 * * Fr. North American Indians 
are baptized in France. 

1510 * * Haiti. Las Casas is ordained a 
priest, probably the first ordination in 
the New World. 

* * Haiti. Dominican monks arrive, 
and rebuke the avarice and cruelty of 
the Spaniards. 

1513 * * It. Leo X. is elected pope. 
1514* * Haiti. Las Casas, "the pro- 
tector of the Indians," is converted to 



anti-slavery work by a Bible text. He 
arrays the authority of the church 
against oppression, after first freeing 
his own slaves. 
1517* * Ger. The Reformation under 
Luther begins. [It ultimately affects 
the religious development of North Am- 
erica.] 

1518 * * Mex. Numerous prisoners are 
immolated in honor of the dedication of 
the temple of Coatlan, the last slaughter 
of this kind in Mexico. 

DISCOVERY — EXPLORATION. 

1501 Mar. 19. Eng. Henry VII. grants 
a patent to a company of discoverers. 
[They probably reach America.] 

May 14. Port. Vespucci sails on his 
third voyage with Nuno Manuel (?) 
along the coast of Brazil. 

He recognizes the discoveries in the 
New World as no part of India. [He 
afterward publishes a narrative which 
omits all reference to Columbus, and so 
gives his name to the continent.] 

* * Cortereal sails again, seeking a passage 
to the East Indies, and is lost on the voy- 
age. 

* * Colombia. Bastidas visits the coasts 
of New Granada. 

1502 Jan. 1. Brazil. Vespucci dis- 
covers the Bay of Rio de Janeiro. 

May 9. Sp. Columbus, 57 years (?) 
old, sails on his fourth voyage, with 
four caravels and 150 men, seeking for a 
western passage to Asia. [He coasts 
from Cape Honduras eastward and south- 
ward to the Gulf of Darien.] 

May 10. Port. Gasparo Cortereal being 
lost, his brother Miguel sails in search 
of him [and never returns]. 

* * Haiti. Columbus is refused permis- 
sion to refit his largest ship in his own 
colony. 

June 13. Columbus discovers Marti- 
nique. 

July * + Darien — Mex. Columbus dis- 
covers various islands along the coast 
of Honduras, and explores the coast of 
Darien. 

Aug. 14. Honduras. Columbus first 
lands on the American Continent at 
Punta de Cassinas [Cabo de Honduras] ; 
he claims the country for Spain. 

Oct. 5+. W. I. Columbus discovers Costa 
Rica and later Nicaragua ; he also visits 
the coast of New Granada [Colombia]. 

Nov. 2. Panama. Columbus discovers 
and names Porto Bello. 

* * Sp. Ojeda's second voyage to Terra 
Firma (Brazil). 

1503 May 10. W.I. Columbus discov- 
ers the Tortugas Islands. 

May * Port. Vespucci sails -with Gon- 
calo Coelho from Lisbon, with six ships, 
for the Brazilian coast, and meets with 
disasters. 

June 23. Jamaica. Columbus's vessel 
runs aground in Santa Gloria (St. Ann's 
Bay), [and waits more than a year for 
relief.] 



* * Brazil. Christovao Jaques coasts 
southward to about 52* south on the 
coast of Patagonia. 

* * Colombia. Columbus discovers Darien. 
1504 Sept. 12. Haiti. Columbus takes 

final leave of the New World, and sails 
for Spain. 

Nov. 7. Sp. Columbus returns from 
his last voyage. 

* * Guiana. Vasco Nunez de Balboa lands 
on the coast of Guiana. 

* * Newfoundland visited by Breton 
fishermen. 

* * Sp. Juan de la Cosa sails on his 
third voyage for South America in a 
[successful] search for gold. [1507 and 
1509. He sails again.J 

1506 * * Can. The Gulf of St. Law- 
rence is examined and sketcbed by 
Jean Denys of Honfleur and Camart 
of Rouen. 

* * Mex. Yucatan is discovered by Juan 
Diaz Solis and Vincent Yanez Pinzon, 
of Portugal. 

1507 * * -08 * * Panama. Las Casas and 
Vespucci explore the Gulf of Darien. 

1508 June 29. Brazil. Pinzon and 
Solis sail from Portugal, and follow the 
coast of South America to about 60° 
south. 

* * Pinzon said to have discovered the Rio 
de la Plata. 

* * Can. Thomas Aubert touches at 
Newfoundland, and thence carries the 
French flag up the St. Lawrence 
River. He takes Indians with him on 
his return to France. 

* * Cuba circumnavigated by Ocampo, 
and found to be an island. 

* * Newfoundland is visited by the 
Normans. 

* * Sp. Sebastian Cabot enters the ser- 
vice of Spain. [1516. He prepares to 
sail to seek a northwest passage, but is 
prevented by the king's death.] 

1513 Mar. 3. Panama. Juan Ponce 
de Leon sails from Porto Rico for the 
fabled Fountain of Perpetual Youth. 

Mar. 27. Fla. De Leon rediscovers 
Florida, the land of flowers, and claims 
it for Spain. 

Apr. 8. Fla. De Leon lands [a few 
miles north of St. Augustine]. 

Sept. 25. Panama. Vasco Nunez de 
Balboa, having led an expedition of 290 
men across the isthmus, discovers the 
Pacific Ocean. 

Sept. 29. Panama. Balboa wades into 
the ocean, draws his sword, and takes 
possession in the name of the King of 
Spain. 

1514* *-16* * Panama. Bartolome 
Hurtado, Espinoza, and Herman Ponce 
are sent to explore the Pacific coast; 
they prepare the way for settlements in 
Costa Rica. 

1515 * * Uruguay. Solis again arrives. 

1516 Jan. * Solis enters the La Plata 
River, searching for a strait leadn.^ 
westward. 



AMERICA. 



1500, Dec. 17-151R 17 









* * -17 * * Can. Alleged voyage of Cabot 
to New France. 

* * Fla. "Voyage of Diego Miruelo from 
Spain to Florida. 

1517 * * Yucatan rediscovered by Fer- 
nando de Cordova, and the gulf coast 
explored as far as Florida. 

* * Panama. Balboa is beheaded for 
treason, when about to lead an expedi- 
tion to Peru. 

1518 May * -June * Mex. The im- 
portant expedition of Juan de Gri- 
jalva discovers the east coast of Mexico 
and visits Florida. 

With 240 Spaniards he enters Mexico ; 
the Aztecs first behold the white man, 
and give him tidings of the great empire 
of the Montezumas. Yucatan is visited 
and named New Spain. He explores 
the Gulf of Mexico, and returns with 
masses of gold. 

* * Can. Baron de Leri attempts to 
plant a colony on Sable Island, but 
only succeeds in introducing cattle. 

LETTERS. 

1500 * * Sp. Juan de la Cosca, a Bis- 
cayan pilot, makes his remarkable map. 

1504 * * Sp. Vespucci publishes an ac- 
count of his voyage. 

1507 * * Fr. Martin Waltzemuller from 
Freiburg in Breisgau, professor at St. 
Die in Lorraine, originates the name 
America. 

In _ his Introduction to Geography, 
published at the college press, lie says : 
" And the fourth part of the world hav- 
ing been discovered by Amerigo, or 
Americus, we may call it America." 

1509 * * Enq. Sebastian Brant's Ship 
of Fools is the first .English publication 
to mention America. 

1510 * * Sp. The learning and intelli- 
gence of Spain admit there is a Fountain 
of Perpetual Youth somewhere in the 
Bahamas ; Ponce de Leon seeks for it. 

16th Century. Mex. Dated records of 
Mexican events are preserved, and by 
many scholars received as the begin- 
ning of accepted history. 



SOCIETY. 

1500 Dec. 17. Sp. Columbus ar- 
rives as a prisoner in Spain. 

Dec. * Columbus, richly dressed, is re- 
ceived by their majesties ; the Queen is 
moved to tears by his recital of suffer- 
ings and wrongs. Great indignation 
at his dishonorable treatment is aroused 
throughout Spain. 

* * Sp. Queen Isabella commands the 
liberation of the enslaved Indians in 
her European possessions. 

1501 * * Haiti. A few negroes are im- 
ported as slaves. 

* * Can. Cortereal captures 57 Indians 
and takes them to Portugal to be sold as 
slaves. 

1502 * * Can. Cortereal sails again for a 
cargo of slaves. [Not returning the fol- 
lowing year, his brother sai Is to find him ; 
what became of the two slave-ships is an 
unsolved mystery.] 

1503 * * Haiti. There are so many Af- 
rican slaves on the island that the gov- 



ernor entreats for the restraint of the 
traffic. 
1504 * * Haiti. Hernando Cortez ar- 
rives in San Domingo, 19 years of age, 
and seeking adventures. 

1506 May 20. Sp. Columbus dies in 
neglect at Valladolid. 

* * W.I. The more important islands 
are colonized, and the natives murdered 
or reduced to slavery. 

1507 * * Mex. To mark the beginning of 
a new cycle of years, fire is kindled for 
the last time on a human breast by 
Mexicans. 

* * * Nicaragua suffers under five Span- 
ish rulers. 

"The first had been a murderer, the 
second a murderer and a rebel, the 
third murdered the second, the fourth 
was a forger, and the fifth a murderer." 
(Boyle.) 

1508 * * Haiti. The. native Indians be- 
ing too weak to labor in the Spanish gold . 
mines, negroes are imported from 
Africa. 

Thus was " laid the foundation of a 
traffic which continued to disgrace the 
civilization of Europe for three centu- 
ries." (Ency. Brit.) 

1510 * * Haiti. The Spaniards revolt 
against the Dominicans for calling 
them no better than Mohammedans, be- 
cause of their cruelty to the natives. 

1511 * * Haiti. A royal ordinance en- 
joins the direct transportation of slaves 
from Guinea, as one negro can do the 
work of four Indians. 

1517 * * Cuba. The Spaniards fit up an 
expedition of three ships for catching 
slaves ; Cordova is in command. 

STATE. 

1500 Dec. * Sp. Great indignation 
throughout Spain because of the treat- 
ment given Columbus ; the Crown disap- 
proves of the proceedings against him. 

+ * * Mex. The Aztecs spread by force 
of arms from the Pacific to the Gulf 
of Mexico. 

1502 Feb. 18. W.I. Nicolas de Ovan- 
do succeeds to the governorship of the 
colonies, and sails with a fleet of thirty 
ships and 2,500 people from San 
Lucar, Spain. 

* * Mex. Ahuitzotl, the Aztec emperor, 
dies, and Montezuma II. is elected. 

* * W. I. Columbus ceases to be 
viceroy. 

± * * Costa Rica. Spanish adventurers ar- 
rive. * 

1503 Mar. * Bethlehem is abandoned. 
Columbus resolves to leave 80 men at 

the colony of Bethlehem, where gold was 
found, and return to Spain for supplies ; 
but needless quarrels with the natives 
break up the settlement before he sails. 

1504 June * Jamaica. After being re- 
fused assistance from shipwreck, and 
waiting one year, Columbus is at last 
rescued by Ovando. 

* * Brazil. The Portuguese, led by Amer- 
igo Vespucci, establish a small colony 
at All Saints. The name Brazil is fre- 
quently given to South America. 



* * W. I. Hernando Cortez comes to 
the New World. 

1509 * * Colombia. Alonzo de Ojeda at- 
tempts to colonize New Andalusia and 
conquer the natives ; he calls his colony 
San Sebastian ; it is soon abandoned. 

* * Haiti. Arrival of Diego Columbus as 
governor of the Indies. 

* * Eng. Henry VIH. is enthroned. 

* * Panama. Arrival of Francisco Pi- 
zarro. 

* * W. I. Ponce de Leon is appointed 
governor of Porto Bico. 

1510* * Brazil. Diego Alvarez at Bahia. 

* * Darien. The colony of Santa Ma- 
ria del Darien is planted by Enciso ; it 
is the first permanent settlement on 
the continent of America. 

* * Panama. Nombre de Dios is founded 
by Nicuessa. 

1511 * * Cuba. Diego Velasquez and Cor- 
tez, with 300 Europeans, settle at Ba- 
racoa. Velasquez subdues the Cubans. 

* * Brazil. The Portuguese appear in Rio 
de Janeiro Bay. 

* * -17 * * Darien. The Spaniards hear 
reports of the wealth of the Incas. 

1512 Apr. 2. Sp. Ponce de Leon is 
empowered to settle Bimeni, the great 
unknown land to the north, which is re- 
puted to have a fountain of youth. 

* * Sp. Ferdinand V. is enthroned. 

1513 * * Fla. Spain claims Florida by 
the right of discovery made by Ponce de 
Leon; England lays a claim to the 
whole continent by the original discovery 
of Cabot. 

1514 * * W. I. Santiago becomes the 
capital of Cuba. 

Trinidad is settled. 

1515 * * Brazil is colonized by the Portu- 
guese; it is the first agricultural col- 
ony. 

* * Cuba. San Cristoval de la Havana, 
on the south coast, is settled. 

* * Fr. Francis I. is enthroned. 

* * Mex. King Nezahualpilli dies. 
1516* * Sp. Charles I. is enthroned. 

Las Casas is made •• Universal Pro- 
tector of the Indians." 
1517 * * Panama. Nata is founded by 
Spaniards. 

Unfortunate Balboa is beheaded as 
a traitor. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1500 * * Sp. Columbus preserves his 
fetters in his cabinet, and desires that 
they may be buried with him. 

1501 * * -02 * * Newfoundland. Portu- 
guese fisheries are established. 

1504 * * Can. Cape Breton fisheries are 
visited by Bretons, Normans, and Basque 
sailors. 

1509 June * Domestic animals, in- 
cluding fowls, are first sent to America. 

1513 Mar 3. W. I. Ponce de Leon 
sails with three ships from Porto Rico 
for the Bahamas, to find the Fountain 
of Youth. 



18 



1519-1529. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 
1519 Mar. 4. Mex. Cortez, -with 11 
ships and 550 men, lands at Tabasco, 
and begins the conquest of Mexico. 
Apr. * Mex. Cortez negotiates with 
Montezuma, who orders the invaders 
to depart. 
* * * Mex. Cortez is elected general 
by the troops. 

Cortez scuttles his vessels to cut off 
retreat. 
Aug. * Cortez leaves "Vera Cruz, and 
marches for the city of Mexico with 
450 men, beside his Tlascalan allies. 
Sept. 18. Mex. Cortez enters the con- 
quered city of Tlascala. 
Nov. 8. Mex. Cortez arrives at the 
city of Mexico, and is received with 
great distinction. 
Dec. * Mex. Cortez seizes Montezuma 
in his own house for a hostage. 

He compels the king to acknowledge 
himself a vassal of the King of Spain, 
and to agree to pay an annual tribute, 
besides an immediate payment of a sum 
amounting to $6,300,000. 
1520* * Mex. Velasquez, the jealous 
Governor of Cuba, sends Pamfllo de 
Narvaez with a military force to chas- 
tise Cortez. 
May 26. Mex. Cortez, with about 220 
men, surprises and captures Narvaez, 
his rival, near Vera Cruz. He gains 10 
or 12 cannon, 80 horses, and about 900 
soldiers. 
June 24. Mex. Cortez returns to the 
capital, and enters the city without mo- 
lestation. 
June 30. Mex. The Mexicans revolt 
and kill Montezuma, in indignation at 
his capitulation. 
July 1. Mex. The retreating Spaniards 
are furiously attacked on one of the 
causeways, while leaving the city, and 
suffer terrible loss. 
July 7. Mex. On the Plain of Otumba 
Cortez decides the fate of Mexico by de- 
feating the great army which had driven 
his forces out.of the city, after a gallant 
defense of 75 days. 
Dec. * Cortez, reenforced and re-sup- 
plied, assumes the aggressive, and 
marches again into the interior. 
Dec. 31. Mex. Cortez occupies Tescuco. 
1521 * * Mex. Conquest of Iztapala- 

pan. 
Apr. 28. Mex. Cortez begins the siege 

of Mexico. 
May * -Aug. 13. Mex. Cortez, having 
built and transported a fleet, launches 
it on the Lake of Mexico [and takes 
the city after a long siege]. 
Aug. * Mex. The empire of the Mon- 
tezumas is overthrown, and its cap- 
tured king, Guatemozin, executed, after 
suffering torture. 

Mexico submits to Cortez, who governs 
it with unlimited power, as a province 
of Spain. 
* * Fla. The Caribbee Indians drive 
Ponce de Leon and his men back to 
their ships. 



1523 * * Guatemala invaded by Pedro 
de Alvarado, under orders of Cortez. 

1524 * * Honduras. Cortez sends Chris- 
toval de Olid, one of his captains, from 
Mexico to assume authority. 

* * Guatemala. Alvarado, the conqueror, 
is also governor [for 17 years]. 

Oct. * Honduras entered by Cortez. 

Nov. 14. Colombia. Francisco Pizarro 
with 100 foot-soldiers and 67 horsemen, 
sails from Panama for Peru. [He 
makes observations, and returns.] 

1525 * * S. C. The Indians of Chicora 
drive off De Ayllon, the treacherous 
slave-catcher. 

* * _26 * * San Salvador is conquered 
for Spain by Alvarado. 

1526 Mar. 10. Peru. Almagro and 
Luque sign a contract for the conquest 
of Peru, Gaspar de Espinosa supplying 
the funds. [It is an attempt at private 
conquest]. 

May * Mex. Cortez returns to Mexico 
in great splendor. 

* * Colombia. Pizarro sails from Pan- 
ama on his second expedition to Peru, 
and lands most of his men at San Juan, 
when Almagro returns for supplies. 

1527+ ** Colombia. Pizarro makes his 
third start from San Juan, and again 
halts at the Island of Gallo and sends 
back to Panama for supplies ; here the 
Spaniards suffer incredible hardships. 

* * Colombia. Pizarro makes his fourth 
start from near the Island of Gallo, and 
discovers Peru. He then returns to 
Panama for reenforcements. 

* * Mex. Conquest of Yucatan is begun. 

1528 Apr. 12. Fla. Pamfllo de Nar- 
vaez lands at Tampa Bay an army of 
conquest. 

It consists of 260 foot and 40 horsemen. 
[Unparalleled sufferings and perils by 
land and sea await them ; the four survi- 
vors are Anally rescued at San Miguel on 
the Pacific coast.] 

* * Cuba. The buccaneers burn Havana. 

* * Peru. Pizarro returns to Spain for 
aid and volunteers, after the Governor 
of Panama has refused them. 

1529 July 26. Sp. Pizarro arranges 
a capitulation with the Spanish crown 
for the conquest of Peru. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1521+ * * Peril. The Spaniards discover 
the potato. 

1522 .Sept. 7. Sp. Magellan's ship 
completes the circumnavigation of the 
globe. 

1524 Mar. * Verrazano, a Florentine, 
is supposed to be the first to sail di- 
rectly west in crossing the Atlantic. 

* * The Cabots notice the immense shoals 
of fish which throng the waters of New- 
foundland. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1520 Mex. Montezuma II., last Aztec king, 

dies. 
1525 Peru. Capac, Huayna, inca, dies. 



CHURCH. 

1519 Mar.* Mex. The Mexicans believe 
the Spaniards to be gods, and send to 
Cortez human beings for sacrifice. 

1521* * Venez. Las Casas prosecutes his 
humanitarian work on the Pearl Coast. 

* * The Dominicans are driven from the 
Pearl Coast by natives who have been 
exasperated by slave-catchers. 

1522 * * Las Casas becomes a Dominican. 

* * It. Adrian VI. is elected pope. 

* * Mex. Franciscan missionaries ar- 
rive. 

1523 * * It. Clement VTXI. is elected 
pope. 

1526 * * Va. Dominican missionaries 
arrive, and erect a chapel on the James 
River. Antonio Montesino is the mis- 
sionary preacher. They are the first re- 
ligious teachers sent to this country. 

* * Mex. Dominican missionaries ar- 
rive. 

* * * Chile. Chileans believe in a 
supreme being, and good and bad 
spirits, but have neither temples, idols, 
nor religious rites. They believe in a 
future state, hold vague traditions of a 
deluge, and of persons saved on a high 
mountain. 

* * * Mex. Beligion is savage in spirit 
and more degrading than that of the un- 
civilized Indians, their deities being hid- 
eous creatures to whom human sacrifices 
are yearly offered in great numbers. 

* * * Peru. The Incas are regarded as a 
sacred race, possessing divinity derived 
from the great deity, the sun. They are 
supreme pontiffs as well as sovereigns. 

The sun, moon, evening star, the spirit 
of thunder, and the rainbow, are all wor- 
shiped, and temples are erected in their 
honor; sacrifices are chiefly the edible 
fruits or grain, and are always bloodless. 
1528 Apr. 16. U.S. Franciscan 
monks accompany Pamfllo de Narvaez 
in his conquest of Florida. [They perish 
of starvation.] 

* * Mex. Pedro de Musa, a lay-brother, 
reports 200,000 converts in six years. 

DISCOVERY — EXPLORATION. 

1519 Aug. 10. Sp. Fernando Magel- 
lan, a Portuguese navigator, sails on 
his eventful voyage. [He enters the 
Plata River and later the Pacific Ocean.] 

* * Fla. Alvarez de Pineda, seeking a 
strait leading westward, coasts from 
Cape Florida to the River Panuco in 
Mexico. 

Aug. * Pineda enters the mouth of the 
Mississippi. 

* * Yucatan. Cortez arrives on the 
coast and proceeds to Mexico. 

* * Panama. Espinoza coasts westward 
on the Pacific as far as Cape Blanco 
(Costa Rica). 

* * Francis de Garay explores the Gulf 
of Mexico. 

1520 Oct. 21. Chile. Magellan en- 
ters the Strait of Magellan. 

Nov. 28. Chile Magellan enters the 
Pacific Ocean. 



AMERICA. 



1519-1529. 



19 



* * 2f, Y. The Spaniards visit the 
shores of New York, and leave the 
Pompey stone. (?) 

* * S. C. Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon brings 
an expedition consisting of two vessels 
to American shores in search of Indians 
to be taken as slaves. 

A storm drives him northward, and he 
enters St. Helena Sound (South Caro- 
lina), and names the country Chicora, 
and the river he calls the Jordan (Cam- 
bahee). 

1521 * * Fla. Ponce de Leon lands in 
Florida the second time, is mortally 
wounded by the Indians, and taken back 
to Cuba, where he dies. 

1522 Sept. 7. Sp. The circumnavi- 
gation of the globe is completed by the 
return of Magellan's ship. 

* * Discovery of the Bermudas. 

* * Nicaragua is regularly explored 
by an expedition sent out from Panama, 
under Gil Gonzalez Davila. 

1524 Mar. * + Giovanni Verrazano, 
a Florentine, sailing under the French 
flag, explores the coast of North Caro- 
lina, Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey, 
New York Bay, and onward to Acadia 
(Nova Scotia). 

The country between the 28th and 
50th degrees of latitude he calls New 
France. This voyage lays the basis of 
the claims of France to this territory. 
(He is the fourth Italian of great dis- 
tinction in the discovery of the New 
World, — Columbus, Vespucius, John 
Cabot, and Verrazano.) 

Apr. * ± Verrazano enters New York 
Bay. (?) 

Nov. 14. Panama. Francisco Pizarro 
sails on an unsuccessful voyage for Peru, 
reaching only one-third the distance. 

* * R. I. Verrazano carefully inspects 
the spacious harbor of Newport. (?) 

1525 * * Estevan Gomez sails from Spain 
and follows the east coast from Labra- 
dor to Florida. 

June 13. N. Y. Gomez discovers the 
Saint Anthony (Hudson) River. 

* * California discovered by Cortez 
while seeking an eastward passage. 

1526 * * Voyage of Sebastian Cabot 
under the Spanish flag ; he explores the 
country about Buenos Ayres, and enters 
the La Plata and Parana Rivers. 

* * Paraguay and Uruguay are explored. 

* * N. F. Nicolas Don visits Newfound- 
land. 

* * Lucas Vasques de Ayllon, a Span- 
iard, follows the Atlantic coast as far as 
the Chesapeake Bay. 

1527 * * John But, an Englishman, 
coasts north to 53° north, and on his re- 
turn visits Newfoundland, Cape Breton, 
and the coast of Maine. 

* * Pamfilo de Narvaez, a Spanish ad- 
venturer, visits the coast of the upper 
Gulf of Mexico. 

* * Mex. Cortez despatches an explor- 
ing fleet to the Pacific coast. 

1528 Apr. 14+. Fla. Pamfilo de Nar- 
vaez with four ships, carrying 400 men 
and 80 horses, lands in Appalache Bay, 
and thence explores westward ; four 
persons survive many disasters, and 



wandering 2,000 miles, they finally arrive 

at Culiacan, Mexico. 
May 1. Narvaez, with 300 men, of whom 

40 are mounted, strikes for the interior. 
Aug. * Narvaez reaches the shore (St. 

Mark's Bay) without finding his ships. 

* * Cabeza de Vaca, a surviving compan- 
ion of Narvaez, crosses the mouth of the 
Mississippi, and discovers fresh water. 

* * Panama. Pizarro sails for Spain, 
and reports his success. 

LETTERS. 

1519 July 10. Mex. Cortez writes his 
first letter concerning his explorations. 

1520 Oct. 30. Mex. Cortez writes a 
second letter. 

1522 * * Mex. Cortez writes a third 
letter. 

1524 * * Mex. Cortez writes a fourth 
letter. 

1526 Sept. * Mex. Cortez writes his 
fifth letter. 

1529 * * Mex. Earliest phonetic render- 
ing of Mexican tongues. 

SOCIETY. 
1520**5. C. Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon, 
with six others, entices the natives of 
Chicora aboard his ships, and when the 
decks are crowded, sails for San Domin- 
go, loaded with slaves ; one vessel sank 
and most of the natives died en route. 

* * S. C. De Ayllon returns for more 
slaves, but is driven off by the natives. 

* * * Chileans are a brave-spirited 
people, without ferocity ; they are the 
moRt manly and energetic of all Ameri- 
cans. 

STATE. 

1519 Aug.* Panama. The seat of gov- 
ernment is transferred by Pedro Arias 
from Darien to Panama. 

* * Cuba. The name Havana is given to 
the capital. 

* * Mex. The golden riches of Mex- 
ico inflame the avarice of the Spaniards. 

Cortez founds the colony of Vera 
Cruz, and causes himself to be elected 
its captain-general. 

1520 June 30. Mex. Montezumall., 
the last of the Aztec kings, dies. 

* * Venez. The first settlement is made 
at Cumana by Spaniards. 

1521 Aug. 13. Mex. By the capture 
of the capital, Mexico becomes a Span- 
ish province. 

* * * Mex. The native government is 
a perfect feudal monarchy, in which 
the nobility and the priests monopolize 
all the power. 

The government has a system of cou- 
riers for conveying intelligence, and a 
kind of police for cleaning and watch- 
ing the city. 

The first visitors find no tame animals, 
no roads, and no money for interchange 
of commerce. 

* * * Chile. The Spaniards find fifteen 
independent tribes, who maintain them- 
selves chiefly by agriculture. 



* * * Peru. Government is a theoc- 
racy and paternal in character ; it is 
administered and tithes are collected by 
officers placed over the people, who are 
arranged in parties of ten families. 
Others rule over five or ten tithings, and 
others fifty or a hundred ; the Inca is 
both pontiff and sovereign. 

The Peruvians, having the least warlike 
spirit, maintain the largest empire ; it 
covers 2,500 miles of territory. 
± * * Colombia. Hernandez de Cordova 
is beheaded as a rebel by Pedro Arias, 
the bloody governor of Panama. 

* * Fla. Ponce de Leon, with two ships, 
attempts to find a site for a colony, but 
is driven away by the Indians. 

* * Port. John III. is enthroned. 

1522 * * Nicaragua. The city of Granada 
is founded by Gil Gonzalez Davila. 

1523 * * Peru. Huascar becomes Inca. 

1524 July * Giovanni Verrazano claims 
for France the coast from the latitude 
of "Wilmington to Nova Scotia, and 
calls it New France. 

± * * S. C. Charles V. of Spain appoints 
Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon governor of 
Chicora, with a grant of territory as a 
reward for his success in stealing slaves. 

1525 Nov. * Peru. The great Inca, 
Huayna Capac, the twelfth king in suc- 
cession from Manco, dies. 

* * Can. A [short - lived] Portuguese 
colony is planted at Cape Breton Island. 

1526 Mar. 10. Panama. Francisco 
Pizarro, Almagro, and Luque formally 
renew their compact to conquer Peru, 
and divide the revenue between them- 
selves. 

May * Mex. Cortez returns from Yuca- 
tan. 

* * Fla. Charles V. appoints the un- 
scrupulous Pamfilo de Narvaez gover- 
nor of Florida, with the privilege of con- 
quest. 

* * Va. De Ayllon begins a settlement 
called San Miguel, and is aided in the 
work by negro slaves. [It is on the site 
of Jamestown of 81 years later, and is 
soon abandoned.] 

1528* * Mex. Cortez goes to Spain, 
where he is made Marquis del Valle de 
Oajaca. 

* * Venez. Germans settle at Caro, be- 
tween St. Martha and Maracapana. 

* * Paraguay. Sebastian Cabot arrives 
and builds a fort called Santo Espiritu. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

1519± * * Cuba. City of Havana is re- 
moved [to its present site]. 

* * Panama is founded by Pedrarias. 
[1521. It becomes a city.] 

1524 * * The French prosecute the New- 
foundland fisheries vigorously, while the 
English continue to fish in the Icelandic 
Seas. 

May * Sp. An important congress is 
held at Badajos. 

1527 * * N. F. Normans and Bretons 



20 1530-1541, Feb. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1530 * * Sp. Francisco Pizarro, with 
his four brothers and a band of enthu- 
siastic followers, sails for Panama en 
route for Peru. 

Dec. 28. Colombia. Pizarro makes his 
fifth start from Panama for Peru, hav- 
ing three vessels, about 200 men, and 50 
horses. 

CONQUEST OF PERU. 

[Pizarro, with an army of 1,000 men, 
conquers Peru In little more than a 
year. " The easy conquest of this 
country has not its parallel in history."] 

1531 Jan. 14. Peru. Pizarro plunders 
a town in the province of Caque. [Re- 
enforced by 130 men, he proceeds to 
build the town of San Miguel.] 

* * * Peru. War between the Inca and 
the usurper, Atahualpa ; the Inca is 
taken prisoner. 

1532 * * Peru. Pizarro again arrives 
at Tumbez. 

Sept. 25±. Peru. Pizarro, with two- 
thirds of his army, starts for the interior. 

Nov. 15. Peru. Pizarro, with his little 
army, enters Caxamarca. 

Nov. 16. Peru. Pizarro treacherously 
captures the dominant Inca, Ata- 
hualpa, and massacres a host of Indians, 
without loss to his army of 177 men. 

1533 Feb. * Peru. Pizarro's colleague, 
Almagro, arrives with reenforce- 
ments. 

Spring. Peru. Francisco Pizarro, with 
20 horsemen and half a dozen arquebus- 
iers, makes a journey of 400 miles and 
desecrates the famous temple of Pacha- 
camac. 

Aug. 29. Peru. After raising a ransom 
valued at $17,500,000, Pizarro puts 
Atahualpa, the captive Inca, to death. 

* * Peru. Hernando Pizarro is sent 
to Spain with the royal share of the 
plunder. 

Nov. 15. Peru. Pizarro, with 500 men, 
enters the city of Cuzco, after a fierce 
battle, and proclaims as Inca, Manco 
Inca Yupanqui, the legitimate succes- 
sor. 

1534 * * Eucador. Alvarado marches 
from Puerto Viego to Quito. 

* * Peru. Spaniards occupy [Lima, the 
capital city]. 

1535 * * Arg. Rep. Mendoza, having 
founded Buenos Ayres, conquers the 
adjacent country with a force of about 
2,000 men. 

Autumn. Peru. Unsuccessful inva- 
sion of Chile by Almagro with 200 
Spaniards and many Indian allies. 

* * -36 * * Peru. Rebellion of the na- 
tives against the Spaniards. 

The Peruvian allies desert Almagro 
and return ; the natives in many parts 
of the country revolt and cut off com- 
munication between Lima and Cuzco. 
The Spaniards send to Panama, Guate- 
mala, and Mexico for succor. 

1536 * * 1537 * * Colombia. Spaniards 
under Ximenes de Quesada conquer 
New Granada. 



Feb. * -Aug. * Peru. The Spaniards are 
besieged in Cuzco by the Peruvians, 
who make frequent and vigorous as- 
saults. 

Sept. * The Inca attacks Almagro in 
the valley of Yucay, and is defeated with 
much slaughter. 

1537 Apr. 8. Peru. Almagro seizes 
Cuzco as a rival of Pizarro, after having 
returned from Chile. He places the 
brothers Hernando and Gonzalo Pizar- 
ro in confinement. [They soon escape.] 

* * -48 * * Peru. Civil disturbance and 
bloodshed among the Spaniards. 

* * Peru. Decisive defeat of Manco 
Capac by Rodrigo de Orgonez, Alma- 
gro's lieutenant ; the natives retire to 
the Andes. 

1538 Apr. * Sp. Ferdinand de Soto 
sails for the conquest of Florida with 
a fleet of seven large and three small 
vessels. 

Apr. 26. Peru. Almagro is defeated in 
the battle of Las Salinas by Pizarro. 

The victorious army is commanded by 
Hernando Pizarro, a brother of Fran- 
cisco Pizarro. 

July 10. Peru. Almagro executed by 
Hernando Pizarro. 

* * Cuba. French destroy Havana. 

1539 May 18. Cuba. De Soto sails for 
the conquest of unknown cities and the 
discovery of mines of gold. 

May 30. Fla. De Soto, with his selected 
cavaliers, 900t strong, all gaily dressed 
and bountifully furnished, lands at 
Tampa Bay. 

1540 Mar. * Peru. Valdivia marches 
to Chile. 

1540-41 * * Louisiana is conquered by 
De Soto. 

* * Can. Jacques Cartier erects the 
fortress of Charlesburg. 

Oct. 18. Ala. De Soto has a terrible 
battle with the Mobile Indians. (See 
Discovery — Exploration.) 

* * -42 * * New Mex. Coronado with an 
army visits the Zuni. (See Exploration.) 

1541 Feb. * The Spaniards under De 
Soto are attacked by the Indians and 
lose 170 men and the remainder of their 
baggage. (See Discovery— Exploration.) 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1530 * * Col. First information concern- 
ing the Pueblo Indians. 

1540± * * Venez. Indications of gold 
are discovered at several points along 
the coast. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 
1532 Peru. Altahualpa, usurper, executed. 
1538 Peru. Almagro, Diego, invader, exe- 
cuted. 

1540 Sp. Mendoza, de Juan Oonzalez 
(viceroy), born. 

CHURCH. 
1531** Can. Cartier consecrates New 
France to Christianity hy the erection 
of a great 'wooden cross oi xn eminence, 
as if to signify a religious mission in his 
discovery. 



* * Eng. Henry VIII. declares the Eng- 
lish Church independent of Rome ; he 
is recognized as its head. 

* * It. Pius HI. is elected pope. 

1534 * * Peru. Pizarro converts a hea- 
then temple into a Dominican monas- 
tery at Cuzco. 

1536 * * Haiti. Las Casas goes to Gua- 
temala to protect the Indians. 

1537 May 2. Guatemala. Las Casas is 
prepared for his mission " in the land of 
war." [He wins a complete and peace- 
ful victory.] 

* * It. The Pope issues a brief forbidding 
the further enslavement of the Indians. 

1539 * * Fla. Missionaries accompany 
De Soto's expedition ; all perish. 

* * Father Mark, a Spanish monk, at- 
tempts to establish a mission to the Zuni 
in the city of Cibola ; he plants a large 
cross, but fails in his mission. 

DISCOVERY — EXPLORATION. 

1530 * * Mex. An Indian slave tells the 
Spaniards of the wonders of the seven 
cities of Cibola, the land of the Buffa- 
loes. 

* * Venez. Ambrosio de Alfinger leads 
an expedition into the interior, to find 
the Eldorado. 

1531 Jan. 1. Brazil. Martino Alfon- 
zo de Sousa, a Portuguese adventurer, 
discovers Rio de Janeiro, and examines 
the coast southward. 

* * Venez. Diego Ordaz seeks the fa- 
bled Land of Wealth, by sailing up the 
Orinoco. 

1532 May * Cal. Hurtaldo de Men- 
doza sails up the Pacific coast by order 
of Cortez, with two vessels, both of which 
are lost. 

1533 * * Mex. Cortez builds two vessels, 
and sends Diego Becarra on an explor- 
ing expedition ; he discovers a part of 
Lower California. 

1534* *-38* * Venez. George of 
Spires searches for the Eldorado. 

June * -Aug. * Can. Jacques Cartier, 
a French navigator, with 2 vessels and 
61 men, surveys the coast of Newfound- 
land, and enters the mouth of the St. 
Lawrence, on the banks of which he 
plants a cross surmounted with the lilies 
of France. 

1535 Oct. 3. Can. Cartier arrives at 
Hochelaga (Montreal), having ex- 
plored the great river to this point. In- 
formation is received of the Great Lakes. 

* * Cal. Grijalvas' expedition, equip- 
ped by Cortez, discovers California. 

1536 * * Can. Cartier explores the 
upper St. Lawrence country, and takes 
possession of it for France. 

May * Mex. Cabeza de Vaca, and three 
other survivors of the Narvaez expe- 
dition, after nearly six years of captivity , 
approach the Pacific at San Miguel. 

July 6. Fr. Cartier arrives at St. Malo. 

1537 * * Mex. Cortez discovers the pe- 
ninsula of California. (Or Cabrillo ia 
1542.) 



AMERICA. 



1530-1541, Feb. 



21 



1538 * * Chile. Dom Pedro de Valdivia, 
an officer of Pizarro, explores the west 
coast of South America to 40* south. 

1539 Mar. * -Aug. * Mex. A Spanish 
expedition, under Fra Marcos, search- 
ing for the seven cities, discovers the 
Zunis. 

May 30. Fla. Ferdinand de Soto, 
with over 900 men, lands on the west 
coast in search of gold. 

The Spaniards hope to repeat the suc- 
cess of Cortez in Mexico, and of Pizarro 
in Peru. 

Dec. 25. Ecuador. Gonzalo Pizarro 
begins the exploration of the interior 
forests [builds a vessel on the Napo 
Kiver, and descends it. Part of the com- 
pany sail 4,000 miles down the Ama- 
zon to the sea.] 

* * Peru. Alonzo de Camargo, a Span- 
iard, completes the exploration of the 
west coast of South America by sailing 
from the Straits Of Magellan to Peru. 

f * Mex. Francisco de Ulloa explores 
the Gulf of California for Cortez. 

1540 Mar. 3. Ga. De Soto resumes 
his march for a country governed by a 
woman and abounding in gold. 

Apr. * Ga. De Soto arrives on the Oge- 
chee Kiver. 

* * Mex. Mendoza, the Spanish viceroy, 
sends Francisco Vasquez Coronado 
in search of the seven opulent cities 
of Cibola, reported by the Indians. He 
discovers the Grand Canon of the Col- 
orado. 

May 1. S. C. De Soto turns from near 
the coast westward. 

May 11. N. Mex. Coronado arrives at 
Zuni. 

Sept. 30. Ariz.-Cal. Hernando de 
Alarcon sent out by Mendoza ; having 
explored the coast of California as far as 
36° north, he discovers and ascends the 
Colorado River. 

Oct. 18. Ala. De Soto fights a terrible 
battle with the Mobile Indians. 

In it 2,500 Indians are shot or burned ; 
De Soto's loss is 18 killed and 150 
wounded, besides 80 horses and nearly 
all the baggage lost. 

~Nov. 18. Ala. De Soto leaves the coast 
and marches inland. 

Dec. * Miss. De Soto arrives in the coun- 
try of the Chickasaws (Northern Missis- 
sippi). 

The expedition crosses the Yazoo, and 
winters in a deserted Indian village, 
subsisting on plantations of ungathered 
maize. 

* * Can. Jacques Cartier's French 
expedition of five ships explores the 
St. Lawrence. 

1541 Feb. * Miss. The Spaniards are 
fiercely but vainly attacked by the Indi- 
ans at night. 

The small remainder of their baggage 
is burned, so thev are henceforth com- 
pelled to clothe themselves in skins and 
mats of ivy. 

Apr. 26. Miss. De Soto leaves winter 
quarters and resumes his march. 

May 6. Brazil. Francisco Orellana, 
having crossed the Andes from Quito, 



and sailed down the Napo and the Ama- 
zon, he arrives at the sea, thus crossing 
the continent. 

LETTERS. 
1531** Mexico has a printing-press. 
Shagun, the Dominican, arrives. 

SOCIETY. 

1530 * * W.I. Las Casas goes to Spain 
and obtains a decree from Charles V. 
prohibiting the enslavement of Indians 
in Peru and Chile. 

1531 June 12. Mex. Zumarraga, the 
first bishop, writes that 20,000 victims 
perished at the annual saturnalia. 
[Probably an exaggerated number.] 

1534 * * Cuban officials apply to the 
King of Spain for " 7,000 negroes, that 
they might become inured to labor be- 
fore the Indians ceased to exist." 

* * * Peru. Pizarro employs great cru- 
elty in extracting unbounded wealth 
from the helpless natives, who are driven 
to exhaustive labors in the mines. 

1536 May 10. Can. Jacques Cartier 
decoys nine Indian Chiefs on board 
his vessel, and sails away for France. 

1539 * * De Soto takes for his expedition 
a dozen priests, that the festivals of 
the church may be kept, and chams for 
the captive Indians, and bloodhounds 
to hunt those who attempt to escape. 

1540 * * De Soto burns an Indian guide 
for honestly confessing that he does not 
know where there are any regions of gold. 

* * * De Soto treats the Indians with 
great barbarity. 

He pillages their provisions, cuts off 
the hands of captives, burns them at the 
stake, suffers bloodhounds to tear them 
to pieces, chains them together with iron 
collars, and compels them to carry the 
baggage of their tormentors. 

STATE. 
1530 * * Spain. Pizarro returns to 

America. 
July 15. Mex. Cortez arrives at Vera 

Cruz. 

* * Costa Rica. George de Alvarado sub- 
dues the Indian tribes and founds a 
colony. 

* * Brazil is divided into captaincies by 
the Portuguese, and is first perma- 
nently occupied. 

1531* * Brazil. A lfonzo de Sousa, a Por- 
tuguese, founds San Vincente. 

1532 * * Peru. The conquests of Pizarro 
make Peru a Spanish province. 

Atahualpa usurps the throne of the 
Incas. 

1533 * * Chile. The Peruvian domin- 
ion ceases. 

1534 Mar. 24. Peru. Pizarro allows 
Manco, a son of Huayna Capac, and the 
rightful heir, to be crowned Inca. 

* * Spain. Don Pedro de Mendoza, 
with the largest and wealthiest expedi- 
tion that has ever left Europe, sails from 
Cadiz, Spain, for the Plata River. 



* * Mex. Cortez marches up the Pacific 
coast, and settles Lower California. 

1535 Jan. 6. Peru. Pizarro founds 
the city of Lima. 

Jan. * Chile. Almagro receives his com- 
mission as governor of New Castile 
(Chile). 

Feb. 2. Arg. Pep. Mendoza founds 
Buenos Ayres. 

May 29. Fr. Jacques Cartier sails again 
with three vessels to colonize New 
France. 

* * Peru. Arrival of Pedro de Valdivia, 
Spain's first viceroy, in America. 

1537 Aug. 15. Paraguay. Juan de 
Ayolas founds Asuncion on the Para- 
guay River. 

Nov. 13. Peru— Chile. Pizarro and Al- 
magro make a fruitless effort to settle 
their disputed boundaries. 

+ * * Arg. Rep. Buenos Ayres is burnt 
by the Indians; the colony is broken up. 

* * * Peru. Spanish adventurers arrive 
by the ship-load, seize estates, despoil 
temples, and make themselves odious 
as masters. 

* * Colombia. Spaniards under Quesada 
subdue New Granada. 

* *Cuba. Ferdinand de Soto becomes gov- 
ernor. 

1538 July* Peru. Hernando Pizarro 
executes Diego Almagro for rebellion. 

* * Colombia. Belalcazar is at Bogota. 

1539 * * Ecuador. Gonzalo Pizarro ap- 
pointed to command the province of 
Quito. [He is absent on an exploring 
expedition for two and a half years.] 

* * Colombia. Federmann is at Bogota. 

1540 * * Fr. Jean Francois de la 
Roque, Sieur de Roberval, receives 
from the king the empty title of " Lord 
Lieutenant-General and viceroy of all 
American countries discovered, either 
by the French or English." 

Mar. * Peru. Pedro de Valdivia leads an 
expedition to Chile. 

* * W.I. Cortez again returns to Spain. 

* * Spain. Vaca de Castro is sent to in- 
spect the cruel work of Pizarro in Peru. 

1541 * * Chile. The conquests of Alma- 
gro make Chile a Spanish province. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1533 June 17. Peru. The Incas' ran- 
som is divided. 

Pizarro receives 2,350 marks of silver 
and 57,220 pieces of gold ; his brother 
Hernando, 2,2t57 marks of silver and 31 ,080 
pieces of gold; the church deducts as 
tithes 90 marks of silver and 2,220 pieces 
of gold. 

1535+ * * Panama. It is estimated that 
30,000 or 40,000 people perish in 
transit across the Isthmus of Panama, 
seeking the wealth of Peru. 

* * * Peru. Tillable lands are divided 
into three shares. 

One share is consecrated to the service 
of religion, the erection of temples, and 
the maintenance of priests ; the sec- 
ond is set apart for the support of the 
government ; the third and largest share, 
for the support of the people ; the divi- 
sion is revised every year. 



22 1541, May 22-1563. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1541 June 26. Peru. Francisco Pi- 
zarro is assasinated by conspirators. 

* * Chile. Don Pedro de Valdivia, with 
Indian allies, conquers nearly all of 
Chile, under orders of Pizarro. 

1542 Sept. 16. Peru. Castro, the gov- 
ernor, defeats the army of Almagro the 
lad, In the battle of Chupas. [He be- 
heads the boy at Cuzco.] 

1543 Sept. 10. Mex. Arrival of 311 
men, the remains of De Soto's expedi- 
tion, at Panuco. 

1546 Jan. 18. Peru. The viceroy Vela 
is defeated and killed at the battle of 
Anaquito by the Spanish rebels. 

Nov. * Colombia. Pedro de la Gasca 
gains possession of the fleet at Panama, 
in the interest of the Spanish crown. 

1547 Apr. * Colombia. Gasca sails from 
Panama with a considerable force to 
maintain royal authority in Peru. 

Oct. 20. Peru. The loyal Spaniards 
under Diego de Centeno are defeated in 
a bloody battle near Lake Titicaca by 
Pizarro. 

1548 Apr. 9. Peru. Gasca defeats 
the Spanish rebels ; Gonzalo Pizarro, 
the brother of Francisco, is executed on 
the field. 

Apr. 12. Peru. Gasca enters Cuzco. 

1549 * * Chile. The assaults of the 
Araucanians imperil the very existence 
of the Spaniards. 

1550 * * Nicaragua. The Spanish col- 
onists rebel against the mother country. 

1554 May * Peru. Rebels under Fran- 
cisco Hernandez Giron defeat the army 
of the judges at Chuquingua. 

Oct. 11. Peru. Giron is routed by the 
army of the judges at Pucara. 

Dec. 6. Peru. Giron is defeated and ex- 
ecuted at Lima. 

* * Cuba. The French again destroy 
Havana. 

1555 * * Cuba. Jacob Sores, the pirate, 
plunders Havana. 

1560 * * Brazil. The Portuguese destroy 
the French settlement at Rio. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1549+ * * Brazil. Gold is discovered 
at Bahia. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1541 Peru. Pizarro, Francisco, conqueror, 
assassinated. 

1542 La. De Soto, Ferdinand, adventurer, 
dies. 

1544 Peru. Manco Capac, inca, assassi- 
nated, A21. 

1547 Sp. Cortez, Hernando, conqueror 
of Mexico, dies. 

CHURCH. 

1541 * * Dakota Indians come to worship 
De Soto and his wobegone cavaliers as 
children of the gods, but the Catholics 
refuse their consent to such idolatry. 

1542 * * -60 * * Paraguay. Christian 
missions are established by the Fran- 



ciscans, Armenta, Lebron, and Solano. 
[The latter is canonized later as the 
apostle of Paraguay.] 

* * Peru. Loaysa becomes bishop of Lima. 

1544 * * Guatemala. Las Casas be- 
comes bishop of. Chiapa. 

1545 * * Fla. Louis Cancer de Barbas- 
tro, a Dominican Father, with three as- 
sociates, lands at Tampa Bay, where two 
of his associates are murdered. 

1547 * * Gautemala. Las Casas resigns 
his bishopric, and returns to Spain. 

* * Mex. Archbishopric of Mexico and 
New Spain created. 

* * Paraguay. Bishopric of Paraguay 
established. 

1548 * * Brazil. Jews banished from 
Portugal come to Brazil. 

* * Peru. Loaysa is made archbishop. 

1549 Apr. * Brazil. Six Jesuits arrive 
at Bahia with colonists, and undertake 
the moral culture of natives and colo- 
nists. 

1550 * * Fla. A number of Dominicans 
make another attempt to establish a 
mission, but are shipwrecked, and all 
perish. 

* * It. Julius III, is elected pope. 

1551 * * Iceland. Protestantism intro- 
duced. 

1552 * * Brazil. The first bishop arrives, 
and checks the vices of abandoned 
priests. 

1555 * * Brazil. First Protestant mis- 
sion in the world. 

The church of Geneva sends fourteen 
missionaries to Brazil, who land on an 
island in the harbor of Rio de Janeiro. 

* * It. Marcellus II., later Paul TV., 
is elected pope. 

* * Peru. Catholic priests are pro- 
vided for the conquered natives. 

1556+ * * Brazil. Vallegagnon, the 
leader of the Protestant colony at Rio, 
joins the Catholics and dissension fol- 
lows. 

* * _70 * * Fla. A French Jesuit 
mission is planted on the coast (near 
Augustine). 

1558 * * Eng. Dissenters begin to be 
persecuted by Henry for not admitting 
his authority in spiritual matters. [And 
later yet more severely during the reign 
of Mary, an ardent Catholic — Puritan- 
ism is developed.] 

1559 * * Ala. Dominicans labor among 
the Mobilians. 

* * It. Pius IV. is elected pope. 

1560+ * * Paraguay. The Jesuit mis- 
sionaries, Salonio, Field, and Ortega, la- 
bor with small success. 

1562 * * Fr. Coligni, the high admiral, 
proposes a refuge colony in America for 
his brethren, the persecuted Huguenots. 

May * S. C. The First Protestant set- 
tlement in America is made by Hugue- 
nots at Port Royal. 

DISCOVERY —EXPLORATION. 
1541 May * De Soto discovers the Mis- 
sissippi River. 



May 30. Miss. (?) Transports are built 
for the horses, and the expedition 
crosses the Mississippi River in search 
of cities and gold. 

May* Can. Cartier sails on a third 
voyage, which is devoid of important 
results. 

* * Coronado's expedition reaches 40* 
north, and turns back for Mexico. 

* * Ark. De Soto's expedition crosses 
the St. Francis River, and visits the Hot 
Springs. 

* * -42 * * I.T. De Soto passes the 
winter on the banks of the Washita 
River. 

* * Venez. Philip Van Huten search- 
es for the Eldorado. 

1542 Spring. Mex. Return of Corona- 
do's expedition from the land of the 
Zunis. 

May* La. The De Soto expedition, 

greatly distressed, follows the Red River 

to a point near Natchez. 
May 21. La. De Soto dies, and is 

buried in the waters of the Mississippi ; 

Luis de Moscoso becomes leader. 

* * La. The De Soto expedition turns 
to the west, hoping to reach Mexico. 

Dec. * La. The Spaniards return to the 
Mississippi, above the Red River. 

1543 July 2. La. The De Soto expe- 
dition sails down the Mississippi in 
vessels rudely built, aiming to reach the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

* * Ore. Juan Cabrillo and Bartolome 
Ferelo, two Spaniards, explore the Pa- 
cific coast as far as Oregon. 

Sept. 10. Mex. The 311 survivors of 
the De Soto expedition reach Pa- 
nuco. 

In 17 days they have sailed 500 miles to 
the sea, and for 55 days have followed 
the coast to the River of Palms. " Thus 
ends the most marvellous expedition in 
the history of our country." (Ridpath.) 

1549 * * Fr. Roberval, the French col- 
onizer, sails on a voyage of discovery, 
with a great company of emigrants ; 
their fate is unknown. 

* * Venez. Pedro d' Ursua, a Portuguese, 
seeks the Eldorado. 

1553 May * Unfortunate expedition of 
Sir Hugh Willoughby to the Arctic Seas, 
seeking a northwest passage. 

1560 * * Ga. The Spaniards arrive. 

* * -61 * * Colombia. Pedro de Ursua 
sails in search of the Empire of Orma- 
guas, and Lope de Aguirre sails in search 
of the Eldorado. 

1562* * Fla. John Bibault, at the 
head of a French expedition, discovers 
the River of May (St. John). 

LETTERS. 
1551 * * Peru. The University of San 
Marcos is established at Lima. [The 
most ancient in the New World.] 

* * Mex. A University is founded in 
the City of Mexico. [It now remains, 
but is nearly deserted.] 

1554+ * * Brazil. The Jesuits establish 
a college, named St. Paulo. [It greatly 
benefits the rising state.] 



AMERICA. 



1541, May 22-1563. 23 



SOCIETY. 
1542 * * Sp. The "New Laws," for- 
bidding the enslavement of the Indians 
for any cause, are promulgated, chiefly- 
through the influence of Las Casas. 
1553 * * Cuba. Not an Indian is left. 
Pestilence, cruelty, and suicide have 
decimated them ; the remainder escaped 
in boats to Florida. 

1562 * * The English make their first 
slave voyage to America ; John Haw- 
kins brings 300 negroes, in three 
ships, to the West Indies. 

STATE. 

1541 May 22. Can. Cartier sails from 
St. Malo with five ships belonging to the 
expedition of De la Roque ; visits the St. 
Lawrence ; also founds the fortress at 
Charlesbourg ; the colonists are chiefly 
noblemen and amateurs. 

On his arrival he builds a fort near the 
present site of Quebec, to repel the hos- 
tile natives. 

June * Peru. Almagro the lad, a natural 
son of Almagro, is proclaimed governor. 

* * Chile. Santiago de Chile founded. 
June 26. Peru. Pizarro is assassinated 

at Lima. 

1542 June * Can. Cartier returns with 
his ships to France. 

N. F. Sieur de Roberval builds a 

fort, which is soon abandoned. 

* *-43 * * Can. Roberval, with a fresh 
colony, consisting chiefly of criminals, 
passes the winter [near the present site 
of Quebec], and then returns to France. 

Sept. * Peru. Almagro the lad, being de- 
feated in battle, is beheaded by Castro, 
the royal judge at Cuzco. 

* * Arg. Rep. A new colony reestablishes 
Buenos Ayres. 

* * Peru. The "New Laws" enacted 
by Charles V. to restrain the oppression 
of the natives. [Civil war follows.] 

* * A court of chancery and royal 
audiencia, with authority over Guate- 
mala and Honduras, are established. 

1543 Feb. 3. Arg. Rep. Hostile In- 
dians again break up the settlement at 
Buenos Ayres. 

* * Peru. Blasco Nunez de Vela is sent 
out as viceroy to enforce the " New 
Laws." 

1544 Sept. 3. Chile. "Valparaiso is 
founded by Pedro de Valdivia. 

* * Peru. Arrival of Vela as viceroy ; he 
is charged to enforce the " New Laws," 
aiming at the abolition of slavery and 
the protection of the natives. 

Oct. 28. Peru. Gonzalo Pizarro rebels 
against the violence of the viceroy and 
the " New Laws." 

1545 * * Bolivia. The mines of Potosi 
are claimed by Spain. 

Oct. 20. Peru. The ' • New Laws ' ' are 
revoked. 

* * -20 * * Venez. Spaniards found To- 
cuyo. 

1546 Jan. 18. Peru. Gonzalo, having 
defeated and killed the viceroy in battle, 
becomes the master of Peru. 



July * Peru. Gonzalo enters Lima. 

* * -49 * * Fla. Luis de Barbastro leads 
a party of Dominican friars in an at- 
tempt to form a settlement ; the Span- 
iards are massacred by the Indians. 

1547 June 13. Peru. After repealing 
part of the " New Laws," Pedro de la 
Gasca succeeds, as viceroy, in securing 
pacification and organization. 

* * Fr. Henry II. is enthroned. 

* * Eng. Edward VT. is enthroned. 

1548 Apr. 0. Peru. Gasca receives the 
submission of Gonzalo Pizarro. 

* * Brazil becomes important, and at- 
tracts the attention of the mother state. 

* * Eng. First act of Parliament relat- 
ing to America is one concerning the 
fisheries of Newfoundland. 

* * Peru. The Spanish crown assumes 
the government of the country. 

1549 Apr. * Brazil. Thome de Souza 
arrives at San Salvador (Bahia) to estab- 
lisha city and as the first captain-general. 

He brings 220 persons in the king's pay, 
and 300 free colonists and 400 convicts. 

* * Can. Roberval again attempts to 
colonize Canada. 

* * Brazil. The languishing Portuguese 
colonies become prosperous by the dis- 
covery of gold. 

1550 Jan.* Pent. Gasca sails for Spain. 

* * Cuba. The seat of Spanish govern- 
ment in the West Indies is removed from 
Santiago de Cuba to Havana. 

* * Iceland. Bishop Jon Aaronson fails 
to achieve the independence of Ice- 
land, and is executed by the Danes. 
All power is removed, and exercised by 
a foreign government. 

* * Peru is under the rule of the royal 
audiencia. 

* * Venez. The territory is erected in- 
to the captain-generalcy of Caracas by 
the Spaniards. 

1551 Sept. 23. Peru. Don Antonio de 
Mendoza, the second viceroy, arrives. 

* * Peru. An insurrection against the 
judges is led by Francisco Hernandez 
Giron. 

1552 * * Venez. Barquisimeto is founded. 

1553 * * Brazil. Duarte da Costa arrives, 
and assumes the captain-generalcy. 

* * Peru. The Inca Sayri Tupac reigns. 

1554 Dec. 6. Peru. Giron, the rebel, 
is executed. 

Mar. 30. Peru. Alonzo de Alvarado 
enters Cuzco. 

1555 July 6. Peru. The third viceroy, 
DonAndrez Hurdato de Mendoza, enters 
Lima. [He soon stamps out anarchy.] 

* * Peru. The Inca Manco, with his family 
and nobles, is put to death by the Span- 
iards, and his son, Sayri Tupac, is his 
successor. 

* * Brazil. Coligni sends a Protestant 
colony from France under Nicolas de 
Villegagnon, in two ships, to the Bay of 
Rio de Janeiro. 

1556 * * Peru. Mendoza is the first vice- 
roy to establish a secure government. 

* * Sp. Philip II. is enthroned. 



1557 * * Peru. Hurdato de Mendoza be- 
comes viceroy in Chile. 

* * Brazil. Large reenforcements of colo- 
nists arrive from France and Geneva. 

Villegagnon, having joined the Cath- 
olics and become oppressive, many colo- 
nists leave Rio and return to France. 

* * Port. Sebastian is enthroned. 

1558 * * Brazil. Mem de Sa is sent out 
as captain-general by Portugal. 

The Portuguese murder some of the 
French colonists at Rio Janeiro. 
Jan. 6. Peru. The Inca Sayri Tupac and 
his people return from the mountains to 
Lima. 

* * Venez. The last Spanish expedition 
to Carolina fails to settle. 

* * Eng. Elizabeth is enthroned. 

1559 Aug. 14. Mex. The expedition 
of Don Tristan de Luna, with an army 
of 1,500 men, and a colony including 
women and children and many friars, 
leaves Vera Cruz for the conquest and 
settlement of Florida. [It is wrecked 
on its coast.] 

* * Arg. Rep. Mendoza crosses the Andes 
from Chile, and founds Mendoza. 

* * Fr. Francis LT. is enthroned. 

* * Venez. The audiencia in Caracas. 
1560* * Brazil. Coligni's Protestant 

colony at Rio is entirely broken up 
by the Portuguese. 

* * Peru. Reign of the Inca Titu Cusi 
Yupanqui. 

* * Fr. Charles LX. is enthroned. 

1561 * * Peru. The fourth viceroy, Cond6 
de Nieva, arrives. 

1562 Feb. 18. Fr. Admiral Coligni 
despatches a squadron with colonists 
under Jean Ribault, for Florida ; it is 
his second [unsuccessful] attempt to 
found a Huguenot colony. 

May * S. C. Ribault forms a French set- 
tlement at Port Royal ; Fort Charles is 
erected. 

July * S. C. Ribault leaves his colony, 
and sails for France. 

* * Chile. Rodrigo de Quiroza is governor. 

* * Peru. The second Council of Lima is 
formed. 

* * Mex. Yucatan is separated from Mex- 
ico. 

1563 Spring. S. C. The French at Port 
Royal become discouraged, and sail 
for France in a rude brigantine of their 
own construction. They are rescued 
from famine by an English vessel. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
1540 * * Honduras has large and flour- 
ishing cities. 

* * Costa Rica. The colony is renamed 
New Carthage. 

1549 * * Brazil. The discovery of gold 

attracts emigrants to Bahia. 
1555 * * Peru. Wheat is first reaped in 

the valley of Canete by a lady named 

Maria de Escobar. 



24 1564, June 25-1598. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1565 Aug. 28. Fla. Pedro Menen- 
dez, a ferocious Spaniard, arrives with an 
expedition to extirpate the Huguenots 
and colonize the country. 

Sept. 4. S. C. The fleet of Menendez ap- 
pears at Port Royal ; but he [retires for a 
time and begins to build St. Augustine]. 

Sept. 10. S. C. The French sail from 
Port Royal to capture St. Augustine. 
[They are dispersed by a gale the next 
day.] 

Sept. 17. Fla. Menendez assumes the 
offensive, and starts overland for Port 
Royal with 500 men. 

Sept. 20. S. C. Menendez storms Port 
Carolina, and slaughters 142 men, wo- 
men, and children who are taken with it. 
Only a few persons are spared. " I do 
this not as to Frenchmen, but as to 
Lutherans." 

Sept. 28. Fla. Menendez murders in 
cold blood 200 of the French, who, 
having been shipwrecked, vaiidy appeal 
to his clemency. 

Sept. 30±. S. C. Menendez finds another 
party of 150 French, who surrender on 
the promise of safety ; he then butchers 
them. [Philip II. commends his zeal.] 

* * Fla. Castle of St. Augustine con- 
structed by the Spaniards. 

1567 Apr. * Fla. Dominic de Gour- 
gues appears on the St. Johns River 
with three ships fitted out for ven- 
geance against the murderers of the 
French Colony. He successively sur- 
prises three forts on the St. Johns 
River, and hangs the leaders with this 
inscription affixed : " Not Spaniards, 
but liars and murderers." 

1570 * * -88 * * Great struggle be- 
tween England and Spain for naval 
supremacy of the world. 

1572* * Mex., etc. Francis Drake 
makes his first marauding voyage to 
South America, in which he attacks the 
Spanish settlements at Nombre de Dios, 
Carthagena, etc. 

1585 * * Fla. The Spaniards are plun- 
dered by the English under Drake. 

1586 * * Brazil. The Spanish colony at 
Bahia is plundered by the English 
under Witherington. 

* * W. I. Admiral Drake sacks Porto 
Bello, Panama, St. Domingo, and Car- 
thagena. 

1588* * Eng. Greatstruggleof England 

with the " Invincible Armada" —the 

Roanoke colonists are overlooked and 

perish. 
1591 * * Brazil. The Spanish colony of 

St. Vincent is burned by the English 

under Cavendish. 
1595 * * Brazil. James Lancaster, an 

English buccaneer, captures Pernam- 

buco from the Spaniards. 
1595 * * Porto Rico repulses the attacks 

of Admirals Drake and Hawkins. 

* * Brazil. The Spanish colony of 
Olinda is taken by Lancaster. 

* * W. I. Sir Walter Raleigh takes 
Trinidad from the Spaniards. 



1598 * * Can. The Marquis de la 
Roche obtains from the King of France 
a commission to conquer New France. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1570 * * Chile. An earthquake de- 
stroys 2,000 lives at Concepcion. 

1577 May* Can. Martin Frobisher, an 
English navigator, approaches Meta In- 
cognita in the extreme northwest, and 
thinks it a part of Asia. 

1578i Spring. Eng. A " mineral man " 
of London pronounces a stone brought 
from Meta Incognita to be gold, and fif- 
teen vessels sail with gold-seekers. 
[They return with worthless cargoes.] 

1585 * * N.C. The English colonists for 
the first time see the corn, the sweet 
potato, and the tobacco plant. 

1586 June 9. Peru. A great earth- 
quake at Lima. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1566 Sp. Casas, Bartolome, de Las 
(Miss.), dies. 

1568+ Mex. Ixtlilxochitl, Fernando de Al- 
va, historian, born. 

1578 Sp. Pizarro, Fernando, conqueror, 
age 104±. 

CHURCH. 
1566 * * It. St. Pius V. is elected pope. 

* * Peru. Arrival of the Jesuits. 

* * Brazil. John Boles, a Huguenot mis- 
sionary, is put to death by the Portu- 
guese after an imprisonment of eight 
years, in order to terrify his country- 
men. 

1571 * * Mex. The Inquisition estab- 
lished. 

1572 Aug. 24. Fr. Massacre of St. 
Bartholomew. [It quickens the spirit 
of emigration among the Huguenots.] 

* * It. Gregory XII. is elected pope. 

* * Mex. Jesuit missionaries arrive. 

1573 Nov. 19. Peru. First auto da 
fe at Lima. 

* * U. S. The first successful mission 
to the Indians is planted at St. Augus- 
tine by Spanish Franciscans. 

* * Mex. A gothic cathedral is built 
on the sight of the ancient temple at 
Mexico. 

1574 * * Mex. First auto da. fe in 
Mexico. 

1578 * * Can. Master Wolfall, an Eng- 
lishman, celebrates a communion on 
the shores of Frobisher's Strait, the first 
recorded in America. 

1581 * * Peru. Archbishop Torebio 
reaches Lima. 

* *-1776* * Peru suffers from the In- 
quisition. [59 Europeans are burned, 
and 29 " autos" occur at Lima.] 

1585 * * It. Sixtus V. is elected pope. 

1586 * * Paraguay. Jesuits establish 
their famous mission. 

1590 * * It. Urban VTL, later Greg- 
ory XIV., is elected pope. 

1591 * * It. Innocent IX. is elected 
pope. 

1592 * * It. Clement VTLI. is elected 
pope. 



1597 * * U. S. Franciscan monks estab- 
lish the second successful mission in 
New Mexico. 

DISCOVERY — EXPLORATION. 
1573 * * Va. Pedro Menendez Mar- 
quez coasts northward from Florida, 
and enters the Chesapeake Bay. 

1576 June * -Aug. * Can. Martin Fro- 
bisher sails from England on his first 
voyage to find a northwest passage ; 
he discovers Frobisher's Strait and 
Meta Incognita. 

1577 May* -Sept.* Can. Second voy- 
age of Frobisher in the northwest ; 
his ship is loaded with worthless sand, 
which is supposed to be gold. 

1578 May * -Sept. * Can. Third voy- 
age of Frobisher, having a fleet of 16 
sail and 100 colonists. 

* * Unsuccessful voyage of Sir Hum- 
phrey Gilbert. He takes possession of 
Newfoundland for England, but plants 
no colony. 

1579 * * Cal. Sir Francis Drake traces 
the western coast of America as far 
north as New Albion (Oregon), seeking a 
strait connecting the two oceans. 

1580 * * N. Mex. Augustin Ruys, 
a Spanish missionary, discovers New 
Mexico. 

1583 * * Newfoundland visited by Sir 
Humphrey Gilbert. 

1584 July 13. N.C. Sir Walter Ra- 
leigh's expedition lands on the Island 
of Wocokon, and takes possession, nam- 
ing it Virginia after the Virgin Queen. 

* * Can. Gasca discovers Davis's Strait. 

John Davis explores Davis's Strait 
to 66" 40', visits Gilbert Sound and Cum- 
berland Strait. 

1586 * * Can. Davis makes his second 
voyage, and visits Labrador. 

1587 * * Can. Davis discovers the Cum- 
berland Islands, London coast, Lumley's 
Inlet (Frobisher's Strait), on his third 
voyage. 

1592 * * Davis discovers the Falkland 
Islands. 

* * Can. Spaniards, under J una de 
Fuca, visit the northwest coast of the 
American Continent. (?) 

1594 * * Willem Barentz explores 
Nova Zembla. 

1595 * * Guiana. Sir "Walter Raleigh 
explores the coast, and ascends the Ori- 
noco 400 miles from its mouth. 

LETTERS. 

1598 * * Peru. The University of San 
Antonio Abad is founded at Cuzco. 

SOCIETY. 
1565 Sept. 20. Fla. Pedro Menendez 
massacres the Huguenots on the 
St. Johns River, sparing neither men, 
women, nor children — except a few 
reserved as slaves. 

* * Fr. Great resentment against the 
Spaniards because of the massacre of 
the Huguenots in Florida. 



AMERICA. 



1564, June 25-1598. 



25 



1565 * * Fla. Part of the French colony 
on the St. Johns River embark on a 
piratical expedition against the Span- 
iards. 

1567 * * Fla. Dominic de Gourgues, 
with 150 men, comes from France, and 
avenges the Huguenots by hanging 200 
Spaniards on trees. 

STATE. 

1564 June 25. Fla. A French expe- 
dition, sent out by Coligni and led by 
Rene de Laudonniere, arrives at the 
mouth of the St. Johns River, and builds 
Fort Carolina. 

Dec. * Fla. Some of the French colonists 
depart, ostensibly for France, but en- 
gage in piracy against Spain. 

* * -69 * * Peru. Lope Garcia de Castro 
rules only as governor. 

1565 Aug.* S.C. Sir John Hawkins, 
the slave merchant, relieves the needs of 
the colony at Port Royal. 

Aug. 28. Fla. Jean Ribault arrives at 
the French colony with 300 men and am- 
ple supplies. 

Fla. Pedro Menendez, the agent 

of l'hilip II., arrives in Florida, with a 
commission to exterminate the Prot- 
estants and establish a colony. 

Sept. 8. Fla. St. Augustine is founded 
by Pedro Menendez. 

It is the first permanent European 
settlement in [the existing United 
States of] North America. He comes 
to conquer and colonize, and brings 2,500 
persons with him. [The period of Span- 
ish discovery and adventure in the New- 
World practically ends.] 

Sept. 20+. Fla. Menendez annihilates 
the Huguenot colony on the St. Johns 
River. (See Society.) 

Arg. Rep. Spaniards cross from Peru 

and found Tucuman. 

* * Chile is under the royal audiencia. 

1567 * * Brazil. The Portuguese, having 
broken up the French settlement at Rio 
de Janeiro, now found a colony there, 
and name it San Salvador. 

* * Can. The French, having failed 
with two colonies, abandon the colo- 
nization of the southern coast, and 
turn northward. The Marquis de la 
Roche obtains a commission to establish 
a colony on the St. Lawrence. [A colony 
of criminals is sent out and fails.] 

* * Venez. Caracas is founded by the 
Dutch. 

* * Brazil. Sebastian is founded. 

1568 May * S. C. Having driven out 
the French, the Spaniards hold the 
country. 

* * Chile. The audiencia established at 
Santiago. 

1569 Nov. 26. Peru. Don Francisco 
de Toledo enters Lima as viceroy. 

1570 * * Arg. Rep. Spain cripples the 
colonists by restricting navigation 
and commerce. 

* * * England and Spain contest the 
maritime supremacy of the world. 



1571* * Peru. Inca Tupac Amaru reigns. 
The viceroy unjustly beheads Tupac 
Amaru, the last of the Incas, on the 
square of Cuzco. 

1572 * * Brazil. An attempt is made to 
divide the colony. 

* * Va. The colony of Pedro Menendez 
lands on the banks of the Potomac. 

1573 * * Arg. Rep. Spaniards from Peru 
found Cordova. 

Don Juan de Garay leads an expedition 
to found Santa F6. 

* * Costa Rica. New Carthage receives its 
third governor from Madrid, and the 
colony is well established. 

1574 * * Fr. Henry XXL is enthroned. 

* * Brazil. The colony is divided. 
1577 * * Brazil. Many of the Protestant 

colonists return to France. 
1578* * Greenland. Frobisher takes 
possession of the west coast in the name 
of Queen Elizabeth, and calls it West 
England. 

* * Brazil. Diego Laurenco da Veiga is 
appointed governor-general of the flour- 
ishing colonies. 

Brazil becomes an appendage of 
Spain, and is again united under one 
government. 
Nov. 19. Eng. Sir Humphrey Gilbert's 
first expedition sails to found a colony 
in America. 

* * Port. Henry • ' the Cardinal " is en- 
throned. 

1579 May* Eng. Gilbert's unsuccess- 
ful expedition returns from Newfound- 
land. 

1580 June 11. Arg. Rep. Another 
Spanish expedition under Garay recolo- 
nizes Buenos Ayres and prospers. 

* * Guiana. The Dutch begin a settle- 
ment on the coast. 

* * Port. Anthony is enthroned. 

* * -1640 * * Portugal and her colo- 
nies are under the dominion of 
Spain. 

1581 * * Hoi. The republic of the United 
Netherlands is established. 

* * Peru. Don Martin Henriquez becomes 
viceroy. 

1582 * * New Mex. Santa F6 is visited 
by De Espejio. 

* * Peru. Second council of Lima. 

1583 June * N. F. An expedition of 
genuine colonists, led by Sir Hum- 
phrey Gilbert, and patronized by Sir 
Walter Raleigh, sails for America. [It 
utterly fails.] 

Aug. 5. Newfoundland. Gilbert lands at 
St. Johns, and takes possession of the 
island in the name of his queen. 

Aug. 27. Gilbert's largest ship is wrecked 
through carelessness, and 100 perish ; the 
survivors return to England. 

* * Chile. Sotomayor is governor. 

1584 * * Sir Walter Raleigh receives 
his first patent. 

July 13. N. C. An exploring expedition 
is sent out by Raleigh, which lands on 
Roanoke Island, and takes possession 
of the country in the name of the virgin 
queen, and calls it Virginia. 



1585 Apr. Eng. Raleigh sends out his 
first colony of 1 10 persons under Gren- 
ville. Many persons are eager to sail for 
America. 

June 26. N. C. Raleigh's colony ar- 
rives at Roanoke Island and is left 
in charge of Ralph Lane. It is the first 
English settlement in the New World. 

Aug. 25. N. C. Grenville sails for Eng- 
land. 

* * Arg. Rep. Buenos Ayres advances in 
prosperity. 

* * Guiana is visited by Raleigh. 

1586 June 19. N. C. The English in 
less than a year abandon the settlement 
on Roanoke Island and leave with Sir 
Francis Drake. They carry back tobac- 
co and the potato. [A supply-ship ar- 
rives a few days later and departs.] 

July* .AT. C. Fifteen days later, Gren- 
ville also arrives at Roanoke with sup- 
plies, and leaves 15 men to hold possession 
of the country. [Their fate is unknown.] 

1587 July* N. C. Raleigh's second 
colonizing expedition of 117 men and 
women, under Captain John White, ar- 
rives at Roanoke, but finding no colony 
it returns. 

* * Guiana. The Spaniards found St. 
Thomas Island. 

1589 Mar. 7. Eng. Raleigh sells his 
proprietary rights to a company of 
merchants. 

* * Fr. Henry IV. is enthroned. 

1590 Aug. 17. Gov. John White re- 
turns to the Roanoke settlement, and 
finds " it desert, tenantless, and silent." 

* * Peru. Herdato de Mendoza is viceroy. 
1592 * * Peru. Martin Gracia Onez de 

Loyola is viceroy. 

1594 * * Brazil. French Catholics estab- 
lish a colony on the Island of Maranhao. 

1595 * * Venez. Raleigh visits Guiana, 
and ascends the Orinoco River 400 miles, 
in quest of the El Dorado. 

1597 * * Arg. Rep. Buenos Ayres is 
firmly established. 

1598 * * Can. The Marquis de la Roche 
secures a patent for a colony in New 
France (Nova Scotia) from Henry IV. 

La Roche establishes a colony, chiefly 
taken from the prisons of France, on 
Sable Island. 

* * Sp. Philip m. is enthroned. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1583 Sept. * Wreck of Sir Humphrey 
Gilbert's ship ; all perish. 

1584± * * Privateering and coloniza- 
tion go hand in hand. Sir Richard 
Grenville, on his return voyage, takes a 
Spanish merchantman. 

By a process scarcely differing from 
piracy, and with little regard for the 
law of nations, great wealth was speed- 
ily acquired by many English adven- 
turers. 

1587. Aug. 18. JIT. C. Virginia Dare, 
the first child of English parentage, 
is born at Roanoke. 



26 



1600-1609. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1603 * * Uruguay. The Charruas Indi- 
ans defeat the Spaniards in a pitched 
battle. 

1607 ** Va. John Smith is taken pris- 
oner by the Indians, and condemned to 
death ; but is set at liberty after a cap- 
tivity of seven weeks. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE — 
EXPLORATION. 

1602 May 14. Mass. Arrival of Bar- 
tholomew Gosnold, who is the first to 
sail directly across the Atlantic, from 
the Azores, instead of by the Canary Is- 
land route. 

May 15. Mass. Gosnold visits Cape 
Cod. 

* * Va. Voyage of Samuel Mace to Vir- 
ginia. 

* * W. I. Port Royal, Jamaica, is de- 
stroyed by an earthquake. 

1603 Apr. 10. Eng. Martin Pring 
sails on a voyage of commerce and ex- 
ploration to New England [where he 
enters Plymouth Harbor]. 

* * Can. Samuel Champlain is commis- 
sioned by a company of French mer- 
chants of Rouen to explore the country 
of the St. Lawrence, and establish a 
trading-post. 

1605 May 17+. Me. George "Wey- 
mouth of England explores part of the 
coast and some of the rivers. 

1607 May* Eng. Henry Hudson 
starts on his first voyage, instructed to 
sail northwest and directly across the 
pole. 

May * Va. Newport and twenty others 
return to Jamestown after exploring 
the James River as far as the falls [near 
Richmond]. 

* * Va. Jamestown colonists send an 
expedition of six men up the Chicka- 
hominy River expecting to find the 
Pacific Ocean. 

1608 July 21. Va. John Smith re- 
turns to Jamestown from the first ex- 
ploration of the Chesapeake Bay and its 
tributaries. 

July 24. Va. Smith sails on an ex- 
ploring expedition for the Susque- 
hanna River. 

Sept. 7. Va. Smith returns to James- 
town, having explored 3,000 miles of 
coast. 

* * Eng. Sir Henry Hudson makes a 
second attempt to reach India by a 
northwest passage. 

* * Va. Capt. Newport sails up the 
James River to find the Pacific Ocean. 

1609 Apr. 4. Hoi. Sir Henry Hud- 
son sails on his important third voyage, 
under the auspices of the Dutch East 
India Company. i 

His vessel is a small yacht willed the 
Halve, Moon, having a crew of 18 or 20 
men ; the icebergs baffle his endeavors 
in the north, and he follows the coast 
southward. 

July* JV. Y. Samuel Champlain, the 
French navigator, enters the lake which 



bears his name, and is the first white 
man to set his foot on the soil of the 
Empire State. 

Aug. 28. N. J. Hudson anchors in 
Delaware Bay. [Soon after he explores 
the coast of New Jersey.] 

Sept. 3. N. Y. Hudson anchors in the 
Lower Bay of New York, behind Sandy 
Hook, and is refreshed with green corn, 
wild fruits, and oysters. 

Sept. 5. N. J. Hudson lands. 

Sept. 6. N. J. Hudson sounds the Nar- 
rows, and passes through the Kill Van 
Kull to Newark Bay. 

Sept. 0. New York. Hudson passes 
from the Lower Bay into the Narrows. 

Sept. 11. N. Y. Hudson enters the 
Great River of the north (Hudson). 

Sept. 14. Hudson visits the Highlands. 

Sept. 19. N. Y. The Halve Moon tarries 
[at Kinderhook] while a small boat as- 
cends the river [above Albany]. 

Sept. * Hudson abandons the pursuit of 
a northwest passage via the Hudson 
River. 

* * Va. The colonists of Jamestown be- 
gin the manufacture of glass beads, 
for traffic with the Indians. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1600 Gorton, Samuel, pioneer, born. 
Hopkins, Edward, governor, born. 
Mason, John, captain, born. 

1601 Coddington, William, founder of R. I., 
born. 

1602 Stuyvesant. Peter, Gov. of N.Y., b. 

1603 Bradstreet, Simon, Gov. of Mass., born. 
± Fenwick, George, proprietor in Conn., b. 

1604 Eliot. John, Apostle to Indians, born. 

1606 Calvert, Leonard, Gov. of Md., born. 
Winthrop, John, Gov. of Conn., born. 

1607 Gosnold, Bartholomew, colonizer, d. 
Harvard, John, founder, born. 

1609 Clarke, John, Baptist founder, born. 
Clap, Roger, author, born. 

CHURCH. 

1605 Aug. 19. Me. The English colo- 
nists at St. George, an island [in the 
Androscoggin River], all leave their 
ships and go ashore, where they have 
located their plantation, and listen to a 
sermon by their preacher, after which 
the laws of the colony are read. 

* * Paraguay. A second band of Jesuit 
missionaries — Cataldino, Mazeta, and 
Lorenzana — begin a successful work. 

* * It. Leo XI. and later Paul V. , pope. 

1606 Apr. 10. Va. The charter is 
issued ; it makes the Church of Eng- 
land the religion of the colony, and all 
the people taxable for its support ; the 
aborigines are to be converted to Chris- 
tianity if possible. 

1607 June 21. Va. The Holy Sac- 
rament is administered in a chapel 
having sail-cloth for a covering, rails 
for walls, and logs for benches ; Rev. 
R. Hunt, minister at Jamestown. 

* * Me. Rev. Richard Seymour accom- 
panies a colony, for the service of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church. 

* * R. I. A Baptist Church (according 
to some authorities) formed at Tiverton. 



1608* * Eng. Rev. John Robinson 
and other Puritans thrown into jail for 
dissenting, when about to flee from Eng- 
land. 

* * Paraguay. Jesuits are zealous in 
civilizing natives. 

* * Hoi. Part of the fleeing Puritans 
reach Holland. 

1609* * Mass. "William Brewster is 
chosen elder of the Plymouth colony, 
and becomes a religious leader. 

* * * Can. The Jesuit missionaries 
commence the work of converting the 
Indian tribes, and exhibit unparalleled 
fortitude and great perseverance. 

LETTERS. 
1608 * * The True Relation., by Captain 
John Smith, is printed in London. 

* * Va. Smith sends to England his com- 
pleted Map of the Chesapeake Bay. 

SOCIETY. 

1606 Apr. * The London Company is 
required by a clause in its patent to 
hold all property of its settlement in 
common for the first five years. 

1607* * Va. The colony at Jamestown 
consists of 12 laborers, 10 or 12 mechan- 
ics, and 48 gentlemen, and no women. 

* * Va. Suspicion, dissension, and ras- 
cality prevail among the colonists. 

Dec. * Va. Capt. John Smith is taken 
prisoner by the Indians, and sentenced 
to die, but his life is spared by the in- 
tercession of Pocahontas, daughter of 
Powhatan. 

1608* * Va. A conspiracy is formed to 
kill John Smith, and abandon the colony. 

* * Va. Gov. John Smith's first law : 
" He who would not work should not 
eat ; " the second, " Each man for six 
days in the week should work six hours 
each day." 

Apr. * Va. Capt. Newport arrives with 
a company of 34 gentlemen and an as- 
sortment of gold hunters, adventur- 
ers, and vagabonds. 

1609* *-10 Winter. Va. Vicious- 
ness and profligacy on the part of the 
greater number of the colonists bring 
about dearth ; only CO persons out of 490 
survive till spring. 

* * Va. Thirty colonists seize one of 
the vessels and sail away as pirates ; 
riot and idleness prevail, domestic ani- 
mals are killed, and firearms traded 
away. 

SETTLEMENT — STATE. 

* * * The Cherokee, Catawba, and 
Tuscarora Indians hold the Southern 
mountain country, and approach within 
about 100 miles of the Atlantic coast. 

* * * The Dakotas are in the great West 
and Northwest ; the Mobilians are in 
the South. 

* * * The Seminoles are in the Florida 
peninsula ; the Shoshones between the 
Rio Grande and lower Mississippi, and 
in the Great Salt Lake region and north- 
ward ; the Comanches are east of the 
Rio Grande and near the Shoshones ; 



AMERICA. 



1600-1609. 



27 



the EUamaths are along the Pacific 
slope south of the Columbia River ; the 
Californians are south of the Kla- 
maths ; and the Athapascans, between 
the Colorado River and the Rocky 
Mountains. 

* * * North American Indian tribes are 
governed by a chief and council who 
are elective. Captive warriors are 
treated with great cruelty; women, 
boys, and girls are made slaves. 

* * * The Huron family of Indian tribes 
dwell north of Lake Erie and Lake 
Ontario. 

* * * The great Algonkian family rule 
both forest and prairie, extending along 
the Atlantic seaboard from the St. Law- 
rence to Cape Hatteras, and along the 
Ohio River westward to the Mississippi, 
and northward to Lakes Superior and 
Huron. 

The powerful Iroquois Indian fam- 
ily, including many tribes, extend south 
of Lakes Erie and Ontario and the St. 
Lawrence River for one or two hundred 
miles, and to the east as far as Lake 
Champlain. 

1602 * * Arg. Rep. Spain permits col- 
onists to export two ship-loads of pro- 
duce each year with 50 per cent customs 
duties. 

* * Holl. The Dutch East India Com- 
pany is foraned. 

* * Mass. The first New England set- 
tlement is made on an island in Buz- 
zard's Bay, by Bartholomew Gosnold, for 
the Association of London Merchants. 
[It is short-lived.] 

1603 Mar. 24. Eng. James I. en- 
throned. 

Apr. * Me. Martin Pring leads an Eng- 
glish expedition to the coast. [It returns 
after an absence of six months.] 

Nov. * Sieur de Monts, a French Hu- 
guenot, receives a grant of the country 
from one degree north of Montreal to 
the latitude of Philadelphia. 

1605. Aug. 9. Me. An English colony 
is planted at the mouth of the Sagada- 
hoc (Androscoggin) River, on an island 
called St. George. 

Nov. 14. JV. S. De Monts establishes 
the first French settlement in the 
country at Port Royal (Annapolis) in 
Acadia. 

* * Maine is visited by an expedition 
under George Weymouth. 

* * N. S. Acadia is the only active set- 
tlement except those in Central and 
South America, after 100 years of explo- 
ration. 

1606 Apr. 10. Great Virginia. The 
first charter is granted. 

A great joint-stock company is formed 
in England for the establishment of two 
colonies in America. The London or 
Virginia Company, having jurisdiction 
from 34° to 38° north latitude, and the 
Plymouth or North Virginia Company, 
with headquarters at Plymouth, having 
jurisdiction from 45° to 41°; and the in- 
tervening territory (38° to 41°) to go to the 
company establishing the first self-sus- 
taining colony. 



Aug. * Eng. The Plymouth Company 
of " knights, gentlemen, and merchants " 
sends out its pioneer ship for explo- 
ration, and it is taken by the Spaniards. 

Autumn. Eng. The second ship of the 
Plymouth Company goes out, and re- 
turns with glowing accounts. 

Dec. 19. Eng. The London Company 
of " noblemen, gentlemen, and mer- 
chants " sends out three ships. A Su- 
perior Council in England and an In- 
ferior Council in America are to manage 
its affairs. 

* * * France claims all the territory 
north of Florida by right of the dis- 
coveries of Verrazano. 

* * * England claims the territory from 
the Cape Fear in North Carolina to New- 
foundland, and westward indefinitely, 
by the discoveries of John Cabot. 

* * Mass. The French attempt to settle 
Cape Cod, but are driven off by the In- 
dians. 

1607 May* Va. John Smith is placed 
in confinement during the latter part of 
the voyage to Virginia, on the absurd 
charge of designing to murder the Coun- 
cil, and make himself its monarch. 

May 13. Fa. Commander Newport lands 
105 colonists at Jamestown, on the 
north bank of the James River, about 
32 miles from its mouth. 

Only 12 are laborers, and 10 or 12 are 
mechanics, while 48 are gentlemen, and 
there are no women. 

* * -10 Spring. JST. S. Port Royal is de- 
serted. 

May * Va. The Inferior Council elect 
Edward Wingfield the first governor. 

* * Va. John Smith is at first jealously 
excluded from his seat in the Council. 

June 2. Va. Capt. Newport sails for 
England, leaving the colonists in a 
wretched condition. 

Aug. 8. Me. The second English Col- 
ony is planted. 

George Popham and Raleigh Gilbert 
plant 120 colonists in a fort at the mouth 
of the Kennebec River. [It is abandoned 
the next year.] 

Aug. * Va. General sickness at James- 
town ; only five men able to do sentinel 
duty. 

Sept. 10. Va. Gov. Wingfield and his 
confederate, George Kendall, a mem- 
ber of the governing council, are detected 
in embezzling the stores of the colony. 
[They are impeached and deprived of 
office.] 

Sept. 15. Va. One half of the colonists 
have been swept away by disease. 

Sept. * Va. John Ratcliffe is chosen 
president of the council and governor 
of the colony. [He is detected in an 
attempt to abandon the colony, and is 
deposed.] 

Dec.** Va. Jamestown improves un- 
der the management of John Smith ; by 
strategy corn is secured from the Indians 
for winter. 

* * Va. Only two of the seven members 
of the council remain, Martin and 
Smith ; Martin elects Smith, not yet 



30 years old, President of Virginia. [He 
becomes the most noted man in the 
early history of America.] 
Winter. Va. Smith is held in captiv- 
ity by the Indians. 

1608 Jan. * Va. Smith returns from 
captivity. 

Apr. * Va. Newport returns to James- 
town with a second company, con- 
sisting of 120 emigrants, like the first, 
" vagabond gentlemen," idlers, and gold- 
hunters ; only 38 remain of the original 
105 colonists. 

Newport sails for England with a lot 
of worthless earth, supposed to contain 
gold. 

July 3. Can. Champlain returns from 
France to New France with a colony 
sent out by De Monts, and lays the foun- 
dation of Quebec. 

* * Va. The colonists waste the planting 
season in gold-seeking. 

Autumn. Va. Arrival of 20 colonists 
with Capt. Newport, which increases 
the number to a total of 200 persons. 

Sept. 10+. Va. John Smith is formally 
elected President; he enforces law; 
gold-hunting becomes unpopular, and 
prosperity increases. 

* * Va. Smith, Martin, and Newport 
constitute the Inferior Council. 

1609 May 23. Va. A second charter 
is issued, having enlarged privileges. 

King James revokes the constitution 
without consulting the wishes of the 
colonists, and grants the London Com- 
pany a new charter, extending from 
Cape Fear to Sandy Hook, and westward 
to the Pacific. 

May * Eng. Lord Delaware is elected 
governor of Virginia for life. 

He is the first one elected by the stock- 
holders of the London Company ; Sir 
George Somers is admiral ; Sir Thomas 
Dale is high marshal; Sir Ferdinand 
Wainman master of horse, etc. 

June * Eng. Many noblemen with 20 
women and children sail in a company 
of 500 emigrants for Virginia. 

One vessel is wrecked, and one run 
ashore in the Bermudas, and seven ar- 
rive in Jamestown. The governing 
commissioners being stranded in Ber- 
muda, John Smith continues in office, 
and greets the worst emigrants yet sent 
out. 

Sept. 15. Va. Smith sails for England, 
to recover his health. 

Sept. * Va. Sir George Percy governs 
Jamestown as Smith's delegate ; it con- 
tains between 50 and 60 houses. 

"Winter. Va. The 450 colonists suffer 
hunger because of profligacy and ill 
government. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1604 * * Eng. The Muscovy Company 
sends the first English ship to Green- 
land. 

1605 * * Me. George Weymouth sails on 
a trading expedition for furs to the- 
coast of Maine. 

* * Va. Captain John Smith is sick, 
and so near to death that his comrades, 
dig his grave. 



28 



1610-1620. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 
1613 Spring. Me. Captain Argall of 
Jamestown pillages and burns the 
French settlement at Mount Desert 
Island, it being in the territory of the 
London Company. 

* * Can. Smith destroys every building 
of a French colony at the mouth of the 
St. Croix River. 

* * Can. Smith burns the deserted ham- 
let of Port Royal in Acadia (Nova 
Scotia). 

* * N. Y. Smith destroys the cabins of 
the Dutch on Manhattan Island, and 
compels them to acknowledge the sover- 
eignty of James I. of England. 

1614* * N. Y. The Dutch build a fort 
on the southern extremity of Manhattan 
Island. 

* * N. Y. Fort Nassau is built by the 
Dutch [near Albany]. 

1615 Oct. 10. N. Y. Battle between 
Champlain and the Iroquois Indians in 
western New York. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE — 
EXPLORATION. 
1610 * * Eng. Hudson sails on a north- 
ern voyage of discovery, seeking a pas- 
sage westward to the Indies. 

* * Spring. Va. Smith introduces the 
cultivation of maize, and plants 30 or 
40 acres. 

July 27. Sir Thomas Smythe discovers 
Delaware Bay. 

Aug. 2. Can. Hudson enters the straits 
which bear his name, and thinks he dis- 
covers the Pacific [Hudson Bay]. 

1612 * * Va. The colonists begin to 
manufacture bricks. 

* * Va. John Rolfe [the husband of 
Pocahontas] begins the systematic cul- 
tivation of tobacco. 

1614 * * N. Y. Adriaen Block of New 
Amsterdam builds the first colonial ship, 
the Onrust (Restless). 

* * Conn. Slock, in the Onrust, explores 
Long Island Sound, and discovers the 
Connecticut River. 

June + * Captain John Smith explores 
the New England coast, and gives it this 
name. 

1615 * * Can. Champlain visits Lake 
Huron. 

1616 * * Can. Bylot and Baffin are 
sent in search of the northwest pas- 
sage ; "Wolstenholme's Sound, Lancaster 
Somid, and Baffin Bay are discovered. 

1617 * * Guiana. Sir Walter Raleigh 
explores the coast. 

1618 * * Can. Baffin reaches the 78° of 
latitude in the bay which bears his 
name. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1610 ? Berkeley, Sir William, Gov. of Va., b. 
? Newport, Christopher, commander, dies. 

1611 Day, Stephen, first printer, born. 

1613 Bradstreet, Anne, poet, born. 

1613 Morton, Nathaniel, historian, born. 

1614 Cheever, Ezekiel, teacher, born. 
1616 Leverett, Sir John, Gov. of Mass. , born. 

Mereloza, de Juan Gonzales, Mex. vicar, A 77. 



1617 Pocahontas dies in Europe A22. 

1618 West, Thomas Lord Delaware, Gov. 
of Va., A41. 

Powhatan, Indian chief, dies. 
1620 Allouez, Claude Jean, Fr. Jesuit, born. 
Dale, Sir Thomas, Gov. of Va., dies. 

CHURCH. 

1610 June * Va. A day given to reli- 
gious services on the return of the 
colonists to their homes. (See State.) 

1611 June 10. Va. Many godly emi- 
grants arrive ; they commence the labors 
of the day by offering prayers in their 
little church, and order and comfort 
increase. 

June 12. N. S. Two Jesuit mission- 
aries arrive at Port Royal, but their 
work among the Micmacs is frustrated 
by the government. 

* * Va. Gov. Dale requires -every man 
and woman to give an account of his 
faith to the minister for the test of 
orthodoxy ; he orders them to be 
whipped if they refuse, and to be 
whipped daily till they acknowledge 
their faith. 

1614 * * Va. Pocahontas becomes the 
first Christian convert, and is bap- 
tized in the Episcopal church, under 
the name of Rebecca. 

1615 * * Can. Le Caron, a Franciscan, 
carries the Roman Catholic religion to 
the Indians of eastern Maine, and west- 
ward to the Hurons. 

1617 * * Eng. The refugee Puritans 
in Holland apply to the London Com- 
pany for permission to emigrate to their 
territory in America, and their request 
is granted. 

1619 July* Va. The House of Bur- 
gesses confirms the Church of Eng- 
land as the Church of Virginia, and 
intends that the first four ministers 
shall each receive £200 a year, and all 
persons whatsoever shall attend church 
on the Sabbath, both forenoon and 
afternoon. 

* * Eng. Another request signed by the 
greater part of the Puritans is sent to 
the Company. [Dissensions in the Com- 
pany delay success.] 

* * N. S. Reformed Franciscans be- 
gin mission work in Acadia. 

1620 Dec. 21. Mass. Only the Plym- 
outh people come over as separatists, 
the other colonists remain in the 
Church of England seeking to reform 
her corruptions. The Congregational 
service is introduced by the Pilgrims. 

* * Arg. Rep. Buenos Ayres becomes a 
bishopric by creation of Pope Paul V. 

* * Eng. A company of London mer- 
chants is formed that agrees to loan 
money to the poor Puritans so they 
may emigrate ; each is to give his ser- 
vices for seven years to the company. 

LETTERS. 
1610 * * The True Repertory of the Wrack 
and Redemption of Sir Thomas Gates, 
written at Jamestown by William Stra- 
chey. 



1613 * * Good News from Virginia, by 
Alexander Whitaker, " The Apostle of 
Virginia." 

1614 * * Captain John Smith makes a 
map of the New England coast and 
country; names it New England. 

1616* * Peru. The college of San 
Carlos is founded. 

1619 * * Va. An effort is made to estab- 
lish a college at Henrico (Richmond). 

An endowment of £1,500 and 10,000 
acres of land is procured ; the massacre 
of its friends defeats the project. 

SOCIETY. 

1611 June 21. Can. Henry Hudson, 

his sons, and five others are sent adrift 
by his mutinous crew, and perish in 
Hudson Bay. 

* * Va. The land hitherto held hi com- 
mon is-now divided, and each of the 700 
colonists receives three acres. 

Sept. 1. Henry Hudson's mutinous crew 
is picked up in a wretched condition. 

1612 June 29. Eng. A lottery is 
drawn in London for the benefit of 
the Virginia plantations ; profit nearly 
£30,000. 

1613 * * Va. Pocahontas is stolen and 
held for a ransom by the colonists. [In- 
dian troubles follow.] 

1614* * Va. Capt. Hunt, the deputy 
governor, treacherously entices the In- 
dian chief, Santo, with 27 others, on 
board of his ship, and sails for Spain, 
where he sells them into slavery. 

Apr. * Va. Pocahontas is married to 
John Rolfe, a worthy young Englishman. 
[King James is scandalized that one not 
of royal blood should marry a princess.] 

1616 * * Pocahontas visits England 
and is received at Court. 

1619 * * Va. Laws are made against the 
playing of dice and cards, drunken- 
ness, and idleness; excess in apparel 
is restrained by a tax. 

* * Va. The colony is reenforced by the 
arrival of 1,200 emigrants, including 100 
felons sent by the king to be sold as 
servants among the planters. 

* * Eng. Bad management of the treas- 
urer of the London Company. 

About $400,000 have been spent and 
only 600 men, chiefly rovers, are found 
in the colony ; it is discovered that 
women must be introduced to make 
the enterprise succeed. 

Aug. * Va. A Dutch man-of-war brings 
20 African negroes to Jamestown, and 
sells them to the colonists at auction, 
thus introducing African slavery. 

1620 Dec. 21. Mass. The "Pilgrim 
Fathers " land at Plymouth Rock, and 
their colony consists of 73 males, 29 fe- 
males ; 34 adult males, 18 adult females ; 
20 boys and 8 girls ; also 3 maid servants 
and 19 men servants, etc. (Winsor.) 

* * Eng. Ninety young women of good 
breeding and modest manners are per- 
suaded to emigrate to Virginia. 

Men who become husbands pay 120 lbs. 
of tobacco to repay the almost bankrupt 
company the expense of the voyage. 



AMERICA. 



1610-1620. 



29 






SETTLEMENT — STATE. 

1610 May 24. Va. Capt.-gen. Gates 
and about 150 others arrive from Ber- 
muda, where they were shipwrecked. 

J vine * Va. "The starving time." 
Vice and famine have reduced the 
colonists from 490 to only 60 ; they are dis- 
heartened, and abandoning Jamestown, 
set sail for the fishermen's fleet at New- 
foundland. 

June 10. Va. The departing colonists 
meet a fleet of 3 vessels with reenforce- 
ments and supplies, and then return to 
Jamestown. 

Lord Delaware, the acting governor, 
brings peace, plenty, and prosperity to 
Jamestoiwn. 

New York. The first Dutch emi- 
grants arrive at Manhattan. 

* * Brazil. Jesuit settlements are 
formed ; communism prevails. 

* * Fr. Louis XTTT. enthroned. 

* * Nicaragua. The foundation of Leon 
[the future rival of Granada] is laid. 

* * N. F. Mr. Gay, of Bristol, founds a 
colony at Conception Bay. 

± * * Paraguay. Jesuit settlements of 
natives are begun ; civilization follows. 

* * Va. Delaware returns to England for 
his health. 

1611 May 10. Va. Sir Thomas Dale 
arrives in the Chesapeake with stores 
and emigrants ; he assumes the govern- 
ment as high marshal. 

Aug. * Va. Sir Thomas Gates arrives 
with 300 colonists, 12 cows, 20 goats, and 
supplies ; he enters office as deputy 
governor. 

* * Va. Colonists receive individual al- 
lotments of three acres of land. 

1612 Mar. * Va. James I. grants a 
third charter to the London Company. 

It includes the Bermudas ; because of 
the financial failure of the venture the 
stockholders are given control, and with- 
out intention, a democratic government 
is encouraged. 

* * Brazil. A French colony is founded 
on the island of Marajo. [Maintained 
six years.] 

* * Eng. Sir Walter Raleigh, having 
spent $200,000 to found a colony, without 
success, gives up the undertaking. 

* * Fr. The Protestants being in power, 
the great CondS becomes viceroy of 
the French empire in America. 

* * New York. The Dutch send the Tiger 
and the Fortune to trade with the Indians 
on the Hudson River. Huts are erected 
on Manhattan Island. (About 45 
Broadway.) 

1613 May * Me. Madame de Guerche- 
ville, having secured DeMonts' patent 
and a new one from the crown, for all 
lands between Florida and the St. Law- 
rence River, Port Royal excepted, sends 
Saussage and two .Jesuits, who settle a 
small colony on Mount Desert Island. 
[It is soon broken up.] 

* * Guiana. A colony of Dutchmen ar- 
rives. \ 

* * New York. The Dutch establish a 
trading-post on Manhattan Island. 



* * Va. Captain Samuel Argall of 
Jamestown breaks up the French settle- 
ments in Maine and Acadia, also the 
Dutch trading-station (?) at New Nether- 
land. 

1614 Oct. 11. N. Y. A charter is 
granted by the States-General to the 
New Netherland Company, includ- 
ing territory from 40° north to 45° north, 
with a monopoly of the fur trade for 
three years. 

* * Conn. Settlement of Connecticut. 

The Dutch, led by Adriaen Block, ex- 
plore the coast, also the chief river, and 
build a fort [near Hartford]. 

* * Guiana. The States of Holland en- 
courage settlements by offering mono- 
polies for four years. 

* * Mass. An expedition is sent to New 
England by Sir Ferdinando Gorges 
and the Earl of Southampton. 

* * N. Y. The Dutch form a settlement 
on Manhattan Island, also erect a fort ; 
they build another [Fort Nassau] 150 
miles up the river. 

* * New York. Jean Vigne, the first white 
child, born on Manhattan Island. 

* * Va. Gov. Gates returns to England, 
and leaves the government to Sir Thomas 
Dale [for two years]. 

The cultivation of tobacco brings 
prosperity to the colony ; the streets 
of Jamestown are planted with it, and 
it becomes the accepted currency. 

1615 May± * New Eng. John Smith 
vainly attempts to form a settlement. 

* * Brazil. Belem is founded by Calderia. 

* * Can. Champlain leads an expedition 
to Lake Huron. 

* * N. F. Captain Richard Whitborne 
is sent to establish order among the 
fishermen at Newfoundland. 

* * Va. Private ownership of land 
begins, each colonist receiving 50 acres 
for himself and heirs. 

1616 May * Va. Sir Thomas Dale re- 
signs the governorship, and returns to 
England, leaving George Yeardley as 
deputy governor. Pocahontas goes to 
England. 

* * New Eng. Sir Ferdinando Gor- 
ges makes persistent effort for the set- 
tlement of New England. 

1617 Jan. * Va. Captain Samuel Ar- 
gall is elected deputy governor. 

[Fraud, oppression, violence, greed, 
and tyranny on the part of the govern- 
ment check immigration, and the col- 
ony becomes reduced to 600 persons.] 
May 15. Va. Argall arrives in Jamestown. 

* * N. J. The Dutch from New Am- 
sterdam start a settlement at Bergen. 
[The first in New Jersey.] 

* * N. Y. Fort Nassau [Albany] is de- 
stroyed by a flood. 

1618 * * New Eng. Ferdinando Gorges 
sends Captain Rocroft from England to 
New England ; he spoils a French bark 
on the way, and goes to Virginia, where 
he is killed. 

1619 Jan. 1. N. Y. Expiration of the 
first New Netherland charter. 



* * Va. Lord Delaware sails with sup- 
plies, and dies on the voyage. Ope- 
chancanough succeeds Powhatan. 

Apr. 19. Va. Sir George Yeardley is 
appointed deputy governor. [The col- 
ony grows and prospers.] 

* * Hoi. The Pilgrims get a patent from 
the London (South Virginia) Company. 

July* Va. Popular government in- 
troduced. 

Yeardley divides the plantation into 
11 boroughs, and issues a proclamation 
requesting the election of two citizens 
from each to assist in the government. 

July 30. Va. The House of Burgesses 
meets at Jamestown, the first colonial 
legislature in the New World. 

It is an elective assembly for discus- 
sion only, and has no power without the 
approval of the London Company. 

1620 July 22. Hoi. The Pilgrims de- 
part from Delfshaven in the Speedwell, 
having spent the preceding night in 
prayer and religious conversation. 

The Pilgrims purchase the Speedwell, 
and hire the Mayflower. 

Aug. 5. Eng. The Pilgrims set sail 
from Southampton for Virginia in the 
Mayflower of 180 tons burden, and the 
Speedwell, 60 tons. [The Speedwell proves 
leaky, and compels their return to Dart- 
mouth.] 

Aug. 20±. The repairs on the Speedwell 
being completed, the Pilgrims reem- 
bark. [The Speedwell proves unseawor- 
thy, and they return to Plymouth.] 

Sept. 6. Eng. The Pilgrims finally 
leave Plymouth in the Mayflower, 
and number 102 persons. 

Nov. 3. Eng. The Plymouth Com- 
pany reorganized. 

King James incorporates forty of his 
subjects as " the Council established at 
Plymouth for the planting, ruling, or- 
dering, and governing of New, England 
in America. 

Nov. 9. Mass. The Pilgrims come in 
sight of Cape Cod after a voyage of 63 
days. 

Nov. 11. Mass. Pilgrims on the May- 
flower sign an instrument of republican 
government, and elect John Carver 
governor. (Nov. 21, N. S.) 

Being denied a patent by the king, they 
proceed to discharge all the functions of 
an organized state. 

Dec. 11. Mass. The Pilgrim Fathers 
disembark at Plymouth Rock, and 
found a colony numbering 102 persons. 
New Style, Dec. 21. (Winsor.) 

Dec. 23. Mass. The Pilgrims begin 
building a settlement at Plymouth. 

* * Arg. Rep. The Spaniards erect a new 
government for Buenos Ayr es — the 
Rio de la Plata, with Buenos Ayres 
for its capital ; cities and settlements 
abound. 

* * Paraguay is separated from Bue- 
nos Ayres. 

* * Mass. The whole body of the male 
inhabitants constitute the legislature. 
[Continuing thus for 18 years.] 

* * Va. The 1,000 inhabitants receive an 
accession of 1,200 more. 



30 162 1, Mar. 21 - 1 6 2 9, Aug. 29. AM ER I C A. 



ARMY— NAVY. 

1621 * * Va. The settlers scour the 
wilderness, burn Indian villages, and 
kill some savages ; the remainder are 
driven into the interior. 

* * Mans. Capt. Miles Standish, with a 
force of six men, explores the country to 
learn the disposition and number of the 
Indians. 

Aug. 14. Mass. The Plymouth colony 
sends 14 armed men to awe the 
Indians. 

1622 Mar. 22. Va. Indians attempt 
to annihilate the settlements by an un- 
expected attack, in which 347 colonists 
•are killed, and 72 settlements destroyed. 
•Only 1,(500 men survive in the 8 remain- 
ing settlements. 

1623 * * Mass. Miles Standish with 
eight men goes to the rescue of Wey- 
mouth, and defeats the Indians. 

June ± * N. Y. The Dutch build Fort 

Orange (Albany). 
N. J. The Dutch build Fort Nassau 

on the east shore of the Delaware [a 

little below Philadelphia]. 
July* Va. Parties of settlers attack 

the savages and drive them inland. 

1624 July* Va. The Assembly orders 
another attack on the Indians. 

* * Brazil. The Dutch take Bahia with- 
out a struggle. 

1628* * Can. Champlain repulses 
David Kirk in his attempt to capture 
Quebec ; Port Boyal falls into the hands 
.of the English. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE 
EXPLORATION. 

1621 * * Va. Workmen skilled in mak- 
ing iron arrive, bees are introduced, 
and cotton is planted as an experiment. 

1622 * * Va. First grist-mill erected. 
Twenty-five shipwrights arrive. 

1625 * * Mass. Plymouth has already 
built a little vessel. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1621 Carver, John, Gov. of Plymouth col- 
ony, A 31. 
Mayhew, Thomas, clergyman of Mass., born. 
Hubbard, William, clergyman of Mass., born. 

1623 Laval-Montmorency, Kp. of Que- 
bec, born. 

1625 Cushman, Robert, of Plymouth colony, 

A45. ? ' 

1627 Yeardley, Sir George, Gov. of Va., d. 

CHURCH. 

1621* * N. Y. Lutherans settle in New 
Amsterdam. 

* * It. Gregory XV., pope. 

1623 * * Mass. Protestant Episcopal 
service is first regularly established 
here by Rev. William Morrell of Eng- 
land. 

* * N. H. The colonists are tolerant to- 
ward all religious faiths. 

* * It. Urban VTEI., pope. 

* * N.Y. The Walloons are driven to 
America by persecution. 

* * Va. The General Assembly ordains 
the suppression " of all teaching or 
preaching, public or private," of all 



non-Episcopal ministers, and the expul- 
sion of non-conformists from the colony. 
± * * Mass. The London Company vexes 
the Plymouth colony by its efforts to 
thrust on the Pilgrims a minister of the 
Established Church; they had come 
to the western wilderness to escape such 
oppression. 

1626 * * Can. Fathers Brebeuf and 
Daniel, Recollects, begin work among 
the Hurons. 

* * New York. Public worship by the 
Reformed Dutch at New Amsterdam 
begins, in the absence of ministers, by 
the weekly reading of the Scriptures 
and the creeds in a room over a horse- 
mill, by two men (Huyck and Krol) sent 
over as " Comforters of the Sick." 

1627 * * N. M. The Franciscan mis- 
sionaries report 27 new missions, sev- 
eral large churches, 10 convents, thou- 
sands of Indians baptized, and over 8,000 
converts to Christianity. 

1628 Apr. 7. N.Y. Jonas Michaelius, 
the first Dutch minister, arrives ; the 
Reformed Dutch Church is organized 
in New Amsterdam. 

* * N. Y. The first Presbyterian 
church in America is organized in New 
Amsterdam. 
July 20. Mass. The ballot first used 
in America in the election of John Wil- 
son as pastor and teacher at Salem after 
a day of humiliation. The church or- 
ganized. 

1629 Aug. 6. Mass. Organization of 
the second Congregational church at 
Salem. 

John and Samuel Brown set up 
Episcopal worship in Salem : ap- 
parently the first to resist the politico- 
religious law of the colony. 

LETTERS. 
1622 * * Va. The Bishop of London 

raises £1,000 toward a university for 

this colony. 
1624 * * General History of Virginia, by 

Captain John Smith, is printed in 

London. 
1626 * * A Translation of Ovid, hy Sandys, 

appears. 

SOCIETY. 

1621 Mar. 22. Va. Jamestown and 
other settlements are saved from gen- 
eral massacre by the warning given by 
a converted red man, who reveals 
the plot on the previous night. 

Mar. * Mass. Massasoit, the great 
sachem of the Wampanoags, is received 
by the Plymouth colony with much 
parade. A treaty of peace follows. [It 
is faithfully kept for fifty years.] 

May 12. The first marriage in the 
Plymouth colony takes place between 
Edward Winslow and Susanna White. 

June 18. The first duel in New Eng- 
land brings disgrace on the duelists. 

It is fought by two servants with sword 
and dagger, and both are wounded. The 
authorities sentence them to lie 24 hours 
with their heads and feet tied together. 



* * Va. Sixty more young women 
arrive ; 150 lbs. of tobacco are charged 
each man who becomes a husband, to 
pay expenses incurred in bringing his 
bride to Virginia. 

Aug. 21. Va. One widow and eleven 
maids consigned to the colony from 
London, to be sold for tobacco at the 
rate of 120 lbs. of the best leaf for each. 

1622 * * Mass. The English settlers at 
Weymouth seek their subsistence by 
defrauding the Indians, instead of 
laboring in useful employment ; conflict 
follows. 

1625 June 9. N. Y. The first white 
child born in Brooklyn. 

1626* *N. Y. The Dutch introduce 
negro slaves. 

1628 * * N. Y. The Dutch on Manhat- 
tan Island live in houses thatched with 
straw' and having wooden chimneys, 
while creaking windmills extend their 
ungainly sails against the sky. 

SETTLEMENT — STATE. 

1621 Mar. 21. Mass. Massasoit visits 
Plymouth, and makes a treaty. 

The Pilgrims enter a treaty with the 
Wampanoags. [It is kept inviolate for 
50 years.] 

Spring. Mass. Of the 102 Pilgrims, only 
about 50 survive the winter. 

June 1. Eng. John Pierce receives his 
first patent for the Pilgrims. 

June 3. N. Y. The States-General grant 
to the Dutch "West India Company a 
charter, with full powers over New Neth- 
erland for 24 years. 

July 24. Va. Sir Francis Wyatt, the 
governor, brings a new constitution 
for the colony. 

It vests the government in a governor, 
a council of state, and a general assem- 
bly, for which two burgesses are to be 
chosen by each town, hundred, and plan- 
tation. The governor has the veto power, 
and every enactment of the assembly re- 
quires the company's sanction ; on the 
other hand, the assembly may veto the 
acts of the company. 

Sept. 10. Can. Sir "William Alexan- 
der obtains from the crown of Scotland 
a patent for all Acadia, under the title 
of Nova Scotia. [An unsuccessful at- 
tempt is made at colonizing.] 

Nov. 19. Mass. Another company of 
emigrants arrives with scant provisions 
for the winter. 

Nov. * -Dec. * Va. First session of the 
Assembly under the new constitution. 

* * Mass. "William Bradford is elected 
governor, on the decease of Carver. 

Pestilence had swept away about one- 
half of the Indians prior to the arrival 
of the Pilgrims. 

"Winter. Mass. Starvation threatens the 
colonists, and they subsist on half ra- 
tions for six months. 

* * Mass. The supply vessel Fortune is 
sent back from Plymouth, laden with 
beaver skins and clapboards valued at 
$2,500, the first returns from the colony. 

* * N. F. Sir George Calvert plants 
a colony in Newfoundland [and resides 
there for several years]. 



AMERICA. 1621, Mar. 21-1629, Aug. 29. 31 



* * Sp. Philip IV. enthroned. 

* * Va. Jamestown exports 55,000 lbs. 
of tobacco this year. 

The cultivation of cotton is intro- 
duced. 

* * -22 * * Va. Great increase in im- 
migration. 

1622 Aug. 10. N.H. Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges and John Mason obtain a pa- 
tent for lands between the Merrimac 
and Kennebec Rivers, called Laconia. 

Settlements made on the sites of Dover 
and Portsmouth. 

Nov. 6. The king's proclamation prohib- 
its " interloping and disorderly trading 
to New England." 

[This hastens the dissolution of the 
Plymouth company.] 

■* * Can. Samuel Champlain is gover- 
nor of Canad i [including Michigan]. 

** * Eng. The London Company is bank- 
rupt, and the numerous stockholders 
are divided by dissensions. 

* * Mass. English fishing vessels arrive 
and sell food to the starving Pilgrims 
at double price. 

Emigrants sent out by Thomas Weston 
of London begin a new settlement [near 
Boston] called Weymouth. 

* * Me. The first permanent settlement 
in Maine is made at Saco. (Or in 1623.) 

* * Spring. N. Y. The great "West In- 
dia Company take possession of New 
Netherland under their charter. 

- * Fa. A massacre of a part of the 
colonists reduces the plantations from 
<S0 to less than eight. 

The census shows a population of 2,500 
people. 

1623 Apr. * Eng. Lord Baltimore's 
patent is granted. [Dies. Patent not 
sealed.] 

Apr. * The whole of Long Island is 
granted to the Earl of Stirling. 

Apr. * N. Y. Thirty families, called 
"Walloons, arrive from Flanders ; they 
seek civil and religious freedom, and to 
escape the persecutions of their own 
country. 

June 25. Va. King James contends 
with the London Company and en- 
deavors to annul its charter. 

June ± * N. Y. Eighteen of the emigrant 
families of Walloons ascend the Hud- 
con, and build Fort Orange (Albany). 

* * N. J. Walloons, under Cornells Ja- 
cobson May, ascend the South River 
(Delaware) and build Fort Nassau [be- 
low Camden]. 

* * Can. Scotch colonists sent out by 
Sir William Alexander arrive in Nova 
Scotia, but return when they find French 
adventurers already established there. 

July 20. New England is divided 
among the original patentees. 

* * Mass. Weymouth [near Boston] is 
abandoned ; the majority of colonists re- 
turn to England. 

John Pierce's second patent issued on 
his own account, making the Plymouth 
people his tenants. [He sells it to the 
Pilgrims for $2,500 — cost price $250.] 



John Lyford and John Oldham 

conspire against the welfare of the 
colony, and both are banished. 

The Pilgrims no longer labor in com- 
mon, but receive allotments of land to 
individuals for one year. 

* * Me.-N. H. Settlements are made in 
New Hampshire and Maine, including 
Portsmouth and Dover. 

1624* * Spring. Mass. Land is no 
longer held in common ; every person 
receives a little land in perpetual fee. 
Edward Winslow returns from England, 
bringing the Cape Ann patent. 

Cattle are first brought to Plymouth 
— three heifers and one bull. 

June 16. Virginia becomes a royal 
colony. 

James I. arbitrarily annuls the liberal 
charter of the London Company, after 
it has spent $750,000 above its receipts, 
and Virginia becomes a royal colony, 
having Sir Francis Wyatt for governor, 
with 12 councilors. 

Dec. * New Eng. After four years of 
labor and expense, only 180 persons 
remain ; there is no hope of future 
profit. 

* * Brazil is invaded by the Dutch. 

* * Mass. John White, a Puritan minis- 
ter from Dorchester, England, plants a 
small colony on Cape Cod. 

The governor's power is restricted by 
a council of five. 

Cape Ann is settled by a few Puri- 
tans. [Later the colony removes to 
Naumkeag.] 

* * N. Y. The Dutch ship New Nether- 
land brings over a colony of 110 Wal- 
loons of French origin, to the Hudson 
River region. They bring farm-stock, 
seed, and implements. 

The Dutch begin civil govern- 
ment; Captain Cornelius May is the 
first governor, and his duties chiefly re- 
late to the management of a trading- 
post. 

* * Va. About 2,000 colonists remain of 
the 9,000 sent out. 

1625 Mar. 27. Eng. Charles I. en- 
throned. 

May 13. Va. Charles I. issues a proc- 
lamation inimical to the Jamestown 
colony. 

* * Mass. Mount Wollaston [near Bos- 
ton] settled by Captain Wollaston. 

* * New York. Sarah Rapaelje is born, 
the first white girl born on Manhattan 
Island. 

Three ships and a yacht bring many 
settlers from Holland and 100 cattle. 

* * N. Y. William Verhulst is governor 
of New Netherland. Walloons settle at 
Fort Orange (Albany). 

1626 Jan. * N. Y. The Dutch West 
India Company appoint Peter Minuit 
governor of New Netherland. 

May 4. N. Y. Gov. Minuit arrives; 
also four shiploads of colonists with 
300 cattle ; population of New Amster- 
dam two hundred. 

* * Guiana. The French settle on the 
Sinamary River. 



May * New York. Minuit buys the en- 
tire Manhattan Island, comprising 
more than 20,000 acres, for $24 worth 
of scarlet cloth, brass buttons, etc. 

* * N. H. A feeble settlement is made on 
the Piscataqua River (Dover). 

* * Va. Sir George Yeardley, benefac- 
tor of Virginia, reappointed governor. 

1627 Aug. * Va. The King proposes a 
royal monopoly of the tobacco trade. 

* * Summer. Va. One thousand emi- 
grants arrive. 

Nov. * Mass. Eight of the Plymouth 
colonists purchase the entire interest 
of the London Company in the Plym- 
outh colony for $9,000. 

Nov. * Va. The colonists elect Francis 
West to fill the vacancy in the gover- 
norship. [He is soon excluded.] 

* * Can. The colony of Quebec is 
transferred to the company of 100 mer- 
chants under Cardinal Richelieu. 

* * Guiana. Dutch settlements are es- 
tablished. 

* * Mass. The Plymouth colony intro- 
duce the use of wampum as currency. 

* * Mass.-N. Y. The Dutch and the Puri- 
tans are fast friends. Dutch embassy is 
sent to Plymouth with expressions of 
good will. 

1628 Mar. 19. Mass. The founda- 
tion of the Massachusetts colony is 
laid by 6 Englishmen. 

They purchase a belt of land ex- 
tending from ocean to ocean, and from 
3 miles north of the Merrimac River to 
3 miles south of the River Charles and 
the Massachusetts Bay. 

Mar. * Va. The colonists assent to the 
royal monopoly of the tobacco trade. 

Sept. 16. Mass. Arrival of a colony at 
Salem, led by John Endicott. 

* * Mass. Endicott suppresses the settle- 
ment at Wollaston. 

* * New York Manhattan has a popu- 
lation of 270 ; the fur trade flourishes. 

* * Va. John Potts is governor. 

1629 Mar. 4. Mass. Charles I. issues 
a charter to the company which had 
settled Salem, incorporating the pro- 
prietors as the Governor and Company 
of Massachusetts Bay in New Eng- 
land ; M. Cradock governor. [Declines.] 

June 6. N. Y. The Dutch West In- 
dia Company created a charter of 
privileges corporation. 

Under it certain patroons may each 
hold in fee simple, as do the hereditary 
lords of Europe, a tract of land not 
more than 16 miles long and 8 miles 
wide, or other width determined by the 
position. 

June 30 ±. Mass. Two hundred addi- 
tional immigrants arrive ; one-half go to 
the Plymouth Colony and the other 
half lay the foundation of Charles- 
town, dividing the land into two-acre 
lots, one for each settler. [More than 
one-half die in a year.] 

Aug. 29. Mass. The charter and gov- 
ernment of the Massachusetts Company 
is transferred to the colony by the 
Company; John Winthrop is chosen 
governor. 



32 1629-1634, Oct 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1629 * * Can. Conquest of Quebec by 
the English, who are led by three refu- 
gee French Calvinists. 

1630* * Brazil. The Dutch take Olinda. 

1633 * * Conn. The Indians commit 
their first act of violence in this col- 
ony by murdering the crew of a trading 
vessel on the Connecticut Kiver ; they 
apologize, and sign a treaty of peace. 

* * New York. Fort Amsterdam is be- 
gun. [Number 4 Bowling Green.] 

1634 Oct. * Conn. Plymouth colonists 
ascend the Connecticut Kiver, and build 
a fort at Windsor. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE 
EXPLORATION. 

1629 * * Mass. The colonists at Salem 
commence to make bricks. 

1630 * * Peru. Destructive earthquake 
at Lima. 

1631 * * Can. Searching for the north- 
west passage, Fox discovers Fox Chan- 
nel ; touches Cape Peregrine. James, 
on the same errand, discovers James's 
Bay. 

* * Mass. The little vessel Blessing of 
the Bay is built. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 
1630 Johnson, (Lady) Arabella, Pilgrim, d. 

1632 Smith. John, leader in Va., A53. 

CHURCH. 

1629 * * Mass. Gov. Endicott sends away 
the Episcopal brothers Brown, who de- 
sire services in their own house, as " fac- 
tious and evil-conditioned." 

1630 Feb. 22. Mass. Fast day 
changed into a day of thanksgiving, be- 
cause of the arrival of a ship from Eng- 
land with provisions. 

* * Conn. Presbyterian worship, con- 
ducted by Richard Denton, pastor, com- 
mences at Wetherstield. 

* * Mass. John Winthrop, an Epis- 
copalian, chooses affliction with the 
Puritans. 

. * * N. Y. A colony of Dutch establish 
the Reformed Dutch worship at Fort 
Orange (Albany). 

1631 Feb. 5. Boston. Roger Wil- 
liams arrives from England 

Apr. 12. Mass. Williams becomes 
teacher for the Salem church. 

May 18. Mass. The General Court of 
the Massachusetts Bay colony decrees, 
" No man shall be admitted to the body 
politic, but such as are members of some 
of the churches within the limits " of the 
colony. 

Nov. 3. Boston. Rev. John Eliot ar- 
rives. 

* * Mass. Taxes are levied for the sup- 
port of the gospel ; attendance at 
church is required by law ; only church 
members can be elected to offices of 
trust ; intolerance and bigotry, the vice 
of the age, is also the vice of the Pu- 
ritans. 



The Plymouth colony is more toler- 
ant than the Massachusetts colony. 

Roger Williams, a minister of Salem, 
denounces the intolerant laws. 

He is the " first in America or Europe 
to proclaim the doctrine of full religious 
toleration ; " he holds that the state 
should leave matters of religious opinion 
and worship to the conscience of the 
individual, and confine government to 
secular affairs. 

1632 * * Can. The conversion of the 
heathen is committed solely to the 
Jesuits. 

The missionaries are employed to 
confirm the alliance made with the 
Hurons, by establishing missions among 
them. 

* * Mass. The erection of the first 
church in Soston is commenced. 

1633 Mar. 25. Va. The services of 
the Roman Catholic church are be- 
gun on St. Clement's Island, on the 
Potomac, by Revs. Andrew White and 
John Altham. 

Oct. * N. H. The first Congregational 
minister preaches in the State. 

* * Can. Jesuit missionaries resume 
work in the St. Lawrence Valley. 

* * Spring. N. Y. A second Dutch 
minister arrives at New Amsterdam. 

* * Md. The Society of Jesus begins its 
labors. 

* * N. Y. The records of the Re- 
formed (Dutch) church begin. 

The first church on Manhattan 
Island is erected by the Dutch (on Pearl 
Street, between Broad and Whitehall). 

1634 Mar. 3. Md. The first colony of 
200 Catholics arrives on the Potomac, 
for the settlement of Maryland under 
Lord Baltimore. 

Mar. 25. Md. The English Catholic 
families land from the two ships, the 
Arc and the Dove. 

Mar. 27. Md. Lord Baltimore, a Cath- 
olic, plants the first colony, composed 
of both Puritans and Catholics, but 
chiefly Catholics, near the mouth of the 
Potomac, and some are men of fortune. 

* * * Mass. The opposition to the 
Quakers rests on semi-political grounds 
chiefly, because they annoy congrega- 
tions in their worship. 

May 24. Mass. Commencement of the 
custom of preaching election-day ser- 
mons, by Rev. John Cotton. 

Sept. ± * Mass. Roger Williams be- 
comes pastor of the Salem church. 

LETTERS. 
1630 * * The Golden Fleece, by Vaughn, 
appears. 

* * A Model of Christian Charity is writ- 
ten by John Winthrop while on his 
voyage to Massachusetts. 

* * * The Puritans are an educated 
people. 

1633 * * New York. The Dutch estab- 
lish a school at New Amsterdam. 

SOCIETY. 

1629 * * Brazil. Commencement of 

raids into the interior to capture In- 



dians for slavery ; the converted Indians 
in Paraguay are not spared. 

* * Eng. The Massachusetts colony in 
London, directing Gov. Endicott, says: — 

" We pray you endeavour, though there 
be much strong water for sale, yet so to 
order it as that the savage may not, for 
our lucre sake, be induced to the exces- 
sive use, or rather abuse of it ; and at 
any time take care our people give no 
ill example : and if any shall exceed in 
the inordinate kind of drinking as to be- 
come drunk, we hope you will take care 
his punishment be made exemplary for 
all others." 

* * Paraguay. Spanish colonists raid the 
Indian tribes of the interior, to secure 
slaves, repeatedly attacking the Indian 
settlements of the Jesuits. 

* * -35 * * Va. Gov. John Hervey sides 
with certain speculators and land mo- 
nopolists in wronging the people. 

1630 * * Brazil. The Dutch send an ex- 
pedition to Africa to capture slaves 
from a Portuguese settlement for the 
colony at Olinda. 

* * Mass. About 300 of the best kind 
of Puritans families emigrate to New 
England. 

" Not adventurers, not vagabonds, 
were these brave people, but virtuous, 
well-educated, courageous men and 
women, who, for conscience's sake, left 
comfortable homes with no thought of 
returning." 

The court fixes the prices of labor; 
mechanics to receive no more than 2s. a 
day, under a penalty of 10s. 

1631 * * Del. The entire colony of 30 
persons at Lewiston is massacred by the 
Indians in revenge of one murder. 

* * Mass. Roger Williams arrives. 

1633 * * Mass. One of the laws of the 
colony directs that " No man shall sell 
or (being in the course of trade) give any 
strong water to any Indian." 

* * * Brazil. Maurice, the Dutch gov- 
ernor, promotes the amalgamation of 
the natives and colonists by marriage. 

The colony grants partial toleration. 

It enacts that provision be made for 
all refugees from religious persecution 
on their arrival, except Jesuits and 
priests ; blasphemy, idolatry, and witch- 
craft are made punishable with death ; 
immoralities are severely punished ; 
money is not to be loaned for inter- 
est ; extravagance in dress is a crime; 
and the Bible is accepted as the ultimate 
tribunal when the laws are defective. 

* * Mich. The Iroquois Indians drive the 
Hurons on St. Joseph's Island, where 
many starve during the winter. 

1634 * * Mass. Mrs. Hutchinson organ- 
izes a meeting of women, they being 
excluded from speaking in the weekly 
meetings for social worship. 

SETTLEMENT — STATE. 
1629 Sept. 13. Mass. Nine sachems 
come to Plymouth and offer their alle- 
giance. (J. Endicott, acting governor.) 

* * Can. Quebec and all Canada is sur- 
rendered to the English. 

* * Mass. The name of the Bay Colony is 
changed from Naumkeag to Salem. 

* * N. H. — Me. Mason and Gorges, the 
proprietors of New Hampshire and 
Maine, dissolve their union, and each 



AMERICA. 



1629-1634. 



receives a new grant ; Mason from the 
Merrimac to the Piscataway River, 
Gorges from the latter to the Kennebec, 
and it is called New Somersetshire. 

* * N.J. Godyn and Blomaert, two Dutch 
patroons, obtain a grant of the lower 
part of New Jersey, bordering the Del- 
aware Bay. 

* * Va. Gov. John Harvey arrives at 
Jamestown, bearing a commission from 
Charles I. [His presence vexes the col- 
onists for six years.] 

Lord Baltimore visits Virginia, and 
is promised citizenship if he will take an 
oath, which his Catholic conscience for- 
bids. He is not permitted to plant a 
colony here. 

* * Del. Samuel Godyn, a Dutch direc- 
tor, purchases from the Indians all their 
lands from Cape Henlopen to the mouth 
of the Delaware. 

1630 Midwinter. Mass. Two hundred 
Puritans have perished from the 
severity of the climate and their inferior 
shelter. 

Apr. 18. If. Y. Manors are created. 

May * If. H. The province of Laconia 
has its name changed to New Hamp- 
shire. It is first settled. 

June 12. Mass. John Winthrop arrives 
at Salem with the charter of Massachu- 
setts Colony. The government is re- 
moved from England to America. 

(John Winthrop is elected the first 
governor of the Massachusetts Colony.) 
He is a Christian patriot and states- 
man, of the Episcopal religion, and of 
republican principles. [He becomes the 
controlling spirit of the colony.] 

July 6. Mass. Fourteen vessels arrive 
with 1,500 colonists for Massachusetts 
Bay. [They found Watertown, Dor- 
chester, and Roxbury.] 

July * If. Y. The Council ratify the pur- 
chase from the natives of all land be- 
tween Cape Henlopen and the mouth of 
the Delaware by Samuel Godyn. 

Aug. 9. If. Y. Staten Island is pur- 
chased from the Lndians by Michael 
Pauw, a Dutch director. [They sell it 
twice afterwards.] 

Aug. 23. Mass. The first court of as- 
sistants is held at Charlestown ; it settles 
the price of mechanical labor : mechan- 
ics are to receive no more than 2s. a 
day, under a penalty of 10s. to giver 
and taker. 

Aug. * Mass. Trimountain (Boston) is 
founded by John Winthrop and a few 
leading families. 

Sept. 17. Mass. The court of Charles- 
town changes the name of the settle- 
ment at Trimountain to Boston. 

Oct. 19. Boston. The first General 
Court in America is held; 110 freemen 
in the colony. 

Oct. * Mass. It is found impracticable 
to transact public business by a primary 
assembly of all freemen meeting four 
times in a year ; a Board of Assistants 
is appointed. 

Nov. * If. J, Michael Pauw becomes the 
patroon of Hoboken Hacking (Hoboken). 



* * Guiana. The first settlement is made 
at Surinam. 

* * Brazil. The Dutch seize the coast, 
and establish a colony at Olinda in Per- 
nambuco ; Count Maurice comes, and 
prosperity follows. 

Regular government is established and 
a supply of slaves provided. 

* * Conn. The Council of Plymouth grant 
to the Earl of Warwick the land 120 miles 
southeast from the Narragansett River, 
and extending from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific [Not settled for five years.] 

* * Mass. A third and last patent given 
to the Plymouth Colony, grants lands 
between the Cohasset River and the 
Narragansett, and westward to the limits 
of Pokenakut (or Sowamset). 

The great emigration begins. 

Over 1,000 persons brought over in 
17 vessels, besides horses, cattle, and 
goats, also necessaries for planting, fish- 
ing, ana ship-building. Many persons 
of importance are among the emigrants. 

* * Me. Settlements are made on the 
Saco by Bichard Vines and John 
Oldham. 

* * If. C. Charles I. grants Sir Robert 
Heath a patent to Carolina, an im- 
mense tract south of Virginia. [After 
33 years of useless existence, it is re- 
voked.] 

* *N.S. St. Etienne, a Huguenot of La 
Tour, buys the patent for Nova Scotia, 
of Sir William Alexander, with a con- 
dition requiring its continued subjection 
to Scotland. 

* * N. Y. Kiliaen van Rensselaer, one 
of the colonial directors, appropriates 
lands bought of the Indians, north and 
south of Fort Orange (Albany), 24 
miles along the river, and 48 miles in- 
land. Dutch colonists settle Rensse- 
laerwyck. 

* * Va. Virginians are vexed with the 
rash imposition of frequent fines, which 
now become the perquisites of Governor 
Harvey. 

1631 Feb. 5. Mass. Arrival of the 
Lyon from Bristol, laden with much 
needed food. 

Mar. 29. Conn. "Warwick transfers his 
claim to Lord Say and Seal, Lord 
Brooke, John Hampden, and others. 

Spring. Del. De Vries, with 30 Dutch 
colonists, lays the foundation of Lewis- 
town, the oldest settlement in Delaware. 
[All are massacred by Indians.] 

May 5. N. J. The Dutch purchase Cape 
May of the Indians. 

Oct. 18. Mass. The Puritans limit the 
suffrage to members of the church, 
thus putting the government in the 
hands of a minority, excluding from 
their rights nearly three-fourths of the 
people. 

* * Mass. A fortified town is begun on 
the Charles River, and called Newtown 
(Cambridge). 

* * Me. A division line is drawn by the 
proprietors, Gorges and Mason, be- 
tween Maine and New Hampshire, 
separating the colonies. 



* * Md. William Clayborne, with other 
Virginians, makes the first settlement, 
on Kent Island. 

1632 Mar. 29. Fr. Treaty of St. 
Germain between Prance and England ; 
New France, Acadia, and Canada go to 
the dominion of France ; all British in- 
terests are surrendered. 

June 20. Md. Cecil Calvert, second 
Lord Baltimore, receives from Charles 
I. the grant of a new province, which he 
calls Maryland, in honor of the queen. 
[The severing of their territory vexes 
the Virginians, but they remonstrate in 
vain.] 

Oct. * Mass. Governor Winthrop and 
Pastor Wilson, of the Massachusetts 
Colony, visit the Plymouth settlement 
to show good will. 

* * Conn. Dutch traders visit the Con- 
necticut. 

* * Mass. The Connecticut valley be- 
ing more fertile, emigration is urged 
thither by Winthrop. 

* * If. Y. Charles I. reasserts the title of 
England to New Netherland, by " first 
discovery, occupation, and possession." 

1633 Jan. 8. Conn. The Dutch buy 
land of the Indians on both sides of the 
river. 

Apr. * if. Y. Wouter van Twiller su- 
persedes Minuet as governor. 

Oct. * Conn. A trading-post is estab- 
lished by the Pilgrims, and settlers lo- 
cate at Windsor in disregard of the 
claims of the Dutch. 

Nov. 22. Md. Leonard Calvert, 
brother of the second Lord Baltimore, 
sails with a colony of 201 persons, chiefly 
Roman Catholics and their servants. 

* * Mass. Men who become eminent ar- 
rive ; among them are John Haynes, 
John Cotton, Thomas Hooker, and Sam- 
uel Stone. 

* * Mass. Charles I. becomes alarmed 
at the growing popularity of the liberal 
Massachusetts government. The Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury is offended. 

The governor's power is restricted 
by a council which is now increased from 
five to ten. (E. Winslow, governor.) 

* * Pa. The Dutch buy lands on the 
Schuylkill. 

1634 Mar. 25. Md. Lord Baltimore's 
first colony lands on St. Clement's 
Island. 

Apr. * Eng. Superintendency of the 
colonies is removed from the privy 
council to a special commission led by 
the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

May * Mass. The ballot is substituted 
for a show of hands at a public election. 

* * Mass. Thos. Prince, Gov. of Plym- 
outh ; Thos. Dudley, of Mass. Bay. 

* * Guiana. The French settle at Cay- 
enne. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1630 * * Greenland. Eight men belong- 
ing to the Muscovy Company are left 
here by accident till the next season, 
and yet survive their terrible sufferings. 



34 



1634-1639. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1635 Apr. 25. Md. Fight between the 
armed boats of "William Clayborne 
and the colonists. 

* * Me. The French seize the Penobscot 
trading-post established by Plymouth 
colonists, who fail to retake it. 

* * Conn. The English send over men, 
ordnance, and ammunition, with $10,000 
to build a fort at the mouth of the 
Connecticut River (at Saybrook). 

A colony led by the younger John 
Winthrop drives the Dutch from the 
mouth of the Connecticut River, settles 
Saybrook, and builds a fort, under a pa- 
tent given by Lord Say and Seal and 
Lord Brooke. 

1636 * * -37 * * Conn. The Indians com- 
mit many ravages near Saybrook. 
General alarm is felt. 

THE PEQUOT WAR. 

1636 July+i?./. The Indians of Block 
Island plunder a trading-vessel and kill 
its captain. 

Sept. * -Oct. * Mass. Capt. Endicott 
ravages the territory of the Pequots in 
revenge. 

1637 Apr. * Conn. Indians massacre 
nine soldiers at Wethersfield. 

* * Spring. Conn. The Pequots seek 
the alliance of the Narragansetts, with 
whom they had long been at enmity, but 
are frustrated by Roger Williams. 

May 10. Conn. The colonists in conven- 
tion declare war against the Pequots. 

May 26. Conn. Defeat of the Pe- 
quots in their fort by a force of 80 
men, commanded by Captain James 
Mason, and aided by several hundred 
doubtful Indian allies. 

July 13. Conn. Complete overthrow of 
the Pequots. 

* * Md. The colonists have a bloody 
skirmish with William Clayborne at 
Kent Island, and dispossess him. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE 
EXPLORATION. 
1635 Aug. 15. New Eng. Terrible 
storm and great tide 20 feet high ; lives 
and property destroyed. 

1638 June 1. New Eng. An earth- 
quake alarms the people. 

* * N. T. The Dutch on Staten Island 
are the first of the colonists to distil 
brandy. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1634 Dongran, Thomas, Gov. of N.Y., horn. 

1635 Mason, John, founder in N. H., dies. 

1636 Oldham, John, colonizer, murdered. 

1637 Andros, Edmund, Gov. of New. Eng.,b. 

1638 Harvard, John, founder of Harvard 
College, A31. 

1639 Alarcon y Mendoza, de Don Jan, 
Mex. poet, A39. ? 

Church, Benjamin, soldier, born. 

Mather, Increase, Pres. of Harvard, bAirn. 

CHURCH. 

1634 * * Can. The Jesuits, Brebeuf and 

Daniel, join the barefoot Hurons on 

their returning from Quebec to their 

own country, 



* * Mass. Irreligion, as well as her- 
esy, punishable. 

Mr. Lathrop and his flock, fleeing from 
England, settle at Scituate. 

Roger Williams writes a paper declar- 
ing the grants of land by the King of 
England are invalid until the natives 
are justly recompensed. 

* * Md. The colonists, with Father White 
for their priest, worship in an immense 
wigwam of the departed Indian chief, 
which is the first English Catholic 
church in America. 

* * Fa. A band of non-conformists 
are driven out because of their religious 
opinion. 

1635 Jan. 19. Mass. The governor 
convenes the clergy to decide " whether 
it be lawful for us to carry the cross 
[of England] in our banners ? " They 
divide, and defer their answer. 

May * Mass. The clergy favor changing 
the red cross of the English banner to 
the red and white rose. 

* * Mass. Roger "Williams and John 
Smyth, a miller, are banished from 
the colony because of heresy. 

Arrival of Rev. Thomas Hooker, the 
" Light of the Western Churches." 

Mrs. Anne Hutchinson becomes the 
champion of her sex against the clergy, 
whom she charges with defrauding the 
women of the gospel, also declaring that 
they were no better than Pharisees ; she 
advocates Antinomian doctrines. 

1636 Mar. 30. Mass. The Council 
sends a constable to Salem, to suppress 
those who do not submit to the Estab- 
lished Church. 

* * Can. Fifteen Jesuit Missionaries 
are among the Indians. 

* * Bel. Swedes establish Lutheran 
worship. 

* * Mass. The first Congregational 
organization at Cambridge formed. 

1637 Aug. 30. Mass. The Synod of 
New England meets for the first time 
at Newtown, and Anne Hutchinson and 
her friends are deemed unworthy of the 
society of Christians, and are banished. 
[They join the colony under Roger 
Williams (Rhode Island).] 

+ * * Mass. The Puritans and others are 
annoyed by the erratic Samuel Gorton, 
who is rated a heretic. 

Rev. Francis Doughty, a Presbyte- 
rian, is driven from Taunton because 
he favors the baptism of the infants of 
believers. 

General Synod of the Congregational 
church is held at Cambridge ; it con- 
demns Antinomianism. 

1638 May * R. I. A citizen of Provi- 
dence is disfranchised for striking his 
wife, disturbing her conscience, and 
preventing her from attending church. 

Dec. * JV. H. The First Congregational 
church organized at Dover. 

* * Can. Eminent French Catholics 
endow a public hospital for Indians, and 
three nuns are sent to serve it. 



* * Del. First Episcopal service held 
within the Swedish Fort Christina 
(Wilmington). 

Lutherans from Sweden bring a min- 
ister with them, and settle on the Dela- 
ware (Wilmington). 

* * Mass. Arrival of John Davenport, 
a clergyman, from London. 

John Wheelwright is banished for 
expressing sympathy with the teachings 
of Anne Hutchinson. 

* * New York. At New Amsterdam Dom- 
inie Bogardus writes Van Twiller, 
the incompetent governor, threatening 
to give him " such a shake from the pul- 
pit on the following Sunday as would 
make him shudder." 

1639 Mar.* R.I. The first Baptist 
church in America formed at Provi- 
dence. [Questioned by some.] 

Mar. 16. R.I. Roger "Williams's 
views of baptism change. 

Having been baptized in infancy, he 
meekly submits to be baptized again by 
Ezekiel Holliman, a layman, and then 
Williams baptizes Holliman " and some 
ten more:" thus rejecting the doctrine 
of infant baptism. 

June * Conn. The leading men of New 
Haven hold a convention in a barn, and 
adopt the Bible as the constitution of 
the State. None but church members 
to have the rights of citizens. They 
have no government for the first year. 

* * Conn. Religious toleration enacted 
in New Haven. 

* * Md. The Assembly make the Roman 
Catholic religion the church of the 
State. 

* * Mich. St. Mary's becomes the center 
of mission work among the Hurons. 

* * R. I. Roger Williams withdraws 
from the Baptists because of their non- 
apostolical succession. 

LETTERS. 

1635 * * Boston. Provision is made for 
the establishment of a public schooL 

* * Can. The foundation of a seminary 
is laid in Quebec by the Jesuits. 

1636 Oct. 28. Mass. The General 
Court makes provision for the erec- 
tion of a college. 

The Colony Court " agreed to give £400 
towards a schoole or collidge, whereof 
£200 is to be paid the next yeare, and 
£200 when the work is finished, and the 
next court to appoint where, and what 
building." The act doubles the taxes 
for this year. 

1637 * * Mass. A college is ordered to 
be erected at " Newetowne." 

1638 * * Mass. The name of the college 
is changed from Cambridge to Har- 
vard College, because of the bequest 
of £779 17s. 2d., and his library, by 
Rev. John Harvard ; the object being 
"the education of the English and In- 
dian youth of this country in knowledge 
and godliness." 

* * Boston. Stephen Day imports the 
first font of types. 

1639 * * Boston. Day sets up his print- 
ing-press at Cambridge. 

The first American almanac appears. 



AMERICA. 



1634-1639. 



35 



" An Almanac Calculated for New Eng- 
land, by Mr. Pierce, Mariner." Stephen 
Day, printer at Cambridge. 

* * Can. An TTrsuline convent for the 
education of girls established at Quebec. 

SOCIETY. 

1637 Nov. 2. Mass. Rev. John Har- 
vard is made a freeman of the colony, 
soon after his arrival. 

* * Mass. Negro slaves are imported. 

* * Mass. Ordinary-keepers are ordered 
not to sell either sack or strong water 
to the Indians. 

* * Rhode Island colonists are protected 
from the dangerous Pequot Indians by 
the powerful Narragansetts. 

1638 May 1. Eng. The King forbids 
the sailing of 8 vessels, ready to depart 
for America, and said to have John 
Hampden, Oliver Cromwell, and 
other noted Puritans on board. 

* * Mass. One person in each of 11 named 
towns is authorized to retail sack or 
strong water. 

1638* *N. Y. The Dutch on Staten 
Island are the first colonists to distil 
brandy. 

SETTLEMENT — STATE. 

1634 * * Eng. An anti-emigration 
edict issued, without the effect desired. 

* * Massachusetts changes its form of 
government from a pure to a repre- 
sentative democracy ; deputies chosen 
by the people assume the powers of gov- 
ernment, while the clergy oppose the 
change. 

The Massachusetts Company has some 
20 or 30 villages, and nearly 4,000 English- 
men have come over to dwell in them. 

* * N.J. Sir Edmund Ployden obtains a 
grant of the country on the Delaware 
(New Jersey) from the king of Eng- 
land, and calls it New Albion. 

1635 Feb. * The hostility of the king 
and church causes the Plymouth Coun- 
cil for New England to surrender its 
charter and rights in America, on con- 
dition that the king disregard various 
grants, and divide up the territory in 
severalty among its members. 

* * Mass. John Haynes, who arrived in 
1633, is elected governor of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay Colony. 

* * Mass. William Bradford, who ar- 
rived in 1620, is elected governor of the 
Plymouth Colony. 

Feb. 26. Md. The first general assem- 
bly meets, and enacts laws. 

Apr. * Md. Hostilities between Mary- 
land and Virginia. 

William Clayborne's pinnace is seized 
by a party from St. Mary's. He refuses 
to recognize the authority of Lord 
Baltimore. 

Oct. 8. Conn. John Winthrop, son of 
the governor of Massachusetts, arrives 
from England as governor of Connecti- 
cut. 

Oct. * New Eng. A colony of 60 persons 
leaves Boston and settles in the valley 
Of the Connecticut River ; Windsor, 



Hartford, and Wethersfield are 
founded ; many nearly perish for lack 
of food. 
Dec. * Va. Sir John Harvey re-ap- 
pointed governor by King Charles I. 

* * Va. The House of Burgesses depose 
Governor Harvey, whom Charles I. 
commissioned. 

Because of his partisanship with un- 
principled speculators, and they appoint 
Captain John West in his place " until 
the king's pleasure be known in the 
matter." A majority of the councilors 
favoring, the governor is constrained to 
go to England for a trial. 

* * Conn. A Puritan colony having ob- 
tained a charter, drives the Dutch from 
the mouth of the Connecticut and settle 
Saybrook. 

* * Guiana. A French colony established. 

* * Mass. Roger Williams is banished 
into the wilderness. 

Political troubles in England stimu- 
late emigration. 

Three thousand emigrants arrive, and 
Henry Vane, the younger, and Hugh 
Peters, are among them. 

Musket bullets are made lawful cur- 
rency by enactment. 

Twelve families of immigrants found 
Concord, 16 miles from Boston. 

* * New Eng. Selectmen are first ap- 
pointed as the officers of townships. 

* * N. F. Permission is given to the 
French to cure and dry fish, for a 
consideration. 

* * Eng. A Quo Warranto issued 
against the Massachusetts Company. 

1636 Apr. * Mass. Springfield is 
settled by William Pynchon and others 
from Roxbury. 

June * R. I. Roger Williams having 
bought the land of the Indians, with 
five others lays the foundation of the 
city of Providence. 

June * -July * Conn. Ministers Hooker 
and Stone, with their congregations, 
migrate from Newtown (Cambridge), 
Massachusetts, and buy land of the In- 
dians on the Connecticut River. 

* * Can. Quebec has 100 inhabitants. 

* * Mass. The General Fundamen- 
tals, a code of laws, is established at 
Plymouth. 

An unsuccessful attempt is made to 
rescind the charter [and again the next 
year]. 

The [afterward distinguished] Henry 
Vane, a young man of great talent and 
much piety, is elected governor. Wins- 
low is reelected governor of Plymouth. 

* * N.J. New Albion (including New 
Jersey) granted to Sir Edward Plowden, 
the viceroy of Ireland. 

1637 Spring. Mass. John Winthrop re- 
elected governor. Also Wm. Bradford. 

May 10. Conn. The first General Court 
declares war against the Pequots. 

July* Eng. Sir Ferdinando Gorges 
appointed Governor of New England by 
the king. [He did not leave England.] 

Summer. N. Y. The Dutch Company 
buy back the lands in Pavonia and 
Staten Island. Price [$10,000]. 



Aug. * Mass. Henry Vane returns to 
England. 

* * Conn. Windsor, Wethersfield, and 
Hartford become the colony of Con- 
necticut. 

1638 Mar. * Bel. Swedes settle in 
Northern Delaware, after buying the 
land of the Indians ; they call their col- 
ony New Sweden, and greatly prosper. 
Peter Minuet, governor. 

Jan.* Md. An act of attainder is car- 
ried against William Clayborne, as one 
indicted for piracy and murder ; he flees 
from justice to England. 

Mar. 7. R. I. Civil government is es- 
tablished at Newport by John Clarke, 
M.D., and 17 others, who left Massa- 
chusetts for religious freedom, the Jew- 
ish Nation furnishing their model of 
government. 

Mar. 29. New York. William Kieft, 
the governor, arrives at New Amster- 
dam. 

Mar. 30. Conn. A colony of Puritans, 
led by Rev. John Davenport and The- 
ophilus Eaton, sails from Boston, [and 
settle New Haven.] 

May 1. Charles I. restrains emigration 
by detaining a squadron of eight vessels 
abeut to sail from London, in which 
John Hampden and Oliver Cromwell are 
said to have embarked. 

Nov. 24. Conn. New Haven is pur- 
chased from the Indians. 

* * Mass. Thomas Prince, governor. 

* * N. Y. New Netherland is opened for 
general trade and settlement. 

* * R.I. William Coddington of Mas- 
sachusetts, with Mrs. Anne Hutchin- 
son and a few others, buys Rhode Is- 
land, and then founds the colony of 
Portsmouth [later Newport], and Cod- 
dington is elected the first magistrate. 

* * * Eng. Persecution hastens emigra- 
tion to New England. 

1639 Jan. 14. Conn. Civil govern- 
ment organized. 

Delegates from three towns, Windsor, 
Hartford, and Wethersfield, draw up a 
simple and liberal instrument at Hart- 
ford. Saybrook and New Haven decline 
to sign it. 

Apr. * Va. Charles I. treats the colo- 
nists with contempt ; he restores Gov- 
ernor Harvey. 

June 4. Mass. First General Assem- 
bly of the deputies of each town in the 
Plymouth Colony. 

Aug. * Conn. The leading men of New 
Haven adopt the Bible as the consti- 
tution of the State ; they exclude from 
rights of citizenship non-church mem- 
bers. [They so administer the govern- 
ment for twenty years.] 

Nov. * Va. Sir Francis Wyatt reap- 
pointed governor. 

* * Conn. John Haynes chosen govern- 
or of the Connecticut Colony, and The- 
ophilus Eaton of the New Haven Col- 
ony. 

* * Mass. William Bradford is reelected 
governor of Plymouth Colony. 



36 1639-1646, Aug. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1640 * * N. Y. The Dutch, " the bloody 
men," abuse the Indians, and war fol- 
lows in New Netherland. 

1641 * *N. Y. The Raritan Indiana 
from New Jersey avenge their wrongs by 
destroying the Dutch settlements on 
Staten Island. 

1642 * * -43 * * Maryland colonists con- 
tend with the Susquehannock Indians. 

1643 Feb. 25, 26. N. Y. Massacre 
of friendly Indians by the Dutch, at 
Pavonia, under orders of Gov. Kieft. 
A war of revenge follows. 

Sept. * N. Y. Anne Hutchinson and 
nearly all her family are massacred [near 
New Rochelle]. 

Sept. * N. Y. A temporary truce with 
Indians on Long Island is secured by 
Roger Williams. 

* * Conn. Miantonomoh, chief of the 
Narragansetts, is murdered with the ap- 
proval of the colony. 

1644 Feb.+ * N. Y. Captain John Un- 
derbill of Long Island leads a force 
which subdues the Delaware Indians 
in New Jersey, and also the Indians of 
Long Island and Connecticut. 

Apr. 18+. Va. The Indians suddenly 
attack the colonists, kill 300, and are 
then chastised in turn. 

Apr. * -46 * * Conn. Border warfare 
with the Indians prevails. 

1645 Aug. 30. N.Y. Treaty of peace 
between the Dutch of New Amsterdam, 
under William Kieft, and the Indians of 
the vicinity. 

New Eng. Treaty of peace between 

the New England colonies and the Nar- 
ragansett Indians. 

* * Brazil. Insurrection against tyranny 
led by Joao Fernandez Vieira. 

Spring. -46 Aug. * Md. Rebellion of 
William Clayborne and Captain Rich- 
ard Ingle; the latter is practically a 
pirate. (Or 1644.) 

1646 Aug.* Md. Gov. Calvert organ- 
izes a force, which makes a descent 
on St. Mary's, and recovers the prov- 
ince from the insurgents. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE 
EXPLORATION. 

1642 * * N.Y. A stone tavern is built 
in New Amsterdam. 

* * Mass. Iron castings are first made 
at the Sagus Iron Works. 

* * Mass. Bostonians are the first colo- 
nists to manufacture ropes. 

1644 Feb. 4. Disappearance of a 
strange comet of prodigious tail which 
had distressed the people of New Eng- 
land. 

BIRTPS— DEATHS. 

1 640 Hennepin, Louis, Fr. missionary, born. 

1641 Minuit, Peter, Gov. of N. Y., A61+. 
1642+ Bacon , Nathaniel, patriot of Va. , b. 

1643 Hutchinson, Anne, rel. enthusiast, A52. 

1644 Penn , 'William , founder of Q uakers, b, 

1645 Joliet, Louis, explorer, born, 



CHURCH. 
Mar. 16. N. H. An investigating 



1640 

committee of the Boston church declares 
the New church of Portsmouth irregu- 
lar in taking the Lord's Supper with ex- 
communicated persons. 
Oct. 21. N. Y. John Young organizes 
a Puritan church at Southold, Long 
Island. 

* * Can. The Sulpicians make Montreal 
a rendezvous for converted Indians. 

Charles Raymbault and Claude Pi- 
cart labor in the Huron Missions, and 
carry the gospel to the Indians of Mich- 
igan. 

* * Mass. Stevenson Reek is labeled for 
his religious opinions, placed in the pil- 
lory two hours, and fined $250. 

* * N.Y. The Presbyterian church of 
Southold, Long Island, formed. 

1641 June 6. N.Y. The Director and 
Council of New Netherland grant the 
"free exercise of religion" to the 
Church of England. 

Oct. 4. Can. Two French Jesuits, Fa- 
ther Charles Raymbault with Father 
Isaac Jogues, are sent to convert the 
Chippeways on the Great Lakes. 

Starting from Sault St. Marie, for sev- 
enteen days they sail westward, and on 
landing, they are met by two thousand 
Chippeways, who welcome them. 

* * -44 * * Can. The missionaries re- 
ceive no supplies, and their clothes fall 
to pieces. 

* * R. I. A church is formed at Newport. 

* * Mass. Samuel Gorton, an Anti- 
nomian, is driven out of Plymouth. 

* * Va. The Episcopal Church is estab- 
lished by law, and dissenting is declared 
to be a crime. 

1642 Aug. 16. Can. The site destined 
for the city of Montreal is formally con- 
secrated. 

Aug.* N. Y. Father Jogues is cap- 
tured and tormented by the Mohawks. 

[The Indians make him their slave, yet 
he opens a mission, in which he has 70 
converts when rescued. In 1646, having 
recovered from his wounds, he returns 
to his converts.] (See 1646.) 

Sept. * Mass. It is enacted that neither 
freeman nor deputies of New Hampshire 
are required to be church members. 

Oct. 22. Can. Death of Charles Raym- 
bault, the illustrious missionary to the 
Indians. 

* * Del. Swedes begin to preach to the 
Delaware Indians. 

* * Md. Lord Baltimore, a Catholic, in- 
vites the Puritans of Massachusetts to 
settle in his colony. 

* * * Md. The administration is in the 
hands of Catholics, while the very great 
majority of the people are Protestants. 

* * N. H. The Episcopal minister is 
banished from Portsmouth by the Puri- 
tans. 

* * N. Y. Johannis Megapolensis be- 
comes the first pastor of the Reformed 
Dutch church at Fort Orange. [.$380.] 



* * New York. A stone church is built 
at New Amsterdam, on the Battery, by 
the Dutch. 

* * Va. The Act of Uniformity is made 
very stringent. 

1643 Feb. 28. Mass. Roger Scott is 
tried by the Court " for common sleeping 
at the public exercise on the Lord's Day, 
and for striking him that waked him." 
[He was severely whipped in December.] 

Mar. * Va. The colony enacts that dis- 
believers of the doctrine of the English 
Episcopal church shall not be allowed 
to teach, publicly or privately, or preach 
the gospel in the colony, and non-con- 
formists are to be banished. 

* * Mass. The Protestant Episcopal 
church begins its mission work in New 
England, on the island of Martha's Vine- 
yard ; Thomas May hew, Jr., becomes 
pastor of the whites, and missionary to 
the Indians. 

* * N. Y. Ministers of the Reformed 
Dutch church labor among the Mo- 
hawk Indians. 

Francis Doughty preaches in New 
York — the first English Presbyterian. 

Lady Deborah Moody, owner of 400 
acres at Swampscott, is obliged to move 
to Gravesend, Long Island, for denying 
infant baptism. 

* * II. I. The plantations at Providence, 
and the English on the Piscataqua, are 
rejected in forming the New England 
confederacy, because of their heterodox 
religion. 

Freedom of worship is the chief objec- 
tion raised against granting the request 
of Rhode Island. 
1644 Nov. 13. Mass. Thomas Painter 
of Hingham is whipped for refusing to 
have his child christened. 

The General Court orders the banish- 
ment of rejecters of infant baptism. 

* * Can. Father Francis Joseph Bres- 
sani, a French Jesuit, is captured and 
tortured by the Iroquois, when en route 
to the Hurons. 

* * Can. The entire Island of Montreal 
becomes the property of the Sulpicians 
of Paris by royal grant. 

* * It. Innocent X., pope. 

* * Md. Clayborne and Ingle, having 
overturned the government, ship Father 
White and other Jesuits to England. 

* * N. Y. German Lutherans arrive. 
Richard Doughty becomes pastor 

of Presbyterians at Hempstead, Long 
Island. 

* * R.I. The first Baptist church 
formed at Providence. 

A Baptist church formed at Newport. 

1645 Sept. 6. N. Y. General thanks- 
giving ordained by Gov. Kieft, through 
New Amsterdam, for the restoration of 
peace with the Indians. 

Oct. 10. N. Y. The Director and Coun- 
cil of New Netherland grant to Flushing 
by charter the free exercise of religion. 

± * * Mass. Hiaccomes is the first In- 
dian convert engaged in New England 
mission work. 



AMERICA. 



1639-1646, Aug. 37 



1646 Feb.* Mass. Wm.Witterof Lynn 
is arraigned before the Court for saying, 
" They who stayed while a child is bap- 
tized do worship the devil." 

LETTERS. 

1640* *Mass. The Bay State Psalm 

Book is published at Cambridge ; it is the 

first book published in America north 

of Mexico. 

* *-54* * Mass. Rev. Henry Dunster 
is president of Harvard College. 

1642 Oct. 9. Mass. First Commence- 
ment at Harvard College. 

1643 * * A Key into the Language of 
America, by Roger Williams, appears. 

* * _44 * * The Bloody Tenet, a treatise 
against persecution, by Roger Williams, 
appears. 

1645 * * Mass. Every family in New 
England is required to give either a 
peck of corn or twelve pence, toward 
the support of the college. 

* * Massachusetts passes a law for the 
establishment of public schools. 

SOCIETY. 

1640 * * Brazil. Numerous Southern 
tribes are reduced to slavery by the 
Portuguese. 

1641 Sept. 1. N". J. Raritan Indians 
murder colonists on Staten Island, in 
retaliation of an attack by the Dutch 
of New Amsterdam. 

1642 ± * * Md. The kidnapping of 
Indians is made a capital offense. 

* * Md. Drunkenness is to be fined by 
the payment of 100 lbs. of tobacco ; and 
if the offender is a servant and unable 
to pay, he is to be set in the bilboes and 
compelled to fast for 24 hours, or be 
imprisoned. 

1643 Feb. 25. N. J. Indians who 
seek protection from the Mohawks are 
barbarously massacred by the Dutch 
at Pavonia, opposite New Amsterdam ; 
80 are killed, and great indignation is 
expressed in New Amsterdam at the 
heartless Governor Kief t. 

* * Va. Puritans are held in contempt 
in loyal Virginia, as disturbers of the 
peace of England. (See State.) 

1644 * * Pennsylvania abandons pro- 
hibition. 

"The Court, apprehending that it is 
not fit to deprive the Indians of any 
lawful comforts which God alloweth to 
all men by the use of wine, orders that 
it shall be lawful for all who are licensed 
to retail wines, to sell also to Indians." 

1645 Sept. 6. N. Y. Thanksgiving 
Day observed, in gratitude for the close 
of the Indian hostilities. 

* * Boston. A party sails for Guinea to 
secure a cargo of slaves. 

* * Conn. Selling intoxicating liquors to 
the Indians is prohibited, under a pen- 
alty of 40 shillings to 5 pounds. 



SETTLEMENT — STATE. 
1639 * * Md. A regular representative 

government is established. 
* * New Eng. An ineffectual attempt is 

made to unite the New England colonies. 



* * JV. T. De Vries colonizes Staten 
Island. 

* * R. I. Newport is settled by colonists 
from the other end of the island. 

1640 July 7. R.I. Providence has a 
government formed by 40 citizens after 
their own model. 

* * Brazil is restored to the possession 
of the Portuguese by the Spaniards. 

* * Conn. Edmund Hopkins is governor. 

* * Del. Peter Hollander is governor. 

* * Moss. Thos. Dudley is governor. 

* * New England advances rapidly. 
Nearly a million dollars have been 

spent in development, and more than 
fifty towns and villages are established ; 
298 emigrant ships have anchored in 
Massachusetts Bay, and 21,200 people 
have joined the Puritan colonies. 

* * N. Y. Increased emigration from 
Holland. About forty families from 
Lynn, Massachusetts, migrate, and found 
Southampton on Long Island. 

* * Port. John IV. enthroned. 
1641 Mar. 16. R. I. William Codding- 

ton's Israelite form of government hav- 
ing failed, a new constitution is adopt- 
ed at a public meeting of citizens ; civil 
and religious liberty, justice and equal- 
ity, are secured to all citizens. Here 
the first declaration of democracy in 
the New World was formulated. 
Dec. * Mass. The Assembly of the Gen- 
eral Court adopts a code of 100 laws, 
called The Body of Liberties, as the 
Constitution of the State. 

* * Brazil makes a feeble attempt for in- 
dependence. 

* * Can. Maisonneuve becomes governor 
of Montreal. 

* * Richard Bellingham is governor 
of the Mass. Bay Colony ; Peter Hol- 
lander of the Swedes [in Pa.] ; and Sir 
William Berkeley in Virginia. 

* * Eng. Oppressive restriction of colo- 
nial commerce ; colonial commodities 
must be sold in English ports. 

1642 Feb.* Va. Sir William Berke- 
ley assumes office as governor ; [pros- 
perity follows]. 

April 14. N. H. By the action of its 
own people, New Hampshire is united 
to Massachusetts ; it is the only colony 
east of the Hudson not founded by the 
Puritans. John Winthrop, governor. 

* * Md. A company of Puritans, who 
had been expelled from Virginia, settle 
in Maryland, and become turbulent. 

* * New Eng. About fifty towns and vil- 
lages are reported. 

Aug. 29. N. Y. The First Represen- 
tative Assembly meets. 

Governor. Kief t permits a meeting at 
New Amsterdam of the heads of fam- 
ilies, who choose 12 of their number to 
investigate the affairs of the colony. 
They soon pass from Indian difficulties 
to governmental abuses, and they review 
the despotic acts of the governor, [and 
resist his control, so he dissolves the 
Assembly.] 

* * Va. The trade of the colony is crip- 
pled, as England claims it for herself. 
[The restrictions of commerce vex the 
colonies until the Revolution.] 



* * Conn. Geo. Wyllys is governor. 

* * W. I. Tobago is settled by the Dutch. 
1643 Jan. * By Act of Parliament the 

Earl of Warwick is made Governor- 
in-chief and Lord High-admiral of the 
American colonies ; he has a council of 
five peers and 12 commoners, and is to 
have supreme power over governors and 
officers. 

Mar. 14. R. I. Roger Williams ob- 
tains a patent from the Earl of War- 
wick for the union of the towns of Prov- 
idence, Newport, and Portsmouth, under 
one charter (Rhode Island). 

May 14. Fr. Louis XLV. enthroned. 

May 19. New Eng. The first confed- 
erated government in the New 
World. 



A measure for uniting the New Eng- 
land colonies for mutual defense is 
adopted; Massachusetts, Plymouth, Con- 
necticut, and New Haven combine into 
a loose confederacy called The United 
Colonies of New England. 

* * Conn. New Haven, Milford, Stamford, 
and Guilford united in the Republic of 
New Haven. [Later Southold on Long 
Island and Branford are added.] 

Sept. 7. New Eng. The commissioners 
of the Confederacy open their first meet- 
ing, and elect John Winthrop presi- 
dent of the United Colonies of New 
England. 

* * _64 * * New Eng. Period of pros- 
perity. [Civil War in England.] 

* * Conn. John Haynes and Ed. Hopkins, 
governors. {Del. J. Printz.) 

* * Pa. The Swedes establish a colony 
on the Delaware, within six miles of the 
mouth of the Schuylkill. 

1644 * * Conn. Saybrook is purchased 
by George Fenwick, one of the proprie- 
tors, and permanently annexed to Con- 
necticut, and the union of eight towns 
called by the latter name. 

* * Mass. The colony divides its legis- 
lative assembly into two bodies, the 
legislature and the governor's council. 

* * New York. A city hall is built in 
New Amsterdam (Coenties Slip.) 

* * R. I. Roger Williams returns with a 
charter for Rhode Island. 

1645 Aug. 30. N. Y. The Dutch of 
New Amsterdam and the Iroquois In- 
dians sign Articles of Peace. 

* * Governors inaugurated : Wm. Brad- 
ford of Plymouth ; Thos. Dudley of Mas- 
sachusetts Bay ; Richard Kemp (Lieut.), 
and later Sir Wm. Berkeley, of Virginia. 

* * Mass. Boston offers 3,000 acres of 
land as a bounty for setting up iron- 
works, also a monopoly for 21 years. 

* * Md. A rebellion, led by Clayborne 
and Ingle, overthrows the government ; 
the governor flees to Virginia. 

* * N. Y. Only 100 persons left at 
Manhattan, and 1,500 in the province. 

1646 Aug. * Md. Governor Calvert 
regains the government; a general 
amnesty is granted. 

* * Mass. Edward Winslow, governor of 
Plymouth ; J. Endicott, Bay Colony. 



38 



1646-1654. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 
1646* *The Dutch are defeated at 

Guarapari. 
1647 Apr. * Md. Calvert . in person 

reduces Kent Island. 
1649 * * Can. The Huron Indians 

are massacred at St. Ignatius by the 

Iroquois. 

* * Brazil. War between the Dutch and 
Portuguese colonists ; the Brazil Com- 
pany aids its people with a fleet. 

1651 * * Del. The Dutch of New Am- 
sterdam build and garrison Fort Casi- 
mir on the Delaware River, five miles 
below Fort Christiana, to menace the 
Swedes, who are regarded as intruders. 

1652 Mar. * Va. Parliament sends a 
naval force to subdue the Virginians, 
who favor Charles I. 

1653 Sept. 19. New England colonies 
declare war against the Niantick In- 
dians. 

* * New York. A wall is built across 
Manhattan Island (Wall Street) for de- 
fense against the Indians and the ex- 
pected troops of Oliver Cromwell ; it 
has breastwork, ditch, and palisades, 
and extends 2,340 feet. 

* * Rhode Island declares war against 
New Netherland. 

1654* * Md. A civil war between 
Catholics and Protestants rages. 

* * Del. The Swedes under Gov. Rising 
drive the Dutch from Fort Casimir 
(New Castle). 

* * Brazil. The insurrection against the 
Dutch is successful. 

* * Can. Oliver Cromwell sends a 
strong force against the French in 
Nova Scotia. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE 
EXPLORATION. 
1652 * * Mass. First iron forge set up 
in Raynham, a town of the Plymouth 
colony. 

1654 Aug. 16. N. Y. The Onondaga 
salt springs discovered by the Jesuits. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1647 Bogardus, Everardus, Dutch pastor in 
N. J., dies. 

Calvert, Leonard, Gov. of Md., A41. 
Dudley, Joseph, Gov. of Mass., born. 
Hooker, Thomas, founder of Conn., A61. 

1648 P Ixtlilxochitl, Fernando de Alva, Mex. 
historian, A80. 1 

1649 Winthrop, John, Gov. of Mass., A63. 
Yale, Elihu. patron of Yale, born. 

1650+ Kidd, William, pirate, born. 

1651 Cruz, Juana In6s de la, Mex. poet, b. 
Phips, Sir William, Gov. of Mass., born. 

1652 Cotton, John, Puritan minister, A66. 
Sewall, Samuel, jurist, born. 

Haynes, John, statesman, dies. 

CHURCH. 

1646 Aug. ± * Me. Father Gabriel 
Dreuillettes descends the Kennebec 
to its mouth, and builds a mission 
chapel for the Indians. 

Sept. * Mass. The Second General 
Synod meets at Cambridge, and frames 
a " Platform of church discipline gath- 
ered out of the Word of God." 



It approves the Westminster Assem- 
bly's Confession of Faith, as slightly 
modified by the Savoy Synod. 

Oct. * N. Y. The Mohawks secure Fa- 
ther Jogues as a prisoner, kill him, and 
throw his body into the Mohawk River. 

Oct. 28. Mass. John Eliot, " the Apos- 
tle to the Indians," preaches his first ser- 
mon to the Indians in a wigwam at No- 
nantum — the first sermon ever preached 
in North America in the native tongue. 

* * Mass. Episcopalians in Boston peti- 
tion for the use of the Prayer-Book. 

It is enacted that the elders of the 
church shall choose two persons yearly 
to spread the gospel among the Indians. 

Eliot begins his missionary work. 

He gathers Christian Indians into 
" praying Indian towns," governed by 
native magistrates chosen by the people. 
The first was located at Natick ; the sec- 
ond, Pakemitt, at Stoughton ; the third, 
Hassanamesit, at Grafton : the fourth, 
Okommakamesit, at Marlborough; the 
fifth, Wamesit, at Tewksbury ; the sixth, 
Nashobah, at Littleton; and the seventh, 
Magunkaquog, at Hopkinton. 

1647 * * Can. The wilderness has al- 
ready been visited by 42 Jesuit mission- 
aries and 18 assistants. 

* * R. I. A law is passed tolerating all 
religious opinions, whether Christian 
or infidel. 

1648 July 4. Mich. Father Anthony 
Daniel of St. Joseph's, with many Hu- 
ron converts, is killed by the Mohawks. 

* * Mass. A Synod of churches at Cam- 
bridge completes the organization of 
Congregationalism, and issues the 
"Cambridge Platform." 

* * N.J. Richard Stout and other Bap- 
tists settle at Middletown, the govern- 
ment being preeminent in granting reli- 
gious liberty. 

1649 Mar. 16. A thousand Iroquois 
Indians surprise the mission town of St. 
Ignatius, and only three persons escape 
the general massacre. 

Mar. * Fathers Jean de Brebeuf and 
Gabriel Lallemand of St. Joseph's 
Mission suffer terrible and fatal tortures 
after the taking of St. Louis by the Iro- 
quois. 

* * Del. The Assembly decrees that no 
person professing faith in Christ shall 
be molested in his religion or its free 
exercise. 

* * Eng. Organization by Parliament of 
the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel in New England, through 
the example and success of Eliot. 

* * Mass. Thomas Cushman is chosen 
elder. 

The General Court lays the Cambridge 
Platform before the congregations. 

* * Md. The legislature declares for tol- 
eration. 

No person believing in the fundamental 
doctrines of Christianity to be distressed 
because of his opinions or practises, and 
it is a finable offense to use opprobrious 
epithets in religious controversy. The 
province becomes known as the " Land 
of the Sanctuary." 

* * Va. Twenty churches are estab- 
lished, the livings of the ministers being 
worth on an average " at least £100." 



1650 * * Mass. Many Indians on Mar- 
tha's Vineyard abandon heathenism and 
accept Christianity. 

The opinion gains ground that all bap- 
tized persons of upright and decorous 
lives shall for all practical purposes be 
considered members of the church. The 
theory is stigmatized as the "Half-way 
Covenant." 

* * N. C. Presbyterians settle in this 
province. 

1651 July 13. Boston. John Spur is 
expelled from the Boston church "be- 
cause he ceased to commune with them, 
on the belief that their baptism, singing 
of psalms, and covenant were human 
inventions." 

Sept. 6. Boston. Obadiah Holmes is 
whipped ; he receives 30 stripes for be- 
ing a Baptist. While the blood is flow- 
ing, he says, " You have struck me with 
roses." [Thirteen persons afterwards 
suffer for showing him sympathy, great 
public indignation follows.] 

* * Mass. John Clarke is persecuted for 
holding Baptist doctrines. Absence 
from preaching is punishable with a fine. 

The Cambridge platform is adopted 
by the congregations ; provides a plan 
of Church discipline. 

Thomas Mayhew reports 190 conver- 
sions among the Indians of Martha's 
Vineyard. 

1652 Oct. * Mass. The first native 
church in New England is organized, 
having 282 members. 

* * N. Y. A church is built at Flat- 
bush, the first on Long Island. 

* *-53* * R. I. A division occurs in 
the Baptist church at Providence, a part 
seceding on the question of the laying 
on of hands. 

1653* *N.C. Dissenting Presbyteri- 
ans, oppressed by the collection of tithes 
for the Church of England, leave Vir- 
ginia, and settle on the Chowan River. 

1654 Oct. * Md. The colony is dis- 
tracted by the dissensions of the Cath- 
olic and Protestant parties. The 
Protestant party call an assembly at 
Patuxent, and disfranchise the Cath- 
olics, prohibit their worship, and de- 
prive them of the protection of the laws 
of their own province. 

* * Del. A Dutch Reformed church 
is established at New Amstel (New 
Castle). 

* * N. Y. Father Le Moyne joins the 
Mohawks on the Mohawk River. A 
mission is opened for the Indians of 
Onondaga, and a chapel built by the 
Roman Catholics. 

A Reformed Dutch church is es- 
tablished at Midwout (Flatbush), Long 
Island. 

LETTERS. 
1647 * * Mass. It is enacted that every 
town or district having fifty household- 
ers should have a public school ; and 
one hundred families should have a 
grammar school. 

* * The Simple Cobbler of Agawam, by 
Nathaniel Ward, appears. 



AMERICA. 



1646-1654. 



39 



1650± * * The Poems of Anne Bradstreet 
and Benjamin Thompson appear. 

1651 Jan. 11. Mass. Mr. Experience 
Mayhew opens the first school in New 
England for the instruction of Indian 
children. 

1652 * * Experiments of Spiritual Life, 
and Health and Their Preservatives, by 
Roger Williams, appears. 

* * Hireling Ministry and Bloody Tenet 
Yet More Bloody, by Roger Williams, 
appears. 

1654* *-72* * Mass. Rev. Charles 
Chauncy is President of Harvard Col- 
lege. 

SOCIETY. 

1647 * * R. I. Drunkenness is forbid- 
den under penalty of 5s., or 6 hours in 
the stocks if unable to pay. Selling to 
Indians is forbidden under penalty of 
5 pounds. 

1648 * * Boston. It is ordered " that only 
one person be allowed to sell wine to 
the Indians." 

1649 * * Va. There are 6 public brew 
houses, 4 windmills, together with 5 
watermills to grind corn. 

1650 * * Conn. No licensed dealer is 
to suffer any one to be drunk or to 
drink excessively (viz., above half a pint 
at a time), or to tipple above the space of 
half an hour, or at unreasonable times. 

The penalty for drunkenness appear- 
ing in speech or gesture only is 10s. ; for 
excessive drinking, 3s. id. ; for tippling 
over half an hour, 2s. 6d., for tippling 
at unreasonable hours, or after nine 
o'clock, 5s. Second offenses have a 
double penalty. 

± * * New York. Negro slaves brought 
to New Amsterdam. 

1652 May 18. R. I. The representa- 
tives of Providence and Warwick pro- 
hibit perpetual slavery, and limit 
bondage to ten years. 

1654 * * Mass. Licensed persons, allow- 
ing tippling and excessive drinking, are 
fined 20s. 

SETTLEMENT — STATE. 
1646* *Eng. Parliament frees colonial 
merchandise from all duty for three 
years, on condition that all productions 
be carried in English vessels. 

* * Mass. Gov. Winthrop is reelected. 

* * N. Y. "Bruecklyn" (Brooklyn) re- 
ceives a village charter. 

1647 May 11. N. Y. Peter Stuyve- 
sant assumes the governorship; he is 
the last and greatest of the governors of 
New Netherland. [In office 17 years.] 

* * Md. Calvert, having recovered author- 
ity, establishes Robert Vaughn, a Pro. 
testant, as governor. 

* * Mich. A settlement is made at Detroit 
by the French. 

* *[U. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
Md. Thomas Greene. 

May * R. I. John Coggeshall governor 
of Providence, Warwick, Portsmouth, 
and Newport. 

Governor Stuyvesant claims all the 
region between Cape Henlopen and Cape 



Cod. He restores prosperity to the col- 
ony, which had been nearly ruined by 
Kieft, his predecessor. 

* * R. I. The first general assembly of 
the province meets, and frames a code of 
laws. 

1648 Aug. * Md. Lord Baltimore dis- 
misses the Catholic governor, Green, and 
appoints a Protestant, William Stone, 
in his place. 

* * Conn. The settlement of New Lon- 
don is commenced. 

Rhode Island petitions to be admitted 
into the confederacy of New England 
Colonies, and is refused, after declining 
to submit itself to the jurisdiction of 
Plymouth. W. Coddington, governor. 

Eng. THE COMMONWEALTH. 

1649 Jan. 30. Charles I. is executed. 

* * R. I. John Smith, governor. (Mass. 
Bay. J. Endicott.) 

* * Mass. A definite code of laws is 
finally secured. 

* * Md. The Assembly passes a law of 
perfect toleration for all Christian 
sects. Many exiled Puritans received 
from Virginia and settle Annapolis. 

* * Va. The Virginians reject Crom- 
well, and proclaim Charles II. as right- 
ful sovereign of the British realm. 

The Northern Neck (between the Rap- 
pahannock and the Potomac) is granted 
to Lord Culpepper and a company of 
Cavaliers, as a refuge for their partisans. 

1650 June * Va. Berkeley receives a 
new commission from the exiled 
English king, Charles II. 

Oct. 3. Eng. The Long Parliament as- 
serts its supremacy over the colonies. 

* * Eng. Foreign ships are forbidden 
to trade with the rebellious (royalist) 
colony of Virginia. 

* * Md. The legislature is divided into 
two houses. 

To appease the Protestants their settle- 
ment is erected into a separate county 
— Anne Arundel. [Charles County is 
erected later.] 

* * Governors elected : Thomas Dudley 
(Mass.) ; Nicholas Easton (R. I.). 

* * N. Y. An amicable adjustment of 
the boundary line between the Dutch 
and New England colonies (near the 
present line) is treated with contempt 
by the English government. 

1651 Oct. 9. Eng. Parliament passes 
the first navigation act, forbidding 
the importation of goods into England 
except in English vessels. (It is aimed 
against the Dutch, and designed to pun- 
ish the royalists of Virginia.) 

* *[U. S.] Governors elected : 

* * Mass. Bay. John Endicott. 

* * R. I. Sam. Gorton (Prov. and War). 

* * Eng. Parliament appoints commis- 
sioners to visit America and assume 
control of the colonies bordering on the 
Chesapeake. Stone, the deputy of Lord 
Baltimore, is deposed by them. 

* * The war between England and Hol- 
land somewhat strains the relation be- 



tween the English and Dutch colonies, 
but no rupture occurs. 
± * * JV. C. The first actual settlement 
made near the mouth of the Chowan 
River. 

1652 Mar. 12. Va. The loyalists 
surrender to Parliament when a war- 
vessel appears with commissioners 
from Cromwell. It is agreed that " the 
People of Virginia" ought to have all 
the liberties of the free-born people of 
England. 

Oct. 2. Eng. Roger Williams secures the 
confirmation of the charter and the 
union of Providence and Rhode Island. 

* * Eng. Parliament assumes control of 
Maryland, and nominally suspends the 
government in Rhode Island. 

* * Guiana. The English colony on the 
Surinam River returns to Paramaribo. 

* * Massachusetts purchases Maine 
for $5,334. 

A mint is erected, and silver coined 
into shilling, sixpenny, and threepenny 
pieces. 

Jv". Y. Newtown and Flatbush on 
Long Island are settled under Dutch 
patents. 

Va. Richard Bennett, a Puritan, is 
elected governor. (R. I. John Smith.) 

1653 * * N. C. Oppressed colonists 
emigrate from Virginia, and settle on 
the Chowan River. Governor Berkeley 
assumes jurisdiction, and appoints Wil- 
liam Drummond governor. 

Feb. 2. New York. New Amsterdam 
incorporated, and an elective munici- 
pal government established. 

Dec. 16. Eng. Oliver Cromwell be- 
comes Lord Protector of the British 
realm. 

Dec. 10. N. Y. First General assembly 
of the people, consisting of two deputies 
from each village ; Stuyvesant is un- 
willing to sanction it, but is unable to 
prevent it. 

* *[U. S.] Governors inaugurated : 

* * Bel. Johan C. Rising. 

* * Mass. Richard Bellingham. 

* * R. I. Roger Williams. 

Feb. * Md. Governor Stone's proclama- 
tion to make oath of fidelity to the pro- 
prietary (a Catholic) is resisted. 

July 15+. Md. Bennett and Clayborne, 
the governor and secretary of Virginia, 
come and take the government out of 
the hands of Stone, and hold it for the 
Lord Protector. 

July ± * Md. William Fuller and nine 
others are appointed commissioners 
to execute government. 

Oct. * Md. A factional assembly at 
Patuxent acknowledges the authority 
of Cromwell, but disfranchises the 
whole Catholic party. 

* * Brazil. The colonies unite under 
the royal authority of Portugal. 

* * Mass. Emigration nearly ceases 
during the commonwealth ; many Puri- 
tans return to assist in the struggle in 
England. 



40 



1655-1662. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY - NAVY. 

1655 Mar. 25. Md. The Catholic pro- 
prietary attacks the Puritans at Provi- 
dence, but is defeated and captured. 

May 3. W.I. Jamaica is taken from 
the Spaniards by the British under Ad- 
miral Penn and troops under Venables. 

Sept. 5. N. Y. Peter Stuyvesant with 
600 men sails from New York against 
the Swedes of Delaware, and subdues 
them. 

Sept. * N. Y. The Algonkian Indians 
vainly rise in rebellion against the 
Dutch at and near New Amsterdam. 
[They sue for peace on the return of 
Stuyvesant and his force from Dela- 
ware.] 

1661 * * Brazil. An uprising occurs 
against the missionaries. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE 
EXPLORATION. 

1659* * N. Y. Bricks made at New 
Amsterdam ; previously they were im- 
ported from Holland, and only used for 
ovens and chimneys, etc. 

1662 * * N. Y. A windmill is erected 
at New Amsterdam. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1655 Winslow, Edward, Gov. of Mass., 
A 60. 
Standish, Miles, Puritan soldier, A72. ? 

1657 Cardillac, Antoine de la Motte, f 'dr, b. 
Mayhew, Thomas, minister, A36. 
Hopkins, Edward, Gov. of Conn., A57. 
Fenwick, George, proprietor in Conn., A54. 

1658 De Peyster, Abraham, mayor of N.Y.,b. 
1658 Dunster, Henry, pres. of Harvard, d. 

1660 Dyer, Mary, Quaker martyr, hanged. 
Dustin, Hannah, heroine, born. 
Mathews, Samuel, Gov. of Va., dies. 

1661 Iberville, Pierre le Moyne, Sieur, foun- 
der, born. 

1663 Leverett, John, pres. of Harvard, b. 

CHURCH. 

1655 Nov. * N. Y. Father Chaumo- 
not and Claude Dablon join the Onon- 
daga Indians. 

* * It. Alexander VII., pope. 

* * Md. Several persons killed in a con- 
flict between Catholics and Protestants. 

* * New York. By special act of the Com- 
pany at Amsterdam the Jews are per- 
mitted to live in New Amsterdam, 
provided they agree to support their 
own poor. 

1656 Feb. 1. New York. Tyranny of 
the Dutch. The authorities of New 
Netherland decree aU meetings illegal 
except those of the Reformed divine 
service. 

Mar. 13. New York. Jews are permitted 
to worship in their own houses at New 
Amsterdam, but not publicly in syna- 
gogues. 

June 2. N. Y. Corner-stone of the 
Dutch church laid in the center of 
State Street at Albany. 

Oct. 14. Mass. Act passed prohibiting 
the immigration of Quakers, and ap- 
pointing 20 lashes and imprisonment to 
such as should arrive, and death to such 
as return after transportation. 



Nov. 8. N. Y. Baptists are perse- 
cuted; Wm. Hallet of Flushing fined 
$250 for permitting meetings to be held 
in his house. [Afterwards banished for 
non-payment.] 

* * Can. Two French missionaries be- 
gin work among the Ottawas by request 
of the chiefs. One is mortally wounded 
in an attack by the Iroquois, and both 
are captured. 

Father Mesnard goes to the Cayugas 
and Father Chaumonot to theSenecas. 

* * Mass. A day of solemn prayer and 
fasting observed because of reports from 
England concerning Quakers who would 
destroy all churches and governments. 
Two weeks later two female Quaker 
missionaries arrive. 

* * N. Y. Baptist converts are baptized 
at Flushing. 

* * E. I. Secession from the Baptist 
church to form a Six-Principle Baptist 
church. 

1657 Apr. 7. Mass. Henry Dunster, 
late president of Cambridge college, is 
arraigned before the Court for refusing 
to have his infant child baptized. 

June 4. Mass. A Congregational minis- 
ters' meeting at Boston adopts "the 
Half -"Way Covenant." 

It declares " that all persons of sober 
life and correct sentiments, without 
being examined as to a change of heart, 
might profess religion or become mem- 
bers of the church, and have their chil- 
dren baptized, though they did not come 
to the Lord's table." 

* * Conn. John Eliot is the first to preach 
the gospel to the Indians at Hartford, 
in an assembly of Podunks. 

The Podunk Indians were asked by 
Eliot to accept Christ ; they answered 
emphatically, "No," adding, the Eng- 
lish had taken their lands, and would 
now make them servants. 

* * New Eng. The four united colonies 
prohibit the landing of Quakers. 

Persecution of the Quakers. "A 
motley tribe — half fanatic, half insane, 
and without definite purposes." (Ban- 
croft.) The penalty for attending a 
Quaker meeting is ten shillings, and 
for speaking in such a meeting ten 
pounds. 

* * Mass. Faunce is chosen elder of the 
colony. 

* * New York. John E. Goetwater, a 
Lutheran minister, arrives in New Am- 
sterdam. 

1658 Mar. 26. New York. The New 
Netherland authorities annul the right 
of Flushing to hold town or heretical 
meetings, and require all to pay taxes 
for the support of the minister, or lose 
their goods and take themselves "out 
of this government." 

* * N. C. Presbyterians settle on the 
I Chowan Biver. (See page 38.) 

^ * New Eng. The commissioners of the 

v 'four United Colonies advise the Court 

of Massachusetts to execute Quakers 

returning from banishment ; the law is 

enacted by a majority of one vote. 

* * R. I. A Jewish congregation is or- 
ganized at Providence. 



* * Va. Religious liberty is universal, 
except for the Quakers, who are ban- 
ished by law and their return proscribed 
as a felony. 

1659 * * Mass. Two Quakers executed 
for returning from banishment. 

1660 June 1. Mass. Mary Dyer, a 
Quakeress returning from banishment, 
is executed. 

Aug. * Can. Father Rene Mesnard, 
an aged man, responds to the request of 
the Indians, and opens a mission near 
Kneweenaw, where he is neglected, per- 
secuted, and finally dies. 

* * Mass. John Eliot forms a church of 
converted Indians at Natick. 

Prisons are full of Quakers ready 
for martyrdom. 

* * * Maryland is an asylum for the per- 
secuted. 

1661 Mar. 14. Mass. William Ledra, 
a Quaker, is hanged by the Puritans. 

* * Mass. The death penalty against the 
Quakers is removed from the statute- 
book. 

John Eliot prints the New Testa- 
ment in the Indian language. 

* * Conn. Abraham Pierson begins 
preaching to the Indians about Weth- 
ersfield. 

* * JR. I. First yearly meeting of Qua- 
kers established. 

1662 Apr. 4. Va. Many Quakers ar- 
raigned before the Court as recusants. 

Dec. * Va. Enactments passed to op- 
press the Baptists. 

* * Boston. A partial Synod approves 
the Half-Way Covenant. 

A few French Protestant refugees are 
granted leave to reside in the colony. 
Ejectment of non-conformist ministers. 

* * Va. Stringent laws passed against 
Quakers and all sectarians. 

* * Va. The Royalists' General Assem- 
bly provides for a church, parsonage, 
and minister for every parish. 

His salary to be £80, all to be raised 
in tax levies. [The salary was after- 
wards changed to 1,600 pounds of tobac- 
co.] Absence from church for one Sun- 
day punishable by fine of 50 pounds of 
tobacco ; non-conformists to pay £20 for 
a month's absence ; all non-Episcopal 
ministers are forbidden to preach. 

LETTERS. 

1661* *-63 Dec* John Eliot com- 
pletes his translation of the Old Testa- 
ment into the Indian vernacular. 

1662* * Mass. Two licensers of the press 
are appointed. 

* * The Day of Doom, by Michael Wiggles- 
worth, appears. 

SOCIETY. 

1655 * * Md. Hostilities between Prot- 
estants and Catholics. 

1656 * * New Eng. Quakers are per- 
secuted. (See Church.) 

1657 * * Mass. Selling liquor to In- 
dians is absolutely prohibited ; penalty 
40s. 

* * Mass. A return is made to the origi- 
nal prohibitory law of 1639. 



AMERICA. 



1655-1662. 



41 



It is decreed that "All persons are 
wholly prohibited to sell, truck, barter, 
or give any strong liquors to any Indian, 
directly or indirectly, whether known 
by the name of rum, strong waters, 
wine, strong beer, brandy, cider, or 
perry, or any other strong liquor going 
under any other name whatsoever." 

1658 * * Md. Drunkenness is punished 
by confinement in the stocks for 6 hours 
or a fine of 100 lbs. of tobacco (half to 
the informer) ; for a second offense, by 
public whipping or a fine of 300 lbs. of 
tobacco ; for the third offense the of- 
fender is adjudged infamous, and dis- 
franchised three years. 

* * Va. One convicted of drunkenness 
three times is accounted a common 
drunkard. 

1659 July 26. Can. Indians mas- 
sacre more than one thousand people 
at Montreal. 

* * Conn. Any person found drunk at 
any private house is to be fined 20s. and 
the owner of the house 10s. Distillation 
of corn or malt into liquor is prohibited. 

1660 July 27. Boston. Two of the 
fugitive judges of Charles I., Edward 
"Whalley and "William Gof f e, are wel- 
comed, and concealed from royal officers. 

1662 June 20. Conn. Three women 
condemned at Hartford as witches ; 
one is hanged. 

* * * Brazil. A hardy race of men is 
produced at San Paulo, from the inter- 
marriage of colonists with natives. 

* * Mass. Adultery is punished with 
death. 

* * Va. It is enacted that offspring shall 
follow the condition of the mother, mak- 
ing the children of white men by 
negro women slaves from birth. 

SETTLEMENT — STATE. 

1655 Jan. ± * Md. Deputy - governor 
Stone vainly seeks to regain authority 
by revolution. 

* * Conn. Thomas Welles, governor. 
(Mass. Bay. John Endicott.) 

Sept. * N. Y. Gov. Stuyvesant compels 
the Swedes of Delaware to acknowledge 
the supremacy of New Netherland ; the 
little State of New Sweden ceases 
to exist, and the territory is annexed 
to New Netherland. 

* * Md. Conflict between the Puritans 
and Roman Catholics. 

* * Va. Edward Diggs elected gov- 
ernor. 

1656 July* Md. Josias Pendall, a 
weak and impetuous man, commissioned 
as Lord Baltimore's lieutenant. [The 
council of ten holds him under arrest as 
a dangerous person. There are two gov- 
ernments for two years.] 

Sept. 11. Conn. Stuyvesant concludes a 
boundary treaty, limiting New Neth- 
erland by Oyster Bay on Long Island, 
and the neighborhood of Greenwich on 
the mainland. 

* * Conn. John Webster, governor. ( Va. 
Samuel Matthews.) 

* * Del. The city of Amsterdam pur- 
chases the proprietary of Delaware 



from the Brandywine to Bombay Hook, 
and by purchase from the natives extends 
its lands to Cape Henlopen. The Dutch 
own from New England to Maryland. 

* * Port. Alfonso VI. enthroned. 

* * -58 * * N. Y. A short-lived French 
colony in western New York. 

* * * Va. Charles II., now in exile, is 
invited to join the colony and be 
"King of Virginia." This incident 
suggested the title of "The Old Do- 
minion." 

1657* * [C. S.] Governors inaugu- 
rated. 

* * Conn. John Winthrop. 

* * Plym. Thomas Prince. 

* * R.I. Benedict Arnold. [1662-63.] 
1658 Mar.* Md. The revolt is settled 

by compromise, Fendall is acknowledged 
governor, and the Protestant assemblies 
accepted as valid ; a general amnesty is 
announced. 
Sept. 3. Eng. Richard Cromwell, 
Lord Protector. 

* * Conn. Settlement of Southerton 
(Stonington) commenced. 

* * N. J. Purchasers obtain a large grant 
called Bergen, and the station becomes 
a permanent settlement. 

* * Conn. T. Welles and Francis New- 
man, governors. 

* * Va. Samuel Matthews elected gov- 
ernor ; the legislature grants a fixed sal- 
ary to the office [and repeals the act in 
the following year]. 

1659* * Mass. Settlement of Nan- 
tucket by Thomas Macy. 

* * Conn. John Winthrop, governor. (Pa. 
Alex. D'Hinoyossa (Dutch). [1663. He- 
appointed. 1660. R. I. Wm. Brenton.]) 

1660 Mar. 12. Md. Popular sov- 
eignty is exercised by the representa- 
tives, who vote themselves a lawful as- 
sembly, without dependence on any other 
power in the province, thus ignoring the 
rights of Lord Baltimore. 

May 8. Eng. Charles II. enthroned 
as sovereign over the British realm ; 
" the worst monarch of modern times." 
(Ridpath.) [He oppresses the commerce 
of Virginia, and sneers at complaints.] 

Nov. 10. Mass. It becomes well known 
thatthemonarchyis restored in England. 

Dec. 19. Mass. The General Court con- 
vened, and addresses are prepared for 
the king and parliament. 

* *-70* * Eng. Enactment of naviga- 
tion, trade, excise, and other laws 
inimical to the colonies in America. 

* * Costa Rica. Spaniards reappear, and 
subdue the rebellious Indians again. 

* * Mass. The government persecutes 
the Quakers. 

* * Md. Philip Calvert, governor. (R. I. 
Wm. Brenton.) 

* * N. F. The French found a colony at 
Placentia Bay. 

* * New Eng. Population, 38,000; Md., 
12,000. 

Arrival of the English regicides. 

* * Va. Sir 'William Berkeley is elect- 
ed governor by the House of Burgesses. 



He surpasses the tyranny of the king ; 
Baptists and Quakers are persecuted ; 
personal property is heavily taxed; large 
estates are exempted ; the biennial elec- 
tion of burgesses is abolished. [This 
continues for 16 years.] 

The people contend against a rising 
aristocracy for the control of the polit- 
ical life. 

The population is estimated by Gov- 
ernor Berkeley at "40,000, including 
2,000 black slaves, 6,000 Christian ser- 
vants, of whom about 1,500 are imported 
yearly, principally English." The Chris- 
tian servants are chiefly ex-convicts. 

1661 Mar. 12. Va. The first session 
of the royalist assembly marks a polit- 
ical revolution. F. Moryson governor. 

June 10. Mass. Foreboding collision 
with the Crown, the General Court makes 
a declaration of the natural and char- 
tered rights of the colonists. 

July 27. N. Y. Schenectady pur- 
chased from the Indians. 

Aug. 7. Mass. Charles H. is pro- 
claimed. 

Aug. * Conn. John Winthrop sent to 
England to obtain a charter. Wm. 
Leete, governor of New Haven. 

* * Eng. By Act of Parliament, sugar, 
tobacco, indigo, and other " enumerated 
articles," are not to be shipped from 
the colonies to any country but Eng- 
land. 

* *Mass. Penal laws against the Qua- 
kers suspended by the king. 

Indian wampum a legal tender in small 
transactions. [Continued for 50 years.] 

* * N. C. A company of New England 
Puritans establishes a colony on Old- 
town Creek. 

* * New Eng. Warrants arrive for the 
arrest of the regicides of Charles I., Ed- 
ward Whalley, William Goff , and John 
Dixwell, who have escaped to New Eng- 
land, and are effectually concealed. 

* * * Va. The loyal Virginians are 
oppressed. 

Charles II. treats Virginia as personal 
property, and grants large tracts of both 
tilled and wild lands to the most worth- 
less profligates that court his favor, pro- 
ducing great uncertainty and distress 
among the planters. The planters also 
suffer religious oppression. (See Church.) 

1662 Apr. 23. Conn. A Liberal char- 
ter for Connecticut is granted. 

Charles II. signs the charter prepared 
by the colonists without the alteration 
of a word or letter. [It is character- 
ized as the most liberal charter ever 
granted by an English monarch ; for 14 
years the younger Winthrop is annually 
elected governor.] 

* * Guiana. Charles H. grants the en- 
tire English colony to Lord Willoughby. 

* * Md. Charles Calvert (Lord Balti- 
more) is confirmed in the government. 

An Act is passed to establish a mint. 

* * Va. The Royalist Legislature enacts 
a permanent imposition on all ex- 
ported tobacco, to provide a perpetual 
revenue for royal officers, and make 
them independent of colonial legislation. 

The Assembly for 14 years denies to 
the people the right of choosing their 
own legislators, by assuming to be a 
perpetual body. 



42 1663-1669, Feb. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1663 June 7. N. Y. The Indians at- 
tack the settlers at Esopus (Kingston) 
on the Hudson, and are subdued after 
killing C5 whites. Rondout is almost 
annihilated by them about this time. 

1664 * * Guiana. Cayenne is taken by 
the French. 

Sept. 8. New York. New Netherland 
is taken. 

A small English fleet takes New Am- 
sterdam without a struggle ; Peter Stuy- 
vesant proposes resistance, but is forced 
by his council to sign the capitulation. 

Sept. 24. If. Y. Fort Orange (Albany) 

surrenders to the British. 
Oct. 1. Del. The Swedish and Dutch 

colonists on the Delaware submit to 

the British, who thus complete their 

conquest. 
Dec. * If. Y. Truce with the Indians. 

* * W. I. Buccaneers, led by [Sir] 
Henry Morgan, begin their depredations 
on the colonies of Spain. 

1665 May * If. Y. Treaty of peace 
entered with the Indians. 

* * Fla. The town of St. Augustine is 
captured and plundered by a company 
of buccaneers under Capt. John Davis, 
an Englishman. 

* * Cuba. The wall around Havana is 
commenced. 

1666 Jan. 29. Fr. France declares 
war against England. 

Jan.+* Can. The French expedition of 
Courcelles and Tracy goes against the 
Mohawk Indians. 

** Guiana. The Dutch take the English 
settlement by storm, and a heavy ran- 
som is exacted. 

1667 * * Guiana. Surinam is taken by 
the English. 

* * Mass. Ravages are committed by 
the Mohawks near Northampton. 

1668 * * Can. Peace is made between 
*h>3 French and Five Nations. 

* * Maine yields to the authority of 
Massachusetts by force of arms. 

* * Panama. Morgan's 1,200 bucca- 
neers take Porto Bello and immense 
spoils. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE 
EXPLORATION. 

1663 Feb. 5. Can. Severe earth- 
quakes. 

[They continue with short intermis- 
sions for over 6 months, and change the 
surface of the earth.] 

1664 Nov. 17. NewEng. A bearded 
comet becomes visible. 

[It exhibits a tail when it departs.] 

1666 Aug. 4. W. I. Terrific hurri- 
cane ; Lord Francis Willoughby, with his 
fleet of 15 sail, perishes in it. 

1667 ± * * Painters ply their art making 
portraits of dignitaries. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1663 Mather. Cotton, clergyman and au- 
thor, born. 
Bradford, William, printer in Pa., born. 



1665 Endicott, John, Gov. of Mass., A76. 

1667 Carr, Sir Robert, English officer, dies. 

1668 Wilson, John, clergyman of Boston, d. 
Day, Stephen, first printer in New Eng., A57. 

CHURCH. 

1663 Sept. * Va. Oppression of Sep- 
aratists, who are fined for holding meet- 
ings, and the more affluent are compelled 
to pay the fines of the poor. Baptists 
are proscribed, Quakers are fined, per- 
secuted, and imprisoned. 

* *Mass. The first Baptist Church 
formed in Swansea. 

John Eliot completes the printing of 
the O. T. in the Indian language. 

The King's commissioners vex the 
Puritans by using the Episcopal ser- 
vice in Boston. The Puritans observed 
Saturday evening as part of the Sabbath, 
the commissioners spend it in carousals. 

1664 May* R.I. The Assembly estab- 
lishes religious freedom. 

* * Boston. Episcopalians petition for the 
use of the Prayer-Book. (Second time.) 

* *Mass. Rev. John Cotton preaches to 
the Indians of Martha's Vineyard. 

1665 Mar. 28. Boston. The first re- 
corded meeting of Baptists (falsely 
called Anabaptists). 

Sept. * Can. Claude Allouez goes to 
Montreal, intending to return to the 
mission left vacant by the death of 
Mesnard. He opens a mission on the 
shores of Lake Superior. 

* * R. I. The Seventh-day Baptists or- 
ganize a church at Newport. 

1666 June 14. At New Netherland 
the Lutherans are permitted to worship 
in their own houses. 

* * N. Y. First church erected in 
Brooklyn (site on Fulton Ave., near 
Lawrence St.). 

* *Mich. Allouez, the Jesuit, founds 
the mission of St. Espiritu, south of Lake 
Superior. 

1667+ Aug.* Can. Father Lewis 
Nicols goes to the Indians of the north- 
west. 

* * The Jesuit missions among the Iro- 
quois reopened. 

* * It. Clement LX., pope. 

* * If. J. A Presbyterian church 
formed in Newark under pastor Abra- 
ham Pierson. 

1668 Spring. Can. The celebrated 
Father Marquette leaves Quebec, in 
company with Father Le Boesme, to 
join the Ottawa mission. 

* * If. J. A Presbyterian church is 
formed in Elizabeth. 

1669 Feb. * New York. Jacob Fabri- 
cius reaches New Amsterdam as the 
pioneer preacher to the German Luther- 
ans. He preaches in their own ver- 
nacular. 

LETTERS. 

1663* * Mass. Eliot's Indian Bible is 
the first one printed in America. 

1664 * * Mass. Act passed prohibiting 
printing-presses elsewhere than at Cam- 
bridge. 



1665 Sept. 5. Mass. The printing of 
the New Testament in the Indian ver- 
nacular is completed. 

SOCIETY. 

1664 * * Va. The Virginia assembly re- 
strains the clergy. "Ministers shall not 
give themselves to excess in drinking or 
riot, spending their time idly by day or 
night, in playing at dice, cards, and 
other unlawful games." 

1665 * * N. Y. Dealers required not to 
sell beer above 2d. a quart, or any other 
liquor above 12s. a gallon, under penalty 
of 20s. a gallon, so sold. Selling liquor 
to Indians is prohibited. 

1668 * * N.J. Persons found drinking 
after nine o'clock are apprehended 
and punished at discretion; drunken- 
ness is fined Is., 2s., and 2s. &d., for the 
first, second, and third offenses respec- 
tively. 

* * Va. It is enacted that " The death 
of a slave from extremity of correction 
was not accounted a felony; since it 
cannot be presumed that prepensed 
malice should induce any man to de- 
stroy his own estate." (Or 1667.) 

SETTLEMENT — STATE. 

1663 Feb. 14. Can. The hundred as- 
sociates surrender their charter, and 
New France becomes a royal province. 

Feb. * -July * If. Y. The Dutch West 
India Company sells the whole country 
on the Delaware to the city of Amster- 
dam. 

Mar. 24. Charles II. issues a patent to 
Lord Clarendon, General Monk, and 
six other noblemen who had assisted in 
his restoration, to lands between the 
St. Johns River and the 36th parallel of 
latitude, extending from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific, with jurisdiction over the 
same ; it is called Carolina. 

July 8. R. I. Charles II. renews the 
charter of Rhode Island and Provi- 
dence plantations, to the surprise and 
joy of the colonists. 

* * M. de Mesey becomes (Fr.) governor 
of Mich. (Can.), and Alex. D'Hinoyossa 
(Dutch) governor of Pennsylvania. [1664. 
Robert Carr.governor of Pennsylvania. 
1665. Richard Bellingham, of Massa- 
chusetts Bay Colony, and M. de Cour- 
celles (Fr.), of Mich. (Can.).] 

* *N. C. The settlers at Puritan on the 
Chowan River organize a civil gov- 
ernment, and elect William Drummond 
governor of the Albemarle Colony. 

* * Conn. Whalley and Goffe, two of 
the regicide judges who voted to put 
Charles I. to death, flee to New Haven 
and find protection from the officers 
sent to arrest them. 

* * Eng. An act is passed to monopolize 
the colonial trade; European goods 
for the colonies to pass through British 
ports. 

* •* N. J. A company of Long Island 
Puritans obtain permission to settle 



AMERICA. 



1663-1669, Feb. 43 



on the banks of the Raritan, but they 
delay to migrate. 

* * Miss. Mississippi is included in the 
charter of South Carolina. 

1664 Mar. 12. New York becomes 
a Duchy. 

Charles II., deeming the Dutch in New 
Netherland usurpers, totally regardless 
of prior grants, arbitrarily grants the 
entire territory between the Connecticut 
and Delaware Rivers to his brother, the 
Duke of York ; he also gives him the 
territory between the Kennebec and St. 
Croix Rivers (Maine). 

May 29. N. C. Sir John Yeamans 
lands several hundred English colonists 
at Cape Fear River in Clarendon. 

May * Fr. Louis XIV. grants to a new 
company of the "West Indies the mo- 
nopoly of all French commerce in North 
and South America, except the fisheries. 

June 10. Va. The navigation acts en- 
forced. 

June 23. N. Y. The Duke of York sells 
his claim to lands between the Dela- 
ware and the Hudson (in part) to "Lord 
Berkeley and Sir George Carteret ; 
Sir George having been governor of the 
island of Jersey, it is called New Jer- 
sey ; and it becomes a proprietary state, 
owned by the owners of Carolina. New 
Jersey is separated from New York. 

* * Eng. The king appoints four com- 
missioners, Nicolls, Carr, Cartwright, 
and Maverick, to hear complaints and 
appeals in New England, and settle the 
peace of the country. 

July 23. Boston. The king's commis- 
sioners arrive, and are opposed as hos- 
tile to colonial liberties. [They leave 
for New Netherland.] 

* * N. Y. After much controversy with 
Holland concerning the title of New 
Netherland (New York), the English 
proceed to settle the matter by taking 
forcible possession. 

Sept. 8. New York. New Netherland 
ceases to exist. The Dutch surrender 
New Amsterdam. (O. S. Aug. 29.) 

Colonel Richard Nicolls assumes office 
as English governor, and the name of 
the city is changed to New York. [The 
English government lasts nine years.] 

Sept. 20. N. Y. Fort Orange sur- 
renders to the English, and its name 
changed to Albany. 

Oct. 1. The Dutch and Swedes on the 
Delaware capitulate to the English, and 
for the first time every mile of the 
American coast from the N.E. corner 
of Maine to the southern limits of 
Georgia is under the British flag. 

Oct. 25. Mass. A remonstrance 
against the royal menace of tyranny is 
issued, and addressed to the king. 

Oct. * N. J. A village* is begun, and 
named Elizabethtown in honor of 
Lady Carteret. (Philip Carteret, gov.) 

Oct. 28. JV. J. Governor Nicolls ratifies 
the sale of the Elizabethtown tract by 
the Indians to Long Island Puritans, 
while ignorant of the sale of New Jer- 
sey by the Duke of York. 

Dec. 1. Connecticut surrenders all claim 
to Long Island, and obtains a favorable 
boundary on the coast. 



Dec. * New York has an estimated popu- 
lation of 10,000. 

* * Mass. Act passed prohibiting print- 
ing-presses elsewhere than in Cam- 
bridge. 

* * N.J. Governor Nicolls grants an ex- 
tensive tract of land on Newark Bay to 
a company of Puritans. 

Elizabethtown, Newark, Middletown, 
and Shrewsbury begun by settlers from 
New England and Long Island. 

The lands of New Jersey are dis- 
tributed to settlers for a quit-rent of a 
half-penny an acre, payable in the year 
1670. 

* * N. Y. Governor Nicolls makes a 
treaty with the Five Nations, they 
ceding their land, and submitting to 
the authority of Charles II. 

First settlement [in Central New 
York] made at Schenectady. (See 1661.) 

* * W. I. The French occupy San Do- 
mingo. 

1665 Feb. 10. N. J. The earliest 
constitution, " Concessions and Agree- 
ments," is adopted. (See 1677, Mar. 3.) 

Feb. 24. Mass. Deerfield is purchased 
of the Indians. (R. Bellingham, gov.) 

Feb. * N. J. The royalist proprietors 
offer special inducements of a liberal 
character to emigrants. 

Apr. * N. J. William Goulding and 
others receive a patent for a grant, ex- 
tending from Sandy Hook to the mouth 
of the Raritan. East New Jersey is 
called Albania. 

May 26. Mass. The royal commission- 
ers depart. The General Court refuses 
to recognize them, and they leave the 
province in anger. 

June 12. N. Y. City of New York is 
incorporated by Governor Nicolls ; a 
mayor, 5 aldermen, and a sheriff ap- 
pointed. Thomas Willet is the first 
mayor. 

June * The Carolina grant is extended 
northward to 36° 30', so as to include the 
Chowan settlement [in North Carolina]. 

* * Arg. Rep. Spain relaxes her restric- 
tions on commerce. 

* * Can. Courcelles governor of New 
France. Much emigration and rapid 
growth. 

* * Conn. Connecticut and New Haven 
unite. 

* * Conn. John Winthrop is elected gov- 
ernor. 

* * Maine is taken by royal authority 
from Massachusetts, and restored to the 
heirs of Gorges. 

* * N. C. A little Puritan colony on 
the Cape Fear River is broken up by 
the Indians. 

The same site is purchased, with 32 
square miles of territory, by a company 
of planters from Barbados, led by Sir 
John Yeamans. Eight hundred people 
settle along the river during the first 
year. 

* * New Hampshire is officially named. 

* * N. J. The English plant a colony 
under Philip Carteret, the first gover- 
nor, with Elizabethtown for the capital ; 
his administration not popular. 



* * Sp. Charles II. enthroned. 

* * N. Y. Governor Nicolls, the deputy 
of the Duke of York, enacts a code 
called the " Duke's Laws." (Feb. 28.) 

* * _Q7 * *n. Y. The English oppress 
the Dutch. 

Representative government is denied ; 
old titles to land are annulled, and new 
titles are obtained at a cost which pro- 
vides an immense revenue. 

1666 May 21. N. J. An association 
of Puritans from Connecticut sails up 
the Passaic, and extinguishes the Indian 
title to Newark, after holding a council 
with them. 

* * Governors chosen : William Bren- 
ton (R. I.); Edward Diggs (Va.) for 
the English Commonwealth. 

* * Can. Robert Cavalier de la Salle ar- 
rives from France. 

* * Conn. Hartford, New Haven, New 
London, and Fairfield are the four 
counties, and each has its court. 

* * N. J. Colonists from Connecticut 
settle in Elizabethtown, Newark, and 
in Hackensack. 

* * New York. Thomas Delavall the 
2d mayor. 

* * W. I. Great depredations by buc- 
caneers. 

* * Guiana. Surinam occupied by the 
English. 

1667 May * JV.F. The governor, Fran- 
cis Lovelace, an outrageous and incu- 
rable tyrant ; the people groan under 
excessive taxation. 

July 31. Hoi. The Treaty of Breda, 
between England, Holland, France, and 
Denmark, provides the cession of (l)Nova 
Scotia to France by England, (2) Antigua 
Monserrat and St. Christopher to Eng- 
land by France. England retains New 
Netherland, and Holland Surinam. 

* * N.C. The Clarendon colony is aban- 
doned. Sam. Stephens, governor. 

* * New York. Thomas Willet the 3d 
mayor. 

* * W.I. The Bahamas granted to the 
proprietors of South Carolina. 

1668 May 2. Fr. The treaty of Aix- 
la-Chapelle ends the war between Eng- 
land and Spain, and the colonists begin 
to discuss the right of arbitrary govern- 
ment. 

May 26. N. J. The first legislative 
assembly meets at Elizabethtown, and 
assigns the punishment of death to 
twelve offenses ; all penalties are made 
severe. 

* * Can. Sault Ste. Marie founded by 
Father Marquette at the entrance of 
Lake Superior. 

* * Maine again put under the govern- 
ment of Massachusetts, upon applica- 
tion of some of its people. 

* * Mass. Daniel Gookin and others 
granted a tract eight miles square, to be 
called Worcester. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1669 * * Ga. Spaniards still work the 
gold mines. 



44 1669, July-1675, July 8. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1669 * * Mohawk and Mohegan "War. 

1670 * * Panama. Morgan reduces the 
castle of San Lorenzo at Chagres. 

1671 Feb. 24. Panama is burned by 
Morgan's buccaneers. 

Sept. 7,8. Mass. Great training-days 
in Boston ; 1,200 men in the field. 

1672 May 28. Mass. First declara- 
tion of war in the colonies ; Boston 
declares war against the Dutch. 

* * Del. A force of Marylanders invades 
Lewiston. 

* -* Pa. The Susquehannock tribe is an- 
nihilated by the resistless league of the 
Five Nations. 

* * S. C. Spaniards from St. Augustine 
endeavor to drive away the settlers in 
Carolina, but are repulsed. 

* * W. I. The English take Tobago from 
the Dutch. 

1673 Feb. 21. Mass. Medfield is 
surprised by Indians, principally Nar- 
ragansetts. Eighteen men, women, and 
children are killed, and half the town 
is burnt. 

July * Can. Fort Frontenac is built. 
Va.-N. J. "War between England 

and Holland; the Dutch ravage the 

Virginia coast, and subdue New Jersey. 
Aug. 8. New York is taken by the 

Dutch without a shot being fired ; they 

rename it New Orange. 

1674 Feb. 9. New York. According to 
the terms of peace between England 
and Holland, the Dutch governor An- 
thony Colve is to surrender the city 
to the British. 

Oct. 31. New York. The Dutch forces 
evacuate the city. 

* * Mass. An Indian plot is formed 
against the colonies ; a friendly Indian 
missionary reveals it and is murdered. 

* * W.I. The Dutch retake Tobago 
from the English. 

* * Me. A Boston ship captures Castine. 

1675 June 24-78 Apr. 12. New Eng. 
King Philip's "War. Causes : Indian 
jealousy of the growth of the English set- 
tlements, and the almost complete alien- 
ation of hunting-grounds by treaties. 

June 24. Mass. King Philip's "War be- 
gins at Swanzey, in the Plymouth 
colony, where eight or nine English are 
slain. Nearly all of the Indians of New 
England from Maine to Connecticut 
combine against the foreign invaders. 

June 28. Mass. Plymouth colonists at- 
tack King Philip, routing the Indians. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE 
EXPLORATION. 

1669 * * Can. Robert de la Salle leaves 
Montreal and begins his explorations. 

Louis Joliet explores the Great Lakes. 

1670 * * Mass. Bees are introduced. 

1673 June 17. Wis. Jacques Mar- 
quette and Louis Joliet discover the 
Mississippi River at its confluence with 
the Wisconsin. 



BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1670 Davenport, John, Puritan clergyman, 
A73. 

1672 Bradstreet, Anne, poetess, A60. 
Chauncy, jCharles, Pres. of Harvard Col- 
lege, A 80. 

Mason, John, conqueror of the Pequots, A72. 

1673 Puendo, Padre, the great preacher of 
Peru, dies. 

1674 Logan, James, statesman, author, b. 



CHURCH. 

1669 Aug. 24. R. I. Roger Williams 
writes of some who deny punishment 
for sin in a future life. 

* * Can. A mission for the Iroquois is 
begun opposite Montreal by French 
Jesuits. 

Advent of Claudius Dablon, Superior 
of the western missions. 

A new mission is started on the south 
shore of the Falls of St. Marie, under 
Dablon. Marquette enters the mission 
until now occupied by Allouez, at La- 
pointe, and there spends the winter 
studying with an Illinois captive the 
dialect of his tribe. Allouez proceeds to 
Green Bay, where he founds the mission 
of St. Francis Xavier, and spends the 
wintei and spring in ministering to the 
needs of the Sacs and Foxes, the Potta- 
wattomies, and the Winnebagos. 

* * Boston. Secession from the First 
Church. 

The advocates of the Half- Way Cove- 
nant organize themselves as the Third 
Church of Boston (Old South Church), 
and an edifice of wood is first erected. 

* * Wis. The western shores of Lake 
Michigan are visited by the Jesuits. 

1670 Mar. * Carolina. Locke's consti- 
tution is modified to tolerate every re- 
ligion, and yet make the Church of 
England the State church. 

* * Can. Father Andre" is in charge of 
the Ottawa tribes on islands and shores 
of Lake Huron, and Father Druillettes 
enters the work at Sault St. Marie. 

* * It. Clement X., pope. 

* * Mass. The first Indian church, 
with native pastor, is organized on 
Martha's Vineyard ; 3,000 native Chris- 
tians on the island. 

* * -73 * * Mass. Eliot organizes seven 
other "praying-towns" among the 
Indians. 

The first Manchage (Oxford); the second 
Chabanakongkoum, of Dudley; the third, 
Maanexit, was the northeast part of 
Woodstock ; the fourth, Quantisset, the 
southeast part of Woodstock ; the fifth, 
Wabquissit, the southwest part of Wood- 
stock ; the sixth, Pakachoog, partly in 
Worcester and partly in Ward ; and the 
seventh, Waeuntug, is now Uxbridge. 

* * S. C. Presbyterian and Independ- 
ents jointly settle in this Province. 

1671 June 4. Mich. Saint Lasson 
holds a grand conference with many 
Indian tribes at St. Mary's. 

* * Can. Father Henry Nbuvel enters 
the mission work at the Falls of St. 
Marie. 

Marquette establishes the mission of 
St. Ignatius among the Hurons at Michil- 
imackinac. 

Dablon is recalled to Quebec to be- 
come Superior of all the Canada mis- 
sions. 



± * * Carolina. Quaker preachers are 
the first to visit the colonists. 

* * New York. The German Luther- 
ans erect a church. 

* * R. I. Secession from the Baptist 
church forms a Seventh-day Baptist 
church. 

* * Va. The colonists report 48 parishes, 
and the ministers well paid. 

1672 * * Can. Many of the Ottawas 
settle at Marquette mission. 

Father Allouez preaches to the Illi- 
nois, Kickapoos, Mascoutens, Miamis, 
and Weas Indians. 

A little church is organized and chapel 
built at Sault St. Marie. 

Allouez and Dablon visit Catholic 
missions in Wisconsin and Illinois. 

* * N.C. A Society of Friends settles 
in Pequinians county, and is visited by 
William Edmundson, who establishes 
a quarterly meeting. 

* * George Fox visits the Quakers of 
America in all the settlements along the 
coast. 

1673 June* Louis Joliet and Jacques 
Marquette, Jesuit missionaries, with 
five other Frenchmen, leave Green Bay 
and explore the Mississippi and cer- 
tain tributaries, traveling 2,500 miles. 

* * New York. The Dutch deprive the 
German Lutherans of their only 
church edifice. 

* * Peru. Padre Puendo, the great 
preacher, dies. 

1674 * * Can. Bishop Laval becomes 
the first Roman Catholic bishop of 
Quebec, his see extending from Maine 
to Louisiana. 

* * Mass. Eliot reports two churches 
and 1,150 church members in his Indian 
" praying-town." 

1675 June 24. Mass. This day ob- 
served by fasting and prayer, in antici- 
pation of an Indian war. 

LETTERS. 

1669 * * The New England Memorial is 
published by Nathaniel Morton. 

1671* * Va. Gov. Berkeley opposes edu- 
cation. 

" There are no free schools nor print- 
ing, and I hope we shall not have these 
hundred years ; for learning has brought 
disobedience and heresy and sects into 
the world, and printing has divulged 
them, and libels against the best govern- 
ment. God keep us from both." 

1672 * * Mass. Harvard College receives 
a valuable library by the bequest of 
Theophilus Gale. 

1674 * * Boston. John Foster is author- 
ized to set up a printing-press. 

SOCIETY. 

1670 Apr. 20. Va. The importation 
of convicted felons is prohibited. 

* * Mass. The selectmen are required to 
post drunkards' names in public 
houses and prohibit sales to them, or 
their frequenting such places. 

* * Md. Importation of convicted felons 
prohibited. 



AMERICA. 



1669, July-1675, July 8. 45 



* * New York. Merchants of Manhattan 
meet every Friday at noon on the bridge 
over the Broad Street canal for barter. 

* * Va. It is enacted that " all servants 
not being Christians, imported into this 
country by shipping, shall be slaves." 

Under Gov. Berkeley the council lays 
burdensome taxes on the poorer peo- 
ple, and exempts the holders of large 
estates. 

1671 * * Carolina. Governor Sir John 
Yeamans introduces slavery, by bring- 
ing nearly 200 negroes from Barbados to 
this colony. (1672. Winsor.) 

* * Md. Act passed encouraging the im- 
portation of slaves. 

* * * W. I. Great depredations by buc- 
caneers. 

1672 * * Va. It is made lawful for " per- 
sons pursuing fugitive colored slaves 
to wound or even kill them." 

SETTLEMENT — STATE. 

1669 July 21. S.C. The absurd Fun- 
damental Constitutions drawn up by 
John Locke are nominally operative. 

May * R. I. Benedict Arnold, governor. 

* * Guiana. The Dutch hold the entire 
territory. 

* * If. C. The first legislative assem- 
bly meets at Albemarle, and organizes 
a remarkably liberal government ; Sam- 
uel Stevens governor. 

* I _70 * * New York. Cornelia Steen- 
wyck the 4th mayor. 

* * Virginia is dismembered by lavish 
grants. 

1670 Feb. ± * S.C. An English col- 
ony, led by Joseph West and William 
Sayle, is planted on the Ashley River. 

May 2. Can. The Hudson Bay Com- 
pany is chartered. 

* * If. J. The colonists refuse to pay 
the quit-rent for their land, having 
already paid for the same twice to other 
claimants. (See N. J. 1664.) 

* * If. Y. Eight towns on Long Island 
protest against paying a tax of 10 per 
cent on all imports and exports, on the 
sole authority of the governor and coun- 
cil. Protest burned. 

Oct. * If. Y. Annual assemblies are 
demanded, and the government refuses 
to yield them. 

Va. The right of suffrage is lim- 
ited to freeholders and householders, 
and the majority of the people are dis- 
franchised. 

* * Maine, east of the Penobscot, sur- 
rendered to France. 

* * S. C. The colonists ignore Locke's 
Grand Model, and show a fine capacity 
to govern themselves. 

The Model made strange provisions 
for a state in the wilderness, " where a 
few colonists lived on venison and 
potatoes, and paid their debts with 
tobacco ; " it provided for " dukes, earls, 
and marquises ; knights, lords, and 
squires ; baronial courts, heraldic cere- 
mony, and every sort of feudal non- 
sense." (Ridpath.) [It was nominally 
the law of the colony for about 25 years.] 

Foundation of (old) Charlestown laid 
by English settlers on the Ashley River. 



* * Treaty of Madrid, between England 
and Spain, settles boundaries of their 
respective possessions in America on the 
basis of possession. 

1671 * * Can. The region of Lakes Hu- 
ron and Superior taken for France. 

Courcelles establishes a trading-post 
on Lake Ontario. 
Aug. 28. S. C. Joseph West is ap- 
pointed governor by the proprietors. 
[Also 1674.] [Dec. 26. Sir John Yea- 
mans succeeds him. A revised copy of 
the Model arrives.] 

* * If. C. The colonists refuse to pay 
royal taxes in any form, and seize the 
records of the province, imprison the 
governor's secretary, and boldly defy 
his authority. 

* * Massachusetts is •• almost on the 
brink of renouncing any depend- 
ence upon the Crown." 

* * Maryland has a population of 20,000 
people. 

Act passed encouraging the impor- 
tation of slaves. 

* * New York. Thomas Delavall the 5th 
mayor. 

* * S. C. Dutch emigrants from New 
York and others from Holland arrive. 

* * Va. Population 40,000, including 2,000 
slaves. 

1672 Apr. 19. S. C. The colony de- 
mands a new government for itself ; all 
previous parliamentary conventions are 
dissolved. 

May 14. N. J. The anti-rent colonists 
meet in assembly at Elizabethtown, and 
depose Philip Carteret, the governor. 

May 31. Mass. Union of the colonies 
of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Ply- 
mouth. 

* * Can. Count de Frontenac, having 
been appointed governor, arrives at 
Quebec. 

* * Del. Maryland colonists attempt to 
absorb Lewistown by force. 

* * Eng. Third Navigation Law. Par- 
liament imposes customs upon the col- 
onies, to be collected by the revenue 
officers of the Crown. 

* * New York. Matthias Nicolls the 6th 
mayor. 

* * R. I. Nicholas Easton, governor. 

1673 Feb. 25. "Virginia is given away 
by Charles II. 

Charles II. changes his former grant of 
Virginia, and leases the entire State for 
thirty-one years to a pair of ignoble 
gentlemen, Lord Culpepper and the Earl 
of Arlington. 

Mar. 18. N. J. John Fenwick, in trust 
for Edward Byllinge, buys Berkeley's in- 
terest in New Jersey for £1,000. 

* * Mass. Josiah Winslow is governor of 
Plymouth ; John Leverett of Mass. Bay. 

May * N. J. The authority of Captain 
Berry, Philip Carteret's deputy, is ac- 
knowledged. 

Aug. 8. N. Y. The Dutch recapture 
and rule New York, also New Jersey, 
which they name Achter Kol ; the au- 
thority of Holland is restored [for 



three months] from the Connecticut to 
Maryland. 

New Amsterdam is called New Orange, 
and Anthony Clove is made governor. 

* * Eng. Parliament excludes New Eng- 
land merchants from competing with 
English merchants in the Southern plan- 
tations ; free traffic abolished. 

* * New York. John Lawrence the 7th 
mayor. 

* * O. French Settlers establish them- 
selves in Western Ohio. 

1674 Feb. 9. New York. New Am- 
sterdam is surrendered to the English 
in making peace between England and 
Holland, by the Treaty of Westminster. 

June 29. N. Y. The Duke of York's 
patent enlarged. 

July 28, 29. N. J. Sir George Car- 
teret receives a confirmatory grant from 
the Duke of York. 

July 31. N. J. Philip Carteret returns. 

Sept. 21. Va. Agents are appointed to 
remonstrate with the King against the 
grant to Culpepper, and the invasion of 
popular liberties. 

Oct. 30. N. Y. Sir Edmund Andros 
assumes the government. [Misrule and 
arbitrary government follow.] 

Nov. 10. N. Y. New York is restored 
to the English authorities. 

* * Guiana. The New Dutch West India 
Company is founded ; Guiana conveyed 
to it by charter. 

The French Colony passes under the 
control of the Crown after a series of 
. failures through incompetence and mis- 
management. 

* * R. I. William Coddington is ap- 
pointed governor. [1678. Reappointed.] 

* * N. C. Population about 4,000 ; com- 
merce is impeded by duties which yield 
the proprietors $12,000 from New Eng- 
land trade alone. G. Cartwright, pres. 

* * N. Y. Gov. Andros advises the pro- 
prietor, the Duke of York, to grant the 
clamorous people the right of electing a 
legislature. 

The Duke replies that popular assem- 
blies are seditious and dangerous ; that 
they only foster discontent, and disturb 
the peace of government ; and finally 
that he did not see any use for them. 

Treaty at Albany with Indians. 

* * Va. The common people, made desper- 
ate by taxes, make the first movement 
for reform ; it is easily suppressed. 

1675 May 13. Can. Louis IV. grants 
La Salle a manor at Fort Frontenac 
(Kingston). 

July 8. Va. Lord Culpepper is ap- 
pointed governor of Virginia for life. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
1670+ * * N. Y. Gov. Lovelace orders 

May races at Hempstead, Long Island. 
1672 Dec. 10. A monthly post is 

established between New York and 

Boston. 

* * Mass. The business of whale-fishery 
is commenced at Nantucket. 

1675 Mar. 21. Boston. The castle at 
the entrance of the harbor is accident- 
ally destroyed by fire. 



46 1675, July 9-1680, May 10. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1675 July 14. Mass. Mendon is at- 
tacked by Indians ; several persons 
killed. 

July 15. Mass. The Narragansetts en- 
ter into a treaty of peace with, the col- 
onists. 

± The N ipmuck Indians become allies 
of Philip. 

July* Va. Indians pillage a plantation 
in revenging a fraud, and are beaten or 
killed by the settlers. General hos- 
tilities follow. 

Conn. Andros, with armed sloops, 

attempts to establish his authority as 
far as the Connecticut River. 

Aug. 2. Mass. Captain Hutchinson 
and 20 men are sent to win back the 
Nipmucks ; they are waylaid and slain 
at Brookfleld. 

Aug. 25. Mass. Deerfield is attacked 
by 180 Indians ; the colonists lose eleven 
men, and the Indians twenty-six. 

Sept. 1. Mass. The greater part of Deer- 
field is burnt by the Indians ; Hadley 
is attacked, but successfully defended 
by William Goffe. 

Sept. 18. Mass. Battle with Indians at 
Bloody Brook; 700+Jndians surround 
80 men, killing nearly all of them. Cap- 
tain Mosley, by hard fighting, drives 
them away from Deerfield. 

Sept. * -Oct. * New Eng. The United 
Colonies assume the burden of the war, 
and raise 2,000 troops. 

Oct. 5. Mass. Springfield is attacked 
by the Indians, and saved by reenforce- 
nients. 

Oct. 19. Mass. Philip, with seven or 
eight hundred Indians, attacks Hat- 
field, but is driven off. 

■Dec * Mass. The colonists, fearing the 
Narragansetts, prepare to attack them, 
although they have not sided with Philip 
during the war. 

Dec. 19. R. I. The numerous and pow- 
erful Wampanoags are defeated in a 
decisive battle near Narragansett Bay. 
The New England army consists of 13 
companies of infantry (1,500) and one of 
cavalry; Indians lose 1,000 killed and 
captured, colonists from 200 to 400 ; [the 
widespread vengeance of the Indians 
rests upon all white men alike ; burn- 
ings and blood-shedding abound]. 

* * Va. Six hostile Indian chiefs present 
themselves to treat for peace, and are put 
to death ; a war for vengeance follows. 

1676 Feb. 10. Mass. Indians attack 
Lancaster, and nearly destroy it. 

Feb. 24. Indians surprise Deerfield ; 
many people are killed, and 50 buildings 
burnt. (Feb. 21, Holmes.) 

Feb. 25. Mass. "Weymouth is as- 
saulted by Indians ; houses and barns 
are burnt. 

Mar. 14. Mass. Indians attack North- 
ampton, but are repulsed after six per- 
sons are killed. 

Mar. 26. Mass. Marlborough de- 
stroyed by the Indians. 



Mar. 28. Mass. Behoboth is partly 
burnt by Indians. [Mar. 29. Providence.] 

Mar. * Va. Three hundred persons have 
been killed by Indians in the last twelve 
months. 

Apr. 18. Mass. Sudbury is attacked 
by the Narragansett Indians ; several 
houses and barns are burnt ; the pursu- 
ers are ambushed and slain. 

Apr. 20. Va. Bebellion begins ; 500 
men in arms, with Bacon as leader, 
against the Indians. (See State.) 

May 8. Mass. Bridgewater is attacked 
by Indians ; 17 buildings are burnt. 

May 11. Mass. Plymouth is assault- 
ed ; 11 houses and 5 barns are burnt. 

May 19. Mass. A camp of Indians near 
Turner Falls is surprised and destroyed 
by a company of volunteers. 

May 30. Mass. Hatfield is burnt by 
Indians. 

June 2. Mass. Great battle with the 
Indians near Mount Hope. 

June 12. Mass. About 700 Indians at- 
tack Hadley, and are driven off. 

June * Mass. The Nipmucks submit to 
the colonists and abandon the war. 

Va. Nathaniel Bacon subdues the 

Indians without permission from the 
jealous governor. 

Civil war. Bacon leads a rebellion 
against the outrages of Gov. Berkeley. 

July+ * Va. Indians massacre the 
whites, and are punished by volunteer 
expeditions. 

July 3. R. I. Indian battle near Nar- 
ragansett. 

Aug. 12. Mass. The King Philip's 
war ends with the death of Philip. 

One-tenth of the private dwellings are 
burnt, 600 men have been slain in battle, 
many women and children massacred, 
and nearly every family is in mourning. 
The Indian race is nearly swept out of 
New England. [The tribes of Maine and 
New Hampshire continue hostilities un- 
til 1678.] 

Sept. * Va. Jamestown, the only town 
in the colony, is burnt by its own citi- 
zens as an act of patriotism. 

Sept. 6. Me. A Massachusetts force sur- 
prises and subdues the Indians at 
Cocheco. 

Oct. 1. Va. Bacon dies, and the rebel- 
lion ends. 

* * Me. A Dutch frigate captures 
Castine. 

* * W. I. The French take Trinidad 
from the English. 

Dec. 21. Guiana. The French attack 
Cayenne. 

1677 Sept. 9. Conn. Hatfield is at- 
tacked by Indians ; 20 persons are killed 
or captured. 

1678 Apr. 12. Mass. A treaty of peace 
is made with the Indians. 

* * &qn Domingo. A negro insurrec- 
tion arises. 

1679 * * Colombia. Buccaneers attack 
Porto Bello. 

1680 Jan. * III. La Salle builds Fort 
Crevecoeur in the Illinois country. 



ART — SCIENCE — NATURE 

EXPLORATION. 

1676 Jan. 26. Laying of the keel of the 

Griffin, the first vessel in the western 

waters, built by La Salle, 6 miles west of 

Niagara Falls. 

1679 * * French exploration of the Great 
Lakes and the Mississippi. 

May * Can. The Griffin is launched on 
Lake Erie. 

Aug. 7. La Salle sails in the Griffin from 
Niagara on his remarkable tour of dis- 
covery through three of the Great Lakes. 

Nov.± * A great comet becomes visible. 

1680 Feb. 10. The great comet dis- 
appears. 

[It terrorized New England, while it 
enabled Newton to ascertain the para- 
bolic form of the trajectory of comets.] 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1675 Marquette, Jacques, explorer of 
Miss. River, A38. 

Dudley, Paul, colonial jurist, born. 

1676 Bacon, Nathaniel, patriot of Va., 
"rebel," A34. 

Calvert, Cecil, 2d Lord Baltimore, dies. 
Clarke, John, founder of Bap. ch., A67. 
Winthrop, John, Gov. of Conn., A70. 
Berkeley, Sir William, Gov. of Va., A67. 
Gorton, Samuel, pioneer settler R. 1., A77. ? 
1678 Coddington, William, founder of R. I., 
A77. 
Conant, Roger, settler in Mass., A 86. 
Leverett, Sir John, Gov. of Mass., A63. 
Wheelright, John, Puritan clergyman, A85. 
Wolcott, Roger, Gov. of Conn., born. 

CHURCH. 
1675 * * Can. The Recollects are ac- 
tive, and Hennepin is among them. 

* * Del. The first Quaker meetings 
are held. 

* * Mass. Indians are abused. 

Fifteen Christian Indians, who had 
rendered the colonists most faithful 
service as scouts, and are living peace- 
fully in their own towns, are taken and 
with their hands bound behind them, 
are fastened together by ropes round 
their necks, marched down to Boston, 
and thrown into prison. [Finally they 
are expelled and remove to Deer's Island, 
where hunger, exposure, and disease 
reduce their number.] 

1676* * Can. Rivalry between the 
Jesuits and other orders. 

* * It. Innocent XI., pope. 

1677 * * Mass. Laws passed for the pun- 
ishment of persons attending a Quaker 
meeting. 

1678 * * N. Y. First record of Protes- 
tant Episcopal services in New York. 

1679 * * Boston. Charles II. causes the 
first Episcopal church to be built. 

* * _80 * * Boston. The Congregational 
" Reformed Synod " approves the Savoy 
confession. 

* * Hoi. Labadists send Danckers and 
Sluyter to New York. 

SOCIETY. 
1675 * * Mass. The colonists are terri- 
fied by an impending.Indian war. 

Superstition adds its terrors ; some 
have seen an Indian bow drawn across 
the heavens ; others see a scalp on the 
face of the eclipsed moon ; others see 
phantom horsemen gallop through the 
air, or hear the whistling of bullets, etc. 



AMERICA. 



1675, July 9-1680, May 10. 47 



Oppression of the Indians during 
King Philip's War. 

"The governor and council issue an 
order disbanding all Christian Indians, 
expelling them from white towns, im- 
prisoning them within five of their own 
towns, and forbidding them to leave 
these towns on penalty of death. [Later 
a reward of $100 was offered for every 
Christian Indian killed, if found more 
than one mile from his town.] Prevent- 
ed from hunting, not allowed to gather 
their crops, forbidden to work or buy 
food in white towns, they are reduced to 

freat suffering, and starvation seems to 
ace them ; and yet they uttered no com- 
plaint, but continued steadfast in the 
faith." (Cyc. of Missions.) 

1676 June * Va. The new reform As- 
sembly absolutely prohibits the sale 
of wines and ardent spirits, if not at 
Jamestown, yet elsewhere through the 
whole country. 

* * Md. The importation of convicted 
felons is prohibited. 

1677 * * N.J. Selling liquor to Indi- 
ans is a finable offense ; penalty, $100, 
and this is doubled at each subsequent 
offense, with 20 stripes if the offender is 
unable to pay. 

1678 * * N. Y. West Indian or Guinea 
slaves are valued at about $150 at Man- 
hattan. 

SETTLEMENT — STATE. 

1675 July 9. N. Y. A force under 
Gov. Andros sails to the Connecticut 
to claim the territory westward for 
the Duke of York. 

July 11. Conn. The Puritans at Say- 
brooke intimidate Andros, and he re- 
turns. Connecticut protests against the 
invasion. 

* * Md. Sir Charles Calvert becomes 
proprietor by the death of Cecil, his 
father, on November 30. 

Nov. 6. N. J. Carteret resumes the 
government from which he had been 
expelled in East Jersey. 

John Fenwick plants a colony at Sa- 
lem. Commissioners rule W. Jersey. 

* * New York. William Darvall the 8th 
mayor. 

1676 Apr. * Va. Bacon's rebellion 
distracts the colony. Civil war is brought 
on by the corruption, tyranny, and in- 
efficiency of Governor Berkeley. 

Virginians are divided into an aris- 
tocratic and a people's party. [The lat- 
ter is suppressed after the death of 
Bacon, its leader. The rebellion cost 
the colony £100,000.] 

The particular causes of the rebellion 
chiefly lay in the low pries of tobacco 
and wrongs committed in exchanging 
goods for it, with a dislike for proprie- 
taries unknown to the charter and bur- 
densome taxes occasioned thereby ; the 
burdening of trade by parliamentary 
restraints also excited opposition. 

Apr. 19. Eng. Charles II. orders that 
a liberal charter be prepared for Vir- 
ginia, in response to protests. [May 31. 
Order reversed.] 

May 29. Va. Berkeley proclaims Bacon 
a traitor. 

* * R.I. Walter Clarke, governor. 

June 24. Va. Meeting of the New As- 
sembly that enacts the "Bacon 



Laws," a series of reform measures. 
Bacon appointed commander-in-chief 
against the Indians. 

Julyl. N.J. By a " quintipartite deed," 
New Jersey is divided into East and 
"West Jersey ; the former is granted to 
George Carteret, the latter to the Quaker 
assignees of Byllinge. 

July 4. Va. Completion of the reform 
legislation of the new assembly, and 
momentary joy of the colony. (Date by 
New Style.) It is the first revolution. 

July* Boston. Arrival of Edward 
Bandolph as king's messenger, to coL 
left evidence against Massachusetts. 

Aug. 3. Va. A popular convention 
meets at Middle Plantations (Williams- 
burg), and votes to sustain Bacon against 
the Indians, and if possible prevent civil 
war. 

Oct. 1. Va. Bacon suddenly sickens and 
dies. 

Nov. ± * Va. Thomas Hanford, a pa- 
triot, is condemned and hanged by 
Berkeley. He is the first native Amer- 
ican to perish on the gallows, a martyr 
to the right of the people to govern 
themselves. 

* * Can. La Salle returns as proprietor 
of a large tract near Fort Frontenac. 

* * Eng. The king commands the royal 
governors to strictly enforce the navi- 
gation laws, as well as those imposing 
duties (1672) on colonial trade. 

* * New York. Nicholas de Meyer the 
9th mayor. 

* * Va. The patriotic citizens of James- 
town burn their own houses and the 
entire town to ashes, rather than have 
it the capital of a tyrant. 

1677 Jan. 20. Va. The vindictive gov- 
ernor Berkeley hangs the patriot, "Wil- 
liam Drummond, three hours after 
his trial. 

Jan 31. Va. Arrival of royal commis- 
sioners to investigate the causes of the 
rebellion. [Sir H. Jeffreys, governor.] 

* * Va. Disastrous consequences fol- 
low the rebellion. 

Berkeley hangs 22 of the leading pa- 
triots, and distresses the people with 
fines and confiscations ; speaking or 
writing against the government is made 
punishable by fine or whipping, when 
thrice repeated, with death ; arbitrary, 
tyrannical government ensues. 

Mar. 3. N. J. The fundamental laws of 
West New Jersey perfected and pub- 
lished (Concessions and Agreements) — 
democratic equality conspicuous ; social 
government is established. 

May. * Maine is bought by Massachu- 
setts for £1,250, after the dispute with 
the heirs of Ferdinando Gorges is de- 
cided against them. It becomes a part 
of their colony. 

Aug. 25. Va. Lord Culpepper ob- 
tains the control of the government, as 
proprietor and governor. 

* * N. C. An English collector of cus- 
toms provokes an insurrection in the 
district of Pasquotank, which over- 
turns the government ; it is practically 
an independent state [for two years]. 



President Miller is imprisoned, and John 
Culpepper elected to his place. 

* * New Eng. A postal system is in- 
augurated, which substitutes the custom 
of leaving letters at the Town House, to 
be forwarded at the pleasure of persons 
who visit that place. 

* * N. H. The king secures a decision 
from the judges that the revived Mason 
claims had always been worthless. 

* * Md. Thomas Notley, governor. (11. 1. 
Benedict Arnold.) [1678. John Crans- 
ton. Pa. . Sir Henry Chicheley.] 

* * New York. S. van Cortlandt the 10th 
mayor. 

1678 Apr. 12. Mass. Governor Wins- 
low makes peace with the Indians, 
each English family to pay them a peck 
of corn, annually, as quit-rent. 

May 12. La Salle receives a grant for 
the construction of forts, taking lands, 
and holding a monopoly of trade in 
the West. 

June 10. Boston. Arrival of Edward 
Bandolph, collector and surveyor of 
customs, with specific instruction to en- 
force the Navigation Act. The people 
treat him as an enemy invading their 
rights. 

Oct. 10. N. Y. Governor Andros de- 
mands that the ships of New Jersey 
should pay tribute to New York. 

* * N.J. Many Quakers arrive. 

* * New York. Thomas Delavall the 11th 
mayor. The city contains 343 houses. 

1679 July 24. N. H. By a decree of 
Charles II., New Hampshire is sepa- 
rated from Massachusetts, and organ- 
ized as a royal province, and Edward 
Cranfield is its first governor. 

* * N. C. Governor Miller escapes from 
prison, goes to England, and seeks re- 
dress. (N.J. Sam. Jennings, dep.gov.) 

* * Mass. The British government as- 
sails Massachusetts. 

The General Court opposes the 
king. (Simon Bradstreet, governor.) 

It votes " that the acts of navigation 
are an invasion of the rights and privi- 
leges of the subjects of his majesty in 
this colony, they not being represented 
in Parliament." 

* * New York. Francis Rombouts the 
12th mayor. 

1680 Mar. 16. N. H. The first Pro- 
vincial Assembly convened at Ports- 
mouth ; John Cutts the royal governor. 

Apr. 30. JV. J. Gov. Philip Carteret 
is arrested for interference with the 
authority of the governor of the prov- 
ince of New York, Sir Edmund Andros, 
and is taken to New York City. 

May 10. Va. Lord Culpepper arrives 
and assumes the office of governor. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1676 Nov.* Boston. Forty-six dwell- 
ings, a church, and other buildings are 
burned. 

1679 * * Boston. A great fire occurs ; 
80 dwellings and 70 warehouses are 
burned. Estimated loss £200,000. 



48 1680, June-1685. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1680 * * Panama. Morgan's buccaneers 
cross the isthmus, and take the city of 
Santa Maria from the Spaniards. 

1681 * * III. Fort St. Louis, on the Illi- 
nois River, is founded by La Salle. 

1682 f * * The Carolina colonists main- 
tain war with the savages for a year, not 
so much to punish as to capture them, 
in order to sell them as slaves in the 
West Indies. 

* * Can. The French attack the Hudson 
Bay Company's posts. » 

1684 * * A long war begins between the 
Five Nations and the French, chiefly on 
the upper lakes. 

The French Jesuits repeatedly fail to 
persuade the Five Nations to break their 
peace with the Dutch and English. 

The French erect a fort at the Falls of 
Niagara. Under De la Barre they in- 
vade the country of the Iroquois, but the 
mighty Mohawks and the brave Oneidas 
drive them back with much slaughter. 

1685 * * Nicaragua. Leon is sacked by 
William Dampier. 

ART —SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1680 * * Hennepin, a French priest, 
with La Salle, discovers the Mississippi 
River and the " Falls of Saint Anthony 
of Padua." 

1681 Feb. 6. La Salle is on the Mis- 
sissippi. 

Mar. 14. La Salle is near the Arkansas 

River. 
Aug. 17. First appearance of a comet 

having a tail 15° long. [It, continues in 

the view of New Englanders for several 

weeks.] 

1682 Apr. 9. La Salle reaches the 
Mississippi River, and sets up a cross 
and the arms of France, having de- 
scended from the confluence of the Illi- 
nois River to the Gulf of Mexico ; he 
calls the great valley Louisiana. [One 
of the most remarkable exploits in the 
history of the country.] 

1683 Nov. * Can. La Salle returns 
from his explorations. 

1685 Oct. 31. La Salle, with four 
armed French vessels, leaves the Lavaca 
River on the Gulf coast to find the Mis- 
sissippi, without success. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1680 Bienville, de, Jean Baptiste Z,., 
Sieur, born. 
Boylston, Zabdiel, physician, born. 

1 682 Charlevoix, Pierre Francois Xavier, de, 
Jesuit, born. 

Stuyvesant, Peter, Gov. of K. Y., A80. 

1683 "Williams, Roger, founder in R. I., 
A84. 

1685 Morton, Nathaniel, historian in New 
Eng., A73. 

CHURCH. 
1680 * * Can. Father Hennepin is cap- 
tured by the Sioux, and attempts mission 
work among them, but without success. 

* *The Society of Friends (Quakers) 
begins to spread rapidly in America. „ 

* * N.J. Presbyterian church organ- 
ized in Woodbridge and Fairfield. 



* * S. C. The first Episcopal clergyman 
is Rev. Atkin Williamson. 

* * Boston. A Baptist church edifice 
erected. 

* * Va. Four of Cromwell's soldiers are 
hanged by a mob for religious opinions 
" as a warning to the remainder." 

1681 June 28. N.J. First General 
Yearly Meeting of the Quakers at 
Burlington. 

1682 Sept. 25. Me. The first Baptist 
church in Maine organized at Kittery. 
[Bitter opposition from the ".Standing 
Order " follows.] 

* * Boston. The quarrel between* the 
First and Third churches ends. 

* *-90* * N. J. Persecuted Quakers 
and Presbyterians arrive in great 
numbers. 

Many Scotch Presbyterians arrive. 

* * S.C. The first Baptist church is 
formed in this colony at Charleston. 
The Episcopal church is also estab- 
lished there. 

1683 Oct.* N. Y. The first General 
Assembly of the royal province enacts 
that no person should be in any wise dis- 
tressed or persecuted who accepts the 
general doctrines of religion. 

* * Can. Mission of St. Francis de Sales 
established at the Falls of the Chaudiere; 
their work spreads into Maine. 

* * Mich. French priests plant the cross 
and the flag of France in the wilderness 
in the present site of Detroit. 

* * Boston. John Emblem of England 
becomes pastor of the Baptist church. 

* * Md. A Presbyterian church at 
Rehoboth formed. 

Francis Makemie, a Presbyterian, 
sent out from Ireland, arrives. [A 
new era in Presbyterianism follows.] 

* * N. J. Many Covenanter Presby- Nov. * N. J. The West Jersey Assem- 



* * N. Y. A Huguenot Presbyterian 
church formed on Staten Island. 

* *New Jersey becomes the refuge of 
persecuted Scotch Presbyterians. 

* * S. C. First Baptist church organ- 
ized near Cooper River. 

* * Va. Dr. James Blair is sent as the 
commissary of the Bishop of London. 

[The American Protestant Episco- 
pal church is without a bishop 100 years.] 

LETTERS. 

1680 Oct. * Mass. The Court grants 
the ferry between Boston and Charles- 
town to Harvard College. 

* * Mass. A new edition of Eliot's Bible 
published. 

1684 * * Va. The first printing - press 
south of Boston is set up, and soon sup- 
pressed by the governor. 

1685 ** -1701 ** Mass. Increase 
Mather is president of Harvard College. 

* * Phila. "William Bradford sets up 
the first printing-press in the colony, 
and issues an almanac. 

SOCIETY. 
1680+ * * Carolina. Two opposing par- 
ties contend, the Cavaliers and " Ill- 
livers," having morals fashioned after 
those of the profligate court of Charles, 
and the Presbyterians, Quakers, and 
Huguenots. 

1681 Mar. 5. Pa. William Penn pro- 
poses a commonwealth founded on free- 
dom, without respect to color, race, or 
religion, to subdue the savages by the 
weapons of love and justice, and to es- 
tablish a refuge for persecuted Quakers. 

* * Pa. Penn writes the Swedes who have 
already settled in Pennsylvania to be 
of good cheer, keep their homes, make 
their own laws, and fear no oppression. 



terians arrive in East Jersey, whither 
they flee from the persecutions in Scot- 
land on the reestablishment of Episco- 
pacy. 

* * N. Y. A Huguenot Presbyterian 
church established. 

* * New York. A Catholic, Thomas Don- 
gan, appointed governor of New York by 
the Catholic Duke of York. 

Jesuit Fathers arrive, and com- 
mence the services of the Catholic 
church. 

* * Pa. Mennonites arrive at German- 
town. 

1684 July * Mass. Joseph Gatchell of 
Marblehead is brought before the Gen- 
eral Court for discoursing " that all men 
should be saved." 

* * Md. Francis Makemie organizes 
the Presbyterian church at Snow Hill. 

1685 * * Fr. Blind and bigoted Louis 
XIV. of France, hoping to make Catholi- 
cism universal, revokes the edict of 
Nantes, which protected Protestants 
in their worship ; he thus exiles 500,000 
of the best people of France [many of 
whom settle in America, chiefly in 
(South) Carolina, during the following 
years]. 



bly prohibits the sale of ardent spir- 
its to red men, and permits criminals, 
other than murderers, to be pardoned by 
the persons injured. 

* * Va. Six Susquehannock chieftains 
sue for peace, and are foully murdered. 
[This shameful atrocity leads to war.] 

1682 * * Va. It is enacted that the con- 
version of servants to the Christian faith 
does not make them free. 

1683** Pa. To prevent lawsuits, three 
peacemakers are appointed for each 
county. 

1685 * * Pa. The yearly Meeting of 
Friends, for Pennsylvania and New Jer- 
sey, declares against intemperance. 

" This meeting doth unanimously agree 
and give as their judgment that it is not 
consistent with the honor of truth, for 
any that make profession thereof, to sell 
rum or any strong liquors to the Indians, 
because they use them not to modera- 
tion, but to excess and drunkenness." 

* * Va. Many persons implicated in the 
Monmouth rebellion, in England, are 
sent to this colony^ by Jeffries, as ser- 
vants for a term of years. 

SETTLEMENT — STATE. 

1680 June * Va. A royal revenue 

from a perpetual export duty on to- 



AMERICA. 



1680, June-1685. 49 



bacco is voted by the Assembly ; and 
thus the only check on the administra- 
tion is dissolved. 
Aug. * N. J. The Duke of York relin- 
quishes every claim to the territory of 
New Jersey. 

* * III. La Salle is among the Illinois 
Indians. 

* * Maine organized as a province of 
Massachusetts by the governor and Gen- 
eral Court. 

* * K. C. John Harvey, president. [John 
Jenkins.] R. I. Peleg Sandford. 

* * New Mex. Revolts begin. 

* * -81 * * New York. William Dyer the 
13th mayor. 

* * S. C. The colony on the Ashley River 
at (old) Charleston, move to [the present 
site of] Charleston, and make it the 
seat of government. 

1681 * * Mass. T. Hinckley, governor of 
Plymouth. (N. C. Henry Wilkinson.) 

Mar. 4. Pennsylvania is granted to 
William Perm (41° and 43° N.), who be- 
comes the proprietor of a great state at 
the cost of £16,000 sterling. 

Mar. * N. J. The Duke of York confirms 
Penn's purchase in New Jersey. 

Mar. 14. Ark. La Salle, near the Ar- 
kansas River, takes possession of the 
country for France. 

June 27 ±. Md. Lord Baltimore, by proc- 
lamation, arbitrarily annuls the liberal 
-elective franchise, and limits it to 
freeholders possessing 50 acres, or free- 
men having a visible estate of 40 pounds, 
and making no distinction respecting 
color. 

July 11. Eng. Penn agrees to the 
" Conditions and Concessions." 

Three immigrant vessels are sent out 
for Pennsylvania. 

Nov. * N. J. The first General Sessions 
of the province of West Jersey meets 
at the call of Jennings, the deputy-gov- 
ernor. 

* * Md. The opposition to Lord Balti- 
more as a feudal sovereign and a Catho- 
lic increases. [In England he is accused 
of favoring papists.] 

* * Pa. The first colony arrives, and 
settles above the confluence of the 
Schuylkill and the Delaware. 

1682 Feb. 1,2. N. J. William Penn 
and eleven other Quakers buy the re- 
mainder of New Jersey from the heirs 
of Carteret. 

Feb. * Mass. The General Court ap- 
points Joseph Dudley and John Rich- 
ards as its agents in defending its 
charter before the king. 

Mar. * N. Y. An attempt to levy cus- 
toms without a colonial assembly is de- 
feated by the grand jury, and trade 
becomes free. 

Apr. 9. La Salle, having descended the 
St. Joseph, the Illinois, and the Missis- 
sippi Rivers to the sea, takes possession 
of the great valley for Louis XTV., 
and calls it Louisiana. 

Apr. 25. Penn, by proclamation, pro- 
poses that the colonists make their 



own laws, and pledges not to interfere, 
or leave it in the power of his successors 
to do so, " that the will of no one man 
may hinder the good of a whole coun- 
try." 

July 10. Phila. [Walnut Street] sur- 
veyed by David Hammon. 

Aug. 24. Del. The Duke of York 
grants the territories beyond the 
Delaware (Newcastle) to Penn. 

Oct. 27. Pa. Penn.with 100 immigrants, 
first lands at Newcastle. Within one 
year 80 houses and cottages are built. 

Dec. 4+. Pa. Penn holds a general con- 
vention of colonists at Chester to or- 
ganize the territory. 

* * Can. Prontenac recalled to France. 

* * III. First English settlement made 
near the Mississippi River (near Alton). 

* * N. H. The people revolt against 
arbitrary government, and the governor 
abandons the colony. 

* * N.J. Perth Amboy founded. 

Newark has about 100 families. Set- 
tlements commenced on the Jersey shore 
of the Delaware by 360 emigrants. 

The Friends, having control of both 
East and West Jersey, elect Kobert 
Barclay, a Scotch Quaker, governor of 
the province for life. 

* *_87* * N. J. Period of Scotch emi- 
gration, pressed by persecution. 

* *-83* * New York. Cornells Steen- 
wyck the 14th mayor. 

* * Pa. Welsh immigrants arrive. 

* * S. C. Jos. Morton is governor. 
1683 Jan. * Pa. Penn buys out the 

possessions of the Swedes near the 

Schuylkill. 
Feb. * Pa. Penn completes the laying 

out of the city of Philadelphia by 

blazing the trees. 
Mar. 12. Phila. The first Assembly 

is held. [Apr. 2. New charter given.] 

* * Conn. R. Treat, gov. [N. J. Gawen 
Lawrie. R. I. Wni. Coddington, Jr.] 

May 23. Va. Appeals to the king, un- 
der the value of one hundred pounds 
sterling, prohibited. 

June 23. Pa. Penn enters a treaty of 
peace and friendship with the Indians 
under an elm-tree at Shackamoxon 
(Kensington). " The only treaty never 
sworn to, and never broken." (Voltaire.) 

July 26. Mass. A writ of quo war- 
ranto issued against the charter by the 
Crown. 

The king will regulate the charter for 
his service and their good, if submission 
is made before prosecution. The colony 
sends a letter of attorney to an agent in 
England to act in their behalf. 

Aug. 28. N. Y. Thomas Dongan ar- 
rives, and succeeds Andros as governor. 

Aug. * Va. Lord Howard of Effing- 
ham is appointed governor. 

Oct. 17. N. Y. First session of the 
Assembly. 

Representatives of the freeholders first 
meet in an assembly of two houses, under 
Dongan, the Roman Catholic governor. 
[Oct. 30. It passes the Charter of Liber- 
ties, enlarging rights, with toleration 
for all Christians.] 



Nov. 23. jy. Y. Partition line agreed 
to between New York and Connecticut. 

* * N. C. Seth Sothel is sent out as gov- 
ernor ; he oppresses the people and de- 
frauds the proprietors. 

* * S. C. A company of dissenters 
leaves England and settles in Charleston. 

An Irish company settles in the same 
province, on the Ashley River. The best 
blood of Europe, English, Irish, Scotch, 
and French, combines in these settle- 
ments. 

* * Pa. Germantown settled by about 
20 families of Germans, chiefly Mennon- 

ites. 

* * Port. Peter H. enthroned. 

* * Va. Arlington surrenders his interest 
in Virginia to Culpepper. 

* * * Va. Poverty, misgovernment, 
and general distress prevail. 

1684 June 21. Mass. On a suit of 
scire facias, the English Court of Chan- 
cery gives judgment against the colony, 
declares its charter is forfeited, and 
its liberties seized by the king. 

July 25. Virginia becomes a royal 
province. Lord Howard, governor. 

Charles II. revokes the grant of Vir- 
ginia to Lord Culpepper on the ground of 
his dishonesty, frauds, and many vices. 

Aug. 2. N. Y. The agent of Massachu- 
setts, the governors of New York and 
Virginia, and the sachems of the Iro- 
quois Indians meet at Albany, and set- 
tle on the terms of a lasting peace. 

Aug.* Pa. Penn sails for England, 
and appoints Thomas Lloyd president 
in his absence ; five commissioners are 
chosen to assist him. 

Aug. * La. La Salle is sent from France 
to settle a colony at the mouth of the 
Mississippi ; [the entrance is missed, and 
St. Louis is settled and abandoned.] 

* * -88 * * Mass. The darkest period 
in the history of this colony. The 
mother country exasperates the colo- 
nists by tyrannical government. Jos. 
Dudley, president Massachusetts Bay. 

* * New York. Gabriel Minvielle the 15th 
mayor. 

* * Philadelphia has about 2,000 inhab- 
itants. 

* * S.C. Lord Cardross, with ten families 
of persecuted Presbyterians, arrives at 
Port Royal. [Expelled by Spaniards.] 
Rich. Kirk [Robert Quarry], governors. 

* * N.J. Thos. Olive, gov. (West Jersey). 

1685 Feb. 6. Eng. The Duke of York 
enthroned as James II. 

Apr. 20. Boston. James II. proclaimed. 
July 2. Boston. A copy of the judgment 

of the Court of Chancery received, and 

the charter expires. 
July * Tex. La Salle, with four French 

ships, lands a colony on the coast ; the 

country becomes a part of Louisiana. 
Oct. 22. Fr. The edict of Nantes is 

revoked, and emigration to America 

quickened. 

* * [U. S.] Governors appointed: 

* * N.J. John Skeine (W. Jersey). 

* * R. I. Henry Bull. 

* * S. C. Joseph Norton, 



50 1685-1691, June. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1686 * * N. Y. The French attack the 
Senecas. 

* * S. C. The Scotch colonists at Port 
Royal are driven away by Spaniards, 
who lay waste their plantation. 

1687 June 13. Can. Denonville leaves 
Montreal to attack the Senecas. 

* * N. Y. The invading French under 
Denonville are again driven back by 
the Mohawks and Oneidas. 

1688 June 17. Guiana. Mutiny of 
soldiers in Dutch Guiana; the Gov- 
ernor is killed. 

* * Me. Fort Andros is built. 

1689 * * -97 * * King William's "War 
with the French, — a part of the gen- 
eral war against Louis XIV. 

June 25. France declares war against 

England. 
June 27. N. H. Indians are allies of 

the French, and they surprise Dover; 

23 persons are killed and 29 captured ; 

the houses are burned, and the place 

left desolate. 
Aug. 4, 5. Can. The Iroquois attack 

Lachine. 
Aug. 25. Can. The Isle of Montreal is 

surprised by 1,500 Iroquois, and its 200 

inhabitants are massacred. 
The war-like Iroquois spread terror 

throughout Canada as far as Quebec, 

until peace is finally made. 

* * Can. Frontenac decides to make a 
triple descent upon the English colonies. 

* * -90 * * JV. H. Indians commit many 
depredations. 

1690 Feb. 8. N. Y. Surprise and mas- 
sacre of the English at Schenectady 
by 300 French and Indians ; 60 persons 
are killed, 30 captives taken, and the 
village is burned. 

Mar. 27. N. H. The Indians surprise 
and destroy Salmon Falls on the Pis- 
cataqua River. 

Apr. * Can. The English under Sir Wil- 
liam Phips seize Port Royal (Annapo- 
lis). 

May 17. Me. The French and Indians 
take and destroy Casco. 

Aug. * N. Y. The land-attack on Can- 
ada fails, through the division and 
mutual criminations of Leisler and 
Winthrop, after reaching Lake Cham- 
plain. 

Oct. 16. Can. A Massachusetts fleet of 
32 vessels, under the incompetent Phips, 
arrives before Quebec. 

Oct. 21. Can. The invaders reembark 
for Boston without making an attack. 

Oct. * Can. Wreck of a part of the re- 
turning New England fleet. 

Nov. * The exhausted and debt-burdened 
colonies content themselves with the 
defense of their frontiers against the 
French. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 
1686 Apr. 26. La Salle again starts to 
ascend the Mississippi to Canada. 



1687 Jan. 12. Tex. La Salle and 16 
companions set out to walk from the 
Texas coast to Canada. [He is assassi- 
nated by one of his men.] 

* * Peru. Terrible earthquake at Lima. 
City of Callao also destroyed by an 
earthquake followed by a tidal wave. 

1690 * * Phila. Wm. Bradford estab- 
lishes the first paper-mill in America 
at Germantown. 

* * S. C. Rice is first planted, the seed 
being given by the captain of a vessel. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1686 Alden, John, Pilgrim settler, A88. 

1687 La Salle, de, Kobert, Cavalier, ex- 
plorer, A44. 

Prince, Thomas, clergyman, born. 

1688 Dickinson, Jonathan, clergyman, born. 
Mayhew, John, missionary to Indians, dies. 
Vincennes, Jean de, founder, horn. 

1690 Allouez, Claude Jean, Jesuit Miss., A70. 

Barclay, Robert, Scottish writer, A52. 

Belssel, Johann Conrad, Ger.-Am. mystic, b. 

Eliot, John, Apostle to the Indians, A86. 
1681 Leisler, Jacob,usurper in N. Y., hanged. 

CHURCH. 

1686 * * Boston. Andros, the President 
of New England, forcibly seizes the Old 
South Church for Episcopal service. 

* * New Eng. The Episcopal clergy- 
man is the only person in all New Eng- 
land who is authorized to unite persons 
in marriage. 

* * Mass. Episcopacy is fully intro- 
duced by Governor Andros, and the 
people required to furnish funds to build 
a church for its service. A tax of the 
same amount is levied upon each person, 
poor or rich. Some towns refuse to pay it. 

Huguenots arrive. 

* * S.C. A Huguenot Presbyterian 
church formed in Charleston. 

1687 Mar. 27. Boston. The Old South 
Meeting-house opened on Good Fri- 
day, by Andros, for Episcopal service. 

* * Boston. A Huguenot Presbyterian 
church formed in Boston. 

1688* * Boston. Governor Andros causes 
the erection of King's Chapel. 

Worship after the form of the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church becomes regular 
and permanent among the Puritans. 

* * Me. Mission work among the Abnaki 
Indians is renewed by the Jesuits. 

1689 * * It. Alexander VIII., pope. 

* * N. J. A Baptist church is organized 
at Piscataqua called "Anabaptist Town." 

* * Pa. Presbyterians begin to arrive 
from Scotland and the north of Ireland. 
A Presbyterian church formed in Phil- 
adelphia. 

1690 May 20. Mass. John Eliot, 
nearly 60 years a pastor and missionary 
to the Indians, dies, aged 86. 

* * hid. French priests establish a mis- 
sion on the Wabash River at Vincennes 
(Indiana). 

* * Md. A Presbyterian organization is 
formed in Upper Marlborough. 

LETTERS. 

1688 * * N. Y. Printing - presses are 
forbidden in the province by royal 
authority. 



1690 Sept. 25. Boston.. The first 
newspaper, called Public Occurrences, 
issued ; the government suppresses it 
after the first issue. 

SOCIETY. 

1691 May 16. N.Y. Governor Slough- 
ter is made drunk by Royalists, who 
thereby secure his signature to the death 
warrants of the patriots Leisler and Mil- 
borne. 

SETTLEMENT — STATE. 
1685* * Brazil. Insurrection at 
Maranham. 

* * Can. Denonville becomes governor. 

* * -87 * * James II. makes strenuous 
efforts to take away all the New Eng- 
land charters. 

He consolidates all the American colo- 
nies from Maine to the Delaware, with 
Sir Edmund Andros as temporary royal 
governor. 

* * N. Y. The Duchy of New York be- 
comes a royal province. 

* * New York. Nicholas Bayard the 16th 
mayor. 

* * S. C. Great numbers of persecuted 
Huguenots arrive. 

A collector of customs for the Crown 
is established at Charleston. 

* * Va. Despotism attempted by James 
II. and resisted by the colonists. 

* * * Rivalry between France and Great 
Britain in America. 

1686 April 27. N. Y. Governor Don- 
gan grants a charter to the city of New 
York. [It remains the basis of its muni- 
cipal rights for 200 years.] 

May 14. Mass. Joseph Dudley, a late 
convert to kingly prerogative, is ap- 
pointed the royal president of Massa- 
chusetts by James II. [He is regarded 
as the betrayer of his country's liberties.] 

May 25. Mass. The charter govern- 
ment is displaced. 

July 22. N. Y. City of Albany incor- 
porated. 

Nov. 16. Eng. Treaty of neutrality 
between England and France, for Amer- 
ica. 

Nov. * S. C. James CoUeton becomes 
governor. 

He foolishly attempts to establish 
Philosopher Locke's absurd constitu- 
tion, hence the colony rebels. 

Dec. 19. New Eng. Sir Edmund An- 
dros, vicegerent of New England and 
the first royal governor, arrives at Bos- 
ton ; two companies of soldiers are sent 
to support his authority. 

Connecticut and [S.] Carolina have 
writs quo warranto issued against 
them. 

* * Eng. James II. resolves to reduce 
aU colonies to a direct dependence on 
the Crown. 

* * Mass. Arrival of Huguenots. 

* * N.J. Lord Neill Campbell is gover- 
nor (E. Jersey), (ft. /. W. Clarke.) 

* * N. Y. James II. abolishes the rep- 
resentative assembly, and resumes ar- 
bitrary and oppressive government. 



AMERICA. 



1685-1691, June. 51 



* * -87 * * New York. S. van Cortlandt 
the 17th mayor. 

1687 * * Conn. — R. 1. Charters are re- 
scinded in England. 

Jan. 12. R. I. Andros dissolves the gov- 
ernment, and breaks the seal. 

Five citizens are appointed members 
of his council, and a commission substi- 
tutes representative government. 

Oct. 31. Conn. Gov. Andros visits 
Hartford to establish his authority. 

He enters the Assembly, writes FINIS 
at the bottom of the record, and demands 
the immediate surrender of their liberal 
charter ; Governor Treat pleads and ar- 
gues till darkness falls, when Joseph 
Wadsworth secretly takes the charter 
away and hides it in' the famous oak, and 
so saves the liberties of Connecticut. 
Andros assumes the government. 

* * Can. French diplomacy aims to per- 
vade the West, and concerts an alliance 
with all Indians to the Mississippi. 

About 11,000 persons in New France, 
one-twentieth of the population in the 
English settlements. 

* * Md. A writ quo warranto issued 
against Maryland. 

* * N. C. Gov. Colleton attempts to collect 
quit-rents on cultivated fields and wild 
lands, and arouses insubordination; 
the secretary of the province is impris- 
oned, the records seized, and the gov- 
ernor and his patrons defied. 

* * N.J. Daniel Coxe receives Byllynge's 
interest in West Jersey. Coxe becomes 
governor ; Andrew Hamilton is gover- 
nor of East Jersey. 

* * N. Y. Gov. Dongan is ordered, from 
England, to protect the Five Nations 
from the French. 

1688* * New Eng. Continued tyr- 
anny of Andros ; the colonists send an 
agent to England to present their griev- 
ances to the king. 

* * New York is made a dependency of 
New England by annexation to the vice- 
royalty of Andros, its governor-general. 

Apr. * N. J. Proprietors of East New 
Jersey submit to Andros, the royal 
usurper of authority. 

July * New Eng. The seaboard from 
the St. Croix to Maryland is under one 
dominion, having Boston for its capital. 

Aug. 11. Andros is made governor-gen- 
eral of British America. 

Oct. * N. J. The proprietors of West 
New Jersey vote to surrender their 
government to New England. 

Nov. 5. Eng. "William of Orange 
lands in Devonshire. 

Dec. 11. Eng. James II. flees for France. 

* * N. Y. Francis Nicholson appointed 
lieutenant-governor. (Pa. John Black- 
well, deputy. Va. Nathaniel Bacon.) 

± * * Carolina. Many Huguenots, flee- 
ing from the persecutions of Louis XIV., 
join this colony. 

* * N.C. An insurrection against Seth 
Sothel; the infamous governor is over- 
thrown, disfranchised, and banished by 
the colonists. 

1689 Jan. 4. Eng. Col. Henry 
Sloughter appointed governor of N. Y. 



Feb. 13. Eng. William and Mary en- 
throned. 

Mar. 14. Mass. The king concedes the 
recall of Governor Andros. 

Apr. 4. Boston. The Revolution in 
England known. 

A messenger announces the invasion 
of England by William III., and is 
thrown into prison. 

Apr. 18. Boston. Tidings received of 
the accession of William and Mary, 
the royal government is overthrown [and 
the despotic Andros is sent to prison]. 

Apr. 20. Boston. The general court 
again assembles, and Simon Bradstreet 
is restored to power. 

Apr. * Md. An armed force, led by John 
Coode, is organized against the adher- 
ents of Baltimore, in the interest of 
William III. 

Apr. * New York. A tumult of gladness 
over the Revolution in England takes 
place. 

May 1. Rhode Island resumes its char- 
ter privileges which Andros annulled. 

May 9. Conn. James II. being dethroned 
and Andros deposed, the old govern- 
ment, under Treat, is resumed by the 
colonists, under the charter so saga- 
ciously preserved in the oak-tree. 

May 26. Mass. News of the accession 
of William and Mary received with 
great joy. 

May * N. Y. Bitter feud between fac- 
tions in New York, each seeking to con- 
trol the colony for or against William 
and Mary. 

June* -92 Aug.* N.J. Owing to many 
conflicting claims of authority, there is 
no recognized government ; the peo- 
ple are vexed by a superfluity of rulers. 

June 1. New York. The military com- 
panies persuade Jacob Leisler, their 
senior captain, to possess the fort and 
assume the temporary government 
for William HI. 

June 5. Mass. The House of Repre- 
sentatives meets, and refuses to act till 
the old charter officers of 1686 assume 
their power as of right. 

June 8. N. Y. A committee of safety 
of ten is appointed, and they attempt 
to reorganize the government on liberal 
principles. 

Aug. 1. Md. John Coode, at the head 
of "the Association in arms for the de- 
fense of the Protestant religion," usurps 
the government, forces the adherents 
of Baltimore to capitulate, and consent 
to exclude Catholics from office. 

Aug. * N. Y. Lieut.-Gov. Nicholson 
goes to Albany to escape the hostile peo- 
ple, and denounces Leisler as a rebel. 

Sept. * N. Y. Commissioners from New 
England hold a conference with the 
Mohawks at Albany. 

Dec* N. Y. A royal letter received, com- 
missioning Nicholson as governor. 

* * N. C. Gov. Philip Ludwell conducts 
an excellent administration [continuing 
six years]. 
Huguenots arrive. 



* * N. Y. New Rochelle is settled by 
Huguenots. 

* * -90 * * New York. Peter de la Noy, 
the 18th mayor. 

* * S. C. Governor Ludwell comes to 
South Carolina, and attempts to en- 
force the absurd constitution of 
Locke, and confusion, approaching an- 
archy, prevails. 

Gov. Colleton pretends to fear danger 
from Indians or Spaniards, and pro- 
claims martial law, but can find no 
force to execute it. 

* * Conn. Robt. Treat, gov. (Mass. Thos. 
Hinckley, Plymouth; Thos. Danforth, 
acting governor Mass. Bay Colony.) 

1690 Mayl. New York. First Amer- 
ican Congress. A conference of colo- 
nial governors, respecting the safety of 
the colonies, is held. 

They decide to attempt the conquest 
of Canada, by a force descending Lake 
Champlain, and another sailing from 
Boston for Quebec. 

Mar. 12. N. H. On the downfall of Gov. 
Andros, the Assembly reannex the 
province to Massachusetts. 

* * Car. — Va. Many French Protestant 
refugees migrate to America, and settle 
chiefly in Carolina and Virginia. 

* * Massachusetts issues paper money to 
meet her war debt. 

* * N. Y. Jacob Leisler is recognized 
throughout the province as temporary 
governor. 

* * N.C. Governor Ludwell leaves the 
colony, despairing of its government. 

* * S.C. Gov. Colleton is impeached by 
the colonists for arbitrary government 
and banished. 

Seth Sothel, the candidate of the 
popular party, becomes their vexatious 
governor [for two years]. 
+ * * Germany. The ravages of war in 
their native land drive many Germans 
to America; Germantown, near Phila- 
delphia, is settled by them. 

* * R. I. Henry Bull, governor. Later, 
John Easton. 

1691 Mar. 19. New York. The new 
governor, Col. Sloughter, arrives from 
England. 

Captain Jacob Leisler resigns his 
trust, and is immediately arrested on 
the charge of treason. 

Apr. 1. Pa. Delaware secedes from 
Pennsylvania. Penn reluctantly con- 
sents to the desire of the " lower coun- 
ties" (Del.) to govern themselves. [They 
are two years under Markham.] 

May 16. New York. Leisler and Mil- 
borne, his son-in-law, are hanged for 
treason, by the authority of a drunkard, 
Governor Sloughter. The act considered 
judicial murder. 

June 1. Md. King William revolution- 
izes the government, and takes It as a 
royal province ; Sir Lionel Copley is 
sent out as governor. 

[He establishes the Church of England, 
and taxes the Catholics to maintain it. 
He finally disfranchises the Catholics, 
who established the colony.] 



52 1691, Aug.-1697, Mar. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1691 * * Can. Major Schuyler makes a 
raid on the French settlements on the 
Sorel. 

1692 * * -94 * * Me. Indian depreda- 
tions occur. 

Jan. 25. Me. The town of York is 
surprised and nearly destroyed by the 
French and Indians; about 75 people 
are massacred, and as many taken into 
captivity. 

Feb. * Can. The French send a force 
against the Mohawks. 

Frontenac sends 300 French with In- 
dians against the hunting parties of 
Senecas in Upper Canada, and under- 
takes to subdue the Five Nations. 

Oct. 26. Conn. Gov. Fletcher is com- 
missioned to take command of the mi- 
litia of Connecticut ; but the Puritans 
of Hartford successfully resist him, and 
he returns to New York. 

Nov. 26. Can. Port Royal (Annapolis) 
surrenders to a French ship. 

* * N. Y. Major Schuyler, of Albany, 
makes great efforts to pacify the terri- 
fied settlers, and protect them from the 
Indians. 

* * Me. Sir William Phips, the governor, 
erects Fort William Henry at Pemaquid. 

* * -1700 * * Mexico is reconquered 
by Diego de Vergas. 

* * Newfoundland. The English destroy 
the French settlement. 

1693 Jan. * -Feb. * N. Y. A strong 
French force invades the country 6f the 
Mohawks, bent on their extermination. 

Feb. 6. N. Y. Mohawks are attacked 
by the French and Indians ; 300 prison- 
ers are taken. 

Feb. * N. Y. Major Schuyler leaves 
Albany with 200 men, pursues the 
French, and liberates the captive Mo- 
hawks. 

Aug. 11. Me. The Abnaki Indians sue 
for peace after a long and bloody war. 

* * Can. Frontenac leads a French ex- 
pedition against the Iroquois. 

* * England resolves to conquer Can- 
ada. A British fleet arrives at Boston. 

1694 July 18. N. H. About 250 In- 
dians attack a village on Oyster Biver ; 
94 persons are killed or captured. 

* * Can. Frontenac conducts his last 
campaign against the Iroquois. 

1696 * * Eng. King William gives Cap- 
tain Kidd a commission and a galley of 
30 guns to suppress piracy. [He turns 
pirate himself.] 

* * New England suffers from French 
incursions. 

June 26. N. H. Indians attack Ports- 
mouth Plain ; 14 persons are killed. 

* * Me. The French under Iberville and 
Castin capture the fort at Pemaquid 
(Bremen). 

* * Fla. Spaniards build a fort at Pen- 
sacola. 

July 28. Can. The French under 
Frontenac for the last time invade 
northern New York. [They are defeated 
by the colonists and their Iroquois allies.] 



1697 Mar. 15. Mass. Indians attack 
Haverhill; 40 persons are killed or 
taken captive ; among the latter is 
Hannah Dustin, the heroine, who kills 
her sleeping captors. (See Society.) 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1692 June 7. W. I. Great earthquake 
in Jamaica ; nine-tenths of Port Royal 
buried under water ; 2,000 perish in the 
convulsion, and 3,000 whites by a follow- 
ing pestilence. 

1693 * * S. C. The cultivation of rice 
begins, and with it the prosperity of the 
colony. (1694?; 1695?; 1698?) 

1694 * * Can. A company of amateur 
actors give a theatrical performance at 
Quebec. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1692 Bravo, Lonardo, Mex. patriot, born. 
Dinwiddie, Robert, Lieut.-gov. of Va., born. 

1695 Tliips, Sir Wm., Gov. of Mass., A44. 

1696 Johnson, Samuel, Pres. of Col. Coll., b. 
Pepperell, Sir William, general, born. 
Wentworth, Benning, Gov. of N. H., born. 

CHURCH. 

1691 * * It. Innocent XII., pope. 

* * Md. The colony being made a Royal 
Province, the Church of England is 

established bylaw, and the Catholic col- 
onists are taxed to maintain it. 

* * Mass. A Baptist church is organ- 
ized at Cohansey. 

* * Va. Francis Makemie goes to Lon- 
don, and appeals to the Presbyterian 
ministers for missionaries ; [two young 
men, John Hampton and George Mc- 
Nish, are sent out.] (Briggs, 1704.) 

1692 * * N. J. The " Scotch Meet- 
ing-house," Presbyterian church, or- 
ganized at Freehold. 

* * N. Y. Governor Fletcher attempts 
to force the Episcopal church on the 
colonists; but the General Assembly de- 
crees equality and toleration, and places 
the Episcopal church on a level with 
other churches, and permits vestrymen 
to call non-Episcopal pastors. About 
one-tenth of the population are Episco- 
palians. 

The provisions of the English Test Act 
are enforced against Catholics. 

* * Phila. First Presbyterian con- 
gregation in Philadelphia meets in the 
" Barbadoes Company's warehouse." 

1693 * * Mass. The General Court pro- 
vides for common schools and the sup- 
port of Congregational ministers. 

* * N. Y. The Assembly provides for the 
settlement and support of ministers by 
levying a tax on all the people. 

Episcopacy is established by law. 

* * S. C. The Baptist church is moved 
from Cooper River to Charleston. 

* * Va. The colonists establish a col- 
lege (William and Mary) " to educate a 
domestic succession of Church of Eng- 
land ministers," as well as to teach the 
children of Indians to read. 

1694 Aug. * R. I. Jews first establish 
public worship at Newport, and find 
protection, 



1695 Apr. 10. N. Y. The House de- 
cides that non-Episcopal ministers 
may be called in New York. 

* * N. C. Churches are erected, and 
provisions made for sustaining public 
worship. 

* * Phila. First record of Protestant 
Episcopal services in Pennsylvania ; a 
church is erected in Philadelphia. 

1696 May 11. N. Y. The Reformed 
Protestant Dutch church formed in 
America incorporated. 

* * Fla. Spaniards build a Roman Cath- 
olic church at Pensacola. 

* * New York. The first Jewish syn- 
agogue in America is erected. 

The first Trinity church (Prot. Epis.) 
is built and endowed ; Rev. W. Vesey 
pastor. 

* * Phila. The nucleus of a Baptist 
church appears in the persons of John 
Farmer and wife from London. 

1697 Feb. 6. New York. The first 
Trinity church (Prot. Epis.) is opened 
for worship. 

LETTERS. 

1692 * * Va. William and Mary Col- 
lege (Prot. Epis.) chartered at Williams- 
burg, through the efforts of Rev. James 
Blair and Lieut.-gov. Nicholson. 

* * Mass. The degree of D.D. is first 
conferred by Harvard College ; it is 
given to its president, Increase Mather. 

* * Phila. A public high school, char- 
tered by Penn, is established. 

1693 Mar. 25. New York. Printing is 
ordered to be introduced. 

* * New York. "William Bradford moves 
to New York, sets up the first printing- 
press, and is appointed State-printer. 
[He is called the " Father of Printing " 
in the middle colonies.] 

Aug. 23. New York. The first printing 
is a proclamation by the governor. 

* * Va. Rev. James Blair is appointed 
the first president of William and Mary 
College. [1729. Active.] 

* * The Wanders of the Invisible World, 
by Cotton Mather, appears. 

SOCIETY. 

* * * N. Y. The colony is protected from 
French invasions and hostile Indians, for 
many years, by the friendly Five Na- 
tions. 

1691* * -1715* *N.H. Land specu- 
lators vex the people by buying ancient 
claims to their lands, and trying to dis- 
possess them or secure rents, but no 
judgments are obtained in the courts. 

1692 Feb. * Mass. The witchcraft 
delusion breaks out at Danvers, a part 
of Salem. 

A niece of the minister is the subject, 
and an old Indian servant, Tituba, the 
victim, whose confession is obtained un- 
der the rod. 

Apr. 22. Mass. Edward Bishop, having 
cured one of the afflicted by flogging 
him, and proposed that others be cured 
in the same way, is sent to prison for 
expressing his opinion. 



AMERICA. 



1691, Aug.- 1697, Mar. 53 



June 10. Mass. Bridget Bishop is 
hanged for witchcraft at Salem. 

June 30. Mass. The General Court con- 
demns to death five women, all of 
blameless lives, and all declaring them- 
selves innocent of witchcraft. 

July 19. Mass. Rebecca Nurse, a wo- 
man of blameless life, is taken to church 
in chains, and publicly excommunicated 
as a witch ; [later she is hanged]. 

Aug. 3. Mass. The Court condemns six 
others as witches. 

* * Mass. The children of Martha Car- 
ter witness against their mother, who is 
accused of witchcraft ; the two sons re- 
fuse to perjure themselves till tied neck 
and heels, and the little daughter, seven 
years old, is made a witness. 

Aug. 19. Mass. Five witches (?) 
hanged for witchcraft at Salem. 

Aug. * Mass. The delusion affects the 
higher classes, and a clergyman of the 
highest respectability is executed. 

* * Mass. Giles Cory, an octogenarian, 
refuses to plead to the charge of witch- 
craft, and is pressed to death. 

Sept. 9. Mass. Six women condemned 

for witchcraft. 
Sept. 22. Mass. Two men and seven 

women are executed at Salem for 

witchcraft ; one is pressed to death for 

standing mute. 
Sept. 28. Mass. Eight persons are 

hanged as witches. 

* * Autumn. Mass. Twenty persons have 
been put to death, fifty-five tortured, and 
the jails are full of victims. 

Oct. 18. Mass. Protest made by the 
people of Andover to the General Court 
against the witch tribunals. 

Oct. * Mass. The delusion of witchcraft 
is rapidly disappearing. 

* * New York. The whipping-post, pil- 
lory, and ducking-stool are set up. 

* * -98 * * N. Y. Gov. Fletcher receives 
large gifts from the pirates. 

1693 Jan. * -Feb. * Mass. It becomes 
difficult to convict accused witches. 

* * Mass. Great popular indignation 
against the prosecutors for witchcraft. 

1695 * * Carolina. Gov. John Archdale 
(a Quaker) protects the Indians from 
the kidnapping colonists. Some native 
Catholics are ransomed from slavery, 
and sent to their homes in Florida. 

1696 Apr. 1. John Briggs, the her- 
mit, dies, aged 97. 

His figure has become grotesque be- 
cause of the numerous pieces of leather 
nailed to his clothes ; one of his shoes 
is made of about 1,000 pieces of leather. 

Apr. * Eng. Capt. William Kidd, a 
bold, successful American shipmaster, 
is commissioned to suppress piracy. [He 
becomes a pirate himself.] 

1697 Jan. 14. Mass. Samuel Sewall 
makes a public confession of his com- 
plicity in the witchcraft trials. 

Mar. * Mass. Hannah Dustin, her ser- 
vant, and a boy kill ten of twelve Indians 
while they sleep, and then escape from 
captivity. 



SETTLEMENT — STATE. 

1691 Aug. * New York. Capt. Richard 
Ingoldsby is acting governor; Governor 
Sloughter deceased (July 23). 

Summer. N. Y. The treaty with the 
Iroquois Indians (Five Nations) is re- 
newed at Albany. 

Oct. 7. Eng. King William grants a 
new and less liberal charter to Massa- 
chusetts. [He permits Rhode Island and 
Connecticut to resume their charters.] 

* * Mass. Increase Mather is permitted 
to nominate the first officers under the 
new charter ; he proposes Sir William 
Phipps for governor. 

* *• New York. John Lawrence, 19th mayor. 

1692 Jan. 26. Can. Acadia (Nova 
Scotia) becomes a part of Massachusetts. 

Feb. * Mass. The witchcraft frenzy 
breaks out. (See Society.) 

May 14. Mass. Gov. Phipps arrives 
with the new charter. Phipps is also 
governor of Plymouth Colony and the 
provinces of Maine, Nova Scotia, and 
the country north of the St. Lawrence ; 
also, the Elizabeth Islands, Nantasket, 
and Martha's Vineyard ; unites Plym- 
outh with Massachusetts. 

Aug. 13. N. H. The English govern- 
ment separates New Hampshire from 
Massachusetts the second time, not- 
withstanding the protests of the people. 

Sept. * New York. Benjamin Fletcher, 
a man of bad passions and poor abilities, 
arrives, and assumes office as governor. 

Oct. 21. Pa. The British government 
takes away Perm's proprietary rights 
and transfers the government to Fletcher 
of New York. [Penn is restored in 1694.] 

Nov. 26. Can. Nova Scotia again un- 
der the French flag. 

* * Conn. The Crown claims the control 
of the militia. 

* * Md. Sir L. Copley, the first royal gover- 
nor, assumes office. {N.J. A.Hamilton.) 

* * New York. The assembly passes a 
resolution against arbitrary govern- 
ment, and claiming that the people are 
a part of the governing power. 

* * -95 * * New York. Abraham de Peys- 
ter the 20th mayor. 

* * S. C. The proprietaries reject all the 
acts of the democratic legislature. 

* * Rhode Island and Connecticut retain 
their charters. 

* * Va. [and Md.] Sir Edmund Andr os, 
governor. (S. C. Philip Ludwell.) 

1693 Apr. * Carolina. Proprietors at 
length abandon the John Locke 
scheme of government ; thus the paper 
Empire of the West vanishes. 

S. C. Thomas Smith appointed gov- 
ernor. (N. C. Alex. Lillington, deputy.) 

Apr. 26. Pa. Governor Fletcher again 
unites Maryland to Pennsylvania, and 
assumes authority. 

Oct. 26. Conn. Gov. Fletcher of New 
York goes to Hartford to assume com- 
mand of the militia. 

While reading his commission, Capt. 
Wads worth orders the drums beaten, 
and intimidates the royally commis- 



sioned officer from intruding on an inde- 
pendent people. 

* * Delaware is placed under the rule of 
the governor of New York. 

1694 Mar. 26. Pa. Penn sends Mark- 
ham to be his deputy-governor, who calls 
an Assembly of the people to form for 
themselves a liberal constitution. 

Aug. 20. Pa. Penn is reinstated in 
his province, which had been taken from 
him and annexed to New York. 

* * S. C. John Archdale, an upright 
Quaker, is elected governor. 

He mitigates the hostility existing be- 
tween the profligate " Cavalier " party 
and the Presbyterians, etc., who oppose 
them. 

* * Md. The capital is removed from St. 
Mary's to [Annapolis] by the Protes- 
tants. 

1695 Apr. 12. N. Y. Votes of the As- 
sembly first published. 

Aug. 17. S. C. Gov. Archdale selects 
for his council two men of the moderate 
party to one High Churchman. 

* * Colombia. A company for colonizing 
Darien is formed. 

* * Md. A public post is established, 
and letters conveyed eight times a year 
from the Potomac to Philadelphia. 

* * N. Y. Lord Bellamont is appointed 
governor. (See 1698.) 

* * -98 * * New York. William Merritt 
the 21st mayor. 

1696 May* Eng. The affairs of the 
plantations are permanantly entrusted 
to the commissioners who form the Board 
of Trade, and all questions of colonial 
liberties and affairs are decided from the 
standpoint of English commerce. 

Summer. Me. By Iberville's capture of 
Pemaquid (Bremen) the French fron- 
tier is extended into the heart of Maine. 

Nov. 7. Pa. Third frame of govern- 
ment passed by Gov. Markham on a 
purely democratic basis. 

* * Fla. Spaniards build a fort, a church, 
and a few houses at Pensacola. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-02 * * Md. Nathaniel Blackstone. 
-97 * * II. I. Walter Clarke. 

S. C. Joseph Blake. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

* * * N. C. Carolina is noted for its pro- 
duction of naval stores. 

* * Va. For many years voluntary im- 
migration almost ceases, there being 
such restrictions on commerce as to 
cause all forms of industry to languish. 

1693 June 11. Mass. A terribly ma- 
lignant disease is brought to Boston 
by an English military expedition ; 3,100 
out of 4,500 members die while crossing 
from England. 

* * Brazil. Gold mining commenced. 

1695 * * A post route is established be- 
tween the Potomac, through Annapolis 
to Philadelphia, the mail-carrier to make 
eight trips in a year for £50. 

1696 * * New Eng. Population is about 
one hundred thousand. 

* * N. Y. Population of the city six 
thousand. 



54 1697, Sept.-1703. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1697 Sept. 20. The King William's 
War ends by the peace of Ryswick. 

Sept. 21. N. Y. An impending invasion 
of the French into the province of New 
York is averted by the peace of Ryswick. 

* * Colombia. Cartagena is taken by buc- 
caneers. 

1699* * Miss. Biloxi is fortified by 

the French. 
1700* * S. C.± The Creek Indians 

muster about 5,000 warriors. 

1701 June * Mich. De la Motte Car- 
dillac, with a Jesuit missionary and 100 
French, is sent from Canada to occupy 
Detroit. 

1702 * *-13 * * Queen Anne's War, 
between French and English; it is known 
in Europe as the War of the Spanish 
Succession. 

Sept. * Fla. The colonists of Carolina, 
led by Gov. Moore, send an unsuccessful 
expedition against the Spaniards of 
Florida for plunder. 

* * III. The French vacate their post on 
the Illinois. 

1703 Apr. * N. Y. The Assembly 
grants $7,500 to fortify the Narrows, 
" and for no other use whatever." [The 
money disappeared, and the Narrows 
were neglected.] 

June 20. Me. The Abnakis promise 
peace. 

Aug. 10. Me. Irruption of French 
and Indians. [They desolate the coun- 
try from Casco to Wells, and massacre 
or enslave 150 persons.] 

Aug. * Massachusetts is at war with the 
Abnakis. [Frontier war for several 
years.] 

Dec. * S. C. Indian towns between the 
Altamaha and Savannah are laid in ashes 
because of the alliance of their people 
with the Spaniards. 

* * Ga. Colonel Moore invades the Apa- 
lache country. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE 

EXPLORATION. 

1699 * * U. S. The Mississippi River 

is explored. 
1701 * * Iberville makes his third voy- 
age to the Gulf of Mexico. 
Cal. Father Kino makes his explo- 
rations in California. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1700* * 

Faneuil, Peter, founder, born. 

Joliet, Louis, explorer of the Miss., A55. ? 
1701 * * 

Bartram, John, botanist, born. 

Hennepin, L., Flemish missionary, A61. 

Kidd, William, pirate, hanged, A51. 

Sanvolle, Le Moyne,colonial Gov. of La., A50. 
1702* * 

Fitch, James, divine and missionary, A80. 
1703* * 

Clap, Thomas, pres. of Yale, born. 

l)e Lancey, James, Gov. of N.Y., born. 

Edwards, Jonathan, clergyman, born. 

Isla, Jos6 Francisco, de, Jesuit, born. 

Pynchon, John, N. Eng. colonist, A 66. 

Tennent, Gilbert, clergyman, born. 



CHURCH. 

1697* * Cal. The Spaniards having been 
expelled by the ill-used natives, Upper 
California is granted by Charles XI. 
of Spain to the Jesuits. 

* * Phila. John Watts immerses four 
Baptists. 

± * * ,5. C. All Christians except Cath- 
olics are enfranchised. 

1698 Dec. 13. Phila. The first Bap- 
tist church formed in a storehouse; 
Jedediah Andrews, minister. 

* * Cal. The Spanish establish mission- 
ary stations. Father Kino arrives. 

* * Carolina. Two-thirds of the colo- 
nists are Dissenters, yet they consent 
that one minister of the Church of 
England shall be maintained at public 
expense. 

1699* * Boston. Ellis Callender becomes 
pastor of the Baptist church. 

The Manifesto church is a protest 
against Matherism. 

* * Del. Consecration of Trinity Epis- 
copal church near Wilmington. 

* * R. I. A (first) Protestant Episco- 
pal parish is formed at Newport. 

* * S. C. Baptists at Charleston build 
a brick church and parsonage. 

* * Va. A Presbyterian church is or- 
ganized, and Francis Makemie is li- 
censed to preach. 

1700 * * P. I. The Yearly Meeting is 
established by the Friends, at Newport. 

Nov. 23. It. Clement XI. pope. 

* * Mass. The province enacts the ban- 
ishment of all Roman Catholics and 
Jesuits. 

* *N . Y. Because of their hostile influ- 
ence among the Indians, the Legislature 
provides for the hanging of every 
•* popish priest " who shall voluntarily 
enter the province. 

1701 * * Can. Jesuits try to live with 
the Iroquois [remaining 8 years]. 

* * Eng. The Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel in Foreign Parts 
has for its object the conversion of the 
Indians, but is diverted by politicians to 
promote the Church of England in all 
the American colonies. 

* * If. Y. J. N. Kurtz is the first Lu- 
theran minister ordained in this coun- 
try. 

* * Pa. Religious liberty is estab- 
lished. 

* * Phila. J. Andrews is ordained (?) and 
installed pastor of the first Presby- 
terian church in this city. 

1702 * * Conn. The Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel sends Messrs. 
Keith and Talbot as (Prot. Epis.) mis- 
sionaries to New London. 

* * Md. The Anglican Church is estab- 
lished. 

Catholics alone subject to intolerance ; 
ho priest or bishop may seek to make a 
proselyte or teach the young. Not one- 
tenth of the people adhere to the es- 
tablished church. 

* * If. J. Liberty of conscience granted 
to all, except the Papists. 



The first Episcopal Church in New 
Jersey is organized. 

* * If. Y. Gov. Cornbury forges a clause 
in his commission that he may foster 
the Episcopal church. 

1703 May 6. S. C. Orthodoxy pro- 
tected by the menace of disfranchise- 
ment and prisons. 

* * Carolina. The first minister (Prot. 
Epis.) arrives. 

* * New York. The Lutherans rebuild 
their church (southwest corner of Broad- 
way and Rector Streets). 

The " King's Farm " is granted to 
Trinity Church by Queen Anne. 

* * Va. A legal opinion is received from 
London, that a minister is an incum- 
bent for lif e, and cannot be removed by 
his parishioners. Church revenue is paid 
in tobacco. 

LETTERS. 

1700 * * Conn. Yale CoUege is com- 
menced. 

" I give these books for the founding of 
a College in this colony." Words of ten 
Congregational ministers, assembled at 
the village of Branford, a few miles east 
of Hartford, used in donating books 
from their libraries, whereby Yale Col- 
lege is founded. 

* * New York. The first public library 
is established in America. 

* * Fa. The college of William and 
Mary graduates its first class. 

* * The Selling of Joseph, by Samuel Sew- 
all, appears. 

1701 * * Conn. Rev. Abraham Pierson 
the first rector of Yale College. 

Oct. 9. Conn. Yale CoUege receives 
its charter, and is formally opened as a 
school at Saybrook. 

1702 * * Jacob Hemmingway the first 
and only student of Yale until Septem- 
ber, when seven others enter. 

* * Mass. Magnalia Christi Americana, 
by Cotton Mather, appears. 

Apr. * N. J. Queen Anne prohibits the 
keeping of a printing-press, and for- 
bids the publication of any book or pam- 
phlet without a license. 

1703 * * New York. The rector and war- 
dens of Trinity Church are directed to 
take steps toward the erection of a col- 
lege. [King's College (Columbia) was 
the result.] 

SOCIETY. 

1697 * * New York. A night watch is 
instituted. 

1699* * New York. Capt. William 
Kidd returns from a long piratical 
voyage, bringing an immense booty. 
[With great audacity he visits Boston, 
is arrested, sent to England for trial, and 
finally hanged.] 

* * Pa. William Penn, accompanied 
by his wife, returns to America, purpos- 
ing to abide there. [1701 . He is recalled 
to preserve his imperiled charter from 
appropriation by the crown.] 

1700 * * N. H. Innkeepers permitting 
townspeople to remain in their houses 
drinking on Saturday night or Sunday 






AMERICA. 



1697, Sept-1703. 55 



are fined 5s. ; the same fine is to be paid 
by the drinker. 

* * Carolina. Pestilence and strong 
drink have reduced the savages to a 
small number ; out of a thousand war- 
riors, but a dozen weak men remain. 

* * Pa. Penn legislates for the sanctity 
of marriage among negro slaves, and 
also frees his own slaves. 

1701 * * Boston instructs its representa- 
tives " to encourage the bringing of 
white servants, and to put a period to 
negroes being slaves." 

* * N. H. A fine of 5s. is imposed for 
drunkenness. 

STATE. 

1697 Sept. 20. Peace of Byswick ; 
France and England are each to restore 
their recent conquests ; Acadia restored 
to France. 

* * Massachusetts and New Hamp- 
shire recognize the authority of Bella- 
mont, governor of New York, but Con- 
necticut, and Rhode Island remain inde- 
pendent. (N. J. Jer. Basse, governor.) 

* * N. Y. On complaint of the Lords of 
Trade, Bellamont is instructed to re- 
strict the liberties of the courts and 
assemblies in New York, and to increase 
the prerogatives of the governor and 
council ; a political struggle thenceforth 
ensues. 

* * S. C. The English remove all dis- 
criminations against French emigrants. 

* * Pa. Penn proposes an annual con- 
gress of all the American provinces 
with power to regulate commerce. 

1698 Apr. 2. New York. The Earl of 
Bellamont arrives with a commission 
including New York, New Jersey, and 
all New England except Connecticut 
and Rhode Island. 

Oct. * Conn. The Assembly divides, and 
forms an Upper House. 

* *[U. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
-07 * * Conn. Fitz-John Winthrop. 

R. I. Samuel Cranston. 
-05 * * Va. Francis Nicholson. 

* * -99 * * New York. Johannes de Pey- 
ster the 22d mayor. 

1699 Mar. 2. La. A French colony 
enters the Mississippi, under Lemoine 
d'Iberville. 

May * Miss. Iberville erects a fort on 
Biloxi Bay, and lays the foundation of 
the State of Mississippi by the French. 

Sept. 16. La. An English colony under 
Bienville follows Iberville, but retires 
on discovering the French. 

Nov. 30. Pa. William Penn arrives. 

* * Eng. Parliament oppresses manu- 
factures. 

It enacts that no wool or woolen 
manufactures shall be shipped from 
any of the colonies, under penalty of 
forfeiture of ship and cases. 

* * Me. France claims the coast from 
Kennebec eastward, and the fisheries of 
the north coast. 

* * Mass. — N. H. Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire are placed under Gov. 
Bellamont. (May 20.) 



* * [ IT. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
-1700* * Mass. Richard Coote. [1700- 

01, Wm. Stoughton.] 
-01 * * N.J. Andrew Hamilton. 

-05 **N.C. H. Walker (Pres.). [1700- 

02, 19. S. C. James Moore.] 

* *-1700* * New York. David Provoost 
the 23d mayor. 

1700 Jan. 17. Lemoine d'Iberville 
takes possession of the Mississippi 
Biver for France, and plants a colony 
at Poverty Point. [It languishes.] 

Mar. 30. Darien. The Scotch settle- 
ments surrendered to the Spaniards. 

June 7. Pa. The old constitution is 
surrendered with the consent of the 
assembly and governor's council. 

Sept. 8. Can. A treaty made with the 
Iroquois. 

Nov. 1. Sp. Philip V. king. 

* * La. Bienville reaches the Red River. 

* * French missionaries occupy various 
points on the Mississippi, and take pos- 
session for France. 

* * 01 * * New York. Isaac de Riemer 
the 24th mayor. 

* * Va. Huguenots arrive. 

1701 May* Conn. It is decided that 
the government meet alternately in 
Hartford and New Haven. 

June 24. Mich. Sieur de la Motte Ca- 
dillac, with 100 men, makes the first per- 
manent settlement in Michigan (De- 
troit). 

July 19. N. Y. Alleged treaty with the 
Iroquois at Albany, surrendering beaver 
grounds to the English. 

Aug. 4. Can. The French make a treaty 
with the Iroquois. 

Sept. 2. N. Y. A Court of Chancery for 
the State is organized. 

Oct. 28. Philadelphia is first char- 
tered by William Penn. 

* * La. Bienville is in command of the 
French settlements. 

* *-02* * Mass. Government as- 
sumed by the Council. 

* * _02 * * New York. Thomas Noell the 
25th mayor. John Nanfan, governor. 

* * Pa. Andrew Hamilton and John 
Evans are appointed deputy-governors 
by Penn. 

* * N. J. The Jerseys become a royal 
province. 

Lord Cornbury arrives. 

1702 Jan.* Ala. The first settle- 
ment in the state is made by the French 
from Biloxi, on the western bank of the 
Mobile River. (Mobile.) 

Mar. 8. Eng. Queen Anne en- 
throned. 

Apr. 17. New Jersey a royal province. 
The proprietors of East and West 
Jersey surrender their rights to the 
Crown. One government is formed and 
called New Jersey ; by mutual agree- 
ment all the various claimants surrender 
the right of government, but retain 
their rights to the soil. 

May 3. -08* * N. Y. Lord Corn- 
bury succeeds Bellamont as governor. 

He unites in one government New 
York and New Jersey. [The union con- 



tinues thirty-six years with a single 
executive, but two separate assemblies.] 

May 28. Boston. News received of Queen 
Anne's accession. 

June 1. Boston. Queen Anne is pro- 
claimed. 

* *-15* * Mass. Joseph Dudley 
governor. 

Sept. 1. Carolina, by vote of the provin- 
cial assembly, refuses an hereditary 
nobility, or the dominion of wealth. 

* * Carolina. The colony is burdened 
with a debt of £6,000 by its unsuccessful 
military expedition against the Span- 
iards at St. Augustine. (The assembly 
enacts the issuing of bills of credit.) 

* * Del. — Pa. The two legislatures 
convened apart [and never again re- 
united], 

* * Ind. Vincennes founded. The 
French vacate their posts on the Il- 
linois. 

* * La. Only 30 French families have 
been settled. 

* * -03 * * New York. Philip French the 
26th mayor. 

1703* *[U.S.] Governors inaugu- 
rated : 

-04 * * Md. Thomas Trench. 
-08 * * S. C. Sir Nathaniel Johnson. ■ 

* * Mass. Joseph Dudley, governor, 
quarrels with the General Court over 
the salaries of State officers. 

* * N. J. The General Assembly meets 
at Perth Amboy. 

N. Y. Gov. Cornbury denies the 

right of the assembly to ask questions 
of the governor until the queen has 
given them permission. 

* * Pa. The province is set apart from 
the territories ; Pennsylvania and Dela- 
are have separate assemblies. Edward 
Shippen (pres. of council). 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

1697 * * N.Y. The Common Council or- 
ders the city to be lighted by lanterns 
suspended from j>oles, which are to pro- 
ject from every seventh house. 

1699** Pa. The yellow fever appears 
at Philadelphia, where it commits great 
ravages. 

1700* * Miss. A gold-seeking expedition 
from Biloxi ascends to the Falls of 
St. Anthony. 

* * English imports from the North 
American Colonies amount to $1,975,000. 

* * Boston. Population about 7,000. 

* * New York has about 750 dwellings, 
4,500 whites, and 750 blacks. 

* * About 300,000 negroes imported 
into America by the English in the last 
20 years. 

1701 * * Population of the American col- 
onies estimated at two hundred and 
sixty-two thousand. 

1702 * * New York. A pestilence is 
brought from St. Thomas, and nearly 
600 people (one in ten) die. 



56 



1703-1712. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1704 Mar. 1. Mass. Deerfield is sur- 
prised and burnt. 

It is the work of 200 French and 142 
Indians under Hertel de Kouville ; 47 
are slainl and 147 captives, among whom 
is Eunice Williams, are taken through 
the snow to Canada. 

Dec. * S. C. Gov. James Moore leads a 
f reebooting expedition of 50 whites and 
1 ,000 Indians against the Indians south- 
west of Savannah ; five important towns 
are carried, and the English flag is borne 
to the Gulf of Mexico. [The only crime 
of the Indians is their willingness to be 
taught agriculture and religion by the 
Spaniards.] 

1705 Dec. 14. Fla. Moore defeats the 
Indians near St. Marks. 

Dec. 15. Fla. Moore defeats the 
Spanish commander on Apalachee Bay. 

* * Mass. Prowling Indians terrorize the 
country. Death hangs on the frontier. 

* * Me. A war party burns the Indian 
church and village at Norridgewock. 

1706 * * S. C. A French expedition 
from Havana, to enforce French claims 
for the country, is repulsed at Charles- 
ton by William Rhett and the Governor. 

1707 * * Massachusetts attempts the 
conquest of Acadia [Nova Scotia] 
by a costly expedition. 

May * Mass. Two regiments leave Nan- 
tasket to attack the French at Port 
Royal. [The attempt to bombard the 
fort fails.] 

1708* * Can. A war-council at Montreal 
resolves to invade New England with 
an expedition of Indians and 100 picked 
Canadians led by French officers. 

Aug. 30. N. H. The French and Indi- 
ans surprise Haverhill, on the Merri- 
mac, killing 40 and carrying away 100 
prisoners. 

* * Massachusetts offers a bounty for 
Indian scalps. 

1709* * Costa Rica. A second massacre 
of the Spaniards is accomplished by 
the Indians whom they had conquered. 

* * The English colonies prepare to aid 
a British fleet in the'conquest of Can- 
ada ; the fleet fails to arrive. 

1710* *N. Y.-N.J. The colonists of 
New York and New Jersey raise 1,800 
volunteers to aid in the conquest of 
Canada. 

Sept. * -Oct. * Conquest of Acadia 
[Nova Scotia] 

Sept. 18. Boston. A second expedition 
against the French sails for Port Royal. 

Oct. 16. N. S. Port Royal is taken by 
a fleet from England aided by a colonial 
army; its name changed to Annapolis 
in honor of Queen Anne. 

* * Brazil. One thousand French led by 
Duclerc attack Rio, but are defeated 
and captured. 

1711 July 30. Boston. A large colo- 
nial army and a British armament, un- 
der Sir Hovenden Walker, sail to take 
Quebec. [The wreck of 8 vessels de- 
feats the expedition.] 



Aug. 28. N. Y. A second expedition 
leaves Albany to march against the 
French. [It returns on hearing of the 
failure of the first one.] 

Sept. 12. Brazil. Another French squad- 
ron with 6,000 troops, under Admiral 
Duguay-Trouin, attack Rio and take 
the town after a battle of 4 days. 

Sept. * N. C. Capture and torture of 
Surveyor Lawson by Indians. 

Sept. 22. N. C. The Indian War. 
The Tuscaroras and Cores massacre 130 
persons between the Roanoke River and 
Pamlico Sound. 

Oct. 10. Brazil. To prevent the burning 
of Rio by the French, the governor signs 
a capitulation to pay 610,000 crusados, 
500 cases of sugar, and to provision the 
fleet. 

1712 May* Mich. Detroit, the center 
of New France, is besieged by the Fox 
Indians, and delivered by its various 
Indian allies. 

Aug. * Truce between England and 
France. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1704* * 

Godfrey, Thomas, mathematician, born. 

Hubbard, William, clergyman, A83. 

Spangrenberg-. August G., founder of Mo- 
ravians in Am., born. 
1705 * * 

Chauncy, Charles, clergyman, born. 

Loudoun, John Campbell, Brit, gen., born. 

Tennent. William, Presb. clergyman, b. 
1706* * 

Abercrombie, James, Brit, gen., born. 

Jan. 17. Franklin, Benjamin, printer, 
philosopher, statesman, born in Boston. 

Iberville, d', P. Lemoine, Canadian com- 
mander, A 45. 

Oliver, Andrew, Lieut.-Gov. of Mass., born. 
1707* * 

Byles, Mather, clergyman, born. 

Hopkins, Stephen, signer of Declaration, b. 
1708* * 

Cheever, Ezekiel, teacher, A93. 

Laval-Montmorency, Francois Xavler, K. C. 
Bp. of Que., A86. 
1710* * 

Cruger, John, Mayor of N.Y., born. 

Hamilton, James, governor, born. 

Lovell, John, educator, born. 

Trumbull, Jonathan, statesman, born. 
1711 * * 

Bradstreet, John, general, born. 

Gridley, Richard, general, born. 

Hutchinson, Thomas, Gov. of Mass., born. 

Wheelock, Eleazer, clergyman, born. 
1712* * 

± Bernard, Sir Francis, Gov. of N. J., born. 

Ingraham, Benjamin, bishop, born. 

Lawson, John, surveyor, dies. 

± Pontiac, Ottawa Indian chief, born. 

CHURCH. 

1704 * * Md. An Act passed to prevent 

the growth of Roman Catholicism. 

Catholic priests prohibited from mak- 
ing converts or teaching the young. 
Children becoming Catholics forfeit 
their share in the estate of their 
parents. 

* * N. C. The Church of England made 
the established church, and officials 
required to take an oath to sustain it. 

* * N. Y. Protestants send Mr. Moore, a 
missionary, to the Indians of New 
York, who returns in one year dis- 
couraged. 

* * JR. I. A (Prot. Epis.) missionary is 
sent to Newport. 

* * S. C. The Church of England made 
the established church and dissenters 



disfranchised ; two-thirds of the people 
are dissenters. 

* * IT. J. First Episcopal church 
erected in New Jersey at Burlington. 

1705 * * Conn. The first Baptist church 
in this state is organized in Groton. 

± * * Fla. The Apalache Indians are 
Spanish converts to Catholicism ; they 
live in villages and construct churches. 

* * Carolina. The first church is built. 

* * Phila. First American Presbytery 
organized, having 7 members present. 
(Briggs, 1706.) 

1706 Jan. 17. Boston. Benjamin 
Franklin is born and baptized on the 
same day, according to the Boston 
register. 

June 10. S. C. Parliament decides that 
the disfranchising act, because of 
religion, is contrary to the laws of Eng- 
land. 

Nov. 30. Carolina. The colonial Assem- 
bly repeals the acts of intolerance, 
after being declared null by royal au- 
thority. 

Dec. 29. N. J. First meeting of the 
general Presbytery, of which record 
now remains at Freehold. 

John Boyd is the first Presbyterian 
ordained in America. 

+ * * Conn. Absentees from the law- 
ful church are liable to a fine of 20s. 

Meetings in private houses are forbid- 
den. A fine of £10, with whipping for 
each offense, is imposed on unlawful 
ministers who administer the sacra- 
ments. 

Episcopacy is introduced. 
The persons, families, and estates of 
ministers are exempt from taxation. 

* * Mich. The Jesuit mission at Mack- 
inaw is abandoned. 

1707 Jan. * New York. Two Presby- 
terian ministers are arrested by Gover- 
nor Cornbury for preaching without 
his permission. (Or 1706.) 

Mar. 22. Pa. Meeting of the general 
Presbytery at Philadelphia. 

Apr. * Conn. Organization of the parish 
of Christ's Church (Prot. Epis.), Strat- 
ford, the first in the state. 

First Episcopal society is formed at 
New Haven. 

* New York. Francis Makemie is tried 
and imprisoned by Lord Cornbury for 

■ the crime of preaching to dissenters. 

* * Phila. The Philadelphia Association 
of Baptists formed, including delegates 
from Pennepek, Middletown, Piscata- 
way, Cohansey, and Welsh Tract. 

1708 Dec. 9. Mass. John Higginson, 
the first minister at Salem, dies. 

Sept. 9. Conn. Congregational Synod 
meets at Saybrook and forms the " Say- 
brook Platform" of discipline. Pres- 
byterians and Congregationalists unite 
on it. [Oct. * General Court approves.] 
The custom introduced of preaching 
a sermon on the day appointed by law 
for the election of civil rulers, proper 
for the direction of the towns. [Later 
it becomes a law.] 



AMERICA. 



1703-1712. 



57 



The General Assembly passes an act 
removing the penalty from " sober dis- 
senters " who do not worship with the 
" standing order." 

* * Del. The first Episcopal church in 
Dover is erected. 

1709 May 18. Conn. The General 
Association of Congregational min- 
isters organized ; the first state organ- 
ization. 

1710 June 14. New York. Gov. Hun- 
ter arrives from England with 3,000 
Palatines fleeing from persecution ; [a 
Lutheran church is soon formed]. 

* * Can. The Jesuits have become the 
protectors of the natives against the 
colonists. 

* * N. Car. The whole country has but 
one clergyman; he is of the Church 
of England. 

* * * From New England to Carolina it 
is commonly believed that baptism is 
inconsistent with a state of slavery, 
and that Christian slaves should be set 
free. 

* * Conn. A Baptist church is organized 
at Waterford. 

* * *Many forms of religion among 
the colonists. 

Calvinism predominates in New Eng- 
land, Quakerism in Pennsylvania, Ro- 
man Catholicism in Maryland, Florida, 
and among the French along the St. 
Lawrence, and Episcopalianism in South 
Carolina, Virginia, and New York. 

1711 May 25. N.J. Important coun- 
cil of the Baptist church consigning 
the record of past quarrels to "ob- 
livion." Vote 42-26. [Prosperity fol- 
lows.] 

* * New York. Baptist preaching intro- 
duced in the house of Nicholas Eyers, 
by Valentine Wightman. (Or 1712.) 

* * Eng. The Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel send Rev. Mr. Andrews to 
the Indians of New York ; he arrives at 
Albany. 

* * N. C. The population is described by 
royalists as made up of " Presbyterians, 
Independents, Quakers, and other evil- 
disposed persons." The proprietors de- 
termine to establish the Church of 
England ; the people resist. 

* * S. C. It is enacted that baptism 
does not entitle slaves to freedom. 

LETTERS. 

1704 Apr. 24. Boston. The News-Let- 
ter, the first continuous American news- 
paper, appears. (Continues till 1744.) 
Edited, apparently, by John Campbell, 
and printed on a half sheet, eight by 
twelve inches in size. 

1705 * * History of Virginia, by Robert 
Beverly, appears. 

* * Conn. The first printing-press in 
this colony is set up at New London. 

1710 * * Essays to do Good, by Cotton 
Mather, appears. 

* * New York. Trinity School estab- 
lished in connection with the Anglican 
church. 



SOCIETY. 

1705 * * Va. By the fifth colonial re- 
vision of the code, a slave is declared 
real estate and attached to the soil, 
like a Russian serf. 

1709* *New York has a regular 
slave-market at the foot of Wall 
Street. 

1710± * * The popular belief that Chris- 
tianity should enfranchise her con- 
verts proves an obstacle to the " con- 
version of these poor people." 

1711 * * N.C. The colony is called the 
" Sanctuary of Runaways," as it has 
hardly any government. 

1712* * N. C. John Lawson, surveyor- 
general, is burned to death by Indians. 

STATE. 

1703 * * -07 * * New York. William 
Peartree the 27th mayor. 

* * Parliament condemns to the navy 
every pitch-pine tree that is not with- 
in an enclosure. 

* * Rice and molasses are added to the 
list of commodities which are only to 
be sold in the English colonies. 

* * [U. S.] Governors inaugurated: 
-08 Md. John Seymour. 

N. C. Robert Daniel (deputy). 
[1705-08. Thomas Carey.] 

1705 Dec* Fla. England gains anew 
claim to the territory of northern 
Florida by the conquests of James 
Moore of South Carolina. 

* * N. V. Anarchy prevails after the 
death of the governor. 

* * New Eng. Joseph Dudley, Gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts and a native of 
New England, takes the lead in the 
conspiracy against its liberties. 

* * -06 * * Va. Edward Nott, lieuten- 
ant-governor. 

1706 Nov. * S. C. Repeal of the law 
which disfranchises dissenters. 

* * _10 * * N. C. The royalists and pop- 
ular party each has a governor and 
legislature ; the former lacks popular 
favor, and the latter lacks legal sanc- 
tion. 

* * Port. JohnV. king. 

S. C. Governor Johnson becomes the 
executive. 

Invasion by the French and Span- 
ish, who claim the country as a part of 
Florida. 

* *-10* * Va. Edmund Jennings 
lieutenant-governor. 

1707 Apr. 7. New York. Samuel Jen- 
nings reads to Lord Cornbury a sharp 
remonstrance, passed by the New 
Jersey assembly, against his acceptance 
of bribes and " his new methods of gov- 
ernment." 

Dec. 17. Conn. Rev. Gurdon Salton- 
stall, of New London, is elected 
governor. 

* * N. C. A band of French Huguenots 
settle here. 

* * -10 * * New York. Ebenezer Wilson 
the 28th mayor. 



1708 June 26. N. Y. The act vacat- 
ing extravagant grants of land in New 
York confirmed. 

Dec. 18. N.Y. Arrival of John Love- 
lace, the new governor of the province. 
(1708-1709.) New Jersey included. 

* * Can. The French press forward 
their great design of uniting the region 
of the Great Lakes with the Valley of 
the Mississippi by means of trading- 
posts and missions. 

* * N. Y. Governor Cornbury stub- 
bornly curtails the liberties of the 
colonists, and they stubbornly curtail 
the revenue of the governor, and peti- 
tion for his removal. He is dismissed 
from office, and imprisoned for debt till 
the death of his father, when he be- 
comes a peer. 

1709 Apr. * N. Y. The assembly meets, 
and proceeds to contest the governor's 
claim for a permanent revenue, and de- 
cides on an annual revenue instead. 

June 8. N. Y. Paper money is first 
authorized and issued here. 

* * _io * * N.C. William Grover, gov- 
ernor. (1709. C. S. Edward Tynte.) 

* * N.J. Paper money is first issued. 

* * -io * * N. Y. Richard Ingoldsby, 
governor. (1709. N. J.) 

* * Pa. Charles Gookin becomes deputy- 
governor. (-1713. Md. Edward Lloyd.) 

1710 * * Eng. Parliament provides for 
a post-office establishment in the col- 
onies, with New York as the chief office. 

* * _12 * * N. C. Edward Hyde, gov- 
ernor. (-1711. S. C. Robert Gibbes.) 

* * N.Y. GerardusBeekman governor. 

* * _i9 * * N.Y. Robert Hunter, gov- 
ernor. (1710. N. J.) 

* *-22* * Va. Alexander Spotswood, 
lieutenant-governor. 

He builds iron furnaces, and fosters . 
schools, trade, and peace. The colony 
flourishes under his administration. 

* *-ll* * New York. Jacobus van Cort- 
landt the 29th mayor. 

1711* * N. C. Thomas Carey, the 
deputy-governor, being deposed, leads a 
rebellion against the Assembly and Ed- 
ward Hyde, the president of the Coun- 
cil, and proclaims himself governor. 
Governor Spotswood of Virginia sends 
an armed force to aid Hyde, and Carey 
flees. [He is sent to England for trial.] 

* * -14 * * New York. Caleb Heathcote 
is the 30th mayor. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1710 Apr. 18. Eng. Four Indian 
chiefs arrive in London, and are carried 
in the royal coaches to their audience 
with the queen. 

± * * Brazil. Diamonds discovered. 

1711 Oct. 2. Boston. Great fire ; lives 
lost and 100 buildings destroyed. 

1712 * * N. C. Yellow fever decimates 
the colonists. 

* * N. Y. Albany has a population of 
four thousand. 



58 1712-1721, Feb. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1712 * * Guiana. The French attack 
the Dutch, and exact a contribution. 

Jan. 28. XT, C. Above New Berne, S. 
Carolinians under Col. Barnwell re- 
venge a massacre of settlers on Sept. 
22 f, by attacking the Tuscarora In- 
dians, killing 300 and capturing 100. 

1713 Mar. 20. N.C. Col. James Moore 
of S. C. defeats the fortified Tuscaroras 
on Cotentnea Creek [Snow Hill], killing 
many and capturing 800. The tribe mi- 
grates north, and joins the Iroquois Con- 
federation as the Sixth Nation. 

Mar. 31. Can. The Peace of Utrecht 
ends the hostilities with Canada. 

1715 Apr. 26. S. C. Massacre of the 
English by the Yamasis begins, and 
Charleston itself is in peril. [After kill- 
ing 400 whites, and a struggle of two 
years, they are finally driven into Flor- 
ida by Gov. Craven.] 

1718 ± * * W. I. The buccaneers are 
suppressed by Wood Rogers, the gover- 
nor of New Providence. 

* * S. C. Pirates on the coast are *up- 
pressed by the Governor. 

1719 * * Me. Fort St. George is built. 

* * Panama. The Indians destroy several 
towns which the Catholic missionaries 
had established. 

* * "War between Prance and Spain. 
1720* * N. S. The French begin the 

defenses of Louisburg. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE 
EXPLORATION. 

1715 * * N.J. John "Watson, born in 
Scotland, commences painting por- 
traits at Perth Amboy, and is the first 
artist to attain celebrity in America. 

* * Va. Commencement of the manu- 
facture of pig-iron in Virginia. 

1716 Feb. 8. Peru, is shaken by an 
earthquake. 

1717 Feb. 22. Boston. Snow is six feet 
deep. 

1720 * * Pa. S. Nutt erects a forge in 
Coventry, and manufactures iron. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1713* * 

Lewis, Francis, signer of Declaration, born. 
1714* * 

Acrelius, Israel, Swedish missionary, born. 

Andros, Sir Edmund, Gov. of N. Eng., A77. 

Henry, Matthew, author, AS2. 
1715* * 

Dongan, Thomas, Governor of New York, 
A81. 

Finley, Samuel, pres. Princeton coll., b. 

Herkimer, Nicholas, general, born. 

Johnson, Sir William, colonist, born. 

Pomeroy, Seth, patriot, born. 

Williams, Ephraim, founder, born. 
1716* * 

Boylston, Nicholas, philanthropist, born. 

Livingston, Philip, signer of Declaration, b. 

Patch, Elizabeth, the first female born in 
Massachusetts, dies. 
1717* * 

Collins, John, Governor, born. 

Cooke, Nicholas, deputy -governor, born. 

Gardiner, Sylvester, physician, born. 
1718* * 

Brainerd, David, missionary, born. 

Church, Benjamin, American officer, A79. 

Hopkins. Esek. first commodore C. S. N., 
born. 



Fenn. William, founder of Pa., A74. 

Prideaux, John, soldier, born. 

Putnam, Israel, general, patriot, born. 
1719* * 

Bellamy, Joseph, clergyman, writer, born. 

Culpepper, Thomas, Lord, Gov. of Va., dies. 

Phillips, John, philanthropist, born. 
1720* * 

Dudley, Joseph, Gov. of Mass., A73. 

Gates, Thomas, Brit, gen., born. 

Lennox, Charlotte, novelist, born. 

Mayhew, Jonathan, clergyman, born. 

Mercer, Hugh, soldier, born. 

Woolrnan, John, Quaker preacher, born. 

CHURCH. 

1713 * * N. Y. About 150 families of 
Lutherans settle in Schoharie County. 

+ U. S. Large accessions of Dish Pres- 
byterians, who are driven to America 
by the Test Act. 

1714 * * Va. First Baptist church in 
this province formed at Burleigh. 

1715 * * Md. It is enacted that bap- 
tism does not entitle slaves to freedom. 

Benedict Charles Calvert, the pro- 
prietary, renounces his Catholic faith 
to receive his inheritance. 

* * N. Y. A third Reformed Dutch 
church is built at Albany. 

* * II. I. Roman Catholics are disfran- 
chised. 

1716 Sept. 22. Phila. Presbyterians 
divide into three Presbyteries, and 
thus constitute the first synod, called 
the Synod of Philadelphia. 

* * New York. "William Tennent ar- 
rives [and leaves the Episcopal church 
for the Presbyterian]. 

1717 Sept. 17. Phila. The Presby- 
terian Synod first meets. It "founds 
a fund for pious uses." 

* * Can. French priests have flanked 
the English colonies with more than GO 
missions, between Montreal and New 
Orleans on the great lakes and rivers. 

* * La. French priests plant the cross 
and the flag of France on the lower 
Mississippi, at New Orleans. 

* * Mass. Dr. Ebenezer Gay,of Hingham, 
is [supposed to be] the first Unitarian 
preacher in America. 

* * Me. Flourishing Catholic mission 
of Sebastian Rasles, on the Kennebec 
River. 

Massachusetts founds an anti-Catho- 
lic mission among the Indians on the 
Kennebec. 

* * New York. A Presbyterian church 
is organized in this city. 

* * N. Y. Many more Lutherans come 
over. 

* * Tex. Franciscan missionaries begin 
their labors among the Indians. 

1718 May 21. Mass. Decrease Math- 
er preaches the ordination sermon of 
Elisha Callender, pastor of the Baptist 
church ; subject, " Good Men United." 

± * * -30 * * Pa. The German Baptists, 
called Dunkers, come to this country. 

1719 * * Scot. The Synod of Glasgow 
and Ayr orders one-tenth of a collection 
to be taken up in aid of Presbyterian 
worship in New York City. 

* * New York. The first Presbyterian 
church in this city is built (Wall Street). 



1720* * -23* * Greenland. Hans 
Egede, a Danish missionary, founds a 
mission at Good Hope. 

* * N. H. Mrs. Rachel Scammon moves to 
Statham, and is the first Baptist in the 
colony. 

* * N.J. T. J. Frelinghuysen preaches in 
Raritan and vicinity. 

May * Pa. "William Tennent removes 
to Neshaminy, where he establishes 
" Log College." 

* * S. C. A Presbytery in connection 
with the kirk is formed. 

1721 Jan. 23. New York. Nicholas 
Eyers, a brewer, is licensed to preach 
to a Baptist flock by the authorities of 
New Amsterdam. 

LETTERS. 
1714*'* W. I. The Codrington Col- 
lege at Bridgetown, Barbados, is 
founded by the Moravians. 

1716 * * Conn. The College is moved 
from Saybrook to New Haven, and 
called Yale. 

1717 * * Boston has its first auction sale 
of books. 

1718* * Mass. Psalterium Americanum, 

by Cotton Mather, appears. 
1719* * Boston. Mother Goose's Tales 

are published. 
The Boston Gazette is first published. 

* * Phila. The American Weekly Messen- 
ger (the third newspaper) is published 
by Andrew Bradford. 

* * -22 * * Conn. Rev. Timothy Cutler 
is rector of Yale College. 

SOCIETY. 

17 12 * * New York. Negro plot to burn 
the town; nineteen negroes convicted 
and executed. 

* * Pa. The legislature receives a peti- 
tion for the " enlargement" of negro 
slaves by law ; it replies that it is 
" neither just nor convenient to set 
them at liberty." 

* * S. C. Special enactment denying that 
baptism confers freedom to negroes. 

1713 Mar. 31. By the 12th article of 
the Treaty of Utrecht, an English com- 
pany secures the exclusive right to 
carry African slaves into American 
ports ; this defeats the colonial legisla- 
tures that seek to stop the slave-trade. 

* * Pa. The introduction of negroes and 
slaves is prohibited " as exciting the 
suspicions and dissatisfaction of the 
Indians." 

* * Va. Gov. Spotswood writes to the 
Board of Trade of London that "the 
Indians never break with the English 
without gross provocation from persons 
trading with them." 

1715 * * Md. Two fines are imposed : 
(1) for carrying liquor to Indian towns, 
5,000 lbs. of tobacco ;' (2) for selling over 
one gallon of liquor a day to an Indian, 
3,000 lbs. 

Special enactment denying that bap- 
tism confers freedom to negroes. 



AMERICA. 



1712-1721, Feb. 59 



1719 * * La. Negroes arrive from 
Guinea. 

* * N. H. The names of drunkards are 
posted in public houses ; the sale of 
liquor to them is forbidden. 

STATE. 

1712 * * Guiana. The French compel 
the Dutch in Surinam to pay a ran- 
som to save their city. 

Sept. 14. Fr. Antony Crozat is granted 
a monopoly of trade and $10,000 an- 
nually for settling the Southwest (Loui- 
siana). 

* * Mass. Province bills are made legal 
tender. 

* * North Carolina is the refuge of many 
fugitives from justice, and has scarcely 
any government. 

* *-13* *N.C. Thos. Pollock, president. 

* * S.C. Issue on interest of new bills for 
£50,000. (1715. Chas. Craven, governor.) 

1713 Mar. 31. Treaty of Utrecht, be- 
tween Great Britain and France. 

By this treaty Hudson Bay and Straits, 
Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and St. 
■Christopher of the West Indies become 
subject to Great Britain. The Five 
Nations become subject to England with 
Acadia. The French have certain re- 
served rights on the "French shores" 
of Newfoundland. Brazil is confirmed 
to Portugal. 

* * Mass. Rectification of the bound- 
ary line by ceding 100,000 acres of land 
to Connecticut. 

Worcester settled. 

* * Miss. A trading-post established at 
Natchez. 

* * N. Y. The Five Nations and the 
Tuscaroras of Carolina send their sa- 
chems to Albany to meet the governors 
of New York, Pennsylvania, and Vir- 
ginia. 

A treaty is made with these six nations, 
by which the valuable fur trade of the 
Indians is to be diverted from the French 
to the English. 

The English establish a trading-post 
at Oswego, with a garrison ; the French 
have strong forts at Niagara and at 
Crown Point on Lake Champlain. 

1714 Aug. 1. Eng. George I. en- 
throned. 

* * Mass. Emission of £50,000 in bills, to 
be let out at Ave per cent on safe mort- 
gages of real estate, and to be paid back 
in five annual instalments. [Not paid ; 
more issues demanded.] 

* * Md. Benedict Charles Calvert suc- 
ceeds to his father's hereditary rights, 
and he soon restores the authority of 
the proprietary, after a suspension of 
24 years. 

John Hart rules for [the 5th] Lord 
Baltimore. 

* * _21 * * N. C. Chas. Eden, governor. 

* * -19 * * New York. John Johnson the 
31st mayor. 

* * Tenn. A trading-post started on the 
Tennessee River [at Nashville]. 

1715 Sept. 1. Fr. Louis XV. en- 
throned. 

* * N. C. Edonton founded. 



* * Mass. The Council governs. Jo- 
seph Dudley, royal governor. 

* *-16* * Mass. "William Tailer, gov- 
ernor. 

1716* * Me. English settlements estab- 
lished on the Kennebec. 

* * Miss. Natchez is settled, and trade 
with England begins. 

* * Fr. Law's Mississippi scheme be- 
gins in France. 

* * Va. Gov. Spotswood crosses the 
Blue Ridge and is the first to enter the 
great valley beyond ; he opens a road, 
and emigration soon follows to the Ohio 
lands. 

* * -23 * * Mass. Samuel Shute, gov- 
ernor. 

* * S. C. Robert Daniel, governor. 

* * O. Route from the Miami River to 
the "Wabash is opened. 

* * The French are in the Ohio val- 
ley. 

1717 Sept. * Fr. The "Western Louisi- 
ana Company obtains its grant. Dli- 
nois is annexed. 

* * La. Crogat transfers his interest in 
this province to a chartered company, 
headed by John Law, whose national 
bank and Mississippi speculation (Law's 
Bubble) involve the ruin of half the 
French nobility. 

Bienville appointed governor-gen- 
eral. 

* * Pa. Sir "William Keith becomes 
governor [the last appointed by Penn 
himself]. 

1718 May* Massachusetts imposes a 
duty on English manufactures, and 
makes a small discrimination in favor 
of its commerce. [It is negatived by the 
king] 

July 30. Eng. William Penn dies. 
Pa. The government is administered 
for his three sons (minors) by deputies 
[till the Revolution, when their claims 
are purchased by the Commonwealth]. 

Aug. 25. La. Arrival of 800 French 
emigrants at Dauphine Island. They 
found New Orleans. Bienville is com- 
mandant-general. 

* * Colombia. New Granada becomes 
a Spanish vice-royalty. 

* * Ecuador. The province of Quito 
is detached from Peru and annexed to 
New Granada. 

* * * Eng. Period of official corrup- 
tion. 

Offices in the colonies are used by men 
in power to provide for their relatives, 
dependents, and partisans, or sold out- 
right for cash, or by setting apart a pro- 
portion of the emoluments for the 
patron. 

* * Va. Parliament extends the post- 
office establishment to Virginia. 

* * O. French settlements made in 
the Ohio Valley. 

* * Tex. La Harpe arrives. 

* * New Eng. Arrival of the Scotch- 
Irish, who introduce potatoes. 

* * La. Land grants are issued by the 
Mississippi Company for settlements on 
the Bay of St. Louis. 



1719 July 31. N. Y. The chief com- 
mand of the province comes to Peter 
Schuyler, in the absence of Colonel 
Hunter. [To 1720.] 

Dec. 21. S. C. The government of Car- 
olina is revolutionized. 

James Moore, having been elected gov- 
ernor by the people, is inaugurated with 
military display, notwithstanding the 
opposition of Governor Johnson in be- 
half of the proprietors. 

* * Eng. Parliament first prohibits the 
manufacture of iron in the colonies. 

The Mother Country enacts a law pro- 
hibiting the working of iron or steel in 
the colonies, and also declaring that no 
sugar, tobacco, ginger, indigo, cotton, 
fustic, or dyeing woods shall be trans- 
ported to any other than English markets 
under penalty of forfeiture, and requir- 
ing all goods to be imported in English 
vessels, and therefore from English 
markets ; because " erecting any manu- 
factories in the colonies tended to lessen 
their dependence on Great Britain." 

± * * England restricts American 
manufactures. 

"The inhabitants worked up their 
wool and flax, and made a coarse cloth 
for their own use. . . . Hatters were in 
the marine towns. . . . Six furnaces 
and nineteen forges were set up for 
making iron." 

* * La. Eleven French vessels arrive ; 
500 negroes imported from Guinea. 

* * -20 * * New York. Jacobus van Cort- 
landt the 32d mayor. 

* * S. C. Arthur Middleton, governor. 

1720 * * Brazil. The district of Minas is 
separated from San Paulo, having 5 prin- 
cipal settlements with royal charters. 

* * -26 * * Md. Chas. Calvert, governor. 

* * Eng. Royal orders forbid the Eng- 
lish colonies to issue paper money. 

* *N.Y. William Burnet, governor [till 
1728] ; trade between the French and In- 
dians prohibited. New Jersey included. 

» * -25 * * New York. Robert "Walters 
the 33d mayor. 

1721 Feb. ± * S.C. Francis Nichol- 
son, governor of Carolina, arrives. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1713 Mar. * N. Y. A part of the de- 
feated Tuscaroras leave Carolina, and 
migrate to northern New York, and be- 
come the sixth nation of the Iroquois 
confederacy. 

1714 * * Boston has a project for a bank 
of credit. 

* * -17 * * New Eng. Period of great 
commercial activity. The trade with 
the "West Indies is extensive. 

1716 May 2. Fr. Law's bank estab- 
lished in Paris. 

1717 * * Carolina. Population has in- 
creased but 600 in 41 years. 

* * Fr. The Company of the "West 
chartered, with John Law director. 

* * New Eng. The whale-fishery is 
begun. 

1719 * * Mass. Colonists begin to use 
tea. 

1720** U.S. Clocks introduced 
about this date, and substitute hour- 
glasses. 



60 1721, May-1730, Feb. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 
1721**5'. C. Gov. Nicholson confirms 
peace with the Indians. 

1722 July 25. New England declares 
war against the Indians. 

1723 Mar. 9. Me. An expedition 
from Massachusetts burns an Abnaki 
village on the Penobscot. 

* * Miss. Second Natchez War. 

1724 Aug. 23. Me. An expedition 
from Massachusetts again burns Nor- 
ridgewock, an Abnaki village on the 
Penobscot. 

* * La. France sends out 1,000 soldiers 
to protect the colonists. 

1725 Dec. 15. Me. The Eastern In- 
dians sign a peace with the English. 

* * Carolina is invaded by the Yamasis 
of Florida. 

* * LovewelFs fight occurs at Pegwacket. 

* * O. The English are disturbed by the 
French, who establish themselves on the 
Ohio. 

1726 * * The French retake Fort Denon- 
ville near Niagara River. 

* * N. Y. The French build Fort Niag- 
ara [at Lewiston]. 

1729 * * Uruguay. The Spaniards com- 
plete the conquest begun by the Portu- 
guese at Montevideo, under General 
Zarala. 

Nov. 29. Miss. The Indians attack 
the French settlement at Natchez ; 200 
colonists slain, 150 children, 80 women, 
and as many negroes taken into cap- 
tivity; only 20 whites and 6 negroes 
escape. 

1730 Feb. 8. La. An expedition of 
revenge captures nearly the whole tribe 
of Natchezan Indians, that massacred 
the French. [They are sent to St. Do- 
mingo as slaves.] 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE 
1722+ * * li. I. Hemp -duck is first 
manufactured. 

* * W. I. Destructive cyclone at Ja- 
maica. The town of Port Royal is over- 
whelmed with an inundation of the sea. 

1727 Oct. 29. New Eng. An alarming 
earthquake occurs. 

1729+ * * Brazil. Diamond mines discov- 
ered in Seria Frio (1710) are announced. 

* * Miss. First paper-mill is erected at 
Charlestown. 

* * Peru. A piece of gold weighing 90 
marks is found near La Paz. 



BIRTHS — DEATHS. 
1721* * 

Ashe, John, patriot, born. 

De Kalb, Baron John, general, born. 

Hopkins, Samuel, clergyman, born. 

Pendleton, Edmund, judge, born. 

Sherman, Roger, statesman, born. 

Yale, Elihu, patron of Yale College, A73. 

Zeisberger, David, missionary, born. 
1722* * 

Adams, Samuel, statesman, born. 

Auchmuty, Samuel, loyalist, born. 

Humphrey, Marshall, botanist, born. 

Lowndes, Rawlins, statesman, born. 

Witherspoon, John, clergyman, patriot, born. 
1723* * 

± Calef, Robert, anti-persecutionist, dies. 

Cornbury, Lord Edward Hyde, Gov. of N.Y., 
dies. 



Harnett, Cornelius, statesman, born. 

Landon, Samuel, l'res. of Harvard, born. 

Livingston, William, Gov. of N. J., poet, A67. 

Mather, Increase, clergyman, author, A84. 

Randolph, Peyton, first Pres. of Congress, b. 
1724* * 

Backus, Isaac, clergyman, born. 

Carleton, Sir Guy, Gov. of Quebec, born. 

Davies, Samuel, Pres. of Princeton, born. 

Laurens, Henry, statesman, born. 

Rivington, James, printer, born. 
1725 * * 

Cooper, Samuel, clergyman, born. 

Cushing, Thomas, Gov. of Mass., born. 

Hall, Lyman, statesman, born. 

Mason, George, statesman, born. 

Mixon, John, general, born. 

Otis, James, patriot, born. 

Prdvost, Augustine, major-general, born. 

Thomas, John, general, born. 
1726* * 

Alexander, William, major-general, born. 

Bass, Edward, P. E. bishop, born. 

Folsom, N., brigadier-general, born. 

Otterbein, Philip William, founder, born. 

Prescott, William, colonel, born. 

Wythe, George, jurist, born. 
1727* * 

Bowdoin, James, statesman, born. 

Ellery, William, signer of Declaration, born. 

Mcintosh, Lachlan, general, born. 

Stiles, Ezra, Pres. of Yale College, born. 

Ward, Artemas, general, born. 
1728* * 

De Peyster, Abraham, acting Gov. of N.Y., 
A70. 

Gates, Horatio, general V. S. A., born. 

Holyoke, Edward Augustus, physician, born. 

Mather, Cotton, theologian, A65. 

Stark. John, general, born. 

Warren, Mercy, authoress, born. 
1729* * 

Bartlett, Josiah, signer of Declaration, born. 

Buddington, William Ives, clergyman, A62. 

Embury, Philip, Methodist preacher, born. 

Franklin, William, Governor of N. J., born. 

Howe, Sir William, Eng. general, born. 

Seabury, Samuel, P. E. bishop, born. 

Thomson, Charles, Sec. of Congress, born. 

Williams, John, The Redeemed Captive, A85. 

CHURCH. 

1721 May 8. It. Innocent XIII. pope. 

* * Mich. The Mackinaw mission is re- 
opened. 

1722 * * Conn. The Protestant Epis- 
copal church has its effective begin- 
ning at Stratford. 

1723 * * Miss. The Jesuits are in the 
Mississippi Valley, north of Natchez. 

* * Conn. First Episcopal church in this 
province built at Stratford, under Dr. 
Johnson. 

Sept. 20. Phila. The Synod of Philadel- 
phia appoints a Committee of Confer- 
ence with the ministers of Connecticut, 
with regard to their affairs. 

* * * Miss. The Natchez tribe of Indi- 
ans worships the sun, and keeps an un- 
dying fire in its great wigwam. 

1724 May29./<. Benedict XIII. pope. 
Aug. 23. Me. Father Sebastian Rasles, 

the most noted Catholic missionary in 
New England, is killed in battle, after a 
service of thirty-seven years ; he dies 
standing by the cross, at Norridgewock. 
Sept. * New York. The first Baptist 
church is organized, with Nicholas 
Eyers pastor. 

1725 Jan. 1. Greenland. Fred. Chris- 
tian, the first convert of the Danish 
missionaries, is baptized. 

* * Mass. The ministers desire a synod 
" to recover and establish the faith and 
order of the gospel." [They are repri- 
manded by the Bishop of London for 
setting a bad precedent for dissenters.] 



1726 * * R.I. The Baptists of Newport 
vote to take " a weekly contribution for 
the support of the ministry." 

1727 May 19. Eng. The Bishop of 
London declares that " Christianity and 
the embracing of the gospel does not 
make the least alteration in civil prop- 
erty " (slaves). 

* * La. Ursuline nuns established at 
New Orleans. 

* * N. C. Paul Palmer forms the Shiloh 
Baptish church in Camden Corner. 

* * Pa. Rev. George Michael "Weiss, 
the pioneer minister of the German 
Reformed church, arrives and organizes 
the first church. 

William Tennent, a Presbyterian, es- 
tablishes the first theological school 
in America, at Neshaminy ; it is com- 
monly called "Log CoUege." 

* * Phila. It is proposed in the Presby- 
terian Synod to require all ministers to 
subscribe to the confession of faith. 
[New Englanders object.] 

A great number of German Luther- 
ans arrive. 

1728 * * Greenland. Godthaab becomes 
a Danish mission station. 

1729* * Boston. The Old South 
Church is erected [now standing], 

* * Mass. The Baptists and Quakers ex- 
empted from paying the parish minis- 
terial taxes when it offends their con- 
sciences. 

* * N. C. A second Baptist church formed 
at Meherrin, by Joseph Parker. 

* * New York. Many Jews arrive and 
settle in this city. 

* * Phila. The Presbyterian Synod, by an 
" Adopting Act," makes the Westmin- 
ster Confession of Faith its standard. 

* * R. I. General or Arminian Baptists 
form an association at Newport. 

LETTERS. 
1721 Aug. 21. Boston. TheNew Eng- 
land Courant is published by James 
Franklin. 

* * Mass. The Christian Philosopher, by 
Cotton Mather, appears. 

1723 Jan. * Boston. The legislature ap- 
points a committee of inquiry respect- 
ing the libels of the press, and James 
Franklin is imprisoned. 

The New England Courant is continued 
with Benjamin Franklin, the younger 
brother and apprentice to James, as 
nominal publisher. 

1725 Oct. 16. N. Y. The New York 
Gazette, the first newspaper in the 
city and the fifth newspaper established 
in the colonies, issued by William Brad- 
ford. [Continued till 1741.] 

1726 * * -39 * * Conn. Rev. Elisha Wil- 
liams rector of Yale College. 

1727 * * The Maryland Gazette, the first 
in this colony, issued at Annapolis. 

1728 Feb. 13. Mum. Cotton Mather, 
the most learned man in America, dies. 

1729 * * Pa. Modern Chivalry, or the 
Adventures of Captain Farrago, by 
Brackenridge, appears. 



AMERICA. 



1721, May-1730, Feb. 61 



* * Phila. The Pennsylvania Gazette, 
with a circulation of ninety, is bought 
by Benjamin Franklin. 

1730 Apr. 22. New York. A public 
library founded. 

SOCIETY. 

1721 * * Boston has an inoculation con- 
troversy. 

« * Va. Free negroes, mulattoes, and 
Indians are disfranchised " for the 
better government of negroes." 

1723 * * New York. Benjamin Frank- 
lin arrives in a penniless condition. 

* * Phila. Benjamin Franklin, 17 years 
of age, arrives and works at the prin- 
ter's trade. 

1724 * * Phila. Benjamin Franklin 
sails for Europe to buy printer's ma- 

- terials. • 

[Dec. * He arrives in London, but is 
disappointed in his expectations. 1726. 
July 23. He sails for Philadelphia, in- 
tending to become a merchant. Oct. 11. 
He arrives.] 

* * Va. Strong opposition to the slave 
trade. 

* * * Eng. The government opposes ef- 
forts of colonists to suppress the slave 
trade. 

STATE. 

1721 May * Mass. Dispute with the 
governor. The House of .Representa- 
tives declines to ask the governor to ap- 
prove its choice of speaker, and it also 
refuses grants of money till the governor 
shall accept its acts, resolves, and elec- 
tions. 

June * La. News of John Law's flight 
arrives. 

Sept. * Eng. The Board of Trade presents 
a plan for consolidating the government 
of the American colonies, and getting a 
revenue from them, which endangers 
the charter governments. 

Jeremiah Dummer defends the New 
England charters. 

* * La. Nearly 1,000 immigrants and 
1,367 slaves arrive. 

* * N. Y. The English hold a conference 
with the Five Nations at Conestoga. 

* * Portugal. The Brazil Company is 
abolished by John V. 

* * R. I. Notes issued for £40,000, inter- 
est on which is payable in hemp and 
flax. 

* * S. C. Proprietary government is 
overthrown. 

* * Va. Free negroes are first disfran- 
chised. 

1722 July * Mass. The legislature de- 
clares the Abnakis to be traitors and 
robbers, and offers a bounty for scalps. 

* * Chile. After a struggle of 180 years 
the Chileans make a treaty with the 
Spaniards, separating a part of the 
country to form Spanish Chile. 

* * La. German settlers remove from 
Arkansas, and settle 20 miles above New 
Orleans. 

* * Md. Marylanders declare themselves 
the inheritors of English common 
law. 



* * Mex. Don Juan de Acuna becomes 
viceroy, and evinces ability and in- 
tegrity. 

* * N. C. Thomas Pollock, president of 
council. 

* * _24 * * N. C. William Reed, presi- 
dent of council. 

* * N. Y. The authorities of New York, 
Pennsylvania, and Virginia hold a con- 
ference with the Iroquois. 

Burnet builds a trading-house at 
Oswego. 

* ♦ -26 * * Fa. Hugh Drysdale is lieu- 
tenant-governor. 

1723 Aug. * La. New Orleans made 
the center of French authority in the 
South. 

* * Mass. Gov. Samuel Shute flees to 
England to arraign the colony for in- 
subordination. 

* *-28* * Mass. William Dummer 
governor. [1729-30. Again.] 

* * Pa. Paper money amounting to 
£45,000 has been issued in the last two 
years. 

Franklin assists in introducing paper 
money. [Afterwards he perceives its 
evil tendencies.] 
*• * Va. The negro, mulatto, and Indian 
are disfranchised. 

1724 ** -41 ** Conn. Joseph Talcott 
governor. 

* * -25 * * N. C. George Burrington 
governor. 

±* * O. The Delawares migrate to 
branches of the Ohio for convenience in 
getting game. 

* * Sp. Louis I. king. 

Philip V. again king. 

* * -31 * * Vt. French settlements 
made. 

* * Vt. Fort Dummer built, the first 
English settlement. 

1725 * * Mass. Western Massachusetts 
is settled. 

Dec. 15. Mass. Dummer makes a treaty 
with the Indians. 

* * The rivalry between France and 
England for the possession of Oswego 
and Niagara begins. 

* *N. C. Sir Richard Everard gover- 
nor. (S. C. Arthur Middleton.) 

* * -26 * * New York. Johannes Jansen 
the 34th mayor. 

1726 * * Can. Beauharnois is appointed 
governor. (To 1747.) 

* * Mass. Gov. Shute receives an ex- 
planatory charter from the Crown, giv- 
ing him more power over the General 
Court. 

Treaty of peace made [and long kept] 
with Eastern Indians. 

* * N. Y. By treaty, the Senecas, Cayu- 
gas, and Onondagas place their lands 
under English protection, with that of 
the Mohawks and Oneida Indians. 

* * -35 * * New York. Robert Lurting 
the 35th mayor. 

+ * * England and France dispute re- 
specting the boundaries along the 
Lakes and St. Lawrence — the avenue 



of western communication. The In- 
dians surrender a strip six miles wide, 
along the southern shore of Lake On- 
tario, to the English. 

* * Pa. Patrick Gordon governor. 

* * _27 * * Va. Robert Carter is lieu- 
tenan t-go vernor . 

1727 July 11. Eng. George H. en- 
throned. 

July * Me. Further treaty made with 
the Indians at Falmouth (Portsmouth). 

* * N. Y. Oswego is founded as a for- 
tress. 

* * Va. Fredericksburg founded. 

* * Governors inaugurated : 
-30* * Md. Benedict L. Calvert. 
-32 * * R. I. Joseph Jenckes. 
-49 * * Va. William Gooch. 

1728 * * Conn. England strives to alter 
the laws of Connecticut. 

The English law in regard to intestate 
estates, favoring the eldest-born, is de- 
clared in force by the English govern- 
ment, and the colonial law annulled. 

* * Eng. Sir William Keith proposes a 
Stamp Act. 

* * New Jersey colonists petition the 
king to separate their colony from 
New York; he refuses their request. 

* * N. Y. Gov. Burnet is transferred to 
Massachusetts to make way for John 
Montgomerie, the groom of the chamber 
of George II. while he was Prince of 
Wales. (To 1731). Governor of N. J. 

* * The Shawnees migrate to branches 
of the Ohio. 

1729 July 29. Carolina becomes a 
royal government, the king having 
bought a seven-eighths interest of the 
proprietors for the sum of £17,500, with 
£5,000 added for quit-rents. 

Sept. * Carolina is divided into North 
and South Carolina, and a governor ap- 
pointed for North Carolina. 

* * -30 * * Mass. William Dummer is 
governor again. 

* *R.I. George Berkeley arrives. 

* * S. C. German Palatines arrive. 

1730 Jan. 15. New York. Gov. Mont- 
gomerie grants a new charter to the 
city. It provides for the annual election 
of aldermen and other local officers by 
the people. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1721 * * Mass. A scourge of small-pox 
attacks about 6,000 people in and near 
Boston ; vaccination is introduced 
and much opposed. 

1722 * * Mass. Population is about 
ninety-four thousand. 

1724 * * Eng. English ship-carpenters 
complain of the competition of Ameri- 
cans. 

1727 * * English imports from the 
North American Colonies amount to 
$2,870,000 ; exports, $2,685,000. 

1730 * * Boston. SmaU - pox ravages 
the town ; loss, 500 lives. 

* * Port. The discovery of diamonds in 
Brazil being announced, the govern- 
ment declares them crown property. 



62 1730, Aug. -1736. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 
1731* * N. Y. The French construct 
Fort Frederick at Crown Point on the 
west shore of Lake Champlain [and 
make it a strong fortress], commanding 
the natural waterway between the Hud- 
son and the St. Lawrence rivers. 

* * La. The last of the Natchez war- 
riors are defeated by the French [near 
Natchitoches]. 

1735 Apr.± * Ala. The French send 
one expedition from the South and an- 
other from the North against the brave 
Chickasaws. [Both of them are de- 
feated.] 

1736 May 20. Miss. The Chicka- 
saws defeat the French force from Illi- 
nois under D'Artaguette, and burn him 
and others at the stake. 

May 29. Miss. The Chickasaws de- 
feat a large body of French and their 
Indian allies under Gov. Bienville. 

1736 * * Ga. Gov. Oglethorpe builds a 
fort on the Savannah River at Augusta, 
in anticipation of a Spanish war ; various 
other forts are also erected. [In Eng- 
land, Parliament appropriates §50,000 
for expenses.] 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1731 May* Phila. Thomas Godfrey 

obtains a patent for his reflecting 

quadrant, used in taking altitudes of 

the sun or stars. 

* * Bishop Berkeley and his family are 
painted by John Symbert. 

1734 * * W. I. A destructive cyclone 

visits Jamaica. 
1736 Feb. 6. New England is shaken 

by an earthquake. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 
1730* * 

Cardillac, Antoine de la Motte, founder, d. 

Fairfax, Bryan L., loyalist, born. 

Hewes, Joseph, signer of Declaration, born. 

Kodney, Caesar, patriot, born. ? 

Ross, George, statesman, born. 

Sewall, Samuel, jurist, A 78. 

Steuben, Baron Frederick. I'rus. gen., b. 

Stockton, Richard, signer of Declaration, b. 
1731 * * 

Banneker, Benjamin, negro mathematician, 
born. 

Clavigero, Francis X., Mexican historian, b. 

Craik, James, physician, born. 

Hollis, Thomas, benefactor of Harvard, A72. 

Huntington, Samuel, signer of Declaration, b. 

Landiver, Rafael, Jesuit poet, born. 

Lee, Charles, general, born. 

McDougall, Alexander, general, born. 

Moultrie, William, general, born. 

Treat, Robert, lawyer and patriot, born. 

Williams, William, signer of Declaration, b. 
1732* * 

Abbott, Benjamiii.Metrodist preacher, born. 

Abbott, Samuel, founder, born. 

Blair, John, justieb, born in Va. 

Carver, Jonathan, traveler, born. 

Dickinson, John, political writer, born. 

Dunmore, John Murray, governor, born. 

Edes, Benjamin, journalist, born. 

Erving, John, clergyman, born. 

Johnson, Thomas, justice, born in Md. 

Johnston, Samuel, governor , born. 

Lee, Richard Henry, patriot, born. 

Marion, Francis, patriot, barn. 

Rittenhouse, David, astronomer, born. 

Washing-ton, George, Father of his coun- 
try, born. Feb. 22. 
1733* * 

Conway, Thomas, Count de, general, born. 

dishing, William, justice, born in Mass. 

Deane, Samuel, clergyman, born. 

Duane, James, statesman, born. 

Fellows, John, general, born. 



Law, Richard, jurist, born. 

Lincoln, Benjamin, general, born. 

Whipple, Abraham, naval officer, born. 
1734* * 

Caldwell, James, patriot, I'res. el., born. 

Floyd, William, patriot, born. 

Goodrich, Elizur, clergyman, born. 

Heck, Barbara, Methodist, born. 

Lee, Francis Lightfoot, patriot, born. 

Manly, John, naval commander, born. 

McKean, Thomas, jurist, born. 

Morris, Robert, statesman, born. 

Saint Clair, Arthur, general, born. 

Sumter, Thomas, general, sen. for S. C, born. 
1735 * * 

Oct. 19. Adams, John, 2d President, b. 

Boone, Daniel, pioneer, born. 

Carroll, John D., Archbp. of Baltimore, b. 

Clayton, Aimer, general, born. 

Cooper, Miles, l'res. of Columbia Coll., born. 

Morgan, John, physician, born. 

Revere, Paul, patriot, born. 

Trumbull, Benjamin, historian, born. 

Williamson, Hugh, physician, born. 
1736* * 

Clinton, James, general, born. 

Henry, Patrick, orator, born. 

Lee, Ann, founder of Shakers, born. 

Montgomery, Richard, general, born. 

Morgan, Daniel, general, born. 

Vincennes Sieur, de, Jean, Can. founder, A48. 

Wentworth, Sir John, Gov. of N. H., born. 



CHURCH. 

1730 ** Boston. The Presbyterian 
church is organized. 

July 12. It. Clement XIII. pope. 

* * Conn. — R. I. Thirteen Baptist 
churches hold yearly meetings upon 
the " Six Principles." 

* * Me. The Jesuits send a missionary 
from Quebec, and Norridgewock is re- 
built. 

1731 Dec. 13. W. I. The first Mora- 
vian missionaries arrive at St. Thomas. 

1732 Dec. 13. W.I. O'Leonard Dober 
and Nitschman, Danish missionaries, 
arrive at St. Thomas. 

* * N. H. Its first Protestant Episcopal 
church erected at Portsmouth. 

* * Pa. Catholics come under the min- 
istrations of English Jesuits. 

* * W. I. Nassau becomes a mission sta- 
tion of the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel. 

1733 May 20. Greenland. Moravian 
missionaries first arrive. 

May* Pa. The Seventh Day (German) 
Baptists establish a monastic society at 
Ephrata. 

* * Ga. Lutherans settle at Ebenezer. 

The Jews at Savannah organize. 

* * Eng. The Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel sends Jonathan Barber, a 
missionary, to the Mohicans. 

* * Pa. The first German Lutheran 
church in America is organized. 

* * Phila. The only Roman Catholic 
church north of Maryland, erected 
before the Revolution, is built. 

* * W. I. St. Croix becomes a mission 
station of the Moravians. 

1734 Oct. * Conn. Rev. John Sargent, 
of Yale College, opens a mission station 
among the Housatonics, receiving £500 
annually from the Society for the Prop- 
agation of the Gospel. 

* * Ga. The German Lutherans settle 
in Georgia, with Pastors Bolzius and 
Gronau. 



* * -35 * * Mass. The great awaken- 
ing at Northampton, under the minis- 
try of Jonathan Edwards. 

1735 Oct. 14. Eng. The two Wes- 
leys sail for America. 

John Wesley, having declined a quiet 

■ rectory, sets out with his brother Charles 

for Georgia, to become missionaries to 

the Indians. Charles Wesley is also to 

be secretary to the governor. 

* * John "Wesley observes the Mora- 
vians. 

A terrible storm convinces Wesley that 
the German Moravians on board the ves- 
sel have a fellowship with God, to which 
he is a stranger. 

* * Conn. A Baptist church is organized 
at Wallingford. 

* * Guinea. The first Moravian mission- 
aries land at Surinam. 

* * Mass. The General Assembly orders 
a new meeting-house built for the Indi- 
ans, which should be thirty feet wide 
and forty feet long. 

* *N. Y. The Church of England mis- 
sion among the Mohawks reports marked 
success. 

* * Va. Lutherans settle Spottsylvania. 

1736 * * Ga. The Wesleys change 
their plan. 

They abandon the project of establish- 
ing missions among the Indians, and 
engage in religious work among the col- 
onists, hut they enforce the forms of 
the church with a rigor and frequency of 
repetition which soon tires the people, 
and provokes resentment and persecu- 
tion. 

* * Ga. The Moravians begin mission- 
work among the Indians. 

A colony of pious men from Herrnhut 
and neighborhood arrives, seeking that 
religious liberty which was denied at 
home. Some brethren resolved to go 
with it, in order to preach the gospel to 
the Creek, Chickasaw, and Cherokee 
Indians. 

The two "Wesleys become ascetics. 

They deny themselves many of the 
common conveniences of life, sleep on 
the ground, eat only bread and water, 
and John Wesley goes barefoot that he 
may encourage the poor boys of his 
school. 

* * Conn. Mr. Sargent's church among 
the Housatonics reports 52 members. 
[Later two hundred and fifty.] 

* * S. C. Ashley River Baptist church is 
formed. 

LETTERS. 

1730 * * S. C. A printing-press set up 
at Charleston. 

1731 Jan. 8. The South Carolina Ga- 
zette issued at Charleston. 

* * Phila. Franklin establishes the first 
circulating library in this city. The 
Library Company and Loganian Library 
founded. 

1732 * * Phila. Benjamin Franklin's 
Poor Richard' s Almanac, the first of any 
note in the United States, appears. 

1733 * * Nero York. iTohn Peter Zenger 
issues the Weekly Journal, and criticizes 
the arbitrary acts of the governor and 
Assembly in imposing illegal taxes — 
the first attempt to criticize political 
measures in a newspaper. 



AMERICA. 



1730-Aug., 1736. 63 



Great agitation respecting the free- 
dom of the press. 

The aristocratic party denies its right 
to criticize the government ; the demo- 
cratic party maintains that right. 

* * Phila. Benjamin Franklin, at the 
age of twenty-seven, begins the study of 
the French, Italian, Spanish, and Latin 
languages. 

* * R. I. The first Rhode Island Gazette 
appears at Newport. (Or Sept. 7, 1732.) 

1734 Nov. 17. New York. Zenger 
imprisoned for defending popular gov- 
ernment in the Weekly Journal. 

Zenger is the editor, and is put in 
prison for criticizing the administra- 
tion ; the people are clamorous for his 
release. [He is acquitted shortly after.] 

1735 * * Pa. The first newspaper in a 
foreign tongue is issued in German, at 
Germantown. 

1736 Aug. 6. Va. The Virginia Ga- 
zette appears at Williamsburg. 

* * Mass. - Mr. Hollis of London pledges 
to support twelve Indian scholars in the 
Housatonic School at $100 per annum, 
and Mr. Holden five more on the same 
terms. 

SOCIETY. 

1732 * * Georgia Colony is planned as a 
benevolent enterprise. 

James Oglethorpe, a High Churchman, 
a cavalier, a soldier, a member of Parlia- 
ment, and an Oxford man, organizes this, 
the last of thirteen colonies, in pure 
benevolence as a refuge for the poor, es- 
pecially for the thousands of poor debtors 
who are thrown, annually, into the 
prisons of England for no other offense 
than impecuniosity. 

Nov. 17. Eng. Oglethorpe sails with 
120 poor people to plant a colony in 
the wilderness of Georgia. 

1733 Jan. 26. N.J. A negro is burnt 
alive for an assault on a white woman. 

May 21+. Ga. Oglethorpe secures a 
general council with many Indian 
chiefs ; this spreads his fame for justice 
and goodness far and wide. 

Tomo-chichi, chief of the Yamacraws, 
meets his new neighbor, Gov. Ogle- 
thorpe, and presents him with a buffalo 
robe painted on the inside with the head 
and feathers of an eagle. " Here is a 
present for you," said the donor. " The 
leathers are soft and signify love, the 
buffalo skin is an emblem of protection, 
therefore protect us." The request was 
not lost on the philanthropist. 

July 30. Boston. The first lodge of 
Freemasons is opened. 

* * Ga. On the second day after his ar- 
rival, Governor Oglethorpe declares that 
"the importation of ardent spirit is 
illegal." 

1734 * * Ga. The councilors of Georgia 
prohibit the importation of rum into 
the colony ; slavery is positively for- 
bidden ; traffic with the Indians is regu- 
lated by license. 

* * Phila. The second Freemasons' 
lodge in the colonies is opened. 

1735 July * New York. Alexander 
Hamilton, a noted lawyer of Philadel- 
phia, argues for the acquittal of Editor 
Zenger, who is charged with libel for 
criticizing the government ; he gains 
the verdict, and receives a gold box as a 
testimonial from the citizens. 



* * Eng. Parliament prohibits the im- 
portation of liquors into Georgia. 

Slaves run away to Florida, where the 
Spaniards welcome them and give them 
lands ; this irritates the colonists and 
provokes war, as the authorities refuse 
to surrender such slaves. 



STATE. 

1730 * * Brazil. The Government de- 
clares diamond mines regalia. 

**[U. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
June-July. Mass. William Tailer. 
-41* * J. Belcher. Aug. 10. Arrives. 
-35 * * S. C. Robert Johnson. 

* * Ky. Settlers straggle into this country. 

* * Md. Baltimore founded. 

* * R. I. Wild issues of paper money. 

1731 May 14. Conn. — N. Y. Final 
settlement of the boundary line be- 
tween New York and Connecticut. 

* * [ U. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
-33* * Md. Samuel Ogle. 

N. C. George Burnington. 
-32 * *N.Y. Rip van Dam. 

* * N. C. It is a royal province again. 

1732 Apr. 10. La. The Mississippi 
Company surrenders its unprofitable 
charter to the French crown. 

June 9. Eng. George II. grants [Geor- 
gia] to James Edward Oglethorpe, the 
philanthropist, " to be held in trust for 
the poor ; " 40,000 hopeless debtors lie in 
English prisons. 

* * Eng. Parliament prohibits the in- 
troduction from one colony into another 
of hats and woolens of domestic man- 
ufacture, and makes it illegal for hatters 
to have more than two apprentices. 

* * [ U. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
-33 * * Md. Charles Lord Baltimore. 
-36* *N. Y. Wm. Crosby. Aug. 1. 

Arrives. 
-36 * * N.J. John Anderson (pres.). 
-34 * * R. I. William Wanton. 

* * Md. Tobacco is made a legal ten- 
der at one penny a pound. 

* * N. Y. Two parties struggle fcr 
supremacy, the democratic party main- 
tains the freedom of the press to criticize 
the government, and the aristocratic 
party, which opposes its freedom. 

* * -33 * * R. I. Wm. Wanton gov- 
ernor. 

1733 Feb. 1. Ga. Gov. Oglethorpe 
lays out the streets of his settlement 
(Savannah) and lands his colony. 

Feb. 12. Ga. The colony of Savannah 
is begun. 

He designs it as a home for the poor, 
and a reformatory for prisoners ; 35 
families, numbering about 150 persons, 
settle here. 

May 21 *. Ga. Oglethorpe holds an im- 
portant council with the Indians. 

* * Eng. Parliament passes the odious 
Importation Act, laying exorbitant 
duties on all the sugar, molasses, and 
rum imported into the colonies. [This 
excites resentment, and evasion, and 
leads to revolution.] 



* * La. Bienville returns from France 
with a commission from the king as 
governor. 

* * Mass. The province of Massachu- 
setts Bay petitions Parliament against 
the grievance of a royal instruction to 
support the Crown officers by a general 
instead of an annual grant. [The peti- 
tion is voted to be frivolous and ground- 
less — a high insult.] 

1734 Mar. * Ga. Germans found Eb- 
enezer, above Savannah. 

Nov. 17. New York. Zenger, printer 
of the Weekly Journal, is arrested for 
libeling Governor Crosby. [Ac- 
quitted in 1735.] This is the first attack 
upon freedom of speech. 

* * [ V. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
-41 * * Md. Samuel Ogle. 

N. C. Nathaniel Rice (pres.). 
-52 * * N. C. Gabriel Johnson. 
-52 * * R.I. John Wanton. 

* * Costa Rica. The port of Caldera is 
opened, and prosperity revives. 

* * Ga. Augusta founded. 

1735 May * Ga. Nine Moravians, or 
United Brethren, begin a settlement 
south of Savannah. 

* *-39* * New York. Paul Richards 
36th mayor. 

* * _37 * * S. C. T. Broughton, gov. 
1736* * Ga. A party of 100 Scotch 

Highlanders, with John M'Leod their 
minister, arrive and [found Inverness on 
the Altamaha]. 
Feb. 6. Ga. Governor Oglethorpe re- 
turns from England, bringing 300 im- 
migrants, including 25 Moravians and 
the two Wesleys. 

* * [ U. S.] Governors inaugurated. 
-43 * * N. Y. George Clarke. 

N. J. John Anderson (pres.). 
-38 * * N. J. John Hamilton (pres.). 
-38 * * Pa. James Logan (pres.). 

* * Pa. Benjamin Franklin is chosen 
clerk of the general assembly. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1731* * New York. First fire engines 
introduced ; a department is organized. 

* * Philadelphia has 12,500 population. 

* * Rhode Island has about 18,000 inhab- 
itants. 

1732 * * N. Y. A stage route opened 
from New York to Boston, a journey of 
fourteen days. 

* * S. C. Prevalence of yellow fever ; 
business nearly suspended. 

* * W. I. The yellow fever appears in 
several islands of the West Indies. 

* * New York province has a population 
of about 65,000; Pennsylvania, about 
30,000 ; and Virginia, about sixty thou- 
sand. 

1733 * * Maryland has a population of 
thirty-six thousand. 

1734 * * Can. Quebec and its suburbs 
have 4,603 inhabitants. 

1735 * * Boston has a population of 
about sixteen thousand. 

1736 * * Mass. A regular line of stages 
runs from Boston to Newport. 



64 



1737-1744. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 
1737 * * Ga. Gov. Oglethorpe returns 
from England with a military commis- 
sion and a British regiment of 600 men, 
to protect the colony from the Spaniards. 

1739 Oct. 23-48* * England is at 
war with Spain to open the ports of 
Spanish America to English merchants. 

Nov. 22. Colombia. Admiral Edward 
Vernon, with six English men-of-war, 
takes Portobello from Spain. 

1740 Jan. 4±. Ga. Governor Ogle- 
thorpe with 1,200 troops and 1,000 Indi- 
ans invades Florida as ordered from 
England. [May 10. Takes Fort St. Di- 
ego, near St. Augustine.] 

Mar. * Ala. The French send another 
expedition against the Chickasaws. 

June * -July * F la. Oglethorpe leads a 
strong expedition to capture St. Augus- 
tine ; after a siege of five weeks he 
withdraws. 

Oct. * W. I. New England troops join 
Admiral Vernon in an expedition sent to 
break Spanish power in the West Indies. 

Nov. * Ala. The Chickasaws promise 
peace to the French. 

1741 Mar. * Colombia. Admiral Ver- 
non's expedition of 27,000 men against 
Cartagena is frustrated by disease. 

* * Cuba. The English colonies partici- 
pate in an attack upon this island. 

1742 July 5. Ga. A Spanish fleet 
of 51 vessels, with 5,000± men, carries 
the war northward into Georgia. [It 
is foiled by the stratagem of Ogle- 
thorpe and his small army ; the Span- 
ish commander is dismissed from the 
service.] 

July 15. Ga. The Spaniards retire 
from the attack on Savannah County. 

July 18. Ga. The Spaniards attack 
Fort "William and are repulsed. 

1744* *-48* *King George's War 

between Great Britain and France. 
Mar. 15. France declares war against 

Great Britain. 
May * Me. A French force from Cape 

Breton surprises the English garrison at 

Canso and destroys the fort. 
June 2. Boston receives information 

that France has declared war against 

England. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1741 * * Vitus Bering discovers north- 
western America. 

1742 * * Boston. Faneuil Hall is built 
by Peter Faneuil, and presented to the 
town. 

* * Can. Middleton and Moore make 
their discoveries in Hudson Bay. 

* * Md. Copper- works are in operation. 

1743 * * Pa. John Bartram engages in 
botanical explorations. 

* * Phila. Benjamin Franklin estab- 
lishes the American Philosophical So- 
ciety. [1753+ . Expires. 1769. Revived.] 

* * S. C. The cultivation of indigo 
begins. 



BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1737* * 
Allen. Ethan, colonel, born. 
Carroll, Charles, patriot, born. 
Copley, John Singleton, painter, horn. 
Deane, Silas, diplomatist, born. 
Hancock, John, statesman, born. 
Heath, William, general, born. 
Hopkinson, Francis, author, born. 
Nicholson, James, commodore, born. 
Paine, Thomas, author, born. 

1738* * 

Boardman, Richard, clergyman, born. 

Hobart, John G., senator, born. 

Nelson, Thomas, statesman, born. 

Palmer, Ruf us, general, born. 

Quincy, Edmund, jurist, born. 

West, Benjamin, painter, born. 
1739* * 

Bartram, William, botanist, born. 

Clinton, George, vice-president, Gov. of N. 
Y., born. 

Clymer, George, statesman, born. 

Duche. Jacob, first chaplain of Cong., born. 

Dupont, Pierre Samuel, economist, born. 

Jarvis, Abraham, bishop, born. 

Langdon, John, statesman, born. 

Pickens, Andrew, general, born. 

Rutledge, John, justice, born in S. C. 
1740* * 

Harrison, Benjamin, signer of Decl'n, b. 

Lathrop, John, clergyman, born. 

Lee, Arthur, statesman, born. 

Meigs, Return Jonathan, officer, born. 

O'Brien, Jeremiah, privateer, born. 

Otis, Samuel A., senator, born. 

Sullivan, John, general, born. 
1741* * 

Arnold, Benedict, gen., traitor, born. ■ 

Chase, Samuel, justice, born in Md. 

Fitzsiminons, Thomas, patriot, born. 

Kirkland, Samuel, founder, born. 

Murray, John, clergyman, born. 

Peabody, Nathaniel, general, born. 

Peale, Charles Wilson, painter, born. 

Perkins, Elislia, physician, born. 

Reed, Joseph, patriot, born. 

Warren, Joseph, patriot, born. 
1742* * 

Bard, Samuel, physician, born. 

Bradford, Andrew, journalist, A55. 

Brant, Joseph, Mohawk chief, born. ? 

Cadwallader, John, general, born. 

Clagget, J. Thomas, bishop, born. 

Drayton, William Henry, statesman, born. 

Greene, Nathaniel, general, born. 

Hooper, William, patriot, born. 

Hagar, Isaac, general, born. 

Ieard, Ralph, statesman, born. 

Middleton, Arthur, statesman, born. 

Provoost, Samuel, bishop, born. 

Robertson, James, pioneer, born. 

Wilson, James, justice, born in Pa. 
1743* * 

Allen, Thomas, chaplain, born. 

Blair, James, William and Mary College, d. 

Dana, Francis, jurist, born. 

Dexter, Timothy, eccentric citizen, born. 

Elbert, Samuel, Governor of Ga., born. 

Faneuil, Peter, donor of Faneuil Hall, A43. 

Fitch, John, inventor, born. 

Heckewelder, John, missionary, born. 

Jackson, Jonathan, congressman, born. 

Jefferson, Thomas, President, horn Apr. 2. 

Porter, Andrew, general, born. 

Rand, Isaac, physician, born. 

Rumsey, James, inventor, born. 

Warner, Seth, officer, born. 



CHURCH. 

1737 Sept. 23. N. Y. Hebrews dis- 
franchised by the Legislature. 

* * Ga. Charles Wesley leaves the colony 
for England via Boston. 

John Wesley sails for England later 
in the year, having failed as a mission- 
ary, and thoroughly cured of mysticism. 

1738 Jan. * George Whitefield, pul- 
pit orator and consecrated Methodist 
evangelist, sails for Georgia on his first 
visit to America. [He projects an or- 
phan asylum, and soon returns to Eng- 
land in its interests.] 

May * Ga. Whitefield arrives, and es- 
tablishes an asylum for orphans. 



Sept. * S. C. Whitefield sails from 
Charleston for England. 

* * Greenland. Kajaruak, the first Eski- 
mo convert, is awakened by the Moravian 
preaching. 

* * S.C. Peedee Baptist church formed. 

1739 Sept. * Eng. George White- 
field sails from England to visit Amer- 
ica the second time. 

[He lands in Philadelphia early in 
November. He visits New York, preach- 
ing thrice daily for a week ; goes to 
Georgia and visits his Orphan House ; 
visits most of the important cities, 
preaching incessantly, and greatly hon- 
ored by clergy and people, and power- 
fully moving the masses of the people by 
his zeal and eloquence. Twenty thou- 
sand persons listen to his farewell ad- 
dress on the Common in Boston ; he 
raises much money for his Orphan 
House.] 

* * Mass. The meeting-house (and school 
house), built by the Assembly for the 
Indians, is first occupied. 

* * Md. Baltimore has its first Protestant 
Episcopal church. 

* * Pa. The Presbyterian Synod divided 
into friends and foes of the revival 
connected with Whitefield. 

1740 Aug. 17. It. Benedict XIV. 
pope. 

* * Conn. Conversion of the Indian, Sam- 
son Occum, afterward Indian mission- 
ary. 

* Mass. Arian views of Christ cher- 
ished in New England. 

* * N. Y. Henry Rauch, the first Mora- 
vian missionary to the New York In- 
dians, begins work at Shekosniko, 

Missionary Henry Rauch is bitterly 
opposed by the white people. 

Their large income in trading with the 
Indians is due to the ignorance of the 
latter. In proportion to the success of 
the mission, opposition increases. Mis- 
sionaries and Christian Indians are ar- 
rested upon absurd and false charges, 
and the work of Rauch and his co- 
laborers is obstructed in every possible 
way. 

* * Pa. The Moravians begin mission 
work among the Indians at Bethlehem. 

* * -47 * * Pa. Between these dates 
Ludweek Hacker set up a Sabbath- 
school at Ephrata, among the German 
Seventh-day Baptists there. (Haydn.) 
[The school-room was used as a hos- 
pital after the battle of Brandywine, 
(1777), thus breaking up the school.] 

* * Phila. Friction in the Presby- 
terian Synod ; cause, revivals. 

* * S. C. George Whitefield is called 
before the commissary to answer for 
"certain articles," touching irregulari- 
ties and breach of pledges made in 
ordination. 

1741 Jan. 16. S. C. Whitefield em- 
harks at Charleston for England. 

** Phila. Schism in the Presbyterian 
Synod ; the New Brunswick Presbytery 
is excluded. # 

June 2. Phila. The Presbytery of New 
Brunswick meets, with others who are 
excluded from the synod, and organizes 
the Presbytery of Londonderry. [A 
synod is called for August, 1742.] 



AMERICA. 



1737-1744. 



65 



* * New Eng. Whitefield's revival. 

Between thirty and forty thousand 
persons have professed conversion dur- 
ing the last two years, under the preach- 
ing of Whitefield. 

* * N.Y. The Church of England Mo- 
hawk Mission reports 500 Indians in 2 
towns, and 58 communicants. 

* * Pa. Count Zinzendorf visits 
America and preaches to the Moravians. 

It is claimed that Dr. George de Benne- 
ville first preaches Universalism in 
America. 

The Moravians found Bethlehem. 
1742 Feb. 11. Pa. Count Zinzendorf 
ordains two missionaries at Oly, to labor 
among the Indians. 

* * Conn. The General Assembly repeals 
the law exempting "sober dissent- 
ers" from worshiping with the "stand- 
ing order." 

Severe laws enacted against the 
" New Lights," who favor a more 
spiritual life in religion — bitter conten- 
tion with the " Old Lights." 

Harvard and Yale arrayed against 
Whitefield ; the General Assembly 
makes it illegal for any unsettled min- 
ister to preach at all. 

* * Md. The first Baptist church formed 
at Chestnut Ridge, near Baltimore. 

* * N. Y. A great revival prevails 
among the Mohican and other Indian 
tribes. 

Aug. * Pa. The Presbytery of New Lon- 
donderry holds its first meeting ; it con- 
sists of members who were excl uded from 
the Presbyterian Synod. 

* * Pa. Arrival of Henry M. Muhlen- 
berg, the founder of the Lutheran 
church in America. A new epoch opens 
for the Lutherans in his organizing work. 

1743* * Boston. A second Baptist 
church formed. 

May 30. Phila. The Presbyterian Synod 
meets, and rejects overtures of peace 
from the Synod of New York. 

* * N. Y. The Mohawk mission of the 
Church of England reports only two or 
three of the tribe unbaptized. 

LETTERS. 
1739 * * -66 * * Conn. Kev. Thomas 

Clap is president of Yale College. 
1741* * Phila. The American Magazine, 

conducted by John Webbe, appears. It 

is the earliest magazine in America ; 

but two numbers issued. 
The General Magazine and Historical 

Chronicle, the first literary journal in 

America, is issued by Benj. Franklin. 

(Six numbers.) 

1742 * * Pa. The first public library in 
Pennsylvania is instituted by the effort 
of Franklin. 

1743 * * -47 * * Boston. The American 
Magazine appears. 

* * Boston. The Boston Weekly Museum 
appears. (Four numbers.) 

* * -45 * * Boston. The Christian History 
appears. 

* * Mass. The education of Housatonio 
Indian girls is begun with poor success. 



* * New York. The New York Gazette or 
Weekly Post-Boy issued by Jas. Parker. 

* * Pa. A German edition of the Bible is 
published at Germantown. 

SOCIETY. 

1738 * * S.C. Desolating insurrection 
of negroes, inspired by Spanish influ- 
ence ; leaders are executed. 

1740 * * S. C. Teaching negroes to 
write is prohibited by law. 

1741 * * New York. Negroes conspire 
to murder their masters, and burn the 
city ; a panic ensues, and a public fast 
is observed. 

Four whites and 18 negroes are sud- 
denly hanged, 14 negroes are burned, 71 
transported, and many imprisoned ; the 
existence of a plot is doubted. [Later it 
is proved that none existed.] 

1743 * * Ga. Gov. Oglethorpe closes 
ten years of office with the colonists, not 
having taken for himself an acre of 
ground, nor even owned a house. 

The poor colonists clamor for the 
introduction of slaves; the prohibitory 
laws are first evaded and then defied. 

± * * Ga. Improvident English settlers 
contend that rum is necessary to resist 
the climate, and that none but slaves 
can till the soil. 

1744+ * * Fa. Mobs persecute the 
Baptists here and elsewhere ; ministers 
are frequently imprisoned for preaching. 

STATE. 

1737 * * La. A royal edict permits ten 
years' freedom of commerce between 
Louisiana and the West Indies. 

Mar. * N. C. The Assembly imprisons 
the king's officers for distraining rent ; 
because of this it is dissolved, leaving 
the colony without revenue and the 
officers without pay. 

* * _43 * * S. C. Wm. Bull, governor. 

1738 * * Jamaica. The Maroons (run- 
away slaves) are permitted to form set- 
tlements in the north part of the island. 

* * New Jersey becomes a separate 
colony. 

Colonists again petition for separation 
from New York, and the king yields, and 
appoints Lewis Morris governor. 

* * [ U. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
-46 * * N.J. Lewis Morris. 

-47* * Pa. George Thomas (deputy). 

1739 * * Colombia. The new kingdom 
of Granada is established under a 
viceroy. 

* * Me. A few Germans settle in Waldo- 
borough. 

**.44* * jVe W York. John Cruger 
the 37th mayor. 

1740 * * Ga. The Moravians are op- 
posed to war, and emigrate as a body 
to Pennsylvania, where they found Beth- 
lehem and Nazareth. 

* * _43 * * r. i. Richard Ward gover- 
nor. 

* * S. C. Act passed forbidding to 
teach negroes how to write. 



* * The jurisdiction of the French north 
of Baton Rouge, in the Mississippi Val- 
ley, is only in name ; its expensive colo- 
nization is a failure. 

* * Tennessee first explored. 

* * * Period of colonial prosperity. 

1741 * * Eng. Parliament interferes to 
restrain the issue of paper currency 
in the colonies. 

* * New Hampshire is finally separated 
from Massachusetts, and becomes the 
only royal government in New England. 

* * [ U. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
-50 * * Conn. Jonathan Law. 
May 6-49 * * Mass. Wm. Shirley. 

1742 * * Fa. Richmond is established 
by legislative enactment. 

* * Md. Thos. Bladen, governor. 
1743* *[U. S.] Governors inaugu- 
rated : 

Sept. 22-53 * * N. Y. Gen. Clinton. 
-44 * * R. I. W. Greene. [1746, 48-54.] 
-55 * * S.C. James Glen. 

Sept. 27. N. Y. Gov. Clinton's first offi- 
cial act is to dissolve the Legislature, 
and issue writs calling another. 

1744 July 4±. Pa. Commissioners from 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia 
meet envoys of the Iroquois at Lan- 
caster, and for $2,000 purchase their 
claim to the region between the Blue 
Ridge and the Alleghany Mountains. 
[Later the English claims extend to the 
Mississippi.] 

* * Eng. Parliament provides for the 
government of the province of Quebec, 
empowering the king to appoint a coun- 
cil of administration. 

* * O. The English seek to occupy the 
Ohio Valley in competition with the 
French. [The struggle continues for 
thirty years.] 

* * _47 * * js'eto York. Stephen Bayard 
the 38th mayor. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1738* * Paper currency depreciated ; 
gold is at a premium. 

One hundred English sovereigns are 
worth £500 in New England notes, £160 
or more in the notes of New York, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania and Maryland, 
£1,000 in notes of North Carolina or 
£1,400 if offered in London. 

1739 Aug. * G<j. Governor Oglethorpe, 
with only three or four attendants, jour- 
neys through the unbroken wilderness 
for a month, suffering great hardships, 
in order to meet Tomo Chichi and other 
chiefs in a great council at the Indian 
town of Choweta, 300 miles northwest of 
Savannah. 

* * W. I. The yellow fever rages. 

1740 * * S. C . Great fire ; best build- 
ings burned. [Parliament appropriates 
$100,000 for the sufferers.] 

1741 Mar. 18. New York. The chapel 
and buildings in the fort are burned. 

1743 * * Ga. Settlers not permitted to 
hold their lands in fee simple previous 
to this date. 



6$ 1744-1751, Nov. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY— NAVY. 

1745 June 17. N. S. Louisburg, the 
chief stronghold of the French in 
America, is taken by 4,000 colonists 
from New England, led by William 
Pepperell, a wealthy merchant of Maine, 
aided by a few English vessels. 

Nov. 16. N. Y. The French and In- 
dians surprise the village of Saratoga. 

* * Can. The projected conquest of Can- 
ada by the united colonists is abandoned 
on the arrival of a French fleet. 

* * Boston becomes apprehensive of an 
attack from D'Anville's fleet. 

1746 Aug. 20. Mass. The French and 
Indians take Fort Massachusetts ; 
part of the prisoners are massacred. 

1747 Feb. 4. N. S. Colonel Noble is 
surprised at Grand Pre\ 

Jan. 31. N. S. Battle of Minas. 
June * Can. Montreal is raided by the 
British. 

1748 June 26. Vt. A battle with In- 
dians is fought at Marlborough ; the 
Indians retire. 

1749 * * Can. Fort Rouille' [Toronto] 
is built. 

1750 Apr. * Can. Bostilities occur in 
Acadia [Nova Scotia] between French 
and English respecting boundaries. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1745 * * Benjamin West, seven years 
of age, executes his infant sister's por- 
trait in black and red inks. 

* * W. I. A theatrical representation 
given by a company of amateur actors, 
including the famous Moody, in the 
Island of Jamaica. 

1746 Oct. 28. Peru. An earthquake 
destroys Lima and Callao. 

Eighteen thousand persons are buried 
in ruins ; every inhabitant but one, of 
Callao, is destroyed by the earthquake 
or the tidal wave attending it. 

* * Pa. The first iron rolling and slit- 
ting mill is erected in Thornbury. 

* * Phila. Franklin experiments with 
electricity. 

1748 * * Phila. Franklin makes an ex- 
hibition of electricity. 

At a picnic he " killed a turkey by the 
electric spark, and roasted it by an 'elec- 
tric jack before a fire kindled by the 
electric bottle." 

1749 ** Boston. The King's Chapel is 
built. (1689. First built.) 

* * Phila. A company of amateurs at- 
tempt to open a theater. 

* * Aid. Eight furnaces and nine forges 
are at work. 

1750 Mar. 5. New York. Richard III. 
is performed at a theater on Nassau 
Street. 

* * Boston. Otway's Orphan is acted at 
the coffee-house in State Street. It is 
the first theatrical performance in 
the country, and is immediately pro- 
hibited. 

* * Mex. Ruins of Falenque" are first 
discovered. 

± * * Phila. Robert Feke paints por- 
traits. 



± * * Patience Wright models miniature 

heads in relief, with wax. 
± * * Deacon Shem Drowne makes some 

elaborate weather-vanes. 
1751 Nov. 21. W.I. Port-au-Prince, 

St. Domingo, is ruined by an earthquake. 
* * La. Sugar-cane is introduced. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1744* * 

Adams, Abigail, writer, born. 

Belknap, Jeremy, historian, born. 

Bradstreet, John, major-general, dies. 

Gerry. Elbridge, vice-president, born. 

Mifflin, Thomas, general, born. 

Parker, Samuel, bishop of Mass., born. 

Quincy, Josiah, patriot, born. 

Romeyn, Theodoric 1)., theologian, born. 

Sevier, John, pioneer, born. 

Sullivan, James, statesman, born. 
1745 * * 

Asbury, Francis, bishop, born. 

Avery, Waightstill, lawyer, born. 

Bache, Sarah, nurse, born. 

Barry, John, naval officer, born. 

Edwards, Jonathan, theologian, born. 

Ellsworth, Oliver, chief-justice, b. in Conn. 

Harrison, Robert H., justice, born in Md. 

Hayne, Isaac, officer, born. 

Jay, John, chief-justice, born in N.Y. 

Kitteridge, Thomas, surgeon, born. 

L'Ouverture, Toussaint, liberator, born. 

Murray, Lindley, grammarian, born. 

Paterson, "William, justice, born in K. J. 

Patterson, Robert, senator, born. 

Pickering, Timothy, statesman, born. 

Rush, Benjamin, physician, born. 

Kutgers, Henry, patriot, born. 

"Wayne, Anthony, general, born. 
1746* * 

Allen, John, patriot, born. 

Andrew, John, clergyman, born. 

Benson, Egbert, judge, born. 

Billings, William, composer, born. 

Livingston, Robert R., statesman, born. 

Muhlenberg, John P. G., general, born. 

Neale, Leonard, bishop, born. 

Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth. states- 
man, born. 
1747* * 

Brainerd, David, missionary, A29. 

Coke, Thomas, bishop, born. 

Dickinson, Jonathan, clergyman, A59. 

Farrar, Timothy, judge, born. 

Fitson, John, explorer, born. 

Howell, David, judge, born. 

Jones, John Paul, naval officer, born. 

Moody, Samuel, minister, A71. 

Shays, Daniel, insurrectionist, born. 
1748* * 

Deane, James, missionary, born. 

Few, William, colonel, born. 

Hicks, Elias, Friend preacher, born. 

Martin, Luther, lawyer, born. 

Moore, Benjamin, bishop, born. 

Williams, Otho H., general, born. 
1749* * 

Backus, Charles, clergyman, born. 

Baynan, William, surgeon, born. 

Gansevoort, Peter, officer, born. 

Godfrey, Thomas, mathematician, dies. 

Griffin, Cyrus, statesman, born. 

Ingersoll, Jared, jurist, born. 

Lincoln, Levi, statesman, born. 

Lynch, Thomas, Jr., signer of Declaration, b. 

Palmer, Anthony, statesman, dies. 

Ramsay, David, physician, born. 

Rutledge, Edward, statesman, born. 

Sargent, John, missionary, A49. 

Stevens, John L., inventor, born. 

Thomas, Isaiah, journalist, born. 
1750* * 

Biddle, Nicholas, navy, born. 

Daboll, Nathan, teacher, born, 

± Francisco, Miranda, Venezuelan, born. 

Girard, Stephen, founder, born. 

Iredell, James, justice, born in N. C. 

Jasper, William, patriot, born. 

Knox, Henry, general, born. 

Lawrence, John, statesman, born. 

Parsons, Theophilus, judge, born. 

Pinckney, Thomas, general, born. 

Taliaferro, Benjamin, officer, born. 

Trumbull, John, poet, born. 



CHURCH. 
1744 * * N. Y. The governor opposes 
the missionaries, 



Influenced by white opposition, he 
issues orders " that the several Moravian 
and vagrant teachers among the Indians 
of New York should desist from further 
teaching and preaching to the Indians, 
and depart the province." [These orders 
were executed by the sheriff.] 

Rev. David Brainerd is sent by the 
Presbytery of New York a missionary to 
the Indians. 

* * Pa. The « « Old Side " or strict Pres- 
byterians open an academy at New Lon- 
don. 

* * George Whitefield makes his third 
evangelistic visit to America. 

* * Va. Mobs of persecutors torment 
the Baptists. 

1745 May 25. Phila. Commissioners 
from the Presbytery of New York de- 
cline to accept the report of a Synodical 
Commission appointed to remove differ- 
ences'; it proposes to the Synod a mutual 
agreement to erect another synod, to bo 
called the Synod of New York. 

Sept. 19. A r . J. The Presbyteries of New 
York, New Brunswick, and New London- 
derry unite at Elizabethtown and erect 
the Synod of New York, thus dividing 
the Presbyterian church. 

The division is chiefly caused by differ- 
ences in opinions respecting ministerial 
education. The "Old Side" constitute 
the Synod of Philadelphia; the "New 
Side," the Synod of New York ; the 
latter urge a more spiritual ministry. 

1746 May 15. Phila. Fifty-six Bap- 
tists form a Baptist church entirely in- 
dependent of that at Pennepeck (Lower 
Dublin). 

* * N.J. The " New Side " Presbyterians 
get a charter for the college of New 
Jersey (Princeton College) ; first locate 
it at Elizabethtown. 

1747 * * Mass., etc. John Brainerd suc- 
ceeds his brother as missionary to the 
Indians. 

* * Md. Controversy on baptism by 
Samuel Finley and Abel Morgan 
through the press. 

Sept. 12. New York. A sub-governing 
body, called the Coetus, is formed in 
the Dutch Reformed church. 

Sept. 29. Pa. The first Reformed Ger- 
man Coetus is formed. 

1748 Aug. 14. Phila. Convention 
of Lutherans meets and organizes the 
first Lutheran Synod in America ; J. N. 
Kurtz is ordained for the ministry, 
the first of this denomination in the 
colonies. 

1749 * * Boston. The corner-stone of the 
[present] King's Chapel is laid. [1754, 
Aug. 21. Reopened.] 

* * N. Y. A new missionary resumes the 
work among the Mohawks, which was 
abandoned during the recent war. 

1750 Jan. * Boston. Jonathan May- 
hew preaches against tyranny and priest- 
craft. 

June 22. Mass. Contention drives Jon- 
athan Edwards from his church at 
Northampton, "the largest Protestant 
society in the world " ; he becomes a 
missionary to the Stockbridge Indians. 

* * or 1755 * * N. H. The first Baptist 
church is formed at Newtown (Newton). 



AMERICA. 



1744-1751, Nov. 



67 



LETTERS. 

1744 * * Pa. Benjamin Franklin be- 
comes the projector of the University 
of Pennsylvania. 

* * Franklin becomes the founder of the 
American Philosophical Society. 

1745 * * Boston. The American Monthly 
Magazine is established by Jeremy 
Gridley. 

* * Md. The Maryland Gazette, the first 
newspaper printed in this province, is 
revived at Annapolis, the capital. 

1746 Oct. 22. N. Y. Bill introduced 
in the assembly to raise $11,250 by lot- 
tery, for the erection of a college 
(Columbia). 

* * N. J. The (Presbyterian) Presbytery 
of New York, in session at Elizabeth- 
town, New Jersey, founds Nassau Hall 
(Princeton). 

* * -47 * * New York. The Evening Post 
issued by Henry de Forrest. 

* * A Treatise Concerning the Religious 
Affections, by Jonathan Edwards, 
appears. 

1747 * * History of the First Discovery 
and Settlement of Virginia, by William 
Stith, appears. 

* * Philosophic Solitude, by William Liv- 
ingston, appears. 

* * N. J. The College of New Jersey 
(Princeton) is removed to Newark. 

1748 Oct. 28. N. Y. Governor Clin- 
ton signs the bill revising an act to 
raise $9,000 by lottery, to build a col- 
lege (Columbia). 

* * S.C. The Library Society is organized. 

1749 * * An Inquiry into the Qualifica- 
tions for Full Communion in the Church, 
by Jonathan Edwards, appears. 

* * N. C. Printing is introduced. 

* * Pa. The University of Pennsyl- 
vania (non-sect.) is founded. (Or 1740.) 

* * Va. [Washington and Lee Uni- 
versity] (non-sect.) is founded as a school 
at Greenville. 

1750 * * Mass. Ninety Mohawks come 
from New York, and put their children 
in the Stockbridge Indian School. 

SOCIETY. 

1745 Feb. 2. W.I. A conspiracy of 
negroes in Jamaica to murder their 
masters, exposed by a negress to her mis- 
tress. [Severely punished.] 

1747 Nov. 17. Boston. The British 
impress seamen. An indignant mob 
expresses the public resentment against 
Commander Knowles ; the governor 
withdraws to Castle William. 

1750 * * Boston. An amateur theatrical 
play leads the legislature to prohibit 
theatrical exhibitions in the province. 

STATE. 
1744 * * Virginia purchases of the Indi- 
ans the right to extend settlements to the 
Ohio, and build a fort [where Pittsburg 
now stands]. 

* * Wis. Charles de Langlade becomes a 
settler. 



1745* *Md. Frederick City is founded. 

* * R. I. Gideon "Wanton governor. 
[1747.] 

* * Va. Lord Halifax settles beyond the 
mountains. 

1746 * * Sp. Ferdinand VI., king. 
**[U.S.] Governors inaugurated : 

-51 * * Md. Samuel Ogle. 

N. J. John Hamilton (pres.). 
-47 * * N. J. John Reading. 

1747 Nov. 17. Boston. Commander 
Knowles impresses seamen, and his 
officers are imprisoned by a mob until 
the release of the men impressed. 

* * _57 * * jy ew York. Edward Holland 
the 39th mayor. 

* *[U. S.] Governors inaugurated: 
-57 * * N.J. Jonathan Belcher. 
-48 * * Pa. Anthony Palmer (pres.). 

1748 July* N. Y. A colonial con- 
gress held at Albany is attended by 
representatives of New England and of 
the Six Nations. 

Oct. 7. Fr. Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 
between England, France, and Spain, 
by which each surrenders its conquests, 
and Cape Breton is restored to the 
French. [1749. May 10. It is proclaimed 
at Boston.] 

Oct. * N. Y. Gov. Clinton meets an as- 
sembly at Albany, and demands a rev- 
enue for the king. The assembly 
insists on naming the incumbent of 
each office, and is prorogued. 

* * Persons in England and Virginia unite 
to form the Ohio Company. 

* * Pa. James Hamilton, governor. 

* * W. I. Tobago is declared a neutral 
island. 

1749 Mar. 3. Eng. Under the pretext 
of suppressing the flagrant evils of co- 
lonial paper money, Walpole reports a 
bill to overrule all charters, and to 
make the orders by the king, or under 
his authority, the highest law of 
America. 

June 5. N. S. The British government 
sends emigrants to Nova Scotia at its 
own expense; Halifax is founded. 

Oct. 16. Massachusetts makes a treaty 
with the eastern Indians. 

* * Eng. A Stamp Act proposed. 

* * Massachusetts becomes a hard money 
colony. 

* *[U. S.] Governors inaugurated: 
-53 * * Mass. Spencer Phips. 

-70 * * Va. Lord Albemarle, Thomas 
Lee, and later, Lewis Bur- 
well (acting). 

* *New England is reimbursed by 
England in specie for her outlay in the 
Louisburg expedition, and thus enabled 
to redeem her paper currency. 

* * N. H. Disputes over the New Hamp- 
shire grants [continuing for forty years]. 

* * * The struggle between the French 
and English for possession of Ohio 
Valley begins. The French are the 
first occupants. 

1750 * * The Ohio Company obtains a 



grant of about 600,000,000 acres about 
the Ohio River in territory claimed by 
France. [War follows for eight years.] 

* * Arg. Rep. Montevideo enjoys a pro- 
vincial government separate from that 
of Buenos Ayres. 

* * Boston. Jonathan Mayhew makes 
his bold utterances against England. 

* * Eng. Parliament attempts to sup- 
press the development of the colo- 
nies, to prevent competition in similar 
productions. 

It forbids, under penalties, the main- 
taining of iron-mills, slitting or rolling 
mills, plaiting-forges, and especially the 
manufacture of steel ; it also prohibits 
the felling of pine-trees outside of cer- 
tain enclosures. 

* * Md.—Pa. Mason and Dixon are 

appointed to survey the division line 
between Maryland and Pennsylvania. 
[It afterwards becomes the notable 
boundary between freedom and slavery.] 

* * N. Y. The colony grows slowly, 
being outstripped by Massachusetts, 
Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Maryland, 
and Virginia. 

* * N. S. Conflicting claims are made 
by the French and English. 

* * O. Christopher Gist, G. Crogan, and 
A. Mentour are in the Ohio country. 

The Shawnees enter the Ohio country. 

* * Paraguay. The Jesuits resist the 
transfer of a part of Paraguay to the 
Spaniards, till they are subdued by com- 
bined Spaniards and Portuguese troops. 
It is in the interest of their missions. 

* * Port. Joseph Immanuel king. 

* * Va. George Washington, nineteen 
years of age, is appointed surveyor-gen- 
eral of the Northern District. 

The Ohio Company send Christopher 
Gist into the west on an exploring ex- 
pedition. 

* * - 54 * * Conn. Roger Wolcott is gov- 
ernor. 

1751 July* N. Y. A colonial con- 
gress at Albany in which South Caro- 
lina joins for the first time. Subject, 
the protection of the colonies from the 
French. Peace concluded between the 
English colonies and the Six Nations. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
1745 * * N.J. A census taken ; popu- 
lation sixty-one thousand four hundred 
and three. 

* * W. I. The yellow fever rages. 

1748 * * Md. The population is esti- 
mated at 94,000 whites and 36,000 blacks ; 
total, 130,000. 

* * Colombia. Porto Bello is the great 
commercial mart for the rich commerce 
of Chile and Peru. [Now a small village 
20 miles northeast of Colon.] 

1750 * * New Eng. Popoulation about 
three hundred and fifty-four thousand. 

* * W. I. Fire consumes a part of Port 
Royal, Jamaica. 

* * Pennsylvania receives 5,317 emi- 
grants. 

* * Since 1607 there has been very little 
emigration to the colonies to this date. 



68 1751-1755, Sept. 8. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY - NAVY. 

1751 * * Va. George "Washington, 19 
years of age, is appointed Adjt.-Gen. for 
the Northern District of Virginia. 

1752 * * Pa. Virginians delay building 
the fort at the forks of the Ohio. 

* * 0. The French destroy the English 
trading-post at Pickawillany. 

1754 * * Lieut.-Col. "Washington, 22 
years old, becomes colonel on the illness 
of Col. Fry. [Without experience in war 
he soon strikes the first blow in the final 
struggle between the French and Eng- 
lish for supremacy in the New World.] 

Mar. * Pa. Thirty-three Virginians 
forestall the French and build a stock- 
ade in the West. [On the present site 
of Pittsburg.] 

Apr. 17. Pa. The French capture the 
Virginians, erect a stronger fortress and 
call it Fort Du Quesne (Pittsburg). 

May 28. Pa Near the Great Meadows 
at the confluence of the Monongahela 
and the Alleghany Rivers, "Washington 
surprises and defeats a French force 
under M. Jumonville, who is killed with 
10 of his men ; 22 survivors are captured, 
while only one Virginian is killed and 
two or three wounded. 

July 4. Pa. Col. George Washington 
has his first defeat in the defense of 
Fort Necessity (S. W. Pennsylvania), 
where he capitulates to a superior force 
of the French. 

Aug. 27. JV. Y. The French and In- 
dians break up all settlements at Hoo- 
sick and Schaghticoke. 

* * Me. Fort Halifax is built on the Ken- 
nebec. 

* * The English establish forts west of 
the Alleghanies. 

1755 Feb.* Va. Gen.Braddock.com- 
mander of British forces, arrives from 
Ireland. 

OLD FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 

* * -63 * * The French and Indian 
War between England and France — 
a part of the Seven Years' War in Eu- 
rope. It is a struggle to acquire su- 
premacy in the New World. 

The French have Indians as their 
allies. 

Apr. ± * Three expeditions are planned 
against the French in a council of colo- 
nial governors : (1) against Fort Du 
Quesne; (2) against Fort Niagara; (3) 
against the fort at Crown Point. 

May 20. N. S. Two thousand troops 
sail from Boston to subdue the French 
in Acadia. [In less than a month, with 
a loss of only 20 men, the English take 
the entire country.] 

May 30. Va. Gen. Braddock advances 
to drive the French intruders out of the 
Ohio Valley. 

June 8. The British fleet off Cape Race 
attacks a part of a French fleet, and 
captures two vessels. (June 10?). 

June 7. Mil. Gen. Braddock sets out 
on his disastrous march from Fort Cum- 
berland. 



June 16. JV. S. Fort Beau Sejour sur- 
renders to Col. Monckton after a siege 
of four days. 

Fort Gaspereau surrenders to 
Monckton. 

June * Va. Braddock refuses the aid of 
Indian scouts and frontier men, having 
" experienced troops on whom he could 
rely for all purposes." 

June * -July * JV. Y. Fort Edward, 
on the Hudson, is erected against the 
French by General Phineas Lyman, with 
about 6,000 troops ; they also fortify Ti- 
conderoga. 

July 7. Pa. Braddock's defeat. 

Near Fort Du Quesne (Pittsburg), Gen. 
Braddock is surprised by a party of 
French and Indians, his 1,200 troops are 
routed, and he is mortally wounded. 

The enemy consist of 220 French, led 
by Beaujeu and Dumas, with 637 In- 
dians ; of Braddock's 85 officers, 26 are 
killed and 37 wounded, and 714 privates 
killed or wounded. Colonel George 
Washington saves the remnant of the 
army ; he has two horses shot under 
him, and, though his coat is shot 
through, he escapes unscathed. 

+ * * England and France struggle for 
possession of the Ohio Valley and 
Acadia. 

* * Mass. Governor Shirley of Mas- 
sach usetts is appointed commander-in- 
chief of the British forces in America. 

* * Summer. Pa. The disaster attend- 
ing Braddock's expedition fills the colo- 
nies with gloom and consternation; 
it shakes the colonists' confidence in the 
British soldiers. 

Aug. 2. Pa. Col. Dunbar leaves a few 
troops at Fort Cumberland, and retires 
with the rest of his army to Philadelphia. 

Aug. * JV. Y. Gen. William Johnson 
erects a fort at the head of Lake George. 

Aug. 30±. JV. Y. Gen. William John- 
son with 3,400 men is sent to drive the 
French from the Lake Cham plain region. 

Sept. 5. JV. S. Exile of the Acadiana 
announced. 

The British, having subdued the 
French in Acadia, proceed to banish 
more than 4,000 hapless men, women, 
and children among the British colonies, 
and burn their property. " The history 
of civilized nations furnishes no parallel 
to this wanton and wicked destruction 
of an inoffensive colony." (Ridpath.) 

Sept. 8. JV. Y. Col. Ephraim Wil- 
liams, with a thousand men, leaves Lake 
George, and marches for the defense of 
Fort Edward. He is soon surprised by 
French and Indians under Baron Dies- 
kau, and driven back. The English lose 
among the killed Col. Williams and the 
Indian Chief Hendrick. 

The French follow the returning fu- 
gitives to Lake George, where they are 
repulsed by the New England militia. 
American loss, 216 killed and 96 wound- 
ed ; the French loss is greater. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 
1751+ * * Phila. David Rittenhouse 

(19 years old) discovers the method of 

fluxions. 
1752 Sept. 25. Va. The first play 

performed in America by a regular 

company of comedians is acted. 



The Merchant of Venice and Garrick's 
Lethe are performed by William Hal- 
lam's Company of English actors at Wil- 
liamsburg, the capital city. 

* * Phila. Benjamin Franklin makes 
remarkable electrical discoveries. 

Franklin brings electricity down from 
a cloud, and proves that it is identical 
with lightning. 
± * * Lightning conductors are set up 
for the protection of buildings by Ben- 
jamin Franklin. 

* * S. C. St. Michael's Church at 
Charleston is built. 

1753 Sept. 17. New York. The second 
theater in this city is opened in Nassau 
Street, by Hallam's Company, with 
Steele's Conscious Lovers. 

* * Phila. An Arctic expedition is sent 
out under the instigation of Franklin. 

* * Pa. Benjamin West paints the 
Death of Socrates at Lancaster. 

* * * It is commonly believed, even by 
educated people, in the Old World, that 
plants and animals degenerate in size 
and quality when transplanted into the 
New World. 

1754 Apr. 15. Phila. The first thea- 
ter is opened at the corner of Cedar and 
Vernon Streets, with the Fair Penitent, 
by Hallam's Company, at " the store- 
house " of Wm. Plumstead. 

1755 Apr. * Ecuador. An earthquake 
destroys Quito. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1751 * * 

Allen, Ira, founder, born. 

Allen, Solomon, clergyman, born. 

Barber, Francis, officer, born. 

Cabot, George, agitator, born. 

Dearborn. Henry, general, born. 

Decatur, Stephen, commodore U. S. N., b 

Dudley, Paul, jurist, dies. 

Ledyard, John, traveler, born. 

Madison. James. 4th President. born Mar. 16. 

Phillips, Samuel, benefactor, born. 

Red Jacket, Seneca Indian, born. 

Smybert, John, painter, A67. 
1752* * 

Bleecker, Ann Eliza, poetess, born. 

Bowdoin, James, diplomat, born. 

Bradford, William, printer, A92. 

Burton, Asa, clergyman, born. 

Cbampe, John, soldier, born. 

Chipman, Nathaniel, jurist, born. 

Clarke, George Rogers, general, born. 

Duval. Gabriel, justice, born in Md. ■ 

Dwlght. Timothy, Pres. of Yale Coll., b. 

Freneau, Philip, poet, born. 

Garrettson. Freeborn. Meth. cl., born. 

Howard, John Eager, soldier, born. 

Humphreys, David, soldier, born. 

Linn, William, chaplain, born. 

Logan, Benjamin, pioneer, born. 

Morris. Gouverneur, statesman, born. 
1753* * 

Baldwin, Thomas, theologian, born. 

Eustis, William, physician, born. 

Harmar, Josiah, general, born. 

Hull, William, general, born. 

McCrea, Jane, killed by Indians, born. 

Rumford, Count (Benjamin Thompson), 
philosopher, born. 

Warren, John, physician, born. 

Wheatley, Phillis, negro poetess, born. 

Wilkinson, Jemima, impostor, born. 
1754* * 

Barlow, Joel, poet-patriot, born. 

Burbeck, Henry, army officer, born. 

Ellicott,Andrew, astronomer, born. 

Hampton. Wade, general, born. 

Tallmadge, Benjamin, army officer, born. 

Thatcher, James, physician, born. 

CHURCH. 

1751 * * Mass. Tuscarora and Oneida 

Indians join the Christian Indians of 

Stockbridge, and put their children in 

the Indian schools. 






AMERICA. 



1751-1755, Sept. 8. 69 



Jonathan Edwards becomes pastor 
of the church at Stockbriilge, and mis- 
sionary to the Stockbridge Indians. 
Salary, £6 13s. Ad. 

* * S. C. Charleston Baptist Association 
formed. 

1752 * * Can. Moravian missionaries 
land in Labrador. 

* * Pa. Arrival of Mr. Cuthbertson, a 
Presbyterian (Reformed) minister sent 
from Scotland. 

Arrival of Philip William Otter- 
bein (Ger.), founder of the United 
Brethren in Christ. 
1754* * N. Y. The Coetus of the Re- 
formed Dutch church takes steps for 
the formation of a Classis. 

* * Jamaica. Moravian missionaries be- 
gin labor among the natives. 

* * Va. By the laws of this colony, every 
settlement is to have " a house for the 
worship of God " ; absence therefrom is 
punishable with a fine ; traveling or 
shooting on the Sabbath is interdicted. 

* * W. I. Friedensthal becomes a mis- 
sion station of the Moravians, at St. 
Croix. 

* * Catholic vs. Protestant. 

The religious future of the New World 
is in the issue of the French and Indian 
war ; the success of the French signifies 
the dominance of Catholicism ; of the 
English, the supremacy of Protestantism . 

LETTERS. 

1751 * * N.J. Woodbridge has the first 
printing-press in the province. 

* * N. Y. The sum of £3,443 has been 
raised to found King's College (Colum- 
bia). 

1752* * New York. The Independent Re- 
flector issued by James Parker. 

The Mercury issued by Hugh Gaine. 

± * * Struggle in the legislature and 
through the press to prevent the estab- 
lishment of seminaries of learning 
having connection with any religious 
society; William Livingston leader. 

1753 * * New York. The Pacquet issued 
by William Wenman. 

New York. Rev. Dr. Samuel Johnson, 
of Connecticut, is invited to the presi- 
dency of King's (Columbia) College; 
salary, £250. 

* * R. I. The Athenaeum Library at 
Providence is founded. 

1754 July 17. New York. King's (Co- 
lumbia) College, under the presidency 
of Dr. Johnson, opens with a class of 
ten students, in the vestry room of 
Trinity Church. 

Oct. 31. Neio York. A royal charter 
for King's (Columbia) College (Prot. 
Epis.) passes the seals. 

Governors, the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, the principal clergy of Ave re-- 
ligious denominations in New York, 
and twenty private gentlemen. Money 
is raised in England, and Joseph Murray 
gives $40,000 and his library. 

The Society Library is founded. 

SOCIETY. 

1752 Feb. 2. Pennsylvania hospital 
admits its first patient. 



* * * New Eng. It becomes fashionable 
as well as honorable to wear home- 
spun, because of British oppression in 
restricting manufactures and commerce. 
Harvard students make it a point to 
be graduated in homespun. 

* * * Ga. The Colony is a financial 
failure. 

After nearly 20 years of benevolent ef- 
fort and the expenditure of more than 
§000,000 in Parliamentary grants, and 
of private contributions amounting to 
nearly $90,000, Georgia has only 1,700 
whites, and 400 negroes, and a discoura- 
ging future. The failure of the colony is 
charged to its benevolent scheme, and 
lack of wisdom in the proprietary regu- 
lations. 

1753 Oct. 31. Va. George Wash- 
ington, a surveyor, 22 years old, with 
four comrades and an interpreter, sets 
out for the shores of Lake Erie, bearing 
an important remonstrance from the 
Governor of Virginia to the commander 
of the French. 

Dec. 16. Pa. Washington starts on 
his return journey, in great peril from 
Indians. 

STATE. 
1751* * B.C. Georgetown is laid out at 
the head of navigation on the Potomac ; 
it grows rapidly. 

* * * America refuses to be ruled by ar- 
bitrary instruction. 

* * Eng. The colonies are regarded by 
the mother country as depots for the 
distribution of home products on a new 
soil. 

1752 Jan. 1. Eng. The calendar is 
changed. 

Parliament enacts that the beginning 
of the new year shall be changed from 
the 25th of March to January 1 in Eng- 
land and her colonies. Eleven days to 
be omitted after September 3d. 

Mar. * Pa. A plan of American union 
is proposed. 

June 13. Virginia treats with the Indi- 
ans at Logstown, and is permitted to 
build a fort at the forks of the Ohio. 
[Delayed.] 

June 23. Ga. The trustees of this un- 
successful colony surrender the char- 
ter to the king, and it becomes a royal 
province. 

Sept. 3. Eng. New Style introduced. 
The CALENDAR CHANGED ; 
Sept. 3 changed to Sept. 14 in England 
and her colonies. 

* * [ U. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
-54 * * Ga. Capt. J. Reynolds (Prov.). 

Md. Benjamin Tasker. 
N. C. Nathaniel Rice (pres.). 
-58 * * Va. Robert Dinwiddie. 

1753 May ± * O. A large body of 
French and Indian allies enter the val- 
ley of the Ohio. 

Oct. 10. N. Y. Sir Danvers Osborn 
supersedes Governor Clinton. 

Oct. 31. The English colonies are irri- 
tated by the erection of French forts in 
the interior, at their rear. George Wash- 
ington commissioned by the governor of 
Virginia to remonstrate. 



Nov. 14. Va. Washington starts from 
Williamsburg on his perilous journey 
through the forest, to inquire the pur- 
poses of the invading French at Fort Le 
Bceuf [Pittsburg]. 

Dec. 12. N. Y. The Assembly passes 
an act for the registry of mortgages, 
to prevent fraud. 

* * Connecticut colonizes lands in Penn- 
sylvania. 

* * [ U. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
-56 * * Mass. William Shirley. 
-56 * * Md. Horatio Sharpe. 

-54 * * N. C. Matthew Rowan (pres.). 
Oct. 10. N. Y. Sir Danvers Osborne. 
-55 * * N. Y. James de Lancey. 

* * Pa. The first settlement in the Ohio 
Valley is made by Virginians on the 
banks of the Youghiogheny. 

1754 Jan 16. Va. George Washing- 
ton brings a letter from the French 
commander refusing to vacate the terri- 
tory held by the French in the West. 

June 19. N. Y. Congress of seven 
colonies at Albany ; a union for de- 
fense is proposed. 

July 4. N. Y. Benjamin Franklin 
lays before the Congress at Albany a 
plan for a federal constitution, aim- 
ing to provide by union for a common 
defense against French encroachment ; 
it is adopted [but afterward rejected by 
some of the colonies, and by the British 
government]. 

Dec. * Boston. Gov. Shirley lays before 
Franklin a scheme of colonial union, 
which provides for a colonial congress 
and British taxation. 

* * Kentucky is settled by Col. Daniel 
Boone of Bucks County, Pennsylvania. 

* * [ U. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
-66 * * Conn. Thomas Fitch. 

-56 * * Ga. John Reynolds. 
-63 * * N. C. Arthur Dobbs. 
-55 * * Pa. Robert H. Morris (dep.). 

* * Va. The French continue to en- 
croach upon the territory of Virginia, 
west of the Alleghanies. 

1755 Apr. 14. Va. In a colonial con- 
gress at Alexandria, Gen. Braddock 
and five colonial governors recommend 
taxation of America by Parliament. 

July * Eng. Halifax proposes to ease 
the mother country by taxing the colo- 
nies. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1751 * * La. Sugar-cane is introduced. 

* * Pa. Franklin estimates the popula- 
tion of the colonies at " nearly a mil- 
lion English souls," about 20,000 of them 
to be native born. 

* * Philadelphia has about 17,000 people, 
including 6,000 negroes. 

1752 * * Boston loses about 550 people by 
a small-pox scourge. The population 
is 17,574. 

* * N. Y. The first house is erected in 
[the city of Troy]. 

* * -54 * * Iceland. Great famine be- 
cause of the failure of crops ; thousands 
perish. 



70 1755, Sept. 10-1759, July. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY— NAVY. 

1755 Sept. 10. Can. Seven thousand 
Acadians are forced to embark for 
banishment. [Fisher's estimate, 7,000 ; 
Winsor's, 4,000.] 

Sept. * N. Y. Fort William Henry, a 
useless wooden defense, is erected at 
Lake George by Gen. Johnson. 

Oct. 24. Gov. Shirley, commander of the 
expedition against Fort Niagara, grows 
weak-hearted, and abandons the move- 
ment after learning of Braddock's defeat. 

* * N. T. The French fortify Ticon- 
deroga. 

* * Va. Indian warfare on the fron- 
tier [continuing several years]. 

1756 May 17. Eng. After fighting the 
Frencn for two years, Great Britain 
makes an open declaration of war. 

June 9. France formally declares war 
against Great Britain. 

June 15. New York. Gen. Abercrom- 
bie, the second in command under the 
Earl of Loudoun, arrives with several 
British regiments. 

Forty German officers arrive to re- 
cruit a loyal American regiment of 4,000 
men. 

June 27. N. Y. Abercrombie, at Al- 
bany, billets his soldiers upon private 
houses, and proceeds to while away the 
summer. 

June * Gov. Shirley resigns the com- 
mand of the British troops in America. 

Aug.± * Can. The Marquis Louis Joseph 
Montcalm supersedes Baron Dies- 
kau in command of the French. 

Aug. 12. Can. Montcalm, with a mixed 
force of over 5,000 men, and 30 pieces of 
cannon, commences the siege of Fort 
Ontario, on the Oswego River. 

Aug. 13. N. Y. The garrison of Fort 
Ontario retires to the old fort on the 
opposite side of the river. 

Aug. 14. N. Y. Surrender of Oswe- 
go. Montcalm obtains an immense 
amount of military stores, also 1,400 pris- 
oners, and 134 cannon. 

Sept. 8. Pa. Col. John Armstrong, 
with 300 volunteers, surprises and de- 
stroys the hostile Indians in Western 
Pennsylvania, with a loss of only 16 men. 

* * III. The French construct a system 
of forts in the interior, westward, near 
the Illinois River. 

* * Rhode Island sends 50 privateers, 
with 1,500 men, against the French. 

* * Va. George "Washington drives the 
the Indians out of the Valley of the 
Shenandoah. 

1757 Jan. * Can. General Stark goes 
down Lake George with 70 rangers, and 
turns the strong post of Carillon. 

June 20. Can. Loudoun sails with a 
splendid army for Halifax. [He is reen- 
forced later by additional troops, mak- 
ing 11,000 men and 16 men of war.] 

Aug. 3. N. Y. The French and Indians 
under Montcalm besiege Fort "Wil- 
liam Henry; Col. Monroe sends to 
Fort Edward 15 miles distant for aid, of 
Gen. Webb, who has 4,000 men at com- 



mand; he declines the request, and coun- 
sels a surrender. 

Aug. 4. Can. Gen. Loudoun is in- 
formed that a large French fleet and a 
garrison of 6,000 men await him at Louis- 
burg, so he abandons the expedition 
against it. 

Aug. 9. N. Y. Col. Monroe with about 
2,600 men surrenders Fort William 
Henry to Gen. Montcalm who has 
11,500 men ; the Indian allies, maddened 
with rum, cruelly massacre the pris- 
oners at Bloody Pond. 

* * The French seem triumphant every- 
where. 

The campaigns of the last two years 
have been disgraceful to the British 
flag ; imbecility and cowardice in the 
management is the cause. France pos- 
sesses twenty times as much American 
territory as England. 

* * Eng. Lord Jeffrey Amherst is ap- 
pointed commander of a division of 
the British army in America ; James 
Wolfe is his talented lieutenant. 

1758 Jan.± * The imbecile Lord Lou- 
doun is retired and Gen. Abercrombie 
succeeds him in command of the 
British army in America. Lord 
Howe is next in rank. 

Mar. * Rogers is defeated on Lake Cham- 
plain. 

Apr. 30. N. Y. German Flats are at- 
tacked by the Indians. 

May 28 -July 26. N. S. Successful 
expedition of the British against 
Louisburg. 

Gen. Amherst, with nearly 12,000 men, 
and Admiral Boscawen, with nearly 40 
vessels, capture the fortress and destroy 
the shipping. 

June 8. N. S. General Amherst lands 
his forces near Louisburg. 

July 5. N. Y. Abercrombie and Lord 
Howe embark on Lake George against 
Ticonderoga and Crown Point, having 
nearly 16,000 men and much artillery 
with them. 

July 6. N. Y. The French ambuscade 
the British advance near Fort Ticon- 
deroga ; Lord Howe, " the soul of the 
army," is killed, and the soldiers are 
dispirited, having no confidence in Aber- 
crombie. 

July 8. N. Y. Battle of Ticonderoga 
won by the French. 

The British attack the fort, which is 
successfully defended by about one- 
fourth their number. " In no battle of 
the Revolution did the British have so 
large a force engaged or meet so terrible 
a loss."' (Ridpath.) 

July 9. N. Y. Abercrombie retreats 
from Ticonderoga to Fort George. 

July 26. N. S. England takes Nova 
Scotia. 

After a siege of a few weeks Louisburg 
capitulates to Gens. Wolfe and Amherst : 
Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island, ana 
nearly 6,000 prisoners fall to the British. 

July * Fort Stanwix is built. 

Aug. 27. Can. The British, under Col. 
Bradstreet, take Fort Frontenac 
(Kingston), also 46 cannon, 9 vessels of 
war, and a large military store. 

Sept. 15. Pennsylvania troops and 800 
Highlanders under Gen. Bouquet ap- 



proach the French position at Fort Du 
Quesne, are surprised and routed. 

Nov. 24. Pa. The French abandon 
and burn Fort Du Quesne at the 
approach of Gens. Forbes, Washington, 
and Armstrong, with 9,000 men. 

Nov. 25. Pa. The English flag is raised 
over the ruins, and the place is called 
Pittsburg after the great Commoner. 

* * Can. Montreal is surrounded by 
walls. 

1759 Jan.± * Va. "Washington (aged 
26) resigns his command after the de- 
parture of the French from Fort Du 
Quesne. 

Jan. 23. W. I. . The British attack 
Guadeloupe. 

Jan. * Eng. General Amherst (Lord 
Jeffrey) is promoted to the chief com- 
mand of the army in America ; par- 
liament votes $60,000,000, to carry on the 
war; William Pitt proposes to con- 
quer all Canada. 

June 21. Can. The English fleet ap- 
proaches Quebec. 

June 27. Can. Gen. Wolfe lands an 
army of about 8,000 a few miles below 
Quebec. A French force of 13,000 is in 
the city. 

June 30. Can. Wolfe takes possession 
of Point Levi, where he proceeds to 
erect batteries. 

July 18. Can. Some of Wolfe's vessels 
pass above Quebec. 

July 25. Can. Fort Niagara capitu- 
lates to the British under Sir William 
Johnson after a bloody battle. 

French communication between Can- 
ada and Louisiana is forever broken off. 
Gen. Prideaux is killed by the bursting 
of a gun during the siege. 

July 26. N. Y. The French garrison re- 
treats from Fort Ticonderoga to Crown 
Point at the approach of Gen. Amherst. 

Summer. Pa. Stanwix builds Fort Pitt 
near Du Quesne. 

July 31. Can. "Wolfe is checked in 
an impetuous assault on the French at 
Quebec, in which he loses 400 men. 

N. Y. The French abandon the 

important fortress at Crown Point, and 
surrender the valley of the Champlain 
without a battle. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1755 Nov. 18. New England is shaken 
by an earthquake. 

* * Phila. Franklin makes experiments 
in electricity with a kite. 

Nov. 18. An earthquake extends from 
New England to the West Indies. 

1756 Feb. 14. N. Y. The Hudson 
River is free from ice ; recruits sail from 
New York for Albany. 

* * Phila. Benjamin "West is estab- 
lished as a portrait painter. 

1758 * * Conn. The first paper-mill is 
erected at Norwich. 

* * New York. A sail-loft is used for the- 
atrical purposes by a strolling company. 

A new theater is built at Cruger's 
wharf by Mr. Douglas. 



AMERICA. 



1755, Sept. 10-1759, July. 71 



BIRTHS— DEATHS. 

1755* * 

Adams, Hannah, authoress, born. 

Bancroft, Aaron, theologian, born. 

Kvans, Oliver, engineer, born. 

Gray, Robert, discoverer, born. 

Hale. Nathan, patriot, born. 

Kenton, Simon, pioneer, born, 

Kins. Ruius, statesman, born. 

Marshall, John, chief justice, born in Va. 

Moore. Alfred, justice, born in N. C. 

Truxtun, Thomas, naval officer, born. 

Williams, Ephraim, colonel, founder, A40. 
1756* * 

Burr, Aaron, slayer of Hamilton, born. 

Dale, Richard, commodore, born. 

Laurens, John, officer, born. 

Lee, Henry, general, born. 

Stuart, Gilbert Charles, painter, born. 

Tilghman, William, jurist, born. 

Trumbull, John, painter, born. 
1757* * 

Badger, Joseph, missionary, born. 

Hamilton, Alexander, statesman, born. 

Hammond, Samuel, statesman, born. 

Lafayette, Marquis de, born in France, 
Sept. 6. 

Macon, Nathaniel, sen. for N. C. born. 

Paine, Elijah, jurist, born. 

Robbins, Ashur, statesman, born. 

Wilkinson, James, general, born. 
1758* * 

Ames, Fisher, statesman, born. 

Armstrong, John, author, born. 

Edwards, Jonathan, theologian, A55. 

Messerve, Nathaniel, colonel, patriot, A43. 

Monroe, James, 5th President, born Apr. 
88 in Va. 

Paulding-, John, patriot, born. 

Pinckney, Charles, statesman, born. 

Prince, Thomas, historian, A71. 

Webster, Noah, lexicographer, born. 

Worcester, Noah, clergyman, born. 

CHURCH. 

1755 Sept. 30. N. Y. Assembling of 
the Conferentie of the Reformed Dutch 
in New York. [Much strife and fre- 
quently some violence in the churches 
on governmental questions.] 

* * Can. In Nova Scotia 7,000 Catholic 
Acadians are banished and scattered 
for refusing to take the oath of suprem- 
acy. 

* * N. Y. The Presbytery organizes a 
mission presbytery in Hanover County, 
Virginia. 

1756 Apr. 1. Jamaica. The first Mo- 
ravian missionary lands at St. Johns. 

Oct. 5. N. J. The Philadelphia Baptist 
Association decides to raise money for 
the establishment of a school at Hope- 
well. 

* * Mass. Isaac Backus becomes a Bap- 
tist, and forms the first Baptist church 
at Middleborough. 

1757 Jan. 12. Jamaica. The first Mo- 
ravian convert is baptized. 

Sept. 10. N. J. G. Du Bois, the first 
pastor of the Reformed Dutch Church 
of Bergen, is installed. 

1758 Jan. 11. Ga. The General As- 
sembly, meeting at Savannah, legalizes 
the Church of England as the church 
of the province. 

May 22. Pa. The two Presbyterian 
Synods reunite after a separation of 
thirteen years, and form " the Synod of 
New York and Philadelphia" with 94 
members. 

* * Greenland. Lichtenfels becomes a 
mission station of the Moravians. 

* * St. Clement Xm, pope. 

* * N. C. A Baptist Association formed. 

* * O. Christian Frederic Post first opens 
a Moravian mission in the Ohio country. 



LETTERS. 

1755 * * Mass. John Adams graduates 
at Harvard. 

* * Mass. An Inquiry into the Modern 
Prevailing Notion respecting that Free- 
dom of Will which is supposed to be 
essential to Moral Agency, etc., by Jon- 
athan Edwards, appears. [Or 1754.] 

Dec. * N. C. Its first newspaper, the 
North Carolina Gazette, is issued at 
New Berne. 

* * Conn. The first newspaper, the Con- 
necticut Gazette, is issued at New Haven. 

* * New York. Sir Charles Hurdy, the 
new governor, subscribes $2,500 for the 
founding of a college ; this settles the 
controversy in favor of the church party. 

1756 Aug. 23. New York. The corner- 
stone of King's (Columbia) CoUege is 
laid. 

* * N. H. Its first newspaper, the New 
Hampshire Gazette, is issued at Ports- 
mouth. 

1757 +. The Great Christian Doctrine of 
Original Sin Defended, by Jonathan 
Edwards, appears. 

* * N.J. The CoUege of New Jersey- 
is removed from Newark to Princeton. 

* * Phila. The American Magazine ap- 
pears. 

1758 * * Boston. The New England 
Magazine appears. 

* * N.J. Jonathan Edwards is called 
to the presidency of Princeton CoUege. 

* * -66 * * N. J. North American Mag- 
azine appears at Woodbridge. 

SOCIETY. 

1757 * * Ga. It is enacted that no liq- 
uor Ucense shall be granted to any 
joiner, bricklayer, plasterer, shipwright, 
silversmith, goldsmith, shoemaker, 
smith, tailor, tanner, cabinet maker, or 
cooper, who should be capable of getting 
a livelihood by honest labor and indus- 
try. 

1759 Jan. 6. Va. George "Washing- 
ton marries Martha Custis. 

STATE. 

1755 Sept. 10. Can. The Acadians, 
occupying territory claimed by England, 
are forced to embark for transporta- 
tion, leaving their homes behind them 
for the English Crown. 

* * America's first discontent arises 
from duties levied upon goods imported 
from foreign countries. 

* * S. C. The governor induces the Cher- 
okee Indians to cede a large territory 
to Great Britain, and to agree to move 
inland away from the British settle- 
ments. 

* * -63 * * The French and Indian 
"War unites the colonies, and schools 
them in the art of war. 

* * Port. A second Brazil company is 
chartered. 

* * \_U. S.] Governors inaugurated: 
-57 * * N. Y. Sir Charles Hardy. 

-56 * * R.I. Stephen Hopkins. [Also 
in 1758, 1763, 1767.] 



1756 May * Can. Montcalm arrives 
in Quebec. [He becomes the greatest of 
the governors.] 

* * [U. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
-57 * * Mass. Spencer Phips. 

-58 * * Pa. W. Denny ; J. Hamilton, 
deputy. [Also in 1759-62, 1777.] 
-59 * * S. C. William H. Littleton. 

* * -63 * * The colonists begin to discuss 
the political questions involved in the 
policy of the Home Government, and its 
endeavor to interfere with their civil 
rights and industries ; the people are 
intensely aroused. 

* * Tenn. The first settlement is made 
on the Tennessee River (30 miles from 
Knoxville). 

1757 Jan. * Boston. A congress of 
governors meets and agrees to raise 
4,000 men against the French. Another 
congress of Southern governors meets 
at Philadelphia. 

June * Eng. WiUiam Pitt enters the 
Newcastle ministry, and soon recovers 
British military prestige . in America. 
[He rejects a stamp-tax.] 

Pa. A controversy occurs between 
the governor and the Assembly respect- 
ing a scheme of taxation. 

July 27. Benjamin Franklin again ar- 
rives in London, as ambassador to the 
king, from the colony of Pennsylvania. 

* *[U. S.] Governors inaugurated: 
-59 * * Del. Henry Ellis. 
Apr.-Aug. Mass. The Council. 
-60 * * Mass. Thomas Pownall. 
-60 * * N. Y. James de Lancey. 

N. J. John Reading (pres.). 
R. 1. William Greene. 

* * Mass. The General Court and Lord 
Loudoun have a controversy respecting 
the quartering of troops. 

* * -66 * * New York. John Cruger the 
40th mayor. 

1758 Nov. 26. Thanksgiving Day is 
observed by the colonists because the 
French are driven out of Fort Duquesne, 
and the valley of the Ohio and the great 
West are opened for the advance of Eng- 
lish settlers. 

* * N. S. A constitution is granted to 
this province. 

* * Georgia is divided into eight parishes. 

* *[U. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
-58 * * N. J. Francis Bernard. 

-61 * * R. I. Stephen Hopkins. [1767.] 
-68 * * Va. Francis Fauquier ; John 
Blair, lieutenant. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1755 * * New Eng. Population about 
435,000. 

1757 * * La. The French population is 
about 10,000 

* * New York City. Population about 
12,000. 

* * Philadelphia. Population about 
13,000. 

1758 * * Va. About 70,000 hogsheads 
of tobacco exported. 



72 1759, Aug. -1763. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1759 Aug. 4. Jf. Y. Crown Point is 
occupied by 11,000 British under Gen. 
Amherst on the retreat of the French. 

Aug. 11. N. Y. The British embark at 
Crown Point to follow the French, but 
soon abandon the effort. 

Sept. 13. Can. First battle on the 
Plains of Abraham. 

After a siege of 69 days, Quebec is as- 
saulted and the French defeated. Gen. 
James 'Wolfe falls with his third wound, 
and the egually brave French general, 
Montcalm, is mortallywounded. Great 
Britain wins a vast empire by a single 
battle, " one of the most momentous 
victories in the annals of mankind." 
(Bancroft.) 

Sept. 18. Quebec capitulates to the 

English. 
Sept. 26. Tenn. Col. Montgomery, with 

a force from Carolina, attacks the Chero- 

kees [burning many of their towns]. 
Oct. * Va. Gov. Lyttleton, by perfidious 

conduct and insolence, provokes a war 

with the Cberokees. 

* * Me. Fort Pownall is built on the 
Penobscot. 

1760 Mar. 3. S. C. Unsuccessful at- 
tack of 300 Cherokees on Fort Ninety- 
six. 

Apr. 28. Can. The French (tempo- 
rarily) defeat the English in a second 
battle on the Plains of Abraham. 

May 16. Can. English reenforcements 
arrive, and the French retire from 
Quebec. 

June* Tenn. Carolinians, under Colonel 
Montgomery, invade and ravage the 
valley of the Tennessee, to punish the 
Cherokees. They enrage the Indians 
without subduing them. 

July 1. S. C. Arrival of Montgomery 
on his retreat from the Tennessee coun- 
try. 

Aug. 7. Tenn. The garrison of Fort 
Loudoun capitulates to the Chero- 
kees [and is foully massacred or taken 
into captivity.] 

ALL CANADA TAKEN BY THE 
BRITISH. 

Sept. 8. Montreal falls into the hands 
of General Amherst, at the head of 
three powerful armies. 

Amherst approached the city from up 
the river, while Murray ascended from 
below, and Haviland marched from the 
Lake Champlain region. 

Nov. 29. Mich. Bel6tre surrenders at 
Detroit. 

1761 June 10 +. Tenn. The Chero- 
kees are defeated by the British under 
Lieut. Col. James Grant ; their town, 
magazines, and cornfields destroyed. 

Summer. Mich. The garrison of De- 
troit barely escapes a conspiracy to 
massacre the force by the Seneca and 
"Wyandot Indians. 

1762 Jan. 1. "War between England 
and Spain. 

* * N. B. The French gain [temporary] 
possession of St. John. 

June 6. Cuba. An English squadron of 
32 men-of-war and 200 transports, with 



* 20,000 men, under the command of the 
Duke of Albemarle and Admiral Pocock, 
appears off Havana. 

July 30. Cuba. The Morro Castle is 
tdken by storm. 

Aug. 13. Cuba. The governor of Ha- 
vana capitulates. 

The English gain 9 ships of the line and 
4 frigates, and 14,000 prisoners, besides 
spoil valued at $10,000,000. 

Autumn. Pontiac plans his conspiracy. 

* * W. I. The English take Martinique, 
St. Lucia, and St. Vincent. 

The French West Indian Islands 
surrender to an expedition of royal and 
provincial troops. 
1763 Feb. 10. The Treaty of Paris 
closes the French and Indian War, one 
of the most important and far-reaching 
in its results. 
May 7. -Nov. * Mich. Pontiac, chief of 
the Ottawas, instigates a conspiracy. 

It aims to surprise every English post 
between the Alleghanies and the Missis- 
sippi by a confederacy of all the tribes, 
and thus exterminate the English in the 
West ; an Indian maiden at Detroit ex- 
poses and defeats the scheme at that 
garrison. 

May 16. O. The Wyandots take Fort 
Sandusky, and butcher the garrison. 

May 29. Mich. The Chippeways take 
Fort Mackinaw, and murder nearly all 
of its defenders. 

May+ * Mich. Siege of Detroit. 

July 15. All the English forts of the 
West captured by the Indians except 
Niagara, Fort Pitt, and Detroit. 

Sept. 3. Mich. Detroit is relieved from 
a long siege, conducted by Pontiac, by a 
vessel from Niagara. 

Nov. * General Gage succeeds Am- 
herst as commander-in-chief of the 
British forces. 

Dec. 14-27. Pa. The "Paxton Boys" 
massacre the Conestogas, who were con- 
verted Indians. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1760* * Mass. John Singleton Cop- 
ley first paints. 

* * Benjamin "West goes abroad to study 
art. 

* * Boy and Tame Squirrel is sent by John 
Singleton Copley to the Royal Academy. 

1761 Mar. 12. Mass. An earthquake 
shocks this and adjoining states. 

* * R. I. Performance of The Provoked 
Husband at Newport. , 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1759* * 

Adair, John, general, born. 
Barney, Joshua, commodore, born. 
Cooper, Thomas, scientist, born. 
Dallas, Alex. James, statesman, born. 
Oilman, John, Gov. of N. H., born. 
Pepperell, Sir William, general, A63. ? 
Plumer, William, statesman, born. 
Prideaux, John, officer, A41. 
Read, Nathan, inventor, born. 
Wolfe, James, general, dies. 
1760* * 
Carey, Matthew, philanthropist, born. 
Dayton, Jonathan, patriot, born. 
Dessalines, Jean Jacques, Haitian emp., b. 
Duane, William, politician, born. 
Duponceau, Peter S., lawyer, born. 
Van Wort, Isaac, patriot, born. 
Wolcott, Oliver, statesman, born. 



1761* * 

Al8op, Richard, poet, born. 

Charlevoix, Pierre Francois Xavier, mission- 
ary, dies. 

Davies, Samuel, pres. of Princeton Coll. A37. 

Dexter, Samuel, statesman, born. 

Gallatin, Albert, statesman, born. 

Morse, Jedediah, geographer, born. 

Murray, William Vans, statesman, born. 

Preble, Ed-ward, commodore, born. 

Spaulding, Solomon, Book of Mormon, born. 

Wistar, Casper, physician, born. 
1762* * 

Abbot, Benjamin, teacher, born. 

Earle, Pliny, inventor, born. 

Giles, William Branch, statesman, born. 

Moore, Richard Channing, bp. of Va., born. 

"Washington, Bushrod, justice, born in Va. 
1763* * 

Astor, John Jacob, capitalist, born. 

Breckinridge, James, congressman, born. 

Delano, Amasa, traveler, born. 

Holmes, Abiel, clergyman, born. 

Kent, James, jurist, born. 

Maclure, William, geologist, born. 



CHURCH. 

1759 * * N. Y. Samson Occum, an In- 
dian convert, is ordained by the Suffolk 
Presbytery. 

1760 Aug. 10. New York. Arrival of 
Philip Embury, the first Methodist 
preacher in America. 

* * Brazil. On the pretext of influencing 
a native revolt the Jesuits are expelled 
with great severity. 

1761 * * New York. The American peo- 
ple are alarmed at Episcopacy because 
of its connection with politics, the clergy 
of the Colony having, in concealed cor- 
respondence, urged the Archbishop of 
Canterbury to promote the abrogation 
of provincial charters. 

1762 June 10. New York. The [pres- 
ent] First Baptist church is organized. 

Dec. 9. Mass. Dr. Jonathan Mayhew 
avows Universalism in a Thanksgiving 
sermon. 

1763 * * Can. First Baptist church 
formed in [British America,] at New 
Brunswick. 

* * Fla. The Franciscan Mission in 
Florida reports at this date 25 stations, 
81 missionaries, and over 600 converts. 

* * N. Y. The Synod of New York or- 
ders a collection to be taken in all its 
churches for the support of Indian 
missions. 

The Presbytery of Dutchess County is 
organized. 

* * Pa. The Christian Indians in Beth- 
lehem and vicinity are persecuted by 
the whites during the Pontiac War. 

LETTERS. 

1759* * Mass. Joseph Warren grad- 
uates at Harvard. 

1760 * * New England surpasses all 
the other colonies in education. 

" There was not to be found, in all 
New England, an adult, born in the 
country, who could not read and write." 
(Ridpath.) 

* * Virginia leads the Southern colonies 
in diffusing education, and Maryland, 
Carolina, and Georgia bring up the rear 
of the column. 

1761 * * -62 * * The American Chronicle 
issued by Samuel Farley. 



AMERICA. 



1759, Aug. -1763. 73 



* * Del. The first newspaper, the Wil- 
mington Gazette, appears. 

* * Mass. Speech of James Otis, the 
orator, against the " writs of assistance." 

1762 * * R. I. Providence has its first 
newspaper, the Providence Gazette. 

* * A Vindication of the Conduct of the 
House of Representatives, by Patrick 
Henry, appears. 

* * Va. Thomas Jefferson graduates 
at William and Mary College. 

1763 Apr. 17. Ga. The Georgia Ga- 
zette issued at Savannah on its first and 
recently arrived printing-press. 

* * Md. Frederick College (non-sect.) 
organized. 

* * New York. Rev. Myles Cooper he- 
comes president of King's (Columbia) 
College. 

SOCIETY. 
1760 * * Various social customs in the 
colonies. 

Manners and customs of the Puritans 
prevail in New England; those of the 
Dutch on the banks of the Hudson ; 
those of the Quakers along the Dela- 
ware ; those of the Huguenots along the 
rivers of South Carolina. 

* * * New Eng. Laws prohibit many 
things. 

Among them, the defrauding of credit- 
ors, in order to live in luxury ; " drink- 
ing of healths, as a bad habit ; " wearing 
embroidered garments and laces, also 
sleeves that do not reach the wrist, these 
must not be more than an ell wide ; the 
use of tobacco by such as are under 20 
years of age, those who use it publicly are 
fined sixpence ; all persons are restrained 
from " swimming in the waters on the 
Sabbath day, or unreasonably walking in 
the fields or streets." Those' who refuse 
to vote, or serve when elected to office, 
are fined for want of patriotism. 

Thomas Hutchinson is the most con- 
spicuous man in New England. (Win- 
sor). 

* * * Pa. Laws prohibit " stage plays, 
playing of cards, dice, May-games, 
masques, and revels." 

* * * Va. Rigorous laws regulate con- 
duct. 

Absence from church is punishable by 
fine ; the wardens are sworn to report 
cases of " drunkenness, swearing, and 
other vices," offenders are liable to 
punishment by fines, at the rate of " a 
shilling an oath " for swearers ; minis- 
ters are to abstain from excess of drink- 
ing and riot, and are not to play cards 
or dice. 

* * * Car. Laws similar to the preceding 
are enacted in the Carolinas. 

1763 * * Ohio. The English introduce 
the rum traffic (which the French had 
prohibited) among the Indians along the 
lakes and the Valley of the Ohio ; their 
demoralization follows. 

* * Guiana. A formidable insurrection 
of negro slaves. 

STATE. 

1759 Sept. 18. Can. Ramezay is gov- 
ernor at Quebec. 

* * Sp. Charles m. king. 

* * Massachusetts has self-imposed taxes. 

* * Pa. James Hamilton governor. 



1760 Sept. 8. Canada, having been sur- 
rendered to General Amherst, is united 
to Great Britain [ceded in 1763]. 

Oct. 25. Eng. George II. dies. 

Nov. 20. Eng. George m. enthroned. 

Dec. 27. Boston receives tidings of the 
death of George II. 

* * Eng. The king and aristocracy strug- 
gle against the people. 

* * Eng. Franklin denies that Ameri- 
cans desire independence, or ever will, 
except they suffer gross abuse. 

* * Ga. This province issues $37,050 this 
year in paper money. 

* * Guiana. Peace is made with the Au- 
kan negroes in Dutch Guiana. 

* * Estimated population of the 13 colo- 
nies, 1,695,000 people, of which number 
310,000 were negroes. 

* * English imports from the North Amer- 
ican colonies amount to $3,805,000; ex- 
ports, $13,060,000. 

* * [U. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
-75 * * Ga. James Wright. 
June-Aug. Mass. Thos. Hutchinson. 

[1769-74.] 
-69 * * Mass. Sir Francis Bernard. 

N. J. Thomas Boone. 
-61 * * N. Y. Cadwallader Colden. 

[1761-65; 1769-70.] 
-61 * * S. C. William Bull. [1763-69.] 

1761 Jan. 27. Mass. Joseph Hutch- 
inson is appointed chief -justice. 

[John Adams considered this date the 
beginning of the American Revolu- 
tion.] 
Feb. * Boston. James Otis becomes the 
champion of the colonies in opposing the 
Acts of Trade before the subservient 
Chief-Justice Hutchinson. 

He produces a sensation throughout 
the colonies by his masterly address, 
showing the unconstitutionality of the 
Parliamentary acts, and advocating the 
rights of the colonies. 

* * Eng. The British ministry endeavor 
to strictly enforce the Importation 
Act. 

* * Mass. Disputes and bitterness pre- 
vail over the arbitrary methods of col- 
lecting customs. 

Great excitement follows the unjust 
and tyrannical action of the king's offi- 
cers in Salem and Boston, who are given 
" Writs of Assistance" for entering and 
searching any place for goods suspected 
of evading the import duty. 

* * [ U. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
-62* *N. J. Josiah Hardy. 

Oct. 26. N. Y. Robert Monckton. 

1762 Nov. 1. Phila. Franklin again 
returns from England. 

Nov. 3. La. France, by a secret treaty, 
cedes to Spain the whole of Louisi- 
ana west of the Mississippi, and also the 
island of New Orleans. 

* * Guiana. Peace is made with the 
Saramaccan negroes in Dutch Guiana. 

* * [ U. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
R. I. Sam. Ward. [1765. Reappointed.] 
S. C. Thomas Boone. 



1763 Jan. * Pa. The English govern- 
ment orders Connecticut to cease colo- 
nizing the Wyoming Valley. 

Feb. 10. The Treaty of Paris, between 
Great Britain, France, Spain, and Por- 
tugal. 

The Mississippi becomes the western 
boundary of Virginia ; Spain cedes Flor- 
ida to Great Britain ; France cedes to 
Spain all the vast territory of Louisiana 
lying west of the Mississippi River, and 
the isles of St. Pierre and Miquelon are 
confirmed to her. England restores 
Havana, receives Nova Scotia, Canada, 
and Cape Breton. The French power 
disappears from the New World. 

* * -65 Apr. * Eng. George Gren- 
ville prime minister. 

Oct. 7. Eng. The king by a proclama- 
tion defines the respective boundaries of 
Quebec, East Florida, West Florida, and 
Granada, but the regions north of the 
Great Lakes and west of the Alleghanies 
remain Crown lands, closed to settlers. 

Nov. 3. Treaty of Fontainebleau be- 
tween England, France, and Spain. 

Nov. 15. Pa. Charles Mason and Jere- 
miah Dixon begin the running of 
the •• Mason and Dixon line." [It 
forms the southern boundary of the 
free State of Pennsylvania in later 
times.] 

Dec. 28. N. Y. The governor issues a 
proclamation claiming the territory 
(Vermont) west of the Connecticut River 
under the grants of Charles II. to the 
Duke of York. 

Dec. * Va. First collision in Virginia 
between the prerogative of the king and 
the authority of the Legislature occurs. 
The king refuses to sign the law au- 
thorizing debtors to pay their public 
dues in money instead of tobacco — the 
legalized currency. Patrick Henry 
pleads the rights of the colonists, and 
denies the king's right to make laws for 
the colonies. 

* * Brazil. The capital transferred 
from Bahia to Rio Janeiro. 

* * The English occupy all the posts es- 
tablished by the French along the lakes 
and the Ohio Valley. 

* * It is believed that England intends to 
tax the colonies to relieve her financial 
burdens. 

* *[U. S.] Governors inaugurated: 
-75 * * N. C. William Franklin. 
-72 * * Pa. John Penn. [1773-76.] 
-64 * * R. I. Stephen Hopkins. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1759 * * Port. A third Brazil company 
is fbrmed. 

1760 Mar. 20. Boston. One-tenth of 
the city destroyed by fire. 

* * Cuba. Yellow fever first appears at 
Havana. • 

* * R. I. Newport has about 650 slaves. 

1762 Oct. * Phila. The yellow fever 
rages with unparalleled violence. 

1763 * *N. Y. A ferry established be- 
tween New York and Paulus Hook (Jer- 
sey City). 



74 1763-1768, June 10. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1764 June * Col. Bradstreet conducts a 
campaign along the Great Lakes. 

Aug. 5, 6. Battle of Bushy Run. 

* * Major Loftus, with British troops, 
ascends the Mississippi from New 
Orleans. 

Oct. * -Nov. * O. Col. Henry Bouquet 
marches against the Ohio Indians. 

1765 * * Fort Chartres is turned over to 
English troops. 

* * III. English troops first enter the 
Illinois country. 

1766 Mar. 5. Ulloa takes possession of 
New Orleans for Spain. 

* * Boston. The royal artillery arrives. 

1767 * * Boston. Irritation caused by 
the appearance of a man-of-war, the 
Romney ; the colony having broken no 
laws, and only appealed for redress. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 
1765 * * Thomas Godfrey writes Prince 

of Parthia, the first play written by an 

American. 
1767 Aug. * W. I. About 16,000 perish 

by an earthquake at Martinique. 

* * New York. A theater is built in John 
Street. 

* * Pa. David Rittenhouse projects a 
large orrery on a new and improved plan. 



BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1764* * 

Daggett, David, senator, born. 

Eaton, William, soldier, born. 

Emmet, Thomas, lawyer, born. 

Livingston, Brockholst, V. S. Supreme Court, 
born. 

Livingston, Edward, statesman, born. 

Mitchell, Samuel Latham, physician, born. 

Perkins, Thomas, philanthropist, born. 

Pinkney, William, lawyer, born. 

Tennent, Gilbert, clergyman, dies. 

Van Rensselaer, Stephen, statesman, born. 

Ware, Henry, clergyman, born. 
1765* * 

Andrada, Sylvae, d', Brazilian statesman, b. 

Backus, Azel, college president, born. 

Fulton, Robert, engineer, born. 

Gardiner, John S., clergyman, born, 

Harper, Robert Goodloe, lawyer, born. 

Meigs, Return Jonathan, Gov. of O., born. 

Pitkin, Timothy, historian, born. 

Smithson, James L. M., physicist, born. 

Stanwix, John, general, dies. 

Todd, Thomas, justice, born in Ky. 

Whitney, Eli, inventor, born. 
1766* * 

Appleton, Samuel, philanthropist, born. 

Barton, Benjamin Smith, naturalist, born. 

Boylston, Zabdiel, physician, A86. 

Dunlap, William, painter, born. 

Finley, Samuel, pres. Princeton Coll., A51. 

Irving, William, author, born. 

Mayhew, Jonathan, clergyman, A46. 

Perkins, Jacob, inventor, born. 

Wilson, Alexander, ornithologist, born. 
1767* * 

Adams, John Q., 6th President, born in 
Mass., July 11. 

Bayard, James Asheton, statesman, born. 

Black Hawk, Indian chief, born. 

Brooks, Peter C, philanthropist, born. 

Clap, Thomas, Pres. Yale Coll., A64. 

George, Enoch, bishop, born. 

Granger, Gideon, statesman, born. 

Jackson. Andrew, general, statesman, 7th 
President, born. 

Thompson, Smith, justice, born in N.Y. 

Wolcott, Roger, Gov. of Conn., A88. 

CHURCH. 
1764 Apr. 15. New York. The Re- 
formed Dutch church has preaching in 
English by an English pastor lately 



called. (Much opposition to the lan- 
guage follows.) 

1765 May9.il/ass. The Baptist church 
of Haverhill is constituted ; Hezekiah 
Smith, pastor. 

* * Boston. Samuel Stillman becomes 
pastor of the Baptist Church. [He 
preaches against the Stamp Act.] 

* * Mich. Only two Jesuit missionaries 
remain in the Northwest ; both are at 
Mackinaw. 

* * N. C. The Kehukee Baptist Associa- 
tion is formed. 

* * Tenn. Two Baptist churches formed 
in East Tennessee. 

* * S. G. Jews have a congregation at 
Charleston. 

* * Pa. (?) Lutherans start a private the- 
ological Seminary. 

* * W. I. Two Moravian missionaries are 
sent to the Barbados. 

1766 * * New York. Methodism is in- 
troduced. 

The first Methodist sermon in the New 
World is preached by Philip Embury at 
his residence in New York. 

* * Pa. The Presbyterian Synod unites 
with the General (Cong'l) Associa- 
tion of Connecticut to defeat the pro- 
posed establishment of an Episcopal 
church for the colonies, to be supported 
by a common tax ; they also agree to 
meet in annual conventions. 

1767 * * New Eng. Some of the Baptist 
churches are Seventh-day, some Ar- 
minian, and a majority maintain the im- 
position of hands on the immersed as a 
divine ordinance. 

* * New York. The Methodists worship 
in a rigging-loft. 

* * Pa. Capt. Thomas Webb introduces 
Methodism into Philadelphia. 

A general missionary collection is 
ordered among Presbyterians by the 
Synod, to maintain preaching on the 
frontier. 

* * Paraguay. The Jesuits are expelled. 

* * It. I. Warren Baptist Association 
formed. 

* * W. I. Moravian mission work pros- 
pers in Barbados. 

* * Expulsion of the Jesuits from Span- 
ish South America. 

LETTERS. 
1764 Mar. 24. Pa. The New Castle 

Chronicle first issued. 
Oct. 29. Conn. Hartford has its first 

newspaper, the Connecticut Courant. 

* * Can. The first newspaper in Que- 
bec is issued, the Quebec Gazette, pub- 
lished in two languages. 

* * Mass. The Harvard Library is de- 
stroyed by fire; about 6,000 books are 
burned. 

* * Phila. The first medical school in 
America is founded. 

* * R. I. Brown University (Baptist) 
established at Warren. 

* * Rights of British Colonies, by Otis, 
appears. 



1765 * * N.Y. Samson Ocum visits Eu- 
rope, and secures $50,000 for his Indian 
schools on Long Island. 

1766 Nov. 10. N. J. The Reformed 
Dutch obtain a charter for Queen's 
(Rutgers) CoUege. (Unsatisfactory 
and inoperative.) 

* * Conn. Rev. Eleazer Wheelock estab- 
lishes a school for training Indian boys 
to be teachers of their own race. 

* * _77 * *• conn. Rev. Naphtali Dag- 
gett is president of Yale College. 

* * New York. The Chronicle issued by 
A. and J. Robertson. 

The New York Journal, or General 
Advertiser, issued by John Holt. 

1767 Oct. * Conn. The Connecticut Jour- 
nal and New Haven Post-Boy is issued. 

SOCIETY. 

1764 * * Mass. John Adams marries 
Abigail Smith. 

1765 * * Conn. Indignation of colo- 
nists against the Stamp Act. 

The Connecticut stamp-officer rode 
into Hartford on his white horse to de- 
posit his resignation, with a thousand 
armed farmers riding after him, and 
said he " felt like death on the pale 
horse with all hell following him." — 
Ency. Brit. 

* * Eng. Parliament authorizes the min- 
istry to send troops to enforce the Stamp 
Act ; the colonies are to find ' * quar- 
ters, fuel, cider or rum, candles, and 
other necessaries " for them. 

Merchants resolve to purchase no 
more goods in England, and the people 
pledge themselves to buy nothing of 
English manufacture. 

* * Stamp Act agitation prevails. 

Muffled bells toll the funeral peal of 
liberty in Boston and Philadelphia ; in 
New York a copy of the Stamp Act is 
carried through the streets, having a 
death's-head nailed to it, and this in- 
scription attached, The Folly of England 
and the Ruin of America. 

1766 Oct. * Boston. The Daniel Mal- 
colm riot ; writ forcibly resisted. 

1768 June 10. Boston. Riot against 
the action of the commissioners of the 
king's customs, in seizing the sloop Lib- 
erty belonging to John Hancock. 

STATE. 

1763 * * -64 * * Eng. The ministry 
seeks to enforce the Importation Act 
by seizing and confiscating colonial ves- 
sels in unlawful trade. 

* * Guiana. A French company sends 
out 12,000 colonists without provision 
for their labor or support ; very many 
suffer and perish. 

* * Mass. Samuel Adams shows that ac- 
cording to English common law the peo- 
ple alone have the right of voting taxes 
by their representatives ; and the colo- 
nists have the full right of Englishmen. 

1764 Mar. 10. Ejng. The House of 
Commons adopts a resolution affirming 
the propriety of charging certain stamp 
duties on the American colonies. [The 
report soon crosses the sea and produces 
universal indignation.] 



AMERICA. 



1763-1768, June 10. 75 



Apr. 6. Eng. Passage of Grenville's 
Act, modifying the Sugar Act of 1732, to 
take effect Sept. 30th. 

May 24. Boston takes action against 
taxation by Parliament. 

Dec. 17. N. H. The governor issues a 
proclamation declaring the claims of 
New York to Vermont are obsolete. 

Dec. * Eng. Franklin returns to Lon- 
don. 

* * Mass. Colonists resolve not to use 
British manufactures. 

" The Rights of British Colonists as- 
serted and proved," by James Otis, aids 
the movement for liberty. 

* * Mo. The French settle the town of 
St. Louis, making it a trading-post. 

* * The enforcement of the Importation 
Act nearly destroys the colonial trade 
with the West Indies. 

* * S. C. The Legislature offers large 
bounties of land to settlers ; many im- 
migrants arrive from Germany, France, 
England, and Scotland, chiefly poor 
people. 

Oct. 27-71 July 1. -ZV". C. Wm. Tyron 
is governor. 

* *Fontleroy is sent by the French 
government to observe the American 
colonies. 

1765 Feb. 6. Eng. George Grenville 
introduces the resolutions for a 
Stamp Act, and a favoring vote is 
taken by the Committee of the House 
of Commons. Vote 245 — 49. 

Feb. 27. Eng. The Stamp Act passes 
the House of Commons without a formal 
division. 

Mar. 8. Eng. The Lords pass the 
Stamp Act without debate, protest, 
amendment, division, or a single oppos- 
ing vote. 

Mar. 22. Eng. Commissioners, acting 
on behalf of King George III., sign the 
obnoxious Stamp Act, and it becomes 
law. 

After the first of November every 
legal document is to be executed on 
paper bearing an English stamp, each 
sheet costing the colonist from three- 
pence to six pounds sterling ; news- 
papers, pamphlets, and almanacs to be 
on paper stamped to the value of one 
half-penny and increasing to fourpence ; 
each advertisement two shillings. 

Apr. * Eng. The Mutiny Act is ex- 
tended to the English colonies. 

May 30. Va. The right of taxation 
denied. 

Patrick Henry (29 years of age) makes 
his famous fiery speech in the House of 
Burgesses, and the assembly passes reso- 
lutions in expression of colonial rights ; 
its effect on the colonies- is electrical. 
[New York and Massachusetts assem- 
blies pass similar resolutions.] 

June 6. Mass. The assembly issues a 
call for a congress of deputies from 
the several colonies to meet in New 
York on October 7th. 

July 13. -66 Aug. 2. Eng. The Buck- 
ingham ministry. 

* * Boston. The mob compels Andrew 
Oliver, the stamp-agent, to resign, and 
promise he will not aid in the distribu- 



tion of the stamps. He is hanged in 

effigy. 
Aug. 26. Boston. The chief justice, 

Joseph Hutchinson, is assailed, and his 

house is sacked. 
Oct. 7-25. N. Y. An Anti-Stamp Act 

Congress meets in New York City. 

Twenty-eight delegates are present 
from nine colonies, New Hampshire, 
Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia 
being representatively absent, but quies- 
cent. It promises loyalty, and sends a 
petition to Parliament. 

Oct. 19. New York. The Stamp Act 
Congress, having drawn up petitions and 
memorials to the King and Parliament, 
adopts a "Declaration of Rights." 

Oct. 31. New York. All the governors 
of colonies, Rhode Island excepted, take 
oath to execute the Stamp Act. 

* * The "Sons of Liberty" are organ- 
ized to oppose arbitrary government and 
defend colonial rights. The right of 
taxation by Parliament is much dis- 
cussed. 

* * Pa. Pittsburg is laid out and set- 
tled. 

Nov. 1. The Stamp Act comes into 
force on this day and is universally con- 
temned ; flags fly at half-mast, bells are 
tolled, and business suspended. 

In New York ten boxes of stamps are 
forcibly seized and destroyed ; in Con- 
necticut the stamp-officer is threatened 
with hanging ; in Boston houses are de- 
stroyed and the stamps given to the 
winds and flames ; every stamp-officer 
in America is obliged to resign or leave 
the country. 

Merchants of the principal cities en- 
ter into engagements with each other 
to import no more goods from Great 
Britain till the Stamp Act shall be 
repealed. 

Nov. 7. Massachusetts appoints Dennis 
Deberdt its agent in London. 

* * French Guiana. Only 918 colonists 
remain alive out of 12,000 sent out. 

Nov. * R. I. Governor Ward refuses to 
take an oath to sustain the Stamp Act ; 
other governors acquiesce. 

* *-69* * N. Y. Sir H.Moore, governor. 
1766 Jan. 14. Eng. Pitt advocates the 

repeal of the Stamp Act in Parliament. 
He says, " I rejoice that the Americans 
have resisted ; if they had submitted, 
they would voluntarily have become 
slaves. They have been driven to mad- 
ness by injustice." (See p. 917.) 

Jan. 28. Eng. Benj. Franklin is ex- 
amined in the House of Commons 
respecting the Stamp Act. He testifies 
as to the temper of his countrymen. 

Mar. 7. Eng. The Declaratory Act is 
passed by Parliament, asserting that 
" Parliament has power to bind the col- 
onies in all cases whatsoever." 

Mar. 18. Eng. The Stamp Act is re- 
pealed ; great joy among the friends of 
America ; bonfires, flags, and illumina- 
tions in London. The act had brought 
in no revenue. 

May 6. Eng. Lord Howe and Gen. 
Howe appointed commissioners for re- 
storing peace in the British colonies. 

* * News of the repeal occasions great 
rejoicing in the colonies ; bells are rung 



and bonfires lighted and importations 
encouraged ; a great calm follows, while 
another storm is brewing. (May 19.) 

Aug. 10. New York. At night soldiers 
cut down a citizen's flagstaff. Replaced. 

Dec. * New York. Soldiers again cut 
down the flagstaff. Great excitement 
follows. 

* *-76* * New York. Whitehead Hicks 
the 41st mayor. 

* * [ U. ,§.] Governors inaugurated : 
-69 * * Conn. William Pitkins. 
-66* *R.I. Samuel Ward. 

-68 * * S. C. Charles Montague. 

1767 June 20. Eng. Parliament en- 
acts duties on tea, etc. 

June 29. The irritation of the colo- 
nies renewed. 

Royal assent is given to an act impos- 
ing colonial duties on imported glass, 
paper, painters' colors, and tea ; it also 
suspends the powers of the General 
Assembly of New York until it votes 
supplies for the King's troops in that 
province. [The flames of resentment 
burst out afresh.] 

* * Mass. Non - importation associa- 
tions again come into vigorous exist- 
ence. 

* * Eng. Custom House and Board of 
Commissioners created for America. 

Nov. 20. The Act taxing colonial im- 
ports goes into effect. 

Dec. 26. I'a.—Md. Mason and Dixon 
complete their important survey as far 
as a war-path, thirty-six miles from the 
end of the line, where the Indians com- 
pel them to stop. 

Dec. * -70 Jan. * Eng. Duke of Graf- 
ton prime minister. Hillsborough 
succeeds Shelburne in the ministry as 
colonial secretary. 

1768 Feb. 11. Mass. The Assembly, 
by a circular letter, calls upon other 
colonies to unite in an effort to obtain 
redress for grievances. 

June * Eng. The ministry perempto- 
rily orders the Assembly of Massachu- 
setts to rescind its circular. 

June 10. Boston. The commissioners 
of customs seize John Hancock's sloop 
Liberty, and the enraged citizens drive 
them to the fort for safety. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1764 June 18. N. J. The lighthouse 
at Sandy Hook first put in operation. 

1765 Aug. 14. Boston. Consecration 
of the Liberty-tree; copper-plate af- 
fixed with the words, " The Tree of Lib- 
erty. Aug. 14, 1765." 

* * * The British Board of Trade has 
checked all manufacturing enter- 
prise, by means of restrictions which 
make success impossible. 

1766 * * N. Y.—Pa. An express wag- 
on runs from New York to Philadelphia 
in two days, and the enterprise is con- 
sidered remarkable. 

1767 * * The colonists again form non- 
importation associations to destroy 
the market for British goods ; importa- 
tions of dutiable articles nearly cease. 



76 1768, July-1772. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1768 Sept.* Boston. Two British re- 
giments arrive, having been sent by 
request of the royal officers in the 
colony. (Sept. 28.) 

Oct. * Mass. General Gage, commander- 
in-chief, is sent from Halifax to subdue 
" the insolent town of Boston." 

He marches through the streets with 
700 regulars liaving fixed bayonets ; the 
people are enraged at the invasion. 

* *_7l* * N.C. War of the Regulators. 
1770 Mar. 5. Boston. "The Boston 

Massacre." The citizens exasperate 
Captain Prescott's company of soldiers, 
and they fire, killing three citizens and 
wounding eight. 

Soon after several thousand colonists 
appear under arms, and demand that 
the governor withdraw the troops from 
the city, and he is forced to yield. 

1772 June 10. R. I. The armed ves- 
sel, Gaspee, is grounded and burned 
for enforcing customs. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1768 Oct. 5. Cuba. A great cyclone 
strikes Havana; 4,048 houses and 1,000 
lives are destroyed. 

1769 July 3. N. Y. The first theatri- 
cal performance at Albany is the play, 
Venice Preserved. 

* * Cal. San Francisco Bay is discov- 
ered. 

* * Eng. Samuel Hearne seeks a north- 
west passage in the Arctic seas. [He is 
absent 3 years.] 

* * Ky. Daniel Boone explores the Ken- 
tucky region. 

* * Phila. The American Philosoph- 
ical Society begins its publications. 

1770 * * Conn. The first manufacture 
of tinware in the colonies begins at 
Berlin. 

± * * W. Billings and others write music 
for the singing-schools in New England. 

± * * A portrait of Washington, in the uni- 
form of a Virginia colonel, is painted by 
C. W. Peale. 

1771* * Boston. John Ramage paints 
miniatures. 

* * Matthew Prat paints the portrait of 
Cadwallader Colden for the New York 
Chamber of Commerce. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 
1768* * 

Beissel, Johann, Conrad, mystic, A78. 

Boyd, John Parker, general, born. 

Dennie, Joseph, journalist, born. 

Harris, Thaddeus, clergyman, born. 

Jones, Jacob, naval officer, born. 

Mason, Jeremiah, senator, born. 

Tecumseh, Shawnee chief, born. ? 

Wadsworth, James, philanthropist, born. 
1769* * 

Barron, James, commodore, born. 

Brown, Nicholas, patron or Brown Univer- 
sity, born. 

Clinton. De Witt. Gov. of S, Y., born. 

Cranch, William, jurist, born. 

Hosack, David, author, born. 

Mercer, Jesse, clergyman, born. 

Messer, Asa, pres. of Brown Univ., born. 

Miller, Samuel, clergyman, born. 

Plessants, James, senator, born. 

Pontiac, Ottawa chief, A57. 
1770* * 

Attucks, Crispus, Boston massacre, dies. 

Blunt, Edmund March, writer, born. 



Burgess, Tristam, jurist, born. 
Caldas, Francisco Jos6, So. Am. savant, b. 
Clarke, William, explorer, born. 
Dinwiddie, Robert, Gov. of Va., A78. 
Guess, George— Se-quoy-ah, Indian inventor 

— born. 
Hopkinson, Joseph, jurist, born. 
Kirkland, John T., pres. Harvard Univ., b. 
Mason, John Mitchell, clergyman, born. 
Moore, Zeph. Swift, pres. of Williams Coll.,b. 
Wentworth, Benning, Gov. of N. H., A74. 
Whitefleld, George, revivalist, A56. 
Zea, Francisco Antonia, statesman, born. 
1771* * 
Alden, Timothy, college president, born. 
Ballou, Hosea, Universalist clergyman, b. 
Boylston, Nicholas, benefactor, A55. 
Brown, Charles Brockden, author, born. 
Fessenden, Thomas Green, author, born. 
Hopper, Isaac Tatem, philanthropist, b. 
Irving, Peter, author, born. 
Johnson, William, justice, born. 
Morrow, Jeremiah, statesman, born. 

1772* * 
Alexander, Archibald, clergyman, born. 
Appleton, Jesse, pres. of Bowdoin Coll., born. 
Burrill, James, lawyer, born. 
Caldwell, Charles, physician, born. 
Chauncey, Isaac, navy, born. 
Crawford, William Harris, statesman, born. 
Dooly, John Mitchell, jurist, born. 
Dowse, Thomas, book collector, born. 
Finley, Robert, clergyman, born. 
MacArthur, Duncan, Gov. of O., born. 
Porter, Ebenezer, scholar, born. 
Quincy, Josiah, statesman, born. 
Wirt, William, orator, born. 
Woolman, John, author, A53. 



CHURCH. 

1768 Aug. 17. N. J. John Wither- 
spoon is inaugurated president of the 
college of New Jersey. 

Oct. 30. N. Y. John Street Methodist 
church in New York is dedicated by 
Philip Embury. 

* * Phila. First organization of Metho- 
dists ; meetings held in a sail-loft by a 
class of 7 members. 

* * Vt. The first Baptist church is 
founded in Shaftsbury. 

1769 May 19. It. Clement XIV. 
pope. 

* * Cal. Father Junipero Serra, a Fran- 
ciscan monk, founds a mission at San 
Diego. Many of his associates die dur- 
ing the first months of hardship. 

Jesuit missions are established in New 
California. 

* * Can. The Burgher Presbytery of 
Truro, Nova Scotia, is formed. 

* * Phila. First Methodist church (St. 
George) obtained by purchase. 

Arrival of Richard Boardman and 
Joseph Pilmoor, Wesleyan Methodist 
missionaries. 

* * Va. Methodism is planted by Robert 
Williams, a local preacher. 

1770 Mar. 20. N Y. The Reformed 
Dutch obtain a new charter for a col- 
lege (Rutgers). 

Sept. 30. N.J. John Murray, founder 
of the Universalist church in America, 
arrives from England, and preaches his 
first sermon in America at Good Luck. 

* * Cal. A mission station is founded at 
Monterey on the Pacific coast, by Fran- 
ciscan missionaries. 

* * S. C. Presbytery of Orange is organ- 
ized. 

* * There are about 97 Baptist churches 
in the 13 colonies. 



1771 Feb. 27. R. I. The Six-Princi- 
ple Baptists secede from the Baptist 
church at Providence, because their 
president (Manning) did not make impo- 
sition of hands a bar to communion, and 
probably because of his holding to sing- 
ing in public worship, " which was highly 
disgustful." 

July 31. Mass. George III. disallows 
and rejects the act of the colony in op- 
pressing Baptists at Ashfield. 

Oct. 15. New York. General conven- 
tion of Reformed Dutch ministers 
and laymen, to plan for union. 

Oct. 27. Phila. Arrival of Francis As- 
bury and Richard Wright, being sent by 
John Wesley to preach Methodism in 
America. 

* * Labrador made a Moravian mission 
station. 

* * Pa. The Presbyterian Synod approves 
a scheme for the support of candidates 
for the ministry. 

* * W. I. Friedensberg, St. Croix, be- 
comes a mission station of the Mora- 
vians, who work among the slaves. 

1772 May * N. Y. English Shakers 
emigrate to America. 

Oct. * New York. The General Conven- 
tion of the Reformed Dutch church 
meets and consummates the union of 
the churches. 

* * O. Moravians and their converts 
removed from Pennsylvania, open an 
Indian mission at Schonbrann, in the 
Muskingum Valley. 

* * New York. The Classis of Amsterdam 
gives full approbation to the formation 
of a Dutch Synod in America. (Jan. 14.) 

* * Francis Asbury is temporarily ap- 
pointed " general assistant in America," 
by John Wesley. 

LETTERS. 

1768 July 4. Boston. Dickinson's 
Liberty Song is published. 

* * N.J. John Witherspoon made 
president of Princeton College. 

* * Phila. Phonography suggested by 
Franklin. 

* * Circular Letter to Each Colonial Legis- 
lature, by Adams and Otis, appears. 

1769 * * The Croakers, by J. R. Drake, 
appears. 

* *N.H. Dartmouth College (Cong.) 
founded at Hanover. 

* * Phila. The American Magazine ap- 
pears. 

1770 May* R.I. The Baptist College 
removed from Warren to Providence, 
James Manning, president. 

July * Mass. The Massachusetts Spy first 
appears. 

* * Peru. The College of San Carlos 
established. 

± * * Poems on Various Subjects, Religious 
and Moral, by Phillis Wheatley, a ne- 
gress, born in Africa appears. 



AMERICA. 



1768, July-1772. 77 



1771 Nov. 3. N. Y. First newspaper 
printed in Albany, the Albany Gazette. 

* * N.J. James Madison graduates at 
Princeton. 

* * The Royal Spiritual Magazine issued. 

1772 * * The Progress of Dullness, by 
John Trumbull, appears. 

SOCIETY. 

1768 Sept. * Boston. The newly arrived 
British officers are fretted with legal im- 
pediments, and denounce " this country 
where every man studies law." 

1770 Feb. 22. Boston. A patriotic 
crowd of men and boys resents the Con- 
travention Act and is fired on by sol- 
diers ; a Mr. Richardson 1 and Christo- 
pher Snider, a boy 11 years old, are 
killed ; the newspapers announce the 
boy as the first martyr to American 
liberty. 

Mar. 5. Boston. " The Boston Massa- 
cre." Three persons are killed and 
eight wounded by the fire of the soldiers. 

* * Md. Umbrellas first introduced, 
having been landed at Baltimore, and 
commonly scouted as evidences of effem- 
inacy. 

* * The Indians become civilized. 

Themissionamong theOneidas is placed 
under the care of the London Board of 
Correspondence in Boston. With their 
aid, a meeting-house, schoolhouse, saw- 
mill, grist-mill, and blacksmith's shop 
are erected. Drunkenness is almost un- 
known, and the people become " sober, 
regular, industrious, praying Indians." 

1772 Jan. 1. Va. Thomas Jefferson 
marries Martha Skelton. 

* * Founding of the Improved Order of 
Red Men. 

STATE. 

1768 July 8. Boston. Thirty Bostoni- 
ans board a schooner seized by custom of- 
ficers for having 30 hogsheads of molasses 
on board ; they confine the officers, and 
remove the molasses. 

Sept. * Boston. The ministers of the col- 
ony, in the King's name, require the As- 
sembly to " express regrets," and 
rescind their action, but it reaffirms the 
former action in a circular letter by a 
nearly unanimous vote. 

Sept. 24. NY. A treaty entered into 
by the English colonists with the Indians 
at Fort Stanwix, defining a line between 
the English colonies and the Indians 
[later known as the " property line "]. 

Sept. 27-29. Mass. Convention of the 
towns to consider the coming of the 
troops. 

Sept. * N. C. The '« Regulators " bind 
themselves to resist the payment of 
taxes, except such as were levied and 
were to be applied according to law. 

Oct. * Boston. Troops arrive to sustain 
the officers. 

The selectmen of Boston flatly refuse 
to provide quarters for General Gage's 
troops ; so they are quartered in the 
State House. 

* * Baron De Kalb is sent by Choiseul to 
observe the spirit of the Americans. 



* * Eng. The term American begins 
to be used in connection with the sup- 
porters of colonial privileges, who adopt 
the name of " American Whigs." 

* * La. A temporary French republic 
established. 

* * Tenn. Parties from North Carolina 
settle in Tennessee. 

* * Governors inaugurated : 
-77 * * Mich. Guy Carleton. 
-69 * * B.I. Josiah Lyndon. 

Va. John Blair lieutenant-governor. 
-70 * * Va. Norborne Berkeley, Lord 
de Botetourt. 

1769 Feb.* Eng. Parliament cen- 
sures the people of Massachusetts, ap- 
proves the use o*f force against them, and 
urges the trial of leaders for treason in 
the courts of England. 

May* Ky. Daniel Boone and a party 
of Virginians settle in Kentucky. 

May 16. Va. The Assembly passes 
resolutions " as bad as those of Massa- 
chusetts." 

May 17. Va. The Governor, Lord Bote- 
tourt, dissolves the Assembly for pass- 
ing obnoxious resolutions. 

May 18. Virginia enters into the non- 
importation agreement. 

The members of the Assembly hold a 
meeting in which Washington presents 
the resolutions against importing Brit- 
ish merchandise. The members make a 
special covenant not to import any more 
slaves, nor to purchase any that others 
import. 

July 15. Mass. Gov. Bernard pro- 
rogues the General Court, because it 
refuses to make provision for the support 
of British soldiers, sent to take away 
the liberties of the people. 

* * Mass. Lieut.-Gov. Thomas Hutch- 
inson assumes authority. 

Aug. * N. Y. Bernard sails for England. 

* * Cat. Spaniards occupy the coast. 
Monterey is founded. 

* * Ky. Daniel Boone makes explora- 
tions beyond the mountains. 

* * Mass. The General Court refuses to 
do business while a guard is stationed 
at the door, and adjourns to Cambridge. 

* * Tenn. The Watauga Association 
makes settlements. 

* * [ U. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
-84 * * Conn. Jonathan Trumbull. 
-74 * * Md. Robert Eden. 

-74 * * R.I. Joseph Wanton. 

1770 Jan.* Eng. Lord North be- 
comes prime minister. 

Jan. * New York. Soldiers cut down the 
liberty pole and the people retaliate. 

Mar. 5. Eng. The non-importation as- 
sociations cripple the English colo- 
nial trade. 

All duties are now removed except 
threepence a pound on tea, retained at 
the express command of the King, who 
said, " There should always be one tax, 
at least, to keep up the right of taxing ; " 
the non-importation agreement is soon 
relaxed, except with regard to tea. 

Mass. Public excitement is intensi- 
fied throughout the colonies by the Bos- 
ton Massacre. (See Army.) 



Apr. * Eng. The Townshend Act re- 
pealed, except that relating to the 
duty on tea. 

Aug. 21. New York. An equestrian 
statue of George III. is erected in Bowl- 
ing Green by loyalists. 

Sept. 22. Boston. Covention of dele- 
gates at Faneuil Hall, from 96 towns, to 
consider the grievance of a standing 
army. 

* * -73 * * There is scarcely any gov- 
ernment in the colonies, the royal gov- 
ernment having practically gone to 
pieces. 

* * Boston. The King's soldiers cut down 
a liberty pole which had stood in the park 
for several years. 

* * Eng. Edmund Burke becomes agent 
for New York. [He continues for five 
years.] 

* * O. The Zane family settle on the Ohio, 
near the mouth of Wheeling Creek. 

* * Governors inaugurated : 

-71 * * N. Y. John, Lord Dunmore. 
-72 * * Va. William Nelson, lieutenant- 
governor. 

1771 Mar. 28. N. Y. A Mr. McDougal, 
some time imprisoned as the author of 
a newspaper article signed ' ■ A Son of 
liberty," is discharged by the Supreme 
Court. 

* * Cuba. The port of Havana is no 
longer monopolized by Seville and Cadiz, 
but open to all nations for certain arti- 
cles of trade. 

* * N. C. The Regulators attempt to 
overthrow the government and courts 
by force. 

* *[U. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
July 1. N. C. James Hasell (pres.). 
Aug.* -76* *N.C. Josiah Martin. 
-77 * * N. Y. William Tryon. 

-72 * * Pa. Richard Penn. 

1772 June 10. R. I. The Americans 
burn the revenue schooner Gaspee in 
Narragansett Bay. 

Aug. 4. Eng. Dartmouth succeeds 
Hillsborough in the Ministry. 

Nov. 2. Boston. Town-meeting held ; 
committees of correspondence ap- 
pointed by the "Sons of Liberty" [out 
of it grows the Colonial Congress], 
Samuel Adams the leader. 

* * Eng. Parliament orders that the 
burners of the Gaspee be arrested, and 
taken to England for trial. 

* * Guiana. The revolt of the Maroons 
at Surinam [lasts five years]. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

1768* * New York. The Chamber of 
Commerce founded. 

1770* * New York. The Chamber of 
Commerce incorporated by Act of Legis- 
lature. 

Sept. 10. Boston. The governor delivers 
Castle William over to the king's 
troops. 

1772 * * Mass.—R. I. A stage - coach 
runs between Boston and Providence. 



78 1772-1775, Mar. 8. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1774 * * Indian war ; caused by the 
atrocities of the whites and by the mur- 
der (Apr. 30) of the family of Logan. 

Oct. 10. W. Va. Battle of Point Pleas- 
ant, on the Ohio ; 1,500 Shawnees under 
Chiefs Cornstalk and Logan are defeated 
by 1,200 Virginians under Gen. A. Lewis, 
who lose 75 killed and 140 wounded. 

Sept. 5+ . Boston. Gen. Gage erects for- 
tifications on " the Neck." 

Dec. 13. Mass. The people take posses- 
sion of the arsenal at Charlestown, 
from which the powder had been re- 
moved by Gen. Gage. 

Dec. 13±. N. H. A company of men led 
by John Sullivan [afterward major- 
general] capture the fort at Ports- 
mouth, and remove 100 barrels of pow- 
der and some cannon. 

1775 Jan.* Boston. Gage sends troops 
to Marshfield. 

* * R. I. At Newport the patriots seize 
44 pieces of artillery and convey them 
to Providence. (Dec. 6.) 

Feb. 26. Mass. Gen. Gage orders 140 
soldiers to go to Salem and seize the 
military stores ; the militia under Col. 
Pickering raise the drawbridge and 
otherwise oppose the attempt. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1773 Dec. * Guatemala. An earth- 
quake swallows up 80,000 inhabitants. 

* * Phila. The first steam-engine built 
in America is set up. 

* * S. C. A theater is opened at Charles- 
ton. 

1774 Oct. 24. Phila. The Continental 
Congress recommends a suspension of 
all public amusements. 

* * W. I. Port Royal, Jamaica, is de- 
stroyed by a cyclone. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 
1773* * 

Biglow, William, teacher and poet, born. 
Bowditch, Nathaniel, mathematician, born. 
Caldwell, Joseph, college president, born. 
Clayton, John, physician and botanist, dies. 
Day, Jeremiah, pres. of Yale Coll., born. 
Harrison, "William Henry, 9th President, 

born in Va. Feb. 9. 
Hull, Isaac, commodore, born. 
Nott, Eliphalet, pres. of Union Coll., born. 
Paine, Robert Treat, Jr., author, born. 
Randolph, John, statesman, born. 
1774* * 
Bainbridge, WiUiam, commodore, born. 
Daviess, Joseph Hamilton, lawyer, born. 
Griscom, John, educator, born. 
Oliver, Andrew, Lieut.-Gov. of Mass., A68. 
Tompkins, Daniel D., statesman, born. 
Van Rensselaer, Solomon, general, born. 
Wood, Leonard, clergyman, born. 

CHURCH. 

1773 July 14-16. Phila. The first 
American conference of Methodist 
preachers in session at St. George's 
church ; American membership 1,160. 

* * Md. The Catholics are left without 
priests by the complete suppression of 
the order of Jesuits, by Pope Clement 
XIV. 

* * Pa. The Presbyterian Synod appoints 
a committee on religious publications. 



* * Eng. Mr. Wesley appoints Thos. 
Rankin general superintendent of 
Methodist societies in America. 

1774 Mar. 10. The Presbytery of the 
Reformed Presbyterian Church of 
America is formed. 

May 25. Phila. Second Methodist Con- 
ference is held. 

Aug. 16. New York. Ann Lee and nine 
(Shaker) followers arrive in New York. 

Sept. 7. Phila. Rev. J. Duche 1 , an as- 
sistant minister of Christ's (Episcopal) 
church, reads prayers and Psalm xxxv. 
for the First Continental Congress, 
in Carpenter's Hall. " It seems as if 
heaven had ordained that psalm to be 
read that morning." (John Adams.) 

Nov. 29. Boston. The Old South 
Meeting-house is used by the patriots 
for the purpose of a town meeting, to 
discuss the tea question, the Dartmouth 
having arrived with a cargo of tea. Its 
frequent use for such purposes, when 
Faneuil Hall was not large enough for 
the meeting, led the governor to desig- 
nate this church as the " seed-bed of 
rebellion." 

* * Can. Religious liberty is granted to 
Roman Catholics. 

* * Eng. During the discussion of the 
Boston Port Bill in Parliament, Ex-gov. 
Johnston said : "■ If you ask an Amer- 
ican who is his master, he will tell 
you he has none ; nor any governor 
but Jesus Christ." 

* * Greenland. Lichtenan becomes a mis- 
sion station of the Moravians. 

* * N. Y. The English Shakers settle 
near Albany. 

* * Va. The first Baptist church in Vir- 
ginia (Simpson Creek) is formed. 

1775 Feb. 15. It. Pius VI. pope. 
Feb. * Mass. The ministers of Salem 

prevent an outbreak against General 
Gage, who comes on Sunday to search 
for powder. 

LETTERS. 

1774 * * Observations on the Boston Port 
Bill, by Josiah Quincy, appears. 

* * The Journal of John Woolman ap- 
pears. 

* * History of Redemption, by Jonathan 
Edwards, appears. 

* * -75 * * Boston. The Royal American 
Magazine appears. 



SOCIETY. 

1773 Dec. 16. Boston. The Boston 
Tea Party. 

Seven thousand people assemble in 
town-meeting ; Adams and Quincy ad- 
dress them ; in the evening come about 
fifty men disguised as Indians, who, with 
war-whoops, lead the crowd to the 
wharves, and then empty 342 chests of 
taxed tea into the harbor. 

1774 June 1. New Eng. The patriotic 
colonists make this a day of fasting 
and mourning, because of the Port Bill. 

Sept. * Phila. Asserting the rights of 
British America, Thomas Jefferson laid 



before the Colonial Congress an anti- 
slavery paper : — 

" The abolition of domestic Slavery is 
the greatest object of desire in these 
Colonies, where it was unhappily intro- 
duced in their infant State. But pre- 
vious to the enfranchisement of the 
slaves, it is necessary to exclude further 
importations from Africa. Yet our re- 
peated attempts to effect this have been 
defeated by his majesty's negative." 

* * Mass. The people of all the colonies 
send money and provisions for the 
poor of the proscribed town of Boston, 
even the settlements beyond the Al- 
leghanies remember them, and $150,000 
are subscribed in London. 

1775 Mar. 8. A citizen of Billerica is 
tarred and feathered by the British ; the 
Americans adopt it as the mode of pun- 
ishing Tories. 

STATE. 

1772 * * Mass. Parliament enacts that 
the salaries of the colonial governors and 
judges shall be paid out of the colonial 
revenues without authorization by the 
General Assembly. [The Assembly soon 
declares the act of Parliament void.] 

* *N. C. — S. C. Settlement of the 
boundary between North and South 
Carolina. 

* * Eng. The tea tax produces from the 
American colonies a revenue of only 
$400 a year, at an annual expense of 
$1,500,000 for collection. 

* * -76 * * Va. John, Lord Dunmore, gov- 
ernor. 

1773 Jan. * -Feb. * Mass. A contro- 
versy exists between Governor Hutch- 
inson and the General Court. 

* * Mass. Ships loaded with tea arrive 
at Charlestown. 

The tea is landed, but its sale is forbid- 
den ; at New York and Philadelphia the 
ports are declared closed aud the ships 
are forbidden to enter ; at Boston the 
town authorities refuse to permit the 
tea to be landed, although it is consigned 
to Gov. Hutchinson and his friends. 

* * The colonial assemblies meet, and be- 
fore the governors can prorogue them, 
appoint "committees of correspon- 
dence," in order to secure unity of 
action among the colonies. 

Mar. * Va. Intercolonial committees of 
correspondence established. 

May * Eng. The ministry applies strata- 
gem to dispose of the accumulated tea 
of British merchants. 

It removes the export tax, so that 
with the import tax paid, tea can be 
bought in Boston cheaper than in Lon- 
don ; the Americans respond by order- 
ing captains to take their cargoes back 
to England. 

June -July. Miss. About 400 English 
families emigrate to the vicinity of 
Natchez. 

Dec. 16. Mass. The Boston Tea Party. 
Destruction of tea in Boston Harbor by 
citizens disguised as Indians ; 342 chests 
of tea are emptiea into the sea. (See 
Society.) 

Dec. 25. New York. A tea ship is sent 
back with her cargo. 

The captain is escorted out of town 
with banners flying and the band playing 



AMERICA. 



1772-1775, Mar. 8. 79 



God Save the King. Eighteen chests of 
tea concealed on board another ship are 
thrown into the dock. 

* * Cal. Presidios established in Upper 
California. 

* * Can. Celtic settlers arrive in Nova 
Scotia. 

* * Eng. Franklin is called before the 
Privy Council. 

* * Kentucky is settled by colonists led 
by Daniel Boone. 

* * Philadelphians denounce as an en- 
emy to his country " whosoever shall 
abet in unloading, receiving, or vending 
the tea." Charleston and New York 
adopt similar resolutions. 

* * S. C. About 300 families of Germans 
leave Maine, and settle in southwestern 

■ South Carolina. 

* * Governors inaugurated : 

-82* * Cal. Felippede Neve (Spanish). 

Mass. General Thomas Gage. 
-75 * * Mass. A Provincial Congress 
governs. 
1774 Jan. 29. Eng. Franklin appears 
before the Privy Council of George III., 
to present a petition from Massachu- 
setts. 

* * Conventions, to agitate the public 
mind in favor of liberty, are held in all 
the colonies. 

Jan. 31. Eng. Parliament votes to dis- 
miss Benjamin Franklin from his 
office of postmaster-general in America 
because of his patriotic sympathies. 

Mar. 31. Eng. Parliament passes the 
Boston Port Bill. 

It closes that port to all commerce, 
except food and fuel, and transfers 
the seat of government to Salem, which 
declines the honor, and refuses to profit 
by the hand of tyranny. The bill is to 
take effect on June 1. 

Apr. 19. Eng. Edmund Burke makes 
his famous speech on American taxa- 
tion. 

Apr. * Ky. Emigrants arrive ; Harrods- 
burg is soon settled. 

* * Eng. The Quebec Bill passes Parlia- 
ment, which grants unusual concessions 
to the Catholics of Canada, to secure 
their fidelity. 

May 13. Mass. Gov. Hutchinson is 
superseded by Gen. Gage, who vainly 
strives to repress the ferment of liberty 
among the people. 

May 17. Rhode Island proposes a 
general congress. 

May 20. Eng. Parliament subverts 
the charter of Massachusetts by au- 
thorizing the removal of certain persons, 
charged with crime, beyond its limits 
for trial. 

* * The colonists are divided into two 
parties ; the patriots, called Whigs, and 
the Royalists, called Tories. 

May 20. Fr. Louis XVI. en- 
throned. 

June 1. Mass. The Boston Port Bill 
goes into operation, closing the har- 
bor against commerce ; business is sus- 
pended ; the day observed in many parts 
with fasting and mourning. General 
sympathy for Boston. 



Boston. Ex-Gov. Hutchinson de- 
parts. 

June 17. -Boston. A Port Act meeting 
is convened. 

Aug. * -Sept. * Mass. County conven- 
tions held to protest against the Parlia- 
ment. 

Aug. ± * S. C. Generous Carolinians 
send Bostonians 200 barrels of rice and 
promise 800 more, but urge them "not 
to pay for an ounce of tea." 

* * North Carolina raises by subscription 
$1,000 for the relief of Boston. 



able redress by forming an American 
association pledged not to trade with 
Great Britain, or the West Indies, nor 
with those engaged in the slave-trade, 
and not to buy British goods or tea; 
a non-importation, non-consumption, 
and non-exportation agreement is 
adopted. 

Nov. ± * Provincial legislatures pass 
resolutions for obtaining military 
stores and arming the inhabitants. 

Nov. 5. Va. The militia assembled at 
Fort Gower resolve to support their 
countrymen rather than the tyranny of 
their King. 



Sept 5. Phila. The First Continental Dec. * The king, having prohibited the 



Congress and second Colonial Con 
gress meets in Carpenter's Hall ; 56 del- 
egates represent 11 colonies. [Later, 
68.] Peyton Randolph of Virginia, pres- 
ident. [Oct. 22. Henry Middleton of 
South Carolina.] Charles Thomson, 
secretary. 

Georgia, having a royalist governor, 
has no delegate. Congress proceeds to as- 
sume control of all military movements 
in all the colonies ; it acknowledges the 
authority of the king, but opposes the 
Acts of Parliament. No delegate is in- 
structed to ask for independence. [Sept. 

6. Each colony is given one vote. Sept. 

7. Rev. J. Duche 1 elected chaplain. 
Sept. 10. Approval of Suffolk (Mass.) 
Resolutions of Sept. 6, " No obedience is 
due to any part of the recent Acts of 
Parliament." Sept. 28. Rejects Joseph 
Galloway's plan of union aiming at per- 
petual dependence. Oct. 14. Adopts 
Declaration of Rights. Oct. 20. The 
American Association is formed by 52 
members; it pledges itself for non-inter- 
course with Great Britain until the of- 
fensive Acts are repealed. Oct. 21. The 
Address to the People of Great Britain, 
prepared by John Jay, approved. A 
memorial to the several Anglo-Ameri- 
can Colonies adopted. Oct. 22. Letters 
despatched to unrepresented colonies at 
St. John's (now Prince Edward Island), 
Nova Scotia, Georgia, East and West 
Florida. Oct. 25. Petition to the king, 
written by John Dickinson (Pa.), is or- 
dered. Oct. 26. An Address to the Peo- 
ple of Quebec, drawn by Dickinson, 
adopted. Dissolved.] 

Sept. 28. Mass. The royalist governor 
dissolves the Assembly. 



exportation of military stores to 
America, patriots in Rhode Island take 
about 40 cannon from the public battery ; 
in New Hampshire they seize over 100 
barrels of gunpowder lying in the fort 
at Portsmouth. 

* * Can. A legislative council is es- 
tablished ; the laws made by the French 
are confirmed, and the Catholics secured 
in their religious freedom. 

* * Connecticut issues paper money, 
the first of the Revolution. 

* * Ga. Several millions of acres of land 
ceded to the King, by the Creek and 
Cherokee Indians. 

* * Ky. George R. Clark arrives. 

* * Mass. A great commotion arises 
against Gov. Hutchinson and Lieut.-gov. 
Oliver, whose letters to the British 
government against the liberties of 
the colony become known. These offi- 
cials propose the introduction of troops, 
and one of them suggests the establish- 
ment of a "patrician order." The 
governor advises the abridgement of 
" English liberties," as he doubted if 
the people of a colony could enjoy all 
the liberty of the parent State. 

* * Spain permits free-trade with several 
of her South American settlements. 

* * Newspapers are divided, for and 
against the government. 



Oct. 5±. Mass. The Assembly meets 1775 * * En 9- Parliament is occupied 
at Salem, notwithstanding the action of with American affairs. 
Governor Gage in countermanding the Jan. 20. Eng. Chatham presents his 
summons which convoked it. 

[The members of the Assembly, having 
adjourned to Concord, resolve them- 
selves into a Provincial Congress, 
with John Hancock, president, and Ben- 
jamin Lincoln, secretary.] 

Oct. * Mass. 



The colonists are further 

incensed by the arrival of British troops, 

and by the measures adopted by General 

Gage. 
Oct. 26. Mass. The Provincial Congress 

proceeds to organize the militia as 

" minute-men," and collect stores and 

ammunition for public defense. 
Nov. 4. Congress, by its committee, 

makes a Declaration of Rights. 
It claims the right of participating 

in the making of the laws of the land, 

and in the ordering of the taxes ; of 1773 * * Conn 



motion to Parliament for conciliation 
with America. 

Feb. 1. Mass. The second Provincial 
Congress meets at Cambridge. 

Feb. 10. Eng. Lord North introduces 
a bill to restrain the trade and com- 
merce of New England [which soon 
after passes Parliament]. 

Feb. * Franklin is in London, conferring 
with the Howes. 

Mar. 5. New York. A town-meeting 
favors a congress; hoop-poles from a 
neighboring cooper's yard are used to 
enforce a favoring vote. 



having trial by jury in the vicinage ; 
of holding public meetings ; of seeking 
redress for grievances. It protests 
against a standing army imposed with- 
out its consent ; and against eleven 
governmental acts violating colonial 
rights and privileges. It proposes peace- 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

An old copper-mine at 



Simsbury is used as a prison. 
1774 * * Boston. The streets are first 

lighted. 
* * Conn. Only 1,363 Indians are reported 

in this colony. 



80 1775, Mar. 18-1775. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 
1775 Mar. 18. Mass. Gen. Gage seizes 
13,425 musket cartridges and 3,000 
lbs. of ball belonging to private Ameri- 
cans and stored on Boston Neck. 

He strengthens the fortifications on 
Boston Neck, and accumulates mili- 
tary stores. 
Apr. 18. Boston. Gen. Gage issues 
orders forbidding any one to leave the 
town after dark. 

Paul Revere rides to Concord to 
arouse the patriots. 

WAR OF INDEPENDENCE. 

Apr. 19. Mass. Lexington, the First 
Battle of the War for American In- 
dependence. 

Gen. Gage secretly sends a regiment 
of 800 men to Concord, 16 miles from 
Boston, to destroy the military stores of 
the colonists. They attack the patriots 
at Lexington and partially succeed in 
their mission, when they are in turn at- 
tacked by the " minute-men," and driven 
back to Boston. American loss 49 killed, 
34 wounded, and five missing ; British 
loss 273. " This is the world-renowned 
battle of Concord, more eventful than 
Agincourt and Blenheim." 

Apr. 20. Mass. Gen. Putnam arrives 
at Concord, having ridden his horse 
about 100 miles in 18 hours. 

Apr. 20 + -76, Mar. 17,1776. 
SIEGE OF BOSTON. 

Apr. 20. Boston under siege by about 
20,000 Americans. 

The isthmus connecting the town of 
Boston with the main land is blockaded 
and the siege of the city begins. 

Va. Gov. Dunmore sends marines in 

the night, to remove about 20 barrels 
of gunpowder from the arsenal at Wil- 
liamsburg, the capital ; some of the ex- 
asperated inhabitants fly to arms. 

Apr. 25. Md. Baltimoreans seize the 
provincial magazines, containing 1,500 
stand of arms, on receiving the war-news 
from Lexington. 

Apr. 27. Mass. Bostonians deliver up to 
Gen. Gage a large quantity of guns, etc. 

May 2. Va. Patrick Henry and 700 
patriots force the governor to pay for 
the powder removed from Williamsburg. 

May 5. Mass. A naval skirmish takes 
place at Martha's Vineyard. 

May 10. N. Y. Surrender of Ticon- 
deroga ; the gateway to Canada is 
taken. 

Ethan Allen of Vermont, with 83 
" Green Mountain Boys," surprises the 

garrison, and demands its surrender of 
ommander Delaplace, " In the name 
of the Great Jehovah and the Conti- 
nental Congress." Thirty-eight prison- 
ers and a fortress costing $40,000,000, 
with 120 cannons and vast military stores 
are taken by these extemporized troops 
in ten minutes. [The military supplies 
are soon hurried to the besiegers of Bos- 
ton, where they are much needed.] 

May 12. N. Y. Crown Point is taken 
by Seth Warner without loss of life. 

* * Eng. British officers resign their 
commissions rather than fight the colo- 
nists. 

May 25. Boston. Gens. Howe, Clin- 
ton, and Burgoyne arrive, and com- 



mand an army of more than 10,000 
disciplined soldiers. 

May 27. Boston. Israel Putnam defeats 
a few British raiders on Hog Island. 

May * Boston. Artemas Ward com- 
mander-in-chief of the American forces. 
Conflicts occur in the harbor. 

Phila. Congress adopts the army 

before Boston as the Continental army. 

* * A'. Y. Sir John Johnson flees from 
the Mohawk Valley to Canada. 

June 9. Mass. The American army 
at Cambridge; officers 1,581, privates 
6,063 ; total 7,644. 

June 12. Me. The Margaretta seized at 
Machias. 

June 16. Mass. The Americans throw 
up entrenchments near Bunker Hill 
during the night, and command Boston 
with their cannons. 

June 17. Phila. Continental Congress 
elects George Washington com- 
mander-in-chief of the American 
army ; he accepts the appointment, re- 
fusing all compensation. (June 15?) 

* * Massachusetts authorizes priva- 
teering. 

* * Rhode Island commissions two 
cruisers, and sends Abraham Whipple 
to Bermuda to seize powder. 

Mass. Battle of Bunker Hill 

(Breed's Hill). 

About 3,000 British troops under Gen- 
erals Howe and Pigot, aided by the fleet, 
carry the entrenchments on the third 
assault, the Americans having consumed 
their ammunition. British loss, 1,054 
killed and wounded; Americans lose 
150 killed (among them the brave Gen. 
Joseph Warren), 270 wounded, and 32 
prisoners. 
Charlestown is burnt by the British. 

June 21. Phila. Washington leaves 
to take command of the American army. 

June * Kg. Daniel Boone builds his 
fort. 

July 2. Mass. Washington arrives at 
Cambridge. 

July 3. Jifass. Washington assumes 
command of the army, consisting of 
14,500 men. 

July 27. Phila. Congress establishes a 
hospital for 20,000 men. 

July * Can. Col. Guy Johnson holds a 
conference with the Indians at Mon- 
treal. Many Indian chiefs agree to 
support the King's cause, against the 
colonists, but accomplish very little. 

Boston. The army in three divisions 

invests the city. 

Aug. 21. A r . Y. Continental army un- 
der Gen. Montgomery arrives at Port 
Ticonderoga. 

Aug. 26. Mass. The Americans open 
their entrenchments on a hill near 
Boston. 

Aug. 30. Conn. Stonington is at- 
tacked by the British. 

Sept. 2. Mass. Washington begins to 
commission war-vessels. 

Sept. * A r . Y. Schuyler from Ticonde- 
roga moves toward Canada, but yields 



the command to Montgomery, who 
captures Chambly. 

* * Me. Benedict Arnold moves up the 
Kennebec to invade Canada. 

Sept. * -Dec. * Pa. Hostilities in the 
Susquehanna country between the Con- 
necticut and Pennsylvania settlers. 

Sept. 25. Can. Col. Ethan Allen, with 
83 men, attempts to take Montreal ; all 
are made prisoners. 

Sept.* S. C. Col. Moultrie, with the 
militia, takes possession of Fort John- 
son on St. James Island. 

Oct. 7. B. I. British vessels sail into the 
harbor of Bristol and fire upon the town ; 
Newport is threatened with destruction. 

Oct. 10. Boston. Lord William Howe 
succeeds General Gage in command' 
at Boston. 

Oct. 13. The United States Navy 
originated by an order of Congress for 
the construction of 2 cruisers, mounting 
respectively 10 and 14 guns. 

Oct. 18. Me. Falmouth (Portland) is 
burned by the British under Lieutenant 
Mowatt. 

Oct. * -Dec. * The American vessels, 
Lynch and Franklin, cruise in the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence. 

Nov. 2. N. B. The garrison at St. John 
surrenders to Americans under Gen- 
eral Montgomery. 

Nov. 9. Can. General Arnold, with 
1,000 men, arrives before Quebec; they 
are deterred from taking the city by the 
want of boats. 

Nov. 12. Can. The Americans under 
Montgomery, having invaded Canada, 
attempt to surprise the British and 
take Montreal. 

* * Ger. British efforts to secure Ger- 
man mercenaries begin. 

Nov. 22. Mass. Americans take Cobble 
or Miller's Hill near Boston and for- 
tify it. 

Nov. 23. British despatch-bearer Con- 
nelly captured near Hagerstown, while 
on his way to Detroit, with papers of 
great consequence. 

Nov. 25. Phila. Congress declares Brit- 
ish vessels open to capture by Amer- 
icans, in retaliation for ordering the 
attack on American seaport towns by 
British vessels. 

Nov. 29. An American privateer cap- 
tures three British ships containing 
military stores, 

Nov. * Eng. Parliament votes to in- 
crease the British army in America 
to 40,000 men, requiring an addition of 
25,000 men. British subjects decline to 
enlist, and 17,000 Hessians are hired of 
Brunswick and Hesse-Cassel, at $36 a 
head. 

Dec. 1. Can. Arnold and Montgom- 
ery unite their forces on the St. Law- 
rence. 

Dec. 8. Can. The siege of Quebec 
begins. 

Dec. 9. Va. A slight action takes place 
at Cedar Bridge. 



AMERICA. 



1775, Mar. 18-1775. 81 



Dec. 10. British vessels destroy the 
buildings on Canonicut Island. 

Dec. 13. Phila. The germ of the navy 
department. Congress first determines 
to build a navy of 13 frigates. 

Dec. 22. Phila. Congress appoints a 
corps of naval officers, Esek Hopkins 
commander, and John Paul Jones lieu- 
tenant, naval affairs being in charge of 
a " Marine Committee." 

* * Boston. Admiral Shuldam relieves 
Admiral Graves as commander of the 
British fleet. 

Dec. 30. Can. Gen. Montgomery de- 
feated and killed before Quebec. 
Gen. Arnold continues the fruitless 
siege. 

Dec. * Phila. Congress authorizes Wash- 
ington to push the attack upon Boston, 
to the destruction of the town if neces- 
sary. 

CHURCH. 

1775 May 28. R. I. Dedication of a 
new Baptist church at Providence ; 
steeple 196 ft. high ; bell, 2,515 lbs. ; 
cost, $35,000. 

May 20. K. C. Presbyterians form the 
Mecklenburgh Convention, which 
anticipates the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence made at Philadelphia. 

May * Va. Baptist churches issue a 
patriotic address. 

LETTERS. 
1775 May 10. New York. A mob com- 
pels President Cooper of King's (Co- 
lumbia) College to flee for his life 
because of his Tory sentiments. 

* * Nov. * New York. Rivington's Ga- 
zetteer office is destroyed by Connecticut 
marauders. 

* * Eng. Appeals and addresses, or- 
dered by the Colonial Congress, arrive in 
England. 

William Pitt commends the patriots. 
" For myself I must avow, that, in all 
my reading, — and I have read Thucyd- 
ides, and I have studied and admired 
the master states of the world, — for 
solidity of reason, force of sagacity, and 
wisdom of conclusion ? under a compli- 
cation of difficult circumstances, no 
nation or body of men can stand in 
preference to the general congress at 
Philadelphia. The histories of Greece 
and Rome give us nothing equal to it, 
and all attempts to impose servitude 
upon such a mighty continental nation 
must be in vain." 

SOCIETY. 

1775 Apr. 14. Phila. The first Aboli- 
tion Society is formed, with Benjamin 
Franklin as president, and Benjamin 
Rush as secretary. 

Apr. 19. The patriots' victory at the 
battle of Lexington fires the country. 

Public sentiment quickly changes from 
loyalty to an almost universal desire to 
separate from England. 

May* Eng. The people are divided in 
their allegiance. 

English privilege and officialism are 
with the kings ; the popular heart and 
conscience are with the colonists, by a 
great majority. 



June 17. The Battle of Bunker Hill, 
though a defeat, inspires the war 
spirit in the colonies ; it is discovered 
that British troops are not invincible. 

* * Boston. The people suffer because of 
the rigorous siege. 

* * Boston. Dr. Benj. Church, director of 
the hospital, is the first American traitor. 

Nov. 4. Phila. The Continental Con- 
gress directs that there should be issued 
daily to each soldier a pint of milk and 
a quart of spruce beer or cider. 

STATE. 

1775 Mar. * Eng. Franklin leaves Lon- 
don. 

Mar. * Mass. The movement develops 
a struggle for liberty. 

John Adams says, " That there are any 
who pant after independence is the 
greatest slander on the province." [A 
sudden change soon follows.] 

Apr. 3. N. Y. The Colonial Assembly 

holds its last session, and adjourns. 
Apr. 19. The political existence of the 
United States dates from the Battle of 
Lexington ; its legal existence from 
the adoption of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence on July 4, 177C. 

* * N. Y. Richmond and Queens Counties 
side with the Tories, and send no dele- 
gates to the Provincial Congress. The 
wealth and influence of New York 
City are hostile to the patriots. 

Apr. 22. Mass. The Provincial Congress 
resolves to raise an army of 30,000 
men, of which the quota of Massachu- 
setts will be 13,600. 

May 5. Phila. Benjamin Franklin 
returns from England after an absence 
of more than ten years. 

May 10. Phila. The Second Conti- 
nental Congress opens in Independence 
Hall. [Peyton Randolph, president; 
Charles Thomson, secretary.] Colonies 
represented, 13 ; delegates present, 55. 

May 15. Phila. Congress resolves to 
issue paper money as a substitute for 
taxation. 

* * Phila. Congress votes to establish a 
line of posts from Maine to Georgia. 

May 20. Phila. Articles of confed- 
eration and perpetual union agreed 
upon in the Congress. 

iV. C. The colonists begin to speak 

of the United Colonies of America: 
at Charlotte the citizens assemble has- 
tily to startle the country by adopting 
the Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, [two months before that 
written by Jefferson. Winsor = May 20 ; 
some others = May 31]. 

May 24. Phila. John Hancock is 
elected president of Congress. 

June 7. Mass. The General Court con- 
siders the creation of a naval force, and 
authorizes privateers. 

Its action is anticipated by the people 
of Buzzard's Bay. [Jeremiah O'Brien 
is made a naval captain, commanding 
the prize sloop Margaretta.] 

June 12. Mass. Gen. Gage by procla- 
mation arrogantly offers pardon to all 
" rebels " and " traitors " who may sur- 



render, but excepts Samuel Adams and 
John Hancock. 

June 14. Phila. Congress votes to raise 
an army of 20,000 men. [June 15. Wash- 
ington elected commander.] 

June 15. Phila. Congress makes a 
last appeal to George III. for justice and 
liberty. [July 8. Second petition.] 

June 22. Phila. Congress resolves to 
emit $2,000,000 in bills of credit. 

July 6. Phila. Congress issues a man- 
ifesto, justifying its resistance to 
England. 

July 26. Mil. The Maryland Convention 
meets at Annapolis, and resolves to sup- 
port the measures of Congress ; orders 
$266,666 bills of credit struck, and 
decides to raise 40 companies of min- 
ute-men. 

Phila. Congress first establishes a 

post-office ; Benjamin Franklin, post- 
master. 

Summer. Franklin proposes a plan for 
confederating the English colonies. 

Aug. * Georgia joins the other colonies. 

Summer. The King's authority is 
overthrown in all the colonies ; the 
governors either join the popular cause, 
or are driven away by the people. 

Aug 23. Eng. King George III. pro- 
claims the existence of open rebellion 
in the colonies, and calls on loyal per- 
sons to give information against the dis- 
loyal colonists. 

* * Phila. Congress passes a Pension 
Act. 

Oct. 6. Phila. Congress urges the arrest 
of Tories. 

* * Phila. Congress appoints a Naval 
Committee. 

Oct. 13. Phila. Congress orders war- 
vessels to be built. 

Nov. * Can. Commissioners from Con- 
gress go to Canada. 

* * Phila. Bonvouloir sounds Congress 
by direction of the French government. 

Nov. 13. Massachusetts authorizes pri- 
vate armed vessels to cruise. 

Nov. 29. Phila. Congress first seeks ad- 
mission into the family of nations by 
appointing Franklin, Jay, and three 
others, a committee to confer with 
friends of the colonies " in Great Britain, 
Ireland, and elsewhere." 

**[[/. S.] Governors inaugurated : 
Nov. * -78 * * R. I. Nicolas Cooke. 
S. C. William Campbell. 

Dec. 2. Phila. Congress votes to em- 
ploy foreign engineers. 

Dec. 21. Eng. Act of Parliament for 
confiscating all American vessels 
and impressing their crews into the 
British navy. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1775 * * ( 'an. Quebec has 5,000 inhab- 
itants. 

Dec. 14. Boston. Gen. Howe orders 
about 100 wooden buildings to be taken 
down and used for fuel. 



82 1775-1776, July 3. 



AMERICA. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1775 * * Both the English and Americans 
seek the aid of the Indians. 

1776 Jan. 1. Mass. The Union flag 
is first unfurled in the camp at Cam- 
bridge. 

Va. Norfolk, the principal shipping 

port of Virginia, is partly burned by 
the Americans to deprive the British 
of shelter, and in part by the British 
Tories under Gov. Lord Dunmore, who 
had been driven from office by the 
patriots. 

* * Washington commissions Samuel 
Tucker as naval captain. 

Jan. 20. Sir John Johnson is forced 
by Gen. Schuyler to disband his High- 
landers and Mohawks, and give his 
parole not to fight the patriots. 

Feb. 4. New York. The Americans 
take possession; Gen. Charles Lee 
enters the city and encamps in the 
suburb on The Fields (City Hall Park). 

Feb. * The first American fleet of armed 
vessels begins its cruise. 

The British seek to transfer the seat 
of war to the southern colonies. 

The American regular army num- 
bers a little more than 14,000 men ; 6,000 
Massachusetts militia are available. 

Feb. 10. Mass. "Washington, at Charles- 
town, writes: "Without men, without 
arms, without ammunition, little is to 
be done." 

Feb. 27. N. C. Tories and Highlanders 
under McDonald defeated at Moore's 
Creek Bridge by the patriots, who 
take the British general, 350 guns, 1,500 
rifles, 13 wagons, 150 swords. 

* * Mass. The cannons taken at Fort 
Ticonderoga, having been hauled 
thither on sleds, are placed along the 
American line around Boston. 

Mar. 2. Mass. Americans bombard 
the British in Boston. 
An action occurs at Morris Creek. 

Mar. 3. 6a. Col. Bull and Americans 
burn British ship Inverness, and 6 other 
vessels laden for England, near Savan- 
nah. 

Mar. 4. W. I. Com. Esek Hopkins 
takes New Providence from the Brit- 
ish with its military stores. 

Mar. 5. Mass. A detachment of Amer- 
icans under Gen. Thomas takes posses- 
sion of Dorchester Heights in the 
night, thus beginning the long-expected 
attempt to take Boston. 

Boston. A severe storm delays the 

storming of the American works by the 
British, and the works are strengthened. 

Mar. * Can. The Americans are ex- 
pelled from Canada by Sir Guy Carle- 
ton. 

Mar. 17. Boston is evacuated by the 
British under Howe without molesta- 
tion, there being an informal agreement 
that the city would not be burned if no 
attack was made. [Eleven days re- 
quired.] 



Mar. 18. Boston. Washington enters 
the city, and finds 250 cannon and 25,000 
bushels of wheat. 
Mar. 23. Philo.. Congress issues letters 
of marque and reprisal against Eng- 
land, and declares all British vessels to 
be lawful prizes. 
Mar. * -Apr. * Ger. The troops of 
Hesse-Cassel are first mustered in by 
the British. 
Apr. 4. Mass. Washington leaves Cam- 
bridge for New York. 
Apr. 6. British ship Glasgow, 20 guns, 
and her tender, under Captain Howe, 
attack the brigantine Cabot, 30 guns, 
Columbus, 28 guns, brig Annodirte, 6 
guns, and sloop Providence, 12 guns, 
under Commodore Hopkins, and escapes 
with the loss of her tender. 
* * Washington ceases to supervise naval 

affairs. 
Apr. 13. New York. "Washington and 
the main'part of the army arrive from 
Cambridge ; he has about 8,000 effective 
men. 
May 17. Boston. Capt.Mugford, having 
captured the British ship Hope, with 
1,500 barrels of powder, brings the prize 
to port. 

New York. Washington first learns 

that 17,000 German troops have been 
hired by the British, who are landing 
in Canada. 
May 19. Can. Gen. Benedict Arnold, 
with 900 Americans, captures the British 
post at the Cedars, releasing 500 Amer- 
ican prisoners. 
May 25. Phila. Congress resolves to 
engage the Indians for military ser- 
vice. 
May * Can. The Americans are de- 
feated at Three Rivers. 

Gen. Thomas retreats from Quebec 
in command of the Northern army. 
June 2. Can. Gen. John Thomas dies 

of smallpox. 
June 4. S. C. The British fleet appears 
off Charleston. 

Gen. Lee arrives at Charleston, for 

its defense, as Gen. Clinton arrives 

to destroy it ; both parties proceed to 

erect defenses. 

June 15. Can. The British retake 

Montreal from the Americans. 
June * ± Can. Gen. Howe leaves Halifax, 
and sails with his army for New York 
Bay. 
June 16. Can. The Americans abandon 

the province of Canada. 
June 17, 18. English transports bound 
for Boston are captured by American 
cruisers. 
June 18. Canada is entirely evacu- 
ated by the Americans, " defeated, dis- 
contented, dispirited, diseased." 
June 25. N. Y. Gen. Howe arrives 

at Sandy Hook with his forces. 
June 28. New York. Gen. Howe, with 
the garrison of Boston, on board a 
British fleet of 40 vessels, enters the 
harbor. 



June * Gen. Horatio Gates takes com- 
mand of the Northern army of 
Americans. 

June 27 . The British under Gen. Clinton 
and Sir Peter Parker bombard the fort 
on Sullivan's Island for 10 hours and 
retire ; British loss, 210 killed and 
wounded ; Americans, 32. [The name 
of the fort is changed to Fort Moultrie, 
in honor of its commander.] 

Incident of bravery: Sergeant Jasper 
leaps outside the fort and seizes the 
fallen flag, which he ties to a pole on 
the parapet amid " iron hail." 

June 30. N. Y. Gen. Howe lands a 
strong British force on Staten Island, 
where he is welcomed by the Tories. 

* * Gen. Ward commissions Capt. Mug- 
ford to cruise near Boston. 

* * Paul Jones with the privateer Provi- 
dence takes 16 prizes. 

June * New York. Washington discovers 
a Tory conspiracy, in which some of 
the patriot soldiers are involved, and 
one of the guard, Thomas Hickey, is 
hanged "for mutiny, sedition, and 
treachery." Tories take warning. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1775* * Boston. The Blockade of Boston 
is written by General Burgoyne, and 
performed in Boston by British officers. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1775* * 

Anderson, Alexander, engraver, born. 

Barbour. James, statesman, born, 

Beecber. Lyman, theologian, born. 

Bohler, Peter, Moravian bishop, A63. 

Brown, Jacob, major-general, born. 

Chase, Philander, bishop, born. 

Eckford, Henry, shipbuilder, born. 

Embury, Philip, first Meth. preacher, A46. 

Hobart, John Henry, Trot.-Epis. bishop of 
H.Y., author, born. 

Lyman, Phineas, general, A59. 

Milledoler, Philip, pres. of Rutgers Coll., b. 

Montgomery, Richard, general, A39. 

Morgan, William, abducted, born. 

Quincy. Josiah, Jr.. patriot and orator, A31. 

Randolph, Peyton, first American Con- 
gress, A 52. 

Spalding, Lyman, physician, born. 

Warren, Joseph, gen., phys., patriot, A34. 

CHURCH. 

1775 ** Boston. The Old South 
Church used as a riding-school for 
Burgoyne's light-horse. 

* * Conn. Discomfort in the churches. 

Stoves are not yet introduced into Con- 
necticut churches, though the climate is 
more severe than in recent years, and 
the communion bread freezes on the 
tables, yet new-born infants are taken 
to the churches to be baptized, accord- 
ing to the custom. 

* * Eng. The religious sympathies of the 
dissenters especially favor the colonists. 

* * New Eng. The Presbyterian Synod 
of New England is formed (London- 
derry, Salem, and Palmer). 

* * Va. The General Association of Bap- 
tists appoints 3 bishops ; one is elected 
an apostle by ballot. 

1776 May 4. if. I. The Baptists re- 
pudiate all allegiance to George III. 

* * All the colonies, with the exception of 
Khode Island, New Jersey, and Pennsyl- 



AMERICA. 



1775-1776, July 3. 83 



vania, have a church established by 
law, or custom, as the rightful custo- 
dian of the spiritual interests of the 
people. 
June * Francis Asbury, a distinguished 
Methodist, is arrested and fined £5 for 
preaching without first taking the oath 
of loyalty. 

LETTERS. 

1775 Mar. 6. Boston. Joseph War- 
ren repeats his massacre oration. 

* * New York. Rev. Benjamin Moore 
becomes president of King's (Columbia) 
College. 

The Constitutional Gazette issued by 
John Anderson. (Dies the same year.) 

* * Phila. The Pennsylvania Magazine 
appears. 

* * Va. Patrick Henry, the greatest 
orator in America, makes his famous 
patriotic speech before the House of 
Burgesses. 

McFingal, by John Trumbull, appears 
in part. 

1776 Jan. 8. Thomas Paine issues his 
Common Sense, which is widely circu- 
lated, and greatly aids the Revolution 
by showing the importance and necessity 
of seeking independence. 

SOCIETY. 

1776 Mar. 18. Boston. Washington 
enters the city at the head of his army ; 
the whole country is wild with de- 
light. [Congress orders a gold medal 
to be struck for General Washington.] 

Apr. 6. Phila. Congress prohibits the 
importation of slaves. 

STATE. 

1775 * * Governors inaugurated: 

* * S. C. William Campbell governor, 
later, John Rutledge, the first governor 
under the Federal Constitution. 

1776. Jan. 1. Mass. The flag of the 
13 United Colonies is first raised ; it re- 
tains the crosses of St. George and St. 
Andrew on a blue ground, and adds red 
and white stripes. It is first used by 
Washington at Cambridge. 

* * * New York. Gov. Tryon prudently 
retires on board of a British man-of-war. 

Jan. 2. Phila. Congress urges strenu- 
ous measures against the Tories. 

Jan. * Eng. Pitt makes a speech on 
the Americans in Parliament. 

Feb. 1. Eng. Gen. Howe is directed 
not to use the King's name in the ex- 
change of prisoners. 

Peb. 17. Phila. Congress is obliged to 
issue $4,000,000 additional bills of 
Continental paper to meet the expenses 
of the war. 

Mar. 2. Phila. Congress appoints Silas 
Deane, of Ct., commissioner to France. 

Mar.* Phila. Congress commissions 
Carroll, Franklin, and Chase to go 
to Canada to effect a union. 



Mar. 23. Phila. Congress authorizes 
privateers to prey upon British com- 
merce. 

Mar. 14. Phila. Congress urges the dis- 
arming of disaffected citizens. 

Mar. * -June * U. S. Notable increase 
of the spirit of independence. 

Mar. 26. S. C. The General Assembly 
adopts a Constitution for the govern- 
ment of the Province. It is to continue 
till October 21, " and no longer." 

* * Phila. Congress issues instructions 
to privateers. 

Apr. 6. Congress declares American 
ports open to the trade of all nations 
except Great Britain, but prohibits the 
slave-trade. 

Apr. 22. North Carolina authorizes her 
delegates to subscribe to a declaration 
of independence. 

Apr. * Phila. A finance committee, 
the germ of the Treasury Department, 
is appointed by Congress. 

May 4. R. I. The Assembly repeals the 
■ ■ Act for the more effectually securing 
to his Majesty the allegiance of Rhode 
Island and Providence plantations," and 
provides that in legal papers, the name 
and authority of the King shall be 
omitted, and those of " the Governor 
and Company of this Colony" be sub- 
stituted. 

May 10. Pa. The colonial charter is 
overthrown. 

Mass. The General Assembly calls 

upon the people to assemble in town- 
meetings, and instruct their represen- 
tatives, " Whether, if the Honorable 
Congress should, for the safety of said 
Colonies, declare them independent 
of the Kingdom of Great Britain, they, 
the said inhabitants, will solemnly en- 
gage, with their lives and fortunes, 
to support them in the measure." 
[Barnstable is the only town in the 
Commonwealth that hesitates.] 

May 15. Phila. Congress calls upon 
the States to provide independent gov- 
ernments, and totally suppress every 
kind of authority under the Crown. 

Va. The Convention instructs the 

delegates of Virginia in Congress to 
urge it " to declare the United Colo- 
nies free and independent States, 
absolved from allegiance to, or depend- 
ence upon, the Crown or Parliament of 
Great Britain." 

May * Fr. — Sp. France and Spain se- 
cretly resolve to aid the Americans 
with money. 

May 24. Phila. The Continental Con- 
gress elects John Hancock of Massa- 
chusetts as its president. 

June 7. Phila. Congress changes its 
demand, and asks for independence 
instead of constitutional liberties. 

Phila. Richard Henry Lee, in obe- 
dience to the instructions of the Assem- 
bly of Virginia, offers a resolution in 
Congress " that the united colonies 
are, and of right ought to be, free 



and independent States." John 
Adams of Massachusetts seconds the 
motion , and a great debate follows. New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land, and South Carolina are conserva- 
tive, and hesitate to support such a 
radical step. The resolution is post- 
poned till July first. 

June 10 and Aug. 11. Phila. Beau- 
marchais, as agent, receives from the 
French and Spanish governments mon- 
eys, and conducts his business under the 
style " Hortalez et Compagnie." 

June 11. Phila. Congress appoints T. 
Jefferson, John Adams, Benj. Franklin, 
Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Living- 
ston a committee to prepare a decla- 
ration of independence. 

June 12. Va. A Declaration of Bights 

is adopted. 

June * Va. Gov. Dunmore prudently re- 
tires on board a British man-of-war. 

June 20. Conn. The General Assembly 
issues a declaration of independence 
and absolution from all allegiance to the 
King of Great Britain. 

June * New York. Discovery of the 
"Hickey Plot," to assassinate Wash- 
ington. 

* * Fr. Silas Deane reaches France as 
the first agent of the United States. 

* * Phila. The United States solicits 
money of France. 

* * Phila. Congress proposes a loan. 

June 28. Phila. Congress. The reso- 
lution of Independence drafted by 
Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, having 
been accepted by the committee, is re- 
ported to the delegates. 

July 1. Phila. Congress. Debate com- 
mences on the resolution for Independ- 
ence. 

July 2. Phila. Congress. Delegates of 
all the colonies adopt the resolution of 
Independence except New York, whose 
delegates have not been instructed to 
take such an important step. 

July 3. Phila. Congress debates the 
Declaration of Independence with 
great earnestness, but the discussion is 
not completed. 

Note — The Resolution of Independence, the 
Important event, passes on the 2d of July. 
The reasons for so doing are passed by Con- 
gress two days later. John Adams predicted 
the •' 3d day of July " would be long cele- 
brated. • 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

* * * Wealth abounds in many South- 
ern families ; it is chiefly produced by 
growing tobacco, indigo, and rice. 

1776 Jan. 1. Va. Norfolk is de- 
stroyed by fire and the cannon balls of 
the British ; loss, $1,500,000. 

Spring. New York. Hydrant water in- 
troduced ; reservoir on the east side of 
Broad Street, near Pearl. 



84 1776, July 4-1777, Jan. 1. AMERICA: 



The United States of America is a federal republic, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans, and occupying 
most of the southern half of the Continent of North America. It comprises 45 States and three Territories, besides the District 
of Columbia. Washington is the federal capital. 

The government is a representative democracy. The Federal executive authority is vested in a President, elected for four 
years, aided by a Cabinet having eight members ; the legislative authority, in a Congress having two houses, the Senate com- 
prising two members for each State, and a House of Representatives having 356 members who are elected by the direct vote of 
the people. Ratio of representation, one Representative to 173,901 of the population. The Senators are elected by the State Le- 
gislatures ; the Representatives are elected for two years by the direct vote of the people of the different States. The Federal 
authority is limited to national affairs. Each State has a Governor and a Legislature of two houses, having extensive inde- 
pendent power reserved to it under the Federal Constitution, for controlling its local affairs. The Federal judiciary system is 
distinct from that of the States ; the highest court being the Supreme Court of the United States. All religions are tolerated, 
and English is the common language. Area, 3,025,600 square miles ; including Alaska, 3,557,000. Population, 1890, 62,622,250. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1776 July 5. Conn. New Haven is 
plundered and pillaged by the British. 

July 12. JV. Y. Sir William Howe lands 
9,000 British soldiers on Staten Island. 

July 15-Oct. 11. S. C. War with the 
Cherokee Indians. Their settlements 
are destroyed, and they are driven be- 
yond the mountains by a force under 
Col. Andrew Williamson. 

July * JV. Y. General Sullivan is driven 
from Canada by the British ; he rests at 
Crown Point. 

Aug. 1. JV. Y. Sir Henry Clinton's 
army arrives from Charleston, South 
Carolina. 

Aug. 8. Northern army under Washing- 
ton reports 10,514 fit for duty ; 3,668 sick ; 
2,946 on command ; 97 on furlough; total, 
17,225. 

Lieut. Paul Jones receives a captain's 

commission. [Nov. 2. R. I. He sails in 
command of the ship Alfred, having 30 
guns and 300 men, and the sloop Provi- 
dence, having 12 guns and 70 men. He 
soon breaks up the fishery at Cape 
Breton.] 

Aug. 14. JV. Y. Lords Dunmore and 
Campbell and Sir Peter Parker, after 
taking from the Virginians about 1,000 
negroes, join Lord Howe on Staten 
Island, making his entire force about 
35,000 men. 

Aug. 20. JV. Y. Gen. Sullivan suc- 
ceeds Gen. Greene in command of the 
Americans on Long Island. [Aug. 24. 
He is succeeded by Gen. Putnam.] 

Aug. 22. JV. Y. Gen. Howe lands 10,000 
British soldiers on Long Island near 
the Narrows. (The British fleet num- 
bers 437 vessels.) 

Aug. 27. JV. Y. Battle of Long Island. 
Disastrous defeat of 5,000 Americans 
by 16,000 British and Hessians in Brook- 
lyn [Greenwood Cemetery]. The Amer- 
icans under Putnam, Sullivan, and Stir- 
ling lose 2,000 killed and taken prisoners, 
including three generals captured ; Brit- 
ish loss, about 400 men. 

Aug. 28. JV. Y. The British on Long 
Island make no assault on the Amer- 
ican lines, but prepare for a regular 
siege ; the Americans are reenforced. 

* * * Successive disasters fall to the 
Americans. 

Aug. 30. JV. Y. Washington, favored 
by a dense fog, secretly retreats during 
the night from Brooklyn to New York. 



Sept. * Phila. Congress establishes uni- 
forms for the army and navy. 

JV. Y. Great numbers of the militia 

desert after the defeat on Long Island ; 
Washington's army is reduced to less 
than 20,000 men. 

Sept. 14. JV. Y. The British enter 
New York City, and the Americans 
retire to Harlem. Washington narrowly 
escapes capture in his reluctant retreat. 

Sept. 16. JV Y. The British make an un- 
successful attack at Harlem Heights, 
near New York, losing 20 killed and 100 
wounded. 

Sept. 22. JV. Y. Captain Nathan Hale 
is captured while reconnoitering the 
British force on Long Island ; he is de- 
nied the attendance of a clergyman, and 
speedily hanged by Sir William Howe ; 
his letters to his mother and friends are 
destroyed. 

* * New York. Oliver de Lancey raises 
a royalist corps. 

Sept.f * JV. Y. The two armies watch 
each other for several weeks. 

Oct. 10. Phila. Congress creates cap- 
tains in the navy, which comprises 26 
vessels carrying 536 guns. 

Oct. 11-13. Brig.-Gen. Benedict Ar- 
nold, in command of a small fleet on 
Lake Champlain, heroically fights a su- 
perior force under Sir Guy Carleton, 
Governor of Canada ; the enemy retires, 
but afterward returns and defeats Ar- 
nold, who runs some of his vessels ashore 
and fires them, while others escape. 
[Oct. 14. JV. Y, Carleton occupies Crown 
Point.] 

Arnold destroys the buildings at 
Crown Point [and retreats to Fort 
Ticonderoga], 

Oct. 23. New York. Manhattan Island 
is abandoned by the Americans, while 
Gen. Howe attempts to gain their rear. 

Oct. 28. N. Y. Gen. Howe defeats 
Washington at the Battle of "White 
Plains, near New York ; losses, about 
400 men on each side. 

Oct. * N. Y. Finding Ticonderoga 
strengthened by Gen. Gates, Carleton 
retires to Canada, and postpones the 
proposed division of the colonies by con- 
necting with Howe at New York. 

* * Capt. Lambert Wickes, of the Re- 
prisal, takes Dr. Franklin to Europe ; 
Wickes is the first American to cruise 
m European waters, 



* * Esek Hopkins, commander-in-chief 
of the navy, captures the English ship- 
of-war Glasgow. [1777. Jan. 2. Dis- 
missed the service for neglect.] 

Nov. 4. N. Y. Washington withdraws 
to North Castle, about five miles distant. 

Nov. * JV. I'. The two armies watch each 
other. 

Nov. * JV. J. Washington crosses the 
Hudson to Fort Lee, near New York, on 
the west bank ; he leaves 7,000 men with 
Gen. Charles Lee. 

Nov. 16. JV. Y. The British under Howe 
attack Fort "Washington, and Col. 
Magaw capitulates after a stubborn re- 
sistance ; the British take more than 
2,000 prisoners. 

Nov. 18. N. Y. Gen. Cornwallis, with 
6,000 British soldiers, crosses the Hudson 
to attack Fort Lee in New Jersey. 

Nov. 20. JV. J. Washington, hastily 
abandoning his artillery, withdraws 
with his little army of 3,000 men to 
Hackensack. [Nov. * He retreats to 
Newark, New Brunswick, and Prince- 
ton.] 

Nov. * Gen. Charles Lee is virtually in- 
subordinate, and refuses to cooperate 
with and reenforce Washington. 

Nov. 30. JV. J. Washington's army oc- 
cupies Trenton. 

Dec. 2-4. JV. J. Gen. Lee crosses the 
Hudson at Haverstraw. [Dec. 11. He 
finally reaches Morristown.] 

Dec. 8. Pa. "Washington, having re- 
treated across the State of New Jersey, 
crosses the Delaware into Pennsylva- 
nia ; he destroys all the boats within 70 
miles, and is not pursued farther. 

/,'. /. The British take Khode 

Island, and blockade its ports ; Provi- 
dence and Canonicut Islands are also 
subdued. [Held for 3 years.] 

* * * The militia, especially that of New 
Jersey, refuses to take the field in be- 
half of a ruined enterprise. 

Dec. 13. JV. J. A squad of British cav- 
alry captures Gen. Lee at Basking 
Ridge. [Taken to New York.] 

Dec. 14. JV. J. The British go into win- 
ter quarters. 

Dec. * JV. J. Gen. Schuyler, with part 
of the army from'Lake Champlain, re- 
enforces "Washington at Morristown, 
augmenting his force to 6,000 men. 

Dec. 20. Pa. Gen. Sullivan with Lee's 
army arrives at headquarters. 



UNITED STATES. 1776, July 4-1777, Jan. 1. 85 



ARMY — NAVY. 

Dec. 25. The tide of fortune turns in 
favor of the Americans. Washington 
reerosses the Delaware in the night 
amid the floating ice with 2,400 men. 

Dec. 26. N. J. Battle of Trenton. 
Washington surprises and surrounds 
the 1,500 British at Trenton under Col. 
Rahl ; he captures 1,000 Hessians, losing 
only two men. [This victory rouses the 
nation from despondency.] 

Dec. 27. N. J. The British abandon all 
their posts on the Delaware River. 

Dec. * Robert Rogers recruits the 
Queen's Hangers [afterward led by 
John Graves, Lord Simcoe]. 

* * Eng. John the Painter fires the Eng- 
lish dockyards. 

* * Marshal Broglie makes movements to 
supersede Washington. 

1777 Jan. 1. N.J. Col. Reed, with 
six horsemen, makes a dash near Prince- 
ton, captures 12 dragoons, and brings 
them to the American camp at Trenton. 



BIRTHS — DEATHS 
1776* * 
Bates, Joshua, cl., college president, born. 
Boyer, Jean Pierre, Haiti, born. 
Cheves, Langdon, statesman, born. 
Eaton, Amos, naturalist, born. 
Hale, Capt. Nathan, patriot, A21. 
Morris, Thomas, statesman, born. 
Murdock, James, theologian, born. 
Thomas, John, general, A51. 
Troost, Gerard, chemist, born. 
Vanderlyn, John, painter, born. 



CHURCH. 

1776* * Boston. The churches suffer ; 
the British have used one church as a 
riding-school, three as barracks, and one 
for firewood. 

* * Cal. Catholic missionaries settle at 
Verba Buena [San Francisco]. 

* * Del. All the Methodist preachers 
sent by Mr. Wesley return to England, 
except Francis Asbury. 

LETTERS. 

1776 Dec. 3. N. J. First issue of the 
New Jersey Gazette at Burlington ; it is 
the first newspaper in the State. 

* * The American Crisis, by Thomas Paine, 
appears. 

* * * New York. Rivinglon's Gazetteer, 
the most influential Tory journal in the 
country. 

* * New York. John Englishman in De- 
fence of the English Constitution, issued 
(f or.thr ee»months) by Parker and Wym an . 

* * The New York Pacquet and the Ameri- 
can Advertizer issued by Samuel Loudon . 

The Committee of Safety take King's 
(Columbia) College for a military hos- 
pital. 

* * Phila. The Declaration of Inde- 
pendence is drafted by Thomas Jeffer- 
son. 

* * P.. I. Dialogue against Slavery, by 
Samuel Hopkins, appears. 

* * Va. James Monroe graduates at Wil- 
liam and Mary College. 

Hampden-Sidney College (non- 
sect.) is organized. 



SOCIETY. 

1776 Sept. * Phila. Alexander Ham- 
ilton, 20 years of age, attracts the atten- 
tion and wins the long friendship of 
Washington by his skill in planning 
the defenses of Fort Washington, New 
York. 

Sept. -Dec. General despondency 
prevails because of the military disas- 
ters and the loss of hope. 

Nov. 18. Phila. Congress approves of 
a lottery bill to defray military ex- 
penses. 

* * Phila. Robert Morris offers his 
princely fortune for the support of the 
distressed army. 

* * Slavery exists in every one of the 
colonies that enters the struggle for lib- 
erty. 

* * Washington issues orders forbidding 
" all playing at cards or other games of 
chance " in the army. 

STATE. 

1776 July 4. Phila. Continental Con- 
gress : At 2 o'clock in the afternoon the 
Declaration of American Indepen- 
dence is adopted by the delegates of 
13 colonies. 

" Resolved that these united colonies 
are and of right ought to be, free and 
independent States ; that they are ab- 
soh ed from all allegiance to the British 
crown ; and that all political connection 
between them and the State of Great 
Britain is and ought to be totally dis- 
solved." [Aug. 2. Signed by the last 
delegate.] 

July * The colonists accept the Declara- 
tion with great enthusiasm ; they ex- 
press their delight with bonfires, bells, 
and speeches ; the New Yorkers (July 9) 
pull down the leaden statue of George 
III. and cast it into bullets. 

July 8. Phila. The Declaration of In- 
dependence is read from the steps of 
the State House, and to the American 
army 

July 9. N. Y. The Provincial Congress 
assembles at White Plains and formally 
takes the name of the Representatives 
of New York, and proclaims its adhe- 
sion to the Declaration of Independence. 
[July 10. New York is declared an in- 
dependent State.] 

July 12. Phila. Dickinson's proposed 
plan for confederation is presented to 
Congress. 

July 14. Gen. Washington refuses to re- 
ceive a letter from Adm. Lord Howe, 
addressed to «* George Washington, 
Esq." (And later another to " George 
Washington, etc., etc., etc." He finally 
accepts one properly addressed.) 

Aug. 23. New York. Sir William Howe 
issues a proclamation of pardon to 
all who return to the allegiance of the 
King. 

Sept. 5. Phila. A report on treason 
is made to Congress. 



Sept. 9. Phila. The Colonies are first 
called the United States of America, 
by Congress. 

Sept. 11. N. Y. Adm. Howe, having so- 
licited a conference respecting rec- 
onciliation, meets John Adams, Benj. 
Franklin, and Edward Rutledge, at a 
house on Staten Island opposite Amboy ; 
the Americans disdain submission. 

Dec. * Kentucky is made a county of 
Virginia. [1791. Feb.* Separated.] 

Oct. 13. Phila. Congress lays the foun- 
dation of the American navy by ap- 
pointing a committee to build 13 frigates. 

Nov. 2. Phila. Congress establishes a 
cannon-foundry. 

Nov. * Phila. Congress appoints Ar- 
thur Lee and Benjamin Franklin am- 
bassadors to negotiate a treaty with 
France. [Dec. 7. They arrive at Nantes, 
France.] 

Nov. 30. JV. Y. Adm. Lord and Gen. 
Sir William Howe issue a proclamation 
of pardon. 

It calls upon all insurgents to lay down 
their arms, and offers pardon for 60 days. 
[Many persons, especially the wealthy 
people, comply ; among whom are two 
delegates of the Continental Congress, 
and the president of the New Jersey 
Convention which approved the Decla- 
ration of Independence. For 10 days 
after its issue from 200 to 300 come daily 
to take the oath.] 

* * Phila. Congress orders that persons 
refusing to take Continental money be 
arrested. 

Dec. 12. Phila. Owing to the proximity 
of the British army, the Continental 
Congress adjourns to Baltimore. 

Dec. 20. Md. Third session of the 
Colonial Congress at Baltimore. 

[Dec. 27. It clothes Washington with 
dictatorial powers to direct all mili 
tary operations for six months.] 

* *-84* * New York. David Matthews 
(Tory), the 42d mayor. 

* * The hiring of Hessian troops to sub- 
jugate the colonists causes disloyalty 
to become rampant. 

* * Governors inaugurated : 
-77 * * Del. John McKinley. 

Ga. Archibald Bullock (acting). 
-79 * * N. C. Richard Caswell. 
-89 * * N.J. Wm. Livingston. 
-77* * Pa. Benj. Franklin (Committee 

of Safety). 
-79 * * Va. Patrick Henry. 

* * IT. S. The States adopt new consti- 
tutions. (July 2, N. J. ; July 5, Va. ; 
July 15, Pa. ; Aug. 14, Md. ; Sept. 20, Del.; 
Dec. 18, N. C.) [1777, Feb. 5, Ga. ; Apr. 
20 ; 1778, Mar. 19, S. C. ; 1780, Mar. 2, 
Mass.] 

1777 Jan. 1. Md. Congress authorizes 
Franklin to negotiate a treaty with 
Spain. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1776 Sept. 21. New York. Trinity 
Church and 492 buildings are de- 
stroyed by fire after the evacuation. 



86 1777, Jan. 2- Oct. 16. 



AMERICA: 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1777 Jan. 3. N.J. Battle of Princeton. 
Washington again surprises and defeats 
a part of Cornwallis's army and takes 
several hundred prisoners. British loss, 
100 slain, 300 prisoners ; American loss, 
very slight, includes Gen. Mercer. 

Jan. * The army is in very bad con- 
dition, owing to the lack of money, the 
paper currency having little value. 

Jan. 5. N. J. Washington withdraws 
his troops to a strong position at Morris- 
town, the right wing under Putnam is 
at Princeton, and his left wing under 
Gen. Heath in the Highlands on the 
Hudson. 

The militia rises in arms and vexes the 
British, until their lines are contracted 
about New Brunswick and Amboy. 
[Washington's headquarters continue 
here during nearly all of the remainder 
of the war.] 

* * Fr. The first vessels leave France 
with, supplies for the American army. 

Jan. 7. — May 28. N. J. Washington's 
force is encamped at Morristown. 

Jan. 7. N. J. British troops evacuate 
Elizabethtown ; Gen. Maxwell attacks 
their rear, takes 70 prisoners and a 
schooner loaded with baggage. 

Feb. 6. Great Britain grants letters 
of marque and reprisal against the 
United States. 

Feb. 13. Fr. Franklin and Deane en- 
gage Du Portail and other engineers. 

Feb. 18. N. J. Col. Neilson, with a 
party of American militia, defeats 
British troops under Major Stockton, 
kills 4 and captures the commander and 
59 men. 

Feb. 19. Baltimore. Congress commis- 
sions five major-generals. 

They are Stirling, St. Clair, Mifflin, 
Stephen, and Lincoln. (Benedict Arnold 
is overlooked.) Eighteen brigadier-gen- 
erals are also commissioned. They in- 

* elude Glover, George Clinton, Woodford, 
Muhlenberg (Ger. Lutheran clergyman), 
Hand, Anthony Wayne, and Conway, 
the Irish adventurer. 

* * R . I. The entire American fleet 
under Adm. Hopkins is blockaded at 
Providence. 

Feb. 27. S. C. The militia defeats a 
large force of American royalists, and 
captures much ammunition and other 
military stores. 

Mar. 23. N. Y. British, under Bird, 
land at Peekskill to seize military 
stores ; some are burned by Gen. Mc- 
Dougall, who retires. The British secure 
much provision, forage, and burn valu- 
able property. 

Mar. 29. New York. Gen. Charles Lee 
writes treasonable negotiations for Gen. 
Howe. [Discovered after his death.] 

May 6. Can. Gen. Burgoyne arrives 
at Quebec to take command of the 
British forces in Canada. 

He proposes to cut the colonies in two 
by an expedition moving through Lake 
Champlain and down the Hudson River. 

Mar. * Fr. Three ship-loads of mili- 
tary supplies sail for America. [Only 
one escapes the British cruisers, and it 



brings great relief to the army at Mor- 
ristown, in April.] 

* * Spring. Capt. Conyngham is sent out 
by Silas Deane from Dunkirk, to prey 
on British commerce. 

Apr. 13. N. J. The British under Corn- 
wallis surprise Gen. Lincoln with 500 
Americans at Boundbrook ; he retreats 
with the loss of 60 men. 

Apr. 15. Ky. Indians attack Boones- 
boro ; 4 of Col. Boone's men are killed. 

Phila. Congress resolves to abolish 

distinctions between troops, as " Cong- 
ress' Own Regiment," " Washington's 
Life Guards." 

Apr. 17. Capt. John Barry captures the 
British vessel Edward, the first Amer- 
ican prize. 

Apr. * N. J. Washington's force is in- 
creased to about 7,000 men. 

Apr. 25. 8. C. Marquis de Lafayette, 
but 19 years old, with 11 officers, lands at 
Charleston, having raised a corps at his 
own expense, this forms one of the prom- 
inent events of the war. 

27. Conn. Gen. Tryon, with 2,000 

British soldiers, makes a raid on Dan- 
bury and burns 18 houses and military 
stores ; the patriotic militia attacks their 
flank and rear while they retreat to the 
coast. 

Spring. N.H. A vessel arrives at Ports- 
mouth from France with more than 
11,000 stand of arms and 1,000 barrels 
of gunpowder; 10,000 stand of arms are 
received at another port. 

May 22. Phila. Gen. Schuyler is con- 
firmed in the command of the Northern 
army. 

May 24. N. Y. Col. Meigs, with 200 Con- 
necticut militia-men, surprises the Brit- 
ish post at Sag Harbor, Long Island, 
and captures 90 prisoners, a gun-ship, 
10 loaded transports and vast military 
stores, and all without the loss of a single 
man. [Congress afterward voted the gal- 
lant colonel a sword.] 

May* Benedict Arnold commissioned 
major-general and presented by Con- 
gress with a horse richly caparisoned; 
he is yet below the 5 other major- 
generals. 

May 28. N. J. Washington removes his 
headquarters to the heights of Middle- 
brook. 

* * Capt. John Manley sails on a cruise. 

* * Captain Johnson of the Lexington 
cruises in European waters. 

June 1. N. Y. Burgoyne, the suc- 
cessor of Sir Guy Carleton, invades 
Northern New York with an army 
from Canada. 

June 19. N. J. Sir Win. Howe, hav- 
ing received large reenforcements and 
supplies, establishes his headquarters 
at New Brunswick, about ten miles 
from Washington's army. 

±N. Y. Burgoyne lands at CrownPoint. 

June 20+ . N. Y. Howe makes various 
attempts, but fails to draw Washington 
apart from his strong position into a 
general engagement. 



June * N. Y. Burgoyne meets the chiefs 
of the Six Nations in council and induces 
400 of their warriors to join his army. 

June * N. Y. Burgoyne, by proclamation, 
calls on the patriots to submit, or to be 
ravaged by his Indian allies. 

June 25. N.J. Cornwallis being reen- 
forced by Howe, maneuvers for position, 
but dares not attack Washington at 
Boundbrook. 

June 30. N. Y. After six months' ma- 
neuvering and little fighting, the Brit- 
ish abandon New Jersey, and encamp 
on Staten Island. [The national spirits 
revive, and the British are dismayed at 
the unexpected turn of affairs.] 

July 4. Kg. Boonesboro attacked by 
Indians. 

July 5. N. Y. Gen. St. Clair and 3,000 
Americans abandon Fort Ticonder- 
oga in the night, and retreat through 
Vermont toward Fort Edward. 

July 6. N. Y. Gen. Burgoyne takes 
possession of Ticonderoga, with about 
7,000 troops and 7,000 Indians. 

Burgoyne captures a large quantity 
of military stores near "Whitehall. 

July 7. N. Y. The Americans burn Fort 
Ann. 

Vt. Burgoyne defeats the Americans 

under St. Clair at Hubbardton, while 
on their retreat. 

July 8. N. Y. Battle of Fort Ann; 
Americans under Livingston defeated ; 
they retire to Fort Edward, losing 128 
cannons, and stores. 

July 10. R. I. A British general cap- 
tured. 

Col. William Barton of Providence by 
stratagem surprises and captures Gen. 
Prescott while in bed at a farmhouse 
near Newport. [The Americans after- 
ward exchanged him for Gen. Lee.] 

July 12. N. Y. Gen. St. Clair arrives 
at Fort Edward, having in late re- 
verses lost nearly 200 pieces of artillery 
and large quantities of military stores. 

July 19. Ky. About 200 Indians besiege 
Logan's Fort ; 16 men repel them. 

* * Pa. Leading Quakers are arrested 
and sent South. 

July 23. Gen. Howe leaves a garrison 
at Staten Island and takes 18,000 men to 
sea in transports ; destination unknown 
to Americans. 

July 24. N. J. Washington marches 
South. [Lafayette, DeKalb, and Pu- 
laski soon join his army.] 

July 27. N. Y. Jane McCrea is slain. 
The Indian allies of the British toma- 
hawk her while she is being conveyed 
to her lover in the camp at Fort Edward. 
[Public horror intensifies the hatred of 
British oppression.] 

July 30. Burgoyne arrives at Fort 
Edward, recently deserted by the Amer- 
icans under Gen. Schuyler (an unsuc- 
cessful commander), who retire to 
Saratoga. 

N.J. Washington crosses the Del- 
aware to Germantown with his army. 

July 31. Lafayette, 20 years old, made 
Major-General in the army by Con- 
gress (without command). 






UNITED STATES. 



1777, Jan. 2- Oct. 16. 87 



Aug. 3-23. N. Y. Barry St. Ledger, with 
a British force, attacks Fort Stanwix. 

Aug. 3. N. Y. Battle of Fort Schuy- 
ler on the Mohawk River (Fort Stanwix). 
The garrison of 600 Continentals, under 
Cols. Gansevoort and Willet, successfully 
resists 1,800 Tories, Canadians, and In- 
dians under Gen. St. Ledger and Indian 
Chief Brant. 

Phila. Congress accepts the service 

of Count Pulaski of Poland ; his fel- 
low country man, Thaddeus Kosciusko, 
21 years of age, is already serving with 
General Schuyler. 

Aug. 6. N. Y. Battle of Oriskany. 
Gen. Herkimer is defeated and mortally 
wounded in an ambuscade while march- 
ing to the relief of Fort Schuyler with 
the militia of the vicinity. 

Aug. 10. N. Y. Burgoyne sends a de- 
tachment under Col. Baum to seize the 
provisions and military stores at Ben- 
nington, Vermont. 

Aug. 15. N.Y. Gen. Burgoyne leaves 
Fort Edward. 

Aug. 16. Vt. Battle of Bennington. 
Col. John Stark, with the militia, 
defeats the British force under Col. 
Baum, which loses 200 killed and 700 
prisoners ; American loss, 14 killed and 
40 wounded. [The country is fired with 
enthusiasm.] 

Aug. 17. N. Y. Gen. Schuyler is re- 
enforced ; he now has 13,000 men. 

Aug. 19. Gen. Schuyler is super- 
seded by Gen. Gates in the Northern 
Department. 

Aug. 22. N. Y. Gen. Sullivan and Col. 
Ogden raid the British on Staten 
Island, capture 130 prisoners, a few 
officers, destroy stores, etc. 

Gen. Benedict Arnold marches to 
the relief of Fort Schuyler. St. Ledger 
and his panic-stricken army leave in 
haste with tents standing. 

Aug. 24. Phila. Washington's army 
passes through Philadelphia for the 
Chesapeake. 

Aug. 25. Md. Gen. Howe, with 16,000 
men, enters the Chesapeake Bay, lands 
at Head of Elk, and, advancing in two 
columns, threatens Philadelphia. 

Sept. 1. W. Va. An attack is made on 
Fort William Henry (Wheeling). 

Sept. 8. N. Y. The Northern army, 6,000 
strong, under Gen. Gates, establishes 
a fortified camp at Bemis Heights, 
near Stillwater, in Saratoga county. 

Sept. 9. N. Y. Col. Brown, with a de- 
tachment of men, seizes the posts at the 
outlet of Lake George, and a fleet of 
bateaux laden with provisions for Bur- 
goyne. 

Sept. 11. Pa. Battle of Brandywine. 
Washington is severely defeated by 
superior numbers under Howe, aided by 
Cornwallis and Knyphausen ; American 
loss, 1,000; British loss, 584. Lafayette 
is wounded in this, his first American 
battle. Alexander Hamilton is aide to 
Washington. 

* * Gen. Arnold is quarrelsome, and de- 
nied a command under Gen. Gates. 

Sept. 12. Phila. Washington reenters 
with the remnant of his army. 



A". Y. Gen. Gates, with the Northern 

Army, encamps at the mouth of the 
Mohawk River. 

Sept. 13. N. Y. Gen. Burgoyne crosses 
the Hudson and encamps on the heights 
and plains of Saratoga. 

Sept. 18. N. Y. Burgoyne advances 
within two miles of Gen. Gates's camp. 

N. Y. Americans under Col. Brown 

seize the British posts at the outlet of 
Lake George and at Ticonderoga, taking 
293 prisoners and releasing 100 Amer- 
icans ; they cut off Burgoyne's re- 
treat. 

Sept. 19. Pa. The Americans cross 
the Schuylkill and encamp on the 
eastern bank. 

N. Y. Battle of Stillwater (Sar- 
atoga). 

Burgoyne attacks Gates ; the action is 
indecisive ; the British hold the field 
with a loss of 600 men, and the Amer- 
icans retire with a loss of 319. The 
British are distressed for supplies, and 
the army is put on half-rations. 

Sept. 20. + N. Y. Burgoyne fortifies his 
camp. 

Pa. Gen. Wayne, with 1,500 Amer- 
icans, surprised at Paoli, or Truduffin, 
by the British ; loss 300. 

Sept. 23. Pa. Howe crosses the 
Schuylkill with the entire British army. 

Sept. 24. A fight at Diamond Island. 

Sept. 25. Pa. The British encamp at 
German town. 

Sept. 27. Phila. The British under Howe 
enter the capital of the Republic, 
"the rebel city," while the main army 
remains at Germantown. 

Oct. 3. New York. Gen. Clinton em- 
barks his troops to ascend the Hudson 
so as to cooperate with Burgoyne. 

Oct. 4. Phila. Battle of German- 
town. Washington, with 1,100 men, 
suddenly falls on the British under 
Howe, is successful at first, but soon 
retreats ; British loss 535 ; American 
loss 152 killed and 521 wounded. 

Oct. 6. N. Y. Sir Henry Clinton cap- 
tures Forts Clinton and Montgomery 
on the Hudson, from Gov. George Clin- 
ton supported by the New York militia. 

Oct. 7. N. Y. Battle of Saratoga (Still- 
water). 

Terrible conflict at Bemis Heights, in 
which Gen. Benedict Arnold fights (with- 
out authority) with great bravery, and 
is the inspiring spirit of battle. The 
British general, Fraser, is mortally 
wounded. Burgoyne is again defeated. 

Oct. 8. N. Y. Burgoyne encamps on 
heights one mile from his late battle- 
field. 

Oct. 9. N. Y. Burgoyne retreats to 
Saratoga, where he finds the Americans 
entrenched. 

Oct. 10. N. Y. Burgoyne's army re- 
turns to its former camp, which it pro- 
ceeds to strengthen, and waits for Sir 
Henry Clinton and much needed sup- 
plies. 

Oct. 13. N. Y. Burgoyne's retreat being 
cut off and provisions nearly exhausted, 
he proposes a cessation of hostilities, 



and rejects the demand for an uncon- 
ditional surrender. 

The British wantonly burn the village 
of Kingston. 
Oct. 16. N. Y. British loss in Bur- 
goyne's army, since July 6, in killed, 
wounded, and desertions, nearly 3,000 
men. 

SOCIETY. 

1777 Mar. 7. N.H. James Aitken, con- 
victed of arson, is hanged on a gallows 
60 feet high at Portsmouth. 

July 27. N. Y. Murder of Jane Mc- 
Crea at Fort Edward by Indians. 

STATE. 

1777 Jan. 5. Fr, Franklin arrives in 
Paris as ambassador, seeking to negoti- 
ate a treaty. 

Franklin's wisdom and sagacity, united 
with great simplicity, captivate the gay 
court of Louis XVI. [The American Am- 
bassadors are lionized ; after Burgoyne's 
surrender a treaty is made.] 

Jan. * Md. Congress pays the army in 
paper money having but little value. 

* * Md. Congress advises the States to 
cease the issue of paper money. 

Jan. 15. Vt. The people of the New 
Hampshire grants make a declaration of 
independence, and call their territory 
Vermont. 

Feb. * Eng. Parliament votes supplies 
and men for the prosecution of the war. 

Mar. 4. Baltimore, Md. The Conti- 
nental Congress adjourns. 

Phila. The Fourth session of the 

Continental Congress. 

Mar. 29. New York. Gen. Charles Lee, 
a prisoner and traitor, writes " Mr. Lee's 
Plan," of destroying the " Congress gov- 
ernment." 

Apr. 17. Phila. Congress appoints a 
Committee on Foreign Affairs. 

June 14. Phila. Congress adopts a 
flag ; 13 stripes alternate red and white ; 
13 stars, white on a blue canton, which 
replace the crosses of St. George and 
St. Andrew. 

June 26. Ger. A rthur Lee's State papers 
are stolen in Berlin. 

Lee suspects the British envoy, states 
his suspicions to the minister, and his 
papers are secretly returned. 

Aug. 25. Pa. Sir William Howe again 
by proclamation offers pardon to those 
rebels who submit. (Aug. 27?) 

Sept. 18. Phila. Congress ad journs to 
Lancaster because of the approach of 
the British. 

Sept. 27. Pa. Fifth session of the 
Continental Congress at Lancaster. 
It immediately adjourns to York. 

Sept. 30. Pa. Sixth session of the 
Continental Congress at York. [Its 
session continues until the British evac- 
uate Philadelphia.] 

Oct. * Jacob Duch^ attempts to seduce 
Washington from the American cause. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
1777 Oct. * U. S. The Continental 
bills advance 20 per cent in value after 
the surrender of Burgoyne. 



1777, Oct. 17- 1778, Nov. 3. 



ARMY -NAVY. 
1777 Oct. 17. N.T. Gen. Burgoyne 
surrenders his army to Gen. Gate8 at 
Saratoga. 
Rnnrovne surrenders his army on con- 

$000.' [Congress refuses to ratify the 
terms.] 
Oct 22 N.J. Twelve hundred Hessians 
under Count Donop attack Fort Mer- 
cer at Bed Bank, 7 miles helow Phila- 
delphia, on the Delaware River ; the 
garrison of 400 men, under Col. Chris- 
topher Greene of Rhode Island, makes 
a successful resistance. British loss, 
ahout 400; American, 8 killed and 29 
wounded. 
Oct. 29. Pa. The army under Washing- 
ton numbers 12,480 men, of whom 8,963 
are Regulars or Continentals. 
Oct. * Philadelphia still occupied hy the 

British army. 
Autumn. Ger. Frederick the Great 
stops the German mercenaries from 
crossing his dominions on their march 
to embark for America, 



Oct. 29. Pa. Washington retires to 

White Marsh, below Philadelphia. 
* *Pa. Washington is reenforced by 
about 4,000 victorious troops from the 
North. 
Nov. 6. Mass. The "Convention" 
troops (Burgoyne's from Saratoga) 
reach the neighborhood of Boston for 
-embarkation. 

Nov 10-16. Pa. Admiral Howe's fleet 
and a land force attack Fort Mifflin, on 
Mud Island, in the Delaware, and a siege 
continues till the Americans burn the 
fort and retreat to Fort Mercer. Gen. 
Howe thus gains control of the Delaware. 
Nov. 16. Pa. The British occupy Fort 

Mifflin. 
Nov. 18. JV. J. Fort Mercer is aban- 
doned to the British. 
Nov.25. N.J. Lafayette is at 

Gloucester. 
* * Paul Jones is cruising in the Ranger. 
Dec 1 Me. Baron Steuben arrives at 
Portland, and tenders his services to 
America as a volunteer. 

York, Pa. Congress resolves "that 

Gen. Washington be informed that it is 
highly agreeable to Congress that the 
Marquis de Lafayette be appointed to 
the command of a division in the Conti- 
nental army." [Antedated July 31.] 
Dec 4. Lafayette is appointed to the 
command of Gen. Stephen's division of 
the army, whose intemperate habits had 
caused his dismissal. 

Pa Gen. Howe vainly attempts to 

surprise Washington at White Marsh, 
near Philadelphia, but he receives 
timely information by Lydia Darrah ; 
Howe maneuvers four days, and then 
retires to the city. 



Dec. 8. Phila. Howe's army goes into 

winter quarters. 
Dec. 11 +• Pa. Sufferings at Valley 
Forge. 

Washington's army f 8!"%^ 
winter Quarters on the Schuylkill Jtivei , 
20 mUes north of Philadelphia, where, 
Imui h?s Salf-clad and half-fed army, he 
spends the darkest days of his he. Con 
gress having partly abandoned him, and 
the people being doubtful ot his success. 
Dec 23. Pa. Washington's army num- 
bers 8,200, with 2,898 of them unfit for 
duty, being barefooted, or otherwise 
naked and suffering. 
Dec. * A conspiracy exists to remove 
Washington from the chief command, 
and place Gen. Gates or Gen. Lee (the 
traitor) at the head of the American 
forces. 
1778 Feb. 3. Boston. Burgoyne's army 

is denied embarkation. 
Feb 7. Ky. Daniel Boone is captured 
by French and Indians [who hold him a 
few days]. 
* * Va. Henry Lee, "Light Horse 
Harry," raises an independent body of 
horse. 
Mar. 4. The British ships Ariadne and 
Ceres take the American frigate Alfred, 
having 20 guns. 
Mar.* War between England and 
France, caused by a French alliance 
and treaty with the Americans. 
Mar 7. The American frigate Randolph, 
Capt. Nicholas Biddle, having 36 guns 
and 305 men, is blown up by the British 
ship Yarmouth of 64 guns ; only 4 of the 
crew are saved. 
Mar. 18. N. J. An action takes place at 

Quintin's Bridge. 
Mar. 23. Nathaniel Greene made quar- 
termaster-general . 
Apr. * Eng. Paul Jones makes a de- 
scent on Whitehaven. 
May.* Gen. Charles Lee is exchanged 

for' the British Gen. Prescott. 
Apr * An address in German is scattered 
among the Hessians, inviting them to 

desert. 
Apr. * Paul Jones cruises on the Scottisn 

coast. . 

May 6. Pa. The French alliance is 

celebrated at Valley Forge. 
May 12. Baron Steuben enters the 
American service, Congress having ap- 
pointed him inspector-general, with 
the rank of major-general [he improves 
discipline]. 
May 20. Pa. Gen. Grant, with 5,000 
British, surprises Lafayette at Barren 
Hill, near Valley Forge, who falls back 
in good order to the main army. 
May 24. Phila. Gen. Howe embarks 
for England. 

Sir Henry Clinton assumes com- 
mand of the British army, Gen. Howe 
being recalled at his own request. 
June 18. Phila. France having become 
an ally, the British evacuate Phila- 
delphia on the approach of the French 
fleet, to concentrate their force in New 
York. They retreat across New Jersey. 
[Washington is soon in pursuit.] 



19. Phila. Maj.-Gen. Benedict 
Arnold appointed to command this city. 
June 28. N.J. Battle of Monmouth. 
Gen Washington turns the retreat un- 
der Gen Charles Lee into avictory ; severe 
flahtine continues till night, when the 
British retire and abandon New Jersey, 
fosses American, 67 killed, 170 wounded; 
the British leave'nearly 300 dead on the 
field [On march, 2,000 Hessians desert. 
June 29 " Molly Pitcher " a sergeant.] 
July 4. Gen. Charles Lee is brought to 

trial for insubordination. [Guilty.] 
July 4 5 -P«- Terrible massacre in 
the Wyoming Valley during the ab- 
sence of many of the men in the army. 

Tories Canadians, and Indians, under 
m! 3 ? . John Butler, a Tory of Niagara are 
Sponsible for the slaughter of about 
•W0 aged people, women, and children, 
Brant, a Mohawk chief, assists Butler. 
July 8. A French, fleet of 18 vessels, 
with about 4,000 men under Count 
D'Estaing, arrives at the mouth of the 
Delaware. He proposes to surprise the 
smaller British fleet, but finds it has 
sailed northward; he seeks it in New 
York Bay, but the bar prevents his deep 
frigates entering. 

* * Washington advises Count D'Estaing 
to sail for Newport, and aid the Amer- 
icans in an attempt on Rhode Island. 

* * -81 * * 0. George Rogers Clark, a 
Kentuckian, under authority of the 
State of Virginia, leads a band of fron- 
tiersmen to the capture of the British 
posts north of the Ohio River covering 
the country as far as Detroit. 

July 29. R. I. The French fleet ar- 
rives at Newport. 

July * JV. Y. Washington conducts his 
army to White Plains to cooperate 
with the expected French fleet against 
New York. 

R% j. Lafayette is employed in 

Rhode Island. 

The British army, 33,000 strong at its 

maximum, now holds possession of but 
two cities, New York and Newport, R. I. 
* * Admiral Byron succeeds Admiral 
Lord (Kichard) Howe in command of 
the British fleet in America. 
**N T. Indian Chief Brant raids the 
Mohawk Valley, and burns houses in the 
Cobbleskill Valley at Springfield. 
Aug * N.T. Brant burns German Flats. 
Aug. 5. B.I. D'Estaing enters the Nar- 

rag'ansett Bay. 
, „ p r The French and Brit- 
A ^n\ 2 etsmai-eu T ver e tIgivebaule, when 

a terrible storm separates them. 

&n<r 15 Sullivan advances on Rhode 

Isfandfbutthe French fleet leaving him 

without support, his expedition returns]. 

Aue 8. Ky. Daniel Boone successfully 

defends hfs fort against the Indians. 
a„o- 9S R I The French fleet sails 
foffiosion to refit, by strict orders^ 

*-n »JfcWfS»Sa» 

soon retire. 
_-Lafayette rides from Rhode Island 

*r. Rnaton 70 miles, in 6J hours, io oeg 

CounTo'Estaing to Warn and assist in 

an attack upon the British. 
* * The British decide to make a demon- 

stration upon the Southern States and 

Invade Georgia from the north and the 

south. 



UNITED STATES. 1777, Oct. 17-1778, Nov. 3. 89 



* * * The war degenerates into maraud- 
ing expeditions against helpless 
villages. 

Sept. * Mass. The towns of New Bed- 
ford and Fair Haven are wantonly 
burned with 70 vessels in their ports. 

S. C. Gen. Benjamin Lincoln ap- 
pointed to the command of the Southern 
(American) army at Charleston. 

Oct. * N. J. The American vessels at 
Little Egg Harbor are burned by a 
band of incendiaries led by Ferguson. 

— — Pa. An expedition punishes the sav- 
ages for the massacres committed in the 
Wyoming Valley. 

Nov. 1. New York. Departure of 5,000 
British troops for the West Indies. 

Boston. D'Estaing sails for the 

West Indies. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1777 * * R.I. Cold-cut nails are manu- 
factured at Cumberland. 

* * Mil. The first theater is opened at 
Baltimore. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 
1777* * 

Auchmuty, Samuel, clergyman, A55. 
Bartram, John, botanist, A76. 
Beasley, Frederick, clergyman, born. 
Chandler, Abiel, philanthropist, born. 
Chauncy, Charles, lawyer, born. 
Clay. Henry, orator, born. 
Dow, Lorenzo, eccentric Meth. preacher, b. 
Fraser, Simon, Brit, gen., dies. 
Oaines. Edward Pendleton, general, born. 
Grundy, Felix, jurist, senator for Va., born. 
Herkimer, Nicholas, general, dies. 
Jackson, James, physician, born. 
Malbone, Edward G., painter, born. 
Niles, Hezekiah, journalist, born. 
Pickering, John, philologist, born. 
Taney. Roger Brooke, jurist, born. 
Tennent, William, clergyman, A72. 
Trimble, Robert, justice, born in Ky. 
Wooster, David, general, A67. 

CHURCH. 

1778 Spring. Del. Francis Asbury is 
compelled to desist from preaching [for 
about two years], because of his English 
connections. 

LETTERS. 

1777 * * -95 * * Conn. Rev. Ezra Stiles 
is President of Yale College. 

* * New York. The New York Gazetteer, 
etc., changed to Rivington's New York 
Royal Gazette. 

* * The Pretty Story, by Francis Hopkin- 
son, concluded. 

SOCIETY. 

1777 * * Gen. Stephen, one of Wash- 
ington's division commanders, is dis- 
missed because of intemperance. 

* * Phila. The following resolution pass- 
es the Continental Congress : — 

" Resolved, That it be recommended 
to the several legislatures in the United 
States immediately to pass laws the 
most effectual for putting an immediate 
stop to the pernicious practise of distil- 
ling grain, by which the most extensive 
evils are likely to be derived, if not 
quickly prevented." 

1778 Jan. 19. N. J. Francis Furgler, 
a recluse, dies after living 25 years 
without fire in an oven-like cell, near 
Burlington. 



May * Eng. Nearly $20,000 raised for 
the benefit of American prisoners, 
(about 924) in England. 

May 31. New York. After two and a 
half years of captivity, Col. Ethan Al- 
len arrives in the army ; he is received 
with a military salute. 

June 28. Gen. Charles Lee and Col. John 
Laurens fight a duel, occasioned by 
Lee's disrespect to Washington ; Lee is 
shot in the side. 

June 29. Having been passionately re- 
proved at the battle of Monmouth, 
Gen. Lee demands an apology from 
Washington, shows insubordination 
[and is suspended from the service for a 
year]. 

July 4. Gen.CadwalladerandMaj.-Gen. 
Thomas Conway fight a duel. 

STATE. 

1777 Oct. 29. Mass. John Hancock, 

the President of Congress, resigns. [Nov. 
1. Henry Laurens (S. C.) his successor.] 
Nov. 15. York, Pa. Congress adopts the 
Articles of Confederation and Per- 
petual Union prepared by its committee 
(Dickinson's plan) ; the confederacy is 
to be called the United States of Amer- 
ica. [Nov. 17. Sent to the separate 
States for ratification.] 

* * Fr. Lee and Deane quarrel in Paris. 
Nov. 21. York, Pa. Congress recalls 

Silas Deane from London, and appoints 
John Adams his successor. 

Paris. The United States commission- 
ers issue instructions to privateers. 
Nov. * Pa. Congress creates a Board of 
War. 

* * York, Pa. Congress becomes more 
and more the mere agent of the States 
in issuing paper and borrowing money ; 
its national character grows less, while 
the State jealousies and ambitions in- 
crease. 

* * Governors inaugurated : 

-85 * * Mich. Frederick Haldimand. 

-79 * * N.C. Richard Caswell. 

-95 * * N. Y. George Clinton. 

Pa. Thomas Wharton, Jr., President 

of the Supreme Executive Council. 

1778 Jan. ± * York, Pa. The " Con- 
way Cabal" is exposed. 

It includes some members of Congress. 
A few officers, led by an Irish adven- 
turer, endeavor to undermine the popu- 
larity of Washington and advance 
General Gates. [The cabal cowers be- 
fore the storm of indignation which 
arises.] 

Jan. * The military success of the past 
year facilitates the efforts of the colon- 
ists in securing foreign aid and influence. 

Jan. 30. — Feb. 6. France acknowl- 
edges the independence of the United 
States, and enters into treaty rela- 
tions; [America rejoices; England is 
enraged.] France agrees to send 16 ves- 
sels and 4,000 men to America. 

* * Questions relating to the Western ter- 
ritory delay the adoption of Articles. 

Feb. * Eng. Parliament renounces the 
right of taxing the American colonies, 
except for the regulation of trade, and 



appoints commissioners to negotiate for 
their submission. 

* * Articles of Confederation signed : 
[Feb. 5. S. C. ; Feb. 6, N. Y. ; Feb. 9, 
R. I. ; Feb. 12, Conn. ; Feb. 26, Ga. ; Mar 
4, N. H. ; Mar. 5, Pa. ; Mar. 10, Mass. ; 
Apr. 5, N. C. ; Nov. 19, N. J. ; Dec. 15 
Va. ; 1779, Feb. 1, Del. ; 1781, Jan. 30, Md.] 

Feb. 12. Fr. John Adams is sent to 
France in Silas Deane's place [where he 
remains only a short time]. 

Feb. 17. Eng. Lord North's concilia- 
tory bills are presented in Parliament. 

Mar. 9. N. Y. A Great Council is held 
at Johnstown, between the Six Nations 
Indians and the New York company. 

Mar. 11. Eng. Parliament, alarmed at 
the loss of an army at Saratoga, and at 
the French alliance, repeals the ob- 
noxious bills, to placate Americans. 

Mar. 13. Eng. The treaty of France 
with the United States is officially an- 
nounced. 

Vermont is constituted a State. 

Apr. 7. Eng. Chatham's last appear- 
ance in Parliament. [Apr. 11. Dies.] 

Apr. 30. America receives information 
of Lord North's conciliatory bills, of- 
fered in Parliament Feb. 17th. 

May 5. Eng. Sensation produced by 
the treaty of France with the United 
States. 

May * Eng. Gen. Burgoyne defends 
himself in Parliament. 

May * York, Pa. Congress ratifies the 
treaty with France. George III. is wil- 
ling to treat with the Americans. 

June 4. York, Pa. Commissioners of 
Parliament arrive with proposals for 
reconciliation, which are submitted to 
Congress. 

[Congress demands independence ; the 
British Commissioners resort to bribery 
and intrigue, and Congress declines to 
have any further conference with them.] 

June 17. York, Pa. Congress rejects 
the proposals of the commissioners ap- 
pointed by Parliament, until independ- 
ence is acknowledged. 

June 18. Phila. Three thousand Tories 
leave with the British troops. 

June * New York passes a banish- 
ment act against the Tories. 

June 27. York, Pa. Congress ad- 
journs to Philadelphia. 

July 2. Phila. The 7th session of the 
Continental Congress opens. 

July 9. The delegates of eight states 
sign the Articles of Confederation. 
[Later in the month Georgia and North 
Carolina sign them.] 

July 26. Convention of the United 
States and France concerning the 
" Droit d'Aubaine." 

Aug. 6. Phila. Monsieur Gerard, am- 
bassador from France, is introduced to 
Congress ; the first from any nation. 

Sept. * Massachusetts passes an act 
against the Tories. 

Sept. 14. Franklin is sent to France as 
minister plenipotentiary. 

Oct. * III. The Dlinois Country is 
made a county of Virginia. 



90 1778, Nov. 11-1780, Apr. 18. 



AMERICA 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1778 Nov. 11, 12. N. Y. Massacre 
in Cherry Valley, Otsego County, by 
Tories and Indians with terrible cruelty, 
every house in the village being burned, 
many persons are murdered, and 40 are 
dragged into captivity. 

Nov. 21 ±. New York. Departure of 
3,000 British troops by transports for 
Georgia. 

Nov. 27. N. J. Washington goes into 
winter quarters at Middlebrook. 

Dec. 17. Ind. Gen. Hamilton recaptures 
Vincennes from the Americans. 

Dec. 23. Ga. The British troops attack 
Savannah. 

Dec. 29. The British capture Savan- 
nah. 

Gen. Robert Howe in command of 850 
men is driven out of the city by Col. 
Campbell commanding 2,000 invading 
British. [This is claimed to be the only 
real conquest of the British during this 
entire year ; the thinly populated State 
is easily subjugated.] 

* * Pa. Col. David Rogers takes stores 
from New Orleans up the river to Fort 
Pitt. 

* * Several vessels of considerable force 
are purchased or built and added to the 
navy, including the celebrated Alliance, 
a frigate of 32 guns. 

1779 Jan. 1. Boston. Burgoyne's 
(Saratoga) army is removed to 
Virginia. 

Jan. 7. Mass. France being at war with 
England, Lafayette sails from Boston 
in the Alliance to aid his native land, 
carrying honorable scars, and a sword 
given by Congress. [Feb. 11. Arrives.] 

Jan. 9. Ga. Fort Sunbury on St. Cath- 
erine's Sound, below Savannah, is cap- 
tured by Gen. Prevost with British 
troops from Florida. 

Jan. 29. Ga. Two thousand British 
under Col. Campbell take Augusta. 

Feb. 3. First organized mutiny in the 
American service occurs on board the 
United States frigate Alliance, bound 
to France with Lafayette on board. 

S. C. Gen. Moultrie defeats 200 Brit- 
ish at Port Royal, and drives them off 
the Island. 

Feb. 14. Ga. Col. Pickens, with a 
force of Carolina militia, annihilates a 
force of Tories west of Broad River, 
killing Col. Boyd, their commander, and 
70 men, hanging five of the ringleaders 
for treason ; this secures western Georgia 
to the patriots. 

Feb. * Charges are made against Gen. 
Arnold. (See Dec. * 1779.) 

Feb. 25. Ind. Col. G. R. Clark cap- 
tures Gov. Hamilton, and reoccupies 
Vincennes. 

* * Ky. St. Vincent, with stores, taken 
by Americans under Col. Clark; 79 Brit- 
ish captured. 

* * S.C. Capt. Anderson defeats the 
Tories in Carolina. 

Mar. * Conn. Gov. Tryon of New York, 
with 1,500 regulars and Tories, goes to 
Horse Neck to destroy the salt-works. 



Israel Putnam and the militia resist, 
but are flanked and defeated ; Gen. 
Putnam makes his famous ride down 
the steep declivity. 

Gov. Tryon burns the village of West 
Greenwich. 

Mar 3. Ga. Gen. Ashe, with about 60 
Continental troops and 1,500 militia, is 
surrounded and utterly defeated by a 
British force at Brier Creek below 
Augusta; he loses 150 killed and 160 
prisoners. Georgia is now entirely 
subjugated. 

Mar. 19. Phila. Gen. Arnold resigns 
his command. 

Apr. 5. Mass. Refugees plunder Nan- 
tucket and carry off with them two 
loaded brigs and several other vessels. 

Apr. 18 -24. N. Y. Gen. Van Shaick 
destroys the Onondaga towns, killing 
12 Indians and capturing thirty-four. 

Apr. 23. S. C. Gen. Lincoln, with 5,000 
men, attempts to enter Georgia via 
Augusta. 

Apr. * Tenn. An expedition is sent 
against the Tennessee Indians. 

* * Arnold opens treasonable corre- 
spondence with Clinton, commander- 
in-chief of the British forces. 

Spring. British incursions are made in 
the Chesapeake. 

May 8 -June 16. Spain declares war 
against Great Britain. 

May 12. S. C. Gen. Prevost demands 
the surrender of Charleston ; being re- 
fused by Gen. Moultrie [he soon retires 
at the approach of Gen. Lincoln]. 

May 14+. Va. Portsmouth and Nor- 
folk are taken by 2,500 British under 
Gen. Matthews ; stores, houses, and ves- 
sels are burned with many small towns 
in the vicinity. 

May * Va. The British burn the navy- 
yard at Gosport, destroying 130 mer- 
chant ships and several war-vessels on 
the stocks. 

May 31. N. Y. Stony Point is aban- 
doned at the approach of the British 
under Gen. Clinton. 

June 1. N. Y. Stony Point is used to 
subdue Verplanck's Point on the oppo- 
site side ; both forts are soon strongly 
fortified and garrisoned by the British. 

* * Naval war between England and 
France. 

June 20. S. C. Americans are repulsed 
in an attack on the British at Stono 
Ferry. 

* * Me. The British occupy Castine. 
July 5. Conn. Gov. Tryon of New York, 

with 2,600 Hessians and Tories, sails for 

New Haven, and takes the town. 
July 7. Conn. Fairfield is plundered 

and burnt by 2,500 British under Gov. 

Tryon. 
July 11. Conn. The British under Tryon 

plunder and burn Norwalk. 
July 15. 8 p. m. N. Y. Stony Point 

retaken. 

Gen. Wayne, having raised a force of 
light infantry, suddenly assaults Stony 
Point on the Hudson, and with a loss of 
15 killed and 8.'i wounded, he captures 



the garrison (515) and its vast stores ; he 
destroys the fort ; 63 of the British are 
killed in the attack. [Congress votes 
Gen. Wayne a gold medal.] 

July 19. N. Y. Americans fortify 
"West Point. 

Boston. The New England fleet de- 
stroyed. 

An expedition of 24 transports and 20 
armed transports and privateers leaves 
to subdue the British at Penobscot, 
Maine. 

N. Y. Indians under Brant attack 

Minnisink settlements. 

July 25. Me. After a useless delay at 
Penobscot [the vessels of the New Eng- 
land fleet are all taken or destroyed by 
the British ; the men escape]. 

July 31. N. Y. Sullivan begins his 
march through the Indian country. 

Aug. 19. N.J. "Light Horse Harry" 
(Lee), with a company of militia, sur- 
prises the garrison at Paulus Hook 
(Jersey City), takes 150 prisoners, with 
the loss of only two men. [Congress 
votes him a gold medal.] 

Aug. 22 +. N. Y. Military expedition, 
under Col. Brodhead, into the Indian 
country ; about 50,000 bushels of corn 
burned in 8 Indians towns. 

Aug. 29 +. N. Y.—Pa. The expedition 
under Gens. Sullivan and James Clinton 
defeats the Tories and Indians at Tioga, 
and the whole country, including 40 In- 
dian villages, is wasted by the patriots 
in retaliatory massacres. 

Sept. 3. Ga. The French fleet under 
D'Estaing arrives on the Savannah 
River. He captures a British fleet. 

Sept. 10. N. Y. The Indian village of 
Canandaigua burnt. 

Sept. 15. N. Y. Sullivan begins his re- 
turn march from the Indian country. 

Sept. ± * Ga. Gen. Lincoln marches on 
Augusta, but retires before determined 
resistance. 

Sept. 23. Naval battle with the Ser- 
apis. 

Paul Jones with the Bonhomme Rich- 
ard has a battle off the coast of Scotland 
with the British frigate Serapis, carry- 
ing 44 guns ; the battle lasts one and a 
half hours. The vessels are lashed to- 
gether, and at last the Serapis surren- 
ders, and the Bonhomme Richard sinks ; 
the companion of the Serapis is also 
taken; out of 375 Americans, 300 were 
either killed or wounded. 

Ga. The siege of Gen. Prevost's 

army begins at Savannah. 

Sept. * -Oct. * S. C. ■ Prevost makes 
an unsuccessful attempt to capture 
Charleston. 

Sept. 27 ±. Ga. The French fleet and a 
part of the southern army besiege 
Savannah. 

Sept. * The Spaniards capture British 
posts on the Lower Mississippi. 

Oct. 4. Hoi. Paul Jones enters Texel, 
North Holland, in the Serapis. 

Oct. 11-25. R. I.' Sir H. Clinton with- 
draws the British forces from Rhode 
Island, in anticipation of the arrival of 
a French fleet, leaving his heavy guns 
and large military stores behind him. 



UNITED STATES. 1778, Nov. 11-1780, Apr. 18. 91 



Oct. 9. Ga. The Americans and French 
together attempt the reduction of Sa- 
vannah; their assault is repulsed by 
the British, and Count Pulaski is mor- 
tally wounded. 

[The fleet now sails for the West In- 
dies ; great excitement through the coun- 
try because of the inefficient cooperation 
of the French fleet.] 

Oct. 25. N. J. "Washington goes into 
winter quarters near Morristown. 

Dec* Phila. Benedict Arnold is tried 
by court martial on various charges, 
chiefly for tyranny and mercenary cor- 
ruption. (See Jan. 26, 1780.) 

Great discouragement prevails in 

the colonies, the French alliance hav- 
ing brought little help to America ; the 
credit of Congress is almost worthless, 
the treasury bankrupt, and the army 
chiefly fed with unkept promises, while 
freedom is yet out of sight. 

Dec. 26. New York. Gen. Clinton, with 
8,500 men, sails for Savannah, leaving 
a powerful garrison under Knyphausen. 

* * Fort Mcintosh is built. 

* * The British winter in New York. 
1780 * * The British are successful in 

the South. 

Jan. 10. Gen. Charles Lee is dismissed 
from the army for insolence. 

Jan. 26. Phila. The court martial ac- 
quits Benedict Arnold of criminal 
intent, but condemns him to be repri- 
manded by Washington. 

Feb. 2. N. C. A skirmish occurs at 
Cowan's Ford. 

Feb. 11. S. C. The British, under Sir 
Henry Clinton, land on St. John's Island, 
about 30 miles from Charleston, and 
begin their attack. 

* * Military operations are nearly sus- 
pended at the North during this year, 
owing largely to the destitution of Wash- 
ington's army. 

Mar. * The British propose to subjugate 
the entire South .beginning at Charleston . 

Mar. 14. Ala. Spaniards take Mo- 
bile. Capt. Darnford, with the British 
garrison of 284 regulars and 51 armed 
Indians, capitulates to Don Bernardo de 
Galvez. 

Apr. * Lafayette returns to America, 
and brings good news — arms, clothing, 
and an army are on the way from France. 

Apr. 9. S. C. Charleston is invaded by 
British land and naval forces under Sir 
Henry Clinton. 

Apr. 12-20. S. C. The British fire on 
the batteries at Charleston. 

Apr. 14. S. C. Tarleton surprises and 
defeats the American cavalry at Monk's 
Corner, capturing a large quantity of 
arms, clothing, and ammunition. 

Apr. 18. S. C. Lord Cornwallis arrives 
at Charleston with 3,000 fresh troops. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1779* * New York. Stereotyping is in- 
troduced by Mr. Colden. (?) See p. 121. 



1780 Jan. 29. Phila. This is the 

coldest day in 25 years. 
Feb. 22. Phila. Ice is 17 inches 

thick ; an ox is roasted on the river. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1778* * 

Allston, Joseph, Gov. of S. C, born. 
Bangs, Nathan, clergyman, born. 
Biddle, Nicholas, naval commander, A28. 
Buel, Jesse, journalist, born. 
Gaston. William, jurist, born. 
Gruber, Jacob, clergyman, born. 
Hammond, Jabez D., judge, born. 
Kingsley, James Luce, scholar, born. 
Ladd, William, peace advocate, born. 
Livingston, Philip, signer of Decl'n, A 62. 
Peale, Rembrandt, painter, born. 
Ritchie, Thomas, journalist, born. 
Stewart, Charles, rear-admiral, born. 
Tallmadgre, James, jurist and statesman, b. 
Warren, John Collins, anatomist, born. 
1779* * 
Allston, Washington, painter, born. 
Baldwin, Henry, justice, born in Pa. 
Bernard, Sir Francis, Gov. of N. H., A65. 
Bowen, Nathaniel, bishop, born. 
Brownell, Thomas Church, college pres., b. 
Brute, Simon W. G., bishop, born. 
Decatur, Stephen, Jr., commodore, born. 
Drayton. William Henry, patriot, A37. 
Farrar, John, mathematician, born. 
Hartshorne, Joseph, physician, born. 
Humphrey, Heman, Pres. of Amherst, born. 
Jasper, William, brave soldier, A29., 
Jay, William, philanthropist, born. 
Lynch, Thomas, Jr., signer of Decl'n, A30. 
Moore, Clement Clarke, poet, born. 
Parrish, Joseph, physician, born. 
Paulding, James Kirke, novelist, born. 
Pike, Zebulon Montgomery, general, b. 
Poindexter, George, statesman, born. 
Poinsett, Joel Roberts, statesman, born. 
Ross, George, statesman, A49. 
Sergeant, John, jurist, born. 
Silliman, Benjamin, physicist, born. 
Story, Joseph, justice, born in Mass. 
Tudor, William, author, born. 
Watson, John Fanning, author, born. 
Wheelock, Eleazer, pres. of Dartmouth, A68. 

CHURCH. 

1778 * * Massachusetts relaxes her 
severity against the Baptists. 

1779 May 18. Va. On the question of 
ordinance, more than one-half of the 
Methodist preachers secede tempo- 
rarily, and hold a separate conference 
at Fluvanna. 

LETTERS. 

1778* * Yankee Doodle sung by the 
troops. 

SOCIETY. 

1779 * * Vt. Drunkenness is liable to 
a penalty of $2, if noticeable in speech, 
gesture, or behavior. 

Apr. * Md. The Methodist Conference 
at Baltimore proposes to disown " all 
persons who should engage in the prac- 
tise of distilling grain into liquor." 



STATE. 

1778 Nov. * New Jersey signs the Ar- 
ticles of Confederation. 

* * Eng. Complications with France, and 
approaching hostility of Spain and Hol- 
land, with paucity of military results, 
alarm the British government. 

Dec. 10. Phila. John Jay, of New 
York, is elected president of Congress. 

Dec. 15. Maryland refuses to vote for 
the Confederation until the rights for 
the lands in the Northwest are settled. 



Dec. * Holland. C. W. F. Dumas be- 
comes agent for the United States. 

* * Governors inaugurated : 

Pa. Joseph Reed, President of the 
Supreme Executive Council. 
-86 * * B.I. Wm. Greene, Jr. 
-89 * * Vt. Thomas Chittenden. 

1779 Jan. 2. Phila. Congress calls for 
a contribution from the States of six 
millions annually for 18 years, to form a 
sinking fund. 

Feb. * -Mar. * Phila. Congress for- 
mulates its conditions of peace with 
Great Britain. 

Mar. 3. Ga. By the utter defeat of the 
Americans at Brier Creek, the royal 
government is soon reestablished. 

Mar. * -July * Phila. A struggle in 
Congress over the fishing demands of 
France. Common rights maintained. 

Apr. * Spain by a secret treaty makes 
common cause with France against 
Great Britain. 

Apr. * Massachusetts passes a Conspir- 
acy Act against the Tories. 

June * Eng. Joseph Galloway is ex- 
amined before Parliament. 

Aug. 17. La. Independence of the 
United States declared at New Orleans 
with beating of drums, etc. 

Sept. 27. John Adams is appointed 
commissioner to negotiate a treaty with 
Great Britain. 

Sept. 28. John Jay is chosen commis- 
sioner to Spain. 

Sept. * Phila. Luzerne arrives as min- 
ister from France. 

* * Pa. Extension westward of Mason 
and Dixon's line. 

* * Eng. Controversy in Parliament over 
the generalship of Sir William Howe 
and of General Burgoyne. [It continues 
more than two years.] 

* * Va. The seat of government is re- 
moved from "Williamsburg to Rich- 
mond. 

* * Governors inaugurated : 

N. C. Abner Nast. 
-81 * * Va. Thomas Jefferson. 

1780 Feb. 19. New York cedes her 
right in Western lands to the United 
States. [1781. Mar. * Congress accepts.] 

Feb. 28-Mar. 10. Russia issues a dec- 
laration of armed neutrality. 

Mar. 1. Bank of Philadelphia chartered. 

Spring. Ky. IiouisviUe settled by 
about 600 people. 

Mar. 18. Phila. Congress resolves to 
call in by taxes all the Continental 
money and burn it, and to issue 
$10,000,000 new money, redeemable 
in specie within six years. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1778 * * * The British and Tories flood 
the country with counterfeit money. 

* * * Business is paralyzed for want of 
currency, and the distress is extreme 
and widespread. 



92 1780, Apr. 24.-1781, Mar. 2. AMERICA 



ARMY— NAVY. 

1780 May 6. S. C. Fort Moultrie sur- 
renders to the British. 

May 9. S. C. The British begin to can- 
nonade Charleston. 

May 11. JV. J. Lafayette rejoins "Wash- 
ington, after an absence of 15 months, 
and announces the approach of French 
succor. 

May 12. S. C. Charleston is taken. 
Gen. Lincoln with an army of 3,000 
men capitulates to Sir Henry Clinton 
with 5,000 British soldiers, and Charles- 
ton is surrendered after a siege in which 
the fortifications were beaten down by 
200 cannons ; 6,000 Americans become 
prisoners of war. 

May * S. C. Clinton sends off three ex- 
peditions ; one to intercept approaching 
reenf or cements under Col. Buford, one 
toward Augusta, and the third toward 
Camden. 

May 21. If. Y. Johnstown is burned by 
Tories. 

May * S. C. The British take Ninety- 
Six, an American post 150 miles north- 
west of Charleston. 

May 25. If. J. Two regiments of Wash- 
ington's troops mutiny ; they are soon 
persuaded to return to duty. 

May 26. Mo. The Spaniards at St. 
Louis are attacked by the English. 

May 29. S. C. Col. Buford with 400 
Americans is pursued by Col. Tarleton 
and massacred at Waxhaw Creek, 
while negotiations for surrender are 
pending. 

May* Failure of the English plans to 
capture posts on the Mississippi. 

June 5. If. J. Knyphausen leads an 
expedition into New Jersey, visiting 
Elizabethtown and burning Connecti- 
cut Farms. He is harassed by the mili- 
tia and makes an inglorious retreat. 

S. C. The Americans being subdued, 

Gen. Clinton, with a large part of his 
troops, embarks for the North. 

June 13. Phila. Gen. Gates, the most 
popular American general, is ordered 
by Congress to take command of the 
army in the South. 

June * Fort Jefferson, on the Mississippi 
below the Ohio, is built. 

June 23. N. J. Gen. Greene defeats the 
British at Springfield. 

July 10. R. I. A French fleet arrives 
at Newport, bringing the Count de 
Rochambeau and 6,000 soldiers to aid 
the Americans. [They soon join "Wash- 
ington in New Jersey. The British 
fleet blockades the French vessels at 
Newport.] (Winsor, July 12.) 

July 21. Va. Gen. "Wayne has a skirmish 
at Bull's Ferry. 

July 25. Gen. Horatio Gates takes 
command of the Southern army. 

July 30. S. C. Col. Sumter attempts 
to surprise a British post at Rocky 
Mount, but a Tory apprises the com- 
mander and Sumter is repulsed. 

Aug. 1. If. Y. Indians burn the village 
of Canajoharie. 

Aug. 3. If. Y. Maj.-gen. Benedict 



Arnold, by his own request, takes 
command of the fortress at West Point, 
on the Hudson ; it contains the most 
valuable collection of military stores in 
America. 

Aug. 6. S. C. Col. Sumter attacks a 
large detachment of British regulars 
and Tories at Hanging Rock, and then 
retires. Here Andrew Jackson, not 
14 years of age, begins his career as a 
soldier. 

Aug. 15. S. C. By coincidence, Gen. 
Gates and Lord Cornwallis set out in 
the night to surprise each other, at 
Sanders' Creek. 

Aug. 16. S. C. Nearly 3,000 Americans 
defeated in the battle of Sanders' 
Creek near Camden. Gates loses all 
his artillery, ammunition, wagons, and 
much of the baggage. Here Baron De 
Kalb is mortally wounded, and 1,000 men 
are killed or taken prisoners. [It is one 
of the worst defeats suffered by any 
American army-1 British loss 325. 

Aug. 18. S. C. Col. Sumter's force is 
dispersed by Col. Tarleton at Fishing- 
Creek; Gen. Marion retreats toward 
North Carolina. 

Autumn and Winter. S. C.—Ga. An 
audacious partizan warfare is success- 
fully conducted in the South by the 
famous Col. Thomas Sumter and Col. 
Francis Marion, great leaders of the 
militia. 

Sept. 8. If. C. The British at the South 
advancing northward enter North Caro- 
lina. 

Sept. 21. If. Y. Maj. Andre" lands in 
the night from the British sloop-of-war 
Vulture, and proceeds to meet Arnold. 
Treason of Maj .-Gen. Arnold. 
About midnight, Benedict Arnold 
meets Maj. John Andr6, two miles be- 
low Haverstraw, on the Hudson, to per- 
fect the scheme of treason. Arnold 
bargains to betray his country for 
$50,000 and a commission as brigadier 
in the British army ; he surrenders to 
the British descriptive papers of the 
fortress and directions for approach. 

Sept. 23. If. Y. Maj. Andre\ the 
British spy, is arrested near Tarrytown 
by John Paulding, David "Williams, and 
Isaac "Wirt, who refuse his bribes. 

Sept. 26. If. Y. Benedict Arnold flees 
to the British sloop-of-war Vulture, and 
is taken to New York. 

Sept. * Conn. Washington and Roeham- 
heau confer at Hartford. 

Sept. 26. If. C. The British on their 
northward march enter Charlotte ; the 
Americans falling back without a battle. 

Sept. 29. If. Y. A court martial at 
Tappan, consisting of six major-generals 
and eight brigadiers, finds Maj. Andre" 
guilty and condemns him to death. 

Oct. 2. If. Y. Maj. Andre" is hanged 
as a spy at Tappan. 

Oct. 7. N. C. Battle of King's Moun- 
tain. 

Col. Ferguson with 1,100 regulars and 
Tories is defeated on the top of King's 
Mountain by 1,000 militia men under 
Col. Campbell. Ferguson and 300 men 
are killed, 800 are taken prisoners, and 



10 Tories are hanged. [Drooping pa- 
triotism begins to revive.] 

Oct. 14. Gen. Nathaniel Greene, next 
to Washington the ablest of the Ameri- 
can omcers, supersedes Gen. Gates in 
the South. 

Oct. 16. Vt. Royalton is attacked by 
300 Indians ; many houses are burned. 

Oct. * If. Y. The Americans raid Staten 
Island. 

Nov. 18. If. C. An action occurs at Fish 
Dam Ford. 

Nov. 20. If. C. Col. Sumter defeats Col. 
Tarleton at Blackstocks. 

Dec. 2. Gen. Nathaniel Greene assumes 
command of the Southern army. 

* *If.C. Col. John Sevier conducts an 
expedition against the Indians west of 
North Carolina. 

Dec. * If. Y. Indians make attacks 
along the Mohawk River and through 
the Champlain country. 

**If.J. Washington enters winter 
quarters at Totowa and Preakness. 

1781 Jan. 1. N. J. Revolt in the 
army. 

Washington's army is in a desperate 
condition — no food, no pay, no clothing. 
The whole Pennsylvania line, 1,300 
strong, mutiny, and leaving their camp 
at Morristown, they start for Philadel- 
phia to lay their complaints before 
Congress. 

Jan 3 ±. Va. Benedict Arnold is ap- 
pointed Brig.-Gen. in the British army. 
[He conducts a ravaging expedition into 
Virginia, along the James River.] 

Jan. * N. J. Emissaries from Gen. Clin- 
ton meet the mutinous Pennsylvanians 
at Princeton with bribes to desert the 
service, which are indignantly declined, 
and the agents delivered to be hanged 
as spies. [Concessions from Congress 
quiet the mutiny.] 

Jan. 5. Va. Benedict Arnold, with 
1,600 British troops, burns the stores 
near Richmond. 

* * N.J. The New Jersey brigade 
mutinies at Pompton. 

It is quelled by force ; 12 of the prin- 
cipal mutineers are compelled to snoot 
the two ringleaders. [The insurrections 
have a good effect on Congress.] 

Jan. 17. S. C. Battle of Cowpens. 
Gen. Morgan, with 1,000 men, utterly 
defeats Gen. Tarleton with 1,100 British 
troops. Losses, British, 300 killed and 
wounded, more than 500 made prisoners ; 
Americans, 12 killed, 60 wounded. 

Jan. * S. C. The great military race 
begins by Gen. Greene ordering both 
divisions of his army to fall back — re- 
treating northward from the approach 
of Lord Cornwallis's advance. 

Jan. 28. S. C. Gen. Morgan's division 
crosses the Catawba River to the north- 
ern banks ; Cornwallis arrives late in 
the day on the opposite side, but floods 
of rain during the night compel his de- 
lay for many days, before crossing. 

Jan. 31. If. C. Gen. Greene takes 
command of Morgan's army. 

Jan. *-Mar. * Midi. The Spaniards in- 
vade Michigan. 



UNITED STATES. 1780, Apr. 24-1781, Mar. 2. 93 



Feb. 1. N. C. Lieut.-Col. Wm. Davidson 
is defeated and killed at Cowan's Ford, 
on the Catawba, by Lord Cornwallis, 
whose horse is killed under him. 

Feb. 7. N. C. Gen. Greene arrives at 
(iuilford Court House, and there joins 
the remainder of his army. 

Feb. 15. N. C. Greene, with great tact, 
completes his retreat by crossing the 
Dan into Virginia, narrowly escaping his 
pursuers, but abandoning to them the 
entire State of North Carolina. 

Feb. 21, 22. N. C. Greene re-crosses 
the Dan ; he sends Lieut.-Col. Lee after 
a troop of Tarleton's dragoons under 
Capt. Miller. 

Feb. 23. N. C. Greene's rear guard is 
attacked by the van of the British while 
crossing the Yadkin. 

Feb. 25. N. C. Col. Pyle and a body of 
royalists defeated near Haw River by 
Pickens and Lee, without losing a man. 

Mar. 2. N. C. Cols. Lee and Pickens, 
with their cavalry, cut to pieces three 
or four hundred mounted Tories enlisted 
by Tarleton. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 
1780 May 19. New Eng. The dark 
day occasioned by a thin cloud, or 
vapor. 

* * Boston. The American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences founded. 

* * N. H. The first American glass-fac- 
tory is erected in Temple township. 

* * New Eng. The making of wrought 
iron nails is an important home indus- 
try during the winter months, and in 
stormy weather, among the thrifty, in- 
dustrious rural people. 

1781* *John Trumbull paints the 
Death of Montgomery. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1780* » 
Anderson, Isaac, pioneer clergyman, born. 
Andre, John, Brit, major and spy, banged. 
Audubon, John James, ornithologist, born. 
Binney, Horace, statesman, born. 
Carver, Jonathan, traveler, A48. 
Channing. "William Ellery, clergyman, b. 
Chapman, Nathaniel, physician, born. 
Cleaveland, Parker, mineralogist, born. 
De Kalb, John, Baron, gen., k. at Camden, 

A 59. 
Duane, William John, Sec. of Treasury, b. 
Dudley, Charles Edward, senator, born. 
Duer, William Alexander, jurist, born. 
Keatherstonaugh, George William, geologist, 

born. 
Ferguson, Patrick, major in army, dies. 
Forsyth, John, statesman, born. 
Hertding, Elijah, bishop, born. 
Hitchcock, Peter, jurist, born. 
Hutchinson, Thomas, Gov. of Mass., A69. 
Key, Francis Scott, poet, born. 
Logan, Indian chief, dies. 
McKinley, John, justice, born in Ala. 
Mussey, Reuben Diamond, surgeon, born. 
Porter, David, commodore, born. 
Rush, Richard, diplomatist, born. 
Schweinitz, von, Lewis David, botanist, b. 
Stuart, Moses, theologian, born. 
1781* * 
Abercrombie, James, general, A75. 

* Ashe, John, patriot, A 60. 

Berrien-, John McPherson, senator, born. 
Brown, John A., financier, born. 
Greene, Christopher, col., dies. 
Hare, Robert, physicist, born. 
Harnett, Cornelius, statesman, A58. 
Hayne, Isaac, officer, A36. 
Ilolley, Horace, clergyman, bom. 
Lawrence, James, naval officer, born. 
Leigh, Benjamin, statesman, born. 
J.iller, William, Advent preacher, bom. 
Stockton, Richard, signer of Declaration, A51. 



CHURCH. 

1780 Apr. 24. Md. The Methodist 
preachers of the North hold a Conference 
at Baltimore. 

May 8. Fa. The separated Methodist 
bodies unite in the Conference held at 
Manakintown, in Powhatan county. 

The southern seceders bring slavery 
as asocial institution among Methodists. 

* * Mass. First Universalist church 
formed, in Gloucester. 

* * Miss. First Baptist church in Missis- 
sippi formed near Natchez. 

* * N.H. The Freewill Baptists organ- 
ize their first society, at Dover. 

* * N.J. The independent Presbytery of 
Morris County is formed. 

* *Pa.—Va. Christ's Church, Phila- 
delphia, is the only Protestant Episcopal 
church left in the State after the war ; 
28 Episcopal clergymen remain in Vir- 
ginia ; 91 (loyalists) leave the State. 



STATE. 

1780 May 11. Lafayette brings "Wash- 
ington the appointment of lieutenant- 
general in the army of France and vice- 
admiral in its navy, in order to remove 
vexing questions of etiquette from the 
minds of French officers in American 
service. 

May * Ky. The Legislature of Virginia 
incorporates the town of Louisville. 

Summer. S. C. By the capture of 
Charleston and other , American ports, 
royal authority is re-established 
over the territory of South Carolina, 
but not over the people. 

Aug. 2. Boston. The Massachusetts 
Constitutional Convention meets. 

Oct. 5. Phila. The United States ac- 
cedes to the armed neutrality at sea. 

Oct. 7-20. New York. Benedict Ar- 
nold issues an address and proclamation 
from the British headquarters. 
* Francis Asbury becomes the de facto Oct. 10. Conn. The State offers its 



Superintendent of Methodism in Amer- 
ica, the war having detached Methodists 
from Wesley. 

* * -1800 * * Great revival of religion 
among the colored people. 

SOCIETY. 



western lands to the Federal Union 
with [unsatisfactory] conditions. 
Oct. 25. Mass. John Hancock is 
chosen first governor under the New 
Constitution. 

* * Henry Laurens, U. S. minister to 
The Netherlands, is captured at sea by 
the British. 

Dec. * The Hollanders sympathize with 
the Americans ; they declare war 
against England. 

* * Massachusetts adopts a constitution 
with a bill of rights, which abolishes 
slavery. 

Phila. Congress appoints 
Francis Dana minister to Russia. 

* * New York. A Board of Associated 
Loyalists is formed to aid the British. 

1781 Jan. * "Virginia offers to condi- 
tionally give up its lands northwest of 
the Ohio. (See Mar. 1, 1784.) 
Women organize the Feb 2Q phUa Congres8 appo , ntB 

Robert Morris Superintendent of Fi- 
nance. 

Mar. 1. N. Y. The delegates of New 
York facilitate the completion of the 
Union by the transfer to the Federal 
Congress of the vague claims of that 
State to western territory. 

Maryland, the last of the 13 States, 

signs the Articles of Confederation. 

The Confederation is accepted by 

all the States as a loose union of inde- 
pendent commonwealths. 

Phila. The old Congress of the 

Revolution closes. 

Mar. 2. Phila. The new Congress of 
the Confederation opens. 



1780 Apr. * Md. The Methodist Confer- 
ence at Baltimore proposes to disown 
"all persons who should engage in 
distilling." 

The first measures are taken for extir- 
pating slavery among Methodists by 
declaring " That slavery is contrary 
to the laws of God, man, and nature, Dec. 18 
and hurtful to society, contrary to the 
dictates of conscience and pure religion, 
and doing that which we would not 
others should do to us and ours." 

* * Gloom settles over the country. 
The treason of Benedict Arnold intensi- 
fies the general depression. 

June 13. Phila 

" American Daughters of Liberty, 

an association to provide clothing for 

the suffering soldiers. 
June 17. Phila. A bank is opened for 

supplying the army with provisions, 

and $945,000 subscribed. 
Sept. 23. N. Y. Maj. Andre", a British 

spy, is arrested near Tarrytown. 
Oct. 2. N. Y. Maj. Andre) is hanged 

as a spy at Tappan. 

* * Pennsylvania abolishes slavery. 

* * Massachusetts adopts a constitution 
which abolishes slavery. 

* * The mothers of America send sup- 
plies of food and clothing to the camps 
of the patriots. 

* * Va. James Monroe marries Eliza 
Kortright. 

* * S. C. Negroes in great numbers 
desert their masters and flee to the 
British. 

1781 Feb. * Lafayette's force of 1,200 
men is in a state of extreme destitution. 
Congress has neither money nor credit ; 
Lafayette purchases a full outfit from 
his private purse. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

1780 July * U. S. Continental cur- 
rency notes are worth two cents on 
a doUar. " It takes a wagon load of 
currency to buy a wagon load of provis- 
ions." 

Aug. * 0. Two block-houses are built on 
the Ohio River (Cincinnati) by Ameri- 
can troops. 



94 1781, Mar. 6-1783, Mar. 



AMERICA 



ARMY -NAVY. 
1781 Mar. 6. 2f. C. The British are 
worsted in an engagement at Reedy 
Fort Creek. 
Mar. 8. Va. Washington sends Lafay- 
ette with 1,200 men [and the French fleet 
from Bhode Island] to Virginia to cap- 
ture Benedict Arnold. 
Mar. 15. If. C. Battle at Guilford 
Court House (Greensborough). 

Gen. Greene is attacked by Lord Corn- 
wallis ; American force, 4,400, mostly 
raw militia ; British force, 2,400, chiefly 
veteran soldiers. Losses ; American, 
2,309 killed, wounded, and missing; 
British, over 532 men. The Americans 
retire in good order after a bloody bat- 
tle, with Cornwallis unable to pursue. 
Mar. 16. Va. The British Admiral Ar- 
buthnot compels the French fleet to 
return to Rhode Island. 
Mar. 18. 2f. C. Cornwallis retreats 
from Guilford Court House, leaving 
the wounded Americans and 70 wounded 
British. 
Mar. 25. Va. A British force of 2,000 
men under Gen. Phillips reenforces 
Arnold. 

The British under Phillips spare the 
buildings at Mount Vernon on con- 
dition that supplies are furnished. 
Mar. 30. The mutiny on board the 
United States frigate Alliance is fully 
disclosed on her return from France to 
Boston. 
Apr. 7. N.C. Cornwallis at Wilmington. 
Apr. * Va. Steuben is active in Vir- 
ginia. 
Apr. 18. S. C. The British evacuate 
Charleston after firing buildings, and 
leave their badly wounded behind them. 
Gen. Greene approaches Camden. 
Apr. 23. 8. C. Col. Lee takes Fort 

Watson from the British. 
Apr. 25. S. C. Battle at Hobkirk's 
Hill, near Camden ; Lord Bawdon de- 
feats Gen. Greene, who saves his artil- 
lery and carries off his wounded. 

jr a . The British under Arnold and 

Phillips take Petersburg, burn 400 
hogsheads of tobacco, a ship, and several 
small craft. 
Apr.+ N. H. The first American man- 
of-war is built at Portsmouth, under 
the superintendence of Paul Jones ; it is 
a line-of-battle ship and named America. 
Apr. 25. Va. Lord Cornwallis under- 
takes the conquest of Virginia; La- 
fayette undertakes its defense. 
May 8. Count De Barras arrives from 
France, and announces that 20 ships of 
the fine are coming in a few months. 
May 9. Fla. The Spaniards take Pen- 

sacola. 
May 10. S. C. The British under Lord 
Bawdon evacuate Camden and retire 
beyond the Santee. 
May 11. N. Y. Ogdensburg surren- 
ders to Americans under Gen. Sumter. 
May 13. Va. On the death of Gen. Phil- 
lips, Benedict Arnold becomes com- 
mander-in-chief of the British forces 
in Virginia for 7 days— the summit of 
the traitor's glory ! 



May 14. ± S. C. The British posts at 
Fort Granby, Orangeburg, and Fort 
Motte successively fall into the hands 
of the Americans under Col. Leo. 
* * Ga. Augusta is besieged. 
May 20. Va. Cornwallis arrives at 
Petersburg, and joins the forces lately 
commanded by Gen. Phillips. 
May 21. Conn. Washington and 
Gen. Jean Rochambeau confer at 
Wethersfield. 
June 5. Ga. Americans capture Au- 
gusta. 
June 21. Va. Cornwallis evacuates 

Richmond. 
June 19. S. C. After maintaining the 
siege of Ninety-Six for 27 days, Gen. 
Greene is obliged to retire on the ap- 
proach of an army under Lord Rawdon. 
July 4. Va. Williamsburg is evacu- 
ated by Cornwallis. 
July* S. C. Gen. Greene is forced to 

retire to the mountains. 
July 6. Va. Lafayette orders an attack 
on Cornwallis ; Gen. Wayne makes an 
assault and retires in good order. 

V. Y. After 11 months of inactivity 

at Newport, R.I., the French army 
joins Washington on the Hudson. 
July* Cornwallis refuses to serve with 
Maj.-Gen. Benedict Arnold in Virginia; 
Arnold is sent North. 
Aug. 1. Va. The British forces are 
concentrated at Yorktown and Glou- 
cester, and entrench. 
Aug. 4. S. C. Col. Isaac Hayne, a 
patriot soldier, is hanged by the British 
at Charleston. 
Aug. 14. -V. Y. Washington decides to 
transfer his army from New York to 
Virginia. 
Aug. 28. R. I. De Barras, commanding 
the French fleet at Newport, suddenly 
puts to sea, steering toward Chesapeake 
Bay. 
Aug. 30. Va. Count De Grasse ar- 
rives in the Chesapeake Bay, from the 
West Indies, with a French fleet of 28 
sail-of-the-line. 
± A". Y. The British Adm. Graves is re- 
enforced by nearly 20 ships-of-the-line, 
from the West Indies. 
Sept. 5. Va. Adm. Graves arrives in 
the Chesapeake, and a fight of two hours 
ensues, off the Capes. 
Sept. 6-10. De Grasse maneuvers four 
days, as if for battle, i..nd thus secures a 
passage for the approaching fleet under 
De Barras to enter the bay, where they 
unite to blockade Cornwallis. 
Sept. 6. Conn. An expedition under 
Benedict Arnold burns New London, 
his native town, after capturing Fort 
Griswold, and killing most of the garri- 
son after they have surrendered. 
Sept. 7. Va. Lafayette, with 8,000 men, 
cuts off Cornwallis from retreating into 
North Carolina. 
Sept. 8. S. C. Battle of Eutaw 
Springs, the last important conflict 
in the South. 

Gen. Greene attacks the British, now 
under Col. Stuart, and one of the fiercest 



battles of the war ensues. British loss, 
nearly 700 killed and wounded, and 500 
prisoners ; American loss, 550 men. By 
this battle the British power is broken 
i n the South. [Though defeated in every 
battle, Greene finally drives the British 
out of the country.] 

Sept. 14. Va. Washington arrives at 
Williamsburg and assumes command. 

Sept. 28. Va. The siege of Yorktown 
begins. 



The Army of the North, under Wash- 
ington, 9,000 strong, and the French 
army under Rochambeau, 7,000 strong, 
arrive at Yorktown. 
Oct. 19. Va. Lord Cornwallis sur- 
renders his army of 7,247 men, besides 
840 seamen, at Yorktown ; this victory 
practically concludes the War of 
Independence. 
Oct. 20. N. Y. The Mohawk Valley is 
invaded by Indians. 

New York. Clinton sails to reenforce 

Cornwallis in Virginia with 7,000 men. 
Oct. * Ga. Col. Andrew Pickens invades 

the Cherokee country. 
Nov. 13. Phila. John Moody is hanged 

as a British spy. 
Dec. * The British in the South are 
confined to the cities of Charleston and 
Savannah. 
* * George R. Clark fails in his plans for 

the capture of Detroit. 
1782 Feb.* New York. Benjamin 
Thompson (Count Rumford) is an officer 
of the King's Dragoons, but takes no 
part in the war. 
Mar. * O. Col. Williamson massacres 
90 inoffensive Indians, — men, women, 
and children, on the Muskingum, —to 
take vengeance on suspected murderers. 
Mar. 24. N. J. A blockhouse on Toms 
River is captured by royalists, and its 
commander summarily executed with- 
out trial. 
Apr. * -V. Y. Washington's headquarters 
is located at Newburgh, on the Hudson. 
May* -June* Col. William Crawford 
leads an expedition against the Wyan- 
dot Indians. 
May* New York. Sir Guy Carleton 
arrives, and relieves Gen. Clinton of 
his command. 
June 6. O. An expedition against the 
remnant of the Christian Indians from 
western Pennsylvania is ambushed and 
defeated, with the loss of many prisoners. 
July 11. Ga. Savannah is evacuated 

by the British. 
Aug. 15. Ky. Indians attack Bryant's 

Station, and are repulsed. 
Aug. 27. S. C. The last battle of the 
Revolution is fought on the Combahee, 
near Charleston ; the younger Laurens 
is killed — much lamented. 
Nov. 5. A*. II. The America, a 74-gun 
ship, is launched at Portsmouth ; it is 
the first line-of-battle ship. 
Nov. * O. George R. Clark conducts an 

expedition against the Miami Indians. 
Nov. 30. Paris. A preliminary treaty 

of peace with Great Britain is signed. 
Dec. 14. S. C. The British evacuate 
Charleston. 



UNITED STATES. 1781, Mar. 6-1783, Mar. 95 



1783 Feb. 4. Final cessation of hos- 
tilities with Great Britain. 

Feb. * If. Y. Col. Marinus Willett at- 
tempts to surprise the British at Os- 
wego on Lake Erie, because they retain 
the post after the treaty. 

Mar. * If. Y. A plausible address is pri- 
vately circulated in camp at Newburg, 
proposing the intimidation of Con- 
gress for the redress of soldiers' griev- 
ances. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 
1782 * * Phila. Oliver Evans patents a 
steam-wagon. 

* * Phila. The manufacture of fustians 
and jeans begins. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1782* * 

Benton, Thomas Hart, senator for Mo., b. 

Bond, Thomas E., editor, born. 

Calhoun, John Caldwell, Sec. of State, 

senator for S. C, born. 
Cass, Lewis, Sec. of State, sen. for Mich., b. 
Darlington, William, botanist, born. 
Duer, John, jurist, born. 
Elliott, Jesse Duncan, commodore, born. 
Fraser, Charles, painter, born. 
Grimshaw, William, author, born. 
Guthrie, Samuel, chemist, born. 
Ingersoll, Charles Jared, author, born. 
Laurens, John, officer, A26. 
Lee, Charles, general, A51. 
Lincoln, Levi, governor of Mass., born. 
Longworth, Nicholas, horticulturist, born. 
Loudoun, John Campbell, earl of, gen., A77. 
Macomb, Alexander, general, born. 
Ripley, Eleazer Wheelock, general, born. 
Warrington, Lewis, naval officer, born. 
Webster, Daniel, sen. for Mass., Sec. of 

State, born in K. H. 

CHURCH. 

1781 Apr. 24. Md. The United 
Methodist preachers of the North and 
the South meet in Conference at Balti- 
more. 

June* Ky. The first Baptist church is 
organized at Elizabethtown. 

* * Phila. Elhanan Winchester, a Bap- 
tist minister, joins the Universalists. 

1782 Mar. * O. Moravian converts 
are massacred. Over ninety inoffensive 
Christian Indians, men and women, of 
the Moravian missions, are gathered by 
the whites into two slaughter-pens, and 
butchered in cold blood. 

Apr. 17. Va. The Methodist preachers 
hold a Conference at Ellis's Chapel, 
Sussex County. 

May 21. Md. The Methodist preachers 
hold a Conference at Baltimore. 

Sept. 12. New Eng. The Presbyterian 
Synod of New England, being very 
weak, dissolves. 

Oct. 13. The Reformed Presbytery is 
disorganized by its union with the Pres- 
bytery of the Associate Church. [Dis- 
satisfaction follows, and there are three 
organizations instead of one.] 

Nov. 1. Phila. «« The Synod of the 
Associate Reformed Church" is or- 
ganized by the union of two Associate 
Presbyteries with the Reformed Pres- 
bytery. 

* * Pa. Dr. "William "White [afterward 
bishop] recommends the bishopless Epis- 
copalians to adopt temporarily a Pres- 
byterian form of government. 



LETTERS. 

1781 * * Vt. First issue of the Vermont 
Gazette or Green Mountain Post-Boy at 
Westminster, the first newspaper in 
the State. 

1782 * * Md. "Washington College 
(non-sect.) organized at Chestertown. 

* * McFinyal, by John Trumbull, ap- 
pears complete. 

* * Phila. The first English Bible pub- 
lished in America appears. 

June 8. N. Y. First issue of the Brook- 
lyn Hall Super-Extra Gazette, the first 
paper in the city. 

SOCIETY. 
1781 Oct. 23. Phila. A messenger from 
Washington arrives at the capital city, 
bringing tidings of the victory at 
Yorktown; the night watchmen call 
the hour and often add, " and Corn- 
wallis is taken.'" 

* * Eng. The fictitious story of the Blue 
Laws of Connecticut is published by 
Rev. Samuel Peters, a Tory refugee. 

* * U. S. The people pursue the avoca- 
tions of peace, except in the vicinity of 
military conflict, for some time before 
the close of the war ; independence is 
practically a fact except near the camps 
of the enemy. 

STATE, 

1781 Apr. 19. Massachusetts cedes 
her claims to western lands to the 
Union. 

May 26. Phila. Congress resolves to 
establish the Bank of North America. 

May 9. Fla. Pensacola is taken by the 
Spaniards. 

* * Phila. Robert Morris is appointed 
treasurer by Congress. 

He and his friends pledge their private 
fortunes for the payment of the future 
obligations of Congress, and so improve 
the credit of the Government. 

June 15. Phila. Congress appoints five 
commissioners to conclude a treaty 
with Great Britain, — John Adams, Ben- 
jamin Franklin, John Jay, Henry Lau- 
rens, and Thomas Jefferson. 

* *An Austro-Russian offer of media- 
tion between the United States and 
Great Britain is made. 

July 9. Phila. Congress ratifies the 
Articles of Confederation. 

Aug. 10. Phila. R.R.Livingston is made 
the first Secretary of Foreign Affairs. 

Oct. 24. Phila. Congress assembles 
and listens to Washington's despatch 
announcing the victory at Yorktown ; 
the weeping and exulting members, with 
many citizens, go to the Dutch church, 
where thanks are rendered to Almighty 
God. 

* * Eng. The capture of a second army 
(Cornwallis's) by the Americans makes 
the war unpopular in England. 

Dec. 31. Phila. Congress charters the 
Bank of North America. 

1782 Jan. * Eng. An Act of Parlia- 
ment is passed to enable George I II. 
to make peace with the United States. 



Mar. 4. Eng. The House of Commons 
favors peace. 

Gen. Conway's motion approved, say- 
ing " the House would consider as ene-- 
mies to his Majesty and the country, all 
those who should advise or attempt the 
further prosecution of offensive war on 
the American continent." 

Mar. 20. Eng. Resignation of the hos- 
tile ministry of Lord North, and acces- 
sion of that of the Marquis of Rock- 
ingham. 

Apr. 6. Eng. Lord Shelburne sends 
Oswald to Franklin. 

Apr. 19. HoUand acknowledges the In- 
dependence of the United States, and 
receives John Adams as its minister. 

Apr. 23. Eng. The British Ministry de- 
cide to send separate negotiators to 
Yergennes and to Franklin. 

May 4-7. Fr. Oswald and Grenville are 
in Paris. 

May 23. Eng. The Ministry agree to 
propose American Independence. 

May * Neio York. Sir Guy Carleton 
arrives, empowered to make proposi- 
tions of peace. He proposes the cessa- 
tion of hostilities to Washington. 

June 20. Phila. Congress adopts the 
great seal of the United States. 

June 23. Fr. John Jay arrives in 
Paris. 

Julyl+. Eng. The Earl of Shel- 
burne's Administration follows that of 
Rockingham. 

Sept. 13. Phila. Congress agrees to ac- 
cept the offer of Virginia's western 
lands. 

Oct. 8. John Adams concludes a treaty 
with Holland. 

Oct. 26. Fr. John Adams reaches 
Paris. 

Oct. 29. Phila. Congress accepts the 
lands ceded to it by New York. 

Nov. 20. Va. Delegates are authorized 
to complete the transfer of western 
lands to Congress. 

Nov. 30. Paris. Adams, Franklin, Jay, 
and Laurens sign a preliminary treaty 
of peace with Great Britain. 

Dec. * Loyalists leave the Atlantic 
ports in large numbers. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-90 * * Cal. Pedro Fajes (Spanish). 
Pa. John Dickinson is president of 
the Supreme Executive Council. 

1783 Jan. 20. Fr. England on one 
hand, and France, the ally of America 
and Spain on the other, being desirous 
of peace, suspend hostilities, and sign 
preliminary articles at Versailles. 

Feb. 5. Sweden acknowledges the Inde- 
pendence of the United States. 

Feb. 16. Pelatiah Webster makes a prop- 
osition to remodel the Government. 

Feb. 25. Denmark acknowledges the 
Independence of the United States. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
1782 Jan. 7. Phila. The Bank of 

North America opens for business. 
Jan. * U. S. The war debt at the close 

of the struggle is $42,000,000. 



96 1783, Mar. 24-1785, Sept. 14. AMERICA 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1783 Apr. 11. Phila. Congress pro- 
claims the cessation of arms. 

Apr. 19. Cessation of hostilities is 
proclaimed in the American army, just 
8 years from the commencement of the 
war. Troops engaged, — regulars, 130,- 
711; militia and volunteers, 164,080; total, 
309,781. Great Britian sent to America, 
during the war, 112,584 soldiers and 22,000 
seamen. Estimated loss of life to the 
Americans, 70,000 men, vast numbers of 
whom died on prison-ships ; 11,000 alone 
on the prison-ship Jersey. Estimated 
cost of the war to the Americans, .$135,- 
000,000 in specie. 

June 2 . Washington furloughs the sol- 
diers of the war. 

June 8. Washington announces his in- 
tended resignation, as commander of 
the army, to the governors of the vari- 
ous States. 

June 21. Phila. About 300 American 
troops with fixed bayonets surround 
the house in which Congress is sitting, 
and demand a redress of grievances. 

Oct. 18. Princeton, N. J. Congress is- 
sues a proclamation that the army will 
be disbanded from and after Nov. 3. 

Nov. 2. Washington issues his farewell 
address to the army. 

Nov. 3. N. Y. The army disbands. 

Nov. 25. Neto York. The British evac- 
uate the city and Washington enters. 

Dec. 4. New York. Washington takes 
leave of the officers of the army. 

Dec. 23. Annapolis, Md. Washington 
surrenders his commission to Con- 
gress. 

Dec. * Ga. Chief M'Gillivray leads the 
Creeks in the Oconee "War. 

* * Maj.-Gen. Henry Knox is appoint- 
ed (second) to command the army. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1784 * * Franklin is appointed by the 
French Academy one of a commission to 
investigate mesmerism. 

Sept. * James Rumsey experiments in 
steam navigation on the Potomac. 

1785 Mar. 11. Phila. The Southwaik 
Theater is opened by Hallam's Com- 
pany. 

* * Pa. John Fitch makes experiments 
in steam navigation on the Delaware. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 
1783* * 

Alexander, William, general, A57. 
Barber, Francis, officer in the war, A 32. 
Barbour, Philip P., justice, born in Va. 
Riddle, James, commodore U. S. N., born. 
Churchill, Sylvester, general, born. 
Cooper, Samuel, patriot, A58. 
Dorsey, John Syng, surgeon, born. 
Greenieaf, Simon, author, born. 
Irving, Washington, author, born. 
Macdonoug-h, Thomas, commodore, born. 
Osborn, Sellick, journalist, born. 
Otis, James, orator, A58. 
Keid, Samuel Chester, naval officer, born. 
Rodney, Csesar, signer of Declaration, A53. 
Sully, Thomas, painter, born. 
1784* * 
Allen, William Henry, naval officer, born. 
Allen, William, writer, born. 
Buckminster, Joseph S., clergyman, born. 
Cobb, Thomas W., senator for Ga., born. 
Dewey, Chester, naturalist, born. 



Onmmere, John, mathematician, born. 
Hale, Nathan, journalist, born. 
Hoffman, David, author, born. 
Le Conte, John, naturalist, born. 
Lee, Ann, founder of Shakers, A48. 
Long, Stephen H., engineer, born. 
Morris, Charles, commodore, born. 
Morton, llareus, <;ov. of Mass., born. 
Ratinesque, Constantine S., botanist, born. 
Stevenson, Andrew, statesman, born. 
Taylor, Zachary, 12th President, born. 
Walsh, Robert, journalist, born. 
Warner, Seth, general V. 8. A., A41. 
Wool, John E., general, born. 
Worcester, Joseph Emerson, lexicogra- 
pher, born. 
1785* * 
Appleton, Daniel, publisher, born. 
Reman, Nathaniel S., clergyman, born. 
Cartwright, Peter, pioneer preacher, born. 
Daniel, Peter, V., justice, born in Va. 
Drake, Daniel, physician, born. 
Dudley, Renjamin Winslow, surgeon, born. 
Espy, James P., meteorologist, born. 
± Finn, Henry J., actor. ? 
Gadsden, Christopher E., bishop, born. 
Havens, Nathaniel Appleton, philanthropist, 

born. 
Hopkins, Stephen, signer of Declaration, A78. 
McLean. John, justice, born in Ohio. 
Merrill, Joseph A., clergyman, born. 
Morgan, Abel, clergyman, A72. 
Mott, Valentine, surgeon, born. 
Noah, Mordecai M., journalist, born. 
Perry, Oliver Hazzard, commodore, born. 
Pierpont, John, poet, born. 
Reed, Joseph, statesman, A44. 
Beaton, William W., journalist, born. 
Spring, Gardiner, clergyman, born. 
Tally, William, physician, born. 
Wheaton, Henry, publicist, born. 
Woodworth, Samuel, poet, born. 

CHURCH. 

1783 Mar. 25. Conn. The Episcopal 
ministers of Connecticut meet at Wood- 
bury, and elect Samuel Seabury 
bishop. 

May 7. Va. A Methodist Conference 
opens at Ellis's Chapel, in Sussex county. 

May 27. Md. A second Methodist Con- 
ference opens in Baltimore. 

May* Md. The Methodist Conference 
at Baltimore forbids members to " man- 
ufacture, sell, or drink intoxicating 
liquors." 

Nov. 26. New York. Dr. Rodgers re- 
turns, and begins to restore the Pres- 
byterian churches ; they having been 
badly used and some of them partly 
destroyed during the war. 

* * Boston. James Freeman of King's 
Chapel changes the Book of Common 
Prayer to harmonize with Unitarianism. 

* * Conn. A Protestant Episcopal Dio- 
cese is organized. 

* * Ky. David Rice establishes Presby- 
terian worship in Kentucky. 

* * Md. A Protestant Episcopal Diocese 
is organized. 

<* * Methodism, which has hitherto been 
almost entirely confined to the country 
south of New Jersey, begins to advance 
northward. 

1784 Apr. 17. N. Y. Alaw is passed 
enacting religious equa^ty. 

Apr. 30. Va. A Methodist Conference 
opens at Ellis's Chapel, in Sussex County. 

May 24+. Pa. The appointment of a 
Standing Committee of the Episco- 
pal church is the first step in the forma- 
tion of a union of the Episcopal churches 
of America. 

May 25. Md. A second Methodist Con- 
ference opens in Baltimore. 



Sept. 2. Eng. Thomas Coke is conse- 
crated a bishop for the Methodists of 
America. 

Sept. 7. N. Y. Ann Lee, " Elect Lady " 
of the Shakers, dies near Albany. 

Oct. 6. New York. First Protestant 
Episcopal Convention; 15 clergymen 
are present. 

Nov. 3. New York. Thomas Coke ar- 
rives, the first Protestant bishop in 
the New World. 

Nov. 14. Scot. Preparatory steps are 
taken for the organization of the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church of America. 
Dr. Samuel Seabury is consecrated 
first American bishop at Aberdeen, by 
three non-juring bishops — Kilgour, 
Petre, and Skinner. 

Dec. 24 +. Md. Organization of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church at the 
" Christmas Conference " held in Lovely 
Lane Chapel, Baltimore. 

Sixty preachers are present ; Bishop 
Thomas Coke presides ; Francis Asbury 
is elected " superintendent " (bishop), 
after having been ordained deacon and 
elder ; John Wesley's authority over the 
American churches ends. Total preach- 
ers, 83 ; total members, 14,000. 

Methodist preachers are first author- 
ized to administer the sacraments by 
the Conference at Baltimore. 

Origination of the Chartered Fund for 
Needy (Methodist) Ministers. 
Dec. 27. Md. Francis Asbury is or- 
dained bishop of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. 

* * Cal. Nine missions have already been 
founded along the Pacific coast. 

* * Mass. A Protestant Episcopal Dio- 
cese is organized. 

* * Md. Dr. John CarroU of Baltimore 
appointed (Roman Catholic) Prefect 
Apostolic of the United States. 

* * Me. A Jesuit missionary arrives at 
Oldtown, to work among the Abnakis. 

* * Pa. The Protestant Episcopal Dio- 
cese of Pennsylvania is organized. 

* * About 35,000 Baptists are reported in 
the 13 colonies. 

* * Eng. Two young men from America 
are refused ordination, unless they take 
the oath of uniformity ; Franklin ad- 
vises them to act as though England 
and Ireland were sunk in the sea. 

1785 Jan. 2. Md. Close of the first 
Methodist General Conference at Balti- 
more. 

June 22. N. Y. First Convention of the 
Episcopal Diocese of New York. 

June * Arrival in America of Bishop 
Seabury of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church. 

Aug. 3. Bishop Seabury (Protestant 
Episcopal) ordains (four deacons) for the 
first time in America. 

LETTERS. 

1783 * * Conn. The American Spelling 
Book, by Noah Webster, is published. 

* * Pa. Dickinson College (Meth.-Epis.) 
is founded at Carlisle. 

1784 Mar. 24. Boston. The Massa- 
chusetts Sentinel and the Bcpubllcan 
Journal first issued. 



1 



UNITED STATES. 1783, Mar. 24-1785, Sept. 14. 97 



* * The Massachusetts Magazine is first 
published [and continues to be issued 
till 1795]. 

* * New York. The regents of a state 
university are appointed, who demand 
what property belongs to King's Col- 
lege and change Its name to Colum- 
bia. 

* * Phila. The first American daily- 
newspaper is issued, The Pennsyl- 
vania Packet or the General Advertiser, 
formerly a weekly. 

* * Notes on Virginia, by Thomas Jef- 
ferson, appears in Paris. 

SOCIETY. 

1783 Apr. * The Society of the Cin- 
cinnati is established, chiefly by Gen- 
eral Knox ; it is restricted to officers of 
the regular army, who have served in 
the Revolutionary War. 

1784 Dec. * Md. The extraordinary 
session of the Methodist Conference at 
Baltimore declares, that members who 
" buy and sell slaves," if " they buy 
with no other design than to hold them 
as slaves, and have been previously 
warned, shall be expelled, and be per- 
mitted to sell on no consideration." 

* * Conn. The Legislature enacts a law 
for the gradual abolition of slavery. 

* * There is a strong feeling against the 
Society of the Cincinnati. 

* * Lafayette travels through the States. 

STATE. 

1783 Mar. 24. Spain acknowledges the 
Independence of the United States. 

Apr. 3. Treaty of amity and peace 
for 15 years is concluded by Franklin 
between Sweden and the United States. 

Apr. 11. Phila. Congress proclaims 
the cessation of arms on land and sea. 

Apr. 18. Phila. Congress appeals to 
the States for power to levy duties, and 
for other taxation by which to raise 
annually for the expenses of the Gov- 
ernment $2,500,000. [The States with- 
hold consent.] 

June 18. Washington issues his last 
circular to the States. 

June 21. Phila. Congress, insulted 
by an uncontrollable mutiny of unpaid 
soldiers, adjourns to Princeton. 

June 30. Princeton, N. J. The 8th 
session of the Continental Congress 
opens under the Confederation. 

July * Russia recognizes the Indepen- 
dence of the United States. 

Sept. 3. Paris. A definitive treaty with 
Great Britain is signed. 

The treaty (1) recognizes the Indepen- 
dence and establishes the boundaries 
of the United States; (2) secures the 
right of fishery on the Grand Banks, etc. ; 
(3) binds the payment of good outstand- 
ing debts ; (4) provides that Congress shall 
recommend the restoration of confis- 
cated estates ; (5) provides open naviga- 
tion of the Mississippi River to both 
parties. 

Florida is ceded to Spain by Great 

Britain, by the Treaty of Paris. 
Oct. 18. Phila. Congress directs that 



the army shall be disbanded on Nov. 3. 
(Winsor, Nov. 2.) 
Oct. 20. Virginia agrees to the terms of 
Congress, and cedes its claim to terri- 
tory north of the Ohio. 

* * Boston. The Supreme Court de- 
clares that the statement, " All men are 
born free and equal," in the Massachu- 
setts Bill of Rights, is a bar to slave- 
holding in that State. 

Nov. 4. Princeton. Congress adjourns. 

Nov. 26. Annapolis, Md.' The 9th ses- 
sion of the Continental Congress 
opens ; it is under the Confederation. 

Nov. * Md. Congress makes repeated 
and urgent attempts to get a quorum 
to ratify the treaty of peace with Great 
Britain. 

Dec. 23. Annapolis, Md. Washington 
is introduced to Congress ; he deliv- 
ers a fitting address, and resigns his 
commission. 

* * Many American Tories accompany 
the retiring British armies to England. 

* * The public debt of the United States 
is about $42,000,000; $8,000,000 of this 
amount is owed abroad. 

1784 Jan. 14. Annapolis, Md. Con- 
gress ratifies the treaty with Great 
Britain. Vote, 20-10. 

Feb. 20. Annapolis, Md. Congress ap- 
points Robert Morris Superintendent 
of Finance. 

Mar. 1. Annapolis, Md. A part of Vir- 
ginia's western lands is transferred 
to the Federal Union. They lie north- 
west of the Ohio. Congress accepts the 
transfer. 

Mar. 24. Massachusetts resolves to ex- 
pel dangerous aliens. 

Apr. 9. Eng. George m. ratifies the 
definitive treaty. (See Sept. 3, 1783.) 

Apr. 23. Annapolis, Md. Congress con- 
siders a plan for Federal division of the 
vast, unoccupied northwest territory. 
A preliminary plan of adjusting the 
question of unoccupied territory is pre- 
sented by a committee, of which Thomas 
Jefferson is chairman ; it provides for 
the erection of seventeen oddly named 
States north and south of the Ohio, and 
for the exclusion of slavery after the year 
1800. [Seven States disapprove and the 
plan is dropped.] 

May 12. Annapolis, Md. Congress 
authorizes Franklin, Adams, and Jef- 
ferson to make treaties of commerce. 

June 3. Annapolis, Md. Congress ad- 
journs. 

June * North Carolina cedes her west- 
ern lands to the Federal Government. 
[In November it annuls the cession.] 

Oct. 22. N. Y. At Fort Stanwix the 
Indians surrender their lands west of 
Pennsylvania. 

Nov. 1. Trenton, N. J. The 10th ses- 
sion of the Continental Congress 
opens. 

Dec. * Tenn. Revolt in western North 
Carolina against the Government ; the 
settlers secede and form a State which 
they call Frankland or Franklin [till 
the State Government interposes]. 



* * -89 * * New York. James Duane is 
the 43d mayor. 

* * The territory north and west of the 
Ohio is provided with a temporary gov- 
ernment by Act of Congress. 

Dec. 24. Trenton, N. J. Congress 
adjourns. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-87 * *N.C. Richard Caswell. 
-86 * * Va. Patrick Henry. 

1785 Jan. 11. New York. The 11th 
session of the Continental Congress 
opens. 

Jan. 21. A treaty is made with the "Wyan- 
dots at Fort Mcintosh. 

Feb. 25. New York. John Adams is ap- 
pointed the first minister to England. 

Mar. 10. New York. Thomas Jeffer- 
son is commissioned minister to France. 

Mar. 17. Meeting of the boundary com- 
missioners of Maryland and Virginia. 
[The Annapolis Convention of 1786 is its 
successor.] 

Apr. 18. Phila. Congress votes to ac- 
cept the offer of western land by 
Massachusetts. 

The territory lies west of New York, 
and extends to the Mississippi River. 

Apr. 19. N. Y. The State executes a 
deed renewing the grant of its western 
lands to the Federal Government. 

Massachusetts cedes her western ter- 
ritory to the Federal Government. 

May 20. New York. Congress passes its 
first act relative to western lands. 

May 31. Mass. Gov. James Bowdoin 
attempts to start a movement to revise 
the articles of Confederation. 

June 1. Eng. John Adams, first Ameri- 
can ambassador to England, is presented 
to King George III. 

July 6. New York. Congress establishes 
the standard of the American dollar. 

Sept. 10. A treaty of amity and com- 
merce is entered with Prussia. 

Sept. 14. Phila. Franklin again 
returns. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1783 June 27. Eng. Parliament votes 
half-pay to loyalist officers of 
America. 

July 2. Eng. An order in council ut- 
terly forbids American ships to engage 
in the British West-Indian trade. 

1784* * Boston. The Empress of China 
sails as the first American ship bound 
for China. 

The second bank in the United States 
is established. 

* * Pa. Pittsburg is laid out in town 
lots. 

* * Conn. Incorporation of Hartford, New 
Haven, New London, Norwich, and Mid- 
dletown as cities. 

* * Eng. Eight bags of cotton from an 
American ship are seized at Liverpool, 
on the ground that America could not 
produce so much cotton. 

* * O. Washington inspects the Ohio 
Valley, preliminary to the forming of 
the Potomac Company. 



98 1785, Sept. 14-1787, Nov. 



AMERICA: 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1785 * * O. Fort Harmar is built. 

* * The Algerine pirates seize American 
vessels. 

1786 Dec. 25. Mass. Shays's Rebel- 
lion. 

A thousand men, under the leadership 
of Daniel Shays, force the Supreme 
Court to adjourn, to prevent its issuing 
writs for the collection of debts. 

1787 Jan. 25 +. Mass. Shays's rebel- 
lion is suppressed by the State militia 
under Gen. Lincoln at Springfield ; 3 
killed. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1785 Nov. 19. New York. The John- 
street Theater is opened by the " Old 
American Company" with The Gamester. 

* * Jean Antoine Houdon comes from 
Paris to America to execute the statue 
of Washington. 

1786 Apr. 16. New York. Contrast, by 
Royal Taylor, is performed by the " Old 
American Company " at the John-street 
Theater. "The first play written in 
America by an American and performed 
by a professional company." (Ency. 
Brit.) 

Aug. * The first playhouse in Baltimore 
is opened. (Or 1773.) 

* * Conn. John Trumbull paints The 
Battle of Bunker Hill. 

* * Joseph Wright paints the portrait 
of John Jay. 

* * S. C. A theater is built in Charleston. 

1787 * * Mass. The first cotton-mill is 
put in operation at Beverly. [Very im- 
perfect and soon closed.] 

* * N. Y. The manufacture of salt at 
Syracuse begins. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1786* * 
Barton, William P. C, botanist, born. 
Biddle, Nicholas, financier, born. 
Breckenridge, Henry M., jurist, born. 
Cadwallader, John, officer in the war, A44. 
Cambreleng, Churchill C, politician, born. 
Catron, John, justice, born in Tenn. 
Cogswell, Joseph Green, scholar, born. 
Crockett, David, pioneer, born. 
D wight, Sereno E., clergyman, born. 
England, John, R. C. Bishop of Charleston, 

born in Cork. 
Gales, Joseph, journalist, born. 
Gardiner, Sylvester, physician, A79. 
Grayson, William, politician, born. 
Greene, Nathaniel, general, A44. 
Greenleaf, Benjamin, author, born. 
Grimkie, Thomas Smith, philanthropist, b. 
King, William Rufus, statesman, born. 
Lawrence, Amos, philanthropist, born. 
MacLane, Lewis, statesman, born. 
Marcy, William D. , statesman, born. 
McDougall, Alexander, general, A55. 
Norton, Andrews, theologian, born. 
Nuttall, Thomas, naturalist, born. 
Porter, Alexander, statesman, born. 
Rush, James, physician, born. 
Sargent, Lucius Manlius, writer, born. 
Scott, Winfleld, general, born. 
Tappan, Arthur, philanthropist, born. 
Vaux, Robert, philanthropist, born. 
Verplanck, Gulian Crommelin, author, born. 

1787* * 
Andrews, Ethan Allen, philologist, born. 
Bedel, Timothy, patriot, dies. 
Bouvier, John, jurist, writer, born. 
Chauncy, Charles, clergyman, dies. 
Crittenden, John Jordan, statesman, b. 
Dana, Richard Henry, poet, born. 
Davis, John, statesman, born. 
Durand, Cyrus, engraver, born. 
Erelinghuysen, Theodore, statesman, b. 
Gallaudet, Thomas H., teacher of deaf mutes, 

born. 
Gould, Benjamin Apthorp, educator, born. 



Hensen, Josiah, Uncle Tom, born. 
Mac Vicar, John, professor, born. 
Middleton, Arthur, patriot, A44. 
Muhlenberg. Henry M., founder of Am. 

Lutheran ch., A76. 
Say, Thomas, naturalist, born. 
Southard, Samuel L., senator for N.Y., b. 
Williams, Kleazer, clergyman, born. 
Williard, Emma H., educator, born. 



CHURCH. 

1785 Sept. 14. Mass. The first Con- 
vention of Universalist ministers and 
parishes in America is held at Oxford. 

Sept. 27. Phila. The first General 
Convention of the Protestant-Epis- 
copal Church is held ; Bishop Seabury 
and his clergy decline to attend ; 16 cler- 
gymen and 26 laymen are present. 

Oct. 7. Phila. The Protestant Episco- 
pal Convention adjourns. 

* * Boston. An organ is set up in the 
First Church, introducing instrumental 
music in the Congregational Church. 

Organic Unitarianism begins in 
this city. 

James Freeman, " lay reader " of 
King's (Epis.) Chapel (Stone Chapel), 
secures an alteration in the liturgy 
eliminating Trinitarianism, and the con- 
gregation secedes from the Protestant 
Episcopal Church. 

* * Mass. Free-Communion Baptists or- 
ganize the Groton Conference. 

± * *. Me. John Cheverus of Boston 
makes an annual missionary visit to 
the Abnakis and other Indians. A 
church is erected among them. 

± * * Me. Mr. Ciquard of St. Sulpice, Bal- 
timore, is sent as a Jesuit missionary to 
the Abnakis and other Indians. 

* * Md. The first Baptist church in Bal- 
timore is formed. 

* * N. Y. The Lutheran Synod (min- 
isterium) is formed. 

The first Shaker house of worship 
erected at New Lebanon. 

* * S. C. A Protestant Episcopal Con- 
vention is held at Charleston. 

* * Va. The first Protestant Episco- 
pal Convention in Virginia is held 
after the war ; meets at Richmond. 

The Abingdon Presbytery is formed. 

* *The Synod of the Presbyterian 
Church draws up a plan of govern- 
ment and discipline, and also takes 
steps to revise the standards. 

* * Organization of Protestant Episcopal 
dioceses in New York, Virginia, South 
Carolina, and New Jersey. 

1786* * Del. Protestant Episcopal Dio- 
cese of Delaware is organized. 

An adjourned meeting of the (Protes- 
tant Episcopal) General Convention 
is held at Wilmington. 

* * Ky. The Presbytery of Transylvania 
is formed. 

* * New York. Erection of the first 
Roman Catholic church (St. Peter's). 

Rev. John Stanford arrives in Amer- 
ica, and soon publishes and circulates 
tracts as formerly in England. 
Sept. 14. Phila. Meeting of the Sec- 
ond General Convention (Protestant 



Episcopal) ; 10 clergymen and 11 laymen 
present. 

* * S. C. Organization of the ** Associ- 
ated Churches" (Protestant Episco- 
pal) of South Carolina. 

* * Va. David Griffith is elected bishop 
by the Protestant Episcopal Convention. 

A Sunday-school is taught in Hano- 
ver County. 

1787 Feb. 4. Eng. Bishop White 
of Pennsylvania and Bishop Provoost 
of New York are consecrated in Lam- 
beth Chapel ; bishops of Bath and Wells 
and of Peterborough giving the apos- 
tolic succession to the American Church. 

Apr. * New York. The American Epis- 
copal Church separates from the 
Church of England. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church of 
the United States has its organization 
as a natidnal Church made complete by 
the arrival of Bishops White and Pro- 
vost ; it is no longer attached to the 
diocese of London. 

May 1 +. Md. A General Conference 
of Methodist preachers is held at 
Baltimore, called by Bishop Coke ; few 
of the Southern preachers attend, as 
they had not authorized the call. The 
Book of Discipline is revised. 

Sept. 17. V. S. Separation of Church 
and State is established by the Federal 
Constitution. 

"No religious tests shall ever be re- 
quired as a qualification to any office or 
public trust under the United States." 
(Art. vi. § 3.) 

Oct. 7. Pa. The Lutherans deplore the 
death of their founder, Henry M. 
Muhlenberg. 

* * N. Y. The Shakers first gather into 
a community at New Lebanon. 

The Reformed Dutch Church 
adopts domestic mission work. 

* * U. S. The Presbyterian General 
Synod sends down the Report on Gov- 
ernment and Discipline to the presbyte- 
ries and churches for consideration. 

* * Va. The Separate and Regular Bap- 
tists unite to form " the United Bap- 
tist Churches of Christ." 

LETTERS. 

1785 * * Ga. The University of Geor- 
gia (non-sect.) organized. 

* * Me. The Falmouth Gazette, the first 
newspaper in Maine, is issued. 

* * New York. The Manumission Society 
establishes free schools for the poor 
colored children of the city. 

The Daily Advertiser is first issued by 
Francis Childs and Company ; the first 
daily in tne city. 

* * N. Y. Schenectady Academy, the pio- 
neer of Union College, is founded. 

* * Phila. The Philadelphia Directory is 
published ; the first city directory in the 
Union. 

* * Tenn. The University of Nashville 
(non-sect.) organized^ Nashville as the 
Davidson Academy. [It becomes Cum- 
berland College in 1806.] 

* * Sketches of American Policy, by Noah 
Webster, appears. 



UNITED STATES. 1785, Sept. 27-1787, Nov. 99 



* * Conquest of Canaan, by Timothy 
Dwlght, appears. 

1786 * * Pa. The Pittsburg Gazette, the 
first newspaper west of the Alleghanies, 
is issued. 

* * .89 * * Phila. The Columbian Maga- 
zine appears. 

* * The Anarchiad papers, by Trumbull, 
Hopkins, Barlow, and Humphreys, ap- 
pear in the New Haven Gazette. 

1787 Apr. 13. N. Y. The Board of 
Regents of the University of the State 
is established. 

May 21. New York. Samuel Johnson 
is elected President of Columbia Col- 
lege. 

Sept. 17. Bel. Cokesbury College, 
the first literary institution of the Meth- 
odists in America, is opened at Abing- 
don. • 

* * Ky. First issue of the Lexington Ga- 
zette — the first paper in Kentucky. 

SOCIETY. 

1785 * * New York. The Manumission 
Society, John Jay president, is formed 
to secure the freedom of slaves. 

The gradual abolition of slavery is 
determined by the State. 

* * Pa. Benjamin Rush puts forth his 
famous tract, An Inquiry into the Effects 
of Ardent Spirits upon the Human Mind 
and Body, which creates a profound sen- 
sation. 

1786 * * Massachusetts. The (undenomi- 
national) Charity Society is organized. 

* * Neto York. The Tammany Society 
is organized. (See 1788.) 

1787 July 13. New York. The Federal 
Government perpetually prohibits sla- 
very in the territory north of the Ohio, 
— the first territory coming under its 
control. 



STATE. 

1785 Nov. 4. New York. Congress ad- 
journs. 

Nov. 7. New York. The 12th session 
of the Continental Congress opens. 

Nov. 30. Eng. John Adams, the Amer- 
ican Minister to St. James, demands 
the surrender of the frontier posts to 
the United States. 

* * Ga. Treaty with the Creeks at Gal- 
phinton. 

* * Noah Webster publishes a project for 
an American policy. 

* * U. 8. Governors inaugurated : 
-96 * * Conn. Samuel Huntington. 
-88 * * " State of Franklin," (Tennes- 
see) John Sevier. 

-87 * * Mass. James Bowdoin. 
-86 * * Mich. Henry Hamilton. 
Pa. Benjamin Franklin is president 
of the Supreme Executive Council. 

1786 Jan. 16. A treaty is made with 
the Chickasaws at Hopewell. 

Jan. 21. Virginia invites the States to 
a general conference for forming a less 
restricted Constitution. 

Jan. 31. A treaty is made with the 
Shawnees. 



May 11. Connecticut again offers to 
cede a part of its western lands. 

May 26. Phila. Congress declares its 
willingness to receive the Connecticut 
lands in the West. 

July 16. A treaty of peace is entered 
with the Emperor of Morocco. 

Sept. 11. Md. A convention of some 
of the States is held at Annapolis to 
regulate commerce on the Chesapeake 
Bay ; five States send delegates to it. [It 
is the germ of the Constitutional Con- 
vention.] 

Sept. 14. Conn. The deed for western 
lands is given to Congress. The lands 
lie east of the Mississippi, between lati- 
tude 41° and 41° 2', and west of a meridian 
120 miles west of the [present] western 
limit of Pennsylvania. 

Nov. 3. New York. The Congress of the 
Confederation adjourns. 

Nov. 6. New York The 13th session 
of the Continental Congress opens. 

Dec. 16. Massachusetts yields the juris- 
diction over her lands in New York to 
that State. 

Dec. 25 ±. Mass. Shays's rebellion 
arises in the western part of the State ; 
caused by financial complications. The 
insurrection infects New Hampshire. 
(See Army.) 

* * Ga. A treaty is made with the Creeks 
at Shoulderbone. 

* * Massachusetts sells the " Phelps and 
Gorham Purchase," in New York, — 
6,000,000 acres for 31,000,000. 

* * Portugal orders her fleet in the 
Mediterranean to protect American 
vessels from pirates. 

* * Requisitions of Congress on the 
States for the last four years amount 
to $10,000,000; receipts one-fourth of 
that amount. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-96 * * Mich. Lord Dorchester. 
-90 * * R.I. John Collins. 

-88 * * Va. Edmund Randolph. 

1787 Apr. 13. New York. General St. 
Clair makes his report to Congress on 
the British infraction of the treaty on 
the northwestern frontier. 

May 14. Phila. A National Consti- 
tutional Convention for framing (in 
part) a less restricted Constitution as- 
sembles, [and "Washington is unani- 
mously elected its President. It does 
not begin its work till May 25. All of 
the States (9) except Rhode Island are 
represented before its close.] 

May 29. Phila. Edmund Randolph 
moves the Convention to set aside the 
Articles of Confederation and adopt a 
new Constitution ; a committee is ap- 
pointed. 

July 5. Phila. New York retires 
from the Convention. 

July 13. New York. Passage of the 
Ordinance of 1787 by the Congress of 
the Confederation. 

It is unanimously passed " for the 
government of the territory to the 
northwest of the Ohio ; " it contains an 



" unalterable " article, forbidding sla- 
very or involuntary servitude. The or- 
dinance was drawn up by Nathan Dane, 
a member of Congress from Massachu- 
setts. 

Congress adopts St. Clair's report of 
Apr. 13th. 

July 18. New York. Congress ratifies 
the treaty with Morocco. 

July * Phila. It is rumored that the 
Federal Convention in secret session 
considers the advisability of offering to a 
foreign prince the Crown of America. 

July 24. Phila. The Committee on the 
details of the Federal Constitution be- 
gins work. 

Aug. 6. Phila. A draft of a Federal 
Constitution, in twenty-three articles, 
is reported to the Convention. 

It permits the slave trade for twenty 
years, and concedes that three-fifths of 
the slaves shall be counted in the appor- 
tionment of Congressional representa- 
tives, and that fugitive slaves shall be 
returned to their masters. These con- 
cessions are made to secure union. 

Aug. 9. South Carolina cedes her west- 
ern lands to the Federal Government. 

Aug. 19. S. C. The delegates in Con- 
gress execute a deed to Congress for the 
western lands of the State. [They 
partly comprise the area of Tennessee.] 

A Federal Democratic Govern- 
ment is established. 
Sept. 17. Phila. The Federal Consti- 
tution is signed by the Convention ; the 
Articles of Confederation are set aside, 
and the Constitution is to be submitted 
to Congress. The Convention adjourns. 

* * U. S. The first political agitation 
occurs. Federalists favor and Republi- 
cans or Anti-Federalists oppose the ap- , 
proval of the Constitution by the States. 

Sept. 28. New York. The Congress of 
the Confederation sends the new Con- 
stitution to the several States for their 
action. 

* * N. C. The attempt to form the State 
of Franklin, in the western lands, 
collapses. 

Oct. 5. New York. Congress recalls 
Minister Adams from London. 

Oct. 30. New York. The Continental 
Congress adjourns. 

Nov. 5. New York. The 14th and last 
session of the old Continental Con- 
gress opens. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1785 * * Pa. Harrisburg is laid out 
in town lots. 

* * The regular exportation of cotton 
begins ; one bag is sent from Charleston 
to Liverpool, 12 from Philadelphia, and 
one from New York. 

* ♦ The Lombardy poplar is introduced. 

1786 Mar. 6. Boston. The Ohio Com- 
pany is formed by Putnam, Cutler, and 
others. 

Apr. 24. Boston. About 100 houses are 
burned. 

1787 Sept. 30. Departure of the first 
American vessel making a voyage 
around the world. 



100 



1787, Dec-1789. 



AMERICA: 



ARMY -NAVY. 

1787 Dec. * Ga. The Creeks are de- 
feated at Jack's Creek. 

1788 Sept. * U. S. Lieut.-Col. Josiah 
Harmar is general-in-chief by brevet. 

1789 * * The maximum strength of the 
army is one regiment of infantry, one 
battery of artillery, — 840 men. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1788 Apr. 12. Phila. The first pow- 
er-loom is set up. 

* * New York. The first dentist's office 
is established by John Greenwood. 

* * II. I. A company is formed in Provi- 
dence for the manufacture of "home- 
spun cloth." 

1789 * * Conn. The Sortie of the Garri- 
son from Gibraltar is exhibited by John 
Trumbull at the Royal Academy. 

± * * William Rush executes ideal figures 
and portrait busts in wood and clay. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1788* * 

Blake, John L., clergyman, born. 
Blanchard, Thomas, inventor, born. 
Boyden, Seth, inventor, born. 
Byles, Mather, wit and divine, A82. 
Campbell, Alexander, founder, born. 
Cushing, Thomas, statesman, A60. 
Elbert, Samuel, Gov. of Ga., A 55. 
Gadsden, James, statesman, born. 
Grayson, William J., senator for S. C, born. 
Hill, Isaac, senator, editor, born. 
Judson, Adoniram, missionary, born. 
Lovell, John, schoolmaster, A78. 
Bobbins, Boyal, historian, born. 
Stevens, Robert Livingston, born. 
Totten, Joseph G., military engineer, born. 

1789 * * 
Allen, Ethan, colonel in Revolution, A52. 
Bond, William Cranch, astronomer, born. 
Clay, Clement C, ex-senator, born. 
Comstock, John Lee, author, born. 
Cooper, James Fenlmore, novelist, born. 
Deans, Silas, diplomatist, A52. 
Emory, John, bishop, born in Md. 
Farmer, John, genealogist, born. 
Felt, Joseph Barlow, historian, born. 
Francis, John Wakefield, physician, born. 
Gould, Hannah Flagg, poet, born. 
Hillhouse, James Abraham, poet, born. 
Kearny, Lawrence, commodore, born. 
Kendall, Amos, statesman, born. 
Ledyard, John, traveler, A38. 
Lundy, Benjamin, abolitionist, born. 
Meade, William, bishop of Va., born. 
Nelson, Thomas, patriot, A51. 
Petigru, James Lewis, lawyer, born. 
Sedgwick, Catherine Maria, novelist, b. 
Sparks, Jared, hisorian, born. 
St. Leger, Barry, Brit, colonel, A52. 
Winslow, Miron, missionary, born. 
Woodbury, Levi, justice, born in N. H. 

CHURCH. 

1788 May 28. Phila. The Presby- 
terian Synod meets. 

It adopts the amended Report on Gov- 
ernment and Discipline and the amended 
Confession of Faith as the constitution 
of the Church. 

May 29. Phila. The "Westminster 
Larger and Shorter Catechisms and 
the Directory for Worship are ap- 
proved as a part of the constitution of 
the Presbyterian Church. 

Four Synods comprise the Presbyte- 
rian Church : New York, Philadelphia, 
Virginia, and the Carolinas. 

* * Boston. Mass is first celebrated 
in New England, and the first Roman 
Catholic Church is erected. 



1789 May 21. Phila. The General 
Synod meets and resolves itself into the 
first General Assembly of the Pres- 
byterian Church. 

The Synod resolves to send mission- 
aries to the frontiers. 

* * The Confession of Faith and the Cate- 
chisms issued by the Presbyterian Synod 
of New York and New Jersey. 

* * Phila. The "Book Concern" of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church is estab- 
lished. Capital, $600. 

* * U. S. The several Annual Confer- 
ences concur in the formation of a 
Methodist Council, of bishop and pre- 
siding elders. 

July 28. Phila. Meeting of the Gen- 
eral Convention of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, Bishop White pre- 
siding. 

Bishops White and Seabury constitute 
the House of Bishops. 

Aug. 8. Phila. The General Convention 
decides on a constitution for the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church in America. 

Sept. 25. U. S. The Constitution of the 
United States is amended by Congress 
to prohibit an established religion or 
interference with freedom in the 
exercise of religion. (See Dec. 15, 1791.) 

Oct. 2. Phila. Union of the several 
dioceses of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in one Convention. 

Oct. 16. Phila. The Book of Prayer is 
Americanized and formally ratified by 
the (Protestant Episcopal) Convention. 

* *Md. The See of Baltimore is erected, 
[and John CarroU created its first 
bishop] ; the diocese includes the entire 
Republic. 

* * Va. David Griffith relinquishes the 
bishopric of Virginia, as the Church 
fails to pay the expenses of consecration 
in England. 

* * Va. The General Committee of the 
Baptist churches resolves against 
slavery. 

" Resolved, That slavery is a violent 
deprivation of the rights of nature, and 
inconsistent with republican govern- 
ment, and therefore (we) recommend it 
to our brethren to make use of every 
measure to extirpate this horrid evil 
from the land, and pray Almighty God 
that our honorable Legislature may have 
it in their power to proclaim the great 
jubilee." 

LETTERS. 
1787 * * New York. The Independent 
Journal is issued. 

The New York Journal is sold to 
Thomas Greenleaf, and the name 
changed to the Argus or Greenleaf s 
New Daily Advertizer. 

Columbia CoUege is incorporated. 

The New York Magazine and Literary 
Repository issued. [Stopped 1792.] 

* *-88* * New York. A series of eighty- 
five papers, entitle 1 the Federalist, by 
Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and 
James Madison, appear. 



* * Phila. The American Museum is pub- 
lished by Matthew Carey. [Stopped 1792.] 

College of Physicians is established. 

* * Pa. Franklin College (Lutheran) is 
established by the legislature in recog- 
nition of services and virtues of Ger- 
mans. 

* * Power of Religion on the Mind, by Lind- 
ley Murray, appears. 

* * The Vision of Columbus, by Joel Bar- 
low, appears. 

1788* *A Dissertation concerning the 
True Nature of Christian Virtue, by 
Jonathan Edwards, appears. 

1789 July 28. Pa. The Pittsburg Ga- 
zette is published. 

* * -96 * * Boston. The Massachusetts 
Magazine appears. 

** * D.C. The Georgetown Academy 
(College) (Rom. Cath.) is organized. 

* * Md. St. John's College (non-sect.) 
is organized at Annapolis. 

* * New York. United States Gazette is 
issued by John Fenno. 

* * A Dissertation Concerning the End for 
which God created the World, by Jona- 
than Edwards, appears. 

* * Dissertations on the English Language, 
by Noah Webster, appears. 

SOCIETY. 

1788 Jan. 1. Phila. The Quakers 
emancipate their slaves. 

May 13. New York. First meeting of 
the Tammany Society, having a Grand 
Sachem (chosen from thirteen sachems), 
a Sagamore, and a Wiskinskie ; " found- 
ed on principles of patriotism, and hav- 
ing for its motives charity and brotherly 
love." 

June 8. Eng. On motion of William 
Pitt, Parliament votes $6,700,000 for the 
benefit of loyalists in America. 

July 26. New York. A mob favorable 
to the Federal Constitution destroys the 
Anti-Federal printing-office of Thomas 
Greenleaf. 

1789 * * The slave trade, no longer a 
Spanish monopoly, becomes free, and 
rapidly increases. 

* * Conn. A number of farmers of Litch- 
field County combine, to do their agri- 
cultural work without recourse to 
spirituous liquors. 

STATE. 

1787 Dec. 7. Delaware is the first 
State to ratify the Federation Con- 
stitution, with a unanimous vote in a 
State Convention. (Fiske, Dec. 6.) 

Dec. 12. Pennsylvania is the second 
to ratify the Constitution. Vote, 46 to 
23. 

Dec. 18. New Jersey ratifies the Con- 
stitution with a unanimous vote. 

* * New York. The Congress of tho 
Confederation decides to make Philadel- 
phia the Capital for ten years, r.nd 
then to select a site on the Potomac. 



UNITED STATES. 



1787, Dec. -1789. 101 



* * U. S. Governors inaugurated: 
-93 * * Mass. John Hancock. 
-89 * * N. C. Samuel Johnston. 

1788 Jan. 2. Georgia, the 4th State, 
ratines the Constitution by a unanimous 
vote. 

Jan. 9. Connecticut, the 5th State, 
ratines the Constitution. Vote, 128 to 
40. 

Feb. 6. Massachusetts, the 6th State, 
ratines the Constitution. Vote, 187 to 
168. 

Apr. 28. Maryland, the 7th State, rati- 
fies the Constitution. Vote, 63 to 12. 

May 23. South Carolina, the 8th State, 
ratifies the Constitution. Vote, 149 to 
73. 

June 17. y. Y. A Convention meets 
at Poughkeepsie to consider the Federal 
Constitution. 

June 21. New Hampshire, the 9th 
State, ratifies the Constitution. Vote, 
57 to 46 ; two-thirds of the States favoring 
the Federal Constitution, it becomes 
valid. 

June 25. Virginia, the 10th State, rati- 
fies the Constitution. Vote, 89 to 79. 

June 26. New York, the 11th State, 
ratifies the Constitution and adds pro- 
posed amendments. Vote, 30 to 27. 
(Bryant, June 25.) 

July 14. New York. The old Congress 
ratines the Constitution framed by 
the Convention of the States. 

July 15. Georgia cedes her -western 
lands to the Federal Government. 

Sept. 13. New York. Congress makes 
New York the Capital City. 

The old Continental Congress appoints 
the first Wednesday in January for Fed- 
eral elections in the several States. 

Nov. 1. New York. The last Conti- 
nental Congress dies of inanition, 
its records cease [and for six months 
there is no National Government]. 

* * New York makes a treaty with the 
Onondagas. 

* * A Consular Convention is held be- 
tween France and the United States. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 

* *-1802 * * O. Ter. Arthur St. Clair. 
Pa. Thomas Mifflin is president of the 

Supreme Executive Council. 
-91 * * Va. Beverly Randolph 

* * Iowa is first settled. 
1789 Jan. * St. Clair makes treaties 

with the Indians at Fort Harmar. 

Jan. 7. U.S. Wednesday, the first Na- 
tional election is held. 

Feb. 4. U. S. The electoral votes are 
cast by the electors. 

Feb. 26. N. Y. The Cayuga Indians 
sell their lands to the State. 

Mar. 4. U. S. The Constitution goes 
into force as the law of the land. 

New York. The First Federal Con- 
gress assembles in the hall at the corner 
of Wall and Broad Streets. 

Mar. 30. New York. After a delay of 
many days Congress secures a quorum 



(30 members present), and proceeds to 
organize the House. F. A. MUhlenburg 
of Pa. is elected the first Speaker. 
(Moore, House, Apr. 1 ; Senate, Apr. 6.) 
Apr. 6. New York. George Washing- 
ton of Va. is chosen President by the 
electors. 

The electoral vote is counted : George 
Washington, 69 ; John Adams, 34 ; John 
Jay, 9 ; R. H. Harrison, 6 ; John Rut- 
ledge^; John Hancock, 4; George Clin- 
ton, 3 ; Samuel Huntington, 2 ; John 
Milton, 2 ; James Armstrong, Benjamin 
Lincoln, and Edward Telfair, each one 
vote. Each elector votes for two candi- 
dates. The person receiving the next 
largest vote is declared Vice-President. 

New York. The Senate organizes. 

John Langdon of N. H. is elected Presi- 
dent pro tempore. 

Apr. 21. New York. John Adams of 
Mass. is seated in the Senate as Vice- 
President. 

First Administration ; Federalist. 

Apr. 30. New York. George "Wash- 
ington of Va. is inaugurated, the first 
President. John Adams of Mass. is 
Vice-President, he being the next in the 
number of votes. 
July 4. New York. President Washing- 
ton approves the first Tariff Act — 
a declaration of financial independence ; 
the duties average about 8^ per cent. 
Aug. 7. New York. Congress organizes 

the War Department. 
Sept. 10. New York. Congress orders 
the organization of three executive 
Departments. 
* * New York. A President's Cabinet 
is formed. 

Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State ; 
Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the 
Treasury ; Henry Knox, Secretary of 
War; Edmund Randolph, Attorney- 
General. 
Sept. 15. New York. The Depart- 
ment of State is made the depository 
of the archives of the United States. 
Sept. * Netv York. A National judi- 
ciary is established. 

Justices appointed to the Supreme 
Court of the United States : John Jay 
of N. Y. Chief Justice ; John Blair of 
Va. ; William Cushing of Mass. ; Rob- 
ert H. Harrison of Md. ; John Rutledge 
of S. C. ; James Wilson of Pa. 

Sept. 25. New York. Congress passes 
12 Constitutional Amendment Bills. 
[Ten are soon approved by three-fourths 
of the States.] 

1st Amendment of the Constitution : 
" Congress shall make no law respecting 
an establishment of religion, or pro- 
hibiting the free exercise thereof, or 
abridging the freedom of speech, or of 
the press, or the rights of the people 
peaceably to assemble and to petition 
the Government for the redress of 
grievances." 

2d Amendment, respecting the right 
to bear arms. 

3d Amendment, forbidding the quar- 
tering of soldiers on the people. 

4th Amendment, respecting searches 
and seizures of persons, property, etc. 



5th Amendment, respecting indict- 
ment, martial law, legal process, and 
eminent domain. 

6th Amendment, providing for privi- 
leges of accused persons and speedy 
trials. 

7th Amendment, guaranteeing jury 
trial for anything over $20 in common 
law suits. 

8th Amendment, respecting bail, fines, 
cruelty, and unusual punishment. 

9th Amendment, declaring that the 
enumeration of rights in the Constitu- 
tion does not impair other rights. 

10th Amendment, respecting State 
rights. 
Sept. 29. New York. Congress estab- 
lishes a regular army. 

1st Congress : the first session closes. 
Nov. 21. North Carolina, the 12th 
State, accepts the Constitution. Vote, 
193 to 75. 
Dec. 22. North Carolina cedes its 
western lands to Congress. [They 
partly comprise the area of Tennessee.] 

It makes the condition that no regula- 
tion of Congress shall tend to the 
emancipation of slaves in this terri- 
tory. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-96 * * Del. Joshua Clayton. 
-90 * * Oa. George Walton. 

-92 * * N. C. Alex. Martin. 
-94 * * N.J. Wm. Livingston. 
-92 * * S. C. Thos. Pinckney. 
-90 * * Ft. Moses Robinson. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1788 Mar. 21. La. Seven-eighths of 
New Orleans is burned to ashes. 

Apr. 7. O. Commencement of Mari- 
etta, the first permanent settlement, by 
the Ohio Company. 

* * New York. Questions of official cere- 
mony and etiquette vex the Govern- 
ment. 

Adams desires much ceremony; Jef- 
ferson will have none ; Hamilton advises 
simple formality ; Washington coincides. 

* * U. S. The National debt exceeds 
$80,000,000. 

July 4. Phila. Magnificent and varied 
celebration of National Indepen- 
dence. 

In recognition of the Federal Union, 
the new Constitution is personified by a 
lofty ornamental car, in the form of an 
eagle, drawn by six horses ; the Chief- 
Justice and two of his associates are 
seated within it, bearing the Constitu- 
tion upon a staff. 

Oct. 15. New York. Washington sets 
out in his carriage to make a tour of the 
Northern States. 

Oct. 24. Boston. Washington arrives. 

* * Indiana is first settled. 

1789 Jan. * O. Cincinnati is laid out. 

Mar. 4. New York. Citizens celebrate 
the assembling of Congress by the 
ringing of bells and firing of cannon, at 
early morn, at noon, and at sunset. 

* * Tenn. Knoxville is settled. [Named 
in honor of Gen. Knox.] 



102 1789-1792, Nov. 



AMERICA 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1790 Sept. 19.-1795 Aug. 3. North- 
western Indian wars; 8,983 men en- 
gaged ; cause, the Indians claim the 
territory. 

Oct. * O. "War with the Miami In- 
dians in the Ohio Valley ; Gen. Harmar 
is defeated. 

* * New York. Castle William (Castle 
Garden) is erected. 

* * U. S. The army consists of 1,316 
men for service on the Indian frontier. 

1791 U. S. Maj.-Gen. Arthur St. 
Clair is appointed (fourth) commander 
of the army. 

June 1. O. Kickapoo Indians are sur- 
prised on the Wabash ; many are killed 
and taken prisoners. 

Sept. 9. O. Gen. St. Clair, with 2,000 
men, sets out to subdue the Miami con- 
federacy. 

Nov. 4. O. Gen. St. Clair is surprised 
and routed by the Indians on the Wa- 
bash, losing half his men. 

* * General Knox formulates a plan for 
organizing the militia. 

1792 Apr. 11. U.S. Maj.-Gen. An- 
thony Wayne is appointed (fifth) com- 
mander of the army. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1790 June 5. Pa. The steamboat con- 
structed by John Fitch makes a trip from 
Philadelphia to Trenton and return. It 
is propelled by 12 oars. 

Dec. * R. I. Samuel Slater, an English- 
man, starts the first successful Amer- 
ican cotton-factory at Pawtucket, near 
Providence. 

± * * Phila. A statue of Washington [now 
in Independence Hall] is executed by 
William Rush. 

1791 * * Ky. The first American fur- 
nace is erected by Government troops 
on Slate Creek. 

* * La. The first dramatic representation 
in New Orleans is presented. 

* * Pa. Accidental discovery of An- 
thracite coal in Carbon and other 
counties. 

Broom-corn brooms are first made in 
America. 

Giuseppe Ceracchi executes busts of 
Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and 
others. 

David Rittenhouse succeeds Benja- 
min Franklin as president of the Amer- 
ican Philosophical Society. 

1792 May 7. Ore. Capt. Robert Gray, 
of the merchant ship Columbia, discovers 
and enters the Columbia River. 

Aug. 16. Boston. The first theater is 
opened in the hew Exhibition Room ; 
to evade the law, the first play is called 
the Moral Lecture of Douglas (p. 104). 

* * -94 * * Ore. George Vancouver, of 
England, explores the Pacific coast. 

* * John Trumbull paints a Portrait of 
Washington. 



BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1790* * 

Armstrong, Robert, general in Fla. war, b. 

Bachman, John, naturalist, born. 

Bartlett, John Sherren, editor, born. 

Bellamy, Joseph, clergyman, writer, A71. 

Bowdoin, James, philosopher, statesman, 
A 63. 

Capers, William, Meth. Epis. bishop, South, b. 

Durfee, Job, jurist, M. C. for R. I., born. 

Force, Peter, historian, born in N. J. 

Franklin. Benjamin, printer, philosopher, 
patriot, and statesman, A84. 

Gibbs, Josiah Willard, philologist, born. 

Goodrich, Chauncey Allen, clergyman, au- 
thor, born. 

Gray, Francis Culley, lawyer, scholar, born. 

Grayson, William, soldier of Revolution, d. 

Harper, William, senator for S. C, born. 

Hooper,William, lawyer and patriot of N. C, 
A 48. 

Livingston, William, Gov. of N. J., M. C, 
A 67. 

Longstreet, Augustus B., Meth. Epis. clergy- 
man of S. C M born. 

Putnam. Israel, general in Revolution, A72. 

Shubrick, William Branford, admiral, born. 

Turner, Samuel Hulbeart, Prot. Epis. clergy- 
man, professor, born. 

Twiggs, David Emanuel, Secessionist gen., b. 

Tyler. John, 10th president, born in Va. 
1791 * * 

Beck, Theodric Romeyn, physician, born. 

Blair, Francis Preston, journalist, born. 

Buchanan, James, 15th president, born In 
Pa., Apr. 22. 

Bullions, Peter, author, born. 

Burden, Henry, manufacturer, born. 

Butler, Richard, major-general, killed by In- 
dians. 

Cooper, Peter, philanthropist, born in New 
York. 

Hall, Lyman, statesman, A90. 

Harrison, Benjamin, general, signer of 
Decl., ex-governor, A51. ? 

Hayne, Robert Young, orator, born. 

Hopkinson, Francis, author, signer of Dec- 
laration, A54. 

Morse, Samuel Finley Breese, artist, in- 
ventor, born. 

Olmsted, Denison, natural philosopher, b. 

Pond, Enoch, theologian, born. 

Sigrourney, Lydia Huntley, poet, born. 

Sprague, Charles, poet, born. 

Ticknor, George, scholar, writer, born. 

Treadwell, Daniel, mechanician, born. 
1792* * 

Ainslie, Hew, poet, born. 

Astor, William B., capitalist, born. 

Birney. James Gillespie, statesman, aboli- 
tionist, born. 

Collamer, Jacob, senator for Vt., born. 

Cruger, John, mayor of New York, A82. 

Dallas, George Mifflin, statesman, born. 

De Kay, James Ellsworth, naturalist, born. 

Everett, Alexander Hill, diplomatist, b. 

Fairbanks, Erastus, Gov. of Vt., born. 

Finney. Charles Grandison, college presi- 
dent, born. 

Fisk, Pliny, missionary, born. 

Fisk, Wilbur, pres. of Wesleyan Univ., born. 

Harding, Chester, painter, born. 

Jones, John Paul, naval officer, A 45. 

Laurens, Henry, statesman, A68. 

Lawrence, Abbott, benefactor, born. 

Lea, Isaac, naturalist, born. 

Mason, (leorge, statesman, A67. 

Mason, Lowell, musical composer, born. 

Nelson, Samuel, justice, born in N. Y. 

Payne, John Howard, actor, born. 

Ren wick, James, physicist, born. 

Richards, William, missionary, born. 

Rumsey, James, inventor, A 49. 

Sartwell, Henry Parker, botanist, born. 

Smith, Seba, author, born. 

Spangenburg, August, founder, A88. 

Stevens, Thaddeus, senator for Pa., born. 

Stone, William Leete, journalist, born. 

Vassar, Matthew, philanthropist, born. 



CHURCH. 



1790 Sept. 19. Va. James Madison 
consecrated (Protestant Episcopal) 
bishop at Lambeth, England. 

Oct. 1. U.S. The modified Prayer-Book 
comes into use in all Protestant Episco- 
pal churches. 

Nov. 18. R.I. Organization of the (Prot- 
estant Episcopal) Diocese of Rhode Is- 
land. 



* * New York. The second Methodist 
church in this city is formed. 

* * Pa. Jacob Albright begins his work 
of reform among the German Christians 
of Eastern Pennsylvania. [The Evan- 
gelical Association is developed later.] 

* * Phila. The General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church meets ; Robert 
Smith, moderator. 

* * Vt. The (Protestant Episcopal) Dio- 
cese of Vermont is organized, and the 
first Episcopal Convention in Ver- 
mont is held. 

* * The Methodist Council becomes un- 
popular and holds its last session. 

* * The Methodist Conference omits the 
words " buying and selling " from John 
Wesley's rules on intemperance. 

* * The Methodist Conferences order the 
organization of Sunday-schools for 
the instruction of " poor children, white 
and black." Sessions to be from 6 to 10 
A. M., and 2 to 6 P. M. 

1791 Sept. 14. Mass. The presbytery 
of Salem is dissolved. 

* * Md. First legislation in the Catholic 
Church by the Synod of Baltimore. 

* * N. Y. The New York Baptist Associ- 
ation is formed. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church meets ; John 
Woodhull, moderator. 

* * Pa. Lutherans receive a grant of 
5,000 acres of land from the Legislature. 

1792 Sept. 11. New York. The (Prot- 
estant Episcopal) Convention meets. 

Sept. 17. Md. Consecration of Thos. J. 

Claggett (Protestant Episcopal) bishop 

for Maryland. 
Nov. 1-15. Md. The First Regular 

General Conference of the Methodist 

Episcopal Church is held at Baltimore. 

LETTERS. 

1790 May 31. First Copyright Act 
in the United States passed, chiefly 
through the influence of Noah Webster 

[the lexicographer]. 

* * N. Y. A proposition in the Assembly 
to establish public schools is hardly 
noticed. 

* * -97 * * New York Magazine appears. 

* * Va. William Henry Harrison 
graduates at Hampden-Sidney College. 

1791 Oct. 24. Md. First issue of the 
Baltimore Daily Repository. 

* * Conn. The First Geography is pub- 
lished by Jedediah Morse. 

* * Md. St. Mary's Seminary (Rom. 
Cath.) founded at Baltimore. 

* * Vt. University of Vermont (non- 
sect.) founded at Burlington. 

SOCIETY. 

1789 * * Washington makes a tour of 
the Northern States, and is greeted with 
great enthusiasm. 

1790 Apr. 30. New York. Congress en- 
acts that every soldier shall have half 
a gill of rum, brandy, or whisky daily. 



UNITED STATES. 



1789-1792, Nov. 103 



Dec. 29. New York. Presentation of the 
" Memorial of the College of Physicians 
to the Senate of the United States Con- 
gress," deprecating the use of ardent 
spirits, and recommending the imposi- 
tion of high duties upon their impor- 
tation. 

* * Phila. The Pennsylvania Anti- 
Slavery Society (Benjamin Franklin 
Pres.) petitions Congress " to devise 
means for removing the inconsistency of 
slavery from the American people." 

* * New York. A bill is introduced in 
Congress for taxing distilled liquors. 

* * Slavery is already prohibited in 
six of the States. 

* * U. S. Total number of slaves, 
697,897. 

1791 July 4. George Buchanan makes 
his address on slavery. 

STATE. 

1789 * * New York. Jefferson and Ham- 
ilton representing opposite parties in 
the Cabinet, Washington is vexed by 
many disagreements. 

1790 Jan. 4. New York. The 1st 
Congress: 2d session opens. Presi- 
dent Washington orally addresses the 
two Houses assembled to hear him. 

Mar. 25. Eng. The plan of the British 
Government for compensating Ameri- 
can loyalists for losses is suspended. 

Apr. 2. North Carolina finally cedes 
its western lands. (See 1789.) 

New York. Congress accepts the 

lands ceded by North Carolina. 
% * * Kentucky is organized as a Territory. 

May 29. Rhode Island, the 13th State, 
and the last of all, approves the Federal 
Constitution. Vote, 34 to 32. 

June * S. C. Meeting of State Conven- 
tion to frame a new Constitution. 

* * New York. Congress is urged to as- 
sume the debts of the several States 
incurred in the prosecution of the Revo- 
lutionary War. ($18,271,786.) 

Southern members oppose and North- 
ern members favor the plan. [The mat- 
ter is finally settled by a compromise ; 
the Northern members consenting to the 
location of the Capital on the Potomac 
River.] 

July 10. New York. Congress resolves 
to hold its sessions in Philadelphia 
for ten years, and thereafter on the 
Potomac. Vote, 32-29. 

July 16. New York. Congress passes an 
act locating the future seat of Govern- 
ment in the District of Columbia. 
Sixty square miles of territory are ceded 
to the United States by Maryland and 
Virginia. 

Aug. 4. New York. Congress finally 
passes the bill for funding the debts 
of the States, which it has assumed, 
thus putting the finances of the country 
on a firm basis. 

Kentucky applies for admission into 
the Union. 

Aug. 7. N. Y. The Creek Indian 
chiefs sign a treaty in the Hall of 



Representatives, in which the territory 
south and west of the Oconee is solemn- 
ly guaranteed to them, they resigning 
lands north and east of that river. 

Aug. 12. New York. The 1st Con- 
gress : the second session closes. 

Sept. 2. Pa. A new State Constitution 
is adopted. 

* * U.S. Philadelphia the Capital City. 

The seat of the Federal Government 
is removed from New York. 

Dec. 6. Phila. The 1st Congress : the 
third session opens. 

* * U. S. James Iredell of N. C. is 
made Justice of the Supreme Court. 

The Federal Revenue is $4,000,000 ; 
the expenditure of the Government, 
including interest on the public debt, 
is $1,000,000. 

* * Vt. The jurisdiction of New York 
in the Province of Vermont is purchased 
by the latter for $30,000. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-92 * * Cal. Jos6 A. Roman (Spanish). 
-93 * * Ga. Edward Telfair. 

Pa. Thomas Mifflin. 
-05 * * P. I. Arthur Fenner. 

Tenn. Ter. Wm. Blount. 
-97 * * Vt. Thomas Chittenden. 

1791 Jan. 1. The National debt is 
$75,463,476. 

Jan. 10. Vermont adopts the Federal 
Constitution. 

Feb. 25. Phila. The Bill to establish a 
National Bank becomes a law ; it is 
generally favored by Northern members, 
and generally opposed by those from the 
South. 

Mar. 3. The District of Columbia is 
fully organized. 

Mar. 4. Vermont is admitted into the 
Union as the 14th State. 

Phila. The 1st Congress ends. 

June 7. Phila. The Bank of the United 
States is instituted ; capital $10,000,000 ; 
it is opposed by Jefferson and the Anti- 
Federal party. 

Aug. * Phila. George Hammond, the 
first minister from Great Britain, is re- 
ceived. 

Oct. 24. Phila. The 2d Congress 
opens. 

Oct. * Phila. Congress ; Senate : John 
Langdon of N. H. is reelected President 
pro tempore. House : Jonathan Trum- 
bull of Conn, is elected Speaker. 

* * Phila. Thomas Johnson of Md. is 
appointed Justice of the Supreme Court. 

Dec. 15. U. S. The first ten Amend- 
ments of the Constitution come in force. 

Dec. * U. S. Thomas Pinckney of 
S. C. is appointed minister to England. 

* * O. Gen. St. Clair appointed governor 
of the Northwestern Territory, with in- 
structions to drive out the Indians. 

* * -94 * * Va. Henry Lee governor. 

1792 Jan. 1. U. S. National debt 
$77,227,924.66. 

Mar. 1. Phila. Congress provides by 
enactment for the Presidential suc- 
cession in certain contingencies. 
In case of inability of the Vice-Presi- 



dent, the office devolves on the president 
pro tempore of the Senate ; and if he 
cannot assume the office it goes to the 
Speaker of theHouse of Representatives. 

Apr. 2. Phila. The National Mint is 

established. 
Apr. 17. Phila. Congress; Senate: 

R. H. Lee of Va. is elected President 

pro tempore. 
May 8. Phila. The 2d Congress : the 

first session closes. 
June 1. Kentucky is admitted into the 

Union as the 15th State. 
June 4. Ky. The first legislature 

meets ; Isaac Shelby governor. 
June * Rumors circulate of a conspiracy 

to change the Government into a mon- 
archy. 
June * N. Y. Chief Justice John Jay 

(Federalist) is elected Governor of New 

York over George Clinton by about 400 

votes. 
Clinton's friends in the canvassing 

committee throw out three counties on 

technicalities, and award the office to 

him. 

Nov. 5. Phila. The 2d Congress: 
second session opens. Senate ; John 
Langdon of N. H. is elected President 
pro tempore. 

* * U. S. Second Presidential elec- 
tion ; Washington is unanimously re- 
elected President, and John Adams 
is reelected Vice-President. The Anti- 
Federalists, now called Republicans, are 
led by Jefferson, the Federalists by 
Hamilton and Adams. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1789 * * New York. It is proposed to lay 
out a park bordering the drainage canal 
(Canal Street), but the project is aban- 
doned because of the remoteness of the 
locality. 

1790 * * U. S. The first census is ta- 
ken. Philadelphia has a population of 
43,000; New York, 33,000; Boston, 18,000 ; 
Baltimore, 13,000; the whole country, 
3,929,214, including 697,681 slaves. 

* * U. S. The center of population is 23 
miles east of Baltimore. 

July 17. N. Y. The first bank of Al- 
bany begins to discount. 

Aug. 1. New York. The yellow fever 
rages. 

Dec. 20. Phila. The Bank of the 
United States commences to discount. 
Its notes are payable in specie, and re- 
ceivable in all payments to the United 
States. 

* * D. C. The city of "Washington is 
founded. 

* * Mass. First American whaling ship 
for the Pacific sails from Nantucket. 

* * N.C. An Act of Legislature is passed 
for laying out the town of Raleigh. 

* * New York. The first bank in this city- 
is established — The Bank of New York. 

1792 June 4. .V. Y. The survey of a 
route from Pennsylvania through the 
Genesee country is completed. 

June 11. N. H. The first bank in this 
State begins discounting at Portsmouth. 



104 



1792-1794. 



AMERICA : 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1792 * * The army consists of 5,120 men. 

1793 * * 0. Gen. Wayne (" Mad An- 
thony ") leads 3,000 men against the 
Indians. 

Dec. * O. Fort Greenville is built by 
Gen. Wayne. 

* * The war between Portugal and Algiers 
closes, and American vessels are again 
seized by the pirates. 

1794 Mar. 27. Phila. Congress 
authorizes the construction of 6 frigates, 
3 of them to be of the very heavy class, 
thus beginning the navy. 

* * O. Fort Kecovery is built by Gen. 
Wayne. 

Aug. 20. O. Gen. "Wayne defeats the 
Miami Indians at the Maumee Rapids, 
and then desolates their country. 

* * 0. Fort Defiance is built. 

May 7. D. C. Congress establishes a 
combined corps of engineers and artil- 
lery, with a military school for cadets. 

Sept.* - Nov. + * Pa. The Whisky 
Rebellion. 

Washington sends a force of militia 
into western Pennsylvania to put down 
the Whisky Rebellion, the distillers hav- 
ing refused to pay the Government tax 
and fired on its officers. 

* * Gen. Wayne is victorious in breaking 
the Miami confederacy. 

* * U. S. The maximum strength of the 
army is 3,629. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1792 * * D.C. The Federal Commis- 
sioners advertise in the newspapers of 
all the principal cities for designs for 
a Federal Capitol building and a 
President's House. 

* * 6a. The cotton-gin is invented by 
Eli Whitney, a Connecticut school- 
teacher residing in Georgia. 

[It gives an immense impetus to the 
cultivation of cotton, and adds many 
millions of wealth to the South : it has 
given direction to the politics and history 
of the country.] 

* * Dr. S. U. Johnston is painted by Gil- 
bert Stuart. 

1793 Jan. 9. Phila. The first balloon 
ascension in America is made by Fran- 
cois Blanchard, in the presence of 
Washington. 

Sept. 18. D. C. The corner-stone, at 
the southeast corner of the Capitol at 
Washington, is laid by Washington in 
connection with Masonic ceremonies. 

* * C. W. Peale paints a portrait of 
Washington. 

* * Conn. Eli Terry of Plymouth is the 
first to manufacture clocks as a busi- 
ness. 

* * R.I. Samuel Slater of North Provi- 
dence erects the first mill for the manu- 
facture of cotton-yarns. 

* * Wash. Alexander Mackenzie, trav- 
eling overland, touches the coast above 
the Columbia River. 

1794 Feb. 4. Boston's first theater 
building is opened, and called the Fed- 
eral-street Theater. (See 1775, 1792.) 



Feb. 17. Phila. A new theater is opened 
in Chestnut Street by Wignel. 

* * Mass. Newburyport has the first fac- 
tory for the manufacture of woolen 
goods. 

* * N. Y. Samuel Morey builds a stern- 
wheel steamboat, which runs from 
Hartford to New York. 

* * R. I. Cotton sewing - thread is 
manufactured at Pawtucket. 

* *"From this time forward the United 
States had two stock [theatrical] com- 
panies of extraordinary merit, surpassed 
only by the companies at the three patent 
houses in London." (Ency. Brit.) 

BIRTHS— DEATHS. 
1793* * 

Kates. Edward, statesman, born. 
Bedell, Gregory Townsend, clergyman, be rn. 
Butler, William O., statesman, born. 
Carey, Henry Charles, political economist, b. 
Chase, Irah, clergyman, born. 
Colburn, Warren, mathematician, born. 
Cox, Samuel Hanson, clergyman, born. 
Doughty, Thomas, painter, born. 
Foresti, Felice, educator, born. 
Frothingham, Nathaniel L., clergyman, b. 
Goodrich. Samuel Oriswold, author, born. 
Guthrie, James, statesman, born. 
Hall, James, author, born. 
Hancock, John, statesman, AS6. 
Hitchcock, Edward, pres. of Amherst Coll., b. 
Houston, Sam, general, born. 
Wanly, John, naval officer, A59. 
McKeever, Isaac, commodore, born. 
Mitchell, Elisha, chemist, born. 
Mott, Ijucretia, philanthropist, born. 
Neal, John, poet, born. 
Phelps, Alinira Hart L., teacher, born. 
Rives, William Cabell, statesman, born. 
Schoolcraft, Henry Kowe, ethnologist, born. 
Sherman, Koger, statesman, A72. 
Slidell, John, lawyer, born. 
1794* * 
Andrew, James Osgood, bishop, born. 
Angell, Joseph Kinnicut, lawyer, born. 
Armstrong, James, general, dies. 
Ashmun, Jehudi, philanthropist, born. 
Beck, John Brodhead, physician, born. 
Belknap, William G., general, born. 
Bryant, William Cullen, poet, born. 
Butler, John, Tory leader, dies. 
Chase, Carlton, bishop, born. 
Corwin, Thomas, statesman, born. 
Dempster, John, educator, born. 
Dewey, Orville, clergyman, born. 
Everett, Edward, orator, born. 
Graham, Sylvester, reformer, born. 
Grier. Robert C justice, born in Pa. 
Holbrook, John Edwards, naturalist, born. 
Kearney, Stephen Watts, general, born. 
Lewitt, Joshua, journalist, born. 
Lee, Richard H., senator for Va., A62. 
Marsh, James, theologian, born. 
Meriam, Eben, meteorologist, born. 
Morris, Thomas A., bishop, born. 
Paine, Martyn, physician, born. 
Perry, Matthew Calbraith, commodore, b. 
Preston, William C. senator, born. 
Robinson, Edward, scholar, born. 
Stueben, Baron Frederick William A., 

general, A64. 
Tappan, William Bingham, poet, born. 
Vanderbilt, Cornelius, capitalist, born. 
Walker, James, pres. of Harvard Coll., born. 
Ware, Henry, Jr., clergyman, born. 
Witherspoon, John, clergyman, A72. 
Worth, William J., general, born. 

CHURCH. 
1792 Nov. * Md. The Baltimore Confer- 
ence of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
is organized. 

* * N. H. First Annual Meeting of the 
Free-will Baptists. 

* * N.Y. The Reformed Dutch Church 
publish their Standards of Doctrine, 
etc., in English. 

The Associated Presbytery of the Pres- 
byterian Church is formed for West- 
chester. 



* * Pa. The General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church meets at Carlisle ; 
John King, moderator. 

It enters into correspondence with the 
General Association of Churches of Con- 
necticut by the appointment of a Stand- 
ing Committee, and both agree to be 
represented in each other's annual meet- 
ing, by three commissioners. 

* * Va. James O'Kelley secedes from 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
forms the Republican Methodist Church. 

1793 Oct. * N. Y. The Synod of the 
Beformed Dutch Church adopts the 
volume containing (in English) the Stand- 
ards, Liturgy, Rules, etc., and it becomes 
the Constitution of the Church. 

* * La. The Boman Catholic Arch- 
diocese of New Orleans is established. 

* * Louisiana and the Floridas are 
placed under separate Roman Catholic 
bishops." 

* * Phila. The General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church meets ; James 
Latta, moderator. 

Delegates from the General Association 
of Connecticut take seats in the (Presby- 
terian) General Assembly. 

* * R. I. Samuel Slater establishes the 
first Sunday-school in New England. 

* * Vt. Edward Bass is elected Protes- 
tant Episcopal Bishop of Vermont at the 
annual Convention. 

* * The Associated Northern Presbytery 
of the Presbyterian Church is formed. 

1794* *New York. The Beformed 
Dutch General Synod is organized. 

LETTERS. 

1792** D.C. Georgetown CoUege 

(Rom. Cath.) is founded ; controlled by 
the Society of Jesus. 

* * N. Y. Dr. Samuel Latham Mitchill 
gives the first course of chemical lec- 
tures ever listened to in the United 
States. 

1793 Nov. 9. O. First issue of the 
Sentinel of the Northwestern Territory, 
at Cincinnati, the earliest Western news- 
paper. 

* * Mass. WiHiams CoUege (non-sect.) 
incorporated at Williamstown. [1 ma 
founded by bequest of Col. Ephraim 
Williams, who died in 1755.] 

* * Tenn. First printing-press set up 
in Tennessee, at Knoxville, and the 
Knoxville Gazette issued. 

* * N. H. Farmer's Museum appears at 
Walpole. 

* * New York. The Minerva [which is 
soon changed to the Commercial Adver- 
tiser] is issued by Noah Webster. 

* * Mass. The essays under the signature 
of Marcellus, by John Quincy Adams, 
appear. 

* * System of Doctrines contained in Divine 
Revelation Explained and Defended, by 
Samuel Hopkins, appears. 

1794 Sept. 5. Boston Prices-Current 
and Marine Intelligencer, Commercial 
and Mercantile, appears. 



UNITED STATES. 



1792-1794. 



105 



SOCIETY. 

1792 * * Washington makes a tour of 
the Southern States, and is enthusias- 
tically welcomed. 

* * Viscount Chateaubriand visits the 
United States. 

1793 * * Phila. Congress gives sum- 
mary power to slave-masters, or their 
agents, to seize and return fugitive 
slaves which have fled to other States. 

* * Phila. William Cobbett, the En- 
glish political writer, edits a paper in this 
city. 

1794 Feb. 4. Mass. The Legislature, 
having repealed the law against the- 
atrical amusements, the Federal-street 
Theater opens. 

STATE. 

1792 Dec. 31. U. S. Internal revenue 

$208,942. 

* * Ind. A treaty is made with the In- 
dians at Vincennes. 

* * Phila. Congress fixes the postage 
rate on letters at 6J cents for 30 miles, 
and the rate to increase with the dis- 
tance beyond that limit. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-94* * Cal. JoseJ.deArrillaga(Span.). 
-96 * * Ky. Isaac Shelby. 

-95 * .* N.C. Richard D. Spaight. 

-94* *N. H. Josiah Bartlett. 

-94 * * S. C. Arnoldus Vanderhorst. 

* * Connecticut conveys 500,000 acres of 
" Western Reserve lands " [in Ohio] to 
certain citizens, as compensation for 
property destroyed by fire and pillage 
during the Revolution. 

1793 Jan. 1. U. S. National debt 
$80,352,634. 

Feb. 13. Phila. Congress counts the 
electoral vote. 

For President : George Washington, 
Federalist, 132 votes; John Adams, Fed- 
eralist, 77 ; George Clinton of N. Y., Re- 
publican, 50 ; Thomas Jefferson of Va., 
Republican, 4; Aaron Burr of N. Y., 
Republican, one vote. Vacancies, 3. 

Feb. * Phila. Congress passes the Fu- 
gitive Slave Act, for the rendition of 
slaves to owners when found in other 
States or Territories. Vote, House, 48-7 ; 
Senate, no opposition. [It becomes a 
dead letter till 1850.] 

Mar. 2. Phila. The 2d Congress : the 
second session closes. 

Mar. 4. Phila. George Washington 
of Va., the first President, enters his 
second term ; John Adams of Mass. 
is Vice-President. 

Mar. 9. Phila. Congress passes the act 
organizing the militia ; all male white 
citizens between the ages of 18 and 45 to 
be enrolled. 

Apr. 8. S. C. Edmond C. Genet, min- 
ister of France, arrives at Charleston. 

France having declared war against 
Great Britain, Genet proceeds to fit out 
privateers, etc. 

Apr. 22. Phila. Washington issues a 
proclamation of neutrality in the war 



between France and England [Genet ap- 
peals from the President to the people]. 

May 9. France orders the seizure of 
neutral vessels carrying supplies to an 
enemy's port. 

May 16. Phila. Genet is received with 
great enthusiasm. 

May 17. Phila. Genet, as minister 
from France, presents his papers to the 
President. (McMaster, May 18.) 

July * Phila. The President asks France 
to recall Genet because of his audacity 
in attempting tocontrol theGovernment. 

Nov. 6. Eng. George III. issues secret 
instructions to British privateers to 
seize all neutral vessels found trading 
in the French West Indies. [Americans 
lose many millions of dollars, and the 
war spirit prevails among the people.] 

Dec. 2. Phila. The 3d Congress 
opens. 

Dec. * Phila. Congress ; Senate : Ralph 
Izard of S. C. is elected President pro 
tempore. House : F. A. Muhlenburg 
of Pa. is elected Speaker. 

Dec. 31. Phila. Jefferson resigns as 
Secretary of State because, the Govern- 
ment adopts the- policy of neutrality in- 
stead of aiding France against England. 

U. S. Internal revenue $337,705. 

* * U. S. Jefferson's followers become 
known as Republicans, and Hamil- 
ton's followers as Federalists. 

* * U. S. The first Republican party 
appears. 

* * U. S. William Paterson of N. J. 
is appointed Justice of the United States 
Supreme Court. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-96 * * Ga. George Matthews. 
-97 * * Mass. Samuel Adams. 

1794 Jan. 1. U.S. Total National debt 
$78,427,404, with $26,000,000 applicable to 
the sinking fund. 

Jan. 2. Phila. Congress resolves to 
buy peace with Algiers. 

Jan. 13. Phila. Congress adds two 
more stars to the Federal flag. 

Jan. * Phila. Edmund Randolph suc- 
ceeds Jefferson as Secretary of State. 

Feb. 3. Phila. Congress: the House 
favors Madison's bill, asserting the 
policy of discriminating duties on the 
products of nations not in treaty with 
the United States. Vote, 51^6. 

Feb. 20. Phila. Congress : The Sen- 
ate ceases to sit with closed doors. 

Mar. 5 . U.S. Ratification of the 1 1th 
Amendment to the Constitution re- 
specting the judicial power of the 
United States as against the States, as- 
serting the non-suability of the States. 

Mar. 6. Phila. Congress passes an 
embargo law for a period of sixty 
days. 

Mar. 27. Phila. Congress provides for 
a navy. (See Army — Navy.) 

Apr. 19. Phila. Congress; Senate: 
John Jay is confirmed as special envoy 
to England. 



May* The Treaty of Paris being unexe- 
cuted, and certain military posts still 
held by the British, American seamen 
impressed, trading vessels captured, and 
other irritating grievances existing, 
Chief Justice Jay goes to England to 
secure redress and negotiate a treaty 
of amity, commerce, and navigation. 

May 27. Phila. Washington recalls 
Gouverneur Morris from France and 
appoints James Monroe as minister. 

June 9. Phila. The 3d Congress : 
the first session closes. 

Sept. * Pa. A whisky insurrection 
breaks out in western Pennsylvania, 
because of the tax laid on whisky for 
revenue. (See Army, and Society.) 

Nov. 3. Phila. The 3d Congress: 
second session opens. [The Senate lacks 
a quorum, and delays opening for two 
weeks.] 

Nov. 19. Jay's Treaty concluded. 
It provides for the delivery of the 
posts on the northern frontier (Treaty 
of Paris) before June, 1796; for a com- 
mission to define the " St. Croix " River ; 
for commissioners to determine com- 
pensation due to British subjects and 
American citizens, in certain cases; for 
the regulation of trade, the extradition 
of criminals, etc. [It is received by the 
country with great displeasure.] 

* * Phila. Congress passes the Neu- 
trality Act. 

It makes it a misdemeanor for Ameri- 
cans to augment any hostile force that 
may be directed against any nation with 
which the United States is at peace. 

* * Irritation is caused by the continued 
occupation of western forts on Lake 
Erie by the British, contrary to treaty 
agreement. 

* * A despatch is received from Fauchet, 
the French envoy, which is supposed to 
compromise Edmund Randolph, Secre- 
tary of State, in an intrigue attended 
with bribery. [Later disproved.] 

Dec. 31. U.S. Internal revenue $274,089. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-00 * * Cal. Diego de Borica (Span.). 
-01 * * N.J. Richard Howell. 

-05 * * N. H. John T. Gilman. 

N. J. Wm. Paterson. 
-96 * * S. C. Wm. Moultrie. 
-96 * * Va. Robert Brooke. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1793 July* Phila. The yellow fever 
again spreads devastation, carrying off 
several thousand persons. 

1794 Dec. 24. Mass. South Hadley 
canal is opened. 

* * O. Dayton is laid out in lots, which 
are disposed of by lottery. 

* * Phila. Incorporation of the Insur- 
ance Company of North America, 
also the Insurance Company of Penn- 
sylvania. 

* * Pa. The first turnpike road is con- 
structed by a company, extending 62 
miles, and connecting Lancaster with 
Philadelphia. 



106 1794-1797, June. 



AMERICA 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1796 July 14. N. Y. British troops 
evacuate Oswego, and Americans 
occupy the post. 

Dec. 15. U.S. Ma j. -Gen. James Wil- 
kinson appointed (sixth) commander of 
the army. 

1797 Mar. 10. Fr. The Directory 
order the French men-of-war to prey 
upon American commerce, aiming to 
force Americans to join France 
against England. 

* * U. S. A provisional army is raised ; 
Washington is lieutenant-general. 

* * The frigate Constitution islaunched 
at Boston, and the Constellation at Bal- 
timore. 

May * The United States begins to send 
a fleet to sea against France. 

ART —SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1795 Aug. * Conn. A theater is opened 
in Hartford by Hodgkinson and a part 
of the " Old American Company." 

* * The portrait of Washington is painted 
by Gilbert C. Stuart. 

1796 Dec. 9. Phila. T. C. Cooper first 
appears in America as Macbeth. 

* * Mass. Newburyport has a factory for 
printing calico. 

* * Martha Washington is painted by Gil- 
bert C. Stuart. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1795 * * 

Baldwin, Matthias William, manufacturer, b. 

Bartlett, Josiah, patriot, A 66. 

Bennett, James Gordon, founder, born. 

Bonneville, Benjamin L. E., traveler, born. 

Bradford, William, U. S. attorney, A40. 

Brooks, Maria, poetess, born. 

Dana, Samuel L., agricultural chemist, born. 

Drake, Joseph Kodinan, poet, born. 

Giddings, Joshua Reed, statesman, born. 

Hall, Hiland, jurist, born. 

Harper, James, publisher, born. 

Harris, Thaddeus William, entomologist, b. 

Hopkins, Johns, philanthropist, born. 

Kennedy, John Pendleton, novelist, born. 

Maffltt, John Newland, Meth. preacher, b. 

Marion, Francis, general, A63. 

Barker, Joel, jurist, born. 

Peabody. George, philanthropist, born. 

Percival, James Gates, poet, born. 

Phillips, John, founder, A 76. 

Polk. James K., 11th president, born. 

Prescott, William, col. at Bunker Hill, A69. 

Robertson, Jacob, clergyman, born. 

Stevens, Edwin Augustus, inventor, born. 

Stiles, Ezra, college president, A 68. 

Sullivan, John, general, A55. 

Thompson, Daniel Peirce, novelist, born. 

1796* * 

Abbott, Benjamin, clergyman, A64. 
Anderson, Rufus, clergyman, born. 
Ballou. Hosea, college president, born. 
Bascom, Henry B., bishop, born. 
Beaumont, William, physiologist, born. 
Brainard, John G. C, poet, born. 
Briggs, George N., gov. of Mass., born. 
Bush, (Jeorge, author, born. 
Catlin, George, artist, born. 
Clayton, John Middleton, statesman, born. 
Durand, Asher Brown, painter, born. 
Harlan, Richard, naturalist, born. 
Huntington, Samuel, signer of Decl'n, A65. 
Ingham, Charles C, painter, born. 
Johnson, Reverdy, statesman, born in Md. 
Lick, James, philanthropist, born. 
Mann, Horace, educationist, born. 
Muhlenberg, William A., poet, born. 
Palfrey, John Gorham, historian, born. 
Prescott, William Hicklinp. historian, b. 
Rives, John C, journalist, born. 
Seabury, Samuel, first Prot. Epis. bp., A67. 
Sumner, Edwin Vose, general, born. 
Wayland, Francis, philosopher, born. 
Wayne, Anthony, gen. of Revolution, A51. 



1797* ♦ 

Anthon, Charles, scholar, born, 
Baraga, Frederick, bishop, born. 
Barnard, Daniel Dewy, diplomatist, born. 
Bell, John, senator for Tenn., born. 
Chickering, Jonas, piano-maker, born. 
Colton, Walter, writer, born. 
De Lancey,William Heathcote, bishop, born. 
Dowler, Bennet, physician, born. 
Emerson, George P>., educationist, born. 
Hale, Benjamin, educator, born. 
Hamline, Leonidas Lent, bishop, born. 
Henry, Joseph, physicist, born. 
Hodge, Charles, theologian, born. 
Huger, Isaac, general, A.V>. 
Hughes, John, archbishop, born. 
Kenrick, Francis Patrick, prelate, born. 
Langdon, Samuel, college president, A74. 
Lee, Francis Lightfoot, army officer, A63. 
Lyon, Mary, founder, born. 
May, Samuel Joseph, clergyman, born. 
Olin, Stephen, Meth. Epis. clergyman, b. 
Paulding, Hiram, naval officer, born. 
Smith, Gerrit, philanthropist, born. 
Ware, William, author, born. 
Weed, Thurlow, journalist, born. 
Winebrenner, John, clergyman, born. 
Wood, George, 15., physician and author, b. 



CHURCH. 

1794 * * N. Y. The minutes of the Gen- 
eral Synod of the Reformed Dutch 
Church are first written in English. 

The Sands-street Methodist Episcopal 
church is organized in Brooklyn, the 
first in this city. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church meets; 
Alex. McWhorter, moderator. 

It is agreed that commissioners visit- 
ing either the General Assembly (Presby- 
terian) or the Association of Connecticut, 
(Congregational) be allowed to vote. 

* * Vt. The lands belonging to the 
Church of England and the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel are se- 
questered and applied to the school 
fund. 

1795 Sept. 13. S. C. Consecration of 
Robert Smith (Protestant Episcopal) 
Bishop for South Carolina. 

* * Mass. Hosea Ballou avows Unita- 
rian views of God and Christ. 

* * N. Y. Shakers sign a written cove- 
nant, making a full consecration to God 
of life, services, and treasure. 

* * Pa. The General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church meets at Car- 
lisle ; John McKnight, moderator. 

* * Phila. A special General Conven- 
tion of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
meets. 

* * The Society of (Orthodox) Friends 
begins mission-work among the Indians. 

1796 May 15. Boston. The first Metho- 
dist church is opened. 

June 21. The Vermont (Congrega- 
tional) Convention is organized. 

I 3ct. 20. Mdj The Second General 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
church meets at Baltimore ; Bishop Coke 
and 120 preachers present. 

Oct.* The New England and Philadel- 
phia (Methodist Episcopal) Conferences 
formed. 

Dec. 6. O. The first Congregational 
church in Ohio formed. 

* * III. The first Baptist church in Illi- 
nois formed at New Design. 



* * Mass. Unitarian doctrines spread 
among the Congregationalists. 

The ** New York Missionary Soci- 
ety" is organized, principally by Pres- 
byterians. 

* * New York. The first colored Metho- 
dist church in this city is formed. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church meets ; Robert 
Davidson, moderator. 

1797 May 7. Mass. Consecration of 

Edward Bass (Protestant Episcopal) 

Bishop for Massachusetts. 
June * New York. The General Synod 

of the Reformed Church meets ; Dirck 

Romeyn, president. 

LETTERS. 

1794 * * Greenfield Hill, by Timothy 
Dwight, appears. 

* * La. First issue of the Moniteur, the 
first paper published west of the Mis- 
sissippi. 

* * Me. Bowdoin CoHege (Cong.), 
founded at Brunswick. 

* * Tenn. Greenville and Tusculum 
CoUege (non-sect.) organized. 

1795 Apr. 9. N. Y. The legislature 
passes an enactment for the encourage- 
ment of common schools. 

* * Conn. The reserve lands of the State 
are sold for $1,200,000; this sum is 
appropriated for the support of schools 
in the State. 

* * N. C. University of North Caro- 
lina (non-sect.) is organized at Chapel 
Hill. 

* * N. Y. Union CoUege (non-sect.) is 
organized at Schenectady. 

* * -1817 * * Conn. Rev. Timothy 
Dwight is President of Yale College. 

* * N. Y. The assembly appropriates 
$50,000 annually for five years for the 
establishment of public schools. 

* * Grammar of the English Language, by 
Lindley Murray, appears. 

* * Essays of Camillus, by Alexander 
Hamilton, appears. 

1796 June 11. D. C. The Washington 
Gazette first issued. 

Oct. 6. Mass. The Polar Star and 
Boston Daily Advertiser first issued. 

* * Phila. The Literary Magazine and 
American Register, by C. Brockden 
Brown, is published. [Continues till 
1810.] 

1797 May 3. N. Y. Union College 
holds its first commencement for con- 
ferring degrees in the arts and sciences. 

SOCIETY. 

1794 Sept.*- Nov.* Pa. The Whis- 
ky Rebellion in western Pennsylvania. 
Occasioned by an excise tax of 11 cents 
per gallon on spirits distilled from for- 
eign materials, and 9 cents when distilled 
from domestic materials. It cost the 
Federal Government $1,500,000 to quell 
it, or 32 per cent of the average annual 
cost of the Government. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church adds the following 
note to the Catechism, 



UNITED STATES. 



1794-1797, June. 107 



" ' Stealers of men are those who bring off 
slaves or freemen, and keep, sell, or buy 
them.' To steal a freeman, says Urotius, is 
the highest kind of theft. In other instances 
we steal only human property, but when we 
steal or retain men in slavery, we seize those 
who, in common with ourselves, are consti- 
tuted by the original grant lords of the 
earth." 

U. S. The President is authorized by 
Congress to increase the quantity of 
liquor to a gill, for troops on the fron- 
tiers. 

The Quakers present to Congress the 
first anti-slavery petition. 

* * Tenth. Andrew Jackson marries 
Rachel Robards. 

* * In the navy, a half -pint of spirits, or 
a quart of beer, constitutes part of a 
daily ration, by order of Congress. 

* * Va. James Madison marries Dolly 
Todd. 

1795 * * Phila. A uniform ration of 
half a gill of liquor is ordered by Con- 
gress for each soldier. 

* * O. William Henry Harrison mar- 
ries Anna Symmes. 

1796 * * U. S. Washington continues 
his ascendency over the minds of the 
people, securing in favor of his measures 
the votes of those elected to oppose them. 

Jefferson writes, " Congress has ad- 
journed. . . . One man outweighs them 
all in influence over the people, who 
support his judgment against their own 
and that of their representatives. Re- 
publicanism resigns the vessel to its 
pilot." 

STATE. 

1795 Jan. 1. U. S. Principal of Na- 
tional debt $80,747,587. 

Feb. 20. Phila. Congress; Senate: 
Henry Tazewell of Va. is elected 
President pro tempore. 

Mar. 4. Phila. The 3d Congress: 
the second session closes. 

June 8. Phila. Congress: the Senate 
convenes in special session to consider 
the Jay Treaty. 

June 24. Phila. Congress; Senate: 
The Jay treaty is ratified. (Article 
XII. excepted.) 

June* +. U. S. Very great excite- 
ment arises over the treaty with Eng- 
land. 

Aug. 3. O. Gen. Wayne makes a treaty 
with 11,000 Indian warriors, at Fort 
Greenville on the Miami. 

Sept. 5. Phila. David Humphries makes 
a shameful treaty of peace (like that 
of other nations) with the dey of Algiers, 
by which the pirate ships are bought 
off by the payment of an annual tribute 
of $24,000 in stores. 

Sept. 9. Connecticut alienates the re- 
mainder of the "Western Reserve" 
for the sum of $1,200,000. 

Oct. * Jay's Treaty is finally ratified by 
both countries. 

Oct. 27. Treaty of San Lorenzo. 

Between the United States and Spain 
by Charles C. Pinckney, settling the 
boundary between Louisiana and the 
United States, and securing the free 
navigation of the Mississippi. 



Dec. 7. Phila. The 4th Congress 
opens. 

Dec* Phila. Congress; House: Jona- 
than Dayton of N. J. is elected Speaker. 

Dec. 10. Phila. Timothy Pickering 
of Mass. becomes Secretary of State. 

Doc. 31. U.S. Internal revenue $337,755. 

* * The Yazoo land grants occasion a con- 
troversy [continuing till 1814]. 

* * The Indians begin to cede land to the 
United States. 

* * Mich. The British plot to buy up the 
lower peninsula of Michigan is disclosed. 

* * John Rutledge of S. C. is appointed 
Chief Justice of the United States Su- 
preme Court. 

* *-98* *N.C. Samuel Ashe, governor. 
1796 Jan. 1. U. S. Principal of the 

National debt $83,762,172. 
Jan. 4. Phila. Congress receives the 

message of Washington. 
Jan. 14. Tennessee adopts a Constitu- 
tion. 
Feb. 6. Vermont adopts a Constitution. 
Mar. 1. Phila. Proclamation of the 

ratification of the Jay Treaty. 
Apr. 20. Phila. Congress: The House 

agrees to sustain Jay's Treaty. Vote, 

51-48. 
Apr. 28. Phila. Congress; House: 

Speech by Fisher Ames, Federal 

leader, in support of Jay's Treaty. 

Money is at last voted to execute it. 
May 6. D. C. Congress ; Senate : 

Samuel Livermore of N. H. is elected 

President pro tempore. 
June 1. Tennessee is admitted into 

the Union as the sixteenth State. 
Phila. The 4th Congress : first ses- 
sion closes. 
June * A treaty with the Creek Indians 

is made by the Government at Colraine. 
July 12. Redemption of 94 American 

prisoners from the Algerines, by the 

United States consul. 
July 14. O. The Connecticut Western 

Reserve is first occupied. 

* * The Government makes a treaty with 
the Cherokees at Holston. 

Sept. 17. Phila. Washington, having 
declined a third term in the presidency, 
issues his farewell address to the 
country, and proposes to retire to pri- 
vate life. 

Sept. * Phila. C. C. Pinckney of S. C. 
succeeds Monroe as minister to France. 

* * Third Presidential Election. John 
Adams of Mass. is the candidate for 
the Federal party and those opposed to 
close relations with France, and Thomas 
Jefferson of Va. for the Anti-Federalists 
or Republicans. 

Nov. * Tenn. Andrew Jackson is 
elected to the House of Representatives. 

Dec. 5. Phila. The 4th Congress: 
the second session opens. 

* * Mass. Disunion sentiments are as- 
serted. 

* * Phila. The custom arises of holding 
Congressional Caucuses to nominate 
candidates for the Presidency. 



Dec. 7. Phila. Congress : Washing- 
ton meets both Houses for the last time 
as President. 

Dec. 31. U.S. Internal revenue $475,289. 

* * U. S. Oliver Ellsworth of Conn, is 
appointed Chief Justice, and Samuel 
Chase of Md. a Justice of the Supreme 
Court. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated: 
-98 * * Conn. Oliver Wolcott. 
-97 * * Del. Gunning Bedford. 
-98 * * Ga. Jared Irwin. 
-1804* * Ky. James Garrard. 
-1800 * * Mich. Arthur St. Clair (of 

N. W. Ter.). 
-01* * XT. Y. John Jay. 
-98 * * S. C. Chas. Pinckney. 
-01 * * Tenn. John Sevier. 
-99 * * Va. James Wood. 

1797 Jan. 1. U. S. Principal of the 
National debt $82,064,479. 

Feb. 8. Phila. Congress counts the 
electoral vote. 

For President : John Adams, Federal- 
ist, 71 ; Thomas Jefferson, Republican, 
68; Thomas Pinckney, Federalist, 59: 
Aaron Burr, Republican, 30 ; Samuel 
Adams, Republican, 15 ; Oliver Ells- 
worth, Independent, 11; George Clinton, 
Republican, 7 ; John Jay, Federalist, 5 ; 
James Iredell, Federalist, 3 ; George 
Washington, John Henry, and S. John- 
son, all Federalists, two votes each ; 
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Federal- 
ist, one vote. 

Feb. 16. Phila. Congress ; Senate : 
William Bingham of Pa. is re- 
elected President pro tempore. 

Mar. 8. Phila. The 4th Congress 

ends. 

Second Administration; Federalist. 

Mar. 4. Phila. John Adams of Mass. 
is inaugurated the second President, 
in the third term of the presidency. 
Thomas Jefferson of Va. is Vice-Presi- 
dent. The cabinet is continued. 

Mar. 10. N. Y. The capital is changed 
from New York to Albany. 

May 6. Phila. Congress ; House : Jon- 
athan Dayton of N. J. is reelected 
Speaker. 

May 15. Phila. The 5th Congress 
opens in special session to consider 
relations with France. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1795 Feb. 28. N. Y. About 500 emi- 
grants' sleighs pass through Albany 
on their way to the Genesee country, 
the Genesee Valley being the Far West. 

* * New York. Yellow fever rages, and 
700 deaths occur. 

* * U.S. Exports for 1795, $47,000,000. 

1796 Feb. 4. American ship Sedgley 
rescues 160 men from the sinking British 
ship Aurora. 

June 20. S. C. Three hundred houses 

are burned at Charleston. 
Nov. 25. Ga. Fire; 350 houses are 

burned at Savannah ; loss, $1,000,000. 

* * O. Chillicothe is founded. 

* * O. Many settlers emigrate to Ohio ; 
Cleveland is founded. 



108 1 797, July-1800, June 15. 



AMERICA 



ARMY - NAVY. 

1798 Apr. 30. Phila. The Navy De- 
partment is formally created, and Ben- 
jamin Stoddert of Md. is appointed its 
first secretary. [Cabot declined.] 

May * Va. Harper's Ferry is selected 
for a Government armory and manu- 
factory. 

July 7. U.S. Washington is appointed 
lieutenant-general of the armies of the 
United States. [Enthusiastic prepara- 
tions are made for war with France.] 

July 9 -1800 Sept. 30. The third 
war. A quasi-war with France ; 4,593 
men including naval forces are enrolled. 
It commences without a declaration by 
either Government. 

Dec. 29. Commanders of American ves- 
sels are ordered to resist by force the 
mustering and searching of their vessels, 
and then to strike colors and surrender 
to superior forces only. 

* * U. S. George Washington is ap- 
pointed the first general (seventh) in com- 
mand of the army. 

* * U. S. The navy consists of 42 vessels 
carrying 950 guns. The marine corps is 
created by Congress. 

1799 Feb. 9. W. I. The frigate Con- 
stellation, Commodore Truxtun, of 38 
guns, captures the French frigate V In- 
surgent* oi 48 guns and more than 400 
seamen, after a battle of one hour ; loss, 
1 killed and 2 wounded ; French loss 29 
killed and 44 wounded. 

1800 Feb. 1. Commodore Truxtun 
has a severe battle with the French 
man-of-war Vengeance, which escapes 
defeat by sailing away in the darkness ; 
the flag of the Union -wins renown. 
[The war proceeds no farther.] 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1797 * * New York. Chancellor Living- 
ston builds a steamer on the Hudson. 

* * Cast-iron plows are introduced, su- 
perseding those with mold-boards of 
wood. 

1798 Jan. * New York. The Park Thea- 
ter is built. 

* * Mass. Hats and bonnets are first 
manufactured from straw braid at Ded- 
ham. 

1799* * Conn. The Connecticut Acad- 
emy of Arts and Sciences is founded. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 
1798* * 

Alcott, William Andrews, educationist, b. 
Barber, John Warner, historian, born. 
Barnes, Albert, commentator, born. 
Beck, Lewis C, naturalist, born. 
Belknap, Jeremy, historian, A54. 
Borden, Simeon, engineer, born. 
Butler, Pierce M., Gov. of S. C, born. 
Champe, John, soldier, A46. ? 
Crawford, George, Gov. of Ga., born. 
Davies, Charles, mathematician, born. 
Dix, John Adams, general, Gov.of N.Y., b. 
Drake, Samuel Gardner, historian, born. 
Duche\ Jacob, chaplain, A59. 
Dunglison, Robley, medical writer, b. in Eng. 
Evans, Thomas, Friend, born. 
Fitch. John, inventor, A55. 
Hickok, Laurens Perseus, metaphysician, b. 
Mason, James Murray, statesman, born. 
Morris, Lewis, signer of Declaration, A72. 
Noyes, George Rapall, biblical scholar, born. 
Olney, Jesse, geographer, born. 



Read, George, signer of Declaration, A 65. 
Roe, Azel Stevens, novelist, born. 
Russell, William, elocutionist, born. 
Stewart, Charles S., author, born. 
Stringham, Silas Horton, rear-admiral, born. 
Summerfleld, John. Metli. Epis. clergyman 

and orator, born. 
Wilson, James, signer of Declaration, A56. 

1799* * 
Alcott, Amos Bronson, philosopher, born. 
Buckland, Cyrus, inventor, born. 
Cameron, Simon, senator for Pa., born. 
Caswell, Alexis, pres. of Brown Univ., born. 
Choate. Rufus, senator for Mass., advocate, 

born. 
Colquitt, Walter T., senator for Ga., born. 
Doane, George Washington, bishop, born. 
Edmonds, John W., jurist, born. 
Henry. Patrick, orator and patriot of Va., 

June 6, A63. 
Hollins, George N., naval officer, born. 
Iredell, James, jurist, A48. 
Knapp, Jacob, revivalist, born. 
Lathrop, John H., college president, born. 
Lewis, Samuel, philanthropist, born. 
Lowell, John, founder, born. 
Mason, Francis, missionary, born. 
Mellen, Grenville, poet, born. 
Meredith, William Morris, statesman, born. 
Morton, Samuel G., naturalist, born. 
Poey, Felepe, scholar, scientist, b. in Cuba. 
Quitman, John Anthony, general, born. 
Rutledge, Francis H., bishop, born. 
Sands, Robert Charles, author, born. 
Saxton, Joseph, mechanician, born. 
Upham, Thomas Cogswell, metaphysician, b. 
Walker, Amasa, economist, born. 
Washing-ton, George. 1st President, Fa- 
ther of his Country, Dec. 14, A67. 

1800* * , . 

Acrelius, Israel, Swedish missionary, A 86. 

Allen, David O., Cong, missionary, born. 

Bancroft, George, historian, b. Mass., Oct. 3. 

Beecher, Catherine, writer, born in N. Y. 

Billings, William, musical composer, A54. 

Bogardus, James, inventor, born in N. Y. 

Bowman, Samuel, Asst. P. E. bp. of Pa., 
born in Pa. 

Breckinridge, Robert J., Pres. clergyman, 
born in Ky. 

Brown, John, abolitionist, born in Conn. 

Durbin, John P., M. E. clergyman, orator, 
born in Ky. 

Fillmore. Millard. 13th President, born in 
N. Y. Jan. 7. 

Foote, Henry Stuart, sen. for Miss., b. Va. 

Goodyear. Charles, inventor (rubber), born 
in Conn. 

Hackett, James Henry, actor, born in N. Y. 

Hallock, Gerard, journalist, born in Mass. 

Harney, William Selby, general, b. in Tenn. 

Hentz, Caroline Lee, novelist, born in Mass. 

Hering, Constantine, physician, author, born 
in Ger. 

Lawrence, Wm. Beach, jurist, born in N. Y. 

Lee, Eliza B., miscellaneous writer, b. in N.H. 

Lee, Luther, theologian, anti-slavery advo- 
cate, born in N. Y. 

Lenox, James, founder of library, b. in N.Y. 

Lieber, Francis, political philos., b. in Ger. 

Lowndes, Rawlins, lawyer, statesman, A78. 

Mifflin, Thomas, major-general in Revolution, 
A56. Pa. ._-... 

Neckere, Leo R. de, R. C. bishop of N. 0., b. 
in Belg. 

Owen, Robert Dale, spiritualist, b. in Scot. 

Parker, Willard, surgeon, born in N. H. 

Potter. Alonzo, Prot. Epis. bishop of Pa., 
born inH. Y. .»-..-. 

Rutledge, Edward, statesman of S. C-, A 51. 

Rutledge, John, Gov. of S. C, M. C, A61. 

Todd, John, Cong, clergyman, author, born 
inVt. 

Tyng, Stephen H.. Epis. clergyman, au- 
thor, born in Mass. 

Wade, Benj. F., senator for O., b. in Mass. 

Ward, Artemas, general, in Mass., A73. 

Whitmore, Thomas, clergyman, author, b. 

Williams, Otho H., general, dies. 



CHURCH. 

1797 Sept. 18. Conn. Consecration of 
Abraham Jarvis (Protestant Episcopal) 
Bishop of Connecticut. 

* * New York. The third Methodist 
church in this city is formed in Duane 
Street. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church meets; Wm. 
M. Tennant, moderator. 



* * Organization of the "Northern 
Missionary Society" by various 
Christians. 

1798 * * Cal. Eighteen missions are es- 
tablished in Upper California. 

* * Ind. Baptists form the Charlestown 
church in Indiana. 

Autumn. Mass. Hosea Ballou an- 
nounces his new views respecting Christ 
and the atonement, and this event marks 
a new departure in Universalist 
theology. 

* * N. Y. Lyman Beecher is ordained 
pastor of the Congregational church of 
East Hampton, Long Island, with a sal- 
ary of $300 a year. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church meets; John 
B. Smith, moderator. 

+ * * Period of spiritual depression in 
Presbyterian and other churches; in- 
fidelity, irreligion, and immorality 
abound. 

* * New Eng. Founding of the Mission- 
ary Society of Connecticut, and the 
Berkshire and Columbia Missionary 
Society. 

* * Pa. No Episcopal Convention is held 
in Philadelphia because of the prevalent 
yellow fever. 

* * Phila. The Keformed Presbytery 
of North America is constituted. 

1799 June 11. Bichard Allen, the first 
clergyman among the colored people, is 
ordained by the Methodists. 

Phila. A special (Protestant Epis- 
copal) Convention held. 

* * Mass. Organization of the Massa- 
chusetts Missionary Society. 

* * Middle States. Great revivals pre- 
vail among the Presbyterians, who hold 
the first camp-meeting in America, on 
the Red River, in Kentucky. 

* * Va. The General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church meets at Winches- 
ter ; S. S. Smith, moderator. 

1800 Mar. 13. It. Pius "VTI. is elected 
pope. 

May 6-20. Md. The Third General 
Conference (Methodist Episcopal) 
meets in Baltimore. 

May 18. Md. Richard Whatcoat is 
elected bishop of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. 

May * N. Y. The New York (Methodist 
Episcopal) Conference is formed. 

LETTERS. 

1797 * * Conn. Lyman Beecher gradu- 
ates from the theological school of Yale 
College. 

* * New York. The Medical Repository is 
first issued; conducted by Dr. S. L. 
Mitchill. 

The Commercial Advertiser (formerly 
the Minerva) is published; Noah Web- 
ster, first editor. 

* * Phila. American Universal Magazine 
appears. 

The United States Magazine appears. 
The Methodist Magazine appears. 
±* * Wieland's Oberon, translated by 
John Quincy Adams, appears. 



UNITED STATES. 1797, July-1800, June 15. 109 



1798* * Phita. "Hail Columbia" is 
written by Judge Joseph Hopkinson. 

* * Ky. Transylvania College is founded 
at Lexington. 

* * Wieland, by C. B. Brown, appears. 

* * Laocoon, by Fisher Ames, appears. 
1799 June 26. N. Y. The first news- 
paper in Brooklyn is issued. 

* * -1800 * * New York. The Monthly 
Magazine and American Review appears. 

* * U. S. The licentiousness of the 
press, chiefly directed by adventurers 
from Great Britain, provokes Congress 
to issue the unpopular sedition laws 
restraining its liberty. 

* * Ormond, by C. B. Brown, appears. 

* * The Ladies' Magazine appears. 

SOCIETY. 
1797 Oct. ± * N. H. Daniel Webster 
enters Dartmouth College. 

* * Mass. John Quincy Adams mar- 
ries Louisa Catherine Johnson. 

1799 Mar. 28. N. Y. The legislature 
passes a law for the gradual abolition 
of slavery. Every child born of a slave 
after July 4 shall be free. 

Dec. 14. Washington dies at Mount 
Vernon after a sickness of only one day ; 
universal sorrow prevails. 

[The civilized world honors the great 
dead with appropriate ceremonies. Bo- 
naparte announces to his legions, the 
death and virtues of " the warrior, the 
legislator, and the citizen without re- 
proach."] 

STATE. 

1797 July 6. Phila. Congress; Sen- 
ate: William Bradford of R. I. is 
elected President pro tempore. 

July 10. Phila. The 5th Congress: 
first session closes. 

Oct. * Connecticut authorizes the re- 
lease to the United States of her juris- 
diction over lands immediately westward 
of Pennsylvania. 

Oct. * Fr. John Adams's new Commis- 
sion meets in Paris, and the Directory 
makes an indirect demand for a 
bribe. 

The Commission consists of Minister 
Pinckney, and two others as special 
ambassadors of peace to France. The 
Directory refuses to receive them unless 
they will enter an alliance against Great 
Britain and pledge the payment of a 
quarter of a million of dollars ; Pinck- 
ney replies, '* Millions for defense, but not 
a cent for tribute ! " 'They are ordered 
out of the country. [X, Y, and Z des- 
patches to the American envoys.] 

* * John Q. Adams is sent to Prussia as 
minister. 

Nov. 13. The 5th Congress: second 

session opens. 
Nov. 22. Phila. Congress ; Senate : 

Jacob Bead of S. C. is elected President 

pro tempore. 
Dec. 31. U.S. Diternal revenue $575,491. 

* * Tenn. Andrew Jackson is elected a 
Senator. 

[He attends the Senate a year without 
making a speech or casting a vote ; he 
then resigns and goes home.] 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-98 * * Del. Daniel Rogers. 

-99 * * Mass. Increase Sumner. 
-07 * * Vt. Isaac Tichenor. 



1798 Jan. 1. U. S. Principal of the 

National debt $79,228,529. 
Jan. 5. Phila. Congress : the House 

appropriates $12,000 to pay Kosciusko. 
Mar. * Phila. Congress organizes the 

Mississippi Territory. 
Apr. 20. Phila. Congress; House: 

George Dent of Pa. is elected Speaker. 

(Also, on May 28.) 
Apr. 27. Phila. Congress orders the 

fitting out of cruisers for war. 
Apr. 30. U. S. The navy department 

of the Government is separated from the 

war department and organized. 

* * Phila. George Cabot appointed 
Secretary of the Navy, but declines. 

June 18. Phila. Congress amends the 
naturalization laws so as to require 
a residence of 14 years to become a 
citizen. 

June 25. Phila. Congress passes the 
Act concerning aliens. 

June 27. Phila. Congress ; Senate : 
Theodore Sedgwick of Mass. is elected 
President pro tempore. 

July 6. Phila. Congress .passes the 
Act concerning alien enemies. 

July 7. Phila. Congress declares the 
French treaties annulled. 

July 14. Phila. Provoked by the vio- 
lence of the French sympathizers, Con- 
gress passes the last of the Alien and 
Sedition Laws. The latter is called the 
gag law. 

July 16. Phila. The 5th Congress : 
the second session closes. 

* * Phila. Congress suspends inter- 
course with France. 

Oct. 17. Me. The St. Croix River is iden- 
tified by commissioners as the northeast 
boundary of theUnited States. 

U. S. The Federalists lose their pop- 
ularity in passing the Alien law for the 
expulsion of odious foreigners by the 
President, and a Sedition law restrict- 
ing freedom of speech and the press. 

Nov. 10. Ky. Passage of the Ken- 
tucky resolutions asserting the right 
of each State to determine the extent of 
National authority. 

Dec. 3. Phila. The 5th Congress : the 
third session opens. 

Dec. 6. Phila. Congress; Senate: John 
Laurence of N. Y. is elected President 
pro tempore. 

Dec. 21. Va. Passage of the Virginia 
resolutions denouncing the action of 
Congress for the "infraction of the 
Constitution " by passing the Alien and 
Sedition laws. 

Dec. 31. U.S. Daternal revenue $644,357. 

* * A British committee discovers that 
the source of the Mississippi is at least 
one degree south of the 49th parallel ; the 
boundary line claimed by Great Britain. 

* * Miss. Spain finally evacuates the 
Yazoo country. 

* * U. S. Bushrod Washington of Va. 
is appointed Justice of the Supreme 
Court. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-06 * * Conn. Jonathan Trumbull. 



-01 * * Del. Richard Bassett. 

-01 * * Ga. James Jackson. 

-02 * * Miss. Ter. Winthrop Sargent. 

-99 * * N. C. Wm. R. Davie. 

-00 * * S. C. Edward Rutledge. 

1799 Jan. 1. U. S. Principal of the 
National debt $78,408,669. 

Mar. 1. Phila. Senate ; James Boss of 
Pa. is elected President pro tempore. 

Mar. 4. Phila. The 5th Congress ends. 

Mar. 30. Fr. John Q. Adams serves on 
a second embassy to France; he is 
received by Napoleon I. 

Spring. Pa. John Fries leads an insur- 
rection against the window tax. 

Sept. 30. Fr. A convention is con- 
cluded with France by which the treaty 
of 1788 is annulled, and the United States 
assumes the claims of its citizens for 
French spoliations. 

* * Ind. The Territory of Indiana is 
erected. 

* * U. S. Movements are organized both 
for and against legislation to secure in- 
ternal improvements. 

Dec. 2. Phila. The 6th Congress 
opens. 

Phila. Congress; Senate: Samuel 
Livermore of N. H. is elected President 
pro tempore. House : Theodore Sedg- 
wick of Mass. is elected Speaker. 

John Randolph of Va. enters Con- 
gress. . 
Dec. 31. U.S. Internal revenue $779,136. 

* * Pa. The Legislature locates the capi- 
tal at Lancaster. 

* * U. S. Alfred Moore of N. C. is ap- 
pointed Justice of the Supreme Court. 

* * France welcomes minister Van Mur- 
ray. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-00 * * Mass. Moses Gill. 

-02 * * N. C. Benj. Williams. 
Pa. Thomas M'Kean. 
-02 * * Va. James Monroe. 

1800 Jan. 1. U. S. National debt 
$82,976,294. 

May 14. Phila. Congress ; Senate : 
Uriah Tracy of Conn, is elected Presi- 
dent pro tempore. 

The 6th Congress ; the first session 
closes. 

May 30. The transfer of the last cession 
of Connecticut lands to the United 
States is completed. The State retains 
her claim to the soil of " The Western 
Reserve " in Ohio. 

June 15. D. C. The National Capi- 
tal is transferred to Washington. 
The north wing of the Capitol is ready 
for use, and the public offices are 
moved thence from Philadelphia. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1797 Oct. * U. S. The yellow fever 
again appears. 

1798 Sept. * The yellow fever rages ; 
3,645 persons die in Philadelphia, and 
2,086 in New York. 

1799 Dec. 18. Va. Burial of Wash- 
ington. 



110 1800-1803, June 29. 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1800 * * Brig.-Gen. James Wilkinson 

is appointed (8th) commander of the 

army. 

THE FOURTH WAR. 

1801 June 10 -05 June 4. War with 
Tripoli. 

It is occasioned by the Bey of Tripoli, 
who demanded of Capt. Bainbridge the 
use of the U. S. frigate George Washing- 
ton to convey an ambassador to Con- 
stantinople. He was obliged to comply 
or submit to destruction by the guns of 
the Castle of Tripoli ; 3,330 men are en- 
rolled. 

* * N. Y. Congress establishes a U. S. 
navy yard at Brooklyn. 

* * On the accession of Pres. Jefferson 
the navy is reduced. 

1802 Mar. 16. N. Y. The Govern- 
ment establishes a military academy 
at West Point. (Lossing, 1801.) 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1800 * * Mary Kies takes out a patent 
for straw-weaving, with silk or thread, 
the first patent issued to a woman in 
this country. 

1801 * * Pa. The compound blowpipe 
is invented by Professor Robert Hare 
of Philadelphia. 

1802 * * Mass. Sheet copper first man- 
ufactured at Boston. 

* * Phila. A Museum of Natural History 
is opened by E. W. IJeale. 

* * French Soldier Telling a Story is 
painted by Washington Allston. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1801 * * 
Allston, Robert F. W., Gov. of S. C, born 

in S. C. 
Arnold, Benedict, traitor, dies in Eng. A60. 
Bacon, Joel S., clergyman, born in N. Y. 
Boardraan, George Dana, missionary, born 

in Me. 
Church, Pharcellus, Bapt. clergyman, born 

in N. Y. 
Coan, Titus, missionary, born in Hawaii. 
Cole, Thomas, painter, born in Eng. 
Deane, James, physician, born In Mass. 
Eastburn, Manton, Prot. Epis. bishop of 

Mass., born in Eng. 
Edwards, Jonathan, Cong, theologian, 

metaphysician, A56. 
Farragut, David Glascoe, admiral V. S. N., 

born in Tenn. 
Francis, Joseph, inventor of life-boat, born. 
Harper, Joseph Wesley, publisher, born. 
Howe, Samuel G., philanthropist, b. in Mass. 
Inman, Henry, painter, born in N. Y. 
Janney, Samuel M., author, born in Va. 
Kirkland, Carolina Matilda, author, born In 

N.Y. 
Lane, Joseph, senator for Ore., born in Ind. 
Marsh. George P., philologist, diplomatist, 

born in Vt. 
Marshall Humphrey, botanist, A79. 
Means, Alexander, prof. Emery College, 

born in N. C. 
Russ, John D., inventor of phonetic alpha- 
bet, born in Mass. 
Seward, ■William H., Secretary of State, 

born in N.Y., May 16. 
Woolsey, Theodore Dwight, scholar, born in 

N. Y. 
Young, Brigham. Mormon leader, b. in Vt. 
1802* * 
Bacon, Leonard, lecturer in Yale, editor, 

born in Mich. 
Bela, B. Edward, author, born. 
Botts, John Minor, M. C. for Va., b. in Va. 
Bushnell, Horace, Cong. theol.,b. in Conn. 
Child, Lydia Maria, philanthropist, born 

in Mass. 
Cleveland, Charles Dexter, author,b. in Mass. 
Conant, Thomas Jefferson, biblical scholar, 

born in Vt. 
Dix. Dorothea Lynda, philanthropist, born 

in Mass. 
Fitzpatrick, Benj., senator for Ala., b. in Ala. 



AMERICA 



Furness, William Henry, religious writer, 
born in Mass. 

Hopkins. Esek, first commander of the 
navy, A 84. 

Hopkins, Mark, Pres. of Williams College, 
born in Mass. 

Hunter, David, general U. S. A., b. in D. C. 

Kavanaugh, Hubbard H., Meth. Epis., South, 
bp., born, in Ire. 

Kirk, Edward Norris, clergyman, author, 
born in 0. 

Leggett, William, author, born in N.Y. 

Logan, Benj., western pioneer, A50. 

Lovejoy, Elijah, abolitionist, born in Me. 

Morgan, Daniel, general of the Revol'n, A66. 

Morris, George P., poet, born in Pa. 

Phillips, Samuel, benefactor, A51. 

Plumer, William, Pres. clergyman, author, 
born in Pa. 

Prentice, George Dennison, journalist, 
humorist, b. in Conn. 

Kipley, George, journalist, writer, b. in Mass. 

Rogers, James Blvthe, chemist, born in Pa. 

Sears, Barnas, Bapt. clergyman, scholar, 
born in Mass. 

Soule, Pierre, senator for La., diplomatist, 
born in Fr. 

Stowe, Calvin Ellis,Cong. clergyman, author, 
born in Mass. 

LTpham, Charles Wentworth, Unit, clergy- 
man, born in N. B. 

"Washington, Martha, widow of George 
Washington, A70. 

Webb, James Watson, journalist, b. in N.Y. 

Wells, Gideon, Sec. of Navy, born in Conn. 
1803* * 

Abbott, Jacob, author, born in Me. 

Adams, Samuel, senator for Mass., patriot, 
. A81. 

Backus, Charles, Cong, clergyman, A54. 

Barry, John, commodore, born in Ire., A58. 

Bass, Edward, Prot. Epis. bp. of Mass., A77. 

Beecher, Edward, Cong, clergyman, b. N. Y. 

Binney, Amos, naturalist, born in Mass. 

Bird, Robert M., author, born in Del. 

Bonaparte, Chas. L. J. L., ornithologist, born 
in Fr. 

Brownson, Orestes Augustus, R. C. theo- 
logian, editor, born in Vt. 

Calvert, George Henry, author, born In Md. 

Clifford, Nathan, U. S. S. Court, b. in Me. 

Coit, Thomas Winthrop, Prot. Epis. theolo- 
gian, born in Conn. 

Dupont, Samuel Francis, admiral, b. in N. J. 

Edes, Benjamin, journalist, patriot, A71. 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, philosopher, au- 
thor, born in Mass. 

Ericsson, John, designer of Monitor, born 
in Sweden. 

Field, Richard S., senator, born. 

Galloway, Joseph, lawyer, loyalist of Phila., 
A 74. 

Grinell, Moses H., collector for N.Y., A74. 

Hopkins, Samuel, Congregational clergy- 
man, founder of school of theology, A82. 

Johnston, Albert Sidney, Confederate 
major-general, born in Ky. 

Leveret, Frederick P., scholar, b. in Mass. 

Mackenzie, Alex. S., naval officer, author, 
born in N.Y. 

Memminger, Charles G., politician, b. in Ger. 

Morrill, Anson P., Gov., M. C. for Me., born 
in Me. 

Nevin, John Williamson, theologian, b. in Pa. 

Norris, John <;., scholar, born in Eng. 

Pendleton, Edmund, patriot, judge, A82. 

Rusk, Thomas J. senator for Tex., b. in S. C. 

Stewart, Alex. T., merchant of N.Y., born 
in Ireland. 

Weir, Robert Walter, painter, born in N.Y. 

CHURCH. 
1800 June* .V. Y. The General Synod 
of the Reformed Church meets at Al- 
bany ; S. Ira Condict, president. 

* * Mass. The Boston Female Society, for 
Missionary Purposes, is organized. (Bap- 
tist and Congregational.) 

The highest court of the State decides 
that a Catholic must pay taxes for the 
support of a Protestant minister. 

* * Great revivals continue among the 
Presbyterians in the West. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly 
(Presbyterian) meets; Joseph Clark, 
moderator. 

The first Roman Catholic Church 
is erected. 



* * Md. The United Brethren in 
Christ organize. 

* * The Pacific Coast (Roman Catholic) 
Missions become wealthy to an almost 
incredible degree. 

* * Pa. The Evangelical (Methodist) As- 
sociation organizes under Jacob Al- 
bright. 

* * U. S. Communicants in churches 
364,872, about one in 14 of the popu- 
lation. 

1801 Sept. 8. N. J. The General 
Convention (Protestant Episcopal) 
meets at Trenton. 

Sept. 11. New York. Consecration of 
Benj. Moore (Protestant Episcopal), as- 
sistant bishop. 

* * N. Y. The New York Missionary 
Society starts a mission among the Sen- 
eca Indians. 

* * The Mennonites open a mission among 
the Cherokees. 

* * Mass. The Boston Female Society 
(Congregational) for Promoting the Dif- 
fusion of Christian Knowledge is or- 
ganized. 

The Plymouth Congregational 
Church declares itself Unitarian in 
faith. (Mayflower Church of 1620.) 

* * Phila. The General Assembly 
(Presbyterian) meets ; Nathaniel Irwin, 
moderator. 

The Assembly and the Connecticut 
General Association of Congregational- 
ists adopt a formal Plan of Union. 
[Abrogated in 1852 by Congregation- 
alists.] 

1802 Aug. 25. N. H. First meeting 
of the Episcopal Diocesan Convention, 
at Concord. 

* * Kg. The (Presbyterian) Synod of Ken- 
tucky is formed. 

* * Mass. Dr. Jedediah Morse publishes 
tracts and circulates them in Maine, 
Kentucky, and Tennessee. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly 
(Presbyterian) meets ; Azel Roe, moder- 
ator. It organizes the Standing Com- 
mittee on Missions. 

1803 June 29. Mass. The General 
Association (Congregational) is organ- 
ized. 

June* N. Y. The General Synod of 
the Reformed Church meets at Pough- 
keepsie ; John H. Livingstone, presi- 
dent. 

LETTERS. 
1800 * * D. C. The Library of Con- 
gress is founded [1,000,000 ± vols.]. 

* * Arthur Mervyn, by C. B. Brown, ap- 
pears. 

* * Hasty Pudding, by Joel Barlow, ap- 
pears. 

* * Nero York. James Cheetham buys 
Greenleaf's New York Journal and 
Patriotic Register, and changes its name 
to the American Watchman. 

* * New York. James Cheetham buys 
The Argus or Greenleaf's New Daily 
Advertiser, and changes its name to The 
American Citizen. 



UNITED STATES. 



1800-1803, June 29. Ill 



* * New York. Dr. Wharton is elected 
President of Columbia College. 

* * Vt. Middlebury College (non-sect.) 
is founded at Middlebury. 

1801 Nov. 16. New York. The Even- 
ing Post, Federal in politics, is first 
issued. 

* * D. C. The Intelligencer is first issued. 

* * New York. Bishop Benjamin Moore 
becomes President of Columbia 
College. 

* * S. C. The South Carolina College 
(non-sect.) is organized at Columbia. 

* * Phila. The Portfolio is published 
monthly by Jos. Dennie. 

* * Clara Howard, by C. B. Brown, ap- 
pears. 

* * U. S. The total number of news- 
papers published is 200 ; this includes 
17 dailies, 

* * -02 * * The Monthly Magazine is car- 
ried on as the American Review and 
Literary Journal. 

1802 * *N. Y. The "West Point Mili- 
tary Academy is organized. 

* * Me. The Bowdoin College Library 
is founded [40,000 vols.]. 

* * Pa. The Washington and Jeffer- 
son College (non-sect.) is organized. 

* * Tenn. The first newspaper published 
in the Mississippi Valley is called the 
Natchez Gazette. 

* * The Practical Navigator, by Nathaniel 
Bowditch, appears. 

SOCIETY. 

1800 * * Conn. — R. I. Only 400 Indians 
remain in Connecticut and 500 Narra- 
gansetts in Rhode Island. 

1801 Nov. 22. Boston. The pillory is 
used for the last time. 

* * D. C. Congress withdraws the option 
of a quart of beer, in the navy ration, 
instead of half a pint of spirits. 

1802 * * D. C. Congress enacts that the 
President take steps to prevent the 
traffic in liquor with the Indians. 

* * N. Y. De Witt Clinton exchanges 
five shots with John Swartwout in a 
duel. 

STATE. 
1800 Oct. 18. La. The treaty of Hde- 
fonso is signed ; Spain again cedes the 
Territory of Louisiana to France. 

* * V. S. The 4th presidential elec- 
tion. Anti-Federalists are elected. 

Nov. 17. B.C. The 6th Congress : 

the second session opens. 
Nov. 21. D. C. Congress; Senate: 

John B. Howard of Md. is elected 

President pro tempore. 
Dec. 19. D. C. John Jay of N.Y. is 

appointed Chief Justice, but declines. 
Dec. 31. U.S. Internal revenue 

$809,396. 

* * U.S. Governors inaugurated : 
-14 * * Cal. Jos<5 J. de Arrillaga 

(Span.). 
-11 * * [Indiana Ter.]. Wm, H. Harri- 
son. 



-07 * * Mass. Caleb Strong. 

[Mich. Ter.]. Wm. H. Harrison. 
-05 * * [Mich. Ter.]. Wm. H. Harrison. 
-02 * * S. C. John Drayton. 

1801 Jan. 1. U. S. The National 
debt $83,038,050. 

Feb. 11. D. C. The electoral vote is 
counted. Vote for President : Thomas 
Jefferson of Va. (Republican), 73 
Aaron Burr of N. Y. (Republican), 73 
John Adams of Mass. (Federalist), 65 
Charles C. Pinckney of S. C. (Feder- 
alist), 64; John Jay of N. Y. (Feder- 
alist), one. 

Feb. 17. D. C The House of Represen- 
tatives breaks the tie between Jeffer- 
son and Burr on the thirty-sixth ballot, 
which elects Jefferson, he having ten 
States and Burr only four. Burr, having 
the next largest number, is elected Vice- 
President. 

Feb. 22. Congress; Senate: James 
Hillhouse of Conn, is elected President 
pro tempore. 

Mar. 4. D. C. The 6th Congress ends. 

Fourth Administration: Democrat- 
ic-Republican. 

Thomas Jefferson of Va. is inaugu- 
rated the third President, in the fourth 
term of the presidency. Aaron Burr 
of N. Y. is Vice-President. 

Jefferson introduces the system of 
excluding from the President's cabinet 
persons who are in opposition to his 
party. 

Cabinet : James Madison of Va. 
(State), Albert Gallatin of Pa. (Treas.), 
Henry Dearborn of Mass. (War), 
Kobert Smith of Md. (Navy), Levi Lin- 
coln of Mass. (Attorney-General), and 
Gideon Granger of Conn. (Postmaster- 
General). 

Mar. 30. N. Y. Jail liberties are es- 
tablished for the first time. 

June 10. Tripoli declares war against 
the United States. (Winsor, May 14.) 

Dec. 7. B.C. The 7th Congress opens. 

Dec. * D. C. Congress ; House : Na- 
thaniel Macon of N. C. is elected 
Speaker. 

Dec. 7. D. C. Congress ; Senate : Abra- 
ham Baldwin of Ga. is elected Presi- 
dent pro tempore. 

Dec. 31. U.S. Internal revenue 
$1,048,033. 

* * D. C. John Marshall of Va. is ap- 
pointed Chief Justice of the U. S. 
Supreme Court. 

* * New York. Edward Livingston is 
elected the 45th mayor. 

* * U.S. Governors inaugurated: 
-02 * * Del. James Sykes. 

Ga. David Emanuel. 

-02 * * Ga. Josiah Tattnall. 

-04 * * N. Y. George Clinton. 
1802 Jan. 1. U. S. National debt 

$86,712,632. 
Mar. 16. D. C. Congress establishes a 

military academy at West Point, 

New York. 
Apr. 6. D. C. Congress abolishes the 



internal revenue system on the rec- 
ommendation of Jefferson. 

Apr. 24. Georgia cedes its western 
territory (Alabama and Mississippi) to 
the United States on condition that slav- 
ery shall never be prohibited. 

May 3. D. C. The 7th Congress : the 
first session closes. 

Nov. 29. Ohio, the 17th State, comes 
into the Union by authority of Congress. 
Population 75,000. (See Feb. 19, '03.) 

Dec. 6. D. C. The 7th Congress : the 

. second session opens. 

Dec. 14. D. C. Congress ; Senate : 
Stephen R. Bradley of Vt. is elected 
President pro tempore. 

Dec. 31. U.S. Internal revenue 
$621,898. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-05 * * Del. David Hall. 

-06 * * Ga. John Milledge. 

-05 * * Miss. Wm. C. C. Claybourne. 

-05 * * N. C. James Turner. 

-03 * * O. Charles W. Bird (Territory). 

-04 * * S. C. James B. Richardson. 

-05 * * Va. John Page. 

1803 Jan. 1. U. S. National debt 
$77,054,686. 

Feb. 19. Ohio is admitted by the act 
of Congress conceding the stipulations 
of the Ohio convention, relative to 
school lands. (See 1802.) 

Feb. 25. D. C. Congress; Senate: 
Stephen K. Bradley of Vt. is reelected 
President pro tempore. [Also on Mar. 2.] 

Mar. 4. D. C. The 7th Congress ends. 

Apr. 30. The Louisiana purchase is 
made, doubling theoriginalnational area. 
The vast Territory of Louisiana, ex- 
tending from the Gulf of Mexico to Can- 
ada, and from the Mississippi to the 
Rocky Mountains, is purchased of France 
without authority, by Pres. Jefferson, 
for $15,000,000. less than $12 a square 
mile. "Napoleon's fear of English con- 
quest and occupation facilitated the 
sale at a low price. Some people declare 
this purchase to be fatal to the Consti- 
tution. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1800* * Boston. Aqueduct water is 

first introduced from Jamaica pond. 

* * Md. More than 1,000 deaths from 
yellow fever occur in Baltimore. 

* * U. S. There are 903 post-offices. 

* * People begin to talk of " the West," 
meaning western New York, Ohio, or 
Kentucky ; emigration becomes active. 

* * U. S. Second census: 16 States, 4,306,- 
464 white and 1,002,037 colored population 
(108,435 free colored, 893,602 slaves); total 
population, 6,308,483. Increase, 35.11 per 
cent. Center of population 18 miles west 
of Baltimore ; westward movement in 10 
years, 41 miles. 

* * Population of large cities : New 
York, 60,000 ; Philadelphia, about 40,- 
000 ; Boston, 24,937 ; Baltimore, 23,971 ; 
Charleston, 18,712 ; Providence, 7,614 ; 
Washington, 3,210. 

1801 June 27. Philadelphia is first 
supplied with aqueduct water. 

* *jy. Y. Buffalo is laid out. 

1802 * * Phila. The yellow fever re- 
appears. 



112 1803, Sept. -1806, June 16. AMERICA 



ARMY — NAVY. 
1803 . Oct. 31. Commodore Preble 
is sent against the Moors. 

He loses the frigate Philadelphia by 
running on a reef ; the officers are made 
prisoners and the crew (300 men) en- 
slayed. 

* * The gunboat system is inaugurated 
in the navy. 

1804 Feb. 16. Tripoli. Lieut. Stephen 
Decatur burns the captured United 
States frigate Philadelphia, in the har- 
bor of Tripoli, with the loss of one man, x 
in an action lasting fifteen minutes. 

July * Tripoli. Preble blockades the 
port, and begins the siege of Tripoli 
[which lasts till the following spring]. 

Aug. 3. Africa. Preble captures sev- 
eral gunboats. 

1805 Mar. 5 +. Africa. Gen. "William 
Eaton forms an alliance with Hamet, 
in Egypt, and hastens to Derna. 

Apr. 27. Tripoli. Aided by the navy, 
Eaton carries the town of Tripoli. 

ART— SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1803 * * N.H. The first cotton-mill in 
this State is opened at New Ipswich. 

* * New York. The City Hall is begun. 

1804 Sept. 8. Ga. Savannah is greatly 
damaged by a storm. 

* * New York. The Academy of the 
Fine Arts and a Botanical Garden are 
established. 

+ * * The Murder of Jane McCrea by the 
Indians is painted by John Vanderlyn. 

* * Capt. Meriwether Lewis and Capt. Wil- 
liam Clarke, with 35 men, are sent by the 
Government to explore a path to the Pa- 
cific Ocean ; they leave the falls of the 
Missouri, and cross overland to the Ore- 
gon country on the Pacific coast, losing 
only one man. 

* * Robert Fulton invents a submarine 
torpedo. 

1805 * * Mass. A Botanical Garden 
and Chair of Natural History are es- 
tablished at Harvard. 

± * * Ariadne is painted by John Van- 
derlyn. 

1806 * * Captains Lewis and Clarke re- 
turn from their exploring expedition 
across the continent to the Pacific. 

June 16. A total eclipse of the sun is 
observed. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 
1804* * 

Abeel, David, author, missionary, b. in N. J. 

Alexander, James W., Pres. cl., b. in Va. 

Clark, Alvan, telescope-maker, b. in Mass. 

Colburn, Zerah, mathematical prodigy, born 
in Vt. 

Dow, Neal, prohibitionist, born in Me. 

Eaton, George W., Bap. clergyman, profes- 
sor, born in Pa. 

Farnham, Thomas Jeff., traveler, b. in Vt. 

Garrison, Wm. Lloyd, abolitionist, born in 
Mass. 

Graham, William A., gov., sen. for N. C. sec. 
of navy, b. in N. C. 

Hamilton. Alex., general, lawyer, leader of 
Federalists, sec. of treas., July 12, A 47. 

Havemeyer, William F., mayor, b. in N.Y. 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, author, b. in Mass. 

Heck, Barbara, fouu. of Am. Methodism, A70. 

Henry. Caleb S., Prot. Epis. clergyman, pro- 
fessor, born in Mass. 



Holdich, Joseph, M. E. cl., b. in Eng. 
Izard, Ralph, senator for S. C., A62. 
Lennox, Charlotte, novelist, A84. 
Miles, Dixon H., general T T . 8. A., b. in Ind. 
Nicholson, James, commodore 17. S. N., A67. 
O'Conor. Charles, lawyer, horn in N.Y. 
Osceola, Seminole chief, born in Fla. 
Parker, Samuel, Prot. Epis. bp. of Mass., A60. 
Parrott, Robert Parker, inventor, b. in N. H. 
Peabody, Eliza P., educator, b. in Mass. 
Pierce, Franklin, 14th President, b. in N. H. 
Priestley, Joseph, chemist, A71. 
Redfteld, Isaac Fletcher, jurist, born in Vt. 
Richmond, Dean, financier, born in Vt. 
Rogers, Win. Barton, physicist, born in Pa. 
Romeyn, Theo. D., theologian of N.Y., A60. 
Schuyler, Philip, general of Revol'n, A71. 
Shepard, Charles C, mineralogist, b. in R. I. 
Swayne, Noah II., I*. 8. justice, born in O. 
Walter, Thomas Ustick, architect, b. in Pa. 
Walton, George, signer of Declaration, A 64. 
Wright. Elizur, publicist, born in Conn. 
1805 * * 
Abbott, John Stevens, historian, born in Me. 
Allan, John, patriot of Revolution, A59. 
Anderson, Robert, general U. 8. A., born. 
Bailey, Theodoras, admiral, born in N.Y. 
Bartlett, John Russell, author, born in R. I. 
Bethune, Geo. W., Ref'd Dutch clergyman, 

poet, born in N.Y. 
Blake, William Ruf us, actor, born in N. S. 
Dodge, William E., philanthropist of N.Y., 

born in Conn. 
Dorr, Thomas Wilson, rebel leader, b. in R. I. 
Field, David Dudley, jurist, born in Conn. 
Flagg, Wilson, naturalist, born in Mass. 
Gadsden, Christopher, (iov. of S. C, A79. 
Gayarre, Chas. E. A., historian, born in La. 
Goldsborough, Lewis M., admiral, b. in D. C. 
Gould, Augustus A., naturalist, b. in N. H. 
Greenough, Horatio, sculptor, born in Mass. 
Gross, Samuel D., surgeon, born in Pa. 
Hedge, Fred. Henry,Unit. clergyman, author, 

born in Mass. 
Heintzelman, Samuel P., general U. S. A., 

born in Pa. 
Jackson, Chas. Thomas, physicist, b. in Mass. 
Moultrie, William, general of Revol'n, A71. 
Palmer, William Pitt, author, born in Mass. 
Powers, Hiram, sculptor, born in Vt. 
Pownall, Thomas, statesman, A62. 
Rantoul, Robert J., senator for Mass., born 

in Mass. 
Smith, Joseph, founder of Mormonism, 

born in Vt. 
Stephens, John L., traveler, author, b. in N. J. 
Tappan, Henry Philip, clergyman, professor, 

author, born in N.Y. 
Walker, Sears C, mathematician,b. in Mass. 
Wittingham, Wm. R., P. E. bp. of Md., born. 
1806* * 
Adams, Nehemiah, Cong, clergyman of 

Boston, born in Mass. 
Aiken, William, Gov. of 8. C, born in S. C. 
Alexander, Stephen, astronomer, b. in N.Y. 
Ames, Edward R., Meth. Epis. bp. b. in O. 
Bache, Alexander D., philosopher, b. in Pa. 
Backus, Isaac, historian, Bapt. cl., A82. 
Hanneker, Benj., negro mathematician, A75. 
Brace, Julia, deaf, blind mute, b. in Conn. 
Fessenden, Wm. Pitt, senator for Me., b. 

in N. H. 
Foote, Andrew Hull, rear-admiral U. S. N., 

born in Conn. 
Forrest, Edwin, actor, born in Pa. 
Gates, Horatio, major-gen. of Revol'n, A78. 
Gray, Robert, discoverer Cplumbia Riv.,A51. 
Grigsby, Hugh Rlair, scholar, born. 
Hale, John Parker, sen. for N. H., b. in N. H. 
Harper, Fletcher, publisher, born in N.Y. 
Hart, Solomon Alexander, artist, born. 
Haven, Samuel F., archeologist, b. in Mass. 
Hayes, Augustus Allen, chemist, b. in Vt. 
Hoffman, Charles Fenno, author, b. in N.Y. 
Hooker, Worthington, physician, author, b. 

in Mass. 
Hudson, Erasmus D., surgeon, lecturer, born 

in Conn. 
Hughes, Robert Ball, sculptor, born. 
King, Preston, senator for N.Y., b. in N.Y. 
Knox, Henry, general of Revolution, states- 
man, A56. 
Maury, Matthew Fontaine, hydrographer 

U. S. N., born in Va. 
Mcintosh, Lachlan, general of Revol'n, A 79. 
Morris, Robert, financier of Revol'n, A72. 
Packer, Asa, philanthropist, born in Conn. 
Patterson, Robert M., senator, A61. 
Polk, Leonidas, Prot. Epis. bp., Confederate 

general, born in N. C. 
Rauch, Frederick Aug., theologian, b. Ger. 
Robinson, Horatio N., mathematician, born 

in N.Y. 
Roebling, John Angus., engineer Brooklyn 

bridge, born in Ger. 
Simms, Wm. (Jilmore, novelist, born in 

S. C. 



Willis, Nath. Parker, poet, journalist, born 

in Me. 
Wise, Henry A., gov. of Va., Confederate 

general, born in Va. 
Wythe, George, signer of Declaration, A 80. 



CHURCH. 

1803 Mass. Sept. * The Massachusetts 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowl- 
edge is founded by Dr. Morse and others. 

* * Ky. A bitter controversy rages 
among Presbyterians respecting re- 
vivals. 

* * N, C. Lutherans form a Synod. 

* * N. H. The General Convention 
(Universalist) at Winchester adopts a 
Profession of Belief called the "Win- 
chester Confession. 

* * N. Y. The Presbyterian Synod of Al- 
bany is formed. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly 
(Presbyterian) meets ; James Hall, mod- 
erator. 

* * Great revivals prevail among the 
Presbyterians. 

1804 May 6-23. Md. The Fourth 
General Conference (Methodist Epis- 
copal) meets at Baltimore ; the non- 
limit plan is changed to one for a lim- 
ited pastorate of two years. 

May* New York. The General Synod 
(Reformed) meets ; J. H. Livingstone, 
president. 

Sept. 14. Mass. Samuel Parker (Protes- 
tant Episcopal) is consecrated a bishop. 

* * Cal. Nineteen Dominican Missions 
have been established. 

They occupy the entire coast-line" from 
San Francisco to San Diego, and are 
separated from one another only by an 
easy day's journey ; 20,000 Indians are 
connected with these stations, and lead 
industrious lives. 

* * New York. The General Conven- 
tion (Protestant Episcopal) meets. 

** Phila. The General Assembly 
(Presbyterian) meets ; James F. Arm- 
strong, moderator. 

* * Sunday-schools begin to be estab- 
lished in various parts of the country ; 
they increase rapidly. 

1805 * * Ky. A Committee of the Pres- 
byterian Synod witholds its authority 
from the licentiates of the Cumberland 
Presbytery, because of their unsound- 
ness in doctrine, and illiteracy. [A great 
controversy follows.] 

* * Mass. Henry Ware, a Unitarian, is 
made professor in Harvard against much 
opposition. 

* * Miss. The first Baptist church in this. 
State, the Tywappity, is formed. 

* * Pa. The General Assembly (Pres- 
byterian) meets; J. Richards, moderator. 

1806 June* N. Y. The General 
Synod (Reformed) meets at Albany ; 
J. V. C. Romeyn, president. 

LETTERS. 

1803 * * Letters of a British Spy, by 
William Wirt, appears. 

* * -11 * * Boston. The Monthly Anthol- 
ogy appears. 



UNITED STATES. 1803, Sept. -1806, June 16. 113 



* * or 05 * * Phila. The Literary Maga- 
zine and American Register is issued by 
Charles Brockden Brown. 

1804 May 9. Va. The Richmond In- 
quirer is first issued. 

Dec. 10. New York. The New York 
Historical Society is instituted. 

* * 0. The Ohio University (non-sect.) 
is organized at Athens. 

* * -05 * * Mass. The Literary Miscel- 
lany appears at Cambridge. 

* * Jane Talbot, by C. B. Brown, appears. 

* * Md. St. Charles College (Rom. 
Cath.) is founded at Elliott's Mills. 

* * The New York Historical Society Li- 
brary is founded [75,000 vols.]. 

1805 * * S. C. The Monthly Register ap- 
pears at Charleston. 

* * History of the American Revolution, by 
Mercy Warren, appears. 

SOCIETY. 

1803 Dec. * New York has its first 
labor strike. 

A number of sailors demand a rise 
from $10 to $14 a month, and march 
about the city compelling other sailors 
to join them, till the leaders are jailed 
by constables. 

1804 Feb. 15. N. J. The Legislature 
passes an act for the gradual abolition 
of slavery. 

All born after the next 4th of July to 
be free ; male children to be free at 25, 
and females at 21 years of age. 

July 11. N. J. Vice-President Aaron 
Burr challenges Alexander Hamil- 
ton to fight a duel. 

Hamilton appears, but refuses to fire ; 
Burr deliberately fires and mortally 
wounds him : cause, Hamilton's sup- 
posed interference with Burr's election 
to the governorship of New York. 

July 17. Boston. Daniel Webster of 
New Hampshire, 22 years of age, arrives 
and pursues his legal studies. 

* * D. C. Congress provides that an 
equivalent of malt liquors or wine 
may be substituted for spirits at such 
seasons of the year as, in the opinion of 
the President, it may be advisable to 
make the change, in order to promote 
the health of the soldiers. 

* * Abolition Societies begin to dwindle 
as the value of the cotton-gin becomes 
known ; slavery is advocated as a posi- 
tive good. 

1805* *N.J. At Allentown, The 
"Sober Society" is founded. 

* * New York. The tailors form the first 
organization having the character of a 
trade- union. 

STATE. 

1803 Oct. 17. D. C. The 8th Con- 
gress: the first session opens. It as- 
sembles to act on the treaty with 
France, by which Louisiana is ceded. 

Congress ; Senate : John Brown of 
Ky. is elected President pro tempore. 
House : Nathaniel Macon of N. C. is 
re-elected Speaker. 

Dec. 12. D. C. Congress submits the 
12th amendment to the Constitution 



to be ratified by the States ; it relates 
to the election of President, and reme- 
dies a defect in the electoral system. 
Dec. 20. La. The United States takes 
possession of Louisiana. 

* *New York. De "Witt Clinton, the 
46th mayor, is elected. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-07 * * O. Edward Tiffin. 

-09 * * Tenn. John Sevier. 

1804 Jan. 1. U. S. National debt 
$86,427,120. 

Jan. 23. D. C. Congress; Senate: 
John Brown of Ky. is reelected Presi- 
dent pro tempore. 

Mar. 10. D. C. Congress ; Senate : 
Jesse Franklin of N. C. is elected 
President pro tempore. 

Mar. 27. D. C. The 8th Congress : 
the first session closes. 

Sept. 25. D. C. The 12th amendment 
to the Constitution being ratified, is de- 
clared in force ; it relieves each of the 
State electors from voting for two candi- 
dates for President, as required previous 
to this date. 

Nov. 5. D. C. The 8th Congress : the 
second session opens. 

* * U. S. The fifth Presidential elec- 
tion ; Jefferson reelected. 

Dec. 31. U.S. Internal revenue 
$50,941. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-08 * * Ky. Christopher Greenup. 
-12 * * La. (Ter.). Win. C. C. Claiborne. 
-07 * * N. V. Morgan Lewis. 

-06 * * S.C. Paul Hamilton. 

* * "William Johnson of S. C. is ap- 
pointed Justice of the U. S. Supreme 
Court. 

1805 Jan. 1. U. S. National debt 
$82,312,150. 

Jan. 11. Congress: Michigan Terri- 
tory is formed from a portion of Indiana. 

Jan. 15. D. C. Congress; Senate: Jo- 
seph Anderson of Tenn. is elected 
President pro tempore. [Also, on Feb. 
28th and Mar. 2d.] 

Feb. 13. D C. Congress counts the 
electoral vote. 

Vote for President: Thomas Jefferson 
of Va. (Republican), 162 ; Charles C. 
Pinckney of S. C. (Federalist), 14. For 
Vice-President: George Clinton of N.Y. 
(Republican), 162 ; Rufus King of N.Y. 
(Federalist), 14. 

Mar. 4. D. C. The 8th Congress ends. 
Thomas Jefferson of Va., the 3d 
President, enters his 2d term in the 5th 
term of the Presidency. George Clin- 
ton of N. Y. is Vice-President. 

Cabinet changes : Jacob Crownin- 
shield of Mass. becomes Secretary of 
the Navy, and Bobert Smith of Md., 
[followed by John Breckinridge of 
Ky.], becomes Attorney-General. 

Mar. 5. D. C. Congress: The Senate, 
sitting as a High Court, fails to impeach 
Samuel Chase, a Justice of the U. S. 
Supreme Court. (Moore, Mar. 1.) 

June 4. A treaty of peace is concluded 
with Tripoli, and no more tribute is 
paid to pirates. 



Dec. 2. D. C. The 9th Congress 

opens. 
Congress ; Senate : Samuel Smith 

of Md. is again elected President pro 

tempore. House : Nathaniel Macon of 

N. C. is reelected Speaker. 
Dec. 31. U. S. Internal revenue $21,747. 

* * The Anti-Federalists change their 
name from Republicans to Democrats. 

* * England revives an old edict for- 
bidding neutrals from trading with 
France and her dependencies, or other 
nations with which England may be at 
war, aiming to crush the prosperous 
American commerce. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-08 * * Del. Nathaniel Mitchell. 
-13* * Mich. (Ter.). William Hull. 
-09 * * Miss. Robert Williams. 
-07 * * N. C. Nathaniel Alexander. 
-09 * * N.H. John Langdon. 

R. I. Paul Mumford. 
-06* * R. I. Henry Smith. 
-08 * * Va. Wm. H. Cabell. 

1806 Jan. 1. U. S. National debt 
$75,723,270. 

Mar. 18. D. C. Congress; Senate: 
Samuel Smith of Md. is reelected 
President pro tempore. 

Apr. 15. B.C. Congress prohibits the 
importation of specific articles of Brit- 
ish growth or manufacture, the act to 
take effect the 11th of November. 

Apr. 21. B.C. The 9th Congress: 
the first session closes. 

Apr. * The British ship Leander is or- 
dered out of American waters after 
firing on an American sloop and killing 
John Pierce, the owner. 

Apr. * Tenn. Colonel Aaron Burr is 
detected in a treasonable conspiracy. 

May 16. Eng. Orders in Council are 
issued. 

The British Ministry declares the 
whole coast of Europe, from the Elbe to 
Brest, to be under blockade — thus, ac- 
cording to its theory, excluding Amer- 
ican commerce, while not invested by 
British fleets. (" Paper blockade.") 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1803 * * 0. The Miami Exporting Com- 
pany opens the first bank in Cincinnati. 

1804 July 4. Pa. A weekly mail- 
stage commences to run between Pitts- 
burg and Philadelphia. 

* * Chicago. Fort Dearborn is erected. 

* * Mass. The Middlesex Canal, the 
first in the Union, is completed. It con- 
nects Boston harbor with the Concord 
River. 

1805 June 1. Mich. Detroit is de- 
stroyed by Are. 

June 4. Tripoli. The American pris- 
oners at Tripoli are liberated. 

* * Boston. Frederick Tudor begins the 
ice-trade of America, by shipping a 
cargo of 130 tons to Martinique. 

* * New York. Yellow fever prevails. 

* * Phila. The first dry-goods com- 
mission-house in this country opens for 
the sale of the cotton yarns and threads 
manufactured in Rhode Island. 



114 1806, Nov. 21-1809, Mar. 4. 



AMERICA 



ARMY — WAVY. 
1807 June 22. The British man-of-war 
Leopard demands the right to search 
the United States frigate Chesapeake for 
deserters, and, being refused, attacks 
and captures the ship and carries away 
four men as deserters, three of whom 
are American citizens. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1807 * * The Pennsylvania Academy 
of Fine Arts is established. 

Aug. 11 (?) +. N. Y. Robert Fulton's 
steamboat, the Clermont, sails from New 
York to Albany on her first trip ; 150 
miles in 33 hours. (Engine made by 
Boulton and Watt, of England.) 

Dec. 14. Conn. An extraordinary and 
brilliant meteor is seen ; it explodes 
three times. 

1808 * * Marius Sitting Among the Ruins 
of Carthage, painted by Vanderlyn, re- 
ceives the gold medal at the Paris Ex- 
hibition. 

* * N. J. The steamboat Phoenix, built 
by John Stevens, makes the first ocean 
trip from Hoboken to Philadelphia. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1807* * 
Abbot, Gorham D., educator, born in Me. 
Adams, Charles Francis, minister to Eng.; 

arbitrator of Alabama claims, b. in Mass. 
Adams,William, Pres. clergyman, b. in Conn. 
Agassiz, Louis John R., teacher, natural- 
ist, born May 28, in Switz. 
Alden, Joseph, educationist, born in N.Y.. 
Bailey, Gamaliel, journalist, born in N. J. 
Brant, Joseph, Mohawk chief, A65. 
Buford, Nap. B., brig.-gen., engineer, b. Ky. 
Casey, Silas, brevet maj.-gen., born in R. I. 
Cheever, George B., Cong, cl., b. in Me. 
Dayton,Wm. Lewis, senator for N.Y., b. N. J. 
Ellsworth, Oliver, chief justice, A62. 
Fay, Theodore Sedgwick, author, b. in N.Y. 
Felton, Cornelius Conway, author, 1'res. of 

Harvard University, b. in Mass. 
Floyd, John B., Sec. of War, b. in Va. 
Forbes, John M., Prot. Epis. clergyman, b. 
Guyot, Arnold H., geographical writer, born 

in Switz. 
Hammond, James H., senator for S. C, born 

in S. C. 
Herbert, Henry William, author, b. in Eng. 
Hildreth, Richard, historian, born in Mass. 
Holt, Joseph, secretary of war, born in Ky. 
Janes, Edmund Storer, M. E. bp., b. in Mass. 
Lee, Alfred, P. E. bp. of Col., U.S.A., Del., 

b. in Mass. 
Lee, Robert Edward, col. U.S.A., Confed- 
erate general, born in Va., Jan. 19. 
Long-fellow, Henry Wadsworth, poet, b. 

in Me., Feb. 27. 
Malbone, Edward G., miniature painter, A30. 
McMichael, Morton, editor, orator, b. in N. J. 
Mount, William Sidney, painter, b. in N.Y. 
Muhlenberg, John Peter Gabriel, gen., A61. 
Neal, Joseph Clay, humorist, born in N. H. 
Owen, David Dale, geologist, born in Scot. 
Packer, Wm. F., journalist, Gov. of Pa., 

born in Pa, 
Palmer, Phoebe, evangelist, born in N.Y. 
Parker, Amasa J., lawyer, born in Conn. 
Pickens, Francis W., Gov., senator for S. C, 

born in S. C. 
Preble, Edward, commodore U. S. N., A46. 
Ridgely, James L., lawyer, O. F., b. in Md. 
Ruschenberger, Wm. S. W., author, b. in N. J. 
Schaeffer, Charles Fred., Luth. clergyman, 

born in Pa. 
Stillman, Samuel, Bapt. clergyman, A70. 
"Whittier, John Greenleaf, poet, born in 

Mass., Dec. 17- 
Woods, Leonard, Jr., president of Bowdoin 

College, born in Mass. 
1808* * 
Alexander, Nath., Gov. of N. C, officer in 

Revolution, A52. 
Ames, Fisher, M. C. for Mass., orator, 

July 4, A58. 
Bache, Sarah, nurse in Am. Revol'n, A64. 
Bartine, David W., M. E. clergyman,orator,b. 
Beardsley, E. Edwards, P. E. clergyman, b. 

in Conn. 



Chase, Salmon P., chief justice, b. in N. H. 
Craven, Thomas T., rear-admiral, b. in D. C. 
Davidson, Lucretia Maria, poet, b. in N.Y. 
Davis, Jefferson, see. of war., sen. for Miss., 

Pres. of Confed. States, b. June 3, in Ky. 
Decatur, Stephen, Sr., naval officer, A 57. 
Dickinson, John, M. C. for Del., A76. 
Evans, Fred Wm., Shaker elder, b. in Eng. 
Fasquelle, Jean Louis, author, born. 
Fish, Hamilton. Gov. of N.Y., secretary of 

state, born in N.Y. 
Gage, Francis D., orator, born in 0. 
Gallagher, William D., poet, born in Pa. 
Hackett, Horatio Batch, biblical scholar, 

born in Mass. 
Henderson, James P., sen. for Tex., b. N. C. 
Hillard, George S., author, journalist, b. Me. 
Hilliard, Henry W., lawyer, born in N. C. 
Johnson, Andrew, 17th President, senator 

for Tenn., born Dec. 29, in N. C. 
Kirkland, Samuel, founder of Hamilton Col- 
lege, A 64. 
Lee, Leroy M., M. E. clergyman, theologian, 

born in Va. 
Linn,William, chaplain in Revol'n army, A56. 
Palmer, Ray, Cong, clergyman, hymnolo- 

gist, born in R. I. 
Park, Edwards A., clergyman, author, critic, 

born in R. I. / 
Patterson, John, general, A64. 
Prentiss, Seargent Smith, M. C. for Miss., 

born in Me. 
Reed, Henry, scholar, author, born in Pa. 
Rockwell, James O., poet, born in Conn. 
Rogers, Henry Darwin, geologist, b. in Pa. 
Sartin, John, engraver, born in London. 
Strong, William, justice S. Court, b. in Pa. 
Sullivan, James, Gov. of Mass, writer, A64. 
Van Rensselaer, Cortland, Pres. clergyman, 

born in N.Y. 
Washington, Samuel Atler, writer, born. 
Zeisberger, David, Moravian missionary, A87. 

CHURCH. 
1806* *Ky. The Presbytery of Ken- 
tucky is dissolved by the Synod, because 
of the lack of ministerial learning and 
sound doctrine. 

* * Mass. The American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Mis- 
sions germinates. 

At a gathering of four students of 
Williams College, under the lee of a 
haystack, where they take refuge from 
a thunder-storm, Samuel J. Mills pro- 
poses that they attempt to send the gos- 
pel to the heathen, and says, " We can 
do it if we will." 

The Massachusetts Evangelic . Mis- 
sionary Society is instituted. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly 
(Presbyterian) meets; Samuel Miller, 
moderator. 

1807 Sept.* N. Y. The General 
Synod (Reformed) meets at Harlem ; 
J. V. C. Romeyn, president. 

* * Conn. The Connecticut Religious 
Tract Society is organized at New 
Haven by Timothy Dwight and others. 

* * The Lake Baptist Missionary Society 
is formed. 

* * The Society of Friends opens a mission 
among the Brotherton Indians. 

* * Mass. The Baptist Missionary So- 
ciety is formed. 

* * N. T. The Associated Saratoga Pres- 
bytery is formed. 

The first Baptist mission to the In- 
dians is opened among the Tuscaroras. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly 
(Presbyterian) meets ; A. Alexa^er, 
moderator. 

1808 May 6-26. Md. The General 
Conference (Methodist Episcopal) is 
held in Baltimore. 

A delegated General Conference is 
provided for ; restrictive rules adopted ; 
Wm. McKendree ordained bishop. 



Sept. 28. Mass. Andover Theological 
Seminary (Congregational) is opened. 

Oct. 2. Ala. The first Baptist church is 
organized (Flint River). 

* * Ky. The Roman Catholic diocese of 
Louisville is established. 

* * Mass. Organization of the Baptist 
Female Mite Society at Beverly. 

* * Md. The General Convention 
(Protestant Episcopal) meets in Balti- 
more ; it consents to the organization 
of the Western country into a separate 
diocese. 

* * New York. The Methodist Publishing 
House is removed from Philadelphia to 
New York. 

* * N. Y. The first church edifice in 
Williamsburg is built by the Methodists. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly 
(Presbyterian) meets ; Philip Miledoler, 
moderator. 

Thomas Campbell of Ireland be- 
comes pastor of the Seceders (Disciples 
of Christ). 

* * Va. The Accomack Baptist Associa- 
tion is formed. 

* * Roman Catholic Sees are erected at 
New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and 
Bardstown. 

LETTERS. 
1806* * Mass. John Quincy Adams 
becomes professor of belles-lettres in 
Harvard University. 

* * N. Y. The Young Misses' Magazine 
appears in Brooklyn. 

* * Phila. The American Register ap- 
pears. 

±* * The Foresters, by Alexander Wilson, 
appears. 

1807* * Mass. The Andover Theologi- 
cal Seminary (Cong.) is organized. 

* * Tenn. The University of Tennes- 
see (non-sect.) is organized at Knoxville. 
It has previously been known as Blount 
College. 

* * The Salmagundi papers, by "Washing- 
ton Irving and J. K. Paulding, appear. 

* * New York. The Ladies' Weekly 
Miscellany appears. 

* * Mass. The Theological Seminary 
Library is founded at Andover [43,000 
vols.]. 

The Boston Athenaeum Library is 
founded [149,910 vols.]. (Whitcombe, 
1806.) 

* * Md. Mount St. Mary's College 
(Rom. Cath.) is founded at Emmittsburg. 

1808 July* Mo. First issue of the 
Missouri Gazette at St. Louis ; the first 
newspaper in this city. 

* * The Columbiad, by Joel Barlow, ap- 
pears. 

* * The first volume of Ornithology, by 
Alexander Wilson, appears. 

SOCIETY. 

1807 * * N. Y. Martin Van Buren mar- 
ries Hannah Hoes. 

1808 Jan. 1. U. S. The importation 
of slaves is prohibited by Act of 
Congress after this date. 



UNITED STATES. 1806, Nov. 21-1809, Mar. 4. 115 



Apr. 30. N. Y. Organization of the 
First Temperance Society, "The 
Union Temperance Society of Moreau 
and Northumberland," by Billy J. Clark, 
in Saratoga county. 

It declares that " no member shall 
drink rum, gin, whisky, wine, or any 
distilled spirits, or compositions of the 
same or any of them, except by advice 
of a physician, or in case of actual dis- 
ease, also excepting at public dinners, 
under the penalty of 25 cents, provided 
that this article shall not infringe on 
any religious rite ; no member shall be 
intoxicated under penalty of 50 cents," 
and that " no member shall offer any of 
the above liquors to any person to drink 
thereof under the penalty of 25 cents for 
each offense." 

STATE. 

1806 Nov. 21. Fr. Napoleon retali- 
ates by issuing the Berlin Decree, 
and declares all the British Islands 
blockaded. [Both the French and En- 
glish capture American vessels.] 

Dec. 1. D. C. The 9th Congress : the 
second session opens. 

* * D. C. Congress grants pensions to 
disabled soldiers and sailors. 

Dec. 31. Monroe and Pinckney procure 
a treaty with Great Britain regarding 
the protection of the rights of neutrals. 
[It is suppressed by the President.] 

* *D.C. Brockholst Livingston of New 
York is appointed Justice of the U. S. 
Supreme Court. 

* * England persists in searching 
American vessels for deserters, and 
impressing American seamen. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated: 
-09 * * Ga. Jared Irwin. 

-08 * * Mass. James Sullivan. 
-07 * * B. I. Isaac Wilbur. 
-08 * * S. C. Chas. Pinckney. 

1807 Jan. 1. U. S. National debt 
$69,218,398. 

Jan. 7. Eng. Orders in Council are 
issued. 

England forbids all coast trade with 
France. [Many American vessels are 
seized.] 

Jan. 22. D. C. Congress is officially 
informed of Aaron Burr's conspiracy. 

Feb. * Tenn. Aaron Burr is arrested 
on the charge of treason, having ar- 
ranged for the invasion of Mexico, to 
detach the Western and Southern States 
f -','in the Union, and to set up a western 
empire. [No overt act is proven.] 

Mar. 2. D. C. Congress ; Senate : Sam- 
uel Smith of Md. is elected President 
pro tempore. 

Mar. 4. D.C. The 9th Congress ends. 

June 22. The British man-of-war Leop- 
ard fires upon the frigate Chesapeake, be- 
cause of the refusal to deliver up four 
men claimed as deserters ; after three 
men are killed, the frigate's colors are 
struck. » 

July 2. D. C. Jefferson, by proclama- 
tion, forbids all intercourse with Brit- 
ish ships-of-war, and orders all that are 
in American waters to withdraw. 

Oct. 26. D. C. The 10th Congress 
opens. 

Congress; House: Joseph B. Var- 
num of Mass. is elected Speaker. 



* * Controversy between England and 
the United States respecting the rights 
of neutrals; England claims the right 
to search American ships, and to take 
naturalized American citizens. 

Nov. 11. Eng. Orders in Council is- 
sued, which vex American commerce, by 
prohibiting all trade with France or her 
allies. 

Dec. 17. Fr. The Milan Decree is- 
sued by Napoleon supplements the Ber- 
lin Decree, and extinguishes the most 
profitable portion of the commerce of 
the United States. 

Dec. 22. D. C. Congress passes the 
Second Embargo Act. 

This [celebrated and much ridiculed] 
Act detains all American vessels in 
American ports, and cuts off commercial 
intercourse with England and France, to 
compel their recognition of the rights of 
neutrals. [The Americans fail to starve 
their enemies.] 

* * New York. Marinus Willett is elected 
the 47th mayor. 

* * Thomas Todd of Ky. is appointed 
Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated: 

La. (Ter.). Meriwether Lewis. 
-08 * * N.C. Benjamin Williams. 
-17* * N. Y. Daniel D. Tompkins. 
-08 * * 0. Thomas Kirker. 
-11 * * It. I. James Fenner. 
-08 * * Vt. Israel Smith. 

1808 Jan. 1. U. S. National debt 
$65,196,317. 

D. C. Congress prohibits the impor- 
tation of slaves after this date. 

Jan. 8. D. C. Congress requires coast- 
ing and fishing vessels to give bonds to 
reland their cargoes in the United 
States (Embargo Act). 

Feb. 4. N. Y. The first legislative pro- 
ceedings relative to the canals appear. 

Mar. 12. D. C. Congress subjects ves- 
sels and boats of all kinds, and land car- 
riages, to the Embargo. 

Mar. 17. D. C. Rupture of the nego- 
tiations between the British minister 
and the Government. 

Apr. 16. D. C. Congress : Senate ; Sam- 
uel Smith of Md. is reelected President 
pro tempore. 

Apr. 17. France, by the Bayonne 
Decree, directs the seizure of all Ameri- 
can vessels in French ports. 

Apr. 25. D. C. Congress forbids for- 
eign vessels to engage in the coasting 
trade, and requires all others to come 
under stringent rules. 

The 10th Congress: the first session 
closes. 

May 30. D. C. The new House of 
Representatives is first occupied. 

Aug. 9. D. C. Jefferson suspends in- 
tercourse with Great Britain because of 
the non-ratification of the British treaty. 

* * «« Free Trade and Sailors' Bights " 
is a political war-cry of the times. 

* * Va. Jefferson declines the nomi- 
nation for a third term in the presidency. 

Nov. 7. D.C. The 10th Congress: 
the second session opens. 



* * New Englanders talk of rebellion, 
as their ships are rotting at their docks 
because of the Embargo. 

Dec. 28. D. C. Congress; Senate: Ste- 
phen R. Bradley of Vt. is elected 
President pro tempore. 

* * U.S. Sixth Presidential election; 
Democratic-Republicans are elected. 

The national election sweeps away the 
Administration majority in Congress 
(84 to 30), and prepares the way for the 
repeal of the Embargo Act. 

* * -10 * * New York. DeWitt Clinton 
is elected the 48th mayor. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated: 
-11 * * Del. George Truett. 
-12* *Ky. Charles Scott. 

-09 * * Mass. Levi Lincoln. 
-10 * *N. C. David Stone. 
-10 * * 0. Samuel Huntington. 

Pa. Simon Snyder. 
-10 * * S. C. John Drayton. 
-11 * * Va. John Tyler. 
-09 * * Vt. Isaac Tichenor. 

1809 Jan. 1. U. S. National debt 
$57,023,192. 

Jan. 9. Congress proceeds to drastic 
measures ; attempting to avoid the Em- 
bargo Act forfeits the vessel or carriage, 
and involves a fine of four times the 
value of the merchandise, one-half of it 
to go to the informer. 

Jan. 30. D. C. Congress ; Senate : John 
Milledge of Ga. is elected President 
pro tempore. 

Feb. 3. Illinois Territory (Illinois and 
Wisconsin) is formed. 

Feb. 8. D. C. Congress counts the 
electoral vote. 

Vote for President : James Madison 
of Va. (Eepublican), 122 ; Charles C. 
Pinckney of S. C. (Federalist), 47; 
George Clinton of N. Y. (Republican), 
6. Vote for Vice-President: George 
Clinton (Republican), 113 ; Euf us King 
of N. Y. (Federalist), 47 ; John Langdon 
of N. H., 9 ; James Madison of Va., 3 ; 
James Monroe of Va., 3 ; vacancy, 1. 

Feb. 27. D. C. Congress ; The Em- 
bargo Act of 1807 is repealed, to take 
effect Mar. 15th. 

Mar. 4. D.C. The 10th Congress ends. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1806* * Pa. Coal is first mined in the 
United States, at Mauch Chunk. 

* * N. Y. A log cabin is erected on the 
present site of Rochester. 

* * Commerce, which had become very 
prosperous during the French and En- 
glish wars, suffers greatly by the unan- 
nounced blockades which override the 
rights of neutrals. 

* * The principal maritime towns suf- 
fer because of the restrictions of com- 
merce, and their citizens send numerous 
petitions to the President and to Con- 
gress, praying for the removal of the 
Embargo. 

1808 May 28. N. Y. Solemn re- 
burial of the bones of Revolutionary 
prisoners in a vault at Wallabout. 



116 1809, Mar. 4-1811, Nov. 18. 



AMERICA 



ARMY— NAVY. 

1811 Jan. 9. La. The entire militia 
of New Orleans is called out to suppress 
a negro insurrection. 

Apr. 6. Va. French privateer Revanche 
1 1 u Cerf is burnt at Norfolk, by 15 men 
in 2 boats, about 2 a.m. 

May 16. Va. The British sloop-of-war 
Little Belt fires a shot at the United 
States frigate President; the latter 
retaliates with a broadside that kills 
10 and wounds 30 men. [This action 
creates great excitement throughout 
the country.] 

Sept. + * Ind. The Shawanese In- 
dians make incursions among the set- 
tlers, whom they outrage and murder. 

Nov. 7. Ind. Battle of Tippecanoe; 
the Indians conspire to surprise Gov. 
William H. Harrison at Burnet Creek, 
and are effectively subdued after a ter- 
rific battle. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1809 Nov. 21. New York. George F. 
Cook first appears in America in Richard 
III., at the Park Theater. 

± * * Boston. Sails are made from cotton 
duck. 

1810 Dec. 31. Boston. Mrs. Duff first 
appears in America as Juliet. 

* * Boston. The Park Street Church 
is erected. 

1811 ** New York. Steamboat Paragon 
is built. 

Sept. 17. Va. A beautiful annular 
eclipse of the sun is observed at 
Richmond. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 
1809* * 

Albright, Jacob, foun. Evang. Ass'n, A49. 

Alexander, Joseph Addison, theologian, ori- 
entalist, born in Pa. 

Arthur, Timothy S., author, born in N.Y. 

Bailey, Silas, pres. Granville coll., 0., born 
in Mass. 

Baldwin, John Denison, author, b. in Conn. 

Barnard, Fred. A. P., instructor, b. in Mass. 

Bartlett, Wm. H. C, scientific writer, b. Pa. 

Benjamin, Park, poet, born in Guiana. 

Bledsoe, Albert T., Confed. officer, b. in Ky. 

Buckley, Samuel Botsford, botanist, b. N.Y. 

Burgess, George, P. E. bp. of Me., b. in K. I. 

Burns, Francis, M. E. missionary bp., b. N.Y. 

Carson, Christopher, (Kit Carson), b. in Ky. 

Chapman, Alvan W., botanist, b. in Mass. 

Curry, Daniel, M. E. cl., editor, born in N.Y. 

Curtis, Benj. Bobbins, justices. Ct.,b. Mass. 

Dahlgren, John Adolf, rear-admiral, b. in Pa. 

Edwards, Tryon, Cong, clergyman, writer, 
born in Conn. 

Fowler, Orson Squire, phrenologist, b. N.Y. 

Gibbes, Robert W., phy., author, b. in S. C. 

Giles, Henry, essayist, born in Ireland. 

Gliddon, George R., Egyptologist, b. in Eng. 

Glisson, Oliver S., rear-admiral, born in O. 

Greene, William, Gov. of R. I., dies. 

Griffiths, John "Willis, architect, b. in N.Y. 

Hamlin, Hannibal, Vice-President, sen- 
ator for Me., born in Me. 

Haswell, Charles Haynes, engineer, b. N.Y. 

Heyward, Thomas, patriot of S. C, A63. 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, poet, b. in Mass. 

Houghton, Douglas, naturalist, b. in N.Y. 

Hunter, Robert M. T., senator for Va., b. Va. 

Ingraham, Joseph H., author, born in Me. 

Johnston, Joseph E., Confed. gen., b. in Va. 

Johnson, Oliver, editor, abolitionist, born. 

Jones, James C, Gov. Tenn., sen., b. in Tenn. 

Kendrick, Asahel C, scholar, author, b. in Vt. 

Kirkbride, Thos. S., phy. to insane, b. in Pa. 

Lewis, Meriwether, explorer, A55. 

Lincoln, Abraham, 16th President, b. Feb. 
12, near Hodgensville, Hardin Co., Ky. 

Little, George, Capt. in Revol'n army, AS5. 

Little, R. M., pres. Ins. Co., b. Mass. 

Mackenzie, Robt. S., Brit. Am. journalist, b. 

Mayer, Branz, lawyer, hist'l writer, b. in Md. 



McCormick, Cryus H., inventor of reapers, 

born in Va. 
McGill, John D., R. C. bp. of Va., b. in Pa. 
Mitchel, Ormsby M., astronomer, gen., b. Ky. 
Paine, Thomas, patriot, writer, A72. 
Pike, Albert, poet, born in Mass. 
Price, Sterling, Gov., M. C. for Mo., b. in Va. 
Semmes, Raphael, Confederate naval officer, 

born in Md. 
Schenck, Robert C.,M. C. for O., gen., b. in O. 
Thompson, Cephas Giovanni, artist, b. Mass. 
Trumbull, Jonathan, Gov., sen. for Conn., 

A69. 
Winthrop, Robt. C, M. C, senator for Mass., 

born in Mass. 

1810* * 

Aldridge, Ira, colored actor, born in Md. 

Allen, Thomas, chaplain, A77. 

Backus, Jay S., sec. Bapt. Home Miss. So., b. 

Barnum, Phineas T. , showman, b. in Conn. 

Black, Jeremiah S., jurist, secretary of 
state, born in Pa. 

Brooks, James, journalist, politician, b. Me. 

Brougham, John, actor, born in Ireland. 

Brown, Charles Brockden, novelist, A39. 

Burritt, Elihu, linguist, writer, b. in Conn. 

Clark, Willis Gaylord, poet, author, b. N.Y. 

Clarke, James Freeman, Unit, clergyman, 
author, born in N. H. 

Clay, Cassius M., minister to Rus., b. in Ky. 

Cooper, James, lawyer, born in Md. 

Crosby, Alpheus, educationist, born in N. H. 

Doggett, David S., bp. M. E. Ch. South, b. 

Du Bois, Wm. Ewing, numismatist, b. in Pa. 

Ellet, Charles, Jr., engineer, born in Pa. 

Fuller, Sarah Margaret, author, b. in Mass. 

Garland, Landon C, educator, mathemati- 
cal writer, born in Va. 

Gray, Asa, botanist, born in N.Y. 

Green, Samuel S., educator, born. 

Griffin, Cyrus, statesman, judge, A61. 

Hart, Joel T., sculptor, born in Ky. 

Hart, John S., educationist, author, b. in 
Mass. 

Humphreys, Andrew A., general, b. in Pa. 

Jackson, Jonathan, of Mass, A67. 

Langstroth, L., inventor of beehive, dies. 

Lawrance, John, jurist, statesman, A60. 

Lincoln, Benj., maj.-gen. in Revolution, A77. 

Loomis, Justin R., educator, author, b. N.Y. 

Lord, John, historical lecturer, b. in N. H. 

Macanally, David Rice, M. E. clergyman, ed- 
itor, born in Tenn. 

Magoon, Elias L., Bapt, clergyman, author, 
born in N. H. 

McCloskey, John, first American cardinal, 
born Mar. 20, in N.Y. 

McKay, Donald, shipbuilder, born. 

Morrill, Justin S., senator for Vt., b. in Vt. 

Notman, John, architect, born in Scot. 

Palmer, James S., rear-admiral, b. in N. J. 

Parker, Theodore, Unit, cl., b. in Mass. 

Potter, Hazard Arnold, physician, b. in N.Y. 

Putnam, Mary Lowell, author, b. in Mass. 

Riggs, Elias, missionary, linguist, b. in N. J. 

Sears, Edmund H., Unit, clergyman, author, 
born in Mass. 

Seymour, Horatio, Gov. of N. Y., b. in N. Y. 

Sharswood, George, jurist, born in Pa. 

Skene, Philip, Brit, officer in Am., A85. 

Spalding 1 , Martin John. R. C. archbishop, 
born in Ky. 

Toombs, Rob., sen. for Ga., Confed. sec. state, 
b. Ga. 

Trautwine, John Cresson, engineer, b. in Pa. 

Turner, Wm. Wadden, philologist, b. in Eng. 

Tyler, William Seymour, scholar, b. in Va. 

Van Buren, John, politician, born in N.Y. 

Washington, Wm. A., officer in Revol'n, A58. 

Wood, Alphonso, botanist, born in N. H. 
1811* * 

Asboth, Alex. S., brig.-gen., b. in Hungary. 

Bailey, Jacob Witman, scientist, b. in Mass. 

Baker, Edward Dickinson, senator for Cal., 
born in Eng. 

Barnard, Henry, educator, b. in Conn. 

Boggs, Charles S., rear-admiral, b. in N.J. 

Bouvier, Hannah M., writer on astronomy, b. 

Bowen, Francis, prof., author, b. in Mass. 

Campbell, John A., justice, born in Ga. 

Chase, Samuel, jurist of Md., A70. 

Crawford, Nathaniel M., Bapt. cl., b. Ga. 

Dana, Francis, jurist of Mass., A 68. 

Daviess, Joseph H., att'y-gen. of Ky., A37. 

Draper, John William, chemist, b. in Eng. 

Eaton, William, soldier, consul, A 47. 

Emory, William H., major-general, b. in Md. 

Foster, Abbie K., reformer, born in Mass. 

Gilliss, James M., astronomer, born in D. C. 

Greeley, Horace, editor, b. Feb. 3, in N. H. 

Greene, George Washington, author, b. R. I. 

Hall, James, geologist, born in Mass. 

Hunt, Ward, justice, S. Ct., b. in N.Y. 

James, Henry, philosophical writer, b. N.Y. 

Jenkins, Thornton A., U. S. navy, b. in Va. 

Johnson, James, Gov. of Ga., born in N.C. 

Kennedy, Anthony, senator for Va., b. in Md. 



Kip, William I., P. E. tp. of Cal., b. in N.Y. 
Lapham, Increase A., scientist, born in N.Y. 
Loomis, Elias, physicist, math'n, b. in Conn. 
Low, Abiel A., philanthropist, b. in Mass. 
Murdoch, James Edward, actor, born in Pa 
Noyes, John H., communist of Oneida, b. Vt. 
Page, Wm., painter, born in N.Y. 
Paine, Robert Treat, Jr., author, A38. 
Parton, Sara P. Willis, (Fanny Fern), b. 

in Me. 
Peabody, Andrew P., prof., cl., b. Mass. 
Peck, Jesse Truesdell, M. E. bp., b. in N.Y. 
Phillips, "Wendell, orator, reformer, born 

Nov. 29, in Mass. 
Pierce, George Foster, M. E. bp., b. in Ga. 
Porter, Noah, psychologist, b. in Conn. 
Pratt, Orson, Mormon leader, born in N.Y. 
Simpson, Matthew, M. E. bp., orator, born 

June 20, in O. 
Stowe, Harriet Eliza [Beecher], author, 

born in Conn. 
Street, Alfred Billings, poet, born in N.Y. 
Sumner, Charles, senator for Mass., orator, 

born in Mass. 
Thomas, Jos., physician, biographer, b. N.Y. 
Williams, Wm., signer of Declaration, A80. 
Winslow, John A., rear-admiral, b. in N. C. 

CHURCH. 

1809 May 3. R. I. The Rhode Island 
Congregational Conference is organized. 

June 8. N. H. The General Association 
(Congregational) of New Hampshire is 
organganized. 

June * New York. The General Synod 
(Reformed) meets ; Nicolas Lansing, 
president. 

Autumn. Mass. Samuel J. Mills be- 
comes interested in the natives of the 
Pacific Islands by the simple story of 
Henry Obookiah, a native boy. (He 
becomes one of the founders of the 
American Missionary Society.) 

* * New York. English is first exclu- 
sively used in the Lutheran Church. 

* * N. Y. Organization of the New York 
Bible and Common Prayer-Book So- 
ciety of the Episcopal Church. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly 
(Presbyterian) meets ; Drury Lacy, mod- 
erator. 

The first Synod of the Reformed Pres- 
byterians is formed. 

* * Pa. The first (?) church Sunday-school 
is formed at Pittsburg ; the transfer of 
Sunday-schools to church control be- 
gins, and schools rapidly increase. 

* * Vt. The General Association of "Ver- 
mont Congregationalists is allowed del- 
egates in the (Presbyterian) General 
Assembly. 

1810 Feb.* Ky. The Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church is finally organ- 
ized, as a separate church, because of 
the high educational standard de- 
manded for the Presbyterian ministry. 

June 29. Mass. The plan for the or- 
ganization of the American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions is 
devised by Samuel Spring and Samuel 
Worcester, and is adopted by the Gen- 
eral Association of Congregational 
Churches, at Bradford. 

Sept. 5. Conn. The American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions 
is formally constituted at Farmington. 

Sept. 10. Pa. The Brush Run (Disciples> 
church is organized. 

* * Conn. Lyman Beecher is installed 
pastor of the Congregational church at 
Litchfield. [He remains 16 years.] 



UNITED STATES. 1809, Mar. 4-1811, Nov. 18. 117 



* * Mass. A remarkable missionary move- 
ment begins. 

Four students of Andover Theological 
Seminary — Messrs. Mills, Judson, New- 
ell, and Nott — meet a number of minis- 
ters in the parlors of Professor Stuart, to 
receive a reply to their request to be sent 
with the Gospel to the heathen. The an- 
swer is, " Go in the name of the Lord, 
and we will help you." 

* * New Eng. Congregational churches 
are disrupted by the withdrawal of 
Unitarians. 

* * N. H. The General Association of 
Congregationalists is allowed delegates 
in the (Presbyterian) General Assembly. 

* * New York. The Protestant Episco- 
pal Tract Society is organized. 

* * N. Y. Genesee Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church is formed. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly 
(Presbyterian) meets ; John B. Romeyn, 
moderator. 

* * Regulations and rules are adopted 
by the Roman Catholic bishops. 

1811 May 29. JV. Y. John Henry Ho- 
bart (Protestant Episcopal) assistant 
bishop of New York, and A. V. Gris- 
wold, presiding bishop of the Easton 
diocese, are consecrated. 

LETTERS. 

1809 Apr. 4. Pa. The Legislature di- 
rects that the poor be sent to the most 
convenient school, and their tuition 
be paid. 

* * A History of New York by Diedrich 
Knickerbocker, by Washington Irving, 
appears. 

* * Solomon Spaulding writes a religious 
romance, The Manuscript Found (The 
Book of Mormon). 

1810 * * N.J. Queen's College (Rut- 
gers) and the (Reformed) Theological 
professorate are united ; Dr. Livingston 
is professor and president. 

* * -11 * * Phila. The Mirror of Taste 
appears. 

SOCIETY. 
1810 Jan. 15. New York. Masquerades 

and masked balls are prohibited. 
Jan. 17. Phila. Masquerades and 

masked balls are prohibited. 

* * V. S. A total of 1,191,363 slaves is 
reported. 

* * La. Zachary Taylor marries Mar- 
garet Smith. 

STATE. 

Fourth Administration. Democratic- 
Republican. 

1809 Mar. 4. D. C. James Madison 
of Va. is inaugurated the fourth Presi- 
dent in the sixth term of the Presidency, 
and George Clinton of N. Y. continues 
Vice-President. 

Cabinet: Robert Smith of Md. 
(State), Albert Gallatin of Pa. (Treas.), 
"William Eustis of Mass. (War), Paul 
Hamilton of S. C. (Navy), Gideon 
Granger of Conn. (Postmaster-General), 
Caesar A. Rodney of Del. (Attorney- 
General), 



Mar. 15. U. S. The Embargo is re- 
moved, but commercial intercourse 
with England and France interdicted. 

Mar. * Fr. Napoleon ignores his prom- 
ise to the Americans by again en- 
forcing the obnoxious decrees, and 
declares that " the decrees of Berlin and 
Milan were fundamental laws of the 
Empire." By a diplomatic fiction he 
has succeeded in his purpose to array 
the United States and Great Britain 
against each other in mutual hostility. 

Apr. 23. D. C. David M. Erskine, Brit- 
ish minister, pledges the Court to re- 
peal the anti-neutral decrees by June 10. 
Trade will then be resumed between 
the United States and Great Britain. 
[The announcement of the agreement 
is received with great joy by the country, 
as an assurance of peace.] 

May 22. B.C. The 11th Congress 
meets in extra session [and continues 
the controversy with Great Britain]. 

May * B. C. Congress ; House : Joseph 
B. Varnum of Mass. is elected Speaker. 

June 26. B. C. Congress ; Senate : An- 
drew Gregg of Pa. is elected President 
pro tempore. 

June 28. B. C. 1 1th Congress : the first 
session closes. 

Sept. * Gov. "William Henry Harrison 
meets the Indians of the Northwest, and 
buys the title to 3,000,000 acres of land. 

Nov. 8. B. C. The President denies 
the British minister farther inter- 
course with the Cabinet, because his 
pledges have been disavowed by the 
British Government. Erskine's func- 
tions cease. 

Nov. 27. B.C. The 11th Congress: 
the second session opens. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-11 * * Conn. John Treadwell. 
-13 * * Ga David B. Mitchell. 
-18* * III. {Ter.) Ninian Edwards. 
-10 * * Mass. Christopher Gore. 
-17 * * Miss. David Holmes. 

-10 * * N. H. Jeremiah Smith. 

15 * * Tenn. Win. Blount. 
-13 * * Vt. Jonas Galusha. 

* * Indiana is constituted a Territory. 
1810 Jan. 1. U. S. National debt 

$53,173,217.52. 

Feb. 28. D. C. Congress ; Senate : 
John Gaillard of S. C. is elected Presi- 
dent pro tempore. [Reelected Apr. 17.] 

Mar. 23. Fr. The Rambouillet Decree 
is issued. 

Napoleon decrees that all American 
vessels entering French ports shall be 
seized and condemned. 

May 1. B. C. Congress passes the 
Macon's No. 2 Act, pledging to pro- 
hibit American trade with the other 
country if either France or England 
shall revoke its offensive edicts. 

The 11th Congress: the second ses- 
sion closes. 

July 13. N. Y. The British minister, 
Augustus J. Foster, is burned in effigy 
before the door of his lodgings in 
Albany. 



July 19. Oer. The king of Prussia, by 
decree, forbids American vessels enter- 
ing his ports. 

Aug. 5. France revokes some of its 
edicts — revocation to take effect Nov. 
1 — as to American vessels. 

Nov. 2. B. C. President Madison pro- 
claims all restrictions removed from 
the commerce of France. 

Dec. 3. B. C. The 11th Congress: 
the third session opens. 

* *-H* * New York. Jacob Radcliff is 
elected the 49th mayor. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-12 * * Mass. Elbridge Gerry. 
-11* *N.C. Benj. Smith. 

-12 * * N.U. John Langdon. 
-12 * * O. Jonathan Meigs. 
-12 * * S.C. Henry Middleton. 

1811 Jan. 1. U. S. National debt 
$48,005,587. 

Feb. 2. B. C. The President announces 
the revival of the Non-importation 
Act against Great Britain. 

Feb. 23. B. C. Congress; Senate: 
John Pope of Ky. is elected President 
pro tempore. 

Mar. 4. B.C. The 11th Congress ends. 

Apr. 8. N. Y. The first law is passed 
respecting the Erie Canal. 

July 3. Fla. The Government resolves 
to occupy "West Florida, against the re- 
monstrance of the British Government. 

Nov. 4. B.C. The 12th Congress opens. 

Nov. * B. C. Congress ; House : Henry 
Clay of Ky. is chosen Speaker ; he with 
John C. Calhoun of S. C. and Wil- 
liam H. Crawford of Ga. leads the 
two Houses. 

The majority force Madison to declare 
war against Great Britain as a condition 
of his reelection. New England is re- 
luctant to engage in war. 

Nov. 18. Differences are settled respect- 
ing the attack on the frigate Chesa- 
peake; Great Britain makes reparation. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1809 June 28. Vt. The first steam- 
boat appears on Lake Champlain. 

1810 June * U. S. Third Census ; 17 
States: 5,863,073 white ; 1,377,808 colored 
population (186,446 free colored, 1,191,363 
slaves); total population, 7,239,822. In- 
crease, 36.38 per cent. Center of popula- 
tion, 40 miles northwest of Washington ; 
westward movement in 10 years, 36 miles. 

Oct. 6. Pa. A mill near Philadelphia 
makes the first cotton print goods 
printed from cylinders (superseding 
block-printing). 

* * D. C. The first agricultural exhi- 
bition is held at Georgetown. 

* * Ore. Astoria is founded by the Pa- 
cific Fur Company, John Jacob Astor 
president. 

* * Rags are first imported to supply 180 
paper-mills. 

1811 May 19. New York. A great 
fire consumes 100 buildings. 

Oct. 29. Pa. The first steamboat on 
Western waters leaves Pittsburg for New 
Orleans. 



118 1811, Dec. 16-1812. 



AMERICA 



ARMY -NAVY. 

1812 Jan. 27. Maj.-Gen. Henry 
Dearborn is appointed (9th) com- 
mander of the army. 

Apr. 11. Va. Four British barges 
are taken in Hampton Roads by the 
U. S. frigate Constellation and revenue 
cutter Jefferson; 80 prisoners. 

Apr. 25. Capt. Cothell of the privateer 
schooner Surprise, 10 guns, captures 
the British brig Kutons, 12 guns, laden 
with coffee, and brings her into port. 

THE FIFTH WAR. 

June 18-1815 Feb, 17. The War of 
1812, with Great Britain. 

[Two generals win renown : Gen. Wil- 
liam Henry Harrison, as commander of 
the army in Canada, and Gen. Andrew 
Jackson as a fighter of Indians in the 
South and later as the hero at New 
Orleans. Men enrolled, 85,000 regulars, 
471,622 militia and volunteers.] 

July 2. The American embargo expires 
by its own limitation ; Capt. David Porter 
of the U. S. ship Essex sails on a cruise 
against the British ; motto on his flag, 
"Free Trade and Sailors' Bights." 

July 12. "William Hull, governor of 
Michigan, crosses the Detroit River with 
1,500 men to capture Fort Maiden, 
but fails through incompetence. 

July 17. Mich. The important Ameri- 
can post at Mackinaw is surprised 
and surrendered to the British. 

Aug. 5. Mich. Maj. Thomas B. Van 
Home, with 200 Americans, is de- 
feated in a skirmish with 600 Indians 
and British at Brownstown. 

Aug. 7. Mich. Gen. Hull returns from 
Canada without attempting anything. 

Aug. 9. Mich. The British, with In- 
dians (900) under Tecumseh, are defeated 
by Col. Miller (600) at Maguaga, near 
Brownstown. 

Aug. 13. The Essex, Capt. David Porter, 
in a fight of eight minutes, forces the 
British sloop Alert to strike her flag. 

Aug. 15. III. The Indians treacher- 
ously turn on the retreating garrison 
and refugees, near Fort Dearborn 
(Chicago), and murder 52 persons, in- 
cluding 12 children ; the women and 
other prisoners are distributed among 
the savages. 

Aug. 16. Mich. Gen. Hull, with 2,500 
Americans, surrenders Detroit to Gen. 
Brock with 1 ,300 British. [The surrender 
is made without firing a gun, and is 
characterized as the most shameful of 
any in the history of the country ; and 
a court-martial decides that Hull is a 
patriot and yet a coward.] 

Aug. 19. A naval battle and great 
American victory occurs off the coast of 
Massachusetts. 

Captain Dacres surrenders the British 
ship-of-war Guerriere to Capt. Isaac Hull 
of the frigate Constitution, after receiv- 
ing a terrific broadside. Losses : British, 
15 killed and 63 wounded ; American, 7 
killed and 7 wounded. 

Oct. 4. N. Y. A British force under 
Lieut.-Col. Lethbridge embarks in 25 
boats and two gunboats, to capture 



Ogdensburg ; they are driven back by 
Gen. Brown without effecting a landing. 

Oct. 8. Capt. Elliott captures two British 
frigates on Lake Erie. 

Oct. 13. Can. British batteries at 
Queenstown are captured by the 
Americans ; retaken through disgraceful 
conduct of the New York militia, who 
refuse to leave the State ; 2,200 Ameri- 
cans under Van Rensselaer surrender to 
2,500 British under Brock ; American 
loss, 99 killed, 900 wounded. 

Oct. 18. Naval battle off the coast of 
Virginia. 

Capt. Jacob Jones, in the sloop-of-war 
Wasp, 18 guns, after an engagement 
lasting three-quarters of an hour, takes 
Capt. Whinyates with the British brig 
Frolic of 22 guns ; immediately after the 
capture, the British seventy-four gun 
ship Poictiers arrives and captures the 
Wasp and the wreck of the Frolic. 

Oct. 25. Naval battle west of the Ca- 
nary Isles ; Commodore Decatur, with the 
frigate United States, of 44 guns, attacks 
the British frigate Macedonia, of 49 
guns, and after fighting two hours the 
latter surrenders, with a loss of 100 
killed and wounded. 

Nov. 23. N. Y. The Northern army, 
under Gen. Dearborn, goes into winter 
quarters at Plattsburg, Burlington, and 
Greenbush. 

Dec. 12. Capt. Porter, with the ship 
Essex, captures the British packet 
Nocton, having on board $55,000 in specie. 

Dec. 29. Naval Battle off the coast of 
Brazil. 

Commodore Bainbridge, with the Con- 
stitution, captures the British frigate 
Java after a battle of 2 hours, in which 
200 men are killed or wounded, and 
every mast is torn out. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1811 Dec. 16. An earthquake is felt 
from Pittsburg and Ohio to Savannah. 

* * Mass. Manufacture of chemicals 
is begun in New England at Salem. 

1812 Feb. 7. Phila. An earthquake 
at Philadelphia and elsewhere for 30 
seconds. 

* * New York. The City Hall is com- 
pleted. 

y English workmen commence the 
manufacture of pins with imported 
machines ; price one dollar a paper. 
The steamboat Richmond is built. 

* * Pa. The first rolling-mill at Pitts- 
burg is erected. 

* * Phila. The Academy of Natural 
Sciences is organized. 

* * The Dead Man Revived by Touch of 
Elisha's Bones is painted by Washing- 
ton Allston. 

* * Mass. The first cotton-mill at Fall 
River is in operation. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1813* * 

Abbot, Samuel, founder of Andover Semi- 
nary, A80. 

Alexander, John Henry, scientist, b. in Md. 

Appleton, Thomas Gold, author, b. in Mass. 

Andre ws, Stephen P., lawyer ,writer, b. Mass. 

Ball, Eph'm, inventor of " Buckeye " mower, 
born in O. 



Bannister, Henry, theological professor, b. 
Barlow, Joel, statesman, poet, A 56. 
Buckminster, Joseph, Cong, clergyman, A61. 
Clark, Davis Wasgatt, M. E. bp., b. in Me. 
Clark, Thomas March, P. E. bp. of R. 1., b. 

in Mass. 
Clinton, George, 4th Vice-Pres. of U. S., A73. 
Clinton, James, gen. in Revol'n War, A76. 
Elliott, Charles L., portrait painter, b. N.Y. 
Flint, Austin, physician, medical writer, 

born in Mass. 
Florena, Thomas B., M. C. for Pa., b. in Pa. 
Gammel, William, author, born in Mass. 
Gansevoort, Peter, officer in Revolution, A63. 
Gardner, August K., physician, b. in Mass. 
Gilder, William H., el., editor, b. in Phila. 
Haldeman, Samuel S., naturalist, philolo- 
gist, born in Pa. 
Hawks, Cicero S., P. E. bp. of Mo., b. N. C. 
Hill, Joshua, senator for Ga., born in S. C. 
Hoe, Richard M., inventor of printing- 
press, born in N.Y. 
Klngsley, Calvin, M. E. bp., born in N.Y. 
Marshall, Humphrey, Confed. gen., M. C. for 

Ky., born in Ky. 
Mayo, Wm. Starbuck, novelist, physician, 

born in N.Y. 
Osgood, Frances Sargent, poet, b. in Mass. 
Perkins, Geo. Roberts, mathematician, born 

in N.Y. 
Prime, Sam. Irenaeus, N.Y. Observer, born 

in N.Y. 
Reynolds, Wm. M., P. E. clergyman, author, 

born in Pa. 
Rogers, John, rear-admiral U. S. N., born. 
Sargent, Epes, author, born in Mass. 
Stephens, Alex. H., Confed. Vice-Pres.; 

sen. for Ga., b. in Ga. 
Trail, Russell Thacher, hydropathist, born in 

Conn. 
Warren, Wm., Jr., comedian, born in Pa. 
Waters, Horace, philanthropist, born. 
Williams, Sam. Wells, Chinese scholar, born 

in N.Y. 
Wilson, Henry, Vice-Pres.; senator for 

Mass., born in N. H., Feb. 26. 



CHURCH. 

1811 * * Boston. The Evangelical 
Tract Society is organized. 

* * Conn. The General Convention 
(Protestant Episcopal) meets in New 
Haven ; only two bishops present. 

* * The Protestant Episcopal Church 
in America is declared to be the church 
formerly known as the Church of Eng- 
land in America. 

* * Mass. Organization of the " Salem 
Female Cent Society " (Baptist). 

* * Mass. The General Association of 
Congregationalists is allowed delegates 
to the Presbyterian General Assembly. 

* * N. Y. The Beligious Tract Society 
is organized at Albany. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly 
(Presbyterian) meets ; Eliphalet Nott, 
moderator. 

1812 Feb. 6. Mass. Messrs. Judson, 
Hall, Newell, Nott, and Rice are or- 
dained at Salem for service in foreign 
missions (Congregationalist). 

Feb. 19. Mass. Messrs. Judson and 
NeweU, with their wives, sail from Sa- 
lem for Calcutta ; Bombay being selected 
as the first mission of the American 
Board. 

Feb. 22. Phila. Messrs. Hall, Bice, 
and Nott, with Mrs. Nott, sail for Cal- 
cutta as missionaries. 

May 1-22. New York. The sixth (first 
delegated) General Conference (Meth- 
odist Episcopal) meets. 

June 2. Pa. Thomas and Alexander 
Campbell (Disciples of Christ) are im- 
mersed by a Baptist minister. 



UNITED STATES. 



1811, Dec. 16-1812. 119 



June* Phila. The General Assembly 

(Presbyterian) meets ; Andrew Flinn, 
moderator. 

June 12. The General Assembly (Pres- 
byterian) approves the suggestion of the 
American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions respecting the organi- 
zation for cooperation of a similar board 
by the Presbyterian Church. 

June 17. India. Missionaries Judson 
and Newell and their wives arrive at 
Calcutta. 

June * N. Y. The General Synod (Re- 
formed) meets at Albany ; Jacob Sickles, 
president. 

Oct. 15. S. C. Consecration of Theo. 
Dehon (Protestant Episcopal) bishop for 
South Carolina. 

* * Conn. Organization of the Female 
Foreign Missionary Society of New 
Haven. (Contributes $177.09 to the 
American Board.) 

* * La. The first Baptist church is organ- 
ized in Louisiana on Bayou Chico. 

* * N.J. Princeton is selected by the 
Presbyterians as the location for a theo- 
logical school ; a board of directors is 
chosen, and Dr. Archibald Alexander 
is elected professor. 

LETTERS. 
1811* * Mass. The Amherst College 
Library is founded [47,000 vols.]. 

* * New York. Rev. William Harris is 
elected president of Columbia College. 

* * New York. The Literary Miscellany 
appears. 

* * Phila. Select Views of Literature ap- 
pears. 

* * -13 * * The American Review of His- 
tory and Politics appears. 

1812 * * Mass. The General Repertory 
and Review, the first American quar- 
terly, is issued at Cambridge, by An- 
drews Norton. 

The American Antiquarian Society 
Library is founded at Worcester 
[85,000 vols.]. 

* * N.J. The Presbyterian Theological 
Seminary Library is founded at Prince- 
ton [50,000 vols.]. 

* * N. Y. Hamilton College (Pres.) is 
organized at Clinton. 

The U. S. Military Academy Library 
is founded at West Point [30,000 vols.]. 

* * Phila. The Library of the Academy 
of Natural Science is founded [35,000 
vols.]. 

* * Judgment : A Vision, by Hillhouse, ap- 
pears. 

SOCIETY. 

1812 May* New York. The (Meth. 
Epis.) General Conference votes down 
the resolution, " That no stationed or 
local preacher shall retail spirituous 
or malt liquors, without forfeiting his 
ministerial character among us." 

July 27. Md. A mob in Baltimore at- 
tacks some of the anti-war party and 
is repulsed; 2 are killed and others 



wounded. [Later it attacks the jail and 
kills General Lingan and eleven others.] 
Nov. * N. H. Daniel "Webster enters 
political life as representative in Con- 
gress from his native State. 

* * U. S. A. A gill of rum, whisky, or 
brandy is made a part of the regular 
daily ration of each soldier. 

STATE. 

1811 * * D. C. Congress authorizes an 
additional army of 25,000 men. 

* * New York. De "Witt Clinton, is 
elected the 50th mayor. 

* * D. C. Joseph Story of Mass. and 
Gabriel Duval of Md. are appointed 
Justices of the U. S. Supreme Court. 

* * D. C. Congress has its first agita- 
tion over the admission of a slave State 
on the application of Louisiana. 

It results in the plan of a twin-birth 
of States, one free and the other slave, 
after the admission of Louisiana [which 
enters the Union alone]. 

* * Phila. The charter of the First 
National Sank expires. It fails of 
renewal by the casting vote of the Presi- 
dent of the Senate. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-13 * * Conn. Roger Griswold. 
-14* * Bel. Joseph Haslett. 

-13 * * Ind. Ter. John Gibson. 
-14 * * N. C. Wm. Hawkins. 
-17 * * R.I. William Jones. 

Va. James Monroe. 
-12 * * Va. George W. Smith. 

* * Ore. Astoria is settled as a trading- 
post. 

1812 Jan. 1. U.S. The National debt 
$45,209,737. 

Feb. 2. John Henry, an Irish-American, 
exposes a conspiracy of the British 
Ministry and the Governor of Canada to 
sow discontent in New England, with a 
view to its secession and union with 
Canada, for which Henry was promised 
$5,000 per annum. 

Mar. 9. D. C. Congress : The British 
plot to dismember the Union is dis- 
closed. Its exposure solidifies public 
sentiment against the English ; Henry 
receives $50,000 public money for disclos- 
ing it, and immediately sails for France. 

Mar. 24. D. C. Congress ; Senate : 
"William H. Crawford of Ga. is elected 
President pro tempore. 

Apr. 4. D. C. A third Embargo Act 
is passed by Congress. 

It is a retaliatory measure, caused by 
the impressment of 6,000 American sea- 
men, and it lays an embargo for 90 days 
on all British vessels within the juris- 
diction of the United States. 

Apr. 30. D. C. Congress admits Loui- 
siana into the Union as the 18th State. 

June 1. D. C. Congress receives a war 
message from the President. 

June 18. B.C. Congress declares 
war against England and votes to raise 
an army of 35,000 men. Vote — Senate, 
19-13 ; House, 79-49. 

June 19. D. C. The President pro- 
claims war against Great Britain ; 



25,000 enlistments for the regular army, 
50,000 volunteers, and 100,000 militia are 
called for. 

Causes of the war: impressment of 
American seamen, seizure of Americans 
on the high seas while sailing under 
their country's flag ; offensive action of 
British cruisers; Orders in Council 
affecting the rights of neutrals, etc. 

* * Massachusetts, Connecticut, and 
Rhode Island oppose the war, refuse 
to furnish the levies of troops, and 
threaten to secede. 

June 23. Eng. The British Government 
repeals its Orders in Council, but it is 
too late to stop the war. 

June 30. Algeria. The Dey of Algiers 
is forced to sign a treaty of peace, re- 
leasing all American prisoners and relin- 
quishing all claim to tribute. 

July 6. D. C. The 12th Congress : the 
first session closes. 

July * The Dey of Algiers believes the 
Americans unable to defend themselves 
against Great Britain, so commences a 
piratical warfare on their shipping, 
and also extorts a large sum of money 
from Mr. Lear, the American consul, as 
the price of his freedom. 

Nov. 2. D. C. The 12th Congress : the 
second session opens. 

* * Seventh Presidential election. The 
Democrat-Republicans defeat the Feder- 
alists and reelect Madison. 

Dec. 26. Great Britain proclaims the 
blockade of the Chesapeake and the 
Delaware. 

* * Pa. The State capital is removed 
from Lancaster to Harrisburg. 

* * U. S, Governors inaugurated : 
-16 * * Ky. Isaac Shelby. 

-16 * * la. Wm. C. C. Clayborne. 
-16* * Mass. Caleb Strong. 
-13 * * N. H. William Plumer. 

N. J. Joseph Bloomfield. 
-13 * * N.J. Aaron Ogden. 
-14 * * S. C Joseph Alston. 
-14 * * Va. James Barbour. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1811 Dec. 26. Va. A theater at 
Richmond, containing about 600 people, 
burns, and 75 lives are lost. 

Dec. 31. Mass. At Newburyport 200 
buildings burn; loss, $600,000. 

* * New York. Five steamboats are now 
running between New York and Albany, 
and one between New York, and New 
Brunswick, N. J. (Philadelphia route). 

* * N. Y. A ferry-boat propelled by 
steam runs between New York and Ho- 
boken ; the first in the country. 

* * N. Y. The mails pass through Long 
Island weekly. 

1812 * * U. S. The naval victories of 
Americans over the greatest of naval 
powers raise intense excitement. 

* * N. Y. The first house in Rochester is 
erected. 

* * O. Columbus is laid out and made 
the capital of the State. 



120 



1812-1813. 



AMERICA 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1812 * * Five naval duels occur during 
this year, in which the American frig- 
ates either capture or sink their British 
adversaries. 

* * During the year American privateers 
capture over 300 British vessels. 

1813 Jan. 18. Mich. Frenchtown is 
taken from an invading force of British 
and Indians by Americans under Gen. 
Winchester, who encamp in the town. 

Jan. 22. Mich. The British (1,500) under 
Gen. Proctor retake Frenchtown, and 
Gen. Winchester and his 800 troops are 
made prisoners of war ; 2G0 wounded 
Americans are massacred by the Indians. 

Jan. * The army of the West is com- 
manded by Gen. W. H. Harrison ; the 
army of the Center, near Niagara River, 
by Gen. Dearborn, and the army of 
the North, near Lake Champlain, by 
Gen. Hampton. 

Feb. 1. The American privateer schooner 
Hazzard, of 3 guns and 38 men, captures 
the British merchant ship Albion, of 12 
guns and 15 men. 

Feb. 4. Va. The frigate Constellation is 
chased into Norfolk by a British squad- 
ron. 

Feb. 5. The British Admiral Warren 
declares Chesapeake Bay to be in a 
state of blockade. 

Feb. 7. Can. Capt. Forsyth, with 200 
volunteers, crosses from Morristown to 
Elizabeth, and surprises the British ; 
he takes 52 prisoners, 140 muskets, with 
ammunition, and liberates from jail 16 
British deserters. 

Feb. 22. N. Y. Ogdensburg is taken 
by the British under Col. McDonell. 

Feb. 23. The Albion is recaptured by 
the British cutter Caledonia, of 8 guns 
and 38 men. 

Feb. 24. The sloop-of-war Hornet, com- 
manded by Capt. Lawrence, attacks and 
in 15 minutes defeats the British man- 
of-war Peacock ; the latter soon sinks. 

Feb. 26. The Hazard captures the 
British frigate Albion and the cutter 
Caledonia. 

Mar. 10. The schooner Adeline sinks the 
British schooner Lottery in Chesapeake 
Bay. 

Mar. 11. The privateer schooner General 
Armstrong, 18 guns, escapes from a Brit- 
ish frigate, 24 guns, off Surinam River, 
with the loss of 6 killed and 16 wounded. 

Mar. 14. British vessels blockade the 
Delaware River. 

Mar. 16. Del. Capt. Beresford, of the 
British ship Poictiers, 74 guns, at Lewis- 
ton, demands 25 oxen, vegetables, etc. ; 
he threatens to destroy the town ; the 
people refuse his demand. 

Mar. 26. N. Y. American batteries at 
Black Bock silence the lower battery of 
the British. 

Mar. 30 ±. Miss. Gen. Andrew Jack- 
son's army of 2,070 men disbands, by 
order of the Government. 

Apr. 3. Md. Action near Urbana, on the 
Chesapeake, between 17 British barges 



and 4 American vessels ; one of the latter 
is taken by the British. 

Apr. 6. Del. Lewiston is bombarded 
for about 20 hours, with little damage, 
by the British frigate Belvidere. 

Apr. 9. Mass. The frigate Chesapeake 
returns from her cruise to Boston, hav- 
ing captured two British brigs, one ship, 
one American brig with a British license, 
and a schooner. 

Apr. 16. Md. Part of the British squad- 
ron anchors off Patapsco River, in sight 
of Baltimore. 

Apr. 20. O. The advance of the British 
and Indians appears at Fort Meigs. 

Apr. 27. Can. Americans (1,700), under 
Gen. Pike, assault and capture York 
(Toronto), the capital of Upper Canada, 
with property valued at $500,000. Brit- 
ish force under Sheaffe, 1,500 ; American 
loss, 300. 

Apr. 28. The American privateer York- 
town captures the British brig Avery, 
with a valuable cargo, and brings her 
into port. 

Apr. 29. British ships Montezuma and 
Policy, each 10 guns, and Georgiana, 6 
guns and 4 swivels, capture the frigate 
Essex near Albemarle Island. 

British Admiral Cockburn burns the 

storehouses of Frenchtown on the Ches- 
apeake Bay ; he also burns two ships 
and plunders private houses. 

May 1-5. O. Gen. "W. H. Harrison is 
besieged at Fort Meigs by 2,000 British 
and savages under Gen. Proctor and 
Chief Tecumseh ; Gen. Henry Clay, 
with 1,200 Kentuckians, reenforces Har- 
rison. American loss, 800. 

May 3. Md. Havre de Grace is burned 
by the British under Admiral Cockburn. 

May 9. O. Proctor abandons the siege 
of Fort Meigs after the desertion of his 
Indian allies. 

May 27. Can. Fort George, near the 
Niagara River, is taken from Gen. Vin- 
cent by the Americans under Gen. Dear- 
born ; loss, 72 killed and wounded. 

A British squadron appears before 

Sackett's Harbor. 

May 29. N. Y. The British (1,000) under 
Sir George Prevost are repulsed in an 
attack on Sackett's Harbor by (1,000) 
Americans under Gen. Jacob Brown, 
who lose 100 killed and wounded ; Brit- 
ish loss, 260 killed and wounded. 

May 30. The privateer Yankee captures 
the British brig Thames. (Cargo sold 
for $180,000.) 

June 1. Naval battle eastward of Cape 
Ann. 

The British frigate Shannon, Capt. 
Broke, defeats and captures the frigate 
Chesapeake, Capt. Lawrence, who dies 
crying, " Don't give up the ship 1 " The 
action lasts only fifteen minutes. 

June 6. Can. At Burlington Heights the 
Americans under Gen. Winder repulse an 
attack of the British under Gen. Vincent. 

July 8. Can. Outposts of Americans at 
Fort George are attacked by British 
and Indians ; cruelties of the Indians 
lead to the employment of Indians by 
Americans in retaliation. 



July 17. Can. British and Indians at- 
tack an outwork at Fort George and are 
repulsed. 

July 21. O. Gen. Proctor, with about 
4,000 troops, again besieges Fort Meigs 
[for a few days and retires]. 

THE SIXTH WAR. 

July 27 -1814 Aug. 9. War with 
Creek Indians concurrent with the 
fifth war. 13,781 men enrolled. 

July 31. A 7 . Y. Plattsburg is taken 
by the British without opposition. 

Aug. 2. O. Gen. Proctor (1,300) assaults 
Fort Stephenson on the Lower San- 
dusky River; he is repulsed by Col. 
George Croghan (100) and retires. 

Aug. 14. The American brig Argus, after 
a successful cruise, is captured by the 
British brig Pelican of about equal force. 

Aug. 30. 'Ala. The Creek Indians sur- 
prise Fort Minis, north of Mobile; a 
massacre follows. 

Sept. 5. The British brig Boxer surren- 
ders to the American brig Enterprise, 
after an engagement of forty minutes, 
off the coast of Maine ; the commanders 
of both vessels fall, and are buried side 
by side. 

Sept. 10. Naval Battle and American 
victory on Lake Erie, near Put-in-Bay. 

Commodore O. H. Perry, who had 
never seen a naval battle, with an Amer- 
ican fleet of nine vessels, carrying 54 
guns, captures the British fleet of 6 
vessels, carrying 63 guns, under Com- 
modore Barclay. Tins battle gives the 
Americans control of the lake. 

Sept. 27. Gen. W. H. Harrison in- 
vades Canada from Detroit. 

Oct. 5. Can. Gen. Harrison, with 2,500 
Americans, defeats Gen. Proctor with 
2,000 British, on the River Thames , 
Tecumseh, the Shawnee chief, is slain. 
American loss 50 killed and wounded. 

Nov. 3. Ala. Gen. Coffee, with 900 
men, surrounds a body of Indians at 
Tallushatches and kills about 200 of 
them. 

Nov. 5. Can. A force of 7,000 Americans 
embarks at French Creek and de- 
scends the St. Lawrence River to take 
Montreal. 

Nov. 8. Ala. Battle of Talladega; 
Creek Indians are defeated by Gen. 
Jackson. 

Nov. 11. Can. Severe skirmish at Wil- 
liamsburg ; the Americans, led by Gen- 
eral Brown, lose 300, and the British 200 
men. 

An indecisive action at Chrystler's 
Field ; 1,50Q Americans under John P. 
Boyd, engage 2,000 British under Morri- 
son ; reenforcements not arriving, the 
expedition against Montreal is aban- 
doned ; 200 Americans are killed or 
wounded. 

Nov. 29. Ala. Battle of Autosse ; the 
Creeks defeated by Gen. A. Jackson, the 
hero of this war. 

Dec. 12. Can. On the approach of the 
British, Gen. McClure abandons Fort 
George after burning Newark. 



UNITED STATES. 



1812-1813. 



121 



Dec. 19. N. 1'. The British take pos- 
session of Fort Niagara, and proceed 
to retaliate for the burning of Newark, 
by burning Youngstown, Lewiston, 
Manchester, and the Indian Tuscarora 
village. 

Dee. 30. N. T. The British burn Black 
Rock and Buffalo. 

• * Depredations of British marines and 
soldiers in the Chesapeake and Delaware 
Lewiston is bombarded. 



ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 
1813 * * New York. The first stereo- 
typing is done. (See p. 91.) 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 
1813* » 

Allen, William Henry, naval officer, A29. 
Bartol, Cyrus Augustus, Unit, clergyman, 

born in Me. 
Beecher, Henry Ward, Cong, clergyman, 

orator, born in Conn. June 24. 
Blair, Montgomery, P.M.G., b. in Ky. 
Bradley, Joseph P., U. S. Ct., born in N. J. 
Cassin, John, ornithologist, born in Pa. 
Clymer, George, M. C. for Pa., A74. 
Cranch, Christopher P., artist, poet, b. in Va. 
Crawford, Thomas, sculptor, born in N.Y. 
Dana. James Dwight, geologist, b. in N. Y. 
Douglas, Stephen Arnold, Sen. for 111., 

born in Vt. 
Dwight, John S., musical critic, b. in Mass. 
Franklin, William, Gov. of N. J., A84. 
Fremont, John Charles, explorer, general 

U. S. A., born in Ga. 
Giles, Chauncey, Swedenborgian clergyman, 

born in Mass. 
Hamilton, Frank, surgeon, born in Vt. 
Harmar, Josiah, general U. S. A., A60. 
Healy, George Peter Alex., painter.b. Mass. 
Jarvis, Abraham, P. E. bp. of Conn., A74. 
Lawrence, James, naval captain, A 32. 
Livingston, Robt. R., minister to Fr., jurist, 

A66: 
Lossingr, Benson J., historian, b. in N.Y. 
Otterbein, Philip Wm., Ger. Am. f'der of 

Church of United Brethren in Christ, A87. 
Parsons, Theophilus, jurist of Mass., A 63. 
Peters, Christian Henry F., astronomer, born 

in Ger. 
Pike, Zebulon M., brig.-gen., explorer, A34. 
Porter, Andrew, general U. S. A., A70. 
Porter. David Dixon, admiral, b. in Pa. 
Randolph, Edmund, Gov. of Va., A60. 
Sedgwick, John, maj.-gen. U. S. A., b. Conn. 
Sedgwick, Theo., Gov. of Conn., M. C, 

speaker, A 67. 
Stephens, Anna Sophia, author, b. in Conn. 
Stillg, Alfred, phys., medical writer, b. in Pa. 
Tecumseb, Chief of the Shawnees, A43. (?) 
Thurman, Allen G., sen. for O., b. W. Va. 
Trumbull, Lyman, sen. for 111., b. in Conn. 
Tuckerman", Henry Theo., art-critic, born 

in Mass. 
Whiting, William, lawyer, born in Mass. 
Wilson, Alex., Scottish ornithologist in Am., 

A47. 

CHURCH. 
1812 * * N. Y. The Presbyterian Synod 
of Geneva is formed. 

* * New York. The New York Tract 
Society is organized. 

* * Pa. A religious romance, written in 
imitation of Scripture style, by Rev. 
Solomon Spaulding appears in a print- 
ing-office at Pittsburg. Book of Mor- 
mon (?) 

* * The Ohio (Methodist Episcopal) Con- 
ference is formed. 

* * The Baptists commence their mis- 
sionary work by forwarding to the 
English Baptist Society $4,650 in aid of 
the translation of the Scriptures into 
the languages of India. 

* * The Methodist Episcopal Church 
begins home mission •work ; Bishop 
Asbury solicits funds for it. 



1813 June* The Union American 
Methodist Episcopal Church is organ- 
ized. 

Oct. * New York. The General Synod 
(Reformed) meets ; James S. Cannon, 
president. 

* * The first legacy for missions is granted 
to the American Board. 

The sum of $345.83 out of an estate of 
$500, left by Sally Thomas of Cornish, 
a domestic, whose highest wages were 50 
cents a week. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly 
(Presbyterian) meets; Samuel Batchford, 
moderator. 

* * The Presbyterian synods of North 
Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia 
are formed. 

LETTERS. 

1812 * * The Diverting History of John 
Bull and Brother Jonathan, by J. K. 
Paulding, appears. 

* * Boston. The Christian Disciple ap- 
pears. 

1813 Jan. 13. N. Y. First issue of 
the Albany Argus. 

Mar. 3. Boston. First issue of the Bos- 
ton Daily Advertiser, the first success- 
ful daily paper in this city. 

* * Me. A charter is obtained for the 
Maine Literary and Theological Institu- 
tion by Baptists. 

* * Phila. The Analytical Magazine ap- 
pears. 

* * Demetria is written by Hillhouse. 

* * Six additional volumes of Ornithology , 
by Wilson, appear. 

* * Grammar of the Hebrew Language, 
without Points, by Moses Stuart, appears. 

* * Sylphs of the Seasons, by "Washington 
Allston, appears. 



SOCIETY. 

1812 Jan. 9. N. J. A society is formed 
at Trenton for organizing a colony of 
colored people. 

Aug. * Ala. The Creek Indians mas- 
sacre 400 persons at Fort Minis ; not 
"a woman or child is spared. 

* * Mich. The British Gen. Proctor leaves 
the wounded Americans at Frenchtown 
to the merciless brutalities of the In- 
dians, who use the scalp-knife, toma- 
hawk, and the torch to destroy many; 
others are taken into captivity. 

* * Va. John Tyler marries Letitia 
Christian. 

STATE. 

1813 Jan. 1. l T . S. National debt 
$55,962,827. 

Feb. 6. D. C. The Government orders 
all alien enemies to report themselves 
to the marshals of the districts in which 
they reside. 

Feb. 12. D. C. Congress counts the 
Electoral vote. 

Vote for President: James Madison, 
of Va. (Republican), 128 ; De Witt Clin- 
ton, of N. Y. (Federalist), 89. For Vice- 
President : Elbridge Gerry of Mass. 
(Republican), 131 ; Tared Ingersoll of Pa. 
(Federalist), 86. Vacancy, 1. 



Mar. 4. D.C. The 12th Congress ends. 

Second term of the 4th Adminis- 
tration ; Democratic-Republican. 

James Madison of Va., the 4th 
President, enters his second term — 
the seventh term of the Presidency ; El- 
bridge Gerry of Mass. is Vice-Presi- 
dent. ' 

Cabinet : James Monroe of Va. 
(State), Albert GaUatin of Pa. (Treas- 
ury), John Armstrong of Pa. (War), 
■William Jones of Pa. (Navy), also 
William Pinkney of Md. Attorney- 
General for a time [and later Richard 
Rush of Pa.]. 
Mar. 20. Great Britain proclaims the 
whole Atlantic Coast under a block- 
ade, with the exception of the New 
England (anti-war, Federal) States. 

May 24. D. C. The 13th Congress 
opens. 

Va. Thomas Jefferson writes indig- 
nantly of English outrages. 

" They have impressed two nephews 
of General Washington returning from 
Europe, and put them as common sea- 
men under the ordinary discipline of 
their ships-of-war." 

Aug. 2. D. C. The 13th Congress: 

the first session closes. 
Dec. 6. D. C. The 13th Congress: 
the second session opens. 

* * D. C. Congress ; Senate : Joseph B. 
Varnum of Mass. is again elected 
President pro tempore. 

Dec. 19. D. C. Congress passes an 
Embargo Act (the fourth) against all 
exports whatever. 

* * D. C. Congress establishes a system 
of internal revenue from direct tax 
and excise. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-18 * * Conn. John Cotton Smith. 
-15 * * Ga. Peter Early. 

-16* * Did. (Ter.). Thomas Posey. 
-31 * * Mich. (Ter.). Lewis Cass. 
-16 * * N. H. John T. Gilman. 
-15. * * N. J. Wm. S. Pennington. 
-15 * * Vt. Martin Chittenden. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1812 * * Pa. Nine wagons loaded with 
anthracite coal are hauled 106 miles to 
Philadelphia ; two loads are sold at cost 
of transportation, and seven given away, 
and the sale is denounced as a fraud. 

* * The first steamboat navigates the 
Ohio. 

* * Phila. A steam-ferry first connects 
Philadelphia and Camden. 

* * New Eng. The large foreign com- 
merce of the Eastern States is whoUy 
destroyed. 

1813 May 10. N. Y. A steam-ferry 
first connects Brooklyn and New York. 

Nov. 22. N. H. A great fire occurs at 
Portsmouth ; over 300 buildings are con- 
sumed. 

* * Ore. Astoria is sold to the North 
West Company. 



122 1814, Jan. 1-1815, Apr. 6. 



AMERICA 



ARMY — NAVY. 

1814 Jan. 22. Ala. Battle of Emuc- 
fau; the Creeks are defeated by Gen. 
Jackson. 

Feb. 5. 0. Seventeen British, officers are 
put in close confinement at Chillicoth© 
by way of retaliation. 

Feb. 13+. Gen. Wilkinson burns his 
boats in Salmon Kiver, and breaks up 
cantonment at French Mills ; Gen. 
Brown goes to Sackett's Harbor, and 
Gen. Macomb, with the Army of the 
North, marches for Plattsburg through 
snow three feet deep. 

Feb. 21. N. Y. Col. Scott and 2,000 Brit- 
ish arrive at French Mills, burn the 
arsenal at Malone, and pillage the town. 

Mar. 4. The British are defeated at 
Longwood, about 100 miles from De- 
troit, losing 80 men ; American loss, 8 
men. 

Mar. 27. Ala. Gen. Jackson defeats 
the Creek Indians at Horse-shoe ; Jack- 
son's loss 91 killed, Indian loss 800. 

Mar. 28. British ship Phoebe and sloop-of- 
war Cherub, in all 81 guns and 500 men, 
capture in the neutral port of Valparaiso 
the United States frigate Essex, 52 guns, 
255 men, Capt. Porter. 

Mar. * N. Y. The Army of the North 
leaves Plattsburg and invades Canada. 

Mar. 30. Can. Gen. Wilkinson, with 
4,000 Americans, is repulsed at La Colle 
Mills by Gen. Hancock with 2,000 British 
and falls back on Plattsburg ; American 
loss, 13 killed and 123 wounded ; British, 
13 killed, 45 wounded. 

Apr. 7. Conn. Saybrooke is surprised 
by a force of 200 British marines, who 
burn the shipping, spike the cannon, 
and safely retreat to their ships. 

Apr. 14. Europe. Napoleon having ab- 
dicated, the British are free to rein- 
force their armies in America : they 
aim at the 'conquest of Louisiana. 

Apr. 21. Com. Bainbridge, sloop Frolic, 
is taken by the British frigate Orpheus. 

Apr. 29. The sloop-of-war Peacock, 20 
guns, 160 men, captures the British brig 
Epervier, 18 guns and 128 men, with 
$118,000 on board. 

May * Wis. Prairie du Chien is taken 
by an American force of 200 men. 

June 28. Near the British Channel the 
sloop Wasp, Capt. Blakely, captures the 
British brig Reindeer, Capt. Manners. 

July 3. Can. Gens. Brown, Winfield 
Scott and Ripley cross the Niagara 
Kiver, and 200 British at Fort Erie sur- 
render without a battle. 

July 5. Can. Battle of Chippewa. 
The Americans under Gen. Brown de- 
feat the British under Gen. Kiall, in a 
battle south of the Chippewa River. 
Losses : American, 338 ; British, 500. 

July 11. Me. A British fleet takes East- 
port. 

July 20. The privateer General Arm- 
strong arrives at New York, having 
captured 11 British vessels. 



* * Can. Large reinforcements arrive for 

the British. Many of these are veterans 

who served under Wellington in Spain. 
July 25. Can. Battle of Lundy's 

Lane, fought at night, near Niagara. 

[Both sides claim the victory.] 
Gen. Brown (2,600) defeats the British 

(4,500) under Gen. Drummond. Gens. 

Brown and Scott are wounded. Losses : 

British, 878, Americans, 858. 

Aug. 4. Can. Gen. Drummond, with a 
British force, besieges Gen. Gaines at 
Fort Erie. 

Mich. Col. Crogan assaults the for- 
tifications of Mackinaw, in the North- 
west, and is repulsed. 

Aug. 9+. Conn. The British, under Com- 
modore Hardy, bombard Stonington, 
and make several ineffectual attempts 
to land. 

Aug. 15. Can. The British unsuccess- 
fully assault Fort Erie, and lose nearly 
1,000 men ; American loss, 84. 

Aug. 19. Md. A British fleet in the 
Chesapeake ascends the Pawtuxet, for an 
advance on "Washington. Gen. Boss 
lands 5,000 British soldiers at Benedict. 

Aug. 24. Md. Battle of Bladensburg, 
six miles from Washington. 

Gen. Winder is defeated ; the British 
march on Washington and burn the 
Capitol, and all the public buildings, 
except the Patent Office and the jail. 

Aug. 29. Va. Alexandria is ransomed 

from burning by the payment of 21 ships, 
16,000 barrels flour, and 1,000 hogsheads 
of tobacco. 

Aug. * Fla. The Spaniards permit a 
British fleet to use Pensacola, to fit 
out an expedition against Fort Boyer, at 
the entrance of Mobile Bay. 

Sept. 6. N. Y. Gen. Macomb retires 
with the Army of the North from Platts- 
burg to the south bank of the Saranac 
River. 

Sept. 9. XT. Y. Bold attack on the Brit- 
ish near Plattsburg, by Capt. McGlassin 
and 50 Americans. 

Sept. 11. N.Y. An important land and 
naval battle at Plattsburg. 

The British, under Gen. Prevost and 
Admiral Downie, are defeated by Gen. 
Macomb and Admiral McDonough ; the 
British retreat with a loss of 1,500. 

Sept. 12. Md. The British attack Bal- 
timore ; the British Gen. Ross is killed, 
and the Americans under Gen. Smith 
fall back. 

Sept. 13. Md. The British squadron 
bombards Fort McHenry, near Balti- 
more, from sunrise till near midnight. 

Sept. 14. Md. The British abandon the 
expedition against Baltimore, after mak- 
ing demonstrations of attack. 

Sept. 15. Ala. The British attack Fort 
Boyer, commanding the entrance to 
Mobile Bay, and are repulsed. 

Sept. 17. Can. The British retire from 
the siege of Fort Erie, after a success- 
ful sortie by the Americans, and the ap- 
proach of reinforcements. 

Oct. 29. New York. The first steam 
frigate, the Fulton, is launched. 



Nov. 5. Caw. The Americans evacuate 
and destroy Fort Erie, and retire to the 
American side of the Niagara River ; this 
ends the war in that region. 

Nov. 6. Fla. Gen. Jackson, without 
authority, at the head of 3,000 men, 
appears before the Spanish town of 
Pensacola to drive out the British, who 
blow up the fort, and in their seven 
vessels retire from the Bay. This neu- 
tral (?) port is no longer a British port 
of outfit. 

Dec. 2. La. Gen. Jackson arrives at 
New Orleans and takes command. 

Dec. 10. La. The British fleet enters 
Lake Borgne, and defeats a small squad- 
ron under Lieut. Jones, but suffers 
severely in killed and wounded. 

Dec. 14. La. The British capture a 
small American fleet ; this gives them 
the command of the route to New 
Orleans, but they fail to use their 
opportunity. 

Dec. 15. La. Gen. Jackson declares 
martial law in New Orleans. 

Dec. 23. La Gen. Jackson attacks 
with success the British camp of 2,400 
men, nine miles below New Orleans, 
but falls back to his intrenchments, 
within 4 miles of the city. Loss on each 
side, about 200. 

Dec. 24. Belgium. The war ends — on 
paper — by the signing of the treaty of 
Peace at Ghent. (See State.) 

Dec. 28. La. The British, under Sir E. 
Pakenham, attack Gen. Jackson, and 
are repulsed. 

1815 Jan. 1. La. The British again 
attack Gen. Jackson, and are signally 
beaten. 

Jan. 4. La. Gen. Jackson is reinforced 
by 2,250 Kentuckians, mostly unarmed. 

Jan. 6. La. The English are reinforced 
at New Orleans, and have an army vari- 
ously estimated from 8,000 to 14,000. 

Jan. 8. La. Battle of New Orleans. 
The British make a desperate attack on 
Gen. Jackson, who is protected by 
breastworks of cotton bales. 

They are repulsed, with small loss 
to the Americans — 8 killed and 13 
wounded ; British loss about 700 killed 
and 1,400 wounded. Sir E. Pakenham, 
their commanding general, and Gen. 
Gibbs, second in command, both lose 
their lives, and Gen. Keane is disabled. 

Jan. 15. The British ship Endymion 
captures the American frigate President. 

Jan. 18. La. The British retire from 
New Orleans. 

* * Commodore Decatur captures an 
Algerian frigate and brig, and sailing 
into the Bay of Tunis, forcea the Dey 
to surrender American prisoners and re- 
linquish all claims to American tribute. 

Feb. 5. The privateer brig George Little, 
8 guns, 58 men, is captured by the British 
ship Granicus. 

Feb. 11. Ala. Col. Lawrence, with 375 
men, surrenders Fort Boyer, Mobile, 
to 5,000 British, with a large fleet, under 
Gen. Lambert. 



UNITED STATES. 1814, Jan. 1-1815, Apr. 6. 123 



Feb. 20. Naval Battle off Cape St. 
Vincent. 

The frigate Constitution, after a severe 
fight, captures the British brigs Cyane, 
36 guns, and the Levant, 18 guns. 

Mar. 4. The privateer brig Aspasia, 3 

guns, 25 men, is captured by the British 

brig Volontaire. 
Mar. 8. The British ship Tiber, Capt. 

Dacres, captures the privateer Leo, Capt. 

Hemes, with seven guns and 93 men. 
Mar. 19. U. S. Military operations on 

land entirely cease. 

Mar. 24. Naval battle off the coast of 
Brazil. 

In 22 minutes the brig Hornet, 16 guns, 
Capt. Biddle, captures the British brig 
Penguin, 18 guns and a 12-pound car- 
ronade, having 132 men under Capt. 
Dickinson ; British loss, 14 killed, 28 
wounded ; American loss, one killed, 11 
wounded. 

Apr. 6. Eng. American prisoners in 
Dartmoor prison are fired upon by 
their guard, and many of them killed 
and wounded ; [the Prince-regent cen- 
sures the officers.] 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 
1814 * * Boston. The Linnuean Society- 
is organized. [Disbanded.] 
>*;* *Mass. The first power cotton-mill in 
the United States is erected at Waltham. 
* * N. Y.— Conn. Carriages are first 
manufactured at Albany and New 
Haven. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 
1814* * 

Adams, Chas. Baker, naturalist, b. in Mass. 

Allen, Ira, one of the founders of Vt., A63. 

Bailey, James Roosevelt, B.C. archbishop, 
born Aug. 23 in N.Y. 

Baynan,Wm., surgeon, anatomist of Va., A 65. 

Bellows, Henry "Whitney, Unit, clergy- 
man, born in Mass. 

Bigelow, Erastus B., inventor, b. in Mass. 

Brown, Henry Kirk, sculptor, born in Mass. 

Chapin, Edwin H., Univ. cl., orator, b. N.Y. 

Clemens, Jeremiah, sen. for Ala., b. in Ala. 

Coke, Thomas, first M. E. bp., A 67. 

Colt, Samuel, inventor of revolver, b. Conn. 

Colton, Gardner Q., physician, dentist, b.Vt. 

Craik, James, physician, surgeon, A83. 

Davenport, Edward L., actor, born in Mass. 

Deane, Samuel, Cong, clergyman, poet, A71. 

Donaldson, James L., maj.-gen., b. in Md. 

Ellis, Geo. Edw., Unit, clergyman, writer, 
b. in Mass. 

Everts, Wm. W., Bapt. cl., author, b. in N.Y. 

Gay, Sydney Howard, author, born in Mass. 

Gerry, Elbridge, patriot, Vice-Pr. U. S., A70. 

Gilman, Nicholas, senator for N. H., A52. 

Gregg, Maxey, Confed. Brig.-Gen., b. in S. C. 

Harris, Samuel, Cong, clergyman, b. in Me. 

Headley, Joel T., historical writer, b. in N.Y. 

Heath, William, maj.-gen. in Revol'n, A77. 

Hooker, Joseph, gen. U. S. A.,b. in Mass. 

Howe, Sir William, gen. at Bunker Hill, A85. 

Hudson, Henry Norman, essayist, b. in Vt. 

Kirkwood, Daniel, mathematician, b. in Md. 

Lang, Louis, painter, born in Ger. 

Lapham, Eldridge G., M. C. for N. Y., b. N.Y. 

Maynard, Horace, P. M. general, b. in Mass. 

McClintock, John, M. E. clergyman, author, 
born in Ire. 

Meek, Alexander B., editor, born in S. C. 

Mell, Patrick Hues, Bapt. clergyman, b. Ga. 

Miller, Morris S., brig.-gen. U. S. Vol., b. 

Miner, Alonzo A., cl., educator, b. in N. H. 

Motley. John Lothrop, historian, b. Mass. 

Otis, Samuel A., senator for Mass., A74. 

Paine, Robert T., lawyer, signer of Declara- 
tion of Independence, A83. 

Prime, Edward D. G., N. Y.Observer, b. N.Y. 

Robertson, James, pioneer in Tenn., A72. 

Robinson, Wm. E., journalist, editor, b. Ire. 

Rumford, Benjamin Thompson, count, 
Brit, officer, philosopher, A61. 

Stanton, Edwin McMasters, sec. of war, 
born in 0. 



Thompson, Jerome, painter, born in Mass. 
Tilden. Samuel J., Gov. of N. Y., lawyer, 

born in N.Y. 
Wilmot, David, sen. for Pa., born in Pa. 
Wyman, Jeffries, anatomist, prof., b. Mass. 
Yancey,William L.', M. C. for Ala., b. in S. C. 

CHURCH. 

1814 Apr. 11. New York. A woman's 
missionary society is organized in the 
Fayette Street Baptist Church. 

May 18. Va. B. C. Moore is conse- 
crated (Protestant Episcopal) bishop. 

Phila. An assembly of 26 ministers 

and 7 laymen, representing 11 different 
States and the District of Columbia, or- 
ganizes the Triennial Convention of 
the Baptist Church, in the interest of 
foreign mission work. 

June * New York. The General Synod 
of the Reformed Church meets ; John 
N. Bradford, president. 

Sept. 1. Md. James Kemp is conse- 
crated (Protestant Episcopal) suffragan 
bishop. 

* * Phila. The General Convention 
(Protestant Episcopal) meets. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly 
(Presbyterian) meets ; Samuel Inglis, 
moderator. 

* * O. — Tenn. The Presbyterian synods 
of Ohio and Tennessee are formed. 

* * The National Foreign Missionary 
Society (Baptist) is organized. 

LETTERS. 

1814 Aug. 24. B.C. The British burn 
the National Library at Washington. 

* * New York. The New York Weekly 
Museum appears. 

Sept. 13. Md. Francis S. Key composes 
the Star-spangled Banner, during the 
bombardment of Fort McHenry, near 
Baltimore, while detained on board a 
British ship. 

* * The first religious newspaper, The 
Recorder, is issued at Chillicothe, Ohio. 

SOCIETY. 

1815 Jan. 23. La. Thanksgiving 
Day is observed in New Orleans for 
General Jackson's victory. 

Apr. 6. Eng. Massacre of 64 Ameri- 
cans at Dartmoor Prison. 

STATE. 

1814 Jan. 1. U.S. National debt 
$81,487,846. 

Jan. 19. B. C. Congress ; House : 
Langdon Cheves of S. C. is elected 
Speaker. [Be-elected Nov. 25.] 

Apr. 14. Congress repeals the Em- 
bargo Act of December, 1813. 

Apr. 18. I). C. Congress; Senate: 
John GaiUard of S. C. is elected 
President pro tempore. 

The 13th Congress: the second ses- 
sion closes. 

Aug. 22. Mass. The people of Nan- 
tucket declare themselves neutral and 
under the protection of England. 



Aug. 24. B. C. The President and 
Cabinet flee from Washington at 
the approach of the British. 

Sept. 19. B.C. The 13th Congress: 
the third session opens. 

Dec. 15. Conn. Delegates assemble 
from the New England States and orga- 
nize the Hartford Convention as an 
anti-war movement, and also to oppose 
the administration of President Madison. 
It urges certain amendments to the 
Constitution and a denning of the power 
of the General Government over State 
troops, but accomplishes nothing. [The 
Democrats allege that it is a disloyal 
assembly. Its chief effect is the ruin 
of the Federal party, which called it ; 
no political preferments await its mem- 
bers in after years.] 

Dec. 24. Belgium. Peace comes by the 
Treaty of Ghent, which is negotiated 
by John Q. Adams, Albert Gallatin, 
Henry Clay, James A. Bayard, and 
Jonathan Russell. 

The treaty provides for commissions to 
run boundaries, which previous treaties 
had provided for, but it settles none of 
the questions which brought on the 
war ; [yet its effect was essentially that 
desired by the Americans.] 

* * B.C. Congress orders the first war- 
tax, on hats, caps, umbrellas, leather 
boots, plate, beer, ale, playing-cards, 
harness, household furniture, and gold 
and silver watches. 

* * B.C. Henry Clay is the leader of 
the new Democracy ; the Federalist 
party has been nearly annihilated by its 
unpopular conduct during the war. 

Dec. 31. U.S. Internal revenue $1,662,084. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated: 

Cal. Jose Arguello (Spanish). 

-17 * * Bel. Daniel Rodney. 

-17 * * N.C. William Miller. 
O. Othniel Looker. 

-18 * * O. Thomas Worthington. 

-16 * * S. C. David R. Williams. 

-16 * * Va. Wilson C. Nicolas. 
1815 Jan. 1. U. S. National debt 

$99,833,660. 
Jan. 12. U.S. A National fast-day is 

observed. 
Jan. 15. B. C. President Madison ve- 
toes the bills to recharter the National 

Bank. 
Feb. 18. B. C. Congress: the Senate 

ratifies the Treaty of Ghent. 
Mar. 4. B.C. The 13th Congress ends. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1814 Feb. 1. New rates of postage. 
Letters, for 40 miles, 12 cents; between 4f> 
and 90 miles, 15 cents ; between 90 and 
150 miles, 18| cents ; between 150 and 300 
miles, 25 cents ; between 300 and 500 
miles, 30 cents ; over 500 miles, 37i cents ; 
double letters at double price. 

Apr. * La. New Orleans banks suspend 

specie payments. 
Aug. * Philadelphia banks suspend 

specie payments. (Also banks in D. C.) 
Sept.* U.S. Nearly all other banks in 

the country suspend. 
Dec. * The National debt is increased 

by the war of 1812 to 



124 1815, Apr. 13- 1817 * *. 



AMERICA 



ARMY — NAVY. 
THE SEVENTH WAR. 

1815 May 19. New York. An expe- 
dition, consisting of nine vessels, under 
Commodore Decatur, sails for Algiers 
to punish piracies, war having been de- 
clared by the United States. 

June 17. Decatur, after a fight of 20 
minutes, captures the principal Al- 
gerine frigate off Gibraltar. 

June 18. Hostilities cease between the 
United States and England. 

June 19. Decatur captures another 
Algerine vessel. 

June 28. Algeria. The American squad- 
ron arrives in the Bay of Algiers. 

June 30. Algiers. The Americans dic- 
tate terms of peace. 

June * D. C. Maj.-Gen. Jacob Brown 
is appointed (10th) commander of the 
army. 

1816 May 8. The Washington is the 
first ship-of-the-line ; she puts to sea and 
carries 74 guns. 

THE EIGHTH WAR. 

1817 Nov. 20 — 18 Oct. 21. The 
Seminole Indian War. 

[Troops engaged : 1,000 regulars, 6,911 
militia and volunteers ; total, 7,911 men. 
Georgia and Alabama are the seat of the 
war.] 
Dec. 26. Gen. Andrew Jackson is or- 
dered to take the field against the 
Seminole and Creek Indians. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1815 ** Boston,. The Handel and 
Haydn Society is founded. 

* * Mary Brush takes out a patent for a 
corset, the second patent issued to a 
woman. 

* * Pa. Iron-workers have begun to use 
anthracite coal, but their cold blast 
causes a failure. 

y 1816* *-17* * Pa. The first rolling- 
mill to puddle iron and roll iron bars is 
built on Redstone Creek. 

Apr. 30.* Phila. A spot on the sun 
is visible to the naked eye for several 
days. 

1817 Jan. 7. S. C. Two shocks of 
earthquake occur at Charleston. 

* * Ky. The Kentucky River overflows, 
causing damage to the extent of a million 
dollars. 



BIRTHS — DEATHS. 

1815* * 
Anthony, Henry B., Gov., sen. for R. I., born 

in R. I. 
Alsop, Richard, poet, linguist, A74. 
Appleton, John, lawyer, born in Mass. 
Barnard, John G.,mil. eng. U. 8. A.,b. Mass. 
Barton, Benjamin Smith, phys., botanist, 

A 49. 
Bayard, James Assheton, sen. for Del., A 48. 
Beecher, Charles, Cong, clergyman, writer, 

born in Conn. 
Bonham, Milledge L., Confed. Gen., b. S. C. 
Bradford, Alex. Warfleld, jurist, b. in N.Y. 
Brady, James T., lawyer of N.Y., b. in N.Y. 
Brooks, Erastus, journalist, politician, b. Me. 
Budington, Wm. Ives, Cong, cl., b. in Conn. 
Campbell, Jabez P., Afr. M. E. bp., b. in Del. 
Carroll, John D., first R. C. bp., A80. 



Cobb, Howell, M.C. for Ga., sec. treas.,b.Ga. 
Copley, John 8., painter, A78. 
Dana, Richard Henry, Jr., lawyer, b. in Mass. 
Davis, David. V. S. S. Ct., born in 111. 
Doolittle, Jas. R., senator for Wis., b. in N.Y. 
Downing, Andrew J., ruralist economist, 

born in N.Y. 
Dumont, Ebenezer, brig.-gen.,M. C. forlnd., 

born in Ind. 
Farnham, Eliza W., philanthropist, b. N.Y. 
Flagg, Edmund, journalist, author, b. in Me. 
Foster, John Wells, geologist, born in Mass. 
Fry, William H., editor, born in Pa. 
Fulton. Robert steamboat-builder, A50. 
Griswold, Stanley, senator, A52. 
Halleck, Henry W., maj.-gen., military 

writer, born in N.Y. 
Hurlbut, Stephen A., maj.-gen., b. in S. C. 
Kearny, Philip, maj.-gen., born in N.Y. 
Lester, Chas. E., author, born in Conn. 
Lyman, Theodore B., P. E. bp. of N. C, born 

in Mass. 
Meade, George O., maj.-gen., commander 

of the Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg, 

born in Spain. 
Mills, Clarke, sculptor, born in N.Y. 
Murray, John, founder of Universalist 

Church in America, A74. 
Nadal, B. IL, M. E. clergyman, b. in Md. 
Nixon, John, general in Revolution, A90. 
Pakenham, Sir Edward, Brit, gen., A 37. 
Phelps, Elizabeth Stuart, writer, b. in Mass. 
Poland, Luke P., senator for Vt., b. in Vt. 
Provoost, Samuel P. E. bp. of N.Y., A73. 
Ramsay, Alex., sec. of war, Gov. of Minn., b. 
Ramsay, David, physician, historian, A66. 
Robinson, Ezekiel G., Bapt. cl., b. in Mass. 
Rodman, Thomas J., brig.-gen., inventor, 

born in Ind. 
Sevier, John, gov. of Tenn., A71. 
Shubrick, John T., naval officer, A37. 
± Van Amburg, Isaac, showman, b. in N.Y. 
Warren, John C, physician, A62. 
Wells, Horace, anesthetics, born in Vt. 

1816* * 

Allibone, Samuel Austin, author, b. in Pa. 
Alston, Joseph, (Jov. of S. C, A38. 
Asbury, Francis, first Meth. bp., A71. 
Backus, Azel, Pres. of Hamilton Coll., A51. 
Ranks, Nathaniel P., general, M. C. for 

Mass., speaker, b. in Mass. 
Belmont, August, financier, born in Ger. 
Brantly, Wm. T., Bapt. clergyman, b. S. C. 
Crane, Win. C, Bapt. cl., writer, b. in Va. 
Cushman. Charlotte S. , actress, b. in Mass. 
Dexter, Samuel, jurist, A55. 
Donaldson, Edward, commodore IT. S. N., b. 
Duyckinck, Evert Augustus, writer, b. N.Y. 
Early, Jubal A. , Confederate gen., b. in Va. 
Field, Stephen J., associate justice U. S., 

born in Conn. 
Gerstacker, Fried., novelist, traveler, b. Ger. 
Godwin, Parke, author, born in N.Y. 
Haven, Joseph, Cong, cl., philo., b. in Mass. 
Hoar, Ebenezer Rockwood, jurist, statesman, 

born in Mass. 
Hooper, Lucy, poetess, born in Mass. 
Howe, Timothy O., U. S. senator, b. in Me. 
Huntington, Daniel, painter, born in N.Y. 
Jacobus, Melancthon W., Pres. theologian, 

author, born in N. J. 
Johnston, Samuel, Gov. of N. C, A89. 
Kernan, Francis, senator for N.Y., b. in N.Y. 
Kimball, Richard Burleigh,author, b. in N. H. 
Lear, Tobias, sec. to Washington, A66. 
Leutze, Emanuel, painter, born in Ger. 
Lowell, Robert T. S., P. E. cl., b. in Mass. 
Meigs, Montgomery C, Q. M. gen., b. in Ga. 
Miller, Samuel F., justice S. Ct., born in Ky. 
Moore, Benjamin, P. E. bp. of N.Y., A68. 
Morris, Gouverneur, statesman, A64. 
Proctor, Joseph, actor, born in Mass. 
Robinson, Stuart, Pres. clergyman, b. in Ire. 
Sawyer, Philetus, senator for Wis., b. in Vt. 
Saxe, John Godfrey, poet, born in Vt. 
Silliman, Benj., Jr., physicist, born in Conn. 
Spalding, Solomon, clergyman, reputed au- 
thor of Book of Mormon, A55. 
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, reformer, born 

in N.Y. 
Strother, David Hunter, artist, writer, b. Va. 
Thorn; «, George Henry, major-gen., born 

in Va., July 31. 
Waite, Morrison R., chief justice S. Ct., born 

in Conn. 
Wilson, William Dexter, scholar, b. in N. H. 



CHURCH. 

1815 June.* N. Y. The General 
Synod of the Reformed Church meets 
at Albany, John Schureman, president. 
[At New York in Sept., Jacob Brodhead, 
president.] 



Nov. 19. N. J. John Croes is conse- 
crated (Protestant Episcopal) bishop. 

* * Ind. The Harmonists, having emi- 
grated from Wurtemberg, found New 
Harmony. They hold their property in 
common, and consider marriage a civil 
contract. 

* * Ga. The American Board sends Cyrus 
Kingsbury as missionary to the Chero- 
kee Indians. 

* * Mass. Open rupture and hot con- 
troversy separate Trinitarian and Uni- 
tarian Congregationalists. 

* * Mass. A legacy from Mrs. Norris of 
Salem is realized to the American Board 
— $30,000, the largest yet received. 

* * N. Y. The Episcopalians begin mis- 
sion work among the Oneida Indians. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly 
(Presbyterian) meets ; William Neill, 
moderator. 

1816 Mar. 24. Va. Bishop Francis 
Asbury, the organizer of American 
Methodism, preaches his last sermon, at 
Richmond. 

Apr. 14. La. The first Protestant Epis- 
copal church is opened at New Orleans. 

May 1-24. Md. The General Confer- 
ence (Methodist Episcopal) is held at 
Baltimore. 

Enoch George and Robert R. Morris 
are ordained bishops ; the Mississippi 
Conference is formed. 

May 8. New York. The American 
Bible Society is organized in the Re- 
formed Dutch church, in Garden Street. 

June.* New York. The General 
Synod of the Reformed Church meets ; 
Jacob Brodhead, president. 

Oct. * The Bangor Theological Sem- 
inary (Congregational) is opened. 

* * Episcopalians form a Common 
Prayer-Book and a Tract Society. 

* * The Reformed Dutch Church practi- 
cally co-operates with the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions. 

* * Boston. The Unitarian Society for 
the Promotion of Theological Edu- 
cation is organized. 

The Divinity School of Harvard is 
established by Unitarians. 

The Boston Society for the Moral 
and Religious Instruction of the 
Poor is organized. 

* * New York. The first religious meet- 
ing in behalf of sailors is held at the 
corner of Front Street and Old Slip. 

* * N. Y. Lutherans establish a theo- 
logical seminary at Hartwick. 

* * Cyrus Kingsbury, the first missionary 
of the American Board to the Indians, 
is sent to the Cherokees. 

* * O. The Female Charitable Society 
of Tallmadge contributes $20 to the 
American Board, the first received from 
west of the Alleghanies, save one dollar 
from a pastor's pocket. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly 
(Presbyterian) meets ; James Blythe, 
moderator. It organizes the Board of 
Missions. 






UNITED STATES. 1815, Apr. 13-1817 * *. 125 



* * Tract societies are organized in Phila- 
delphia, Baltimore, and Hartford. 

* * Richard Allen is elected bishop of the 
African Methodist Episcopal Church. 

1817 Mar. 14. New York. The Ma- 
rine Bible Society for supplying 
sailors with Bibles is organized. 

Apr. 2. N. C. The (Protestant Episco- 
pal) Diocese of North Carolina is orga- 
nized. 

LETTERS. 

1815 * * Pa. Allegheny College (Meth. 
Epis.) is organized at Meadville. 

* * The North American Review is issued. 

* * Moral Pieces in Prose and Verse, by 
Mrs. Sigourney, appears. 

* * Md. The Portico appears at Balti- 
more. 

1816 * * N. J. Queen's College (Rutgers 
Reformed) suspends work [till 1825]. 

* * Pa. The Pennsylvania State library 
is founded at Harrisburg. [53,000 vols.] 

* * O. The Appeal is issued. (See Society.) 

1817 * * Boston. The Methodist Maga- 
zine appears ; it is the first Methodist 
periodical. 

* *Ohio State Library is founded at 
Columbus. [51,439 vols.] 

Apr. 7. Conn. An institution for deaf 
mutes is opened at Hartford by T. H. 
Gallaudet, with seven pupils. 

Apr. 21. New York. The New York 
State Library is established. 

Sept. 24. N. Y. Thirteen Baptists meet 
in Hamilton and lay the foundation of 
[the present] Madison University. 

SOCIETY. 

1815 Aug. * Neio York. The first 

Peace Society in the world is founded. 

* * D. C. Congress enacts that any one 
establishing a still in the Indian country 
shall be fined $500 and forfeit the still. 

1816* * New York. Authorities forbid 
chimney-sweeps to cry their trade in 
the streets. 

* * O. The Appeal is started at St. Clairs- 
ville, to champion the anti- slavery 
cause. 

1817 Jan. 19. N. J. Riot and rebel- 
lion is engaged in by Princeton students. 

Feb. 25 . Isaac Roget, a merchant in high 
standing, with others, is convicted of 
loading the lost schooner Ocean with 97 
boxes of stone, in an effort to defraud the 
insurance companies of $58,000. 

* * Ky. Abraham Lincoln, nine years 
of age, removes with his parents to In- 
diana, crossing the Ohio on a raft. 

Dec. 28. D. C. An American Colo- 
nization Society is formed at Washing- 
ton ; object, to return negroes to Africa ; 
Henry Clay is its prime mover. 

STATE. 

1815 Apr. 13. N.Y. Bill for the con- 
struction of the Erie Canal, from 
Albany on the Hudson to Lake Erie, 
passes the Assembly. Vote, 84-15. 

June 30. Algiers. Commodore Deca- 
tur negotiates a treaty. 



The Dey renounces all claims to tribute 
for the protection of American com- 
merce from pirates, and yields the right 
to enslave prisoners of war. 

July 3. Eng. A commercial treaty 
between the United States and England 
is signed at London. 

Dec. 4. The 14th Congress opens. 
Congress ; House : Henry Clay of 
Ky. is elected Speaker. 

Dec. 31. U.S. Internal revenue $4,678,059. 

* * New York. John Ferguson is elected 
the 51st mayor. 

* *-18* * New York. Jacob Radcliff 
is elected the 52d mayor. 

* * V. S. Governors inaugurated : 

Cal. Pablo V. de Sola (Span.). 

-17 * * Ga. David B. Mitchell. 

-17 * * N.J. Mahlon Dickerson. 

-21 * * Tenn. Joseph M'Minn. 

-20 * * Ft. Jonas Galusha. 
1816 Jan. 1. U. s. National debt 

$127,334,933. 
Apr. 10. D. C. Congress charters a 

second national bank for twenty 

years, with a capital of $35,000,000. 
Apr. 27. D. C. Congress imposes a 



Robert G. Harper of Md., 3. Vacan- 
cies, 4. 

Mar. 4. D.C. The 14th Congress ends. 
Fifth Administration ; Democratic- 
Republican. 

Mar. 4. D. C. James Monroe of Va. 
is inaugurated the fifth President, in the 
eighth term of the presidency. Daniel 
D. Tompkins of N. Y. is Vice-President. 
The Capitol having been burned by 
the British, the inauguration ceremonies 
take place in Congress Hall. 

Cabinet : John Q. Adams of Mass. 
(State), Wm. H. Crawford of Ga. 
(Treas.), John C. Calhoun of S. C. 
(War), Benj. "W. Crowninshield of 
Mass. <2STavy), and "Wm. Wirt of Va. 
(Atty.-Gen.). 

* * U.S. The Democratic-Republican 
party is dominant. " Era of good feel- 
ing " in politics ; party distinctions are 
nearly obliterated. 

May 31+. I). C. President Monroe per- 
sonally inspects the military posts. 

Dec. 1. D. C. The 15th Congress 
opens. 



protective tariff of about 25 per cent ■ Dec - 10 - D.C. Congress admits Missis- 



on imported cotton and woolen goods, 

and specific duties on iron. The South 

opposes, and the North favors it. Vote : 

Senate, 25-7 ; House, 88-54. 
Apr. 30. D. C. The 14th Congress : 

the first session closes. 
Sept. * The Government makes a treaty 

with the Choctaw and Cherokee Indians. 
Nov. (?)* U.S. Eighth Presidential 

election. Democrat-Republicans defeat 

the Federalists and elect James Monroe. 
Dec. 2. D. C. The 14th Congress: 

the second session opens. 
Dec. 11. D.C. Congress admits Indi- 
ana into the Union as the 19th State. 

* * New Eng. The necessity of protec- 
tion for manufacturing industries 
draws New England toward the Repub- 
lican party. 

Dec. 31. U.S. Internal Revenue $5,124,- 
708. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-22 * * Ind. Jonathan Jennings. 

Ky. George Madison. 

-20 * * Ky. Gabriel Slaughter. 

-20 * * La. Jacques Villere. 

-23 * * Mass. John Brooks. 

-19 * * N. H. William Plumer. 

-18 * * S. C. Andrew Pickens. 

-19 * * Va. James P. Preston. 
1817 Jan. 1. U. S. National debt 

$123,491,965. 
Phila. The New Bank of the United 

States opens at Carpenter's Hall. 

* * U. S. The policy of internal im- 
provements is approved by the Repub- 
licans and opposed by the Democrats. 

Feb. 12. D. C. Congress counts the 
electoral vote. 

Vote for President : James Monroe 
of Va. (Dem.-Rep.), 183 ; RufusKingof 
N. Y. (Federalist), 34. Vote for Vice- 
President: Daniel D. Tompkins of 
N. Y. (Republican), 183 ; John E. How- 
ard of Md. (Federalist), 22 ; James Ross Aug. 2. Mo. 
of Pa., 5; John Marshall of Va., 4; at St. Louis. 



sippi into the Union as the 20th State, 
after dividing the Territory ; the eastern 
portion is called the Territory of Ala- 
bama. 

Dec. 23. D. C. Congress abolishes the 
internal taxes. [They are next levied in 
1861, to meet the expenses of another 
war.] 

Dec. 31. U. S. Internal revenue 
$2,678,100. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-20* * Del. John Clarke. 
-19 * * Ga. William Rabun. 
-20 * *N.C. John Branch. 
-29 * * N.J. Isaac H. Williamson. 
-22 * * N. Y. De Witt Clinton. 

Pa. Wm. Findlay. 
-21 * * R.I. Nehemiah R. Knight. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

1815 * * O. Cincinnati has a popula- 
tion of 11,600. 

* * Pa. The Fairmount "Water- works 
for supplying Philadelphia are com- 
pleted. [The present system was com- 
pleted in 1827.] 

1816 * * Md. Baltimore is the first 
city lighted by gas. 

Nov. 25. Phila. A theater is lighted 

by gas. 
Dec. 2. U. S. The first savings-bank 

is opened at Philadelphia. 

* * New York. More than 7,000 immi- 
grants arrive this year. 

* * N. Y.—Pa. Travelers pass from New 
York to Philadelphia between sunrise 
and sunset. 

1817 Mar. 4. Phila. The rechartered 
National Bank goes into operation, 
and business, long languishing, now re- 
vives. 

July 4. N. Y. The construction of the 
Erie Canal is commenced by breaking 
ground near Rome. 

A steamboat first arrives 



126 1817**-1819**. 



AMERICA 



ARMY — NAVY. 
1818 Apr. * Florida the refuge of the 

Creeks, is invaded by Gen. Jackson, 

without express authority. 
[Congress refused to censure him, and 

Spain accepted money for Florida, rather 

than spend it in a doubtful defense.] 
Apr. 7. Fla. Gen. Jackson captures St. 

Marks, a Spanish post. 
Apr. 30. Fla. He hangs Alexander 

Arbuthnot and an Englishman named 

Robert C. Ambrister, for inciting the 

Creeks to war. 
May 24. Fla. He takes Pensacola from 

the Spaniards. 
May 27. Fla. He reduces the Spanish 

fortress of the Barancas [and sends the 

authorities and troops to Havana]. 
May* Ga. — Ala. Gen. Jackson subdues 

the Seminole Indians. [Cost of the war, 

$40,000,000.] 

ART —SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1817 * * John Trumbull receives a com- 
mission from Congress for four historical 
pictures : Declaration of Independence ; 
Surrender of Burgoyne; Surrender of 
Cornwallis ; Resignation of Washington. 

1818 Aug. 13. Mass. Gelatinous mat- 
ter falls near Amherst soon after the 
passage of a brilliant meteor. 

* * Boston. Handel's Messiah is produced. 

* * Adams and Dodge are said to have in- 
vented a sewing-machine. 

* * Boston. The Creation, by Haydn, is 
produced. 

* * Mo. N. M. Ludlow gives the first 
dramatic performance in St. Louis. 

* * N. J. Seth Boyden, by an experiment 
at Newark, produces the first patent 
leather made in this country. 

* * N. Y. A large part of Table Rock, at 
Niagara Falls, gives way and drops. 

* * New York. The Lyceum of Natural 
History is inaugurated. 

* * Pa. An unsuccessful attempt is made 
at Mauch Chunk to use anthracite coal 
in making iron. 

* * Phila. The Academy of Natural 
Science is founded. 

Jacob Perkins invents engraving on 
soft steel, which, when hardened, will 
multiply copper plates indefinitely. 

1819 May 26. Ga. The steamship 
Savannah, of 350 tons, sails from Savan- 
nah for Liverpool, arriving June 20 : the 
first steamship to cross the Atlantic. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 
1817* * 

Barnes, Joseph, brig. -gen., surgeon, b. in Pa. 
Bedell, Gregory T., P. E. bp. of O., b. N.Y. 
Bigelow, John, author, editor, born in N.Y. 
Bowman, Thomas, M. E. bishop, b. in Pa. 
Bras?, Braxton, Confed. gen., b. in N. C. 
Byford, Wm. Heath, physician, born in O. 
Carnochan, John M., surgeon, born in Ga. 
Champney, Benjamin, painter, b. in N. H. 
Dallas, Alex. James, sec. of treas., A58. 
Davis, Henry Winter, M. C. for Md., b. Md. 
Douglass, Fred'k, orator, b. a slave in Md. 
Dupont, Pierre Sam., of Del., economist, A78. 
Dwight, Timothy, Pres. of Yale Col., A65. 
EweU, Richard S., Confed. lieut.-gen., b. D.C. 
Fairchild, James H., Presb. cl., b. in Mass. 
Fields, James Thomas, editor, b. N. H. 
Finley,Robert,Presb.clergyman of N. J., A45. 
Forney, John Weiss, journalist, b. in Pa. 
Freling-huysen, Frederick T., senator for 
N. J., sec. of state, born in N. J. 



Goug-h, John B., temperance orator, b. Eng. 
Green, Seth, flsh culturist, born in N.Y. 
Hager, David Albert, geologist, born in Vt. 
Hale, Horatio, ethnologist, born in N. H. 
Harbaugh, Henry, author, born in Pa. 
Harris, Wm. L., . E. bishop, born in O. 
Hitchcock, Roswell Dwight, prof., b. in Me. 
Hollister, Gideon Hiram, author, born. 
Huntington, Samuel, judge, A42. 
Jones, Wm. A., librarian, born in N.Y. 
Judson, Emily (Fanny Forester), b. in N.Y. 
Lincoln, John L., educator, born in Mass. 
McKean, Thomas, patriot, jurist, A83. 
Meek, Fielding B., paleontologist, b. in Ind. 
Neale, Leonard, R. C. bp. of Baltimore, A71. 
Odenheimer, Wm. H., P. E. bp. of N. J., b. Pa. 
Palmer, Erastus Dow, sculptor, b. in N.Y. 
Palmer, John McCauley, sen. for 111., b. Ky. 
Pickens, Andrew, Revolutionary gen., A78. 
Pierrepont, Edwards, att'y-gen.. b. in Conn. 
Ricketts, James B., gen. U. S. A., b. in N.Y. 
Riddle, George R., senator for Md., b. in Del. 
Robinson, John C., major-general, b. in N. Y. 
Rothermel, Peter F., painter, born in Pa. 
Saulsbury, Eli, senator for Del., b. in Del. 
Thoreau, Henry D., naturalist, b. in Mass. 
Wallace, Horace Binney, lawyer, b. in Pa. 

1818* * 

Adams, Abigail, writer, wife of Pres., A74. 

Ag-new, D. Hayes, phys., surgeon, b. Pa. 

Andrew, John Albion, gov. of Mass., b. Me. 

Baker, Harriette N. Woods, author, b. Mass. 

Barney, Joshua, commodore IT. S. N., A59. 

Barry, William F., brevet maj.-gen., b. N.Y. 

Beauregard, Pierre Gustave T., Confed- 
erate general, born In La. 

Blackwell, Lucy Stone, woman suffragist, 
born in Mass. 

Boutwell, Geo. Sewall, M. C. for Mass., sec. 
of treas., born in Mass. 

Browne, J. Ross, writer, born in Ire. 

Buell, Don Carlos, maj.-gen. U. S. A., b. O. 

Burr, Enoch Fitch, Cong, cl., b. in Conn. 

Butler, Benjamin Franklin, lawyer, M.C., 
general, born in N. H. 

Clarke, Geo. Rogers, gen., frontiersman, A66. 

Corbit, Wm. P., M. E. clergyman, b. in Pa. 

Coxe,ArthurC.,P.E. bp. of N. Y., poet, b. N.J. 

Cozzens, Fred. S., writer, born in N.Y. 

Cuffee, Paul, philanthropist, A59. 

Daboll, Nathan,teacher, mathematician, A68. 

Davis, Noah, jurist of N.Y., born in N. H. 

Denver, James W., Gov. of Kan., b. In Va. 

Dorsey, John Syng, surgeon, A 35. 

± Eastman, Mary H., author, born in Va. 

Ellet, Elizabeth F., author, born in N.Y. 

Evarts, Wm. Maxwell, lawyer, sec. of 
state, born in Mass. 

Fay, Jonas, surgeon, A81. 

Fullerton, Wm., lawyer, jurist, born. 

Gatling, Richard J., inventor of gun, b. N. C. 

Gorgas, Josiah, vice-chancellor, born in Pa. 

Green, Norvin, pres. of tel. co., born in Ind. 

Hampton, Wade, Confed. lieut.-gen., senator 
for S. C, gov., born in S. C. 

Hardee, Wm. J., Confed. gen., born in Ga. 

Harris, Caleb F., book collector, b. in R. I. 

Harris, I sham G., sen. for Tenn., b. in Tenn. 

Hartshome, Edward, phys. of Phila., b. Pa. 

Hill, Thomas, Unit, cl., pres. of Harvard 
University, born in N. J. 

Horsford, Eben Norton, chemist, b. in N.Y. 

Humphreys, David, soldier, poet, A65. 

Irwin, Jared, Gov. of Ga., A68. 

James, Horace, Cong, clergyman, born. 

Jarves, James J., traveler, author, b. Mass. 

Kensett, John F., painter, born in Conn. 

LeClear, Thomas, portrait painter, b. in N.Y. 

LeConte, John, physicist, born in Ga. 

Lee, Henry, general, M. C., A62. 

Lee, Henry, Confed. gen. b. 

Loring, William W., Confed., Egyptian gen- 
eral, born in N.C. 

MacDowell, Irvin, maj.-gen. U. S. A., b. in O. 

Mathews, William, author, born in Me. 

Milledge, John, gov., founder of Georgia 
University, A 61. 

Mitchell, Maria, astronomer, b. in Mass. 

Morgan, Lewis H., ethnologist, b. in N. J. 

O'Brien, Jeremiah, privateer in Revol'n, A78. 

Ord, Edward O. C, maj.-gen. U. S. A., b. Md. 

Paulding, John, a captor of Andre, A60. 

Pope, Chas. A., surgeon of Mo., b. in Ala. 

Prentiss, Elizabeth, religious writer, b. in Me. 

Reid, Mayne, Capt., novelist, born in Ire. 

Renwick, James, architect, born in N.Y. 

Revere, Paul, engraver, patriot of Mass., A83. 

Rice, Alex. H., statesman, scholar, b. Mass. 

Richardson, Israel B., major-gen., b. in Vt. 

Robinson, Wm. S., editor, writer, b. in Ind. 

Saint Clair, Arthur, general U. S. A., A84. 

Shaw, Henry W. (Josh Billings), humorist, 
writer, born in Mass. 

Smith, John L., mineral., chemist, b. in S. C. 

Stevens, Isaac Ingalls, maj.-gen., b. in Mass. 

Wistar, Caspar, physician, anatomist, A57. 

Worden, John L., com. U. S. N., b. N. Y. 



CHURCH. 

1817 June * N. Y. The General Synod 
(Reformed) meets at Albany ; C. D. 
Westbrook, president. [At Kingston in 
Oct.] 

* * Conn. The American Board organizes 
a foreign mission school at New 
Haven, with five Hawaiian lads, among 
others, as its first pupils. 

* * Missions are established among the 
Choctaw Indians by the American 
Board. 

* * N.J. The Theological School Build- 
ing at Princeton is opened. 

* * New Yorkj The General Conven- 
tion (Protestant Episcopal) meets. 

* * Phila. The Philadelphia Sunday 
and Adult School Union is orga- 
nized. 

The Baptist Triennial Meeting as- 
sembles. 

The American Baptist Mission Union 
modifies its constitution so as to include 
domestic mission work. 

The General Assembly (Presby- 
terian) meets ; James Coe, moderator. 

* * Tenn. The (N. S.) Presbyterian Synod 
of Tennessee is organized. 

1818 Jan. * O. The (Protestant Epis- 
copal) Diocese of Ohio is organized. 

June 5. New York. The Society for 
Promoting the Gospel among Sea- 
men in the port of New York is orga- 
nized. 

June * New York. The General Synod 
(Reformed) meets ; Wm. Mc.Murray, 
president. [In August it meets again at 
Albany ; J. M. Bradford, president.] 

Sept. 23. Boston. The American Board 
appoints Pliny Fisk and Levi Parsons the 
first American missionaries to the Orient. 

Oct. 8. S. C. Nathaniel Bowen is con- 
secrated (Protestant Episcopal) bishop 
of South Carolina. 

* * N. C. The Baptists begin work among 
the Cherokees. The General Conference 
sends a missionary to the Miamis, Kicka- 
poos, Pottawattamies, and Shawanoes. 

* * Pa. The "Woman's Missionary So- 
ciety (Presbyterian) is formed in Derry. 

* * The Cumberland Presbyterian Church 
sends evangelists among the Chickasaws. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly 
(Presbyterian) meets ; J. J. Janeway, 
moderator. It forms the Board of 
Missions. Dr. Ashbel Green's paper 
against slavery is passed. 

1819 Feb. 11. O. Philander Chase, 
the first western bishop (Protestant 
Episcopal), is consecrated. 

Apr. 5. New York. The Missionary 
Society of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church is organized at the preachers' 
meeting. 

July 5. New York. A woman's Mis- 
sionary Society is formed in the Wes- 
leyan Seminary, on Forsyth Street. 

* * O. The Joint Synod (Evangelical Lu- 
theran) of Ohio is organized. 

Oct. 23. Hiram Bingham, Asa Thurston, 
and others of the American Board sail 



UNITED STATES. 



1817**-1819**. 127 



for the Sandwich Islands to open a 
mission. 
Oct. 27. Conn. T. C. Brownell is conse- 
crated (Protestant Episcopal) presiding 
bishop for Connecticut. 

LETTERS. 
1817 * * Conn. The Hartford Times is 
first issued. 

Rev. Jeremiah Day is President of 
Yale College [till 1846]. 

* * Mass. The Divinity School (Unit.) 
of Harvard University is established. 

* * New York. The General Theological 
Seminary (Prot. Epis.) is organized. 

* * The American Monthly Magazine ap- 
pears. 

* * Phila. The American Register ap- 
pears. 

* * Thanatopsis, by W. C. Bryant, 
appears. 

* * Keep Cool, by John Neal, appears. 

* * Life and Character of Patrick Henry, 
by William Wirt, appears. 

1818* * Boston. Christian Examiner 
is issued quarterly by Channing, Dewey, 
Ware, and others. 

* * N. Y. The New York State library 
is founded at Albany. [128,529 vols.] 

* * The American Journal of Science and 
Arts, a quarterly, by Benjamin Silliman, 
is issued. 

* * Early European Friends of America, 
by Julian C. Verplanck, appears. 

* * The Battle of Niagara, by John Neal, 
appears. 

* * The Methodist Magazine [later the 
Methodist Quarterly Beview] appears. 

* * The Backwoodsman, by J. K. Paulding, 
appears. 

* * Theology Explained and Defended in 
One Hundred and Seventy-three Sermons, 
by Timothy Dwight, appears. 

1819 Apr. 2. Md. The American 
Farmer is first issued at Baltimore ; it is 
the first agricultural paper in the 
country. 

May * Baptists begin the publication of 
the weekly Christian Watchman. 

* *Ky. Center College (Pres.) is or- 
ganized at Danville. 

SOCIETY. 

1818 * * U. S. Great agitation of the 
slavery question is occasioned by the 
petition of Missouri for admission to 
the Union as a slave State. 

* * In order to counteract the habitual 
use of ardent spirits among the people, 
Secretary Calhoun prohibits the use of 
liquor altogether in the U. S. Army. 

1819 Apr. 26. Md. The first society 
of Odd Fellows in the United States is 
instituted as Washington Lodge No. 1. 

* * Ga. Expulsion of the Cherokees. 

Greedy white men want their land, 
and a great body of Indians are " per- 
suaded " to go over the Mississippi. The 
Cherokees, the Creeks, the Choctaws, 
and the Chickasaws are " greatly agi- 
tated and distressed " at the prospect of 
a removal from lands guaranteed to them 
by treaty with the United States. 



* * Ind. Abraham Lincoln (nearly 11 
years old) mourns the death of his 
mother. 

* * New York. Hatters form a union. 

STATE. 

1818 Jan. 1. U. S. National debt 
$103,466,633. 

Mar. 18. U. S. Congress grants pen- 
sions to veterans of the war of the 
Revolution who are in needy circum- 
stances. 

Mar. 31. B. C. Congress; Senate: 
John Gaillard of S. C. is reelected 
President pro tempore. 

Apr. 4. B. C. Congress adopts the 
United States flag ; it has 13 stars on a 
blue canton, and 13 stripes alternate red 
and white — one for each original State. 

Apr. 20. B. C. The 15th Congress : the 
first session closes. 

Sept. 1. N.Y. Auburn prison is opened. 

Oct. 20. A Convention is signed with 
Great Britain respecting boundaries 
and the fisheries. 

The 49th parallel of north latitude 
shall be established as the boundary 
line between United States and British 
America in the west, and the joint occu- 
pation of Oregon shall take place for 
ten years. The convention of 1815 is 
renewed. 

Nov. 16. B. C. The 16th Congress: 

the second session opens. 
Dec. 3. B.C. Congress admits Illinois 

as the 21st State. 
Dec. 31. U. S. Internal revenue 

$955,270. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated: 
-27 * * Conn. Oliver Wolcott. 
-22 * * III. Shadrach Bond. 

-25 * * Ind. William Hendricks. 
-22 * * O. Ethan A. Brown. 
-20 * * S. C. John Geddes. 

* *-21* * New York. Cadwallader D. 
Colden is elected the 53d mayor. 

1819 Jan. 1. U. S. National debt 
$95,529,648. 

Feb. 13. B.C. Congress ; House : vig- 
orous resistance is made to a bill in- 
troduced to organize the Territory of 
Missouri into a State. Of the 22 States, 
11 are free and 11 are slave States. 

James Tallmadge of N. Y. moves the 
bill be so amended as to forbid the 
further introduction of slaves, and 
grant freedom to the offspring of 
slaves at 25 years of age. [Passed, Feb. 
16. Vote, 87-76. It is defeated in the 
Senate. Vote, 31-7.] 

Feb. 15. B. C. Congress; Senate: 
James Barbour of Va. is elected Presi- 
dent pro tempore. 

Feb. 22. B. C. Treaty with Spain. 
Spain surrenders all claim to West Flor- 
ida, and cedes East Florida. The United 
States surrenders all claim to Texas, and 
agrees to pay an indemnity of $5,000,000 
to satisfy the claims of American citi- 
zens against Spain. 

Mar. 4. B.C. The 15th Congress 
ends. 

Mar. * B. C. President Monroe approves 
the act of Congress, by which all Afri- 
cans recaptured from slavers shall be 
returned to Africa, and cared for. 

June 19. Maine is separated from Mass. 



Dec. 6. B. C. The 16th Congress 
opens. House : Henry Clay of Ky. is 
reelected Speaker. Vote, 147-8. 

Dec. 14. B.C. Alabama is admitted into 
the Union as the 22d State. 

Dec. 31. U.S. Internal revenue 
$229,593. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-20 * * Ala. Wm. W. Bibb. 

-25 * * Ark. (Ter.) James Miller. 

Ga. Matthew Talbot. 
-23 * * Ga. John Clarke. 
-21 * * Miss. George Poindexter. 
-23 * * N. H. Samuel Bell. 
-22 * * Va. Thomas M. Randolph. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1817 * * Ala. Montgomery is founded. 

* * N. Y. The Black Ball Line (the 
first line of packets) of 4 ships is estab- 
lished, to run to Liverpool. 

* * Vermont has its first bank at Wind- 
sor, and receives a bonus from the insti- 
tution. 

* * U. S. Flour sells at $10 to $15 a 
barrel. 

The country is flooded with foreign 
goods at low prices, which ruin many 
manufacturing establishments fostered 
by high prices during the war. 

1818 Mar. 19. Bel. A powder-mill 
explodes near Wilmington ; 35 persons 
are killed. 

May 28. N.Y. The Walk4n-the- Water, 
the first steamboat on Lake Erie, is 
launched at Black Rock. 

July 8. New York. Gen. Montgom- 
ery's remains are removed from 
Canada, and deposited with military 
honors in the mural tomb in St. Paul's 
churchyard. 

Aug. 23. N. Y. The first steamboat 
trip on Lake Erie begins at Buffalo. 

* * B. C. The center foundation of the 
Capitol at Washington is laid. 

* * Md. The first savings-bank at Bal- 
timore is established. 

i * * Shoe-pegs are introduced. 

1819 Oct. 24. N. Y. The Erie Canal 
is opened from Utica to Rome. 

Nov. 24. N. Y. The Champlain Ca- 
nal is declared to be navigable. 

Dec. * Ind. Fifteen families are settled 
at Indianapolis. 

* * Ky. John J. Crittenden resigns his 
seat in the Federal Senate, at $900 a 
year, " to get bread for his family." 

* * N. C. A great fire occurs at Wil- 
mington; loss over $1,000,000. 

* *N.J. Forest fires near Springfield 
buvn 3,000 acres of timber. 

* * Yellow fever prevails in Southern 
cities; in New Orleans there are 1,200 
deaths; many more occur in Mobile, 
Savannah, Charleston, and Baltimore. 

* * The first national financial crisis 
occurs. 

It is occasioned by extravagant spec- 
ulations following the reorganization 
of the National Bank; $2,000,000 are 
withdrawn from the bank, beyond its 
securities; the bank barely escapes 
insolvency. 



128 



1819 



1821 



AMERICA 



ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1820 Nov. 29. New York. Edmund 
Kean first appears in America in Richard 
III. at the Anthony Street Theater. 

* * Vt. Carpenters' steel squares are first 
manufactured, at Bennington. 

* * Jeremiah is painted hy "Washington 
Allston. 

±* * John Frazee executes husts in 

marble. 
±* * Hezekiah Augur practises the art of 

sculpture. 

* * India-rubber shoes are first seen in 
America. 

1821 Jan.* N. Y. The Hudson 
River is frozen over, and loaded sleighs 
cross on the ice from Cortlandt Street to 
Jersey City. 

July 13. Va. Junius Brutus Booth 
first appears in America in Richard III. 
at Richmond. 

BIRTHS — DEATHS. 
1819* * 

Abbott, Ezra, scholar, born in Me. 

Alexander, Barton L., brig.-gen., born. 

Appleton, Jesse, Cong, clergyman, President 
of Bowdoin, A 47. 

Armitage, Thomas, Rapt, cl., born in Eng. 

Ball, Thomas, sculptor, born in Mass. 

Barker, Fordyce, physician, born in Me. 

Blackman, George Curtis, surgeon, b. Conn. 

Brannan, John M., major-general, b. in I). C. 

Canby, Edward K. S., brig.-gen., b. in Ky. 

Crane, Jonathan T., M. E. cl., b. in N. J. 

Dana, Chas. Anderson. N. Y. Sun, b. N. H. 

English, Thomas Dunn, Ben Bolt, b. in Pa. 

Evans, Oliver, inventor of engines, A 64., Md. 

Fenton, Reuben E., senator, Gov. of N. Y., 
born in N.Y. 

Field, Cyrus West, merchant of N. Y., 
promoter of Atlantic cable, b. Mass. 

Fishburn, William, maj.-gen. of Revol'n, A59. 

Geary, John W., brig.-gen., Gov. of Pa.,b. Pa. 

Getty, Geo. W., maj.-gen. U. S. A., b. D. C. 

Greenough, Richard S., sculptor, b. in Mass. 

Hecker, Isaac Thomas, Paulist, b. in N.Y. 

Hendricks, Thomas A., Vice-Pres., sen. 
for Ind., b. in O. 

Hinman, Clark T., founder of N. W. Univer- 
sity, born in N.Y. 

Holland, Josiah Gilbert, poet, b. in Mass. 

Howe, Elias, inv. sewing-machine, b. Mass. 

Howe, Julia Ward, poet, born in N.Y. 

Hudson, Frederick, journalist, b. in Mass. 

Huntington, Frederick I>., P. E. bp. of Cen- 
tral N. Y., born in Mass. 

Jeffries, John, physician, aeronaut, A74. ? 

Johnson, Wm. Sam., M. C. for Conn., F. R. 
S., A 92. 

Kedney, John Steinfort, P. E. cl., b. in N. J. 

Keener, John Christian, M. E. S. bp., b. Md. 

Langdon, John, senator for N. H., gov., A80. 

Lanman, Charles, author, painter, b. Mich. 

Lesley, John Peter, geologist, born in Pa. 

Lowell. James Russell, poet, professor in 
Harvard,minister to England, born in Mass. 

Lyon, Nathaniel, general, born in Conn. 

Melville, Herman, novelist, born in N.Y. 

Morton, Wm. Thomas Green, dentist, phy- 
sician, discoverer of the use of ether as an 
anesthetic, born in Mass. 

Mowatt, Anna Cora (Ritchie), actor, b. Fr. 

Painter, Gamaliel, jurist, founder of Middle- 
bury College, Vt., A 66. 

Parsons, Thomas Wm., poet, b. in Boston. 

Perry, Oliver Hazard, com.U. S. navy, A34. 

Rodgers, Christopher R. P., rear-admiral, 
born in N.Y. 

Rosecrans, William S., brig.-gen. U. S. A., 
born in 0. 

Schaff, Philip, Swiss-Am. Pres. cl., b. Switz. 

South worth, Emma 1). E., novelist, b. D. C. 

Story, Wm. Wetmore, sculptor, poet, born 
in Mass. 

Thompson, Joseph P., Cong. cl.,au.,b. in Pa. 

Van Santvoord, George, lawyer, au.,b. N. J. 

Warner, Susan (Elizabeth Wetherel), au- 
thor, born in N.Y. 

"Wheeler, Wm,A,19th Vice-Pres., b. in N.Y. 

Whipple, Edwin Percy, essayist, critic, born 
in Mass. 

"Whitman. Walt, poet, born in N.Y. 

Whitney, Josiah Dwight, geologist, b. Mass. 

Wilkinson, Jemima, religious impostor, A66. 

Williamson, Hugh, physician, scholar, A84. 



1820* * 

Anthony, Susan B., woman's rights' advo- 
cate, born in Mass. 

Blatchford, Samuel, U. 8. S. Ct., b. in Ga. 

Boone, Dan., explorer, colonizer of Ky.,A85. 

Brigham, Charles H., Cong, clergyman, edu- 
cator, born in Mass. 

Bristed, Charles A., author, born in N.Y. 

Broderick, David C, sen. for Ga., b. D. C. 

Brooks, William T. H., brig.-gen. vol., b. O. 

Brownell, Henry Howard, author, b. in R. I. 

Burrill, James, atty.-gen. of R. I., A48. 

Cary, Alice, poet, born in 0. 

Chauvenet, Wm., mathematician, b. in Pa. 

Crawford, Martin J., diplomat, b. In Ga. 

Davie, Wm. Richardson, Gov. of N. C, A64. 

De Bow, James D. B., statistician, b. S. C. 

Deems, Charles F., Meth. Epis. South clergy- 
man, author, born in Md. 

Decatur, Stephen, Jr., Com. U. S. N., 
killed in a duel, A41. 

De Vere, Maximilian Scheie, philologist, es- 
sayist, born in Sweden. 

Devens, Charles, jurist, born in Mass. 

Doubleday, Abner,gen. of vol., col. U. S. A., 
born in N.Y. 

Drake, Joseph Rodman, poet, A25. 

Eads, James B., engineer, born in Ind. 
Ellicott, Andrew, astronomer, A66. 

Foster, Randolph S., M. E. bishop, b. in 0. 
Gaston, William, Gov. of Mass., b. in Conn. 
Gayler, Chas., journalist, dramatist, b. N.Y. 
Greatorex, Eliza, artist, born in Ire. 
Hall, Chas. H., clergyman, born in Ga. 
Harlan, James, senator for la., born in 111. 
Haven, Erastus, M. E. bishop, b. in Boston. 
Hewit, Augustine Francis, clergyman, Paul- 
ist, born in Conn. 
Holmes, George F., educator, b. in Guiana. 
Hopkins, John H., P. E. clergyman, b. Ire. 
Houghton, George F., jurist, born in Vt. 
Hoyt, Benjamin T., educator, born in Mass. 
Kane, Elisha Kent, explorer, born in Phila. 
Keene, Laura, actress, born in Eng. 
Ketchum, Winthrop W., judge, born in Pa. 
Le Vert, Octavia W., author, born in Ga. 
Lincoln, Levi, M. C. for Mass., A71. 
Lorflt, Campbell, chemist, author, b. in Mo. 
Nesmith, Jas. W., senator for Ore., b. Can. 
Poore, Benjamin Perley, journalist, b. Mass. 
Pursh, Frederick, botanist, A 46. 
Raymond, Henry Jarvis, journalist, b. N.Y. 
Reynolds, John Fulton, gen. U. S. A., b. Pa. 
Root, George F., musical composer, b. Mass. 
Rousseau, Lovell II., brig.-gen. U.S.A., b. Ky. 
Shedd, Wm. G. T., Pres. cl., au., b. in Mass". 
Sherman, William Tecumseh, 15th Gen- 
eral of U. S. A., born in 0. 
Trumbull, Benj., Cong, cl., historian, A85. 
Vallandigham, Clement L.,M. C. forO., b. 0. 
Wells, Samuel Roberts, phrenologist, b. Ct. 
Wentworth, Sir John, Gov. of N. H., A83. 
West, Benjamin, painter in Eng., A82. 
Wharton, Francis, jurist, P. E. clergyman, 
born in Phila. 



CHURCH. 

1819 * * Md. Dr. William Ellery Chan- 
ning preaches at Baltimore, and gives 
what is called the Unitarian Declara- 
tion of Independence, and becomes 
the leader of his church. 

* * The Hamilton Baptist Missionary 
Society sends a missionary to the 
Oneidas. 

The Ohio Conference (Methodist Epis- 
copal) appoints James B. Finley superin- 
tendent of its Indian mission among the 
Wyandots. 

* * Phila. The General Assembly 
(Presbyterian) meets ; "James Holt Kice, 
moderator. 

1820 May 1-27. Md. The General 
Conference (Methodist Episcopal) 
meets in Baltimore. 

May 3. Me. The Protestant Episcopal 
diocese of Maine is organized. 

June 4. New York. The first mariners' 
church in the United States is dedi- 
cated, in Roosevelt Street. 

June* New York. The General Synod 
(Reformed) meets ; James S. Cameron, 



president. [In Oct. it meets at Al- 
bany.] 
Oct. 22. Lutherans form a General 
Synod, with 150 ministers and 35,000 
communicants. 

* * Md. — Va. Each of these States orga- 
nizes a Lutheran Synod. 

* * New York. The African Methodist 
Episcopal Zion Church is organized. 

Methodists are divided respecting the 
Episcopacy, and Methodist Protestant 
Churches are formed. 

* * Phila. The General Convention 
(Protestant Episcopal) meets. It orga- 
nizes the Domestic and Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society. 

The General Assembly (Presby- 
terian) meets ; John McDowell, mod- 
erator. 

Presbyterians enter a Plan of Corre- 
spondence with the Reformed Church. 

The Baptist Triennial Meeting is 
held. The Meeting decides to again 
restrict its Baptist mission work to 
foreign fields. 

* * S. C. The Roman Catholic Diocese 
of Charleston is established. 

* *The United Synod, South (Evan- 
gelical Lutheran) of Tennessee, is orga- 
nized. 

* * A mission is established among the 
Choctaws by the American Board. 

* * The United Foreign Missionary Soci- 
ety commences work among the Osage 
Indians. 

* *The Southern General Synod of 
Lutherans organizes. 

* * U. S. Methodists are agitated con- 
cerning the election of presiding: 
elders. 

1821 June 3. New York. The Bethel 
Union is organized. [It soon expires.] 

June * N. Y. The General Synod (Re- 
formed) meets at Albany ; S. S. Wood- 
hull, president. 

LETTERS. 
1819 * * N. Y. Auburn Theological Sem- 
inary (Pres.) is established. 

* * Pa. The "Western University of 
Pennsylvania (non-sect.), at Pittsburg, 
is organized. 

* * Term. Maryville CoUege (Pres.) is 
founded. 

* * The Presbyterian Board of Education 
begins its work. 

* * Fanny, by Fitz-Greene Halleck, ap- 
pears. 

* * Voyage to South America, by Henry 
M. Brackenridge, appears. 

* * The Sketch Book, by "Washington 
Lrving, appears. 

* * The American Flag, by J. R. Drake, 
appears. 

* * View of the Lead Mines of Missouri, by 
Henry R. Schoolcraft, appears. 

* * The State Triumvirate: A Political 
Tale, by Verplanck, appears. 

* * Percy's Masque, by James A. Hill- 
house, appears. 



UNITED STATES. 



1819**-1821**. 129 



1820 Mayl. N. Y. The Hamilton Lit- 
erary and Theological Institution (Bapt.) 
is opened. 

* * Ark. The Arkansas Gazette, at Ar- 
kansas Village, is first issued. 

* * Me. Colby University (Bapt.) is 
founded at Waterville. 

* * N. Y. The Colgate University 
(Bapt.) is organized at Hamilton as the 
Madison University. 

* * Mass. Jacob Bigelow and others start 
the American Pharmacopeia. 

The Literary and Scientific Repository 
appears. [Expires in 1821.] 

The Apprentice Library is founded. 
[63,000 vols.] 

The Mercantile Library Association's 
Library is founded. [207,128 vols.] 

* * Precaution, by James Fenimore 
Cooper, appears. 

* * Judith, Esther and Other Poems, by 
Maria Brooks, appears. 

* * -44 * * The Ladies 1 Companion ap- 
pears. 

1821 Apr. 20. Boston. The Christian 
Register (Unit.) is issued. 

SOCIETY. 

1820 Mar. 22. Commodore Barron 
kills Commodore Decatur in a duel. 

May 5. D. C. Congress recognizes the 
slave-trade to be piracy, and prohibits 
citizens from engaging in it under pen- 
alty of death. 

± * * Miss. A lottery is established at 
Natchez, to build a church. 

* * U. S. Total slaves, 2,009,031. 

+ * * Webster, Calhoun, and Clay with 
masterly eloquence denounce agitators 
■who constantly declare the iniquity of 
the slave system. 

1821 * * Africa. Liberia is secured for 
the colonization scheme of the American 
Colonization Society, and a new town is 
commenced, called Monrovia. 

* * Me. The selectmen are required to 
post up, in all places where liquor is 
sold, the names of all persons reported 
to be drunkards or tipplers. 

STATE. 

1820 Jan. 1. U. S. National debt 
$91,015,560. 

Jan. 25. D. C. Congress; Senate : John 
Gaillard of S. C. is elected President 
pro tempore. 

Feb. 18. D. C. Congress ; Senate : The 
Missouri Compromise Bill passes. 
Vote, 24-20. 

Mar. 2. D. C. Congress ; House : The 
Missouri Compromise Bill passes. 

It admits Missouri as a slave State, but 
forever prohibits slavery from the bal- 
ance of the territory west of the Missis- 
sippi, north of 36° 30' north latitude — the 
latitude of the southern border of Mis- 
souri. Vote : House, 134-42. 

Mar. 3. D. C. Congress admits Maine 
into the Union as the 23d State, to take 
effect Mar. 15. 

Congress limits the tenure of office 
of Governmental appointees to four 
years, or the pleasure of the Govern- 
ment. 



May 15. D. C. The 16th Congress: 

the first session closes. 

Oct. 20. Spain ratifies the treaty ceding 
Florida. 

Nov. 13. D.C. The 16th Congress: 
the second session opens. 

Nov. 14. D. C. Congress ; House : John 
W. Taylor of N. Y. is elected Speaker. 

Nov. ?* U.S. Ninth Presidential Elec- 
tion ; Democratic-Republicans elected. 

Dec. 31. U. S. Internal revenue 
$106,260. 

* * U. S. The Missouri Compromise 
quells the slavery agitation for a 
time, and it is deemed settled forever. 

* * U. S. Old issues in politics are 
abandoned ; the new issues are protec- 
tion for manufactures, internal improve- 
ments by the General Government, and 
the recognition of the South American 
republics. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated: 
-21 * * Ala. Thomas Bibb. 

-21* * Del. Jacob Stout. 
-24* *Ky. John Adair. 
-22 * * La. Thos. B. Robertson. 
-21* * Me. William King. 
-24 * * Mo. Alexander M'Nair. 
-21 * * N.C. Jesse Franklin. 

* * Pa. Joseph Heister. 
-22 * * 8. C. Thomas Bennett. 
-23 * * Ft. Richard Skinner. 

1821 Jan. 1. U. S. National debt 
$89,987,427. 

Feb. 14. D. C. Congress counts the 
electoral vote. 

Vote for President, James Monroe of 
Va., Republican, 231 ; John Q. Adams of 
Mass., Opposition, 1. For Vice-Presi- 
dent, Daniel D. Tompkins of N. Y., Re- 
publican, 218 : Richard Stockton of N. J., 
8 : Daniel Rodney of Del., 4 ; Robert G. 
Harper of Md. , 1 ; Richard Rush of Pa., 1 . 
Vacancies, 3. 

Feb. 26. I). C. Congress : The House 

votes to admit Missouri conditionally. 

Vote, 87-81. 
Feb. 27. D.C. Congress: The Senate 

votes to admit Missouri conditionally. 

Vote, 26-15. 
Mar. 4. D.C. The 16th Congress ends. 

The 2d term of the fifth adminis- 
tration ; Democratic-Republican. 

Mar. 4. D. C. James Monroe of Va., 
the fifth President, enters his second 
term, in the ninth term of the presi- 
dency. Daniel D. Tompkins of N. Y. 
is Vice-President. 

Cabinet: John Q,. Adams of Mass. 
(State), Wm, H. Crawford of Ga. 
(Treas.), John C. Calhoun of S. C. 
(War), Smith Thompson of N. Y. 
(Navy), "Wm. "Wirt of Va. (Atty.-Gen.). 

July 1. Spain is constrained to sur- 
render Florida to the United States. 

Aug. 10. D.C. The President proclaims 
Missouri admitted into the Union as 
the 24th State, amid a tempest of po- 
litical excitement, occasioned by the 
existence of slavery therein. 

Dec. 3. D. C. The 17th Congress 
opens. 



Congress; House: Philip P. Bar- 
bour of Va. is elected Speaker. 
* -24 * * New York. Stephen Allen Is 
elected the 54th mayor. 

* * U. S. Governors inaugurated : 
-25 * * Ala. Israel Pickens. 

-22 * * Del. John Collins. 

-22* *Fla.(Ter.). Andrew Jackson. 

-22 * * Me. W. D. Williamson. 

-25 * * Miss. Walter Leake. 

-24 * * N.C. Gabriel Holmes. 

-24 * * R. I. William C. Gibbs. 

-27 * * Tenn. William Carroll. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1820 Jan. 11. Ga. One-half of Sa- 
vannah is burned ; loss, $4,000,000. 

June* U.S. Fourth census: States, 23; 
whites, 7,862,166; colored, 1,771,656 (free 
colored 233,634, slaves 1,538,022) ; total 
population, 9,033,822. Increase, 33.06 
per cent. Center of population 16 miles 
north of Woodstock, Md. ; westward 
movement in 10 years, 50 miles. 

June 20. N. Y. A Great fire occurs 
in Troy ; 120 of the best buildings are 
burned ; loss nearly $1,000,000. 

June * The first steamship line be- 
tween New York and New Orleans com- 
mences its trips. 

July 1. N. Y. Toll is first collected on 
the Erie Canal. 

July* The first steamboat on Lake 
Michigan arrives at Green Bay, with 200 
passengers and a large cargo. 

* * Summer. Ga. About 700 people die 
of yellow fever in Savannah ; 343 
houses are left vacant by fugitive 
owners. 

Dec. * Phila. Anthracite coal begins 
to find a market ; 365 tons are sold dur- 
ing the year. 

± * * Conn. The whale fishery business 
commences at New London. 

* * Tenn. — Ark. Memphis is laid out; 
also Little Rock. 

* * Flour has fallen from $10 and $17 a 
barrel in 1817, to $5 or $6 a barrel ; many 
manufactories are closed, and workmen 
are idle. 

* * Md.— W. Va. Completion of the great 
National road from Cumberland to 
Wheeling, costing $1,700,000 and 14 years 
of labor (connecting the Ohio River with 
the seaports ; it was originally intended 
to continue to the Mississippi). 

* * U.S. Immigrants and other aliens in 
1820, 8,385. 

1821 Aug. 10. N. Y. The remains of 
Major Andre" are exhumed, and placed 
on board of a British frigate for inter- 
ment in Westminster Abbey. 

Dec. * Phila. Sales are made of 1,073 
tons of anthracite coal during the 
year. 

* * Mass. Lowell is founded by the 
Merrimac Manufacturing Company. 

* * Tex. Colonization from the United 
States begins. 

Dec. 31. U. S. Immigrants and other 
aliens in 1821, 9,127. 



130 1821 * *-182 4, May 22. 



AMERICA 



ARMY — NAVY. 
1822 * * A small naval force subdues the 

pirates of the Cuban coast, capturing 

more than 20 vessels. 
1824 * * W. I. Commodore David 

Porter subdues the pirates. 

ART — SCIENCE — NATURE. 

1821 * * Christ Ejected is painted by 
William Dunlap. 

* * Portrait of Thomas Jefferson is painted 
by Thomas Sully. 

1822 * * Charles Mathews, the actor, 
first appears in America. 

* * Mass. The first cotton mill is 
erected. 

1823 June* New York. The first 
steam-power printing-press is set up ; 
its first work is an abridgment of Mur- 
ray's Grammar. 

* * O. The manufacture of wine is 
commenced in Cincinnati. 



BIRTHS — DEATHS. 
1821 * * 

Adler, Georg J., prof., author, born in Ger. 

Allen, Solomon, Cong, cl., major in Kev., A70. 

Arnold, Samuel Green, historian, b. in K. I. 

Augur, Christopher C, maj.-gen., b. in N.Y. 

Avery, Waitstill, atty.-gen. of Conn., A76. 

Balch, Geo. B., com. U. S. N., b. in Tenn. 

Bankhead, John P., officer U. S. N, b. S. C. 

Bard, Samuel, physician, A79. 

Beaumont, John G., naval officer, b. in Pa. 

Blackwell, Elizabeth, first woman in IT. S. 
made M. D., born in Eng. 

Blair, Francis P., Jr., sen. for Mo., b. in Ky. 

Boudinot, Elias, patriot, philanthropist, A81. 

Breckinridge, John C, Confed. general, 14th 
Vice-President, born in Ky. 

Calhoun, Edmund R., officer U. S. N, born. 

Chester, Joseph L., antiquary, born in Conn. 

Coffin, Charles Carleton, author, b. in N. H. 

Cooke, Jay, financier, born in 0. 

Coppee, Henry, officer U. S. N., editor, au- 
thor, Pres. Lehigh Univ., born in Ga. 

De Peyster, John W., military critic, b. N.Y. 

Dexter, Henry Martyn, Cong, cl., b. in Mass. 

Diaz, Abby Morton, author, born in Mass. 

Dawson, Henry Barton, historian, b. in Eng. 

Eliot, Samuel, educator, b. Boston. 

Febiger, John, capt. U. S. N., born in Pa. 

Floyd, Win., gen., sec of \var,Cont.Cong.,A87. 

Forrest, Nathan B., Confed. gen., b. Tenn. 

<;arnett, Robert Sehlen, Confed. gen., b.Va. 

Hadley, James, philologist, prof, of Greek; 
born in N.Y. 

Hall, Charles F., Arctic explorer, b. in N. II. 

Harris, Tucker, physician, A74. 

Haven, Gilbert, M. E. bishop, born in Mass. 

Hill, Daniel H., Confed. lieut.-gen., b. in S. C. 

Irving, William, author, A 55. 

Jordan, Thomas, Confed. brig.-gen., b. inVa. 

Kneeland, Samuel, phys., naturalist, b. Mass. 

Leslie, Frank (Henry Carter), publisher, 
born in England. 

Lilly, William, M. C. for N.Y., born in N. Y. 

IiOngstreet, James, U. S. A., Confed. maj.- 
gen., b. in S. C. 

Macleod, Xavier Donald, mis. writer, b. N.Y. 

O'Neill, Charles, M. C. for Pa., b. in Pa. 

Parker, Foxhall, com. U. S. N., born in N.Y. 

Phelps, Austin, Cong, clergyman, b. Mass. 

Richardson, Win. A., jurist, author, b. Mass. 

Short, Charles, scholar, born in Mass. 

Spalding, Lyman, physician, author, A46. 

Squier, Ephraim G., archaeologist, b. in N.Y. 

Storrs. Richard Salter, Cong, clergyman 
of Brooklyn, horn in Mass. 

Taliaferro, Benj., Revolutionary officer, A71. 

Trumbull, James Hammond, philol.,b. Conn. 

Wayman, Alex.W., bp. Af. M. E. Ch., b. Md. 

Welby, Amelia B., poet, born in Md. 

White, Richard (Jrant, author, born in N.Y. 

Youmans, Edward L., chemist, ed., b. N.Y. 
1822* * 

Adams, Wm. Taylor (Oliver Optic), writer, 
born in Mass. 

Bancroft, John Chandler, diplomatist, born. 

Bartholomew, Edward S., sculptor, b. Conn. 

Burlingame, Anson, diplomatist, b. in N.Y. 

Cummins, George David, Reformed Epis. 
bishop, born in Del. 

Dana, Napoleon J. T., maj.-gen. vols., b. Me. 

Darley, Felix 0. C, artist, born in Phila. 



Durant, Henry Fowle, philan., born in N. H. 
Dwight, Theo. W., prof, of law, ed., b. N.Y. 
Field, Henry Martyn, Cong. cl.,au., b. Mass. 
Fowler, Jos. Smith, sen. for 111., born in 0. 
Fuller, George, artist, born in Mass. 
Frothingham, Octavius B., L'nit. cl.,b. Mass. 
Galaudet, T., P. E. cl. (deaf mutes), born. 
Garrard, J., soldier in Rev., Gov. of Ky., A73. 
liarrettson, Freeborn, M. E. clergyman, A70. 
Gibbs, Oliver Wolcott, chemist, b. in N.Y. 
Girard, Charles, naturalist, born in Fr. 
Granger, Gideon, P. M. (Jen. U. S., A55. 
Grant. Ulysses Simpson, 14th Gen. of U. S. 

A., 18th President of U. 8., b. in O., Apr. 27. 
Hale, Edward Everett, Unit, clergyman, 

author, born in Mass. 
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, brig.-gen. 

vols., Gov.O., 19th President of U. S., b. O. 
Hewitt, Abram S., M. C. for N.Y., b. N.Y. 
Holman, William S., M. C. for Ind., b. Ind. 
Hough, Franklin Benj., writer, b. in N.Y. 
Ingersoll, Jared, jurist, of Pa., A73. 
Johnson, Samuel, Unit, clergyman, b. Mass. 
Johnston, Rich'd M., author, educator, b. Ga. 
Judd, Orange, agricultural editor, b. in N.Y. 
Kane, Thomas L., lawyer, born in Pa. 
Kasson, John Adams, M. C. lor la., b. in Vt. 
Lyon, Caleb, M. C. for N.Y., born in N.Y. 
Mitchell, Donald Grant, author, b. in Conn. 
Olmsted, Fred. L., landscape gardener, b. Ct. 
Orr, James L., M. C. for S. C, gov., b. S. C. 
Osgood, David, Cong, cl., Federalist, A75. 
Parton, James, biographer, born in Eng. 
Phelps, William Franklin, educator, b. N.Y. 
Pinkney, WUliam, sen. for Md., atty.-gen., 

minister to Eng., A58. 
Pope, John, brig.-gen. U. S. A., b. in Ky. 
Porter, Fitz John, general, born in N. H. 
Porter, Moses, U. S. officer, A 47. 
Pugh, George E., sen. for O., born in O. 
Rand, Isaac, physician, A79. 
Read, Thomas Buchanan, poet, b. in Pa. 
Runkle, John I)., astronomer, born. 
Stark, John, general in Revolution, A94. 
Stewart, John, Apostle to the Wyandots, d. 
Strong, James, scholar, author, b. in N.Y. 
Taylor, Benjamin Franklin, poet, b. in N. Y. 
Truxtun, Thomas, com. U. S. N., A67. 
Van Dyke, H. J., Pres. clergyman, o. in Pa. 
Vasey, George, botanist, born in Eng. 

1823* * 

Alger, William Rounseville,Unit. cl., b. Mass. 

Badger, Oscar C, officer U. S. N., b. Conn. 

Baird, Spencer Fullerton, naturalist, b. Pa. 

Bartram, William, botanist, A84. 

Beers, W. H., pres. of Insurance Co., born. 

Bergh, Henry, philan., f'der of Society for 
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, b. N.Y. 

Bloomfleld, Jos., Revolutionary officer, A57. 

Boker, George Henry, poet, born in Pa. 

Bozman, John Leeds, historian, jurist, A66. 

± Buckner, Simon B., U. S. A., Confed. gen., 
born in Ky. 

Chadbourne, Paul Ansel, educator, b. Me. 

Clinton, Jos. J., Af. M. E. bishop, b. Phila. 

Collyer, Robert, Unit, clergyman, b. in Eng. 

Craven, Braxton, Pres. Trinity College, N. 
C, born in N. C. 

Colfax, Schuyler, M. C. for Ind., Speaker, 
17th Vice-Pres., b. N. Y. 

Cropsey, Jasper Frank, artist, born in N.Y. 

Davidson, Margaret Miller, poetess, b. N.Y. 

Deane, James, missionary to Indians, A75. 

Delano, Capt. Amasa, traveler, ABO. 

Dent, John Herbert, capt. U. S. N., A41. 

Derby, George H., U. S. N., born. 

Dod, Daniel, mechanical engineer, A35. 

Duyckinck, George Long, writer, b. in N.Y. 

Eddy, Thomas M., M. E. cl., editor, b. in O. 

Elliott, Ezekiel B., scientist, born in N. Y. 

Ferry, Orris Sanford, sen. for Conn., brig.- 
gen. volunteers, born in Conn. 

Francis, John B., sen. for R. I., gov., A39. 

Franklin, William B., U. S. A., maj.-gen. U. S. 
vol., born in Pa. 

Gifford, Sanford Robinson, painter, b. N.Y. 

Gilmore, James Roberts, author, b. in Mass. 

Hardin, Martin D., U. S. senator, A43. 

Harris, Thomas Lake, Spiritualist, b. Eng. 

Hart, William, landscape painter, b. in Scot. 

Hart8horne, Henry, physician, born in Pa. 

Hawkins, W. G., P. E. clergyman, b. in Md. 

Heckewelder, John, Moravian mis'ry, A80. 

Heilprin, Michael, scholar, born in Poland. 

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, au., b. Mass. 

Hill, Benjamin H., sen. for Ga., born in Ga. 

Houghton, Henry Oscar, publisher, b. in Vt. 

Hubbard, Joseph S., astronomer, b. in Conn. 

Hunton, Eppa, sen. for Va., born in Va. 

Joy, Chas. A., chemist, born in N.Y. 

Krauth, Chas. P., Luth. cl., author, b. Va. 

Lay, Henry C, miss, of Southwest, b. Va. 

Le Conte, Joseph, naturalist, born in Ga. 

Le