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Full text of "A Cyclopedia Of Education Volume Three"

A CYCLOPEDIA OF EDUCATION 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

NEW YORK BOSTON CHICAGO 
DALLAS SAN FRANCISCO 

MACMILLAN & CO , LIMITED 

LONDON BOMBAY CALCUTTA 
MELBOURNE 

THE MACMILLAN CO OF CANADA, Lm 

TORONTO 



CYCLOPEDIA OF EDUCATION 



EDITED BY 

PAUL MONROE, PH.D. 

PROFESSOR OF THE HISIOKY OF KDUCATION, TKACIIER8 COLLEGE 
COJ.UMHIA UNIVERSITY 



WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF DEPARTMENTAL EDITOES 

AND 

MORE THAN ONE THOUSAND INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS 



VOLUME THREE 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 
1926 



COPYRIGHT, 1912, 
BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 



Set up and electrotyped Published October, 1912 
Reprinted May, 1914; August, 1918. February, 1925; 
November, 1926 



A CYCLOPEDIA OF EDUCATION 

EDITED BV 

PAUL MONROE, PH.D. 

PROFESSOR OF THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION, TLACHER8 COLLEGE 
COLUMBIA UNINLR8ITY 



DEPARTMENTAL EDITORS 



W 



ELMER E. BROWN, PH.D., LL.D. . President of New York University. HIGHER AND 

SECONDARY 
EDUCATION 

EDWARD F. BUCHNER, PH.D. . . Professor of Education and Philoso- BIOGRAPHY, 

phy, Johns Hopkins University, PHILOSOPHY 
Baltimore, Md. 

WILLIAM H. BURNHAM, PH.D. . Professor of Pedagogy and School HYGIENE 

Hygiene, Claik University, Worces- 
ter, Mass. 

GABRIEL COMPAYRE Inspector General of Public Instruc- EDUCATION IN 

tion, Paris, Member of the Insti- FRANCE 
tute of France. 

ELLWOOD P. CUBBERLEY, Pn.D. . Head of Department of Education, EDUCATIONAL 

Leland Stanford Junior University, ADMINISTRATION 
Stanford University, Cal. 

JOHN DKWEY, PH.D., LL.D. . . Professor of Philosophy, Columbia PHILOSOPHY OF 

University, New York City. EDUCATION 

CHARLES H. JUDD, PH.D., LL.D. . Director School of Education, Uni PSYCHOLOGY 

veisity of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

ARTHUR F. LEACH Chanty Commissioner for England MIDDLE AGES, 

and Wales, St. James, London. REFORMATION 

WILL S. MONROE, A.B Professor of Psychology and History BIOGRAPHY, 

of Education, Montclair State Nor- AMERICAN 
mal School, Montclair, N.J. 

J. E. G. DE MONTMORENCY, M.A., LL.B. BamstPi-at-Law, London ; Assist- HISTORY OF 

ant Editor, The (Contemporary Re- EDUCATIONAL 

new. ADMINISTRATION 

AViLHKLM MUNCH, Pn.D. . . . Late Professor of Pedagogy, Univer- EDUCATION IN 

sity of Berlin, Berlin, Germany. GERMANY 

ANNA TOLMAN SMITH .... Specialist, Bureau of Education, Wash- NATIONAL 

ington, D.C. SYSTEMS 

HKNRY SUZISALLO, Pn.D. . . . Professor of the Philosophy of Educa- METHOD OF 

tion, Teachers College, Columbia EDUCATION 
University, New York City. 

FOOTER WATSON, Lirr.D. . . . Professor of Education, University ENGLISH 

College of Wales, Aberystwyth, EDUCATIONAL 

Wales. HISTORY 
v 



CONTBIBUTORS TO VOLUME III 



Herbert A, Aikins, Ph.D., LL.D., Professor 
of Philosophy, Western Reserve Uni- 
versity. (David Hurne.) 

Roswell P. Angier, Ph.D., Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Psychology and Acting Direc- 
tor of the Psychological Laboratory, 
Yale University. (Topics in Psychol- 
ogy.) 

Joseph Cullen Ayer, Jr., Rev., Ph.D., Pro- 
fessor of Ecclesiastical History, Divinity 
School, Protestant Episcopal Church, 
Philadelphia, Pa (Topics 'in Early 
Christian and Medieval Education.) 

Liberty H. Bailey, LL.D., Director of New 
York State College of Agriculture, Cor- 
nell University. (Horticulture.) 

Franklin T. Baker, Litt.D., Professor of 
English Language and Literatim*, 
Teachers College, Columbia University. 
(English Language) etc.) 

Maurice A. Bigelow, Ph.D., Professor of 
Biology, Teachers College, Columbia 
University. (School Gardens.) 

Franz Boas, Ph.D., LL.D., Professor and 
Head of Department of Anthropology, 
Columbia University. (Growth.) 

Henry E. Bourne, Ph.D., Professor of His- 
tory, Western Reserve University. 
(History ) 

Edward F. Buchner, Ph.D., Professor of 
Education and Philosophy, Johns Hop- 
kins University. (Educational Philoso- 
phers.) 

William H. Burnham, Ph.D., Professor ol 
Pedagogy and School Hygiene, Clark 
University. ( Topics in School Hygiene ) 

Edward H. Cameron, Ph.D., Associate Pro- 
fessor of Psychology, Yale University. 
(Topics in Psychology.) 

Thomas C. Chamberlain, Ph.D., LL.D , 
Professor and Head of the Department 
of Geology ; Director of Museums, 
University of Chicago. (Geology.) 

Percival R. Cole, Ph D., Vice-Principal of 
the Training College, Sydney, Aus- 
tralia. (Hcrbart.) 

Gabriel CompayrS, Inspector General of 
Public Instruction; Member of the 
Institute of France. (Education in 
France.) 

G. G. Coulton, Late Birkberk Lecturer in 
Ecclesiastical History, University Col- 
lege, Cambridge. (Hall or Hostel.) 



Ellwood P. Cubberley, Ph.D., Professor of 
Education, Lei and Stanford Jr. Uni- 
versity. (Educational Administration ; 
State SysteHM of Education.) 

Alexander Darroch, M.A., Professor of 
Education, University of Edinburgh. 
(Scotch Universities and Biographies.) 

Henry Davies, Rev., Ph.D., Rector, Easton, 
Md. (Educational Philosophers.) 

Walter F. Dearborn, Ph.D., Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Psychology, Harvard Univer- 
sity. (Topics in Psychology.) 

John Dewey, Ph.D., LL.D., Professor of 
Philosophy, Columbia University. 
(Topics in Philosophy of Education.) 

Richard E. Dodge, A.M., Professor of Geog- 
raphy, Teachers College, Columbia 
University. (Geography.) 

Fletcher B. Dresslar, Ph.D., Expert in 
School Hygiene, U. 8. Bureau of Edu- 
cation, Washington, D.C. (Topics in 
School Hygiene.) 

Knight Dunlap, Ph.D., Associate in Psy- 
chology, Johns Hopkins University. 
(Psychological Topics.) 

Charles A. Eastman, M.D., Amherst, Mass. 
(American Indians.) 

Roland P. Falkner, Ph.D., Assistant Direc- 
tor, Bureau of the Census, Washington, 
D.C. (Immigration and Education.) 

Aristide Fanti, Librarian, United States 
Bureau of Education, Washington, D.C. 
(Education in Italy.) 

Frederic E. Farrington, Ph.D., Associate 
Professor of Educational Administra- 
tion, Teachers College, Columbia Uni- 
versity. (French Educators.) 

Lee K. Frankel, Assistant Secretary Metro- 
politan Life Insurance Company, New 
York City. (Educational Work of In- 
surance Companies.) 

Fabian Franklin, Ph.D., LL.D., Associate 
Editor Evening Post, New York City. 
(D. (\ Cihnan.) 

Shepherd I. Franz, Ph.D., Scientific Director 
and Psychologist, Government Hospital 
for the Insane; Professor of Experi- 
mental Psychology and of Philosophy, 
George Washington University. ( Topics 
in Psychology.) 

H. B. Frissell, D.D., LL.D., Principal, 
Hampton Normal and Industrial Insti- 
tute, Hampton, Va (Hampton Institute.) 



VH 



CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME III 



Charles Galwey, A.B., Tutor of English, 
College of the City of New York. 
(Colleges and Universities.) 

Thomas D. Goodell, Ph.D., Professor of 
Greek, Yale University. (Study of 
Greek ; Homer.) 

Willystine Goodsell, Ph.D , Assistant Pro- 
fessor of the History of Education, 
Teachers College, Columbia University. 
( Infant Educati on . ) 

William E. Griffis, D.D., L.H.D , Ithaca, 
N.Y. (Korea; Japan.) 

Louis Grossmann, Ph IX, Principal, Hebrew 
Union College, Cincinnati, O. (Jn/'/.s7/ 
Education.) 

Charles H. Haskins, Ph.D., Professor of 
History and Dean of the Graduate 
School, Harvard University. ( History ) 

Ernest N. Henderson, Ph.D., Professor of Phi- 
losophy and Education, Adelphi College 
(Topics in Philosophy and Psychology.) 

Milo B. Hillegas, PhD., Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Elementary Education, 
Teachers College, Columbia Univer- 
sity. (Education in Modern Greece ) 

Douglas Hyde, LL IX, D.Litt , Dublin, 
Ireland . ( Ed u cat io n in Ireland) 

Torstein Jahr, Cataloguer, Library of Con- 
gress, Washington, D C. (Greenland.) 

Joseph Jastrow, Ph.D , Professor of Psy- 
chology, University of Wisconsin. 
(Hypnosis ) 

G. E. Johnson, AM., Superintendent, 
Pittsburgh Playground Association, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. (Games.) 

Wm. Dawson Johnston, Litt.IX, Librarian 
of Columbia University. (Libraries.) 

Charles H. Judd, Ph.D , LL D , Professor 
and Director of the School of Educa- 
tion, University of Chicago. (Topic* 
in Educational Psychology.) 

tsaac L. Kandel, Ph.D , Teaching Fellow 
in Teachers College, Columbia Univer- 
sity. (Topics in Educational History 
and Administration ) 

Kikuchi, D., Baron, Member of Privy 
Council, Tokyo. (Education in Japan.) 

William H. Kilpatrick, Ph D., Assistant Pro- 
fessor of the History of Education, 
Teachers College, Columbia University. 
(Tofncs in the History of Education ) 

Helen Kinne, Professor of Household Arts 
Education, Teachers College, Columbia 
University. (Kitchen Garden, House- 
hold Art in Education.) 

W. Kirchwey, LL.IX, Kent Professor 
of Law, Columbia University. (Legal 
Education ) 



George P. Krapp, Ph.D., Professor of Eng- 
lish, Columbia University. (Grammar; 
Languages, Artificial, Language, Eng- 
lish; Literature, English.) 

Cecil F. Lavell, Ph.D., Assistant Professor 
of the History of Education, Teachers 
College, Columbia University. (Greek 
Education.) 

Arthur F. Leach, Charity Commissioner for 
England and Wales, London. (Topics 
in English Educational History.) 

James G. Legge, Director of Education, 
City of Liverpool. (Industrial Ed a- 
cation ) 

Florence N. Levy, Editor, American Art 
Annual. (Industrial Art Schools.) 

Samuel M. Lindsay, Ph.D., LL.IX, Pro- 
fessor of Political Science, Columbia 
University. (Juvenile Delinquency, etc ) 

Gonzalez Lodge, Ph D , LL.D., Professor of 
Latin and Greek, Teachers College, 
Columbia University. (Latin Lan- 
y u age and Isittratnre) 

Arthur O. Love joy, A.M., Professor of 
Philosophy, Johns Hopkins University. 
7. M. Leibnitz ) 

Joseph McCabe, formerly Rector of Buck- 
ingham College. (Hypatia.) 

Roswell C. McCrea, Ph.D., Professor of 
Economics, University of Pennsylvania 
(Humane Education ) 

Millicent Mackenzie, M.A , Professor of 
Education, University College, Cardiff, 
Wales (Hegel) 

John P. Mahaffy, D D., Trinity College, 
Dublin, Ireland. (Greek Education.) 

George L. Meylan, M.D., Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Physical Education and 
Medical Director of the* CJyinnasmm, 
Columbia University. (Educational 
Athleti.cs, etc ) 

Paul Monroe, Ph.D., Professor of the His- 
tory of Education, Teachers College, 
Columbia, University (Topics in the 
History of Education ) 

Will S. Monroe, A.B., Professor of Psy- 
chology and Education, State Normal 
School, Montclair, N.J. (American 
Biography, etc.) 

Frederick Monteser, Ph.D., Head of Ger- 
man Department., De Witt Clinton High 
School, New York City; formerly Lec- 
turer on Education, New York Univer- 
sity (German Educational Biography ) 

J. E. G. de Montmorency, B.A , LL.B., 
Library Editor of The Contemporary 
Review ' Barrister, London, England. 
(Topics ni English Educational History.) 



Vlll 



CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME III 



H. Kingsmill Moore, Rev., Kildarc Place, 
Dublin, Ireland. (Education in Ireland.) 

James Bass Mullinger, M.A., Lit! D , 
Librarian and Lecturer in History, St. 
John's College, Cambridge University. 
(Greek, Study of.) 

Wilhelm Miinch, Ph.D , Late Gehemi- 
Regierungsrat and Ordentlicher Hon- 
orar-Professor of Education, University 
of Berlin. (Education in Germany ) 

Naomi Norsworthy, Ph.D., Associate Pro- 
fessor of Educational Psychology, 
Teachers College, ( Columbia Univer- 
sity. (Infant Education ) 

William Orr, Deputy Commissioner, State 
Board of Education, Boston, Mass 
(High School Fraternities ) 

Jean Phillipe, Ph.D., Associate Director of 
the Laboratory of Physiological Psy- 
chology, Sorbonne, Paris. (Greard : 
French Journals and Journalism ) 

Walter B. Pillsbury, Ph.D , Professor of 
Psychology, University of Michigan. 
(Topics in Psychology.) 

Alice Ravenhill, Formerly Inspector ^ of 
Hygiene and Domestic Economy, West 
Riding, Yorkshire (Household Arts ) 

Wyllys Rede, Rev., Ph D , D.I), Fellow 
Johns Hopkins University (Church 
Fathers, etc ) 

Charles R. Richards, B.S., Director, Coopei 
Union for the Advancement ot Science 
and Art, New York City (Industrial 
Education ) 

Charles L. Robbins, Ph D , Instructor m 
History of Education, Manhattan 
Training School, New York City. 
( Kirchenordnung.) 

Arthur K. Rogers, Ph D., Professor of 
Philosophy, University ot Missouri. 
(Dawd Hartley ) 

James H. Ropes, D.D., Professor of History 
and Dean of Department ot Umvei- 
sity of Extension, Harvard University. 
( Harvard Um versity. ) 

Michael E. Sadler, LL.D., Litt.D , Vice- 
Chancellor, The University, Leeds, Eng- 
land. (English Educational Biogra- 
phies.) 

Eben C. Sage, D.D., Assistant Secretary 
General Education Board. (General 
Education Board.) 

David Salmon, Principal, Training College, 
Swansea, Wales. (Topics in English 
Educational History.) 

F. M. Schiele, Ph.D., Formerly Private 
Docent, University of Tubingen. (Ger- 
many.) 



Anna Tolman Smith, Specialist in Educa- 
tion, United States Bureau of Edu- 
cation, Washington, D.C. (National 
Systems of Education.) 

David Eugene Smith, Ph.D., Litt.D., Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics, Teachers College, 
Columbia University. (Topics in Math- 
ematics ) 

David Snedden, Ph.D., Commissioner of 
Education, State of Massachusetts. 
(Topics m Educational Administra- 
tion.) 

Edwin R. Snyder, Ph.D., State* Normal 
School, San Jose, Cal. (Rural High 
Schools; State Systems of High Schools ) 

Steingrimur Steffinsson, Chief Reviser, 
Catalogue Division, Library of Con- 
gress, Washington, DC. (Iceland) 

Thomas A. Storey, M D , Professor and 
Director of Phvsical Education, College 
of the City ot New York. (Topics m 
School Hygiene ) 

William S. Sutton, LL.D , Dean of Depart- 
ment of Education, University of Texas 
(Wm. T. Harns ) 

Henry Suzzallo, Ph D , Professor of the 
Philosophy of Education, Teachers Col- 
lege, Columbia University (Topics in 
Educational Method ) 

Robert Swickerath, Rev., S J., College of the 
Holy Cross, Worcester, Mass (Edu- 
cational Work of the Society of Jesus.) 

Ralph S. Tarr, Ph.D., Lute Professor of 
Geography, Cornell University. (Geog- 
raphy ) 

Frank Thilly, Ph D , LL.D., Professor of 
Philosophy, Cornell University ( T. H. 
Green , Lanye ) 

Rudolf Tombo, Jr., Ph.D., Adjunct Professor 
of the Germanic, Languages and Litera- 
tures, Columbia University. (German 
[hi i versifies.) 

William Turner, Rev., S T.D., Professor of 
Philosophy, Catholic University of 
America, Washington, D.C". (Hugo of 
St. Victor; St. Jerome; Peter the Lom- 
bard ) 

A. E. Twentyman, Board of Education, 
Whitehall, London. (English Educa- 
tional Journals.) (Journals and Jour- 
nahxw.) 

George Unwin, Professor of Economic His- 
tory, University of Manchester. (Medie- 
val Guilds and Education.) 

Nina C. Vandewalker, A.B., Head of Kinder- 
garten Department, State Normal 
School, Milwaukee, Wis. (Kindergar- 
ten.) 



IX 



CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME III 



George E. Vincent, LL.D., President Uni- 
versity of Minnesota. (WiJham R 
Harper.) 

J. W. H. Walden, Ph.D., formerly Instructor 
in Latin, Harvard University. (Li- 
banius.) 

Foster Watson, M.A., Litt.D , Professor of 
Education, University College of Wales, 
Aberystwyth, Wales. (Topics in Eng- 
lish Educational History.) 

John B. Watson, Ph.D., Professor of Ex- 
perimental and Comparative Psychol- 
ogy, Johns Hopkins University. 
(Habit; Instinct.} 

Frank A. Waugh, B.S., M.S., Head of 
Division and Professor of Landscape 
Gardening, Massachusetts Agricultural 
College. ( Horticultural Education in 
Europe.) 



Walter Williams, LL.D., Professor of the 
History and Principles of Journalism 
and Dean of the Faculty of Journalism, 
University of Missouri. (Education for 
Journalism.) 

Robert C. Woodworth, Ph.D., Professor of 
Psychology, Columbia University. 
(Imageless Thought.) 

Mary Schenck Woolman, B.S., President 
Women's Industrial Union, Boston, and 
Professor of Domestic Art, Simmons 
College. (Household Arts.) 

Robert M. Yerkes, Ph.D., Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Comparative Psychology, Har- 
vard University. (Topics in Psy- 
chology.) 

Paul Ziertmann, Ph.D., Oberlehrer in Steg- 
litz Oberrealschule, Berlin. (Educa- 
tion in Germany.) 



FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAljR 

SCHOOL GARDENS opposite 11 

GREEK GYMNASTIC SCHOOLS " 157 

GREEK Music SCHOOL " 159 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE " 215 

A GROUP OF AMERICAN EDUCATORS " 219 

Cyrus W Hamlin; William T. Harris; Mark Hopkins; B. A. Hinsdale. 

HARVARD COLLEGE " 229 

A GROUP OF AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOLS " 264 

INDIAN EDUCATION tt 417 

INDIAN RESERVATIONS AND SCHOOLS " 419 

INFANT SCHOOLS ............ " 453 

A GROUP OF MODERN UNIVERSITY EDUCATORS " 516 

Benjamin Jowett; William James; Simon Somerville Laurie; William Rainey 
Harper. 

JAPANESE EDUCATION opposite 520 

A GROUP OF GERMAN EDUCATORS " 586 

Immanuel Kant; Georg Wilhelm F. Hegel; Johann Friedrich Herbart; Friedrich 
Wilhelm von Humboldt. 

KINDERGARTEN EDUCATION opposite 601 

A GROUP OF ENGLISH EDUCATORS " 621 

Sir William Hamilton; Quintm Hogg; Joseph Lancaster; Thomas Henry Huxley. 

LELAND STANFORD JR. UNIVERSITY opposite 626 



A CYCLOPEDIA OF EDUCATION 



GAILHARD, JOHN Writer of the Corn- 
pleat Gentleman, 1678 This treatise is divided 
into two parts, the first containing directions 
for the education of youth, in their breeding at 
home, and the second concerns itself with their 
breeding in traveling abroad Gailhard seems 
to have spent a number of years as tutor abroad 
to " several of the nobility and gentry " In 
the first part, he treats of breeding children at 
home, and recommends a wide curriculum sim- 
ilar to that of Milton Throughout the stress 
is laid upon the bearing and breeding and char- 
acter which should be shown by the nobleman 
and the best means of inducing it 

In the next part, Gailhard points out the 
qualifications, duties, and value of the trav- 
eling tutor, and his treatise is probably the 
most complete on the subject Before trav- 
eling, the pupil should learn something of the 
language of the country to which he goes He 
should, too, know well his own country and 
its main characteristics before traveling The 
pupil, following the excellent custom noted by 
Bacon, is to " take pains in writing in his 
Diary Book " all he sees Religious devotions 
and reading of the Bible must not bo neglected. 
Physical exercises and music must also receive 
attention If he comes to a convenient place, 
he should learn the general principles of physic, 
say at Padua or Montpelher, and Civil Law, 
say at Angers or Orleans. Drawing should 
also be learned Gailhard suggests three years 
as the time for the Grand Tour, of which half 
should be spent in France On the whole, Gail- 
hard's book gives great insight into the tone 
and standards of the young gentleman of the 
times and the current English views of foreign 
nations F. W 

See GENTRY AND NOBLES, EDUCATION OP 

GALE, GEORGE WASHINGTON (1789- 

1863). A pioneer m the movement for man- 
ual training in the United States, was grad- 
uated from Union College in 1814 and from the 
Princeton Theological Seminary in 1818 He 
was for several years engaged in the work of 
the ministry; but, failing in health, he retired 
to a farm at Whitesboro, N Y , where he gave 
a class of boys free board and tuition for a few 
hours of work each day on the farm. Out of 
the experiment grew the Oneida Manual Labor 
Institute of which he was principal for seven 
years (1827-1834). Courses were given'in ap- 
plied agriculture and woodwork He was one 

VOL. Ill B 1 



of the founders of Knox College at Galesburg, 
111., and for a few years a professor there 

W S. M. 

See INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION; MANUAL TRAIN- 
ING SCHOOLS 

GALE COLLEGE, GALESBURG, WIS 

See LUTHERAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE 
U S 

GALEN, CLAUDIUS (131-* 201). Greek 
physician and writer on medical subjects He 
was born at Pergamon in the reign of Hadrian 
Galen studied medicine at Pergamon, Smyrna, 
and Alexandria On completing his studies he 
returned to his native city where he was ap- 
pointed physician to the athletes in the gym- 
nasia He spent a few years at Rome, where his 
ability attracted attention In 169 he was sum- 
moned to attend the Emperors Marcus Aure- 
lius and L Vrrus in the campaign on the north- 
eastern frontier He returned to Rome, where 
he became for a time physician to Aurelius and 
Commodus The exact date of his death is not 
known, but Galen certainly lived in the reign 
of Septimus Severus 

Galen was a prolific writer and is credited 
with some 500 works Of the extant works 
about 1 1 8 arc considered to be genuine Al- 
though known mainly by his medical works, he 
wrote many treatises on philosophy and literary 
criticism Among his writings are commen- 
taries on the dogmas of Plato and on the 
Timceus His interest in the works of Hip- 
pocrates is shown by the commentaries lie 
also wrote on the Ancient Comedy, on Atti- 
cisms, and on style But his fame rests on his 
works in the field of medicine. He touched on 
every aspect of the subject, including anatomy 
and ph^ysiology, dietetics and hygiene, pathol- 
ogy, diagnosis, pharmacy, and materia mediea, 
therapeutics, and surgery He treats of the 
anatomical phase most successfully, although 
it is not thought that he had any opportuni- 
ties for dissecting human bodies He himself 
recommended the dissection of animals, and 
especially monkeys, as being most like the 
human being He is reputed to have performed 
some remarkable surgical operations In the 
field of pharmacy and materia mediea he seems 
to have had more faith in amulets than in medi- 
cine, although he was famous for certain pre- 
scriptions Galen was the first and greatest 
authority on the pulse 



GALILEI 



GALILEI 



Galen'.s works hold the place 111 the study of 
medicine in the medieval universities which 
Aristotle held in philosophy His authority 
was not questioned until the sixteenth cen- 
tury In 1559 a Dr Geyner was admitted to 
Ihe College of Physicians of England only on re- 
canting his attacks on the infallibility of Galen 
But from the time of Galen all sects (c q Dog- 
matics, Empirics, Eclectics, Pneumatics, and 
Episynthetics) were united under the one great 
source of medical lore His works were for a 
long time read in Latin or Arabic translations 
The first edition of the Greek text was pub- 
lished by the Aldme pi ess in 1525 

References : 

BKKDOK, TO Origin and Growth of the Healing Art 

(London, 1893 ) 
DAKKMBKIU; Exposition de& Connais^ances de Gotten 

sur r Anatomit (Pans, 1841 ) Epitome in Kng- 

hbh h\ Poxo (Philadelphia, 1840) 
ILBKKG Die SchnftMtolloioi doa Klaudios (Jalenos, in 

Rhenibihu* Museum fui Phdoxophie 1889, 1892, 

and 189G 
KIDD Transaction* of the Provincial Surgical A&so- 

(tatioti, Vol VI (London, 1837 ) 
KUHN Complete Works of Galen in 20 vols 
MrRAE, C Fathers of Biology (London, 1890 ) 
MULLKR and HELMRJCH Minor Works of Galen. 

(Leipzig 1884 1893 ) 

GALILEI, GALILEO (1504-1042) The 
famous astronomer was born at Pisa His 
fathei , who was skilled in music and mathe- 
matics, intended the son for trade, but was pre- 
vailed upon to send him to the University of 
Pisa to study medicine Galileo was of such 
an argumentative disposition that he won foi 
himself the nickname oi " the wrangler " But 
his bent was not for medicine In 15S2 he made 
his first scientific discovery of the principle of 
oscillation of a pendulum and invented an in- 
strument which was useful to doctois in testing 
the beat of the pulse Through poverty he was 
compelled to leave the University without a de- 
gree in 1585 In 15SO he wrote an essay, not 
published until the last century, on the hydio- 
static balance, an instrument which he had 
invented to measure the specific gravity of solids. 
In 1589 he became professor of mathematics 
and astronomy in the University of Pisa At 
this period began his long senes of experiments 
which mark the beginning of modern methods 
in scientific study In place of deductions and 
reliance on the authority of Aristotle he made 
actual experiments as precise as they could be 
in his time He devoted his attention to a 
study of falling bodies, and concluded, contrary 
to the opinion of the day, that the time taken 
by falling bodies depended not on their weight, 
but on the resistance of the air. Although the 
appointment at Pisa was for three years, he 
left before his time expired, owing to the attacks 
of his opponents In 1592, he was appointed 
professor of mathematics at Padua, originally 
for a period of six years, later gradually ex- 
tended to eighteen years, and then for life 
Here he attracted large audiences to his lec- 



tures, and devoted his attention to mechanics 
and the invention of scientific instruments 
His first discovery of importance in astronomy 
was made in 1004 when he noticed the appear- 
ance of a star in the constellation 8erpentarius 
which was more distant than the planets 
From this period on Galileo's reputation was 
spread over Europe by his telescopic observa- 
tions, and his improvements on the telescope 
His discoveries he published in 1010 in Sidereus 
Nunci MS (Sidereal Messenger) Here he showed 
that the markings on the moon were caused by 
mountains and their shadows, that the moon 
was much like the earth, and that celes- 
tial phenomena were similar to those on 
the earth The Pleiades and the Milky Way 
he proved to consist of numerous stais invis- 
ible to the naked eye In the same year he 
discovered the Satellites of Jupiter Feeling 
the need of more time for his researches and 
writing, he returned to Pisa, where he was ap- 
pointed professor of mathematics and first 
philosopher and mathematician to the Grand 
Duke of Tuscany, a well-salaried post with few 
duties attached Among his other discoveries 
were the sun spots and the fact that Venus 
derived light from another body in the same 
way as the moon 

There were not wanting those who seized an 
oppoitunity of assailing Galileo for his over- 
throw of the belief in the celestial bodies as 
perfect and unchangeable He was drawn into 
a dispute on the question of the validity of 
reasoning and observation on the one hand, and 
scriptural and ecclesiastical authonty on tho 
other His attitude is illustrated by the fol- 
lowing quotation fiom his writings, u Methinks, 
that in the discussion of natural problems we 
ought not to begin at the authontv of places 
of scripture, but at sensible experiments and 
necessary demonstrations." In 1015 he was 
denounced to the Inquisition which appointed 
a body of theologians to examine the Copermcan 
doctrines, as a result Galileo was admonished 
by order of the Pope to abandon his opinions 
For the next few years Galileo remained in 
Rome, where he had powerful friends In 1023 
he wrote // Saggiatore (The A^ayer), the final 
contribution to a controversy on which he had 
entered with a Jesuit m 1618 The book again 
brought him into favor with the Pope, to 
whom it was dedicated In 1032, after con- 
siderable difficulties with the censors at Rome 
and Florence, he published a Dialogue on the 
Two Chief Systems of the World, the Ptolemaic 
and Coper mean, which was a powerful argu- 
ment in support of the Copernican theory set 
out in a thinly veiled disguise A feeling that 
the book treated disparagingly of the Pope 
caused the Inquisition to stop the sale of the 
book and to compel Galileo to appear for trial. 
He was treated kindly during the trial, but was 
condemned to prison Through the influence 
of his friends he was allowed to remain in con- 
finement in a country house near Florence. He 



GALL 



GALLAUDET 



continued his investigations, which, however, 
were cut short by blindness in 1636. The chief 
work of this period was Mathematical Discourses 
and Demonstrations concerning Two New Sci- 
ences, relating to Mechanics and to Loral Motion, 
written in the form of a dialogue and dealing 
with statics, falling bodies, and projectiles In 
1642 Galileo died and was buried in the Cathe- 
dral of Santa Croce Galileo ranks with Bacon 
as one of the founders of modern experimental 
science In astronomy he will always have a 
permanent place, for many of his discoveries, 
despite the lack of exact instruments, were 
remarkable for their precision In dynamics 
he created an entirely new science which served 
as a basis on which future scientists were to 
build 

References : 

ALBERT Galileo's Collected Works, in 16 volumes 
(Florence, 1842-1856.) 

BERRY, A A Short History of Astronomy (New 
York, 1899) 

FAHIE, J J Galileo, His Life and Work (New York, 
1903) 

The Private Life of Galileo (London, 1870) Anon- 
ymous 

WEGG-PROHWER Galileo and his Judges (London, 
1889.) 

GALL, FRANZ JOSEPH (1758-1828) 
The founder of phrenology (q.v.), born at Tiefen- 
brunn in Baden, the son of an Italian merchant 
named Gallo He received his early education at 
the hands of his uncle, a Catholic priest; later 
studied at Baden, at Bruchsal, at Strassburg, 
where he distinguished himself by research in 
natural history, and at Vienna, where he took 
his doctoral degree and commenced the prac- 
tice of medicine In 1796 he began to promul- 
gate his theory in lectures, which were continued 
until 1802, when they were forbidden by the 
Austrian government as inimical to religion. 
In 1805 he left Vienna, in company with his 
pupil Spurzheim, and in 1807 established him- 
self at Pans In the intervening two years he 
lectured m the principal cities of northern and 
central Europe, and in 1823 delivered a few 
lectures in London. He continued lecturing 
at Pans until a few months before his death, 
which occurred at Montrouge 

The observations on which Gall based phren- 
ology began during his boyhood, with the notic- 
ing of an apparent relation between the size of 
the eye and the retentiveness of memory. At 
Strassburg and Vienna Gall was indefatigable 
in the examination of the heads of persons who 
exhibited striking mental peculiarities, model- 
ing many of them in plaster and wax; and 
extended his study to the lower animals He 
was practically the first to recognize the main 
features of the gross anatomy of the brain, and 
the function of the fibers and of the cortex. 
The importance of his work is indicated by one 
of the inscriptions on a medal struck in his 
honor in Berlin: // trouva I'instrumente de 
I'dme. Gall's most important publications 



were the Recherche* xm lc v 
general et sur celui du cervcau en particuliei , 
written in collaboration with Spurzheim (q v ), 
and published in 1809; and the Anatomic et 
physiologic du systemc nerveux, which appeared 
in four volumes in 1810-181 9 The latter work 
was commenced with Spurzheim, but finished 
alone, the two haying quarreled and separated. 
An abridged edition was published by Gall in 
1822, and an English translation appeared in 
Boston in 1835 K D. 

References : 

GODWIN, W Thoughts on Man, his Nature, Produc- 
tion, and Discoveries Essay on Phrenology 
(London, 1831 ) 

HOEFER, F Nouvelle Biographic Generate B.V. Gall. 
(Pans, 1863-1870 ) 

GALLAUDET, THOMAS HOPKINS (1787- 
1851). The founder of the first American 
school for the deaf, born in Philadelphia the 
10th of December, 1787 He received his edu- 
cation at the Hartford Grammar School, Yale 
College (graduating in 1805), and Andovoi 
Theological Seminary. Becoming interested 
in the deaf, and recognizing their need of edu- 
cation, he went to England to study the meth- 
ods of lip-reading and articulation in use in 
that country The selfishness of the proprie- 
tors of the British schools made it impossible for 
him to study the methods there used, and he 
went to Paris, where he was cordially leceived 
by the Abbe" Sicard (q.v ), who placed all the 
facilities of the French institution at his dis- 
posal The manual or sign method was em- 
ployed in the Pans school, and this was the 
method that Gallaudet brought to America 
With the assistance of Laurent Clerc, who had 
been associated with the Abbe* Sicard, Gallaudet 
organized the American Asylum for Deaf- 
mutes at Hartford, in 1816, and continued at its 
head until 1830 As this was the first school 
for the deaf in the United States, practically 
all the instructors in deaf schools in the coun- 
try for a half century were trained at Hart- 
ford, and the manual or sign alphabet became 
the dominant method of instruction During 
1832 and 1833 Gallaudet was professor of the 
philosophy of education in New York Univer- 
sity This was the first professorship of edu- 
cation in the United States (See EDUCATION, 
ACADEMIC STUDY OF ) He was also active in 
the movement which established the first nor- 
mal schools in America Besides his writings 
on the education of the deaf, he published a 
number of essays on the philosophy of educa- 
tion and several text-books, including the popu- 
lar Mother's Primer and the Child's Picture Defin- 
ing and Reading Book His Plan of a Seminary 
for the Education of Instructors of Youth (Boston, 
1825) gave rise to the normal school idea in 
America He died at Hartford the 9th of 
September, 1851. W. S. M. 

See DEAF, EDUCATION OF THE. 



GALLAUDET COLLEGE 



GALTON 



References : 

BARNARD American Journal of Education, 1850. Vol. 

I, pp 433-444. 
GALLAUDET, E. M Life of T 77 Qallaudct (Now 

York, 1888.) 
HUMPHREY, H. Life of T. //. Gallaudet. (N York, 

1858.) 

GALLAUDET COLLEGE, WASHINGTON, 
D.C. A coeducational institution for the 
higher education of the deaf, founded in 1864 
as the National Deaf-Mute College. The pres- 
ent name was adopted at the request of the 
alumni m 1894 in howor of Thomas Hopkins 
Gallaudet (q v.) The course given by the 
college extends over five years, including one 
year of preparatory work A general course 
in the essentials of a liberal education is given 
leading to the degrees of B A and B S A 
normal course is maintained for training hear- 
ing persons who are already graduates of col- 
leges and wish to become teachers of the deaf. 
There are fourteen members on the faculty 

GALLOWAY, SAMUEL (1811-1872) A 

pioneer of the common school movement m 
Ohio ; was graduated at Miami University in 
1833. He was teacher and principal of schools 
in Ohio, state superintendent of public instruc- 
tion (1844-1851), and professor in Miami Uni- 
versity He was one of the organizers and the 
first president of the Ohio State Teachers' 
Association W. S. M. 

GALLOWAY COLLEGE, SEARCY, ARK 

An institution for the education of women 
under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, established in 1890 Prepara- 
tory, collegiate, and music courses are offered 
Twelve units are required for entrance to the 
college course which leads to the A B degree. 
There are nineteen teachers on the faculty. 

GALTON, FRANCIS (1822-1911). A cele- 
brated English scientific investigator, born in 
Birmingham, England, in 1822, of a distin- 
guished family His paternal grandfather, a 
Quaker and a business man of ability, was 
interested m the study of birds and in statis- 
tics. A cousin, Sir Douglas Galton, was an 
eminent engineer This mathematical inherit- 
ance was supplemented on the mother's side 
by genius in the study of nature. Galton's 
maternal grandfather was Erasmus Darwin, 
hardly less remarkable a naturalist than his 
illustrious grandson, Charles Darwin. Galton 
studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, and 
took the degree of B A in 1844 He began 
his career as an explorer of the upper Nile, 
and later of Damaraland in Southwest Africa. 
In the latter region he discovered the Ovampo 
race, an agricultural people As an explorer 
he not only added materially to anthropology, 
etc., but also to the methods by which expedi- 
tions can most successfully be carried on His 
results were published in the Royal Geographi- 



cal Society's Journal for 1852, and in his books, 
Narrative of an Explorer in Tropical South 
Africa, and Art of Travel or Shifts and Con- 
trivances in Wild Countries 

The second phase of Galton's activity con- 
cerns meteorology He invented the graphic 
method of indicating weather conditions, which 
is to-day used in connection with weather 
forecasts It appears in his Meteorographica, 
or Methods of Mapping the Weather, published 
in 1863 He also developed the theory of 
anti-cyclones especially valuable in such prog- 
nostications In addition he invented many 
instruments useful in meteorologic observa- 
tions The phenomena of meteorology are so 
complicated that predictions can be made 
only in terms of probability and on the basis 
of extensive statistical data These methods, 
Galton conceived, should be applied to biology, 
anthropology, and psychology, for here, too, 
the conditions are exceedingly complicated, 
and statistical methods and probabilities aie 
an appropriate foundation and form of expres- 
sion for predictions His work in these fields 
constitutes the third phase of Galton's activiU 
He began with the study of heredity, and in 
1869 published his Hcrcditmy Genius, in which 
he demonstrated the inheritance of genius A 
child whose ancestors are talented is shown to 
have a much greater chance of being well en- 
dowed than one not possessing such an heredity 
He continued his studies of eminent men in 
his English Men of Science, published m 1874 
Later he took up the investigation of the nature 
of mental powers, arid to get material, devised 
the method of the question nane He used this 
method especially in the study of mental 
imagery, in which his researches, published in 
1883 in Inquiries into Human Faculty, are 
classic The method of the questionnaire also 
gave him his data in regard to family faculties, 
by which he was enabled to make a careful 
quantitative study of the types and amount of 
inheritance In these studies, published in 
1889 in Natural Inheritance, he developed an 
ingenious method of using the probable chance 
distribution of variable factors as a basis for 
estimating the likelihood of the presence of 
any chance tendency disturbing such a distri- 
bution He also laid the foundation for his 
Law of Ancestral Inheritance (see HEREDITY), 
which he stated in a paper presented before* 
the Royal Society In connection with these 
anthropological and psychological researches 
he invented composite photography, as a 
means of bringing out the typical facial char- 
acteristics of a group He also discovered the 
unique character of the arrangement of the 
lines on the fingers of any individual, and his 
works on Finger Print* and an Index of Finger 
Prints formed the basis of the Bertillon system 
of identifying criminals. The latest work of 
Galton concerns eugenics (qv), by which he 
meant the science ^of controlling mating in the 
interest of the preservation and improvement 



GALTON'S LAW 



GAMES 



of the type This practical application of his 
studies in heredity has an immediate relation 
to education, since it is upon this agency that 
the principles of eugenics must in the main 
depend in order to reach the individual and 
affect practice. It is likely, however, that the 
greatest service rendered by Galton to educa- 
tion consists in the statistical methods by 
which quantitative accuracy can be introduced 
into the complicated phenomena of mental cul- 
ture Only thus can educational theory and 
practice be given the convincing character of 
science Galton died on Jan. 17, 1911 

E. N. H 

See EKKOR OF OBSERVATION; GENIUS; 
GRAPHIC CURVE; HEREDITY. 

References : 

Curpor Outlook, Vol. LXXVII, Feb. 4, 1011, p 249 
(JALTON, F Memories of my Life (London, 1908 ) 
Scientific Achievements Natuie, Vol LXXXV, Feb. 4, 

1911, pp 440-^45 
Scientific Career Nation, Vol LXII, Jan. 20, 1911 

pp 79-80 

GALTON'S LAW See HEREDITY 

GALWAY, UNIVERSITY COLLEGE See 

IRELAND, EDUCATION IN 

GAMALIEL Grandson of Hillel, and the 
founder and head of the hbeial school which 
bore that name, was one of the most distin- 
guished of Jewish scholars and educators In 
such high respect was he held that at his death, 
according to the Mishna, " reverence for the 
law ceased arid purity and abstinence died 
a\\av," such was their sense of loss in the 
death of their greatest bulwark of learning 
and moiality Under his influence instruction 
in the Jewish law was more fully imbued with 
the spirit of practical life than 'in later times 
He was an enthusiastic student of Greek litera- 
ture, which was held in abhorrence by the rabbis 
and forbidden to the young His influence 
appears in the training of St Paul, who prided 
himself upon having sat at the feet of this 
greatest of Jewish teachers His enlighten- 
ment and toleration are apparent in his verdict 
as President of the Sanhedrm of Jerusalem in 
the trial of St Peter and other Apostles (Acts 
v, 33-42} The tradition that Gamaliel be- 
came a Christ jan and was baptized by St Paul 
is inconsistent with the honors afterwards 
heaped upon him by the Jews W. R. 

See JEWISH EDUCATIONS 

Reference : 

FRANKEL, Z HoflcycUen (Leipzig, 1859 ) 

GAMES. A game is a form of play in 
which the players adhere more or less strictly 
to certain traditions, regulations, or rules, 
written or unwritten Games are a latci devel- 
opment of play (q.v ) Phylogeneticallv and 
ontogenetically informal play precedes formal 
play or games 



Origin The origin of most existing games 
is obscure Falkener has traced some to cer- 
tain rites of divination, and Culm also asserts 
that games were derived from serious religious 
ceremonies Even as late as the Olympic 
games of Greece and the Ludi Apollmares at 
Rome athletic games had a religious signifi- 
cance Nearly all our existing games are modi- 
fied forms of games of great antiquity Culm 
says, " It is safe to say that no new game has 
been invented during the historic period, and 
that all we regard as new are only modifications 
of games played before the building of the 
Egyptian pyramids " " Among the pictures 
of ancient Egyptian games on the tombs of 
Beni Hassan " (3000-2500 B c ), says E B 
Taylor, " one shows a player with head down 
so that he cannot see what the others are doing 
with their clenched fists above his back " 
This game is played by boys to-day. It is the 
American game sometimes called " Biff/' the 
English game of " Hot Cockles," the French 
game of u Mam-Chaude," and the Greek 
" Kollabismos " Tavlor calls attention to 
Luke 22 64 " And they blindfolded him and 
asked him saying, Prophesy who is he that 
struck thee' ? " Among the games of the Am- 
erican Indians are found the prototypes of 
dice, cards, chess, golf, shmney, baseball, and 
racket. 

Games, like informal play, doubtless gre\\ 
out of experience Among the first games of 
children are games of chasing, throwing, and 
striking These suggest the hunting and 
fighting experiences of the race A B Gomme 
in her notable study of the games of children 
has classified games according to the experi- 
ence represented, as contest games, marriage 
games, funeral games, harvest games, divina- 
tion games, etc Many folk dances especialh 
suggest experience Among the Indians, 
dances represent scenes of the hunt or the war- 
path Among civilized people, manv folk 
dances represent industrial experiences, as m 
the harvest and weaving dances 

Practical Uses of Games. The uses of 
games may be divided as follows 



A Fundamental B 

(1) For conserva- 

tion 

(2) For develop- 

ment 

(3) For education 

(a) Physical 

(b) Mental 

(c) Moral 

(d) Social 

Conservation It is the ofhce of games to 
conserve certain essential characteristics, cer- 
tain fundamental interests and powers It is 
a principle in evolution that when an organ 
develops from a lower to a higher form there is 
a tendency toward a loss of some excellence 



Incidental 

(1) Recreational 

(2) Substitutional 

(3) Prophylactic 

(4) Cathartic 

(5) Corrective 

(6) Vicarious 



GAMES 



GAMES 



formerly possessed. In any period of rapid 
evolution there is always a danger that the pass- 
ing of the old may be too rapid or too complete, 
that the foundation may be sacrificed to the 
superstructure, that the fundamental may be 
depleted in the acquisition of the accessory. 
It is of great importance in the evolution of a 
species that right proportions be maintained 
between that which was the old and that which 
is the new This danger that is present in the 
development of a species is increased in the 
ease of the recapitulatory process in the in- 
dividual, a fact of tremendous importance in 
education 

Now .lames has shown that many essential 
hereditary characteristics are conserved by 
means of instincts That is, what is really 
inherited in such cases is only a potentiality 
or tendency, and the survival of the character- 
istic, or power, depends upon habits formed 
through instinctive reaction to the environ- 
ment But many instincts ripen at a certain 
age, and then weaken or disappear If a habit 
has been formed meantime, well and good, if 
not, it is likely never to be formed. 

It is well understood that there is a progres- 
sion of games in childhood and youth corre- 
sponding to the progression of interests and 
powers through the various periods of growth 
and development These various games call 
out, exercise, and develop certain fundamental 
physical, mental, moral, and social traits of 
peculiar interest at the several periods. If 
no adequate opportunity be provided for the 
kind of play necessary to call out, exercise, and 
develop these traits at the time of keenest 
natural interest in them, these interests tend 
to fade away, as is the case of the instincts 
mentioned by James, and the most favorable 
opportunity for forming habits of reaction in 
accord with these is lost " If," says James, 
" a boy grows up alone at the age of games and 
sports, and learns neither to play ball, nor row, 
nor sail, nor ride, nor skate, nor fish, nor shoot, 
probably he will be sedentary to the end of his 
days, and, though the best of opportunities 
be afforded him for learning these things later, 
it is a hundred to one but he will pass them by 
and shrink back from the effort of taking those 
necessary first steps, the prospect of which at 
an earlier stago would have filled him with 
eager delight " So, on the moral side, if a boy 
grows up alone and does not learn to play 
games which call for great activity, competi- 
tion, courage, fortitude, perseverance fairness, 
generosity, loyalty, cooperation, sacrifice, he 
loses the most favorable opportunity for the 
development of these traits in him While 
it is possible to conceive that work might at a 
favorable time provide opportunity for the 
exercise of these traits, yet work, in so far as it 
departs from play, in the psychological sense, 
must in the nature of the case by so much be 
educationally less effective 
Development The normal development of 

6 



an organ depends upon three factors. (1) 
natural impulse to growth, or heredity, (2) 
nutrition; (3) exercise According to Tyler, 
there seem to be three stages of development. 
(1) A period of growth in which there is little 
or no exercise of the organ. (2) A period m 
which growth continues and modification of 
internal structure, under the stimulus of exer- 
cise, begins. (3) A period after growth in size 
and weight has been attained, in which exercise 
and structural change continue, as the organ 
approaches maturity. When we consider that 
the game interests have their genesis in struc- 
ture which at its various stages of develop- 
ment calls for exercise appropriate to its needs 
and powers, it necessarily follows that the kind 
of exercise supplied by the games must in turn 
greatly stimulate growth and development 
Moreover, the emotional accompaniment of 
joyous participation in games and the effect 
upon the vaso-motor system tend to bring 
about a condition of full nutrition of the devel- 
oping organs. This explains the exhilaration 
which accompanies participation in games like 
baseball and tennis, for example In short, 
appropriate games provide the exercise which 
is suited to the present needs and powers of 
the developing organs, the exercise which best 
stimulates growth and structural change, and 
which also stimulates the vaso-motor system 
and tends to bring about a condition of full 
nutrition 

Education Physical The value of 
games in physical education is obvious More- 
over, it is interesting to note that games have 
been the conservative and not the radical ele- 
ment in systems of physical training Of the 
great systems of the world, the Grecian, the me- 
dieval, the British, the German system of Guts 
Muths and Jahn, and the Swedish system of 
Ling, the exercises of the first three were largely 
or wholly games, there was a large element of 
games m the fourth, and there is especially in 
America a constantly increasing element of 
games in the last. It is. now very generally 
recognized that specific movements designed 
for the development of particular muscles or 
groups of muscles and performed while con- 
sciousness is largely absorbed in the execution 
of the movements, are not, frotn the standpoint 
of health and vitality, as beneficial as the cxei- 
cises involved in games, in which there is a far 
larger clement of pleasure and little or no con- 
sciousness of the details of the movements exe- 
cuted 

Mental Recent studies of the relation of 
motor ability to intelligence have emphasized 
the educational value of play activities Mosso 
and others have shown that the phenomena of 
muscular fatigue and mental fatigue are iden- 
tical. Fatigue of the muscles is attended by a 
loss of power of attention, and fatigue of atten- 
tion by loss of power of the muscles 

Educationally, games develop power rather 
than extend intelligence, that is, develop an 



GAMES 



GAMES 



ability to apply what one knows rather than 
give comprehensive knowledge which may 01 
may not be applied Educationally games 
excel in this, that they develop a capacity foi 
instantaneous and perfectly coordinated reaction 
to situations within the field in which the 
education applies, however restricted that 
field may seem to be. In emeigencies, 
crises, in time of stress, excitement, or peril, 
within the field of action analogous to that 
covered by games, games provide a tiainmg 
par excellence For example, games may fur- 
nish no definite knowledge that would enable 
a lawyer to conduct a case successfully, but 
they do provide a training which would enable 1 
a Iaw3 r er, under the strain of an exciting tiial, 
in full possession of himself, to concentrate 
and coordinate every power to the task in 
hand 

Moral The relation of games to moral 
training has always been recognized to a cer- 
tain extent. However, a fai greater apprecia- 
tion of the moral significance of games has 
come about in recent years, through the stimu- 
lus of a new appreciation of the meaning and 
significance of play in general, and notably by 
such a study as (juhck's Psychological, Peda- 
gogical and Religion* Aspects of Group Garner 
The generally accepted theory that evolu- 
tionary progress has been from the fundamen- 
tal to the accessory and that this same oidei, 
in a general way, is observed in the normal 
development of an individual, has us apt an 
application in the field of conduct as in phys- 
ical or intellectual development One readily 
recognizes that there are certain fundamental 
virtues which are the basis of latei accessory 
moral qualities Now, the significance of 
games in moral training lies not alone in the 
opportunity for the exercise of faiinesLS, coin- 
age, cooperation, etc , but especially in the 
fact that children and youth have, at a certain 
age, an instinctive interest in just these funda- 
mental virtues Just as the developing organ* 
call for physical exercise of a type appropiiate 
to their needs and powers, so also the moial 
nature or organism calls for a display of certain 
types of character appropriate to the stage of 
development For example, the individual 
competitive games of boys from ten to twelve 
call for such traits as courage, hardihood, 
pugnacity, fairness The boy who displays 
these qualities is admired by his companions, 
and the boy who lacks them is not But phys- 
ical courage is a prototype of moral courage, 
hardihood of fortitude, pugnacity of righteous 
wrath, fairness of justice 

Social A game is socialized play Games 
necessitate an appreciation of social relation- 
ships, and there were no games until the race 
haa developed a capacity for social activities 
Since games developed commensuratcly with the 
capacity of the race for social activity, there is 
in games a review of the social development of 
mankind. 



There are several obvious applications of the 
social influence of games, as for example 

1 In the development of sociability and 
sympathy. 

2 In the training and contiol of the fight- 
nig instinct, or the instinct of competition, as a 
basis of noble emulation on the one hand and of 
capacity for nghteous conquest on the other 

3 In the training foi cooperative action. 

4 In providing an outlet for types of ac- 
tivity that might otherwise become anti-social 

Games might be classified according to social 
significance, in tlnee classes 

1 Sociable or cooperative games, such as 
the dramatic and imitative games of children, 
folk games, dances, group singing 

2 Competitive games, such us wrestling, 
boxing, racing 

3 Cooperative-competitive games, such as 
baseball, football, basketball 

The emphasis of mteicst in these games is 
somewhat as follows In sociable 01 coopera- 
tive games, to about seven (possibly, in the 
case of girls, at all periods), in competitive 
games from about seven to about twelve, in 
cooperative-competitive games, from about 
twelve on 

Incidental uses of games Recicntionol 
Since games have the uses mentioned under 
Conservation, Development, and Education, 
they are, foi children and youth at least, to be 
regarded as having a far deeper significance 
than the merely recreational, yet the reorea- 
tional effect of games as a change fiom study 
and sedentary pursuits and ita v alue are ob- 
vious 

Sitb\titnlnt)i<il (James provide a useful 
substitute for what might piove harmful ac- 
tivities They also divert from undesirable 
states of consciousness, as in disappointment, 
anger, morbid introspection and the like 
" Horse play," oigies, outbieaks, might often 
l)e diverted through the legitimate channel of 
games. 

Prophylactic GSames often pi event anti- 
social activities and the acquisition of anti- 
social habits Boys are ai rested foi rrus- 
demeanois in throwing, stoning windows, 
snowballing pedestrians, provoking persons, 
o\ en policemen, to chase them, etc Ball 
games and running games provide the same 
activity and excitement in a legitimate form 

Cathartic Aristotle thought that certain 
primitive instincts could be pinged away by 
harmless means, as by the diama, and in this 
way harmful and anti-social expression of the 
impulse be prevented Strictly, games should 
not be regarded as cathartic so much as direc- 
tive Games serve not so much by purging 
away as by training and directing the primi- 
tive instincts For example, boxing under 
right conditions diminishes fighting, not, how- 
ever, by purging away the righting instinct, 
but by directing and controlling it, making it a 
basis for a higher expression in games and in 



GAMES 



GAMES 





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GAMES 



GANGLION 



the affairs of life All social, moral, and civil 
leaders, reformers, and martyrs have possessed 
in a high degree this primitive instinct trained 
to a higher and nobler expression 

Corrective. Games supply exercises best 
adapted to develop in a normal child perfect 
physical form and proportion This is ob- 
viously so inasmuch as they involve the types 
of activity which shaped the body in the pro- 
cess of evolution. When the body of a child 
has become ill-formed through some cause or 
other, games, wisely chosen, may supply a most 
valuable corrective 

Vicarious. The value of a game is not 
alone to the players. Games benefit those 
who only stand and wait The sympathetic 
participation of little children in the game 
they are watching is evident to the observer. 

AGES 



7 8 



MAXIMUM TIME DEVOTED TO 
FORMAL STUDY, RECITATION 
AND WORK I E TIME UNDER 
FORMAL DIRECTION 




MINIMUM AMOUNT OF 
TIME FOR PLAY, QAME8 
FREE CHOICE OF OCCU 
PAT ION 



1B 



Heightened color, deepened breathing, acceler- 
ated heartbeat, joyous emotion, muscular 
movements, are all present* The recreational 
value of professional baseball to the spectators 
is due not alone to a shifting of attention from 
ordinary channels to the game but also to a 
genuine participation, to a degree, in all the 
emotions and movements of the players them- 
selves 

Practical Application Games serve a fun- 
damental need in education, physically, men- 
tally, morally, and socially and should be re- 
garded as essential to a school curriculum 
For that portion of a community not in educa- 
tional institutions, adequate play facilities are 
as truly necessary for social order and civic 
progress as our lecture halls, reading rooms, 
libraries, and museums. 



Time to be given to Plays and Games. The 

following diagram suggests the amount of time 
that might profitably be given to plays and 
games at different ages. 

Selection of Games Games should be se- 
lected to meet the peculiar needs and oppor- 
tunities of the successive periods of develop- 
ment. Physically, they should further the 
best physiological growth at the period of their 
most rapid development. Mentally, they 
should provide expression for the nascent in- 
terests and emotions of the period. Morally, 
they should stimulate conduct in accord with 
the elemental virtues and ideals toward which 
there is an instinctive response Socially, they 
should involve an expression of the social in- 
terests and the form of social organization 
adapted to the stage of development 

The following chart may prove suggestiVe in 
relation to the choice of games G E ,1 

For philosophical theory of games, see PLAY 

References : 

BADMINTON Library of Sports and Pashmen (London ) 

BANCROFT, .1 H Games for the Playground, Hotnt , 
tichool, and Gymnasium (New York, 1909 ) 

BARKER, ,1 S Games for the Playground (London. 
1910) 

BEL&ZE, G Jeux des Adolescents (Paris, 1891 ) 

BENSON, ,T K The Book of Indoor Games. (Phila- 
delphia, 1904 ) 

The Book of Sports and Pastime* (Philadelphia, 
1907) 

CHAMPLJN, J D , and BOHTWICK, A E Young FolkS 
Cydopedm of Games and Sports (New York, 
1H99) 

CRAWFORD, C Folk Dances and Games (New York, 
1908) 

GODFREY, E English Children in the Olden Time* 
(London, 1907 ) 

GOMME, A 13 The Tiaditional Games of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland Dictionary of British Folk- 
lore (London, 18<44- 1S9K ) 

Jahrbuch fur Yolks- und Juyt ndt>/n< It (heiausgi'gHx'n \ on 
H \\ickenhagen), Vol XV (Leipzig, 1900) 

KmuRLAND, MKH BURTON Th( Kooi ol Jndooi and 
Outdoor Games (New Yoik, 1 ( H)4 ) 

KREUNZ, FKANZ B< uegunospul und \\ettkfanpfe 
(Graz, 1897 ) 

NEWELL, W W Game* and Songi* of American Chil- 
dren (New York, 1903 ) 

NucjENT, MEREDITH New Games and Amusements 
(New York, 1905 ) 

PotiLHSON, A E Finger Play\ (Boston, 1893 ) 

Spalding's Athletie Library Publications American 

Sports Publishing Co. (New York ) 
See also the references under ATHLETICS , GYMNASTICS ; 
PHYSICAL EDUCATION, PLAY, etc 



GAMES, PSYCHOLOGY OF SIM* Pm 

GAMMON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, 
ATLANTA, GA An institution for the train- 
ing of ministers for the Methodist Church 
The A B degree is required from candidates 
who wish to proceed to the degree of bachelor 
of divinity Diplomas and certificates are 
granted for shorter courses 



GANGLION A group of nerve cells See 
NERVOUS SYSTEM. 



9 



GARDENS 



GARDENS 



GARDENS, SCHOOL; GARDENS FOR 
CHILDREN Most gardens which arc defi- 
nitely planned with reference to the education 
of groups of children are under the manage- 
ment of schools, and hence are usually known 
as school gardens. In America and England 
many excellent gardens are conducted for 
similar educational ends, but quite indepen- 
dently of schools Hence the term school garden 
has come to be applied rather loosely to any 
children's garden designed for educational pur- 
poses, especially for teaching about plants and 
methods of gardening by the active or labora- 
tory method This latter qualification distin- 
guishes school gardens from botanical gardens, 
which are usually of educational value to 
children in that they exhibit plants merely for 
observation 

As'to the definite educational aims of school 
gardens, the great majority of those m con- 
tinental Europe were originally intended for 
teaching practical gardening and agriculture as 
a phase of vocational education; and there is 
developing a similar tendency in some villages 
and rural districts of America arid England 
But the great majority of school gardens in 
America and England and many in various 
countries of the continent of Europe are now 
being conducted as a phase of nature study 
with a general cultural rather than vocational 
aim. Probably nine out of ten of the children 
who have worked in American school gardens 
in the past ten years lived in towns and cities 
and had little prospect of ever engaging in the 
business of raising plants for market; so that 
the gardens have obviously not developed in 
response to stimulation by the growing agricul- 
tural phase of vocational education, but are 
now conducted simply as a very practical part 
of the larger nature study or general science 
movement which aims to present the scientific 
study of common natural objects arid processes 
from the point of view of general elementary 
education. Only a relatively limited number 
of gardens in rural districts in America have 
been definitely modified to meet the demands 
of agricultural education, and this chiefly for 
specially selected pupils of high school age 

In many cities in the United States, notably 
at Cleveland, O., children's gardens have been 
made at the homes of individual pupils, but 
under the guidance of a teacher who gives 
general directions at school, and occasionally 
makes a tour of inspection On the whole, the 
results from home gardens have been far more 
satisfactory than from school gardens, prob- 
ably because of the great personal interest 
which children take in home gardens, and 
because the gardens have a definite influence 
in stimulating the desire to beautify home 
surroundings School gardens are, however, 
needed for giving practical lessons before the 
pupils attempt to make gardens at home; and 
it seems to be the consensus of opinion that 
schools should maintain gardens of limited size 



10 



for teaching purposes while encouraging the 
development of home gardening as far as pos- 
sible 

Two general plans have been tried in school 
gardens: the individual-ownership system, and 
the community system Under the first plan 
the garden is divided into plots which become 
the property of the individual pupils for a 
season, and the owners have absolute control 
of the produce Under the community system 
the produce of the garden is either used for 
lessons in the school or is sold and the proceeds 
devoted to the school library, a hospital, sick 
children, or some other altruistic purpose 
The first plan is the easier to administer; the 
second gives greater results The two plans 
have been combined in some gardens, for ex- 
ample, by growing vegetables in plots controlled 
by individuals, and flowers in community plots, 
in the working of which all pupils cooperate 

Comemus, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel 
recommended the development of children's 
gardens for educational purposes In the first- 
half of the nineteenth century the educational 
authorities of several German states introduced 
gardening into rural schools, and the move- 
ment later extended to many city schools 
Berlin has large grounds outside the city limits, 
and any child may have space for a small 
garden Several German cities do not place 
emphasis upon work by the pupils, but have 
botanical gardens for instruction by observa- 
tion and for supplying nature-study materials 
to the schools In short, the German city 
schools maintain gardens for general educa- 
tional rather than Tor vocational purposes. 
Following the example of German gardens, 
Sweden. Austria, Belgium, Holland, France, 
Switzerland, and Russia have given official en- 
couragement to school gardens within the past 
fifty years. In these countries the rural 
schools have been encouraged to establish 
gardens, and in the beginning the aim seems 
to have been entirely vocational. The total 
number of gardens connected with schools on 
the continent of Europe is now over 100,000 
Switzerland requires special training in garden- 
ing in the normal schools, and since 1885 has 
subsidized elementary-school gardens. For 
more than thirty years every rural school in 
Belgium has had a garden, and the training in 
gardening is believed to have been invaluable 
in relation to the chief industry of the country. 
The normal schools of France teach agriculture 
and gardening, and it is estimated that over 
40,000 schools have gardens It is an open 
question, however, whether a large proportion 
of these have been of much value to the pupils. 
Russia has encouraged gardening for more 
than twenty years, and many schools assign 
small gardens to individual pupils. The normal 
schools teach gardening, and special courses 
have been given to teachers In Holland the 
small children have gardens, apparently in- 
tended for nature study, rather than for tram- 




The Colorado State Normal. 



Brooklyn Tiuant School. 





A Girls' Sdiool, Leipzig, Germany. 



Garden of a Bo\s' School, Plauen, Geirnany 





School Garden, Batae, Ilocos Norte, Philippine 
Islands. 



Studying Aiboricultuie and Agriculture, Graiimont, 
Belgium. 



SCHOOL GAHDKNS. 



GARDENS 



GARDENS 



ing in the business of gardening Italy has 
within recent years shown interest in school gar- 
dens Ten years ago there were less than a hun- 
dred gardens in Great Britain, and these not 
officially connected with the school system 
Since 1904 gardening has been encouraged by 
special grants to the schools Many gardens 
have been established in connection with ele- 
mentary day schools, and also in evening 
schools for pupils who must work during tho 
day In the day schools tho nature study aims 
seem to prevail, but the gardens are expected 
to have a vocational influence England has 
been often criticized for slow development of 
school gardens, but it should be noted that a 
widespread popular interest in home gardening 
has probably been a good substitute for hun- 
dreds of the inefficient school gardens estab- 
lished officially on the continent of Europe 

In Canada interest in school gardens has 
developed rapidly in the past ten years In 
1905 there were more than a hundred gardens in 
Nova Scotia under the direction of the super- 
intendent of education for the province In 
each of the other eastern provinces five gardens 
were established in connection with the Mac- 
donald schools in 1904 Many other gardens 
are now an established part of the school work, 
and the schools receive special grants from 
the education departments There are many 
school gardens in the Northwest Territories 

Most of the gardens in the United States 
have been organized during the past ten years 
Among the pioneer gardens which attracted gen- 
eral attention were the wild flower garden at Kox- 
bury, Mass , in 1891; the gardens of the Na- 
tional Cash Register Company, at Dayton, Ohio, 
1897; at the Hyanius (Mass ) Normal School, 
1897; the home gardens at Cleveland, Ohio, 1900; 
the Hartford (Conn ) School of Horticulture, 
1900; at Hampton Institute (Va), and the 
Children's School Farm in New York City, 
1902. Most cities have school gardens, but 
they are usually fostered by individuals or 
organizations independently of official connec- 
tion with the schools As examples of such 
outside encouragement of gaidens the follow- 
ing have been prominent: Home Gardening 
Association of Cleveland, Massachusetts Hor- 
ticultural Society, Twentieth Century Club of 
Boston, Woman's Institute of Yonkers, Massa- 
chusetts Civic League, Missouri Botanical Gar- 
den, National Cash Register Company, Vacant 
Lot Cultivation Association, United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, numerous local agri- 
cultural societies, and the Park Department of 
New York City In only a few cities have 
boards of education helped financially The 
Philadelphia school system maintains some 
gardens, but private individuals and organiza- 
tions outside the system have been active with 
smaller gardens in that city Cleveland, 
Rochester, and a few other cities officially pro- 
vide funds for gardens as part of the work of 
schools. Many other cities and towns recog- 



nize gardening as part of the course in nature 
study, but do not provide for the material 
basis for conducting the gardens needed to 
carry out the school program. The vast 
majority of the school gardens in the United 
States are still officially independent of schools 
and conducted on the personal responsibility 
of teachers, principals, and others who are 
interested in the school garden movement. As 
an example of good results in spite of lack of 
official encouragement, New York City has 
over eighty scliolo gardens, many on school 
grounds, but conducted by enthusiastic; mem- 
bers of the New York School Gardening Asso- 
ciation without appropriations from school 
funds In fact, most school gardens in the 
United States outside the largest cities need 
little financial help from the school authorities, 
for in most places land is available, the pupilh 
do the work, the seeds cost little and the 
produce will pay for them, and an energetic 
director can usually find ways and means for 
collecting the necessary tools There is prob- 
ably an ad\antage in that gardens without the 
financial support of schools tend to develop the 
resourcefulness of the individual pupils and to 
awaken the interests of their parents and 
friends Instruction in methods of gardening 
offers no special difficulties now that garden- 
ing is commonly recognized as a very important 
phase of nature study and science, and hence 
propei ly comes under the direction of teachers 
of those subjects The common result is that 
the garden work is used and correlated m the 
classrooms much more than would be possible 
by special garden teachers The fact is that 
throughout the United States there is little 
demand for special appropriations for school 
gardens, except for modest equipment for tools 
Much more important is the official recognition 
of gardening as a phase of nature study and 
therefore a legitimate part of the regular work 
of teachers assigned to the classes in that 
subject 

The care of school gardens during the long 
summer vacation is a difficult problem which 
has retarded the general success of the move- 
ment A hired gardener is undesirable, for in 
his work the pupils have little interest School 
gardens will be most useful if conducted by 
the pupils and for the pupils of the school 
The most satisfactory plan, judged by educa- 
tional results and pupils' interest, is the com- 
mittee 4 system This means that the director 
of the garden appoints groups of pupils as 
committees charged with the care of the entire 
garden for set periods during the vacation, and 
required to report to the school in September. 
Some voluntary supervision by interested 
adult citizens is usually possible, especially 
where there is some local society uhieh is 
interested in the garden movement 

With legal d to the general educational 
influence of school gardens, it has been claimed 
by numerous teachers that many pupils make 



11 



GARDENS 



GAUDEAMUS IGITUR 



more rapid progress in their book studies after 
being aroused by the garden work Such in- 
creased efficiency has been found to have an 
indirect moral influence, and in many cities 
the boys engaged in gardening seem to have 
lost their former interest in mischief making, 
perhaps because their time has been occupied 
with the interesting work of the gardens 
Probably a large part of the advantages 
claimed for manual training as a phase of edu- 
cation applies to school garden work, and there 
is the additional gain from the garden in that 
the work is in the open air and combined with 
nature study. Under such conditions the gar- 
den may become a most important agency for 
healthy recreation, for developing an interest 
in nature, and for giving the pupil direct con- 
tact with a phase of industrial education, 
which may be of vocational value to some, but 
of far greater importance to the many, in that 
it gives them a sense of personal relationship 
with that vadt part of the world's work which 
is centered around the cultivation of plants for 
human use This tendency of gardens to 
develop a personal interest in plant growing 
outside of the plot controlled by the pupil is 
so marked that several societies concerned with 
the beautifying of cities by encouraging the 
cultivation of plants in both private and public 
Bounds, wherever possible, have officially recog- 
nized school gardens as very important factors 
in developing personal responsibility for better 
civic conditions No doubt a garden can be 
made very helpful in this direction, but the 
result will come from the teaching and not from 
mere digging in the soil In fact, the value of 
merely working in the garden has been over- 
estimated, and the future efficiency of gardens 
as part of general education will depend upon 
lessons which are drawn from materials and 
conditions available in well-managed school 
gardens The purpose of school-gardens is not 
simply to raise plants, but rather to use the 
methods of gardening and the growing of plants 
as a concrete basis for one phase of education 
Judged by this standard, a large number of 
gardens for children are not yet real school 
gardens or educational gardens, for efficient 
instruction is not given the pupils M A B 

References : 

BALDWIN, W. H. Industrial-Social Education (Spring- 
field, Mass , 1907 ) 
DAVIS, B. M. School Gardens for California Schools. 

(Chico, Cal , 1906 ) 
GREENE, M L Among School Gardens (New York, 

1910) 
HBMENWAY, H D How to make School Gardens 

(New York, 1903 ) 
JEWELL, J. R Agricultural Education U. S. Bureau 

of Education Bulletin No 368, 1907 
LOGAN, A School Gardens as a Means of Education 

School World (London, 1911, Nov pp 421-424 ) 
MILLER, L K. Children's Gardens (New York, 

1908.) 
Nature Study Review Manv articles New York, 

1905-1910. 
PARSONS, H. G. Children's Gardms for Pleasure, 

Health, and Education (New York, 1910 ) 



12 



United States Dept of Agriculture. Several Bulletins, 

(Washington ) 
WEED, C M , and EMEKSON, P. School Garden Book 

(New York, 1909 ) 
Also chapters in references under NATURJB STUDY to 

Bailey, Coulter, Dearness, Hodge, Holtz. 

GARDENS AND GARDENING. See 

BOTANIC GARDENS; HORTICULTURE, EDUCA- 
TION IN; GARDENS, SCHOOL. 

GARFIELD, JAMES ABRAM (1831-1881). 
Statesman and educator, graduated from 
Williams College in the class of 1856. He was 
professor in Hiram College for three years, and 
president of the college four years. As a mem- 
ber of the Congress of the United States he 
took an active interest in educational legisla- 
tion, and was largely responsible for the estab- 
lishment of the Bureau of Education. His 
Speeches on Education (Boston, 1882) include 
his most important contributions to the litera- 
ture of education. W. S. M. 

Reference : 

HINSDALE, B. A. Oarfidd and Education. (Boston, 

1882) 

GARLAND, LANDON CABELL (1810- 
1895) College president, educated at Hamp- 
den-Sidney College. He was professor of 
mathematics in Washington (Va ) College, 
Randolph-Macon College, the University of 
Alabama, and the University of Mississippi, 
and president of Randolph-Macon College and 
Vanderbilt University. Author of textbooks 
on mathematics W S. M. 

GAUDEAMUS IGITUR Probably the 
best known as well as the most frequently sung 
of student songs in the world The origin of 
this famous poem was long in doubt, but pains- 
taking German research has established the 
fact that in its present form it does not go back 
much beyond the middle of the eighteenth 
century. Those who, guided solely by the 
content of the song, would refer it back to the 
whimsical laments over the vanity of human 
wishes and the advice to "eat, drink, and be 
merry, for to-morrow we die " found in the songs 
of the Goliards (q v. ; see also the article on 
CARMINA BURANA), may find some satisfaction 
in the fact that the basic element in the Gau- 
deamus has been traced back to a song found 
m a French Ms of 1267 This is a penitential 
psalm, in which the following lines occur: 

Vita brevis, brevitas in brevi finietur ; 
Mors venit velociter et neminem veretur. 
Ubi sunt qui ante nos in hoc mundo fuere ? 
Venies ad tumulos, BI COB vis videre, 

which will be recognized as parts of the modern 
Gaudeamus. But there seems to have been 
a number of songs which opened, at any rate, 
with the word Gaudeamus. On this account 
probably the well-known verses have been re- 
ferred to a greater antiquity than they deserve. 



GAUSS 



GELASIUS 



Sebastian Brandt in the Ship of Fools (ch. 
108) refers to the Gaudeamus, and a woodcut 
in the edition of 1494 represents the ship of 
fools and the words Gaudeamus Omnes issuing 
from the mouth of one of the passengers, 
written in a notation which does not call up 
the modern tune Hans Sachs, in a poem 
written in 1568, also refers to a Gaudeamus. 
But none of these continues with the vigorous 
and meaningful igitur. 

The earliest known Latin version (there is 
a version in German by ,) C Gunther, written 
in 1717, beginning Brudcr lasst ana lustig sem) 
of the modern Gaudeamus is found in a (Ms) 
copy of student songs in the Royal Library at 
Berlin, which was written before 1750. The 
version is as follows. 

Gaudeamub igitur 
Juvcnos dura sum us , 
Post mnleutum srnoctutcm 
Nos huhehit tumulus. 
Ubi sunt qui ante nos 
In niundo vixero ? 
Abeas ad tumulos, 
Si vis hos vidore 
Vita nostril brovis est, 
Bro\i fimetur, 
Wmt mora vclociter, 
Nommem vcrotur. 

On tho basis of this the other versions arose, 
each body of students adding something new 
or topical, or eliminating something A Latin 
and German version is found in a Jena Ms of 
1776, showing that, theio was reason in the 
or dor issued at Hallo by tho university authori- 
ties, forbidding tho singing of the song on ac- 
count of its degrading vulgarity The verses 
woro rescued from the mire, howevor, in 1781, 
by C W Kmdlebon, at one time pastor, um- 
versitv docont, and assistant teacher under 
Basodow at tho Philanthropmum at Dessau 
Kmdleben's leputation was riot of the best; 
he lost ovoiy position ho hold through his 
dissolute ways But it was this man who 
cleansed tho Gaudeamun of its obscenities and 
published it with a translation m its present 
form in Studcntenhedcr Aus den hintcrlas- 
wnen Papicrcn cuies ungluckhchen Philosophen, 
Flondo genatint, gesannnelt und verbesscrt von 
C W K 1781 Aftor tho student revival 
which took place about 1813, tho song found 
its way nipidly into all the student song books 
and Commors-books, until it became the prop- 
erty of students m universities and schools 
the world over 

References : 

SCHWETCHKE, GusTAV Zur Geschichtc des Gaudeamus- 

igitur (Halle, 1877 ) 
SYMONDS, J A Wine, Women and Song (Portland, 

Me., 1899 ) Contains an English translation 

GAUSS, KARL FRIEDRICH One of 

the foremost mathematicians and astronomers 
of the nineteenth century He was born on 
Apr. 30, 1777, at Brunswick, Germany, and died 
on Fob. 23, 1855, at Gottingen He was edu- 



13 



cated at Gottingen, and in 1807 he became 
professor of mathematics arid director of the 
observatory in that university To him more 
than to any other one person is due the promi- 
nence that Gottingen attained in the nine- 
teenth century as the mathematical center of 
Germany There was no field of mathematical 
activity in which he was not interested, and 
in most of those that were open in his time he 
was a successful worker The number of his 
contributions was ver^y great, notably in the 
theory of numbers, theory of electricity and 
magnetism, the interpretation of complex num- 
bers, and mathematical astronomy DES. 

GAZA, THEODORE (1400-1475) Greek 
scholar and teacher of the Renaissance period, 
who came to Italy about 1440 Introduced 
to Vittormo da Foltro (r/ v ) by Filelfo (qv), he 
studied Latin under him and taught Greek 
and copied Mas. in his school at Mantua In 
1444 he became tho first public professor of 
Greek at Fcrrara, and lectured on Demosthenes. 
In 1457 he was summoned by Nicholas V to 
Rome, where he taught Greek and assisted m 
translating some of the Greek classics In 
1455 he translated books for King Alfonso 
of Naples; he later returned to Rome, which 
he again left before his death, which occurred 
in a monastery in Lucama Gaza wroto a 
Greek Grammar (y/oa/ufum/ci; eicrayajy?;), which 
Erasmus used at Cambridge and translated 
into Latin and Budseus used at Puns Copies 
of the Iliad written by Gaza are still extant 
one in Florence and the other in Venice 
In the controversy on thci superiority of Plato 
and Aristotle, Gaza stfronglv defended the 
latter, several of whoso works he translated 

References : 

SANDYS, J E History of Classical Scholarship, Vol II. 

(Cambridge, 1908 ) 
WOODWARD, W H Vittonno da Fcltre (C'anihndgr, 

1905) 

GELASIUS Bishop of Rome (492-496), 
and author of the Decretum Grla^u <le 7i6n.s 
rccipiendis et non recipi^ndi^ The importance 
of Pope Golasms in tho history of education 
is due entirely to his famous decree on the 
canonical books of tho Bible and the authori- 
tative and approved writings of the Fathers 
of tho Church The decree differs from later 
indexes of books in that it not only gave a list 
of books which were condemned, but also a list 
of books which were approved as standards of 
orthodoxy The decree was issued at a Ro- 
man synod held by Gel asms, but in its present 
form it contains material much earlier and has 
been subjected to various interpolations The 
final section, however, which gives the list of 
books to be received or rejected, was, with the 
exception of manifest interpolations, the work 
of Gelasius By passing judgment upon earlier 
writers determining which should be regarded 
as setting the norm for orthodoxy, the decree 



GEMMA FRISIUS 



GENERAL EDUCATION BOARD 



undoubtedly affected profoundly the course 
of studies in the Church Among other effects 
of the decree was the elimination of the older 
Alcxundune influence, eg that of Clement of 
Alexandria (q v ) It did not become geneially 
known m the Chinch till some time after 
Gelasms, it was not until two hundred years 
after its publication that it is quoted, and not 
until 860 that it was connected with the name of 
Gelasius From that time on its influence was 
constantly frit J. C. A. Jr 

See LITERARY CENSORSHIP. 

References : 

IlkFKLE, C Conalicnoe&chichte See 217 (Freiburg, 

1855-1890) 
MANSI Concilia, Vol VIII (Florence, 1759-1798 ) 

GEMMA FRISIUS (1 508 -1555) The fam- 
ily name of (lemma the Frisian was Rainer 
or Kegmcr He was born at Dockum, m East 
Friesland, on Dec 8, 1508, and died at Lou vain 
on May 25, 1555 He was a physician, holding 
the chair of professor of medicine at Louvam, 
but he is better known as one of the leading 
textbook writers of his century m France on 
arithmetic- and astronomy His most famous 
textbook is the Mctliodus arithmetics practices 
(Antwerp, 1540), of which there were at least 
fifty-nine editions before 1601 Tie also wrote 
upon astronomy, and first suggested the idea 
of finding longitude by the help of a chronom- 
eter in his DC principns astronomic (Paris, 
1547) His influence upon arithmetic was 
more marked than that of any other Latin 
wiiter of his century His son, Cornells (1535- 
1577), was professor of medicine and astronomy 
at Louvam, and wrote on astronomy and 
philosophy D. E. S. 

GENERAL EDUCATION BOARD An 

organization chartered by Congress m 1903 
and originating with Mr John D. Rocke- 
feller's Committee on Benevolence The plan 
of such an organization was designed and 
adapted to assist Mr Rockefeller in distribut- 
ing his gifts to education, but it was also in- 
tended to meet a wider need and to afford 
a medium through which other men of means, 
who desired to piomote education in the United 
States, could do so in a systematic, intelligent, 
and effective \\ay The gentlemen forming 
the first Board were the late William H Bald- 
win, Jr , Wallace Buttnck, the late Hon J L. 
M Curry, Frederick T Gates, Daniel C Gil- 
man, Morris K Jesup, Robeit C Ogden, Walter 
H Pago, Ceoige Foster Peabody, John D 
Rockefeller, Jr , and Albert Shaw The gifts 
of Mr Rockefeller to the Board and placed 
under its absolute control amount to $32,000- 
000. Others have contributed smaller amounts, 
among them a gift of $200 000 for rural negro 
education by the late Miss Anna T Jearies 

The work of the General Education Board 
now falls into four mam divisions: 

1. The promotion of practical farming in the 



Southern States Through the United State? 
Department of Agriculture, under an agreement 
begun in the year 1906, the Board has made con- 
tributions for this work aggregating $405,700, 
The method employed is that of demonstration 
farms There are now (1911) 196 men at work 
supervising demonstration farms, and 19,579 
farmers are pursuing agricultural methods 
under such direction One hundred and fifty- 
four thousand farmers are pursuing similar 
work, influenced by those farmers who arc 
under the immediate supervision of the agents 
Nine thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine 
boys, from twelve years of age and up, under 
the general designation of Boys' Corn Clubs, 
are performing practical agricultural demon- 
stration on their fathers' farms, and are making 
their experiments the basis of agricultural 
study in the schools 

2 The promotion of public high schools in 
the Southern States The General Education 
Board appropriates to each state university 
or to the state department of education a sum 
sufficient to pay the salary and traveling ex- 
penses of a special high school representative, 
who arouses and organizes public sentiment 
favorable to public high schools, and who 
secures the establishment and maintenance of 
public high schools Since the beginning of 
this cooperation on the pait of the General 
Education Board with state universities and 
state departments of education, 703 new 
public high schools have been established, 
$6,390,780 have been raised by the people of 
the several states for buildings and equipment, 
and the annual sum available for the support 
of public high schools has been increased 
by $1,332,667 

3 The Promotion of Institutions of Higher 
Learning The General Education Board 
uniformly makes its gifts for endowment 
Appropriations by the Board for higher edu- 
cation have been made as follows* In the 
Southern States, $2,309,000; in the Western 
States, $2,510,000, in the Eastern and Middle 
States, $1,805,000 Total, $6,624,000 These 
gifts on the part of the General Education 
Board make up an approximate total of 
$25,406,000, a sum which represents the in- 
crease of educational endowment and equip- 
ment of the eighty-two colleges and universities 
in the United States to which gifts from the 
Board have been made to date (1911) 

4 Negro Education The Board has con- 
tributed $473,239 76 to schools for negroes 
In this connection it should be said that negro 
farmers have shared fully in the cooperative 
demonstration work described above It is 
the policy of the General Education Board to 
work through existing institutions and agencies 
and not itself to undertake independent edu- 
cational work. E. C. S. 

Reference : 

AYRES, L P Seven Great Foundations. (New York, 
1911) 



14 



GENERAL METHOD 



GENERIC IMAGE 



GENERAL METHOD. Methods of teach- 
ing which are fundamental to all the school 
branches, and therefore 111 general use, are 
included under the term " general method." 
The term is used in contradistinction to 
" special method," which is applied to a method 
used only in a single subject Sometimes 
" principles of teaching " is used synonymously 
with " general method/' the former implying 
a treatment in terms of theoretic generaliza- 
tions or laws, and the latter one in types of 
practical procedure. H. S. 

See METHOD, TEACHING; SPECIAL METHODS; 
TEACHING, TYPES OF; TEACHING, PRINCIPLES OF 

GENERAL TERM. SEE CONCEPT 

GENERAL THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Established by the General Convention of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in tho United 
States in 1817 and incorporated in 1822 In- 
struction began in Now York in 1819 It was 
removed to New Haven, Connecticut, in 1820, 
but returned to Now York in 1822 It is the 
only seminary in the Episcopal Church under 
tho control of the General Convention Tho 
buildings include a largo chapel, lecture hall, 
nine dormitories, library, gymnasium, refectory, 
and nine residences for dean arid professors 
The halls can accommodate 150 students In 
1911 there were 143 students, fifteen professors 
and instructors, and one lecturer. It confers no 
degree on graduation The degree of Bach- 
elor in Divinity is conferred for graduate work 
only. The degree of Doctor in Divinity is 
conferred for work required or honons causa 
There are about 1800 graduates, of whom 
nearly 1000 are living, and about 1000 former 
students who are not Alumni O. B. Z. 

Sec THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION 

GENERALIZATION The process by 
which a principle or law is reached, the term 
is also used to denote the product Tho term 
expresses the use or function of induction, 
which endeavors, beginning with a number of 
scattered details, to arrive at a general state- 
ment Generalization expresses tho natural 
goal of instruction m any topic, for it works 
a measure of economy and efficiency from 
the standpoints alike of observation, mem- 
ory, and thought The number of particu- 
lars that can be obtained is limited When, 
however, different eases are brought together, 

and this bringing together is expressed in 
a general principle, a great variety of cases 
are practically reduced to one case, and further 
observation is freed to attack 'new particular 
things and qualities not yet systematized 
Exactly the same holds good for memory 
There are a few prodigies who can carry in mind 
an indefinite number of unrelated details; 
but most persons need the help of generaliza- 
tions in order to retain special facts and to 
recall them when needed Logically, a prin- 



ciple not only sums up and registers the net 
intellectual outcome of a great many different 
experiences which have been undergone at, 
diverse times and places, but is an illuminating 
and clarifying means of interpreting new cases 
that without it could not bo understood 

Because the older deductive, classificatorv 
schemes of instruction began with a statement 
of the law 01 principle, educational reformers 
who were influenced by the scientific movement 
toward induction were compelled to emphasize 
the later and derived place occupied bv 
generalization in the intellectual life Zealots 
for the new method sometimes swung to the 
extreme of reaction against universals, and, 
treating observation and imagination of 
particulars as an end in itself, neglected the 
importance of generalization as a normal ter- 
minus of study Another educational error 
is to suppose that generalization is a single and 
separate act coming by itself, after tho mind 
has been exclusively preoccupied with particular 
facts and events To the contrary, generaliza- 
tion is a continuous, gradual movement away 
from mere isolated particulars toward a con- 
necting principle A necessary part of the 
work of instruction is, therefore, to make 
the conditions such that the mind will move 
in the direction of a fruitful generalization as 
soon as it begins to deal with and to collect 
particulars The resulting generalization will, 
of course, be crude, vague, and inadequate, but, 
if formed under proper conditions, it will servo 
at once to direct arid vitalize further observa- 
tions and recollections, and will be built out 
and tested in the application to now particulars 
This suggests the final educational principle 
A generalization or law is such not in virtue 
of its structure or bare content, but because of 
its use or function We do not first have* a 
principle and then apply it; an idea becomes 
general (or a principle) in process of fruitful 
application to the interpretation, compre- 
hension, and prevision of the particular facts 
of experience J D 

See ABSTRACT AND CONCRETE, CONCEPT, 
EMPIRICAL. 

GENERALIZED HABITS See HAHFI ; 
also FORMAL DISCIPLINE; ABILITY, GENEK\L 
AND SPECIAL 

GENERIC IMAGE When one sees a single 
object and remembers it, he carries a way a more 
or less complete reproduction of the experience 
which he derives through contact with this ob- 
ject. Tho remembered experience is in the 
form of an imago After contact with a num- 
ber of different objects closely related to each 
other m character, memory reflects certain ele- 
ments and drops others Those characteristics 
which are common to all of the .specimens stand 
out with increasing vmdness, those character- 
istics which belong to single individuals tend 
to be obliterated There ansc* in this fashion 



15 



GENETIC METHOD 



GENIUS 



a generic imago Sir Francis Gallon used the 
figure of a composite photograph in describing 
these generic mental images The analogy is 
undoubtedly justified in certain cases, although 
it IH probable that very few such images arc 
used by the ordinary observer in his common 
experience C. H. J. 

See GENERAL IDEAS; IDEATION; IMAGE; 
MEMORY; VISUALIZATION. 

References : 

HUXLLY, T H Hume (London, 1 SSI ) 
CJAI/ION, F Jnt/uuu'ti into Human Faculties. (Appen- 
due ) (New \oik, 1883) 

GENETIC METHOD Mental processes 
can be studied by a variety of different methods 
Thus, they may be analyzed or they may be 
studied with reference to their relation to the 
general life processes of the individual, or, 
finally, they may be studied with reference to 
their development and the development of the 
individual who possesses them The relative 
level of evolution reached by the individual may 
also be studied Whenever the problem of 
development or evolution is foremost the method 
of treatment is said to be the genetic method 
Thus one may study the growth of a tendency 
on the part of children to use abstract ideas 
The growth of this tendency is a genetic process, 
and the study of the habit constitutes a gen- 
etic problem Again, one may study the pres- 
ence of ideas in animals There has been le- 
ccntly an increasing tendency to recognize the 
fact that psychology can be productively ap- 
plied to education only through the working 
out of genetic methods In some cases the 
term " genetic" has been used in a limited sense 
to apply to the special problems of child study; 
but this restriction of the term is misleading, 
and any foim of study of mental development 
or mental evolution should be included under 
the term "genetic" C. H. J. 

See CHILD STUDY; PSYCHOLOGY, GENETIC 

References : 

JUDD, C H Genetic Psycholoay for Teachers. (New 

York, 1903 ) 
KIRKPATRICK, E A Genetic Psychology. (New York. 

1909) 

GENETIC PSYCHOLOGY. See PSYCHOL- 
OGY, GENETIC. 

GENEVA. Sec CALVINISTS AND EDUCA- 
TION; SWITZERLAND, EDUCATION IN. 

GENEVA COLLEGE, BEAVER FALLS, 

PA A coeducational institution which was 
opened in 1849 by the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church of North America at Northfield, Ohio, 
and moved to its present location in 1880. 
Preparatory, collegiate, music, and fine arts 
departments are maintained The entrance 
requirements are equivalent to about fourteen 
points of high school work The degrees of 
Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science aie 
conferred on those who complete the require- 



ments, which include residence for at least three 
fourths of the college course at an accredited 
college with the senior year at Geneva. There 
is a faculty of twenty-three members. 

GENEVA, SWITZERLAND, UNIVERSITY 

OF. Established in 1873, being the outgrowth 
of the Academy founded by the Republic of 
Geneva in the yeai 1559 The theological 
faculty of the old Academy attained a period 
of considerable icnown under men like Calvin 
and Bcza During the stormy days of the 
seventeenth century the institution entered 
upon a decline, but was given a new lease of 
life as a result of the persecutions of the Hu- 
guenots in France, the Academy gradually 
having become the acknowledged center for 
the dissemination of Protestant culture in 
French-speaking territory. From 1798 to 1814 
the Academy was in French hands 

The present university comprises the fac- 
ulties of Protestant theology, law, medicine 
(1876), letters and social science, and pure sci- 
ence, the language of instruction being French 
Affiliated with the institution arc a natural 
history museum, a botanical garden, and an 
observatory The library contains over 170,000 
volumes and about 1800 manuscripts The 
University of Geneva is the second largest 
institution of higher learning in the Swiss Con- 
federation, being exceeded m the number of 
'students only by Berne During the winter 
semester of 1909-1910 there weir enrolled 1915 
students, of whom about half were women 
Of the matriculated students only 23 wen* 
registered in the theological faculty, while the 
medical school attracts the largest number of 
students, viz , 024, including 372 women As 
at all of the Swiss universities, the numbei of 
non-matriculated students is relatively large, 
130 men and 327 women R T., JK 

Reference : 

BORGEAIID, C Hist(tire de rUniverettf de Grnin, 
Vol I, 1550-1798 (Geneva, 1900) Vol 11, 
1798-1814 (Geneva, 1909 ) 

GENIUS A term used somewhat loosely 
to indicate the highest type of human ability 
Below genius comes the grade of talent, and 
below talent ordinary ability It is evident, 
however, that these grades arc not enough to 
indicate very definitely the rank of any in- 
dividual Gallon in his study of hereditary 
genius distinguishes eight classes above that of 
ordinary talent Cattell endeavors to detei- 
nune by a statistical study of biographical dic- 
tionaries the thousand most eminent men in 
history These he ranges in regular order on 
the basis of the amount of attention to which 
each was deemed worthy by the various editors. 
Thus each individual is given a specific place 
instead of being assigned to a group He con- 
cludes that the ten most eminent men are Shake- 
speare, Mahommed, Napoleon, Voltaire, Bacon, 
Aristotle, Goethe, Caesar, Luther, and Plato 



16 



GENIUS 



GENIUS 



Genius is more commonly tieatod accoidmg 
!.o tin 1 special soit of ability m\ olved, since men 
may show the highest power m eeitam fields 
and he commonplace or even defective in other 
respects The loading types seem to bo the 
artistic, the intellectual, and the practical 
The artistic type includes literary genius, the 
intellectual embraces philosophic and scien- 
tific power, while the practical covers such fields 
as statesmanship, business ability, and general- 
ship It is possible that outside these powers 
there lies another group, the moral and religious 
ilowover, m so far as these gifts involve in- 
tellectual qualities, they are allied to the phil- 
osophic and artistic types On the other hand, 
they are usually associated with intensity of 
sympathy, a power of self-sacrificing service, 
and a firmness of adherence to ideals that con- 
stitute of them a somewhat distinct kind 

The genius may, from a biological point of 
view, be regarded as a vanant from type It 
must be noted, however, that his vanation is in 
the direction of extraordinary now efficiencies 
Much has been made by Lombroso and otheis 
of the idea that genius is allied with, if not a 
form oi, insanity It is true that many men 
of genius have shown signs of insanity It 
would seem likely that the marked ascendency 
of COT tain powers in genius would involve a lack 
of balance which might amount 01 lead to in- 
sanity Especially in the artistic type do we 
find such abnormalities Nevoitheless, even 
the artistic genius must show an excellence of 
judgment in reference to his art winch suggests 
a *' method in his madnes.s " In general, the 
genius owes his success in the field of his pre- 
eminence to the sanity which he displays therein, 
although his emotional intensity, his nervous 
sensitivity, his vigor of imagination, or his 
power of concentration may load him into ec- 
centricities or undermine his judgment 

The interpretation of the genius as a degen- 
erate is closely associated with the view that, he 
is insane The loosening of inhibitions, the 
emotionalism, and the general neuropathic 
condition found in degenerates may lead, es- 
pecially in art and religion, to results that seem 
to have a touch of genius At least, they at- 
tract attention, and often help the one who 
employs them to get a following On the other 
hand, it is quite certain that, in general, the 
genius displays variations that aie in advance 
of his type He is the superman rather than 
the degenerate Like the insane or the eccen- 
tric, ho defies rule and precedent, vet m the 
interest of greater rather than loss efficiency 
His originality is not more variation, but moots 
the requirements of judgment 

The studios of Gallon and Wood show clearly 
that genius is inherited Since, however, it is 
rare that both parents possess extraordinary 
power, the children of geniuses show, as a rule, 
a marked tendency to regress toward medioc- 
rity The absence of any form of selection 
Mi at favors the survival of the very talented as 

VOL. Ill C 



against the common inn of men makes it un- 
likely that this tendency fowaid regression *hnl) 
be mteiforod with The genius can, ther,forc, 
hardly he taken as a prophecy of tin* typo 
toward which the race is tending 

On the question of the dependence of the 
genius on his environment we have the com- 
mon notion that opportunity is essential to 
greatness, opposed to the view, championed by 
Tarlyle, that genius always creates u,s oppor- 
tunities While it is doubtless true that e\- 
tiaordmary gifts do not insure their possessor 
his proper rating, still the abilities of men of 
genius are usually sufficiently broad in scope* to 
enable them to attain distinction along some of 
the linos of opportunity open to them There 
are probably very few " unappreciated " 
Amuses, and most of those who rate them- 
selves as such are, doubtless, because of their 
lack of some qualities essential to efficiency, 
properly characterized as "cianks " 

Genius is frequently, if not usually, foreshad- 
owed by precocity This is especially true of 
aitistic genius Many of the greatest musi- 
cians have, like Mozart, boon " infant prodigies " 
Literary power is the latest, among the artistic 
gilts to display itself, but oven hero talent may 
}>o shown in childhood, as witness Goethe, Vic- 
tor Hugo, Shelley, and Keats Sometimes 
scientific and philosophic 01 administrative 
power is evinced in early youth Newton, 
Berkeley, Horbart, William the Conqueror, 
and Alexander the Great are illustrations 

It has boon thought that genius does its best 
work in the earlier years of life The celebrated 
statement of Dr Osier was to the efleet that, 
although many groat achievements wore ac- 
complished after the ago of forty, still, the world 
would be where 1 it is, if all great men had died 
at that age I)r Dorland's careful study of 
the history of eminent men shows, however, 
that the greater part of then extiaoidmary 
work was done after this age, and indeed, not 
a little after the ago of sixty 

So far as education is concorru d, the problem 
of training the genius doe* not differ from that 
of training anv of niou 1 than aveiago ability 
The tendency toward unifoinutv in 0111 schools 
may prove unfortunate for the unusual mind 
in two ways It may keep him wasting time 
with the crowd, when his abilities would, if 
properly developed, put him far ahead It may 
lay so much stress on studies in which he is not 
capable as sonously to retard the development 
of his special power The school refoimers are 
actively endeavoring to break up this mechan- 
ical uniformity of studios and of progress 
through the grades Many devices are being 
developed for getting at the individual, for 
helping him to find his special bent, and for 
putting him in a position to progress as fast 
as his talents arid energy will permit All these 
will assist in the education of the genius, and 
although ho may be less dependent upon en- 
vironment than are those of inferior ability, 



17 



GENLIS 



GENTRY AND NOBLES 



nevertheless, he luccds and pi outs by the proper 
education It remains one ot the leading 
problems of the school to discover and properly 
train the exceptional man E N H 

References : 

CONSTABLE, F C J^overty and Hereditary Gemux , 

a Criticism of Mr Francis Gallon's Thfory of Hered- 

ity (London, 1 ( )05 ) 

GALTON, KR Hcieditaru (JCHIUX (London, 1892 ) 
Knglmh Men of XiietHe, th( n Nature and Nurture 

(London, 1S74 ) 
HiRHfH, \V (Irniuft and l>t generation (Now York, 

1896) 
LOMBHOHO, f 1 Man of Geniutt (London, 1891 ) 

GENUS, STEPHANIE FELICITE DU 
CREST DE SAINT-AUBIN, COMTESSE DE 
commonly known as MME DE GENLIS 

(1746-1830) One of the leading French 
women educators of her day According to 
Sainte-Beuve, " She was a woman teacher, she 
was born with the sign on her forehead " She 
was governess in the family of the Duchesse de 
Chartres Although an indefatigable critic 
of Rousseau, she vet constantly gives evidence 
of his influence She was the author of Theatre 
(replication (1779); Adtte <>t Thfodore (1782), 
also known as Lettres sur V education; Les 
Vet Ufa* du chfttcau (1784) A prolific writei, 
she was the author of nearly one hundred 
volumes In addition to those noted above, 
her works on education include* Di scours sur 
la suppression de* convent? dc leligieusev ct sur 
I' Education, publique dev fcmmes (1790); Dis- 
co urs sur Induration de M le Dauphin (1790); 
Lemons d'une gouvernantc a ses Sieves, ou 
fragments </' un journal qui a it& fait pour 
['education des en f ants de M d'OrUans (1791); 
I) i scours sin I' education publique dn peuple 
(1791); Nonvelle ntethode d'enscignewent pour 
la premiere enfancc (1800); Projet d'une ecole 
rural? pour I' education des filler (1802); Les 
Dnnanches, ou Journal de la jeunesse (1815), 
published for only one year F E F. 

References : 

BONHOMME Madame de Gcnlu (Paris, 1885 ) 
CAULTTE Madame la Cu?nte8i>e dc Gcnh* (Pans, 



SAINTE-BEUVE, C A Monday Chats, pp 205-226 
(Chicago, 1891 ) 

GENOA, UNIVERSITY OF See ITALY, 
EDUCATION IN 

GENTRY AND NOBLES, EDUCATION 

OF The close connection between education 
and politics has been recognized from the time 
of classical antiquity Plato in his Republic 
and Aristotle in his Politics laid down the prin- 
ciple of the vital importance to the state of the 
education of children Throughout the Middle 
Ages, the education of the actual kings, princes, 
and other governors of the state was recognized 
as an essential preparation to the child, who 
was a prospective ruler Treatises commonly 
described the duties of princes, and logically this 



18 



led to dealing with the question of piepaiation 
for such duties Thus, Thomas Aquinas wrote 
the de Reginunc Pnncipum Occleve produced 
his Regiment of Prince* Italy was especially 
distinguished by its books on political philos- 
ophy, in the fifteenth century Pontano writing 
de Principe, Beroaldo the Libellus de Optimo 
Statu et Principe, and Francesco Patrizi his de 
Regno ct Regis Institution? In England John 
of Salisbury wrote his famous Polycraticus, and 
and in 1531 Sir Thomas Elyot (q v.) wrote the 
Governour This last-named work is particu- 
larly noteworthy because a considerable portion 
of the book is taken up with the question of the 
education of the prospective Governour This 
illustrates the connection which was felt by the 
older writers between education and political 
philosophy If the prince or the governor, or 
by whatever name the ruler was called, had to 
rise to the responsibility of governing a country, 
then it is clear that the welfare of the nation is 
dependent largely upon the excellent training 
culture, or, in a word, the education of the prince 
or ruler So that in the days of an absolute 
Tudor monarch, Erasmus wrote, as a matter of 
vital concern, an educational tieatise on The 
Institution of a (Christian Prince, and through- 
out the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth 
centuries, numberless educational treatises 
concerned themselves with the education of the 
prince 

After the devastating Wars of the Roses in 
England, the powei of the old nobility was 
wrecked, and under the Tudors a new nobility 
and gentry arose, roughly speaking founded 
upon personal incut and achievement The 
merchant adventurers, bailois, arid wamors 
came into the higher classes concurrently with 
the development of Protestantism As the new 
order of aristocracy came into power in the 
state, the books on education concerned them- 
selves with the education of nobles Thus 
Laurence Humphrey (</ v ) wrote his Nobles or 
Of Nobility, and it is interesting to note that 
he had written it first in Latin (as Opti mates 
in 1560), showing that the Renaissance spirit 
was one which could assume that a politico- 
educational work to be read by nobles must be 
written in Latin The fact that he also wrote 
it m English shows the advancing place of the 
vernacular also with the upper and governing 
classes But the implication was that, as 
formerly, the education of the prince was the 
most important political aspect of education, 
and the desirability of the education of the 
nobles as well as princes was recognized as 
a national asset. In 1555 was published the 
anonymous Institution of a Gentleman (q.v ), 
and the significance is that the " gentleman " 
was becoming a more noticeable element politi- 
cally, and, therefore, nationally claimed a 
higher education On this theory, the broader 
the basis of the governing power, the wider will 
be the demand for education, to meet the re- 
quired responsibility, until m an age of demo- 



GENTRY AND NOBLES 



GENTRY AND NOBLES 



cratic government the demand will extend to 
universal education since, the power being in 
the hands of the people, there, too, must be 
placed the education and preparatory instruc- 
tion to meet the responsibility. Another ele- 
ment in the education must be noted that 
the " gentleman " stood in opposition to the 
" poor student " Accordingly, sometimes " the 
gentleman " stood outside the university and 
public school system, was educated at home by 
a private tutor, and afterwards, even if he went 
for a time to one of the universities, went also 
to one of the Inns of Court, and of course trav- 
eled on the grand tour of Europe The edu- 
cation of the gentleman, therefore, became dis- 
tinguished by its greater breadth At the 
period of the Renaissance, too, the tradition of 
Italian models set in, as the revival of learning 
for Europe had its origin in Italy Tins was 
at the very time that the courts of Italy had 
developed a standard of courtliness and chivalry 
far in advance of what was found elsewhere 
The consequence was that England looked to 
Italy for the type of nobility and gentlemanh- 
ness founded on what obtained at Urbmo, at 
Mantua, and elsewhere The effect of these 
courtly ideals in education mav be seen in the 
educational thought of Vittoimo da Feltre 
(q.v) and Guarmo da Verona (q v ) These 
ideals found literary expression in Baldassare 
Castiglione's Corteguino, 1528 (q v ) Roger 
Ascham (q v ) in the Scholemaster (1570) savs 
of this book, " To join learning with comely 
exercises Conte Baldesar Castiglione m his 
book Cortegiano doth trewelv teach, which 
book advisedly read and diligently followed 
but one yeai at home in England would do a 
young gentleman more good, I wisse, than 
three years' travel abroad in Italy " Cas- 
tiglione's Cortegiano was the climax of books 
on manners, which were of long standing (see 
MANNERS AND MOU\LS) The Cortegiano was 
translated into English in 1561 by Sn Thomas 
Hoby Sir John Cheke wrote a letter to Hoby 
on the use of English in connection with his 
translation (See C \STIOLIONE, BALDASSARE ) 
After the G over now of Sir Thomas Elyot 
in 1531 the next books to notice are the Insti- 
tution of a Gentleman (1555) and Laurence Hum- 
phrey's Nobles, 1560 (qv) In 1561 Sir Nich- 
olas Bacon drew up Articles for the Education 
of the Queen's Wards, and about 1572 Sir Hum- 
phrey Gilbert planned his Academy for the 
Queen's Wards and other youth of nobility arid 
gentlemen (See Queen Elizabeth's Academy, 
Early English Text Society, 1869) In 1570 
" T. B" ( ? Thomas Blundeville, qv) trans- 
lated into English John Sturm's Nolnhtas lit- 
er ata or A Rich Storehouse or Treasury for No- 
bility and Gentlemen, and m the same year 
Blundeville translated from the Italian of 
Alfonso d'Ulloa the Prince of Fedengo Funo, 
a Spaniard. It will be remembered that Roger 
Ascham's Scholemaster (1570) and John Lyly's 
Euphues (1577) are largely concerned with the 



education of gentlemen Less known is an 
anonymous tractate in 1577 entitled Ci/uile and 
Uncyuile Life' a Discouise very profitable, 
pleasant, and fit to be i cad of all Nobihtie and 
Gentlemen Where in forme of a Dialogue is 
disputed what older oflyfe best beseem eth a Gentle- 
man in all ages and times, as well for education, 
as the course of Ins whole life to mahe him a person 
fit for the publique service of hts pnncc and 
country, and foi the quiet and comlynesse of his 
own private estate and calhngc 

In 1595 William Jones translated the treatise 
of Giovanni Baptista Nenna, under the title 
Nennio Or a Treatis of Nobility, wheiein is 
discoursed what true Nobility is, with such qual- 
ities as are required in a perfect Gentleman 
Nenna maintains that a man becomes noble by 
the nobility of his mind, and that men and 
women equally become noble by leaining In 
1598 J Keper translated Count Ilanmball 
Romei's Courtici's Academy, the reprosentatn e 
book of the court of Fenaia The latei most 
representative English books are Henrv Peach- 
am's (qv) Com pleat Gentleman (1622) and 
Richard Brathwaite's English Gentleman (1030) 
and English Gentlewoman (1(531), the foimei 
dealing with topics from the point of \icvv of 
the Cavaliers, whilst the latter are permeated 
with puritanic manners and inoials These 
ideals were to some extent combined in the 
Gentleman's (Calling, 1659, perhaps the most 
popular book on the training of the religious 
gentleman which appeared in the seventeenth 
century This book was followed m 1673 bv 
the Ladies 1 Calling, winch has considerable 
interest in the histoiv of the education of 
gentlewomen There is much controversy as 
to the author of these books Thev have olten 
been ascribed to Dorothy, Lady Pakington, 
but Mr Macray in the Dtctionfin/ of Notional 
Biography (in his article on the life of that 
lady) considers it is more probable that they 
were written by Richard Allestiee, an Oxford 
tutor 

In 1661 appeared Clement Elhs's Geuiile 
Sinner, or England's brave gentleman charac- 
terised in a letter to a friend both c/.s he is and r/s lie 
should be, 2tl od , 1661 (Oxford), fiom a thor- 
oughly puritan point of view In 167S John 
(iailhard (qv) wrote his Compleat Gentleman, 
which probably gives the best account of the 
grand tour as made by gentlemen of the time 
About 172S Daniel Defoe (q v ) \\iote his Com- 
pleat English Gentleman, first published in 
lcS90, edited by Dr Karl Bulbnng, which is 
noticeable for its readiness to omit Latin from 
the studies of the gentleman " You may," 
sa\s Defoe, " be a gentleman of learning, and 
yet reading in English mav do for you all that 
you want " After the end of the seventeenth 
century with the beginning of the establish- 
ment of chanty schools (q v ) and the develop- 
ment of technical and trade schools the exten- 
sion of the term "gentleman" had widened out 
greatly, so that the idea of a " liberal " educa- 



19 



GENTRY AND NOBLES 



GENTRY AND NOBLES 



tion and a gentleman's education became much 
more approximated. 

The distinction between the education of the 
scholar and the gentleman in earlier times is 
perhaps best indicated by saying that after the 
Renaissance the progress of the academic 
centers was mainly in the direction of the de- 
velopment of the subjects of the medieval 
tnvium, viz grammar, rhetoric, and logic, 
whereas the great intellectual advances of 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries intro- 
duced what are called " modern subjects/' e g 
mathematics, natural sciences, vernacular lan- 
guages, foreign and English These subjects 
were almost entirely ignored by the univer- 
sities and grammar schools. Such " outside " 
subjects, together with physical exercises, such 
as riding the great horse, fencing, gymnastics, 
were precisely the subjects studied by the nobil- 
ity and gentry, as is shown in the proposed cur- 
ricula of the projected Academies (see GILBERT, 
SIR HUMPHREY, KINASTON, SIR FRANCIS, GER- 
BIER, 8m BALTHASAR, ACADEMIES, COURTLY) 
We are therefore driven to the conclusion that 
it is to the records of the education of the gentle- 
man and the nobleman that we must refer to 
trace the progress of the growing width of the 
curriculum rather than to the history of the 
universities and the grammar schools 

It is important to notice that the develop- 
ment of professional education e g the law- 
yer, the physician, and the clergyman was 
often along the lines of the modern subjects 
and thus by attraction came into the educa- 
tional circle of noblemen's studies much more 
readily than into that of the university man 
as such, the physician's studies, for instance, 
directly affecting the development of botany 
and zoology, winch often were included in the 
nobleman's curricula When England became 
richer after the increase of trade, consequent 
on the expansion of Queen Elizabeth's reign, 
the ranks of country gentlemen increased, and 
open-air pursuits and knowledge similarly 
developed, nobility and gentry joining in com- 
mon studies, so that cultured gentlemen of the 
type of John Evelyn (q v ) arid the members 
of the Royal Society welded together still 
further professional and gentlemanly studies, 
until at last the universities found the pressure 
of inclusion of modern subjects too great to 
resist, if they were not to lose the students 
preparing for professional life 

The importance of the training of the gentle- 
man m history and geography must not be 
overlooked It is not only that all the writers 
on gentlemen's education prescribe these subjects 
as gentlemen's studies, but the writers and de- 
velopers of the subjects were for the most part 
of the gentleman class Both in history and 
in geography, also, it is to be noted that the 
beautiful folios, m which these subjects were 
printed, especially when illustrated with en- 
graved pictures and maps, were expensive pro- 
ductions and could only circulate amongst men 



of means, and of these the nobles and the 
gentry were the chief book buyers, scholars 
contenting themselves mainly with Aldine 
octavos or Elzevir duodecimos, with only occa- 
sional folios, and these chiefly of theology or clas- 
sical writers Suggestions on the youth's studies 
by writers like Francis Osborn in his Advice 
to a Son, 1656, J B (Gent ) in Heroic Educa- 
tion (qv), and William Higford in his Institu- 
tions, 1658, illustrate the permeation of the 
gentry class by that time with a belief in the 
necessity of knowledge in history and geography 

Two other names deserve mention in the 
development of the education of the gentleman, 
one m England and the other in the United 
States- Lord Chesterfield (qv), (1694-1773) 
arid George Washington (1732-1799) In his 
famous Letters to his Son, Lord Chesterfield 
lays down the laws of worldly success for the 
young nobleman or gentleman The youth's 
education was to be summed up briefly as 
good breeding 

Every detail of study, of conduct, of life, was 
calculated in the interests of worldly success 
Samuel Johnson bummanzed the Letters m the 
criticism, " Take out the immorality and the 
book should be put into the hands of every 
young gentleman, for it would teach elegance 
of manners and easiness of behaviour." (See 
CHESTERFIELD, LORD ) 

The Rules of Civility is only a commonplace 
book exercise of George Washington, written 
when he was fourteen or fifteen years of age 
These Rules have been reprinted and edited 
by the late Mr Moncure D Conway, who 
suggests that the reading and writing of them 
probably had effects upon the development and 
character of Washington He shows that the 
Rules copied by Washington were the work of 
a Jesuit, from the College of La Fie" c he, which 
was published in 1595, called Bie usance de la 
Conversation entre Ics Homines This was 
translated into Latin m 1617 by Leonaid 
Pe*rm, and was published in English as Youth's 
Behaviour or Decency in Conversation amongst 
Men, by Francis Hawkins, in 1646, said to 
have been translated by him at the age of 
eight years (See MANNERS AND MORALS, 
EDUCATION IN ) From this book, Dr Conway 
urges that Washington was taught that " all 
good conduct was gentlemanly, all bad conduct 
ill-bred " 

The eighteenth-century training in gentle- 
manly conduct is probably represented some- 
what leniently by the relatively high (!) stand- 
ard of Lord Chesterfield The reaction in the 
earlier part of the nineteenth century is shown 
by the remtroduction of the highest standards 
of gentlemanly training in the English public 
schools The greatest figure of this period was 
Dr. Thomas Arnold (qv) of Rugby. His 
standpoint is represented by his dictum lt It 
is not necessary that Rugby should have three 
hundred pupils, but it is .necessary that it 
should have scholars who are Christian gentlo- 



20 



GEOFFREY THE GRAMMARIAN 



GEOGRAPHY 



men " The English public schools since his 
tune have largely developed physical training 
through games, but whether concerned with 
intellectual aims or with that of the other 
features of school life, there can be no question 
that these schools have been, and are, per- 
meated with the ideals of producing gentle- 
men, in the sense of requiring the code of 
honor of " playing the game," in every activity 
of life In certain respects they have entered 
on the physical side into something of the old 
chivalnc ideals, and occupy the place in Eng- 
lish life to-day which the old Academies of Sir 
Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Francis Kinaston 
proposed to do, but failed to effect, for the 
training of gentlemen, in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries F. W 

See ACADEMIES, COURTLY, CHIVALRIC EDU- 
CATION; MANNERS AND MORALS, EDUCATION 
IN, GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY OF THE TEACHING 
OF, and the articles on the various writers 
mentioned. 

References : - 

OONWAY, M D George Washington's Rules of Civility. 

(London, 1890 ) 
GORDON, G 8 Peacham's Compleat Gentleman. 

(Oxford, 1906) 
HILL, G B Lord Chesterfield's Worldly Wisdom 

(Oxford, 1891 ) 

OpDYrKK, L E The Courtier (Now York, 1903 ) 
RALEIGH, W Sir T Moby's Translation of the Courtier 

(London, 1900) 
WATSON, FOHTFR The English Grammar Schools to 

1000 (Cambridge, 1908) 
Beginnings of the Teaching of Modern Subjects. 

(London, 1909 ) 
WOODWARD, W H Education during the Renaissance. 

(Cambridge, 1906 ) 

GEOFFREY THE GRAMMARIAN (fl 1440). 
An important figure in the age immediately 
before the introduction of printing, not because 
of the scholar! iness of the book associated with 
his name, but because the production of that 
book showed that the tide was turning, that 
the desire for learning was once again awaken- 
ing in England, and that a now educational 
method was necessary About the year 1440 
a friar-preacher anchorite of Lynn in Norfolk, 
called Geoffrey, issued for manuscript circula- 
tion a volume entitled Promptuanuin Parvu- 
lorurn Clericorum It was not the work of a 
scholar in the real meaning of that term It 
was written by one whom the Anglo-Saxon 
Canons would have termed a " half-learned " 
person for the use of the still less learned 
The book was a kind of English-Latin dic- 
tionary in which the English word is inter- 
preted by one or more Latin words whose 
gender or declension, etc , is noted, while parallel 
English meanings are given It is indeed 
curious that a book which did not pretend to 
scholarship should, even when the new learn- 
ing and the new grammars had appeared and 
in the teeth of the condemnation of Erasmus, 
have more than held its own The Promp- 
tuanum was first printed in 1499 by Pynson. 



Julian Notary published an edition in 1508, 
and Wynkyn de Worde issued no less than 
seven editions between 1510 and 1528 The 
book was English-Latin, and for that reason 
was of real help to beginners The use of 
English in a grammar or wordbook was felt 
to supply a fundamental need, and was rapidly 
adopted by the new grammarians Thus John 
Stanbridge, John Holt, William Lily, and 
Robert Whyttington led the new movement 
and adopted the new educational idea evolved 
by the educational necessities of the " half- 
learned " monk Geoffrey In the old gram- 
mars or " donats " the use of English was for- 
bidden in school time It may be said that 
Geoffrey's work inspired all the school books 
of the transition period and created a new 
didactic method J E. G DE M. 

References : 

Dictionary of National Biography 

WAY, A. Promptuarium In Camdon Society's Publi- 
cations, Vols XXV, LIV, and LXXXIX 

GEOGRAPHY History of the Teaching 
of The practical and theoretical knowledge 
of geography extant at any given time consti- 
tutes a clear limit to the possibilities of its 
being taught, but the extreme importance of 
the practical side has insured throughout the 
course of history a greater approximation of 
teaching to the actual knowledge of the age, 
than in many subjects Military arid naval 
commanders found it necessary, and administra- 
tors required to know it both for home and 
foreign affairs The extension of Greek in- 
fluence through the establishment of colonies, 
and by enterprising navigation, made at least 
the Mediterranean Soa well known 

The first to systematize geography as a sub- 
ject was Hccatams of Miletus (fl 520 B c ), 
who thus became the Father of Geography as 
Herodotus was the Father of History Herod- 
otus, however, by his travels was enabled to 
introduce casually, into his histories, much 
geographical information as to continents, 
rivers, mountains, climate, products etc , of 
the countries he had visited, as well as de- 
scriptions of the tribes of foreign countries 
The famous expeditions of Alexander the Great 
opened up knowledge and experience to Egypt 
on the south, the Caspian Sea on the north, arid 
Persia on the east, revealing the " wealth of 
Ormuz and of Ind," and furnishing material 
for the imagination throughout the centuries 
The greatest Greek geographer was Polybius 
(c 210-128 B c ), who traveled in Libya, Spam, 
and Gaul so as to " remove the ignorance " 
with regard to those lands His opinion as to 
Hannibal's route across the Alps was based on 
actual travel and inquiries on the spot He 
asserted that travel is necessary for the historian 
and geographer, and he clearly saw and illus- 
trated in his histories the importance of 
geography, both physical and descriptive, to 



21 



GEOGRAPHY 



GEOGRAPHY 



intelligent study of history The subjugation 
of so large a part of the world by the Romans 
gave particular impetus to the extension and 
intension of geographical knowledge Caesar's 
Commentaries oiier copious illustrations of 
the effect of conquests on geographical obser- 
vation and interest The explorations of 
Posidomus the Greek (130-50 B c ) were of 
great importance in developing the knowledge 
of physical geography But the great work 
of antiquity is the Geography of Strabo (c 
63 B c -c 23 A D ), which not only gives a com- 
plete survey of the geographical knowledge of 
ins times, but also supplies an account of the 
preceding writers on the subject Strabo is 
a truly comprehensive geographer, taking up 
mathematical, physical, descriptive, and his- 
torical aspects He traces the influence of the 
physical features of a country on the character 
of inhabitants and on the course of the history 
of the country 

The other ancient writers on geography who 
require mention aie Pomponms Mela, Pliny, 
Dionysius, and Ptolemy The de Choro- 
graphia of Mela was a popular account of 
geography, and important, not for its contribu- 
tions to learning, so much as from the fact that 
it lemnmed a scholar's textbook of geography up 
till, and even beyond, the sixteenth century. 
Pliny's Ih^tonu naturals (79 A D ) had a section 
on geography, 'but it was very much a statisti- 
cal geography abounding in names, without 
anything of the philosophical outlook of a Strabo 
Dionysms Pencgetes (reign of Domitian) 
wrote a gooRiaphieal poem From the point 
of view of the history of geographical teaching 
this poem of 1189 Greek hexameters has an 
importance altogether incommensurate with 
the commonplace nature of its geographical 
information Claudius Ptolemy, who wrote 
in Greek his famous treatise on geography (c 
150 A D ) probably at Alexandria, ranks as the 
greatest mathematical geographer of antiquity, 
and the ancient view of the solar system as re- 
volving round the earth is known as the 
Ptolemaic system, in contrast with the modern 
view called after Coperrvicus It was as an 
astronomer that Ptolemy showed conspicuous 
ability, and the great vogue of his books secured 
the alliance of astronomy and geography 
through the Middle Ages, and part of the Ren- 
aissance It was not till the times of the 
great discoveries of the sixteenth century that 
geography became differentiated from astron- 
omy, the combined studies being commonly 
known by the name of Cosmography Ptolemy 
made the great change in map drawing by 
introducing the system of projection, recognizing 
the spherical nature of the earth, representing 
lines of latitude by parallel curve*, whereas 
previously they had been denoted by parallel 
lines (See MAPS ) Besides the treatment of 
mathematical geography and of maps, the rest 
oi Ptolemy's Geography contains tables giving 
tho latitude and longitude of the different places 



named in his various maps, and noticing the 
boundaries of countries, etc The rest of the 
work is mainly astronomical 

The most intensive geographer of antiquity 
was Pausamas, a contemporary of Ptolemy, 
and author of an Itinerary of Greece, which 
gives a full account of Greek cities and sacred 
places, and noteworthy points on the routes 
from one to another of these, together with 
the legends and memories connected with 
each C Julius Solmus (third century A D ) 
wrote a section on geography in his Memo/a- 
biha, which had nothing geographically original, 
and but little that is not contained in Pliny, 
whence he was known as the " Ape of Pliny " 
Nevertheless, the writers of the Middle Ages 
who wrote their encyclopedias, such as Isidore 
of Seville (q v ) in his Ongines (seventh century) 
and Brunette Latim (twelfth century) in his 
Tesoro, borrowed directly in their geographical 
section from Solmus In the fifth century 
A D Paulus Orosms m his Histories, a collection 
of annals of universal history, wrote an outline 
of universal geography which was very popular 
with medieval authors and teachers 

The geographical writers of antiquity, Herod- 
otus, Polybms, Strabo, Pomponms Mela, Pliny, 
Dionysms, Ptolemy, Pausamas, all of whom 
wrote in Greek, were lost to the Middle Ages 
During the Renaissance period, and none 
the less because they wrote rn Greek, they were 
restored to general knowledge, and with their 
renewed study ancient geography became a 
matter of serious study m the schools, both in 
the Latin translations and m the Greek origi- 
nal, ancient geography thus found a place in 
schools long before modern geography 

In the Middle Ages the development of 
geographical knowledge progressed slowly Its 
progress m the period up to the first crusade 
of 1096 is chiefly connected in the earlier part 
of the period with the religious cosmographies 
or geographies, and m the latter part with the 
explorations, discoveries, and conquests of the 
Scandinavians In the earlier period, as far 
as Christian countries are concerned, the cause 
of geography was bound up with the pilgrim- 
travelers, the convent maps, and the religious 
impulses which suggested the conversion of 
the heathen The gain to exact knowledge was 
not great; the chief result was the development 
of geographical myth. The introduction of 
the Scandinavian element into European 
countries brought a vigor and enterprise, 
which communicated themselves in every 
direction, leading both to geographical dis- 
coveries as far as America and the Northern 
seas, and to a rereading and more direct knowl- 
edge of that which had already been noted 
The work of Arabs in geography, reaching its 
height in the ninth century, included transla- 
tions of the old Greek geographers, astronomi- 
cal calculations, and even o.bservatory work 
Arab explorers traversed much of Southern 
and Central Asia. Northern Africa, and the 



22 



GEOGRAPHY 



GEOGRAPHY 



Mediterranean Sea coasts From these ex- 
periences, with the wonder element thrown in, 
arose literature such as that of Smbad the 
Sailor Chinese geographical enterprise also 
was noteworthy The Crusades led to all kinds 
of commercial, diplomatic, missionary, as well 
as pilgrim, travel, from which an immense 
acquisition resulted to geographical knowl- 
edge and tradition Commerce between East 
and West Europe, between Mediterranean 
countries and northern countries, developed 
into a secular organization of merchandise, 
which produced an unecclesiastical and more 
scientific geography Asia was explored by 
men like the merchant Marco Polo arid Friar 
Odoric in the thirteenth century, and in the 
fourteenth century the Catalan Atlas (1375) 
attained a highly creditable form of thorough- 
ness, and from that time the production of 
more exact maps marked the possibility of the 
transition of geography into an exact science 
Civilized Europe m the fourteenth century had 
discovered the use of compass, astrolabe, time- 
piece, as well as maps The art of navigation 
went forward by leaps and bounds Oversea 
adventure vied with overland enterprise until 
in the first quarter of the fifteenth century 
Prince Henry of Portugal promoted geographi- 
cal journeys, and opened up the era of Portu- 
guese enterprise which culminated in 1486- 
1499 in the voyage round the Cape of Good 
Hope to Calicut by Diaz and Da Gama, and 
the discovery by Columbus of America In 
1511 Portuguese navigators had reached by the 
Eastern route the Molucca Islands, and in 1519 
Magellan attempted the journey to them by the 
Western route Sir Francis Drake circum- 
navigated the globe in 1577-1580, and Vitus 
Behrmg discovered the strait which separates 
America and Asia Thus by the end of the 
sixteenth century, the mam features of the 
Earth had been described, the continents had 
had their contours defined in maps; travels 
and discovery had made known country after 
country, people after people, and geography 
had come to its own, by practical experience 
Much remained, of course, to be done in the way 
of filling up, particularly in the seventeenth 
century, but by the end of the fifteenth century 
and in the sixteenth century geography had 
reached the stage of self-consciousness Ex- 
ploration had provided itself with instru- 
ments and methods, so that by that time 
geography may be said to have become a science 
in the sense that earth knowledge became an 
established subject of study by deliberate 
methods, and the ascertained knowledge thence 
derived became available for dissemination, 
and brought the subject into the pedagogic 
survey, at any rate, for those who were at- 
tracted to the study of the advance of civiliza- 
tion. In England, from the time of Drake 
onwards, there was always a school of navi- 
gation in training, where students made geog- 
raphy in some form or other the study of their 



lives, and there was from the time of the col- 
lection of travels of Ramusio in 1550, of Hak- 
luyt, 1598-1600, and Purchas's Pilgrims, 1613- 
1625, a solid body of writers and readers of 
travels 

Though the development of geographical 
knowledge had steadily advanced throughout 
the Middle Ages, the literature of the subject 
is almost a negligible quantity It was in- 
extricably mixed up with biblical, classical, and 
legendary material Only one book stands out 
as important, viz , Marco Polo's Book (oncern- 
ing the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East 

In the early Renaissance period those work^ 
only could be regarded as literature which be 
longed to Roman and Greek antiquity In school 
teaching, throughout the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, the study of ancient geography 
certainly almost entirely absorbed the attention 
of the teachers, as far as this subject was con- 
cerned For the most part, the teachers con- 
fined themselves to the texts of ancient 
geographers, particularly Pomponius Mela, 
Ptolemy, and Dionysius Penegetes, and the 
astronomical work of Proclus Of the ancient 
geography textbooks, a printed copy of Pom- 
ponius Mela was sold in England as early as 
1520 In 1585 Arthur Goldmg translated 
Pomponius Mela into English, and did the same 
service for the Polyhistor of Solmus Of Dionv- 
sius theie was an English translation in 1572 
by Thomas Twyne A Greek text of Dionv- 
sms was published at P]ton c 1607 In 165S 
a most elaborate edition of Dionysius was fur- 
nished ad u^um tyronum with Greek text and 
Latin translation and a most voluminous com- 
mentary, by William Hill, MA, of Morton 
College, Oxford, and afterwards schoolmaster 
at Dublin Philemon Holland's translation 
of Pliny's Ihstoria naturahs was published in 
1601, the second edition in 1634, and this \vas 
recommended for school libraries by Hoole in 
1660 A comparative study of various text- 
books and authorities enabled Cluvenus in 
1624 to produce a geography of ancient Italy, 
which Hallam describes as " the great repertory 
of classical illustration m this subject " The 
only other contemporary author's classical 
geography that needs mention is Ferrari us' 
Lexicon Geographic 'urn, Poeticum, et Historic urn t 
an edition of which was published in London 
in 1657 But there were, even at this period, 
men of larger vision in geographical study 
In 1511 Erasmus (q.v ) advocated the study 
on account of its value in reading history and 
the poets The school-teachers, however, sup- 
ported Erasmus in the view that the chief im- 
portance of geography was to illustrate and 
elucidate classical writers and to provide copious- 
ness of phrase in the descriptions introduced 
into themes and exercises in Latin and Greek 
writing In 1523 Vives (</ v ) recommended 
the pupil to read Strabo and Ptolemy, though 
in reading the latter the lately introduced and 
more exact maps were to be preferred Vives 



GEOGRAPHY 

however, further wishes the pupil to add the 
" ancient discoveries " in the East and West 
" from the navigation of our people " (the 
Spanish) and the collections of travels of Peter 
Martyr and of Raphael of Volterra, HO that he 
may be regarded as the first advocate of the 
teaching of modern geography In 1531 Sir 
Thomas Elyot (</ v ) m the Govertwur, requires 
the pupil to be taught geography, to prepare 
him for understanding histories He is an 
enthusiastic believer in the value of pictures, 
plans, and maps, and insists that cosmography 
is a necessary study for " all noble men " In 
1560 Laurence Humphrey (q v ) m the Nobles, 
speaks of geography as a study that brings 
" great delight and profit " In 1622 Henry 
Peacham (q v ) in his Cow pleat Gentleman rec- 
ommends cosmography as a " science at once 
feeding both the eye and mind with such in- 
credible variety and profitable pleasure, that 
even the greatest kings and philosophers have 
bestowed the best part of their time in the con- 
templation thereof at home " (See GENTRY 
\ND NOBLES, EDUCATION OF) In the same 
year Robert Burton (qv), in his Anatomy ^ of 
*Melancholy, speaks of the pleasure in studying 
geographical maps and praises those of Ortelms, 
Mercator, Hondius His bibliographical list of 
geographical books includes books of cities by 
Braunus and Hogenbergms, descriptive works 
by Maginus, Muster, Hen-era, Laet. Mcrula, 
Boterus, Leander, Albertus, Camden, Leo Afer, 
Adrieomius, NIC Gerbelius, etc ; the famous 
expeditions of Christopher Columbus, Amerigo 
Vespucci, Marcus Polus, the Venetian, Lod. 
Vertomannus, Aloysms Cadamustus, etc He 
goes on to enumerate the accurate diaries of 
Portugals, Hollanders, of Bartison, Oliver a 
Nort, etc ; Hakluyt's Voyages, Peter Martyr's 
Decades, Benzo, Lenus, Lmschoten's Relations, 
those Hodccpoiicon* of Jod t\ Meggen, Bro- 
card the Monk, Bredenbachius, Jo Dubhmus, 
Sandys, etc , to Jerusalem, Egypt, and other 
remote places of the world Then he names 
the Itineraries of Paul us Hentzner, Jodocus 
Smcerus, Dux Polonus, etc; with the read- 
ing of Bellomus, Observations, P (iilliuV Surveys. 
He then refers to " those parts of America set 
out, and curiously cut in pictures by Fratres 
a Bey " Such a 'list as that of Burton shows 
the vast development of geographical literature 
by 1022, one hundred and thirty years after 
the discovery of America Among other prom- 
inent advocates of the teaching of geography 
in schools weie Comenms (qv) in the Great 
Didactic, Milton (q v ) in the Tiactate, and 
Locke in Thoughts concerning Education 

The development of geographical theory 
might be illustrated by a comparison of the 
first modern geography in England, viz the 
Cosmographical G1assc,*\55Q, a very creditable 
first production, and the Geography of Nathaniel 
Carpenter (qr), fellow of Exeter College, 
Oxford, in 1625 In the latter work we have 
a comprehensive volume of mathematical geog- 



GEOGRAPHY 

raphy in the first part, while in the second part 
the connections of geography arc carefully 
traced in other realms of inquiry, and the idea 
of " human " geography is almost as clearly 
grasped as in a present-day treatise. 

Peter Heylyn had published in 1621 his 
Microcosmus, or a Little Description of the 
Great World After spending over thirty years 
of further work, he produced in 1652 his Con- 
mographie, containing the Chorography and 
History of the whole World and all the principal 
Kingdom*,, Provinces, Seas and Ides thereof. 
This is a thick folio, with 1100 well printed, 
matterful pages, a handsome volume full of 
history and geography for all the known parts 
of the world It takes up almost every phase 
of geography, in profuse detail It appeals 
to those who wish to read the Holy Scriptures 
by its sacred geography, to astronomers, to 
physicians (who may learn from geography 
the different tempers of men's bodies according 
to the climes they live in), to statesmen, to 
merchants, mariners, and soldiers Cosmog- 
raphy, with Heylyn, includes natural and civil 
history, descriptive geography, and mathemat- 
ical geography The frequency of reprints 
of this huge and costly folio, well supplied with 
maps and illustrations, shows the vogue of the 
subject, especially when we bear in mind the 
costliness of production and the leisure re- 
quired for reading it It is a gentleman' s book, 
geography was particularly a gentleman's 
study, and the reprints of Heylyn in 1657, 1662, 
1666, 1670, 1674?, 1677, 1682, 1703, are an 
indication of the enormous development of the 
class of " gentlemen " in Tudor and Stuart times 
Returning to the advocates of the teaching 
of geography, J A Comemus in his Great 
Didactic, written about 1631, includes in the 
curriculum of the vernacular school " the mosl 
important facts m cosmography, such as the 
spherical shape of the heavens, the globulin 
shape of the* earth suspended in their midst, 
the tides of the ocean, the shapes of seas, the 
courses of rivers, the principal divisions of the 
earth, and the chief kingdoms of Europe, 
but in particular, the cities, mountains, rivers, 
and other remarkable features of their own 
country" s ^ j . 

Sir William Petty (q v ) in 1647 suggested 
that in the equipment of his Gymnasium 
mechamc'um there should be the fairest 
globes and geographical maps, " and he wished 
the institution to be an epitome and abstract 
of the whole world " In 1649 George Snell in 
his Right Teaching of Useful Knowledge 
directed that the pupils in the English School 
should study the " excellent art of cosmography/' 
and " delightful use of topography " and in 
1650, John Dury (q v ) in his Reformed School, 
suggested that an outline of geography ought 
to be taught in schools In 1660, in the New 
Discovery of the old Art of Teaching School*, 
Charles 'Hoole suggested that " in the upper- 
most story of the school there should be o fai, 
24 



GEOGRAPHY 



GEOGRAPHY 



pleasant gall or y wherein to bang maps and sot 
globes, and to Jay up such varieties as can be 
gotten in presses or diawors, that the scholars 
may know them " 

Of actual geography teaching in academic 
institutions in England the first record naturally 
enough is that of Richard Hakluyt (q.v ) who 
claimed that he was " the first to show the new 
lately leformed maps, globes, spheres, and other 
instruments of this art for demonstration in 
the common schools " It must be observed, 
however, that though Hakluyt claims to be 
the first teacher of modern geography in Eng- 
land, yet in the ordinances of Shrewsbury 
School, drawn up in 1571 by the bailiffs of the 
town, provision is made that " from the stock 
remnant there should be provided a library 
and gallerv furnished with all manner of books, 
mappes, spheres, instruments of astronomy, and 
other things appertaynmg to learning," and 
in 1596 the school had obtained " Mullinax 
his territonal globe in a frame with a standing 
base covered with greenish buckram " In 
1597 the statutes of Blackburn giammar 
school state explicitly that " the principles of 
arithmetic, geometry, and cosmography, with 
some introduction 'into the spheres are prof- 
itable " In Laud's transcript of the studies 
of Westminster School 1621-1628 in the IVth 
and Vllth Forms: " After supper (in summer 
time) they were called to the Master Chamber 
(specially those of the Vllth Form) and there 
instructed out of Hunter's \i e Honter's] 
Coxniograpfne and piactised to describe and 
find out cities and countries in the mappes " 
This was the Cosmographie (in Latin) of John 
Honter, which contained textbook, atlas, and 
index Instruction was probably given at 
Winchester College in geography, for in the 
Bursar's book for 1656-1657 is the item 
1 176 for a Mappa Mundi It is probable 
that in all these cases the systematic geography 
taught was that of ancient (Greece and Italy, 
as illustrative and elucidatory of the classical 
authors, and for composition writing in Latin 
prose and verse 

It is not improbable that some schoolmasters 
outside of the systematic curriculum may have 
been interested in and taught geography, as, 
for instance, John Langley (qv\ head master 
of St Paul's School, who is described as a 
"historian cosmographer and antiquary", 
William Camdcn (qv), whose topographical 
knowledge of England was unique, head 
master of Westminster School, Thomas P'ar- 
naby (q.v.), master of the largest private school 
m England in the first half of the seventeenth 
century, who had in 1595 accompanied Sir 
Francis Drake on his last voyage 

Outside the schools, Hakluyt has already been 
mentioned at Oxford In 1654 John Webster 
(Examination of Academies) says that in the 
universities geography, hydrography, chorog- 
raphy, and topography were usually taught, 
and he names the textbook used as that of 



25 



Nathaniel CMipontei, but this was piobably 
the mathematical purl, i at hoi astronomical 
than geographical The projootois of acade- 
mies, Sir Huinphioy Gilbert (q v ), in 1572. 
Sir Francis Kmaston (q v ), m 1635, and Sn 
Balthasar Gerbicr (q v ), m 1648, all included 
cosmography as part of the proposed curric- 
ulum 

With the groat advance* of maiitimo dis- 
coveries and with the constant emigrations-, to 
Now Knglaml, a groat naval service arose, 
and the preparation of youths in so much of 
geography as pertains to navigation became 
necessary Boys wore appi enticed in large 
numbers to soa captains, serving ospociallv 
in the Indian navy In 1673 the Mathemati- 
cal School m Christ's Hospital was founded 
with a view to preparing boys diroctlv for 
soa service, in such subjects as mathematics, 
navigation, etc According to the King's 
ordinance the Governors wore to fuimsh the 
necessary " Books, Globes, Mappos, and other 
Mathematical instruments " At sixteen vean- 
of ago OT before, if the master of Tiimty House 
saw fit, the boys wore to be bound apprentice 
for seven yoais to the captain of some ship in the 
royal or merchant service In 1681 the navi- 
gation class book was issued It was written 
mainly by Sir Jonas Moore, assisted by the 
famous Flamstood and II alley It was on- 
titled A New Kystcme of the Mathematics 
arid contained sections on mathematical sub- 
jects, as well as cosmography, navigation, the 
doctrine of the sphere, astronomical tables, and 
geography The latter is described as a " de- 
scription of the most eminent countries and 
coasts of the world, with maps of them and 
tables of their latitude and longitude " The 
geography thus was prevailingly mathemat- 
ical, and it is interesting to note that one of the 
Governors ol the School, and a member of the 
Committee at the Visitation of 1697 was Sir 
Isaac Newton Many public, schools arose 
thioughout the countiy in imitation of the 
Mathematical School of Christ's Hospital and 
not a few pnvate schools, where navigation 
received special attention 

In 1674 Joseph Moxon, hydrographor to the 
King, published the third edition of his Tutoi 
to Agronomy and (leogiaphy, dedicated to 
Samuel Popys, " not as what you need 
but what may prove an ease to your memory " 
Though the official hydrogiapher, Moxon in- 
troduces a section on astrological problems 
The geographical section is certainly mathe- 
matical 

Geography was taught, curiously enough, 
by foreign language masters Thus Guy Mi6ge 
(qv) in 1678 describes himself as professor 
of the French language and of geography He 
speaks of geography as a subject becoming a 
young gentleman, and says he doubts not the 
subject " will take root amongst the nobility 
and gentry of England as it hath in other na- 
tions; especially since the war began" and he 



GEOGRAPHY 



GEOGRAPHY 



offers to teach geography either in French or 
m English In 1682 he wrote a New Cof>- 
wogiaphi/ ot fiuivey of the Whole Woild Simi- 
larly in 1769, M Jacques do Lavaud was a 
teacher of languages and of geography It 
seems likely, therefore, that, both French and 
geography received stimulus in their teaching 
from the Huguenot influence in England 

In the eighteenth century the development 
of the chronometer introduced more exacti- 
tude - - in the fixing of the position of distant 
places. Surveys of coast lines and interiors 
become more exact, and measurements of the 
earth more reliable 

In 1729, the Fishmongers' Company m Lon- 
don presented their grammar school at Holt, 
in Norfolk, with " a valuable and useful library, 
not only of the best editions of the Classics and 
Lexicographers, but also with some books of 
Antiquities, Chronology, and Geography, to- 
gether with a suitable pair of globes " 

In the century which intervened between 
Locke and Vi cesiums Knox (q v ) geography m 
England received attention practically as well 
as theoretically Thus was particularly the 
case in private schools rather than in the public 
schools of England Thus John Randall, who 
conducted a school at Heath, near Wakefield, 
in 1744, and afterwards removed to a school 
at York in 1765, wrote a " system " of geog- 
raphy, a comprehensive dissertation on the 
creation and various phenomena of " the terra- 
queous globe," as it consists of " subterraneous 
waters, mountains, valleys, plains, and rivers," 
with an hypothesis concerning their causes. 
It further contains a description of all the 
empires, kingdoms, etc , of the world, drawn 
from ancient and modern history, and some 
of the most celebrated voyages arid travels 
Statistics are comprehensively given of the 
" present state " of the various countries and 
full details offered as to climate, government, 
laws, policy, trade, revenues, forces, curiosities, 
population, character, religion, customs, cere- 
monies In 1753 another private schoolmaster, 
J Burgh, recommends in the study of geog- 
raphy the following textbooks: Randall's 
System of Geography; Harris On the Use of the 
Globe, the Geographical Dictionary; Anson's 
Voyages, and Salmon's Geographical Gram- 
mar. Of tins list, Harris's Geography was the 
book of longest and widest vogue on the subject 
The second edition is dated 1712 It proceeds 
by question and answer, and it is the first 
school textbook (apparently) of purely de- 
scriptive geography, and distinctly an interest- 
ing and helpful book for the learner In 1746 
was published the third edition of an Intro- 
duction to Geography on the same lines as that 
of Harris, written by J Cowley, " geographer 
to his Majesty," a work which is apparently 
the first general modern geography explicitly 
stated to be " designed for the use of schools." 
These textbooks of Harris, Cowley, and Ran- 
dall are more modern in scope and outlook 



than the later Guides to the Vxc of the Globes, 
the series beginning with that of Daniel Fen- 
mng in 1760, and continuing to the more matter- 
ful and interesting Exerci8cs on the Globe of 
William Butler in 1814, designed " for the use 
of young ladies " At the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, the use of the globe was 
an acknowledged part of the curriculum of all 
the private schools and academies for young 
gentlemen and young ladies, although the 
teaching was mainly informational, and had 
little mental discipline in it 

Two points especially should be noted in 
tracing the history of geography teaching 
First, its development has taken place outside 
of the recognized public schools system, chiefly 
m private schools Second, arising m the 
mixed subject of cosmography it has become 
differentiated as earth knowledge, and its 
original partner, astronomy, in the portions 
which have especial reference to our earth, 
curiously enough, and not altogether advan- 
tageously, has been ousted from the study, 
even in outline, of the great masses of (at any 
rate) British children In the teaching of 
geography itself, however, within the last dec- 
ade modern aims and methods have improved 
almost more remarkably perhaps than m any 
single subject in England F. W. 

Academic Status Germany Geography 
as a university subject has long had a prominent 
place in Germany A long list of eminent names 
attests to the high position of this science in a 
nation noted for its scientific achievement 
Humboldt, Ritter, Ratzel, and Richtofen stand 
out prominently among the great geographers 
that the world has produced, and m the Gor- 
man universities of to-day are included some 
of the leading geographers of the present time 
Geography is a recognized and essential part 
of the university curriculum, and provision is 
usually made for the presentation of various 
phases of the subject by two or more specialists 
in different parts of the geographic field 

The prominence attained by geography in 
Germany is the result of a variety of causes, 
among which is undoubtedly the strong in- 
fluence of a few powerlul men, early m the field, 
working in a country where centralized au- 
thority has had a voice in university develop- 
ment Doubtless also it is partly due to that 
keen, clear-sighted recognition of the value of 
science, m all its phases, which has placed 
Germany in the front rank in science and has 
been one of the chief underlying causes for the 
wonderful industrial development of that 
country The scientific spirit, so noticeable 
throughout the German nation, has encouraged 
geographical research, thus providing teachers; 
and where there are inspiring teachers arid 
leaders in research, there are certain to come 
students to listen and to investigate. There 
are certainly two other prominent factors which 
help to explain the importance of geography 
in the universities of that country. One of these 



26 



GEOGRAPHY 



GEOGRAPHY 



is the broad intellectual interest of the normal, 
educated German; the other is the nature of the 
educational system Under more or less com- 
plete centralized authority a curriculum below 
the university has been developed in which 
systematic study of scientific geography has 
a definite and prominent place And since 
the German teacher must know the subject 
he professes to teach, provision is made in the 
universities to meet the demand Further, 
the breadth of culture among educated Ger- 
mans is such that it is fully recognized by them 
that geography is a basal science, an under- 
standing of which is essential to correct inter- 
pretation of much of human history and de- 
velopment, and that it is also basal to an 
appreciation of the distribution of animals and 
plants and to the industries that depend upon 
them and upon other products of the earth 
Thus it happens that many German students, 
whose mam interest is in other lines, seek a 
knowledge of scientific geography such as the 
German university professor can give 

Partly as a result of German influence, 
geography has now a high place in other con- 
tinental nations, and what has been said with 
regard to geography in Germany applies to a 
greater or less degree to Holland, Switzerland, 
Austria-Hungary, and France But in Europe 
it is almost warranted to state that the im- 
portance of geography as a university subject 
diminishes progressively with the increase in 
distance from Germany 

England It is a curious fact that in the one 
nation where the strongest reason for geo- 
graphic interest would seem to be present 
the British university geography is almost 
at its lowest ebb Only within a very few years 
has any provision whatsoever been made for 
geography in the great British universities, 
and then merely in a sort of experimental way 
in the form of lectureships and readerships, 
urged and partly supported by geographical 
societies 

No attempt will be made to consider the 
question whether the striking contrast between 
Great Britain and Germany m this respect is 
in any way ascribablc to a difference in scien- 
tific spirit or broad scientific culture There 
are other more evident and more easily demon- 
strable causes One of these is the fact that 
there is no such centralized educational system 
below the university; and in the schools 
geography has no such rank as in Germany 
There is, therefore, no such demand for teachers 
with a university training in geography A 
second reason is that the British geologist has 
taken into his own field some of the best of 
scientific geography Therefore some of the 
most important geographic work published in 
Great Britain is from the pens of geologists, 
and is produced as a kind of geological by- 
product A third reason for the position of 
geography in Great Britain, perhaps the result 
of its world-wide colonial interests, is the fact 



27 



that geography there has come to be corsjdered 
as almost synonymous with exploration A 
journey to the Arctic or the Antarctic, a trip 
across Africa, or an exploration of New Guinea 
is ranked as more geographical (if we may 
judge by honors conferred) than an interpreta- 
tion of a land form, or a scientific study of the 
geographical relationships of a known aiea 
Geographical publications abound in interest- 
ing descriptions of remote regions, little known 
people, itineraries of journeys, and associated 
incidents, accidents, arid adventures Suth ex- 
ploratory work while doubtless important, as 
the accounts certainly are interesting and enter- 
taining, rarely merits the characterization 
scientific, and is not uncommonly even dis- 
tinctly unscientific There is certainly little 
basis for a subject of this sort to claim a place 
in the university, and it is by no means im- 
probable that the reputation gained by geog- 
raphy as an essential synonym of exploration 
is one of the strong reasons why geography has 
so tardily won a place in the British univer- 
sities 

Lest this characterization of geography in 
Great Britain be misunderstood, it may be 
well to add that there have been scientific 
geographers of the very first rank Such names 
as Lyell, Wallace, and Geikie rank with the 
world leaders in scientific geography , but they 
are not, as in Germany, university teachers 
The beginning that has been made, notably in 
the Oxford and Cambridge Schools of Geog- 
raphy, has been admirable and is promising for 
the future, while the newer universities have 
also made provision for the higher study of the 
subject in connection with economies and com- 
mercial courses 

United State* In America the recognition 
of geographv in the university has been almost 
as tardy as m England, and for similar reasons 
There have been cases where professors of his- 
tory or of political science, usuallv \\ith a 
German university experience, have given 
brief courses in historical or political or com- 
mercial geography to furnish a pait of the 
geographic basis needed by then students 
There have been a few cases \\heie chairs of 
geography were established a generation or 
more ago, but these instances have been 
sporadic and have represented no well defined 
movement toward university recognition of 
geography 

Perhaps the nearest approach to early recog- 
nition of this subject in the university curric- 
ulum in the German way was when Guyot 
(q v ) was given a chair m Princeton Agassiz 
(q v ) found the American field a virgin one 
for the introduction of scientific natural his- 
tory from its European environment, and uith 
his genius, personality, and boundless enthu- 
siasm he laid a foundation upon which the 
growth of natuial history subjects in the 
American university became assured Seem- 
ingly equal opportunity existed m the field of 



GEOGRAPHY 



GEOGRAPHY 



geography, and to it Guyot came at Agassiz* 
suggestion and in 1854 became professor of 
geography at Princeton, a position which he 
held until his death thirty years later Guyot 
did valuable and important work, but appar- 
ently conditions in America were not favorable 
to vigorous spread of scientific geography; 
there arose no effective Guyot School and 
geography in the American university had 
about the same position at the end of his 
teaching as at the beginning 

In the meantime, the study of geology (q.v.) 
spread rapidly, and provision is now made for 
it in every college, while the larger universi- 
ties have from three to five professors for the 
subject This high rank of geology is ap- 
parently due in part to the recognized scien- 
tific character of geologic study, and in part 
to the presence of a demand for men with 
geological training Geography, on the other 
hand, has had in America, as in Great Britain, 
to bear the reputation of being non-scientific, 
or, at best, little more than a descriptive 
science At the same time some of the most 
thoroughly scientific phases of geography have 
been annexed by sister subjects, notably by 
geology As a result of the confusion thus 
arising, there has even been a tendency to 
question whether there is a science of geog- 
raphy, some holding that ail that is really 
scientific in it lies within the province of estab- 
lished subjects, such as geology, zoology, 
botany, ethnology, history, economics, etc It 
is sufficient answer to such a claim to point 
to the scientific results of continental geo- 
graphic research, and to the contrast in out- 
put on such topics between Germany and Eng- 
land or America, where geography is not so 
organized as a science. 

As in Great Britain, so in America, there 
has recently come about a change in the 
status of geography in the university; but the 
nature and underlying causes of the change 
have been quite different in the two countries. 
In Great Britain geography has gone into the 
university as a result of outside pressure; in 
the United States it has evolved within the 
university, primarily as a result of the dis- 
covery that much that had previously mas- 
queraded under the term "geology" was really 
geography, or needed only moderate change to 
enrich it with the true geographic flavor. 
Naturally this geography, of geological parent- 
age, is dommantly physical geography or 
physiography That it should have made for 
itself a place in American universities as an 
offshoot of geological teaching is natural when 
it is remembered that some of the most sig- 
nificant basal principles of the evolution oi 
land forms have been discovered by American 
geologists as a by-product of their geological 
work, notably by Gilbert and Powell. 

To Davis of Harvard, more than to any 
other one person, is to be credited the evolu- 
tion of the geographic phase out of the geologic 



teaching, and its segregation into a more or 
less definite branch of science teaching in the 
American university Other teachers were, 
and still arc, teaching geography as geology, 
and some have definitely recognized the fact, 
for instance Shaler of Harvard, who in a 
large part of his broad scientific interest was a 
real geographer, though he ranked in the uni- 
versity as professor of geology Having intro- 
duced the geographic viewpoint into his teach- 
ing as a member of the Harvard Geological 
Department, and working in the midst of the 
inspiring influence of his geographic colleague 
Shaler, Davis has developed an American 
school of physical geography whose influence 
has spread throughout the whole field of 
American education A generation of physiog- 
raphers has been reared by the genius and 
tireless energy of Davis, and, as m the case of 
Agassiz in natural history, the extent of the 
influence of the master has been broadened by 
the work of his pupils and by others less 
recognizably under his direct influence 

But this peculiar manner in which geog- 
raphy has found a place in the American uni- 
versity has resulted in its occupying a rather 
anomalous and somewhat narrow position in 
the curriculum Ordinarily geography is 
merely a part of the course offered by the 
geological department, and the teacher of it 
may rank as professor of geology, as in fact is 
the case with Professor Davis himself, who is 
not professor of geography m Harvard, but 
Sturgis Hooper Professor of Geology In 
some of the better universities and colleges no 
provision whatsoever is made for any geog- 
raphy excepting such elementary instruction m 
physical geography as a professor of geology 
can give m addition to his purely geological 
teaching In such cases there is little basis 
or opportunity for geographic research A 
still larger number of the leading universities 
have one or more men who give their entire 
attention to geographic subjects m teaching 
and research; and a few make special pro- 
vision for other phases of geography than 
physical geography Yet, with but few excep- 
tions, this geographic work is offered m the 
geological department, or m the department 
of " geology and geography " In a very few 
cases geography stands as an independent 
department coordinate with geology, from 
which it has in most instances been recently 
divorced. 

The evolution of geographic instruction in 
the American university, in the main on the 
basis of previous university recognition of 
geology, has been extraordinarily rapid m the 
last ten or fifteen years, during which most of 
it has taken place. Whether similar develop- 
ment will continue for another decade cannot 
be told; but it is clearly evident that geog- 
raphy has at last gamed a position m the 
American university curriculum from which 
there can be no recession. Three or four of 



28 



GEOGRAPHY 



GEOGRAPHY 



the largcM- universities have set an example of 
broad policy, recognizing geography fully and 
providing for the touching of a number of its 
important phases, as in Germany Others, 
also among the leading universities, have 
scarcely taken the first step, but it is to be 
confidently expected that these laggards will 
not long remain so far behind. The example 
so long ago set by Germany, and now fully 
adopted by a few of the more progressive 
American universities, may fairly be considered 
the goal toward which the best of our univer- 
sities will tend 

It is to be noted, however, that scientific 
geography in the American university is at a 
disadvantage as compared to its position in 
Germany It is not to be expected that uni- 
versity trustees will provide teachers in sub- 
jects not demanded by students, nor can they 
properly make much further provision for the 
expansion of elementary instruction To the 
German university there come students with 
previous good training in geography, much of 
it on a par with some of our elementary uni- 
versity geography There is also a body of 
earnest students who in their desire to master 
special subjects correspond more nearly with 
our small group of graduate students than 
with our overwhelming numbers of under- 
graduates These students are not content 
with mere elementary work, even though their 
main interest lies in history or in botany. 
The point to be noted here is that the teacher 
of geography in the American university may 
be obliged to justify his appointment more in 
elementary courses than in advanced study, 
and an examination of some of the courses 
offered seems to indicate that this is the real 
condition If so, we may not hope for the 
great scientific result in America that recog- 
nition of geography in the university has 
brought in Germany 

Finally, there is the difference in the utili- 
tarian influence in Germany and in the United 
States There a demand exists for men and 
women trained in geography before they are 
allowed to teach geography. Here pedagogy 
is not commonly placed ahead of knowledge 
The principle that " a person can teach any- 
thing if only he is a natural teacher " finds far 
less encouragement in Germany than in 
America Only in our larger cities, and in not 
all of these, is knowledge ranked with peda- 
gogical power Moreover, almost equally with 
England, geography as a school subject is neg- 
lected in the United States. A student in his 
most immature period has a few years of 
geography study, then comes an intermission, 
then perhaps a course in physical geography or 
commercial geography, or possibly no geog- 
raphy at all The high school geography may 
be given to almost any one, very likely to the 
least burdened teacher, possibly of drawing, or 
Latin, or English For those who plan to be 
teachers there is little need of studying uni- 



versity geography This contiasts strikingly 
with Genminy, \\heie then 4 is a well devisou 
course of geography in the schools, and where 
a geography teacher is supposed to know 
geography 

The condition in America undoubtedly has 
had, and still has, a very important influence 
in retarding the development of geography 
teaching in our universities It will continue 
to be a disadvantage as compared with the 
conditions in Germany, but there is another 
phase which is hopeful With the develop- 
ment of geographv in the university curriculum 
there will doubtless spread an influence down 
through the grades as a result of which the 
teaching of the subject will be both extended 
and improved Perhaps one of the greatest 
reasons for the weakness of our school geog- 
raphy is the fact that the subject has not 
hitherto found adequate recognition in the 
American university R S T. 

University Courses In Germany the offer- 
ings in geography vary with each semester For 
example, there were in the winter semester ot 
1910-1911 seven courses at Berlin, one at Halle 
(on Arabian geographies), one at Heidelberg, 
five at Leipzig 

In the English universities the ad\ance in 
the study of geography has been due in the 
main to the development of commercial 
courses in the newer institutions At Oxford 
a School of Geography was established in 1S99 
with the aid of the Royal Geographical Society, 
and has a faculty consisting of the University 
Professor in Geography, an assistant, and lec- 
turers in ancient geography, and the history 
of geography, an instructor in surveying, and 
a demonstrator in geography Diplomas and 
certificates are awarded in the subject At 
Cambridge a Board of Geographical Studies, 
working in conjunction with the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, exists to promote geo- 
graphical research and study and to ai range 
courses There are a University Reader and 
lecturers in geography The subject may be 
offered for the ordinary B A degree, the 
examination covering physical, historical and 
political, economic and commercial geographv, 
cartography, history of discovery, and elements 
of ethnology Diplomas are also awarded by 
the Board of (Geographical Studies At the 
University of Manchester courses an* given in 
the faculty of arts by the lecturer in geograph> 
111 the scope and meaning of geography, in 
geography of a special area, political and 
economic geography, and a practical course 
and a seminar are conducted, while physical 
geography is given in the faculty of science 
together with geology At the University of 
Liverpool courses are given by two lecturers 
in classical geography, general principles, phys- 
iography, commercial, historical, and regional 
geography 

The development of the subject in America 
has already been dealt with Here few 



29 



GEOGRAPHY 



GEOGRAPHY 



courses and number of instructors in the sub- 
ject will be given from a few representative 
universities. 

Harvard Professor, assistant professor, and an assistant 
For undergraduates Physical Geography lectures, labora- 
tory work, and hold excursions For graduates arid undei- 
graduates Physiography of the United States, Geographic 
Influences in North America , Physiography of Europe , Geo- 
morphology , Geography of South America , and (for graduates 
primarily) a research course in Physiography 

Yale Professor and two assistant professors Undergrad- 
uates Physical and Commercial Geography followed by 
environmental influences on man's activities, Anthropography , 
Physiography Graduates Physical Geography, Geography 
of North America, South America, and Asia 

University of California Three assistant professors and 
one instructor Lower Division General physical geography , 
Introduction to Kconomie geography , the materials of com- 
merce , Introductory geography , Physiography of the lands , 
Topography maps arid models , Relief modeling , Elementary 
meteorology, Geography of Spanish America, Historical 
geography (two courses) Upper Division Historical geog- 
raphy of Modern Europe, Economic geography of the United 
States, General climatology, Oceanography, California map , 
Geography of North America , Geographical influences in the 
Western United States, Climatology of the Pacific Coast, 
Glacial geography, Geography of California, Geography of 
Africa Graduate Courses Physiography of the Pacific Coast , 
the teaching of physical geography , Special studies in physiog- 
raphy and climate , Commercial resources of the Spanish-Ameri- 
can Countries 

Chicago Professor, two associate professors, and an 
assistant Undergraduate Commercial geography, Eco- 
nomic geography, Climatology, Influence of Geography on 
American history , Political geography , Climate and man , 
Economic geography of North America , Economic geography 
of Europe Senior and Graduate Commercial geography 
Economic geography of tropical countries, Principles or 
geographv, the geographic problems of the Orient, Cartog- 
raphy arid graphics, tho historical geography of American 
citios , the natural resources of the United States, their exploita- 
tion and conservation , some principles of Anthropogeography , 
geographic influences in the history of New England , of the 
Interior, of the Middle Atlantic States, History of Geog- 
raphv, Research courses Courses m physical geography are 
given in the Department of Geology 

University of Wwconvin Given in the Department of 
Geology Undergraduate Short course in geography , Physi- 
ography and geographv, Physical geography for commerce 
students, Economic geographv , Regional geographv 

(Inivernty of Pennsylvania Given in the Department of 
Economics Undergraduate Political geography, Economic 
climatology , Geography of Europe 

Geography in the Schools United States. 
Geography has long held an important 
place in school work in the United States, 
both in elementary and in secondary schools 
Geography has at times been considered by 
some to be the fundamental subject in ele- 
mentary schools, about which all other sub- 
jects must center (sec CONCENTRATION; PAR- 
KER, FRANCIS), by others, geography has been 
and still is considered a catch-all subject which 
has little inherent strength of its own, but yet 
must be given some place. By others, and 
the number is constantly increasing, geography 
is held to be one of the fundamental subjects 
of the curriculum, tested as to its worth and 
capable of being developed by good teaching 
into one of the most significant of school sub- 
jects. Geography as the study of the earth 
in its relation to man deals with elements of 
the environment of deep significance to all, 
and is of great value because of the aid it gives 
to other subjects m the curriculum 

Geography is no longer generally considered 
merely an informational subject which permits 
some attention to necessary, detailed facts to 
be known by all Although facts are vital 
necessary in the subject, geography, as a 



30 



study of relations between tho physical en- 
vironment and life in a causal way, is decidedly 
a study of principles of great working signifi- 
cance Geography, rightly taught, imparts to 
the pupils a knowledge of large relations over 
the world, which all must know to understand 
current events, world-movements of people, or 
the problems of commerce of to-day. Geog- 
raphy teaching, therefore, has for its purposes 
the imparting of a working knowledge of the 
principles of geography and training m work- 
ing with geographic relationships and geo- 
graphic materials that gives pupils a power to 
use their knowledge in later life This view- 
point is fundamental and vital in both ele- 
mentary and secondary school geography, but 
as yet secondary school geography s so special- 
ized that these larger purposes rrc often lost 
sight of in the endeavor to give training in 
specialized, scientific thinking in a narrow 
phase of geography 

Elementary School Geography The char- 
acter of school courses in geography is now, as 
it always has been, largelv determined by the 
content of the textbooks in use In the earlier 
part of the last century, the school texts were 
topical in order and were planned to cover the 
geography of the world in a brief way Later, 
the geography course was repiesented by two 
books, an elementary and an advanced, or a 
first and second book, and that plan holds 
to-day. The plan of tho earlier book was to 
present the larger, more general items of 
geographic interest, to be followed in the 
larger book by a moro broad consideration of 
the same topics Those books dealt largely 
with the facts of political and of physical 
geography and gavo little attention to goo- 
graphical relationships 

The first departure from the earlier plan 
was in tho Guyot Geographies of 1866, m 
which emphasis was given to human relations 
to physical conditions, and in which maps 
were made of vital significance Guyot's 
books wore, however, ahead ol their time, and 
the principles of Guyot, now recognized as of 
great significance, wore but little developed by 
others. (See GUYOT ) 

The first groat change from the plan of 
these earlier books was in 1894, following the 
Report of the Committee of Ten (qv) of the 
National Educational Association Owing to 
a renewed interest in physical geography, and 
to a recognition of tho importance of obser- 
vational work in geography, much emphasis 
was given to physical geography in all phases 
of school work. Tho first geographies which 
appeared after this Report gave a new impetus 
to school geography and introduced an era of 
progress of great significance Although these 
early books placed groat emphasis on physical 
geography, they did not ignore the life side., 
The now ideas wore grafted on to the old with- 
out supplanting it to any great extent. They 
proved the importance of thought work as 



GEOGRAPHY 



GEOGRAPHY 



\gainst memory work m geography, and since 
that time the endeavor has constantly been to 
make geography more real, more vital, and 
more thoughts-provoking to pupils 

The recognition of the well-founded educa- 
tional principle that pupils' work must be 
based on previous knowledge in all fields of 
study, has led in the last decade to the inclu- 
sion of home geography as the fundamental 
phase of school geography work Home geog- 
raphy is planned to help children in organiz- 
ing their everyday experiences and to see the 
simpler relationships of life to its physical en- 
vironment illustrated in every locality Simple 
generalizations, based on these local studies, 
lay a foundation for extending the children's 
work so as to include the world whole, which 
forms generally the second stage in school 
geography work The development of the 
simpler ideas of the world as a globe, and of 
the distribution of the continents over the 
world, gives a background for the earlier study 
of certain of the continents and countries of 
the world, through maps, pictures, and text 
Usually these earlier phases of geography are 
followed through the fourth, fifth, and a part 
of the sixth year of school life, up to the time 
when many pupils leave school 

In the later years the continents, or certain 
of them, are again studied from a somewhat 
different standpoint through the sixth and 
seventh years This advanced continental 
work, in which much attention is given to 
commercial geography, is usually preceded by 
a study of certain of the principles of mathe- 
matical and physical geography, to lay a foun- 
dation for a careful causal continental study 
In other cases, this work is placed as the 
climax of the course as a specialized phase of 
geography In a few instances, geography, as 
an all-round subject, is closed in the sixth 
year The geography of the later years is very 
specialized and is devoted to the commercial 
and industrial aspects 

In by lar the greater number of large cities 
in the country, geography is taught from the 
fourth to the seventh years inclusive, though 
there is an increasing tendency to restrict 
geography work to three or to three and a half 
years By far the larger proportion of the 
time devoted to the subject is given to the 
study of the regions of the world, since po- 
litical geography, as it is often called, forms 
the larger phase of geography that pupils 
come m contact with in after life This 
regional work naturally includes the study of 
physical and commercial conditions as well as 
of political conditions, and involves much 
study and training in the use of maps as well 
as of text and supplementary materials Such 
a course of study is generally followed through- 
out the country, according to the plan of the 
texts in use In an increasing number of 
places the course of study is now specially 
planned to meet local needs, and hence the 



order of treatment of topics and phases of the 
subject may vary extensively In by far too 
many localities, however, the text forms the 
only course of study used and the yearly pro- 
grams are measured m pages of the text 

There has been great progress in school 
geography teaching in the last few years 
Better texts, better maps, better trained 
teachers, improved training courses in normal 
schools and some colleges, and a larger supply of 
valuable and accurate supplementary volumes 
have all contributed to the improvement of 
the subject The greatest weakness in the 
field at the present time is a lack of first-class 
wall maps and a dearth of reasonable-priced, 
accurate school atlases In these mechanical 
attributes of good geography teaching, the 
United States is far m the rear as compared 
with Germany, France, the United Kingdom, 
or even with a small country like Switzerland 

The history of the development of elemen- 
tary school geography in this country has 
shown that progress has always been made 
through evolution and not by revolutions m 
content or plan It is not likely that the 
general content of elementary school work in 
geography, the outgrowth of generations of 
experience, will be overturned in the future 
As old subjects are tested by modern scien- 
tific methods and found wanting, they will be 
replaced by more rational and vital topics 
Much progress has been made in eliminating 
from school work topics in geography that are 
not pertinent to the needs of pupils, and which 
are too adult for school use A conservative 
public will, however, permit such changes to 
be made only slowly, while the demand that 
all that is new and perhaps of little value should 
be included, is widespread and insistent The 
great problem for the futuie is the judicnus 
modification of the course under the expeit 
guidance of trained and interested geographers 
and leaders in modern education 

Secondary School Geography Secondary 
school geography in geneial falls into three 
categories, according to whether the work is 
presented in the earlier or later years of the 
course. Physical geography is the favored 
phase of geography in secondary schools and 
receives the greatest attention in the first or 
second year of the course In many schools, 
particularly those preparing pupils for college 
entrance examinations, an advanced type of 
physical geography or physiography, as it is 
often termed, has a place in the later years of 
the course Until within recent years, physical 
geography has been given a place in secondary 
schools because of its informational value, and 
its content was determined from that stand- 
point As thus presented, it had no unity and 
little value as a science The development of 
physical geography by American workers in 
field and classroom has shown the subject to 
be rich and full as a cultural and scientific 
study In consequence, the pendulum has 



31 



GEOGRAPHY 



GEOGRAPHY 



swung away from tho older informational sub- 
ject toward a newer, rationally organized phys- 
ical geography 

It is now generally recognized that enthu- 
siasm for the newer point of view has carried 
us to extremes, and that physical geography 
as such has received an undue proportion of 
the time that can be given to earth science in 
secondary schools If the task of the second- 
ary school is to prepare pupils for after-school 
life, then obviously the content of geography 
and other subjects must to some extent be 
determined by the conditions in the adult 
world. In these modern days, pupils are going 
to be confronted in the business world with 
commercial conditions, and through the press 
they will constantly be brought in touch with 
the general geographic conditions of the great 
nations of the world The development of 
modern commeice has, since about 1900, 
caused an ever increasing attention to be 
devoted to commercial geography in second- 
ary schools As a rule, this needed phase of 
the work has been organized with little atten- 
tion to its relations to physical geography 
Like the latter work, commercial geography is 
found prominent in both the earlier and later 
years of the course The rapid development 
of commercial geography is indicated by the 
fact thut, while but one book was available for 
secondary use in 1901, at least ten much-used 
books exist m 1911 

Commercial and physical geography are so 
closely related in a causal way that neither 
can well exist independently in a course of 
study Hence the demand has arisen that 
these phases of the work be coordinated more 
closely in secondary schools Two committees, 
one fiom the National Education Association 
in 1909, and the other from tho Association of 
American Geographers in 1910, recommended 
that the one year to be devoted to geography 
in secondary schools be divided so that one 
half the time be given to the essentials of phys- 
ical geography and one half to commercial 
and regional geography This latter recom- 
mendation is based on the conviction that 
pupils ought to study the general geography 
of the United States Vnd Europe, at least, m 
the high school, as a contribution to their 
general training and as a basis for efficient work 
in history, economics, botany, zoology, and 
other subjects that deal with facts of distribu- 
tion Physical geography as a college entrance 
subject has never held an important place in 
secondary schools, and is particularly de- 
veloped in large public schools or in private 
secondary schools where funds are available for 
securing the necessarily inclusive and somewhat 
expensive laboratory equipment 

England. School geography in England 
has progressed rapidly m the last few years; 
though in many ways it is still very unsatis- 
factory, as it is in America The modern 
development of interest in geography, particu- 



82 



larly in the higher schools, dates from 1386, 
when the classic, report on geographic instruc- 
tion was published by the Royal Geographical 
Society from the pen of Dr J Scott Keltic, 
who made a thorough and painstaking study 
of geography teaching in England and on the 
continent In general, the plan of work advo- 
cated for the elementary schools of England is 
similar to that m America, though greater 
emphasis is given to physical geography m the 
several standards The plan of beginning 
with local, observational geography and work- 
ing out to the geography of the world, with a 
special study of selected countries in later 
years, is followed A large number of im- 
proved textbooks and books on teaching 
makes effective work possible, and the work oi 
the Geographical Association has done much 
to arouse teachers to a realization of the possi- 
bilities of geography. 

In the secondary years much more attention 
is given to regional geography than in America, 
and physical geography, as such, has a dis- 
tinctly subordinate place The work is, there- 
fore, well coordinated and definite, though its 
content is largely determined by the examina- 
tions set by the larger universities The out- 
lines in present use show great advances over 
those of 1885-1886, and indicate how far- 
reaching in its influence has been the establish- 
ment of geography as a university subject in 
the larger universities and colleges Inspira- 
tion and guidance have come from the leaders 
in the higher fields of geography teaching and 
have caused a very significant revival oi in- 
terest m school geography Furthermore, the 
leading business men have realized that Eng- 
land as a commercial nation must give more 
attention to geography teaching in the schools 
France Geography m the schools of 
France runs in cycles, the climax of the two 
cycles being a study of France and its colonies 
Beginners are led through an observational 
study of the local environment outward to the 
world whole This is followed by a study of 
the continents, and is brought to a summary 
in the fourth school year in a study of France 
and its colonies In the second cycle, which is 
completed in the eighth school year, the ele- 
ments of physical geography are followed by 
a study of America, Australia, Asia, Africa, 
Europe, and again is brought to a climax in a 
more advanced treatment of France This 
work is largely presented through excellent 
textbooks which order the content of the 
course in a definite way In the secondary 
school the same idea of cycle is followed In 
the first year the history of geography, physi- 
cal geography, political and commercial geog- 
raphy, and a brief course in geology constitute 
the outline of work This is followed m the 
second year by a special study of France in 
great detail, and the outlines of cosmography. 
The character of the geography work in ttV 
later years is determined hv the special 



GEOGRAPHY 



GEOGRAPHY 



ef study followed by the pupils and is in no 
case complete or closely related to the earlier 
work Thus geography teaching in the ele- 
mentary and secondary schools of France is 
very largely political and regional geography, 
so arranged that pupils will, as the years pass, 
become increasingly familiar with the geog- 
raphy of their own country and its economic, 
political, and physical features 

Germany Probably in no country in the 
world is geography in schools so well organized 
and taught as in Germany Teachers are 
trained for their work, and the supply of 
available books, atlases, arid maps is without a 
parallel for quality, accuracy, and usefulness 
Excursions have been developed generally as 
an important phase of school work, and geog- 
raphy is thus a matter of things and not of 
words or imaginary pictures, as is so fre- 
quently the case in America The general 
order of the divisions of the course is similar 
to that in America Following a study of the 
home surroundings by observation and of Ger- 
many comes a brief treatment of the several 
continents of the world This is in turn fol- 
lowed by a study of the continents from the 
physical standpoint, in the years corresponding 
to our upper grammar grades The climax of 
the work is a course in general geography with 
special emphasis on physical geography, and of 
political and commercial geography As in 
America, greater emphasis is, in recent years, 
laid on commercial geography from a broad 
viewpoint This plan, roughly outlined, differs 
little in general plan fiom that of many years 
ago Progress is indicated by change of em- 
phasis of details, rather than in any variation 
in the larger steps of the course A pupil who 
completes the nine years of prescribed work in 
geography has a good knowledge of elementary 
geography in all its branches and has learned 
how to use his knowledge in the specialized 
later school \\ork, with great profit to himself 

Methods of Teaching Geography Until 
within a few years geography teaching in 
American schools, both elementary and second- 
ary, largely followed one method, the pupils 
memorized the words of the textbook without, 
as a rule, any adequate comprehension of the 
meaiviig and significance of the material 
studied Where maps were involved, these 
were studied m the same wav Pupils were 
encouraged to search maps to find obscure and 
well-known places, with no thought of giving 
tlujm any training in the use of latitudes and 
longitudes Thus* they gained no assistance 
through the exercises that would have helped 
them to find other places by the same method 
In recent years the character of geography 
teaching, in both elementary and secondary 
schools, has radically changed, although the 
old memonter method still persists in many 
school systems where the teachers are not 
trained in modern methods or are out of sym- 
pathy with their tasks 

VOL. HI D 33 



As the former method was uharacton/ed by 
memorizing, the new method is characterized 
by reasoning The reasons for geographical 
facts are studied with the facts and through the 
facts, and the " casual notion/' as it has been 
so aptly named, is the keynote of geography 
work In this study of the relations between 
human geographic conditions and the under- 
lying physical conditions, much use is made 
of maps, riot merely as sources of informa- 
tion, but as valuable media for depicting geo- 
graphic features of all kinds Map hunting 
has given way largely to map reading, and 
pupils are taught to use a map as they would 
their texts, as one of the most valuable bases 
for study In the specialized work in second- 
ary schools, great emphasis is given to the 
map study of land forms, ocean conditions, 
climatic conditions, and to life geography. 
The new point of view in reference to geog- 
raphy work, and the realization that ability to 
work with geographical materials is of greater 
value than mere information, together with the 
recognition of the importance of making facts 
and principles real, has led to the introduction 
of laboratory work, particularly in secondary 
school geography In some cases laboratory 
work merely consists of the desultory study of 
graphically presented facts, because the curric- 
ulum calls for laboratory work Under these 
circumstances laboratory work is often an irra- 
tional phase of geography teaching, of little 
more real educational value than the busy 
work of the primary grades In the better 
schools laboratory work, however, is a vital 
part of the study and is made the foundation 
in the first presentation of most new topics 
The influence of laboratory work, which calls 
for the study of things and the graphic repre- 
sentation of things, has had a large effect upon 
the method of study in elementary schools, 
where observation of local phenomena, the 
study of land features, human relations, and 
industrial conditions, through excursions, to- 
gether with the study of weather records and 
similar work in other fields, have become a 
vital supplement to map and text study 

Methods in Elementary Schools There are 
many different methods m vogue in elementary 
schools, either for portions of the course or 
for the course as a whole In general, the best 
method is that which permits the individual 
teacher to make the best use of his personal 
powers m securing the progressive advance- 
ment of his pupils with the least waste of 
effort on their part A skillful teacher makes 
use of many methods in various stages of the 
work arid does not attempt to organize the 
course of study about some one plan of pro- 
cedure Among the various methods that are 
used sufficiently to be named, are the obser- 
vational method, the journey method, the type 
method, the map-drawing method, the topical 
method, and the inductive method Masters 
of each of these several plans of procedure can 



GEOGRAPHY 



GEOGRAPHY 



avoid the dangers and develop the strong 
features of their plans so that the progress of 
the pupils is secured, but mere followers of a 
plan, with perhaps little reserve knowledge 
and a narrow viewpoint, easily become the 
slaves rather than the masters of the method, 
and the pupils become the unfortunate victims 
of misguided enthusiasm 

The observational method, the study of things, 
obviously ought to be followed in school 
geography teaching at every opportunity, es- 
pecially in the home geography work of the 
earlier grades and in the study of the atmos- 
phere, land forms, and local industries. Modern 
education requires that all subjects be made 
real to pupils, and in no subject is this need 
greater than in geography By emphasizing 
similarities or contrasts with local features, 
distant geographic conditions may be made 
real This requires observational work at all 
tunes. 

The journey method, whereby countries or 
portions of a country are studied in the order 
in which they would be seen in an imaginary 
journey, is obviously valuable at certain stages 
Further, this plan of procedure is interesting 
to many imaginative children and permits the 
ready use of supplementary materials The 
journey method followed 'blindly, however, 
does not readily permit the teaching of a 
country as a whole and the emphasizing of 
causal relations This method, therefore, seems 
better adapted to the earlier than the later 
grades of a school course Such a method of 
procedure causes knowledge to be related to 
steamship routes and railway lines, and not to 
be centered about political areas, as is generally 
necessary and advisable It has a special 
value m the early study of the world whole, 
and to a certain extent m the later work with 
the commercial side of school geography 

The type method is found in use m various 
phases m American school geography work. 
According to this method, one section or area 
is studied very fully as a basis for comparison; 
and other areas, similar to the selected type, 
arc passed over quickly. If the selected area 
is a political and physical unit, a lengthy 
study of the section may result in an over- 
emphasis of minutiae, so that the area does 
not stand out m the pupil's mind for its salient 
features. If the selected unit area is a section 
about which some human interest centers, 
and is not a political or physical unit m itself, 
it fails to be a geographic unit and hence is a 
poor basis for comparison One weakness in 
the teaching by such types is that political 
areas are studied incidentally and perhaps are 
not clearly understood Yet political areas 
are foundational m any use that is made of 
regional geography m everyday life. The 
great advantage of the type area is that it 
permits a careful study to be made of a few 
sections, so that pupils may get a real com- 
prehension of the value of geography and so 

34 



that it provokes natural reviews. The latter 
fact is the strongest argument for following 
the type method m certain sections of school 
work. 

The map-drawing method is now but little 
used, though a generation ago it was much in 
vogue Pupils, by this method, are taught to 
draw maps by a rule of thumb plan and are 
trained to visualize their products For pupils 
who have a good power of visualization, this 
method has its value, provided the maps arc 
drawn according to an understandable scale 
and on a projection that does not too much 
distort areas 

The inductive method has never been much 
employed in American schools, for the obvious 
reason that geography deals with many facts 
beyond the students' experience, and a real 
comprehension of these impersonal materials 
can be more readily imparted by a plan that 
consumes less time 

The topical method is generally followed in 
the upper grammar grades, though the title 
covers multitudes of sins, in places The best 
use of the topical method is found in the later 
years of school life, when a causal order from 
causes to consequences can be followed so as 
to give training m right methods of working 
and thinking The topical method m the 
lower grades generally leads to the blind 
memorizing of items of information and not 
to the development of pupils' powers of work 

As a matter of fact, the method followed 
should vary with the character of the topics 
under consideration, with the age and abilities 
of the pupils, arid according to the training of 
the teacher Pupils in the early years are 
interested in the life about them and should 
m general work out in a causal order from the 
human and life conditions to the underlying 
physical influences; m the upper grades, the 
causal older should in general be followed 
from causes to consequences Any teacher, 
however, who at any time finds himself getting 
into a rut through too slavishly following one 
plan of procedure, should, for the sake of him- 
self, his subject, and his pupils, at once vary 
the monotony by changing his method so as 
to arouse his pupils into activity 

In all school geography work the danger is 
that the subject will be presented in so frag- 
mentary a way that all the life is taken out of 
it The picturesque side of geography should 
not be neglected, although it should be sub- 
ordinated to a well-considered plan of pro- 
cedure This side can be brought out best 
through a rational use of pictures, specimens, 
and supplementary reading. Obviously, the 
excursion should be an important part of 
school geography work in this country, as it 
long has been in many European countries. 
Public opinion must be trained, however, to 
the appreciation of the value of excursions, 
before they can be generally used in large 
school systems School excursions (qv.) are 



GEOGRAPHY 



GEOGRAPHY 



harder to conduct than class recitations, and, 
unless in the hands of a wise teacher, degenerate 
into picnics and are of little value 

One important phase of geography teaching 
deserves emphasis because it runs all through 
the grades and has been too much neglected in 
recent years; that is, training in location Lo- 
cation is essential in geography, but it does not 
make up the whole subject, as" was so largely 
the case in the days of " sailor geography," 
with its lists of capes and capitals Places 
and features to be studied as to their location 
may be divided into three classes, which will 
be found a good working guide to all teachers 
The first class would include those names 
which should be at the ready service of any 
intelligent person, class two would include 
those names which ought to be familiar to all 
through their school work, so that they can be 
readily found on a map, class three would 
include those names which are locally signifi- 
cant, but which are not of equal importance 
in other regions By judging any name accord- 
ing to its relative importance, according to this 
grouping, any teacher may readily work out 
for himself Ins minimum of location which he 
will develop m his class 

Methods in Secondary Schools Modern 
methods in secondary school geography are 
characterized by an emphasis on laboratory 
work In many of the larger public high 
schools of the country, specially arranged 
laboi atones have been constructed and 
equipped with extensive collections of maps, 
models, diagrams, lantcin slides, illustrations, 
and, in some cases, with specially devised 
apparatus for experimental work in the develop- 
ment of land forms In schools wheie the 
commercial or industrial phase of geography is 
emphasized, collections showing industrial prod- 
ucts and processes have proved most valuable 
equipment The laboratory presentation of 
topics is sometimes preliminary to the textbook 
and class study , in the larger number of schools, 
where the program is rigid, the laboratory 
work is supplementary to the text arid class 
work This relation ought to vary with the 
subject under discussion, for obviously some 
topics cannot be presented half by laboratory 
methods and half by classroom methods, as 
would be implied where the subject has two 
class hours and a double laboratory period a 
week Certain topics m geographv, as the 
study of weather, climate, and land forms, can 
be more readily approached from the labora- 
tory side than can topics dealing with the 
ocean or the distribution of plants and animals 

Laboratory work may be introductory to 
topics and consist of well thought out prob- 
lems presented in some graphic form, or it 
may be illustrative so as to give defimteness to 
the class and text work The excellent supply 
of maps from the Weather Bureau and the 
United States Geological Survey makes this 
work in certain subjects much more feasible 



than it was a few years ago The lack of good 
laboratory materials in certain of the other 
fields has meant, in many cases, an over- 
emphasis of the land features, so that, from 
text and laboratory, pupils have secured a 
warped point of view as to the relative value 
of the several phases of physical geography 
Newer methods, better laboratory manuals, 
wider conceptions of the right content of 
geography in secondary schools, have all con- 
tributed toward the improvement of labora- 
tory work It is now conceded that laboratory 
work is supplementary to class and text work, 
and not coequal in importance at all stages of 
progress 

In some schools, where the conditions are 
favorable, field work is carried on for a few 
weeks during the year, but field work has not 
developed to the extent that was hoped, owing 
to the difficulties incident to field trips Field 
exercises may roughly be classed m two 
groups, in the early part of the course pupils 
may profitably be taken, afield for " field sight," 
that is, to get a comprehensive view of a 
landscape, see its parts, the problems it pre- 
sents in a physiographic and geographic way 
Such field exercises form the basis for class 
and laboratory work in the closed season of 
winter In the open spring season the field 
exercises may be really " field work," where 
pupils work out simple problems which have 
been previously approached through the labora- 
tory and text As yet, however, excursions 
have not won for themselves a place in either 
elementary or secondary school geography, and 
arc little used except in the study of industrial 
geography through visits to manufacturing and 
distributing plant (See EXCURSIONS, SCHOOL.) 

Equipment for Teaching It goes without 
saying that in all geography teaching a good 
textbook is essential More than one should 
be used, if possible The market is now well 
supplied with good texts for most of the work 
of elementary and secondary schools Labora- 
tory guides, supplemental volumes for reference 
work, encyclopedias, and books of reference are 
adequate. The great lack is good wall maps, 
school atlases, and ample illustrative apparatus 
for elementary schools The available equip- 
ment for secondary work is in some eases 
overnch, so that teachers have difficulty m 
selecting that which is most pertinent 

In elementary schools atlases are practically 
unknown, and wall maps arc little seen and 
less used Yet wall maps arc of fundamental 
importance m school work Every classroom 
above the third grade in elementary schools 
ought to have as a minimum map equipment 
a good Mcrcator map of the world, a political 
map of the United States, and maps of the 
continents to be studied in the respective 
grades In the uppei grades there should also 
be physical maps of the United States and 
Europe and political maps of all the continents, 
not only for use in geography, but in history, 



35 



GEOGRAPHY 



GEOLOGY 



literature, and current events Yet this mini- 
mum is rarely found except in the best schools 
in our larger city systems Outline maps are 
also a most valuable adjunct to class work and 
are now available in cheap and reliable form 
Pictures, lantern slides, stereographs, specimens 
illustrating products and industries, models, 
and government publications, in great variety, 
are now easily procurable They form most 
valuable aids to geography study and should 
be used wherever possible, provided they arc 
selected with care and are used, not for pur- 
poses of amusing or merely illustrating points, 
but as really definite parts of class work from 
which valuable lessons may be drawn in a clear- 
cut and illuminating way 

Many other valuable forms of equipment 
might be cited, but a small equipment chosen 
acording to a well-ordered plan and used care- 
fully and systematically is better than a mass 
of unrelated material used just because it is 
available The problem of how to use illus- 
trative material profitably is more difficult than 
how to secure it R. E. D. 

See VISUAL AIDS TO TEACHING. 

References : 

History 

BEAZLEY, C R The Dawn of Modern Geography 
Vol I, 300 AD to 800 A D , Vol II, 900 A D to 
1:200 AD, Vol III, 1260-1420 (London, 1897- 
1906 ) 

EuKitroN, H E The Origin and Growth of the English 
Colonies (Oxford, 1904 ) 

FISKL, JOHN Discovery of America 2 voh> (Boston 
1898 ) 

JOHNSON, CLIFFORD Old Time Schools and School 
Bookt, Chap XII, The First American Geog- 
raphy, Chtip XIII, Later Geographies (New 
York, 1904 ) 

LITC\H, C P Historical Geography of the British Col- 
onies (Oxford, 1887 ) 

MILL, H R , Ed The International Geography , by 
S(vc?ity Author* (New York, 1909 ) 

TOZRR, H F History of Ancient Geography (Cam- 
bridge, 1897 ) 

WATM>N, FOSTER The Beginning* of the Teaching of 
Modern Subjects in England Chap III, Teach- 
ing of Geography in England up to 1660 (London. 
1909 ) 

Geography in the Schools 

DAVIS, W M The Extension of Physical Geography 
in Elementary Teaching School and College, 
Vol I, pp 599 (>OS, 1892 

The Progress of Geography in the Schools First 
Year Book. National Society for the Scientific 
Study of Education, Part II, pp 7-49, 1902 

FISCHER, H Methodik des Unterncht* in der Erdkunde. 
(Breslau, 1905 ) 

HALKIN L'fSnseifjnement dc la Geographic en Alle- 
magrK (Biuxelles, 1900 ) 

HARRIH, W T The Place of Geography in the Ele- 
mentary School The Forum, Vol XXXII, p. 
759, January, 1892 

KKHK, G GcsLhichie dcr Methodik des Volksschul- 
HHterruhh, Vol II (Gotha, 1888) 

KELTIE, J SCOTT Applied Geography (London 

1890) 
Geographical Education (London, 1886 ) 

TROTTER, SPENCER The Social Function of Geog- 
raphy Fourth Year Book, National Herhart 
Society, pp 57-79, 1893 

See also, textbooks hy Herbertson, Lvde (England), 
Sehrader (France), Kirchhoff, Fischer-Geistbeck 
(Gei many) 



36 



Elementary Schools 

ARCHER, LEWIS, AND CHAPMAN The Teaching of 

Geography in Elementary Schools 
BAOLKY, W C. The Function of Geography in the 

Elementary School Journal of Geography, Vol. 

Ill, pp 222-233, 1904, 
CALKINS, R D The Text, the Course of Study, and the 

Teacher Journal of Geography, Vol. IV, pp. 164- 

167, 1905 

DAVIS, W M Home Geography Journal of Geog- 
raphy Vol IV, pp 1-5, 1905 
The Teaching of Geography Educ Rev. Ill, pp 

417-426, Vol. IV, 6-15, 1892-1893 
DODGE, R E Equipment foi Geography Teaching 

Journal of Geography, Vol V, pp 242-250 
GEIKIE, ARCHIBALD The Teaching of Geography 

(Now York, 1887 ) 
GIBBS, D The Pedagogy of Geography Pedagogical 

Seminary, Vol XIV, pp 39 100, March, 1907 
McMuRRY, C A Special Method in Geography 

New York, 1903) 

MILL, H R Guide to Geographical Books and Appli- 
ances (London, 1910) 
REDWAY, J W The New Basis of Geography (New 

(York, 1901 ) 
SUTHERLAND, WILLIAM J The Teaching of Geography 

(Chicago, 1910.) 
Symposium on Results to be Expected from a School 

Course in Geography Journal of Geography, 

Vol IV, pp 145, 149, 155, 160, 1905 

Secondary Schools 

CHAMBERLAIN, J F Report of Committee of National 
Educational Association on Secondary School 
Geography Proceedings of National Educational 
Association, 1909 

Committee of Ten, Report 

DODGE, R E Report of Committee of Association 
of American Geographers on Secoiidaiy School 
Geography Jouinal of Geography, Vol VIII 
pp 159-165, 1910 

TARR, R S , and VON ENGELN, () D Laboiatory Man- 
ual of Physical Geography (New York, 1910 ) 

See also, references to laboratory work and commercial 
geography in Journal of Geography and in School 
Science and Mathematics 

GEOLOGY Relationship to other fields 

Perhaps no science shares its field with other 
sciences to a greater degree than geology As 
the science of the earth, it treats in its own 
special way subject matter that falls also to 
one or another of nearly all the sciences for 
treatment in their special ways Obviously in 
its function as the history of the earth it be- 
comes the province of geology to treat the col- 
lective results of innumerable agencies arid 
processes that enter individually into the fields 
of other sciences. 

If a survey of the whole field of science be 
taken to bring further into view the genetic 
relations of the several subjects of study, it 
will be seen that the history of the realm from 
which springs the realistic phase of education 
discloses two coordinate lines of evolution, each 
of which embraces a series of progressive steps 
The one scries includes (a) the cooperation of 
chemical and physical agents in the formation 
of minute integers leading up to molecules; 
(b) the combination of molecules in the forma- 
tion of crystalloidal, colloidal, and amorphous 
aggregates, (c) the assembling of these into 
the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmos- 
phere; (d) the coordination of these in the 



GEOLOGY 



GEOLOGY 



formation of the completed planet; (e) the cor- 
relation of this with kindred bodies into the 
solar system, and finally (/) the assembling of 
solar systems into the stellar galaxy The 
other series embraces (a) the cooperation of 
organic agencies in forming and actuating indi- 
vidualized plasms; (6) the union or differen- 
tiation of these in the formation of more com- 
plex living organisms, (c) the development of 
a system of transmittal of organic acquisitions, 

(d) the initiation of reflex and sense action, 

(e) the development of a system of registry of 
sense experiences; (/) the development of 
sense action and mental registry into higher 
and higher derivatives, until finally (g) they 
merge into the declared forms of mental, moral, 
and social phenomena; in other words, into 
the very working ground of education itself 
The word " finally " is intended here to mean 
only the last stage of human vision, not at all 
the ultimate in any sense. These two series 
run closely parallel to one another and are 
interdependent They in themselves imply 
better than a long discussion the relations of 
earth studies to other studies To the student 
of earth history in particular, the genetic con- 
nections of the two series are themselves the 
best expressions of the vital relations of the 
sciences and serve as the most reliable guide 
in interpreting and evaluating their educational 
functions The natural paths for educational 
procedure, so far at least as genetic considera- 
tions have weight, he up and down the his- 
torical lines, for these disclose the real places 
that have been taken by the participant factors 
in the natural order of things In the details 
of a formal study there is a choice between 
starting with the more primitive and the more 
undifferentiated and thence working toward 
the more segregate and the more individual, 
and as an alternative, starting with the last 
stages, the end products for the time being, 
and working backwards along the lines of 
genesis toward the more primitive and the 
more undifferentiated, but in natural practice 
with little doubt the best practice both 
courses have been followed interchangeably 
and often in suoh close succession as to make 
the method a type of reversible mental action, 
an almost spontaneous gliding from antecedent 
to consequent and immediately back from con- 
sequent to antecedent, from parent to off- 
spring and at once back from offspimg to 
parent, and so up and down from one link of 
the genetic chain to another in either direction, 
as occasion offers 

It is of course fully recognized that when 
the historical or genetic factor has little in- 
structional value, which is perhaps only true 
when it is unimportant to know how the sub- 
ject or the state under study grows out of or 
grows into other subjects or other states, the 
educational process may play more freely to 
and fro across the lines of natural sequence or 
in neglect of them. It is of course recognized 



37 



that underlying tho whole web and woof of 
antecedents arid consequents there are many 
factors common to several 01 to all lines of 
succession and these may be treated to ad- 
vantage independently, artificially, or " ab- 
stractly " and precedence given to their own 
kinships of qualities rather than their genetic 
or historical relationships This mode and the 
genetic mode are complementary anol coordi- 
nate, not antagonistic or even competitive 

The Essential Factors of Earth Study The 
study of our dwelling place involves four main 
factors: (1) the study of the birth of the earth; 
(2) the study of its structure and composition, 
i e. the earth's mechanism, (3) the study of 
the energies, organic as well as inorganic, that 
actuate it and the modes of their action, / e . 
its processes and its dynamics, and (4) the 
successive interplay of these, i c its history 
From the higher point of view of earth science 
neither of these factors by itself can yield the 
highest educational results, for neither leads the 
mind to all the essentials of a icund view In 
world study at least it is not enough to know 
the origin or the mechanism alone, nor the 
processes and energies alone, there mutt be a 
study of the actual workings and, for a rounded, 
guarded, balanced view, a study of the long 
chain of blended processes and results actually 
realized in history. 

Historical The Primitive tftages of Earth 
Study In the primitive education of the 
various peoples, the crude products of earth 
study, if study it mav be called, had a rather 
large place in the small total of educational 
agencies that took part in guiding the primi- 
tive ways of life Such information as was 
picked up and handed down related chieflv to 
the immediate needs of life and may be said 
to have been forced by daily requirements 
rather than sought for the love of knowing 
The additions that were slowly made as time 
went on more largely took the form of a widen- 
ing of imperfect knowledge than of a careful 
sifting of what had been acquired It is true 
that then as at all times testing by trial sifted, 
in some measure, what passed for knowledge, 
but it was incidental rather than purposeful, 
and the critical spirit of science \\as not vet 
born The whole was very crude, yet it was 
very necessary The primitive school of earth 
lore was the open school of life's necessities 
It was indeed so bioad that it was shared by 
many of the higher animals, each in its own 
peculiar way, and some of the attainments of 
these animals in the line of keen geographic 
sense and acute knowledge of local topography 
compel admiration 

The earth lore of the human race in these 
early stages was chiefly of the geographic 
rather than geologic type (See GEOGRAPHY ) 
There was, however, some rude beginning of 
acquiring knowledge relative to crustal struc- 
ture and composition Caverns were explored 
and occupied, structural material was chosen 



GEOLOGY 



GEOLOGY 



and built into shelters and ho mcti, stone was 
selected and fashioned into weapons and tools, 
certain ores were discovered and smelted, and 
the use of metals begun. A crude form of 
economic geology was thus slowly brought into 
being and took part in the rude training of the 
primitive races. There can be no doubt, also, 
that even the rudest peoples were impressed 
by earthquakes and volcanoes, by floods and 
landslides, and more or less by the gentler 
geological processes, but these impressions seem 
to have tended rather to weave themselves 
into fantastic conceptions than into sober in- 
ductions of the scientific order While these 
beginnings of geologic knowledge can scarcely 
be classed as science, they cannot be disre- 
garded as elements in the primitive education, 
for they were in reality germinal. At these 
early stages there does not seem to have been 
more than vague imaginings of what the earth 
as a whole might be, and such speculations as 
were indulged in respecting its origin were of the 
rnvthical anthropic order 

Throughout thin primitive stage no other 
concept than that of a flat earth appears to 
have had any vogue; and so the belief that 
the earth was essentially a plain may be taken 
as the most tangible criterion to set off the 
primitive stage from the more advanced stage 
that followed it It seems strange, and yet is 
perhaps not so strange as it seems, that the 
geographic dispersion of the race should have 
well-nigh wrapped the earth about, while yet 
the notion that it was flat prevailed Even 
within historic times and among the Medi- 
terranean nations of much lauded intellectual 
attainments it was regarded as a, great step 
toward unity and completeness to be able to 
map the land as a circular or elliptical plain, 
girt about by the great river, Oceaiius 

The Stage of Speculative Extension When 
the epoch of the flat earth, the earth of com- 
mon vision, began to give place to the spheroidal 
earth, the earth of corrected vision and of 
scientific imagination, the unscientific imagina- 
tion came also into play and a whole troop of 
visionary conceptions of modes of formation 
sprang into being There was at first little 
restraint from chemical, physical, and astro- 
nomical knowledge, or from scientific training, 
and so fantastic speculation ran riot for a 
time In this the pre-Grecian peoples indulged 
freely, while the idealistic trend of the Greek 
mind lent itself peculiarly to this indulgence. 
A long line of eminent Greeks drew in turn a 
varied series of pictures of earth genesis among 
which the metaphysical were dominant; but 
still these were stimulative and clustered about 
some substantial seeds of truth As early as 
the sixth century B r Anaxirnander, doubtless 
working on germinal ideas derived from 
Thales, set forth his conception of a fluidal 
evolution of the earth and of the stars He 
conceived the earth to be round, and set it in 
the center of the universe. Mystical as his 

38 



view was in most respects, it recognized phys- 
ical stages in cosmic development and was the 
germ of a new order of thought In the same 
century Xenophanes noted the remains of 
mollusks and of plants imbedded in rocks and 
took a step toward fossil biology This was 
scarcely a step in paleontology, even in em- 
bryonic paleontology, for Xenophanes seems 
to have had no thought of a series of ancient 
types leading up to the present types and 
making up a biologic genealogy He merely 
recognized the burial of existing types of life 
during a previous incursion of the sea Xan- 
thus, a century later, and Herodotus, still 
later, recorded other cases of fossil remains 
and strengthened the theory of former inunda- 
tions Empedocles, in the fifth century, studied 
Etna and noted other signs of internal heat 
and became the father of all such as believe in 
a molten interior 

The doctrine of a round earth grew into the 
creed ^ of a school when the Pythagoreans 
adopting it gave it a congenial metaphysical 
basis and made it popular with the Greeks 
The sphere is the most perfect of forms, it is 
therefore the fittest form for the homo of 
man, hence it is the form of the home of man 
The Sophists and the Platomsts as they came 
into influence still further pushed into ascend- 
ency the dialectic and imaginative tendencies 
in earth study, arid the scientific mode of pro- 
ceeding by successive tests, never as yet more 
than feeble, was overwhelmed There was 
some little recovery under the leadership of 
Aristotle, who combined in a singular way the 
speculative and the empirical methods He 
recognized stages of earth development and 
some other vital features, but there was little 
of the spirit or method of modern geology in 
his treatment of the earth Thoophrastus 
wrote on minerals, stones, and fossils, and some- 
thing approaching a text in geological lines 
began to become available 

A contribution of the genuine scientific type 
came out of P^gypt when, near the middle of 
the third century B c , Eratosthenes measured 
a degree and thus laid the basis for a real esti- 
mate of the size of the earth To this solid 
contribution he added various hypotheses of 
the more sober order relative to mountain 
chains, to the former presence of the ocean 
above the continents as implied by fossils, to 
the work of water, and to the phenomena of 
volcanoes and earthquakes 

The Roman period naturally brought a more 
realistic spirit and in the course of the wide 
expansion of the Empire, a larger need for 
geographic and geologic information Strabo 
Seneca, Pliny the Elder, and Pliny the Younger 
added largely to the stock of earth knowledge 
as well as suggestive interpretations of the 
more striking of the earth processes. In their 
treatment of volcanoes, earthquakes, sub- 
sidences, and elevations, as well as the work 
of water, they often touched mterpretational 



GEOLOGY 



GEOLOGY 



grounds occupied later by the older school of 
geologists 

Marinus of Tyre and Ptolemy of Egypt 
added much oriental knowledge to the accre- 
tions of the Greeks and Romans, and all this 
material coming later into the hands of the 
Arabs was partially saved from destruction 
during the brecciating stages that followed the 
downfall of Rome, and thus became the pos- 
sible seeds of a revival of earth study in Eu- 
rope when it emerged several centuries later 
from the shadows of the dark ages In actual 
fact the revival was probably more largely 
spontaneous than inherited 

The Transition to a Truer Basis The brec- 
ciation of the Roman Empire not only involved 
the destruction of a large part of the material 
for education in earth science that had been 
gathered by the Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks, 
and Romans, but the catastrophe was followed 
by the rise of a form of scholasticism that came 
to be a grave obstacle to the resuscitation of 
earth study on a true basis The obstacle was 
not so much a barrier to the regathermg of 
statistical data as a restraint put upon the 
free interpretation of the processes bv which 
the earth had come to be what it is To fully 
appreciate the educational contribution which 
geology made in rectifying ethical attitudes 
and intellectual methods, the sterile obstruc- 
tive nature of the retrocession of the Middle 
Ages must be duly weighed 

The issue of these ages at first centered on 
the nature and meaning of fossils, not alto- 
gether a new issue, but one revived with new 
intensity On the one hand, it was held that 
the lifelike shapes in the rocks were the prod- 
ucts of a vis plastica, or of some form of 
molding force in the earth, or else were a 
Mephistophelian device for the deception of 
jnan; on the other hand, it was urged that 
they were true relics of former life entrapped 
in the growing sediments in the natural course 
of events It was at bottom an ethical issue, 
a question as to the integrity and fidelity of 
the record of creation, if not of the honesty of 
the creation itself 

Although Xenophanes had recognized the 
genuineness of fossils in the sixth century B c 
and had been followed by many others in the 
classical ages, so great was the retrocession 
attending the breakup of the Roman Empire 
and so deep was the neglect into which deter- 
minate data had fallen through the establish- 
ment of medieval scholasticism, that Leo- 
nardo da Vinci in reaffirming the genuineness 
of fossils was perhaps as much a pioneer in the 
fifteenth century A D as Xenophanes had been 
in the sixth century B c and no doubt had 
greater need of courage The views of Da 
Vinci were probably original, at least they were 
concrete and based on the close and accurate 
observations of an engineer and an artist 
While Da Vinci clearly recognized that fossils 
implied changes of land and sea and were 

39 



marks of former crust a 1 eventb, it is not cleat 
that he saw m them the reeoid of a succession 
of different faunas arid floras Besides others, 
he was followed by Alexander, who had ob- 
served fossils in the Calabnan mountains, and 
notably by Francastono, who built a strong 
argument on the fossils of the rocks of Verona 
As soon as the genuineness of fossils had 
made appreciable headway against the imita- 
tiomsts or simulatiomsts, the issue took on a 
new phase, in which the two parties were those 
who assigned the fossils to the Noachian deluge 
and those who held that they recorded a much 
more ancient historv, the diluviahsts and the 
nascent paleontologists In the belief in a 
Noachian flood then prevalent there was at 
once an element of aid and a deterrent With 
such a belief, it was not unnatural that fossils 
should at first be thought to be relics of that 
flood, and proof of it Not unnaturally this 
belief prompted the collection and description 
of these diluvu universally tester and so added 
data and broadened interest At the bame 
tune, the belief developed and deeplv im- 
planted an erroneous element of interpretation 
that soon grew to be a formidable barrier to 
the true view But with the best minds the 
very attempt to make the fossils serve as wit- 
nesses to the deluge led to observations incon- 
sistent with so recent and so brief an event 
and turned them toward the true vie\\ Nico- 
las Steno, in the middle of the seventeenth 
century, followed a little later by Valhsncri, 
Moro, and Generelli, gave start to an Italian 
school working somewhat on modern lines 
They are perhaps entitled to be regarded as 
the pioneers of modern historical geology In 
the later pait of that century, Robert Hooke 
of England became the pioneer of an English 
school of a similar type, and here and there in 
other parts of Europe there arose centers of 
like order which spread the leaven of the 
nascent modern movement, so that by the 
middle of the eighteenth century the pioneers 
of the modern school had gamed a Him foot- 
ing Meanwhile the advocates of mystic simu- 
lation or of Mephistophelian purpose had fallen 
into discredit, but the diluviahsts still retained 
a large and influential following This school 
can scarcely be said to have lost a place among 
contributors to geologic data until the strati- 
graphic series had been worked out so fully as 
to leave no question that there had been a 
long series of successive depositions m which 
there was imbedded a like succession of faunas, 
a work which, though much advanced by many 
workers in the latter part of the eighteenth 
century, did not become a declared achieve- 
ment until William Smith of England, Cuvier 
of France, and others of the early nineteenth 
century had brought paleontological science 
into clear definition based on irrefragible evi- 
dence Meanwhile, however, the diluviahsts 
were being gradually replaced by a catastrophic 
school who assigned the successions of ancient 



GEOLOGY 

life io a seiies of creations following previous 
general 01 pai lial destiuctioiib 

\\hilo those (iiicinl issues lelativc to life 
hold the f i out of tlif stage, notable advances 
had been made on the inorganic side resulting 
in a broader and moie specific knowledge of the 
composition and structure of the rocks Tins 
was in part incidental to the study of the 
strata and the fossils and m part stimulated 
by economic considerations, but it arose also 
in part from a growing desire to know for its 
own sake Leonardo da Vinci, Nicolas Steno, 
and others who had taken leading parts in the 
organic problem, were large contributors here 
also Lchmaim, Fuchsel, Arduino, and others 
assembled and systematized the existing knowl- 
edge of minerals, rocks, ores, and structural 
phenomena, and began tabulations of strati- 
graphical sequence 

Just at the turn of the century a notable 
issue arose between those who held that the 
basal rocks were formed by crystallization 
from solution in water, the Neptumsts, led by 
Werner, and those who held that they were 
formed by solidification from the molten state, 
the Plutomsts, led by Ilutton The issue 
went over into the nineteenth century, opinion 
drifting toward the Huttoman side 

Concurrent with these special movements 
on the biological and physical sides, there was 
also a revival of theoretical effort on some- 
what firmei grounds than those that stimu- 
lated the Cheek speculations Descartes, 
Leibnitz, and Buffon gave forth views of the 
formative stages of the earth, which, though 
inadequate or erroneous, served to gather 
the scattered thought of the time into unity, 
to enlarge the field of view, and to stimulate 
thought in quaiters where the unorganized 
details failed to awaken interest These were 
followed near the close of the century by the 
speculations of Thomas Wright arid Kant and 
by the definite hypothesis of the Marquis de 
Laplace that later carne to monopolize the 
term Nebular Hypothesis Thus the latter 
half of the eighteenth centuiy greatly enriched 
and gave truer trend to the rather crude 
rejuvenations of the three previous centuries, 
and in so doing prepared the way for the 
more rapid and sounder development of the 
geologic sciences m the next century 

The nineteenth century was in fact the first 
round period of really well-organized, wisely 
directed geologic effoit During the early and 
middle portions of the century there was a 
pronounced effort to harmonize the geologic 
record with the interpretation of the biblical 
account and with views of creation then widely 
prevalent Modified forms of the Laplacian 
and Kantian hypotheses of genesis came into 
general acceptance and were woven into these 
efforts at harmony The leading dynamical 
interpretations of the earth were made to con- 
form to the contractional postulates of these 
hypotheses The molten earth of Empedocles 



GEOLOGY 



and 



wan a scarcely questione fc' 
thought to have a him basis in tie ns( ul 
internal tomperatme, in volcanic phonomoan 
and in the cosmologic hypotheses 1 he early 
earth was conceived to have been enshrouded 
in hot gases of immense volume and density 
which suffered progressive depletion as time 
went on Widespread uniform tropical cli- 
mates were held to have prevailed in the early 
ages and to have been followed by more diverse 
and cooler ones in the latei ages Seasons, 
aridities, and refrigerations were features of the 
later periods alone and by forecast were made 
the forerunners of still more complete atmos- 
pheric consumption in the future leading on to 
a final refrigeration Geological progress was 
held to be marked by cataclysms destioying 
all life, and these to bo followed by new creations 
It is within the memory of the writer that 
complete destruction of life at the close of the 
Paleozoic and of the Mesozoic eras respectively 
was taught in standard American colleges and 
by the most authoritative American textbooks 
At less important stages partial destructions 
and corresponding creations were thought to 
have intervened between these greater catas- 
trophies All distinct species were then held 
to be new creations The whole geological 
conception was thus made to consist of a series 
of catastroplncs and creations in which the 
instructional and creative factors played alter- 
nate parts Every tenure of existence was 
thought to be uncertain and the termination 
of the whole distinctly foreshadowed 

There was, indeed, some dissent from the 
catastrophic features of these views appearing 
now and then far back and growing as time 
went on Ilutton had urged the profound 
changes that could be wrought in tune by the 
ceaseless action of the quiet agencies, and 
Lamarck had urged the divergencies of living 
forms that might be developed by use Play- 
fair had helped on the Huttoman views 
Lycll near the end of the first quarter of the 
nineteenth century added further to those 
views and rounded out the whole into the 
doctrine of umformitarianisin which success- 
fully contested the field with catastroplnsm 
during the second quarter of the nineteenth 
century and came to be the creed of the domi- 
nant school in the latter half of the centuiy 

With the verity of the geological record 
firmly established, though incomplete, and 
with the competency of gentle agencies cease- 
lessly acting sustained by a strong advocacy, 
the way was prepared for a favorable recep- 
tion of the doctrine of derivation of plant and 
animal species through selection when ad- 
vanced by Darwin and Wallace near the 
middle of the century Though this was essen- 
tially biological, the establishment of the 
geologic record was scarcely less than an indis- 
pensable prerequisite to any wide acceptance at 
that time. The profound educational effect 
of the doctrine of evolution into which this 



40 



GEOLOGY 



GEOLOGY 



has grown is perhaps quite as much due to 
geology as to biology so far as current tunes 
are concerned The revolutionary effects of 
this doctrine of continuity and derivation in 
the intellectual world are familiar themes and 
need not be dwelt on here further than to urge 
their dependence on the verity of the larger 
history of which life evolution is a part The 
full depth and reach of this revolution as an 
educational agency has not yet been realized 
and cannot be fully realized until the further 
evolutions to which it loads have had time to 
take tangible form and pass their trial periods 

The opening of the twentieth century has 
brought some of these further evolutions into 
tangible stages These seem to foreshadow 
the issues of the present century From the 
mystical ages down to the close of the eight- 
eenth century, the earth and related bodies 
were commonly assigned a birth from chaos. 
During the nineteenth century, belief in a 
more orderly birth from gaseous or quasi- 
gaseous scimchaotic states replaced these 
In the closing stages of the nineteenth century 
the dynamics underlying all these* cosmogonies 
was challenged and a system of dynamics of 
the same order as that which is now in con- 
trol, entitled planetosimal because embodied 
in minute masses, offered in its stead So 
also, instead of the previous assumption that 
the present solar system is the first and only 
system of its series, the firstborn of chaos, 
there was offered the hypothesis that the cur- 
rent solar system is but a rejuvenation of an 
eaiher system back of winch may he a genealogy 
of systems to which no specific limit was 
assigned It carries the conception of a slow- 
grown solid earth in which a niolton earth or 
a general molten interior may probably never 
have been a feature The preferential view is 
that internal stresses have constantly forced 
to the surface molten rock with its included 
gases as fast as formed in working volumes, 
thus building up the crust and feeding the 
atmosphere and hydrosphere, while the solidity 
of the interior is preserved The atmosphere 
is made the product of cooperative agencies of 
supply and consumption whose mutual action 
maintains an oscillating equilibrium within 
limits congenial to terrestrial life, a system 
that presumably may continue to maintain 
the conditions of life for eons yet to como 
This new phase of umformitananism opens a 
forecast of indeterminate duration correspond- 
ing to tho enlarged retrospect it opens in the 
rejuvenations of past solar systems The 
whole 1 constitutes a further step in the reduc- 
tion of tho catastrophic, factors and the exten- 
sion of quiet persistent procedure Kvon tho 
rejuvenation of a solar system is made no more 
catastrophic than the mutually excitivo effects 
of passing stars 

A second feature, a contribution of physics 
to geology, is tho discovery that some of the* 
atoms of the earth arc undergoing spontaneous 



disintegration and in doing so are shooting 
forth particles at prodigious velocities, imply- 
ing energies of like prodigious order This 
has laised tho question, as yet unanswered, 
whether spontaneous change, and perhaps 
spontaneous organization, are not universal 
functions of earth matter and of the cosmic 
matter to which it is related However this 
may be, the new phenomena exalt to the limit 
of man's imagination the activities and energies 
of common rnattoi In the light of this, the 
earth appears to have little need of an inherit- 
ance of internal heat, its volcanic displays 
may be little more than the product of spon- 
taneous disintegration within Tho energies 
of the solar system seem adequate for the 
greater projections hackwaid and forward which 
the later cosmology had already assumed on 
other grounds 

This sketch of the growth of earth science 
implies the course of education through which 
the leaders of thought and tho \\oild at largo 
have passed in reaching the piesent stage of 
world science It is a concrete mode of indi- 
cating the place which this science lias occu- 
pied in human pi ogress Tho phrase "world 
science" is hero used pormissively, for it is thai 
rounded conception which embraces the totahU 
of the earth and its inhabitants from the begin- 
ning till now, that has taken deep hold on the 
thought of the world and has influenced its 
intellectual development Tho branches of 
earth study take their rndmdual places as 
special sciences under tho more oompiehonsivo 
world studv Those special geologic sciences 
embrace the subject-matter of most of tho 
courses that form the curricula of the schools 
and require technical pedagogical treatment 

Deployment of the Geologic Sciences 
While the very essence of idoal geology is the 
unitary treatment of tho organized totality of 
earth knowledge, its actual giowth as a science 
and as a school study has diverged widely 
from this idoal Paiticular phases of the sub- 
ject have boon taken up moio 01 loss sporadi- 
cally as conditions invited, and this has given 
a lack of symmetry to its several stages Tho 
geographic phase was the earliest, and geog- 
raphy might ideally have boon extended to 
embrace the earth's composition, structure, 
processes, and life history, and so have em- 
bodied the whole group of earth sciences and 
the whole history of the earth, but in fact 
geographic studios wore foi ages so largely 
limited to tho surface as it is, and to the 
present relations of the creatures that dwell 
on it, that the name came* to denote this 
specifically and tho term " geology" was coined 
to embrace the broader study that arose later 

Tho geographic mode of treatment is now 
being extended backward into tho " geologic " 
ages and the old surfaces of the earth are 
being worked out, and so there is in process 
of development the now science of paloo- 
geography This is worked out almost wholly 



41 



GEOLOGY 



GEOLOGY 



by methods known as geologic and still the 
results are assembled and interpreted in a 
geographic sense and take that name 

So, too, while the earlier geography was 
mainly descriptive of the earth surface as it is, 
with the growth of the spirit of inquiry into 
processes and antecedents, there has come 
into the later study a search for the origin and 
meaning of the surface features and so the old 
form of " geographic " treatment has grown 
more and more toward the " geologic " treat- 
ment, that is, toward the study of processes, 
former states, underlying material, structure, 
and historical meaning And so the two 
sciences run together and overlap, as they 
should under the newer view of the true rela- 
tions of the sciences and of their educational 
functions The real fields of science overlap, 
mterdigitatc and interfuse, geography en- 
velops the earth in its way and geology 
equally compasses the whole in its way; not 
a little of their common ground is identical, 
belonging equally to both and belonging ex- 
clusively to neither. 

The ground where geography and geology 
most intimately meet is embraced under the 
terms physical geography and physiography 
These terms are in part used synonymously and 
in part distinctively When the emphasis is 
laid on the physical features of the surface as 
features, the better usage places the study under 
physical geography , when the emphasis is laid 
mainly on the mode 1 of origin and the processes 
involved, the study takes on a geological aspect 
and is best placed under physiography as that 
term is used in America With such a dis- 
tinction in mind, physiography was placed in 
the geological group by those who were pioneers 
in the educational use of the term in America, 
while physical geography naturally retains its 
place in the geographic group 

Physiography is at once a recent school 
study and a recent development of geologic 
science Powell and Gilbert, pioneers in 
enunciating the doctrine of the base level and of 
cycles of erosion, arc worthy of being regarded 
as the fathers of the science, while Davis, 
Pcnck, Salisbury, and others have been efficient 
in developing it As a means of training, it 
has the advantage of presenting an available 
field at the site of every institution, if urban 
modifications have not destroyed it The 
processes that may be studied in action or 
through their recent results include a large 
portion of those that enter into stratigraphie 
and dynamic geology As respects mental 
discipline, physiography is a rather rigorous 
naturalistic study of processes leading on to 
definite results and forcing rather close inter- 
pretations of results m terms of their causes 
The actions are measurably complex but not 
usually so intricate as to confuse careful stu- 
dents. Physiographic study centers on physi- 
cal processes and touches the biological and 
the human elements incidentally rather than 



42 



primarily In this limitation it keeps on fairly 
solid grounds and trains students to firmness 
of mental action and trustworthiness in inter- 
pretation These are its virtues. Its self- 
imposed limitation lies in leaving the biological 
and the human elements to be developed in 
similar ways on their own grounds. These 
cannot just yet be treated with the firmness and 
trustworthiness already attained on the physi- 
cal side and, if they could, their fusion in a 
single work under a single title at this stage of 
educational development would be one of 
doubtful wisdom It is therefore a mooted 
question how far the stronger treatment with 
its limitations should displace the looser treat- 
ment of the broader field pending the develop- 
ment of the biologic and anthropic elements on 
firmer grounds The argument from supposed 
superior interest is scarcely pertinent, for su- 
perior interest usually lies where intellectual 
success finds its most tangible victories The 
subject is touched again below 

When inquiry first seriously began to pene- 
trate the earth, it took note of the composition 
and structure of the crust This led to some 
knowledge of sedimentary rocks and to the 
beginning of stratigraphy and historical geol- 
ogy It led also to a knowledge of volcanic, 
plutonic, and other crystalline rocks and thus 
to the geology of the massive terranes, the chief 
held of petrologic geology, the complement of 
stratigraphie geology It led also to the 
recognition of bowed, warped, crumpled, broken, 
and shifted rocks and thus to deformutive 
geology (diastrophism) This embraces the 
study of mountains (orogeny) and of the more 
general elevations and depressions (cpeirogeny) 
Inquiry led also to the observation that dis- 
torted rocks have usually undergone crystalli- 
zation and chemical modification and hence to 
metamorphic geology The whole subject of 
geologic structure may be embraced under the 
sub-science geotectonics, and the whole of 
formational geology under that of geognosy 
Vulcanology grew up naturally as a special 
phase of igneous geology, and seismology grew 
as naturally out of the study of rapid earth 
movements of which earthquakes are the most 
declared form All these phenomena involve 
great energies and thus they tie geology to 
physics, the common borderland of which is 
treated under geophysics 

As the studies of the general aspects of rocks 
were carried down to detail it was discovered 
that the crust is composed of rock elements, 
conveniently known as rock species, and that 
these could be further analyzed into definite 
minerals, hence arose the science of rocks, 
hthology or petrology, or, when mainly de- 
scriptive, petrography, hence also arose the 
science of mineralogy, back of which lie closely 
chemistry and crystallography Down to tho 
latter half of the nineteenth century the study 
of rocks and minerals went but little beyond 
naked eye examinations, mechanical tests for 



GEOLOGY 



GEOLOGY 



hardness, cleavage, and other qualities, and 
simple chemical tests supported in some degree 
by full chemical analyses, but optical methods 
were later introduced, particularly the examina- 
tion of thin slices of rocks under a polarizing 
microscope, and this led to a much closer study 
of rocks and minerals and wrought a revolution 
in the sciences of mineralogy and petrology 
from which arose the sub-sciences optical min- 
eralogy and optical petrography 

Petrology is almost inseparably connected 
with other branches of geology and is generally 
grouped with geology in university curricula 
The relations of mineralogy are less declared It 
is oftener grouped with geology than any other 
science, but it is sometimes associated with 
chemistry, sometimes made a distinct depart- 
ment, and sometimes, though rarely, coupled 
with physics on account of the optical factors. 
The best criterion in such cases of composite 
relationships is the very practical one of letting 
the source from which springs the largest stu- 
dent inteiest be the guide In this respect the 
advantage lies largely with geology, for it is from 
geological phenomena that interest in minerals 
most largely springs, and it is in geology or in min- 
ing that mineralogy finds its largest applications 

The industrial and ornamental uses of rocks 
and minerals early gave rise to rude forms of 
economic geology and these utilities have 
steadily multiplied until this phase of geology 
has come to be one of wide application It is 
the basis of governmental geological surveys 
and these have contributed greatly to the de- 
velopment of the science, not even excepting 
those of its phases that do not for the tune 
being seem to have direct industrial importance. 
Through its economic phases, geology becomes 
related to several oi the technological branches, 
as mining engmeeimg, metallurgy, ceramics, 
architecture, etc 

The fundamental part that life relics played 
in the giowth of the sciences implies, as sug- 
gested in the historical sketch, the educational 
relations of general geology to paleontology 
When well deployed in an institution, paleon- 
tology usually falls into invertebrate paleon- 
tology, vertebrate paleontologv, and paleo- 
botany The most recent science on the 
border line of biology and geology is ecology, 
a composite study of life in relation to its en- 
vironment As a study it is close akin to 
physiography, and the field work of the two 
is conveniently conjoined where both are well 
developed in the same institution Physiog- 
raphy and plant ecology aie natural running 
mates, and when ecology shall be extended to 
animals and man and treated on a firm basis, 
physiography, biologic ecology, and anthropic 
ecology will form a triumvirate of peculiar 
educational power and will doubtless set at rest 
the mooted question mentioned above by taking 
an indispensable position in standard curricula 
as effective disciplinary, as well as intellectually 
nourishing, studies. 



When paleontology shall have gathered and 
elaborated adequate data relative to the psychi- 
cal phenomena of past life, this will quite surely 
form the basis of paleopsychology, which will 
bind paleontologic geology to the modern 
mental sciences and cooperate with them in 
dealing with the earlier stages of mental, moral, 
and social development 

The study of the hydrosphere is a vital part 
of geology, for the activities of water in its 
various forms are the special characteristic of 
the present geologic eon The geology of the 
hydrosphere grades into the special sciences of 
hydrology and oceanology, as also into glaci- 
ology and into physiography 

The atmosphere has long escaped un adequate 
treatment as a geological agent, but it is rapidly 
coming into its place and paleochmatology 
and paleometeorology ai e foreshadowed sciences 
Geological evidence of a cogent order is forcing 
an abandonment of inherited views on at- 
mospheric phenomena and opening a place 
for these new sciences It was thought until 
recently that the earth was enveloped by a thin 
atmosphere only, beyond which extremely 
cold and nearly empty space isolated it from 
its km of the solar family Closer inquiry 
makes it clear that the atmosphere is not so 
narrowly limited and that there is some ex- 
change of matter between the members of the 
solar family While it is not yet dear what 
quantitative value this exchange may have, it 
serves to bring the study of cosmologic re- 
lations into the present problems of geologv, 
and to suggest that cosmology may come to 
play, in current issues, a part kindred to the 
more spectacular function played at the birth of 
the earth 

Geology in the Schools While the geneial 
geologic knowledge of the earlier ages grew up 
from the incidental observations of the multi- 
tude as they came into contact with the earth, 
geology as a formal study came into the higher 
horizons of the schools from the few who 
patiently worked it out into science, arid it has 
gradually been working downward from higher 
to the lower horizons A century ago geology 
scarcely had a recognized place in even the 
foremost institutions, save in certain economic 
aspects in certain schools of mines Its growth 
as a distinct school study is almost compassed 
within the last hundred years, and inuoh the 
most of the growth falls within the last half 
centurv At first geology found a place only 
in the last years of study, and it has crept for- 
ward in the curriculum only slowly The chief 
reason assigned for this retention of a late place 
is the need of studying so many other sciences 
before geology is taken up While there is 
reason in this, the logic rests upon the doubtful 
assumption that it is best to proceed fiom 
science to phenomena rather than from phenom- 
ena to science It remains to be seen whether 
the advantages of rotation and reciprocity in 
cultivating science may not be as conducive 



43 



GEOLOGY 



GEOLOGY 



to productiveness as they are in the cultiva- 
tion of soils The spread of geologic studies 
seems to have been more rapid down the upper 
horizons of different grades of institutions 
than down the courses of the same institution ; 
and so at present, geology finds a place in the 
upper grades of secondary schools, while it 
rarely appears in the first years of the higher 
institutions But m some form it now has 
a place in the best schools from the high school 
to the university 

Geology and Physiography in the High Schools 
A notable percentage of high schools in America 
are coming to offei courses 111 which the agents, 
processes, and stages of fashioning the earth's 
surface are factors Whether this is done 
under the name physical geography, physiog- 
raphy, or geology is of minor importance 
The order named seems to be that of pre- 
dominance so far as the name is concerned 
It is impracticable to ascertain precisely how 
the earth studies are handled on the average. 
It is safe to sav, however, that the genetic 
phases of surface configuration, the vitalizing 
element, have rapidly gained m emphasis in 
recent years The number of high schools 
that teach geological history is quite a minor 
fraction With the growth of the study of sur- 
face fashioning processes, m essence dynamic 
geology, there has been a tendency to replace 
other forms of geology with this more special 
phase, a gam in intensity with a loss m breadth 
and m the biologic and human elements This 
is a step in intensification whose value can only 
be fully seen when the complementary intensi- 
fication in the biologic and anthropic factors, 
the plant, animal, and human ecologies, are 
brought into working order coordmately with 
physiography Plant ecology is already com- 
ing into function as a companion study to 
physiography, and both are well adapted to 
the earlier years and form an excellent basis 
for the higher ecologies These latter are m 
process of scientific development and will no 
doubt soon enter upon their early trial periods 
in the schools These require greater breadth, 
equipoise, and maturity of judgment and are 
better adapted to the later years They may 
well follow or go with historical geology, for 
historical geology brings into view the great 
facts of past ecological experience The double 
couplet, physiography and mscntiate ecology, 
earth history and sentiatc ecology, together 
cover in a strong way the ground covered in 
a more general fashion by physical geography, 
and constitute its appropriate successors in an 
effective curriculum 

Physiography and plant ecology converge 
in the phenomena of the soil, which is a special 
zone of contact, They come to be particularly 
intimate in the ecology of soil life, the critical 
point of advance in agriculture at present. 
They are the fundamental sciences on which 
soil science should rest and are therefore the 
sciences that may well be given in the high 



44 



schools as a preparation for agricultural science 
now pressing for a place in these schools Ani- 
mal ecology has a similar relation to the animal 
industries 

The present status of earth science in the 
secondary schools is eminently one of transition 
which, though marked by elements of con- 
fusion and some retrocession, is working rapidly 
toward a vitahzation of geography by the in- 
troduction of the geologic element all down 
through the courses, by the introduction of 
physiography, and by the organization of the 
ecologies as more thorough treatments of vital 
phenomena on the earth's surface 

In Normal Schools There is much dif- 
ference in the work of the normal schools, but 
the standard state normal schools of America 
usually give courses m physiography or geology 
or both, and in some schools other geologic 
branches of the group are taught The ap- 
pointments are generally fair and field and 
laboratory work are commonly used as vitaliz- 
ing elements The introduction of strong 
courses in physiography and plant ecology in 
the early years and of historical geology and 
the higher ecologies in the later years will 
greatly aid in vitalizing geography and in lead- 
ing on to the successful treatment of these 
subjects themselves m the high schools 

In Colleges and Technical, School* Geol- 
ogy has a recognized place m the best colleges 
of America and in equivalent institutions else- 
where, though there are many weak colleges 
in which it has little or no place In the 
stronger colleges it is deployed into mineralogy, 
physiography, petrology, general geology, and 
paleontology Economic geology is not un- 
commonly given a place Laboratory and 
field work are usual accompaniments Geology 
is even accredited as an entrance study to some 
colleges All colleges of standing are pro- 
vided with mmeralogical and geological collec- 
tions In the best colleges the full sorvic.es 
of a professor, sometimes, though but rarely, 
with an assistant, are given to the geologic 
group, in many colleges, however, some other 
work is still associated with the geological 

In the technological schools not associated 
with universities, the place of the geological 
sciences varies from an amount comparable 
to that of the colleges to an amount comparable 
with the provisions of the better universities 
Usually the emphasis is laid chiefly on mineral- 
ogy > petrography, and the structural, dynam- 
ical, and economic elements of geology. For 
these branches the appointments are usually 
good and the work m graphic, dynamic, and 
geometric lines is usually superior to that of 
most other institutions 

In Universities The geologic sciences nat- 
urally find their largest place and their best 
deployment in the universities and in the techno- 
logical institutes of comparable grade 

To form some idea of the relative place 
which the geologic sciences have attained in 



GEOLOGY 



GEOLOGY 



the standard Universities, a series of compari- 
sons has been made between the sizes of the 
staffs of the several universities of the largest 
and of the medium types, and the total num- 
ber of students m these institutions. It would 
be more satisfactory to compare the courses 
and the number of students in geology with 
the courses and students in other subjects, but 
the data are not available In comparing the 
statistics relative to the staffs, teachers of 
mineralogy, petrology, paleontology, and geo- 
physics are included with those of geology 
proper, except where these subjects are taught 
in other than the geologic senses, but teachers 
of geography are not included The number 
of students used is, in all cases, the total 
attending the university The data used wore 
compiled chiefly from Trubner's Minerva, Jahr- 
btich der gelehrten Welt, for the year 1910-1911, 
with such revisions and additions as could be 
made from the official publications of the uni- 
versities and from personal information The 
results are to be regarded as a representative 
rather than as an exact exhibit. 

In the comparison of the largest universities, 
an attendance of 3000 students was taken as 
the lower limit Of this class there are 43 
universities, distributed as follows United 
States 16, Russia 6, Austro-Hungary 4, Ger- 
many 4, Great Britain 4, Italy 2, Spam 2, 
Argentina ], Canada 1, France 1, Japan 1, and 
Koumamu 1 In respect to total number of 
geologic teachers (those of professorial rank in 
parenthesis), the order is United States (57) 
96, Austro-Hungary (20) 26, Germany (17) 28, 



Russia (12) 21, Great Britain (9), Roumama (5), 
France (4) 5, Argentina (3), Canada (3), 
Italy (2) 7, Japan 5, Spam (1) 2. The average 
number of geologic teachers per university 
is- Germany 7, Austro-Hungary 65, United 
States 6, France 5, Japan 5, Roumama 5, 
Italy 3 5, Russia 3 5, Argentina 3, Canada 3, 
Great Britain 2 25, Spam 1 

For the medium class, universities whose 
students range between 2000 and 3000 were 
selected These serve better than the previous 
class to illustrate the development of geo- 
logical instruction in the smaller countries and 
in universities located in the smaller cities where 
urban influences are less pronounced There aie 
30 universities of this class distributed as fol- 
lows Germany 7, United States 6, France 4 
Austro-Hungary 3, Belgium 2, Italy 2, Russia 2, 
Canada 1, Great Britain 1, Greece 1, Sweden 1 

In the aggregate number of geologic teachers 
(those of professorial rank in parenthesis), the 
order is as follows Germany (19) 28, Italy (5) 
15, France (10) 11, United States (9) 10, Austro- 
Hungary (7) 9, Russia (3) 6, Belgium (5), 
Canada (2), Great Britain (1), Greece (1), 
Sweden 1 

The average number of geologic teachers per 
university in this class is as follows Italy 7 5, 
Germany 4, Austro-Hungary 3, Russia 3, Bel- 
gium 2 5, France 2 5, Canada 2, United States 
1 7, Great Britain 1, Greece 1, Sweden 1 

The combined data for the two classes of 
universities, which embrace all that arc attended 
by 2000 or more, are shown in the following 
table 



COMPARATIVE TABLE OF GEOLOGIC STAFFS OF UNIVERSITIES HAVING 2000 STUDENTS OR MORE 



I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


IX 


COUNTRY 


POPULATION 


No 0* 

UNIVER- 
SITIES 


TOTAL No 
UNIVERSITY 
STUDENTS 


No OF 
GEOLOGIC 
PROFES- 
SORS 


TOTAL 
GEOLOGIC 
TEACH- 
ERS 


Av No 

PER 

UNIVHR- 

SITY 


RATIO OF 
TRACHFRB 
TO TOIAL 
STUDENTS 


RATIO o* 
Gi-oiooic 
TEA< HERS TO 
POPULATION 


Auatro-Hungarv 


27,995,000 


7 


31,147 


27 


35 


5 


1 890 


1 799,857 




(1907) 
















Belgium . . . 


7,380,000 


2 


5272 


5 


5 


25 


1 1054 


1 1,477,200 




(1908) 
















Canada .... 


7,185,000 


2 


5289 


5 


5 


25 


1 1058 


1 1,437,000 




(1909) 
















France .... 


39,252,000 


5 


27,882 


14 


16 


32 


1 1743 


1 2,453,250 




(1906) 
















Germany . . . 


(>3,800,000 


11 


46,379 


36 


56 


5 1 


1 828 


1 1,139,286 




(1909) 
















Great Britain 


45,208.000 


5 


l.< 752 


10 


10 


2 


1 1375 


1 4,520,800 




(1909) 
















Italy 


84,269,000 


4 


14,588 


7 


22 


55 


1 663 


1 1,557,682 




(1909) 
















Japan 


49,769,000 


1 


5649 




5 


5 


1 1130 


1 9,953,800 




(1909) 
















Roumama . 


6,700,000 


1 


3878 


5 


5 


5 


1 776 


1 1,340,000 




(1908) 
















Russia . 


126,169,000 


8 


J7.564 


15 


27 


34 


1 1391 


1 4,672,92b 




(1908) 
















Spam .... 


19,712,000 


2 


9845 


1 


2 


1 


1 4923 


1 9,856,000 




(1908) 
















Sweden 


5,377,000 


1 


2056 


1 


3 


3 


1 685 


1 1,792,333 




(1907) 
















United States 


90,000,000 


22 


87,433 


66 


106 


48 


1 825 


1 849,056 




(1910) 
















Totals . 


516,543,000 


73 


278,164 


206 


301 


4 1 


1 897 


1 1,666,268 



45 



GEOLOGY 



GEOLOGY 



The average geologic staff for the 73 univer- 
sities is 4 1 The largest staff numbers 17. 
The average ratio of geologic teachers to stu- 
dents in the whole 73 universities is 1 : 897. 
The best ratio in a single university is 1 . 250. 
The ratio in the university that has the largest 
staff is 1:412 

An inspection of similar data for previous 
years shows that there has been a very rapid 
increase in the provisions for geological in- 
struction, particularly in the United States 

Educational Methods Geological educa- 
tion takes on two distinct phases, (1) instruc- 
tion at the institution and (2) training m the 
field The intramural work takes the form of 
lectures, class discussions, quizzes, conferences, 
personal work, seminars, arid clubs Lectures 
hold a large place and must apparently con- 
tinue to do so in those branches where the 
material of instruction is not yet well organized 
Systematic quizzes arc used by many teachers 
as a supplement to lectures Class discussion 
and group conferences are felt by many to be 
the most efficient mode of training when the 
subject matter is in suitable form Confer- 
ences are particularly applicable to map study 
where only small groups are permissible Per- 
sonal instruction where the work can be made 
individual, as m laboratory, experimental, and 
thesis work, is widely employed. Seminars 
for advanced work and clubs for reports of 
individual work, critiques, discussions, lectures 
not m course, especially lectures by visiting 
geologists, are valuable adjuncts. Courses 
m drawing and m graphic work arc given in 
some universities (2) Field work is a dis- 
tinctive feature of the most effective geologic 
training This falls into two classes, the cir- 
cum-institutional and the remote The first 
is often immediately associated with the class- 
room courses and is then arranged so as to fit 
in with the program of the latter It is also 
arranged independently into systematic courses 
occupying certain days of the week Occasional 
excursions, not exceeding a day's duration, fall 
into the circum-mstitutional class. The dis- 
tant field work is handled in a more varied way. 
Often it consists only of special excursions of 
a few days' duration, which are stimulative 
but not adapted to close training. Of the more 
systematic work a three-course system is 
perhaps the best representative in actual use 
(1) In this, the first course is shaped to follow 
the earlier classroom courses It consists of 
a systematic study of a selected area in the 
manner of official geological surveys, and is 
followed by a report on the work by each 
student participating The time ranges from 
a month upward, and the area is preferably one 
of the quiet type, not too plainly exposed, nor 
too intricate, suited to promote careful search 
for data and yet to yield decisive results to 
diligent students (2) The second course con- 
sists preferably of work on a larger, more com- 
plex, and more impressive area suited to develop 



46 



larger and more intricate conceptions, and to 
be the basis of reports of a broader type, 
Both these courses are under the immediate 
direction of competent leaders, and the num- 
bers participating arc limited to those whose 
work can be individually supervised. (3) The 
third course is individual, arid is often the basis 
of the Doctor's thesis The selection of the 
area, the plan of work, the choice of problems, 
and the style of report are chosen by the student 
under the criticism of the specialist m the line 
chosen, original independent work being here 
the chief end sought The report is expected 
to be elaborate and presumed to be repre- 
sentative of the student's best capabilities 

Special courses in topographic and geologic 
mapping are given in the best institutions, 
sometimes m connection with these field courses, 
arid sometimes independently Special pale- 
ontological or other specific field courses are 
sometimes given Incidentally, field work is 
often done m vacations in connection with 
official or other geological surveys 

The advanced work in geology is chiefly 
done in the graduate schools In the standard 
institutions it involves at least three years' 
work in addition to the more general and ele- 
mentary work of the undergraduate courses 
Theses of three kinds are prepared, though 
rarely all m the same institution, one prelimi- 
nary to the Bachelor's degree at the close of 
the undergraduate course, one preliminary 
to the Master's degree after one or more years 
of graduate work, and one prerequisite to the 
Doctor's degree for which three years of gradu- 
ate work is usually required 

Appliances Equipment for geological 
work centers upon an effort to bring nature 
as close to the student as possible, and, next 
after field work, three classes of appliances are 
resorted to- (1) actual samples, (2) models, 
and (3) photographs Collections more or 
less vaneo! and extensive aie common posses- 
sions. Practice varies in the emphasis laid 
on museum exhibits and on classroom and 
laboratory collections respectively; a merely 
synoptic exhibit in the museum, to give dis- 
tinct impressions of the types, and large work- 
ing collections and illustrative collections in 
drawers and in the classrooms and laboratories 
are urged by some experienced teachers A 
museum so located that the students are 
naturally brought into constant contact with 
it is also urged Models play a large part m 
a satisfactory equipment, especially relief 
models and raised maps Photographic art 
has made valuable contributions here as in 
other sciences, ample collections of photographs 
systematically arranged for study, photographic 
wall exhibits and transparencies, and especially 
lantern slides with lantern fixtures ready for 
prompt use as required are indispensable ad- 
juncts. 

For special classes of work the requisites for 
efficiency generally possessed by the standard 



GEOMETRY 



GEOMETRY 



universities include: For mineralogical, petro- 
logic, structural, and paleontological work, 
laboratories and laboratory appliances, em- 
bracing working collections, models, testing 
tools, blowpipe outfits, chemicals, rock-slicing 
machines, microscopes, goniometers, photo- 
graphic and other appliances; for map study, 
conference tables and map stacks in cases that 
facilitate access; for classroom work, wall 
exhibits of maps, sections, photographs, trans- 
parencies, globes, plain and in relief, with ample 
lantern outfit: for museum study, exhibit 
collections and drawer collections in various 
lines; for all classes of study an ample library 
well supplied with maps and preferably or- 
ganized as a departmental libiary, well situated 
in the midst of the geologic rooms and used as 
the students' working home 

Educational Literature The available 
literary material m the geological sciences has 
been greatly enriched in recent years Re- 
visions of standard works have been frequent 
and new treatises have been added at short 
intervals The formulated literature of the 
science in its more general aspects does not lag 
far behind the science itself These formal 
educational works are .supplemented by geo- 
logical journals, some of which aie published 
under the auspices of educational institutions 
and are edited with a special view to educa- 
tional service Bulletins giving the results 
of researches are published by some univer- 
sities In the bioadei educational sense, the 
numerous official surveys are effective agencies 
and their reports are a leading source of work- 
ing material Some of these leports are es- 
pecially shaped for educational purposes So, 
too, the geological societies, both in themsehes 
and in their publications, are great educational 
aids, especially in that they are a means of 
education of the educators, a function of the 
most ladical value T C C 

References : 

AbAHhii, L J 11 JBibliufjruphw Zooloym tt Gfofogur, 
a gtnital Cntaloyuc of Boohb on Zoology and Geol- 
ogy Knt & Kd b\ Strickland, II E , and Jurdmo, 
Sir Win (Ray Society Public, London, 1848- 
1864) 

COTTA, B VON Geolog inches Rt jwitvrium, ni Hi itrttge zur 
Gettchichtf dd Geologic (Leipzig, 1877 ) 

D'ARCHIAC, E J A D DE ST S Histouc da> Proves 
de In Geologic (Pans, 1847-1849 ) 

GEIKIK, SIH A Foundir* of (holoytj (London, 

1900) 
Encyclopedia Bntanniia, 1 1th od , s \ Gtologi/ 

HOFFMANN, F Gexchichtc d(r Gfognome (Boilin, 
1838 ) 

Intel national (ieolotfical CoiiKivsh Catalo(ju( (/r,s 13ib- 
hogrtiphit'K gtologujm** (Parib, 1896 ) 

KEI-KRHTKIN, C Gcxchuhtc und Jjikmtut da GiogmtMt 
(Halle, 1840 ) 

VON ZITTEL, K A Gewhuhte dtr Gtoloyic und Pnl- 
itontologie (Munich, 1899), tr by Ogihie- 
Gordon (London, 1901 ) 

GEOMETRY. Etymologically the word 
means earth measure, from the Greek yJ, gc, 
earth 4- /xcrpov, metron, measure It has come, 
however, to mean the general science of form, 



47 



the words "surveying" and "geodesy" being 
applied to the measuring of the earth 

History of Geometry The earliest doc- 
uments relating to geometry come to us 
from Babylon and Egypt Those from Baby- 
lon arc written on small clav tablets, some of 
them about the size of the hand, these tablets 
afterwards having been baked in the sun 
They show that the Babylonians of that period 
know something of land measures, and perhaps 
had advanced far enough to compute the area 
of a trape/oid For the mensuration of the 
circle they later used, as did the early Hebrews, 
the value TT = 3 A tablet in the British 
Museum shows that they also used such geo- 
metric forms as triangles and circulai segments 
in astrology or as talismans, and a stone 
astrolabe in the same collection shows that 
they knew something of angle measure 

The Egyptians must have had a fair knowl- 
edge of practical geometry long before the 
date of any mathematical treatise that has 
come down to us, for the building of the pyra- 
mids, between 3000 and 2400 B c , required 
the application of several geometric principles 
Some knowledge of surveying must also have 
been necessary to carry out the extensive 
plans for irrigation that were executed under 
Ameriemhat III, about 2200 uc 

The first definite knowledge of Egyptian math- 
ematics is based on a manuscript copied on papy- 
rus, a kind of paper used about the Mediterranean 
in early times This copy was made by one 
Aah-mesu (The Moon-born), commonly called 
Ahrnes (qv), who probably flourished about 
1 700 B c The original from which he copied, 
written about 2300 B c , has been lost, but the 
papyrus of Ahmes, written nearly four thou- 
sand years ago, is still preserved, and is now in 
the British Museum In this manuscript, 
which is devoted chiefly to fractions and to a 
crude algebra, is found some work on inensu- 
lation Among the curious rules are the in- 
correct ones that the area of an isosceles triangle 
equals half the product of the base and one of 
the equal sides, and that the area of a trape- 
zoid having bases b, //, and the nonparallel 
sides each equal to , is \ a (b -f 6') One 
noteworthy advance appears, however Ahmes 
gives a rule for finding the area of a circle, sub- 
stantially as follows. Multiply the square on 
the radius by (V) 2 , which is equivalent to 
taking for TT the ^ alue 31605' This 
papyrus also contains some treatment of the 
mensuration of solids, particularly with refer- 
ence to the capacity of granaries There is 
also some slight mention of similar figures, and 
an extensive treatment of unit fractions, 
fractions that were quite universal among the 
ancients (See FRACTIONS ) Herodotus tells 
us that Sesostris, king of Egypt, divided the 
land among his people and marked out the 
boundaries after the overflow of the Nile, so 
that surveying must have been well known in 
his day. Indeed, the harpedonaptce, or rope 



GEOMETRY 



GEOMETRY 



stretchers, acquired their name because they 
stretched cords in which were knots, so as to 
t make the right triangle 3, 4, 5, when they 
wished to erect a perpendicular This is a 
plan occasionally used by surveyors to-day, 
and it shows that the practical application of 
the Pythagorean theorem was known long 
before Pythagoras gave what seems to have 
been the first general proof of the proposition. 
From Egypt, and possibly from Babylon, 
geometry passed to Asia Minor and Greece 
The scientific study of the subject begins with 
Thales (qv). How elementary the knowledge 
of geometry then was may be understood from 
the fact that tradition attributes to him only 
about four propositions The greatest pupil of 
Thales, and one of the most remarkable men 
of antiquity, was Pythagoras (qv) In geome- 
try he is said to have been the first to demon- 
strate the proposition that the square on the 
hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares 
upon the other two sides of a right triangle 
The proposition was known in India and 
Egypt before hih tnno, at any rate for special 
cases, but he seems to have been the first to 
prove it To him or to his school seems also 
to have been due the construction of the regu- 
lar pentagon and of the five regular poly- 
hedrons Pythagoras is also said to have 
known that six equilateral triangles, three 
regular hexagons, or four squares, can be placed 
about a point so as just to fill the 300, but 
that no other regular polygons can be so placed 
To his school is also due the proof for the 
general case that the sum of the angles of a 
triangle equals two right angles 

For two centuries after Pythagoras geometry 
passed through a period of discovery of propo- 
sitions The state of the science may be seen 
from the fact that Oonopides of Chios, who 
flourished about 465 B r , and who had studied 
in Egypt, was celebrated because he showed 
how to let fall a perpendicular to a line, and 
how to make an angle equal to a given angle 
A few years later, about 440 B c , Hippocrates 
of Chios wrote the iirst Greek textbook on 
mathematics. He knew that the areas of 
circles were proportional to the squares on 
their radii, but was ignorant of the fact that 
equal central angles or equal inscribed angles 
intercept equal arcs Antiphon and Bryson, 
two Greek scholars, flourished about 430 B r 
The former attempted to find the area of a 
circle by doubling the number of sides of a 
regular inscribed polygon, and the latter by 
doing the same for both inscribed and circum- 
scribed polygons They thus approximately 
exhausted the area between the polygon and 
the circle, and hence this method is known as 
the method of exhaustions About 420 B.C 
Hippias of Elis invented a certain curve called 
the quadratrix, by means of which he could 
square the circle and trisect any angle. This 
curve cannot be constructed by the unmarked 
straightedge and the compasses, and when we 



48 



say that it is impossible to square the circle or 
to trisect any angle, we mean that it is im- 
possible by the help of these two instruments 
alone 

During this period the great philosophic 
school of Plato (429-348 B c ) flourished at 
Athens, and to this school is due the first 
systematic attempt to create exact definitions, 
axioms, and postulates, and to distinguish 
between elementary and higher geometry It 
was at this time that elementary geometry 
became limited to the use of the compasses and 
the unmarked straightedge, which took from 
this domain the possibility of constructing a 
square equivalent to a given circle (" squaring 
the circle "), of trisecting any given angle, and 
of constructing a cube that should have twice 
the volume of a given cube (" duplicating the 
cube "), these being the three famous problems 
of antiquity One of Plato's pupils was Philip- 
pus of Mende, in Egypt, who flourished about 
380 B r It is said that he discovered the 
proposition relating to the exterior angle of a 
triangle His interest, however, was chiefly in 
astronomy Another of Plato's pupils was 
Eudoxus of Cnidus (408-355 B r ) He elabo- 
rated the theory of proportion, placing it upon 
a thoroughly scientific foundation It is prob- 
able that Book V of Euclid, which is devoted 
to proportion, is essentially the work of Eudoxus. 

The first great textbook on geometry, and 
the greatest one that lias ever appeared, was 
written by Euclid (q v ) In his work Euclid 
placed all of the leading propositions of plane 
geometry then known, and arranged them in a 
logical order Mo? *, geometries of any im- 
portance written since his time have been 
based upon Euclid, improving the sequence, 
symbols, and wording as occasion demanded 

The Greeks contributed little more to ele- 
mentary geometry, although Apollomus of 
Perga (q v ), who taught at Alexandria between 
250 and 200 B c , wrote extensively on conic 
sections, and Hypsicles of Alexandria, about 
190 B.C , wrote on regular polyhedrons Hyp- 
siclcs was the first Greek writer who is known 
to have used sexagesimal fractions, the 
degrees, minutes, and seconds of our angle 
measure Zenodorus (180 B r ) wrote on iso- 
perimetnc figures, and his contemporary, Nico- 
rnedcs of Gerasa, invented a curve known a> 
the conchoid, by means of which he could 
trisect any angle Another contemporary, 
Diocles, invented the cissoid, or ivy-shaped 
curve, by means of which he solved the famous 
problem of duplicating the cube; that is, of 
constructing a cube that should have twice 
the volume of a given cube 

The greatest of the Greek astronomers, 
Hipparchus (q v , 180-125 B c ), lived about 
this period, and with him begins spherical 
trigonometry as a definite science A kind of 
plane trigonometry had been known to the 
ancient Egyptians The Greeks usually em- 
ployed the chord of an angle instead of the 



GEOMETRY 



GEOMETRY 



half chord (sine), the lattrr having been pre- 
ferred by the later Arab writers The most 
celebrated of the later Greek physicists was 
Heron of Alexandria (qv), formerly supposed 
to have lived about 100 B r , but now assigned 
to the first century A.D His contribution to 
geometry was the formula for the area of a 
triangle in terms of its sides a, 6, and r, with s 
standing for the semi pen meter ^ (a_ -f b -f c) 

The formula is V( a) (x ~~ b) (* 
Probably nearly contemporary with Heron 
was Menelaus of Alexandria, who wrote a 
spherical trigonometry He gave an interest- 
ing proposition relating to plane and spherical 
triangles, their sides being cut by a transversal 
For the plane triangle ABC, the sides a, /;, 
and c being cut respectively in X, Y, and Z, 
the theorem asserts substantially that 



AZ BX 

BZ ex 



CY 
A Y 



1. 



The most popular writer on astronomy 
among the Greeks was Ptolemy (Claudius 
Ptolemseus, q v , 87-165 AD), who lived at 
\lexandria He wrote a work entitled Megale 
Ri/ntaxis (The Great Collection), which his fol- 
lowers designated as Megixtox (greatest), on 
which account the Arab translators gave it the 
name Almagest (al meaning " the ") He ad- 
\anced the science of trigonometry, but did 
not contribute to geometry At the close of 
the third century Pappus of Alexandria (q v ) 
wrote on geometry Only two other Greek 
writers need be mentioned Theon of Alexan- 
dria (370 \ D , qv), the father of the Hypatia 
(qv ) who is the heroine of Charles Kingsley's 
well-known novel, wrote a commentary on 
Euclid to which we are indebted for some his- 
torical information Proclus (412-485 \ D , 
q v ) also wrote a commentary on Euclid, and 
much of our infoimation concerning the first 
Book of Euclid is due to him 

The East did little for geometry, although 
contributing considerably to algebra The 
first great Hindu writer was Aryabhatta (q v ), 
who was born in 476 A D He, or a later name- 
sake of his, gave the very close approximation 
for TT, expressed in modern notation as 3 1416 
He also gave rules for finding the volume of 
the pyramid and sphere, but they were incor- 
rect, showing that the Greek mathematics had 
not yet reached the Ganges Another Hindu 
writer, Brahmagupta (born in 598 AD, qv), 
wrote an encyclopedia of mathematics He 
gave a rule for finding Pythagorean numbers, 
expressed in modern symbols as follows. 



He also generalized Heron's formula by assert- 
ing that the area of an inscribed quadrilateral 
of sides a, b, c, d, and semiperimetcr ,v, is 

~~~~~ "" 



The Arabs did much for mathematics, trans- 
lating the Greek authors into their language and 
also bringing learning from India Indeed, it is 
to them that modern Europe owed its first knowl- 
edge of Euclid They contributed nothing of 
importance to elementary geometry, however 
The greatest of the Arab writers was Moham- 
med ibn Musa al-Khowarazmi (820 A D . qv.), 
who lived at Bagdad and Damascus Although 
chiefly interested in astronomy, he wrote the 
first book bearing the name algebra (Al-gebr 
w'al-muqabala, Restoration and Equation), 
composed an arithmetic using the Hindu 
numerals, and paid much attention to geometry 
and trigonometry 

Euclid was translated from the Arabic into 
Latin in the twelfth century, Greek manu- 
scripts not being then at hand, or being neg- 
lected because of ignorance of the language 
The leading translators were Adelhard of Bath 
(1120, qv), an English monk, Gherardo of 
Cremona (1160), an Italian monk; and Johannes 
Carnpanus (1250), chaplain to Pope Urban IV 
The greatest European mathematician of 
the Middle Ages was Leonardo of Pisa (See 
FIBONACCI, LEONARDO ) He was very in- 
fluential in making the Hindu-Arabic numerals 
known in Europe He wrote extensively on 
algebra, and was the author of one book on 
geometry, but he contributed nothing to the 
elementary theory The first edition of Euclid 
was printed in Latin in 1482, the first one in 
English appearing in 1570 

There has of late arisen a modern elementary 
geometry devoted chiefly to special points and 
lines relating to the triangle and the circle, 
and many interesting propositions have been 
discovered The subject is so extensive that it 
cannot find any place in our crowded curricu- 
lum, and must necessarily be left to the special- 
ist Some idea of the nature of the work 
may be obtained from a mention of a few prop- 
ositions 

The bisectors of the various interior and exter- 
ior angles of a triangle are concurrent by threes in 
the mcenter or in one of the three excenters of the 
triangle 

The common chord of two intersecting circles is 
a special case of their radical axis, and tangents 
to the circles from any point on the radical axis 
are equal 

If is the orthoceriter of the triangle ABC, 
and X, 7, Z are the feet of the perpendiculars 
from A,B, C respectively, and P, Q, R are the 
mid-points of a, /;, r respectively, and L, M, N 
are the mid-points of OA, OB, OC respectively, 
then the points L, M, N - P, Q, R, - X, Y, Z, 
all lie on a circle, the " nine points circle " 

Reasons for Studying Geometry It has 
always been held that geometry is studied 
because of a peculiar training and pleas- 
ure that this science gives, and that other 
sciences do not give, at least in the same degree 
With the investigations of modern psychologists 
there has come a doubt as to the value of the 



VOL in 



49 



GEOMETRY 



GEOMETRY 



ti aiiiing that it gives, and this has led many 
emotional followers of new doctrines to pro- 
claim that geometry has no such claim upon 
the pupil's time as the advocates of this value 
assert. Modern educators do not claim, how- 
ever, that geometry has no value per *e, but 
rather that the methods of presenting the sub- 
ject that have obtained in the past can be 
improved, and that certain of the values for- 
mally claimed for it do not exist. To this the 
more thoughtful teachers of the subject have 
long since assented For example, it was poor 
policy to memorize all of geometry, for this 
plan took away the pleasure of the study, and 
it did not give the pupil any power that he 
could carry over into other lines of work, save 
as he acquired facts which he could have 
obtained as well without the labor of memoriz- 
ing the proofs of Euclid. 

The advocates of a substantial geometry, 
as opposed to the mere acquisition of a few 
rules of mensuration, claim that the study of 
geometry brings great pleasure and an inspir- 
ing mental uplift, when the subject is properly 
presented They place it in this respect upon 
a plane similar to that upon which the study of 
literature and music rests. They further claim 
that through geometry a student acquires 
a knowledge of space relations that he does not 
acquire from other subjects, which knowledge 
he carries over into the study of the graphic 
and plastic arts, of geography arid astronomy, 
and of the science of mechanics They also 
assert that geometry is the onlv subject in 
the secondary curriculum that gives a specific 
training in deductive logic, and that this train- 
ing gives a habit of thought that is carried 
over into other lines of mental activity And 
finally they claim that habits of persistence, 
of using only the necessary steps in an argu- 
ment, of holding to that which is true, of seek- 
ing for exact truth, and of arranging work in 
logical order, are instilled by the study of geom- 
etry, and that these habits are unconsciously 
transferred to other fields of work In other 
words, they claim that the pleasure and the 
profit of approach to exact truth give a power 
that makes the pupil stronger in his other activ- 
ities. This claim is sanctioned by the opinions 
of most people who have studied geometry 
under a worthy teacher, and no investigations 
thus far made have shaken it. The statement 
that geometry has no value as a mental discipline 
is usually found to mean that there is no such 
thing as mental discipline as defined by the 
antagonist, to which most people would heartily 
agree 

Development of the Teaching of Geometry. 
Little is known of the teaching of geometry 
in very ancient times, but its nature can be 
inferred from the teaching that is still seen in 
the native schools of the East Here a man, 
learned in any science, will have a group of 
voluntary students sitting about him, and to 
them he will expound the truth Such schools 



50 



may still be seen in India, Persia, and China, 
the master sitting on a mat placed on the 
ground or on the floor of a veranda, and the 
pupils reading aloud or listening to his words 
of exposition 

In Greece it was taught in the schools of 
philosophy, often as a general preparation for 
philosophic study Thus Thales introduced 
it into his Ionian school, Pythagoras made it 
very prominent in his great school at Crotona 
in southern Italy (Magna Grsecia), and Plato 
placed above the door of his Acadeima the words, 
" Let no one ignorant of geometry enter here " 
a kind of entrance examination for his 
school of philosophy. In these gatherings of 
students it is probable that geometry was 
taught in much the same way as that already 
mentioned for the schools of the East, a small 
group of students being instructed by a master. 
But with these crude materials there went an 
abundance of time, so that a number of great 
results were accomplished in spite of the diffi- 
culties attending the study of the subject. It 
is said that Hippocrates of Chios (c 440 B r ) 
wrote the first elementary textbook on mathe- 
matics and invented the method of geometric 
reduction, the replacing of a proposition to be 
proved by another, which, when proved, allows 
the first one to be demonstrated A little 
later Eudoxus of Cmdus (r 375 B c ), a pupil 
of Plato's, used the red net 10 ad absurd unt, 
and Plato is said to have invented the method 
of proof by analysis, an elaboration of the plan 
used by Hippocrates Thus these early phi- 
losophers taught their pupils, not facts alone, 
but methods of proof, giving them power as 
well as knowledge. Furthermore, they taught 
them how to discuss their problems, investigat- 
ing the conditions under which they are capable 
of solution This feature of the work they 
called the dwrismus, and it seems to have 
started with Leon, a follower of Plato Be- 
tween the tune of Plato (c 400 B c ) and Euclid 
(c 300 B c ) several attempts were made to 
arrange the accumulated material of elementary 
geometry in a textbook Plato had laid the 
foundations for the science, in the form of 
axioms, postulates, and definitions, and he had 
limited the instruments to the straightedge 
and the compasses Aristotle (c 350 B c ) 
had paid special attention to the history of the 
subject, thus finding out what had 'already 
been accomplished, and had also made much 
of the applications of geometry 

Of the other Greek teachers there is but little 
information as to methods of imparting in- 
struction It is not until the Middle ^gea 
that much is known in this line Whatever 
of geometry was taught seems to have been 
imparted by word of mouth in the way of 
expounding Euclid, and this was done in the 
ancient fashion. The early Church leaders 
usually paid no attention to geometry, but as 
time progressed the quadrwium, or four sciences 
of arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy, 



GEOMETRY 



GEOMETRY 



came to rank with the tnvium (grammar, 
rhetoric, dialectics), the two making up the 
seven liberal arts (q.v.). All that there was 
of geometry in the first thousand years of 
Christianity, however, at least in the great 
majority of Church schools, was summed up 
m a few definitions and rules of mensuration. 
Gerbert (qv.), who became Pope Sylvester II 
in 999 A D , gave a new impetus to geometry 
by discovering a manuscript of the old Roman 
surveyors and a copy of the geometry of 
Boethius (q.v ) who paraphrased Euclid about 
500 A. p. He thereupon wrote a brief geometry, 
and his elevation to the papal chair tended to 
bring the study of mathematics again into 
prominence 

Geometry now began to have some place 
m the Church schools, naturally the only 
schools of high rank in the Middle Ages The 
study of the subject, however, seems to have 
been merely a matter of memorizing Geom- 
etry received another impetus in the book 
written by Leonardo of Pisa (see FIBONACCI, 
LEONARDO) in 1220, the Practica Geometries 
Euclid was also translated into Latin about 
this time (strangely enough, as already stated, 
from the Arabic instead of the Greek), and 
thus the treasury of elementary geometry was 
opened to scholars in Europe From now on, 
until the invention of printing (c 1450), 
numerous writers on geometry appear, but 
so far as is known the method of instruction 
remained much as it had always been The 
universities began to appear about the thir- 
teenth century, and Sacrobosco (qv), a well- 
known medieval mathematician, taught mathe- 
matics about 1250 in the University of Paris 
In 1336 this university decreed that mathe- 
matics should be required for a degree In 
the thirteenth century Oxford required six 
books of Euclid for one who was to teach, 
but this amount of work seems to have been 
merely nominal, for in 1450 only two books 
were actually read The universities of Prague 
(founded in 1350) and Vienna (Statute* of 1389) 
required most of plane geometry for the 
teacher's license, although Vienna demanded 
but one book for the bachelor's degree So, 
in general, the universities of the thirteenth, 
fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries required 
less for the degree of master of arts than is now 
required from a pupil in American high schools 
On the other hand, the university students 
were younger than now, and were really doing 
only high school work 

The invention of printing made possible the 
study of geometry in a new fashion Jt now 
became possible for any one to study from a 
book, whereas before this time instruction was 
chiefly by word of mouth, consisting of an ex- 
planation of Euclid The first Euclid was 
printed in 1482, at Venice, and new editions 
and variations of this text came out frequently 
in the next century. Practical geometries be- 
came very popular, and the reaction against 



the idea of mental discipline threatened to 
abolish the old style of text Such writers as 
Finseus (1556), Bartoh (1589), Belli (1569), 
and Cataneo (1567), m the sixteenth century, 
and Capra (1673), Gargiolli (1655), and many 
others in the seventeenth century, either 
directly or mferentially took this attitude 
towards the subject 

The study of geometry in the secondary 
schools is relatively recent The Gymnasium 
at Nuremberg, founded in 1526, and the Cathe- 
dral school at Wurttemberg (as shown by the 
curriculum of 1556), seem to have had no 
geometry before 1600, although the Gvmnasium 
at Strassburg included some of this branch 
of mathematics in 1578, and an elective course 
m geometry was offered at Zwickau, in Saxony, 
in 1521. In the seventeenth century geometry 
is found m a considerable number of secondary 
schools, as at Coburg (1605), Kurpfalz (1615, 
elective), Erfurt (1643), Gotha (1605), Giessen 
(1605), and numerous other places in Germany, 
although it appeared but rarely in the secondary 
schools of France before the eighteenth century, 
In Germany the Reahchulen came into being 
in the eighteenth century, and considerable 
effort was made to construct a course in geom- 
etry that should be more practical than tha> 
of the modified Euclid At the opening of t! 
nineteenth centurv the Prussian schools we*^ 
reorganized, and from that time 011 geometry 
has had a firm position in the secondary schools 
of all Germany In the eighteenth eentu*;, 
some excellent textbooks on geometrv appeared 
in France, among the best being that of Le- 
gendre (1794), which influenced in such a 
marked degree the geometries of Amenca 
Soon after the opening of the nineteenth cen- 
tury the lycees of France became strong in- 
stitutions, and geometry, chiefly based on 
Legendre, was well taught in the mathemat- 
ical divisions A worthy rival of Legendre V 
geometry was the work of Lacroix, who called 
attention continually to the analogy between 
the theorems of plane and solid geometry, and 
even went so far as to suggest treating the 
related propositions together in certain cases , 

In England the secondarv schools, such as 
Rugby, Harrow, and Eton, did not commonly 
teach geometry until quite recently, leaving this 
work for the universities In Christ's Hospital, 
London, however, geometry was taught as early 
as 1681, from a work written by several teachers 
of prominence The highest class at Harrow 
studied " Euclid and vulgar fractions " one 
period a week m 1829, but geometrv was not 
seriously studied before 1837 In the Edinburgh 
Academy as early as 1835, and in Rugby by 
1839, plane geometry was completed 

Not until 1844 did Harvard require any 
plane geometry for entrance In 1855 Yale 
required only two books of Euclid It was 
therefore from 1850 to 1875 that plane geom- 
etry took its definite place in the American 
secondary school 



51 



GEOMETRY 



GEOMETRY 



Present Status of the Teaching of Geom- 
etry Plane geometry is now commonly 
taught in the United States in the tenth 
school year, the second year of a four-year 
high school This is usually followed by a 
half year of solid geometry, frequently elec- 
tive. It is not the universal custom to finish 
all of plane geometry in a single year, although 
this is done in many of the best schools, and it 
probably represents the future curriculum as 
to the amount of time to be allowed to the sub- 
ject There is at present a tendency to reduce 
the number of basal propositions and to in- 
crease the number of exercises, so as to give 
a student more opportunity for independent 
work The Eastern colleges do not require 
solid geometry for entrance to the arts course, 
while the Western ones frequently do require it 
This means that more work is covered in plane 
geometry in the secondary schools of the Eastern 
states, the amount of time spent on the entire 
subject of geometry being about the same 
From every standpoint it would be better that 
a pupil should sacrifice some of plane geometry 
for the purpose of having an introduction to 
solid geometry, if he could acquire the latter 
only in this manner. 

Certain attempts have been made to teach 
algebra and geometry simultaneously, or even 
to fuse them into a single subject This has 
usually met with only sporadrc success That 
the foreign schools have usually run geometry 
over several years, as opposed to the American 
plan, is liable to be misunderstood Where 
serious demonstrative geometry has been begun 
early and extended over several years, the 
results have not been satisfactory Usually 
the early geometry has been mere mensuration, 
a subject that is taught in the American arith- 
metic, and that is coming to be very satis- 
factorily taught It may therefore be said that 
in America geometry extends over several years, 
culminating in a year or a year and a half of 
serious demonstrative work As to the fusing 
of the two subjects of algebra and geometry 
in one, this seems destined to meet with success 
only m schools in which nothing but a little 
practical geometry is studied 

The question of the nature of the textbook 
is one that is periodically agitated Several 
types have been suggested: (1) A book with 
the basal proofs substantially in full, to serve 
as models, and a large number of well-graded 
exercises for original work; (2) a syllabus 
of basal propositions; (3) a book of suggested 
proofs, heuristic in nature Of these the first 
has been the one almost universally used, the 
objections to it having little force with a good 
teacher, and the other forms being useless with 
a poor teacher 

Reforms and Improvements. Numerous 
reforms and improvements are being suggested 
for the treatment of geometry at the present 
time, and a few of these will be mentioned. 
(1) That geometry and algebra be fused into 



a single subject, an effort that takes no ac- 
count of the fact that the two subjects are 
distinct in purpose, in results, and in diffi- 
culty, and that each has a peculiar interest 
that is lost when it sacrifices its individuality 
(2) That the two subjects be taught simultane- 
ously, two days of one and three of the other 
during each school week This has often been 
tried in the United States, but in the main with 
unsatisfactory results Psychologically the 
argument is that the pupil is not mature enough 
for this plan, his interest being better main- 
tained by concentrating his energy on either 
the one or the other The argument that he 
would see the relation of one science to the other 
better by the simultaneous than the tandem 
arrangement is offset by the custom of the best 
teachers to bring into algebra as much of the 
mensuration learned in arithmetic as possible, 
and to introduce into geometry as many appli- 
cations of algebra as seem adapted to this pur- 
pose (3) That geometry be converted into 
an applied science, joining the general industrial 
movement of the present This would mean 
that geometry would cease to exist, since the 
applications of the subject are merely the rules 
of mensuration learned in arithmetic, and 
learned bv a natural form of induction If 
geometry were abolished it would be possible 
to introduce other lines of mathematics, such 
as trigonometry (which requires only very 
little geometry), calculus (which requires prac- 
tically no geometry beyond elementary men- 
suration for a large number of its applications), 
and some little work in the practical pioblems 
of vector analysis Foi the great majority 
of students this seems unwise, since they have 
little interest in these applications, but in 
certain forms of technical high schools such an 
arrangement may prove necessary (4) That 
algebra be taught for a half vear, followed by 
geometry for the same length of time, and tins 
by another half year of algebra, followed again 
by a half year of geometry This plan has 
certain advantages over the year arrangement, 
but as yet it has to justify itself, the general 
feeling being that the pupil would lose more 
in immediate interest in a topic than he would 
gain in sustained interest in mathematics as 
a whole 

While these suggestions for reform are open 
to question, other reforms are meeting with 
general acceptance and are improving the cur- 
rent teaching of geometry (1) It is universally 
agreed that Euclid is undesirable as a text- 
book for beginners, and, even in England 
where it has so long been the standard, it is 
now superseded by books more suited to the 
youthful mind. (2) The propositions of the 
textbook are coming to be considered more in 
the light of basal truths, and the proofs as 
models, and the serious work of the pupils is 
coming to be more and more in the realm of 
exercises (3) The exercises are coming to 
be more carefully grouped and graded. 



52 



GEOMETRY, ANALYTIC 



GEORGE JUNIOR REPUBLIC 



(4) Such legitimate applications as can be found, 
and as give interest to the study of geometry, 
are being sought for and introduced 

(5) More attention is being given to geometric 
design, so long as this does not detract from 
the scientific work. (6) In brief, serious effort 
is being made to make geometry more interest- 
ing and useful, and to recognize its game ele- 
ment and its utility, without destroying the 
values that have long made it a recognized 
standard subject in the curriculum 

D E S 
References : 

On the History of Geometry consult 

ALLMAN, G J Greek Geometry from Thales to Euclid 
(London, 1889) 

BALL, W W H History of Mathematics (London, 
1908 ) 

CAJORI, F History of Mathematics (Now York, 

1890) 

History of Elementary Mathematics (New York, 
1897) 

CANTOR, M Gexchichtr der Mathematik (Leipzig, 
various editions, 1880 1 ( )08 ) 

FINK, K History of Mathematics (Chicago, 1903 ) 

Fit \NKLAND, W S The Firs/ Boole of Euclid's Ele- 
ments (Ciimbridgo, 1901 ) 
Theories of Parallelism (Cambridge, 1909 ) 

Gow, J History of Greek Mathematics (Cambridge, 
1884) 

HEATH, T L The Thirteen Books of Euclid'* Ele- 
ments (Cambridge, 1908) 

Other standard works on the history of mathematics 

On the Teaching of Geometry consult 

HUANKORD, B A Study of Mathematical Education 

(Oxford, 1908 ) 

SMITH, D E Teaching of Geometry (Boston, 1911 ) 
Teaching of Elemental y Mathematics (New York, 

1900) 
YOUNG, J W A The Teaching of Mathematics 

(New York, 1907) 

On the Foundations of Geometry consult 

CAKUH, P Foundations of Mathematics (Chicago, 

1908) 
HILBERT, D Foundations of Geometry (Chicago, 

1902 ) 
RUHSELL, B Foundations of Geometry (Cambridge, 

1906) 

GEOMETRY, ANALYTIC. See ANA- 
LYTIC GEOMETRY 



GEORGE III 



See LANCASTER, JOSEPH 



GEORGE JUNIOR REPUBLIC, FREE- 
VILLE, N.Y An organization of boys and 
girls modeled on the government of the United 
States It arose out of the summer camps 
first begun in 1890 by Mr William R George, 
who had for several years studied the " boy 
problem " among the New York street urchins 
One experience after another with the worst 
type of city boys who regarded charity as their 
right, who had no moral sense, whose chief 
aim was to secure something for nothing, led 
Mr. George from one system of control to an- 
other, until he recognized that boys, and girls 
too, must own something which they valued, 
that the basis of government is property, that 
there should be nothing without labor, and that 



his small community must learn to govern 
itself. The permanent Republic was launched 
in the summer of 1895, five boys remaining 
with Mr George after summer camp This 
number gradually rose until now the village 
numbers about 150 citizens In 1896 the 
George Junior Republic Association was in- 
corporated and a farm was purchased The 
government was placed in the hands of the 
community, a president, vice-president, judge, 
chief of police, secretary of state, and secretary 
of the treasury, and a legislature were elected, 
important practical questions arose and were 
settled, such as the question of currency, 
woman's suffrage, and trusts When it was 
found that the members of the legislature were 
not always disinterested, a monthly town 
meeting was substituted In all other respects 
the village is a copy in miniature of the outside 
world with its trade, commerce, and industries. 
The citizens are drawn from all classes; boys 
and girls committed by sentence of a court, 
wayward juveniles sent by their parents, boys 
and girls who come voluntarily to the Re- 
public to find there a start which is so difficult 
for them outside But there are no distinctions 
of class, all must work to support themselves 
or bo maintained in the workhouse or jail, 
whore they aro compelled to labor The chief 
industries of the Republic are farming, car- 
pentry, plumbing, printing, baking, road- 
mending and building, laundry and domestic 
work for the girls The community is housed 
in ton cottages arid hotels, and is provided with 
board and lodging according to their means 
There is a special currency and a bank, the 
savings may be redeemed in United States 
currency on leaving the village A school is 
maintained which provides instruction up to 
college entrance requirements There is a 
chapel in which each denomination has its own 
service An interesting feature of the Republic 
is the court in which offenders are tried by a 
jury of then peers, the judge is an elected 
officer Law-breakers may be fined or im- 
prisoned in the jail which adjoins the court 
Mr George attributes the success of the ex- 
periment to the absence of an adult-manu- 
factured system Those characteristics which 
mark boy and girl life generally are seized upon 
as the foundation There is no adult inter- 
ference with the exception that the larger in- 
dustrial undertakings are m the charge of adult 
and experienced helpers, while the spirit of 
home life is introduced into the cottages by the 
presence of adult proprietors The institution 
is maintained through payment for board by 
parents, guardians, societies, or county officials, 
annual contributions, a small endowment, 
payment towards teachers' salaries from the 
State Education Department, and income from 
sales of products made by the citizens The 
success of the institution is evidenced by the 
fact that of those who have been through the 
Republic only about two per cent have turned 



GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY 



GEORGIA 



out to be failures, while the rest are to be found 
in all walks of life, a few having proceeded to 
Cornell, Harvard, Columbia, and other colleges. 
In 1908 the National Association of Junior 
Republics was formed to encourage the estab- 
lishment of republics in other parts of the 
country The Carter Republic at Redmgton, 
Pa , and the National Republic at Annapolis 
Junction, Md , may be mentioned as carrying 
out work on the same principle as the George 
Junior Republic 

References : 
ABBOTT, L A Republic in thp Republic Outlook, 

Vol LXXXVIII, 1908, pp 350-354 
American Journal of Sociology, Vol IV, pp 281, 433, 

703 

BARRAN, R C Thr George Junior Republic Nine- 
teenth Century, Vol LXV, 1909, pp 502-508 
GEORGE, WILLIAM R The Junior Republic, its His- 
tory and Ideals (New York, 1910 ) 

GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, 
WASHINGTON, DC The successor of the 
Columbian College of the District of Colum- 
bia, an institution chartered by Congress on 
Feb. 9, 1821 On March 3, 1873, the name 
was changed to the Columbian University and 
on Jan. 23, 1904, to The George Washing- 
ton University. The old Columbian College 
was organized and controlled by the Baptist 
denomination In 1898 the sectarian control 
was modified, the president and two thirds of 
the trustees remaining Baptist In 1904 with 
the adoption of its present name the institution 
became nonscctarian Its present board of 
trustees is a self-perpetuating body of twenty- 
two members, divided into three classes, seven 
trustees being elected each year The uni- 
versity has a department of arts and sciences 
consisting of the graduate school, the 
College of Arts and Sciences, the College of En- 
gineering and Mechanic Arts, the College of 
the Political Sciences, and Teachers College 
and professional departments of law, medicine, 
and dentistry Also it embraces the National 
College of Pharmacy and the College of 
Veterinary Medicine, institutions organized 
under its charter as separate corporations with 
independent financial foundations but educa- 
tionally parts of the university The en- 
dowment of the university has through past 
administration been greatly impaired, the loss 
in it being now covered adequately but unpro- 
ductively by a deed of trust on the medical 
school and the hospital buildings The uni- 
versity is therefore to a great extent dependent 
financially on tuition fees and subscriptions 
pledged by friends The instructing staff, 1910- 
1911, numbered 176, but m many instances 
members of it give only part time to the uni- 
versity. The students', 1910-1911, were 1277, 
divided, including 13 duplicates, as follows 
Graduate School 54, College of Arts and 
Sciences 281, College of Engineering and Me- 
chanic Arts 176, College of the Political 
Sciences 77, Teachers College 93; Dcpart- 



54 



mcnt of Law 343, Department of Medicine 98, 
Department of Dentistry 40, National College 
of Pharmacy 63, College of Veterinary Medi- 
cine 65. C. H. S. 

GEORGETOWN COLLEGE, GEORGE- 
TOWN, KY A coeducational institution 
established in 1829 under the auspices of the 
Kentucky Baptist Education Society Pre- 
paratory and collegiate departments are main- 
tained The entrance requirements are equiv- 
alent to some twelve points of high school work 
Degrees of Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of 
Science are conferred on completion of the re- 
quirements, which include at least one year of 
work in residence There is a faculty of twenty 
members in the college 

GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY, WASH- 
INGTON, DC See JESUS, SOCIETY OF, 
EDUCATIONAL WORK OF 

Reference : 

SHEA, J G History of Georgetown University (Wash- 
ington and New York, 1891 ) 

GEORGIA, STATE OF The southern- 
most of the original thirteen states Rati- 
fied the Federal constitution in 1788. It is 
located in the South Atlantic Division, and hah 
a land area of 58,980 square miles In size, it is 
nearly equal to the six New England States 
For administrative purposes it is divided into 
145 counties, and these arc in turn divided mtc 
cities and school districts In 1910 Georgia 
had a population of 2,609,121, with a distribu- 
tion of 44 4 persons per .square mile 

Educational History In laying out the 
original towns, considerable bodies of land were 
set aside by the trustees of the colony for the 
support of church and school Schools were 
maintained by the trustees and charitable 
friends of the colony, at Savannah and else- 
where In 1754 the crown took over the colony 
and agreed to continue the " allowance here- 
tofore usually given by the trustees to a 
Minister and two school-masters " The agiee 
ment so made waa kept until the Revolution, 
the only case on record where the Parliament 
of England supported schools in the colonies 
The most notable educational activity in the 
colony was the orphan house founded in 1739 
by the evangelist George Whiteficld (q v ), upon 
which he had expended by 1764 some 12,000 
sterling This institution was in avowed imi- 
tation of Francke's orphan house at Halle, and 
in it were taught such trades as carpentering, 
weaving, and tailoring. 

The Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel (q.v ) also gave some assistance to 
schools in the colonial days 

The first educational interest of the state as 
such was in a system of county academies. 
The constitution of 1777 provided that " schools 
shall be erected in each county, arid supported 



GEORGIA 



GEORGIA 



at the general expense of the state as the legis- 
lature shall hereafter point out " As soon as 
the Revolution was ended, the legislature char- 
tered (1783) academies for three of the counties, 
giving to each a landed endowment, and granted 
further " one thousand acres of vacant land for 
erecting free schools " in each of the remaining 
counties. The " free schools " here contem- 
plated were of the county academy type In 
1792 the land endowment was changed to 
1000 worth of confiscated property; a pro- 
vision which remained in force until 1835. 

The county academies were, in 1785, formed 
into an administrative system under the newly 
created state university. In 1784 (Feb 20) a 
state " college or seminary of learning " had 
boon chartered and endowed with 40,000 acres 
of land, being thus the first chartered of Amer- 
ican state universities (See GEORGIA, UNI- 
VERSITY OF ) In 1785 this charter was en- 
larged so as to include " as parts or members 
of the university all public schools instituted 
or to be supported by funds or public moneys " 
The Senatus Academicus of the university was 
required to advise " not only upon the affairs 
of the university, but also to remedy the de- 
fects and advance the interests of literature 
through the state in general " In pursuance of 
this end it should " recommend what kind of 
schools and academies shall be instituted, agree- 
ably to the constitution, m the several parts of 
the state, and prescribe what- branches of edu- 
cation shall be taught and inculcated "; should 
" also examine and recommend the instructors 
to be emploved in them, or appoint persons for 
that purpose " The president of the univer- 
sity was required to visit the schools regularly 
and " examine into their order and perform- 
ances " This plan, remarkable both for its 
mrlusiveness and for its centralization of au- 
thority, was in these respects never much more 
than a legislative dream The university did 
not begin work until 1800, the county acad- 
emies were too widely scattered and the frontier 
spirit of freedom too strong to allow a central 
body to exercise real control By 1820 thirty- 
one academies had been chartered In 1821 an 
" academic fund " of $250,000 was set aside, 
the income of which should be divided among 
the counties The quota of any county should 
normally go to the countv academy, but it 
might by special enactment be divided among 
certain authorized academies in the county, or 
be given to elementary education (poor school 
fund) The effect of this " academic fund " 
appears in the fact that during the next ten 
years more than three times as many acad- 
emies were chartered (107) as in the preceding 
forty years; while the next decade (1830- 
1840) saw this number more than doubled 
(256). The " academic fund " was in 1837 
transferred to the " common school fund," and 
the chartering of academies shows an immediate 
decline Some of these academies from the 
first had "female departments ", and beginning 



about 1825 a number of distinctly " feniaif 
academies " were chartered In the smaller 
places, however, coeducation was the rule 
A curriculum of 1806, probably typical of the 
best, included " English, Latin, and Greek, 
writing, arithmetic, geography, astronomy, 
mathematics, and Roman antiquities " Later, 
elementary education received increased atten- 
tion in the academies, which thus formed unti> 
the Civil War the chief dependence of the statt 
for education 

Prior to the Civil War free schooling was 
for the most part, confined to the poor and 
given to them as a charity from state and 
county " poor school funds "* In 1817 $250,000 
was set aside by the state " for the future es- 
tablishment and support of free schools through- 
out the state " The next year lots 10 and 100 
of each " surveyor's district " in about one third 
of the state were reserved " for the education of 
poor children " In 1822 the income from these 
funds was directed towards paying the tuition 
of any poor child in whatever school he might 
chance to be Special schools were neither 
established nor contemplated The working of 
this plan was at no time satisfactory, and many 
efforts were made to improve it When the 
"surplus revenue " was received from Congress 
in 1836, one third (about $350,000) was set 
aside for school purposes, and a committee was 
appointed to visit the various sections of the 
country " particularly the New England 
states " and report a plan of " common schools " 
As a result there was adopted in 1837 a thor- 
ough system of schools, free to all white chil- 
dren and supported from the income of a " com- 
mon school fund " (of nearly $1,000,000), this 
to be supplemented bv a county tax (amend- 
ment of 1838), if locally desired Whether the 
scheme was too radical a step or whether the 
panic of 1837 was too disastrous, does not now 
appear; but m 1840 the " common school " 
system gave place to a renewal of the 4< pool 
school fund " plan This was improved in 
1843, 1849, and m 1852 

Parallel with this gen end state law were to 
be found various local efforts Savannah from 
1818 and Augusta from 1821 had " free school 
societies affording education to the children of 
indigent parents " These were supported in 
part by state and county funds Glynn (1823) 
and Emanuel (1824) counties had free schools 
for needy children, Gwmnott (1826) " for the 
education of the youth of the county " Mc- 
Intosh county m 1830 had a free moving school 
The " academy funds " were in several instances 
used m connection with such free school sys- 
tems These local efforts continued more or 
less sporadically until the permanent establish- 
ment of a common school system in 1870 

In 1845 and again in 1856 efforts were made 
before the legislature to establish a general 
system of free schools; but not before 1858 was 
auy real progress made In that year there was 
elected as governor a man from the plain people 



55 



GEORGIA 



GEORGIA 



through whose influence the school fund was 
much enlarged with provision for its further 
increase, and an annual appropriation of 
$100,000 was made " for the education of the 
children of this state " This marks the dis- 
appearance of the word " poor " from his legis- 
lative enactments By this act each county 
was to adopt its own school plan; and a county 
tax was authorized The next year county 
boards of education were provided to disburse 
the funds and examine teachers As a result 
of these acts a number of counties organized 
common free school systems The war of 
course stopped this development; but the 
constitutional convention of 1861 added to the 
general educational provision, which has been 
in force since 1798, a clause authorizing the 
General Assembly " to provide for the educa- 
tion of the people " This clause was retained 
in the constitution of 1865 (contrary to the 
statement in Barnard's American Journal) 

Immediately after the war and before the rad- 
ical Reconstruction was begun, the legislature 
adopted (1866) an act establishing a " general 
system of Georgia schools " in which was pro- 
vided a state " superintendent of public edu- 
cation," free schooling for all white children, 
local taxation to supplement state funds, and 
in general, all the machinery for an efficient 
public school system The scheme was to go 
into effect in 1868 Before that time Congress 
overturned the existing state government, and 
placed in power the radical rcconstructiomsts 
In 1868 the constitutional convention (more 
than half of whom were Southern whites) 
adopted without division an explicit provision 
for " a thorough system of general education 
to be forever free to all children of the state " 
For the first time in the state schooling was 
provided for the negro 

In 1869 the State Teachers' Association was 
formed, and this body practically outlined the 
school law of 1870, which was the first public 
free-school law passed under the now constitu- 
tion The new school system did not escape 
the mismanagement which characterized the 
reconstruction period, the school funds, were 
diverted and spent, a large debt was contracted, 
and as a result, the schools were closed during 
the year 1872 In 1872 the school law was 
revised and amended, and this law lias formed 
the basis of the present school system for the 
state. In 1877 another new constitution was 
adopted, and, in this, still more explicit in- 
structions were laid down with reference to 
education. New provisions with reference to 
state and county taxation for schools were 
inserted, separate schools for the two races were 
required, the local school systems in existence 
were legalized, and an additional mandate 
was laid upon the legislature to provide " a 
thorough system of common schools," " as 
nearly uniform as practicable," for the educa- 
tion of the children of the state. Side by side 
with this general school system, established by 

56 



the law of 1870, there has grown up a series ol 
special school systems, regulated and controlled 
by local laws Chatham County (in which is 
Savannah) was the first to have a separate 
system, followed closely by the city of Colum- 
bus, both being created in 1866. In the same 
year as the new school law, 1870, Atlanta was 
created a special school system, Richmond and 
Bibb Counties following in 1872, Glynn County 
in 1873 Other cities followed, until practically 
every town of any size has its local system. 
Local taxation elsewhere practically forbidden, 
was possible in these local systems and has been 
the chief incentive to their formation Some 
of the best schools of the South are to be found 
in the counties and cities of Georgia operating 
under local and independent laws 

In 1887 the school law was revised, and a 
number of important changes made The 
preparation of all questions for teachers' ex- 
aminations was placed with the State School 
Commissioner; the election of teachers by 
county boards was changed so as to give them 
discretionary power m elections, instead of 
being required to elect those nominated by the 
district trustees, the boards of district trustees 
were abolished, and the county was made the 
unit in admirnstiation The state appropria- 
tions have been gradually increased until now 
$2,500,000 is annually disbursed from the state 
treasury In 1891 a State Normal School was 
established by legislative act, and county 
teachers' institutes were created In 1903 the 
State Board of Education was created a State 
Textbook C Commission as well, with power to 
adopt a uniform series of textbooks for the 
schools of the state In 1904 the state con- 
stitution was amended so as to make feasible 
the levying of county and district school taxes, 
and this permission has been made use of by 
many of the counties and districts since that 
time In 1906 eleven agricultural high schools 
were established, one in each congressional dis- 
trict, for instruction in agricultural science 
In 1906 the school districts were re-created and 
trustees appointed, and, in 1905, local district 
taxation for schools was established for the 
first time 

In 1910 constitutional provision was, for the 
first time, made for the state support of secondary 
education The next year 0911) provision was 
made for state inspectors of elementary schools; 
and the state school board was changed from an 
ex offiao body of statehouse officers to a body 
appointed by the governor, while the power of 
the board was much increased 

Present School System. The school system 
of Georgia, as at present organized, is as fol- 
lows: At the head of the system is a State 
Board of Education and a State Superintendent 
of Schools The State Board of Education is 
a body composed of the Governor, the State 
Superintendent of Schools, and four others ap- 
pointed by the Governor. The Governor is 
president, and the State Superintendent of 



GEORGIA 



GEORGIA 



Schools is the chief executive officer of the 
Board The Board regulates the supervision 
of all schools in the state, supervises all certifi- 
cation of teachers for all public schools, pro- 
vides the course of study for all common and 
high schools receiving state aid, adopts uni- 
form textbooks, and acts as a court of final 
appeal from the decisions of the state super- 
intendent Counties, cities, and towns that 
levy a local tax for schools and maintain a 
term of eight months are exempt from the 
provisions of the law requiring uniformity in 
textbooks The State Superintendent of Schools 
is elected by the people for two-year periods 
and receives a salary of $3000 a year He 
has " a general superintendence of the business 
relating to the common schools of the state," 
and is " charged with the administration of 
the school laws " He prepares blank report 
forms, visits the different counties, and examines 
into the administration of the school law, 
delivers popular addresses in the interests of 
education, and makes an annual report to the 
General Assembly He is also a member of 
the State Geological Board There are three 
state school supervisors appointed by the state 
Superintendent, who under his direction hold 
teachers' institutes, grade papers for state 
licenses, and " aid generally in supervising, 
systematizing, and improving the schools of the 
state " 

In each county there is a county board of 
education and a county superintendent of 
education The County Board, except in the 
four special systems of Bibb, Chatham, Rich- 
mond, and Glyrin, consists of five freeholders 
appointed by the grand jury of the county, 
for four-year terms, and removable for cause 
by the county judge They receive $2 per 
day for their services, and are required to lay 
off their counties into school districts, to estab- 
lish at least one school for white and one for 
colored children in each, to employ the teachers 
for the schools, to fix the time and length of 
the school term, and to act as a judicial tri- 
bunal for school affairs in the county The 
board may also disapprove of any district 
trustee elected, and order a new election 
The county superintendent of education, is 
chosen by popular election from among the 
citizens of the county, for a four-year term, 
and acts ex officio as secretary of the board 
He acts further as a medium of communication 
between state and district officers; must visit 
each school m the county at least once every 
sixty days; acts as the agent of the county 
board in purchasing furniture and supplies; 
makes an annual report to the grand jury 
and a monthly report to the State Superin- 
tendent of Schools; issues certificates to school 
trustees; and examines teachers for licenses 
The minimum salary for this office is $600 per 
annum, but the county board may make such 
additional compensation, " as may be m their 
judgment proper and just " County boards 



may employ him to take the school census, 
for which he may be paid $2 a day 

Each county, not under local laws, is divided 
into school districts of at least sixteen square 
miles, though smaller districts may be laid off 
if conditions require it For each district, three 
trustees are elected for three-year terms, one 
each year In incorporated towns, five trustees 
arc elected for three-year terms These 
boards of trustees are to supervise the school 
operations in their districts, may make recom- 
mendations to the county board as to their 
choice for teachers, and must make an annual 
report to the county board In districts 
which vote a local district tax, the boards of 
trustees may make all rules and regulations 
for the government of the schools, may build 
and equip their schoolhouses, subject to the 
approval of the county board, and may fix 
the salaries of their teachers Any city of 
over 2000 inhabitants may organize an inde- 
pendent school system and report direct to the 
State School Commissioner, and any county 
may be so organized by an act of the General 
Assembly Such independent systems make 
their own course of study, and may by per- 
mission of the state board certificate their own 
teachers 

School Support. The state appropriation 
constitutes about 65 per cent of the total school 
revenue for the state, and is apportioned to the 
counties and local systems on the sole basis of 
the number of children 6-18 years of age In 
each county not operating under special laws, an 
election to vote a countv tax inav be called bv a 
petition signed by one fourth of the voters, and 
a two-thirds majoiity of those voting enacts the 
tax The county board determines the amount, 
not to exceed five mills By a similar petition 
and election, any district rnav vote a similar 
district tax, the local boar a of trustees detei- 
mmmg the amount up to five mills A con- 
siderable amount is still contributed from 
private sources, and in some districts a species 
of the rate tax LS still allowed, by common 
consent, in the form of a small incidental fee 
to cover the cost of school supplies, fuel, and 
janitor service, though pupils who are unable 
to pay are excused from the fee, and the courts 
do not recognize the right of the districts to 
exact the fee 

Educational Conditions Of the population 
of 1910, 45 1 per cent were negroes and 99 
per cent were native born But three states 
(Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina) 
have a larger percentage of negroes in the total 
population In one half of the counties the 
blacks outnumber the whites, and in one 
fourth of the counties they outnumber the 
whites two or more to one The percentage of 
children, 5-18 years of age, m the total popu- 
lation (334 per cent), is high, being larger in 
but four states, and all of these in the South. 
While the state has made rapid advances in 
manufacturing within recent years, it is still 



57 



GEORGIA 



GEORGIA, UNIVERSITY OF 



largely an agricultural state, as 84 4 per cent 
of the total population live in rural districts, 
and but 11 per cent in cities of over 8000 
inhabitants. 

In illiteracy, Georgia stood sixth in 1900 in 
its percentage of the total population, ten 
years or over, who were illiterate By race, 
the state stood third in illiteracy for the negro 
population and ninth for the white population, 
and by percentage, 11.9 per cent of the whites 
and 52 4 per cent of the negroes were illiterate 
There was little difference in illiteracy between 
the sexes. But 1.1 per cent of the total popu- 
lation of the state was of foreign birth 

Outside of the towns and cities, the state 
has little material equipment for the work of 
education. The average value of all publicly 
owned schoolhouses in the state during the 
last year for which statistics are available was 
about $1800 Much of the money for repairs 
and for new buildings in the rural districts is 
raised by private subscription The school 
term, too, is commonly lengthened by the same 
means, many communities providing what are 
called long-term schools by private subscription. 
The subject matter of instruction embraces 
agriculture, civil government, and physiology 
and hygiene, in addition to the common school 
branches The State Board of Education 
adopts a uniform system of textbooks for the 
schools of the state, but counties, cities, and 
towns that levy a tax for graded schools and 
maintain an eight-months school are not re- 
quired to use the uniform series Each county 
board is authorized by law to establish one or 
more manual labor schools, but such schools 
must be self-sustaining As in Alabama, the 
elementary school system of Georgia is just 
now being rounded out and classified. 

Teachers and Training For the training 
of future teachers, the state maintains or helps 
to maintain four institutions, one of which is 
for the colored race, and there arc also three 
private normal and industrial schools, all of 
which are for the colored race Of the state 
schools, the Georgia Normal and Industrial 
College for whites at Millcdgeville, and the 
Georgia State Industrial College for negroes 
at Savannah, are partly normal and partly 
industrial institutions, and of a type common in 
the South The law of the state still authorizes 
two forms of teachers' contracts, one the usual 
Jorm by the month, and the other where pay- 
ments are made to private school teachers who 
take public school r-uoils at a certain rate 
based on enrollment and attendance, and thus 
conduct a long-term school. The wages of the 
teachers are low 

Secondary Education. Georgia has its high 
school system better developed than any of 
the neighboring Southern States, the state re- 
porting 231 public and 48 private high schools 
Of the public high schools, 12 were in cities of 
*>000 inhabitants or over, while 219 were in 
imaller places. Six of the total number of 



58 



high schools were for the colored race The 
ptate has recently (1910) authorized state aid 
to high schools, such aid having been expressly 
forbidden by the Constitution of 1877. With 
the development of the agricultural and natural 
resources of the state, and the consequent in- 
crease in the amount of money available for 
education, conditions may be expected to im- 
prove very rapidly 

Higher and Technical Education The 
University of Georgia (q v ) at Athens, founded 
in 1784 and opened in 1800; the Georgia State 
College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, 
also at Athens, and opened in 1872; the 
Georgia School of Technology, at Atlanta, 
opened in 1888; and the North Georgia Agri- 
cultural College at Dahlonega, opened in 1872, 
stand at the culmination of the public school 
system of the state The Georgia State In- 
dustrial College, at Savannah, offers somewhat 
similar instruction for the colored race Georgia 
has a large number of colleges, nearly all 
denominational, some of them for the negro 
race, which offer preparatory and collegiate 
instruction Few of them have much endow- 
ment or high standards The state also main- 
tains the Georgia Academy for the Blind, at 
Macon, the Georgia School for the Deaf at 
Cave Spring, the Georgia Normal and Industrial 
College for girls, at Milledgeville; and eleven 
district agricultural schools for the teaching of 
the elements of agriculture The Normal and 
Industrial College is one of a type of institu- 
tions found in the South, which offers training 
to girls along vocational, industrial, normal, and 
musical and artistic lines 

W H K and B P. C 

References : 

Annual Reports of the Department of Education, State of 

Georgia, 1873-dutr 
Constitutions of the State of Georgia, adopted in 1777, 

1789, 1798, 1861, 1865, 1S68, and 1877 
JOHNSTON, R M Early Educational Life in Middle 

Georgia, in Reports, U S Corn JC?MC , 1894-1895, 

Vol II, pp 1699-1733, 1895-1896, Vol I, pp 

839-886 
JONEH, C E Education in Georgia Circ Irif U S 

Bur Eduo , No 4, 1888 (Washington, 1889 ) 
Laws Relating to the Common School System, 1909 
Legislative Enactments published annually 

GEORGIA, UNIVERSITY OF, ATHENS, 

GA The earliest state university in the 
United States, chartered in February, 1784, 
while the University of the state of New York 
received its charter in May, 1784. By the 
amended charter of 1785 all public education 
m Georgia was made a part of the University 
(see GEORGIA, STATE OF) The early studies 
provided m the University were mainly literary, 
and only the arts degree was conferred The 
land grants made by Congress in 1862 made 
the establishment of the Georgia State College 
of Agriculture and the Mechanical Arts and 
the provision of modern scientific studies pos- 
sible In 1867 the Lumpkm Law School was 
incorporated as a department of the University; 



GERBERT 



HERBERT, MARTIN 



the* North Georgia Agricultural College fol- 
lowed m 1872; and in 1873 the Georgia Medi- 
cal College at Augusta became a department 
of the University The following institutions 
are also branches or departments of the Uni- 
versity: Georgia School of Technology at 
Atlanta, 1885; Georgia Normal and Industrial 
College for Girls at Milledgeville, 1889; Georgia 
Industrial School for Colored Youth at Sa- 
vannah, 1890; and the State Normal School, 
near Athens, 1895 More recent extensions 
are the School of Pharmacy, 1903; the Sum- 
mer School, 1904; Georgia State College of 
Agriculture; the School of Forestry, 1906; and 
the School of Education, 1908 Franklin Col- 
lege is the college of arts The government of 
the University is in the hands of a Board of 
Trustees appointed by the Governor. The sup- 
port comes from state taxation, federal grants, 
and private gifts. The University campus 
extends over an area of 132 acres, and the Uni- 
versity farm covers 830 acres. The mam build- 
ing equipment comprises fifteen buildings The 
admission requirements are fourteen units, 
four conditions being allowed The degrees of 
Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor 
of Science in Civil Engineering or Agriculture, 
Bachelor of Law (after a two years' course), 
are conferred on completion of the appro- 
priate courses Degrees are also conferred by 
some of the affiliated institutions, as the North 
Georgia Agricultural College, the Medical Col- 
lege, the Georgia School of Technology The 
enrollment of students at Athens in 1910-11 was 
940, distributed as follows- graduate school, 7; 
college, 180; science and engineering, 176; agri- 
culture, 223; law, 55; pharmacy, 19; summer 
school, 337 The University at Athens has a 
faculty of 46 members, of whom 25 are profes- 
sors and 9 adjunct professors David Cren- 
shaw Barrow, LL D , is the chancellor 

GERBERT, or GERBERTUS One of the 

most remarkable scholars of the Middle Ages, 
and a man who had a marked influence upon 
mathematical instruction He was born at or 
neai Aurillac, about 950 Richer, his pupil 
and friend, to whom we are indebted for most 
of our knowledge of his life, speaks of him as 
an Aquitanian, and relates that as a child he 
entered the monastery of Saint Ge*rauld 
Other writers speak of his family as being re- 
lated to royalty, but in spite of careful research 
his parentage still remains obscure He seems 
to have been a brilliant student, and one of 
agreeable manner and without forwardness. 
In 967 Borel, Comte d'Argel, lately become 
lord of Barcelona, visited Aurillac and saw the 
youthful Gerbcrt The abbot, informed by 
Borel that Spain at that time had a number of 
distinguished scholars, confided Gerbert to him 
in order that the boy might acquire the learn- 
ing of that country Borel gave Gerbert into 
the charge of Hatton, Bishop of Vich, under 
whom, Richer tells us, " he made rapid progress, 



particularly in mathematics " Gerbcrt 10- 
mamed three years m Barcelona, and in this 
time he may possibly have learned the Hindu- 
Arabic numerals (see NOTATION), since he 
knew something of them later in life After 
this sojourn he accompanied Borel and Hatton 
to Rome, where m 970 he was presented to 
Pope John XIII The Pope *vas so pleased 
with the young monk's proficiency in music 
and astronomy that he spoke of him to Otho I, 
a monarch with great interest in education, 
although himself illiterate Through these 
circumstances and by means of his natural 
abilities, Gerbert obtained the favor of both 
Pope and emperor, and m 972, at his request, 
he was allowed to go to Rheirns with the arch- 
deacon Garamnus in order to study logic under 
this scholar The diocese of Rheims at that 
time possessed 700 cures and 23 monasteries, 
the most important of the latter being that of 
St Denis Here it was that Gerbert carried 
on his later studies, and here he made a brilliant 
reputation as a teacher His chief work in 
the lecture hall was m rhetoric, but he acquired 
a great renown as an arithmetician from his 
use of a special form of the abacus (</ v ) , a 
form that may have been invented bv him 
He also used certain numerals known as the 
apices (see NOTATION), forms that are often 
attributed to Boethius (q v ). He also had a 
great reputation for his work in astronomy, 
which subject he taught at Rheims After a 
brilliant period of teaching in this monastery 
he was made abbot at Bobbio (982), one of the 
most important church positions in Italy, and 
nine years later (991) he became Archbishop of 
Rheims In 998 he became Archbishop of 
Ravenna, and a year later he was elevated to 
the papal chair as Sylvester II He reigned as 
Pope only four years, dying on May 12, 1003 
His mathematical works include a treatise on 
the abacus, a work DC numcrorum dwiswne, 
and a work De geometria DBS 

References : 

BALL, W W R History of Mathematics (London, 

1908) 
OAJORI, F History of Mathematns (New York, 

1890 ) 
CANTOR, M Gemhuhte der Mathematik (Leipzig, 

188O 1908 ) 
HOCK, K VON Gerbert otier Papal Sylvester yrui sein 

Jahrhundert (Vienna, 1837 ) 
OLLERIS, A Oeuvrea de Gerbert (Pans, 1867 ) 
NAQL, A Gerbert urul dn Rechenkunst de* 10 Jahr- 
hunderts (Vienna, 1888 ) 

GERBERT, MARTIN, BARON OF HOR- 
NAU AND PRINCE-ABBOT OF ST BLAISE 

(1720-1793) One of the most learned and 
saintly Roman Catholic prelates of the eight- 
eenth century He was educated at the Jesuit 
College at Freiburg and in the cloister of St. 
Blaise and enriched his mind by varied culture 
and by travels, from which he brought back 
abundant spoil of MSB from the libraries of 
Europe Historical research, especially in 



59 



GERBIER 



GERMAN INFLUENCE 



music, was his favorite pursuit. He formed 
relations with learned societies everywhere, and 
made many important discoveries in this field 
His treatise De Cantu et Musica was published 
in two volumes in 1774 and has ever since formed 
the basis of all musical scholarship The 
Scriptores Ecclesiastic?, de Musica Sacra (1784) 
created a sensation in the musical world and 
was of the highest value for the study of music 
It was a collection of all the ancient authors 
who had written upon musical subjects from the 
third century to the invention of printing and 
whose works had remained in manuscript and 
were for the most part unknown. W. R. 

Reference : 

Catholic Encyclopedia, s v Gerbert 

GERBIER, SIR BALTHAZAR (?1591-1667) 
Painter, architect, and courtier He de- 
vised schemes for the education of noblemen and 
gentlemen's sons m an Academy m Bethnal 
Green Gerbier was a Dutchman and came to 
England m 1616 and entered the service of George 
Vilhers, afterwards Duke of Buckingham In 
1631 Gerbier was King Charles I's agent at 
Brussels and in 1641 Master of the Ceremonies 
He issued prospectuses, June 28, 1648, and in 
1649 on June 18, August 4, October 31 The 
prospectus for June 28, 1648, is addressed to 
" all Fathers of Noble Families and lovers of 
Virtue," in which he stated he was founding an 
Academy in which would be taught French, 
Italian, Spanish, German, and Low Dutch, 
both ancient arid modern histories, jointly with 
the constitution and government of the most 
famous empires and estates of the world 
Courses were given in experimental Natural Phi- 
losophy, mathematics, including arithmetic, 
bookkeeping " by double parties," geometry, 
geography, cosmography, perspective, and 
architecture, practical mathematics, to include 
fortification, besieging, and defending of places, 
fireworks, ordering of battalia, and marches of 
arms; rnusic, playing of all sorts of instruments, 
dancing, fencing, riding the erect horse, to- 
gether with the new manner of fighting on 
horseback Permission was also to be made 
for teaching drawing, painting, limning, and 
carving Gerbier announced that he was him- 
self preparing treatises for the study of modern 
languages. He was also prepared to lodge the 
sons of gentlemen in his own house at Bethnal 
Green He thus promises to parents an edu- 
cation for their sons at home in England, sim- 
ilar to what they could get in academies abroad 
and the avoidance of the " dangers and in- 
conveniences " of education abroad, " in these 
evil times " In the prospectus of August 4, 
1649, Gerbier provides a time-table The 
regulations are modeled to some extent on 
those of Sir Francis Kinaston's (q v ) Musaeum 
Minervae On December 21, 1649, he issued 
a notice that ladies might attend his lectures, 
and adventurer as he was, he is probably to be 



60 



credited with being the first in England to en- 
courage the idea of men and women attending 
academic lectures together F. W. 

See GENTRY AND NOBLES, EDUCATION OF; 
ACADEMIES, COURTLY 

References : 

ADAMSON, J W Pioneers of Modern Education. (Cam- 
bridge, 1905 ) 

Dictionary of National Biography 

WATSON, FOSTER Beginnings of the Teaching of Mod- 
em Subjects in England (London, 1909.) 

GERMAN INFLUENCE ON AMERICAN 
EDUCATION German educational ideas 
and methods have profoundly influenced all 
parts of the American system of education, but 
especially its top and its foundation, the uni- 
versity and the elementary school, including the 
kindergarten, both of which have been either 
created or fashioned on the model of the corre- 
sponding German institutions 

This influence has been exerted through five 
different channels, which, of course, frequently 
run into one another and cannot be entirely 
separated, namely, (a) through the work of 
German-Americans and of German-American 
schools; (b) through American students edu- 
cated in German universities (see Rep U S 
Corn Ed, 1897-1898, Vol I, pp 610-013); 
(c) through reports on German education pub- 
lished by American and other visitors of Ger- 
man schools; (d) through the study of German 
pedagogy, psychology, and philosophy on the 
part of Americans in this country; and 
(e) through the work of German lecturers 
brought over either as exchange professors or 
by invitation of such bodies as the Ger- 
mamstic Society of America (q v) 

Of these, the direct influence of German- 
Americans and of the German-American schools 
has been comparatively small, certainly not so 
great as might have been expected, considering 
the numerical proportion of the German ele- 
ment, which is estimated at about 27 per 
cent of the total population. The chief 
reason for this lack of direct influence lies 
probably in the difference of language, which 
separated the German- American schools from 
the mam current of national education, and 
also in the fact that nearly all of these schools 
were either private or parochial schools. Still 
a large number of German-American teachers 
have played an important part in American 
education Among these are Franz Daniel 
Pastonus (1651-1719), the first German teacher 
m America, the founder of Germantown; Carl 
Follen (1795-1840), the first professor of the 
German language in Harvard; Francis Lieber 
(1800-1872), who introduced gymnastic train- 
ing into Boston and afterwards became one of 
the greatest jurists of America, H E. von Hoist, 
the author of the Constitutional History of the 
United States; William N. Hailmann, super- 
intendent of public schools at La Porte. Ind. 
(1883-1894), afterwards national supermteri- 



GERMAN INFLUENCE 



GERMAN INFLUENCE 



dent of Indian Schools; and many others 
What was perhaps the earliest book of a peda- 
gogical nature to appear in this country was 
from the pen of a German, Christopher Dock 
(qv), a master of one of the early Pennsyl- 
vania schools (See PENNSYLVANIA, STATE OF, 
PAROCHIAL SCHOOL SYSTEM ) 

Among the first American students matricu- 
lated in German universities were George 
Tichnor, Edward Everett, George Bancroft, 
and Joseph G Cogswell, all of whom studied in 
the University of Gottmgen Everett was the 
first American who received a Ph D degree from 
a German university (1819) Previous to this, 
Benjamin Smith Barton, of Lancaster, Pa , 
had obtained the degree of Doctor of Medicine 
from the same university (1799) Bancroft 
and Cogswell founded (1823) the Round Hill 
School, near Northampton, Mass , the first 
school in this country thoroughly impressed 
with the German ideas During the remaining 
part of the nineteenth century and up to the 
present an increasing number of American 
students have pursued advanced studies at 
Gottmgen, Berlin, Halle, and later on also at 
Leipzig, Bonn, Heidelberg, Jena, and other 
German universities Hundreds of these have 
become professors in American colleges and 
have transplanted German ideas of advanced 
instruction and German methods of research 
upon American soil Through their students 
in the graduate departments of universities 
and colleges this influence has been very widely 
extended The foundation of Johns Hopkins 
University in 1876 marks an epoch in American 
university education This institution was, 
in its fundamental ideas, largely modeled on 
the pattern of the German university, and most 
of its early professors had been students in 
Germany (Sec COLLEGE, AMERICAN, UNI- 
VERSITIES, AMERICAN ) 

The most important reports on German 
education which influenced American schools 
were those of John Griscom (q v ) (1819), Alexf- 
ander D Bache (q v ), and C E Stowe (q v ) 
(1833), but particularly that of Victor Cousin 
(q v ) (1831), which was translated into English, 
and published in the United States m 1835 
The American publication of Cousin's work 
proved to be of enormous influence on educa- 
tion in the Middle West Equally important 
was the famous Seventh Annual Report of 
Horace Mann (1843), which, among other 
things, called special attention to the methods 
of the Prussian normal schools 

The study of German literature and phi- 
losophy among English-speaking peoples may 
largely be traced back to the influence of Cole- 
ridge and Carlyle In America these studies 
received an impetus through Emerson, Theo- 
dore Parker, Margaret Fuller, Frederick H 
Hedge, Henry Barnard, William T Hams, 
Elizabeth Peabody, Charles De Garmo, and 
others. Barnard, in his Journal of Education, 
published translations from Karl von Raumer's 



History of Pedagogy; Harris studied the 
philosophical system of Hegel and the peda- 
gogical philosophy of Karl Rosenkranz, Miss 
Peabody became an enthusiastic follower of 
Froebel and founded (1867) the American 
Froebel Union ; Charles De Garmo, the 
McMurrys, and others, introduced American 
teachers to the pedagogy and philosophy of 
Herbart 

The custom of bringing over German lec- 
turers on educational subjects is of recent 
origin, so that the results of this activity still 
lie with the future Yet an important influ- 
ence may be expected at least in two directions, 
namely, towards vocational training, through 
the work of the Munich school superintendent, 
Dr Georg Kerschenstemer, and towards the 
improvement m teaching modern foreign lan- 
guages through the inspiration given by Dr 
Max Walter, director of the Musterschule in 
Frankfort a M F. M. 

See under separate titles for further account 
of the persons mentioned m this article, esp , 
PESTALOZZIAN MOVEMENT IN AMERICA, MAN- 
UAL LABOR INSTITUTIONS, FELLENBERG, FROE- 
BEL, KINDERGARTEN; COLONIAL PERIOD IN 
AMERICAN EDUCATION; etc 

GERMAN INFLUENCE ON ENGLISH 
EDUCATION At the time of the Reforma- 
tion, German influence, commingled with that 
of Erasmus, Calvin, and Sturm, made a deep 
and lasting impression upon the course of 
study in English schools and upon the 
English idea of the relation between the 
state and education Luther's Schrift an 
die Rathxhenen allcr Stadtc Deutschlands, daw 
vie Chribttiche Srhulen aufnchten und halten 
xollen, written in 1524, had its echo in the pre- 
amble to the Chantry Act passed m the first 
year of King Edward VI (1547), and in the 
Constitutions and Canons Ecclesiastical of 
the Church of England, 1603, especially Can- 
ons LIX and LXXVII-LXXIX There are 
traces of the same influence in English Poor 
Law administration ah early ah the reign of 
Elizabeth and pnoi to the Poor Law Relief Act 
of 1601, which first recognized the public obliga- 
tion to supply elementary education in the case 
of the children of the destitute poor In the 
curriculum of the English Grammar Schools 
the educational influence of Melanchthon (qv), 
combined with that of Maturm Cordier (qv.) 
of Geneva, is clear, especially in the emphasis 
which was laid upon religious instruction as a 
dominant feature in the course of training. 

The influence of Protestant Germany was 
deepened in English education in the seven- 
teenth century by the study of the works of 
Comemus (q v.), 'and especially of his Great 
Didactic (first published in Latin, 1657), and of 
the Januae Linguarum Vestibulum (English 
translation, 1647) and Orbis Pictus (1657) At 
the invitation of his friend, Samuel Hartlib, 
Comemus visited England in 1641, and, if the 



61 



GERMAN INFLUENCE 



GERMAN INFLUENCE 



disturbed political condition of the country had 
not prevented it, might well have been engaged 
to take a leading part in the reorganization of 
English education. Comemus's work was well 
known to Milton, and he is referred to in the 
latter's Tractate an Education (1644) as " a 
person sent hither by some good Providence 
from a far country to be the occasion and the 
incitement of great good to this island." The 
Civil War, however, and the reactionary ten- 
dencies of the Restoration period prevented 
the influence of Corncmus from bearing full 
fruit m the educational life of England. 

In the last years of the seventeenth century, 
1698-1699, Dr Bray (q v ) and his associates 
established a Society for Propagating Christian 
Knowledge (q v.), one mam purpose of which 
was " to set up catechetical schools for the edu- 
cation of poor children in reading and writing, 
and more especially in the principles of the 
Christian religion " In the movement for 
the reformation of English morals and for the 
establishment of charity schools (q.v.) t the in- 
fluence of the German Pietists was strong 
August Hermann Fraricke (q v ) was asked to 
send over two Germans to help in the setting 
up of Charity Schools, and these two visitors 
attended a meeting of the Society on May 11, 
1699, to give an account of the school which 
had been erected at Halle by A H Franckc, 
who was at the same meeting chosen a corre- 
sponding member of the Society 

The educational efforts of John Wesley 
(1703-1791), especially during the years 1742 
onwards, were greatly influenced by what he 
saw among the Moravians during his visit to 
Herrnhut in 1738 The Moravian polity, 
influenced by Pietism (q v), made the Orphan 
House, which aimed at giving a Christian educa- 
tion to boys and girls, an essential part of the 
organization of the Church From 1760 Mora- 
vian schools in England have exercised a quiet 
but beneficial influence in English education 

The next great wave of German influence 
came into Englihh education through S T 
Coleridge, who, in 1830, in his essay on The 
Constitution of the Church and State according 
to the Idea of Each, echoed the teaching of 
Fichte (q v ) that the aim of statesmen should 
be "to form arid tram up the people of the 
country to obedient, free, useful, and organi- 
zable subjects, citizens and patriots, living to the 
benefit of the state and prepared to die in its 
defence." Throughout the great speeches on 
education made in the English Parliament by 
Brougham (qv.), Roebuck, and others during 
the years 1833-1835, German precedent for com- 
pulsory education was quoted as a convincing 
proof of the practicability of making elementary 
instruction obligatory by law After Cole- 
ridge, Thomas Carlyle (q v ) did much to famil- 
iarize the English public with German ideals 
of state-organized education, especially in Past 
and Present (1843) and in Latter-Day Pant- 
phlets (1850). It was, however, through Albert, 



62 



the Prince Consort (who married Queen Vic- 
toria in 1840), that enlightened German ideas 
as to the action of the state in public education 
became most widely extended in England. 
During the twenty-one years of his residence 
in England, Prince Albert succeeded, with the 
help of Lyon Playfair and others, in develop- 
ing the State Department of Art and Science 
and in promoting wise extensions of state ac- 
tivity in elementary and technical education. 

The success of the Prussian army in the war 
with Austria in 1 866 drew attention to the mili- 
tary and social value of the intelligence and 
discipline which had been diffused throughout 
the German people by the elaborate organiza- 
tion of state-aided schools The impression 
thus produced upon the public mind was one 
factor which led to the carrying of the Ele- 
mentary Education Act in 1870 and to the sub- 
sequent adoption in 1876 of the principle of 
compulsory education (See ENGLAND, EDI- 
CATION IN ) 

Since that time German influence in English 
education has been persistent and penetrating 
At every point German methods have been 
investigated and German precedents quoted 
Of all English writers, Matthew Arnold (q v ) 
was the most successful in attracting the atten- 
tion of responsible English administrators and 
statesmen to the value of the German methods 
of educational organization Since 1880 Ger- 
man influence has consequently been note- 
worthy in English policy as regards secondary 
education, technical instruction, and university 
development The latest illustration of the 
same influence is found in the movement for 
the enforcement of attendance at continuation 
schools, part of the Scottish Act of 1908 having 
been avowedly modeled to some extent on 
German precedent, and the latter being con- 
stantly quoted in favor of the adoption of a 
similar policy in England. 

In four respects German influence has been 
especially strong in English education (1) From 
the Reformation to the present time it has 
tended to strengthen the view that religious 
teaching should be part of the regular curricu- 
lum of state-aided elementary and secondary 
schools (2) Throughout the nineteenth cen- 
tury it has supported the idea that the state 
should take an effective and, indeed, deter- 
minative, part in the regulation of all grades of 
national education (3) It has stimulated in 
the highest degree the scientific study of meth- 
ods of teaching and of the philosophy of educa- 
tion (4) It has secured general acceptance 
for the view that the state can help in develop- 
ing the economic prosperity of a nation by 
the systematic encouragement of technical and 
commercial instruction. M. E. S. 

References : 

ALLEN, W O B and McCLURE, E A History of the 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1698- 
1898. (London, 1898 ) 



GERMAN LANGUAGE 



GERMANY 



ARNOLD, MATTHEW Report on the System of Educa- 
tion for the Middle and Upper Clauses in France, 
Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. Schools Inquiry 
Commission, 1868, Vol VI, especially pp 548 ff 

COLERIDGE, S T. The Constitution of the Church and 
State according to the Idea of Each 

KEATINGE, M W The Great Didactic of John Amos 
Comenius (Especially Introduction ) (London, 
1896) 

LAUKIE, S S. John Amos Comenius (Cambridge, 
1899) 

M A.RTIN, THEODORE Life of the Pnnce Consort (Lon- 
don, 1875.) 

SADLER, M. E Problems in Prussian Secondary Edu- 
cation for Boys, with special Reference to similar 
Questions in England Board of Education, Spe- 
cial Reports on Educational Subjects, Vol III, 1898 
Continuation Schools in England and Elsewhere. 
(Manchester, 1907 ) 

WATSON, FOHTEK The English Grammar Schools to 
1660, their Curriculum and Practice (Cambridge, 
1908) 

Wesley's Journal 

GERMAN LANGUAGE AND LITERA- 
TURE IN THE SCHOOLS See MODERN 
LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES IN THE SCHOOLS. 

GERMAN WALLACE COLLEGE AND 
NAST THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, BEREA, 
OHIO See DEUTSCHE WALLACE KOLLEG- 
IUM 

GERMANISTIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA, 

THE Organized in New York City in 1904 
to promote the knowledge and study of Ger- 
man civilization in America and of American 
civilization in Germany, by supporting uni- 
versity instruction in these subjects, by arrang- 
ing public lectures, by publishing arid distribut- 
ing documents, and by other means adapted 
to the ends for which the Society is established. 
In accordance with this program a lectureship 
on the History of German Civilization has been 
maintained at Columbia University since 1905, 
while during the first term of the academic year 
1907-1908 a similar course of lectures was 
delivered at Yale University Other German 
scholars and authors invited by the Society to 
lecture in New York and other cities before 
colleges and universities and German societies 
include Professor Fnedrich Dehtzsch, Berlin, 
Dr Ludwig Fulda, Berlin; Professor Otto 
Hoetzsch, Posen; Professor Hermann Anders 
Kruger, Hanover; Dr Carl Hauptmann, 
Mittel-Schreiberhau, Professor Max Fried- 
laender, Berlin, Professor Rudolf Lehmann, 
Posen ; Ernst von Wolzogen, Darmstadt , Profes- 
sor Wilhclm Paszkowski, Berlin; and Rudolf 
Herzog, Rheinbreitbach. Similarly a number 
of American scholars have lectured in Germany 
under the auspices of the Society and of the 
Prussian and Saxon Ministries of Public In- 
struction. In addition a large number of 
single lectures and courses of lectures on Ger- 
man literature, music, education, art, history, 
politics, etc., have been provided in New York 
City (including Brooklyn), both in German 
and in English In 1908 the Society inaugu- 
rated a series of publications, which include 



lectures delivered by Professor John W Bur- 
gess, Columbia, on Germany and the United 
States, and on The German Emperor and the 
German Government, and by Dr Carl Haupt- 
mann on Das Geheimms der Gestalt The pub- 
lication of a quarterly journal devoted to the 
interests of the Society and to the promotion 
of the aims mentioned above is contemplated 
The first president of the Society was President 
Nicholas Murray Butler of Columbia Univer- 
sity (1905-1907), who was succeeded by Pro- 
fessor John W Burgess (1907-1909)* and 
Edward D Adams, Esq (1909-1911), donor 
of the Deutsches Haus at Columbia Uni- 
versity arid Professor William H Carpenter of 
Columbia University (1911- ) R. T., Jr. 

References : 

The Activities of the Oermanistic Society of America, 

1904-1910 (New York 1910) 
The Activities of the Oermanistic Society of America, 1910 

(New York, 1910 ) 

GERMANY, EDUCATION IN. GEN- 
ERAL CHARACTERISTICS. The German 
educational system, more than that of any 
other country, has been formed on the one 
side through the definite plans of the gov- 
erning body and on the other through the 
ideas of philosophic thinkers, and has always 
remained m a condition of progress and de- 
velopment, although it has often been criticized 
as torpid There have appeared in this country 
neither such absolute centralization nor such 
sudden transformation as in France The im- 
portance of the German educational system 
rests mainly on the elementarynschools, the 
gymnasiums, and the universities But be- 
sides these many other types of educational 
and training institutions have been developed 
and at present are increasing, while influences 
from abroad are constantly being felt and fol- 
lowed Multiplicity of types and a variety 
of finer distinctions between them are promoted 
by the existence of the German states side by 
side, for they are entirely independent in their 
domestic affairs It is true that the smaller 
states have frequently followed the example of 
the largest federal state, Prussia, but gen- 
erally this has not been done without con- 
siderable departures Hence an understanding 
of the German system has by no means been 
acquired after a glance at the Prussian, and 
there is as little justification for thinking that 
a knowledge of the Prussian schools of one 
particular type has been obtained after obser- 
vation of one individual instance, a mistake 
which is easily made by foreign visitors. Even 
where the regulations are at bottom similar, 
individual institutions may show considerable 
divergence from each other according to the 
personality of the directors and teachers, or 
their particular tradition, or the spirit of the 
locality and its people At present also the 
bodies controlling education are explicitly 
favoring greater independence in the mdi- 



63 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



vidual schools The period of greatest uni- 
formity has passed for Germany, while in 
France this ideal is still maintained to a large 
extent The establishment of uniform types 
of schools is never prompted merely by the 
desire for control; rather is this based on a belief 
that the ideal has been discovered and a desire 
that this ideal should be put into practice every- 
where Owing both to external (economic and 
other) arid internal reasons some hesitation is 
apparent in relation to the new movement 
Foresight and discretion are particularly nec- 
essary in the face of the ever increasing clamor 
which with passionate excitement demands the 
complete overthrow of the present organiza- 
tion Further, the feeling that the youth of 
the nation should not be hghtheartcdly made 
the subject of experimentation must meet with 
approval. Moreover it is an undeniable fact 
that Germany owes the importance which 
she has gamed in recent times in part to the 
character of her educational system Not 
rigidity, but flexibility; not hghthearted de- 
struction, but thoughtful reorganization, these 
may be said to characterize the fundamental 
attitude of educational administration in Ger- 
many 

HISTORY While a correct appreciation 
of the educational system of the present is 
impossible without a knowledge of its history, 
but the briefest outline will be given here with 
reference to the titles under which the subjects 
are discussed In the Middle Ages education 
and culture in Germany, as m all other Euro- 
pean countries, lay in the hands of the Church; 
this period is described under Middle Ages 
and the various topics to which cross reference 
is there made This education was accom- 
panied in the case of the upper classes of society 
by another training for physical and military 
ability and excellence, arid at the height of the 
medieval period the ideal of chivalnc training 
was introduced from France, an aim which 
included polite conduct, feeling for the social 
accomplishments, an understanding of poetry 
and music. (See CHIVALRIC EDUCATION ) For 
the people as a whole, that is the lower class 
of society, beyond the general religious and 
moral influence, nothing was clone (Sec, 
however, the CHARLEMACJNE AND EDUCATION 
for the period of revival which included the 
Germans ) For the simplest needs of economic 
life writing and ciphering were taught in private 
schools, while on the other side out of a num- 
ber of the most important ecclesiastical in- 
stitutions of learning there grew the universities 
which, however, bore no national character, 
but reproduced a fairly similar type in France, 
Italy, Spain, England, and Germany, and in 
consequence of the universal prevalence of 
Latin were visited by members of the different 
nations. (See below GERMAN UNIVERSITIES ) 

For the close of the Middle Ages the discus- 
sions under SCHOLASTICISM, RENAISSANCE 
PERIOD, HUMANITIES, CICERONIANISM, and 



64 



especially the REFORMATION AND EDUCATION 
relate to Germany Also the history of Uni- 
versities (q v ) is closely related to the Teutonic 
peoples The development during the Refor- 
mation is further discussed under Luther, 
Melanchthon, Sturm, and other leaders 

An opportunity for the founding of a large 
number of important schools in the century of 
the Reformation was afforded by the dissolution 
of wealthy monasteries by the authorities which 
had adopted Protestantism Several of the 
schools organized at that period attained con- 
siderable reputation, educated men of renown, 
and in a modified form are still in existence; 
examples are the Klosterschulen (see Cloister 
Schools) in Wurttemberg and the Fursten- 
schulen (q v ) in Saxony At the same period, 
too, the ruling princes began to undertake the 
task of educating their subjects, not as might be 
thought merely from ideal motives, but with 
the not unpraise worthy object of insuring for 
their countries capable officers, judges, preachers, 
and teachers Hence in the course of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries there were 
issued in the different states of the Empire 
well-planned school ordinances; in other 
words, a definite, universal organization of the 
school system, including courses of study and 
instructions on method, took place Saxony, 
Brunswick, Wurttemberg, and Saxe-Gotha de- 
serve special mention here (See ERNEST THE 
Pious, GOTHA, SCHOOL REFORM IN.) The 
amount of industry applied by teacher and 
taught in schools of that period to the attain- 
ment of the established humanistic aim, the 
number of periods, and the extent of the read- 
ing, can cause nothing but astonishment The 
educational actions in Catholic Germany dur- 
ing this period is also treated under JESUS, 
SOCIETY OF, EDUC \TION\L WORK OF, and re- 
lated topics 

In trre seventeenth century the eccentric 
Wolfgang Ratke (q v ) and the broad-minded 
and keen-sighted J Amos Comemus (q v ), 
who proposed entirely new ideas and plans for 
the aims and methods of instruction, restored 
the vernacular to its more important place, 
sought more correct, psychological foundations, 
made learning easier for the young, and hoped 
with some assurance to help towards a hu- 
manity that would be more valuable. These 
practical efforts were influential only for a brief 
period and over n small section of the German 
schools 

From the humanistic pedantry a departure 
was made towards the end of the seventeenth 
century in the direction of versatility and 
practicality of social requirements by the edu- 
cational system of the so-called Ritterakademien, 
that is, institutions for the sons of the nobility. 
(See ACADEMIES, COURTLY.) Here instruction 
was given in several modern languages as well 
as a variety of recent sciences and many 
chivalric and practical accomplishments, 
generally in a cursory and superficial manner. 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



The majority of these institutions, however, 
did not enjoy a long existence But their aims 
were partially and gradually adopted in the 
other institutions for higher education, while 
even the educational organizations of the 
Pietists (qv) (c 1700), especially the school 
system established at Halle by A H Francke 
(q v.), now included a variety of real knowledge, 
offered an opportunity for learning different 
types of manual and industrial occupations, 
introduced easier methods to facilitate the 
learning of Latin, made room for exercises in 
the vernacular, and, as is to be expected, made 
religious and moral education the mam object 
From this point Real schools were developed 
since about the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, the earliest of which in a modified and 
improved form still continues to exist m Berlin. 
(See HECKER ) The pedagogy of the Pietists 
equally promoted opinion in favor of the right 
of the lower classes to education 

After compulsory school attendance had 
already been introduced in the seventeenth 
century in some of the small Thurmgian states, 
as, e g in Saxe-Gotha, such compulsion was 
definitely imposed from 1713 in the rising state 
of Prussia by the energetic, yet reckless king, 
Frederick William I Under his greater suc- 
cessor, Frederick the Great (q v ), the ele- 
mentary school made hardly any progress. 
There was a feeling for a long tune that duties 
of an elementary school teacher should be 
intrusted to anybody of the most modest 
personal education, such as artisans, or non- 
commissioned mihtarv officers, while instruc- 
tion was limited to the elements of reading, 
writing, and arithmetic and questions on the 
Catechism The view that religious knowl- 
edge or even only .verbal formulae are a guar- 
antee for Christian feeling and God-fearing 
conduct was only gradually superseded, or 
perhaps has riot vet altogether disappeared 
The first actual normal school was established 
towards the end of the reign of Frederick the 
Great at Halberstadt in 1778, and that through 
the efforts of a private person, the noble phi- 
lanthropist and friend of youth, Eberhard von 
Rochow (q v ), who found a supporter of his 
principles in the Minister of State, Freiherr von 
Zedlitz (q v ), whose highly meritorious activity 
was devoted to the perfection, internally arid 
externally, of the whole public educational 
system. Both men were influenced by the new 
spirit of Philanthropmism (q v ) which m its 
turn had partly been aroused by Rousseau 
(q.v ), but in several points had deviated 
widely from his views With a new view of 
the aims and means of education not only the 
founder of the movement, J B Basedow 
(q.v.), established an institution at Dessau, 
styled the Philanthropmum (1774), but a num- 
ber of similar institutions followed, and there 
was no lack of active followers (See CAMPE, 
SALZMANN, etc ). With Rousseau they shared 
the belief in the original goodness of human 

VOL. 1X1 F 65 



nature; they desired to subordinate the im- 
portance of instruction to that of an education 
for other valuable qualities, recognized the 
natural rights of youth, and hoped to dispense 
almost entirely with pressure, compulsion, and 
punishments In the spirit of the time they 
saw m happiness the true end of all human 
education. Quite in opposition to Rousseau, 
however, they always thought of the ability 
of their pupils in reference to the enlarged 
society, arid social usefulness was to be com- 
bined with happiness Throughout they also 
stood for authority and obedience But while 
they turned all learning to play, swept away 
all real difficulties from before their pupils, 
were satisfied with all kinds of superficial 
knowledge, were willing to stimulate by a sys- 
tem of external rewards, they m no way pro- 
moted true character-formation, and called 
out the strongest opposition, while their in- 
stitutions only attained a slight importance 
It must at once be said, however, that several 
of their principles have recently again come to 
the front and receive wide recognition 

The most determined opponents of the Phi- 
lanthropmists were the representatives of the 
New Humanism, who then won a decisive 
influence over the organization of higher edu- 
cation, which continued for a long time (See 
NEO-HUMANISM ) The earliest leaders in this 
movement, including, from about 1730 on, 
J. M Gesner, Ernesti, Heyne (qqv), also had 
their broad pedagogic convictions and desired to 
win over the student body by beauty of content 
in the subject-matter, that is, essentially the 
classical antiquities From this time on, it 
remained the program of the new humanistic 
educators to inspire enthusiasm for the lan- 
guage, literature, thought, and character of 
antiquity, and to promote the moral develop- 
ment of their pupils by the study of a no- 
bler human type In this attitude the great 
poets, as for example, Herder (q v ), were either 
in agreement with or even anticipated the 
philologians, as Fr August Wolf or Fnedr 
Thiersch Influential statesmen, top, adopted 
the same views, and a particular instance is 
William von Humboldt (q v ), who about 1810 
directed the Prussian educational system, 
and together with several important councillors 
exercised the decisive influence in the organiza- 
tion of the gymnasiums And yet the philo- 
logically trained teachers, to whom instruc- 
tion in the classics was intrusted, failed in the 
subsequent period to arouse that expected 
enthusiasm, since they restricted their pupils 
too much to the linguistic difficulties. Nor 
could the view that the ancients presented the 
highest type of humanity be maintained accord- 
ing to the modern conception of Greek and 
Roman antiquity 

Equally significant was the influence exer- 
cised on lower education in Germany at about 
this time (1800) by the great-hearted Swiss, 
Pestalozzi (q v.). His efforts, although applied 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



only in small private undertakings, were very 
soon recognized and fully appreciated by rep- 
resentatives of the Prussian state and were 
adopted as the standard for the internal organi- 
zation of their elementary schools. With this 
there began not only a new and better period 
for these schools, not only were their services 
increasingly valuable, not only did the new 
and idealistic class of elementary school 
teachers arise in the one state, but this state, 
Prussia, where at the same time that new class 
of high school teachers had arisen, acquired a 
position as leader and guide of Germany, 
while Germany itself in the subsequent period 
stood out as the country of the most intensive 
pedagogical interests and the most consistent 
educational organization. Many differences 
remained in the last few centuries between 
North and South, and particularly between 
Protestant and Catholic territories, but in the 
educational sphere there gradually appeared a 
satisfactory assimilation. The Roman Catholic 
Church, indeed, has never ceased to claim 
all school education for herself and her min- 
isters, and the German governments have never 
ceased to admit to the Christian churches a 
right to share within well-defined limits in 
the supervision of the schools and to utilize 
the assistance of their representatives But 
on the whole the schools have more and more 
become a matter for the state alone, even in 
cases where the maintenance and direct sup- 
port were undertaken by individual com- 
munities. 

The external organization of the lower as 
well as the higher schools (the latter being 
styled in South Germany " middle schools " 
with reference to the Universities which are 
the real " high schools ") continued in the 
course of the nineteenth century to be carried 
on predominantly on the plan that typical 
forms must so far as possible be made univer- 
sally binding, with the result that flexibility in 
the individual schools, teachers, and even pupils 
was temporarily checked It is noticeable, 
however, how this whole tendency is gradually 
giving place since the last century to another 
which is opposed to it The number of edu- 
cators who took part in perfecting the system 
has always been great at this period and the 
investigation for better methods has scarcely 
ceased for a single moment The strongest 
impulse in this direction was afforded by Her- 
bart's (q.v.) pedagogy (first published in 1806), 
even though his psychological principles have 
been shattered since then and their too mechan- 
ical formulation, which was the work of his 
disciples, especially Ziller (q.v.), is at present 
being attacked or rejected on all sides. But 
the careful research into the teaching and 
learning processes which since that time is be- 
ing pursued with still greater psychological 
thoroughness is the undoubted contribution of 
this great educator 

So far as the further development of the 



66 



external organization is concerned the ele- 
mentary schools with universal compulsory 
attendance have not only been increased from 
decade to decade, but have been more care- 
fully articulated into classes, the hitherto poor 
material conditions of the teachers have been 
improved, the training of teachers in numerous 
normal schools and the preparatory institu- 
tions preceding them have been perfected, and 
a large variety of schools for pupils deficient 
in some personal equipment have been erected. 
New cultural subjects have been added to the 
simple, traditional elements in the curriculum 
of the ordinary elementary schools, and in 
recent years the care for the further education 
of pupils from the age of fourteen, the leaving 
age for the elementary school, up to sixteen or 
eighteen, is a matter of considerable discussion 
and experimentation Attendance at continua- 
tion schools has already been made compulsory 
in many places, since intellectual and moral 
neglect, particularly at this age, is fraught with 
much danger to national life. 

For higher education it was particularly sig- 
nificant that the transition from the gym- 
nasium, which had gradually increased to nine 
classes, to the university was since the end of 
the eighteenth century (1788 in Prussia) made 
dependent on an exacting leaving examination 
(Matuntatsprufung) and has so remained. 
Further, there was introduced a difficult ex- 
amination pro facilitate docendi (1810 in Prus- 
sia) which called into existence a well-defined 
and trustworthy profession of high school 
teachers For the supervision of the teachers 
and administration of school affairs the gov- 
ernment bodies established their own, purely 
state authorities, as for example the Ober- 
Schul-Kollegium, since 1825 Provinzial-Schul- 
Kollegien (Provincial School Boards) with a 
comparative amount of independence under 
the Minister of Instruction Lastly, certain 
state privileges, especially the right to one- 
year service in the army (emjahnger Mill- 
tardienst), were attached to attendance at cer- 
tain types of the higher schools That this 
last provision contributed largely to uplift 
general education in the nation is undeniable. 
It embodies, moreover, a democratic principle, 
since no distinction of rank or wealth is con- 
sidered in connection with that privilege, 
which may be attained by any person through 
individual merit 

The curriculum, the selection of subjects, 
the amount of time to be devoted to each in 
each grade, the regulation for the decisive 
examinations, have all naturally been frequently 
revised and altered in the course of time, as 
changes in the sciences, cultural life, and needs 
of the time demanded. The last regulation of 
the courses of study in Prussia dates from 
1901. The other German states approximate 
Prussia in their organization A controversy 
extending over several decades centered round 
the relation of the Real schools (that is, schools 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



with a modern curriculum, modern languages, 
natural sciences, etc ) to the schools which 
had their origin in the humanistic period, the 
gymnasiums; although these have in the 
course of time adopted subjects of more modern 
content, they are particularly marked by their 
serious study of Greek as well as Latin, having 
recently dropped the early rhetorical-stylistic 
aim of the study of Latin Real institutions, 
with an equally long curriculum of nine years, 
were first recognized in Prussia as Realschulcn 
I. Ordnung, or Realgymnasien Since 1901 the 
Gymnasium, the Realgymnasium, and the Ober- 
realschule, with a Latinless nine-year course, 
receive fundamentally the same recognition 
All these types of schools are regarded as 
general educational institutions rather than as 
preparatory schools for any special professional 
course, and the ever-increasing simpler Real- 
xchulen, with a six- year course for pupils be- 
tween nine and fifteen, show the same tendency. 
It is especially difficult for Germans to think 
of any educational ideal that is not general and 
valuable in itself The utilitarian standpoint 
meets with only slight recognition anywhere 
Hence the formal side of education is regarded 
as more important than the material equip- 
ment for life, while linguistic and grammatical 
instruction has ceased to be regarded as the 
sole means for developing the powers of the 
pupils 

All the higher schools in common pursue 
with the same objects the study of German 
(linguistic and literary) and history, while 
religious instruction is everywhere obligatory. 
It is demanded in certain quarters that the 
last should be left to the religious corporations, 
but the feeling neither of the authorities nor of 
the teachers is favorable to such a view 

The multiplicity of institutions for instruc- 
tion and education has increased rapidly m the 
last decade The increasingly popular Reform 
Schools, with the postponement of Latin by 
several years, arc only one type Although 
coeducation of boys and girls has up to the 
present not been introduced in most German 
states, the question of an equal and compre- 
hensive education of the female youth has been 
seriously discussed and curricula and courses 
of study have recently been prepared to meet 
the situation, so that this side of national 
education seems to have a brilliant future 
Another entirely recent tendency is the reestab- 
lishment of boarding schools (Internale, Alu in- 
nate) to be connected with the higher schools, 
or at least to adopt their curricula and to bear 
a different character from the earlier boarding 
schools of an institutional character or the 
French Iyc6es Most of these institutions up 
to the present are private undertakings But 
all private establishments for education and 
instruction are under state supervision The 
idea of national education must outweigh that 
of individual education. Individual powers 
must be developed, but at the same time 



altogether in the interests of the nation as a 
whole. 

And nationalism no longer means the obsti- 
nate and unquestioning acceptance of tradi- 
tional peculiarities Attention is in recent 
years being frequently directed to foreign 
countries and the good points in England and 
America m particular arc studied with a view 
to some extent to their adoption Thus some 
experiments have been made in self-govern- 
ment of pupils A wider power of election is 
to be permitted to students, at any rate in the 
upper classes of the higher schools Bv the 
side of gymnastics, which have long ago found 
a home in Germany, athletics and manual in- 
struction have been increasing But caution 
and discretion in the recognition and adoption 
of now ideas remains the principle with educa- 
tional authorities in Germany Hence they 
have rarely been compelled to retrace their 
steps 

There has been no lack of alternation be- 
tween more liberal and more conservatu e 
points of view in the last century At times 
some very reactionary measures were in force, 
as in 1850, for the training of elementarv 
school teachers, while at the present moment 
from the socialistic standpoint \erv revolu- 
tionary demands are being made Hence the 
proposal for a uniform school (Emhcitfischule), 
with one and the same foundation equallv 
obligatory on all children of the nation, and 
the free access to all educational institutions 
for the able, demands against which strong 
reasons have been brought On the other Hide 
an attack is made on class instruction which 
favors only the mediocre, and special schools 
are now and then demanded for the specially 
gifted m order to create a national dite 

To hold that the German system is at a 
standstill, or to form the idea of a rigid organ- 
ism from isolated impressions or exaggerated 
judgments, it must again be emphasized, would 
be particularly unjustifiable It is merely 
that the present advance is less noisy than 
elsewhere The protests against present con- 
ditions, which at the moment are raised ex- 
citedly in certain quarters and especially m the 
daily press, are going too far. With unfounded 
optimism there is talk of the value of un- 
checked, unregulated development of the im- 
mature person, while the effect of the present 
system is regarded with unjustified pessimism 
Confidence in these schools, whose value was 
previously accepted without question, has dis- 
appeared because families were too long kept 
at a distance from them, and the establishment 
of confidential relations between teachers, par- 
ents, and scholars forms one of the greatest 
tasks of the future On the other hand criticism 
is frequently due to the subjective instability 
and nervous discontent of educated people of 
to-day, and serious charges are brought against 
j) resent education in the family But each 
individual thinks that he ought to judge of the 



67 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



scope of education on a basis of disposition, 
casual experience, and ideas of the moment 

It must, however, be recognized that the task 
of the future is to provide for the introduction 
of the field of educational science more gen- 
erally in the highest educational institutions, 
the training grounds for the most intensive 
thinking (See EDUCATION, STUDY OF.) At 
the same time it is regarded as an equally im- 
portant need of the educational system to place 
a professional expert at the head of the whole 
department which up to the present has been 
under a Minister merely as one section of his 
work But that desires are unfulfilled and that 
important demands for the future remain, is 
not a sign of an actual standstill. The great 
problem of education is always unending and 
ever gives rise to new questions. That the 
highest object must under all circumstances be 
the training of the will is self-evident. But by 
which system this can best be attained may be 
left as a subject of competition between the 
nations W. M 

PRESENT SYSTEM. As in America, the 
control of education is constitutionally in the 
hands of the individual states and is almost 
entirely removed from the imperial or federal 
government The Imperial Chancellor, as 
representative of the Empire, has only the 
right of defining the qualifications Tor the priv- 
ilege of the one-year service in the army and 
to bestow to individual schools the right of 
granting such certificates For this purpose 
he is supported by the Imperial School Corn- 
mission, consisting of about seven members as 
representatives of different states, and holding 
a short business meeting usually once a year. 
Its functions are inconsiderable The Cadet 
Corps, which always include a higher school, 
are under the control of the Emperor as 
supreme head in military affairs Thus there 
is no uniform and unifying imperial authority 
in German school affairs, and the German 
educational system is far more varied than 
appears to a foreigner on a brief visit. The 
extent of this diversity cannot be wholly pre- 
sented in this account, which will be devoted 
primarily to a survey in outline of the school 
system of the largest federal state, Prussia, 
and only incidentally to that of other states. 
Further, Germany does not possess a bureau 
of information such as the United States 
Bureau of Education, and it is difficult or even 
impossible to afford a complete description of 
the present situation 

While in America there is an educational 
ladder leading directly from the primary school 
to the university, no German state has a uni- 
form school system in this sense On the con- 
trary, two systems must be constantly distin- 
guished, the lower or elementary school system 
and the higher school system. A transference 
from one to the other is only possible at one 
point, viz. after the third or fourth school 
year. All other types of schools or curricula 



68 



are connected more or less closely with these 
two. 

Legislative Principles. ~ As will have been 
noticed above an imperial educational code 
does not exist, although the Imperial Law on 
Child Labor in industrial occupations, March 
30, 1903, refers indirectly to education. In 
addition there are agreements between the fed- 
eral states for the mutual recognition of exam- 
inations, particularly the Abitunentenexamen 
(q.v.) for entrance to the universities These 
agreements, which have been entered into by a 
majority of the states, have at any rate in higher 
education as unifvmg an effect as imperial laws, 
much in the same way as the College Entrance 
Requirements Board in America 

In the individual states education is regulated 
either through a comprehensive education code 
(Schulgesetz) , as m Saxony and Wiirttemberg, 
in which case the lower and higher systems are 
generally treated in separate laws and occasion- 
ally only one system is dealt with uniformly; 
or the most important sections are embodied 
in special laws while the rest is supplemented 
by the government through ordinances, as 
particularly in Prussia. But with the rapid 
and progressive development of Germany, even 
where uniform educational laws exist, special 
laws and various ordinances are necessary to 
adapt the school system to the changing con- 
ditions Elementary education is based on 
laws more than higher education, which more 
frequently, and especially in Prussia, is regu- 
lated by ordinances The following questions 
are the subjects of legislative enactment in 
almost all the states, the training, appointment, 
and conditions of service of the teachers, their 
pay, pensions, and provision for their depend- 
ents, the maintenance of schools, school in- 
spection and attendance, as well as the denomi- 
national organization of schools 

Prussia has no school code The legislative 
foundations of her school system, apart from a 
few earlier regulations for individual sections 
of the kingdom, are contained m Articles 20-25 
of the Constitution of January 31, 1850, which 
run as follows: 



(20) Knowledge and its dissemination are free (21) Satis- 
factory provision for the education of youth shall be made 
through public schools Parents and their representatives 
must not allow their children or wards to be without such in- 
struction as is prescribed for the public elementary schools 

(22) Every one is free to give instruction and establish educa- 
tional institutions, provided he has proved his moral, intellec- 
tual and professional fitness to the proper state authorities 

(23) All public and private educational institutions are subject 
to the inspection of authorities appointed by the state. Public 
teachers have the rights and duties of civil servants (24) In 
the organization of public elementary schools denominational 
conditions must be considered so far as possible Religious 
instruction in the elementary schools is under the direction 
of the religious corporations concerned The management 
of the external affairs of the public schools is m the hands of 
the community. The state with the legally regulated participa- 
tion of the communities appoints teachers from a list of suit- 
able candidates (25) Funds for the erection, maintenance, 
and extension of public schools are raised by the communities, 
and where inability to do so is proved the state may give sup- 
plementary aid The duties of third parties based on special 
titles remain as before The state guarantees the teachers a 
fixed income according to local circumstances. Instruction in 
public elementary schools is free 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



In addition the Law for the Maintenance of 
Public Elementary Schools of July 28, 1906, 
which includes far more than the title implies, 
is of importance Its contents are as follows: 
(1) Maintenance of schools. (2) Distribution of 
the cost of elementary schools; maintenance of 
the schoolhouse; building fund; state sup- 
port. (3) School property; aid from other 
sources. (4) Denominational conditions (5) 
Administration of elementary school affairs 
and appointment of teachers (For the foreign 
observer sections (4) and (5) are particularly 
noteworthy ) 

Higher education in Prussia is regulated by 
ordinances or decrees of the Minister or through 
the supreme decree of the King, while Saxony, 
for example, has a law also for higher education. 
(See Lexis, Vol III, p 65; Von Bremen; 
Morsch ) 

Administration of Education Central Au- 
thorities The supreme direction of the inter- 
nal organization of the schools is in all the states 
in the hands of state authorities; in Prussia 
this is provided by Article 23 of the Constitution 
mentioned above This power no longer rests 
as previously with the church, nor, as is gen- 
eral in America, with the local communities 
In no state has there yet been developed a cen- 
tral authority whose only concern LS school 
matters Generally public worship, occasion- 
ally a still wider sphere of duties, as, for ex- 
ample, justice in Baden, are under the charge 
of the same minister; sometimes, as in Hesse, 
education falls to the share of the Minister 
of the Interior; a simpler organization is, of 
course, possible in the smaller states (Hesse has 
a little over one million population). 

The highest authority in Prussia is the Min- 
istry for Public Worship and Education; m 
Bavaria the Ministry of the Interior for Public 
Worship and Education; in Wurttcmberg the 
Department for Ecclesiastical and School Af- 
fairs. When the Prussian ministry became 
independent in 1817, it was still quite possible 
to supervise the whole field assigned to it This 
is no longer possible at present, and since 1911 
the Department for Public Health has become 
a separate body, while the demand for a sepa- 
rate Ministry for Education is constantly be- 
coming stronger At the head of this office 
stands the Minister, usually called Kultusmm- 
ister, who is supported by the Under-Secretary 
as his deputy The ministry is divided into 
three departments: (1) Department for ecclesi- 
astical affairs. (2) First department for educa- 
tion (higher and girls' schools) (3) Second 
department for education (elementary schools). 
A ministerial director stands at the head of each 
department. Further there are attached to the 
office from thirty to thirty-five special council- 
lors and from ten to fifteen assistants. The 
majority of these officials so far, always includ- 
ing the Minister himself, are jurists or adminis- 
trative officials. The organization in the other 
states is much simpler. In several of these, as 



in Bavaria and Baden, almost all the councillors 
are jurists In addition to the routine adminis- 
trative duties various conferences take place m 
the ministry, at which questions are determined 
not by majority vote, but by the decision of the 
presiding official Responsibility, however, is 
formally borne by the Minister, to whose notice 
important matters are accordingly brought for 
his personal decision Since the Minister can- 
not supervise the details of his wide field, and fre- 
quently has not the necessary acquaintance with 
persons or the professional knowledge, an ex- 
traordinarily wide influence is often exercised 
by the experienced directors, although the scope 
of their duties is entirely dependent on the will 
of the Minister As an instance may be men- 
tioned the late Fr Althoff (q v ) Where wider 
changes are contemplated, the Minister sum- 
mons a consultative conference to which leaders 
m all walks of life are invited Such confer- 
ences, for example, took place in 1907 on the 
reform of the education of girls, as well as m 
1890 and 1900 on the reform of higher educa- 
tion. 

Intermediate Authorities In the larger Ger- 
man states there are between the central board 
and the individual schools state intermediate 
boards, which, although differing everv whore 
in composition and functions, always have the 
constitution of boards Examples of these arc 
m Bavaria the Supreme School Council (Oberste 
Schulrat), in Wurttemberg the Superior School 
Council (Oberschulrat) , in Prussia the Provincial 
School Boards ( Provinzial-Schulkollegium) As 
a rule the members are not elected, but appointed 
by the central authority, and number variously 
from five to ten or more The composition of 
these boards shows great variety, m Bavaria 
the board includes two university professors, 
two professors of technical high schools, five 
directors of classical gymnasiums, two directors 
of realgymriasiurns, a rector of a real-school, 
one superior medical councillor Baden shows 
a similar constitution In the free town 
of Hamburg, which in other ways also pos- 
sesses a very peculiar school organization, 
there are lay representatives on this board as 
well as on the communal education committees 
But in Hesse and, particularly, m Prussia, 
neither university professors nor laymen nor 
practical schoolmen sit on this board, although 
a number of members have been in the teaching 
profession The sphere of duties of these au- 
thorities is as varied as their composition In 
Bavaria the Superior School Council has only 
the management of the internal affairs of the 
higher schools, while everything of an external 
character comes under the control of the county 
administration In WUrttemberg only the 
higher schools are under the intermediate 
board, while elementary education is adminis- 
tered by the ecclesiastical authorities. In 
Baden the Superior School Council has charge 
of both higher and elementary education, in- 
cluding the administration of external as well 



69 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



as internal affairs. In these states the inter- 
mediate authorities are in intimate relations 
with the ministry, and with the exception of 
Bavaria a number of the members belong to both 
boards. Decisions are reached in Baden and 
Wurttemberg by resolution of the intermediate 
authority, but are subject to the decision of the 
Minister 

The intermediate authorities m Prussia are 
organized on a different plan They are en- 
tirely separated from the central board, and 
between individual institutions and the central 
authority, the Minister, there are no direct 
business relations On the whole, their or- 
ganization follows that for the administration 
of internal affairs The Prussian monarchy 
is divided into twelve provinces, each under a 
president Each province is subdivided into 
from two to six counties under a county presi- 
dent; the office which administers these dis- 
tricts is known as the County Government 
(Regierung). The county is further divided 
into town communities, under a mayor, 
and districts under a chairman ( Landrat) ; 
these districts are again made up of rural com- 
munities under an overseer, and estates also 
under a similar official The duties of inter- 
mediate authorities for lower or public elemen- 
tary education are undertaken by authorities 
for internal administration, that is, the County 
Government (Regicrung), a department of 
which is devoted to ecclesiastical and educa- 
tional affairs. The County Government has 
the supervision of all school activities, while 
external administration falls to the share of the 
community authorities with the approval and 
confirmation of the county government The 
officials of the County Government for the 
inspection of elementary schools are the District 
School Inspectors (Kreuschuhnspektoren), the 
majority of whom up to the present are clerics 
primarily and exercise their inspectorial duties 
incidentally, although the number of definitely 
professional inspectors is gradually increasing, 
especially in the towns Under the District 
School Inspector stands the Local School In- 
spector (Ortsschulinxpektor), an office usually 
exercised by the pastor or priest of the place, 
or by the principal for his own school The 
principal is the director of the individual schools, 
in so far as they consist of several classes, and 
under him are the teachers 

The intermediate authorities in Prussia for 
higher education, including also normal schools 
and preparatory training institutions, and, in 
Berlin only, the elementary schools, are the 
Provincial School Boards already mentioned, 
of which there are twelve, one for each province. 
They are presided over by the Chief President 
of the respective provinces, who is assisted by 
a varying number of councillors who have been 
in the teaching profession. These officials 
exercise the inspection of higher schools, which 
are occasionally visited also by ministerial 
councillors. On the whole, however, the super- 



70 



vision of higher schools is of little value, and 
inspections take place comparatively rarely, with 
the result that each school enjoys a great deal 
of freedom The duties of the Provincial 
School Boards are described as follows by 
Morsch (p. 343), and include: 

(1) All matters bearing on the educational aim of the institu- 
tions, (2) the examination of organizations and statutes of schools 
and educational institutions, (3) the examination of new and 
the revision and confirmation of already existing ordinances 
and regulations no leas than the provision of suitable recom- 
mendations for the removal of abuses and defects which have 
crept into any educational or school system , (4) examination 
of school textbooks in use , the decision as to which arc to be 
dispensed with or introduced with the previous approval of 
the superior ministry , (5) examination of new textbooks , 

(6) another and more influential means of school inspection is 
the Abitunenten-Examen, at which a commissioner from the 
Provincial School Board is generally present , (7) the appoint- 
ment of commissioners to hold the Abitunenten-Kxamen, and 
inquiry into the transactions of the examination commission 
in the schools , (S) the supervision, direction, and inspection of 
schools which lead to the universities, (0) the appointment, 
promotion, discipline, suspension, and dismissal of teachers in 
those institutions 

Further to these boards is assigned the super- 
vision of all the external administration, the 
finances and budget, which in schools main- 
tained by communities are administered locally 
Each higher school is administered by a Direc- 
tor, who is assisted by the Oberlehrer The 
private higher schools, of which there are only 
a few, are subject to state supervision equally 
with the public schools 

All these above-mentioned authorities are 
state officials In addition there are local or 
communal bodies, parts of the local adminis- 
tration of communities Here the multiplic- 
ity of deputations, commissions, governing 
boards, councils, committees, etc , is so great, 
and their constitution so diversified and fre- 
quently so complicated, that any attempt to 
describe them would be futile, even if the ma- 
terial were available In general it may be 
said that only the external administration is the 
business of the community, such as the erec- 
tion, equipment, and superintendence of build- 
ings, the sanitary arrangements, financial 
management, rarely the questions of discipline 
in the schools, although all these activities 
are always subject to the approval of the su- 
perior state boards The most important right 
of the Prussian community is the selection and 
nomination of the whole teaching body, but 
here, too, the appointment of every teacher 
must be confirmed by the state Towns with 
larger systems appoint a school superintendent 
as a professional adviser. This office will in- 
crease in importance with the rapid growth 
of German towns, and the significance which 
such a position can attain in the hands of an 
energetic man is shown by the example of Ker- 
schensteiner in Munich. The local bodies do 
not have the rights of supervisors over teachers 
and school directors The higher institutions 
of learning maintained by the state, of which 
there are quite a number, are naturally not 
subject to local control. 

Teachers and Conditions of Service. 
Teachers, whether male or female, whether in 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



state or communal schools, have in Germany 
the position and character of civil servants, 
whose rights and duties are definitely laid down 
by general service regulations. Accordingly, 
they receive their appointments only on the 
basis of the state-regulated preparation, of 
which evidence must be given by a state exam- 
ination (towns have not the right to hold exam- 
inations); they have a definite career, definite 
titles which express their duties or position 
within the official organism; their position is 
for life and not terminable by notice, they re- 
ceive a definite, annually increasing salary; 
they are entitled by law to a definite pension 
and to provision for their dependents on their 
death The titles and career of teachers in 
Prussian elementary schools are as follows: 
immediately on their appointment they are 
called Teachers, if they have charge of a small 
school of one or two grades, Principal Teachers, 
on appointment after the appropriate exam- 
ination to the direction of a larger elementary 
school, they are called Rcktor; finally they can 
become District School Inspectors Up to the 
present female teachers do not advance to 
higher positions In the higher schools after 
the state examination during the period of 
preparation the title is Candidate for Higher 
School Appointment, between the period of 
preparation and appointment they are known 
ah assistant teachers (Wt*xenttchafthcher Hilfx- 
lehrer), in the nineties this period was quite 
long, often up to ten years, but in recent years 
appointment has followed immediately after 
the preparatory period as a general rule; after 
appointment they are called Teachers (Ober- 
lehrer), of whom the older members receive the 
title of Professor, which, however, does not carry 
with it any other duty or a higher salary The 
teacher may rise to the prmcipalship of a higher 
school with the title of Director Further they 
can become Provincial School Councillors, or 
Special Councillors in the Ministry A change 
of career, which is so frequent among teachers 
in America, is very rare in Germany This is 
due to the many rights which the official has 
and acquires, as well as to the exclusive and 
specialized preparation foi every profession 

Every official may resign his position, but 
surrenders all the rights which go with it No 
official may be given notice, dismissed, or re- 
tired on a pension except after a disciplinary 
inquiry. Disciplinary courts of first instance 
are the direct superior authorities for officials 
of the middle class, including the Oberlehrer, 
while for the higher officials, including directors, 
there is a special court in Berlin; neither of these 
are the ordinary courts When proceedings are 
brought against an official merely for a breach 
of duty, in so far as it does not trespass the 
penal code and is only subject to the superior 
authorities, the case is withdrawn from the 
ordinary courts. 

The income of officials consists usually of 
several items. The fixed minimum and the 



increments make up the salary proper; to these 
must be added the compensation for rent, which 
varies with the cost of living m different places, 
and occasionally local additions. The officials 
move up automatically on the salary scale 
according to years of service The salary of 
elementary school teachers is given in the 
following table (4 20 M - 1 dollar): 

INCREMENTS AFTKR YEARS OF SERVICE 

\ftcr 7 10 13 10 19 22 25 28 31 
years of service 

Minimum 

Salary 

1400 M 200 200 250 250 200 200 200 200 200 
Total salary 1600 1800 2050 2300 2500 2700 2900 3100 3300 

The compensation for rent, which is additional, 
amounts to from 200 to 800 M , and the local 
additions, in towns of over 10,000 population, 
up to 900 M , so that the highest possible in- 
come is 5000 M Female teachers receive a 
somewhat lower, middle school teachers a some- 
what higher salary The salary of principals 
consists of the same minimum as that of teach- 
ers, i e 1400 M , to which is added from 500 
to 1000 M more in virtue of his position (Amix- 
zulage), and a compensation for rent which is 
more by 25 per cent than that of teachers, viz 
250-1000 M And finally the salaries of Dis- 
trict School Inspectors amount to from 3000 to 
7200 M , which may be reached in six stages oi 
700 M each The compensation for rent is 
from 560 to 1200 M The compensation for rent 
varies with the cost of living in different towns 
In Prussia the localities are by law divided into 
five classes (A to E) To class E belong those 
places where the cost of living is lowest, so that 
the rent indemnity is lowest there Class A 
stands at the opposite extreme The rent 
indemnity is thus a means which, keeping the 
minimum salary everywhere at the same level, 
seeks to adapt the total amount of income to 
local circumstances 

The salary of teachers m higher schools 
(Oberlehrer) is indicated in the following table : 

Salary initial after 3 6 9 12 15 21 

years of service 
2700 M . 3400 4100 4800 5400 6000 7200 

To this from 560 to 1300 M must be added as 
compensation for rent The salary of female 
teachers is somewhat lower The directors 
in complete institutions receive. 



Salary initial 
0600 M 



After 3 
7200 



6 years of service 
7800 



The rent indemnity amounts to from 900 to 
1800 M The salary of Provincial School 
Councillors is 6300 M , rising in three stages 
to 8000 M., with a rent indemnity of from 900 
to 1800 M. The Special Councillors in the 
Ministry receive 7000 M., rising in three stages 
to 11,500 M. after twelve years of service The 
rent indemnity is 2100 M 

Pensioning of teachers is dealt with by the 
Prussian Pension Law, Section 1: " Every 



71 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



civil servant who drawn his salary from the 
state receives from the same a pension for life 
when he is incapacitated for the performance 
of his duties after at least ten years of service 
in consequence of physical disability or other 
infirmity or intellectual failing, on account of 
which he is retired. Where the incapacity is 
due to illness, wound, or other accident, with 
which the official has met in the exercise of his 
duties or through contributory cause with no 
fault of his own, the right to a pension becomes 
due even before the completion of ten years 
of service " 

Section 7. " Where an official is incapac- 
itated before the completion of ten years 
of service and is on that account superan- 
nuated, except under circumstances referred 
to in the second half of the first paragraph, in 
case of destitution a pension for a definite 
period or for life may be granted with the ap- 
proval of the King " 

When an official is sixty-five years old the 
claim for a pension is not conditional on in- 
capacity. The amount of the pension is deter- 
mined as follows- "Where the retirement takes 
place after the tenth, but before the completion 
of the eleventh, year of service, the pension 
amounts to J and rises with each completed 
year up to the thirtieth year of service by ^ 
and thereafter by T ^ of the income But there 
is no increase beyond f g of this income " In 
calculating the pension the whole income last 
received inclusive of the rent indemnity is 
used as a basis; local additions are as a rule 
subject to pensions In 1906 there were in 
Prussia alone 10,02f> teachers from elementary 
schools in receipt of pensions, of whom 8381 
were male, and 1644 female The total amount 
of pensions was 15,007,764 M (13,562,980 M 
for male, 1,444,784 M for female, teachers); 
the average pension for males was 1618 M 
and for female teachers 879 M Widows and 
children of deceased officials have also a claim 
to a pension, m the calculation of which the 
following provisions are made in Prussia 
" The amount received by the widow is 40 per 
cent of the pension to "which the deceased 
would have been entitled, if he had been 
superannuated at the time of his death The 
sum for widows must riot be less than 300 M 
nor more than 3500 M The allowance for 
orphans is. (1) For children, whose mother is 
living and at the time of the death of the 
official was entitled to the widow's allowance, 
a fifth of that allowance for each child (2) 
For children whose mother is no longer alive 
or at the death of the official was not entitled 
to the widow's allowance, a third of that allow- 
ance for each child The allowance for widows 
and orphans must not exceed the amount of 
the pension to which the deceased was entitled 
or would have been entitled if he had been 
superannuated at the time of his death " 

The conditions treated in the foregoing 
account are as a whole similar in the rest of the 



federal states, although differing in details in 
many ways, which cannot be entered upon 
here It may be mentioned, however, that 
occasionally teachers, as other officers, have 
to contribute to pension funds, in which case 
the maximum pension is usually higher, as in 
Bavaria 

Arising out of the fixed and definite position 
already described and the high professional 
efficiency due to the thorough preparation, the 
social standing of teachers in elementary and 
higher schools is high For the same reasons 
these teachers have developed a strong pro- 
fessional feeling, even though it is at present 
confined to each grade respectively. Just as 
there is no bridge leading from the ranks of 
elementary school teachers to higher school 
teachers, so both regard themselves as separate 
professions, and the professional organiza- 
tions of both work entirely independently of 
each other; but since higher and lower educa- 
tion are separate systems, each with different 
problems, this separation is not such an evil 

TABLE I 



Number of men m the army 

Without schooling 

Per cent of whole number 



1901 


1891 


1881 


260,410 
131 
05 


182,827 
824 
045 


150,130 
2,332 
1 55 



TABLE II 



School population 

of whom there were 

1 In public elementary schools 

Per cent 

2 In other schools 

Per cent 

3 Temporarily excused from at- 

tendance, hut duly regis- 
tered 
Per cent 

4 Not registered on account of 

physical defects 
Per cent 

5 Illegally kept away from school 

Per cent 



1891 


1901 


4,464,906 


6,103,745 


3,900,655 
8736 
222,211 
408 


5,670,870 
9291 
339,017 
5 55 


312,219 
(>99 


82,638 
1 35 


9,038 
020 
20,783 
047 


10,672 
018 
548 
001 



72 



(Based on Lexis' Public Education in the German Empire, 

Attendance In all German states com- 
pulsory school attendance prevails, lasting 
generally eight years (seven in Wurttemberg), 
and beginning with the sixth year. In Bavaria 
there is compulsory attendance at Sunday 
school from fourteen to seventeen The ex- 
tension of school compulsion to the continua- 
tion school (q v ), that is, beyond theiourteenth 
year to the eighteenth, or up to entrance into 
the army (which is in itself a powerfu 1 educa- 
tional institution), has not yet been introduced 
everywhere, but is earnestly striven for. 
Much remains to be done in this field, particu- 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



larly for girls Legal compulsory attendance 
is everywhere strictly enforced in Germany, 
and in the last resort is secured with the aid 
of the police and the courts Only on proof 
that children are receiving satisfactory in- 
struction privately is exemption from school 
granted Hence the percentage of illiterates 
in Germany is almost nil, as may be seen from 
the tables on page 71 

School and Church. The opposition be- 
tween the Protestant arid Catholic denomina- 
tions (Germany is about one third Catholic 
and two thirds Protestant) has been one of 
the greatest influences in German history, and is 
still one of the most important factors m do- 
mestic politics, No wonder then that this is 
reflected in education The public higher 
schools are almost wholly interdenominational 
or undenominational (wmultan)', the lower 
schools are undenominational in only a few 
states, as in Baden and Hesse, while the de- 
nominational elementary schools exist in the 
largest states, especially Prussia The most 
important legislative enactments on this ques- 
tion read as follows. " Public elementary 
schools are to be so organized that Protestant 
children receive their instruction from Protes- 
tant teachers, Catholic children from Catholic 
teachers " " In public schools with several 
teachers, either only Protestant or only Catho- 
lic teachers are to be appointed " Finally, 
" when in any school community, which has 
only elementary schools staffed with Catho- 
lic teachers, the number of local Protestant 
children of school age for five consecutive years 
is over 60, or m towns and rural communities 
of more than 5000 inhabitants, over 120, then, 
provided that the legal representatives of more 
than 60, or more than 120 children of school 
age of the class mentioned, make recommenda- 
tions to the supervising educational authorities, 
instruction is to be arranged in schools wholly 
under Protestant teachers," and vice versa 
Jewish pupils are received into the* elementary 
schools; where a Jewish community is large 
enough, it may erect a separate school, al- 
though their number is in any case very few 
In 1906 the percentage of children who were 
in schools of their own denomination was as 
follows: 





IN TOWNH 




Per cent 


Protestant . . 


92 20 


Catholic . . . 


87 25 


Jewish .... 


3003 



IN 



COUNTRY 



Per cent 

0727 

91 47 
2037 



Coeducation For boys and girls in higher 
education separate institutions are provided 
almost everywhere, only a few South German 
states (Baden, Hesse, Wurtternberg) admitting 
girls into the boys' schools; up to the present 



this has not been done in Prussia In the ele- 
mentary system special girls' schools or girls' 
classes are provided when the numbers are 
large enough In 1906, 05 per cent of the ele- 
mentary school classes in Prussia were mixed, 
containing 64 per cent of ail the children 
There were 40,376 separate classes and 75,526 
mixed classes In the towns, of all the children 
1,669,286 were in separate classes and 636,979 
in mixed, in the country, 561,537 were in 
separate and 3,296,596 in mixed classes Thus 
m the towns sepaiatc classes, and in the coun- 
tries mixed classes predominate 

Cost of Education The maintenance of 
elementary schools as a general rule falls by 
law on the communities, the state enters 
only in case ui need and gives assistance only 
to smaller communities The terms of the 
Prussian law on the subject are- " The erection 
and maintenance of public elementary schools 
falls, with the exception of the provisions of 
this law, on the municipal communities 

and the independent districts Communities 
(or districts) either are independent school 
districts or may be united for the maintenance 
of one or more schools into one common school 
district (Gcsamtbdndverband) One community 
may belong to several union school distncts 
Even when it forms one independent school 
district, it may belong at the same time to one 
or more union districts" (Section 1) Ac- 
cording to Section 7, " Where the inability of 
a school district to raise the cost of maintain- 
ing an elemcntarv school is proved, subsidies 
are given by the state Furthei the state 
grants to smaller communities a part of the cost 
for new school buildings " The amount of 
expenditures for the purposes of elementary 
education is indicated m the following tables 
(from Ktati st inches Jahrbuch f d deulschc Reich, 
Vol XXIX (1908), p 153) 

EXPENDITURE FOR PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOIH 
(1 Dollar 4 20 Marks) 





Total 


Amount contrib- 
uted bv the 
State 


Cost p >r 
Pupil in 


States 




(in 1000 Marks) 


Marks 




1901 1 190f> 

1 


1901 


l')0(> 


1001 190< 


Prussia 


269,417 32S.247 


73,0u6 


82,378 


48 r )i 


Bavaria 


,*9,70b 1 52,080 


14,206 


18,937 


4<> r" 


Saxony 


36,548 15,364 


6,998 


10,391 


f>3 59 


WUrttemberR 


12,2651 15,809 


3,748 


5,333 


42 ,50 


Baden 


10,9991 16,033 


2,396 


4,472 


40 , 52 


Hesse 


7,875 10,170 


2,506 




48 54 


Alsace-Lorraine 


8,869LuUi77 


2,630 


ySfOWl 


39 44 


German Empire 


421,31^22lgffl 


122,898 


(jojgp 


47 54 



Sum total of state expenditures of Prussia 1 
(the expenses of the communities nob included) 
for public elementary instruction, training of 
elementary school teachers, etc 

1 Figures taken from Etat des Mimntenurrts tier geistl , etc 
Angelcprnheilen, 1910 



73 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



MARKS 
I. Current expenses 

Normal schools 11,106,232 

Preparatory institutions . ... 2,247,673 

For both groups to be added . . 757,539 

Normal school for gymnastics . 333,880 

School supervision . ... 4,422,420 
Elementary schools . . . .141,417,317 

School for defectives . . . 304,632 

Sum total of current expenses . . 161,586,776 

II. Single expenditures for elementary schools . 6,265,440 
To the communities for education of negligent 

dependent and delinquent children . 6.000,000 

Instruction in prisons and jails 203,500 

Sum total of single expend it tires 12,468,940 



politics also demands the creation of such a 
system in the growing towns, for this attracts 
settlers to the town A few of the higher schools 
are under royal patronage and possess consider- 
able endowments; a larger number are main- 
tained by the state, but by far the largest 
belong to communities or towns. There are 
comparatively few private high schools for 
boys, although they are slowly increasing in 
number. Further details of the expenditure 
for this branch of education are indicated in 
the table on page 75. 



EXPENDITURK OF STATE AND COMMUNITIES FOR PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN THE ClTlEB 
AND IN THK COUNTRY IN PRUSSIA (iN MARKH) 





Cities 


Country 




1896 


1906 


1896 


1906 


1. Total (including building ex- 










penses) 


83,129,558 


163,252,542 


102,787,937 


153,956,514 


Of this sum 










Halanes 


60,545,580 


1 1 1 ,208,768 


73,367,542 


107,670,644 


Equipment 
2 Total contributed 


22,083,078 


52,043,774 


29,420,395 


46,285,870 


By the state 
By the communities, etc 
3 Percentage of cost contributed 


13,327,759 
67,426,515 


16,175,140 
142,621,306 


*9,6 10,836 
49,913,141 


53,095,034 
82,528,465 


By state 


1603 


991 


3854 


35 79 


By communities 


81 11 


87 30 


48 50 


5360 


4. Average cost 










Per school 


19397 


33786 


32 23 


46 75 


Per class 


2757 


38 11 


1(>62 


2107 


Per child 


47 


71 


30 


40 


Per capita of population 


641 


967 


544 


75i 


5 Total income of teachers 










Male 


2,282,462 


81,278,964 


62,173,450 


90,587,619 


Female 
6. Average income of teachers 


8,984,671 


19,996,533 


4,120,765 


7,839,999 


Male . 


2,029 


2,567 


1 ,357 


1 742 


Female 


1,361 


1 ,700 


1,132 


1,370 



To the figures for 1906 under No 1, 11,- 
110,091 M ought to be added; this sum com- 
prises contributions by the state for city and 
country schools which cannot be separated 
The total expenditure for public elementary 
schools for 1906 thus amounts in Prussia to 
328,319,147 M. 



The single expenditures of the state amounted 
to 1,408,560 M in 1910 (Etat, p 238); the 
amount spent locally it is impossible to give, 
but it was certainly far larger, since many new 
schools are being established, more by the 
communities than by the state. 

The higher education of girls has up to the 



COBT OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS (1906) 





Cities 


Country 


Together 


1901 


1 Current expenses for public 










elementary schools in 1905, 










without the cost of new 










buildings, repairs, or exten- 










sions 


139,354,504 


132,947,954 


283,412,549 


227,621,597 


Salaries 
Material equipment, etc 
2. Cost of new buildings, repairs 


111,208,768 
28,145,736 


k 107,670,644 
25,277,310 


229,989,503 
53,464,245 


186,873,192 
40,748,405 


and extensions in 1905 
Amount of building debt for 


23,898,038 


21,008,560 


44,906,598 


42,296,821 


school buildings in June, 










1906 . . . 


110,428,352 


99,499,637 


209,927,989 


155,288,394 



Figures taken from Statuttisches Jahrbuchftir den preusswhen Stoat, Vol XXX (1909) 



The duty of maintaining the higher schools 
is not definitely determined by legislature in 
Prussia. So far as possible the towns main- 
tain their own secondary schools, and frequently 
make it a matter of great pride to possess 
a highly developed system of education. Local 



74 



present been mainly in the hands of private 
institutions, the number of which will in con- 
sequence of the recent regulations show a rapid 
decline, and the burden will fall almost en- 
tirely on the communities. The current ex- 
penses of the state for these schools amounted 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



SURVEY or THE PBRMANENT INCOME AND EXPENSES OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION* FOB BOYS IN PKUHHIA, ACCORDING TO 

THE BUDOET FOR 1910 (iN MARKS) 





INCOME 


EXPENDITURE 


TYPES AND NUMBER 
or INBTITUTIONS 


State 
Fund 


Private 
Property 


Private 
Revenue 
(Fees) 


Municipal 
Fund 


Endow- 
ment 


Total In- 
come also 
Total Ex- 
penditure 


Payment 
Limit 
of Hal an es 


Remun- 
eration 
for In- 
structors 


Administra- 
tion and 
Equipment 


A 5 institutions under 




















royal patronage 


60,765 


688,235 


320,298 





147,321 


1,216,620 


556,452 


20,360 


639,808 


B 243 state-main- 




















tained institu- 




















tions 


11,516,441 


773,395 


9,078,194 


1,276,092 


637,914 


20,282,030 


22.S48.327 


677,478 


2,750,23) 


C 5 institutions main- 




















tained by the 




















atate and others 




















in common 


.123,995 


26,087 


261,656 


219,823 


1,787 


732,611 


572,100 


12,866 


147,744 


D 400 institutions 




















maintained by 




















other means, but 




















supported by the 




















state and exclud- 




















ing institutions 




















otherwise main- 




















tained 


3,105,603 


955,288 


21,173,406 


22,683,672 


965,322 


48,883,284 


38,503,040 


1,401,848 


8,888,305 


Total, including other 




















small sums tor 711) 




















institutions 


17,016,154 


2,443, 006 


30,833,555 


24,178,848 


1,752,346 


77,123,011 


62,560,020 


2,112,553 


12,441,437 


Average per school 24,918 


3,397 


42,884 


33,628 


2,437 


107,265 


87,023 


2,038 


17,303 


Gymnasium at Kteglitz 
near Berlin 





3,393 


101,618 


79,652 





184,664 


149,662 


4,060 


30,941 


The 35 municipal 


















schools in Berlin 




















(with six and nine 




















classes) (See D ) 8,219 


35,242 


2,137,346 


3,160,755 


68 


5,341,631 


4,479,580 


337,820 


524,231 


l 








. 











Figures from Etat des Minister d geistl etc , Angel f d Etatajahr 1910, Betlage 



in 1910 to 1,079,583 M (in 1906 only about 
330,000 M ), single expenses are not yet to hand , 
the corresponding local expenditures cannot 
be given but were certainly very considerably 
higher 

ELEMENTARY AND INTERMEDIATE 
EDUCATION The lower schools (offenthchc 
Volksschulen, public, common, or elementary 
schools) are wholly public, and there are prac- 
tically no private schools of this type As a rule 
no fees are charged Instruction begins at 
seven or eight m summer, and eight or nine 
in winter, and includes four or five, rarelv six, 
periods a day. While the number of pupils 
may rise to a maximum of 1000 (a figure very 
rarely attained), the minimum number is small, 
and in remote places is from ten to twenty 
Separate schools for boys and girls are main- 
tamed only in larger communities, where the 
number of pupils is large enough to warrant a 
separation, and this is the usual practice 
(See above.) 

The teachers by a large majority are men; 
in 1906 there were in Prussia 138,216 men 
and 23,708 women teachers But the percent- 
age of women teachers is gradually increasing. 
The men teachers give from twenty-six to 
thirty or thirty-two lessons, the women twenty- 
two to twenty-six or twenty-seven per week. 
The division of schools into classes varies ac- 
cording to the size of a community. In the 
country single and two-class schools with one 
or two teachers are common, while in the towns 
systems with eight or nine classes and from 



twenty to thirty teachers have been developed 
Some details are given in the following table 
(based on Statist Jahrb / d preu^ Staat, 
Vol VII, 1910, p 166) 





IN THE TOWN 


IN THE COUNTRY 




1806 


1006 


1800 1900 


Average per school of 
Classes 


7 11 


H87 


1 04 


222 


Teaching positions 
Children 


7 05 
41H 


002 
177 


109 


1 80 
117 


Average per teat her of 
Classes 


1 01 


008 


1 25 


1 23 


Children 


59 


53 


70 


65 


Average number of 
children per class . 
Number of classrooms 


59 
30,090 


54 

42,882 


50 
50,221 


53 
59,565 


Number of children 










not received on ac- 










count of over- 










crowding 


57S 


245 


18 U 


674 



75 



Curriculum Such a variety of external 
conditions is naturally accompanied by a 
variety of curricula and standards in the in- 
dividual schools The single-class schools in 
which children of all ages are taught together, 
cannot perform the same type of work as the 
fully graded school But all schools of what- 
ever size must conform to certain minimum 
requirements, of which those of Baden may 
serve as an example, similar regulations being 
found in the other states: " The education of 
the elementary school shall train the children 
up to be intelligent, religious, and moral persons 
and upright members of the community. It 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



must cover the following subjects: religion, 
reading and writing, German, arithmetic, 
singing, elements of geometry, geography, 
natural history, and nature study, and history, 
with physical exercises for boys, and for girls 
instruction in female handicrafts The num- 
ber of periods per week shall be at least sixteen, 
and from the fourth year on at least twenty, 
with a maximum of thirty for any class " 
The following time-table of the Berlin ele- 
mentary schools may be taken as representative 
of a large school system 

COURSE OF STUDY OK THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS AT BERLIN 





VIII 


VII 


VI 


V 


IV 


III 


II 


I 


Religion 


3 


3 


.1 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


German 


8 


7 


7 


f> 


6 


6 


6 


6 


Object lessons 


2 


2 


2 












History 











2 


2 


2 


2 


2 (2) 


Arithmetic 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 (2) 


4(2) 


Geometry 

















3 (0) 


3 (2) 


3 (2) 


Nature study 


















and science 











2 


2 


4 


4 (3) 


3 


Geography 











2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


Drawing 





1 


2(1) 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


Writing 





2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1 


.Singing 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


Gymnastics 


2 


2 


2(1) 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


Sowing, 
noodle-work 








(2) 


(2) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(4) 


Total 


20 


22 


J4 

__/ 


38 
fim 


28 

( U\\ 


.32 


,12 


32 




Lower Stage v * Upper Stage 




Middle 




Stage 



(The figures in brackets denote deviations m the girls' 
schools ) 

The work of these schools may be indicated 
by the scope of some subjects in the upper 
grades of a Berlin elementary school 

Gorman the pupils must attain to thorough sound- 
in oral and written use of the vernacular Com- 



plete thoroughness in orthography and the elements of 
grammar are expected and reached 

Arithmetic for Class II includes the rule of three, 
sums with compound numbers, proportion, calculations 
of everyday life, excluding exchange, discount, and part- 
nership, together with insurance Class I exchange, 
discount, and partnership ; comprehensive and final 
drill in calculations of everyday life ; anthmetic and 
algebra (except in girls' schools) , the theory of denomi- 
nate numbers , algebraical addition, subtraction, mul- 
tiplication, and division , proportion , equations of the 
first degree with one or more unknowns 

Nature study (physics) in the bo>s' schools, Class II 
lessons in inorganic chemistry and mineralogy, mag- 
netism , electricity , galvanism Class I completion 
of inorganic chemistry , introduction to organic chem- 
istry , mechanics completed , sound arid light In the 
girls' schools, Class II Lessons in organic chemistry, 
especially in its application to foodstuffs, elements of 
mechanics of solid, liquid, and gaseous bodies Class I 
magnetism , electricity , galvanism , sound , light 

Little can be said about the methods of in- 
struction The teachers are somewhat more 
restricted than m the high schools, yet not so 
much as to crush individuality Closer insight 
into the methods can only be secured by visit- 
ing the classrooms and a study of the text- 
books 

The elementary schools do not grant any 
privileges m the same sense as the higher 
schools Some workmgmcn's guilds demand 
that then apprentices shall have completed 
the first class of the elementary school; and 
such requirements arc laid down occasionally 
in other occupations The tables given below, 
compiled from various sources, give additional 
statistics of elementary education in the most 
important German states and the Empire as a 
whole 

Special Provisions for Abnormal and Super- 
normal Children In an increasing number 
of towns special schools or classes are being es- 
tablished for the backward (Schwachbegabte) . 
In 1905 such arrangements existed in 97 Prus- 
sian communities with a school population of 



STATISTICS or GERMAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
A 1901 or 1900, B 1906 



Prussia 


36,756 


37,761 


2 7 


76,342 84,980 


11 3 


13,866 


17,784 


283 


Bavaria 


7,280 


7,434 


2 1 


12,184 12,559 


3 1 


2,715 


3,861 


422 


Saxony 


2,273 


2,304 


1 4 


10,003 12,068 


206 


401 


653 


628 


Wurttemborg 


2,353 


2,382 


1 2 


4,615 4,890 


60 


494 


615 


24 5 


Baden . . . 
German Empire 


1,677 
50,187 


1,688 
60,584 


7 
24 


3,631 ' 3,983 
124,027 137,213 


97 
106 


418 
22,513 


856 
29,384 


1048 
305 




TOTAL NUMBER 
OF TEACHERH 


NUMBER OF PUPILH 


No OF PUPILS 
PER TEACHER 


PERCENTAGE OF MEN AND 
WOMEN HOLDING FULL TIMK 
APPOINTMENTS 




A 


R 


Increase 






Increase 


A 


p 


A 






B 








per cent 






per cent 






Men Women 


Men 


Women 


Prussia 


90,208 


102,764 


139 


5,670,870 


6,164,398 


87 


63 


60 


85 


15 


83 


17 


Bavaria 


14,899 


16,420 


102 


873,399 


958,037 


97 


59 


58 


82 


18 


76 


24 


Saxony 


10,404 


12,721 


223 


655,771 


775,098 


130 


66 


61 


96 


4 


95 


5 


Wttrttemberg 


5,109 


5.505 


78 


295,325 


315,778 


69 


58 


57 


90 


10 


89 


11 


Baden 
German Empire 


4,849 
146,540 


4,039 
166,597 


195 
137 


273,149 
8,924,799 


308,884 
9,737,262 


13 1 
9 1 


67 
61 


64 

58 


90 
85 


10 
15 


82 
82 


18 
18 



76 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



1,224,146. The following table gives the num- 
ber of classes and pupils specially provided for: 







BOYS 


GIRLS 


TOTAL 


Special classes m public 
schools 
Number of classes m sepa- 
rate schools .... 

Total 


1841 
388) 


1837 
5084 


1418 
4044 


3255 
0128 


672 


6921 


5452 


12,383 



TIME-TABLE IN A SPECIAL SCHOOL AT HALLE 



Subjects 


V 


IV 


III 


II 


I 


Religion 
Arithmetic 
German . . 
Writing 


3 

4 

9 


3 
4 
6 
2 
4 


3 
4 
6 
2 
4 


2 

4 

7 
1 


2 
4 (5) 

1 


Drawing . 
History 
Geography 
Natural history 




1 


1 
2 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


2(1) 

2 
2 
2 


Gymnastics 
Manual work 


2 
4 


2 
4 


2 
4 


2 
4 


2 
4 




22 


26 


28 


30 


30 



The Mannheim system created by Superin- 
tendent Sickmger has aroused considerable 
attention and much imitation It not only 
provides for schools for backward, but also 
attempts to provide special means for the 
education of the very bright and gifted pupils 
This aim is attained by dividing the school 
system not only vertically into classes, but 
horizontally into various types of classes and 
institutions, and by assigning children to dif- 
ferent schools not alone according to the dis- 
tricts in which they live, but according to their 
ability By this system the very able children 
come after two years' attendance at school 
into classes which prepare them in one and a 
half years for the gymnasium Pupils above 
the average have a richer curriculum, including 
a foreign language; the normal pupils go 
through the usual eight years' course, while 



the backward and dull receive courses of from 
four to seven years 

The following table gives a schematic view 
of the whole system, the eighth class being 
the lowest: 




HID, 
ra 



Column .4 Regular grades containing more than 90% of the 

pupils 

Column B Grades for temporary aid 
Column C Auxiliary grades or special schools 
Column D Preparatory classes of high schools 
Id Institution for idiots C G\mnasium Kg Realgymnasium. 
O Oberrealsrhule R Reformgymnasium 

< Regularly promoted 
< Placed temporarily in separate classes for individual atten* 

tion and returned to regular grades 

^- -- Placed in special classes owing to defective mentality 
(From Maennel, The Auxiliary Schools of Germany.) 



PUBLIC MIDDLE SCHOOLS IN PRUSSIA, 1901 AND 1906. (See p 78 ) 





Boys 


Girls 


Mixed 


Total 




1901 


1906 


1901 


1906 


1901 


1906 


1901 


1906 


Number of schools . . 


217 


202 


137 


137 


102 


120 


456 


459 


Number of classes 


1,605 


1,659 


1,279 


1,408 


876 


1,140 


3,759 


4,207 


Number of teachers 
Number of assistant teachers 


1,682 
266 


1.750 
292 


1,406 
295 


1,579 
263 


895 
152 


1,212 

188 


3,983 
713 


4,544 
743 


Number of pupils . . . 


57,082 


57,295 


47,680 


49,603 


16,371 


20,140 


73,549 


78,443 




+ 96 m 


+ 8 in 


+ 6 m 




boys 


boys 


boys 


boys 


Current expenses in marks . 


*e rU '. 

schools 
5,645,985 


girls' 
schools 
6,540,017 


boys' 
schools 
4,207,225 


5,198,082 


13,512 
girls 
2,663,421 


17,578 
girls 
4,092,858 


61,192 
girls 
12,516,631 


67,187 
girls 
15,830,957 


Average cost : 


















per school 


26,018 


32,376 


30,710 


37,942 


26,112 


34,107 


27,449 


34,490 


per class .... 


3,518 


3,942 


3,289 


3,692 


3,044 


3,590 


3,330 


3,760 


per pupil 


99 


114 


88 


105 


89 


106 


93 


109 





77 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



Middle Schools (Mittelschulen, Biirger- 
schulen, or Higher Elementary Schools) This 
type of schools is intermediate between the 
elementary and higher schools, and is distin- 
guished from both chiefly in teaching not more 
than one foreign language While they are 
very frequent in the South German States, 
sucn as Baden, and in Saxony, and there form 
an important part of the school system, they 
are not so well developed in Prussia, as is 
indicated in the table at bottom of page 77. 

It will be seen from this table that there 
are middle schools for boys, for girls, and for 
both together The expenditure on this type 
of schools is much less than for higher or ele- 
mentary schools The reason for the com- 
parative failure of these schools in Prussia, 
although such an intermediate stage was really 
a strong necessity, was that they did not 
convey any privileges nor prepare for or articu- 
late with the higher schools Now courses of 
study were, however, issued in 1910 for Middle 
Schools which mark a great step in advance 
While privileges were not granted to these 
schools, the curriculum has been so arranged 
that it can prepare for the higher schools 
They comprise nine classes or years, and are 
based on the elementary school in so far as 
both have a common course in the lower stage 
Fees are charged, but a suitable number of 
free places arc maintained. Except in the 
lower stage thoro is an average of five periods 
per day Good pupils may study a second 
language from the seventh school year on In 
principle every pupil is expected to take only 
one compulsory subject By the establish- 
ment of minimum and maximum standards, 
every school has sufficient scope to adapt the 
curriculum to special needs These arc new 
principles in the Prussian educational system; 
moreover the new schedules approach much 
more nearly to the principle of election and 
elasticity than any other part of the system 
They are accordingly given here m greater 
detail. 

Training of Elementary School Teachers 
Special institutions have been established for 
the professional training of teachers for ele- 
mentary schools, distinct for males and females 
The normal schools for men are part of the 
elementary school system Between the ele- 
mentary school and the normal school there is an 
intermediate school, the preparatory institu- 
tion (Praparandcnanstaft). Normal schools 
and preparatory institutions (of which there are 
at present only a very few for girls) are usually 
residential institutions (Internate). The prepar- 
atory institutions are cither attached to or sep- 
arated from the normal schools proper They 
receive pupils from the elementary schools at the 
age of fourteen and keep them for three years. At- 
tendance at the preparatory institution is not a 
requirement for entrance to the normal school, 
arid candidates may prepare privately, but must 
show by examination " that they have attained 





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the knowledge and ability specified m the course 
of study for preparatory institutions " The 
transfer from a higher or middle school to the 
institutions for the training of teachers is, m 
Prussia at any rate, not provided for, and pupils 
who wish to transfer must pass an entrance 
examination for admission to the class they wish 
to enter. Pupils come in some cases from a 
middle or real school, but rarely from a higher 
school The course of study of both institu- 
tions is given in the following scheme; the 
normal schools for women deviate somewhat, 
but only slightly, from this. 



78 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



TIME-TABLE PREPARATORY INSTITUTIONS AND 
NORMAL SCHOOLS 





PREPARATORY 
INSTITUTIONS 


NORMAL SCHOOL 


CLASS 


III 


II 


I 


III 


II 


I 


Pedagogy ... 
Lesson-plannmg and 
model lessons 
Practice teaching 
Religion 
German . 
Foreign languages 
History 
Mathematics 
Science and nature 
study . 
Geography 
Writing . 
Drawing . 
Gymnastics 
Music . . . 

Agriculture . . . 


4 

5 
3 


4 
5 
3 


3 

r> 

3 


3 

3 
5 
2 


3 

4 
6 
2 


3 

4-0 
32 
3 
2 


5 

2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
3 


5 

4 
2 
2 
2 
3 
4 


r> 

4 

2 

1 
2 
3 
5 


5 

4 
3 

2 
3 
4 


5 

4 
2 

2 
3 
4 


1 
4 


34 37 37 


1 
38 


1 
38 


33-35 



Included with subject matter 
8 One hour for method 



a Method 



The requirements in the normal schools are 
given in detail in a few subjects and classes 

I Pedagogy (A) Theory of Education First \ear (J 
bourn a week) General instruction in psychology and logic 
and thoir application m didacticH and methods Second \ear 
(3 hours a week) Theory of education , history of education 
from the second semester Third year (3 hours a week) 
Continuation of history of education up to the present timn 
School organization, hygiene, management and regulations 
Advice in regard to further study aft PI graduation 

(R) Training in School Practice Second year In con- 
nection with model lessons in the practice school given b\ the 
practice teachers the students of the normal school are given 
opportunities all through the year to gi\e lessons which they 
have prepared, and they receive instructions us to how to pro- 
ceed Third year All the students of this third grade an; 
intrusted with giving lessons and IK ting .is clnsy teachers in tho 
practice school throughout the ycni under supervision of the 
regular instructor Each student must have from four to six 
hours a week of independent teaching Two hours a week are 
to be devoted by the students to preparing lessons with atten- 
tion to method and subject matter, criticizing lessons given bv 
the students and discussing the school pltwit, administration, 
discipline, etc Besides, these two periods are set aside for 
model lessons and practice lessons to be given in the different 
branches by the practice teachers, in which didactics or meth- 
ods are exemplified The normal students itlso arc required to 
attend the lessons given by their colleagues affording to pre- 
viously determined rotation The practice and special teach- 
ers arc to familiarize the students with the methods used in each 

branch of study 

* * * 

III German Language and Literaturt Third year ('i hours 
a week) The most notable contemporaries of Goethe and 
Schiller in connection with their works and their time Some 
of the noted modern poets in biographies and in connection 
with the reading of their works The German folk song 
Dramas Wallenitetn and one, drama of Shakespeare Pi one 
reading, preferably Herder's and Schillei's prose works Home? 
compositions once a month Two compositions in class 
Methods of teaching One hour a week throughout the year 

IV Foreign Language** (\) French First year (2 hours 
a week) Review and completion of accidence, the position 
of words , the use of tenses Reading Simple stories m prose , 
easy poems Second year (2 hours a week) The use<< of 
moods , infinitive and participles , declensions and words gov- 
erning cases Reading Easy historic prose author of modern 
times , poems Third year (2 hours a week) Syntax com- 
pleted and reviewed Reading Some historians of modern 
times , poems 

* * * 

VI Mathematics (A) Arithmetic and Algebra First year 
(3 hours a week) Powers and roots, logarithms, equations 
of the first degree with several unknown quantities Second 
year (3 hours a week) Equations of the second degree 
Arithmetical and geometrical progresnions Compound in- 
terest, computing revenues, annuities, etc Third year (1 
hour a week for arithmetic, algebra, and geometry) Meth- 
ods of teaching arithmetic and geometry 

(Bj Geometry First year (2 hours a week) Proportional- 



ity of straight lines and similarity of figures Stereometry 
Second year (2 hours a week) Continuation of stereometry, 
construction of algebraic formula? , trigonometric functions 
and computation of plane figures Third year (1 hour a week) 
See above 

At the end of the course the first teachers' 
examination is held at the normal school in the 
presence of a commissioner of the government, 
the regulations for which are as follows 

The standards of knowledge and ability which are to be 
required are defined bv tho course of study of the normal school 
The written examinations include (1) an essay on a topic taken 
from the theory of education or method, history of education, 
or Gorman literature , (2) and (3) the preparation of an essay 
m religion arid one m history , (4) a translation from the for- 
eign language into German, (5) the preparation of a chorale 
for those who have taken lessons m organ playing and harmony 
For the first essay four hours, for the rest two hours are allowed 
Tho oral examination deals with the positive knowledge in 
pedagogy, religion, German, history, and the foreign language, 
and methods of different subjects of the elementary school 
Further, those students who showed at the promotion from the 
second to the third class an unsatisfactory knowledge m nature 
study arid geography are also to be examined in these subjects 
A model lesson must be presented 

Candidates prepared outside the normal schools must bo 
examined in all the subjects of the curriculum 

The first examination, however, is not a quali- 
fication for appointment as teacher. Such 
qualification is only obtained by the second 
examination, which may be passed not less than 
two nor more than five years after the first 
This is not a repetition of the first examination 
but aims to discover the ability of the candidate 
to hold a school appointment. The examina- 
tion consists of three parts the written work, 
which consists in the preparation of an essay 
on an educational subject, this is followed by 
the presentation of a lesson on a topic assigned 
one day in advance, and the oral examination, 
which begins with pedagogy covering mainly 
the history of education, principles and method, 
a.nd school management; the examination m 
method may include all the subjects of the ele- 
mentary curriculum, but, as a rule, each candi- 
date is only examined in three subjects On 
passing this examination the candidate receives 
a ceitificate for permanent appointment as 
teacher m the elementary school 

Two further examinations may be taken by 
the teachers The examination for teachers in 
middle schools qualifies for appointment in 
middle schools and girls' high schools The ex- 
amination for principals, which may only be 
taken after that f 01 middle school teachers, qual- 
ifies for appointment as directoi or instructor in 
normal schools, district school inspector, direc- 
tor of preparatory institutions, middle schools, 
and elementary schools with six or more classes 

The examination for middle school teachers 
consists of pedagogy and two of the following 
subjects religion, German, French, English, 
history, geography, mathematics, botany and 
zoology, physics and chemistry A thesis, for 
which eight weeks are allowed, must be pre- 
pared by each candidate on a topic from one 
of his two subjects Further, there is a written 
examination of four hours on the two subjects. 
The oral examination consists of the presenta- 
tion of a lesson, and an examination in pedagogy 
and the two selected subjects. 



79 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



The principal's examination covers only the 
field of education in its broader sense A topic 
is assigned for a thesis, for which eight weeks arc 
allowed, on the theory and method of education 
and school management The oral examina- 
tion covers tho whole field of general theory arid 
method, special method of the separate sub- 
jects, their history, school ordinances and school 
management, school apparatus, and aids for in- 
struction, popular and children's literature, etc 

Continuation Schools ( Fortbildu nqwch idcn ) 
Those schools do not form a part of tho school 
system proper, and differ from that in orgam/a- 
tion and aims For further treatment soe 
CONTINUATION SCHOOLS, KVKNINO SCHOOLS; 
and especially INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION 

SECONDARY EDUCATION Tho school 
year is divided in tho same way as tho elemen- 
tal y schools In Bavaria, however, the school 
yoar runs from the end of September to tho 
beginning of July School opens, as a rule, at 7 
or 7 30 m summer, at 8 or 8 30 in winter, with 
five or six periods of forty-five to fifty minutes, 
occasionally there are some afternoon periods. 
In tho smaller towns there are often four periods 
in the morning and one or two in the afternoon 
The size of the schools is smaller than in Amer- 
ica, tho maximum, which is rarely reached, being 
probably 1000 pupils, 400 to 500 being the nor- 
mal number, while schools with 150 pupils are 
rarely found 

Tho higher education of boys and girls is 
quite distinct, and the two have developed his- 
torically along different linos In a fow states 
(Baden, Hosso, Wurttomboig) tho girls tiro ad- 
mitted to tho boys' schools, and tho tendency 
to admit girls to boys' schools in small towns, 
whore the numbers are not great enough to call 
for separate schools for girls, is gradually, but 
surely, making itself foil 

The boys' high schools arc, as a rule, public, 
there being very fow private schools Tho 
entrance requirements arc the successful passing 
of tho third or fourth class in tho elemental y 
school Frequently preparatory schools which 
do this work in three years are attached to the 
high schools; such schools ( Vorschulcn) in 
which fees are charged are preferred by tho 
wealthier classes Every high school is divided 
into six or nine classes or school years In the 
larger institutions each class is duplicated, 
tho autumn class for those pupils who are pro- 
moted in October, and the Easter class for those 
who are promoted at Easter In Radon pro- 
motions take place only once each yoar, in July, 
and the classes are then divided into parallel 
sections The following are the names of the 
classes, their abbreviated form, and the age of 
entrance into each : 



Lower 

Stage 



fScxta VI 9 

Qumta V 10 

I QuartalV 11 



Intermediate I ggJ^rtST O HI 13 
Stage { Uritersekunda U II 14 
( Obersekunda O II IT) 

PPP-BU,. teT o!!S 

I Abituricatcuezajoueu 18 



Thus VI is the Easter group of Sexta; U I M 
the Michaelmas group of Unterprhna Parallel 
classes, as, for instance, VI O and VI 2 , are 
found only in exceptional cases where the classes 
are too large The three stages as a rule form 
one institution, although there are schools con- 
sisting of only the lower and middle stages. 
Every class is passed m a year, and it is very 
rarely that a pupil can accomplish the work of 
a class m half a yoar, nor is this encouraged. 
Those who do not reach the standard of a class, 
that is, are deficient m two major subjects, fail 
of promotion and repeat tho work of that class 
for a whole year Promotions are by classes 
and never by subjects, and aro made on a pupil's 
standing for the whole yoar and on the opinion 
of tho teacher, examinations for this purpose 
rarely take placo Tho marking is at present 
on the following basis. 1, very good; 2, good; 
3, satisfactory, 4, deficient, 5, unsatisfactory 
In a fow states another mark, 3, good as a whole, 
is inserted between 2 and 3, and 6 becomes the 
lowest Generally a pupil fails of promotion 
when ho is deficient in two major subjects Tho 
maximum size of a class is 50 in the lowor, 40 
in tho intermediate, and 30 m the upper, stage 
Those numbers aro frequently reached in the 
lowor, rarely in tho upper, stage If more pupils 
enter u class, then a division into two parallel 
classes is made 

Curriculum There arc three types of higher 
schools with nine-year courses: the gymna- 
sium, tho oldest form, with the classical lan- 
guages as the distinguishing characteristic, 
the realgvmuasium, with Latin, modern lan- 
guages and natural science, the oberrealschule, 
without Greek or Latin, but with the modern 
languages and stronger emphasis on mathe- 
matics Gorman, mathematics, history, and 
religion aro common to all Tho following time- 
tables of the three kinds of schools in Prussia 
show the distribution of the subjects and the 
number of periods of recitations each week: 

GYMNASIUM 





VI 


V 


IV 


UII1 


OIII 


UII 


on 


HI 


01 


To- 
tftl 


Required 






















Religion 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


10 


GeriTvm 


4 


3 


3 


2 


2 


3 


A k 


3 


3 


2ft 


Latin 


s 


S 


8 


X 


s 


7 


7 


7/ 


7 1 


68 


Creek 














6 


r> 





l 


b{ 


36 


Frrnrh 







4 


2 


2 


,i 


.{ 


.i 


3 


20 


History 








2 


2 


2 


2 


3 [ 


3/ 


3 J 


17 


Geography 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1 


[ 


i 




9 


Arithmetic 






















mid Math- 






















ematics 


* 


4 


4 


3 


3 


4 


4 ) 


4 ) 


4 ) 


34 


Natural aei- 






















cnce 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 ' 


2 J 


2) 


18 


Writing 


2 


2 























4 


Drawing 





2 


2 


2 


2 





. 


. 





S 


Gymnastics 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


27 


Singing l 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


18 




30 


30 


34 


35 


35 


35 


35 


35 


35 


304 


Optional 






















Draw mg 












2 


2 


2 


2 




Hebrew 














2 


2 


2 




English 














2 


2 


2 





1 From IV onward only for pupils with vocal ability. 



80 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



The brackets denote the possibility of a tem- 
porary alteration of number of periods within 
the same group of subjects In classes IV and 
U III a special class is arranged for pupils 
whose handwriting is bad 

The following changes in the curriculum are 
admissible. In Oil, III, arid OI, English 
may take the place of French, in which case 
French may remain an optional subject with 
two hours a Veek. In U III, O III, and O II, 
other subjects may be substituted for Greek; 
in which case three hours are given to English, 
and generally in U III and III two houis to 
French, and one hour to arithmetic and mathe- 
matics, while in U II one hour is given to French 
and two to mathematics and natural science 

REALGYMNASIUM 





VI 


V 


IV 


U III 


GUI 


UII 


Oil 


UI 


OI 


To- 
tal 


Required 






















Religion . 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


O 


2 


H> 


Gorman 


4 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


{ 


3 




Latin 


8 


8 


7 


5 


r> 


4 


4 


4 


4 


11) 


French 








5 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4) 


41 


29 


English 











3 


J 


3 


1 


Jl 


3| 


IS 


History 








2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


n 


II 


17 


Geography 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 





j 




11 


Arithmetic and 


A 


A 


4 


A 














Natural sci- 






















ence 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


4 


r > 


"> 


^ 


2 f > 


Writing . . 
Drawing . 


2 


2 
2 


2 


2 


'> 





> 


' 2 


2 


4 
1(1 


Hinging . . 


2 


2 


o 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


18 




30 


30 


34 


35 


35 


35 


36 ^ 


3<> 


307 


Optional 
Geometrical 






















drawing 










2 


2 


2 


~ 


2 





1 Afl in the Gymnasium 
OBERREALSCHULE 





VI 


V 


IV 


UIII 


OIII 


UII 


on 


UI 


01 


To- 
tal 


Required 






















Religion 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


19 


German 


5 


4 


4 


3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


34 


French . . 


(i 


6 


G 





b 


5 


4 


4 


4 


47 


English 











5 


4 


4 


4 


4 


1 


25 


History 


- 





3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


18 


Geography 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


14 


Arithmetic and 






















Mathematics 


5 


5 





6 


r> 


5 


5 


5 


r > 


47 


Natural sei- 






















enoe 


2 


2 


2 


2 


4 





(i 


(> 


{> 


30 


Writing 


2 


2 


2 


. 




















Freehand 






















drawing 





2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


16 


Gymnastics . 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


27 


Singing l . * 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


18 




30 


30 


34 


35 


"35 


35 


Jb~ 


30 


30 


307 


Optional 






















Geometrical 


, 




















drawing 












2 


2 


2 


2 





1 As in the Gymnasium 

The extent of the knowledge which is to be 
transmitted will be indicated through the 
scope of the curriculum of the highest class 
in a few of the chief subjects and through the 
requirements of the final examination (Based 
on Lexis, Vol. II ) 

T OL. in a 81 



(Irrtl Snbi't<< i fiuwnntinm Heading: Homer's Jhml, 
Soph<>< Ics, Euripides, Plato, selections from Thuoyelules, and 
Demosthenes , other. pros* 1 valuable for content , appropuate 
selections of Greek lyric pootr> Grammar, revision, and 
rocapitulatioiiH of the whole subject, as found necessary 
Practice in unsoon translation Written translations from and 
into Greek 

Latin in the Gymnasium Reading, 5 hours Cicero (eg 
in Verrem IV or V, pro 1'lanao, pro SV-rtio, all with omissions, 
pro Murtna, selections from Cicero's philosophical and rhe- 
torical writings, also from his letters, Tacitus' Germania (at 
least till Chap 27), also Af/ncnla, or parts of the Dialofjuf, selec- 
tions from the Annalfv (especially the sections referring to 
Germany) and from the J/i^tonri, selections from Horace, 
memorization of Home of the Od<* Occasionally, unseen 
translation Private reading, especially also of writers read 
in previous (lasses, i,s to be encouraged and fostered, but is 
not required as obligatory Grammar, 2 hours revision with 
special attention to the more important and difficult syntactical 
rules, recapitulating explanations of specially prominent 
stylistic peculiarities Translation into Latin, written class 
and home exercises 

The requirements in Latin in tho real gymnasium are 
somewhat lowei 

French in the Realoj/mnamum The reading, which, as in 
tho gymnasium, occupies a central position, is treated more 
extensively and intensively than in the latter, so that the pupils 
may acquire a broader notion of the special qualities of French 
literature in the last centuries, as well as some knowledge of the 
national culture and character Revision and completion of 
the more important sections of the grammar An outline of 
the laws of versification The essentials of svnonvmy and of 
the laws of stylo Extension of the vocabulary, including ulso 
technical and scientific terms Written and oral exercises 
Exercise in essay writing, from frequent brief production of 
what has boon road, up to i freer treatment of definite concrete 
subjects Conversational exerc ises at every lesson, not merely 
in connection with the reading and incidents of daily life, but 
also on the history, literature, and culture of the French nation. 

Frriuh in (k< Oberruih<hiih -In these schools the teaching 
nims at imparting a knowledge of the more important French 
writings of the last three centuries, insight into the grammatical 
system of the' language, some knowledge' of the most important 
sections oi French literary tind soc nil history, and practice in 
speaking and \\iit ing 

The scope in English is similar, although essays are not re- 
quired in thin language Tho scope of those subjects is corre- 
spondingly smaller in the gymnasium 

Arithmftu in the Rml{/i/rnnai)urn and Ohcrreahrhulc The- 
ory of combinations, andnpplic ation to the theory of probability 
The binomial theorem for any exponents, and the simplest 
infinite series Repetition and continuation of the arith- 
metical course (extension of the notion of numbers bv alge- 
braical operations, from the* positive integral to the complex 
number) Cubic equations Elomontar> exercises in maxima 
and minima Spherical trigonometry with application to 
mathematical geography arid agronomy 

Geometry Elements of desenptiye geometry The most 
important problems in conic sections in elementary-synthetical 
treatment Analytical plane geometry Revision, recapitu- 
lation, and exercises in all branches of the subject taught ill 
previous classes 

Methods of Teaching No account can here 
be given of the methods of instruction in the 
German schools; an insight into them can 
only be obtained by a visit to the schools and 
by a study of the textbooks General regu- 
lations on method are found only to a small 
extent; like the choice of textbooks, the 
method of teaching is left to the individual 
schools Since school inspection, which might 
serve to secure uniformity, is very slight in 
higher education, the vaiiety found in teach- 
ing is exceedingly gieat, and a somewrmt firmer 
restriction placed on the individ .aJ teacher 
would at times not be out of place A certain 
amount of uniformity is secured within each 
institution through the use of the same text- 
book by different teachers, and in the system 
itself through the prescription of definite aims 
whose attainment is assured by means of the 
final examination, at which an inspector is 
frequently present. 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



Progyiunasiums ami iriilptu^viiina.siums, 
which are not \<rv numerous, and the very 
numerous real schools have each the same 
curriculum, differing only in that they lack the 
three, occasionally (especially in Baden) the 
two, highest classes. Only the Berlin real 
schools have a somewhat different curriculum 
for purposes of better articulation with the 
common schools. French LS here begun in 
Quarta, and more attention is given in the 
lower stage to arithmetic and mathematics 

Reform Schools From the accompanying 
table it can be seen that the transition from 
the gymnasium to the realgymnasium is quite 
possible in the first three years, but a change 
from the oberrealschule and the realschule to 
the gymnasium or realgymnasium or vice versa 
is entirely impossible Hence parents must 
decide quite early, when their children are nine 
or ten years of age, on the type of school to 
which they are to be sent The feeling that it 
would be better to postpone a decision which 
is irrevocable has led to the organization of 
the reformgymnasiurn and realgymnasium A 
common foundation is laid for the three types 
of high schools, for which purpose the lower 
stage of the real school or oberrealschule is 
employed At the end of three years theie is 
a bifurcation; one section begins English and 
continues later with a stronger emphasis on 
natural sciences (realschule arid oberrealschule), 
the other begins Latin, and after two years is 
again split up, the one division (gymnasium) 
beginning Greek, the other (realgymnasium) 
English. This is the Frankfort system, from 
which that of Altona deviates somewhat Ac- 
cording to this system either separate institu- 
tions may be established for the three types of 
schools, gymnasium, realgymnasium, realschule, 



or oberrealschule, or two or three different 
types may be united into one institution. 
The following is the time-table of an institution 
consisting of a reformgyrnnasium and real- 
gymnasium (the Leibnitz School at Hanover, 
wheie also a special method is employed in 
teaching Greek, the pupils beginning with the 
Homeric dialect and poems m U II, and going 
on to the Attic dialect in O II): 

The following scheme shows a * combination 
of the realgymnasium with the real school 
according to the Altona system : 

TIME-TABLE OF THE REALGYMNASIUM AND 
REALSCHULE IN ALTONA 











TOTAL 




FOUNDA- 


RKAL- 




FOR 




TION 


8CHULE 


REAL- 


FOUNDA- 








(JlMNAfllUM 


TION AND 
RKAL- 


















GYMNA- 




VI 


V 


IV 


III 


II 


I 




81UM 


Required 
Religion 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


19 


German 


ft 


4 


4 


3 


A 


3 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


29 


Latin 


_ 
















6j 








6 


30 


Freneh 


() 


1) 


r> 


() 


5 


5 


4' 4| 3 


3 


3 


3 


37 


Englwh 







4 


ft 


4 


ft 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


22 


History 







2 


2 


<> 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


17 


Geogruphv 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


2 


1 


1 









10 


Arithmetic 







3 


2 


1 


1 


1 













\AA 


Mathematics 


r > 


5 


3 


4 


ft 


ft 


4 4 


ft 


4 


ft 


ft 


)44 


PhvHieH 













2 


31 


21 2 


3 


2 


2 


11 


ChcmiHtrv 



























2 


2 


2 





Nature study 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 





2 


2 


2 








12 


Writing 


>) 


<.) 






















Drawing 




3 


'> 


i) 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


i> 


? 


?, 


16 


Gymnastic-H 


3 


A 


i 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3l 3 




3 


3 


27 


Singing 


2 


2 




3 Choral Hinging 


23 




30 


30 


'ift 


30 


30 


37)30 


30 


37 


37 


37 


37 


315 


Optional 




























Geometrical 




























drawing 























9 


2 


2 


2 


2 




SpuniHli 


~ 








2 


2 







2 


2 


2 


2 





TIME-TABLE OF THE LEIBNITZ SCHOOL IN HANOVER GYMNASIUM AND REALGYMNASIUM 

WITH A COMMON FOUNDATION 





FOUNDATION 


REA! OYMNA8UTM 


G YMNASIUM 




VI 


V 


IV 


nil 


OIII 


I 11 


on 


III 


01 


Total 


UII 


Oil 


UI 


01 


Total 


Required 
































Religion 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 I 


2 


2 ! 2 


2 


19 


2 


2 


2 


2 


19 


German 


5 


4 


4 


3 


3 i 


3 


3 


3 


3 


31 


3 


3 


3 


3 


31 


Latin 











10 


10 1 


ft 


ft 




5 


40 


8 


8 


8 


8 


51 


Greek 































8 


8 


8 


8 


32 


French 





G 


6 


3 


3 


4 


4 


3 


4 


30 


2 


2 


2 


2 


32 


English 




















4 


4 


3 


17 












History 


lo 


\ 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 




2 


2 


2 


3 




Geography . 


J " 


1 


3 


2 


2 


1 









i 30 










27 


Arithmetic 
Mathematics 


ft 


1 6 


r 


4 


4 


4 


ft 


ft 


ft 


42 


3 


3 


3 


3 


35 


Nature study 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 














11 


, 





. v 


___ 


11 


Physios 

















3 


2 


3 


3 


11 


2 


2 


2 


2 


g 


Chemistry 




















2 




2 















Writing 


2 


2 














. 







4 














4 


Drawing 





2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


10 














8 


Singing 
Gymnastics . . 


2 
3 


2 
3 


2 
3 


2 
3 


2 1 
3 I 


2 
3 


2 
3 


2 
3 


2 
3 


10 

27 


2 
3 


2 
3 


2 
3 


2 
3 


18 
27 




30 


30 


33 


35 


35 


37 


37 


37 


37 


311 


35 


35 


35 


35 


303 


Optional 
Hebrew 
































English 
































Geometrical 
































drawing 


~ 


~ 


" 


~ 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 








2 


2 


2 


2 



82 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



The aim and, as a rule, the methods of the 
reform schools are the same as in the corre- 
sponding schools of the old type. They are 
thus by no means new schools, but merely 
differ in postponing certain subjects in favor 
of others Two principles are, however, 
adopted, new to the traditional German schools 
which had and still have a fixed course: these 
are the principles of a common foundation and 
of bifurcation Two important changes are 
thereby effected; first the decision on the 
choice of an educational course is postponed 
for several years, and secondly more types of 
courses can be offered in the same institution 
and under the same direction These prin- 
ciples find even wider application m the reform 
of girls' schools and middle schools They 
indicate that the German educational system 
is gradually abandoning the principle of a 
fixed curriculum and is accepting the principle 
of election, a movement of the highest sig- 
nificance The Frankfort Plan was originated 
by Dr Remhardt, now at Berlin 

The tables in the next column show schemati- 
cally the relations between, and the articulation 
of, the three types of higher schools in the old 
and reform system 

Leaving Examination (Abituricntcnprufung) 
The requirements correspond to the pro- 
gram of instruction of Pnma The written 
examination comprises, for all the schools, a 
German essay and the working of four mathe- 
matical questions, each dealing with a different 
branch, further, (a) In the gymnasium, a 
translation from German into Latin, and an- 
other from Greek into German (6) In the 
realgy rrmasium : a translation from Latin into 
German; according to the curriculum of each 
separate institution, a French or an English 
exercise, viz , either an essay or a translation 
from German; and a question in physics 
(c) In the oberrealschule a French and an 
English exercise, an essay in one of these two 
languages and a translation from German into 
the other language, and a question in physics 
or in chemistry 

The oral examination comprises, for all the 
schools, Christian religious teaching, history, 
mathematics, and further: (a) in the gym- 
nasium: Latin, Greek, and according to the 
curriculum of each separate institution, either 
French or English; (6) for the realgy mnasium 
Latin, French, and English, and physics or 
chemistry; (c) for the oberrealschule'' French 
and English, and physics or chemistry 

Statistical. The tables on page 84 will give 
some information on the number of the dif- 
ferent schools, the number of teachers, of 
pupils, etc ; material of a more exhaustive and 
detailed character is not available 

Privileges Two kinds of Berechtigungen, 
or of certificates that entitle the holder to cer- 
tain important privileges, can be acquired in 
the higher schools : the certificate of admission 
for the one year volunteer service in the army, 



A ACCORDING TO THE OLD SYSTEM, THE CRITI- 
CAL POINTS BEING AT THE AGES OF 9 AND 11, 
\S A RULE EACH TYPE BEING A SEPARATE 
INSTITUTION 



GYMNA- 


RfcALQYM- 


OBERKLAI- AOE AT 


SIUM 


NAS1UM 


SCHLLE ENI-KANCE 




OI 


01 


OI 17 


Upper Stage 
(3 years) 


Ji 


A 


UI 16 


(Privilege of one 




1 




year volunteer 
military service) 


Oil 


on 

1 


Oil 15 



Middle Stage 
(3 years) 



U II 



14 



U II Science U II 

I | begun I 

OIII OIII OlllSciencelS 

| | | begun 

U III Greek U III 

I begun I 



UIII 



12 



Lower Stage 
(3 years) 



IV French 
I begun 



'. Latin 
begun 



IV 



11 



VI French 
I begun 



Preparatory school or 
Public elementary school 



O years) or 
(about 4 yeais) 



B ACCORDING TO THE REFORM SYSTEM, THE 
CRITIC \L POINTS BEING AT THE \GES OF 11 
AND 13, TWO OR EVEN THREE TYPES FORMING 
ONE INSTITUTION 



G\MNA- RbALGVM- 


OHEKRKAL- 


BIUM NASIUM 


8CHULL 




AGF AT 




ENTRANCE 




01 01 


01 17 


Upper Stage 
(3 years) 


J, Jl 

1 1 


UI 16 
1 


(Privilege of one 
yoar volunteer 


on on 


O III 15 


military service) 


1 








UII Greek U II English U 


II 14 




begun begun 




Middle Stage 








(2 years) 


OIII 


01 


II 13 




U III Latin 


IT I 


flEng- 12 


| begun 




lish begun 



Lower Stage 
(3 years) 



11 
10 



[ V I French begun 9 

The age at graduation in both systems is 18 or 10 



Einjahrigenschein, and the certificate of ma- 
turity for higher piofessional studies, Reife- 
prufimgszeugnif; or Zeugnis der Rcife fur hohere 
Berufsstudien 

a The FJinjahigenschein is obtained in the 
schools with a course of six years or classes 
(rcalschulcn, etc ) by the final examination at 
the end of the course, in the schools with a 
course of nine years (the three preparatory 
years not counted in either case) or classes 
without an examination by the promotion from 



83 



GERMANY GERMANY 

PRUSSIAN HIGHER SCHOOLS ON FEB. 1, 1909 



TTPB OP SCHOOL, 



Gymnasium 
Proary mnasi urn 
Keulgymnaamm 
Healprogymnasium 
Oberrealsrhule . 
Uealvchule 



336 
35 

138 
45 
85 

169 



NUMBER or TEACHERS 


NUMBBR OF PUPILS 


PI 


|f| 


|| 


OI 


TIT 


Oil 


UII 


om 


UIII 


IV 


V 


VI 


TOTA.L 


111 


IF 


IN 






















4848 
1851 
1(532 
195 


613 
37 
305 
50 


385 
20 
103 
10 


6068 
1338 


7116 
1830 


8724 
2748 


11,461 
510 
4,360 
346 


12,486 
676 
5,050 
667 


13,215 

740 
5,853 
736 


14,560 
828 
6,417 
946 


14,020 
838 
6,577 
1,040 


14,646 
905 
7,029 
1,243 


102,297 
4,497 
41,202 

4,878 


1212 
911 


259 
300 


96 
95 


898 


1276 


2144 


3.504 
3,594 


4,286 
4,654 


4,823 
5,817 


5,014 
6,127 


5,976 
6,246 


6,214 
6,912 


34,735 
33,350 



1 From Centralblatt, etc , Ery<tnzungaheft t 1910, p 50 
PRUSSIAN HIGHER SCHOOLS ON FEE 1, 1908 (A) AND 1909 (B) ' 



Schools (including 
reform school) 

Teachers 

Teachers in pre- 
paratory schools 

PupiUs . 

Pupils in prepar- 
atory schools 



CYMNAHIUM 


RE 

OYMN 
A 


Al- 
AMIUM 


OBER- 
KFAI HCHULK 


Pi 

GYMN 

A 


10- 
ASIUM 


REALPKO- 

GYMNASIUM 


REAL.SCHULE 


TOTAL 


A 

332 
0,262 


B 


B 


A 


B 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


336 
6,388 


124 
2,029 


138 
2,243 


75 
1,626 


85 
1,716 


40 
318 


35 

287 


39 
250 


45 
312 


171 
1 ,540 


169 
1,501 


781 
11,925 


808 
12,447 


353 
101,094 


366 
102,297 


180 
37,683 


199 
41,202 


137 
30,702 


l p ) r 
34.7J5 


3 
4940 


1 
4497 


20 
4225 


35 

4878 


1J8 
33,405 


126 
33,350 


837 
212,115 


872 
220,959 


13,006 


13,309 


6,905 


7,424 


4,924 


5,044 


98 


JO 


88Q 


1177 


5,009 


4,898 


30,831 


32,441 



OTHER STATES 



Bavaria (1909) 46 


4 


9 


32 




51 


141 


Wurttemberg 














(1909) . 14 


6 


10 


5 


7 


88 


129 


Saxony 19 


12 


2 


~" 


~ 


30 





1 From Centralblatt, etc , 1909 Twenty-one of these schools have one or two upper classes (oberaekunda and unterpnma) 



untersekunda to obersekunda, which takes place 
after successfully completing the first six 
years or classes of the whole course (of nine 
years) The most important privilege acquired 
by this certificate is the right of serving only 
one year in the army, whereas otherwise every 
German has to serve at least two years The 
service is voluntary (Einjahng Frciwilliger) in 
so far as the time of service and the regiment 
may, within certain limits, be selected by the 
individual holding the privilege This is of 
course of economic importance, but besides it 
means a social distinction, especially as the 
officers of the reserve, a much-coveted dignity, 
are taken from the Einj&hrige only At the 
same time this certificate will show that the 
bearer possesses a certain amount of knowledge 
and intellectual training, and so a publicly and 
officially recognized standard of education is 
established by it which easily can and actually 
does serve as the entrance requirement for 
many official and private careers So this 
certificate is the indispensable entrance require- 
ment for the intermediate careers (as official 
or clerk) in the post office, telegraph and tele- 



84 



phone service, in the service of the judicial, 
the provincial, and the local administration, 
and the state railway service (the higher 
careers being always filled by university- 
trained men, the lower ones with men who 
have had an elementary school training) In 
this respect the Einjahngemchein takes the 
place of the civil service examination m America. 
Large business houses and especially banks 
generally do not take apprentices who have 
not at least this certificate, sometimes they 
require even more The natural result is that 
a large number of boys remain at school only 
for the purpose of getting this certificate and 
leave as soon as they obtain it (sec the figures 
under U II and O II m table above). 

6 The Reifeprufung is the examination at 
the end of the full course of nine years of the 
three different types It gives the right of 
admission to the careers of officer in the army 
and navy, and above all the right of admission 
to the universities and technical Hochschulen, 
that is, ultimately to the state examinations 
at the end of the university or technical course. 
So the Reifeprufung is nearly the only entrance 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



to all higher walks of life, and certainly to all 
higher positions of honor and trust in the 
service of the state ; and the social recognition 
in which it is held is correspondingly high 

The criticism which is sometimes made by 
foreign observers of the system of privileges 
shows a failure to realize the function and the 
importance of this system It certainly has 
drawbacks; it is a heavy burden on the boys 
and on their parents; it keeps many boys in 
school who ought not to be there any longer, 
and is therefore a burden on the school But 
infinitely greater are its advantages for the 
life of the nation as well as for the work of the 
school By this system definite educational 
standards are secured throughout the nation, 
in a reliable way it provides young men with 
a broad knowledge and thorough intellectual 
training for the higher as well as for the middle 
careers in life, it relieves the higher institu- 
tions of the burden of elementary work and 
lays a good foundation for their own work. 
It puts the examinations where they belong, 
at the beginning and not at the end of the 
course; and though it sifts thoroughly, it 
avoids the tremendous waste of entrance ex- 
aminations; it does not place the examinations 
in the hands of persons who have never seen 
the boy, but leaves him to his teachers, who 
have known and worked with him for years; 
and the boy is not judged by the written work 
of a few hours, but by the oral and written 

RESULTS OF THE REIFEPRUFUNG IN PRUSSIA, 
EASTER, 1907-1Q08 







AT TUB 


AT THE 




AT THE 


REAL- 


OBER- 




GYMNA- 


GYMNA- 


RFAL- 




SIUMS 


BIUM8 


8CHULJBN 




g 


3 


S 




"5 


jjj 


J 




s 


J 


$ *-> 




- 5 


Si 2 


H 2 




M * 

2 W 


w OJ 

S w 


a w 




1907 1908 


1907 1908 


1907 1908 


Number registered for the 








examination . 


11205133 


239 1053 


117 745 


Number not admitted or with- 








drawn 


412 


79 


60 


Number examined 


5841 


1213 


802 


Number passed . 
Of those successful there were 


5022 


1183 


779 


Protestants 


3397 


971 


648 


Catholics . 


1862 


131 


97 


Jews . . 


357 


77 


27 


Number under 18 years of age . 
18 years old 


278 
1497 


48 
356 


27 
206 


1 9 years old 


1698 


412 


268 


20 years old 


1127 


220 


186 


21 years and over 
Number of successful candidates 


1022 


147 


92 


who went to the universities 


4042 


632 


353 


To the technical high schools 
Entered military career 


487 
349 


204 
58 


164 
22 


Entered higher forestry, cus- 








toms, postal and other 








state service 


151 


42 


36 


Other occupations and unde- 








cided 


593 


247 


204 





l From Centralblatt, etc., 1908. 



85 



work of a year and by his whole personality. 
The system secures the willing, though not 
always the hearty, cooperation of the parents. 
Last, but not least, it exercises an automatic 
pressure on the boy, which causes him to work, 
a pressure which otherwise the teacher would 
have to exercise by his personal efforts. Thus 
the school system becomes more efficient. It 
would be difficult to devise another system 
which could bring about these same results as 
economically ana as thoroughly Far from 
being the " bane of German secondary educa- 
tion," the system of privileges Einjdhngen- 
schein, Reifeprufung, Staatsexamen is, there- 
fore, the most important reason for the effi- 
ciency and thoroughness of the German schools, 
more important than even the preparation of 
teachers, which is partly secured only with the 
help of this system 

The extcrns, Extraner, those who prepared 
outside of the schools, are not counted in this 
list In 1907-1908 at the gymnasiums 368 
extcrns registered, for the examination of whom 
253 were admitted and 150 passed; 88 of them 
were 21 years of age and over, and 85 entered 
a university At the realgymnasiums the 
corresponding figures were, 205, 162, 123, 73, 
61, and at the oberrealschulen, 186, 97, 67, , 
23. 

Cadet Schools. These schools are to be 
found in Prussia, Bavaria, and Saxony They 
provide for the general training of future offi- 
cers in the army and are generally boarding 
schools, with the curriculum of the realgym- 
nasium combined with military practice In 
Prussia there are eight preparatory institutions 
with lower classes (Sexta to Obertertia) only, 
and one central institution with the upper 
classes (Untersccunda to Oberprima), which is 
at Bcrhn-Grosslichterfelde This horizontal di- 
vision into lower and upper sections is a special 
feature of the cadet schools, distinguishing them 
from the other higher schools In 1893 m 
Prussia the number of pupils in the preparatory 
institutions was 2470, in the central institution 
1000 Many officers come also from the regu- 
lar higher schools, with or without the Reife- 
zeugnis. (Sec MILITARY EDUCATION ) 

Higher Education of Girls. For a long 
time the higher education of girls was not so 
well cared for as that of the boys, and at times 
it was almost neglected But in recent years 
a strong reform movement has thoroughly re- 
organized these schools and placed them on a 
much higher level Whereas most of them 
were formerly in private hands and were 
money-making institutions, a rapidly growing 
percentage is now supported by the communi- 
ties; the state, at least the state of Prussia, 
supports only very few (see p. 74). As to 
promotion, division of school year, etc., see 
the general remarks on the higher schools for 
boys. The classes are generally named 10th 
class, 9th class, etc , the 1st class being the 
highest. 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



Organization and Curnrula There are 
separate higher schools for girls in all the 
states of the empire. Their curriculum, with 
the exeeptiori of riathcmalics and science, is 
not widely different from that of the realschu- 
len, and, though frequently one year longer 
(10 years or 7 without the 3 years of the 
preparatory school), it is not quite so broad 
and the teaching not so thorough (partly on 
account of the absence of privileges, Berech- 
tigungeri) Those girls who desire to get an 
education equal to that of the boys or who 
wish to pass the tteifeprufuiig arc, m some of 
the smaller (lei-man states, either admitted to 
the boys' schools (as in Baden or Saxony), or 
to M&dchen-gi/m Hasten or real-gymnasien, which 
are in no way different from the corresponding 
schools for boys in Baden In Prussia, accord- 
ing to the regulations of 1908, the girls arc not 
admitted to the boys' schools, and the new 
higher girls' schools are different from the 
boys' schools As these regulations of 1908 
will be the starting point for a new develop- 
ment and will be more or less adopted by 
other (i or man states, their most important 
features must be given here. 

In Prussia the higher girls' school proper 
contains a course of 10 years (or 7 without the 
3 years of the preparatory school), which is 
nearly equal to the 9 (or 6 respectively) years 
of the realschule On this course two others 
are built, both comprised under the name of 
Lyceum' one of two years, to be known as 
Frauennchule, a very undefined course; the 
other, one of foui years, called hokeres Lchrenn- 
ncnscintnar (training college for women teachers 
at the higher girls' schools proper) After the 
seventh and eighth year of the 
higher gills' school proper three 
other courses branch off which 
lead to the different kinds of 
Rcifeprufung These courses are 
known as Studienanstalt. The 
provision of adequate facilities 
for preparation, corresponding to 
the education of the gymnasium, 
will lead to the admission of 
women to the universities as fully 
recognized students, and has al- 
ready led tf> new regulations, to 
take effect in 1913, of demanding 
university study from teachers in 
the higher girls' schools (See 
Prettyman, C W , Higher Girls' 
Schools in Prussia Teachers 
College Rec , May, 1911) The 
influence of the Reform Schools 
and the principles therein ex- 
pressed, a common foundation 
and bifurcation, will be easily 
recognized. 

The following tables show the 
system, the articulation of its 
parts, and the different curric- 
ula: 



LYCEUM 


STUDIENANSTALT 




a 


b 


a 


6 c 


Age 


Frauen- Hbheres-Lehrer- 




schule mnensemmar 
Oberreal- Realgym- Gym- 


Minimum age sehule nasium naamm 




at 


final exami- 










na 


tion, 20 yeara 








19 




P Practical 


Minimum 


age at final 






1 year 


examination, 19 years 


18 




[ I 


1 


] 




17 


I 


1, I 

i i 


, 


I ] 


I 


16 


h 


ill IJ 


I . I 


I ^ -l 


I 




1 


Vlmimum | 












a 


ge, 












10 years 1 










Higher Gir 


\ls' School 








15 


Upper f 


: r 


T T 


/ ^ IV 


14 


stage 
4 yrs 


i 


f , 


HT^ 




13 


iji i|i 


12 


. IV Engl.sh brun 






Minimum age 












12 years 








11 


Middle 


\ 


r NOTE The 


perpendicular 




stage 




st 


rokea (|) de 


note tranm 


tion 




3 yrs 




fr 


om one clas 


s to auothe 


r or 








to another department, 


the 








h< 


3nzontal br 


ackets ( . 


' ) 




., 




indicate the 


possibility 


of 








giving instruction in common 
in certain subjects to pupils 


10 




\ 


I in 


different c 


lasses. 









.vJ 


I French begun. 












Minimum age, 












9 years 








8 


Prepar- 


VIII 


7 


atory 
school 


! 


L 








G 




X Entrance age. 






6 years 









COURSE OF STUDY OF THE HIGHER GIRLB' SCHOOL PROPER 
a Literary and Scientific Subjects 





LOWER 

STAGS, 


MIDDLE 
STAGE 


UPPER 

STAGL 


TOTAL 




X 


IX 


VIII 


VII 


VI 


V 


IV 


III 


II 


I 


VII-I 


1. Religion 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


A 


2 


2 


2 


2 


17 


2. German 


10 


9 


8 


6 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 


4 


32 


3 French 










6 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 


4 


32 


4 English 




















4 


4 


4 


4 


16 


6 History and Art 
























History 














2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


13 


6 Geography 








2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


14 


7 Arithmetic and 
























Mathematics 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


21 


8 Natural Science 








2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


2 


17 


Total 


Ib 


15 


16 


22 


22 


22 


24 


24 


24 


24 


162 



b. Technical Subjects 



9. Writing 




3 


2 


1 


1 


1 


_ 











3 


10. Drawing 


i 


i 


i 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


14 


1 1 Needlework 





2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


i 


2 


2 


t 


6(14) 


12. Singing . 
13 Gymnastics . 


i 


! 


1 


2 
2 


2 
2 


2 
2 


2 
3 


2 
3 


2 
3 


2 
3 


14 
18 


Total . 


2 


7 


6 


9 


9 


9 


7(9) 


7(9) 


7(9) 


7(9) 


55(63) 



1 In the clasps X-VIII occasional drawing 
object lessons in German 

2 Needlework is optional in the upper classes 



and olay modeling during the 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



COURSE OF STUOY OK THU, LICEUM 
A. FraueriHchule 





11 


I 


Total 


1 Pedagogy 


2 


2 


4 


2. Household Arts 


5 


5 


10 Including practice m 








cooking and house- 


3 Kindergarten- 






hold management 


teaching * 


4 


4 


S Including practice work 


4 Hygiene and 






in kindergarten 


care of chil- 








dren 


4 


4 


8 Including practical work 








in creches, day nurs- 








eries, and nunung 


5 Civics and eco- 








nomics 


2 


2 


4 Including vimtn to phil- 








anthropic institutions 








and missions 


6 Bookkeeping 








(household) 


1 


1 


2 


7 Needlework 


2 


2 


4 


S Religion 








9 German 








10 French, English, 








Latin, or Ital- 








ian 








11 History. Geog- 
raphy, Sci- 






Each subject ar cording 
> to circumstances and 


ence 






needs , two hours 


12 History of Art 






each per week 


l.J Gymnastics 








1 4 Drawing and 








painting 








1 "> Music 









1 Household arts and kmdf rgarten teaching may be HO ,tr- 
rariged that In the first >ear only the former, in the second only 
the latter, are taken with 9 hours per week 

H Training College for Teachers (Hnhere* Lchrennnenseminar) 





Ac ADEMIC CONTINUATION 


" ' 




CLASHES 




^tademic Subjects 




PRACTICAL 












YEAR 




III 


II 


I 


Total 




Religion 


3 


3 


,J 


9 


1 2 


German 


,} 


3 


3 


(1 


} 


French 


4 


4 


4 


121 


1 2 


Kngiish 


4 


4 


4 


12f 




H istorv 


2 


2 


2 


61 


1 2 


Geography 


2 


1 


1 


4 




Mathematics 


4 


4 


4 


12 


1 s 


Natural Science 


2 


3 


3 


8 


1 


Pedagogy 
Method and Model 


2 


2 


2 


6 


J 


Lessons 






(4) i 




4 


Practice Teaching 
Reports and Dis- 










4-6 


cussions 










8 




26 


20 


26 


78 


26 












(25-27) 


Technical Subjects 












Drawing 
Singing 
Gymnastics . . 


2 
1 
3 


2 

1 
3 


1 
1 


r> 
,j 

9 


3 



1 Method and model lessons in Class I are included in the 
periods given to each subject and are given in place of the re- 
spective subjects rather than as separate courses 

2 Method and introduction to professional literature 
* Method and introduction to experimentation 

The curriculum of the Studienanstaltcn is 
almost the same as those of the eoi responding 
boys' schools, but us the whole course lasts 



87 



thirteen years (instead of twelve as in the boys' 
schools), the number of recitations per week is 
a little less Those who have completed the 
course of any of the Rtudicnanstaltcn may entei 
the highest class, practical year, of the Seminar 

The higher girls' school proper and the 
Frauenschule have no privileges, the Reifcpru- 
fung at the end of the Studicnamttalten grants 
the same privileges as that of the gymnasium, 
etc As at present there are only about 35 
Studienanst alien in Prussia, and as the girls 
are not admitted to boys' schools, manv girls 
who desire a higher education can get it only 
with difficulty, especially in the smaller towns 
Financial or other statistics m suitable form 
are not available, as the whole system of girls' 
schools is in a rapid process of reorganization 
and readjustment, it would m any case be 
useless to quote statistics 

Training of Teachers for the Higher Schools 
The teachers m boys' schools are men, most 
of them with university training, in the girls' 
schools there are partly men and partly 
women teachers, most of the women being 
trained m the training colleges mentioned 
above, though an increasing number of women 
are receiving the same university training as 
the Obcrlchici Admission to the profession 
of teaching in all the states is dependent on the 
passing of a special examination for teachers m 
higher schools, e g in Prussia (Prufunq fur 
r/r/.s Lehramt an hohcren Kchnlen), held by 
special examining boards and independent of 
the universities, and also a course of practical 
preparation of from one to two years A uni- 
versity degree is not a qualification for a teach- 
ing appointment, although professors of the 
universities are frequently members of the ex- 
amining boards 

The Examination in Prussia To be ad- 
mitted to the examination a candidate must 
hold a certificate of graduation from a German 
higher school and must have studied for at 
least six semesters at a German university 
As a rule the period of study lasts from four to 
five years or more The examination consists of 
two parts, general and special, and both are 
written and oral The subjects of the general 
examination are the same for all candidates 
and include, philosophy (the most important 
facts of its history, the chief principles in logic 
and psychology, the knowledge of an important 
philosophical work) , pedagogy (the philosophi- 
cal principles underlying the most important 
facts of its history since the sixteenth century) , 
German literature (general development from 
the eighteenth century, the knowledge of a few 
important works) , religion (content and co- 
herence of the Bible, general outline of the 
history of the Christian church, the principal 
doctrines of the denomination of the candidate) 
In the special examination there must be one 
of the following combinations* Latin and 
Greek, French and Kngiish or Latin, history 
and geography, religion and Hebrew, Greek, 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



or German, pure mathematics and physics; 
chemistry, including mineralogy, and physics, 
or, in place of physics, botany arid zoology 
Other possible subjects are applied mathe- 
matics, and, occasionally, Danish and Polish 
In the first three combinations German may 
take the place of any one subject The re- 
quirements in any of the subjects mentioned, 
except Hebrew, are divided into two stages 
the second grade covers the lower and middle 
classes including untersecunda (minor subjects); 
the other, the first, includes also the upper 
classes (major) A candidate is successful 
when he satisfies in the general examination, 
and passes in at least one major (first grade, 
Lchrbefahigung fur die crttte tilufe) and two 
minor subjects A large number of subjects 
may, however, be selected by the candidate, 
as, for instance, two major and one or two 
minors The examination is conducted as fol- 
lows The candidate must in the written 
examination prepare pnvatolv two essays, one 
for the general and the other for the special 
examination The wishes of the candidates 
are considered so far as possible Sixteen 
weeks are allowed for the preparation of these 
essays, although an extension of sixteen moie 
weeks may easily be obtained A doctor's dis- 
sertation or some other printed work may be 
accepted in place of one of the two essays A 
further written test of at most three hours' 
dmation may be imposed, and is in any case 
required in modern languages This is fol- 
lowed by the oral examination which lasts 
about an hour for each major subject and half 
an hour for each minor, although these periods 
are nowhere presmbed definitely Jteexarui- 
nation, extension and supplemental y examina- 
tions are permitted, but not more than twice 
for each one of these 

The following requirements of the Prussian 
Examination Ordinance in a few important 
subjects are added to indicate the scope of 
knowledge expected 

Latin and (Irtrk (a) Second grade A sound knowledge of 
(Jreek and Latin grammar, ability in the written use of both 
languages so far as to translate suitable passages with gram- 
matical correctness and, in Latin at any rate, without any strik- 
ing defects of style, ability, on tin basis of systematic and 
thorough reading oi the classics, to understand, and, omitting 
passages of .special difficult, to translate readily, selections 
from works suitable for Hekunda in the gymnasium Candi- 
dates must possess sueh a knowledge of Greek and Roman 
histoi\, unhiding the history of literature and antiquities, 
mythology and prosody, an to give the necessary explanation on 
those points of authors to be read in the middle stage, and to he 
abk to i mplo\ intelligently good reference works in the prepa- 
lation of lessons 

For the hrst grade the additional requirements are a thorough 
ncicuttihc knowledge of grammar , teadiness m the written use of 
Latin, grammatical coi reel ness in the written use of Greek, and 
ability to apeak Latin, wide reading knowledge of the Greek 
and Roman classics, especially such as serve to enrich the les- 
sons in the gymnasium, and scientific training m tho method of 
explanations, acquaintance with prosod\, so far as it bears on 
the poets to bo read in the gymnasium, and practice ID appro- 
priate rendering of verse , a knowledge of the general literary 
development, particularly the best periods, sufficient acquaint- 
ance to guarantee further systematic study of the principal 
periods m Greek and Roman history, political institutions, pri- 
>atc life, religion and mythologv, and philosophy of the CJiceks 
and Romans, a knowledge of ,ir< hteotogy so far as necessar\ 
for effective illustration of lessons by mtt lligent employment of 
an appropriate solution of objetts The candidates must also 



give evidence of a knowledge in outline of the development of 
philology 

Enylmh After giving evidence of a knowledge of elemen- 
tary Latin grammar and ability to understand and to translate 
at least easy passages in the snhool authors, such as Cmsar, the 
requirements, in this subject are (a) for the second grade A 
knowledge of the elements of phonetics, correctness and 
thorough familiarity in pronunciation, a knowledge of acci- 
dence and syntax, and elementary s\nonymik, the possession 
of a broad vocabulary and knowledge of idiom, and some abil- 
itv in oral use of the language , a knowledge in outline of the 
development from the lime of Shakespeare of English literature, 
in which the works of the most important writers in prose and 
verse must be read , readim ss m eorree t translation of the usual 
authors into German and in free, written composition in the 
foreign language without serious errors of expression and style 
(The rcquiiementM in French are very similar ) 

(b) For the first grade In the written and oral use of the 
language there is expected not only complete grammatical 
correctness based on a scientific study of gnimmar, hut a thor- 
ough acquaintance with UK \oc.thu1ar\ and the peculiarities 
of idiom, togcthc rwith a satisfactory abilitv to employ them for 
purposes of instruction , a knowledge in outline of the develop- 
ment of the language fiom th< Old Tjighsh period, and the 
general development of literature together with a detailed stud} 
of the moit important works in the past and present . familiar- 
ity with the rules of Knglish prosody in the early anel modern 
periods, acquaintance with the histor\ oi Knglarid so far as 
necessary for the material explanation of the common school 
authors Where the knowledge of the historical elevelopment 
of the language i^ not so detailed M v< ry able und thorough 
knowledge of modern lit< ratun and an excellent command of the 
modern language may be aceepteel MS an equivalent 

Pure MathfmaticK (a) For the second grade A sound 
knowledge of elementary mathematics and acquaintance with 
analytical plane geometry, especially with the chief qualities 
of conic sections and the pnncipli s of differential anei integral 
calculus (6) For tin first grade Su< h a familiarity with the 
principles cf lugh< r gi omet r ; y , arithmetic , algebra, higher analv- 
sis, and analytical mechanics, that the candidate can solve a 
not too difficult proble rn out of this he Id 

/Vi//siry (n) F<ir the Hecond grade A knowledge of the 
more important principles and IRWH out of the whole held of this 
science, and ability te> pn>y< they* laws mathematical^ , so lar 
as possible without the application of higher mathematics, an 
acquaintance with the instruments necessary for school instruc- 
tion and practice in using them (6) For the first grade A 
more detaileel knenvlc dge of experimental physics, and its appli- 
cations , acquaintance with the fundamental investigations in 
one of the more- important branches of theoretical physics, and a 
general view of the whole field 

The requirements described are those of 
Prussia, and they are snrnlai in other states 
with noteworthy differences in Bavaria and 
Wuittemberg In both those countue.s eveiy 
candidate has to pass two examinations at an 
interval of two or more years, and the prepara- 
tory work to be done at the university is more 
strictly prescribed, while the oral and written 
examinations are conducted differently (see 
Morsch) Only the following states have 
agreed to mutually recognize their respective 
examination certificates, Piussia, Saxony, and 
the smaller Saxon states, Meeklenburg- 
Schwenn, Brunswick, Alsace-Lorraine, and 
some of the smallest states which have no 
examining boards of their own 

Practical Picparatwn The ceitihcatc of 
success in the written examination does not 
qualify for the appointment of teacher. Such 
qualification is obtained only by practical train- 
ing of one, but generally two years This con- 
sists, according to the Prussian legulations, of 
a Seminar year and a probationary year 

A The Sernmarjahr During this year 
candidates must become acquainted with the 
theory and principles of education in their 
application to the higher schools and with the 
method of individual subjects of instruction, 
and must, be introduced to practical work as 
teachei and educator For this purpose they 



88 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 













V 


"ffj 


"c 


"E 




^ 


"(f; 


'n 


v 












0] 


nJ 


rt 


























eu 


Hi 


w 




a 


^ 


a 


a/ 




PENSIONS 


etchers contnbute 


on-contributon , 
etire at 65 


on-contnbuton , 
etire at 65 


on-contributon 
aximum after 40 3 
sen ice 


on-contnbuton , 
aximum after 50 3 
sen-ice 


on-contributon 
aximum after 37 3 
sen-ice 


on-contnbuton , 
aximum after 50 3 
sen ice 


o provision 


entributory , 
[aximum after abo 
\ears' senile 


on-contributory , 
aximum after 50 3 
sen ice 


on-contnbutorj , 
aximum aft^r 40 3 
sen-ice 


on-contributor3 , 
aximum after 40 3 
sen ice 






H 


Xtf 


Xitf 


X* 


X^, 


/;<, 


^.^ t 


^ 


O^ 


fc^ 


/^ 


X^ 4 




S 


p? 


p? 


p? 


* 


~: ~- '*f- 





pj 


p? 


s 


p* 




SS 


?5 


o 




o 


O o S *- o -^ o 


iri 


C" 


o 


'O 






IN 


^ 




^ 


<N ^ -H S S^ i rv 4 


^, 


ri 


rj 


CM 




^ 


A 


A 


i 


-k 


A 


i i i "c 'd 


i 


jL 


A 








^ 


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^ 


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- 


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' *- r, 


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' 13 




-c 


i ^ 


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a - 




a i 


O G 03 


Q "S a 




O G a 


9c 


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"o"* 3 


"o o -S 


"o 






_c O * 


o 


'i o * 


J o % 


So* 

















"S O.'* 4 - 


o D.E 


5 


V C. u 


o ail 


g aEL 
















</ D. S 


* a ea 








S o. 






TR USING ( 
TEACHERS 


ears normal sc 
kear<? practice-t 
6 3 ears asiista 


* earn normal sc 
o permanent a 
ment before 24 
second examm< 


ears normal sc 


\ears normal 
permanent a 
ment 2-f> \eai 
tracJuation fro 
and 2d examim 


\ ears normal 
permanent a 
ment alter 2 
and exammatic 


\ears normal 
permanent a 
ment after 2 3e 
t \annnation* 


ear* normal sc 




\ ear normal 
permanent a 
ment after 3 \e 
examination 


3 ears normal 
permanent a 
ment after 2 \ e 
examination 


\ears normal 
permanent a 
ment after 2\e 
examination 


\pari normal s 






CM COO 


coX 


CO 


^ 


-0 


CO 


^ 


m 


ro 


ro 


c^ 


CO 




0, 





V, ^ 


2-" C 


u"o3 


C 4; 




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1 c 




W 




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f- 


2^ 




Sfe 


C3 2 


*-- " ! 




0) 


2 a 




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^ 


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> D. 

Q 








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APPOINTMENT or 
TEACHERS 


University , Prufung fur 
das Lehramt an hoheren 
Schulen. Semmarjahr 
Probejahr 


lm\ersit\ , general and 
professional examina- 
tions, Semmarjahr 


University, general and 
professional examina- 
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92 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



arc assigned in groups of eight, or ten to a school, 
where* at least two hours of discussion take 
place each week chiefly on the following sub- 
jects: principles of education and instruction 
and method, especially of the subjects of the 
candidates; historical survey and discussion 
of contemporary questions, the character, 
organization, and curriculum of the higher 
schools; the school ordinance, principles of 
school discipline, hygiene, etc , administrative 
authorities and their organization; service regu- 
lations of teachers; and, finally, directions 
for observation of lessons The candidates 
must bring short reports or deliver oral lectures 
on all these subjects In their particular work, 
they must acquire by class-room visitation a sur- 
vey of the tasks of the whole school The trial 
lessons of the candidates begin as soon as pos- 
sible, and the problems, which at first are kept 
within narrow limits, are generally made 
broader and more extensive Each candidate 
must give a trial lesson about once in four weeks, 
at which all the candidates, the director, and 
the subject teacher must be present This is 
followed by a general discussion and criticism. 
About two months before the close of the year 
every candidate must hand in a somewhat 
larger dissertation which demands theoretical 
considerations and practical applications and 
should be based on the candidate's own ex- 
perience and observation 

B The Probationary Year (Probejahr) 
This period serves mainly to afford the candi- 
dates practice in. the application of the educa- 
tional knowledge and ability acquired in the 
seminar-year, and is usually spent in another 
institution. The candidates are intrusted with 
larger, more continuous problems for eight or 
ten hours a week, always under the more or less 
strict supervision of the director and those teach- 
ers in whose classes the candidates are teaching. 
As evidence of the amount of pedagogical in- 
sight attained the candidates must hand in a 
report of their own work as teachers It is only 
then that the certificate qualifying for ap- 
pointment in a higher school can be granted, 
and with it ends the training of the young 
teacher 

Reform in the Higher Schools Only the 
most important of the reform movements and 
ideas can be mentioned here without any 
further discussion The following are move- 
ments which have been realized here arid there 
without any general acceptance as yet the 
introduction of boarding schools; the admis- 
sion of girls to boys' higher schools the in- 
troduction of biology, philosophy, and civics; 
closer attention to the modern scientific theology 
in religious instructions, and, above all, greater 
freedom and consideration of the interests of 
the pupils in the upper stage Possibly there 
should also be added here the frequent demand 
for more professorships of education The 
following opinions, which have remained noth- 
ing more and of which one or the other may be 

93 



realized in the future, mav be referred to 
lessening of the home work and the number of 
subjects in the curriculum, establishment of 
vocational classes, special promotion of pupils 
of more than average ability, separation of the 
upper stage and the establishment of an inter- 
mediate institution between the school and the 
university, somewhat like the American college; 
and a number of other radical ideas which can- 
not be mentioned here It is a pretty generally 
accepted opinion that the German higher school 
system, as at present organized, cannot last any 
length of time, but how it is to be reformed 
is a problem But those concerned in it are 
convinced that reform will not be brought about 
by a revolution, but by gradual, even slow, but 
unceasing development P Z 

UNIVERSITIES Historical (I) Al- 
though the German universities are con- 
siderably younger than the famous Studia 
gc net all a of Italy, France, England, and Spam, 
Germany fiom the beginning played an im- 
portant part in medieval culture At Bologna 
and Paris German students and teacheis made 
very creditable contribution to the universities, 
and in Germany itself schools of the orders like 
the Dominicans and Franciscans at Tologne, 
where men like Albertus Magnus, Thomas 
Aquinas, and Duns Scotus taught, were close 
rivals of the foreign universities But the uni- 
versities proper only sprang up in Germany 
in the middle or, if the whole of present Ger- 
many is considered, towards the end of the 
century 

In order 'of tune two groups may be dis- 
tinguished (1) 1340-1415 Prague 1349, 
Vienna 1365, Heidelberg 1385, Cologne 1388, 
Erfurt 1392, Leipzig 1409, Rostock 1419 
By the establishment of a xludnim general? 
at these places the educational organization 
of Southern and Western Europe was tiaris- 
planted into German territory (2) 1456- 
1506 Greifswald 1456, Freiburg 1457, Basle 
1459, Ingolstadt 1472, Trier 1473, Mainz 1477, 
Tubingen 1504, Wittenberg 1504, Frankfort- 
on-the-Oder 1506 (q v) The establishment 
of these institutions was a natural consequence 
of the new intellectual movement of the time, 
the Renaissance, but a greater cause was the 
concentration of political power in the hands 
of territorial princes To strengthen their 
influence these rulers confined the clerical and 
intellectual life within their own borders and 
found need for their own territorial university 
All these universities, including the older, 
did not originate independently as did Pans 
out of the association of famous teachers and 
their students, but definite political aims con- 
tributed to the rise of each Hence the life 
of the students was not regulated by a demo- 
cratic constitution similar to that at Bologna, 
but the* statutes were imposed from above, 
generally modeled on those which had in the 
meantime been developed in Pans However 
much the secular power may have done for the 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



establishment, granting of privileges and or- 
ganization of a university, in its whole work 
and character it was regarded entirely as an 
ecclesiastical and clerical institution Not only 
did the faculties receive the right to teach 
and grant academic honors through the papal 
bull, but in its general attitude and sympathy 
the university belonged to the clerical estate 
The success and influence of these numerous 
universities on the culture of Germany, in 
spite of the ridicule of the humanists and the 
charges of the Reformers, were both very great 
Neither movement would have been possible 
without the preparatory work of scholasticism 
fostered by the universities. According to 
Eulenhcrg's investigations about the year 1500 
there were from three to four thousand natives 
and some two thousand foreign students in Ger- 
many How great must even then have been 
the number in the German population of uni- 
versity-trained men ! 

(II) At the beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury scholasticism was driven out m Germany 
as elsewhere by the humanistic movement. 
But just as the triumph of humanism seemed 
about to be completed, a new and stronger 
movement, the Reformation, began and de- 
stroyed almost entirely the hopes of victory. 
Since all intellectual activity had until then 
been clerical, the general attack on cleri- 
calism was bound to lead to a vast upheaval 
of the whole educational system But the 
confusion was soon overcome, for in the first 
place the German Reformers required for the 
success of their work a far better educated 
clergy than the old church , to be able to preach 
the " pure word of God," the pastor must have 
studied Secondly, the secular powers also 
needed a thoroughly well-trained legal pro- 
fession for the new duties which were thrust 
on them by the increase of territorial rights, 
confiscation of church property, and the accept- 
ance of Roman law Under pressure of these 
needs the crisis was overcome and the univer- 
sities in Germany became tenitonal institu- 
tions for the purpose of meeting the demand 
for theologians and lawyers The deeper the 
cleavage between the Catholic and Evangeli- 
cal (including Lutheian and Reformed) churches 
became, the more rigorously was the terntoiial 
principle applied to the universities New 
universities were added in great numbers; 
Protestant were Marburg (1527), Komgsberg 
(1544), Jena (1558), and Helmstedt (1576), 
Catholic included the two Jesuit universities 
of Dillmgen (1549) and Wurzburg (1582) (qq v ). 
The older universities were also reorganized 
to meet the new requirements The smaller 
principalities and free towns added to their 
gymnasiums a course of academic lectures, 
for such an " academic gymnasium " enabled 
the poorer states to train up theologians and 
jurists above suspicion from among their own 
sons. While m the medieval period the ma- 
jority of the students had been content with 



a training in the fourth and lowest faculty, 
arts, they now sought a professional training 
in law and theology, with the result that the 
numbers m these superior faculties increased 
Medicine and science still remained almost 
insignificant. Instruction in all the faculties 
had taken over from humanism the watch- 
word " Back to the sources," a worship above 
all of the three sacred tongues, and for daily 
use a number of new textbooks, but m practice 
there continued, even m Protestant Germany, 
the characteristic forms of scholastic method 
throughout the whole of this period. The 
intellectual standard of the universities rose 
somewhat during this period as compared with 
the earlier, but hardly at the same rate as the 
general intellectual progress The epoch-mak- 
ing science of the day, 1he mathematical, was 
excluded from the universities, and the con- 
tributions of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, 
Descartes, Newton, Leibnitz, were made out- 
side of these institutions Exhausted as they 
were by the devastation of the Thirty Years' 
War 0618-1648), the universities were not 
111 a position to continue their progress 

(III) Research in modern science, which 
in France, England, and Italy was promoted 
by academies or societies, m Germany gradually 
began to center round the universities Leib- 
nitz, it is true, had already in J700 called into 
existence at the Royal Court in Berlin an acad- 
emy modeled on the Academic des Sciences 
in Paris, and the Royal Society m London, 
followed m 1757 by the establishment of the 
Gescllschaft der Wissenschaften at Gottmgen 
m the Kingdom of Hanover But the intel- 
lectual modernization of culture in Germany 
did not proceed from the associations of in- 
vestigators, but from the professonal chairs. 
Hence the academies in Geimany are up to the 
present but of secondary mipoitance and consist 
of associations of university professors meeting 
for definite and specialized lesearch 

The new era was opened by the establish- 
ment of the Prussian University of Halle in 
1694 as a conscious protest against the tradi- 
tional studies The modern movement was 
there inaugurated by three professors' (1) The 
pietist, August Hermann Francke (q v ), who 
broke through the pievailing theological ortho- 
doxy, (2) the leader in the enlightenment, 
Christian Thomasius (qv), who swept out 
of existence the prevailing forinahstic preju- 
dices and superstitions in political and ecclesi- 
astical law; (3) the rationalist, Christian Wolff, 
who tore down the scholastic barriers between 
philosophy, mathematics, and natural science. 
The modern principle of academic freedom 
now begins its triumphant course Instruction 
is now marked by the lecture method with 
which is introduced the use of the vernacular. 
While French culture above all had exercised 
a profound influence on Prussia, the University 
of Gottmgen, founded in 1737, was influenced 
by the connection between the kingdom of 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



Hanover and England (iottmgen look Halle 
as a model, and in addition to jurisprudence 
promoted the study of the natural sciences and 
introduced the modern study of the classics; 
not the mere imitation of ancient models m 
poetry and eloquence, but a complete entering 
into the spirit of classical antiquity from the 
literary, historical, and aesthetic standpoints 
Halle and Gottingen were followed in 1743 
by the foundation of Erlangen At the end 
of the eighteenth century the new ideas had 
become firmly established in the German 
universities 

(IV) At the time that Napoleon reorganized 
the French universities on the principle of the 
strictest possible control of academic learning 
and teaching (1808), Prussia, conquered and 
deprived of all power, established the University 
of Berlin (1810) on the widely different basis 
of the greatest academic freedom Intellectual 
power was to replace what Prussia had lost 
materially, and the training in pure idealism 
was to be left entirely to the influence of truth 
and freedom While the universities had 
hitherto been conducted like schools, with the 
professors as masters and the students as ap- 
prentices, the University of Berlin was to be 
a free intellectual working community with the 
professors as masters and the students as their 
assistants, both occupied in common with the 
solution of the same tasks This principle 
soon found its way into all German universities 
and laid the foundations on which was built 
up Germany's unique position in international 
culture Soon after Berlin, Brcslau (1811), 
Bonn (1818), and Munich (182fi) were founded 
A number of the older and smaller universities 
had disappeared in the Napoleonic period No 
new foundations were made in the nineteenth 
century in spite of the great increase in popu- 
lation It is only within recent years that it 
has been proposed to add to the existing num- 
ber of universities. In 1902 Munster was 
transformed from an Academy for Catholic 
Theologians into a university Recently it 
has been agitated to establish universities on 
a basis of voluntary endowments and munici- 
pal grants, arid m 1914 such an institution will 
be opened at Frankfort-a -M (qv), while an- 
other is proposed in Hamburg, Hitherto it 
has been unnecessary to increase the number 
of universities, since m their inherent organiza- 
tion the existing institutions have been much 
extended and have become specialized The 
two great tendencies of the nineteenth century, 
the great specialization in the intellectual work 
especially and the remarkable development of 
natural science, led to a demand not only 
for a great increase of instructors and a narrow 
specialization of studies, but also for a develop- 
ment and a constant increase of all the numer- 
ous intellectual institutions connected with a 
university Since the chief aim of university 
instruction is to make men of the students, not 
only imbued with the spirit of their subject, 



bill ready 1o rairy it forward step bv stop, the 
German university loquires in the first place 
learned seminars and scientific laboi atones 
In the philosophic-historical subjects in theol- 
ogy, jurisprudence, philology, etc , the seminars, 
in which the master and his assistants investi- 
gate the problems in their field, necessarily re- 
quired in the course of the nineteenth century 
more complete equipment, while in medicine 
and the natural sciences more suitable and 
more specialized clinics, laboratories, and ex- 
perimental institutes had constantly to be pro- 
vided Since the expenditure on the institutes 
is much greater in the larger than the smaller 
universities, a certain amount of inequality 
arose among them, only compensated for by 
the fact that the student is enabled to be more 
directly arid personally associated with hie 
director in the smaller than in the larger in- 
stitutes As far as the quality of professors 
is concerned there is no distinction at the dif- 
ferent universities It may be that a few 
places have one or two men of repute or even 
geniuses among their professors, but Germany 
is thus distinguished from other countries by 
the fact that in essence all the universities are 
alike, and the same may be studied m Freiburg 
or in Komgsberg as in Beilm 

Present Position Relation to the State 
Universities may be established only by the 
state or with the approval of the state All 
the existing umvcisities arc state institutions, 
and as such juristic persons in public law 
Their rights, however, as a lesult of the federal 
character of the German Empire vary some- 
what As a rule they are not based on legis- 
lation but on special privileges, statutes, and 
ministerial decrees The income of the uni- 
versities is very slight, and only a few have 
sufficient interest-bearing property to bo able 
to covci an appreciable portion of then main- 
tenance at their own expense Generally they 
arc maintained by the state The state uni- 
versity budget must, like the state budget, 
generally receive the approval of the regular 
representative bodies, and at the discussions 
the public can, through its representatives, 
make its wishes with icfeience to the univer- 
sities felt The states do not allow any one 
to hold an appointment in the church, in the 
judiciary or higher administrative service, 
and permit no one to practice law or medicine 
who has not studied in a German umvcisity 
and then passed the prescribed state examma 
tions These state privileges arc more im- 
portant for the universities at present than the 
right to grant academic degrees The au- 
thority in Prussia to which the universities are 
subjected is the Mmistiy of Public Worship 
and Education, which appoints a representative, 
Curator, or Chancellor for each university, with 
charge of the external affairs 

The internal administration is in the hands 
of the universities themselves through the 
Rector and Senate. The Senate consists either 



95 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



DlflTBIBUTlUN OK Kxi'FNDITlMlFH IN PEH(,KN I AdIF OF THK 
TOTAL, IN PRUHMJAN IJNIVfcHBI riV H (l>rruxt< Stdtmtlk, \ol 

223, p 7 ) 





1808 


1877- 
1878 


1887- 
1888 


189- 
1897 


1 005- 
H)00 


1008- 
1909 


Cost of admm- 














ifltration 


507 


370 


3 4f 


4 40 


4 11 


394 


Bulary of pro- 














feHHorw, ot( 


4f> ( ). r > 


11 01 


'W 00 


') 40 


27 OJ 


278 r > 


Institute, 














etc- . 


47 07 


47 18 


47 18 


51 1)6 


55 45 


5604 


HoHtelw, main- 














tenance, 














grants, etc 


a 70 


2 JO 


1 <><> 


1 07 


1 30 


1 10 


Cost of build- 














ing rates 














taxes , . . 


.i 10 


2 4 r > 


{ 01 


.i 7 i 


4 17 


420 


(Covering of de- 














creuHi'M in 














receipts un- 














foreneen and 














mirpluH ex- 














penditure 
Rent iridernin- 


442 


3 03 


271 


254 


227 


227 


tieH for in- 














structtirH 




002 


5 38 


5 12 


4 77 


452 



of several full professors (ordentlichc Profrtt- 
soicn) or generally of annually changing com- 
mittees of the same body The Rector or, 
in some states where the hereditary ruler holds 
this position, the Proreetor is elected annually 
from the ranks of the full professors, arid his 
election must receive the approval of the state 
He presides over the senate The professors 
are civil servants with certain privileges. Full 
professors are appointed by the state or the 
ruling prince on the responsibility of the Min- 
istry, when as n rule the suggestions of the 
Faculty or the university are respected The 
state also appoints associate professors (a?/,s- 
KprordcTitlichc Profektwren) and confers the pro- 
fessorial) title Again the universities are rep- 
resented in the legislature of the state by each 
sending one professor ex offieio to the Diet 
(uppei House) of their respective state 

Relation to the Church This in Germany 
is in some ways simplei, in some more compli- 
cated, than elsewhere It is simpler in that 
both university and church are under the same 
authority, both being state institutions Other 
denominations than the evangelical or Roman 
Catholic are of little significance, since their 
membership is too small But it is this very 
close connection between Church and State that 
leads to great complication The Catholic 
Church is opposed to the fundamental principle 
of the German universities, absolute academic 
freedom, while a strong section in the evangeli- 
cal church is at any rate not friendly to it 
This m view of the strength of the Catholic 
party in politics leads to parliamentary con- 
flicts on the question of intellectual prescription 
and on the so-called destructive activity of the 
" atheistic " professors So far as individual 
theological faculties are concerned, the op- 
ponents of academic freedom in the evangelical 
church seek the cooperation of the local synods 
in filling theological chans Hitherto the state 



authorities liuvc opposed Ihese tendencies. 
Yet in practice some concession was made to 
them in filling chairs not m accordance with 
the qualifications of candidates and the sug- 
gestions of the university, but on the basis 
of distributive justice (jutititia chstributiva) 
between the right and left wings of the clerical 
political parties, with the result that science 
invariably suffered In the Catholic theo- 
logical faculties the present modernist move- 
ment has caused the state authorities con- 
siderable difficulties; what, for instance, should 
be the attitude of the state when a professor 
of theology, appointed by the state with a 
guarantee of academic freedom, refuses to 
accept the prescription of his church in his 
teaching ? or again, when a university receives 
into its midst professors who have taken this 
oath and thus have abjured their freedom? 
A solution of this situation has not yet been dis- 
covered The following Prussian universities 
have evangelical theological faculties: Berlin, 
Bonn, Breslau, (Ireifswald, Halle, Komgs- 
bcrg (all for the old Prussian state church), 
Gottmgcn (for the state church in the Prussian 
province of Hanover), Marhuig (for the state 
church in the province of Hesse-Nassau), and 
Kiel (foi the state church in the province of 
Schleswig-iiolstein) Besides there are evan- 
gelical theological faculties at Erlangen 
(Bavaria), Leipzig (Saxony), Tubingen (Wurt- 
temberg), Heidelberg (Baden), Giessen (Hesse), 
Rostock (Mecklenburg), Jena (Thurmgian 
States), Strassburg (Alsace-Lorraine) Cath- 
olic theological faculties exist m Prussia at 
Bonn, Breslau, and Munster, in Bavaria at 
Munich and Wurzburg; in Wurttcmberg at 
Tubingen, in Baden at Freiburg, in Alsace- 
Lorraine at Strassbuig These university 
faculties, however, do not suffice for the demand 
for the Catholic clergy in Germany, and there 
are in addition six state Lyceums (five in Bava- 
ria and one m Prussia) in which the professors 
are appointed by the state, one espicopal 
Lyceum in Bavaria, and seven episcopal theo- 
logical institutions (six in Prussia and one in 
Lorraine) in which the professors are ap- 
pointed by the bishops Athough several 
universities retain their denominational title 
from their origin, e g the Evangelical Univer- 
sity of Halle, they are in fact wholly unde- 
nominational Jews are admitted to the teach- 
ing bodies everywhere m a percentage far above 
their number m the population However, 
the complaints of the Jews that they are over- 
looked for promotions are not rare and fre- 
quently not without reason. 

Organization The universities are still 
organized according to tradition into four 
faculties. No university has less than four 
faculties, only the recently founded University 
of Munster is still without a medical faculty. 
In single instances only is there a faculty of 
political science as distinct from that of law, 
and a mathematical-natural-science as distinct 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



from the philosophical. In a broader sense the 
faculties include the whole corpus acadenucutn, 
the teaching body as well as the students 
In the narrower sense the faculty consists only 
of a section of the teaching body, the full pro- 
fessors in the respective faculty These elect 
annually from their midst a dean as director 
of their business They are responsible for 
the regular conduct of instruction in their field, 
suggest names to the Minister in filling vacant 
chairs, for the distribution of definite courses 
to other instructors, for the promotion of pri- 
vate docents (q v ) and associate professors, 
etc They further arrange the schedule of 
lectures and arrange the hours among them- 
selves, determine on the admission of private 
docents, and aic the authority responsible for 
the conferment of academic, degrees 

The full professors (ordenthchc Professor en, 
otdmarn) are almost the sole and exclusive 
bearers of all the rights of the academic teach- 
ing bodies Each of them has a teaching com- 
mission foi a definite subject and is as a rule 
bound to conduct a more comprehensive private 
course in his field and one free public lecture 
of one 01 two hours He receives, first, a defi- 
nite salaiy, as a rule 4000-6000 M ($800- 
1200) a vear, and a slight indemnity for rent, 
secondly, the fees paid by the students for the 
private courses, usually 5 M an hour each 
semester (although in Prussia when fees exceed 
3000 M , half of the excess must be paid into 
the treasury), thirdly, increments granted at 
the discretion of the Minister who wields a 
great power, fourthly, fees for graduation and 
examinations Professors of medicine conduct 
to some extent then private practice, and as 
compared with the great income from this 
source then salary is insignificant Similarly, 
professors in other applied sciences frequently 
have considerable additions to their salaries 

In addition to the full professors there are 
a number of others: (1) Honorary full pro- 
fessors who have the rank of full professors 
but nothing more; (2) titular professors or 
private docents who have only the title of pro- 
fessor but nothing more (3) Associate pro- 
fessors (amserordentliche Profexxorcn, ertraor- 



dinaru} are divided into two classes according 
as their salaries arc or are not permanently 
included m the university budget The latteV 
receive no salary, though they often receive a 
remuneration, as when they are assigned to 
give a definite course Such assignments are 
also made occasionally to private docents 
The deciding question in this confusion of 
titles and positions is whether an instructor is 
provided for m the budget, for although he does 
not as a consequence receive a seat or a voice 
in the faculty, yet his teaching is recognized 
as within the university Of greater impor- 
tance, however, in the applied sciences is it 
that he conduct his own institute, and is thus 
independent of other professors In the case 
of private docents it is to some extent a limita- 
tion of this academic freedom that they are 
dependent on the good will of full professors 
for the use of equipment in the applied sciences 
The number of associate or extiaordmary pro- 
fessors is very large, since with the constant 
specialization in all sciences and the com- 
paratively slow increase of full professorships 
the work of the university could certainly not 
be carried on The salary of an associate pro- 
fessor who is paid by the state rises in Prussia 
from 2000 M to 4000 M in twenty years 
Many piofessors never rise above the grade 
of associate professor because there is no full 
professorship at all in their subject 

The ranks of the piofessors are as a rule 
filled from among the private docents (See 
DOCENT for method of appointment, etc ) It 
is the exception for a man to be called from 
practical work as pastor, judge, doctor to fill 
a chan, but in some faculties is not quite so rare 
an occurrence* 

A number of young scientists are also em- 
ployed to assist the .professors Frequently 
in the applied sciences a pnvate docent is also 
appointee! as assistant, in such cases his de- 
pendence on the full professor is thus corre- 
spondingly greater 

Student Bodi/ The requirement for ma- 
triculation as student m a German university 
is the possession of the maturity certificate 
(Rcifuzeugms) of a secondary school (Gym- 



NUMBER OF INSTRUCTORS IN THE GERMAN UNIVERSITIES 

(Prcuim Statmtik, \ol '22 3, p 26) 
a. Full Professors b Associate Professors c Private Docenta 





E\ ANGELICAL 
THKOLOGY 


CATHOLIC 
THEOLOGY 


LAW 


MEDICINE 


PHILOSOPHY 


TOTAL 


Winter 






































Semester 


a 


b 


r 


a 


6 


c 


a 


6 


c 


a 


b 


( 


a 


b 


< 


a 


b 


c 


1896-7 


101 


22 


27 


51 


7 


6 


143 


25 


35 


198 


16,* 


223 


521 


242 


280 


1015 


459 


571 






4-5 






4-1 






4-5 






4-5 






4-34 






4-50 




1896-7 


109 


32 


31 


55 


11 


5 


155 


26 


40 


215 


213 


289 


556 


293 


388 


1090 


575 


753 






-1-5 






4-2 






4-12 






4-11 






4-46 






4-76 




1908-9 


119 


41 


34 


63 


16 


19 


104 


51 


47 


251 


2(>0 


497 


650 


403 


511 


1247 


771 


1108 






4-5 






4-5 






4-17 






4-34 






4-oO 






4-121 










i 

































VOL in H 



The addition iekrs m ever> r.is< lo Honorai \ Professors 

97 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



nasium, Realgymnasium, or Oberrealschule) The 
certificate of certain professional schools is 
also accepted in some universities for further 
study in the special subjects; thus, the gradu- 
ates of industrial schools are under certain cir- 
cumstances permitted to take up the study of 
mathematics and natural science, or graduates 
of normal schools for elemental y teachers may 
be admitted for the study of pedagogy, e g at 
Leipzig, Jena, Giessen, and Tubingen. Women 
who have fulfilled the same requirements as 
men are also matriculated, although there 
arc individual profossois who do not admit 
women to their classes Foreigners are ad- 
mitted everywhere, if they can show satis- 
factory preparation Besides the students 
there are further registered auditors (Horer) 
At Giessen permission to visit is granted by 
the Curator for four semesters, which may be 
extended to six Such registration is only 
allowed in the faculty of philosophy Almost 
universally the students enjoy complete free- 
dom of study (Lcrnfrcihcit), but since the leg- 
ulations for the professional examinations, 
which are taken at the close of the academic 
career, prescribe a definite course, the students 
in most subjects, and especially law, are confined 
to a more or less regulated curriculum 

The enrollment in the summer semester of 
1011 was 57,330 distributed as follows Evan- 
gelical theology, 1834, Catholic theology, 2825, 
law, J 1 ,023 , medicine, 1 1 ,927 , philosophy, 
20,721 These figures include 2522 women In 
addition there were 4060 auditors The stu- 
dents were distributed as follows in the indi- 
vidual universities: Berlin, 6039, Munich 
6942, Leipzig, 4888, Bonn, 4174, Freiburg, 
3080, Halle, 2681, Broslau, 2586, Gottmgen, 
2492, Heidelberg, 2452, Marburg, 2302, Tub- 
ingen, 2118, Strassburg, 2071, Minister, 2009 
Kiel, 2001, Jena, 1902, Komgsberg, 1517, 
Wur/burg, 1449, Giessen, 1315, Greifswald, 
1180, Erlangen, 1104, Rostock, 920 (See 
also COLLEGE \ND UNIVERSITY STUDENT AT- 
TENDANCE ) 

NUMBER OF STUDENTS COMPARED WITH THE EX- 
PENDITURE OF THE PRUSSIAN UNIVERSITIES 

(7'rn/sA Stuttntik,V<>\ 22i, p 7) 



1808-1800 
1877- 1H7H 
1887-1888 
18% 1897 
1005- 1900 
1908 1000 



No o> j To MI 1<J\- 
HTUDENIH ppNDiiuui 1 



7 US 

s;>io 

13 720 
U,8t>l 
20,25 r > 
22717 



M 
3,SS(> 63 i 

7 007,047 

ISO 003 

11 117345 

1 r >,42(>,084 

17,428,242 



STUDENT 



M 
530 

823 
(>G9 
824 
762 
700 



i Covered in the ninin bv thr stnto fund partly from the 
property of the um\ersit> In 1'nissia, two thirdn m IKON, and 
,n 1008 1909 thret qmuters <>f tin expenditures were borne bv 
the stnle The expetiditiiM s <>| tin non-Prussian unixeisitiiH 
ure UH high as thiwe ot Pmssi i 



The students are partly organized in free 
societies (Corporahonen), partly unorganized 
The method by which the student organiza- 
tions among themselves or for the whole stu- 
dent body form committees for the supervision 
of student interests vanes from place to place. 
The German student does not live in college 
or similar hostels, but in private houses Hos- 
tels exist only for Catholic theological students, 
and at Tubingen also for a number of evangel- 
ical students. Elsewhere there are small en- 
dowments for students of small means. Fees 
and dues are low Umveisity life only be- 
comes expensive when the student, only just 
out of school and entenng on independence 
but with high spirits and small financial ex- 
perience, adopts an expensive mode of life 
Extravagance, however, is foreign to the Ger- 
man student or is confined to a small circle, as 
at Bonn and Heidelberg But generally the 
men lead a steady life and work with a will, 
despite their great freedom 

The period of attendance at tho university 
varies with the different faculties. The follow- 
ing are the number of semesters spent on the 
average in the last decade* Evangelical the- 
ology, 737, Catholic theology, 704, law, 
686, medicine, 11 00; philology and history, 
910, mathematics and natural science, 888 
The academic degree which pievails m the 
legal, medical, and philosophical faculties is 
still only the Doctorate (Di Jui , Dr Med.; 
Dr Phil ) In the theological faculty there 
are two degrees, the licentiate and the doc- 
torate (Lie Theol and D Theol ) All these 
degrees are of practical significance only to 
those who look to an academic career, other- 
wise they are merely ornamental They may 
be obtained in course by tho presentation of 
an independent work of scientific value and 
an oral examination before the faculty, or they 
are conferred honoris causa The doctoiate in 
theology LS now only conferred as an honorary 
degree The technical term foi graduation is 
Promotion Modeled on the university degrees 
is the title of Doctor of Engineering (Dr. Ing ), 
conferred by the technical high schools 

In addition to the universities there is an 
appreciable number of technical high schools, 
commercial academies and high schools, acade- 
mies of forestry and mining, veterinary and 
agricultural high school To these must be 
added the military school, such as the war 
academy, artillery and engineering schools 
More intimately connected with the universi- 
ties, in aiming not at professional education, but 
at intellectual advancement, are the public lec- 
ture couiscs at the institutions at Frankfort-a.- 
M (</?'), Cologne, and Hamburg, the Royal 
Academy at Posen, arid the Berlin Academy 
for Medical Training for the Army, equivalent 
to a medical faculty In university extension 
work significant beginnings hu\c been made 
in Berlin (Humboldt Academy, Free High 
School, Society for Popuhu Course by Berlin 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



University Instructors), at Dresden (Gehcstif- 
tung), and at Frankfort-a -M 

LEARNED SOCIETIES The societies 
and associations for the advancement of learn- 
ing are divided into two classes: the academic 
or royal societies subsidized by the state, and 
the general associations founded privately to 
promote some branch of study Such associa- 
tions vary in the character of their work and 
contributions from the small local society of 
amateurs and public school teachers to the 
academic society consisting of carefully trained 
specialists It is calculated roughly that there 
are about one thousand associations founded 
for purposes of promoting studies throughout 
Germany None of these attempt any in- 
struction beyond the reading, discussion, and 
circulation of reports among members Some 
offer prizes for works of original research on a 
prescribed theme, others for woiks on any 
topic, others again subsidize the cairvmg out 
of some piece of research 11 is impossible 
here to do more than to mention the state en- 
dowed academies 

The earliest German academy is the Kaiser- 
lick Leopoldmisrh-Karnlimsrhr dcutuhe Akade- 
mie der Naturforschcr founded in 1062 as the 
Aeademia nature? curiowrnni, which was at 
first devoted to the study of the medical 
sciences and now covers the sciences generally 
The academv has no pennanent location, 
except for its library in Diosdon, arid its seat 
changes with the home of the president for 
the time being. The Koiuqhehe Akndemic der 
Wi88en*rhaftcn was established in ISerlm in 1700 
by Fiedonck I on the suggestion of Leibnitz, 
its first president It Avas reorgani/cd after a 
period of decline in 1744 and opened with gieat 
ceiemony by Frederick the Gieat (f/v) The 
fields of knowledge which arc coveicd by the 
academy arc mat hematics, physics, philosophy, 
and history-philology The niembeis are di- 
vided into ordinary, foreign, honorary, and cor- 
responding Transactions and proceedings are 
published To the credit of this academy fall 
the publications of the CM pus Invert phonum 
Groeearum, Corpus Inscnptumum Latinarum, 
Corpus Insert phonum Attiearinn, the woiks of 
Aristotle, and the Momnnenta Germarnoc 7//<s- 
tonca, all woiks which can be better undoi- 
taken by an institution having some continuity 
than by an individual The Koruglxhe GewU- 
sehaft der Wiwnwhaften was established at 
Gottingen in 1751 and reorganized m 1893 
It consists of two classes, mathematical- 
physical and philological-historical At Munich 
there was founded in 1759 the Komglirhe 
Bayer ische Akadcmie der Wisxensrhaften which 
devotes itself to mathematical-physical, philo- 
sophical, and historical studies, although origi- 
nally founded for the last only The Konig- 
hche Sachbtsehe Geselhchaft der Wissenschaftcn 
at Leipzig was established in 1840 and incor- 
poiated with itself the Fui^thch Jahlonoa- 
GcMilwhufl der WiSNCtibchaften (founded 



in 1708) for the study of mathematical-physical 
and historical-philological subjects There are 
further the academies which arise out of the 
connection m modern times between the arts 
and sciences, e g the Academy at Heidelberg 
(f. 1909), and the Kaiser- Wilhelm Academy in 
Berlin (f 1910) F. M. S. 

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(Stuttgart, 1885) 



99 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



BHRANUER, E Wilh r Humboldt und die lit form ties 

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Baynache Untemchtmttahatik fur 1407- 190S Voroff d 
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D Hear iff d NtaatNhurgerl Krziehuny (Leipzig, 1910 ) 
Die stdatHburgerhcHf Erzuhung dei deutbthfn Jugtnd 

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L\ACKL, K , und UbBLiMriiAKH, M Sihulrt ( ht*- 

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A (fr rural Vnw of th( History and Organization of 
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Lh\ih, ^ , and others Die allgcmemcn (rrundlagen dtr 

hultnr dcr Gcvenwuit (Berlin, 1906 ) 
MATTHIAS, A Pinktischc Padty/ogik f hoh Lchran- 

Klaltin (in Baumeister, Handbuih II, 2) 
MUTMANN, E Vorlcttung<H zut fitnfuhrung in die 

<JCJH rum nttll( P(idd(/o(/tl\ (Leip/ig, 1907) 
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Padagogwhrs Jahrlnuh (Borhn, annual ) 
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(Beilin, 1910 ) 
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(Langenwalza, 1902 and 1900) 

KKIN, W, PICKFL, A, Sc IIELLKH, E Thioru. und 
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1SSS) 
ROBKHIS, T? 1) Kdiuution in tin Ninctttnlh Century, 

pp 240271 (( 1 am bridge, 1900) 
SHADVVKLL, A Industrial MjfficiitMy 1900 
Statistik d( r prru*xib(h< u I'olkbKtftult (published eveiv 

five vear.s, eg 1901, 190(i) (Berlin ) 
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ubcr die Zwung8trztehung Jugcwthcfut B< ar- 
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Bildungswescn (Stuttgart, 1883) 

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Elementary 

BREMEN, VON Die /treu^iitthf Volhs8<hule, Gwtzc 
und \erordniingen (Berlin, 1905) 

Das gtsamti Erzichunga- und I'ntonchttiwrscn in den 
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XXII, Provision made for Children under Com- 
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ENGLMANN, J. A , und STINOL, E Ifandbuch des 
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Handhuch fur Lehrer u Lchrcrinnin (Leipzig, 1903 ) 

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J>r<u^<n (Potsdam, 190<s ) 



HEINZE, W 1m Ami (Gorlar, 1906 ) 
HLUMANN, W Die nationals VolksHchttle, tun \M 
wendigkeit fur Gegcnwart und Zukunfl (Hull. , 
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KANDEL, I L The Training of Elementary School 
Teachers in Germany Bibliography. (New York, 
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KLHR, K Die Praxis der Volksxchule (Gotha, 1897.) 
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matwn. (Leipzig, 1909 ) 
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rechtti (Leipzig, 1899 ) 
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Vol III (Berlin, 1904 ) 
LEZHTS Das Gtsetz betr d Unterhaltung d offentl 

Volksschulen vom 28 Juli 1906 (Berlin, 1908 ) 
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Lehrer u Lehrenniun (Berlin, 1908) 
PFAFFHOTH Preut>i>i8< he Bcamtenge^etzgebung (Berlin, 

1905 ) 
PLUHfHKL, P DK xttidtiMhen S(huldtputationcn u 

ihr Gcrhaftkrrin (Beihn, 1908 ) 
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wart und ihrc Redentung (Winden, 1910 ) 
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cation, Sp(cial Rtpnrt*, Vol 1A, 1902, pp 433- 
470 

StHNMDhR, K , and BULMEN, E VON Dan Volks^hul- 
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SrHOPPA, C Du KeRtimmungcn df\ homghcht n preutt- 

tsischen Mini^to s (Leipzig, annual ) 
SCHWARTZ, E Organisation und ( r ntt rru htttfrfolgt 
der vtfrdtivhcR Volk^whulc in Deutvthlund (Ber 
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SEELEY, L Common School System of tin many (New 

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8chulge*ctz (Leip/ig, 1406 ) 
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Secondary 

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Savin of Tenchtr* in English and Foreign Secondary 
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Vntirnchtxkhn f hoheren Schulen (Munich, 1895- 
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GERMANY 



GERMANY 



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FEHLEISEN, G Sammlung der BeMimmungen fiir 
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FICK, R , and others Auf Deutschland** hohen Schulcn 

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Altonw System (Berlin, 1900 ) 

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MULLER, II Das hohtrt Schulireien Deutschlandt, ant 

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Mi'NCH, W Geist dex Lehramt*, cine Hudegrtik (Be/- 

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hoheren Schu/W( sen (Berlin, 1909) 
German Universitxs (New York, 1906 ) 
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SCHRADER, WILHELM ErziehuTigt>- und Unfirnchm- 

k'hre (Berlin, 1898) 
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Continuation School* 

Beilm (Stadt) (Vrs?r/// itbfr <lav FortbildungxHchnl- 

we.scn etc (Annual ) 
England, Board of Education, Special Report*, Vol I, 

The Continuation Schools in Saxony 
GILLERT, E Organisation nniger Fortbildung^chulen 

deutxthtr Gro^t>tfidt( (Beihn, 1903 ) 
GRUMBACH, H Du Entwicklung det, berhrnschen 

Fortbildunyssrhul uwi>en (Berlin, 1898) 
KERSC HENSIEINER, CJ Jahrcvbenchte d mannhchcn 

Fortbildujigs- und Gewerbettchulen (Munich ) 
Organisation und Lchr plane der obligator] 8chtn Fach- 

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PAC'HB, () liandbuch (Jet* deutschen Fortbildungttachul- 

wcsDiv (Wittenberg, 1905) 

S \DLER, M Continuation Schools in England and Else- 
where (M-mchcHter, 1908) 
SCHILLING, F Das deutiche Fortlnldungsichufwesen 

(Leipzig, 19()<) ) 
SlERrKft, H Das deiit.^chc Fortbildung^Kchulwcaen nach 

,s( itu'r fjext huhtln h< n Kntwicklung Bihhogtui>hy 

(Leipzig, 1<W8 ) 

SNOWDLN, A A Industrial Improvement S< hooln 
in \\uittemberg Teachfrt, Collcgi Record, 1907, 

Vol VI J I (New York ) 

V< nraltunushcnchtt des kgl Landirgewerbeatntx (Bei- 
hn) 

EJT< i pt tonal ( r h ddnn 

Deuts< he Zentiak' f J ugcndjui^oige, J ahre&beni hte 

(Berlin ) 
KROHM Die Erziehungxunstalten fut die pertabstni, 

vtrwatnloste und gefahrdde J ugend 
MALNNEL, li The Auxiliary School* of Germany 

V S Bureau of Education, Bulletin 3, 1907 

(Washington ) 

Periodical* (See 'irti< le on JOURNALISM, Emir ATIONAL ) 
PETEHHKN, I Die offentluhe Fui^ngef d htlfNhedurf- 

liue und fui du <stltli(h gcfahrdelc J ngend Bibliog- 
raphy (Leipzig, 1907 ) 
POPPK Dan Munnhetintr \ 7 olk88(.huhyxtt tn (Kul, 

1910) 
SirKJNCiii.R, A Organisation grosser VolknnchMotptt 

nach der natui lu )i< n Leit>tungt>/ahigheit dtt Kindt t 

(Mannheim, 1901) 

University Education 

ARNOLD, M Ifiuhci School* and Universities in Ger- 
many (London, 1882 ) 
BAUMGAUT, M Grutidbtotze und Bedingungcn der 

Ertheilung der Doctorwurde bei alien Facultatf n 

der Vntoersiluten tie* deuttahen Reicha (Berlin, 

J 898 ) 
Die Stipendien und SUftungen zu Guntten der 

Studirenden an ulkn Ihnveisitaten des deutsthtn 

Reichs (Berlin, 1885) 
BERNHEIM, E Der Vnirersitatsunttrinht uud die 

Erforderwbie der Geyernrart (Berlin, 1895) 
BUSH, G Origin of the First German I niMiuities 

(Boston, 1884 ) 
(CONRAD, J German Umvernitu a for thelant Fifty Years. 

Tr by J Hutchison ((Jhibgow, 1885 ) 
Deutsdier Vfitrerttttatitkalfnder (Leij)Zig, annual ) 
JL")REY*us-BRisSA( , 10 L" I* n loerisiti' de Bonn et i En- 

seignement sup/ntur enAlleniagne (Pans, 1879 ) 
L' Education nouvelle, pp 185 227. (Pans, 1882- 

1888) 
ERDMANN, ,1 E Vorlevungenuberukademmchea Leben 

und Studium (Leipzig, 1888 ) 
ERMAN, W , and HORN, E Bibliographic der deulschen 

Universittiten, sustcrnatisch geordnetes Verzeichms 

der bts Ende 1899 gedruckten Bucher u Auf&atze 

uber das deutache Tfniversittitswesen (Leipzig, 

1904 ) 
FIOK, R , and others A uf Deutschlands hohen Schulen 

(Berlin, 1900 ) 
FLACH, H. L M Der deutache Professor der Gegenwart. 

(Leipzig, 1886 ) 



101 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



HART, J M German Univcrmtiex, a Narrative of Per- 
sonal Experience (New York, 1K<)7 ) 

HELMHOLTZ, H VON On Academic' Freedom in Ger- 
man Universities In Popular Lectures on Scien- 
tific Subjects, pp 237-266, 1901 

HEWITT, W. Student Life of Germany (Philadelphia, 
1842) 

HORN, E Kolleg und Ilonorar, em Beitrng zur Vei- 
faanungsgeschichte der deutschen Universitaten 
(Munich, 1897 ) 

KAUFMANN, G Die Geschichtc der deutschen Univer- 
sitaten. (Stuttgart, 1888-1896) 

LEXIS, W Die deutschen Universitalen, fur die I'niver- 
sitatsauastellung in Chicago, 1893 (Berlin, 1HW ) 
Das Unternchtswi'sen im deutschen Reich Vol I 
(Berlin, 1908 ) 

MINERVA (1) Handbuch der gelehrten Welt (1911) , (2) 
Jahrbuch der gelehrten Welt (Strussburg, annual ) 

MUTHER, TH Ann dem Umversitats- and Gelehrten- 
leben im Zeitalter der Reformation (ErlaiiRon, 
1866) 

PAULSEN, FR Die deutschen Untversit&tcn und das 
Universitals-Studium (Berlin, 1902 ) Tr by 
Thilly, F , and Klwang, W. W , German Universities 
and University Study ' (New Yoik, 1900 ) 
Geschichte de# gelehrten Unternchtm vom Aut>gang des 
Mittelafters bis zur Gegenwart (Leipzig, 189S ) 

HAUMER, K G VON German Umiwmfics, Contribu- 
tions to the History and Jwprovctntnt of, edited by 
Henry Barnard (New York, 1859 ) 

SCHEIDLER, K H Jenaische Blatter fur Gcsthnhte 
und Riform dcs deutschtn i'nioer vitals we bent*, 
insbesondere des NtudentenlebcHS (Jena, 1859- 
1800) 

SCHRUUEK, O Die Erteilung der Doktonnirde an den 
Universitaten Deutschlands , ?7iit Textabdiuik der 
amtlichen Satzungen (HaJle, 1908) 

SCHDLZE, F., und SSYMANK, P Dtis dcutsche Ktuden- 
tentum (Leipzig, 1910) 

SCHWARTZ, P Die Gelehrtenschulen Preussens imt(r 
dem Oberschulkollegium (1787 1806) und das 
Abiturientenexamen In Monument a Geimaniw 
Paedagogica,Vol XLV1 (Beihn, 1910) 

STEIN, F Die ahademische Genchtsbarl\eit in Deutt,ch- 
land (Leipzig, 1891 ) 

GERMANY, EDUCATION IN THE COLO- 
NIES OF The colonial possessions of Ger- 
many by their position and natural conditions 
of soil and climate represent strategic rathei 
than commercial value, and the Home Govern- 
ment has no motive for educational efforts in 
any part of these possessions, comparable, as 
regards scope and system, to those maintained 
by the British, or even by the P>ench govern- 
ments in their foreign dependencies 

Beginning with Togolarid on the slave coast 
of Upper Guinea, the German colonies com- 
prise a succession of " spheres of influence " 
bordering on the ocean-washed coasts of West, 
Southwest, and Eastern Africa, together with 
groups of small islands in the Pacific Ocean, 
and the port town and district of Kiau-Chau 
in the Shantung province of China With the 
exception of the last named, the conditions of 
German occupation are practically the same 
in all the colonies At the seat of government 
reside the imperial governor and his staff, 
military posts and courts of justice mark the 
principal places, and at these points center the 
schools, government and missionary These 
are all educational influences as well as direct 
incentives to progress. Native interpreters 
are needed for the governor's service, natives 
are trained for the military and police corps, 



and are subject to criminal processes in the 
courts, and native teachers are employed in 
the schools Thus individuals selected from 
the mass of rude tribal peoples become familiar, 
in some slight measure, with the institutions of 
orderly society In the East African colonies 
the German government encounters strong 
Mohammedan forces, and consequently formal 
education becomes a matter of serious im- 
portance An effort has here been made to 
establish compulsory school attendance in re- 
stricted measure 

It was undoubtedly the impulse of commer- 
cial rivalry that prompted the colonial enter- 
prises in which Gcimany engaged in the last 
quarter of the nineteenth century, but neither 
Africa nor the Pacific islands have so far 
yielded laige returns for business energy or 
capital Meanwhile the military advantage of 
these possessions has become more and more 
evident Science has also been brought to the 
aid of ad ven tin c m efforts for utilizing the 
natural resources of these lands, constructing 
roads, and supplying commercial facilities, 
these late efforts aie giving industrial aim to 
the schools that have been established under 
German influences The following statistics 
and context summarize the mam particulars 
lelative to the educational woik in the several 
colonies 

SCHOOL STATISTICS AFRICAN POSSESSIONS 





POPUL \IION 


GOVEHN- 

MICNT 
SCHOOLH 


MISSION 
SCHOOLS 


COLONY 










Date 


WhiU 


Native 


vJtf" f 

j.PH/H/0 


No 


No of 
I J u/nl* 


Togoland . . 


1909 


JJO 


1 ,000,000 


2 


275 


1 f0 


0057 


Kameruii 


1909 


112713,000,000 


4 


2200 





19,000 


Gorman South- 
















west Afriou 


1900 


13,701 


17S.OOO 


11 


377 





3000 


Gorman East 
















Afriou 


1909 


3387 


1,000,000 




3821 


~ 


16,500 



The German possessions in the Pacific 
Ocean comprise two groups of islands, to the 
first group belong, German New Guinea 
including Kaiser Wilhehn's Land, Bismarck 
Archipelago and the small adjacent islands, 
Caroline, Pelew Marianne, Solomon, and Mar- 
shall; the second is the Samoan group includ- 
ing 8avan and TJpolu The estimated native 
population of the two groups is about 450,000, 
the non-native colored population, mostly 
Chinese, numbers about 2000, the white popu- 
lation, chiefly German, about 950 Mission- 
ary societies, both Protestant and Roman 
Catholic, are active on all the islands The 
Samoaii group was formerly under the joint 
protectorate of Great Britain, the United 
States, and Germany, but was ceded entirely 
to the latter power by the Anglo-German 
agreement of Nov. 14, 1899, ratified the 
following year by the United States As a 



102 



GERMANY 



GERMANY 



result of the prolonged iclalion \\itlr Western 
Powers, the natives of these islands have been 
Christianized and are very receptive subjects 
of missionary instruction A (Herman govern- 
ment school with about 90 pupils is maintained 
on the island of Upolu, and in 1909 nearly 
9000 pupils were under instruction in mis- 
sionary schools of the two Samoan islands 

The seizure of Kiau-Chau by Germany m 
1897, and the subsequent transfer of the town, 
harbor, and district to that Power by treaty, 
were events of great importance m the move- 
ment which is gradually transforming the 
Orient The entire area of the German Pro- 
tectorate is 200 square miles exclusive of the 
bay, which is also about 200 square miles in 
extent The civil organization, established 
before the German arrival, comprises 33 town- 
ships The native population of Kiau-Chau 
is estimated at 120,000, and the European at 
about 1200, of whom 1000 are (Hermans This 
number does not include soldiers At Tsmgtau 
the government has established a college for 
which elaborate plans have been formed 
Two departments are provided for, namely, a 
preparatory school and a school of science 
The preparatory school course extends over six 
yeais, taking young Chinese of at least thirteen 
years of age These students must have had 
a good Chinese education and be qualified foi 
the lower classes of high schools A certificate 
relative to his qualifications must be sub- 
mitted by the scholar seeking admittance, 
obtained after examination, which is indis- 
pensable, before the Chinese examiner at 
Tsman and the inspector of studies of the 
college at Tsmgtau Knowledge of the (Her- 
man language and modern sciences is not 
required for the preparatory school, but if 
newly entering scholars have such knowledge, 
they will be admitted to the higher classes 
An examination is held before graduation from 
the preparatory school, which must be passed 
m order to obtain admission into the higher 
second department 

The school of science consists of two divi- 
sions (1) A department of law and political 
science, and (2) a technical department, in- 
cluding natural history The program of the 
first department comprises international law, 
general state and administrative rights, state 
laws, railway, mining, and maritime law, 
political economy, finances and comparative 
cases of real property The general outlines 
of a process or suit and the features of police 
administration are also included in the course 

In the technical department there are 
laboratories for chemistry, phvMcs, electricity, 
mineralogy, and geology, machine building, 
mining, etc Students of the higher college* 
are at liberty to choose their vocations, but 
must then strictly comply with the schedule 
The students of the first term class admitted 
are expected to remarn at college for four 
years, out, later, discrimination will be made 



when the students eritei, according to their 
knowledge of the (Jet man language, so that 
the courses will occupy the following periods: 
Legal course, three years, forestry, three years, 
building, two years, technical, four years 

The philosophical course will be taught by 
Chinese teachers, a medical branch is also 
projected, and a subeourse will be given in 
gymnastics, music, and art The minimum 
age for the school of science is twenty years, and a 
good knowledge of the preparatory courses is 
essential to admission If a student wishes 
to join the school of sciences without having 
attended the preparatory school, he must first 
pass an examination in both Chinese and West- 
ern sciences, including the Chinese and (Her- 
man languages 

The present staff comprises twelve German 
tutor sand ten Chinese teachers and interpreters, 
as the number of students grows the staff will be 
increased A translation office will be opened 
in conjunction with the college to piepare the 
necessaiy material Arrangements have been 
made by the managers of the (Herman-Chinese 
high school to open a free course of lectures 
on popular scientific subjects, illustrated with 
pictures and experiments, for the benefit of 
the foreign residents Besides these lectures, 
an evening course in the Chinese language and 
script, as far as necessary for daily use, will be 
given for the benefit of the (Herman community 

A colonial department was organized in the 
Foreign Office at Berlin in IS90, and in 1S99 a 
colonial school was established at Witzen- 
hauscn, near Gottmgen, with the express pur- 
pose of preparing practical farmers, planters, 
stock-raisers, and fruit growers who may be 
inclined to settle in some one oi the (TCI man 
colonies In all the colonies, graduates of the 
school are found to-day acting as business 
managers for (Herman tiading companies, 
owners and managers of plantations, clerks in 
the government service, etc The course of 
the colonial school lasts two years and is so 
arranged that the theoretical instruction comes 
in the winter and the practical instruction in 
the summer The subjects chosen for lectures 
are those which will add to the pupils' knowl- 
edge of tropical plants and agriculture and of 
colonal enterprises and politics The studies 
include such branches of learning as chemistry, 
botany, and physics The institution is well 
supplied with laboratories and has a large 
farm and gardens and wood land for the study 
of forestry, vine growing, etc The trade 
shops of Witzenlmusen are also open to the 
students for practical instruction 

It is noticeable that while graduates of the 
colonial school are found in the African and 
Asiatic colonies, they piefei the German settle- 
ments in the new world, especrally in Brazil, 
Argentina, and Chile, and their expert knowl- 
edge and skill are proving of immense value 
in the commercial and industrial development 
of those countries 



103 



GERRY SCHOOLS 



GESNER 



The growing importance of German colonial 
enterprise- is illustrated in the proponed plans 
of the new um\ersity at Hamburg, which shall 
include a faculty ol colonial science This 
faculty will constitute the distinctive feature 
of the new institution A. T. S. 

References : 

Deutsche Kolomalzeitung (Berlin, Fortnightly ) 

FITZNEU, H Kolouialhamltnn k 

Germans, The, in Anrialtt of the American Academy of 

Political and Social Seience, Vol XIX, Now 1 tmd 2 
HKHHE-WAKTKCH}, K \ON Mamon, HtMnartkarthipel 

and NOL Gained (Leipzig. 190J ) 
JOHNSTON, H H A History uj Colonization of Africa l>y 

Ahrn Races (CambndKo, 189*' ) 
REINKCKE, F Samoa (Berlin, 1901 ) 
Statiitt'iacheit Jakrbuch fur dan deutnche Reich (Beilin, 

annual ) 

GERRY SCHOOLS See HUMANE EDU- 
CATION 

GERSON, JEAN CHARLIER (1 363-1420) 
Teacher, theologian, and ehancelloi of the Uni- 
veisitv of Paris, horn at Gerson, educated veiy 
probably at Rheims, and studied at the Col- 
lege of Navarre in Pans He eailv devoted 
himself to theology, and obtained the degree of 
doctor in that subject At the eai ly age of thirty- 
two he became Chancellor of the University of 
Pans in succession to his friend and teachei , 
Peter d'Ailly His standing as a theologian 
was high, and he soon gained the title of Doctor 
Chiistiamssunus Breaking from the scholas- 
ticism and dialectic methods of his day, his 
writings show a return to source material and 
the Church fathers, and a good knowledge of 
tho classics, while his philosophy was nominal- 
istic colored by mysticism At the Councils 
of Pisa and Constance he was an important 
factor, and his general influence was consider- 
able lie preached to the people in the vernac- 
ular, mainly on questions of practical morality, 
and took a gieat interest in the young students 
of Pans, wheie he tried to introduce' some sort 
of guidance and a moial spmt among them 
In a lettei he lecommended to such a student 
a study ot Gieek and Latin works for their 
content, and for style As a teacher himself, 
he looked to (Jumtiliaii for the ideal in his 
held His chief educational work was the 
Tractate on Leading the Little Ones to Christ 
(Tntctatu* dt' l*auniliv tradcndis ad Chribtum\ 
which, as is indicated in the title, concerns 
itself wholly with ichgious and moral educa- 
tion The woik, which has as its text Mat 
xix, 14, is divided into four parts, each with its 
own text (1) The necessity and means for 
educating the young foi reverence of God, 
religion, humanity, and civilization on a basis 
of habit (La ui, 29) The means are sermons, 
private admonition, discipline, and the confes- 
sional. (2) On those who offend young chil- 
dren by bad examples (Mat xvm, 16) (3) On 
the great service performed by the religious 
teacher (James, v, 20) (4) Self-defence and 



apology (Gal M, 1) The laM, ten yeais of his 
life he spent in a consent ol Ccolestine monk.s 
and devoted much time to teaching childien 

References 

Catholic Kmydopediu, s v G(rson 

FRMTNDCJEN, J Jnhtntnfft Certton, Vol XXIII of 

Sammlung dcr bedrutentlshn padagogischen Schnf- 

ten (Parlor born, 1N96) 
TOWNHKND, W The (treat Schoolmen of the Middle 

Agctt, pp 29 1-309 (London, 1SS1 ) 

GESNER, CONRAD (1510-1565) Called 
by llallam " a man ol prodigious erudition " 
lie was born at Zimch. His parents being 
unable to educate him, he was befriended, 
housed, and educated by Ammian, the profes- 
sor of rhetoric, foi thiee yeais He resolved 
to travel, and enteied the semce of Capito, a 
Hebrew scholar, at Strassbuig After furthei 
travel, he was placed at the head of a school at 
Zurich After studying physic, he resigned his 
school teaching, and, having had a small pension 
allotted him, he set to woik at leading the Cheek 
physicians Foi a time he was professor of 
Greek at Lausanne, and was piofessor of philos- 
ophy at Zurich foi the last twenty-foui yeais 
of his hie Gesner wiote his Bibhotheca U mver- 
.sa/*,s in 1545 This was a catalogue of books in 
Latin, Greek, and Hebiew, and ga\ r e cuticisms 
and specimens of man\ of the works cited lie 
wrote a continuation of the work in the Panda toe. 
Univei sales, 154S-1555 These two woiks at- 
tempted to do foi general literature what the 
Digest of Justinian had done foi Civil Law 
Thus Gesnei's books aie of the greatest value 
as a bibliographical encyclopedia of hteratuie up 
to his tunes In J555 he published Mittnidates 
dc differentia linguaunn tutu veteium, tuni qua 
hodie apud diversas natwnes ni toto orbe terrai um 
ni nsii Mint, observation's This is the first great 
modern book on comparative philology, and 
attempts a characterization of all ancient and 
modern languages from the Ethiopic down to 
the gipsy language Gesner also wiote the 
Hi^tonoe Annnahuni published in 1551-155G, 
containing a critical account of all that had 
been written and done on zoology by his prede- 
cessors. His Icones Ammalium is a volume 
of woodcuts and names only As a naturalist 
Gesner emphasized the method of peisonal ob- 
servation instead of relying on the observations 
of the old classical writers, though he did a 
great deal in promoting the close* study of those 
writers He planted a botanic garden for his 
observation and experiments lie formed a 
museum in connection with his professorial post 
and obtained contributions of some specimens 
from most parts of Europe He made the 
ascent of Mont Pilatus near Lucerne and ex- 
amined all the specimens he could find there, 
in spite of the superstitions concerning the 
mountain. He visited patients in Zurich at 
the time of the plague and devoted himself to 
the study of the best cures, but he was over- 
taken by it and died in his Museum in 1565. 



104 



GESNEH, JOHANN MATIIIAS 



GETHSKMANI COLLEGE 



He was the greatest encyclopedist of the Renais- 
sance p. W. 
References : 

Allgemcinc Deutsche Biographic 

JARDINE, SIR WM The Naturalistic Library, Edinburgh, 
Vol XII 

SMITH, LIEUT -(\>L T HAMILTON The Natural His- 
tory of Hordes (with memoir of Gesnor) 1841 

WATSON, FOSTER IteffinniHon of the Teaching of Modern 
Subject** in England (London, 1909 ) 

GESNER, JOHANN MATHIAS (1691- 
1761) Prominent philologist and reformer 
of higher education in Germany; was bom the 
son of a pastor in the small city of Roth m 
Francoma and received his early education at 
the gymnasium in Ansbach In 1010 he went 
to the university of Jena, in 1715 ho was ap- 
pointed teacher of the gymnasium m Weimar, 
in 1729 he accepted a call to the prmcipalship 
of the gymnasium in Ansbwch, but finding that 
this position did not allow him sufficient leisure 
for his literary activity, he left it Ihe following 
year arid became the head of the old Thoma**- 
schulc in Leipzig He reestablished the icpu- 
tation of the school by restoring the study of 
the classics, by enriching the course of study, 
especially through the emphasis laid on mathe- 
matics, and by improving the discipline 1 In 
1734 lie was called as Professor of Rhetoric to 
the newly established university of Ciottingen 
and remained there until his death He lec- 
tured on Latin and Greek literatuie and on 
classic archaeology, but, at the same tune, 
kept up his strong interest m pedagogy He 
was the inspector of the Brunswick gym- 
nasiums and conducted, from 173S on, a philo- 
logical seminar in which candidates for the 
teaching profession icceived a geneial educa- 
tion togethei with theoietical and piactical 
training in pedagogy For this purpose he 
wrote lus PtimcB hnccc i*ago(je\ ui cruditioneni 
unwcrsalvm (Outlines of an introduction to 
geneial education, paiticulaily to philology, his- 
toiy, and philosophy), which appealed in 1700 
As eaily as 1715, he had written his Institu- 
twncb rci scholastics, a treatise on education, 
which shows the influence of the ideas of 
Ratke, Comenius, and Locke 

Gcsner's educational activity marks an 
epoch in the history of classical education in 
Germany He is the founder of that great 
movement in German education which is 
known as Neo-Humanibm (q v ) and which con- 
trolled the aim and methods of the most influen- 
tial of the higher schools, and through them the 
educational ideals of the leading classes of the 
nation, down to the last quarter of the nineteenth 
century He revived the study of Greek, which 
in Germany at that time had been almost totally 
neglected, and insisted on the study of the 
classics for the bake of their great thought con- 
tent and their ethical and aesthetic value He 
believed in arousing in the pupil a pleasurable 
interest in his work, and, for this reason, he ad- 
vocated the teaching of the elements of Latin 



through usage only, and without the help of 
formal grammar In this way he was a 
forerunner of Basedow and of the modern 
reformers of foreign language instruction 
Next to the study of the classics, he empha- 
sized instruction in the mother tongue, in 
French, mathematics, natuial science, history, 
and geography Gcsner's educational views 
were backed by a rare combination of great 
erudition, not only m philology but in several 
other fields of knowledge, with a long prac- 
tical experience in teaching and fine pedagogic 
tact Through his connection with the Bruns- 
wick schools and his training of teachers, he 
had constant opportunities of testing the 
actual operation of his theories m practice 
It is owing to these favorable circumstances, 
arid to the fact that his work was carried on 
by such brilliant successors as Erriesti (q v ) 
in Leipzig and Hevnc (q v ) in Gottmgen, that 
the movement initiated by Gcsnei acquired 
such a great and lasting influence on the higher 
education of Geimany 

Among the will ings of Gesner, besides the 
works already noled, may be mentioned his 
various editions of Latin authors, as well as 
his selections from (-icero, Pliny, and from 
Greek authors (Chrcstomathia Ciceionuina 1710, 
Phmana 1728, (iicsca 1731), the last of which 
contributed greatly to the impiovcment of the 
study of Greek in Germany, his Thc^auru* of 
the Latin language, published in 1745 m four 
volumes, and his Geiman A\v,sa//,s (Klntn 
Dentschc Schnftcn 1756), which contain much 
of pedagogic value F M 

Sec NED-HUMANISM. 
References: 
T'AULSKN, FR Gc.Hchufik j det>(jclehrten Vnternchts Vol 

II, pp 15-2S (Leipzig, 1896) 
POHNKRT, K H 15 ,/ M Gesner und t>em Verhallrns 

zuni Phdanthropini.imu\ und N euhumanwmux 

(Leipzig, 1898 ) 
HKIN, W EncyUopbdibLhes Handbuch der Padagoyik 

.v (irvner 
ZIEOLER, TH Gcxthtchlt'dcrPadagoffkk (Munich, 1895 ) 

GESTURE LANGUAGE A method of 
communication m which movements of the 
hands or other organs of the body are em- 
ployed instead of the ordinary movements of 
articulation This is a primitive form of lan- 
guage and undoubtedly exemplifies a simpler 
stage of psychological development than that 
which is exhibited in articulate language 

C 11 J. 

See LANGUAGE 

References : 

JUDD, C H Psychology, General Introduction (New 

York, 1907 ) 
WUNDT, W V biker pay chologie, Vol I (Leipzig, 1900) 

GETHSEMANI COLLEGE, TRAPPIST 

P O , KY A Catholic college connected with 
the Abbey of CJethsemam Preparatory and 
commercial departments are maintained, di- 
plomas being conferred in the latter. 



105 



GHENT 



GILBERT 



GHENT, UNIVERSITY OF See 

GIUM, EDUCATION IN 



GHERARDO OF CREMONA A distin- 
guished scholar and teacher of mathematics in 
the twelfth century He was born m 1114 at 
Cremona, in Loinbardy, and died there in 
1187 He is known chiefly for his work in 
astronomy, which included several transla- 
tions from the Arabic, the Almagest (see 
PTOLEMY) among them D K S 

GIBBS, JONATHAN C (1K31-1H74) A 
colored educator, educated at Dartmouth Col- 
lege (graduating in 1852) and at the Prince- 
ton Theological Seminary He was in charge 
of the educational woik organized by the Pres- 
byterian church among the fteedmen (1<S(>3- 
1808), secretary of state in Florida (1868-1872), 
arid state superintendent of public instruction 
in Florida (1872-1874) W S M 

GIDDINESS See DIZZINESS 

GIESSEN, THE GRAND DUCAL HES 
SIAN LUDWIG UNIVERSITY OF The 
University of Gieswn was founded by Land- 
grave Louis V, the Faithful, in the year 1(>07, 
and owes its origin to the leligious conditions 
of the period (See GERMANY, EDUCATION IN, 
section on Universities ) Giessen, from its in- 
ception, possessed the chaiacter of a uimer- 
sity, although m the beginning the theological 
faculty was by far the largest and most re- 
nowned, the institution being known fai and 
wide as a Lutheran stronghold To this cir- 
cumstance may be attributed the fact that at 
the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War Giessen 
was one of the most frequented universities in 
the whole of Germany, being exceeded in size 
probably only by Leipzig and Jena As a 
direct result of political changes, the univei- 
sity was transferred to Mai bin g in 1(52.5, a 
ichgious controversy at the lattei institution 
twenty years previous having led to the seces- 
sion that was responsible for the organization 
of a university at Giessen At the close of the 
war, another political transfer brought about 
the reestablish men t of the institution at Gies- 
sen, and from that time to the present day the 
university has had an honored, albeit some- 
what modest existence 

A faculty of political economy was estab- 
lished at the university in 1777 and may be 
regarded as the forerunner of the faculties of 
political science, but it was disorganized eight 
years later In 1829 a school of forestry was 
established as a branch of the university, and 
from 1837 to 1875 Giessen also possessed a 
technical school (at Darmstadt since 1877), 
both departments being included in the faculty 
of philosophy This fact is worthy of com- 
ment, as the schools of technology are not affili- 
ated with the um\ersities m Germany The 
faculty of medicine includes a college of veteri- 



BEL- nary medicine, which is the only school in Ger- 
many to award the degree of Dr Med. Vet. 
From 1830 to 18,59 Giessen also supported a 
Catholic theological faculty 

A new hbiary building was completed in 
1904, having, been elected at a cost of $125,000, 
it contains over 230,000 volumes and over 
100,000 dissertations and programs The 
annual university budget amounts to about 
$375,000 Giessen is one of the smallest of 
the German universities in point of attendance, 
there being 1249 students enrolled in the winter 
semestei of 1910-1911, of whom more than 
half aie legistered in the faculty of philosophy, 
this being followed by medicine, law, and 
theology, in the order named 

Among former teachers of the university 
may be mentioned the celebrated jurist Rudolf 
von Jhenng, and the renowned chemist Justus 
von Liebig, Robert von Schlagmtweit, the 
explorer, served as docent at Giessen from 1863 
to 1885 R T , Jr 

References : 

Die Vmorr\itat Giewn von 1607 b?s 11)07 Fe^chnft 
inr dnttin Jain hunclcrtft iir ((jirasen ) 

LEXIS, A\ 7>as I f Htcrncht^wctiCti itn (itulKth(n Kcu h 
Vol I, pp , r >(>2 574 (Berlin, 1901 ) 

NLUEL, K L \V Kurz< Vber^tcht on(r Gcxchichte der 
I r nioer8it&t GubAcn (Ma/ burg, 1SJS ) 

GIFTS See FHOEBEL, KINDERGARTEN 

GILBERT, SIR HUMPHREY (1530-1583) 
The navigator and stephrothei of Sn Walter 
Raleigh In c 1572 he devised a scheme for 
" the erection of an Academy in London foi 
the education of hei Majesty's Wards and 
others the youth of nobility and gentlemen/' 
which was edited fiom the Lansdownc Ms 
by Dr F J Furnnall for the Early Knghsh 
Text Society in 1809 Gilbert bewails the I act 
that the wards of the Ciown were often in the 
hands of those of evil religion or insufficient qual- 
ity, and since these waids weie chiefly resident 
m London, he pioposes that an Academy be 
erected and suggests not only the subjects to be 
taught therein but also the salaries to be paid to 
the teachers and ushers A new type of educa- 
tion was proposed, based on a cuinculum differ- 
ing fiom that of the humanistic schools of the 
day Milton's Ti act ate shows a remarkable 
similarity to Gilbert's work Masters were to 
be engaged to teach Latin, Gieck, and Hebrew, 
although a sufficiently important place is 
assigned to the vernacular, for " in what lan- 
guage soever learning is attained the appliance 
to use is principally m the vulgar speech as in 
preaching, in parliament, in council, in com- 
missions and other offices of common weal " 
Readers were to be appointed for moral philoso- 
phy to read " the political part thereof", for 
natural philosophy, for mathematics to deal 
with military art, cosmography, astronomy, 
and practical navigation A doctor of physic 
was to teach physic, ehirurgcry, and medicines, 
and v\as to have a garden and simples Civil 



106 



GILCHRLST 



GILDS 



law, divinity, and common law were each to 
have a reader. Provision was to be made for 
the teaching of modern languages, dancing, 
heraldry, defence, horsemanship, stiategy, and 
tactics. 

The arrangements for the libiaiy are par- 
ticularly interesting The keeper is allowed 
26 a year After every mart he "shall 
cause the bringers of books into England to 
exhibit to him their registers, and thus to have 
first choice of books to buy Foi the buying 
of books, etc , for the library 40 was to be 
allowed But in addition it is to be noted, 
"All printers in England, shall be foiever 
charged to deliver into the library of the 
Academy, at their own charges, one copy, 
well bound, of eveiy book, proclamation, or 
pamphlet printed " The tic-usurer's salary was 
to be 100 The chief governor was to be the 
rnastei of the wards, assisted by the rector 
who was to have personal supervision ovei the 
pupils The public readers of arts and com- 
mon laws weie to publish some new book 
eveiy six years, and eveiy thiee years to issue 
a translation of some good book F W 

See ACADEMIES, COURTH , GERBIER, GEN- 
TRY VND NOBLES, EDUCATION OF, MILTON 

References : 

Didionaiu <>f National Jlioi/raphi/, Vo] XXXI, p ,'J27 
FUHNIV\LL, F ,1 , of! Qun n Eltzahitlus Achadcmy 
Kurly English Text Sotiotx (London, lSb ( J ) 

GILCHRIST, JOHN BORTHWICK - See 

GILCHRLST EDUCATIONAL TRUST 



GILCHRIST EDUCATIONAL TRUST 

An institution established by the \vill of John 
Borthwick (iilchnst (17.59-1841), a sen ant of 
the East India Company and an orientalist 
He was professoi of Hindustani at London Uni- 
versity and took an interest in educational and 
philanthropic efforts, being associated with 
George Unkbeek (qv) in some of his work 
He left his propeitv to trustees for " the 
benefit, advancement, and propagation of edu- 
cation and learning in every part of the world 
so far as circumstances \\ill permit 11 He left 
every arrangement to the discretion of his 
trustees The will was the subject of litiga- 
tion which lasted twenty-five years, and only 
the fortunate circumstance 1 that pait of the 
property was on the site of Sydney, Australia, 
rapidly increasing in value, seemed any means 
for the tiustecb to proceed with their work 
The trustees adopted the principle of doing 
pioneer work in promoting education arid learn- 
ing where other efforts were not being employed 
In this way numerous movements have been 
started, and as soon as they have been taken 
over by other bodies, the Tiust has diverted 
its support to some new object Thus, scholar- 
ships to aid Indian students to study at Eng- 
lish universities were established until the woik 
was taken up by the government arid umvcisi- 



ties were erected in India Colonial scholar- 
ships were also instituted When Girton College 
and other institutions were established for the 
higher education of women, scholarships were 
provided as well as in training colleges for 
secondary school teachcis Traveling scholar- 
ships for secondary school teachers were estab- 
lished for professional purposes Reports have 
been published on educational topics in foreign 
countries including Educational Systems of 
Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, French Sec- 
ondary Education, The Teaching of Literature 
in Girls' Schools in Germany, Manual Instruc- 
tion in France and Switzerland; The Teaching 
of Geography in Switzerland and Italy 
When the Board of Education undertook the 
Special Reports, the Trust discontinued the 
traveling scholarships, just as the system of 
exchange teachers between England, France, 
and Germany was begun by the Trust until 
taken over by the Board University Exten- 
sion, the Workers Educational Association 
(q v ), the National Home Heading Union 
(q v ), and the Recreative Schools Association 
have also been assisted by the Trust At 
present the Trust money is being used to en- 
courage a system by which young teachers 
rnav be afforded opportunities of spending 
some time 1 in the classrooms of expert and 
more mature colleagues A scheme is also on 
foot for the establishment, of a school of Ori- 
ental Languages to commemorate the woik of 
the foundci The remarkable success of the 
Trust has shown the importance of freedom in 
the management of Trust funds for public 
purposes More good \\ork has been accom- 
plished and moie success has been achieved in 
this way than would ha\e been possible under 
the restraint of the " dead hand " of regulations 
and provisions, which only too often harnpei 
such bequests, not only in England but in 
America The Right Honorable Lord Shuttle- 
worth is at present chairman of the Trust, 
which has its offices in London 

Reference : 

Times (London) Educational Supplement, Ocl 4, 
1910 

GILDS, MEDIEVAL, AND EDUCATION 

To conceive of the gild as the technical 
school of the middle ages LS to icalize only very 
imperfectly its impoitance for the history ol 
education The gilds of merchants and ctafts- 
men which regulated commerce and industry 
from the eleventh and twelfth centuries onward 
were only species in a groat genus which ern- 
biaced such widely different institutions as the 
Universities, the Inns of Court, the Colleges 
of Physicians and Surgeons on the one side, 
and the humblest parish burial club or rural 
cooperative society on the other The re- 
ligious fraternity supplied the only available 
foim and sanction for every kind of free asso- 
ciation, whatever its aim political, social, 



107 



GILDS 



GILDS 



economic, recreative, educational, religious In 
its main aspect it may he regarded as the main 
instrument in the formation of that series of 
middle classes by whose efforts the principle 
of self-government was first realized in the 
narrower sphere of civic life and thence trans- 
planted to the wider sphere of the national 
state 

Although it is generally confined to the pro- 
fessional and technical aspects of this develop- 
ment, the term "education" applies m a large 
sense to the whole process of class formation, 
and a few words may he said as to the social 
arid political education afforded by the gilds 
Socially their primary function was to facilitate 
a transition from the tie of kinship to that of 
a fellowship based on neighborhood or a com- 
mon profession The Saxon gilds of thanes 
which Maitland has likened to a " county 
club", the "frith gilds" of London and the 
Knights' gilds which in some cases perhaps 
formed the first nucleus of free civic associa- 
tion, all served this purpose and are connected 
by it as one continuous social development, 
both with the merchant and craft gilds and with 
the pansh gilds in town and country By their 
instrumentality the process described by Fustel 
de Coulangos as taking place in the city state 
of antiquity was carried a stage further What 
the fiction of adoption and the artificial widen- 
ing of the ancestral cult were to the earlier 
phase of civic expansion, the more attenuated 
fiction of fraternity, and the foundation of 
cooperative chantries weic to the medieval 
city Closely connected with this was a more 
consciously educational development The 
wealthy city gilds took over the halls of feudal 
magnates and cooperatively emulated their 
style of life They feasted kings, and drew 
nobility, gentry, and clergy into their honorary 
membeiship, and were thus one of the main 
agencies in removing social exolusiveness and 
in transmitting social manners and ideals from 
a narrower to a wider circle 

In the political education of the middle ages 
the gilds played an unique part They were 
the main channels through which new classes 
of the population were drawn into the field of 
political activity Their internal affairs fur- 
nished an excellent training in self-government 
and administration, whilst their intervention 
in municipal and occasionally in national 
politics gave their ambitious members a wider 
scope for their powers The disputes that have 
arisen as to the part played by the gilds in the 
earliest phases of civic organization turn upon 
questions of constitutional form and leave 
untouched the primary importance of the gilds 
as generators of political force and organs of 
political change In many leading cases at 
least it is highly probable that the gilds of the 
twelfth century had as large a share in mold- 
ing the earlier patrician rule in the cities of 
Western Europe as the craft gilds of the thir- 
teenth and fourteenth centuries had in trans- 



108 



forming it. The proceedings of the gilds, as 
such, were secret, but they provided periodi- 
cal opportunities for freely debating questions 
of policy or of principle, and there can be little 
doubt that towards the end of the fourteenth 
century, when the gilds became more numerous 
and active both in town and country, they often 
served as centers of political, social, and religious 
propaganda 

Turning now to education in the stricter 
sense it is well to emphasize the fact already 
noted that the greater part of the organized 
higher education of the middle ages was based 
on a social structure provided by gilds " The 
rise of the universities," says Rashdall, " was 
merely a wave of that groat movement towards 
association which began to sweep over the 
cities of Europe in the course of the eleventh 
century " (See UNIVERSITIES ) The federated 
gilds of scholars or teachers or both, of which 
the universities wore composed, perfoimed the 
same functions in regard to the higher educa- 
tion of the piofcssional classes as the later gilds 
performed in regard to the technical education 
of the merchant and the craftsman (See 
DEGREES, INCEPTION ) The completed gild 
structure of a London livery company towards 
the close of the fifteenth century is closely 
analogous to that of one of the Inns of Court 
(q v ) or one of the Oxford colleges of the same 
period 

A link between the universities and the gilds 
is furnished by the civic corporations of the 
learned professions The notaries formed one 
of the greater gilds of Florence, and probably 
the regulations imposed by the civic authorities 
of London in the thirteenth century on pleaders 
and attorneys were drawn up by a profes- 
sional gild In fifteenth-century London the 
professions of medicine and surgery received 
from the city a set of ordinances which placed 
them under the rule of a Rector who must be 
a Doctor of Medicine, a Master of Arts and 
Philosophy, or a Bachelor of Medicine of long 
standing, and the last-named degiee was only 
to be accepted as a temporary makeshift The 
gild insisted on previous graduation for full 
membership, imposed examinations in medicine 
and surgery, and provided a hall for reading 
and disputation Later on, in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries, the Barber-Surgeons 
of London, Pans, and Edinburgh provided 
regular demonstrations in anatomy for the 
instruction of their members The London 
gild of Apothecaries has retained its examin- 
ing functions down to the present day. (See 
PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION ) 

Whilst the medical and surgical gilds were 
thus able to delegate many of their educational 
functions to the universities, the gilds of mer- 
chants and craftsmen were the sole repositories 
of the traditional lore of their several callings. 
It is very probable that they were the main 
channels by which that lore was transmitted 
from the East to the West and from the later 



GILDS 



GILDS 



days of the Roman Empire to the earlier middle 
ages Dr L M Hartrnann has recently es- 
tablished a strong case for the continuity of 
the gild tradition at Rome and Ravenna The 
style of the earliest cathedral builders has been 
traced continuously back to the school of 
" Comacme " masters, whom the Lombaids 
found working in North Italy The dedica- 
tions of the gilds of the five fundamental 
medieval handicrafts afford corroborative evi- 
dence which has been hitherto ovei looked 
The patron saints of the masons the Quatuor 
Ooronati were Roman martyrs of the third 
century, those of the shoemakers St Ciispiu 
and St. Crispiman are said to have been 
martyred at Soissons at the same period St 
Aubert, the patron saint of the bakers of Flan- 
ders and Scotland, was Bishop of Cambrai 
and Arras in the seventh century St Kloi, 
universally venerated by the smiths of the 
middle ages, was a goldsmith of Limoges who 
became a missionary Bishop at Noyon under 
Dagobert But perhaps the most interesting 
case is that of St Sever us, a woolcomber, who 
was Bishop of Ravenna just before the fall of 
the empire and whose body was afterwards 
carried, first to Mainz the place of the first 
recorded weavers' gild in (Jermany and thence 
to Erfurt, another weaving ceritei, and who is 
subsequently found as the pat ion saint of 
weavers throughout the Netherlands and Scot- 
land A similar significance attaches to the 
spread of the cult of St Nicholas of Myra, the 
patron saint of Levantine commcicc and navi- 
gation, which is exactly contemporaneous with 
the settlement of a hitherto hugely nomadic 
trading class and the rise of the merchant gild 
There aie early churches of St Nicholas in 
close connection with the poits or markets of 
London, Bristol, Yarmouth, Newcastlc-on- 
Tync, Liverpool, (ihent, Brussels, Utrecht, 
Berlin, Frankfort, Leipzig, Hamburg, Prague, 
Stockholm, Bergen 

It is thus probable that the most important 
educational service of the gilds was removed 
before their lecorded histoiy begins In the 
later period, inaugurated by the grant of royal 
charters or civic ordinances in the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries, the growth of the system 
of apprenticeship is the central feature of gild 
history from the educational point of Mew 
The earliest extant records of apprenticeship 
arc private contracts between individuals 
Nvhich stipulate for a premium or certain years 
of service in return for specified teaching The 
authorized regulation of the conditions of ap- 
prenticeship by the gilds begins in London, 
Pans, arid elsewhere in the last quarter of the 
thirteenth century The urban population was 
then rapidly increasing Division of labor was 
giving rise to new trades for which the ciaft 
gild furnished a ready organization, and during 
the two following centuries a steady stream 
of rural labor was drawn by this agency into 
the channels of a higher technical training 



109 



The education provided by the gild rested en- 
tirely on a domestic basis As a rule the master 
craftsman might teach his trade to as many 
sons as he pleased, but could only have one 
other apprentice who received board and lodg- 
ing, clothing and discipline as one of the family 
In entering the new household the apprentice 
passed under the protection of the gild which 
revised the terms of his contract, furnished a 
court of appeal against ill usage or defective 
training, and guaranteed the ultimate attain- 
ment of mastership This produced uniformity 
within each craft, but the variations of usage 
between different crafts and different cities 
remained very wide throughout the middle 
ages In Pans the cooks required two years' 
service, the carpenters four, the chandlers six, 
the embroiderers eight, the goldsmiths ten. 
A seven years' apprenticeship, which had be- 
come universal amongst London crafts, was 
adopted as the national standard in the sixteenth 
century On the continent a much shorter pe- 
riod of from two to six years was supplemented 
by the requirement of from three to five years' 
travel in search of fuller experience Some of 
the Rhine cities were much frequented by 
journeymen as the finishing school of their 
several trades 

Besides regulating access to the only techni- 
cal school, the workshop, the gilds largely 
determined the nature of the instruction thus 
afforded, not only by an official examination 
of the aspirants to mastership, but also more 
effectively by the regular inspection of their 
trades, backed by civic authority, in which the 
collective technical conscience of the gild was 
brought to bear on the methods of the individ- 
ual craftsman False work and bad materials 
were seized and judged by juries of experts 
In some crafts, e g the goldsmiths, the gild 
affixed its stamp to sound work, in others, eg 
the blacksmiths, the pewter ers, and even the 
bakers, each master must have a mark of his 
own, whilst in the cloth manufacture it be- 
came usual to insist on inspection and official 
sealing at each stage Technical rules multi- 
plied under the control of the gilds and were 
afterwards in many cases codified in national 
legislation The Act of 1603-1004, which pre- 
scribes in fifty-two elaborate sections the in- 
dustrial technique to be followed by the Eng- 
lish leather trades, is an interesting illustration 
of the cumulative power of gild tradition It 
is very difficult to appraise justly the educa- 
tional value of this tradition In its later 
phases, when we know it best, it was almost 
wholly a hindrance to industrial progress 
It. was in the earlier and less recorded phases 
that the gilds performed their real educational 
service by disciplining crude labor, checking 
dishonest impulses, and gradually forming a 
professional sense of honor But even then 
the gild's powers of search were often used to 
exclude the competition of foreign wares 
Later on, when the craft gilds acquired pre- 



GILDS 



GILDS 



dominance in city government, their policy 
as embodied in their ordinances, their methods 
of inspection, and their regulation or apprentice- 
ship exhibited a narrower spirit of corporate 
egotism. The two opposite abuses to which 
the system of apprenticeship is liable-- undue 
restriction as a means of limiting the number of 
masters and entire absence of lestnction as 
a means of exploiting youthful labor both 
became common in the fifteenth century 

The ordinances of the majority of gilds at the 
close of the middle ages exhibit a compromise 
between these conflicting tendencies New 
masters are often forbidden to take any ap- 
prentices for several years, and then restricted 
to one, whilst those who sit on the governing 
body may take two, and those who have held 
the highest office three By this time the en- 
trance to mastership had likewise become 
restricted, partly by the growth of industrial 
capital, but also by the imposition of artificial 
conditions Foremost among these was the 
institution of the masterpiece, which did not 
become widespread till the sixteenth century 
Originating in simple tests of competent work- 
manship this developed into the imposition of 
a task sometimes occupying many months and 
requiring the use of expensive material besides 
the payment of heavy fees to the official ex- 
aminers The extant rules for the execution 
of the masterpiece which in the case of a 
wide range of Pans crafts cover a period of 
four ceiituncs form a valuable contribution 
to the history of technical education A jury of 
scriveners examined candidates in cahgiaphy, 
orthography, and casting of accounts The 
printers and booksellers required a knowledge 
of Greek and Latin, the masterpiece of the 
pinners was a thousand pins, of the shoemakers 
a pair of boots, three pairs of shoes, and a pair 
of slippers, of the butchers the dressing for 
sale of the carcases of a cow, a calf, a sheep, and 
a pig But in many cases much more elaborate 
tests were prescribed or were left to the discre- 
tion of the gild authorities who deliberately 
used them to exclude candidates from the 
mastership At the same tune the sons of 
masters arid those who could pay a large en- 
trance fee were exempted altogether or sub- 
jected to a nominal test Whilst, therefore, 
the educational functions of the gilds attained 
their most explicit and impressive form in the 
masterpiece, they were simultaneously ceasing 
to exercise an appreciable influence on the main 
course of industrial development which by this 
time was escaping from the corporate lestric- 
tions imposed in the older urban centers and 
seeking a freer environment in the country 
However regrettable, it was no doubt natural 
that the pioneers of the next phase of industrial 
progress and especially the inventors of labor- 
saving machinery should have found their 
chief obstacle in the handicraft traditions of the 
gilds (See APPRENTICESHIP AND EDUCATION, 
INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION ) G U 



110 



The gilds were, however, more intimately 
associated with school education in England. 
Many gilds maintained one or more priests to 
minister to the members of the fraternity, the 
practice arose for these priests to keep school 
for children of members or of the whole town 
In time money was left to gilds for the express 
purpose of engaging a clerk to keep school, 
elsewhere the gilds paid the schoolmaster out 
of their funds Thus at Barnard Castle the 
Gild of Trinity was " founded and endowed 
with certain lands, by gift of the brethren and 
other benefactors of the sons of ancient time 
to find a priest to say mass and to 

keep a free grammar school and a song school 
for all the children of the town " Of 33 gilds 
investigated by Leach, " excluding the Craft 
Guilds of London and Shrewsbury, and the 
Merchants' (hid at York, 28 kept grammar 
schools, arid to them may be added the 
Drapers of Shrewsbury, who kept a grammar 
school, while the Mercers of London were 
trustees for three schools mentioned, and the 
Goldsmiths foi two " In many instances the 
gild corporations were appointed as trustees 
of schools and with them were vested the right 
of appointing or dismissing the schoolmaster, 
the superintendence of repairs, the school 
property, the admission of pupils, the drawing 
up of statutes for the better government of 
schools, or appointing boards of governors for 
schools The Skinners' Company of London 
became trustees for Tonbndge School in 1552 
with powei to draw up statutes for the school, 
and the practice grew up for the governois to 
pay an annual visit to the school With the 
decay of the gild system most of the schools 
maintained or supervised by the schools be- 
came private endowed schools, while only a few 
schools in London have remained under the 
control of gilds, c g Merchant Taylors' School, 
Stationers' School, and the Meicers' School 

Of recent years, some of the wealthier London 
companies have devoted large sums to the endow- 
ment of technical and university education 

References : 

AHHLEY, W .1 An Jntroduetion to English Economic 

History and Theory (Now York, 1898 ) 
DOU&N, A ,J Das Flonntiner Zunftwettcn (Stuttgart, 

190S ) 
FRANKLIN, A Diet ion naire histoi KJUC ofrv Art*, Metiers 

ft Profession* exeiee* dans Pa) is (PariH, 1906.) 
CiHOHM, C. The (hid Men haul (London, 181)0 ) 
LEACH, A F English School^ at tht Reformation 

(London, 1896 ) 
LOKHCH, H VON DH Kdhier Zunfturkiuidcn (Dua- 

aoldorf, 1907 ) 
MAREZ, G DEH L' Organisation d( Ti avail A Bnij.cllt8 

an XVc XiecU* (BniBttolH, 1904 ) 
SCHMOLLER, C? Die HtraKxburQCT Tuchcr- ujid Wcbcr- 

zunft (Strasbourg, 1879 ) 

STALKY, E Gild* of Florence (London, 1906.) 
STOWK, A M English Grammar Schools in the Reign 

of Qua n Elizabeth (New York, 1908 ) 
UNWIN, CJ Gilds and Companies of London (London, 

1908 ) 

Report of the Citu of London Livery Companies' Commis- 
sion (London, 1884 ) 



GILDvS, TEACHERS' 



OILMAN 



GILDS, TEACHERS' Those were as- 
sociations which arose in the sixteenth century 
to protect those teachers of primary subjects 
who had municipal recognition against the com- 
petition of the wandering scholars, dame and 
hedge-schools (Wmkehchulen) Such organiza- 
tions were confined to German v, though at least 
one is found in Holland- Harlem There is 
definite information bearing on the gilds in 
Munich (1564), Nuremberg (1013), Frank fort- 
a.-M (1613), and Lubeck (1053), while they 
also existed in Augsburg, Lands!) ut, Hamberg, 
Stuttgart, Tubingen, Urach, and Kiunswick 
At Lubeck a second gild of teachers of reading 
and prayers was also orgam/ed Their oigan- 
ization was similar to that of other gilds, which 
were practically on the decline when the 
teachers oigamzed A period of apprentice- 
ship, varying from three to nine years, and begin- 
ning with the sixteenth or eighteenth year, was 
imposed An examination had to be passed 
to become a journeyman or assistant teacher 
The assistant could be employed for pay by 
a master and could also give private lessons, 
part of the proceeds going to his master When 
a vacancy occurred in the gild, it was filled by 
the oldest assistant on proving his ability, 
usually by writing out, with great flounshes 
a signboard, a Latin motto, eg I'ahentm 
omnia vtucit, or a Biblical quotation, and the 
master's name foimed the content The gilds 
struggled with difficulty against competition 
but without success, in spite of piotests to the, 
municipal councils, which supervised and in- 
spected their schools On the whole their 
influence was baneful, they kept down the 
number of schools by increasing the number 
of pupils in the few fa\ ored institutions with- 
out adding to the accommodations, the quali- 
fications for membership weie not alvuus 
strictly adhered to, the sons, widows, 01 daugh- 
teis of deceased members \\eic sometimes 
allowed to continue schools without, being ic- 
quned to go through the legulai loutme 
Materially the gilds did not impiove the posi- 
tion of their members, for manv had to supple- 
ment their slight income by alms One ad- 
vantage, however, did accrue, members of the 
gilds were tpso facto citizens The gilds lin- 
gered on ineffectually until the end of the 
eighteenth century * The Munich gild was 
finally dissolved in 1801, the capable teachcis 
being incorporated into the state system At 
Nuremberg, the gild was driven out in 1X18 
on the introduction of paid teachers, while at 
Lubeck the last was heard of the gild in the 
same year 

Sec TEACHERS' VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS 

References ; 

FISCHER, K Ge&chichtc dc8 deutxchen Volkt>t>chul- 
lehrertatidu>, Vol I, rh S (Berlin, 18i)S ) 

JVANDEL, 1 L Th< Training of Elementary School 

teachers in Germany (Ncw York, 1910 ) 
N, W EncyUo}Mi8ch<K llandbuch der 
s.v. Zunjtweaen der Lehrer 



m 



GILL, ALEXANDER (1565-1635) - Head- 
master of St Paul's school, London, from 160S 
till 1635 He had John Milton as pupil m the 
school from 1620 to 1625 (Jill continued the 
tradition of Mule-aster's (q v ) interest in the 
study of the English language as shown in 
Mulcaster's Elemental ie 1582, and in 1619 
published the book for which he is best known 
LoqoHomin Anglica.qua Genii* tiermofacilm* 
addiscifur He advocated the phonetic spelling, 
and suggested a reform of the alphabet with 
that purpose, by introducing the two Anglo- 
Saxon signs foi th and other Anglo-Saxon signs, 
together with dots over the vowels to represent 
then various sounds, he gets his adequate al- 
phabet Tn the feeling of pride in our old 
Saxon tongue Gill ranks as a pioneer. The 
most interesting section of the Logon omw 
Anglica is the part devoted to Syntax, where 
he begins to treat of the figures of speech 
Following on the lines of Abraham Frauncc 
(q v\ Gill quotes fiom English writers to 
illustrate the English usage in ihetoncal 
figures The significance of the book is the 
establishment of Ramus's method of illustra- 
tion of rhetorical figures from modern sources, 
the drawing of attention to the beauties of the 
English literary writers, and the beginnings of 
the study of English literature in a school 
textbook The curious point must be borne 
in mind, that (Jill's Logottonna is wiitten in 
Latin (Jill's son, also called Alexander (1597- 
1642), in 1621 became under usher of St Paul's 
school to his father, and was teacher and friend 
of Milton Gill fell in disgiace in 1628, 
through drinking a health to Felton, the assassin 
of Buckingham, and belittling the king Even- 
tually forgiven, he is said to have been an usher 
in Farnaby's (</ v ) school, and in 1635, succeeded 
his father as High 01 Head Master of St Paul's 
School He died in 1642, having gamed the 
reputation for great severity in connection with 
school teaching p. w. 

References . 

Dictionary of National Biography, Vol XXI, p ,353 
MACDONNELL, M F J History of St Pauls School 

(London, 1'WW ) 

WATHON, FOSTEII Bi ginnings of tht Tenth IHQ of Mod- 
ern Subject* in England (London, 1907 ) 

OILMAN, DANIEL COIT (1831-1908) 
The first president of Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, and one of the leading influences in Ameri- 
can educational development during the greater 
part of his career He was born in Norwich, 
Conn , July 6, 1X31, and was of old New Eng- 
land ancestry on both sides (liaduatmg at 
Yale in 1852, he pursued graduate studies at 
Harvard for a year, residing in the home of 
Arnold (Uiyot, the geographer, then he spent 
two years in Europe, where, though an attache 
of the United States Legation at St Peters- 
burg, he found opportunities foi seeing and 
leaimng much of England, (reimany, and 
France, as well as of Russia Returning in 1855, 



OILMAN 



G1RARD COLLEGE 



he took an active part in advancing the per- 
manent organization of the Sheffield Scientific 
School at Yale, and became one of the chief 
promoters there of the ideas of Ll the new learn- 
ing." He was an ardent champion of scientific 
studies as a means of culture, though he fully 
recognized the claims of the classical education; 
and it was precisely this attitude that he after- 
wards manifested in shaping the character of 
Johns Hopkins University He was made as- 
sistant librarian of Yale College in 1856, and 
afterwards librarian and professoi of physical 
geography Duung his connection with Yale, 
which ended in 1872 with his acceptance of 
the presidency of the University of California, 
he was one of the chief influences making for 
progress generally, and in particular for the 
building up of the Sheffield Scientific School 
He was also actively connected with the public 
school system of Connecticut, in which he 
introduced important improvements The 
University of California, under his presidency, 
from 1872 to 1875, underwent a most remark- 
able development, in spite of the obstacles intei- 
posed by political interference He became 
president of Johns Hopkins University in 1875 
The establishment of Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity in 1876 marks an epoch m the history of 
education and learning in America, and it is to 
Oilman that the determination of its character 
must be ascribed From the beginning, he set 
before himself the object of making the new in- 
stitution a means of supplying to the nation 
intellectual training of a higher order than could 
be obtained at existing American colleges and 
universities, and at the end of a yeai of travel 
and inquiry he had gathered, as a nucleus, six 
piofessors of eminent ability, under whom, 
with the aid of younger associates, there was 
launched, for the first time in this country, 
a university whose standards and activities 
weie on a level with those of the great institu- 
tions of Europe The establishment of full- 
fledged " graduate schools," the naturalization 
of research as a leading element in American 
umvcisities, and the development on a great 
scale of scientific and scholarly publications, 
date from the loundation of Johns Hop- 
kins University And a singular testimony 
to the importance of Oilman's influence in 
hastening this development is furnished by the 
fact that, although it was not until seventeen 
yeais later that funds were available for the 
opening of the Johns Hopkins Medical School, 
no othei institution in the meanwhile attempted 
to bring about '* the prodigious advancement 
of medical teaching" to quote President 
Eliot which was there effected under ( hlman's 
guidance, and in accordance with the aim that 
he had cherished from the beginning 

In 1901 Oilman resigned the presidency of 
Johns Hopkins In 1(M)2 he became the fust 
president of the Carnegie Institution, he le- 
signed that office in 190*1, but continued as a 
trustee* of the institution until his death 



112 



Throughout his life, in addition to his educa- 
tional activities, he was deeply and actively in- 
terested in public improvement and in practical 
philanthropic effort, being, in particular, one 
of the pioneer workers in charity organization 
and in civil service reform He succeeded Carl 
Schurz as president of the National Civil Ser- 
vice Reform League , his connection with the 
Peabody Fund, the Slater Fund, and the Rus- 
sell Sage Foundation was of great importance; 
and he served on many public and semi-public 
commissions His contributions to periodical 
literature* were numerous, and he was one of 
the chief editors of the New International 
Encyclopedia He wrote a Life of Janice D 
Dana and the volume on James Montoe in the 
" American Statesmen " series He edited 
the Miscellaneous Witting* of Francis Licber, 
and prepared an edition of De Tocqueville's 
Democracy in America, for which he wrote an 
elaborate introduction Two other volumes 
published by him are University Addresses and 
The Launching of a UnivciMty He died at 
Norwich, Conn, Oct 13, 1908* F. F. 

See JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 

Reference 

FRANKLIN, FABIAN Life of Daniel Coit Oilman (New 
York, 1910) 

GILPIN, WILLIAM (1724-1804) School- 
master, author, and aitist He graduated B A 
at Oxford in 1744 and was ordained in 1746 
A few years latei he took over a boarding school 
at Cheam, Surrey, which he kept successfully 
for neaily thirty years and handed on to his 
son The school is still in existence under the 
charge of a descendant of (Jilpm The distin- 
guishing marks of the school were the study of 
the vernacular, of gardening and business, 
the boys engaging m practical commerce on 
then own accounts, the elimination of corporal 
punishment, replaced by tiial by juiv and fines 
which were 1 spent for the general welfare of the 
whole school, and confidence in and i chance on 
the boys' sense of honor As Vicai of Bold re 
(Jilpm took an active mteiest in the social 
welfare of his panshioneis and gave a number 
of his pictures to endow a pansh school In 
1779 he published Lecture^ on the Church 
CatechtKtn, which had been prepared earliei 
for his pupils His writings consisted of bi- 
ogiaphies of eminent English Churchmen, in- 
cluding his own ancestor Beniard Gilpm, and 
descriptions of points of artistic interest in 
England accompanied with his own sketches 

Reference : 
Dictionary of National Biography 

GIRARD COLLEGE, PHILADELPHIA, PA 

An institution founded by the will of Stephen 
(iiraid (<//>) for "poor white mule orphan" 
childien, and opened in 1S4S The institution 
was placed in tiust of the Councils of the City 
of Philadelphia, and is now managed by the 



GIRARD, JEAN BAPTISTE 



GIRARD, STEPHEN 



Board of Directors of City Trusts Alexander 
Dallas Bache (q v) WHS appointed the fust 
president and was soul by the trustees to Fur ope 
to make a survey of the educational institutions 
and systems By one of the teims of the will 
" no ecclesiastic, missionary or minister of any 
sect whatsoever" is admitted in anv capacity 
within the premises of the institution An 
attack on the will failed in the courts on the 
ground that the exclusion of ministers was not 
necessarily an attack on religion or bioad 
religious teaching Orphan (' fatherless) 
boys are admitted between the ages of six and 
ten years and receive a training such as will 
enable them to earn their own living at fourteen 
to eighteen years of age The enrollment in 
December, 1911 was 1491. 

References : 

BARNARD American Journal of Education, Vol 
XXVll.pp 593-01(1 

Report of the Bouid of Dnectot^ of ('it}/ 7'/u,s^s of th( City 

of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, annual) 
Httni-Centenntnl of Girard ColUf/i, 1848-18^)8 (Phila- 
delphia, 1<S()8 ) 

GIRARD, JEAN BAPTISTE (1765-1850) 
Better known as Pere Gre"goire Chi aid, a 
contemporary and fellow-countryman of Pesta- 
lo/zi Bom in Fieiburg, he attended the 
Jesuit school there and at the age of seventeen 
joined the Franciscan Order lie spent his 
novitiate in Lucerne and thence pioceeded to 
the University of Wurzburg, where he studied 
theology \\hen the Swiss government had 
the reform of public education under considera- 
tion, he drew up a plan foi primary, secondary, 
and cantonal schools and a national Swiss 
university, as a result of which he was ap- 
pointed secretary to the Minister for Culture 
and Education, to act as advisor in the Catholic 
interests Finding that his advice was raiely 
sought, he became pastor in Berne (1800-1804), 
where his broad humanitarian sympathies cut 
acioss denominational limitations and en- 
deared him to everybody He devoted him- 
self mainly to the study of education and was 
inspired by the efforts of Pestalo/zi at this 
period His opportunity came in 1804 when 
he was called to his native city to organize 
public education For more than twenty 
years he strove with great success to reform 
educational practice and theory Starting 
with 40 pupils, the school in 1820 had 400 
pupils, and the idea of education became estab- 
lished as essential to public welfare, not only 
m the minds of most of his fellow-citizens, but 
also m the surrounding cantons The school 
was much visited by foreign observers But 
the work of Pestalozzi tended to overshadow 
that of Girard who aimed to put the master's 
theories into practice so far as possible In 
1809 he was sent with the commission appointed 
by the government to Yverdun, and his report on 
the whole was satisfactory (Rapport sur I'ln- 
vtttut dc Pestalozzi prfaente a la haute Dtete de 



la N///,s,xr) Unfortunately the labois of Giraid 
were suspended by the reactionaries as tending 
to undermine religion and as being i evolutional > , 
and in 182,* the school was closed (lirard ic- 
tired to Lucerne, when* he devoted himself to 
writing and recommending educational rcfoim 

Girard was strongly influenced m the direc- 
tion of the moral and religious end of educa- 
tion. Pestalo/zi's work he criticized on the 
ground that too much emphasis was laid on 
the intellectual and too little on the emotional 
and volitional aspects He accepted the theoiy 
of harmonious development as the aim of 
instruction, but here again he held that Pesta- 
lozzi overemphasized the mathematical sub- 
jects, which he feared would lead to material- 
ism Nature study, history, and geography 
were all to lead to a recognition of God, much 
in the same way as Froebel proposed The 
lack of teachers compelled Girard to adopt the 
monitorial system (1810), which, strangely 
enough, formed the center of attack on the 
part of his opponents His school was divided 
into four grades, and each subject was reviewed 
anew and expanded m each grade He won 
the affection of hus pupils to a remarkable degree, 
and on his way to and from school he was 
always attended by a large gioup of them 

His chief work was the Langne materncllc 
enseignee a la Jcu7ie.\\e com me Moi/en dc De- 
veloppement intellect uel, moial ct ichgicui (The 
veinacular taught to the i/oung .s a mean* of 
intellectual, moral, a?id religious development), in 
seven volumes, the first dealing with his peda- 
gogical views Here he recogm/es the loosen- 
ing of the bonds of family, church, and state, 
arid for that reason urges control through 
moral and religious education This work 
secured him in 1844 the prize awarded by the 
Paris Academy Other works were Dialogue* 
sur I'l institution dex Eiohsdc Campagnc, Diver* 
7)/,srowr.s et Dissertation* sur Jr.s fin jets de Peda- 
gogic gencjaej, De* Moi/en* d'attacher la Jeu- 
d ,srs Etude* et d'activei .srs Progiev 



References : 

LtiTHi, K Pain Grvgor Girard (Brrrio, 1^) 
NAVILLK, E Ptrt Girard, in Hctutil dt Mo 

Pudayo(ji(ju< j \, pp 72-9 ( ) (Lausanne, 1S 1 )(> ) 
Notice but la VK tt /cs () u vi aye** dtt P Girard (P.'irih, 

n d ) 
SCHNMIWL\, J Ecolr du Put Girmd (Freiburg, 

1905) 

GIRARD, STEPHEN (1750-18.il) 
Founder ot Girard College foi Orphans, 
attended the schools of France, but was largely 
self-educated He was foi many yeais engaged 
in commercial pursuits, and left Ins fortune to 
various philanthropic and educational institu- 
tions He bequeathed $2,000,000 for the 
establishment of a college foi orphans in Phila- 
delphia W. S M 

See GIKARD COLLEGE 

References : 

AREY, HENRY W Girard College and its Founder. 
(Philadelphia, I860) 



VOL ill I 



113 



GIRLS 



GLADSTONE 



HENRY Aim man Joninul of Ktliuuhou, 
1S77, Vol XXVII, pp .VM-hll. 

SiMi'MON, HTEPHKN- Af/V f Mt ph( n <,'nnr</ (T'hilu- 
dolphm, 1S,'12 ) 

GIRLS, EDUCATION OF - The various 
aspects of tins subject are treated under sepa- 
rate titles. The existing practices concerning 
the education of girls with boys are presenled 
under the title COEDUCATION One phase of 
this question is discussed briefly under SEGRE- 
GATION The histoiy of the education of girls 
in America is included in the article on CO- 
LONIAL PERIOD IN AMERICAN EDUCATION. 
The early history of European practice is in- 
cluded m the article on MIDDLE AGES, EDUCA- 
TION IN The general place of girls* education 
in various countries at the present time is 
given in the articles on the separate national 
systems, The entire subject of higher educa- 
tion is treated in ertenw under the caption 
WOMEN, HIGHKR EDUCATION OF 

GIRLS' PUBLIC DAY SCHOOL TRUST. 

An organization founded in England in 1872 
to provide secondary education for girls It- 
was an outcome of the larger movement which 
centered in the National Union for Improving 
the Education of Women The Trust num- 
bered among its promoters Mis William (trey, 
Miss Gurney, and Sir J P Kay-Shuttle worth. 
The work was organized on a commercial basis, 
and the shareholders receive a dividend of five 
per cent, any surplus being devoted to im- 
proving the schools The first school was 
opened at Chelsea The aim of the Trust is 
declared to be to provide for girls opportunities 
similar to those open to boys in the great 
Public Schools <l Particular stress is laid on 
the formation of character by moral and 
religious training and for fitting gnls for the 
practical business and duties of life " A full 
secondary school course is provided in all the 
schools, which number more than thirty and 
have over 7000 pupils A training department 
for teachers in secondary schools, as well as in 
drawing and music, is maintained at the Clap- 
ham High School, which also prepares foi the 
Teachers' Diploma of London and Cambridge 
Universities and the Froebel Certificate 
Special courses in domestic economy are given 
in some schools to pupils who have completed 
the legular courses The fees charged vary 
according to the age of the pupil from 9 9.s i . 
to 15 15.s. ($47-478 a year) A few scholar- 
ships are maintained at each school 

References : 

BREMNER, C S The Education of Gnls and Women 

(London, 1897) 

Girl*' tirhool Yeai Book (London, annual ) 
SCHMID, K A (Jetichichtc dn Erzithnng, Vol V, Pt 2, 

pp 298-.iOO /-)* MadchenBihulwetten in England. 

(Stuttgart, 18*4-11)02.) 

GIRTON COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, ENG- 
LAND An institution founded in 1869 at 

114 



Henslow House, Hit chin, foi the higher educa- 
tion of \\oinen T1 \Mit> the outcome of the 
efforts of Miss Kinilv DHVICK who had unsuc- 
cessfully tried to influence the Schools Inquiry 
Commission (1865-1S67) to support the estab- 
lishment of such an institution Through her 
hook The Higher Education of Women (1866) 
she had contributed to the progress of the 
women's educational movement in England. 
In 1808 she secured influential support and 
subscriptions which led to the opening of the 
house at Hitchm with six students. In 187.3 
the college was moved to (iirton College, near 
Cambridge. Instruction was given by the 
resident tutors and several professors of the 
University along the lines of the university 
requirements, and the students were admitted 
to university lectures by courtesy In 1881 the 
Senate granted permission to the students to 
present themselves for the university Tripos 
examinations for degrees, the College grants 
degree certificates, but not degrees on the 
results At the 1 same time the lectures were 
tin own open to the women The remarkable 
successes of the students gave a considerable 
impetus to the cause of higher education of 
women, a large majority of the alumnae hav- 
ing devoted themselves to teaching in girls' 
secondary schools The enrollment of the 
college in 1909-1910 was 158 

Reference : 

DAVIEH, EMILI Questions relating to Women, 1860- 
1908 (Cambridge, 1910 ) 

GLADSTONE, WILLIAM EWART (1809- 
1898) The great English statesman did not 
play as gi eat a part in the development of Eng- 
lish education as might be expected from his 
general interest in national welfare and progress. 
He approached the question of elementary ed- 
ucation almost entuely with a strong belief 
in the claims of an established church In 
1888 he was a member of the Select Committee 
for the Education of the Poorer Classes ap- 
pointed to consider the best means of provid- 
ing useful education in large towns Gladstone 
insisted on religious education as a basis for 
state aid It was about this time, too, that 
lie proposed the establishment of teachers' 
training schools in every diocese, and the 
licensing of teachers by bishops In 1854 he 
was instrumental in removing tes-ts on admis- 
sion and graduation at Oxford, although he 
insisted that the teaching and governing re- 
main functions of the Church of England. 
He was opposed to a Crown Commission to 
inquire into the universities and would have 
preferred reform from within When the 
Education Bill of 1870 was brought forward by 
Forster (qv), Gladstone was lukewarm in his 
support As he himself admitted later in a 
review of a biography of Forster (Nineteenth 
Century, September, 1888), his views " were by 
no means identical with the views of Forster " 



GLASGOW 



GLASGOW 



" My responsibility," he writes, " is that of 
coneurrenee rather than of authorship " He 
would have preferred a system of local option 
on the question of religious instruction, for, as 
he says, u in all things, including education, 1 
prefer voluntary to legal machinery, when the 
thing can be well done either way." In 1873 
he undertook the difficult question of Irish 
University Reform, and in attempting to com- 
promise met with the opposition of both Catho- 
lics and Protestants on account of his " gigan- 
tic scheme of godless education " 

As a scholar Gladstone stood high His 
love for the classics ranked almost next to his 
devotion to his religion Any proposal to in- 
tioduce pure science, natural science, modern 
languages, and modern history as subjects 
equivalent to Latin and Greek he refused to 
consider as possible, all of the new subjects 
he regarded as " auxiliary " to classical train- 
ing And his argument for classics was based 
not only on their cultural and disciplinary 
value but on the fact that u European civiliza- 
tion from the middle ages downwaids is the 
compound of two great factors, the Christian 
religion for the spirit of man, and the Greek, 
and in a secondary degree the Roman, disci- 
pline for his mind and intellect " At the same 
tune lie recognized that such an education was 
for the elite only, " it can only apply in full 
to the small proportion of the youth of any 
country who are to become in the fullest sense 
educated " While Gladstone's influence on 
English education was very slight, the point 
of view of the leader demands attention, for it 
is representative of the opinions prevailing in 
England in the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury 

References : 

B \HNARD American Journal of Education, Vol XXII, 
pp 433, 4.i4 , Vol XXVI, pp 7(1 766 (Speech 011 
Irish Umvoisity Question) 

Journal of Education (London), June, 1898, pp 329-330. 

MORLLY, LORD Life of Gladstone (London, 1903 ) 

GLASGOW, THE UNIVERSITY OF. A 

coeducational institution situated in Glasgow, 
Scotland, founded (1451), like most other ancient 
universities, by the authority of the Church of 
Rome The Bishop of Glasgow and his suc- 
cessors in office were appointed to rule over 
the college Up till 1460 the university seems 
to have had no permanent home, but in that 
year, James, Lord Hamilton, bequeathed to the 
Principal of the College of Arts, and his suc- 
cessors m office, a tenement with four acres of 
land adjoining, situated in the old High Street 
of the city In buildings on this site, the 
classes of the university continued to meet for 
upwards of four hundred years, until the new 
university buildings situated at Gilmorehill 
were ready for occupation in 1870 Owing to 
the ecclesiastical changes, and the political 
conditions of the country, the university passed 
through many vicissitudes during the first two 



hundred years after its establishment, and it 
was not until the beginning of the eighteenth 
century that it began to make steady, con- 
tinuous, and permanent progress This mani- 
fested itself in (1) the specialization of the 
teaching within the University, and (2) in 
the establishment of new chairs During the 
last Decade of the seventeenth century and 
the whole of the eighteenth century, eight 
new professorships were established, viz . 
mathematics (1691), humanity (1706), oriental 
languages (1709), civil law (1712), medicine 
(1712)," history (1716), anatomy (1718), and 
astronomy (1760) Thereafter, for nearly fifty 
years, no additional chairs were added, but 
beginning with the establishment of the chair 
of natural history (1807) there came the estab- 
lishment of professorships in surgery (1815), 
midwifery (1815), chemistry (1817), botany 
(1818), matena medica (1831), institutes of 
medicine (1839), forensic medicine (1839), civil 
engineering (1840), conveyancing (1861), Eng- 
lish language and literature (1861), biblical 
criticism (1861), clinical surgery (1874), clini- 
cal medicine (1874), naval architecture (1883), 
history (1893), pathology (1893), and political 
economy (1896) During the present century 
separate chairs have been founded in geology 
(1903), zoology (1903), and mining (1906) 
Further, since 1892 many additional lecture- 
ships have also been established, the more im- 
portant being those of French, German, Italian, 
and Celtic in the Department of Language and 
Literature, education, psychology, and political 
philosophy in the Department of Philosophy, 
constitutional law and history, and economic 
history in the Department of History and 
Law In addition, both in medicine and in 
science, lectureships in the more specialized 
departments of these subjects have been re- 
cently instituted 

The present buildings in the west of 1he 
city were opened in 1870 In addition to the 
buildings used for teaching, there is also the 
Bute Hall, the gift of the late Marquis of 
Bute. Here are held the graduation and 
other important ceremonies of the university 
Residences are provided within the grounds 
for the principal and several of the professors 
In 1893, as a result of the admission of women 
students to the universities of Scotland, the 
Governors of Queen Margaret College, an 
institution for the higher education of women 
and housed in North Park, handed over to the 
university its buildings and grounds for the 
use of the women students Since then Queen 
Margaret College has ceased to be an inde- 
pendent institution and has been wholly incor- 
porated with the university Within recent 
years, extensive additions have been made to 
the original buildings at Gilmorehill, including 
(a) classrooms and laboratories for the teach- 
ing of engineering ; (&) lecture rooms, a museum 
and herbarium for the teaching of botany, 
and (c) an extension of the anatomical depart- 



115 



GLASGOW 



GLOMERY 



men! Two other groups of buildings have 
lately been added, one for the teaching of 
physics, the other to provide better accom- 
modation and equipment for the teaching of 
physiology, matena medica, and forensic medi- 
cine. 

The present constitution of the umveisity 
dates from the passing of the Universities 
(Scotland) Act of 1858, and as amended by the 
Act of 1889, and is similar to that of Edin- 
burgh (q v ) and other Scottish universities 
The University Court, now composed of four- 
teen members, representative of the General 
Council of graduates of the Senatu* Academicus 
and of the students, is the chief governing and 
administrative body; the duties of the Scriatus 
being mainly concerned with the regulation and 
superintendence of the teaching and discipline 
within the university The woik of the univer- 
sity is, at present, divided into live faculties or 
departments, viz : the faculties of (1) arts, (2) 
science; (3) medicine, (4) law, and (5) divinity 

The Faculty of Arts is the largest in the 
university and is attended by more than 1200 
students yearly It provides a course foi 
graduation in aits The work of the faculty 
is divided into four departments, vi/ : those 
of language and literature, of mental philoso- 
phy, of mathematics and science, and of history 
and law The course for graduation may be 
taken either in five or six subjects, provided 
that when a course of five subjects is taken, 
two of these must be studied dining 1wo 
sessions, and an examination passed on a 
higher standard than in the other thiee sub- 
jects of the course If a curriculum of six sub- 
jects is chosen, one of these must be studied 
duimg two years, and of the other five, two 
must be cognate (c g logic and moral philoso- 
phy) and miiht be taken up in separate sessions 
A further regulation enacts that eveiv cur- 
riculum for the ordinary degree in arts must 
include a philosophical subject, either logic or 
moial philosophy The degree with honors in 
arts may be taken in the following departments 
of study, viz : (a) classics, (6) philosophy, 

(c) mathematics and natural philosophy, 

(d) English, (e) history, (/) economics, 
(g) French and German, (/?) French, Italian, 
Latin (any two), (0 Germanic language and 
literature (with English), (j) Celtic language 
and literature (with Latin), (A) Semitic lan- 
guages (Hebrew and Arabic) 

In the Faculty of Science, in addition to the 
course leading to the degree of Bachelor in 
Pure Science, courses are also provided in 
applied science, leading to the bachelor's degree 
in (a) engineering, in (b) agriculture, in (c) 
public health, and in (r/) pharmacy Higher 
degrees in both science arid arts may be con- 
ferred on graduates on the presentation and 
approval of a thesis after five years from the 
date of their graduation 

In the Faculty of Medicine, courses are pro- 
vided for students leading to the degree of 



Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Suigerv 
(MB, CM) The couise normally extends 
over live years Holders of the lower degree 
may on certain conditions proceed thereafter 
to the degree of Doctor of Medicine (M D ) 
or Master of Surgery (M Ch ) 

The Faculty of Law provides two degree 
courses, one open only to graduates and lead- 
ing to the degree of Bachelor of Laws (LL B ), 
and the other and lower degree of Bachelor of 
Law (B L ) open to non-graduates m arts on 
certain conditions The faculty of divinity 
provides a course for graduates in arts leading 
to the degree of Bachelor of Divinity (B D ) 
Honorary degrees may also be conferred in 
law (LL D ) and in divinity (D D ) 

The total number of students in attendance 
during session 1909-1910 was 2728, made up 
as follows arts, 1253, medicine, 698, science, 
443, law, 204, divinity, 61 Enrolled in more 
than one faculty 20, single-course students, 48 
Since 1892, when the University was thrown 
open to women students, the number has 
gradually increased In session 1909-1910 
women students numbered 642, of whom 534 
were enrolled in the Faculty of Arts and 71 in 
the Faculty of Medicine * The staff of the 
University, at present, embraces 32 professors 
and 52 lecturers (exclusive of assistants to 
proiessois) A D 

References . 

OOUTTH, ,J A History of the University of Glasgow from 
th Foundation in 14,11 to 1909 (Glasgow, 1<KW ) 

Glasgow Unix orsitv Rccoid of th< Ninth Juhilrt , /^7/ 
1901 (CJhiHKow, 1901 ) 

K&itii, J Kcottibh Education, School and Untvcr\tti/ 
fiont Early Tnnct, to 1908 (C'amhrul^c, 11)10) 

STRONG, J A ///s/u/v of tiwondun/ Education in Scot- 
land from th< Earliest Tunes to 19O8 (Oxford, 1 909 ) 

GLENALMOND, TRINITY COLLEGE 

See GRAMMAR SCHOOLS, ENGLISH, COLLEGES, 
ENGLISH, PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

GLOBES See MAPS 

GLOMERY This word is simply a cor- 
ruption of the word" grammar/' dating (appar- 
ently) from the thirteenth century Owing to 
its use at Cambridge as late as the sixteenth 
century, where the Master of Glomery (Magistei 
ghmcrice) in 1533-1544 exercised the* functions, 
afterwards performed by the professor of Greek 
and the Public Orator, of presenting for degrees, 
a great deal of wild guessing took place as to 
its meaning Fuller, in his History of the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, published in 1659, leaves 
it as a mystery " Let it suffice us to know 
that the original of the word seems barbarous, 
his office narrow and topical (confined to Cam- 
bridge) and his certain use at this day anti- 
quated and forgotten " Even Dr Rashdall, in 
his Universities of Europe, speaks of the Master 
of Glomery as a " wholly peculiar Cambridge 
institution " Dr (Jams, the Elizabethan his- 
torian of Cambridge, had derived the name " as 



116 



GLOMERY 



GNOSTICISM 



if so c'iillrcl a glomeiando from ' going round 
about ' the Regent-houses to collect the votes 
at congregations , or from ' gathering their 
votes glomcrated/ that is, rolled and lounded 
up in a piece of paper " 

In point of fact the Master of Glomcry at 
Cambridge was at first nothing more than the 
grammar schoolmaster The first extant notice 
of him is in a document of the year 1276, m 
which the Bishop of Kly regulated the rela- 
tions and defined the area of jurisdiction of the 
Master of Glomcry, the Chancellor of the 
university, and the Archdeacon of Ely The 
grammar master is to have exclusive jurisdic- 
tion in all cases in which grammar scholars 
(glomerelh) are dependents, as other masters 
have in the cases of their scholars, so that 
whether university scholars or laymen wish to 
convene grammar scholars or get anything 
from them by judicial process they shall do it 
before the Glomery Master unless it be a ques- 
tion of rent of lodgings or involving loss of 
university rights when the Ghawelloi is to 
decide The grammai beadle was not to carry 
his mace in university convocations nor before 
the Chancellor, but he might continue to do so 
elsewhere, especially when executing his office 
This document is of great interest in the his- 
torv of universities as it showed how the later 
juiisdiction of the Chancellor of the students 
of the higher or university faculties had 
eclipsed the glory of the pieexisting giummar 
schoolmastei That the Glomery Master was 
nothing more is clear from the oath which he 
took on admission by the Archdeacon of Kly 
to discharge all the duties of the glomery 
school of Cambridge (opera scolarum glomence 
CantibriguB) without any extortion from the 
scholais The oaths and names of the Glomcrv 
Masters until 1437 are preserved in the Aich- 
deacon of Ely's book now at Cams College 
The (ilomery School was, undei the title of 
Gramer Scolc, granted to trustees of King's 
College and incorporated in its site in 1440, 
but the lane in which it had stood was still 
called Glomery Lane* when Dr Cams wrote in 
the reign of Elizabeth After 1437 the Glomcry 
Master appeared to have been meicly the super- 
intendent of the grammai schools in Cambridge 
and head of the grammar faculty presenting 
candidates for the degree in grammai The 
last who enjoyed the title was Sir John Chcke 
(q v ) in 1533-1534, and it is piesumod that 
his office was deemed to be merged in that of 
the Professor of Greek That the term is 
not peculiar to Cambridge appears from the 
earliest account roll of the grammar school 
attached to Merton College, Oxford In the 
year 1277, 20s was paid to the grammai master 
(magistro glomcne) for five boys for one term, 
or at the rate of 4,s. a head At Bury St 
Edmunds, in 1288 or 1289, an official issued 
a mandate against certain pedagogues wrong- 
fully usurping the title of master who pre- 
sumed to keep adulterine schools, pretending 



to teach dialecticians, grammar scholars (<,L> 
mercllos) against the will of the schoolmastei 
of St Edmunds, and directing then excom- 
munication A similar mandate, a few years 
later, was directed against John Harrison for 
teaching ffloniMcllvb and other pupils At 
Salisbury in 1308 the grammar schoolhousc is 
described as *cole glomcnv, which in 1322 appears 
as scolt gfamaticales, thus establishing the 
identity of meaning beyond doubt 

The corruption is probably of French origin 
as it appears in the Battle of the Seven Aits 
of Henry d'Andelv written about 1250 (ed A 
Ileion, 1881) in which the glomerians assemble 
at Orleans, where classics were still the pre- 
dominant study, under the banner of giammar, 
to attack the logicians intrenched at Pans 

A F L 



GLOSSARIES, 

VOCABULARIES 



GR^CO-LATIN See 



GNOSTICISM During the second cen- 
tury of the Christian Era there arose a strange 
medley of doctrinal speculations, known as 
Gnosticism, which disturbed the peace of the 
Church and necessitated the development of a 
Christian theology They represented a sys- 
tematic eliort to fuse Christianity into the vast 
fabric of speculation erected by philosophic 
thought Men of keen intelligence, having 
embraced Clnistiaiuty, naturally applied to its 
investigation the methods of Jewish learning 
and Greek philosophy There soon sprang 
into existence a multitude of pantheistic- 
idealistic sects, varying widely in their ideas, 
but agreeing upon certain basic principles 
They all piofessed a <7?w,s/,s 01 spiritual en- 
lightenment They regarded Christianity as a 
system of metaphysics to be expressed m the 
categories of specula! ne thought They held 
that the soul attains its nghtful end, not by 
faith and woiks, but by receiving a tradition of 
knowledge, communicated only to the initiated 
few and to which the masses of mankind 
could not attain This doctrine of salvation 
by knowledge limited the enjoyment of reli- 
gion to a few illummati The Gnostics were 
" those who knew," a superior order of beings 
apait from ordinary believers Most of them 
wore dualists Adopting the familiar axiom 
of the philosophers, " evil inheres in matter," 
they despised the physical world as the creation, 
not' of the Supreme Deity, but of a Demiurge, 
a limited secondary god Some said matter 
was eternal, others explained it as rubbish 
remaining after the completion of the spiritual 
phioma, the result of accident or negligence m 
the process of creation They regarded the 
human body as an incumbrance in which the 
soul is held captive and from which it will 
escape at death They denied the resurrection 
of the body and explained away the Incarnation 
of Christ, geneially adopting the docetic theory, 
that Christ was a pure spirit with a phantasmal 



117 



GODDARD 



GODWIN 



or appantional body. To account for the evo- 
lution of the universe, they called into exist- 
ence a series of " endless genealogies," a long 
chain of lower gods or aons, connecting the 
world with God The Demiurge and the 
material world were more or less antagonistic 
to God, and this present existence was essen- 
tially evil Thus Gnosticism was a philosophic 
and religious pessimism It was too specula- 
tive to be bound by scriptures, creeds, and 
sacraments There was no central authority 
Every Gnostic teacher shaped his theories to 
suit himself and garnished them with " great 
swelling words " The Gnostics were more 
active than the orthodox Christians in literary 
and educational work Their great teachers 
BasilidcH (c 125), Valentmus (125-140), 
Bardesanes (154-222), Heiacleon (c 1GO), ami 
Marcion (c 150) made many disciples who 
became famous educators and founded colleges 
in Antioch, Alexandria, and other centers of 
learning to which multitudes of students were 
drawn They produced a vast and varied col- 
lection of writings, most of which have perished 
The Gnostic theories possess a curious interest 
for the scientist, and especially the psychologist, 
because of their original and often fantastic 
efforts to solve the great problems of life and 
mind W R 

See ALEXANDRIA SCHOOLS OF 

References : 

Anlc-Nitene Father*, under Irentcus, Trrtulhan, and 

HippolytiiH (Now Yoik, 1890) 
HAHNACH, A History of Dogma (London, 181)4 ) 
KING, C W The Gntntici* and their Remmnb (London, 

1887.) 

LJPHUJH, R A Der Gnosticismun (Leipzig, 1800) 
RA!NY, R Ancient Catholic Chunk (Now York, 

1902) 
ROUTH, M ,T Reliqutff Sacrce. (Oxford, 1848.) 

GODDARD, WILLIAM STANLEY (1757- 
1845) One of the most influential Head- 
masters of Winchester College Himself edu- 
cated at Winchester and Morton College, 
Oxford, where he graduated BA in 1781, he 
became usher or second master at his old 
school in 1784 Under l)r Warton, head- 
master at this time, the numbers had dwindled, 
discipline was lax, and scholarship was low 
As a result of a " rebellion " of the pupils, Dr 
Warton resigned and was succeeded bv Dr 
Goddard in 1796 He introduced a new spirit 
into the school; the numbers increased, the 
standard of scholarship was raised, but above 
all he showed great tact in managing boys, in 
putting trust in them, and in permitting a 
certain measure of self-government Dr Ar- 
nold was a pupil at Winchester under Goddard, 
and there can be no doubt that he owed much 
to his influence arid to Winchester traditions, 
to Goddard's tact Dr. Arnold frequently re- 
curred A large number of boys educated at 
Winchester at this period attained eminence in 
later life Dr Goddard retired in 1809, became 
prebendary of St Paul's in 1814, canon of 



118 



vSahsbury in 1829, and died in 1845 He gave, 
during his lifetime, 25,000 to his old school 
to be used for masters' salaries in place of the 
iniquitous system of gratuities 
See WINCHESTER COLLEGE 

References : 

ADAMH, H C Wykehamica (Oxford, 1878 ) 
Dictionary of National Biography 

LEACH, A F A History of Winchester College (New 
York, 1899) 

GODWIN, MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT 

(1759-1797) An English author, the wife of 
William Godwin (qv), whose political and 
social theories she shared Impatient with a 
system of female education which made puppets 
of girls and killed individuality, she wrote, in 
1792, the Vindication of the Right* of Women, 
a remarkably capable plea for the political, 
social, and intellectual enfranchisement of 
women Her geneial thesis is 41 make women 
rational creatures and free citizens and they 
will quickly become good wives and mothers; 
that is, if men do not neglect the duties of hus- 
bands and fathers " Women should be " free 
from all restraints by allowing them to par- 
ticipate in the inherent rights of mankind " 
Hence she was strongly opposed to the type 
of education proposed bv Rousseau for Sophia 
In a chapter on National Education, Miss 
Godwin takes occasion to criticize seveiely 
private education and private and boarding 
schools, which arc marked bv tyranny and 
slavery to forms The private schools give 
little thought to inoial tiainmg, the masters 
considering then duty done if they teach Latin 
and Greek and send a few good scholars to the 
universities But "it is not foi the benefit 
of society that a few brilliant men should be 
bi ought forward at the expense of the multi- 
tude " Hence she advocat.es a system of 
national education in the first years, at least, 
on a puielv demon atie basis A national 
system should provide a common school foi 
children of all classes from the age of five to 
nine Reading, writing, and arithmetic, natural 
history, simple experiments in natural philoso- 
phy, botany, mechanics, astronomy, religion, 
history, and politics would make up the cur- 
riculum, but play m the open air must novel 
be neglected After the age of nine the poorer 
children would go to industrial schools for 
vocational training, while the rich would study 
languages, science, history, and politics. Both 
sexes were to be educated together, for coedu- 
cation serves to perfect both not only morally, 
but for companionship through life 

In her other work, Thoughts on the Education 
of Daughter* (1787), she also attacks the nar- 
row training of girls for the drawing room, 
which was HO characteristic of the tune Sug- 
gestions are here offered for the education of 
girls which would leplace the prevailing super- 
ficiality, weakness, dependence, and affectation 
of women by a healthy independence and desire 



GODWIN, WILLIAM 



GODWIN, WILLIAM 



to share m the world's work as the companions 
of men. Mrs Godwin, always devoutly reli- 
gious, took a strong interest m moral training 
of children, and translated Salzmann's Moral- 
isches Elcmentarbuch (Elements of Morality, 
1790), with modifications to suit English con- 
ditions (See SALZMANN, CHRISTIAN GOT- 
THILF ) 

References : 

Dutionary of National Biography 

GODWIN, \\ Memoirs of Mary Wollxtonetraft Godwin. 

(Philadelphia, 1799) 

JEIIB, C Mary Wollntom craft (London, 1912 ) 
PAUL, r KEG AN Mary Wollytonecraft (London, 1870 ) 
PLNNELL, E It Life of Mary W ollat oncer aft (Boston, 

1884 ) 
TAYLOR, CJ R S Mary Wolhtonccrnft, n Htudy in Kco- 

nonnrx and Jtomanci j (London, 1911 ) 

WOLLSTONECKAFT, MARY (MRS GODWIN) Vindxa- 

tioti of the HiykU of Women, edited with introduc- 
tion by Mrs Henry Fawcett In Humboldt 
Library of Science, Vol XV (London, 1891 ) 

GODWIN, WILLIAM (17:>6-1836) - Eng- 
lish political philosopher, novelist, and anti- 
quarian, the son of a dissenting minister and 
himself a minister from 177$ to 17X3, when he 
came under the influence of the Fiench phi- 
losophers and English republicans lie sym- 
pathized with the theory of the Fiench Revolu- 
tion, but hardly with the methods of procedure 
He associated with the most prominent Eng- 
lish radicals, and m 1793 his Enquiry concern- 
ing Political Justice and its Influence on Morals 
and Happiness placed him at the head of the 
extremists This work, which attracted con- 
siderable attention and was a source of inspira- 
tion to many young men, was an attack on all 
forms of government as means of constraint 
and control The relations of individuals in 
society should be regulated on a basis of justice, 
" a principle which proposes to itself the pro- 
duction of the greatest sum of pleasure and hap- 
piness," and this principle in turn depends on 
reason Godwin's belief in the perfectability 
of man was connected with his belief that reason 
could be improved indefinitely Hence he be- 
lieved in the boundless possibilities of educa- 
tion, of which all alike were capable In this 
work Godwin held that the differences between 
individuals due to heredity were of small ac- 
count and would disappear under the influence 
of a common education The administration 
of education he would not leave in the control 
of a national government, since it would tend 
to perpetuate its own opinions and would pre- 
vent the development of an open mind ready 
to search for truth rather than to accept opin- 
ions, and, further, private endeavor on the 
part of teacher and taught would be accom- 
panied by " enthusiasm and energy " But 
while this work was evidently written under 
French influence, there is little trace of Rous- 
seau in Godwin's educational writings- The 
Enquirer, Reflections on Education, Manners, 
and Literature (London, 1797), and Thought* 
on Man; his Nature, Production, and Dis- 



coveries (London, 1831) In the Preface of the 
earlier work the author declares his belief in 
the intimate connection between the cause of 
political reform and the cause of intellectual 
and literary refinement The objects of edu- 
cation arc the attainment of happiness, virtue, 
and wisdom, each of these depending on the 
other In discussing the value of private 
(tutorial) or public education (i <' m school) 
Godwin argues in favor of the latter on social 
grounds, for " to practice upon a smaller theater 
the business of the world must be one of the 
most desirable sources of instruction and morals," 
and further, the child learns more fiom mtei- 
course with his companions than from the 
teacher The purpose of education is to " pro- 
vide against the age of five and twenty a mind 
well regulated, active, and prepaied to learn " 
Hence the importance which he attaches to 
habit formation in the young; the school is not 
to impart knowledge so much as habits of in- 
tellectual activity Godwin accepted the dis- 
ciplinary value of the classics, for the retention 
of which he states arguments which have not 
since been improved upon by their advocates 
But the most remarkable pronouncement is 
that on method in the essay Of the Communi- 
cation of Knowledge, an anticipation of the 
doctrine of interest " The best motive to 
learn is a perception of the value of the thing 
learned, the worst, motive may well be 

affirmed to be constraint and fear, there is a 
motive between these desire not springing 

from the intrinsic excellence of the object, but 
from the accidental attractions which the 
teacher may have attached to it " If his plan 
of giving the pupil a motive to learn and smooth- 
ing out his difficulties is adopted, the author 
believes that the face of education will be 
changed and " no such characters are left upon 
the scene as either preceptor or pupil " Ac- 
cording to the new method " the pupil should 
go first and the master follow " While he 
admires " the treatise of Rousseau upon edu- 
cation " as " probably a work of the highest 
value," he criticizes his system severely be- 
cause of lack of frankness on the part of the 
tutor and because of the deception played on 
the pupil, for " his whole system is a series of 
tricks, a puppet-show exhibition, of which the 
master holds the wires, and the scholar is never 
to suspect in what manner they aie moved " 
In the Thoughts Godwin has clearly made 
some advance in educational theory While 
he still has faith in the great educational value 
of the classics, he advises that a pupil who has 
no ability for language should be taken away 
from those studies More respect should be 
shown to individuality; the capacities of a 
scholar should be studied and his career and 
education should follow accordingly. An ill- 
adapted curriculum is frequently at fault 
rather than innate stupidity, for " nature never 
made a dunce '' Godwin is thus compelled 
to recommend a wider curriculum, including 



119 



GOETHE 



GOLDSMITH 



14 the rudiments of all the sciences that are in 
ordinal y use," than he had done in the En- 
quirer Tn this volume there is also an attack 
on phrenology and insistence on the unity of 
the mind The author discredits the view 
put forward by the phrenologists that an indi- 
vidual is endowed with special abilities, and 
shows that a child may be born with general 
ability which can be directed to special ends 
(Godwin's political work was soon forgotten, and 
his educational writings, though full of sound 
common-sense views and sympathy, did not 
exercise* any marked influence 
References : 

J)i(tionnry of National Biography 

HAZLITT, W The Spirit of the Age, pp 27-54 (Lon- 
don, 1S25) 

RLUAN, C K William Godwin, htx Friends and Con- 
temporaries (London, 1876 ) 

STEPHEN, SIK LESLIE Hours in a Library, Vol III, 
pp 04 100 (London, 1892) 

GOETHE, JOHANN WOLFGANG (1749- 
1832) Although Goethe has not formu- 
lated any connected system of education, his 
works contain some of the deepest and most 
fruitful pedagogic thoughts His interest in 
education was early aroused through the woiks 
of Hasedow and Rousseau, in Weimai he di- 
rected the education of the son of Frau von 
Stem, a young man of rather mediocie talents, 
whom Schillei, however, pronounced a " peda- 
gogic masterpiece", and, as a minister, he 
exerted a great influence on the educational 
affairs of the duchy of Weimar Above all, 
Goethe studied the development of his own 
mind, striving to laise himself to higher and 
higher levels This conscious process of self- 
education, coupled with the poet's profound in- 
sight into human life, invests Goethe's ideas on 
education with a great interest and significance 
Goethe realizes the necessity of education, al- 
though he believes that the educatoi cannot 
put anything into the mind which is not aheady 
there by nature The method of education 
must be self-activity, education must be posi- 
tive and not repressive, education through 
feai is the worst of all 

The object of education, according to Goethe, 
is the development, from within, of all the 
powers of the human mind, so as to produce an 
harmonious personality which will be active 
in the service of society This social view of 
education finds expression in the description 
of the " pedagogic province " of his novel 
Wilheltn M cistci ' Wander jahrc In this prov- 
ince, which forms a small state in itself, and 
from which all unpedagogic influences are care- 
fully excluded, boys are educated in common, 
each for that kind of occupation for which he 
seems to show the greatest aptitude Then- 
education is thoroughly practical, and is per- 
meated by an ethical spirit to which Goethe 
gives the name of " reveience " Thiee kinds 
of reverence aie inculcated: for that which is 
above us, that which is around us, and that 



120 



which is beneath us, in other words, for God, 
Humanity, arid Nature From these three 
reverences springs the highest, which is self- 
reverence These ethical teachings are em- 
bodied in appropriate symbols and transmitted 
by song F. M. 

References : 

LANUOUTH, A Goethe alt, Padayvg (Halle, 1886 ) 
MUNZ, B Goethe cdt> Krzicher (Leipzig, 1904 ) 
OLDENBLWJ, A Grundhnien der Padafjogik Goethes. 

(Zittau, 1858 ) 
REIN'S Encyklopadischct* Handbuch, sv Goethe a/ 

Padayoy 
SPALDING, J L Opportunity and Other Essays, pp 142- 

189 (Chicago, 1900) 
VENABLE, W H Let Him First be a Man, pp 195-212 

(Boston, 1894 ) 

GOLDEN SECTION. When a spacial 
figure is so divided that it obeys the formula 

the longest side is to the shortest side as the 
sum of the two sides is to the longest side, 
the division is especially pleasing to the ob- 
server and is designated the golden section 
This formula is obeyed by oinamental crosses, 
by books and pictures, to such an extent that it 
is evident that the relation is common and nat- 
ural to oven untrained individuals The ex- 
planation of the satisfactory chaiactei of this 
division is not easy to give Such a division 
departs from absolute symmetry enough to give 
variety, and it is near enough to symmetry so 
that neither dimension is extiavagantly different 
from the other C H J. 

See ESTHETICS 

Reference : 

FECHNER, G T Zur experimcntalen Aesthetik (Leip- 
zig, 1871 ) 

GOLDSMITH, OLIVER (1728-1774) 

The English poet and writer has left among his 
wiitmgs some excellent descriptions of the life 
of an assistant 01 usher and a criticism of the 
education of his day As a boy he had been 
moved about fiom school to school with but 
little intellectual profit from any of them It is 
supposed that it is the master of the second 
school which he attended, Thomas Byrne, a 
retired soldier, who is the prototype of the 
Village Schoolmaster in the Deserted Village: 

"And still they gazed and still the wonder grew 
That one small head could carry all he knew " 

As a student he was at Trinity College, Dublin, 
at Edinburgh, and at Louvam For a time he 
assisted in a school kept by his brother, served 
as private tutor in Ireland, and was usher at 
Pcckham Academy, so that his account of the 
humiliating position of the usher is based pos- 
sibly on first-hand experience It is in the same 
essay that he criticizes the declamatory style 
of educational writings and asks for a more 
scientific manner of presentation and for 
44 didactic simplicity " (loldsmith attacks the 
numerous private boai ding schools of the period. 
"Is any man unfit for any of the professions, 



GOLDTHWAITE 



GOODRIOH 



he finds his last lesource in .setting up school," 
with no small profit to himself The state 
should interfere and at least " cast its eye to 
their instructors," a suggestion which still 
remains to be put into effect in England 
Better salaries are required to secure 1 abler men 
for the teaching profession The public schools 
are superior to private schools, for " it is riot 
from their masters, but from their equals youth 
learn a knowledge of the world " Tempeiance 
and frugality, qualities which (ioldsrimh had 
negatively discovered to be desirable, should 
be taught m school, and moial tales should be 
introduced (loldsmith fuither attacks the 
teaching of rhetoric and elocution, where con- 
viction and a knowledge of the subject and 
language are of greatei value He was also 
opposed to the encyclopedic curriculum of his 
day, by which " the child soon becomes a talker 
in all and a master in none " Clearly some- 
thing of " soft pedagogy " was already creeping 
into the schools, for Goldsmith mentions the 
futility of teaching language through textbooks 
with text on one side and literal translation on 
the other Further, he says, " attempting to 
deceive children into instruction is only 

deceiving ourselves, and I know no passion 
capable of conquering a child's natural laziness 
but fear" In another work (Present State of 
Polite Learning) the author discusses the rel- 
ative merits of travel and study in college, and 
decides m favor of the lattei for the young man 
The universities lie divides into three groups 
those which retain the scholastic tradition, 
Prague, Louvam, and Padua, those which do 
not prescribe the length of residence for a degree 
nor control the students, Edmbuigh, Gottin- 
gen, Leyden, Geneva, and those which have a 
prescribed period of study and some control, 
Oxford, Cambudge, and Dublin Dealing with 
the general characteristics of the universities 
he controverts the belief that they are places 
to advance learning, for " new improvements in 
learning are seldom adopted in colleges until 
admitted everywhere else And this is right, 
we should always be cautious of teaching the 
rising generation uncertainties foi truth " And 
lastly this modern touch may be added, 
" Learning is most advanced m populous cities, 
where chance often conspires with industry to 
promote it " 

References : 

BAKNARD, H American Journal of Education, Vol 

XIII, pp 347-358 

BLACK, W Goldsmith (London, 1883 ) 
DOBHON, A Life of Olive? Goldsmith (London, 1888 ) 
IRVING, WASHINGTON Oliver Goklxmdh 

GOLDTHWAITE, WILLIAM C (1816- 
1882). Educational author, educated m the 
public schools of Massachusetts and at Amherst 
College He was engaged m secondary school 
work in Virginia and New Jerscv for a number 
of vears and was principal of the academy at 
Westfield, Mass , from 1844 to 1868 He was 



one of the founders and editors of the A/Vz,s- 
bachusett* Teacher, and the aulhoi of geograph- 
ical textbooks W S M. 

GOLIARDS The name of a class of wan- 
dering students of the middle ages They were 
drawn from the clerical orders and consisted 
of those who had no cure or office The term 
is derived, according to Wnght, from quid, and 
refers to their gluttonous and intemperate 
habits They wandered from univeisity to 
univerMty as hangers-on of the higher clergy, 
01 fiom one couit to another, and led a riotous 
existence, living geneially fiorn hand to mouth 
The bond which bound those who adopted this 
form of life together into a sort of fraternity 
was adherence to a mythical patron, Gohas or 
Golias the Bishop, refeired to also as primas 
and archipoeta In his name and m his honor 
were perpetrated all the vices and pleasures 
which \\ere incidental to a tramp life To him 
were dedicated all the songs and literature which 
originated with this class, and under his patron- 
age were made all the attacks against- ecclesi- 
astical authority and e\eiythmg that was con- 
sidered sacred, as, foi example, the Apocalypse 
(rolioe, a parody on the Apocalypse of St. John 
The songs have been collected and published 
under the title of Cannina Burana (q v ) 

See BACCHANTS 

References : 

BARNARD. American Journal of Education, Vol V, pp. 

6(M f 
GIKSEBRECHT, W Die Vagantcn und Gohardcn und ihre 

Liedcr (Berlin, 1853 ) 
LAIHTNER, L GWms Studtn1(nlihr dtt, Mittclalters 

(Stuttgart, 1S7<) ) 

MONROE, P Thoma* Plaitir (Now Yoik, 1904 ) 
SCHULZE, F , and SSYMANK, P Dat> drutsihe Studcnten- 

turn von denaltesten Ztttcn bis zur Gtyinwart (Leip- 
zig, 1910 ) 
SYMONDS, J A Wme t Women, and tiong (Portland, 

Mo , 1HG9 ) 
WRKJHT, T Latin Poems commonly attributed to Walter 

Mapes (London, 1841 ) 

GONZAGA COLLEGE, SPOKANE, WASH. 

Sec JP:SUS, SOCIETY OF EDUCATIONAL WORK 
OF 

GONZAGA COLLEGE, WASHINGTON, 

DC See JESUS, SOCIETY OF EDUCATIONAL 
WORK OF 

GOODNOW, ISAAC T (1814-1891) 
A pioneer of the common-school movement in 
Kansas , was educated at the Wesleyan academy 
at Wilbraham, Mass , and was engaged m second- 
ary school work first in Massachusetts, Maine, 
and Rhode Island, and later in Kansas. He 
was president of Bluemont College from 1856 to 
1863 and state superintendent of Kansas from 
J863 to 1807 W. S. M. 

GOODRICH, CHAUNCEY ALLEN (1790- 
1800) Lexicographei ; graduated from Yale 
College in 1810 lie was tutor at Yale from 
1S12 to 1814 and professor from 1817 to 1839. 



121 



GOODRICH, SAMUEL GRISWOLD 



GOTHA 



He was the authoi of seveial Greek and Latin 
textbooks, edited the Qnartcili/ Sfwtutoi, and 
brought out, numerous revised editions of the 
dictionary of his father-in-law, Noah Webster 
(q.v.). W. S.M. 

GOODRICH, SAMUEL GRISWOLD (1793- 
1860) - Author of the Peter Parley books, 
published eighty-four textbooks and reading 
books for children His textbooks include, 
besides readers and primers, histories, geog- 
raphies, spelling books, and science books 

W. S. M. 

GORDON, ROBERT (1668- 1731) Founder 
of Robert Gordon's College, an institution for 
the education of boys in Aberdeen, Scotland; 
was born in 1668 and died m 1731 For many 
years he carried on business as a merchant in 
Dantzig and amassed considerable wealth. 
On his death, he let! his fortune in trust to the 
magistrates and ministers of Aberdeen for " the 
building of an Hospital and for the maintenance 
and education of boys whose parents are poor 
and indigent and not able to maintain them at 
school, and to put them to trades and employ- 
ments " The erection of the Hospital build- 
ings was begun soon after the testator's death, 
but it was not until 1750 that the school was 
formally opened with fourteen boys, under the 
mastership of a Robert Abercrombie, minister 
at Fortdee From its foundation down to 1881, 
the institution was conducted on the basis of the 
original foundation as a hospital or boarding 
school for the sons of indigent burgesses In 
the latter year, acting under powers conferred 
by the Endowed Institutions (Scotland Act), 
it was agreed to convert the Hospital School 
into a college or day school in which the chief 
subjects of instruction should be the English 
language and literature, history and geography, 
modern languages, mathematics, and the ele- 
ments of physical and natural science. Pro- 
vision was also made for the establishment of 
evening classes for youths and adults The in- 
stitution was hereafter designated as " Robert 
Gordon's College in Aberdeen " Quite recently, 
in 1910, the Constitution of the College has 
again been changed, and, in the future, Robert 
Gordon's College will become an integral part 
of the Aberdeen and North of Scotland Techni- 
cal College, an institution designed to provide 
higher technical education for the North of 
Scotland, similar to that provided in the Glas- 
gow and West of Scotland Technical College 
and m the Edinburgh Heriot-Watt Technical 
College A D. 

Reference : 

ANDEHHON, ROBERT The History of Robert Gordon 
Hospital (1729-1881). (Aberdeen, 1896.) 



GORDON COMPREHENSIVE METHOD 

See READING 



GORDY, J P (1851-1908) Educational 
writer and professor, educated in the western 
University of Pennsylvania arid the University 
of Leipzig He was professor of the history of 
education in the Ohio State University (1886- 
1900) and New York University (1901-1908) 
Author of Growth and Development of the 
Normal School Idea in the United States; 
Education in the Elementary School; and Text- 
booh on Psychology W S M 

GORHAM, JOHN (1793-1829) Author 
of textbooks m chemistry and physics; was edu- 
cated at Harvard College and the University 
of Edinburgh and was professor at Harvard. 

W S M. 

GOTHA, SCHOOL REFORM IN The 

small state of Saxe-Gotha, situated almost in the 
center of Germany, holds a position in the his- 
tory of education which is almost unique The 
earliest record of a school in the duchy is in 
1299 when reference is made to a school in con- 
nection with the church in the town of Gotha 
In 1327 two schools are mentioned, and a few 
years later a school of girls is referred to Con- 
siderable activity was shown during the peiiod 
of the Reformation Myconms, a friend of 
Luther, became pastor and superintendent in 
Gotha m 1524 Influenced by Luther's Letters 
to Councilors and the Letters to Pastors, My- 
conms attempted to introduce some form of 
elementary education The elements of a sys- 
tem arc found in the instruction in reading 
which the pastors and sextons were ordered to 
give on Sundays This lasted until the Thirty 
Years' War, when the small duchy was reduced 
to poverty and chaos like so many of her neigh- 
bors But from this state of depression Gotha 
was raised through the efforts of a ruler whose 
interest m the welfare and education of his 
people placed him in the forefront With a 
firm belief in education imbibed from his mother, 
Dorothea Maria, pupil and patron of Ratkc 
(qv\ Duke Ernest the Pious recognized that 
this was the only means for the regeneration of 
his country Already in 1640 he ordered a 
school and church visitation to gather informa- 
tion as a basis for further action He himself 
made some visits personally For the reform 
of schools and the establishment of a system 
of education he summoned to his aid Andreas 
Reyher (q v ) who had been a member of the 
philosophical faculty at Leipzig, rector of a 
gymnasium, and author of several school texts 
Reyher was appointed rector of the gymnasium 
at Gotha in 1640 lie was abreast of the best 
educational thought of his day, and was ac- 
quainted with the work of Alsted, Ratke. and 
Comemus (q v.) The Duke commissioned him 
to draw up a Methodus docendi primarily for 
lower forms of the gymnasium, but useful also 
for other schools of the state The result was 
the Schulmethodus (School Method or Special 
and particular report, stating how, under the 



122 



GOTHA 



GOTHENBURG 



protection of the Lord, the boys and girls of 
villages , and the children belonging to the lower 
class of the population of towns, of this princi- 
pality of Gotha can and shall be plainly and suc- 
cessfully taught. Written by the order of his 
Grace the Prince and printed in Gotha by Peter 
Schmieden in the year 1642) This work, which 
was carefully revised by the Duke, appeared 
in 1642 and again in 1648, 1658, 1662, and 1672 
Attendance at school was made compulsory 
on pain of a hue not only for absence but for 
tardiness The teachers were ordered to be 
humane, and to avoid abuse and seventy A 
fully prescribed time-table was issued The 
chief stress was laid on religious instruction, and 
the teachers were to avoid mere memory drill 
Writing, spelling, reading, and arithmetic be- 
came regular subjects for the elementary school 
The most remarkable addition was the study of 
natural and other useful sciences, including 
mensuration and surveying for boys, natural 
phenomena, geography, zoology, information 
was to be given on all natural objects in 
the neighborhood " Everything that can be 
shown to children should be shown " The 
oldest children were to be taught civics, some- 
thing, about the government of the state and 
the importance of education. An annual ex- 
amination was to be held at which the super- 
intendent was to examine the records of the 
previous year and compare with the progress 
made at the time of the examination 

Twenty model schools were established, new 
inspectors were appointed, better teachers were 
secured, textbooks were written and distrib- 
uted gratis to school children Among the 
textbooks which were written by Reyher may 
be mentioned the Deutsch ABC- und Syllaben- 
buchlein fur die Kinder tm Furstenthumb Gotha 
( The German Hornbook and Speller for Children 
in the Principality of Gotha) 1641, Teutsche 
Lesebuchlein (German Header) 1642; Arithme- 
tics, and in 1 ().">() the Kuitzer Unterncht (Short 
Instruction in natmal objects, ui some useful 
sciences, in ecclesiastical and secular institutions 
of the country and in som,e domestic rescripts) 
For the training of children in manners a Short 
instruction on the behavior of children was pub- 
lished in 1654 on conduct of children on rising, 
dressing, at meals, at school and church, at 
play, and among strangers The teachers were 
advised to study by themselves or with pastors 
and inspectors Their salaries were raised, 
a sick fund was established, and some provision 
was made for the maintenance of teachers' 
widows and orphans Although he realized 
the importance of training teachers, Duke Ernest 
could only charge his successors with the duty, 
since his own means would not permit the estab- 
lishment of a system in his own day 

But reforms were not confined to the ele- 
mentary schools alone Under Reyher the 
gymnasium at Gotha gained a great reputation, 
and pupils were drawn from the noble classes 
from all parts of Europe The number of 



classes was increased, and special attention 
was paid to the preparation of the older schol- 
ars for the university. The Duke frequently 
visited the school and took a special interest in 
the conduct of the pupils Many of these 
proceeded to Jena, but, while the influence of 
the Duke was limited in this university, he 
issued a regulation in 1657 for those of his own 
subjects who attended there, dealing with the 
aim of studies, the means to tins end, and the 
distribution of time For the education of his 
own children, of whom he had eighteen, he drew 
up a rigorous regulation dealing with eveiy 
hour of the day 

But such a system could only last so long as 
he who inspired it lived The " Prince among 
educators and educator among Princes " died 
in 1675 and had already been preceded by his 
able assistant, Reyher, in 1673 Fiom that 
date until the middle of the last century the 
educational history of Gotha is one of con- 
tinued decline, due in some measure to the fact 
that the duchy was divided among the sons 
of Duke Ernest, and largely to the extnn a- 
gance of the petty rulers who spent the coun- 
try's wealth in cheap imitations of the Court of 
Versailles The decline was arrested for a brief 
period under Ernest the Wise ( 1772-1S04), who, 
assisted by Haun, inaugurated a reform of the 
decayed schools of the state, teacheis were 
trained, schools were inspected, luush discipline 
was stopped, the appointment of old servants 
to schools was checked, better methods of teach- 
ing were introduced by the issue in ISO I by 
Ilaun of The common school method u? or prac- 
tical instruction for inspectors and teacher* of 
every kind of elemental ij schools, also for pnvate 
teachers, illustrated by correct tables constructed 
by J. E. Christian Haun But the party of 
reaction again seized control on the death of 
Duke Ernest the Wise, and a real and lasting 
reform was not introduced until 1863, on the 
basis of which a system has been evolved which 
places the small duchy of Gotha among the 
leaders in the German educational system See 
ERNEST 1, THE PIOLS; ERNEST II 

References : 

BARNARD, H American Journal of Education, Vol XX. 

p 572 

SCRMID, K A Oeschichtc der Erziehung, Vol IV, Pt. 1, 

pp 1-74. (Stuttgart, 1884-1902) 

GOTHENBURG, UNIVERSITY OF, SWE- 
DEN An institution founded in 1SS7 and 
opened in 1891 as a result of municipal aid and 
private beneficence Lectures and courses had 
been organized in the town since 1841 under 
the auspices of the Royal Society for Science 
and Literature, and these had been subsidized 
by the municipal authorities since 1874 The 
university at present has only the faculty of 
arts Although it is not a state university, 
the professors at Gothenburg must be approved 
on appointment bv the King, and since 1909, 
when the institution received permission to 



123 



GOTTINGEN 



GOUCHKR COLLEGE 



conduct certain examinations, it has been 
placed under the authority of the Chancellor 
of the State Universities In 1910 there was 
an enrollment of 166 matriculated students and 
41 auditors 

Reference : 

Minerva, Handbuch der gelehrten Welt, Vol I (Strass- 
burg, 1911.) 

GOTTINGEN, THE ROYAL GEORGE 
AUGUSTUS UNIVERSITY OF Founded bv 
King George II of England, in his capacity 
as Elector of Hanover, the opening of the in- 
stitution being celebrated with great ceremony 
m 1737, although instruction had actually be- 
gun three years prior to this date The uni- 
versity forged to the front rapidly, and is to 
this day one of the most renowned of the (Jer- 
man institutions of higher learning, having 
attracted a large number of English and Ameri- 
can students, among the latter being Emerson, 
Longfellow, Bancroft, and Motley Benjamin 
Franklin paid a visit to the university as early 
as 1766, and was made a member of the Rovai 
Society of Science 

The university in its beginnings differed 
from those established during the second half 
of the sixteenth and during the seventeenth 
century in that the theological (Protestant) 
faculty was not emphasized to the detriment 
of the others, the healthy early development 
of the institution being attributable in large 
measure to the excellent administration of the 
Hanoverian minister, Von Munchhausen (until 
1771) During the years of stoim and stress 
at the beginning of the nineteenth century, 
Gottmgen was included for six years in the 
Kingdom of Westphalia, but after the War of 
Liberation it was reunited to Hanovei, which 
had been raised to the rank of a kingdom A 
new era of prosperity was now ushered in, 
which unfortunately received a severe setback 
as a result of the dismissal in 1837 of seven of 
the most celebrated teachers of the university 
who had opposed the government in the con- 
stitutional conflict, the number including 
Jakob and Wilhclm Grimm and the historians 
Dahlmann and Gervinus In 1866 Gottmgen 
became a Prussian institution, but its loss of 
independence it had been the sole Hano- 
verian university was by no means accom- 
panied by a decline in efficiency, as the Prussian 
Ministry has always evinced a warm interest 
in the institution, which has been manifested 
in recent years by the erection of a number of 
splendid medical institutes 

The faculty of philosophy is by far the 
largest branch of the university, and includes 
the oldest philological seminar in Germany, as 
well as a picture gallery and a collection of 
engravings as adjuncts of the work in the his- 
tory of art The anatomical institute contains 
Blurnenbach's famous collection of skulls 
Considerable emphasis has been and is still 
laid at Gdttmgen upon the subject of mathe- 



124 



matics, while the departments of physics and 
physical chemistry are also widely known 
The university library, an important collection 
from the very first, contains over 550,000 
volumes and almost 7000 manuscripts, it being 
the largest university library m Germany. 
The university also contains a riding academy 
and a swimming pool A German institute for 
foreign students, the Bottmger Studienhaus, 
established by an Elberfeld merchant in 1909, 
was transferred to the university of Berlin (1911) 
The annual budget of the university amounts 
to about $400,000 The town is also the head- 
quarters of a famous "Royal Society of Science 
(Gc*ell*chaft der WisscnKrhaften 1751, 1893), 
and contains a professional school for Feinme- 
chanik 

In addition to the scholars referred to above, 
mention may be made of Albrecht von Haller 
in science, Heyne in philology, Wilhelm Weber 
in physics, Wohler m chemistry, Gauss in 
mathematics, Curtius, Waitz, arid Roscher in 
history, Jhermg and Planck in jurisprudence, 
and more recently Montz Heyrie in Germanic 
philology llemnch Heine was a student at 
Gottmgen from 1820 to 1821, Bismarck from 
1832 to 1833 

During the winter semester of 1909-1910 
Gottmgen ranked seventh in point of attend- 
ance among the German universities, enrolling 
2342 students (217 women), of whom 112 (57 
women) were auditors As at a number of 
other German uruveisitics, there are more 
students (1419) enrolled in the faculty of 
philosophy than in all of the others combined, 
including the great majority of matriculated 
women The law faculty, which enjoys a high 
reputation, also has a large attendance (432), 
the school of medicine attracting 262 students 
and that of theology 117 In the winter 
semester of 1910 there weie 2233 students m 
attendance R T , Jr. 

References : 

Chronik der Gt'org-Auguatw-Unwcrsitttt fur 1889-1890 

Mil Ruckbhcken auffruhere Jahrzehntf (Gottmgen, 

1S C H) ) Continued annually 
Minerva, Handbuch der geluhrtin Welt, Vol I (Strass- 

burg, 1911) 
PUTTER, J ST Versuch euier akademiSLhen (JeUhrtcn- 

Geschichte von der G cor g- August us- Universittit zu 

Gottmgen (GottmRcn, 1705-1838) 
ROSSLER, E F Die Grdndungder Unwersitdt Gottmgen 

(Gottmgen, 1855 ) 

GOUCHER COLLEGE, BALTIMORE, MD. 

An institution for the higher education of 
women, founded in 1X84 by the Baltimore 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
as the Woman's College of Baltimore The 
college was opened in 1888 The present name 
was adopted in 1910 The entrance require- 
ments are fifteen units of high school work, 
and the A B degree is conferred at the end of 
a four-years course, consisting of certain re- 
quired and elective subjects, with a major in 
one department. In cooperation with Johns 



GOUGE 



GRADE MEETINGS 



Hopkins University a College Course for 
Teachers is conducted by the faculties of both 
institutions, women students satisfying the 
requirements of these courses are admitted to 
the A B. degree of Goucher College The 
number of students enrolled in 1909-1910 was 
367. There were thirty-three members on the 
instructing staff 

GOUGE, THOMAS (1609-1681) Dis- 
senting minister and philanthropist, educated 
at Eton and Cambridge Until the Uniformity 
Act of 1662 he held a living in London, in 
which he conducted catechetical classes and 
employed the poor in spinning flax and hemp, 
a type of poor relief taken up on a wide scale 
by Ins friend Firmin (q v ) Gouge's most 
important work, however, was the evangeli- 
zation of Wales, which he undertook in 1672 
He established schools, and employed teachers 
to give instruction in English and the catechism 
Ultimately about three hundred schools were 
established In addition he also distributed, 
mainly at his own expense, religious literature 
In 1674 a trust for this purpose was estab- 
lished, including eminent churchmen and dis- 
sen^ers, and the Bible, Book of Common 
Prayer, Church Catechism, and other woiks 
were made accessible to the Welsh either 
through free distribution 01 at a very low 
price So far as Gouge's schools are concerned, 
it would seem from Strype's evidence that 
they continued aftei his death until the 
Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowl- 
edge (q v ) became active in Wales (1730) 
Gouge, piobably through the influence of 
Firmin, a governor of the institution, also 
devoted himself to catechizing the scholars of 
Christ's Hospital 

See CHARITY SCHOOLS 

References 

Dictionary of \ational Biography 

MUNTMOHLNC v, .1 E G dr State Intervention in Eng- 
lish Education (Cambridge, 1902) 

GOULD, BENJAMIN APTHORP (1787- 
1859) The author of a series of Latin text- 
books, was educated at Harvard and was 
headinastei of the Boston Latin School from 
1814 to 1829 W 8 M 

GOVERNMENT AID See ENGLAND, 
EDUCATION IN; NATIONAL GOVERNMENT AND 
EDUCATION 

GOVERNMENT OF CHILDREN See 
REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS; SCHOOL MANAGE- 
MENT. 

GOVERNMENT, SCHOOL See SCHOOL 
MANAGEMENT 

GOVERNMENT, SELF, IN SCHOOL. 

See SELF-GOVERNMENT OF PUPILS; SCHOOL 

MANAGEMENT. 



GOVERNMENTAL PUBLICATIONS ON 
EDUCATION. See OFFICIAL PUHLICVTIONS, 
and articles on National Systems of Education 

GOVERNORS, BOARDS OF See HOARDS 
OF CONTROL 

GOWNS See ACADEMIC COSTUME 

GRACE A term which originally meant a 
dispensation granted by a university or some 
faculty in it from the " elaborate and compli- 
cated regulations " required fiom candidates 
for degrees In the early period few candi- 
dates required " graces," but by the fifteenth 
century the " grace " was asked for as a icgu- 
lar practice At Oxford it was granted by the 
Congregation of Regents Conditions were 
frequently imposed on the gi anting of graces 
involving the performance of some action or a 
contribution for some purpose, charitable or 
otherwise Later a grace came to mean anv 
decree of a university which involved a dispen- 
sation from statutory requirements The term 
is still used in this sense of decrees of the 
Senate at Cambridge A further use of the 
word is with reference to the permission given 
by a college or hall for one of its members to 
take a degree 

References : 

RASHDALL, II Universities of Europe in the Middle 

Agt* (Oxford, 1895) 
WELLH, J The Oxford Degree Ceremony (Oxford, 

1U06) 

GRACELAND COLLEGE, LAMONI, IA 

A coeducational institution opened in 1S95 
under the auspices of the Reorganized Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Prepuia- 
tory, collegiate, normal, commercial, music, and 
oratory departments are maintained An in- 
dustrial department is provided to enable 
students to defray part of their expenses 
The entrance requirements are equivalent to 
twelve units of high school work The degrees 
of A B and B S are confericd on completion 
of the requnements There is a faculty of thir- 
teen members 

GRADATION, GRADES, GRADED 
SCHOOLS. See GRADING AND PROMOTION 

GRADE GROUP PLAN See GRADING 
AND PROMOTION 

GRADE MEETINGS Teachers in service 
are given instruction through teachers' meet- 
ings variously composed When the basis of 
determining the attendance is the grade or 
grades taught by the teachers, the name 
" grade meeting " is applied Thus, there are 
first grade meetings, third and fourth grade 
meetings, or grammar grade meetings. H S 

See SUPERVISION OF TEACHING; TEACHERS IN 
SERVICE, TRAINING OF. 



125 



GRADING AND PROMOTION 



GRADING AND PROMOTION 



GRADING AND PROMOTION As 

school systems become organized, the neces- 
sity of teaching children in groups composed 
of those of substantially equal attainments 
produces the graded system or graded school 
An ideal system of grades presupposes that 
all the children in a given group shall be about 
the same age and of equal capacity for school 
work A system of grading or classification or 
grouping by classes begins with the entrance 
into school of a large number of children not 
yet trained in school subjects Those who 
advance regularly through a course of study 
have their progress marked at certain intervals 
by promotion, which is essentially a stage when 
reclassification seems desirable Naturally the 
course of study is the foundation of grading 
This program of work and of standards to be 
reached indicates divisions appropriate to each 
year or other interval The course of study 
may be so framed at any given stage as to be 
capable of mastery by a large or small propor- 
tion of the children It may lay stress on 
formal elements of subjects in which special 
details may be placed at a premium, thus 
resulting in the failure of a considerable num- 
ber of ungifted children 

At any stage the object of a system of grad- 
ing is to produce groups or classes that are 
fairly homogeneous as regards attainments at 
the moment, and also capacity to make a cer- 
tain rate of progress throughout the course of 
study as organized Grading and promotion 
thus come to be focusing points of a variety 
of problems growing out of the teaching of 
children in groups Mechanization of school 
work first expresses itself in an inflexibility of 
grading and in a rigidity of promotion from 
one stage to another in the course of study 

The first fact to be noted is that the homo- 
geneousness of any group of children can be 
approximate only Children of the same age 
not only differ among themselves as regards 
attainments in general, but also vary largely 
according to the particular type of attainment 
considered, for example, of two children A 
may be inferior to B in arithmetic, but superior 
to B in music Furthermore, children of sub- 
stantially equal attainments at a given time 
may differ considerably as regards their rate 
of learning the subject matter The rate 
commonly employed in practice is that which 
has been determined by experience as one 
suitable to a majority of normal children 
Manifestly such a rate must fail to take account 
of individuals who differ considerably from the 
normal In general, consideration of the 
individual pupil tends to produce criticism of 
the graded system, because in any such sys- 
tem it will be found that not only are numerous 
individuals quite unsuited to its requirements, 
but that every individual at some point loses 
in opportunities because of the system em- 
ployed. On the other hand it must be recog- 
nized that a system of grading is a necessary 



126 



of economy wherever children must 
be dealt with in large numbers 

Starting with the assumption that some 
system of grading is necessary and that the 
end of a system of grading is to produce 
groups so homogeneous as to make the maxi- 
mum progress of all the individuals composing 
the group possible, the various attempts to 
modify the effects of its too great mechaniza- 
tion may be discussed If, from a large num- 
ber of children, there be removed the com- 
paratively small number of individuals who 
vaiy greatly from the normal, there is a system 
of grading and promotion supplemented by the 
existence of special classes (q v ), into which 
might be put those who by reason of excessive 
age are ill adapted to given grades, or those 
who, having deficient sense organs or being 
weak mentally, are manifestly incapable of 
keeping pace with any group of normal chil- 
dren This removes from the grades the 
strongly marked variant cases, and gives the 
teacher opportunity to devote her efforts to a 
class more nearly homogeneous Similarly 
such pupils as may retard the work of a class 
through increasing the difficulties of discipline 
may be put into special disciplinary classes (q v ) 

Even among fairly normal children it is 
found that not all can make the same rate of 
progress Where a pupil is so obviously unable 
to maintain progiess in his grade, without 
being in any sense defective, he may be trans- 
ferred to a grade lower than his own (See 
DEMOTION ) A system of grading has been 
devised whereby groups shall proceed, as it 
were, along paiallel lines This is sometimes 
known as the Cambridge system, and may be 
so systematized that a given course of study 
shall be completed in respectively seven, eight, 
or nine years, so fai as given individuals are 
concerned Fully carried out, this system not 
only provides for pupils who are persistently 
unequal in their ability to make progress, but 
also for those who at one stage of their school 
career may proceed rapidly and at another 
slowly In large schools it is possible to still 
further extend the principle involved in the 
Cambridge system. Under close oversight of 
principal and teacher, pupils may be formed 
into groups as nearly homogeneous as possible, 
and the rate of progress may then be deter- 
mined without reference to any fixed program, 
but with reference solely to the capacity of the 
group The system has been made so elastic 
that individuals may be frequently shifted 
from one group to the other, according as they 
manifest capacity to proceed more rapidly or 
to require more time. This is sometimes 
referred to as the group system, and provides 
the maximum degree of elasticity in this 
direction. In a few instances it has been 
carried so far as to allow for a measurable 
shifting of pupils from group to group accord- 
ing as different subjects are being taken, but 
this requires extremely close supervision, and is 



GRADING AND PROMOTION 



GRADING AND PROMOTION 



possible only in a school of very large size 
Such classification or grading pupils by sub- 
jects is an arrangement which is more possible 
in schools with the departmental system (q v ) 
than in others Not only is such a system an 
element in flexible grading, but in the later 
years it makes articulation with the high school 
possible 

Flexibility of grading is sometimes attained 
by varying the demands made upon pupils for 
amount of acquisition in any given grade 
This takes several forms The class may be 
carried over a given section of the course of 
study at such a rate as to allow the more 
capable pupils to meet all the requirements, 
but the less capable to require a review The 
first group may then be promoted, or, more 
commonly, may take additional work in the 
ground covered, while those less capable are 
acquiring necessary proficiency in the essential 
subjects A more extended form is found 
where two groups of pupils are carried along 
side by side, the one containing the more 
capable, the other the less, the latter being 
required to take only the minimum amount of 
work and to reach the minimum standard 
required for promotion, while the former takes 
an enriched course of study, not necessarily 
advancing them in the essential branches Both 
divisions are expected to cover substantially 
the same ground in the subjects essential to 
promotion A further modification of this 
plan rests on a differentiation of teaching It 
is sometimes known as the Batavia plan (q v ), 
involving two teachers in a room, the first of 
whom gives mainly class instruction, while the 
second coaches individuals who need additional 
assistance in order to make the required rate 
of progress A plan which is very similar is 
the division of a class into two groups, each 
alternately receiving the attention of the 
teacher, so that while one group is studying, 
the other is reciting (See ALTERNATING SYS- 
TEM ) 

All these systems are yet more or less in the 
experimental stage, and some of them involve 
administrative difficulties which can be met 
only in exceptional situations. It is evident, 
however, that all of them constitute important 
attempts to produce a system, which, while 
utilizing the economies and efficiency that 
result from a training of children in homo- 
geneous groups, shall nevertheless have due 
regard to the individual in respect to those 
points at which his interest demands some 
variation from the standards imposed upqn the 
group 

It should be noted that a few educators 
believe that a radically different system of 
grouping children may eventually prove more 
satisfactory. Instead of a homogeneous group, 
the late Professor Jackman of Chicago Univer- 
sity believed that a group heterogeneous so 
far as the years and attainments of individuals 
were concerned could yet be formed into an 



organic umtv which would result in the maxi- 
mum opportunities for progress of the individ- 
uals composing it From his point of view a 
system of training based laigely on activities 
would find in a given group old and younp; 
children, some bright and some dull, but each 
carrying on learning activities m conjunction 
with others in such a way as to finally attain 
a maximum result This system of classifica- 
tion would naturally require the elaboration of 
pedagogical theories which are yet very hypo- 
thetical 

The passage from one grade to another in a 
systematized course of study is commonly 
called promotion The failure of a child to 
pass this stage gives the phenomenon of retar- 
dation (q v ), which is by some assumed to be 
an index of the efficiency of the results of 
teaching In the search for incentives among 
school children, promotion and non-promotion 
are often utilized as sources of motive The 
fear of non-promotion among some children 
can be the most powerful incentive to exertion, 
while with others who are inclined to be mis- 
chievous it may serve as an excellent deterrent 
to insure good conduct At certain stages in 
the educational career of youths where promo- 
tion means advancement into other types of 
schools or into other types of opportunity, the 
event becomes comparable in its importance to 
the ceremony of initiation in primitive life 
The ability of the German boy to pass the im- 
perial examination, which entitles him to ex- 
emption from compulsory military service and 
barrack life, becomes an important factor in the 
social standing of the vouth and his family 

Tests for promotion from one grade to an- 
other become important features not only in 
the administration of schools, but m deter- 
mining fundamental characteristics in the 
course of study itself A highlv mechanical 
system tends to introduce external examina- 
tions as a basis for promotion and graduation 
A system in which the teachers must be 
stimulated by external aids makes free use of 
written examinations These developments 
were best exemplified in the English practice 
during the period of the so-called " payment 
by results " plan and in American cities dur- 
ing the period from 1870 to 1895 Even 
slight consideration will show that a system 
of written examinations will test certain forms 
of learning only, and will quite fail to test 
others Where written examinations prevail, 
subjects susceptible to this form of test will 
be at a premium Present American practice, 
however, tends not only toward flexible grad- 
ing, but toward flexibility in the conditions 
for promotion The teacher's judgment of the 
pupil's ability to proceed enters as a factor, as 
do also formal records made of a term's work. 
(See EXAMINATIONS ) 

In secondary school* there is an increasing 
tendency to guide the pupil on his ability in 
an individual subject rather than in all subjects 



127 



GRADING AND PROMOTION 

taken together Promotion by subject then 
comes to be the nile, and graduation is possible 
when a definite number of units have been 
reached 

The future development of grading and pro- 
motion will rest more largely than in the past 
on a study of the needs and possibilities of 
children. The study of letaidation (qv) is 
serving to analyze the causes of the non- 
promotion of children Some of these causes 
are found in the course of study itself, some 
in matters like illness and irregular attendance, 
over which the school may have little contiol, 
and some in a failure to reach the individual 
as far as possible by more scientific grading 
It is possible that future developments will 
show that certain of the subjects recognized in 
a course of study are of such a nature that 
definite stages of attainment or power not- 
only can, but must, be recognized as a basis of 
grouping, whereas other subjects have only a 
secondary bearing on the ability of the child 
to work in one group rather than in another 
Tins differentiation may indeed rest, to a cer- 
tain extent, on the social importance of the 
subjects For example, arithmetic is a subject 
lending itself easily to a graduated statement, 
and is also sufficiently important to be imposed 
as a condition of promotion Nature study, 
on the other hand, is not easily graded, and its 
importance may be such as to make it a 
matter of indifference whether the pupil has 
completed it or not when the question of pro- 
motion is being considered In some school 
systems a deliberate differentiation is now 
being made between " essential " and " addi- 
tional " subjects, the former only being con- 
sidered in connection with questions of pro- 
motion 

The operation of a flexible system of grading 
as described above will be affected by conclu- 
sions yet to be reached as to the number of 
different groups of pupils which a teacher in a 
given room may handle to advantage Prac- 
tice in many places now assumes that a grade 
to a room is the desirable condition It is 
not clear, however, but that a more effective 
mastery of the art of teaching might not 
enable a teacher to carry at least two different 
grades or groups along side by side, with the 
maximum advantage to all concerned D S 

See GRADING, HYGIENE OF, RETARDATION, 
ELIMINATION AND ACCELERATION OF PUPILS 

References : 

BAOLEY, W, O Classroom Management (New York, 

1907) 
DUTTON, S T , and SNEDDLN, I) Administration of 

Public Education in the United States (Now York, 

1908) 
GILBERT, C B The School and its Lift (New York, 

1901.) 
HOLMES, W H Plane of Classification in the Public 

Schools. Fed Sem , Vol XVIII, pp 475-522 
SEARCH, P W The Ideal School (New Yoik, 189S ) 
SHEARER, W T 7 V G dmu of School* (NowYoik, 

1898) 
United States Bureau of Kdueation THORNDIKE, K L , 



GRADING, HYGIENE OF 

The Elimination of Pupils front School Hullctin, 
No 4,11)07 WHTJL, K K Promotion and Kxamina- 
tionH in Graded Schools ('in of Inform, 1891 
Reports of th<> Cninnnwoner, 1S01 1892, pp 303-356, 
1808-1899, pp 601 fl36 

GRADING BY PROMOTION. See 

GRADING AND PROMOTION 

GRADING, FLEXIBLE See GRADING 
AND PROMOTION 

GRADING, HYGIENE OF Modem in- 
vestigations have revolutionized the problem 
of grading With the older pedagogy it was a 
relatively simple thing to classify pupils merely 
according to their scholastic attainments 
Now manv other factors must he considered, 
physiological age, psychological age, abihtv 
to work and to resist fatigue, general physical 
condition, mental type as regards imagery, 
attention, and the like Hence to-dav the 
problem of gnuling is quite as much an hygienic 
as a pedagogical one 

Roberts, the English anthropologist, was one 
of the hrst to put special emphasis on the need 
of considering physical development in allot- 
ting pupils to the different grades lie made 
out a table giving the statures and weights of 
boys at different ages and the amount of time 
that should be allotted foi study and sleep 
and rest, and he maintained that age alone is 
not sufficient to determine a child's position in 
such a table, that u A child who is much below 
the mean height and weight of his age should 
be placed a year below, and one who is a good 
deal above the mean, especially if the weight 
be good, may be advanced a year above that 
which his actual age requires," and that the 
same principles should be considered in the 
grading of girls as in the grading of boys Dr 
Hrahn and others have maintained that chil- 
dren should be graded according to their 
ability to work and to resist fatigue Recently 
a demand for more than this has arisen The 
studies by (Hampton and others have shown 
the hygienic necessity of considering physio- 
logical age in all questions of grading and the 
like His study was based on investigations 
oi high school students, and his general con- 
clusion was that, " In future all our thought 
concerning the years nine to seventeen must be 
released fiom the idea of chronological age 
Statistics for groups or individuals respecting 
weight, height, strength, scholarship, mental 
oi physical endurance, medical or social con- 
ditions, that arc not referred to physiological 
age are inconsequential and misleading " 

Dr ('rampton'a investigations were based 
on actual physical examinations Sometimes 
under present conditions this is not practicable, 
and in lieu of this Mr Foster maintains that 
height is a good index of physiological age, 
and the investigations by Quirsfeld support 
this view Professor Rotch of Harvard strongly 
maintains that the appearance and ossification 



128 



GRADING, HYGIENE OF 



GRADING, HYGIENE OF 



of the cpiphyseH of the wrist and fingers are a 
trustworthy index of the general osseous devel- 
opment, and this in turn of general physio- 
logical development Hence he takes X-ray 
photographs of these bones, and determines 
physiological age from them He distinguishes 
chronological age, anatomical age, physiological 
age, and functional cerebral age, arid main- 
tains that the normal correspondence of all 
these ages should be the standard for giad- 
ing children, and that any other method of 
grouping is unpractical and illusive There 
is at present no consensus in regard to what 
is the best method of determining physiological 
age More studies of this problem are greatly 
needed 

Psychological age also must of course be 1 
considered But though tests of psychological 
ability and maturity have been advocated, 
none altogether satisfactory have yet been 
devised. The most important practical at- 
tempts have been in the use of mental tests, 
particularly the Bmet tests, for detecting cases 
of arrested mental development While idiots 
are not likely to be found in the public schools, 
imbeciles and feeble-minded of the higher 
grade, the so-called morons, are not infrequently 
found The importance of detecting such cases 
has been vividly shown by I)r (loddard, and 
further investigations and the perfection of 
such tests is greatly needed 

The public school must provide for three 
main classes of pupils, the normal child of 
good ability, including the supernormal, on 
the one hand, the defective children on the 
other, including those mentally and physically 
deficient, and between these two groups the 
laigc class of children who are more or less 
backward from various causes All these 
cases will be found discussed under the scpa- 
late titles as BACKWARD PUPILS; BLIND, 
rODiir \TION OF THE , ('RIPPLED CHILDREN, EDU- 
CATION OF THE, DE\F, EDUCATION OF THE, 
DEVF-BLIND, EDUCATION OK THE, DEFECTI\ES, 
SCHOOLS FOR, EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN, NER- 
\ous CHILDREN, EDUCATION OF, OPEN-AIR 
SCHOOL, RETARDATION AND ELIMINATION OF 
PUPILS, SPEECH DEFECTS, EDUCATIONAL TREAT- 
MENT OF, SPECIAL CLASSES, SUPERNORMAL 
CHILDREN, TURERCULOUS CHILDREN, EDUCA- 
TION OF, etc 

Many special plans have been adopted The 
plan which has received the widest attention, 
and which in a general way illustrates the 
principle upon which there is now a consensus, 
is the system of grading that has been used 
for many years in the schools of Mannheim in 
Germany The main features of it are as 
follows, there is the ordinary school course of 
eight years, and besides the course for defec- 
tives, H ilfiwch aim , such as are found in many 
Gorman cities, with a Tour years' couise, and 
between the ordinary course 4 and the //W/,v- 
vhulen a course of six veais which covois the 
same ground as the oidinary school course, 



but has to do less with details, has smaller 
classes, and specially equipped teachers Trans- 
fer from the shorter course to the fuller course 
or the reverse is easy at the end of each year 
(See GERMANY, EDUCATION IN ) There have 
been many criticisms of this Mannheim system; 
but some plan of this kind is obviously neces- 
sary, and such a system seems to come nearer 
than any other which has been tried to meet- 
ing the demands upon which there is a con- 
sensus This will not, however, solve the 
deeper problems of grading While, if the 
plan is carried out with the cooperation of a 
school physician, as Dr Moses maintains is 
always necessary, physical conditions will be 
regarded in the grading, nevertheless much 
more than this is desirable and some plan of 
grading that shall be based upon classification 
according to physiological age and ability sci- 
entifically determined must be devised 

While there is at present no consensus in 
regard to the methods of determining such 
development, the announcement of the prin- 
ciple is an important contribution Grading 
merely according to scholastic attainments and 
chronological age can no longer suffice Even 
pedagogical efficiency demands more than this 
From the point of view of hygiene it is impera- 
tive that both in the vertical and the horizontal 
grading regard should be had foi the physical 
condition and the stage of development 
Modern studies have shown that from a third 
to one half of the children in any school are 
likely to be physically defective or suffering 
from chrome disease Serious lesults are likely 
to follow when the \\eak and defective are 
required to do what the strong ought, to do 
Home of the noimal have much greater endur- 
ance than others, some of them belong to one 
mental type, others to different types, and 
besides all this theie are great individual dif- 
feiences If we are to make any pretense to 
scientific pedagogy, to say nothing of hygiene, 
we must consider these facts and have a 
thoroughly different plan of grading based upon 
physiological and psychological age as well as 
scholastic attainments W. H B. 

References : 

AYHEH, LEONARD P Layvardx in Our Kchooh (New 
Yoik, 1909) 

BHMIN, M Die Trcnnung der Schulei muh ihrcr LCIN- 
UmgHfahigkeit Zakihrift fur Sdmlycsundhnh- 
pfleui 1897, Nos 7 M \ pp -*H5 398 

CKAMPTON, C W The Influence of Physiologic al Age 
upon Scholarship Proc of the Ft,r\t, S(cond t and 
Thud Conyicwc^ of fhc American School Hygiene 
A Donation (Springfield, 1910) 

FEILCKK, F Zur Fragf der Organisation der Volks- 
schnle in Mannheim Zeit f Pad Ptjfchu , Patho- 
logic untlHt/aurn, 1902, pp 307 ,*41 

FOSTER, W L Physiological Age as a Basis for the 
Classification of Pupils Entering High Schools 
Relation of Pubescence to Height The Psycho- 
logical Clinic, May 15, 1910 Vol IV, No .*, 
pp S3 hS 

CJOUDMID, H If Two ThouH.md Noimal Children 
Measured l>v the Hinet Measuring Scale of Intclli-' 
gence Pid Sew , June, 1911, pp lM2-'2fi9 



VOL. Ill K 



129 



GRADUATE SCHOOLS 



GRADUATION 



HEYDNER, G Die Scheidung der Schiller nach ihrer 
Begabung Em Wort wider das Mannheimer Schul- 
system. (Nurnborg, 1904 ) 

JONES, W. F. An Experimental-Critical Study of the, 
Problem of Grading and Promotion The Psy- 
chological Clinic, May 15, 1911, Vol V, No 3, 
pp 63-96 

MAENNEL, B The Auxiliary School* of Germany Tr. 
by F B Dressier (Washington, 1907 ) 

QUIRSFELD, E. Zur physischon und geistigen Entwick- 
lung des Kindes wahrend der ersten Sehuljahre 
Internahonalcn KonyrtxN fur ftchulhygienr \ Dntter 
Band, pp 128-134 (Niimberg, April, 1904) 

ROTCH, T M Roentgen Ray Method Applied to the 
Grading of Karly Life Proc of the Fourth CVw- 
gresb of the American School Hf/gune Ansoc , March, 
1910, pp 1S4 206 

SICKINGER, A Organization grosser Volksschulkorper 
nach der riatUrhchen Leistungsfahigkeit der Kinder 
Jnteniatwnalen Kongrexs fur Schulhygiene, 1904, 
Vol I, pp 173-195 

TEWH, J Trennung der Schuler nach der Begabung 
Padagogische ZeUung, 1900, Vol XXIX, No 12, 
pp 190-194 

GRADUATE SCHOOLS, GRADUATE 
STUDY. - Sec UNIVERSITIES 

GRADUATE WORK A term commonly 
used in America to indicate work done in the 
combined university-college institutions beyond 
the bachelor's degree, in other words, univer- 
sity work as opposed to collegiate work 

See UNIVERSITIES, AMERICAN 

GRADUATION See COLLEGE, AMERICAN, 
section on length of College Course, COM- 
MENCEMENT, DEGREES, also GRADUATION, AGE 
OF; GRADING AND PROMOTION, UNIVERSITIES. 



GRADUATION, AGE OF, FROM AMERI- 
CAN COLLEGES. The question of age of 
graduation from college has constituted an 
important factor in the discussion of many 
college problems of the present. It has been 
popularly supposed that the age of graduation 
from colleges had gradually risen from genera- 
tion to generation, and that the typical college 
student of the present is more mature than in 
the past; consequently that the college course 
of the present together with its administration 
might and should be a very different thing 
from that of the past and that the relation of 
college course to secondary school on the one 
hand and to the professional school on the 
other should be determined altogether irre- 
spective of past conditions The further 
assumption was that such relationships were 
not so determined, and that existing problems 
(see Problems of the College, under COLLEGE, 
AMERICAN) were thus created. 

The accurate investigations into the facts do 
not reveal grounds for this general assumption 
On the contrary, while there is a certain con- 
flict of tendencies in different institutions, the 
slight preponderance of the tendency is toward 
a decrease of age rather than an increase 
The most extensive investigation made was 
that by Professor W S Thomas, in 1903, 
involving eleven institutions and more than 
20,000 students, and covering substantially the 
entire nineteenth century The actual results 
of this investigation shown by ten-year periods 
is given in the following table: 



MEDIAN AGES OF GRADUATION BY DECADES 





DARTMOUTH 


MlDDLLBURY 


BOWDOIN 


UNIVERSITY of 

V>RMONT 


ADELBEHT 




Age No 


Age 


No 


Age 


No 


Age 


No 


Age 


No 


1770-1779 


23- 78 


















1780-1789 .... 


23- 1 J50 


















1790-1799 


23- 2 


336 


















1800-1809 


22- 6 


.*9.< 


>2 jo 


76 














1810-1819 


22- 9 3-*n 


23- 1 


194 


20 4 


106 










1820-1824 . . 


23- 1 


328 


23- 


187 


20- 8 


258 


22-4 


59 






1830-1839 . ... 


22- 5 


381 


23- 4 


242 


21- 7 


289 


22-7 


80 


23- 


41 


1840-1849 


23- 1 


586 


22- 8 j 109 


21- 9 


356 


22-0 


184 


23- 2 


125 


1850-1859 . . 


24-8 558 


23- 3 | 121 


22- 1 


335 


22-4 


168 


23- 


98 


1860-1869 


23- 1 491 


23- 5 132 


22-10 


348 


22-6 


91 


22-10 


160 


1870-1879 . . . 


22-10 593 


23- 4 111 


22- 5 


321 


22-6 


9K 


22- 9 


217 


1880-1889 


22-10 


527 


22-11 


86 


2 8 303 


2'' -8 


108 


O J f \ 


>r:i 


1890-1899 . . . 


22- 9 


678 


23- 2 


125 


22- 7 , 481 


22-9 


215 


22- 9 


156 




UNIVERSITY 
OF ALABAMA 


NEW YORK 
UNIVERSITY 


WLSLEYAN 


OBERLIN 


DL PAUW 


SYRACUSE 




Age No 


Ago 


No 


Age 


No 


Ago 


No 


Age 


No 


Age 


No. 


1830-1839 . 


20-4 57 


20-2 


73 


23-0 


107 


24-11 


34 










1840-1849 . 
1850-1859 
1860-1869 
1870-1879 
1880-1889 
1890-1899 


20-3 126 
20-9 173 
20-0 48 
20-3 66 
20-0 209 
20-2 270 


20-3 
20-7 
20-8 
21-6 
21-1 
21-8 


147 
102 
128 
141 
154 
115 


23 3 
2i-4 
24-0 
23-8 
23- ? 
23-1. 


231 
231 
260 
325 
32 1 
!.")<, 


25- 6 
25- 2 
24- 
24- 3 
24- '\ 
2J-11 


122 
120 
176 
270 
267 
403 


21-7 
22-9 
23-2 
23-1 
23-2 
23-9 


63 
89 
115 
230 
317 
371 


23-11 
24- 
24- 6 
23- 9 
23-U 


28 
29 
138 
224 
264 



130 



GRADUATION 



GRADUATION 



This table indicates that the median age for 
Dartmouth has fallen (three months in one hun- 
dred and thirty years) ; that for Middlebury has 
risen (two months in seventy years) , for Bowdom 
the median age has risen two years since 1810, 
but has been falling for the past sixty years In 
only two of the eleven, institutions, the University 
of Alabama and Syracuse University, has the 
median age remained unchanged It is evi- 
dent that, whether this slight change has been 
an increase or a decrease, it is chiefly a matter 
of the individual colleges 

An averaging of the median ages of the several 
colleges also shows that since 1850 there has 
been a gradual but slight decline in the age of 
graduation, amounting to two months in all 
A study of the average ages of graduates in- 
stead of the median ages brings the- same rela- 
tive results, though the arithmetical average 
runs a few months higher throughout the entire 
period than does the median age This is be- 
cause the few students that are relatively much 
older than the average of the group, of whom 
every college has some, diverge much more from 
the median than do those below the median, 
and tend to bring up the average dispro- 
portionately It is the gradual disappear- 
ance of this group of very mature students 
during the past half century that is tending 
to lower both median and average age of 
graduation 

Of greater importance than the average or 
median age of graduation is the distribution of 
the graduates by years A comparison of the 
aggregate of all graduates of those eleven col- 
logos for the decade at the middle of tho century 
with the decade at the close shows that 
not only the average and the median have 
remained practically the same, but that the 
distribution of the students is becoming far 
loss wido This is indicated by the following 
diagram, which pves the distiibution of all 
students graduating in these eleven institu- 
tions for the two decades under consideration 




IB tO If 24 




While the median age of graduation remains prac- 
tically the same, 22 -f- years, the greater num- 
ber are concontratod in tho twenty-first, twenty- 
second, and twenty-third years A furthor change- 
is indicated by this diagram, which seems to bear 
out tho old contention that tho age of graduation 
was rising The modo, indicating tho yoar in 
which the greatest number of students graduated, 
falls in the first diagram in tho twenty-first yoar, 
in the second in the twenty-second 

The significant fact which is indicated by 
this as woll as by other data is that the student 
body is being unified and standardized as to 
age, as it never has been before, and that the 
entire group of college students is coming to 
be a body of young men between the ages of 
eighteen and twenty-three or twenty-four The 
graduating body is largely concontratod in the 
years twenty-one to twenty-four 

The following chart giving the distiibution 
for these colleges for the two decades, half a 
century apart, indicates this very definitely. 




The gradual disappearance of the vei y matui e 
student accounts in a large measure for this 
aspect of the change While the median age 
has remained approximately the same, the num- 
ber graduating before the twenty-third year has 
greatly increased The following chart shows 
this distribution for the past fifty years for the 
entire group of colleges studied 

The percent ago of the graduates under twenty- 
three has nsen from 50 to 57 per cent, indicat- 
ing again that the impression, so generally hold, 



131 



GRADUATION 



GRAMMAR 



that the age of graduation had increased was 
based on the extreme or isolated instances. 



sr 
sg- - 

JS- - 
54 
S* 
ft 

SI 




Cntluttiaj uncttr 3 yttrs 
Ml Co//tj*9. 



n&o - nto - 1970 - t*6o- nw- noo- 



A more recent investigation by Professor 
George D Strayer, based upon ninety-three 
selected colleges and covering the first decade of 
the present century, shows substantially the 
same conditions. The median ages of gradua- 
tion for the middle 50 per cent of the colleges 
are included within the limits, 22 years and 6 
months and 22 years and 9 months For 
women the median ago is 22 years and 8 months, 
the middle 50 per cent falling between the limits 
22 years and 23 years and 3 months 

The investigations conducted each quin- 
quennial period by the authorities of Harvard 
University into the ago of the entering class 
support substantially the same results The 
average age of tho entering class was 18 years 
and 9 months in 1876, and from that tune to 
1900 gradually increased to 19 years and 4 
months, since which time it has, with slight 
variations, gradually decreased 

In general wo may say that the assumption 
that theie has boon a groat advance in tho aver- 
age age of the college graduates was an error; 
that there are but few institutions where such an 
increase has occuired, that this is oflset by 
a coi responding decrease in other institutions; 
and that the change either way for tho larger 
part of the nineteenth century was very slight. 
What is occurring is the elimination of the very 
young students and the very mature, and the 
standardizing of the entire group 

As in the early part of tho nineteenth century 
the curriculum itself had a fixed organization 
and the student body was much differentiated 
in age, the reverse comes to be true toward 
the close of the century the curriculum loses 
its fixed character and becomes fluid, but, the 
student body becomes standardized as to age 
and tho college comes to take a veiy definite 
place in our system of education of foui years 
in length following four years of high school or 
preparatory and eight years of elementary 
school work, and approximating the eighteen to 
twenty-two years of the student life 

References : 

THOMAS, W S Change in the age of college graduates. 

Report of the U *S Commissioner of Education, 1902, 

Vol II, p 2199 

Report of President of Harvard College, 1904-1905, 
1909-1910 



132 



GRAFE, HEINRICH (1802-1868). A 
German teacher and educational writer, born 
in Buttstadt in Thunngia After studying 
mathematics, philosophy, and theology in the 
University of Jena (1820-1823), he first became 
a clergyman, then the principal of the city 
school at Jena In 1840 he was appointed pro- 
fessor of pedagogy in the University of Jena, 
a position which two years later he changed for 
the principalship of a Realschule in Cassel. 
He took part in the political struggles of the 
year 1848, which caused his imprisonment, and 
afterwards forced him to flee to Switzerland. 
From there he was called as a principal to Bre- 
men in 1855, and remained there until his death 
His chief works are: Allgemeine Padagogik 
(General Pedagogy, Leipzig, 1845), and Die 
deutsche Volksschule (The German Public 
School, Leipzig, 1847). F. M. 

GRAMMAR, ENGLISH Historical De- 
velopment The first work on this subject was 
actually written in Latin, viz the Giammatica 
Anghcana by P G , who is supposed to be a cer- 
tain P Greenwood, in 1594 It is a booklet, 
containing short chapters on letters, syllables, 
parts of speech The book professes to deal 
especially with those points m which English 
differs from Latin grammar It IK of interest 
because it contains a vocabulary of Chaucerian 
words, together with their signification There 
is also the first ticatment of the parsing, or, as it 
is called, " analysis " of English In 1624 John 
Hewes published A Perfect Survey of the Eng- 
lish Tongue He claims that his book serves 
for the exposition of Lily's Latin Grammar 
rules The author endeavors to deal with 
English expressions, a posteriori, as the ground- 
work for the Latin Hewes thus treats of 
moods, tenses, cases as found in English, and 
thus leads on to the Latin Hewes was suc- 
ceeded by William Walker (1623-1682), who 
follows the same method, but. develops it more 
fully m his famous Treatise of English Particles 
(published before 1660) Walker expounds 
English particles as the preliminary to learning 
to write Latin composition In 1633 Charles 
Butler wrote the English Grammar, a work 
which gives a real English accidence independ- 
ent of Latin It goes into questions of spelling 
and gathers from Sir John Prince the story of 
four good secretaries writing in English from 
dictation, making many differences of spelling, 
whereas four noblemen writing the same in 
their language all wrote exactly the same letters. 
Butler traces the uncertainty in English spell- 
ing to the imperfection of the alphabet. Both 
Butler and Gill utilize the Anglo-Saxon signs 
for the different sounds of th In 1640 Simon 
Dames published a book, exactly described by 
the title: Orthoepia Anghcana, or the first 
principall part of the English Grammar Teach- 
ing the Art of right speaking and pronouncing 
English, with certaine exact rules of Orthography, 
and rules of spelhng or combining of syllables, 



GRAMMAR 



GRAMMAR 



and directions for keeping of stop* or points 
between sentence and sentence A work in itself 
absolute, and never known to be accomplished 
by any before ' No lesse profitable than neces- 
sary for all sorts, as well Native as Foreigners, 
that desire to attains the perfection of our English 
Tongue Methodically composed by the in- 
dustry and observation of Simon Dames, School- 
master of Hintlesham in Suffs Lond 1640 
The next English grammar was that "made" 
by Ben Jonson, the dramatist, " for the benefit 
of all strangers out of his observation of the 
English language how spoken and in use " 

The grammar unfinished and not published 
until 1640, three years after Jonson's death, 
is accompanied with a Latin commentary 
Jonson quotes first the older writers, e g Chaucer, 
(iower, Lydgate, Foxe, More, Ascham, Cheke, 
Jewel, so as to illustrate and authorize particular 
usages of grammar, and supplies items of his- 
torical treatment of syntax In 1653 was pub- 
lished A New English Grammar by J. Wharton 
This was piofessedly useful for scholars before 
entrance on the Latin tongue, and therefore 
starts a new period in the teaching of English 
It was also devised, like Jonson's, for the use of 
strangers learning English Wharton points 
out that English is " happy beyond both Latin 
and CJreek," in that it " needeth little or no 
grammar at all " In the years 1711 and 1712 
no less than three English grammars were 
published, viz that of John Bnghtland (q v ) 
and Michael Maittaire (q v ) and that of James 
Greenwood (Essay towards a Practical English 
Grammar) These grammars provoked an 
attack bv the anonymous writers of Bellum 
Grammatical?, consisting of reflections on the 
three English grammars " published in about 
a year last past" in 1712 In 1762 Robert 
Lowth, Bishop of London, published A Short 
Introduction to English (ham mar, which strongly 
emphasizes the question of good use in grammar. 
This was -a work of considerable merit, ran 
through many editions in England, and was 
republished at Cambridge, Mass, in 1811 
Lowth's work was criticized by William Cob- 
bett in his well-known Grammar of the English 
Language in a scries of letters, 1818 Cob- 
bett states that his Grammar was intended for 
the use of schools and of young persons, " but 
more especially for the use of soldiers, sailors, 
apprentices and plough-bo vs " But still more 
popular than Cobbctt's book was the English 
Grammar of Lmdley Murrav (</ v ), published 
m England in 1795. Both in England and 
America this was for many years the chief, al- 
most only, English grammar used, particularly 
in girls' schools, for which it was first written 
It went through some fifty editions, and an 
abridgment, first published in 1818, reached 
over 120 editions of ten thousand each (See 
Dictionary of National Biography) The^ first 
writer of an Anglo-Saxon grammar was Eliza- 
beth Elstob (qv), 1715 The pioneer in the 
school teaching of historical English grammar 



in England was I)i Richard Moms, Head- 
master from 1875 to 1888 of the Royal Masonic 
Institution for Boys at Wood (irecn near Lon- 
don In 1872 he wrote his Historical Outlines 
of English Accidence, which went through 
twenty editions before his death, and, making 
the subject matter more and more elementary, 
he published in 1874 his Elementary Le.ssvw.s 
in Historical English Grammai , and in the same 
year the Primer of English Grammai F W 

Grammatical Study - The grammar of the 
vernacular has not usually been regarded as a 
subject for scientific consideration in itself, but 
the views which have been held with respect 
to it from time to time, and which have guided 
instruction in the subject and the composition 
of textbooks intended for use in instruction, 
when they have not been merely utilitarian, 
have been rather a reflection of the prevailing 
modes of philosophical or linguistic thought 
in general Moreover, methods of instruction 
in English grammar, as exemplified in the text- 
books, have been extremely traditional, and 
have followed a few established models, with 
the result that though the number of English 
grammars is legion, they have added relatively 
little to the development of serious and inde- 
pendent theory with respect to the subject 

Two schools of thought in especial have ex- 
erted a powerful influence upon the conception 
of grammar, first, the systematic philosophic 
thought of the eighteenth century, and secondly, 
the modern scientific thought, as exhibited 
mainly in the sciences of psychology arid his- 
torical linguistics The principal inheritance 
of grammar from philosophy is to be found in 
the grammatical definition The conventional 
definition of the sentence, for example, or of the 
parts of speech, is based upon the assumption 
of a correspondence between the forms of speech 
and the categories of a foimal logical system 
A grammatical statement of a language, ac- 
cording to this conception, would consist of 
a statement of all the modes of thought possible 
in that language Several important conse- 
quences and corollaries have followed from 
this a priori, logical way of regarding the classi- 
fications of grammar. In the first place, if 
there is one logical form of thought to which 
the forms of speech each respectively belong, 
manifestly theic is one and only one possible 
definition of a grammatical group of phenomena, 
and this defmit ion is absolute and right Thei e 
thus has arisen in grammar the feeling for the 
dogmatic character of the definition or rule, 
and the desire to make the phenomena of lan- 
guage conform forcibly to the rule if they seem 
to differ from it So much the worse for the 
language, says in effect the logical grammarian, 
if it docs not conform to the fundamental laws 
of the mind This has been the main defect 
of the logical method in grammar, that it has 
preferred a specious appearance of regularity 
and system to the actual variety and unsys- 
tematic wealth of detail of real speech r|M 



The 



133 



GRAMMAR 



GRAMMAR 



forms of speech do not fall into simple cate- 
gories, but, as obseivatmn quickly shows, they 
overlap and often shift their functions in a way 
which can be described adequately only in the 
terms of a system too complex for practical 
grammar. 

Disregarding the so-called " fundamental 
laws of the mind," the scientific grammarian 
has tended to approach the subject from 
an inductive point of view, and has studied 
the individual forms of speech m relation to 
their corresponding moments of mental activity, 
rather than in relation to any supposed per- 
manent characteristics of the mind The sig- 
nificance of the definitions, according to this 
conception of grammar, is something quite differ- 
ent from the significance of the definition accord- 
ing to the philosophical or logical method of 
systematizing language The scientific gram- 
marian regards his definition as merely a con- 
venient summary statement of the facts he has 
observed It has no final sanction of any sort, 
but is open to alteration and to extension as 
new facts are added to the field of observation 
The spirit of this method of grammatical study 
is consequently not dogmatic, but is the spirit 
of all inductive science in which generalizations 
are regarded as the summary statements of 
accumulated details It follows that the 
definition, rules, or generalizations which the 
grammarian of this way of thinking wishes to 
make must be definitions or generalizations 
of only such phenomena as those for whom 
his grammatical system is intended are capable 
of observing and understanding for themselves 
A completely scientific grammar of English 
would neglect no phenomenon of the speech, 
no matter how insignificant intrinsically or 
how limited the extent of its use The ideal 
of the philosophic grammarian is to formulate 
all the activities of the mind into logical defi- 
nitions, and then to illustrate these definitions 
by means of examples taken from the practice 
of the language The ideal of the scientific 
grammarian, as unattainable as that of the 
philosopher, but perhaps a safer guide in actual 
practice, is to observe all the phenomena of the 
language as they are exhibited in use, and then 
to arrive at such principles or rules as will come 
without misrepresentation of the phenomena 
upon which they are based This ideal aim 
of the grammarian must necessarily be modified 
in practice to accord with the more limited 
purposes of teaching and the more limited 
capacities of students No matter how ele- 
mentary the effort, however, the evidence of 
the vast number of contemporary or older 
English grammars goes to show that one or 
other of these two conceptions was uppermost 
in the minds of the writers, either that the 
grammar presented illustrations of the ob- 
servation of immutable, logical laws of thought, 
or that it was a series of observations, classified 
and designated on the basis of their similarities, 
the classification being subject to modification 



according as the area of observation was in- 
creased or decreased The grammars of the 4 
first type are represented by Murray's and by 
the large number of grammars which assume 
the position of arbiters of good use. The 
grammars of the second type, unfortunately 
not yet the prevailing one, are represented by 
modern historical grammars, the purpose of 
which is to make a descriptive statement of 
the past facts of the language, and also by an 
increasingly large number of practical school 
grammars written not from the point of view 
of dogmatic good use, but with the purpose of 
training the student in the observation and 
valuation of the processes of language. The 
earliest English grammars were written from 
the point of view of the Latin and for the pur- 
pose of making the study of the Latin easier 

During the larger part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, grammar held next to spelling not 
only the principal place in English instruction, 
but, in the upper grades, the principal place 
in the curriculum of the elementary school 
The two most famous grammars of the early 
days were Noah Webster's and Lmdley Mur- 
ray's, both published near the end of the eight- 
eenth century Murray's grammar became, 
like Webster's spelling book, the standard; 
and the authority of Lmdley Munay was 
sufficient to settle any point of disputed usage 
or doubtful syntax 

The curriculum of the common schools in- 
cluded, up to the last quarter of the preceding 
century, little besides reading, spelling, arith- 
metic, geography, and grammai In the upper 
grades grammar vied with arithmetic in the 
amount of tune and energy devoted to it, and 
in the value and respect accorded to it m the 
schoolroom and in the community To be 
known as a good " grammarian," that is, as 
a student versed in the grammatical rules as 
given in the textbook, and skillful in parsing 
and in syntactical analysis, was to win, in effect, 
a kind of intellectual preeminence Moot 
questions of grammatical construction were 
often the subject of excited debate, like diffi- 
cult, or u catch," problems in arithmetic 
Grammar was, in brief, the intellectual joust- 
ing ground of many sharp and eager, though 
underfed, intellects (3 P K 

Content and Nature of Grammar Di- 
versity of purpose, of method, and of content 
are the most striking characteristics of modern 
English school grammars viewed as a whole. 
The constant features are discussions of the 
parts of speech, of inflections, and, to some ex- 
tent, of syntax. Some grammars add phonetics, 
others the composition of words by prefixes 
and suffixes, or prosody, or the rules of spelling, 
or of paragraphing, or forms for letter writing, 
or symbols for proofreading, or tables of 
weights and measures, etc This variety in 
the content of modern school grammars is 
partly due to the presence of survivals from 
older and outgrown conceptions of grammar. 



134 



GRAMMAR 



GRAMMAR 



Thi' old-fashioned village grammar of general 
information, planned for students whoso entire 
English training was obtained through the study 
of English grammar, accounts for some of the 
topics Others, like prosody, for example, are 
merely survivals from the old Latin grammars 
In the classical and Renaissance conception of 
grammar as an art comprehending the appre- 
ciation and practice of literature as well as 
the elementary rules of the language, prosody 
logically had a place It survives now in gram- 
mars only because there is no other convenient 
place to put it Of similar origin is the divi- 
sion of etymology, which is still used to describe 
a section of English grammar having to do with 
the forms of words, including inflections, deri- 
vation, and composition In the old Latin 
school grammars, as for example in Lilv, the two 
mam divisions of the subject were etymology, 
i c accidence, etc , and syntax, i e concord 
But the modern sense of the word " etymology " 
is something very different from this traditional 
use of the word, and what the old grammais 
call etymology would now be called morphol- 
ogy 

An examination of those modern grammars, 
written by persons of some independence of 
purpose and of scholarship, shows that three 
main conceptions of the subject, mixed in vary- 
ing proportions, are prevalent The first is the 
conception of grammar as a guide to good use, 
the second as the study of the system of the 
language m its broadest meaning as an expres- 
sion of thought, and third a narrower definition 
of the system of the language, corresponding 
practically to the usual popular understand- 
ing of the term " grammar " The conception 
of grammar as a guide to good use no longer 
enjoys the favor it once received This con- 
ception is also in large measure an inheritance 
from the Latin grammar of the Renaissance, 
in which grammar was defined as u the ait of 
correct speaking or writing " This theory was 
hrst taken over explicitly into English grammar 
by Bishop Lowtli in his tihoit Introduction to 
English Gramma i (17(i7) In his preface, 
Bishop Lowth declares that " the principal 
design of a Grammai of any Language is to 
teach us to express ourselves with propriety 
in that language, and to enable us to judge of 
every phrase and form of construction, whether 
it be right or not " In other words, according 
to this theory, the purpose of grammar is to 
serve as a handmaiden to the art of speaking 
and writing In communities of mixed racial 
and social provenience, in which there exists 
a confused and uncertain use of the idiom in 
colloquial speech, as is the case, for example, 
in most American city schools, it is necessary 
to give much attention to drill in the details 
of propriety of expression Yet the tendency 
of modern theory and practice, which seems to 
be in the right direction, is to place less stress 
upon good use as the mam principle of the study 
of grammar. It is coming to be recognized 



that the rules of use are so complex and so far 
beyond the grasp of the child that, to place them 
in a grammar which makes pretense to a reasoned 
system is bound to end in confusion Pre- 
sented merely dogmatically, without attempt 
at rational or historical explanation, the rules of 
use find a more justifiable place in the study 
of written composition or in the drill of the 
daily colloquial intercourse of the classroom 
Although the end, therefore, of inculcating 
good use may be to some extent attained by 
the study of grammar, it is now usually assumed 
that this end should be one of the by-products 
of such study, and not its mam purpose and 
justification Such being the case, the custom 
of introducing examples of bad use into the 
study of grammar is one of doubtful expediency 
The safest rule seems to be to include in the 
system of elementary grammar only what is 
recognized as the normal use of educated 
people, with an exception perhaps in favor of 
occasional instances of divided use 

The two remaining theories concerning the 
teaching of grammar have this in common, that 
they both endeavor to approach the subject in 
a measurably scientific and systematic spirit 
They differ widely, however, in the theoretical 
limits which they place upon the subject In 
the broader conception of the two, the limits 
of grammar are made commensurate with those 
of the science of language, or the relations of 
speech to thought Thus, according to one 
writer, " Grammar mav be defined as the study 
of the relation between mental action and the 
forms of language expression " (Davenport 
and Emerson, Pi maple* of Grammar, p 1), 
the mam stress being here placed upon logic 
Another declares that " Grammar is a sys- 
tematic description of the essential principles 
of a language or a group of languages 
English grammar gives a systematic account 
of the English language" (Carpentei, Prin- 
ciples of English Grammar, pp 1-5) A broad 
theoretical definition of this kind is manifestly 
impossible in practical execution No elemen- 
tary grammar can attempt to study in any 
systematic way all the principles, either logical 
or historical, which he at the base of a language 
Whitney (Kttwnttals, p III), with his usual 
wisdom', states the only position which the 
scientific study of elementary giammar can 
maintain He avoids a positive theoretical 
definition of the subject, but announces his 
practical purpose to be *' to put before the 
learner those matters which will best serve him 
as a preparation for furthei and deeper knowl- 
edge of his own language, for the study of other 
languages, and for that of language in general " 

The study of elementary giammar, either as 
the science of language or as preliminary prepa- 
ration to the science of language, is a way of 
regarding the subject which has arisen naturally 
from the modern science of linguistics It 
would seem, however, that the content and 
purpose of the teaching of elementary grammar 



135 



GRAMMAR 



GRAMMAR 



should be determined by the possibilities and 
needs of elementary instriielum rather than 
by scholarly theories of the subject In an- 
swer to this conviction, we have a third con- 
ception of grammar, which still endeavors to 
be systematic, but does not try to cover the 
whole held of linguistics According to this 
understanding of the subject, elementary 
grammar is defined as " an account of the re- 
lations which words bear to one another when 
they are put together in sentences " (Huehler, 
A Modern Enqlixh (irammw ,\) 11) Or again, 
it is " the science which treats of the nature of 
words (i c the parts of speech), their forms 
(inflections), and their uses and relations in the 
sentence " (Baskervill and Sewell, English 
Grammar, p 12) A third definition makes 
grammar " the science which treats of the Forms 
and the Constructions of words " (i e. of in- 
flections and syntax) (Kittredge and Arnold, 
The Mother Tongue, Book II, p xv-) Gram- 
mar, as thus defined, takes account chiefly 
of the relationships of words to each other in 
groups The unity which it attempts to im- 
press upon the mind of the student is the unity 
of the word group, and ultimately of the sen- 
tence A unified conception of a science of 
language, either from the logical or historical 
point of view, is not implied in these treatments 
of the subject, and though historical and other 
considerations may be admitted, if it seems ad- 
visable to admit them, it should be recognized 
that the unity of the sentence is the essential 
element which determines both the content and 
method of such teaching of the elements of 
grammar Thus limited, the subject becomes 
practically syntax 

In a strict application of the theory of the 
study of grammar as the syntax of the sentence, 
a number of features commonly included under 
the heads of grammar will be seen to be out of 
place In the classification of the noun, for 
example, the distinctions of concrete arid ab- 
stract, of common and proper, etc , have purely 
logical and not syntactical value Some gram- 
mars give a class of "material nouns/' glass, 
wood, iron, etc , which suggests to what ex- 
tremes a logical classification of nouns could go 
In the same way, the gender of nouns is of 
little syntactical significance In the gram- 
mar of the earlier periods of the English lan- 
guage, when gender was still a grammatical, 
not merely a natural distinction in nouns, the 
rules of concord made gender very important 
syntactically. Hut in modern English the ques- 
tion of gender in nouns is raised only when the 
agreement of the personal pronoun of the third 
person singular with its antecedents is to be 
determined, and here also the feeling is for 
logical rather than formal grammatical agree- 
ment. The same principles apply to many 
of the subclassifications of the other parts of 
speech, e.g of the adverb, as of time, place, 
manner, degree, distance, etc ; of the conjunc- 
tion, as concessive, causal, temporal, local, etc. 



136 



In a rigid definition of grammar as the study 
of words in the context of the sentence, such 
logical subelassification can find a justifiable 
place only when they make clearer the functional 
nature of the part of speech in question 

The task of teaching elementary English 
grammar is harder than it would be if every 
syntactical construction told its meaning by 
the forms, or inflections, of its words English, 
however, has lost practically all of its inflections, 
and it is in the necessity of apprehending func- 
tion, whether with the aid of form or without it, 
that the teacher finds his main difficulty, as 
also his greatest opportunity Hy a process of 
abstraction, words are taken up and discussed 
as parts of speech as though they could have 
meaning and function independent of their com- 
binations with other words In considering 
inflections, this abstract discussion is continued 
by associating with the noun, for example, the 
formal marks of numbers, with the pronoun 
the marks of numbers and case, with the verb 
the marks of person or tense, in each instance 
as though number, person, tense, etc , were 
characteristics which may have existence apart 
from context These abstractions, however, 
are merely the way of approach to the vital 
organization of the parts ot speech mutually 
dependent upon each other Having analyzed 
the elements of speech, the student is then 
brought to synthesize them in the formation of 
speech. The language upon which study 
should be based obviously should not be too 
remote from the experience of the student 
not puzzles of grammar, or the language of 
literary prose and poetry It should be normal 
language of daily use, and the student should 
realize that the real life of language passes not 
only in the minds of authors and scholars, but 
in his own and in the mind of every one who 
uses the language 

The completed sentence is the largest term in 
which the language consciousness of the naive 
speaker or writer moves, and beyond this, in 
the group of sentences, in the paragraph, and 
in the essay, etc As a whole, there is unity, 
but it is unity of an entirely different kind 
from the unity of the sentence One may 
think and write the English language without 
the paragraph, but not without the sentence. 
The sentence is the necessary unit of expres- 
sion, and the mastery of it entails at least a 
practical command over the English language. 
It is in this way that grammar, considered as 
the study of the sentence, connects with the 
study of the art of expression It should be 
the result of the study of grammar that stu- 
dents become aware of the plastic nature of 
language, and although questions of effective- 
ness in speech are not primarily questions of 
grammar, they are close and material se- 
quences of grammatical speculation Though 
the conception of grammar as the study of the 
functions and the forms of words in sentence- 
forming combinations may seem narrow as 



GRAMMAR 



GRAMMAR 



compared with the broad program of the 
science of language, it nevertheless leads to 
what is the practical end and reason for the 
existence of all language, the expression of 
thought by means of the giouping of words 
The teacher of elementary grammar has no 
need to feel that he has set his mark too low 
in endeavoring to bring his students to an 
intelligent conception of what is meant by the 
sentence in the study and in the use of the 
English language (i P K 

Methods of Teaching Grammar The prcs- 
ent tendency in the teaching of English gram- 
mar is greatly to contract the instruction, 
both in time and content, a tendency arising, 
first, from the current, practice of requiring a 
new educational justification foi all subjects 
in the curriculum, and, secondly, from the 
crowding of the curriculum bv new subjects 
In many of the best schools formal grammar 
occupies not more than three lessons per week 
for two years, and in some schools even less 
time Many distinctions and classifications, 
such as are referred to above, are omitted, 
either as having no practical value or as being 
without meaning to an immature mind The 
general value of grammai as formal discipline 
is now largely disci edited Its \\orth to the 
student seems to he in thiee things its occa- 
sional guidance in matters of incorrect or 
doubtful usage, its training in the process of 
thought, as cast in the forms of the sentence, 
and its assistance to the student in the studv 
of a foreign language To these mav be added 
its tendency to arouse intelligent interest in 
language as a subject worthy of intelligent 
attention, especially when some of the historical 
features have been incidentally introduced into 
the study 

The long-recognized difficulty of teaching 
giammar successfully is due mainly to its 
abstract nature \ oung pupils do not easily 
or naturally grasp grammatical abstractions, 
hence the necessity for limiting the amount, 
foi selecting those principles that are simplest 
or nust necessary, for frequent repetition, for 
confining the work to intelligible sentences, for 
abundant drill and frequent icpetitions, and 
foi connecting grammatical study as closely as 
possible with the pupils' oral and written use 
of the language Even under t he best instruc- 
tion it is to be expected that pupils will often 
en, often be confused, and generally forget 
much that they once knew rather well, for 
abstractions are neither clear nor permanent 
in most minds 

The order of procedure in the instruction 
has been under much discussion, two general 
plans being suggested from the word to the 
sentence (the oldei, and former ly the invari- 
able, plan), and from the sentence to the word 
In the former the pupils first learned the pails 
of speech, that is, noun, \erb, etc , vMth then 
definitions and with 01 without examples in 
sentences; that is, they began with the so- 



called etymology In the second plan the 
study begins with the sentence (? c with syn- 
tax), considering first the general subject and 
general predicate, then viewing the sentence 
as consisting of strict subject and strict predi- 
cate (noun and verb), each of them possibly 
with or without a modifying word or phrase, 
and so proceeding by steps of analysis to the 
ultimate elements, / c the words (see Bar- 
bo ur's The Teaching of English Grammar, 1901) 
Various modifications of this second plan, in 
combination with the first, are now in general 
use, textbooks and teachers differing mainly 
in the stages at which they introduce the 
detailed study of the various parts of speech 
This plan makes it possible to introduce some 
of the simpler elements of grammar as early 
as the fifth or sixth year in connection with 
the pupil's writing, and so to prepare him 
gradually foi the more difficult study of formal 
grammar in the textbook 

A considerable amount of drill is necessary 
in all teaching of grammar Hut certain 
changes have been made in the matter and 
substance of drill It is important to proceed 
not merely from the examples to the principles, 
but also from the principles to the examples, 
the pupils being required, for instance, not 
merely to identify adjective clauses and adjec- 
tive phrases, but to write sentences containing 
these elements Parsing, that is, identifying 
the part of speech of a word and pointing out 
its relations, has no longer the large place it 
once had Its value is doubtful as a means 
to the real function of giarnmar, i e the study 
of the sentence, and its propriety or even 
possibility must often be questioned Then 4 
are many single words that cannot be parsed 
They miist be taken in connection with other 
words, as a group, before their relation to the 
sentence can be indicated Nor is it permitted 
to change the forms of expression to bring 
words under the rules Such a change onh 
makes a new sentence It must furthermore 
be noted that certain conventional explana- 
tions of construction were made before the 
study of English philology had explained then 
real origin An example is the so-called " re- 
tained object " with the passive voice, as in 
the sentences I wan qiren a book and in the phrase 
one bi/ one Many instances could be cited show- 
ing the disappeaiance of inflectional indications 
of agreement or concord, and othei departures 
from the Latinized conceptions on which oui 
older English gi ammai s were based (See ( ioold 
Brown, Gi annual of Gi am matt*, Introduction ) 

In general, therefore, teachers at home in 
the subject are inclined to doubt, the advis- 
ability of much " parsing " Drill in syntax 
has come to occupy a much more important, 
place, and " diagraming " is still in favor 
as a short and convenient way of indicating 
relationships In the study of both etymolog\ 
and syntax the old logical conception is rapidly 
giving way before the more scientific view of 
137 



GRAMMAR GRADES 



GRAMMAR SCHOOL 



English as an idiomatic 1 speech whose special 
features are to be explained only by a knowl- 
edge of their origins 

One important question of method remains 
to be considered How far should the study 
be inductive 7 We proceed in the man\ from 
examples to principles and definitions, but 
principles must be reeriforced by, and reinter- 
preted in terms of, examples Some of the 
more difficult conceptions, as those of verb 
phrase, conjunction, preposition, are best 
taught almost exclusively by examples 

F T B 

References : 



HARBOUR, F A The 

(Boston, 1901 ) 
BROWN, GOOLD Grammai of Grammars 



Teaching of English Grammar. 
(New York, 



CAKPENTLH, BAKER, and SCOTT The Teaching of Kng- 
huh in the Elementary and the Secondary School 
(New York, 1902 ) 

CHUBB, P The Teaching of English in the. Elementary 
and the Secondary School (New York, 1902 ) 

LEONARD, M H Grammar and ?/& Reasons (Now 
York, 1908 ) 

ONIONH, O T An Advanced English Syntax (London, 
1904 ) In thi Parallel Grammar Series 

ROEMER, J Principles of General Grammar, Compiled 
and Arranged for the Use of College? and Schools. 
(New York, 1884 ) 

Teachers College Record, November, 1906 HOYT, F. S , 
The Place of Grammar in the Elementary Curriculum , 
and COAN, M S , Historical English Grammar in the 
High School, also Januar>, 1911 Report on the, 
Teaching of Technical Grammar (New York ) 

WATHON, FOSTER Beginnings of the Teaching of Mod- 

ern Subject*, in England (London, 1909 ) 
See also the introduction to the various school gram- 

mars. 

GRAMMAR GRADES The elementary 
school normally covers eight years of work, 
which may be begun at about the age of six 
years The upper four vears of the elementary 
school are known as the grammar grades, as 
the lower four are called the primary grades 
Sometimes, because of exceptional administra- 
tive conditions, the fifth year of school may be 
included among the primary grades, as m the 
case where a primary school building includes 
the first five years of work, or where these first 
five years of work are set off because the 
departmental system of instruction by special- 
ized teachers does not cover more than the 
sixth, seventh, and eighth years The gram- 
mar grades, while normally covering four 
years, may be four or eight in number, depend- 
ing upon whether or not the graded system 
provides for annual or, as is the usual' case, 
semi-annual promotions H S 

GRAMMAR-HIGH SCHOOLS A term 
used in the school laws of California to desig- 
nate a two-year high school, to which state 
aid is given Such schools represent the first 
two years of the regular high school, and are 
to be established where full four-year high 
schools are not as yet needed The term cor- 
responds in a general way to the term Town- 
ship High School, as used m the upper Mis- 



138 



sissippi Valley to designate short-course schools 
which have not been " accredited " or " com- 
missioned " as full high schools. (See HK;H 
SCHOOLS, RURAL ) E P C. 

GRAMMAR SCHOOL - To write the his- 
tory of grammar schools would be to write 
the history of elementary and secondary edu- 
cation from their dim beginnings in Hellas in 
the fifth or sixth century B c to 1850, when 
the greater number and the chief of the second- 
ary schools on both sides of the Atlantic were 
still called Grammar Schools Even where 
the title has been dropped for that of Public, 
School, Latin School, Academy, Gymnasium, 
High School, Lyce*e, Ginnasio, these are still 
essentially grammar schools, and, what is more, 
the chief of them still Greek Grammar Schools 
The term Grammar School (y/m/A/Attrciov) 
simply meant a Letter School, a place in which 
letters (ypa/z/Luxra), that is, spelling arid reading, 
were taught But it has always been found 
that it is impossible to teach even reading 
properly without teaching much more, and the 
term grammata soon came to connote an ever- 
widening circle of learning till it became 
identical with literature in its widest sense 
Already in the sixth century B c , the vases 
show the boys learning writing as well as 
reading, and standing up to say their repetition 
of Homer, while in later days they received 
prizes for public competitions, not only in 
" rhapsody," but in successive stages of recita- 
tion of tragic, comic, and lyric verse Natu- 
rally, poets had to be explained and understood 
for effective recitation, and the whole of 
literary comment, the science* of grammar, the 
art of scholarship, criticism, and composition 
was developed from the grammar school 

Grammar and the grammar school were 
developed at Alexandria, where the Mace- 
donian variety of Doric-speaking students of 
Attic writers perhaps required more assistance 
from grammar proper The grammar school 
was transplanted full grown to Rome Plau- 
tus, c 210 B c , used the term in its Latin trans- 
lation of ludus literanuK (For the develop- 
ment of this school, ludus hterarut*, and the 
later rhetoric schools, see ROMAN EDUCATION; 
QUINTJLIAN; ENDOWMENTS, EDUCATIONAL ) A 
Greek grammar school had been set up by 
Livius Andromcus, a Greek, in 272 B c At 
Rome the early grammar schools were more 
advanced than those of Gieeee, when* the 
grammar schools were confined to literary ex- 
planation and criticism, while according to 
Suetonius the early grammar schoolmasters at 
Rome also taught rhetoric and " many of their 
treatises include both sciences/' i e. grammar 
and rhetoric In later days at Rome, as in 
Greece, the two were separated, the grammar 
school teaching the* Inn s till about fourteen and 
confining themselves to literary construction, 
the rhetoric school including every study 
which could fit a youth to become a good 



GRAMMAR SCHOOL 



GRAMMAR SCHOOL 



speaker Qumtihan, whose Institutes of Ora- 
tory is the only complete ancient educational 
work which has come down to us, shows that 
the grammar school had extended its bound- 
aries to include, for instance, the teaching of 
history and the elements of philosophy, leav- 
ing the rhetoric school to he more professionally 
and professedly a " talking shop " The gram- 
mar school and the rhetoric school were 
ubiquitous through the Roman Empire From 
the end of the first century A D they came to 
be largely provided at the public expense by 
the municipalities or by endowments (see 
ENDOWMENTS, EDUCATIONAL), while the later 
Emperors, and particularly Gratian in 376, 
charged their maintenance on the fiftcu* or the 
rates and fixed the salaries payable When the 
barbarian kingdoms began to settle down, the 
grammar schools became moie than ever 
necessary, in a sense, for teaching Latin as 
the foreign tongue, in which new nations 
found their religion and their law enshrined 
and administered While the rhetoric schools, 
therefore, disappeared, the grammar schools 
went on, and, so far as the higher studies of 
the rhetoric school were needed, they were 
studied in the grammar schools, which passed 
under the control of the bishops It is diffi- 
cult to say when they ceased to be public 
schools and became episcopal schools, if indeed 
it is possible to draw any such distinction, for 
the bishop seems to have stepped into the 
place of the civil magistrate in respect to pub- 
lic older generally as much as to education 
(See BISHOPS' SCHOOLS ) The eai host mention 
of a school in England distinctly calls it, a 
grammai school It was when Hede (Red 
Hi^t 111, 15) i elated how in 631 Sigbert, King 
of the East English, who had been converted 
to Christianity when an exile in France, desn- 
mg to imitate what he had seen well arranged 
there, set up a school in which boys might- bo 
taught grammar (httcu* crudircntut), and got 
masters and ushers for the purpose from 
Canterbury Alcum would no doubt have 
called the school of famous Cathedral York, 
which he describes a century later (731 to 7SO), 
a grammar school For, though its curriculum 
included law, music, astronomv, geometry, 
arithmetic, and theology, yet grammai and 
rhetoric arc put first, the master industriously 
giving to these the art of the science of gram- 
mai and pouring on those the rivers of rhetoric, 
while the wnteis on grammar from the Ver- 
gihan commentator, Servius, to Pro-bus and 
Pnscian bulked most largely in the school 
library At the end of the eighth century 
(c 796), Alcum recommended his quondam 
pupil, the then archbishop, to separate the 
grammar school (qui libros legant) from the 
song and the writing schools (qui cwitiknac 
iHxcrviatU, qui xcmbwidi studio depmtentur) 
The current custom for bishops to maintain 
grammar schools at their sees was made general 
law by the canon of Pope Eugemus in 826, 



ordering all bishops to maintain giammar 
schools (studw hteiaium) in which the principles 
of the liberal arts should bo taught, an enact- 
ment repeated by Pope (Irogory in a synod at 
Rome, r 1073 It is stated in Assor's Life of 
Alfied (c. 1001) that the King's youngest son 
Ethelward was sent, to the grammar school 
(ludif* hteianac dmcipliruie) with nearly all the 
noble children of the realm and many \\ho 
were not noble, a statement which is at least 
rendered probable, and probably taken from 
the educational program sot forth by Alfred 
himself in the introduction to his Translation 
of (Iregorv's Pastoral ( 1 mc Alfred (</ r ) 
desired that all the young English freeman 
should be set, to learn to road English, and 
those who wanted to continue in learning and 
reach higher rank should learn Latin Alfred 
the Great (q v ) is credited with the estab- 
lishment of grammar schools, while ^Elfnc's 
(q v ) tiaxon-Latm Grammar (c 1005), being 
excerpts from Priscian's grammar, purports 
to bo a grammar as taught in the school 
of Etholwold, Bishop of Winchester So 
too the Danish king, Canute, is credited 
by his eleventh-century biographer with found- 
ing public schools (publican sro/us) to teach 
boys grammar (httens imbuendos) In the 
school attached to the collegiate church of 
Waltham, founded by King Harold when carl, 
grammar and Latin verse-making were learnt 
The earliest use of the actual words " grammar 
school," M'ola gramatice, as distinct from its 
Latin equivalent, ludus hterarum, is in a 
charter of the last half of the twelfth century, 
in which Henry, Count of Eu and Lord of 
Hastings, confirmed the foundation by his 
grandfather Robert, Count of Eu, who received 
Hastings from the Conqueror, of the Collegiate 
Church of St Mary in Hastings Castle and 
the division of its possessions into separate 
prebends among the several canons or pre- 
bendaries, including u Ausoher's prebend to 
which belongs the keeping of the grammar 
school (legnnvH .sro/< giawaticc)," while " to 
Wyming's prebend " pertains " the keeping ot 
the Song School (leginwn scoh (antu\} " It is 
not clear whether Count Henry is quoting the 
words of Count Robert or translating them 
into the language of his o\vn time Hut it can 
hardly be doubted that the Warwick School, 
Gloucester School, Pontofract School, Thctford 
School, St Paul's School, St Alban's School, 
Huntingdon School, Dunstablo School, and 
Reading School, to mention some which are 
so called in extant grants of the latter part of 
the eleventh and first part of the twelfth cen- 
tury would have meant the grammar schools 
of those places, just as in the present century 
they would bear the same meaning, though for 
the most part the masters aspire to drop the 
qualifying epithet and call them by the place 
name o ul court In the thirteenth to the nine- 
teenth centuries inclusive it was thought more 
honorable to insert the qualifying epithet of 



13d 



GRAMMAR SCHOOL 



GRAMMAR SCHOOL 



" grammar " school This became necessary 
in the thirteenth century to distinguish gram- 
mar schools from the schools of the higher 
faculties at the universities, and the Theo- 
logical Schools, to which the schoolmasters of 
cathedral and collegiate church grammar 
schools, when they changed their name to the 
less known and intelligible, and therefore more 
magnificent title of Chancellor (q v ), confined 
their ministrations A notable illustration of 
the way in which the Cambridge School was 
shorn of its prestige and glory by the side of the 
university is to be found m the order made by 
the diocesan of Cambridge, the Bishop of Ely, 
in 1276 From this it appears that the Master 
of Glomery (q v ) had still jurisdiction to hold 
legal pleas in which grammar scholars were 
concerned, as the Chancclloi of the University 
had in those to which university students wore 
parties He too had a bedell or beadle to bear 
a mace before him, not only honors cau^a, but 
also as the physical implement with which to 
enforce his jurisdiction, just as the Chancellor 
had, who was in fact only a highei school- 
mastei Similarly the Canterbury grammar 
schoolmaster in the years 1310 to 1327 exercised 
jurisdiction in cases between Ins scholars and 
the laity, enforcing by excommunication the 
sentences he imposed as judge of his court, 
in school, sometimes expressing his acts as 
" done in Canterbury school," sometimes " in 
Canterbury Grammar School " In London, 
what was called in 1138 the " School of the 
Arches/' or St Mary-le-Bow, appears in 1300 
on the appointment of a master as " the Gram- 
mar School of the Church of St Mary-le- 
Bow or of the Arches " (See ARCHES, SCHOOL 
OF THE ) So at St Alban's, the school over 
which the famous Alexander Neekham (q v ) 
presided in the thirteenth century as St 
Alban's School, is in 1309 called St Alban's 
Grammar School In that year its master, 
sitting " as Judge of the law of the Grammar 
School of St Alban's," made statutes in and 
for it in quasi-regal style " by the unanimous 
consent of the Master and all the Bachelors " 
of it He too exercised his jurisdiction over 
laymen as well as clerks, forbidding any one to 
assault or defame any of the scholars on pain 
of excommunication Z/MO facto, while if anv 
one assaulted the mastei himself, not only was 
he excommunicated, but was also subjected to 
"salutary chastisement in the 4 school from all 
the Bachelors of it, unless IK* had previously 
made satisfaction to God and the church" 
The common notion, derived ehieflv from a 
misinterpreted passage in Richard of Burv's 
Phdotnblon lefernn^ only to the masters of 
small village schools, that the grammar school 
master was of no importance, a person looked 
down on, is contradicted by these documents, 
which also correct the erroneous notions as to 
the limited character of the curriculum of these 
schools No one could become a bachelor in 
St Alban's Grammar School unless he first 



140 



obtained from the master a proverb, on which, 
as a theme, he had to compose verses, prose, 
and rhyme ( Leonine or rhyming Latin verses?) 
and also make an oration publicly in the 
schools Nor was any bachelor coming from 
elsewhere to take a seat in the school, unless 
he had first been examined in the rules of 
grammar by examiners appointed by the mas- 
ter and was prepared to dispute publicly in the 
school on them " or any other subject put 
forward," just as in the university At 
Beverley the newly created bachelors had to 
make presents of gloves to a large number of 
the officials of the minster, just as they did at 
Cambridge University But the growth of the 
university seems to have stopped this practice 
of creating bachelors in grammar schools, and 
we hear no more of them after the fourteenth 
century 

While the universities competed with the 
grammar schools in their upper portions, the 
song schools, which became to a large extent 
also reading schools, competed with them for 
their lower boys Thus at Warwick about 
1316 the Dean and Chapter made statutes to 
define the provinces of the grammar and music 
schools, assigning the Donatists, or those learn- 
ing the elementary parts of Latin grammar, 
the Donat, to the grammar school, while 
confirming the music master in the possession 
of those learning their first letters, the yi(nn- 
mata of the original Greek grammar school 
Similarly at Canterbury the parochial school, 
maintained by the rector in connection with 
St Martin's Church, was impeached by the 
rector or master of the Archiepiscopal or Citv 
Grammar School for competition with him in 
taking grammar scholars, and was after trial 
bv jury found to be customarily entitled to 
take thirteen grammar scholars only, though 
it might receive an unlimited number in the 
alphabet, psalter (? e reading Latin), and sing- 
ing A century later, the grammar school- 
master at Saffron Walden obtained a decice 
from the Abbot as Ordinary of Walden pro- 
hibiting the priests of the chantries connected 
with the parish church from teaching grammar 
or any higher subjects than the alphabet and 
the graces (alphabetic^ et graciib] i e the 
graces before and after meat, for long misin- 
terpreted as graces, and alleged to show a 
Greek-teaching school in 1425 

As somo indication of what was learned in 
the grammar schools at this time, it may be 
mentioned that a feeble, or tattered (rlebili*) 
Horace was bought for the Meiton Grammar 
School boys in 1348 for a half-penny, while 
several pairs of white tablets for reporting 
arguments cost 2ir/ , showing that the dialectic 
method was applied to grammar as to other 
subjects. The master of this school at the 
time was Master John Cornwall (see CORN- 
WULE, JOHN) The successive attacks of the 
plague in the Black Death (q v ) in 1349, the 
Second Plague in 1361, and less well known 



GRAMMAR SCHOOL 



GRAMMAR SCHOOL 



but still destructive outbreaks in 1369 and 
1380 made such havoc in the knowledge of 
Latin that special new endowments appeared 
necessary to restore it Hence the great in- 
crease of endowed grammar schools (see ENDOW- 
MENTS, EDUCATIONAL), of which Winchester 
College, founded in 13S2, was the leading 
example Never, perhaps, had the supenoi 
efficacy of grammar as " the foundation, gate 
and source of all the liberal arts " the essen- 
tial element of a liberal education been more 
emphatically proclaimed than in its foundation 
charter For the first time a grammar school 
was made the principal or indeed the sole 
object of a collegiate church, as important a 
step forward in educational provision as the 
foundation of the first collegiate church as a 
university college in Merton College had been a 
hundred years before It is much to be regretted 
that the object and curriculum of a grammar 
school was so well understood at the time that 
the elaborate code of statutes made for " Sainte 
Mane College of Wynchester " in 1400 contains 
riot a word as to the content of the curriculum, 
nor the method of teaching, but merely prc- 
scnbes that candidates are to pass a com- 
petitive examination in the " Old Donat " and 
plain song for admission " to study in gram- 
maticals 01 the art faculty or science of gram- 
mar " An equal parsimony of details is found 
in the numerous grammai schools endowed in 
connection with colleges, chantnes, gilds, and 
hospitals irom that time to the eve of the Refor- 
mation Though three hundred and more of 
these grammar schools were founded or re- 
founded, endowed or reendowed, very few of the 
foundation deeds or statutes have come down to 
us, but, judging Irom those which have come 
down, they would not have greatly enlightened 
us The greatest and richest of all the free 
grammai schools, the College Hoiall of Our 
Lady of Eton (q v ), was a mere replica in its 
statutes, as in its foundation, of that of Our 
Lady of Winchester Colet (q v ) was no doubt 
expressing the sentiments of all, when in his 
statutes for the refounded and augmented St 
Paul's School in 1518, he said, " what shall be 
taught it passeth my wit to devy.se and 

determyn in particuler " Nor did he unfor- 
tunately vouchsafe any details when he went 
on to say " in generall'" that the scholars were 
to be " taught all way in good htterature " and 
to denounce the " barbary, corrupnon " and 
" Latcn adulteiate " which " ignorant blynde 
folis brought into this world/' the " fylthynessc 
and abusion " which " raythei may be called 
blotterature than htterature," and went on to 
demand the " olde Laten spech, the veray 
Romayne tong " of Tully and Vcigil, as found 
in St. Augustine, St Jerome, Sedulius and 
Juvencus, and other Latin Christian writers of 
the lower p]mpire What, besides Alexander 
de Villa Dei's (q v ) Doctnnale, or grammar m 
verse, was included in " Blotterature," we can 
only guess Colet did not succeed in substi- 



tuting the late Latm-Chnstians for the earlier 
classical authors in grammar schools in general, 
though he apparently revived them, as Milton's 
reading appears to show, at St Paul's The 
statutes of Cardinal Wolsey, for the grammar 
school of his college at Ipswich, made in 1528, 
are preserved; and a year or two later we 
have parts of the curriculum of Winchester 
and the whole of the curriculum of Eton as 
sent to Saffron Walden for adoption in the 
newly refounded and endowed giamrnar school 
there These show that the Latin Accidence 
of Stanbridge, scholar of Winchester arid Master 
of Magdalen College School, of which Wolsey 
had himself been master, with at Eton the 
grammai of Lily, first master of the lefounded 
St Paul's School, and at Winchester that of 
Sulpicius, a fifteenth-century schoolmaster at 
Rome, had superseded Donatus and Alexander 
dc Villa Dei The lower forms road the 
pseudo-Cato's M or alia, as then predecessors 
had done at Merton in 1308 and centuries 
before that, and ./Esop's Fabler, which were 
still in vogue at Highgate Grummar School in 
1860 For the rest, they read Lucian's Dia- 
logues (in Latin), ()\id's Metamorphoses, Tei- 
ence, Cicero's Paiadoxe*s, Vergil's Eclogues in 
the Fourth Form, in the Fifth, Sixth, and 
Seventh, Sallust, and Vergil's /Kncnl, Cicero's 
Letters, and Horace, with the figures of speech 
of Mosellanus, a German schoolmaster named 
Schade, of a pronouncedly Reformation type, 
scoffing at Saints and Saints' Davs, and Eras- 
mus' Copui vcrbonun, which was much like 
^Elfrie's Colloquy and word books of the eighth 
century Caesar is the only author mentioned 
by Wolsey who does not appeal in the Win- 
chester and Eton cunicula Greek, rt appears, 
was not taught, though it probably had been a 
little earlier under Hoi man 

Five years later the Reformation in England 
began with the dissolution of monasteries 
Its educational hist fruits are found in the 
statutes for the grammar schools attached to 
the cathedrals of the new foundation of Henry 
VIII, undei the new deans and chapters in 
lieu of the old cathedral grammar schools, 
under the immediate cogni/anee of the bishops 
There is no noticeable difference in the curric- 
ulum The master is indeed called by the 
high-sounding name of (i)chulida.scalu*, instead 
of Magntcr Informatoi or Magibtcr tcolarum, 
and the second master, hypodtdascalus, instead 
of Ostianus or Vice-monitor Greek as well as 
Latin is now requned of the master, though 
Latin only of the usher. The object of the 
foundation scholars, lodged, boarded, and 
clothed at the expense of the cathedral endow- 
ment, is expressed, as before, to be to obtain 
a fair knowledge of Latin grammar and to 
talk and write Latin No Greek author is 
mentioned in the curriculum, which includes 
vaguely t.ie chaste poets and the best his- 
torians, arid in the Sixth or highest form Eras- 
mus' Copia with " Horace and Cicero and 



141 



GRAMMAR SCHOOL 



GRAMMAR SCHOOL 



Other authors of that class " In none of the 
re-foundations under Edwaid VI and Eliza- 
beth is any inkling given of the curriculum 
contemplated beyond the direction that the 
newly constituted school is to " endure to all 
futuie time foi the education, institution, and 
instruction of boys and youths in grammar '' 
(See FREE SCHOOLS, EDWARD VI, ELIZA- 
BETHAN PERIOD IN ENGLISH EDUCATION, REF- 
ORMATION AND EDUCATION ) 

That (heck had by this time crept into the 
schools is shown only by the salvos of verses 
piesented to the King when he visited Winches- 
ter and Eton, perhaps five per cent of which are 
in Greek. It is not till we come to the statutes 
made 1 by Queen Elizabeth in 1560 for the gram- 
rnai school attached to the ( Collegiate Ohm eh of 
the Blessed Peter of Westminster, which took 
the place of the abbey dissolved by Henry VIII 
and reinstated by Queen Mary, that any dif- 
feiencc in subject or detailed curriculum is 
forthcoming The duty of both master and 
ushei, ludimagister and pi cec( })tor , is defined to 
be to teach Latin, Greek, and Hebrew gram- 
mar, literal hiimanioH'b, poets and orators 
( <ato and ^sop still prevail in the lowest forms 
with Vives (<y v ) , Terence and Sallust in the 
Third Form In the Four th Foi in Greek gi am- 
mar appeals with Lucian's Dialogues in Greek, 
m the Fifth Form, Isoeiates and Plutarch; 
in the Sixth and Seventh, Demosthenes and 
Homer as well as Livy and Veigil Only the 
Seventh Form was actually to be taught He- 
brew, de\ otmg the last hom between five and six 
every school day to Hebrew grammar with a 
reading in the Psalms in Greek and llebiew 
That Hebiew lemamed an integral and ef- 
fective pait of the curriculum at Westminster 
is clear fioiu the evidence of Charles lloole's 
Ncir Disown/ of the Old A)t of tcadung school 
(1059) He testifies that Westminster boys 
undei Busby (q v ) made orations and verses in 
Hebrew and also " Arabick and other onental 
tongues " " to the amazement of most of their 
hearers " But though Hebrew was included 
in many school statutes up to the latter pait of 
the seventeenth centmv, and ILoole includes 
it m his ideal school for three monnngs a week, 
and Mills in 17M, in his PuriituB fonnnndtB 
artijci, includes Hebrew and Li/ia Propheltca 
for those bovs who " wished to be clerics," 
it nevei had leal hold in the grammar schools 
It is still taught to a limited extent at Mer- 
chant Taylor's School, reputed to be founded 
in 1500, the same year as the Elizabethan 
statutes \\ere given to Westminster, and was 
traditionallv taught a few yeais ago at Louth 
Grammar School in Lincolnshire The net 
result of the Renaissance and Reformation on 
the curriculum and methods of grammar schools 
was little nioi e than to place Greek in the same 
position as Latin, with more eVlat attaching 
to a real knowledge of it, but less consequence 
attached and less effort made to attain that 
knowledge in the majority of pupils 



As to the class which attended the grammar 
schools, it is certain, notwithstanding oft-re- 
peated assertions and commonly received 
notions to the contrary, that it was in the mam 
the same as now, that is, the middle class, the 
younger sons of the nobility, including m that 
term the whole knightly class and squire- 
archy, the great and small landlords, the pro- 
fessional classes, which at first were almost 
entirely the common lawyers, as the medical 
men and the chancery and ecclesiastical law- 
yers were mostly clerks and ousted from matri- 
mony, the merchants and tradesmen The 
chief difference is that to this class since the Ref- 
ormation new recruits came forth from above 
and from below, fiom the eldest sons of the 
landed classes and from select individuals of 
the working classes In Alfred the Great's 
family, according to Asser, the eldest son was 
brought up in chivalry, in hunting, and the arts 
of war, with only so much literary instruction 
as to leain Saxon poems bv heart and to read 
Saxon, while the youngest son was sent to the 
grammar school This practice 1 was followed 
in other noble families with few exceptions 
throughout the Middle Ages, up to the latter 
part oi the sixteenth century, the tincture of 
literature being piobablv less in the tenth to 
the twelfth centuries than in the ninth, and 
glowing as learning giew fiom the thirteenth 
century onwards Throughout, the younger 
sons even of the noblest families went to gram- 
mar schools and acquired learning for the 
clerkly profession, which included not only 
bishops and priests, but the whole of the govern- 
ment services, diplomacy and the law, and, 
increasingly, la haute conuneice While William 
Rufus w r as a rude soldier, the younger son 
Henry was sent to school, andleained grammar, 
and, as William of Malmesbuiv mentions, when 
he became king, in all his \\ais and troubles 
nevei forgot his learning or to lead books 
The celebrated Abelard was the eldest son of a 
Breton knight and landowner Thomas a 
Becket, who is expressly lecoided as having 
passed through the school of the city oi London, 
i c St. Paul's School, befoie going to Pans 
University, was the son of a sheriff of London 
in the days when aldermen were still hereditary 
landowners and then oflrces territorial govern- 
ments On the other hand, Abbot, Sampson 
of Bury, who also went to Paris Uruveisity, was 
so poor that he could not pay the penny fee at 
Bury School, and at Paris eked out his living 
bv carrying holy water The archbishops and 
bishops, deans, archdeacons, and canons, who 
had all been at grammar schools, and after the 
twelfth century mostly at universities, were 
predominantly of noble birth It was one of 
the grievances of the chapter of Lincoln, when 
Bishop Grosseteste (q v ) wanted to " visit " 
them, that he was not a gentleman When 
Henry III wanted to hang the Oxford scholars, 
recruited from the grammar schools, who had 
taken a leadrng part in the defense of North- 



142 



GRAMMAR SCHOOL 



GRAMMAR SCHOOL 



aiupton in 1264, he was prevented by the baions 
of his own side, who protested 1 hut they wore not 
going to have the blood ol their sons and re- 
lations shed A fourteenth-cent ury list of Ihe 
scholars of Paris University contains several 
counts and other nobles of various nations 
The first " poor and needy scholars " of Win- 
chester and of Eton were scions of well known 
county families, and the " Cornmoneis " of Win- 
chester, many of whom became scholars, were 
by statute bound to be u sons of the nobility " 
and were so in fact to within twenty years 
of the Reformation, when the lists cease The 
Eton statutes excluded villeins, which included 
the majority of farmers and aitisans hi 1 147 
the University of Oxford petitioned the Lord 
Say and also the House of Commons for their 
help to get Duke Humphrey's library for them, 
on the expiess ground that " many of your 
noble lineage and kinsmen have studied and 
shall hereafter in the said University " As 
a matter of fact, we know at least one i elation 
of Lord Say who was a scholar of A\ mchester 
and fellow of New College, Oxford, and another 
who was a scholar of Eton Macclesfield ( r arn- 
nuir School ^as founded in lf>(M, expiesslv for 
" gentilmens sonnes and other godemennes 
children of the towne and contre thereabouts " 
Colet ordered that his free seliolars should 
provide wax candles for the school at the cost 
of their friends, when \\a\ \vas a coM-lv luxury 
But perha])s the most striking testimony to 
the fact that the grammar schools were mostly 
frequented by the upper classes is the story of 
the admission of " poo? scholars " on the rn w 
foundation of Canterbury Cathedral (Irarn- 
mar School in 1,")41 " JVIore than one or t\\o 
of the ( Commissioners would ha\ e none admit ted 
but sons 01 younger brethren of gentlemen, 
as for others, husbandmen's children, they \vere 
more for the plough and to be artificers than to 
occupy the place of the learned SOT! " \ich- 
bishop Ciannier, himself a scion of an ancient 
family in Nottinghamshire, had to stand up for 
the new idea of admitting the really pool and to 
protest not in favor of a majontv of poor, but 
against ''utterly" excluding them At Can- 
terbury, as at Worcester, the names of the schol- 
ars admitted are those mainly of the county 
families of Kent and Worcestershire The ad- 
mission of the working classes to participate in 
the schools was one of the ne\\ ideas of the 
revolution called the Reformation, and was one 
of the objects of the great increase in fiee, / ( 
gratuitous, schools which followed it, At the 
same time another effect of the Renaissance and 
Reformation was the increase also of the upper- 
most classes in the grammar school*, though it 
was not till the seventeenth century that the 
eldest sons of great nobles are found in them It 
was thought something of a scandal when, in 
1569, the heir of Hioughton castle, aftei wards 
Lord Say and Sele, became a scholar of Win- 
chester ( 1 ollege as Founder 's km It was not so 
regai tied a century later \\lien Sir Robert Wai- 



pole was a " poor and needy " scholar of Eton 
Until the distinction gievv up in the eighteenth 
century between the great grammar schools 
which became known as public schools to which 
aristocracy flocked, and the smaller schools, 
the ordinary country grammar schools pre- 
sented a real mixture of classes The local 
nobility and gentry \vere found in them side 
by side with the local tradesmen and farmers 
The sons of the former, passing on to the uni- 
versities as commoners at Oxford or pensioners 
at Cambridge, often took the sons of the latter 
with them as servitors and sizars This prac- 
tice had descended from medieval times, when 
the servitors who were numbered with the ,sw/r 
of a rich man and lived in the same hostel were 
more often poor relations than of a lower class 
The truth is that in the grammar schools, as in 
the church itself, and the professions as in other 
institutions, the progress has been from aris- 
tocracy and exclusion to democracy and the 
open door 

It was not considered after the Reformation 
any more than before that the grammar school^ 
should teach anything but the classical lan- 
guages Hut the Inter years of Queen Elr/a- 
beth's reign \\eie marked in many grammar 
schools, especially in the 1 smaller country to\\n, 
by the attempt to introduce English reading and 
\\nting and arithmetic in the lower parts of the 
grammar school under the ushei In the se\en- 
teenth century, especially during and after 
the commonwealth, it became almost a com- 
monplace for the founders of small country 
grammar schools, of which then* were a large 
number, to preserrhe English grammar, and 
Latin only " if required " Hut it \vas not till 
close on the Commonwealth period itself that 
rt occurred to people to found separate English 
schools or elementary schools, not grammai 
schools and commonly free (see FREE Sc IIOOLS) 
Hut the pathetic belief in the magic of Latin 
grammar as an indispensable talisman to un- 
lock the doors of knowledge prevailed spasmodi- 
cally even to the nineteenth century, even 
when the founders were cleailv not thinking of 
providing education for the class who would 
go to the universities Hut at Whittington 
in Derbyshire, founded in lu'Sl for u 20 of the 
meanest, and poorest mens' sons born in the 
parish," Latin as \\ell as English and accounts 
were prescribed, at Lowestoft in Suffolk rn 
1735 .1 schoolmaster was to teach forty boys, 
with preference to fishermen's children of the 
parish, wilting, reading, accounts, and Latin, 
at Wiggles worth in Yoikshire in 1789 a sum 
of 1000 was willed for the establishment of 
Clarke's Free School to teach children born in 
the township, or whose parents were legally 
settled there, Latin, English, wrrtmg, and 
accounts 

In the seventeenth century English began 
to take a more permanent part in the grammar 
schools, not that it was ever taught as a set 
subject and studied as a language or literature 



143 



GRAMMAR SCHOOL 



GRAMMAR SCHOOL 



in school, but the practice begun of making Eng- 
lish versions of Latin verse and English essays in 
classical subjects At the end of the seven- 
teenth century, though French began to be 
studied and French dictionaries and phrase- 
books to be written, it was taught in separate 
schools Perhaps the eaihcst recorded in- 
stance of a French master teaching French in 
an ordinary grammar school known is that of 
a French usher at Croydon Giammai School, 
then part of Archbishop Whitgift's hospital, 
about 1717 Hut from the rather casual 
way m which he is first mentioned it is certain 
this was not the fust instance of such ushers 
The unwillingness, and, according to legal 
decisions, the inability of the grammar schools 
to open their doors to modern subjects on a 
level with the ancient languages led to a marked 
decay m them duung the eighteenth centuiy 
(See EIGHTEENTH CENTURY IN ENGLISH EDU- 
CATION ) In 1805 m the Leeds Grammar 
School case (Attormnj-Gcncinl vs Whitcley, 11 
Ves 241) Lord Chancellor Eldon (q v ) stopped 
the efforts of the governors of the school to pro- 
vide for the admission of modern subjects, 
holding that the Court had no authority to 
fill a school intended to " teach the learned 
languages grammatically " with " scholars learn- 
ing the grammar and French languages, mathe- 
matics, and anything except Creek and Latin " 
A separate branch of the school to teach Ihese 
subjects " might be veiv use! ul to the youth 
of Leeds, but. could not possibly be icprcsented 
as useful to the charity," and it was to the 
utilitv of the chanty the court had to look 
This decision stopped all reform of the gram- 
mar schools, except when, as in the case of 
Leeds itself, the endowment was huge enough 
to go to the cost of a private act of Paihamerit 
A generation later the (Irammai Schools Act 
of 1840 overruled the decision and enabled the 
court to widen the curnculum, but onlv by the 
expensive process of a lawsuit- It took an- 
other generation before by the Endowed Schools 
Act, 1S61) ('/?>), a bodv of Endowed Schools 
Commissioneis was instituted to create more 
or less popularly elective governing bodies and 
to introduce natural science and modern lan- 
guages This had to be done bv separate 
schemes in each case, frequently opposed in 
Parliament on political grounds Hut now 
there are many grammar schools, in which 
grammar forms a very small part of the whole 
curriculum, which do not teach Greek at all, 
and in which it is even possible to escape Latin 
altogether On the other hand, those which 
have been most successfully reformed in then 
government and have in view the preparing 
of boys for the universities retained a greater 
but more efficient instruction in classics, such 
as Sherborne in Dorsetshire, Sedbergh in York- 
shire, two of the earliest of the so-called Free 
Grammar Schools of King Edward VI, Derbv 
and Ipswich, have dropped the word "grammar " 
and in imitation of Rugby, which was one of 



the earliest to do so, call themselves simply 
Sherborne or Sedbergh School, after the name 
of their place, and would describe themselves 
as Public Schools (q v ), almost in contradis- 
tinction to grammar schools The latter term, 
however, has been retained, and is still used in 
schools in some of the great manufacturing 
towns like Leeds and Manchester A F L 

See articles on individual schools, e.g ETON, 
HARROW, ST. PAUL'S, PUBLIC SCHOOLS, ENG- 
L\Ni), EDUCATION IN, under Secondary Edu- 
cation 

Present Position - - A classification of Eng- 
lish secondary schools is a matter of some diffi- 
culty Many factors \\hich aie extraneous to 
education enter in to complicate 1he question 
Hut the following three bioml divisions mav be 
made (1) Those schools which aie known as 
the Public Schools par excellent ( , most of these 
will receive separate treatment (c g Winchester, 
Eton, Harrow, Rugby, etc ) And since the 
Public Schools ha\e established H tradition, 
an account of their general organization and 
spirit will be given under PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

(2) A wide middle division including day and 
boarding schools, some accepting a govern- 
ment giant, some not, all charging lees, and the 
majority de\ eloped out of old foundations 
(See ENDO\\ MENTS; ENDOWED SCHOOLS ACT) 

(3) The third class of schools consist of those 
recently founded and maintained by local au- 
thorities and supported bv government giants, 
taking pupils as a mle direct liom elemental y 
schools and keeping them foi about fom veins 
For these see ENGLAND, EDUCATION IN 

Here only those schools which iall into the 
second division aie tieated Geneially these 
schools an 1 attended by the children of the 
middle classes, and with the exception of those 
who hold scholarships 01 free places all pupils 
pay fees which varv in amount from 12 to 24 
in dav schools and 75 to 120 m boaidmg 
schools While it has been found convenient 
to group these schools under the caption of 
Grammar Schools, the titles vary widelv 
With many t he term " ( College " has found great 
popularity in imitation of true collegiate schools 
like Eton (see, however, COLLEGE, ENGLISH), 
others merely bear the place name, and others 
again retain the title of Grammar School The 
organization of all the schools is approximately 
the same While some may receive pupils at 
the age of nine or ten, secondary work generally 
begins at the age of twelve, the pupils leceiving 
their preliminary education in elementary or 
in special preparatory schools, and continues up 
to nineteen, although there is usually a great 
leakage at sixteen The schools are usually 
divided into modern and classical sides, the 
former prepares boys for practical and com- 
mercial life as soon as they leave school, or m 
some cases for the universities, the latter for 
the universities and the professions In some 
schools all pupils receive a common basis in 
a " junior school," and bifurcation takes place 



144 



GRAMMAR SCHOOL 



GRAMMAR SCHOOL 



in inr fsrmcM KriiiMu ai uie age 01 uilliCen or 
fourteen In a few cases pio\ision is made 
for special science and mathematical Hides, 


DAT*, OF 


NUMULH OF 
PUPILS 


NUMB* n OK 


for special preparation for army examinations, 








etc The schools are organized in forms ((/ v ), 








generally on a basis of six, and each form is w jsl,\f ( ' )0 t | ^rmycton 
under a form master who has general charge Deiwtoiie CoHeR-IT 


151M. 
1873 


335 
270 


25 
17 


of pupils in his class, while for certain subjects, Dufwuh clXge I ondon 
such as science and mathematics, there are 


1871 
1019 
be fore 


200 
701 


18 
4? 


specialists For the influence of examinations Durham School 
on the work of English schools, see under that 


1180 
(refounded 
1540) 


102 


13 


topic For the social organization see ATM- Eastbourne College 

* ^ T? n hpMom (ollege 

LETICS, EDUCATIONAL, BOAKDINU SCHOOLS; Kxeter School 


1867 
185 r > 
13 J2 


200 

281 
130 


17 
20 
11 


DORMITORIES; PUBLIC SCHOOLS; FAGGIMJ, J^!f ed * ( , h o1 

T^ . ' T . } > l<et tea College 

PREFECTS, STUDENT LIFE; etc Giggieswuk school 


1504 

1880 
1507 


250 
230 
140 


21 
20 
13 


The following schools taken from the Public TT Suumd oU ^' Gl n " 








Schools Yearbook (1911) may be regarded as Elizabeth College, Guem- 


1841 


140 


14 


represcntative The basis of selection is the TJ H0 . V . ,, 

1 r IT f ,, TT , , Hailevburv (ollege 

same as for membership of the Headmasters Hereford cathedral 


1503 
1802 


120 
490 


11 
35 


Conference namely, number of pupils in the S <h<*>i 

i i / i i IT . i j\ i rr Highgate School 

school (one hundred boys at least), number of for- Gicsham's School, Holt 


1381 
1502 
1 55 "> 


120 
380 
196 


12 
25 
17 


mer pupils lesident as undergraduates at Oxford Hvmers College, Hull . 


1 889 


260 


17 


and Cambridge (ten at least), and number of ip^i.hs.hooi 


before 
1177 


120 


10 


boys sent up to the universities annually (fi\e lv ' n * w f ll J l , ftn|lM r I|p K p - 

,1 ,v rp, , r x , , ,11 i I 1 *" of Man 

or six at least), ihe nine great Public Schools owm's School, iwiington 


183S 

ion 


185 
420 


13 
20 


are left for separate treatment The dates of Victoria College, Jersev 


1832 


153 


13 


f i i 1 11 1.1 i i King s ( ollege rv'liool, 

foundation in the following list are based on Wimbledon 


1829 


2U) 


IS 


Leach Kov.il Clrammar School, 


before 






Lam astet 


1472 


169 


<) 


SS Min\ nrid Nicolas 










College, Lancing 


1843 


222 


21 




DAT* OF ' ^ John's S( hool, Leath- 










FOUNIM- NiMHKit oi-jNuMUth 01 erhead 


1831 


255 


10 




1 ION 


J'ifMiH AlAHiMtH Lc'eds (irimmai S( hool 


] 332 


273 


22 








W>ggeston Cirammai 














School, Leicester 
Liverpool College 


1515 

1812 


r >8 r > 
250 


27 
17 


Abmgdon School 


1 r )( ^ 


1JO 


10 Llando\cr\ College 


184S 


101 


1 i 




(refounded) 




Loretto School 


1829 


140 


IS 


Aldcnham S< hool 


1 V)7 


210 


17 Malvern ( 1 ollcge 1S04 


500 


30 


Beaumont College, Old 






Miinchester (irammar 1500 / 






Windsor 


ISbl 


ISO 


.r> Srliool 


1315 1 


8SO 


43 


BecHord dammar Sc hool 


Ioo2 


soo 


17 Alarl borough ('ollcgc< 


184 i 


000 


40 




(jefoiindcd) 




Merchant Ta\ lor's School 








Berkhamsted School 


1 54.') 


105 


22 Crosbx 


1018 


300 


15 


Birkenhead School 


1S()() 


200 


10 Alerchiston (Castle 








King Eelwaids \Ts High 






School, Kdmburgh 


183 i 


270 


23 


School, Birmingham 


i A.^^ 


470 


27 Mill IMl School 


1807 


200 


22 


Bishop's Stortfoicl Col- 






Monkton Combe School, 








lege 


1 S(iS 


l.W 


14 nenr Bath 


1 808 


137 


17 


Bluudell's School, Tiver- 






Monrnouth (irammar 








ton 


1004 


250 


20 School 


1011 


177 


12 




before 




Neu ( aHtle-under-L\ me 








Boston School 


1327 


105 


7 High School 


1002 


1 50 


12 


Bradheld College 


1 850 


Js7 




before 






Bradford Grammar 


before 




~^ Norwich Si hool 


1230 


90 


() 


School 


1548 


r ) r >0 




before 






Chnst ('ollege, Brecon. 


1541 


100 


7 Nottingham High School 


12S9 


{70 


20 


Brighton College 


1815 


212 


1 ( > Oakham School 


l r >M 


103 


11 




before 




Oundle School 


1104 


310 


23 


Biistol Grammar School 


1171 


,iSO 


21 Oxford High School 


1S7S 


130 


11 




before 




Magdalen College School, 








Bromsgrove School 


1548 


140 


12 Oxford 


1 180 


100 


10 


Leys School, Cambridge 


LS75 


l r > r , 


IS St Ed ward's School, Ox- 








Perse Grammar Sc hool, 






ford 


1863 


120 


10 


Cambridge 


1015 


210 


2'* PI v mouth College 


1834 


172 


12 


Kmg'n School, Canter- 






Portsmouth (Jrimmar 








buiy 


5 ( )H 


2,i7 


18 Sc hool 


1732 


2 30 


12 


St Edmund's School, 






St Peter's College, Hadlev 


1S47 


240 


20 


Canterbury 


174<> 


12 r , 


1,J St Lawrence College, 










before 




Kamsgatc 


1879 


200 


21 


Carlisle (irammar School 


12 l )0 


140 


q 


befon 






Cheltenham College, 






Reading School 


1125 


135 


13 


Cheltenham 


1841 


000 


49 Itepton School, Kepton- 








Dean Close Memorial 






on-Trent 


1557 


300 


30 


School, Cheltenham 


1886 


220 


13 Hossall Sc hool, Fleet w ood 


1844 


300 


28 


King's School, Chester 


1541 


140 


9 St Alban's School 


948 


218 


14 


ChiKwell School 


1029 


100 


9 St Bees School 


1587 


280 


16 


Christ's Hospital, West 






St Glare's and St Sa- 








Horsham 


1552 


820 


47 viour's Graramai 








City of London School 


1831 


715 


36 School, London 


l r >71 


450 


24 


Clifton College, Bristol 


1802 


050 


51 Hedbergh School 


1525 


220 


18 



VOL III L 



145 



GRAMMAR, STUDY OF 



GRANT 





UAH. o, 


Ml.MMhK OF 


Ml MBLK OF 




1' OHVDA- 


PlII'llS 


M AST 1 HH 




I ION 






Sherborne School 


(M founded) 


280 


21 


Btonyhurst Col lego 
Tonbridge School 


1 VJ2 


WO 
4 r >0 


2<> 
M 


Trent College 


IHfob 


150 


15 


University College S< hool, 








London 


IS 30 


300 


25 


UppinKharn School 
Wakefield Grammar 


l r )S4 


140 


37 


S( hool 


1 V) 1 


250 


IS 




before 






Warwick School, 


1(11)1. 


200 


15 


Wellington College 


is r > i 


100 


.to 


Wevmouth College 


ISM 


11 r > 


12 


Wolverhampton School 
Woodbndge School 


I(!fa2 


14? 


Iti 
12 


Worcester Cathedral 








King's School 


1 MO 


150 


14 


Worcester Royal Gram- 


before 






mar School 


1202 


275 


17 


St Peter 'H School, York 


Sth f enturv 


140 


19 



References : 

CARLISLE, N Endowed Grammar fichooh in England 
and Wales (London, IMS) 

LE\CH, A F Enult&h School** at the Reformation (Ox- 
ford, 1H9G ) 
Victoria Counh/ Histories, articles on Srhoc Is 

NORWOOD, C , and HOPE, A H The Hifjhe Education 
of Moijto in Ruffland (London, l ( )() ( ) ) 

Publu Schools Ycinbook, giving an ac( oun of the 01- 
gaimation of each H< hool and the lite ature eon- 
neeted with e.uh (London, annual ) 

Schoolmaster**' YenihooL, giving a < hionule ai 1 review of 
the vear (hearing on .semnrlaiv edueatio i) and gen- 
eral mioimation (London, annual ) 

GRAMMAR, STUDY OF - See GRAMMAR, 
ENGLISH, ENGLISH USAGE, (JUKEK LAN(;U\(IE 
AND LITERATURE, LATIN LANGUAGE AND LIT- 
ERATURE 

GRAMMATEUS (Hemnch Schreiber, or 
Henrieus Scnptor, whence the Latinized Greek 
form of Grammateus) Mathematician, was 
born at Eifurt, at least as early as 1496, and 
describes himself in one of Ins woiks as II en rich 
Gramniateuf* von Eifint <lei uben fienn hun\ten 
Meystei He was a student at Cracow and at 
the University of Vienna (1507), and was well 
known as a teacher, and also as a lecturer in 
the university where he was educated His 
publications include an arithmetic, Heehen- 
buchlin, that appeared in 15 IK, with subsequent 
editions in 1535, 1544, 1554, and 1572 He 
also published the following AlqoiiOunu^ pro- 
poitionum, in which was included some work 
in the theory of music (Cracow, 1514), Libellus 
de cornpoMtione tcgiilaiuni pro wi*>oi urn tnen- 
surationc (Vienna, 1518), Behend and khunst- 
hch Hechnung K(uh dei Regel urut wethisch 
praetic (Nurnberg, 1521), Algonwnu* de ni- 
tegris Regula de tn cum exempli^ (Eifurt, 1523), 
Eyn kurtz newe Rechenn unnd Visyjbueehleynn 
(Erfurt, 1523) RudoliT (q v ) learned algebra 
from Grammateus, for he records his thanks to 
him in these words feh hah von meister Hein- 
nchen so Grammateus genennt dcr Coss an- 
fengkhchen bencht emphangen. Sag im darumb 
danck D E S 



GRANADA UNIVERSITY -- See SPAIN, 
EDUCATION IN 

GRAND ISLAND COLLEGE, GRAND 
ISLAND, NEB A coeducational institu- 
tion maintaining academic, collegiate, com- 
mercial, and music departments The entrance 
requirements to the college are equivalent to 
the work of a high school The college confers 
the degree of A B on completion of the requi- 
site courses There is a faculty of twenty-five 
instructors 

GRANGER, THOMAS Writer of a Latin 
grammar, 1011), and a logic, 1620 The gram- 
mar is entitled Syntagma Grammaticum, or 
an caste and mcthodicall explanation of Lillic's 
Giammar, wheieby the nnxteiie of thi* Art is 
more plainly set forth, both for the better helpe 
of all schoole-mmster*, in the true older of teach- 
ing, and the tchollers for more easie attaincment 
of the Latine tongue, 1010 Granger was an 
M A of Peterhouse ( Allege, Cambridge, ap- 
parently minister at H utter wick, near Boston, 
in Lincolnshire His giammai is of importance 
on account of the Epistle to the Reader, con- 
taming " the geneiall Theonke, or true grounds 
of teaching " In this treatise Granger points 
out that commonly doubtfulness and confusion 
exist in teacher and scholai, unless he is full 
master of his subject and understands child 
natuie Granger has a clear insight into the 
causes of confusion and doubtfulness in the 
child He understands that the psychology 
of the child is different fiom that of the man, 
and goes on to point out the differences in a 
very modern spirit Grangei anticipates some- 
thing of the doctrine of seli-activity " The 
scholar must attain to learning by his own study, 
industry, diligence and exercise, using /u,s 
mastci a,s a help, u.s a nuisc, 01 matrm " 

In 1620 Granger published Syntagma Logicum 
~~or the Divine Log ike This was a logic for 
divines in " the practice of pleaching " and for 
the help of " judicious heareis " and " generally 
for all " It is dedicated to Bacon The work 
is founded on Ramus (q v)> the great leformer 
of logic, with modern applications Grangei 
supplies scriptural and theological illustrations 
of logic, as Fraunce (q v ) had supplied English 
poetical and legal illustrations F W 

Reference * 

WATSON, FOSTER The English Grammar Schools up to 
1M>0, PP 267-208 (Cambridge, 1908 ) 

GRANT, CHARLES (1746-1827) States- 
man and philanthropist, born m Invernesshire 
He was early taken by an uncle to India, where 
he entered the service of the East India Com- 
pany, with whom he attained a position of great 
importance and influence He interested him- 
self greatly in the need for the social better- 
ment of tlie natives, and never tired of sending 
to England suggestions for the increased estab- 



146 



GRANT, ZILPAH 



GRAPH 



lishmcnt of missions in India On his return 
to England ho was instrumental in founding 
the Church Missionary Society (1799) and the 
British and Foreign Bible Society (1804) 
His treatise, Observations on the State of fiocictij 
among the Asiatic Subject* of (treat Bntain 
particularly with Respect to Morale, and on the 
Means of Improving it (1813), led to the ap- 
pointment by Parliament of a Bishop of ( 1 al- 
cutta with jurisdiction over India and Ceylon, 
and to the grant of a lac of rupees ($50,000) 
for promoting education lie diew attention, 
also, to the need of industrial training in India 
Grant was also the originator of a plan for the 
education of young civil servants of the Kast 
India Company, which resulted in the estab- 
lishment in 1805 of the East India College at 
liaileyburg (See PUBLIC SERVICE, TRAINING 
FOR ) He sat in Paihamcnt from 1802 to 1818 
as member for his native county 

Reference : 

MORRIS, H The Life of Charles Grant (London, 1904 ) 

GRANT, ZILPAH See BANISTER, ZILPAH 

GRANT 

GRANTHAM, THOMAS (d 1664) A 
clergyman who on sequestration of his parson- 
age became a private schoohuastei, an advocate 
oi a speedy way of teaching the llebiew, 
Greek, and Latin tongues, and the determined 
opponent of corporal punishment He appears 
to have belonged to a Lincolnshire family and 
to have studied at Oxfoid from 1628 to 1630 and 
at Cambridge (Peterhouse, M A 1634) Befoie 
1644 he was teaching in Bow Lane, and \\iote 
his Brainbreakers Breaker (MvrjfjLo<t>6opo7raiKTr]<;} 
in which he protests vigorouslv against the 
seventy of schoolmasters Granthain gnes a 
picture of the school teaching of the tunes, 
in which he attacks the weakness of teaching 
grammar by rote in an unintelligible language 
Granthain sought to teach grammar mles 
understandmgly " and by often applying them, 
the lules come without book whether they will 
or no " Still more remarkable was Granthain 
in his Brainbreakers Breaker i\ewly broke out 
again in 1649-1650 In it he says: u A bov 
may easily learn a thousand words in ten days, 
that is, a hundred words in a day " Granthain 
proposes as remedy that all the revenues of the 
free grammar schools should be taken from 
them and placed in the hands of a tieasurei, 
and only those schoolmasters who proved their 
ability to teach well should receive the public 
money. On one occasion, one of Grantham's 
challenges against a London public school was 
accepted and judgment given in favor of Grant- 
ham 

Grantham also wrote Animadversions on 
Camden's Greek Grammar, dealing with his 
favorite topic of the folly of learning grammar 
by rote, and in 1644 he wrote .A Discourse in 
Derision of the Teaching in Free Schools and 



other common Schools, in which he introduces 
three ordinary masters of Free Schools, a citizen, 
a country gentleman, a traveler, and himself, 
" Professor of the Greek and Latin Tongues in 
London " In 1660 he translated three books 
of Homer's Iliad into English F W 

Reference 

Dictionary of National Biography 

GRANTS. See APPORTIONMENT OF SCHOOL 
FUNDS, BUDGET, SCHOOL, NATIONAL GOVERN- 
MENT AND EDUCATION, SCHOOL FUNDS 

GRAPH A term used in algebra to refer 
to the representation of an equation bv the 
methods of analytic geometry (q v ), and oc- 
casionally to refei to other line and surface rep- 
icsentations of functions The introduction of 
this topic into elementary algebra is recent As 
in all such cases, there have been three periods 
in this introduction (l)the period of adoption 
for the purpose of filling the gap left In the omis- 
sion of some obsolete topic, (2) the period of 
extravagant and ill-considered use of a novelty, 
(3) the period of leaction and of investigation 
of the real merits of the theory From the edu- 
cational standpoint the greatest value of the 
giaph lies in i1s power of showing visually the 
number and nature of the roots of an equation 
For elemental y purposes, as a means of finding 
the actual loots of an equation, its value is slight, 
although in the computation of the loots oi 
a numerically highei equation it has of late been 
shown to be very useful Its value in showing 
the functional relation of algebraic expressions 
is also great, and is coming to be recognized 

In elementary algebia it is desirable to in- 
troduce curve tracing as an aid in the study 
of the negative number This work also offeis 
an opportunity of showing the change in a 
function of a variable as the vaiiable changes 
It may next be introduced in connection \\ith 
the study of simultaneous equations of the fust 
degiee in t\\o variables. Heie thcie are fom 
types that may advantageously be consideied 
(1) Two simultaneous equations such as i + 7 // 
= 15, 9 jr 3 ?/ = 3 In this case the lines \\ill 
intersect, and the lesult is a visual illustration 
ol the iact that two such equations have, in 
general, a root, and that only one root is pos- 
sible (2) T\\o inconsistent equations such as 
6 x - 9 y = 7, and 4 .r - 6 y = 5 In this case the 
lines will be parallel, and the student sees that 
theieis no point in common, and hence that t\\o 
such equations in two unknowns are not neces- 
sarily simultaneous (3) Two identical equa- 
tions, such as 6 r -f 9 y = 12, and 4 r + 6 y = S 
Here the two lines are identical, and the student 
sees that there is an infinite number of points 
on the two lines, and hence that, there is an 
infinite number of values of jc and // that will 
satisfy the two equations (4) Three or more 
simultaneous equations in two unknowns, such 
as a- -f y = 5, 2 x - ij = 1, 7 2 + 4 y = 20 Here 



147 



GRAPHIC CURVE 



GRAPHIC CURVE 



the three lines pass through the common point 
(2, 3), and the student sees that in general three 
such equations have one common root, but that 
in a special case the lines may be concurrent 
and the equations indeterminate The next 
use of the graph is found in the study of quad- 
ratics Here the use is twofold: (1) In the 
study of a single quadratic equation in one un- 
known, the graph shows clearly the number 
of roots to be expected, the fact that imaginary 
roots enter in pairs, and the meaning of equal 
roots (2) In the study of two quadratics in- 
volving two unknowns, or of one quadratic and 
one linear equation, the graph shows the num- 
ber of roots to be expected, and the possibilities 
as to the nature of the roots For example, a 
straight line cuts a conic in two points, and 
hence we expect two roots in solving a system 
consisting of a quadratic and a linear equation 
Two comes, howcvei, intersect in four points, 
and hence we expect four roots The graph 
shows how two of these roots may be identical 
(the comes being tangent), or how two nn- 
agmanes may enter at the same instant, and 
all this makes an impression on the student's 
mind that the mere analytic proof does not 
make 

ILscd in this spirit, a reasonable study of 
graphs is desirable Carried beyond these 
limits, the work usually degenerates into a for- 
malism without object and without real interest 

DBS 

GRAPHIC CURVE A term applied to 
a line the characteristics of which indicate to 
the eye the relationship which two variable 
quantities sustain to each other as either the 
one 01 the other is increased or diminished 
In order to determine this curve, two lines of 
reference, called axes, are drawn perpendicular 
to each other A number of corresponding 
values of the two variables are obtained, and 
for each pair of values a point is plotted, the 
perpendicular distances of which fiom the two 
axes are representative of each of the two 
variables in that calculation After a number 
of such points are plotted, it is usually possible 
to diaw through them a line which will indicate 
the general character of the relationship be- 
tween the variables involved One of the best 
known of the graphic curves is that illustrating 
Weber's law, or the psychophysical law of the 
relationship between the intensity of stimuli 
and the intensity of corresponding sensations 
It is found that in order to get any sensation 
at all the stimulus must be considerable After 
this, as the stimulus is increased, the intensity 
of the sensation increases at first very rapidly, 
then more slowly, until at last further increase 
in the stimulus produces no result on the in- 
tensity of the sensation In general, in order 
to produce an appreciable increase in the in- 
tensity of the sensation the intensity of the stim- 
ulus must be increased by a certain proportion 
of itself The law may be pictured by the 



following graphic curve (Fig I) Distance 
measured on OX indicates intensity of stimu- 
lus Distance measured on OY indicates 




FIG 1 

intensity of sensation Intensity Ob of stim- 
ulus corresponds to intensity Oa of sensation. 
Both are represented by point p on the curve 
The curve m general resembles a parabola 

Graphic curves may vary from straight lines 
to curves of great irregularity One oi the 
simplest types is the cu?ve of distribution, 
brought into prominence in psychological 
statistics by Sir Fiancib Galton (qv) It. 
represents the number of individuals of a group 
who icpiesent each of the various existing 
differences in reference to any characteristic 
P"or example, in a given fairly homogeneous 
population, there will be very few very shoit 
men, very few very tall men, and, as we ap- 
proach the average height from either extreme, 
the number of individuals who correspond to 
the successive measurements will at first in- 
crease slowly, then more rapidly The general 
form of the normal curve of distribution is as 
follows (Fig 2). Distance measured on OX 








FIG 2 



indicates the amount of the characteristics 
m question Distance measured on OY in- 
dicates number of individuals 

In reference to such distnbutions three val- 
ues are of importance These are the average, 
which is obtained by adding all the measure- 
ments together and dividing by the number 
of individuals concerned, the median, which 
represents the measurement above or below 
which 50 per cent of all the individual measure- 
ments he, and the mode, or the measurement 
represented by the greatest number of individ- 
uals It is interesting to note that average, 
median, and mode may in the same case repre- 
sent different values, a fact which the form 
of the curve will readily display 

If a population, instead of being homogeneous, 
is divided, for example, into two groups which 
vary considerably from each other in reference 



148 



GRAPHIC CURVE 



GRAPHIC CURVE 



to the trait in question, this fact will be shown 
by a deviation from the normal curve of dis- 
tribution A population made up of two races, 
one considerably taller than the other, would 
be apt to be represented by a curve sagging at 
the center, as in Fig 3 Here the modes m 



other trait must be found These successive 
averages must then be plotted and the curve 
drawn through them It is evident that the 
curve will progress regularly in the direction of 
increase in the basal trait Ordinarily such 
regular progress will not be discovered m refei- 



FIG 3 

and m r of the two racial groups would vary 
considerably from each othei, producing the 
effect indicated 

Again, if some selective agency tends to 
destroy those who vary either above 01 below 
the noimal, the curve will exhibit this influence 
by falling off abruptly on the side affected, arid 



FIG 4 

representing what is known as a skew distri- 
bution, as in Fig 4. 

Another simple type of graphic curve may 
be called the carve of fluctuation In this the 
measurements on one axis icpresent intervals 
of time, while those made on the other represent 
the fluctuating values The rate of growth in 
height or weight or of advance in any mental 
trait may thus be represented to the eye. 
Heie the curves tend in one direction, but 
where health or school attendance 01 amount of 
improvement is represented, they aie likely to 
rise and fall 

Correlation Both the curve of distribu- 
tion and that of giowth or fluctuation indicate 
correlation. In the one case, a measuiement 
is correlated with the number of individuals 
who represent it; in the other, with the time 
of occurrence of the fact that it indicates 
The special character of the two curves differ- 
entiates them from the curve which represents 
the relation of two characteristics without 
reference to number of individuals or time of 
occurrence This curve may, therefore, not 
inappropriately be given the title curve of cor- 
relation The curve illustrating Weber's Law 
is an example of this type 

To plot a curve of correlation one trait must 
be taken as a basis, and the individuals repre- 
senting successive measurements in this trait 
must be grouped together Then the average 
measurement of each group in respect to the 



dasal trait 

Fu, 5 

ence to the averages representing the second 
trait Thus the curve will fluctuate as in 
Fig 5 While in general there is progress in 
reference to the averages of the second trait, 
this progress is not uniform Careful reflec- 
tion, however, will make it evident that if 
enough cases aie obtained the 
irregularities will be likely to dis- 
appear and that we shall have 
left a curve 01 straight line \\liu li 
will indicate the amount and 
character of the correlation 01 
the lack of coi relation between 
y, the two traits in question Sup- 
pose, for example, the coi relation 
between ability in mathematics 
and ability in classics were being 
calculated Let degree of mathematical abiht\ 
be measured on OX, \\ hei e represents the mini- 
mum and A" the maximum ability Let. degree of 
ability in classics be measured similarly on OF 
Perfect correlation between the two po\\ers 
would be represented by Fig 6 Evciy mdi- 




FIG 6. 

vidual will occupy the same relative position 
in reference both to mathematical and to 
classical ability. On the other hand, if there 



JLine of no correlation, 



FIG 7 

be no correlation, every group in reference to 
mathematical ability would in classical ability 
tend to show about the same mediocre average 
The curve would then be paiallel to OX, as 



149 



UKAPH1C CURVE 



GRASER 



iiuhcatod in Fig 7 A cuive of partial corrc- coordinate geometry reduces a visible geo- 
lation would be represented in Fig 8, of per- metric form to an abstract quantitative rela- 
tionship. The graphic curve reverses this 




FIG 8 

feet reverse correlation in Fig 9 Here as one 
ability mri eases, the othei diminishes 

Average Deviation It is evident that ex- 
cept where there is perfect correlation the 
curve does not enable us to place any indi- 
vidual m regard to one tiait when his position 
in regard to another is known When, how- 
ever, the average deviation of the individual 




FIQ 9. 

measurements from the averages that are 
leprescnted by the curve are calculated, ap- 
pioximate prediction becomes possible We 
can say that the chances are even that the 
position of any individual in one trait will not 
vary more than the amount of the average 
deviation from the place in the curve which is 
assigned to it by virtue of its rating in refer- 
ence to the other trait 

The accmate determination of degrees of 
correlation is a matter of somewhat compli- 
cated mathematical analysis For an adequate 1 
ticatment of this subject the reader is referred 
to Thorndike's Mental and Social Measuic- 
inentf. The graphic curve is not intended as a 
basis for predictive calculation, but rather to 
exhibit a relationship in a form readily to be 
apprehended It is evident that for this pur- 
pose it has great value m educational theory 
and practice In this field the calculation of 
distribution and variation, of growth and 
fluctuation, or of correlation, whether in refer- 
ence to mental or physical abilities, the effects 
of this or that educational method or condition, 
of school piacticcs, 01 of a multitude of other 
factors concerned m education, is being recog- 
nized as of the greatest importance In order 
to display the lesults of these calculations in a 
form easily grasped, the graphic curve is of very 
great value 

It is interesting to note that the use of axes 
of reference by relation to which the corre- 
sponding values of two variables can be deter- 
mined was invented by Des Cartes (q v ) as a 
means of applying algebia to geometry The 



tionship. The graphic curve reverses this 
process, and puts the abstract quantitative 
relationship in a concrete visible geometrical 
form E. N H. 

References : 

ELDERTON, W P and E M Primer of Statistics 

(London, 1910) 
GALTON, Sin FKANCIH Inquiries into the Human In- 

tdkct (London, 1910) 
PEAKSON, KAHL Grammm of Science (London, 

1900) 
THOUNDIKE, E L Mental and Social Measurements 

(New York, 1904 ) 
Educational Psychology (New York, 1910 ) 

GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION See 
GRAPH; GRAPHIC' CURVE, VISUAL AIDS TO 
TEACHING 

GRAPHOLOGY The science of hand- 
writing This science has nevei been developed 
in any systematic form, and it is doubtful 
whether it can be so developed The effort 
of many to judge character through writing 
has never been successful Certain charac- 
teristics of writing can, however, be recognized 
as related to well-defined conditions under 
which the writing is done C H J 

See PENMANSHIP. WRITING 



Reference : 

PREYER, T W Zur 

(Hamburg, 1895) 



Psychologic des Schreiben*. 



GRASER, JOHANN BAPTIST (1766-1841) 
A distinguished Gennan educational writer, 
born in Kltman, Bavaria He studied in Bam- 
berg and Wurzburg, where at the age of twenty 
he became doctor of philosophy He entered 
the priesthood, and was appointed prefect of 
the theological seminary at Wurzburg After 
some experience as teacher and university pro- 
fessor he went m 1804 to Bamberg as school 
councillor (Schulrat) In 1810 he was trans- 
ferred to a similar position in Bayreuth, which 
he filled up to the time of retnement in 1821 
A monument was erected to him m Bayreuth 
by the teachers of Upper Francoma 

(Eraser's pedagogical theory was based on the 
philosophy of Schellmg He considers as the 
chief aim of education the development of the 
" divinity " m man Education should make 
man conscious of his divine origin, and should 
cause him so to think and act as to make him- 
self worthy of this origin Grascr also deserved 
credit for the introduction of a new method of 
elementary instruction by which reading and 
writing were taught together (Schreiblese- 
mcthode) The observations which he made in 
the teaching of reading directed his attention 
to the education of deaf-mutes Through his 
efforts courses for the instruction of deaf- 
mutes were introduced m many German teach- 
ers' seminaries Grascr's chief works are: 



150 



GRAY 



GREARD 



Divinitat oder dax Prinzip dcr einzig wahren 
M enschenerziehung (Divinity, or the principle of 
the only true human education, 1830), Elc- 
mcntarschule furs Lcbcn (Elementary School, a 
preparation for life, 1831), Der (lurch Gcsicht 
und Tonftprache dcr Menxchheit wiedergegcbene 
Taubstummc (The deaf nude restored to humanity 
through visual observations and oral language, 
1829) F'M 

References : 

PFEIFFLR, F W Die Volk^chule dcs XIX J ohrhunderitt 
in Bioyraphien hcrvorrayendcr tichulmtiLnner (Nu- 
remberg, 1872 ) 

WIECK, II J B Grader lu Die K/a*>siker tier Pftda- 
gogik, Vols XIII-XIV (Langensalza, 1891 ) 

GRAY, ASA (1810-1888) Scientist and 
textbook author, was graduated at the Fair- 
field College of Physicians and was professor in 
Haivard College f'lorn 1842 to 1873 Author 
of textbooks in botany and physiology 

W S M 

GRAY, THOMAS (1716-1770) Poet and 
scholar; he showed remarkable versatility, 
although in his student days he chafed so 
strongly against academic i emulations and 
prescriptions as to leave Cambndge without a 
degree Botany, zoology, history, language, 
archaeology formed the chief subjects of his 
studies His most interesting contnbution on 
education was the poem, The Alliance of Edu- 
(atwn and Government, which was unfoi In- 
nately never finished In it the poet pleads 
foi " the necessary alliance between a good 
f 01 in of government and a good mode of educa- 
tion " (Mason) Apparently Gray abandoned 
the poem because he found a much better treat- 
ment of the subject in Montesquieu's L' E^ptit 
c/66 L/otb The introduction of this poem, like 
seveial stanzas of the Elegy Wiitten in a, Co un- 
ity C/unchyaid, is a plea for educational oppor- 
tunity foi the "Milage Hampden " or the 
" mute, inglorious Milton M 

But Knowledge to their eyes her ample page, 
Rich with the spoils of time, did ne'er unroll 

Gray's first printed poem was the Ode on a 
distant Prospect of Eton (College, which, vlnle 
giving a picture of the Eton of his day, takes 
at the same time a somewhat pessimistic view 
of the joy and carelessness of youth, ignorant 
of the world before them 

References : 

BARNAKD, II American Journal of Education, Vol. 

VIII, pp 283-288 
GOSSE, E. Gray (London, 1882 ) 

GRAZ, THE IMPERIAL ROYAL CHARLES- 
FRANCIS UNIVERSITY OF Like several 
other Austrian universities, the University of 
Graz, located in the capital of Stvna, owes its 
ongin to a Jesuit College, the college tit (Iraz 
having been founded in l">7.'$ by Archduke 
Charles Soon aftei wards a Latin school was 



added to the college, this step being followed 
in 1585 by the organization of a university, 
which was formally opened in the following 
year, and remained undei the control of the 
Society of Jesus until the dissolution of the 
Jesuit order under Empress Maria Theresa in 
1773 The institution consisted at first of 
only two faculties, those of theology and 
philosophy, although the .Jesuit College was 
looked upon as a separate Facnlta* Inuna- 
nibtica swell nguamm The original university 
building was completed in 1609, and remained 
in use until 1805, when a new building was 
dedicated The first prof essoi ship in medicine 
dates back to 1774, and five yeais latei a 
faculty of law was established Emperor 
Joseph II lowered the tone of the institution, 
which by 1713 boasted of an enrollment of 
1350 students, by degrading it into a lyceum, 
as a result of which the student body diminished 
rapidly in numbers until the university privi- 
leges were restored in 1826 The faculty of 
philosophy was reorganized in 1S49, the medi- 
cal faculty fourteen years later, the umveiMty 
at the present day possessing the tiaditional 
four faculties, the theological faculty being of 
course Catholic There were 207 \ students in 
attendance in the winter semester of 1909- 
1910, of v\hom almost halt weie enrolled in the 
faculty of law The University Library, 
founded in 1586, contains about 250,000 
volumes and almost 2000 manuscripts (Ira/ 
is also the seat of an Imperial Royal Technical 
School, which attracted 725 students in the 
winter semester of 1909-1910 R T , Ji 

References : 

Fet>ti>(hrift zur Feicr der V crvolhtandigung dtr Uinvtrsital 

Guiz, 1S95 
KRONEH, FK Ge&chtchte dcr K -F -Univcr&ttat in Gniz 

(Oniz, 1SSO ) 
Minerva, Handbuch dei gdukrten ft e//, Vol I (Strass- 

burg, 1911 ) 
SCHACENHTEIN, A Die cr^tcri drci Jahthundertc dir 

K -F -Universitat in Graz (Graz, 1886 ) 

GREARD, CLEMENT VALLERY OCTAVE 

(1828-1904) French educator, born at Vire, 
and a friend of Pr6vost-Paradol He was 
appointed an academy inspector by Duruy 
(qv) y director of education in the department 
of the Seme, by Baron llaussmann, and vice- 
rector of the Academy of Paris by Jules Ferry 
to succeed Ad Mouner He devoted himself 
to realizing in administration the greater part 
of the reforms elaborated and the progress 
begun by the great ministers of public instruc- 
tion Retiring in 1902, he died in 1904 
(Jre*ard was an administrator ready to put into 
practice the instructions of all the ministers, 
anxious for his reputation and standing, a 
man of energy, he could at times exercise, as a 
teacher expressed it, the suppleness of an 
Italian cardinal In elementary education lie 
demanded orderliness in buildings and equip- 
ment, proper care ot the pupils' exercise books, 
methodical instruction, vie In the secondary 



151 



GREAT BRITAIN 



GREAVES 



field he strove to apply to the lycecv for girls 
some of the ideas of Fnelon and Madame de 
Mamtenon, and in the lycees for boys he took 
as his guide the reforms suggested by H 
Marion (q v ) Opposed on principle to the 
boarding school, which he accepted as an 
administrator, he tried to establish some lycfas 
in the country round Pans ; the attempt failed 
within the University, but succeeded outside 

The chief works of Gre'aid are Le Mot ale dc 
Phdarque (1866) ; Lrttres tVAbtlaid ct d' Htloisc 
(1868); L'Oigarnwition pcdagogtf/ue de& Ecoles 
dc la Seine (1S68); L Instruction prnnairv a 
Pans (1871), La Legislation dc V Ens? igne went 
pnmaire en Fiance depute 1789 (1900); L\En- 
wig tic went wcondaire dc* Fjllcb (1887), Eloge 
dc M de Falloux (1888), Education ct Instruc- 
tion (1888 and 1900), etc J P 

References : 

Anmunn de V Enscujnement Pnmairc, Vol XXI 

(Pans, 1905 ) 

HOURGAIN, M P Gr&trd (Pans, 1007 ) 
HAUMONVILLE, COMTE D' Notice sur lu, Vic ct Travaux 

do M Octave Gicurd in Stance* d Travaiur de 

I* Academic den Sciences morales ct tiolitigues, Vol 

CXXXI (Paris, 1909 ) 

HE'MON, F Bertot ct *, Amis (Pans, 1911 ) 
La Grande Encyclopedic, s v Greard 

GREAT BRITAIN See ENGLAND, EDU- 
CATION IN, IRELAND, EDUCATION IN, SCOT- 
LAND, EDUCATION IN, WALES, EDUCATION IN 

GREAT DIDACTIC See COMENIUS 

GREATEST COMMON DIVISOR The 

greatest number that will divide two or more 
given numbers, producing an integral quotient, 
is called their greatest common divisor For- 
merly the greatest common divisor had a 
pmmment place in the teaching of authmetic, 
but now this portion has been lost, the subject 
having value only in the theory of immbeis 
(</ /' ) The reason for its former prominence is 
casilv seen when we consider the natuie of the 
common fraction of the Middle Ages and eaily 
Renaissance (See FRACTIONS ) For example, 

m reducing a fraction like ^^ to lowest terms, 

for the purpose of operating with it or of 
expressing some result in simpler form, the 
factors to be suppressed are not at once evi- 
dent. It therefore becomes necessary to find 
the greatest common divisoi by a form that is 
given in Euclid's Element*, and therefore 
known as the Euclidean method This is 
illustrated m the following operation: 

2257)3599(1 
2257 

1342)2257(1 
1342 

915)1342(1 
915 

427)915(2 
854 



01)427(7 
427 



The proof that 61 is the greatest common 
divisor of 2257 and 3599 depends upon two 
principles: (1) A divisor of any number is a 
divisor of any multiple of the number; (2) A 
common divisor of each of two numbers is a 
divisor of the sum or the difference of any 
multiples of the numbers 

Educationally the subject has lost its sig- 
nificance, since the general acceptance of the 
decimal fraction The common fraction now 
being limited to simple forms, we no longer 
need to reduce difficult fractions to lowest 
terms, at least in ordinary business and science 
The mere suppression of factors by inspection 
suffices for such cases of reduction as practically 
occur This being the case, it is somewhat 
absurd that gicatest common divisor should be 
taught by factoring, as is commonly the case 
at present Since the only time when we 
practically need to use the greatest common 
divisor is when we cannot readily factor two 
numbers, to find the greatest common divisor 
by factoring is to find it undei conditions that 
are never met If we can easilv factor, we 
can cancel factors from the terms of a fi action 
without taking the trouble 1 to find the greatest 
common divisor Foi this reason the subject 
will probably disappear fiom arithmetic m the 
next genciation 

The corresponding cxpiession in algebra is 
highest common factor We cannot tell 
whether a given algebraic expression is greater 
than anothei unless we know the numeiical 
value of the letters For example, x 2 is greatei 
than x if the absolute value of x is greater 
than 1, even though its algebraic value mav 
be less than 1, as m the case of x = 2 But 
x 2 is less than x, if the absolute value of x is 
less than 1, as in the case of r = i Hence 
the word "highest" is used instead of greatest, 
referring to the degree 4 rather than the absolute 
value of the expression The icmarks already 
made concerning the greatest common divisoi 
in arithmetic apply to quite an extent to the 
highest common factor in algebra Although 
there is no algebraic decimal fraction to replace 
the common fraction, as there is in arithmetic, 
nevertheless the practical uses of the highest 
common factor were formerly much exag- 
gerated Hence the subject is at present given 
less attention than was formerly the case 

D. E. S. 

GREAVES, JAMES PIERREPONT (1777- 
1842) English Pestalozzian, acquired a com- 
petence as a merchant, but lost his property 
by French spoliations during the Napoleonic 
wars Through his interest in philanthropic 
movements, he joined Pestalozzi (q.v ) at Yver- 
don in 1817 m order that he might familiarize 
himself with the best means of educational 
reform A year later he took charge of the 
coeducational orphan school which the Swiss 
reformer had organized at Clendy, near Yver- 
don (heaves returned to England in 1825 



152 



GREECE 



GREECE 



l became secretary of the Infant School 
ciety (q '' ) of London At his request Pes- 
talpzzi wrote him a series of 1 otters on the 
education of the child, which he translated 
anl published in English (Letter* on the 
Ewrly Education of the Child, London, 1827 ) 
rn 1832 he settled at Randwick, Gloucester- 
shire, and engaged in a scheme for the improve- 
ment of agricultural laborers, similar to that 
which Pestalozzi had originated at Neuhof in 
1769, and five years later he founded at Ham, 
near London, a Pestalozzian school, which he 
named Alcott House, in honor of A Bronson 
Alcott (qv), the American Pestalozzian He 
shared the transcendental views of the Ameri- 
can philosopher and invited him to England 
He founded the Esthetic Society of England, 
and in various ways engaged in reform move- 
ments m education W S. M 

See PESTALOZZIAN MOVEMENT 

References . 

Lethrt. ami Extracts from the Writings of J P Greaves, 
with Memoir (Ham and London, 1842 1845 ) 

MONROE, WILL S Hixtory of the Pevtalozzuni A/uve- 
ment tn lh( United Mates (Syracuse, 1 ( H)7 ) 

S\NBORN, K B , and HARRIS, \\ILLIAM T A Hronson 
Ahott, hi\ Life and Philosophy (Boston, 



GREECE, EDUCATION IN ANCIENT 

The education of the Greeks was to a peculiar 
degree the embodiment of an attitude of life, 
the practical application of a theory of value 
which was taking shape from the age of Homer 
to that of Aristotle It is proposed, first, to 
trace the growth of this theory of values to a 
theory of education, secondly, to sketch the 
views of education laid down bv Plato and 
Aristotle, and then, with the Greek point of 
view thus determined in a measure, to describe 
Greek education in its actual working 

Stated briefly and generally, Greek educa- 
tion was based on certain essentially Hellenic 
characteristics that are at least as old as 
Homer and Hesiod, a keen delight in phys- 
ical strength, skill, and beauty, a belief in 
reverence, moderation, and social obligation or 
justice, and a feeling for form, not as form, but 
as expression The delight in bodily beauty 
and effectiveness is sufficiently illustrated by 
the games at the funeral of Patioclus (Iliad 
XX1I1), by the festivals to name only the 
greatest at Olympia, Delphi, Nemea, and 
the Isthmus (see the Ode* of Pindar) The 
ideals of reverence, moderation, and justice, 
presented more or less dimlv in Homei and set 
forth clearly in the Works and Days of Hesiod, 
are at the very basis of the Spartan system of 
education The Greek emphasis on form as 
selective expression was not explicitly stated 
as a conscious attitude until the fourth cen- 
tury, yet it is inherent in every line of poetry 
chanted or sung from Homer to Sophocles, 
and m every vase painting from the geometric 
period to the fifth century 

Even m Homer there are signs of the coming 



end of the extreme, individualism good in its 
fearless spontaneity, bad in its half savage 
indifference to law which forbade any con- 
scious effort to attain a real social ideal through 
education Individualism is definitely limited 
by Hesiod to emulation The Work* and Dayx 
sets forth a clear social ideal based on justice 
and its corollary, moderation, or self-restraint 
And the educational system traditionally 
ascribed to the Spartan Lycurgus (c 800 13 r ), 
while unique in that it aimed at the perpetua- 
tion of the military supremacy of a conquering 
race, was in its most fundamental features a 
definite application of the principles set forth 
in Hesiod, self-restraint, subordination of 
individual aims and desires to those of the 
social group, and an essentially moral training 
through precept, practice, example, and emu- 
lation The wild freedom of Homer had given 
place to law Individualism had given place 
to socialism And to a greater or less degiee 
this was increasingly characteristic of the whole 
movement of the Greek world from the ninth 
century to the fifth But intense as the social 
feeling, the city patriotism, became in all of 
the Hellenic cities, it was usually less extreme 
than in Sparta, and was balanced both by a 
stronger individualism in political life and by 
a keen delight in such mdi\ idual expression as 
was afforded by music, literature, which was 
hardly differentiated from music, and art 
Gymnastics, while doubtless the object of 
special emphasis in the soldier state of Sparta, 
continued to be regarded with enthusiasm by 
Dorians arid lonians alike Gymnastics and 
music were indeed the objects of a devotion 
never accorded to what we often regard as 
the typical Greek ait of sculpture Yet under- 
lying all of these was the feeling expressed in 
the Delphic motto 4< Nothing in excess," the 
practical expression of that idealism which was 
the fundamental characteristic of the Greek 
altitude to life, the search for the essential in 
all things, the ruling out of everything irrele- 
vant and inharmonious 

Educational Theory Education in Sparta 
aimed simply at the development of soldier 
citizens, trained to the utmost physical effective- 
ness and to such moial and intellectual virtues 
as would make foi the perpetuation of Sparta 
as a military powei This was attained by a 
varied and effect i\e gymnastic training, games, 
and contests that tested enduiance, judgment, 
self-control and resource, music that inspired 
to valor and constancy, giave discussions of 
moral issues, above all by a barrack life of 
strict discipline and division into companies 
captained by the older boys Important as 
was the training of the body in the system of 
Lycurgus, it is a mistake to regard it as funda- 
mental The essential aim of Spartan educa- 
tion was moral And so absolutely could the 
Spartans rely on the result of this training that 
they could even include the art of successful 
stealing m their curriculum, believing that 
153 



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whnV thi' training in i esourcefulness arid judg- 
ment was a positive gain, any resultant dis- 
regard foi the rights of others would be over- 
whelmingly outbalanced by the intensely moral 
and social character of the system as a whole 
So absolute a system of prescription, though 
admired by individual Athenians, like* Plato 
and Xenophon, was quite alien to the free 
spirit of Athens Their education was from 
the first a private affair, though custom pre- 
scribed a fairly uniform curriculum consisting 
of letters, music, and gymnastics, with a mini- 
mum of arithmetic, astronomy, and geometry 
Athenian educational theory was formulated 
tentatively in the fifth century, definitely in 
the fourth; arid as an interpretation of prac- 
tice, an effort to give a rational account of 
existing facts in order to see the goal more 
clearly, it needs to be understood before the 
details of educational practice are approached 
Not that we can separate theory and practice 
in any hard arid fast way The lust definite 
statement of the aims and methods of Athenian 
education is indeed a description of practice, 
and is only theory in so far as it is an attempt 
to view the situation as a whole in relation to 
an ultimate aim This is the description 
which Plato puts in the mouth of Protagoias 
as part of his argument for the possibility of 
moral education " Education commences in 
the first years of childhood, and lasts to the 
very end of life Mother and nurse and father 
and slave-tutor (pedagogue) are quarreling 
over the improvement of the child as soon as 
he can understand them, at every turn they 
expound to him that this is just and that is 
unjust, this honourable and that the reverse, 
this holy and that- impious, and generally, do 
this and avoid that And if he obeys, well 
and good, if not, he is straightened out with 
threats and blows, like a piece of warped 
wood At a later stage, they send him to 
teachers and enjoin them to see that his man- 
ners are good, even more than his reading and 
music, and the teachers do their best And 
then, when he can read, they give him the 
woiks of great poets which he reads at school, 
where he finds many tales and admonitions, 
and praises of ancient famous men, which he 
learns by heart in order that he may desire 
and emulate them Then again the teachers 
of the lyre take care that he does not fall 
into mischief, and introduce him to the poems 
of other excellent poets, who are the lyric 
poets, these aie set to music, and their tunes 
and rhythms made familiar to children, in 
order that they may be more gentle, and har- 
monious and rhythmical, and so better fitted 
for speech and action, for the life of man in 
every part has need of music and rhythm 
Then they send him to the master of gym- 
nastics, to nt him for war This is what 
is done by the richer or higher classes whose 
education lasts far longer than that of the 
rest Lastly, when they are grown up, the 

15 



State compels thorn to learn the laws, and 
live according to them " (Prot ;*25-320) 

The supreme interpretation of Athenian 
education was that of Plato himself The 
system of education described in the Republic 
is devised only for rulers, and for rulers of an 
ideal, not an actual, state Hut the curriculum 
is not essentially different from that which 
regularly prevailed in Athens, and the whole 
system, theoretical in that it endeavors to 
determine a rational ideal arid a rational 
method, is practical in that it rs soundly based 
on existing practice Plato's conception of the 
aim of education is stated in the seventh book 
of the tie public In the famous parable of the 
Cave he shows men livrng in darkness, seeing 
only shadows on the wall before them, and 
taking these shadows for realities Let one of 
these cavemen be brought suddenly to the 
light of day and he is da^led, blinded, thankful 
if he can escape to the Cave once more fron 
the light which to him is darkness Rut lei 
him be taken more gradually to the outev 
world, and his eye will gam power to see, and 
the real world will at last dawn upon him in 
its infinite grandeur Here, then, is the func- 
tion of education, to turn the eye of the 
soul to the light in order that it may see and 
love truth (Republic, 518) The sun in the 
physical world is the type of that fundamental 
reality which makes everything else intelli- 
gible, and knowledge of this fundamental 
reality called by Plato the Idea or Form of 
(lood is of all things the most precious, the 
goal of every true student For Plato's Idea 
is simply the essential, what is meant when 
we use the words la\\, principle, essence, that 
is, everything which makes it intelligible He 
applres to education that which is the kev- 
riote of Greek thought and Greek art, 
insistence on the fundamental, the universal, 
and indifference to the accidental, the nar- 
rowly individual 

Plato's system of education represents an 
effort to attain this ideal the understanding 
and adoption in life of those things that are 
fundamentally true and therefore of funda- 
mental value His general treatment rests on 
two fundamental presuppositions. (1) that 
education is of fundamental importance to the 
State (Republic, 425 " The bent given by edu- 
cation will determine all that follows ") and 
should therefore be required and controlled by 
the State, (2) that man is an organism, i.e 
that he is endowed by nature with certain 
powers which will develop, if the proper con- 
ditions are given, and that the teacher's pro- 
fession is not unlike that of the gardener 
These two premises being assumed, Plato out- 
lines a system of training for the young that 
will stimulate love for what is good and beau- 
tiful, dislike of what is bad and ugly, and 
right action that will become so natural, 
habitual, and pleasant as harmonious sound is 
to a musician This is done through careful 



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choice of literature, both as regards subject 
matter and form, careful instruction in music, 
peculiarly important because of the subtly 
powerful influence of rhythm and harmony on 
the human soul, and the equally careful effort 
to have every detail in the child's environment 
healthy, elevating, and harmonious To create 
the right standard of truth and beauty at the 
outset, before the child is in any way conscious 
of what is being done, is to make wrong action 
as repulsive to him as a discordant crash of 
sounds, and to turn his mind away from the 
false, the petty, the fleeting, and insignificant 
as certainly as his eye would turn from the 
canker worm to the perfect blossom, from the 
frame to the picture That a perfect result 
will follow in every case from even the most 
wisely devised system of education Plato by 
no means takes for granted The imperfect 
'*eed will not grow into a perfect flower, and 
besides, different natures will respond differ- 
ently and perhaps unexpectedly to similar 
treatment. There must, therefore, be tests, 
" labors, vexations, and contests," accom- 
panied by vigilant observation of conduct 
Education will thus have its selective side, 
and only those fitted for it will go on to what 
we might call the secondary and advanced 
stages of the course 

For it is necessarv that as the child's mind 
expands and grows in power he should learn 
to examine his standaids and methods of 
thought for himself " When reason comes, he 
will welcome her most cordially who can recog- 
nize hei by the instinct of relationship, and 
because he has been (wisely) nurtured ", but 
it is none the less tine that reason must come, 
and that the growing mind must leain to 
examine standards, to search consciously for 
principles, to abstract, question, arid generali/e 
With this in view Plato would introduce his 
pupils to arithmetic, where they will grow 
accustomed to the easiest of all abstractions, 
that of number, to geometry and its piobloms 
of space, to astronomy and the laws of rhythm 
and harmony that control the heavenly bodies 
This course of science will lead to philosophy, 
the study of fundamental truth And when 
the student has at last learned to look on 
beauty and truth m their essential reality, he 
must turn back to the weary and troublesome 
problems of actual life in society to serve his 
fellows as a leader and teacher His educa- 
tion leads, not to the barren and empty specu- 
lation associated with the word " philosophy " 
by superficial men of the world Rather arc 
his philosophers wise leaders of men who have 
learned to see things as they are, to under- 
stand and unerringly seize upon the true and 
the beautiful 

The value of all this is not simply the value 
of a poetic philosopher's dream. It is rather 
the interpretation of the essential spirit of 
Greek education by the greatest of all Greek 
thinkers. It was practically adopted in its 



main features by Anstotle (q /> ), fiagmentarv 
as is the treatment oi education by Aristotle 
that remains to us in the Ethi(\ and 1he Poli- 
tics Aristotle, like Plato, urges that education 
should be compulsory and controlled by 1he 
State He does indeed insist on defining the 
Form of Good as the highest good for man. 
Happiness, and happiness as the perfect e\ei~ 
cise of the rational activity which is man's 
unique characteristic, so that education be- 
comes in its highest aspect a training for 
leisure, for the contemplative hie And he 
gives a new clearness to two points that 
seemed to him to need special emphasis, the 
significance of habit and the doctime of the 
Mean But Aristotle's value here as else- 
where is rather in a certain formulation and 
claiifymg of the issues, a practical insistence 
on accurate definitions, than in any leal modi- 
fication of his master's teaching In Jus state- 
ment of the aim and method of education, of 
the cuniculum, of the ethical purpose of 
education and its relation to the state, Aris- 
totle leaves Plato's doctime untouched So 
that we may safely say that the system out- 
lined in the R(pubh( remains for u? the hnal 
statement of the theory of Greek education, 
the one perfect interpretation of its letter and 
its spirit C F L 

Educational Practice The first thing to 
be noticed about the Greek infant was that 
its father had powers o\ er it wholly denied to 
modern parents The first question aftei its 
birth was this, Would the fathei K<U it oi ex- 
pose it' ? Gieek literature has so many allu- 
sions to the exposing of infants, thai it must 
actually have occuiied in Greek experience 
But the frequency of this motif in the New 
Comedy is haidl> good evidence that such 
barbantv was of everyday occurrence The 
fact that there is no evidence of a distinguished 
person in all Gieek histoiv, who had been 
picked up and i eared as an exposed 01 deserted 
child, may be taken as proof that in the case 
of male infants exposuie w T as \erv laic, unless 
the child .showed congenital defoinnty Re- 
garding females, the case is different Indeed, 
the great majoiitv of the instances met in the 
comedies of exposed children, afterwards rec- 
ognized, are those of girls Plato sanctions 
infanticide undei certain circumstances, and 
this is even woise than the exposing in some 
place where the child would probably be picked 
up as a slave It is not unlikely that one of the 
causes of the dwindling away of the Greek 
population by a strange atrophy in the third 
century 13 c is partly due to the exposure of 
female children by selfish and barbarous parents. 
In the many suits of the Attic oiators about 
family affairs there does not seem to be a case 
in which a large family of children is concerned 

When the child was once accepted by the 
fathei, there is every reason to believe that it 
was treated with every kindness, nay even with 
luxury and indulgence The well-known pas- 



155 



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GREECE 



sages in Homer about Hector's child Astyanax, 
both during his prosperity and when left to a 
widowed mother, and other casual references, 
not only in Homer, but in Herodotus and in 
the lyric poetry, show clearly enough thai- 
babies were as much prized and as much at- 
tended to as m modern life 

The string of infantile diseases, which arc 
the bane of modern life, are not heard of. Not 
even in Hippocrates' admirable clinical ob- 
servations do we have croup or teething or 
measles or whooping cough Malaria there 
probably was, and there is even evidence that 
it contributed not a little to the further decay 
of the population, where marshy lands ceased 
to be continuously cultivated Fashionable 
people kept nurses, and it was a matter of high 
fashion among Athenian and other aristocrats 
to have a Spartan woman for the purpose, as 
she was supposed to know better than others 
how to make the child healthy and strong in 
limb. But only some misfortune, such as a 
successful raid, could reduce a genuine Spartan 
to such a condition. Probably women from 
the Lacedaemonian coast, although Helot 
women, were so called when they were for- 
tunately obtained What the usual diet of 
infants was we are not told except in Homer, 
who says Astyanax was fed upon marrow and 
mutton suet. This seems pait of the general meat 
diet in which the heroes indulged, and which 
was certainly widely different Irom historic 
Greek diet In the latter very little meat was 
eaten by anybody, and only on special occasions, 
such as feasts to the Gods Contrary to the 
modern practice of hiring foreign nurses or 
governesses to teach the child some European 
tongue other than his own, when he can acquire 
it without the trouble of grammar, this side of 
education did not exist among the Greeks, who 
despised all tongues but their own For any 
child to be brought up speaking even Egyptian 
or Macedonian would have been thought a 
blemish rather than an accomplishment But 
beyond this negative certainty, the women's 
apaitments, in which the children, both boys 
and girls, were kept for the first few years, are 
closed so completely to us that but few things 
about the life of Greek babies can even be con- 
jectured A few late epigrams tell of the grief 
of parents bereaved of their infants. The 
backwardness in culture of Greek women leads 
us to suspect that babies were more often badly 
brought up and overindulged than at present, 
even though the " Spartan mother " is still 
proverbial and shows that a lofty ideal was riot 
unknown to them. But in the rest of Greece 
it may be assumed that the young child arrived 
at his schoolboy age more willful and headstrong 
than most of our watched and worried infants 
Archytas, the philosopher, earned special credit 
for inventing the rattle, and so saving much 
damage to household furniture by occupying 
children with this toy 

It must be remembered that the external cir- 



156 



cumstances of a Greek boy's life were some- 
what different from the present Except in 
some few places, such as Ehs, and partially at 
Sparta, which consisted of five villages, all old 
Greek life of the better classes was town life, 
so naturally Greek schools were day schools 
from which the children returned after lessons 
to the care of their parents To hand over 
boys, far less girls, for pay to the charge of a 
boarding school was unknown, and any such 
proposal would doubtless have been severely 
censured Orphans were placed under the care 
of their nearest male relative, even when their 
education was provided by the State Again, 
as regards the age of beginning school, it will 
naturally be earlier than is usual among us, 
for day schools can receive very young children, 
and in but few households were either father 
or mother able or inclined to undertake the 
training of their children in school work Even 
the knowledge of letters and reading were ob- 
tained from the schoolmaster But the small 
number of subjects taught prevented any hurry 
such as that in modern times, when there is no 
adequate time for languages, sciences, histories, 
and all the rest which is crammed into oui 
unfortunate children Above all, there were 
no competitive examinations save m athletics 
and music The Greeks never thought of pro- 
moting a man for dead knowledge, but for his 
living grasp of science or life Owing to these 
causes, the theorists discussed the expediency 
of waiting till the age of seven before beginning 
serious education Some there were who rec- 
ommended easy and sportive lessons from 
even an earlier age On this point, therefore, 
they agreed fairly well with modern views 
But Greek parents weie, like those of the pres- 
ent, often over-anxious or nervous or dilatory, 
and it is clear that there were intervals between 
infancy and school life which were spent in 
playing in the street and doing mischief Even 
so aristocratic a boy as AlciJDiades is reported 
by Plutarch to have shown his pluck and ob- 
stinacy by lying down m the highway, when a 
coming cart threatened to disturb his game, 
and daring the carter to drive over him There 
is, also, extant a long list of names foi the games 
of boys preserved in glossaries it belongs to 
the question of education to know something 
of the nature of these games, wholly different 
from the exercises and competitions afterwards 
carried out in the palaestra Among young 
boys, as among the lower animals, most games 
in concert are imitations either of war or the 
chase; the rest are the practice of some bodily 
dexterity, such as hopping, or throwing, or 
whipping a top or shooting with marbles. All 
these were common m Greece. They had the 
hobby horse, also the hopping on a skin bottle 
filled and greased, and blmdman's buff, etc 
There was a game like our peg-top spinning 
and contests of two sides or teams of boys 
There is no need to enumerate all these particu- 
larly. More peculiar were the game of throw- 




The Piiiicuitiuin, and a Paidotnbe. 




^ ic&tlcis, Ptudutnbo, and boy preparing the Ground fui 



A (iKEKk (iVMNASTlC SCHOOL. 
From u Kill ix 



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GREECE 



mg up five* pebbles or knucklebones, and receiv- 
ing them on the back of the hand so as to he 
there Another game consisted of flying a 
beetle with a long thread, and fastening to him 
a lighted wax splmtei (or match) This bar- 
barous amusement is said to have been still in 
use recently in modem Greece Spinning tops, 
rolling hoops, and playing with balls were all 
common Tins latter was done even by grown 
girls, according to Homer's Odysxey Some 
of them approach both to our football, hand- 
ball, and even lacrosse The use of knuckle- 
bones or astragali, smoothed and squared so as 
to serve for dice, afforded scope for the children's 
gambling propensities, and throwing with them 
for luck is often represented in Greek art We 
also have in the extant specimens some which 
were clearly loaded Another common game 
was the Italian morra, the prompt guessing of 
the number of fingers thrown up by the ad- 
versary which can be seen every day in soul hern 
Europe V r ery likely the game of bocchi, which 
corresponds to our bowls, and is so universal in 
Italy, has an old Greek origin Walking on 
stilts, leap-frog, swinging, and tossing m a 
blanket will suffice for any further enumera- 
tion, which serves only to show how remark- 
ably modern were Greek, or perhaps how re- 
markably primitive is our catalogue of little 
boys' games 

Nothing is known about the condition of little 
girls, except that they certainly engaged in ball 
playing As among us, so of course in Greece, 
girls joined in the games of their brothers, so 
fai as they could be carried on indoors, 01 in 
the closed court of the house There are grace- 
ful representations of them practicing swinging 
and seesaw Dolls they had in plenty, and 
dollmakmg (of clay) was quite an extended 
trade at Athens In more than one instance 
there have been found in children's graves their 
favorite dolls laid beside them as eternal keep- 
sakes Most unfortunately there is hardly 
a word left of the nursery rhymes, and but 
little of the folklore, which are of considerable 
influence m the education of our children The 
fables attributed to ^Esop show how popular 
such literature was from an early epoch 

When we come to school life the most strik- 
ing difference between the Greek education 
and ours is this, that even with little boys, 
physical development was attended to by a 
special master m a special place, except in those 
rare cases where they practiced out-of-door 
sports, and these cannot be commenced at the 
age of seven, or even near it The Greeks 
indeed afforded their boys two contrasted sides 
of exercises hunting, which was practiced by 
the Spartans, and also no doubt by the Kleans 
and Arcadians, as we may infer from Xenophon's 
Tract on Hunting, and gymnastics, which m the 
case of boys was carried on in the so-called palces- 
tra, a sort of open-air gymnasium (in our sense) 
kept by a private individual as a speculation, 
to which the boys were sent, as to a schoolmas- 



ter The Spartans had ample scope for hunt- 
ing in the glens and coxerts of Mt Taygetus, 
and hence they despised mere exercises of dex- 
terity in the paUrstra, just as modern sports- 
men think veiv little of spending days in a 
gymnasium As to open air games, like 
hockey, football, etc , they seem not at all so 
well provided, and though they could have 
practiced rowing to their hearts' content, free 
men seem only to have done 4 it as a duty in 
naval war, at other times slaves and hirelings 
worked their ships Herodotus speaks of the 
generality of sailors (and that included a large 
section of the citizens in war) as able to swim, 
but Greek literature is silent regarding any 
competitions in this accomplishment Hut 
in another point the Greeks agreed with the 
modern English, they regarded sport as a 
really serious thing, and unless it is so regarded, 
it will never be brought to any rational perfec- 
tion But then the Greek did not, like all 
people imbued with Semitic religious ideas, 
regard religion with such great solemnity 
Their religion was not more serious than then- 
sports, nay they were often combined, "for 
the gods too love sport," says Plato in his 
r/a/?y/f/,s, a very significant and thoioughlv 
Greek sentence The greatest feasts of the 
gods, and the funerals of the greatest men, were 
glorified by intensifying human pleasures, by 
games, and theatrical and dancing exhibitions 

There is no evidence whethei the boys went 
to their palaestra at the same age as to school, 
and at a different hour of the dav, or at a dif- 
ferent age, taking their physical arid mental 
education separately Nor is it known which 
came first The Germans think the palaestra 
came first, but it seems far more natural that 
letters should be taught from the age of seven, 
and exercises of the body later on Even the 
theoietical schemes of Plato and of Anstotle 
do not help us here, it is one of the many points 
which every one omits to mention because it 
was familiar to all We shall here take the 
physical side first, for the mental side is pro- 
longed into higher education And here, too, 
dividing the exercises of the palaestra into 
wrestling and dancing, more pioperly exercises 
of strength and exercises of giace, athletics 
will be treated first 

In order to go safely from home and return 
again, Greek boys going to the palaestra were 
put under the charge of a pedagogue (boy- 
leadei), not to be mistaken for a schoolmaster, 
though the authon/ed version of the Bible has 
done it, when it makes St Paul say " The 
Law was our Schoolmaster to bung us unto 
Christ " The Greek pedagogue was merely 
an old and trusty slave, who was often fit for 
no manual labor He was always ignorant, 
and never respected He was in one sense, too, 
a chaperon, guarding his charges from making 
acquaintances or cultivating intimacies with 
other youths The keeper of the school and 
trainer of the boys, though no state official, 



157 



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GREECE 



was under veiy stnct regulations ut least if 
the quotations from nuch laws in ^Eschmes' 
speech Against Timarchux are to be believed 
But if there were such penal laws, there is 
reason to believe that except in the case of some 
grave scandal they remained a dead letter 
Still at Sparta, even in the gymnasia for grown 
youths, the regulation Strip or go was enforced 
to prevent a crowd of idle loungers from collect- 
ing. There are many pictures on vases of the 
interior of a palsestra A rude bust of the 
bearded Hermes, the patron god, indicates it 
with certainty A middle-aged man with a 
warid in his hand is directing the exercises, 
often wrestling, of the boys We know from 
the pentathlon at Olympia for men, and even 
for a while for boys, that its five exercises 
running, leaping, throwing the dart, throwing 
the discus, and wrestling were the usual 
program For older youths, boxing and 
the pancratium were added, save in Sparta, 
where such violent contests were thought to 
lead to disfigurements, and at all events to 
private feuds The higher exercises were 
undertaken after rubbing the skin with olive 
oil, which became quite a heavy expense to some 
Greek cities, and was sometimes provided by 
private benefactions When the exercise was 
over, the oil and dirt were scraped off with a 
Urigil, as may be seen in the splendid statue 
m the Vatican of an athlete so cleaning his arm. 
The luxury of a bath is not mentioned, for in 
most Greek towns water was very scarce, and 
the nation was not given to much washing 
The few details which remain about training, 
in the stricter sense, show that the G recks were 
not scientific in their notions Either cheese 
or in later days quantities of meat were specially 
recommended and the athletes were in con- 
sequence heavy and stupid people 

We have already quoted the passage from 
Plato's Protagoras m which the ordinary edu- 
cation of the Athenian is described There 
is another passage in Aristophanes' Clouds 
(901 et seq.) which describes the older strict dis- 
cipline of Attic boys, who were not allowed to 
whisper before their elders, who went m troops 
to school even in the winter mornings in deep 
snow, clad in a single tunic, and were kept at 
work by the master learning old traditional 
hymns all this in contrast to the inroads of 
luxury and la/, mess, of vulgar and florid music, 
which that strict conservative reviles just as 
our old-fashioned people are shocked with 
modern education for girls Both passages 
speak the voice of a cultivated society, and of 
high moral principle, which makes them worthy 
of the best modern and even Christian educa- 
tion But the far wider connotation of the 
word " musical " is at once noted, which included 
a knowledge of good poetry, and also of the 
elegant and rhythmical dancing which was part 
of the solemn service of the gods It included, 
in fact, every graceful, aesthetical, and intellec- 
tual accomplishment 



From these and many other passages it 
appears that the G reeks administered their 
early moral education just as the Protestants 
of England and America, through a book re- 
garded as inspired; just as the stories of the 
Old Testament, as well as the teachings of the 
New, were taken as the highest moral teaching 
(not without wonderful liberties of interpreta- 
tion, though the text was sacrosanct), so the 
Greeks treated Homer as their Bible, contain- 
ing all the morals a child should know Re- 
garding the punishments which they inflicted, 
the notions then and now, or at least fifty years 
ago, are about the same All the Greeks ac- 
knowledge the justice and expediency of cor- 
poral punishment, and only caution parents 
against applying servile punishments to free 
boys A fresco from Pompeii shows a boy 
hoisted on the shoulders of another, being 
flogged by the master At no time was the 
teacher of young boys for pay ever highly 
esteemed There was, as already mentioned, 
no qualification demanded by the Stale It 
must often have been the recourse of penniless 
or broken down men, just as in modern times 
penniless girls of the better class used to tuin 
governesses Hence the sneer of a comic poet 
"The man is either dead, or teaching the 
alphabet " 

The school was geneia-llv called didascaleion 
(teaching place) to distinguish it from the 
palsestra Every Gieek town had one or 
more, some of them laige, foi lleiodotus tells 
of one at Chios, wheie the ioof fell in, and killed 
119 out of the 120 childien attending it In 
villages theie were poor appointments, and 
such a school in Greece corresponded to the 
lush hedge school or the cloister school of old 
monasteries Statues of tutelary gods and 
some simple ornaments were found in the better 
ones The master occupied a high seat, above 
his classes , the main diff ei ence from our arrange- 
ment was the absence of tables or desks, it 
being the universal custom when reading or 
writing to hold the book or roll on the knee 
On the walls hang various things, all of which 
arc not now understood, but among them were 1 
implements for reading and writing, boxes foi 
book rolls, leckonmg boards with pebbles strung 
in them, flute cases, and lyres 1 Lucian, a very 
late authority, says there were even notice 
boards, which weie white, covered with chalk 
Hence writing with the finger \\ould be quite 
legible, especially if the original ground was 
black There are also traces of pictorial illus- 
trations oi scenes from the Iliad, preserved 
at the Capitohne Museum in Rome, which seem 
to have been hung up m schools, like the zo- 
ological and other sheets in modern schools 
Though later theorists speak of the necessity 
of pauses and variations in study, periods of 
holidays for all, such as the dog days were at 
Rome, aic not referred to As every child 
was taught to read and to recite from the gieat 
poets, a double object was attained The school- 



158 




the Lyre and in Homer. 




IrfWouaiuWntmg aud Flute Pl ayiug . 



A QHEEK MUSIC SCHOOL. 



GREECE 



GREECE 



j > \ \.as taught to speak accurately and road 
i \\\ thmically, he* was also made acquainted 
\\ith the choicest passages m older literature 
Written books not being as common as they 
are now, much more was done by dictation and 
conversation 

When children came to writing, they used 
tablets coVered with wax, on which the pointed 
stylus drew a sharp line, which could be 
smoothed out again with the flat reverse end 
In writing on papyrus a reed and ink were used, 
and there are extant manv boys' exercises on 
papyrus from Greek tombs in Egypt The 
knowledge and study of grammar onlv came 
in with the Stoics and was the task of grown 
men, rather than of boys There are many 
specimens of this sort of analysis m the Platonic 
literature, and indeed some very primitive ones 
m Aristophanes' Clouds Geometry and arith- 
metic (the science of number) were also 
advanced studies, but the art of reckoning was 
learned like our practical use of figures It is 
known that the system of notation learned was 
not the cumbrous one found in inscriptions but 
the verv compendious and practical one used 
in countless Greek papyri found in Egypt 
The alphabet enlarged by three signs foi 0, 
90, and 900 supplied the whole system ^ith 
t began the tens, with * the twenties, with p 
the hundreds, with X the thousands M \vas 
10,000 Thus 10049 was M/x0 Theie was no 
symbol for 0, but the place in the alphabet told 
at once what is now expressed by ciphei follow- 
ing a number Fractions were expressed by 
the same letters with an accent over them 
Only the denominators were written, the only 
numerator being 1, j had a special sign, m 
othei cases a fraction was broken up, ? c {J was 
expressed as j, J, } Furthei details would 
be out of place heie, but in these symbols are 
found very elaborate computations rising to 
veiy large figures 

Turning to what are now called accomplish- 
ments, but which the Greeks called music, there 
aie a good many late and not very trustworthy 
authorities stating that drawing (not of land- 
scape but of figures and oi household objects) 
was generally taught This seems very doubt- 
ful, but no one can deny that music (in our 
sense) was never omitted The Greeks put the 
greatest stress on the directly moral and im- 
moral effects of music, according to the scale 
or mode used There were strict and sober 
kinds, there were effeminating and even lewd 
sorts, the proper educatoi should not allow 
the latter to be heard by boys Our difficulty 
in appreciating this side of Greek education is 
that, though we know and can appreciate then- 
simpler scales or modes and their notations, 
the fragments preserved of their tunes are so 
unlike anything now known and understood 
as music, that no modern composer, however 
learned, could supply a missing bar m the 
Hymn found at Delphi with e\en the smallest 
proof that his restoration was correct In 



society then* were great gentlemen, like ( 1 imon, 
who sang and accompanied themseh es on the 
lyre But in general, plavmg and singing in 
society was left to the not veiv leputable pro- 
fessional Choral singing and dancing with 
accompaniment of lyre or flute was a splendid 
feature in Greek feasts and in the theater These 
solemn dances and the singing were performed 
by lads whose voices must have been formed 
again after breaking, a thing not noticed in 
the usual accounts which make them boys of 
fourteen to eighteen, when modern boys lose their 
voices Of the instruments in use, the syrinx 
or Pandean pipes were only used by shepherds, 
and not in schools The trigonon or tnangulai 
harp, and the double flutes weie only used by 
professionals The lyre was made by stretch- 
ing gut strings across the concave side of a 
tortoise shell, which is often found clean and 
dry m Greek watercourses There weie much 
more elaborate kinds which added a neck and 
made an mstiument something like the modern 
guitar The former had seven or ten strings 
Their flutes (though they knew w r hat we use) 
were rather clarionets held straight, and with 
a w r ide mouth 

The last stage of a boy's education was the 
so-called ephebic tiaining, which was intended 
to prepare boys directly for the sei \ ice of the 
state as soldiers, and in that icspect is like the 
compulsory soldiering in nations that have a 
conscription for their defense No boy was 
allowed to pass from his school days into citizen 
life without some training in the use of aims 
beyond that of the palaestra, and in militaiy 
discipline These cphebi had two duties to 
perform, the most important was patiol duty 
on the frontier of their state, where they did 
the work of military police, and probably also 
of preventing any considerable smuggling acios.s 
the frontier so as to dcfiaud the duty laised 
in the recognized markets where citizens fiom 
both states exposed their wares They also 
stopped the depredations of footpads 01 high- 
waymen, so that brigandage was quite laie in 
the more civilized parts of Greece, till the days 
of its depopulation and decay These \ouths 
were dressed in the short dark gray cloak and 
the soft hat seen m the Parthenon frieze, which 
also depicts the second great duty of the ephebi, 
that of adorning the feasts of the gods in solemn 
procession All the varieties of their duty 
appear in this famous composition They are 
carrying sacred vessels, leading victims, manag- 
ing prancing steeds, with exquisite grace and 
in wonderful variety It is remarkable that 
m spite of this clear exhibition of the class, it had 
not yet attained any state recognition, so far 
as can be infer KM! from Herodotus and Thucyd- 
ides (fifth century uc) In later days, nu- 
merous inscriptions show that the ephebi, with 
clubs and meetings, with their resolutions and 
decrees, were at least as important as the socie- 
ties of students in our modern universities 
Stobams has preserved a text of the oath b> 



159 



GREECE 



GREECE 



which these youths were hound It has been 
criticised and questioned by the skeptics, but 
even if somewhat modernized, perhaps m Ro- 
man days, it represents quite truly the spirit 
of the whole institution " I will never dis- 
grace these hallowed weapons, or abandon my 
comrade, beside whomsoever I am placed (in 
battle) but will fight for both sacred and secular 
things with rnv fellows I will not leave my 
country less, but greater and better by sea and 
land 1 will obey the rulers appointed and the 
established laws, and whatsoever new laws the 
state may lawfully establish, and if any one 
attempt to abolish the existing ordinances or dis- 
obey them, I will resist him, and defend them in- 
dividually and with the rest Be my witnesses 
Aglauros, Enyahos, Ares, Zeus, Thallo, Auxo, 
Hegemone " This list of gods can hardly be 
a late invention It is not within the scope of 
this article to describe the exaggerated impoi- 
tance of this ephebic institution in Greece under 
the Roman Empire, when fashionable strangers 
crowded to Athens as their place of intellectual 
amusement as rich Americans now go to 
Oxford It was then a genuine part of Greek 
education, much as it lias been described by 
Aristophanes and Xenophon 

In higher education it is impossible to ignore 
the famous teaching of the sophists, who were 
not recognized or even approved by Greek 
politics, but who set up as adventurers, or 
itinerant teachers to train the richer and idle 
young men how to think and speak upon the 
subjects oi the day They desired to give by 
discussions and lectures not only a training m 
rhetoric, logic, and political sciences, but the 
gamut of information now offered by the lead- 
ing articles of our daily press which profess to 
tell their rcadeis what to think about the cur- 
rent topics of interest Cultivated people can 
hardly appreciate how these supeificial article's 
affect the thought of the lower middle and the 
lower classes in modem life The sophists may 
have had this gieat influence on a small society, 
which had no books on daily topics arid was 
more easily led bv a persuasive teacher .lust 
as our newspapers contribute a great deal to 
general culture, so did the sophists Just as 
they have giave faults, so had the sophists 
But grave and peihaps just as are the charges 
of superficiality, irreverence, and destructive 
criticism made against them there must have 
been among them wise men and good teachers 
Among the innumerable passages m Plato re- 
lating to the sophists we may note one in the 
Protagoras that is instructive and free from 
hostility When Socrates asks Protagoras what 
he undertakes to teach he answers "' If Hip- 
pocrates comes to me he will not experience the 
sort of drudgery with which other sophists are 
m the habit of insulting their pupils, who, 
when they have just escaped from the arts, 
are taken and driven back into them by their 
teachers, and made to learn calculations and 
astronomy and geometry and music (he gave a 



look at Hippias as he said this) , no, if he comes 
to me, he will learn lhat which lie conies to 
learn And this is prudence in affairs private 
as well as public, he will learn to order his 
house in the best manner, and he will be able 
to speak and ad for the best in the affairs of the 
State ' ' Do I understand you,' I said; ' and 
is your meaning that you teach the art of politics, 
and that you promise to make good citizens? ' 
' That, Socrates, is exactly the profession which 
I make ' " But perhaps it was rhetoric, the 
art of persuasion and debate, that drew the 
youth of Athens to the sophists, rather than 
anything deserving the name of political science 
Indeed, we may date from the age of the sophists 
the rise of rhetoric to the place that it was to 
hold in education through the entire period of 
Roman domination (See ISOCRATES ) 

If nothing has been said about the education 
of girls, it is only because nothing is known 
about it Xenophori represents a bride com- 
ing into her husband's house, having lived her 
youth in darkness and m fear, knowing nothing 
but how to adorn her person and that artificially, 
with powder and rouge, and with enhancements 
of dress The Spartan women brought up in 
great hbertv, and freed from the strict discipline 
of the men, are spoken of now as specimens of 
bravery and patriotism, now as turbulent and 
mischievous to the peace and order of the state 
But except that they trained openly like boys, 
we know nothing of their education 

The age of the Sophists, Sociates, Plato, and 
Aristotle, ? e. the later fifth century and the 
fourth, was the age of the breaking up of the 
older traditions and institutions, the collapse of 
the city state before the power of Macedon, 
and the scattering of the Hellenic culture 
through the eastern world by the conquests of 
Alexander As was inevitable the old forms 
and standards of education, as of moral, in- 
tellectual, and political life gave place to a new 
cosmopolitanism and individualism The dis- 
solving and reconstructive effect of the new 
spirit was seen perhaps not so much in primary 
as in advanced education Philosophy and 
rhetoric became immensely popular, and schools 
arose m Athens and Alexandria to which the 
previous century offers no parallel, such as the 
rhetorical school of Isocrates (393-338 B c ) 
and the philosophical schools of Plato (the 
Academy), Aristotle (the Lyceum), and Zeno 
(the Stoa or Porch) In Athens the old custom 
of Ephebic education supervised by the State 
was joined to the three philosophical schools, 
teachers of rhetoric and logic were added, and 
thus was formed the University of Athens 
(q v ) Athens had however one rival, espe- 
cially during the earlier centuries of the Christian 
era, viz Alexandria (q v ), where another uni- 
versity grew up about the great library But 
long before the suppression of the University 
of Athens by Justinian in 520 A D. and the close 
of the intellectual greatness of Alexandria with 
the Saracen conquest (640 A.D ) Greek educa- 



100 



GREECE, EDUCATION IN MODERN GREECE, EDUCATION IN MODEM, 



tion had begun to lose its distinctive character- 
istics under the influence of Roman rule and 
the rise of Christianity J P M. 

References : 

BOSVNQUE.T, B Education of the Youny in Plato's Re- 
public (Cambridge, 1900) 

HTTRNET, J Aristotle on Education (Cambridge, 1903 ) 

DAVIDHON, T Aristotle and Ancient Educational 
Ideals (Now York, 1892.) 

Education of the Greek People (New York, 1S9S ) 

FREEMAN, K J The Schools of Hetta* (London, 
1907 ) 

CJKAHBGKOKR, L Erzit hurifj und Untrrricht nn kUissi- 
*ch(ti Alterthum (WUrzhur^, 1864 1881) 

MAIIAFF\, J P Social Life in Gruce from Homer to 
Menamhr (London, 1800) 

Old Gnek Education (London, 1898 ) 

MONROE, P Ho wee-Book of the History of Education 
Greek and Roman Period (Now York, 1906 ) 

W ALDEN, J W II Umvei aities of Ancient Greece 
(Now York, 1909) 

\\ ILKINH, A S National Education in Greece (Lon- 
don, 1873 ) 

GREECE, EDUCATION IN MODERN 

Historical The history of education m 
Greece may be conveniently divided into four 
periods The first of these extends from the 
sixth century B r to the third century of the 
Christian era, when Constantinople became the 
center of the Roman world Although during 
this time the independence and unity of Greek 
national life was destroyed by the Macedonian 
conquest (338 B c ) and finally by absorption 
in the Roman empire, Greek culture retained 
its distinctive diameter and was imparted to 
the conquering peoples The second period 
coincides with that of Byzantine supremacy 
and ends with the fall of Constantinople in 
1153 The third period is that of Turkish 
domination from 1453 to the War of Inde- 
pendence (1821), winch usheied in the fourth 
or modern era Of the earlier periods it is 
sufficient here to note that the first was that 
of classic Hellenism of which Athens was the 
proud center The second period was marked 
In the fusion of Hellenic philosophy with 
Christian doctimc, and although during this 
time the ancient schools of Athens and of 
othei Grecian cities declined, or were abolished 
by imperial decree, the Greek language and 
traditions survived in the brilliant capital of 
the East, for, while Latin was the official 
language of the Byzantine court, Greek was 
the language of the people, and Christian Hel- 
lenism the culture which drew scholars fiom 
the West to the University of Constantinople 
(See ALEXANDRIA, SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY 
OF, ATHENS, UNIVERSITY OF) 

The Turks, though not always openly hostile 
to Byzantine education and culture, looked 
upon it with indifference and contempt They 
did not, however, interfere directly with the 
education of such Christian inhabitants of the 
Empire as could pay liberally foi the privilege 
Yet the Clmstians were not free men, no 
careei, under ordinal y circumstances, was open 
to Gieek scholars save that which the Church 



afforded, the common people weie plunged in 
abject poverty, and the more fortunate hesi- 
tated to educate their children for fear of in- 
creasing their attractiveness Gnls were in 
danger of being appropriated for some harem, 
and every four years a certain number of 
small Christian boys were taken from their 
parents to be trained as janizaries The very 
existence of this child tribute, and the tax of 
one tenth of the male children for employ- 
ment in various offices, threw such gloom ovei 
family life that education could not well 
flourish, even if there were no other causes to 
prevent it 

Under these conditions the Greek church 
became the bond of union between all the 
Greeks in the Turkish empire, whether they 
lived in the Grecian peninsula, in the adjacent 
islands, or in Asia Minor, and the symbol of 
their lost national life Such schools as they 
had were under the supervision of the clergy 
and often under their direct control The 
schools for the common people were similar 
in many respects to the Church schools of 
Western Europe, but thev resembled also m 
some particulars the ancient schools of Arabia 
and India Pupils were taught to lead the 
church service and the elements of arithmetic 
and writing Theie were no special school 
buildings, but the pupils assembled in the 
narthex of some 4 church, \\hcn their teacher 
was an ecclesiastic, or in the shop of some 
handicraftsman when he happened to be the 
school-teacher They had no chairs, but sat 
crosslegged on mats or rugs laid on the floor 
Their books were in manuscript, since the ait 
of printing was not yet at then service Each 
pupil usually had but one book at a time, and 
Ins promotion to another book was joyfully 
celebrated by his family and iclatives The 
schools were geneially held m the daytime, 
but in the communities, where the pupils 
were engaged m labor during the day, night 
schools weie sometimes held A reference to 
these occasional night schools is contained in 
an old song which is still widely known through- 
out Greek lands 

In addition to the elementary schools, the 
ecclesiastical authorities established a higher 
order of schools termed Hellenic, their main 
purpose being to pieserve the knowledge of 
rhetoric and the ancient language The pupils 
of the Hellenic schools were geneially intended 
for the service of the Church, although a small 
proportion looked forward to the secular call- 
ings These two classes of schools, the ele- 
mentary or demotic and the Hellenic, formed 
the basis of the national system established 
after the war of independence 

Even during the seven years' war (1821- 
1828) plans for an organized system of educa- 
tion were discussed, and in 182tf, the Assembly 
of Atios voted that a system should be estab- 
lished Foieigners devoted to the cause of 
the Greeks, in paiticulai Lord Hyion and 



VOL in M 



101 



GREECE, EDUCATION IN MODERN GREECE, EDUCATION IN MODERN 



Leicester Stanhope, encouraged Ihe efioit 
When temporary peace was secured and a 
provisional government established under Ka- 
podistnas, the movement for a national system 
of education became general, am j m *1828, 
within the short spare of three monl hs, twenty- 
two primary schools were opened m towns on 
the .rfEgean islands. In these the Lancastenan 
method of mutual instruction was used The 
expense of the schools was borne by the com- 
munities In Januarv, 1S29, Kapodistnas ap- 
pointed a committee on elementary education, 
entrusted with the duty of organizing and 
establishing a system of elementary schools 
This committee gave the elementary (demotic) 
schools the character which they still retain 
Thus the foundations of the present system 
were laid before 1830 in which year the king- 
dom was organized under the protection of the 
three powers, Great Britain, France, and 
Russia From time to time Jaws have been 
passed which taken together provide m detail 
for a system of public education 

Present System Administration The 
Minister of Education (and of Ecclesiastical 
Affairs) is one of the seven members of the 
cabinet His appointment is laigely a matter 
of politics and his tenure of office is usually 
biief He has authontv to determine what 
subjects are to be taught in all the schools, 
both public and private, and he fixes the 
time that must be devoted to each of these 
subjects in the course of study In regard to 
the elementary and Hellenic schools he deter- 
mines the minimum equipment for schools of 
each class and he appoints the committee that 
appioves the textbooks submitted in the 
annual competition The Minister appoints 
all teachers and has authority to move or 
remove teacheis in the Hellenic schools and in 
the gymnasia This power in the hands of a 
frequently changing ministry leads to insecure 
tenure, and it sometimes happens that teachers 
are changed from desnable to undesirable 
places for purely political reasons He also 
appoints one chief inspector of elementary 
schools, four inspectors of intermediate schools, 
and one inspector of elementary schools for each 
of the twenty-six provinces 

At the head of each province is a Nomarch 
who is appointed by the King As one of his 
duties consists in supervising the funds of the 
domes comprised in his province, it is not 
surprising that he is required to look after 
education In practice, this official as well as 
the Demarch, confines his attention to the 
financial affairs of the schools and leaves the 
supervision of them and the examination of the 
pupils to a supervisory council which is com- 
posed of the bishop, the school inspector, the 
director of the gymnasium, or, if there be no 
gymnasium in the province, the director of 
the chief Hellenic school, and two othei mem- 
bers, one of whom must be a piofessional man, 
ind the other a business man The mspectoi 



162 



visits the schools and reports to the super- 
vising council, of which he is the chairman and 
executive ofTicei He is also a member of the 
General Council of Public Instruction The 
Supervisory Council holds monthly meetings, 
transacts all business of the province connected 
with the administration of the schools, includ- 
ing the nomination of teachers, the discipline 
of pupils, the inspection of the equipment and 
instruction in the elementary schools of the 
province, and the examination of pupils 

The various domes (local districts) are re- 
quired to establish elementary (demotic) schools, 
but a provision m the constitution makes it 
possible for the government to contribute to 
elementary education " in proportion to the 
necessities of the denies " Thus it happens 
that some of the schools in the poorer denies 
are entirely supported by the government, 
while other denies support their own schools 
The total expense of conducting the elementary 
(demotic) schools for the school year 1907-1908 
was 0,692,098 drachmas [$1,231,57491] (A 
drachma is equivalent to $0 193.) The national 
budget for this yeai contained an item of 
1,000,000 drachmas [$193,000] for the purpose 
of assisting needy denies More than 60 per 
cent of the elementary schools are supported 
wholly or in part by contributions from indi- 
viduals or societies Tuition in the elementary 
schools is gratuitous and the attendance for 
both boys and girls is compulsory from six to 
twelve 

Elementary Education The elementary 
schools have either four or six-year courses U 
the school provides a four-year course it is called 
a common (KOU/OV) elementary school If, 
however, it provides a six-year course, it is a 
complete elementary school Of the 3418 ele- 
mentary schools reported in 1908, 1571 were 
common schools, and 1847 were complete 
schools In theory coeducation of the sexes 
docs not exist in Greece, but in the smaller 
towns and in the rural sections, where the 
school attendance is not over seventy-five, both 
sexes attend the same school and are taught 
by one teacher This arrangement is not per- 
mitted after the children are ten years of age 

In principle, Greek education is clerical, 
compulsory, and gratuitous Thus three hours a 
week are devoted to the study of religion, 
which consists of instruction in sacred history, 
catechism, and reading from the Holy Scrip- 
tures Jews arid Roman Catholics have special 
instruction from the clergy of their own 
churches 

The teachers of the elementary schools are 
of three grades, depending upon their experi- 
ence and preparation The grade of the 
teacher determines not alone the type of 
school in which he may teach, but also the 
salary he is entitled to receive Teachers of 
the third or lowest grade are usually found in 
schools where the enrollment is from fifteen to 
forty If the enrollment is more 1 than fifty-five a 



GREECE, EDUCATION IN MODERN GREECE, EDUCATION IN MODERN 



first grade teacher is required The minimum 
qualification for elementary teachers is a license 
from one of the teachers' training schools The 
Tiormal schools admit only men Four of these 
schools have three-year courses, and one sub- 
normal school a one-year course A school for 
training teachers of gymnastics was established 
in Athens in 1899 

TABLE I THE SuiuErTS TAUOHT IN EACH GRADE of THE 
SCHOOLS AND THE UOUHH PK.K WB.LK DEVOTED TO INSTRUCTION 
IN EACH SUBJECT 





KLKMENTARY. 


IlVTfcKMFDIATB 


SUBJECT 


Common 1 


Hellenic 

-- y _ 


Gymnasium 




1st 


2d 


Sd 


4th 


1st 2d 


,4d 


iHt 


2d 


3d 


1th 




yr 
3 




,i 




2 j 2 


2 




2 


2 




Religion 


,i 


3 


2 


Greek, ancient 


(n 


11 


10 


10 


(3 j S 


S 


10 


10 


10 


10 


Greek, modern 


1 1J 








2 1 2 


2 










Latin 










j 


1 


3 


3 


3 


3 


French 










. 2 


2 


3 


J 


J 


3 


History 






2 


2 


2 i 2 


2 


} 


,* 


3 


3 


Geography 




2 


2 


2 


2 ' 2 


2 


2 








Mathematics 


3 


,1 


A 


r > 


J i ,i 


J 


4 


} 


4 


5 


Natural history 






2 2 


,22 




2 ' 2 






Plnsics 








2 * I 


2 






3 


3 


Philosophy 








j 






1 


1 


1 


Draw 1 UK 






2 


2 ; 2 , 1 


1 










Penmanship 




2 


2 ' 2 11 


1 










Vocal music 


.i 


a 


J .< ! 












Gym nasties 


4 


4 


8 ^ 


, 3 3 


3 


3 


3 


j 


3 



1 The course of stuch for the complete elemental v school 
includes tin lour veins of the common school course and two 
years of the Hellenic school course 

The woik of these schools is divided between 
theory and practice Each of the normal 
schools has a piactice school connected \\ith it 

Men teachois of the iirst grade m the com- 
plete schools leccive 1800 di per year , the 
second grade teachers receive 1440 dr , and 
the third grade 1200 di pel year Women of 
the same grades receive 1140 dr , 1320 di , and 
1200 dr , respectively The local communities 
may increase these amounts The teachois in 
the common schools receive 600 dr , 780 dr , 
.or 900 dr per year, depending upon the giade 
which they teach Each teacher contributes 
to a pension fund Tenure of oflice for these 
teachers is permanent during good behavior 

Intermediate Education From the elemen- 
tary schools boys may pass to the Hellenic 
schools Those who come from the common 
schools enter the hist year of the three-year 
course, but those who have taken the six-year 
course of the complete elementary school enter 
either the second or third year of the Hellenic 
school A recent Mimstei of Education urged 
that the last year of the course m these schools 
should be added to the course of the gymnasia 
This would abolish the Hellenic schools, for the 
first two years of their course 1 is now given in 
the complete elementary schools Of the 314 
schools that were reported for 1907-1908, 207 
had three classes, 15 had two second classes, 
while 32 had only a one-year comse, 20,517 pu- 



pils were enrolled in these schools, and the total 
expense was 2,477,022 dr There usually aie at 
least as many teachers as there arc classes in 
the Hellenic school Teachers m the Hellenic 
schools must have a diploma from the Univer- 
sity, and to obtain the higher positions they 
must have passed the examination for the 
master's degree or even the doctorate The 
head teacher, or director, of a Hellenic school 
is called the scholarch, and receives from 2400 
dr to 3000 dr per year The salaries of sub- 
ordinate teachers vaiy from 1200 dr to 3000 
dr per year These teachers are appointed by 
the Minister of Education and they have no 
fixed tenure 

Secondary Education After independence 
was achieved, secondary education showed 
plainly the influence of German models The 
first gymnasium in Greece was the Central 
School, founded in ^Egma on the 13th of 
November, 1829 The number gradually in- 
creased, and at present there is a gymnasium 
in every town of sufficient size to justify the 
expense In the larger cities, Athens, Patras, 
etc , there are more than one, accoidmg to the 
population Each gymnasium is managed by 
its own faculty At the head of the faculty is 
the gymnasiarch, who is both a teacher and 
general director He also serves as one of the 
members of the Supervising Council for the 
province The program of studies is regu- 
lated by an official scheme which is modified 
to suit the individual schools (see Table I) 

The gymnasia are generally supported by 
the State, but in places where the population 
is not large enough to justify this expenditure 
by the State, the people of the community 
sometimes support one for themselves, paying 
the expense in some ingenious way Foi in- 
stance, the town of Ncsion, in Messema, not 
being favored by the government with a gym- 
nasium, its inhabitants were in the year 1896 
supporting one by a voluntary tax, levied and 
collected "by themselves, oi one centime on 
each oke of grapes or hgs produced m their 
fields Pupils are required to pay small eri- 
tiance and certificate fees The gymnasia are 
classical schools, but the physical sciences aie 
included m their course of study Until 
lecently, however, the latter subjects have been 
little regarded, since the gieat importance of 
classic education m Greece overshadows the 
high claim that the physical sciences have on 
modern education The schools lack appa- 
ratus, yet, improvement m this respect is 
taking place and piofessois aie being secured 
who have won their diplomas m the physical 
sciences, and are, therefore, both capable 
teachers and interested in the progress of 
their specialty 

The younger Greeks are eager for education, 
and efforts are made to encouiage this am- 
bition There is, however, a glowing convic- 
tion that the education atioided by the schools 
it> not sufficiently practical Plans for nmdily- 



103 



GREECE, EDUCATION IN MODERN GREECE, EDUCATION IN MODERN 



ing the system have been considered by two 
recent national assemblies, but as yet no agree- 
ment has been reached The experiment of 
a " practical gymnasium " is being tried now 
in Athens No new gymnasium of the regular 
type has been founded since 1900, but between 
1001 and 1908 six commercial schools, with 
four-year courses were established In 1908 
these schools were employing 33 teachers, and 
had 315 students enrolled The total annual 
expense of conducting them was 113,040 dr 

TABLE II STATISTICS OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM FOR 
1907-1908 









GYMNASIA 




ELEMENT- 
ARY (dome) 


HELLENIC 














Public 


Private 


Schools 


3,418i 


314 


26 


11 


Teachers 


4,336 


931 


183 


97 


(Jvrnnastic teachers 




9 


26 


6 


Htudenta 










BOVH 


170,374 


20,517 


3,941 


1,352 


Girls 


71,059 








Total expense 










Drachmas 


b,690,098 


2,477,022 


767,376 


259,090 


Dollars 


$1.201,575 


$ 478,065 


$178,065 


$50,161 


Expense per pupil 


S5 35 


$2330 


$37 58 


$37,92 



'The 3418 elementary <hools include 1571 common 
schools, 1224 complete schools for boys, and 623 complete 
schools for girls The total also includes 2123 schools that are 
not supported by the State or demos 

(7/r/.s, Education of The education of girls 
*n Greece, beyond the six years of the com- 
plete elementary course, is a matter of private 
enterprise, the oldest school for gills having 
been founded in 1831 by an American mis- 
sionary, Dr Hill, and his wife Lately, how- 
ever, the faculties of the national university 
have been opened to women Among the 
schools for girls the most important is the 
Arsakion This school was founded in July, 
1830, bv the Society of the Promoters of Edu- 
cation, and named after its chief benefactor, 
Apostolos Arsakes There are now several 
branches located in different cities The course 
of study begins with the kindergarten and ends 
with a three-year teacher's training course 
Ceitiheatos from this school qualify their 
holders to teach in the elementary schools 
More than 1800 girls are enrolled in the school, 
and more than 800 were taking the teacher's 
training course in 1908 

There are numerous societies which main- 
tain private schools, noteworthy among these 
being the Parnassus Society, which conducts a 
night school for poor boys, 'of whom more than 
2000 attend 

Higher Education The Greek educational 
system culminates in the National University 
at Athens In April, 1837, Otto, who, after 
the death of Kapodistnas, had been appointed 
by the powers to be the first king of regenerated 
Greece, issued a decree for the establishment 
of a university Following the custom of the 
Germans, ho named the new institution after 



104 



himself, and not until 1862 was the name 
changed to National University According 
to the decree of 1837 there were to be four 
faculties theology, law, medicine, and philoso- 
phy The latter consisted of two distinct 
sections, philosophy and science In 1904 
each of these sections was made a separate 
faculty The faculty of theology is composed of 
six professors and four assistants In the law 
faculty there are nine professors and nineteen 
assistants The medical faculty which is the 
largest, has eighteen professors and forty-eight 
assistants The philosophical faculty has 
twelve professors and five assistants, and the 
physical and mathematical faculty has twelve 
professors and eight assistants In 1842 a 
seminar in Greek philology was founded in 
the faculty of philosophy The peculiar func- 
tion of this seminar has been the training of 
teachers for secondary schools Other seminars 
and various laboratories, museums, and clinics 
are supported by the university Among the 
other more important subsidiary institutions 
may be mentioned the national observatory 
built in 1840, the botanical gardens and 
museum, the university libraiy with more 
than 300,000 volumes, and the national 
museum 

Three months before the close of the school 
year the combined faculties choose one of 
their number whom the Minister of Education 
appoints as rector foi the next school year 
The rector is the executive head of the uni- 
versity and its representative at all functions 
In like mariner each faculty chooses one of its 
members who is made dean of that faculty for 
the following year by the Minister of Educa- 
tion The dean presides at meetings of the 
faculty, ho arranges the program of studies, 
and represents his faculty in the university 
senate 

The financial administration of the univer- 
sity rests with the university senate, a body 
composed of the rector of the university, the 
dean, and one other representative from each 
of the faculties, except the faculties of philoso- 
phy and physical and mathematical sciences 
Each faculty proposes the candidates for the 
professorships, and the Minister of Education 
appoints Prior to 1882 the professors were 
named by the king The government pays 
the larger portion of the salaries of the uni- 
versity officers For the school year 1907- 
1908 the receipts of the university were 546,185 
dr and the expenditures were 507,349 dr In 
addition to this the goveinment paid salaries 
of professors and various other expenses 
amounting to 584,960 dr This amount in- 
cluded 85,920 dr. to aid needy students and 
those studying abroad 

Students pay 2 dr a year for a certificate 
of attendance in each course they take Tui- 
tion amounts to 160 dr per year, and there is 
an examination fee of 250 dr in the legal and 
medical faculties, but only 150 dr in the other 



GREEK LETTER SOCIETIES 



GREEK, STUDY OF 



faculties The diploma cowls 50 <li Students 
who have been graduated from the gymnasia, 
or institutions of like grade, are admitted 
without examination The enrollment in the 
winter semester of 1909-1910 was about 2800 
and in the summer session about 2500 

Other educational agencies which are not 
controlled by the government, but are suffi- 
ciently important to merit a mention in any 
description of the Greek educational system 
are the various archaeological schools (see 
ARCHAEOLOGY) The oldest of these schools 
was established in 1846 and is called Kcolc 
Franqaise d'Athenes The American School of 
Classical Studies was founded in 1S82 and is 
maintained by 20 American universities and 
colleges The British School at Athens was 
founded in 1880 Other institutions aie A'a/.sr/- 
hches Deutschex Archaulog inches Instdut, and 
Itdtieuisches Archaulogitiches Invtitid Greece 
maintains no ai chaeological school, but two 
societies are active in archaeological investiga- 
tions Thev are the Archaeological Society, 
founded in 1887, and the Historical and Kth- 
nological Society, founded in 1882 

ATS and M B H 

Reference , 

ANDRK, CHARLES L'EnsciKiicmpnt primaire on (irecc 
In Kevin pedagogiqu( \ ul LV February Man li, 
IMS, pp 160 1S2, and pp 2(>, r >-JH4 
Notes sur 1' University d'Atheries In Rrmtf inter- 
national? d( rEmt j i(jnenu nt Vol LI, Apul, 1 ( K)(>, 
pp 305 316 

CHAHSIOTIS, CIKOKUKS L'lnxtrutfion jruhliqut <lnz It s 
Grtit>, d('fwit> la 7 J r/M de (Constantino pit pui k s 
Turus jiisqn'a- n<8 Jonr8 (Pans, 1S81 ) 

Greece, Ministry of Public Education and Woiship 
Annual statistics, 1907-1 'JOS (Atheiih, 1909) 

MILLER, WILLIAM Public- Education In G'm/r L>f< 
in Town and Country, pp 180-162 (London, 
1905) 

QUINN, DANIEL Education in Greecf In T nited 
States Bureau of Education, Report of Commis- 
sioner, 1S96-1897, pp 207-347 (WabhiiiKton, 
1898 ) 

GREEK LETTER SOCIETIES See FRA- 
TERNITIES 

GREEK, STUDY OF. In Universities 
and Schools of Europe Each successive 
migration of the Greeks may be said to have 
resulted in a twofold conquest, a conquest 
by the invaders of the land and its inhabitants, 
and a more gradual conquest by the language 
which they spoke ovei the native tongue of 
the people whom thcv subdued This wide- 
spread diffusion of the Gieek tongue gradually, 
though slowly, resulted in a corresponding 
diffusion of Greek thought And so there 
arose centers for Greek study in different parts 
of the Mediterranean countries, with Athens 
for a long time as the chief seat The career 
of Athens, Alexandria, and Antioch as later 
centers of Greek learning is treated in outline 
in the articles on the universities and schools 
of those places The condition of the study of 
Greek and the attitude of the Christian leaders 
toward Greek culture are also considered 



under the topics CHRISTIAN KDIIC \TJON IN THJ- 
EARLY CHURCH, and durum SCHOOLS, and 
the various articles on the Church Fathers (see 
AMBROSE, AUGUSTINE, BASIL, CHKYSOSTOM, etc ) 
treat of the attitude of the early Church to 
Greek culture arid the Greek language The 
fusion of Greek cultuie with Roman is treated 
in the discussion of ROMAN EDUCATION (q v } , 
and the conditions during the Middle Ages are 
presented in outline in the articles on education 
in that period A brief sketch of the condition 
of the knowledge of Greek from the late Roman 
period to the Renaissance is desirable as an in- 
troduction to the consideration of the place of 
Greek in modern education (see also RENAIS- 
SANCE, EDUCATION IN) 

Under Constantino the Great Greek became 
the language, first of his court, and then of the 
official world When, in 340, his eldest son 
and successor in the Western piefecture, 
Constantino IT, fell in a campaign in Provence, 
a Gieek monody, recited at Aries, was deemed 
the most appropriate tubute to his memory 
At this time, indeed, the churches of Western 
Christendom were virtually Greok colonies, 
and both the Scriptures and the liturgies which 
they used were in the Greek language, so that, 
as late as the sixth century, we find Ca\sanu,s, 
the eminent Bishop of Aries, giant ing permis- 
sion foi the use of such versions, as an altei na- 
tive to Latin, throughout the churches of his 
diocese A like permission was accorded to 
the churches in Maiseilles, and the numerous 
(ireek words which found then way into the 
French or Romance language of tins period 
afford like evidence The imperial designs, 
however, were far from commanding general 
assent, and in Afuca Teitulhan (q v ) had long 
before declared that there could be nothing in 
common between the "Academy" and the 
Church, while he openlv denounced philosophy 
as " the source of all the heresies " (Dc 7'ra 3 - 
scn pi , c 7) Lactantius (q v ), summoned by 
Diocletian to fill the chair of Latin at \ico- 
media (then a famous center of Gieek culture), 
found his position untenable, and at the court 
of Constantino at Gaul became conspicuous 
by the vehemence with which he inveighed 
against all Greek philosophy His / n^titu- 
tionx } which long held its ground in the Latin 
Church as the best authontutive exposition 
both of elementary Christian doctnne and the 
principles of Christian education, and the De 
NuptiiK of Martianus Capella (<y v ), embodying 
the classification of the liberal arts sanctioned 
by the authority of Augustine (q v ), and repio- 
duced long after in the umveisities of Europe, 
alike mark the trend of education m the West 
in comparative isolation from Greek and from 
Hellenic influences 

Throughout the fourth century, however, 
Alexandna maintained its reputation as "the 
last great nursery of Greek culture," and in 
conjunction with a new school of theology 
could point to a succession of eminent divines 



165 



GREEK, STUDY OF 



GREEK, STUDY OF 



whose influence outshone , foi a time, even that 
of Jerome and Augustine Of this the more 
citation of the name of Athanasms, Eusebius, 
Basil the Great, and Gregory Nazianzen (qq v ) 
affords sufficient evidence; while John Chry- 
sostom (q v ), who was of Antioch, and subse- 
quently Patriarch of Constantinople, has been 
designated " the model of a preacher for a great 
capital" (Milman, Vol III, p 118) He be- 
queathed to posterity a vast collection of ser- 
mons, letters, and treatises, of which the 
first-named have probably attracted in modern 
times a larger number of readers than the 
declamations of any other Greek orator, except- 
ing only Demosthenes In Byzantium itself 
the work of education went steadily on, and 
we have sufficient evidence that in the latter 
part of the eighth century there was ample 
provision foi instruction in grammar, language, 
science, arid philosophy (Bury, Latei Roman 
Kmpire, Vol II, p 435); and the statement of 
Theophancs that Leo the I saurian (680-741) 
put an end to " pious education" by shutting 
up the schools, refers probably only to a kind 
of theological seminary in the capital, which, 
under the management of its twelve teachers, 
became a nurserv of superstition and was 
finally swept away in the commotion occasioned 
by the iconoclastic movement It is certain 
that Europe was indebted to John of Damascus 
(nearly the last of the Fathers of the Eastern 
Church) for the introduction of the studv of 
Aristotle into Christian education Of the 
vast literature bequeathed by these Byzantine 
writers, although their pages contain many 
facts useful to the modern historian, compaia- 
tively few have been much studied in the 
universities But the earlv years of the 
seventeenth century found Sir Henry Savilc 
busiest with his fine edition of John Chrysostom, 
just as those of the sixteenth centmy saw 
Bentley engaged on the restoration of the text of 
On gen 

In the Western Empire, down to the time of 
the Renaissance, Greek learning appears only 
in occasional gleams, and no continuous tradi- 
tion is discernible It was undoubtedly the 
design of Charles the Great (see CHARLEMAGNE 
AND EDUCATION) and his adviser Alcuin (q v ) 
that the language should be taught in the 
hcln>ols created by their joint efforts, but there 
is no evidence that their instructions were 
carried into effect, although when John Scot us 
Ermgena (qr), a fugitive from Ireland, suc- 
ceeded to the mastership of the Palace School 
in the time of Charles the Bald, something 
must have been heard at Aachen about both 
Martian us Capella and Ongen Otto III, 
himself the son of a Greek mother, was able to 
raise his preceptoi Gerbert (q i ) to the papal 
chair, and the latter understood Greek, while 
his pupil emulated the ceremonial and usages 
of the Byzantine court But the prevailing 
tendencies in Home, both then and long after- 
wards, were unfavorable to learning in any 



shape, and in the thirteenth century a knowl- 
edge of Greek was even studiously disclaimed 
as likely to bring the possessor under the sus- 
picion 'of heresy (Sandys, Vol. I, p 583) 
Greek thought and Greek science, however, 
often found their way where the language itself 
was unknown, and authors who had written 
on philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, and 
medicine were widely read in Latin transla- 
tions, the professors at the newly founded uni- 
versities, Saleino, Bologna, Reggio, Modena, 
Vicenza, Padua, and Pans being wont to 
dictate and comment on these versions, long 
prior to the fourteenth century The Saracens, 
again, during the reign of the Abbaside dynasty 
at Bagdad (750-1258), and that of the Ommi- 
ades at Cordova (756-1031), became acquainted, 
through translations made by Synaii Chris- 
tians, with Aristotle, Hippocrates, Galen, 
Dioscondes, Euclid, Archimedes, and Ptolemy, 
and conceived an ardent admnation for most 
of these writers, at the time when the greatest 
part of Latin Christendom, absorbed m an 
exclusive devotion to the Organ urn of Aristotle 
and an unquestioning acceptance of the doc- 
trine of predestination as pioclamied by Augus- 
tine, looked distrustfully alike on the theology 
and the science of the East In the year 1311, 
however, the Council of Vieime having decreed 
that chairs of Greek, Hebrew, Chaldee, and 
Arabic should be founded in the universities 
of Pans, Oxford, Bologna, and Salamanca, 
Clement V did not deem it prudent to with- 
hold his assent But heie again the scheme 
proved abortive and the papal signature was 
expunged, while in the fifteenth century the 
commentators on the Clementines even venture 
to deny that it had ever been attached (Mul- 
hnger, Utuv of Camb , Vol I, pp 482-483) 

Such were the conditions undei which Pe- 
trarch (qv), when he fust viMted Rome in 
1336, could find no one to teach him Greek, 
and even in 1300 could name only ten scholars 
in all Italy who possessed a competent knowl- 
edge of the language, " thiee 01 foui in 
Florence, one in Bologna, two in Verona, one 
in Sulmona, one in Mantua, but not one in 
Rome" (Voigt, Vol 11, p 107) The human- 
ist, however, could not long rest content with 
that Latin literature which itself continually 
revealed its own indebtedness to the inspira- 
tion derived from ancient Hellas, and as the 
aid of competent instructors in Greek literature 
became more and more indispensable, Manuel 
Chrysoloras (qv), the representative of the 
imperial couit at Constantinople in Venice, was 
invited to Florence, where his school, probably 
the earliest for Greek aftei that of Lorenzo 
Pilatus (1360-1363), was open to all comers 
He himself received a salary of 100 gulden, and 
lectured in Latin (1396-1400), taking Plato's 
Republic for Ins first subject Chrysoloras 
subsequently lectured at Florence, Pavia, 
Venice, Bologna, and Home, he died in 1415, 
when on a visit to the imperial court at Con- 



166 



GREEK, STUDY OF 

stance, whither ho had repaired m order to 
take part in the proceedings of the groat 
council Under such auspices Greek now he- 
came fashionable in Italy, and it was lon- 
dercd still more so by the genius of Guaiino 
(qv), one of the disciples of Chrysoloras, who 
was able both to disarm the jealousy of Rome 
and to command the admiration of every 
scholar In his classroom at Ferrara English- 
men were to be seen, some of them of distin- 
guished rank, and when, in 1138-1439, the 
oecumenical council was convened in that 
city, his linguistic attainments were displayed 
in the skill with which he acted as interpreter 
between the deputies of the Greek and the 
Latin churches (See also GUAIUNO, BATJ IST \ ) 

The first great school for youth, however, 
was that of Vittorino da Feltre at Mantua, 
the " Pleasant House/' as it was teimcd 
Although, after the fall of Constantinople 
(1453), the number of teachers in Italy uns 
materially increased, they themselves bi ought 
but few manuscripts with them, and the 
paucity of the latter continued to be a serious 
hindrance to the study of Greek until the 
arrival of two Germans, Sweynhevm and 
Pannartz, who had worked under Faust at 
Mainz, introduced the art of printing, while it 
at the same time ruined many of the copyists 
A small Greek grammai compiled by Con- 
Btantme Lascans (qv), which appeared at 
Milan in 1476, was probably the hist book 
printed in Greek 

Antiquananism and the interest eollateially 
excited in the history of noble houses, especially 
that of the Medici, did much to attract the 
sympathy of then representatives to the study 
of the humanists, but in the earlier yea is of the 
sixteenth centuiy a great reaction set in in 
Italy, and the interest of the progressive move- 
ment, as identified with Greek, next centers in 
Germany At the time of Reuchlm's death 
(1522) Greek was taught in neaily all the Gei- 
man universities But that eminent scholar 
had already been denounced by the seniors of 
the University of Basel for his temeiitv in there 
venturing to introduce the study of Anstotle 
in the original text, and in 1523 we find 
Budipus (q v ) writing a Greek letter to Habelaib 
(who was, like himself, a member of the Fian- 
ciscan order) to express his sympathy with his 
friend under the annoyance to which the latter 
had been subjected, in being debaned " bv 
the Heads of your Brotherhood from the read- 
ing of Greek treatises " " We are aware," he 
goes on to say, " that those Greek-detesting 
theologians have been most zealous to abolish 
the Greek language, looking upon it as the 
test of their own ignorance, and it is on this 
account that we see the most vvoithless of them 
in their sermons in the churches, railing at it, 
and by every means bringing it into suspicion 
with the people, as a most execrable study and 
pernicious to true theology " (Smith, W F , 
Vol. II, p. 489) Erasmus (q v ) in like manner 



GREEK, STUDY OF 

found himself confronted by the charge of favor- 
ing rebellion against the authonU of St Augus- 
tine His knowledge of Greek had been 
acquired in Paris after his renunciation of the 
monastic life, it had been improved during his 
losideneo at Cambndge (1510-1514), and it 
was there that he made a translation of the 
first book of the grammar by Theodore Gaza 
(qv), which he printed at Louvam in 1516 
In the same year he published at Basel the 
first printed text of the Greek New Testament, 
along with a Latin version by himself, instead 
of the Vulgate His position, however, to the 
end of his caieer was that of an eclectic, for 
while denouncing Lutheianism as inimical to 
sound learning, he may be said to have edu- 
cated Zwingh, whom he had taught Greek at 
Basel, and who, throughout his career as the 
head of the Reform party in Switzerland, 
always evinced a marked preference for the 
Greek patristic literature ovei the Latin 
How well Erasmus educated himself may be 
seen in the critical comment which enabled 
him to recognize the {superiority of the diction 
of St Luke to that of the other Evangelists 
Melanchthon's (q v ) inaugural lecture in 1518, as 
professor of Greek at the newly founded univer- 
sity at Wittenberg, marks a further advance 
in relation to the study of the language 1 , by the 
advice which he gave that it should be pursued 
pan pati*u with that of Latin, by all students 
"who sought to grasp the substance of the 
involved thought rather than its shadow " In 
the same year he published his <7mA (ham mar 
The movement at Oxford, contemporary with 
the visit of Erasmus (141)8-1499) resulted in 
no traditions Giocyn (qv) is said to have 
lectured on Greek, and he possessed a fine 
libiaiy of classical authois, but his lack of 
critical judgment is evinced in his admiration 
of the (Jin rent Aristotle, his disparagement of 
Plato, and his belief in the genuineness of the 
Uiaanhi/ of Dionysms the Areopagite At 
Cambridge, on the other hand, the foundation 
of the Regius professorship b> Henry VIII in 
1540 brought the study at once into favor, and 
the appointment of Sir John Choke (q v ) to the 
chair still further added to its popularity 
Roger Ascham (qv), writing only two years 
later, describes the principal Cheek authors 
as being already studied with an ardoi alto- 
gether surpassing what had ever been elicited by 
the favorite Latin classics (Mullmger, Vol II, 
P p 52-57) 

Philology, as a study, was as yet unrecog- 
nized, while all speculation on the subject was 
vitiated by the prevalent theory with respect 
to Hebrew, as the original tongue from which 
all the others were directly, or immediately, 
derived In assigning the priority to a lan- 
guage in a scheme of instruction, the choice 
was accordingly supposed to lie between He- 
brew and Greek Rabelais inclined to put the 
latter first, as " that without which it is a dis- 
grace for a man to style himself scholar 
167 



GREEK, STUDY OF 



GREEK, STUDY OF 



(Smith, VV F , Vol I, ]> 216), a view which 
appears to have been the current one in France 
long after his tune Ratke, in Germany, in 
propounding his scheme (1612), placed TIelnew 
first, then the* Greek Testament, and thirdly 
Latin JTis Mews, however, put foith as 
they weie in subservience to the prejudices of 
Lutheramsm, which regarded the Greek and 
the Latin classics as alike demoralizing, 
gained a temporarv popularity greatly in 
excess of their real merits, and encouiaged 
thereby, Ratke next proposed to substitute 
for the laborious imitation of the classical 
writers, which has been the practice of the 
humanists, a method similar to that whereby 
a colloquial knowledge of German or French is 
gained in the present day The consequence 
was that both in northern Germany and in the 
Low Countries the critical faculty fell into 
disuse, and, in the language of Mark Pattison, 
" the Dutch editois shunned Greek, to which 
they were unequal, or only attempted it to give 
evidence that it was a lost science " (Isaac 
Casaubon, p 45S) Comemus, notwithstand- 
ing his enlightened views with respect to prac- 
tical education, inclined to a like theory with 
regard to Latin, and connived at a laxity in 
Latin prose that threatened to result in the 
complete disappeaiance of a pure and correct 
style (Kckstem, p 175) 

The commencement of a radical reform dates 
from the time of V A Wolf (17f>9-lS2S), who, 
when a student at Gottingen devoted himself 
to the .study of philology with a success that 
led to his receiving an invitation from Zedhtz 
at Halle, to transfer himself to that rising 
university, " in order/ 7 wrote the professor, 
" to free it from the repioaeh of being without 
a single student of the subject " Wolf's 
compliance resulted in a further extension of 
his researches to ancient history, and especially 
to everything that related to Greece, and the 
Greek language and literature, his keen 
insight into the specific merits of the classic 
writers, both as regards sUle and matter, 
constituting an epoch in the annals of scholar- 
ship With regard to the question of the 
order in which the two languages should be 
taken, he concluded that in all cases where 
the student gave evidence of an aptitude for 
linguistic studies, Greek should be taken before 
Latin, a view in which Gedike of Berlin and 
Herbart expressed their concurrence, urging 
(1S01) that the Romans having been, as it 
were, the disciples of the Greek, it would be an 
inversion of the true order, alike of linguistic 
arid of philosophic studies, to give the prece- 
dence to Latin On the other hand, there 
were those who pointed out that, if Greek were 
taken before Latin, the requirements of the 
classroom would necessitate a considerable 
curtailment of the time allotted to the latter, 
and in connection with Greek, and largely 
under the influence of more independent 
research in other countries, two rival schools 



began, at, this tune, to divide the allegiance 1 of 
the learned world On Gottfried Hermann of 
Leipzig (1772-1848), it devolved to retrieve 
the disadvantages resulting from the influence 
of Ratke by pointing out that the study of 
Greek could be piofitably put sued only by the 
adoption of a strictly logical and rational 
method, while August Boeckh (1785-1867), 
who, after studying theology and philosophy 
at Halle, had been professor at Heidelberg and 
in Berlin, concentrated his research upon the 
past history of institutions, art, and archae- 
ology That Hermann was to some extent 
inspired by the example of Bentley (1662- 
1742) at Cambridge, is undeniable, but Ins 
editions of the tragic Greek poets and of 
Pindar bore the impress of an originality and 
critical insight unprecedented in Germany, 
while Boeckh's Public Economy of Athens 
and Corpus Inscriptionum Grcrcarum " laid 
the foundation for all later research in the 
departments with which they were concerned" 
(Sandys, Vol III, ch 29) In the freer atmos- 
phere of the newly founded university of Ber- 
lin, the masterly investigations of Franz Bopp 
(q v ) created, in like manner, the study of 
comparative philology, and his method, as 
set forth rn his Comparative (hammai , afforded 
new guidance in connection both with Greek 
and with Latin 

In the meantime the question of priority 
had received a practical solution in France 
and in England by the requirement in Paris, 
as at Oxford and at Cambridge, that students 
on entering the university should already 
possess a colloquial command of Latin In 
these important centers, accordingly, the lan- 
guage itself was not taught (it being presumed 
that the requisite knowledge had been already 
obtained at the grammar school), and Kton, 
Winchester, Westminster, Charterhouse, St 
Paul's, and Christ's Hospital vied with each 
other in sending up youths who already spoke 
correct Latrn and wrote Latin verse, and were 
thus able forthwith to devote their time to 
Greek and to Hebrew 

University Courses vn Greek at Present It is 
impossible to give any statistical statement of the 
number of courses in Greek in the chief univer- 
sities which would serve to indicate the strength 
of the subject in the different countries It 
might be mentioned, for example, that in the 
German universities 142 courses were given in 
the summer semester of 1911, and that these 
were distributed among the following branches 
philosophy (7), literature (06), composition 
(7), history (11), beginners (11), arclup- 
ology and antiquities (2.'i); philology and 
epigraphy (17) But the number of students 
who attended the courses is not available, nor 
can figures indicate the quality of the work 
done, for the productions rn any field may be 
more valuable when confined to a small and 
selected number than when largely cultivated 
In France, too, there are in the sixteen faculties 



168 



GREEK, STUDY OF 



GREEK, STUDY OF 



of letters twenty-seven professors and two 
adjunct professors, assisted by twelve lecturers, 
but the scope of their work is as a rule not 
defined. Of the English universities Oxford 
and Cambridge are still the strongest centers 
for the study of the classics Greek is studied 
intensively by all students who graduate in the 
school of Literce, Hu want ores at Oxford and in 
the classical Tripos at Cambridge, and is also 
taken in certain groups for the pass degrees 
Here, too, it is difficult to differentiate between 
those who give courses in Latin and those in 
Greek, nor would a statement of their work 
be significant, for much of the work is done 
privately with the c Allege tutors In the 
newer univerMties there are separate chairs 
for Latin and for Greek, while in some the 
lecturers or assistants may instruct in both 
subjects 

In American Universities Before the 
founding of the Johns Hopkins University 
(1876), there was nothing in the United States 
fully corresponding to the German philosoph- 
ical faculty 111 the modern sense But some 
advanced work was offeied to graduates at Yale 
College from 1847, and soon after at Harvard, 
in classics, as m other subjects The degree of 
Ph D foi work primarily in Greek was first given 
at Yale, in 1803 At Johns Hopkins, Professor 
Gildersleeve began at once to draw able and 
ambitious students who previously would have 
gone to Germany Gradually the strongest of 
the older colleges and state universities de- 
veloped and strengthened their advanced 
courses m Greek; the University of Chicago 
from its first session (1892) made this one of 
its important departments At present, be- 
sides the institutions already named, one might 
mention Columbia, Princeton, and the Uni- 
versities of California and Michigan, with a 
few others, as furnishing good opportunities in 
their graduate schools for the advanced study 
of the Greek language and literature, as well 
as of Greek archaeology At none of these is 
the number of students in Greek large It 
should be remembered also that the American 
School of Classical Studies at Athens is in 
effect a part of the graduate school of all Ameri- 
can universities and colleges that unite in its 
support, and constitutes an important part of 
the provision made for Greek as a university 
study To that school, as to the graduate 
school of several of the universities, women 
arc admitted, as well as men 

In American Colleges In America as else- 
where the line between secondaiv school and 
college, as between college (or what cone- 
sponded to it) and university, has been an un- 
stable one. To no subject does this apply 
more fully than to Greek Still it may be 
said that from the foundation of Harvard 
(1636) Greek has always been regarded as a 
subject to be taught m college required of 
all, in accordance with tradition, so long as 
any large part of the curriculum was required, 



but everywhere the first of the triad, Latin, 
Greek, Mathematics, to be made optional In 
the state universities, as these were gradually 
established from 1837 on, Gieek was one of 
the subjects to be taught in the department, 
however named, that corresponded to the older 
colleges In most of these Greek was never 
required; in some, as at the University of Cali- 
fornia still, it was required for the degree of 
A.B only, while another degree, usually in- 
tended to be of equal value, though lacking 
the prestige of tradition attached to the older 
degree, was always provided as the crown of a 
parallel course for which Greek was not re- 
quired Similar parallel courses, without CJreek, 
have in one form or another been established 
at all important oldei colleges, except where 
Greek has ceased to be required for the A B 
degree But it should be remembered that in 
the United States no profession or public 
office has ever been wholly closed, even bv 
custom, still less by law, to those who knew 
no Greek The restrictions long maintained 
in France and Germany in this regard never 
had a place here This fact is usually ignored 
by people who would draw parallels between 
America and continental Europe Further, 
each college being a law unto itself, there has 
been endless experimenting on this, as on most, 
educational questions; general statements must, 
therefore, be very broad, and detailed state- 
ments for the entire country would require too 
much space But one may say that up to about 
the last quarter of the last century the degiee 
of A B from all but the weakest colleges gener- 
ally implied more or less of Greek study in 
college Since then the ratio of bachelors of 
arts who never studied Greek has been steadily 
increasing, of late rapidly No other academic 
degree ever necessarily implied an acquaintance 
with Greek, though bachelors of divinity nearly 
always had studied it a little, at least in the New 
Testament; of course many lawyers and physi- 
cians had taken a college course, with Greek, 
before beginning professional study. Exact fig- 
ures are riot obtainable, but probably not over 
one tenth of American young men or young 
women now studying for the A B degree take 
any Greek in college, and the ratio is diminish- 
ing Where Greek is not required for entering 
the department leading to the baccalaureate 
in arts, elementary couises in Greek, wholly 
optional, are regularly offered On the other 
hand, the opportunities for Greek study in col- 
lege, for those who wish and are prepared to 
take them, have been greatly increased Early 
in the eighteenth century Homer and the New 
Testament were still the most important, in 
many cases the only, Greek books read Not 
until the nineteenth century was the range 
much enlarged; American colleges then, like 
the corresponding institutions of Germany and 
(treat Britain, accorded to Greek a higher 
esteem and a larger place than it had ever 
received before At present, since colleges are 



169 



GREEK, STUDY OP 



GREEK, STUDY OF 



of all grades of strength, advancement, and 
inclination toward classical study, all grades 
of opportunity aie offered in them, from the 
minimum recognized two hundred years ago, 
to the maximum in the ten or a do/en best 
In the latter are regularly offered courses in 
Homer, the drama, oiators, the historians, 
Theocritus, and Pindar In general the col- 
lege canon includes in each branch of literature 
portions, at least, of all the greatest books, 
those which have had most subsequent in- 
fluence and which contain most of intrinsic 
literary interest The situation in Canadian 
colleges is much the same, though these 
naturally show closer relations with English 
usage, and more distinctly favor, for students 
inclined to take Greek, earlier specialization 
and a wider range of reading than any in the 
United States, with the possible exception ot 
Harvard 

In Schools The schools of different coun- 
tries have developed on such different lines 
that comparisons in legard to any branch of 
study are difficult to make and arc peculiarly 
open to misunderstanding And as was .said 
above, school and the faculty of aits in the 
university are not always clearly distinguish- 
able In the following sketch of the place of 
(iieek in the schools, only Germany, France, 
and England will generally be considered, as 
most nearly concerning Ameiica It is impossi- 
ble here even to summarize the complicated and 
interesting history of Greek study For three 
centuries textbooks and methods of teaching, 
judged by present standards, were extremely 
defective, anil results appear to have been small 
for tho mass of the pupils The fruitful labor 
of a few great scholars, the piofound effect 
of Greek study on a few receptive and stiong 
minds, who became, largely in consequence of 
their saturation with Hellenism, a poweiful in- 
fluence on their conternpoiarics and immediate 
successors, stand in shaip contiast with the 
slight tincture imparted to the majonty The 
intense interest in Greek during the earlier 
Renaissance soon declined in Italy Political 
conditions never favored a high development 
of education there, even among the upper 
classes, until the establishment of the present 
kingdom Ecclesiastical education, though it 
continued to include Greek, did not aim at 
the fullest mastery of the subject It was in 
Protestant Germany and England that Greek 
literatute was most highly esteemed, permeated 
most thoroughly the highest intellectual life, 
most strongly influenced the men who created 
the modern classics, and has held the largest 
place in the school training of the educated 
class (See earlier section of this article ) 

For Gei wan school? a new era began with the 
reorganization of the Prussian educational 
system aftei the humiliation of Prussia by 
Napoleon; the founding of the 1 University of 
Berlin in 1810 was part of the same movement 
The school which led to the university and was 



intended for the early training of all members 
of the learned professions and all higher state 
officials, which was, however, open to all boys 
whose parents could send them, was the gym- 
nasium This was meant to be the stronghold 
and propagator of the New Humanism, the 
heart of which was the appreciation of Hellen- 
ism, as exemplified in all the makers of classical 
German literature, notably in Lessmg, Goethe, 
and Schiller Latin was given the largest 
place in the new gymnasium, but Greek stood 
beside Latin for the last six years of the 
course. And without passing through this 
course there was no entrance to the university, 
therefore none to a profession nor to high 
civic office The Prussian schools, controlled 
by the State, were on the whole so superior 
that they became the general model for all 
other German states Further, the privileges 
granted only to state schools made it impos- 
sible for good private schools for boys to grow 
up beside the state schools The system as a 
whole amounted to a degree of propulsion 
toward the study of Greek such as England 
and America never approached, that of 
France was similar, but less rigid Two large 
results followed First, Greek was taught and 
learned with a thoroughness nowhere else 
equaled by so large a fraction of the youth 
of a country Second, as mathematics, natu- 
ral science, the native and other modern lan- 
guages and literatures became more and more 
important for a liberal education, and vet- 
could not be adequately recogni/ed in schools 
that gave so much time to classics, the ie\olt 
against this educational monopoly \\as moie 
justified and was strongest in Germany The 
centralized state 1 control made it harder than 
in America for public opinion to effect changes, 
but changes had to come Under the present 
Emperor they have been coming rapidly, and 
aie likely to go much farther, and Gieek is 
the subject most affected by them In two 
ways Greek is crowded out First, students 
are now admitted to univeisity privileges from 
other schools, without Greek, second, moic 
room for modern subjects must be found 
in the gymnasium by restricting the time al- 
lotted to Latin and Gieek As one mani- 
festation of the latter tendency, the plan 
of the so-called Frankfort system seems to 
promise* most for the retention of Greek Bv 
this plan Latin is not begun till the fourth 
year of the nine-year course, being preceded 
by three years of French Greek is not. begun 
till two years later, and is then studied inten- 
sively for four years If this shortening of the 
time leads to the adoption of improved methods 
of teaching, along the line of the vastly im- 
proved teaching of modern languages that is 
now enforced in all Prussian secondary schools 
as in all French lyce"es, probably more Greek 
can be taught than was taught, under the old 
plan 

In France the first Jesuit school was the 



170 



GREEK, STUDY OF 



GREEK, STUDY OF 



College de riermont in Pans, later named 
Louis-le-Grand, now the Lyce*e Louis-le-Grand, 
founded in 1563 The schools of this order 
regularly gave much attention to (5 reck, and 
were the strongest educational force, alongside 
of the government schools, till the Jesuits were 
expelled from France in 1704 The statutes 
of the university, published in 1000 by the 
commission of Henry IV, show the influence 
of the Jesuit schools and of Sturm's system in 
Strasburg While laying most emphasis on 
Latin, the statutes demanded considerable 
knowledge of Creek for admission to the upper 
division in philosophy And the master's 
degree, including Greek, was the minimum 
qualification for the secondary teacher In 
essence these requirements continued in force 
till 1793 The Revolution established the 
principle of universal public instruction, free 
in the lower stages, but the institutions in- 
tended to embody the principle attained no 
stability till 1SOS (Jreek long continued to be le- 
quired during i our or five yeais in the course lead- 
ing to the baeeula ui cute in letters, which again 
was prerequisite to the higher professional 
careers, though exemptions gradually increased 
Hut by the; i emulations of 1902 a knowledge of 
Greek ceases to confer any formal advantage 
in regard to admission to any career except, 
of coin se, that of a classical teacher The dis- 
tinguishing ieatures of the new curriculum are 
these Aitci a pielinniuuy course of primary 
&tudv follow two successive cycles, one of four 
yeais and one of thiee years In the first 
cycle there are two sections, one has no Greek 
01 Latin, 111 the other Latin is lequired and 
Gicck is optional dm ing the two upper yeais 
In the second cycle four gioups are open, one 
alone includes Gieek with Latin, two others 
include Latin with more extensive study of 
modern languages and of science lespectively, 
one includes modern languages and science, 
without Latin Tins arrangement,, with accom- 
panying privileges, goes beyond the present 
German system in leaving Greek to stand 
puiely upon the popuhu estimate of its mtrm- 
sic worth And unfoitunately one does not 
gain from cunent icpoits an/ high opinion of 
the actual teaching of Greek in the French 
lycee (See FRANCE, EDUCATION IN, under 
Secondary Education ) 

In England the establishing of classical 
schools in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies was a widespread movement, as trulv 
popular as any such activity could be in those 
times It was always recognized that many 
who desired higher education, and who would 
by it be fitted to render public seivicc in church 
and state, weie sons of poor parents Hence 
every educational foundation provided in some 
form for gratuitous teaching, or partially gratu- 
itous, of a certain number of poor boys In all 
such schools Greek was a firmly established 
subject of study by 1600, and has continued to 
be so. In the latter half of the last century a 



" modern side/' without Greek, also became 
usual, and a demand for exemption from Gieek 
for university entrance made itself felt The 
newer universities do not require it, and the 
question is under discussion at both the older 
institutions At Cambridge German or French 
is allowed as a substitute for Greek in the Regu- 
lations for the u Examination in Modern 
Languages for the Ordinary Degree," an in- 
novation which probably foreshadows a like 
concession with regard to the lequiremcnts for 
the " Previous Examination " At Oxford, 
however, the proposal to make Greek non- 
compulsory in the cases of candidates present- 
ing themselves for honors in mathematics and 
natural science was rejected in Congregation 
(November, 1911) by a majority of 236 As 
regards the preparatory schools the Report of 
the Curriculum Committee (1910) suggesting 
that Greek should not be commenced " until a 
boy had reached a certain standard m othei 
subjects, such as English, Latin, and French," 
was laid before the Headmasters' Conference 
at Sherborne, but is still awaiting then formal 
consideration But nowhere else is Gieek more 
firmly intrenched in the estimation of the edu- 
cated classes than m England and Scotland, 
this must have for a tune a conservative effect 
111 the schools The amount of time tradi- 
tionally given to the subject, however, must 
certainly be diminished, and also the number 
of those who drop out by reason of failure to 
attain, before the age limit, the standard set 
for the successive forms It should be added, 
on the other hand, that youths to whom the 
subject is adapted, and who take the full 
training of a fine English school, including 
verse-composition, and then honors in classics 
at Oxford or Cambridge, obtain a fuller mas- 
tery of the Greek language and a deepei under - 
standmg of Hellenism than is imparted by the 
corresponding course of any other countiy 

In America, the English colonists, following 
the example of the mother country, began early 
to found giammai schools, in which Latin should 
be taught, and a beginning of Greek, in the New 
Testament (See GRAMMAR SCHOOLS ) Before 
the Revolution also the endowment ol <k acad- 
emies " as another class of secondary schools 
(see ACADEMIES) had been well begun, and 
continued into the last century, to be succeeded 
by the still more popular movement for estab- 
lishing free public high schools One of the chief 
functions of the academy, as of the grammar 
school, was to fit boys for college, and hence to 
start boys in Latin and in the elements of Greek, 
the high schools were intended rather to fur- 
nish a better education for those who could 
not go to college Prepaiation for colleges of 
the old type was for them always a secondary 
aim, and has been more and more subordi- 
nated as the other aim has broadened arid 
turned more toward vocational training, or at 
least toward such teaching as would more 
directly facilitate bread winning In the newer 



171 



GREEK, TEACHING OF 



GREEK, TEACHING OF 



states, of course, where- the state universities 
have always given more attention to applied 
science and purely modern subjects, the high 
schools of each state have stood in close con- 
nection with its university, but that brings 
them no nearer to Greek The great increase 
in the number of pupils whose home speech is 
not English has been a large factor in this 
development of the high schools Accordingly, 
while many of the earlier high schools included 
Greek in the curriculum, few, except large high 
schools, now do so, and manv of the largest, 
as in New York and Chicago, do not In 
many slates, as Iowa and Minnesota, no high 
schools tench any Greek The surviving gram- 
mar schools and larger academies generally 
teach il to those who desire it Meantime, with 
the increase in wealth and advance in ideals of 
education, the demand has latterly been growing 
for proprietary and endowed schools of the highest 
class (See PRIVATE SCHOOLS ) This has filled to 
overflowing the existing schools of this sort, and 
has brought into existence many new ones These 
are largely, if not primarily, preparatory for 
college and technical schools, and hence include 
Greek for those who wish it They may prove 
to be one of the strongholds of Greek instruction, 
since they are in a better position foi adopting 
improved methods of teaching than are the 
teachers in public schools, and their advice 
carries more weight with parents and pupils 
Finally, it should be mentioned that the 
Roman Catholic Church maintains not a few 
colleges and schools, including some for girls, 
in which Greek is taught Also, some groups 
of immigrants from Germany have been active 
111 providing classical teaching for their sons 
Notably the Lutherans have a series of flourish- 
ing schools more closely modeled on the Ger- 
man gymnasium than any others in America. 

Amid the conflicting currents of life in 
America it is difficult to sum up the present 
situation with reference to Greek study, and 
impossible to foretell the future The ma- 
terialistic trend of the whole modern world 
toward money-getting is hostile to studies 
that seem to have no direct bearing on that 
On the other hand, the deep idealistic strain 
and the passion for the best that are so char- 
acteristic of the race that in America is slowly 
forming out of many heterogeneous elements, 
offer ground for hope Whatever the teachers 
of Greek can lead their pupils to feel, in adult 
life, has been good in their own mental experi- 
ence, will be kept and made available for their 
children T D G 

GREEK, TEACHING OF It is well to 
begin with a clear idea of the end in view m 
learning Greek, as the first regulator of method 
in teaching it Complete agreement as to that 
end there has probably never been, and in 
four centuries views have undergone many 
changes The carefully limited statement of 
the Prussian Lchrplmi of 1901 is. " An ac- 



quaintance, based on adequate knowledge of 
the language, with a certain number of literary 
works of special importance for content and 
form, and by this means an introduction to 
the thought and civilization of ancient Greece " 
Here is not a word that suggests any other 
purpose in studying Greek than in studying 
Chinese; the official directions to teachers 
hardly touch upon what is really the heart of 
the teacher's task, they tacitly assume, in the 
traditional way, that learning a foreign lan- 
guage is a radically different process if the 
language is ancient Current formulas in Eng- 
land and America, however various in form, 
fall into two classes, according as they put m 
the foreground the content of the study or the 
effect on the student Hut these two concep- 
tions, instead of being opposed to each other, 
are simply two aspects of one mental activity; 
they may be reconciled in a single statement, 
comprehensive and brief The starting point 
for this is a great historical fact, which may be 
put in the words of one of the best-known 
scientists of England and America, Sir William 
Osier* " The tap-root of modern science sinks 
deep in Greek soil, the astounding fertility of 
which is one of the outstanding facts of history. 
Though not always recognized, the con- 
trolling principles of our art, literature, and 
philosophy, as well as those of science, are 
Hellenic" (American Magazine, December, 1910, 
p 247) Corresponding to this undisputed 
fact of history, and somehow closely related 
to it, though we cannot here discuss the rela- 
tion, is the following psychological fact, verified 
in centuries of experience For minds not un- 
adapted to it, the process of acquiring, under 
good instruction, a first-hand acquaintance 
with the Hellenic mind, as embodied in the 
existing works of ancient Greeks, is peculiarly 
formative, enlarging, disciplinary No educa- 
tional instrument, yet known can fully take the 
place of this, as none can take the place of 
mathematics This brings us to the simple 
and comprehensive formula The prime object 
of Greek study is to gain a first-hand acquaint- 
ance with Hellenism, as a great force in civili- 
zation, the first aim in teaching Greek is to 
lead pupils to a personal acquaintance with 
that force The disciplinary effect, the formal 
training, and all desirable ends, are included in 
that central aim, as auxiliary or incidental to 
it That Hellenic force has been profound, 
lasting, pervasive Along one line it even 
reached the extreme Orient, long before the 
Renaissance in Europe It has recently been 
demonstrated that through Alexander's con- 
quests, carrying Greek art to northern India, 
where Buddhism arose and matured, even 
China and Japan received from Hellas a potent 
influence on their sculpture and painting 
And now this influence, carried eastward to 
the edge of Asia, has there met the broader 
stream that flowed westward through Europe 
to America and across the Pacific Such far- 



172 



GREEK, TEACHING OF 



GREEK, TEACHING OF 



reaching facts in the development of mankind 
must continue to urge all who would under- 
stand the intellectual world of to-day and the 
movements of history to know Hellas for 
themselves And really to know Hellas is to 
take into one's self directly something of that 
original force, still unexhausted, still fertilizing 
the individual mind that is brought into real 
contact with the art, literature, and thought 
of ancient Greece Such are the facts and 
experiences that, must draw many of the 
stronger and more aspiring minds to this study 
When we would approach the Hellenic spmt 
most direct Iv, it is embodied, first, in countless 
examples of Greek art still existing, moie 01 
less mjuied, in European and Asiatic Hellas, 
and in the museums of Europe and Amenca, 
and secondly, in a copious literature Where 
the formei are accessible, as in our larger cities, 
no opportunity to become acquainted with 
them should be neglected But for geneial 
educational pui poses literature has this ad- 
vantage ovei all other aits, that its originals 
can by punting be reproduced perfectly, 
cheaply, and in any number of examples It 
we will, we can know these books nearly as 
well as any (5 reek could Only we must fust 
learn the language, foi tianslations are but 

Eoor copies In school and college the Greek 
inguage is to be taught and studied primarily 
as offering the only dnect access to the great 
books For \\hile Euclid and perhaps a few 
othei authors can be adequately read in trans- 
lation, neither Jlomei and the dramatists nor 
Thucydidcs and the oiators nor Plato and 
Aristotle can be so read For these the con- 
tent is inseparable fioin the original form 
And unfortunately Greek is a difficult language 
Its difficulties may be consideied in four 
groups, which present themselves to students 
in the following order First, an alphabet 
diilermg in part fioin our own This is the 
least difficulty, but is serious during the hist 
weeks Second, a large \ ocabularv , far less 
represented in everyday English than is the 
Latin 01 French Third, a nch inflectional 
system, especially for the verb Fourth, a 
wide divergence from English m syntactical 
idiom, a divergence due chiefly to the thud 
group of differences, the copious inflections 
Jt is really the verb that is at the bottom of 
all serious troubles after the alphabet is learned, 
and too often the verb is neglected, with dis- 
astrous results Taken altogether, it is not too 
much to say that as large a bulk of grammati- 
cal acquisition is required to prepare for the 
best colleges in Xenophon and Homer as that 
required for preparation in Latin and in el > - 
mentary French and German combined Noth- 
ing is gained by blinking these difficulties It- 
is better to face them, and attack them in order 
The first step m learning the alphabet is t-> 
copy out both capitals and small letters, the 
teacher indicating the best way of writing each 
where a question can arise Some would fol- 



low the cursive manuscript forms now used in 
Greece This has advantages, but unless one 
lives in a Greek-speaking community, keeping 
nearer to the usual printed forms leads more 
directly to the main goal Next the names of 
the letters should be copied out, in Greek 
characters, the pupil pronouncing each one 
aloud repeatedly The written accents are so 
troublesome that one is inclined to relax the 
leqmrcment of strict accuracy at first, hoping 
to take them up more carefully later That is 
a mistake, to correct a habit of inaccuracy 
once acquired takes more time and effort than 
does accuracy from the beginning The fun- 
damental rules are few, and the whole subject 
less difficult than English accent is for for- 
eigners And careful pronunciation should ac- 
company every step This raises the question, 
what pronunciation? As with writing, unless 
one lives in a Greek community, it leads most 
directly to our mam goal, acquaintance with 
the ancient literature, to adopt the compromise 
in pronunciation which is recommended in 
recent grammars and by the Classical Associa- 
tion of England and Wales The principle of 
this compromise is simple to pionounce as the 
Athenians did about 400 u r , as nearly as is 
practicable for our classes The latter con- 
Mdeiation leads us to adopt substantially the 
modern Athenian sounds for , o, <, 0, x> auc ^ 
to give o> a closer sound than the ancient, like 
that of Gei man o, the ancient sounds in these 
cases would, for our classes, be so difficult as 
to demand for mastering them a disproportion- 
ate amount of time For the same reason it 
is not thought worth while to attempt the 
ancient pitch accents, we pronounce them all, 
in the present Greek fashion, as we do the 
English stress accent Long and short vowels, 
however, it saves time in the end to discrimi- 
nate carefully, "hidden quantities" are few m 
Greek To Plato no doubt our best reading 
would have sounded very barbarous, perhaps 
unintelligible But, so would 0111 reading of 
Shakespeare's lines have sounded to Shake- 
speare; that does not make them less living to us 
Some would see in tins example an argument 
for the modern Greek pronunciation for ancient 
Greek That, however, is to overlook the 
decisive differences in the two cases The 
change m English since 1600 has not gone so 
deep that our pronunciation destroys all Shake- 
speare's rhythm, confounds the commonest 
words, and tuins a phonetic, spelling into an 
irrational chaos The modern Greek pro- 
nunciation does all that for Sophocles Con- 
sidering the centuries that, have elapsed, the 
Greek language has been conservative; some 
of the present characteristics began to appear 
before 300 H c ; the popular speech of Greece 
is euphonious and expressive arid has an in- 
teresting literature But the wealth of the 
old literature was a constant force toward the 
retention of old spelling, while pronunciation 
inevitably changed When, therefore, the 



173 



GREEK, TEACHING OF 



GREEK, TEACHING OF 



modern sounds of the letters are applied to 
the poetry of twenty-three centuries or more 
ago, rhythm disappears, spelling becomes cha- 
otic, and the language far harder to acquire 
For an approximate illustration in English we 
should take, not Shakespeare, but Chaucer To 
read his lines as verse we must return as well 
as we can to his pronunciation; in good teach- 
ing of Chaucer that is now done 

But precision in pronunciation on the sys- 
tem adopted is essential This is one item in 
the application of the general principle that 
Greek, like any foreign language, should be 
taught as a living speech As for " dead 
languages," of course Elizabethan English is 
really as dead as the language of Xenophon, 
the lattei can be made to live for us in the 
same wav as the former, and not otherwise 
That is, ear, hand, and tongue must from the 
first be as accustomed to Greek words as the 
eye, precisely as in the best teaching of modern 
languages The advance of recent years m 
teaching these, especially in France, Germany, 
and England, is even more needed, and is just 
as possible, in teaching Greek " Read, write, 
speak " was the rule of the Jesuit schools three 
centuries ago; the notion that Greek and Latin 
are to be learned merely by reading, without 
accompanying oral use, belongs to the nine- 
teenth century, and is a fundamental error 
How much use can be made of conversation 
will depend on the knowledge and skill of the 
teacher; more use can be made than seems 
possible to one who has not peisistently tried 
for it But the principle is not bound up in 
any " method " , what it requires is that by 
every available means the ear be trained to 
understand Greek words when spoken, and that 
the student be accustomed to reproduce Greek 
accurately, both orally and in writing The 
better the teacher's own command of the 
language, the more he can vary these means, 
and the better results he will obtain Also 
the more Greek can be used for saying what 
must be said in the classroom, the more rapid 
the progress But any teacher can insist on 
good reading aloud, writing from dictation, 
translation from another's reading, and on 
reciting and writing from memory both para- 
digms and connected passages By such exer- 
cises, too, one gams the power to go farther in 
that direction There seems to be a physio- 
logical reason for the plain fact of experience, 
that a foreign tongue ceased to be alien arid 
becomes a natural and living mode of express- 
ing thought, only when, like the mother tongue, 
it is firmly held by all four kinds of language 
memory, those of the ear, hand, and voice, as 
well as that of the eye To exercise all alike 
from the beginning makes the learner's progress 
more rapid, because at each step more secure 

For mastering regular Attic inflections, and 
of course for obtaining any considerable vocabu- 
lary, or a fair knowledge of ordinary syntax, 
two things are indispensable These are a large 



174 



amount of reading in easy Attic prose, and 
along with this, not after it as a special exercise, 
much reproductive use of the language To 
both too little attention is given in American 
schools Those who condemn Greek compo- 
sition from the notion that this is taught as 
an end in itself, are attacking a man of straw; 
nowhere has it ever been so taught But for 
learning to read any language accurately no 
other means can take the place of writing And 
if to prepare pupils rightly for the examination in 
elementary French or German some two hundred 
pages of reading are requisite, how much Attic 
Greek must be read to obtain equal proficiency in 
the far more difficult language ? ( 'an one hundred 
and fifty pages of Xenophon suffice? Fiobably 
five hundred would be nearer the mark The 
disproportion and the error of method in the 
usual practice are plain Rereading and learn- 
ing by heart, good as they are, do not meet 
the need Too much rereading dulls the in- 
terest, and that is a capital mistake What 
an eager young mind craves is variety, new 
combinations; the repetition that comes with 
these is more effective than twice that repeti- 
tion through reviewing For the vast apparatus 
of Attic conjugations, foi the two or three thou- 
sand fundamental words, and for the common 
syntax, no single one hundred and fifty pages (ran 
offer enough combinations Still more is this 
true of what we group together as idioms, the 
un-English ways of saying things, ways that grow 
naturally from the wealth of inflections, hut 
are impossible in a language so little inflected 
as English Just because they are unnatural 
to us, but are the warp and woof of Greek 
expression, the pupil must become familial 
with a mass of them by meeting them in scores 
of variations; to repeat a few of the combina- 
tions a score of times is not enough How to 
meet this difficulty is a serious problem, which 
we have scaicely faced, much less solved 
The solution is to be sought in two places 
First, a large amount of simple Attic prose, 
as varied as possible, should be read before 
the Anabasis. Disconnected sentences will 
not serve, for several reasons, first, because 
they are intolerably dull And nothing read 
before the Anababix should destroy the fresh- 
ness of that interesting story by anticipating 
its distinctive vocabulary or its narrative, de- 
tached sentences that spoil both by anticipa- 
tion arc a pedagogical sin In part the place 
must be filled by modern compositions .1 
Greek Boy at Home, by Di VV H D. House 
(London, 1909), whose experimental work in 
the Perse School at Cambridge (England) has 
for a decade been doing much for classical 
teaching, can be commended from personal ex- 
perience as interesting and practical, and it 
can be taken up m the first week It has the 
merit, too, of introducing early the commonest 
particles and idioms of sentence connection, 
which play so much larger a part than in Latin 
or any modern language Later some parts of 



GREEK, TEACHING OF 

Lucian can be used; when the need is more 
widely realized, a wider choice of suitable texts 
will soon be provided in convenient editions. 
Secondly, we must not be afraid to postpone a 
little tne reading of Homer, that the immortal 
epics mav be the better enjoyed OollcgeH 
that have classes for beginners in Greek are 
as directly concerned as the schools m attack- 
ing such questions as these, though it should 
not be forgotten that details of the solution 
may be much affected by the age of the class 
and by their previous studies We must hero 
confine ourselves to general principles, observing 
that youths of fourteen or fifteen can learn 
paradigms, and perhaps can loam passages by 
heart, more easily than those of eighteen 01 
older, while the arguments of the oiators and 
the thoughts of Plato's Apology, Kuthyplno, or 
Onto are harder for young people to comprehend 
Three topics, under the general subject of 
method, still demand a few words First, six 
hours a week in the class are far moio than 
twice as effective as thiee houis, less than h\e 
hours a week means a sad loss of efficiency in 
the first year of any foreign language The 
secret of the rapid strides which childien make 
in learning German when living in Germany 
is not in the increased number of hours given 
to study, but in the increase m the number oi 
hours of exposure to German, with the eon- 
stant gentle uiging, which daily life brings 
upon them, to listen and talk as well as wiile 
and read The classroom is a pool substitute 
for all that, but is the best we have, we should 
make as much of it as \\e can Secondly, in the 
writer's experience, Greek svntax makes little 
tiouble for pupils who have really leained the 
inflections It is hazy notions about these 
that make .syntax and sMitactical idioms appeal 
hard The thing to emphasize constantly din- 
ing the first five hundred pages of reading in 
Attic pioso is the inflections, paitieularlv of 
verbs, without a firm grip on these a student 
can have no real knowledge of Greek, but, onlv 
invertebrate and feeble notions, which were 
better replaced by a real knowledge of Fiench 
Arid a teacher must not. expect this mass of 
forms to be fully digested until several hundred 
pages have been read, with much reading aloud 
and writing and much reviewing of set para- 
digms Thirdly, what is commonly known as 
" sight reading," if treated as a separate exei- 
cise and as somehow distinct from right read- 
ing, is a snare and a delusion Heading is 
merely taking the writer's meaning from his 
words, written or printed Reading Greek or 
French is not different m that respect from 
reading English The pages a pupil is set to 
read should be properly graded to his previous 
attainment That being aLSurned, every sen- 
tence should be hrst read as well as possible 
at sight That is, the pupil should be trained 
always to take the sentence as it comes, gather- 
ing the meaning as he pioceeds, from all the 
indications before him Precisely as, m learn- 



GREEK, TEACHING OF 

ing the mother tongue, children enlarge their 
knowledge mostly by inferring from the con- 
text and the situation, so a great deal that is 
new can be inferred on every page For some 
months all this new reading should be done in 
class, the teacher giving the meaning of new 
woids when this cannot be inferred, but guid- 
ing the class to make all needed inferences that 
can be made on the basis of what they aheady 
know This practice both increases speed and 
habituates to the right method, while it still 
leaves plenty for the pupil to do in revising the 
same passage for the next session Hut anv 
kind of reading which cultivates a habit of 
stopping short of a close approximation to the 
wiiter's exact meaning is vicious The pui- 
pose of those who first, gave vogue to " sight 
reading" was to mciease the pitifully small 
amount of leading then usually done, the 
purpose at least was good 

The above outline deals only with the teach- 
ing of the language in the early stages Foi a 
fow suggestions on the teaching of Xenophon 
and Homer, see uudei those headings This 
is not the place for the discussion of method in 
the more advanced woik of the college, after 
a fair reading command of the language is 
acquired T D G 

References 

BKLITL, KUIL Gnth and ?/s ffurnan^fit Alhrridttnv 

in tin ' Liitl<~(;<>" (Cambndtfe, I'M),")) 
HIUWN, E E Tin Mnhniu of our Middlt School 

(NYw \oik and London 100 ) 
ECKHDIN, Fit \ Lntnmvlnr und (Innhivhir I ntn- 

ti(ht Ed D H He\ dm (Leip/ig, iss7 ) 
FvKHivuroN F E Punch ticconddnj School* (\MV 

\oik, 1010 ) 

HLVDLXM. ,1 AA 'IV n lung of Classic s in Secondary 

School* jn Ooinuim In England, Rouid of Edii- 

t -ition, SjHdal /fr/w/s, Vol XX (London 1910) 

Hellenic SoricU, Repoit and Recommendation^ on tho 

Futuie of (Jieek Timcb, Edu c Ruppl. t Jo,u 2, 101J 

KMS*^, F W Latin and GncK in Amoican Educa- 

linn (New Vnk, I'Ml ) 

KOHL, () (fnft/iimhtr Unit UK fit (Langcnsalza, 1S ( IS ) 

LEXIS, W, ed 7)ns f r nt< nt(ht\iw v // ttn d(utvh(t) 

R<nh, Bd II, Du hohn<n L( fnan^falttn und 

du^ Madchcn^chuhr^tn (Berlin, 1004 ) 

MATTHT\S, \ Pr<ikttb(h< Pttdayoyik fai hofnn Lchran- 

\talfin (Munie h. 1908 ) 
MITLLKK, K () , and DON \LDHON, J \V Hibtorynf the 

Literatim of Arntcnt (rr<< (London, 1858 ) 

MuLLiNc.fit, J H Tht l T nui<iNitj/ of (\tmhridf/( from 

th( Ktulit^t Tuntb to th( l)hn( of tfn Plutom*>t 

Morrnunt 3 vols (("unihiidne 1S7.-J 1011) 

NORWOOD, C , and HOPL, A H Higher Edutatioti of 

B<n/ in Enuland, pp U\ T>_> (London, l'K)Q ) 
T'vTrisoN, MviiK I^(t(i< CawuhftH (Oxford, 1S02 ) 
PAULHUV, F (rtvhitht< c/cs uihhrttn Vntcrrwht^ auf 
d( n d< uf\< h( n tfchuhn und I T ni c< rbitiitcn (Loip- 
zi K, 1S ( M> 1S07 ) 

Dns rlt'iifwhi Hildun(/*uwn (Leipzig, 1900) 
Roust, W H D The Teaching of Classics (brief 
description of hih application of the Direct Method 
to Gieek and Latin) In Athcncuum, Sept 17 
1010, pP T 3LM-325 
Classical Work and Method in the Twentieth Century. 

(London, 190S ) 
RumELL, J E (rnman Ihyhci Schools (Now York, 

1005 ) 

SANOYM, J E A Huston/ of Cla^ual Scholarship from 
thr Snth Ctntnri/ H c" to the Eiffht nth Century in 
(fennunij, and th< ^imtnnfh (\n(un/ in Europe aiid 
the United States (Cambridge, 190 J- 1908) 



175 



GREEN 



GREENLAND 



SCIIMID, K A Grbchi<hl<' <l(r Eizuhmw rom Atifano an 

his auf ununt Znt (Stuttgart, 18S4 1S9S ) 
jSNOW, T r How to sw>r 6WA and Other Paradoxes of 

Oxfotd Reform (Oxford, l')l() ) 
STRONG JOHN A Hu>tori/ of Secondary Education in 

Scotland (Oxford, 190<> ) 
VOTGT, GEOHG Dit W itdtrhtlthunff f/t,s klnwt hen 

Alterthumv, odcr das etute Jahrhundcrt der Human- 

?.smuA (Berlin, ISSO ) 
WATSON, FOHTKU Knffht>h Grammar Kchooh to IhdO 

((\irnhridpe, IWS ) 
WOODWARD, Vv M H ,S7wr//fs in Education during the 

A fir of th< Ktnau>*untt t 1400-1600 (CunibndRc, 

1 ')()(> ) 
WORDSWORTH, C'HIUHT fitholtr Atudetnmr, bone A<- 

(ount of th( Mudif* at th< Enali^i T 7 niwi**itu\ in 

thi Kiuhtttnth Cfntmi/ (C\iiiihiulne, 1S77 ) 
Th( KfA Wink in Clascal Mudt<\, edited iiniinullv by 

W H 1) HOUHC for the CliissKid Association 

(London, John Murray), contains each yetu a. 

leport on lecent pedagogical dis< UHMOTIS 
Sec the hies of the Journal of Education (London) 
and Hrhool Woild (London), especially wnce 1010, on 
the status of Greek at Oxford 



GREEN, ASHPEL ( 1702-1 84S) Eighth 
president of Princeton University, was grad- 
uated from the College of New Jersey (now 
Princeton) in 1783, and was for three yeais 
instructor (1783-1787) and twelve years piesi- 
derit (1812-1S22) of the college* lie was 
subsequently president of Jefferson Medical 
College in Philadelphia Author of numerous 
sennons on education, one on The Hilton/ of 
the College of New JCIMII W S M 

See PRINCETON UNIVERSITY. 

Reference - 

HAULM \N, .1 I If^ton/ of Princeton and ?/.s In&tilu- 
twtit* (PhiKid( Jphia, 1S7 1 ) ) 

GREEN, THOMAS HILL (183f>-1882) 

English philosophei , washoinApi 7, 183<>, at 
Birkm in the West Riding of Yoikshne, the 
son of Valentine (ireen, the rector of the parish 
Aitei his schooldays at Rugby (1850-1 8f>, r >), 
he went up to (Kloid, where lie spent the rest 
of his life as a student, fellow, tutor, and pro- 
fessoi of Balliol College, gaming first-class 
honois m the school of litertr human tot c\, and 
winning the chancellors prize for an essay on 
woiks of fiction Until his election to the 
Whyte pi of essoi ship of moial philosophy in 
187S, which he held to the day of his death, 
Mar 2(>, 1.SS2, he served his college as lec- 
tuiei and tutoi in vanous lustoiical and philo- 
sophical subjects Aftei 1 he election of H(Mi|a- 
inin Jo\\ett (r/ v ) as niastei of the college* in 
JS70, the suboidinatJ 1 management of the same 
devcKed almost entuelv upon him As an 
assistant/ commissioner of a royal commission 
appointed in 18fil to impure into the education 
of the middle classes, (ireen inspected endowed, 
propnetaiy, and pmate schools for boys and 
gills, and the views expressed in his report were 
largely those adopted by the commissioners 
Throughout his life he showed a strong mteiest 
m the icforrn of middle and higher education, 
setting foith his ideas in the report already 
mentioned (Schools In({tuii/ Commission, 1868, 



Vol. VIII), in Lecture on the Grading of Sec- 
ondary Schools, The Elementary School System 
of England, and The Oxford High School for 
Boys. He was also keenly interested in all 
practical, political and social reforms, and 
showed a warm sympathy for the humbler 
classes. His chief works are his Introductions 
to Hume's Tieattw on Unman Nature (first 
published 1S74 in Hume's Works, edited by 
(Jreen and (liose), Prolegomena to Ethu\, 
published after his death by A C Bradley 
(1883), and Pi umpire of Political Obligation, 
all of which, except the Piolcgomcna, are to be 
found m Nettleship's edition of his works, three 
volumes, 188.5 Green's philosophical stand- 
point is that of objective idealism, which he 
developed under the influence of the (Jeiman 
school, becoming the leader of a strong reaction 
against the traditional English empiricism (q r ) 
as represented by Hume, Mill, and Spencei 
His theory of ethics is based on a spi ritualist ic 
metaphysics moiality, like knowledge, can be 
explained only on the assumption that an 
eternal mind reproduces itself in human per- 
sonality Against utilitarianism (hcen teaches 
a doctrine of self-ieahzation, m which, howevei , 
the social side of man's nature is emphasi/ed 
man cannot think of himself as satisfied in 
any other than a social life in which the e\ei- 
cise of self-denying will is exhibited, and in 
which all men shall paiticipatc F T 

Reference : 

LLLAND, A P Kflurntiotuil Ttuori/ (nirf Pxulm of 
T H Gran Bibhogniph> (N<\v \oilv, I'Hl ) 

GREENE, GEORGE WASHINGTON 

(1811-1883) Educator and textbook \\nt.M, 
educated in the common schools oi Rhode 
Island and at Blown Unnersitv He \\as 
professor at Hi own for fom years, and was the 
author of textbooks in histoiy, geography, and 
French ' W S M 

GREENE, SAMUEL STILLMAN (1810- 
1883) School superintended, boin at Belcher - 
town, Mass , on May 3, 1S10, and graduated 
at Blown University in 1837 He \vas m- 
stiuctor in the Worcester Academy and the 
Knghsh High Schools at Boston, superin- 
tendent at Springfield and at Piovidence, and 
professor of education in Blown University 
(1855- 187.5) Author of Sdiooh and Libninc*, 
fixe textbooks on giammai, and many articles 
in educational joui rials One of the piesi- 
dents of and for many years active in the 
American Institute of 'instruction (q r ) 

W S. M 

GREENLAND, EDUCATION IN Green- 
land is a colony of Denmark, only the western 
coast up to 73 30' N and the tract around 
66 N on the eastern coast are colonized. 
It was first settled and named by Eric the 
Red (985 A i> ), who thought, that an attractive 
name would diaw colonists His farm Brat- 



176 



GREENLAND 



GREENWOOD 



tahlid at Erics fold (Tunugdliarfik), ruins of 
which may still bo seen, soon became tho center 
of a settlement on tho southern pait of tho 
western coast Later on another settlement 
was founded farther north on the same side of 
the country During; the reign of King Olaf 
Tryggvason, Christianity was introduced, and 
the churches of Greenland wore, with the other 
Scandinavian churches, joined to the diocese 
of Bremen In 1124 Greenland received its 
own bishop at Gardar (Igaliko) Tho govern- 
ment was similar to that of Iceland, an aristo- 
cratic republic, but in 1261 the Groonlandors 
voluntarily became subjects to the king of 
Norway During its most prosperous epoch 
it is estimated to have had about 300 farms, 
190 of which, with twelve churches and two 
monasteries, wore located in the southern 
settlement After the ravages of the Black 
Death in Norway (1349-1350) tho Colony was 
neglected, and after various misfortunes the 
country became lost to the world and remained 
a blank for c 200 years until tho ponod of 
explorations under Davis, Hudson, and Baffin 
But communication with Greenland was ex- 
tremely meager until the Norwegian missionaiv 
Hans Poulsen Kgede, the Apostle oi Greenland, 
established tho settlement Godthaab on the 
\\est coast in 1721, he sought in vain for 
descendants of the Norsemen and began to 
introduce Christianity among the Eskimos 
Moravian missionaries began their activity 
in 1733 and continued till 1900 The popula- 
tion of Greenland in 190S numbcied about 
13,300, including 300 Europeans, almost exclu- 
sively Danes, in the Danish colonies on the 
western coast the natives have a strong ad- 
mixture of European blood The state of the 
church and public instruction is established 
by law of April 1, 1905, it comes directly under 
the Minister of Public Instruction in Copen- 
hagen The bishop of S|iolland is also the 
bishop of Greenland, which forms a separate 
ecclesiastical distiict In 1909 there uere 
fifteen ministers in Greenland (in 1S90 only 
three) For the education of mimsteis there 
is a Greenland seminaiy in Copenhagen, whore 
all Danish theological students \\lio desire to 
become ministers in Greenland must pass an 
examination Tho native ministers are edu- 
cated first at a seminary in Godthaab and 
continue at the Copenhagen seminal v The 
school-teachers are in part educated at Godt- 
haab, in part at special schools conducted by 
tho higher clergy The common branches 
taught in the elementary schools are religion, 
reading and writing of the Eskimo language, 
arithmetic, elementary history, and geography 
All instruction in the seminaries and in the 
primary schools is gratis Christianity is 
professed by all the population in southwest 
Greenland, an Eskimo who cannot load or 
write is rarely mot with; the Eskimos have a 
printing office, and a newspaper in their own 
tongue T J 



References : 

Gronlaiid, in tf aim OHM n\ Konr< / ^n(ion*l< h s/Arm and s?/p 
Afcddt feller om Gronlund, u srnal pub fopoiihagc n 

hllKT 1S79 

NANHLN, FKIDTJO* E^hnno LiJ* (London, IS!).] ) 
The First C rousing of Greenland (London, 1890 ) 
In Noithfrn Jlf fs/s (London, 1<)11 ) 

GREENLEAF, BENJAMIN (17So-18f>l) 
Educator and author of mathematical text- 
books, was born at llavoihill, Mass , on the 
25th of September, 17SG, and was educated at 
tho Atkinson (N II ) Academy and at Dait- 
mouth College He was first principal of the 
academy at Haverhill, and for twenty-four 
years (1814-1836) ho had charge of the 'Brad- 
ford Academy Ho was interested in the tiain- 
ing of teachers, and in 1839 he organized a 
teachers' seminary which he conducted for 
nine years He was the author of a do/on 
widely used mathematical textbooks, and of 
numerous ai tides in educational journals Ho 
died at Bradford, Mass , on Octoboi 29, 1804 

W 8 M 

GREENSBORO FEMALE COLLEGE, 
GREENSBORO, NC An institution foi 
the education of women chartered in 1S3S 
under tho control of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South Collegiate, business, music, 
art, and oxpiession departments aie maintained 
Fourteen units are required ioi admission to 
the college courses which lead to the degieo 
of A B There is a faculty of eighteen 
members 

GREENVILLE COLLEGE, GREENVILLE, 

ILL A coeducational institution established 
in 1855, originally for the education of women 
only It has been under the auspices oi the 
Fiee Methodist (lunch since 1S92 Prepara- 
tory, collegiate, theological, education, commer- 
cial, music, art, and oratory departments are 
maintained Tho requirements for admission 
are fifteen units of high school woik The de- 
grees of A B , Ph B , and B S , are gianted after 
the completion of the necessary courses The 
faculty consists of nineteen members 

GREENVILLE FEMALE COLLEGE, 
GREENVILLE, SC Founded in 1S54 
under the auspice's of the Baptist Mate Con- 
vention of South Carolina, maintaining kinder - 
gaiten, pimuuv, normal, academic, and col- 
legiate departments There are no stated 
entrance requirements There is a faculty of 
nineteen instructor ,s 

GREENWOOD, ISAAC (1702-1745) Au- 
thor of the first American textbook on arith- 
metic, was graduated at Harvard College in 
1721, and was professoi oi natural philosophy 
in the college from 172S to 1738 In 1729 ho 
published his Arithmetic, Vnlqai and Decimal 
This was twelve years after the publication of 
the English book by lloddor in this country, and 



177 



GREER COLLEGE 



GREGORY OF NYSRA 



fifty-nine yeais befoie the appearance of the 
populai American textbook l>\ Pike 

W S M 

GREER COLLEGE, HOOPESTON, ILL 

A coeducational institution established in 
1891 Preparatory, normal, collegiate, busi- 
ness, music, and elocution courses are offered 
There are no stated entrance requirements 
The college courses which are based on about 
ten points of high school work lead to degrees 
There is M faculty of twelve members 

GREGORY, JOHN MILTON (1S22-189S) 

State superintendent, educated at the Pough- 
keepsie Academy and at Union College, graduat- 
ing at the latter institution in 1X40 He was 
principal of academies in New Jersey and Michi- 
gan, state superintendent of public instruction 
in Michigan (1X59-1X64), president of Kalama- 
zoo College, and of the University of Illinois 
Author of Seven Lawn of Teaching, Dutij of 
Chrtbtianiti/ to Educate, and of articles in edu- 
cational journals He was editor of the M iclu- 
tjan Journal of Education from 1854 to 1859 

W S M 

GREGORY OF NAZIANZUS or GREGORY 
THE THEOLOGIAN (c 325-390) Son of 
Gregory, Bishop of Nazianzus His educa- 
tion was at first under the direction of his 
admirable mother, Nonna, later he attended 
the schools at Cnpsarea in Cappadocia, Csnsarea 
in Palestine, Alexandria, and Athens At 
the last school he studied for several years, 
devoting himself to oratory under the most 
eminent sophists of the time, Hnnenus and Pro- 
ipresms Like his friend Basil (</?;), he planned 
to become a teacher, like him he followed the 
calling for a short time, and again like him he 
gave up the career of teacher for the ascetic reli- 
gious life He was a man little suited to the ec- 
clesiastical career afterwards thrust upon him 
Basil, who had become Bishop of Ca\sarea in 
Cappadocia, one of the most important sees in 
the Church, o\ crpersuaded Gregory to permit 
him to consecrate him Bishop of Sasima in 361, 
a see which he soon forsook to act as coadjutor 
to his father He afterwards went to Constanti- 
nople where he worked successfully m maintain- 
ing the Nicene faith against the predominant 
Ananism of that city When Thoodosius be- 
came coemperor of the East and came to 
Constantinople, Gregory was at once taken into 
high favoi, was made Archbishop of Constanti- 
nople, and presided at some of the sessions of 
the Second General Council, A D 381 Party 
intrigue, taking advantage of technical irreg- 
ularities in his appointment to Constantinople, 
forced him to resign He left the city and 
spent his last years in Nazianzus Gregory was 
equally great as a theologian and as an orator 
As a theologian, his treatises determined some 
of the lines followed by Greek Christianity, 
as an orator, his compositions are among the 



best of all time and ha\e been taken as models 
by some of the greatest modern pulpit orators, 
notably Bossuet His connection with educa- 
tion was not that of a leader He took part 
in the preparation of poems to serve as Chris- 
tian reading books when Julian forbade Chris- 
tians to use the heathen classics, he assisted 
Basil in the preparation of his Monastic Rule, 
and his apology for his flight from Sasirna has 
been of no small influence upon treatises on the 
duties and education of the priesthood, espe- 
cially on Chrysostom's work, On the Priesthood, 
and the Pastoral Rule of Gregory the Great 
(gv) J C A, JR 

References : 

BARDENHFWER, O Patrologie (Freiburg, 1H01 ) 
BfcNOiT, A St Grfyoire, Atchevhjm dc Contttantinuple ct 

Docteurdel'At/liae (Pans, 1885 ) 
Dictionary of Christian Bioyraphy, ed by Smith, W , and 

Ware, H (London, 1877 1887 ) 
FAKKAR, F W Ltvts of Ihi Fatheia (New \ork, 

1907 ) 
JULIA.N, KMPEROK JfWA*, tr bv C' \V Km^ (Lori- 

don, 1888 ) 
MIUNE, J P Patroloijui Grcrca, Vola XXXIV- 

AXXV1II fPans, 1857 1802) 
SdiAFF, P , and nArJL, H Nicene and Post-N icene 

Fathers, Second Series, Vol VII (New York, 



ULLMANN, ( 1 (rregonob von Naziunz aln Theoloye 
(Gotthii, 18(>7 ) 



GREGORY OF NYSSA (331-305*0 The 
younger brother of Basil of Cirsarca (</ r ) and 
one of the leading theologians of the Greek 
Church lie does not seem to have enjoyed 
the same advantages of a liberal education 
which fell to the lot of Basil, yet in intellectual 
ability he was superior to his brother and left 
an even deeper impression upon the theology 
of the Greek Church than did the better trained 
man In his early life he was a teacher of 
rhetor, i but made no great success of his work, 
probably on account of his inability to deal with 
the unruly youth with whom he had to come 
into contact The edict of Julian in 301 for- 
bidding Christian teachers to use classic authors 
m their instruction was for a short time a severe 
blow to all engaged in the work of education 
Gregory certainly seems to have been quickly 
discouraged, for in the next year we find him, 
though he had previously married, in a mon- 
astery founded by Basil His ordination as 
Bishop occurred in 372 when Basil put him into 
the insignificant village of Nyssa as Bishop in 
order to serve as a bulwark of Nicene orthodoxy 
m that part of the province of Cipsarea He 
was exiled under Valens, the Anan emperor, 
in 374 but was able to return to his see four 
years later He was present at the council of 
Constantinople in 381 and again in 383 and 
394 To what extent he remained at Nyssa 
is not clear, as bishops had a custom of absent- 
ing themselves from their sees for long periods 
and with little apparent justification After 
394 he disappears from history, and probably 
died soon after that date, though when, where, 



178 



GREGORY OF TOURS 



GREGORY THE GREAT 



or how is unknown Gregory's great fame is 
that of a theologian He was strongly in- 
fluenced in his views by Origen (q v ), more so 
even than were Gregory of Nazianzus (q v) or 
Basil (q v ) In spite of this characteristic, 
which as time went on came to be regarded 
more as a defect and mark of heterodoxy in 
a theologian, Gregory retained his place as one 
of the leading theologians of the Church on 
account of his masterly treatises on the Nicene 
definitions of the faith In the realm of peda- 
gogy he takes a place oil account of his work 
entitled The (rrcat Catvchixm, which was a 
summary of the Christian faith intended to 
hen e an a textbook to be used for religious m- 
stiuction In many respects it recalls Ongen's 
dogmatic* treatise, DC pmidpiib, but is much 
brief 01 and better rounded out in its form 

J C A, Jit 
References . 
F \UHAR, W Live* of the Father*, Vol II, pp f>(>-H4 

(New York, 1407 ) 
Mi<,N,.l P Patrologia Graf a, Vol XLV, col <) l()f> 

(Pans, 1HW ) 
AIooitE, W Library of tht l\tctnt and Pout